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^-eTCTY O^ 


ae Eclectic Educational Series. 
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Corresponding Agent, 


^ Jvfkfrn, 


R -ok. 














Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 18G8, by 


In the Clerk's office of the District Court of the United States, for the 
Southern District of Ohio. 



Mrs. Ada SpinkS 
\uo. 16 1934 


In the preparation of this treatise, the ever-recurring wants 
and requirements of the class-room have been kept constantly in 
view. The aim of the author has been to make a practical text- 
book — a useful manual for the learner, not a reference book for 
the learned. 

The whole plan of the work is in accordance with the educa- 
tional doctrine that accuracy and facility in the use of language, 
both spoken and written, are the ends to be secured by the study 
of grammar: that to secure these ends, a thorough acquaintance 
with the elements, forms, structure, and laws of our mother tongue, 
is indispensable; and that a practical knowledge of these can be 
acquired only by patient, persistent exercise in the analysis and 
synthesis of syllables, words, and sentences. 

The author has endeavored to present the subject in a simple, 
concise, and perspicuous manner. He has purposely avoided the 
discussion of mere theories; preferring, rather, a plain didactic 
statement of his own views. Experience has taught him that 
such discussions serve only to confuse and discourage the begin- 
ner, and are of questionable utility to the advanced student. 
Neither the erudition of the teacher, nor the exhaustive com- 
pleteness of the text-book used, can compensate for the lack of 
drill in the class-room. 

The distinguishing features of this treatise, to which special 
attention is invited, are the following : 

1. The methodical arrangement and logical development of the 
subjects discussed. 



2. The brevity, clearness, and uniformity of the rules and 

3. The simple yet complete system of Analysis. 

4. The great variety of carefully prepared Models for Paus- 
ing and Analysis. By these models, the pupil is taught how 
to parse every kind of word, and how to analyze every kind 
of sentence. 

5. The abundance of appropriate exercises and illustrations, 
systematically arranged, and numbered for convenient reference. 

6. The definite statement or clear indication of opinion upon 
those points which annoy and perplex both pupil and teacher. 

7. The practical character and systematic classification of the 
instruction and exercises in False Syntax. 

8. The lucid and comprehensive treatment of Punctuation and 
Prosody — both important subjects, too much neglected in most 

9. The superior mechanical execution of the work. 

Actuated by a desire to render the labor of the class-room 
more pleasant and effective, by furnishing an attractive means 
for instruction in a useful branch of study, the author ventures 
the hope that this treatise will commend itself to the favorable 
notice and consideration of his fellow-teachers. 




Models for Parsing, 


• 56 

Elementary Sounds, 


Relative, . 




Models for Parsing, 


Consonants, .... 



. 62 

Diphthongs, .... 

. 11 

Models for Parsing, 

. 63 

Digraphs, . . . 

. 11 

The Verb, . 

. 65 

Trigraphs, .... 

. 11 



Double Consonauts, 

. 11 

Voice, ... 

. 68 

Substitutes, .... 

. 12 

The Participle, 

. 70 

Capital Letters, .... 



. 71 


. 18 



Small Capitals, . 

. 18 



Syllables, .... 

. 19 


. 81 

Words, Classes, ... 


Person and Number, 
Unipersonal Verbs, 

. 82 
. 84 


Conjugation, . 
Irregular Verbs, 


Definitions, .... 

. 23 

Defective Verbs, 

. 98 

The Noun, . . . . ' , 

. 24 

Models for Parsing, 


Classes, . 

. 25 

The Adverb, . 

. 104 


. 105 


. 28 



Number, .... 

Models for Parsing, 




The Preposition, 



List, .... 


Models for Parsing, 

. 34 

Models for Parsing, 


The Conjunction, 


Descriptive, . . . 

. 3S 

Classes of Connectives, 



Classes of Conjunctions 


Articles, .... 

. 39 

Models for Parsing, 


Pronominals, . . . 


The Interjection, t 



. 43 

Model for Parsing, 


Models for Parsing, 

. 46 


The Pronoun, 

Oral Lessons, . . . 

. 124-129 

Personal, . 



. .130 

Models for Parsing, 


. 131 


. 56 

Classification, . 







Elements, .... 


False Syntax, . 


Principal Elements, . 


Improper Words, 




Improper Forms, 


Subordinate Elements, 


Improper Expressions, 




Unnecessary Words, . 




Omission of Words, . 




Improper Arrangement, 




Words Variously Classifiei 

>, 215-223 

Classes, .... 


Figures, .... 


Models for Analysis, . 


Of Etymology, 


Classes of Elements, 


Of Syntax, . 


Simple, .... 


Of Rhetoric, 






Compound, . 

. 157 



Phrases Classified, 




Clauses " 




Contracted Sentences, . 


Period, . '. 


Ellipsis, . 


Interrogation Point, . 




Exclamation Point, . 


Directions for Analysis, 


Dash, .... 


Rules of Syntax, . 

. 171 

Curves, .... 

. 244 

Subject-Nominative, . 





. 173 

Other Marks, 


Possessive Case, 
Apposition, . 




Absolute Case, 


Definitions, .... 


Objective Case, 


Poetic Feet, 




Kinds of Verse, . 


Adjectives, . 


Poetic Pauses, . 


Participles, . 


Iambic Measures, 


Verbs, . 


Trochaic Measures, 


Infinitives, . 


Anapestic Measures, 




Dactylic Measures, 




Amphibrach Measure 

s, . 


Coordinate Connectives, 


Mixed Verse, 


Subordinate Connectives, 


Poetic License, . 








1. Definitions, 

1. A Word is the sign of an idea. 

2. ILanguage is the expression of thought by means 
of words. It may be either spoken or written. 

3. Spoiten language is the expression of ideas by the voice. 

4. Written Language is the expression of ideas by the use of 
written or printed characters representing sounds. 

5. Grammar treats of the principles and usages of 

6. Englisla Grammar teaches how to speak and 
write the English language correctly. 

7. English Grammar is divided into four parts: Or- 
thography, Etymology, Syntax, and Prosody. 

8. Ortfoograpliy treats of elementary sounds, letters, 
syllables/ and spelling. 

9. Etymology treats of the classification, derivation, 
and properties of words. 

10. Syntax treats of the construction of sentences. 

11. Prosody treats of the quantity of syllables, of ac- 
cent, and of the laws of versification. 




2. Definitions. 

1. Orthography treats of elementary sounds, letters, 
syllables, and spelling. 

2. An Elementary Sound is one which can not be 
separated into two or more distinct sounds. 

3. A ILetter is a character used to represent either an 
elementary sound, or a combination of elementary sounds; 
as, a, x. 

4. A Syllable is a sound or a combination of sounds 
uttered with one impulse of the voice; as, man, man-ner. 

5. A Word is either a syllable, or a combination of syl- 
lables; as, hat, men-tion, phi-los-o-phy. 

3. Elementary Sounds. 

1. There are forty elementary sounds in the English 

2. They are divided into Vowels and Consonants. Con- 
sonants are subdivided into Subvocals and Aspirates. 

3. Towels, or Vocals, are those sounds which are 
made with the vocal organs open, and consist of pure tone 
only. They are also called Tonics. 

4. Subvocals are those sounds which are obstructed by 
the vocal organs, in the process of articulation. They are 
sometimes called Subtonics. 



5. Aspirates are mere emissions of breath, articulated 
by the lips, tongue, teeth, and palate. They are sometimes 
called Atonies. 


h Vowels, 

a long, as 

in late. 

i long, as 

in time. 

a short, i 

1 hat. 

i short, 

' tin. 

a middle, ' 

■ ask. 

o long, 

' cold. 

a Italian, ' 

1 arm. 

o short, 

' hot. 

a broad, ' 

' all. 

oo long, 

' ooze. 

e long, l 

' eve. 

oo short, 

1 book 

e short, ' 

< ell. 

u long, 

u short, 

' lute. 
1 cup. 


5. Consonants. 

1. Consonants may be divided into six classes, viz.: 

Labials, or lip-sounds, which are made by the lips; 

Xiinguais, or tongue-sounds, made by the tongue; no-dentals, or tongue-teeth- sounds, made by the tongue 
and teeth; 

liinguo-nasals, or tongue-nose-sounds, articulated by the tongue, 
the sound passing through the nose; 

Paiato-nasais, or palate-nose-sounds, made by the palate, the 
sound passing through the nose; 

Palatals, or palate-sounds, made by the palate. 

2. The Subvocals are arranged on the left of the page, 
and the corresponding Aspirates on the right. 


b, as in bib, 
v, " save, 
w, " way, 
m, ." am, 

p, as in lip, 
f, " life, 
wn, " when. 



d, as in lid, 
th, " with, 
J% " jar, 
z, " size, 




t, as in tat, 
tli, " myth, 
cli, " rich, 



1, as in lull, 
r, " roar. 


(Have no corresponding aspirates.] 


n, as in man. (Has no corresponding aspirate.) 


US', as in song. | (Has no corresponding aspirate.) 


g, as in nag, 
y, " yes, 

It, as in kick, 
li, " how. 

Rem. — The sounds represented by I, m, n, and r, are sometimes 
called liqaidSy because they easily unite with other consonant 

6. Letters, 

1. There are twenty-six letters in the English alphabet. 
As there are more elementary sounds than letters, it becomes 
necessary that some letters represent more than one sound. 
Letters also combine to represent sounds for which there are 
no single representatives. Letters and combinations of let- 
ters are often used as substitutes for other letters. 


7. Diphthongs, Digraphs, and Trigraphs. 

1. A XHpiithong consists of two vowels sounded to- 
gether in the same syllable. 

Rem. — There are two diphthongal sounds, represented by four 
diphthongs, viz. : ou, ow, oi, oy, as in foul, now, boil, cloy. 

2. A Digraph, consists of two vowel letters written to- 
gether in the same syllable, one only being pronounced, or 
both representing a single elementary sound. 

Hem. — There are twenty-four digraphs, viz. : act, Canaan ; ai, 
gain ; ao, gaol ; au, maul ; aw, maw ; ay, may ; ea, meat ; ee, need ; 
ei, ceiling ; eo, people ; eu, feud ; ew, new ; ey, they ; ie, lief; oa, coat ; 
oe, foe; oi, avoirdupois; oo, moon; ow, tour; ow, flow; ua 7 guard; 
ue, sue ; ui, guise ; uy, buy. 

3. A Ti'igrapla consists of three vowel letters written 
together in the same syllable, one only being pronounced, 
or the three together representing a single vowel sound, or 

Rem. ic — There are seven trigraphs, viz. : aye, aye ; awe, awe ; 
eau, beau, beauty ; eou\, gorgeous ; eye, eye ; ieu, lieu ; iew, view. 

Rem. 2. — In such words as Christian, alien, union, i does not 
form a digraph with the following vowel, but is a substitute for y. 
In the unaccented terminations cean, cial, sion, Hon, the combina- 
tions ce, ci, si, ti, are substitutes for sh. 

Hem. 3. — In such words as herbaceous, gracious, precious, e and i 
do not form trigraphs with the following vowels, but the combina- 
tions ce, ci are substitutes for sh. 


8. Double Consonants. 

DoiiMe Con&onamts consist of , two consonant letters 
written together in the same syllable, representing a single 
elementary sound. 

Rem. — They are ch, chord ; gh, laugh ; ph, physic ; sh, hush ; 
th, thin, this; wh, when; ng, sing. 



9. Substitutes. 

A Substitute represents a sound usually represented by 
another letter or combination of letters, 

A long has four substitutes : $, te*te ; ei, feint ; ey, they ; ao, gaol. 

A middle has two substitutes: e, there; ei, heir. 

A broad has two substitutes : o, cord ; ou, sought. 

E long has three substitutes : i, marine ; ie, fiend ; ay, quay. 

E short has four substitutes : ay, says ; w, bury ; i, irksome ; ie, friend. 

I long has three substitutes : y, thyme ; ei, Steinway ; oi, choir. 

I short has six substitutes: y, hymn; e, England; u, busy; o, 
women; ee, been; ai, captain. 

O long has three substitutes : eau, beau ; ew, sew ; oa, goal. 

O sftor£ has two substitutes : a, what ; ow, knowledge. 

U long has five substitutes : eau, beauty ; ieu, lieu ; iew 9 view ; 
eiy, new ; ui, suit. 

U s/ior£ has three substitutes : e, her ; i, sir ; o, son. 

F has two substitutes : gh y laugh ; ph, philosophy. 

J has two substitutes : g, rage ; di, soldier. 

S has two substitutes : c before e, i, and y / z, quartz. 

T has one substitute : ed final, after any aspirate except t, 

V has two substitutes : /, of ; ph, Stephen. 

W has one substitute : u, quick. It is understood before o in one, 

X is used as a substitute for ks, as in wax ; gz, as in exact ; ksh, as 
in noxious. 

Y has one substitute: i, alien. It is frequently understood before u, 
as in verdure. 

Z has three substitutes : c, sacrifice ; s, his ; x, Xenia. 

CH has one substitute : ti, question. 

SH has six substitutes : ce, ocean ; ci, facial ; si, losion ; ti, motion ; 
ch, chaise ; s, sugar. 

ZH has four substitutes: si, fusion; zi, brazier; z, azure; s, rasure. 

NG has one substitute : n, generally before palatal sounds ; as in 
ink, uncle, conquer. 


10. Forms of the Letters. 

1. ^Letters are of different styles; as, Rornan, Italic, 
>9*uYit ©ft ISngltsrt). 

2. Types for printing are of various sizes: 

Great Primer, SmaiiPica, Minion, 

T? I- i 7 Long Primer, Nonpareil, 

° Bourgeois, Pearl( 

X lCct, Brevier, Diamond. 

3. Letters are used either as capital letters or as lower- 
case, or small letters. 

11. Capital Letters. 

I. The first word of every sentence, or the first word after 
a full pause, should begin with a capital letter. 

Ex~ — Winds blow. Snow falls. The heavens are aflame. 

II. The first word after an introductory word or clause 
may begin with a capital letter. 

Ex, — "Resolved, That the sum of $3000 be appropriated/' &c. 
u Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Ohio, That 
section fourteen/' &c. 

III. Each new line or paragraph of an enumeration of 
particulars, arranged in lines or paragraphs, should begin 
with a capital letter. 

Ex. — " These expenditures are in proportion to the whole expend- 
itures of government 

In Austria, as thirty-three per cent. : 
In France, as thirty-eight per cent. : 
In Great Britain, as seventy-four per cent." 

IV. The first word of a direct quotation, or of an impor- 


tant statement, a distinct speech, &c v should begin with a 

capital letter. 

Ex. — "When thou saidst, Seek ye my face, my heart said unto 
thee, Thy face, Lord, will I seek." " Dora said, ' My uncle took the 
boy.' " " One truth is clear : Whatever is, is right." 

V. The first word in every line of poetry should begin 
with a capital letter. 

Ex. — " Put your best foot foremost, or I fear 

That we shall miss the mail : and here it comes 
With five at top ; as quaint a four in hand 
As you shall see — three piebalds and a roan." 
" Faith, he 's got the Knicker- 
Bocker Magazine." 

VI. Proper names of persons, places, months, days, &c, " v 
should begin with capital letters. 

Ex. — James, Emma, Boston, July, Wednesday, James Monroe, 
O. W. Holmes. 

VII. Titles of honor or distinction, used alone or ac- 
companied by nouns, should begin with capital letters. 

Ex.-EaH Eussell; the Duke of York; Mr. Wilson, Mrs. Smith; 
Dr. Johnson ; Gen. Harrison ; Sir Bobert Peel ; George the Third ; 
Charles the Bold; "O had I a thousand a year, Gaffer Green;" 
"The Elder spake as follows." 

VIII. Names of things personified become proper nouns 
in sense, and should begin with capital letters. 

Ex. — "Come, gentle Spring! ethereal Mildness! come." 
"In Miserifs darkest cavern known, 
His useful care was nigh, 
When hopeless Anguish poured his groan, 
And lonely Want retired to die." 

IX. Words or phrases used as names for particular ob- 
jects should begin with capital letters. 

Ex. — The Falls ; Yellow Creek ; the Havana ; the City of Broth- 
erly Love ; the Cape of Good Hope ; John o' Groat's House ; the 


Round Tower; the Sailor's Home; "I have read 'The Tent on the 
Beach.' " 

X. All appellations of the Deity should begin with cap- 
ital letters. 

Ex. — God; the Most High; the Supreme; the Infinite One; 
Divine Providence ; the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost ; our 
Lord Jesus Christ. 

XI. A common word must sometimes begin with a cap- 
ital letter, to show its reference to the Deity. 

Ex. — "The Hand that made us is divine." 

"The spangled heavens, a shining frame, 
Their great Original proclaim " 

Rem. — A word that describes rather than denotes a name of 
the Deity, and a pronoun whose expressed antecedent is the name 
of the Deity, usually require no capitals; as, "O thou merciful 
God!" "The all-powerful Lord of lords;''' "God provides for all 
his creatures." 

XII. Nouns denoting the race or nation of individuals 
should begin with capital letters. 

Ex. — The French ; the Spaniards ; the English ; the Anglo-Saxons. 

XIII. Words derived from proper names should begin 
with capital letters. 

Ex. — American, Mainote, Danish, Johnsonian, Icelandic. 

Hesn.-— When such words become common nouns by losing 
their reference to their original proper nouns, they should not 
begin with capital letters ; as, a louis d' or ; a guinea ; china-ware. 

XIV. Words of special importance may begin with cap- 
ital letters. 

Ex. — The Tariff; the Sub-Treasury Bill ; the Commissioner of 
Common Schools ; "Be prepared for the Great Day;" "Angler's 
Companion : a Complete and Superior Treatise on the Art of An- 


XV. In natural history, generic names, or names of 
genera, should commence with capital letters. Specific 
names, or names of species, if derived from proper nouns, 
should also commence with capitals: otherwise with small 
letters. Scientific terms are usually printed in italics. 

Ex. — Rosa Gallica, Rosa alba; Anomma Burmeisteri, Anomma 
rubella ; Spongites Townsendi, Spongites fiexuosus, 

XVI. The pronoun / and interjection should be 

Ex.— "Sleep, O gentle Sleep, 

Nature's soft nurse, how have I lighted thee." 


1. Indirect quotations, or words quoted as the peculiar language 
of authors, should not begin with capital letters ; as, " A man is 
an 'individual,' or a 'person/ or a 'party.'" "A fine house is 
always a 'palatial residence.'" 

2. The pronouns he, his, him, thy, and thee, referring to names 
of the Deity, in sentences where their antecedents are understood, 
or when they are used for emphasis, may sometimes begin with 
capital letters; as, "The hope of my spirit turns trembling to 
Thee;" " Trust in Him, for He will sustain thee." 

3. In writing many compound names of places, usage is not 
uniform, When the parts remain separate, or are connected by a 
hyphen,- each should begin with a capital letter: when the parts 
are consolidated, but one capital letter should be used; as, New 
Castle, New r -Castle, Newcastle. 

4. In phrases or sentences used as headings or titles, nouns, 
adjectives, participles, or other important words, only, should 
begin with capital letters: unimportant words and connectives 
should begin with small letters. 

5. In advertisements, show-bills, &c, different styles and sizes 
of type are frequently used, and the liberty of capitalizing is car- 
ried to an indefinite extent. 

6. Names, signs, titles, and mottoes, designed to attract atten- 
tion, are printed in various styles ; most frequently in capitals. 


12. Exercises to be Corrected. 

1. — it is a pleasant thing to see the sun. man is mortal, flow- 
ers bloom in summer. ^> 

2. — Resolved, that the framers of the constitution, &c. 
3. — The town has expended, the past year, 

for grading streets, J^/ §15,000 : 

for public buildings, 15,000. 

4. — He said "you are too impulsive;" Remember the maxim, 
"a penny saved is a penny earned." 
5. — " The day is past and gone ; 

the evening shades appear ; 
O may we all remember well 
the night of death draws near." 
6, — James and samuel went to baltimore last august; The 
general assembly meets on the first monday in february. 

7. — The bill was vetoed by the president; John Jones, esq.; 
Richard the third; "The opposition was led by lord Brougham." 
8. — "When music, heavenly maid, was young, 
While yet, in early Greece, she sung, 
The passions, oft, to hear her shell, 
Throng'd around her magic cell." 
9. — The central park; the Ohio river; I have read "great ex- 
pectations;" the mountains of the moon are in Africa. 

10. — The lord shall endure forever; Remember thy creator; 
divine love and wisdom; "The ways of providence.' 7 

11. — " I know that my redeemer liveth; ""I am the way, the 
truth, the life ; " " The word was made flesh," 

12. — Those are chinamen ; the turcomans are a wandering race ; 
the gypsies of Spain; the Indians are fast disappearing. 

13. — The swiss family Robinson ; a russian serf; " The rank is 
but the Guinea's stamp ; " a Cashmere shawl ; a Damask rose. 

14. — The emancipation proclamation; the art of cookery, (a 
title) ; the Missouri compromise ; the whisky insurrection ; " A 
treatise on the science of education and the art of teaching." 

16, — 5 don't like to study grammar, i write correct enough, 
now. o, how i wish school was out! A 
H. G. % 


y 13, Italics, Small Capitals, etc. 

I. Emphatic words, phrases, and clauses are frequently 
printed in italics. 

Ex. — "Do not you grieve at this?" "The truth is, his lordship 

weeps for the press, and wipes his eyes with the public." — Curran. 

II. Words borrowed from foreign languages should be 

printed in italics. 

Ex. — " Each word stood quite per se" — Lamb. " This odd quid 
pro quo surprised me into vehement laughter." — Walpole. 

III. The names of authors, annexed to selections from 
their writings, are usually printed in italics. 

Ex. — "His coward lips did from their color fly." — Shakspeare. 

IV. Parenthetical words and phrases are frequently 

printed in italics. 

Ex. — Old gentleman {looking quite unconcerned), "Run away, has 

V. Names of ships, books, newspapers, and periodicals 

are frequently printed in italics or small capitals. 

Ex. — "The Quaker City has arrived." "The Journal is com- 
mitted to no such policy as that." 

VI. Names of important personages are frequently 
printed in small capitals. 

VII. Words requiring special emphasis are frequently 
printed in small capitals or capitals. 

Ex. — " I brand him as a rogue, a thief, a COWARD." — Placard. 

Rem. l — Italicized words in the Bible are those supplied by 
translators to explain the original. 

Rem. 2. — In manuscripts, one line drawn under a word indi- 
cates italics; two lines, small capitals; thr ee lines, CAPITALS. 

Rem. 3 — In this work, full-faced types are also used for dis- 


14. Syllables. 

1. A Syllable may be composed, 

1. Of a vowel, digraph, or trigraph; as, o-men, ow-ranography, 

2. Of a vowel or diphthong, with one or more consonants pre- 
fixed or affixed; as, 1-0, b-oy, a-m, a-nd. 

3. Of a vowel or diphthong, with one or more consonants pre- 
fixed and affixed; as, 6-a-c?, fr~&-nk. 

2. A vowel sound is an essential part of a syllable. 

3. Synthesis is the process of combining elementary 

4. Analysis is the process of separating a syllable or 
word into its elementary sounds. 

15. Models for Analyzing Syllables. 

Model I. 

I<o. — Give both sounds in quick succession, li-o, and pronounce the 

Model II. 

&o ... is a syllable, containing two elementary sounds. 
Ii .... is a consonant-subvocal-lingual. {Give its sound.) 

.... is a vowel, long sound. (Give its sound.) 

Model III. 

Clank.. — Give the five sounds in quick succession, c-1-a-n-k, and 

pronounce the word. 

Model IV. 

Clank is a syllable, containing five elementary sounds. 

C .... is a consonant-aspirate-palatal, substitute for A;. (Give its sound.) 

1 .... is a consonant-subvocal-lingual. (Give its sound.) 
a .... is a vowel, short sound. (Give its sound.) 

n .... is a consonant-sub vocal-palatal-nasal, substitute for ng. ( Give 

its sound.) 
k .... is a consonant-aspirate-palatal. (Give its sound.) 


Model V. 

Boy. — Give the three sounds in quick succession, b-a-i, and pro- 
nounce the word. 

Model VI. 

Boy . . is a syllable, containing three elementary sounds. 
B. ... is a consonant-sub vocal-labial. (Give its sound.) 
oy ... is a diphthong, representing a broad, and % short. (Give the 
sound of each in quick succession.) 

Model VII. 

View. — Give the two sounds in quick succession, v-u, and pronounce 
the word. 

Model VIII. 

View . is a syllable, containing two elementary sounds. 
V .... is a consonant-subvocal-labial. (Give its sound.) 
lew . . is a trigraph, equivalent to u long. (Give its sound.) 

Kote. — Either set of models may be used in analyzing syllables. 
The models for complete analysis need not be used after the classifi- 
cation of elementary sounds shall have been thoroughly learned. 

Analyze the following words, omitting all silent letters : 

And, fly, warm, elm, fin, sing, wax, when, sue, light, pot, home, 
zinc, valve, kid, ask, sun, goat, jolt. 

Form syllables by prefixing a consonant to a, ay, can, oy ; 

By prefixing two or more consonants to c, oo, aw, i ; 

By affixing one, two, or more consonants to any of the vowels or 

16. Words. 

1. A Word may consist of one, two, or more syllables. 

A word of one syllable is called a monosyllable ; as, care, man. 

A word of two syllables is called a dissyllable; as, care-ful, 

A word of three syllables is called a trisyllable; as, care-ful- 
ness, man-li-ness. 

A word of four or more syllables is called a polysyllable ; as, 
com-mu-ni-ty, ec-cen-tric-i-ty. 


2. Accent is a stress of voice placed upon a particular 
syllable. It may be either primary or secondary, 

the primary being the move forcible. 

3. Every word of more than one syllable has one of its 
syllables accented. 

4. In words having both a primary and a secondary 
accent, the secondary occurs nearest the beginning; as, in"- 
compatibility, in" comprehensible. \J 

17. Models for Analyzing Words. 

Tree is a word of one syllable: therefore a monosyllable. 

Nature . ... is a word of two syllables : therefore .a dissyllable. It 

is accented on the first syllable. 
Commotion. . is a word of three syllables: therefore a trisyllable. 

It is accented on the second syllable. 
Indefatigable is a word of six syllables : therefore a polysyllable. 

Its secondary accent is on the first syllable, and its 

primary accent on the third. 

Note. — A word having been analyzed according to one of these 
models, analyze each syllable according to the preceding models. 
In separating a word into syllables, divide it as it is pronounced. 
In writing, never divide a syllable at the end of a line. Each 
line should end with a word or an entire syllable. 

Analyze the following words : 

Sand, lead, sack ; unction, famous, greatly ; endeavor, infamous, 
candidly; unpopular, information, gratuitous; domestication/ in- 
terrogation, incredulity ; incomprehensible, indefensibleness ; in- 
compatibility, incompassionately. 

Write each of these words on your slates, and divide them into sylla- 
bles, marking the accented syllables. 

Correct the accent in the following ivords ; 

Advertisement, primary, contrary, legislature, lamentable, 
secondary, infa/mous, armistice, admirable, interesting. 


Change the accent of the following ivords to the second syllable, and 
give the meaning of each word before and after the change : 
Insult, fer'ment, reb'el, rec'ord, pre'lude, conjure, entrance, 

escort, increase, in 7 valid, object, intense, es'say. 

18. Classes. 

1. Words are either Primitive or Derivative. 

2. A Primitive or Radical word is one in no way 

derived from another in the same language ; as, mind, faith. 

3. A derivative word is one formed by joining to a 
primitive some letter or syllable to modify its meaning ; as, 
re-raind, faithful. 

4. A Compound word is one formed by uniting two 
or more primitive or derivative words; as, man-worship, 

5. A Prefix is that part of a derivative word which 
is placed before the radical; as, re-call, sub-join. 

6. A Suffix is that part of a derivative word which is 
placed after the radical; as, ikith-ful, change-able. 

7. Prefixes and suffixes are called Affixes. 

Note. — The meaning and use of affixes should be learned from 
some work prepared for that purpose. — See DeWolfs Instructive 
Speller and Hand-Book of Derivative Words. 





19. Definitions. 

1. Etymology treats of the classification, derivation, 
and properties of words. 

2. With reference to meaning and use, words are divided 
into nine classes, called Pa^ts of Speech; viz., Noun, 
Adjective, Pronoun, Verb, Participle, Adverb, Preposition, 
Conjunction, Interjection. 

3. A ffoian is a name; as, house, Charlotte, magnetism. 

4. An Adjective is a word used to describe or define 
the meaning of a noun; as,_J?ne houses; studious pupils; 
animal magnetism. 

5. A Pronoun is a word used instead of a noun ; as, 
his house; my book; your children; "Whom did you see?" 

6. A Verb is a word which expresses being, action, or 
state; as, I am; George writes; the house stands. 

7. A Participle is a word derived from a verb, par- 
taking of the properties of a verb and of an adjective or 
a noun ; as, "A light, shining from afar;" "A letter, written 
in haste." 

8. An Advert is a word used to modify the meaning 
of a verb, adjective, participle, or an adverb; as, "He runs 
swiftly;" "You are very kind;" "The letter was written 


9. A Preposition is a word used to show the relation 
between its object and some other word; as, "The house 
stands on the hill." 

10. A Conjunction is a word used to connect words, 
sentences, or parts of sentences y as, " John and Elisha are 
brothers." "Winds blow and rains descend." 

11. An Interjection is a word used to denote some 
sudden or strong emotion ; as, 0, ah, alas, pshaw. 

20. Oral Lesson. 

Write on your slates the names of five objects in the school- 
room. These words, as you perceive, are not the objects them- 
selves, but their names. They are called Nouns, which means 
names. Now write the names of five objects not in the school- 
room. What are these words called? Ans. — Nouns. Why? 
Ans. — Because they are names. Write the names of five of your 
school-mates. What are these words called? Ans. — Nouns. Why? 
A ns. — Because they are names. 

Are there not other names by which your school-mates are 
called? Ans. — Yes; they may be called girls and boys. Can the 
name "girl" be applied to all the girls in the room? Ans. — Yes. 
Can the name "Sarah" be applied to all the girls in the room? 
Ans. — It can not. Why? Ans. — All the girls are not named 
"Sarah." There are Mary, and Charlotte, and Jane, and Susan, 
and many other names for girls. 

We have, then, two kinds of Nouns, or names. One kind can 
be applied to each one of a class, and the other kind can be 
applied to a particular one only. The first kind are called Com- 
mon Nouns, and the second Proper Nouns. What kind are the 
names horse, boo/:, boy, girl, map, blackboard? Ans. — Common 
Nouns. Why? Ans. — Because they can be applied to each one 
of a class. What kind are the names John, Charles, Washington, 
Boston, Europe? Ans. — Proper Nouns. Why? Ans. — Because 
they can be applied to particular persons, or particular places, 


21. Definition. 

A Xoun is a name ; as, desk, Richard, goodness, army. 

22. Glasses. 

1. There are two classes of Nouns : Common and Proper. 

2. A Common ¥oun is a name which may be applied 
to any one of a kind or class of objects ; as, boy, child, 
book, radiation. 

3. A Proper Woun is the name of some particular 
person, place, people, or thing ; as, Charles, Cincinnati, 
The French, The Sun. 

Rem. 1. — Common nouns have meaning, and admit of definition. 
Most propei* nouns originally had meaning, but it is not taken 
into consideration in applying them; and, therefore, they do not 
admit of definition. There are about 30,000 common nouns, and 
70,000 proper nouns, in the English language. 

Rem. 2, — Whenever a proper noun assumes a meaning, so that 
it can be applied to each individual of a class, it becomes a com- 
mon noun; as, "He is the Cicero of our age;" "Bolivar was the 
Washington of South America ; " " He piled Ossa upon Pelimi to 
accomplish his purpose." 

Rem. 3. — Whenever a common noun is used to distinguish one 
individual from another of the same class, it becomes a proper 
noun; as, The Havana; The Falls; The Laurel Ridge. 

Rem. 4. — When two or more words form but one name, they 
are taken together as one noun; as New York; Niagara Falls; 
John Milton; Lord Bacon; Chief Justice Chase. 

4. Common louns may be divided into four classes : 
Class Nouns, Abstract Nouns, Collective Nouns, and Verbal 

5. Class ^Toims are names which can be applied to 
each individual of a class or group of objects ; as, horse, 
apple, man. 

H. G. 3. 


6. An Abstract Noun is the name of a quality con- 
sidered apart from the object in which it is found } as, 
brightness, brittleness, cohesion. 

7. A Collective Noun is a name singular in form, 
though denoting more than one; as, herd, jury, swarm, 
school, assembly. 

8. A Verbal Jtfoun is the name of an action, or a state 
of being ; as, singing, standing, seeming. 

Rem. i. — Words, phrases, and clauses, used as nouns, or in the 
relations in which nouns occur, are called substantives, and 
when thus used have all the properties of nouns. 

Rem. 2. —Such words as mass, heap, furniture, names of collect 
tions of objects without life, are class nouns, not collective nouns. 
They are sometimes called mass nouns. 

23. Properties. 

The Properties of the Noun are Gender, Person, 
Number, and Case. y 

24. Gender. 

1. Gender is a distinction of nouns and pronouns with 
regard to sex. 

2. There are four genders: Masculine, Feminine, Com- 
mon, and Neuter. 

3. The Masculine Gender denotes males ; as, father, 
uncle, king, governor. 

4. The Feminine Gender denotes females; as, 
mother, aunt, queen, governess. 

5. The Common Gender denotes either males or fe- 
males, or both ; as, parent, children, bird, cattle f 


6. The Stouter Gender denotes neither males nor fe- 
males ; as, stove, city, pen, ink, tree, house. 

Rem. l. — By a figure of speech called Personification, gender is 
sometimes ascribed to inanimate objects. They should then be 
regarded as either masculine or feminine. 

Ex. — "The ship has lost her rudder." "The meek-eyed morn 
appears, mother of dews." " The sun in his glory ; the moon in her 

Rem. 2. — When masculine or feminine qualities are ascribed to 
animals, they are regarded as either masculine or feminine. 

Ex. — "The nightingale sings her song." "The lion meets his foe 
boldly." "The fox made his escape." 

Rem. 3. — Nouns used to denote both genders, though strictly 
applicable to males only, or females only, are usually regarded as 

Ex. — "Heirs are often disappointed." " The English are a proud 
people." " The poets of America." 

Rem. 4. — The distinction of gender is not observed in speaking 
of inferior animals, and sometimes even of children. 
Ex. — " The bee on its wing." " The child in its cradle." 

7. There are three ways of distinguishing the masculine 
and feminine genders : 

1. By using different words : 

Ex. — Bachelor, maid, spinster ; bridegroom, bride ; brother, sister ; 
boy, girl; cock, hen; drake, duck; earl, countess; father, mother; 
gentleman, lady; hart, roe: male, female; man, woman; Mr., Mrs.; 
Sir, Madam; nephew, niece; son, daughter; uncle, aunt; Charles, 
Caroline; Augustus, Augusta. 

2. By different terminations : 

Ex. — Abbot, abbess; baron, baroness; host, hostess; actor, actress; 
prior, prioress; benefactor, benefactress; executor, executrix; mur- 
derer, murderess; sorcerer, sorceress. 

3. By prefixes and suffixes: 

Ex. — Man-servant, maid-servant ; he-bear, she-bear ; male-descend- 
ant, female-descendant ; cock-sparrow, hen-sparrow ; Mr. Smith, Mrs. 
Smith, Miss Smith ; pea-cock, pea-hen. 


25. Person. 

1. Person is that property of a noun or pronoun 
which distinguishes the speaker, the person spoken to, 
and the person or object spoken of. 

2. There are three persons : 'First, Second, and Third. 

3. The First Person denotes the speaker; as, U I } 
Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States." " Many 
evils beset us mortals." 

4. The Second Person denotes the person addressed; 
as, "James, be more careful." "Fellow Citizens, the crisis 
demands the utmost vigilance." 

5. The Tliird Person denotes the person or object 
spoken of; as, " Milton was a poet ;" "Rome was a city of 
flame" "I am reading Tennyson's Poems" 

Rem. l. — The writer or speaker often speaks of himself, or the 
person he addresses, in the third person; as, "Mr. Johnson has the 
pleasure of informing Mr. Mason that he has been elected Honor- 
ary Member of the Oriental Society." 

Rem. 2. — A noun in the predicate is of the third person, though 
the subject may be of the first or second. 

Ex. — "You are the man wanted." " We are strangers." "I am he 
whom you saw." 

26. Number. 

1. Number is that property of a noun which distin- 
guishes one from more than one. 

2. There are two numbers : Singular and Plural 

3. The Singular lumber denotes but one ; as, apple, 
flower, boy, girl* 

4. The Plural IVumber denotes more than one; as, 
apples, flowers, boys, girls. 


27. Formation of the Plural. 

1. Nouns whose last sound will unite with 5, form their plurals 
by adding s only to the singular; as, book, booh; boy> boys; 
desk, desks. 

2. Nouns whose last sound will not unite with s, form their 
plurals by adding es to the singular ; as, church, churches ; box, 
boxes; witness, witnesses. 

3. Nouns ending in y preceded by a consonant, change y into 
ies; as, glory, glories ; mercy, mercies, 

4. Most nouns ending in/ or fe, change these endings into ves; 
as, beef, beeves; wife, wives. 

5. Most nouns ending in o preceded by a consonant, add es; 
as, cargo, cargoes. Nouns ending in o preceded by a vowel, add s ; 
as, folio, folios. 

6. Some nouns form their plurals irregularly; as, man, men; 
ox, oxen; tooth, teeth; mouse, mice. 

7. Letters, figures, marks and signs add 's; as, "Mind your 
p's and q's;" the 9's and ll's; the *'s; the +'s; "Those g's 
and B's." 

8. In compound words, the part which is described by the rest 
is generally pluralized; as, brothers-in-law, courts-martial, wagon- 
loads, ox-carts. 

9. Compound words from foreign languages form their plurals 
according to (1) and (2); as, tete-d-tetes, piano-fortes, ipse-dixits, 

10. Some compound words have both parts made plural; as, 
man-servant, men-servants; knight-templar, knights-templars; ignis- 
fatuus, ignes-fatui. 

11. Compound terms composed of a proper noun and a title, 
may be pluralized by adding a plural termination to either the 
name or the title, but not to both ; as, the Miss Browns, the Misses 
Brown ; the Messrs. Thompson ; " May there be Sir Isaac Newtons 
in every science." 

12. When the title is preceded by a numeral, the name is always 
pluralized, as, the three Miss Johnsons; the two Dr. Bensons; the 
two Mrs. Kendricks. 



13. Some nouns have two plurals, but with a difference in mean- 
ing; as, brother, brothers (of the same family), brethren (of the 
same society) ; die, dies (stamps for coining), dice (for gaming) ; 
fish, fishes (individuals), fish (quantity, or the species) ; genius, 
geniuses (men of genius), genii (spirits) ; index, indexes (tables of 
contents), indices (algebraic signs) ; penny, pennies (pieces of 
money), pence (how much in value) ; pea, peas (individuals), 
pease (in distinction from other vegetables). 

14. Proper nouns, and words generally used as other parts of 
speech, are changed as little as possible, and usually add s only in 
forming their plurals; as, Mary, Marys; Sarah, Sarahs; Nero, 
Neros ; "The novel is full of ohs, bys, whys, alsos, and nos." There 
is good authority, however, for using Maries, Neroes, tvhies, noes. 

15. Many nouns from foreign languages retain their original 
plurals, changing us to i ; um and on to a ; is to es or ides ; a to ce 
or ata ; and x to ces or ices ; as, calculus, calculi ; arcanum, arcana ; 
criterion, criteria, thesis, theses; ephemeris, ephemerides ; nebula, 
nebulce; calix, calices; index, indices. 

28. General Eemarks on Number. 

1. Abstract nouns, and names of material substances, have no 
plural forms, as, silver, vinegar, hemp, tar, frankness, darkness. 
When different kinds of the same substance are referred to, a plu- 
ral form may be used ; as, sugars, vinegars, wines, oils. 

2. Some nouns have no singular forms ; as, ashes, assets, bellows, 
billiards, compasses, clothes, drawers, lees, scissors, shears, tongs. Neivs 
and molasses have the plural form, but are regarded as singular. 
Lungs, bowels, and a few others, have a singular form denoting a 
part of the whole ; as, " The left lung." 

3. Some nouns have no singular forms, but are singular or plural 
in meaning; as, alms, amends, corps, mumps, measles, nuptials, odds, 
riches, series, suds, tidings, wages, and some others. 

4. The names of some of the sciences are either singular or 
plural in meaning, according as they denote the science, or the 
objects of which the science treats; as, ethics, mechanics, mathe- 
matics, optics, pedagogics, physics, &c. 

5. Some nouns are alike in both numbers; as, sheep, deer, ver* 
min, couple, salmon, trout, dozen, gross, hdse, yoke. 


29. Case. 

Case is the relation of a noun or pronoun to other 
words. Nouns have four cases: Nominative, Possessive, 
Objective, and Absolute. 

30. Nominative Case. 

The Nominative Case is the use of a noun or pro- 
noun as the subject or the predicate of a proposition. 

Ex. — " The sun is shining." " That man is a sailor. 11 In the 
first sentence, " sun " is in the nominative case, because it is used 
as the subject of the proposition; in the second, "sailor" is in the 
nominative case, because it is used as the predicate of the prop- 

31. Possessive Case. 

1. The Possessive Case is the use of a noun or pro- 
noun to denote ownership, authorship, origin, or kind. 

Ex. — Susan 1 s book ; Gray's Botany ; the surfs rays ; boys 1 hats ; 
men J s clothing. 

2. The Possessive Case Singular is formed by annexing 
's to the nominative ; as, John's, Clarence's. 

3. The Possessive Case Plural is formed by annexing 
the apostrophe only, when the nominative plural ends with 
s; as, boys'; "The Ohio State Teachers' Association." 

Rem. i. — Plural nouns not ending with s, form their possessive 
case by annexing 's ; as, men's hats ; children 1 s shoes. 

Rem. 2. — In compound names, the possessive sign is annexed to 
the last word ; as, u Daniel Webster 1 s speeches :" in complex names 
it is annexed to the last word ; as, " The Bishop of Dublin 1 s pal- 
ace:" in a series of terms, and common possession, it is annexed 
to the last term ; as, "Day & Martin 1 s Blacking , " in a series of 
terms, and separate possession, it is annexed to each term; as, 
" Webster 1 s and Worcester's Dictionaries." 


Rem. 3. — When a noun in the possessive case is limited by a 
noun in apposition with it, or by a descriptive phrase, the possess- 
ive sign is annexed to the noun immediately preceding the object 
possessed, though not always to the name of the possessor; as, 
" Her Majesty, Queen Victoria's government ; " " The captain of the 
Fulton's wife died yesterday." Here "captain" is in the possessive 
case, and "Fulton" in the objective, governed by the preposition 

Rem. 4. — In compound words, the sign of possession is placed 
at the end; as, "The knight-templar's costume ;" "My brother-in- 
law's residence." 

Rem. 5. — " For conscience' sake," " For goodness' sake," &c, are 
idiomatic exceptions to the general rule for forming the possessive 
case singular. 

Rem. 6. — The sign ( , s), is a contraction of is or es; as, John's, 
King's; anciently written Johnis } Kingis, or Johnes, Kinges. 

32. Objective Case. 

The Objective Case is the use of a noun or pronoun 
as the object of a transitive verb in the active voice, or of 
a preposition. 

Ex. — "John studies grammar ." "The book is on the table." 
In the first sentence, " grammar " is the object of the transitive 
verb "studies;" in the second, "table" is the object of the prep- 
osition "on." 

Rem. l. — Nouns of measure, quantity, time, distance, value, or 
direction, are in the objective case without a governing word ; as, 
"The lake is ten miles long;" "The child is six months old;" 
u He is worth a hundred thousand dollars ; " " That is a ten horse- 
power engine ; " " The men traveled north" 

Rem. 2. — A noun or pronoun used to complete the meaning 
of a transitive verb is called a dflrect object: when added to a 
verb to denote that to or for which any thing is or is done, or that 
from which any thing proceeds, it is called an indirect object. 
When an indirect object precedes the direct, the preposition should 
be omitted ; when it follows, it should be expressed ; as, "I gave 
him an apple ; " "I gave an apple to him." 


