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Full text of "The Harvard book : a series of historical, biographical, and descriptive sketches"

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Boston Public Libra* 



BRIGHTON BRANCH - HOLTON LIBRARY 




THE HARVARD BOOK. 



VOL. II. 



THE HARVARD BOOK. 

A SERIES OF 

HISTORICAL, BIOGRAPHICAL, 

AND DESCRIPTIVE 

SKETCHES. 

*°^ 'fRRABT, 

BY 

VARIOUS AUTHORS. 

Illustrate fcoitlj Wttfam anb portraits. 

COLLECTED AND PUBLISHED 



F. O. VAILLE and H. A. CLARK, 

Class of 1874. 



VOL. II. 



CAMBRIDGE: 

WELCH, BIGELOW, AND COMPANY, 

UNIVERSITY PRESS. 
1875- 



^ 10- 












Copyright, 1875. 
Jy F. O. VAILLE and H. A. CLARK. 



v. i- 




CONTENTS 



VOLUME SECOND 



THE COLLEGE YARD .... By George Edward Ellis. 

The term "College Yard." — -Size and Boundary of the Yard. — The Number 
of Buildings in and out of the Yard. — Grant of the Town of Newtown, 1638. — 
The Brew-House. — ■ The Betts, Sweetman, Meeting-House, Goffe, Eaton, and the 

wlgglesworth lots. the " fellows orchard." " ox pasture." — parsonage 

Lot. — Land bordering on Quincy Street purchased, 1835. — Purchase of the Ap- 
pleton Lot. — Eliot's Plan of the College Yard. — The Paths. — Extract from 
an Address of Edward Everett. — The Trees planted by President Quincy. — 
The Fence. — The General Court vote in 1632 to fortify Newtown, and in 1634 
to establish an Arsenal there. — Description of the Fortifications. — Watch 
Hill. — Description of the First Hall. — The "Faire Grammar Schoole." — The 
" Dame's School." — Indian College 

WlGGLESWORTH HOUSE ... By Lucius Robinson Paige. 
Site of the House. — Assignment of the Lot to Rev. Thomas Hooker. — Re- 
moval of Mr. Hooker to Hartford, 1636. — Rev. Thomas Shepard's Possession of 
the Homestead. — Gift made by the Town to him. — His Death. — Rev. Jonathan 

mltchel. leverett purchases the estate. — the wlgglesworths. sale of the 

Estate to the College 

THE OLD PARSONAGE .... By Alexander McKenzie. 
Jonathan Mitchel. — Extracts from the Records of the Church. — Extract 
from the Town Records under Date of July 5, 1669. — Resolution passed, Sep- 
tember 9, 1669, to sell the Church's Farm. — Building Committee chosen. — Site 
of the House. — Cost of constructing it. — Measures to build a new Parsonage 
in 1718. — William Stoughton invited to the Pastorate. — Urian Oakes ordained 
Pastor, November 8, 1671. — Occupants of the House succeeding him. — Taken 
down in 1843 

HARVARD SQUARE By John Holmes. 

The Topography of the Engraving. — Scenes at Commencements. — The old 
College House. — Market House. — Cambridge Tavern. — The Old Meeting-House. 
— Its Interior at Commencements. — The Engine-House. — The Pile-Driver Ham- 
mer. — Sketches of Commencement Time. — Disorders. — Varieties of Attendants. — 



CONTENTS. 

—Places of Resort for Visitors.— Mode and Times of Arrival. — The Night pre- 
vious to Commencement Day. — Pillaging by Vagabonds. — The " Scholars." — 
Dressing for the Day. — Holiday Troubles. — Fresh Comers. — The Roads for- 
merly leading to the College. — The Programme of the Day. — Arrival of the 
Governor. — The Procession. — The Order adopted.— Exercises in the Church. — 
The Fashions. — The various Parts 



HOLYOKE HOUSE .... By William Henry Pettee. 

Location. — Cost. — Description of the Building. — Fire-Escapes . ... 48 

( Part I. By Waldo Higginson. 

MEMORIAL HALL . . ) Part II. By William Robert Ware. 

( Poem. By Christopher Pearse Cranch. 

PART I. — The Meeting of Harvard Graduates in May, 1865. — Discussion of 
the Resolutions reported by the Memorial Committee. — Names of the Com- 
mittee. — The Alumni vote to erect a Memoriall Hall at a Meeting, September 
23, 1865. — A Committee on Finance and a Building Committee appointed. — Ex- 
tracts from a Report of the Committee on Finance, July 14, 1866. — The "Delta" 

SELECTED AS THE SlTE OF THE PROPOSED HALL.— The PURCHASE OF "JaRVIS FlELD" 

as a Play-Ground in Lieu of the "Delta." — The Laying of the Corner-Stone. 
— Subscriptions to the Hall. — A Committee appointed to prepare and print a 
Record of the Services of Harvard Students and Graduates who were engaged 
in the late War 49 

PART II.— Description of the Building. — The Interior. — The Memorial Hall 
proper. — The Dining-Hall. — The Theatre. — The Exterior. — The Tower. — The 
main Entrances to the Building. — Dedicatory Inscriptions — The Marble Tab- 
lets. — A List of the Names of Graduates or Students of the University who 
fell in Defence of the Union. — Latin Inscriptions on the Walls of the Memo- 
rial Vestibule. — The Windows. — The West-End Window. — Inscription over it 60 



POEM 



COMMONS By Benjamin Homer Hall. 

CHAPTER I. — Nathaniel Eaton. — Grant of Land to him by the General 
Court. — His Ill-Treatment of the Students. — Winthrop's Account of Eaton's 
Mismanagement. — Trial by Court. — Proceedings of the Church. — Mrs. Eaton's 
Confession. — The Sentence. — The College Government dine at Commons. — 
Commons supplied by the College Steward. — List of Articles received in Bar- 
ter for Instruction. — Extract from Lucius R.' Paige.— Gifts solicited for the 
College. — Rule regulating the Time to be spent at Meals. — President Dun- 
ster's Orders.— Wants of the College in 1665. — The College Steward's Account- 
Books. — The Terms "Commons" and "Sizings." — The first Butler. — Students 
credited with Work.— Custom observed at Meals in 1674.— Gift of Samuel Ward, 
1681.— The Presence of the Tutors "in the Hall at Meal Times" required.— 
Order passed in 1724. — Laws adopted in 1734.— Duties of the Steward, Butler, 
and Cook.— Extract from President Quincy on Commons. — Disturbances in 1766 
and 1768. — Various Extracts relating to Commons. — Difficulties of procuring 
Dinner at the Hatch. — Vote of 1772. — Effect of the Revolutionary War on 
Commons. — Vote of 1783 



CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER II. — College Laws published in 1790. — Changes in the Laws. — 
Placing. — Students as Waiters. — Breakfast. — Dinner. — Bill of Fare. — Ex- 
tracts relating to Commons. — The Buttery. — Regulations prepared in 1772. — 
Enactments of 1790, 1798, and 1800. — Account of the Buttery by Sidney Wil- 
lard. — Annual public Examinations. — Disturbances. — Students suspended. — 
Orders passed in 1791. — Rebellion of 1807. — College Laws relating to Commons 
amended in 1807. — The Master of the Kitchen. — Disturbance at Commons in 
1819. — The Rebelliad. — Rules of 1825. — Commons in University Hall. — Cost 
of Boarding in Commons. — Commons abolished in 1849. — No Commons from 1849 
to 1864. — Thayer Club. — Efforts of Dr. A. P. Peabody to re-establish Commons. 
— The Gift of Nathaniel Thayer. — Railroad Station taken for Commons. — 

DINING-ROOM ADDED IN 1867. CONTINUED BENEFACTIONS OF Mr. THAYER. — GOVERN- 
MENT of the Club. — Memorial Hall Commons 



COLLEGE PRAYERS By Edwakd James Young. 

CHAPTER I. — Places of Worship. — Rules in Dunster's Day. — Translations 
from Hebrew required of Undergraduates. — Public Confessions and Admoni- 
tions. — Fines for Absence and Tardiness. — Recitations before Breakfast. — 
Declamations and Literary Exercises at Evening Prayers. — Reading of "the 
Customs." — Dress of the last Century. — Disturbances in the Chapel. — Presi- 
dent Kirkland. — Tutors and Professors officiate. — Theological Dissertations. 
— Excuses publicly given in Latin. — Rebellion of 1823 

CHAPTER II. — Josiah Quincy and Henry Ware. — Charge of Sectarianism. — 
Annual Reports. — Interruptions and Disorders at Prayers. — Devices to escape 
Attendance. — Rebellion of 1834. — Edward Everett's Addresses to the Students. 
— Presidency of Jared Sparks. — Of James Walker. — Bible sent to New Haven. — 

Incidents in Regard to the Bell and the Chapel Events during President 

Felton's and President Hill's Administrations. — A Student actually jumps 
from Hollis to Harvard. — Present Regulations and Improvements. — Recent 
Occurrences 



COMMENCEMENT DAY By Edmund Quincy. 

Commencement Day formerly the great Holiday of New England. — Extracts 
from the Journal of Chief Justice Samuel Sewall, showing the Mode of cele- 
brating it. — Increasing Disorder at Commencements. — Attempt to keep the 
Day of its Celebration a Secret. — Extravagance of Dress and Entertainments 
at Commencements. — The Corporation grant Permission to the Students to en- 
tertain one another and Strangers with Punch. — Places in which Commence- 
ments HAVE BEEN HELD. CHARACTER OF THE COMMENCEMENT PARTS. — CHANGES 

THROUGH WHICH THEY HAVE PASSED. THE FUTURE COMMENCEMENT DINNERS TO BE 

given in Memorial Hall. — The Degree of M. A. conferred on Nathaniel Bow- 
ditch. — Interesting Incident connected therewith. — Class Day. — Its Influence 
on Commencements 



CLASS DAY By James Russell Lowell. 

Origin of Class Day. — The Orator and Poet. — The Oration originally in 
Latin. — Vote of the Faculty, in 1802, regulating the Exercises. — Class Day in 
I 793- — Extract from the Columbian Centinel. — Extracts from the Diaries of 
Rev. George Whitney and Rev. Frederick A. Whitney. — Changes by the Class 
of 1838. — The growing Interest taken in the Day since. — The Officers. — The 
Order of Performances. — List of Orators and Poets 



THE COLLEGE JOURNALS. . . By Thomas Sergeant Perry. 

First Number of the Harvard Lyceum published July 14, 1810. — The Editors. 

— Extract from Edward Everett's Autobiography. — The Introductory Address. 

— The Ad. — Concluding Address, March 9, 181 1. — The Harvard Register 
started February, 1827. — Extract from the Advertisement. — The Editors. — 
The Polyglot Club. — Assumed Names of its Members. — The Register's Motto and 
Seal. — Extract from the Introduction. — Literary Character of the Register. 

— Various Extracts. — Concluding Address, February, 1828. — First Appearance 
of the Collegian, February, 1830. — The Editors and their fictitious Names. 

— The final Editorial. — First Appearance of the Harvardiana, September, 
1835 — The Editors. — The Mottoes of the various Volumes. — The Seal. — 'OI 
ITYPO*ArOI. — Fictitious Names of Members. — The last Editorial Address, June, 
1838. — First Number of the Harvard Magazine issued December, 1854. — The 
Seal. — The Editors. — Introduction. — The last Number published July, 1864. 

— A Prospectus for a new Journal appeared in 1865. — The Originators of the 
Collegian. — The Motto. — The first Number of the Harvard Advocate, May 
11, 1S66. — The Editors. — The Motto. — -The Seal. — The first Number of the 
Magenta, January 24, 1S73. — Founded by Members of the Class of 1874. — The 
Seal and Motto 

THE GYMNASIUM, AND GYMNASTICS IN HARVARD COL- 
LEGE By Thomas Wentworth Higginson. 

Gymnastic Apparatus on the "Delta."— Dr. Follen's Gymnasium. — Its Failure. — 
College Games in 1844. — Foot-Ball. — Cricket. — Base Ball. — Swimming. — Bathing- 
Sheds.— Boating.— Anonymous Donation for establishing a Gymnasium. — The 
Architect. — Description of the Gymnasium. — Instructors. — Statistics of At- 
tendance at the Gymnasium.— Need of greater Physical Training at Harvard . 

BOATING By Benjamin William Crowninshield. 

{With contributions from S. A. B. Abbott, A. P. Loring, F. O. 
Lyman, and R. H. Dana 3D.) 
CHAPTER I. — Boating Facilities at Harvard. — First Boat-Clubs. — The 
Oneida. — Boat-Houses. — First Race with Yale, 1852. — Challenge by Yale in 
1855.— First University Boat, 1856. — Volante vs. Harvard, 1857. —First Six- 
oared Shell in America, The Harvard. — Rules for the Intercollegiate Regatta 
of 1858. — Regatta prevented by a sad Accident. — Regatta of 1859. — Three 
Colleges represented. — Races of 1S60.— Intercollegiate Regatta at Worcester. 

— Boating suspended from 1860-63. — Class of '66 Crew. — Race with the Bic- 
lins. — Increased Boating Interest in 1864. — College Races. — Various Surveys 
of the Charles River Course and Lake Quinsigamond. — " College Union Re- 
gatta " of 1864. — Harvard Colors confounded with Magenta. — 1865 Crew. — 
Beacon Cop Regatta omitted in 1865. — Harvard defeated at Worcester. — 
1866. Great Enthusiasm. — System of Training adopted. — Class Races. — Im- 
provement in Rowing-Weights. — Training. — Harvard triumphant at Worcester. 

— 1867. Training. — Crew. — Dimensions of new Shell. — Success at Worcester. — 
1868. College Regatta. — Scratch Race. — City Regatta.— Races at Worcester- 
Harvard's third successive Victory. — Quickest Amateur Time. — 1869. Scratch 
Races. — Preparations for the English Race.— Home Races.— Fourth successive 
Victory at Lake Quinsigamond 

CHAPTER II. — English Race. — Coxswain. — Method of Training. — Depart- 
ure for Europe. — Courtesies shown by the London Rowing Club. — Change in 



CONTENTS. IX 

the Crew. — English Method of Practice. — Details of the Race. — 1870. Con- 
stitution for the Harvard Boat Club adopted. — The New Boat-House begun. — 
Various College Races. — The Union College Regatta. — Foul. — Harvard again 
awarded the Victory. — 187 1. The Association of American Colleges formed. — 
Harvard's Prospects. — Scratch Races. — Failure of the Plan for a Race with 
Yale. — Races at Ingleside. — Harvard victorious in the Freshman Race. — The 
Amherst Agriculturals successful in the University Race. — 1872. Officers. — 
Scratch Races. — Difficulties met by the University Crew. — College Races. 

— Intercollegiate Races at Springfield. — Victory for Amherst. — Sliding 
Seats. — 1873. Graduates' Cup. — Usual College Races. — Annual Convention of 
American Colleges. — Rules. — Class Races. — System of Training. — Intercol- 
legiate Regatta. — Diagonal Finish. — 1874. Officers elected. — Fall Races. — 
Adoption of a Club System in College. — Intercollegiate Races at Saratoga. 

— Harvard fouled. — Columbia awarded the Colors. — A Review of the Sys- 
tems of Training adopted by Harvard. — College Colors. — Improvements in 
Boats 222 

THE HARVARD ROWING RECORD . By Gerard Curtis Tobey. 255 

BASE BALL By William Delano Sanborn. 

( With data from George A. Flagg.) 

Early Stages of the Game. — The first Harvard University Nine. — First 
Intercollegiate Game, June 27, 1863. — Games with the Lowell Club. — Bowdoin 
and Williams defeated. — The Silver Ball. — Uniform adopted. — Training. — 
First Tour of the Nine to New York, 1866. — Games with the Atlantic, 
Eureka, Excelsior, and Active Nines. — First Intercollegiate Defeat. — The 
Bases moved from the Delta to Jarvis Field. — 1867. Games with the Lowells 
and Athletics. — The Silver Ball surrendered. — Game with the Excelsiors. — 
1868. Games with the Princeton and Lowell Nines. — First Match with Yale. 

— Harvard vs. Brown. — 1S69. Games with the Lowell, Dartmouth, Red Stock- 
ing, Williams, and Lowell Nines. — The Western Tour of 1869. — Games with 
the Yale, Eckford, Athletic, Keystone, National, Haymaker, Lowell, and 
Mutual Nines. — Tabulated Games of 1869, showing the Record of each Player. 
— 1870. Games with the Lowell, Athletic, Cincinnati, Brown, Mutual, and 
Princeton Nines. — The Western Tour of 1870. — Games with the Yale, Rose 
Hill, Haymaker, Niagara, Forest City, Cincinnati, Mutual, Chicago, Pastime, 
Athletic, Atlantic, Star, and Picked Nines. — Averages for the Trip. — Games 
with the Lowell, Brown, and Star Nines. — Averages for the Year. — 187 1. 
Harvard vs. the Lowell, Boston, Tufts, Brown, Haymaker, Brown, Rose Hill, 
Yale, Boston, and Tufts Nines. — Averages of 1871. — 1872. Games with the 
Boston, Tufts, Yale, and King Philip Nines. — Averages of 1872. — 1873. Games 
with the Boston, Princeton, Yale, Mutual, Yale, King Philip, and Boston 
Nines. — Averages for 1873. — 1874. Games with the Brown, Undergraduate, 
Princeton, and Yale Nines. — List of Players on the University Nine from 

1863 to 1875 .268 

THE INSTITUTE OF 1770. . By Francis Greenwood Peabody. 

The Speaking Club. — Its Objects. — Early Members. — The Mercurian Club. 

— Patriotic Association. — The Social Fraternity. — Hermetick Society. — 'A/cpi- 

PoXoyovixevoi. — THE INSTITUTE OF 1770. — THE I. O. H. — SELECTION OF MEMBERS. — 

The Library. — Rooms . 341 



x CONTENTS. 

THE 4> B K SOCIETY ... By Richard Henry Dana, Jr. 
The Charter, 1779. — First Regular Meeting. — Mode of Initiation. — Oath. — 
The * B K at first an active Literary Society. — Nature of the Exercises. — 
Movement against Secret Societies in 1799. — The Activity of the Society becomes 
dormant after forty Years. — Secrecy abolished in 1826. — The Vote on Mem- 
bership. — The Undergraduates a separate Organization. — Annual Dinners. — 
Wine prohibited. — Report of Professor Bowen on the Constitution. — The 
Library distributed 343 

THE PORCELLIAN CLUB . By Augustus Thorndike Perkins. 
Origin of the Club. — Its Distinctive Features. — Various Titles. — Officers. 

— Mr. Joseph McKean. — Honorary and Immediate Members. — Duties of the Offi- 
cers. — The Library begun in 1803. — First Works presented. — The Club Badge. 

— Various Grand Marshals. ■ — The Knights of the Square Table unite with 

the Porcellian Club in 183 1. — Change in Rooms. — Eminent Members . . 348 

THE HASTY PUDDING CLUB . .By Samuel Longfellow. 
Origin. — Objects. — Derivation of the Name. — Rooms. — The Medal. — The 
Library. — Running for the Pudding. — Singing in the Yard. — Eminent Members 353 

THE NAVY CLUB ... By Benjamin William Crowninshield. 
Origin. — Growth. — The Officers of the Club. — Ceremony at their Resigna- 
tion. — Description of the last Procession, in 1846. — The Annual Cruise. — The 
Flag-Ship in 1815. — Features of the Club in 1850 356 

THE CHRISTIAN BRETHREN . . By Joseph Platt Cooke. 
Date of Organization. — Tendencies of the Time. — Eliphalet Pearson, Found- 
er of the Society. — The Saturday Evening Religious Society. — The Wednesday 
Evening Society. — Constitution of the Christian Brethren. — Extracts from 
Society Records 360 

THE PIERIAN SODALITY ... By John Sullivan Dwight. 
Early Musical Societies of the College. —The Pierian Sodality probably the 
first Club at Harvard for Instrumental Music. — Records for the first twen- 
ty-four Years missing. — Founders. — Names of eminent Members. — Description 
of the Music used.— The Arionic Society. — The Harvard Musical Association. — 
Second Period in the Pierian History. — Third and Present Period. — Extract 
from Records of 1859. — Concerts supersede Serenades. — Reminiscences of a 



363 



Pierian of the Class of 1839 

HARVARD WASHINGTON CORPS . By Samuel Kirkland Lothrop. 
The Marti-Mercurian Band. — Origin of the Harvard Washington Corps. — 
Conditions of Membership. — Officers.— Drill. — Ceremonies following the Elec- 
tion of Officers. — Parade Days. — The Corps prohibited leaving Cambridge. — 
An Incident at the Salute to Commodore Bainbridge. — President Monroe 
escorted by the Corps. — The Corps organized as a Battalion, 1822. — Dress 
Parade on Exhibition Days. — Encampments. — Disbandment 375 

THE NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY . By Edward Everett Hale. 
Origin of the Society. — Interest manifested in Natural History. Instruc- 
tion in this Department.— The Stone intended for Gore Hall rejected. — Early 
Meetings of the Society. — Collections. — The Gift of Captain Joseph P. Cou- 
thouy's Collection of Shells. — Anniversary Addresses established. — Consoli- 
dation of the Lyceum and Harvard Natural History Society. — Rooms. — 
Distinguished Members. — Interest in the Society. — The Seal. — The Medal . 385 



THE A A * By Lester Williams Clark. 

Provision for locating new Chapters of the A a *. — Establishment of the 
Harvard Chapter. — Rooms. — Objects of the Society. — In 1846 the Society 
recognized by the Faculty. — Change of Rooms to Graduates' Hall. — First 
Public Celebration in 1855. — Supposed Discontinuance of the Society. — The 
Name changed. — Eminent Members of the A A * 389 

THE A. D. CLUB By Robert Grant. 

Reorganization of the A. D. Club in 1872. — Present Location of the Club. — 
The Constitution. — Membership. — Objects of the Club. — The Colors . . 392 

THE HARVARD GLEE CLUB . . By Arthur William Foote. 
First Meeting. — Founders. — The first Serenade, March 29, 1858. — The Pro- 
gramme of the first Concert, by the Pierians and Glee Club, June 9. — Rooms. 
— Concerts. — Associate Members. — Prospects 594 



THE O. K. SOCIETY .... By Samuel Dennis Warren. 
The Society founded by the Class of 1859 as a temporary Society. — Reasons 
for its Perpetuation. — Membership limited to Sixteen. — Officers. — Places of 
Meetings. — Early Literary Exercises. — First Supper, May, 1859. — The First 
recorded Debate in i860. — Interesting Extracts from the Records. — Changes in 
the Exercises. — Records put in a versified Form. — Dramatic Readings. — Pres- 
ent Colors adopted by the Class of 1864. — The Use of Spirituous and Fer- 
mented Beverages abolished in 1864. — Rivalry between the H. P. C. and O. K. 
— Extracts from the Records relating to the Initiation. — Public Oration in 
1865. — The O. K. Song. — Growth of Theatricals in the Years 1866-68. — Class 
Records of 1869 missing. — A Catalogue published in 1869. — Changes introduced 
by the Class of 1870. — Present Exercises. — Prosperous Condition of the Society 396 

THE S. PAUL'S SOCIETY .... By William Richmond. 
The Society organized 1861. — The Founder. — Suspension of the Meetings. — 
The Society reorganized. — Its Objects. — Rooms. — Services. — Conditions for 
Membership. — Officers ............. 402 

THE ASSOCIATION OF THE ALUMNI By Samuel Abbott Green. 
Date of its Formation. — Report of the Committee of the Alumni appointed to 
consider the Expediency of forming a Permanent Association. — Conditions of 
Membership. — Meeting in 1849 to reorganize the Society. — Votes passed on the 
Occasion. — The Meeting of 1850. — A Plan for Scholarships adopted by the 
Association in 1852. — A Conference with the Phi Beta Kappa Society proposed 
in 1853. — The Subject of a Memorial Hall discussed by the Association in 1864. 
— Changes made in 1868. — Commencement Dinner in 1874. — A List of the Pres- 
idents of the Association 405 

PI-ETA SOCIETY By Henry Foster Buswell. 

The Pi-Eta Society established by the Class of 1866. — The Reasons which 
led to its Foundation. — Its early Existence probationary. — Rooms on Brighton 
Street. — Insufficiency of these Accommodations. — In 1873 the Corporation 
grant Permission to use four Rooms in Hollis. — The Classes of 1873 and 1874 
subscribe liberally for refitting the new Rooms. — Rooms dedicated November 
7, 1873. — Description of the Society Seal 4°9 

THE EVERETT ATHENAEUM . By Horace Edward Deming. 
Origin. — First Year. — Public Meeting. — Room. — Constitution. — Perpetua- 
tion. — Literary Exercises. — Prize Exhibitions. — Seal 412 



Ml 



CONTENTS. 



THE SIGNET SOCIETY ... By Camillus George Kidder. 
Foundation. — Reasons —Character of the Society. — Rooms. — Difficulties of 

KEEPING UP THE ORGANIZATION. — DISAPPOINTMENT IN THE PROPOSED NEW ROOMS. — 

The Society give the Class Breakfast in 1872. — Emblems. — Colors . . . 414 
MISCELLANEOUS ORGANIZATIONS . By Henry Childs Merwin. 
The Rooms of the C. T. Co. — The Name. — Founders. — Doings of the Co. at 
Springfield. — The Connections of the Co. — Its Prosperity. — Der Verein. — 
Objects of the Society.— The Rooms.— Le Cercle Franqais. — Its Objects.— Mem- 
bership. — Rooms. — The Harvard Athletic Association. — The Harvard Chess 
Club. — The Harvard Art Club. — The Forester Shooting Club . . . -417 

PRESENT CLASS SECRETARIES . By Francis Henry Brown. 422 

THE HOLMES ESTATE ... By Oliver Wendell Holmes. 
Description of the Holmes Estate. — Various Possessors. — The Estate sold 
by Eliphalet Pearson to Oliver Wendell, March 25, 1807. — Description of the 
House. — The Lives and Events connected with the History of the House . 424 

THE CRAIGIE HOUSE By George Dexter. 

The Craigie House, built by John Vassall, about the Year 1759. — An Account 
of the Vassall Family. — The Boundary of John Vassall's Estate. — The Estate 
seized by the provincial government. — general washington and family occupy 
the House. — The Estate sold by the Commonwealth for £4,264 to Nathaniel 
Tracy of Newburyport, 1781. — Hospitality of Mr. Tracy. — The Estate sold to 
Thomas Russell in 1786, and purchased by Andrew Craigie in 1792. — The House 
occupied by Edward Everett and President Sparks. — Dr. Joseph E. Worcester 
purchases the Property. — Mr. Longfellow becomes Owner of the Mansion and 
adjacent Land in 1843. — Description of the House 427 

CHRIST CHURCH, CAMBRIDGE . By Samuel Batchelder, Jr. 

Site of the Church. — Opinions as to its Architectural Symmetry. — Petition 
to the Venerable Society for Propagating the Gospel in Foreign Parts. — Sub- 
scriptions for erecting a Church. — A Building Committee appointed, 1759. — 
Resolutions relating to the Plan of the Church. — Purchase of the Site. — 
Peter Harrison selected as the Architect. — Cost of the Church. — Inscription 
on the Corner-Stone. — Opening of the Church, October 15, 1761. — Rev. East 
Apthorp resigns his Appointment as Missionary. — Succeeded by Rev. Winwood 
Serjeant, 1767. — Compelled by Revolutionary Troubles to leave for England. 
— His Death, 1780. — The Church turned into Barracks. — Washington a Wor- 
shipper in the Church. — Effects produced upon the Church by the Revolution- 
ary War. — The Building repaired and reopened, 1790. — Persons officiating at 
the Church from 1790- 1823. — The Building again repaired, 1825. — Reopened, 
1825. — Rev. George Otis, Rev. Thomas W. Coit, Rev. M. A. D'W. Howe, Rev. 
Thomas H. Vail, Rev. Nicholas Hoppin, Rectors, 1826 to 1874. — Changes which the 
Church has undergone. — A Bell presented to the Church, 1760. — Organ made 
for the Church, 1761. — The Library. — Church Plate. — Benefactions. — The 
Memorial Window. — The Chime. — Memorial Tablets. — Centennial Celebration. 
— The Tomb of Henry Vassall. — Extract from Dr. Hoppin's Historical Notice . 432 

THE WASHINGTON ELM ... By Alexander McKenzie. 

The Site of the Tree. — Its Dimensions. — A Branch severed in 1872. — A 

Platform built in the Tree by Order of Washington. — City Ordinance causing 

a Tablet to be made. — Inscriptions on the Tablet. — Extracts from Irving and 

Willard 446 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



HELIOTYPES. 

VIEWS. 

PAGE 

COLLEGE YARD, LOOKING NORTH 15 

TWO VIEWS OF THE COLLEGE IN 1818 19 

COLLEGE HOUSE 31 

HOLYOKE HOUSE AND LITTLE'S BLOCK 48 

ROOM, No. 1 LITTLE'S BLOCK 48 

MEMORIAL HALL 60 

MEMORIAL HALL PROPER 71 

MEMORIAL HALL DINING-ROOM 75 

THE THAYER COMMONS HALL 115 

INTERIOR OF APPLETON CHAPEL 121 

FIRST PARISH CHURCH 152 

CLASS-DAY TREE 157 

THE GYMNASIUM 189 

THE BOAT-HOUSE 227 

JARVIS FIELD 268 

ROOMS OF THE INSTITUTE OF 1770 341 

H. P. C. ROOMS 353 

ROOMS OF THE PIERIAN SODALITY AND HARVARD GLEE CLUB . 363 

NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY ROOMS 385 

PI-ETA ROOMS 409 

EVERETT ATHENAEUM ROOMS 412 

C. T. COMPANY'S ROOM 417 

THE HOLMES HOUSE 424 

THE CRAIGIE HOUSE 427 

CHRIST CHURCH 432 

THE WASHINGTON ELM 432 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



WOOD -ENGRAVINGS. 



PLAN OF THE COLLEGE YARD IN 1848 20 

THE WIGGLESWORTH HOUSE 22 

THE OLD PARSONAGE 26 

HARVARD SQUARE IN 1822 29 

COMMENCER'S INVITATION IN 1767 47 

MEMORIAL HALL AS COMPLETED 49 

CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH 147 

THE PRESIDENT'S CHAIR 155 

THE HARVARD MAGAZINE SEAL 183 

THE HARVARD ADVOCATE SEAL 184 

THE MAGENTA SEAL 185 

THE OLD BOAT-HOUSE 202 

THE SEAL OF THE INSTITUTE OF 1770 341 



MEDAL OF THE * B K SOCIETY 



343 



THE PORCELLIAN CLUB SEAL 348 

THE HASTY PUDDING CLUB MEDAL 3S3 

THE CHRISTIAN BRETHREN SEAL 360 

SEAL OF THE HARVARD NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY 385 

SEAL OF THE A A * 386 

SEAL OF THE A. D. CLUB 392 

MEDAL OF THE O. K. SOCIETY 39 6 

THE S. PAUL'S SEAL 4 o 2 



n H SEAL 

EVERETT ATHENAEUM SEAL 



409 



THE COLLEGE YARD. 



The term " College Yard." — Size and Boundary of the Yard. — The Number of Buildings 

IN AND OUT OF THE YARD. — GRANT OF THE TOWN OF NEWTOWN, 1 638. — THE BrEW-HoUSE. 

The Betts, Sweetman, Meeting-House, Goffe, Eaton, and the Wigglesworth Lots. 
— The "Fellows Orchard." — " Ox Pasture." — Parsonage Lot. — Land bordering on 
Quincy Street purchased, 1835. — Purchase of the Appleton Lot. — Eliot's Plan of the 
College Yard. — The Paths. — Extract from an Address of Edward Everett. — The 
Trees planted by President Quincy. — The Fence. — The General Court vote in 1632 
to fortify Newtown, and in 1634 to establish an Arsenal there. — Description of the 
Fortifications. — Watch Hill. — Description of the First Hall. —The " Faire Grammar 
Schoole." — The "Dame's School." — Indian College. 

This is the unpretending and even homely title that has always designated the 
enclosure which contains the principal College buildings. Many younger insti- 
tutions of learning in this country, including some that do not assume to be 
known as a university or college, have adopted a classic title for the site of their 
edifices, calling it the " Campus." It is in keeping with the simplicities of the 
early days of Harvard that it should have received, and should still, in its modern 
grandeur and glory, retain, for the space on which its successive buildings have 
been reared, the old Saxon designation of "Yard." The term is a vague one, 
and brings before the mind the rather incongruous images associated with a 
prison-yard, brick-yard, or barn-yard ; but it has substantially the root-meaning of 
" a garden." Those who are fond of ambitious names may regard it as a synonyme 
for the Garden of the Muses, or a field for the noblest culture. 

The College Yard, as we see it to-day, includes a space of something less than 
twenty-five acres. In shape it is nearly square, with three of its corners slightly 
rounded or truncated, and its chief boundary lines facing almost exactly the four 
. principal points of the compass. It is surrounded by four public streets or high- 
ways, which preclude its further extension in either direction, unless by municipal 
or legislative action the old Delta, where Memorial Hall now stands, should be 
joined to it by disuse of the dividing highway. The Yard itself, like the institu- 



i6 



THE COLLEGE YARD. 



tion which is planted upon it, is the result of many distinct stages of expansion 
and accretion. During the lapse of more than two centuries its bounds have 
been greatly extended to meet the increased needs of the College; and still there 
is no empty or unused space, and the whole hardly suffices for present needs. 

Within the memory of many who are still living, the College Yard, even be- 
fore it had expanded to its present compass, sufficed as a site for all the public 
buildings of the institution, and yet left some space for lonely musings and safe 
bonfires. Even now, the undergraduates do not need to leave it in the perform- 
ance of their ordinary duties, except as they have to scatter to obtain their daily 
meals, or to gain and test their vigor in the Gymnasium. Divinity Hall, the 
Zoological Museum, the Scientific School, and the Observatory have their special 
sites apart. The spacious and demonstrative Memorial Hall has claimed the 
Delta, which was the old play-ground, a fair substitute for it being found 
elsewhere. 

The memory of living persons also takes note of the time when only four of 
the fifteen public buildings which at present seem to crowd the College Yard 
were standing. Those four were Massachusetts, 1720; Holden, 1734; Hollis, 
1 763 ; and Harvard, 1 766. Graduates who still survive may have seen the walls 
of Stoughton rise in 1804-5, to be followed by Holworthy in 1812, and by Uni- 
versity Hall in 181 2 - 13. All the others are comparatively new-comers, and 
may defy red paint till art shall devise some more fitting cosmetic to hide the 
traces of advancing years. 

The original plot of ground granted by the town of Newtown to " the School," 
consisting of about two and two thirds acres, is now completely surrounded, ex- 
cept on its narrowest boundary on Kirkland Street, by portions of territory subse- 
quently acquired. The grant was made in 1638, and is at present the site of 
Holworthy, Stoughton, and Hollis. More than a century and a half ago there 
was standing, back of where Hollis now stands, a small building use for a Brew- 
House, afterwards included in the College Wood-Yard. The next lot acquired, 
called the Betts Lot, in 1661, bordered on the Main Street. It was a little more 
than an acre in extent, and is the site of Dane, Massachusetts, and Harvard 
Halls. The present Harvard Hall, the third College edifice under that name, 
built in 1760, stands on the site of its predecessor, the original one which pre- 
ceded that more than a century having occupied another spot. The corner or 
Sweetman lot, of a single acre, acquired in 1677, extended this portion of the 
grounds to the Main Street, and gave a site to Holden Chapel. The other 
corner of the front of the College Yard, south of Dane Hall, having been occu- 
pied by the second, third, and fourth of the buildings successively erected by the 
town as meeting-houses for public worship, was purchased of the Parish in 1833. 
The old President's house, now called the Wadsworth House, stands on two lots 



THE COLLEGE YARD. 17 

of about equal area which extend from their frontage on the street back to the 
land of the original town grant. Of these two lots, the one nearest to Massa- 
chusetts and Dane Halls bore the name of Goffe, and the other that of Eaton. 
It is probable that both these were originally given by the town to individual 
residents of those names. Goffe was perhaps a kinsman of the Regicide Judge 
of that name, and Eaton was doubtless the man of unhappy memory who first 
had charge of the infant College, to which the land fell in part payment for his 
debts to it. The lots are a fraction more than an acre each. Goffe 's, which was 
probably purchased by the College, is thought to have been the site of the " In- 
dian College," an interesting object, of which we shall have more to say presently. 
Gray and Boylston Halls, standing east of the old President's, are built partly on 
a lot where stood the house owned and occupied for over seventy years by the 
two Professors Wigglesworth, and which was purchased by the College in 1794. 
Next, to the east, stood the house and ground of Sewall, the first Professor of 
the Hebrew and other Oriental languages. . It became the property of the Col- 
lege in 1805. Bordering easterly on this was a lot of less than an acre, on the 
rear of which stands Gore Hall, and which was known more than two centuries 
ago as the " Fellows Orchard." Buckley, who had purchased this of " Goodman 
Marritt," deeded it to President Dunster in 1642. It was doubtless found to be 
not very profitable to the College as an orchard, and may have been used as a 
part of the so-called " Ox Pasture," which was in the rear of it, giving space now 
to University and Thayer Halls. Still east of the Fellows Orchard Lot was a 
large area of more than four acres, on the street front of which stood the Par- 
sonage of the First Parish ; and here, with large garden grounds, lived a succes- 
sion of the honored pastors of the town. The College purchased it of the Parish 
in 1833. The house was taken down in 1843. The area bounding on Quincy 
Street, on which stand the new President's house and those occupied by four 
of the Professors, was purchased by the College of different proprietors in 1835. 
It covers about four acres. An additional irregular lot, of about two acres, as 
now left after the widening of Cambridge Street, upon which it fronts, had be- 
longed to Parson Appleton, was purchased of his heirs in 1786, and completes 
the present College enclosure. 

Most of these details have been gathered from that small but comprehensive 
"Sketch of the History of Harvard College," prepared in 1848 by its honored 
Treasurer, Samuel A. Eliot. He gives a plan, which accompanies this article, of 
the enclosure, with the bounds of the lots, and the dates of their acquisition. 
From the particulars which have been presented, the reader will readily define 
the relations of the sites of the new Halls, Weld and Matthews. 

Many of the present paths through the grounds must have originated in the 
" short-cuts " made by the students ; and these, through changing generations, 



!g THE COLLEGE YARD. 

slowly acquired the right to be considered as "thoroughfares." The demand 
was a reasonable one, and has at last been fully recognized, that the paths 
should be relieved of their former ambiguous character as designed either for 
land or water transit, and should be flagged or planked. 

Edward Everett, in his address at the celebration of the Association of the 
Alumni in 1852, speaking of the College grounds as they appeared in 1807, says: 
" As to these beautiful grounds, now so great an ornament to the institution, 
they were far less so then. A handsome white paling bounded them on the 
west; and there, I think, the change has not been an improvement. Within the 
grounds a low unpainted board fence ran along south of Massachusetts and east 
of Hollis and Stoughton, at a distance of two or three rods, forming an enclosure 
of the shabbiest kind. The College Wood-Yard was advantageously posted on the 
site of University Hall; and farther to the northeast stretched an indefinite ex- 
tent of wild pasture and whortleberry swamp, the depths of which were rarely 
penetrated by the most adventurous Freshman. Of the trees which add so much 
to the beauty of the grounds, the largest only date from a period before my day." 

The larger portion of the vigorous trees now growing in the Yard were 
planted by the forethought of President Quincy, when he first came into office. 
A huge sewer and water conduit runs through the grounds, and there must be 
within them many old and disused wells. The fence, of stone posts and wooden 
rails, is substantial, though not tasteful. The locality thus delineated has rich 
historic associations, dating back from the first settlement of Massachusetts Bay, 
in 1630. The new colonists first went up the river to Watertown, where some 
of them established a home. The level land of Cambridge seemed to give 
promise of fertility, and was once selected to be the chief settlement ; but those 
who first occupied it soon came to feel cramped and limited for room, and 
moved away, in 1636, to Connecticut, with their household goods and their 
minister, who was the chief of those goods. The ground was heavily wooded 
down to the river hollows. There were many low and swampy places, and many 
small water-runs, which have long since been raised and filled. An order of the 
General Court, February 3, in 1632, appointed that Cambridge, then Newtown, 
which had been selected as the capital of the Colony, should be fortified against 
any incursion of the natives. And in 1634 it was ordered that an arsenal be 
provided there. 

The only description or account which has come down to us of the nature of 
the " fortifications " is in a very brief mention of them by Captain Edward Johnson, 
the author of " The Wonder-Working Providence of Zion's Saviour in New Eng- 
land," writing in 165 1. These fortifications consisted of a line of palisades, in 
length a mile and a half, being stout saplings or small trees cut from the forest, 
both ends being sharpened, one to be driven into the ground, the other making 




SOUTH VIEW OF HAKVAED COLLEGE IN 1818. 




NOKTM-EAST VIEW ©F HAEVAE© COLLEGE IN 1818. 



THE COLLEGE YARD. I9 

it more difficult for a climber to cross it. The palisades were set close together, 
and held together by birch withes. The cattle which grazed outside were driven 
within the enclosure at night. It is supposed that all the simple dwellings of the 
settlers were within this rude defence. It marked the first stage of increasing 
security from any apprehended inroad of the Indians, when a bold yeoman ven- 
tured to plant his home outside of the palisades. A rise in the ground near the 
site of Dane Hall went by the name of " Watch-Hill," a sentry being stationed 
there till the site was occupied by the second edifice built for a meeting-house. 

Of course, the College was planted within these fortifications, which enclosed 
nearly one thousand acres. At the outbreak of the Revolutionary War, fortifica- 
tions were erected on the College grounds proper. The first account which we 
have of any building for the College is in the Tract which the authorities of 
Massachusetts caused to be printed in London, in 1643, giving information of 
the first Commencement. The title is " New-England's First Fruits in Respect 
to the Progress of Learning in the College at Cambridge," etc. Here is what 
is said of the first Hall : " The edifice is very faire and comely within and 
without ; having in it a spacious hall, where they daily meet at Commons, 
Lectures, and Exercises ; and a large library with some books to it, the gift 
of diverse of our friends, their chambers and studies also fitted for, and pos- 
sessed by, the students, and all other roomes of office necessary and convenient, 
with all needful offices thereto belonging." Certainly this must have been a 
wonderful structure, for, so far as the description would imply, it would not hold 
good of any one of the present Halls. Captain Johnson wrote of it : " The 
building, thought by some to be too gorgeous for a wilderness, and yet too mean 
in others' apprehensions for a Colledg, is at present [1651] inlarging by purchase 
of the neighbour houses ; it hath the conveniences of a fair Hall, comfortable 
studies, and a good Library." The sober truth about this " too gorgeous " build- 
ing seems, however, to have come out in an appeal which President Dunster 
made to the authorities in 1647, — the building having proved ruinous, leaky, and 
insufficient. He wrote : " Seing from the first euill contrivall of the Colledg building 
there now ensues yearely decayes of the rooff, walls, and foundation," etc. Tem- 
porary patchings answered for a season. Another reference is made in 1672 to 
" the decay of theire buildings which were made in our Infancye, yett are now in 
a hopeful way to be againe supplyed with a New Building of brick and stone," 
etc. This was the first Harvard Hall, completed in 1682. 

The London Tract of 1643, just referred to, mentions another structure on 
these grounds, which may even have had precedence of the "gorgeous Colledg." 
It says : " And by the side of the Colledge a faire Grammar Schoole for the train- 
ing up of young Schollars, and fitting of them for Academical learning, that still 
as they are judged ripe, they may be received into the Colledge of this Schoole. 



THE COLLEGE YARD. 




THE COLLEGE YARD. 21 

Master Corlet is the Mr. who hath very well approved himself for his abilities, 
dexterity, and painfullness in teaching and education of the youths under him." 
The good man served in his place more than forty years. It would seem also 
that besides this " faire Grammar Schoole," another building, or at least a room 
in a building, had been provided at the same time for a " Dame's School," for 
beginners. 

On many accounts the most interesting of the first edifices built on the present 
College grounds was that which was known as the " Indian College," a substan- 
tial brick structure. In 1653 the Commissioners of the United Colonies instructed 
the members of their body from Massachusetts " to consider and order the build- 
ing of an Intyre Rome att the College for the conveniencye of six hopfull Indians 
youthes to bee trained up there according to the advice received this year from 
the Corporation [for the Propagation of the Gospel among the Indians] in Eng- 
land : which Rome may be two stories high, and built plaine but strong and 
durable, the charge not to exceed £ 1 20, besides glasses, which may bee allowed 
out of the parcel the Corporation hath lately sent over upon the Indian account." 
The next year the Commissioners refer to " the building in hand for Indian 
Scollers at the Colledge whereof we wrote the last yeare." An order was then given 
" for finishing of the building att the Colledge and to alter the forme agreed upon 
att the last meeting at Boston, provided it exceed not thirty foot in length, and 
twenty in breadth," etc. 

Though the most earnest efforts were made to put a considerable number of 
Indian youth in training for a thorough education, and several were actually in 
the College, there was never a sufficient number to fill the accommodations thus 
provided for them. In 1656 President Chauncy had petitioned for liberty "to 
make use of the Indian Buildings," etc., and it was agreed that " for one year 
next ensuing, he might Improve the said building to accomodate some English 
Students, provided the said building bee secured from any dammage that may 
befall the same through the use thereof." 

The building was afterwards turned to account, in part at least, for a printing- 
office. Within its humble but solid walls Eliot's Indian Bible, and some other 
similar undertakings of translating and printing, evinced the zeal with which the 
colonists engaged in an arduous, and to a great extent a fruitless work. The 
following is an entry in Judge Sewall's Journal for 1698: "In the beginning of 
this moneth of May the old Brick Colledge, commonly called the Indian College, 
is pulled down to the ground, being sold to Mr. Willis, the builder of Mr. Stough- 
ton's Colledge." This was the first Stoughton Hall, which, if it were standing 
now, would almost unite the rear ends of Harvard and Massachusetts Halls. 




WIGGLESWORTH HOUSE. 

Site of the House. — Assignment of the Lot to Rev. Thomas Hooker. — Removal of Mr. 
Hooker to Hartford, 1636. — Rev. Thomas Shepard's Possession of the Homestead. — 
Gift made by the Town to him. — His Death. — Rev. Jonathan Mitchel. — Leverett pur- 
chases the Estate. — The Wigglesworths. — Sale of the Estate to the College. 

The " Wigglesworth House," which was removed in 1 844* was probably not 
the first which was erected on the place where it stood ; t yet the place itself is 
memorable as the homestead of many illustrious men. 

In the original distribution of lands in Cambridge, this lot was assigned to 
the Rev. Thomas Hooker, and was described on the Proprietors' Records, 1635, 
as "one house, with garden and backside, about one rood; William Peintrey on 
the northwest, Cow-yard Lane on the northeast, Field Lane on the southeast, 
Brayntree Street on the southwest. More, in Cow-yard Row, one cow-house and 
yard, about one acre ; William Peintree on the northwest, the Common on the 



* Eliot's History of Harvard College, p. 100. The original house seems to have been smaller than 
that which is delineated in the accompanying plate. In an inventory of goods in the house, 1668, 
the rooms mentioned are the parlor, hall, kitchen, parlor-chamber, hall-chamber, kitchen-chamber, 
children's chamber, study, garret, and pantry. 

t On the northerly side of Harvard (formerly Braintree) Street, extending eastwardly about one 
hundred and fifty feet from the lot on which the President's House, erected in 1726, still stands. 
See "Plan of the College Enclosure," fronting p. 21. 



WIGGLESWORTH HOUSE. 23 

northeast, George Steele on the southeast, Cow-yard Lane on the southwest."* 
Mr. Hooker has been styled "the light of the western churches." He and his 
great rival, the Rev. John Cotton, of Boston, were universally acknowledged 
to stand at the head of the American clergy. But he did not long remain here. 
Whether in consequence of rivalry and jealousy between Mr. Hooker and Mr. 
Cotton, and between Governor Haynes (of Cambridge) and Governor Winthrop, 
as suggested by Hubbard.t Hutchinson,* and Trumbull, § or whether the people, 
as was alleged, were actually straitened for room, Mr. Hooker and almost the 
whole of his church and congregation removed in 1636 to Hartford, having sold 
their houses and lands to a new company, who organized a new church under 
the ministry of the Rev. Thomas Shepard. 

Mr. Shepard succeeded to the ownership of Mr. Hooker's homestead, which, in 
1642, was described as "one dwelling-house, with outhouses, garden, and back- 
side, 'with about one acre and a rood of ground; the College west, Brayntree 
Street south, Field Lane east, ox-pasture north." || The town gave to Mr. Shepard 
a portion of the ox-pasture adjoining his house-lot and extending northwardly to 
the " highway to Charlestown," now Kirkland Street, substantially as represented 
on Eliot's " Plan of the College Enclosure," and there designated " Ox-pasture " 
and " Appleton pasture." The College edifice was erected on the lot adjoining 
Mr. Shepard's homestead ; and early writers represent that the College was placed 
in Cambridge with special reference to the influence which he might exert over 
it. If The early death of Mr. Shepard, which occurred August 25, 1649, at the age 
of forty-three years, was regarded as a calamity both to the College and to his 
church. Although he may have been less profound than Hooker and less brilliant 
than Mitchel, yet among all who have exercised the pastoral office in Cambridge, 
he must certainly be regarded as in all respects " one of the first three." 

The successor of Mr. Shepard, in a threefold sense, was the Rev. Jonathan 
Mitchel, who was consecrated as the pastor of his flock, August 21, 1650, who 
married his widow, November 19, 1650, and purchased his homestead, February 
28, 1650 -1. Mr. Mitchel was a son of Harvard College (Class of 1647), and 

* It appears that Cow-yard Lane commenced near Dane Hall and extended eastwardly, parallel 
with Harvard Street, to the " Old Field," near the present line of Quincy Street, having an outlet into 
Harvard Street, called Field Lane. The house-lots were perhaps a hundred feet deep ; in the rear 
of which, on the northerly side of Cow-yard Lane, were much larger lots for the cow-houses, or barns. 

t Mass. Hist. Coll., XV. 173; XVI. 305, 306. 

§ Hist. Mass. Bay, I. 43- * Hist Connecticut, I. 224. 

II This description varies from the former ; the Cow-yard Lane disappears, and the two lots which 
were formerly separated by it are now united ; the land on the westerly side of the lot is now owned 
by the College ; and the Common at the northerly end is converted into an ox-pasture. 

IT Mass. Hist. Coll., XVII. 27, 28 ; Mather's Magnalia, B. III. Ch. V. § 12. 



, 4 WIGGLESWORTH HOUSE. 

by his faithful services as Tutor, Fellow, and life-long friend and advocate, richly 
repaid all his obligations to his Alma Mater. In the church he was " a burning 
and a shining light," and his death, on the 9th of July, 1668, in the forty-third 
year of his age, was bitterly lamented through the whole Colony. It was written 
by one who knew him, "All New England shook when that pillar fell to the 
ground." * After his death the household was occupied more than twenty years by 
his widow, three of whose sons in the mean time were educated in the College, 
namely, Jeremiah Shepard, 1669 (a son by her first husband), Samuel Mitchel, 1681 
(who died within the next ten years), and Jonathan Mitchel, 1687. She died in 
1691, and the homestead was inherited by her son Jonathan and her daughter 
Margaret, wife of Major Stephen Sewall, of Salem. Jonathan died March 14, 
1694-5, an d devised his share to his sister, who sold the whole, February 4, 
1695-6, to the Rev. and Hon. John Leverett. 

President Leverett, as he is most familiarly known to us, grandson of Governor 
Leverett, was born August 25, 1662, H. C. 1680, B. D. 1692, many years Tutor 
and Fellow, and President from January 14, 1707-8 to May 3, 1724, when, 
having retired in comfortable health on the preceding evening, he was found 
sleeping the sleep of death in the morning. His labors and trials and character 
are commemorated by President Quincy in his " History of Harvard University," 
I- 57-3 2 7- He left only two children, — Sarah, who married Professor Wiggles- 
worth, June 15, 1726, and died November 9, 1727; and Mary, who married Colonel 
John Denison, of Ipswich, April 9, 1719, and after his death married Rev. Na- 
thaniel Rogers, of Ipswich, December 25, 1728. While she was a widow, May 
4, 1726, Mrs. Denison conveyed her share of the homestead to her sister Sarah, 
who sold to Professor Wigglesworth, June 11, 1726 (four days before she became 
his wife), the house and about an acre and a quarter of land. He afterwards 
purchased three acres and thirty rods of the Leverett estate, and three quarters 
of an acre of Aaron Bordman, both lots adjoining his first purchase, making in 
all five acres and thirty rods. 

Edward Wigglesworth, son of the Rev. Michael Wigglesworth, of Maiden, 
born about 1692, H. C. 1710, Fellow 1724- 1765, D. D. Edinb. 1730, was the 
first Hollis Professor of Divinity, 1721-1765. He died January 16, 1765, and is 
described by Dr. Appleton, in a funeral sermon, as a learned, faithful, and suc- 
cessful teacher, and a " very useful member " of the government and Corporation. 
Like the former illustrious occupants of this homestead, he was conspicuous also 
for many Christian virtues and graces. Dr. Appleton says, " We are all witnesses, 
and God also, how holily and justly and unblamably he behaved himself, through 

* Mather's Magnalia, Book III. Ch. IV. § 16. For a more full account of this remarkable man, 
see Sibley's Harvard Graduates, I. 146-157; and McKenzie's Historical Lectures, pp. 90-117. 



WIGGLESWORTH HOUSE. 25 

the whole course of his life among us." Upon his decease the estate passed to 
his children, — Edward, and Rebecca, wife of Professor Stephen Sewall, who di- 
vided it by deeds of release, dated October 8, 1765: Edward retained the original 
homestead and the land purchased by his father of Mrs. Denison, and Mrs. Sewall 
took the Bordman land, nearly an acre, on which her husband . erected a house. 

Edward Wigglesworth, son of the first Professor Wigglesworth, by his second 
wife, born February 7, 1732, H. C. 1749, Tutor 1764, Fellow 1679- 1792, D. D. 
1786, succeeded his father as Hollis Professor of Divinity, in 1765; which office, 
President Quincy says, " he sustained for twenty-six years, with an equal reputa- 
tion for learning, fidelity, and a catholic spirit."* In 1791, being disabled by 
paralysis, he resigned, and was constituted Professor Emeritus. He lingered until 
June 17, 1794, when his enfeebled and weary body found rest. The homestead 
descended to his two surviving children, — Margaret, wife of Rev. John An- 
drews, of Newburyport, and Thomas, then a minor, but subsequently an eminent 
merchant in Boston ; and it was soon afterwards sold to the President and Fellows 
of Harvard College, the deeds of conveyance being dated October 17, 1794. 

Such were the owners and occupants of this famous homestead for the space 
of a hundred and sixty years, until it ceased to be private property. It may not 
improperly be regarded as holy ground, consecrated by the prayers of many 
precious saints. 

Note. — Among the eminent men who resided in the Wigglesworth House, after it became the 
property of the College.t three are distinctly remembered: the Rev. Henry Ware, H. C. 1785, D. D. 
1806, Hollis Professor of Theology, a skilful and valiant soldier of the church militant, who mag- 
nified his office, and died July 12, 1845 ; Richard Henry Dana, H. C. 1808, LL. D. (W. C.) 1867, 
whose literary productions, alike by their beauty and by their purity, have charmed two generations 
of readers, and who still survives in a serene old age ; the Rev. John Snelling Popkin, H. C. 1792, 
D. D. 1815, Professor of Greek, for which office he was so thoroughly qualified, that it might have 
been said of him (as it was formerly said of the Rev. Simon Bradstreet, H. C. 1693), that he could 
"whistle Greek." He died March 2, 1852. 

There is a tradition that the chamber at the head of the stairs, shown in the engraving, was 
used as a study by the several occupants of the house, and that a hole was worn through the floor 
by the feet of the two Wigglesworths, under their desk. If, as there seems to be good reason to be- 
lieve, the house was erected by President Leverett, the same room was probably devoted by him 
to a similar use ; and hence it is invested with the greater interest. 

* Hist. Harv. Univ., II. 261. 

t The exact date of each residence is not ascertained ; but all were between 1810 and 1833. 




THE OLD PARSONAGE. 

Jonathan Mitchel. — Extract from the Records of the Church. — Extract from the Town 
Records under Date of July 5, 1669. — Resolution passed, September 9, 1669, to sell the 
Church's Farm. — Building Committee chosen. — Site of the House. — Cost of construct- 
ing it. — Measures to build a new Parsonage in 1718. — William Stoughton invited to 
the Pastorate. — Urian Oakes ordained Pastor, November 8, 1671. — Occupants of the 
House succeeding him. — Taken down in 1843. 

The Rev. Jonathan Mitchel, the second minister of the First Church in Cam- 
bridge, died on the 9th of July, a. d. 1668. In the old records of the church 
this entry is found : — 

" Memorandum in the yeare 1669. At a publick meeting of the Church and 
towne to consider of suply for the ministry (the lord having taken away that 
reverant and holy man from among us Mr. Jonathan Mitchell by death). It was 
agreed upon at the saide meeting that theare should be A house eyther bought 
or built for that ende to entertayne A minister and A commity was chosen for 
that purpose which took care for the same and to that ende bought fower akers 
of land of widdow beale to set the house upon and in the yeare 1670 theare was 
A house earected upon the sayd land of 36 foote long and 30 foote broad this 
house to remaine the churchis and to be the dwelling place of such A minister 
and officer as the lord shall be pleased to supply us withall during the time he 
shall supply that place Amongst us." 



THE OLD PARSONAGE. 27 

There is a similar entry in the town records, under date of July 5, 1669, from 
which it appears that " the selectmen, and Deacons, and Richard Jackson, and 
Mr. Stedman, and Mr. Angier," were appointed a committee to provide the house. 
It was also voted " that the charge thereof be levied on the Inhabitants, as is 
usual, in proportioning the maintenance to the ministry. The settling of the 
house on the minister, or stating it on the ministry, is left to further consideration, 
as the matter may require." 

September 9, 1669. It was voted to sell the church's farm of six hundred acres 
at " Bilrica " (Shawshin). The farm was accordingly sold for two hundred and 
thirty pounds sterling. 

September 27, 1669. "The committee chosen for to take care for the building 
a house for the ministry, .... agreed with Mr. Thomas Danforth to carry on the 
same." 

October 4, 1669. "At a meeting of the selectmen: Mr. William Manning and 
Peter Towne were appointed to agree with workmen, to take down the School 
House, and set it up again : and to carry the stones in the cellar to the place 
where the house for .the ministry is to be built." 

The house was built on land now within the College yard, nearly opposite what 
is now called Plympton Street. 

The church records have the original construction account. " The chargis 
layed out for the purchas of the land and building of the house and barne inclos- 
ing the orchyard and other accommodation to it : — 

£ s - d - 

The purchas of the land in cash 040 00 00 

The building and finishing the house ...... 263 05 06 

The building the barne ......... 042 00 00 

The inclosing the orchyard and yards and repayering the fencis, 
building an office house and planting the orchyard with trees — 
and seeling sume part of the house and laying a duble floore on 

sume part of it . 027 01 10 

In the yeare 1676 the hall and hall chamber weare seeled and 

another floore of bords was layed upon the chichin chamber. 
The particular chargis : — 

20 bushells of lime and the feching it 001 01 08 

800 of larth, 6 s. 8 d. ; a bushell of hayer, u. . . . . 000 07 08 " 
etc., etc., etc. 

After a time the house became dilapidated, and at a public meeting held Au- 
gust 1, 1 718, the town voted a grant of two hundred and fifty pounds for build- 
ing a new parsonage, on condition that one hundred and thirty pounds should 
be obtained by the sale of land. Accordingly, with the consent of the minister of 
that time, the church farm at Lexington was sold, and a part of the proceeds was 
devoted to the new parsonage. The old house appears to have been retained, and 



2 8 THE OLD PARSONAGE. 

a new front part to have been added to it, making what was essentially a new 
house. That was in 1720. The accompanying picture presents this new house. 

We come now to the occupants of the house. 

After Mr. Mitchel's death Mr. William Stoughton (H. C. 1650) was invited to 
the pastorate of the church, but the invitation was declined. Efforts were then 
begun for the recall of Mr. Urian Oakes. He was born in England in 163 1, but 
was brought to this country in his childhood. He graduated at this College in 
1649, but continued to reside in College until 1653. "About the Time of the 
Rump " he returned to his native country, where he became " Chaplain to One 
of the most Noted Persons then in the Nation." In 1662 he was silenced, with 
all the non-conformist ministers. After repeated and urgent invitations he re- 
turned to this country in 1671 ; or, as the Magnalia expresses it, " The good 
Stork flew over the Atlantic Ocean to feed his dam." 

At a meeting of the church and town, held July 16, 1671, after a vote thank- 
ing Mr. Oakes for his great love and self-denial in coming over to this place ; 
and another requesting "that as soon as well may be he would please to join in 
fellowship here in order to his settlement and becoming a Pastor to this church"; 
it was voted, 3d, " To intreat him forthwith to consent to remove himself and 
family into the house prepared for the ministry." 4th, " That the Deacons be 
furnished and enabled to provide for his accommodation at the charge of the 
Church and Town, and distribute the same seasonably for the comfort of him 
and his family." Thus the house received its first occupants. 

Mr. Oakes was ordained as the pastor of the church, November 8, 1671. He 
remained in this office until his death, July 25, 1681. He was also President of 
the College from April 7, 1675, until his death. The house was, therefore, a 
specially important and conspicuous building while it was occupied by him. 

The church records have this additional and prudent record : " Memorand that 
copper that is hanged in the kichin in the house our pastur live in M r Urian 
Oakes it was purchased by himselfe and thearfore does not belong to the house." 

The house was occupied by those who succeeded Mr. Oakes as the ministers 
of the church, as follows : — 

Rev. Nathaniel Gookin (H. C. 1675), 1682 -1692. 

Rev. William Brattle (H. C. 1680), 1696- 1717. 

Rev. Nathaniel Appleton, D. D. (H. C. 1712), 1717-1784. 

Rev. Timothy Hilliard (H. C. 1764), 1783 -1790. 

Rev. Abiel Holmes, D. D. (Yale, 1783), 1792 -1807. 

In 1807 Dr. Holmes removed from this parsonage to the house in Holmes 
Place, which is more particularly associated with his name, and in which he died 
June 4, 1837. 

After Dr. Holmes left the house it was occupied by various tenants, among 
whom was Professor Henry Ware. The house was taken down in 1843. 




HARVARD SQUARE. 

The Topography of the Engraving. — Scenes at Commencements. — The old College House. 
— Market House. — Cambridge Tavern. —The Old Meeting-House. — Its Interior at 
Commencements. — The Engine-House. — The Pile-Driver Hammer. — Sketches of Com- 
mencement Time. — Disorders. — Varieties of Attendants. — Places of Resort for Vis- 
itors. — Mode and Times of Arrival. — The Night previous to Commencement Day. — 
Pillaging by Vagabonds. — The "Scholars." — Dressing for the Day. —Holiday Troubles. 

Fresh Comers. — The Roads formerly leading to the College. — The Programme of 

the Day. — Arrival of the Governor. — The Procession. — The Order adopted. — Exer- 
cises in the Church. — The Fashions. — The various Parts. 



We are desired to explain the above engraving, — made from a sketch taken 
fifty years since, — and to add some neighboring local recollections, which have 
become virtual antiquities. We take our departure from a point nearly opposite 
the present church of the First Parish, and in the north and south line running 
through the centre of the enclosure in which now stands the flag-staff. We go 
northerly, to give some recollections, and return in due order to the engraving 
proposed, which, we should state, is viewed in a southerly direction. 

The Commencement tents beginning here extended somewhat beyond the north- 



3° 



HARVARD SQUARE. 



erly line of the College grounds, and this was the central point of the holiday, 
considered apart from the College exercises. These tents were open on the west- 
ern side, and having opposite them various stands and shows, made a street, which 
by nightfall was paved with watermelon rinds, peach-stones, and various debris, 
on a ground of straw, — all flavored with rum and tobacco smoke. The atmos- 
phere thus created in the interests of literature was to the true devotee of Com- 
mencement what the flavor of the holocaust was to the pious ancient. One 
or two large tents stood somewhere within the lower half of the largest common 
enclosure. These probably demanded comparative retirement, for the enjoyment 
of " papaw " or " props," a popular form of gambling, and of dancing. One large 
Bacchanalian and Terpsichorean tent stood on the corner of the present North 
Avenue (then West Cambridge Road) and Holmes Place. 

The tents were framed with joists set in the ground and connected by strips 
of board, and were covered with old sails, adding a slight marine flavor to all 
the others that accompanied the festival. They were furnished with tables and 
seats extemporized from pine boards, and rude counters for their array of liquors. 
Where dancing was intended, a floor of planed boards was laid. 

Tradition makes the tents to have been far more numerous at the beginning 
of this century than as thus stated. They would appear to have extended from 
a point very near the late Thayer Club House to a point considerably below that 
which we have designated as their southern terminus, and to have maintained 
this ratio in the other quarters. In the last century, before the building of West 
Boston Bridge, they must have reached well down the Charlestown Road, to 
meet the bulk of the travel, which came in that direction. 

On the southerly portion of the ground now occupied by the First Parish 
Church stood in 1824 an old house, which might well have beheld the "Com- 
mencement" of 1763. It was occupied by Mr. Royal Stimson, the superintend- 
ent of the College Wood- Yard, the entrance to which was a portion of the present 
Church Street. In our time it was leased partially on this occasion to the 
exhibitors of shows. The Fat Baby, the Cage of Reptiles, and Punch and Judy 
may be mentioned to show the range of the phenomena exhibited. We may 
presume that this house was in demand for the same purpose at the far more 
fully thronged Commencement of a hundred years since. 

At or near the southeast corner of Church Street at Commencement time 
began the tables devoted to toys and infantile confectionery, extending in full 
force at least as far as the angle above mentioned in the engraving, and perhaps 
to the old Court House, then occupying the ground now covered by the build- 
ing designated as Lyceum Hall. At this corner stood, until some twenty years 
since, the ugly three-story, brick-ended, wooden-fronted, College House, generally 
considered to be the "Den" of tradition, and the scene of the Wiswall legend. 



HARVARD SQUARE. 31 

Next to this southerly, and a little back from the street, as the old inhabi- 
tant thinks who is consulted on the question, was a small one-story building 
which sheltered the College engine. Next was a passageway some twenty or 
thirty feet wide giving entrance to the College carpenter's shop. This building 
once stood in the College yard. Next the passageway was the building which 
appears on the right of the engraving. We think the northerly end of it was 
protected by a continuation of the fence which appears in front. The projecting 
angle which it makes is still obviously represented in the line of the building 
formerly called Graduates' Hall, now College House. 

It was also a " College house," and fifty years ago was occupied by the Law 
Professor. The number of pupils was small, and we have seen most or all of 
them perched together on the fence in front. To obviate scepticism, let us 
observe that this fence was surmounted by a convenient cap which does not 
assert itself in the engraving. The small square building in the central line of 
the sketch was the Market House. This part of the town, now Harvard Square, 
was some forty years since variously known as the " Market Place," " down in 
town," and even "down in the villager 

Here, under the left-hand elm, Peter and Solomon Snow, still pleasantly remem- 
bered in the town and already commemorated by a master hand in prose and 
verse, fifty years ago at Commencement time offered for sale New York oysters. 
Such, however, was their genial aspect, that it seemed rather frank hospitality fol- 
lowed by a grateful acknowledgment than a sale. Their regular place of business 
was a deep cellar under the southeast corner of the Market House. The oysters 
seemed to know the brothers personally as old familiars of their element, and 
appeared satisfied and serene when they saw who had forced their doors. 

The space on the south side of the Market House was occupied mostly at 
Commencement time by farmers' wagons, retailing such fruits as the cultivation 
of the time afforded. 

The building which appears beyond the Market House and next on the left 
was the more modern Cambridge tavern, less of a hostelry, but its bar-room more 
frequented, than that of the Foul Anchor, kept in our time by Israel Porter, 
successor to Bradish. It is now the office of the Union Railroad Company. 
Here was a room communicating with the bar by means of a sliding panel, in 
which quite a long line of graduates whose predecessors drank flip at Porter's 
or Bradish's will remember to have disposed of the more modern concoctions. 
The bar-room in front of it was the senate house of our village politicians. 
Here all the great questions from the Embargo downward have been settled and 
resettled to a late date. From the door of that tavern, Morse, whose reputation 
as a driver ran high in town and College, started his four-horse coach at nine and 
two daily, six days of the week, calling for passengers, and arousing College itin- 



32 HARVARD SQUARE. 

erants with his horn as he drove around the buildings. Old graduates frequently 
recall his memory. He was a handsome and powerful man, and a perfect devotee 
of the coach-box. He went so far as to say that he should prefer to take his 
meals there if it were possible. 

The brilliancy (for that period) of the bar-room was in contrast with the sub- 
dued light of that reserved for practitioners behind it. Many a man's heart has 
been rejoiced on stormy winter nights to behold that Pharos as he emerged 
from the strife of the winds on the then unenclosed Common. Once in the tun- 
nel which the street makes, the strong draught bore him on to his desired haven 
at Willard's. Returning, he cast regretful looks behind him at the same light 
until it disappeared, and he was left again to the darkness and drifts of the 
Common. 

One of the two windows of the bar-room appears in the engraving, on the 
right of the door. Now, in place of its old vivacity and social discourse, is only 
the vacant gaze of those awaiting their car. 

The corner building, in front of which the horse looks meaningly at the oat- 
trough, was a wooden building occupied as a grocery, and replaced by the pres- 
ent one of brick about the year 1823, as we suppose. The proprietor of this 
establishment at Commencement time erected a counter at the end of his store, 
flanking his ordinary one, which ran perpendicularly to the right-hand window, 
garnished it with decanters, and with his hogsheads in reserve behind him was 
ready for the onset of the holiday world. 

The building on the left, next beyond the meeting-house, which stood on the 
northeast corner of the present Dunster Street, we recollect first as occupied by 
the late Professor Hedge, and afterward by Dr. Plympton, who here opened the 
first apothecary's shop, in which our well-known townsman, A. H. Ramsay, began 
his career in pharmaceutics. It used to bear the name of a " College house." 

The old meeting-house, built in 1756, and to which Professor Bowen bade the 
academic farewell in 1833, seems in the engraving to face a little north of 
west. An old inhabitant gives his recollections of it thus : " The pulpit stood 
in the centre of the north side, at an elevation of about twelve feet, and was 
overhung by a sounding-board, some ten feet in diameter, six or eight cornered. 
From the foot of the pulpit stairs, which were on the west side of it, the broad 
aisle proceeded to a door in the south side of the church, beyond which was a 
modest porch containing stairs on each side to the south gallery and ending in 
folding-doors, through which the view was directly down the present Dunster 
Street. Wall pews ran around the whole building, leaving two bodies of pews, 
one on each side of the broad aisle, each one four deep in an east and west 
line. Small aisles running parallel to the broad aisle divided these into tiers 
of two pews, and opposite the east and west entrances these smaller aisles were 



HARVARD SQUARE. 33 

intersected by a short cross-aisle, admitting direct access to the interior pews. 
The principal entrance was of course at the south door ; the others were at the 
east end by a porch, and at the west by the side doors in the tower, one of 
which is seen in the sketch. The west door I do not remember to have seen 
open. The galleries extended around three sides of the building. That on the 
east end was at the disposition of the College Faculty, by an original contract 
with the parish. Until the building of University Chapel, in 1815, the students 
attended public worship in the meeting-house. The largest gallery, that on the 
south side, was occupied in the centre by the choir. The western gallery, which 
was altogether unpainted, and quite rude in construction, was called ' the Men's 
Gallery,' and sometimes 'the Boys' Gallery,' according to the part referred to. 
It seems to have been designed for those who could not find seats elsewhere, 
and, from its very large vacancies, for some class of people who did not appre- 
ciate the provision made for them. The pews were square, of moderate height, 
the sides capped with a plain moulding. The seats, which were independent of 
one another, were made to fold back, that their occupants might find support 
against the wall, or the side of the pew, during the time of prayers, when, 
at that day, all stood up; and leaves suspended on the side of the pew, which 
could be extended and supported by an appropriate pine rod, seemed to recall 
an older Puritan time, when taking notes was an important part of the exer- 
cises. When the seats were let down, at the close of prayer, the effect was 
much like that of the abrupt discharge of a load of boards from a cart, but with 
more numerous percussions. They were lowered every way but quietly. Child- 
hood was quick and energetic, age was slow, and between them were all modes 
and degrees of sublapsarianism. Perhaps they came down more violently after a 
very long prayer than at other times. It was a phenomenon, and the only one 
I recollect, at variance with the very strict decorum observed. It drew no atten- 
tion whatever. 

" Behind the pulpit was a very large window of some artistic pretension. Its 
size and uncommon shape, which was that of the gravestones in the old burial- 
ground, seemed designed to compensate for the moderate dimensions and plain- 
ness of the other windows. This window was replaced on Commencement occa- 
sions by a door opening on a flight of stairs outside. Immediately below the 
pulpit was a small enclosure to which the minister descended when the rite of 
baptism was to be performed, and in front of which the sacramental table was 
spread. The deacon's pew was at the head of the broad aisle, — a long narrow 
slip on the westerly side. 

" High up in the west wall, and communicating with the tower, was a square 
of glass, through which the sexton watched for the arrival of the minister, which 
authorized him to cease tolling. 



34 HARVARD SQUARE. 

" There was no cellar under the building ; so that, though vigorously warmed by 
a stove in the broad aisle, cold feet prevailed in severe weather. 

" When the wintry north-winds blew their heaviest, all the windows on that side 
united in a paroxysm of shaking, which rendered the voice of the preacher at 
times almost inaudible. 

"At Commencement time a stage whose frame was kept in readiness for the 
purpose was set up on the line of the north wall, covering the space between the 
east and west galleries to the depth of some thirty feet southerly. It was on a 
level with the upper stair of the pulpit, allowing the latter to project some four 
or five feet above its surface. 

" In an interval of perhaps thirty feet between the north side of the church and 
College fence stood a building which was used to house the town engine and the 
hearse. It stood on the northerly side of the space mentioned, beginning about 
opposite the great central window, and extending, I believe, to the eastern end of 
it. Near the door stood the hammer of a pile-driver, on which the village 
Milos were wont to try their utmost strength. The results remained vague and 
legendary. Stedman, and after him Willard, might be considered to have set 
the monster on end ; lesser reputations withered before the task. A former 
resident of the town, of athletic exterior, lately confessed to me that he took a 
secret solitary pull at that hammer, some forty years since, and that it gave him 
lumbago for life." 

We have undertaken, after explaining some localities intimately connected, as 
all Old Cambridge was, with the College, to restore some degree of life to an old 
Commencement. Understanding that an appetite for antiquities exists in the Col- 
lege, we have endeavored to give a few points of support to the fancy when it 
chooses to penetrate the recesses of our past. Without what is called the dig- 
nity of history, or the vitality of fiction in its larger sense, we perform the 
part of an ancient surveyor, employed .for his length of remembrance to set up 
stakes by which ancient metes and bounds shall be restored. 

" Commencement " was the climax and end of College life, the day on which 
the scholar received the degrees, and "commenced" the career of Bachelor of 
Arts, when the " Commencer " gave the public evidence of his proficiency in the 
parish meeting-house, and afterward entertained his friends at his "chamber" or 
elsewhere. In 1727 it is recorded in President Quincy's history that "great ex- 
cesses, immoralities and disorders occurred about the period of Commencement." 
The same history recites from Wadsworth's Diary that "In 1733 a solemn inter- 
view took place between the Corporation and three Justices of the Peace in 
Cambridge, to concert measures to keep order at Commencements, and under 
their warrant, to establish a constable with six men, who by watching, and 
walking towards the evening on these days, and also the night following, and in 



HARVARD SQUARE. 35 

and about the entry at the College Hall at dinner-time, should prevent disor- 
ders." These provisions sufficiently show the perturbation caused in College by 
" Commencement." 

On this day, at first a few pious settlers plodded their way from Charlestown, 
and the more recent "plantation" at Boston, to behold with their own eyes the 
few graduates, and to accept with solemn enthusiasm such statements as they 
pleased to make in Latin, Greek, or Hebrew. As the country grew, and with it 
the College, and larger numbers came to the small village of Cambridge, tents were 
set up, probably first along the road to Charlestown, to meet and invite the tired 
wayfarer coming by the ferry. History does not give us the name of the first 
sober colonist who, wending his way to the annual solemnity, and arriving at these 
wells of (strong) water in the wilderness, lingered in delicious repose until the Col- 
lege performances were over, nor tell us how he accounted for the day to his family. 
Whoever he might be, his example was extensively followed in after times. 

A people who had but three annual holidays, of which one was a fast, and 
another but semi-mundane, were not slow to find out the merits of this new 
festival. It became in time a Feast of Tabernacles, to which all the people (that 
could) went up. Long before the building of Hollis, the noise thereof had gone 
out to the farthest borders of the land. 

In the village of Cambridge this day was the ideal and the realization of per- 
fect festivity. 

The notice given from the pulpit to pew-holders, to remove their simple furni- 
ture from the dangers of the expected crowd, shot inexpressible delight across 
the solemnity of Sunday to juveniles and adolescents, — possibly shared by the 
elders. A day or two beforehand the agent charged with that duty measured 
the spaces on the Common allotted by the town, for a consideration, to the 
occupants of tents, and scored the number of each in the sod. Grave citizens 
watched the numerals; children circulated their reports with increase. The pop- 
ular test of Commencement was the number of tents erected. When the work 
of construction began, fathers led out little children that they might themselves, 
without reproach, loiter near the delightful tumult. Selectmen are said to 
have hovered around the spot in a semi-official attitude. The inhabitants of the 
town, alive to their responsibility, prepared, and tradition says worthily, to be- 
stow their hospitalities. And truly it was time to be up and doing. A man 
might pass the whole year, until Commencement, without knowing the number 
and value of his friends. Then everybody and everything turned up. A prodi- 
gal son, supposed on a voyage up the Straits, arrived on Monday by coaster from 
Chappequiddick, to eat the fatted calf. In the afternoon an unappreciated rela- 
tive, presumed to have perished in the late war, appeared with an appetite im- 
proved by open-air residence among the Indians. The more remote affinities 



3 6 HARVARD SQUARE. 

at this period revealed their strength. On Tuesday, after the nearer relatives 
had arrived, there might drop in at evening a third cousin of a wife's half- 
brother from Agawam, or an uncle of a brother-in-law's step-sister from Contoo- 
cook, to re-knit the family ties. The runaway apprentice, who was ready to con- 
done offences and accept hospitality, was referred to the barn, as well as the 
Indian from Mr. Wheelock's Seminary, whose equipment was an Indian cate- 
chism and a bow and arrow, with which latter he expected to turn a fugitive 
penny by shooting at a mark on the morrow. The wayward boy over whose 
watery grave Mr. Sam. Stedman had so many times fired his long ducking-gun 
(cannon being scarce in those days), returned from a truant visit to his uncle on 
the " New Hampshire Grants." The College sloop, that shadowy craft which 
floats in time indefinitely, always arrived in time for the flood-tide on Tuesday. 

The Watertown lighter was uniformly driven ashore on Tuesday evening by 
the perils of the seas, that is, by the strong current that prevailed in the river 
about Commencement time. The captain and crew, like judicious men, made it 
a point to improve their minds while detained, and always attended the literary 
exercises on the Common. 

Old graduates who had been boarders were willing in some cases to banish 
mercenary considerations, and spend Commencement as guests. 

On the great roads the regular beggars of the day were making their best 
speed toward Commencement. The chronic cripples were among the foremost. 
Blind men were pressing on to see the sights, dumb men to sing convivial songs, 
and the lame to join in the dance. Paupers, " let out " by their towns to the 
lowest bidder, were let out by him to live for a term on the public. Others 
escaped from almshouses, and, unaccountably, were not pursued. Poverty, how- 
ever, is seldom chased by its benefactors. Poor lunatics mingled amongst this 
crowd of travellers, instinctively seeking the centre of excitement. Cambridge 
Common was the paradise toward which these directed their steps. They were 
mostly such as had rather be door-keepers in the tents of the wicked than dwell 
anywhere else. The careless charities, drunken treats, and small pilferings of 
such an occasion were to supplement what they had begged on their way. 

At Bradish's tavern (on the west side of the present Brighton Street, now a 
grocery), on Tuesday, the arrivals of dusty one-horse chaises, and horsemen with 
fat saddle-bags, became more frequent till late in the evening, when the goodly 
tavern overflowed with guests, and its barn and sheds with horses and vehicles. 
Miss Sarah Chadbourne's house, opposite " Bradish's," with gable to the street, 
little court-yard before the door, and a lusty young buttonwood-tree therein, also 
overran with returning graduates who had formerly lodged there : their applica- 
tions, with the claims of her regular guests, obliged her at last, in naval phrase, 
" to repel boarders." 



HARVARD SQUARE. 37 

Toward evening arrivals thickened. Occasionally a heavy coach, which had 
worked its way by slow stages from Portsmouth, Salem, or Providence, deposited 
the family of some provincial grandee at Bradish's tavern, whence they were 
likely to be soon enticed by the hospitality of the few Cambridge magnates. As 
evening came, the small crowd which had speculated and guessed on every new- 
comer adjourned to Bradish's low but ample bar-room. There, after all the stand- 
ing questions had been disputed with zeal, — such as the amount of the run of 
alewives at Fresh Pond Brook, of marsh hay cut that season, of the respective 
takes of "sea-perch" at Brighton Bridge, by those (always numerous in Cam- 
bridge) who laudably strove to harmonize industry and amusement, — the whole 
company decided unanimously that to-morrow was going to be the greatest Com- 
mencement yet known. 

That night the lights at Bradish's and his opposite neighbor's twinkled late. 
Meetings that take place but once a year are apt to prolong themselves. Cler- 
gymen and others from remote points mutually imparted their annual budget. 
They touched cursorily on politics, and settled on the topic of College reminis- 
cence. In vain did Miss Chadbourne look impressively in at the door, as if for 
some person or thing that ought or ought not to be there. It was not until 
she induced Childs, the constable, who had girded up his loins and begun to 
"walk" in an experimental way, to look in, as if the house were on fire, and 
retreat, that the group broke up and retired. All over the village the lights glim- 
mered at an hour when usually total darkness prevailed. The housewife anxiously 
reviewed her preparations for the morrow; the householder, after the excitements 
of the day, took a contemplative pipe. One doubt hung on his mind, — it was 
for the products of his garden. The van of the vagabond army had arrived. 
With their nice instinct for enjoyment, they appreciated the value of the night 
before Commencement. The world was then "their oyster," — ready opened. 
They considered the retirement of the wearied householder as a hospitable hint 
to share with him his movable wealth, unembarrassed by his presence. "A lodge 
in a garden of cucumbers " was that night no sinecure. If any villager awoke 
from troublous dreams of pillage, the sounds from the Common as of " armorers 
with busy hammers closing rivets up," in other words, the blows of the shadowy 
tent-builders, refreshed his moral nature, and anon he sank pleasantly into festive 
visions. 

During the sultry night at Bradish's the crowded lodgers in his great room 
below, in bed, on the floor, on three chairs, and on the table, all were miserable, 
and all envied one another some fancied advantage. All animated nature was 
wide awake in Cambridge during Commencement. The mosquitoes particularly, 
who are shrewd fellows, had their headquarters at Bradish's and its neighborhood 
on that occasion. 



3 8 HARVARD SQUARE. 

At Miss Chadbourne's, the numerous lodgers in the garret pensively studied, by 
the light of the lantern which served as police, the antiquities suspended from 
the rafters or stowed under the eaves. The disabled spinning-wheel, the old 
bonnet that had attended Governor Belcher's first Commencement, the screen with 
the figures of Shadrach, Meshech, and Abednego, that had been placed too near 
the fire, — these and other articles had been perused to the verge of desperation, 
when a sudden blank — and lo! the great day had come. 

The night, we may be sure, was a lively one for the scholars. Tutors listened 
despairingly to those horrid endless choruses which conviviality engenders. Presi- 
dent Holyoke's dreams even, at the remote "Wadsworth House," were invaded 
by jovial fancies which he would have dispelled, officially, had sleep allowed him. 
These terrible choruses were ambulatory, now in front of Hollis, now back of 
Stoughton, and more formidable from the narrow limits of the then "College 
yard." 

The morning dawned fair and hot. So far as we have evidence, it never rained 
on Commencement Day. The labors, maraudings, and revels of the night had 
bestowed a late but deep slumber on the denizens of the Common, who began to 
stir themselves and take that condensed refreshment which needs no cooking. To 
describe the state of the popular mind at finding the long anticipation converted 
into reality is beyond our power. It was as near celestial as the terrene char- 
acter of the day admitted. 

All were early astir. The Commencers of the day, whose life for four years 
had been "war to the knife" (and fork) with the butler, appeared, meditative, at 
the buttery hatch, and asked amiably for their sizings and their cue. They 
shook hands with their old adversary, and said pleasant things of his fare. Taken 
thus in an unexpected quarter, he, when he had served them, retired into the 
interior, and " shed some natural tears." A cue of beer restored him ; but he 
looked coldly on the provision he had so warmly defended hitherto. 

The task of dressing for the day now occupied all energies. When we con- 
sider the multiplied fopperies of the time, this was a very responsible matter. 
The ruffles, the cue, the silk stockings, the buckles, — stock, knee, and shoe, — 
the wigged or powdered head, make the dress of to-day appear barbarously 
simple. 

The Commencers worked hard, declaiming their theses and dressing alternately, 
and consulting the glass, if the excessively simple furnishing of the College room 
of the day included that article. Some of them had sat up all night to keep the 
work of the hair-dresser unimpaired. Of course they had their holiday troubles. 
The small fellow who was obliged to borrow his bigger room-mate's coat, and the 
man who was so particular about his shoes, and who failed to get the new pair 
in season from the predecessor of the Golden Shoe at the northeast corner of 



HARVARD SQUARE. 39 

the present Brighton and Mount Auburn Streets, thought they could not survive 
the day; they did, however, and were uncommonly cheerful toward the latter part 
of it. Even Fellows and tutors felt the importance of preparing for this occa- 
sion. They surveyed with solemn satisfaction new and voluminous coats, vast 
silver shoe-buckles, and silk stockings of hue delicate, impressive, or overpower- 
ing, according to the animus of the wearer. When the business of dressing was 
completed, the robust man contemplated with satisfaction a well-turned leg; the 
more spiritual admired the leaden lustre of his shoes, and rejoiced that he was 
born in the blackball period. 

'■•The roads from Boston, by the Charlestown Ferry and through Brookline, were 
alive with passengers in various stages of progress. The greatest throng was by 
the former; the vehicles came mostly by the latter. Here were seen the aristo- 
cratic chariot and pair; the heavy family coach; the C-spring chaise, indicating 
easy circumstances, possibly wealth ; and the wooden-springed chaise, representing 
comfort and thrift. Eager pedestrians accompanied the train, and socially partook 
of the dust it raised. 

Down the Menotomy Road (now North Avenue) a goodly throng, but more 
scattered, came on; among them, as elsewhere, the country ministers within easy 
reach of Cambridge, with many a sudden pull on one rein as their nags viewed 
the questionable wonders of the Common. All residents of the village and vis- 
itors were early on the way to secure the seats open to ladies only and their 
squires in the galleries. The " Market-Place " was tumultuous, and the energies 
of the various beaux were in demand to secure passage for their convoys. 

At the period of which we speak there was no Main or Harvard Street, no 
Broadway, no Cambridge Street. There was no Concord Avenue and no Mount 
Auburn Street, except within the westerly line of the present Winthrop Square 
and the point where Holyoke Street meets the present Mount Auburn Street. 
The nearly straight road from Dr. Lowell's residence to the foot of Dana Hill 
was made in this century. Brattle Street, accessible as at present from the 
" Market-Place," was a private way northwesterly to where it meets Mason Street, 
and closed by bars at that point. There was no straight cut on the northerly 
side of the Lowell estate, but the present Elmwood Avenue was the line by 
which the old Watertown Road (which was probably at first directed to the 
landing near by) sought the higher ground ; and its exit was by Mason Street. 
The Common (unenclosed, till 1832) was on any continuance of hot weather a 
miniature desert, the grass, and the sand of the various tracks which crossed it, 
equally yellow. There must have been some private way in the direction of the 
present Main Street, by which the Phipps or Inman and perhaps the Lechmere 
estates communicated with the village. The reader, then, who in imagination 
awaits the throng of the old Commencement, must look to Mason Street, North 



40 HARVARD SQUARE. 

Avenue, Kirkland Street (old Charlestown Road), and Brighton Street (once the 
way over " the great bridge " to " Little Cambridge," since Brighton). 

It was now half past nine o'clock, and the Faculty, the scholars, and " the rest 
of the gentlemen " were assembled near Holden Chapel, to await the Governor and 
his escort. The crowd on the Common held itself also in readiness to meet 
him, whether he came, as was sometimes the case, through Watertown, or by 
the more obvious way of Little Cambridge (Brighton). A sort of telegraphic 
hint from "down in town," and flight of quick-sighted boys in that direction, 
announced his approach by the latter way. The Market-Place and parts ad- 
jacent were filled. Little children with their peculium of savings fled as from 
instant massacre at the hands of the horsemen, and the Governor and his 
escort with abundant tumult, but probably without cheers, made their slow way, 
assisted by the "constable with six men," to the place of gathering. Then fol- 
lowed a ceremonial of which we have no record. We are contented with the 
assurance that the Governor's cocked hat and the President's square cap de- 
scribed all the curves proper to the occasion. 

The procession set forth silent and slow. No music gave a martial tone 
and port to its advance. The meeting-house bell tolled its thin and solemn 
notes as for public worship. The order of procession, as would appear by ref- 
erence to a former occasion, was as follows : " The Bachelors of Art walked 
first, two in a rank, and then the Masters, all bareheaded. Then followed Mr. 
[Holyoke], alone, as President. Next the Corporation and Tutors, two in a 
rank, then the Honorable [Governor Bernard] and Council, and next to them 
the rest of the gentlemen." 

The sober academic colors were relieved by occasional gold-laced hats and 
coats, by a sprinkling of his Majesty's uniform, and by the scores of silver 
shoe-buckles which glistened in the sun at every footstep, to the delight of 
the public and of the wearers of them. The crowd flowed back with the proces- 
sion to the meeting-house, disturbing the small wayside traffic, and when it had 
entered, protected by two specials at the door, a portion filled all the spare room 
in the meeting-house; the rest, content with the honor they had paid to litera- 
ture, returned to the Common. It was at this moment that the store which ap- 
pears in the engraving at the northwest comer' of Dunster Street overflowed with 
customers, and the proprietor admitted to a neighbor that his lines had fallen in 
pleasant places. The mysterious face appeared at the little window before men- 
tioned, as the procession advanced up the broad aisle, and as it began to mount 
the stage, the bell ceased to toll. The President occupied the pulpit, and the 
Governor the great chair in front; the rest, with mutual congees, self-sacrificing 
offers, and deprecatory acceptances of seats, distributed themselves on the stage. 
The cocked hats were hung on the brass-headed nails which lined the beams pro- 



HARVARD SQUARE. 4I 

jecting from the wall between the pulpit and the galleries. The very few of the 
audience who were seated rose when the venerable President began his prayer. 

The fans, which had subsided during the prayer, blow a strong gale, as 
" from the spicy shore of Araby the blest." The lavendered handkerchiefs 
of the olden time explain the phenomenon, and polemic theologians and fero- 
cious academic disputants, as it strikes on their sense, seem almost foolishly mild. 
Let us look around us. And first at those brown-handed ministers from the 
country, men who can preach, or lay stone-wall, or hoe corn, as the occasion 
calls, and who on a scanty salary send a boy or two to Harvard, and live re- 
spectably. The men we see have not the inseparable umbrella that accompanied 
their successors fifty years since. " Umbrilloes " were but just advertised for 
sale in Boston. Well placed in the south gallery, numerous, and conspicuous, in 
the latest-arrived fashions from "home," are the fairest maidens of what might 
be termed the court circle. This term designates the families in Boston 
and elsewhere, generally among the richest in the Province, whose affinities were 
rather with the royal than the home government, and whose mode of life, though 
conforming to the general habits of New England, was free from the more rigorous 
restraints of Puritanism. While the genuine provincial looked to native sources 
for success, and to the Great and General Court for his politics and his promo- 
tion, the others indulged in a wider vision of advancement by the Crown, and 
possibilities of English honors and titles. Tradition says that they rather looked 
down on the poorly endowed Puritan College. But though English in their 
views, their associations were provincial, and, even without the attendance of his 
Majesty's representative, they would no doubt have been all present. The legis- 
lation which is to be their ruin has not yet begun ; the definitive treaty of peace 
has but lately renewed the joy attending the conquest of Canada. The fairest 
maidens of this circle are, as we have said, conspicuous in the south gallery. 
They blend prettily the courtly elegance which they emulate, with the simplicity 
of manner that is their provincial birthright. Their holiday life is to be a short 
one. We find plenty of beauty, but no familiar countenances in that group. 
They have "left no copies" here by which to recognize them. Not many years 
hence those soft eyes will look westward through exiles' tears to the home that 
is to know them no more. Some of those dainty hands must break the bitter 
bread of dependence, and some prepare the scanty meal of poverty! The blast 
that sweeps them away will not leave another portion of the audience untouched. 
The quiet, serious man* in that remote lower pew is to fill one of the first graves 
opened by the future conflict. The spare saturnine young fellow t near him 

* Hicks. 

t King. By a fanciful coincidence, King afterward carried his scaling-ladder to light the four lamps, 
which the liberality of Mr. Higginson's stewardship erected, about the year 1822, one at each College 
gate, and which subsequent economy removed. 



42 HARVARD SQUARE. 

(whom we well remember) is to enter Stony Point with the storming party. That 
boy* whose jolly aspect is at variance with our solemn vaticination is to face 
the red British line on Bunker Hill. 

But why distress ourselves with premature sympathy? The scene before us is 
alive and radiant with gayety. 

We have noticed those, first, who are to disappear from the long line of 
future Commencements. But in all the galleries we see faces whose successors 
were familiar to our earliest recollection. We see the handsome Emily, the 
pretty Mary, the lovely Eliza, with the long lashes fringing the downcast blue 
eyes. The modest simplicity of dress, the demure aspect, the eyes that seek 
no other eyes, and meeting others are so quickly withdrawn, — all these retir- 
ing traits will fail, we think, to discourage the gaze of the inquiring. 

The familar " Expectatur Oratio," etc., is heard, the Salutatory orator gallantly 
mounts the stage, and makes all the requisite reverences. He addresses the 
Honorandi, the Venerabiles, and the Spectatissimi. In what ingenious manner 
he contrives to evade the prohibition to address the puellce we cannot say; but 
a reluctant smile passes along the grave faces on the stage, which broadens 
at some new hit, and spreads among the audience by infection, as few under- 
stand what is said. The old Louisburg chaplain, with whom military boots 
have become constitutional since the siege, actually brings one of them down 
on the stage. The fans which have paused awhile, go furiously, — they al- 
ways know when there is anything in the wind. The Salutatory goes off bril- 
liantly, that is to say, nobody seems depressed by it, and the audience chats 
in a lively manner. A Latin thesis is called for, which goes rather heavily, 
but is relieved by the arrival of old Judge Trowbridge,! who comes up the 
outside stairs, and with multiplied attentions is seated on the stage. He is 
the most famous recondite old lawyer in the Province, and has lost himself 
in a lucubration this morning, so as to forget the time. Another Latin thesis 
is helped off by a row at the west door of the church, at the sound of which 
young James Winthrop slips out and witnesses the victory of the "constable 
and six men " over two drunken English sailors. 

There was no other beneficent disturbance of the exercises, except that Silly 
Billy, fascinated by the mysteries of Latin, attempted to address the audience 
in that language, and was immediately removed by the tithingman. 

The " Oratio in lingua vernacula " was called, and Huntington appeared. This 
was a novelty, and was listened to with profound attention. We do not know 
his subject. We are quite sure that if he used the words " the loyal subjects 

* James Winthrop. 

t Judge Trowbridge lived in a house directly west of the Catholic Church in Mount Auburn Street. 



HARVARD SQUARE. 43 

of the best of monarchs," the " prerogative man " in the audience smiled approv- 
ingly, and at the words, "the sacred rights and liberties bequeathed us by our 
pious fathers," the approval passed over to other faces. The line of cleavage 
between the parties was obvious enough, but the wedge was not yet inserted. 

The exercises closed with this oration, and it was time. The legs which 
had been complacently extended on the stage were drawn up, and those that 
had been shyly withdrawn were extended. The punctual colonial appetite told of 
noon long past. The graduating class ascended the stage in successive parties 
of four, and received from the President, with a short Latin formula, the docu- 
ment which made them Bachelors of Arts. It was their clearance on "the 
voyage of life," so often mentioned at the graduating period; but before they 
quitted their moorings, they were to entertain their friends, at their "chamber" 
or elsewhere. The President made a short prayer; and when he had pro- 
nounced the benediction, the crowded house broke up like a river in a thaw. 

The procession was formed and marched back to Harvard Hall, attended by a 
numerous crowd, some of whom would have taken pleasure in assisting at the 
academic dinner, but were repulsed by the constable and his men, who, accord- 
ing to the provision of 1733, were watching and walking in the entry of the 
hall at dinner-time. If the commencers and undergraduates were expected to go 
back with the procession, it is reasonable to suppose there were many vacancies. 
The commencers had their friends to entertain "in a sober manner" with punch 
at their chambers or elsewhere; the undergraduates had acquaintances in the vil- 
lage or among the visitors, whom they felt it a pleasant duty to escort on such 
a day to their places of destination, whether in the immediate village or to Milk 
Porridge Lane, up the road toward Menotomy or to the rather distant Milk 
Row. We see them gallantly making way for their convoy through the crowd 
by the present " College House," causing the pigs and bears in the children's 
pockets to squeak as they pass the toy-stands. At the Stimson House, just be- 
yond Church Street, a canvas painted in the grand style, with its inscription, in- 
vites them to visit the Great Russian Bear. Another, to inspect "the Mermaid, 
which the same was taken by two mariners belonging to the sloop Verity in 
Shalure Bay, and is certified by three settled ministers of those parts." 

At the northeast corner of the burial-ground they find the nucleus of a 
crowd, which somewhat later in the day is to become almost permanent, 
enclosing two combatants who are forced to a truce by the pressure of the 
spectators, until the constable comes and plucks the offenders forth and carries 
them to some unknown bourne. Whatever the tumult, the law is characteris- 
tically submitted to. It is true that occasionally the village Samsons may 
volunteer as amateurs, to assist, but, generally speaking, the respect for law in its 
corrective form is strikingly visible. Among those making their slow way along 



44 HARVARD SQUARE. 

here, we observe the robust figure of young Miss Molly Hancock, whom, as old 
Molly, we recollect in our early days. She had been employed by the court 
circle, and her admiration of the Vassals and others of those old-style gentry 
remained unchanged by time. Her expression was, " You could worship the 
ground' they trod on." The past was enough for her, she did not desire to be 
reconciled to the present. Her small old cottage stood on Garden Street, a short 
distance from the northeast corner of Appian Way, something back from the 
walk, so that it was flanked by the town school-house, which was on the line 
of it. Possibly her altercations with unruly school-boys hardened her heart against 
the period that produced them. 

The coaches and chariots of the Vassals and others of the " court circle " in 
Cambridge and their guests file along the Common and up the Watertown 
Road (Mason Street), in numbers not seen since the last Commencement* 
They stop at thet residences of Mr. Henry Vassal, Mr. John Vassal, Mr. 
Lechmere, Judge Lee, Mr. Fayerweather. Lieutenant-Governor Oliver had not 
probably yet built the house now occupied by Professor Lowell. A gay com- 
pany they certainly were, — the Latin Theses left behind them, dinner before 
them, and the pleasant view of the Charles on the left, filling up his banks, and 
nearly ready for his return to the ocean. Leaving them, — the ladies to refit for 
dinner, and the gentlemen to enjoy their capital, cool, but injudicious punch, — we 
take the liberty to go down the lane, a private way, which leads southerly from 
the intersection of the present Brattle and Mason Streets. Just north of the 
University Press we find the house (still standing) of Brigadier-General Brattle 
(one of the exiles of 1776). The little brook which not very many years since 
issued from his pleasant grounds, is running its little course southerly, unexcited 
by the great holiday. The house is, as the Brigadier might say, " in open order" 
for guests, and very lively. Professor Winthrop, the mathematician and astron- 
omer, whose house is at the northwest corner of Brighton and Mount Auburn 
Streets, though he dines at the hall, has suffered no eclipse to come over his 
hospitality. Young James Winthrop prefers to take his dinner in nomadic fashion 
on the Common. At the old Jail, some fifty feet from the southwest corner of 
the old Market Place, now Winthrop Square, we see the prodigal debtor preparing 
green corn for cooking, whence we infer that' on this day at least he will not 
dine on husks. At Dr. Wigglesworth's prim house the guests, not yet set 
down to dinner, use up all the spare space, and muslin a little overflows the 
window-sill, and we think we see a " Fellow " who has a partiality for muslin, and 

* It is said by tradition that more coaches appeared at the Episcopal Church in Cambridge on 
Sundays, than at any church or meeting-house in Boston. 

t Now occupied in the same order by Mr. Eachelder, Mr. Longfellow, Mr. Brewster, Mr. Nichols, 
Misses Wells. 



HARVARD SQUARE. 45 

has contumaciously absented himself from the dinner at the hall, — a case which 
finds precedent in the College history. At the Red House, where Bradish, com- 
rade of the famous Captain Kidd, deposited the gold that was so long dug for 
by laudable believers in tradition (and who can say how much has been found? 
— treasure-troves are not proclaimed), — at the Red House, the small means of 
poor old reduced Madam Champney only allow her to ask to dinner her friend 
who keeps the small shop near Bradishes. She has arrived, and tells of the un- 
paralleled run of custom that morning for pins, needles, thread, and tape, and 
of the incredible number of hair trunks and saddle-bags she has counted going 
into the tavern, whence they both conclude during dinner, first, that the trade of 
the Colonies was never more prosperous ; secondly, that this is the greatest Com- 
mencement since the founding of the College. 

Some little interval occurred between the end of the exercises and the dinner 
at Harvard Hall, during which old graduates musingly traversed the College 
yard and its immediate neighborhood ; those who had been long absent peered 
inquiringly around them. Old men leaned on their canes or pointed with 
them to this and that window in the different buildings. One said, " There 's 
where I lived in my Freshman year; Sir Foxcroft was my Senior." Another, 
" There 's the room where Bilson found the toast in his boots." Another, quite 
advanced in years, " Look up there ! don't you see a sort of notch ? There 's 
where Tutor Flynt caught me ' cutting off lead ' ' on the top of the College.' " 
(See Old College Laws.) " It cost me three shillings, — money was money, too, 
in those days." 

A group at the Buttery-hatch, at the north end of Harvard, recalled with 
clamor and laughter their frugal rations, delivered by a functionary whose mind 
was graduated to pints, quarts, and sizings, and who recognized man, only in his 
relation to those measures. 

At the Playground (somewhere near the present Holworthy, — no road then 
intersecting), from old the scene of wrestling-matches, slight withered men fired 
up with vague remembrance of their exploits, while here and there a venerable 
ex-athlete, who had ruled in the ring, recalled his departed prowess in grim silence. 
Some of the smart commencers and undergraduates, who passed, looked at these 
old men as they would have viewed relics of Captain Church's Indian wars, 
and laughed decorously in their sleeves at the piping recollections, which in 
a few decades they themselves were to rehearse on the same ground. 

The new building going up, not yet named Hollis, was a general rendezvous. 
Young men ascended the rudiments of stairs, and looked out at various apertures, 
with an air of strangeness, as if they had discovered a new continent. Old men 
made surface explorations, looked down the cellar windows, and poked the bricks 
with their canes, as a sort of practical test of the operations in hand. The well 



HOLYOKE HOUSE. 

Location. — Cost. — Description of the Building. — Fire-Escapes. 

Holyoke House was erected by the Corporation in 1870 and 1871, as an in- 
vestment of College money, upon the large lot of land at the corner of Harvard 
and Holyoke Streets, which had for a long time been vacant. The cost of the 
building was about one hundred and twenty thousand dollars. In plan, Holyoke 
House is nearly square, measuring one hundred feet on Harvard Street, and 
extending back ninety-five feet on Holyoke Street. It is built of brick, with free- 
stone trimmings, in the Romanesque style of architecture; the interior finished 
with black-walnut, oak, and pine. Including the Mansard roof, there are five 
stories above the basement. The basement contains a spacious kitchen, store- 
room, laundry, and other rooms used principally in connection with the heating 
apparatus. Upon the principal story there are four stores on Harvard Street, 
three suites of rooms in the rear, and three rooms intended for dining-rooms, 
but which are now used by College societies or for recitation-rooms. There are 
eleven suites of rooms in each of the four upper stories, making forty-seven in 
all. Each suite consists of a parlor, two bedrooms, bath-room, and clothes-clos- 
ets. The parlors are all provided with marble mantels and coal-grates. The 
dining-rooms, halls, and corridors are heated by steam apparatus placed in the 
basement. Good ventilation is secured for all the rooms. The principal entrance 
to the building is from Harvard Street, through a broad vestibule opening into 
the stair-hall and connecting with corridors which lead to the different rooms 
upon the main floor. There are broad, easy stairs ascending from the basement 
to the upper story, lighted by a raised skylight thirteen by nineteen feet. The 
rooms upon the several floors are reached by corridors leading from the central 
stairway. The interior bedrooms, bath-rooms, and corridors are lighted from four 
large skylights, with finished wells, provided with sliding windows on the sides. 
There is a coal-elevator rising from the basement, by means of which fuel is 
landed upon each floor and stored in bins, of which there is one for each suite 
of rooms. The building is supplied with outside fire-escapes. 

There is also a fire-wall between it and Little's Block, the adjoining building, 
which, though not owned by the Corporation, is occupied by students. 




MEMORIAL HALL. 

PART I. — The Meeting of Harvard Graduates in May, 1865. — Discussion of the Resolutions 

REPORTED BY THE MEMORIAL COMMITTEE. — NAMES OF THE COMMITTEE. — THE ALUMNI VOTE TO 

erect a Memorial Hall at a Meeting, September 23, 1865. — A Committee on Finance 
and a Building Committee appointed. — Extracts from a Report of the Committee on Fi- 
nance, July 14, 1866. — The "Delta" selected as the Site of the proposed Hall. — The 
Purchase of "Jarvis Field" as a Play-Ground in Lieu of the "Delta." — The laying of the 
Corner-Stone. — Subscriptions to the Hall. — A Committee appointed to prepare and 
print a Record of the Services of Harvard Students and Graduates who were engaged 
in the late War. 
PART II. — Description of the Building. — The Interior. — The Memorial Hall proper. — 
The Dining-Hall. — The Theatre. — The Exterior. — The Tower. — The main En- 
trances to the Building. — Dedicatory Inscriptions. — The Marble Tablets. — A List of 
the Names of Graduates or Students of the University who fell in Defence of the 
Union. — Latin Inscriptions on the Walls of the Memorial Vestibule. — The Windows. 
— The West-End Window. — Inscription over it. 

PART I. — HISTORY OF THE ENTERPRISE. 

The first step taken in relation to this subject was the meeting of a large 
number of the graduates of the College in the month of May, 1865, in Boston, 
at which, after a brief discussion, a committee of eleven was appointed to " con- 
sider and report upon the subject of a ' Permanent Memorial ' commemorative of 
the graduates and students of the College who had served in the army or navy 
in defence of the Union and the Constitution during the late Rebellion." That 
committee consisted of Charles G. Loring, R. W. Emerson, S. G. Ward, Samuel 
Eliot, Martin Brimmer, H. H. Coolidge, R. W. Hooper, C. E. Norton, T. G. 



50 MEMORIAL HALL. 

Bradford, H. B. Rogers, and Dr. James Walker. At an adjourned meeting in July 
of the same year they made their report, which was accepted with very general 
consent, and was ordered to be printed and circulated among the Alumni as exten- 
sively as possible on or before the day of Commencement, then close at hand. 
The resolutions appended to that report were as follows : — 

" Resolved, That in the opinion of the graduates of Harvard College, a ' Memorial Hall,' constructed 
in such manner as to indicate in its external and internal arrangements the purpose for which it is 
chiefly designed ; in which statues, busts, portraits, medallions, and mural tablets, or other appro- 
priate memorials, may be placed, commemorative of the graduates and students of the College who 
have fallen, and of those who have served in the army and navy during the recent Rebellion, in 
conjunction with those of the past benefactors and distinguished sons of Harvard now in her keep- 
ing, — and with those of her sons who shall hereafter prove themselves worthy of the like honor, — 
will be the most appropriate, enduring, and acceptable commemoration of their heroism and self- 
sacrifice ; and that the construction of such a hall in a manner to render it a suitable theatre or 
auditorium for the literary festivals of the College and of its filial institutions will add greatly to 
the beauty, dignity, and effect of such memorials, and tend to preserve them unimpaired, and with 
constantly increasing associations of interest, to future years. 

" Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be transmitted to the Association of the Alumni with 
the request, that, if they shall coincide in the opinion thus expressed, they will take measures for 
the procurement of the means of erecting the proposed hall." 

These resolutions being presented at the meeting of the Alumni on the follow- 
ing Commencement Day, the following discussion thereon took place* 

Hon. Charles G. Loring spoke briefly of the proceedings of the undergradu- 
ates, and urged the importance of concerted and harmonious action. 

Rev. Edward E. Hale thought there was no difference of opinion as to the 
proper form for the memorial. He understood that the Alumni in general desired 
a hall, and that the only question was as to its precise character. This must be 
decided by plans hereafter to be submitted. He referred to the effacement of all 
traces of the occupancy of the College grounds by the army of the Revolution, 
and said it seemed sad to think that the traces of the deeds of the present 
glorious era might fade out. He spoke of the advantages of a hall for statues, 
busts, and pictures, as a means of preserving the history of the College, and said 
that if the Alumni succeeded in reminding their descendants that the College 
had a history, they would accomplish much. - 

Mr. Hale moved that the first resolution of the printed report, recommending 
the erection of a hall, be adopted. 

Rev. Dr. Osgood, of New York, coincided with the views of Mr. Hale, and re- 
garded a hall as the best method of preserving a perfect record of the worthy 
sons of the College. There should be no quarrelling, he said, about plans, but 
the money should be raised quickly. 

* Taken from the report of the Daily Advertiser. 



MEMORIAL HALL. 51 

J. C. Ropes differed in opinion from the last two speakers, and spoke in favor 
of a special memorial in the form of a monument, with the names of the College 
martyrs inscribed thereon, as recommended by Dr. Walker in 1863. He wanted 
an Alumni hall as much as any one ; but thought the subjects of a hall and of 
a memorial should not be confounded. A monument would stand for generations, 
and inspire the youth of the College with noble emulation. He moved to table 
Mr. Hale's motion. 

Rev. Dr. Hedge was glad to hear the remarks of Mr. Ropes, and surprised to 
hear Mr. Hale declare his belief in a unanimity of sentiment among the Alumni 
in favor of a memorial hall. Dr. Hedge declared his preference for a simple 
obelisk, inscribed with the names of the fallen. 

Mr. Hale briefly reiterated his views as to the advantages of paintings, statuary, 
and busts in perpetuating the remembrance of worthy deeds. 

Mr. Ropes said one great objection to this method was, that we could not 
have the portraits or busts of all, but only of those whose friends were wealthy. 
It should not be made a class matter, but Alma Mater should take it up. 

Judge Warren opposed embracing two objects in one scheme, and thought the 
plan of a memorial hall would subject the Alumni to a charge of Yankee shrewd- 
ness. He moved that a committee of fifty be appointed by the chair, with full 
powers to act upon the subject. 

Mr. Ropes withdrew his motion to lay upon the table, and the motion made 
by Judge Warren was adopted. 

The President appointed the following gentlemen as the committee : — 

Chairman, CHARLES G. LORING. 

Jacob Bigelow, Thomas Wigglesworth, 

David Sears, Turner Sargent, 

James Walker, Amos A. Lawrence, 

John G. Palfrey, Henry Lee, Jr., 

Stephen Salisbury, Richard H. Dana, Jr., 

Sidney Bartlett, Patrick T. Jackson, 

Francis C. Lowell, G. Howland Shaw, 

R. W. Emerson, Edward Everett Hale, 

Henry B. Rogers, Samuel Eliot, 

William Amory, James Lawrence, 

Christopher T. Thayer, Francis E. Parker, 

Samuel H. Walley, Edward N. Perkins, 

Stephen M. Weld, Leverett Saltonstall, 

Robert C. Winthrop, Francis J. Child, 

George T. Bigelow, Charles E. Norton, 

Robert W. Hooper, Charles F. Choate, 

Thomas G. Appleton, Samuel Batchelder, Jr., 

Benjamin H. Silsbee, H. H. Coolidge, 

Josiah G. Abbott, George Putnam, Jr., 

Waldo Higginson, Theodore Lyman, 



5 2 MEMORIAL HALL. 

George B. Chase, C. F. Folsom, 

John C. Ropes, William Greenough, 

William Everett, Richard H. Derby, 

John T. Morse, Jr., J. Ingersoll Bowditch. 
E. A. Crowninshield, 

The committee were authorized to fill vacancies in their number. 
Seven vacancies in this committee subsequently occurred by death or resigna- 
tion of members, and these were filled from time to time by the election of the 
following : — 

Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes, J. Elliot Cabot, 

A. J. C. Sowdon, Charles W. Eliot, 

Charles F. Shimmin, Dr. Samuel A. Green. 

C. E. Guild, 

This committee, having completed its organization by electing William Everett 
secretary, held earnest and protracted meetings. At these, various designs pre- 
sented by several distinguished architects were presented and discussed ; the sub- 
ject of a monument in place of a hall was again very fully considered, and other 
gentlemen besides those upon the committee were heard upon the subject. 

At the close of the first meeting, held in August, 1865, a sub-committee was 
appointed to consider and report upon the whole subject, consisting of Amos A. 
Lawrence, Samuel Eliot, Leverett Saltonstall, Henry Lee, Jr., John C. Ropes, and 
G. B. Chase. 

This committee reported, on the 23d of September, in favor of the erection of 
a " Memorial Hall," and that it should be so designated. Their report, on motion 
of Dr. Walker, was accepted. 

At a subsequent meeting, on the 30th of that month, a vote was passed, on 
motion of Mr. Ropes, " That the Alumni Hall be built to embrace all the pur- 
poses needed ; and that a monument to those students and graduates who have 
fallen in the late war be erected in some appropriate part of the Alumni Hall." 
And it was finally voted " that the whole subject be recommitted to the sub- 
committee, and that they be authorized to employ Messrs. Ware and Van Brunt 
as architects." 

At a meeting on the 12th of December the sub-committee, after much previous 
deliberation, made their final report, unanimously recommending the plan pro- 
posed by Messrs. Ware and Van Brunt, and their report was accepted with 
unanimity by the general committee. At this meeting another sub-committee, 
of which Mr. Loring was chairman, was appointed to draw up an address, con- 
taining photographic views of the proposed building, to be circulated among the 
graduates and friends of the College. A committee on finance was also ap- 
pointed, and a building committee. The latter consisted of Henry B. Rogers, J. 
Elliot Cabot, Turner Sargent, Charles E. Norton, and Theodore Lyman. Mr. 



MEMORIAL HALL. 53 

Turner Sargent subsequently resigned, and Mr. Henry Lee was chosen in his 
place. At a later period, on the resignation of Mr. C. E. Norton, Mr. Charles 
W. Eliot was appointed. 