33. Absolute Case. 

The Absolute Case is the use of a noun independent 
of any governing word. 

Ex. — "Joh?i, bring me a book ; " " Your fathers, where are they ? " 
"Honor being lost, all is lost." 

Rem. — A noun may be in the absolute case, 

1. By direct address ; as, "Charles, come to me." This use is 
sometimes called the Vocative Case. 

2. By mere exclamation; as, "Oh, Popular Applause!" 

3. By pleonasm, or by placing the noun before the sentence in 
which an affirmation is made concerning it; as, "Gad, a troop 
shall overcome him." 

4. With a participle ; as, "The sun being risen, we pursued our 

34. Nouns in Apposition. 

A noun limiting the meaning of another noun, denoting 
the same person, place, or thing, is, by apposition, in the 
same case. 

Ex. — "Washington the general became Washington the states- 
many "We visited New York, the metropolis of the United 
States." " In her brother Abraham's house." 

35. Declension. 

The I>eclension of a noun is its variation to denote 
number and case. 


Singular. Plural. 

Nom. Fly, Flies, 

Boss. Fly's, Flies', 

Sinyidar. Plural, 

Nom. Boy, Boys, 

Poss. Boy's, Boys', 

Obj. Boy. Boys. 

Nom. Charles, ■ 

Poss. Charles's, 

Obj. Charles. - — — 

Obj. Fly. Flies. 

Nom. Goodness, 

Poss. Goodness', 

Obj. Goodness. 



36. Parsing. 

Parsing consists (1) in naming the part of speech; 
(2) In telling its properties ; (3) In pointing out its rela- 
tion to other words; (4) In giving the rule for its con- 

37. Order of Parsing. 

1. A Noun, and why? 

2. Common or Proper, and why? 

3. If Common, whether a Class Noun, &c, and why? 

4. Gender, and why? 

5. Person, and why? 

6. Number, and why? 

7. Case, and why? 

8. Eule for construction. 

38. Models for Parsing. 

I. " Mary sings." 
Marjr ... is a noun ; it is a name : proper; it is the name of a par- 
ticular person : feminine gender; it denotes a female : third 
person ; it denotes the person spoken of: singular number; 
it denotes but one: nominative ease; it is used as the sub- 
ject of the proposition " Mary sings." Rule I. " The sub- 
ject of a proposition is in the nominative case." 

II. " Horses are animals" 
Animals . is a noun ; (why?) : common; it can be applied to any one 
of a class or kind : common gender; it denotes either males 
or females : third person ; (why ?) : plural number; it de- 
notes more than one: nominative case; it is used as the 
predicate of the proposition " Horses are animals." Rule 
II. "A noun or pronoun, used as the predicate of a prop- 
osition, is in the nominative case." 

III. " The poet Milton was blind." 
Milton . . is a noun; (why): proper; (why?): masculine gender; it 
denotes a male: third person; (why 1): singular number; 



(why?) : nominative case, in apposition with "poet." Rule 

IV. "A noun or pronoun, used to limit the meaning of a 
noun or pronoun, by denoting the same person, place, or 
thing, is in the same case." 

IV. "Henry's lesson is learned." 
Henry's . is a noun; (why?): proper; (why?): masculine gender; 
(why?): third person; (why?): singular number; (why?): 
possessive case; it denotes possession, and modifies " lesson." 
Rule III. "A noun or pronoun, used to limit the meaning 
of a noun denoting a different thing, is in the possessive 

V. "John studies grammar." 
Grammar is a noun ; (why ?) : common ; (why ?) : neuter gender; 
(why?) : third person ; (why?) : singular number; (why?) : 
objective case; it is used as the object of the transitive verb 
" studies." Rule VI. " The object of a transitive verb in 
the active voice, or its participles, is in the objective case." 

VI. "The book lies on the table." 
Table ... is a noun ; (why ?) : common ; (why ?) : neuter gender; 
(why?) : third person ; (why?) : singular number; (why?) : 
objective case; it is used as the object of the preposition 
" on." Rule VII. " The object of a preposition is in the 
objective case." 

VII. "William, open the door." 
William . is a noun ; (why?): proper; (why?): masculine gender; 
(why?) : second person; (why?) : singular number; (why?) : 
absolute case ; it is the name of a person addressed. Rule 

V. " A noun or pronoun used independently, is in the 
absolute case." 

39. Exercises, 

1. Nominative Case. 1. The wind blows. 2. The sun shines. 
3. Horses run. 4. Rain descends. 5. The vessel sails. 6. Schol- 
ars study. 7. Grass grows. 8. Fire burns. 9. Liberty is sweet. 
1 0. St. Helena is an island. 11. Lead is a metal. 12. Water is a 
liquid. 13. Cicero was an orator. 14. Webster was a statesman. 
15. Grammar is a science, 16, Birds are animals. 


2. Possessive Case. 1. The storm's fury is past. 2. Henry's 
health is good. 3. The king's palace is on fire. 4. Mary's task is 
done. 5. Byron's poems are published. 6. Jane borrowed Sarah's 
book. 7. Mr. Johnson sells boys' hats. 8. The defeat of Xerxes' 
army was the downfall of Persia. 

3. Objective Case. 1. John struck James. 2. Joseph bought 
the book. 3. The widow lost her son. 4. Peter studies algebra. 
5. The horse kicked the boy. 6. The man wrote a letter. 7. A 
dog bit a man. 8. Samuel lives over the river. 9. Martha went 
with Susan. 10. The house stands on the hill. 11. James is going 
to Cincinnati. 12. The boy ran by the mill. 

4. Absolute Case. 1. The rebellion being ended, the army 
disbanded. 2. Henry being away, the work was not done. 3. 
"Friends, Eomans, Countrymen! lend me your ears!" 4. "To 
arms! they come! the Greek! the Greek!" 5. "My daughter! 
oh, my daughter!" 6. "Your fathers, where are they?" 7. "My 
son, have you seen him?" 

Parse all the nouns in the following sentences : 

1. Boys like to play. 2. The Atlantic Ocean is three thousand 
miles wide. 3. Johnson the doctor is a brother of Johnson the 
lawyer. 4. Shakspeare lived in Queen Elizabeth's reign. 5. "Ah, 
Warwick! Warwick! wert thou as we are!" 

6. Temperance is a virtue. 7. King Agrippa, believest thou the 
prophets? 8. The inferior animals are divided into five classes: 
quadrupeds, fowls, fishes, reptiles, and insects. 9. The little army 
fought bravely on that day. 10. Where are the Platos and Aris- 
totles of modern times? 11. I have seen Mr. Squires, the book- 
seller, and stationer. 

Correct all errors in the following sentences : 

1. I have two brother-in-laws. 2. There were three knight- 
templars in the procession. 3. Nebulas are sometimes called star- 
dust. 4. I saw the two Mrs. Jackson. 5. The Friends' are hold- 
ing a meeting: some people call them Quaker's. 6. He called at 
Steele's the banker's. 7. The Jones' were all there. 

8. The boys slate was broken. 9. The mens' wages should be 
paid promptly. 10. The colonel's of the 7th regiment's horse ran 
away. 11. She is reading in her sister's Susan's book. 12. He 
studied O. B. Pierce' Grammar. 13. The fellows impudence was 
intolerable. 14. He has octavoes, quartoes, and folioes, among 
his books. 


40. Oral Lesson. 

Here are some apples, nice for eating: what shall we call them? 
Arts, — Ripe apples. I have just eaten one, and it tasted sweet: 
what else can we call them ? Arts. — Sweet apples. They are quite 
soft: what else can we call them? Ans. — Mellow apples. Write 
on your slates, "Ripe, sweet, mellow apples." All these words de- 
note some quality of the apples : what shall we call them ? Ans. — 
Quality-words. A very good name. 

Let us count the apples : one apple, two apples, three apples, four 
apples. Let us also number them : the first apple, the second apple, 
the third apple, the fourth apple. Write these numbers on your 
slates, as I write them on the blackboard — one, two, three, four: 
first, second, third, fourth. What shall we call these words ? Ans. — 
Number -words. 

When I speak of the apple nearest me, I say, "This apple;" 
when of one farther from me, "That apple." Do the words this 
and that denote any quality of the apples? Ans. — They do not. 
What do they do, then ? Ans. — They point them out. Very well : 
what shall we call themf Ans. — Pointing-out-words. 

You see that all the words we have used, in some manner de- 
scribe " apples." Some denote quality : some, number : some merely 
point out. What is the word " apple?" Ans. — A noun. Then 
they all describe a noun. We will call those words which describe 
or limit the meaning of nouns, Adjectives. What are all of these 
words? Ans. — Adjectives. 

The " quality- words " we will call Descriptive Adjectives, because 
they describe by denoting some quality. The "number-words" 
and " pointing-out-words " do not denote quality. We will call 
them Definitive Adjectives. 

Write "This is a good book." What is "good?" Ans.— An 
adjective. Why? Ans.— It describes the word "book." What 
kind ? Ans. — Descriptive. Why ? Ans. — It denotes a quality be- 
longing to the book. Write " These two books are mine." What 
are " these " and " two ? " Ans. — Adjectives. Why? Ans. — They 
describe " books." What kind? Ans. — Definitive. Why? Ans. — 
They define without denoting any quality. 

Write "Every man can do some good." What are "every" and 
"some?" Ans. — Adjectives. Why? Ans. — They limit nouns. 
What kind? Ans. — Definitive. Why? Ans. — They define with- 
out denoting any quality. 


41. Definition. 

An Adjective is a word used to describe or define the 
meaning of a noun; as, wise men, that book, three steam- 
ships, the fourth stanza. 

Rem. — The English language has about 7,000 adjectives. 

42. Classes. 

Adjectives may be divided into two general classes: 
Descriptive and Definitive. 

43. Descriptive Adjectives. 

1. A Descriptive Adjective describes the meaning 
of a noun by denoting some quality belonging to it. 

Ex. — A round table, a square table, a sour apple, a sweet apple, 
a good boy, a bad boy, an Italian sunset, twinkling stars, thick- 
warbled songs. 

2. There are three kinds of Descriptive Adjectives : Com- 
mon, Proper, and Participial. 

3. A Common Adjective is any ordinary epithet; as, 
good, hard,' broad, flexible. 

4. A Proper Adjective is an adjective derived from 
a proper noun ; as, French, American, Websterian. 

5. A Participial Adjective is a participle placed be- 
fore the noun which it describes; as, a shining light, echo- 
ing shouts, a written agreement. 

Rem. l. — Words commonly used as other parts of speech, some- 
times perform the office of descriptive adjectives, and should be 
parsed as such. 

Ex. — A gold ring, a silver cord, the California pine, a make-believe 
patriot, double-distilled nonsense. " The West is as truly American, as 
genuinely Jonathan, as any other part of our country." 


Rem. 2. — An adjective is frequently limited by a word joined 
to it by a hyphen. The compound term thus formed is called a 
compound adjective, and should be parsed as a single word. 

Ex. — A high-sounding title, an ill-matched pair. 

Rem. 3 Participial adjectives are derived directly from verbs. 

Participles usually follow the nouns they describe. 

Rem* 4. — When a descriptive adjective represents a noun un- 
derstood, or not expressed, the article must be prefixed; as, "The 
wise are provident;" "The good are happy." Adjectives thus used 
should be parsed as " adjectives used as nouns." 

Tell which of the adjectives in the following sentences are Common, 

Proper, and Participial: 

1. The unfortunate man was a hard-working mechanic. 2. The 
fields looked beautiful. 3. English books are costly. 4. The howl- 
ing storm is passed. 5. The soil is veiy productive. 6. The water 
falls into a marble basin. 7. I prefer a New England winter to an 
Australian summer, 

44. DefmitiYe Adjectires. 

1. A Definitive Adjective limits or defines the mean- 
ing or application of a noun without expressing any of its 

Ex. — The Ohio, that man, three dollars, the third seal, a twofold 
reference. "All men are mortal." "Each soldier received his pay." 

2. Definitive Adjectives are divided into three classes: 
Articles, Pronominal Adjectives, and Numeral Adjectives. 

45. Articles. 

1. The is called the Definite Article, because it definitely 
points out the object which it defines or restricts; as, "The 
book is on the table;" "Tlie horse ran over the bridge." 

2. A or An is called the Indefinite Article, because it 
defines or restricts in an indefinite or general manner; as^ 
"A book is on a table;" "A horse ran over a bridge," 


3. An should be used before words beginning with a vowel 
sound; A before words beginning with a consonant sound. They 
are spoken of as one article, because they are merely, a later and 
an earlier form of the same word. 

Rem. l. — The definite article is used, 

1. To point out a particular object or class of objects, or a par- 
ticular individual or portion of a class; as, "The sun and the 
moon;" "The Turks and the Greeks are at war;" "The rich and 
the poor here meet together." 

2. To distinguish an object from another having the same 
name; as, Mississippi, the name of a State; the Mississippi, the 
name of a river : Robert Fulton, the name of a person ; the Robert- 
Fulton, the name of a steam-boat. 

3. To point out an object as familiarly known or spoken of, or 
as preeminently distinguished ; as, " The Hibernia sailed yesterday ;" 
"The Capitol is a noble building;" "The immortal Washington." 

Rem. 2. — The indefinite article is used to show that no particular 
one of a class is meant — the leading idea being any or one.; as, a 
man, i, e. y any man, or one man ; "A picture hangs on the wall," 
L e., one picture. " Bring me a book," i. e. } any book. 

Rem. 3. — The indefinite article may be used, 

1. To point out a single individual; as, a plum, i. e., one plum; 
a horse, i. e., one horse; an ox, L e., one ox. 

2. To point out a single sum or aggregate ; as, a dozen apples, 
a few dimes, a hundred dollars, a wealthy people. 

Rem. 4. — An article sometimes limits, not a noun alone, but a 
noun as limited by other words; as, "The old men retired early; 
the yaung men remained until midnight." The article here limits 
the complex ideas " old men " and " young men." "An early spring 
is no sign of a fruitful season" The article here limits the complex 
ideas "early spring" and "fruitful season." 

46. Pronominal Adjectives. 

1. Pronominal Adjectives are definitives, most of 
which may, without an article prefixed, represent a noun 
understood; as, all men, each soldier, yonder mountain. 

2. They may be divided into three classes: Demonstra- 
tives, Distributives, and Indefinites. 


47. Demonstratives. 

1. Demonstratives point out objects definitely. They 
are this, that, these, those, former, latter, both, same, yon, 

2. This, (plural these,) distinctly points out an object as near 
in place or time; as, "This desk and these books." 

3. That, (plural those,) distinctly points out an object as not 
near, or not so near as some other object; as, "That desk and those 

4. In speaking of two objects, that should refer to the former, 
and this to the latter; as, "These horses are larger than those." 

5. Former and latter are used to designate which of two 
objects previously mentioned is referred to; as, a The cry of danger 
to the Union was raised to divert their assaults upon the Constitu- 
tion. It was the latter, and not the former, which was in danger." 

6. Both implies not only the one but the other also ; as, "Both 
forts were taken;" " James and Silas were both tardy." 

7. Same denotes an identical or similar object; as, "That is 
the same man we saw yesterday ;" " Both tables are made of the 
same wood." 

8. Yon and yonder point out some object in sight; as, "Yon 
house on the hill;" "Yonder mountain is a volcano." 

48. Distributives. 

1. Distributives represent objects as taken separately. 
There are four distributives : each, every, either, neither. 

2. Each can be applied to one of two or any greater number ; 
as, "Each warrior drew his battle blade;" "Useless each without 
the other." 

3. Every can be applied to one of more than two individuals 
only; as, "They received every man a penny;" "Every person in 
the room was astonished." 

4. Either can be applied to one of two objects only ; as, "Either 
of the two roads leads to town ;" " You may have either house." 

5. Neither means not either ; as, "Which of the two shall I 
take? both? one? ov neither?" 

H. G. 4. 


49. Indefinites. 

1. Indefinites refer to objects in a general way, without 
pointing out any one in particular. The principal indefinites 
are all, any, another, certain, divers, enough, few, little, 
many, much, no, none, one, own, other, several, some, 
sundry, which, whichever, whichsoever, what, whatever, 

2. All describes objects taken together; as, "All the years of 
man's life ;" "All men are mortal." 

3. Any denotes a single one of many; as, "Have you any 
wheat to sell ? " " Neither go into the town, nor tell it to any in 
the town." 

4. Another, or other, denotes something distinct from some- 
thing else of the same kind; as, "He took another road;" "He will 
let out his vineyard to other husbandmen. " 

5. Certain denotes one or some in an indefinite sense ; as, "And 
I, Daniel, was sick certain days ;" " I shall not vote for a certain 

6. Divers means unlike, various, numerous; as, "A prey of 
divers colors of needle-work;" "Divers miracles." 

7. Enough denotes a sufficiency ; as, " I have enough for my 
brother;" "Enough has been said already." 

8. Few denotes not many, a small number; as, " Many shall be 
called, but few chosen ;" " I have a few old books." 

9. utile means small in quantity, amount, or duration; as, 
"A little learning is a dangerous thing;" "A little sleep, a little 
slumber, a little folding of the hands to sleep." 

10. Many denotes a large number; as, "Many men of many 
minds ;" " The mutable, rank-scented many.'' 1 — Shakspeare. 

11. Much denotes a large quantity; as, "There is much wealth 
in this town;" "Thou shalt carry much seed out into the field, 
and shalt gather but little in." 

12. No means not any, none. As a noun it means one who votes 
in the negative ; as, " The noes have it." 

13. None means not one, or not any; as, "Ye shall flee when 
none pursueth you;" "Thou shalt have none assurance of thy 


14. One corresponds to another; as, "They love one anotlier," 
i e.j each person loves the other. 

15. Own implies possession with emphasis or distinction; as, 
"My own home;" "Our own dear mother." 

16. Several denotes any small number more than two ; as, "Sev- 
eral victories." Also, single, individual; as, "I'll kiss each several 
paper for amends." 

17. Some denotes a certain but indeterminate number or quan- 
tity; as, "Some money;" "I have brought some books." 

18. Sundry means various, divers; as, "So teach sundry gram- 

19. What and which, and their compounds, point out objects 
definitely or indefinitely ; as, " What lesson shall we learn to- 

50. Numeral Adjectives. 

1. Numeral Adjectives are those which express num- 
ber and order definitely ; as, four, fourth, fourfold. 

2. They are divided into three classes: Cardinal, Or- 
dinal, and Multiplicative. 

3. Cardinal Numerals denote simply the number of 
objects; as, two, thirteen, fifty, a thousand. 

4. Ordinal Numerals mark the position of an object 
in a series; as, second, thirteenth, fiftieth, the thousandth. 

5. Multiplicative Numerals denote how many fold; 
as, twofold, fourfold. 


1. When a noun, limited by either a descriptive or a definitive 
adjective, is some indefinite word/or has been previously used in 
the same sentence,, it may be omitted; as, "The cedars highest on 
the mountain are the smallest;" "The foremost horse is a better 
animal than the hindmost" " Give me this book, and you may 
have thai" 


2. Such, many, only, but, much, and not, when used alone limit 
plural nouns only. When followed by the indefinite article a or 
an, the phrases such a, many a, &c., limit singular nouns; as, "If 
you repay me not on such a day ;" "Many a time ;" " He is but a 
man ;" "Not a drum was heard." These phrases should be parsed 
as single words. 

3. When definitive adjectives are used in connection with de- 
scriptive, the former should be placed first; as, "That valuable 
property;" "Ten small houses." 

4. When cardinal and ordinal numerals are used together, the 
latter should be placed first; as, "The last two days;" "The first 
three chapters." 

5. A cardinal numeral used as -a noun, requires no article : an 
ordinal should have the article prefixed; as, "Were not ten 
cleansed?" "The tenth was rescued." 

6. Each other and one another are sometimes called reciprocals, 
because they are reciprocally related ; as, " They mutually assist 
each other-" "They help one another" 

7. Adjectives which vary in form to denote number, should 
agree in that property with the nouns they limit. Say, " this sort," 
not "these sort." 

8. Other parts of speech should not be improperly used as 
adjectives. Say "these books," not "them books;" "His voice 
sounds harsh" not "harshly" 

51. Comparison. 

1. * Comparison is a variation of the adjective to ex- 
press different degrees of quality; as, wise, wiser, wisest; 
good, better, best. 

2. There are three I>egrees of Comparison: the 

Positive, the Comparative, and the Superlative. 

3. The Positive degree ascribes to an object the simple 
quality, or an equal degree of the quality; as, "A mild 
winter;" "She is as good as she is beautiful" 

4. The Comparative degree ascribes to one of two 
objects a higher or lower degree of the quality than that 


expressed by the positive; as, "A milder winter than usual f 

"Mary is less studious than Emma." 

5. The Superlative degree ascribes the highest or low- 
est degree of the quality to one of more than two objects ; 
as, "The mildest winter ever known;" "The least skillful 
rider could do no worse." 

Rem. l. — The suffix ish, and the words rather, somewhat, &c, 
denote the possession of a little of the quality ; as, bluish, rather 
young, somewhat uncomfortable. 

Rem. 2. — The words altogether, far, by far, vastly, much, very, 
exceedingly, a most, a little, too, very, slightly, greatly, &c., denote a 
high degree of the quality without implying comparison ; as, very 
useful, exceedingly welcome, a most valuable invention. 

Rem. 3. — Adjectives denoting qualities which can not exist in 
different degrees, can not, with propriety, be compared — though 
some writers, not taking them in their full sense, often use them 
in the comparative and superlative degrees. 

Ex. — Blind, deaf, perfect, right, level, square, straight, perpendic- 
ular, equal, naked, honest, sincere, hollow, empty, dead. " My sin- 
cerest regards." " Our sight is the most perfect of our senses." 

52. Of Comparatives and Superlatives. 

1. In Ascending comparison, the comparative and su- 
perlative degrees are regularly formed, 

1st. By adding to the positive of monosyllables, r or er 
for the comparative, and st or est for the superlative; as, 
wise, wiser, wisest; hard, harder, hardest. 

2d. By prefixing to the positive of adjectives of more 
than one syllable, more for the comparative, and most for 
the superlative; as, honorable, more honorable, most honor- 

Rem. i. — Most adjectives of two syllables ending in y or le, after 
a consonant, or accented on the second syllable, form their com- 
parative and superlative degrees like monosyllables ; as, holy, holier, 
holiest ; gentle, gentler, gentlest. 


Hem. 2. —Some adjectives of two syllables, ending in a vowel 
or liquid sound, form their comparative and superlative degrees 
like monosyllables; as, handsome, handsomer, handsomest; narrow, 
narrower, narrowest. 

Rem. 3. — Some words are expressed in the superlative degree 
by adding the suffix most; as, hindmost, innermost, 

2. In I&escen&ing comparison, the comparative is 
formed by prefixing less, and the superlative by prefixing 
least, to the positive; as, wise, less wise, least wise. 

3. Some adjectives are compared irregularly; as, good, 
better, best; bad, worse, worst 

Rem. i. — Poets sometimes compare monosyllables by prefixing 
more and most; as, "A foot more light, a step more true" 

Rem. 2. — When monosyllabic and polysyllabic adjectives come 
together, the monosyllables are placed first, and all are compared 
by prefixing more and most; as, "The more nice and elegant parts ;" 
"The most rude and barbarous people." 

Rem. 3 — Adjectives should not be doubly compared; as, "A 
more healthier climate ;" "After the most strictest sect of our relig- 
ion, I lived a Pharisee." 

53. Order of Parsing. 

1. An Adjective, and why? 

2. Descriptive or Definitive, and why? 

3. Compare it, if it admits of comparison. 

4. Degree of comparison, and why? 

5. What does it describe or define? 

6. Rule. 

54. Models for Parsing. 

I. "Every diligent boy received merited praise." 

Ev^ry ... is an adjective ; it is a word used to describe or define the 
meaning of a noun : definitive; it defines without expressing 
any quality: distributive pronominal; it represents objects 
taken separately : it can not be compared, and belongs to 
" boy." Rule XII. "An adjective or participle belongs to 
some noun or pronoun." 



Diligent . is an adjective; (why?) : descriptive; it describes a noun by 
denoting some quality: common; it is an ordinary epithet: 
compared, pos. diligent, comp. more diligent, sup. most dili- 
gent: positive degree, and belongs to "boy." Rule XII. 

Merited . is an adjective; (why?): descriptive; (why?): participial; 
it is a participle placed before the noun it limits: com- 
pared, pos. merited, comp. more merited, sup most merited: 
positive degree, and belongs to "praise." Eule XII. 

II. "Many a fine intellect is buried in poverty." 

Many a. . is an adjective; (why?): definitive; (why?): indefinite pro- 
nominal; it refers to objects in a general way: it can not 
be compared, and belongs to " intellect." Rule XII. 

Fine .... is an adjective; (why?): descriptive; (why?): common; 
(why?) : compared, pos. fine, comp. finer, sup. finest: positive 
degree, and belongs to "intellect." Rule XII. 

III. "The first two engravings are American harvest scenes." 

The .... is an adjective ; (why?): definitive; (why?): definite article ; 
(why?): it can not be compared, and belongs to "engrav- 
ings." Rule XII. 

First. ... is an adjective; (why?): definitive; (why?): numeral; it 
denotes number : ordinal ; it marks the position of an ob- 
ject in a series : it can not be compared, and belongs to 
"engravings." Rule XII. 

Two .... is an adjective; (why?): definitive; (why?): numeral; 
(why?): cardinal; it denotes the number of objects: it 
can not be compared, and belongs to "engravings." 
Rule XII. 

American is an adjective; (why?) : descriptive; (why?): proper; it is 
derived from a proper noun : it can not be compared, and 
belongs to "scenes." Rule XII. 

Harvest .is an adjective; (why?): descriptive; (why?) common; 
(why?) : it can not be compared, and belongs to "scenes." 
Rule XII. 

IV. " The weather is pleasant." 

Pleasant . is an adjective; (why?): descriptive; (why?): common; 
(why?) : compared, pos. pleasant, comp. more pleasant; sup. 
most pleasant : positive degree^ and belongs to " weather." 
Rule XII. 


55. Exercises. 

Parse the nouns and adjectives in the following sentences: 

1. A loud report was heard. 2. Fearful storms sweep over these 
beautiful islands. 3. Life is but a vapor. 4. These walks are quiet 
and secluded. 5. I feel sad and lonely. 6. The fields look green. 
7. He took a twofold view of the subject. 8. Bright an4 joyful is the 
morn. 9. The steak was cooked rare. 

10. Either road leads to town. 11. Each soldier was a host in him- 
self. 12. Both horses are lame. 13. Such a law is a disgrace to any 
state. 14. Repeat the first four lines in concert. 15. My drowsy 
powers, why sleep ye so? 16. Homer was a greater poet than Virgil. 
17. One story is good until another is told. 18. Silver and gold have 
I none. 19. The Australian gold fields are very extensive. 20. The 
floor was formed of six-inch boards. 

21. My opening eyes with rapture see 
The dawn of this returning day. 

22. With many a weary step, and many a groan, 

Up the high hill he heaves a huge round stone. 

23. Strong Creator, Savior mild, 
Humbled to a little child, 
Captive, beaten, bound, reviled — 

Jesus ! hear and save. 

Exercises to be corrected: 

1. Put them books on the table. 2. You may have either of them 
six apples. 3. Neither of my three hats is large enough. 4. That 
book you are now reading was printed in 1578. 5. These men we 
saw yesterday were Italians. 6. He gave a reward to all of the four 
men. 7. None of the two young ladies is very beautiful. 

8. There are less boys in school now than formerly. — (Less suggests 
quantity — fewer suggests number.) 9. I have caught less fish than you. 
10. They worship both the sun, moon, and stars. 11. There is no 
glory in doing what every body can do. 12. Such persons as desire 
may remain. — (Do not use such instead of all.) 13. The gravel walk 
was rolled smoothly. 14. I like our now minister very much. 15. 
The eggs were boiled hardly. 16. John reads too loudly. 

17. The relative should be placed as nearly as possible to its ante- 
cedent. 18. Often touching will soil silver. 19. There are not 
fewer than ten tons of iron in that bridge. 20. Every member are 
expected to contribute something. 21. Sing the two first and the two 
last verses. 


22. You may have the peaches on the three first trees in them two 
rows. 23. The former of them five sentences is incorrect. 24. I never 
saw a more happier man. 25. Worser evils than poverty can be im- 
agined. 26. That was the most unkindest cut of all. 27. He is the 
awkwardest, backwardest boy in school. 

28. I do not like these kind of apples. 29. I would rather have a 
squarer box. 30. Which is meanest, a miser or a thief? 31. Jacob 
loved Joseph, more than all his children. 32. None of our family was 
at the party last evening. 33. That man occupies the largest store- 
room of any in the town. 

56. Oral Lesson 

Notice what I write: " John took John's hat, and put John's 
hat on John's desk." Do you think this is a correct sentence? 
Ans. — No, sir, we do not. What words are unnecessarily repeated ? 
Ans. — "John" and "hat." Write the sentence on your slates as 
you think it should be written. Sarah, you may read w T hat you 
have written. (Sarah reads " John took his hat, and put it on his 
desk." The teacher writes it on the blackboard.) Now, the words 
used in the place of "John" and "hat," are called Pronouns, which 
means "instead of nouns." What shall we call all words used in- 
stead of nouns? Ans. — Pronouns. 

I will write again : "i" write, you read, but he w T hispers." What 
are the words "I," "you," and "he"? An$. — Pronouns. Why? 
Ans. — Because they are used instead of nouns. What person is 
"I"? Ans. — First person, because it stands for the person speak- 
ing. What person is "you"? Ans. — Second person, because it 
stands for the person spoken to. What person is "he"? Ans. — 
Third person, because it stands for the person spoken of. Those 
words which show by their form the person of the nouns they rep- 
resent are called Personal Pronouns. What kind of pronouns are 
these words? Ans. — Personal Pronouns. 

Write this sentence: "The man w T ho was with me is a lawyer." 
What is " me " ? Ans. — A pronoun. What other pronoun is there 
in the sentence? Ans. — "Who." That is right — and what word 
does "who" stand for? Ans. — Man. But "who" can be used to 
represent the first, second, or third person ; as, " I who speak to you ;" 
"You who listen;" "He who whispers." It does not change fts 
H. G. 5. 



form to denote person, but relates to some noun, and must be of 
the same person and number as the noun to which it relates. It is 
therefore called a Relative Pronoun. What shall Ave call all similar 
words? Ans. — Relative Pronouns. 

Write this sentence: "Who has lost a pencil?" The word 
" who" is here used in asking a question. We will call it an Inter- 
rogative Pronoun. What shall we call those pronouns which are 
used in a similar manner? Ans. — Interrogative Pronouns. 

Write this sentence: "That book is mine." What two words 
can I use instead of " mine? " Ans. — " My book." " Mine," then, 
stands for both the possessor and the thing possessed. We will 
call it a Possessive Pronoun. What shall we call all words used in 
a similar manner? Ans. — Possessive Pronouns. 

57. Definition. 

1. A Pronoun is a word used instead of a noun; as, 
his book, my house; "Whom did you see?" 

2. The Antecedent of a pronoun is the noun, or 
equivalent expression, instead of which the pronoun is used. 
It usually precedes, but sometimes follows the pronoun. 

Ex. — "The poor widow lost her only son." Here "widow" is 
the antecedent of " her." " True to his flag, the soldier braved even 
death." " Soldier " is the antecedent of " his." 

3.. The Antecedent may be a noun, a different pronoun, 

a phrase, or a clause. 

Ex.— "A pupil that is studious will learn." "Pupil" is the 
antecedent of "that." "He who runs may read." "He" is the 
antecedent of "who." "He desired to pray, but it was denied 
him." "To pray" is the antecedent of "it." "He has squandered 
his money, and he now regrets it? "He has squandered his 
money " is the antecedent of " it." 

4. The Antecedent may be omitted; in which case it is 
said to be understood. 

Ex.— "Who steals my purse steals trash." "The person/" or 
"he," understood, is the antecedent of "who." 


58. Properties. 

1. The Properties of a Pronoun are Gender, Person, 
Number, and Case. 

2. The gender, person, and number of a pronoun are 
always the same as those of its antecedent, but its case de- 
pends upon the construction of the clause in which it is 

59. Classes. 

Pronouns are divided into four classes : Personal, Pos- 
sessive, Relative, and Interrogative. 

60. Persona] Pronouns. 

1. Personal Pronouns both represent nouns, and 
show by their form whether they are of the first, second, or 
third person. They are either Simple or Compound. 

2. The Simple Personal Pronouns are I, thou, 
he, she, and it, with their declined forms, we, our, us, my, 
mine, ye, you, your, thy, thine, thee, his, him, her, its, they, 
their, them. 

3. The Compound Personal Pronouns are formed 
by adding self or selves to some form of the Simple Person- 
als; as, myself, yourselves, himself, themselves. 

61. Declension. 

1. The Simple Personal Pronouns are declined as fol- 
lows : 

First Person. 

Nom. I, 

Poss. My or mine, 
Obj. Me. 

Nom. We, 
Poss. Our. 
Obj. Us. 



Second Person. 












Thy or 









Third ] 







Neut. or Com. 



















2. The Compound Personal Pronouns are declined as 

First Person. 

Singular. \ Plural. 

Nom. & Obj. 


Nom. & Obj. Ourselves. 

Second Person, 

Nom. & Obj. Thyself or Yourself. 

Nom. & Obj. Yourselves. 

Third Person 


Mas., Fern. & Neut. 



Nom. & Obj. Themselves 


x. Mine and thine were formerly used before words commencing 
with a vowel sound, in preference to my and thy. They are still 
used thus in poetry; as, "Thine eyes I see thee raise." 

2. Thou, thy, thine, thee, thyself, and ye, though habitually used 
by the Friends, and frequently in poetry, in the Bible, and other 
sacred writings, are now seldom used except in solemn style. 


They may be regarded as antiquated forms. You, your, yours, and 
yourself, are now preferred. 

3. You, originally plural, and still plural in its grammatical 
relations, is used to represent singular as well as plural nouns. 

4. We is often used in place of 7", in royal proclamations, edito- 
rials, and when the speaker or writer wishes to avoid the appear- 
ance of egotism ; as, " We, George III, King of Great Britain and 
Ireland, do proclaim/' &c. " We formerly thought differently, but 
have changed our mind." 

5. It is sometimes used in the nominative without referring to 
any particular antecedent; and in the objective for euphony alone ; 
as, "It thunders;" "It seems to me;" "It is a true saying;" "Come 
and trip it on the green." 

6. The compound personal pronouns are used in the nominative 
and objective cases only. To express emphatic distinction in the 
possessive case, the word own is used instead of self or selves ; as, 
" Let every pupil use his own book ;" " Successful merchants mind 
their own business, not that of their neighbors." 

7. The English language being destitute of a pronoun of the 
third person singular and common gender, usage has sanctioned 
the employment of the masculine forms he, his, him, for that pur- 
pose; as, in speaking of scholars generally, we say, "A thorough 
scholar studies his lesson carefully." 

8. When reference is made to an assemblage containing males 
only, or females only, the masculine or feminine forms should be 
used, as the case may require. 

9. When pronouns of different persons are used, the second should 
precede the third, and me third the first; as, " You, and he, and / 
were boys together." 

62. Order of Parsing. 

1. A Pronoun, and why? 

2. Personal, and why? 

3. Simple or Compound. 

4. What its antecedent? 

5. Gender, person, and number? Rule. 

6. Decline it. 

7. Case, and why? 

8. Rule. 


63. Models for Parsing. 

I. "J have seen him. 19 

I is a pronoun; (why?) : personal; it shows by its form 

whether it is of the first, second, or third person : sim- 
ple ; its antecedent is the name, understood, of the per- 
son speaking : gender, first person, singular number, 

to agree with its antecedent : Rule IX. " Pronouns must 
agree with their antecedents in gender, person, and 
number :" declined, singular, nom. I, poss, my, obj. me ; 
plural, nom. we, poss. our, obj. us: nominative case; 
(why?): Rule I. 

Him is a pronoun; (why?): personal; (why?): simple; its 

antecedent is the name, understood, of the person spoken 
of: masculine gender, third person, singular number, to 
agree with its antecedent : Kule IX : declined, sing., 
nom. he, poss, his, obj. him; plural, nom. they, poss. 
their, obj, them : objective case; (why?): Rule VI. 

II. "James, lend me your book." 

Me is a pronoun; (why?): personal; (why?): simple; its 

antecedent is the name, understood, of the speaker: 

gender, first person, singular number, to agree with 

its antecedent : Rule IX : decline it : objective case, it is 
the indirect object of transitive verb "lend." Rule VI. 

III. "The soldiers helped themselves." 

Themselves is a pronoun ; (why ?) : compound personal ; it is formed 
by adding selves to one of the declined forms of a sim- 
ple personal: its antecedent is "soldiers:" masculine 
gender, third person, plural number, to agree with its 
antecedent : Rule IX : decline it : objective case, it is the 
object of the transitive verb " helped." Rule XI. 

IV. "I, myself, heard him say so." 

Rlyself. • . . is a pronoun; (why?): compound personal; (why?) : its 
antecedent is the name, understood, of the speaker: 

gender, first person, singular number, to agree with 

its antecedent : Rule IX : decline it : nominative case, 
in apposition with ik I :" Rule IV. 


64. Exercises. 

Parse the nouns, personal pronouns, and adjectives in t/ie following 

sentences : 

1. He and I attend the same school. 2. She gave her sister a 
new book. 3. Have you seen him to-day? 4. I saw it with my 
own eyes. 5. You, yourself, told me so. 6. The wicked is snared 
in the work of his own hands. 7. I bought the book, and read it/ 
8. They live in our house. 

9. I see them on their winding way. 10. For we dare not make 
ourselves of the number, or compare ourselves with some that com- 
mend themselves: but they, measuring themselves by themselves, 
and comparing themselves among themselves, are not wise. 

11. My country, 't is of thee, 
Sweet land of liberty, 

Of thee, I sing. 

12. Thou great Instructor, lest I stray, 
Teach thou my erring feet thy way. 

Correct the following sentences : 

1. Him and me both study grammar. 2. I and he were play- 
mates. 3. Her and my aunt are great friends. 4. Every person 
should try to improve their mind and heart. 5. Each scholar 
should try to learn their lessons. 6. Those molasses, they cost one 
dollar a gallon. 7. Many a thoughtless youth make good business 
men — but it is after they have reformed. 

8. Both John and S^nuel got his lesson. 9. If a fish is caught 
foul, they are more difficult to land. 10. People should be kind to 
each other. 11. Did you see which of the scholars finished their 
examples first? 12. Every hoy and girl shall have their reward. 
13. Let the President and the Senate make such appointments as 
it pleases. 14. If any member of the congregation wishes to con- 
nect themselves with this church, they will please come forward 
while the choir sings. 

15. They had some victuals left, and we ate it. 16. Every person 
and every thing was in its proper place. 17. The hen-hawk caught 
a hen, and killed her on her own nest. 18. The earth is my mother, 
and I will repose on its bosom. 19. It is me, and not her, who you 
wish to see. 20. If any passenger has not paid his fare, they will 
come up to the captain's office and pay it. 


65. Possessive Pronouns. 

1. Possessive Pronouns are words used to represent 
both the possessor and the thing possessed. They are mine, 
thine, his, hers, ours, yours, theirs. 

2. To denote emphatic distinction, my own is used for 
mine, his own for his, thy own for thine, our own for ours, 
your own for yours, their own for theirs. 

Ex. — "This book is my own;" "Stand, the ground's your own. 
my braves ! " " Do not borrow or lend pencils : each scholar should 
have one of his own" 

Rem. — Two sets of models are given for parsing Possessive 
Pronouns. Both methods are sanctioned by good authorities. 

66. Order of Parsing. 

1. A Pronoun, and why? 

2. Possessive, and why? 

3. What is its antecedent? 

4. Gender, person, and number, and why? Rule. 

5. Case, and why? Rule. 

67. Models for Parsing. 

I. "That book is hers, not yours" 

Hers .... is a pronoun; (why?): possessive; it represents both the 
possessor and the thing possessed; its antecedent is 
"book;" neuter gender, third person, singular number, to 
agree with its antecedent: Rule IX: nominative case, it 
is used as the predicate of the proposition "That book 
is hers:" Rule II. 

Yours ... is parsed in a similar manner ; equivalent to " your book." 

Hers ... is a pronoun ; (why ?) : possessive ; (why ?) : it is equivalent 
to "her book." Parse "her" as a personal pronoun in 
the possessive case, according to Rule III, and "book" 
as predicate-nominative, according to Rule II. 


II. " The ground 's your own" 


Your own is a pronoun; (why?) : possessive; (wjay?): its antecedent 
is "ground:" neuter gender, third person, singular number; 
(why?): nominative case; it is used as the predicate of 
the proposition " The ground 's your own." Rule II. 

Y©ur own is a pronoun; (why?) : possessive; (why?) : it is equivalent 
to "your ground." Parse "your" as a personal pronoun 
in the possessive case, according to Eule III, and " ground" 
as the predicate-nominative, according to Rule II. 

68. Exercises. 

Parse the possessive pronouns in the following sentences : 

1. The farm is neither his nor theirs. 2. Is that horse of yours 
lame yet? 3. I did not hear that lecture of yours last evening. 

4. He is an old friend of ours. 5. This book is not mine ; it must 
be his or hers. 6. That carriage of theirs is a very fine one. 7. 
Friend of mine, why so sad? 

Exercises to be corrected: 

1. That horse is his'n. 2. Is that book your'n or her'n? 3. I 
think it is her'n. 4. He had no team; so he borrowed our'n. 

5. Your hat is not so pretty as her 'n. 6. We 'uns are better off 
than you 'uns. 7. You 'tins are a low set. 

69. Relative Pronouns. 

1. A Relative Pronoun is used to represent a pre- 
ceding word or phrase, called its antecedent, to which it 
joins a limiting clause; as, "The man whom you saw is 
my father." 

Rem. l — The antecedent is a word or phrase on which the rel- 
ative clause depends. It may be either a definite or an indefinite 
object. When the object is indefinite, the relative clause stands 
alone; as, "Who steals my purse steals trash." 

Rem. 2 — The difference between personal and relative pronouns 
is shown by the following distinctions : 1. Personal pronouns have 
a distinct form for each grammatical person; as, first person, // 


second person, thou, or you; third person, he, she, or it: the rela- 
tives do not change their form for person. 2. A personal pronoun 
may be the subject of an independent sentence ; as, "He is well :" 
a relative can never be thus used ; it is always found in a depend- 
ent clause ; as, " Laws which are unjust should be repealed." 

Rem. 3 — Relatives serve two purposes in a sentence: one, to 
represent nouns in any relation; the other, to join a limiting 
clause to the antecedent. The first is a pronominal, the second, a 
conjunctive use. 

2. Eelative Pronouns are either Simple or Compound. 

3. The Simple Relatives are who, used to represent 
persons; which and what, to represent things; that, to rep- 
resent both persons and things; and as, to take the place 
of who, which, or that, after such, many, and same. 

Rem. i. — What is sometimes used as a definitive adjective, as 
well as a relative, in the same sentence : in which case it is placed 
before the noun it limits ; as, "I send you what money I have," i. e. y 
" I send you the money which I have." When the noun it limits 
is understood, what takes its place, and should be parsed, first as a 
pronominal adjective, and secondly as a relative. 

Rem. 2. — That is a relative when wlio, whom, or which can be 
substituted for it ; as, " He that [ivho] is slow to wrath, is of great 
understanding." It is a pronominal adjective when it immediately 
precedes a noun, expressed or understood; as, "That book is 
yours;" "I did not say that" It is a conjunction when it joins 
a dependent clause to its principal; as, "I know that my Ee- 
deemer liveth." 

Rem. 3. — What, when a relative, can be changed into that 
which, or the thing which; as, "Tell me what [that which] you 
know;" "I got what [the thing which] I desired." That, or the 
thing, should be parsed as the antecedent part of what, and which 
as the relative. The antecedent part, that, is usually a pronom- 
inal adjective, either limiting a noun expressed, or representing 
it understood. 

Rem. 4 — Besides being a relative, what may be an interrogative 
pronoun; as "What did you say?" — a pronominal adjective; as, 
" Wliat book have you?" — an interjection ; as, " What! is thy serv- 
ant a dog, that he should do this?" — an adverb ; as, " What [partly] 
by force, and what by fraild, he secures his ends." 