The plan adopted was designed to meet and supply the three great wants of 
the University, thus described by Mr. Loring, in his report to the Alumni Asso- 
ciation at Commencement, 1866: "A suitable monument in commemoration of 
the sons of Harvard who perilled and laid down their lives to preserve us as a 
nation, a hall for the meetings of the Alumni and their festal entertainments, 
and a theatre or auditorium for the celebration of the literary festivals of the 
College." 

At a meeting of the general committee, held July 14, 1866, Mr. Waldo Higgin- 
son, in behalf of the finance committee, whose names appear in a later part of 
this paper, made a report, from which the following extracts are made : — 

"Immediately after the last meeting of the 'Committee of Fifty,' January 27, 1866, this sub-com- 
mittee began operations. At their first meeting Mr. Henry Lee, Jr., was chosen treasurer. At their 
second meeting a communication was received from Colonel Theodore Lyman, of the class of 1855, 
offering, in order to secure a subscription of $ 100,000, to be one of twenty to subscribe $ 5,000 
each. With this liberal and judicious proposition as a starting-point, — which, coming from one who 
had already done his part in the late war for the glory of Harvard, deserves perpetual remembrance, 
— the committee have substantially succeeded ; without it, they would probably have failed. Ani- 
mated by it, they lost no time in setting about canvassing for the residue of the twenty. After some 
failures and disappointments, they have at last obtained the required number, and have thus se- 
cured the $ 100,000. 

" After devoting many weeks to soliciting chiefly larger subscriptions, the committee set about obtain- 
ing smaller sums and beginning class contributions. And we have now the pleasure of stating that 
the aggregate of all the subscriptions to date, after the first five months of our efforts, is $172,500. 

" In bringing about this result, the committee have labored unceasingly, a portion of them meet- 
ing every day for several months. Though encountering some rebuffs, they experienced in many 
cases appreciation and sympathy. This was to be expected from the graduates themselves, and from 
families connected with the University for generations. From these classes, the committee are proud 
to say, thirteen of the twenty subscribers of $ 5,000 have proceeded. But they also found that the 
College could look for support to a wider circle than that of its own sons ; and could now, as in 
times past, rely largely on the enlightened merchants and manufacturers of Boston and its vicinity 
not college bred. Mr. Mudge and Mr. Richardson were the first two on Colonel Lyman's paper. 
Mr. Weld, Mr. Baker, and Mr. Ames followed among its earliest subscribers. Mr. Brewer, who is 
abroad, consented as soon as the application reached him. And another signer to the same amount, 
Mr. Freeland, met the committee with a remark, showing his high sense of the value of learning, 
' What would Boston have been without Cambridge ? ' The same spirit animated many who gave 
smaller sums. Mr. James Read volunteered a subscription of $ 1,000, and headed the list for that 
amount. Others subscribed with scarcely less readiness." 

During this period, and afterwards, Mr. A. A. Lawrence acted as chairman of 
the finance committee, and their success is largely due to his personal energy 
and judgment, and to the confidence inspired by his example. 



54 MEMORIAL HALL. 

At the meeting in July, 1866, above referred to, the following votes were 
passed, after full discussion : — 

"Voted, That the members of the building committee, together with Messrs. A. A. Lawrence, 
Stephen M. Weld, Waldo Higginson, Henry Lee, Jr., Charles F. Shimmin, F. J. Child, Charles E. 
Guild, Charles W. Eliot, and J. Ingersoll Bowditch, being the central finance committee, constitute 
a joint committee, with authority to select and procure a site for the proposed building.* 

" Voted, That the building committee have full power, after a site shall have been procured, to pro- 
ceed to the erection of a building in general accordance with the plan adopted by the whole com- 
mittee December 12, 1865, with such modifications as may, in their judgment, be rendered necessary 
by the site selected and other considerations." 

In pursuance of these resolutions, the joint committee selected the piece of 
ground known as the " Delta " as the site of the proposed structure. 

To furnish a proper play-ground in lieu of the " Delta," which had been for 
half a century devoted to that purpose, the committee succeeded in buying of 
the Jarvis heirs a tract of land towards the north part of Oxford Street. This 
purchase, made on very favorable terms, was chiefly due to the energy and per- 
sistence of Mr. Charles W. Eliot, acting for the committee. It was temporarily 
placed in the names of Messrs. A. A. Lawrence, J. I. Bowditch, and Henry Lee, 
as trustees. The portion on the south of Jarvis Street was conveyed to the Col- 
lege, by previous agreement, at cost. That in the low ground east of Oxford 
Street was reserved for, and finally conveyed to, the Trustees of the Museum of 
Comparative Zoology. That north of the last is still kept unsold, whilst the 
tract of land between Oxford, Jarvis, and Everett Streets was devoted to the ob- 
ject of the purchase, — a new play-ground. It contains about five acres, while the 
old one, with less favorable proportions, contains but three. That now used has 
become already widely known as the "Jarvis Field." This was conveyed by the 
trustees to the Corporation of the College, December 31, i860, in consideration of 
$15,000 and an indenture to hold the "Delta" in trust "for the purpose of pre- 
serving and maintaining Memorial Hall, and for no use whatever inconsistent 
therewith." 

Some delay was deemed necessary before beginning construction, in order to 
give the funds time to accumulate. 

On the 6th of October, 1870, the corner-stone was laid with impressive cere- 
monies. After prayer by Rev. Phillips Brooks, and a few words by Mr. Henry 
B. Rogers, chairman of the building committee, there followed fitting harangues 
from Hon. John G. Palfrey, who, on the death of Mr. Loring, had been chosen 
* On the death of Mr. Stephen M. Weld, Mr. P. T. Jackson was elected, August, 1868, to fill the 
vacancy ; and on the resignation of Mr. Charles W. Eliot, in June, 1869, Mr. H. H. Coolidge was chosen. 
At the above meeting Mr. William Everett resigned the post of secretary of the general committee, 
and Mr. A. J. C. Sowdon was chosen in his place, who remained in office for several years. On his 
resignation, Colonel Theodore Lyman was appointed in his stead. 



MEMORIAL HALL. 



55 



chairman of the " Committee of Fifty," and from Hon. William Gray, President 
of the Alumni. After which the corner-stone was lowered, and the following 
hymn, written by Dr. O. W. Holmes, was sung: — 

Not with the anguish of hearts that are breaking 

Come we as mourners to weep for our dead ; 
Grief in our breasts has grown weary with aching, 

Green is the turf where our tears we have shed. 

While o'er their marbles the mosses are creeping, 

Stealing each name and its record away, 
Give their proud story to Memory's keeping, 

Shrined in the temple we hallow to-day. 

Hushed are their battle-fields, ended their marches, 

Deaf are their ears to the drum-beat of morn — 
Rise from the sod, ye fair columns and arches ! 

Tell their bright deeds to the ages unborn ! 

Emblem and legend may fade from the portal, 

Keystone may crumble, and pillar may fall ; 
They were the builders whose work is immortal, 

Crowned with the dome that is over us all ! 

After the hymn there followed an address by Hon. E. R. Hoar, and then a 
benediction by Rev. Dr. Hill concluded the services. 

For the reason just given, the subsequent work was also prosecuted slowly, and 
Memorial Hall was first ready for occupation at Commencement, 1874. 

On the afternoon of Tuesday, July 23, the day preceding the above-mentioned 
Commencement, the edifice was dedicated; on which occasion the order of ex- 
ercises was as follows : — 

HALLELUJAH CHORUS. 
From the Mount of Olives Beethoven. 

PRAYER. 
By the Rev. Henry W. Bellows, D. D. 

CHORUS. 
From the Oratorio of St. Paul .... Mendelssohn. 
" Happy and blest are they who have endured, 
For though the body dies, the soul shall live forever." 



REPORT OF THE BUILDING COMMITTEE. 
By their Chairman, Henry B. Rogers, Esq. 



56 



MEMORIAL HALL. 

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE OF FIFTY. 
By their Chairman, Hon. John G. Palfrey. 

CHORUS. 
From the Creation, "The heavens are telling" . . . Haydn. 

ADDRESS. 
By the Hon. Charles Francis Adams. 

HYMN. 
Written for the occasion, by Oliver Wendell Holmes, to be sung by the Assembly. 

Where, girt around by savage foes, 
Our nurturing Mother's shelter rose, 
Behold, the lofty temple stands, 
Reared by her children's grateful hands ! 

Firm are the pillars that defy 
The volleyed thunders of the sky ; 
Sweet are the summer wreaths that twine 
With bud and flower our martyrs' shrine. 

The hues their tattered colors bore 
Fall mingling on the sunlit floor, 
Till evening spreads her spangled pall, 
And wraps in shade the storied hall. 

Firm were their hearts in danger's hour, 
Sweet was their manhood's morning flower, 
Their hopes with rainbow hues were bright, — 
How swiftly winged the sudden night ! 

O Mother ! on thy marble page 
Thy children read, from age to age, 
The mighty word that upward leads 
Through noble thought to nobler deeds. 

Truth, heaven-born Truth, their fearless guide, 
Thy saints have lived, thy heroes died ; 
Our love has reared their earthly shrine, 
Their glory be forever thine i 

BENEDICTION. 
By the Chaplain of the Day. 

The following is a condensed account of the amount subscribed and its increase, 
together with the outlay, furnished by Mr. Henry Lee, treasurer, whose devotion to 
the trust confided to him, and liberal augmentation of it out of his private means, 
ought always to be held in grateful memory. 



MEMORIAL HALL. 57 

RECEIPTS. 

Subscriptions. — Alumni and students $142,722.88* 

Friends 57,460.00 

Donation from Harvard College . . . 15,000.00 

Interest earned 73,503.41 

Guaranty against loss on sale of stocks . . 17,201.25 

$ 305,887.54 

PAYMENTS. 

Expenses. — Tax $ 1,535.44 

Printing 581.70 

Advertising ....... 469.13 

Engraving, etc 4°5-57 

2,991.84 

Land and fencing. ..... 32,988.78 

Less sales ....... 6,937.20 

26,051.58 

Building — paid up to date ...... 271,596.10 

300,639-52 

5,248.02 
Estimated bills on Dining and Memorial Halls, . . 17,737.52 
Less estimated land for sale 12,400.00 

$5,337-52 

To build the Sanders Theatre the Treasurer of the College has funds amounting, by 

his last report, to $ 55,903.44 

The cost of the building will be, perhaps 75,000.00 

The unpaid subscriptions amount, with interest at rate earned in paid subscriptions, to 29,400.00 
— a falling off not anticipated by the committee. 



DETAILS OF SUBSCRIPTIONS TO HARVARD MEMORIAL FUND. 



CLASS OF SUBSCF. 


BHRS. AMOUNT. 


CLA5S OF 


1797 


[ $ 500.00 


1822 


l802 


; 500.00 


1823 


1803 


t 2,000.00 


1824 


1806 


200.00 


1825 


l807 


1 5,000.00 


1826 


l8lO 


[ 100.00 


1827 


l8ll 


5 2,825.00 


1828 


I8I2 


2,150.00 


1829 


I8I3 


i 500.00 


I83O 


I8I5 


J 5,75°°° 


1831 


I8l6 


i 500.00 


1832 


l8l7 


1 5,000.00 


1833 


I8l8 


5 1,000.00 


1834 


I8I9 


1 200.00 


1835 


l820 


7 450.00 


I836 


I82I 


5 700.00 


1837 



4,700.00 

6,520.00 
1,305.00 

2,595-°° 
3,°75-°° 
330.00 
778.00 
1,385-°° 
2,360.00 
2,375-°° 
2,760.23 
2,385.00 
2,050.00 
8,475.00 
1,725.00 
1,000.00 



* About $ 6,000 new, on which no interest could be earned. 



53 



MEMORIAL HALL. 



$4,675.00 


1856 


2 


$300.00 


1,660.00 


1857 


31 


883.OO 


1,515.00 


1858 


38 


1,045.00 


970.00 


1859 


35 


2,785.00 


1,150.00 


i860 


31 


9,290.00 


830.00 


1861 


47 


1,050.00 


2,290.00 


1862 


40 


7,105.00 


450.00 


1863 


22 


3,450.00 


2,945.00 


1864 


48 


1,255.00 


1,000.00 


1865 


36 


3,073.00 


7,941.40 


1866 


1 


1,000.00 


1,220.00 


1867 


1 


IOO.OO 


655-25 


1869 


1 


5.00 


375-oo 


1870 


2 


300.00 


1,025.00 


Sundry subscript 


ons from New York, 




2,225.00 


through F. A. 


Lane, 12 


1,000.00 


7,762.00 


810 $1 


42,722.88 



FRIENDS NOT ALUMNI. 



E. Redington Mudge . 




$5 


OOO.OO 


George C. Richardson 




5 


OOO.OO 


William F. Weld 




5 


OOO.OO 


Richard Baker, Jr. . 




5 


OOO.OO 


Oliver Ames 




5 


OOO.OO 


Charles W. Freeland 




5 


OOO.OO 


Gardner Brewer . 




5 


OOO.OO 


Wigglesworth Family 




2 


500.OO 


J. Ingersoll Bowditch . 




1 


200.00 


James Read . 




1 


OOO.OO 


John A. Blanchard 




1 


OOO.OO 


Alfred Reed . 




1 


OOO.OO 


Peter C. Brooks . 




1 


OOO.OO 


( Samuel Mav. 






Samuel May & Sons ) r ohn 


I. May, 


■ 1 


OOO.OO 


( Fred. 


W. G. May, 


1 




Johnson C. Burrage 




1 


OOO.OO 


Alvah A. Burrage 




1 


OOO.OO 


Robert M. Mason . 




T 


OOO.OO 


Samuel Batchelder 




I 


OOO.OO 


Samuel Frothingham 




I 


OOO.OO 


J. Wiley Edmands 




I 


OOO.OO 


Caroline Merriam . 




I 


OOO.OO 



James H. Beal 

John Gardner 

William Perkins 

J. Huntington Wolcott 

George W. Wales . 

Mrs. Robert G. Shaw . 

James S. Amory 

Mrs. Ozias Goodwin . 

Miss Eliza Goodwin 

Miss Mary C. Goodwin 

Miss Lucy Goodwin 

William Appleton 

Nathaniel Thayer . 

Greely S. Curtis . 

Augustus Whitlock . 

Edward Matthews 

Alexander H. Bullock 

Charles F. Bradford . 

Augustus Woodbury 

Mrs. Nathaniel I. Bowditch for 

Harvard College Donation 



00 
100.00 
100.00 
100.00 

50.00 

2,000.00 
15,000.00 



For the merit of bringing so large an undertaking within the means provided, 

— notwithstanding the unexpected deficiency of nearly $ 30,000 in subscriptions, 

— the building committee deserve great praise. This is peculiarly due to its 
chairman, Mr. Henry B. Rogers, whose vigilance in this respect was ceaseless and 
untiring. It should be mentioned also, that while other members of the com- 
mittee either did not begin service at the first appointment, or else were long 



MEMORIAL HALL. 



59 



absent irom the country, Mr. Rogers and Mr. J. Elliot Cabot, appointed at first, 
remained throughout, and for nine years sedulously devoted themselves to the 
work, — the last-named gentleman adding to his assiduity the advantages of his 
thorough culture as an architect. 

It has always been felt among the " Committee of Fifty " that their work was 
a " Memorial " as much to those who perilled their lives as to those who actually 
fell in the War of the Rebellion. 

The following resolutions, therefore, presented by President Eliot, were unani- 
mously adopted by the committee at a meeting held June 16, 1874: — 

Voted, " That a committee of five be appointed to prepare and print, at the expense of the ' Com- 
mittee of Fifty,' a complete record of the services of students and graduates of Harvard University 
in the army and navy of the United States during the War of the Rebellion. The committee to have 
power to employ an editor." 

" Whereupon the chair appointed President Eliot, R. W. Hooper, Waldo Higginson, C. E. Guild, 
and Professor Childs as the committee." 

The chief object of this vote was to do justice to those who perilled their lives 
in the war and returned. In addition to this the building committee have sub- 
sequently voted that a suitable portion of the walls should be set apart for the 
reception of tablets commemorative of such soldiers and sailors. 

At the same meeting it was also 

Voted, " That the building committee, with the advice of counsel, be empowered to give to the 
Corporation of the College such use and occupation of the portion of Memorial Hall now com- 
pleted as may be desirable." 

The history of this undertaking ought not to be given, however briefly, with- 
out a passing tribute to two men who largely contributed towards its success, but 
died before the corner-stone was laid, — Hon. Charles G. Loring and Hon. Stephen 
M. Weld. Mr. Loring gave to the early stages of the enterprise not only the 
influence of his social position, but an amount of work which would not have 
been furnished by any other man in the community. At an age beyond that 
allotted to man, he volunteered to do the work of one in the prime of life, and 
his eloquent appeals not only inspired something of his own ardor, but largely 
influenced the fact that a hall was eventually preferred to a monument. 

Mr. Weld was one of the central finance committee, and by common consent 
" facile princeps " among them. He brought to the task an enthusiasm for " Alma 
Mater " as fresh and genial as if he had just graduated, and tact and discretion 
gained in forty years of varied life since leaving College. If the name of any 
one man deserves to be inscribed on Memorial Hall as its founder, it is that of 
Stephen Minot Weld. 



MEMORIAL HALL. 



PART II. — DESCRIPTION OF THE EDIFICE. 

The Memorial Hall is erected on the triangular space known as the Delta, 
included between Ouincy Street on the east, Kirkland Street on the north, and 
Cambridge Street on the south, the last-named street separating the Delta 
from the College yard. 

The longer axis of the building runs east and west, and its extreme dimen- 
sions, when completed, will be 310 feet in length and 115 feet in width, — about 
the same as those of Lichfield Cathedral. It includes three main divisions, the 
central division or transept being the Memorial Hall proper, 100 feet by 30 feet, 
forming a monumental vestibule to the other two divisions: that extending west- 
ward being the nave or dining-hall, 64 feet by 180 feet externally; and that on 
the east being an academic theatre, a polygonal building 100 feet in diameter, 
forming a sort of apsis. Of those three divisions the last still remains to be 
built. 

The exterior is of red brick laid in black mortar, decorated with lines of black 
brick, and with belts, window tracery, and weatherings of Nova Scotia buff sand- 
stone. The roofs are covered with slates in three colors, with hips, saddles, and 
finials of copper, zinc, and wrought iron. 

The main feature of the exterior is the memorial tower, which rises over the 
centre of the transept. It is 200 feet high and about 35 feet square. The transept 
fronts on the north and south are each flanked by two subordinate towers, the 
two on the west containing rooms about 24 feet square, some accessory to the 
dining-hall, and others for the use of the Board of Overseers. The two on the 
east contain the staircases and passages leading to the theatre. 

The transept fronts contain the main entrances to the building, each being a 
wide arched doorway in a carved stone screen containing niches, and crowned 
with an open parapet ; over the parapet on each front is a large stone tracery 
window filled with stained glass. In the gables above are dedicatory inscriptions 
as follows : — 

On the south front : 

MEMORIAE • EORVM • 

QUI • IN • HIS • SEDIBUS • INSTITVTI • 

MORTEM • PRO • PATRIA • OPPETIVERVNT 

CI3-D-CCC1XI CIDD-CCC-J.X-V 

On the north front: 

VT • VIRTVTIS • EXEMPLA- 

SEMPER • APVD VOS • VIGEAT- 

SODALES • AMICIQUE • POSVERVNT 



MEMORIAL HALL. 6 1 

These doorways open into the memorial vestibule in the centre of the build- 
ing. This hall is thirty feet wide, and a hundred and twelve feet long. It is 
paved with marble, and is covered by a wooden vaulting of brown ash, at a 
height of fifty-eight feet. The walls are occupied to the height of eighteen feet 
by a carved black-walnut screen in the form of an arcade ; the arches, twenty- 
eio-ht in number, contain each a marble tablet surmounted by a mosaic or inlay of 
marbles. On these tablets are inscribed the names of the graduates or students 
of the College and of the professional schools who fell in defence of the Union 
in the late civil war, with the date of their death and the place of death of those 
who died in battle. The following is a complete list of the names as inscribed, 
beginning at the right of the central entrance to the dining-hall : — 



JAMES SAMUEL WADSWORTH. 
8 MAY, 1864. WILDERNESS. 

1833- 

FLETCHER WEBSTER. 
30 AUGUST, 1862. BULL RUN. 

1834- 
CHARLES HENRY WHEELWRIGHT. 
30 JULY, 1862. 

1837. 
JAMES RICHARDSON. 
10 NOVEMBER, 1863. 

1841. 

CHARLES FRANCIS SIMMONS. 

FEBRUARY, 1862. 

1842. 
WILLIAM LOGAN RODMAN. 
27 MAY, 1863. PORT HUDSON. 

1843. 

ARTHUR BUCKMINSTER FULLER. 
II DECEMBER, 1862. FREDERICKSBURG. 

I844. 

EBENEZER PIERCE HINDS. 

17 AUGUST, 1862. 

I845. 
PETER AUGUSTUS PORTER. 
3 JUNE, 1864. COLD HARBOR. 



MEMORIAL HALL. 

1846. 

EZRA RIPLEY. 
28 JULY, 1863. 

MONTGOMERY RITCHIE. 
7 NOVEMBER, 1864. 

1847. 
EDWARD HUTCHINSON ROBBINS REVERE. 
17 SEPTEMBER, 1862. ANTIETAM. 

1848. 

JOHN FRANKLIN GOODRICH. 

4 JUNE, 1863. 

LUCIUS MANLIUS SARGENT. 
9 DECEMBER, 1864. BELLFIELD, VA, 

WILLIAM OLIVER STEVENS. 
4 MAY, 1863. CHANCELLORSVILLE. 

1849. 

EVERETT PEABODY. 

6 APRIL, 1862. PITTSBURG LANDING. 

I85I. 
WILLIAM DWIGHT SEDGWICK. 
29 SEPTEMBER, 1862. ANTIETAM. 

1852. 
HENRY HILL DOWNES. 
26 SEPTEMBER, 1864. 

SAMUEL FOSTER HAVEN. 

13 DECEMBER, 1862. FREDERICKSBURG. 

WILLIAM STURGIS HOOPER. 
24 SEPTEMBER, 1863. 

PAUL JOSEPH REVERE. 
4 JULY, 1863. GETTYSBURG. 

ROBERT WARE. 
10 APRIL, 1863. 

SIDNEY WILLARD. 

14 DECEMBER, 1862. FREDERICKSBURG. 



MEMORIAL HALL. 

1853- 

WILDER DWIGHT. 

19 SEPTEMBER, 1862. ANTIETAM. 

1854. 

RICHARD CHAPMAN GOODWIN. 

9 AUGUST, 1862. CEDAR MOUNTAIN. 

CHARLES RUSSELL LOWELL. 
20 OCTOBER, 1864. CEDAR CREEK. 

JAMES SAVAGE. 
22 OCTOBER, 1862. CEDAR MOUNTAIN. 

1855- 

GEORGE FOSTER HODGES. 

31 JANUARY, 1862. 

1856. 

CHARLES BROOKS BROWN. 

13 MAY, 1864. SPOTTSYLVANIA C. H. 

DANIEL HACK. 
17 APRIL, 1864. 

STEPHEN GEORGE PERKINS. 
9 AUGUST, 1862. CEDAR MOUNTAIN. 

1857- 
HOWARD DWIGHT. 

4 MAY, 1863. 

JAMES AMORY PERKINS. 
26 AUGUST, 1863. FORT WAGNER. 

GEORGE WHITTEMORE. 
17 SEPTEMBER, 1862. ANTIETAM. 



SAMUEL HENRY EELLS. 
31 JANUARY, 1864. 

JAMES JACKSON LOWELL. 
4 JULY, 1862. GLENDALE. 

EDWARD BROMFIELD MASON. 
14 SEPTEMBER, 1863. 



63 



6 4 



MEMORIAL HALL. 

HENRY LYMAN PATTEN. 
SEPTEMBER, 1864. DEEP BOTTOM, VA. 

HENRY AUGUSTUS RICHARDSON. 
1 JULY, 1863. 

THOMAS JEFFERSON SPURR. 
27 SEPTEMBER, 1862. ANTIETAM. 



GEORGE WELLINGTON BATCHELDER. 
17 SEPTEMBER, 1862. ANTIETAM. 

HENRY MAY BOND. 
14 MAY, 1864. 

FRANCIS CUSTIS HOPKINSON. 
13 FEBRUARY, 1863. 

HENRY JACKSON HOW. 
30 JUNE, 1862. GLENDALE. 

MASON ARCHELAUS REA. 
16 MAY, 1864. DRURY'S BLUFF, VA. 

NATHANIEL BRADSTREET SHURTLEFF. 
9 AUGUST, 1862. CEDAR MOUNTAIN. 

EZRA MARTIN TEBBETS. 
30 OCTOBER, 1864. 

STRONG VINCENT. 
7 JULY, 1863. GETTYSBURG. 



EDWARD GARDINER ABBOTT. 
9 AUGUST, 1862. CEDAR MOUNTAIN. 

HENRY LIVERMORE ABBOTT. 
6 MAY, 1864. WILDERNESS. 

NATHANIEL SALTONSTALL BARSTOW. 
22 MAY, 1864. 

THOMAS BAYLEY FOX. 
25 JULY, 1863. GETTYSBURG. 

HENRY WARE HALL. 
27 JUNE, 1864. KENESAW MOUNTAIN. 



MEMORIAL HALL. 

CHARLES JAMES MILLS. 
31 MARCH, 1865. HATCHER'S RUN, VA. 

CHARLES REDINGTON MUDGE. 
3 JULY, 1863. GETTYSBURG. 

EDGAR MARSHALL NEWCOMB. 
20 DECEMBER, 1862. FREDERICKSBURG. 

WILLIAM MATTICKS ROGERS. 
JUNE, 1862. 

WARREN DUTTON RUSSELL. 
30 AUGUST, 1862. BULL RUN. 

ROBERT GOULD SHAW. 
18 JULY, 1863. FORT WAGNER. 

GEORGE WESTON. 
5 JANUARY, 1864. RAPPAHANNOCK STATION. 

I86l. 

LEONARD CASE ALDEN. 

5 OCTOBER, 1863. 

PARDON ALMY. 
30 AUGUST, 1862. BULL RUN. 

ARTHUR DEHON. 
13 DECEMBER, 1862. FREDERICKSBURG. 

HENRY JONAS DOOLITTLE. 
10 AUGUST, 1862. 

STEPHEN GOODHUE EMERSON. 
3 MAY, 1863. CHANCELLORSVILLE. 

JOHN LYMAN FENTON. 
28 JULY, 1863. GETTYSBURG. 

WILLIAM YATES CHOLSON. 
7 DECEMBER, 1862. HARTSVILLE, TENN. 

THOMAS JOSEPH LEAVITT. 
4 SEPTEMBER, 1863. WHITE STONE HILL, DAK. 

THOMAS RODMAN ROBESON. 
6 JULY, 1863. GETTYSBURG. 



65 



MEMORIAL HALL. 

1862. 

EDWARD CARSON BOWMAN. 

17 OCTOBER, 1864. 

JOSEPH PERRIN BURRAGE 

29 OCTOBER, 1863. LOOKOUT MOUNTAIN. 

JAMES INGERSOLL GRAFTON. 
16 MARCH, 1865. AVERYSBOROUGH, N. C. 

SAMUEL CUSHMAN HAVEN. 
25 JUNE, 1863. 

CHARLES EDWARD HICKLING. 
17 DECEMBER, 1867. 

JOHN HODGES. 
30 JULY, 1864. PETERSBURG. 

ARTHUR CORTLANDT PARKER. 
24 AUGUST, 1863. 

HENRY ROPES. 
3 JULY, 1863. GETTYSBURG. 

GOODWIN ATKINS STONE. 
18 JULY, 1864. ALDIE'S STATION. 

WILLIAM JAMES TEMPLE. 
1 MAY, 1863. CHANCELLORSVILLE. 

JOHN HENRY TUCKER. 
27 MAY, 1863. PORT HUDSON. 

1863. 
AUGUSTUS BARKER. 
18 SEPTEMBER, 1863. 

WINTHROP PERKINS BOYNTON. 

30 NOVEMBER, 1864. HONEY HILL, S. C. 

HENRY FRENCH BROWN. 
3 MARCH, 1863. 

WILLIAM DWIGHT CRANE. 
30 NOVEMBER, 1864. HONEY HILL, S. C. 

HORACE SARGENT DUNN. 
22 MAY, 1862. 



MEMORIAL HALL. 

SAMUEL SHELTON GOULD. 
17 SEPTEMBER, 1862. ANTIETAM. 

EDWARD LEWIS STEVENS. 
18 APRIL, 1865. BOYKIN'S MILLS, S. C. 

GORHAM PHILLIPS STEVENS. 
12 AUGUST, 1862. 

1864. 

EDWARD STANLEY ABBOT. 
8 JULY, 1863. GETTYSBURG. 

FITZHUGH BIRNEY. 
17 JUNE, 1864. 

EDWARD CHAPIN. 
1 AUGUST, 1863. GETTYSBURG. 

FRANCIS WELCH CROWNINSHIELD. 
21 MAY, 1866. 

JAMES NEVILLE HEDGES. 
FEBRUARY, 1863. 

SAMUEL STORROW. 
16 MARCH, 1865. AVERYSBOROUGH, N. C. 

ANSON GRANDCELO THURSTON. 
17 MAY, 1863. CARRSVILLE, VA. 

I86S. 

SUMNER PAINE. 

3 JULY, 1863. GETTYSBURG. 

CABOT JACKSON RUSSELL. 
18 JULY, 1863. FORT WAGNER. 



DIVINITY SCHOOL. 

1857. 

GEORGE WASHINGTON BARTLETT. 

2 JUNE, 1864. M'GEE'S MILLS, VA. 

I859. 
GERALD FITZGERALD. 

3 MAY, 1863. CHANCELLORSVILLE. 



6 7 



6 g MEMORIAL HALL. 

ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATORY. 

SIDNEY COOLIDGE. 
jg SEPTEMBER, 1863. CHICKAMAUGA. 



LAW SCHOOL. 

1846. 

THORNTON FLEMING BRODHEAD. 
2 SEPTEMBER, 1862. CENTREVILLE, VA. 

1848. 

GEORGE DUNCAN WELLS. 

13 NOVEMBER, 18B4. CEDAR CREEK, VA. 

1855- 

GEORGE ALBERT GERRISH. 

1 SEPTEMBER, 1866. 

1857. 
CHARLES PELEG CHANDLER. 
30 JUNE, 1862. RICHMOND, VA. 

1858. 

NELSON BARTHOLEMEW. 

21 NOVEMBER, 1861. 

ARIAL IVERS CUMMINGS. 
g SEPTEMBER, 1863. HEMPSTED, TEXAS. 

SAMUEL FAY WOODS. 
26 JUNE, 1864. PIEDMONT, VA. 

I859. 

HENRY DOANE. 

13 SEPTEMBER, 1862. 

THOMAS RYERSON HAYNES. 
1862. VIRGINIA. 

THOMAS SWAN TRUMBULL. 
30 MARCH, 1865. 

i860. 

WILLIAM WHEELER. 
22 JUNE, 1864. MARIETTA, VA. 



MEMORIAL HALL. 



THOMAS ALBERT HENDERSON. 
I AUGUST, 1864. DEEP BOTTOM, VA. 



WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM. 
32 OCTOBER, 1861. BALL'S BLUFF, VA. 



GEORGE WATERMAN ARNOLD. 
8 DECEMBER, 1862. 



MEDICAL SCHOOL 

1835- 

JOHN LAWRENCE FOX. 
17 DECEMBER, 1864. 

I843. 

FRANCIS MILLER McLELLAN. 

12 NOVEMBER, 1863. 

I848. 

SAMUEL LEE BIGELOW. 

1 NOVEMBER, 1862. 

I852. 

JOSHUA JAMES ELLIS. 

17 MARCH, 1863. 

1853- 

WILLIAM HENRY HEATH. 

23 AUGUST, 1864. 

I8S9- 

IRA WILSON BRAGG. 

21 OCTOBER, 1864. 

i860. 

JOHN EDWARD HILL. 

11 SEPTEMBER, 1862. 

BENJAMIN FRANKLIN PEIRCE. 
MARCH, 1864. MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 



69 



7 o 



MEMORIAL HALL. 

DIXI CROSBY HOYT. 

I NOVEMBER, 1864. 

HENRY SYLVANUS PLYMPTON. 
25 SEPTEMBER, 1863. 

I86l. 

JOHN FLETCHER STEVENSON. 

8 NOVEMBER, 1865. 



WILLIAM BORROWE GIBSON. 
8 NOVEMBER, 1862. 

1863. 

NEIL K GUNN. 

3 JUNE, 1863. 

EUGENE PATTERSON ROBBINS. 
26 NOVEMBER, 1863. 

JAMES WIGHTMAN. 
15 JUNE, 1863. 

1864. 

HENRY LIVINGSTON DEARING. 

2 OCTOBER, 1864. 



SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL. 

1854. 

CHARLES ROBINSON JOHNSON. 
17 JULY, 1863. GETTYSBURG, PA. 

I856. 

JOSEPH BRIDGHAM CURTIS. 

13 DECEMBER, 1862. FREDERICKSBURG, VA. 

1859. 

FRANCIS WASHBURN. 

22 APRIL, 1865. • HIGHBRIDGE, VA. 

I86l. 

NATHANIEL BOWDITCH. 

18 MARCH, 1863. KELLY'S FORD, VA. 

GEORGE BROOKS. 

10 FEBRUARY, 1863. 

1862. 

THEODORE PARKMAN. 

16 DECEMBER, 1862. WHITEHALL, N. C. 




MEMORIAL HA1LL PROPER 



MEMORIAL HALL. 



[Inscriptions on the East Wall.] 

'rata coram uirtutcm mcmoria prosequi, 
qui pro patria nttam protuberant. 

• reuis a natura nobis nita bata est, 
- at mcmoria bene rebbitae nitae 
Scmpitcrna. 



kptima est l)aet consolatio ; parenttbus 
quob tanta reipublicac praesibia 
gemtemrtt, libcris quob ljabebunt 
bomestica cicmpla nirtutis, conjugibus, 
quo!) iis Dirts carcbunt, quos laubare 
quam lugcrc praestabit. 



8 



ic, IjospeS, £partae, nos tc l)ic uibissc jaccutcs, 
Cum Sanctis patriae tcgibttS obscquimur. 

fortunata mors, quae naturae ucbita pro 
patria est potissimnm rebbita. 



[On the West Wall.] 



/tfftuieunquc quaesient ammam snam 
^* saloam faccrc, pcrbct illam : et 

quicunquc pcrbibcrit illam, ninificabit 

earn. 



JQ'irtttS omnibus rebus anteit profecto : 
** JibcrtaS, salus, uita, res et parentcs 
<Bt patria et prognati tutantur, seroantur. 



rortalem oitam mors immortalis, 
aocmit. 



[rutorum actcrnitas SobolcS : oirontm 
■ fama, mcrita et institnta. 



/jTonsummati in breioi erplcocrant 
tempora multa. 

^fmmortalis est cnim mcmoria illorum : 
® quoniam et apub pcum nota est 
et apub Ijomincs. 



[Over the Small Doors.] 

[bcunt stubia in mores. 



[ccti cuttus pertora roborant. 



7 2 MEMORIAL HALL. 

In the centre of the west side of this vestibule is the central doorway opening 
into the dining-hall, which bears a general resemblance to the halls of the 
English colleges, though surpassing them in size. Its interior dimensions are 
60 -feet in width, 164 feet in length, and 80 feet in height to the apex of the 
roof, which is of open timber, supported by hammer-beam trusses. At each end 
of this hall is a carved screen and gallery. The walls are faced with red and 
black brickwork, with belts of tiles. The side windows, which are 18 in number, 
coupled, are 22 feet from the floor, and contain at present plain glass set in 
lead, to be replaced hereafter, as donations may be made for the purpose, with 
stained glass containing historical figures. Under the windows is a high wooden wain- 
scoting, against which are placed the busts and portraits belonging to the University. 
The great west window, 25 feet by 30 feet, is filled with stained glass, in which 
is emblazoned the arms of the College, of the State, and of the United States. 
In the carved screen at this end of the hall doors give access to an open 
cloister running across the west end of the building, under the gallery, and ter- 
minating in projecting gabled porches on the north and south. Over the great 
west window on the outside are belts containing the following inscriptions : — 

HUMANITAS • VIRTUS • PIETAS 

and below, over the arcade : — 

iGDIFICATA • ANN ■ DOM • MDCCCLXXI • ANN • COLL • HARV • CCXXXV 

The dining-hall can accommodate over a thousand persons at dinner. The 
basement beneath is adapted for kitchens and other offices. 

The theatre, not yet built, somewhat resembles the classic theatres in plan, the 
polygonal side containing grades of seats and galleries facing a broad recessed 
stage on the flat western side. It will accommodate about 1,800 persons. The 
roof is to be of open timber, 76 feet high from the lower floor or arena to the 
apex, without columns. 



MEMORIAL HALL. 

By CHRISTOPHER P. CRANCH. 

Amid the elms that interlace 

Round Harvard's grounds their branches tall, 
We greet no walls of statelier grace 
Than thine, our proud Memorial Hall. 

Through arching boughs and roofs of green, 
Whose dappled lights and shadows lie 

Along the turf and road, is seen 
Thy noble form against the sky. 

And miles away on fields and streams, 
Or where the woods the hill-tops crown, 

The monumental temple gleams, 

A landmark to each neighboring town. 

Nor this alone. New England knows 

A deeper meaning in the pride 
Whose stately architecture shows 

How Harvard's children fought and died. 

Therefore this hallowed pile recalls 
The heroes young and true and brave 

Who gave their memories to these walls, 
Their lives to fill the soldier's grave. 

The farmer, as he drives his team 

To market in the morn, afar 
Beholds the golden sunrise gleam 

Upon thee, like a glistening star. 



MEMORIAL HALL. 

And gazing, he remembers well 
Why stands yon tower so fair and tall. 

His sons perhaps in battle fell : 

For him, too, shines Memorial Hall. 

And sometimes as the student glides 

Along the winding Charles, and sees 
Across the flats thy glowing sides 
Above the elms and willow-trees, 

Upon his oar he '11 turn, and pause 
Remembering the heroic aims 

Of those who linked their country's cause 
In deathless glory with their names. 

And, as against the moonlit sky 
The shadowy mass looms overhead, 

Well may we linger with a sigh 
Beneath the tablets of the dead. 

The snow-drifts on thy roof shall wreathe 
Their crowns of virgin white for them : 

The whispering winds of summer breathe 
At morn and eve their requiem. 

For them the Cambridge bells shall chime 
Across the noises of the town ; 

The cannon's peal recall their time 
Of stern resolve and brief renown. 

Concord and Lexington shall still, 
Like deep to deep, to Harvard call ; 

The tall gray shaft on Bunker Hill 
Speak greetings to Memorial Hall. 

Ah, never may the land forget 

Her loyal sons, who died that we 
Might live, remembering still our debt, — 
The costly price of liberty. 
April, 1874. 



COMMONS. 

CHAPTER I. 

Nathaniel Eaton. — Grant of Land to him by the General Court. — His Ill-Treatment of 
the Students. — Winthrop's Account of Eaton's Mismanagement. — Trial by Court. — Pro- 
ceedings of the Church. — Mrs. Eaton's Confession. — The Sentence. — The College 
Government dine at Commons. — Commons supplied by the College Steward. — List of 
Articles received in Barter for Instruction. — Extract from Lucius R. Paige. — Gifts 
solicited for the College. — Rule regulating the Time to be spent at Meals. — Presi- 
dent Dunster's Orders. — Wants of the College in 1665. — The College Steward's 
Account-Books. — The Terms "Commons" and " Sizings." — The first Butler. — Students 

credited with work. — custom observed at meals in 1674. glft of samuel ward, 1681. 

— The Presence of the Tutors " in the Hall at Meal Times " required. — Order passed 
in 1724. — Laws adopted in 1734. — Duties of the Steward, Butler, and Cook. — Extract 
from President Quincy on Commons. — Disturbances in 1766 and 1768. — Various Ex- 
tracts relating to Commons. — Difficulties of procuring Dinner at the Hatch. — Vote 
of 1772. — Effect of the Revolutionary War on Commons. — Vote of 1783. 

Before the College had received the name by which it has since been known, 
and while it was yet but a school, Nathaniel Eaton was, in the year 1637, selected 
as its first principal, and placed at its head. He " was intrusted," says Peirce, 
" not only with the education of the students, but with the care of managing the 
donations and erecting buildings for the College. In 1639, the General Court 
granted him five hundred acres of land, on condition of his continuing his em- 
ployment for life. He was undoubtedly qualified for the office by his talents and 
learning; but in other respects he proved himself exceedingly unfit for it. In 
the same year the grant of land was made to him, he was accused of ill-treating 
the students, of giving them bad and scanty diet, and exercising inhuman severi- 
ties towards them; but particularly, of beating his usher, Nathaniel Briscoe, and 
that in a most barbarous manner." * 

These disgraceful acts of Eaton were previous to the 9th of September, 1639, 
for on that day the General Court rendered sentence against him. 

* Peirce's Hist. Harv. Univ. 4; Records of the Gov. and Co. of the Mass. Bay, I. 210, 262. 



-6 COMMONS. 

In College Book No. III., at page 2, the account of Eaton's agency is thus 
stated : " Mr. Nathaniel Eaton was chosen Professor of the said school in the 
year one thousand six hundred and thirty-seven, to whose care the management 
of the donations before mentioned was intrusted, for the erecting of such edifices 
as were meet and necessary for a college, and for his own lodgings ; an account 
of his management whereof is as followeth." 

The account is then set forth, and on the following page is a statement that 
Nathaniel Eaton, having been convicted of sundry abuses, was, in September, 
1639, removed from his trust.* 

In his History of New England, Winthrop has recorded in full the occurrences 
in which Eaton appears so discreditably, in these words : — 

" He was a schoolmaster, and had many scholars, the sons of gentlemen and others of best note 
in the country, and had entertained one Nathaniel Briscoe, a gentleman born, to be his usher, and 
to do some other things for him, which might not be unfit for a scholar. He had not been with 
him above three days but he fell out with him for a very small occasion, and, with reproachful 
terms, discharged him, and turned him out of his doors ; but, it being then about eight of the clock 
after the Sabbath, he told him he should stay till next morning, and, some words growing between 
them, he struck him and pulled him into his house. Briscoe defended himself, and closed with 
him, and, being parted, he came in and went up to his chamber to lodge there. Mr. Eaton sent 
for the constable, who advised him first to admonish him, &c, and if he could not, by the power 
of a master, reform him, then he should complain to the magistrate. But he caused his man to fetch 
him a cudgel, which was a walnut tree plant, big enough to have killed a horse, and a yard in 
length, and, taking his two men with him, he went up to Briscoe, and caused his men to hold him 
rill he had given him two hundred stripes about the head and shoulders, &c. and so kept him 
under blows (with some two or three short intermissions) about the space of two hours, about which 
time Mr. Shepherd and some others of the town came in at the outcry, and so he gave over. In 
this distress Briscoe gate out his knife, and struck at the man that held him, but hurt him not. 
He also fell to prayer, (supposing he should have been murdered,) and then Mr. Eaton beat him 
for taking the name of God in vain. 

"After this Mr. Eaton and Mr. Shepherd (who knew not then of these passages) came to the 
governour and some other of the magistrates, complaining of Briscoe for his insolent speeches, and 
for crying out murder and drawing his knife, and desired that he might be enjoined to a publick 
acknowledgment, &c. The magistrates answered, that they must first hear him speak, and then they 
would do as they should see cause. Mr. Eaton was displeased at this, and went away discontented, 
&c. and, being after called into the court to make answer to the information, which had been given 
by some who knew the truth of the case, and also to answer for his neglect and cruelty, and other 
ill usage towards his scholars, one of the elders (not suspecting such miscarriages by him) came to 
the governour, and showed himself much grieved, that he should be publickly produced, alleging, that 
it would derogate from his authority and reverence among his scholars, &c. But the cause went on 
notwithstanding, and he was called, and these things laid to his charge in the open court. His 
answers were full of pride and disdain, telling the magistrates, that they should not need to do any 
thing herein, for he was intended to leave his employment. And being asked why he used such 
cruelty to Briscoe his usher, and to other his scholars, (for it was testified by another of his ushers 

* Quincy's Hist. Harv. Univ., I. 452, 453, 460, 461. 



COMMONS. yy 

and divers of his scholars, that he would give them between twenty and thirty stripes at a time, 
and would not leave till they had confessed what he required,) his answer was, that he had this 
rule, that he would not give over correcting till he had subdued the party to his will. Being also 
questioned about the ill and scant diet of his boarders, (for, though their friends gave large allow- 
ance, yet their diet was ordinarily nothing but porridge and pudding, and that very homely,) he put 
it off to his wife. So the court dismissed him at present, and commanded him to attend again the 
next day, when, being called, he was commanded to the lower end of the table, (where all offenders 
do usually stand,) and, being openly convict of all the former offences, by the oaths of four or five 
witnesses, he yet continued to justify himself; so, it being near night, he was committed to the 
marshal till the next day. When the court was set in the morning, many of the elders came into 
the court, (it being then private for matter of consultation,) and declared how, the evening before, 
they had taken pains with him, to convince him of his faults ; yet, for divers hours, he had still 
stood to his justification ; but, in the end, he was convinced, and had freely and fully acknowledged 
his sin, and that with tears ; so as they did hope he had truly repented, and therefore desired of 
the court, that he might be pardoned, and continued in his employment, alleging such further reasons 
as they thought fit. After the elders were departed, the court consulted about it, and sent for him, 
and there, in the open court, before a great assembly, he made a very solid, wise, eloquent and 
serious (seeming) confession, condemning himself in all the particulars, &c. Whereupon, being put 
aside, the court consulted privately about his sentence, and, though many were taken with his con- 
fession, and none but had a charitable opinion of it; yet, because of the scandal of religion, and 
offence which would be given to such as might intend to send their children hither, they all agreed 
to censure him, and put him from that employment. So, being called in, the governour, after a short 
preface, &c, declared the sentence of the court to this effect, viz. that he should give Briscoe £30, 
fined 100, and debarred teaching of children within our jurisdiction. A pause being made, and ex- 
pectation that (according to his former confession) he would have given glory to God, and acknowl- 
edged the justice and clemency of the court, the governour giving him occasion, by asking him if 
he had ought to say, he turned away with a discontented look, saying, ' If sentence be passed, then 
it is to no end to speak.' Yet the court remitted his fine to £ 20, and willed Briscoe to take but 
£20. 

"The Church at Cambridge, taking notice of these proceedings, intended to deal with him. The 
pastor moved the governour, if they might, without offence to the court, examine other witnesses. 
His answer was, that the court would leave them to their own liberty ; but he saw not to what end 
they should do it, seeing there had been five already upon oath, and those whom they should ex- 
amine should speak without oath, and it was an ordinance of God, that by the mouths of two or 
three witnesses every matter should be established. But he soon discovered himself; for, ere the 
church could come to deal with him, he fled to Pascataquack, and, being pursued and apprehended 
by the governour there, he again acknowledged his great sin in flying, &c. and promised (as he was a 
Christian man) he would return with the messengers. But, because his things he carried with him 
were aboard a bark there, bound to Virginia, he desired leave to go fetch them, which they assented 
unto, and went with him (three of them) aboard with him. So he took his truss and came away 
with them in the boat ; but, being come to the shore, and two of them going out of the boat, he 
caused the boatsmen to put off the boat, and because the third man would not go out, he turned 
him into the water, where he had been drowned, if he had not saved himself by swimming. So he 
returned to the bark, and presently they set sail and went out of the harbour. Being thus gone, his 
creditors began to complain ; and thereupon it was found, that he was run in debt about £ 1000, 
and had taken up most of this money upon bills he had charged into England upon his brother's 
agents, and others whom he had no such relation to. So his estate was seized, and put into com- 



78 COMMONS. 

missioners' hands, to be divided among his creditors, allowing somewhat for the present maintenance 
of his wife and children. And being thus gone, the church proceeded and cast him out. He had 
been sometimes initiated among the Jesuits, and, coming into England, his friends drew him from 
them, but, it was very probable, he now intended to return to them again, being at this time about 
thirty years of age, and upwards."* 

In his notes to Winthrop's History, Mr. Savage supplements the narrative of 
the first governor of the Colony of Massachusetts, by adding thereto a very full 
account of the manner in which the wife of Mr. Eaton aided her husband, by 
yielding obedience to his malignant and cruel designs. His language is in these 
words : — 

" An examination of the lady followed, I presume, for the former secretary of the Commonwealth 
furnished me a paper, which can hardly refer to any other transaction than this. Some overseer of 
the College, probably, either magistrate or clergyman, wrote it from the confession or dictation of 
the accused party : ' For their breakfast, that it was not so well ordered, the flower not so fine as it 
might, nor so well boiled or stirred, at all times that it was so, it was my sin of neglect, and want 
of that care that ought to have been in one that the Lord had intrusted with such a work. Con- 
cerning their beef, that was allowed them, as they affirm, which, I confess, had been my duty to have 
seen they should have had it, and continued to have had it, because it was my husband's command ; 
but truly I must confess, to my shame, I cannot remember that ever they had it, nor that ever it 
was taken from them. And that they had not so good or so much provision in my husband's ab- 
sence as presence, I conceive it was, because he would call sometimes for butter or cheese, when I 
conceived there was no need of it ; yet, forasmuch as the scholars did otherways apprehend, I de- 
sire to see the evil that was in the carriage of that as well as in the other, and to take shame to 
myself for it. And that they sent down for more, when they had not enough, and the maid should 
answer, if they had not, they should not, I must confess, that I have denied them cheese, when they 
have sent for it, and it have been in the house ; for which I shall humbly beg pardon of them, and 
own the shame, and confess my sin. And for such provoking words, which my servants have given, 
I cannot own them, but am sorry any such should be given in my house. And for bad fish, that 
they had it brought to table, I am sorry there was that cause of offence given them. I acknowl- 
edge my sin in it. And for their mackerel, brought to them with their guts in them, and goat's 
dung in their hasty pudding, it 's utterly unknown to me ; but I am much ashamed it should be in 
the family, and not prevented by myself or servants, and I humbly acknowledge my negligence in it. 
And that they made their beds at any time, were my straits never go great, I am sorry they were 
ever put to it. For the Moor his lying in Sam. Hough's sheet and pillow-bier, it hath a truth in it : 
he did so one time, and it gave Sam. Hough just cause of offence ; and that it was not prevented 
by my care and watchfulness, I desire [to] take the shame and the sorrow for it. And that 
they eat the Moor's crusts, and the swine and they had share and share alike, and the Moor to 
have beer, and they denied it, and if they had not enough, for my maid to answer, they should not, 
I am an utter stranger to these things, and know not the least footsteps for them so to charge me ; 
and if my servants were guilty of such miscarriages, had the boarders complained of it unto myself, 
I should have thought it my sin, if I had not sharply reproved my servants, and endeavoured re- 
form. And for bread made of heated, sour meal, although I know of but once that it was so, since 
I kept house, yet John Wilson affirms it was twice ; and I am truly sorry, that any of it was spent 

* Winthrop's History of New England from 1630 to 1649, e ^. 1825, I. 308-313 j ed. 1853, I. 370-376. 



COMMONS. 79 

amongst them. For beer and bread, that it was denied them by me betwixt meals, truly I do not 
remember, that ever I did deny it unto them ; and John Wilson will affirm, that generally, the bread 
and beer was free for the boarders to go unto. And that money was demanded of them for wash- 
ing the linen, it's true it was propounded to them, but never imposed upon them. And for their 
pudding being given the last day of the week without butter or suet, and that I said, it was miln 
of Manchester in Old England, it 's true that I did say so, and am sorry, they had any cause of 
offence given them by having it so. And for their wanting beer, betwixt brewings, a week or half a 
week together, I am sorry that it was so at any time, and should tremble to have it so, were it 
in my hands to do again.' " 

" The above is an exact copy," continues Savage, " of all that is written by 
that hand ; but on the next page is found, in a more difficult, but uncommonly 
beautiful chirography, ' And whereas they say, that sometimes they have sent down 
for more meat, and it hath been denied, when it have been in the house, I must 
confess, to my shame, that I have denied them oft, when they have sent for it, 
and it have been in the house.' " * 

The sentence of the General Court, after Mr. Eaton had been convicted of 
the charges preferred against him, was rendered on the ninth day of September, 
1639, in these words: — 

" M r Nathaniell Eaton, being accused for cruell & barbaros beating of M r Naza : Briscoe, & for 
other neglecting & misvseing of his schollers, it was ordered, that M r Eaton should bee discharged 
from keeping of schoale w th vs without licence; & M r Eaton is fined to the countrey 66' 13 1 4^, w ch 
fine is respited till the next Court, vnles hee remove the meane while. The Court agreed M r Eaton 
should give M r Naza : Briscoe 30' for satisfaction for the wrong done him, & to be paid psently." t 

The unfortunate result of Mr. Eaton's attempt to provide food for the students, 
did not lead to an abandonment of the idea of commons, for Winthrop states in 
his account of the first Commencement, that of 1642, that "the general court had 
settled a government or superintendency over the college, viz. all the magistrates 
and elders over the six nearest churches and the president, or the greatest part 
of these. Most of them were now present at this first commencement, and dined 
at the college with the scholars' ordinary commons, which was done of purpose 
for the students' encouragement, &c, and it gave good content to all." t In Sep- 
tember, 1643, at an assembly at Cambridge of "all the elders in the country," 
Winthrop states, that " they sat in the College, and had their diet there after 

* Winthrop's Hist., ed. 1825, I. 310, 311; ed. 1853, I. 373, 374. See also, Sibley's Harv. Grad., 

I. 5, 65, 66, 128, 131. Palfrey's Hist. N. E., I. 636. 

t Records of the Gov. and Co. of the Mass. Bay, I. 275. Additional information respecting Mr. 
Eaton may be found in the Records of the Gov. and Co. of the Mass. Bay, I. 277, 302; II. 114; 
III. 30, 129. Winthrop's Hist, ed. 1825, II. 22; ed. 1853, II. 26. Mather's Magnalia, ed. 1820, 

II. 7, 8. Neal's Hist. N. E, I. 184. Palfrey's Hist., II. 49. 
J Winthrop's Hist, ed. 1825, II. 87 ; ed. 1853, II. 103. 



8 COMMONS. 

the manner of scholars' commons, but somewhat better, yet so ordered as it came 
not to above sixpence the meal for a person."* 

The duty of providing commons fell upon the steward. The food which he 
furnished was, to a certain extent, obtained from the parents or guardians of 
those who were sustained by it. During the seventeenth century there was com- 
paratively little metallic and no paper currency in any of the provinces or colo- 
nies. Payments of debts or for articles purchased were often made in labor valued 
at a certain designated price, or by such articles as could be agreed on by the 
contracting parties. Reference to the accounts of the stewards of Harvard Col- 
lege shows that from Eaton's time forward, for many years, the College received 
payment of its dues in a great variety of articles and services. Among these 
were " meatte," a " calfe," a " sheepe," " beaffe," " malt," " lambs," " 30 pound of but- 
ter," " 6 ,b of butter toward his Commencement Chardge," " 4 quarters of a weather," 
" 3 quarter 5 of a lamb," " bootes," " boyes shooes for M" Day," " shooes " for " goodm 
bordman," " a pair of Child's shooes," " a pair of bootes for abraham Smyth," 
" Vampine goodm bordman boots," " wrytinge sundry laws order 5 and pettitione s 
for the Colledg," " wrytting seueral thinge 5 for the Psedent for which he is debtior," 
" mendinge a greatt Cann," " making vp the Colledge accounts," " three pecks of 
peasse," "wrytinge out the table," "18 yeards of Sackin," "porke," "rose watter," 
"pullettes," "ane old Cow 4 quarters . . . . hir hide . . . . hir suett and Inwards," 
" a Sword," " a fatt Cow," " a old Cow," " turkey henes," " 430 ft bords," " a small 
fatt Cowe," " a barrel of pork," " two hoges," " a side of porke," " geott mutten," 
" two wether gootts," " foulles," " checkenes," " a hooge," " 3 lb of Candell," " rasines," 
" a paire of girtes," " a bush of parsnapes," " ringinge the bell and waytinge," " a 
ferking of soop," " tobacko," " monitaiy seruice," " a peace of stufe and thread," 
" fouer pound of plumes," " 3 yeards of searge," " a yeard of Cursey," " ane oxe 
wight neete fouer quarter 5 hid tallow," " a red oxe," " a ferkinge of butter," " a 
hogshead of ot meal," " a hogshead In which the ote meal was," " a barne," " a 
lyttell browne Cowe," "sixten bush of wheatt," "a side of lambe," "a hindquarter 
of beefe," "Indian," meaning thereby corn, "backen," "six bush of turnipes," "on 
sid of beaffe," " 22 bush and a half of rye," " wheatt at wattertown mill," " a fatt 
oxe," " a fatt Cowe," " shooes," " wheatt rye And peasse," " a Chest of glasse," 
"paper," "Canwesse," "bockerham," "broad Cloth," 'mutten and lambes," "ap- 
pelles," " a Caske of butter," " 4 Chesses," " 3 bush of wheatt malte," " suger," " a 
quarter of beast," " veall," " 3 pound of Candell," " six bush of barly malte," 
" summeringe and winteringe of 8 sheepe," " fouershotes .... from the farme," 
also currants, sack wine, etc. These payments in kind were turned to good ac- 
count ; and so it came to pass, that whenever the students' dues were paid in 

* Sibley's Harv. Grad., I. 7, 8. Winthrop's Hist., ed. 1825, II. 136, 137; ed. 1853, II. 165. 
Peirce's Hist. Harv. Univ., App. 3. 



provisions of a prime quality, the commons were more palatable and complaint 
less frequent. A knowledge of the reciprocity thus established doubtless had its 
influence in inciting the parent to send the fatted calf or something equally juicy 
and appetizing in payment for the schooling of his son, or to settle a quarter's 
charges with a quarter of tender beef.* 

The calculations of Mr. Lucius Robinson Paige show that the cost of a four 
years' residence at Harvard College, to those who graduated between the years 
1653 and 1659, was "from about $100 to about $200." Noting, then, the fact 
that payments were made mainly in produce, he says : — 

" It is curious also to observe how small a proportion of this small expense was defrayed in cash. 
In many cases, scarcely a shilling was paid in money ; but all articles which could be used by the 
steward in providing commons for the scholars, and many which could not be thus used, were 
received in barter for instruction. Beef, veal, pork, mutton, poultry, grain of various kinds, malt, 
eggs, butter, cheese, apples, cider, fuel, candles, cloths, leather, shoes, and such like articles, abound 
in the account of receipts. Occasionally, but seldom, tobacco and strong waters were received. 
Cattle were received alive, and slaughtered for use. Cloths were manufactured into garments, and 
leather into shoes, for such scholars as had need. As a sample of such payments, take the account 
of Thomas Graves, a son of comparatively rich parents [and a graduate in the Class of 1656], whose 
whole expenses in College were far above the average, being £ 61. 11 s. 8f d. for the four years. Of this 
amount, only £6. 6 s. were paid in money ; and the balance (according to the order in which the 
articles are first named in the account), in wheat, malt, pease, rye, sugar, hollands, boards, canvas, 
lockram, nails, eggs, butter, spice, commodities, buttons, candles, honey, turkeys, serge, ribbon and 
silk." t 

Not only were payments for instruction made in provisions, but gifts for the 
College in the shape of food were early solicited. In the year 1645, Mr. Shepard, 
pastor of the church in Cambridge, being at Connecticut during a meeting of 
the Commissioners of the United Colonies, desired the Commissioners to recom- 
mend " to every family throughout the plantations (which is able and willing to 
give) to contribute a fourth part of a bushel of corn, or something equivalent 
thereto," as " a blessed means of comfortable provision, for the diet of such stu- 
dents as stand in need of support." Acceding to his request, " the Commissioners 
ordered that it should be commended to the deputies of the General Courts and 
the elders within the several colonies, to raise (by way of voluntary contribution) 
one peck of corn or twelve pence money, or other commodity, of every family, 
which those of Connecticut presently performed." Winthrop, who records these 
facts, further states that, " by agreement of the Commissioners, and the motions 
of the elders in their several churches, every family in each colony gave one peck 
of corn or twelve pence to the College at Cambridge." In 1651 President Dunster, 
who had instigated Mr. Shepard to proffer the petition above referred to, urged 

* Sibley's Harv. Grad., I. passim. 

t Proceedings Mass. Hist. Soc, Sept., i860, p. 60; cited in Sibley's Harvard Graduates, I. 481. 



82 COMMONS. 

upon the Commissioners the decaying condition of the College buildings, and 
the necessity for their repair and enlargement; and in reply the Commissioners 
promised to suggest to the several Colonies, to give " some yearly help, by pecks, 
half-bushels, and bushels of wheat." * 

If we may judge from the articles suitable for food received in payment for 
tuition, it would seem that the bill of fare of the students in the early days of 
the College must have been sufficiently varied to suit the taste of any one who 
desired change in diet. As to the amount of food which these students required 
or digested daily, we have no special means of determining. That they fed fre- 
quently, or were permitted so to feed, is fully in evidence. Among " the laws, 
liberties, and orders of Harvard College, confirmed by the Overseers and President 
of the College in the years 1642, 1643, 1644, 1645 and 1646, and published to 
the scholars for the perpetual preservation of their welfare and government," is 
an order, numbered sixteen, in these words : " No scholar shall, under any pretence 
of recreation or other cause whatever (unless foreshowed and allowed by the 
President or his Tutor), be absent from his studies or appointed exercises, above 
an hour at morning bever, half an hour at afternoon bever, an hour and a half 
at dinner, and so long at supper." t Bever, in the ordinary acceptation of the term, 
is a refreshment between breakfast and dinner, or a refreshment between meals. 
The "morning bever "was not eaten in the hall, but was eaten at the buttery or 

* Quincy's Hist. Harv. Univ., I. 16, 17. Winthrop's New England, ed. 1825, II. 214-2165 ed. 
1853, II. 263-265. In addition to the contributions in food received from different families in the 
Colonies, special gifts of provisions were frequently made. In 1657 Edward Hopkins, governor of 
Hartford Colony, gave in " corn and meate " £ 100 Massachusetts currency. Captain Richard 
Sprague, of Charlestown, by his last will and testament gave to the College thirty ewe sheep, with 
their lambs, valued at £30. In lieu of this legacy, the College received, on September 7, 1669, 
"six fat cattle and two oxen, valued at .£35 in current country pay." In 1676 Judith Finch left to 
the College a legacy of £ 1. Among the other gifts which maybe regarded as peculiar were "uten- 
sils," " a great silver salt," " a small trencher salt," " a silver beer bowl," " one fruit dish, one silver 
sugar spoon and one silver tipt jug," " horses," " goods," " lumber," " a pewter flagon," " a large 
silver bowl," besides several silver tankards and goblets. Eliot's Sketch of Hist, of Harv. Coll., 
159-167. 

t The "laws and liberties," from which the order in the text is extracted, were originally written 
and promulgated in Latin. This order, in the original, is as follows : " Nullus scholaris quavis de 
causa (nisi praemonstrata et approbata Praesidi vel tutori suo) a suis studiis statisve exercitiis abesto, 
excepta hora jentaculo, semi hora merendae, prandio verb sesquihora, pariter et ccenae concessa." 
Quincy's Hist. Harv. Univ., I. 515-517, 577-579. 

Mather, whose account of Harvard College is brought down nearly to the close of the seventeenth 
century, has preserved a record of the order respecting meals as it was subsequently revised. It 
was then numbered fifteen, and was in these words : " Nullus scholaris quavis de causa, (nisi prae- 
monstrata et approbata, praesidi et tutori suo) a studiis, statisve exercitiis abesto: excepta semihori 
jentaculo, prandio vero sesquihora, concessa; nee non ccenae usque ad horam nonam." Magnalia, 
ed. 1820, II. 18. Peirce's Hist. Harv. Univ., App. 50. 



COMMONS. 83 

in the student's room, and took the place of breakfast. Dinner and supper were 
served in the hall. The "afternoon bever" was obtained at the buttery, like the 
" morning bever," and was an afternoon luncheon, eaten between four and five 
o'clock, intermediate dinner and supper. 

The great wisdom of President Dunster appears nowhere more clearly than in 
the capacity which he exhibited in dealing with the details of the business to 
which he gave the strength of his manhood, and wealth that he could but ill 
afford to spare. Mindful of the necessity of caring for the physical as well as 
for the mental and moral wants of those whose care had been intrusted to him, 
he devised and published " certain orders by the scholars and officers of the Col- 
lege to be observed, written 28th March, 1650." So comprehensive are these 
orders, that they are here given in extenso, as any attempt to abbreviate or 
epitomize them would only detract from their quaint and minute significance. 

"The Steward, receiving a just and clear account of the visible store or treasury of the College, 
as it is a society, either in visible provisions, or in debts acknowledged or proved, due by the mem- 
bers of the society, shall be bound with sufficient security, quarterly to give an account thereof 
within ten days to the President, when he shall require it, together with the just and necessary dis- 
bursements, which by the President's allowance have been issued out (for necessary provisions) to 
the steward himself, butler, cook, or any other officer of the House, as also to and for the necessary 
provisions of fuel, reparations of outworn utensils, &c, towards all which charges the steward is to 
see (besides the stock maintained) that one third part be reserved of all payments to him by the 
members of the House quarterly made, and the other two parts in suitable provisions to the 
scholars to be returned as the season and state of the year doth require, and answerably thereto 
shall deliver in such provisions to the cook and butler, or brewer and baker, and of them require 
weekly or quarterly accounts. 

" Forasmuch as the students, whose friends are most careful to discharge their due expenses, have 
sundry times sorely and unjustly suffered by such as neglect to pay their debts; therefore the stew- 
ard shall not permit, but upon his own peril, any students to be above two pounds indebted, but, 
acquainting the President, with his leave send them to their friends, if not above a day's journey 
distant ; if otherwise, then shall the steward, at the admission of such scholars, inform himself 
from whom he shall be supplied, or to whom they shall have recourse in the aforesaid case of debt ; 
neither is the steward at any time to take any pay that is useless, hazardful, or imparting detriment 
to the College, as lean cattle to feed, turning over of bills to shops, &c, but at his own discretion 
and peril. 

" Whereas young scholars, to the dishonor of God, hinderance of their studies,, and damage of 
their friends' estate, inconsiderately and intemperately are ready to abuse their liberty of sizing 
besides their commons ; therefore the steward shall in no case permit any students whatever, under 
the degree of Masters of Art, or Fellows, to expend or be provided for themselves or any towns- 
men any extraordinary commons, unless by the allowance of the President or two of the Fellows, 
whereof their Tutor always to be one, or in case of manifest sickness, presignified also unto the 
President, or in case of a license, of course granted by the President to some persons whose con- 
dition he seeth justly requiring it. 

" The butler and cook are to look unto, and, in case detriment befall, fully to be accountable for, 
all the College's vessels and utensils, great and small, delivered by inventory unto them, and once 



84 COMMONS. 

every quarter to deliver in unto the President in writing an inventory thereof, particularly showing 
what detriment is befallen the College, in what particular, and by what means, whether by wearing 
in their just usage (which the steward is to repair by the College charges), or by any abuse of any 
person or persons whatever, from whom the President shall see that the butler and cook shall have 
just and full recompense, if they be members of the society; but, if detriment come by any out 
of the society, then those officers themselves shall be responsible to the House; because they may 
not but at their peril communicate anything that is the College's to any without. 

" Item. They are to see, that the said utensils, to their several offices belonging, from day to day 
be kept clean and sweet and fit for use, and they shall at meal-times deliver them out as the public 
service of the Hall requireth to the servitor or servitors, who shall be responsible for them until 
that they return them after meals to the butteries or kitchen ; but they are not bound to keep or 
cleanse any particular scholar's spoons, cups, or such like, but at their own discretion. 

"And if any scholar or scholars at any time take away or detain any vessel of the College's, 
great or small, from the Hall out of the doors from the sight of the buttery hatch without the but- 
ler's or servitor's knowledge, or against their will, he or they shall be punished three pence, but 
more at the President's discretion, if perverseness appear. But, if he or they shall presume to de- 
tain any vessel, great or small, that it be wanting the next meal, he shall be punished the full value 
thereof; and, in case any shall lose, mar, or spoil any such vessels, then shall they pay double 
thereof ; and, if they conceal it until by examination it be found out, fourfold the value thereof. 

" The butler and cook shall see that all the rooms peculiar to their offices, together with their 
appurtenances, be daily set and kept in order, clean and sweet from all manner of noisomeness and 
nastiness or sensible offensiveness. To the butler belongs the cellar and butteries, and all from 
thenceforth to the farthest end of the Hall, with the south porch ; to the cook the kitchen, larder, 
and the way leading to his hatch, the turret, and the north alley unto the walk ; neither shall the 
butler or cook suffer any scholar or scholars whatever, except the Fellows, Masters of Art, fellow 
commoners, or, officers of the House, to come into the butteries or kitchen, save with their parents 
or guardians, or with some grave and sober strangers ; and, if any shall presume to thrust in, they 
shall have three pence on their heads ; but, if presumptuously and continually they shall so dare to 
offend, they shall be liable to an admonition and to other proceedings of the College discipline, at 
the discretion of the President. 

"The butler upon every sixth day of the week at noon is to give an account to every scholar 
demanding his week's sizings in the buttery, and is not bound to stay above half an hour at bevers 
in the buttery after the tolling of the bell, nor above a quarter of an hour after thanksgiving in the 
Hall at meals. The cook on the sixth day at noon shall give in the week's expenses of the whole 
society, which the butler shall enter into his book, according to custom, and shall keep the bills 
from quarter to quarter, and show them to the steward at his demand for his satisfaction. 

"The butler and cook may not deliver at meal-times, save in case of sickness, or just cause, to 
the President (if it may be) presignified, and by him allowed, any commons to any scholars, save 
unto the servitor, nor they to any save their dues to the scholars sitting orderly in their places, in 
the Hall ; neither may any scholar rise from his place or go out of the Hall at meal-times before 
thanksgiving be ended, unless liberty be given by the President, if present, or the senior Fellow, 
or such as for that time possess their place. 

"If any officer of the College whatsoever shall make any secret contract with any scholar or 
scholars, either to conceal their disorderly walking or to draw from them any valuable things, as 
books, wearing apparel, bedding, or such like, by any direct or indirect course, not before allowed 
by the President or their Tutor, the said officer or officers shall be liable to be punished at the 
discretion of the President. 



COMMONS. 



35 



" Whereas much inconvenience falleth out by the scholars bringing candles in course into the 
Hall, therefore the Butler henceforth shall receive at the President's or Steward's hands, twenty- 
shillings in money, ten at the thirteenth of September, and ten at the thirteenth of December, 
toward candles for the Hall for prayer time and supper, which, that it may not be burdensome, it shall 
be put proportionably upon every scholar who retaineth his seat in the buttery." * 

Though there is but little doubt that a good degree of order prevailed in the 
government of the College and in the management of commons during Dunster's 
presidency, still it was found difficult to maintain the desired degree of excellence 
in food and in the appointments of the table and of the kitchen. Soon after 
President Chauncy had assumed the government of the College, the Corporation 
and Overseers, on the 9th of May, 1655, presented "a brief information " of the 
wants of the College to the General Court. After enumerating numerous diffi- 
culties under which they labor, they proceed as follows : " There are other things, 
we might mention, for which there is much need of help, as, viz., for some way 
of maintaining College affairs and servants by public stock, that so the scholars' 
charges might be less, or their commons better ; provision of utensils wanting in 
the kitchen and buttery, accommodations for the scholars' tables ; also some fitter 
way of maintenance for the Fellows." Although none of the appeals in this in- 
formation were favorably answered, and although, in October following, Chauncy 
found that " his country pay, in Indian corn, could not be turned into food and 
clothing without great loss," and made an apparently unsuccessful appeal for 
help, still the College continued to live, and gradually came to be regarded as 
the nursury for the development of the gifts and graces of those who were to be 
the civil and religious guides of the Colonies.! 

As has been already seen, the duties of the steward, as set forth by President 
Dunster in his orders of March 28, 1650, were not only numerous but important. 
Of the six College steward's account-books, found by Lucius Robinson Paige, 
D. D., in the possession of descendants of the Bordmans, who held the office of 
steward from 1682 to 1750, the oldest, which was kept by Thomas Chesholme, 
is dated November 26, 165 1, and contains his accounts with the students from 
the last-named date to 1659, together with balances of accounts from 1649-50 
to November, 1651, transferred from an earlier volume, which is lost. An ex- 
amination of this volume leads to the conclusion that the charges therein made 
against the students and Fellows, for food eaten in the hall at dinner and supper, 
were debited under the name of commons, while the charges made for food ob- 
tained for bevers, or for occasional refreshment, or at any other time except at the 
time of dinner or supper, were entered as sizings. This distinction, begun thus 
early, was maintained until breakfast was served in the hall, when to that meal the 

* Quincy's Hist. Harv. Univ., I. 582-585. 
t Quincy's Hist. Harv. Univ., I. 26, 463. 



86 COMMONS. 

name commons was also given. The word "sizings " appears in the laws of 1816, 
and as an item in the term-bills as late as 1826, if not later* 

Next in responsibility to the office of steward was the office of butler. In the 
orders of Dunster, promulgated in 1650, and already cited, care was taken to de- 
fine the duties of those officers whom he deemed necessary for the proper conduct 
of the College, and it would seem that there was no delay in carrying his plans 
into execution. The first who bore the name of butler was, it is believed, Jona- 
than Ince, a graduate of the Class of 1650. After taking his Bachelor's degree he 
remained at the College more than three years, "during which he was regularly 
charged, like an undergraduate, for ' Commones and Sizinges,' ' study rente,' " etc. 
" The first recorded payment from him is ' by his wages by his buttlershipe,' an 
office which he appears to have held till December, 1652, or later." He also per- 
formed many services for the College, which required ability and discretion, and he 
seems to have gained and kept the confidence of those who employed him. That 
the butler had assistance in the performance of his duties was doubtless true, since 
it appears that in 1658-9, Eleazer Kimberley, a student, but not a graduate, was 
credited "by on quarter And two weekes seruice in the buttery," £ t, 10 s.f 

The steward and butler were aided by students in the performance of a portion 
of the duties which were connected with their respective offices, and for this aid 
compensation was rendered. In commenting upon the record of the expenses of 
William Thomson, a graduate of the Class of 1653, Mr. Sibley says: — 

" His quarter-bills, while an undergraduate, apparently differ from all before his time, in the two par- 
ticulars of not containing any charge for tuition, and until near the end of the Junior year, of having 
a quarterly allowance, ' for his services in the hall,' of one pound, nearly enough to meet his college 
expenses, which were economically limited to study-rent, bed-making, commons, and sizings." 

* In the oldest of the steward's books now extant, referred to in the text, Mr. Samuel Danforth, 
a graduate of the Class of 1643, and who remained for some years after at College as a fellow or 
tutor, is charged in 1650 "by Commones and Sizinges." Among the items with which Mr. Jona- 
than Mitchel is charged " are commons, sizings, study-rent, bed-making, and ' his Commencement 
Chardg.' On quarter day, '13-10-50' he is 'debitor by Commones and Sizinges and a Super on 
his weedinge night.' Later than this there are no charges except for sizings, which, probably for 
convenience, he continued occasionally for several years." William Stoughton, of the Class of 1650, 
is charged in his Senior year in College, " besides other items, with 'Commones & Sizinges.'" 
Samuel Phillips graduated at the age of twenty-five, in 1650, " after which he continued at the Col- 
lege nearly a year, being charged in the mean time with commons, sizings, study-rent, bed-making," 
and other items. The first charges against John Angier, of the Class of 1653, are for " Commones 
and Sizinges." Nehemiah Ambrose, a graduate of the same class, is charged for " study rente for 3 
quarters and som sizinges," while his classmate, Thomas Crosby, is charged with 3 s. 4 d. for 
" Commones & Sizinges," which charge is so small, that Mr. Sibley is of opinion that it is probably 
far sizings only. Sibley's Harv. Grad., I. 145, 146, 195, 222, 311, 326, 381, 382, 547, 582. Laws 
of Harv. Coll., 1816, 47. 

t Sibley's Harv. Grad., I. 256, 579. 



COMMONS. 



87 



Respecting Zechariah Brigden, of the Class of 1657, it appears that "December 
31, 1654, there was 'Geuen him by ringinge the bell and way tinge £ 1. 2 s. d.,' 
probably the earliest record of the college bell-ringing and of payment for ' wayt- 
ing in the hall ' ; he receiving for the last service 12 s. 6d. a quarter for three 
successive quarters; after which he is paid, 7-10-55, 'on quarter for a scholar- 
ship 18 j. gd.,' and credited, 5-10-56, 'by his wages 50 shillingse & a scholar- 
ship ,£3. 15 J.'" To John Hale of the same class there was "Geuen by the 
Corporation for waytinge and his monitorwork £2 11 s." He is subsequently 
credited " by his monitors worke," " monitary seruice," or " monitorship," fifteen 
shillings a quarter till he graduated. During the years 1658 and 1659, Eleazer 
Kimberley, who has been already mentioned, was credited "by waytinge in the 
hall by 5 quarters," £2, 2s. 6d.* 

From the year 1650 to the year 1734, there were very few statutory changes 
either in the administration of commons or in the duties which pertained to those 
more immediately connected with supplying, preparing, and serving provisions to 
the students. Most of the changes were due to occasional regulations made as 
the necessity for them arose, or to peculiar modes of action which gradually be- 
came customs and received sanction as implied laws, by the lapse of time. That 
the food provided for commons was often plain, not always properly cooked, and 
almost uniformly imperfectly served, is doubtless true; but facts like these were 
impotent to produce discontent, so long as the food provided was palatable and 
digestible, and was not, for too long a period, of one kind. 

Although for many years there is but little evidence of change in the laws 
regulating commons, yet there are occasional accounts of transactions which are 
germane to the subject under consideration. Judge Sewall, in his Diary, gives an 
account of the mode in which punishment was inflicted on a student in 1674, 
for " speaking blasphemous words." This account is referred to in this place, for 
the purpose of mentioning the fact, that a part of the offender's punishment was 
" to sit alone by himself uncovered at meals during the pleasure of the President 
and Fellows." The inference from this statement is that it was at this period a 
disgrace for a student to sit uncovered at meals, and hence it is reasonable to 
suppose that it was then the fashion to cover the head when sitting at commons. 
That the physical wants of the students were not ignored by the friends of the 
College, is apparent from the fact that, in 1681, Samuel Ward of Charlestown 
gave, by will, an island lying between Hingham and Hull, called Bumpkin Island, 
" the rent of it to be for the easement of the charges of the dyet of the students 
that are in Commons." Agreeable to a wish expressed in the will, it is known as 
Ward Island. 

For the purpose of supervision and in order to prevent disorders, the tutors 
* Sibley's Harv. Grad., I. 354, 494, 495, 509, 579. 



88 COMMONS. 

were required to attend " in the Hall at meal-times." Although their presence 
imposed a certain restraint upon the students, which the students were disposed 
to resent as espionage, yet the effect of their presence was to maintain the ex- 
cellence of commons and to compel the steward to provide palatable and nutri- 
tious food. The College records, down to the middle of the last century, contain 
but very little information respecting commons. In October, 1715, the Corpora- 
tion or Board of Overseers voted "that the Butler may not sell his cider for 
more than two pence per quart, until the first of February"; and resolutions 
regulating the price of bread, meats, cider, etc., were frequently adopted by one or 
the other or both of said bodies. An order, the subsequent neglect of which 
caused great trouble, was passed in 1724, by which all scholars, graduates, and 
undergraduates that had chambers in College were obliged to be in commons, 
unless they should obtain leave to do otherwise from the President and a majority 
of the tutors.* 

In 1 731 the Board of Overseers at their meeting in November, having directed 
their attention to the state of the College, appointed a committee to inquire 
specially as to its condition and " to report proposals for its benefit." The state- 
ment of this committee, made in September, 1732, was by no means a flattering 
one. They reported " that the government of the College is in a weak and de- 
clining state, partly through a deficiency of laws, partly by reason of some 
disputes and difficulties which have arisen respecting the execution of the laws 
in being." After enumerating the evidences of the unsatisfactory condition of 
the College, they proposed "that the laws should be revised and adapted to the 
present circumstances " of the College ; that they all be in Latin, and that each 
student have a copy of them. Among the laws which they specified as required 
were laws to prevent students and graduates "from using punch, flip and like 
intoxicating drinks " ; to compel the fellows and graduates who had chambers 
in the College to board in commons ; to require that commons should be of better 
quality, and more varied, that clean table-cloths of convenient length and breadth 
should be furnished twice a week, and that plates be allowed. The proposal 
as to the revisal of the laws was recommitted by the Overseers. 

In May, 1733, the committee, which had been enlarged, made a second report to 
the Overseers, who referred the whole subject to the Corporation. After various 
consultations between the Overseers and the Corporation, lasting for more than a 
year, a body of laws was adopted by the two bodies, and on the 24th of September, 
1734, "the laws thus laboriously framed, were published in the College Hall, in 
the presence of the Overseers, the Corporation, and the whole body of students." t 

* Quincy's Hist. Harv. Univ., I. 189, 442. Peirce's Hist. Harv. Univ., 47. MS. College Records, 
December 27, 1643, to September 5, 1750. 

t Quincy's Hist. Harv. Univ., I. 388-393. Peirce's Hist. Harv. Univ., 162. 



COMMONS. 89 

In many respects, the rules laid down in the laws of 1734 for regulating the 
conduct of the students were more minute than those which had been framed 
in Dunster's time, and which had been in operation, with some modifications, 
for more than eighty years. Much that had been required under the old laws 
was retained in the new, and new restraints were imposed for the purpose of 
curbing the apparently growing inclination to excess. No undergraduate was 
allowed to lodge or board out of the College without leave from the President and 
tutors, unless his " parents, guardian, or near relations " dwelt so near that he 
could "conveniently lodge and board with them." In order that the students 
might "furnish themselves with useful learning," they were required to "keep in 
their respective chambers, and diligently follow their studies, except half an hour at 
breakfast, at dinner from twelve to two, and after evening prayers till nine of the 
clock." Breakfast was not provided in the hall, but was regarded as a bever, and 
was procured either from the kitchen or at the buttery, and eaten at such place 
as was most convenient* No one residing in the College was allowed to " make 
use of any distilled spirits, or of any such mixed drinks as punch or flip in enter- 
taining one another or strangers," and no undergraduate was permitted to "keep 
by him brandy, rum, or any other distilled spirituous liquors," or to " send for any of 
the said liquors without leave from the President or one of the Tutors." Disre- 
gard of these provisions was punishable not only by pecuniary mulcts, but a repeti- 
tion of such conduct was to be followed by severe punishments, extending even 
to expulsion. To what extent these prohibitions were observed does not fully 
appear, but there is considerable evidence which tends to show that the students 
were not as abstinent in their drinking habits as it was intended they should be. 

Chapter V. of the laws of 1734, entitled "Concerning the Scholars' Commons," 
was divided into three sections, and was as follows : — 

" 1. All the Tutors and Professors, Graduates and Undergraduates, who have studies in College, 
shall constantly be in commons while actually residing at College, vacation-time excepted, and shall 
dine and sup in the hall,t at the stated meal-times, except waiters (and such whose parents or 
guardians live so nigh that they may conveniently board with them), and such others as the Presi- 
dent and Tutors shall, in cases of necessity, exempt. Provided always, that no Professor or Tutor 
shall be exempted but by leave of the Corporation, with the consent of the Overseers. And the 
tables shall be covered with clean linen cloths of a suitable length and breadth, twice a week, and 
furnished with pewter plates, the plates to be procured at the charge of the College, and afterwards 
to be maintained at the charge of the scholars, both Graduates and Undergraduates, in such manner 
as the Corporation shall direct. 

* Peirce's Hist. Harv. Univ., App., 128, 130. 

t "For more than a century from its foundation, the College was without a chapel. Religious 
services, inaugurations, and other public exercises (with the exception of those on Commencement 
Day, when, as now, the Meeting-House was used) were generally, perhaps always, performed either 
in the Commons Hall, or in the Library." Peirce's Hist. Harv. Univ., 198. 



go COMMONS. 

" 2. No scholar shall be put in or out of commons, but on Tuesdays or Fridays, and no Bachelor 
or Undergraduate but by a note from the President, or one of the Tutors (if an Undergraduate, 
from his own Tutor, if in town) ; and when any Bachelors or Undergraduates have been out of 
commons, the waiters, at their respective tables, shall, on the first Tuesday or Friday after they be- 
come obliged, by the preceding law, to be in commons, put them into commons again, by note, 
after the manner above directed. And if any Master neglects to put himself into commons, when 
by the preceding law he is obliged to be in commons, the waiters on the Master's table shall 
apply to the President or one of the Tutors for a note to put him into commons, and inform him 
of it. 

"3. The waiters, when the bell tolls at meal-times, shall receive the plates and victuals at the 
kitchen-hatch, and carry the same to the several tables for which they are designed. And none 
shall receive their commons out of the hall, except in case of sickness or some weighty occasion. 
And the Senior Tutor or other Senior scholar in the hall shall crave blessing and return thanks. 
And all the scholars, while at their meals, shall sit in their places and behave themselves decently 
and orderly, and whosoever shall be rude or clamorous at such time, or shall go out of the hall 
before thanks be returned, shall be punished by one of the Tutors not exceeding five shillings."* 

For the purpose of securing a proper execution of the duties of their office 
from the steward, cook, and butler, special directions were given them, and the 
limits of their liability were defined and described. Whenever the same person 
was both steward and cook, he was required to procure " wholesome and suitable 
bread, beer, and other provisions for the scholars," and was allowed to sell them 
at an advance of fifty per cent above the current price. He was permitted to 
use the College kitchen, brew-house, and utensils, and paid for such use such sum 
per annum as the Corporation directed. These duties, it is probable, pertained 
to the steward alone, when the position of cook was filled by some other person. 
The steward, when directed by the Corporation, was required to procure, " at the 
charge of the College, all proper utensils for the buttery and kitchen." It was 
also the business of the steward to " draw out the quarter-bill, and fill up the 
column of commons and sizings " ; and when the bill had been completed by the 
tutor " whose turn " it was to make it up, the steward was required to " demand 
of each scholar " the whole of what was therein charged to him. 

The duties of the butler and cook were to " keep the rooms and utensils be- 
longing to their several offices sweet and clean, fit for use." They were specially 
enjoined to have the " kitchen pewter in constant use " scoured twice every quarter, 
and " the butler's drinking-vessels once a week or oftener," as the President and 
tutors should direct. They were required to exhibit to the President and 
tutors, once in each quarter, " an inventory of the utensils belonging to their 

* Peirce's Hist. Harv. Univ., App., 134, 135. The third section, quoted in the text, was re-enacted 
in nearly the same form, by the Corporation, in 1765, the main variation being, that the words "none 
shall receive their Breakfast or Dinner out of the Hall except in case of sickness " were substituted 
for the words "none shall receive their commons out of the hall, except in case of sickness or 
some weighty occasion." MS. Vol. 7 College Book, 1750-1778. 



COMMONS. 



91 



respective offices." They were held accountable for such of the College utensils 
as were in their custody, and for all detriment to them by their neglect. They 
were obliged to " observe what number and kind of utensils " the waiters carried 
to each table in the hall, and immediately after meals to demand these utensils 
of the senior waiter at each table. If any utensil so demanded was not returned 
forthwith, " the waiters of the table where it was employed," upon complaint 
being made to the President and tutors, were obliged to pay its value, for the 
use of the College. Any one who should damage any of the College utensils, 
was required " to make good such damage." Neglect of any of the duties apper- 
taining to the butler or cook was punishable by fine. 

The butler was also required to keep a fair record in a book, of all the fines 
imposed upon each student, and the nature of the offence for which each fine 
was imposed, and to deliver this book quarterly to the tutor who made up the 
quarter bills, in order that the tutor might charge those who were to pay them 
with the amount of the fines recorded. His other duties were stated in these 
words : — 

"The butler shall wait upon the President at the hours for prayer in the hall, for his orders to 
ring the bell, and also upon the Professors for their lectures, as usual ; he shall likewise ring the 
bell for commons according to custom, and at five o'clock in the morning and nine at night." 

" The butler shall pay to the College, from time to time, for absent commons, as the Corporation 
shall appoint. The butler shall have liberty to sell cider to the scholars at such prices as the Cor- 
poration shall appoint. He shall also, from time to time, as there shall be occasion, provide candles 
for the hall, and shall take care that the hall and the entry adjoining be swept once a day, and washed 
at least once a quarter, and that the tables and forms be scoured once a week (except in the 
winter season, when they shall be scoured once in three weeks, or so often as the tutors shall 
require it)." 

For the purpose of retaining in the hands of those who were ultimately re- 
sponsible for the well-being of the College the right of regulating the cost of the 
students' diet, it was ordered that " the price of bread, beer, and commons, and 
sizings at the kitchen shall be, from time to time, stated by the Corporation."* 

Although the students were required to " constantly be in commons while 
actually residing at College, vacation-time excepted," yet under that clause of 
the laws by which the President and tutors were permitted to exempt students 
"in cases of necessity," many obtained permission to procure their food out of 
commons. During the administration of President Holyoke, which commenced 
on the 28th of September, 1737, and ended at his death, at the age of eighty, 
in June, 1769, "commons," says President Quincy, in his invaluable History 

* Peirce's Hist. Harv. Univ., App., 134, 137-139. Among the orders adopted by the Corporation 
on this subject was an order promulgated in 1741, directing that "two pence be charged for every wine 
quart of beer." Regulations similar in character were frequently announced. 



Q2 i^wiviiviwrMO. 

of Harvard University, "were the constant cause of disorders among the under- 
graduates." The account of these troubles, as given by this honored historian, 
is as follows : — 

" There appears to have been a very general permission to board in private families before October, 
1747. In that month the Overseers passed a vote, that it would be 'beneficial for the College, that 
the members thereof be in commons,' and recommended that 'speedy and effectual care should be 
taken that the law on that subject be carried into execution.' The Corporation immediately passed 
a vote to this effect; but, as the Steward neglected to obey under various pretences, the Overseers 
repeated their vote in October, 1748. After the lapse of another year, the patience of the Overseers 
was exhausted, and in October, 1749, they passed a vote recapitulating the former one, and stating 
that they found, that, under various pretences, 'the law had been wholly neglected, and no sufficient 
care taken to put it into execution, which has a tendency to weaken the force of the laws of the 
College, and impair the influence and authority of the Overseers in the government of the College.' 
They recommend that the law should be put in force without delay, and, if the Steward be found 
faulty in not doing it, that the Corporation choose a Steward who will strictly comply with their 
orders. The style and temper thus manifested by the Overseers awakened the Corporation from 
their lethargy. The Steward was immediately ordered to comply with the law, or resign. This he 
promised ; but, through inability or perversity, not keeping his word, the Corporation, in February 
following, ordered him, by vote, 'to put the students in commons, or give up the matter.' As he 
continued disobedient, in March, 1750, they rescinded the vote by which Mr. Boardman had been 
chosen Steward for six years, and appointed Jonathan Hastings Steward in his place. 

" Difficulties, and causes of discontent, respecting commons, were unavoidable, as they were con- 
ducted at that day. They were then provided by the Steward at the expense of the College. Care 
was taken, that there should be no loss ; and if any profit accrued from them, it was for the bene- 
fit of the institution. Deficiencies in the quantity, or defects in the quality, of provisions were 
naturally attributed to a desire to save or to gain, and became of course an active cause of com- 
plaint. In 1750 the Corporation voted 'that the quantity of commons be, as hath been usual, viz. 
two sizes of bread in the morning ; one pound of meat at dinner, with sufficient sauce ' (vegetables), 
' and a half a pint of beer ; and at night that a part pie be of the same quantity as usual, and also 
half a pint of beer; and that the supper messes be but of four parts, though the dinner messes be 
of six.' 

"The Overseers continued urgent that all the students should be compelled to board in Com- 
mons ; but the Corporation considered the policy of the measure both dubious and difficult. 

"In April, 1757, the Overseers passed a vote, 'that it would very much contribute to the health 
of that society, facilitate their studies, and prevent extravagant expense, if the scholars were re- 
strained from dieting in private families ' ; and, apparently by way of indemnifying them for this 
restraint or making it more acceptable, they further voted 'that there should be pudding three 
times a week, and on those days their meat should be lessened.' 

"The Corporation did not attend to the recommendation of the Overseers; who, in August, 1758, 
renewed their attempt, and proposed a plan, which should permit the students to form themselves 
into messes, not exceeding eight, and to agree with the Steward to provide such proportion and 
kind of animal and vegetable food as was most agreeable to them, ' the rates of the commons not 
to be thereby increased.' 

" In the September following, the Corporation took this vote into consideration, and declared it 
to be impracticable without great inconvenience, and impossible without advancing the price of 
commons. 



COMMONS. 93 

" The Overseers were pertinaciously bent upon ' restraining undergraduates from dining or supping 
in private houses'; and in May, 1760, they again urged on the Corporation the passage of a law 
to that effect. This board accordingly prohibited the students ' from dining or supping in any house 
in town, except on an invitation to dine or sup gratis.' The law was probably not very strictly 
enforced. It was limited to one year, and was not renewed. Before the building of Hollis Hall, the 
number of students obliged to lodge in private houses was great. It was inconvenient for those who 
lived without the walls of the College to take their meals within them, and was as repugnant to the 
interest of the landlords as to the inclinations of the students. In July, 1764, the Overseers recom- 
mended to the Corporation ' to make a law to restrain scholars from breakfasting in the houses of town's 
people, and to make provision for their being accommodated with breakfast in the hall, either milk, 
chocolate, tea, or coffee, as they should respectively choose, and to fix the price as of other commons ; 
saving that, if any of them choose to provide themselves with breakfasts in their own chambers, they 
be allowed so to do, but not to breakfast in one another's chambers.' From this period breakfast 
has been as regularly provided in commons as other meals. 

"In the year 1765, after Hollis Hall was erected, the accommodations for students within the walls 
were greatly enlarged, and the Corporation, in conformity with the reiterated recommendations of the 
Overseers, passed a system of laws, with their consent, by which all Professors, Tutors, graduates, and 
undergraduates, having studies in the College, were compelled to board constantly in commons; the 
officers to be exempted only by the Corporation, with the consent of the Overseers ; the students, by 
the President, only when they were about to be absent for at least one week. By this system the 
Steward was the agent of the Corporation, from whom he received salary and funds, and that board 
became, in effect, sponsors for the quality and sufficiency of the commons. This arrangement naturally 
tended to excite jealousy on one side, and on the other parsimony and impatience of complaint. The 
system had scarcely been in effective operation a year, before an open revolt of the students took 
place, on account of the provisions, which it took more than a month to quell. Although their pro- 
ceedings were violent, illegal, and insulting, yet the records of the immediate government show 
unquestionably that the disturbances, in their origin, were not wholly without cause, and that they 
were aggravated by want of early attention to very natural and reasonable complaints."* 

An examination of the causes which led to the (so-called) rebellion of 1766 
reveals the fact that the students found cause for their disorderly conduct, not 
only in the badness of their commons, but also in the refusal of the officers of 
the College to accept any excuse a student might offer as a sufficient reason for 
the absence of such student from prayers. That such a refusal should afford 
even a pretence for a grievance, none of the officers of the College could allow. 
With the other reason for their discontent set forth by the students, there was 
a certain degree of sympathy. So clear was this view of the circumstances to 
the Board of Overseers when they met on the 7th of October, 1766, that they 
condemned wholly the conduct of the students in attempting by an unlawful 
combination "to force an execution of the laws of the College in such man- 
ner as they think proper, particularly with respect to excuses for absence from 
prayers," but at the same time resolved "that there has been great neglect in 
the Steward in the quality of the Butter provided by him for many weeks past; 

* Quincy's Hist. Harv. Univ., II. 95-100. 



94 



COMMONS. 



and that after application to one or more of the Tutors by some of the Stu- 
dents the neglect continued notwithstanding." By wise and judicious measures 
the revolt was finally quelled, and on the 6th day of May, 1767, a committee 
appointed to visit the College reported that they " had attended that service and 
found that the scholars attended their stated exercises and that there were no 
remarkable disorders among them." Another outbreak occurred in the spring of 
1768, but the origin of this cannot be traced to any dissatisfaction with com- 
mons. Referring to this revolt, the Corporation declared on the 4th of April, 
1768, "that a combination had been entered into by a great number of the Stu- 
dents against the government." Four students who were adjudged to have been 
most disorderly on this latter occasion were expelled, and quiet was thus restored* 
In his History of Harvard University, Mr. Peirce comments upon the subject 
of commons, and the uneasiness and trouble which they so often excited, as 
follows : — 

" That there are strong reasons why the commons should be supported, it might be fairly inferred 
from the very fact of their having continued so long, though, on one side or another, so continually 
assailed. Such, indeed, a little reflection will show to be the truth. The commons unite the very 
important advantages of furnishing a salutary diet, and of contracting the expense of a College edu- 
cation by keeping down the price of board. Their beneficial effects are extended beyond the walls 
of the College. To a great degree, the commons, it is believed, regulate the price and quality of 
board even in private families ; and thus secure in the town a general style of living at once eco- 
nomical and favorable to health and to study. But the very circumstance which is their chief 
recommendation is the occasion also of all the odium which they have to encounter ; that simplicity 
which makes the fare cheap and wholesome and philosophical renders it also unsatisfactory to dainty 
palates ; and the occasional appearance of some unlucky meat, or other food, is a signal for a 
general outcry against the provisions." t 

The general character of commons at Harvard College, previous to the year 
1765, may be inferred from what has been already set forth; but the evidence of 
two who were partakers of commons in the last century affords some interesting 
particulars. Dr. Edward A. Holyoke, who was graduated in 1746, states that the 
" breakfast was two sizings of bread and a cue of beer," and that " evening Com- 
mons were a pye." Judge Paine Wingate, a graduate of the Class of 1759, says: — 

"As to the commons, there were in the morning none while I was in College. At dinner, we 
had, of rather ordinary quality, a sufficiency of meat of some kind, either baked or boiled ; and at 

* Peirce's Hist. Harv. Univ., 221-226. Hutchinson's Hist. Mass. Bay, III. 187. Eliot's Hist. 
Harv. Coll., 70, 71. Willard's Memories of Youth and Manhood, I. 40-42. 

At a meeting of the President, Professors, and Tutors, on May 2, 1768, it was voted, "that all 
who were waiters at the time of the late Rupture or Rebellion, and were then concerned therein, 
shall now be debarred that privilege." 

t Peirce's Hist. Harv. Univ., 218. 



COMMONS. 



95 



supper, we had either a pint of milk and half a biscuit, or a meat pye or some other kind. Such 
were the commons in the Hall in my day. They were rather ordinary ; but I was young and hearty, 
and could live comfortably upon them. I had some classmates who paid for their commons and 
never entered the Hall while they belonged to the College. We were allowed at dinner a cue of 
beer, which was a half pint, and a sizing of bread, which I cannot describe to you. It was quite 
sufficient for one dinner."* 

No one can fail to observe that the food provided was sufficiently simple in 
its character. As to the beer furnished, the quantity was not large for a single 
meal, and as it was made at the College brew-house, its strength was, probably, 
not excessive. That it should have been provided as an accompaniment for a 
breakfast, was doubtless owing to the fashion of that period. The charge for 
commons corresponded well with the character and quantity of the food furnished. 
" With all the care that could be taken, it was impossible to render the board, 
which was seven shillings and four pence a week (the price in 1765), as pleasant 
as the board for which twenty shillings should have been charged."* 

When dinner was the only meal that was regularly served in the hall, the 
students were allowed to receive at the kitchen-hatch, or at the buttery-hatch, a 
bowl of milk or chocolate, with a piece of bread, or some equally simple refreshment, 
at morning and evening. This refreshment they could eat in the yard or at their 
rooms. At the appointed hour for "bevers," as these frugal meals were named, 
there was a general rush for the buttery or kitchen ; and if the walking happened 
to be bad, or if it was winter, many ludicrous accidents usually occurred. One 
perhaps would slip. His bowl and its contents would fly this way and his bread 
that, while he, prostrate, afforded an excellent stumbling-block for those immediately 
behind him. These, falling in their turn, would spatter with the milk or choco- 
late, not only their own persons, but the persons of those near them. Sometimes 
the spoons were the only tangible evidence of the meal remaining. But with a 
hearty laugh, if not injured, each would soon extricate himself from the recumbent 
mass, and, returning to the buttery or kitchen, would order a fresh bowl of food, 
to be charged with the sizings at the close of the quarter.! 

At a meeting of the President and Tutors, held March 13, 1772, complaint 
was made that there was frequently a failure in returning the furniture of the 
Commons Hall to the steward and butler after meals, and that by reason of this 
neglect much of the furniture was lost. To prevent the recurrence of this loss, 
it was voted that the waiters be directed carefully to take an account of the furniture 
carried into the hall for their respective tables, to note those who injured or lost 
any of it, and to charge it to such persons. In case the waiters failed to give 

* Peirce's Hist. Harv. Univ., 219, 220. 

t Hall's Coll. Words and Customs, Rev. ed., 1S56, 25. 



9 6 COMMONS. 

the required information, the damage or loss was to be charged to them. The 
steward and butler were made accountable for all losses unaccounted for* 

During the War of the American Revolution, the difficulty of providing satis- 
factory commons was extreme, as may be seen by the following vote of the Cor- 
poration, passed August n, 1777: — 

" Whereas by law 9th of Chap. VI., it is provided, ' that there shall always be chocolate, tea, coffee, 
and milk for breakfast, with bread and biscuit and butter,' and whereas the foreign articles above 
mentioned are now not to be procured without great difficulty, and at a very exorbitant price ; there- 
fore, that the charge of commons may be kept as low as possible, — 

" Voted, That the Steward shall provide at the common charge only bread or biscuit and milk 
for breakfast; and, if any of the scholars choose tea, coffee, or chocolate for breakfast, they shall 
procure those articles for themselves, and likewise the sugar and butter to be used with them ; and 
if any scholars choose to have their milk boiled, or thickened with flour, if it may be had, or with 
meal, the Steward, having seasonable notice, shall provide it ; and further, as salt fish alone is ap- 
pointed by the aforesaid law for the dinner on Saturdays, and this article is now risen to a very 
high price, and through the scarcity of salt will probably be higher, the Steward shall not be obliged 
to provide salt fish, but shall procure fresh fish as often as he can." t 

The efforts of the Faculty to maintain the good order of the College, and to 
enforce obedience to its laws, were required in no department more frequently 
than in commons. At a meeting of the President and Tutors, held on the 
2d of May, 1783: — 

" It appearing that some of the students of this Society frequently absent themselves from the Hall 
at the time of breakfasting, and afterwards size breakfasts at the Kitchen, which is contrary to the 
College laws respecting commons and involves such students in a needless expense, — 

" Voted, That the Steward be directed to suffer none of the students for the future who are in com- 
mons to size breakfasts at the Kitchen. 

" It also appearing, that some of the students of this Society frequently take their dinner from the 
Kitchen on Lord's Days, which is contrary to the College laws, and at the same time is an inter- 
ruption to the business of the Kitchen, — 

" Voted, That the Steward be directed to send all the messes into the Hall, for the future, and 
that he suffer no student on any day to take his dinner from the Kitchen, one of the Tutors being, 
by the law, to determine whether any student shall receive his breakfast or dinner out of the Hall." X 

* MS. Faculty Records Harv. Coll., 1766-T775. 

t MS. Corporation Records Harv. Coll. Quincy's Hist. Harv. Univ., II. 541. 
t MS. Records Harv. Coll. 

The following is the form of the bill, which the butler was required to present to the under- 
graduate quarterly, in the year 1784: — 

"Mr to College Butler, Dr. 

Credit is not given by Law for more than forty Shillings. 

To his bill for quarter ending 

For wines and other permitted liquors 

For other permitted articles " 

College Book, No. 8, 1778 -1803. 



CHAPTER II. 



College Laws published in 1790. — Changes in the Laws. — Placing. — Students as Waiters. 

— Breakfast. — Dinner. — Bill of Fare. — Extracts relating to Commons. — The But- 
tery. — Regulations prepared in 1772. — Enactments of 1790, 1798, and 1800. — Account 
of the Buttery by Sidney Willard. — Annual public Examinations. — Disturbances. — 
Students suspended. — Orders passed in 1791. — Rebellion of 1807. — College Laws relat- 
ing to Commons amended in 1807. — The Master of the Kitchen. — Disturbance at Com- 
mons in 1819. — The Rebelliad. — Rules of 1825. — Commons in University Hall. — Cost 
of Boarding in Commons. — Commons abolished in 1849. — No Commons from 1849 to 1864. 

— Thayer Club. — Efforts of Dr A. P. Peabody to re-establish Commons. — The Gift of 
Nathaniel Thayer. — Railroad Station taken for Commons. — Dining-Room added in 
iZb-j, — Continued Benefactions of Mr. Thayer. — Government of the Club. — Memorial 
Hall Commons. 

In the year 1790, the laws of the College were printed and published, the 
changes which had been made in them and which then continued in force hav- 
ing been first incorporated among them. The regulation compelling all students 
and teachers who had studies in the College to be in Commons was retained, 
but a modification of this regulation, declared several years before, was now set 
forth in these words : — 

"No Undergraduates, who are obliged by law to be in commons, shall be allowed to breakfast, 
dine, or sup, in any house in town, except upon invitation of any housekeeper in the town to break- 
fast, dine, or sup with him gratis ; nor shall procure to themselves any such meal to be brought to 
them from the town ; but when they come into town after commons, they may be allowed to size 
a meal at the Kitchen. And whosoever shall transgress this law, shall be liable to the punishment 
of one shilling, for every such transgression." 

A change was also made in the law relative to absences from commons, for 
which deductions would be allowable in the quarterly bills rendered for food, 
and the law on this subject was now promulgated in this form : — 

"No Undergraduate shall be put out of commons, but by a note from the President, or one of 
the Tutors, his own Tutor, if in College. And no Graduate shall put himself out of commons, 
unless he be going out of town, for more than a day. And when any Graduates or Undergraduates 
shall have been out of commons, they shall immediately, upon their coming into town, notify the 



Steward to put them into commons ; and, if any shall neglect to give such notice, they shall be liable 
to a fine, amounting to double the cost of commons, for the whole of the time they shall have been 
out of commons by such neglect." 

It was also enacted that, at every meal, one of the tutors or the Librarian, or 
in case they all should happen to be absent, the senior graduate or undergrad- 
ate, in the hall, should ask a blessing and return thanks. It was also made in- 
cumbent upon every student, on the first Friday in each month, to inform the 
steward which of the articles, allowed for breakfast, he desired to have, in order 
that the steward might provide in accordance with his wishes. The time for 
holding class-meetings was so arranged that they might begin "immediately after 
commons in the morning," but could " not be continued, by adjournment, or 
otherwise, longer than to the time of commons at noon of the same day." * 

The laws were reprinted in 1798, but the regulations as to commons remained 
unchanged, except that the amount of the fine for eating out of commons in any 
house in town, except on invitation of a housekeeper, was raised from one shilling 
to twenty cents.t 

For many years prior and for some years subsequent to the year 1800, the 
hall where the students took their meals was usually provided with ten tables. 
At each table were placed two messes, and each mess consisted of eight persons. 
The tables where the tutors and Seniors sat were raised eighteen or twenty 
inches, so as to overlook the rest. As late as 1771, the names of the students 
were placed according to the rank of the parents of the students. Those whose 
names came at or near the head of the list were allowed, among other privileges, 
"to help themselves first at table in commons," and took the most prominent 
positions at the commons tables. As has been already seen, it was the duty of 
one of the tutors or of the Librarian to " ask a blessing and return thanks," and 
in their absence the duty devolved on "the senior graduate or undergraduate." 
The waiters were students, chosen from the different classes, and they received 
for their services suitable compensation. Each table was waited on by members 
of the class which occupied it, with the exception of the tutors' table, at which 
members of the Senior class served. Unlike the sizars and servitors at the Eng- 
lish universities, the waiters were usually much respected, and were, in many 
cases, the best scholars in their respective classes. 

The breakfast consisted of a specified quantity of coffee, a size of baker's 
biscuit, which was one biscuit, and a size of butter, which was about an ounce. 
If any one wished for more than was provided, he was obliged to size it, i. e. 
order it from the kitchen or buttery ; and the food thus ordered was charged as 
extra commons or sizings in the quarter-bill. 

* Laws of Harv. Coll., 1790, 35, 37-41. 

t Laws of Harv. Coll., 1798, 39. 



At dinner, every mess was served with eight pounds of meat, allowing a pound 
to each person. On Monday and Thursday the meat was boiled, and these days 
were, on this account, commonly called " boiling days." On the other days the 
meat was roasted, and these were accordingly named "roasting days." Two 
potatoes were allowed to each person, which he was obliged to pare for himself. 
On "boiling days," pudding and cabbage were added to the bill of fare, and in 
their season, greens, either dandelion or the wild pea. Of bread, a size was the 
usual quantity for each person at dinner. Cider was the common beverage, having 
supplanted beer, which for many years was taken not only with dinner but with the 
morning " bever," for which breakfast was now substituted. There was no stated 
allowance of cider, but each student was permitted to drink as much as he wanted. 
It was brought to the table in pewter quart cans, two to each mess. From these 
cans the students drank, passing them from mouth to mouth, as was anciently 
done with the wassail-bowl. The waiters replenished the cans as soon as they 
were emptied. No regular supper was provided, but a bowl of milk and a size or 
sizing of bread, procured at the kitchen, supplied the place of the evening meal* 

Respecting the arrangement of the students at table, before referred to, Pro- 
fessor Sidney Willard observes as follows : — 

" The intercourse among students at meals was not casual or promiscuous. Generally the students 
of the same class formed themselves into messes, as they were called, consisting each of eight mem- 
bers, and the length of one table was sufficient to seat two messes. A mess was a voluntary asso- 
ciation of those who liked each other's company; and each member had his own place. This ar- 
rangement was favorable for good order; and, where the members conducted themselves with 
propriety, their cheerful conversation, and even exuberant spirits and hilarity, if not too boisterous, 
were not unpleasant to that portion of the government who presided at the head table. But the 
arrangement afforded opportunities also for combining in factious plans and organizations, tending 
to disorders, which became infectious, and terminated unhappily for all concerned." t 

Another writer, referring to the same period, says : — 

"In commons, we fared as well as one half of us had been accustomed to at home. Our break- 
fast consisted of a good-sized biscuit of wheaten flour, with butter and coffee, chocolate, or milk, 
at our option. Our dinner was served upon dishes of pewter, and our drink, which was cider, in 
cans of the same material. For our suppers, we went with our bowls to the kitchen, and received 
our rations of milk or chocolate, and bread, and returned with them to our rooms." t 

In order to maintain the price of commons at a low sum, and thus render 
education possible to those who could afford to pay for the simplest fare only 

* Hall's Coll. Words and Customs, Rev. ed., 1856, 115- 117. Peirce's Hist. Harv. Univ., 309, 
3"- 

t Willard's Memories of Youth and Manhood, II. 192, 193. 
t N. E. Magazine, III. 239. 



while at College, plain food was necessarily provided. The results attendant 
upon these attempts at simplicity in diet were often unfortunate. In the simple 
but emphatic words of one who was acquainted with the state of commons as 
they once were at Harvard College, "the butter was sometimes so bad that a 
farmer would not take it to grease his cart-wheels with." It was the usual practice 
of the steward, when veal was cheap, to furnish it to the students three, four, and 
sometimes five times in the week. The same was true of other meats when they 
could be bought at a low price, and especially of lamb. The students, after par- 
taking of this latter meat for five or six successive weeks, would often assemble 
before the steward's house, and, as if their natures had been changed by their 
diet, would bleat and blatter until he was fain to promise them a change of food. 
Upon the faith of this promise they would separate, to meet again, however, 
when a recurrence of the same evil compelled them to similar measures.* 

By the laws of 1 790, the office of steward was shorn of many of those duties 
which connected it with the culinary department of commons. Henceforth the 
steward became one of the financial officers of the College. 

The relation which the buttery sustained to the commons is thus described 
by Peirce : — 

" As the commons rendered the College independent of private boarding-houses, so the Buttery 
removed all just occasion for resorting to the different marts of luxury, intemperance, and ruin. 
This was a kind of supplement to the commons, and offered for sale to the Students, at a moderate 
advance on the cost, wines, liquors, groceries, stationery, and in general such articles as it was 
proper and necessary for them to have occasionally, and which, for the most part, were not included 
in the commons fare. The Buttery was also an office, where, among other things, records were 
kept of the times when the scholars were present and absent. At their admission and subsequent 
returns they entered their names in the Buttery, and took them out whenever they had leave of 
absence." 

Down to the time when the system of placing students according to the rank 
of their parents was abolished, which was in 1773, the official notice of the 
placing was given " by having their names written in a large German text, in a 
handsome style, and placed in a conspicuous part of the College buttery, where 
the names of the four classes of undergraduates were kept suspended until they 
left College." t 

About the year 1772, for the purpose of introducing a better system in pro- 
visioning the students, certain regulations were proposed for the " Diet of the 
Scholars at the College and for a supply of necessaries." By the terms of 
these regulations, it was suggested, — 

* Hall's Coll. Words and Customs, Rev. ed., 1856, 118. 
t Peirce's Hist. Harv. Univ., 220, 311. 



COMMONS. XOI 

"That all the scholars living in College shall, without exception, breakfast, dine and sup in the 
College Hall ; saving in case of sickness, wherein they shall be under the direction of the President, 
or in his absence, of such Gentlemen belonging to the Corporation, as reside in Cambridge. 

" That the Buttery be supplied out of the College stock and be furnished as the Corporation order, 
with Wines and other Liquors, Tea, Coffee, Chocolate, Sugar, Biscuit, Pens, Ink, and Paper, and 
other suitable articles for the scholars. 

"That the Tutors always dine in the Hall, unless occasionally prevented, and have liberty to ask 
any strangers to dine with them. And perhaps it would not be amiss if the President and Pro- 
fessors would now and then dine in the Hall with them. 

" That there always be two dishes for Dinner — a Pudding of some sort to be one of them, except 
on Saturdays Salt Fish alone, and not to have the same dish ordinarily above twice in a week, 
Puddings excepted. 

"That every scholar enter his name every fortnight with the Steward, what of the respective arti- 
cles he choose for Breakfast or Supper. 

"That every scholar pay 7/ per week for his whole Diet.* 

By the enactments of 1790 it was declared that the buttery should be sup- 
plied from time to time, by the butler, at his own expense, "with beer, cider, 
tea, coffee, chocolate, sugar, biscuit, butter, cheese, pens, ink, paper, and such 
other articles " as the President or Corporation should order or permit. But 
the selling of wine, distilled spirits, or foreign fruits, either " on credit or for ready 
money," was strictly forbidden. It was further provided that " every scholar, upon 
his coming into town after one or more nights' absence, and at the end of each 
vacation," should " enter his name at the Buttery," and the butler's certificate was 
declared to be evidence " to the President, Professors, and Tutors, of the time 
when each scholar comes into, or goes out of town." Until he should enter his 
return, each scholar was deemed to be out of town. The above law as to the 
articles allowed to be sold at the buttery was re-enacted in 1798, in a similar 
form, and an addition was made to the provision relating to the entry of names 
at the buttery, by ordering that each student should enter at the buttery, before 
leaving town, the date at which he was to leave and the time for which he was 
to be absent, and also on his return after every absence should apply to the 
butler at the buttery, " to enter the time of his return." In December, 1 800, it 
was further ordered, that when a student applied at the buttery to register his 
name, as above set forth, he should "tarry till he see it entered." The enact- 
ments of 1800 are probably the last recognizing a buttery "and its concomitants 
as a part of the collegiate organization. From a period beginning a few years 
subsequent to the establishment of commons, the buttery was regarded with favor. 
In " An Inventory of y e Colledge Utensills belonging to y e butterie October 26, 
1683," is " a Goblet given by the reverend M r- Thomas Shepard Sen r - of Charles- 
town," and in 1 763, Samuel Dean, Stephen Sewall, and Andrew Eliot " presented 
a clock for the Buttery." 

* MS. Records Harv. Coll. 



An account of the buttery by Professor Sidney Willard is in these words : — 

"The Buttery was in part a sort of appendage to commons, where the scholars could eke out 
their short commons with sizings of gingerbread and pastry, or needlessly or injuriously cram them- 
selves to satiety, as they had been accustomed to be crammed at home by their fond mothers. Be- 
sides eatables, everything necessary for a student was there sold, and articles used in the playgrounds, 
as bats, balls, etc. ; and, in general, a petty trade with small profits was carried on in stationery 
and other matters, — in things innocent or suitable for the young customers, and in some things, 
perhaps, which were not The Buttery was also the office of record of the names of under- 
graduates, and of the rooms assigned to them in the college buildings The office was 

dropped or abolished in the first year of the present century, I believe, long after it ceased to be 
of use for most of its primary purposes. The area before the entry doors of the Buttery had become 
a sort of students' exchange for idle gossip, if nothing worse. The rooms were now redeemed from 
traffic, and devoted to places of study, and other provision was made for the records which had there 
been kept. The last person who held the office of Butler was Joseph Chickering, a graduate of 1799."* 

The same author's observations upon the custom that prevailed in College as 
late as the beginning of the present century, of distributing food to the students 
for their supper, instead of providing that meal in the hall, are entertaining and 
instructive ; he says : — 

"The students who boarded in commons were obliged to go to the kitchen-door with their bowls 
or pitchers for their suppers, where they received their modicum of milk or chocolate in their vessel, 
held in one hand, and their piece of bread in the other, and repaired to their rooms to take their 
solitary repast. There were suspicions at times that the milk was diluted by a mixture of a very 
common tasteless fluid, which led a sagacious Yankee student to put the matter to the test, by ask- 
ing the simple carrier-boy why his mother did not mix the milk with warm water instead of cold. 
' She does,' replied the honest youth. This mode of obtaining evening commons did not prove in 
all cases the most economical on the part of the fed. It sometimes happened, that, from inadver- 
tence or previous preparation for a visit elsewhere, some individuals had arrayed themselves in 
their dress-coats and breeches, and in their haste to be served, and by jostling in the crowd, got 
sadly sprinkled with milk or chocolate, either by accident, or by the stealthy indulgence of the 
mischievous propensities of those with whom they came in contact ; and oftentimes it was a scene 
of confusion that was not the most pleasant to look upon or be engaged in. At breakfast the 
students were furnished, in Commons Hall, with tea, coffee, or milk, and a small loaf of bread. 
The age of a beaker of beer with a certain allowance of bread had expired." t 

Among the new regulations introduced into Harvard College by the laws of 
1790 was a provision for an annual public examination of the students to be held 
" in the presence of a joint committee of the Corporation and Overseers, and 
such other gentlemen" as might be inclined to attend it. The penalty for re- 
fusing or neglecting to attend the examination was a fine not to exceed twenty 
shillings, admonition, or suspension. 

* Willard's Memories of Youth and Manhood, I. 31, 32. 
t Willard's Memories of Youth and Manhood, I. 313, 314. 



VAJ1YLJVLU1MO. jq, 

Great discontent was immediately evinced by the students at this regulation, 
and as it was passed after they had entered College, they regarded it as an ex 
post facto law, and therefore not binding on them. In the year 1791, the Senior 
and Junior classes asked for an exemption from the examination. Their request 
was denied by the Overseers. When this fact became known, some of the stu- 
dents determined to stop the examination for that year, if possible. To this end, 
they obtained six hundred grains of tartar emetic, and early on the morning of 
April 1 2, the day on which the examination was to begin, they emptied it into the 
great cooking boilers in the kitchen. At breakfast, one hundred and fifty or more 
students and officers being present, the coffee was brought to the tables, made 
with the water from the boilers, and was partaken of as usual. . The effects of 
the sickening compound were soon visible. One after another of the partakers 
left the hall, some in a slow, others in a hurried manner, but all plainly showing 
that their situation was by no means agreeable. Out of the whole number there 
assembled, only four or five escaped sickness. Those who had put the drug in the 
boilers had drank more coffee than the others, in order to elude detection, and 
were the most severely affected of all. Unluckily for the conspirators, one of them 
had been seen putting something into the boilers. He was apprehended, and the 
names of the other offenders were soon after discovered. Their punishment is 
stated in the following memoranda from a manuscript journal of that period: — 

"Exhibition, 1791. April 20th. This morning Trapier was rusticated and Sullivan suspended to 
Groton for nine months, for mingling tartar emetic with our commons on y° morning of April 12th." 

"May 2 1st, Ely was suspended to Amherst for five months, for assisting Sullivan and Trapier in 
mingling tartar emetic with our commons."* 

In the latter part of the same year, a change in the laws of the College relat- 
ing to commons was effected, whereby the students were forbidden to take their 
third or evening meal in the hall, but were compelled to get such food as was 
furnished them, at the kitchen. The proceedings of the Faculty in this matter, 
and the results of their action, are thus stated in the College records. At a 
meeting of the President, Professors, and Tutors, held November 11, 1791, the 
first order was passed in these words: — 

" Whereas, the order and regularity of the College will be best promoted by continuing the ancient 
custom of delivering evening commons at the kitchen door, and of preventing the admission of any 
scholar into the kitchen, during the time of the delivery of commons, it is directed, 

" 1. That at the ringing of the bell a bar shall be put up at the outward door of the kitchen, 
and kept up half an hour, during which time, commons shall be delivered at the bar; but no scholar 
shall be in the kitchen, or enter it, except those waiters whose turn it is to deliver the commons : 
nor shall any scholar carry his commons into the kitchen, or receive them within the kitchen, after 
the bar is removed. 

* Laws of Harv. Coll., 1790, 16, 17. Hall's Coll. Words and Customs, Rev. ed., 1856, 180, 181. 



" 2. That each scholar shall give in his name the first Friday in each month for milk or choco- 
late, as he shall choose for that month, and that provision be made accordingly." 

On November 15, 1791, the orders already promulgated having proved inef- 
fectual to restore, in a graceful and Christian-like manner, the pristine discomfort 
of a meal at the kitchen door, the President and Tutors took further action, as 
follows : — 

"Whereas, the regulations passed the nth Inst., have not been altogether effectual in preventing 
the Students from being in the kitchen at evening commons, 

" Voted, That the bar be up at the kitchen-door, when the students retire from the chapel after 
evening prayers, and that they be not allowed to go into the kitchen after prayers." 

This determination on the part of the College government to enforce an 
unpopular, effete, and unreasonable regulation was opposed with so much viru- 
lence, that the conduct of some of the students was reported as being amenable 
to punishment. The action of the President, Professors, and Tutors, at their 
meeting held on the day following that upon which the last preceding vote was 
1, is thus stated: — 



" 1. Upon enquiry into the general conduct of Bowman Senior, during the present quarter, it ap- 
peared that he has been very grossly negligent of college exercises It also appeared, upon 

examination had, that he has been recently guilty of adding to his other criminality, direct oppugna- 
tion to the authority of the college, by a marked violation of the regulations relative to evening 
commons : Therefore, 

" Voted, That in consideration of the last named negligence, irregularity and oppugnation of col- 
lege authority, Bowman Senior, be and he accordingly is hereby rusticated. 

" 2. It appeared that Paine Senior, had greatly distinguished himself and directly opposed the 
authority of the college, by the forward and active part, which he took in the late disorders at 
evening commons ; which offence he afterwards greatly aggravated, by the indecent and impudent 
manner, in which he pretended to justify himself, when called befor the Government at different 
times. It also appeared, that he has been grossly negligent of most of the college exercises through 
the greatest part of this quarter. Being fully convinced by the facts above named, that both his 
own good and the good of the society render his removal from the college necessary, 

" Voted, That Paine Senior, be, and he accordingly is hereby suspended, for the term of four 
months: and that he be put under the care and instruction of the Rev" Mr. Sangar of Bridgewater, 
with whom he is to prosecute his collegiate studies ; in all respects conforming to the law in case 
of suspension provided. 

" Mem". The censure contained in the first vote, was inflicted upon Bowman in the chapel, 
November 18, immediately after morning prayers. And Bowman was ordered immediately, to leave 
college and the Town of Cambridge, in the usual form, and the students were forbidden to asso- 
ciate with him. 

"The censure contained in the second vote was read to Paine at the President's house, on the 
forenoon of the 18th, the Government being together." 

On the same day on which Paine's sentence was officially announced to him, 
the College government held another meeting, and 



COMMONS. IOS 

" i. Voted, That Angier, for irregular conduct at the kitchen, and for neglect of college exercises 
be admonished before this body. 

" 2. Voted, That Lowell be admonished before this body for disorderly conduct at the kitchen at 
evening commons. 

"3. Voted, That Appleton 2 d be admonished for disorderly conduct at the kitchen at evening 
commons, and for profanity." 

The students, seeing that the College government were in earnest, at length 
ceased openly to oppose this uncomfortable mode of supping, and the evening 
meal continued peripatetic in character for the succeeding ten or fifteen years. 
Supper is not a recognized commons meal in the laws of 1798, but receives rec- 
ognition in the laws of 1807. Between these dates it took its rightful place. 

A few extracts from the records of the College government, at this period, may 
not be out of place, as showing the practical workings of the commons branch 
of the College service : — 

"At a meeting of the President and Tutors January 3, 1792, Voted, That the following students 
be waiters in the Hall the ensuing half year : At the Tutors' table, Fisher and Kimball ; at the 
upper tables, Brown, Fiske, Washburn, Whitecomb, and Willard ; at lower tables, Alders, Bowers, Bra- 
man, Brooks, Crosby, and Olds." 

In the same year, "Voted, That May, Ashley, and Kendall have leave to diet out of commons 
four weeks each on account of ill-health." 

On April 6, 1792, "Voted, That the following students of the Sophomore Class be punished 2/ 
each for supping at a tavern." The number of students thus punished was 23. 

On November 2, 1796, "Voted, That the students for the future retire from the Hall after their 
meals, in the same manner as from the chapel after the prayers and public lectures are over, i. e. 
that they leave the Hall before the Governors, and retire in the order of the classes." 

On August 16, 1797, "Voted, That Burnap (who was appointed a waiter for one term) be put 
off the list of waiters on account of the advantage of his monitorship, and that Alden be a waiter 
in his stead." 

On August 31, 1797. "The time of the Butler's Freshman being greatly taken up with the pub- 
lic duties of his station and with the private concerns of the Buttery, and his task being laborious, 
Voted, That in future the Butler's Freshman be excused from cutting the bread in the kitchen, and 
that it be cut by the servants in the kitchen." 

Professor Samuel Webber was installed as President of Harvard College on 
May 12, 1806. Early in the following year, owing to the serious defects in the 
quality and character of commons, which seem to have continued for a consid- 
erable period without amendment, signs of discontent began to appear among the 
students. At a meeting of the Corporation, held at Boston on the twentieth day 
of March, 1807, a complaint was received from the Junior, Sophomore, and Fresh- 
man classes " against their commons, and the President, to whom, until then, 
no complaint of that kind had been made, was requested to attend to the subject, 
and to see that all reasonable relief was granted." 



io6 



COMMONS. 



Meantime, the students, without waiting for the President to investigate and 
report upon their complaint, began to conduct themselves in a disorderly and 
turbulent manner. On the 23d of March, a student was admonished for disorderly- 
conduct at evening commons. A few days later two other students were each 
admonished in the " presence of the Immediate Government for their misconduct 
at evening commons of this day, in smoking segars," and otherwise " occasioning 
great disturbance." On the 26th of March, the Immediate Government became 
seriously alarmed at the condition of affairs. At their meeting on this day they 
declared that it appeared that for some days, at evening commons, a variety of 
disorders had taken place, and notwithstanding the lenient measures adopted by 
the government to prevent the recurrence of such scenes, that "on the 25th 
instant, at evening commons, similar disorders, with aggravated circumstances, were 
repeated, in which the Sophomore Class was conspicuously concerned," by which 
conduct a spirit of opposition to authority was manifested and a flagrant violation 
of the rules of order and decorum committed. They further declared that it also 
appeared, on examination, that " there was a general disposition to screen the 
offenders from detection, by withholding evidence, thus countenancing and en- 
couraging irregularity and disorder, which directly tend to the subversion of all 
government," and from these premises concluded that it was " indispensably 
necessary to check this disorderly spirit." They then cited, and recorded in their 
proceedings, Section XVIII. of Chap. IV. of the Laws of Harvard College, as 
follows : — 

"Whereas crimes, misdemeanors, and insults of various kinds may be committed, which by the 
College Laws subject the offenders to divers punishments, and so many Students may be actors in, 
or abettors of the same, that it may be inexpedient to punish all concerned ; and whereas there may 
be cases, in which the situation or circumstances of the offender, or the disposition of those around 
him to withhold the evidence in their power, may screen him against detection ; in either of the 
preceding cases, it shall be lawful for the President, Professors, and Tutors, to select such and so 
many of the offenders for punishment, by fine, admonition, degradation, suspension, rustication, or 
expulsion, as may be necessary to secure good order." 

In view of the circumstances, the government resolved that the execution of 
the said law of selection had become necessary, and that Gay, Hall, and Willard 
were "proper objects of selection on this occasion." It was therefore voted that 
these three students "be and they are accordingly, hereby suspended, till the 26th 
of June." At the same time, three Freshmen were admonished for disorderly 
conduct. Enraged at the punishments inflicted on his classmates, Eames of the 
Sophomore class "did openly and grossly insult the members of the Government 
who reside in the walls, at College, by hissing at them, as they passed him, 
standing with the other waiters in the Hall." For this offence he was suspended 
on March 27. On the day following, three Seniors, by the unanimous defirc 



CUMMOJN5. I0 7 

of all the students in town, waited on the President and guaranteed the good 
conduct of the students in the future at commons, provided Eames was par- 
doned. Their guaranty was accepted, and Eames was pardoned. 

On the morning of the 30th of March, the Junior, Sophomore, and Freshman 
classes caused the College bell to be rung, for a meeting of all the classes on 
that day. Up to this time the Senior class had not complained of their com- 
mons to the Corporation. At this gathering it was determined that they would 
all enter the hall that day, at dinner-time, and that if the Senior class should 
disapprove of the commons provided, and would take the lead, all the other 
classes would follow them out of the hall. This combination was carried out, 
and the Seniors disliking their commons, the four classes left the hall in a body. 
At evening commons none attended. On the same day, the Government of the 
College assembled, and after stating, by way of preamble, that as "all the stu- 
dents have absented themselves from noon and evening commons this day, it 
seems unnecessary and superfluous to furnish this kind of accommodation, at 
present," they voted, "that no more commons be provided till further orders, 
and that all students have leave to diet out at proper houses, till further 
orders." 

At a meeting of the Corporation, held April 3, it was voted " that the Presi- 
dent be requested to direct the students to attend commons on Sunday morning 
next, and until further orders." They then declared that 

"The conduct of the students, in leaving the hall at the time of dinner, was disorderly, indecent, 
an insult to the authority of the College that ought not to be passed over in silence ; that any stu- 
dent guilty of such behavior and who can deliberately approve of it and manifest a continued dispo- 
sition to disregard the laws of the College, is no longer worthy of retaining his connection with it"; 
but that " the Corporation, in consideration of the youth of the students, and hoping that their rash 
and illegal conduct is rather owing to want of experience and reflection, than to malignity of temper 
or a spirit of defiance, are disposed to give them an opportunity to certify in writing to the Presi- 
dent, as he shall direct, their admission of the impropriety of their conduct, their regret for it, and 
their determination to offend no more in this manner." 

In accordance with these declarations, the students who had offended were 
allowed seven days from that time to make a proper confession. The Immediate 
Government of the College were requested to dismiss from College those who 
should refuse to accede to this proposition within the time stated. The form of 
the acknowledgment was in these words : — 

" We, the subscribers, students of Harvard College, who went out of the hall at the time of dinner 
on Monday, the 30th of March last, contrary to the laws of the College, made for the preservation 
of order and decorum, do admit that our conduct in so doing was improper, that we do regret it, 
and that we are determined to offend no more in this manner." 



Although the time within which this admission was to be made was extended, 
yet there were many who could not be induced to make it and return. On the 
15 th of April following, seventeen students were dismissed from College because 
they " went out of the Hall, at the time of dinner on Monday, 30th of March, 
contrary to the laws for the preservation of order and decorum." One other case 
of discipline, at this period, is recorded, whereby, on the 2d of May, Pratt was 
suspended until October 2 following, because, on the 28th of April preceding, 
" at the time of noon commons," he did " publicly in the Hall insult the author- 
ity of the college by hitting one of the officers with a potatoe." 

By these unfortunate disturbances, nearly a month's time was wasted; and 
although the College maintained its authority, yet it lost a number of its members, 
and made no permanent advance either in the character or the quality of com- 
mons. It is thought by many that the large elm-tree, which stands to the east 
of the south entry of Hollis Hall, and which has long been known as the Re- 
bellion Tree, received that designation during this revolt. The commonly assigned 
reason for thus naming it is, that the students, while the disturbances lasted, 
passed much of their time under or near its branches.* 

In the year 1807 the law pertaining to commons was amended, so that there- 
after all the Tutors and Professors, the Librarian, graduates and undergraduates 
who had studies in the College, were compelled not only to breakfast and dine 
in the College Hall, but also to sup there. Power was, however, reserved to the 
College government to modify this rule in certain cases.t 

The Hon. Edward Everett, who was in College from 1807 to 181 1, in an 
autobiographical sketch, published since his death, makes allusion as follows to 
the manners which prevailed in commons in his time: — 

" The mode of life of students in Cambridge is greatly changed since my day. We then lived in 
commons ; the five classes assembling daily for the three meals in the Commons Hall, where the 
tutors and other parietal officers occupied an upper table. Till the year 1806, the evening meal 
was not even served in the hall, but was received by the students at the kitchen window, and con- 
veyed to their rooms. The disagreeable nature of this operation in bad weather in a New England 
winter may easily be conceived. The practice was done away with, and supper, like the two other 
meals, provided in the hall, the year before I entered College. The tables were served by bene- 
ficiary students, according to the custom formerly existing in the English colleges ; and I believe it 
may with strict truth be added, that the said position of the "waiters," as they were called, was in 
no degree impaired by performing this office for their fellow-students." t 

* Narrative of the Proceedings of the Corporation of Harvard College, relative to the late Dis- 
orders in that Seminary. Cambridge, 1807. Don Quixotes at College, 1807. Willard's Memories 
of Youth and Manhood, II. 192-199. Hall's Coll. Words and Customs, Rev. ed., 1856, 387. MS. 
Records of Harv. Coll. 

t Laws of Harv. Coll., 1807, 25, 42, 60, 61, 64, 65. 

t Old and New, Vol. IV. No. 1. 



COMMONS. I09 

For the purpose of lightening the labors of the steward, a provision was 
incorporated in the laws of 1814, directing him to appoint, with the approval 
of the President, "a discreet and capable person, to be denominated Master of 
the Kitchen." His duties were to " make all contracts, and perform all the 
duties necessary for the providing of commons," as the steward should direct, 
and to superintend in person " the whole business of the kitchen, and procure 
such assistance " as should be adequate for its performance. Of him it was 
required " that the provisions furnished be of good quality, and well cooked, 
and that the whole management of the kitchens, and the furnishing of the tables 
be conducted in an orderly, neat, and suitable manner, with all due economy." 
Commencement dinners, and public dinners for the Overseers, their committees, 
and for the Corporation, were also provided by him. When any graduate or 
undergraduate had been out of commons, his first business, on coming into 
town, was to notify to the Master of the Kitchen to put him into commons ; and 
neglect to give such notice rendered him liable to a fine " amounting to double 
the cost of commons," for the whole of the time he was out of commons by 
such neglect. The waiters in the hall made their returns to the Master of 
the Kitchen of all damage done to the utensils in the hall at each meal, and 
of the name of the person or persons who did the damage. The information 
thus obtained was exhibited by him every quarter, to a committee appointed 
by the Corporation, to adjust the cost of commons. It was also his duty to 
exhibit quarterly to the same committee an inventory of all the utensils pur- 
chased during the current quarter, and of all then in his possession ; and any 
damage to the utensils arising from his neglect or that of his servants was 
charged to him. If any student wished " to avail himself of any choice allowed 
in articles of living at the commons tables," he was permitted to make known 
his choice to the Master of the Kitchen on the first Friday of every month. 
The waiters at this period were appointed for one term, and those desiring 
the position were required at a certain time " to put their signatures to a 
petition, to be lodged with the Master of Kitchens."* 

During the year 181 9 there occurred in commons certain disturbances, which 
were soon after commemorated in a poem since published, entitled "The Rebel- 
Had; or, Terrible Transactions at the Seat of the Muses." This "most happy 
production of humorous taste" was written by Augustus Peirce, a graduate of 
the Class of 1820, who died at Tyngsborough, May 20, 1849. The cause of the 
" transactions " to which it refers was not the badness nor the scantiness of com- 
mons. The affair was simply the result of a fight between the Sophomores and 
Freshmen, in Commons Hall, which took place on a Sunday evening, and is 
thus described in the poem above named : — 

* Laws of Harv. Coll., 1814, 41-44, App. 8. 



IIO COMMONS. 

"'Twas when the beam that linger'd last 
Its farewell ray on Harvard cast, 
Or Sol, with nightcap on his head, 
Was just a creeping into bed, 
When Cookum told a boy to tell 
Another boy to toll the bell, 
To call the students to their tea. 
As when a brood of pigs, who see 
Their feeder with a pail of swill, 
With which their maws they're wont to fill, 
Do squeal and grunt, and grunt and squeal, 
In expectation of a meal ; 
So they to commons did repair 
And scramble, each one for his share: 
When Nathan* threw a piece of bread, 
And hit Abijah on the head. 
The wrathful Freshman, in a trice, 
Sent back another bigger slice ; 
Which, being butter'd pretty well, 
Made greasy work where'er it fell. 
And thus arose a fearful battle ; 
The coffee-cups and saucers rattle ; 
The bread-bowls fly at woful rate, 
And break many a learned pate. 

Regardless of their shins and pates, 
The bravest seiz'd the butter-plates, 
And rushing headlong to the van, 
Sustain'd the conflict, — man to man." 

On the morning of the following Monday, the College government held a 
meeting, which resulted in the suspension of three members of the Sophomore 
class. At dinner in Commons Hall, on the same day, the Sophomores 

"Made a more confounded rout, 
Than if all Bedlam had broke out." 

The result of this second outbreak was the suspension of two more Sophomores 
in the afternoon. Thereupon the Sophomore class rebelled and 

"With one accord they all agree 
To dance around Rebellion Tree." 

Their conduct during Monday afternoon and evening was exceedingly turbu- 
lent, and, strange to say, hostilities between the Sophomore and Freshman 
classes having ceased with the Sunday-evening conflict in commons, these 

* Robert Woodward Barnwell, then a Sophomore, and a graduate of the Class of 182 1. 



two classes now united to oppose the first action of the College government 
respecting the said conflict. 

On the next day the violence of the Sophomores increased, and all attempts 
to disperse their gatherings in the College yard were futile. Another meeting 
of the College government was accordingly held, and six Sophomores were 
rusticated. Thereupon the Sophomore class left the College, and the disturb- 
ance came to an end. After an intermission of two weeks, all, excepting those 
who had been suspended or rusticated, sought readmission to the College, and 
were allowed to return. The scene of the Sunday-evening conflict narrated in 
the " Rebelliad " was the commons eating-room in University Hall, to which 
building the commons hall and kitchen were, in 1815, removed from Harvard 
Hall, a portion of which latter building had been, for many years previous, de- 
voted to cooking and commons. From the time commons were removed to 
University Hall, they were there maintained until they were discontinued. 

The regulations with regard to commons, although generally consistent with 
the published laws of the College, were variously modified by the immediate 
government, or the "College Faculty," as the President, certain of the Profes- 
sors, and the Tutors are now denominated. Instances of a few of these changes 
are here noted. On May 9, 181 7, it was voted, "that a waiter be appointed 
for every table, but that the number of waiters in actual service shall be in 
the proportion only of one to two tables, a head-waiter to each hall, and one 
general head-waiter." By a resolution passed May 12, 181 8, the wages of wait- 
ers were reduced, and each waiter was allowed for his services board only for 
three quarters of the time during which his name was in the steward's books. 
On the 17th of May, 18 19, by the advice of the Corporation, it was decided 
to grant leave to students to board outside of the College, at approved places. 
At the same time a rule was adopted, forbidding students to enter Commons 
Hall at meals till after the last bell, or to enter at any time by the east 
doors, or to go by or between these doors. They were also ordered to " ab- 
stain from going into the kitchen during commons time for the purpose of 
cooking," and also from cooking at the stoves. Following the announcement 
that a sufficient time, not less than twenty minutes, is allowed for each meal, 
came an order forbidding any student to remain in the hall after the officers 
had retired. On the 10th of March, 1823, the Master of the Kitchen was 
directed not to furnish cider to the students at breakfast or at supper; and 
in the year following an order was passed that he " be not authorized to 
introduce wine into the Hall at dinner, on Thanksgiving Day." 

By the laws of 1825, the rule compelling all who had studies in College to 
be in commons was greatly modified. Under the new arrangement any stu- 
dent who wished to board out of commons was required to make application 



1 1 2 COMMONS. 

for each quarter, at least a week previously to quarter-day, for such permis- 
sion. The mode of applying was for the student " to lodge with the Tutor 
of his class a written request," stating the place where he proposed to board, 
accompanied, in case he was a minor, by the written consent of his parent, or 
guardian, or patron. Even then he was not permitted to live at any - house, 
unless it was approved by the Faculty; and no house was approved as a board- 
ing-house, unless it conformed to collegiate regulations. In the laws of this 
year no mention is made of the officer known as the Master of the Kitchen, 
and it is supposed that this office had been abolished* 

During the Presidency of the Hon. Josiah Quincy, he purchased, in Eng- 
land, plate for the use of commons, and had each article stamped with the 
College seal. This service was sold during the late war, being generally pur- 
chased by the Alumni, who thus obtained interesting relics of the old College 
commons. 

An important change in the management of commons was effected in the year 
1842. In May of that year the Faculty voted, "that all responsibility relative to 
the supply of commons by the College cease after next Commencement, and that 
the rooms in the basement story of University Hall be fitted up, to be rented 
on certain conditions to the present contractor of commons for the accommoda- 
tion of his boarders." For the next seven years the sole duty of the College 
respecting commons was to see that the agreement with the contractor, upon 
which the renting of the commons rooms to him was based, was faithfully and 
honorably performed. 

Although fault was often found with the food furnished at commons, and with 
the manner in which it was served, yet no one, it is believed, during the seven 
generations in which commons were continuously provided, was ever so unrea- 
sonable as to enter a complaint against the price of commons. By reference to 
the steward's books, it appears that, in the year 1654-5, the charges made 
against Thomas Graves for " commones and sizinges " for his Junior year 
amounted to about $31^0; or upon the supposition that forty-two weeks in each 
year were spent at College, the price of " commones and sizinges " — by which 
terms necessary provisions were intended — was about seventy-five cents per week. 
In 1765 the charge for commons was about one dollar and twenty-two cents for 
each week. The price was fixed, in 1805, at two dollars and twenty-four cents 
for each week; in 1806 it was lowered to one dollar and eighty-nine cents; and 
in 1808 was limited at one dollar and seventy-five cents. This, it is believed, 
was the regulated price until the year 1833, when the charge was raised to one 
dollar and ninety cents. At this sum the price remained until 1836, when the 
charge was again raised to two dollars and twenty-five cents, and was maintained 

* Laws of Harv. Coll., 1825, 27, 28. 



COMMONS. 



i'3 



at that figure until 1840, when commons were furnished at two prices, the lowest 
being one dollar and seventy-five cents per week, and the highest two dollars 
and twenty-five cents. These latter prices remained unchanged until 1848, when 
a choice in commons was offered at two dollars or two dollars and fifty cents 
per week. 

The higher priced commons, at which meat was furnished daily, were termed 
" aristocratic commons," while the lower priced, at which meat was provided on 
every other day only, were designated as " starvation commons." At the former 
commons there was a sufficiency of every kind of food named in the bill of fare. 
Pies at dinner were frequently called for in great numbers; but as these edibles 
were not on the bill of fare for tea, they were frequently fastened, at dinner- 
time, underneath the tables by forks driven through them and into the tables. 
From their hiding-place they were brought out at supper-time and eaten. This 
entertainment continued for some time, and until the missing forks were so many 
that a search for them was instituted. The search having proved successful, the 
students were thenceforth deprived of pies at their supper. 

In the year 1849 commons were abolished. President Sparks, in his report 
for that year, refers to the subject in the following terms: — 

" One of the principal acts in the interior management of the College, during the past year, has 

been the discontinuance of commons The history of the College would seem to prove that 

the practice of providing commons for the students had existed without interruption, under various 
regulations, from the earliest years of the institution. At certain periods, all the students and all 
the officers within the College walls were required to board in commons ; at others there was, to 
some extent, a liberty of choice. This liberty has been allowed without restraint for several years 
past ; and although commons have been constantly provided, yet the number of students who have 
resorted to the Commons Halls has been less than one sixth of the whole number residing at the 
University. The state of things afforded a clear indication that, whatever advantages may have been 
derived from this arrangement in former times, it was no longer necessary. It was resolved, there- 
fore, to suspend at least for a time the ancient system of commons, and to leave the students to 

procure their board in such private houses as they might select The experiment has now 

been tried for one term, and with such success as to make it improbable that the commons will 
again be revived." 

Thus came to an end a system which, beginning soon after the founding of 
the College, was maintained for a continuous period of two hundred and ten 
years. As has been already seen, the administration of commons, although for 
the greater part of that period it was under the direct charge of the officers of 
the College, was not uniformly successful nor satisfactory, either to those who pro- 
vided the commons or to those who partook of them. The chief reason for this 
want of success was that the price charged was almost uniformly too low to enable 
the College or the contractor to furnish a sufficient amount of palatable food, 



ii 4 



COMMONS. 



properly cooked and decently served. This conclusion must have been apparent 
even in the earlier days of the College ; and the disturbances which so frequently 
occurred ought, it would seem, to have suggested a remedy. Had the price of 
commons been gradually increased to a sum which would have enabled the Col- 
lege to supply wholesome food and a sufficiency thereof to satisfy the healthful 
appetites of strong young men, the reproach would have been removed from the 
system, and the temper of the students would not have been so frequently tried 
as it was. But the fact that commons continued without intermission for more 
than two centuries ; that they were supplied during most of that period at a price 
lower than that ordinarily paid for the board of paupers ; that they so continued 
despite the disregard of gastronomic laws which prevailed in their administration, 
and the frequent revolts of students whose stomachs rebelled equally with their 
spirits at what was given them under the name of food, — these aggregated facts, 
although they present an abnormal condition of affairs, afford also an argument 
in favor of the commons system which it is impossible to overthrow. 

The comments of the Hon. Edward Everett respecting commons, which follow, 
were not only very suggestive at the time they were written, — which was soon 
after commons were closed, — but, as read now, present a pleasing picture of a 
scene at the English Cambridge, the companion-piece of which may to-day be 
found in the historic and patriotic beauty of the Memorial dining-hall of the 
American Cambridge. It is a gratifying reflection that a system of commons is 
now in operation at Harvard College which possesses all the excellences, with 
none of the abuses, of the old commons system, and affords the remedy which 
Mr. Everett desired. Mr. Everett's comments were in these words : — 



" Although commons were attended with some inconveniences and evils, I have regretted that 
some other remedy could not have been found than entire discontinuance. The present practice of 
boarding in small parties at private tables is much more expensive, and is attended with evils of a 
different kind, but fully as great as those of the old system. Few things that fell within my ob- 
servation at the English universities charmed me as much as the liberal but simple cheer on great 
occasions, the munificent academic hospitality, and at all times the excellent company at the fellows' 
table in the hall of Trinity College, Cambridge. The lofty raftered roof ; the central brazier with 
its generous charcoal fire ; the original full-lengths of Lord Chief Justice Coke, of Bacon, and of 
Dryden, and other illustrious graduates of the college, looking down from the walls ; the reflection 
that this had been the social gathering-place of the institution for ages; the academic grace, — the 
ancient Latin grace, — all united to produce a very pleasing effect on my mind on many occasions 
that I had the pleasure of being a guest at the master's lodge."* 

From 1849 to 1864, students boarded at approved houses in Cambridge; and 
although, by clubbing together, many managed to obtain a simple meal for a 

* Old and New, Vol. IV. p. 22. 



moderate sum, still the desideratum of a sufficient quantity of wholesome and 
nutritious food supplied at a sum which would place it within the reach of stu- 
dents of small means was not yet attained. In the summer of the last-named 
year, Dr. Andrew P. Peabody was visiting at the house of Nathaniel Thayer, 
Esq., in Lancaster. In the course of their conversation, the subject of board at 
the College having been broached, Dr. Peabody stated that there was great need 
of a place at the College where students of limited means could obtain board at 
cost. Mr. Thayer, recognizing the fact of such a need, assured Dr. Peabody that 
if he could accomplish anything towards supplying it with a thousand dollars, he 
would place that sum at his disposal. The kind offer was accepted, and thus 
originated the nucleus of Thayer Commons. In the full development of the sys- 
tem thus begun, the problem as to the possibility of combining good and cheap 
food has been fully demonstrated. 

Formerly a railroad ran from Cambridge to Somerville, connecting with the 
Fitchburg Railroad near the Bleachery in Somerville. The competition of the 
horse railroad proved too great for the steam railroad, and the company who 
controlled the latter sold the station house at the Cambridge terminus to the Col- 
lege. This building Dr. Peabody persuaded the Corporation to convert to the 
use of commons. The room on the right hand, as one enters the front door, 
was, at the time it was turned to the use of commons, the official residence of 
the Regina Bonarum* On the left there were two rooms. In the front one of 
these was a piano, and the room was used for various purposes. Dr. Peabody 
had held religious services in the rear room. The front room was taken for a 
dining-hall, and accommodated about fifty persons. The Regina was considered 
a proper person to undertake the charge of the commons, and did so. Dr. Pea- 
body purchased the requisite furniture, and the commons commenced in 1865. 
The accommodations were found at once to be too small, and by the end of 
1866 the rear room on the left was taken as another dining-hall, holding about 
the same number as the front room. This was immediately filled. As the vaca- 
tion approached, it became apparent that the accommodations were insufficient, 
and many students were turned away, disappointed, because they could not obtain 
board at commons. 

Mr. Thayer, on being informed of the crowded state of commons, determined 
that a dining-room should be built, and endeavored to raise subscriptions for that 
purpose. He succeeded in obtaining two thousand dollars, and then generously 
contributed five thousand himself. The addition was made to the original build- 
ing, and is the part entered by the door on the left side, as may be seen 

* Term in use among the students to designate the chief person among the "Goodies," or bed- 
makers, i. e. " Queen of the Goodies." 



Il6 COMMONS. 

in the accompanying heliotype, entitled " The Thayer Commons Hall." At a 
cost of two thousand dollars more the kitchen was enlarged, the cellar arrange- 
ments were increased, new cooking apparatus, tables, crockery, glass-ware, etc., 
were purchased, and commons started with renewed favor. Mr. Thayer gave, 
in all, about eight thousand dollars. 

A committee of the Faculty, consisting of three members, was appointed to 
supervise the commons. The immediate control of the Club was left to the 
students, who chose a steward, president, vice-president, and a director for each 
class. A large part of the work of the committee fell on Dr. Peabody, who 
generally audited the accounts. The Thayer Commons were conducted on the 
principle of plain food and plenty of it. The following extracts from the Con- 
stitution of the Thayer Club are given : — 

CONSTITUTION OF THE THAYER CLUB. 

PREAMBLE. 

The undersigned, students of Harvard University, encouraged by the liberality of Nathaniel Thayer, 
Esq., Dr. A. P. Peabody, Professor J. P. Cooke, and the College Corporation, who have kindly 
furnished us with the facilities for procuring board on an economical plan, organize ourselves into 
a 'Club, and, in order to promote its best interests, agree to abide by the following Constitution and 
By-Laws : — 

Article I. — This Club shall be called " The Thayer Club." 

Article II. — The officers shall consist of a president, vice-president, steward, and one director 
from each class, each class choosing its own. All these officers shall be chosen by ballot at the 
last regular meeting of each term, and hold their offices for one term. A majority of all the votes 
cast shall be necessary to a choice. Whenever vacancies occur, they shall be filled by ballot 
Two thirds of the members of the Club shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business. 
The choice of officers shall be subject to the approval of the Faculty. 

Article III. — It shall be the duty of the president to preside over the Club at the regular 
meals, and at all meetings of the Club for business, to preserve order in the dining-hall, and to 
preside at the meetings of the officers. 

Article V. — The steward shall be the responsible agent for the Club. He shall purchase all 
the provisions and other necessary articles for its use, pay all reasonable bills, and keep an accu- 
rate and detailed account of all his expenditures. 

Article VI. — The directors shall assist the president in presiding at the tables, in preserving 
order, and, together with the president and vice-president, prepare a bill of fare for the Club, and 
at regular intervals examine the steward's accounts. 

Article VII. — The wages of the steward shall be fixed each term by the officers of the Club, 
subject to the approval of the members. 

Article VIII. — Any undergraduate may become a member of this Club, if there be a vacancy, 
by signing this Constitution, and depositing it in the steward's box. In case there are more appli- 
cations than vacancies, the preference shall be given to those whose pecuniary resources are most 
limited ; the question to be decided by the Faculty. 

Article IX. — In case any member, after reasonable admonition by any one of the officers, shall 



(JUMMUJNS. ny 

persist in disorderly or ungentlemanly conduct, he may be expelled from the Club by a vote of a 
majority of the members, the vote to be taken by ballot. 

Article XIV. — This Constitution may be amended at any business meeting of the Club by a vote 
of two thirds of the members present, notice of the amendment having been given at least one 
week previous. Every amendment shall be subject to the approval of the Faculty. 

AMENDMENT. 
Article XV. — Assistant stewards shall be appointed by the board of directors to the number of 
not more than one from each of the three lower classes. They shall aid the steward in his duties, 
and their special duties shall be assigned and regulated by the board of directors. Their compen- 
sation shall be determined in the same way as that of the steward. 

It soon became apparent that the accommodations of the Thayer Club were 
insufficient to meet the wants of the continually increasing numbers of the Col- 
lege. There were also the students of the various departments, proctors, resident 
graduates, and tutors, to whom the question of board was a matter of no small 
consideration. President Eliot, recognizing the advantages of securing good food 
at moderate prices to all, determined to bring this to pass, and accordingly while 
in Europe last winter made commons in the English universities a subject of 
special investigation. On his return measures were at once taken to remedy the 
defects of the Thayer Club. A suitable place was to be found for carrying on 
commons on a larger scale than hitherto. The newly erected Memorial Hall 
contained a room in which Commencement dinners were to be served ; it was 
large, convenient of access, and therefore seemed excellently well adapted for a 
dining-hall. In the spring term of 1874 the following paper was distributed 
among the students : — 

SCHEME FOR CARRYING ON THE DINING-HALL IN 1874-75. 
[/« case that the Hall is transferred to the President and Fellows by July 1, 1874.] 

1. The students who board at the Dining-Hall shall constitute an Association. 

2. The officers of the Association shall be a president, vice-president, and two directors from 
each school of the University and each College class represented in the Association ; but if any 
school or any College class shall be represented by less than forty members of the school or 
class, there shall be but one director from that school or class. 

3. The president and vice-president shall be chosen by the Association at large ; the directors 
by the several schools and classes to which they belong. The election shall take place in June 
for the ensuing year, except that the Freshman directors shall be elected in October. The officers 
shall be elected for one year, but shall continue to perform their duties until their successors are 
chosen. Vacancies occurring during the year shall be filled by similar elections for the unexpired 
part of the year. 

4. The president, vice-president, and directors shall regulate the diet in the Hall, preserve 
order, and exercise a general control over the expenditures of the Association. They shall receive 
and consider all complaints about the food and service. They shall have power to expel from the 
Association persons who are guilty of disorderly conduct. 



„g COMMONS. 

5. The president, vice-president, and directors shall choose from among the members of the 
Association an auditor, whose duty it shall be to make written orders for all purchases for the 
Hall, without which orders no purchases shall be made ; to examine and approve all bills for sup- 
plies and service ; to satisfy himself that all goods charged to the Association have been delivered ; 
to keep the weekly lists of persons boarding at the Hall, and the account of allowances for 
absence; and in general to supervise purchases and expenditures, and to see that the affairs of the 
Hall are conducted with economy and precision. The auditor shall receive a salary, to be fixed 
by the president, vice-president, and directors. He shall make to them a monthly report of the 
receipts and expenditures of the Association. 

6. The following rules are to be observed : — 

1. No wine, beer, or other alcoholic drink, and no tobacco, shall be used in the Hall. 

2. The number of courses at dinner shall be three, and these courses shall be served at suitable intervals. 

3. The joints of meat shall not be carved upon the tables. 

4. There shall be a waiter for each table, — the tables accommodating twelve persons each. 

5. From November 1 to March 16 breakfast shall be served from 8 to 9 A. M., dinner at 2 p. M., and sup- 
per at 6 P. M. ; the rest of the year breakfast shall be served from 7 to 8 A. M., dinner at 1 p. M., and supper 
at 6 p. m. 

6. There shall be no allowance for an absence of less than one full week, except that the president, vice- 
president, and directors may make such allowance as they see fit for regular absence on Sundays. 

7. Any person may withdraw from the Hall at the end of any week, upon giving one full week's notice of 
his intention to do so. 

7. The Corporation will advance all the money needed to furnish the kitchen and the Hall, 
charging twelve per cent a year on the amount so advanced, for the payment of interest at the 
rate of seven per cent, and for the ultimate extinguishment of the principal. The Association shall 
keep the furniture and equipment good. 

8. The Corporation will advance, from week to week, the money to pay the bills of the Associa- 
tion for heating, lighting, service, provisions, and so forth ; but all such bills shall be approved by 
the auditor. The interest on these advances shall be at the rate of seven per cent a year. The 
whole cost of carrying on the Hall, including the above-mentioned charges for advances, shall be 
assessed by the officers of the Association upon the members thereof, and the amounts thus assessed 
upon the several members shall be certified by the auditor, and collected upon the term bills 
by the College steward. 

9. The property of the Thayer Club shall be taken at an appraisal by the Corporation, and 
applied to the payment of the present debt of the Club. 

10. The Corporation will appoint a professional steward, who shall make all purchases for the 
Association upon the written orders of the auditor, and not otherwise; who shall employ and direct 
all servants, and in general shall carry on the Hall. The steward may be dismissed on reasonable 
notice by the Corporation, and he shall be dismissed by them on reasonable notice at the request 
of two thirds of the officers of the Association. The steward shall receive a fixed salary, and in 
addition a small sum each week for every person who boarded that week at the Hall ; but this 
head-money shall be proportionally diminished at some rate to be agreed upon as the average 
weekly price of board (including all charges except this head-money) exceeds $ 4.00. He shall 
receive no other compensation, commission, allowance, or perquisite whatever, but shall account for 
all sums which may in any way come into his hands as the steward of the Hall. 

11. In consequence of the large advances of money which the Corporation will make to equip 
and carry on the Hall, they reserve to themselves the power of making from time to time such 
alterations in this scheme as may seem to them calculated to promote the success of the Hall. 



COMMONS. 1 19 

On June 1 a book in which to enter applications for seats in the Hall for the ensuing year will 
be opened at the office of the undersigned, and applications (which must be made in person) will 
be received until June 6. The application will be held to imply assent to the above scheme. 

Students of the professional schools who wish to board at the Hall must file a bond of $ 600, or 
make a deposit of $400, in place of the bond or deposit heretofore required. 

Any set of twelve persons who have entered their names in the book above mentioned may 
secure a table to themselves. The Hall will not be opened for daily use and furnished, unless at 
least three hundred students desire to board there, and not more than five hundred students will 
be received for the first year. One hundred places will be reserved for the Freshman class of 
next year. If there be an excess of applications, the earliest applicants will have the preference. 
The carrying out of this scheme is contingent upon the transfer of the Hall to the President and 
Fellows by July 1, 1874. 

E. W. HOOPER, 
Steward of Harvard College. 

May 28, 1874. 

The conditions embraced in this paper were fulfilled, and the Memorial Hall 
Commons well begun. The basement of Memorial Hall, not originally intended 
for any particular use, had to be fitted up for the culinary department. In the 
summer vacation of 1874 the work was rapidly pushed forward, plate stamped 
with the College seal, cooking apparatus purchased, and everything arranged on 
a scale adequate to the preparation of food for at least five hundred. Notwith- 
standing the incompleteness of the preparations, on the day appointed the first 
commons meal in Memorial Hall was served. A good idea of the Dining-Hall 
may be had by reference to the accompanying picture of the same. The Col- 
lege collection of paintings and busts, which have been moved several times, 
have, it is hoped, at last found a permanent resting-place in this Hall. The 
classes, it will be seen, are broken up by divisions into tables of twelve each; 
these, situated at random through the building, prevent any of those unpleasant 
occurrences which are the result of class feeling, and which have so unfortunately 
characterized former commons. About meal-time the eastern gallery is filled by 
a crowd of people drawn thither by a curiosity to see the students at their meals. 
Thus far the experiment of providing commons for the entire University is suc- 
cessful. 



COLLEGE PRAYERS. 



CHAPTER I. 

Places of Worship. — Rules in Dunster's Day. — Translations from Hebrew required of 
Undergraduates. — Public Confessions and Admonitions. — Fines for Absence and Tardi- 
ness. — Recitations before Breakfast. — Declamations and Literary Exercises at Evening 
Prayers. — Reading of "the Customs." — Dress of the last Century. — Disturbances in 
the Chapel. — President Kirkland. — Tutors and Professors officiate. — Theological 
Dissertations. — Excuses publicly given in Latin. — Rebellion of 1823. 

No history of the University would be complete which did not include in it 
an account of College prayers. Such a narrative is of interest, not only as show- 
ing what exercises were connected with this service in former times, what penal- 
ties were imposed for absence, and what ingenious expedients were resorted to 
in order to avoid them, but chiefly as illustrating the spirit of the students, and 
throwing light upon the real state of the institution at different periods of its 
existence. Whenever discontent, arising from any cause, has prevailed among 
the undergraduates, it has generally, till of late years, manifested itself on these 
occasions, when all the classes were assembled and the participants in a disorder 
could escape detection. Some of the disturbances which have shaken the Col- 
lege to its centre originated or culminated at prayers. There have been also at 
various times startling adventures connected with the bell, the Bible, and the 
Chapel, reports of which, as of the rebellions, have been handed down among 
the traditions of the University, and, though forming no part of its written annals, 
are yet essential to a true understanding of them. In general, it may be said 
that the spirit of the College has, in a great degree, reflected the spirit of the 
age, and this is to be remembered in judging of the events recorded in these 
pages, particularly of those occurring in the earlier periods. The materials for this 
sketch have been gathered, in great part, from oral sources ; although much in- 
formation has been drawn from diaries, class-books, written and printed records 
and documents. The writer has endeavored to verify every statement, to reconcile 



COLLEGE PRAYERS. 121 

and adjust contradictory assertions, and to present, as far as possible, a succinct 
and candid record of facts. 

Originally religious services were held by each class in their tutor's room; 
afterwards all the students came together in Commons Hall or the Library; and 
later an apartment in the old Harvard Hall was used as a chapel. In 1744 
Holden Chapel was erected, which was a building of one story, entered by the 
door at the western end, the seats of which, with backs, were ranged one above 
another, from the middle aisle to the side walls* Soon after 1766 a room on 
the lower story of the new Harvard Hall was taken for devotional exercises. 
Here likewise the seats rose one above another, the Freshmen occupying those 
in front, the Sophomores sitting behind them, the Juniors and Seniors coming 
next; while on either side of the desk, which was at the end nearest the street, 
were seats for the instructors and others. In 1775 the academic buildings were 
occupied as barracks by the American troops, and the College was removed to 
Concord, Mass., where recitations were held in the court-house and prayers were 
attended in the meeting-house.t Harvard Hall continued to be the place of 
worship till University Hall was built, in 18 14. Here divine service was performed 
for forty-four years, until 1858, when Appleton Chapel was erected, which has 
been devoted to sacred purposes to the present time; while University has been 
converted into recitation and lecture rooms, like its predecessors. 

In President Dunster's day, the " Rules and Precepts that are observed in the 
Colledge " required that " Every Schollar shall be present in his Tutors chamber 
at the 7th. houre in the morning, immediately after the sound of the Bell, at 
his opening the Scripture and prayer, so also at the 5th. houre at night, and 
then give account of his owne private reading. Every one shall so exercise him- 
selfe in reading the Scriptures twice a day, that he shall be ready to give such 
an account of his proficiency therein, both in Theoretticall observations of the 
Language, and Logick, and in Practicall and spirituall truths, as his Tutor shall 
require, according to his ability; seeing the entrance of the word giveth light, it 
giveth ' understanding to the simple. Psalm. 119. 130."! By the "Laws, Liber- 
ties and Orders of Harvard College" which in the years 1642 -1646 were "pub- 
lished to the scholars for the perpetual preservation of their welfare and gov- 
ernment," and which remained in force during the seventeenth century, it is 
prescribed that if any scholar, being in health, shall be absent from prayers or 
lectures, except in case of urgent necessity, or by leave of his tutor, he shall 
be liable to admonition (or such punishment as the President shall think meet), 

* See Life of Timothy Pickering, Vol. I. pp. 9, 10. 

t Shattuck, History of Concord, p. 120. 

t Sibley's Harvard Graduates, Vol. I. pp. 7, 8, n, 12. 



122 COLLEGE PRAYERS. 

if he offend above once a week. The daily services in the Hall were conducted 
by the President. In the morning the undergraduates were required to read in 
the Old Testament from the Hebrew into Greek, excepting the Freshmen, who 
were allowed to use their English Bibles; and in the evening to read in the 
New Testament from the English or Latin into Greek. In this connection it 
may be mentioned that in 1688 President Increase Mather ordered from Utrecht 
fifty Hebrew Psalters for the use of the students in Harvard College* The 
reading by the students was followed by an exposition of the passages, which 
was given by the President, who concluded with prayer. On one occasion, when 
President Rogers officiated, his prayer was not so long by half as usual; and 
Cotton Mather remarks, " Heaven knew the Reason ! The scholars, returning to 
their Chambers, found one of them on fire and the Fire had proceeded so far, 
that if the Devotions had held three Minutes longer, the Colledge had been 
irrecoverably laid in Ashes, which now was happily preserved." In 1708 this 
" ancient and laudable practice," which seems not to have been very edifying, 
however, of requiring translations from the Scriptures, was revived; but in 1723 
a report made to the Overseers stated, that the tutors and graduates do gener- 
ally give their attendance on the prayers in the Hall, though not on the read- 
ings ; and that the undergraduates attend both prayers and readings ; but they 
attend in greater numbers at prayers when there are no readings. Some years 
afterwards it was ordered that, when the President could not attend prayers, one 
of the tutors or the Librarian should pray and also read some portion of Scrip- 
ture, they taking their turns by course weekly; and that whenever they should 
do so for any considerable time, they should be suitably rewarded for their 
services. In 1795 it was voted by the Faculty that all the students in future, 
while the Divine blessing is asked upon the Scripture, and during the prayer 
after the reading of the Scriptures, should stand facing the desk, as this was 
the most decent and proper position ; but that during the reading of the Scrip- 
tures they should be all sitting in their seats. 

A peculiar feature of morning prayers at this period was, that, after the exer- 
cises, the President was accustomed to hear public confessions from the students 
in presence of all the classes and officers, and to administer discipline, which con- 
sisted of degradation, admonition, or expulsion, according to the nature of the 
offence. Many instances of this humiliating acknowledgment of error and sin are 
recorded. In the diary of President Leverett we find that "November 4, 171 2, 

A , was publickly admonish'd in the College Hall, and there confessed his 

Sinfull Excess, and his enormous pfanation of the Holy Name of Almighty God. 

* A translation of John Leusden's letter of reply to the President may be found in the Mass. 
Historical Society's Collections, Fourth Series, Vol. VIII. pp. 678-680. 



COLLEGE PRAYERS. 



23 



And he demeaned himself so that the Presid- and Fellows conceived great hopes 
that he will not be lost." On the 20th of March, 1 714, an Indian, who belonged to 
the Junior Sophisters, confessed his fault, and "the flowing of his passions were 
extraordinarily timed, and his expressions accented, and most peculiarly and em- 
phatically those of the grace of God to him ; which indeed did give a peculiar 
grace to the performance itself, and raised, I believe, a charity in some, that had 
very little I am sure, and ratified wonderfully that which I had conceived of him. 
Having made his public confession, he was restored to his standing in the Col- 
lege." On November 4, 171 7, says Mr. Flynt, who refers to a case of stealing 
poultry, " Three scholars were publicly admonished for thievery, and one degraded 
below five in his class, because he had been before publicly admonished for card- 
playing. They were ordered by the President into the middle of the Hall (while 
two others, concealers of the theft, were ordered to stand up in their places, and 
spoken to there). The crime they were charged with was first declared, and then 
laid open as against the law of God and the House, and they were admonished 
to consider the nature and tendency of it, with its aggravations ; and all with them 
were warned to take heed and regulate themselves, so that they might not be in 
danger of so doing for the future; and those, who consented to the theft, were 
admonished to beware, lest God tear them in pieces according to the text. They 
were then fined, and ordered to make restitution twofold for each theft." Presi- 
dent Wadsworth relates in reference to a student who had been a leader in a 

tumult in the College yard : " B , being ordered by vote of y" corporation, 

June 28, 1727, to make a publick confession in y e Hall, his confession was read 
accordingly in y e Hall, after morning prayer, June 29, 1727. But such a dis- 
orderly spirit at y' time prevail.d, y' there was not one undergraduate in y e Hall 

besides B , & three Freshmen, there were also y e President & the two 

Sen r Tutors, but not one Graduate Master or Bachelour besides them. When 
y e Scholars, in thus absenting from the Hall, refused to hear a confession of, 
or admonitions against, y e aforesaid disorders, it too plainly appear'd, y' yy had 
more easy and favourable thoughts of those disorders themselves than they should 
have had ; y e Lord of his Infinite grace in Christ, work a better temper & 
spirit in them." "Sept. 12, 1727. F , L , G were publickly ad- 
monished in y e Hall, for drinking Rum (forbidden by y 6 College Laws) in y e 

College in F 's chamber, & for making disorderly noises in y e College at 

or near midnight. N was withyn, but not in y e Hall, when y e admonition 

was given. F being most guilty (even of lying besides y e other crimes) 

was obliged to make a confession in y" Hall, was called forth from his seat while 
't was read, and he was fined five shillings. The others (excepting N , ab- 
sent) stood in y' places, and received y e admonition, and were punished three 
shillings a piece, but not obliged to make a publick Confession. None of y e 



:2 4 



COLLEGE PRAYERS. 



Fellows were in y e Hall, at y e admonition." During the administration of 
Holyoke it is recorded that, on April 27, 1759, a Senior Sophister made a peni- 
tential confession of sin, which was read by the President immediately after morn- 
ing prayers in the Chapel, the Senior standing out in the alley. Still later, May 26, 
1786, while Willard was at the head of the College, a student, who had insulted 
in a flagrant manner two of the governors of the University, was called out to 
read an humble confession, expressing repentance for his conduct, and was then 
degraded to the bottom of his class. 

Morning prayers at this time were held at six o'clock, and attendance upon them 
was enforced by requiring the payment of money for any delinquency. In 1731 a 
committee of the Overseers recommended that mulcts for absence from chapel 
prayers, from public worship and divinity lectures, be raised ; and that laws with 
severe penalties be made against immoralities, particularly against profane swearing, 
cursing, taking the name of God in vain, Sabbath-breaking, light behavior, play- 
ing or sleeping at public worship or prayers. Accordingly the Laws, passed in 
1 734, prescribed that " All Persons, of what Degree soever, residing in y e Colledge 
and all Undergraduates whether dwelling in the Colledge or in y e Town, shall 
constantly and seasonably attend the worship of God in the Hall, morning and 
evening. If any Undergraduate comes Tardy to Prayers (without Reasons allowed 
by y e President or Tutor that calls over the weekly bill) he shall be fined Two- 
pence each time. And if he be Absent from Prayers without Reasons as afores? 
he shall be fined fourpence each time." The following is the list of the pecuniary 
penalties imposed, which in later times were called "lines of poetry" by those 
who found them on their quarterly bills : — 

£ '■ d. 

Absence from prayers 002 

Tardiness at prayers 001 

Absence from public worship .009 

Tardiness at public worship 003 

111 behavior at public worship, not exceeding . . . .016 

Going to meeting before bell-ringing 006 

Neglecting to repeat the sermon 009 

Irreverent behavior at prayers, or public divinity lectures . 016 

Subsequently, if a student went to the place of public worship before the ring- 
ing of the second bell, he was fined not exceeding one shilling ; if he was guilty 
of disorderly conduct immediately before or after prayers, or of irreverence during 
the service, he was fined a sum not exceeding five shillings; and if he walked 
on the common or the streets or fields of the town of Cambridge on the Lord's 
day he was fined not exceeding three shillings, or was admonished, degraded, 
suspended, or rusticated, according to the aggravation of the offence. Governor 



COLLEGE PRAYERS. 125 

Hutchinson, in his History of the Province of Massachusetts Bay,* says that 
in 1 768 " the spirit of liberty spread where it was not intended. The undergrad- 
uates of Harvard College had been long used to make excuses for absence from 
prayers and college exercises, pretending detention at their chambers by their 
parents or friends who came to visit them. The tutors came into an agreement 
not to admit such excuses, unless the scholar came to the tutor before prayers 
or college exercises and obtained leave to be absent. This gave such offence, 
that the scholars met in a body under and about a great tree, to which they gave 
the name of the tree of liberty ! There they came into several resolves in favor 
of liberty ; one of them, that the rule or order of the tutors was unconstitutional. 
The windows of some of the tutors were broken soon after by persons unknown. 
Several of the scholars were suspected and examined. One of them falsely re- 
ported that he had been confined without victuals or drink, in order to compel 
him to a confession; and another declared that he had seen him under this con- 
finement. This caused an attack upon the tutors, and brickbats were thrown 
into the room where they had met together in the evening, through the windows. 
Three or four of the rioters were discovered and expelled. The three junior 
classes went to the president and desired to give up their chambers, and to 
leave the college. The fourth class, which was to remain but about three months, 
and then to be admitted to their degrees, applied to the president for a recom- 
mendation to the college in Connecticut, that they might be admitted there. 
The overseers of the college met on the occasion, and by a vigorous exertion 
of the powers with which they were intrusted, strengthened the hands of the 
president and tutors by confirming the expulsions, and declaring their resolution 
to support the subordinate government of the college; and the scholars were 
brought to a sense and acknowledgment of their fault, and a stop was put to 
the revolt." In 1780 it was determined that all pecuniary mulcts for the breach 
of the College laws should be reckoned at forty for one on the original sums 
established before the Revolutionary War. 

Immediately after morning prayers the students proceeded to their recitations 
before breakfast, which was served at half past seven o'clock. This order of 
exercises was justified on the ground that it was important that the undergradu- 
ates should not only be roused from their beds, but called to some intellectual 
exertion at an early hour; and that a recitation immediately after rising in the 
morning was the best security for the proper employment of the previous even- 
ing. One result of this was, however, that books were carried into the Chapel, 
and lessons were clandestinely studied during the service. In 1773 a report was 
made to the Overseers that the repeating, on the Lord's day evening, of the 

* Hutchinson's History, Vol. III. pp. 187, 188. 



126 COLLEGE PRAYERS. 

heads of the sermons of the preceding day, did not appear to be attended with 
that good effect which some other exercise would probably produce; and it was 
proposed instead, that a religious discourse should be publicly read by one of the 
students, which would be not only a profitable improvement of the time, espe- 
cially in the longer days, but would have a tendency to form a "just and grace- 
ful elocution." This perhaps led to the practice of having declamations after 
evening prayers. John Quincy Adams writes in his diary: "March 24, 1786. 
After prayers I declaimed, as it is termed; two students every evening speak from 
memory any piece they choose, if it be approved by the President." Dr. John 
Pierce also in his journal says, " At prayers, I declaimed in Latin." When the 
Bowdoin Prizes were first established, the successful dissertations were read in 
the College Chapel after evening prayers, and the novelty of the occurrence 
attracted considerable attention to it. 

Another characteristic usage of those times was the practice at the beginning 
of the year of communicating to the Freshmen after evening prayers "the Cus- 
toms," so called. This was done on successive Mondays by the first three mem- 
bers of the Sophomore class, who were ordered to see them put in execution, 
while the Freshmen were required to attend " with decency " to the reading. 
These Customs originally forbade a Freshman to wear his hat in the College 
yard, unless it rained, hailed, or snowed, provided he were on foot and had not 
both hands full. He was also obliged to go on any errand, except in study 
hours, for those belonging to the other classes, the Seniors having the prior 
right to this service. If he refused, he was complained of or "hoisted" before 
his tutor and compelled to obey. Mr. Adams, in his diary, says : " March 28, 
1786. After prayers, Bancroft, one of the sophomore class, read the customs to 
the freshmen, one of whom (McNeal) stood with his hat on all the time. He, 
with three others, were immediately hoisted (as the term is) before a tutor, and 
punished. There was immediately after a class meeting of the freshmen, who, it 
is said, determined they would hoist any scholar of the other classes who should 
be seen with his hat on in the yard, when any of the government are there." 
In regard to the dress of that period, Professor Sidney Willard, who belonged 
to the Class of 1 798, says : * " Breeches were generally worn, buttoned at the 
knees, and tied or buckled a little below; not so convenient a garment for a per- 
son dressing in haste as trousers or pantaloons. Often did I see a fellow-student 
hurrying to the Chapel to escape tardiness at morning prayers, with this garment 
unbuttoned at the knees, the ribbons dangling over his legs, the hose refusing 
to keep their elevation, and the calico or woollen gown wrapped about him, ill 
concealing his dishabille? 

* Memories of Youth and Manhood, Vol. I. pp. 318, 319. 



COLLEGE PRAYERS. 127 

The earliest instance of the taking of a Bible out of the College Chapel 
occurred in 1785, when, it is said, a tutor, passing an undergraduate's room, 
saw on the table two Indian images, which had been removed from the gate- 
posts of a gentleman's residence in Cambridge, and heard the student, who 
held the missing Bible in his hand, vociferating before them. "What is the 
meaning of this noise ? " he asked. " Propagating the gospel among the Ind- 
ians" was his reply* In the year 1798 small holes were bored in the candles 
upon the pulpit and filled with powder, in consequence of which the lights 
were suddenly extinguished one after another. In 1807 a serious disturbance 
took place in the Chapel. The students, dissatisfied with their commons, had, 
in pursuance of a combination, all left the tables at dinner-time, in violation 
of the law which prohibited their going out of the hall before thanks were 
returned. The government thereupon voted that certain individuals should dis- 
solve their connection with the College ; and the next morning after prayers the 
President communicated to the students the votes of the Corporation, but, when 
reading the same, he was interrupted for a time by rude shuffling of feet.t 

The fines now had been fixed in American currency, two cents being im- 
posed for each tardiness at prayers, three cents for each absence, and sixty 
cents for going to the place of worship before the tolling of the bell. The 
records show that for reading at prayers students were mulcted fifty cents each, 
and for improper attitude at public worship they were sentenced to pay one 
dollar. For some slight offence a tutor at this time fined an undergraduate 
twenty cents, and sent his freshman to inform the individual of the fact, so 
that it might serve as a warning. This sum was to be included in the charges 
on his bill, and paid at the end of the quarter; but the student coolly took 
out a dollar from his pocket and gave it to the freshman, telling him to 
pay the tutor, and bring him back the change. In 1825, these petty fines, 
which were a tax on the parent instead of a correction of the son, were dis- 
continued as an ordinary penalty, and imposed only for damages done to the 
rooms and furniture; the authorities desiring that the students should be in- 
fluenced to good conduct and literary endeavor by higher motives than the 
fear of punishment. 

After Rev. Dr. Kirkland assumed the presidency, in 18 10, he officiated at 
morning prayers, being regularly summoned by the Regent's freshman, who 
was aroused by a clock which still stands in the office of the Bursar, and 

* B. H. Hall, College Words and Customs. 

t A Narrative of the Proceedings of the Corporation of Harvard College relative to the Late 
Disorders in that Seminary, Cambridge, April, 1807, p. 13. See also A Statement of Facts relative 
to the Late Proceedings in Harvard College, Cambridge, published by the Students, Boston, April 
10th, 1807. 



128 COLLEGE PRAYERS. 

who rang the bell at morning and evening. The evening service was con- 
ducted by the Professors and tutors, who followed one another in the order 
of seniority, each occupying one week. On one occasion, when there was no 
person in the pulpit, and the students were about to leave, saying, " It 's a 
miss, it 's a miss," Dr. Popkin, the Professor of Greek, came down from the 
gallery, walked up the aisle to the desk, and beginning with the words, " It 
is not a miss," proceeded with the service. Inasmuch as these devotional ex- 
ercises were frequently performed in an indifferent and perfunctory manner by 
those who had little or no interest in them, they were far from edifying, and 
often were very distasteful, to the students. Being obliged to rise before day- 
light, to go through the winter's storms and stand shivering in a cold room, 
listening to what seemed to be mere routine, even in the opinion of those who 
conducted it, and then to go to recitations before they had breakfasted, it is 
not surprising that, thus ill-prepared in body and mind both for worshipping 
and reciting, they should have had a spirit of discontent, which manifested 
itself in various disorders. They disfigured Harvard Hall, fastened up the doors, 
blew the bell to pieces with gunpowder, stole the monitors' bills, and on one 
day a hog's head was placed on the Bible. Prayers were then held by can- 
dlelight, and once the candles were cut and a flat piece of lead was inserted 
into them, which was covered with tallow, so that, after burning for a certain 
time, they unexpectedly went out. On another day a monitor was detained in 
his room, and prevented from going to the Chapel, by students who locked his 
door, and remained with him during prayer-time, thinking that thus no list of 
absences would be taken ; he, however, in his report, marked them as the only 
ones that were absent. When Mr. Ashur Ware, who was Tutor and after- 
wards Professor of Greek, prayed, inasmuch as he was somewhat peculiar, hesi- 
tating, and embarrassed in his devotions, the undergraduates were liable to be 
seized with irrepressible fits of sneezing, which resulted in the sounds " A-a- 
s/iur," " A-a-shur-ware" which were heard all over the building. There was also 
a couplet current among the students : — 

"And if but a fly your olfactory tease, 
You '11 think about Ashur whenever you sneeze." 

Before one of the religious exercises some " pull-crackers," as they were called, 
had been fastened to the lids of the Bible, which, on being opened, caused them 
to explode with a loud noise. Dr. Kirkland thereupon made an earnest address 
to the undergraduates, saying that these repeated disturbances by them must 
stop ; that they had not been sent here by their parents or friends for such pur- 
poses; and that, sooner than the high objects for which the College was founded 
should be thus frustrated, every individual should be dismissed " and these walls 



COLLEGE PRAYERS. 129 

left to the owls and the bats." His words made a deep impression on the stu- 
dents, many of whom went out saying, " That 's right," " The President 's right." 

In order that the interest in the daily devotions of the Chapel might be increased, 
it was proposed that the attendance of the Professors, graduates, ' and all other 
persons connected with the College should be required ; but this measure was 
not adopted, it being considered as desirable rather than attainable. It was, 
however, voted in 1827, in order to secure greater respect for the service, that, 
in the absence of the President, prayers should be performed by the Professor 
of Divinity, and in his absence by the senior resident Professor. 

In those days it was the custom for each Divinity student who received 
assistance from the Hopkins Fund to read four theological dissertations, occu- 
pying about ten minutes, after evening prayers in the College Chapel. In one 
year the undergraduates were required to listen to thirty-two such dissertations, 
among which were an English essay on " Ejaculatory Prayer," and a Latin 
disquisition on " The Hebrew Masoretic Points." At the end of every week 
the absences were announced publicly in Latin, and the excuses therefor were 
likewise given in Latin. Thus a student might be informed, " Ter abfuisti " ; 
and he might reply, " Semel aegrotavi," " Bis invalui," " Detentus ab amicis," 
" Ex oppido," " Tintinnabulum non audivi." On one occasion a Freshman, who 
had been charged with three absences, answered, " Non ter, sed semel ab- 
fui ; Carolus frater locked me up in the buttery," — the boy's Latin having 
suddenly failed, amid the great amusement of all present. Prayers were never 
omitted, however small might be the attendance upon them. On the night 
of the 17th of April, 1821, the elder Kean had a benefit at the Boston The- 
atre, and nearly all the students went to witness the performance. During 
the play a very severe storm arose, the like to which has not since been 
seen at this season of the year. Snow fell so fast that carriages could scarcely 
pass through the streets, and the means of return for the students were cut 
off. The next morning in Cambridge the snow was two feet deep on a level, 
and only three undergraduates appeared at prayers. Nevertheless, the service 
was held. 

In November, 1822, a great disturbance was made by the Juniors at evening 
prayers, in consequence of the tutor who officiated having detained them too 
long. On the next day the President, unable to designate any particular indi- 
viduals as guilty, gave a public admonition to the whole class. In April, 1823, 
occurred a very remarkable uprising among the Seniors, which was manifested 
in the Chapel at prayers. X. had distinguished himself in all his studies, and 
was about to graduate as the first scholar. Just before the Exhibition in the 
spring, Z., it was believed, had given information which had reached the Faculty 
that X., who was a beneficiary student, had spent in dissipation money that had 



130 COLLEGE PRAYERS. 

been given him by the government, and that also which had been furnished by 
members of the class. X., when summoned before the President, denied the charge, 
and offered to show a full account of his expenses from the beginning of his col- 
lege course. Notwithstanding this, he was notified that he would be deprived of 
all pecuniary assistance and academic honors during the remainder of his stay 
at the University, and he was forbidden to deliver his oration at the Exhibition. 
He was soon afterwards chosen Class Orator, and he accepted the part, provided 
a committee would obtain the sanction of the President. It having been rumored 
that some expressions of indignation would be made at the Exhibition, the class 
voted that they would discountenance any disturbance on that occasion on which 
Z. was to speak. When, however, the day came and Z. appeared, he was hissed, 
and for nearly five minutes the Chapel was in an uproar. The next day, X., who 
had earnestly requested that no demonstration should be made, since he knew 
that it would only add to his own punishment, was called up and charged with 
being responsible for the disturbance; and, although assurance was given by 
others that this had happened contrary to his earnest appeals and that he had 
done all he could to prevent it, he was dismissed. The class, in view of his 
high standing and good conduct during the last three years, — for the accusation 
which had been brought against him related only to his conduct in the Freshman 
year, — feeling that a great injustice had been done in thus depriving him of his 
degree when he was about to take the highest rank, solemnly resolved that they 
would not attend another exercise with Z. as their classmate. On the same after- 
noon the class assembled for declamation in the Chapel. Z. came late, after every 
one was seated ; but instantly all rose as one man, and with the cry, " Out ! " 
" Out ! " rushed upon him, and thrust him headlong down the stairs. The members 
then returned, in order to continue their declamations; but Professor Channing 
ordered them all to go to their rooms. A meeting of the government was called at 
once, and four students were expelled. On learning this, the class were still more 
incensed, and they determined that, if Z. came to evening prayers, they would 
put him out. Z. entered the Chapel after the service had begun, whereupon the 
class rose up as before and drove him from the place, the President loudly calling 
them to order and refusing to go on with the exercises. After tea, the bugle 
was sounded under the Rebellion Tree ; and when the students had assembled, 
Dr. Popkin addressed them, advising them to disperse, and reminding them of the 
consequences of their not doing so. " We know it will injure us in a degree" was 
the reply. A majority of the class then resolved that they would not return to 
their work until the four expelled members were recalled and Z. was sent away 
from College; that they would attend prayers the next morning for the last time, 
and if Z. appeared that they would put him out and punish him severely, but 
if he did not appear, that they would leave the Chapel themselves. Z. did not 



COLLEGE PRAYERS. 131 

come, having left Cambridge on the previous evening; and accordingly the class 
rose quietly in a body and marched out of the Chapel, while the President again 
discontinued the services. After breakfast thirty-seven, comprising all who had 
engaged in or who approved of the proceedings, — the so-called "White List," in 
distinction from the others who were styled the " Black List," — were dismissed, 
and thus prevented from graduating at Commencement. This resolute action of 
so large a number of students was the more significant since they were now Seniors, 
of a more advanced age than the majority of undergraduates, and, having nearly 
finished their studies, they would not have voluntarily sacrificed their rank and 
standing by adopting measures which they knew would prove prejudicial to them- 
selves, except under the conviction that a grievous wrong had been done. This 
consideration seems also to have had weight with the College authorities, for, 
after about twenty years had passed, their degrees were granted to these gentle- 
men on their application, as appears in the Triennial Catalogue. X. was after- 
wards for a long time a member of the Examining Committee in Greek, while 
Z. became a clergyman and a member of the Massachusetts Legislature. Both 
are now deceased; and it should be mentioned that Z., in one of the last years 
of his life, declared that the suspicion of his class was without foundation. 



CHAPTER II. 

JOSIAH QUINCY AND HENRY WARE. — CHARGE OF SECTARIANISM. — ANNUAL REPORTS. — INTERRUP- 
TIONS and Disorders at Prayers. — Devices to escape Attendance. — Rebellion of 1834. — 
Edward Everett's Addresses to the Students. — Presidency of Jared Sparks. — Of James 
Walker. — Bible sent to New Haven. — Incidents in Regard to the Bell and the 
Chapel. — Events during President Felton's and President Hill's Administrations. — A 
Student actually jumps from Hollis to Harvard. — Present Regulations and Improve- 
ments. — Recent Occurrences. 

During the sixteen years in which Josiah Quincy was President, from 1829 to 
1845, he never failed of being present at morning prayers, excepting on three 
days, when he was obliged to be absent as a witness in court on business of 
the College.* The President's seat was directly in front of the organ, which 
stood on the west side of University Hall, facing the minister. On the sides of 
the pulpit sat the Freshmen and Sophomores, and in front the Juniors and 
Seniors; and the monitors were taken from the Junior class. After the interior 
of the Chapel had been altered, Mr. Quincy was accustomed to sit in the first 
pew on the right of the minister, in front of the audience. Whenever communi- 
cations were to be made to the students, they were always given at prayers, the 
President requesting the members of any class which he wished to address to 
remain, and reading to them what he had previously written ; since, like Presi- 
dent Webber, he never attempted to speak without a manuscript. The devo- 
tional exercises were conducted by Dr. Henry Ware, Sr., in the morning, and 
by Rev. Henry Ware, Jr., in the evening, and afterwards by Professors George 
R. Noyes and Convers Francis of the Divinity School. 

The janitor, Kiernan, after the ringing of the first bell, was wont to go to the 
house of the clergyman who was to officiate and make sure of his attendance, 
and on his way back he passed in the rear of Holworthy, clapping his hands 
to wake up the Seniors. It was generally understood in those days that, when 
it was too dark for the minister to read, the monitors did not mark. In the 
latter part of the life of old Dr. Ware, when he had become almost blind, the 
undergraduates sometimes took advantage of this established custom, and lay in 
bed when it seemed to be scarcely possible for any one to read. But the ven- 

* Life of Josiah Quincy, by Edmund Quincy, p. 483. 



COLLEGE PRAYERS. 133 

erable man, utterly unconscious how dark it was, would repeat the Scripture from 
memory, and then the monitors would be compelled to mark, and the absences 
were recorded. In April, 1831, Francis C. Gray, then a member of the Corpora- 
tion, addressed a public letter to Levi Lincoln, Governor of Massachusetts, vin- 
dicating the College against the charge of sectarianism, which had been brought 
on the ground that the daily religious services were performed by Professors in 
the Theological School. " It is alleged," he says, " that the prayers are made by 
the Professors in Theology, and may pervert the minds of the pupils. Surely 
no one in New England can contend, that so large a family should not have 
any morning and evening prayers. It is true, that the Theological Professors 
pray; but who else should pray? And, after all, what is the objection to their 
prayers? It is expressly admitted, that the prayers will contain no matter of 
controversy; nothing to startle the most timid conscience. But then they will 
omit some peculiar doctrines. The objection is, not that they contain Sectarian- 
ism, but that they omit Sectarianism. That is the charge, that is the sin, and 
that is the truth." At one period, when both Dr. Ware and his son were ill, 
Joseph Lovering, who was then a student in the Divinity School and also Tutor 
in Mathematics, and who for the last thirty-seven years has been Hollis Professor 
of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy, officiated for three months. 

By a vote of the Overseers passed in February, 1826, it was ordered that 
the President present in a tabular form statements showing the number of 
students in each class, the number of exercises omitted, the number of those 
that were excused and that were not excused. Accordingly, Mr. Quincy's Annual 
Reports' contain a minute account of the attendance at prayers, of which the follow- 
ing is an example : — 

OMISSIONS AND PUNISHMENTS. 

Year 1829- 1830. 

I. Senior Class. 
Whole number of the Class 48 

Absence from Daily Prayers, 
Whole attendance on Daily Prayers required of each individual 13 per week, 40 weeks 520 

Whole do. required of the whole Class in the year, 520 X 48 24,960 

Whole number of Absences in the first term ending December, 1829 . . . 1,046 

Do. in the second term ending April, 1830 1,507 

Do. in the third term ending July, 1830 i,S44 

Whole number of absences, excused and unexcused, during the year, of this Class, from Daily 

Prayers 4,097 

The result of this number (4,097). divided by the whole number of the Class (48) shows that the 
number of absences from Daily Prayers was for the whole year (40 weeks) equivalent to 85 absences, 
or 28 a term, or 2 a week for each individual. 



134 COLLEGE PRAYERS. 

In point of fact, no individual in this Class exceeded, during the first term, 2 absences from this 
exercise per week. 

In the second term, two were deemed to have exceptionally and without excuse exceeded that 
average, and were admonished on that account. 

In the third term, three exceptionally or without excuse exceeded that average, and were accord- 
ingly admonished. 

The same detailed report is made in regard to the other classes. A similar 
specification, including also the non-attendance at recitations and other literary 
exercises, makes a part of all the official reports of President Quincy ; but it 
was not continued by his successors. 

Excuses for absence and permission to be absent from prayers were obtained 
by the students personally from the President at his office. In 1844, however, 
Mr. Quincy stated to the Overseers that such excuses were no longer received, 
as they had been, from the undergraduates themselves, unless they were of full 
age. " For every absence the undergraduate is required to bring a written excuse 
from his parent, guardian, or physician. This brings him continually under 
domestic surveillance, and gives the Faculty of the College evidence of the reality 
of his excuse of the most unquestionable authenticity." Disturbances occurred 
occasionally at prayers, those who thought they had any grievance taking ad- 
vantage of such times to resent them, unmindful of the words of the Preacher, 
which seem almost to have been written with reference to collegians, "Keep thy 
foot when thou goest to the house of God," etc. (Ecclesiastes v. 1). On one 
occasion President Quincy left his seat and went directly in front of those who 
were "scraping" with their feet, and stood there while the service proceeded. 
At another time, after an undergraduate had been suspended, Rev. Henry Ware, 
Jr., opened the exercises with the Scripture, " Make a joyful noise," etc., when 
suddenly, though not in the sense intended by the Psalmist, "a joyful noise" 
began. At every word he was interrupted by the students, and as he repeated 
they repeated. At length he paused, and said in a tone of voice which indicated 
that he felt that he had a duty to perform, and was determined to perform it, 
" I intend to read this Psalm without interruption, if daylight holds out." Inas- 
much as the confusion lasted several .minutes, the Senior class, feeling that it 
was useless under such circumstances to remain, left the Chapel. It appeared 
to be a principle of honor with the students that, if any member of a class was 
punished, all the others must espouse his cause, even if he were not worthy or 
popular. Disorders took place much more frequently at evening prayers, and in 
later years especially when the lamps were first lighted. In the morning the 
students were disposed to be less turbulent ; but in the evening they were more 
reckless and ready for a frolic, coming fresh from their sports, and bringing with 
them whatever feelings of annoyance had been excited during the day. When 



COLLEGE PRAYERS. 1 35 

those who participated in a disturbance could not be discovered, the Faculty 
applied the "law of selection," singling out such persons as had been idle or 
remiss, and informing them that they would be liable to punishment, in case the 
disorder should be repeated. At length, however, the long seats were taken out 
of the Chapel and settees were substituted in their stead, in order that the feet 
of the students might be no longer out of sight of the proctors. 

Various devices were employed to escape the duty of attending prayers. Ex- 
cuses on the ground of delicate health, for which a physician's certificate might 
be procured, or based upon religious scruples if the student professed to hold a 
different form of faith, were presented. The bell was turned up and filled with 
water, which was frozen in the night; it was painted and oiled, in the hope of 
destroying or deadening the sound; and the rope with which it was rung was 
cut. The Bible was stolen from the pulpit, and in one instance was put in the 
stove, and in another was concealed in the. organ, when it was too early to 
obtain a copy from the Library. A note from President Quincy to Mr. Peirce, 
the Librarian, dated April 30, 1831, says: "The large Bible has been taken 
from y e Chapel. I wish you to select a folio copy from y e Library and send it 
to y e Janitor to be placed in y e Chapel desk this afternoon." Monitors were 
bribed not to mark their fellow-students, and even fifteen cigars were offered 
to one, if he would not record an absence, — this being, in reality, a self-im- 
posed pecuniary mulct or fine. Compulsory attendance upon religious exercises 
seemed to many to justify their using every means to evade or disregard them, 
and hence acts were often done, which, under different circumstances; would 
not have taken place. Thus to the Dudleian Lecture, which formerly was de- 
livered once a year in the Chapel, which occupied frequently more than an 
hour, and which all the classes were obliged to attend, the undergraduates came 
sometimes with books hidden under their cloaks, which they would secretly 
read; and once, when the preacher had given out the closing hymn and an- 
nounced that it was to be sung to " Hebron," the students all joined in sub- 
stituting the words of a song which they were accustomed to sing to that tune, 
beginning, — 

"There were three crows sat on a tree 
And they were black as black could be," — 

and those of the audience who did not notice the language were greatly sur- 
prised at the general participation and spirit of the congregation. 

The morning dress, or rather undress, of many at this period was extremely 
simple. A cap, cloak, pantaloons, and boots were all the articles that were abso- 
lutely necessary, and often all that were worn by those who awoke as the last 
bell was ringing and were obliged to go in a hurry to prayers. This was some- 



136 COLLEGE PRAYERS. 

times evident to others, especially when an undergraduate entered the door at 
the side of the pulpit in full view of the classes, and was obliged to put forth 
his arm to take off his cap. 

Several minor incipient outbreaks occurred during Mr. Quincy's r&gime, which 
were at once suppressed. A collision had taken place in an entry, and a tutor's 
freshman had informed against his classmates, and in consequence was ducked. 
Several of those who took part in this were sent off, and then began a tumult 
which lasted for some time. The students absented themselves from prayers and 
recitations for several days and danced around the Rebellion Tree, maintaining 
that it was unjust for the government to listen to an informer and to punish 
those whom he had spoken against. 

The most important event by far of this administration, however, which be- 
came a matter of public notoriety and of general interest, was the rebellion of 
1834, — the most remarkable one which the College has ever seen, — which was 
participated in, to a greater or less degree, by members of all the classes, and 
which continued for the space of two months. It began on May 19th, in the 
recitation-room of Christopher Dunkin, who called upon M., a Freshman, to 
read certain Greek proper names; and he, being corrected for his translation, 
replied that he did not care to read them. Dunkin, who was a young Eng- 
lishman, insisted that what he said must be done, whereupon M., who was a 
Southerner and of full age, declared that he could not acknowledge such 
authority in him. This was reported to the President, who told M. that he 
must retract and apologize for what he had said; but he, being high-spirited, 
refused, and said that he would take up his connection with the University, 
which he did on May 21st. As he belonged to the Porcellian Club and was 
a great favorite with the other classes, his withdrawal was the occasion of a 
long series of riotous proceedings. The recitation-room of Tutor Dunkin, which 
was in the northeast corner of Massachusetts Hall, was that night torn in pieces, 
all its furniture broken, and every window dashed out. On the next morn- 
ing and evening, prayers were interrupted by whistling, groaning, and squeaking 
toys concealed under the clothing, commencing with the Freshmen and seconded 
by some of the Sophomores, who had petitioned that the writing of Greek exer- 
cises might be no longer required, but who had been refused. On the following 
day torpedoes were snapped into the air, and, falling on the floor, burst in dif- 
ferent parts of the Chapel. The same disgraceful scenes took place on the subse- 
quent day, and the Freshman class were detained after prayers by the President, 
who expostulated with them. Since the property of the College had been de- 
stroyed, the night-watch attacked, and the perpetrators of these outrages were 
undiscovered, members of the Sophomore and Freshman classes were sent for, 
and informed that a legal investigation would be made before the civil tri- 



COLLEGE PRAYERS. 137 

bunals, if these outbreaks did not cease. This anticipated disgrace of a public 
prosecution exasperated these individuals all the more, since they seemed to 
think that for any offences which they might commit they should not be 
amenable to the laws of the State. The disturbances were repeated, and B., 
a Freshman from South Carolina, was detected, and, being an unmatriculated 
student, his term of probation was closed. A petition was immediately pre- 
sented to the Faculty, which had been signed by a majority of all the stu- 
dents, asking that B. might be restored, not because he was not guilty, but 
because others were more guilty than he. On the next evening, and on the 
following morning and evening, the 28th, the whole Sophomore class, with 
three exceptions, absented themselves from prayers ; whereupon it was voted by 
the Faculty that all, with three exceptions, should be sent away from College, 
— an instance that is without parallel in the history of the institution. 

On the next morning the Sophomores came into the Chapel through the 
door opposite to that by which they usually entered, and marched two and 
two across the entire floor to their seats, when a repetition of the offensive 
noises took place. The President rose and attempted to speak, but he was 
hardly able to utter a syllable, being continually interrupted by loud cries, 
" Hear him ! hear him ! " At last he requested that the services should be 
discontinued, and he ordered the Sophomores to remain, but the order was 
not obeyed. Immediately after this Mr. Quincy communicated in succession to 
the several members of this class the vote of the Faculty, which had been 
adopted on the previous evening, and he directed them to quit Cambridge be- 
fore twelve o'clock, which they did after meeting round the Rebellion Tree. They 
were at a later period informed that after Commencement they might be re- 
admitted, upon passing an examination and presenting a certificate of good con- 
duct. The vote of .the Faculty declining to recall B., as had been requested, 
was communicated to the three remaining classes about noon, and in the course 
of the afternoon the windows of three recitation-rooms, and the furniture of 
two of them, in University Hall were destroyed ; and on the same evening, 
the 29th, the Freshman class came in to prayers and took their places on the 
Sophomore seats. As soon as the religious exercises began, there arose the 
same tumult, in which, according to a previous agreement, the Juniors joined. 
Two Freshmen and one Junior were dismissed for this disorder, the former 
for six months and the latter for one year; and two others, who shouted and 
groaned in the entry on the next evening, were sent away for nine months. 
The Junior class then voted to wear crape on the left arm for three weeks, 
to publish an article in the newspapers, and to burn the President in effigy. 

On the 2d of June it was determined by the Faculty and authorized by the 
Corporation that legal proceedings should be instituted, and two indictments 



I3 8 COLLEGE PRAYERS. 

were brought against three individuals of the Sophomore class, — one for a 
trespass, and one for an assault on the College watch in the night-time. On 
the 4th of June the President, in the name of the Faculty, addressed a Cir- 
cular to the parents and guardians of the students, which was printed in all 
the daily papers, informing them of the course which had been adopted, and 
the reasons for this action. On the 5th of June, Dr. Henry Ware, Sr., pub- 
lished a card in the Boston journals, contradicting a report that he was op- 
posed to the measures which had been pursued, declaring that there had been 
an unusual degree of harmony and unanimity in the opinions of the several 
members of the Faculty, and that he made this announcement lest the con- 
fidence of the community in the immediate government might be impaired by 
such a report of a want of union in that body. 

On the nth of June the Senior class, who had thus far taken no part in 
any of these proceedings, held a meeting, and appointed a committee to pre- 
pare a Circular, reviewing what had been done, and making a further statement 
to the public. This document, which was written by a Kentuckian, by request, 
was much toned down by the committee ; but nevertheless it reflected severely 
upon the doings of the Faculty, which it characterized as precipitate and un- 
just, and also on the conduct of the President, impeaching even his integrity 
and sincerity. The authors, signers, and distributors of this statement were im- 
mediately sought for, and every Senior was questioned in regard to the part 
he took in it, when it appeared that five were concerned in preparing it, 
three in circulating it, twenty-eight approved of it, fourteen had nothing to do 
with it, while two were absent. The newspapers in Boston and other cities, 
which had published the first Circular, printed also this reply to it, besides 
many communications on the subject, some taking the part of the students, 
and others supporting the government. On the 30th of June, outcries were again 
made at prayers, for which two Freshmen were separated from the College, 
one, an unmatriculated student, for a year, and the other for five months. At 
the valedictory exercises in the Chapel on Class Day, July 16th, after the ora- 
tion by one who has since been Governor of Maine, the poet, to the surprise 
of all, produced a slip of paper, and read from it a formal prohibition from 
the President of the University against his speaking his piece, on account of 
the subjects treated in it. Clapping, stamping, and hisses followed, but the Poem 
was delivered in the evening at the class supper in Murdock's (afterwards 
Porter's) Hotel, to which all the undergraduates were invited. During these 
last eight weeks, and until the close of the term, no studying was done, the 
students being occupied with their various class meetings, and the instructors 
attending the frequent sessions of the Faculty. On the 31st of July, the Presi- 
dent's Circular was laid before the Overseers, and on the 21st of August a 



COLLEGE PRAYERS. 



■39 



committee, of which John Quincy Adams was chairman, made an able report 
fully vindicating the government, and censuring the Senior class for constitut- 
ing themselves " a Court of Errors and of Appeals." * 

Many of those who were then suspended, belonging to the Class of 1834, have, 
at various times since, received their degrees, as the Triennial Catalogue shows.t 
Some who were foremost as leaders in the excitement have risen to honorable 
positions in Church and State. Mr. Dunkin was reappointed tutor, and re- 
ceived an honorary degree from the College. The history of the affair has been 
thus celebrated in verse by one who was a prominent actor as well as sufferer 
in it: — 

"While Dunkin pecks our section with his Greek, 
We cut our turns and down the gutter leak, — 
Just from the second story, corner room, — 
And leave him rattling his Digamma drum ; 
Too fine he drams it, and his pert demand 
Is more than sons of patriots can stand. 
The bonfire kindles, and the shutters feed, 
There 's popping sharp, and claret-bottles bleed ; 
The armory is stormed, and bayonets prod 
And punctuate where through Zumpt we used to plod. 
By every window we take panes to say 
That study is suspended for the day. 
Down granite steps the stoves are skipping sent, 
With crash as if we stove the firmament. 
The daily papers took our riot down; 
From Copp's Hill to the Neck one virtuous frown 
Gloom'd over Boston streets. Before the rail 
And telegraph put spurs to every mail, 
The news by all the spinsters' shudders went 
From Harvard Green across the continent. 
Old Quincy lowered and pitied ; and the claim 
Of Alma Mater from an Adams came, 
With a queen's tone, a mother's grieving look, 
This misrule of her children to rebuke. 
In vain; we Goths twitch'd every sapient beard, 



* Proceedings of the Overseers of Harvard University, the Report accepted and the Resolutions 
adopted by them on the 25th of August, 1834, relative to the late Disturbances in that Seminary. 

t This practice of granting degrees, after some time has elapsed, to those who have been dismissed 
from College, has prevailed from the earliest times. James Ward, who in 1644, being about twenty 
years of age, was publicly whipped for burglary by President Dunster himself, and then expelled, ob- 
tained his degree, and afterwards became a Fellow of Magdalen College at the University of Oxford, 
where he was also made Master of Arts, and subsequently was created Bachelor of Physic at the 
same University. See Sibley's Harvard Graduates, Vol. I. pp. 121, 122. 



140 COLLEGE PRAYERS. 

And massacred advice the most endeared. 

The College bell invites us, we refuse ; 

Hear it not, Dunkin, for it is no use ! 

When Greek meets Greek there comes an ugly tug; 

We toast disaster to him in the mug. 

Felton feels of us in the Lower Hall, 

Retires, 'his duty done,' he says, — that's all. 

At length, to crown exploits, the Class declares 

'Twill interrupt old Sykes at morning prayers; 

We '11 group, we '11 rush, when he begins to say, 

His spectacles unshipping, 'Let us pray.' 

Day broke, and we had broken all beside ; 

The bell begins to toll, the boys deride; 

The entry's filled, when, by an instinct quick, 

Or by some carefully matured ill trick, 

The crowd falls back ; two men are left in front, — 

Ringleaders, it was said, — they bear the brunt. 

My half I bore ; instead of sailing wide, 

A Nauti-cus, upon Rebellion's tide, 

I hurried home, a Rusti-cus, to dig, 

And ran my jolly-boat a different rig. 

This exile food to my reflection lent 

That once too oft to morning prayers I went. 

On my return, to cure this fault, I heard 

Each morn the bell cajole, and never stirred. 

There never was so marked a sacrifice ; 

But all such passive virtues men despise. 

Alas ! my many misses made the miles 

That stretched again 'twixt me and Stoughton's aisles." 

While Edward Everett occupied the Presidency, from 1846 to 1849, the exer- 
cises in the Chapel were from time to time enlivened by the President's eloquent 
addresses, which were called forth after some provoking prank had been played 
by the students. Thus a foolish freak or antic, the outburst perhaps of a super- 
abundance of animal spirits, being made the subject of a formal and elaborate 
exhortation, its authors felt complimented on what they had done, and were 
encouraged to repeat it. The speeches of Mr. Everett were truly eloquent and 
finished, as all his productions were, abounding in apt classical allusions and 
enriched with quotations from modern literature, and they were delivered with 
that consummate grace and elegance for which he was so deservedly celebrated. 
They commanded attention and admiration ; but they failed of producing the 
effect for which they were intended. For, charmed by his rich and rare oratory, 
and flattered because they were able to draw forth such performances, the rogues 
were prompted to continue their misconduct in order that they might enjoy fur- 



COLLEGE PRAYERS. 141 

ther feasts of rhetoric. Many characteristic remarks of the President on these 
occasions were long remembered and quoted, just as his sermons had been thirty 
years before. 

Under the administration of Jared Sparks, from 1849 to 1853, a bold theft of 
the Bible was accomplished, which was taken at midnight from the Chapel in 
June, 1852, and sent by express to New Haven. It was directed to the Librarian 
of Yale College, Mr. E. C. Herrick, who immediately informed Dr. T. W. Harris, 
the Librarian of the University, and returned it through a bookseller in Boston, 
so that it might not be intercepted. On one of the blank leaves of the book 
were printed certain memoranda, of which the following is a portion : — 

HOC • BIBLVM • 

RAPTVM • VI • A • PVLPITE • HARVARD • COLL • CHAPELLI ■ 

FACVLTATI • VALI • AB • HARV • COLL • VNDERGRADVATIBVS • DONATVR • 

REWARDVM • MEEITI • ET • LENITATIS • IN EXPELLANDO • SOPHOMORES • XXV. 

FVR • ET • RECEPTOR ■ IDEM • 

IN • VESTRO • LIBRARIVNCVLO • RETINETE • 

COVERES • SERVAMVS • IN • VSVM • CHESSBOARDI • 

PRO • HELTER • SKELTER • CLVB • 

From 1853 to i860 the President's chair was filled by Rev. Dr. James Walker. 
At this time singing by a choir was first introduced at morning prayers, and 
selections from the Psalms and Prophecies were read alternately by the min- 
ister and the congregation, a " Service-Book " for that purpose having been pre- 
pared by Professor Huntington. The evening devotions were discontinued, it 
being very difficult to secure attendance upon them, inasmuch as the students 
were liable to be scattered, to be engaged in games of ball or absent in rowing 
or on a walk, and the services, which took place at an early hour, especially 
in winter, seriously interfered with the recitations and studies. The experiment 
was also tried of having morning prayers after breakfast, as is customary in 
other colleges ; but it did not succeed. It was not popular with the under- 
graduates, who were obliged to eat in a hurry, or to go without breakfast if 
they happened to rise late, and it was found to be not conducive to health. 
According to the Regulations of the Faculty in 1856, absences from prayers 
were reported at the Regent's office, and no absences were excused except in 
the case of students keeping school by leave of the Faculty, or those permitted 
by the President to leave town, or those detained by illness for at least one 
day ; and in the last case, the certificate of a known physician was required. 



142 COLLEGE PRAYERS. 

Two Bibles which had been unlawfully taken from the College pulpit were 
returned to Dr. Walker, and an individual, who was concerned in injuring one 
of them, offered to pay the expense of putting it in perfect order. The bell, as 
in former years, received considerable attention. Sulphuric acid was poured into 
it, in the hope of ruining it, but with the only effect of ruining the clothes of 
the one who undertook to destroy it. On another occasion when the bell had 
been tampered with, the doors leading to the belfry were found to be screwed up, 
the heads of the screws filed so that they could not be drawn out, and other 
work done which it had taken the entire night to complete, in the confident 
expectation that there would be no summons the next morning to prayers; but 
notwithstanding this, the energetic janitor, Mills, forced his way to the belfry, 
and, finding the tongue gone, rang the bell by striking it with his hammer. Very 
frequently the attempt was made to prevent prayers by filling the keyholes of 
the doors of the Chapel and Harvard Hall with various substances ; but it was 
all in vain, for the officials by long experience were prepared for every emer- 
gency, and could remove such articles faster than they were put in. Once a 
piece of iron, which was a necessary part of the organ, was abstracted, with a 
similar design, and left at the house of the Secretary of the Board of Overseers. 

A very discreditable act was done when the Chapel was wantonly defaced. 
The cushions were taken from the Freshmen's seats, which then were colored 
green. The walls and ceiling were bedaubed with paint, and around the 
room were placed various mottoes, " Hie est vir " being written over the seat 
of a tutor who was quite popular, and " Ora pro nobis " being the inscrip- 
tion that was put on the pulpit. When this act of vandalism was discovered, 
directions were given that the second bell should not ring, and prayers were 
suspended while the Chapel was papered and these disfigurements were oblit- 
erated. On one evening some students endeavored to take down a sign which 
represented a hand pointing to the words " Plumber's Shop." Their purpose 
was to place it upon the Chapel, the preacher of which was designated as 
the " Plummer Professor." They were, however, watched by the police, who 
took positions at the ends of the street, so that there was no possibility of 
their escape, and who, closing in upon them, drove them with their spoil into 
the station-house. 

The event of this period, however, which became the most widely known, which 
occasioned the most intense excitement, and which therefore cannot be omitted in 
such an historical review as we have undertaken, was the attempt that was made 
in January, 1860, to put the Bible of Yale College on the Harvard pulpit in ex- 
change for the Cambridge Bible, which had been sent to New Haven. Informa- 
tion that this would probably be done had already reached the authorities of the 
University, and accordingly a special police officer was employed for the protection 



COLLEGE PRAYERS. 143 

of Appleton Chapel. The events that followed — the midnight struggle, the sur- 
render, the arrest, and the subsequent proceedings — were the source of great 
concern and regret to all the friends of the College. 

The affairs of the College from i860 to 1862 were administered by Cornelius 
C. Felton. One day, the Bible having been stolen, Dr. Peabody, who was now 
the Preacher to the University, was obliged to read from the Douay version of 
the Scriptures, which was the only one that could be procured at short notice. 
At the end of the last century there was a tradition that Joseph McKean, who 
was a member of the Class of 1794 and afterwards Professor of Rhetoric 
and Oratory, while an undergraduate, visited the College belfry, and then ran 
down the roof of Harvard Hall, leaped across to Hollis, and escaped. Since the 
distance ' between the eaves of the two buildings is about three feet, and the 
height four stories, the tale has seemed to many persons intrinsically improb- 
able. This feat, however, was actually accomplished in 1861, when a daring 
Sophomore, who had forced his way through the skylight to the roof of Hollis 
Hall, jumped from Hollis to Harvard with a vessel of tar in his hands, and put 
the stuff on the bell ; but it scarcely affected the sound. He also, after having 
accomplished his errand, jumped back again. More than one witness can be 
brought to vouch for this almost incredible occurrence. No suspicion, how- 
ever, attached to Tarbell, who happened to be a Junior at the time. In the 
year following the figures " 1862 " were discovered painted in large size on the 
round window at the eastern end of the Chapel ; and afterwards the edges of the 
cushions of seats were streaked with coal-tar, which was destructive to pantaloons. 

But two incidents having relation to our subject took place while Rev. Dr. 
Thomas Hill presided over the University, from 1862 to 1868. While Appleton 
Chapel was undergoing repairs, in consequence of the leaky condition of the roof, 
services were held in the old chapel in University Hall, and the President officiated 
during the absence of Dr. Peabody, who was in Europe. One morning a student, 
who came in at the door by the side of the pulpit, threw a lighted bunch of fire- 
crackers under the desk, expecting that they would go off after all had assembled. 
Dr. Hill, however, smelt the smoke, and, putting forward his foot, quietly extin- 
guished the fire before the exercises began. When, during the War of the Re- 
bellion, the news of the capture of Richmond by the national forces was telegraphed 
to the North, it was announced by Dr. Hill after prayers in the Chapel. Every 
heart was thrilled by the intelligence, and with solemn joy the students, as they 
went out, gathered around the steps of the building and united in singing Old 
Hundred, before they separated. 

Since President Eliot entered upon the duties of his office, in 1869, the choir 
has been dispensed with at prayers, and the singing has been performed by the 
whole body of the students, who are led by the Glee Club, and use a book of 



144 COLLEGE PRAYERS. 

"Melodies and Hymns" prepared in 1870, which adds greatly to the interest of 
the service. According to the present Regulations, fifty unexcused absences are 
allowed to each undergraduate without penalty in every academic year, of which 
not more than ten occur before December 1st; but this allowance is reduced to 
forty in the case of those who are regularly excused from Monday prayers. For 
every unexcused absence beyond the allowance three marks of censure are im- 
posed, and for every unexcused tardiness eight; although formerly for a tardi- 
ness one was punished less than he was for an absence* Strictly speaking, no 
person is tardy who enters the outer door of the Chapel before the last stroke of 
the- bell, even if he has not reached his seat. Those who live at a certain dis- 
tance from the College yard, beyond what is termed "the prayer line," which is 
a circle measured by a radius of about a third of a mile from the Chapel, are 
exempted from attendance at prayers. Marks of censure, which are incurred not 
only for absence and tardiness, but for "completing the toilet," improper posture, 
levity of conduct, whispering, etc., during the exercises, are not now combined 
with marks of scholarship, and do not affect the rank of an individual. If, 
however, in the course of any one year, a student's unexcused absences (in addi- 
tion to the allowance) amount to ten, he is immediately reported and receives a 
private admonition. If these absences amount to twenty, he receives a public 
admonition, — a grade of punishment which is still called by its original name, 
although it has long ceased to be announced in public. If they amount to thirty, 
he is put on special probation. If they amount to forty, he is suspended, at 
least until the end of the academic year. Excuses are granted by the Dean, 
although cases of importance are referred to the Faculty. Whenever any parent 
objects on religious grounds to his son's attendance upon Chapel exercises, and 
asks that he may be excused, his request is granted. 

During the alterations in Appleton Chapel in 1872-73, daily prayers were 
entirely discontinued from September to February; but it was remarked that no 
perceptible change in the conduct of the undergraduates resulted in consequence 
of this omission. President Everett, in one of his Annual Reports, emphasized the 
importance of the devotional services, as creating a religious principle and forming 
desirable habits in those who attended them. " They are the foundation of the dis- 
cipline of the place, and apart from their higher object, they are all-important in 
this respect. They should be regarded throughout the institution as the first of 
duties." t President Eliot, however, after alluding to the fact which has been men- 
tioned above, says : " The Faculty thus tried, quite . involuntarily, an interesting 
experiment in College discipline. It has been a common opinion that morning 

* See pp. 124 and 127. 

t Annual Report for 1847-48, pp. 19, 20. 



COLLEGE PRAYERS. 145 

prayers were not only right and helpful in themselves, but also necessary to Col- 
lege discipline, partly as a morning roll-call and partly as a means of enforcing 
continuous residence. It was therefore interesting to observe that the omission 
of morning prayers for nearly five months, at the time of year when the days are 
shortest and coldest, had no ill effects whatever on College order or discipline. 
There was no increased irregularity of attendance at morning exercises, no unu- 
sual number of absences, and, in fact, no visible effect upon the other exercises 
of the College, or upon the order and quiet of the place. The Professors and 
other teachers living beyond the sound of the prayer-bell would not have known 
from any effect produced upon their work with the students that morning prayers 
had been intermitted."* In December, 1873, it was proposed by the College Fac- 
ulty that, beginning with the following academic year, attendance at church, at 
daily prayers, and at recitations, lectures, or exercises other than examinations, 
should be made voluntary for the Seniors, until otherwise ordered. This vote 
was approved by the Corporation and laid before the Overseers for their con- 
currence ; but they amended it by striking out the words " daily prayers," in con- 
sequence of which presence at this service has been obligatory upon all the 
students during the past year. In November, 1874, Sunday-morning prayers were 
done away with, it being found that they were not held in any of the other col- 
leges ; so that Harvard was the last to abolish them. Sunday-evening prayers 
were discontinued a century earlier, in 1766. 

But few unusual occurrences have taken place since the establishment of the 
present new order of things at the University. Where upwards of seven hundred 
students are assembled, away from home, coming from all parts of the country, 
and enjoying for the first time a liberty that is unchecked by the restraints of 
public opinion, it is not strange that some lawless deeds should be committed, 
and that there should be some reckless or thoughtless fellows who would be will- 
ing to engage in any perilous undertaking regardless of its character, and who are 
unable to distinguish between an act of sacrilege and a practical joke. In 1870 
the stone pillars and floor of the porch of Appleton Chapel were disfigured by 
red paint, being made to represent the poles and sign of a barber's shop. This 
act of vandalism, however, received no countenance from the students. On the 
contrary, it was universally condemned as unworthy of gentlemen, and as dis- 
graceful to all who were concerned in it. A more harmless jest was perpetrated 
on the day before Thanksgiving in 1873, when an immense turkey, weighing 
seventeen pounds, was found firmly fastened to the bell. It was intended as a 
present to the janitor; but it was tied on in such a manner that it was sup- 
posed it could not be removed in season for him to ring for prayers. These 

* Annual Report for 1872-73, p. 9. 



146 COLLEGE PRAYERS. 

expectations, however, were disappointed, for promptly at the minute the bell 
sounded as usual. In the spring term of 1874 the books containing the register 
of absences from prayers mysteriously disappeared from the Dean's office ; and, 
as this was generally known, many, whose past record was now destroyed, availed 
themselves of the opportunity to be absent more frequently than they would 
otherwise have done. In November, 1874, a Freshman foolishly undertook to 
secure as a trophy the tongue of the bell, and for this purpose he ascended with 
a companion to the roof of the new addition to Harvard Hall ; but before he 
had time to mount higher he was surprised and recognized, and was suspended 
for three months for attempting in the night without authority to enter the 
belfry. 

From the survey which we have taken it is evident that within the last few 
years a marked progress has taken place in the spirit and deportment of the 
undergraduates, and that no former days were better than these. A general de- 
corum, good order, and outward reverence are now observed in the Chapel. The 
spirit of rebellion, which was once so rife, has passed away forever. The relation 
of antagonism between the students and the Professors, which so long existed, 
has disappeared. A more liberal system of rules has been adopted, greater free- 
dom is allowed, everything is done for the comfort of those who are connected 
with the University, and the elective system, by releasing individuals from studies 
which they dislike and bringing together members of different classes, while it 
has weakened the class feeling which made "combinations" possible, has intro- 
duced a higher morale and a better spirit among the students. The exercises 
in the gymnasium, moreover, together with boating, base-ball, and other games, 
which of late years have been encouraged, occupy the leisure of the more active 
undergraduates, and furnish a vent for their superfluous energy and vitality. 
With the abolition of hazing it may be confidently believed that all disturbances 
at the devotional exercises have ceased. The undergraduates now are older than 
they were formerly, they have more respect for sacred rites and more self-respect, 
and having become men they have "put away childish things." 

The motto placed upon the last and noblest of the College buildings, " Hu- 
manitas, Virtus, Pietas," proves that the University will be true to its traditions 
and to the principles of its founders, and that it will continue to stand, as the 
inscription on one of its early edifices declares, 

In Honorem Dei Et Reipublice Emolumentum. 




COMMENCEMENT DAY. 



Commencement Day formerly the great Holiday of New England. — Extracts from the 
Journal of Chief Justice Samuel Sewall, showing the Mode of celebrating it. — In- 
creasing Disorder at Commencements. — Attempt to keep the Day of its Celebration a 
Secret. — Extravagance of Dress and Entertainments at Commencements. — The Cor- 
poration grant Permission to the Students to entertain one another and Strangers 
with Punch. — Places in which Commencements have been held. — Character of the 
Commencement Parts. — Changes through which they have passed. — The future 
Commencement Dinners to be given in Memorial Hall. — The Degree of M. A. con- 
ferred on Nathaniel Bowditch. — Interesting Incident connected therewith. — Class 
Day. — Its Influence on Commencements. 



It seems at first a little strange that the general interest in our great aca- 
demic festival should have become less as the University has grown greater. 
From the earliest days of the Colony till within the memory of men not yet old, 
it was the great holiday of the Province and of the State, and not of the State 
only, but largely of New England as well. There was no town so remote that 
did not look forward to it, and make it the subject of talk when it arrived. 
There was scarcely one that did not send up its minister or other chief inhabi- 
tant to assist at its solemnities and tell of its glories on their return. And that 
was in the days of comparatively small things; but then it was in the time of 
few holidays and rare amusements. The very increase of wealth, and the multi- 



I4 8 COMMENCEMENT DAY. 

plication of the facilities of trade and of the variety of inventions for disposing 
of leisure time, have lessened its comparative importance. Tours were rare in 
those days, and confined to the wealthier classes. A journey of a hundred miles 
to Cambridge was more of an event then than one to Niagara, if not to San 
Francisco, is now. And as to the neighboring city, the custom of the universal 
summer dispersion had not yet set in. Only a few of the wealthier gentlemen 
had country-seats, the exodus to the Springs had scarcely begun, and Newport 
and the Mountains were as yet unknown. People stayed at home in their pleasant 
houses, many of them with trees in front and gardens behind them, and when 
Commencement came round they were very glad of the gentle fillip which it gave 
to the quiet monotony of their summer lives. 

In the very early days of the Province the interest in Commencement was 
great in proportion to the just value the founders of our Commonwealth felt 
for the College, which was to preserve and transmit to future generations the love 
of sound learning which distinguished themselves. But in that world before 
newspapers there were very few details preserved of the gossiping kind which 
make the past live again, and we know but little of the circumstances attending 
those earlier Commencements. The governor and magistrates and the clergy and 
principal inhabitants assisted at the service from the first. " The Questions main- 
tained by the Commencers in their publick Acts" at the first Commencement, 
1642, have been preserved, and may be found in Mr. Sibley's most interesting 
" Biographical Sketches of Graduates of Harvard University," which contains, in- 
cidentally, nearly all that is now known on this particular subject. Chief Justice 
Samuel Sewall, who graduated in 1671, has preserved in his invaluable Journal, 
now in the possession of the Massachusetts Historical Society, more accounts of 
Commencements than are to be found elsewhere, though they are altogether too 
brief and usually silent on matters which we should like most to know. On 
July 1, 1685, he writes: — 

" Commencement Day. Peter Butler comes in from London, brings news of 
the King's Coronation. Cousin Nath. Dummer brought by Cousin Jer. to our 
house this day. He came in Mr. Butler* who came in late last night, so came 
not ashoar till this morning. Goes to the Commencement with Eliakim. Besides 
Disputes, there are four Orations, one Latin by Mr. Dudley and two Greek, one 
Hebrew by Nath. Mather, and Mr. President [Increase Mather, appointed the 
month before] after giving the Degrees, made an Oration in praise of Academi- 
cal Education of Degrees, Hebrew tongue. - . . . Governour there, whom I ac- 
companied by Charlestown. After dinner y 2 3d part of y e 103d PS. was sung 
in y e Hall." 

* Sic in original, and the usual way of designating the ship in which a traveller crossed the ocean 
by the name of the captain. 



COMMENCEMENT DAY. 



'49 



It does not appear that ladies were admitted to this solemnity. It is not likely 
that they would have been greatly entertained by the one Latin, two Greek, and 
two Hebrew Orations, or even by the Disputes, as they were also held in the 
Latin tongue. Two years later Judge Sewall gives the following account of the 
Commencement of that year: — 

" 1687. July 6. Waited on his Excellency (Sir Edmund Andros) to Cambridge. 
Eleven Bachelours and seven Masters proceeded. Mr. Mather, President, pray'd 
forenoon and afternoon. Mr. Ratcliff sat in y e pulpit by Governour's direction. 
Mr. Mather crav'd a Blessing, and return'd Thanks in y e Hall." 

Mr. Ratcliff was the Church-of-England Chaplain of Sir Edmund Andros, and 
his intrusion into the pulpit was doubtless a grief and scandal to the Puritan 
assembly. The next year, 1688, July 4, Judge Sewall again records: — 

" Commencement managed wholly by Mr. Wm. Hubbard [President Mather 
being absent in England], he compared Sir William (Phips) in his Oration to 
Jason fetching the Golden Fleece. Eleven Masters proceeded and no Bachelours. 
Several French came over in Foy, some men of estates." 

Sir William Phips had recently been knighted for recovering a large amount 
of treasure from a Spanish galleon which had been sunk near the Bahamas. 

Whether the fair sex were permitted to attend the Commencements in the 
first century of the life of the College or not, the idea of wine being excluded 
from the Commencement dinner was one which could not have suggested itself 
to the minds of our pious founders. So we find Judge Sewall giving this ac- 
count of what took place at the Commencement of 1701. Two days before he 
writes : — 

" Lt. Governour (Stoughton) said he would go to y e Commencement once more 
in his lifetime, so would adjourn the Court till Friday and did so. But was 
very much pained going home. Mr. Nelson, Secretary and I visit him on Tues- 
day to dissuade him from going, lest some ill-consequence should happen. He 
consented and ordered us to present his Bowl. On Wednesday, after Dinner and 
Singing I took it and had it filled up and drunk to the President (Mather), say- 
ing y* by reason of y e Absence of him who was y e Firmament and Ornament 
of y e Province and y e Society I presented that Grace Cup pro more Academiarum 
in Anglia. The Providence of our Sovereign Lord is very investigable in that 
our Grace Cups brimful], are passing round, when our Brethren in France are 
petitioning for the Coupe de Grace!" 