70. Declension. 

Singular and Plural. 
Nom. Who, 

Poss. Whose, 

Obj. Whom. 

Singular and Plural. 
Nom. Which, 

Poss. Whose, 

Obj. Which. 

The Compound Relatives are formed by adding 
ever, so, and soever to the simple relatives. They are who- 
ever, whoso, whosoever, whichever, whichsoever, whatever, and 

Rem. — Whoever y whoso, and whosoever, are equivalent to he who, 
or any one who ; as, " WJioever studies will learn," i. e., "Any one who 
studies will learn." Whichever said whichsoever are equivalent to 
any ivhich; as, " Whichever way you may take will lead to the 
city," i. e., "Any way which you may take," &c. WJiatever and what- 
soever are equivalent to any thing which; as, "I am pleased with 
whatever you may do," i. e., " I am pleased with any thing which you 
may do." Compound relatives are indeclinable, and should be 
parsed like the simple relative what. 

71. Order of Parsing. 

1. A Pronoun, and why? 

2. Eelative, and why? 

3. Name its antecedent. 

4. Simple or Compound? 

5. Gender, person, and number, and why? Eule. 

6. Decline it. 

7. Case, and Eule. 

72. Models for Parsing. 

I. "A man who is industrious, will prosper." 

Who .... is a pronoun ; (why?) : relative; it represents a preceding 
word or phrase, to which it joins a limiting clause : its ante- 
cedent is " man :" simple : masculine gender, third person, 
singular number, to agree with its antecedent: Eule IX: 
nominative case; it is used as the subject of the subordi- 
nate proposition " who is industrious :" Eule I. 



II. "I am he whom ye seek." 

Whom ... is a pronoun; (why?) : relative ; (why?) : its antecedent Is 
" he :" simple : masculine gender, third person, singular num- 
ber; (why ?) : Rule IX : objective case ; it is the object of 
the transitive verb " seek :" Rule VI. 

III. " Happy is the man that findeth wisdom." 

That .... is a pronoun ; (why?) : relative; (why?) : its antecedent is 
"man:" simple: masculine gender, third person, singular 
number; (why?): Rule IX: nominative case; it is the 
subject of the subordinate proposition "That findeth wis- 
dom:" Eule I. 

IV. "The horse which you sold me is lame." 

Which ... is a pronoun; (why?): relative; (why?): its antecedent is 
"horse:" simple: masculine gender, third person, singular 
number; (why?): Rule IX: objective case; it is the object 
of the transitive verb "sold:" Rule VI. 

V. "I remember what you said." 

What. ... is a pronoun; (why?): relative; (why?): it is equivalent 
to that which — "that" being the antecedent part, and "which" 
the relative. Parse "that" as a "pronominal adjective used 
as a noun," in the objective case after "remember." 

Which. . . is a pronoun (why?): relative; (why?): its antecedent is 
"that:" neuter gender, third person, singular number; (why?) : 
objective case; object of the transitive verb "said :" Rule VI. 

VI. "That is the man whose house we occupy." 

Whose. . . is a pronoun; (why?): relative; (why?): its antecedent is 
"man:" masculine gender, third person, singular number; 
(why?): Rule IX : possessive case; modifies " house :" Rule III. 

VII. "Whoever studies will learn." 

Whoever, is a pronoun; (why?): relative; (why?): compound; it is 
equivalent to he who, or any one who — "he" being the an- 
teccdent part, and "who" the relative. Parse "he" as a 
personal pronoun, subject of "will learn," or "one" as a 
"pronominal adjective used as a noun," subject of "will 
learn," and "who" as a relative, by preceding models. 



VIII. " Whatever purifies sanctifies." 

Whatever is a pronoun; (why?): relative; (why?): compound; it is 
equivalent to that which. Parse "that" and "which" ac- 
cording to Model V — "that" being the subject of "sanc- 
tifies," "which" of " purifies." 

IX. "Whoso keepeth the law is a wise son." 

Whoso. . . is a pronoun; (why?): relative; (why?): compound; it is 
equivalent to he who, or any one who. Parse according to 
Model VII. i 

X. "As many as came were baptized." 

As is a pronoun; (why?): relative; (why?): its antecedent is 

"many:" simple: common gender, third person, plural 
number; (why?): Rule IX: nominative case; it is used as 
the subject of the subordinate proposition "as came," i. e., 
who came: Rule I. 

7B. Exercises. 

•Parse the relative pronouns in the following sentences : 

1. Those who sow will reap. 2. He that hateth, dissembleth 
with his lips. 3. They that forsake the law, praise the wicked; 
but such as keep the law, contend with them. 4. There is no class 
of persons that I dislike so much as those who slander their neigh- 
bors. 5. The house which you admire so much, belongs to the 
man whom we see yonder. 

6. Whatever is, is right. 7. Whatsoever ye shall ask in my 
name, that will I do. 8. He w T ill do what is right. 9. This is the 
dog that worried the cat that killed the rat that ate the malt that 
lay in the house that Jack built. 10. A kind boy avoids doing 
whatever injures others. 

Correct the following sentences: 

1. Tell me who you saw. 2. Those which are rich should assist 
the poor. 3. I am the chap what is not afraid of ghosts. 4. I gave 
all what I had. 5. This is the man who we sent for. 6. The dog 
whom you bought, was stolen. 

7. Who went with me, I shall not tell. 8. I am happy in the 


friend which I have long proved. 9. Whom, when they had 
scourged him, they let him go. 10. They compose the easiest that 
have learned to compose. 11. Do you know who you are talking 
to? 12. They are the sort of people who I do not like. 13. This 
is the child who was lost. 

74. Interrogative Pronouns. 

1. The Interrogative Pronouns are who, which, 
and what, when used in asking questions; as, "Who goes 
there?" "Which is yours?" "What did you say?" 

2. The Subsequent of an Interrogative Pronoun is 
that part of the answer which is represented by it. An 
Interrogative must agree with its subsequent in gender, 
person, and number. 

Rem. l. — Who seeks to designate some person: which, to dis- 
tinguish a certain individual from others: what, to describe the 
character or occupation of the person inquired for; as, "Who is 
that gentleman?"— Mr. Webster.— "Which one?"— Daniel Web- 
ster. — "What is he?" — An eminent lawyer and statesman. 

Rem. 2. — When a definite object is referred to, which and what 
are pronominal adjectives, limiting the name of the object inquired 
for ; as, " Which lesson shall we learn ? " " What book shall we 
study?" When an indefinite object is referred to, the interroga- 
tive takes its place; as, "Which is mine?" " What say you?" 

Rem. 3. — The interrogatives who and which are declined like 
relative pronouns. 

Rem. 4. — Apply Rule IX in parsing interrogatives, changing 
"antecedents" to " subsequents." 


75. Order of Parsing. 

1. A Pronoun, and why? 

2. Interrogative, and why? 

3. Name its subsequent, if expressed. 

4. Gender, person, and number. Rule. 

5. Decline it. 

6. Case, and why? Rule. 


76. Models for Parsing. 

I. "Who goes there?" 

Who . . is a pronoun; (why?): interrogative; it is used in asking a 
question : its subsequent is indefinite : gender and person inde- 
terminate: singular number, to agree with its subsequent: 
Rule IX: nominative case; it is used as the subject of the 
sentence "Who goes there?" Rule I. 

II. "Which is yours?" — The large one. 

Which is a pronoun (why?): interrogative; (why?) : its subsequent is 
"one:" neuter gender, third person, singular number; (why?): 
Rule IX: nominative case; it is used as the subject of the sen- 
tence "Which is yours?" Rule I. 

III. "What is that man?"— A blacksmith. 

What . is a pronoun; (why?): interrogative; (why?): its subsequent is 
"blacksmith:" masculine gender, third person, singular number; 
(why?) : Rule IX : nominative case; it is used as the predicate 
of the sentence "What is that man?" Rule II. 

77. Exercises. 

Parse the interrogative pronouns in the following sentences : 

1. Who saw the horse run? 2. Whose house is that on the hill 
yonder? 3. Whom did he call? — James. 4. For whom did he 
inquire ? 5. Which will you have, the large or the small book ? 

6. Whom did you take me to be? 7. W T hat shall I do?— Wait. 
8. What can be more beautiful than that landscape? 9, Which is 
the lesson? 10. Who told you how T to parse "what"? 

Parse the relative and interrogative pronouns in the following sen- 
tences : 

1. Who is in the garden ? — My father. 2. I do not know who 
is in the garden. 3. Tell me what I should do. 4. What vessel 
is that? 5. Always seek for what you need the most. 

6. Whose house was burned last night? — Mr. Hubbard's. 7. 
The boy closed the shutters, w T hich darkened the room. 8. What 
is his name ? 9. Whoever enters here should have a pure heart. 
10. I gave all that I had. 


Correct the following sentences : 

1. Whom do you suppose it was? 2. Who do you suppose it 
to be? 3. Those who consider themselves a good critic are not so 
considered always by others. 4. One should not think too favor- 
ably of themselves. 5. Do you know who you are talking to ? 

6. The army was cut up, or at least they suffered much. 7. Be 
sure to tell nobody whom you are. 8. Each of the sexes should 
be kept within their proper bounds. 9. The council were divided 
in its estimates. 10. No one could have acted more gallantly than 
him who bore the standard of the legion. 

11. I wish I was her. 12. Many a youth have injured their pros- 
pects for life by one imprudent step. 13, The moon appears, but 
the light is not his own. 14. Between he and 1 there is some dis- 
parity of years, but none between he and she. 

15. Whom say the people that I am? 16. Every one of those 
pleasures that are pursued to excess, convert themselves into 
poison. 17. They that honor me, I will honor. 18. The very 
men that had fought in the Peninsular war, and who had received 
the plaudits of all Europe, were defeated at New Orleans. 

19. She was a conspicuous flower, which he had sensibility to 
love, ambition to attempt, and skill to win. 20. Those lots, if they 
had been sold sooner, they wouM have brought more money. 

Parse the nouns, pronouns, and adjectives in the following sentences : 
1. Virtue is the condition of happiness. 2. Ye are the light 
of the world. 3. That garment is not well made. 4. One ounce 
of gold is worth sixteen ounces of silver. 5. The prayers of David, 
the son of Jesse, are ended. 6. Every man went to his own house. 
7. The army is loaded with the spoils of many nations. 8. Be of 
the same mind one toward another. 

9. He sacrificed every thing he had in the world : what could 
we ask more? 10. Who 's here so base that would be a bondman? 
11. I speak as to wise men : judge ye what I say. 12. Liberty was 
theirs as men: without it they did not esteem themselves men. 
13. The death of Socrates, peacefully philosophizing with his 
friends, is the most pleasant that could be desired. 14. I was a 
stricken deer, that left the herd long since. 

15. O Popular Applause ! what heart of man 

Is proof against thy sweet, seducing charms ? 

16. Beauty is but a vain, a fleeting good : 
A shining gloss, that fadeth suddenly. 


17. What black, what ceaseless cares besiege our state : 
What strokes we feel from fancy and from fate. 

18. Unveil thy bosom, faithful tomb ; 

Take this new treasure to thy trust ; 
And give these sacred relics room 
To slumber in the silent dust. 

19. Thy spirit, Independence, let me share, 

Lord of the lion-heart and eagle-eye : 
Thy steps I '11 follow with my bosom bare ; 

Nor heed the storm that howls along the sky. 

20. The gay will laugh 
When thou art gone ; the solemn brood of care 
Plod on, and each one as before will chase 
His favorite phantom: yet all these shall leave 
Their mirth and their employment, and shall come 
And make their bed with thee. — Bryant. 

78, Oral Lesson. 

The teacher writes on the blackboard, "A horse runs," and asks 
" What does the horse do ? " Arts. — A horse runs. What else may 
a horse do? Ans. — A horse trots, walks, gallops, eats, drinks, &c. 
Write these words on your slates. Are they the names of things? 
Ans. — They are not : they are the names of actions. What shall 
we call them? Ans. — Action-ivords. A very good name, but gram- 
marians call them Verbs. 

Write on your slates, "John studies." What is the subject of 
the sentence? Ans. — "John." What is the predicate? Ans. — 
"Studies." Does the sentence tell what John studies? Ans. — It 
does not. Write "grammar" after the verb "studies." The sen- 
tence now reads "John studies grammar." In this sentence, the 
meaning of "studies" is completed by the word "grammar." What 
element is that word? Ans. — An objective element. 

A verb which requires an objective element to complete its 
meaning, is called a transitive verb; a verb which does not require 
an objective element to complete its meaning is called an intransi- 
tive verb. 

H. G. 6. 


Why? Ans. — Because its meaning is completed by an objective 
element. What is "run," in the sentence "John runs?" Ans.— 
An intransitive verb. Why? Ana, — Because its meaning is not 
completed by an objective element. 

Write this sentence on your slates: "The fields look green." 
What is the subject of this sentence ? Ans. — " Fields." What is 
the predicate ? Ans. — " Green." What is the office of the word 
"look"? Ans. — It asserts the predicate "green" of the- subject 
"fields." Correctly answered: its use is copulative; and all copu- 
lative words, except the various forms of " be," are called copulative 
verbs. What is " look " in this sentence ? Ans. — A copulative verb. 
What is "seems" in the sentence "He seems afraid?" Ans. — A 
copulative verb. Why? Ans. — Because it asserts the predicate of 
the subject. 

79. Definition. 

A Verb is a word which expresses being, action, or state; 
as, I am; George writes; The house stands. 

Rem. — The being, action, or state, may be stated abstractly, or 
represented as belonging to a subject; as, "To write;" "Boys 
write;" "To seem;" "He seems discouraged." 

80. Classes with Respect to Use. 

1. With respect to their use, Verbs may be divided into 
Copulative, Transitive, and Intransitive. 

2. A Copulative Verb is used to assert the predicate 
of a proposition of the subject; as, "Sugar is sweet;" "He 
seems honest." 

Rem. — The copula to be is the only pure copulative. The verbs 
become, seem, appear, stand, walk, and other verbs of motion, position, 
and condition, together with the passive verbs is named, is called, is 
styled, is elected, is appointed, is constituted, is made, is chosen, is es- 
teemed, and some others, are frequently used as copulatives. 

Ex. — "The road became rough;" "The men appeared cheerful;" 
u He is styled the Czar of all the Russias;" "Sir Walter Scott is called 
the Wizard of the North ;" " Gen. Washington was elected first Presi- 
dent of the United States." 


3. A Transitive Verb requires an object to complete 
its meaning; as, "The hunter killed a bear;" "The scholar 
learned his lesson;" "That house has seven gables," 

4. An Intransitive Verb does not require an object 
to complete its meaning; as, "Flowers bloom;" "Grass 
grows;" "The wind blows furiously." 

Rem. i. — The action expressed by a transitive verb has refer- 
ence to some object external to the subject, upon which it termi- 
nates: the action expressed by an intransitive verb has no such 
reference, but affects the subject only. If an object is required to 
complete its meaning, a verb is transitive, otherwise intransitive. 
A verb in the passive form is transitive, if its subject in the passive 
voice can be made its object in the active. 

Ex. — "That boy studies algebra." The verb "studies" is transitive, 
because its meaning is completed by the object "algebra." "That boy 
studies" The verb "studies" is transitive, because some word, as les- 
son, grammar, &c, is required to complete its meaning. " The winds 
blow" The verb "blow" is intransitive, because the action expressed 
by it affects the subject only, and does not require the addition of an 
object to complete its meaning. " The letter was written by nie," i. e. y 
I wrote the letter. The verb "was written" is transitive, because its 
subject in the passive voice becomes its object in the active. 

Rem. 2. — Verbs which signify to cause to do what an intransi- 
tive verb expresses, are said to be used in a causative sense. 

Ex. — "The farmer burns wood," i.e., "The farmer causes wood to 
burn" The verb " burns " is used in a causative sense. 

Rem. 3. — Some verbs are transitive in one signification, and in- 
transitive in another. 

Ex. — "It breaks my chain;" "Glass breaks easily;" "He returned 
the book;" " I returned home ;" "The vessel ran the blockade;" "The 
horses ran." 

Hem. 4. — A verb usually intransitive, sometimes becomes tran- 
sitive. This generally occurs, in poetical expressions, when the 
object is like the verb in meaning, and when the verb is used in 
a causative sense. 

Ex. — "He lives a. noble life;" "And he dreamed yet another dream;" 
" Those men are playing a game of chess ;" " Grinned horribly a ghastly 
smile;" "The pirate sank the ship;" "To equip and march armies re- 
quires money as well as forethought." 


81. Classes with Respect to Nature. 

1. With respect to their nature, Verbs may be divided 
into Active, Passive, and Neuter. 

2. An Active Verb expresses action; as, "Horses gal- 
lop;" "The farmer plows" 

3. A Passive Verb represents its subject as acted 
upon; as, "The field was plowed;" "The soldier was 

4. A Xeufer Verb implies being, or condition; as, "I 
am;" "Your hat lies on the stand;" "The child sleeps in 
its mother's arms." 

82. Classes with Respect to Form. 

1. "With respect to their form, Verbs are either Reg- 
ular or Irregular. 

2. A Regular Verb forms its past indicative and per- 
fect participle by adding d or ed to the present indicative, 
or simplest form of the verb; as, love, love-d, love-d; count, 
count-ed, count-ed. 

3. An Irregular Verb does not form its past indica- 
tive and perfect participle by adding d or ed to the present 
indicative; as, see, saw, seen; go, went, gone. 

83. Properties. 

The Properties of Verbs are Voice, Mode, Tense, 
Number, and Person. 

84. Voice. 

1. Voice is that form of the transitive verb which 
shows whether the subject acts or is acted upon. 


2. Transitive Verbs have two voices: an Active and 
a Passive Voice. 

3. The Active Voice represents the subject as acting 
npon an object; as, " John struck James;" "The boy was 
studying;" "The cat caught the mouse." 

4. The Passive Voice represents the subject as being 
acted upon ; as, " James was struck by John ;" " The mouse 
was caught;" "The lesson was studied" 

5. The Passive Voice is formed by prefixing some form 
of the neuter verb to be to the perfect participle of a 
transitive verb. 

Rem. l. — A verb in the active voice is changed into the pas- 
sive, by making the direct object in the active the subject in the 

Ex. — "The boy shut the door," (active;) "The door was shut by 
the boy," (passive.) "He saw the comet;" "The comet was seen by 
';he astronomer." 

Rem. 2.— Certain verbs are sometimes used, with a passive sig- 
nification, in the active voice. They then denote the capacity to 
receive an act, rather than its actual reception. 

Ex. — "This stick splits easily;" " Butter sells for forty cents ;" "This 
cloth wears well;" "This timber saws well ;" "The bridge is building;" 
"I have nothing to wear;" "He has some ax to ginnd;" "He has no 
money to spend foolishly." 

Rem. 3. — A few verbs sometimes assume the passive form, 
though used in an active sense. 

Ex. — "The melancholy days are come," i.e., have come; "Babylon 
is fallen " i. e. } has fallen; "She is gone" i. e., has gone; "The hour 
is arrived" i. e., has arrived. 

Rem. 4. — The passive voice is used when the agent is unknown, 
or when we wish to conceal it and call attention to the act and its 
object alone; as, "The robbery ivas committed (by some person un- 
known, or known but not mentioned) in broad daylight." When 
we wish to make the agent prominent, the active voice should be 
used; as, "The escaped convict committed the robbery in broad 


85a Exercises. 

Tell which of the verbs, in the following sentences, are in the active 

voice, and which in the passive : 

1. Sarah loves flowers. 2. John was astonished at the news. 
3. William saw a meteor. 4. A meteor was seen. 5. I have writ- 
ten a letter. 6. That poem was written by Saxe. 7. He should 
have waited longer, 8. The heavens declare the glory of God. 
9. He found the money. 

86. The Participle. 

1. A Participle is a word derived from a verb, par- 
taking of the properties of a verb and of an adjective or 
a noun. 

Rem. — The participle is so called from its partaking of the 
properties of a verb, and of an adjective and a noun. It is the 
attributive part of the verb, used without assertion. It is not a 
verb, consequently neither mode nor tense belongs to it. It simply 
denotes continuance or completion of action, being, or state, rela- 
tively to the time denoted by the principal verb of the sentence 
in which it is found. 

2. There are three Participles: the Present, the Perfect, 
and the Compound. The present and the compound have 
both an active and a passive form and use. The perfect 
has an active and a passive use. 

3. The Present Participle denotes the continuance 
of action, being, or state; as, loving, being loved. 

Rem. — The present active participle always ends in ing. It may 
be used, 

1st. As an adjective; as, "Twinkling stars." 

2d. As a predicate ; as, " The stars are twinkling: 7 

3d. As a noun ; as, " I am fond of reading." 

4th. As a noun, with the modifications of a verb ; as, "Describ- 
ing a past event as present, has a fine effect in language." 

4. The Perfect Participle denotes the completion of 
action, being, or state ; as, seen, appointed. 


Hem. — This participle generally, though not always, ends in d 
or ed. It is frequently used as an adjective, but never as a noun, 
and is usually found in compound forms of the verb. 

Ex. — a He died, loved by all;" "Her promise, made cheerfully, was 
kept faithfully. 

5. The Compound Participle denotes the completion 
of action, being, or state, at or before the time represented 
by the principal verb; as, "Having written the letter, he 
mailed it." 

Rem. — This participle is formed by placing having or having 
been before the perfect participle, and may be used as a noun ; as, 
" I am accused of having plotted treason ;" " He is charged with 
having been engaged in the slave-trade." It is also formed by 
placing having been before the present participle ; as, "Having been 

87. Exercises. 

Give the present, perfect, and compound participles of the following 

verbs : 

Eely, find, help, study, recite, inquire, answer, plow, cultivate, 
join, emulate, spell, grow, paint, resemble, hope, suffer, sit, see, go, 
come, lay, arrive, exhaust, enjoy, write, read, learn, ventilate. 

Form sentences, using any of the above participles as predicates. 
Model. — "Mary is studying her lesson." 

88. Auxiliaries. 

1. Auxiliary Verbs are those which are used in the 
conjugation of other verbs. 

2. They are do, be, have, shall, will, may, can, must 

Rem. l.— Do, be, have, and will are often used as principal 
verbs; as, "He does well;" "I am;" "We have cares and anx- 
ieties;" "He willed me a thousand dollars." 

Rem. 2 The auxiliaries were originally used as principal 

verbs, followed by the infinitives of what are now called the prin- 



cipal verbs; as, "I can [to] read;" "You may [to] go;" "He has 
[to] come." The sign to is now dropped, and the infinitive is 
regarded as the principal verb ; the auxiliaries being mere form- 
words, showing the relations of mode and tense. 

Rem. 3. — The auxiliaries, when used as such, except must, 
which is used in the present tense only, have two tenses: the 
present and the past, s 

89. Conjugation of the Auxiliaries. 

Present Tense. 



1st Person. 

2d Person. 

3d Person. 

lsf Person. 

2d Person. 

3d Person. 




















































Past ' 








w r ere, 







































90. Definition. 

1. Mode is the manner in which the action, being, or 
state is expressed. 

2. There are five modes: the Indicative, Subjunctive, 
Potential, Imperative, and Infinitive. 


91. Indicative Mode. 

The Indicative Mode asserts a thing as a fact, or as 
actually existing; as, "The man walks;" "The house was 

Rem. — The indicative mode may be used in interrogative and 
exclamatory sentences ; also, in subordinate propositions, to denote 
what is actual, or what is assumed as actual ; as, "Is he a mer- 
chant ?" "The rascal has stolen my horse!" "I learn that you have 
removed from town." 

92. Subjunctive Mode. 

The Subjunctive Mode asserts a thing as doubtful, as 
a wish, a supposition, or a future contingency ; as, "If this 
be true, all will end well;" "Had I the wings of a dove;" 
" I shall leave, if you remain" 

Rem. i. — The subjunctive mode is so called because it is used 
in subjoined or subordinate propositions only. It represents an 
ideal act, or a real act placed under a condition of more or less 
doubt, and is joined to the verb of the principal proposition by 
the subordinate connectives if, though, except, lest, that, unless, 
and some others. These connectives are called the signs of the 

Rem. 2. —The sign is frequently omitted, in which case the 
auxiliary or copula precedes the subject; as, "Had I time," i.e., 
If I had time ; " Were I a king," i. e., If I were a king. 

Rem. 3 — The present subjunctive represents the thing supposed 
as possible, though doubtful; as, "If I go:" I may go or I may 
not. It implies future time; as, "If it rain, I shall not go;" "It 
is necessary that the dispatch be sent as soon as possible." " If it 
rains " is indicative, denoting present time ; i. e., it implies that 
the speaker does not know whether it is raining now or not. 

Rem. 4. — The past subjunctive denotes indefinite or present 

time, and represents a supposition contrary to the fact, or unreal ; 

as, " If he were honest, [implying that he is not,] he would pay 

me." "If he was honest" is indicative, implying that the speaker 

H. G. 7. 


does not know whether the person spoken of was honest, in time 
past, or not. 

Rem. 5. — The past perfect subjunctive denotes past time, and 
represents a supposition contrary to the fact; as, "If I had been 
invited, [implying that I had not,] I should have gone" 

Kem. 6. — The subjunctive is very generally used in expressing 
suppositions and conclusions in reasoning ; as, " If a regular hex- 
agon be inscribed in a circle, any side will be equal to the radius 
of the circle ;" " If the thankful refrained, it would be pain and 
grief to them." 

93. Potential Mode. 

The Potential Mode asserts the power, necessity, lib- 
erty, duty, or liability of acting, or being in a certain state ; 
as, "You can read;" "He must go;" "You may retire;" 
" They should be more careful." 

Rem. l. — The potential mode, like the indicative, is used in 
interrogative and exclamatory sentences; also, in subordinate 
propositions, to represent what is assumed as actual, or what has 
not been realized; as, "I know that I may be disappointed;" 
"He says that I may study algebra." 

Rem. 2. — The signs of the potential mode are the auxiliaries 
may, can, must, might, could, would, and should. 

1. Can or could implies power or ability within one's self; as, 
"He can do it," i. e., he has ability to do it without assistance 
from others. 

2. May or might implies an agency without or beyond one's 
self; hence, possibility, probability, permission, wishing — the act 
being contingent on something beyond one's own will or power ; 
as, "He may go," i. e., all hindrances are removed: "You may all 
go to the picnic," denotes permission : " O, that he might return," 
denotes a wish that all hindrance to his return be removed. 

3. Must denotes physical, mental, or moral necessity; as, "We 
must submit to the laws," i. e., in the nature or fitness of things, 
there is a necessity for our doing so. 

4. Should denotes that the act or state is not dependent upon 
the doer's will, but on that of another; hence, duty or obligation; 


as, "He should pay his debts," i. e., it is his duty, or he is under a 
moral obligation to pay his debts. 

5. Would implies inclination, wish, or desire; as, "He would 
pay his debts, if he could," i. e., he has the inclination or desire. 

94. Imperative Mode. 

The Imperative Mode expresses a command, an ex-* 
hortation, an entreaty, or a permission; as, "Charge, Ches- 
ter, charge!" "Do come to see us;" "Lead us not into 

Rem. i. — The imperative mode may usually be known by the 
omission of the subject; as, " Write" [thou, you, or ye]. It denotes 
a command, when a superior speaks to an inferior; an exhorta- 
tion, when an equal speaks to an equal; a prayer or supplication, 
when an inferior addresses a superior. It is used mostly in prin- 
cipal propositions, and is made subordinate in direct quotations 
only; as, "He said, 'Be silent.' " 

Rein. 2. — The expressions "Let Ellen come," 'Let him go," &c, 
are made up of the imperative of the verb let, and the objective 
case of a noun or pronoun, limited by an infinitive. They are 
equivalent to "Permit [thou] Ellen to go," &c. 

Rem. 3. — These expressions are sometimes abridged by drop- 
ping the verb let, changing the infinitive to the imperative, and 
the objective case to the nominative ; as, "Come one, come all," i. e., 
Let one come, let all come: "Sing we to our God above," i. e., Let 
us sing to our God above. In such cases, the noun or pronoun 
should be parsed as the subject of the proposition, the imperative 
agreeing with it in number and person. This use of the impera- 
tive, in the first or third person, is not uncommon. 

Ex. — "Ruin seize thee, ruthless king." — Gray. "Laugh those who 
may, iveep those who must." — Scott. "Then turn we to her latest trib- 
une's name." — Byron. "Proceed we therefore to our subject." — Pope. 
"Be it enacted."— States of Ohio. "Be it so."— Webster. " Somebody 
call my wife." — Shakspeare. "So help me God." "Hallowed be thy 

Rem. 4. — The imperative mode is sometimes used to denote 
merely the intention or wish of the speaker, without special refer- 
ence to any person addressed; as, "God said, Let there be light;" 


"Deliver me from such friends." It may also be used to denote 
indifference or unconcern on the part of the speaker; as, "Let it 
rain:" "Let him sue me if he dare." 

95. Infinitive Mode. 

The Infinitive Mode expresses the action, being, or 
state, without affirming it; as, to write; to have written; 
"He rose to speak" 

Rem. 1. — The infinitive may usually be known by the sign to 
placed before it. This sign is omitted after the verbs bid, dare, 
feel, hear, help, let, make, need, see, and a few others ; as, "Bid them 
be quiet;" "Let them come on;" "See him run." 

Rem. 2 — The infinitive, as an abstract noun, may be the 
subject or predicate of a sentence; may be in apposition with a 
noun; and may be the object of a transitive verb or preposition; 
as, "To lie is disgraceful;" "To work is to pray;" "Delightful 
task, to rear the tender thought;" "I love to read;" "Can save 
the son of Thetis from to die" 

Although the infinitive has the construction of a noun, it may 
govern an object, or be modified by an adverb. It is never lim- 
ited by an adjective attribute, but may have a predicate adjective 
belonging to it; as, "To converse is pleasant" 

96. Exercises. 

Tell the mode of the verbs in the following sentences: 

1. A great storm is raging. 2. You may go or stay. 3. Bring 
me some flowers. 4. Hope thou in God. 5. If he study, he will 
excel. 6. If he studies, it is when he is alone. 7. Were I rich, I 
would purchase that property. 8. Who will go with me? 9. Do 
let me see your book. 

10. I must not be tardy. 11. Lift up your heads, O ye gates! 
12. Blessed are the poor in spirit; for theirs is the kingdom of 
heaven. 13. He should have told you. 14. They dare not puzzle 
us for their own sakes. 15. Let us not, I beseech you, deceive our- 
selves longer. 

16. God help us I what a poor world this would be, if this were 
the true doctrine. 17. If a line is parallel to a line of a plane, it 


is parallel to that plane. 18. If a plane intersect two parallel 
planes, the lines of intersection will be parallel. 19. Sucn a man 
were one for whom a woman's heart should beat constant while 
he breathes, and break when he dies. 

20. Keign thou in hell, thy kingdom ; let me serve 
In heaven, God ever blest. — Milton. 

21. Place me on Sunium's marble steep, 

Where nothing, save the waves and I, 
May hear our mutual murmurs sweep ; 

There, swan-like, let me sing and die. — Byron. 


97. Definition. 

1. Tense denotes the time of an action or event. 

2. There are three divisions of time : Past, Present, and 
Future. Each division has two tenses : an absolute and 
a relative. 

3. The Absolute Tenses are the Present, the Past, 
and the Future. They denote indefinite or incomplete 

4. The Relative Tenses are the Present Perfect, the 
Past Perfect, and the Future Perfect They denote com- 
pleted action. 

98. Present Tense. 

The Present Tense denotes present time; as, "I walk;" 
" The army is marching." 

Rem. 1. — The present tense is used in expressing a general 
truth, or what is habitual; as, "Perseverance conquers all things;" 
"The mail arrives at six P. M." 

Rem. 2 — The historical present is the present used for the past, 
to describe more vividly what took place in past time ; as, " Tacitus 
describes the manners and customs of the ancient Germans;" 


"Ulysses wakes, not knowing where he was." — Pope. "Matthew 
traces the descent of Joseph ; Luke traces that of Mary." 

Hem. 3. — The present subjunctive implies future time ; as, " If I 
go, I shall not return." 

The present potential implies either present or future time ; as, 
"It may be snowing" (now) ; "I may go" (to-morrow). 

The present imperative is future in regard to the act or state ; as, 
"Come again," i. e., at some future time. 

Rem. 4. — The present of the speaker or hearer is what is meant 
by present time. The present of the reader may not be the same 
as that of the writer. 

Rem. 5.— When preceded by a relative pronoun, or by con- 
junctive adverbs of time, the present tensers sometimes future in 
its reference; as, "He will please all who employ him;" "The 
flowers will bloom when spring comes" 

99. Present Perfect Tense, 

The Present Perfect Tense represents an action or 
event as past, but connected with present time; as, "I have 
learned my lesson/' 

Rem. i. — Have, the sign of the present perfect tense, originally 
denoted possession. It retains this meaning when used as a prin- 
cipal verb. As an auxiliary, it denotes completion; as, "The hunt- 
ers have killed a wolf;" "A man has fallen from the bridge." 

Rem. 3. — The present perfect indicative also expresses action 
completed in past time, but continued in itself, or in its effects, to 
the present; as, "He has lived here ten years," (and lives here 
noiv); "Cicero has written orations," (and still lives in his 

The present perfect potential usually denotes the present or 
future probability that an act relatively past was performed; as, 
" I must have paid that note," (a fact now probable) ; " In two 
years he may have outgrown you," (a fact then to be probable). 

Rem. 3 — When preceded by a conjunctive adverb of time, the 
present perfect tense sometimes denotes future time; as, "He will 
forward the goods as soon as he has received them." 



100, Past Tense. 

The Past Tense expresses what took place in time 
wholly past; as, "I wrote;" "I was sailing" 

Rem. — The past indicative denotes what was habitual or cus- 
tomary; as, "We lived high in those days." In the progressive 
form, it denotes an act in past time, but not completed ; as, " He 
was driving furiously when I saw him." 

The past subjunctive generally expresses a supposition contrary 
to the fact, and represents present time; as, "If I were going 
[now], I would ride." 

The past potential denotes (1) a duty or obligation, without ref- 
erence to time; as, "Judges should be merciful:" (2) a habit or 
custom; as, "He would be absent a week at a time:" (3) ability 
possessed in past time; as, "He could walk yesterday:" (4) present 
possibility or power; as, "I could write [now] if I would:" (5) a 
future possibility; as, "If I should write to you [hereafter], you 
must answer immediately." 

101. Past Perfect Tense. 

The Past Perfect Tense represents an act as ended 
or completed in time fully past; as, "The cars had started 
before we reached the depot." 

Rem. l. — The past is frequently used instead of the past perfect, 
to denote the completion of an act at or before a certain past time 
mentioned; as, "The boat left before midnight." 

Rem. 2 — The past perfect subjunctive and past perfect potential 
denote past time simply, and deny the action or event ; as, " If I 
had started sooner, I should have overtaken you." 

102. Future Tense. 

The Future Tense expresses what will take place in 
future time; as, "I shall return soon;" "The lion shall eat 
straw like the ox." 

Rem. l. — shall and will are the signs of the future tense. 
Shall expresses the action or event (1) as a duty commanded or 


authorized; as, "He shall pay you;" "Thou shalt not steal:" (2) 
as something unavoidable, unless a certain condition be complied 
with; as, "I shall suffer, if I do not take my overcoat:" (3) as 
future; as, "I shall leave at noon;" "You shall often find the 
richest men the meanest." 

Will expresses the action or event (1) as something determined 
upon, or proceeding from the nature of things; as, "I will go: 
no power on earth can prevent me;" "The cause will raise up 
armies:" (2) as future; as, "You will feel better to-morrow." 

Rem. 2. — Shall, in the first person, and will, in the second and 
third, are usually employed to denote futurity; as, "We shall 
arrive there by noon;" "You will be glad to see us;" "He will be 
with us." 

Will is used, in the first person, to denote determination; and 
shall, in the second and third, to denote necessity ; as, " I will write 
to you;" "Neither he nor you shall go without me." 

103. Future Perfect Tense. 

The Future Perfect Tense represents an action as 
finished or ended at or before a certain future time; as, "I 
shall have finished my task at three o'clock;" "We shall 
have dined before you arrive." 

104. Tenses in all the Modes. 

l; The Indicative Mode has the six tenses. 

2. The Subjunctive Mode has three tenses: the present, 
pasty and past perfect. 

3. The Potential Mode has four tenses: the present, 
present perfect, past, and past perfect 

4. The Imperative Mode has one tense: the present. 

5. The Infinitive Mode has too tenses: the present and 
present perfect. 

Rem. — Tense does not properly belong to the infinitive mode. 
Its tenses are mere forms, without regard to time. The present 


tense denotes progressive or completed action or state, with refer- 
ence to past, present, or future time; the present perfect, a com- 
pleted action or state in an unlimited manner. 

105. Signs of the Tenses : Active Voice. 

Indicative Mode. 

Present, . . . Simple form of the verb. 

Past, .... When regular, add ed to the simple form. 

Future, . . . Prefix shall or will to the simple form. 

Present Perfect, " have, hast, or has to the perfect participle. 

Past Perfect, . " had or hadst to the perfect participle. 

Future Perfect, " shall have or will have to the perfect participle. 

Subjunctive Mode. 

If, though, except, unless, &c, placed before tense forms given in the 
Conjugation, are signs of the subjunctive mode. 

Potential Mode. 

Present, . . . Prefix may, can, or must to the simple form. 
Past, .... " might, could, would, or should to the simple form. 
Present Perfect, » " may, can, or must have to the perfect participle. 
Past Perfect, . " might, could, would, or should have to the perfect 

Imperative Mode. 

Present, . . . Let, or a command. 

Infinitive Mode. 

Present, . . . Prefix to to the simple form. 

Present Perfect, " to have to the perfect participle. 


Present, . . . Add ing to the simple form. 

Perfect, . . . When regular, add ed or d to the simple form. 

Compound, . . Prefix having to the perfect participle. 

106. Forms of the Yerb. 

1. Verbs have five forms, which may be considered 
subdivisions of the tenses: the Common, the Emphatic, the 
Progressive, the Passive, and the Ancient, or Solemn Style. 


2. The Common Form represents an act as a custom, 
or as completed without reference to its progress; as, "I 
write;" "I shall write" 

3. The Emphatic Form represents an act with em- 
phasis; as, "1 do write;" "He did go." 

Rem. — This form is used in the present and past indicative and 
subjunctive, and in the present imperative. It is formed by pre- 
fixing the present and past tenses of to do to the simple form of 
the verb. 

4. The Progressive Form is used to denote action 
or state in progress; as, "I am writing;" "He had been 

Rem. — The progressive form may be used in all the modes and 
tenses, and is formed by prefixing the various modes and tenses 
of the neuter verb to be to the present participle of the principal 

5. The Passive Form denotes the reception of an act 
by its subject; as, "I am struck;" "John was punished;" 
" I shall be loved" 

Rem. — The passive form is used in all the modes and, tenses, 
and is formed by prefixing the various modes and tenses of the 
neuter verb to be to the perfect participle of the principal verb. 

6. The Ancient Form, or Solemn Style, is used in 
the Bible, in religious worship, and sometimes in poetry 
and burlesque; as, "Thou art the man;" "So shalt thou 
rest;" "Thou art a pretty fellow." 

107. Person and Number. 

1. The Person and Xumber of verbs are the changes 
which they undergo to mark their agreement with their 

2. A subject in the second person singular, generally 
requires the verb, or its auxiliary, to end in t, st, or est; 


as, "Thou shalt not steal ?' "Thou canst read;" "Thou 

3. A subject in the third person singular, generally 
requires the verb, or its auxiliary, to end in s, es, or eth; 
as, "Julia reads;" "The horse goes;" "God loveth us." 

4. The personal terminations in the plural are the same 
as the first person singular, except in the verb to be. 

5. A verb must agree with its subject in person and 

Rem. i. — When two or more nominatives, differing in person, 
are taken collectively, the verb prefers the first to the second, and 
the second to the third. When they are connected by or or nor, 
or are taken separately, it prefers the person of the nominative 
next to it. Courtesy requires the first place to be given to the 
second person, and last place to the first. 

Ex. — "You, he, and I have to remain;'' "You and he have to learn 
that long lesson;" "You or I am mistaken;" "Thou and thy friends 
are to make reparation." 

Rem. 2 — A verb must be in the singular number (1) when its 
nominative is in the singular; (2) when its nominative is a group 
of objects viewed as one thing; (3) when its nominative is an 
object conceived as a unit, though denoted by a plural nominative; 
(4) when its nominative is two or more objects taken singly, and 
denoted by different or by several nominatives. 

Ex. — "Rain falls;" "The army is marching; 11 " Dombey & Son 
was written by Dickens;" "The ten dollars was duly paid;" "Descent 
and fall to us is adverse;" "For thine is the kingdom, and the power, 
and the glory. 11 

Rem. 3. — A verb must^be in the plural number (1) when its 
nominative is a single object, or a group of objects conceived as to 
its individual parts; (2) when its nominative is plural; (3) when 
plural nominatives are used in connection with singular nomina- 
tives, taken separately, or connected by or or nor; (4) when it has 
two or more objects taken collectively. 

Ex. — "The rains descend; 11 "The multitude pursue pleasure;" 
"Either the magistrate or the laivs are at fault;" "You, he, and I 
are here." 


108. Unipersonal Yerfos. 

A Unipersonal Verb is one by which an act or 
state is asserted independently of any particular subject; 
as, "It snows;" "It cleared off;" "It behooves us to 
be careful." 

Rem. — Meseems, meseemed, methinks, methought, may be regarded 
as unipersonal verbs, equivalent to it seems, it seemed to me, I think, 
I thought, 

109. Conjugation. 

1. The Conjugation of a verb, is the correct expres- 
sion, in regular order, of its modes, tenses, voices, persons, 
and numbers. 

2. There are four forms of conjugation: the Regular, 
the Emphatic, the Progressive, and the Interrogative. 

3. The Principal Parts of a verb are the present 
indicative, the past indicative, and the perfect participle. 

4. The Synopsis of a verb is its variation in form, 
through the different modes and tenses, in a single number 
and person. 

110. Conjugation of the Terb "To Be." 


Present Tense. Past Tense. Perfect Participle. 

Be, or am, Was, Been. 



Present, ... I am. Past Perfect, . I had been. 

Present Perfect, I have been. Future, ... I shall be. 

Past, .... I was. Future Perfect, I shall have been. 


Present, . . . If I be. Past, . . . . If I were. 

Past Perfect, .... If I had been. 


Present, ... I may, can, or must be. 

Present Perfect, I may, can, or must have been. 

Past, .... I might, could, would, or should be. 

Past Perfect, . I might, could, would, or should have been. 


Note. — Shall, in the first person, and will, in the second and 
third, future tenses, are used to denote futurity. When will is used 
in the first person, or shall, in the second or third, determination or 
necessity is represented. 




Singular. Plural. 
I am, 1. We are, 
Thou art, 2. You are, 
He is ; 3. They are. 




I have been, 1. We have been, 
Thou hast been, 2. You have been, 
He has been; 3. They have been. 




I was, 1. We were, 
Thou wast, 2. You were, 
He was ; 3. They were. 


1. I had been, 1. We had been, 

2. Thou hadst been, 2. You had been, 

3. He had been; 3. They had been. 






I shall be, 
Thou wilt be, 
He will be; 




We shall be. 
You will be r 
They will be. 






I shall have been, 
Thou wilt have been, 
He will have been; 



We shall have been, 
You will have been, 
They will hav* been 




1. If I be, 1. If we be, 

2. If thou be, 2. If you be, 

3. If he be; 3. If they be. 

1. If I were, 

2. If thou wert, 

3. If he were; 


1. If we were, 

2. If you were, 

3. If they were. 


1. If I had been, 1. If we had been, 

2. If thou hadst been, 2. If you had been, 

3. If he had been; 3. If they had beenc 



1. I may be, 

2. Thou mayst be, 

3. He may be; 

1. We may be, 

2. You may be, 

3. They may be. 


1. I may have been, 

2. Thou mayst have been, 

3. He may have been ; 

1. We may have been, 

2. You may have been, 

3. They may have been. 


Singular. Plural. 

1. I might be, 1. We might be, 

2. Thou mightst be, 2. You might be, 

3. He might be; 3. They might be. 


1. I might have been, 1. We might have been, 

2. Thou mightst have been, 2. You might have been, 

3. He might have been ; 3. They might have been. 

Mote. — In reviews, use the auxiliary can or must. 


2. Be, or do thou be ; 2. Be, or do ye or you be. 

Present, To be. Present Perfect, To have been. 


Present, Being. Perfect, Been. Compound, Having been. 

HI. Conjugation of the Verb "To loYe." 



Present Tense. Past Tense. Perfect Participle. 

Love. Loved. Loved. 



Present, ... I love. Past Perfect, . I had loved. 

Present Perfect, I have loved. Future, ... I shall love. 
Past, .... I loved. Future Perfect, I shall have loved. 


Present, . . . If I love. Past, . . . If I loved. 

Past Perfect, .... If I had loved. 


Present, ... I may, can, or must love. 

Present Perfect, I may, can, or must have loved. 

Past, .... I might, could, would, or should love. 

Past Perfect, I might, could, would, or should have loved. 


Singular, Plural. 

1. I love, 1. We love, 

2. Thou lovest, 2. You love, 

3. He loves; 3. They love. 


1. I have loved, 1. We have loved, 

2. Thou hast loved, 2. You have loved, 

3. He has loved ; 3. They have loved. 


. 1. I loved, 1. We loved, 

2. Thou lovedst, 2. You loved, 

3. He loved ; 3. They loved. 


1. I had loved, 1. We had loved, 

2. Thou hadst loved, 2. You had loved, 

3. He had loved; 3. They had loved. 


1. I shall love, 1. We shall love, 

2. Thou wilt love, 2. You will love, 

3. He will love ; 3. They will love. 


Singular. Plural. 

1. I shall have loved, 1. We shall have loved, 

2. Thou wilt have loved, 2. You will have loved, 

3. He will have loved; 3. They will have loved. 



1. If I love, 1. If we love, 

2. If thou love, 2. If you love, 

3. If he love; 3. If they love. 


1. If I loved, 1. If we loved, 

2. If thou loved, 2. If you loved, 

3. If he loved; 3. If they loved. 


1. If I had loved, 1. If we had loved, 

2. If thou hadst loved, 2. If you had loved> 

3. If he had loved ; 3. If they had loved. 



1. I may love, 1. We may love, 

2. Thou mayst love, 2. You may love, 

3. He may love; 3. They may love, 


1. I may have loved, 1. We may have loved, 

2. Thou mayst have loved, 2. You may have loved, 

3. He may have loved; 3. They may have loved. 


1. I might love, 1. We might love, 

2. Thou mightst love, 2. You might love, 

3. He might love; 3. They might love. 

H. G. 8- 



Singular. Plural. 

1. I might have loved, 1. We might have loved, 

2. Thou mightst have loved, 2. You might have loved, 

3. He might have loved ; 3. They might have loved. 



2. Love, or do thou love; 2. Love, or do ye or you love. 

Present, To love. Present Perfect, To have loved. 


Present, Loving. Perfect, Loved. Compound, Having loved. 

112. Conjugation of the Verb "To Loye." 


The Passive Voice is formed by prefixing, as an auxiliary, 
the various forms of the neuter verb to be, to the perfect participle 
of a transitive verb. The tense of the verb to be determines the 
tense in the Passive Voice. 



Present, I am loved. 

Present Perfect, ... I have been loved. 

Past, I was loved. 

Past Perfect, . . . . I had been loved. 

Future, I shall be loved. 

Future Perfect, ... I shall have been loved. 


Present, . . If I be loved. Past, . . If I were loved. 

Past Perfect, ... If I had been loved. 



Present, I may be loved. 

Present Perfect, ... I may have been loved. 

Past, I might be loved. 

Past Perfect, .... I might have been loved. 





I am loved, 
Thou art loved, 




1. We are loved, 

2. You are lovea, 


He is loved; 

3. They are loved. 


1. I have been loved, 1. We have been loved, 

2. Thou hast been loved. 2. You have been loved, 

3. He has been loved; 3. They have been loved. 


1. I was loved, 1. We were lovea, 

2. Thou wast loved, 2. You were loved, 

3. He was loved; 3. They were loved. 


1. I had been loved, 1. We had been loved, 

2. Thou hadst been loved, 2. You had been loved. 

3. He had been loved ; 3. They had been loved 


1. I shall be loved, 1. We shall be loved, 

2. Thou wilt be loved, 2. You will be loved, 

3. He will be loved ; 3. They will be loved. 


1. I shall have been loved, 1. We shall have been loved, 

2. Thou wilt have been loved, 2. You will have been loved, 

3. He will have been loved ; 3. They will have been loved. 



Singular. Plural. 

1. If I be loved, 1. If we be loved, 

2. If thou be loved, 2. If you be loved, 

3. If lie be loved; 3. If they be loved. 


1. If I were loved, 1. Were I loved, 1. If we were loved, 

2. If thou wert loved, 2. Wert thou loved, 2. If you were loved, 

3. If he were loved ; -3. Were he loved ; 3. If they were loved. 

Rem. — For the Past Perfect Tense, prefix if to the forms of the 
past perfect indicative. 



1. I may be loved, 1. We may be loved, 

2. Thou mayst be loved, 2. You may be loved, 

3. He may be loved ; 3. They may be loved. 


1. I may have been loved, 1. We may have been loved, 

2. Thou mayst have been loved, 2. You may have been loved, 

3. He may have been loved ; 3. They may have been loved. 


1. I -might be loved, 1. We might be loved, 

2. Thou mightst be loved, 2. You might be loved, 

3. He might be loved ; 3. They might be loved. 


1. I might have been loved, 1. We might have been loved, 

2. Thou mightst have been loved, 2. You might have been loved, 

3. He might have been loved ; 3. They might have been loved. 

Note. — In reviews, use the auxiliary can or must 


2. Be loved, or be thou loved ; 2. Be loved, or be you loved 


Present, To be loved. Pres. Perfect, To have been loved. 


Pres., Being loved. Perfect, Loved. Compound Having been loved. 

113. Coordinate Forms of Conjugation. 

The Progressive, the Emphatic, and the Interrogative are called 
the Coordinate Forms of Conjugation. 



Present, I am loving. 

Present Perfect, ... I have been loving. 

Past, I was loving. 

Past Perfect, .... I had been loving. 

Future, I shall be loving. 

Future Perfect, ... I shall have been loving. 


Present, . . If I be loving. Past, . . If I were loving. 

Past Perfect, ... If I had been loving. 


Present, I may be loving. 

Present Perfect, ... I may have been loving. 

Past, . I might be loving. 

Past Perfect, .... I might have been loving. 

Present, To be loving. Present Perfect, To have been loving. 

Present, .... Be thou loving. 


Present, Loving. Compound, Having been loving. 




Present, I do love. Past, I did love. 


Present, If I do love. Past, If I did love. 


Present, Do thou love. 


Present, . . . Love I ? Do I love ? Am I loving ? 

Present Perfect, Have I loved ? Have I been loving ? 

Past, .... Loved I? Did I love? Was I loving? 

Past Perfect, . Had I loved ? Had I been loving ? 

Future, . . . Shall I love? Shall I be loving? 

Future Perfect, Shall I have loved? Shall I have been loving? 

Present, . . Must I love ? Past, . . . Might I love ? 

Pres. Perfect, Must I have loved ? Past Perfect, Might I have loved ? 

114. Negative Forms. 

1. To conjugate a verb negatively, place not after it, or 
after the first auxiliary; but before the infinitive and the 

Ex. — Indicative, I learn not, or I do not learn. I have not learned. 
I learned not, or did not learn, &c. 

Infinitive. — Not to learn. J^ot to have learned. 

Participle. — Not learning. Not learned. Not having learned. 

2. To conjugate a verb interrogatively and negatively, in 

the indicative and potential modes, place the subject and 

not after the verb, or after the first auxiliary. 

En. — Learn I not? or, Do I not learn? Have I not learned? Did 
I not learn ? &c. 




115. Exercises. 

Write a synopsis of the transitive verbs write, think, row, arouse, 
build, conquer, command, entreat, teach, and instruct, in the In- 
dicative, Subjunctive, and Potential Modes, Active and Passive 

Tell the mode, tense, person, and number of each verb in the follovj- 
ing sentences : 

1. He has gone. 2. I might write. 3. We had gone. 4. He 
had been assured. 5. If I were loved. 6. They may have been 
left. 7. You were seen. 8. Thou wilt have loved. 9. She will 
have been invited. 10. He might have built. 11. You might 
have been seen. 12. The vessel will have sailed. 

13. We might have written. 14. They were loved. 15. If I had 
been loved. 16. If he is loved. 17. Though he love. 18. Though 
he is loved. 19. If I may be seen. 20. We can go. 21. Go. 
22. Eemain. 23. If he return. 24. If he returns. 

116. Irregular Verbs. 

An Irregular Verb is one which does not form its 
past tense and perfect participle by adding d or ed to the 
present tense; as, do, did, done; go, went, gone. 

The following list contains the Principal Parts of most of the 
Irregular verbs. Those marked n have also the regular forms. 




















awoke, r. 

/ awaked, 
^ awoke. 


/ hegat, 
I begot, 


O 1 









f bore, 
) I bare, 





(bring forth, 


belaid, r. 

belaid, r. 

Bear, (carry,) bore, 



bent, r. 

bent, R. 



f beaten, 
*> beat. 


bereft, r. 

bereft, R. 













bet, R. 

bet, R. 


dreamt, ] 

R dreamt, r. 


j betided, 
I betid, 



drest, R. 

drest, r. 



dwelt, R. 

dwelt, R. 



J. bade, 





* bidden. 






f bitten, 
I bit. 





















f blessed, 
t blest, 














f forgotten, 
I forgot. 


f broke, 
I brake, 













built, R. 

built, r. 





burnt, R. 

burnt, R. 














freighted, fraught, r. 






f got, 
\ gotten. 


caught, R 

caught, r. 



f chidden, 
1 chid. 





gilt, R. 

gilt, R. 




Gird ; 

girt, R. 

girt, R. 


f cleaved, 
l clave, 


Go, ' 






graven, R. 



c cleft, 





-j clove, 





v clave, 



hung, R. 

hung, R. 








f clothed, 
I clad, 



hove, R. 

hoven, R. 





hewn, R. 












/ hidden, 





crew, R. 










f held, 
I holden. 


durst, R. 









dug, R. 

dug, R. 








knelt, R 






knit, R. 

knit, R. 












leant, R. 


leapt, R. 


learnt, R. 







Lie, ( recline, )lay, 


lit, r. 
















past, r. 

Pen,( inclose, ) pent, r. 


f plead, R. 
\ pled, 




quit, R. 


rapt, R. 












/ ^ng, 
1- rung, 














sod, R. 





H. G. S 





leant, R. 

leapt, R. 

learnt, R. 





lit, R. 


laden, R. 




mown, r. 



pent, R. 

plead, R. 



quit, R. 

rapt, R. 




f ridden, 
I rode. 


riven, r. 

sawn, r. 
. seen, 
sodden, R. 









shapen, R. 



shaven, r. 


shore, R. 

shorn, R. 





shone, R. 

shone, R 




















| sang, 
I sung, 



f sank, 
v sunk, 



sown, r. 


















smelt, R. 



f smitten, 
I smit. 








spelt, r: 

spelt, r. 





spilt, R. 

spilt, R. 


J spun, 
^ span, 



f spit, 
f> spat, 









f sprang, 
^ sprung, 



spoilt, R. 

spoilt, R. 


staid, R. 

staid, R. 





stove, R. 

stove, R. 




























J strode, 
l strid, 



throve, B 

. thriven, r. 







f struck, 
I stricken, 



f trodden, 
\ trod. 






waxen, R. 



J strowed, 
t strown. 


wove, r. 

woven, R. 


f swore, 
I sware, 



woke, R. 

woke, R. 


sweat, E. 

sweat, r. 


wed, r. 

wed, r. 





wet, R. 

wet, r. 



swollen, r. 


whet, r, 

whet, r. 


f swam, 
I swum, 













R. wrought, xt. 














. — The 'auxiliaries are a 

[1 irregular verbs. 

Their forms 

may be found in the paradigm f 

or their conjugation 

117. Defective and Redundant Terbs. 

1. ^Defective Verbs are those which want some of the 
Principal Parts. 

Ex. — Beware, from be and aware, used mostly in the impera- 
tive mode, but may be used wherever be would occur in the con- 
jugation of the verb to be; as, "Beware the awful avalanche!" 
"If angels fell, why should not men beware?" 

Ought, used in both present and past tenses; as, "I know I 
ought to go," (now) ; " I knew he ought to have gone/ 7 (then). 

Quoth, used for said; as, " 'Not 1/ quoth Sancho." It always 
stands before its subject. Quod is also used in the same sense, 
by old authors. 

wit, in the sense of know; as, To wit, i. e., namely. Wot, 
wis, wert, wist, wote, derived from wit, are found in old authors. 


2. The Auxiliaries are also defective, wanting the 
perfect participle. 

3. Redundant Terbs are those which have more 
than one form for their past tense or perfect participle. 

Ex. — Cleave; cleft, clove, or clave; cleft, cloven, or cleaved. 

118. Exercises. 

Exercises to be corrected: 

1. The cloth was weaved beautiful. 2. I seen him run when 
you come. 3. The boys fit 'most an hour. 4. I stringed the rasp- 
berries on a spear of grass. 5. Were the cattle drove to pasture? 
6. She has took my pencil. 7. The ship which springed a leak has 
just hoved in sight. 8. The plastering has fell from the ceiling. 
9. Charles winned the prize after he had strove many times. 

10. I did not git my exercise wrote in time. 11. The wind has 
blowed the fence down. 12. He has went and brung some snow 
into the house. 13. Who learned you how to spell. 14. The 
stone smit him right in the face. 15. I laid down, and ris much 
refreshed. 16. The cars have ran off the track. 17. The bells 
ringed when we come into town. 

18. He could have went. 19. I have saw some fine cattle to- 
day. 20. I and you is going to the concert, aint we? 21. Neither 
he nor she are good to me. 22. The steamboat come a puffing 
along. 23. His face has wore a sad expression for more 'n a week. 

24. I 'm in a quandary whether a horse or a grayhound run 
the fastest. 25. The man throwed a stone, and made the coon git. 
26. John dumb the tree, and shaked the chestnuts down. 

119. Order of Parsing. 

1. A Verb, and why? 

2. Regular or Irregular, and why? 

3. Give its principal parts. 

4. Copulative, transitive, or intransitive, and why? 

5. Voice and form, and why? 

6. Mode, and why? 

7. Tense, and why? Inflect the tense, 

8. Person and number, and why? Rule. 


120. Models for Parsing. 

I. "Mary has recited her lesson." 
Has recited is a verb; it is a word which expresses being, action, 
or state: regular; it forms its past tense and perfect 
participle by adding ed: principal parts are pres., recite, 
past, recited, perfect participle, recited: transitive; it re- 
quires the addition of an object to complete its meaning: 
active voice; it represents the subject as acting: common 
form; it represents a customary act: indicative mode; it 
asserts a thing as actual: present perfect tense; it repre- 
sents a past act as completed in present time: third 
person, singular number; to agree with its subject 
"Mary," according to Rule XIII: "A verb must agree 
with its subject in person and number.". 

II. "I shall go if you stay" 
Shall go ... is a verb; (why?): irregular; it does not form its past 
tense and perfect participle by adding ed: 'principal 
parts are go, went, gone: intransitive; (why?): common 
form; (why?): indicative mode; (why?): future tense; 
(why?): first person, singular number; (why?): Rule 

, is a verb; (why?): regular; (why?): principal parts; 

(give them): intransitive; (why?): common form; 
(why?): subjunctive mode; it represents an act as con- 
ditional : present tense in form, but denotes future time : 
second person 7 singular or plural number; (why?): Rule 

III. "He should have answered my letter." 
Should have answered is a verb; (why?): regular; (why?): prin- 
cipal parts; (give them): transitive; (why?): active 
voice; (why?): common form; (why?): potential mode; 
it represents an act as obligatory : past perfect tense ; it 
is the form used to represent an act as completed at or 
before some other act: third person, singular number; 
(why?): Rule XIII. 

IV. "Bring me a glass of water." 

Bring is a verb; (why?) : irregular; (why?) : principal parts ; 

(give them): transitive; (why?): active voice; (why?).' 


common form ; (why?): imperative mode ; (why?): present 
tense; (why?): second person, singular number, to agree 
with its subject "thou" understood: Eule XIII. 

V. "He attempted to ascend the mountain." 
To ascend . . is a verb; (why?): regular; (why?): principal parts; 
(give them) : transitive; (why?): active voice; (why?): 
common form; (why ?) : infinitive mode ; (why?): present 
tense; (why?): object of "attempted" : Eule VI. 

VI. " The letter was written yesterday." 
Was written is a verb; (why?) : irregular ; (why?) : principal parts; 
(give them): transitive; (why?): passive voice; it rep- 
resents the subject as being acted upon : indicative mode ; 
(why?) : past tense; (why?) : third person, singular num- 
ber*; (why?): Eule XIII. 

VII. "Liberty is sweet." 

Is is a verb; (why?) : irregular; (why?) : principal parts; 

(give them): neuter; (why?): copulative; it is used to 
connect the predicate "sweet " to the subject "liberty": 
indicative mode; (why?): present tense; (why?): third 
person, singular number, to agree with its subject "lib- 
erty": Eule XIII. 

VIII. "He ivas considered rich. 
Was considered is a verb; (why?): regular; (why?): principal 
parts; (give them) : passive form; (why?): copulative; 
(why?): indicative mode; (why?): past tense; (why?): 
third person, singular number ; (why?): Eule XIII. 

IX. "The fields look green." 

Look is a verb; (why?) : regular; (why?) : principal parts; 

(give them) : copulative ; it connects the predicate 
"green" to the subject "fields": indicative mode; 
(why ?) : present tense ; (why ?) : third person, plural 
number; (why?): Eule XIII. 

X. "John hastened to assist us." 

To assist . .". is a verb; (why?) : regular; (why?) : principal parts; 
(give them): transitive; (why?): active voice; (why?); 
infinitive mode; it expresses action without affirming it: 
it depends upon "hastened": Eule XVII. 


XI. " To lie is disgraceful." 

To lie is a verb; (why?) : regular; (why?): principal parts; 

(give them): infinitive mode; (why?): it is the subject 
of the sentence "To lie is disgraceful," and is in the 
nominative case ; Rule I. 

XII. "I heard the wolves howling in the forest." 
Howling ... is a participle ; it partakes of the properties of a verb 
and of an adjective: it is derived from the verb 
"howl": present participle; it denotes continuance: it 
belongs to "wolves": Rule XII. 

XIII. " Take this letter, written by myself." 
Written .... is a participle; (why?): (from what word derived?): 
perfect participle; it denotes completion: it belongs to 
"letter": Rule XII. 

XIV. "He has been reading Shakspeare." 
Has been reading is a verb ; (why?) : irregular; (why?) : principal 
parts; (give them): active voice; (why?): progressive 
form; it denotes continuance of action: indicative mode; 
(why?): present perfect tense; (why?): third person, 
singular number ; (why?): Rule XIII. 

XV. "That man did buy our house." 

I>id buy ... is a verb; (why?): irregular; (why?): principal parts; 
(give them): active voice; (why?): emphatic form; it 
denotes assertion with emphasis: indicative mode; 
(why?): past tense; (why?): third person, singular num- 
ber; (why?): Rule XIII. 

121. Exercises. 

Parse the nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and verbs in the following 

sentences : 

1. They commenced plowing yesterday. 2. I seldom write let- 
ters. 3. My father brought me some pine-apples when he came 
from the city. 4. She had gone to walk. 5. When do you intend 
to return my umbrella ? 6. The workmen should have been more 
careful. 7. Hallowed be thy name.. 8. Eespect the aged. 9. I 
could not learn to do it. 


10. The weather was unpleasant. 11. He should have been 
more industrious. 12. Shall I assist you? 13. How many regi- 
ments were mustered out? 14. Have all the gifts of healing? 
15. Remember thy Creator in the days of thy youth. 16. The 
poor must work in their grief. 17. We were speedily convinced 
that his professions were insincere. 

18. Hear, father, hear our prayer! 

Long hath thy goodness our footsteps attended. 

19. That very law that molds a tear, 

And bids it trickle from its source, 
That law preserves the earth a sphere, 

And guides the planets in their course. — Rogers. 

20. Why restless, why cast down, my soul? 

Hope still, and thou shalt sing 
The praise of Him who is thy God, 
Thy Savior, and thy King. 

Passive Forms. 1. He was beaten with many stripes. 2. The 
sheep were destroyed by wolves. 3. Every crime should be pun- 
ished. 4. You, he, and I were invited. 5. America was discov- 
ered by Christopher Columbus. 6. He has been elected mayor of 
our city. 7. This lake is said to be one hundred feet deep. 
8. The work might have been finished yesterday. 

Progressive, Emphatic, and Interrogative Forms. 1. He 

is writing a letter. 2. They should have been studying their les- 
sons. 3. They were digging for gold. 4. I do wish you were here. 
5. He did not commit forgery. 6. How do you learn so fast? 
7. Why does he persist in denying it? 8. Where were you going 
when I met you? 

Exercises to be corrected: 

1. John didn't go to do any mischief. 2. He laid down to take 
a nap. 3. I reckon you are from the East. 4. You had not ought 
to have done so, for you knowed better. 5. Had I have known 
that, I should rather have not seen him. 6. The blacksmith shoed 
my horse. 7. I should not of known him. 8. He could have 
went as well as not. 

9. I have saw a steam-boat to-day. 10. I never seen any thing 
like it. 11. He has gone and done it. 12. Mary was chose on 
my side. 13. The water has ran into our cellar. 14. He knew 


nothing of what was being done. 15. Those trees will bear being 
pruned more yet. 16. A new school-house is being built in our 
district. 17. The boy had swam the river. 

18. I will be drowned : nobody shall help me. 19. Would we 
have a good time if we should go? 20. Was I to play truant, I 
should get punished. 21. By following me, you shall get there 
sooner. 22. We will receive our money to-morrow. 23. Writing 
is to make letters with a pen or pencil. 

24. The order served rather to exasperate instead of quieting the 
people. 25. Money is scarce and times hard. 26. I never could, 
and presume I never shall understand that passage. 27. Your in- 
tentions might, and probably were, good. 28. No one ever worked 
so hard as I have done to-day. 29. Any word that will compare 
is an adjective. 

30. Time and tide waits for no man. 31. Either Stephen or 
Jonas have to stay at home. 32. What black despair, what horror 
fill his mind? 33. That a belle should be vain, or a fop ignorant, 
are not to be wondered at. 34. Our potatoes is all gone. 

122. Oral Lesson. 

Write this sentence on your slates: "Jane sang a song" What 
element is "song"? Arts. — An objective element. Why? Arts. — 
Because it completes the meaning of the predicate. Write " Jane 
sang a song sweetly." Does "sweetly" complete the meaning of 
the predicate? Ans. — It does not. What word is modified by it, 
however? Ans. — "Sang." Ho w does it modify " sang " ? Ans. — 
It tells how Jane sang. 

Write this sentence: "You are very kind." What word is 
modified by "very"? Ans. — "Kind." What part of speech is 
"kind"? Ans. — An adjective. Write "A letter, hastily written, 
was sent me yesterday." What does "hastily" modify? Ans. — 
"Written." What part of speech is "written?" Ans. — A parti- 
ciple. Write "The letter was written very hastily." What does 
" very " modify ? Ans.— 11 Hastily." What does " hastily " modify ? 
Ans. — " Was written." 

Those words, and all others used in a similar manner, are called 


123. Definition. , 

An Adverb is a word used to modify the meaning of a 
verb, adjective, participle, or an adverb; as, "She sings 
sweetly ;" "The roads are very rough;" "The ranks were 
quickly broken ;" " He reads tolerably well." 

item. i. — An adverb is equivalent to a phrase consisting of a 
preposition and its object, limited by an adjective. 

Ex. — "He walks rapidly" i. e., He walks in a rapid manner. "He 
lives there" i. e., He lives at that place. "The work is intensely inter- 
esting," i. e., The work is interesting in an intense degree. 

Rem. 2. — An adverb sometimes modifies a phrase or a clause. 

Ex. — "He sailed nearly round the globe;" "The old man likewise 
came to the city." In the first sentence, nearly limits the phrase 
"around the globe;" and in the second, likewise modifies the entire 

124. Classes. 

1. With respect to their meaning and use, adverbs are 
divided into five classes: Adverbs of Time, Place, Cause, 
Manner, and Degree. 

2. Adverbs of Time answer the questions, When? 
How long? How often? 

Ex. — After, again, ago, always, anon, early, ever, never, forever, 
frequently, hereafter, hitherto, immediately, lately, now, often, 
seldom, soon, sometimes, then, when, while, weekly, until, yet, &c. 

Rem. — To-day, to-morrow, to-night, yesterday, yesternight, (for- 
merly written y ester day and y ester night,) are nouns, not adverbs. 
When used as modifiers, they should be parsed as nouns in the 
objective case, without a governing word. (See Eule VIII.) 

Ex.— "He will come to-day;" "They all left yesterday;" "We had 
a severe storm yesternight." 

3. Adverbs of Place answer the questions, Wliere? 
Whither? Whence? 

Ex. — Above, below, down, up, hither, thither, here, there, where, 
herein, therein, wherein, hence, thence, whence, every-where, no- 


where, somewhere, far, yonder, back, forth, aloof, away, aboard, 
aloft, ashore, backwards, forwards, first, secondly, wherever, &c. 

Rem. — There is sometimes used as an expletive to introduce a 
sentence; as, "There were giants in those days;" " Breathes there a 
man with soul so dead?" 

4. Adverbs of Cause answer the questions, WJiy? 

Wherefore ? 

Ex. — Wherefore, therefore, then, why. • 

5. Adverbs of Manner answer the question, How ? 

Ex. — Amiss, asunder, anyhow, well, badly, easily, foolishly, 
sweetly, certainly, indeed, surely, verily, nay, no, not, nowise, 
haply, perhaps, perchance, peradventure, probably, &c. 

Rem. — Most adverbs of manner are formed by adding ly to 
adjectives or participles; as, wise, wisely ; united, unitedly, 

6. Adverbs of Degree answer the questions, How 
much? How little? 

Ex. — As, almost, altogether, enough, even, equally, much, more, 
most, little, less, least, wholly, partly, only, quite, scarcely, nearly, 
excellently, too, chiefly, somewhat, &c. 

7. Adverbs which show the manner of the assertion are 
called modal adverbs ; as, verily, truly, not, no, yes, &c. 

8. When, where, why, &c, when used in asking ques- 
tions, are called interrogative adverbs. 

9. An Adverbial Phrase is a combination of words 

used as a single adverb. 

Ex. — " In general ;" "hand in hand;" "by and by;" "through 
and through;" "no more;" "for the most part;" "as usual," &c. 
Such combinations may be parsed as single adverbs. 

10. Conjunctive Adverbs are those which connect 
two propositions, and modify a word in each. 

Ex. — "I shall see you again when I return;" "Go where glory 
waits thee;" "I have been to Boston since I saw you last;" "Pay 


your bills before you leave;" "The book remained where I left it;" 
" I will go as soon as I have eaten my dinner." 

Rem. i. — Conjunctive adverbs are equivalent to two phrases; 
one containing a relative pronoun, the other the antecedent of the 
relative. In the sentence, "He defends himself when he is at- 
tacked," ivhen == at the time in which. "At the time " modifies 
"defends," and "in which" modifies "attacked;" hence when, the 
equivalent of the two phrases, modifies both. 

Rem. a. — The principal conjunctive adverbs are as, after, before, 
how, since, therefore, till, until, when, where, wherefore, while, and 

125. Comparison. 

Many adverbs admit of comparison. 

1. Derivatives ending in ly are usually compared by prefixing 
more and most, less and least to the simple form; as, wisely, more 
wisely, most wisely; firmly, more firmly, most firmly. 

2. Three adverbs are compared by adding er and est to the 
simple form, viz.: fast, faster, fastest; often, oftener, oftenest; soon, 
sooner, soonest 

3. Some adverbs are compared irregularly; as, well, better, best; 
ill, worse, worst; little, less, least; much, more, most, &c. 


1. Some adverbs seem to be used independently ; as, yes, no, why, 
well, &c, in certain constructions. They may be parsed as modi- 
fying the entire proposition, the preceding sentence, something 
understood, or as independent. 

Ex.— "Have you my book?— No." " Why, that is strange." " Well, 
I am surprised." "Yea, the Lord sitteth King forever." 

2. An adverb frequently denotes manner when it modifies a 
v erb, and degree when it modifies an adjective or an adverb; as, 
"I think so" = manner; "I feel so lonely" = degree. 

3. Adverbs frequently become adjectives after copulative and 
passive verbs; as, " He reads better" = adverb ; " He seems better" = 
adjective. " It runs well" = adverb ; " He looks ivell" = adjective. 

4. The adjective form of a word, or the adjective mode of com- 


parison, is allowed in poetry to a greater extent than in prose ; as, 
"Breathe soft, ye winds;" "Drink deep;" "Dry clanked his har- 

5. Certain words are used sometimes as adverbs and sometimes 
as adjectives. They are adverbs when they modify verbs, adjec- 
tives, and other adverbs, and adjectives when they modify nouns 
or pronouns. 

Ex. — "I can remain no longer;" "Let no man deceive you." In 
the first sentence, "no" is an adverb, modifying "longer"; in the 
second, it is an adjective, modifying "man." 

6. In such expressions as "He works for hire only" "One man 
only was injured," "only" is an adjective, modifying the preced- 
ing noun. "He sells drugs and books also" Here "also" is an 
adverb, modifying "sells" understood. "He sells drugs, and he 
also sells books." 

126. Order of Parsing. 

1. An Adverb, and why? 

2. Compare it. 

3. Tell what it modifies. 

4. Eule. 

127. Models for Parsing. 

I. "He acted wisely" 

Wisely is an adverb; it is used to modify the meaning of a 

verb: compared, wisely more wisely, most wisely: 
it is an adverb of manner, and modifies "acted": 
Eule XVIII: "Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, 
participles, and adverbs." 

II. "Why do you laugh?" 

Why is an adverb; (why?) : it is not compared: interroga- 
tive adverb, and modifies "do laugh": Eule XVIII. 

III. "They walk hand in hand" 

Hand in Siand is an adverbial phrase; it is a combination of words 
used as a simple adverb: it modifies "walk": 
Eule XVIII. 


TV. "I shall certainly recover." 

Certainly. . . is an adverb; (why?): modal; it shows the manner 
in which the assertion is made: it modifies "shall 
recover": Rule XVIII. 

V. "I will go whenever you wish." 

Whenever . . . is an adverb; (why?): conjunctive adverb ; it connects 
two clauses, and modifies a word in each : it modifies 
"will go" and "wish": Rule XVIII. 

128. Exercises. 

Parse the adverbs in the following sentences: 

1. They lived very happily. 2. Why do you look so sad? 3. 
When spring comes, the flowers will bloom. 4. How rapidly the 
moments fly! 5. He signed it then and there. 6. I have read it 
again and again. 7. He will do so no more. 8. The mystery will 
be explained by and by. 9. Perchance you are the man. 

10. Whither has he gone? 11. They were agreeably disap- 
pointed. 12. He lives just over the hill yonder. 13. Henceforth 
let no man fear that God will forsake us. 14. I saw him before 
he left. 15. I will not be unjust. 16. I have not seen him since I 
returned from New York. 17. Doubtless, ye are the people. 18. 
Perhaps I shall go. 

129. Oral Lesson. 

Write this sentence on your slates: "Mr. Olds is a wealthy 
man." What element is "wealthy"? Ans. — An adjective ele- 
ment. What does it modify? Ans. — "Man." Write this sen- 
tence: "Mr. Olds is a man of wealth." You see that "of wealth," 
in this sentence, has the same meaning as " wealthy " in the other. 
What part of speech is "wealth"? Ans. — A noun. The word 
"of" connects "man" and "wealth," and shows the relation be- 
tween the ideas expressed by them. In this case, the relation is 
that of possession: "man" possesses "'wealth." Words used in 
this manner are called Prepositions, because they are usually placed 
before nouns. 

In the sentence "We live in London," what words tell where 


we live? Ans. — "In London." These words constitute what is 
called a phrase, and form an adverbial element. The word limited 
by the phrase is called the antecedent term of relation, and the noun 
following the preposition, the subsequent term, or object. The ante- 
cedent term may be any thing which can be modified, but the 
subsequent must be the objective case of a noun or something used 
as a noun. 

In the sentence "I recite in the afternoon," what is the ante- 
cedent term of relation ? Ans. — "Kecite." Why? Ans. — Because 
it is the word which is modified by the phrase "in the afternoon." 
What is the subsequent term, or object? Ans. — "Afternoon." 
Why? Ans. — Because it is the object of the preposition "in." 

130. Definition. 

A Preposition is a word used to show the relation 
between its object and some other word; as, "The man of 
Uz ;" " Ellen is walking in the garden." 

Kern. i. — A preposition and its object form a separable phrase, 
which modifies some word or combination of words, called the 
antecedent term of the relation expressed by the preposition; the 
object of the preposition being the subsequent term. In the sen- 
tence, "The house stands on a hill," stands is the antecedent term 
of relation, and hill the subsequent. 

Kem. 2. — The object of a preposition may be a word, a phrase, 
or an entire proposition; as, "He lives in Chicago;" "The ship 
was about to be launched;" "Reason and Justice have been jury- 
men since before Noah was a sailor." 

Rem. 3. — Two prepositions are frequently combined and used 
as one ; as, " He came from over the sea ;" " The church stands over 
against the school-house." In such cases, parse the two preposi- 
tions as one, calling the combination a complex preposition. 

Rem. 4. — Sometimes the object of a preposition is omitted ; as, 
u The boys went out;" "The regiment marched by" In such 
cases, parse the preposition as an adverb. 

Rem. 5 — The antecedent term is sometimes omitted; as, 
"'From Vermont V asked the landlord;" "'As to that/ said the 
dial-plate." In such cases, parse the preposition as showing the 
relation between its object and an antecedent term understood. 


For, in the complex phrases, "For him to lie," "For you to de- 
ceive," &c, may be parsed as an introductory preposition. 

Rem. 6. — When the relations between objects of thought are 
so obvious that they need no expression, the prepositions are 
usually omitted; as, "I came home yesterday;" a He is worth a 
million /" " The bridge is a mile long." In such cases, the subse- 
quent term of relation is said to be in the objective case without 
a governing word. 

131, List of Prepositions. 

A — at, on, or in; "Be quiet, and go a-angling." 
Aboard; "Aboard ships, dull shocks are sometimes felt." 
About; "It was a day to be at home, crowding about the fire." 
Above; "Above your voices sounds the wail of starving men." 
According to ; " Proceed according to law." 
Across; " Their way was across a stretch of open meadow." 
After; "After life's fitful fever, he sleeps well." 
Against ; " Uplift against the sky, your mighty shapes." 
Along-; "I hear the waves resounding along the shore." 
Amid, amidst; "A lark reared her brood amid the corn." 
Among, amongst; "He was always foremost among them." 
Around ; " I hear around me cries of fear." 

As to ; "As to the parts of the cargo, they were already made fast." 
At ; " She is at church ;" " The bell rings at noon." 
Athwart; "Athwart the waste the pleasant home-light shines." 
Before; "Who shall go before them?" "Ileft before sunrise." 
Behind ; " We have seen the moon rising behind the eastern pines.'' 
Below ; "It was on the road to Kennebec, below the town of Bath." 
Beneath; "The steps creaked beneath his noiseless tread." 
Beside; "I sat beside her;" "He is beside himself." 
Besides; "There is nothing at all besides this manna." 
Between ; " The town is situated between two mountains." 
Betwixt; "The waters roll betwixt him and the wooded knoll." 
Beyond; "His thoughts turned to his home beyond the sea." 
But == except; "He had retained nothing but his father's belt." 
By; "Strength came by working in the mines." 
Concerning; "The Lord hath spoken good concerning Israel-"' 
Down; "They wandered in throngs down' the valley." 
Bnring; "He staid at home during the war." 
Ere ; " Nile flowed ere the wonted season." 
Except; "Are they all gone except you?" 
Fob?; "I looked up for a moment;" "I sell for cash." 


From; "He felt like a leaf torn from a romance." 

In; "Late in life, he began life in earnest." 

Info; "He gazed into the vast surrounding darkness." 

Notwithstanding; "He is proud, notwithstanding his poverty." 

Of; "'Tis the middle watch of a summer's night." 

Off; "The vessel was becalmed off Cuba." 

On; "He sprang on a rock;" "I leave on Saturday." 

Out of; "No one was moving, at least out of doors." 

Over; "The billows had rolled over him;" "He rules over us." 

Past; "He drove past our house this morning." 

Round ; "A shoreless ocean tumbled round the globe." 

Save; "Silent is all save the dropping rain." 

Since ; " The Lord hath blessed thee since my coming." 

Till, until; "Not till the next morning did the boys appear." 

Through; "Then stept she down through town and field." 

Throughout ; " There was much anxiety felt throughout the land." 

To ; " Let the old tree go down to the earth." 

Toward, towards; "He turned me toward the moonlight." 

Under; "He stands erect under the curved roof." 

Unto; "Verily, I say unto you." 

Up ; " Pie sailed up the river." 

Upon ; " They were walking upon the hurricane deck." 

With; "The sky was red with flame." 

Within; "Something of ambition and pride stirred within him." 

Without; "The morning broke without a sun." 

Rem. l. — The following prepositions, less commonly used, may 
be added to the foregoing list: 

Abaft, aloft, alongside, afore, adown, aloof, aneath, aslant, atween, 
atwixt, despite, inside, outside, maugre, minus, plus, per, sans, underneath, 
versus, via, as for, along with, despite of, from among, from before, from 
betwixt, from off, from under, off of, over against, round about, but for; 
and the participial forms excepting, regarding, bating, touching, respect- 
ing, &c, when followed by objects. 

Rem. 2. — But, for, since, and some others, are sometimes used 
as conjunctions; as, "I must go, for it is late." 

item. 3. — Care should be taken to select such prepositions as 
express the relations intended. 

Ex. — Among, amongst are applicable to more than two objects; as, 
"He divided the estate among the four brothers:" between, betwixt, are 
applicable to two objects only; as, "He divided the estate between 
the two brothers." 


During should be used when the event continues through all the 
period mentioned; as, "I have examined law papers during the day:" 
in, at, or within, when the event does not continue during the whole 
period; as, "I alluded to that in my remarks this morning;" "The 
principal must be paid within the year." 

Of denotes possession of a quality or thing; as, "He is a friend of 
mine:" to denotes that the quality or thing is directed towards some- 
thing else; as, "He has been a friend to me." 

In or at is used before the names of countries, cities, and towns ; as, 
"She lives in New York;" "They reside at Glendale;" "We stayed 
in London." 

Into should be used after verbs denoting entrance; as, "He came 
into the office;" "He put the knife into his pocket." 

At is generally used after to be, not followed by a predicate; as, 
"They are at home;" "She is at church." When a predicate is un- 
derstood, or clearly implied, to should be used; as, "I have been to 
Cincinnati," i. e., I have been (traveling) to Cincinnati. 

Of, not about, should be used after boast and brag; as, "He boasts 
of his wealth ;" " He brags of his strength." 

Upon should follow bestow and dependent; as, "Many favors were 
bestowed upon me;" "He is dependent upon his friends." 

From should follow differ and dissent; as, "I differ from you;" "I 
dissent from that decision." 

Of should follow diminution; as, "Any diminution of expenses is 

In should follow confide; as, "I confide in you." 

Of should be used Avhen we are disappointed in obtaining a thing ; 
as, "I was disappointed of money:" in, when we are disappointed in 
the quality of a thing, or the character of a person; as, "I am disap- 
pointed in that mower;" "I am disappointed in Mr. Johnson." 

With denotes an instrument; by, sl cause: with, the immediate, by, 
the remoter means; as, "A man is killed with a sword, and dies by 
violence;" "He walks with a cane by moonlight." 

132. Order of Parsing. 

1. A Preposition, and why? 

2. What relation does it show? 

3. Rule. 

H. G. 10. 


133. Models for Parsing. 

I. "The horse ran over the hill." 

Over is a 'preposition; it is a word used to show the relation 

between its object and some other word: it shows the 
relation between "hill" arid "ran:" Rule XIX: "A 
preposition shows the relation of its object to the word 
- upon which the latter depends." 

II. "He came out from under the bridge." 

From under is a complex preposition ; (why?) : it shows the relation 
between "bridge" and "came": Rule XIX. 

134. Exercises. 

Parse the prepositions in the following sentences : 

1. Will you go with me into the garden? 2. In my father's 
house are many mansions. 3. We went over the river, through 
the corn-fields, into the woods yonder. 4. I am not satisfied as to 
that affair. 5. All came but Mary. 6. The Ehone flows out from 
among the Alps. 7. He went from St. Louis, across the plains, to 
California. 8. Light moves in straight lines, and in all directions 
from the point of emission. 9. They went aboard the ship. 

10. Night, sable goddess! from her ebon throne, 
In rayless majesty, now stretches forth 
Her leaden scepter o'er a slumbering world. — Young. 

Exercises to be corrected: 

1. Divide the peaches among the two children. 2. I will pay 
you during the year. 3. Washington was a friend of his country. 
4. He took the book in his own hand. 5. There is the key to that 
piano. 6. He arrived in Cleveland on Friday. 7. It corresponds 
with the sample. 8. They differ with each other in opinion. 9. 
The book was left out in the package I sent you. 10. The still, 
sultry morning was followed with a hailstorm. 

11. Never depart out of the straight path. 12. He put money in 
his pbcket. 13. He came in my office yesterday. 14. What is my 
grief in comparison of that which she bears? 15. He was eager of 
making money. 16. He went out of a fine morning, with a bundle 
in his hand. 17. He is conversant with Italian. 18. He boasted 


about the money he had made. 19. They are to church. 20. I 
wish you would stay to home. 21. He is dependent on his daily 
labor for his support. 

22. I can make no diminution in my tuition rates. 23. He died 
with a fever. 24. He left the room accompanied with his wife. 

25. Crossing the isthmus is not attended with many difficulties. 

26. Do not interfere among your neighbors' concerns. 27. We 
ought to profit from the errors of others. 28. The scenery was 
different to what I had supposed. 29. He does business in No. 147 
Canal Street. 30. The space between the three roads is intended 
for a parade ground. 

135. Oral Lesson. 

In the sentence "Emma and Eva study algebra/' what is the 
subject? Arts. — " Emma and Eva." Why? Ans. — Because some- 
thing is affirmed of them. That is right. They are both subjects 
of the same predicate ; and to indicate that they both sustain the 
same relation to the rest of the sentence, they are joined by the 
word "and." This is called a Conjunction, because its use is to 
join words. It is a copulative conjunction, because it joins ele- 
ments of the same rank or name. 

In the sentence "Emma or Eva studies algebra," "or" is a 
conjunction, but it denotes opposition of meaning. If Emma 
studies algebra, Eva does not. Those words which connect other 
words, but denote opposition of meaning, are called disjunctive 

In the sentence "Both Emma and Eva study algebra," "both" 
and "and" are called correlative conjunctions, because each an- 
swers or refers to the other. 

136. Definition. 

A Conjunction is a word used to connect words, sen- 
tences, and parts of sentences. 

Ex.— " The horse and wagon were captured, but the driver 
escaped ;" " He lives out of town, and on a farm." In the first 
sentence, and connects "horse" and "wagon," and but connects 


the two propositions, "the horse and wagon were captured" and 
"the driver escaped." In the second sentence, and connects the 
phrases "out of town" and "on a farm." 

Rem. — Conjunctions sometimes merely introduce sentences ; as, 
"And it came -to pass in those days;" "That the times are hard, is 

137. Classes of Connectives. 

1. Connectives are divided into two general classes: 
Coordinate and Subordinate. 

2. Coordinate Connectives are those which join ele- 
ments of the same rank or name. 

3. Subordinate Connectives are those which join 
elements of different ranks or names. 

Rem. 1. — Coordinate connecti ves are pure conjunctions. They 
form no part of the material of t r hich a sentence is composed — 
their use being to unite the materi; il into a single sentence. 