This is probably the first example of the rhetorical figure, paronomasia, or pun, 
recorded in the academic annals of Cambridge. It is quite likely that there had 
been such before, as there certainly have been several since. It was not a very 
good pun, requiring a mispronunciation of the French word Coup to make it 
Coupe, but the excellent Chief Justice was probably stronger in his Latin than 



150 COMMENCEMENT DAY. 

his French. And as the authentic historian of New York, Diedrich Knicker- 
bocker, says of a certain joke of one of the Dutch Governors, that " it was not 
much of a joke, but good enough for a Governor," so we may say of this one, 
that it was good enough for a Puritan Chief Justice. 

Lieutenant-Governor Stoughton died the week after this present had been 
made in his name, and he did not forget the College in his will. He had set 
the example, too, which has been so generously followed in our own time, of 
building a dormitory during his lifetime. It received his name, and was the 
predecessor of the Stoughton Hall of the present day, which still keeps his 
memory fresh in the minds of all the sons of Harvard. The Grace Cup, thus 
bestowed as a dying gift to his Alma Mater by Governor Stoughton, is still pre- 
served among the College plate, though its legitimate use has long been obsolete 
"in these coster-monger days." 

As the eighteenth century advanced, and as the Province, and especially Boston, 
grew richer and more populous, the throngs that sought Cambridge on Com- 
mencement Day grew larger, and not only larger, but more riotous and disorderly, 
so that at one period, between 1720 and 1740, the Corporation endeavored to 
keep the day of its celebration a secret, for the avowed purpose of preventing 
the great and promiscuous concourse that it brought together. But this was a 
thing not possible to do, and the attempt was soon abandoned. During the last 
century the Commencement was the transcendent holiday of the Province. It 
was the great gathering day of colonial rank and fashion, as well as of gravity 
and learning. The Old Meeting-house, which was admirably constructed to display 
an audience, must have had a gorgeous effect in the days of gold-laced and em- 
broidered waistcoats and peach-bloom coats, of silver-hilted rapiers, of brocades, of 
the " wide circumference " of hoops and the towering altitude of crape cushions. 
I recollect a venerable lady telling me how she sat up all night in an elbow 
chair, the night before Dr. Danforth's Commencement, in 1758, for fear of dis 
turbing the arrangement of her hair, which had to be dressed then or not at all. 
such was the demand for the services of the fashionable coiffeur pi the time. 
Those were the good old days, too, when a roomy family coach could contain 
only two ladies, — one sitting forwards and the other backwards, with the ex- 
tremities of their hoops protruding from the windows on either side. It was at 
a rather later time that the head-dresses aspired so proudly that ladies going 
abroad in full dress had to carry their heads out of the coach-windows. 

The extravagance of the students as to dress and Commencement entertain- 
ments attracted at an early day the attention of the authorities of the College, 
and gave rise to sundry sumptuary laws, which had the usual success of such 
enactments. In 1754 a law was made that "on no occasion any of the scholars 
wear any gold or silver lace, or any gold or silver brocades in the College or 



COMMENCEMENT DAY. 15 1 

town of Cambridge; and that, on Commencement Daye every candidate for his 
degree appear in black, or dark blue, or gray clothes; and that any candidate 
who shall appear dressed contrary to such regulations may not expect his de- 
gree." I do not know how long these restrictions were enforced, or what effect 
they may have had. But it is known that in 1790 a gentleman, afterwards 
prominently connected with the College, took his degree dressed in coat and 
breeches of pearl-colored satin, white silk waistcoat and stockings, buckles in his 
shoes, and his hair elaborately dressed and powdered according to the style of 
the day. The prudent care of the fathers of the College endeavored to restrain 
the extravagance of entertainments as well as of dress, in the graduating class. 
As long ago as 1722 a law was passed forbidding them "from preparing or pro- 
viding either plumb cake, or roasted, baked or boiled meats, or pies of any kind," 
and from furnishing " distilled liquors or any Composition made therewith [a species 
of composition in which the students excelled in my time], upon pain of being 
fined twenty shillings and the forfeiture of the provisions and liquors, to be 
seized by the tutors!" Such were the sweet prerogatives of tutorship in those 
days ! But the depravity of our fallen nature, sharpened by the cunning which 
over-rigid College rules naturally stimulate in the ingenuous youth subjected to 
them', was too much for the Dons of a century and a half ago. So they had to 
reaffirm the act of 1722 in 1727, with the added stringency that "if any presume 
to do anything contrary to that act, or to go about to evade it by plain cake, they 
shall not be admitted to their degree." But prohibitory laws were as hard to 
execute in those days as in these, and a few years afterwards an enlightened 
public opinion obliged the Overseers to recommend, and the Corporation to con- 
sent to, the repeal of the law "prohibiting the drinking of punch," and a vote 
was passed, " that it shall be no offence if any scholar shall, at Commencement, 
make, and entertain guests at his chamber, with punch!' But this limitation as 
to times and seasons was too much for the rising spirit of liberty to endure, so 
in 1 760 it was ordained that " it shall be no offence if the scholars, in a sober 
manner, entertain one another and strangers with punch, which, as it is now 
usually made, is no intoxicating liquor ! " Whether it has retained its primitive 
innocence unto this day, is a question which must be referred to more competent 
authorities to decide. At any rate, the grave heads of the College thus confirmed 
the doctrine of the Chaplain of Newgate in the days of Jonathan Wild the Great, 
as to the orthodoxy of that beverage, who is recorded by his historian, Henry 
Fielding, to have authoritatively pronounced "punch to be a liquor nowhere 
spoken against in Scripture." It will be observed that it seems never to have 
entered into the heart of any College governor, however truculently virtuous, to 
forbid the use of wine on any occasion. They would as soon have thought of 
forbidding the use of the Bible. 



■52 



COMMENCEMENT DAY. 



The very earlier Commencements were held in the Hall of the College, as 
appears from Sewall's Journal and the College records. I am not sure that it is 
known exactly at what period those solemnities were transferred to the Meeting- 
house. It had certainly taken place previous to 1725, on the seventh day of July, in 
which year President Wadsworth was inaugurated, it being Commencement Day. 
On that occasion, as on similar ones before and after, there was a procession 
from the College to the Meeting-house. " The Bachelors of Arts walked first 
two in a rank, and then the Masters, all bare-headed ; then followed Mr. Wads- 
worth alone as President ; next the Corporation and Tutors, two in a rank ; then 
the Honorable the Lieutenant-Governor Dummers and Council; next to them the 
rest of the gentlemen." From 1758 to 1833 the Commencements were held in 
the Meeting-house of the First Parish, the northern boundary of which corre- 
sponded with the southern boundary of Dane Hall, as it now stands. For pur- 
poses of public representation it was very ill replaced by the present Parish 
Church, where the Commencements were held from 1834 to 1872. The Old 
Meeting-house was a simple structure of the old style of New England ecclesias- 
tical architecture, of which very few specimens are now extant. It had an his- 
torical interest apart from its connection with Commencement. It was here 
that Washington attended divine service during the siege of Boston, and the pew 
in which he sat was pointed out to curious visitors. It was also the place where 
the Convention was held in which the Massachusetts Constitution of 1780 was 
framed, the most perfect model of a republican government ever made, — almost 
every alteration in which has been a blunder and a misfortune. In 1873 the 
Commencements were transferred to the Appleton Chapel, where they will prob- 
ably continue to be held until the Theatre, which is to form a part of the 
Memorial Hall, is ready for use. 

The Commencements were omitted in 1764 because of the small-pox, and from 
1775 to 1 781 on account of the Revolutionary War. As to the day for holding 
them, it has been from the beginning what the Catholics call a " Movable Feast." 
Mr. Sibley finds himself unable to fix the precise day of the Commencement of 
1642, but it was probably in August. The days were changed from time to 
time as the authorities thought best. For a long time it was held on the first 
Wednesday in July. In 1678 the day was altered for the nonce, because a great 
eclipse of the sun occurred on the first Wednesday of July. Fifty years ago 
and for some years previous it was held on the last Wednesday in August, — a 
season at that period very favorable to a brilliant attendance. About 1850 the 
time for holding Commencement was changed to the latter part of July, and of 
later years to early in June. For more than the first hundred Commencements, 
— indeed, I believe, for the first hundred and twenty-one, — the exercises were all 
in Latin, and consisted of theses and disputations on various logical, grammatical, 




FIE ST FAMISH CHUMCH 



COMMENCEMENT DAY. 



153 



ethical, physical, and metaphysical topics. These exercises, or some of them, were 
not discontinued till 1820. The first Oration in English was delivered at the 
Commencement of 1763 by Jedediah Huntington, of Connecticut, afterwards a 
general in the Revolutionary Army, and prominent in the affairs of his State. 
After the revival of Commencements in 1 781, if not earlier, English exercises 
made a chief part of the services. That year the first poem in our academical 
annals was delivered by John Davis, for forty years the United States District 
Judge for Massachusetts, and for seventeen Treasurer of the College, — an emi- 
nent jurist and a man of great classical and general erudition. An English 
Oration was the highest honor of the University for several years, the Latin 
Salutatory being the second. In the year 1787 another Oration was added 
to the exercises, in recognition of the scholarship of John Ouincy Adams, the 
sixth President of the United States. Mr. Adams, having received his earlier 
education in Europe, joined his class at the beginning of the Junior year. He 
was undoubtedly the best scholar of them all, but the government of the time, 
probably thinking it hardly fair that an eleventh-hour man should carry away the 
highest prize from one who had borne the burden and heat of the whole four 
years, devised this way of doing him honor without injustice to his fellow-student. 
For many years there were but two English Orations, assigned to the two 
highest scholars in the class, the first in rank being the last in the order of de- 
livery. The Salutatory Oration in Latin, which introduced the exercises, ranked 
as the third honor. In the year 1825 a third English Oration was added to the 
traditional two, to satisfy an exceptional academical condition of things. After- 
wards, the custom was continued, and the number of Orations multiplied at the 
discretion of the Faculty ; but I believe they always indicated the rank of the 
orators in the inverse order of delivery. After the Orations, as marks of aca- 
demical rank, came the Dissertations, and after them the Disquisitions, Literary 
Discussions, Colloquies, Essays, and Conferences, all of which had due significance 
to the initiated. The graduate who had the first Oration was, for many years, 
required to introduce the names of the chief benefactors of the University, — a 
grateful acknowledgment, which, I believe, is still annually made at the English 
universities. This custom has been long since discontinued. So has that of the 
part taken for many years by the Masters of Arts. Of these the one who had 
the first English Oration as Bachelor had an English Oration on his class taking 
their Master's degree, and the Bachelor Salutatorean delivered his valedictory to 
the University in Latin. These exercises were discontinued in 1844, solely, as I 
understand it, for the sake of shortening the performances, the length of which 
was excessive. It was a graceful participation in the ceremonies on the part of 
graduates of three years' standing, the discontinuance of which was the subject 
of very general regret at the time. Perhaps, under the new disposition of the 



,I 5 4 COMMENCEMENT DAY. 

Commencement exercises, the custom might be revived in some form, with ad- 
vantage both to the occasion and to the University. Formerly every Senior 
whose scholarship placed him in the first half of his class was entitled to a part 
at Commencement, according to his merit. This plan made the exercises inor- 
dinately long, and since the number of the students has so greatly increased of 
late years, it became obviously impracticable. Various arrangements have been 
made from time to time with a view to shortening the exercises, and they have 
now certainly been reduced to a point of brevity which has caused some cavillers 
to complain of their being too short ! It is surely the lesser evil of the two, and 
one which it will be easy to amend, if amendment should be thought best. 

If we are rightly informed, the present method of assigning parts for Com- 
mencement is this : The students who are entitled by their scholarship to have 
parts assigned to them are instructed, or permitted, to prepare Orations, Disser- 
tations, or Disquisitions, according to their rank, and the writers of the best of 
those offered are the ones who appear at Commencement. The order of exer- 
cises is printed on the programme in the usual form, so that the rank of each 
man receiving honors may be known, but only those who have distinguished 
themselves as above appear on the stage. The circumstance which excited the 
most observation among the friends, and the unfriends, of the College, at some 
of the later Commencements, was the absence of every exercise in Latin. It 
surely cannot be because there is no graduating student capable of writing one. 
Why might not the good old Salutatory be revived and given to the best Latin 
scholar in the class ? Or, if there were any doubt on that point, might it not 
be decided by a friendly competition ? From the beginning, the solemnities of 
Commencement have been rounded by a dinner, at which, in the olden time, the 
graduating class waited as servitors. For many years none were entitled to dine 
in the Hall until they had taken their Master's degree. Of later years, I believe, 
all the graduates are admitted to the hospitalities of the University. And now 
that the magnificent Memorial Hall has been completed and dedicated, it will 
probably be many years before its ample space will be too narrow to welcome 
all who can claim a seat at the table of their common Mother. 

For nearly the whole of the last century, and for the first thirty years of this, 
Commencement held its own as the great feast-day of the State. The Governor 
and Council, escorted by the Governor's body-guard in provincial days, and, since 
the Revolution, by such cavalry as Boston afforded, went to Cambridge in 
state. Before Charlestown Bridge was built, in 1788, his Excellency had to 
make a circuit through Roxbury and Brighton. The whole population of Boston 
seemed to precipitate itself upon Cambridge. The road was covered with carriages 
and vehicles of every description, with horsemen and footmen, going and return- 
ing. The Common near the College, then unenclosed, was covered with booths 



COMMENCEMENT DAY. 



'55 



in regular streets, which, for days before and after, were the scenes of riot and 
debauchery. The village, indeed, had the look of a fair, with its shows and 
crowds and various devices for extracting money from the unwary. The wealthier 
graduates gave expensive entertainments to their friends. After the dinner, the 
President held a reception, which was attended by the authorities of the State, 
the College, by the principal inhabitants of Boston and the strangers of distinction 
from abroad and other States, who mustered formerly in much greater force than 
now. Commencement Day was a prescriptive holiday in Boston. The banks and 
custom-house were closed, and very few shops remained open. It is but recently 
that it has ceased to be a legal holiday. The occasion for its being so regarded 
had long ceased, for it is many years since it had any visible effect on the busi- 
ness life of the city. But it was not so fifty years ago, to say nothing of seventy- 
five. I well remember the celebrated Nathaniel Bowditch, LL. D., the author of 
the " Practical Navigator," and the translator of Laplace's " Mecanique Celeste," 
once telling me the story of his first visit to Cambridge. He was then a practical 
navigator himself, and the ship of which he was captain dropped anchor in Bos- 
ton Harbor on Commencement morning, and he found himself with a ship and a 
day upon his hands. With the ship he could do nothing. The custom-house 
was closed, and the consignees had gone to Commencement. So he thought he 
might as well follow their example, and see what Commencement was like. He 
had never been in Cambridge, and knew no one there, and no one connected 
with the government of the College. Accord- 
ingly, he found his way to Cambridge, and 
elbowed himself into the Meeting-house just at 
the close of the exercises, when President Wil- 
lard was giving their degrees to the graduating 
class. He did not quite understand what it 
was all about, but was amused at the oddity of 
the proceedings, and continued to watch their 
progress. Presently, the President, seating him- 
self in the curiously carved old oak chair which 
has been the academic throne of the heads of 
the College from time immemorial, and crowning 
his well-powdered wig with his square cap, began 
to announce the honorary degrees. Soon he 
heard his own name among the number. He 
did not know what it meant, but he understood that the authorities of the 
University, with not one of whom he had the slightest personal acquaintance, had 
bestowed an honorary distinction of some sort upon him. Fourteen years after- 
wards he received the degree of Doctor of Laws, and was thenceforth always known 




The Preside 



I5 6 COMMENCEMENT DAY. 

as Doctor Bowditch. He was afterwards elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of 
London and Edinburgh, of the Royal Irish Academy, and of other foreign scien- 
tific bodies, as well as of all the principal ones of this country; but he declared to 
me that not any or all of the honors he afterwards received gave him so much 
pleasure as that unsolicited and unexpected Mastership of Arts at Cambridge. It 
came, he said, just at the right time, and was indeed a word spoken in season. 

Thus Commencement gradually changed its character from the riotous and uni- 
versal holiday of fifty years since to the quiet and undemonstrative festival which 
it has now become. The change was one that came over it through the change 
in the habits and circumstances of the people. There was no external pressure 
brought to bear on the matter, as I remember, unless it were as to the suppres- 
sion of the booths on the Common. And of this I am not sure. Class Day has 
doubtless had a good deal to do with lessening its brilliancy as to the general 
attendance. The change in the mode of celebrating the close of their academic 
course by the successive classes was first planned and carried into effect by 
President Quincy, more than thirty years ago. Formerly, the literary exercises 
of Class Day were held in the College Chapel, and they were attended only by 
the students, the Faculty, and such of the resident families as felt an interest in 
the speakers. The fact of the celebration was scarcely known out of sight of the 
College yard. But in the afternoon and the evening the Senior class were in the 
habit of entertaining each other and their friends with a hospitality which often 
became exuberantly festive and unduly uproarious. It occurred to President 
Quincy that, if a band of music were provided and an opportunity given for 
dancing on the lawn of the College yard, the young-lady element could be intro- 
duced, which would give a different tone to the festivities of the day. This 
object was most happily accomplished, but more was brought to pass than he 
intended or wished. He had no expectation that the interest formerly felt in 
Commencement, and the attendance of ladies, which had always given grace and 
attraction to it, would be so largely transferred to Class Day. Such, however, 
was the case. The entertainments, known as "Spreads," previously given on 
Commencement, extended to Class Day, and the fair friends of the graduating 
class were invited for that day, and added much to the brilliant effect of the 
occasion. Whether Commencement can ever be changed so as to make the day 
what it was formerly, is a question for the future. Perhaps it is better that the 
Class Day should continue to be the gay festival of the ingenuous youth of the 
graduating class and their fair relatives and friends, and Commencement left for 
the graver company of their elder brothers who left the halls of their common 
Mother in bygone years. Of such the attendance is larger and larger from year 
to year, owing in part to their active participation in the government of the Col- 
lege, but yet more, we will trust, to their love and loyalty to their Alma Mater, 
which seem to grow warmer and stronger as she grows older. Esto Perpetua. 



CLASS DAY. 



Origin of Class Day. — The Orator and Poet. — The Oration originally in Latin. — Vote of 
the Faculty in 1802, regulating the Exercises. — Class Day in 1793. — Extract from the 
Columbian Centinel. — Extracts from the Diaries of Rev. George Whitney and Rev. Fred- 
erick A. Whitney. — Changes by the Class of 1838. — The growing Interest taken in the 
Day since. — The Officers. — The Order of Performances. — List of Orators and Poets. 

There is a profound instinct in man leading him to authorize and dignify a 
present usage by endowing it with an immemorial pedigree. The moment's 
pleasure is sensibly heightened by this shadowy reinforcement from the past; the 
lips of imagination have touched the beaker before ours, and turned the plain 
water we are drinking into a Fountain of Age, which lengthens our lives backward 
quite as profitably, perhaps, as that spring which De Soto sought would have 
prolonged it in the other direction. This pretty alchemy of memory, if that may 
be called memory which is rather only a mirage or calenture of the mind mak- 
ing visible the images of unreal things, has tried its skill on Class Day, and en- 
dowed it with the awful hoar of a venerableness not its own. In imagination the 
orator and poet of the day walk preceded by a shadowy pomp of predecessors, 
the foremost of whom were never more substantial than the earlier file of Scottish 
kings whose portraits are shown at Holyrood, or of Popes whose mosaic effigies 
brighten the interior of San Paolo. 

An attempt has been made to prove that something like the present ceremony 
of Class Day (so far, at least, as its literary side is concerned) has existed from 
the earliest years of the College. Without doubt the seventeenth century could 
have supplied an audience of the most exemplary durability, but such as would 
hardly have found satisfaction in the levity and worldliness of our modern dis- 
courses, whether in prose or verse. In 1696, we are told by John Read, then a 

senior sophister, " there being a Day of Prayer .... at Newtown I and 

several Others went from College to attend the Exercise : where were two Pray- 
ers made by two Ministers, besides a Sermon by a third in the Forenoon ; and 
the like in the Afternoon : and then Mr. Torrey stood up and pray'd near Two 
Hours: .... but the Time obliged Him to close, to our Regret, and we could 



have gladly heard Him an Hour longer."* Here was a stone of Diomedes which 
scarce the united Seniors of these degenerate days could lift ! But the amuse- 
ments of our ancestors were of a serious and painful kind, such as befitted men 
who were laying the foundations of empire. We can imagine the Senior class 
of that period taking leave of each other with fasting and prayer, alleviated, per- 
haps, by a serious bowl of punch in an upper chamber {secretosqtie pios), over 
which they discussed the Assembly's Catechism or the result of the Synod of 
1679, but we can conceive of no secular facundity nor of profaner poesy and song 
than the New England version of the Psalms. 

What with French papists on the one hand, Indian pagans on the other, and 
the ambushments of Satan to fill up any gaps of their leaving, the first century 
of New England must have been earnest even to grimness. There could have 
been little in the past of college life to soften the periods of a youthful orator 
with tender reminiscence, little in the outlook of the future to irradiate them 
with triumphant hope. As for a poet, can it be conceived that one should be 
found who would have condescended to the mundane exigencies of such an occa- 
sion, while Michael Wigglesworth's " Day of Doom " was the favorite solace of every 
fireside, the flicker of the pine-knots by which it was conned perhaps adding a 
livelier relish to its premonitions of eternal combustion ? Down to 1 700,! if we 
may judge by the " Magnalia," elegy was the vein most diligently wrought by 
whoever could turn a verse. Pastoral elegy it might properly be called, for noth- 
ing less moving than the death of some shepherd in Israel could start the flow 
of those melodious tears, measured by some clepsydra, it should seem, as the 
drier current of the sermon by a sand-glass. It was a mortuary Muse that the 
poet invoked ; his Pegasus was a hearse-horse, and his Hippocrene a lachrymatory. 

" The country's tears, be ye my spring; my hill, 
A general pave; let groans inspire my quill. 
By a warm sympathy let fmerish heat 
Roam through my verse unseen ; and a cold sweat 
Limning despair attend me ; sighs diffuse 
Convulsions through my language, such as use 
To type a gasping fancy; lastly, shroud 
Religion's splendor in a mourning cloud 
Replete with vengeance for succeeding times, 
Fertile in woes, more fertile in their crimes. 
These are my muses; these inspire the sails 
Of fancy with their sighs instead of gales." 

There is a long stride indeed from such verses as these to the concise energy, 

* Sibley's "Harvard Graduates," p. 566. 

t Of the graduates to this date more than half became clergymen, and a still larger proportion 
studied divinity. 



the sonorous pomp, and the flickering wit of Dr. Holmes's heroics. Even when 
the bards of those days unbent, it was in a serious and godly fashion. Before 
Dr. Young had written down his familiar recipe, 

" Retire and read thy Bible to be gay," 

they had concocted it of native herbs, and exhibited it in their private practice. 
The utmost license they allowed themselves was a solemn and depressing play 
upon words, dreary as a punning epitaph, a i7iemento mori to thoughtless levity, 
much as a deacon of the old school might cheer the looser hours of Thanks- 
giving day by groaning Old Hundred in subdued and broken hints on his 
bass-viol, now and then snatching the fearful joy of a more emphatic and 
full-voiced rasp. 

" Gospel and law in 's heart had each its column ; 
His head an index to the sacred volume; 
His very name a title-page, and next 
His life a commentary on the text. 
O, what a monument of glorious worth, 
When in a new edition he comes forth 
Without erratas, may we think he '11 be 
In leaves and covers of eternity ! " 

The literary new birth of Queen Anne's day, which showed that the light pre- 
cision and easy graces of French style might consist with English decency, would 
not react upon New England till toward the middle of the century, when the 
last of that generation which had come to manhood under the straiter influences 
of the Old Charter would be dying out. Taste is a plant of slow growth, and 
provincial taste at best but a backward and half-hardy exotic. Cotton Mather, 
writing just before Dryden closed his eyes, talks of " the incomparable Dr. Black- 
more " ; and Mather, whose really considerable superstructure of acquisition, find- 
ing no secure base in the quicksand of his character, is always toppling about his 
ears, was a more than average sample of the culture of New England in the ear- 
lier years of the eighteenth century* Even if the College authorities would have 
tolerated a rival of Commencement like the modern Class Day, it may well be 
doubted whether the public could have supplied an audience for such an enter- 
tainment before the accession of George III. Commencement itself had grown 
from a calf to an unmanageable bull, in whose nose the President and Fellows 

* In 1686, when John Dunton visited the College, the then Librarian, John Cotton, could name only 
two New England authors, Increase and Cotton Mather. Dunton, by the way, among other "very 
eminent " English poets, mentions Shadwell, Tate, and Settle. " John Dunton's Letters from New 
England " (Prince Society), pp. 160, 161. 



made several timid and futile efforts to fix a ring.* But apart from these gen- 
eral considerations, the smallness of the graduating classes down to 1721, when 
they suddenly grow larger, reduces the theory of a Class Day coeval with the 
College to manifest absurdity. In the Class of 1704, for example, consisting of 
four members, if we deduct the orator, poet, and marshal, there remains an au- 
dience of one, who would have had an odious monopoly of eloquence and song. 
Poets, it is true, have an ill fame of waylaying solitary victims; but no orator that 
we hear of has ever been tainted with this failing, and Demosthenes himself 
might have quailed before the awful dikastery of a single pair of ears. He would 
have wished himself back again on the Phalerian beach, where the din of the 
surf would have recalled the inspiring roar of a plausive or dissentient Demos. 

We suspect that the origin of the literary exercises on Class Day may be 
traced by no doubtful inference to an attempt of the Overseers, beginning in 
1754 and renewed at intervals for some ten years, to improve the elocution of 
the students by requiring the public recitation of dialogues translated out of 
Latin into English. Though this effort seems to have failed of its immediate 
purpose, it is very likely to have given a hint to the undergraduates and roused 
among them an ambition for volunteer displays of oratory. How soon it may 
have occurred to them that they might have a literary festival of their own it is 
impossible to say. The earliest authentic trace we are able to find of any organ- 
ization of the Senior class which may seem to have had such an end in view 
occurs in 1760. The list of annual orators begins in 1776, and a poem seems 
to have been added ten years later. The latter date is noteworthy as coincident 
with the opening of Charles River Bridge, which made easier the access from 
Boston to Cambridge, thus rendering more probable the enlivening presence of a 
non-scholastic audience. Before this the ceremonies seem to have been restricted 
to an oration in Latin, sandwiched between two prayers by the President, like a 
criminal between two peace-officers, and can scarcely have betrayed the most 
thoughtless to any excess of hilarity. Playfulness in the language of Tully (as it 
was euphemistically called) is difficult at the best to a young gentleman, all of 
whose faculties are absorbed in keeping his balance on the slack-rope of grammar 
and syntax, indicatives fleering on his right hand, subjunctives flouting on his left, 
and how must he have been put to it when the only gowns among his listeners 
were on the backs of College Dons, whose rustling would be symptomatic rather 
of a detected solecism than of a titillating hit ! What was the occasion worth 

* The social exigencies of the day are exemplified in an entry made by Tutor Flint in his diary on 
the eve of Commencement, 1724 : " Had of Mr. Monis 2 corkscrews 4 d a piece." This, if it represent 
an average, was certainly a handsome tutorial provision. Mr. Monis, it should be remembered, be- 
side teaching Hebrew in the College, kept a small shop (such as used to be called " variety stores ") 
on what is now known as Winthrop Square. 



CLASS DAY. iQi 

ere yet he could let off his allusion to the duke loquentes, duke ridentes, at which 
every male present (with a chuckle of exclusive privilege) applauded his own pro- 
found learning in the unknown tongues, as if the unfairer sex could not interpret 
a compliment though paid in the most abstruse lingo taught at the Propaganda ! 
Down to the end of the eighteenth century the official language of the College 
continued to be that of the Epistola Obscurorum Virorum, and the cases were 
exceptional and tentative where the Class-Day orator descended to the domestic 
level and less difficult air of the vernacular.* Latin verse was more arduous, and 
the poet seems from the first to have been indulged in the less constraining jail- 
limits of his mother-tongue. Toward the close of the last century, and in the 
earlier years of this, the orator seems gradually to have given way at shorter in- 
tervals either before the hardships of Latin prose composition or the not unnat- 
ural ambition of making himself intelligible to his audience, for in 1802 the Fac- 
ulty, alarmed at the increasing tendency to molest the ancient solitary reign of 
classical precedent, passed the following vote : — 

"Whereas an innovation has sometimes of late years taken place in the conduct of the ceremony 
in the Chapel on the day when the Seniors retire from the College, after finishing their literary course, 
viz., the introduction of an English Exercise, which gives it more the appearance of a public Exhibition 
designed to display the talents of the Performers and entertain a mixed audience than of a merely 
valedictory address of the Class to the Government, and taking leave of the Society and of one an- 
other, in which Adieu, Gentlemen and Ladies from abroad are not particularly interested ; And whereas 
the propriety of having but one Person to be the Organ of the Class at the time of their taking 
leave of the College on this occasion must be obvious, and as at the same time it is more Academ- 
ical that the valedictory performance be in Latin than in English, as is the practice in Universi- 
ties of the most established reputation abroad, and was formerly our own ; 

" Voted, That the particular kind of Exercise in the Senior Class at the time of their taking leave 
of the College, sanctioned by the usage of a Century and an half, be alone adhered to, and conse- 
quently that in future no performance but a Valedictory Oration in the Latin Language, except music 
adapted to the occasion, be permitted in the Chapel on the day when the Seniors retire from the 
Society." t 

But the Faculty were soon pushed from this desperate station of theirs super 

* It is true that at the dedication of Hollis Hall, in 1764, "Taylor, a junior sophister, pronounced 
a gratulatory oration in English with suitable and proper action." But this was at the time when 
the Overseers were stirring in the matter of elocution. In 1771, when Governor Hutchinson visited 
the College, " a handsome gratulatory oration was pronounced by William Wetmore, A. B., in Latin," 
and his Excellency made " an elegant reply in the same language." This William Wetmore was the 
maternal grandfather of the eminent sculptor, W. W. Story. 

t This vote probably explains the fact that there is a gap in the list of orators and poets for the 
six years following 1802. The object of the Faculty clearly was to check the growing publicity of 
the day. There is a strange blunder in the "usage of a century and an half." There is no allusion 
to Class Day, so far as we have been able to discover, in the diaries of Presidents Leverett and 
Wadsworth, Tutor Flint, or Judge Sewall. 



162 CLASS DAY. 

viis antiquis by the growing degeneracy of the times, and in a few years both 
orator and poet were allowed to take their places again and to be as comprehen- 
sible as they would or could, relapsed heretics though they were; 

"Sic ... . malus impulit error, 
Indocilisque setas prava magistra fuit." 

But Class Day, though thus tolerated rather than legitimized, and no doubt 
grateful enough virginibus puerisque, was not for many years yet allowed to 
flaunt it under the very nose of Commencement. Older graduates must have 
looked upon her askance as the light-heeled rival of the older and staider spouse 
of their affections and duty. If they admitted her at all, it was in a parenthesis 
of modest inadvertence, as we are told of King Henry II., that 

"(Beside the Queene) he dearely loved 
A faire and princelie dame," 

or by way of politic concession, as Luther allowed a morganatic relaxation to the 
Landgrave of Hesse. In those days of arduous and costly journeys, ere steam 
had cheapened the solemnity of travel, a country graduate would not have con- 
ceived of two trips to Cambridge in a year as possible. Nay, many of them re- 
stricted, themselves to the years when the Triennial Catalogue was published, 
wherein they could read their names and titles in a sort of epitaphian Latin and 
foretaste some dubious flavor of at least topical immortality. No Cambridge boy 
whose memory goes backward fifty years can revive any vivid impression of the 
Class Days of his boyhood. He remembers Exhibition Days and the orange 
launched at him with uncertain aim from the open window of some room where 
what was then called a treat was going on, and which he ran after, eager as 
Atalanta, condoning the indignity for the golden richness of the missile; he 
remembers Commencement, the great holiday of the year, happily nescient of its 
vicious side in that pleasing faith of childhood that whatever grown men do, 
however incomprehensible, is natural and inevitable as the course of the seasons 
or the whims of the weather; he remembers the inauguration of President 
Quincy in 1829, with its pretty illumination that transfigured Holden Chapel 
with a climbing ivy whose every berry was a star; but Class Day was then 
more strictly a leave-taking, comparatively private and secluded as partings love 
to be. It was confined to the College Chapel and grounds, and neither had its 
ceremonies usurped the Meeting-house nor its festivities overflowed into the private 
lodging-house and the Lyceum Hall. Indeed, the hospitality was mainly confined 
to the dwelling of the President, whose cake and wine betokened that the part- 
ing of the Senior class was as much an official one from the College as a pri- 
vate one from each other. A diary cited in " College Words and Customs " 



CLASS DAY. 



163 



gives us our earliest glimpse of Class Day. The date is 1 793 : " The order of 
the day was this. At ten the class walked in procession to the President's, and 
escorted him, the Professors and Tutors, to the Chapel, preceded by the band 
playing solemn music. 

"The President began with a short prayer. He then read a chapter in the 
Bible; after this he prayed again; Cutler then delivered his poem. Then the 
singing club, accompanied by the band, performed Williams's Friendship. This 
was succeeded by a valedictory Latin oration by Jackson. We then formed and 
waited on the government [the Faculty were always so called till about forty years 
ago] to the President's where we were very respectably treated with wine, etc. 

" We then marched in procession to Jackson's room where we drank punch. 
At one we went to Mr. Moore's tavern and partook of an elegant entertainment 
which cost 6 | 8 [$ i.o6|] apiece. Marching then to Cutler's room, we shook 
hands and parted with expressing the sincerest tokens of friendship." There is 
no mention here, it will be observed, of any chaplain. Which was the first class 
that felt the need of some auxiliary to the ex-officio petitions of the President, we 
have failed to discover. 

An article in the "Columbian Centinel" of 22d August, 181 8, says: "On this 
occasion it has been a custom of long standing for the class who are about to 
graduate to bid a respectful and affectionate farewell to the President, Professors, 
and Tutors, and the students of the three younger classes, all assembled in the 
Chapel. This farewell is delivered in an oration or poem, and commonly both, 
prepared and spoken by gentlemen selected by the class. When the candidates 
for degrees are at peace among themselves, and their deportment has been calcu- 
lated to produce the feelings of mutual good-will between the College government 
and themselves, no scene more interesting is ever witnessed in the Chapel during 
our collegiate course."* 

The following extract from another private diary shows how Class Day was 
celebrated in 1824: "Tuesday, 13 July. We part to-day. After commons, ac- 
cording to previous appointment we had a good prayer from Burnap in the 
Senior Hall. [In University. This was the usage before the building of Appleton 
Chapel.] We spent an hour or two after this in calling on each other and 
bidding good-bye to many who would not even meet us at Commencement. At 

* We are indebted to this article, made known to us by a reference in " College Words and Customs," 
for the names of the orators and poets of Class Day from 1776 to 1818. From the phrase "at 
peace among themselves" it will be seen that College politics were already a disturbing force in 
the election of class officers. Later, we are informed, a want of harmony is to be laid to the 
account of the " Greek Letter Societies," whose nature is unknown to us, but which have no 
other connection with letters than in so much as their names imply a certain acquaintance with the 
Greek alphabet. 



1 64 CLASS DAY. 

half past ten the class went in procession to the Chapel, and heard a very 
beautiful valedictory oration from Newell and poem from George Lunt. They 
were both fine, and recalled to us strongly the parting scenes of our Senior 
class. Chapel was quite full. After we had ended, we called upon President 
Kirkland, and received his farewell blessing in cake and wine. The Deturs were 
given out after dinner."* By "our Senior class" the diarist means that of 182 1, 
whose Class Day he had thus recorded : " Tuesday, 1 7 July. It was the day on 
which the Senior class left College, and consequently we had a miss all day. At 
ten, half past, I attended Chapel, where the exercises were very fine. The oration 
by Barnwell [afterwards President of South Carolina College, and United States 
Senator from that State], the poem by Emerson " [Ralph Waldo]. " Emerson's 

poem was somewhat superior to the general expectation This class danced 

around the Rebellion Tree." It would seem from the last entry that this frantic tri- 
pudiation was not of solemn usage as now, and that only the class joined in it.t 
The Class of 1826 enjoyed the unique honor of being escorted by the Harvard 
Washington Corps, that famous military organization (eclipsing in College legend 
the Theban Phalanx and the Thundering Legion) having been balked by a 
heavy rain of its regular parade on the day before, which was an Exhibition 
Day.t There are numerous instances in history where excellent soldiers have 
been defeated by the accident of a smart shower driven in their faces, and these 
precedents might well justify the prudence of our young warriors in declining an 
unequal contest with Jupiter Pluvius. But perhaps the reason of their conduct 
on this occasion is to be sought less in that discretion which is the better part 
of valor, than in a rooted distaste for water unless tempered with some comfort- 
ing admixture. So conscientious were they in this respect, that when they re- 
turned with thinner ranks from their more distant expeditions, the votive column 
which commemorated the fallen might have borne the inscription, " Go tell our 
Alma Mater that we fell here in disobedience to her laws." Under such escort 
the Class of 1826 must have enjoyed a calm sense of security only equalled by 
that of Duncan in his grave. 

* For the extracts from the diary of the late Rev. George Whitney of Roxbury, and for those from 
his own which follow, we are indebted to the kindness of the Rev. Frederick A. Whitney of Brighton. 

t The Rebellion Tree is the large elm east of Hollis Hall. This dance probably indicates the 
gathering discontent which broke out into open mutiny two years later in the Class of 1823. The 
inspiring traditions of that revolt will probably account for the Class of 1826 dancing round the same 
tree, as we learn from Dr. Peabody that they did. 

In medio ramos annosaque brachia pandit 
Ulmus opaca ingens, quam sedem somnia vulgo 
Vana tenere ferunt, follisque sub omnibus hserent 

% Diary of Rev. G. Whitney. 



CLASS DAY. 1 6 5 

The same diarist gives us a glimpse at the Class Day of 1829, and we catch a 
note or two of the lively preludings of one who has since added to the gayety of 
nations. Can this be the same Holmes we were listening to yesterday ? Can it 
be possible that this stream of wit and sentiment and wisdom has flowed through 
the wide spaces of nearly fifty years with no taint of muddy discoloration, no 
slackening of speed as it gathered volume, but still as clear, as rapid, singing and 
prattling with its own channel, as when it started from its marvellous source ? 
" 1829, July 14, Tuesday. At 10 I was in University Chapel for the valedictory 
exercises of the Senior class. Oration by Devereux of Salem, poem by young 
Holmes, son of Rev. Dr. Holmes of this town. He is both young and small in 
distinction from most others, and on these circumstances he contrived to cut 
some good jokes. His poem was very happy, and abounded in wit. Instead of 
a spiritual muse, he invoked for his goddesses the ladies present, and in so doing 
he sang very amusingly of his ' hapless amour with too tall a maid.' After these 
parts, Joseph Angier rose among his class, and sang a song to the tune of 
' Auld lang Syne,' all the class joining in the chorus. After the services, the 
class went to take leave of President Quincy at his house. The theological 
school having been invited, I also attended. A very agreeable gathering. Cake, 
wine, and lemonade were served." Though the chorister as a regular official of 
the day was of subsequent institution, we here find the late Mr. Angier acting 
in that capacity. But this was because of an eminent and especial fitness. Who 
that ever heard that truly angelic voice* that clear, unwrinkled song, but will 
always reckon it among the felicities of his life ? • It was not scientific singing ; it 
was the furthest from that ; but it was simple, sweet, and pathetic as the warble 
of a bird in the hazy autumn days when such music is pensive with farewells. 
It had a penetrating melancholy that trembled in the fibres of the brain and lost 
itself in tender vibrations of revery long after it had ceased. And now it has 
ceased from among us forever, 

"But what fair dell or grove he sings in now, 
That is to us unknown." 

The Class Day of 1833 is thus recorded: Tuesday, 16 July, "Our Class Day, 
glorious summer weather. At 10 we went in procession to University Hall and 
prayer was offered by our classmate Edward Josiah Stearns. We then proceeded 
to President Quincy's, and escorted him and the Government [of the College] 

* " How poor these pallid phrases seem, 
How weak this tinkling line, 
As warbles through my waking dream 
That angel voice of thine!" 

Dr. Holmes. 



1 66 CLASS DAY. 

to University Chapel. It was well filled. Prayer by Professor Henry Ware, Jr., 
with his accustomed fitness and feeling. Oration by Webster [Daniel Fletcher], 
poem by Greenough [David Stoddard]. The services were highly interesting. 
When over, attended the Government back to the President's House and were 
there served with cake and wine, etc. After conversing a short time we shook 
hands with each one of the Government and separated."* 

So early certainly as 1834, the custom had begun of the Senior class treating 
all comers to iced punch during the afternoon of Class Day. This beverage 
was brought in buckets from Willard's Tavern (now the Horse Railway 
Station) and served out in the shade on the northern side of Harvard 
Hall. As the weather was generally of the hottest (the dog-days having been 
just loosed from their kennels), the frigus amabile of this gelid liquor natu- 
rally prevailed with the thoughtless over the unsophisticate lymph (dulci digna 
mero), which flowed from the College pumps, albeit famous for its purity. Alas, it 
was this very failure of foreign admixture that prevailed against it, and serious 
disorders resulted ! The sub-freshman, initiated for the first time into the mysteries 
of the higher education, found the streams which flowed from his Alma Mater's 
too liberal breasts of unexpected sweetness and dubious inspiration. Too soon he 
had occasion to cry with the god upon whose rites he had unwittingly intruded, 

Quae gloria vestra est, 
Si puerurn juvenes, si multi fallitis unum? 

In 1836 the College janitor, in vain protesting, yet not without hilarious col- 
lusion on his own part, was borne in wavering triumph on a door, the chance- 
selected symbol of his office. Nor was it an unheard-of thing for bankrupt 
topers of the vicinage to circulate among the heedless crowd (like those revolving 
armies on the stage), assuming an air of strangeness at each return, thus repeatedly 
drenching their adust throats and blessing the one tap of all the year whose 
waste was not scored against them behind the door till it grew inexorable. 
Those were uncertain steps also with which many of the younger guests at these 
libations trod at evening the tangled pathway to their chambers, as if with two 
poor feet they were essaying to braid into one the combined Trivium and Quad- 
rivium of the mediaeval universities. Crowds gathered to witness these anar- 
chic ceremonies. The windows which commanded the scene were bursting with 
heads, and in as much request as formerly those which gave a near view of the 
ghastly tree at Tyburn. Forty years ago we remember the oneste piume of the 
late Dr. Pierce of Brookline, at one of the upper windows of Harvard, conspicu- 
ous amid a bunch of gayly ribboned bonnets, a single lily in a bed of tulips. 
But such apparitions were ominous, and in this case it was Bromios and not 

* Diary of Rev. F. A. Whitney. 



CLASS DAY. 167 

Pentheus who came to grief. It may be doubted whether such sporadic excesses 
sow the seed of lifelong habit. Often, perhaps, they served rather as a warning, 
and there are probably many who, looking back, could say with Wordsworth, — 

" Be it confest that, for the first time, seated 
Within thy innocent lodge and oratory, 
One of a festive circle, I poured out 
Libations .... till pride 
And gratitude grew dizzy in a brain 
Never excited by the fumes of wine 
Before that hour or since." 

But whatever may have been the consequences of such a custom, it is plain that 
the College authorities could not sit quietly by and see it become a recognized 
part of the curriculum. Precedents, though improvised yesterday, have a strange 
conjuring power in this country, and in College the precedent of a year's stand- 
ing passes for immemorial. Damming up is not always so effectual a method 
as a seemingly self-originated diversion into another channel where the current, 
without losing any of its force, may be harmless. In this case some more refined 
inebriating process must be hit upon to supplant the ruder expedients inherited 
from a time of simpler manners and more straightforward frailties. The music 
of Orpheus could not appease the Thracian maenads, but music and woman 
in alliance prevailed against Silenus with his punch-buckets. To the Class of 
1838 belongs the credit of accepting and carrying out, if not of originating, this 
gracious reform. It will generally be found, I think, that men removed by a 
few degrees above the savage state, as youths on the eve of graduating from 
our colleges often are, put up with coarse amusements only because no refined 
ones are offered in their stead. But one or the other the natural man is pretty 
sure to contrive for himself, if it be not laid ready to his hand. In this case 
also the Darwinian principle of reversion seems to have been operative, for we 
hear of occasional revivals of the punch-frenzies by individual enthusiasts of 
conservative bias, but no longer on the green, nor by any associate, action of the 
Senior class. At length, in 1852 (when three young men lost their degrees by 
mistaken zeal for ancient usage), a final stop was put to these excesses, the secret 
of so compounding punch that it should be " no intoxicating liquor " having been 
unhappily lost since President Holyoke's day* j 

* Punch seems from the first to have been looked on as an innocent drink, and yet to have 
proved treacherous. The earliest mention of it known to us is in Mandelslo's Travels (1638), who, 
speaking of the English factory at Surat, says : " On Fridays after prayers there was a particular 
assembly, .... which day being that of their departure from England, they had appointed it to 
make a commemoration thereof and drink their wives' healths. Some made their advantage of this 
meeting to get more than they could well carry away, though every man was at liberty to drink 



1 68 CLASS DAY. 

The music and the dancing on the green (as our latter June turf is called by 
a civil hypallage from the earlier half of the month) were a pretty innovation. But 
our grounds lack the seclusion and our summer climate the temperance favorable 
to what Cotton Mather would have called hypasthral saltation; and as for the 
prolonged gymnastics of the German in the embrowning dust of Harvard Hall, 
with the thermometer at 96° in the shade, they are an insane anachronism be- 
longing rather to the age of Fox's Book of Martyrs than our own. The walled 
privacy of the English college-garden, such as St. John's at Oxford, the soft 
green plush of elastic turf where of England has a monopoly, and the frequent 
asperity of her June (frappe), which makes active exercise a pleasant subterfuge 
for an overcoat, are all friendly to the fete champ'etre, which is apt to wilt into a 
limp consciousness under the close breath of our pushing publicity and the 
cloudless fervors of our midsummer sky. Amaryllis cannot go through the pas 
seul, nor Neaera turn and wind her four-in-hand of flirtation with a careless security, 
while the gloating eyes of Anaides are taking a leisurely measure of their 
charms. Yet it was the heroic endurance of those early confessors that (in 1850) 
won for Class Day a place upon the University Calendar by the side of its an- 
cient rival, Commencement. 

As in an old orchard we often see an apple-tree in which the more vigor- 
ous growth of the ingrafted scion quite overlaps with its bulging ring the 
narrower girth of the stock which suckled it, so have the adventitious accre- 
tions of successive years outgrown the slender stem of the primitive anniver- 
sary, crowning it with new leaves and apples not its own. The Latin oration 
having crumbled into English, a poem was added whenever the class could 
furnish a poet, and before long whether or no. When poets were plenty, 
volunteer songs were added, to be sung probably at the class supper, as in 
181 1, when the late Mr. Edward Everett wrote one to the tune of "Adams 
and Liberty" (the War of 181 2 being then on the cards); and the late Rev. Dr. 
Frothingham, another, on the model of " The Mariners of England," in which 
the stormy winds were transferred by generalization to the Ocean of Life. As 
time went on, an odist came to be a regular accessary ; a chorister or choragus 
grew out of him ; a hymnist was added in the interest of piety ; and a songist 
(as we suppose he will be called erelong) composed the lighter coenatic verses. 
Thus, instead of the old-fashioned 

" Three poets in three distant ages born," 
we produce four every year, and in seasons of abundant yield shall probably 
find ourselves driven to add a psalmist to the catalogue of our annual laureates. 

what he pleased, and to mix the sack as he thought fit, or to drink Palepuntz, which is a kind of 
drink consisting of Aquavita rose-water, juice of citrons [lemons] and sugar." 



CLASS DAY. !6 9 

When a President goes out of office, the class of that year plant an evergreen 
in memory of him, — a monument typical rather of the vanity than the perma- 
nence of fame, being hitherto as short-lived as the liberty-trees of France, every 
ex-President save one having had the good luck to survive his memorial. Some 
classes, with what significance I know not, have planted an ivy, — a ceremony 
well adapted for annual repetition, since that parasite, in aesthetic despair of doing 
aught for the redress of our architecture, wisely declines the experiment of a 
second winter among us. While the planting goes on, the Ivy Orator recites 
a humorous and satirical oration, in which, it is to be presumed, the foibles 
and peculiarities of his classmates and of the College Faculty are passed in 
lively review. But these are mysteries of which the profane can speak only 
by hearsay. Perhaps this ceremony is a scion from the old giving out of mock 
parts in which all the fun of a class found harmless vent, and very clever hits 
at salient personal characteristics were made with that happy frankness of in- 
sight which belongs especially to youth. The blunter humor of earlier days 
used to present a jack-knife to the ugliest man in the class, — a badge of dis- 
tinction which, if not so sharp a spur to emulation as some others, was more 
nearly the equivalent of honest desert. When the custom of cheering the 
College halls began we cannot precisely find. It is certainly more than thirty 
years old, though the terrier-like ra/i-ra/i-rak, instead of the full-mouthed hurrah, 
is comparatively of recent date. Our buidings, set singly about the yard as 
if for a gigantic game of dominos, give ample scope for this explosive form 
of good-bye. 

The order of performances is this : After prayer by the class chaplain, the 
class march with a band of music to the President's House, whence, after a 
short lunch (in which the milder stimulus of coffee does duty for the wine 
of the last generation), they escort the College officials in procession to the 
meeting-house of the First Parish. There the oration and poem are recited and 
the ode sung, the ceremonies opening and closing with prayer. Then come 
the spreads, which have reached a pitch of luxury that would have taken away 
the breath of our more frugal ancestors, and made them muse of speedy judg- 
ments to come. Then follows the melting round-dance in Harvard Hall, with 
perhaps a few half-hearted contra-dances on the sward without. Meanwhile, the 
College yard is cheery with music and gay with a quietly moving throng. The 
windows from groundsill to eaves bloom thick with young and happy faces. 
At half past four the sound of marching music in quick time is heard, pausing 
at longer or shorter intervals for the rah-rah-rah with which the class bid good- 
bye to the buildings, and the waiting crowd are consoled by knowing that the 
last great show of the day is drawing nigh. At five o'clock comes the dance 
round the Liberty Tree, but long before that every inch of vantage-ground 



170 CLASS DAY. 

whence even a glimpse at this frenzy of muscular sentitnent may be hoped 
for has been taken up. The trees are garlanded with wriggling boys, who here 
apply the skill won by long practice in neighboring orchards and gardens, 
while every post becomes the pedestal of an unsteady group. In the street a 
huddled drove of carriages bristle with more luxurious gazers. The Senior class 
are distinguished by the various shapes of eccentric ruin displayed in their 
hats, as if the wildest nightmares of the maddest of hatters had suddenly taken 
form and substance. First, the Seniors whirl hand in hand about the tree with 
the energy of excitement gathered through the day ; class after class is taken 
in, till all College is swaying in the unwieldy ring, which at last breaks to 
pieces of its own weight. Then come the frantic leaping and struggling for 
a bit of the wreath of flowers that circles the tree at a fairly difficult height. 
Here trained muscle tells; but sometimes mere agility and lightness, which know 
how to climb on others' shoulders, win the richest trophy. This contest is per- 
haps the most striking single analogy between the life of College and that of 
the larger world which is to follow it. Each secures his memorial leaf or 
blossom, many to forget erelong its special significance, some, of less change- 
ful temper or less prosperous lives, to treasure it as a link that binds them 
inseparably with youth and happy days. 

Perhaps the prettiest part of the day is its close. The College yard, hung 
with varicolored Chinese lanterns, looks (to borrow old Gayton's word) fesli- 
vously picturesque, while the alternating swells and falls of vocal and instrumental 
music impregnate the cooler evening air with sentiment and revery. Youths and 
maidens, secluded by the very throng, wander together in a golden atmosphere 
of assured anticipation. Life is so easy in the prospect when a pair of loving 
eyes hold all of it that is worth seeing, and are at once both prophecy and 
fulfilment ! Fame and fortune are so lightly won (in that momentary transfigura- 
tion of commonest things into the very elements of poetry and passion) by the 
simple jugglery of taking everything for granted ! And what a glorious object 
is a Senior on Class Day to the maiden of sixteen ! It may be doubted if 
human eyes ever behold another of such imposing interest. Nay, the Senior 
becomes impressive even to himself as an essential coefficient in the glory of 
the day. Perhaps he will never again enjoy all the advantages with none of 
the drawbacks of being a personage so fully as now. He is the leading figure 
in this little world. He has the privilege of entry to all its reserved places, 
and the right of conferring it as a favor. He knows all the heroes of the 
hour, and calls them by their Christian names, perhaps by some abbreviation 
even more carelessly familiar. And why should we call his a little world, when, 
since its boundaries are traced by youth and illusion, it is relatively greater than 
any he will ever know ? For, after all, the world means a very small knot of 



people to any man, and even the great world has a trick of growing smaller 
and smaller as the eyes grow older (perhaps not wiser) that look on it. No 
doubt there is a great deal of overstrained sentiment, but it is proper to the 
day and to the age of those who feel its enchantment. Some of the eternal 
friendships sworn on sudden thought are pathetically short-lived, as Crabb Robin- 
son tell us that he found written in an album of his German University days, 
" I shall never forget you, and I expect the same of you," and could not recall 
the writer. But many are lasting, and perhaps sweeter than any knit in later 
years, since they reckon you always by your early promise, and not by the 
fulfilment that must inevitably fall so miserably short of it. With whatever eyes 
the elderly man may look on these boyish generosities, whether with tender 
pity or cynical rebuff, he would be the wiser if his heart were still not wholly 
incapable of them. To me there is somethimg perennially beautiful and poetic 
in this battalion of youth marching gayly as volunteers (conscripts though they 
unwittingly be) to join the great army of doers and sufferers, bearing with them 
such a reinforcement of possibilities. No, we older men will not grudge the 
waxing of Class Day as if it were the wane of Commencement, but be thank- 
ful to the 2 ist June for the renovating bath it gives us of youth and courage 
and expectancy. 



We give a list as full as we have been able to make it of the orators and 
poets down to the present time. It is interesting as showing how far the judg- 
ment of the classes has been justified by the subsequent career of those whom 
they selected. The gap from 1802 to 1809 may probably be accounted for by the 
vote of the College Faculty of the former year, already mentioned. The first ora- 
tion printed was that of John Tudor Cooper in 181 1. It is distinguished by no 
little ripeness of thought, and the Johnsonian pomp of its periods is not unpleas- 
ing. It may be said of the orations generally that they have been creditably 
serious, and that their didactic tone is proper to youth as yet on the threshold 
of experience. Many of the poems also have had great merit. 





Orators. 


Poets. 






Orators. 


Poets. 


1776. 


Royall Tyler (Eng.). 


None. 


1786. 






R. Fowle. 


1777. 


J. C. Williams (Eng.). 




1787. 








1778. 


G. R. Minot (Latin). 




1788. 








1779- 


J. Palmer (Latin). 




1789. 








1780. 


T. W. Russell. 




1790. 






B. Whitwell. 


1781. 






1791. 


W 


. D. Ward. 


J. Walton. 


1782. 


J. Bartlett. 




1792. 


A. 


Abbott (Latin). 


R. T. Paine. 


1783- 


H. G. Otis. 




1793- 


C. 


Jackson (Latin). 


C. Cutler. 


1784. 


J. Paine. 




1794. 








1785. 


H. Ware (Latin). 




1795- 









72 




CLASS DAY. 








Orators. 


Poets. 




Orators. 


Poets. 


1796 


J. Bender (Latin). 


C. P. Sumner. 


1836 


G. T. Phillips. 


F. O. Prince. 


1797 


J. C. Warren (Latin) 


J. Richardson. 


1837 


C. Hayward. 


S. T. Hildreth. 


1 79 3 


S. P. P. Fay (Latin). 


J. Story. 


1S3S 


J. I. T. Coolidge. 


J. R. Lowell. 


1799 






1839 


J. C. Adams. 


E. E. Hale. 


1800 




W. Allston ? 


1840 


W. 0. White. 


W. A. Crafts. 


1801 






1841 


W. H. Orne. 


None. 


1802 


S. K. Livermore. 


J. Codman. 


1842 


S. Johnson. 


T. P. Allen. 


1S03 






1S43 


Eben C. Sprague. 


H. D. Sedgwick. 


1804 






1844 


G. B. Cary. 


C. H. B. Snow. 


1805 






1845 


G. S. Emerson. 


P. A. Porter. 


1806 






1846 


F. J. Child. 


J. A. Swan. 


1807 






1847 


J. W. Savage. 


R. T. Robinson. 


1S0S 






1848 


G. P. Tiffany. 


T. C. Clarke. 


1809 


J. C. M. Winship. 


E. W. Andrews. 


1849 


J. Pierce. 


J. E. Oliver. 


1810 


E. Strong. 


H. J. Tudor. 


1850 


J. C. Carter. 


J J. Noble. 
(W. S. Thayer. 


1811 


J. T. Cooper. 


R. Hooper. 






1S12 


E. Brooks. 


H. Ware, Jr. 


1851 


G. Bradford. 


W. C. Bradley. 


1813 


T. Savage. 


J. Brazer. 


!S S 2 


J. B. Thayer. 


W. C. Williamson. 


1814 


J. Walker. 


J. G. Rogers. 


1853 


A. S. Hill. 


E. J. Cutler. 


1815 


G. Otis. 


J. G. Palfrey. 


1854 


R. C. Winthrop, Jr 


W. A. Preston. 


1816 


S. P. Newman. 


W. H. Gardner. 


1855 


J. B. Clark. 


J. K. Hosmer. 


1817 


F. W. Winthrop. 


G. Bancroft. 


1856 


J. B. Greenough. 


E. T. Fisher. 


1818 


J. Everett. 


W. Jenks. 


1857 


J. J. Storrow. 


F. O. French. 


1819 






1858 


H. Adams. 


G. W. C. Noble. 


1820 


E. S. Gannett. 


W. H. Furness. 


1859 


F. V. Balch. 


W.R.Huntington. 


1S21 


R. W. Barnwell. 


R. W. Emerson. 


i860 


T. B. Fox. 


F. Haseltine. 


1822 






l86l 


N. P. Hallowell. 


O. W. Holmes, Jr. 


1S23 






1862 


C. E. Grinnell. 


J. R. Dennett. 


1824 


W. Newell. 


G. Lunt. 


1S63 


B. T. Frothingham 


E. D. Boit. 


1825 


B. Brigham. 


F. H. Hedge. 


1S64 


G. C. Brackett. 


I. Flagg. 


1826 


G. Putnam. 


R. Rantoul, Jr. 


1865 


J. Q. A. Brackett. 


J. W. Perkins. 


1827 


T. K. Davis. 


C. C. Felton. 


1866 


M. Storey. 


A. K. Fiske. 


1828 


C. C. Emerson. 


C. F. Barnard. 


1867 


J. E. Leonard. 


C. S. Gage. 


1829 


G. H. Devereux. 


O. W. Holmes. 


1868 


J. B. Ames. 


Dexter Tiffany. 


1830 


J. O. Sargent. 


G. W. Warren. 


1869 


F. G. Peabody. 


G. E. Merrill. 


1831 


W. H. Simmons. 


W. Austin, Jr. 


187O 


R. Wolcott. 


J. R. Soley. 


1832 


S. Osgood. 


J. S. Dwight. 


I87I 


H. E. Deming. 


H. W. Swift. 


1833 


F. Webster. 


D. S. Greenough. 


1872 


J. H. Young. 


F. S. Wheeler. 


1834 


J. H. Williams. 


Royall Tyler. 


'873 


J. F. Simmons. 


R. Grant. 


1835 


C. C. Shackford. 


B. D. Winslow. 


1874 


R. H. Dana, 3d. 


E. F. Fenollosa. 



THE COLLEGE JOURNALS. 

First Number of the Harvard Lyceum published July 14, 1810. — The Editors. — Extract 
from Edward Everett's Autobiography. — The Introductory Address. — The Ad. — Con- 
cluding Address, March 9, 1811. — The Harvard Register started February, 1827. — Ex- 
tract from the Advertisement. — The Editors. — The Polyglot Club. — Assumed Names 
of its Members. — The Register's Motto and Seal. — Extract from the Introduction. — 
Literary Character of the Register. — Various Extracts. — Concluding Address, Feb- 
ruary, 1828. — First Appearance of the Collegian, February, 1830. — The Editors and 

their fictitious names. — the final editorial. first appearance of the harvardiana, 

September, 1835. — The Editors. — The Mottoes of the various Volumes. — The Seal. — 
'OI IIYPo$Aroi. — Fictitious Names of Members. — The last Editorial Address, June, 
1838. — First Number of the Harvard Magazine issued December, 1854. — The Seal. — 
The Editors. — Introduction. — The last Number published July, 1864. — A Prospectus 
for a new Journal appeared in 1865. — The Originators of the Collegian. — The Motto. 
— The first Number of the Harvard Advocate, May ii, 1866. — The Editors. — The 
Motto. — The Seal. — The first Number of the Magenta, January 24, 1873. — Founded 
by Members of the Class of 1874. — The Seal and Motto. 

The earliest of the College journals was the Harvard Lyceum, of which the 
first number appeared July 14, 1810. Its editors were J. T. Cooper, David 
Damon, Edward ■ Everett, John Hay Farnham, Nathanael Langdon Frothingham, 
Henry Holton Fuller, and Samuel Gilman, all of the Class of 181 1. Mr. Gilman, 
it will be remembered, was the author of Fair Harvard, which ode he wrote for 
the centennial celebration in 1836. Mr. Everett's account of his part in the 
magazine is thus given in a fragment of his autobiography: — 

"In the summer of 1810, seven or eight of my class, of whom I was one, set up a little semi- 
monthly literary magazine. I had, as I have already said, scribbled a little for the press as early 
as my Freshman year, and had kept up the practice, at intervals, as Sophomore and Junior. By this 
practice I had acquired some facility and a boyish itch for writing. I was accordingly one of the 
most active contributors to the periodical. It could of course have no permanent literary value. I 
suppose it was as good as could be expected under the circumstances. There is nothing in it, so 
far as I am concerned, worth rescuing from oblivion. The public furnished the proper corrective of 



I 7 4 THE COLLEGE JOURNALS. 

our rashness, and the little periodical died a natural death before the end of the twelvemonth. It 
was, I must confess, decidedly inferior to similar publications which have since taken place, furnish- 
ing in this a fair index of the advance of scholarship which has been made at Cambridge within 
the last generations, of which there are many other indications of much greater importance." 

The Address of the Editors, written by Everett, announces that " the design 
of the paper is to comprehend every department of our academical studies, and 
such additional literary topicks as attract the attention of every scholar. Among 
these, the subject of American literature will receive our particular attention." 
Again : " The dry field of mathematicks has brought forth most ingenious and 
elegant essays, most curious and entertaining problems. It is our wish to con- 
struct or select such questions, in their various branches, as may exercise the 
skill of our correspondents in their solution." This promise was not strictly 
kept. There is to be found, to be sure, an ingenious and elegant essay on 
mathematical learning, in which we read : " Perhaps no science has been so uni- 
versally decried by the overweeningly good and irrecoverably dull, as the mathe- 
matics. Superficial dabblers in science, contented to float in doubts and chimasras, 
and unable to see the advantage of demonstrable truth, turn back before they 
have passed the narrow path which leads to the firm ground of mathematical 
certainty ; and not willing to have others more successful than themselves, like 
the Jewish spies, they endeavor to deter them from the way by horrid stories 
of giant spectres in the promised land of demonstration, and scarcely a Caleb is 
found to render a true account of its beauties." But the Jewish spies were too 
eloquent and there was no Caleb to furnish curious and entertaining problems. 
In many ways the magazine received the "attention not undivided but assiduous," 
which was promised in the introductory address. Although many of the articles 
were written in the purest Johnsonese, of which the extracts already made may 
serve as examples, and although they have an air of wisdom as if their authors 
were grandfathers, and not undergraduates of very tender age, credit should be 
given to the sincerity which underlies so much that is pompous, and to the per- 
sistent effort to encourage real scholarship. There is very little frivolity in the 
whole volume of the Harvard Lyceum; but amusement was furnished its readers 
in a parody of Joel Barlow's Columbiad, called The Ad, a Poem in Ten Books, 
by J. Lowbard. This was written by Everett, who seems to have been by far 
the most active contributor to the magazine. The Ad is in many ways enter- 
taining. The following quotation will show in what marked contrast it stands to 
the rest of the Lyceum. It describes "the vexations of a person who finds, in 
the midst of a dance, that his hose are swinging from their moorings." 

"And while he dances in vivacious glee, 
He feels his stockings loosening from his knee ; 



THE COLLEGE JOURNALS. 1 75 

The slippery silk in mind-benumbing rounds 
Descends in folds, at all his nimble bounds. 
Unhappy man, thy curdling blood in vain 
Flows through the channel of each shutting vein. 
A pallid hue thy ghastly face o'erspreads, 
Thy forehead glistens with fear's anxious beads. 
The fatal truth thine active muscles cramps, 
Thine ardour freezes, and thy spirit damps. 
With cautious step thy timid feet advance, 
And weave with curious care the dreadful dance. 
Thy partner wonders at the change. No more 
She sees thee bound elastic from the floor; 
No more she sees thine easy graceful air : — 
Each jump is measured with exactest care." 

These lines seem better worth rescuing from oblivion than do many of the 
seriously written articles. 

The Harvard Lyceum had but a short life. Its last number, the eighteenth, 
appeared March 9, 1811. In the concluding Address of the Editors it is stated 
that jealousy and envy had been opposing the work, and that " in a place too 
where the bad passions should never come, in the sacred groves of Academus, 
we have witnessed the more ineffectual and consequently more contemptible emo- 
tions of an envious spirit, which has shown itself an unnatural foe to its literary 
sem'ours." A solemn warning is uttered against any attempt to establish an- 
other College journal : " The legacy, which we leave to our collegiate poster- 
ity, is our advice that they enjoy all those exquisite pleasures which literary 
seclusion affords, but that they do not strive to communicate them to others." 
There is lofty resignation in the last paragraph : " To obscurity and to neg- 
lect, then, we commit the Lyceum. In obscurity and neglect it will find hon- 
orable company, and it may be satisfied with this lot, which, though it awaits 
the most inferior, is the fate too of the most learned productions. Where are 
the works of Chaldaean, of Persian, and of Egyptian wisdom ? Ages have re- 
volved since their utter perdition ; and if in the sack of Alexandria it was their 
office to heat the baths of the Saracens, we may be content to cumber the 
shelves of the bookseller. Vain indeed is the triumph of the proudest monuments 
of genius," etc., etc. Perhaps not all the blame of ending the Lyceum is to be 
laid on the shoulders of the jealous and envious. It is possible that there were 
those who grew weary of the long periods, no matter how well balanced and 
sonorous, in which instruction was offered to a deaf world. It is in the Ad 
alone that the best side of youth is shown, and one cannot help regretting that 
admission was not given to an offered article by some unknown man of whom 
the following mention is made : " To accuse a stranger of vanity may seem hard, 



176 THE COLLEGE JOURNALS. 

but we would remind our friend that he makes too free with the names of the 
great British Essayists; and if he will take our counsel without smiling at it, it 
is to learn a little more before he begins to publish his knowledge." Perhaps 
this somewhat violently rejected contribution contained misplaced aspersions on 
the Rambler, which would readily account for its exclusion. 

The Lyceum throws no direct light on the life of the students of that time. 
It was intended, probably, to imitate at a respectful distance the great English 
reviews, and was wholly dependent for the success it enjoyed on the exertions 
of very few writers. To one who afterwards became famous it owes its most 
distinguishing qualities, its literary taste, and its formal expression. 

Either the untimely death of the Harvard Lyceum, or the indifference of the 
students, was the cause of a delay of sixteen years before the venture was re- 
peated. The new magazine was called the Harvard Register. In the Advertise- 
ment to its single volume we read : " The plan of a periodical journal to be 
conducted by the members of Harvard University was first started in February, 
1827, and was encouraged by the success which an experiment of the same kind 
had met with some years before. The first number of the Harvard Register 
appeared in March, 1827, and has continued for a year, a number being issued 
every month. It was at first under the direction of three gentlemen of the class 
which was graduated in 1827, who superintended the publication of the first 
seven numbers. In August, 1827, the editorial department was intrusted to three 
gentlemen of the Class of 1828, with whom, after the publication of the ninth 
number, six other gentlemen of the same class were associated, and formed a 
club, by whom the work was conducted till its close in February, 1828." 

The three editors from the Class of 1827 were C. C. Felton, subsequently Pro- 
fessor of Greek, and President of the University, Seth Sweetser, William M. 
Rogers ; those from the Class of 1828 were George S. Hillard, T. B. Fox, and 
J. C. Richmond. The club referred to above was known as the Polyglot Club. 
The names assumed by the members, and the persons assuming them, were the 
chairman, George S. Hillard, known as Sylvanus Dashwood ; J. C. Richmond, 
as Oliver Martext ; T. B. Fox, as Solomon Pry, Esq. ; C. C. Emerson, as Dr. 
Democritus ; E. H. Hedge, as Jeremiah Grimes, Jr. ; W. G. Swett, as Quicksilver 
Smalltalk ; C. F. Barnard, as Seth Pringle ; R. C. Winthrop, as Blank Etcetera, Sr. ; 
and J. J. Gilchrist, as Tristram Sturdy. The plan of the Journal of the Poly- 
glot Club, with its reports of imaginary meetings of hilarious editors, who are 
continually bursting into verse, was inspired by the success of the Noctes Ambro- 
sianae in Blackwood's Magazine ; as we shall see, it remained for a long time a 
favorite device. 

The Harvard Register was an octavo in form, and each number consisted of 
thirty-two pages. The title-page bore a picture of University Hall (similar to the 



THE COLLEGE JOURNALS. 177 

one heading the history of that building in Vol. I.) as it then appeared, and the 
motto, " I won't philosophize and will be read," from Byron. It would seem, to 
judge by this excellent quotation, that the lesson had been learned, from the fate 
of the Lyceum, of the necessity of bringing the magazine somewhere near the 
tastes of its readers. It is not on the cover alone that this intention is appar- 
ent. The introduction which appeared in the first number, that for March, 
1827, was written by C. C. Felton. It is a serious paper, stating modestly the 
hopes of the editors, not without some humor; as, for instance: "Yet students are 
no hermits in New England. Many of us frequently lay aside the speculations 
of Plato, the oratory of Demosthenes, the poetic splendors of Homer, and the 
triangles of Legendre, to assume the looks, the tones, the authority, and that still 
more efficient instrument, the ferule, of country schoolmasters. By this means 
we season our visions, theories, and demonstrations with something of practical, 
political, and statistical wisdom." Respectful mention is made of the Lyceum, 
and the final address of its editors in these words : " We are aware that 
those who in times past were engaged in a similar work counselled all pos- 
terity to avoid everything of the kind. We are aware, too, of the danger 
of attempting to follow in the high paths where genius has gone before. 
That 'we have not adopted their advice must not be imputed to a self-com- 
placent idea that we are capable of rivalling our distinguished predecessors. 
We pretend to no such thing. We shall do as well as we can, and we hope to 
obtain, if our efforts deserve, the approbation of our readers." This announce- 
ment was an important one : " The past history of our country, and its growing 
literature, the progress the latter has made from time to time in the hands of 
those who have gone before, and the means that have been employed in improv- 
ing and advancing it, are, we conceive, some of the most interesting topics that 
come within the design of a work like the present, and therefore, as far as we 
can command the materials, we shall illustrate them by historical disquisitions." 

This promise was by no means forgotten. There are many literary essays in 
the Register, and some genuine appeals in behalf of cultivation of the mind; 
especially noticeable are those written by Felton. It was a subject to which he 
was never tired of returning, and he wrote enthusiastically and maturely. The 
whole volume, indeed, shows considerable ripeness and thoughtfulness on the 
part of the contributors. There was but little pretentiousness in their style, and 
though occasionally they got into rather deep water, they showed clearly a pref- 
erence for matters about which they had some knowledge, and which interested 
them keenly. Among the articles deserving of mention is a series of Notices of 
American Poets, by J. O. Sargent, in which brief mention is made of Thomas 
Godfrey, author of " The Prince of Parthia, a Tragedy," and of John Osborn, 
whose "most celebrated production is his Whaling Song, which is said to be 



178 THE COLLEGE JOURNALS. 

still heard on the Pacific, among our hardy countrymen engaged in this pursuit. 
It is the first piece written by an American that has any claims to being called 
poetry." From each author mentioned a few lines are given as specimens of his 
work. This is one of the many indications of genuine literary feeling. 

The humorous poems are better than the serious ones. Perhaps the best is 
J. C. Richmond's New England Pastorals. A few lines may be quoted : — 

Dinthy {sings). 
" To Brighton cattle-show our farmers went, 
And each to gain the ploughing-match was bent ; 
Say, who in my checked apron threw the prize ? 
'T was Jonas, — or the village paper lies. 

Comfort. 
When Concord dames beheld the butter bright, 
In kegs and boxes, — 'twas a gleesome sight, — 
How did they all observe, with wondering eyes, 
The batch I made, — and Moses took the prize. 

Dinthy. 
Last winter, Comfort, when we went to school, 
To cheat the master, and to play the fool, 
When each for 'spection day had words by heart, 
Who then like Jonas rattled off his part? 

Comfort. 
The centre school has far the greatest fame. 
Ask all the neighbors, and they 'II say the same ; 
Who then at school with Moses may compare, 
Since he can cipher best of any there ? 

Dinthy. 
When to our school, one day, the parson came, 
He saw a manuscript, and asked the name ; 
'For who,' said he, 'can keep a book so fine?' 
Beneath the page was Jonas' name — and mine. 

Comfort. 
One day our master asked if any there 
Could do a sum in puzzling Trett and Tare, 
' If two fat horses draw a load of hay, 
How many lean will eat it in a day ? ' 
While stupid numskulls on their slates did pore, 
My Moses straight arose and answered ' Four.' " 



THE COLLEGE JOURNALS. 179 

Twelve numbers of the Register appeared ; in the last number, that dated 
February, 1828, stands the mortuary concluding Address of the Editors. Here 
again we have mention of the failure of general support from the students. It 
was the lack of subscribers that killed it. 

Two years from the date of the death of the Register, namely, in February, 
1830, appeared the Collegian, which was continued for six numbers. It was 
started by J. O. Sargent, of the Class of 1830, who, it will be remembered, had 
been one of the contributors of the Register. From the table of contents we 
learn that this volume, with the exception of less than a dozen articles, was writ- 
ten by the editors, who bore assumed names, and by O. W. Holmes, then a 
member of the Law School, without further assistance from the students of the 
College. The editors, with their fantastic names, were J. O. Sargent, disguised 
as Charles Sherry ; T. W. Snow, as Geoffrey La-Touche ; W. H. Simmons, as 
Luke Lockfast ; Robert Habersham, as Frank Airy ; and F. W. Brune, as Arthur 
Templeton. O. W. Holmes afterwards became an editor with the name of Frank 
Hock. It was to the brilliant and well-known contributions of this last-named 
writer that the Collegian owed its principal success. In this one volume of six 
numbers we find The Dorchester Giant, The Spectre Pig, The Reflections of a 
Proud Pedestrian, The Mysterious Visitor, Evening, by a Tailor, and The Height 
of the Ridiculous, as well as some other pieces not included by the author in 
subsequent collections of his poems. Hence it was that the Collegian has the 
reputation of making the best showing of any of the College magazines. The 
other articles in it, however, are hardly deserving of mention. The following 
extract from the Vacation Strollings of Geoffrey La-Touche is somewhat curious ; 
he is speaking about the architecture of New York : " The front of the City 
Hall is dingy, and the cornices and carvings greatly defaced by the dust which 
has collected, and been cemented by the rain. I cannot say, either, that I like 
the prevalent architecture. It is Corinthian, occasionally elegant, but oftener 
tawdry. There is nothing in the exterior of the whole range of the public edi- 
fices that can compare with the portico of the Tremont House." 

The concluding editorial is in a more cheerful vein than the two already 
quoted from : " We have made no attempt to influence the sentiments even of 
our little College community, much less of society at large. We have, it is to be 
hoped, avoided giving dead ponderosity to our work by long-spun dissertations, or 
blundering acumen by knotty disquisitions. Sickly sentiment we have eschewed 

most religiously Nor have we had any reason to complain of the harshness 

of critics. They have condescended to notice us constantly, and, with a few ex- 
ceptions, in a very flattering manner." Thus ended the first successful College 
magazine, which was mainly indebted for its prosperity to one writer, who, since 
then, has had a very large share in making other magazines prosperous. With 
his pen the Collegian could not fail of merit. 



180 THE COLLEGE JOURNALS. 

For four years the College, like the administration at present, was without an 
"organ." Of course before many years there were those students who bowed 
their heads for shame at thinking of this want, and in 1834 steps were taken 
which led to the establishing of yet another magazine, the Harvardiana. In the 
third volume — for it was longer lived than any of its predecessors, and fills four 
volumes, each containing the work of a year — is given an account of its origin. 
It seems that two Freshmen of the Class of 1837 seized the idea of a new 
magazine. Burning with enthusiasm, they summoned a class-meeting, which was 
held at Massachusetts 32, — in very narrow quarters, — and, after some debate, the 
proposition to publish a magazine was favorably regarded. The then Juniors, of 
the Class of 1835, had already been consulting together on the same subject; 
and the Freshmen, not caring to set up a magazine in opposition to that of 
their elders, abandoned their idea until they were themselves Seniors, when they 
carried on the Harvardiana for a year, and handed it over in good repute to 
their successors. 

The first volume was edited by C. C. Shackford, J. H. Eliot, and A. C. Spooner, 
who were elected by their classmates. The first number appeared in September, 
1835. It was an octavo in form, of the size of all its predecessors, bearing on 
the blue cover, with the title, a picture of University Hall, identical with that 
which adorned the Register, and the motto, " Juvenis tentat Achillei flectere ar- 
cum," which in the subsequent numbers was emendated to read "Juvenis tentat 
Ulyssei flectere arcum." On the title-page of the bound volume stands the fol- 
lowing quotation from Horace : — 

"Fungar vice cotis, acutum 
Reddere quse ferrum valet, exsors ipse secandi." 

The editors' address makes no very distinct promises, and gives no concise 
statement of the reasons for founding a magazine. For the first year it was a 
respectable journal, neither absurd nor noticeably good. The editors of the sec- 
ond volume were G. W. Minns, Robert Bartlett, and E. J. Morris, of the Class 
of 1836. The motto chosen by them for the magazine was, — 

" Nee primus, neque ultimus sit curriculo vitae ; 
medio tutissimus ibis." 

To carry on the work there was great choice of writers, as can be seen from 
the editors' announcement : " The frank and high-spirited son of the South, — 
the cool and indefatigable Northerner, — the poet, with tremulous nerves and flash- 
ing eye, — the reserved and imperturbable mathematician, — the loiterer delighting 
more in observation than in reflection, — the meditative and subtile metaphy- 



THE COLLEGE JOURNALS. 181 

sician, are all here for a time united, and will probably impress their distinguish- 
ing peculiarities upon the work." 

In describing the volume one's first comment would be the predominance of 
tales at about this time. Along with this is to be found some poetry, which 
rises above the usual merit of magazine poetry. Such a poem, for instance, is 
the following, from the third volume of the Harvardiana : — 

"I asked if I should cherish still 

Those dreams and hopes of earlier days, 
When scarce I knew why on her face 
I loved to gaze. 

The hill looked down with calm delight, 
While silence slumbered on the plain ; 
She only said, ' Good night, good night, — 
We '11 meet again.' 

"Those random gifts should I preserve, 
And deem each one of love a token, 
The chance-plucked leaf, — the sylvan flower, 
Which she had broken ? 

The hill looked down with calm delight, 
While silence slumbered on the plain ; 
She only said, ' Good night, good night, — 
We '11 meet again.' 

" Oh ! would she linger in her walks 
A moment by each favorite tree, 
And gather violets from the turf, 
As if for me? 

A blush — a smile — that tone so slight 

I bent to catch — but all in vain, 
I only heard — ' Good night, good night, — 
We '11 meet again.' 

"And would she think, when groves were bare, 
How kindly, in that solemn hour, 
My holiest thoughts would cluster round 
That withered flower? 

Her glance met mine — their deep reply 
Those glistening eyes could not retain, 
Her glance told all — 'Good by — good by, 
Fair girl ! we '11 meet again.' " 

The author of these lines, who had an attractive gift of writing verses, was S. 
T. Hildreth of the Class of 1837; he died two years after graduation. He gave 



1 82 THE COLLEGE JOURNALS. 

the magazine in addition some creditable sonnets and some humorous poems. In 
this same volume there are once more reports of fictitious meetings of the club 
of editors, this time called 'OI IITPOOArOI. S. T. Hildreth, whom we have just 
mentioned, took the name of Ashley Vernon ; Charles Hayward, that of Philip 
Middleton ; Horatio E. Hale, that of Mr. Paul Vincent Larache ; Charles Orville, 
Amadon, Von Schatz, Falconer, and Mr. Buckingham were other assumed names, 
their owners being probably apocryphal persons, introduced to lend greater live- 
liness to the accounts of the mock club. The motto of this third volume was 
this from "Midsummer Night's Dream": — 

" Hippolyta. This is the silliest stuff that ever I heard. 
Theseus. The best in their kind are but shadows." 

Of the fourth : — 



"If thou be a severe, sour-complexioned man, then I here disallow thee to be a competent 
judge." — Izaak Walton. 

The editors of this volume were Nathan Hale, Jr., Rufus King, George W. 
Lippitt, James R. Lowell, and Charles W. Scates, all of the Class of 1838. The 
Skyllygoliana in this volume was the heading under which were printed extracts 
from rejected contributions. The magazine seems to have had always a tendency 
to perish, and with this volume it ceased. The editors, in giving notice of its 
discontinuance with the number for June, 1838, said: " We present to our readers 
the last volume, as it appears, of Harvardiana. A College periodical has survived 
its fourth year, and wondering at itself goes tumbling to its grave. It was but 
yesterday when it was announced as a 'bantling,' but already the hand of pre- 
rogative is upon it, and when next the undergraduate children of Harvard shall be 
stricken with a literary mania, they may collect their efforts under some other 
form, and may give them a more euphonious name." 

Then follow dark hints of the ill-will borne towards the magazine by other 
undergraduate children, who were vexed at being laughed at. Their sensitiveness 
must have been great ; since for the most part the subjects chosen by the 
writers, and the mode of treatment thus employed, were entirely impersonal. In 
concluding, they say : " If they [the pages of the magazine] are the monu- 
ments of our youthful want of wisdom, we can never forget that they were the 
production of days when our hearts were light and our hopes high ; and though 
time may elevate our powers and our ambition, we shall still remember the feel- 
ings and friends that animated our exertions for the pages of Harvardiana." It 
will be noticed that time did elevate the powers and ambition of more than one 
of the editors. 



THE COLLEGE JOURNALS. 1 83 

It may have been " the hand of prerogative," whatever that may be, or natural 
timidity after seeing so many shipwrecks, or possibly indifference on the part of 
the students, which prevented any successor of the Harvardiana from appearing 
for sixteen years. At length, in December, 1854, the first number of the Harvard 
Magazine was issued. 




The first editors were F. B. Sanborn, C. A. Chase, and Phillips Brooks, of 
the Class of 1855 ; and J. J. Jacobsen, J. B. Greenough, and E. T. Fisher, of the 
Class of 1856. They had high hopes of what was to be done by the contribu- 
tors, to whom this eloquent invitation was offered in the introductory address : 
" One has hunted mathematics into its lair ; — let him bring us some trophies of 
his victory. Another has threaded the mazes of metaphysics ; — let him map 
out the intricacies of the way for us. Here is one who has drunk deep at 
the sweet fountain of Grecian poesy, and may offer us the bright water from his 
golden cup; another shall cut a path for us through the thorny hedge which 
defends the castle of German literature, and feast us on the rich abundance 
there. Botanists, chemists, mineralogists, geologists, even political economists, 
shall be most welcome to us. And it is one of our pleasant hopes that this 
magazine may prove a hive where all the busy bees who flit about these fields 
of science and literature will gladly store their honey, not only for present, but 
also for future use. But there are other fair grounds into which we hope to 
make incursions, — the realms of Imagination," etc. 

The Harvard Magazine lived for ten years, the last number that appeared bear- 
ing the date of July, 1864. Editors had been elected from the next year's Senior 
and Junior classes, but they found such apathy on the part of the students, and 
were themselves so unenthusiastic, that they considered it better not to try to 
publish another number. The form in which the magazine appeared, very simi- 
lar to that of its predecessors, seemed often to inspire its contributors to imita- 
tion of the periodical publications of their elders ; and sometimes there was an 
amount of precocious wisdom in its pages which plainly foretold its early, but 
not untimely, death. During part of its life it was very readable. This was 
noticeably the case in the years 1858 and 1859. When it was dull, it was 



1 84 THE COLLEGE JOURNALS. 

very dull, and towards the end of its existence, when, the students had lost all 
interest in it, it feebly gasped for life in articles about the history of the College, 
the College societies, etc., — the last straw grasped by despairing editors ; really, 
no one cared for it, no one then in College regretted its death, and least of all 
the newly elected editors, who knew how thankless and difficult a task they were 
escaping. 

There were those, however, who were dissatisfied with the cessation of the 
Harvard Magazine, and towards the end of the year 1865 a prospectus appeared, 
bearing the names of three members of the Class of 1866, and of three of the 
Class of 1867, and announcing a new journal in the form of a newspaper. For 
the first time the pompous shape of a magazine was abandoned, and opportunity 
was given for the publication of such light and brief articles as should better 
express the thoughts and knowledge of the undergraduates than could imitations 
of more serious work, which are apt to be pretentious. The credit of originating 
this plan lies with the editors from the Class of 1867, namely, Charles Gage, 
W. G. Peckham, and J. L. Sanborn. Early in March, 1866, this paper appeared; 
its name was The Collegian, its motto, " Dulce est Periculum." But three num- 
bers appeared, before some disrepectful allusion to the Faculty, or certain mem- 
bers of it, brought down a formal order that it be discontinued. Its last number 
bore date April 6, 1866. 




May 11, of the same year, appeared the first number of the Harvard Advocate, 
a paper of the same general appearance, and bearing the suggestive motto, 
" Veritas nihil veretur." Its founders were the three editors of The Collegian, 
whose names are given above, and, in addition, F. P. Stearns and E. W. Fox 
of the same class. At first the paper had to struggle somewhat, and in the 
lack of better material the Rebelliad — in a literary respect, the most worthless 
of all the literature the College has ever in any way been responsible for — was 
once more published. Very soon, however, there was a more generous supply of 
original contributions, and always there was a large enough number of subscribers 
to keep the paper on a good basis financially. It has been from the first self- 



THE COLLEGE JOURNALS. 185 

supporting, and its superfluous earnings have been thoughtfully and generously 
made over to the College Library. On the whole, it would be safe to say that 
the discretion and care with which the paper has been edited, its general lack of 
pretentiousness, and its agreeable humor have made it second to no college paper 
in the country. 







Another College journal is The Magenta, with the motto, " I won't philosophize, 
and will be read." The first number appeared January 24, 1873. It is published 
fortnightly, on alternate weeks with the Advocate. Its founders were the follow- 
ing ten members of the Class of 1874: E. N. Aston, H. A. Clark, S. B. Clarke, 
Thomas Corlies, F. C. Faulkner, Edward Higginson, C. A. Mackintosh, H. C. Mer- 
win, G. I. Haven, and C. P. Sampson ; the two last were the financial managers. 
Fortunately the rivalry between the two papers living side by side is a purely 
friendly one. They show nothing of the quarrelsome spirit which is not uncom- 
mon among students, and which is sure to be a source of deep regret in after 
years. One especial aim of The Magenta has been the collecting and publishing 
of College news and statistics, and this has been done with gratifying completeness. 
It is to be hoped that both The Advocate and The Magenta will remain on 
friendly terms, and that both of them, profiting by the experience which has given 
them such marked success, and taking warning by the numerous wrecks in col- 
lege literature, will flourish as no college journal before them has ever done. 



THE GYMNASIUM, AND GYMNASTICS IN HARVARD 
COLLEGE. 



Gymnastic Apparatus on the "Delta." — Dr. Follen's Gymnasium. — Its Failure. — College 
Games in 1844. — Foot-Ball. — Cricket. — Base-Ball. — Swimming. — Bathing-Sheds. — 
Boating. — Anonymous Donation for Establishing a Gymnasium. — The Architect. — 
Description of the Gymnasium. — Instructors. — Statistics of Attendance at the Gym- 
nasium. — Need of greater Physical Training at Harvard. 

One of my most impressive early reminiscences is of a certain moment when 
I looked out timidly from my father's gateway, on what is now Kirkland Street, 
in Cambridge, and saw the forms of young men climbing, swinging, and twirling 
aloft in the open play-ground opposite. It was the triangular field then called 
the " Delta," where the great Memorial Hall now stands. The apparatus on 
which these youths were exercising was, to my childish eyes, as inexplicable as 
if it had been a pillory or a gallows, which indeed it somewhat resembled. It 
consisted of high uprights and cross-bars, with ladders and swinging ropes, and 
complications of wood and cordage, whose details are vanished from my memory. 
Beneath some parts of the apparatus there were pits sunk in the earth, and so 
well constructed that they remained long after the woodwork had been removed. 
This early recollection must date as far back as 1830; and by 1840, I suspect, 
no trace of Dr. Follen's gymnasium remained above the level of the ground. It 
shared the fate of Voelcker's pioneer gymnasium in London, established about 
the same time; both having been hailed with enthusiasm at first, and soon aban- 
doned. A full account of the London institution may be found in Hone's 
" Every Day Book." Dr. Edward Jarvis, in his " Practical Physiology," reports 
from personal recollection that the Harvard experiment ended in " general failure." 

In 1841, when I graduated, nothing like a gymnasium existed, so far as I 
know, in Cambridge ; that of Belcher Kay being established, I think, in 1844 or 
thereabouts. The College games at that period were foot-ball, cricket, and, to a 
limited extent, base-ball. Foot-ball was the first game into which undergraduates 



THE GYMNASIUM. 187 

were initiated, for on the first evening of his college life the Freshman must 
take part in the defence of his class against the Sophomores. It was then a 
manly, straightforward game, rough and vigorous, but with none of the unneces- 
sary brutality to which this match-game afterwards descended, and which led to 
its temporary prohibition. After the first evening the match-games ceased, and 
the sides divided themselves almost at random, the more players the better. It 
was a much simpler game, as we played it, than that described in " School Days 
at Rugby," and simpler than that now played as the " Harvard Game." But 
nothing in Tom Hughes's description can exaggerate the fascinations of the sport, 
to me at least; and I can recall, at this moment, the feeling of exhilaration as 
one drew near to the " Delta," on some autumn evening, while the game was in 
progress, — the joyous shouts, the thud of the ball, the sweet smell of the crushed 
grass. Then came the taking of sides, the anxious choice of a position, the wary 
defence, the magnificent " rush." It seemed a game for men and giants, rather 
than for boys ; and yet I remember that it was mainly confined, in those days, 
to the three lower classes, and that I was more than once reproached for juve- 
nility as being the only member of my class who clung to it in the Senior 
year; I having then almost attained the age at which students now usually enter 
College, — seventeen. Certainly there are great advantages in the maturer years 
of undergraduates nowadays ; and the chief benefit is that they are permitted to 
be " juvenile " a little longer. 

As with foot-ball, so it was with cricket and base-ball ; the games passing under 
these names were simpler than now. Games of ball were played by the classes 
separately, and in my class cricket prevailed. There were not even matches be- 
tween classes, so far as I remember, and certainly not between colleges. We 
played cricket sometimes on the " Delta," sometimes in what is now Holmes 
Place, and sometimes on the small common opposite Holden Chapel. The game 
was the same then played by boys on Boston Common, and was very unlike 
what is now called cricket. Balls, bats, and wickets were all larger than in the 
proper English game ; the bats especially being much longer, twice as heavy, and 
three-cornered instead of flat. I do not think that we ever reckoned " byes " or 
" wides," nor can I recall the complete organization of " point," " cover-point," 
and the rest. What game was it ? Whence came it ? It seemed to bear the 
same relation to true cricket that the old Massachusetts game of base-ball bore 
to the present or " New York " game, being less artistic, but more laborious. 

In these games as now played, the Harvard undergraduates of to-day would be 
more than a match for those of thirty years ago. Perhaps they would beat our 
performance at such games, by whatever rules played, since the average age is now 
two years greater, and since it makes a great difference whether you select your 
champions out of seven hundred young men, as now, or out of two hundred and 



^8 THE GYMNASIUM. 

fifty, as then. Moreover, athletic exercises, as such, are now held in more esteem 
than then, and the physique of the average student is undoubtedly better. But 
there is one athletic sport which then nourished at its highest point, and which 
is now almost extinct in the College ; the sport, namely, of swimming. 

The water of Charles River, now so foul, was thirty years ago quite pure 
enough for bathing, at high tide. The College term lasted until the middle of 
July ; and the river really furnished our chief source of summer delight. The 
present row of boat-houses did not exist, and the College Wharf was divided 
between the means of caloric and the means of coolness, between coal-sheds and 
bathing-sheds. These last consisted of a series of little dens, which were in 
themselves small enough and hot enough to have enhanced the miseries of an 
Early Christian, but which therefore gave all the better preparation for the cool- 
ness and the elbow-room of the water. We used to go at high tide, daily, and 
sometimes twice a day ; and we stayed sometimes two hours at a time, in which 
respect our example is not to be commended to ingenuous youth. I remember 
students who took rooms in the streets near the river, expressly for the luxury 
of these baths. We could practise leaping or diving from any height, beginning 
with the humble ladder that led down into the watery basement, and ending with 
the dangerous platform which some adventurous divers had built upon the ridge- 
pole, some twenty feet above the stream. At that time there was the same con- 
centration of interest upon the daily bath that is now given to the boating ; and 
a good swimmer was a man of distinction, like a good oar in these days. 

The most noted under-water swimmer of my college days was our only Dane, 
— he who afterwards translated' " Heinrich von Ofterdingen " into English, — and 
we fancied his feats to be a sort of national accomplishment. I never shall forget 
the amazement with which we used to watch for him to reappear after a plunge. 
It seems in memory that it was a third of the distance across the river, but 
memory is an unrivalled magnifier, and I will not be positive. To us who found 
a dozen strokes beneath the water the limit of our range, he seemed a kind of 
Viking. v 

But where, in this limited range of athletic excitements, was the boating ? O 
fortunate undergraduate of to-day, there was then no boating! Sail-boats and 
row-boats were to be hired at Fresh Pond, but in Charles River not a boat was 
then launched, except by some coaling schooner. I never heard of any boat as 
being owned by a student, except a ducking-float on Fresh Pond, claimed as the 
property of a member of '39, afterwards Chief Justice of the State of New Jersey. 
It was currently reported that he had been cited before the Faculty for owning 
it, and that, on his pleading that it was in no way a malum prohibitum, he had 
been told that no student was allowed to keep a domestic animal except by per- 
mission of the Faculty, and that a boat was a domestic animal within the mean- 
ing of the statute. 



THE GYMNASIUM. 189 

The present Gymnasium was erected in 1 860. The following extract is taken from 
the Report of Mr. Amos A. Lawrence, the College Treasurer, for the year 1859:" The 
want of a gymnasium has been supplied by the presentation of eight thousand dol- 
lars, through Rev. Dr. Huntington, by a gentleman who declines to be known, except 
as a ' Graduate ' of the College. The building has been erected and furnished, 
at a cost of $9,488.05." The architect was Edward C. Cabot, of Boston. The 
building is of brick, octagonal in form, 74 feet in diameter and 40 feet high. It 
includes as great a variety of apparatus as is compatible with the size of the 
building; there are also two bowling-alleys, and there are dressing-rooms, but no 
bath-rooms. The building was supposed, when first erected, to be large enough 
for the needs of the College, but experience has proved it to be far too small ; 
and it was proposed by the President of the College, in his last Annual Report, 
that a new Gymnasium should be erected, and the present building used for a 
swimming-bath. This would certainly be a most desirable improvement. 

The first teacher of gymnastics in Harvard College was Abram Molineaux 
Hewlitt. He was a professional teacher of boxing, and had established a 
gymnasium of his own in Worcester, Mass., where he was highly esteemed. 
He was a mulatto, of very fine physique, and of respectable and estimable 
character. He was, moreover, a fair gymnast and a remarkably good teacher 
of boxing. In the first years of his term of service there was a good deal of 
activity in the Gymnasium, and regular class-exercises went on. After a few 
years the interest fell off in some degree, or concentrated itself chiefly on the 
"rowing-weights." Mr. Hewlitt died December 6, 1871, and the present teacher, 
Mr. Frederic William Lister, was appointed in 1872. Under his administration, the 
interest of the students in the Gymnasium has revived, the average daily attend- 
ance being reported as "about 200" in the winter of 1873-4 against 130 during 
the previous winter. The greatest number in attendance on any one day in 
1873-4 was 370, and at any one time 80. 

In the Harvard Gymnasium, as in all such institutions, the measurement of 
chest and arms has exhibited a marked increase of physical development as the 
result of gymnastic exercises. Since this is, however, difficult to distinguish from 
the natural expansion of the different parts of the body at the growing age, 
it is not worth while to dwell very closely on such statistics. Of the general 
benefit of gymnastics there can hardly be a doubt ; and it is the opinion of many 
friends of Harvard University that the whole department of physical training 
merits a separate organization and a professorship of its own, as at Amherst Col- 
lege. An institution like Harvard University, which undertakes to provide board 
and lodging for its undergraduates, makes itself so far responsible for their bodily 
well-being that it should certainly have an educated Professor of Hygiene and 
Physical Education. It is a question whether the regular practice of " free gym- 



190 THE GYMNASIUM. 

nasties," at least, should not be made a required exercise, under the direction of 
such a Professor, at least as regards the Freshman class. 

Borrowing this from Amherst College, Harvard would also do well to borrow 
from Princeton something of the variety of exercises which George Goldie there 
teaches so efficiently, — running, leaping, vaulting, throwing weights, and tossing 
the caber. These are often called among us " Scottish Games," but they now 
flourish chiefly in the universities, Scotch, English, and Irish. They are there 
sustained by athletic clubs composed partly of graduates ; and such clubs could 
easily be formed among ourselves. The newly organized boat-clubs will supply, 
let us hope, better opportunities at the oar than have hitherto been open to 
Harvard undergraduates generally ; but a sufficient variety of sports should be 
encouraged to call out the athletic activity of all. When at Cambridge in 
England, two years ago, I saw thirteen eight-oared crews — only half of the fleet 
belonging to that one university — pull in quick succession along the narrow 
stream, in one of the university races ; and I felt ashamed to think that three 
or four six-oars at most were all that our Cambridge had yet to show. Yet at 
the English universities the boating constitutes but a part of the athletic inter- 
est ; and no young man is so hard a student that he does not make physical 
exercise, in some form, an essential portion of his daily task. It should be so 
among us. 



BOATING. 
CHAPTER I. 

Boating Facilities at Harvard. — First Boat-Clubs. — The Oneida. — Boat-Houses. — First 
Race with Yale, 1852. — Challenge by Yale in 1855. — First University Boat, 1856. 

— Volante vs. Harvard, 1857. — First Six-oared Shell in America, The Harvard. 

— Rules for the Intercollegiate Regatta of 1858. — Regatta prevented by a sad 
Accident. — Regatta of 1859. — Three Colleges represented. — Races of i860. — Inter- 
collegiate Regatta at Worcester. — Boating suspended from 1860-63. — Class of '66 
Crew. — Race with the Biglins. — Increased Boating Interest in 1864. — College Races. 

— Various Surveys of the Charles River Course and Lake Quinsigamond. — " College 
Union Regatta" of 1864. — Harvard Colors confounded with Magenta. — 1865 Crew. — 
Beacon Cup Regatta omitted in 1865. — Harvard defeated at Worcester. — 1866. Great 
Enthusiasm. — System of Training adopted. — Class Races. — Improvement in Rowing- 
Weights. — Training. — Harvard triumphant at Worcester. — 1867. Training. — Crew. — 
Dimensions of new Shell. — Success at Worcester. — 1868. College Regatta. — Scratch 
Race. — City Regatta. — Races at Worcester. — Harvard's third successive Victory. — 
Quickest Amateur Time. — 1869. Scratch Races. — Preparations for the English Race. — 
Home Races. — Fourth successive Victory at Lake Quinsigamond. 

The river Charles, running by Cambridge at a distance of five minutes' walk 
from the Colleges and stretching away down stream three miles to Boston, and 
about the same distance up stream to the Watertown Dam, must have always 
offered irresistible temptation to the adventurous student. For boating, few uni- 
versity towns present better opportunities* The river is everywhere wide and 
deep, and free from the impediments usually found on navigable waters. 

Small boats were used at an early day for the amusement or exercise of stu- 
dents, but the first club boats were introduced at Cambridge in 1844. In Sep- 

* The only obstacle being the bridges, both above and below the boat-house, which, with their 
narrow draws, oblige the crews to go to Boston for a clear racing-course. Could a few openings be 
made between the piles of these bridges by removing every other tier, there would be a straight and 
sheltered two-mile turning course, greatly increasing the facilities of both racing and pleasure rowing. 



1 92 BOATING. 

tember of that year the love of boating, inspired perhaps by the regattas which 
were not unfrequent near Boston, brought about the forming of a boat club in 
the Class of 1846. They purchased an eight-oared boat, called the Star, built 
for a race between two clubs of Boston mechanics. This boat, named the Onei- 
da, on changing her home, was perhaps the best boat of her class ever in 
Cambridge, and was the victor in the first race with Yale in 1852. A descrip- 
tion of her will answer generally for all the club boats down to 1855, when the 
model began to be improved. The Oneida was thirty-seven feet long, lapstreak 
built, heavy, quite low in the water, with no shear, and with a straight stem. 
Her width was about three feet and a half in the widest part, and tapered grad- 
ually towards bow and stern. She was floored half-way up to the gunwale with 
wooden strips, and had a hard-wood grating in each end. These gratings were 
kept unpainted and oiled ; and, although used by the bow oar sometimes to walk on 
in using his boat-hook, and in setting and striking colors, they were the princi- 
pal vanity of the boat. Many a hard day's work have members of her crew 
done in sand-papering and polishing those gratings when things were to be made 
ship-shape for some special occasion! The boat had plain flat wooden thole-pins 
fitted into the gunwale. Her oars were of white ash, and ranged from thirteen 
feet six inches long in the waist, to twelve feet at bow and stern. A plain bar 
of hard wood served for stretcher, and each seat had a red baize-covered cushion. 
The tiller-ropes were stout, covered with canvas, and finished at the end with a 
knot known as a " Turk's head," in man-of-war fashion. The captain's gig of a 
man-of-war will give a very good idea of her general fittings. She was painted 
red for some years, and then black, until she was sold in 1857. 

Some of the boats of her time were wider, and perhaps some a little narrower, 
than the Oneida; but none differed much from her, though some had seats in the 
stern-sheets for passengers. She was considered an extreme clipper for those 
times, and was sold by her first College owners in order to get a new boat 
better adapted to pleasure excursions in the bay, and less of a race-boat ; although 
a crew could indulge in very considerable motion in the Oneida without any 
danger of upsetting. Built for a race in Boston in which she was successful, in 
Cambridge also she was never beaten, and in her time she had great renown* 

Down to 1856, when regular race-boats were introduced, which were too light 
for anything but scientific rowing, the College boats were used partly for exer- 
cise, but principally for pleasure-parties, and very seldom for racing. Who of 

* The Oneida almost immediately had companions, and between 1844 and 1850 there were in 
College a Huron, Halcyon, Ariel, Iris, and perhaps others. As it was the custom for the club on 
its organization to adopt the name of the boat they bought from a graduating class, and again to 
name any new boat they might buy after the club, it would be difficult to trace the boats and clubs. 
The names would only lead to errors. 



BOATING. 193 

those who rowed in those days but recalls ' with pleasure the morning pulls up 
the river, between recitations when possible, and sometimes in spite of them ! 
Out by the College coal-wharf and under the Brighton and Cambridge Bridge, 
past the odorous gas-works, and the many turns in the river, leaving Mount Au- 
burn on the right, and, shortly after, the stately Winchester mansion, that always 
looked as though it had strayed away and got stuck in the mud and could not 
get home again, we near Brighton and its bridge, and here comes the tug 
of war. What Scylla and Charybdis were to Ulysses, this bridge has proved to 
many a College boat, with its swift and tortuous current running athwart the 
draw. They do say the engineer made the piling extra strong to resist the 
thumps from the College prows, which after the encounter would not infre- 
quently have to turn to land for the safety of the crew. Once above this bridge, 
all is easy again ; the marshes cease, and the banks become rural and peaceful * 
until we get to the United States Arsenal, where in the summer months it used 
to be an agreeable episode to land and "take a header" from the wharf. One 
more bridge, and the way is clear to Watertown Dam. Here is the famous 
Spring Hotel, — no mean attraction to a thirsty crew in those days. It used to be 
the aim and object of many an evening pull, too, to row up and have supper at 
this renowned hostelry, and sometimes the light of the rising sun would get to 
Cambridge again as soon as the boats. Down-stream pleasure-parties used to go 
down the harbor as far as Hull or Point Shirley. One crew, in 1857, rowed to 
Nahant, and came near swamping in getting back against a northwest wind. 
The Mystic River was often explored as far as Medford, and all the islands, 
nooks, and corners of the harbor were visited. 

The evening row generally took the way to Boston, and this was the time for 
all the boats to go out, not, however, without passing under the critic's eye. Half 
the College would in those days turn out to see the boats start. Good crews 
were selected for the evening row. Beginners were sent in the morning pulls, 
or, if allowed to row in a good crew, were soundly lectured on their duties be- 
fore starting. All the commands were given in man-of-war fashion. " Shove out," 
" toss," " let fall," " ready," " give way," and they were off. A brush might be 
expected from some College boat, or perhaps from a Boston one, and all the Col- 
lege would know the result next day. These evening parties were very apt to 
prove convivial ones ; and sometimes nearly all the College boats would be tied up 
at Braman's Baths or the stone walls of the river bulkhead adjacent, while the 
crew went up town to the theatres, or Ripley's in Temple Place, — in those days 
the billiard-hall patronized by the students, — or perhaps to Parker's (until 1856 on 
the lower corner of Court Street and Court Square, in the cellar), for a supper. 

* The writer having occasion lately to visit the vicinity found a sad change from the landscape of 
1858, that inspired these remarks. An immense slaughtering establishment and rows of houses now 
stand in what were then green fields. 



I 9 4 BOATING. 

The time to see the boats and crews in their glory was upon the occasion of 
a visit to a man-of-war or a launch at the Navy Yard or at some Charles River 
regatta. Then the paint would be cleaned, perhaps the boat varnished for the 
occasion, the best crew selected in each club, the best and cleanest uniforms bor- 
rowed. The colors were carried at each end of the boat, and all the pomp and 
circumstance of a boat club were seen to advantage. Generally the boats rowed 
down in solemn procession in order of classes. If ladies were seen, — although at 
quite a distance, — oars were tossed in their honor, and every possible occasion 
for so doing was utilized. Some of the clubs were very lavish in the vanities of 
boating, and very gorgeous in attire, and history tells of one which had the 
name of the club on the hat-bands in silver letters, and indulged in a club seal. 

From 1844 until 1851, the clubs, if not encouraged by the College Faculty, 
were tolerated; but towards the close of 1850 one of the crews had an "unpleas- 
antness " in Boston with the guardians of the peace, which proceeded from words 
to blows, and ended by the calling out of the fire department, a very jolly row, 
and the incarceration of the crew. This made great trouble, boating was frowned 
upon, and new clubs not allowed to organize. During 1851, 1852, and 1853 only 
one boat remained, — the old Oneida. 

The first boats were kept in a frame shed on the wharf just across the Brigh- 
ton Bridge. When this house was full, the rest were moored in the river just off 
the wharf. This was very inconvenient, owing to the long walk, and because the 
unprotected boats were receptacles for rain water, which afforded abundant occu- 
pation to willing and enthusiastic members in bailing out and cleaning after each 
shower. In 1846 a boat-house was built about one hundred feet below the College 
coal-wharf, by a Mr. Wright, as a speculation, probably at the request of the 
students. The rent was thirty dollars a year for each club. 

This house was eighty feet long and held four boats, and it continued to be 
the only boat-house until 1854. In that year the Class of 1856 had a new boat 
— the Iris — built, and made for her reception a floating boat-house, which was 
moored against the bank a little way down from the old house. The first winter 
was too much for the new house ; the ice carried it away, broke it in pieces, and 
the fragments floated down the river in the spring. 

In 1856 a new house was built to hold the (first) University boat. This boat- 
house was situated just above the stone wharf. This was at different times 
enlarged and repaired, and, when the old one was removed, became the only boat- 
house until 1869, when the present one was built. 

All of these old houses were very cheaply constructed, and furnished nothing 
better than a scanty shelter for the boats. They were of rough boards inside 
and out. The boat clubs have for some reason been always impecunious, and the 
houses have always been good exponents of their condition. Repairs were nearly 



BOATING. 195 

always made by the students themselves, except at intervals, when the abject con- 
dition of the houses would threaten a speedy end to Harvard aquatics. Then a 
subscription would be started amongst the friends of boating in Cambridge and 
Boston, and a new lease of life would be given to the rickety structures. All 
these buildings were erected on piles, retired from the river a sufficient distance 
to remove them from the danger of floating ice, and communicating with the 
river by a channel dug under the house. These channels were never deep 
enough to float the boats at low water, and for about two hours, when the tide 
was out, there was a greasy expanse of fragrant and glistening mud in place of 
water. At such times, if a pull were in order, the boat would be taken round to 
one of the wharves before the tide was out, and the crew would embark there. 

Each boat-house was divided by partitions into as many apartments as there 
were boats, with a narrow platform against the partition on one side ; and the 
boats were hoisted up by a fall and tackle at each end. Strong slings of 
canvas were first passed under each end of the boat, and the tackle made fast 
to the slings. This hoisting up of the boat was the most disagreeable part of 
the pull, and there was not a little shirking when the ropes, stiff with water, had 
to be manned by hands blistered from rowing. Frequently it was necessary to 
raise the old heavy eight-oared boats up one end at a time ; and many a boat, 
especially after a convivial pull to Boston, has been left all night pounding 
against the walls of the College wharf, because the crew could not, or would not, 
hoist her up into the house. In winter the ice froze in large masses against the 
piles, and nearly every year some part of the houses was carried away. It fre- 
quently happened that the clubs had to remove the boats for safety in winter to 
some stable, and the first Harvard shell was habitually stored in the cellar of 
Appleton Chapel. 

In those days the river was edged by a marsh, which at high tide was cov- 
ered by water. To communicate with the boat-house, a walk led from the foot 
of Dunster Street. This walk consisted of two planks placed side by side, and 
was supported about three feet above the marsh by a slight framework. It was 
not easy to keep one's balance on it, and many an unfortunate has toppled over 
into the mud and water beneath. In 1856 a dike was built along the river- 
bank, and the marsh drained ; and it has since been filled up and built upon. 
This dike communicated between the old and new boat-house, and was of an 
evening the favorite place from which to see the boats go out, taking the place 
of the College wharf, which previously had been the favorite standpoint for spec- 
tators. It is almost impossible to mention by name the boats in College in these 
years. They were all named until about 1863, since then they have not been* 

* The Harvard Magazine of April, 1857, and July, 1858, contains descriptive lists of the contem- 
porary boats in the College. 



196 BOATING. 

During the first years of club boats there were races between the different 
clubs. In 1845 there was one between the Oneida and Iris, in which the 
Oneida was successful over what was then the usual course, from near the Win- 
chester House to the Cambridge and Brighton Bridge, straight away. Shortly 
after the Huron,* pulling only six of the eight oars, beat a Boston four-oared 
boat, the Wave, over the same course. In 1847 the Oneida beat the Undine 
of Cambridge, and in the same year also beat another Cambridge boat in a race 
from Braman's to Cambridge. 

1851-2. 

UNIVERSITY CREW. 
T. J. Curtis, stroke, '52. C. J. Paine, '53. C. F. Livermore, '53. 

C. H. Hurd, '53. J. Dwight, '52. C. A. Miles, '53. 

S. Willard, '52. W. H. Cunningham, '53. J. M. Brown, coxswain, '53. 

But the first great event was the race with Yale at Centre Harbor, on Lake 
Winnipiseogee, August 3, 1852. At this time there was only one boat in Cam- 
bridge, and the boating spirit was at a low ebb, owing to the irregularities of 
185 1, and the consequent adverse sentiment of the College Faculty. Yale sent 
the challenge only a few days before the College vacation. The men to choose 
a crew from were few, and the crew of the Harvard Oneida was merely a 
club crew. Some of the men could not remain for the race, and at first the 
affair looked hopeless. But the eight men were obtained, and all the training 
they had was rowing together three or four times before the race. A good idea 
of the state of preparation may be had from the remark of one of the crew, who, 
when lately asked about the amount of practice, replied that " they only rowed 
a few times, for fear of blistering their hands." The race was rowed on a calm 
day over a course about two miles long, and the Oneida won by about four 
lengths, receiving the black-walnut oars now preserved as a trophy.t The details 
of weights, age, measurements, etc., with which all the accounts of races now- 
adays abound, are all wanting. 

Much good-fellowship between Harvard and Yale resulted from this race, and 
all parted the best of friends, after spending about a week together on and near 
the lake. It was intended to row again a few days after at Wolfboro', but the 
weather prevented, and the prize, a black-walnut boat-hook, was given to the 
Shawinut as second prize in the first race. All three were eight-oared lapstreak 
boats, rowed on the gunwale, and carried coxswains. The Atalanta (four oars), 
rowed by Yale, also intended to enter, but withdrew before the race. 

* For particulars relating to the various crews, see the Rowing Record following this article. 

t On the morning of the same day there was a preliminary race (informal), with the same result. 



BOATING. 197 

During the years 1852-54 there were but one or two College boats, and 
they entered in no races; indeed, there was no race to enter in 1853, and in 
1854 only the City Regatta on Charles River, July 4. In 1855 several interesting 
races occurred in Boston, which proved instructive to the College rowing-men. 
The City Regatta on July 4th was contested by New-Yorkers as well as by home 
clubs, and the day after there was a race between the J. D. R. Putman of New 
York, which won the six-mile four-oared race the day before, and the Neptune (four 
oars) of St. John. The St. John crew made three miles in 22 minutes 30 sec- 
onds, and six miles in 47 minutes 35 seconds, beating the New-Yorkers four min- 
utes in a six-mile race, and displaying wonderful speed, style, and power ; but the 
water was rough, and the time made gives no proper idea of the excellence of 
the St. John's crew. In those days, all that was good in rowing came from St. 
John, and the College crew made friends with several rowing-men from that city, 
and learned much that was valuable. Three other races occurred in that year 
on the Charles River, — one of them a twelve-mile race between Boston and St. 
John, — and all were carefully watched by the College boating-men. 

I854-5- 

UNIVERSITY CREWS. 

{Eight-oared.) 

S. B. Parkman, stroke, '57, 144 lbs. B.W. Crowninshield, '58, 150 lbs. W. G. Goldsmith, '57, 136 lbs. 

John Homans, Jr., '58, 139 " C. F. Walcott, '57, 158 " T. N. Willard, '57, 130 " 

W. H. Elliott, '57, 141 " C. Clapp, '55, 141 " J. M. Brown, coxswain, '53. 



(Four-oared.) 
L. Erving, stroke, '55, 171 lbs. S. G. Perkins, '55, 173 lbs. 