Ex. — "The man and his wife wei e both drowned;" "Knowledge 
comes, but wisdom lingers;" "The lir is damp, and hushed, and 
close;" "And love the offender, yet de;est the offense." 

Rem. 2. — Subordinate connectrv 2s are either relative pronouns, 
conjunctions, or conjunctive adverbs. Relative pronouns represent 
antecedents, and join those antecedents to clauses which describe 
them : conjunctions introduce limiting clauses : conjunctive adverbs 
connect clauses, and modify a word in each. 

Ex. — "The man whom you saw is my father." Whom represents 
"man," and joins to it the limiting clause "whom you saw." "I 
know that my Redeemer liveth." That joins the objective clause 
"my Redeemer liveth" to the verb "know." "The wind bloweth 
ichere it listeth." Where connects the two sentences, and modifies 
"bloweth" and "listeth." 

Rem. 3. — In parsing pure conjunctions, give the rule for coor- 
dinate connectives. In parsing conjunctions which introduce limit- 
ing clauses, give the rule for subordinate connectives. Conjunctive 
adverbs should be parsed (1) as subordinate connectives; (2) as 
adverbs. A relative pronoun should be parsed (1) as a subordi- 
nate connective; (2) as a relative. 


138. Classes of Conjunctions. 

1. Conjunctions are divided into three classes: Cop- 
ulative, Disjunctive, and Correlative. 

2. Copulative Conjunctions join on members de- 
noting an addition, consequence, cause, or supposition. 
They are, 

And ; " Cold and hunger awake not her care." 

Also ; As used in an enumeration of particulars. 

As ; " Always speak as you think." 

Because; "He learns, because he is studious." 

Consequently; "I am sick, consequently I can not come." 

Even; "It was very cold; even mercury was frozen." 

For; "If any, speak: for him have I offended." 

If; "I shall not go if it rain." 

So; "For Brutus is an honorable man; 

So are they all, all honorable men." 
Since ; " They submit, since they can not conquer." 
Seeing"; "Wherefore come ye to me, seeing ye hate me?" 
Than; used after comparatives; "He is oldef'than I," 
That, ; " These things I say, that ye might be saved." 
Then ; " You know our rules : then obey them." 
Moreover; sometimes used as an introductory word. 
Therefore ; "Wisdom is the principal thing, therefore get wisdom." 
Wherefore; used like therefore in drawing inferences. 

3. Xfrisjunctive Conjunctions join on members de- 
noting opposition of meaning. They are, 

Although, though ; " Though coarse, it is good." 

But; "I go, but I return." 

Either; "Either John or Charles will come." 

Neither ; "Neither John nor Charles will come." 

Except; "Except it be because her method is so glib and easy." 

Eest ; " Ye shall not eat it, neither shall ye touch it, lest ye die," 

Nor; "Simois nor Xanthus shall be wanting there." 

Not withstanding'; "He is just, notwithstanding he is stern." 

Or; "He may study medicine, or law, or divinity." 

Provided; "He will go, provided his fare is paid." 

Save; "When all slept sound, save she who bore them both." 

Still; "He has many faults, still he is very popular." 


Unless; "We can not thrive, unless we are industrious and frugal." 

Whether; "I will ascertain whether he has come." 

Whereas; "Are not those found to be the greatest zealots who 

are most notoriously ignorant? whereas true piety should always 

begin with true knowledge." 
Yet ; " Though he slay me, yet will I trust in him." 

4. Correlative Conjunctions are copulatives or dis- 
junctives used in pairs, one referring or answering to an- 
other. They are, 

Both and ; " He is both learned and wise." 

As as ; "I am as tall as you." 

As t so ; " As it was then, so it is now." 

So as; "He is not so tall as I." 

So that; "It was so cold that I nearly perished." 

Either .... or; "I will either send it or bring it." 

Neither . . . nor ; u Neither hath this man sinned, nor his parents." 

If then ; "If he confessed it, then forgive him." 

Though . . . yet, nevertheless; "Though deep, yet clear." 
Xot only . . but also; " He was not only rich, but also generous." 
Whether. . . or ; "I care not whether it rains or snows." 

Or or, 

Xor nor 

V sometimes used for either . . or, neither . . nor. 
r; J 

5. Certain combinations of words have the force of con- 
nectives, and should be parsed as conjunctions or conjunc- 
tive adverbs. They are, 

As if, as though, as well as, as soon as, as far as, as many as, 
except that, forasmuch as, in so much that, but also, but likewise, 
notivithstanding that, not only, &c. 

Ex. — "Facts may be transmitted by tradition as well as by 
history ;" " He went as far as the first line of pickets ;" " You talk 
as if you were an idiot." 

139. Order of Parsing. 

1. A Conjunction, and why? 

2. Copulative, Disjunctive, or Correlative, and why? 

3. What does it connect? 

4. Rule. 


140. Models for Parsing, 

I. "He came and went like a pleasant thought." 

And is a conjunction; it connects words: copulative; it denotes 

addition: it connects "came" and "went." Rule XX: 
"Coordinate connectives join similar elements." 

II. "He or I will assist you." 
Or is a conjunction ; (why?) : disjunctive; it denotes opposi- 
tion of meaning: it connects "he" and "I." Eule XX. 

III. u Neither James nor John had his lesson." 
Neither. . . nor . . . are conjunctions ; (why?) : correlative; one refers 
or answers to the other: neither introduces the sentence, 
and nor connects "James" and "John." Rule XX. 

IV. "Unto us was the gospel preached as well as unto them." 
As well as is a conjunction; (why?) : copulative; (why?) : it connects 
and emphatically distinguishes the two phrases, "unto 
us" and "unto them": Rule XX. 

141. Exercises. 

Parse all the words in the folloiuing sentences : 

1. I am a poor man, and argue with you, and convince you. 
2. He 'd sooner die than ask you, or any man, for a shilling. 3. 
Talent is something, but tact is every thing. 4. Neither military 
nor civil pomp was wanting. 5. The truth is, that I am tired of 
ticking. 6. I remember a mass of things, but nothing distinctly. 

7. I alone was solitary and idle. 8. Both the ties of nature 
and the dictates of policy demand this. 9. There was no reply, for 
a slight fear was upon every man. 10. No man more highly es- 
teems or honors the British troops than I do. 11. The soldier 
marches on and on, inflicting and suffering, as before. 12. There 
may be wisdom without knowledge, and there may be knowledge 
without wisdom. 

Exercises to be collected: 

1. The answer is the same with that I have. 2. I can not 
weather this storm without some one helps me. 3. You are too 


stuck up, so as you can never be popular. 4. Some of my books, 
and for which I paid a large price, are good for nothing. 5. Nei- 
ther borrow or lend umbrellas. 6. I could not see nor hear him. 

7. The loafer seems to be created for no other purpose, but to 
keep up the ancient and honorable order of idleness. 8. They told 
us how that it happened. 9. This is the reason that I remained at 
home. 10. Silver is both mined in Mexico and Peru. 11. The 
court of chancery frequently mitigates and breaks the teeth of the 
common law. 12. I as well as my sister are going West in the 


142, Definition. 

An Interjection is a word used to denote some sud- 
den or strong emotion; as, "Hark! some one comes." 
" Pshaiv ! that is ridiculous." 

The principal interjections are the following: 

Ah, aha, hurra, huzza ; oh, alas, welladay, alack ; ha, in- 
deed, zounds ; bravo ; faugh, fie, fudge, pshaw ; heigh-ho ; ha, ha, 
ha, (laughter) ; avaunt, begone; hail, all-hail; adieu, farewell, good- 
by ; hallo, ahoy, lo, hark ; hist, whist, hush, tush ; avast, hold ; 
eh? hey? 

Rem. l. — Interjections have no definite meaning or grammati- 
cal construction. They occur frequently in colloquial or impas- 
sioned discourse ; but are expressions of emotion only, and can not 
be used as signs of thought. As their name imports, they may be 
throivn in between connected parts of discourse, but are generally 
found at the commencement of sentences. 

Rem. 2. — Other parts of speech, when used as exclamations, 
may be treated as interjections; as, "What! art thou mad?" 
"My stars/ what can all this be?" "Revenge! about, — seek, — 
bum, — fire, — kill, — slay! — let not a traitor live!" In most cases, 
however, words thus used may be parsed otherwise ; as, " 'Magnifi- 
cent!' cried all at once." " Magnificent " may be parsed as an 
adjective, the attribute of the sentence, "It is magnificent." 
"Behold! your house is left unto you desolate!" "Behold" may 
be parsed as a verb in the imperative mode. 


143. Order of Parsing. 

1. An Interjection, and why? 

2. Eule. 

144. Model for Parsing. 

I. "0, let me live." 

O ... is an interjection ; it denotes some strong emotion . Eule XXII: 
"An interjection has no dependence upon other words." 

145. Exercises. 

Parse all the words in the following sentences : 

1. Ha! laughest thou? 2. Heigh! sirs, what a noise you make 
here. 3. Huzza ! huzza ! Long live lord Eobin ! 4. Hah ! it is a 
sight to freeze one. 5. Let them be desolate for a reward of their 
shame which say unto me, Aha ! aha ! 

6. Oh, that the salvation of Israel were come out of Zion! 
7. Alas ! all earthly good still blends itself with home ! 8. Tush ! 
tush! man, I made no reference to you. 9. Hark! what nearer 
war-drum shakes the gale? 10. Soft! I did but dream! 

11. What! old acquaintance! could not all this flesh 
Keep in a little life ? Poor Jack, farewell ! 
I could have better spared a better man. — Shakspeare. 

146. Miscellaneous Exercises. 

1. A mercenary informer knows no distinction. 2. I send you 
here a" sort of allegory. 3. Our island home is far beyond the sea. 
4. Love took up the harp of life, and smote on all the chords with 
might. 5. Your Jf is the only peace-maker: much virtue in If. 
6. He is very prodigal of his ohs and ahs. 

7. He looked upward at the rugged heights that towered above 
him in the gloom. 8. He possessed that rare union of reason, sim- 
plicity, and vehemence, which formed the prince of orators. 9. 
Mark well my fall, and that that ruined me. 10. The jingling of 
the guinea helps the hurt that honor feels. — Tennyson. 

11. His qualities were so happily blended, that the result was 
a great and perfect whole. 12. There is no joy but calm. 13. I 
H. G. 11. 


must be cruel, only to be kind. 14. Why are we weighed upon 
with heaviness ? 15. Now blessings light on him that first invented 
sleep: it covers a man all over, thoughts and all, like a cloak. — . 

16. Many a morning on the moorlands did we hear the copses 
ring. 17. He stretched out his right hand at these words, and laid 
it gently on the boy's head. 18. He acted ever as if his country's 
welfare, and that alone, was the moving spirit. 19. The great 
contention of criticism is to find the faults of the moderns, and the 
beauties of the ancients. Whilst an author is yet living, we esti- 
mate his powers by his worst performance; and when he is dead, 
we estimate them by his best. — Johnson. 

20. I will work in my own sphere, nor wish it other than it is. 
21. As his authority was undisputed, so it required no jealous pre- 
cautions, no rigorous severity. 22. Like all men of genius, he de- 
lighted to take refuge in poetry. 23. To know how to say what 
other people only think, is what makes men poets and sages ; and 
to dare to say what others only dare to think, makes men martyrs 
or reformers, or both. 24. That done, she turned to the old man 
with a lovely smile upon her face, — such, they said, as they had 
never seen, and never could forget, — and clung with both her arms 
about his neck. — Dickens. 

25. To live in hearts we leave behind, 

Is not to die. — Campbell. 

26. But war's a game which, were their subjects wise, 

Kings would not play at. — Cowper. 

27. Whoever thinks a faultless piece to see, 

Thinks what ne'er was, nor is, nor e'er shall be. — Pope. 

28. The Niobe of nations, there she stands, 

Childless and crownless, in her voiceless woe; 
An empty urn within her withered hands, 

Whose holy dust was scattered long ago. — Byron. 

29. Can storied urn or animated bust 

Back to its mansion call the fleeting breath? 
Can Honor's voice provoke the sleeping dust, 

Or Flattery soothe the dull, cold ear of death? — Gray, 

30. A thing of beauty is a joy forever ; 
Its loveliness increases; it will never 
Pass into nothingness. — Keats. - 


31. Forth from his dark and lonely hiding-place, 
(Portentous sight!) the owlet Atheism, 
Sailing on obscure wings athwart the noon, 
Drops his blue-fringed lids, and holds them close, 
And hooting at the glorious sun in heaven, 
Cries out, "Where is it?" — Coleridge. 

32. Dry clank'd his harness in the icy caves 
And barren chasms, and all to left and right 

The bare black cliff clang'd round him, as he based 
His feet on jets of slippery crag that rang 
Sharp-smitten with the dint of armed heels. — Tennyson. 

33. Then came w r andering by 

A shadow, like an angel w T ith bright hair 
' Dabbled in blood ; and he shriek'd out aloud : 

" Clarence is come ! false, fleeting, perjur'd Clarence ! 

That stabbed me in the field by Tewksbury : . 

Seize on him, furies, take him to your torments ! " — Shahspearc. 

34. There are things of which I may not speak : 

There are dreams that can not die: 
There are thoughts that make the strong heart weak, 
And bring a pallor upon the cheek, 
And a mist before the eye. 
And the words of that fatal song 
Come over me like a chill: 
"A boy's will is the wind's will, 
And the thoughts of youth are long, long thoughts." 


35. These ages have no memory — but they left 

A record in the desert — columns strown 
On the waste sands, and statues fallen and cleft, 

Heap'd like a host in battle overthrown; 
Vast ruins, where the mountain's ribs of stone 

Were hewn into a city : streets that spread 
In the dark earth, where never breath has blown 

Of heaven's sweet air, nor foot of man dares tread, 
The long and perilous ways — the Cities of the Dead. — Bryant 



147. Preliminary Oral Lessons. 

Note to Teachers. — The object of these lessons is (1) To exer- 
cise pupils in the construction of simple sentences: (2) To teach 
the uses and definitions of the elements of a sentence : (3) To teach 
the analysis of sentences containing elements of the first class. 

Use Oral Lesson on page 24 as introductory to these. 


I hold in my hand a piece of chalk : what is its color ? Ans. — 
It is white. It breaks easily : what else can be said of it ? Ans. — 
It is brittle. It crumbles readily : hence, we say it is friable. Each 
of the words, white, brittle, j riable, expresses some quality belonging 
to chalk: what shall we call them? Ans. — Quality-words. We 
will now unite these quality-words with "chalk," by the word "is," 
thus : 

Chalk is white ; 
Chalk is brittle ; 
Chalk is friable. 

Each of these groups of words is called a Sentence; for 

"A Sentence is an assemblage of words making complete 


Write the definition on your slates. Now repeat it in concert. 
Each group is also called a Proposition; for 

"A Proposition is a thought expressed in words." 

Write this definition on your slates. Repeat it in concert. 

In the proposition " Chalk is white," the noun " chalk " is called 
the Subject; for 

"The Subject of a proposition is that of which something is 


"White" is called the Predicate; for 

" The Predicate of a proposition is that which is affirmed of 
the subject. " 

The word "is" is called the Copula; for 

" The Copula is a word or group of words used to affirm or 
assert the predicate of the subject." 

In this sentence, it affirms that the quality "white" belongs to 

Write these definitions on your slates. Eepeat them in concert. 

In the proposition "Chalk is brittle," what is the subject? 
Ans. — "Chalk." Why? Ans. — It is that of which something is 
affirmed. What is the predicate? Arts.— "Brittle." Why? 
Ans. — It is that which is affirmed of the subject. 

Affirm qualities of the following subjects : 

Iron, gold, silver, lead, ink, cork, sugar, vinegar, grass, books, 

Model. — Iron is heavy. 

Affirm the following qualities of appropriate subjects : 

Transparent, opaque, hard, round, square, good, bad, bitter, 

heavy, rough, smooth, red, yellow, green. 
Model. — Glass is transparent. 


In the sentence "Iron is a metal," is any quality affirmed of 
" iron " ? Ans. — There is not. That is right. The predicate " metal " 
denotes kind or class, not quality. It is a predicate, however, be- 
cause it is affirmed of the subject "iron." In the sentence "Horses 
are animals," what is the subject? Ans. — "Horses." Why? 
Ans. — Because it is that of which something is affirmed. What 
is the predicate? Ans. — "Animals." Why? Ans. — Because it is 
that which is affirmed of the subject. What is the copula ? Ans. — 
The word "are." 

Affirm class of the following subjects : 

Horses, oxen, coal, wood, hay, oats, wheat, ax, hoe, locomotive, 
dogs, sheep, copper, gold, apples, trees, wagons, houses. 

Model. — Wheat is a vegetable. 
Affirm qualities of the same subjects. 



Write this sentence on your slates: "Horses run." You see 
that the predicate "run" is affirmed directly of the subject without 
the use of the copula. The copula and predicate are united in 
one word; for " Horses run" means the same as "Horses are 

What is the subject in this sentence: "Boys learn"? Ans. — 
"Boys." What is the predicate? Ans. — "Learn." Why? 
Ans. — It is that which is affirmed of the subject. Words which 
affirm any thing of subjects are called Verbs. What are the words 
"run" and "learn"? Ans. — Verbs. Why? Ans. — Because they 
affirm something of their subjects. 

Write sentences, using the following verbs as predicates : 

Walk, sing, whistle, swim, wrestle, play, write, study, plow, reap, 

drive, neigh, cackle, whine, snarl, gobble, quarrel, fight. 
Model. — Cattle walk. 

Write on your slates, and then repeat in concert : 
"An Element is one of the distinct parts of a sentence." 
The Subject and Predicate are called Principal Elements, because 
no sentence can be formed without them. 

The Copula is not an element : it is used merely to affirm the 
predicate of the subject. 

Separating a sentence into its elements is called Analysis. 
We will now analyze some sentences according to the following 

I. "Apples are ripe." 
Apples ... is the subject; it is that of which something is affirmed: 
ripe is the predicate; it is that which is affirmed of the 
subject; are is the copula. 

II. "Birds fly." 
Birds .... is the subject; (why?): fly is the predicate; (why?). 


1. Ink is black. 2. Gold is yellow. 3. Lead is a metal. 4. 
Birds sing. 5. Vessels sail. 6. Trees are plants. 7. Fishes swim. 


8. Elihu was tardy. 9. Mary was studious. 10. Enoch may be 
angry. 11. Snow falls. 12. Houses stand. 


Write this sentence on your slates : " Horses eat." While you 
were writing did you not think some word should be added, repre- 
senting what horses eat? Ans. — We did. What word shall we 
add? Ans. — Oats. Write " oats " after the verb. This word com- 
pletes the meaning of the verb, and is called an Objective Element, 
or Object. In the sentence " Pupils study arithmetic," what word 
completes the meaning of the predicate or verb ? Ans. — "Arith- 
metic." What element is it ? Ans. — An objective element. Why? 
Ans. — Because it completes the meaning of the verb. 

Write ten sentences, each containing an objective element. 
Model. — Indians hunt buffaloes. 

Analyze the sentences you have written, using this model: 

"Children love play." 
Children is the subject; (why?): love, the predicate; (why?): the 
predicate is modified by play? an objective element. 

Analyze also the following sentences : 

1. Heat melts lead. 2. Men love money. 3. I study botany. 
4. Haste makes waste. 5. Cats catch mice. 6. Mr. Jones sells 
calicoes. 7. Clouds bring rain. 


Write this sentence on your slates: "Apples are ripe." What 
is the subject of the sentence? Ans. — "Apples." Why? Ans. — 
It is that of which something is affirmed. What is the word 
"apples"? Ans. — It is a noun. Why? Ans. — It is a name. 
What is the predicate? Ans. — "Ripe." Why? Ans. — It is that 
which is affirmed of the subject. Now write these words, "Ripe 
apples." Is this a sentence? Ans. — It is not. Why? Ans. — 
There is nothing affirmed. That is correct. The word "ripe" is 
here used to modify the meaning of "apples," as an attribute, not 
as a predicate : that, is, it is assumed, or taken for granted, that it 
belongs to "apples." All words which modify the meaning of 
nouns in this manner, are called Adjective Elements.. 

Write this sentence: "Ripe apples are cheap." What is 


"ripe"? Ans. — An adjective element. Why? Arts. — It modifies 
the meaning of a noun. " Samuel's hat is torn." What element 
is " Samuel's"? Ans. — An adjective element. Why? Ans. — It 
modifies the meaning of the noun "hat." "Mr. Smith the mason 
is sick." What is "mason"? Ans. — An adjective element. Why? 
Ans. — It modifies the meaning of "Mr. Smith," a noun. What 
are the words "Samuel's" and "mason"? Ans. — They are nouns. 
Nouns, then, are adjective elements when they modify nouns. 

Write five sentences, limiting the subjects by adjective elements de- 
noting quality. 
Models. — Cross dogs bite. Cold winter comes. 

Write five sentences, limiting their subjects by adjective elements de- 
noting number. 

Models. — Two boys fought. Three men left. 
Wt^ite five sentences, limiting their subjects by words which merely 

point them out. 

Models. — That boy is studious. This boy is lazy. 
Write five sentences, limiting their subjects by nouns. 

Models. — Eli's uncle is rich. Mr. Tod the lawyer is young. 

Write five sentences, limiting both subjects and objects by adjective 
Model. — Emma's mother bought a new bonnet. 

Analyze the following sentences, using these models : 

I. "Milton the poet was blind." 
Milton . is the subject; (why?): blind is the predicate; (why?): 
"Milton" is modified by poet, an adjective element, and 
"poet" by tlie, an adjective element: was is the copula. 

II. "Evil communications corrupt good manners." 
Communications is the subject; (why?): corrupt, the predicate; 
(why?): "communications" is modified by evil, an adjec- 
tive element; " corrupt," by manners, an objective element ; 
and "manners," by good, an adjective element. 


1. Sarah's book is lost. 2. Mrs. Elkins the milliner found Sarah's 
book. 3. Old people love quiet. 4. Young children love play. 
5. I like ripe cherries. 6. You have found my pencil. 



Write this sentence on your slates : " Birds sing sweetly." Does 
" sweetly " denote what the birds sing ? Arts. — It does not ; it tells 
how they sing. That is right. " Sweetly " does not complete the 
meaning of " sing," like an objective element; but it modifies its 
meaning in another way. All words used in such a manner are 
called Adverbial Elements. Words which modify adjectives are 
called adverbial elements also. In this sentence, " The storm 
rages violently," what is the subject? Arts. — " Storm." What is 
the predicate? Ans. — "Kages." What is "violently"? Arts. — 
An adverbial element. Why ? Ans. — It modifies a verb, but does 
not complete its meaning. 

In the sentence " Very large vessels were seen," what is modified 
by "very"? Ans. — "Large." What is "large"? Ans.— An ad- 
jective. What element, then, is "very"? Ans. — An adverbial 
element. Why? Ans. — It modifies an adjective. Adverbial ele- 
ments also modify other adverbial elements. 

Write ten sentences, modifying the verbs by adverbial elements. 
Model. — The wind blows furiously. 

Write ten sentences, containing adjective elements modified by ad- 
verbial elements. 
Model. — James recited a very long lesson. 

Analyze the following sentences, using these models : 
I. "The wind blows violently." 

Wind . is the subject; (why?): blows, the predicate; (why?): 
"wind" is modified by the, an adjective element: "blows" 
is modified by violently, an adverbial element. 

II. " Emma has a very severe headache." 
Emma is the subject; (why?): has, the predicate; (why?): "has" 
is modified by headache, an objective element; "headache" 
by a and severe, adjective elements; and "severe," by very, 
an adverbial element. 


1. A sluggard sleeps soundly. 2. The horses were much fatigued. 
3. Very loud reports were heard. 4. That boy spends his money 
foolishly. 5. You may go now. 6. He then left the country. 


148. Definitions. 

1. Syntax treats of the construction of sentences. 

2. A Sentence is an assemblage of words making 
complete sense. 

Ex. — Birds fly. Man is mortal. "The great throat of the 
chimney laughed." "When the farmer came down in the morn- 
ing, he declared that his watch had gained half an hour in the 

3. A Proposition is a thought expressed in words. 

Ex. — The weather is pleasant. Pupils should be studious. The 
boy seems frightened. Horses are animals. 

Rem. — The term sentence is applied to any assemblage of words 
so arranged as to make complete sense ; proposition, to the thought 
which those words express. The same assemblage of words, there- 
fore, may be both a sentence and a proposition. 

4. Propositions are either Principal or Subordinate. 

5. A Principal Proposition is one which makes 
complete sense when standing alone. 

6. A Subordinate Proposition is one which does 
not make complete sense when standing alone, but which 
must be connected with another proposition. 

Ex. — "The man that does no good does harm." In this sen- 
tence, "the man does harm" is the principal proposition, for it 
makes complete sense when standing alone: "that does no good" 
is a subordinate proposition, for it does not make complete sense 
when standing alone. 

7. A Phrase is an assemblage of words forming a 
single expression, but not making complete sense. 

Ex. — Till lately ; in haste ; since then ; year by year ; little by 
little ; to see ; to have seen ; to be seen. 

8. A Discourse is a series of sentences on the same 
subject, arranged in logical order. 


9. A Paragraph is a series of sentences on the same 
branch of a subject. 

10. An Element is one of the component parts of a 

11. Analysis is the separation of a sentence into its 

12. Syntliesis is the construction of sentences from 

149, Classification with Respect to Use. 

1. With respect to use, sentences are divided into four 
classes: Declarative, Interrogative, Imperative, and Ex- 

2. A declarative Sentence is one used to affirm 
or deny something. 

Ex. — Fishes swim. Fishes do not walk. 

Rem. — Direct Discourse is telling what somebody thinks or 
says, by using his own words; as, "Our teacher said, l Be frank, 
honest, and truthful.'' " 

Indirect Discourse is giving the substance of what somebody 
thinks or says, but not using his own words; as, "Our teacher 
said, that we should be frank, honest, and truthful." 

3. An Interrogative Sentence is one used to ask a 

Ex. — Are you angry? "Where does that man live? 

Rem — A Direct Question is one which can be answered by 
yes or no; as, "Has the money been paid?" 

An indirect Question is one which can not be answered by 
yes or no; as, "Who paid the money?" 

4. An Imperative Sentence is one used to express 
a command or an entreaty. 

Ex. — Bring me that book. Do not strike me. 


5. An Exclamatory Sentence is one used in ex- 
clamations, or in the expression of strong emotion. 
Ex. — Oh, how glad I am to see you! 

150. Exercises. 

Tell to which class each of the following sentences belongs: 
Model. — "The dews bring their jewels." 
This is a declarative sentence; it is used to affirm something. 

1. The days are calm. 2. How many quarts are there in a gal- 
lon? 3. The winds bring perfumes. 4. Study diligently. 5. He 
waved his arm. 6. And the fellow calls himself a painter! 7. He 
deserved punishment rather than pity. 

8. O, how careless you are ! 9. What was the Eubicon ? 10. 
How brightly the sun shines ! 11. Alas for the man who has not 
learned to work! 12. Bring forth the prisoner now. 13. I had a 
dream which was not all a dream. 14. A plague of all cowards, 
still say I. 

15. Attend to the duties I have assigned you. 16. Many fell by 
thy arm: they were consumed in the flame of thy wrath. 17. 
When shall it be morn in the grave, to bid the slumberer awake? 
18. The commons, faithful to their system, remained in a wise and 
masterly inactivity. — Mackintosh. 

151. Classification with Respect to Form. 

1. With respect to form, sentences are divided into three 
classes: Simple, Complex, and Compound. 

2. A Simple Sentence consists of a single propo- 

Ex. — Flowers bloom. Who is he? Tread lightly. How glad 
I am! 

3. A Complex Sentence consists of a principal prop- 
osition, some part of which is modified by one or more 
subordinate propositions. 

Ex. — Flowers bloom when spring returns. He who is diligent 


shall be rewarded. I hear that you have sold your farm, and that 
you are going to California. 

Rem. — The propositions in complex sentences are called 
Clauses. They are named and numbered according to the order 
of their subordination. 

Ex. — " I believe that he is honest." In this sentence, " I believe " is 
the principal clause, and "that he is honest" is the subordinate. 

4. A Compound Sentence consists of two or more 
simple or complex sentences, joined by coordinate con- 

Ex — Spring comes, and the flowers bloom. "I go, but I re- 
turn." " Though Truth is fearless and absolute, yet she is meek 
and modest." 

Rem. i. — The simple or complex sentences of which compound 
sentences are composed, are called Members. They are num- 
bered according to their place in the sentence. 

Ex. — " Every man desires to live long; but no man would be old." 
In this sentence, " every man desires to live long" is the first member, 
and "no man would be old" is the second. 

Rem. 2. —The clauses of complex sentences are connected by 
relative pronouns, conjunctions, and conjunctive adverbs. The mem- 
bers of compound sentences are connected by conjunctions. 

Rem. 3 — The connectives are sometimes omitted; as, "I 
thought [that] he was absent;" "Talent is power, [but] tact is 

152. Models for Classification. 

I. "The nights are tranquil." 

This is a sentence ; it is an assemblage of words making complete 
sense: declarative; it is used to affirm something: simple; it consists 
of a single proposition. 

II. "Shall I return the book which you lent me?" 

This is a sentence; (why?) : interrogative; it is used to ask a ques 8 - 
tion: complex; it is composed of a principal and a subordinate propo- 
sition: "Shall I return the book" is the principal proposition, and 
"which you lent me" the subordinate, limiting "book." "Which" is 
the connective. 


III. "She counseled him, that when he arose in the morning, he 

should beat them without mercy." — Bunyan. 

This is a sentence; (why?): declarative; (why?): complex; (why?): 
"She counseled him," is the principal proposition; u that he should beat 
them without mercy" the first subordinate, modifying "counseled" ; and 
"when he rose in the morning" the second subordinate, modifying 
"'beat." "That" and "when" are connectives. 

IV. " Pope had perhaps the judgment of Dry den : but Dry den cer- 

tainly wanted the diligence of Pope." — Johnson. 

This is a sentence; (why?): declarative; (why?): compound; it is 
composed of two propositions, joined by a coordinate connective: 
"Pope had perhaps the judgment of Dryden " is the first member, and 
"Dryden certainly wanted the diligence of Pope" is the second. "But" 
is the connective. 

153. Exercises. 

1. Thy feet are fetterless. 2. Level spread the lake before him. 
3. He waved his broad felt hat for silence. 4. A soldier of the 
Legion lay dying in Algiers. 5. It sank from sight before it set. 
6. Ye softening dews, ye tender showers, descend I 7. None will 
flatter the poor. 8. Ye are the things that tower. 9. The house 
was wrapped in flames. 

10. Hope and fear are the bane of human life. 11. The village 
all declared how much he knew. 12. He that refuseth instruction 
despiseth his own soul. 13. Is it for thee the lark ascends and 
sings? 14. How dreadful is this place, for God is here! 15. He 
dares not touch a hair of Catiline. 16. What can compensate for 
the loss of character? 17. Lead us not into temptation, but deliver 
us from evil. 

18. Time slept on flowers, and lent his glass to Hope. 19. All 
were sealed with the seal which is never to be broken till the great 
day. 20. O God, we are but leaves on thy stream, clouds in thy 
sky. 21. Talk to the point, and stop when you have reached it. 

22. " It was now the Sabbath-day, and a small congregation, of 
about a hundred souls, had met for divine service, in a place more 
magnificent than any temple that human hands had ever built to 
Deity."— Wilson. 

23. I know thou art gone where the weary are blest, 
And the mourner looks up and is glad. 


24. What matter how the night behaved? 

What matter how the north wind raved? — Whittier. 

25. Bird of the broad and sweeping wing, 

Thy home is high in heaven, 
Where the wide storms their banners fling, 
And the tempest-clouds are driven. — Percival. 

154. Principal Elements. 

1. The Principal Elements of a proposition are those 
which are necessary to its construction. They are the Sub- 
ject and the Predicate. 

2. The Subject of a proposition is that of which some- 
thing is affirmed. 

Ex. — "Time is precious." "Time" is the subject; it is that of 
which " precious" is affirmed. 

3. The Predicate of a proposition is that which is 
affirmed of the subject. 

Ex. — "Time is precious." "Precious" is the predicate; it is 
that which is affirmed of the subject. 

Rem. — In these definitions, the term "affirm" is meant to in- 
clude say , ash for, command, entreat, or exclaim. 

4. The Subject may be a tvord, a phrase, or a clause. 

Ex. — Winter is coming. H is a letter. To steal is base. "Pay 
as you go," is a good rule. "Why will he persist?" is often asked. 

Rem. — The subject of a proposition may be known by its an- 
swering the question formed by using Who? or What? with the 

Ex. — "John is careless." Who is careless? Ans. — "John." 
"John/' therefore, is the subject. " To be sick is disagreeable." What 
is disagreeable? Ans. — "To be sick." "To be sick," therefore, is the 

5. The Copula is some form of the verb to be, (is, was, 


has been, might be, &c.,) or a copulative verb. Its office is 
to affirm the predicate of the subject. 

Ex. — " Silence is impressive." " Is " is the copula, and " impress- 
ive" the predicate. "Gold is a metal." "Is" is the copula, and 
"metal" the predicate. "He may have been injudicious." "May- 
have been" is the copula, and "injudicious" the predicate. "The 
fields look green." "Look" is the copula, and "green" the pred- 

6. In affirming action, being, or state, the copula and 
predicate are generally united in one word, or one form, 
called a verb. 

Ex. — Pupils study. I cm* The house stands. Rain is falling. 
tetters are written. 

7. The Predicate may be a word, a phrase, or a clause. 

Ex. — Horses gallop. Wheat is a vegetable. The sun was shin- 
ing. " To obey is to enjoy P He seems honest. My desire is, that 
you attend school. 

Rem. — The predicate is sometimes erroneously called the attri- 
bute of a proposition, and the copula and predicate, taken to- 
gether, the predicate. 

155. Models for Analysis. 

I. "Birds sing." 
This is a sentence; (why?): declarative; (why?): simple; (why?). 

Birds is the subject; it is that of which something is affirmed; 
sing is the predicate ; it is that which is affirmed of the subject. 

II. "Scholars should be studious." 
This is a sentence; (why?): declarative; (why?): simple; (why?). 

Scholars is the subject; (why?): studious is the predicate; 
(why?): should be is the copula. 

III. " Franklin was a philosopher." 
This is a sentence; (why?) : declarative; (why?) : simple; (why?). 


Franklin is the subject; (why?): philosopher is the predicate ; 
(why?): was is the copula. 

IV. " He was considered responsible." 

This is a sentence; (why?): declarative; (why?): simple; (why?). 

He is the subject; (why?) : responsible is the predicate; (why?): 
was considered is the copula. 

V. "Be truthful." 

This is a sentence; (why?): imperative; (why?): simple; (why?). 

Thou or yon, understood, is the subject; (why?): truthful is 

the predicate; (why?): he is the copula. 

156. Exercises in Analysis. 

1. Children play. 2. Virtue ennobles. 3. Spring has come. 
4. Winter has departed. 5. You may go. 6. Mary might have 
sung. 7. Horses can run. 8. Flowers are blooming. 9. Money 
may be loaned. 10. Books will be bought. 11. Stars were shining. 
12. John should have been studying. 

13. Glass is brittle. 14. Water is transparent. 15. Savages may 
be merciful. 16. Men should be just. 17. Samuel should have 
been obedient. 18. Geography is interesting. 19. Job was pa- 
tient. 20. I will be industrious. 21. They have been successful. 

22. Iron is a metal. 23. Flies are insects. 24. Napoleon w r as a 
general. 25. Ostriches are birds. 26. " Men w r ould be angels ; 
angels would be gods." 27. They may have been truants. 28. 
Howard was a philanthropist. 29. He might have been a lawyer. 
30. George had been a captain. 

31. John looks cold. 32. I feel aguish. 33. Ants appear indus- 
trious. 34. Washington was elected president. 35. Avarice has 
become his master. 36. He seems dejected. 37. He became 
wealthy. 38. It was deemed inexpedient. 

157. Arrangement of Elements. 

1. Arrangement is the correct placing of elements. 

2. Elements are arranged in Natural or Inverted order. 

H. G. 12. 


3. The Natural order of arrangement is that which is 

most customary. 

4. The Inverted order of arrangement is any depart- 
ure from the natural order. 

Rem. — In inverted order, the elements are said to be trans- 

5. The Natural order of arrangement is, 

In Declarative Sentences: 

1. Subject .... Predicate; as "Winds blow." 

2. Subject .... Copula .... Predicate ; as, " Chalk is white." 

3. Subject .... Auxiliary . . Predicate; as, "You may go." 

In Interrogative Sentences: 

1. Copula .... Subject .... Predicate; as, "Is he wise?" 

2. Auxiliary . . Subject .... Predicate; as, "May I go?" 

3. Predicate . . Subject; as, "Say you so?" 

4. Subject .... Predicate; as, "Who remained?" 

In Imperative Sentences: 

1. Predicate . . Subject; as, "Go thou." 

2. Copula .... Subject .... Predicate; as, "Be ye merciful." 

In Exclamatory Sentences, the arrangement is the same as 
in declarative, interrogative, and imperative sentences. 

6. The Inverted order is used when the predicate is 
made emphatic. 

Rem. — inversion occurs in declarative and exclamatory sen- 
tences. The usual order of arrangement is Predicate . . . Copula . . . 
Subject ; as, "Great was our wonder;" "Known unto God are all 
his works." 

158. Exercises in Synthesis. 

Affirm actions of the following subjects : 

Winds, waters, stars, fire, light, acorns, sheep, rabbits, fishes, 
men, women, boys, girls, children, thunder, lightning, storms, 
nobles, kings, merchants. 

Models. — Winds blow. Storms rage. 


Affirm quality of the following subjects : 

Apples, cherries, peaches, fruit, books, desks, winter, spring, 
summer, autumn, sugar, quinine, vinegar, grammar, writing, even- 
ings, darkness, chemistry, geography. 

Models. — Apples are ripe. Quinine is bitter. 

Ascertain all the distinguishing properties of five substances. Affirm 

them of the substances to which they belong. 

Models. — Chalk is white; chalk is opaque; chalk is brittle; 
chalk is incombustible, &c. 

Affirm class or kind of the following subjects : 

Oranges, horses, hens, flies, Henry, Washington, ships, gold, 
silver, sharks, water, air, table. 

Models. — Oranges are fruit. Henry is a clerk. 

159. Subordinate Elements. 

1. A Modifier is a word, phrase, or clause joined to a 
term to limit or restrict its meaning or application. 

Ex. — A wealthy man. Chairs to mend. A man who is 'wealthy. 

2. Subordinate Elements are those which modify 
other elements. They are distinguished as Objective, Ad- 
jective, and Adverbial. 

160. Objective Element. 

An Objective Element is a word or group of words 
which completes the meaning of a transitive verb in the 
active voice, or of its participles. It is usually called the 

Ex. — Heat melts metals. Men love money. I wish to be quiet. 
Alice knew that we were not at home. Him they sought. 

Rem. i — The objective element answers the question formed 
by using Whom? or What? with the predicate, or with the subject 
and predicate. 

Ex. — " John writes letters." Writes what? Ans. — " Letters n == the 
object. "Brutus killed Caesar." Brutus killed whom? Jtwj.— "Ca- 
sar"— the object. 


Rem. 3. — By " completing the meaning of a verb " is meant 
restricting its application, by stating that on which its action ter- 
minates. In the sentence "John writes," the predicate "writes" 
is taken in its most general sense : what John writes is not men- 
tioned. In the sentence "John writes letters," the application of 
the predicate is restricted to the single act of writing letters. 
"Letters" being the object on which the act of writing terminates, 
it is called the objective element. 

Rem. 3. — Some verbs are followed by two objects: one denoting 
a person or thing; the other, the rank, office, occupation, or character 
of the person, or the species of the thing. See, also, I 32, Eem. 2. 

Ex. — They elected Charles captain. He called him a scoundrel. 
He makes the sea his home. They declared self-government a de- 

Rem. 4. — Another class of verbs is followed by two objects : 
one denoting a person or thing ; the other, that to or from which 
the act tends. The former is called the direct, the latter the 
indirect object. 

Ex. — He taught me arithmetic. He sold me a horse. I gave him 
money. They sent John a telegram. 

161. Models for Analysis. 

, VI. "Columbus discovered America." 

This is a sentence; (why?) : declarative; (why?) : simple; (why?). 

Columbus is the subject; (why?): discovered is the predicate: 
(why ?). The predicate is modified by America, an objective element. 

VII. "Whom did you see?" 

This is a sentence; (why?): interrogative; (why?): simple; (why?). 

You is the subject; (why?): did see is the predicate; (why?). 
The predicate is modified by whom, an objective element. 

VIII. " Bring me flowers." 

This is a sentence; (why?): imperative; (why?): simple; (why?). 

Thou or you, understood, is the subject: (why?): bring is the 
predicate; (why?). The predicate is modified by me, an indirect, 
and by flowers, a direct object. 


IX. " They have chosen Mr. Ames speaker." 

This is a sentence; (why?): declarative; (why?): simple; (why?). 

Tliey is the subject ; (why ?) : nave chosen is the predicate ; 
(why ?). The predicate is modified by Mr. Ames, an objective element; 
and Mr. Ames, by speaker, an adjective element, denoting office. 

162. Exercises in Analysis. 

1. He examined the books. 2. Silas studied geology. 3. They 
watched the storm. 4. You must obey the laws. 5. We earn 
money. 6. Merchants sell goods. 7. Engineers run locomotives. 
8. Blacksmiths shoe horses. 

9. Farmers sow grain. 10. Give me music. 11. They chose 
him. 12. We have chosen him director. 13. Bring^him a book. 
14. Whom did you call? 

163. Exercises in Synthesis. 

Sentences containing objective elements are arranged as 
follows : 

Declarative; Subject . . Predicate . . Object; as, "I found it." 
interrogative ; 1. Object . .Predicate . . Subject; as, " What see you?" 

2. Object . . Auxiliary . . Subject . . Verb ; as, " What did you see ? " 

Imperative; Predicate . . Object; as, "Practice economy." 

Rem. l. — In inverted order, the arrangement of declarative 
sentences, is 

Object . . Subject . . Predicate; as, "Him they found." 

Write sentences containing an objective element, using the following 
words as subjects: 

Men, boys, heat, lightning, horses, locomotives, scythe, knife, 
shears, clerks, merchants, blacksmith, tailor, mason, doctors, lion, 
oxen, eagles. 

Models. — Men drive horses. Boys fly kites. Merchants sell 


Write sentences containing two objects, using the above or any other 
nouns : 

Models. — Charles calls doctors physicians. Frank calls a sleigh 
a cutter. I consider William a genius. 

Write sentences containing a direct and an indirect object, using the 

following verbs: 

Ask, buy, bring, do, draw, deny, find, get, leave, make, pass, 
pour, promise, provide, present, sell, send, show, refuse, teach, 
tell, throw, write. 

Models. — Emma asked me a question. He bought Charles a pony. 

Change each of the verbs, in sentences written last, into the passive 
voice, making either object the subject. 
Models. — I was asked a question. A pony was bought for Charles, 

Analyze the sentences you have written. 

164. Adjectiye Element. 

An Adjective Element is a word or group of words 
which modifies a noun, or any expression used as a noun. 

Ex. — A good man. Mr. Myers the banker. Friend Hiram. 
"If you can: a sensible if." "Done gone," a vulgarism, is fre- 
quently heard. My book is on Ellen's desk. A letter, written in 
haste. She came, laughing. 

Rem. i. — An adjective element is a definitive or descriptive 
term used to modify the meaning of a noun or its substitute. 
The relation which a predicate attribute sustains to the subject is 
affirmed: the relation which an adjective element sustains to the 
term it modifies is assumed, or taken for granted. 

Ex. — "That man is wealthy." The predicate " wealthy" is affirmed 
to belong to "man." "A wealthy man." The attribute "wealthy" is 
here assumed to belong to "man," and is an adjective element. 

Rem. 2 — An adjective element containing a single word 
may be, 

1. An Adjective; as, "Ripe apples." 

2. A Participle; as, "Hats made to order." 

3. A Xoun in Apposition ; as,. " Powers the sculptor" 

4. A Possessive ; as, "Eli's pen." "His hat." 


165. Models for Analysis. 

X. " Small lakes are abundant." 

This is a sentence; (why?): declarative; (why?): simple; (why?). 

lakes is the subject: (why?): abundant is the predicate;. 
(why?): are is the copula. The subject is modified by small, an 
adjective element. 