J. Erving, '55, 175 " A. E. R. Agassiz, bow, '55, 145 " 

In 1855, also, came another challenge from Yale College, sent very late again, 
only a few days before the end of the Cambridge term. A crew was got to- 
gether this time from all the College clubs, but, as before, the vacation near at 
hand kept many men from rowing. Mr. Brown (the Oneida's coxswain in 1853) 
was taken as coxswain although a graduate, and went out with the crew during 
the very short and simple training for the race. The eight-oared Iris, built the 
year before, forty feet long, a heavy boat, and very slightly outrigged with wooden 
pieces spiked to the gunwale, was selected as the best boat, and the crew were 
two Freshmen, five Sophomores, and one Senior. This crew went much as a 
"forlorn hope" goes into the breach, hoping for a victory on their side, but ex- 
pecting to be themselves sacrificed, for they were light men, and had only rowed 
together about ten times. Still, all had rowed during the spring term, and had 
the same general style. The salvation of Harvard was supposed to rest with the 



boat Y. Y., a recent importation from St. John, with very decent outriggers, no cox- 
swain, no rudder, and furnished with spruce oars, — then quite a new thing. Her 
crew was very powerful ; the two brothers Erving, one in the Law School and the 
other in the graduating class, and Stephen G. Perkins and Alexander E. R. Agas- 
siz, who steered the boat from the bow, both of the graduating class. Three were 
six feet high or over, and all very athletic. They trained very quietly, and never 
rowed a trial against the Iris before the race. If they had, they would have 
found that their boat was, though of a good model and apparently in all respects 
superior to anything of that day, badly strained and twisted, and not fit for the 
trial. The race was rowed July 22d, on the Connecticut at Springfield, a mile 
and a half down stream and return, from a point about five hundred yards below 
the lower bridge. The day was dull and rainy at times, the water tolerably 
smooth, with very light wind. At the start the Yale boats led, rowing over sixty 
strokes to the minute. Their style was as bad as could be, — a short, jerky stroke, 
— and they were soon safely out of the race. The Iris took the lead about a 
half-mile away, and kept it, coming in in 22 minutes (45 seconds ahead of the 
Y. Y., which was partially disabled by the breaking of a stretcher at the first 
stroke, two minutes ahead of the nearest Yale boat, the Nereid, and three min- 
utes ahead of the Nautilus.) Both Yale boats were six-oared, and the Y. Y. was 
four-oared. Eleven seconds were allowed each oar, and the Iris won the race by 
three seconds. 

The Yale boats were vastly superior to those of Harvard, and had bent 
wooden outriggers, braced like those of a wherry, running from the bottom of 
the boat across the gunwale. After the race a crew made up from three of the 
Y. Y. crew, and three of the Boston Union Club crew, rowed the Yale Nereid 
over the course in fifteen seconds better than the Iris time. The prize — a set 
of (three) colors — is among the Cambridge trophies. 







1855-e 








UNIVERSITY 


CREW. 




S. B. Parkman, stroke, '57, 


145 lbs. 




C. F. Walcott, '57, 


iS7 


B. W. Crowninshield, '58, 


15° " 




F. C. Ropes, '57, 


139 


W. H. Elliott, '57, 


142 " 




W. G. Goldsmith, '57, 


i37 


F. D. Hodges, '57, 


158 " 




A. E. R. Agassiz, bow, '55, 


138 



On Wednesday evening, October 3, 1855, at a meeting of the Iris, Y. Y., Oneida, 
Huron, and Undine Boat Clubs in general council, it was resolved, as indeed was 
quite apparent, that the existing boats in the College were constructed entirely for 
strength, and the ample accommodation and comfort of the crews, — speed being 
wholly a secondary consideration; and that an eight-oared boat should be built, 
modelled solely for lightness and speed, to be used in regattas. In 1856 the first 



University boat was built at St. John, — a lapstreak, fifty-one feet long, rowing 
eight oars, fairly outrigged, no rudder, and on coming to Cambridge she was decked 
over at each end with light canvas. She was built by' subscriptions obtained 
from the students, and was under the charge of a committee composed of the 
presidents of all the College boat clubs. Practically, however, the Seniors did 
what they pleased about her, and selected the crew. She arrived from St. John 
a few days before the 4th of July City Regatta. A crew already selected and 
somewhat (but very insufficiently) trained rowed her in that race. She came in 
ahead of all in 2 1 minutes 8 seconds ; but having to allow 40 seconds for two 
oars to the six-oared Robert Emmett, which came in in 21 minutes 23 seconds, 
she only got the second prize, a silver goblet. This goblet was afterwards raffled 
to help pay for the new Harvard, in 1857. 

This year, 1856, was remarkable for the growth of the boating spirit. Better 
models, outriggers, and spruce oars were introduced. The boats increased from 
one in 1853, two in 1854. and five in 1855, to eight, and the river in the even- 
ing was alive with boats. Four other regattas occurred in Boston in which the 
College crews could not participate except as enthusiastic spectators. One, a 
match race of six miles for $ 1000, between the Neptune of St. John and the 
James Mackay of New York, excited great interest, and was won by the Nep- 
tune in 42 minutes 14 seconds. The New York boat bore the name of her 
builder, an English emigrant, and in lightness of structure approximated the 
model since known as shell. She was considered a failure, but some of the stu- 
dents recognized in her shape principles adapted to a College boat. Those who 
were in College in this year will recollect also among the new-comers an Esqui- 
maux cajack, or skin boat, having only a round opening for its solitary occu- 
pant, and propelled by a paddle with a blade at each end. 

1856-7. 
UNIVERSITY CREW. 
S. B. Parkman, '57, Captain. 
B. W. Crowninshield, stroke, '58, 151 lbs. W. F. H. Lee, '58, 175 lbs. 

W. H. Elliott, '57, 145 " S. B. Parkman, '57, 146 " 

T. D. Hodges, '57, 159 " W. H. Goldsmith, '57, 137I " 

J. H. Ellison, '59, i47i " A - E - R - Agassiz, '55, 139 " 

1857 was memorable only for defeat, although the lessons were well learned, 
and prepared the way for a long and almost unbroken series of successes for 
some years. Several new boats, lapstreaks, lighter and of improved models, all 
carrying outriggers, and longer and narrower on the floor, had been built to 
take the place of older ones. Spruce oars, with broader blades than the ashen 



oars, were universally used ; many boats rowed without a coxswain, and the 
style of rowing decidedly improved. Altogether there were eleven boats, beside 
a pair-oar, belonging to the Collegians. On May 16th occurred the race be- 
tween the Volant of Boston and the new Huron of the Class of 1857. The 
Volant Club of Boston had existed several years, and had rowed many 
races, being nearly always successful. They had three times in succession won 
the first prize of the Charles River Amateur Association, and were anxious to 
beat the College boats. They used to row up the river from Boston in time to 
pass the College boat-houses just as the boats went out after tea, and they 
were the bugaboo of the College clubs. Their boat was made by the same 
builder as the new Huron, and was similar. Their crew was a heavy one, and 
very powerful ; but they rowed in a different, and, it was thought, inferior style. 
The match was made early in the season, over the Charles River course, and 
was looked forward to with intense interest by all who ever heard of a race- 
boat in Boston and the neighborhood. An immense crowd assembled to see 
the race ; and all the College boats, ten in number, went down in procession. 
The day was bad, and the water rough. From the very start the Volant led, 
and was never approached, winning in 2 1 minutes, — the best time then on record, 
— 38 seconds ahead of the Huron. The Volant was the better boat, and her 
crew a very decided overmatch for the crew of the Huron, averaging four pounds 
more than they.* 

On the 13th of June occurred the first Beacon cup race. For the six and 
eight oared race five boats were entered, the Harvard eight with a picked crew, 
two other College club boats, the Union of Boston, and the Urania also of 
Boston.t Fifteen seconds were allowed for each extra oar. The day was rough. 

* The race was Saturday, and the next day the Rev. J. F. W. Ware preached in the Chapel, and 
announced some rather remarkable hymns, considering events. In the morning he gave out the hymn 
of which the second and third verses are, -^ 

"There is a battle to be fought, "O, faint not, Christian! for thy sighs 

An upward race to run, Are heard before his throne. 

A crown of glory to be sought, The race must come before the prize, 

A victory to be won. The cross before the crown." 

In the afternoon he read the still more pertinent one, — 

" Bound on a voyage of fearful length " But oars alone can ne'er prevail 

Through dangers little known, To reach the distant coast ; 

A stranger to superior strength, The breath of Heaven must swell the sail, 

Man vainly trusts his own. Or all the toil is lost." 

When these hymns were read, the students smiled audibly, and looked slyly at those present who had 
participated in the race, or whose pockets were unusually empty in consequence. 

t The new Oneida, eight oars, of the Class of '58, entered with six oars, but the illness of one of 
the crew compelled her to withdraw before the start. 



The Harvard at once took the lead, and led 27 seconds at the stake. Immedi- 
ately after turning, the two largest men in the boat rowing on the same side 
gave out, and the Union nearly closed up the gap, coming in only one half a 
second behind the Harvard, in the excellent time of 20 minutes 21 seconds. 
Harvard, 20 minutes 20J seconds. The Urania beat the two other Harvard boats. 
The result of these two races was very depressing to the Cambridge boating- 
men, and the future looked dark. The organization of the crews for this year 
had not by any means been complete, and the last race forcibly showed the 
necessity of a much more regular and systematic course of training. These were 
the only races this year, and, as a result of ill success and pecuniary losses, the 
interest in boating matters visibly declined and almost expired. However, in 
this year the greatest improvement in racing-boats was adopted at Harvard, and 
the way to success assured. On the 4th of July the city of Portland held a 
regatta in their harbor, and two Harvard students, enthusiastic in boating, went 
down to see it. In the single scull-race appeared a shell boat, rowed by its 
maker, Mackay, the English boat-builder, who had removed to St. John from 
New York. He did not win the race, being himself but an indifferent oars- 
man ; but, notwithstanding this ill success, his shell was recognized as the com- 
ing boat. 

1857-58. 

UNIVERSITY CREW* 

B. W. Crowninshield, '58, Captain. 

B. W. Crowninshield, '58, stroke, 156 lbs. J. H. Ellison, '59, 144 lbs. 

C. Crowninshield, '60, 154 " R. B. Gelston, '58, 144 " 
C. W. Eliot, '53 (tutor), 138 " A. E. R. Agassiz (resident graduate), '55, 138 " 

In September an order for a six-oared shell was given to Mackay, by four 
students on their own responsibility. While she was building, it was decided, at 
a meeting called for the purpose, to sell the Harvard eight-oar; and in the follow- 
ing spring she was sold to Columbia. She was too heavy for any crew that could 
be expected from among the students, and had generally to meet six-oared boats, 
and allow them odds. 

In December, 1857, the new boat was delivered in Boston. Two of her own- 
ers went after her early in the morning, and, with the assistance of her builder 
and another man, carried her across the city on their shoulders, and launched 
her from the Cambridge Bridge. She was the first six-oared shell built in America, 
was forty feet long (made short in order to turn a stake easily), twenty-six inches 

* J. H. Wales, '61, took Gelston's place, July 5, and the crew which went to Springfield included 
Gelston and Wales, and H. Cutting, '59, bow, in Agassiz's place. 




mm : 



BOATING. 203 

wide amidships, built of white-pine, and had iron outriggers like those now in 
use, except that the oars were not fastened in the rowlocks by wires. She weighed 
one hundred and fifty pounds, and was an exceedingly neatly made boat, and 
differed from the racing shell of to-day only in being shorter and wider, and 
higher out of the water. To her owners the enterprise appeared a complete 
success. She was a very fast boat, a good sea boat, and very lively, and in 
practice the next spring repeatedly did the Charles River three-mile course in less 
than nineteen minutes, being privately timed. There seems now nothing startling 
in this statement, but in those days such a boat and such time were wonders. 
To boating-men then she was as great a novelty as the Monitor was to naval 
officers in 1862. With her, also, "spoon" oars, a new device, were brought to 
the Charles River* Her crew rowed a few times in her in December, and 
then looked forward with eagerness to the spring of 1858. Before spring came, 
many of the rowing-men had been doing more or less work in the rather primi- 
tive gymnasium situated on the lane leading from Church Street to Brattle 
Street. When the boating season opened in 1858, it was decided to adopt the 
new shell as the University boat in place of the Harvard eight-oar, and the 
crew was at once definitely made up, who went out in her nearly every day, 
and soon got well used to her. 

The first race that year was for the Beacon cup, June 19. In Cambridge the 
excitement about this race was great, although the misfortunes of the last season 
had so disheartened the students, that no other boat was relied upon or entered 
by the College. Everybody had heard something about the new boat, and great 
things were hoped for rather than expected. She was such a novel affair that 
there was a feeling of distrust of her capacity. The crew were confident enough 
from their long course of training, which was this year very thorough and careful, 
and they were perfectly used to the boat and each other. The day of the race 
was good, and seven boats were entered in the six-oared race. At the first 
stroke the outrigger of the stroke-oar of the Harvard was badly bent, but 
nothing was said to the crew ; and they, starting rather slowly, went immediately 
afterwards to the front, and at the end of the first mile were many lengths in 
advance of the other boats. Rowing ahead, they came in without exertion in 
the then unheard-of time of 19 minutes 22 seconds, — 1 minute and 58 seconds 
ahead of the next boat. This race caused a great excitement in boating circles. 

* This old Harvard shell, though in some respects inferior to the narrow and longer shells made 
since, was a very remarkable boat ; a picture of her, with the crew of 1858, is seen on the page 
opposite, showing also the bank of the river with the old original boat-house next the College 
wharf, and the (first University) boat-house next what was then the stone wharf. At that time the 
stone wharf and the College wharf were the only ones between the first bridge below Cambridge 
and the Brighton Bridge on the Cambridge side of the river. 



204 BOATING. 

Lapstreak boats were henceforth useless for racing, and the fight between the 
Merrimack and the wooden frigates was not more decisive. 

July 5 (Sunday being the 4th) was the second race of the year; one change 
had been made in the crew meantime. The distance rowed at this race was six 
miles, perhaps to try to make the contest more even, with the idea that in six 
miles a crew of workingmen would outlast the students. The workingmen 
themselves knew better, and the Fort Hill crew (the best of them) refused to 
row unless the Harvard should stay out. The latter offered to make the 
second prize equal to theirs, provided the Fort-Hills could come in second to 
them. This was accepted, and the amount of the two prizes was equally 
divided. In the race the Harvard had everything its own way, and rowed 
the six miles without the least fatigue in 40 minutes 25 seconds, making the 
first three miles in 19 minutes 40 seconds, and, without getting out of the boat, 
rowed to Cambridge. And so, from defeat, dejection, and apathy in boating 
affairs, Harvard emerged victorious and exultant. 

In May, 1858, a proposal was published in the Harvard Magazine, and a cir- 
cular was sent from Harvard to such of the other colleges in the United States 
as from their situation on good water were supposed to be able to put a crew 
into a race-boat, asking them to send delegates to a meeting for the purpose of 
establishing an annual intercollegiate regatta. Favorable answers were received 
from Brown, Yale, and Trinity, and doubtful ones from some other colleges. 
Delegates met at Yale on the 26th of May, and arranged for an annual intercol- 
legiate regatta by voting as follows : — 

"I. That a regatta be instituted between the colleges of the United States, and that the time and 
place of the next regatta be determined at each regatta. 

"II. That the race for the year 1858 take place at Springfield on Friday, the 23d of July, at half 
past four o'clock. 

" III. That two courses — one a straight course and the other a turn and repeat — be meas- 
ured, either to be rowed according to the state of the river and the weather. 

" IV. That the race be between boats manned by undergraduates, — including the graduating 
class. 

"V. That a set of colors be procured, to be presented to the winning boat, and the expense 
be borne by the boats entering the regatta. 

' " RULES. 
" 1. The course shall be three statute miles. 
"2. The position shall be decided by lot. 

"3. An allowance shall be made of twelve seconds per oar in favor of smaller boats. 
"4. Any boat crossing another bow, so as to compel her to alter her course, shall be disqual- 
ified to win a prize. 

" 5. A boat may carry a coxswain or not as it sees fit. 

" 6. Each college shall appoint an umpire, and the umpire shall choose a referee. 

" 7. Each college may enter as many boats as it pleases." 



BOATING. 



205 



This, then, was the commencement of a regular annual regatta between col- 
leges, and at once committees were appointed to arrange for the race at Spring- 
field. The scheme was put in the papers, and other cities then, as now, endeav- 
ored to induce the regatta committee to change the place for the race, and espe- 
cial efforts were made by the Worcester people. But all the arrangements 
were completed at Springfield, and the boats from Harvard and Yale went up 
about two weeks before the day, and were in full practice. The newspapers 
had begun to notice the occasion, with remarks about the crews, etc., when, the 
Saturday evening before the race, the Yale boat, returning from practice, was run 
into and upset by a Springfield race-boat, and the Yale stroke-oar, George E. 
Dunham, was drowned. This sad event caused the abandonment of the regatta 
for this year, as the other colleges had failed to send boats, and as the Yale crew 
could not well replace their loss. Yale had purchased, a little while before, 
from the Volant Club of Boston, a four-oared shell, built in St. John for a 
club there, and which was successively sold to the Volants and to Yale. The 
Harvard crew were sorely disappointed in giving up a race for which they had 
trained actively since May 14, and for which several of the crew had worked 
all winter more or less. 

1858-59. 

UNIVERSITY CREW. 

J. H. Ellison, '59, Captain. 

C. Crowninshield, stroke, '60, 157 lbs. H. S. Russell, '60, 135 lbs. 

W. H. Forbes, '61, 154$ " J. H. Wales, '61, 133J " 

E. G. Abbott, '60, 141 " J. H. Ellison, bow, '59, 139J " 

During the autumn the College boats engaged in no races, though the boating- 
enthusiasm was now high, and the improvement in boats and consequent style of 
rowing made it a comparatively easy task to select a good crew. A committee 
composed of the boat-club presidents still nominally controlled the Harvard, but, 
as always had been the case, the real control was vested in the senior member 
of the crew, and for the coming academic year Mr. J. H. Ellison of '59 was 
captain of the University crew. Early in the spring, after the usual amount of 
winter gymnasium work, the crew was organized. 

This crew kept together the entire season, and rowed in one race at Boston, 
and at Worcester against Yale. Their first race was June 22, for the Beacon 
cup. On the 17th of June there was a regatta at Charlestown, on the Mystic 
River, in celebration of the day, in which the Juniata, a College boat, with a 
class crew, got beaten by 8 seconds in a race of two miles. 

On this occasion the Harvard was present, and was run into by a sail-boat 



206 BOATING. 

and badly damaged. She was, however, repaired in time for the 2 2d, and seemed 
none the worse for her mishap. The day of the third Beacon race was 
fine, and the water very smooth. The Harvard came in first, in 19 minutes 11 J 
seconds, the best time up to that day, beating easily the Leader (four oars), from 
New York, which had a professional crew that expected to make short work of 
the Harvard. The Harvard was ruled out of the Fourth of July Regatta in Bos- 
ton in 1859, by restricting the entries to lapstreak boats, it being evident to the 
authorities that, were the Harvard to enter, she would have no competitors, and 
consequently no regatta would be rowed. The intercollegiate race took place 
this year at Worcester, July 26, on Lake Quinsigamond, a mile and a half and 
repeat. For the first time Brown, a third College, competed for the colors. 

It was understood that Yale would send a lapstreak boat (but she did not), as 
Brown entered her heavy lapstreak (the only boat in College), not with any idea 
of winning, but to make up the race, and it was thought but fair for Harvard 
and Yale to send each a lapstreak for Brown to compete with. The day was 
windy, blowing up and down the lake, a poor day for good time. All the boats 
got away well together; but Harvard, true to her traditions, spurted for the lead, 
and took and kept it sufficiently to turn the stake ahead. They came in in 19 
minutes 18 seconds, just one minute ahead of Yale; the Avon (Harvard's lap- 
streak) third, in 21 minutes 13 seconds; and Atalanta last, in 23 minutes 40 
seconds. 

The next day was the Citizens' Regatta, and in the six-oared race only the Yale 
and Harvard were entered with the same crews and boats as the day before. 
One circumstance, however, gave the Yale boat desperate odds. The wind (a 
high one) blew directly across the course, — a fact which compels a crew rowing 
without a coxswain to row hard on one side going up to the turn, and on the 
other side coming down; while a coxswain with his rudder can turn against the 
side favored by the wind, and allow all the crew to give way. In this race the 
Harvard unfortunately drew the side most exposed to the wind ; and going up to 
the stake they would, whenever a lull came, gain rapidly on Yale, being at times 
ahead of her. Yale turned the stake 26 seconds ahead of Harvard, but coming 
down the Harvard made up 24 seconds of that, and actually came in only two 
seconds behind, in 19 minutes 16 seconds. The Harvard crew had pulled desper- 
ately, and gained whenever they could get out of the wind ; but some of the 
gusts blowing down between the hills were so strong that, twice, on one side, the 
crew were obliged to hold water to get the boat's head round again. Though 
defeated, her crew did well, and the result of this race was the adoption of a 
rudder connecting with the bow-oar's feet by wires. This method of steering was 
not new. It was used in the four-oared Undine, at Cambridge, two years before, 
but was not thought at the time worth general adoption by boats rowed without 



BUATINli. 207 

a coxswain. The boat used by the Harvard crew was the original six-oared shell, 
now nearly two years old, and a good deal racked by her many races, and excur- 
sions by rail. A new boat had been built with arrangements for a coxswain, but 
it was too light, and did not carry the crew as well as the old one. It will be 
noticed that in this race the Yale men rowed the race in 19 minutes 14 seconds, 
— four seconds quicker than the Harvard's time the day before. They rowed decid- 
edly better than in the College race; but much was also due to the fact that, 
while the struggle was harder from the boats being nearer together, they were 
generally ahead, and consequently not discouraged. 

During this meeting of collegians at Worcester, matches were played with 
Yale at billiards and chess, both of which Harvard won. 

1859-60. 

UNIVERSITY CREW. 

Caspar Crowninshield, Captain. 

C. Crowninshield, stroke, '60, 155 lbs. W. H. Ker, '62, 145 lbs. 

C. M. Woodward, '60, 147 " H. Ropes, '62, 140 " 

E. G. Abbott, '60, 145 " J. H. Wales, bom, '61, 138 " 

Caspar Crowninshield was this year captain of the University crew, which was 
selected in the early spring and remained the same through the season. 

New boats were built, but the old forty-foot pine proved better than all, and 
carried the crew to victory this season no less than there times. In the 
Charlestown race, June 18 (Sunday being the 17th), the Harvard crew were 
entered to row in the Thetis, a St. John lapstreak, because the Union crew had 
no shell, and had given out that they could beat the Harvard in a lapstreak; 
but the boat was disabled at almost the first stroke by being fouled, and had 
to withdraw. The Haidee, rowed by the so-called second Harvard crew, however, 
won the race, two miles, — although carrying a coxswain, — in 14 minutes 23 
seconds, beating the Union 16 seconds. 

On the 23d of June the Beacon cup race was pulled over the Charles River; 
and the Thetis, rowed by the Harvard crew, won in 19 minutes ^7 seconds, until 
then the fastest lapstreak time ever made. This race was entered by the University 
crew from Brown with a beautiful new shell boat. They were not used to her, 
and came in third, in 20 minutes 50 seconds. 

June 25th occurred a race at South Boston. The six-oared race had five 
entries, including the Brown University shell. The race was two miles, and was 
won with the greatest ease by the Harvard crew in the old six-oared pine shell 
in 1 2 minutes 38 seconds, — 1 minute and 5 seconds ahead of the next boat. 

In the City Regatta, July 4, the Thetis, rowed by a Freshman crew, and the 



208 BOATING. 

Sophomore class boat entered with four other boats in the lapstreak race. The 
Sophomores won in 19 minutes 21 seconds, — 16 seconds ahead of the Freshmen. 
In the shell race the Harvard crew rowed the old shell and won the race from 
three other boats in 18 minutes 53^ seconds, — up to this date the quickest six- 
oar time. 

The Intercollegiate Regatta came off at Worcester, July 24. This year the 
University race was contested by Yale, Brown, and Harvard ; but there were, be- 
sides, races between the Yale and Harvard Freshmen, and the Yale and Har- 
vard Sophomores. All three races were won by Harvard, — the Freshman race in 
19 minutes 40J seconds to 20 minutes 20 seconds. In the Sophomore race 
one of the Yale crew gave out, and the Harvard boat rowed in leisurely in 20 
minutes 17 seconds. In the University race the time was, Harvard 18 minutes 
53 seconds, Yale 19 minutes 5 J seconds, and Brown 21 minutes 15 seconds. The 
Harvard crew rowed a new shell, longer and narrower than the old one, and were 
ahead during the entire race. 

The Brown shell was made very unusually light and narrow, far too much so 
for her crew, who had considerable difficulty in managing her, and she came in 
half full of water. Brown carried a coxswain, as did Yale also. 

On the 25th occurred the Citizens' Regatta. One of the Harvard crew had been 
ill, and was forbidden by his physician to row, so the Harvard did not enter the 
shell race. The race was contested by the Yale, Union of Boston, Quickstep 
and Gersh Banker, professional of Newburg. The last boat came in first in 18 
minutes 37 seconds, followed by Yale in 19 minutes 10 seconds, and by Union 
(four oars) in 19 minutes 40 seconds. 

Before this was the lapstreak race, entered by the Thetis and Sophomore class 
boat of Harvard, and the Thulia of Yale. The Sophomore boat crossed the 
bows of the Thulia, which thereupon stopped. They came in, Harvard Soph- 
omores in 19 minutes 44^ seconds, and Thetis in 20 minutes 13 seconds. But 
the prize was given to the Thetis, on account of the fouling of the Thulia by 
the Harvard Sophomores. 

After the Class of i860 graduated, boating declined to so great an extent that 
no race was rowed against Yale and the other colleges until 1864. This was 
owing principally to the war. The minds of all through the land were concen- 
trated on one subject, and boating suffered along with other interests. Perhaps 
the Faculty, too, put obstacles in the way of the intercollegiate regattas, on ac- 
count of the disturbances which the students made at Worcester in 1859, and 
especially in i860. These exuberances were seized upon eagerly by enemies of 
the colleges, and made up into very highly colored accounts, and created a good 
deal of scandal. There were still some boats in College, but little was done in 
the way of practice, and the boats went out in the evening in solemn and sol- 



J3UAlllM_r. 20Q 

itary grandeur. No critics were there to pass upon the style of rowing and the 
appearance of the crews. The Beacon cup races were discontinued until 1863. 
The boat-houses grew shabbier each year, and the boats were in keeping with the 
houses. Once in a while a crew selected from the class crews took a row in 
the Harvard, but no challenge came from Yale, and none was sent from Har- 
vard. 

At length, with the incoming of the Freshman class in 1862, which contained 
several men who had taken an interest in rowing in Boston previously, the boat- 
ing spirit revived. A boat club was formed, and purchased the old Thetis and 
the old Harvard shell. In the spring of 1863 a class crew was formed, and a 
new shell built for them by Doyle of Boston. This boat was very long and 
narrow, and was built of white-pine. It proved to be too crank, though used in 
two races. The Beacon cup was their first race, June 20. They met the 
George J. Brown, rowed by the famous Biglin crew of New York, and the 
George B. McClellan of Boston. The day was windy, and the water rough. 
Harvard led to the stake, but soon after the turn, where they were fouled, their 
boat was swamped, and thrown out of the contest. The George J. Brown won 
in 19 minutes 40 seconds. On July 4, in the City Regatta, the Harvards rowed 
again, meeting the same crew, with a new boat, the P. L. Tucker. Again the 
wind was high and the water rough. The Tucker passed the Harvard before 
the stake was reached, and won the race in 20 minutes 8 seconds, beating the 
Harvards 7 seconds. 

1863-64. 

UNIVERSITY CREW. 

H. G. Curtis, '65, Captain. 

H. G. Curtis, stroke, '65. J. Greenough, '65. 

R. S. Peabody, '66. E. C. Perkins, '66. 

Thomas Nelson, '66. E. Farnham, bow, '66. 

In the autumn, with the new academic year, the boating interest increased in 
all the classes, and a University crew was organized, as well as class crews in 
the Freshman, Sophomore, and Junior classes. The University crew was physi- 
cally very powerful ; but from want of proper practice and organization, it failed 
to fulfil the hopes inspired by its fine material. In the Beacon cup race on the 
nth of June, 1864, none but College boats were entered, — a fact which gave an 
impression that it was a College race only. Two boats entered from the Fresh- 
man, two from the Sophomore, and one from the Junior class. The Juniors 
withdrew before the race. The day was windy and the water very bad. The 
first Sophomore boat won easily in 20 minutes 50 seconds. The first Freshman 



210 BOATING. 

crew, however, were dissatisfied with the result, as they had been swamped, and 
the race was rowed over again the following Monday, June 13 (a good day and 
good water), with the same result, — the first Sophomore crew beating the second 
in the old Harvard by about 30 seconds, making the course in 19 minutes 
50 seconds. 

In 1862 the Charles River course was surveyed, and was found to be short* 
Comparisons of time between crews in different years are always difficult, owing 
to differences in the wind, state of the tide, etc. ; and the resurvey of the course 
brings in another element which can never be exactly determined. This class 
crew was an unusually good one, and the lengthening of the course gives a wrong 
impression of their comparative excellence with previous crews, judging by time 
alone. The second Sophomore crew rowed in these two races the old Harvard 
shell, built in 1857, which still survived all the hard usage of seven years, in 
which time it was rowed in ten races, taking first prize eight times, and get- 

* In June, 1862, the Charles River course was resurveyed. The first survey was made in 1855, 
for the City Regatta on July 4. For several years the two-mile course had been thought to be short, 
and some questioned the length of the three-mile course. The result of the survey was that the three- 
mile course as existing at that date was found to be 796 feet short, and the two-mile course 1,258 
feet. In the advertisement of the City Regatta for 1862 these facts were set forth, and a calculation 
was added, showing how much difference in the time this distance would amount to, calculated by the 
city surveyor, for the purpose of comparing time made over the new course with that over the old. 
These differences were as follows : — 

Three miles, six-oared shells, I minute. 

Two " single wherries, I " 52^ seconds. 

Two " double scull wherries, 1 " 45£ " 

It was found that the two-mile course up to 1862 had never been surveyed at all, at least officially. 
The turning-points in the two and three mile courses had been probably gradually changed, as in 
1855 the stake in the three-mile course was correctly placed, but it can never be ascertained exactly 
what it was in each year, nor is there any direct evidence that it was short of three miles at any 
time except in 1862. These changes were partly due to a change in the starting-point owing to alter- 
ations in the shore line. 

But, making comparisons of time made up to 1862 with time since made, and taking into consider- 
ation the improvements in boats and boating, it is probable that the three-mile course was short 
from 1856 to 1862, though always thought correct at the time, unless we assume the crews of those 
days to have been stronger or better trained. 

As to the correctness of the three-mile course at Lake Quinsigamond, there are many opinions. 
After carefully investigating the matter, it seems certain that in different years the turning-point has 
been placed differently. In 1868 great efforts were made to have it a full three miles, and it prob- 
ably was so then, if never before or since. Unfortunately, merely surveying a course and laying out 
full three miles is not enough to insure its correctness, for even after that the stake may be moved, 
accidentally or purposely. The time given in this account is always the official time. The reader 
must estimate the correctness for himself. In two instances remarkable circumstances relating thereto 
have been recorded. 



BOATING. 211 

ting second prize in the other two, besides being constantly used as a practice- 
boat. In the spring of 1865 she was broken up and her fragments eagerly- 
taken as relics by those among the students or Alumni who were near at 
hand, or who had friends at court. The cup won in the Beacon cup race 
of 1864 by the first Sophomore crew (1866) was presented, in the spring of 
1865, on the institution of the " Harvard College Regatta," as a prize to be 
rowed for annually by all College crews other than the University crew. On 
the Fourth of July the successful Sophomore crew entered the City Regatta, and 
again met their opponents of last year, — the Biglin crew. High wind and rough 
water rendered this race a trial of seaworthiness of the boats rather than of the 
capacity of the crews. Harvard drew the outside (most exposed) position; and 
came in full of water 30 seconds behind the New-Yorkers, who rowed the 
three miles in 22 minutes 4 seconds. In this race a professional crew in the 
Amphitrite was distanced. 

The College Union Regatta came off this year, the first time since i860, and 
was rowed on Lake Ouinsigamond on the 29th of July. Harvard entered, be- 
sides the University crew, its Sophomore crew, — the one that had already rowed 
in three races this year so well, though so unsuccessfully. Yale, the only com- 
peting college this year, entered a University crew and a Sophomore crew as 
Harvard did. Harvard as usual employed no trainer, while Yale's two crews were 
trained by the New York professional, Wood. The Harvard men appeared this 
year with bare backs ; and, as they had practised all the season thus stripped, 
presented a rich mahogany color, while the Yale crews, who had rowed in shirts, 
were milk-white by contrast. The " New York Sun," in its account of the race, 
mentioned this peculiarity, and attributed the hue of Harvard's oarsmen to the 
use of some artificial coloring-matter. The crews were all at Worcester from ten 
to fifteen days before the race, and in that interval all the Harvard men were 
badly affected by the drinking water, and neither crew was in perfect condition 
on the day of the race. The first race was between the Yale and Harvard 
Sophomore crews, and was won by Harvard with great ease in 19 minutes 4 
seconds, — 1 minute and 12 seconds ahead of Yale, — though the Harvard crew 
came almost to a dead stop once in the race, losing probably 10 seconds. 

The next race was between the two University crews, neither of which had 
ever before appeared in public, and whose capabilities were known only to them- 
selves. The Yale crew was composed of excellent material, and had for captain 
and stroke-oar Wilbur Bacon, who was afterwards considered the best oar ever 
put into a boat by Yale. They rowed a quick, jerky stroke, but pulled well 
together, and offered an excellent example of what can be done by hard work 
and good discipline, even with a bad style: for their style was undoubtedly bad, 
and inferior to that of the Harvard crew. They had a great advantage of 



Harvard also in their boat, which suited them admirably. The great weight of 
the Harvard crew had made it necessary to get a boat built expressly for them. 
The one made earlier in the season was too small, and the new one came only 
a few days before the race. This boat was not large enough to carry them, and 
was crank besides, and they were unable to get familiar with her in time for the 
race. Still, they used her as the best they had. 

When the crews came into line, late in the afternoon, the day was fine, and 
the water all that could be desired. Both boats started well together, but Yale 
soon gained the lead, drew away, and came in the victors in 19 minutes 1 sec- 
ond. At the turn Harvard was somewhat impeded by the stake, which was at- 
tached to a floating barrel, rolling against an outrigger and bending it. This 
would have made no difference in the result, however. Harvard was fairly and 
handsomely beaten by a crew of smaller men, better trained and disciplined. 

On the next day occurred the Citizens' Regatta. All the College boats were 
entered, and the P. L. Tucker, with the Biglin professional crew from New York. 
Before the race the Yale Sophomores first withdrew, then the Harvard University 
crew. The Sophomore crew of Harvard were looked upon as probable winners, 
even against the Yale University crew, as they had the day before, without being 
pushed, made the three miles in 19 minutes 4 seconds, when the Yale Univer- 
sity had done it only three seconds quicker. All the Harvard men were much 
excited and very sanguine of their success, knowing their great experience and 
almost perfect style, — although the crew was very light, averaging only 133 
pounds. However, before the race, the Yale crew, perhaps distrusting their abil- 
ity, or at any rate, thinking it best to leave well alone and rest on the laurels 
won the day before, withdrew. The race was left to the Biglins and the 
Harvard Sophomores, who now met for the fourth time in two years. The 
day was excessively hot, a strong breeze blew across the lake, and the Soph- 
omores drew the outside place. Fate was against them. The two boats started 
about 12 o'clock under a broiling sun, and kept together all the way to the 
stake. The Biglins had the inside and Harvard had to yield the turn. On the 
home stretch they gained, however, and came in 6 seconds behind the Biglins, in 
19 minutes 14 seconds, — very quick time considering the day. This Sophomore 
crew of the Class of 1866 was a fine example of what good style and training 
will accomplish. They pulled a beautiful stroke, averaging 40 to the minute. 

It was this year that the magenta and crimson got confounded as the Har- 
vard colors. Magenta had been the color of the Class of 1866 rather from Hob- 
son's choice. The University crew could not find any handkerchiefs of the usual 
color, and wore magenta instead, but caused it to be called "red" in the pro- 
grammes of the race. Worcester had this year so far got into the routine of 
fashion that magenta was the only shade of red to be had in the shops, and 



— """• 2I 3 

the Harvard men, who had failed to bring their colors with them, were forced 
to wear the magenta or none. 

1864-65. 

UNIVERSITY CREW. 

F. Crowninshield, '66, Captain. 

F. Crowninshield, stroke, '66, 138 lbs. E. N. Fenno, '66, 145 lbs. 

E. T. Wilkinson, '66, 146 " E. H. Clark, '66, 124 " 

W. Blaikie, '66, 142 " C. H. McBurney, bom, '66, 131 " 

In the academic year 1865, the spirit for boating rather increased. The 1866 
crew became the University crew, Fenno taking Abbott's place. On the 6th 
of June of this year the Harvard College Regatta was instituted, with the Beacon 
cup of 1864 given as a prize by the class crew of 1866. This race brought 
out, for the first time, as competitors for boating honors, the Scientific and Law 
Schools. The cup was won by the Juniors in 20 minutes 43J seconds, followed 
in order by the Scientific, Law, Sophomore, Freshman, crews. This year there 
was no Beacon cup regatta. 

The College Union Regatta was contested only by the University crews of 
Harvard and Yale, and was rowed on Lake Quinsigamond, July 28. The Yale 
crew was substantially the same that had beaten Harvard the year before ; but 
it had improved both in style and strength, and had a superb boat. This 
year the Harvard crew had a boat built by a new man, Lawler, who made for 
them a very peculiar affair, broad and very flat, and with a slight keel. It was 
an experiment, and a decided failure. Harvard also slightly changed its stroke. 
The race is easily told. Harvard took the lead at the commencement, but was 
soon rowed down by the superior strength of Yale and handsomely beaten, — 
Yale 18 minutes 42^- seconds, Harvard 19 minutes 9 seconds. By a mistake the 
judges announced Yale's time as 17 minutes 42^ seconds, but this was an- 
nounced by both judges and referee afterwards to be a mistake. In the Citizens' 
Regatta the next day, Yale again beat Harvard, 19 minutes 5^ seconds to 19 
minutes 2o|- seconds. 

1865-66. 

UNIVERSITY CREW. 

William Blaikie, '66, Captain. 



William Blaikie, stroke, '66, 150 lbs. 


Robert S. Peabody, 


'66, 166 lbs 


Ed. T. Wilkinson, '66, 160 " 


A. P. Loring, 


'69, 149 " 


Ed. N. Fenno, '66, 159 " 


C. H. McBurney, bow, 


'66, 140 " 



In the fall of 1865, Harvard having now been beaten in the University race 
by Yale for the two preceding years, it was plain that some radical change was 



needed. One of the most enthusiastic boating-men Harvard ever had (William 
Blaikie) and several of the old oarsmen furnished promising material for the com- 
ing crew, which was to turn the tide of success again in favor of Harvard, to be 
continued for several succeeding years. Systematic work was entered upon early 
in the fall to an extent for the first time adopted in the College. Although 
during the fall of this year the standard set by a few of those working was not 
followed out by the crew as a whole, as has since been accomplished, yet a great 
deal of work was done before winter. 

Running alternate days a distance of five or six miles at half-speed constituted 
one of the features of the new regime. The ideas in regard to diet were very 
much changed, a more liberal range of cuisine being allowed, and which was pre- 
served throughout the year to the day of the race unaltered. Instead of train- 
ing off flesh, the maxim was, Keep all the flesh you can and do the prescribed 
work. The result was — coupled with the choice of naturally heavier men than 
in previous years — a well-trained crew, in much fuller flesh than usual. 

A close study of the best English manuals on rowing also resulted in a 
marked change in the style of stroke this year, the essential elements of which 
are now generally adopted by all College rowing-men. About the beginning of 
the winter of 1866 the old two-handled rowing-weights used in previous years, and 
this year up to this time, were supplanted by very much improved and heavier 
ones (fifty pounds). The remains of the old ones may yet be seen, and those intro- 
duced in this year were used until the present year. The new weights furnished 
an opportunity of studying "form and style" and applying the new principles of the 
English stroke. An amount of work equivalent to the length of the usual course 
(three miles) was taken daily by most of the crew, being estimated at one thousand 
well-pulled strokes. Other work of a general nature, gymnastic exercises, and out- 
door walking were also taken in addition, until the time of getting into the boat 
in the spring, when running and weights were dropped for practice on the river. 

Considerable improvements in boat-building also marked this year, particularly 
over the two years immediately preceding. The class race in the spring took 
place on Charles River, and- was participated in by the Scientific School, and 
by all the classes in College except the Senior, who filled all the places in the 
University crew save one (finally filled by the stroke of the Freshman crew). 
The water was tolerably smooth, the course the full one. The race was well 
contested between the Freshmen and Juniors to the stake, and made a very 
pretty race, no accident occurring, and the crews coming in quite well together. 
Three of the Freshmen crew and one of the Junior formed part of the next 
year's University crew. The time, 20 minutes 24 seconds, has not been beaten 
in any class races since, over that course. 

The University crew did not enter in the City Fourth-of-July Regatta this 



BOATING. 



= 15 



year, but contented themselves in going over the course on time a great many 
times, making it in private, under favorable circumstances, in 19 minutes 20 sec- 
onds. Two weeks previous to the College Union Regatta on Lake Ouinsiga- 
mond they were quartered at a farm-house, about a mile and a half from the 
lake, practised daily, and came to the line in fine condition on the afternoon of 
July 27, 1866. There were two races, one between the Scientific, and the other 
between the University crews. The Harvard Scientific crew won in 18 minutes 
53I seconds, to Yale 19 minutes 38 seconds. Harvard's Scientific crew was a 
remarkably good one, as is shown by the time made. This year both University 
crews were heavier than the preceding year, and Harvard heavier than Yale. 
Marked changes also took place in style. Yale discontinued the short, spasmodic 
stroke, and rowed a much longer and slower one, but they rowed principally 
with their arms. On the other hand, Harvard quickened up to 42-43 strokes; 
both had good boats, and the chances before the race were considered equal. At 
the start, Yale led slightly, but the new stroke of Harvard gradually told, and the 
lead was gained, and Yale beaten about half a minute. Time: Harvard, 18 min- 
utes 43J seconds; Yale, 19 minutes 10 seconds. This was within three fourths 
of a second of the fastest time on that course by the College crews; the 
previous year's Yale crew having a record of 18 minutes 42^ seconds. The 
race was rowed in a shower, which probably made the time slower than it 
would have been with a fair day. After the race a lot of red toy balloons were 
sent up from the grand stand, and the water was strewn with flowers, and a 
large wreath thrown to the Harvard crew. 

Gold medals were presented from the city of Worcester, and the flags by the 
judges. The band as usual played Fair Harvard, and the crew were elegantly 
entertained at several gentlemen's private residences in Worcester in the evening. 
There was a ball the night before to which the crew could not go. 

1866-67. 

OFFICERS OF THE H. U. B. C. 

F. J. Clark, '69, President. A. P. Loring, '69, Captain. 

UNIVERSITY CREW. 

A. P. Loring, stroke, '69, 159 lbs* R. C. Watson, '69, 159 lbs. 

W. H. Simmons, '69, 168 " W. W. Richards, '68, 159 " 

T. S. Edmands, '67, 159 " S. L. Holdrege, bow, '68, 146 " 

All the 1866 crew graduated but one (Mr. A. P. Loring), who was made cap- 
tain of the crew, and rowed stroke. In the autumn boating was entered into 
with increased zeal. Work was commenced by more than a quota, and all the 

* These weights do not include any clothing. 



216 BOATING. 

principles of the previous crew were adopted, and carried out, under favorable 
circumstances, to greater lengths. In the spring the result was a still heavier 
crew, that had been in training all the autumn and winter. On taking to the 
water it was found that they could row over the Charles River course in bet- 
ter time than last year's crew. The crew only rowed in one race this year before 
the race with Yale. This was a four-mile race, July 4, in the City of Boston 
Regatta, over a one-mile course, and a very tame affair. Their only competitor 
was a green crew from Maine, rowing a heavy boat, which, of course, could not 
at all keep up with them. It appears from a diary kept by one of the crew, 
that they rowed in practice this year over 400 miles, and their gymnasium work 
and other exercise was uninterrupted and very severe. Their boat this year 
was very fine, and was modelled by a nephew of the celebrated Steers of New 
York. She was 50 feet long and 21 inches wide, — dimensions which have been 
since regarded as the standard for a six-oared shell. The next year another 
was built for the Harvard crew on the same moulds, as she was considered 
as near as was possible to perfection. 

The Harvard crew went to Lake Ouinsigamond two weeks before the race, 
and by rowing repeatedly over the course (which was this year accurately meas- 
ured a full three miles) became perfectly familiar with it. The race was rowed 
July 19, — only Harvard and Yale competing. Each college sent two crews, 
a Freshman and a University. In the Freshman race, Yale had a lighter 
crew than Harvard, but won the race in 19 minutes 38^ seconds to Harvard's 
20 minutes 6 seconds. Harvard and Yale both claimed a foul, the former on 
the way up, and the latter at the stake. Both were disallowed. In the Uni- 
versity race Harvard had a little the heavier crew. Yale's stroke differed little 
from that of the year before, being rowed principally by the arm. The day prom- 
ised to be bad, but became fair in the afternoon, and the race was rowed in smooth 
water. Yale was shaken off very soon after the start, and left far behind in 
the race, coming in over a minute behind, — Harvard doing the three miles in 
1 8 minutes I2f seconds, and Yale in 19 minutes 23! seconds. It will be noticed 
that Yale's time was not much better than that of her Freshman crew. 

1867-68. 

OFFICERS OF THE H. U. B. C. 

S. V. R. Thayer, '70, President. G. W. Holdrege, '68, Captain. 

FRESHMAN CREW. 

A. P. Loring, stroke, '69, 155 lbs.* John W. McBurney, '69, 153 lbs. 

R. C. Watson, '69, 159 " W. W. Richards, '68, 161 " 

W. H. Simmons, '69, 172 " G. W. Holdrege, bow, '68, 146 " 

* These weights do not include any clothing. 



i3WA 1 UN Lr. 217 

The academic year commenced in September, 1867, with good auspices. G. W. 
Holdrege was chosen captain of the crew. Only one man of the University crew 
graduated ; all the classes were full of the right spirit, and a large and ambi- 
tious class had recently entered. During the winter an unusual amount of gym- 
nasium work was performed, and all the work of the preceding year was done, 
if possible, in a more thorough manner, and the crew were carefully watching for 
the new man to make their number complete. During the fall and winter an 
informal correspondence took place between the captains of Harvard and Oxford 
about making a match ; but, as Oxford seemed determined to yield nothing in 
order to bring about the match, nothing came of it at the time. In April, 1868, 
Harvard wrote again, yielding the point about carrying coxswains, and challenged 
Oxford to row a race in September, 1869. As the term of office of the Oxford 
Club officers expired in the autumn of 1868, they could take no action, but 
suggested that the challenge should be renewed in the spring of 1869, when it 
would doubtless be accepted. This correspondence caused great excitement in 
Cambridge boating circles. 

The University crew was made up finally, early in the spring, and work on the 
river commenced at the first favorable weather. Class crews also were formed, 
and one from the Scientific School. The College Regatta took place June 13, 
and attracted unusual attention from the number of the crews. The day was 
fine and the water smooth. After one bad start, in which the Juniors broke an 
oar, the crews were recalled and started again. The Freshmen soon took the 
lead, and won easily in 20 minutes 59^ seconds; the Scientifics coming in sec- 
ond, Sophomores third, and Juniors last. The time was poor, but the Freshmen 
were not pushed. There was also a race for second crews, and the Juniors en- 
tered one crew in a shell, another in a lapstreak, and the Sophomores a crew in 
a shell. The Junior crew in the shell won, though followed closely and at times 
hard pushed by the Sophomore crew. Two men in the Junior boat had just 
come from playing a base-ball match, and were much fatigued; else they would 
have won more easily. The Monday after the regatta a scratch race was rowed, 
— a most amusing and enjoyable affair, which was attended by almost as many 
people as the regular races. A brief description of these scratch races will be 
appropriate in this place. Any one who wishes to do so can enter his name to 
row in a scratch race, and the only limit to the number of crews is the number 
of old boats which can be procured that will float long enough to carry their 
crews to the starting-point again. 

A sufficient number of captains is first chosen who know something about 
steering, and they draw the names of those entered, by turns, until their crews 
are filled, and it sometimes happens that a crew is made up entirely of starboard 
or of port men; and as they are not allowed to row together until they start 



off for the race, it is very amusing to watch the rolling and splashing and " crab 
catching " of the men who are rowing on the wrong side, or who never rowed at 
all before. 

The scratch races at Harvard were for several years a burlesque of the regu- 
lar races, and each crew endeavored to have a more comical uniform than any 
other, and a more outlandish name. 

In this race one crew wore old crushed white beavers, another old white felt 
hats, another paper bags, another paper " fools-caps " : and the names were the 
Starboard, which rowed the mile and return in 15 minutes; the Scheistergong, 
in 15 minutes 15 seconds; the Tippecanoe, time not taken; and the Bulls of 
the Woods, which broke two oars and withdrew. 

In the City Regatta, July 4, the University crew rowed, meeting the famous 
Ward Brothers, who came on before the race to Cambridge, where they trained, 
using the Harvard boat-house and using one of the Harvard shell-boats, but 
bringing their own oars. The day was very hot, the thermometer standing over 
100° in the shade. The Ward Brothers won the race easily in 19 minutes 19J 
seconds, Harvard's time being 19 minutes 45^- seconds. At the start one Har- 
vard man broke his oar, and had to use a strange one. Another broke the but- 
ton off his oar. On the same day there was a regatta at Lowell, and the Fresh- 
men entered against three other boats in the six-oared race. They led at once 
from the start, but when about a mile out the stroke oar had a sun-stroke, and 
fell into the bottom of the boat. In about a minute he recovered sufficiently to 
sit up and swing with the others. The boat came in second, being passed by 
the West-Ender of Boston, while they were stopped. Time, West-Ender, 20 min- 
utes 2 seconds; Freshmen, 22 minutes 7 seconds. 

The next race this year was between the University crew and the Ward 
Brothers on Lake Quinsigamond, July 22, in the Citizens' Regatta, which took 
place, this year, two days before the race with Yale. Although the University 
crew had improved very much since the 4th of July, so much so that they felt 
it perhaps possible to defeat the Ward crew, yet college boating-men had no 
such idea of them, and few students went to see the race. 

The day was good, and, contrary to all expectations, the Harvard crew rowed 
so well that the Wards were compelled, not only to do their best all the way, 
but to give the Harvards their wash repeatedly on the home-stretch, and only 
won the race by 13 seconds. The time was the best ever made in a race 
with a turn, 17 minutes 40J seconds for the Wards, and 17 minutes 53 seconds 
for Harvard. One of the Ward crew, named Raymond, nearly fainted at the 
finish. 

After such a fine race the spirits of all Harvard men rose, and great things 
were looked for in the University race, July 24. The Harvard Sophomores 



BOATING. 



219 



and Freshmen had both challenged the corresponding classes at Yale to row 
against them, but both challenges were declined. The University race was rowed 
on a good day and in good water. Harvard led at once, and kept the lead all 
the way, rowing forty-five strokes with rather shorter oars than are now used,* 
and making a bad turn. Harvard won in 17 minutes 48-I seconds; Yale's time 
being 18 minutes 38A seconds. Harvard's time was 4^ seconds better than that 
made in the race with the Wards. The University crew of 1868 was a very fine 
one, and has the credit of the quickest time for amateurs over a three-mile 
course with a turn. 

1868-69. 

OFFICERS OF THE H. U. B. Ct 
Grinnell Willis, President. E. M. Low, '69, Captain. 

UNIVERSITY CREW. 
F. O. Lyman, stroke, '71, 154 lbs. G. Willis, '70, 153 lbs. 

T. Parsons, '70, 153 " G. I. Jones, '71, 155 " 

J. S. Fay, Jr. (Law School), 155 " N. G. Read, bow, '71, 133 " 

In the autumn of 1868, Mr. E. M. Low ('70) was chosen captain of the Har- 
vard University Boat Club. There were two scratch races rowed, for the pur- 
pose of reviving the interest in boating matters, which was apparently declining. 
The first, a race of two miles, on October 3, in which the Orlando Tomp- 
kins came in first, in 14 minutes 45 seconds; Squantum, second, in 15 minutes; 
Chicken Hazard, third, in 15 minutes 35 seconds; and Skeedunk, distanced. The 
second race was October 10, from Grand Junction Railroad Bridge to Union 
Boat Club house straight away, and resulted as follows: Ace of Spades first, 
Ace of Clubs second, Ace of Hearts last. Mr. Simmons was chosen captain of 
the University crew in February, 1869. Work in the gymnasium was done all 
winter, but in the spring the prospect was not very encouraging, as one of the 
old crew graduated, two left College, and one declined to row. There was good 
material in the class crews, but many of the best men were disinclined to row, on 
account of the time it took. Affairs were in this condition when the challenge 
for the race was received from Yale and accepted. 

Very soon after this (in March) the match was made with Oxford, and the 
formation of that crew broke up the regular University crew. As Yale's chal- 
lenge had been accepted, some action must be taken at once, and a committee 
was sent to New Haven to arrange if possible a four-oared race with Yale, to 
take place July 4. Yale could not row in term-time, so this was not practica- 

* In 1865 the oars were longer than at present; in 1866, 1867, 1868, shorter. 

+ In February Mr. Low resigned, and Mr. W. H. Simmons was chosen in his place. In the spring, 
when the crew was organized to go to England, Mr. Simmons resigned the captaincy in favor of Mr. 
A. P. Loring, and Mr. N. G. Read was chosen captain of the home crew. 



2 20 BOATING. 

ble, and Harvard now went to work to try and organize a six-oared crew to meet 
Yale at Worcester. Great difficulty was encountered. It was thought to be im- 
possible to get together and train a six-oared crew, which should meet Yale on 
even terms after counting out the four-oared crew now preparing to meet Ox- 
ford. N. G. Read of '71 was chosen captain, and tried every rowing-man who 
did not refuse — as many did — "to go to Worcester to be beaten." All the 
class crews but the Freshman were broken up, and that crew kept together only 
because they were to row the Yale Freshmen at Worcester. The Scientific 
crew, with Fay as stroke, was untouched ; but Fay was to go to England as 
substitute for the four-oared crew. It was therefore necessary that he should 
have an opportunity to learn the Harvard style of rowing in a six, behind 
some man well practised in the stroke. It was therefore submitted to the 
Yale Navy that Fay be allowed to row this year in Harvard's University crew, 
in order to keep in training and learn the style ; this was most generously 
allowed by a unanimous vote. 

In order to obtain all the experience possible, the four selected for the race 
with Oxford entered in all the races this year on Charles River. The first 
of these was on June 15. The four carried a coxswain, though the other boats 
did not. They came in two lengths behind the George Roahr, a four-oared crew ; 
but as the latter had fouled them at the stake, the race was given to Harvard. 

Their next race was on the Mystic River, June 17, against the same boats, 
in a four-mile race. This time Harvard rowed without a coxswain, and came 
in ten lengths ahead. Time, 28 minutes 22 seconds. From this it may be 
judged how much a boat is impeded by the weight of a coxswain. 

On the 4th of July, in the City Regatta, they rowed over the Charles River 
course without a coxswain, and easily beat the George Roahr, and also the pro- 
fessional Hamill crew of Pittsburg. Time, 22 minutes 27J seconds. 

The London Rowing Club, amateur champions in eights, fours, pairs, and 
single sculls, sent a challenge to the Harvard four, to row them a race when 
in England. But the challenge was declined, as the four intended only to row 
the race against University crews. The London Rowing Club also sent a very 
cordial letter, offering the free use of their boat-houses, boats, club-room, and the 
Honorary Membership of their club to the Harvard crew and substitutes, and 
any other services they could render to make their stay more agreeable, whether 
the challenge was accepted or not; and hoped the challenge would be received in 
the spirit in which it was sent, namely, " for the promotion of aquatic sport, and 
of good feeling between the countries." Invitations were also received to enter 
various regattas in England and Ireland, and also to attend several different enter- 
tainments, some to be given specially in their honor. At the same time with the 
challenge to Oxford, Harvard sent a challenge to Cambridge, but it was declined. 



On the 26th of June the University six was definitely made up, after great 
difficulties and discouragements, no one expressing any confidence in their power 
of winning the race with Yale. It was not even thought worth while to order a 
new boat " for them to be beaten in " ; and so the class boat of '71, in which 
they won their class race as Freshmen, and in which the University crew in 
1868 rowed against the Wards and Yale at Worcester, was repaired and stiffened 
for their use. 

When the six had been at Worcester a few days, and had seen the Yales row, 
and had got their time after timing themselves over the course, they became 
hopeful, and wrote to their friends to come up and see the race, as they ex- 
pected to win. The Freshmen, who had found it very difficult to make up their 
crew, improved rapidly as the time for the race drew near. 

The day of the Intercollegiate race, July 23, found plenty of Yale's friends at 
Worcester, but Harvard's colors were " few and far between." The Harvard Uni- 
versity crew remained at their boarding-house until it was nearly time for the 
race, and then walked down to the lake just in time to see their Freshman crew 
come in ahead of Yale. They accepted this as an omen of success, and appeared 
in line ready for the start in perfect condition, and cool and confident. 

When the word was given, Harvard took the water quicker than Yale, and 
spurting at once, drew clear by the time the grand stand was reached, rowing 
fifty strokes. Harvard's few friends cheered their loudest as their boat showed 
ahead, but the Yale men were confident their crew would row them down before 
the finish. Harvard kept the lead, and turned the stake first, making a slow 
turn, as the stake boat lay broadside to the course. After turning, they kept a 
steady stroke, rowing within themselves, and allowed Yale to gradually come up 
with them. Yale showed first from the grand stand, rowing far out in the lake; 
but Harvard soon came into sight nearer inshore from behind the point, and 
was surely not behind, though the boats were not far apart. Joshua Ward, who 
had trained the Yale crew, now rowed alongside them, and called to them to 
spurt. They answered with a desperate effort for half a mile, gaining slowly but 
surely; and, closing up all the clear water, they lapped the Harvard more than 
half her length when off Regatta Point. Yale's friends now grew enthusiastic, 
thinking the race as good as won, while the Harvard men's cheers had an im- 
ploring sound, and seemed despairing of victory ; suddenly the Harvard crew, 
who had kept up their steady forty-four from a little distance from the stake to 
this point exactly as before planned, now put on their final spurt of forty-seven 
strokes directly off the grand stand, rowed away from Yale, and crossed the line 
more than three lengths ahead, in 18 minutes 2 seconds. Yale's time was 18 
minutes n seconds. Lyman and Fay went immediately to England, where 
they were to act as substitutes for the four-oared Harvard crew. 



CHAPTER II. 



English Race. — Coxswain. — Method of Training. — Departure for Europe. — Courtesies shown 
by the London Rowing Club. — Change in the Crew. — English Method of Practice. 

— Details of the Race. — 1870. Constitution for the Harvard Boat Club adopted. — The 
New Boat-House begun. — Various College Races. — The Union College Regatta. — Foul. 

— Harvard again awarded the Victory. — 187 1. The Association of American Colleges 
formed. — Harvard's Prospects. — Scratch Races. — Failure of the Plan for a Race with 
Yale. — Races at Ingleside. — Harvard victorious in the Freshman Race. — The Amherst 
Agriculturals successful in the University Race. — 1872. Officers. — Scratch Races. — 
Difficulties met by the University Crew. — College Races. — Intercollegiate Races at 
Springfield. — Victory for Amherst. — Sliding Seats. — 1873. Graduates' Cup. — Usual 
College Races. — Annual Convention of American Colleges. — Rules. — Class Races. — 
System of Training. — Intercollegiate Regatta. — Diagonal Finish. — 1874. Officers ' 
elected. — Fall Races. — Adoption of a Club System in College. — Intercollegiate Races 
at Saratoga. — Harvard fouled. — Columbia awarded the Colors. — A Review of the 
Systems of Training adopted by Harvard. — College Colors. — Improvements in Boats. 



1869. 

ENGLISH RACE. 

A. P. Loring, stroke, '69, 153 lbs. F. O. Lyman, '71, 158 lbs. 

W. H. Simmons, '69, 171 " J. S. Fay, Jr., bow, '69, 161 " 

Arthur Burnham, coxswain, '70, 107 lbs. 



After the informal correspondence, in 1868, with Oxford, relative to a match- 
race between the two universities, which came to naught at the time, the whole 
matter was supposed to be at an end. But in the early spring of 1869 it was 
suddenly announced that a match had been arranged, and a meeting of students 
was called April 28, to decide what to do further in the matter. At first the 
opinion of the meeting was adverse to the enterprise, because it was thought that 
the match had been originated and promoted by individuals not authorized to 
act. On further discussion, opinions changed, and it was finally voted to ratify 
what had been done, and to raise a crew to meet Oxford. Here at the outset 
it may be well to enumerate some of the objections which presented themselves 
for consideration, not here pleaded by way of extenuation, but to show rather 



BOATING. 223 

the nature of the contest. Numerically the number of students in Harvard is 
very much smaller than in either of the English universities, and therefore there 
are fewer oarsmen from whom to select a crew. In America, rowing among col- 
lege men is an art learned, for the most part, during an academic course of 
four years; while in England considerable perfection in the art is reached in the 
preparatory colleges before entering the higher universities. Again, the English 
crews row in eights, and carry coxswains, neither of which customs are in vogue 
in this country, it being difficult to obtain so many as eight good men for a crew 
from a comparatively small college, and a coxswain being regarded as too much 
of an impediment to speed. Many inquiries were also instituted at this time as 
to a course upon which it would be possible to row such a race. All that re- 
sulted was the ascertainment of two facts, namely, that there were but few, if 
any, good courses in England, and that the English crews would not consent to 
row anything but a four-oared match with coxswains, and that over their regular 
course on the Thames, from Putney to Mortlake. All these points were yielded 
by Harvard, who thus met the Englishmen literally upon their own terms, as was 
perhaps proper enough for a new aspirant to coveted honors. 

Now came the important question of the crew. At this time there was but 
one old University oarsman practising or intending to row that year, and two of 
the most promising of those working for places on the University crew had 
known but one year's rowing. The crew as first announced at the meeting was: 
Simmons (stroke), Bass, Rice; the bow not being chosen, but Blaikie, '66, sug- 
gested. After some discussion, Loring was induced to row. Simmons, chosen in 
February captain of the University crew, resigned in Loring's favor, and the crew 
was organized. Practice now began at once ; but here new obstacles were en- 
countered, and especially in the matter of boats. A four-oared boat was a new 
thing at Harvard. Nobody knew how such a boat should be built, but one was 
at once ordered. The coxswain was the greatest difficulty. This officer had 
been something unknown in the College for many years, and after the merits of 
all the light weights had been canvassed, one was finally chosen. The crew 
rowed first in a six-oared shell, placing the coxswain in stroke's place, and bal- 
ancing his weight with sand-bags placed in the bow. When the four-oared boat 
arranged for coxswain arrived, she proved a failure, being altogether too long, 
buckling badly, and her outriggers springing, on account of their length; but 
the crew used her for practice, and in the races near Boston. 

The fact hardly deserves mention, but there was also another abortive attempt 
to build a suitable boat, by a builder who claimed to have had practice in Eng- 
land, but his production subsequently proved hardly worth putting into the 
water. 

This latter boat, however, having been tried once or twice, was really taken to 



224 iJUATlJNli. 

England with the idea that she would serve to practise in, but was never even 
uncovered there. The coxswain Harvard had chosen was not accustomed to boat- 
ing or rowing of any sort, and of course could not be relied upon materially to assist 
the crew by advice. It is but just to say, however, that he did as well in his place 
as could have been expected under the circumstances. In England a coxswain is 
of use. Possibly one might have assisted the Harvard crew in their practice abroad, 
but the crew did not know how to use him, nor he how to help the crew. 

Only two of the crew were old University oars, and the two new men had to 
be taught the stroke. Mr. Loring then, as captain, took his place in the bow, 
whence he could the better criticise and teach the crew, and Mr. Simmons rowed 
stroke. Thus organized, they worked hard and faithfully, and rowed in the three 
races before mentioned. They sailed for Europe, July 10, from New York, 
arrived at Liverpool in ten days in good condition (except Mr. Simmons, who 
suffered much from sea-sickness), and went immediately to Putney, where they 
were almost at once lodged in the White House (a detached villa on the river- 
bank), in excellent quarters. There was now a period of nearly five weeks be- 
fore the day appointed for the race. Immediately on their arrival they were 
called upon by the London Rowing Club, who kindly placed boats and oars at 
their disposal, and gave them the exclusive use of one of their boat-houses, and 
who during their entire stay showed them every civility, making them Honorary 
Members of the club. Practice on the river commenced at once, and the cox- 
swain, under the guidance of different watermen, went frequently on the river and 
studied all the peculiarities of this most intricate course as well as was possible. 

Towards the latter part of the time, a small screw pleasure-boat was kindly 
furnished by an English gentleman, through the influence of some friend, and 
the coxswain thus had an opportunity of going over the course an additional 
number of times without requiring the crew to row him. 

The boat they took with them being useless, they at once ordered new ones 
from no less than three of the most noted English boat-builders. These three 
boats were finished two weeks before the race; they were tried, and one selected 
and used in practice until within two or three days of the race, at which time 
the American boat-builder, Elliott, who had brought over the knees and draughts 
of a new boat, completed one which the crew preferred to any other, and there- 
fore this boat was used. 

The course was four and a quarter miles, and was rowed up stream with the 
tide, which runs about four miles an hour. The river is here very crooked, 
and the course is shaped something like the letter S, full of eddies, shoal in 
places, in places obstructed by piles, and crossed by three arched bridges. This 
course had been the scene of no less than twenty contests between Oxford and 
Cambridge, and was perfectly familiar to the English crew. 



The Harvards as originally organized rowed every day back and forth over this 
course, not without eliciting sharp and generally adverse criticism from the Eng- 
lish papers, which took an unusual interest in the coming race. After three 
weeks' practice it became evident that the crew could not approximate their 
styles so as to row well together, and it was decided to place on the crew the 
two substitutes who had just arrived, instead of the two middle men, then in the 
boat. A new crew was therefore made up, and the positions of the original bow 
and stroke oarsmen changed, thus rowing as they had been accustomed in pre- 
vious years ; i. e. the bow in stroke's place, and the former stroke directly be- 
hind him. The two substitutes filled the forward places. The crew as thus 
made up formed the crew which rowed in the race. This was about two weeks 
before the race, and at this time the Oxford crew appeared on the river. Their 
stroke was noticeably slower than that of the American crew, who, although they 
rowed more slowly than was their custom, still inclined to the more gliding and 
quicker stroke, which the mile and a half turn races at home called for. It is 
said that a residence on the river-banks is not good for a crew, and that in 
England no crew ever stays there longer than two weeks. The Oxford crew, 
under their admirable organization, are not left to their own devices, nor worried 
by the management of their own affairs. All is left to others, who watch them 
carefully all the time in training as well as in their practice. They never row a 
stroke but under the eye of their "coach," who, following their boat in a small 
steamer, or on horseback along the river-bank, continually criticises, and calls out 
to the individuals to mend this or that fault. The result of this is a most ad- 
mirable machine. The total absence from all the cares of management keeps the 
minds of the men composing the crew free from all anxiety and worry. The 
management of all things pertaining to field sports is reduced by the English to 
a science. In this match with Harvard, everything, from the receipt of the first 
letter, was conducted on their part with the most business-like shrewdness. 
Nothing was yielded and nothing omitted which could in the least degree contrib- 
ute to their chances of success. The Oxford crew was composed of veterans at 
the oar, and was considered the finest four-oared crew that ever rowed on the 
Thames. Its members were — 

S. D. Darbishire, stroke, 160 lbs. A. C. Yarborough, 170 lbs. 

J. C. TlNNE, 190 " F. WlLLAN, 164 " 

J. H. Hall, coxswain, ioo lbs. 



Every man came to the line in perfect condition. The Harvard crew con- 
tinued their practice and hard work to the very day of the race, though the 
two oldest and strongest men in the boat were overworked and stale several 
days before that event. This was noticed and quite generally commented on 



226 BOATING. 

at the time. It had become gradually more and more apparent to the crew 
that they had undertaken a desperate contest under the greatest disadvantages, 
but they appeared, on the day of the race, determined, and eager to do their 
best. 

On the 27th of August the day was fine and the water favorable. Immense 
crowds, estimated at hundreds of thousands, began to gather early in the day, 
and by the time of the race covered the banks of the river, swarming like bees 
on all the trees and houses, and especially on the bridges under which the boats 
must pass. The river itself was kept quite clear of boats, under the admirable 
management of the Thames Conservancy Board, — a feat never before accom- 
plished in a boat-race there. At a little after five o'clock in the afternoon the 
two boats appeared. Harvard won the toss for position, and selected the Middle- 
sex side. The rudder of each boat was held by a man in a boat. " Are you 
ready ? " from the starter, was answered " No ! " by the Oxfords. " When will you 
be ready ? " " Directly." Again the question from the starter, and the boats are 
off, Harvard rowing 46, Oxford 40 strokes. Harvard gained at once, and got 
clear at about one third of a mile. At Hammersmith Bridge, two miles away, 
this lead was increased to four lengths. But Harvard had rowed an uneven 
stroke, and too quick to last, and after passing the bridge Oxford began to draw 
up. Shortly after, as the bend in the river at Chiswick was approached, Oxford 
put on a spurt. This is the point in the course where, in the English Univer- 
sity races between Oxford and Cambridge, the great struggle always occurs, and 
here, true to custom, the Oxford crew made their fight for the lead. They came 
up rapidly and headed over towards Harvard, calling out to Burnham to keep 
off. Seeing a foul imminent, he turned away. By so doing he got the boat 
into an eddy, the boat rocked, and all at once the crew lost their form, and 
looked like going to pieces. Oxford gained an immense advantage, and, in what 
seemed a moment, was past Harvard and leading by two lengths. They immedi- 
ately afterwards increased this lead still more. From this point the Oxford crew 
showed more reserved power than the Harvard ; for at the end of the third mile, 
during which the course lay tolerably straight away, the latter were three lengths 
astern. The rowing of Harvard now improved, and they regained part of the 
distance lost. Oxford rowed steadily on, and crossed the line 6 seconds ahead of 
Harvard. It was a hard race and a fair beat. When Oxford got ahead of Har- 
vard, she took her water and gave her the back wash, which impeded the boat 
not a little. In the early part of the race Harvard might have done the same 
by the Oxford boat, but did not, with the mistaken idea that Oxford would not 
do it to them. Though beaten, the Harvard crew were not disgraced, and re- 
ceived almost as much praise for their great courage and determination as did 
the victors. After the race the crew were entertained at a few dinners given to 



.E>w.n.jLii\u-. 22 7 

them and the Oxfords ; but they separated in a week, some to come home and 
some to travel in Europe. 

1869- 70. 
OFFICERS OF THE H. U. B. C. 
George Bass, '71, President. J. S. McCobb, '71, Vice-President. 

W. T. Sanger, '71, Secretary and Treasurer. N. G. Read, '71, Captain. 

UNIVERSITY CREW. 

F. O. Lyman, stroke, '71, 155 lbs. J. S. McCobb, '71, 145 lbs. 

G. I. Jones, '71, 154 " R. S. Russell, '72, 150 " 
G. Willis, '70, 156 " N. G. Read, bow, '71, 135 " 

In the fall of 1869 the Harvard boat-houses, which had long been in disgraceful 
condition, were pronounced unsafe ; there was even great danger of their falling 
in pieces during the winter, to the ruin of all the boats, unless repaired or rebuilt. 
A meeting of the undergraduates was held October 6, at which a constitution for 
the Harvard University Boat Club was adopted. Mr. N. G. Read, '71, had been 
already chosen captain of the crew, and the other officers were elected at this 
meeting. The meeting defined the powers and duties of the president and captain, 
and provided that all challenges received, or to be sent, should be submitted for 
the approval of the executive committee before any action binding the Club could 
be taken. A committee was also appointed, composed of a member from each 
class of undergraduates, and one from the Scientific School, to represent to the 
friends of the University the dangerous condition of the boat-houses, and to 
solicit subscriptions towards building a new one. The Lowell Base Ball Club of 
Boston most generously came forward at this time, and in a letter, dated October 
14, proposed to the Harvard Nine to play a match game of base ball, "the en- 
tire proceeds of which game shall be given to the University Boat Club, for the 
relief and improvement of the boating interests of the University." This offer was 
gladly accepted, and the proceeds of the game, amounting to $ 250, were given 
to the University Boat Club. In January the executive committee reported that 
with the $ 2,000 which had been raised they had purchased land and driven 
piles for the foundation of a new house, and that $ 5,000 more were needed to 
build the house according to the plans adopted. The students and their friends 
subscribed liberally, and the work was pushed forward so rapidly that the house 
was occupied a few weeks after the season of 1869 opened. The Club was still, 
however, several thousand dollars in debt. 

In May a number of the students gave a most enjoyable series of theatrical 
representations in Horticultural Hall in Boston, for the benefit of the Boat Club, 
by which a goodly sum was raised. During the previous autumn and this spring 



228 BOATING. 

several private races were rowed, but the class crews showed little energy. Octo- 
ber 2, a match was rowed between the double-sculls Erne Dean and Ariel, from 
the second to the third bridge and return, and was won by the Effie Dean, after 
a good race, in 12 minutes and 2 seconds. 

On the 9th of October a tub race afforded amusement to a large crowd of 
spectators who assembled along the course from the boat-house to Brighton 
Bridge, and were especially delighted when any contestant overturned, as most all 
sooner or later did. 

Seven of the crews of the six and four of 1869 were still in College, but 
only three of these were willing to go into the University crew of 1870. Fi- 
nally, the last year's stroke in the six consented to pull, and now only two 
places were vacant. Harvard proposed to Yale to make the race in future one 
between members of each university instead of undergraduates merely, so that 
in case of another race with the English universities, all the rowing-men in 
either university might be available. Yale, however, refused to make the change. 
Yale wished to have the annual race " straight away," and on the 16th of April 
committees from Harvard and Yale visited Providence and New London to ex- 
amine the water there with a view to securing such a course. The course at 
Providence was found to be undesirable, but that at New London was admirable 
in all respects, and the Harvard committee reported in its favor, in case any 
change should be made from Lake Ouinsigamond. 

In the latter part of April a challenge came from Yale for a three-mile 
six-oared race, and with it a letter recommending that it be " straight away." 
The race was accepted for Worcester, July 7, as the crew at first refused to stay 
together longer than to that date. Yale, not being allowed by their Faculty to 
row in term-time, could not row on that date. After further correspondence the 
race was arranged for July 22, at Worcester, and all the members of the Har- 
vard crew were induced to stay and row the race, although they lost a month 
of their vacation in consequence. 

On June 4, a single-scull race between the second and third bridges had five 
contestants, and was won by Galloway, '70. The annual Harvard Regatta took 
place on Charles River, June 11. There were to be two races. The first, for 
Junior, Freshman, and Scientific first crews, was rowed in bad weather. It had 
been raining all the morning, with a cold east-wind, and the water was rough. 
A good start was made, but the Juniors and Freshmen soon fouled twice, 
and both boats were damaged. Meanwhile the Scientific boat gained a lead of 
six or seven lengths. Soon the Freshmen's boat was swamped. The Juniors 
caught up with the Scientifics before the stake was reached, and attempted 
to pass them, but in so doing rowed their boat under water and were obliged 
to stop. The Scientifics' boat was also nearly full of water, and on turning 



BOATING. 



229 



the stake she was so near sinking that they rowed ashore, emptied the boat 
of water, and, seeing that the Juniors were in no danger, paddled slowly 
down. The Juniors now swam ashore with their boat, emptied her and rowed 
down, but filled again about a hundred yards from the line, and finally swam 
in past the judges, towing their boat across the line. The second crews, who 
were to have rowed in the next race, gave up their contest for that day, on 
account of the state of water, and also because, in putting out to rescue the 
swamped Freshman crew, they had broken several oars. 

The result of this day's sport was so entirely unsatisfactory, that it was arranged 
to have another on the 14th. The Freshmen, however, decided not to row, and 
the race was left to the Junior and Scientific crews. The Juniors took the lead 
at the start, and at the mile buoy were more than three lengths ahead, but in 
spurting to the stake the stroke cracked his oar, so that he could not hold water 
in turning. The consequence was a wide turn, enabling the Scientifics to come 
up and, turning inside, to get away on even terms with the Juniors. The Junior 
stroke concealed from his crew the fact of the cracked oar, but kept on setting 
the time, and there would have been a very pretty race home, had not the bow- 
outrigger of the Scientific broken when a little way down the course, which mis- 
fortune forced them to give up the race, and the Juniors came home alone in 
20 minutes 10 seconds. The Scientifics left Cambridge on the same evening for 
Providence, where they defeated the Brown University Freshman crew, June 17, 
i£ miles and repeat, and then went on to Brunswick, New Jersey, where they also 
defeated the Rutgers College crew. The next evening they were entertained in 
New York by the Gulick Club, and on the 2 2d were badly beaten by the Yale 
Scientific crew at New Haven, being in poor condition after so much travelling. 

The University crew, in order to have as much practice as possible, entered the 
Boston City Regatta of July 4. As there was to be no six-oared race, they 
borrowed a four-oar, and pulled as follows : Lyman (stroke), Jones, Willis, Russell 
(bow). Four boats came into line: Walter Brown and the Biglins in a new shell, 
built on purpose for them, the T. J. Ward, the Charles H. Bacon, and the 
Harvards in a lapstreak 22 inches wide. The Bacon was left behind from the 
start, the other three boats keeping close together all the way to the stake. At 
the turn the Ward, after coming up and nearly passing the stake on the wrong 
side, and after repeated warnings by the stake judges, turned sharp round to 
starboard and fouled the Harvards, who were obliged to back water, in order to 
get clear from their unwelcome neighbors, who, in trying to turn short, upset, as 
their oars were not wired in. As soon as the Harvards could get clear, they 
turned and rowed after the Brown crew, now some ten lengths ahead on the 
home stretch. Settling clown to their work in earnest, they gained rapidly on 
their rivals, and, encouraged by their friends along the course, gave a grand 



230 



BOATING. 



spurt, coming across the line but three lengths behind the Browns, in 20 min- 
utes 53 seconds. Brown's time being 20 minutes 34 seconds, — good time for 
four-oared boats on a not very good day. 

On the same day the Freshmen went to Providence, and defeated a crew of 
the Narragansett Club; time, 20 minutes 8 seconds. 

In the Union College Regatta this year only Yale and Harvard competed in 
the University race ; but in the Freshman race there were four boats, from 
Brown, Amherst, Yale, and Harvard. All these latter were good crews. It was 
at first thought certain that either Harvard or Yale would win ; but as the day 
drew near Brown made such improvement in their rowing, that they became first 
favorites, especially as the Harvard crew was weakened by the illness of several 
men. They drew positions as follows : Harvard outside, then, in order, Yale, 
Brown, and Amherst. The start was good, but almost at once Yale steered to the 
right and Brown to the left, forcing Harvard and Amherst towards their respec- 
tive sides of the lake, and out of their course. Amherst surprised all by passing 
Brown; and, drawing away, they tried to cross her bows and get on the proper 
course. They tried this too soon, and paid the penalty of having their rud- 
der torn away by the bows of the Brown boat. Thus impeded they rowed round, 
and came in some minutes behind the others. Yale crowded Harvard so much, 
that Harvard's oars touched Yale's on one side, and the shore on the other, and 
she stopped rowing to avoid running ashore. Yale came to the stake nearly a 
length ahead, but made so wide a turn, that Brown came up and turned inside, 
and got away first, gaining nearly a length. This was steadily increased on the 
way home, and Brown finally came in in 19 minutes 21 seconds; Yale, 19 minutes 
45 seconds ; Harvard, 20 minutes ; Amherst, not timed. Fouls were claimed by 
all but Brown, but all were disallowed. 

In the University race, Yale appeared with the newly invented sliding seats, 
which have since been almost universally adopted. Harvard's time in practice 
was, however, several seconds better than Yale ; and before the race the betting 
was from 2 to 1 to 4 to 1 in her favor. Harvard drew the inside, and appeared 
in a boat built by Blakie of Cambridge, and Yale in a boat by Elliott of New 
York, who was the starter in the race. It had been agreed between the crews 
to start in the same way as the year before, namely, with five seconds' pause be- 
tween the words " Are you ready ? " and " Go," and the Harvard had practised start- 
ing in this manner, the stroke counting the seconds on a watch hanging before 
him. This interval of five seconds allows a crew to answer " No," if not ready, 
before the word " Go " can be given ; and it is easier to detect and frustrate an 
attempt of either crew to start too soon. The men, too, are less liable to be 
flurried and to get out of time than if hurried off almost without warning. The 
starter in this race waited only one second before the " Go," and Yale went away 



BOATING. 



231 



first. Harvard's crew were disconcerted, and, for a few strokes, out of time, but 
soon recovered, settled down to earnest work, and, when the grand stand was 
reached, they led nearly a length, and soon drew clear. Rowing straight for the 
stake, they kept up a steady stroke without spurting, and kept clear of Yale the 
whole distance. Yale headed directly for the stake as Harvard was turning, and 
was rowing hard, not more than a length away, when the stake judges and Har- 
vard's stroke all shouted, " Hold hard or you '11 foul." Yale held water, stopping 
their boat less than half a length from the side of the other. Harvard turned so 
close to the stake that the port-oars were drawn in to the blades, their tips were 
under the stake-float, and there were barely three feet of clear water between the 
float and the outriggers, that space being entirely occupied by the oars. Yale's 
bow-oar, either mistaking the distance and thinking he could turn inside, or 
thinking the other boat out of the way, gave the order, " Give way, starboard," 
just as "Port next" was given in the Harvard, and there was a foul at once. 
Yale's bow struck the Harvard on the port-quarter some eight inches astern of 
the wash-board, slid up on the wooden deck under the port rudder wire, and 
broke down the board across the end of the stern wash-board, knocking into 
the bottom of the boat the watch which hung there. The upper part of the 
rudder, with the yoke, was split off and was left dragging by the wires on 
the starboard side, with the rudder hanging useless. Harvard's stroke called out 
" A foul," several times, and Harvard's judge in the stake-boat and several 
others answered, " Yes, a foul." Harvard's crew even then did their best to win, 
but with the rudder-yoke dragging on the starboard, the port side was too strong, 
and with all rowing the boat could not be kept on the course. So they pad- 
dled home, with five men only rowing, for most of the way, and at once claimed 
a foul, showing the referee the marks on the boat, the broken rudder and wash- 
board, and all awaited the arrival of the stake-boat with the judges. When all 
arrived, the referee asked the Yale judge whether Yale had fouled Harvard at the 
stake, to which he answered " Yes," and all the six or seven other gentlemen in 
the stake-boat agreed in saying that Yale had fouled Harvard. Yale's crew 
made no claim of foul or unfairness; but Yale's judge at the starting-point in- 
sisted upon postponing the decision of the referee until evening, which that gen- 
tleman finally consented to do. 

The crews met at the Bay State House in the evening, and the referee, 
appearing, called the meeting to order. First the stake judges were heard, and 
then the bow and stroke of each crew gave their version of the affair. Several 
Yale graduates cross-examined the Harvard men most persistently; and after all 
had been heard, the Yale men for the first time made a claim that Harvard had 
crowded them off their course on the way to the stake. The referee asked the 
Yale men whether the boats or oars had touched each other, or either the shore. 



2 3 2 



BOATING. 



The answer was " No," and he refused to hear any more evidence on that claim, 
which was not made at the proper time. It is fair to say that it came from a 
Yale graduate, and not from any member of the crew. The referee briefly 
summed up, and gave the race to Harvard, whereupon a Yale man excitedly re- 
fused to abide by the decision, and handed him a paper, asking him to "read 
that challenge." The referee refused, and some one else read it. It began : 
"By, as we believe, an unjust decision of the referee, the race to-day has been 
decided against us," and proceeded to challenge Harvard to row a race the next 
day or the next week. The Harvard men at once decidedly refused, not from 
any want of confidence in their prowess, but out of respect to the referee, whose 
decision it is customary to consider final among fair-minded men, who, in ap- 
pointing him, tacitly agree to abide by what he decides. An angry correspond- 
ence in the newspapers followed, which kept up and increased the bitter feel- 
ings engendered at this race. 

1870-71. 

OFFICERS OF THE H. U. B. C. 

G. H. Gould, '72, President. 

A. M. Yznaga* L. S. S., Vice-President. W. Miller, '73, Treasurer. 

H. S. Mudge,* '74, Secretary. R. S. Russell, '72,! Captain. 

UNIVERSITY CREW. 

G. Bass, '71, stroke, 156 lbs. W. C. Loring, '72, 160 lbs. 

A. Tucker, '72, 160 " W. T. Sanger, '71, 160 " 

G. I. Jones, '71, 156 " N. G. Read, bow, '71, 137 " 

In April, 1871, a meeting of several colleges was held at Springfield. Repre- 
sentatives from Amherst, Bowdoin, Brown, and Harvard were present; an asso- 
ciation of American colleges was formed, a constitution adopted, officers elected, 
and a regatta committee appointed. This was not, as has been frequently 
stated, the first general association formed. It was but carrying out the resolu- 
tion of the convention of 1858 and 1859, in which it was stipulated that the races 
should be open to all American colleges. For several years the annual race had 
been participated in only by Yale and Harvard, and the original articles of the 
Union College Regatta Association had become so far obsolete, that a challenge 
had for several years been considered as a necessary preliminary. The prospect 
for this year at Harvard seemed good. Five of last year's crew were still in 
College, besides two of the crew that went to England, — seven veteran oarsmen 
from whom to select a crew of six. The scratch races of this autumn, which 

* Resigned, and S. M. Olmstead, '73, was chosen vice-president, and R. Grant, '73, secretary, 
t Mr. Russell resigned the captaincy in the spring in favor of Mr. N. G. Read. 



nvjAllINLr. 233 

took place in front of the boat-house, October 22, were remarkably successful, 
and called forth both an unusually large crowd of spectators and a great num- 
ber of contestants. The first race, for single-scull shells, was a close one be- 
tween the two leading boats. The next, for single sculls (lapstreaks), had seven 
entries, and was very even and exciting. Then came a race for six-oars, which 
had four entries. The race was rowed in three heats. In the first heat, not 
more than half a dozen strokes were rowed when Read's crew ran into the other, 
and, breaking one of their oars, withdrew. Williams's crew won the second heat. 
Between the second and third heats was rowed the fourth race for double sculls, 
between a shell and a lapstreak, with fifteen seconds allowed the latter by the 
former. This race was easily won by the shell. The third heat of the six-oared 
race ended the programme. Smith's crew won the first prize, and Williams's 
the second. 

During the winter a new constitution was adopted by the H. U. B. C, which 
gave the chief responsibility and power to an executive committee of five, com- 
posed of the officers of the Club. The first organization of a University Boat 
Club took place October 3, 1855, when the organized clubs met together, and 
voted to purchase a University boat. The presidents of the various boat-clubs 
were, ex officio, the executive committee with full powers, and for several years 
the officers of the H. U. B. C. were chosen without a general meeting. Prac- 
tically the Seniors managed everything. Without any constitution, the power 
passed peacefully into the hands of the senior member of the University crew, 
but no important questions of jurisdiction came up, and everything went on 
smoothly, the members of the University crew being at peace with themselves, 
chosen in by themselves, and looked up to by the other students as mysterious 
beings, obeying different laws, as in fact they did. The mass of the students 
were allowed to take an intense and spontaneous interest in boating on race- 
days, and were compelled to take what was often a reluctant and unwilling one 
when the hat was passed round for subscriptions, which was generally once a 
year. The senior member of the crew was in those days captain of the crew, 
and generally stroke oar. The president and other officers of the H. U. B. C. 
were chosen by the president of the College boat-clubs. Afterwards, the organi- 
zation was further perfected by chosing, at a regular meeting in October of each 
year, a president, vice-president, secretary, and treasurer. The captain for each 
year is chosen by the old crew of the year before. 

Notwithstanding the good prospects for success, there were causes at work 
which, with some unusual accidents, resulted in Harvard's entering the summer 
races with the least-prepared crew sent from Cambridge for many years, perhaps 
that ever had been sent. During a large part of the winter there was some 
doubt whether there would be any race at all in the summer, as it seemed im- 



234 BOATING. 

possible to settle the difficulty with Yale in such a manner that it would be 
dignified or right, in the interests of boating, for Harvard to row a race with 
her. When at length it was decided to row with Yale, there arose a misunder- 
standing about the challenge, which resulted in no race between these old con- 
testants for boating honors. Yale challenged Harvard. Harvard accepted, and 
named the Regatta of American Colleges as the time and place; but, after Yale 
had considered this as a refusal of the challenge, because she wished to row with 
Harvard alone, Harvard sent an explanation and gave a formal acceptance to row 
" at any time, place, and for any distance that Yale may name." So much time 
had elapsed that Yale had disbanded her crew, and gave up all ideas of row- 
ing this year. The feeling of doubt of course damped the ardor of the boating- 
men. The gymnasium was little attended by them, except by those fitting for 
the Freshman crew ; and those candidates for the University crew knew their 
places would be filled by older oarsmen in case of an important race, and who 
therefore worked with little spirit. When, in April, it was known that there 
would be the race of the " Association of American Colleges," the best oarsmen 
at first refused to row, thinking the race a small affair, and not worth the 
trouble. 

On April 29 the spring scrub races occurred. They were poorly attended, 
and, with the exception of the single-scull shell-race, very uninteresting. The latter 
was between Professor Trowbridge and R. S. Russell, '72, and was very close 
and well rowed. Russell won. Trowbridge, after being slightly ahead to the 
turn, got caught in the stake-boat rope. 

During the month of May some of the old oarsmen were induced to row 
in the University crew; among them N. G. Read, '71, who had been captain 
two years. Mr. Roberts consequently resigned the captaincy, which he had 
held all winter, in Read's favor, and several candidates who had been working 
hard for a place for the past few months yielded their chances to the veterans. 
The Harvard College Races took place on the Charles River course, June 3. 
The day was hot and calm, and the water smooth as glass. For first crews the 
Juniors and Freshmen had each entered; but the Juniors withdrew, and the race 
was given up, to the regret of all. The first race was consequently for second 
crews, — two miles with a turn. Three boats entered, Freshmen, Juniors, and 
Sophomores. The boats were started too near together, and very soon the 
Sophomores fouled the Freshmen. The Juniors thus gained a lead, but were 
overtaken and passed by the Sophomores before reaching the stake. The Jun- 
iors fouled the Sophomores at the stake, and, while turning, one of the oars in 
the latter boat was broken. The home-stretch was very exciting. The Sopho- 
mores were disabled, but still kept the lead, followed closely by the Juniors, who 
were in turn pressed by the Freshmen. On account of the fouls, the first prize 



nuAriJNU 235 

was given to the Juniors, and the second to the Freshmen. In the race for first 
crews the Freshmen " walked over." 

The race between the Harvard University crew and the Atalanta Club of New 
York took place at Ingleside, on the Connecticut River, near Springfield, July 
19, in consequence of a challenge sent by the New York crew. The course was 
three miles, straight away. The water in the river was so low, that it was neces- 
sary in places to mow out the weeds to give clear water. Harvard won the toss, 
and chose the western side, and at twenty-seven minutes past six o'clock the 
boats started, both crews pulling at forty-five strokes to the minute. The Ata- 
lantas rowed in better style, and after a short struggle of three minutes "put 
clear water" between their stern and Harvard's bow. Both crews then slowed 
down a little, the Atalantas gaining steadily until about half the course was 
passed, when the Harvards spurted and reduced the Atalantas' lead to four 
lengths. Then the latter gave a spurt, regained the length and widened the gap. 
This lead they continued to increase, and crossed the line one minute and four 
seconds ahead of Harvard, in 18 minutes 19J seconds. Harvards, 19 minutes 22^ 
seconds. Not very remarkable time this, but the water was rough for the last 
half-mile, the wind blowing against the current. 

Flushed with their easy victory over our University crew, the Atalantas the 
next summer challenged the London Rowing Club, and met with an over- 
whelming defeat on the Thames. The cause of the defeat of the Harvard 
in the race with the Atalantas, which inspired the latter club with such confi- 
dence, may be easily traced. One of the Harvard crew sprained his ankle, 
and was able to do but little and very irregular work for several weeks. This 
happened at so late a period before the race, and at first seemed so small an 
affair, that it was thought better to wait for him than to put in a substitute. 
Two days before the crew left Cambridge for Springfield one of the very best 
men in the crew was taken with measles, and the only substitute was put in his 
place. Only ten days intervened before the race to get this crew together ; but the 
very next day, after arriving at Ingleside, while practising on the Connecticut, they 
came in collision with the Brown Freshman boat, damaging their own boat, and 
injuring one of the crew so severely that he was unable to row until the day 
before the race, and then only with pain and difficulty. The only substitute 
was now in the crew, and all the remaining practice before the race was made 
with five men. So the crew rowed the race on the 19th, having literally pulled 
together but twice. As was to be expected, the crew rowed without that uniform- 
ity which is the object of all the long, oft-repeated practice on the river which 
all good crews undergo ; and which, whatever the style of rowing and method of 
training, must be attained by every crew hoping for success. The Atalanta Club's 
rowing was, though not beyond criticism, very neat, and pleasing to the eye ; but 



236 BOATING. 

the crew was light, and certainly lacked power. They made the most of them- 
selves, however, and were worthy of success. 

The interest in the College races this year was much lessened by the ab- 
sence of Yale, and the public had not gained any confidence in the prowess of 
the " fresh-water colleges " at the oar. It was considered a foregone conclusion 
that Harvard, barring accidents, would win. Friday, the 21st, was a beautiful day; 
the water in the river had risen since Wednesday, and was almost perfectly 
smooth. The Freshman race came first, and had two entries, one each from 
Harvard and Brown. At half past five the crews started, Harvard having a 
little the best of it, being well forward when the word was given, while Brown's 
crew at the word were sitting upright, and then got forward for the first stroke. 
Brown, rowing a rather quicker stroke than Harvard, lost steadily, until at 
the end of the first half-mile, when, putting on a spurt, they got their bow a 
little ahead. Here Harvard quickened, and gained almost a clear lead. After one 
or two short struggles with Brown, Harvard rowed steadily ahead, gaining slowly 
all the rest of the course, and crossed the line in 20 minutes 18 seconds; 
Brown, 20 minutes 45 seconds. The time was thought to have been really a 
minute or more quicker than reported, as both crews had done much better in 
practice, and, in fact, it was given out by the judges with considerable hesitation. 
The Springfield club gave the prizes, — six silver cups, valued at $ 300. 

In the University race, which came next and was rowed at half past seven 
o'clock, three boats entered, namely, from the Massachusetts Agricultural College, 
Brown, and Harvard. The Springfield club offered a prize for this race also, — 
six silver cups, costing $ 500. The course was the same as that rowed by the 
Freshmen, — three miles straight away with the current. The river was perfectly 
smooth, and there was no wind. The Agricultural crew had the west side, Har- 
vard the centre, and Brown the east, — the inside of the course in the river. 
With very even start all the crews pulled finely, each struggling for the lead, 
and rowing neck and neck for the first half-mile. Here the Agriculturals be- 
gan to gain, rowing 46, Harvard 45, and Brown 44J strokes to the minute. 
At the end of the first mile the Agriculturals had gained still more, while 
Brown and Harvard were about even, all rowing a slower stroke. Harvard 
now drew ahead of Brown, and was thought to gain on the Agriculturals ; 
but only for a moment. The Agriculturals gained all the rest of the way, 
and crossed the line ahead, in what was announced, at the time, as 17 minutes 
46^ seconds; Harvard, 18 minutes 23^ seconds; Brown, 18 minutes 47^ seconds. 
Subsequently these times were corrected, and announced as one minute faster. 

Harvard's boat was a Blakie cedar shell 49 feet long, 2o|- inches wide, and 
was rather small for the crew, with too little floor forward and aft, which 
caused her to "bury." It had been hastily built, when the weight of the crew 



could not be exactly determined. Both of our crews used this year Ayling's 
oars, made in England of Norwegian pine. They were 12 feet 3 inches long, 
with the button 41 inches from the handle. The other crews used American 
oars of about the same measure, and used boats rather narrower than ours. 
In the matter of food, the training was this year stricter than usual, with less 
allowance made for individual temperaments and natures. The crew was brought 
to the line in good condition, but it was their form that was so defective, and 
this was owing, perhaps, entirely to accident. 

1871 -72. 

OFFICERS OF THE H. U. B. C. 

D. L. Pickman* '73, President. 

W. G. McMillan, '74, Vice-President. W. C. Sanger, '74, Treasurer. 

F. S. Watson, '75, Secretary. C. W. Loring,* '72, Captain. 

UNIVERSITY CREW. 

R. H. Dana, 3D, stroke, '74, 149 lbs. J. Bryant, '73, 156 lbs. 

W. Goodwin, '74, 160 " W. J. Lloyd, '73, 149 " 

H. L. Morse, '74, 156 " W. Bell, bow, '73, 150 " 

The annual meeting for the election of officers, held at the boat-house on 
Monday, October 9, 1871, resulted in the choice of the following officers for the 
year : D. L. Pickman, '73, president ; W. G. McMillan, '74, vice-president ; W. 
C. Sanger, '74, treasurer ; F. S. Watson, '75, secretary. C. W. Loring, '72, had 
been elected captain by the last University crew. There remained in College 
two of this crew and one of the crew of 1870, but it was doubtful if two 
of these three would row, and proper material for a crew seemed wanting. On 
the 2 1st of October the scratch races took place in front of the boat-house. 
The first race, between a pair-oar and a double-scull, was won by the latter. 
The second was between single-sculls, rowed by Loring, '72, and Devens, '74. 
At the start the former fouled the latter; and, as the race had been short 
and uninteresting, it was agreed to row it again, when Devens easily won. 
The third race was for six-oared shells. Three boats contested. A foul occurred, 
by which an oar in one boat was broken, and the race was won by the crew 
of which Devens was bow. 

The winter's work was not systematic, and several of the oldest oarsmen in 
College shunned work in and out of the gymnasium to an extent which afforded 
a poor example for the younger men, and deterred new men from working 
for a place in the crew, so that the interest in boating was at such a low ebb 

* Mr. Pickman resigned the presidency in April, and W. Goodwin, '74, was elected to the office ; and 
R. H. Dana, 3d, was chosen to succeed Mr. Loring, who resigned in the early spring, in consequence of an 
accident 



238 BOATING. 

that no good men could be induced to work for a place, except some of the last 
year's Freshman crew. In the early spring the captain met with an accident, 
which prevented him from either rowing in the crew or directing its work for 
the rest of the year; and after some delay R. H. Dana, 3d, of the Sophomore 
class, was chosen captain of the crew. In April, Messrs. Tucker and Gould, of 
'72, were chosen delegates to the convention at Worcester to be held April 12, 
and Wendell Goodwin was chosen president of the H. U. B. G, on the resigna- 
tion of Mr. Pickman. 

The crew was now left in the hands of the lower classes; and old Univer- 
sity oars not only refused to row, but also showed no interest in the crew, which 
thus was deprived of the example and advice of the men from whom much 
valuable information about all that pertains to rowing ought to have been ob- 
tained. Much delay in selecting the crew was the consequence, and it was the 
6th of July before it was finally made up. On the 4th of May the scrub 
races took place in front of the boat-house. Devens, '74, won a race for single 
sculls. In the race for double-sculls there were two entries, and a very pretty 
and close race between two Juniors and two Sophomores. But for a mistake 
about the correct turning-point, the latter would have won. The last race for 
six-oared shells had three entries, and was close and exciting. It was rowed in 
a hail-storm, and won by a crew in which Bryant rowed bow. 

The class races occurred June 1, on the Charles River course. The first race, 
one mile and return, was between the 2d Junior, '73, and 2d Freshman, '75, 
crews, the former in a shell, the latter in a lapstreak boat, and was very close, 
the Juniors winning by a length only. The next race, which was three miles 
with a turn, was between 1st Junior, '73, 1st Sophomore, '74, and 1st Freshman, 
'75, crews. The wind died away, and the rough water now became smooth. At 
the start the Juniors, rowing a short, quick stroke, shoved quickly ahead, and 
won the race easily. The other two boats were neck and neck all the way, and, 
though rowing poorly, made an exciting race. The Freshmen came in first after 
the Juniors ; but the Sophomores, as they fouled the Freshmen at the stake, were 
not placed. A Freshman crew was to have rowed in the College race at Spring- 
field, but disbanded during vacation, having met with many accidents, and having 
no substitutes to fill the vacancies in their crew. 

The University crew, as usual, used the last year's shell as a practice-boat. They 
contemplated using a barge instead, but could not find a proper one. A few days 
before leaving for Springfield, one or two old oarsmen came out, gave a little 
advice, and timed the crew. The time was very slow, and the prospect looked 
gloomy. At Springfield the crew improved decidedly, and with the exception of 
some illness, which for several days of the week before the race necessitated 
practice with five oars, they continued to improve to the day of the race. This 



ISUAlllNlj. 23Q 

year the diet was more liberal than the last ; fruit and vegetables in moderation 
were allowed, and occasionally ale ; but the men were somewhat overtrained and 
under weight on the day of the race. The race was appointed for July 23, in 
the afternoon ; a south-wind blew against the current all that day, making the 
water too rough, and the race was postponed to 10 a. m. of the 24th. The time 
was announced without authority, for it was understood that the race should be 
rowed in the afternoon, and most of the crews had trained with reference to this. 
The course was three miles straight away with the current, from a point just 
below the Agawam Ferry, a mile and a half below the railroad bridge at Spring- 
field. On the morning of the race a light breeze blew down stream, just rippling 
the water. The Freshman crews were called into line punctually at ten o'clock. 
Four colleges were represented, and the following was the time of coming in: 
Wesleyan, 17 minutes 17 seconds; Amherst, 17 minutes 29 seconds; Brown, 18 
minutes 39 seconds ; Yale Scientific, 18 minutes 58 seconds. Amherst and the 
Yale Scientific fouled near the start. 

The captains of the University crews had drawn for position on Monday the 
22d. Harvard drew first choice, and chose No. 2 from the west bank. The 
Massachusetts Agricultural had No. 1, Bowdoin 3, Yale 4, Amherst 5, and Wil- 
liams 6, the eastern bank. All the positions were nearer the western than the 
eastern bank, in order to be as much as possible in the current. At 11.30 the 
boats were started, Harvard soon taking the lead ; but they were called back, as 
Bowdoin started before the word. As there were no boats anchored to hold the 
sterns of the contesting boats, and the current was strong, it was difficult to get 
an even start, and it was impossible to wait five seconds between the words, " Are 
you ready ? " and " Go," as required by the regatta rules. A good deal of back- 
ing up was necessary to get the boats even, and they got the word when Har- 
vard was backing, so she had a bad send-off. This, however, did not make any 
difference in the race, as she was beaten by a good deal more that the distance 
thus lost. At the end of the first half-mile Harvard was ahead of Agricul- 
tural, Williams, and Yale. Bowdoin went off with a spurt, and at this time was 
several lengths ahead of everything. Harvard started at about 39 strokes (all 
the other boats rowing quicker), and kept it up by the watch, except when 
spurting, through most of the race. About three quarters of a mile down, Am- 
herst put on a spurt, passed all the crews ahead of her, and, rowing up to 
Bowdoin, struggled with her for the lead, and soon took it. Soon after, Har- 
vard first, and then the Agriculturals, passed Bowdoin. Still keeping the steady 
stroke, Harvard gained on Amherst, and it seemed as though Amherst would 
pay the penalty of too long a spurt and lose the lead. Coming up steadily, 
Harvard lapped the stern of Amherst, and looked like passing her; but here 
steadiness deserted the crew, and they lost their form. Every effort was 



made to recover it, but in vain, until near the end, when the danger of los- 
ing the second place aroused the crew, brought them back into form, and so 
enabled them to gain even on Amherst. Amherst had seen her advantage, and, 
putting on spurt after spurt, had drawn away handsomely, surprising friends and 
foes alike by her fine rowing, and came first across the line in 16 minutes 32! 
seconds, followed in turn by Harvard in 16 minutes 57 seconds; Agricultural, 17 
minutes 10 seconds; Bowdoin, 17 minutes 31 seconds; Williams, 17 minutes 59 
seconds; and Yale, 18 minutes 13 seconds. It is worthy of remark that Har- 
vard had no man in the boat who had ever rowed before in a University race ; 
that they had no trainer, and were the youngest crew in the race, although one 
of the three heaviest. Harvard was also the only crew using sliding seats. The 
old oarsmen had greatly objected to their use ; but it was found, by careful trials, 
that they. could make better time with them, though they were of the rudest 
sort, — flat boards 4 X 12 inches, with grooved boxwood runners sliding on steel 
bars. There was nothing to regulate the length of the slide, or to keep the 
seats from jumping off the runners. This crew was also the first for several 
years that sat " hard up," as it is called, that is, the men rowing port-oars sitting 
close against the starboard side of the boat, and vice versa. They decided to sit 
in this way, although the boat was built for them to sit in the middle, and the 
foot-boards obliged them to put their feet in the middle and swing crookedly. 
This crew did better, on the whole, than could have been anticipated, considering 
the many disadvantages they labored under. Their style, though not beyond crit- 
icism, was, on the whole, fair. They lacked a powerful " catch," and had many 
minor faults, which, taken altogether, were not small. The time taken for recover 
was only a little longer than that of the stroke, the crew springing forward with 
an elastic leap, and not with a steady swing, as soon as the stroke was finished. 
What they particularly lacked, however, was thorough coaching from some ex- 
perienced oar, — a criticism to be made, in greater or less degree, on all our 
past crews. 

1872-73. 
OFFICERS OF THE H. U. B. C. 
Wendell Goodwin, '74, President. 

H. L. Morse, 74, Vice-President. . L. W. Clark, '75, Treasurer. 

J. J. Minot, '74, Secretary. R. H. Dana, 3D, '74, Captain. 

UNIVERSITY CREW. 

R. H. Dana, 3D, stroke, '74, 151 lbs. H. L Morse, '74, 161 lbs. 

D. C. Bacon, '76, 161 " T. Daland, '73, 150 " 

W. Goodwin, '74, 164 " A. L. Devens, bow, '74, 144 " 

The boating season opened with a very enthusiastic meeting, October 7, 1872. 



BOATING. 



241 



The above-mentioned officers were elected. Several graduates well known 
as boating-men were present and made speeches. Four of last year's crew 
were left in College, and with a decided revival of the old boating spirit the 
prospect seemed good. W. C. Sanger, of '74, and H. B. Stone, '73, were 
elected delegates to attend the annual boating congress. Mr. Roberts, '71, 
in behalf of several graduates, offered a cup to be rowed for by six-oared 
class-boats in November. This is known as the " Graduates' Cup." At the same 
time, in behalf of a crew to be composed of graduates, Mr. Roberts challenged 
the University crew for a race on the same day as the Graduates' Cup race, which 
challenge was immediately accepted by Mr. Goodwin for the University crew. 

November 9 occurred the race for the Graduates' cup, over the Charles River 
course, two miles with a turn. Great interest was shown by a large crowd of 
spectators. After considerable delay and one false start, the boats (one from 
each of the four classes) got away. The Juniors took the water first, gained 
rapidly, and came in eleven lengths ahead of the Seniors, who were closely fol- 
lowed by the Sophomores. The Juniors rowed a short, lively stroke, just adapted 
for a two-mile turning race. The Senior crew was strong, but, not having had 
much practice, rowed badly. A silver goblet was given to each member of the 
winning crew ; the Graduates' cup was held for the year by the class sending the 
crew, and the names of the crew, written on a roll of parchment, were kept with 
the cup. There was no race, as had been planned, between graduates and the 
University crew, as the former were unable to make one up. 

November 16 the scratch races were rowed opposite the boat-house. The 
single-scull race brought out four contestants, and was a good one. It was 
won by Weld, '76. For double-sculls three good crews competed, and a close 
and interesting race was the result. Dana and Devens, '74, came in only a 
quarter of a length ahead of Goodwin and Morse, '74. The six-oared race 
which came next, with four crews, proved not so much a race as a succession 
of fouls. The boat which came in second was the only one which had not fouled, 
and therefore received the first prize. But, as the rowing had been good, a sec- 
ond prize was awarded to the boat which came in first. 

The annual convention of American colleges was held at Worcester, April 2, 
1873. Representatives were present from Agricultural, Amherst, Bowdoin, Brown, 
Cornell, Harvard, Trinity, Williams, Wesleyan, and Yale. Dartmouth and Colum- 
bia delegates applied for admission, which was granted. R. J. Cook (Yale) was 
chosen president; F. C. Eldred (Agricultural), vice-president; A. J. Boardman 
(Bowdoin), secretary; and E. M. Hartwell (Amherst), treasurer. The two im- 
portant questions discussed at this meeting were the course for the regatta, and 
who should be qualified to row in the crews. Springfield was settled upon for 
the course, and the following resolution passed : " That an undergraduate con- 



242 ±SUAllJNli. 

nected with any institution be declared eligible for its representative crew : mean- 
ing, by ' undergraduates,' all candidates for the degrees A. B., Ph. B., or such 
other degree as represents a similar or parallel course. But no person shall be 
allowed to row on the crew of one college who has graduated at another." A 
very important motion was made by Cornell, and carried without opposition: 
" That no trainer or coach be allowed after this year (1873) in matches of this 
association, except graduates or undergraduates of the colleges represented." 

The annual class races were held June 2 on the Charles River course. The 
day was beautiful and calm. The first race, two miles with a turn, was for second 
six-oared crews, and was contested by Junior, Sophomore, and Freshman crews, — 
the last in a lapstreak, the other two in shells. The Sophomores started be- 
hind, but, rowing steadily, passed the other boats and came in ahead, in 14 
minutes 38 seconds, followed in turn by the Freshmen and Juniors, the latter hav- 
ing broken an outrigger. The second race, for first crews, was three miles with a 
turn. Juniors, Sophomores, and Freshmen each sent a crew. The Sophomores 
started with a wild spurt, which soon gained for them the lead. The Juniors, 
rowing well within themselves, kept even with the Freshmen, who rowed too quick. 
At about three quarters of a mile all three were even, when the Sophomores fouled 
the Freshmen, stopping both boats, and the Juniors rowed ahead, turned the stake, 
and came home, leading by eleven lengths, in 21 minutes 7 seconds, followed by 
the Freshmen in 31 minutes 47 seconds, and the Sophomores in 22 minutes 1 
second. The latter crew disabled their rudder before reaching the stake. 

The University crew first went out on the river April 7. For practice they 
had had a barge built, ten feet shorter and eight inches wider than a shell, with 
a coxswain's seat from which the coach could overlook the whole crew. This 
gave a better means of coaching a crew than was ever had before at Harvard. 
The banks of the river at Cambridge give no chance to follow a crew, and there 
are none of those small, swift steam-launches with which the coach in England 
is accustomed to follow a boat in practice, and to overlook the work of a crew. 
A steering apparatus was also so arranged that the bow-oar could steer the boat 
with his feet whenever the coach should see fit, for the sake of practice, to leave 
that duty to him. This barge not only proved a great advantage to the crew in 
the way of coaching, but also allowed them to row in rough weather, when with 
a shell it would have been impossible. Mr. W. C. Sanger coached the crew 
regularly this year, occasionally yielding his place to some veteran University oar. 
A pair-oar was also used for coaching, as well as the barge, but was too crank 
to be of much. service. During the last ten weeks before going to Springfield, 
the crew averaged 35.1 miles of rowing a week, and but a little short of seven 
miles for every day they went out. They generally pulled twice a day, but, on 
account of the increase in the number of electives, the recitations interfered 



more than usual with rowing, often not giving any one morning hour free to all 
six of the crew. In the earlier part of training the stroke was from 32 to 34 to 
the minute, but this was gradually quickened to 38 about a fortnight before the 
day of the race. About a month before the race the crew abandoned the bar°-e 
and took to a shell for their practice. The weights of the crew were kept nearly 
steady for a month, averaging about 155 pounds. The diet was liberal; and, be- 
side ale, claret and water was used once or twice, and seemed well adapted to 
the crew, especially during the hot weather. 

Arrived at Springfield, they rowed over the course every clay but one of the 
week before the race. The exact position of the finish was at first unknown; 
on Thursday a flag was placed on the east bank, but none on the west. The 
crew did but little work on the Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday before the 
race. The men were all in good condition ; the weight of the crew was a 
little above the average of those competing; four of them had rowed the year 
before; and, as Harvard drew one of the best positions, her chance of winning 
was considered good, and she sold high in the pools. The water on the river 
was low; and at one place, about a mile from the start, the bed of the river was 
bare, and the channel so narrow that positions Nos. 9, 10, and 11 were entirely 
out of the current, and so bad that the crews holding them had no reasonable 
chance of winning without either dropping behind or spurting ahead to get into 
the current. The boats in the channel were crowded so close together that 
Yale's position was only 45 feet from Harvard on the west, and Columbia was 
even nearer on the east. 

The race took place July 17. The Freshman race was called at quarter past 
four o'clock, and was contested by Yale, Amherst, and Harvard, who drew posi- 
tions in the same order from the west bank. The start was a good one, Yale 
rowing 36, Amherst 38, and Harvard 42 strokes. At the end of the first half- 
mile Yale led, followed by Amherst and Harvard in order. Yale increased the 
lead the whole way, keeping a steady, handsome stroke, and came in eleven 
lengths ahead of Amherst, which was in turn seven lengths ahead of Harvard. 
The time was, Yale, 17 minutes 53 seconds; Amherst, 18 minutes 34-^ seconds; 
Harvard, 19 minutes 3^ seconds. This victory was especially creditable to the 
Yale Freshmen, as they had to put their No. 3 in the stroke's place, and a sub- 
stitute for No. 3, on the day of the race. Harvard's stroke was weak and short, 
and the form poor. 

For the University race positions were drawn at a meeting held on Wednes- 
day, as follows, counting from the west bank : Amherst, 1 ; Agricultural, 2 
Yale, 3; Harvard, 4; Columbia, 5; Wesleyan, 6; Williams, 7; Dartmouth, 8; 
Trinity, 9; Bowdoin, 10; and Cornell, 11. 

It was there decided to let the referee select three judges from competent per- 



sons acquainted with rowing to be at the finish. But on the evening before the 
race the Regatta Committee, mistaking their authority, appointed two judges from 
each college, making 22 in all, most of whom were undergraduates, many of them 
entirely unacquainted with rowing, and not one of whom had viewed the course 
until the time of the race. Very considerable difficulty occurred in starting the 
boats, from the number of contestants and the crowding together of the starting- 
buoys. Before the race one of the Regatta Committee telegraphed to the start- 
ing-point that the judges could not make out the proper line for the finish, and 
asked for information. Not getting any, they selected a line of their own, — a 
wrong one, as will be seen. 