XI. "The steamship Hibernia has arrived." 

This is a sentence; (why?): declarative: (why?): simple; (why?). 

Steamship is the subject; ywhy ?) : has arrived is the predicate; 
(why?). The subject is modified by the and Hibernia, both adjec* 
tive elements. 

XII. "My brother broke Stephen's slate." 

This is a sentence; (why?): declarative; (why?): simple; (why?). 

Brother is the subject ; (why?): broke is the predicate ; (why?). 
The subject is modified by my, an adjective element. The predicate 
is modified by slate, an objective element, and "slate" is modified by 
Stephen's, an adjective element. 

XIII. "The old man, laughing, said 'Yes.'" 

This is a sentence; (why?): declarative; (why?): simple; (why?). 

Man is the subject; (why?): said is the predicate; (why?). The 
subject is modified by the, old, and langhing, adjective elements. 
The predicate is modified by Yes, an objective element. 

166. Exercises in Analysis. 

1. A large house was burned. 2. I wrote a long letter. 3. This 
land is government property. 4. Many hands make quick work. 
5. A wise son maketh a glad father. 6. Man's necessity is God's 
opportunity. 7. Mr. Hodge the farmer hired Mr. Olds the ma- 
son. 8. Great wits jump. 

9. He is a vain, conceited blockhead. 10. I want the largest 
apple. 11. Mary has chosen the better part. 12. Carlo's barking 
wakened the family. 13. I saw six swans. 14. This is my fortieth 
birthday. 15. Every man received a penny. 


167o Exercises in Synthesis. 

Adjectives and possessives are usually placed before, and 
participles and nouns in apposition, after the nouns they 

Write seven sentences, limiting the subject by one of the following 

adjectives : 

Round, square, oval, rough, smooth, transparent, translucent, 
white, green, sour, sweet, old, young, new, wise, foolish, lucky, 
unlucky, careful, careless. * . 

Models. — A round table was purchased. A square box was 

Write seven sentences, limiting both subject and object by an adjective. 
Model. — A stout horse draws heavy loads. 

WHte seven sentences, limiting the subject or object by the possessive 

case of one of the following nouns : 

Elephant, swan, hawk, sparrow, summer, winter, father, mother, 
uncle, aunt, John, Samuel, Celia, Harriet, Jackson, teacher, 
doctoi, pupil, merchant. 

Models. — An elephant's tusks are white. A swan's movements 
are graceful. 

Write seven sentences, limiting the subject or object, or both, by a noun 

in apposition. 

Models. — Mr. Sledge the blacksmith is sick. Wilson the burg- 
lar robbed Wilson the banker. 

Analyze the sentences you have written. 

168. Adverbial Element. 

An Adverbial Element is a word or group of words 
used to modify a verb, participle, adjective, or adverb. 

Ex. — The stranger was very kind. The wind blows fiercely. 
Come here. Who goes there ? 

Rem. l. — Adverbial elements, when they modify the meaning 


of verbs, usually denote some circumstance of time, place, cause, 
degree, or manner. 

Ex. — He calls frequently. There is no night there. Why are you 
angry? The teacher labored faithfully. 

Rem. 2. — Adverbial elements which modify the manner of the 
assertion, and not the predicate itself, are called modal adverbs. 

Ex. — He has not come. Perhaps I shall go. He was absent, prcb 
ably. He will certainly resign. 

169. Models for Analysis. 

XIV. "He is strictly honest." 
This is a sentence; (why?) : declarative; (why?) : simple; (why?). 
He is the subject: (why?): honest is the predicate: (why?). 
The predicate is modified by strictly, an adverbial element. 

XV. " The sun shines brightly." 
This is a sentence; (why?): declarative; (why?): simple; (why?). 
Sun is the subject; (why?): shines is the predicate; (why?). 

The subject is modified by the, an adjective element; the predicate 

by brightly, an adverbial element. 

XVI. "He is not handsome." 
This is a sentence; (why?): declarative; (why?): simple; (why?). 
He is the subject; (why?): handsome is the predicate; (why?). 
The copula is is modified by not, an adverbial element. 

170. Exercises in Analysis. 

1. The birds sing sweetly. 2. We struck the vessel just amid- 
ships. 3. I now demand your votes. 4. He formerly lived here. 
5. The fire went out. 6. He seems very sad. 7. The boy wrote 
the letter carelessly. 8. They have been long absent. 9. I shall 
certainly defend you. 

171. Exercises in Synthesis. 

In the natural order of arrangement, the adverbial ele- 
ment is placed after the word or group of words, it limits. 

Ex. — He denied the charge vehemently. 
H. G. 13. 


Rem. — In inverted order, the adverbial element is placed be- 
tween the subject and predicate, or at the head of the sentence. 

Ex. — He vehemently denied the charge. Vehemently did he deny 
the charge. 

Write seven sentences, limiting the predicates by an adverbial element 
of manner. 

Models. — She writes rapidly. He does his work thoroughly. 

Write seven sentences, limiting the predicates by an adverbial element 
of place. 

Models. — He lives there. Wliere do you live ? 

Write seven sentences, limiting the predicates by an adverbial element 
of time. 
Models. — I was very happy then. When will you come? 

Write seven sentences, limiting the predicates by an adverbial element 
of cause or degree. 

Models. — Why are you sad? The work is scarcely commenced. 

Write seven sentences, limiting the copulas by a modal adverb. 
Models. — He is certainly insane. James is not a truant. 

Write seven sentences, containing adjectives modified by adverbial 


Models. — That tree is very tall. It is a remarkably fine gem. 
Analyze the sentences you have written. 

172. Attendant Elements. 

Attendant or Independent Elements are words or 
expressions not used as principal or subordinate elements of 
the sentences in which they are found. They are, 

1. Nouns and pronouns in the absolute case; as, "Children, 
obey your parents;" "Rome, her glory has departed;" "He having 
arrived, we returned." 

2. Interjections and nouns used in broken exclamations; as. 
"Pshaw, what nonsense!" "Wretched man that I am!" 


3. Expletives, and words used to introduce sentences in a pe- 
culiar way; as, "Now, Barabbas was a robber;" "There is no re- 
port of any disaster;" "It is a shameful thing to tell a lie." 

4. Words used for emphasis merely ; as, " You yourself told me 
so;" "Either he or I will come." 

5. All phrases and clauses which have no perceptible connection 
with the rest of the sentence. 

Rem. — Attendant elements should be omitted in the analysis 
of the sentences containing them. They have no grammatical con- 
nection with other words, except in certain constructions in which 
they are used as antecedents of pronouns. Sometimes the entire 
group of words of which they form a part has the force of an ad- 
verbial element. 

Ex. — "Gad, a troop shall overcome him." The attendant element 
"Gad," is the antecedent of the pronoun "him." "They having left, 
order was restored." The attendant element "they," is connected 
with " having left," and the combination has the force of the adverbial 
clause " after they left." 

173. Words, Phrases, and Clauses. 

1. Elements are divided into three classes: Words, 
Phrases, and Clauses. 

2. An element consisting of a word, is an element of the 
first class. 

Ex. — "A careless boy seldom learns his lesson." In this sen^ 
tence, all the elements are single words, therefore of the first class. 

3. A phrase consisting of an infinitive, or of a prepo- 
sition and its object, is an element of the second class. 

Rem — There are two kinds of phrases: Separable and In- 

A Separable Phrase is one whose words should always be 
parsed separately ; " He rode in a wagon." The three words com- 
posing the phrase "in a wagon," should be parsed separately — 
"in" as a preposition; "a" as an adjective; "wagon" as a noun. 

An inseparable Phrase is one whose words need not be sep- 
arated in parsing; as, "I will come by and by;" "He labors in 


vain," The phrases "by and by" and "in vain" may be parsed 
as single words. All the forms of the infinitive mode are insep- 
arable phrases. 

4. A clause, or subordinate proposition, is an element of 
the third class. 

Ex. — "A man who is indolent will not prosper ;" "I learn that 
you are out of employment" The clauses "who is indolent" and 
" that you are out of employment " are elements of the third class. 

174. Models for Analysis. 

XVII. "Tumultuous murder shook the midnight air." 

This is a sentence; (why?): declarative; (why?): simple; (why?). 

Murder is the subject; (why?): shook is the predicate; (why?). 
The subject, "murder," is modified by tumultuous, an adjective 
element of the first class: the predicate "shook" is modified by air, 
an objective element of the first class: "air" is modified by the and 
midnight, adjective elements of the first class. 

XVIII. "A life of prayer is a life of heaven." 

This is a sentence; (why?): declarative; (why?): simple: (why? 

Life is the subject; (why?): life is the predicate; (why?): is is 
the copula. The subject, " life," is modified by a, an adjective ele- 
ment of the first class, and by of prayer, an adjective element of the 
second class. The predicate, "life," is modified by a, an adjective 
element of the first class, and by of heaven, an adjective element of 
the second class. 

XIX.' "He sold me a farm." 

This is a sentence; (why?): declarative; (why?): simple; (why?). 

He is the subject; (why?): sold is the predicate; (why?). The 
predicate, "sold," is modified by me, an indirect objective element 
of the first class, and by farm, a direct objective element of the first 
class: "farm" is modified by a, an adjective element of the first class. 

XX. " To love is to obey." 
This is a sentence; (why?) : declarative; (why?): simple; (why?). 
To love is the subject; (why?): it is an element of the second 


class : to obey is the predicate ; (why ?) : it is an element of the sec- 
ond class: is is the copula. 

XXI. " Many actions apt to procure fame, are not conducive to our 

ultimate happiness." 

This is a sentence; (why?): declarative; (why?); simple; (why?). 

Actions is the subject; (why?): conducive is the predicate; 
(why?): are is the copula. The subject, " actions," is modified by 
many and apt, adjective elements of the first class: "apt" is modi- 
fied by to procure, an adverbial element of the second class, and 
" to procure," by fame, an objective element of the first class. The 
copula, "are," is modified by not, a modal adverbial element of the 
first class; and the predicate, " conducive," by to happiness, an ad- 
verbial element of the second class, and " happiness," by our and 
ultimate, adjective elements of the first class. 

XXII. "The credulity which has faith in goodness, is a sign of 


This is a sentence; (why?): declarative; (why?): complex; (why?). 
"Credulity is a sign of goodness" is the principal proposition, and 
" which has faith in goodness" the subordinate. 

Credulity is the subject of the principal proposition; (why?): 
sign is the predicate; (why?): is is the copula. The subject, "cre- 
dulity," is modified by the, an adjective element of the first class, 
and by which has faith in goodness, an adjective element of the 
third class: "sign," the predicate, is modified by a, an adjective ele- 
ment of the first class, and by of goodness, an adjective element of 
the second class. Which is the subject of the subordinate propo- 
sition; (why?): has is the predicate ; (why?). The predicate, "has," 
is modified by faith, an objective element of the first class, and by 
in goodness, -an adverbial element of the second class. 

XXIII. "I thought, when I saw you last, that I should never see 

you again." 

This is a sentence; (why?): declarative; (why?): complex; (why?). 
"I thought" is the principal proposition: "when I saw you last" and 
" that I should never see you again" are subordinate propositions. 

I is the subject of the principal proposition; (why?): thought is 
the predicate; (why?). The predicate, "thought," is modified by 
when I saw you last, an adverbial element of the third class, and 
by that I should never see you again, an objective element of 


the third class. I is the subject of the objective clause; (why?): 
should see is the predicate; (why?): "should see" is modified by 
you, an objective element of the first class, and by never and again, 
adverbial elements of the first class. I is the subject of the adverbial 
clause; (why?): saw is the predicate; (why?): "saw" is modified 
by you, an objective element of the first class, and by when and 
last, adverbial elements of the first class. When and that are con- 
nectives, joining the clauses they introduce to "thought." 

175. Exercises in Analysis, 

1. Thou hast uttered cruel words. 2. I bow reverently to thy 
dictates. 3. He shakes the woods on the mountain side. 4. He 
builds a palace of ice where the torrents fall. 5. The panther's 
track is fresh in the snow. 6. Black crags behind thee pierce the 
clear blue sky. 7. Soon rested those who fought. 8. His home 
lay low in the valley. 9. He had a remarkably good view of their 
features. 10. All said that Love had suffered wrong. 11. Heaven 
burns with the descending sun. 12. I will go to-morrow. 

13. How pleasant it is to see the sun ! 14. To doubt the promise 
of a friend is a sin. 15. He wishes to go to the house. 16. It was 
now a matter of curiosity, who the old gentleman was. 17. The 
fires of the bivouac complete what the fires kindled by the battle 
have not consumed. 18. In my daily walks in the country, I was 
accustomed to pass a certain cottage. 19. Toward night, the school- 
master walked over to the cottage where bis little friend lay sick. 

20. I am now at liberty to confess that much which I have heard 
objected to my late friend's writings, was well founded. 21. One 
of his favorite maxims was, that the only way to keep a secret is 
never to let any one suspect that you have one. 22. How his essays 
will read, now they are brought together, is a question for the pub- 
lishers, who have thus ventured to draw out into one piece his 
" weaved-up follies." — Lamb. 

23. Examples may be heaped until they hide 
The rules that they were made to render plain. 

24. Merciful wind, sing me a hoarse, rough song, 
For there is other music made to-night 
That I would fain not hear. 

25. Woe worth the chase ! woe worth the day ! 
That cost thy life, my gallant gray. — Scott. 


176. Exercises in Synthesis. 

Write seven sentences, limiting their subjects by an adjective element of 
the second class. 
Models. — Love of display is a sin. Greed of gain is wrong. 

Write seven sentences, limiting their subjects by an adjective element of 
the third class. 
Model. — The house which you see yonder, belongs to my father. 

Write seven sentences, limiting their predicates by an objective element 
of the second or third class. 

Models. — I wish to remain. He says that he can not walk. 

Write seven sentences, limiting their predicates by an adverbial element 
of the second or third class. 

Models. — I study to learn. I will come when you call me. 

Write seven sentences, introducing attendant elements. 

Model. — I think, my dear friend, that you are mistaken. 

Analyze the sentences you have written. 

177. Simple Elements. 

1. A Simple Element is one which is not restricted 
by: a modifier. 

Ex. — "A rich man;" "A man of wealth;" "A man who is 
rvealthy." The word rich, the phrase of wealth, and the clause 
who is wealthy, are simple adjective elements. 

2. The Grammatical Subject is the simple subject. 

3. The Grammatical Predicate is the simple pred- 

Rem — The same distinction may be made in the other 


178. Models for Complete Analysis, 

XXIV. "To err is human." 

This is a sentence; (why?): declarative; (why?): simple; ^why?). 

To err is the grammatical subject; (why?): liuman is the gram- 
matical predicate; (why?): is is the copula. 

XXV. "I am in haste." 

This is a sentence; (why?) : declarative; (why?) : simple; (why?). 

I is the grammatical subject; (why?): in haste is the grammat- 
ical predicate ; (why ?) : am is the copula. 

179. Exercises. 

1. Banners were waving. 2. To forgive is divine. 3. It is pleas- 
ant to read. 4. Stars have been shining. 5. Weapons were pro- 
cured. 6. To covet is sinful. 7. To quarrel is disgraceful. 8. To 
rob is to plunder. 9. Vessels are in sight. 

180. Complex Elements. 

1. A Complex Element is one which contains a 
leading element, restricted in meaning by one or more 

2. The leading element is called the basis. 

Rem. — The basis determines the class of a complex element. 
If it be of the first, second, or third class, the entire element is said 
to be of the first, second, or third class. 

Ex. — "A very rich raan. !, Very rich is a complex adjective element 
of the first class, modifying "man": rich is the basis, and is modified 
by very, an adverbial element. 

"A man faithful when others were faithless." The words in italics 
form a complex adjective element of the first class, modifying "man": 
faithful is the basis, and is modified by the clause when others were 
faithless, an adverbial element of the third class. 

"He wishes to know who you are," The words in italics form a 
complex objective element of the second class; Iq Jctiqvj is the 6ask J 


and is modified by the clause who you are, an objective element of the 
third class. 

" I like people that listen when I talk" The words in italics form 
a complex adjective element of the third class: that listen is the basis; 
and listen, the predicate, is modified by the clause when I talk, an ad- 
verbial element of the third class. 

3. The Complex or ^Logical Subject is the simple 
subject taken with all its modifiers. 

Rem. 1. — The simple subject, when a noun, may be modified, 

1. By an adjective; as, "Loud reports followed." 

2. By a participle; as, "The hour appointed has come." 

3. By a possessive; as, "George's plan succeeded." 

4. By a noun in the same case; as, "Gay the poet is dead." 

5. By a phrase; as, "A storm of applause followed." 

6. By a clause; as, "Money which I earn is my own." 

Rem. 2. — A subject may have all the preceding modifications 
in the same sentence. 

Rem. 3. — When the simple subject is a pronoun, it may have 
all the modifications of a noun, except that made by a noun or 
pronoun in the possessive case. 

Rem. 4 — An infinitive or participial noun, used as a subject, 
may be modified (1) as a noun, by a word, phrase, or clause in 
the nominative case, in apposition with it; (2) as a verb, by the 
modifiers of a verb. 

4. The Complex or ^Logical Predicate is the sim- 
ple predicate taken with all its modifiers. 

Rem. l. — The simple predicate, when a verb, may be modified, 

1. If transitive, by an object; as, " He saves money." 

2. By an adverb; as, "The horse runs swiftly" 

3. By a phrase; as, "He lives in Troy;" "He studies to learn." 

4. By a clause; as, "He knows where the mushrooms grow" 

Rem. 2. — When the predicate is an adjective, a participle, a 
noun, or any thing used as a noun, it may have all the modifica- 
tions of the part of speech with which it is classed. 


Rem. 3. — The copula is modified by modal adverbs and adverbs 
of time only. 

Rem. 4. — A predicate may have all the modifications given 
above in the same sentence. 

5. A Complex Objective Element is the simple 
object taken with all its modifiers. 

item. — A complex objective element may be, 

1. A word, modified by words, phrases, or clauses; as, "We 
found much gold;" " He owns the house on the hill; 99 "I love those 
who are frank 99 

2. A phrase, modified by single words, phrases, or clauses; as, 
"He desires to learn rapidly ;" "He desires to learn to write;" "He 
desires to repeat what he has heard" 

3. A clause, some part of which is modified by another clause ; 
as, " I said that he was present when the assault was made" 

6. A Complex Adjective Element is the simple 
adjective element taken with all its modifiers. 

Rem. — A complex adjective element may be, 

1. An adjective, modified by an adverb ; as, " A very large lot." 

2. A participle, with all the modifiers of a verb; as, "The 
young man was seen clandestinely entering a dram-shop" 

3. A noun or pronoun, with the modifications of a noun or 
pronoun ; as, "Mr. Elder 9 s house ;" " Thompson, the faithful guar- 
dian of our cousins;" "Our own dear native land." 

4. A phrase, modified by a word, phrase, or clause; as, "A 
time to make friends ;" , u k. time to learn to write;" "A time to 
repeat what you have learned." 

5. A clause, some part of which is modified by another clause ; 
as, "A man who is angry whenever his views are controverted." 

7. A Complex Adverbial Element is the simple 
adverbial element taken with all its modifiers. 

Rem. — A complex adverbial element may be, 

1. An adverb, modified by a single word, phrase, or clause; as, 
"We rode very rapidly;" " It is too badly done to last;" "He spoke 
so indistinctly that we could not understand him." 


2. A phrase, modified by a single word, phrase, or clause; as, 
"I am ready to begin the work;" "I shall be ready to commence 
work by daylight:" "I am ready to go wherever duty calls me." 

3. A clause, some part of which is modified by another clause ; 
as, "He is afraid that you will not return before he leaves" 

181. Models for Complete Analysis. 

XXVI. "A lad, made orphan by a winter shipwreck, played among 

the waste." 

This is a sentence; (why?): declarative; (why?): simple; (why?). 

"A lad, made orphan by a winter shipwreck" is the logical subject, 
and "played among the waste " is the logical predicate. 

I*ad is the grammatical subject; (why?): played is the grammat- 
ical predicate; (why?). The subject, "lad," is modified by a, a sim- 
ple adjective element of the first class, and by made orphan by a 
winter shipwreck, a complex adjective element of the first class. 
" Made orphan," the basis, is modified by by a winter snip wreck, 
an adverbial element of the second class: "shipwreck" is modified 
by a and winter, adjective elements of the first class. 

The predicate, " played," is modified by among the waste, an 
adverbial element of the second class; and "waste" by the, an ad- 
jective element of the first class. " Made orphan " is an abridged 
proposition, equivalent to "that was made an orphan." 

XXVII. "He who does as he lists, without regard to the wishes of 
others, will soon cease to do well." 

This is a sentence; (why?): declarative; (why?): complex; (why?). 

61 He will soon cease to do well" is the principal proposition: "who does 
as he lists, without regard to the wishes of others" the complex sub- 
ordinate proposition. 

"He who does as he lists, without regard to the wishes of others" is the 
logical subject, and "will soon cease to do well" the logical predicate. 

He is the grammatical subject of the principal proposition; 
(why?): will cease is the predicate. The subject "he," is modified 
by who does as he lists, &c, a complex adjective element of the 
third class. 

Who is the subject of this dependent proposition; (why?): does 
is the predicate; (why?): "does" is modified by as he lists, an ad- 
verbial element of the third class ; of which as is the connective, he is 


the subject, and lists is the predicate; also by without regard to 
the wishes of others, a complex adverbial element of the second 
class, of which regard is modified by to the wishes of others, a 

complex adjective element of the second class. Wishes is modified 
by the, an adjective element of the first class, and by of others, an 
adjective element of the second class. 

"Will cease," the predicate, is modified by soon, an adverbial 
element of the first class, and by to do well, a complex objective 
\element of the second class; of which, to do, the basis, is modified by 
well, an adverbial element of the first class, 

182. Exercises. 

1. God's balance, watched by angels, is hung across the sky. 2. 
My eyes pursued him far away among the honest shoulders of the 
crowd. 3. Nothing is law that is not reason. 4. Vice itself lost 
half its evil by losing all its grossness. 5. There is a limit at which 
forbearance ceases to be a virtue, 6. If ye love me, keep my com- 
mandments. 7. Were I not Diogenes, I would be Alexander. 8. 
Unless he reforms soon, he is a ruined man. 9< Except ye repent, 
ye shall all likewise perish. 

10. Withdraw thy foot from thy neighbor's house, lest he weary 
of thee, and so hate thee. 11. I am quite sure that Mr. Hutchins 
rode through the village this morning. 12. Seest thou a man wise 
in his own conceit? There is more hope of a fool than of him. 
13. He spake as one having authority. 14. He never has a lesson, 
because he is too lazy to study. 15. Not many generations ago, 
where you now sit, the rank thistle nodded in the wind. 16. Do 
not forget to write when you reach home. 17. Even by means of 
our sorrows, we belong to the eternal plan. 

18. The gentleman who was dressed in brown-once-black, had a 
sort of medico-theological exterior, which we afterward found to 
be representative of the inward man. 

19. Multitudes of little floating clouds, 

Ere we, who saw, of change, were conscious, pierced 
Through their ethereal texture, had become 
Vivid as fire. — Wordsworth. 

20. Honest work for the day, honest hope for the morrow : 
Are these worth nothing more than the hand they make weary, 
The heart they have saddened, the life they leave dreary? 


183. Compound Elements. 

A Compound Element consists of two or more inde- 
pendent simple or complex elements, joined by coordinate 

Ex. — The moon and stars are shining. You may go or stay. 

Rem. — All the elements of a sentence may be compound. 

184. Models for Complete Analysis. 

XXVIII. " Industry, honesty, and economy generally insure success." 
This is a sentence; (why?): declarative; (why?): simple; (why?). 

"Industry, honesty , and economy" is the logical subject: "generally 
insure success" is the logical*predicate. 

Industry, honesty, and economy is the compound grammat- 
ical subject; (why?): insure is the grammatical predicate; (why?). 
The subject is not modified. The predicate, "insure," is modified by 
generally, an adverbial element of the first class, and by success, 
an objective element of the first class. 

XXIX. "The charities that soothe, and heal, and bless, 
Are scattered at the feet of man like flowers." 

This is a sentence; (why?): declarative; (why?): complex; (why?). 
Name the principal and the subordinate clause. 

"The charities that soothe, and heal, and bless" is the logical subject: 
"Are scattered at the feet of man like flowers" is the logical predicate. 

Charities is the grammatical subject of the principal proposition ; 
(why?): are scattered is the grammatical predicate; (why?). The 
subject, " charities," is modified by the, an adjective element of the 
first class, and by that soothe, and heal, and bless, an adjective 
element of the third class; of which that is the subject, and soothe, 
and heal, and Mess is the compound predicate; and being the 

The predicate, "scattered," is modified (1) by at the feet of man, 
a complex adverbial element of the second class; of which "feet," 
is modified by the, an adjective element of the first class, and by 
of man, an adjective element of the second class ; (2) by like flowers, 
an adverbial element of the second class. 


185. Exercises. 

1. Exercise and temperance strengthen the constitution. 2. 
Youth is bright and lovely. 3. He is neither old nor infirm. 4. He 
is not angry, but excited. 5. They wash, iron, cook, eat, and sleep 
in the same room. 6. I want to be quiet, and to be let alone. 7. 
The book which I loaned you, and which you lost, was a present 
from my father. 8. To live in a fine house and drive fast horses is 
the height of his ambition. 

9. All the girls were in tears and white muslins, except a select 
two or three, who were being honored with a private .view of the 
bride and bridesmaids, up stairs. 

10. There was another tap at the door — a smart, potential tap, 
which seemed to say, " Here I am, and in I J m coming." 

11. Not a truth has to art or to science been given, 

But brows have ached for it, and souls toiled and striven. 


186. Classification of Phrases. 

1. Complex elements of the first and second classes, and 
abridged propositions, are sometimes called phrases. 

Rem. — The basis of the element, the manner in w r hich it mod- 
ifies, the connective, or the leading word, determines the name of 
the phrase. 

2. Phrases may be, 

1. Appositive ; as, " Washington, the father of his country J 1 

2. Adjective; as, "A man, tenacious of principle." 

3. Adverbial ; as, " He lives just round the corner" 

4. Prepositional ; as, " We walked on the bank of the river" 

5. Infinitive; as, "He hoped to receive a telegram." 

6. Participial ; as, "Being unwell, he remained at home." 

7. Absolnte; as, "He being sich, I remained." 

8. Independent; as, "0 my ducats!" 

Rem. 1. — The infinitive, or participial phrase, when used as 


subject, is called the Subject Phrase: when used as predicate, the 
Predicate Phrase, 

Rem. 2. — The absolute phrase is an abridged proposition. It 
usually modifies the predicate of the sentence of which it forms a 
part, but may modify the subject and predicate combined. 

187. Classification of Clauses. 

Clauses are classified with reference to their use or 
position in sentences. They are, 

1. The Subject clause: a proposition used as the subject of a 
sentence; as, "How the accident occurred, is not known." 

2. The Predicate Clause: a proposition used as the predicate 
of a sentence; as, "The question is, How did he obtain the 

3. The Relative Clause: a dependent proposition introduced 
by a relative pronoun; as, "The vessel which you see yonder, is a 

4. The Appositive Clause: a proposition put in apposition 
with a noun; as, "The question, Are we a nation? is now an- 

5. The Interrogative Clause : a proposition introduced by an 
interrogative word; as, "Who said so?" " What vessel is that?" 
"Where do you live?" 

6. The Objective Clause: a proposition used as an objective 
element; as, "The chairman declared that the motion was lost" 

7. The Adverbial Clause: a proposition used as an adverbial 
element; as, "I will pay you when I receive my week's wages." 

Rem. l. — Subject, predicate, and objective clauses are used as 

Rem. 2. — Relative clauses are either restrictive or explanatory. 
If restrictive, the antecedent is usually modified by a, the, or that; 
as, "The vessel which capsized, was a bark." If explanatory, the 
antecedent is not so modified ; as, " Steamships, which are a modern 
invention, make quick voyages." 

A proposition introduced by a compound relative is frequently 
equivalent to an adverbial element; as, "He will succeed, whoever 
may oppose him." 


Rem. 3. — Interrogative clauses may be introduced by interrog- 
ative pronouns, interrogative adjectives, or interrogative adverbs. 

i>irect and indirect questions are asked by means of principal 
propositions; as, "Is he honest ?" "Whose book is that?" 

indefinite questions are asked by means of subordinate propo- 
sitions; as, " I do not know whose book that is." 

The disjunctive or, correlative with whether, connects the parts 
of a double indirect question ; as, " I do not know whether I shall 
go or stay" 

Rem. 4. — Adverbial clauses may be classified as follows : 

1. Temporal: dependent clauses denoting time; as, "I was ab- 
sent when the accident occurred" 

2. Local: dependent clauses denoting place; as, "Go where 
duty calls thee" 

3. Causal: dependent clauses denoting cause; as, "He is be- 
loved, for he is good." 

4. Final: dependent clauses denoting a purpose or a result; 
as, "We came that we might assist you;" "Love not sleep, lest thou 
come to poverty." 

5. Comparative: dependent clauses, expressing comparison; 
as, "He is older than I [am] ;" "Men generally die as they live." 

6. Conditional : dependent clauses modifying propositions con- 
taining deductions or conclusions; as, "He will be ruined, unless he 
reform; " " I would pay you, if I could." 

7. Concessive : dependent clauses denoting a concession or ad- 
mission; as, " Though he slay me, yet will I trust in him." 

Rem. 5. — Two clauses which mutually qualify are called cor- 
relative ; as, " The deeper the well, the cooler the water." 

188. Exercises. 

v% Classify the phrases and clauses in the following sentences: 

1. No one came to his assistance. 2. He were no lion, were not 
Romans hinds. 3. I would that ye all spake with tongues. 4. Thou 
shalt love thy neighbor as thyself. 5. Launch thy bark, mariner ! 
6. He made them give up their spoils. 7. Go quickly, that you 
may meet them. 

8. Voltaire, who might have seen him, speaks repeatedly of his 


majestic stature. 9. The French, a mighty people, combined for 
the regeneration of Europe. 10. Not many generations ago, where 
you now sit, circled with all that exalts and embellishes civilized life, 
the rank thistle nodded in the wind, and the wild fox dug his hole 

11. Very few men, properly speaking, live at present: most are 
preparing to live another time. 12. I lisped in numbers, for the 
numbers came. 13. While the bridegroom tarried, they all slum- 
bered and slept. 14. Study nature, whose laws and phenomena 
are all deeply interesting. 15. Its qualities exist, since they are 
known, and are known because they exist. 16. At ten o'clock, my 
task being finished, I went down to the river. 

17. Some say, that ever 'gainst that season comes 
Wherein our Savior's birth is celebrated, 
This bird of warning singeth all night long : 
And then no spirit dares stir abroad ; 
The nights are wholesome : then no planets strike, 
No fairy takes, nor witch hath power to charm, 
So hallowed and so gracious is the time. — Shakspeare. 


Sentences are contracted by ellipsis, abridgment, or by 
substituting a different expression. 

Rem. — The object of contraction is to secure conciseness of 
expression by means of brevity in the construction of sentences. 

189. Ellipsis. 

1. Ellipsis is the omission of one or more words of a 
sentence. The words omitted are said to be understood. 

Rem. — If required in analysis or parsing, the words omitted 
must be supplied. 

2. A Simple Sentence is contracted by omitting all, 
or nearly all, but the most important part. 

1. The subject may be omitted; as, " Come " == Come thou, or 
do thou come. 

H. G. 14. 


2. The predicate may be omitted; as, "Who will go? He [will 
go]: 9 "I'll [go] hence to London ;" "Ye are Christ's [dis- 

3. Both subject and predicate may be omitted ; as, " Water ! " = 
Give me some water ; " Forward ! " = March ye forward. 

4. The object may be omitted; as, "Whose book have you? 
John's "==I have John's book. 

5. The neuter verb to be, in all its forms, may be omitted; as, 
"Where now [are] her glittering towers?" "A professed Catholic, 
he imprisoned the Pope" = Being a professed Catholic, &c. ; "Eng- 
land's friend, Ireland's foe " = To be England's friend is to be Ire- 
land's foe. 

6. Prepositions and conjunctions may be omitted ; as, " Build 
[for] me here seven altars;" "Woe is [to] me;" "I know [that] 
you are honest;" "Each officer, [and] each private did his duty." 

7. A simple sentence, whose subject or predicate is a propo- 
sition, may be contracted by changing the proposition to an infin- 
itive or participial phrase; as, "That I may remain here, is my 
desire " == To remain here is my desire ; " My desire is, that I may 
remain here " = My desire is, to remain here. 

3. A Compound Sentence may be contracted by 
uniting the parts not common to all its members, and using 
the common parts but once. 

Ex. — "Exercise strengthens the constitution, and temperance 
strengthens the constitution "= Exercise and temperance strengthen 
the constitution. " Behold my mother and behold my brethren" == 
Behold my mother and my brethren. 

190. Exercises. 

Tell what parts are omitted in the following sentences: 

1. Advance. 2. Up, comrades, up. 3. Quick, quick, or we are 
lost. 4. Honest, my lord? 5. Impossible ! 6. This done, we in- 
stantly departed. 7. Thou denied a grave ! 8. What would con- 
tent you? Talent? 9. How, now, Jenkinson? 10. A rope to the 
side! 11. Rather he, than I. 12. The orphan of St. Louis, he 
became the adopted child of the Republic. 

Compound Subjects. — 1. Wisdom, judgment, prudence, and 
firmness, were his predominant traits. 2. To love God and to do 


good to men are the leading purposes of every Christian. 3. 
That the climate of the northern hemisphere has changed, and that 
its mean temperature nearly resembled that of the tropics, is the 
opinion of many naturalists. 

Compound Predicates. — 1. Rural employments are certainly 
natural, amusing, and healthy. 2. Education expands and ele- 
vates the mind. 3. His excuse was, that the roads were very bad, 
that the supply train could not be brought up, and that the army 
was not well enough equipped for offensive operations. 

Compound Objective Elements. — 1. He had a good mind, a 
sound judgment, and a vivid imagination. 2. Learn to labor and 
to wait. 3. The writings of the sages show that the best empire is 
self-government, and that subduing our passions is the noblest of 

Compound Adjective Elements. — 1. He is a good, faithful, 
and generous boy. 2. I am not the advocate of indolence and 
improvidence. 3. The chastity of honor, which felt a stain like a 
wound, which inspired courage while it mitigated ferocity, which 
ennobled whatever it touched, and under which vice itself lost half 
its evil by losing its grossness, is gone. 

Compound Adverbial Elements. — 1. Man is fearfully and 
wonderfully made. 2. During our voyage, we whiled away our 
time in reading, in writing a journal, and in studying navigation. 
3. When public bodies are to be addressed on momentous occa- 
sions, when great interests are at stake, and strong passions excited, 
nothing is valuable in speech further than it is connected with 
high intellectual and moral endowments. 

191. Abridgment. 


1. Complex Sentences are often changed into simple 
sentences by abridging their subordinate clauses. 

2. Contracted clauses are called abridged propositions. 

Ex. — "We came that ve might assist you" = We came to assist 
you. "I believe that he is honest" = I believe him to be holiest 

Rem. — There is an essential difference between a sentence 
shortened by ellipsis and an abridged proposition. In the former, 
the omitted words are clearly implied, and must be restored before 


the sentence can be analyzed or parsed : in the latter, an equiva- 
lent expression is substituted for an entire proposition. The pred- 
icate is always retained, but is used as an assumed attribute, the 
assertion being wholly omitted. 

3. To abridge a subordinate clause, 

1st. Drop the subject, if it be already expressed in the principal 
clause : if not, retain it changing its case to the possessive, object- 
ive, or absolute. 

2d. Drop the connective, and change the copula or verbal pred- 
icate to a participle or an infinitive. 

Rem. 1. — The abridged form of an adjective clause is a par- 
ticipial, infinitive, or prepositional phrase. 

Ex. — "Our friends who live in the city 11 = Our friends living in the 
dty — Our friends in the city. "A book that may amuse you" = A 
book to amuse you. 

Rem. 2 — The abridged form of an adverbial clause is a par- 
ticipial, infinitive, prepositional, or absolute phrase. 

Ex. — "When we heard the explosion, we hastened to the spot" = 
Hearing the explosion, we hastened, &c. ; "I attend school that I may 
learn" = I attend school to learn; "If he be economical, he will become 
rich" = He will become rich by being economical; "When the soldiers 
arrived, the mob dispersed "=The soldiers having arrived, &c. 

Rem. 3. — The abridged form of an objective clause is an infin- 
itive phrase. 

Ex. — "We wish that you would stay" = We wish you to stay. "I 
thought that he was a merchant" = I thought him to be a merchant. 

Rem. 4. — Abridged propositions retain the logical construction 
of the clauses which they represent: i. c, abridged adjective, ad- 
verbial, or objective clauses become, respectively, adjective, adverb- 
ial, or objective phrases. 

192. Model for Analysis. 

XXX. "The shower having passed, we resumed our journey." 

This is a sentence; (why?): declarative; (why?): simple; (why?). , 

We is the subject; (why?): resumed is the grammatical, and 

resume:! our journey, the shower having: passed, is the logical 

predicate. "Resumed" is modified by journey, an objective element 


of the first class, which is modified by oar, an adjective element of 
the first class. " Resumed" is also modified by the absolute phrase, 
the shower having' passed, an abridged proposition, equivalent to 
"when the shower had passed." "Shower" is modified by the and 
having passed, adjective elements of the first class. 

193. Exercises. 

Analyze the following sentences, giving equivalent clauses for the 
abridged propositions: 

1. Caesar having crossed the Kubicon, Pompey prepared for 
battle. 2. Having accumulated a large fortune, he retired from 
business. 3. Being but dust, be humble and wise. 4. Judging 
from his dress, I should pronounce him an artisan. 

5. I believe him to be an honest man. 6. There is no hope of 
his recovering his health. 7. There is no prospect of the storm's 
abating. 8. Having been detained by this accident, he lost the 
opportunity of seeing them. 

194. Directions for Analysis. 

I. — In analyzing, 

1. Eead the sentence. 

2. Determine from its form and use, whether it is declarative, 
interrogative, imperative, or exclamatory. 

3. Determine whether it is simple, complex, or compound. 

4. Arrange all the parts in natural order. 

5. If necessary for analysis or parsing, supply all ellipses. 

II. — If it is a simple sentence, 

1. Point out the logical subject and logical predicate. 

2. Point out the grammatical subject and grammatical predicate. 

3. Determine whether the subject is simple, complex, or com- 
pound; and when complex, point out and classify its modifiers 
with their qualifications. 

4. Determine whether the predicate is simple, complex, or com- 
pound; and when complex, point out and classify (1) its objective 
modifiers, (2) its adverbial modifiers, with their qualifications. 


5, Point out the attendant elements, and all the connectives. 

III. — If it is a complex sentence, 

1. Analyze the principal clause as in (II). 

2. Analyze the subordinate clause or clauses as in (II). 

IV. — If it is a compound sentence, each member should be 
analyzed as a simple or complex sentence, as in (II) 
or (III). 


V. — 1. If an element is a single word, it is completely reduced. 

2. If an element is a phrase or a clause, determine, 

a. The connective, and the parts it joins. 

b. In a phrase, determine the antecedent and subsequent 
terms of relation of the preposition. 

c. In a clause, point out the subject and predicate. 

3. If an element is complex, 

a. Eeduce it to simple elements. 

b. First point out the basis of each complex element, then the 
others in their order. 

4. If an element is compound, 

a. Separate it into its component simple elements. 

b. Point out and classify the connective which joins them. 

c. Dispose of each element separately, as in (1) and (2) above. 

Rem. — The sentence being reduced by analysis to the parts of 
speech of which it is composed, let the teacher select such words 
as should be parsed, and instruct his pupils how to dispose of them 
according to the " models for parsing." 

195. Model for Complete Analysis. 

XXXI. "The patriot, whom the corrupt tremble to see arise, may 
well feel a grateful satisfaction in the mighty power which heaven 
has delegated to him, when he thinks that he has used it for those 
purposes only which heaven approves." 

This is a sentence; (why?): declarative; (why?): complex; (why?). 
It is composed of six clauses. The principal clause is, 


The patriot may well feel a grateful satisfaction in the mighty power. 
The subordinate clauses are, 

1. Whom the corrupt tremble to see arise; 

2. Which heaven has delegated to him; 

3. When he thinks; 

4. That he has used it for those purposes only ; 

5. Which heaven approves, 

"Patriot" is the subject of the principal clause; "may feel" is the 
predicate. — - 

The subject, "patriot," is modified (1) by "the" an adjective ele- 
ment of the first class, and (2) by "whom the corrupt tremble to see 
aiise" an adjective element of the third class; of which "whom" is 
the connective, "corrupt" is the subject, and "tremble" is the predicate. 
"Corrupt" is modified by "the" an adjective element of the first class: 
"tremble" is modified by "to see" an adverbial element of the second 
class; which is modified by "whom," an objective element of the first 
class, and "whom" is modified by "[to"] arise" an adjective element of 
the second class. 

The predicate, "may feel '," is modified (1) by "well" an adverbial 
element of the first class: (2) by "satisfaction" an objective element 
of the first class; which is modified by "a" and "grateful" adjective 
elements of the first class: and (3) by "in the mighty power which 
heaven has delegated to him" an adverbial element of the second class; 
of which "in power" is the basis, "in" is the connective, and "power" 
is the object. "Power" is modified (1) by "the" and "mighty" adject- 
ive elements of the first class: (2) by "which heaven has delegated to 
him" an adjective element of the third class; of which "which" is the 
connective, "heaven" is the subject, and "has delegated" is the predi- 
cate: " has delegated" is modified (1) by "which" an objective element 
of the first class: (2) by "to him" an adverbial element of the second 
class; of which "to" is the connective, and "him" is the object. 

"May feel" is modified (4) by "when he thinks" <&c, an adverbial ele- 
ment of the third class; of which "when" is the connective, "he" is 
the subject, and "thinks" is the predicate. "Thinks" is modified by 
"that he. has used it" &c, an objective element of the third class; of 
which "that" is the connective, "he" is the subject, and "has used" 
is the predicate. "Has used" is modified (1) by "it" an objective 
element of the first class: (2) by "for those purposes only" &c, an ad- 
verbial element of the second class; of which "for purposes" is the 
basis, "for" is the connective, and "purposes" is the object. "Pur- 
poses" is modified (1) by "those" and "only" adjective elements of 
the first class: and (2) by "which heaven approves" an adjective ele- 


ment of the third class; of which "which" is the connective, "heaven" 
is the subject, and "approves" is the predicate. "Approves" is modi- 
fied by "which" an objective element of the first class. 

196. Brief Method of Analysis. 

"Patriot" is the subject; "may feel" is the predicate. 

The subject, "patriot" is modified (1) by "the" an adjective ele- 
ment of the first class, and (2) by "whom the corrupt tremble to see 
arise" an adjective element of the third class. 

The predicate, "may feel" is modified (1) by "well" an adverbial 
element of the first class, denoting manner: (2) by "a grateful satisfac- 
tion" a complex objective element of the first class: (3) by "in the 
mighty power which .... him" a complex adverbial element of the 
second class: and (4) by "when he thinks ..... approves" a complex 
adverbial element of the third class, denoting time. 

197. Miscellaneous Examples, 

1. Hypocrisy is a sort of homage that vice pays to virtue. 

2. The gods have set a price on every real and noble pleasure. 

3. He was a very young boy ; quite a little child. 4. It has all the 
contortions of the sibyl, without the inspiration. — Burke. 

5. "Well, what is it?" said my lady Brook. 6. Suddenly the 
watch gave the alarm of "A sail ahead ! " 7. He saw a star shoot 
from heaven, and glittering in its fall, vanish upon the earth. 8. 
Sweet are thy murmurs, O stream! — Ossian. 

9. Their slumbers are sound, and their wakings cheerful. 10. 
We, one day descried some shapeless object floating at a distance. 
11. And behold there came a voice unto him, and said, What dost 
thou here, Elijah? — Bible. 

12. I passed the house many successive days. 13. He wore an 
ample cloak of black sheep's wool, which, having faded into a dull 
brown, had been refreshed by an enormous patch of the original 
color. His countenance was that of the faded part of his cloak. — 

14. The line which bisects the vertical angle of a triangle, divides 
the base into segments proportional to the adjacent sides. 15. He 
is so good, he is good for nothing. 16. The clouds are divided in 
heaven : over the green hills flies the inconstant sun : red, through 
the stony vale, comes down the stream of the hills. — Ossian. 


17. The accusing angel flew up to Heaven's chancery with the 
oath, and blushed as he gave it in. And the recording angel, as 
he wrote it down, dropped a tear on the word, and blotted it out 
forever. — Sterne. 

18. In the awful mystery of human life, it is a consolation some- 
times to believe that our mistakes, perhaps even oar sins, are per- 
mitted to be instruments of our education for immortality. 19. 
Even if his criticisms had been uniformly indulgent, the position 
of the nobles and leading citizens, thus subjected to a constant, but 
secfet superintendence, would have been too galling to be tol- 
erated. — Motley. 

20. No ax had leveled the giant progeny of the crowded groves, 
in which the fantastic forms of withered limbs, that had been 
blasted and riven by lightning, contrasted strangely with the 
verdant freshness of a younger growth of branches. — Bancroft 

21. The sun was now resting his huge disk upon the edge of the 
level ocean, and gilding the accumulation of clouds through which 
he had traveled the livelong day; and which now assembled on all 
sides, like misfortunes and disasters around a sinking empire and 
falling monarch. — Scott. 

22. It is, therefore, a certain and a very curious fact, that the 
representative, at this time, of any great whig family, who probably 
imagines that he is treading in the footsteps of his forefathers, in 
reality, while adhering to their party names, is acting against 
almost every one of their party principles. — Lord Mahon. 

23. Rivers will always have one shingly shore to .play over, where 
they may be shallow, and foolish, and childlike ; and another steep 
shore, under which they can pause, and purify themselves, and get 
their strength of waves fully together for due occasion. — Ruslcin. 

24. I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the sea-shore, 
and diverting myself in now and then finding a smoother pebble 
or a prettier shell than ordinary, whilst the great ocean of truth lay 
all undiscovered before me. — Newton. 

25. We 're nettles, some of us, 

And give offense by the act of springing up. — Browning. 

26. The twilight deepened round us. Still and black 
The great woods climbed the mountain at our back. 

27. May God forgive the child of dust 

Who seeks to know where Faith should frvst — Whittier. 
H. G. K>. 


28. Better far 
Pursue a. frivolous trade by serious means, 
Than a sublime art frivolously. 

29. With grave 
Aspect he rose, and in his rising seemed 

A pillar of state ; deep on his front engraven, 
Deliberation sat, and public care; 
And princely counsel in his face yet shone, 
Majestic, though in ruin. — Milton. 

30. Summer's dun cloud, that, slowly rising, holds 
The sweeping tempest in its rising folds, 
Though o'er the ridges of its thundering breast, 
The King of Terrors lifts his lightning crest, 
Pleased Ave behold, when those dark folds we find 
Fringed with the golden light that glows behind. — Pierpont. 

31. Near yonder copse, where once the garden smiled, 
And still where many a garden flower grows wild, 
There, where a few torn shrubs the place disclose, 
The village preacher's modest mansion rose, 

A man he was to all the country dear, 

And passing rich with forty pounds a year. — Goldsmith, 

32. As when upon a tranced summer night 
Those green-robed senators of mighty woods, 
Tall oaks, branch-charmed by the earnest stars, 
Dream, and so dream all night without a stir, 
Save from one gradual, solitary gust, 

Which comes upon the silence, and dies off, 
As if the ebbing air had but one wave: 
So came these words, and went. — Keats. 

33. When Freedom, from her mountain height, 

Unfurled her standard to the air, 
She tore the azure robe of night 

And set the stars of glory there. 
She mingled with its gorgeous dyes 
The milky baldric of the skies, 
And striped its pure, celestial white, 
With streakings of the morning light. — Drake. 



Rule I. — The subject of a proposition is in the nom- 
inative case. 

Rule II. — A noun or pronoun, used as the predicate 
of a proposition, is in the nominative case. 

Rule III.— A noun or pronoun, used to limit the 
meaning of a noun denoting a different person or thing, 
is in the possessive case. 

Rule IV.— A noun or pronoun, used to limit the mean- 
ing of a noun or pronoun denoting the same person or thing, 
is in the same case. 

Rule V. — A noun or pronoun, used independently, is in 
the absolute case. 

Rule VI. — The object of a transitive verb, in the active 
voice, or of its participles, is in the objective case. 

Rule VII. — The object of a preposition is in the ob- 
jective case. 

Rule VIII. — Nouns denoting time, distance, measure, 
or value, after verbs and adjectives, are in the objective case 
without a governing word. 

Rule IX. — Pronouns must agree with their antecedents 
in person, gender, and number. 

Rule X. — A pronoun, with two or more antecedents in 
the singular, connected by. and, must be plural. 

Rule XI. — A pronoun, with two or more antecedents 
in the singular, connected by or or nor, must be singular. 

Rule XII. — An adjective or participle belongr to ~ome 
noun or pronoun. 


Rule XIII. — A verb must agree with its subject in 
person and number. 

Rule XIV. — A verb, with two or more subjects in the 
singular, connected by and, must be plural. 

Rule XT. — A verb, with ..two or more subjects in the 
singular, connected by or or nor, must be singular. 

Rule XVIo — An infinitive may be used as a noun in 
any case except the possessive. 

Rule XVII*. — An infinitive not used as a noun, de- 
pends upon the word it limits, or which leads to its use. 

Rule XVIIIo — Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, par- 
ticiples, and adverbs. 

Rule XIX. — A preposition shows the relation of its 
object to the word upon which the latter depends. 

Rule XX. — Co5rdinate connectives join similar ele- 

Rule XXI. — Subordinate connectives join dissimilar 

Rule XXII. — An interjection has no dependence upon 
other words. 

198. Subject-Nominative. 

Rule I. — The subject of a proposition is in the nom- 
inative case. 

Rem. l. — Any thing that may be used as a noun may be the 
subject; as, "A is a vowel;" "To lie is base;" "What time he took 
orders doth not appear." 

Rem. 2. — The subject generally precedes the predicate, but is 
placed after it, or the first auxiliary, (1) When a wish is expressed 
by the potential ; as, "May you prosper:" (2) When if or though, 
denoting a supposition, is suppressed; as, "Had they been wise, 



they would have listened to me:" (3) When the verb is in the 
imperative mode, or is used interrogatively; as, "Best ye;" "Why 
do you persist?" 

Rem. 3. — The subject of the imperative mode is usually omitted ; 
as, "Depart ! " "Shut the door." It is also omitted after while, when, 
if, though, or than, when the verb is made one of the terms of a 
comparison; as, "He talks while [he is] writing;" "He is kind 
ivhen [he is] sober;" "I will come, if [it be] possible;" "They are 
honest, though [they are] poor;" "He has more knowledge than 
[he has] wisdom." 

To be corrected and parsed. 

1. Him and me study grammar. 2. I never saw larger horses 
than them are. 3. Me and John sit together. 4. I knowed it as 
well as him or her. 5. Whom besides I do you suppose got a prize? 
6. I am as tall as he, but she is taller than him. 7. Whom do you 
suppose has come to visit us? 8. We sorrow not as them that 
have no hope. 

9. Thrice is he armed who hath his quarrel just; and him but 
naked, though locked up in steel, whose conscience with injustice 
is corrupted. 10. Them are the fellows that stoled your apples. 
11. Who wants an orange? — Me. 12. No other pupil is so stu- 
dious as her. 13. He is older than me. 14. I know not whom 
else are expected. 15. None of his companions is more beloved 
than him. 

199. Predicate-Nominative. 

Rule II. — A noun or pronoun, used as the predicate 
of a proposition, is in the nominative case. 

Rem. i. — The predicate-nominative denotes the same person or 
thing as the subject; and must agree with it in case, and usually 
in gender and number. It may be any thing that may be used as 
a noun; as, "That letter is B ;" "To work is to pray;" "The 
command was, 'Storm the fort at daybreak.'" 

Rem. 2 — In questions, and when the predicate is emphatically 
distinguished, the subject and predicate change places; as, " ]Vho 
is that man?" "Are you the ticket agent?" "His pavilion round 
about him were dark waters and thick clouds of the sky." 


Rem; 3. — The neuter pronoun it, as subject, may represent a 
noun or pronoun of any person, number, or gender, as predicate; 
as, "It is I;" "It was you;" "It is Sarah." 

To be corrected and parsed. 

1. It is me. 2. It was her and him who you saw. 3. If I were 
him, I would go to Europe. 4. Whom do you say they were? 
5. I do not know whom they are. 

6. It was not me nor him who played truant. 7. It is not them 
who are to blame. 8. I disbelieve it to be he. 9. I have no doubt 
of its being them. 

200. Possessive Case. 

Rule III. — A noun or pronoun, used to limit the 
meaning of a noun denoting a different person or thing, is 
in the possessive case. 

Rem. i. — The possessive term is always an adjective element. 
It may limit a noun of any class or form, or a participial phrase ; 
as, "Our houses;" "0 my ducats!" "Our country's welfare;" "All 
their dearest hopes were blasted;" "His being a foreigner should 
not induce us to underrate him." 

Rem. 2. — The relation of possession may be expressed by the 
preposition of, with the objective; as, "My friend's house " = The 
house of my friend. This form should be used when two or more 
nouns in the possessive would otherwise come together; as, "My 
friend's father's house " = The house of my friend's father. 

Rem. 3. — The limited noun is sometimes omitted; as, "This 
house is the doctor's [house]." "We visited St. Paul's [church]." 
"This is a farm of my father's [farms]." 

Rem. 4 — The limited noun need not be plural because the pos- 
sessive is plural; as, " Their judgment is good;" " Our decision is 
made;" "The women's hope failed." 

Rem. 5. — When a noun is put in apposition with a noun or 
pronoun in the possessive case, the sign maybe omitted; as, "This 
was Webster's opinion, the most eminent lawyer in the country." 


Rem. 6. — In some compound words, formed from the possessive 
and the word limited by it, both the hyphen and sign of possession 
are omitted; as, hogshead, catshead, &c. 


To be corrected and parsed. 

1. The boys story was believed. 2. He wore the knight's- 
templar's costume. 3. The goods were sent by the Merchants 
Union Express. 4. That book is his 'n. 5. The Bishop's of Dub- 
lin's palace. 6. My fathers health is not good. 7. My book is 
larger than your's. 8. The mistake was the teacher, not the 

9. The general's aids horse was killed. 10. No one could prevent 
him escaping. 11. I purchased this at Penfields', the bookseller's. 
12. Some people regret the King of France's, Louis XVI, being 
beheaded. 13. He bought a hog's head of sugar. 14. William's 
and Mary's reign was prosperous. 15. It was John, not Emma's 

201. Apposition. 

Rule IV. — A noun or pronoun, used to limit the mean- 
ing of a noun or pronoun denoting the same person or thing, 
is in the same case. 

Rem. l. — A noun may be in apposition with a sentence, and a 
sentence with a noun; as, "/ resolved to practice temperance — a 
resolution I have ever kept." "Remember Franklin's maxim: 
'God helps them that help themselves.' " 

Rem. 2* — A noun in apposition sometimes precedes the noun it 
identifies ; as, " Child of the Sun, refulgent Summer, comes." 

Rem. 3. — Though a noun or pronoun usually agrees with the 
noun it identifies, in number and gender, it is not necessary that it " 
agree with it in any thing else than case; as, "My lunch — fried 
oysters and crackers — was soon eaten." 

Rem. 4. — When possessives are in apposition, the sign of pos- 
session is used only with the one next to the noun limited by the 
entire possessive term; as, "Peter the Hermit's eloquence." 

Rem. 5. — Sometimes the noun in apposition is separated from 
the limited noun by as, denoting rank, office, or capacity; as 5 "Me 


Jones, as my attorney, sold the land ;" " My son sails as supercargo" 
Equivalent terms are sometimes introduced by or; as, " The puma, 
or American lion, is found in South America." 


To be corrected and parsed. 

1. Will you discard me ; I who have always been your friend ? 
2. What was the General; him you wished to see? 3. I bought it 
of Mrs. Wilson ; she who keeps the milliner's shop. 4. Ira Jacobs, 
him who you punished, was not to be blamed. 5. Whom shall we 
praise? — They who do their duty. 6. My watch was lost near 
Wilkins's the blacksmith's. 

7. They are the lovely, them in whom unite 

Youth's fleeting charms, with virtue's lovely light. 

202. Absolute Case. 

Rule V. — A noun or pronoun, used independently, is 
in the absolute case. 

Rem. l. — For the four forms of the absolute case, see \ 33. 

Rem. 2. — The case absolute with a participle is generally equiv- 
alent to an adverbial element of the third class, commencing with 
if, because, since, when, or while; as, "He being rich, they feared his 
influence " = They feared his influence because he was rich. "The 
sun being risen, we pursued our journey" = When the sun had risen, 
we pursued our journey. 

Rem. 3. — In mottoes and abbreviated sayings, and frequently 
in exclamations, nouns seem to have relation to something under- 
stood ; as, " Laird's Bloom of Youth " = Use Laird's Bloom of 
Youth; "Confidence" (a motto) = This is a token of confidence; 
" A rat ! a rat ! " = There is a rat. It is better, however, to recog- 
nize the absolute case as a distinct use of a noun, than to destroy 
the force of an expression by supplying an awkward ellipsis. 


Examples to be parsed. 

1. Soldier, rest! thy warfare o'er, 2. "Stop! the hat!" he ex- 
claims. 3. Our fathers, where are they? 4. I being a child, was 
a plea for my admission. 5. The north and the south, thou hast 


created them. 6. John, James, and Henry, they are my scholars. 
7. O Nelly Gray! O Nelly Gray! 8. "The Moon and the>Stars— 
A Fable." 9. Problem III. — To construct a mean proportional 
between two given lines. 

203. Objective Case. 

Rule VI. — The object of a transitive verb, in the active 
voice, or of its participles, is in the objective case. 

Rem. i. — The natural order of arrangement is, subject — verb — 
object; but in poetry, or when it is made emphatic, the object 
precedes the subject; as, "Myself I can not save;" "Silver and 
gold have I none." To avoid ambiguity, the natural order should 
be observed when the subject and object are both nouns. Say, 
"Alexander conquered Darius," not "Alexander Darius conquered." 
A relative or interrogative pronoun is placed at the head of its 
clause; as, "I am he whom ye seek;" " Whom shall I invite?" 

Rem. 2. — The object may be a participial noun, a phrase, or a 
clause; as, "I like running- aid jumping better than studying;" 
"He hopes to succeed;" "'Our armies swore terribly in Flanders? 
cried my Uncle Toby." 

Rem. 3. — A phrase beginning with a noun or pronoun, may be 
the object of a transitive verb; as, "I want boohs to read;" "The 
merchant ordered the goods to be shipped;" " I heard the water 
lapping on the crag;" "I want him to go" In such cases, the 
entire phrase is the object of the verb; but it is best to apply 
Kule VI in parsing the noun or pronoun beginning the phrase, 
Rule XVII in parsing the infinitive, and Eule XII in parsing 
the participle. 

Rem. 4. — Some verbs used as copulatives in the passive voice, 
have two objects, one representing a person or thing, the other a 
thing; as, "They made him their leader:" "They chose him chair- 
man" When such verbs are made passive, either object may be 
taken as the subject, but the other, if retained, becomes a predicate- 
nominative. If the thing is made nominative, the person is gov- 
erned by a preposition, expressed or understood : if the person is 
made nominative, the thing may be parsed by Eule II. 

Rem. 5. — A transitive verb may have several objects connected 
by conjunctions; as, "He owns houses^ lands, and bank-stock" 


Rem. 6. — Participial or verbal nouns may be limited by objective 
elements ; as, " Writing notes is forbidden ;" " I like hunting buffa- 


Examples to be corrected. 

1. Who did you write to? 2. Please let him and I sit together. 
3. I do not know who to trust. 4. He who did the mischief you 
should punish, not I. 5. I saw she and him at the concert last 
evening. 6. And me, what shall I do ? 

7. We will go at once, him and me. 8. Every one can master 
a grief but he that hath it. 9. He was presented a gold watch 
by his employers. 10. Who are you looking for? 

Examples to be parsed. 

1. We will rear new homes. 2. The parting words shall pass 
my lips no more. 3. I said that at sea all is vacancy. 4. They 
have left unstained what there they found. 5. Bring forth this 
counterfeit model. 6. Mad frenzy fires him now. 

7. Reading makes a full man, conference a ready man, and 
writing an exact man. 8. Thou hast left no son — but thy song 
shall preserve thy name. 9. His disciples said, Who, then, can 
be saved? 10. I was forbidden the premises. 11. They were de- 
barred the privilege of walking in the park. 

12. "But what good came of it at last?" 
Quoth little Peterkin. 
" Why, that I can not tell," said he ; 
" But ? t was a famous victory." — Southey. 

204. Objective after Prepositions. 

Rule VII. — The object of a preposition is in the ob- 
jective case. 

Rem. l. — A preposition usually precedes its object ; but in poetry 
this order is sometimes reversed; as, "From crag to crag, the rat- 
tling peaks among" = among the rattling peaks; " Come walk with 
me the jungle through." 

Rem. 2. — Interrogative pronouns frequently precede the prepo- 
sitions which govern them; as, "What are you laughing at?" 


Such expressions as "Whom are you talking to?" "Which 
house do you live in?" are inelegant, if not ungrammatical. The 
proper construction is, "To whom are you talking?" "In which 
house do you live ? " 

Rem. 3. — Some phrases consist of a preposition, followed by an 
adjective or an adverb; as, in vain, at once, in secret, from below, 
on high, from above, till now, till lately, &c. In such phrases, an 
object may be understood ; the word following the preposition, 
parsed as an adjective or adverb used as a noun; or the entire 
expression may be regarded as an inseparable phrase. 

Rem. 4. — A preposition should never be placed between a verb 
and its object; as, "He does not want for any thing." Say "He 
does not want any thing." 

Rem. 5. — A noun or pronoun which is the object of mo or more 
prepositions, or of a preposition and a transitive verb, should be 
placed after the first verb or preposition, and be represented by a 
pronoun following each of the others. " He came into and passed 
through the cars," should be " He came into the cars, and passed 
through them" "He first called, and then sent for, the sergeant" 
should be " He first called the sergeant, and then sent for him." 


To be corrected. 

1. The army shall not want for supplies. 2. Which school do 
you go to? 3. What firm are you agent for? 4. What country 
are you a native of? 5. I will not permit of such conduct. 

6. It is our duty to assist and sympathize with those in distress. 

7. The convicts are hired by and employed for the benefit of a few 
speculators. 8. He lives in and came from Pittsburgh. 

To be parsed. 

1. We cruised about for several hours in the dense fog. 2. He 
has a touch of our family. 3. Here rests his head upon the lap 
of earth. 4. He will steal, sir, an egg out of a cloister. 5. The 
pile sank down into the opening earth. 

6. The ground lifts like a sea. 7. The clouds are driven about 
in the sky, like squadrons of combatants rushing to the conflict. 

8. In vain does the old dragon rage. 9. I had supposed till lately 
that you were my friend. 10. A shoreless ocean tumbled round 
the globe. 11. The morning broke without a sun. 


Rule VIII. — Nouns denoting time, distance, measure, 
or value, after verbs and adjectives, are in the objective 
case without a governing word. 

Rem. l. — The names of things, following the passive forms of 
the verbs ask, lend, teach, refuse, provide, and some others, are in the 
objective case without a governing word; as, "He was asked a 
question;" "John was refused admittance;" "I was taught gram- 

Rem. 2. — The following expressions are elliptical : " Wilson, 
Hinkle & Co., No. 137 Walnut St., Cincinnati, 0."=To Wilson, 
Hinkle & Co., No. 137 on Walnut St., in Cincinnati, in Ohio. 
"July 4, 1776" == On the 4th day of July, in the year 1776. 


To be parsed. 

1. The horse ran a mile. 2. I do not care a straw. 3. He is 
worth a million of dollars. 4. The child is nine years old. 5. 
They marched Indian file. 6. He wore his coat cloak-fashion. 
7. Spring has already covered thy grave, twelve times, with 
flowers. 8. The ship sailed four knots an hour. 

9. This is worth remembering. 10. The tower is 250 feet high. 
11. How many square yards of plastering in a room 21 feet long, 
15 feet wide, and 10 feet high? 12. The poor, dissipated student 
was refused his diploma. 

205. Pronouns. 

Rule IX. — Pronouns must agree with their antecedents 
in person, gender, and number. 

Rem. 1. — The person, gender, and number of an interrogative 
pronoun are indeterminate when no answer is given to the ques- 
tion in which it is found; as, "WJio owns that vessel?" The 
answer may be, "Mr. Gordon owns it," "Jones & Smith own it," 
"/own it," "He and / own it," or "You yourself own it." When 
an answer is given, or when one can be inferred from well-known 
facts, these properties are determinate ; as, " Who owns that ves- 
sel? — /own it." "Who" is in the first person, common gender, 
singular number, agreeing with "I." " Who commanded the allied 


forces at the battle of Waterloo?" "Who" is in the third person, 
masculine gender, singular number — the answer, though not given, 
being well known. 

Rem. 2. — There being no pronoun of the third person singular, 
denoting either sex, in the English language, the masculine forms, 
he, his, him, are used in its place. Do not say, " Each pupil should 
learn his or her lesson:" use his alone. Say, "Should any one de- 
sire to consult me, let him call at my office," even though the 
invitation be intended for both sexes. Should the gender of the 
person referred to, be known, use a masculine or feminine pronoun, 
as the case requires. 

Rem. 3. — Things personified should be represented as mascu- 
line or feminine by the pronouns referring to them; as, "Night, 
sable goddess, from her ebon throne ;" " Grim-visaged War has 
smoothed his wrinkled front." 

Rem. 4. — A pronoun sometimes precedes its antecedent; as, 
"Thy chosen temple, Lord, how fair!" "Hark! they whisper, 
angels say." 

Rem. 5 — The relative pronoun is frequently omitted ; as, "That 
is the house [which] we live in;" "This is the book [which] you 
inquired for." 

Rem. 6. — That, as a relative, should generally be used after a, 
all, every, same, and very; after who, used interrogatively; after 
arr adjective in the superlative degree; and when both persons 
and things are referred to. 

Ex. — "He is a man that all respect;" "I gave him all that I had;" 
"Is this the same book that I lent you?" "It is the very book that you 
lent me ;" " He is the wisest that says the least ;" " Who that has once 
heard him does not wish to hear him once again ;" " Here are the per- 
sons and things that were sent for." 

Rem. 7. — Unless great emphasis is required, a noun or pronoun 
should not be used in the absolute case by pleonasm. Say " The 
horse ran away," not "The horse, it ran away;" "Many words 
darken speech," not " Many words, they darken speech." 

Rem. 8 — To avoid ambiguity, a relative pronoun should be 
placed as near as possible to its antecedent. 

Ex. — "A purse was lost in the street, which contained a large sum 
of money." The clause introduced by "which," should be placed 
immediately after "purse." 


Rein. 9. — A pronoun whose antecedent is a collective noun 
conveying the idea of unity, should be in the neuter singular: 
one whose antecedent is a collective noun conveying the idea of 
plurality, should be plural, taking the gender of the individuals 
composing the collection. 

Rem. 10. — It is used to represent (1) a noun or pronoun in any 
person, in either number, or of any gender; (2) a sentence, or a 
part of a sentence; or (3) it may be used without representing 
any person or thing. . 

Ex. — "It is I; 99 "It was land-warrants that I purchased ;" u It was 
Milton who wrote Paradise Lost;" "You have wronged me, and will 
repent of it;" "It snows;" "We roughed it in the woods." 

To be corrected. 

1. James, he has been whispering. 2. Whom, when they had 
washed, they laid her in an upper chamber. 3. The names I called 
you, I am now sorry for them. 4. If any one has not paid their 
fare, let them call at the captain's office. 5. Every one should 
have his or her life insured. 

6. Every one should have their lives insured. 7. That book is 
in the book-case, which contains pictures. 8. This is the dog whom 
my father bought. 9. These are the men and the guns which we 
captured. 10. That is the same pen which I sold you. 11. He is 
the wisest which lives the most nobly. 

12. The moon took its station still higher. 13. The jury could 
not agree in its verdict. 14. The news came of defeat, but no one 
believed them. 15. If you see an error or a fault in my conduct, 
remind me of them. 

To be parsed. 

1. The hand that governs in April, governed in January. 2. I 
perish by this people which I made. 3. Many a man shall envy 
him who henceforth limps. 4. I venerate the man whose heart is 
warm. 5. Your sorrows are our gladness. 6. The blooming morn- 
ing oped her dewy eyes. 

7. Men are like birds that build their nests in trees that hang 
over rivers. 8. He was followed by another worthless rogue, who 
flung away his modesty instead of his ignorance. 9. A bird is 
placed in a bell-glass, A, which stands over the mercury. 


10. Remorseless Time ! 

Fierce spirit of the glass and scythe I What power 
Can stay him in his silent course, or melt 
His iron heart to pity? — Prentice. 

11. "Banished from Rome!" what's banished, but set free 
From daily contact of the things I loathe? 

"Tried and convicted traitor!" Who says this? 
Who'll prove it, at his peril, on my head? — Croly. 

206. Antecedents connected by "And." 

Rule X. — A pronoun, with two or more antecedents in 
the singular, connected by and, must be plural. 

Bern. i. — When the antecedents are but different names for the 
same person or thing, the pronoun must be singular; as, "The 
eminent lawyer and statesman has resigned his office." 

Rem. 2 — When the antecedents are emphatically distinguished, 
the pronoun should be singular ; as, " The mind as well as the body 
has its diseases;" "The country and not the government has its 

Mem. 3. — When the antecedents are limited by each, every, or 
no, the pronoun must be singular; as, "Each man and each boy 
did his duty;" "Every hill and every mountain has its echo;" 
"No land and no clime possesses all earth's blessings." 

Rem. 4. — When the antecedents taken together are regarded as 
a single thing, the pronoun must be singular ; as, " The horse and 
wagofc is in its place." 


To be parsed. 

1. Charles and Henry are flying their kites. 2. You and I should 
study our lessons. 3. The child wants some bread and milk : will 
you get it? 4. The good man, and the sinner, too, shall have his 
reward. 5. The great philosopher and statesman is laid in his 
grave. 6. He bought a horse and a wagon, and sold them at a 
profit. 7. Every house and lot has its price set opposite its 


207. Antecedents Connected by "Or" or "Nor." 

Rule XI. — A pronoun, with two or more antecedents 
in the singular, connected by or or nor, must be singular. 

Rem. 1. — When the two antecedents are of different genders, 
the use of a singular masculine pronoun to represent them is 
improper. In such cases, 

1. Use a plural pronoun that may represent both genders ; as, 
"Not on outward charms could he or she build their pretensions 
to please*" 

2. Use different pronouns ; as, " No boy or girl should whisper 
to his or her neighbor:" 

3. Substitute a general term, including both, for the two ante- 
cedents, and represent this general term by a singular masculine 
pronoun; as, "No pupil (boy or girl) should whisper to his 

Rem. 2. — When one of the antecedents is plural, it should be 
placed last, and the pronoun should be plural; as, "Neither the 
farmer nor his sons were aware of their danger." 


To be corrected, 

1. No father or mother lives that does not love his or her chil- 
dren. 2. George or Charles are diligent in their business. 3. If 
an Aristotle, a Pythagoras, or a Galileo, suffer for their opinions, 
they are martyrs. 4. If you see my horse or mule, turn them into 
your pasture. 5. Poverty or wealth have their own temptations. 

To be parsed. ^ 

1. Henry or Samuel will lend you his book. 2. If thy hand or 
thy foot offend thee, cut it off, and cast it from thee. 3. Neither 
James nor John has gained much credit for himself. 

4. Either Mary or Sarah will recite her lesson. 5. Even a 
rugged rock, or a barren heath, though in itself disagreeable, con- 
tributes by contrast to the beauty of the whole. 

6. Beginning with Latin or Greek hexameter, which is the 
same. 7. Either James or his father was mistaken in his opinion. 
8. Neither the teacher nor the scholars used their books in the 


208. Adjectiyes and Participles. 

Rule XII. — An adjective or participle belongs to some 
noun or pronoun. 

Rem. i. — An adjective used as the predicate of a sentence, may 
modify an infinitive or a substantive clause, used as the subject; 
as, "To lie is sinful;" "That all men are created equal, is self- 

Rem. 2. — An adjective may modify a noun and another ad- 
jective, taken together ; as, "A rich old miser ;" "A large bay horse." 

Rem. 3. — After infinitives and -participles, adjectives are fre- 
quently used which do not belong to any particular noun or pro- 
noun; as, "To be good is to be happy;" "The main secret of 
being sublime, is to say great things in few and plain words." 

Rem. 4. — An adjective should agree in number with the noun 
to which it belongs ; as, that kind, those kinds ; one man, two men. 
To denote a collective number, a singular adjective may precede a 
plural noun; as, "One thousand dollars;" "The census is taken 
every ten years." To denote plurality, many a is used instead of 
many ; as, "Many a time ;" "Many a morning." 

Rem. 5. — In poetry, an adjective relating to a noun or pronoun 
is sometimes used instead of an adverb modifying a verb or a 
participle; as, "Incessant still you flow;" "Swift on his downy 
pinions flies from woe." 

Rem. 6- — Adjectives are sometimes used as nouns; as, "The 
rich and the poor here meet together;" "One said, 'Let us go;' 
another, ' No, let us remain.' " 

Rem. 7. — Two adjectives are frequently connected by a hyphen, 

forming a compound adjective; as, "A sweet-faced girl." 

Rem. 8. — Numeral and pronominal adjectives precede another 
adjective which modifies the same noun; as, "The seven wise 
men;" "That old house." 


To be parsed. 

1. His spirit was so bird-like and so pure. 2. Dim, cheerless, is 
the scene my path around. 3. This life of ours is a wild iEolian 
harp of many a joyous strain. 4. Every tree-top has its shadow. 
H. G. 16. 


5. With fleecy clouds the sky is blanched. 6. Still stands the 
forest primeval. 7. 'Tis impious in a good man to be sad. 8. To 
hope the best is pious, brave, and wise. 9. Time wasted is exist- 
ence ; used, is life. 

10. Thoughts shut up, want air, 
And spoil, like bales unopened to the sun. 

11. Tell me not in mournful numbers, 

Life is but an empty dream. 

12. Pray for the living, in whose breast 
The struggle between right and wrong 
Is raging terrible and strong. 

13. Petulant she spoke, and at herself she laughed; 
A rose-bud set with little willful thorns, 

And sweet as English air could make her. 

14. The hills are dearest which our childish feet 

Have climbed the earliest, and the streams most sweet 
Are ever those at which our young lips drank, 
Stoop'd to their waters o'er the grassy bank. 

15. Sometimes her narrow kitchen walls 
Stretched away into stately halls. — Whittier. 

209. Verbs. 

Rule XIII. — A verb must agree with its subject in 
person and number. 

Rem. 1. — When the subject is a collective noun, conveying 
plurality of idea, the verb should be plural ; as, " In France, the 
peasantry go barefooted, while the middle class ivear wooden shoes." 

Hem. 2. — When a subject, plural in form, represents a single 
thing, the verb must be singular; as, "The 'Pleasures of Memory 1 
was published in 1792;" "Politics is his trade;" "The news is 

Rem. 3. — When the subject is a mere word or sign, an infin- 
itive, or a substantive clause, the verb should be in the third 
person singular; as, "They is a personal pronoun;" "+ is the 
sign of addition;" "To deceive is wrong;" " l Wlio comes there? 1 
was heard from within." 


Rem. 4. — A verb in the imperative mode usually agrees with 
thou, you, or ye, expressed or understood ; as, "Look [ye] to your 
hearths, my lords!" "Smooth [thou] thy brow." 


To be corrected. 

1. You and I was walking together. 2. The horses has been 
fed. 3. I called, but you was not at home. 4. Thou can assist me 
if thou will. 5. There was mountains where I came from. 6. A 
committee were appointed to report resolutions. 7. The fleet were 
seen off Hatteras. 

8. The legislature have adjourned. 9. The corporation is indi- 
vidually responsible. 10. The Pleasures of Hope are a fine poem. 
11. The scissors is dull. 12. We are a personal pronoun. 13. The 
derivation of these words are uncertain. 14. The board of trus- 
tees have a meeting to-night. 

To be parsed. 

1. Thus many a sad to-morrow came and went. 2. Eeturn, O 
beautiful days of youth ! 3. I alone was solitary and idle. 4. This 
well deserves meditating. 5. At an early hour, arrive the diligences. 
6. He waved his arm. 

7. Every rational creature has all nature for his dowry and 
estate. 8. The present needs us. 9. The jury were not unani- 
mous. 10. Generation after generation passes away. 11. The 
public are respectfully invited to attend. 

12. Every age 
Bequeathes the next for heritage, 
No lazy luxury or delight. 

13. There 's not a beggar in the street 

Makes such a sorry sight. 

14. He that attends to his interior self, 

That has a heart, and keeps it — has a mind 
That hungers and supplies it, and who seeks 
A social, not a dissipated life, 
Has business. 

15. Between Nose and Eyes a strange contest arose 

The spectacles set them unhappily wrong ; 
The point in dispute was, as all the world knows, 
To which the said spectacles ought to belong. — Cowper. 


210. Subjects Connected by "And." 

Rule XIY. — A verb, with two or more subjects in the 
singular, connected by and, must be plural. 

Rem. 1. — When two or more subjects in the singular, connected 
by and, are but different names for the same person or thing, or, 
when taken together, they represent a single idea, the verb should 
be singular; as, "Descent and fall to us is adverse;" "A hue and 
cry was raised." 

Rem. 2. — When two or more singular subjects are emphatically 
distinguished, or are preceded by each, every, or no, the verb should 
be singular; as, "The father, as well as the son, was in fault;" 
"All work and no play, makes Jack a dull boy ;" "Every bird and 
beast cowers before the wild blast." 

Rem. 3. — When two or more subjects, of different numbers, are 
emphatically distinguished, the verb agrees with the first; as, 
"Diligent industry, and not mean savings, constitutes honorable 

Rem. 4. — Two or more singular subjects, connected by with, in 
company with, together with, &c, require a singular verb ; as, "Mr. 
Brown, in company with Mr. Shriver, is opening a new coal mine;" 
" The general, with all his army, was captured. 


To be corrected. 

1. Mr. Johnson and his brother was at the meeting. 2. Time 
and tide waits for no man. 3. Bread and milk are good food. 4. 
Each man, each child, and each woman know the hour. 5. The 
boy's mother, but not his father, deserve great praise. 

6. Patience and diligence removes mountains. 7. I, together 
with my sister, are intending to make you a visit. 8. The salmon, 
as well as the trout, have become scarce in these waters. 9. A 
number of horses, together with a large amount of other property, 
were stolen last night. 

To be parsed. 

1. Her beauty, and not her talents, attracts attention. 2. No 
wife and no mother was there to comfort him. 3. Out of the same 
mouth proceed blessing and cursing. 4. You and I look alike. 


5. My uncle, with his wife, is in town. 6. Charles and Emma 
are good scholars. 7. Charles, together with his sister Emma, is 
studying botany. 8. The crime, not the scaffold, makes the shame. 
9. The ambition and avarice of man are the sources of his un- 

10. Fire of imagination, strength of mind, and firmness of soul 
are gifts of nature. 11. Each battle sees the other's umbered face. 
12. A coach and six is, in our time, never seen, except as a part 
of some pageant. 

211. Subjects Connected by "Or" or "Nor." 

Rule XV. — A verb, with two or more subjects in the 
singular, connected by or or nor, must be singular. 

Rem. 1. — When the subjects are of different persons or num- 
bers, the verb must agree with the nearest, unless another be the 
principal term; as, " Neither you nor I am to blame ;" "Neither 
you nor he is in his place." 

Rem. 2. — When two or more infinitives, or substantive clauses, 
are connected by or or nor, the verb must be singular, and a 
predicate nominative, following the verb, must be singular also ; 
as, - Why we are thus detained, or why we receive no intelligence 
from home, is mysterious;" "To be, or not to be, that is the 

Rem. 3. — When the subjects are singular, but of different 
genders, the verb is singular, relating to them taken separately; 
but a pronoun may be plural, relating to them taken conjointly; 
as, "Mary or her sister has lost their umbrella" — the umbrella be- 
ing theirs by joint ownership. 


To be corrected. 

1. Has the horses or the cattle been found? 2. Were the boy 
or the girl badly bruised ? 3. The ax or the hammer were lost. 
4. Poverty or misfortune have been his lot. 5. Neither the horse 
nor the wagon are worth much. 6. Either you or I are to blame. 
7. Neither the mule nor the horses is found. 8. He comes — nor 
want nor cold his course delay. 9. Neither avarice nor pleasure 
move me. 10. A lucky anecdote, or an enlivening tale, relieve the 
folio page. 


11. Not the Mogul, or Czar of Muscovy, 
Not Prester John, or Cham of Tartary, 
Are in their houses monarchs more than I. 

To be parsed. 

1. To give an affront, or to take one tamely, is no mark of a 
great mind. 2. Neither he nor she has spoken to him. 3. To 
reveal secrets, or to betray one's friends, is contemptible perfidy. 
4. Either ability or inclination was wanting. 

5. Hatred or revenge deserves censure. 6. Neither poverty nor 
riches is desirable. 7. The vanity, the ambition, or the pride of 
some men keeps them always in trouble. 8. Emma or Jane has 
lost her dictionary. 

9. The breezy call of incense-breathing morn, 

The swallow twittering from the straw-built shed, 
The cock's shrill clarion, or the echoing horn, 

No more shall rouse them from their lowly bed. — Gray. 

10. From the high host 

Of stars to the lulled lake, and mountain coast, 

All is concentered in a life intense, 
Where not a beam, nor air, nor leaf is lost. — JByronr. 

11. Time, nor Eternity, hath seen 

A repetition of delight 
In all its phases; ne'er hath been 
For men or angels that which is. 

212. Infinitives. 

Rule XVI. — An infinitive- may be used as a noun in 
any case except the possessive. 

Rem. l — An infinitive represents being, action, or state ab- 
stractly. It is the mere verb, without limitation. As such, it 
may be used, 

1. As the subject of a proposition; as, "To err is human." 

2. As the predicate of a proposition ; as, " To obey is to enjoy" 

3. As the object of a transitive verb or of its participles; as, 
"He loves to play;" "He is trying to learn." 


4. In apposition with a noun; as, "Time to come is called 

5. Abstractly, or independently; as, "To tell the truth, I was 

Rem. 2. — The infinitive always retains its verbal signification. 
Hence, as a noun, it may be limited by a predicate adjective or 
predicate nominative, and, as a verb, be followed by an object, or 
modified by an adverb; as, "To spend money recklessly is crim- 

Rem. 3. — The sign to should never be separated from the 
rest of the infinitive. "To correctly report a speech is difficult," 
should be "To report sl speech correctly is difficult." 

Rem. 4. — The preposition for should not be used immediately 
before the infinitive. " I study for to learn," should be " I study 
to learn." 

Rem. 5. — The sign to should never be used alone. " I never 
told a lie, and never intend to," should be "I never told a lie, 
and never intend to do so." 

Rem. 6. — After the verbs bid, dare (venture), hear, feel, let, 
make, need, see, in the active voice, and let, in the passive, the sign 
to is generally omitted; as, "He bade him depart;" "I saw him 
fall" The sign to is sometimes omitted after several other verbs. 

Rem. 7.— Verbs expressing hope, expectation, command, inten- 
tion, &c, require the present infinitive after them ; as, " I hoped 
to see you;" "I intended to call for you;" "He expected to see 
you yesterday." 


To be corrected, 

1. What came ye out for to see? 2. I never voted that ticket, 
and never intend to. 3. To greedily eat one's dinner is ill- 
mannered. 4. I dared him come to me. 5. He durst not to 
leave his room. 6. I saw him to write on his slate. 

7. I have known him to frequently be tardy. 8. He made his 
horses to go very fast. 9. He needs study more carefully. 10. He 
need not to remain long. 11. He intended to have written to 
you. 12. They had hoped to have seen you before they left. 

To be parsed. 

1. To do right, is to do that which is ordered to be done. 2. To 


die is to be banished from myself. 3. To do justice and judgment 
is more acceptable to the Lord than sacrifice. 4. It is our duty to 
try, and our determination to succeed. 5. He had dared to think 
for himself. 6. She shall rejoice in time to come. 

7. It is the curse of kings to be attended 

By slaves that take their humors for a warrant 
To break within the bloody house of life, 
And on the winking of authority, 
To understand a law. — Shakspeare. 

8. Have ye brave sons? Look in the next fierce brawl 
To see them die. Have ye fair daughters? Look 
To see them live, torn from your arms, distained, 
Dishonored, and if ye dare call for justice, 

Be answered by the lash. — Mitford. 

213. Infinitives not used as Nouns. 

Rule XVII. — An infinitive not used as a noun, de- 
pends upon the word it limits, or which leads to its use, 

Rem. 1. — An infinitive may depend upon, 

1. A noun; as, "Flee from the wrath to come" 

2. A pronoun; as, "I heard him declaim." 

3. A verb; as, "He went to see the show." 

4. An adjective; as, "The gods are hard to reconcile" 

5. A participle; as, "The rain threatening to fall, we left." 

6. An adverb; as, "He told me when to come" 

Rem. 2. — The sign to is sometimes improperly omitted ; as, 
"Please excuse James for absence." Supply to before "excuse." 

Rem. 3 — The infinitive is often understood; as, "I considered 
him [to be] honest." 

Rem. 4. — The sign to may be omitted before all but the first 
of two or more infinitives in the same construction; as, "They 
tried to cheat, rob, and murder me." 


To be parsed, 

1. I come not here to talk. 2. I can not see to spin my flax. 
3. In sooth, deceit maketh no mortal gay. 4. I saw along the 


winter snow a spectral column pour. 5. Let the great world spin 
forever down the ringing grooves of change. 

6. He lived to die, and died to live. 7. It is a brave thing to 
understand something of what we see. 8, It is better to fight for 
the good than to rail at the ill. 

9. Let us be content in work, 

To do the thing we can, and not presume 
To fret because it's little. 

10. One day with life and heart, 

Is more than time enough to find a world. 

11. Xeedful auxiliars are our friends, to give 
To social man true relish of himself. 

12. Learn well to know how much need not be known. 
And what that knowledge which, impairs your sense. 

13. Let him not violate kind nature's laws, 
But own man born to live as well as die. 

14. The blood more stirs 
To rouse a lion than to start a hare. 

15. He that lacks time to mourn lacks time to mend. 
Eternity mourns that. 

214. Adverbs. 

Rule XVIII. — Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, par- 
ticiples, and adverbs. 

Rem. i. — Adverbs sometimes modify phrases and entire propo- 
sitions; as^ "He lives just over the hill;" "Verily, ye are the 

Rem. 2. — Adverbs are frequently used as expletives ; as, " Well, 
that is a strange story ;" "There, now, you have said enough." 

Rem. 3. — The adverbs yes, no, aye, yea, and nay, are generally 
answers to questions, and are equivalent to a whole sentence. 
They are then used independently, or modify the sentences preced- 
ing or following them. 

Ex. — "Are you angry? — A T o." "Yea, they shall sing in the ways 
of the Lord;" "Nay ; but it is really true." 

Rem. 4. — Two contradictory negatives in the same clause are 
H. G. 17. 


equivalent to an affirmative ; as, " I can not write no more " — I 
can write more. Hence, two negatives should never be employed 
to express a negation. Say "I want no assistance," not "I don't 
want no assistance." Two or more negatives, not contradictory, do 
not destroy the negative character of a sentence; as, "Pie will 
never consent, no, never, not he, nor I neither" 

Rem. 5. — When the quality of an object, and not the manner 
of an action, is to be expressed, an adjective should be used as 
predicate; as, "He arrived safe" not "safely;" "She looks beau- 
tiful" not "beautifully" 

Rem. 6. — Though sanctioned by good authority, the use of 
from before whence, hence, and thence should be avoided. Say, 
" Whence came you?" not "From, whence came you?" 