The boats all got away together. After a quarter of a mile was rowed, Yale, 
Harvard, and Wesleyan began to show ahead. At the half-mile Yale and Har- 
vard came very near fouling, Harvard at the time being nearly a length ahead, 
but they got away from each other without either being retarded. Yale rowed 
about 36 strokes, Harvard 38, and Wesleyan and Columbia about 40. When a 
mile and a quarter away, Yale spurted and came up even with Harvard, who in 
turn spurted, drew away a clear length, and then slowed down to 38. Shortly 
after, Harvard steered too far to the east, and, getting into shoal water, was re- 
tarded so much that Yale came up on the other side of the river and gained a 
lead of nearly a length. Getting again into deep water and the current, Harvard 
regained her lost ground and apparently passed Yale. Coming now near the 
finish, Harvard put on a final spurt, thinking themselves ahead of everything. 
The boat passed the finishing flag on the east bank, and the bow gave the word 
to stop. No gun was heard, and no judges seen, and the stroke gave the word 
to row on, but the bow pointed out the finish flag where they had seen it in 
practice since the previous Thursday, and the crew stopped rowing. Fearing 
they might be overlooked, the crew eagerly asked for the judges, but none were 
seen, and the crew rowed over to the referee's boat, to put in a claim of foul in 
case one was put in by Yale. The crowds on shore cheered and congratulated 
Harvard, and the flags were presented to them by two of the Citizens' Com- 
mittee of Springfield. Expecting a formal presentation in the evening, and fear- 
ing the flags would get wet, the crew at first hesitated to take them; but, hear- 
ing there would be no formality, the flags were taken aboard, and after putting 
in a provisional claim of foul, which was disregarded, "as no delay was caused," 
and receiving the referee's congratulations, the crew rowed ashore, and were 
received with shouting, and borne on the shoulders of an enthusiastic crowd. 
The flags were given to the father of one of the crew, who took them in a car- 
riage to the quarters of the crew, where they remained over night. Yale also put 
in a claim of foul, which was not allowed, for the same reason that Harvard's 
was disregarded, and on rowing ashore were told they crossed the line first. 



BOATING. 



245 



Thereupon they rowed after the referee, calling and making signs. The referee 
heard their story, and went ashore, where he was informed of the real state of 
affairs. In the evening the referee gave his decision as Yale first, Wesleyan sec- 
ond, and Harvard third. He said there seemed to be something wrong with the 
finishing line, and stated next day, in an official card, that "the race was not de- 
cided upon its merits " ; but that, however badly placed was the finishing line, 
he must decide according to that as it was, and as Yale had undoubtedly crossed 
that line first, he must give them the race. The Harvard crew felt very sorry to 
lose the race in this way, and wished to row it again, but the rules did not allow 
it. The time was, Yale, 16 minutes 59 seconds; Wesleyan, 17 minutes 9 sec- 
onds ; Harvard, 1 7 minutes 46 J- seconds. The positions of the other crews could 
not be determined exactly, and were not officially given, except that Williams 
came in last in 19 minutes 33 seconds. The time of Wesleyan and Harvard, 
though possibly correct, is also not official. 

Yale's crew was a great improvement on any crew from that College for many 
years. Physically they were not remarkably strong, but their captain had under- 
taken a trip to Europe to see for himself the best English rowing, and had been 
able by great perseverance and labor to infuse into his crew the principles he 
had learned, and also his own energy and spirit. The English principles, as they 
are called, had been adopted by Harvard many years before, with some modifica- 
tions proper for the different kinds of races rowed here. A great deal is seen 
in the newspapers about the English style, as if it were a peculiar and well- 
defined style. The fact is, the English rowing-men have very different styles. 
When Harvard's four-oared crew were in England, in 1869, their style was pre- 
ferred by the London watermen to Oxford's, as more like their own. The longer 
the race the slower should be the stroke; and what has been called the English 
stroke by the newspapers is simply the long stroke, which is rather peculiar to 
Oxford and Cambridge, and to them only when rowing over the Putney course 
of four and a quarter miles. Since the introduction here of straight-away races, 
where there is no let up or change like that allowed in turning a stake, the 
crew cannot live to row a quick stroke even in a three-mile race ; and the adop- 
tion of sliding seats where the exertion in each stroke is greater has caused the 
stroke to be even slower still* This fact gives color to the statements that the 
present style of rowing has been lately adopted from England. Harvard studied 
from the best English authorities in 1866, at a time when the circumstances of 
rowing races in America were so very unlike those in England that the princi- 
ples had to be greatly modified to suit our shorter courses, and especially the turn 

* Sliding seats are supposed to make the number of strokes four or five less to the minute than 
when the seats are stationary. 



246 BOATING. 

round a stake. The essential principles were however then, and are now, really 
the same ; and on the introduction of similar races here, and similar boats and oars, 
the rowing itself becomes more nearly the same as that practised by the best Eng- 
lish rowing-men, who had been practising and improving so long. There is prob- 
ably as much bad rowing in England, however, as in America. The Harvard 
crew of this year was a very good one, well trained, and rowed in excellent form. 
Their style was on the whole excellent, being more perfect in the smaller details 
than any previous crew, and a great improvement in all respects over last year's. 
The result of this race was very unsatisfactory, and much was said about 
the "diagonal finish line." The judges reported that the Harvard crew stopped 
before crossing the line, while the crew themselves were sure they passed the 
finish flag before stopping. On the Saturday after the race, Mr. Harris, the en- 
gineer who laid out the course, went down to the finish, to see what the trouble 
really was. As the matter has never been even approximately cleared up, it may 
not be out of place here to give the facts as he showed them to be. This dia- 
gram is taken from the engineer's note-book, and is the result of his observa- 
tions and measurements taken as above. It furnishes a plain and authoritative 
explanation. 




A B was the line as originally drawn by the engineer at the direction of the 
Springfield committee. It was parallel with the starting line, and a little diago- 
nal to the sides of the river. On the day of the race the flag was put by 
mistake at C, instead of at A, — a difference of 169 feet, or about ^ of a mile. E 
was a stake in the middle of the river on the original line A B, and had a boat 
tied to it on the day of the race, probably intended for some of the judges. At 
B the flag was kept in the proper spot as originally placed. The judges, how- 
ever, did not sight from C to B, but through E (the time-keeper's boat), which 
brought the end of their imaginary line at D, on the east side. Harvard stopped 
rowing when it reached B (the correct line). The line C B would have made 
Yale — who came in near the west bank — row 169 feet less than Harvard, but 



C D — the actual line used by the judges — made them row nearly 338 feet less. 
Consequently Yale rowed 169 feet short of three miles, and Harvard, with her 
headway after stopping, had 169 feet more. Actually the difference was not so 
great, as Yale and Wesleyan finished somewhere between C and E, and Harvard 
not quite at the eastern bank. This also accounts for the strange fact that Har- 
vard was reported to have crossed the line 47! seconds after Yale, and were yet 
supposed by themselves, the spectators, and the referee to have come in ahead. 
For to have been rowing all the time when the rate is 15 or 16 feet a second, 
and yet be 47-J seconds behind, would have made them from 700 to 750 feet, or 
somewhat more than an eighth of a mile, behind. As it was, they crossed the 
judges' line only from their own headway and the current of the river, some time 
after they stopped rowing at the true finish. 

1874. 

OFFICERS OF THE H. U. B. C. 

Wendell Goodwin, '74, President. F. S. Watson, '75, Vice-President. 

G. F. Roberts, '71, Treasurer. W. J. Otis, '76, Secretary. 

H. S. Van Duzer, '75, Assistant Treasurer. R. H. Dana, 3D * '74, Captain. 

UNIVERSITY CREW. 
R. H. Dana, stroke, '74, 158 lbs. H. L. Morse, '74, 168 lbs. 

D. C. Bacon, '76, 168 " W. R. Taylor, '77, 174 " 

W. Goodwin, '74, 170 " W. J. Otis, bow,L. S. S., 156 " 

The season opened with the annual meeting, October 21, 1874, at which 
the above officers were elected. The meeting brought to light the existence of 
great boating interest throughout the College, and the general spirit seemed to be, 
not dejection at the result of last year's race, but a determination to win at all 
events in 1874. To do this there were left the best five men of the last crew, 
ready for work, and plenty of good material from which to select the sixth man. 

The class races for the Graduates' cup took place over the Charles River 
course, October 25. A single-scull race had been planned, but rough water made 
it impracticable. For the class six-oared race — two miles with a turn — there 
were three entries from Seniors, Sophomores, and Freshmen. The start was 
very even, but at about three fourths of a mile the bow-oar of the Senior boat 
broke his outrigger ; and, his seat giving way at the same time, he broke a hole 
in the bottom of the boat. The Sophomores turned the stake first, followed by 
the Seniors and Freshmen ; but the Seniors, in spite of their mishaps, passed the 
Sophomores on the home-stretch, and came in two lengths ahead, their boat sink- 
ing under them before they could get to the floats. Time: Seniors, 15 minutes 
7 seconds; Sophomores, 15 minutes 15 seconds; Freshmen, 15 minutes 35 seconds. 

* Resigned, and W. Goodwin, '74, appointed captain in his place. 



248 BOATING. 

The scratch races occurred October 10, in front of the boat-house. There were 
three races, — for single sculls, double sculls, and six-oared barges. These races 
brought out a number of contesting boats, which competed closely for the honors. 

The annual class races were rowed on Charles River course, May 30, 1874, in 
the forenoon. A pleasant day and smooth water called out many spectators. A 
single-scull race, between Paul Dana, '74, and F. J. Stone, '74, came first, two 
miles with a turn. Dana, rowing a slower stroke, soon took the lead, and won 
the race easily in 16 minutes; 37 seconds ahead of Stone. Next came a race for 
six-oared second crews, two miles with a turn, — Juniors in a shell, and Soph- 
omores in a barge with a coxswain, with one minute's allowance therefor. The 
Juniors won this race easily. The third race, three miles with a turn, was for 
the Beacon cup ; and first crews from the Juniors, Freshmen, and Scientific 
School competed for it, all rowing six-oared shells. The University crew in a 
barge thirty-one inches wide, but without a coxswain, also rowed round at the 
same time with the boats. The Freshmen, who had been compelled to make 
many changes in their crew within a short time, soon fell behind. The Univer- 
sity crew, rowing thirty-two strokes, took the lead, with the Sophomores and 
Scientific crews keeping pretty steadily within two or three lengths of them. The 
University crew turned the stake first, and came home 53 seconds ahead, gain- 
ing all the way, and rowing the same slow stroke. The Sophomores came in a 
very little ahead of the Scientifics, in 21 minutes 5 seconds. The latter crew was 
the stronger, but rowed in bad style, though well prepared in other respects. 

During the winter Mr. Dana resigned the captaincy of the University crew, 
and was succeeded by Wendell Goodwin, '74. The crew did more work in the 
gymnasium during the winter than any crew had done since 1868. In the spring 
they went early upon the river, and received pretty constant coaching from Mr. 
F. O. Lyman, '71. While on the river they fell very little short of the greatest 
amount of work in miles of any previous University crew up to the time of start- 
ing for the place of the annual intercollegiate races. 

A new boating system was started this year. Previously the boats which were 
used for pleasure, or training, or racing had been owned entirely by the students. 
Now arrangements were made with Mr. Blakie, the boat-builder, to let boats by 
the year to clubs, whose members were to pay fifteen dollars apiece, and in return 
boats were to be furnished, — six-oars, four-oars, pairs, single and double sculls, — 
enough to accommodate one third of the members of a club at a time, in such 
proportions as the officers of the several clubs should average. He was also to 
provide a house in which to keep these boats, and to have a man to look after 
and repair them, and to help the members to launch and land them. The 
University Boat Club was subdivided into four clubs, as a part of this scheme, 
determined by the College buildings and parts of Cambridge where the members 



JBUA1.1JNU. 249 

resided, and the four clubs were named after the buildings, — Holworthy, Weld, 
Matthews, and Thayer. Any student assigned by his place of residence to one 
or others of these clubs became a member of the University Boat Club by sign- 
ing his name and paying his fee. Besides opening boating to many who before 
would have been either unable or unwilling to take the trouble and risk of keep- 
ing private boats, it was hoped that under the new system all the classes would 
be mixed up in the clubs, and the practical traditions of rowing consequently be 
handed down in unbroken succession, instead of being kept in single classes as 
before, and that the general rowing in the College would also be improved. All 
the arrangements were made, some two hundred names subscribed, and the sys- 
tem went into operation in October, 1874, and has fully met the expectations 
which had been formed. The spring scratch races were held June 5, off the 
boat-house, and included a single-scull race, one for double sculls, and a six-oared 
race, all well contested. 

The Freshmen had intended to send a crew this year to Saratoga; but, losing 
their best man, who was taken into the University crew, and meeting with a 
series of misfortunes, they abandoned the idea. The University crew, now rowing 
well together, gave up the barge in practice for a shell about five weeks before 
going to Saratoga. The shell was very crank, and it took them a long time to 
get used to her. Indeed, they only got into perfect form just before they left the 
Charles. Arrived at Saratoga, they found so much rough water, that, instead of 
improving, they went back. The course was so much exposed to the prevailing 
south winds, that very few opportunities were afforded for going over it during 
the two weeks previous to the race, and the work in the boat became of neces- 
sity quite irregular. The crew kept in very good health, in spite of the intense 
heat. Their diet was more liberal than in any past year. 

The Intercollegiate contest was appointed for Wednesday, the 15th of July. 
Rough water delayed the races until so late that the Freshman race was rowed 
just before sunset. Harvard had entered no crew for the Freshman race, which was 
handsomely won by a Princeton crew, against Yale and Brown. The single-scull 
race, two miles straight away, occurred so late that few saw it, thinking the races 
over for the day, and going home before it took place. The entries were, E. L. 
Phillips (Cornell), Ansley Wilcox (Yale), and A. L. Devens (Harvard). The race 
between the two latter was very pretty, the contestants keeping together until close 
to the finish, when Wilcox put on a spurt and crossed the line ahead by two 
lengths. Phillips was some eight lengths behind Devens. Time of Wilcox, 14 
minutes 8f seconds. The University race was appointed for the next day, the 
1 6th, but after waiting in vain until dusk for smooth water, it was postponed to 
the next day, and for the same reason again to 10 a. m. of Saturday, the 18th. 

The water was nearly perfectly smooth, and the day clear and beautiful. The 



2 CO iSUAlllNVJ. 

boats got into position at a little before eleven o'clock, in the following order, from 
the east: i, Trinity; 2, Princeton; 3, Cornell; 4, Yale; 5, Harvard; 6, Wes- 
leyan ; 7, Columbia ; 8, Dartmouth ; 9, Williams. An even start was made, Har- 
vard rowing at 34 strokes, and settling immediately to her regular stroke. Yale 
rowed 33, also showing her determination not to exhaust her crew in the first two 
miles. Columbia started with a spurt, rowing 38, and Wesleyan about 36, follow- 
ing the plan of Harvard and Yale. Columbia soon took the lead, and at three 
fourths of a mile was a length ahead of Harvard, who was second. Yale was 
third, and these three and Wesleyan were soon well ahead of all the rest. At 
the end of the first mile, Columbia had put half a length of clear water between 
herself and Harvard, who was still second. About this time Yale crossed Har- 
vard's stern, and coming up on the port side, endangered Harvard's rudder ; then 
dropped a little behind and crossed again to the east, narrowly missing Harvard's 
rudder as she did so. Wesleyan was at this time a length behind Yale, and 
directly in Columbia's wash. The other crews were now virtually out of the 
race for the first place. Yale's steering was here quite wild. During the next 
half-mile, without in the lest changing her stroke, Harvard gained steadily on 
Columbia. Yale also gained on Columbia; and Wesleyan, though gaining on 
Columbia, fell a little behind Yale and Harvard. During the last part of this half- 
mile Yale began her first spurt. According to her usual policy, Harvard waited 
for Yale's spurt until that crew should have exhausted themselves by the effort, 

— meaning then, and not until then, to leave their steady 34 for a faster stroke, 

— and the word was passed up, "Steady, all, eyes on the boat." Yale gained rap- 
idly on Harvard and Columbia, getting even with the latter, and about a quarter 
of a length ahead of Harvard and very close to her. Thinking the time was 
now come, Harvard was just quickening up her stroke, when a foul occurred 
with Yale ; Harvard, according to the decision of the judges and referees, being 
in her own water, and Yale having steered into her. A long delay occurred 
before they were clear again ; and Wesleyan at this time, before three lengths 
behind, was now ahead. Yale's rudder was injured during the collision by one 
of the Harvard oars ; and afterwards, in trying to row " hard starboard " to get 
straight, she broke the starboard bow's oar and gave up rowing. Harvard now 
kept on, beginning with a few quick strokes to get way on the boat, and then 
for another mile kept at 34, except one small spurt to shake the crew together 
after getting badly washed by Columbia. Having gained somewhat on the two 
leading boats since the foul, Harvard, at the beginning of the last half-mile, 
made her last great effort. She nearly got even with Wesleyan, but in the 
last 150 yards lost half of the distance gained. 

Columbia crossed the line first, rowing handsomely. Her stroke fainted as 
soon as they stopped, and another of her crew was also much distressed by the 



effort. Wesleyan came next, and then Harvard. The time, as decided by the 
referee, and given out in the afternoon, was : — 

Columbia, 1 6 minutes 42 J seconds. Williams, 1 7 minutes 8 J seconds. Trinity, 18 minutes 23 seconds. 
Wesleyan, 16 " 50 " Cornell, 17 " 31 " Princeton, 18 " 28 " 

Harvard, 16 " 56 " Dartmouth, 18 " Yale not taken. 

Harvard put in a double claim, one of a foul by Yale, and another to have 
the race rowed over again according to Rule XII. of Regatta Rules. The official 
decision of the referee was, " Harvard's claim disallowed, in accordance with Rule 
XIV. Yale's claim (of a foul from Harvard) not entertained, as Yale violated 
Rules VII. and VIII., under which the race was rowed." It went on to say 
that there was no foul between Wesleyan and Columbia, as was claimed by the 
former, and ended, " This decision is in accordance with Rule XIV." It was 
signed by the referee and the five judges. Rule XIV. is, that " every boat shall 
abide by its own accidents during the race." Rules VII. and VIII. are the rules 
compelling a boat to keep its own course, unless having a clear lead of another 
boat. The decision seemed to be based on a misconstruction of Rule XIV. 

The result of the race occasioned great excitement among the numerous friends 
of boating at Saratoga, and not a little ill-feeling between the students and 
friends of Harvard and Yale. 

The average weight of all the crews was 156 J pounds, greater than for the 
past two years. Harvard's crew was by several pounds the heaviest ever sent by 
that College. The rowing was more scientific than ever before, and the best of 
the crews were very evenly matched. 

It is interesting to look back and see what the training has been in different 
years by crews at Harvard. In the earlier years, until 1857, this amounted to 
nothing but a very moderate number of pulls together before the race, a kw tri- 
als with other crews, and a slightly restricted diet. The crews did not get their 
meals together, and the whole preparation was crude and simple. Until the St. 
John crews rowed in Boston, little was known about scientific rowing, and the 
races were mostly impromptu affairs. The style and form shown by the St. 
John oarsmen was a new revelation, and from them, in the years from 1857 
until 1866, came all that was scientific in rowing to Harvard. In 1857 the Hu- 
ron class crew, in preparing for their race with the Volante, did something like 
systematic work for about three weeks, and had a well-trained crew, — the best 
prepared up to that time. They ran together, pulled every day together, and 
took their meals together, paying a strict attention to diet. The next year 
(1858) the system was further carried out, and during the winter a good deal of 
work was done by several of the University crew, which was pretty definitely 
determined when winter fairly set in. Walking, running, and gymnasium work 



252 BOATING. 

was done somewhat irregularly. At that time there was no College gymnasium. 
The only one in Cambridge was a private one, very imperfect, and without any 
apparatus specially designed for rowing exercise. Still, quite an amount of work 
was done there, not only by the members of the University crew, but by men 
who were getting up club crews; and a favorite exercise was for a number of 
men to stand round in a circle about ten feet apart and throw twelve-pound 
cannon-balls from one to the other, — a good exercise, and less stupid than most 
kinds, because social. Pedestrian matches were not infrequently made. 

The diet was very strict and severe. No vegetables but rice were allowed; 
only beef and mutton for meat; no fish; and stale bread and oat-meal gruel. 
Only milk and water were drunk, and both in such moderate and restricted 
quantities, that it was the most trying part of training to endure the thirst. 
Stonehenge was the only published authority consulted, the Union Club of St. 
John furnishing the model for style and form. At that time sparring had been 
long a very popular exercise, and was just going out of fashion. The teachers of 
the " noble art " were nearly always retired English prize-fighters, and from them 
many of the details of training were learned. The great idea was to train 
"down," as it was called, — to reduce the weight as much as possible. This was 
accomplished partly by the severe diet coupled with the work, but also partly by 
artificial sweating, which was at one time by some of the crew attempted under 
feather-beds. Running in heavy flannels was also done, and on coming in great- 
coats and blankets were put on, to stimulate the perspiration as much as possible. 

This system was the one generally followed up to 1866, with some modifica- 
tion at times. The College gymnasium was opened for the students in 1861, 
and rowing-weights were started in 1864. These were at first double-handed 
affairs, imitating the motion of sculls. In 1866 they were changed to those imi- 
tating the motion of the oar, and the identical apparatus then introduced is used 
to-day. The gymnasium offered a vastly improved method for training a crew in 
winter, and when exercise on the river could not be had. 

By 1867, rowing had been reduced to a science in England, and many works 
were written about it. It was then easy to book up on the different styles, and 
to arrive approximately at the best. Especially at this time the ideas about diet 
in training were changed, and the food was made much more various and liberal 
for the men in training. The idea now was to keep up the weight and increase 
it if possible, while doing a full amount of work. These are doubtless correct 
ideas; and from that time the diet has always been liberal, varying with the ideas 
of the captain for each year. In 1867 the training was kept up the entire Col- 
lege year, from September until the University race, by a diet restricted only in 
the sense of avoiding pastry and all unwholesome food, by running five or six 
miles on alternate days all the autumn and winter, and rowing one thousand 



BOATING. 



253 



strokes every day in the gymnasium at full swing. This last is supposed to be 
the equivalent of a three-mile pull. While at work the men were generally 
watched, and taught a proper stroke, so that in the spring the men got into 
their boat well prepared, and in a state of body ready for the hardest work on 
the river. In 1867 and 1868 more work was done by the crews during win- 
ter than ever before or since. Indeed, it has been thought by some that the 
crews overworked. The answer to this is, that in 1868 the crew made time 
over the Charles River and Ouinsigamond courses that has never been surpassed 
or equalled by any college crew over the same courses; and the time of the 
1867 crew at Worcester has only been beaten by that of 1869 on that course. 
{Vide Rowing Record.) Since 1868 the work has been less severe, though the 
appliances have been increased and improved. The diet has become much more 
liberal year by year; in 1874 there was little of that listlessness so common in 
a crew just before the race, and it is the only year, since regular and systematic 
training has been done, that there was perfect freedom from boils. 

With the introduction of shell boats for racing, the science of boating may 
be said to have fairly begun. The English, who make a business of all that per- 
tains to outdoor sports, arrive at very correct conclusions about boat building 
and racing, and in that country the science is doubtless carried further than any- 
where else. A good form is of the utmost importance. Even with bad style, 
good form has repeatedly been successful in the University races, and good form 
can only be acquired by hard and unremitting work. But even hard work, unless 
under good coaching, is wasted. The race in England in 1869 should teach Har- 
vard how important to a crew a coach is. It is perhaps the only way, certainly 
the easiest way, to arrive at perfection. One man whose word is law, in and out 
of the boat, would be a great source of comfort to a crew in managing all the 
thousand little things that worry a captain ; but science now declares that such 
a man is a necessity in preparing a crew successfully for a race. 

When the first University crew was organized, in 1856, the College uniform was 
a white undershirt, with a cap, copied from the St. John Union Club cap, of white, 
with a broad loose top, a scarlet band, and no visor. This was used in the race 
of that year, and also in 1857. The University crew of 1858 were in the habit 
of tying a pocket-handkerchief round their heads in rowing ; and, finding that a 
convenient covering for the head, decided to adopt it in the races of that year. 
After a short discussion, the color blue was selected. Blue silk handkerchiefs 
could not be found, however, and the stroke-oar, who went to Boston just before 
the Beacon Cup race to buy them, selected six Chinese red silk handkerchiefs 
instead. The color was nearly a crimson, and this was for some years the College 
color. When the class races were instituted, in 1865, each crew chose its color, 
and the famous class crew of 1866 chose magenta. This color was much spoken 
of in the newspapers, in descriptions of races at that time, and became easily 



254 



BOATING. 



confounded with the College crimson. On May 6, 1875, at a full meeting of the 
undergraduates, crimson was formally adopted as the College color. 

Taking them up in order, the principal improvements in boating in Harvard 
College have been as follows: From 1846 until 1857 eight-oared lapstreak barges 
were used, rowed on the gunwale with ash oars, — all using coxswains, and many 
furnished with seats for passengers. In 1854 a slightly outrigged barge was built. 
1855 brought a better outrigger, spruce oars, and a boat exclusively for racing, and 
in this year the great change of rowing without a coxswain was introduced from 
St. John. The bow-oar steered the boat with his oar. In this year the Undine, 
a four-oared boat, was fitted with a rudder, managed by the bow-oar's feet. This 
was planned by Mr. George Peabody Russell, of 1856, and was made by "Jim 
Holt," who took care of the College boats. It was not thought at the time worth 
general adoption. In 1856 came the first University boat, and the University 
Boat Club was originated. The boat was the first of Coyle's St. John boats, 
and was decked over at each end with canvas. Coyle's boats were a great im- 
provement in model and construction on any lapstreak boats hitherto made. In 
December, 1857, came the most important improvement. A six-oared shell (the 
first built in America) came from St. John, built by James Mackay. She had 
iron outriggers like those now in use, and with her came the first spoon oars. 
She was steered by the bow-oar. In 1859 the rudder managed by the bow- 
oar was introduced generally, after the cruel experience of the University boat 
in the Citizens' Regatta at Worcester on the day after the University race, where 
the want of a rudder lost them the race. Since then, and until the intro- 
duction of sliding seats by the crew of 1872 (used first in a University race 
by Yale in 1870), no important change was made in boats or oars. The boats 
became gradually longer and narrower, and were changed one way and another 
according to the fancy of the captains. The little things in the boat were all 
the time improved, but no radical change was made. As the boats got nar- 
rower, the oars were wired into the rowlocks. The crews sat in the middle of 
the boats in 1866, 1867, 1868, 1869, 1870, and 1871, instead of against the side. 
The famous Ayling oars, made in England of Norwegian pine, were introduced 
in 1870, and are now universally used at Cambridge. Perhaps, on the principle 
of recurring fashions, or in view of the great difficulty of many boats rowing in 
the same race without fouling, as exemplified in the late Intercollegiate races, 
coxswains may come into vogue again. Certainly in an eight-oared shell an ac- 
complished coxswain ought, in guiding the boat with the rudder, and by encour- 
aging and directing the crew with his voice, to counterbalance his weight. If 
eight-oared races are ever introduced in America, we may expect to see a cox- 
swain in the stern of the boats. A list of all the races in which Harvard stu- 
dents are known to have participated is added in chronological order, with such 
details as seem interesting and instructive. 



THE HARVARD ROWING RECORD. 



! 


Wins. 
Black-walnut 

Silk flag. 
Colors. 

Silver pitcher. 
Silver cup. 


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256 



THE HARVARD ROWING RECORD. 







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Union 
of Boston. 6 

Urania, 
of Boston. 6 
Time, 22 min 








Robert Em 

6 oars. 

Fort Hill 

Shamrock, ( 

Stirling, 6 

Bunker H 

6 oars. 

James Buch 


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Parkman (stroke). 
Walcott. 
. Elliott. 
Goldsmith. 
R. Agassiz. 


Crowninshield (st 
. Elliott. 
Hodges. 
Ellison. 

H. Lee. 
Parkman. 

Goldsmith. 
R. Agassiz (bow) 


mans, Jr. (stroke). 

odwin. 

Gelston. 

Mason. 

Learoyd. 

Tobey (bow). 


Crosby (stroke). 
VTyrick. 
Kimball. 

. Fox (bow). 


Shaw (stroke). 
Weed. 
Mudge. 
Eustis. 
Hunnewell. 
Russell, 
ppan (coxswain). 


Crowninshield (st 
owninshield. 

Eliot. 
Ellison. 
Gelston. 
R. Agassiz (bow) 




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Huron. 
Class of '57. 
Lapstreak, 40 feet, 

6 oars. Built by R. 

Patchell, E. Boston. 
Time, 21 m. 38 s. 


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Oneida. 
Class of '58. 
New Lapstreak. Built 

by Patchell. 
46 feet, 8 oars. Enters 

with 6 oars. Drawn. 


Camilla. 

Class of '58, 

Lapstreak, 42 feet, 
6 oars. Built by 
Winde & Clinkard. 

Time, 22 m. 17 s. 


Bonetta. 

(Sabrina's crew.) 

Class of '60. 

Lapstreak, 41 feet, 
6 oars. Built by 
Vallerly.East Boston. 

Time, 22 m. 24 s. 


Harvard. 

Pine Shell, 6 oars, 
40 feet, 150 lbs. 
weight. Built by 
James Mackay, in 
St. John, 1857. 

First shell boat with- 

America™" 1 " 
No rudder. Spoon 
oars. 
















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THE HARVARD ROWING RECORD. 



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The death of Mr. George E. 
Dunham, stroke of the 
Volante, by drowning, at 
Springfield, July 17, 1S58, 
dissolved the first Intercol- 
legiate Regatta. 


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Lake Quinsigamond. 
2d Intercollegiate Re- 
gatta, ij miles, and 

Cloudy weather. 
Fresh wind along the 

course. 
Water not smooth. 
Harvard Judge. 
Gerard C. Tobey. 

Yale Judge. 
S. Davis Page. 
Brown Umv Judgi 
Charles M. Smith. 

Referee. 
James Mackay. 


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253 



THE HARVARD ROWING RECORD. 



i I 






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THE HARVARD ROWING RECORD. 



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Shamrock, 
of Boston, 6 oars. 

Emp. Josephine, 
of Boston, 4 oars. 

Eva, 4 oars. 

Mystic, 
of Charlestown, 4 oars. 

All lapstreaks. 


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Yale, 
Cedar shell, 6 oars. 
Time, 19 m. 5J s. 

Brown, 
Cedar shell, 6 oars. 
Time. 21 m. I 5 s. 
Both with coxswain. 


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Same Freshman Class crew '63. Av. 136 lbs. 
as on the day previous. 

The crew of the Sophomore '62. Total, 8i2lbs. 
Class Boat were the same 
as of the day previous. 
First in. Time, 19 m. 44J s. 
Ruled out, on claim of foul. 










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C. M. Woodward. 

E. G. Abbott. 

W. H. Ker. 

H. Ropes. 

J. II. Wales (bow). 


H. H. McBurney (stroke). 

11. Mathes. 
S. F. Emmons. 
W. Hedge. 
W. T. Washburn. 
A. Sibley (bow). 

C. W. Amory (stroke). 

I. 1'. Warren. 
E. D. Boit. 

II. S. Dunn. 
A. Lawrence. 

W. Greenough (bow). 


C. W. Amory (stroke). 

J. C. Warren. 

E. D. Boit. 

H. S. Dunn. 

A. Lawrence. 

W. Greenough (bow). 


H. H. McBurney (stroke). 

H. Mathes. 

J. Read. 

W. Hedge. 

AV. T. Washburn. 

A. Sibley (bow). 


C. Crowninshield (stroke). 

C. M. Woodward. 

E. G. Abbott. 

W. H. Ker. 

H. Ropes. 

J. H. Wales (bow). 


§ 

i 


if 1 


Sophomore. 

Class of '62. 

Lapstreak, 6 oars. 
BuiltbyCoyle.ofSt. 
John. 3S feci long, 
wgt. 165 lbs. Altered 
from 4-oared boat. 

Freshman Class of '63. 
Lapstreak, 6 oars. 

Built by Cnyle, of St. 

John. 42^ feet. 




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Thetis. 
Freshman Class of '63. 
Lapstreak, 6 oars. 

Sophomore. 
Class of '62. 
Lapstreak, 6 oars. 


i 

1 


Charles River. 

lloston City Regatta. 

l§ miles, ami return. 
33 seeonds allowed by 

Two races, viz. a shell 
race, and also a lap- 
Weather and water fine. 
Light breeze. 


Lake Quinsioamond. 

3d Intercollegiate Re- 
gatta. l\ miles, and 

3 races, viz. Freshman, 
Sophomore, Univer- 

Fine weather. 
Strong southwest 

Water not smooth. 
Harvard Jitdp?. 
James H. Ellison 

Yale Judge. 
Charles H. Owen. 
Brown Univ. '/v,/e, 
Samuel V. Woodruff 

Referee. 
Nathaniel Paine. 


Lake Quinsihamond. 
Worcester Citizens' 

Regatta. l£ miles, 

and return. 
Fine weather. 
Good water. 
Light breeze. 


1 


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260 



THE HARVARD ROWING RECORD. 









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THE HARVARD ROWING RECORD. 



263 



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Harvard Shell, 
wed by Ward Bros 
of the Peverelly, 6. 
oward E. Troop, 
John. Lapstreak, 
6 oars, 47 feet. 


ri -• So 

ggagJ 


West Ender, 
Boston. 6 oars. 
Challenge, 
Lowell. 6 oars. 

Eureka, 
Lowell. 4 oars. 


C. A. Peverelly, 
of Newburgh. Ma- 

hoganyslie'l.''i 

With the Ward 

Brothers. 

L. H. Powers, 
of Springfield. 

Shell, 6 oars. 
North End Boy, 
Boston. Shell, 6 oars. 

Harbor Boy, 
of New London. 

Lapstreak, 6 oars. 


Yale, 
liversity. Shell, 
5 oars. Sp. cedar. 
Built by Charles B. 
Elliott, of Green- 
point, L. I. 
me, i8m. 3 SJs. 




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University. 
Cedar, Elliott shell, 50 

feet long, 21 inches 

beam. 
Second in the race. 
Time, 17 m. 53 s. 


University. 

Cedar, Elliott shell, 50 

feet, 21 inches beam. 

[The Yale Sophomores 
of '70 and the Yale 
Freshmen of '71 de- 
clined the challenges 
of the corresponding 
classes in Harvard 
for the Intercoliegiate 
Regatta of 1S6S.] 


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Lake Quinsigamond. 

Worcester. Citizens' 

Regatta. l£ miles, 

Weather clear and calm. 

Water smooth. 

No wind. 

[In this regatta was ac- 
complished the best 
time ever recorded 
for rowing a 6-oared 
shell-boat three miles 
with a turn.] 


Lake Quinsigamond. 
8th Intercollegiate Re- 
gatta. lim.,& return. 
Cloudv weather. 
Good water. Misty. 

Harvard Judges. 
Charles Dunning. 
Edw. N. Fenno. 
William Blaikie. 
Yale Judges. 
N. H. Cleveland. 
George A. Adee. 
Frank Brown. 
Ref. —Arthur F. Dexter. 




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264 



THE HARVARD ROWING RECORD. 





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George Roahr, 
4 oars. Foul. 
Time, 21 m. 12 s. 
Lady Given, 4 oars. 
J. A. Hurley, 4 oars. 
All shell-boats. 


flpi 
IfSfi 

oB 


George Roahr, 

of Boston, 4 oars. 

William C. Adams, 

of Pittsburg, 4 oars. 

Union, 4 oars. 

Chemaun, 4 oars. 
All shell-boats. 




1 % 
! « a 


Yale. 

Univ. shell, 6 oars. 

Built of Spanish ce- 
dar, by Charles B. 
Elliott, of Green- 
point, L. I. 

Time, 18 m. 11 s. 


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Charles River. 

Boston. 2d Regatta of 
New England Row- 
ing Association. 
i£ miles, and return. 

Weather good. Light 
wind, sea not smooth. 


Mystic River. 
Charlestown. 2d City 
Regatta. 1 mile, and 
return, and repeat. 
4 miles altogether. 
Clear weather. 
Brisk westerly breeze. 
Sea not smooth. 


Charles River. 
Boston City Regatta. 

l£ miles, and return. 
Fair weather. 
Stiff wind. 
Rough sea. 


Seekonk River. 

Providence, R.I. Nar- 

ragansett Boat Club 

Regatta. 1 J miles, 

Good weather. 
Fresh northerly wind. 
Rough water. 


Lake Quinsigamond. 

9th Intercollegiate Re- 
gatta. Iim.& return. 

Fine, hazy" weather. 

Water calm and smooth. 

Two races, viz., 
1. Freshman. 


2. University. 
Harvard Judges. 
Sidney L. Holdrege. 
F. W. Kidder. 

Yale Judges. 
W. W. Scranton. 
F. P. Terry. 

Referee. 
H. H. Chamberlin. 




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THE HARVARD ROWING RECORD. 



265 



1 


Wins. 

Six silver cups. 
Six silver cups. 

Six silver cups. 

Purse of $200. 
Purse of $75. 

Wins. 


I 5 


"^ -*. » * to " 
* no o\ S to 10 00 

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Oxford Crew. 
S. D Darbishire 

(stroke), 160 lbs. 
J. C. Tinne, 190 lbs. 
A. C. Yarborough, 

170 lbs. 
F. Willan, 164 lbs. 
J. H.Hall (coxs.),ioo. 
Four-oared shell. 


1 

11! 






Walter Brown, 

Thomas J. Ward. 
Fouled with Harvard. 
Charles H. Bacon. 
All 4-oared shells. 


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1 

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1™ 1 

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F. Yznaga (stroke). . . 148 lbs. 
B. Godwin. . . 155 " 
T. Cary. . . 140 " 
F. Gilbert. . . 145 " 
S. M. Pitman. . . 139 " 
R. W. Bayley (bow). .. 157 " 


F. Yznaga (stroke). . . 148 lbs. 
R. W. Bayley. . . 157 " 
B. Godwin. . . 155 " 
T. Cary. . . 140 " 
F. Gilbert. . . 145 " 
S. M. Pitman. . . 139 " 
C.L.Rutgers, Rar. Club (coxs.). .. 138 " 


F. Yznaga (stroke). . . 147 lbs. 
B. Godwin. . . 153 " 
T. Cary. . . 140 " 
F. Gilbert. . . 145 " 
S. M. Pitman. . . 139 " 
R. W. Bayley (bow). . 157 " 


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fill 


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Scientific School. 

Sp. cedar shell. Built 
by Elliott. 49 feet 
long, 20 inches beam. 

Broke steering wire. 

Time, 22 min. 23 sec. 


• 1 


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i 


Thames River, Eng. 

Putney to Mortlake. 

4 miles 3 furlongs 

straight away. 

Harvard Judge. 

F. S. Gulston. 

Oxford Judge. 
Chitty. 

Referee. 
Thomas Hughes. 


Seekonk River. 
Providence, R. I. 
1! miles and return. 
Weather lowering. 
Good water. 
Light breeze. 


Raritan River. 
New Brunswick, N. J. 
l£ miles up stream, and 

Weather fair and calm. 
Water smooth. 


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THE HARVARD ROWING RECORD. 












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sill 



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32 ■ffia^s' 









THE HARVARD ROWING RECORD. 



267 



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BASE BALL. 



Early Stages of the Game. — The first Harvard University Nine. —First Intercollegiate 
Game, June 27, 1863. — Games with the Lowell Club. — Bowdoin and Williams defeated: 
— The Silver Ball. — Uniform adopted. — Training. — First Tour of the Nine to New 
York, 1866. — Games with the Atlantic, Eureka, Excelsior, and Active Nines. — First 
Intercollegiate Defeat. — The Bases moved from the Delta to Jarvis Field. — 1867. 
Games with the Lowells and Athletics. — The Silver Ball surrendered. — Game with the 
Excelsiors. — 1868. Games with the Princeton and Lowell Nines. — First Match with 
Yale. — Harvard vs. Brown. — 1869. Games with the Lowell, Dartmouth, Red Stocking, 
Williams, and Lowell Nines. — The Western Tour of 1869. — Games with the Yale, Eck- 
ford, Athletic, Keystone, National, Haymaker, Lowell, and Mutual Nines. — Tabulated 
Games of 1869, showing the Record of each Player. — 1870. Games with the Lowell, 
Athletic, Cincinnati, Brown, Mutual, and Princeton Nines. — The Western Tour of 
1870. — Games with the Yale, Rose Hill, Haymaker, Niagara, Forest City, Cincinnati, 
Mutual, Chicago, Pastime, Athletic, Atlantic, Star, and Picked Nines. — Averages for 
the Trip. — Games with the Lowell, Brown, and Star Nines. — Averages for the Year. 
— 187 1. Harvard vs. the Lowell, Boston, Tufts, Brown, Haymaker, Brown, Rose Hill, 
Yale, Boston, and Tufts Nines. — Averages of 1871. — 1872. Games with the Boston, 
Tufts, Yale, and King Philip Nines. — Averages of 1872. — 1873. Games with the Bos- 
ton, Princeton, Yale, Mutual, Yale, King Philip, and Boston Nines. — Averages for 
1873. — 1874. Games with the Brown, Undergraduate, Princeton, and Yale Nines. — 
List of Players on the University Nine from 1863 to 1875. 

A compilation of Harvard Base Ball statistics does not call for a disquisition on 
Base Ball in general, although some reference to the earliest stages of the game 
may not be unacceptable in this connection. 

We can find no authentic records of the game previous to 1845; the Knick- 
erbocker Club of Hoboken claims this as its birth-year; and, what is perhaps to 
be wondered at, considering the many changes in the game, it still exists in a 
green, although somewhat adipose old age, numbering many Harvard men among 
its players. 

Governed at first by rules of which the one putting players out by bound 
catches is a fair example, the Ball code, at the hands of various conventions, 



270 









BASE BALL. 








PROVIDENCE, June 27, 1863. 


HARVARD '66. 


POS. 


0. 


R. BROWN '65. 


Banker . 


. H 


3 


3 Witter . 


Wright . 


. P 


1 


5 Finney 


Flagg . . 


. S 


5 


2 Brown . 


Irons . . 


. A 


2 


4 B.ees . 


Fiske . . 


. B 


2 


4 Spink . 


Greenleaf . 


. C 


4 


2 Deming 


Nelson 


. L 


4 


2 Brayton 


Abercrombie 


. M 


2 


3 Judson 


Tiffany . 


. R 


_4 


2 Field . 



Umpire. — Miller, Lowell Club. Scorers. — H., J. J. Mason; B., H. L. Hammond. 

During the fall of 1863 the '67 Class Nine was formed, and the Sophomores 
and Freshmen had many an unrecorded contest. Bowdoin College accepted an 
invitation to play with the '66 Nine in the spring of 1864. The city of Port- 
land offered a prize of $ 100, to be played for by these clubs in that city on 
July 4, 1864. Harvard was victorious, and has not since that date again played 
with Bowdoin. 











PORTLAND 


July 


4. 1 


864. 








HARVARD '66. 

Wright . . 


POS. 


0. 

2 


X. 
6 








BOWDOIN. 

Beecher . . 


POS. 
H 




0. X 
3 2 


Flagg . . 




H 


1 


6 








Chapman 


P 




4 1 


Banker . 




L 


3 


5 








Maxwell . . 


S 




2 1 


Irons . . 




A 


4 


2 








Hill . . . 


A 




2 2 


Nelson 




R 


4 


4 








Cook . . . 


B 




2 2 


Abercrombie 




M 


4 


4 








Dow . . . 


C 




4 


Greenleaf . 




B 


4 


4 








Turner . . 


L 




3 2 


Fiske . . 




C 


2 


5 








Lord . . . 


M 




4 1 


Harris . . 




s 


_3 


4 








Thompson . 


R 




_3 _*_ 






27 


40 














27 13 




'S. 












45678 








Harvji 


RD. . 








5 2 


4 


9 3 4 7 


6 = 


40 




Bowdc 


IN . . 












00172 


I = 


13 




Umpire. — J 


oh 


1 Lowell 






Scorers.— 


-B. 


F. A. Gerrish; 


IT., G 


F 


Emery. 



The Lowell Club of Boston at this time had great local reputation, and played 
perhaps a stronger game than any other club in New England. The first of a 
long series of contests between this club and Harvard took place on Boston 
Common, July 9, 1864, the '66 Nine losing the game. From the first the greatest 
rivalry existed between these two representative clubs of Boston and Cambridge, 
and the warmth of party feeling can hardly be appreciated in these days of 
enclosed grounds, and in the consequent absence of that unwashed, but demon- 
strative element, whose privileges are those of umpire, captain, and players com- 
bined, and whose criticisms are numerous and pointed. Under the rules of the 
National Association at this time in force, a striker was out if the ball from his 
bat, whether fair or foul, was caught either on the fly or on the first bound. At 
the suggestion of the '66 Nine, this game with the Lowells was played under an 
agreement that catching the ball on the first bound should not put out a striker; 
and this agreement was held to extend to both fair and foul balls. The fact that 



-7i 



the game was played under this rule, and the peculiar nature of the ground, 
account in a great measure for the large score made by either side. Subsequent 
games were played under the ruling that fair balls must be caught on the fly, 
and it was adopted by the National Association at its next meeting. The part 
of Boston Common upon which the game of July gth was played — and indeed 
all other important matches in Boston until 1868 — was the northerly part of the 
Parade Ground. The batsman stood about one hundred and fifty feet from the 
Beacon Street Mall, facing the south; nearly opposite No. 54 Beacon Street. 
The ground was destitute of turf, and within the bases and about the catcher's 
position was as hard as a stone-pavement. When the Ross ball, so popular from 
1865 to 1868, was used, it was no uncommon occurrence for a ball from the 
bat to strike the ground within the bases, and yet to be caught on the first 
bound by one of the out-fielders. 



HARVARD '66. 
Wright . . 
Banker . . 
Flagg . . 
Irons . . 
Nelson . . 
Abercrombie 
Greenleaf . 
Fiske . . 
Harris . . 



BOSTON COMMON, July 9, 1864. 

O. R. LOWELL. 

4 3 Miller . 

4 1 Joslin . 

2 4 Wilder . 

2 4 Lovett . 

2 3 Adams . 

3 3 Alline . 
2 4 Wright . 

4 1 Sumner . 
4 2 Arnold . 

27 25 



Innings 

Harvard 542203081= 25 

Lowell 832688677 = 55 

Umpire. — A. R. Crosby. Scorers.— ^, E. H. Clark; Z., Charles Fuller. 

A match was arranged with the '66 Nine of Williams College, and played at 
Worcester on the morning of the regatta day, July 29, 1864. Harvard '66 was 
without one of its players, and Stearns '67 was substituted by permission of the 
Williams Nine. Another '66 Harvard man — Banker — obtained leave of absence 
from Fort Warren, where he was doing duty as a three-months volunteer. 



WORCESTER, July 29, 1864. 



HARVARD '66. 



Stearns . . 
Greenleaf 
Tiffany . . 
Parker . . 
Abercrombie 
Harris . . 



WILLIAMS '6i 

Whitman 



Wheeler 3 

Whipple 1 

Day 2 

Davis o 

Delano 1 

Tracy 3 

Clark 1 

Hallock o 



Umpire. — John Lowell. 



16000 



Scorers. —H., Arthur Brooks; W., C. A. Durfee. 



272 BASE BALL. 

Notwithstanding the very unfavorable nature of the ground, the game re- 
sulted in small scores, with victory on the side of Williams. 

A hard-earned victory for '66 over the '67 Class Nine showed the advisability 
of a union of the best players from the various Class Nines, and on October 12, 
.1864, the University Club was formed. 

Its members at first numbered not more than four or five, as it was intended 
to make the election to the Club a compliment to the playing of a candidate. 
The whole control of the University Nine, from its organization until the fall of 
1866, was with the catcher, Flagg, and pitcher, Wright, the former managing the 
players in the field. The old ground on Cambridge Common was abandoned, and 
the " Delta," now covered in part by Memorial Hall, was taken possession of by 
permission of the Faculty. It was properly graded, and the field laid out with 
the striker facing the east. 

The uniform adopted consisted of gray pantaloons, gray shirts, and caps trimmed 
with magenta. This proved very serviceable and becoming, and — with slight 
changes — is still worn. Regular and systematic practice was daily had during the 
fall, and continued at the Gymnasium during the winter. 

In the spring of 1865 the University Nine was determined upon, and a game 
played daily — weather permitting — with a Second Nine composed of candidates 
for the University. 

The odds generally given were that the University should lose its innings by 
one out, so that each player became accustomed to having a run depend upon his 
individual play. Fines were imposed for absence from practice, and tardiness ; and 
systematic training was carried to an extent that has perhaps not been surpassed 
by any Nine of subsequent years. 

The first game of the season was with the Trimountain Club of Boston, of 
whose merits enough was known to make Harvard sanguine of success. 

The game was played on the Fair Grounds at the "South End" in Boston 
(where the City Hospital now stands), and resulted in a victory for the University. 
Harvard, 59; Trimountain, 32. 

On July 4 the Nine visited Holliston, and played the Granite Club of that 
place, winning the game by a score of 44 to 14. 

A second game was played with the Trimountain Nine, and another victory 
scored for Harvard. 

In September, 1864, Mr. John A. Lowell of Boston, to promote the interests 
of the game, had presented to the ball clubs of New England a silver ball as 
an emblem of championship. The Lowell Club held it at this time, and con- 
sidered the Harvard Nine as its only formidable rival to the title of champion. 
The long-looked-for match between these clubs took place on Boston Common, 
July 15, 1865. The ground was in excellent condition, and seats were arranged 



BASE BALL. 



273 



to accommodate several hundred spectators. The silver ball was placed in a prom- 
inent position, and the attendance was very large, numbering several thousands. 
The result, after a most exciting game, was a victory for Harvard. The common 
opinion was, that the Nines were very evenly matched, conceding an advantage 
to the University in their catcher. 

BOSTON COMMON, July 15, 1865. 



HARVARD. 


POS. 0. 


Wright . 


. p 1 


Banker . 


• a 3 


Flagg • • 


• h 5 


Gray . . 


• R 4 


Nelson 


• c 3 


Davis . . 


• L 4 


Hunnewell 


• s 4 


Abercrombie 


. M 2 


Parker . 


' B 1 


Umpire. — 1 


27 

loses Chandler. 



LOWELL. 


POS. O. R. 


Miller . . . 


P 14 


Joslin . . . 


L 4 2 


Adams . . 


A 4 1 


Lovett . . . 


s 32 


Wilder . . 


H 3 2 


Alline . . . 


M 4 1 


Lowell . . 


R 3 2 


Sumner . . 


B 3 I 


Crosby . . 


C 2 2 


If., F. A. Harris; 1 


27 17 

., Charles Fuller. 



On the 19th of July the Nine visited Williamstown ; a game having been 
arranged with the Williams College Club. Harvard was victorious, and, having 
failed to arrange games with other college clubs, considered herself entitled in a 
measure to the title of Champion of College Nines. 



WILLIAMSTOWN, July 19, 1S65. 



HARVARD. 



WILLIAMS. 



Wright 






p 


2 


6 




Jerome . 




Banker 






A 


3 


4 




Meacham 




Flagg . 






H 


3 


4 




Woodward 




Gray . 






R 


4 


3 




Delano 




Nelson 






C 


4 


4 




Day . . 




Davis . 






L 


3 


4 




Van Ingen 




Hunnewel 






s 


2 


4 




Martin . 




Abercrombie 


H 


S 


2 




Tracy . . 




Parker . . . 


B 




4 




Whitman . 






27 


35 






Harvard . . 






••332 


45678 
10 8 1 6 1 


Williams . . 






. . 122 


4 5 3o8 


Umpire. - 


-C 


. I 


,. Morris 






Scorers. — W., Davi 


3 ; 



The Charter Oak Club of Hartford was considered at this time the best Nine 
in Connecticut. On the occasion of the annual regatta at Worcester, July 28, 
1865, a game was played between this and the Harvard Club, resulting in favor 
of Harvard by a score of 35 to 13. 

Early in the fall term the famous Atlantic Club of Brooklyn visited Boston, 
and arranged a match with Harvard. The Atlantic was at this time the first 
club in the country, having passed through several seasons without defeat: The 
University Nine had been out of practice for some two months, and in the game 
that followed naturally played below its standard. The game was exceedingly 



274 



BASE BALL. 



interesting, however, notwithstanding the disparity in the scores, and added to, 
rather than detracted from, the prestige of Harvard. The large number of runs 
made by the Atlantics may in part be accounted for by the fact that a very 
lively ball was used. 

In this connection it may not be out of place to notice the fact that, in com- 
paring games of the present day with those of some years ago, too much em- 
phasis is placed upon the improved fielding, and not enough regard had to the 
fact that the so-called " dead " ball is much more easily handled than the lively 
one formerly in use. 



BOSTON COMMON, September 26, 



HARVARD. 



Wright . . 


p 


4 


2 


Galvin . . 


Banker . . 


A 


4 


2 


Start . . 


Flagg . . . 


H 




4 


O'Brien . 


Miller . . . 


C 


3 


2 


Smith . . 


Nelson . . 


R 


3 


2 


Pratt . . 


Davis . . . 


L 


2 


2 


Pierce . . 


Hunnewell . 


s 


3 


3 


Chapman . 


Abercrombie 


M 


3 


2 


Crane . . 


Parker . . . 


B 


3 

27 


3 

22 


Norton . . 


Inn!, 








1 2 3 4 S 6 7 


Harv/ 


RD . 






. 2 1 9 8 1 


Atlan 


TIC . 






. 8 6 4 2 3 15 12 



27 58 



5 3 = 58 



Umpire. — Lovett, Lowell Club. 



The Lowell Club challenged Harvard to play again for the silver ball just 
after the summer vacation, and a match was arranged for September 30. 

The game was played on Boston Common, in the presence of an immense 
crowd, and resulted in a victory for the Lowell Nine. 



HARVARD. 

Wright 
Banker 
Flagg . 
Gray . 
Nelson 
Davis . 
Hunnewell 
Abercrombie 
Parker . . 



BOS 


TON 


COMMON, September 30, 1865. 






O. 


R. 


LOWELL. 


4 


4 


Lovett. . . . 


3 
2 


5 
6 


Joslin . 

Sumner 






3 
2 


4 
4 
2 


Alline . 
Wilder 
Lowell 






4 
2 


4 
5 

3 


Burton 

Gardner 

Adams 







37 



?7 



40 



Harvard 35505 10 4 05 = 37 

Lowell 42362 17 13 2= 40 

Umpire. — Miller, Harvard. Scorers. — ^, F. A. Harris; L., Charles Fuller. 

Time of game, 3 h. 20 m. 

The third and deciding game of the series was fixed for October 20, 1865; 
but on learning of an accident to the Lowell pitcher, Harvard offered to post- 
pone the match until such time as the Lowell Club might wish. This proposi- 



E in HolliS Hall. About ten minotes 
before eleven tins forenocn it was discovered thit 

writ a (ire in the roof and attic of Hollis 

and an alarm was sounded from Box 59 in 
the square. The fire had made coasiderable 

ess, and the operations of the firemen were 
delated hy the bursting of hose. 

The fire was a very difficult one to reach, and 
r or bouse time alter tbe engines were at work it 
:on tinned to spread to the roof. Vast volumes of 
deose smoke roiled out trom the attic windows 

be loof itself, and finally the flames burst 
through the roof on the northern end. 

n after tliiSj however, the firemen trot their 
streams upon the centre of the fire, aod it soon 
became evident that the flames were under con- 

The fiie originated profcably from the laree 



; large room of the Pi Eta Society is the u.)- 
tory was Ibe first attacked, and this so soon 

after tbe discovery of tbe flro that it was imposs:- 
> save more than a t-mall portion of the furni- 
The room" had necn refurnished, frescoed, 

painted, etc., in 1873, and were the pride or tbe 

Arrong the farniture destroyed was a new piano 
ivorth $600, scenery and stag* appointments ( 
ibout ftn equal value, $200 to $300 wortb of other 
Curxitnre, a collection of pbot3graphs of 
members, taken en costume, and a complete set of 
the bills of al) the dramatic performance 
which tbe society has ever taken part. Tbesi 
were of liltle money value, but incalculable t 



the 



citemoTH doiLg it more damage than ic could hi\ 
received by bemg left alone, 

Tbe damage u Hollis Hall is mainly confined I 
tbe roof. One end of this in entirely burned oi 
while the centre aod tbe other end are badly dan 
aged. The immeupe quantity of water soaked 
dowx th:ough all the lower btories. Tbe building 

It will probably require $15,000 to $18,000 I 
place tte building in a.-; good a condition as b 
the fiie. 



met at We«leyan Ha'l, in coc 
o'cloci tin- afternoon. Mr. A 

llf.stou cIT. red the follonirc resolutions a 
ni'-nt- iu Hi. I'<>M. r'- resolution: 

RcKolvfti, That vvhi'c wc rcccifoizc ind -ippre- 
„.„•« -..,*. vif .r. 0( , (I... TJ,-,,n lilirjin vni rv '•( this 



BASE BALL. 



2 75 



tion was not accepted, and the game was played as arranged. Several thousands 
gathered on the Common to witness this contest, which, on the part of Harvard, 
was a brilliant exhibition of batting and fielding; her representatives making no 
less than nine home runs, while her catcher distinguished himself by the remark- 
able score of eleven runs and no outs. 

The longest "hit," perhaps, ever seen on the Common was made by Nelson in 
this game. The ball went over Flag-Staff Hill, and rolled a great distance beyond, 
the striker walking home in the mean time. 

BOSTON COMMON, October 20, 186?. 



HARVARD. 


POS. 


0. 


R. 




LOWELL. 


Wright . . 
Banker . . 


. p 


2 


IO 




J. Wilder 


. L 


2 


9 




Joslin . 


Flagg . . . 


. H 





n 




Sumner 


Sprague . . 


. C 


2 


9 




Alline . 


Nelson . . 


. R 


6 


5 




G. Wilder 


Davis . . . 


. A 


4 


7 




Lowell 


Hunnewell . 


. S 


3 


8 




Burton 


Abercrombie 


. M 


1 


8 




Gardner 


Parker . . 


• B 


24 


6 
73 




Adams 


Home Runs. - 


— Wright, 




Davis, 3. 


Sprague, 1. 


Hunnewell, 1. 




Sumner, 


1. 


Gardner, 


1. Joslin, 1 





Banker, 2. 



The result of this season's play was in every way satisfactory, seven of the 
nine games played being victories for Harvard ; and this in the first year of the 
Nine as the representative College Club. 

The opening game of the year 1866 was with the Trimountain Club on the 
Delta, May 1. It resulted in favor of Harvard; but the playing of the Nine 
was the subject of much adverse criticism, which subsequent defeats seemed, in a 
measure, to justify. The score was Harvard, 55 ; Trimountain, 33. 

A game with a newly organized East Boston club resulted as follows: Har- 
vard, 97; Orient n. 

During the winter, a trip to New York for the May recess had been ar- 
ranged, and the headquarters of the Nine were established at the Brevoort 
House, New York City, May 30; and the first game was arranged with the 
Atlantics for the afternoon of the same day on their grounds in Bedford, Long 
Island. The following criticism of the game is from a New York daily : " The 
chief point of interest in the playing was the general fielding of the Harvards; 
Smith in the left field being particularly efficient. Wright's pitching was good, 
and his general play good likewise ; except that once or twice he was a little 
wild in throwing to bases. As captain he was unexceptionable. We cannot 
close our remarks without commending in the highest terms the ability, spirit, 
and endurance of Flagg. With both hands used up, a battered face, and a half- 
blinded eye, he stood up to his post as unflinchingly as if he had been Casabi- 
anca on the traditional burning deck." Hunnewell is especially mentioned for 
his batting. 



2 7 6 











BASE 


BALL. 














BEDFORD, L. 


., May 30 


1866. 






HARVARD. 


POS. 


0. 


R. 






ATLANTIC. 


POS. 


0. R 


Wright . . 
Hunnewell . 
Flagg . 
Abercrombie 
Ames . . . 
Miller . . . 
Parker . . 
Smith . . . 
Mealey . . 


p 
s 

H 
M 
B 

C 
L 
R 


4 
1 

2 
4 
S 
2 
3 
4 
2 


2 
4 
2 


2 
2 






C. J. Smith 
Chapman . 
Start . . 
Sid. Smith 
Galvin 
Ferguson . 
Potts . . 
McDonald 
Oliver . . 


. H 
. S 

. c 
. p 


3 5 

1 6 

4 2 
4 4 

3 3 

4 3 

5 3 

2 6 
± _5 


Inning 




27 


IS 




1 2 3 


4 5 6 7 




27 37 


Atlantic 
Harvard 








2 8 



8 3 3 9 
2360 


4 = 37 
1 2 = 15 




Time. — 3I1. 15 m. 










Home Run. — Parker 1. 


Umpire. — Mr. 


Taylor. 








Scorers 


— H., F. A. Harris; A., 


Mowlem. 



On the following day, May 31, a match was played with the Eureka Club at 
Newark, New Jersey. This Nine was considered the most formidable rival of 
the Atlantics, and it is much to the credit of the Harvards that they played with 
it so close a game. 

"As might have been expected, the Harvards played much better than in their 
game with the Atlantics ; which was no doubt owing to some extent to the 
changes made in the disposition of the men. Wright, assigning his regular 
position as pitcher to Hunnewell, went to first base in place of Miller, who 
played short stop, Hunnewell's post; while Mealey, who had played right field in 
the former game, resigned his position to Nelson. 

" Flagg, all battered and torn by the buffets he received the day before, was 
finally forced to reluctantly abandon his important stand behind the bat, which 
was thereafter excellently well filled by Ames; the position vacated by the latter 
being satisfactorily attended to by Parker. The batting on both sides was of the 
first order; but in fielding, while the Harvards were as efficient as on the day 
before, the Eurekas were behind their customary mark." 

NEWARK, N. J., May 31, 1866. 



HARVARD. 




POS. 


0. 


R. 




EUREKA. 




POS. 


0. 


R. 


Wright . 


. p 


5 


3 




Callaway . 




L 


5 


4 


Hunnewell 




s 


4 


4 




Thomas . 




s 


5 


3 


Flagg ■ • 




c 


3 


S 




Tyrrell . 




B 




6 


Abercrombie 




M 


4 


4 




Mills . . 




A 


2 


6 


Ames . . 




H 




6 




Brientnall 




H 





7 


Miller . . 




R 


1 


6 




Littlewood 




M 


3 


4 


Parker . . 




B 


4 


3 




Bomeisler 




c 


6 


2 


Smith . . 




L 


2 


4 




Faitoute . 




P 


x 


7 


Nelson 




A 


J 


_4 




Collins . 




R 


4 


3 






27 


39 










27 


42 


Innings. 




> 


2 3 


4567 




9 






Eureka . . 




. . . . 1 


7 2 


1 13 7 1 




1 = 42 






Harvard . 






10 4 4 4 06 
Scorers. — E., Hoi 


6 


4 = 39 
j H., F 






mpire. — Mr. 


H 


ayhurst. 


Time. — 4I1. 5 m. 


len 


A. Harris. 



game 



BASE BALL. 



with the Excelsior Club played. "The Harvards were evidently suffering from 
the wounds and fatigue of the two previous days, and were unable to reach that 
pitch of excellence in their action which won them so much applause in their 
game with the Eurekas. Smith, for his fielding, Ames for his catching, and 
Miller for his pitching, deserve special mention. The Excelsiors certainly played 
as well as the Eurekas, and much better than the Atlantics." 









BEDFORD, L. 


., June 


1, 1866. 












HARVARD. 


POS. 


0. 


R. 




EXCELSIOR. POS. 




0. R. 


Hunnewell . 


s 


I 


6 




Pierce . 


. . s 




2 6 


Wright . . 


p 


2 


5 




Crane . 






B 




3 6 


Flagg . . . 


H 


3 


3 




Leggett 






H 




2 6 


Abercrombie 


M 


4 


2 




Norton 






C 




2 6 


Ames . . . 


B 


4 


2 




Fletcher 






P 




4 4 


Miller . . . 


A 




4 




Flanley 






A 




3 5 


Parker. . . 


C 


6 


o 




Mitchel 






M 




S 3 


Smith . . . 


L 


2 


4 




Clyne . 






L 




2 6 


Nelson . . 


R 


4 


2 




Jewell . 






R 




4 4 






27 


28 








27 46 


Inning 






1 


2 3 


4 5 6 789 






Excel 


IOR 




. . . . 7 


10 s 


07 17 = 
26 1264 = 


46 




Harva 


RD . . 




.... 4 


3 


28 




Umpire. — C. 1 


. Smith. 




Time, 3 h. 




Scorers. — 


E 


, Holt; 


H. 


Harris. 



The fourth and last of the games played by the Harvards while in New York 
was with the Active Club at Hoboken, June 2. 

HOBOKEN, June 2, 1866. 



HARVARD. 

Hunnewell 

Wright . 
Flagg . . 
Abercrombie 
Ames . . 
Miller . . 
Banker 
Smith . . 
Nelson 



Rooney 

Hockman 

Hatfield 

Woods 

Hibbard 

Collins 

Moran 

Mills . 

Walker 



Innings. 

Active 
Harvard 



•2 h. 35 m. 



Umpire. — George Wright, Gotha?n Club. Scorers. — A., Williamson; H., F. A. Harris. 
A noteworthy feature of the playing of the Harvards is that they improve as 
they trench upon the home stretch. This was as manifest on Saturday as on 
the previous days. The sixth inning gave them six runs, the seventh three, and 
the ninth four; the Actives in the mean time making only seven all told, and 
winning by nine runs only, when it at one time looked as if they would come 
in thirty or forty ahead. Take it all in all, the game was well and quickly 
played, and reflected great credit upon all engaged. As a proof that the Har- 
vards had a versatile and finished Nine, who could play well in any part of the 
field, in the game with the Actives, no position but that of centre field — Ab- 



27S 



BASE BALL. 



ercrombie — was filled by the player who had occupied it on the day they 
encountered the Atlantics. A game previously arranged with the Charter Oak 
Club of Hartford was given up on account of threatening weather. 

The visit to New York was the first extended trip of the College Club; and 
as the object of the Nine " was not to win balls and a great reputation, but 
simply to get practice, and let it be known that there was such a Nine in ex- 
istence as the Harvard," the result may be considered a success. 

An unimportant game with the Beacon Club of Boston, the " Junior Cham- 
pions," was played soon after the return of the Nine from New York. Harvard, 
77; Beacon, 11. Delta. 

The Nine was practising earnestly at this time, playing games every evening with 
the Second Nine, in anticipation of a game with the Lowells for the possession of 
the silver ball. Hartford was visited on July 4, and a close, but not particularly 
interesting, game played with the Charter Oak Club. Harvard, 16; Charter Oak, 
14. This Nine had early in the season defeated Yale, 18 to 15. 

On July 7 a game of seven innings with the Beacons resulted as follows : 
Harvard, 56; Beacon, 20. 

A petition with more than a thousand signatures had been sent to the Har- 
vard Club from Boston, asking that the day for the Lowell match might be a 
Saturday, so that many might attend who would otherwise be absent. 

Some idea of the interest taken in games between these two clubs may be 
gathered from this circumstance. These matches were events of the year to 
habitues of the Common, of "far more importance even than a parade of the 
Lancers, or of those plethoric champions of war, the Ancient Artillery." July 
14 was the day appointed for the game ; and though intensely hot, hardly less 
than ten thousand people were in attendance. As a display of ball-playing the 
match was inferior to those for the championship of the previous year. 

Harvard was well up to her standard in batting, but deficient in fielding. The 
result was a return of the silver ball to Boston. 







BOSTON COMMON, 


July 14, 1866. 


HARVARD. 


POS. 


0. 


R. 


LOWELL. 


Wright . . 


. A 


1 


5 


Lovett . 


Hunnewell . 


. P 


4 


2 


Joslin . 


Flagg . . . 


. H 


4 


2 


Alline . . 


Watson . . 


. C 


5 


2 


Lowell 


Ames . . . 


. B 


4 


2 


Sumner 


Abercrombie 


. M 




4 


Wilder 


Smith . . . 


. L 


3 


3 


Gardner . 


Parker . . 


. S 


4 


2 


Crosby . 


Sprague . . 


. R 


1 


5 


Burton 



On July 27, the day of the annual regatta at Worcester, the Harvard Nine 
suffered its first defeat in an intercollegiate contest, — and its last for seven 



BASE BALL. 



279 



years. Williams College presented a very strong Nine, and after an exciting 
contest, won the game by superior playing. 









WORCESTER, July 27, 1866. 




HARVARD. 


POS. 


O. 


R. 


WILLIAMS. 


Wright . . . 
Hunnewell . 


p 


4 


4 
7 


Woodward 
Delano 




Flagg . . . 
Ames . . . 
Watson . . 
Abercrombie 
Smith . . . 
Parker . . . 
Stearns . . 


H 
B 

c 

M 
L 
S 
R 


4 
3 
2 
4 
3 
1 
5 


3 
4 
5 
3 
4 

s 

2 


Jerome . . 
Lansing . . 
Davenport . 
Tracy . . . 
Day . . . 
Van Ingen . . 
Van DeVenter 



In the fall of 1867 the Nine was reorganized, Hunnewell being assigned the 
position of pitcher, made vacant by the graduation of Wright. A game was 
played with the Beacons, October 13. Harvard, 53; Beacon, 18. The last match 
of the season was with the Trimountain Club, and after a well-played game re- 
sulted as follows: Harvard, 33; Trimountain, 16. 

It cannot be said of this, as of the previous year, that the result of the season's 
playing was in any degree satisfactory. Of the thirteen matches played, seven 
were won by Harvard ; but with the single exception of the Charter Oak, from 
inferior -Nines. 

Six games were lost, together with the silver ball and the " championship " of 
New England. This is the worst year of Harvard's record, and has for its 
redeeming features only the creditable defeats of the New York trip. 

In the spring of 1867 the Nine changed its bases from the Delta to Jarvis 
Field, this latter ground having been bought by the Committee of the Alumni, 
and given to the College in exchange for the Delta, upon which Memorial Hall 
has since been erected. 

The season opened April 6, with a " safety " match with the Beacons. The 
fielding of Harvard was good, and promised well for the future. Shaw — whose 
base playing became a college tradition — appeared for the first time in the Nine. 
Parker's three home runs, as well as the high score of Flagg, were characteristic. 
Harvard, 67 ; Beacon, 20. Delta. This game was followed by one on April 20 
with the Somerset Nine. Harvard, 50; Somerset, 4. On the nth May, Harvard, 
67; Granite, 27. 

It had been arranged that a series of three games should decide the question 
of championship between the Harvard and Lowell Clubs. The first to be played 
on Boston Common, the second on Jarvis Field, and the third, if necessary, on 
neutral ground at Medford. It was impossible to procure an unprejudiced um- 
pire in Massachusetts, and Mr. Hayhurst, of the Athletic Club of Philadelphia, 
was secured to fill this position in the three games to be played. The first 



280 BASE BALL. 

game, on the 15th of May, drew the customary multitude to the Common, and 
resulted in favor of the Lowells. " The Harvard Nine made a fine exhibition of 
its worst playing in the first four innings ; but showed more as it was known to 
the College in the last five ; and its meritorious efforts received due applause." 











BOSTON COMMON, 


Mai 


15, 1867. 






HARVARD 




POS. 


0. R. 




LOWELL. 


Hunnewel 


. 


P 


5 2 




Lovett . . . . 


Ames . 






B 


3 4 




Joslin . 






Flagg • 






H 


3 3 




Alline . 






Shaw . 






A 


4 2 




Rogers 






Parker . 






C 


3 3 




Lowell 






Sprague 






M 


2 3 




Sumner 






Smith . 






L 


2 4 




Wilder 






Willard 






s 


3 3 




Jewell . 






Mealey 






R 


2 4 




Thompson . 




Innings 




27 28 


3 


4 S 6 7 8 


I 






38 




14 1 5 3° 


I 


lAl 


VA 


RD . 


04 


O 


3 10 8 


1 



Time. — 2 h. 45 m. 
Umpire.— Mr. Hayhurst, Athletic Club, Phil. Scorers. — £., Chas. Fuller ; If., Wm. Worthington. 

The second game was played on Jarvis Field, May 24. It was spoken of as a 
matter of regret that the attendance was not so large as at the first game, only 
about five thousand persons, including many ladies, being present. The play- 
ing of Harvard was spirited and skilful throughout ; the Nine displaying its usual 
tendency, however, to do its best work in the last half of the game. On this 
occasion Dr. J. T. Harris presented the Club with an elegant gold and silver 
mounted bat having the inscription " Nw«j7Tj/>o-i So'£a." 



HARVARD, 

Sprague 
Smith . 
Hunnewell 
F'agg • 
Parker . 
Ames . 
McKim 
Shaw . 
Willard 



Lovett . 
Joslin . 
Alline . 
Rogers 
Lowell 
Sumner 
Wilder 
Jewell . 
Thompson 



Innings. 

Harvard . 
Lowell . 



S 

704 

Scorers. 



82543 



- Chas. Fuller, Wm. Worthington. 



Umpire. — Mr. Hayhurst. Time. — 3 h. 16 m. 

The question of the ground to be selected for the deciding game gave rise to 
much discussion; but finally Medford was selected as having all the disadvan- 
tages necessary for a fair adjustment of the difficulty. This game — June 1, 
1867 — put an end to the contest between the two clubs for the possession of 
the silver ball, Harvard winning handsomely. It was among the last of the 
" no admittance fee " gatherings, and the attendance was immense ; a special 



BASE BALL. 



281 



train of nineteen cars, filled to overflowing, came from Boston; and on foot and 
by every possible means of conveyance, the adherents of the rival Nines assem- 
bled. It must be confessed that the best of feeling did not prevail. Other games 
better played and with fewer tallies are recorded on the score-books of the 
Nine, but wilder enthusiasm and fiercer partisan spirit never conflicted than at this 
memorable game. The fielding during the game was lively and exciting, and at 
times remarkably good. The Harvards displayed some of the finest batting ever 
seen in New England, and in this respect demonstrated their superiority over 
their opponents. Mr. Ames, the captain of the University Nine, received great 
praise, both for his admirable management and for his playing. Shaw's playing 
at first base was remarkable; he putting, and assisting out, no less than twenty 











MEDFORD, June I, 1867. 




HARVARD. POS. 


0. 


R. 


LOWELL. 


POS. 0. 


Sprague . . . M 


3 


5 


Lovett . . . 


p 3 


Smith . . 




L 


4 


5 


Joslin . . . 


c 2 


Hunnewell 




p 


1 


6 


Alline . . . 


R 2 


Flagg . • 




H 


4 


3 


Rogers . . 


M 2 


Parker . 




C 


4 


2 


Lowell . . 


L 5 


Ames . . 




B 


4 


4 


Sumner . . 


B 3 


McKim . 




R 




6 


Wilder . . 


H 5 


Shaw . . 




A 


1 


5 


Jewell . . 


A 2 


Willard . 




S 


4 


_3 


Thompson . 


s _3 




27 


39 




27 


Innings. 






34567 8 




Harvard . 




....51 


S 12 9 12 


4 = 39 


Lov 


El 


L 




.... x 1 


7 6 1 10 


— 28 



Umpire. — Mr. Hayhurst. Scorers. — H., S. Van Rensselaer; £., Charles Fuller. 

A game was played with the Somerset Club on the 8th of June. Harvard, 60; 
Somerset, 11. 

The Athletic Nine of Philadelphia, the undoubted champions of the United 
States, and the Harvards played on the 12th June, 1867, the finest game that up 
to this time had been seen in New England. The fielding was wonderfully sharp, 
and the last six innings gave but seven runs to each Nine. The Harvards ex- 
celled in the field, while their opponents were superior at the bat. 









BOSTON COMMON, 


June 


12, 1867. 


HARVARD. POS. 


0. 


R. 




ATHLETIC. 


Sprague . . . M 


4 


! 




Kleinfelder . 


Smith . . 




L 


3 


I 




McBride . . 


Hunnewell 




P 


4 


O 




Reach . . . 


Flagg • . 




H 


2 


2 




Wilkins . . 


Parker 




C 


3 


I 




Fisler . . . 


Ames . . 




B 


2 


2 




Sensenderfer 


Mealey . 




R 


4 


O 




Berry . . . 


Shaw . . 




A 


2 


2 




Radcliff . . 


Willard . 






_3 


J 




Pharo . . . 


Inning,. 


27 


IO 


= 3 


4 S 6 7 8 


Athletic . 




4 


6 5 


I I O O O 


Ha 


RV/ 


RD . 







1 2 


OO4OI 



Umpire. — B. B. Harris, Trimountain Club. Scorers. 



5 = 22 
2 = 10 
A., Benson ; H., Wm. Worthington. 



2S2 



BASE BALL. 



A remarkable play was made in the third inning, when Fisler struck a fly for 
which both Willard and Parker started ; the ball struck in Willard's hands and 
bounded out, when it was taken by Parker just before it reached the ground. 
This game is often referred to by the players of that day as a model exhibition 
of Base Ball. 

In anticipation of a match with the Williams College Nine, on regatta day, 
several unimportant games were played for practice. On the 14th of June, 
Harvard, 44; Beacon, 28. On the 17th of June, Harvard, 30; Upton, 5. On 
the 13th of July, Harvard, 71; Waban, 38. 

The game with Williams College arranged for July 19 was begun on that 
day, and, after one inning and a run for each Nine, was interrupted by rain. 
The same cause prevented a renewal of the game on the following day, and it 
was never completed. 

The following communication to the Boston Advertiser will explain the situa- 
tion of the silver ball at this time, and why it ceased to be an object of compe- 
tition between the Harvard and Lowell Clubs : — 

"The Harvard Base Ball Club received on the 12th instant from the Lowell 
Club of Boston a challenge for the silver ball and championship of New England. 
By the rule governing play for the silver ball, the first of the three games must be 
played within fifteen days from receipt of challenge, the second within ten days 
from date of first game, and the third within ten days from date of second game. 
The College term does not begin till the middle of September. During vacation 
the members of the Nine are scattered over the country. It would be unreason- 
able to expect them to sacrifice the pleasure and benefit of vacation, so as to be 
ready to accept challenges for the championship. By way of precaution a meet- 
ing of the Harvard Club was held before the close of the last term, when it was 
voted to surrender the ball without a game, should the Lowell Club take advan- 
tage of our absence from Cambridge. Care was at the same time taken to 
guarantee the Lowell Club the opportunity of playing three games in the fall, 
before the close of the season, if they would wait till our Nine should reassemble. 
Their recent challenge shows their unwillingness to consent to such an arrange- 
ment. In obedience, then, to the vote passed by the Harvard Club last term, 
the ball has to-day been handed over to the Silver Ball Committee for delivery 
to the Lowell Club. — Boston, August 23, 1867." 

The first game of the fall season was with the Waban Club of Newton, on 
their grounds, September 21. Mr. Bush — whose management and playing sub- 
sequently produced such good results — made his first appearance with the Nine 
in this match, and for four years he was never absent from a game in which the 
Harvard Nine participated. He made the only home run of this game. Harvard, 
34 ; Waban, 20. 



BASE BALL. 2 g, 

On the 7th of October Harvard won a game from the famous Excelsior Club 
of Brooklyn. It was the most important victory that the Nine had up to this 
time achieved. Cummings, afterwards considered the most formidable pitcher in 
the country, played with the Excelsiors. The fielding of the Harvards was very 
fine. " Shaw added to former triumphs, and Ames, Willard, and Smith formed 
an impenetrable wall, against which ground balls were struck in vain." 

CAMBRIDGE, October 7, 1S67. 



HARVARD. 




BOS. 0. 


R. 


B. 


T. B. 


EXCELSIOR. 


POS. 


0. 


X. 


B. T. 


Sprague 
Smith . 




M 3 

c 4 


3 

2 


2 
4 


2 
5 


Treacy . . 
Buckland . 


R 

c 


3 

1 


2 


3 3 
3 4 


Hunnewel 




p 3 


1 


3 


3 


Clyne . . 


M 


2 








Bowditch 




L S 







2 


Cummings 


P 


4 





-l ! 


Bush . 




H 4 


1 


2 


2 


Lennon 


S 


4 


o 


O O 


Ames . 




B 3 


3 


3 


4 


Jewell . . 


H 


4 





O O 


Shaw . 




A I 


4 


S 


6 


Thompson 


A 


3 


j 


O O 


Willard 




S 2 


2 


3 


3 


Hall . . 


L 


3 


I 


2 5 


Mealey . 




R 2 


2 


_3 


3 


Flanley 


B 


_3 


I 


I I 




27 


18 


27 


3° 






27 


~6 


10 14 




Innings. 








123456 


7 8 










Excelsior . 








1 


4 I 


O = 


6 






Harvard . . 






Time. - 


1 1 1 5 
- 2 h. 2 m. 




8 = 


18 




Umpire. — 


G 


A. Flagg, Harvard '66 




Scorers. — H., H. J. Dehon ; 


E., C 


J. Holt. 



On Saturday, October 19, the Nine went to Natick, and played a game with 
the Eagle Club of that place. Harvard, 59; Eagle, 21. 

This game closed the playing for the season, with the exception of occasional 
games for practice with Nines selected from the various class organizations. In 
the record of the fall games of 1867 account is taken for the first time of base 
hits. This improvement in scoring aids greatly in comparing individual playing, 
since it is only by a consideration of the ratio of base hits to number of times 
at the bat that an estimate of a player's batting skill can be made. 

Of the fourteen regular games played during this year twelve were victories 
for Harvard, — the Athletic and Lowell Nines each winning a game. Total 
number of runs made by Harvard, 609 ; by opponents, 293. 

Mr. Flagg, who, although a graduate of '66, had played with the Club during 
the past year as a member of the Law School, severed his connection with the 
Nine at the close of the season's playing. His record is an enviable one, and 
the Nine is greatly indebted to his skill in playing and management for much 
of its success. The First and Second Nines played the opening game of the year 
1868 on May 5. First Nine, 51; Second Nine, 15. The assistance which the 
Second Nine gave to the University in the way of practice was very beneficial, 
and it is a matter of regret that the organization is not kept up at the present day. 

A six-innings game was played June 13 with the Athletic Club of East Boston. 
Harvard, 67; Athletic, 2. On the 20th June a game with the Eureka Nine of 
East Cambridge. Harvard, 70 ; Eureka, 9. The first important match was played 



284 



BASE BALL. 



on Tuesday, June 24, with the Nassau Club of Princeton College. It was an 
interesting and exciting contest; the Nassaus leading up to the eighth inning, 
when heavy batting on the part of the Harvards won the game. The fielding 
of Harvard was inferior to Princetons, while the batting of the two Nines was 
equally good. "Shaw was of course very strong in his play, and the captain, 
Ames, decided the game by a beautiful catch. Bush at the bat and in his posi- 
tion was almost faultless, and deserves the highest praise." 









CAMBRIDGE 


June 23, 1868. 




HARVARD. 


POS. 0. 


R. 


1 B. 


T.B. 


PRINCETON. 


Shaw . . 


A 2 


3 


2 


2 


Rankin . . . 


Smith . . 


c 3 


2 


2 


3 


McKibben 




Hunnewell 


p 3 


2 


3 


4 


Fox . . 




Ames . . 


E 4 


1 




1 


G. Ward 




Bush . . 


H I 


4 


4 


7 


Ely . . 




Willard . 


S 2 


2 


2 


3 


Nissley . 




Sprague . 


M 4 


1 


I 




Buck . . 




Rawle 


R 4 


1 


I 


1 


F. Ward . 




Bowditch 


L 4 


1 


I 


1 


Mellier . 






27 


17 


17 


23 






Innings. 








123456 


I 


RINCETON . 








124200 


I 


Harvard . 








2 1 1 


3 



Umpire. — John A. Lowell, Lowell Club, Boston. Scorers. — H., F. G. Ireland ; P., W. A. Holbrook. 
The controversy between the Harvard and Lowell Clubs had been amicably 
settled, the silver ball had disappeared, and a match arranged for the morning 
of July 4. The interest attending this game was not so great as in those of 
former years, the playing — owing to the intense heat — was poor, while the 
question of superiority seemed still undecided. 











CAMBRIDGE, July 4, 1868. 


HARVARD. 


POS. 


O. 


R. 


1 B. LOWELL. 


Shaw . . 


A 


3 


I 


2 Lovett . 


Smith . . 


c 


3 


2 


3 Joslin . 


Hunnewell 


p 


3 


2 


3 Dennison 


Ames . . 


B 


3 


3 


1 Hawes . 


Bush . . 


H 


3 


3 


3 Jewell . 


Rawle . . 


R 


3 


2 


1 Bradbury 


Sprague . 


M 


3 


3 


2 Alline . 


Willard . 


S 


3 


2 


3 Sumner 


Bowditch . 


L 


3 


2 


1 Newton 



27 20 19 

Lowell 453°5 1 

Harvard 011242 

Time. — 2 h. 50 m. Home Runs.- 

Umpire. — W. M. Hudson, Charter Oak. Scorers. — H., T. I 



- Lovett, 2 ; Bush, 1. 
Gannett ; £., C. L. Fuller. 



On July 11 the Harvard and Trimountain Nines played a game at Riverside 
Park, Brighton. "The playing was very spirited. Shaw's playing, as usual, was 
remarkably brilliant; and Bush and Willard deserve commendation. Wells, on 
his first appearance in the Nine, fully sustained the reputation he has won else- 
where." Harvard, 23; Trimountain, 11. 



BASE BALL. 



285 



July 14, at Portland. Harvard, 42 ; Eon, 10. The second game of a series 
between the Harvards and Lowells was to have come off on July 17. The fol- 
lowing preamble and resolution explain why a practice game was substituted. 
The good feeling existing between these clubs is apparent in this exchange of 
courtesies. 

Whereas, The Harvard Base Ball Club, recognizing the crippled condition of the Lowell Nine to- 
day, caused by the sickness of three of its members, did so very generously offer and insist upon 
postponing the match game, and desired to play a practice game instead, 

Resolved, That the Lowell Club desire to express their sincere thanks to the Harvard Club for this 
polite and gentlemanly act, and assure them it is fully appreciated. 
Boston, July 17, 186S. 

Following is the score of the game in question : — 

BOSTON COMMON, July 17, 1868. 



HARVARD. 


POS. 0. 


J?. 


u 


T.B. 


LOWELL. 




Shaw . . 


A 2 


6 


7 


7 


Rogers . . 


Smith . . 


c 6 


2 


3 


3 


Joslin . 




Hunnewell 


P 4 


4 


3 


3 


Dennison 




Ames . . 


B 3 


3 


2 


2 


Lowell . 




Bush . . 


H 3 


4 


4 


7 


Hawes . 




Rawle . . 


R 2 


6 


S 


7 


Bradbury 




Sprague . 


M 2 


5 


5 


7 


Jewell . 




Willard . 


s 3 


4 


4 


4 


Conant . 




Wells . . 


L 2 


_5 


4 


_S 


Newton 






27 


39 


37 


45 




/ 










1 2 3456 


L( 


JWELL . . 








10 4 3 1 


H 


ARVARD . . 








15 41822 










Time. - 


— 2 h. 30 m. 





Umpire. — W. M. Hudson, Charter Oak Club. Scorers. — Z£, T. B. Gannett; Z., E. C. Nichols. 
The match game previously arranged between the Harvard and Lowell Clubs 



for July 17 was played on the 21st of the same month, 
outbatted, but won by superior fielding. 

CAMBRIDGE, July 21, 1868. 



The Harvards were 



HARVARD. 

Peabody . 

Smith . . 
Hunnewell 

Ames . . 

Bush . . 

Rawle . . 

Sprague . 

Willard . 

Wells . . 



LOWELL. 

Lovett . 
Alline . 
Dennison 
Jewell . 
Bradbury 
Conant 
Hawes . 
Sumner 
Newton 



Innings- 

Lowell . 
Harvard 



Time. — 2 h. 30 m. 



Umpire. — W. M. Hudson, Charter Oak Club. Scorers. — H., J. R. Mason ; Z., E. C. Nichols. 
The following correspondence had passed between Harvard and Yale in refer- 
ence to the first game between the rival University Nines: — 



286 



BASE BALL. 



Yale, May 5, 1868. 
M. S. Severance, Secretary H. B. B. C. 

Dear Sir, — I am authorized, in the name of the Yale Base Ball Club, to challenge the Harvard 
Base. Ball Club to a match game, to be played at Worcester, in July next, on the morning of re- 
gatta day; the men composing the Nines to be selected only from the academical departments of 
either college. Hoping that you will give this an early and favorable consideration, I am, sir, 
Respectfully yours, 

FRED. P. TERRY, Secretary Y. B. B. C. 

Cambridge, May 12, 1S68. 
Mr. F. P. Terry, Secretary Y. B. B. C. 

Dear Sir, — Your communication, covering a challenge to the Harvard Nine to a match game of 
Base Ball at Worcester, "on the morning of regatta day," has been received. 

I am directed by Mr. Ames, the captain of the Nine, to. say that the challenge is accepted, subject 
to the condition which you mention ; namely, that the Nines be selected only from the academical 

departments. 

Respectfully yours, etc., 

M. S. SEVERANCE, Secretary H. B. B. C. 

The condition herein imposed was considered binding by Harvard, — much to 
the derangement of successive Nines, — till the summer of '71. In the account 
of the game played at that time further mention will be made of this restriction. 
The game which resulted from this challenge was the first of the most impor- 
tant matches in which Harvard has ever contended; important, not because they 
have been better played, or have yielded smaller scores than many other games, 
but because of the interest that centres on all intercollegiate contests, and nota- 
bly so on those between Harvard and Yale. Moreover, Yale is the only college 
that has persistently disputed Harvard's supremacy in Base Ball ; and if the re- 
sult up to the year 1874 has been to make "Yale luck" proverbial, her enthusi- 
asm and determination has never fallen off, and the confidence thus engendered 
has made Yale the favorite at many of the annual gatherings. The game ar- 
ranged for the day of the regatta, Friday, July 24, was postponed on account 
of wet weather till the morning of Saturday, the 25th. The playing was good 
on both sides, and the errors few, taking into account the nature of the ground ; 
and it is injustice to neither Nine to say that the result fairly expressed the 
merits of the respective Nines. 











WORCESTER, J 


JLY 25, 1868. 


HARVARD. 


POS. 


0. 


R. 


1 B. 


T. B. 


YALE. 


Peabody . 


A 


3 


4 


3 


4 


McClintock . 


Smith . . 


C 


1 


4 


5 


7 


Lewis . . 


Hunnewell 


P 


1 


4 


5 


5 


Condict . 


Ames . . 


B 


4 


2 


2 


2 


Cleveland . . 


Bush . . 


H 


2 


3 


2 


2 


Hooker . . 


Rawle . . 


R 


5 




1 


2 


McCutchen . 


Sprague . 


M 


5 


1 


2 


2 


Buck . . . 


Willard . 


s 


4 


2 


2 


2 


Deming . . 


Wells . . 


L 


2 


_4 


2 


_4 


Selden . . . 






27 


25 


24 


3° 




1 


nnings. 










23456 


Y 


ALE . 








. . . 1 


06230 


H 


ARVARD 








... 6 


10420 



Time 2 h. 10 m. 

-John A. Lowell, Lowell Club. 



-H., J. R. Mason ; K, P. H. Adee. 



BASE BALL. 



287 



At the beginning of the Fall Term the following officers were elected for the 
ensuing year. President and Captain, G. G. Willard, '69; Vice-President, N. S. 
Smith, '69; Treasurer, G. R. Shaw, '69; Secretary, R. G. Shaw, '69. A game 
was played with the Eagle Club of Natick, September 19. Austin, the new sec- 
ond base of the Nine, distinguished himself by a very clean home run. Harvard, 
29; Eagle, 7. 

A challenge sent to the Brown University Club resulted in a game on Jarvis 
Field, Saturday, September 26. No remarkable play was shown on either side, 
and the Brown score was kept too far below the Harvard to occasion any ex- 
citement. The game was very pleasantly supplemented by a dinner in honor of 
Brown. 

CAMBRIDGE, September 26, 1868. 



HARVARD. 


POS. 


O. R. 


iB. 


T.3. 




BROWN. 




Smith . . 


c 


3 4 


5 


5 




Munroe . . . 


Peabody . 


A 


2 6 


5 


8 




Hereshoff 




Eustis . . 


R 


4 3 


4 


6 




Fales . . 




Bush . . 


H 


4 4 


3 


3 




Woodworth 




Willard. . 


S 


S 2 










Taylor . 




Rawle . . 


M 


6 


4 


6 




Smith . 




Shaw . . 


L 


3 4 


2 


2 




Jewell 




Austin . . 


B 


2 5 


2 


S 




Colwell . 




Soule . . 


P 


A 3 


2 


2 




Hitchcock 








27 37 


27 


37 








Innings. 








1 


* 3 4 5 6 




Brown 








. 


I O I O 9 




Harvard . . . 






. 


7 5 3 6 










Time 


— 2h 


40 m. 


Umpire. — Jc 


hn A. Lowell. 






Scorers. — H., J. R 


. M 



In response to a challenge from the Lowell Club, the first of a series of three 
games was played October 3, on Boston Common. The playing was below the 
standard of either club. " Rawle's fine fly-catches and Bush's home run were de- 
servedly appreciated." 



HARVARD. 

Smith . 
Peabody 
Shaw . 
Bush . 
Willard . 
Rawle . 
Austin . 
Soule . 



BOSTON COMMON, October 3, 

?. 1 B. T. B. LOWELL. 

233 Lovett 

422 Alline. 

3 3 4 Rogers 

5 4 9 Joslin . 

222 Jewell 
233 Sumner 
311 Bradbury 
444 Conant 

223 Newton 



Lowell . 
Harvard 



3820440 
5 3 5 3 3 3° 



Time. — 2 h. 55 m. 
Umpire. — W. M. Hudson, Charter Oak Club. Scorers. - 



■ H., J. R. Mason ; Z., G. B. Appleton. 



288 



BASE BALL. 



The second of the series was played on Jarvis Field, October 9. The playing 
was poor, and the result not a success for Harvard. " Rawle and Shaw fielded 
beautifully." 



HARVARD. 
Smith . 
Peabody 
Shaw . 
Bush . 
Willard 
Rawle . 
Austin . 
Soule . 
Eustis . 



CAMBRIDGE, October 9, 1868. 

1 B. T. B. LOWELL. 

1 3 Lovett . 

3 5 Alline . 

1 1 Joslyn . 

4 s Jewell . 

2 3 Hawes . 

2 3 Sumner 

3 4 Bradbury 
o o Conant 

2 4 Newton 



Innings. 

Lowell 
Harvard 



Umpire. — J. C. Chapman. 



Time. — 2I1. 55 m. 

Scorers. — H., J. R. Mason : 



L., Charles L. Fuller. 



The deciding game was on Tuesday, October 20, on Jarvis Field. " It was by 
far the most interesting and the best played of the three. The batting was good 
on both sides; but the Harvards excelled in their fielding. Shaw again made 
one of his wonderful one-hand catches ; and Rawle proved himself a magnet for 
all balls that wandered anywhere near him. Bush caught, as usual, finely." 



CAMBRIDGE, October 20, 1868. 



harvard. 
Smith 
Peabody 
Shaw. 
Bush . 
Willard 
Rawle 
Austin 
Soule . 
Wells . 



LOWELL. 


POS. 


0. 


Lovett . . 


p 


S 


Alline . . 


R 


3 


Rogers . . 


M 


3 


Joslyn . . 


L 


2 


Sumner . . 


B 


2 


Carlton . . 


S 


S 


Jewell . . 


A 


2 


Conant . . 


C 


s 


Bradbury . 


H 


2 



Innings. 

Lowell . 
Harvard 



Umpire. — J. C. Chapman. 



. 20 m. 

Scorers. 



-J. R. Mason; Charles L. Fuller. 



The return match with Brown University at Providence on the 24th of Octo- 
ber was a most enjoyable occasion for Harvard. The playing was excellent; 
home runs by Smith and Peabody being the noticeable points of the game. The 
hospitality of Brown was shown in an excellent dinner and attendant pleas- 















BASE 


BALL. 










PROVIDENCE, October 24, 1868. 


HARVARD. 


POS. 


0. 


R. 


1 B. 


r. s. 


BROWN. 


Smith . 


. c 


3 


4 


3 


6 


Smith . . . 


Peabody 




A 


3 


4 


3 


6 


Grant . . . 


Bush . 




H 




4 


4 


8 


Woodworth . 


Rawle . 




L 


3 


3 


4 


6 


Fales . . . 


Soule . 




P 


i 


4 


3 


4 


Munroe . . 


Austin . 




B 


i 


3 


5 


6 


Herreshoff . 


Willard 




S 


5 


2 


2 


3 


Taylor . . . 


Wells . 




M 


2 


3 


3 


5 


Hitchcock . 


Minot . 




R 


4 






1 


Colwell . ■ 






24 


29 


28 


45 






Immip. 










■ 2 3 4 s 




Brown 










• ° 2 4 3 S 




H 


ARVARD 










.38236 



289 



25 20 25 



Umpire. — M. Rogers, Lowell Club. 



Time. — 2 h. 40 m. 



Scorers. — H., J. R. Mason; B., D. Beckwith. 



The closing game of the year 1868 was with the Trimountain Club, October 
27, on Jarvis Field. The game was prettily played, and a victory for Harvard 
scored by unexpected odds. Eustis made a home run. Harvard, 32 ; Trimoun- 
tain, 12. 

The record of 1868 was very creditable to the Nine. Of the seventeen games 
played, fifteen were victories for Harvard, the two games lost being both with 
the Lowell Club. The number of runs made by Harvard was 594 against 287 
for her -opponents. 

The first game of the year 1869 was with the Somerset Club, April 8, on 
Jarvis Field. Six innings only were played. Harvard, 34; Somerset, 7. A game 
with the Trimountain Club, April 24, " proved one-sided throughout, and propor- 
tionally stupid." Harvard, 49 ; Trimountain, 1 2. 

A game with the Lowells, April 27, marked a "new" and decided "departure." 
Boston's representative Nine, Harvard's rivals of many years, were beaten for all 
time — probably. The old familiar names appeared in the Lowell Club, except 
that in one or two positions an addition to its strength was noticed, and it had 
every reason to anticipate a renewal of the close games of former seasons, and 
an equal division of honors with the University Nine. The day had passed, 
however, on which the names of Harvard and Lowell aroused anticipations of an 
exciting game ; and though time, practice, and other conditions have raised the 
standard of ball-playing, lessened the number of tallies, cut short the home runs, 
and otherwise perfected the game, there are many who remember fondly those 
immense gatherings on the Common, when the Harvard and Lowell Clubs played 
for the silver ball, before less critical, but more enthusiastic spectators than those 
of the present day. 

In the game referred to above the playing of several members of the Nine 
deserves a special word of praise. " Rawle was always where the ball dropped. 
Wells filled his position admirably ; and there is no need of mentioning Bush, as 



290 



BASE BALL. 



we all know he has but one way of playing, — always excellent. Soule's pitching 
may not be the most even imaginable, yet it is efficient, and bothers the strikers 
in no small degree." 



HARVARD. 




P-OS. 


Smith . 


. c 


Peabody 




A 


Bush . 




H 


Willard 




s 


Rawle . 




L 


Wells . 




M 


Soule . 




P 


Austin . 




B 


Eustis . 




R 




Innings. 




Harvard 




Lowell 



CAMBRIDGE, 


Apkil 27, 1869. 


.5. 


T.B. 


LOWELL. 


2 


5 


Lovett . 


4 


4 


Joslin . 


5 

7 


7 


Alline . 
Rogers . 


4 


6 


Jewell . 


4 


4 


Conant . 






Simmons 


4 


6 


Bradbury 



Time. — 3 h. 151 
-J. C. Chapman, Atlantic Club. Scorers. - 



9 4 6 = 41 



H., T. B. Gannett : L., E. C. Nickels. 



The Trimountain Club, at this time standing next to the Lowell in point of 
excellence, found itself far behind Harvard. An eight-innings game, May 8, 
resulted as follows: Harvard, 53; Trimountain, 8. A visit to Marlboro', May 
22, was productive of another victory for Harvard. Harvard, 34; Fairmount, 16. 

A game with the Mutual Club of New York, the " champions " of the country, 
had been looked forward to by the College with much interest. It took place 
May 25, 1869, and resulted in a disastrous defeat for Harvard. The playing of 
the latter was very poor, and the score failed to show the merits of the respec- 
tive clubs. Harvard, n ; Mutual, 43. 

Dartmouth College had this year challenged Harvard to play a game at the 
Lowell Fair Grounds on June 5. The anticipation of an exciting contest drew a 
large number of students from both colleges to the game. It is one of the most 
remarkable ever played by Harvard, and deserves special notice from the fact 
that at this time the " dead ball " was the exception rather than the rule, and 
was not used in this game. 

LOWELL, June 5, 1869. 



HARVARD. 




pos. a 


J!. 


1 A 


T.B. 


DARTMOUTH. 




Smith . . . c 


8 


5 


6 


Wilson . . 


Peabody 




A 3 


5 


5 


7 


Herbert . 




Bush . 




H I 


7 


s 


7 


Abbott . 




Willard. 




s 5 


2 






Johnson . 




Rawle . 




L S 


2 


1 


1 


Farmer . 




Wells . 




M 2 


5 


4 


8 


Brickett . 




Gray . 




P 4 


2 




1 


Davis 




Austin . 




B 4 


3 


3 


5 


McNutt . 




Eustis . 




R 3 


4 


_4 


_5 


Drew . . 




27 


38 


29 


41 














Dartmouth. . 








000000 


I 


lAI 


.VARD . . 








.25244 


4 



Time. — 2 h. 30 
-George B. Whitney, Clipper Club. 



5 = 38 
H., J. R. Mason ; D., J. W. Griffin. 



BASE BALL. 



291 



It was a fine display of accurate pitching and catching, well supported on the 
part of Harvard. Dartmouth batted hard and fielded well, but was unable to 
secure a run. The pitching of Gray, in this his first game with the Nine, deserves 
especial mention for its regularity throughout. The Harvard catcher put out the 
unusual number of twelve men. 

On June 12, 1869, Harvard played the famous Red Stocking Club of Cincin- 
nati. The " Reds " were at the height of a victorious career that has never been 
equalled in the annals of Base Ball, and it was no uncommon thing for them to 
defeat the strongest " professional " Nines by a larger number of runs than that 
by which they excelled Harvard in this game. The number of errors and good 
plays was nearly even in the fielding of both Nines. Rawle and Bush deserve 
special praise for beautiful catches, and Gray again gave satisfaction by his even 
pitching. 



HARVARD. 


POS. 


Smith . 


■ B 3 


Peabody 


• a 3 


Bush . 


• H 3 


Shaw . 


■ C 4 


Rawle . 


• L 4 


Wells . 


. M 4 


Gray . 


• p 3 


Eustis . 


. R 2 


Willard 


. S I 




27 

Innings. 




Cincinnati 




Harvard . 



CAMBRIDGE, June 12, 
1 B. T. B. 



RED STOCKINGS, 

G. Wright. 
Gould . 
Waterman 
Allison 
H. Wright 
Leonard 
Brainard 
Sweasy 
McVey . 



30 27 36 



. — 3I1. 20 m. 
Scorers. — H., T. 



Umpire. — John A. Lowell. 

Harvard's new pitcher, Gray, having broken his arm, 
ing, — Smith's reputation as " utility " man 



Gannet; C, W. F. Hurley. 



not, however, in ball-play- 
increased by the accidental and 
providential discovery of his talent as pitcher. A further change in the Nine was 
necessitated by the resignation of Peabody, Perrin taking his place at first base. 
Although a game with the Lowell Club now lacked excitement, it was still 
interesting, because of the well-known players in the Boston Club, and the asso- 
ciations which their appearance called up. 

UNION GROUND, BOSTON, June 24, 1869. 



harvard. 


POS. 0. 


R. 1 B. T. B. 


LOWELL. 




Smith . . 


p 3 


4 2 3 


Lovett . . 


Rawle . . 


L 3 


5 6 9 


Joslin . 




Bush . . 


h 3 


3 4 5 


Briggs . 




Willard . 


s 4 


3 2 2 


Rogers 




Wells . . 


M 4 


4 3 4 


Conant 




Austin . . 


B 4 


323 


Dennison 




Eustis . . 


R I 


5 4 6 


Bradbury 




Perrin . . 


A 2 


422 


Boyd . 




Reynolds . 


c _3 


422 


Wilder . 






27 


35 27 36 








Time. 


— 3h. 30 m. 


Umpire. — Mr 


Barrows, Trimountain Club. 


Scorers.— H.,1 


B 



H., T. B. Gannett ; Z., E. C. Nickels. 



292 



BASE BALL. 



Harvard's supremacy over the Williams College Nine of this year was well 
shown in a game at Springfield, June 26. The heavy batting of Harvard was 
the noticeable feature of the playing, as a reference to the number of base hits 
made will show. 



SPRINGFIELD, June 26, 1S69. 



HARVARD. 



WILLIAMS. 



Rawle . 
Bush . 




l 


Willard 
Wells . 
Austin . 
Eustis . 
Perrin . 




s 

M 


Reynolds 




c 




Williams 
Harvard 



Green . . 


p 


3 

2 





Smith . . 


M 


5 





Henderson 


s 






Knight . 


B 


3 




Pratt . . 


R 






Billings 


L 


3 




Forkes 


C 






Foster . . 


A 


3 






Umpire. 



605 15 34660 = 45 

Time. — 3 h. 
Shaw, Muluals, Springfield. Scorers. — W., T. B. Gannett j H., A. T. Schanffler. 



A game with the Lowells on July 3 resulted in the latter's now customary 
defeat. The playing of Harvard was excellent, and gave promise of success in 
the coming match with Yale. 



harvard. 


POS. 


Smith . . 


p 


Rawle . . 


L 


Bush . . 


H 


Willard . 


s 


Wells . . 


M 


Austin . . 


B 


Eustis . . 


R 


Perrin . . 


A 


Reynolds . 


C 




Innings. 


I 


jOWELL 


] 


■Iarvard 



NIC 


N GROUND, 


BOSTON, July 3, 186c 


R. 


1 S. 


T. B. 


LOWELL. 


3 


5 


9 


Lovett . . 


3 


3 


4 


Joslyn . . . 


2 


2 


4 


Alline . . . 


1 


1 


3 


Rice . . 


2 


1 


4 


Conant 


3 


4 


6 


Briggs . . . 
Bradbury . . 


3 


4 


4 


3 


3 
3 


4 
3 


Dillingham . 
Wilder . . . 



522100434= 21 

Umpire. — - . Time. — 1 h. 55 m. Scorers. — H., J. J. Myers ; Z., E. C. Nickels. 

The trip of the Harvard Club in the summer of 1869 was quite extended, 
their first game being with Yale at Brooklyn, New York, July 5. It was decided 
by a score which left no doubt as to the superiority of the winning Club. " The 
playing of Yale in a few individual cases was excellent; McClintock, French, 
McCutcheon, and Deming sustaining their reputation and that of their club. 
The Harvards one and all acquitted themselves creditably. Smith's pitching was 
very effective, whiie Perrin, Austin, Willard, and Bush carried off the honors in 
the field." 



HARVARD. 




POS. 


O. 


X. 


i B. 


T. B. 




Smith . 


. p 


2 


5 


6 


8 




Rawle . 




L 


3 


5 


S 


6 




Bush . 




H 


3 


6 


5 


1 3 ' 




Willard 




S 


i 


6 


3 






Wells . 




M 


4 


4 


3 


8 




Austin . 




B 


4 


4 


3 


3 




Eustis . 




R 


I 


4 




S 




Perrin . 




A 


4 


4 


2 


2 




Reynolds 




C 


_5 


3 


4 


4 








27 


41 


35 


53 






Inning,. 










■ 




Vale . 










5 




H 


ARVARD 










7 



EASE 


BALL. 


YN 


N. 


Y., June 5, 1S69. 


r ..a. 




YALE. 

McClintock . 


6 




Deming . . 


H 




Hooker 






McCutcheon . 
French . . . 






Condict . . 


5 

2 

4 




Richards . 
Wheeler . 
Lewis . . . 



Home Runs. — K, Lewis, 1. 
Umpire. — Van Cott, Una Club. 



H., Bush, 2 ; Wells, 1. Time. — 2 h. j 
Scorers. — H., J. J. Myers ; ¥., W. L." 



On July 7 a game was played in Brooklyn with the Eckford Club, which at this 
time claimed the professional championship. " The contest was in the presence 
of about a thousand spectators, and proved to be one of the finest games of the 
season ; the fielding on both sides being superb, the inability of the collegians 
to bat Martin's slow pitching being the main cause of their defeat. On the Har- 
vard side the catching of Bush was admired and applauded, while the runners 
found that stealing a base was a dangerous undertaking in the face of his swift 
and accurate throwing. Willard played short in a splendid manner. Perrin at 
first rivalled Allison, and Eustis in the field took fine fly balls, some of the 
catches being exceedingly difficult and well worthy of the applause they received." 

BROOKLYN, N. Y., July 7, 1869. 

. B. T. B. ECKFORD. POS. O. R. I B. T. B. 

1 1 Allison . 

2 4 Patterson 

1 i Martin . 
1 o o Nelson . 

2 2 Hodes . 
1 o o Jewett . 
1 1 1 Tracey . 
1 1 1 Wood . 
1 o o Pinkham 



HARVARD. 


POS. 


Smith . 


. p 


Rawle . 


. L 


Bush . 


. H 


Willard . 


. S 


Wells . 


. M 


Austin . 


. B 


Eustis . 


. R 


Perrin . 


. A 


Reynolds 


. C 




Innings. 








Harvard 



Umpire. — R. Ferguson, Atlantic Club. 



■If., J. J. Myers ; £., W. J. Watson. 



The next game was with the Athletic Club at Philadelphia, July 9, on the 
grounds at 17th Street and Columbia Avenue. "The in-field of Harvard was 
remarkably well played, no less than fourteen of the Athletics falling victims to 
Perrin at first base, while Rawle made two excellent catches at left field." Suc- 
cess in this game was very creditable to Harvard ; the Athletics have ever been 



BASE BALL. 



among the strongest of professional Nines, and this still remains the only occa- 
sion on which Harvard has taken a ball from them. 



PHILADELPHIA, July 9, 1869. 



HARVARD. 




pos. 


0. 


R. 


1 B. T. B. 


ATHLETIC. 


Smith . 


. p 


2 


5 


5 7 


Reach . . 


Rawle . 




L 


3 


4 


5 5 


Wilkins . . 


Wells . 




M 


5 


3 




Cuthbert . 


Willard 




S 


2 


4 


2 2 


Fisler . . 


Austin . 




B 


3 


3 


1 3 


' Sensenderfer 


Eustis . 




R 


5 


2 




McMullin . 


Perrin . 




A 


3 


4 


2 2 


Meyerle . 


Bush . 




H 


3 


4 


4 4 


Brosey . . 


Reynolds 




C 




6 


_4 _5_ 


Berry . . . 






27 


35 


25 3° 






Innings. 








■ = 3456 




Athletic 








202310 




Harvard 








1 S 2 3 10 1 












Time. - 


- 3 h. 35m. 



Umpire. — G. D. Kleinfelder, Athletic. 



3 4 6 = 35 

Scorer. — J. J. Myers. 



The game on the following day, July 10, with the Keystone Club, was a great 
disappointment to Harvard, as the following extract from a New York paper 
will show : " It was agreed that the game should begin at an earlier hour than 
usual, in order to allow the Harvards to leave by the five p. m. train ; but the 
Keystones were behindhand, and only seven innings could be got through with 
in the allotted time, when the Philadelphians were ahead five runs. The visitors 
were confident that, had the two remaining innings been played, they would 
have proven victors, and desired to stop over and contest them, but this the 
Quakerites refused to do." 

PHILADELPHIA, July 10, 1869. 



HARVARD. 


POS. 0. 


X. 


1 B. 


T.B. 


KEYSTONE. 




Smith . . 


p 3 


2 


2 


2 


Dick . . . . 


Rawle . . 


L 2 


2 


I 


I 


Flowers . 




Wells . . 


M 2 


3 


3 


4 


Weaver . 




Willard . 


s 3 


2 


2 


2 


Holbach 




Austin 


B 2 


3 


2 


2 


Kulp . . 




Eustis . . 


R 2 


2 


3 


5 


Bechtel . 




Perrin . . 


A 2 


2 




2 


Gwynn . 




Bush . . 


H I 


2 


2 


6 


Albertson 




Reynolds 


C J 











Ewell. . 






21 


18 


17 


24 
















1 


Keystone . 








. S 2 O 13 O A 


I 


Iarvard . 








•3423° 


2 



Umpire. — Thomas Berry, Athletic Club. 



Time. — 3 h. 



Scorer. — H., J. J. Myers. 



The Nine were the guests of their catcher, Mr. Bush, for a few days at Albany, 
where, on July 13, a match was played with the National Club of that city. The 
game was remarkable only for the large number of runs made in the first innings, 
and for the heavy batting of Harvard throughout. 



HARVARD. 

Smith . 
Rawle . 
Wells . 
Willard 
Austin . 
Eustis . 
Perrin . 
Bush . 
Reynolds 



BASE 


BALL. 




ALBANY, J 


ULY 


13, 1869. 


. T.B. 




NATIONAL. POS. 


4 




Brummagheim s 


IO 




Cantwell . . h 


9 




Greer . . 


L 


6 




Waddell . 
Stimson . 


M 


r 3 




McDonald 


A 


6 




Spelman . 


B 


8 




Scattergood 


R 


7 




Wolverton 


C 



295 



27 58 51 



17 



Innings. 123456789 

Harvard 20 12 5 73 1307 = 58 

National 301 060223 = 17 

Time. — 2 h. 55 m. 
Umpire.— John A. McCall, Jr. Scorers. —JST., H. W. Garfield ; H, J. J. Myers. 

The following day, July 14, a game was played with the famous Union Club, — 
commonly known as the " Haymakers," — of Lansinburgh. "The game was short, 
sharp, and decisive. The fielding of the Harvards was equal to the best. Perrin 
played his position in capital style, stopping the balls in every instance when 
they were properly thrown. The other players also did their whole duty in the 
field. At the bat, however, they were not so effective, for they were not able to 
master Fisher's pitching. The triumph of the Haymakers was owing solely to 
their superior batting." This was the last game played by the Nine on their 
trip. 











LANSINBURGH, J 


JLY [4, 1869. 




harvard. 


POS. 0. 


R. 


iB. 


T. B. 




HAYMAKERS. 


Smith . 


p 3 


2 


I 


2 




McAfee . . 


Rawle . 




L 3 


2 


2 


3 




M. King 




Wells . 




m 3 


2 


2 


2 




Powers . 




Willard. 




s 3 


O 


O 







Fisher . 




Austin . 




B 3 


I 


O 







Flynn . 




Eustis . 




R 2 


2 


3 


3 




Craver . 




Perrin . 




A 3 


O 




1 




S. King 




Bush . 




H 3 


I 


I 


1 




Bellan . 




Reynolds 




C 4 


O 


I 


1 




Bearman 






27 


IO 


II 


13 








Innings. 










23456 




Haymakers . 








• 3 


1 7 10 1 




H 


arvard . . 








. 


2302 


2 



Time. — 2I1. 8 m. 
Umpire. — John A. McCall, Jr. Scorers. — Haymakers, Scofield ; Harvards, Myers. 

The Nine lost three of its strongest players in the graduates of '69, — Messrs. 
Smith, Rawle, and Willard, — and the playing of their successors was looked upon 
with a great deal of anxiety. The new men were by no means inexperienced, 
all entering the Nine with reputations to be increased, not acquired. The games 
of the Fall Term were of little importance, except as indices of the next year's 
playing; and as such they were very gratifying. A game on Jarvis Field with 
the Fairmount Club of Marlboro', September 19, resulted, Harvard, 40; Fair- 
mount, 14. On the 25th September the Lowells suffered another defeat. 



296 















BASE 


BALL. 


















UNION 


GROUND, BOSTO> 


, September 25, 1869. 








HARVARD. 


POS. 


0. 


R. 


xB. 


T.B. 




LOWELL. POS. 


0. 


R. 


xB. 


Eustis . . 


. R 


4 


4 


4 


5 




Lovett 


. . p 


4 


2 


I 


Wells . . 




M 


3 


3 


3 


4 




Joslin . 






c 


3 


I 


I 


Perrin . . 




A 


6 


2 


1 


I 




Alline . 






L 


2 


3 


3 


Bush . . 




E 


3 


S 


3 


3 




Rogers 






A 


1 


3 


5 


Austin 




S 




7 


5 


5 




Simmons 






H 


4 


1 





Goodwin . 




P 


1 


6 


S 


5 




Lowell 






R 


4 





1 


Reynolds 




c 


4 


3 


3 


3 




Briggs 






M 


2 


3 


2 


White . . 




H 


3 


4 










Mason 






B 


3 


2 


2 


Minot . . 




L 


2 


_S 


4 


4 




Dillingham 




S 


4 


1 









27 


39 


28 


3° 






27 


16 


15 
















345678 








Lowell . 










2 


1 2 1 1 2 2 


5 = 


16 




Harvard 










6 


2 4 5S22S 


8 = 


: 39 




Umpire. - 


-Burdett, 


Somerset Club. 












Scorer. — 


E. N. 


Cutter. 



The Nine visited Lowell on the 2d of October, and played the Clipper Club of 
that city. The game with the sixth inning uncompleted resulted: Harvard, 23; 
Clipper, 1 7 ; but by questionable shrewdness on the part of the Clipper Nine, the 
score was made to revert to the fifth inning, which left the match a tie, 17 to 17* 

A game with the Lowells, October 9, 1869. 



HARVARD. 
Eustis . 
Wells . 
Perrin . 
Bush . 
Austin . 
Goodwin 
Reynolds 
White . 
Minot . 



UNION GROUND, BOSTON, October 9, 18 

R. 1 B. T. B. LOWELL. 

649 Bradbury 

5 3 4 Joslin . 

322 Alline . 

356 Rogers . 

3 3 3 Conant. 

233 Simmons 

322 Lovett . 



27 



Innings 

Harvard 

Lowell . 

Umpire. — Frank Barrows. 



5 5 02 on 



h. 45 m. Scorers.- 



-L., G. B. Appleton ; H., A. M. Barnes. 
The Nine played a remarkable game with the Mutual Club of Springfield, 
October 1 9, making but three fielding errors, — an instance of good playing that 
stands alone in the Club records. 



UNION GROUND, BOSTON, October 19, 1869. 



HARVARD. 



Eustis . 




r 1 


5 


3 


7 




Morris . 




Wells . 




M 2 


5 


5 


7 




Kennefick 


Perrin . 




A 5 










Shaw . . . 


Bush . 




H 6 


1 


2 


2 




Gibbon 




Austin . 




S I 


6 


3 


4 




Kellogg 




Goodwin 




p 3 


3 


5 


8 




Donovan 




Reynolds 




c 3 






3 




Kelly . 




White . 




B 4 





2 


2 




Emerson 




Minot . 




L 2 


3 


2 


2 




Beach . 






27 


26 


25 


36 








Innings. 










34567 




Harvard . . 








4 3 


32144 




M 


UTUAL . . 








1 


0000 






Umpire. — F. B. Dillingham. 
Time. — 1 h. 50 m. 



Scorers. — M., C. F. Sedgwick; H., A. M. 
Total Errors. — Harvard, 3 ; Mutual, 20. 



BASE BALL. 



297 



The following correspondence explains itself: — 

Boston, October 14, 1869. 

Dear Sir, — The Lowell Base Ball Club, recognizing the great services done to the cause of 
physical education by the representatives of Harvard University, desire to give something better 
than a merely verbal expression to the sentiments of pride and thankfulness with which they, in 
common with all Americans, watched the progress of the University crew, during the past summer. 
The present condition of the boating interests at Cambridge seems to afford a good opportunity to 
give to this desire a substantial form ; and the members of the Lowell Base Ball Club, therefore, 
take the greatest pleasure in proposing to the magnificent University Nine, of which you are the 
representative, a match game of Base Ball, to be played on the Union grounds on some early day ; 
the entire proceeds of which game shall be given to the University Boat Club, for the relief and 
improvement of the boating interests of the University. Hoping that it will give you as much pleas- 
ure to accept this proposition as it does me to convey it to you, and assuring you that no efforts 
will be spared by the Lowell Base Ball Club to make the occasion one of great pleasure and profit, 
I remain very truly yours, 

WM. N. EAYRS, President Lowell B. B. C. 

A. M'C. BUSH, Captain University Nine, Catnhridge. 

Cambridge, October 16, 1869. 

Dear Sir, — Your communication of the r4th instant, inviting the Harvard University Nine to 
participate in a game of Base Ball with the Lowell Base Ball Club, the proceeds of which shall be 
contributed to the relief and improvement of the boating interests of this University, is at hand. 
In reply, permit me to convey to you, and the club over which you preside, our acknowledgment 
and full appreciation of the kind interest you have manifested in the crew which represented this 
University in England, and of which, though unsuccessful, we yet feel so proud. The complimentary 
terms in which your invitation is expressed are very gratifying. The Harvard Nine gladly accept 
your proposal, and name Tuesday, October 26. 

I remain very respectfully, 



A. M'C. BUSH, President H. B. B. C. 



MR. WILLIAM N. Eayrs, President Lowell B. B. C, . 



The game which resulted from this was poorly played, owing to the cold 
weather, but distinguished by some good points. Notably a triple play at second 
base by Goodwin catching a fly ball with his foot on the base, and throwing to 
first, there being two men on — or rather off — the bases. This is the only in- 
stance of triple play in the Club records. 







UNION 


GROUND, 


BOSTON, October 26, iS 


HARVARD. 


POS. 


0. 


R. 


1 B. T. B. 


LOWELL. 


Eustis . 


. R 


2 


6 


5 ° 


Rogers . . . 


Wells . 


. . M 


4 


4 


4 5 


Joslin . . . 


Perrin . 


. . A 


4 


2 


6 7 


Alline . . . 


Bush . 


. . P 


4 


2 


2 5 


Mason . . . 


Austin . 


. S 


3 


S 


4 5 


Dillingham . 


Goodwin 


E 





6 


7 9 


Newton . . 


Reynolds 


. . C 


4 


3 





Briggs . . . 


White . 


. . H 


3 


4 


3 3 


Bradbury . . 


Minot . 


. . L 


3 


4 


_3 _3 


Betterley . . 






27 


36 


34 43 














■ 23456 




Lowell 








. 030216 




Harvard 








. 4 n 2 2 1 



6 S 5 = 36 
Time. — 2 h. 45 m. 
Umpire. — W. R. Briggs. Scorers.—^, A. M. Barnes ; L., G. B. Appleton. 

The accompanying record of the year's playing shows it to have been extremely 
creditable to the Nine. The list includes all of the match games. An average 
is made for the fall season separately, for the reason that some of the Nine who 
played after the long vacation did not play while the Club were on their tour. 



298 



April 27 
May 22 



July 



Sept. 19. 
Oct. 



LIST OF GAMES PLAYED, WITH DATES AND SCORES. 
(Games marked thus * were won by Harvard's.) 

Opponents. No. of Innings. H 

* Lowell, of Boston 9 

* Fairmount, of Marlboro' 8 

Mutual, of New York 9 

* Dartmouth, of Hanover, N. H 9 

Cincinnati, of Cincinnati 9 

f Lowell, of Boston 9 

* Williams, of Williamstown 9 

fc Lowell, of Boston 9 

f Yale, of New Haven 9 

Eckford, of Brooklyn v 9 

* Athletic, of Philadelphia 9 

Keystone, of Philadelphia 7 

! National, of Albany 9 

Union, of Lansingburgh 9 

■ Fairmount, of Marlboro' 9 

' Lowell, of Boston 9 

Clipper, of Lowell 5 

' Lowell, of Boston 9 

' Mutual, of Springfield 9 

' Lowell, of Boston g 



TOTAL RUNS EACH INNING. 



Harvard . 
Opponent 



Innings. 

Harvard 
Opponent 



Harvard 
Opponent 



83 64 63 63 46 65 65 76 
32 42 55 31 25 45 34 48 



TOTAL BLANKS SCORED EACH INNING. 



GREATEST NUMBER OF RUNS IN EACH INNING. 



AVERAGE OF THE WHOLE SEASON. 

ANALYSIS OF BATTING. BASES ON HITS. 

Players. No. of Games. No. of ist Bases. Average. Total Base 

Eustis 20 73 3.65 108 

Bush 20 69 3.45 120 

Rawle 12 40 3.33 58 

Smith 14 46 3- z 9 68 

Peabody 5 16 3.20 19 

Austin 19 54 2-84 68 

Wells 20 55 2.75 84 

Perrin 16 40 2.50 51 

Reynolds 15 37 2.47 45 

Willard 14 30 2.14 37 



5-4o 
6.00 
4.90 
4.86 
3.S0 
3.58 
4.20 
3-i9 



OUTS AND RUNS, WITH NUMBER OF MEN PUT OUT ADDED. 



Eustis 

Bush . 

Smith 

Peabody 

Austin 

Rawle 

Wells. 

Willard 

Reynolds 

Perrin . 



No. of Games. Outs. 



Average. Left on Base. 



2.30 


7i 


3-55 


2.60 


74 


3-7o 


2.64 


52 


3-7i 




15 


3.00 


2.84 


69 


3-63 


3.00 


45 


3-75 


3-05 


68 


3-4° 


3.21 


39 


2.78 


3-33 


42 


2.80 


3-5° 


46 


2.87 



BASE BALL. 



299 



AVERAGE FOR THE FALL SEASON. 



No. of Games. No. of 1st Eases. 



Goodwin 




. . 6 




29 
24 

21 




Eustis 






. . 6 






Bush 






. . 6 






Wells 






. . 6 




20 




Minot 






. . 6 




20 




Austin 






. . 6 




20 










. . 6 




'7 
13 




White 






. . 6 






Reynolds . 




. . 6 




12 








OUTS 


AND RUNS, 


WITH 


NUMBER C 


Players. No. of Games. 


Outs. 


Average. 


Runs 




Average 


Goodwin . 


6 


IT 


I.83 


25 




4.16 


Eustis . 




6 


12 


2.00 


29 




4-83 


Austin . 




6 


12 


2.00 


29 




4-83 


Minot . 




6 


iS 


2.50 


20 




3-33 


Wells . 




6 


17 


2.83 


23 




3-8 3 


Bush . . 




6 


17 


2.83 


21 




3-5° 


White . 




6 


18 


3.00 


19 




3.16 


Reynolds 




6 


23 


3-83 


IS 




2.50 


Perrin . 




6 


25 


4.16 


iS 




2.50 



6.50 



3-5° 
3-33 
3-33 
3-33 
2.83 
2.16 
2.00 



Leading Out on Out 



In the opening game of 1870 the Somerset Club kindly furnished practice for 
Harvard. The University Nine was the same as in the last game of the pre- 
vious year. Harvard, 50; Somerset, 16. 

A fine game was played with the Lowell Club on Jarvis Field, May 14. It is 
worthy of notice that in the fifth inning Goodwin pitched but five balls. 



HARVARD. 

Eustis . 
Wells . 
Perrin . 
Bush . 
Austin . 
Goodwin 
Reynolds 
White . 
Barnes . 



CAMBRIDGE, May 14, 1870. 




. B. T. B. LOWELL. 


4 7 Lovett . . 


2 2 Joslin . 




3 4 Rogers . 




4 7 Bnggs . 
2 2 Reed . 




3 5 Conant 




2 2 Jewell . 




2 2 Bradbury 




2 7 Newton 





27 



28 



38 



Lowell 001001201=5 

Harvard 001761184 = 28 

Time. — 2I1. 35 m. 
Umpire. — E. V. Bird. Scorers.—^, Wm. R. Ware; £., E. C. Nickels. 

A game with the Clipper Club of Lowell, May 20, on the Union Grounds, 
Boston, resulted, Harvard, 47; Clipper, 11. A game of seven innings was played 
with the Fairmount Club on the 21st May. Harvard, 60; Fairmount, 12. 

A game with the Athletic Club, of Philadelphia, on May 23, drew to the 
Union Grounds, Boston, the largest attendance that had ever assembled there. 
The fielding of Harvard was exceedingly fine, and the batting by no means poor. 
Bush pitched after the third innings, and his slow, tantalizing delivery was very 
effective against the Athletics. 



300 



BASE BALL. 









UNION 


GROUND, 


BOSTON, May 23, 187 


HARVARD. 


POS. 


0. 


R. 


iB. 


T. B. 


ATHLETIC. 


Eustis . . 


R 


4 


o 


2 


2 


Reach . . 


Wells . . 


M 


2 


r 


2 


2 


McBride . 


Perrin . . 


A 


S 


o 


O 


o 


Malone . 


Bush . . 


H 




3 


2 


4 


Fisher . . 


Austin . . 


S 


2 


i 


3 


S 


Sensenderfer 


Goodwin . 


P 


4 


o 


o 


O 


Schafer . 


Reynolds . 


C 


4 


o 


o 


o 


Radcliff . 


White . . 


B 


3 


I 


o 


o 


Bechtel . 


Thorp . . 


L 




_f 


2 


4 


Pratt . . 



27 20 20 30 



Harvard o 

Athletic o 



Umpire. — Mr. Barrows. Time. — 2I1. 15m. Scorers. — A., A. H. Wright; H., W. R. Ware. 

A most interesting game was played on the 4th of June between the Harvard 
Nine and the famous Cincinnati Red Stocking Nine. The attendance at this 
game, in point of numbers, resembled the old-time gatherings at the Harvard- 
Lowell matches on Boston Common. The fielding of Harvard was not as good 
as usual; the batting, however, was very fine. White distinguished himself by 
two home runs. 



HARVARD. 

Eustis . 
Wells . 
Perrin . 
Bush . 
Austin . 
Goodwin 
Reynolds 
White . 
Thorp . 



UNION GROUND, BOSTON, June 4, 18 

R. 1 B. T. B. CINCINNATI. 

222 G. Wright . 

3 3 3 Gould . . 
100 Waterman 
114 Allison 
012 H. Wright 
222 Leonard . 
111 Brainard . 

4 5 11 Sweasy 
111 McVey 



27 



r 5 



26 



Harvard 

Cincinnati 

Time. — 3 h. Home Runs. 
-Jas. Lovett. 



46 43 S 6 



46 



■ 9 4 o 3 2 13 4 11 
■White, 2. Bush, 1. H. Wright, 1. 

Scorers. — C, Atwater : H., Barnes. 



Umpire. • 

The Nines of Harvard and Brown Universities met at Worcester on the 18th 
of June. 

WORCESTER, June 18, 1870. 



HARVARD. 




POS. 


0. 


R. 


\B. 


T.B. 


BROWN. 


Eustis . 


. R 


3 


4 


5 


7 


Munro . . 


Wells . 




M 


4 


3 


3 


3 


Hitchcock 


Perrin . 




A 


4 


2 


z 


2 . 


Earle . . 


Bush . 




H 


4 


4 


5 


7 


Fales . . 


Austin . 




S 


3 


5 


4 


5 


Woodworth 


Goodwin 




P 


3 


4 


5 


5 


Jennings . 


Reynolds 




c 




6 


5 


10 


Jewell . . 


White . 




B 


1 


5 


s 


6 


Stratton . 


Thorp . 




L 


_3 


3 


4 


4 


Hendrick . 






27 


36 


38 


49 






Innings. 










23456 




Brown 










2 1 3 3 1 




H 


ARVARD 








... 10 3 2 4 



Umpire. — H. W. Fuller. 



5 5 7 



36 



Time.— 3 h. 5.1 



Scorers. — A. M. Barnes, A. D. Payne. 



BASE BALL. 



The wretched condition of the ground was the cause of much poor playing; 
and a comparison of first-base hits is necessary to enable one to judge of the 
merits of the respective Nines. 

The earnestness with which the Nine had taken hold of their work, in antici- 
pation of a Western tour, was shown in the game with the "professional" Mu- 
tual Club of New York, June 23. Harvard had not only to face the swift deliv- 
ery of Wolters, but also the peculiar twisting "slows" of Martin, — the most suc- 
cessful exponent of this deceptive style of pitching in the country. The game 
was warmly contested throughout, the fielding was sharp, and the batting heavy, 
while a reference to the base hits will show that Harvard was well ahead at the 
finish. 











UNION GROUND 


BOSTON, June 22, 


1S7 


HARVARD. 


POS. 


0. 


R. 


iB. 


T.B. 




MUTUAL. 


Eustis . 


. R 


I 


6 


6 


6 




E. Mills . 


Wells . 




M 


I 


5 


S 


6 




Eggler . 




Perrin . 




A 


5 


2 


3 


3 




Nelson . 




Bush . 




H 


4 


3 


3 


3 




Patterson 




Austin . 




S 


4 




3 


3 




Hatfield 




Goodwin 




P 


2 


2 


2 


2 




Martin . 




Reynolds 




C 


4 





1 


2 




C. Mills 




White . 




B 


4 


1 


2 


2 




Wolters 




Thorp . 




L 


2 


4 


3 


_5 




Swandell 








27 


24 


28 


32 








Innings. 












23456 




Mutual 










. 


5 1 1 4 3 




H 


ARVARD 










. 2 


3281 


4 



Umpire. — Geo. N. 



Time. — 2 h. 45 m. 

Scorers. — A. M. Barnes, 



H. M. V. Davidson. 



A game with the Trimountain Club on the 25th of June gave Bush a chance 
to practise in his new position as change pitcher, Smith '69 playing second base. 
Harvard, 21 ; Trimountain, 17. 

The next game was on the 27th of June with the Lowell Club. 



UNION GROUND, BOSTON, June 27, 1870. 



HARVARD. 




POS. 


0. 


R. 


iB. 


T.B. 


LOWELL. 




Eustis 


. R 


5 


4 


4 


6 


Newton . . 


Wells . . 




M 





8 


3 


4 


Gorham . 




Perrin . 




A 


4 


4 


2 


2 


Rogers . 




Bush . . 




H 





6 


6 


9 


Briggs . 




Austin . 




S 


4 


3 








Reed . 




Smith . 




p 


s 


2 


3 


4 


Fitch . 




Barnes . 




L 


3 


4 


3 


4 


Edwards 




White . 




B 


4 


2 


3 


5 


Bradbury 




Thorp . 




C 




3 


3 


_7 


Alline . 








27 


36 


27 


41 






Inning,. 










1 = 3 4 S * 




Lowell 










40041 I 




Harvard 








Time. - 


644065 

-2h. 35m. 


Umpire. — 


M. 


E. Chandler 








Scorers. 


-1 



= 36 



302 



BASE BALL. 



On the 30th of June the professional "White Stocking" Club of Chicago ad- 
ministered a severe defeat to Harvard, amply atoned for, however, some weeks 
later. The fielding of the University Nine was at times very poor. The game 
was in no way creditable to the Nine, and the result, in view of the coming 
tour, rather depressing for the spirits of the players. When the strength of the 
Nine at this time is considered, this defeat must be looked upon as one of the 
worst Harvard has ever experienced. Harvard, 7; Chicago, 33. 

On the 1 st of July Princeton College presented a very strong Nine against 
Harvard. The game was by no means free from errors ; Harvard excelled in 
batting and somewhat in fielding. The Nines were not so evenly matched as in 
the game of 1868. Princeton was the guest of Harvard in the evening, and, with 
the usual merriment of such occasions, the Nines and their friends dined pleas- 
antly together. 



UNION GROUND, BOSTON, July i, 1870. 



HARVARD. 
Eustis . 
Wells . 
Perrin . 
Bush . 
Austin . 
Goodwin 
Reynolds 
White . 
Thorp . 



27 



26 28 



39 



PRINCETON. 


FOS. 


0. 


R. 


iB 


Buck . . . 


B 


2 


2 


I 


Van Renssalaer c 


3 


2 


2 


Glenn . . . 


p 


3 


I 


2 


Sharp . . . 


H 


2 


2 




Gummere . . 


M 


4 


I 




Ward . . . 


L 


3 


2 




Mann . . . 


S 


3 


2 




Field . . . 


R 


4 


O 




Pell. . . . 


A 


_3 


I 








27 


13 


II 



Princeton 2 

Harvard 4 

Time. — 2 h. 
Umpire. — Geo. N. Brigfss. 



0021 



Scorers. — A. M. Barnes, Geo. Goldie. 



During the winter of 1869-70 the management of the Club had carried on a 
correspondence with Western clubs, in anticipation of an extended tour for the 
coming season. San Francisco was looked upon as the final destination, with 
the intention of stopping at such places as offered sufficient inducements in the 
way of good games. It was found expedient to modify this scheme, notwith- 
standing the liberal terms which could have been made with the Union Pacific 
Railroad, and the promise of an enthusiastic reception on the Pacific coast. A 
slight computation of distances, a consideration of the great heat of the summer 
of 1870, and, above all, a remembrance of the fact that the expense attending 
such extended travel is necessarily very large, will convince one of the magnitude 
of this undertaking. The plan finally determined upon and carried out is set 
forth in the following programme of the trip, some alterations from the original 
being made to suit certain changes eventually occurring in the dates of the games 
played. 



BASE BALL. 



303 



WESTERN TOUR OF THE HARVARD UNIVERSITY BASE BALL CLUB, 
July and August, 1870. 



Yale, 


at New Haven, Conn., 


Monday, 


July 


4 


Rose Hill, 


" " " " 


Tuesday, 




S 


Haymaker, 


" Troy, N. Y., 


Thursday, 


" 


7 


Utica, 


" Utica, " 


Friday, 


« 


8. 


Eckfords, 


" Syracuse, N. Y, 


Monday, 


« 


11 


Ontario, 


" Oswego, " 


Tuesday, 


" 


12 


Niagara, 


" Buffalo, 


Wednesday, 


" 


13- 


Niagara, 


" Lockport, " 


Thursday, 


" 


14. 


Forest City, 


" Cleveland, Ohio, 


Friday, 


" 


IS- 


" " 


" " " 


Saturday, 


" 


16. 


Red Stockings, 


" Cincinnati, Ohio, 


Monday, 


" 


18. 


Mutuals of New York, 


" 


Wednesday, 


" 


20. 


Eagle, 


" Louisville, Ky., 


Thursday, 


" 


22. 


Union, 


" St. Louis, Mo., 


Saturday, 


" 


2 3- 


Chicago, 


" Chicago, 111., 


Tuesday, 


" 


26. 


Cream City, 


" Milwaukee, Wis., 


Wednesday, 


" 


27. 


Amateurs, 


" Chicago, III., 


Thursday, 


" 


28. 


Indianapolis, 


" Indianapolis, Ind., 


Saturday, 


" 


3°- 


Olympic, 


" Washington, D. C, 


Wednesday, August 


3- 


National, 


" " " 


Thursday, 


" 


4- 


Maryland, 


" Baltimore, Md., 


Friday, 


" 


5- 


Pastime, 


• « u 


Saturday, 


" 


6. 


Intrepid, 


" Philadelphia, Pa., 


Monday, 


" 


8. 


Athletic, 


" " " 


Wednesday, 


" 


10. 


Atlantic, 


" Brooklyn, N. Y, 


Friday, 


" 


12. 


Stars, 


a « a 


Saturday, 


" 


13- 


Picked Nine, 


" Boston, Mass., 


Tuesday, 


'" 


16. 



accompany them on their journey took cars for New Haven. The names of the 
party registered at the Tontine Hotel in this city were as follows : — 



A. Mc. C. Bush, '7 
W. E. C. Eustis, '71 
James B. Wells, '71 
John Reynolds, '71 
A. M. Barnes, '71 
W. D. Sanborn, '71 



Percy Austin, 
W. T. Perrin, '70 
Nathaniel Smith, '69, 
J. C. Goodwin, '73 
H. S. White, '73 
J. G. Thorp, L. S. S, 



Mr. Nathaniel Childs, '69, joined the party afterwards in Albany, and Mr. 
Willard, '69, ex-captain of the Nine, became one of the party at Cleveland. 
The story of the game with Yale on the 4th of July can be very briefly told. 
The strongest Nine that Harvard has ever sent to New Haven played its very 
poorest game ; and although victorious, it was because its abundant errors were out- 
numbered by those of Yale. Whatever equality between the two Clubs the close- 
ness of the scores in games since played may suggest, no such inference can be 
drawn from the result of this game; and whatever luck, sickness, "evident destiny," 
or other conditions may have had to do with subsequent defeats for Yale, this 
year's want of success must be looked for in the fact that, individually and col- 



3°4 



BASE BALL. 



lectively, the Harvard Nine was superior to its opponent. This statement would 
perhaps come with ill grace were it not that the record of the season's playing 
fully bears it out. It is to be noted that the condition in Yale's challenge of 
1868, which was still held to be binding, obliged Harvard to substitute her tenth 
man, Barnes, for Thorp of the Lawrence Scientific School. The following is 
from a New Haven daily : " The game may be designated in brief as a poor 
one. Of course there were not a few exhibitions of superior skill on both sides. 
On the part of Yale, Richards, Buck, Wheeler, and McCutcheon deserve honor- 
able mention, their playing being almost unexceptionable Of the Harvards, 
Bush and Wells did very finely at the bat. In the field none were especially 
remarkable. The Harvards, by a series of gross blunders, gave the Yale Nine 
every possible chance to win the game, and the championship ; and that the 
Yale Nine failed to do so, under these circumstances, is inexcusable." 



HARVARD. 



Eustis . 


. . R 


Wells . 


. . M 


Perrin . 


. . A 


Bush . 


. . H 


Austin . 


. . S 


Goodwin 


. . P 


Reynolds 


. . C 


White . 


. . B 


Barnes . 


. . L 




Inning,. 




Yale . 




Harvard 


Umpire. - 


-Mr. Bunce. 



NEW HAVEN, July 4, 1870. 

, B. T. B. YALE. 

2 2 Buck . . 

4 7 Wheeler . 

2 2 Richards . 

5 6 Bentley 

3 3 Payson. . 

4 6 McCutcheon 
o o Day . . . 
4 6 Thomas 

3 3 Deming . 



27 24 27 35 



... 530245230 = 24 
Time. — 3 h. 5 m. 

Scorers. — Wm. D. Sanborn, E. H. Williams, Jr. 



The game arranged with the Rose Hill Nine of St. John's College, Fordham, 
New York, for the 5th July, was looked forward to with some little anxiety. 
This Nine had defeated Yale by a score of 19 to 13, and had acquired the rep- 
utation of being the stronger club. Its strength was supposed to lie chiefly in a 
formidable pitcher of great pace and puzzling delivery, and this reputation after- 
wards secured him a position on the famous White Stocking Nine of Chicago. 
Yale men, evidently taking Harvard's measure from the playing of the preced- 
ing day, prophesied certain victory for the Rose Hill Nine. In striking contrast 
with the Yale match, this was one of the finest games in which Harvard has 
ever participated. The Nine has seldom surpassed the fielding record of this 
game, and the two runs of Rose Hill were made on the only noticeable errors 
of the game. It was generally considered that "the small number of runs 
made by the Rose Hill Club was mostly to be accounted for by the pitching of 
Goodwin." 



BASE BALL. 



305 



NEW HAVEN, July 5, 1870. 



HARVARD. 




POS. 0. 


R. 


1 a. 


7". S. 


rose hill. 


POS. 0. 


R. 


1 B. T. 


Eustis . . . R I 


4 


2 


3 


Trempe . . 


S 4 


O 


I t 


Wells . 




M 2 


4 


4 


4 


Gleavy . . 


M 3 


I 


O O 


Perrin . 




A 4 











Villavicencio 


H 3 


I 


I 1 


Bush . 




H S 


1 


1 


2 


Burns . . . 


P I 


O 


3 3 


Austin . 




s 3 


2 


1 


I 


Gallagher . 


c 3 


O 





Goodwin 




p 3 


1 








McDermott 


B 4 


O 





Reynolds 




C 2 


2 


3 


3 


Dooley . . 


L 3 


O 


z z 


White . 




B 4 


1 







McManus . 


A 3 


O 





Thorp . 




L 3 


2 


2 


3 


Swayne . . 


R J 


O 





27 


17 


13 


16 




27 


2 


~6 ~6 


Innings. 






. 


= 3456 


789 






Rose Hill . 






. . . 


00020 








Harvard . . 






... 2 


40000 


4 4 3 = 


17 




Time. — 2 h. 5 m. 






Total Errors. — Harvard, 5 ; Rose Hill, 2 


2. 


Umpire. — 


S. 


St. J. McCutcheon, Yak. 






Scorer. — 


A. M 


Barnes. 



On the morning of July 6 an early start was taken for Albany, where, for the 
second time in the history of the Nine, it was hospitably entertained as the guest 
of Mr. Bush. On the following day, July 7, the party took coach for Lansing- 
burgh, and played with the Union Club, — better known as the "Haymakers," — 
of that place. This was one of the noteworthy games of the trip, and was an 
exhibition of professional confidence versus amateur coolness. The Haymakers 
were decidedly the favorites ; they had acquired a national reputation in ball 
circles, had defeated Harvard the previous year by a score of 22 to 10, and on 
this occasion were very emphatic in announcing their anticipations of victory. 
From the outset Harvard's pitcher troubled them very much, and her fielders 
more, so that the game closed with but nine first-base hits to their credit; while 
for Harvard, man after man " got on " to the smiling McMullen, and did even 
better against Fisher in the fourth inning, until twenty-nine first and thirty-seven 
total bases were earned. The result was somewhat of a surprise for Harvard, 
and decidedly so for her opponent. 









LAN 


3INGBU 


1GH, July 7, 187 






HARVARD. 


POS. 0. 


R. 


1 B. 


T.B. 


HAYMAKER. 


Eustis . . 


R 2 


5 


5 


6 


Flowers . . . 


Wells . . 


M 2 


4 


4 


5 


York . 






Perrin . . 


a 4 


3 


4 




Fisher 






Bush . . 


H 2 


3 


S 


8 


Allister 






Austin . . 


S 2 


3 


2 


2 


King. 






Goodwin . 


p 4 


2 


2 


2 


Bellan 






Reynolds . 


c 6 





1 


1 


Foran 






White . . 


B 1 


4 


4 


6 


Plunkett 






Thorp . . 


L 4 




2 


J 


McMullen 






27 


25 


29 


37 






Innings. 








■ = 3456 




Haymaker 








030232 




Harvard . 






Time. - 


3 2 2 10 2 
-2 h. 35 m. 


Umpire. — T 


W. Cantwell. 






Scorers. - 


-A 


. 1 



'.. Barnes, J. M. Schofield. 



306 



BASE BALL. 



An early start from Albany on the morning of the 8th enabled the Nine to 
play in Utica on the afternoon of the same day. The games played between 
Troy and Cleveland were only incidents of this pleasant excursion, no anxiety was 
felt as to the result, and all interest centred in the heaviest hit of the day, or in 
the best individual fielding record. The ball-ground at Utica was rather peculiar; 
the out-field was covered with a fine growth of grass, while the in-field displayed 
a variety of ups and downs, and this circumstance, together with the fact that 
many changes were made in the regular positions of the Nine, placed Harvard at 
a disadvantage. The local paper was not particularly lavish of compliments in 
its qualified opinion of the visiting Club. " The Collegians are gentlemanly fellows, 
and for amateurs are, or might be, superior players." Harvard, 31 ; Utica, 23. 

Saturday, July 9, was spent in a visit to Trenton Falls, and was perhaps the 
most enjoyable day of the tour. The party left Utica on Monday, the nth July, 
and reached Syracuse in time to play the Eckford Club of that city on the after- 
noon of the same day. It was an unexpected pleasure to meet here Mr. Frank 
Wright, '66, the first captain of the Nine, and who filled in this game the — to 
him — unusual position of umpire in a game where Harvard was a contestant. 
" All the positions were admirably manned by the Harvards, though they had sev- 
eral errors of play to book. The Eckfords did not get hold of Goodwin's swifts ; 
and were even worse on Bush's bias slows." In the evening most of the party 
— some having accepted invitations elsewhere — were the guests of Mr. Corn- 
stock, Harvard '71, and were the recipients of the kindness which both friends 
and strangers never failed to extend. Harvard, 30; Eckford, 7. 

July 12 was spent at Oswego; the morning was passed in a sail on the lake, 
and the afternoon in a game with the Ontario Club. On this occasion, for the 
first time on the trip, a game was interrupted by rain, so that seven innings 
only were played. Harvard, 33 ; Ontario, 6. 

The journey was continued, and Buffalo reached at about one o'clock on the 
morning of July 13. The courtesy of the Niagara Club in sending its repre- 
sentatives to meet the Harvard Nine at this late hour was unexpected and pleas- 
ing. The comments on the game which took place in the afternoon of this day 
were highly complimentary to the University Nine. " The Harvards are a fine 
gentlemanly lot of young men, and their modest demeanor shows off their admira- 
ble playing to the best of advantage. Nearly all of a size, neatly attired, well 
disciplined, and possessed of an extensive degree of muscular strength, their 
appearance on the field not only elicited the admiration, but the enthusiasm, of 
every Buffalonian present. The game played with the Niagaras was a neat one, 
and although the College boys gradually drew away from the Buffalonians, there 
was no abatement of enthusiasm until the beginning of the ninth inning, when 
there remained but little hope and much certainty. Of the individual play of 



BASE BALL. 307 

the Harvards we shall not attempt to particularize, as all members of the Nine 
played so well. We must be pardoned, however, for making special mention of 
Mr. A. Mc. C. Bush, captain of the Nine, and the present worthy president of 
the National Base Ball Association. He is certauily one of the best general Base 
Ball players that we have ever seen."' 

The Nine and their friends were deeply indebted to Mr. Rumsey, Harvard '72, 
and to Dr. Cary, for kindness shown while in Buffalo. Harvard, 28 ; Niagara, 14. 

On the 14th July a game was played with Niagara Club of Lockport. The 
following extract is from a local paper, and is given as an illustration of the in- 
tense admiration that occasionally greeted the Nine : " The much-anticipated 
game between the Niagaras and the College Club occurred this morning, result- 
ing in the total discomfiture of the former, and adding one more star to that 
galaxy adorning the brow of the Harvards. It is needless to say that this result 
was anticipated on the part of the Niagaras, for their opponents were members 
of a Club whose reputation is comparatively world wide, and who, in their present 
tour, have defeated Nines so well known as the Eckfords and Haymakers." 

A full score of the game is given, as it is a record of wonderful batting on the 
part of Harvard. The afternoon of this day was spent in visiting Niagara Falls. 

LOCKPORT, N. Y., July 14, 1870. 

HARVARD. POS. O. R. , B. T. B. NIAGARA. POS. O. R. i B. T. B. 

Eustis . . . r i 7 7 ii Douglass . . s 1 2 1 1 

Wells . . . M 3 6 4 s Webster . . B 2 1 1 1 

Perrin ... a 2 7 5 5 Wilson . . . L 3 o 1 1 

Bush . . . b 1 8 811 Sidney . . . p o 1 2 2 

Austin . . . s 1 8 6 7 Regan . . . r 2 o 1 1 

Smith . . . p 1 6 5 7 Daniels . . m i o i i 

Thorp . . . l 3 6 4 7 Van Horn . c 2000 

White . . . h 2 7 4 8 Marsh . . . H 2 o o o 

Barnes . . . c 1 7 6 7 Arnold ... a 2 o 1 1 

15 62 49 68 15 4 8 8 

Innings. 12345 

Niagara i o i i 1=4 

Harvard 4 4 36 5 13 = 62 

Umpire. — Wm. D. Sanborn. Time. — 1 h. 35 m. Scorers. — J. C. Goodwin, W. F. Bennett. 

The journey was continued from Niagara Falls to Cleveland, which place the 
party reached, after a fatiguing night's ride, July 15. It was here that the Nine 
met with its first defeat, as well as scoring its second " professional " victory. 
The game with the Forest City Club on the 15th was excellently played, and the 
result was not particularly disheartening to Harvard. " Of the afternoon's enter- 
tainment there was but one opinion, — no one had ever seen a prettier game; 
and it was without doubt the sharpest ever played in this city. The demeanor 
of the visitors was perfect; not a murmur, not a rude word, not a graceless 
action, marred the conduct of a man of them ; and it is but fair to say that they 
met courtesy equal to that which they gave." 



" Of the individual play it may be said that Bush, both as catcher and at the 
bat, was simply superb. Next to him Perrin, the first-base man, carried off the 
honors of the day. Not a muff did he make, not an error of any kind. We 
have never seen that position played better, rarely so well. Wells, at centre-field, 
distinguished himself by fine play, missing nothing. The other players did nobly 
also. The Harvards have a day to spare, and with such a contest as this for a 
beginning it is good news that the clubs are to play again to-day." 



CLEVELAND, July 15, 1870. 



HARVARD 
Eustis . 
Wells . 
Perrin . 
Bush . 
Austin . 
Goodwin 
Thorp . 
White . 
Reynolds 



Umpire. — W. T. Scotten. 



Time. — 2 h. 5 



FOREST CITY 


pos. 


White . 


. H 


Ward . 


. S 


Pratt . 


. P 


Parker . 


. R 


Carlton 


. A 


Allison . 


. M 


Kimball 


. B 


Heubel . 


. L 


Brown . 


. C 


Scorers 


— A. M 



On Saturday, July 16, the second game was played with the Forest City Nine. 
" Thoroughly rested from the fatigue of their trip, and with everything to gain, 
the Harvards went upon the field Saturday afternoon, knowing just the quality 
of the work they had in hand, and prepared to play one of those sharp, brilliant 
games, which have placed them at the head of all New England clubs, and made 
them conquerors of the Mutuals, the Haymakers, and other Nines of high em- 
prise. That they played such a game and gave the people of Cleveland one of 
the most beautiful displays of perfect fielding, and safe scientific batting, need 
not be said to any one who saw them play. Up to the close of the fifth in- 
ning, when the score stood five to three in favor of Cambridge, the struggle was 
superb. Then the fatal sixth came, to show what scientific batting can do 
against any fielding, however perfect. Two balls were struck against the left- 
field fence, far out of Heubel's reach ; a third was sent safe over the fence on the 
opposite side; and a fourth shot down along the ground to centre-field; and on 
these four hits three runs were scored. In the eighth inning, the Harvards at 
the bat, two men were put out, and the Forest City Nine had strong hopes of a 
whitewash. They then filled the bases by safe hits, when White, second base 
of the Harvards, made a splendid hit, bringing in all three, himself reaching 
second. Never had there been better fielding on those grounds. Twice while 
the Forest City men were struggling bravely for the lead, they had three men 
on bases and two hands out. Each time the striker batted beautifully, and twice 
a Harvard fielder leaped up and caught with one hand a ball, which, against 
ordinary fielding, would have been good for three bases. In other words, the 



Harvards outplayed the Forest City men, and won a beautiful game by a hand- 
some score. The splendid play of Bush behind the bat, Wells in centre-field, 
and Perrin at first base elicited the warmest applause. The last named is the 
equal of any first-base man we have ever seen. He played both games without 
a single error. Eustis took a fly-ball with one hand over his head, while on the 
run, — one of the finest catches ever made on the grounds, which was tremendously 
applauded. The game was umpired with the utmost fairness by Mr. Willard, a 
member of the Harvard Club." This splendid victory sent the Nine again on its 
way rejoicing. The party received many kind attentions from Mr. Hickox, 
Harvard, '72, while in Cleveland. 













CLEVELAND 


July 16, 1870. 




HARVARD. 


POS. 


O. 


R. 


,B 


T. B. 


FOREST CITY. 


Eustis . 


. P 


5 


O 


I 


I 


White . . 


Wells . 




M 


4 


I 


1 


I 


Ward . 




Perrin . 




A 




4 


2 


2 


Pratt . 




Bush . 




H 


1 


4 


s 


6 


Parker . 




Austin . 




S 


3 


2 


2 


2 


Carlton 




Goodwin 




P 


3 


2 


I 


I 


Allison . 




Thorp . 




L 


3 


1 


2 


2 


Kimball 




White . 




B 


3 


1 


2 


3 


Heubel 




Reynolds 




C 


4 





O 

76 





Brown . 






Innings. 




J 5 




■ 23456 




FOWFST PlTV 








102002 




H 


ARVARD 










3 1 1 


3 



Umpire. — G. G. Willard. Time. — j 



Scorers. — W. D. Sanborn, E. G. Smith. 



The Nine reached Cincinnati on the morning of the 17th July. The game 
with the Red Stockings, "the virtual champions of the world," on the 18th, was 
the most exciting one of the trip, and its unfortunate ending will never cease to 
be a matter of regret among Harvard men. It was one of those exceptional 
games, in which the beaten Nine fairly outplayed its opponent, both at the bat 
and in the field. 

" Never before in the history of the Union Grounds has so exciting a struggle 
taken place as that of yesterday between the Harvard University and the first 
Nine of the Cincinnati Club. We heard many intimate that, if the local favor- 
ites were beaten on their own grounds, something hitherto unheard of, they pre- 
ferred that the deed of Base Ball glory should be accomplished by the gentlemen 
players from Cambridge rather than by the more dreaded professionals from the 
East. Others recalled the recent careless playing of the Red Stockings, com- 
pared it with the almost errorless games of the Harvards in Cleveland, and 
thought that the professionals were liable to be worsted." After eight well-played 
innings the score stood seventeen to twelve in favor of the Harvards, who, for 
their earnest, neat work were rewarded by the prospect of certain victory. " The 
Reds went in for their last chance with five to tie and six to win. Allison 



3"> 



BASE BALL. 



drove a hot bounder, seemingly safe, over third base. Reynolds bent his body 
back, and taking the ball in one hand threw it like a shot to Perrin. One out 
and no runs. H. Wright took his first on a safe liner to right-field. Leonard 
went out on a high fly which fell into White's hands. Two outs and no runs. 
People began to leave the grounds. It was all over. Brainard reached first base 
on a bounder which was passed to home plate to cut off H. Wright, who came 
home, the ball not being handled for an out. Two outs, one run and four to 
tie. Sweasy drove a fearful ball into the pitcher, which, striking him on the leg, 
bounded beyond third base, disabling Goodwin and giving the striker first, Brain- 
ard going to second. McVey struck the ball down near the home plate, and 
it bounded past Goodwin. That gentleman had the use of but one leg and did 
not handle the ball for victory. Every base full. George Wright took the bat, 
and after waiting till two strikes were called struck a 'fair foul' past third base, 
took second for himself, and gave home to three men. Wright went to third on 
a wild pitch, and home, tying the game on Gould's hit for first. 

" Gould, assisted by the hits of Waterman and Allison, made the winning run. 
Two more runs were scored ere Leonard gave a chance for the last out, closing 
one of the most remarkable games on record, — remarkable, in the first place, for 
the absolute and thorough beating, at bat and in field, of a club of professionals 
who ought, on their record, to defeat their amateur opponents easily; and, in the 
second place, as another instance of the star of destiny, which has so often 
brought the Red Stocking Nine out of desperate situations. Nothing but sheer 
luck, in this instance, saved them from a defeat which would have been honor- 
able, because administered by the Harvards. The University Nine played nearly 
their game, though they are credited with several errors. Austin played far 
ahead of George Wright, and White made Sweasy's second-base play seem poor. 
Bush, aside from several passed balls which should have been credited as wild 
pitches, played superbly." 



HARVARD. 

Eustis . 



Austin . 
Goodwin 
Thorp . 
White . 
Reynolds 



CINCINNATI, July iS, 1870. 


xB. 


T.B. 


CINCINNATI. 


2 
2 


5 
2 


G.Wright. 
Gould . . . 
Waterman 


2 


2 


Allison . . 


2 


2 


H. Wright . 


I 


3 ' 
2 


Leonard . . 
Brainard . . 


2 


3 


Sweasy . . 


J_ 


4 


McVey . . 



27 



16 



24 



Innings. 

Cincinnati 

Harvard 

Time. — 2 h. 55 m. Home Run. — Eustis, 
Umpires. — C. Mills, G. G. Willard. 



405002018 = 20 
030437000=: 17 
i. Double Play. — Austin, Perrin, and Bush. 
Scorers. — A. M. Barnes, E. P. Atwater. 



BASE BALL. 311 

"Goodwin's pitching was effective throughout, though very irregular; and but 
for the unfortunate accident of the last inning would doubtless have given Har- 
vard the victory. Perrin covered first well, and Reynolds did the same for third. 
The out-fielders had not much chance except at the bat, where they did effective 
service. A final word in regard to the result of the game. The Cincinnati Club, 
by one of the grandest pieces of good luck on record, secured the majority of 
tallies; nobody would claim it as a victory." 

The Mutual Club of New York was at this time in Cincinnati, in anticipation 
of a match with the Reds on the 21st. A game was arranged between the Mu- 
tual and Harvard Nines for Wednesday, the 20th July. This was the second 
game of a series of three, the first of which Harvard had won by a score of 
twenty-four to twenty-two. The accident to Goodwin in the Red Stocking match 
rendered his pitching against the Mutuals less effective than usual, so that Bush 
pitched during most of the game, White taking the latter's position behind the 
bat, Goodwin playing second base. 

" The Harvards kept themselves quiet during the entire morning, and did not 
presume, in their conversation, very much as to their ability to defeat the Mu- 
tuals, nor did they appear at all timid. There was a little more of the air of 
confidence with the professionals than with the University men, though a whole- 
some appreciation of the other's skill kept each in check. The game was excel- 
lently well played. The Harvards did the brilliant work at the bat, but their 
fielding errors were made each time when the evil consequences were terribly 
multiplied " while chance seemed to have exercised a special guardianship over the 
Mutuals, directing that their errors should happen when they would prove less 
disastrous to themselves. In the sixth inning the Harvards made one of the 
sharpest double plays on record. Nelson had taken second on a two-base hit. 
E. Mills drove a hot liner to Reynolds at third. He took it, and passed it so 
quickly to Goodwin that many thought it a right-hand catch. Goodwin took the 
ball in his left, the whole being done in such lightning style that, though Nelson 
had left his base but a few feet, he could not get back in time to save himself. 
Still another play of the Harvards called for thunders of applause. White went 
for a foul bound off E. Mills's bat. The ball took an unlooked-for direction, 
and the catcher actually dived after it, turned a complete somersault, and came 
up with the ball in his hand. Eustis, Bush, and White made clean home runs 
on long hits over the out-fielders; and of the twenty-eight total base hits, they 
are to be credited with twenty-one. These three men have not their equals in 
the Mutual Nine, as the record of this and of every former game clearly shows. 

" The Harvards left on the evening boat for Louisville, having treated Cincin- 
nati to two games, played as they should be. They went in each time for all 
they were worth, fought to the death, and died game." 



3 I2 



BASE BALL. 



The kindness extended to the Harvard party while in Cincinnati was unusually- 
noticeable, and they were deeply indebted to Mr. Julius Dexter, to the Messrs. 
Longworth and others, both friends and strangers. 

CINCINNATI, July, 20, 1S70. 

0. R. 1 B. T. B. MUTUAL. POS. O. R. , B. T. B. 

2249 Hatfield 



HARVARD. 

Eustis . 
Wells . 
Perrin . 
Bush . 
Austin . 
Goodwin 
Thorp . 
White . 
Reynolds 



27 



'5 



28 



Harvard o 

Mutual 1 

Time. — 2I1. 20 m. 

Umpire. — H. Wright. 



Patterson . 

Nelson . . 

E. Mills . 
McMahon 

C. Mills . 

Wolters . 

Swandell . 



Home Runs. — Eustis, 1. Bush, 1. White, 
Scorers. — M., Wilstach; H., Barnes. 



The game in Louisville on the 2 2d was one postponed from the previous day 
on account of rain. It was an easy victory for Harvard. Harvard, 57; Eagle, 14. 

An attempt was made to play a match in St. Louis on the 23d ; but, in order 
that the Harvards might take cars for Chicago, the game was suspended at the 
end of the second inning. Harvard, 14; Union, o. 

The game in Chicago with the White Stockings on Monday the 25th was in- 
terrupted by rain, and postponed until the following day. The Harvards were in 
fine condition, and confident in their ability to win the match. The remem- 
brance of their disastrous defeat at the hands of this club early in the season, 
and its arrogant bearing towards the University men on this occasion, were ad- 
ditional incentives to exertion. Goodwin's pitching was never more effective than 
in this game, and for eight innings it was so well supported that the White 
Stockings made but two runs. 

"A little loose fielding on the part of Harvard gave to the ninth inning much 
of the appearance of the Cincinnati game at this point. The bases were full, 
three runs had been made with no one out, and the game was saved only by 
the most opportune display of judgment and strategy. Finding that Goodwin's 
delivery — whose efforts in this inning had not been well seconded by the in- 
field — was falling off both in pace and direction, Bush relieved him, White 
going behind the bat, and Goodwin to second base. Bush is the most deceptive 
of slow pitchers, and the sudden change settled the matter. Craver made a weak 
strike to Bush, and was put out at first. Treacy stole in from third ; and Meyerle, 
running from second, was put out by White to Reynolds. Burns struck out, 
and the victory was for Harvard by a score of eleven to six. The batting on 
both sides was weak, Harvard striking well, however, for five runs in the seventh 
inning, and making five out of her total of seven base hits." 



BASE BALL. 



313 



The comments of the Chicago press were very unfavorable for the home club. 
"The Chicagos were beaten by the Harvards because the latter are the better 
players. They beat them at the bat; they beat them at the pitcher's stand; 
they beat them awfully in the in-field; and they would, no doubt, have beaten 
them in the out-field, if the ' strong batting ' Nine that we used to hear so much 
about had happened, by some lucky accident, to knock a ball a little beyond the 
pitcher." 

A very noticeable incident of the stay in Chicago was the kindness of Mr. G. 
W. Young, a graduate of Yale '66, who, "knowing that Yale and Harvard dif- 
ferences are confined to Quinsigamond, the annual match, and the College papers, 
that everywhere else the sons of both meet on the most friendly terms, gave us 
an invitation, which was accepted, to meet a very agreeable company of gentle- 
men — mostly graduates of Eastern colleges — at his rooms in the Opera-House 
building." 

CHICAGO, July 26, 1870. 



HARVARD. 




POS. 0. 


R. 


tB. 


T. B. 


CHICAGO. 




Eustis . 


. R 2 


3 


I 


2 


McAtee . 


Wells . 




M S 


O 


O 


O 


Hodes . 




Perrin . 




A 3 


2 


O 


O 


Wood . 




Bush . 




H 4 


I 


O 


O 


Cuthbert 




Austin . 




s 4 








O 


Flynn . 




Goodwin 




P 2 


I 


2 


2 


Treacy . 




Thorp . 




L 2 


I 


O 





Meyerle 




White . 




E 3 


t 


I 


I 


Craver . 




Reynolds 




c 2 
27 


2 


2 

~6 


2 

7 


Burns . 






Chicago . . 








1 1 




H 


ARVARD . . 








10300 






Umpire. — C. Mills, Mutual. 



Time. — 2 h. 



Scorers. — A. M. Barnes, C. M. Babcock. 



Milwaukee was visited on the 27th, and a game played with the Cream City 
Club. Harvard, 41 ; Cream City, 13. 

The Nine returned to Chicago on the morning of the 28th, and played with 
the Amateur Club in the afternoon. Harvard, 45 ; Amateur, 1 1. 

A very good game was played at Indianapolis on the 30th July. Harvard, 45 ; 
Indianapolis, 9. 

The journey from Indianapolis to Washington was interrupted only by a few 
hours' rest in Cincinnati. The almost incessant travelling for thirty-six hours, 
together with the intense heat, rendered the Nine on its arrival in Washington 
unfit for anything but quiet. Austin, whose brilliant playing had contributed so 
much to the success of the tour, was so overcome by the journey from Indian- 
apolis, that he had to be taken home, and his position was occupied by Willard 
in the succeeding games. On the 3d of August a practice game was played 
with the Olympic Club; the Harvards, in their weakened state, being unwilling 



3H 



BASE BALL. 



to proceed with the regular match. The defeat of the University Nine must be 
attributed solely to its exhausted condition, for, with the single exception of 
Thorp, not a man did himself justice, and the fielding record shows a total of 
thirty-seven errors. Harvard, 7; Olympic, 18. 

The 4th of August was spent in visiting places of interest in Washington, and 
in a game with the National Club. Harvard, 39; National, 13. 

The first game played in Baltimore was with the Maryland Club, August 5. 
It resulted in an easy victory for Harvard, and was noticeable only for the heavy 
batting of the winning Nine. A total of fifty-nine base hits was made, including 
six home runs. Harvard, 44; Maryland, 11. 

The Pastime Club was one of the few amateur organizations whose record was 
such as to inspire Harvard with any fears as to the result of a game with it. 
This Nine had defeated the Stars, the strongest amateur club in New York, and 
for this reason alone was looked upon by Harvard as a formidable rival. The 
game played on the 6th of August seemed to fully decide the question of supe- 
riority. The noticeable point in this, as in the previous game, was the heavy 
batting of Harvard. 



BALTIMORE, August 6, 18 



HARVARD. 

Eustis . 
Wells . 
Perrin . 
Bush . 
Willard 
Goodwin 
Thorp . 
White . 
Reynolds 



Buck . . 
Chenowerth 

Bailey . . 

Williams . 

Lucas . . 

Southard . 

Popplein . 

Turnbull . 

Doyle . . 



Innings. 

Pastime 
Harvard 



6 o 6 o io 



Umpire. — N. S. Smith. Time. — 3 h. 10 m. Scorers. — Wm. D. Sanborn, J. Y. Boyle. 

The game at Philadelphia with the Intrepid Club on Monday, August 8, 
resulted in favor of Harvard. The batting of Eustis was particularly noticeable. 
He made a total of seventeen base hits, including four home runs. Bush also 
made a home run. Harvard, 33; Intrepid, 11. 

On the following Wednesday, August 9, the Harvards played the Athletics. 
The latter club had just returned from a brilliant Western tour, having defeated 
both the Red Stocking and the White Stocking Nines. " The game was a fine 
one, notwithstanding the disparity in the score. The Harvards are both a fine 
fielding and a fine batting Club, and their fielding on this occasion was particu- 
larly brilliant. Their batting was good, but owing to the sharp fielding of the 
Athletics, their score was kept down." 















BASE 


BALL. 












PHILADELPHIA 


August 10, 1S70. 


HARVARD. 


POS. 


0. 


R. 


1 B. 


T.B. 


ATHLETIC. POS. 


Eustis . 


. R 


4 


O 


O 


O 


Reach . . . b 


Wells . 




M 


3 


2 


I 


I 


McBride . 


p 


Perrin . 




A 




I 


j 


I 


Malone 


H 


Bush . 




H 


1 


3 


3 


6 


Fisler . . 


A 


Austin . 




s 


3 


1 




2 


Sensenderfer 


M 


Goodwin 




P 


4 











Berry . . 


R 


Thorp . 




L 


4 











Radcliff . 


S 


White . 




B 


4 


1 


1 


1 


Bechtel . 


L 


Reynolds 




C 


2 


1 


1 


1 


Pratt . . 


C 






*7 


9 


9 


12 






Innings. 










■ = 3 + s6 7 8 




Harvard 










10014011 




Athletic 










21072186 


Time. — 2 


h. 30 m. 










Home Runs. 


Umpire. — 


-M 


r. Halbach. 








Scorers. — B 



315 



On Thursday, August 11, the Harvard party reached New York, and on 
Friday played the professional Atlantics. " Of the Harvards' play so much has 
been said during their trip through the West, that many expected they would 
give the Atlantics a hard push, and this they really did all through the game, 
except in the seventh inning, when by an injudicious change of pitchers, the 
Atlantics scored seven runs, — one more than they did in the other eight inn- 
ings. The errors counted very little on either side, the Harvards gaining only 
one run thereby, while the Atlantics gained three. Their play all through was 
exceedingly good, particularly when it is taken into consideration that both the 
first-base and short-stop positions were filled by substitutes, — the regular players 
in these positions being ill. The thorough, business-like play of Bush behind 
the bat deserves the highest praise." Perrin had been poisoned by ivy while 
visiting the Fairmount Water- Works in Philadelphia, and was unable to take 
part in this game. 



HARVARD. 




POS. 


Eustis . 


. R 


Wells . 




M 


Barnes . 




A 


Bush . 




H 


Willard 




S 


Goodwin 




P 


Thorp . 




L 


White . 




B 


Reynolds 




C 




Innings. 




Atlantic 




H 


ARVARD 



BRO 


OKLYI 


f, August 12, 1870. 


iB. 


T.B. 
2 


ATLANTIC 

Pearce . . 


O 

I 




2 


Smith . 
Start . 
Chapman 
Ferguson 


O 


O 


Zettlein 


2 




Hall . 


2 


2 


Pike . 
McDonald 



1 2 o o 7 I 
100200 



Umpire. —J. Hatfield. 



Time. — 1 h. 35 m. 
Scorers. 



Wm. D. Sanborn, F. P. Rivers. 



The game with the Stars of Brooklyn on Saturday, the 13th August, was, next 
to the Yale game, the most important one of the year, and the loss of either 



3i6 



BASE BALL. 



would have rendered the trip a failure. The Star Club was, without doubt, the 
strongest amateur organization in the country, setting aside the question of 
superiority between it and Harvard. Its pitcher afterwards became the most 
effective player in his position among professional clubs, and indeed it was more 
than doubtful whether at this time the Stars could be considered amateurs. 

" The Harvards played a beautiful game with the Stars on the Capitoline 
Ground, and confirmed the good opinion formed of them in their game of the pre- 
vious day with the Atlantics. Their fielding was rather better than yesterday's, but 
not much, as indeed there was not a great deal of room for improvement in that 
respect. The game was well played on both sides ; but, contrary to expectation, 
the Stars found more difficulty in hitting Goodwin's pitching, than the Harvards 
found with Cummings's. The contest opened prettily, and the close of the eighth 
inning left the score seven to five in favor of Harvard. When the Stars went to 
the bat for the ninth and last time, the excitement was intense, every movement 
of the players being anxiously watched by their friends and admirers. The Stars 
were confident of being able to make a few runs ; and when Cummings, instead 
of being out at first, got to third base through a bad throw from Reynolds to 
Barnes, the Brooklyn crowd sent up a shout of delight. The College men had 
good reason to be a trifle nervous, as, although two good batsmen had been dis- 
posed of, Reynolds made a second short throw to Barnes, and Packer got his 
base ; but all fears were soon at an end, as Manley was prettily taken on a foul 
fly by Reynolds, and the Stars were defeated. The Harvards then went to the 
bat, after their immediate friends had treated them to the College ' Rah ! Rah ! 
Rah!' cheer, in great glee, and the Stars seeming completely broken down, they 
hammered Cummings about to such an extent, that very soon five runs were 
made, the game closing with the score twelve to six in favor of the Harvards." 

This was the last game of the tour, and a satisfactory termination of a suc- 
cessful undertaking. 



HARVARD. 

Eustis . . 

Wells . . 

Barnes . . 

Bush . . 

Willard . 

Goodwin . 

Thorp . . 

White . . 

. Reynolds . 



BROOKLYN, August 13, 1870. 

1 B. T. B. STAR. 

o Rogers . 
2 4 Jewell . 

1 1 Dollard 
1 1 Clyne . 

1 1 Cummings 
o o ' Beavans 

o Worth . 

2 2 Packer . 

1 3 Manley 



Umpire. — J. Hatfield. 



h- 55' 



> 3 1 1 1 o s — 12 
Scorers.— W. D. Sanborn, H. W. Pope. 



BASE BALL. 317 

While in Washington, Mr. Bush had received the following letter : — 

Boston, July 26, 1870. 
My dear Sir, — ■ At the earnest solicitation of a number of friends and admirers of the Harvard 
Base Ball Club, of Cambridge, whom you represent as captain, I write to ask you to favor them 
and the public of Boston by accepting a challenge from a picked Nine of this city, to play a Re- 
ception Match Game of Base Ball, on the Union Grounds, on whatever day may be convenient and 
agreeable to you. Allow me to congratulate you upon the great success (almost unparalleled) that 
has attended the Harvards on their tour, and to further say that they have more than met the ex- 
pectations of their most sanguine friends, and to wish you "a continuance to the end." With kindest 
remembrances to the Harvard Nine and friends accompanying them, I am yours with respect, 

M. M. ROGERS. 

This challenge was accepted, and a game arranged for Tuesday, August 16. 
On its way to the Ball Ground in Boston, the Harvard party had a very narrow 
escape from a serious accident. The hotel coach in, or rather on, which most 
of the Nine were riding was overturned near the corner of Tremont and Lenox 
Streets, and the players thrown violently upon the pavement. The escape from 
serious injury was in part owing to the agility with which most of the party 
landed upon their feet. White was quite badly hurt in the knee, and the whole 
Nine were so shaken that their playing was much weakened. 

The interest which the tour of the Harvards had aroused in Boston was shown 
in the immense gathering which greeted their arrival on the ball-field. " Every 
seat which the ample grounds affords was called into use, and hundreds found 
satisfactory places of observation upon the grass, while others, eager in their in- 
terest in the game, were glad to find standing-room within the enclosure. Out- 
side, every available building commanding a view of the grounds was surmounted 
by scores of anxious beholders. The Harvard pennant waved triumphantly be- 
neath the stars and stripes, while cheerful music enlivened the scene. The 
Harvards were all in splendid condition, with one exception. White was quite 
lame, but strongly desired to carry his part of the game. Austin was still unable 
to play; and Willard filled his position, showing himself a king of short stops." 

The game was closely contested throughout, and though not particularly well 
played, it resulted in favor of Harvard. 

BOSTON, August 16, 1870. 



HARVARD. 




ros- 


0. 


R. 


1 B. 


t.b. 


PICKED nine. 


Eustis . 


. R 


2 


4 


3 


5 


Sullivan . 


Wells . 




M 


4 


2 


1 


2 


Record . . 


Perrin . 




A 


3 


2 


2 


3 


Rogers . . 


Bush . 




H 


1 


4 


4 


8 


Kelley . . 


Willard 




S 


3 


2 


3 


4 


Briggs . . 


Goodwin 




P 


4 





1 


2 


O'Brien . 


Thorp . 




L 


2 


1 


3 


6 


Bradbury . 


White . 




E 


s 





1 


1 


Barrows . 


Reynolds 




c 


3 


_3 


2 


2 


Gorham . 




Innings. 


27 


iS 


20 


33 


■ = 3456 




Picked N twk ' 








200225 




Harvard 










3 1 2 3 2 1 


Umpire. — 


-M 


. E. Chandler 




Time. 


— 2h. 


30 m. Scorers. — 



A. M. Barnes, C. R. Danforth. 



31.8 

The following table is a record 
and August 17, 1870: — 

Yale 1 

Harvard 5 

Harvard 2 

Rose Hill o 

Harvard 3 

Haymakers o 

Utica 2 

Harvard 1 

Harvard 2 

Eckford, Syracuse .... 2 

Harvard 4 

Ontario, Oswego o 

Harvard 1 

Niagara, Buffalo 2 

Harvard 4 

Niagara, Lockport . . . . 1 

Forest City, Cleveland ... 2 

Harvard o 

<JSao,id Game) 

Harvard o 

Forest City, Cleveland . . . 1 

Harvard o 

Red Stockings ....... 4 

Harvard o 

Mutual 1 

Harvard 8 

Eagle, Louisville o 

Harvard 1 

White Stockings, Chicago . . o 

Cream City, Milwaukee . . 3 

Harvard (, 

Amateur, Chicago . . . . o 

Harvard 1 

Harvard 7 

Indianapolis o 

Olympic, Washington ... 3 

Harvard 

National, Washington ... 2 

Harvard 1 

Maryland, Baltimore .... 3 

Harvard 4 

Pastime, Baltimore . . . . o 

Harvard 6 

Harvard 3 

Intrepid, Philadelphia . . . 1 

Athletic, Philadelphia ... 2 

Harvard x 

Atlantic 1 

Harvard o 

Harvard o 

Star 

Harvard 3 

Picked Nine , 



by innings of games played between July 3, 



4 = 39 
0=11 



BASE BALL. 



AVERAGES OF THE NINE IN GAMES PLAYED DURING THE WESTERN TOUR OF 



. Outs. Runs. 



Austin . 
Thorp . 
Wells . 
Goodwin 
Reynolds 
Eustis . 
White . 
Perrin . 
Willard 



65 



.24 


87 


3-48 


47 


61 


3- 2 3 


•5& 


64 


2.78 


75 


81 


3-37 


«S 


39 


1.94 


.96 


52 


2.17 


00 


77 


2.98 


00 


65 


2.60 


09 


65 


3-°9 


5° 


28 


2.80 



65 



Total Average Total 

Bases. Bases. 

119 .784 

5° -5°5 

74 -583 

91 -591 

45 -425 

58 .423 

113 .697 



The first game of the fall of 1870 was with the Lowell Club, October 1. Tyler 
and Annan — two very valuable additions to the Nine — played for the first time 
with the Harvards. 

JARVIS FIELD, October i, 1870. 



HARVARD. 


POS. 


0. 


if. 


iB 


T.B. 


LOWELL. 


POS. 


0. 


R. 


1 B. T.l 


Eustis . . 


R 


I 


3 


4 


6 


Briggs . . 


p 


3 


O 


I I 


Wells . . 


M 


2 


3 


I 


I 


Bird . . . 


A 




2 


I 1 


Perrin . . 


A 


4 




3 


3 


Dillingham . 


R 


4 


O 


O 


Bush . . 


H 


I 


5 


4 


4 


Newton . . 


c 


2 


I 


O O 


Annan . . 


S 


3 


3 


3 


3 


Miller . . 


B 


2 


I 


2 2 


Goodwin . 


P 


3 


3 







Reed . . . 


S 


2 


z 


i r 


Tyler . . 


L 


3 


3 


3 


4 


Gorham . . 


L 


3 


O 





White . . 


B 




4 




3 


Betterley . 


M 




I 


I I 


Reynolds . 


C 


2 


3 


_°^ 




Bradbury 


H 


2 





I I 






21 


29 


r 9 


24 






21 


~6 


7 7 


Low 
Hai 


ELL 
.VARD 










•■7432 


6 6 


1 = 
1 = 


6 
29 




Time. — 2 h 


I5m. 












Scorer. — 


A. M 


Barnes. 



On the 8th October, the Nine visited Marlboro', and played with the Fair- 
mount Club a game of seven innings. Harvard, 31 ; Fairmount, 1. 

On the 2 2d of October the Mutual Club of New York defeated Harvard. 
This was in part owing to the lack of practice on the part of Harvard, which is 
an unavoidable drawback to the good playing of College clubs in the Fall Term. 
In this game the Mutuals outplayed their opponents both in batting and field- 
ing. Eight innings only were played. Harvard, 14; Mutual, 24. 

A visit to Providence on the 29th of October resulted in a victory for Harvard 
over the Brown College Nine. 

PROVIDENCE, October 29, 1870. 



HARVARD. 




POS. 


Eustis . 


. R 


Wells . 




M 


Tyler . 




A 


Bush . 




B 


Annan . 




S 


Goodwin 




P 


Allen . 




L 


White . 




H 


Barker . 




C 




Irnme- 




Brown . 




H 


ARVARD 



38 38 



Umpire. — A. P. Carroll, Brown '71. 



BROWN POS. 


0. 


R. 


1 B. T. 


Hendrick . . M 


4 


3 


I 3 


Earle ... a 


1 


5 


1 3 


King . . . R 


4 


2 


2 1 


Jennings . . P 


2 


3 


1 2 


Herreshoff . 1? 


2 


4 


1 2 


Woodworth . l 


4 


2 


1 1 


Jewell . . . h 


2 


2 


1 2 


Stratton . . s 


4 


1 


1 1 


Howland . . c 


4 


2 


1 1 


, 


27 


24 


10 16 


9 1 2 7 1 


4 = 


24 




on 5 11 7 1 4 13 


3 = 


55 




2 h. 45 m. 








Scorers. — R. J. Garamell, W. D. 


Sanborn. 



320 



BASE BALL. 



The finest ball match of the season in New England was played between the 
Stars of Brooklyn and the Harvards, on Jarvis Field, November 2. It was a 
triumph of slow pitching. Harvard expected to meet the swift delivery of Cum- 
mings, but had to face instead the slow " twisters " of Rogers. The fielding was 
very sharp on both sides. This was the last game of the year. 



HARVARD. 

Eustis 



Annan 

Goodwin 

White 

Barnes 

Reynolds 



JARVIS FIELD, November 2, 1S70. 

t B. T. B. STAR. 

3 S F - Rogers 

o Hicks 

1 1 Dollard . 

2 2 Clyne 

o o Worth . 

12 M. Rogers 

o Bass . . 

1 1 Packer . 



Star . 
Harvard 



1 h. 30 m. 
Scorers. ■ 



H. D. Stanwood, W. 



Umpire. — G. R. Rogers. 
During the year 1870 the Harvard Nine played forty-four games, of which 
thirty-four were victories ; and of the ten games lost, nine were to " professional " 
clubs. This is, up to the present date, 1875, the most important year of Har- 
vard's ball playing ; not only on account of the number of games played and 
won, but because of the excellence of the playing and the acknowledged suprem- 
acy of the Nine over other amateur clubs. 



AVERAGES OF THE NINE FOR THE YEAR 1870. 



: Bases. Average 1 



Eustis 41 

White 40 

Wells 40 

Smith 7 

Barnes 11 

Willard 10 

Thorp 33 

Austin 28 

Perrin 36 

Goodwin • • • • 34 

Reynolds .... 36 



185 



2.25 
1.91 
1.89 



4.90 
4-5i 
4-37 
3-55 
3-7i 
3-36 
3-7° 
3-63 
2.96 
2.78 
2.65 
2.42 



The opening game of the year 1871 was with the Lowell Club on Jarvis Field, 
April 6. Contrary to expectation, it was close and interesting. 

" The Harvards underrated their opponents' ability, suffered them to outplay 
them at the commencement, and when defeat not only threatened, but seemed 
inevitable, rallied as they have so often done, and by dint of determination, and 
by the aid of their adversaries' partial demoralization, obtained the victory. The 
pitching of Bush aided not slightly to this result. Several members of the Nine 
were absent." 



HARVARD 

Eustis . 
Tyler . 
Annan . 
Wing . 
White . 
Goodwin 
Estabrooks 
Barkei 
Bush 





BASE 


BALL. 


JARVIS FIELD, April 6, 1871. 


iB. 


T.B. 


LOWELL. 


2 


4 


Lovett . . . 


2 

2 
2 


2 

2 
2 


Rogers . . . 
Bradbury . 
Dillingham . 
Reed . . 


2 


2 


Conant . . . 


O 



1 
3 


Anderson . 
Alline . . 
Miller . . 



Innings 

Lowell . 
Harvard 



Umpire. — G. Wright. Time. — 2 h. 25 m. 



a 4 3 = H 
Appleton, W. D. 



The organization of a " professional " ball club in Boston gave the Harvards 
good opportunities for practice, and after several contests with an exchange of 
pitchers and catchers, a match was played April 26, on the Boston Ground. 
The individual playing was generally good, and both clubs acquitted themselves 
creditably. 













BOSTON 


April 


26, 1871. 


HARVARD. 


POS. 


0. 


R. 


iB. 


T.B. 






BOSTON. 


Eustis . 


. R 


3 


O 


I 


I 






G. Wright . 


Annan . 




s 


4 


O 





O 






Barnes . . 


Reynolds 




L 


3 


O 












Jackson . 


White . 




B 


4 


O 





O 






McVey. . 


Barnes . 




A 


4 


O 


I 


I 






H. Wright 


Wells . 




M 


1 


I 


I 


t 






Gould . . 


Goodwin 




P 


3 


I 


I 


I 






Schafer . 


Bush . 




H 


2 


I 


2 


2 






Cone . . 


Tyler . 




C 


_3 


I 





O 






Spaulding . 






27 


4 


~6 


~6 










Innings. 










1 


x 


34567 




Boston . 










4 





00710 




H 


ARVARD 
















00013 



Umpire. — Ellis. 



Scorers. — F. Barrows, W. D. Sanborn. 



On the 6th of May, a game with the Tufts College Nine resulted in an easy 
victory for Harvard. 



JARVIS FIELD, May 6, 



harvard 
Eustis 
Annan 
Reynolds 
White . 
Barnes 
Wells . 
Barker 
Bush . 
Tyler , 



8 


Dunham . 


2 


Stetson . 


6 


Tufts . . 


2 


Harris 


2 


Knowlton 


3 


Knight . 


5 


Farnsworth 


o 


White . . 


5 


Adams . 



Umpire. — F. Comstock. Time. • 



h. 45 



00350000 



Scorers. — A. G. McAllister, W. D. Sanborn. 



322 



BASE BALL. 



A game with Brown College, May 1 3, on Jarvis Field, resulted as follows : ■ 



JARVIS FIELD, May 13, 



HARVARD. 


POS. 


Eustis . 


. R 


Annan . 


. S 


Reynolds 


. L 


White . 


. B 


Barnes . 


. A 


Wells . 


. M 


Goodwin 


. P 


Bush . 


. H 


Tyler . 


' . C 




Brown 




Harvard 



BROWN 

Jewell 

Earle 

Park 

Jennings 

Stratton 

Cushing 

Hendrick 

King . 

Howland 



27 42 32 43 



Time. — 2 h. 25 m. 



•R. I. Gammell, W. D. Sanborn. 



On the 17th of May, the Harvards obtained a noteworthy victory over the 
" Haymaker " Club of Troy, New York. This Nine had the day before defeated 
the famous Boston " professionals " by a score of twenty-nine to fourteen, and 
consequently expected to easily defeat Harvard. " The Harvards won the game by 
good generalship, Bush handling the Nine in an able manner, the pitching being 
changed various times, just as the batsmen got accustomed to it ; and although 
the Haymakers worked hard to save themselves from defeat, the University men 
outplayed them, and won the game. The Harvard in-field played .splendidly, 
and did most of the work, as but one ball was struck to the out-field." 











BOSTON, May 


17, 1871. 




harvard. 


POS. 


0. 


X. 


1 B. 


T.B. 


HAYMAKER. 


Bush . 


. . H 


2 


3 


2 


2 


Flynn . 




Eustis . 


. R 


3 




2 


3 


McGeary 




Reynolds 


. . L 


6 





I 




York . 




White . 


. . B 


2 


3 


2 


3 


McMullin 




Barnes . 


. A 


4 





2 


2 


King . 




Wells . 


. M 


s 


i 


I 


1 


Beavan 




Goodwin 


. . P 


4 











Bellan . 




Annan . 


. S 





4 


2 


2 


Pike . 




Tyler . 


. . C 


J_ 


3 


2 


3 


Craver . 








27 


iS 


14 


17 






Innings. 








, 


= 3 4 S 6 




Haymaker . 






. . . 


2 2 0S 




Harvard 








... 1 


2 14 


3 



Umpire. — McVey, Boston Club. Time. — 3 h. Scorers. — Schofield, Sanborn. 

On the 19th of May the Athletic Club of Philadelphia defeated Harvard. The 
batting of both Nines was equally good, the Athletics excelling in fielding. 
Harvard, 6 ; Athletic, 14. 

The Olympic Club of Washington defeated Harvard on the 23d of May. The 
game was noticeable neither for its good plays nor errors, and was won by the 
superior batting of the "professionals." Harvard, 5; Olympic, 17. 

The White Stocking Club of Chicago defeated Harvard, June 3. Harvard's 



BASE BALL. 



323 



fielding was excellent, but at the bat was decidedly weak. Annan's good playing 
in the field was particularly noticeable. Harvard, 2 ; Chicago, 12. 

A game with the Brown College Nine at Providence, June 26, resulted in a 
victory for Harvard. 



HARVARD. 
Bush . 
Austin . 
Wells . 
Allen . 
White . 
Goodwin 
Annan . 
Wing . 
Nelson . 



PROVIDENCE, 


Tune 26, 1871. 




1 B. T. B. 


BROWN. 


2 4 


Jewell . . . 


6 6 


Earle . 




5 S 


Park . 




4 S 


Jennings 




3 4 


Stratton 




3 8 


Howland 




4 4 


Hendrick 




2 3 


Woodworth . 


2 3 


Herreshofi 





27 34 31 



Umpire. - 



Brown . . . 

Harvard . . 

•G. M. Smith. 



3 4 4 3 7 



Time. — 2 h. 50 m. 



Scorers. — Gammell, Sanborn. 



The " professional " Eckford Club of Williamsburg, New Jersey, defeated Harvard, 
June 30, in a game that should have resulted differently. " The pitching of 
Goodwin was effective enough to have defeated the visitors, and kept their runs 
down to a very small number if it had been properly supported; but while the 
Harvard fielders by spurts exhibited the most brilliant playing, there were many 
instances of muffing and wild throwing. Harvard made twenty-two total bases to 
her opponent's fifteen." Harvard, 9; Eckford, 15. 

The " Rose Hill " Nine of St. John's College played with Harvard on the 1st 
of July. It was an exceedingly well-played game, and the result very creditable 
to Harvard. 

BOSTON, July i, 1871. 
HARVARD. POS. O. X. i B. T. B. ROSE HILL. 

2423 Villavicencio 

1422 Gleavy . 

4224 Dooly . 

4 1 1 1 Treacy . 

2322 McManus 

2 3 1 1 Burns . 

Goodwin . . p 2 3 1 3 McAloon 

Tyler . . . c 5 o o o Dermott 

Reed . . . l c. o i i O'Brien 



Rose Hill 1001 

Harvard 5000 

-Hargous, Hose Hill. Time. — 2 h. 25 m. 



00003=5 
5 5 o o 5 = 20 

Scorers. — Benoist, Sanborn. 



The game between Yale and Harvard was this year arranged for July 5, at 
New Haven. In order to have some practice on the Yale Ground, a game was 
played at Hamilton Park, New Haven, with the Mansfield Club, July 3, and the 



324 BASE BALL. 

excellent fielding displayed by Harvard was very encouraging to the Nine. Har- 
vard, 18; Mansfield, 4. 

In deference to the condition contained in Yale's challenge of 1868, Harvard 
had since that date presented a Nine at each annual match selected from the 
Academical Department; setting aside valuable men, changing the regular posi- 
tions of the players, and materially weakening her Nine. The injustice of this was 
never more strongly felt than in the game of 1871. Already weakened by the 
loss of Eustis, who was unexpectedly obliged to give up his position just previous 
to the Yale game, Harvard was further obliged to do without the services of 
Annan of the Law School. This necessitated several important changes in the 
positions of the Nine, and gave Yale an advantage not to be easily overcome. 
At an interview between the captains of the two Nines, Mr. Deming, for Yale, 
acknowledged the injustice of her conditional challenges, and accepted the stipu- 
lation of Mr. Bush, that, in the future, the selection of the College Nine should 
be made from any department of the Universities. 

In the game of July 5, 1871, Yale, as well as Harvard, was deprived of the 
services of two of her best men, although one of them, Mr. C. Deming, was 
on the field, and, through the courtesy of Mr. Bush, was allowed to direct the 
playing of his Nine. This was perhaps the first attempt — in part — at the 
" ten-men " game which has since been somewhat advocated. 

" The game opened well for Yale, three runs being made on loose fielding. 
Harvard responded with a score of four, three of them earned on safe hits by 
Bush, White, Reed, and Wells. In the next two innings Yale fielded poorly, 
and at the end of the third, the score was thirteen to six in favor of Harvard. 
Yale then batted splendidly for nine runs, and at the end of the sixth inning 
led fifteen to fourteen. Harvard fielded well for two ' blanks,' and obtained 
three runs, score seventeen to fifteen in her favor. Yale succeeded in adding 
four runs to her score in the last inning, and obtained an advantage that 
should have insured her the victory. Harvard, by careful batting and active 
base running, added four to her total and won the game. The fielding of 
Yale was far below her ability, and its most noticeable feature was the absence 
of the coolness which characterized Harvard's playing. Yale led decidedly at 
the bat, and this, supported by ordinary fielding, would have won the game. 
For Harvard, Goodwin never pitched better; and Bush supported him in style, 
not having a passed ball. Austin was the same old short stop of '70, and 
that is high praise. Reynolds and Tyler seemed perfectly at home, though 
playing out of position. The out-field had little to do, but that little was done 
well ; Wells taking a difficult fly at centre, and Allen closing the last innings 
by a fine catch at left. White's batting deserves more than ordinary notice. 
He made five first-base hits, and a total of eight." 



HARVARD. 
Bush . 
Reynolds 
White . 
Reed . 
Wells . 
Goodwin 
Austin . 
Tyler . 
Allen . 





BASE BALL. 




NE 


vV HAVEN, July 5, 1871. 




I B. 


T. 3. YALE. 


POS 


2 


5 Nevin . . . 


T. 


I 


1 Thomas . . 


R 


s 


8 H. C. Deming 


C 


2 


2 Strong . . . 


P 


I 


1 Barnes . . . 


A 


I 


1 Maxwell . . 


B 


O 


Day .... 


S 





Bentley . . 


H 


I 


1 Wheeler . . 


M 



27 



22 13 



Yale 

Harvard 

Time. ■ 
Umpire. — Smith, Mansfield Club. 
Passed Balls. — Bush, o. Bentley, 3. 



S 1 3 ° o 



Scorers. — H. W. B. Howard, W. D. 
Total Errors. — Harvard, 14. Yale, 



An excellent game was played with the Boston Red Stockings on the 14th 
of October. 



HARVARD. 

Eustis . 
Annan . 
Tyler . 
Bush . 
Goodwin 
Reed . 
Walker. 
White . 
Allen . 



BOSTON, October 14, 1871. 

1 B. T. B. BOSTON. 

22 G. Wright 

1 1 Barnes . 

o Birdsall 
3 3 McVey 

1 1 Spaulding 

o Gould . 

1 1 Schafer 

2 2 Barrows 

1 1 H. Wright 



Umpire. — Jackson. Time. — 1 h. 50 m. 

A game with Tufts College Nine was played October 21 



Scorers. — B., Cone ; H., Sanborn. 



JARVIS FIELD, October 21, 1871. 



harvard. 
Eustis . 
Annan . 
Kent . 
Ames . 
Goodwin 
Reed . 
Walker . 
White . 
Allen . 



Tufts . . 
Harvard . 



TUFTS. 


POS. 


0. 


R. 


iB. T. 


Stetson . 


H 


3 


2 


I I 


Bean . . 


s 


3 


2 


O O 


Woodbridge 


L 


2 


2 


I I 


Knowlton . 


C 


1 


2 


I I 


Knight . . 


M 


3 


O 


2 2 


Tufts . . 


B 


3 


I 


O O 


White . . 


A 


4 


O 


O O 


Farnsworth 


R 


5 


O 


O 


Davis . . 


P 


3 


2 


I I 






27 


II 


~6 ~6 


1 3 1 


O O 


4 = 


II 




1 1 3 4 


2 3 


2 = 


23 




rs.— IT., J. L 


/man; 


T., A. 


G. McAllister. 



Umpire. — A.L.Ware. Time. — 2I1. 10 m. Scorers. 
The closing game of the season was played at South Weymouth with the 
Active Club, October 28. Harvard, 35; Active, 6. 



326 BASE BALL. 

The record of the year 1871 shows no such imposing list of games and victo- 
ries as did that of 1870; yet the Nine retained its pre-eminence in amateur con- 
tests, moderately seasoned by "professional" victory. That the number of games 
was not larger was owing, in part, to the edict of the Faculty limiting the con- 
tests to Saturdays, with no provision in case of bad weather. The Nine this 
year sustained an almost irreparable loss in the graduation of Messrs. Bush, 
Wells, Reynolds, and Austin. Mr. Eustis, as a student of the Lawrence Scien- 
tific School, retained his position for some years longer. 

In the following list of games it will be seen that out of sixteen, ten are vic- 
tories. The six games lost were to " professional " clubs. 

SCORES IN GAMES PLAYED, 1871. 



Lowell, of Boston 14 

Boston, of Boston 4 

Tufts College, of Medford 3 2 

Brown University, of Providence 42 

Haymakers, of Troy, New York 15 

Athletic, of Philadelphia 6 

Olympic, of Washington 5 

Chicago, of Chicago 2 

Brown University, of Providence 34 

Eckford, of Williamsburg, New York 9 

Rose Hill, St. John's College, Fordham, N. Y 20 

Mansfield, of Middletown, Conn 18 

Yale College, of New Haven 22 

Boston, of Boston 3 

Tufts College, of Medford 23 

Active, of South Weymouth 35 



1 S3 



OUTS, RUNS, AND BASES. 



Players. No. of Games. Outs. 



t Bases. . A t v |7£= Total Bases. A \ 



Annan 


8 


18 


2.25 


18 


2 


22 


44 


20 


455 


21 


477 


Wells . 


12 


3° 


2.50 


3° 


2 


50 


69 


26 


377 


33 


478 


Bush . 


12 


33 


z-75 


32 


2 


66 


72 


32 


444 


48 


666 


Goodwin 


10 




2.80 


16 


1 


60 


53 


20 


377 


29 


S47 


Reynolds 


11 


33 


3.00 


21 


1 


qi 


63 


25 


397 


28 


444 


Austin 


6 


18 


3.00 


13 


2 


17 


34 


12 


353 


13 


,8, 


Eustis 


7 


22 


3-!4 


12 


1 


71 


38 


13 


342 


19 


500 


Tyler . 


11 


35 


3.18 


17 


1 


ss 


57 


13 


238 


17 


298 


White. 


12 


41 


3-42 


22 


1 


83 


70 


21 


300 


31 


443 


Reed. 


4 


15 


3-75 


6 


1 


SO 


21 


6 


286 


9 


286 


Barnes 


8 


32 


4.00 


7 




«7S 


44 


11 


250 




250 



The first three games of the year 1872 were played with the "Red Stocking," 
or Boston Club. The Harvards presented "trial" Nines in each case, and dis- 
played unexpectedly good fielding. The game of April 13 resulted as follows: 
Harvard, 2; Boston, 12. 

The second game was in many respects a model exhibition of Base Ball ; and 
though the Harvards showed poorly at the bat, their excellent fielding prevented 
any great disparity in the respective scores. 



HARVARD 

McCann 
Annan . 
Tyler . 
Thorp . 
Goodwin 
Reed . 
Estabrooks 
White . 
Chisholm 



BASE BALL. 


BOSTON 


, April 


20, 1872. 


J. T. B. 




BOSTON. 


o 




G. Wright. 


o 




Leonard . . 


o 

i 




McVey . . 
Barnes . . . 


o 




Spaulding 


2 




Gould . . 


O 




Rogers . . 


O 




Schafer . . 


O 




H. Wright . 



327 



Umpire. 



Harvard 
•D. Birdsall. 



000103012 = 7 

000000100 = I 

Time; — 1 h. 30 m. Scorers. — A. L. Ware, J. J. Ryan. 

The third game, on April 27, was poorly played by both Nines, and it would 
be difficult to say whether Harvard's worst display was at the bat or in the field. 
Harvard, 2 ; Boston, 26. 

A game with Tufts College, May n, was noticeable only for the heavy batting 
of Harvard. 



JARVIS FIELD, May 



HARVARD. 

Eustis . . 
Annan . . 
Tyler . . 
White - . . 
Goodwin . 
Reed . . 
Estabrooks 
Chisholm . 
Ames . . 



TUFTS. 

Davis . . 
L. White . 
Farnsworth 
Tufts . . 
G. Knight 
Conklin . 
Stetson . 
C. Knight 
Bean . . 



Tufts o 

Harvard 2 



:i 6 2 9 



Umpire. 



:>!.. , Ulster, Ware. 



On Saturday, May 18, the Nine went to South Weymouth and played a 
good game with the King Philip Nine of Abington. It was an easy victory for 
Harvard. Harvard, 17; King Philip, 7. 

A suggestion came this year from Yale that a series of games should be sub- 
stituted for the annual match, and it was finally agreed that the winning of two 
games in three should decide the College contests. The first game was arranged 
to take place on Jarvis Field, May 25, but owing to threatening weather was 
postponed until the following Saturday. The two Nines, however, were on the 
ground, and, exchanging pitchers and catchers, indulged in a practice game. The 
fielding displayed was considered very favorable for Yale, and her chances of 
winning the match games were held to be better than Harvard's. The first 
game was played at New Haven, June 1. From the outset, victory was in the 
hands of the Harvards, who, by safe and steady batting and accurate fielding, so 



3^8 



BASE BALL. 



increased their own score and kept down that of their opponents, that they won 
easily. 

The batting of both Nines was very heavy, although Harvard excelled in this 
as well as in fielding. Nevin of Yale, and White of Harvard, deserved special 
mention for their batting, the latter player making nearly a third of the total 
base hits of his Nine. Yale's captain, C. Deming, and Harvard's short stop, An- 
nan, were both absent from the game on account of illness. 

NEW HAVEN, June r, 1872. 



Eustis . 



Tyler 
White . 
Goodwin 
Reed . 
Estabrooks 
Chisholm 
Kent . 



H. C. Deming m 


Barnes . . 


A 


Richards 




s 


Payson 




R 


Maxwell 




P 


Bentley 




H 


Nevin . 




L 


Day. . 




B 


Foster . 




C 



Innings. 

Yale . . 
Harvard . 



Umpire. — F. L. Bunce. Time. — 3 h. 35 i 
Total Errors. — Harvard, 12 Yale, 25. 



Scorers. — A. L. Ware, H. W. B. Howard. 
Passed Balls. — White, 3. Bentley, 12. 



The second and deciding game was played on the Boston Ball Ground, 
May 8. " That Harvard defeated her rival was due, not to superiority in batting, 
but to the discipline of the Nine and to the nerve and coolness of a few of the 
older members. Yale has never shown the quiet discipline and determination 
which Harvard possesses, nor the ability to play an up-hill game. For three 
successive years Harvard has wrested victory from her rival's very grasp through 
her excellence in these particulars. The match as a whole was not nearly so 
well played as that of the previous Saturday, the principal falling off being in 
Harvard's general batting. A description of the ninth inning will show how the 
game was won. Harvard had two to tie, and, as Yale went last to the bat, an 
indefinite number to win. Annan was given his first on called balls. Estabrooks 
batted to Maxwell, who threw to second, putting out Annan. Chisholm took 
first base on a muff by Barnes. Kent made a good base hit and completed the 
filling of the bases. Eustis took his bat with customary coolness, and by a beau- 
tiful hit to left centre, which would have been perfectly safe with any one but 
Nevin in the field, and which was just reached without being held by that 
player, brought in Estabrooks. Chisholm was umpired out at home on a mag- 
nificent throw from Nevin to catcher. Hodges got first on called balls and 
Tyler did the same, filling the bases again. White, by a two-base hit to right 
centre-field brought in two men, and would have brought in the third but for 



BASE BALL. 



329 



the careless running of Tyler, who was caught between third base and home. 
This gave Harvard the victory, for Yale had not the power to face Goodwin's 
ninth-inning pitching, and her first chance in five years of using to advantage 
the last inning at the bat went for nothing." 

It is no injustice to other players to say that the game was won by the bril- 
liant batting of Eustis and White. The latter's record at the bat in Yale games 
stands unequalled in the annals of the Club; while Eustis's coolness and hard 
hitting under all circumstances were looked upon as matters of course. 



HARVARD. 

Eustis . 
Hodges 
Tyler . 
White . 
Goodwin 
Annan . 
Estabrooks 
Chisholm 
Kent . 



BOSTON, June 8, 1872. 



YALE. 


POS. 


H. C. Deming m 


Barnes . . 


A 


Richards . 


S 


Hotchkiss 


R 


Maxwell . 


P 


Bentley . 


H 


Nevin . . 


L 


Day . . 


B 


Foster . . 


C 



Yale 

Harvard . . . 
Umpire. — F. Cone, Boston C/ui 



0000 



Time. — 3 h. 30 m. 



7 4 2 = 19 
Scorers. — Ware, Howard. 



On the 1 8th of June Harvard defeated the King Philip Club of Abington, 
one of the strongest Nines in New England. Harvard, 17; King Philip, 5. 

The long series of victories over amateur clubs, which dates back to the year 
1868, was broken in the fall of 1872, Harvard losing two games to the King 
Philip Nine. The results were, in a measure, due to the over-confidence of 
Harvard in playing short-handed, although in each case the victory was fairly 
won. The King Philips had been working hard all of the summer, while the Col- 
lege Nine had not been together during the long vacation. The first game was 
played on Jarvis Field, October 12. Harvard, 5; King Philip, 6. 

The second game was played at East Abington, October 19. 



EAST AEINGTON, October 19, 1872. 



harvard. 
Eustis . . 
Sheahan . 
Tyler . . 
White . . 
Hooper . 
Estabrooks 
Denton 
Chisholm . 
Kent . . 



KING PHILIP. POS. 





J. Madigan 
F. Thompso 
Tirrell . . 




R. Madigan 




Loud . . 


2 


R. Thompso 
Mangan . 




Tillson . . 


2 


Poole . . 



Umpire. — Yznaga. 



Scorers. — Loud, Ware. 



33° 



BASE BALL. 



The full score of the game is given, as it was, up to this date, the only ten- 
innings game in which Harvard had taken part. 

SCORES IN GAMES PLAYED, 1872. 



Boston, of Boston 2 

Boston, of Boston 1 

Boston, of Boston 2 

Tufts College, of Medford S 1 

King Philip, of Abington 17 

Yale College, of New Haven 32 

Yale College, of New Haven 19 

King Philip, of Abington 17 

King Philip, of Abington 5 

King Philip, of Abington 10 

Total 156 



1.YED 


BETWEEN OC 


TOBEI 


U3. 


87 1 


AND OCTOBER 


20, I 


872. 




erage Outs. 


Runs. 


Average Runs. 


At Bat 


1st Bases. 


jftlSs. 


Ba°s«. 


Total Bas 


2.36 




31 


2.81 


6l 




25 


•4°9 


45 




737 


2.50 




22 


2 


20 


57 




15 


.277 


15 




203 


2.60 




H 


2 


80 


32 




9 


.281 


10 




^12 


2.62 




8 


1 


00 


39 




12 


■3°7 


18 




461 


3.00 




23 


2 


3° 


61 




19 


■3" 


20 




327 


3." 




19 


2 


II 


5° 




12 


• 250 


IS 




300 


3.20 




19 


1 


90 


5« 




13 


.224 


14 




24I 


3-37 




20 


2 


5° 


49 




19 


•397 


28 




571 


3-7° 




!S 


1 


5° 


5*> 




H 


.250 


19 




339 



Players. No. of Games. Outs. 

White . 
Reed . . 
Kent . . 
Chisholm 
Tyler . . 
Estabrooks 
Annan . 
Eustis 
Goodwin 

The opening match game of the year 1873 was with the Boston Club, April 26. 
The changes in the Nine of this year were quite important. Goodwin, whose 
graceful and effective delivery as pitcher has seldom been surpassed, withdrew, 
and his position was taken by Hooper. Hodges, at second base, was a much- 
needed acquisition ; while Sheahan caught well behind the bat, White going to 
third base. The game of April 26 was unusually well played. The fielding of 
Hodges, Kent, and Hooper, and the batting of the latter player, were the notice- 
able points in Harvard's game. 

BOSTON, April 26, 1873. 

1 3. T. 3. BOSTON. POS. O. 3. I 3. T. 3. 

i i G.Wright. 

2 2 Barnes . . 
i i Schafer 
i 2 Leonard . 

3 3 White _. . 
o o Spaulding . 
ii- H. Wright 

• 2 2 Manning . 

i i i Birdsall . 



HARVARD. 


POS. 


Eustis . . 


R 


Annan . . 


s 


Tyler . . 


L 


White . . 


C 


Hooper . 


•P 


Sheahan . 


H 


Estabrooks 


M 


Hodges . 


B 


Kent . . 


A 




Tunings. 


H 


ARVARD 



Umpire. — M. E. Chandler. Time. — i h. 35 m. Scorer. — H., Arthur L. Ware. 

Harvard again played the Boston Nine on the 23d of May. The playing was 



BASE BALL. 



331 



not so good as in the previous game, although the score was more favorable for 
Harvard. Boston, 14 ; Harvard 7. 

The Princeton College Club visited Cambridge on May 22, and played its third 
game with Harvard, the previous ones, played in 1868 and 1871, having resulted 
in favor of Harvard. " Harvard took the field with two substitutes, Barker play- 
ing third base, and Cutler left field, owing to the recent accidents to Sheahan 
and Tyler. The first inning resulted in a blank for both sides, while in the 
second Princeton scored two by loose fielding on the Harvard side, the latter 
going out without a run. The end of the third inning found one run added to 
Harvard's score, Princeton drawing a blank. This proved the only run gained 
by Harvard during the game, while Princeton added one in the eighth inning, and 
won by a score of three to one, none of which were earned. The fielding of 
both Nines was excellent, but that of Princeton particularly so. The pitching of 
both Pell and Hooper was almost faultless in its accuracy, and the smallness of 
the score testifies to its effectiveness. White was disabled by a blow in the eye 
from a " tipped " foul, and was obliged to withdraw in the eighth inning. Never 
in the annals of intercollegiate matches has such a game been played, showing 
such a small score of runs and such a paucity of base hits. The heaviest hit- 
ting was done by Harvard, who struck ten times the out-field, while Princeton 
struck but four balls beyond the reach of the in-field ; yet the efficient manner in 
which the out-field was played by Princeton rendered the heavy pounding of 
Harvard of no avail. This game ranks as one of the most noteworthy in Har- 
vard's record. 



JARVIS FIELD, May 22, 1873. 



HARVARD. 

Eustis . 
Hodges . 
Cutler . 
White . 
Hooper . 
Annan . 
Estabrooks 
Barker . 
Kent . . 



27 



Princeton o 

Harvard o 

Umpire. — Barnes, Boston Club. Time, 

Double Play. — Harvard. 



PRINCETON. 


POS. 


O. R. 


Pell . . . 


p 


I j 


Ernst . . 


A 


4 


Bruyere . . 


C 


3 


Williamson 


L 


4 


Paton . . 


M 


3 


Davis . . 


H 


3 1 


Fredericks . 


R 


3 ' 


Beach . . 


S 


4 


Lawrence . 


B 


2 
27 3 


0000 


I 


° = 3 


1000 


O O 


= 1 


-ih. 35 m. 


Scorer 


— Arthur 



The first game of the series with Yale was played at New Haven, May 24. 
" The general play on either side was far from brilliant, but was as good as the 
recent misfortunes to both Nines would warrant. Yale, contrary to her usual 
custom against Harvard, played a fine up-hill game. Annan, besides his general 
good play, made the finest hit of the game, a two-baser over left field. Nevin, 



332 



in the field, made a remarkable left-hand catch, and in the pitcher's position hi 
throwing proved effective. 



NEW HAVEN, May 24, 1873. 



HARVARD. 

Eustis . . 

Hodges. . 

Cutler . . 

White . . 

Hooper. . 

Annan . . 
Estabrooks 

Perry •. . 

Kent . . 



27 



Yale 1 

Harvard 3 

Umpire. — C. Mills. 



YALE. o. 

Maxwell 2 

Avery 3 

Hotchkiss 2 

Scudder 4 

Mitchell s 

Nevin 4 

Wright 2 

Elder 2 

Foster 3 

27 



Scorers. — J. C. Goddard, A. L. Ware. 



An interesting game was played with the Bostons on Jarvis Field, May 28. 
Harvard, 2 ; Boston, 14. 

A game played with the Mutual Club of New York, on the Boston Ground, 
was one of the finest exhibitions of the season. 



HARVARD. 


POS. 


Eustis . . 


R 


Hodges 


B 


Tyler . . 


C 


White . . 


H 


Hooper . 


P 


Annan . . 


s 


Estabrooks 


M 


Cutler . . 


L 


Kent . . 


A 


1 


nnmgs. 


E 


ARVARD 


M 


UTUAL 





BOSTON, 


May 


29, 1873. 




T. B. 

I 




MUTUAL. 

Eggler . . 
Bellan . . 
Hatfield . 
Start . . 




4 
1 




Higham . 
Hicks . . 


O 







Matthews . 





2 




Gedney 
Holdsworth 



Umpire. — Barnes. 



Time. — 2 h. 10 m. 



Scorer. — H., A. L. Ware. 



The second and deciding contest of the year between Yale and Harvard took 
place on Jarvis Field, May 31. The result was such that the question of 
superiority between the two Nines was settled beyond doubt. It is worthy of 
note that this was the first game ever played by Yale on Harvard's ground, 
while Harvard had visited New Haven four times. " The fine catching of 
Bentley behind the bat was in marked contrast with the general loose field- 
ing of Yale. Hooper's faultless pitching, the first-base playing of Kent, the 
catching of White, two double plays by Annan, Hodges, and Kent, a very 
difficult foul bound by Tyler, and a fly-ball caught on a running jump at left 
field by Cutler, were the noticeable points of Harvard's fielding. Hodges's bat- 
ting score speaks for itself." Yale this year adopted, for the first time, the 
practice of throwing the ball to the striker, instead of pitching it. 













BASE BALL. 










JARVIS FIELD, May 31, 1873. 


HARVARD. POS. 


0. 


R. 


iB. 


T. B. YALE. 


Eustis . . . R 


2 


5 


3 


S Maxwell . . 


Hodges . 


B 


O 


7 


4 


4 Avery . 




Tyler . . 


c 


3 


4 


1 


1 Bentley 




White . . 


H 


2 


3 


1 


2 Scudder 




Hooper . 


P 


6 





1 


1 Elder . 




Annan . . 


s 


4 


2 


3 


3 Nevin . 




Estabrooks 


M 


4 


2 





Wright . 




Cutler . . 


L 


5 


1 





Foster . 




Kent . . 


A 




_5 


3 


3 Hotchkiss 






27 


29 


16 


19 


Innings. 








■ 23456 


Vale . 








. . . 030200 


Harvard 








•■•337412 


Umpire. — Allison. 








Scorers. — K, G 


Time. — 2 h. 


38 m. 








Fielding Errors 



333 



lard ; IT., A. L. Ware. 
Yale, 28. Harvard, 10. 

An excellent game was played with the King Philip Club on Jarvis Field, June 6. 
The result was a surprise to both Nines, and yet the game was fairly won by 
the King Philips, who both out-batted and out-fielded Harvard. Harvard, 6 ; King 
Philip, 8. 

The return match was played at East Abington, June 14. This was the last 
game played by the regular Nine of 1873, and the result was a welcome vic- 
tory for Harvard. 



EAST ABINGTON, June 14, 1873. 



harvard. 
Eustis . . 
Hodges . 
Tyler . . 
White . . 
Hooper . 
Annan . . 
Estabrooks 
Cutler . . 
Kent . . 



T.B. 


KING PHILIP. POS. 


0. 


R. 


iB. 


T. 5 


S 


J. Madigan . h 


3 


I 


O 


O 


O 


W. Thompson p 


4 


O 


O 


O 


I 


Tirrell ... a 


4 


O 


I 


I 


4 


R. Madigan . R 


3 


I 


O 


O 





F. Thompson B 


3 


O 


I 


I 


4 


Bates . . . c 


3 


I 


O 


O 


4 


R. Thompson s 




I 


O 


O 


1 


Loud . . . l 


3 


O 


I 


I 





Mangan . . m 


2 


I 


I 


I 



Harvard . .• 8 

King Philip o 

— Mr. Sheahan. 



0030000 
0200030 



Scorer. — H., G. P. Sanger. 



The first game of the Fall Term of 1873 was with the Una Club of Charles- 
town, on Jarvis Field, October 18. Harvard, 23; Una, 11. 

The most important victory ever won by Harvard over a professional club 
was in a game on November 1, when the Bostons were defeated by an ama- 
teur Nine for the first time since their organization. The game was not espe- 
cially well played by either club, and was won by the superior batting of Harvard, 
the presence of the " veterans " Bush, Wells, and McKim in the field adding not 
a little to her success. " The fielding was marked by a fine throw of Bush 
to second, putting out O'Rourke ; an equally fine throw of Hodges to Bush, 



334 



BASE BALL. 



catching G. Wright; good catches by McKim and Tower; a double by Tyler 
and Hodges ; the faultless base playing of Kent ; and the usual excellent pitch- 
ing of Hooper. Owing to darkness, the game was called at the close of the 

eighth inning." 

BOSTON, November i, 1873. 



Spaulding 
Manning 
White . 
O'Rourke 
Addy . . 
Schafer . 
H. Wright 



HARVARD. 


POS. 


Hodges 


■ b . ; 


Bush . . 


• H J 


Wells I 
Tower j ' 






Tyler . . 


. S 2 


Hooper 


• p 5 


McKim . 


• R 3 


Kent . . 


• A 3 


Tyng . . 


• c 3 


Cutler . . 


. L C 




27 




Harvard 



Umpire. — Sweasy, Boston Club. 
Time.— 2 h. 10 m. 



Scorer. — H., W. D. Sanborn. 
Runs earned. — Harvard, 8. 



SCORES IN GAMES PLAYED, 1873. 

Boston, of Boston 4 

Boston, of Boston 7 

Princeton, of Princeton 1 

Yale, of New Haven 16 

Boston, of Boston 2 

Mutual, of New York 3 

Yale, of New Haven 29 

King Philip, of Abington 6 

King Philip, of Abington 12 

Una, of Charlestown 23 

Boston, of Boston 21 



Total, 



124 



AVERAGES IN GAMES PLAYED BETWEEN OCTOBER 1, 1872, AND OCTOBER 



Annan . 
Kent . 
White . 
Estabrooks 
Hooper 
Tyler . 
Eustis . 
Hodges 
Cutler . 



2-545 
2.636 
2.727 
2.818 
2-857 
3.100 
3.111 
3-625 



7. Runs. 


Strike 


.200 


48 


.818 


48 


.181 


55 


.OOO 


S3 


•363 


52 


.142 


37 


•363 


5i 


III 


44 


625 


3« 



t Bases. Bases. 

333 18 

229 13 

163 II 

207 14 

269 14 

189 7 

333 2° 



The season of 1873 brought to a close an interesting and successful period of 
Harvard's Ball history. The last of an uninterrupted series of eight victories 
over Yale was won during this year, and the last of the players identified with 
the famous Nine of 1870 withdrew from the Club. Eustis, White, and Annan 
were in the very first rank of ball players, — whether "professionals" or ama- 
teurs, — and their achievements both at the bat and in the field, not to mention 
their high standing as students, entitle them to more than ordinary praise. 



BASE BALL. 



335 



The first game of 1874 was played with the Boston Club on the 22d of 
April, on the Boston Ground. The Harvard Nine contained five new men, 
whose playing was unexpectedly good, both at the bat and in the field. The 
number of first-base hits was the same for both Nines. The disparity in the 
scores was owing, not to Harvard's inferior fielding, but to the succession of base 
hits in two or three innings on the part of Boston, while Harvard's batting was 
pretty evenly distributed throughout the game. Harvard, 10; Boston, 24. 

A game was played with the Chelsea Club on Jarvis Field, May 9. Har- 
vard, 18; Chelsea, 8. 

The Nine visited Providence on the 23d of May, and played a game with the 
Brown College Nine. 



HARVARD. 




POS. 


Leeds . 


. . s 


Hodges 




B 


Tyler . 
Hooper. 




C 




P 


Kent . 




A 


Tyng . 




M 


Cutler . 




L 


Thatcher 




H 


Spinney 




R 




Inni,„, 




Harvard 




Bi 


(OWN . 



PROVIDENCE, May 23, 1874. 

1 B. T. B. BROWN. 

2 2 Comstock . 

i i C. Aldrich 

2 2 Calden . . 

2 2 Park . . 

1 1 Van Wickle 

1 1 Brown . . 
00 H. Aldrich 

2 4 Tyler . . 
2 2 Parker . . 



1000 



Umpire. — Jennings. Time. — 2 h. 10 m. Scorers. 



Wood ; H., G. P. Sanger. 



A game was played with the Live Oak Club at Lynn, June 5. The result 
was thought to demonstrate Harvard's ability to hit swiftly thrown balls. Har- 
vard, 26 ; Live Oak, 1. A return game on Jarvis Field with the Live Oak Club, 
June 1 3, resulted in a creditable victory for the College Nine. Harvard, 1 2 ; 
Live Oak, 1. 

A game with the Boston Nine on Jarvis Field, June 18, resulted, as usual, 
in a "creditable defeat" for Harvard. Harvard, 7; Boston, 19. 

The return of many of the graduate ball men to Cambridge, in anticipation of 
Commencement, resulted in the organization of an impromptu Nine, and a 
spirited contest with the representatives of the College Club. The older men 
were wanting neither in activity nor confidence. The evidences of their old-time 
skill were apparent in occasional brilliant plays, and their batting at the ball was 
very heavy. The pitching of Goodwin and Smith seemed to have lost none of 
its effectiveness; Shaw played without an error, and the general fielding was 
above the expectations of the " veterans." 



336 











BASE 


BALL. 










CAMBRIDGE 


June 23, 1S74. 


GRADUATES. POS. 


0. 


je. 


iJ 


T.B. 


undergraduates. 


Bush, '71 . . H 


4 








O 


Leeds . . 


Eustis, '71 . m 


4 








O 


Hodges . 




Perrin, '70 . A 


2 





2 


2 


Tyler . . 




Flagg, '66 . . s 
Parker, '67 . R 


2 





2 


2 


Hooper . 




4 








O 


Kent . . 




Reynolds, '71 L 


2 


2 


I 


I 


Tyng . . 




Smith, '69 . c 


2 


1 


1 


I 


Tower . 




Goodwin, '73 p 


4 








O 


Thatcher 




Shaw, '69 . . B 


_3 


1 


O 


O 


Ernst . . 






27 


4 


~6 


~6 




Innings. 










1 2 3 4 s s 


Graduates . 








02001 1 


Undergraduates . 






00564 


2 



Umpire. — Mr. Sears, '74. Time. — 1 h. 55 m. Scorers. — G. P. Sanger, W. D. Sanborn. 

The Chelsea Club furnished good practice for the Nine, June 27, on Jarvis 
Field. Harvard, 28; Chelsea, 6. 

Early in the season arrangements had been made to have a series of games 
between the clubs of Princeton, Yale, and Harvard, at Saratoga, on the. occasion 
of the College Regatta. The Princeton Nine afterwards decided to play its share 
of the games elsewhere, and for this purpose visited New Haven and Boston. 
After being badly defeated by Yale, Princeton played Harvard in Boston on the 
30th of June. The Harvards expected an easy victory, and their over-confidence 
resulted in some careless playing in the early part of the game. The heavy 
batting of the last two innings failed to overcome Princeton's advantage, and the 
game was lost after a peculiar contest, in which the number of errors was the 
same on both sides, Harvard leading at the bat. Fourteen men were put out by 
the Harvard catcher, and three "assisted" out. This is something almost unpre- 
cedented in ball playing, and testifies to the effectiveness of both pitching and 
catching. 

BOSTON, June 30, 1874. 
O. R. 1 B. T. B. PRINCETON. POS. O. S. i B. T. B. 



HARVARD. 

Leeds . 
Hodges 
Tyler . 
Hooper 
Kent . 
Tyng . 
Tower . 
Thatcher 
Ernst . 



Beach . 
Laughlin 
Van Deventer 
Woods . . 
Bruyere 
Bonner . . 
Williamson 
Paton . . 
Mann . . 



16 21 



o = 13 



Princeton 100207 

Harvard 200001 

Umpire. — C. H. Porter. Scorers. — P., T. W. Harvey ; H., G. P. Sanger, Jr. 

Time. — 1 h. 45 Total Errors. — Princeton, 14. Harvard, 14. 

The second game between Princeton and Harvard was played in Boston, July 2. 
Princeton did poorly at the bat and much worse in the field, while Harvard 



fielded somewhat better than in the previous game, and batted with more effect. 
The fielding of Hodges, Leeds, Tyler, and Kent was nearly faultless, and the 
batting of Kent and Hooper was remarkably safe and heavy. 



HARVARD. 

Leeds . 
Hodges 
Tyler . 
Hooper 
Kent . 
Tyng . 
Walker. 
Thatcher 
Ernst . 



Umpire. - 
Time. — : 






27 



DSTO 


% July 2, 1874. 


T.B. 


PRINCETON. 


O 


Beach . . . 


2 


Laughlin . . 


2 


Van Deventer 


6 


Woods . . . 


9 


Bruyere . . 




Bonner . . . 




Williamson . 





Paton . . . 


2 


Mann . . . 



19 



26 



Princeton 001101010=4 

Harvard 4503 1 00 1 5 = 19 

-E. S. Payson. Scorers. — P., T. W. Harvey ; H., G. P. Sanger, Jr. 

h. 15 m. Errors. — Princeton, 30. Harvard, 16. 



The Nine visited Hartford on the 4th of July and played the " professional " 
club of that city a game of six innings. The Harvards were unable to master 
the swift pitching of their opponents, who, on the contrary, batted Hooper won- 
derfully well. Harvard, 1 ; Hartford, 18. 

The third and deciding game of the series with Princeton was played in Hart- 
ford, July 8. The fielding was very poor, the number of errors of each Nine 
exceeding twenty, while, as in the previous games, Harvard excelled in batting. 
A tenth inning was necessary to decide the game, which was the second occur- 
rence of a like instance in Harvard's ball history. Notwithstanding the result of 
the contests with Princeton, her Nine was inferior to Harvard's, and incapable of 
playing such fielding games as the Yale-Harvard matches of 1874. 



HARVARD 

Leeds 
Hodges 
Tyler . 
Hooper 
Kent . 
Tyng . 
Tower 
Thatcher 
Ernst . 



3° 



HARTFORD, 


July 8, 1874. 


B. T. B. 


PRINCETON. 


2 2 


Beach . . 


2 2 


Laughlin . . 




Van Deventer 


O O 


Woods . . 


I I 


Bruyere . . 




Cooke . . 


O O 


Williamson . 


2 2 


Paton . . . 


O O 


Mann . . . 



3° 



Princeton 0310102013 = n 

Harvard 50010001 10=8 

Time. — 2 h. 45 m. 

Scorers.— A T. W. Harvey; H., G. P. Sanger, Jr 



Umpire. — Mr. Avery, Yale. 



333 



BASE BALL. 



The Yale- Harvard matches of this year were played at Saratoga on the occa- 
sion of the College Regatta, and were very peculiar from a variety of circum- 
stances. In the contests of former years Yale has never approached Harvard in 
the excellence of her pitching and catching, and in the matter of pitching this 
applies as well to 1874. The swift and accurate delivery of Hooper, admitting 
of, and indeed requiring, an abundance of "head-work," is the result of years of 
practice, and a perfect illustration of the style prescribed by the rules formerly 
regulating amateur contests. The practice of throwing the ball to the batsman 
— now becoming almost universal — does away with what has been considered 
the most scientific point in the game. Judgment in varying the pace, in deliver- 
ing "swifts" or deceptive "slows," is not a requisite of a good thrower; but, on 
the other hand, there is need of additional courage and endurance in the catcher 
who is to support the terrible pounding of thrown balls. In the very essential 
points of age and experience the Harvard Nine of this year suffers in compari- 
son with those of former years; but it would be an injustice to say that the 
intercollegiate matches were lost through inferiority in fielding or from lack of 
heavy batsmen. It was the combination of swift throwing and superb catching 
that defeated Harvard in the games at Saratoga, for in these two particulars Yale 
was unsurpassed by either " professionals " or amateurs. The first game, on July 
14, was characterized by weak batting and superior fielding, Yale making five 
errors and Harvard four. 













SARATOGA, July 14, 1874. 








HARVARD. POS. 


0. 


R. 


1 B. 


T. B. YALE. 


POS. 


0. 


Leeds . . . s 


4 


O 


1 


i Hotchkiss 


. R 


3 


Hodges 




B 


4 


O 





Nevin . 




c 


2 


Tyler . 




M 


3 


O 


1 


1 Bentley 




H 


3 


Thatcher 




R 




O 





Avery . 




P 


3 


Kent . 




A 


4 


O 





Bigelow 




A 


3 


Tyng . 




C 


4 


O 





Osborn 




S 


3 


Tower . 




L 


3 


O 





Maxwell 




B 


4 


Hooper 




P 




O 


1 


1 Smith . 




M 


4 


Bettens 




H 


2 


O 


1 


1 Foster . 




L 


2 




27 





4 


4 




27 


Inning!. 








■2345 


678 


, 


Yale . 








. . . 2 10 


IOO 


= 


Harvard 








. . . OOOOO 


OOO 


= 


Umpire. — F. B. Williamson, Princeton. 


Scorers. — K, A. I. 


Kennett ; 


H.,G. 


Time. — 1 


h. 


55 m. 








Errors. — Yale, 5. 


Ha 


rvard, 


4- 



P. Sanger, Jr. 



The second game was played on the following day, July 15, and, notwith- 
standing the greater number of errors made, it was the finer game of the two, 
since the batting was heavier and necessitated better fielding. Yale outbatted 
and outran Harvard, but in the field was superior only in one position, that of 
catcher. Tower deserves special mention for his fielding in this game. Leeds, 
Tyler, and Kent played both matches without an error, while the captain — Tyler 



BASE BALL. 



339 



— and Leeds did the batting in the second game, making five out of the total 
of seven base hits. Accepting both styles of delivering the ball to the bat as 
legitimate, and noting the advantage which Yale possessed in her throwing, the 
result of the second game may be taken as a standard of the respective merits 
of the two University Nines. 



HARVARD. 




POS. 


Leeds . 


. s 


Hodges 




B 


Tyler . 




M 


Thatcher 




R 


Kent . 




A 


Tyng . 




C 


Tower . 




L 


Hooper 




P 


Bettens . 


. H 




/„„,-,*, 




Yale . . 




H 


ARVARD 



SARATOGA, July 15, 1874. 

1 B. T. B. YALE. 

2 2 Hotchkiss 
1 1 Nevin . 

3 3 Bentley 
o o Avery . 
o o Bigelow 
o o Osborn . 

o Maxwell 

1 1 Smith . 
o o Foster . 



Time. — 1 h. 55 m. 
Umpire. — F. B. Williamson, Princeton. Scorers. — Y., A. I. Kennett : 



H., 



= 4 

G. P. Sanger, Jr. 



PLAYERS OF THE UNIVERSITY NINE, 1863-75. 





Class. 


pfayed. 




Class. 


Played. 


D. P. Abercrombie 


'66 


22 


E. D. Greenleaf, 


'66 


4 


O. E. Allen, 


'72 


7 


F. A. Harris, 


'66 


4 


J. B. Ames, 


'68 


41 


A. G. Hodges, 


'74 


27 


W. H. Annan, 


'75 


35 


S. H. Hooper, 


'75 


28 


Percy Austin, 


'7i 


65 


A. Hunnewell, 


'68 


46 


B. B. Banker, 


'66 


16 


A. B. Irons, 


'66 


3 


W. T. Barker, 


'73 


5 


J. F. Kent, 


'75 


33 


A. M. Barnes, 


'71 


20 


Rufus King, 


'67 


1 


J. C. Bartlett, 


'69 


1 


J. G. King, 


'75 


2 


T S. Bettens, 


'74 


4 


H. C. Leeds, 


'77 


15 


E. Bowditch, 


•69 


11 


E. W. Mealey, 


'67 


13 


A. McC. Bush 


'71 


104 


G. S. Miller, 


'69 


5 


H. Chisholm, 


'74 


11 


G. R. Minot, 


'7i 


7 


S. P. Cook, 


'67 


1 


M. J. McCann, 


'74 


2 


W. S. Cutler, 


'75 


8 


C. F. McKim, L. 


S. S. 


4 


W. F. Davis, 


'67 


8 


E. B. Nelson, 


'73 


1 


H. Denton, L. 


S. S. 


1 


T. Nelson, 


•66 


14 


J. A. Estabrooks, 


'73 


22 


H. B. Parker, 


'67 


27 


H. C. Ernst, 


'76 


8 


F. G. Peabody, 


'69 


7 


F. I. Eustis, 


'68 


2 


W. T. Perrin, 


'7° 


57 


W. E. C. Eustis, 


'71 


IOI 


N. W. Perry, 


'76 


2 


F. G. Fessenden, L. S. '72 


1 


F. Rawle, 


'69 


35 


Charles Fiske, 


'66 


3 


B. C. Reed, 


'74 


*S 


G. A. Flagg, 


'66 


33 


John Reynolds, 


'7i 


67 


J. C. Goodwin, 


'73 


65 


A. F. B. Sears, 


'75 


1 


Edward Gray, 


'72 


2 









T. H. Gray, 
E. H. Sears, 
M. S. Severance, 
R. G. Shaw, 
J. M. Sheahan, 
W. H. Simmons, 
N. S. Smith, 
R. H. Soule, 
W. F. Spinney, 

E. E. Sprague, 

F. P. Stearns, 
Bellamy Storer, 
H. K. Thatcher, 
J. G. Thorp, L. 
W. G. Tiffany, 

A. C. Tower, 
C. T. Tyler, 
J. A. Tyng, 
E. W. Walker, 
R. C. Watson, 
J. B. Wells, 
H. S. White, 

G. G. Willard, 
G. C. Wing, 
Frank Wright, 



540 



BASE BALL. 



No mention has been made in this record of class matches played since the 
University Nine was organized. A complete list of such games cannot be ob- 
tained; they were mostly confined to the Freshmen classes, and it will perhaps 
be sufficient to notice that in the most important of these contests — those with 
Yale — Harvard has lost the majority of games played. The Classes of '71, '75, 
and '76 were the Harvard winners. 

The Nine has been remarkably fortunate in its captains, and to their good 
judgment and skill must be attributed much of Harvard's success. 

Mr. Frank Wright and Mr. George A. Flagg worked together in the manage- 
ment of the Club from its organization till the summer of 1866. Mr. Flagg is 
more closely identified with the early history of the Nine than any other person, 
and from him were received many of the facts in this record that could not 
have been obtained elsewhere. Mr. James Barr Ames was captain from the 
summer of 1866 to the summer of 1868, and was succeeded by Mr. Gardner G. 
Willard, who held the position until his graduation in 1869. Mr. A. McC. Bush 
succeeded him, and was in turn followed by Mr. Horatio S. White, who filled the 
position from the summer of 1871 until the summer of 1873. Mr. C. T. Tyler 
was captain during the year 1874. The present management — 1875 — is very 
similar to that of the early years of the Club. Mr. J. F. Kent is to act as cap- 
tain in the field, while Mr. S. H. Hooper will attend to the other duties of the 
position. Messrs. Willard and Bush were soldiers in the Union Army during 
the War of the Rebellion, the latter as captain. 

There can be but one opinion in regard to the good effect of ball playing 
upon the health and physique of the students; and in this connection there is 
one important fact in Harvard ball statistics that should commend itself to those 
who can conceive of no active relationship between mind and muscle. The most 
skilful, and by far the most successful Nine that Harvard has ever sent into the 
field — 1870 — was possessed of more than ordinary intellectual vigor. Its aver- 
age as a whole on the rank list was over 70 per cent, while that of six of its 
members was 80 per cent and upwards. 

It is not out of place to close this record with a slight tribute to one who is 
universally considered facile princeps among Harvard ball players, — Mr. A. McC. 
Bush, '71. He has taken part in one hundred and four games as a member of 
the Nine, never having been absent from a match while connected with the 
Club. His playing has never been excelled for strength, grace, and effectiveness, 
while his success as captain is shown in the fact that the Nine never lost a 
game to an amateur club while under his management. 




THE INSTITUTE OF 1770. 

The Speaking Club. — Its Objects. — Early Members. — The Mercurian Club. — Patriotic 
Association. — The Social Fraternity. — Hermetick Society. — 'A/cpi/3oAoyou^€i/oi. — The Insti- 
tute of 1770. — The I. O. H. — Selection of Members. — The Library. — Rooms. 

The times were needing strong words from young Americans when Samuel 
Phillips, John Warren, and the rest of the Class of 1771 began their Senior year; 
while the College authorities, as these students remarked, in language not wholly 
strange to later generations, showed " a cold indifference to the practice of Ora- 
tory." What was called the " Speaking Club " was therefore organized, with 
Phillips, later Lieutenant-Governor of the State, as President, and with a Secre- 
tary who kept remarkably full and accurate records, happily still preserved, of 
these first meetings. It was voted "that there be a stage to perform on, four 
feet Diameter, not more than two Feet high, with the front Corners dipt"; and 
upon the stage thus made and "dipt" Orations and Essays on the profoundest 
themes were " performed " with great regularity. Warren spoke on " The Beauty 
of the Heavenly Bodies " ; Avery, on " The Odiousness of Envy " ; and Thomas, 
on "The Pernicious Habit of drinking Tea": each of which performances the 
Record describes as "ejus compositionem." It was early voted also "that no 
member shall speak in Latin without special leave from the President"; and "that 
the Secretary provide candles." 

Founded in this very earnest and business-like way, the Society throve and en- 
dured, and numbered among its members in these early days such men as Chris- 
topher Gore, Rufus King, James Freeman, Henry Ware, and John Ouincy Adams. 
Other societies, with a kindred purpose, appeared from time to time by its side, 
and each in its turn was merged in the older organization. In 1773 it is written 
that, " Having had intelligence that there is an honourable Club in College, known 
by the name of the Mercurian Club, founded in 1771 by Fisher Ames" and 
others, and " that these worthy Founders went upon the same noble principle in 
founding their Club which is set forth in our Preamble," — therefore the two clubs 
were united with great formality under the old name of The Speaking Club. 



342 THE INSTITUTE OF 1770. 

During the years 1778-9 the records are wanting, but there is a tradition 
that the Society was maintained in secret by the Senior classes. Throughout 
this early history there was much taking of oaths not to disclose the secret of 
the Society, " or even that there is such an one subsisting." This secret appears 
to have been the fact that the Society was organized for the practice of oratory; 
and in 1801 it seems to have occurred to the members that the name "Speak- 
ing Club " might suggest the mysterious purpose of their meetings. " Being 
actuated," as they write, " by the benevolent purpose to transmit this inviolable 
secret unimpaired as a blessing to posterity," they changed the dangerous name 
to that of " Patriotic Association." It subsequently assumed the name of " The 
Social Fraternity of 1770." In 1825 two more of its rivals, the " Hermetick So- 
ciety " and the " 'A/cpi/3o\oyovfi.6voi," combined with the " Social Fraternity," and the 
enlarged Society took the name of "The Institute of 1770." Still later, in 1848, 
the I. O. H., another club of the same nature, followed the lead of its fellows 
and surrendered to the Institute, leaving it alone in its field until a few years 
since. In 1837 the seal was designed by Rev. Samuel Longfellow, then in his 
Sophomore year. 

The Institute was originally a Senior society. In 1781, "the Senior Members, 
being obliged to pay a more strict attention to their Collegiate Exercises than the 
Duties of this Club would permit," resigned it to the Junior class. Later, by slow 
processes of degeneration, Sophomores, and even promising Freshmen, were admitted. 
Tradition has at last hallowed the maintenance of the Society by Sophomores 
choosing at the end of their year ten Freshmen who in turn elect their classmates. 

As early as 1782 a Valedictory Oration was made a regular annual custom, 
and it is still continued, with the addition of a Poem. The library of the So- 
ciety has always been much used, has grown to be of very considerable value, 
and receives additions from the fund of each class at the end of its year of 
active membership. It was kept at No. 2 Holworthy Hall, which room was occu- 
pied free of rent by the Librarian, who was elected at the end of his Sophomore 
year, and held the office during his Junior year. The Society has held its 
meetings, in the rooms of its members, in Nos. 17 and 19 Massachusetts Hall 
and in the lower and upper stories of the same building, until in 1873, when 
the present rooms in Holyoke House, to which the library has been transferred, 
were obtained and fitted up by the Class of 1875. The Institute thus stands 
among the older College societies with a marked and creditable distinction. It 
is the only one whose members, from a distant beginning, have devoted them- 
selves to the definite purpose of declamation, composition, and debate, and 
have not lost sight of or neglected this purpose, either from lack of interest 
in it or from love of more social entertainment. The traditions of the past, the 
needs of the present, and the inspiration of new competitors, all tend to keep 
this original purpose alike clear and profitable. 





THE O B K SOCIETY. 



The Charter, 1779— First regular Meeting. — Mode of Initiation. — Oath. — The * B K at 

first an active literary society. nature of the exercises. — movement against secret 

Societies in 1799 — The Activity of the Society becomes dormant after forty Years. — 
Secrecy abolished in 1S26. — The Vote on Membership. — The Undergraduates a separate 
Organization. — Annual Dinners. — Wine prohibited. — Report of Professor Bowen on 
the Constitution. — The Library distributed. 



The Phi Beta Kappa Society of Harvard College was established in 1779, by 
a Charter from William and Mary College, in Virginia, bearing date December 
4, 1779. According to the records, it appears that the first regular meeting was 
held September 5, 1781. The Charter is in English, in the form of a sealed 
instrument, and signed by the president, vice-president, treasurer, and secretary, 
and all the members " of the $ B K of the meeting A\<j>a of William and Mary 
College, Virginia, to their well and truly beloved Brother Elisha Parmele, greet- 
ing," authorizing him to establish a Fraternity of not less then three persons, to 
be called the A\<j>a of Massachusetts Bay. These three were to hold the " Foun- 
dation Meeting," and elect officers. The rules of the A\<f>a of William and Mary 
were to be the rules of this A\<f>a until altered. A form of oath of secrecy was 
set forth, and a full ritual for initiation. This branch was to report annually to 
the parent fraternity of William and Mary, and had authority to " grant charters 
for the establishment of other meetings in the State of Massachusetts Bay, which 
meetings are to stand in the same relations to you that the junior branches of 
this society stand in to the meeting of the A\<j>a here." The " token of saluta- 
tion " was to be the same with that of the parent society, and to be used as a 
means of introduction among members of different branches. 

With the Charter was sent a body of laws, forms, and ceremonies, written out at 
length on pp. 9 to 25 of the records, except that the secrets were not put in writ- 
ing, nor was the token of salutation. The ceremonies of introduction and initia- 
tion were very minute and elaborate. The elected member presented a written 
paper, requesting admission, the words of which were prescribed. He asks ad- 



344 



THE * B K SOCIETY. 



mission on the ground of " a full conviction of the benefits arising from society 
in general, and particularly from one which I hope has Friendship for its basis, 
and Benevolence and Literature for its pillars." The address of the president 
to the candidate is according to a formula, with five questions the candidate 
is to answer. It concludes by informing the candidate that the original 
members "planted the scion from which has grown this tree, that now buds 
forth before your eyes, with the blossoms of Harmony and Concord. It was 
engrafted on the stock of Friendship, in the soil of Virtue, enriched by Litera- 
ture A friendly communion established, as a recreation to the philosophic 

mind, satiate with investigating the various springs of human thought and human 
actions," and much of the same sort of verbiage. The oath of admission is " upon 
the Holy Evangelists of Almighty God, or otherwise calling upon the Supreme 
Being to attest this your oath." 

There is appended the following table, the meaning of which is not given : — 



N Z 


A 1 ° 1 c 


Y 


B 


P 


X 


D 


W Q V 


R. E U 


•1- 


G T H 


S 


L 


I | K . | J 



The laws are thirty-six in number, and quite strict. It appears that the inter- 
communication between branch societies was expected to be considerable, and 
some authority was claimed for the parent society, which, however, soon disap- 
peared in practice. 

For many years the $ B K was an active literary society. The meetings of 
immediate members, who were undergraduates of the Senior class and during the 
last half of the Junior year, were frequent, and held in students' rooms. Resi- 
dent graduate members also attended. Subjects were given out for written theses 
and oral debate, and the records always give the subjects and the names of those 
who read papers or took part in the debates. The subjects were various, and 
taken from many branches of liberal inquiry, in science, letters, theology, philoso- 
phy, history, and politics, and often bore upon the current politics of the time. 
The members were always taken from the leading men in College, and the list 
of members shows the very elite of the educated youth, a large proportion of 
whom became eminent in life. It has often been suggested that the $ B K had 
its origin in revolutionary and infidel intentions, so general towards the end of 
the last century. There are no traces of this in the records, or in the character 
of the members, or in the subjects discussed, and the form of oath seems to 
negative it. 

It appears that in 1799 there was a movement against secret societies in Con- 
necticut, and that the A\<j>a at New Haven were considering the subject of break- 



THE <S> B K SOCIETY. 



345 



ing up their society, and of advising the like action in other branches. A com- 
mittee was appointed to remonstrate with the heretical Yale brethren, of which 
William Ellery Channing was chairman. 

In 1815 there were, for many months, but two immediate members, and the 
Society fell off in interest. The difficulty seems to have been adjusted and the 
number was filled up, and earnest attempts seem to have been made to revive 
the interest in debates and theses. But it became plain that forty years or so 
was to be the limit of the activity and influence of the Society as an intellectual 
and social power, and as a school of mutual improvement within the College 
walls; and after 1820 the records show nothing more than the routine of mere 
business meetings, almost solely for election and initiation of new members. The 
library was small, and books were neglected and often lost. The number of mem- 
bers was not over fifteen in each class. A unanimous vote was required for elec- 
tion. The Senior members elected three Juniors toward the end of the Junior 
year, and these three filled up the number of their own class. 

About the year 1826, the country was greatly moved on the subject of secret 
societies and extra-judicial oaths, growing out of the murder of Morgan and other 
actual or imputed doings of certain Masonic fraternities, and the alleged incon- 
sistency of such societies with equal public rights and civil liberty. John Quincy 
Adams repeatedly and earnestly brought the subject before the Phi Beta Kappa 
at the annual meetings of the honorary members, not that he had fears as to the 
effect or purpose of this Society, but upon principle. He at length carried his 
point, and in 1831 all secrecy was removed. It then transpired that the awful 
secret was that $ B K were the initial letters of (f>i\oa-o<j>ta fiwv KvPepvrJTe<s, Philoso- 
phy the guide of life. What was the secret token of recognition, and what the 
meaning of the " Table," has perhaps been forgotten. 

A single blackball had always excluded a candidate, and this power, so irrespon- 
sibly lodged, had doubtless been sometimes abused. After several changes, the 
Constitution has settled down upon the provision that three fourths of the votes, 
and not less than twenty-five in number, must be affirmative, to constitute an 
election by honorary members. Members of other branches present at meetings 
are not entitled to vote. 

The undergraduates, officially called "immediate members," have gradually be- 
come a separate organization, but under the control of the general society. The 
general society, composed of honorary and immediate members alike, meets now 
but once a year, on the day after Commencement, elects a president, vice-president, 
treasurer, secretary, and a literary committee, which selects the orator and poet; 
and there is, with rare exceptions, both an oration and poem, and always a dinner, 
in a College building. It is believed that this is the only branch which has a 
dinner ; at least it is the only branch which makes the dinner an important feature 



346 



THE * B K SOCIETY. 



of the anniversary. It has been long the pride and pleasure of the Society. The 
vicinity to Boston insures a full attendance ; and as reporters are excluded, and 
any newspaper notice of what may be said and done at the festivities is forbidden 
on honor, these dinners have always been occasions of the most hearty, free, and 
cheerful intercourse, with wit, humor, repartee, and sometimes the most earnest 
and serious eloquence, though of the less prepared and elaborate order ; and there 
has always been a good representation of the most potent, grave, and reverend 
seigniors of the learned professions, and from public life. John Quincy Adams. 
Judge Story, President Quincy, and Mr. Everett made it almost a rule to be 
present and take an active part at the dinners, and their example is still 
pretty well followed by men of the same class. 

In former times there was no rank list in College, and the immediate members 
were left to their own judgment in the selection of members, always professing to 
be governed by the general reputation of candidates for scholarship and literary 
abilities. Yet there was so much room for partisanship and personal biasses or 
preferences, causing differences and heart-burnings, that, after the rank list was 
established in College, the Constitution, still leaving the election of undergraduates 
to the discretion of the immediate members, declares " scholarship, with a generally 
good character," the ground of selection, and requires the College scale of rank to 
be " the chief element " in determining the scholarship. The advantage of a strict 
rule, excluding all contests and intrigues or suspicion of intrigues on the delicate 
question of merits, has been found so great, that the undergraduates are under- 
stood to follow rigidly the College scale. Men who do not attain the requisite 
rank on the scale while in College, and who do well after graduation, are often 
elected honorary members, but are not eligible until they have been out of College 
five years. Another restriction on the election of honorary members is that no 
person who is a graduate of a college in which there is a branch of the society 
can be elected by another branch. 

The most important action of the Society was that by which its secrecy was 
abolished, and the requirement of unanimity done away with. The contest next 
in order was over the wine question. Wine, not of the best, it must be admitted, 
had always been provided for the annual dinner. Efforts were made to exclude 
it, partly by members who were total abstainers on principle, but chiefly on the 
ground that, as the dinners were within the College walls, and undergraduate 
members attended, and wine at entertainments by students within the walls was 
prohibited by the Faculty, it was more seemly that the Society should dine with- 
out wine. These arguments at last prevailed ; and for many years wine has been 
excluded. The exclusion has been found to have a favorable effect upon the 
freedom and hilarity of the occasion, as extravagances are not liable to be imputed 
to a wrong cause. 



THE * B K SOCIETY. 347 

In 1852, Professor Bowen made an elaborate report on the Constitution, show- 
ing that it has been but twice revised, in 1825 and 1831, and that since 1831 
there had been several changes made, but no collection of these changes, and re- 
porting a text of revision, which, with some alterations, was ultimately adopted. 
The last edition of the Catalogue is that of 1873, containing the Constitution, 
according to its latest revision, and a list of its officers and members from the 
beginning, which, by a rule of the Society, is presented without any titles at- 
tached to the names. The simple reading of the list brings forcibly to the mind 
the high characters and distinguished reputations of the members of the fraternity 
in each generation. 

The small library is now distributed among College societies, the undergradu- 
ate members meet only for business, which is mainly the electing of new mem- 
bers by the College scale, and the whole Society meets but once a year. Yet 
membership is still a coveted honor among undergraduates; and gentlemen not 
graduates of any college, or who came short of the required mark when in Col- 
lege, who have obtained distinction in letters, art, science, or through public 
station, in after life, regard an election into a fraternity with satisfaction. 




THE PORCELLIAN CLUB. 



Origin of the Club. — Its Distinctive Features. — Various Titles. — Officers. — Mr. Joseph 
McKean. — Honorary and Immediate Members. — Duties of the Officers. — The Library 
begun in 1803. — First Works presented. — The Club Badge. — Various Grand Marshals. 
— The Knights of the Square Table unite with the Porcellian Club in 183 i. — Change 
in Rooms. — Eminent Members. 

The Porcellian Club having been from its earliest times a secret organization, it 
is possible to record only the simplest facts of its history, and consequently it is 
not to be expected that it will interest to any great extent those who are not 
members of the society. 

The precise date of the origin of the Club is not certainly known. The records 
extend no further back than 1791. According to a statement made some forty 
years since by Dr. Hector Orr to one of our members, a number of intimate 
friends, himself included, were, so early as the year 1 789, in the habit of meeting 
at one another's rooms on alternate Friday evenings, during the term, for social 
intercourse, the exercises terminating with a supper. There is some reason to 
believe that this association was known among its members, if not to the Uni- 
versity, by the name of The Argonauts. It is also supposed that the members 
were selected from all four of the classes, and continued to meet with more or less 
regularity until 1791, when it became the turn of Mr. Joseph McKean, then a 
member of the Freshman class, to give an entertainment. The great feature of 
this banquet was a young pig roasted whole ; and so successful was the affair, 
that it was resolved by the party there assembled to follow thenceforth the ex- 
ample of Mr. McKean as closely as possible. Hence the society received the 
name of the Pig Club, some of the votes of which are still preserved in our 
archives. 

It is somewhat curious to observe how, in the earliest days of its being, the 
sentiments and ideas which still lie at the foundation of this Club were prominent 
and recognized; for in 1792 the association assumed the title of the Gentleman's 
Society, the officers of which were a Grand Marshal and a Deputy Marshal, selected 



THE PORCELLIAN CLUB. 349 

from the Senior class, and a Corresponding and Recording Secretary from the 
Junior class. The name of the Gentleman's Society being considered, for obvi- 
ous reasons, prejudicial to its interests, it was in 1794 again changed into its 
present title, the Porcellian Club of Harvard College. 

In 1794 the Club consisted of sixteen persons. Of the Class of 1792 the only 
members on record are Messrs. Henderson Inches and Robert Treat Paine, then 
in their Junior year. Of the Class of 1793, then in their Sophomore year, there 
were six, among whom was Mr. Charles Cutler, who held the office of Grand Mar- 
shal. In 1794 Mr. Joseph McKean, the founder of the Club as it exists to-day, then 
in his Senior year, became its Grand Marshal. Of his gay and happy tempera- 
ment, as well as of his remarkable physical activity and strength, there remain 
traditions in our records ; and from the moment he became Grand Marshal, and 
probably long before, he labored most successfully to give to this Club those dis- 
tinguishing traits which have continued singularly unchanged for almost three 
generations. Of broad and liberal views, and keenly alive to the pleasures of 
social intercourse, he always insisted most strenuously that the bounds of true 
gentlemanly breeding, as it was understood in his day, should never be trans- 
gressed. 

The ideas of our founder cannot possibly be better expressed than they have 
been by one of our former officers, who made close study of the principles and 
of the constitution of our society. He says in substance : " The foundations of 
the Porcellian Club are laid on some of the strongest principles of our nature, 
upon Sociability, Brotherly Affection, and Generosity, and upon those qualities of 
Liberality and Courtesy and that spirit of a true Gentleman, which are best 
expressed by one of the Greek mottoes of our society." 

During the administration of Mr. McKean it was resolved that the Grand Mar- 
shal should in future be selected from among the Honorary members; and for 
this reason he retained his office until the year 1798, when, greatly to the regret 
of the Club, he resigned, having organized the system of its government so thor- 
oughly that it still remains substantially unchanged. 

The Porcellian Club consists of Honorary and Immediate members, — the Hon- 
orary, those whose classes have been graduated ; the Immediate, selected from 
the Senior, Junior, and Sophomore classes : but in the latter case not until after 
the close of the first term. 

The officers are a Grand Marshal, who presides over the joint meetings of the 
Honorary and Immediate members, which formerly took place on the days of 
the spring and autumn Exhibitions. There are also three Trustees, of whom the 
Grand Marshal is ex officio one, who hold in trust all the property of the Club, 
including the library, the pictures, and the furniture, and among whose duties are 
the auditing of the accounts, the examination of the library, and advising with 



350 THE PORCELLIAN CLUB. 

the Immediate members on all questions of importance regarding the general 
welfare of the Club. 

The meetings of the Immediate members are presided over by the Deputy 
Marshal, and this officer and the Librarian are chosen at the termination of their 
Junior year. The Secretary, who is obliged to keep an exact account of the 
receipts and expenditures of the Club, as well as records of all the meetings thereof, 
is chosen at the end of his Sophomore year. 

On the resignation of Mr. McKean in 1798, Charles Davis, famous for his wit 
and charming social qualities, was elected to fill the place, which he held most 
acceptably until the year 1800. On his retirement, Francis Dana Channing 
became Grand Marshal. During his term of office the first Club badge was 
adopted. This was a heart-shaped silver medal. On the obverse was the name 
of the Club, with the date of its institution. The reverse bore two hands clasped, 
over which, on an arch, were the words " Dum vivimus vivamus," and at the two 
corners the Greek letters Omicron, Mu, and Epsilon, Lambda, an abbreviation 
of the secret motto of the Club ; the colors of which are white and green. 

It was then customary every year, on the day of the Club's anniversary, for 
one Honorary member to deliver a poem, and another a " charge," as it was called, 
the idea of which seemed to have been the keeping of the principles of our 
founder ever alive in our minds. This observance was continued till 1834. 

In 1803, Mr. Channing having retired, his place was filled by Samuel Phillips 
Prescott Fay. In April of that year it was resolved to form a library, and a 
committee was appointed to carry the intention of the Club into effect. 

It was voted that a Librarian should be chosen on the same day and for the 
same period as the Deputy Marshal; that no book should be admitted into the 
library without a vote of the Club ; and that the Librarian should keep a cata- 
logue of the books and their donors. The first works presented were Young's 
Travels, Cowper's Task, Blair's Lectures, Young's Night Thoughts, and Pindar's 
Works. 

Thus commenced the beautiful Porcellian Library, containing seven thousand 
well-bound volumes, which for general reading is not easily to be surpassed in 
this country. 

In 1805 the Club was visited by its founder, then the Rev. Joseph McKean, who, 
it is recorded, was received with unusual honors, and being requested by the 
Deputy Marshal to ask a blessing on the entertainment, complied in a form 
which may well be said to be a model of brevity and good taste. 

In 1807 David Stoddard Greenough became Grand Marshal, and held the office 
until 1 81 1. He was succeeded by William Smith, who, resigning in 181 2, was 
followed by Samuel D. Ward, who in 181 3 gave place to Edward Hutchinson 
Robbins, a charming, genial gentleman, and a great favorite all his life with 
young people. 



THE PORCELLIAN CLUB. 35 1 

The next Grand Marshal (1814) was General Theodore Lyman, who had also 
been Deputy Marshal, and who, say our records (and we who knew him can 
easily believe it), presided in both capacities with peculiar grace and dignity. 
Marshall Binney Spring (18 15) succeeded General Lyman. In 1816 the first Cata- 
logue of the library was published. In 1817 Martin Brimmer became Grand 
Marshal, held the office until 1818, and was succeeded by Edmund Kimball, from 
1818 to 1821. William Harvard Eliot was Grand Marshal from 1821 to 1824, 
when Augustus Thorndike took the place, under whose administration, Paul 
Trapier being Deputy Marshal and Hilary Breton Cenas Librarian, the whole 
library was thoroughly examined and newly arranged. The Secretary of this 
class was Jerome Napoleon Bonaparte, who was publicly complimented by the 
auditing committee of the society's accounts "for such exactness and regularity, 
from which it is hoped succeeding officers will take example." In the year 1826 
the same gentleman, then Deputy Marshal, with his associates, James L. Murray 
and William H. Morgan, drew up a new series of by-laws for the Club. 

Russell Sturgis succeeded Mr. Thorndike as Grand Marshal from 1828 to 1831, 
when he was followed by Thomas Kemper Davis. In 1831 the Porcellian Club 
and the Knights of the Square Table, a club instituted in 1809, were united 
under the name of the former. For some time previous the members of the one 
had generally belonged to the other, and the objects and interests of both were 
identical. A strong desire having existed for the alliance, it was formally resolved 
upon, and executed on the 31st of March, 1831. At the same time the present 
badge was adopted. This is a star-shaped medal of eight points. On the obverse 
is the name of the Club encircling that of the member. Below is the date of the 
union of the two clubs ; above, the old Porcellian motto, " Dum vivimus vivamus." 
On the reverse is the boar's-head, the crest of the Club, a helmet, the crest of 
the Knights, and the clasped hands. Below are the dates of the formation of 
the clubs. Immediately above is the abbreviated form of the Greek motto, 'O/x. 'E\. ; 
still higher is the motto of the Knights, " Fide et Amicitia." 

Until 1833 the books, pictures, and other property of the Club had been kept 
in the Librarian's room; but the members, becoming fully sensible of the incon- 
venience and insecurity attending this method of preserving so large and valu- 
able a collection, determined to appropriate a room exclusively to the purpose, 
and the present one was obtained. The increasing size of the library has ren- 
dered other apartments necessary, and these have been fitted up for the use of 
the Club. The remaining Grand Marshals have been Wendell Phillips, from 1834 
to 1837; Charles Alfred Welch, from 1837 to 1840; Samuel Parkman, from 1840 
to 1843; Kirk Boott, from 1843 to 1846; Francis L. Lee, from 1846 to 1848; 
Edward Robbins Dexter, from 1848 to 1850; Henry Austin Whitney, from 1850 
to 1852; Edward Bangs, from 1852 to 1856; Augustus Thorndike Perkins, from 



352 THE PORCELLIAN CLUB. 

1856 to i860; Theodore Lyman, from i860 to 1866; Edward Ingersoll Browne, 
from 1866 to 1869; Frederic Wainwright Bradlee, from 1869 to 1871 ; and John 
Collins Warren, the present Grand Marshal. 

In order to show that from the earliest times the Porcellian Club has num- 
bered amongst its members some of the most distinguished graduates of the 
University, it cannot be considered inappropriate to close with a list of names, 
commencing with the Class of 1 793 : Charles Jackson, LL. D. ; Reverend Joseph 
McKean, LL. D. ; James Jackson, LL. D. ; John Pickering, LL. D. ; Horace 
Binney, LL. D., now the oldest surviving member ; William Ellery Channing, 
S. T. D. ; Stephen Longfellow, LL. D. ; Joseph Story, LL. D. ; Richard Sul- 
livan, A. A. S. ; Rufus Wyman, A. A. S. ; Washington Allston, A. A. S. ; Isaac 
Lincoln, M. M. S. S. ; Charles Lowell, S. T. D., S. H. S. ; Leverett Saltonstall, 
LL. D. ; John Farrar, LL. D. ; James Savage, LL. D. ; Colonel Thomas Aspin- 
wall, S. H. S. ; Ward Chipman, LL. D. ; Professor Jacob Bigelow, LL. D. ; Pro- 
fessor Joseph Green Cogswell, LL. D. ; Alexander Hill Everett, LL. D. ; Daniel 
Oliver, LL. D. ; David Sears, S. H. S. ; Professor Edward Tyrrel Channing, 
LL. D. ; Professor Walter Channing, M. D. ; Governor Charles Cotesworth Pinck- 
ney ; Governor Samuel Emerson Smith ; Edward Everett, LL. D. ; John Chipman 
Gray, LL. D. ; Peleg Sprague, LL. D.; Right Reverend Jonathan Mayhew Wain- 
wright, S. T. D., Bishop of New York ; Martyn Paine, LL. D. ; Professor John 
Ware, M. D.; William Hickling Prescott, LL. D.; Pliny Merrick, LL. D.; Presi- 
dent James Walker, LL. D. ; John Gorham Palfrey, LL. D. ; Theophilus Par- 
sons, LL. D. ; George Eustis, LL. D. ; Caleb Cushing, LL. D. ; Professor John 
Hooker Ashmun ; William George Read, LL. D. ; John Wickham, LL. D. ; 
Charles Francis Adams, LL. D. ; Reverend Samuel Kirkland Lothrop, S. T. D. ; 
Robert Charles Winthrop, LL. D. ; John James Gilchrist, LL. D. ; Benjamin 
Robbins Curtis, LL. D. ; Benjamin Peirce, LL. D. ; Oliver Wendell Holmes, 
M. M. S. ; Charles Sumner, LL. D. ; John Lothrop Motley, LL. D. ; James Rus- 
sell Lowell, D. C. L. ; William Wetmore Story ; President Samuel Eliot, Trinity 
College, LL. D. ; William Morris Hunt ; and Judge William Crowninshield 
Endicott, of the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts. 








THE HASTY PUDDING CLUB. 



Origin. — Objects. — Derivation of the Name. — Rooms. — The Medal. — The Library. — 
Running for the Pudding. — Singing in the Yard. — Eminent Members. 



The Hasty Pudding Club was founded in the year 1795, by members of the 
Junior class. Among its original members the Catalogue shows the names of 
Dr. John C. Warren, Hon. Daniel A. White, Professor Asahel Stearns, and Hon. 
Horace Binney; the last being now (1874) the oldest surviving graduate of Har- 
vard College. The Club was established "to cherish the feelings of friendship 
and patriotism." This latter aim was the after-glow of the Revolutionary War, 
then so lately ended. Under its impulse it was the custom of the Club in its 
early years to celebrate the anniversary of Washington's birthday by an oration 
and poem, followed by a supper with patriotic toasts and songs. This custom 
afterward fell into disuse, and the encounters of forensic argument and wit and the 
exchanges of good fellowship appear to have soon come to occupy the whole atten- 
tion of the Club. As a proof, however, that patriotism did not die out of the 
hearts of its members, it may be mentioned that the names of more than one 
hundred of them appear upon Harvard's " Roll of Honor," as having served their 
country, or even died for her, in the recent war for the Union. 

The name of the Club, it is hardly necessary to say, is derived from that regu- 
lation in its original Constitution which directs that " two members in alphabetical 
order shall provide a pot of hasty-pudding for every meeting." The primitive supper 
has continued to this day ; the only changes being in the style of serving and in 
the interpolation of a "Strawberry Night" once a year. This supper probably 
at first took the place of the ordinary evening meal of bread and milk, which 
the students of those days were used to obtain at the commons "buttery-hatch," 



354 THE HASTY PUDDING CLUB. 

at the east end of Harvard Hall, and carry thence to their rooms. For it is 
recorded that the meetings were at first held at " the ringing of the evening 
commons bell." 

The Club for many years met at the rooms of the different members in turn. 
In 1849, the College authorities granted to the Club for its use room 29, the 
northwest corner-room in the upper story of Stoughton. Some years after, the 
adjoining room, 31, was added. These rooms proving insufficient for the increas- 
ing numbers, in 1871 the two other rooms on the same floor were granted to the 
Club; and the whole was made over, at an expense of some four thousand dol- 
lars subscribed by the active and past members, and through the architectural skill 
and taste of one of the latter, into the present handsome apartments. These con- 
sist of a small reading-room and a large hall, one end of which is occupied by 
a stage, completely appointed with foot-lights, scenery, and a "green-room." For 
it is no secret that dramatic performances form one of the principal entertain- 
ments of the Club. From time to time, indeed, its members bring their talent 
before the public in performances in Cambridge or the neighboring towns, when 
their treasury, or that of the Boat Club, needs replenishing, or when there is some 
" charity " to be helped. The large play-bills posted in the rooms, at the private 
performances, are sometimes very elaborate and beautiful specimens of pictorial 
art; and the best works of the Club artists in this line are preserved in its 
archives. The drop-curtain represents the Muse of Comedy advancing in a 
chariot drawn by an exceedingly frisky alligator, yoked with a sphinx of Mr. 
Emerson's kind, a " merry sphinx, crouched no more in stone." Over the pro- 
scenium is suspended a stuffed alligator, shot by members of the Club in some 
Southern bayou. The meaning of these beasts is best known to the initiated. 

The Club medal is of an octagonal form, bearing on its face a pudding- 
pot ; above it two hands holding, one a spoon and the other a bowl ; with 
the Virgilian motto, " Seges votis respondet." On the reverse is a sphinx with the 
motto, from Ovid, " Concordia discors." It is worn with ribbons of white and corn- 
color. The strip of black cambric seen over the door in a student's room and 
bearing his name in white letters is also a badge of membership in the H. P. C. 

The library of the Club, begun in 1807, now numbers nearly four thousand 
volumes, principally the gifts of the members. 

The members of the Club are chosen from the Senior and Junior classes. 
The forms of initiation are of course a profound secret. But some of the 
preliminaries are necessarily less veiled. Of late years, at certain periods, 
certain students " might have been seen," as the novelists say, running to 
meals, and to and from recitations, speaking to no one and answering no 
questions. They were understood to be " running for the Pudding." They 
were believed also to be keeping vigil for a week at some member's room, 



THE HASTY PUDDING CLUB. 355 

occupying every spare moment in the composition of various elaborate essays 
and poems in ancient and modern languages, to be delivered, if they passed 
criticism, as proofs of fitness for admission. At a time somewhat more re- 
mote, shop-keepers in Boston, and highly respectable residents in Beacon Street, 
are said to have been sometimes amazed by the appearance of gentlemanly 
youths uttering in " accents of an unknown tongue " the mystic words " Seges 
votis respondet," and " Concordia discors," and to all questions giving no an- 
swer except a repetition of these phrases. But all these things are said to 
be things of the past ; vanished with changing times and manners. Among 
such changes it may be worth noting, that, in the ancient days, the meetings 
of the Club were — whatever fun had preceded — always closed by the sing- 
ing of a hymn to some good old tune like Old Hundred, St. Martin's, or 
Bridgewater. It is now the custom for the Club on adjourning to linger awhile 
in the yard and pour forth the choruses of popular " college songs." 

An oration and poem are annually delivered before the Club, at which the 
members are accustomed to attend in evening dress, and to which the College 
public is invited. 

The Catalogue of the Hasty Pudding Club enrolls many well-known and 
honored names. Among them may be noticed Rev. Dr. W. E. Channing, 
Washington Allston* Andrews Norton, Chancellor Benjamin F. Dunkin, Ed- 
ward Everett, Judge Pel eg Sprague, Bishop Jonathan M. Wainwright, Rev. 
Dr. Henry Ware, Jr., William H. Prescott, Rev. Dr. James Walker, John G. 
Palfrey, Jared Sparks, George Bancroft, C. C. Felton, R. C. Winthrop, O. W. 
Holmes, Charles Sumner, James R. Lowell ; besides many others, living and 
dead, who have attained distinction in church and state and university, at the 
bar or on the bench, in literature or commerce, art, science, or professional 
life. The Catalogue recently published contains the names of nineteen hundred 
and eighty-one members, of whom twelve hundred and nine are living. 

With the great increase in the number of the students at Harvard, other societies 
have sprung up, some of them worthy rivals or compeers of the Hasty Pudding 
Club. It will not fail, however, to maintain its eminence by maintaining its char- 
acter and tone, and not merely trusting to its prestige as the oldest society in 
Harvard College. 

* The Club holds among its treasures a sketch in India-ink upon a page in its oldest record-book, 
representing a youth seated on the ground eagerly feeding himself from a portly pot of pudding. 
Beneath it are some verses and the signature of " Washington Allston, Sec. H. P. C." 



THE NAVY CLUB. 

Origin. — Growth. — The Officers of the Club. — Ceremony at their Resignation. — Descrip- 
tion of the last Procession, in 1846. — The Annual Cruise. — The Flag-Ship in 1815. — 
Features of the Club in 1850. 

The proceedings of the Navy Club, or Harvard Navy, as it was originally 
called, are difficult to follow, as no records were kept ; and for the same rea- 
son the precise year of its origin cannot be determined. There is some author- 
ity for the year 1 796 as that of its birth ; but, if so, its existence was for sev- 
eral years quiet and unnoticed. Gradually it became a prominent feature of 
the last part of the second term, and about 1800 the Harvard Navy was 
famous, and continued to be so, each year varying its customs more or less, 
until 1847. In that year President Everett felt scandalized by the prominence 
such an unlettered and undignified body had attained, and he then compelled 
the members to abandon their annual procession; and in 185 1 the Club made 
its last excursion in the bay. Since then merely the name has been kept up, 
but no meetings have taken place. 

The Harvard Navy consisted of all the members of the Senior class who 
failed to receive parts at the Senior Exhibition. The Navy, as was proper, was 
headed by the " Admiral," or " Lord High Admiral," or " Lord High," as he was 
commonly called. This officer was chosen by his predecessor at the end of the 
annual cruise. To him were given all necessary instructions verbally, and his 
" sailing orders " in a sealed packet. These, and the knowledge of his election, he 
kept secret until the day the Senior parts were announced. Then he broke the 
seals, appointed his fellow-officers and organized his "navy," which kept together 
until after the annual excursion, when he handed over his office and the secrets 
of the Club to his successor. The office of " Lord High " was usually given to 
that student of the Senior class who had been "sent away" more than any in 
his class. The rule was, however, not always adhered to, and gradually the office 
became the prerogative of the greatest wag or the jolliest fellow in the class. 
The Vice-Admiral was the poorest scholar, the Rear-Admiral the laziest man, the 



THE NAVY CLUB. 



357 



Chaplain the most profane, etc. But some of the officers did not always bear 
the same titles, some years there were more and others less, and the customs 
gradually changed, until finally all the officers were chosen by the class immedi- 
ately after the Class-Day officers were elected. The same afternoon the Club (for 
by this time it was called the Navy Club) marched in procession round the Col- 
lege yard, clad in burlesque costumes appropriate to the occasion, cheered the 
buildings, and cheered (or sometimes groaned) the professors, tutors, and other 
members of the Faculty. This annual procession was an affair of great impor- 
tance in the second term. After the procession the Club would adjourn to 
Porter's Tavern, just beyond the Fitchburg Railroad Crossing at North Cambridge, 
and have a supper, commonly a very hilarious and noisy one. 

When the Senior parts were announced, and the fortunate Seniors went to 
the President to receive them, it was customary for the Navy Club to accom- 
pany the " part men " in formal and noisy procession, with a band of music. 
Afterwards, those members of the Club who had then received parts for the first 
time resigned their membership in the Club. " This resignation took place imme- 
diately after the parts were read to the class. The doorway of the middle entry 
of Holworthy Hall was the place usually chosen for this affecting scene. The 
performance was carried on in the mock-oratorical style, a person concealed 
under a. sheet being placed behind the speaker to make the gestures for him. 
The names of the members who, having received parts for Commencement, have 
refused to resign their trusts in the Navy Club, are then read by the Lord High 
Admiral, and by his authority they are expelled from the society." 

The last procession was in 1846. A member of the class graduating that year 
gives the following account of it in Hall's " College Words and Customs " : — 

" The class had nearly all assembled, and the procession, which extended through the rooms of 
the Natural History Society, began to move. The principal officers, as also the whole band, were dressed 
in full uniform. The Rear-Admiral brought up the rear, as was fitting. He was borne in a sort of 
triumphal car, composed of something like a couch, elevated upon wheels, and drawn by a white 
horse. On this his excellency, dressed in uniform, and enveloped in his cloak, reclined at full length. 
One of the Marines played the part of driver. Behind the car walked a colored man, with a most fantastic 
head-dress, whose duty it was to carry his Honor the Rear-Admiral's pipe. Immediately before the 
car walked the other two Marines, with guns on their shoulders. The ' Digs ' * came immediately be- 
fore the Marines, preceded by the tallest of their number, carrying a white satin banner, bearing on 
it, in gold letters, the word ' Harvard,' with a spade of gold paper fastened beneath. The Digs were 
all dressed in black, with Oxford caps on their heads and small iron spades over their shoulders. 
They walked two and two, except in one instance, namely, that of the first three scholars, who walked 
together, the last of their brethren, immediately preceding the Marines. The second and third 
scholars did not carry spades, but pointed shovels, much larger and heavier; while the first scholar, 
who walked between the other two, earned an enormously great square shovel, — such as is often 

* In this case, those who had parts at two exhibitions are thus designated. 



358 THE NAVY CLUB. 

seen hung out at hardware-stores for a sign, — with 'Spades and Shovels,' or some such thing, 
painted on one side, and ' All Sizes ' on the other. This shovel was about two feet square. The 
idea of carrying real, bond fide spades and shovels originated wholly in our class. It has always been 
the custom before to wear a spade, cut out of white paper, on the lapel of the coat. The Navy 
Privates were dressed in blue shirts, monkey-jackets, etc., and presented a very sailor-like appear- 
ance. Two of them carried small kedges over their shoulders. The Ensign bore an old and tattered 
flag, the same which was originally presented by Miss Mellen of Cambridge to the Harvard Wash- 
ington Corps. The Chaplain was dressed in a black gown, with an old-fashioned curly white wig 
on his head, which, with a powdered face, gave him a very sanctimonious look. He carried a large 
French Bible, which by much use had lost its covers. The Surgeon rode a beast which might well 
have been taken for the Rosinante of the world-renowned Don Quixote. This worthy ^Esculapius 
had an infinite number of brown-paper bags attached to his person. He was enveloped in an old 
plaid cloak, with a huge sign for pills fastened upon his shoulders, and carried before him a skull 
on a staff. His nag was very spirited, so much so as to leap over the chains, posts, etc., and put 
to flight the crowd assembled to see the fun. The procession, after having cheered all the College 
buildings and the houses of the professors, separated about seven o'clock, p. m." 

In the earlier days of the Navy the Admiral assembled his officers and pri- 
vates very frequently for special duties ; and at one time it used to be the cus- 
tom for the Navy to come together every pleasant afternoon in the " Senior's 
Grove " in the College yard, near where Appleton Chapel now stands, there to 
smoke, drink punch, and listen to the commands of the " Lord High." The 
grand occasion, however, was the annual cruise of the Navy on some vessel 
chartered for the occasion, and freighted well with " creature comforts." The 
Navy would then sail out into Massachusetts Bay, and would usually have a 
grand chowder somewhere on land, generally on the shores of Cape Cod. This 
cruise lasted three days. On returning they landed at one of the Boston wharves, 
and proceeded to Cambridge in wagons, usually in very merry mood, and 
cheered and sung, especially while passing up State Street and on entering Cam- 
bridge. The Admiral then selected his successor, and the Navy disbanded for 
the year. It is said that the College sloop Harvard was seized one year for this 
cruise. In "College Words and Customs" it is related that — 

"The flag-ship for the year r8i5 was a large marquee, called 'The Good Ship Harvard,' which 
was moored in the woods, near the place where the residence of the Hon. John G. Palfrey now stands. 
The floor was arranged like the deck of a man-of-war, being divided into the main and quarter decks. 
The latter was occupied by the Admiral, and no one was allowed to be there with him without special 
order or permission. In his sway he was very despotic, and on board ship might often have been 
seen reclining on his couch, attended by two of his subordinates (classmates), who made his slumbers 
pleasant by guarding his sacred person from the visits of any stray mosquito, and kept him cool by 
the vibrations of a fan. The marquee stood for several weeks, during which time meetings were 
frequently held in it. At the command of the Admiral, the Boatswain would sound his whistle in 
front of Holworthy Hall, the building where the Seniors then, as now [185 1], resided, and the student 
sailors, issuing forth, would form in procession, and march to the place of meeting, there to await 
further orders. If the members of the Navy remained on board ship over night, those who had 



THE NAVY CLUB. 359 

received appointments at Commencement, then called the ' Marines,' were obliged to keep guard 
while the members slept or caroused." 

In the last years of the Navy Club, about 1850, the Club was organized 
as follows, according to " College Words and Customs " : — 

"At present the Navy Club is organized after the parts for the last Senior Exhibition have been 
assigned. It is composed of three classes of persons, namely, the true Navy, which consists of those 
who have never had parts ; the Marines, those who have had a major or second part in the Senior 
year, but no minor or first part in the Junior ; and the Horse-Marines, those who have had a minor 
or first part in the Junior year, but have subsequently fallen off, so as not to get a major or second 
part in the Senior. Of the Navy officers, the Lord High Admiral is usually he who has been sent 
from College the greatest number of times ; the Vice-Admiral is the poorest scholar in the class ; the 
Rear-Admiral the laziest fellow in the class; the Commodore, one addicted to boating; the Captain, 
a jolly blade ; the Lieutenant and Midshipman, fellows of the same description ; the Chaplain, the 
most profane ; the Surgeon, a dabbler in surgery, or in medicine, or anything else ; the Ensign, the 
tallest member of the class ; the Boatswain, one most inclined to obscenity ; the Drum Major, the 
most aristocratic, and his assistants, fellows of the same character. These constitute the Band. Such 
are the general rules of choice, but they are not always followed." 

There are in the possession of the Porcellian Club three curious old cari- 
catures, drawn in 1798, one of which gives a ludicrous idea of the Harvard 

Navy. 




THE CHRISTIAN BRETHREN. 



Date of Organization. — Tendencies Of the Time. — Eliphalet Pearson, Founder of the So- 
ciety. — The Saturday Evening Religious Society. — The Wednesday Evening Society. — 
Constitution of the Christian Brethren. — Extracts from Society Records. 

In 1802, when the Society now called the Christian Brethren of Harvard Uni- 
versity was organized with its present evangelical principles, but under another 
name, New England, even in its cultivated circles, was suffering much from the 
atrociously shallow, but brilliant and audacious French infidelity. Jefferson, sus- 
pected of French tendencies in both religion and politics, had just taken the 
Presidential chair. Sympathy with the struggles of France for liberty, and grati- 
tude for her assistance in our Revolutionary War, inclined the heart of the whole 
nation toward France. 

At the time when these unfortunate influences were at their height, the adop- 
tion by the Christian Brethren of those scholarly principles which are peculiar 
to its constitution was an act of courage; and an experience of seventy years 
has proved it to have been one of wisdom. 

Eliphalet Pearson, Professor of Hebrew and other Oriental Languages in Har- 
vard College, and afterwards one of the founders and professors of the Andover 
Theological Seminary, a man of great native ability and varied accomplishments, 
was the actual founder of the Christian Brethren. An address to him from the 
Society is preserved in its records, and contains these words under date of March 
10, 1806: — 

" United under your patronage for the purpose of promoting practical and experimental religion, we 

entreat you not to retire from this Seminary Accept, sir, our gratitude for your parental care 

of this Society. 

" United by your encouragement and flourishing under your patronage, long we hoped to enjoy 

your Christian care and direction in our infant fraternity The decaying state of religion 

within our walls seems loudly to call for your further exertions in its support." 

A reply from Professor Pearson was dated March 14, 1806, and is entered in 
full upon the records. 



THE CHRISTIAN BRETHREN. 361 

The Society, as organized under Professor Pearson's patronage, December n, 
1802, was called "The Saturday Evening Religious Society in Harvard College." 
Its declared purpose was the promotion of the growth of practical, experimental 
religion. In September, 1819, a second association, with a similar object, was 
organized in the College, and called " The Wednesday Evening Society." On June 
5, 1 82 1, the two were united and took the name of " The Society of Christian 
Brethren in Harvard University." 

" Of the provisions of the constitution, the chief must be quoted here as the 
best description of the Society. They are nearly identical, those of article second 
entirely so, with those of the original constitution adopted in 1802. 



CONSTITUTION OF THE SOCIETY OF CHRISTIAN BRETHREN IN HARVARD UNI- 
VERSITY, 1874. 

Impressed with a sense of the infinite importance of vital piety, and of the great advantage which 
may be derived from religious intercourse, we, the subscribers, do now, in the fear of God, and in 
humble dependence upon His blessing, form ourselves into a Society, for the purpose of promoting 
our own spiritual welfare and that of our fellow-students ; and we do hereby adopt the following 

CONSTITUTION. 

Article I. This Society shall be called "The Society of Christian Brethren in Harvard 
University." 

Art. II. No person shall be admitted as a member of this Society who does not heartily assent 
to the fundamental truths of the Christian religion, particularly the doctrines of depravity and regen- 
eration ; the existence of one God in three persons, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost; the atonement 
and mediation of Christ ; and also furnish to himself and others satisfactory evidence of a saving 
change of heart. 

Art. III. Persons who are admitted into this Society shall be proposed one week at least previous 
to their admission ; and the Secretary shall, in the mean time, furnish them with a copy of the Con- 
stitution, and of the following blank, viz. : — 

" Do you heartily assent to the doctrines mentioned in Article Second of the Constitution ? 

Do you believe you have met with a saving change of heart ? 

Name, " 

Upon the return to the President of this blank, with affirmative answers, he shall take the vote 

upon their election ; and they shall be considered members after they have signed the Constitution. 

Art. IV. The officers of this Society shall be a President, Secretary, Treasurer, and Librarian. 

Art. IX. The regular meetings shall be held every Thursday evening. Special meetings for 
business shall be held at the close of the second regular meeting of each month. 

Art. X. The order of exercises shall be (except when for special reasons set aside), 1st. Prayer; 
2d. Reading of the Scriptures ; 3d. Singing ; 4th. An Address ; 5th. Social Service ; 6th. Reading of 
the Secretary's Report. 



362 THE CHRISTIAN BRETHREN. 

Art. XIV. This Constitution may be amended at any regular business meeting of the Society, 
by a vote of two thirds of the members present, providing that the requisites for admission, prescribed 
in Art II. of this Constitution, remain unchanged. 

LIBRARY REGULATIONS. 

I. The Library shall be under the superintendence of the President, Secretary, Treasurer, and 
Librarian; yet shall at all times be under the control of the Society. 

II. It shall be the duty of the Librarian to take charge of all books and papers belonging to 
the Library; and to secure their return on or before the last regular meeting previous to the Class 
Day of each year. 

III. The books of the Library shall be for the use of the members of the Society, and for circu- 
lation, under their direction, throughout the University. 

IV. Keys to the room of the Society shall be furnished by the Librarian at the expense of the 
Society, to members desiring them. 

In turning over the records of the Society, one falls very frequently upon pas- 
sages of which the date, or the thought, or the tone arrests attention : — 

June 23, 1805. 

" All agreed that the unregenerated cannot contemplate the true character of God with pleasure ; 

that such are lovers of themselves more than lovers of God ; that they form a Deity in imagination 

suited to their own characters and think they love this Deity while they really love themselves, or 

they would, instead of conforming their Deity to themselves, conform themselves to the true God." 

July 5, 1842. 

" The winter of 1841 and 1842 was a season of great blessedness to all the evangelical churches 
of Boston and vicinity, and even in Harvard College were seen tokens of the presence of the Holy 
Spirit. During the vacation we have reason to hope that four of our fellow-students put off the 
works of darkness and put on the armor of light. Our daily meeting for prayer was sustained, and 
sometimes our regular meetings were very profitable and arousing. Another term has commenced, 
and our daily prayer-meeting has been resumed." 

September 19, 1842. 

" It was the general opinion that we should not separate entirely religion and study, but ought to 
view our daily literary duties as religious ones and discharge them faithfully in the fear of God." 
September i, 1845. 

" The class feeling exists to a great extent among us, as associated bodies of students ; and the 
circumstance that we have no intellectual exercises in common for all the College classes tends to 
foster an esprit du corps in every class. This feeling is everywhere a check upon those generous 
sentiments of our nature which we should cultivate towards all, but it becomes especially pernicious 
when it is allowed to appear among the followers of Him whose first and whose last command to 
them was that they should love one another." 

Many College friendships, as worthy, if not as celebrated, as those of Tennyson 
and Hallam, and Canning and Robert Hall, have grown up in this Society. 
Touching evidence of its value as a shelter from College temptations abounds in 
the memories of the graduates of the University. 

Since 1865 the membership of the Christian Brethren has numbered from fifty 
to eighty. 



THE PIERIAN SODALITY. 



Early Musical Societies of the College. — The Pierian Sodality probably the first Club at 
Harvard for Instrumental Music. — Records for the first twenty-four Years missing. 

— Founders. — Names of eminent Members. — Description of the Music used. The 

Arionic Society. — The Harvard Musical Association. — Second Period in the Pierian 
History. — Third and Present Period. — Extract from Records of 1859. — Concerts su- 
persede Serenades. — Reminiscences of a Pierian of the Class of 1839. 

The musical clubs of Harvard, although they may contribute nothing to the 
history of music, have always formed a pleasant element in the College social 
atmosphere, and, on the whole, however frivolous at times, have had a really refining 
influence among the students. Their record, could it be fully written, would be 
full of interest. But that is by no means an easy task, nor do the materials for 
such a narrative, save to a very limited extent, exist. It would be useless to at- 
tempt, in this brief space, anything more than a very general sketch. 

There doubtless had been musical clubs in College at various times before the 
most enduring one, the Pierian Sodality, was founded. Evidence of one, at least, 
we find in a curious little book containing " The Accompts of the Treasurer of 
the Singing Club of Harvard College," begun November 9, 1786, and continued 
to May, 1803. How much earlier or later this Club may have flourished, we 
have no means of knowing. The little oblong, leather-bound, well-worn, and 
yellowed volume, in shape resembling a common psalm-tune book of pocket size, 
shows from year to year the dues and payments of the several members, all set 
down in shillings and pence, — pounds seldom figuring, — until the Federal currency 
comes in, in 1797. From such entries as these, — " 3 vols. Worcester Collection, 
4th ed., 15 shillings"; " Holden's Music, 8 shillings"; " Harmonia Sacra"; " Har- 
monia Americana " ; " Law's small Collection," etc., — it is clear that the Singing 
Club mainly, if not exclusively, courted the muse of old New England psalmody; 
while several mentions of incredibly small sums (£ 2, or so) spent for a bass- 
viol, and frequent pence and shillings for strings and bows, intimate that the 



3<H 



THE PIERIAN SODALITY. 



vocal concentus was not altogether without instrumental accompaniment. The 
writer well remembers one of those old 'cellos standing in the corner under the 
paternal roof, where it was still cherished in his boyhood's years. Some honored 
names appear in this old record; in 1786, for instance, President Kirkland, 
Judge Samuel Putnam; in 1799, Leverett Saltonstall, etc., etc. 

Of clubs or bands for instrumental, or " pure " music, we know of none earlier 
than the most famous and long-lived among them, which still flourishes, The Pierian 
Sodality, founded in 1808. The Secretary's records for the first twenty-four years 
of its checkered experiences have strangely disappeared. For all that period our 
only sources of information (though doubtless one who could devote himself with 
singleness of purpose and with one-idea-ed persistency and zeal to such a task, 
might gather quite a mass of pleasant reminiscences from veteran survivors) are 
an old MS. volume of music, dating back to the foundation, and a printed cata- 
logue of officers and members down to the Class of 1850. From this last it 
appears that the " founders " were Alpheus Bigelow, Benjamin D. Bartlett, Joseph 
Eaton, John Gardner, and Frederic Kinloch, all of the Class of 18 10, and all 
long since enrolled among the stelligeri, as well as their associates of that and 
several succeeding classes, with the single exception of Nathaniel Deering (oldest 
surviving Pierian), who still lives in Portland, Me. Among Pierians of 181 1 we 
find the names of Thomas G. Cary, William Powell Mason, and the Rev. Samuel 
Gilman, author of Fair Harvard ; of 1 8 1 2, the Rev. Dr. Henry Ware and Bishop 
Wainwright; of 18 16, William Ware (author of the Palmyra Letters, Zenobia, 
etc.); of 181 7, George B. Emerson and General H. K. Oliver, the latter still 
among the most active and enthusiastic spirits in the musical life of Eastern 
Massachusetts. But we forbear to single out more names from the rich cata- 
logue. 

The writer's personal recollection of the club begins with the year 1827-8. 
What it had been socially, as a sodality, down to that time, appears most credit- 
ably from a perusal of the catalogue of names. What it was musically is for 
the most part matter of conjecture. Probably it varied in form and color, as in 
degrees of excellence, from year to year ; your musical undergraduate is but a 
bird of passage. The old book of copied music, however, appears to contain the 
club's essential repertoire (at least fair samples of it) from the year 1808 to 1822. 
A long string of once popular marches comes first (Swiss Guards', Valentine's, 
Grand Slow March in C, Massachusetts, Dirge in the Oratory (sic) of Saul, Cadets' 
March, March in the Overture of Lodoiska, Buonaparte's March, etc., etc.). These 
are all written out in regular orchestral score for Primo and Secondo (doubtless 
violins), Oboe, Corni primo and secondo, Tenor, and Bassoon. Some of these scores, 
however, show above the first and second violins another " primo " and " se- 
condo" (perhaps flutes). Evidently the little band originally took a more orches- 



THE PIERIAN SODALITY. 



365 



tral form (with violins) than it had afterwards for many years in the long fluting 
and serenading, — what we may call the middle period of the Pierian career. 
We find also Rondos by Haydn and Pleyel interspersed among more marches; 
the Downfall of Paris ; waltzes ; a Divertimento by Pleyel, with pairs of flutes 
and clarionets, besides the strings ; a portion of Handel's Water Music ; airs, 
like Robin Adair, Yellow-Haired Laddie, Fleuve du Tage, Aria in the Brazen 
Mask, etc. (These, of the more sentimental kind, occur more frequently as 
we come further down; doubtless the tender melodies were mingled with many 
a student's finer dreams — and many a maiden's.) The name of the copyist — 
possibly in some cases he was also the arranger — is affixed to each piece. Some 
of these copyists survive, and could, we doubt not, tell us more of the musical 
complexion and accomplishment of the Pierians of their day. 

When the Sodality began to play at College exhibitions, or when the flutes 
came in, and, with those soft persuasive instruments, of course the serenading, we 
are not informed. Both practices were fully in vogue when we first heard the 
Pierians, in 1827-8 (the days of E. S. Dixwell, and of Winthrop, and the late 
lamented F. C. Loring), and were kept up, with occasional short interruptions, 
for many a year afterwards. Shall we forget the scene of Exhibition Day, when 
the Latin School boy, on the eve of entering College, eager to catch a glimpse 
beforehand of the promised land, went out to University Hall, and for the first 
time heard and saw, up there in the side (north) gallery, the little group of 
Pierians, with their ribbons and their medals, and their shining instruments, 
among them that protruding, long, and lengthening monster, the trombone, wielded 
with an air of gravity and dignity by one who now ranks among our most dis- 
tinguished scholars, orators, and statesmen ? Had any strains of band or orchestra 
ever sounded quite so sweet to the expectant Freshman's ears as those ? And 
was not he, too, captivated and converted to the gospel of the College flute, as 
the transcendent and most eloquent of instruments ? Nevertheless, within a year 
or two he chose the reedy clarionet, wherewith to lead a little preparatory club, 
— the purgatory which half-fledged musicians of his own ilk had to pass through 
before they could be candidates for the Pierian paradise. This was called the 
Arionic Society, and if its utmost skill was discord, the struggle of its members 
for promotion into the higher order was persistent. We think it was founded 
some years later than the Sodality, for which it was in some sense the noisy 
nursery; how long it lasted we know not. The Sodality in our day (1830-32), 
under the presidency of accomplished flutists (Isaac Appleton Jewett, Boott, and 
Gorham), was comparatively rich in instruments; besides the flutes (first, second, 
third, and several of each) we had the clarionet, a pair of French horns, violon- 
cello, and part of the time a nondescript bass horn. But with the graduation of 
the Class of 1832 the band was suddenly reduced to a single member, who held 



366 THE PIERIAN SODALITY. 

all the offices and faithfully performed the duties, meeting and practising (his 
flute parts) on the stated evenings, and so keeping the frail deserted shell above 
the waves, until one by one a little crew had joined him. On such a slender 
thread did the existence of the proud Sodality once hang! Perhaps more than 
once, before and since. 

Plainly the club was not at all times in a condition to respond at exhibitions 
to the expectatur musica of the venerable Praeses. But the records, from 1832 
down, show that to bring themselves into fit condition for that service, and 
thereby shine in the good graces of the fair .ones, as well as of their fellow-stu- 
dents, on that day assembled, was all the time the highest mark of their ambition ; 
and oftentimes they borrowed aid from ex-Pierians, or amateur musicians from 
without, to eke out the harmony and help them through the task. For the same 
cause the serenading joys and glories were in like manner intermittent ; there 
was now and then a season when the summer nights of Cambridge and vicinity 
were as full of melodies as Prospero's island. 

We are saved the necessity of entering into any details of these things by the 
reminiscences of a Pierian of the Class of 1 839, which furnish a vivid inside view 
of the Pierian life during his time. We append it as a representative description 
equally good for any time in twenty years or more. 

In July, 1837, several ex-Pierians passed a pleasant social hour with the actual 
members of the club after an exhibition. It was at a room in Holworthy, and 
then and there was the first suggestion made, and the first steps were taken, for 
the formation of the Harvard Musical Association, which, for a few years, was 
composed of past and present members of the Sodality; but afterwards the con- 
nection was dissolved, and the Association has carried on its separate life in 
Boston, replenishing its membership from year to year, however, principally from 
the graduate Pierians. The Harvard Musical Association has always had among 
its chief objects to promote musical culture in the University ; and it is in great 
measure due to its appeals and influence that the College has, for fifteen years 
or more, employed a learned and accomplished musical instructor, on whom it has 
only during this last year conferred the rank of Assistant Professor of Music. 

So much of what we have called the middle period of the Pierian history, — 
the fluting, serenading, exhibition-playing period. We may remark, however, that 
music has its shifting fashions, and that there was a time (about the year 1844) 
when a new sentimental brazen siren, under the various forms of cornet-a-piston, 
post-horn, etc., possessed the fancy of the College amateur, and was in vogue for 
some years, like the flute, between which and the heroic trumpet it was a sort 
of ambiguous cross; but it has had its day as the "instrument for gentlemen." 
Perhaps it was the germ that culminated in the great monster "Jubilee" of Gil- 



THE PIERIAN SODALITY. 367 

With the year 1857-8 we may consider the third and present period to have 
begun. This was the time when violins were reinstated in the place of honor, 
and when the band was led by players of the violin, among whom was young 
Robert G. Shaw, heroic martyr of the late war; there was also Crowninshield's 
'cello, a double-bass, and a piano-forte to fill out the harmony. Since then the 
tendency of the club has been more and more toward the character and the 
proportions of a bona fide orchestra. And, naturally, the classic instrument (" fiddle " 
no longer) brought in with it intermittent aspirations for a higher kind of music, 
though the chief occupation of the club has always been with music light and 
popular, and of the day. Thus in the record of a meeting in May, 1859, we 
read as follows: "We had obtained from the library of the Harvard Musical 
Association of Boston (an aftergrowth of the Pierian Sodality) copies of twelve 
of Haydn's Grand Symphonies, arranged for piano, two violins, 'cello, and flute; 
and, after our regular pieces for full orchestra, we proceeded to try these, and 
became so infatuated by their harmony that we continued playing until one 
o'clock in the morning." 

We believe serenading soon went out altogether; and in the place thereof, the 
brave little band began to feel its strength sufficiently to venture (with the Glee 
Club) upon the giving of concerts in Lyceum Hall to crowded audiences of their 
invited friends ; and from that day to this the practice has been continued ; more 
than once have Boston and the neighboring larger towns enjoyed the favor of such 
concerts. 

This period has been also marked by the suspension of the College exhibitions ; 
for a number of years that field of glory has no longer fascinated the young 
College amateur's imagination. For outward motive there remains to the Pierians 
the concerts, and for an inward and abiding spring (may we not hope ?) a sincere 
zeal for music, and in a somewhat higher sense than heretofore. Probably the 
band was never in so good a condition, musically, as it was last spring, when 
it numbered two first and two second violins, one or two violas, two 'cellos, and 
a double-bass, besides flutes (reduced to the orthodox pair), a clarionet, a trumpet 
(if we remember rightly), and serviceable hands at the piano in the background. 
Their performance, at a concert with the Harvard Glee Club, under their ener- 
getic conductor of the year before, now a member of the Law School, was said 
to be "in point of spirit- and precision creditable, although it will cost more 
experience to keep the wind in exact tune with the strings." Already they have 
gone so far as to try their powers upon a Haydn Symphony, a Mozart Overture, 
etc., and with encouraging results ; and possibly we have here the germ of what 
may one day be a proper College orchestra. 



368 THE PIERIAN SODALITY. 



REMINISCENCES OF AN EX-PIERIAN. 

Among all the advertising-boards which met the eye of the student as he ascended the steps of 
University Hall to evening prayers, notifying the meetings of the different College societies, none so 
arrested the attention of one of the youth who entered the College in 183- as that which announced 
every Monday the rehearsals of the Pierian Sodality. Whatever of intellectual or convivial entertain- 
ment "Institute of 1770," "I. O. H.," "Porcellian Club," "Hasty Pudding Club," might promise, this 
signified to him that, amid the severer pursuits of University life, some place would be permitted for 
the continued cultivation of the cherished art of music. At that time the flute was almost the only 
instrument played by gentlemen. The violin was held in small repute ; so small, indeed, that one which 
the lad brought with him was very soon laid aside for the more popular instrument, to learn which 
was an almost indispensable accomplishment. Scarcely a sound but of flutes was heard. From these 
the gentle murmurings or liquid trills rose from every side of the quadrangle the moment the bell at 
twelve rang the close of morning study-hours. A single piano, at which a graduate, a devoted amateur, 
rooming in Massachusetts, studied Beethoven's Sonatas, then just beginning to become known, seems 
now, with its superior character and capabilities, fitly to symbolize the advanced position already 
occupied by the critic who has ever since held the most influential musical pen in this community. 
The violin above referred to, and one other, with a violoncello, all by chance in the same class, and all 
afterwards associated together in the Sodality, were the only stringed instruments known among tire 
students during the whole four years of the writer's College life. There had once been a serpent in the 
Society; but as far back as 1833, no one having been found to play it for several years, it had been 
exchanged for a French horn. For this how a player was sometimes sought may be seen by the 

following vote : " Mr. was proposed as a member ; but, it being stated that he wished to try the 

French horn before he was proposed and see how he liked it, we agreed to put off voting for him 
till next meeting, and to keep our old French horn a week longer for him." 

On one occasion, in 1833, a double bass-viol was introduced by a gentleman, afterwards a judge, of 
which it is recorded, " it had a good effect, and was a great addition to the music of the club." There 
had also been bass-horns. One, spoken of as a " semi-brass monster," was exchanged for a " copper-brass 
horn " in 1834. Bass was always the prevailing want ; and to supply it, this instrument was from time to 
time placed in the hands of almost any one enterprising enough to learn the less than half a dozen 
notes required for the simple harmonies. But this was not always successful. In one instance, at least, 
it was dispensed with because it " did not chord with the flutes." But at the time of the writer's con- 
nection with the club all these, double-bass, serpent, French horn, and bass-horn, had disappeared from 
the scene,* and nothing broke the monotony of the flutes excepting a single clarinet, which came in 
1836 or 1837, and a trombone which one of the violinists had been forced to take up, the violoncello 
being not always available. It was not strange, perhaps, that this instrument should have exposed the 
performer to the charge of disturbing the quiet of his entry in Holworthy by his practice of the Airs with 
Variations, from which he sought to acquire facility in its use ; but it certainly betrayed an imperfect 
knowledge of the trombone in the President, when he gravely with searching eye interrogated the 
offender, — had he not been amusing himself by " blowing it the wrong way ? " 

The Pierians held their rehearsals in No. 6 University Hall. The Faculty at one time forbade 
them the use of this room, having ordered the doors of the hall to be closed in the evening on account 

* Of the ultimate fate of these instruments the writer has no knowledge ; but there remains a tradition of one of the 
French horns that, after having been for some time missing, it was discovered, on the departure of its last player, in inglorious 
repose in his coal-closet. 



THE PIERIAN SODALITY. 369 

of some damage done within the building by the " Euphradians." But a remonstrance was sent up 
and the privilege restored. For unexcused absence a small fine was imposed. To govern the playing 
cannot have been a difficult task. In 1833 they once made trial of a metronome, which, thought the 
secretary, " is likely to do us much good in keeping time, when we get used to it." It may be gathered 
from the records that the musicians, either from love of fun or under the influence of enthusiasm, 
would sometimes take liberties with, or go astray from, their notes in a manner which could not be 
allowed in a well-regulated orchestra. Now and then a visitor, perhaps from the " Pierian Glee Club," 

entertained them with a song ; as when " Mr. H sang with great applause the beautiful air of 

' The Mellow Horn,' accompanied by and on flutes." 

No small pleasure was it after one of these rehearsals to come out under the piazza and give their 
fellow-students a touch of their quality ; and tiien the sudden swell of music floating from in front 
of University Hall across the silent yard would be echoed back with hearty hand-clappings all along 
the windows of the buildings opposite. 

Special delight the Pierians took in their more elaborate serenades. These were not confined to 
Cambridge, but extended to Watertown, Brookline, Roxbury, Jamaica Plain, Boston, etc. Excursions 
of this sort would, of necessity, be protracted far into the night. Not seldom, indeed, long after day- 
break, " the chiding of the sharp-tongued bell " for morning prayers was heard by the returning vagrants, 
summoning them, just within sight of their longed-for rooms, with tired limbs, to the duties of a new 
day. For these expeditions even the chill air of March and April was not too harsh ; but in the balmy 
nights of early summer the rural quiet of the old village, not yet dreaming of street-cars and a thickly 
peopled Dana Hill, with the scarcely less unbroken stillness of Otis, Winthrop, and Chauncy Places, 
of Franklin Street, of Beacon Street, wherever, in short, dwelt celebrated belles, was interrupted by the 
delicate strains of the little group of players, who found a sufficient reward in the sound of a window 
raised, a blind thrown open, or any other indication that the sleepers were alert. The recollection of 
every one who took part in them will supply him with abundant incidents of these romantic excur- 
sions, oftentimes sufficiently amusing; such as the lavishing of the tender strains at the wrong house 
(as when once the leader, not familiar with the Arsenal yard, drew up the band before the gun-room 
instead of the commander's quarters) ; or upon the ears of die servant-maids when the ladies were 
away (as when Judge Y.'s family had not yet come from the party at Judge Z.'s) ; the encountering 
of another company of serenaders (as happened once in Brookline, where the jealous later comers 
diverted themselves by taking a drive with the carriage and horses of their rivals) ; the disappoint- 
ments, fatigues, hopes, exultations numberless ; and many a hospitable mansion can tell how it wel- 
comed in to a hastily improvised repast the players that had stolen upon its inmates with such sweet 
hirmony as the night becomes. 

But it was upon Exhibition Days the Pierians sought to achieve their highest honors. The Order 
of Exercises on these days usually gave ten or twelve parts to the declamations and three to music, 
besides the introductory performance while the Faculty were taking their seats. July 17, 1839, when, 
having had a large accession to their stock of tunes, they were ambitious to display them, and managed 
to introduce an unusual number into the programme, they were charged by the corrector of the proof 
with making an " innovation " ; but, says the secretary, " the audience did not attempt to frown out 
of countenance the innovation, nor has it come to our ears since that any one thought we played too 
much." 

In preparation for the day, the pieces which had been selected by a committee for performance 
were diligently practised at extra meetings as well as on the stated evenings, commonly also once just 
before the day in the organ-loft, between twelve and one o'clock, and again in the morning before 
the hour of beginning the exercises. These were held in the chapel in University Hall; and the 
dignity of the occasion to all the musicians, especially to him whose distinction it happened to be in 



37° 



THE PIERIAN SODALITY. 



the capacity of first flute to lead the band, cannot easily be overrated, as, at the moment when from 
behind the green curtains of their little gallery the procession, headed by President Quincy in cap 
and gown, was seen to enter at the southerly door, the line of half a dozen flutes, stretching along 
the front seat, struck up the Grand March in El Hyder, esteemed the most imposing of all their 
introductory pieces. - From Helicon's harmonious rills no richer stream of music flowed along. On 
melody like that the Muses from their sacred seats with favor might look down. Here are the first 
bars of the Grand March in El Hyder : — 



This stately opening was followed by some piece in livelier time (the selections at each playing con- 
sisted always of one slow and one quick movement), a waltz or quickstep in the same key. Every 
one who attended exhibitions in those days must often have heard a quickstep by Walch, that began 
in this way : — 




And this waltz : — 



One of these went by the name of Twelfth Waltz ; but why twelfth, or whose, who can tell ? 

In all this the part of third flute was not very exacting. Beyond the sense of fulfilling a duty, there 
could have been little satisfaction, one would think, in playing whole pages of bars like this, 



S^H^H^s 



varied only by the change of time or key. It is amusing to recall what elegant and costly flutes, with 
long extent of silver-keyed magnificence, were put to this seemingly uninteresting though indispensable 
service ; yet flauto terzo, beyond a doubt, would look back to these monotonous bars with as true 
pleasure as primo. The violins, it may be mentioned, afterwards helped to supply this " light time," 
as we called it, with good effect. 

The musicians' gallery projected from the northerly wall, high up near the ceiling, and directly over 



THE PIERIAN SODALITY. 371 

the pulpit where the President took his seat, the platform for the speakers being just below him. 
The entree to the gallery was a coveted privilege, not alone because the occupants bore so important a 
part in the services, but also because from between the curtains the eye could range unobserved 
over the assembled beauty that graced the benches of the hall below, or the pews in the Professors' 
gallery opposite, where were congregated in large numbers, to witness the debuts of their young friends, 
the fashionable dames and damsels of Cambridge and vicinity. 

Once there was a narrow escape from a miss in the praludium, from the tarrying too long at the 
wine : " An hour before Exhibition we met in the organ-loft to see how it sounded. We were 
delighted with our playing, and to prove our delight we adjourned to the Prases' room to pledge each 
other in a bumper and also to take courage. Whilst we were pleasantly chatting we heard the bell 
toll for the entrance of the Faculty. We ran as hard as we could to get into the loft before they could 
get in the chapel, but unfortunately they had the shortest distance to go and were already seated when 
(out of breath) we seized our instruments and began to blow as hard as the state of our lungs permitted ; 
but Madame Discord had already taken possession of our instruments and made us perform horribly. 
We were in despair, and sneaked off without being seen by the audience. In our first tune we felt a 
great deal the absence of the first horn. The rest of the playing went off pretty well, and made up 
in some degree for our bad playing." 

But the Pierians, either from lack of numbers or of proficiency, were not always equal to the task. 
The annual losses were at times repaired with difficulty. Thus, in 1832, at the beginning of the College 
year, on re-entering the rehearsal-room, they could count but three names on their roll. "Present 

G , P , and R , Sophomores, who are the only members at present composing the Sodality." 

In July, 1833, it was "voted that, as the Sodality cannot be always fully sustained by the undergraduates 
alone, members of the Law and Divinity Schools may belong to it." But, two months later, they receded 
from this, finding their ranks once more full. So at another time allusion is found to " the precious trio, 
the scanty remains of the once renowned," etc. Worse than this was their state when reduced to a 

single active member, as was the case when Mr. G held the meetings regularly alone, not forgetting, 

it is said, to put up the advertising-board for his own sole notification each week ; calling himself to 
order, and proceeding conscientiously with his solitary rehearsal, practising upon his flute his accustomed 
part till the hour of duty was complete, and so striving, not in vain, to keep the sacred flame alive. 

And mark what wise forethought was taken, in June, 1839, for the situation of the one member about 
to be left behind by his fellows, who were all of the Senior Class, then on the very eve of graduating : 
" It being announced that there were some funds in the treasury, and that it was expedient for the pres- 
ent members to use them and not bequeath them to our forlorn successor to squander in solitary riot." 

When their fortunes were at so low an ebb as this, and. to furnish the music at Exhibition was im- 
possible, a half-dozen band-men from the city were sometimes posted in that favorite perch. October 16, 
1832, there were to be seen looking down on the astonished spectators " six strange and bearded faces, 
the owners of which were clad in the uniform of the Boston Brigade Band." " It is said," wrote the 
Secretary, " that President Quincy is obliged to pay them from his own pocket, the Faculty refusing to 
do it on account of the enormous expense." He is generous, the Secretary, in his estimate of the 
playing of the six stranger professionals, and admits that " the music, although not performed by the 
Pierians, was attractive and beautiful." 

Sometimes the organ alone was depended upon ; once, as it is related, with so unexpected a result 
as to give to a stranger, then attending a Cambridge Exhibition for the first time, the impression that 
the music proceeded, not from the real instrument which he observed standing in the loft, but from a 
hand-organ, which, to his great surprise, he fancied had been carried up there and used in its stead. 

One extraordinary occasion on which the services of the Pierians were called into requisition is 
perhaps worth mention for the novel excuse in connection with it which one of the members ventured 



372 THE PIERIAN SODALITY. 

to offer for non-attendance at a recitation. Towards the close of the Senior year, when the time had 
arrived for the distribution of Commencement parts, and those selected for honors had been notified 
to attend at the President's study, it was proposed that the class go in procession with the Sodality for 
musical escort. Accordingly, the "Navy Club" (Qu. ignavi), — of which all not included in the Presi- 
dent's call were members, as it were, ex officio, — forming in advance, the class, preceded by the band, 
moved, two by two, from in front of Holworthy through the yard, passing out by the great gate near 
Massachusetts, and over the sidewalk till it halted under the President's windows, having by this time 
attracted a considerable concourse of the curious townspeople. At the moment of passing Massa- 
chusetts one of the Sodality, a Junior, who had not been apprised of the movement, had descended 
from his room, book in hand, on his way to recitation. Hailed by his brother musicians and inquiring 
the meaning of the unexpected call to duty, he ran back into the building, dropped his book to snatch 
up his flute, and hurrying down took his place in their ranks. The sound of the advancing instruments 
— four flutes, a clarinet, a violin and trombone, emphasized by a tambourine beaten by a volunteer — 
penetrated to the President's sanctum. As they were approaching, it is related that the President, 
puzzled at the unusual character of this demonstration, and somewhat apprehensive lest it might imply 
insubordination, sent down a messenger to observe the temper of the students, who was enabled speedily 
to bring back report that no signs of disaffection were manifest. And the column, the purpose of the 
march being accomplished, returned to the starting-point, where, after the customary call and cheering 
of names, the class dispersed. When the Junior had occasion to present afterwards his excuse for 
absenting himself from the recitation, with a show of ingenuousness he proceeded to justify himself 
as having yielded only to an instantaneous impulse to render his assistance with his comrades in carrying 
out the time-honored custom — " Time-honored custom ! " interrupted in his emphatic manner the 
astonished President, who, with all his advantage of years, had never before heard of the like foolery. 

The Sodality was by no means made up always of men of inferior rank in their class : so it was not 
strange if some one of them should now and then be called to the honor of performing a double part 
on Exhibition Day. To pay in such a case a passing compliment to his fellows who were watching 
him from overhead would be but natural. By chance, having been led to repeat from recollection a 
passage of this description from his oration, a Pierian, thus distinguished, now a well-known city official 
of the place sometimes called Charlesbridge, consents to submit it, thus rescued from undeserved 
oblivion. He says, never having seen his manuscript since, he can recall one sentence only of it, which 
was fixed in his memory undoubtedly by its allusion to the musical portion of the exercises of the day. 

" Utinam amorem scientiae hos omnes hodie in hanc aulam attraxisse credere possem ! Cum vero tot 
sodales in illis superioribus contemplor, aut ad fores oculis errantibus stantes, fortasse sodalitatis sermones 
suaves voci mea2 anteponentes, et hanc orationem praelongam segre ferentes, qui tamen, me egrediente, 
has parietes magno plausu concutient, aliqua alia causa eos actos esse non confiteri non possum." 

And what one of Sodales or Alumni who may read these felicitous periods, even admitting that the 
melodies descending from that elevation were more enchanting to the ear than the oratio in lingua 
Latina, will hesitate to declare the applause well bestowed which followed him, modest scholar, orator, 
first flute, retiring, as he descended from the platform and hastened through the entry to the organ-loft, 
with flowing robe still about him, "to add his flute part to the suaves sermones which were next in 
order " ? 

Nor, perhaps, will the orator object to the mention of the anecdote he related on repeating this 
passage, illustrative of the nice scholarship of that learned professor and punctilious gentleman, Dr. 
Beck, who, on revising the student's composition as prepared for delivery, finding the words he had 
made use of to express the " sweet strains " of the Sodality not altogether the best adapted to convey 
the meaning intended, suggested these two as more suitable ; and so let that graceful phrase, suaves 
sermones, stand to denote the soft discoursings of the Pierian Sodality of forty years ago. 



THE PIERIAN SODALITY. 373 

One might suppose that during the period alluded to there must have been a remarkable dearth of 
musical talent. In a class of over sixty, six could play the flute. One other played the 'cello. Four 
or five sang : as many more, perhaps, could hum a tune correctly. An examination of the list of names 
in the classes of the two- previous years shows that out of them the Sodality or Glee Club could have 
hardly enlisted a larger number. Eight or ten, therefore, may be judged to be about the average number 
of such as could in any way be called musical men in each class, say from fifteen to twenty per cent 
of the whole. 

The entire number of members of the Sodality, drawn from all the classes, at about this period, say, 
for instance, in 1837, was ten or twelve. Such persons as gave evidence of suitable musical attainments 
were chosen in, each successive year, to supply the vacancies left with every recurring Commencement 
Day. Juniors and Seniors in general made up the society, the qualifications of the men in the lower 
classes not always coming so early into notice, and the want of freedom of association between the 
more advanced students and the Sophomore and Freshman having a tendency, it may be, to exclude 
them. 

Perhaps the most interesting portion of a sketch like this would be the list of tunes that were played. 
Pleasant it would be to read again the little slips of music-paper, to handle the forgotten books. A 
small number only of the airs can be recalled with certainty. The records most frequently give them 
by their number. For instance, October 17, 1839, they played at serenading "69, 53, and 18"; then 
they moved on and played " 18, 53, and 69 " ; and again, at the next place, " 53, 69, 18, and 81 " ; and 
finally "81, 69, 18, and S3-"* But the copied parts and the books are lost, and the lapse of years 
has quite effaced from the memory of at least one trio who blew flute and drew bow, as well as recited 
side by side in the same division throughout College life, all the meaning of these numerals, so that they 
are now no better than an unknown tongue. Some, however, are occasionally named in the records. 
" O Nannie, wilt thou gang wi' me ? " is mentioned as arranged by Mr. Comer, together with Spring- 
time of Year, in 1833: which last, the Secretary wrote, "went splendidly, and all were extremely well 
pleased with it. We played several other tunes in fine style, but the Springtime seemed to be the 
universal favorite." Comer was also employed to arrange the " Popular Extravaganza called Jim Crow." 
There were Roy's Wife, Kinlock of Kinlock, most of the charming " Moore's Melodies," " Oft in the 
stilly night," "Come rest in this bosom," "Araby's Daughter," "The harp that once thro' Tara's halls," 
"My lodging is on the cold ground," a name which had not yet given place to "Believe me, if 
all those endearing young charms," still less been quite superseded, as it may now be said to be, by 
Fair Harvard, to the first public singing of which at the celebration of the two hundredth anniversary 
in 1836, the undergraduates of that time may take some pride in saying they were among those who 
listened. 

Of the popular airs of the day, such as seemed most readily to lend themselves to adaptation for so 
scanty an orchestra were selected from time to time to be added to the small repertoire. In this way 
were contributed in the writer's time Zitti, zitti, a waltz in C by Mozart, airs from the Caliph of 
Bagdad and from Le Dieu et la Bayadere, something by Von Weber called the Witches' Dance, Celeste's 
Dance, and many others. It was even presumed to attempt to compress the Overture to Le Nozze di 
Figaro within those narrow limits. As for Strauss, it is odd to recall that his sun had scarcely yet risen 
in New England. The Duke of Reichstadt's Waltz is remembered as a sun-burst of beauty and bril- 
liancy, after the old-fashioned Buy a Broom, and Waltz from William Tell, which used to do duty in- 
the slow-moving round dances. The Cracovienne and Cachucha in their turn came in a little later, 
with the Fanny Ellsler furore. Among these favorite pieces was one which, mentioned in the records 
by the very indefinite title of Celebrated Air by Haydn, did not at once recur to recollection ; but a 

* Oct. s, 1840 : " Selected 144 for the Faculty to march in by." 



THE PIERIAN SODALITY. 



little effort of memory has brought back the following pleasing melody, which is appended as a 
most fitting conclusion. Scattered Pierians of 183- do you hear the President's call? — Expectatur 



Andante, dolce. First flute part. 



^m^m^ ^^^i ^m^^^ 



iSP^iP 






THE HARVARD WASHINGTON CORPS. 

The Marti-Mercurian Band. — Origin of the Harvard Washington Corps. — Conditions of 
Membership. — Officers. — Drill. — Ceremonies following the Election of Officers. — 
Parade Days. — The Corps prohibited leaving Cambridge. — An Incident at the Sa- 
lute to Commodore Bainbridge. — President Monroe escorted by the Corps. — The 
Corps organized as a Battalion, 1822. — Dress Parade on Exhibition Days. — Encampments. 
— Disbandment. 

This was the name of a voluntary military organization among the two upper 
classes of the College. It became extinct more than forty years ago. Its ex- 
istence covered about twenty-two years ; it was quite famous in its day, and in 
the judgment of many was, on the whole, useful and beneficial in its influence. 
It had a clerk, but he kept very scanty records, — probably only a roll or roster 
of the company, — and these scanty records cannot be found. Efforts to ascer- 
tain who was the last clerk have been unsuccessful, so that for all knowledge of 
" The Harvard Washington Corps " we are thrown back upon the reminiscences 
of its few surviving members. 

There was a military organization among the students of Harvard College 
toward the close of the last century called the " Marti-Mercurian Band." It was 
in existence in 1793, but how long before and how long after the writer has 
been unable to ascertain. Some claim that the Harvard Washington Corps was 
a lineal descendant of that old organization. This may be; but the child, like 
some other lineal descendants, knew nothing of his father or grandfather. 

The Harvard Washington Corps was organized in the summer of 181 1. Its 
first captain was George Thacher; and its first lieutenant, Rev. Dr. Wainwright, 
late Bishop of New York. It did not owe its existence to the War of 181 2, as 
some have supposed, but to those circumstances which made the prospect of war 
imminent, and begot in all classes of the community the conviction that more 
military organization, instruction, and knowledge among the people were necessary. 

Membership in the Corps was confined to the Senior and Junior classes. Every 
member of these classes had a right to join it, if he came up to the only con- 



37 6 THE HARVARD WASHINGTON CORPS. 

dition annexed, namely, five feet five inches in height. The officers were all of 
the Senior class, while the Juniors composed the rank and file, with here and 
there a Senior continuing to serve in that capacity. Generally no Senior ap- 
peared on parade but such as held office. At first the organization was that 
of an ordinary militia company of that period, namely, a captain, a lieutenant, 
an ensign, a first, second, third, fourth sergeant, and a corporal to each section ; 
and the company drilling in single ranks. Under this organization, however, 
it made rapid progress in the manual exercise, and in accuracy and variety 
of military movements, and closed every year with the reputation of being in 
these respects in advance of any other company in Boston or the neighborhood. 
This was to have been expected ; and a failure in it would have been disgrace- 
ful, considering the more ample opportunity for drill and exercise which the 
College arrangements then afforded. There being then three terms in the year; 
the longest vacation, seven weeks, in the winter; the College in session, with the 
exception of a fortnight in May, from March to the last Wednesday in August; 
the dining hour in " commons " and in boarding-houses, 1 2.30 ; evening prayers 
and tea at six, — there could easily for several months be two, three, or four drills 
a week, either from one to two o'clock p. m., or from an hour to an hour and a 
half after " commons " at night : with these opportunities the Harvard Washington 
Corps ought of course to have surpassed the militia volunteer companies of 
the neighborhood. The Corps was organized annually about the middle of July, 
just before the Seniors left for the six weeks' recess then allowed them before 
Commencement. On an appointed afternoon, about two o'clock, the retiring offi- 
cers, arrayed in sash and sword, repaired to the Hall of Porter's Hotel, and there 
gathered all those interested who had a right to vote in the election of the 
new officers. Commonly the thing had been thoroughly canvassed, the candi- 
dates all determined upon, and the election went off harmoniously. Immedi- 
ately on its conclusion, the retiring officers took off each his sword and sash, and 
assisted in putting them on his successor; and then each taking the arm of his 
successor, a procession was formed, headed by the old and new captain, and all 
marched back to the College yard and dispersed, the officers commonly proceed- 
ing to the room of the new commander. The first thing the new officers had to 
attend to was to pay the old for their equipments, — sword, sash, epaulets, etc. 
These were handed down from year to year at a discount of five dollars on 
what had been paid for them the year before. The next matter to be arranged 
was a supper to be given by the new officers to the old. This commonly came 
off four or five days after the election, and was always given at old Porter's 
Hotel in Brighton Street, just out of Harvard Square. The College government 
permitted this. It was a simple and pleasant affair, and military office brought 
with it such a strong sense of dignity, that no excess was ever committed. 



THE HARVARD WASHINGTON CORPS. 2>77 

Immediately after this, the new company, enrolled from the class closing its 
Sophomore year, was called together, and divided into sections ; each sergeant or 
commandant then took charge of his section, and in some recitation-room in 
University Hall, or elsewhere, that had been assigned to him, had them together 
every day, teaching them the military positions, facings, marching, wheeling, etc.; 
then the muskets were put into their hands and the manual learned; and so 
zealously was the whole work of drilling the new company carried forward, that 
before the close of the term, at Commencement, the Corps was able to have sev- 
eral parades and drills under its new officers. These were held on the Cam- 
bridge Common, which was then an open space, no fence enclosing it, and only 
one obstruction in the centre of it, namely, a solitary tall sign-post, with a gilt 
eagle on the top of it, and a guide-board pointing out what used to be the Con- 
cord Turnpike. For several years, say from 1815 to 1822, the Harvard Wash- 
ington Corps was allowed two grand gala-days. The first was on some fine day 
in October, when the company, organized the July previous, and by this time 
pretty thoroughly drilled, was permitted to leave Cambridge early in the forenoon 
and march to Medford, to salute His Excellency Governor Brooks, and be reviewed 
by him. The Governor or some citizen of Medford commonly gave them a 
collation on these occasions, and the Corps returned to Cambridge and were 
dismissed in season to attend evening prayers. For several years this visit to 
Governor Brooks, a Revolutionary hero, was regarded by the Corps and the Col- 
lege generally as a very grand affair. One of the officers of the Class of 1821, 
in speaking of this annual parade, says : " The impression made on my mind, 
when that noble Revolutionary soldier received us, will never grow dim. A finer 
specimen of a man, gentleman, and officer than Governor Brooks has never 
been seen. He and two of his aids, Colonels Theodore Lyman and Benjamin 
T. Pickman, in full uniform, received us at the door of the Governor's house, 
where we were elegantly entertained." On one of these visits, 18 18, the Corps 
was received by the Hon. Peter C. Brooks, his son Sydney of the Class of 181 9 
being one of the officers ; and as they were drawn up on the beautiful lawn in 
front of his house, a very eloquent and spirited address was made to them by 
the late Hon. Ward Chipman, Chief Justice of New Brunswick, a graduate of 
Harvard of the Class of 1 79 1 . 

Again, in the month of June, annually, the Corps was allowed to have an an- 
nual parade in Boston, and to accept the invitation of any gentleman in Boston 
who might offer them a collation. Commonly in electing officers some Boston 
young man was put on the list, from whose father such an invitation might be 
expected. After 1822, this annual visit to Boston was not permitted. The occa- 
sion of the prohibition was this. On that year the Corps received an invitation 
to visit a distinguished officer of the navy, Commodore , then residing at 



378 THE HARVARD WASHINGTON CORPS. 

Charlestown, but under censure, a recent decision of a naval court-martial, ap- 
proved by the President of the United States, having suspended him from office, 
pay, and emoluments for six months. The popular feeling was rather in favor of 
the Commodore, as was manifested by the toasts given on the occasion ; and 
Captain Manning, who commanded the Corps, in reply to a sentiment from his 
host, complimentary to the discipline and evolutions of the company, used some 
particularly strong expressions condemnatory of the government and eulogistic 
of the censured and suspended officer. Of course these were reported in the 
newspapers with various comments, and the result was that letters came from 
the high authority in Washington, asking explanations, wishing to know if 
the Faculty of the oldest University in the country approved of the proceed- 
ings, or instructed and educated its young men in such sentiments of disre- 
spect towards the Federal government. Explanations satisfactory at Washing- 
ton, and to that portion of the public sentiment in Boston that had been out- 
raged, were made, by an order of the government of the College, prohibiting 
in future the company going out of the limits of Cambridge. 

Once before, in 1815, under the command of Lieutenant John Jeffries, the 
Corps visited Charlestown on the invitation of Commodore Bainbridge, then in 
charge of the Navy Yard. On this occasion, in firing a salute immediately 
after the order "Aim," and before the order "Fire," one gun went off. Instantly 
the lieutenant said, " As you were," and the guns were brought to the shoulder. 
He then tried them three or four times, "Aim," "As you were." No gun was 
discharged; and when, after the fourth or fifth "Aim," came the order, "Fire," 
the report was as one gun. Afterwards when they were in the house, the 
Commodore said, " I should like to know, Mr. Commander, if that was a pre- 
concerted affair, having one gun discharged at the first 'Aim,' and then after 
several repetitions of ' Aim,' and ' As you were,' to have such a simultaneous 
fire ? " Lieutenant Jeffries assured Commodore Bainbridge that it was entirely 
accidental, not at all preconcerted. A voice cried out from the crowd, " It was 
entirely accidental, and I am very sorry that I was so careless." Then said the 
Commodore, " It is a very satisfactory evidence of the thorough drill of the 
Corps." About forty years afterwards an eminent clergyman, long in charge of 
a parish about fifteen or eighteen miles from Boston, meeting Dr. Jeffries in the 
street, said to him, " Do you remember the one gun that went off when we 
saluted Commodore Bainbridge in 181 5? Did you ever know who fired it?" 
"No!" says Dr. Jeffries; "I did not want to know; I never inquired." "I 
was the unfortunate man," replied the clergyman, " and I never think of it to 
this day without mortification." 

The Federal government had once before noticed the Harvard Washington 
Corps, but in a more favorable manner than was called forth by Captain Man- 



THE HARVARD WASHINGTON CORPS. 379 

ning's toast. In the autumn of 1816, when President Monroe made his North- 
ern tour, during his stay in Boston, the authorities of the College invited him 
to visit Cambridge, and the Corps, under the command of Captain James W. 
Sever, did escort duty on the occasion. This was done with such care, grace, 
and military precision, that after Mr. Monroe had been received by Dr. Kirk- 
land, President of the College, on the piazza of University Hall, and brief ad- 
dresses had been made, and the members of the Faculty introduced, it was 
signified to Dr. Kirkland by the Secretary of War, General Armstrong, that the 
President of the United States wished to see the commander of the company. 
Captain Sever was therefore summoned to the piazza, and on his being presented, 
Mr. Monroe complimented him very highly on the thorough drill, discipline, and 
military movements of the Corps, said that the appearance of the company under 
his command clearly indicated that he had much military taste, tact, and ca- 
pacity, and that if disposed to devote these to the service of his country in the 
army of the United States, a warrant to enter West Point Academy and re- 
ceive a thorough military education should be forwarded to him on graduating 
from the College. Captain Sever returned his thanks in appropriate terms, and 
had the offer under consideration during the winter, but ultimately declined it, 
out of deference, it is believed, to the wishes of his family. 

The visit to Boston of the West Point Cadets, under Major Worth in 1821, 
gave interest and impetus to the military organizations in the neighborhood, and 
the Harvard Washington Corps shared largely in the beneficial influences. In 
the summer of 1822, on the election of George Peabody of Salem, of the Class 
of 1823, as commander, the Corps was organized as a battalion, with a lieuten- 
ant-colonel commanding, and a first and second major instead of first and second 
lieutenants. The sections were called companies, the sergeants commandants, the 
corporals became sergeants, and the Corps drilled and manoeuvred in double 
ranks. At the same time it adopted from the United States Cadets the cross- 
shoulder belts for the cartridge-box and bayonet sheath, and the over-belt round 
the waist to keep all fast; and the rules laid down in Scott's Manual for the 
manual exercise and for the dress parade, movements, and manoeuvres of a bat- 
talion were thoroughly studied and applied. 

These changes, together with the strong admiration felt for Lieutenant-Colonel 
Peabody and his associate officers, excited much College interest in the Harvard 
Washington Corps, and every one who could joined it; and early in the autumn 
of 1822 it became a very thoroughly disciplined body, in which every man in 
the ranks, whenever an order was given, understood as well as his commandant 
what he and his company had to do. 

But the annual parade and excursion to Boston or to any place out of the limits 
of Cambridge were now prohibited, and it was necessary to find some substitute. 



380 THE HARVARD WASHINGTON CORPS. 

At that time there were three Exhibitions during the year, one in October, one 
in May, and one early in July. These were three great gala-days at Cambridge, 
attracting almost as much interest and attention as Commencement. " Class Day " 
was not then much noticed outside of the immediate College circle. Prohibited 
from leaving Cambridge, the Corps was permitted to have a full dress parade 
and drill, with a band of music, on the afternoon of every Exhibition day. 

The proceedings were generally these : At two o'clock p. m. Mr. Daniel Simpson, 
the famous drummer, who is still living, beat a splendid roll on his drum, and, in 
a few moments, the company thus summoned was formed on the Common in front 
of Hollis Hall. The first movement was to enter the College yard by the gate- 
way, south of old Massachusetts Hall, advancing till the centre of the column was 
opposite the middle door of Holworthy Hall, and then wheel into line. There 
were then no trees in the centre of the College yard, or the few that had been 
planted were too small to present any serious obstruction ; and the great feat of 
the Corps was to march in line through the yard up to within thirty feet of 
Holworthy, and to do this so evenly that, after halting, neither wings nor centre 
would have to change position more than an inch or two for the line to be in 
perfect dress. If this long march in line was well done, and it commonly was, 
the officers, rank and- file, and spectators were well satisfied. After halting, the 
Corps took open order, the ensign and color-guard advanced to the middle door 
of Holworthy and received the standard, and returned to position. The company 
then went through various infantry manoeuvres; then, unfixing and sheathing 
bayonets, performed various exercises as a company of rifle skirmishers, etc. As 
the ground where Thayer Hall, Appleton Chapel, and Gore Hall stand was then 
an open field, there was ample space for these manoeuvres; and as the Exhibition 
always brought out a large gathering of the beauty and fashion of Boston, and 
the windows of the College halls were crowded with brilliant and — perhaps 
it was hoped — admiring faces, the Harvard Washingtons were satisfied, and the 
old annual parade in Boston was not regretted. For two years, at the October 
Exhibition, in 1822 and 1823, after its parade and evolutions in the College yard, 
the Corps was permitted to have an encampment, which lasted from three to four 
hours, — just long enough with expeditious movements for the quartermaster to 
learn how to lay out a camp, for the men to learn how to unfold and pitch their 
tents, how to mount and relieve guard, how to receive their rations, — one meal 
of pork and beans in tin pans and coffee out of tin dippers, — how to strike tents, 
fold and pack them, break up camp, march back to Old Cambridge Common, and 
be dismissed just as there was enough of the fading twilight left to make the com- 
mander's form dimly visible at the distance of twenty yards. (The ground selected 
for the encampment was the river bluff on the left hand of the lower road to 
Mount Auburn, just beyond the causeway.) Two experiments, however, were suffi- 



THE HARVARD WASHINGTON CORPS. 381 

cient to show that an encampment for two or three hours " did n't pay," either in 
the pleasure enjoyed or the knowledge acquired. It was therefore relinquished; 
and instead of an encampment, the Corps, after its parade and evolutions in the 
College yard, visited by invitation the President, some one of the Professors, or 
some resident of Cambridge interested in the company. These were very pleasant 
entertainments; and as numerous other guests, ladies and gentlemen, as many as 
could be comfortably crowded together, were invited, they were highly enjoyed 
by the Corps. This custom prevailed down to the disbandment of the Corps, 
which occurred probably in 1833, as no one can be found claiming to have been 
an officer or member of it at a later period. 

The causes which led to its extinction were probably general in their char- 
acter; at least it cannot be ascertained that there was any flagrant misconduct 
or wrong-doing on the part of the Corps, officers or members, that induced the 
authorities of the College to suppress it. In 1833 the militia and all military 
organizations had reached a pretty low point in public estimation. Nearly twenty 
years of peace had led the community to forget the necessity of such organiza- 
tions, and not only not to recognize their importance and usefulness, but to re- 
gard them with something of scorn and to treat them with something of con- 
tempt. The strong public sentiment of this kind which pervaded the community 
may have reached and affected the College public sentiment also, and the students 
themselves perhaps, as well as the President and Faculty, have come to look upon 
the Harvard Washington Corps with less interest than formerly, so that there 
was a mutual satisfaction in its discontinuance. 

It may be also, that while there was no positive misconduct committed or 
noticed, the Faculty may have thought that the existence of the Corps had an 
evil influence on the whole, and tended to promote dissipation, and that therefore 
it had better be abolished. What was the character and influence of the Corps 
during the last five or six years of its existence is unknown to the writer; but 
from his own experience as a member and officer, and an observation extending 
through ten years, from 181 8 to 1828, he would be slow to admit, nay, he would 
repel the idea, that it tended to promote or encourage dissipation. He believes 
that its influence was in the main very beneficial; that it was one of the best 
safety-valves the College had. As an amusement and exercise, it was cheaper, 
healthier, physically, morally, intellectually better, than the modern system of boat- 
ing and gymnastic exercise. That it was cheaper, there can be no question. The 
State by loan furnished the muskets and accoutrements for the rank and file; 
the College, a room or armory where every individual, when he left the Corps, had 
to deposit those allotted to him. The chief expense was the music for ordinary 
drills and a band on Exhibition days. An assessment of five or six dollars a year 
upon each member commonly met all the expenses. Is there a boat club that gets 



332 



THE HARVARD WASHINGTON CORPS. 



along without far more than quadrupling this amount? Was it not healthier? It 
did not tend to develop particular muscles and portions of the frame to the neglect 
of others. It required no special training and dieting to excel in it. It offered 
no temptation to over-exertion, to be followed by exhaustion and prostration. It 
called for no rivalry, did nothing to awaken that evil spirit of competition, that 
thirst for success and triumph, which is alike injurious to the heart and temper 
of the victor and the vanquished. It was a steady, healthful discipline, not a 
spasmodic effort and boisterous excitement. It encouraged habits of obedience, 
taught the young men the necessity and importance of order, regularity, and the 
doing of whatever they had to do in the best way it could be done. So far as 
it had any influence, it elevated rather than lowered the morale of the College. 

The following is a list of the officers of the Harvard Washington Corps, so 
far as they can be now ascertained : — 



, Adam L. Bingaman, Captain. 
Jonathan M. Wainwright, Lieut. 
George Thacher, Ensign. 
. T. M. Baxter, Captain. 
. Martin Brimmer, Captain. 
Daniel Wood, Lieutenant. 
Elijah Paine, Ensign. 
James Lincoln, Orderly or 1st 

Sergeant. 
John Mellen,* 2d Sergeant. 
Ebenezer Hobbs, 3d Sergeant. 
F. W.P.Greenwood, 4J/1 Sergeant. 
Wm. Henry Moulton.t Captain. 
John Jeffries, Lieutenant. 
Charles Lawrence, Ensign. 
Henry F. Baker, Orderly, or 1st 

Sergeant. 
Pelham W. Warren, 2d Sergeant. 
W. T. Stevenson, 3d Sergeant. 
Stevens Everett, 4//1 Sergeant. 
George M. Brewer, Captain. 
H. A. Ward, Lieutenant. 
J. A. Peabody, Ensign. 
Stephen Wheatland, Orderly or 

1st Sergeant. 
J. W. Sever, Captain. 
Samuel P. Spear, Lieutenant. 
Joseph Coolidge, Ensign. 
John D. Wells, Orderly or 1st 

Sergeant. 
Lynde M. Walter, 2d Sergeant. 
John D. Wells, 3d Sergeant. 
Baxter Perry, 4//; Sergeant. 
George Chipman, Captain. 
Winslow W. Sever, Ensign. 
Nathaniel Carter, Orderly or 1st 

Sergeant. 
George W. Otis, 2d Sergeant. 
Horace Gray, Captain. 
Sydney Brooks, Lieutenant. 
John Haslett, Ensign. 



Joseph McKean, Orderly or 1st 

. Charles Paine, Captain. 
John Rogers, Lieutenant. 
Isaac L. Hedge, Ensign. 
Charles Butterfield, Orderly or 

1st Sergeant. 
John C Hayden, 2d Sergeant. 
John S. Dart, 3d Sergeant. 

A. E. Watson, 4M Sergeant. 

. Robert W. Barnwell, Captain. 
Wm, Foster Otis, Lieutenant. 
George W. Pratt, Ensign. 
C W. Upham, Orderly or 1st 

Edward G. Loring, 2d Sergeant. 
Wm. P. Coffin, 3d Sergeant. 

B. T. Reed, 4/I1 Sergeant 
Samuel Manning, Captain. 

C P, Huntington, Lieutenant. 

Alexander Thomas, Ensign. 

Othniel Dinsmore, Orderly or 
1st Sergeant. 

W. P. Endicott, 2d Sergeant. 

Henry H.Penniman, 3J S<rv/J>>l. 

J. H. Richards, 4/I1 Sergeant. 

George Peabody, Lieut.-Colonel. 

Wm. Amory, 1st Major. 

Charles Carroll, 2d Major. 

Charles T. Haskell, Ensign. 

Hampden Cutts, 1st Command' 't. 
, Charles C. Carter, Lieut.-Colonel 

John F. Bingaman, 1st Major. 

W. H. W. Barnwell, 2d Major. 

Alexander C. Dunbar, Ensign. 

Stephen Eliot, 1st Commandant. 

Edward Blake, 2d Commandant. 

Edward B. Emerson, 3dCom'd't. 

N. Silsbee, 41/1 Commandant. 
. Francis Cunningham, Lieut.-Col. 

Hillary B. Cenas, 1st Major. 



The last three Sergeants, Messrs. Mellen, Hobbs, and Greenwood, are named acco 
surviving members of the class. 
He died on the 4th of July, 1815, and John Jeffries, Lieutenant, commanded the company for t 



Jonathan Chapman, 2d Major. 
John C. Howard, Ensigji. 
S. K. Lothrop, 1st Commandant. 
C. F. Adams, 2d Commandant. 
Edward Rundlet, 3d Cont'd 't. 
Joseph R. Otis, nth Command 'I. 

1826. Cornelius McLean, Lieut.-Col. 
C. R. Lowell, 1st Major. 
John C. Phillips, 2d Major. 
John H. Thayer, Ensign. 
J.T.Stevenson, 1st Commandant. 
Richard Robbins, 2d Comm'd't. 
Geo. Putnam, 3d Commandant. 
Alex. Hamilton, 4//1 Com'd't. 

1827. James G. Rowe, Lieut.-Col. 
Edward W. Hook, 1st Major. 
Thomas Dwight, 2d Major. 
Richard Cleveland, Ensign. 
Epes S. Dixwell, 1st Com'nd'nt. 
Wm. B. Kingsbury, 2d C'm't. 
Charles A. Farley, 3d Com'd't. 
Francis Dwight, 4//; Com'd't. 

r838. R. C. Winthrop, Lieut.-Colonel. 
Robert Gilmore, 1st Major. 
Joseph W. Dana, 2d Major. 
Patrick Grant, Ensign. 
John P. Tarbell, 1st Command'!. 
James S. Wadsworth, 2d Com'd 'I 
Chas. T. Murdock, 3d Com'd't. 
Josiah D. Hedge, 4//; Com'd't. 

1829. Ezra Weston, Lieut.-Colonel. 
James D. Russell, 1st Major. 
Edward P. Milliken, 2d Major. 
George W. Phillips, Ensign. 
B. R. Curtis, 1st Commandant. 
Charles Fay, 2d Commandant. 
Joseph Angier, 3d Commandant. 
E. D. Sohier, 4I/1 Commandant. 

1830. H. W. Sargent, Lieut.-Colonel. 
J. B. Williams, 1st Major. 
Isaac A- Jewett, 2d Major. 

best, but not positive recollection of some of 



THE HARVARD WASHINGTON CORPS. 



383 



H. S. Eustis, 1st Commandant. 
R. H. Gardiner, 2d Command't. 
James Dana, 3d Commandant. 
Joseph Lyman, qtk Commandant. 
H. F. Friese, Lieut.-Colonel. 
Wendell Phillips, 1st Major. 
S. F. Streeter, 2d Major. 
F. H. Silsbee, Adjutant. 
Wm. S. Morton, Ensign. 
Sam'l Wigglesworth, 1st Com'd't. 
Francis Boott, 2d Common 



Jos. R.Williams, 3d Command't. 
Horatio Dorr, qth Commandant. 
1832. Alanson Tucker, Lieut-Colonel. 
Wm. H.West, 1st Major. 
J. R. Motte, 2d Major. 
Geo. W. Cleveland, Adjutant. 
I. J. L. Whittemore, Ensign. 
J. S. Warren, 1st Commandant. 
R. M. Chapman, 2d Command't. 
J. T. Morse, 3d Commandant. 



H. T. Barstow, 4M Commandant. 
1833. Isaac P. Pendleton, Lieut-Col. 
Waldo Higginson, 1st Major. 
Gervais Baillie, 2d Major. 
T. B. Pope, Adjutant. 
Joseph Harrington, Ensign. 
John O. Stone, 1st Commandant. 
N. S. Tucker, 2d Commandant. 
W. D. Peck, 3d Commandant. 
Geo. J. Crafts, 4M Commandant. 



Note. — Since the above was in type, some books of r