Rem. 7. — The word modified by an adverb is sometimes omitted; 
as, "Down, royal state!" Supply "fall." "Up in the morning 
early." Supply "get" or "rise." "I'll hence to London." Sup- 
ply " go." In some cases, adverbs thus used seem to have the force 
of verbs in the imperative mode, but not always. Up and out, fol- 
lowed by the preposition with, take the place of verbs in declara- 
tive sentences; as, "She up with her fist, and took him on the 

Rem. s. — There is frequently used as an expletive to introduce 
a sentence; as, "There was no grass there;" "There were three 
of us." 

Rem. 9. — An adverbial phrase should not be parsed as a single' 
word when its parts can be parsed separately; as, "They walked 
hand in hand." Place "with" before the phrase. 

Rem. io. — The comparative and superlative forms of adjectives, 
preceded by the definite article, are often used as adverbs; as, "The 
longer I study, the better I like it;" "He lives best who acts the 

Rem. 11. — Adverbs should be so placed as to render the sen- 
tence clear, correct, and elegant. The sense intended to be con- 
veyed depends on their position. Compare " He is thought to be 
generally honest," with " He is generally thought to be honest." 


To be corrected. 

1. He won't give me no satisfaction. 2. We did n't find nobody 
at home. 3. Nobody never saw such a crowd of people. 4. The 


nation never was more prosperous, nor never was more ungrateful. 
5. Neither he, nor nobody else who do n't do no work, can have 
my vote. 

6. The velvet feels smoothly. 7. He speaks slow and distinct. 
8. The children all looked beautifully. 9. You did splendid last 
examination. 10. I am tolerable well, I thank you. 11. Sure, 
you don't mean to humbug me. 12. I scarce know what I am 

13. He did handsomer than he promised. 14. He out with his 
knife, and slashed right and left, (See Rem. 7.) 15. The dog 
grabbed him by the throat, and downed him. 16. I only want 
to borrow your umbrella. 

17. The dog wanted in, but he now wants out. 18. There is 
nothing better pleases me than to see boys truthful. 19. There is 
still a wider field for enterprise in California. 20. It rains most 
every day. 21. I would not have believed no tongue but Hu- 

To be parsed. 

1. All the world was ours once more. 2. Up goes my grave 
Impudence to the maid. 3. I saw the blue Rhine sweep along. 
4. Death erects his batteries right over against our homes. 5. 
Slowly the throng moves o'er the tomb-paved ground. 6. The 
complication of a town is often happily unraveled by starting from 
a main trunk. 

7. Man desires not only to be loved, but to be lovely, 8. West- 
ward the course of empire takes its way. 9. Your menaces move 
me not. 10. We see but dimly through the mists and vapors. 
11. Man by man, and foot by foot, did the soldiers proceed over 
the Alps. 12. Finally, the war is already begun, and we must 
either conquer or perish. 13. He heaped up great riches, but 
passed his time miserably. 

14. Night's candles are burnt out, and jocund Day, 
Stands tiptoe on the misty mountain's top. — Shakspeare. 

15. I '11 look no more, — 
Lest my brain turn, and the deficient, sight 
Topple down headlong. 

16. Not a word to each other ; we kept the great pace — 
Neck by neck, stride by stride, never changing our place. 



17. Who does the best his circumstance allows, 
Does well, acts nobly, angels could no more. 
Our outward act indeed admits restraint; 
'T is not in things o'er thought to domineer. 
Guard well thy thought, our thoughts are heard in heaven. 


215. Prepositions. 

Mule XIX. — A preposition shows the relation of its 
object to the word upon which the latter depends. 

Rem. i. — The object of a preposition, as well as the preceding 
term of relation, often determines what preposition should be used; 
as, "He read to me about the war, with much feeling;" "He wrote 
to me in great haste concerning his losses." 

Rem. 2. — Prepositions are frequently omitted ; as, " He lives 
opposite [to] the court-house;" "Lend [to] me a pencil;" "His 
house is near [to] the river." 


To be corrected and parsed. 

1. The man is dependent on his relatives. 2. I differ with you 
on that point. 3. The man was killed by a sword and died with 
violence. 4. The two thieves divided the money among them. 5. 
During his life-time, he was twice shipwrecked. 

6. Above the clouds and tempests' rage, 
Across yon blue and radiant arch, 
Upon their long, high pilgrimage, 
I watched their glittering armies march. 

216. Coordinate Connectives. 

Rule XX. — Coordinate connectives join similar ele- 

Hem. i. — Elements placed in the same relation or rank are 
similar; as, nouns or pronouns in the same case, verbs in the 
same construction, words, phrases, and clauses limiting the same 
term, &c. 


Item. 2. — Conjunctions are sometimes omitted ; as, " Had I the 
means, I would buy that farm " = If I had the means, &c. " He 
is rich, noble, wise, [and] generous." 

Rem. 3. — In a series of similar terms, the conjunction is usually 
omitted, except between the last two ; as, " Henry, Horace, and 
Samuel are my pupils." When great emphasis is required, the 
conjunction should be supplied; as, "You have been an honest, 
and a bold, and a faithful hound." 

Rem. 4. — Dissimilar or disproportionate terms should never be 
joined by conjunctions; as, "I always have [been] and always 
shall be of this opinion." 

Rem. 5. — Conjunctions are sometimes used as introductory 
words, either to awaken expectation, or to make the introduction 
of a sentence less abrupt; as, u And it came to pass in those 
days," &c; "So you are going to New Orleans, it seems." 


To be corrected and parsed. 

1. We moved along silently and with caution. 2. To play is 
more pleasant than working. 3. They either could not, nor desired 
to learn. 4. He can brag, but is not able to do much. 5. That 
lot is preferable and cheaper than yours. 6. He looks as though 
he was hungry. 7. He has no love nor veneration for him. 

8. I can not tell whether he has returned or not. 9. All were 
drowned save me. 10. Neither James or John came home yester- 
day. 11. I always desire and always wished for your society. 12. 
The boy would and did have his own way. 13. The parliament 
addressed the king, and has been prorogued the same day. 

217. Subordinate Connectives. 

l&ule SSIe — Subordinate connectives join dissimilar 

Rem. i. — A clause introduced by a subordinate connective per- 
forms the office of a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. The con- 
nective always unites the clause which it introduces to the word 
or phrase which is modified; as, "He said that he would come;" 
"The man whom you saw is the sheriff;" "Do you know where 
I live?" 


Rem. 2. — A subordinate connective is almost invariably placed 
at the beginning of the clause which it introduces. When this 
clause is used as the subject of a sentence, or is put in apposition 
with a noun in any case, the connective is a mere introductory 
word; as, "That you have deceived me doth appear from this;" 
"The rumor that he is insane is unfounded." 


To be parsed, 

I. Come as the winds come, when navies are stranded. 2. I 
never thought that it could be so. 3. He locks the door after the 
horse is stolen. 4. I now know why you deceived me. 5. He will 
have friends wherever he may be. 

6. I could distinguish the merchant to whom the ship was 
consigned. 7. However stern he may seem, he is a good man. 
8. While there is life, there is hope. 9. Blessed are the merciful : 
for they shall obtain mercy. 10. He rushes to the fray as if he 
were summoned to a banquet. 

II. Whether the planets are inhabited, was discussed last even- 
ing. 12. I consent to the constitution, because I expect no better, 
and because I am not sure it is not the best. 13. I do not know 
where he is. 14. There was so much noise that I could not sleep. 

218. Interjections. 

Rule XXII. — An interjection has no dependence upon 
oilier words. 


To be parsed. 

I. What! might Rome have been taken? 2. Ha! laughest 
thou, Lochiel, my vision to scorn? 3. Ho! warden! 4. Oh, 
fearful woe! 5. Ah, my saying was true. 

6. Hark! hark! to God the chorus breaks. 7. Halloo! my 
boys, halloo! 8. Pshaw! there's no distress in that. 9. Hem! 
what is it? 10. Aha, is that you? 

II. Alas, poor Yorick! 12. Adieu, adieu, my native land! 

13. Hark ! they whisper : jangels say, 
Sister spirit, come away. 


219. Definition. 

1. False Syntax is any violation of the laws of good 
usage, in the application of words or in the construction of 

2. Errors in the use of language arise from, 

1. The use of Improper Words, Forms, and Expressions : 

2. The Insertion of Unnecessary Words : 

3. The Omission of Necessary Words: 

4. The Improper Arrangement of the parts of a Sentence. 

220. Model for Correcting False Syntax. 

1. State that the sentence is not correct. 

2. State in what respect it is incorrect. 

3. Correct it. 

4. Give reasons for the correction. 

221. Improper Words, Forms, and Expressions. 


Caution. — Avoid the use of words with a wrong 

Ex. — Nouns. — 1. He treated me with great negligence. 2. It 
is a matter of no consequence. 3. I have sold the balance of the 
goods. 4. The new play is attributed to the pen of Bulwer. 
5. You may take either alternative. 6. I bought a couple of 
ducks. 7. He went up two pair of stairs. 8. Our ice companies 
are getting in their crops for the season. 

Verbs. — 1. I expect he has gone home. 2. I suspect the farm 
is a good one. 3. He donated $5000 to the college. 4. They 
teamed a large quantity of ice to the Boston Highlands. 5. The 
sun is sitting. 6. Set down on that chair. 7. The teacher sat him 
on the platform. 

8. He learned me to read. 9. I love buckwheat cakes. 10. He 
laid down on the hay. 11. Where were you raised? 12. He enjoys 


very bad health. 13. The medicine affected a cure. 14. The Ohio 
empties into the Mississippi, which has now overflown its banks. 
15. If you will not go, I will come to you. 16. He has carried the 
horses to water. 

Adjectives and Peonouns. — 1. They resemble each other. 

2. He has ne'er a [nary] horse, nor e'er a [ary] wagon. 3. That 
very same man came here yesterday. 4. A proper fraction is less 
than one. 5. We are incident to late frosts. 6. Do not call one 
another nicknames. 

See also "Exercises to be corrected/' \ 55, 64. 

Adverbs and Conjunctions. — 1. Gravitation is where one 
body attracts another. 2. Anarchy is while no laws are enforced. 

3. Mr. Elkins is such a nice man. 4. Snow seldom or ever falls 
in Florida. 5. I shall not forgive him be he never so penitent. 
6. Home is home, be it never so homely. 7. He is a mighty 
mean man. 

8. He came here about a week since. 9. He said nothing far- 
ther. 10. They went no further. 11. There are some styles of 
writing where too much ornament is used. 12. He walks like I 
do. 13. Henry is not tall like I am. 14. You should never do 
no mischief. 

15. John is not as tall as I am. 16. He has neither money or 
credit. 17. I should like to know if you are going West. 18. Let 
me see if your face is clean. 19. I have no doubt but you can 
help him. 

20. He was afraid lest he should be caught in the rain. 21. You 
shiver as though you had the ague. 22. Whether or no the charge 
can be sustained is questionable. 23. He was the more pleased 
that it was done cheerfully. 

See also "Exercises to be corrected," ? 141, 217. 

Prepositions. — 1. I have an abhorrence to such men. 2. We 
then witnessed a combat between a Bengal tiger with a Himalaya 
bear. 3. The vessel was turned out of the true course. 4. What 
need is there for so much preparation? 5. They make a great 
noise of nights. 6. The boy climbed up in a tree. 7. He was 
accused with forgery. 

8. You will always find the old gentleman to home. 9. He 
rolled from his bed out on to the floor. 10. The bird flew in the 
window. 11. He put his hand in his pocket for his knife* 

See also "Exercises to be corrected/' \ 134. 

▲ 1 



Note. — Sentences in which wrong forms of nouns, pronouns, 
adjectives, verbs, and participles are used may be found among 
"Exercises to be corrected," under appropriate heads. These 
should be carefully corrected. 

Caution I. — Avoid the use of A before vowel sounds, 
and of An before consonant sounds. 

Ex. — 1. An hundred thousand. 2. An humorous person. 3. 
We are an united people. 4. Such an one is a honest man. 

5. The regiment was formed in line in a open field. 6. She is an 
heroine. 7. That was a heroic deed. (Use an before h faintly 
sounded when the following syllable is accented.) 

Caution II, — Observe that the denotes the class or a 
particular one, and a an indefinite one of several. 

Ex. — 1. The farthing is the fourth part of a penny. 2. A fox 
is cunning. 3. A horse is a useful animal. 4. The owl sleeps 
during a day. 5. A steam engine is a modern invention. 

Caution III. — Do not use them for those, this here for 
this, that 'ere or that there for that, or might of, should 
of, &c, for might have, should have, &c. 

Ex. — 1. Give me them peaches. 2. I can not remember them 
rules. 3. That 'ere farm is very sandy. 4. What will you give 
for this here slate? 5. I do not like that 'ere way of doing things. 

6. Did you buy them needles of this here peddler? 7. He might 
of helped me. 8. They should of told you. 

Caution IV. — Avoid the use of how before that, or in 

its stead. 

Ex. — 1. He told me how that he was going to Oregon. 2. They 
said how they knew it was so, 3. She told me how that she had 
a new bonnet. 4. Father said how he believed the man was a 

Caution V.— Never use will for shall, nor would for 

Ex. — 1. I was afraid I would be tardy. 2. I shall go ; no one 


will prevent me. 3. If I would earn money, I would not spend it 
foolishly. 4. Whoever will swear falsely will be punished. 5. I 
should be sorry if you would be sick. 

Caution VI. — Do not use adjectives as adverbs. 

Ex. — 1. You ought to value time higher. 2. The cars moved 
very slow. 3. I am exceeding glad to see you. 4. She dresses 
neat. 5. We walked silent through the cemetery. 6. I am tol- 
erable well, I thank you. 7. He reads slow and distinct. 8. I 
came there previous to his coming. 9. He speaks German fluent. 
10. The whisper was scarce audible. 11. They are near discour- 
aged. 12. I am that sick I can not sit up any longer. 

Caution VII. — Do not use adverbs as adjectives. 

Ex.— 1. We arrived safely. 2. The country looks beautifully 
after a shower. 3. I feel very poetically. 4. Things look more 
favorably this morning. 5. Ice feels coldly. 

Caution VIII. — Avoid the use of different kinds of 
pronouns in the same construction. 

Ex. — 1. If you will go, I will pay thy expenses. 2. I hope you 
will put money into thy purse. 3. What we saw, and which 
frightened us very much, we thought was a ghost. 4. You have 
mine and I have thine. 5. A man who is industrious, and that is 
not extravagant, will prosper. 6. Finish thy task, then amuse 

Caution IX. — Do not use the indicative mode where 
the subjunctive will be more elegant or expressive. 

Ex. — 1. He will take due heed lest he miscarries. 2. Be careful 
lest thou breakest some of the rules. 3. If he does but intimate 
his desire, it will be sufficient to produce obedience. 4. Though he 
falls, he shall not be utterly cast down. 5. Was I to tell the whole 
truth, I should not be believed. 

Caution X. — Tense forms should denote time in har- 
mony with that indicated by other parts of the sentence. 

Ex. — 1. They proposed to have visited Paris the following year. 
2. After I learned my lesson, I took a walk. 3. He was absent this 


whole week. 4. He was under great obligations to have assisted 
me. 5. He will remain here if he could find employment. 

6. They would readily believe this statement, if they can break 
away from their prejudices. 7. His step was then firm, and his 
figure erect, though he has seemed old and decrepit. 8. He de- 
clared himself to have been innocent of the charge brought against 
him. 9. He had neglected their dearest interest, but he strikes 
their imagination. 

Caution XI. — In compound sentences, tense forms should 
generally be alike. 

Ex. — 1. He pays his taxes and liveth honestly. 2. He was here 
last week, and has been long expected. 3. Then did the officer 
lay hold on him, and executed him immediately. 4. Thou art the 
fellow who was at my house, and hast stolen my watch. 5. I went 
to town, and have heard some good news. 

Caution XII. — Avoid the expression of universal truths 
or present facts in any other tense than the present. 

Ex. — 1. He demonstrated that the earth was round. 2. What 
did you say was the capital of Chili? 3. I should think it was 
time to hear from home. 4. He did not know that brass was made 
of zinc and copper. 5. I always thought that dew fell. 6. What 
did you say her name was ? 7. Every one knows that air had 
weight. 8. Heat will radiate best from rough substances. 

Caution XIII. — Do not use the perfect participle to 
express past time, nor the past-tense form instead of the 
perfect participle. 

Ex. — 1. I seen him yesterday. 2. He come here to-day. 3. He 
has ran home. 4. The boys all said he done it. 5. I have saw an 
old friend to-day. 6. After the storm, we found that the large oak 
had fell, and that it was broke in two. 

Caution XIV. — Avoid the use of improper passive 

Ex — 1. He was retired from active service. 2. Evening was 
come when we reached the summit of the mountain. 3. He is 
possessed of a large number of farms. 4. The disputants were 
agreed on that. 5. The hour for adjournment is arrived. 


Caution XV. — Avoid the improper use of compound 

Ex. — 1. The new bridge is being built. 2. Such a foolish an- 
ecdote is not worth being repeated. 3. Butter is now being sold 
for thirty cents a pound. 4. That is not intended for being com- 
mitted to memory. 5. A petition is being circulated. 6. Stores 
are now being closed at 8 o'clock P. M. 

Caution XVI. — Avoid the inelegant use of participles 
in place of nouns, infinitives, and clauses. 

Ex. — 1. He failed fulfilling his promise. 2. He neglected the 
learning of his lesson. 3. One should be ashamed of being found 
in bad company. 4. What is the reason of your not having done 
your task to-day? 

5. They who are set ruling over others should be just. 6. No 
one likes being made fun of. 7. Going to Congress is no evidence 
of greatness. 8. Such will ever be the consequences of youth 
associating with vicious companions. 

Caution XVII. — Avoid the recurrence, at short inter- 
vals, of the same word in different senses. 

Ex. — 1. He turned to the left, and then left abruptly. 2. If the 
show of any thing be good for any thing, sincerity is better. 3. The 
truth is, that error and truth are blended in their minds. 4. His 
reason might have suggested better reasons. 5. The king commu- 
nicated his intention to the minister, who disclosed it to the secre- 
tary, who made it known to the public. 


Caution lo — Avoid provincialisms: i. e., expressions 
not national, but confined to certain districts in the same 

Ex. — 1. We raised a right smart chance of corn last year. 2. Our 
grapes are all done gone. 3. He has done spent all his money. 
4. I reckon you have the ague, stranger. 5. I guess I will go 
home. 6. Watch out for the steamboat. 7. What time does 
school take up? 8. I am right glad to see you. 9. He toted his 
plunder on his back all the way from Virginia. 10. Sow the grain 


suant. 11. I disremember where you live. 12. I didn't go to 
do it. 13. Where did you loss it? 14. He is in cahoot with me. 
15. Three goes in twelve four times. 

Caution IIo — Avoid slang phrases, and all low expres- 
sions used by the uneducated. 

Ex. — 1. That 's what 's the matter. 2. If any one insults you, 
go for him. 3. That 's tip-top. 4. He 's a brick with a gilt edge. 
5. He can get every thing he wants : he has lots of tin. 6. They 
went at each other with their mauleys. 7. I closed his peepers for 
him. 8. Where shall I dump my cart? 9. She is setter 'n an old 

Caution IIIo — Avoid all perversions: i. e., words habit- 
ually mispronounced or misapplied. 

Ex. — 1. This is a mountainious country. 2. I onc't went a 
miled to get some voilets. 3. He got into a voilent passion. 4. He 
is a candidate for the sheriffality. 5. How do you sell them cow- 
cumbers? 6. I am necessitated to take medicine. 7. This is beau- 
tiful apple sauce. 8. He efected a cure. 9. The trees are clothed 
in green foilage. 10. We had some nice lattice (lettuce) and spar- 
row-grass (asparagus) for dinner. 

Caution IV. — Avoid all improper contractions ; as, it } s 
for it is or H is, is n't or aint for is not, have n't or haint 
for have not, H aint for it is not, better ; n for better than, &c. 

Ex. — 1. It's now ready for use. 2. 'Taint my house that is 
burning. 3. I haint got my lesson. 4. Isn't she beautiful? 5. 
He aint a good skater. 6. My book is better 'n yours. 7. He is 
older 'n I am. 

222, Insertion of Unnecessary Words. 

Caution I. — Do not use unnecessary words. 

Ex. — 1. Amos Wilkins his book. 2. Henry he ran, and Samuel 
he ran. 3. They are very nice, these oranges. 4. The girls they 
all staid in at recess. 5. It took us two hours time to learn that 
lesson. 6. My father and mother are both of them sick. 7. She 


is a poor widow lady. 8. It is above a year since the time I left 

9. Oil and water will not mix together. 10. You never denied 
but that you came from Nova Scotia. 11. This is a pretty smart 
sort of a place. 12. He may probably make the attempt, but he 
can not possibly succeed. 

13. There are but few other men like him. 14. He came here 
about the latter end of last month. 15. Those who have not 
bought tickets must now buy their tickets. 1(3. Who first invented 
gunpowder? 17. It is six years ago since I saw you. 18. When- 
ever he sees me, he always inquires about your health. 

19. He had ought to be more punctual. 20. He had not ought 
to use profane language. 21. I have no doubt but that he will 
come. 22. One is equally as beautiful as the other. 23. I learned 
much by the listening to his conversation. 24. You will not never 
have such a chance. 

25. I am stronger than you think for. 26. We passed over 
through the forest. 27. I will never enter into his house again. 
28. He deserted from his friends. 29. Pharaoh and his host pur- 
sued after them. 30. They presented him with a gold watch. 31. 
Mr. Ellison talks of buying of- our farm. 32. He followed on 
after us. 

33. I do not recollect of hearing him say so. 34. You need not 
to go to the post-office. 35. From whence came you? 36. He came 
from thence last week. 37. You need not to have staid so long. 
38. Their chagrin can hardly be conceived of. 39. They got angry 
in their settling of their account. 40. He has got a long lesson to 

Caution II. — Avoid double comparatives and super- 

Ex — 1. He is the most unhappiest man I ever saw. 2. More 
sharper than a serpent's tooth is vile ingratitude. 3. He seems 
more cheerfuller since his return. 4. Choose the lesser of two 
evils. 5. He is the most strictest teacher in the city. 

Caution III, — Avoid the use of two negatives to ex- 
press negation. 

Ex. — 1. He do n't know nothing about my affairs. 2. Time 
and tide don't wait for no one. 3. We didn't find nobody at 


home. 4. The best way to keep a secret is to say nothing to no- 
body about it. 5. You do n't look no older than you did ten years 
ago. 6. She will never be no better : so the doctor says. 7. Nei- 
ther her nor nobody else never saw a white blackbird. 8. There 
can not be nothing more insignificant than vanity. 

Caution IV. — Omit the article before a word used as a 
title, as a mere name, or to denote a class generally. 

Ex. — 1. The king conferred on him the title of a duke. 2. What 
kind of a man is he? 3. I have a sort of a misgiving about it. 4. 
A rascal formerly meant a servant, and a knave a boy. 5. Eiches 
and honor are the gifts of fortune. 

6. Some think the Indians are the descendants of the ten lost 
tribes. 7. They voted for Mr. Weston as a senator. 8. They 
elected him a chairman. 9. She is not so good a cook as a mil- 
liner. 10. He is a better blacksmith than a doctor. 

Caution V. — Avoid the needless repetition of words. 

Ex. — 1. The earth is a sphere, a globe, or a ball. 2. The days, 
the hours, and the minutes drag slowly along. 3. He went to St. 
Louis and to Chicago. 4. He is a man of wealth, and of charac- 
ter, and of influence. 5. That wise and that good man has many 

6. There is another and a better world. 7. Their idleness and 
their luxury and pleasures, their criminal deeds and their im- 
moderate passions, and their timidity and baseness of mind, have 
dejected them to such a degree as to make them weary of life. 

223. Omission of Necessary Words. 

Caution I. — Avoid the omission of words necessary to 
complete the sense. 

Ex. — 1. I was amused at the way he told it. 2. What use 
would it be to me? 3. The remark is worthy the dunce that 
made it. 4. The insult does not admit of an apology. 5. That 
depends upon what precedes and follows. 6. What prevented him 

7. This is the way I hold my pen. 8. That is the best can be 
said of him. 9. The steamboat is on the bar; I saw it stuck fast. 


10. Having been condemned, there was no pardon. 11. This not 
only excited our hopes, but fears also. 12. He is an honest man. 
but unfortunate. 

13. That is as hard a story to swallow as Gulliver himself. 
14. He lives on the other side the river. 15. Our house is the 
other end of the street. 16. He was banished his native land. 
17. The lazy fellow was expelled the college. 18. I would rather 
live in poverty than wealth acquired dishonestly. 

19. Small farms are more profitable than large. 20. A squirrel 
can climb a tree quicker than a boy. 21. I could not refrain 
laughing. 22. The convict escaped the penitentiary. 23. The rich 
and poor are alike mortal. 24. All admire the beauties of nature 
and art. 

25. I will be so candid to own I was mistaken. 26. It has or 
will be announced. 27. I have, nor shall not consent to such an 
arrangement. 28. Number the trees in the order they stand. 29. 
I help who help me. 30. The house in which I lived, and had 
long owned, was destroyed by fire. 31. I gave some to Edwin as 
well as Jonas. 32. I never read the book, and never mean to. 
33. It is better to live on a little than outlive a great deal. 34. 
Please excuse Jane at recess. 35. How do you like out there? 
36. He was seen go into a billiard saloon. 

37. Using of tobacco is a bad habit. 38. Be careful in the 
spelling your words. 39. In building of houses there has been 
much improvement. 40. A modest man never indulges in praising 
of himself. 41. Gypsies are noted for telling of fortunes. 

42. When the air is reduced to 32°, water will freeze. 43. I like 
to skate about as well as any thing. 44. By time they got that done 
it was noon. 45. Outdoor croquet is played on the ground instead 
of on a table, and also much larger. 

Caution II. — Avoid the omission of words necessary to 
denote emphatic distinction. 

Ex. — 1. I like neither his principles nor practice. 2. He has 
checks for his valise and overcoat. 3. This is not only a question 
of policy, but right also. 4. Both his hat and umbrella were lost. 
5. Neither his hat nor umbrella was found. 6. His hat, as well as 
umbrella, was stolen. 7. He has sold either his house or store. 
8. He is beloved for his honesty and goodness. 


Caution III. — Avoid the improper omission of modi- 
fiers arid connectives in expressing a succession of par- 

Ex. — 1. We are in need of food, fuel, and of clothing. 2. He 
is the most zealous, most sanguine, and energetic man I ever knew. 
3. In pain, trouble, and in sorrow, he wrote the treatise. 4. The 
country is full of idlers, swindlers, and of spendthrifts. 5. Farmers 
and mechanics, lawyers, doctors, and miners, are nocking to this 
new territory. 

Caution IV. — Do not omit the subjects of declarative 
sentences, whether principal or subordinate. 

Ex. — 1. Hope to see you soon. 2. Sorry to hear you have been 
so unfortunate. 3. They knew what was best to do. 4. It is a long 
road has no turning. 5. After a long night's rest, rose much re- 
freshed. 6. It was he discouraged the undertaking. 7. That there 
were any were dissatisfied I do not believe. 

Caution V. — Avoid the improper omission of pronom- 
inals in making comparisons. 

Ex. — 1. Jacob loved Joseph more than all his children. 2. No 
one is so kind to me as he. 3. John thinks he is smarter than 
any body. 4. He owns more land than any man in the county. 
5. No country is so cold as Greenland. 6. There is no land so 
fertile anywhere. 

224. Improper Arrangement. 

Caution I. — Modifying words, phrases, and clauses 
should be placed as near as may be to the parts which 
they modify. 

Rem. — Adverbs and adjectives generally precede the words 
which they modify ; but there are so many exceptions to this 
arrangement, that it can not be regarded as a general rule. In 
fact, no general rule for the position of modifiers can be given to 
which there are no exceptions. That position is always the best 
which conveys the meaning with the most precision. 
H. G. 18. 


Ex. — Single Words. — 1. He was overcome totally by the sad 
intelligence. 2. Carefully scrutinize the sentiments contained in 
the books you read. 3. We always are controlled by circum- 
stances. 4. I only saw him once. 5. Ice only forms during cold 

6. Theism can only be opposed by polytheism. 7. Only you 
have I known of all the nations of the earth. 8. Not only he 
found her employed, but pleased and tranquil also. 9. He read the 
book only, but did not return it. 10. I would prefer being hung a 
thousand times. 

11. They called together their friends. 12. The officers arrested 
also the saloon keeper. 13. It is impossible constantly to study. 
14. They were nearly dressed alike. 15. He chiefly spoke of him- 
self, not of his employers. 

16. By doing the same thing, it often becomes habitual. 17. The 
necessity of some new method has been felt long. 18. He was 
pleasing not often because he was vain. 19. The good man not 
only deserves the respect but the love of his fellow beings. 20. He 
is considered generally insane. 

21. It is a general time of health. 22. Edward has a new pair 
of boots. v 23. We have a young yoke of oxen. 24. All homes are 
not such as these. 25. You will hardly find such another man. 
26. We have just received a fresh supply of fish. 

27. The settler here the savage slew. 28. The advocate the court 
addressed. 29. The Divine Being heapeth favors on his servants, 
ever liberal and faithful. 30. An old, venerable, tall man just then 
broke in upon the circle. 31. Sing the four first verses of the 
hymn just read. 

Phrases. — 1. The witness had been ordered to withdraw from 
the bar, in consequence of being intoxicated, by the motion of an 
honorable member. 2. Wanted, a young man to take care of some 
horses of a religious turn of mind. 3. Notice. — A lecture on theater- 
going at eleven o'clock. 

4. He went to town, and drove a flock of sheep, on horseback. 
5. Study to unite with firmness gentle manners. 6. All anxiety 
about the issue divest yourselves of. 7. Hunting is a pastime 
many are very fond of. 8. These lines were written by a young man 
who has lain in his grave twelve years, for his own amusement. 

9. We should carefully examine into, and candidly pass judg- 
ment on, our faults. 10. A good man may go beyond the evenness 


of a wise Christian, in a sudden anger. 11. Eeason is a ray, darted 
into the soul, of divinity. 

12. The skin is closely allied to horny matter in its composition. 
13. From the foregoing considerations, it will be seen that the in- 
fluence of air is all-controlling over the human constitution. 14. 
Laughter, by the aid of phonetics, is easily taught as an art. 

Clauses. — 1. We must endure the follies of others, who will have 
their kindness. 2. He needs no spectacles that can not see, nor 
boots that can not walk. 3. From a habit of saving time and paper, 
which they acquired at the university, many write in so diminutive 
a manner, with such frequent blots and interlineations, that they 
are hardly able to go on without perpetual hesitation or extempo- 
rary expletives. 4. It is true what he says, but it is not appli- 
cable to the point. 5. These are the general's orders, who must 
be obeyed. 

6. Mr. French needs a surgeon, who has broken his arm. 7. The 
figs were in small wooden boxes, which we ate. 8. Found, a silver 
fruit-knife, by a child, which has a broken back. 9. For sale, a 
cottage containing eight rooms, located in a respectable neighbor- 
hood, which has double parlors and a detached office. 

Caution II. — Avoid any choice or arrangement of 
words subversive of clearness, precision, and elegance. 

Rem. l. — Looseness and vagueness of style should be guarded 
against with the greatest care. Hence, inversions, though allow- 
able for rhetorical effect, should be avoided whenever they pervert 
or obscure the meaning. 

Ex. — 1. Nature mixes the elements variously and curiously some- 
times, it is true. 2. They have the property of receiving rays of one 
refrangibility, and emitting them at a lower one. 3. They were per- 
sons of very moderate intellects, even before they were impaired by 
their passions. 4. He neither cares for you nor me. 5. Adversity 
both taught you to think and to reason. 

6. The young now have many advantages which our forefathers 
were deprived of. 7. From what I have said, you will perceive 
readily the subject I am to proceed upon. 8. Having not known, or 
having not considered the subject, he declined expressing any opinion. 
9. Cook the potatoes with their jackets, as I call them, on. * 

Rem. 2. — The leading proposition, in a contracted compound 
sentence, should generally be expressed fully. The parts con- 


tracted by ellipsis should be joined to the leading proposition, and 
to each other, by appropriate connectives. 

Ex. — 1. He is older, but not so influential, as his brother. [He is 
older than his brother, but not so influential.] 2. It is larger, but 
inferior to the other. 3. The camel has as much strength, and more 
endurance, than the horse. 4. I would rather spend the summer in 
traveling as in working. 

5. He deemed himself, and meant to be, an honest man. 6. You 
can and ought to be more charitable. 7. The route has or will soon 
be surveyed. 8. It is our duty to protect this government and that 
flag from every assailant. 

225. Miscellaneous Exercises. 

1. If the mean temperature is low, it will require more days to 
ripen than if it were high. 2. We have done no more than it was 
our duty to have done. 3. I saw a white and brown bear at the 
menagerie. 4. The pleasures of the understanding are more, pref- 
erable than those of the senses. 

5. He is engaged in a monograph of the Carices. 6. It is diffi- 
cult for him to speak three sentences together. 7. We have seen 
how fluids rise in tubes by wetting their sides. 8. I had hoped to 
have seen you ere this. 9. He is a man too vain to be proud. 
10. He used to use many expressions not usually used, and which 
good usage will not permit one to use. 

11. I could see that the desks had been scratched, with half an 
eye. 12. I seen the horse run away just as I come down street. 
13. She married my uncle's first wife's brother. 14. They have 
heard from their cousins, they who live in Iowa. 15. They are 
much further north than us. 

16. Charlotte seldom or ever comes to see us now. 17. Whether 
or no this is the man which committed the burglary is uncertain. 
18. The time of John reciting his lesson is arrived. 19. The un- 
grateful man has forsook his friends. 20. I will show you another 
and a better way. 21. It 's now most time for dinner. 22. The 
tree beareth fruit after his kind. 

23. This style of architecture prevailed during the tenth and 
eleventh century. 24. His servants ye are to whom ye obey. 

25. Having did the work satisfactorily, he is entitled to his pay. 

26. Both minister and magistrate is compelled sometimes to choose 


between his duty and reputation. 27. They are them strangers 
who come here yesterday. 28. You need not scarce mention it. 
29. He is a better farmer than a lawyer. 

30. John locked the door, and put the key in his pocket. 31. 
Some men prefer cold to warm weather, but I differ with them. 
32. In learning of this lesson, study carefully the third and fourth 
section. 33. Come quick. 34. He did the work prompt. 35. I was 
almost froze when we arrove there. 

36. Let each esteem the other better than themselves. 37. I 
found an empty old pocket-book this morning. 38. The posthu- 
mous volumes appeared in considerable intervals. 39. He is not 
only lazy, but improvident also. 40. I am resolved to try and 
accomplish the difficult undertaking. 41. There are certain mis- 
eries in idleness which the idle can only conceive. 

42. The orator had just began, when the hissing commenced. 

43. As time advances, it leaves behind him the traces of its flight. 

44. Neither wealth nor honor confers happiness on their votaries. 

45. He was purposed that he would not lie. 46. Hard work is not 
congenial with his disposition. 

47. They wanted for the necessaries of life. 48. There are mil- 
lions of people in China whose support is derived almost entirely 
from rice. 49. Thinks I to myself, symptoms. 50. So, says he, 
you are not going to pay me, are you? 51. The trial of these 
men take place to-morrow. 

52; The public is requested to attend for their own benefit. 
53. Nearly a thousand head of cattle was transported over this 
road yesterday. 54. Three cheers for our flag — the red, the white, 
and the blue. 55. Multiply each figure in the multiplier on to 
each figure in the multiplicand. 56. Take and add the subtra- 
hend and remainder together. 

57. He belongs to the very selectest circle in the city. 58. That 
report was very universally believed. 59. He took two spoonsful 
of laudanum. 60. He gave me three double handsful of cherries. 
61. Deceiving is much the same thing as to lie. 62. I never have 
and never shall desert from my party : I allers votes the straight 
ticket. 63. I forgit the man's name ; but he 's the reverendest 
looking person I ever see. 

64. Will you be to home this evening? 65. If you will go into 
too deep water, you shall be drownded. 66. I did not think that 
St. Petersburg was situated so fur north. 67. He can not lay still 


or set still scarce a single minute, says she. 68. The enemy at- 
tackted us about three o'clock in the morning, before the day had 
began to break. 

69. There is a great deal of good horses in this county. 70. I 
tried to learn him to cipher — but it aint no use. 71. I had rather 
not alit on my head, but it haint hurt me much : I feel tolerable 
hunky. 72. If any one has been missed, let them rise in their 
places. 73. I allude to Washington, who is a name for all which 
is just. 74. Next November, I shall be here twelve years. 

75. The missionary gave an account of how Christianity has 
formerly been propagated among heathen nations. 76. Though he 
falls, he shall not be utterly cast down. 77. Though he be high, 
he hath respect to the lowly. 78. We have done no more than it 
was our duty to have done. 

79. Can you not assign a more satisfactory and stronger reason 
than that? 80. The scandal is unworthy the least attention. 81. I 
have received no assistance from any source, neither from my 
friends nor from my relatives. 82. Punishments may, and often 
are, inflicted upon accessories to crimes. 

83. He is liker to a half-breed than an Indian. 84. For lacking 
of diligent observing the clouds, we were caught in the rain. 85. 
Eve was the fairest of her daughters. 86. I found them in the 
same place I left them. 87. A poor widow woman drawed the 
highest prize in the lottery. 

88. He has not broke his promise to confine himself to his 
speciality. 89. He left the t out in spelling chestnut, which ought 
not never to be done. 90. This is John Perkins his book. 91. 
She danced beautiful, and sang sweet. 92. I am in favor of an 
uniform system of taxation. 

93. There is some hope of him recovering his senses. 94. Co- 
lumbus had fondly hoped, at one time, to have rendered the 
natives civilized, industrious, and tributary subjects of the crown. 
95. Them ghosts you was talking about, was they in white or 
black clothes? 

96. They dared to bravely fight, or to nobly die, for their 
country. 97. He looked severe, and told them to quietly resume 
their seats. 98. He set his face against, and violently denounced, 
all innocent amusements. 99. Young industrious men can always 
find employment. 

100. The mind of man can not continue long without some food 


to nourish the activity of his thoughts. 101. A great variety of 
fancy goods are offered for sale below cost. 102. Lost, a gutta- 
percha cane, by a gentleman, with a gold head. 

103. Eapt into future times, the bard begun. — Pope. 

104. They are the lovely, them in whom unite 
Youth's fleeting charms with virtue's lovely light. 

105. Ah, Jockey, ill advises those, I wis, 

To think of songs at such a time as this. 

106. Ere you remark another's sin 

Bid thy own conscience look within. — Gay. 

107. Even now, where Alpine solitudes ascend, 

I sit me down a pensive hour to spend. — Goldsmith. 

226. Of the Use of Words. 

1. The same word may belong to different parts of speech. 

2. The manner in which a word is used determines its 

3. The normal use of a word is its use according to 
its ordinary meaning and classification. 

4. The abnormal or exceptional use of a word is a 
variation from its usual meaning or classification. 

5. The idiomatic use of a word or expression is a 
departure from the principles of universal grammar. 

227. Examples. 

A (1) Adj., "A man;" "An ox." (2) Prep., "I go a fish- 


About ... (1) Adv., "He wanders about:' (2) Prep., "We talked 
about the weather." 

Above ... (1) Adv., "He soars above." (2) Prep., "He soars above 
the clouds." 



Adieu ...(1) Noun, "He bade me adieu" (2) Interjection, 

" Adieu/ adieu/ niy native land." 

After (1) Adv., "I left soon after." (2) Prep., "He ran after 

me." (3) Conj. adv., " He came after you left." 

Again ... (1) Adv., " Come again." (2) Conj., "Again, you have 
frequently seen," &c. 

Alike (1) Adj., "Those girls look alike." (2) Adv., "I am 

alike pleased with them both." 

All (1) Noun, "That is his all." (2) Adj., u All men;" 

"Good-by to you all;" u All were there" (3) Adv., 
"He is all right;" "We were left all alone." 

Any (1) Adj., "Have you any objections?" (2) Adv., "He 

is not any better." 

As (1) Adv., "As black as night." (2) Conj. adv., "Do as 

I do," {manner)-, "He is as tall as I am," (comparison); 
"The men cheered as he passed," (time) ; "I will go now, 
as [since'] I am a little lame," (cause or reason). (3) Cor. 
Conj., "As the door turneth on its hinges, so doth the 
slothful man on his bed." (4) itel. pron., "They are 
such as I could find." (5) An index of apposition, 
"He shipped as second mate;" "As mayor of the city, I 
feel much aggrieved." (6) Part of a comp. prep., "As 
to that;" "As for me," &c. 

As follows may be parsed as an adverbial phrase, equivalent to thus, 
or the pronoun it may be supplied as the grammatical subject of 
"follows." Always supply it in parsing as appears, as concerns, and 
as regards. 

Before ... (1) Adv., "He went before." (2) Prep., "The hills rise 
before him." (3) Conj. adv., " He spoke before I did." 

Below ... (1) Noun, "I came from below." (2) Adj., "He is in 
one of the offices below." (3) Adv., " Go below." (4) 
Prep., "Stand below me." 

Best (1) Noun, "Now do your best." (2) Adj., "Covet the 

best gifts." (3) Adv., "Who can best work and best agree?" 
(4) Adv. pnr., " Tones he loved the best." 

Better ... (1) Noun, "They scorn their betters" (2) Verb, "Love 
betters what is best." (3) Adj., "The gray mare is the 
better beast." (4) Adv., "Never was monarch better 




Both (1) Adj., "Hear both sides." (2) Pron. adj., "Both of 

them made a covenant;" "They are both vagabonds." 
(3) Cor. conj., " She is both young and beautiful." 

But (1) Adv., "If they kill us, we shall but die." (2) But a, 

Adj., "He is but a man." (3) Prep., "All but two 
were drowned;" "None knew thee but to love thee;" 
"Whence all but him had fled." (4) Part of comp. 
prep., "He would steal but for the law." (5) Conj., 
"Knowledge comes, but wisdom lingers;" "When pride 
comes, then cometh shame; but with the lowly is wis- 

By (1) Adv., "He passed by on the other side." (2) Prep., 

"We have come by the valley road." 

Close .... (1) Adj., "From a close bower this dainty music flowed;" 
" He is a close, selfish man." (2) Adv., " He followed 
close behind." 

Each ....(1) Pron. adj., "They searched each house;" "Each 
officer;" "They took one each;" "Wandering each his 
several way." " They resemble each other" (Parse each 
as being in apposition with " they," or each other as a com- 
pound word.) 

Else (1) Adj., "Do not call any one else" (2) Adv., "How 

else can this be done?" (3) Conj., "Thou desirest not 
sacrifice, else would I give it." 

(1) Noun, "He has enough" (2) Adj., "I have trouble 
enough." (3) Adv., " I know you well enough" 

Except . 

, (1) Verb, "Which our author could not except against." 
(2) Prep., "I could see nothing except the sky;" "Except 
these bonds." (3) Conj., "Except the Lord build the house, 
they labor in vain that build it." 

Far ..... (1) Noun, "He came from far." (2) Adj., "We be come 
from a far country." (3) Adv., "Over the hills and far 
away;" "Far from his home." 

Farewell . (1) Noun, "A last farewell." (2) Adj., "A farewell con- 
cert." (3) Int., "Farewell/" 

(1) Noun, "A surfeit is the father of much fast." "An 
annual fast." (2) Verb, "Thou didst fast and weep for 
thy child." (3) Adj., "He is my fast friend." (4) Adv., 
"We will bind thee fast;" "He runs fast." 
H. G. 19. 



Few (1) Noun, "A few escaped;" "The few and the many." 

(2) Adj., "We have a few copies left." 

For (1) Prep., "We waited for you;" "He writes not for 

money nor for praise." (2) Conj., "Give thanks unto 
the Lord; for he is good; for his mercy endureth for- 
ever." See As. 

Full (1) Noun, "The full of the moon." (2) Verb, "The 

moon fulls to-night;" "They full cloth at the factory." 

(3) Adj., "The house was full;' 9 "A full supply." (4) 
Adv., "He spake full well." 

Hard (1) Adj., "This is hard work." (2) Adv., "He works 

hard;" "He lives hard by the river." (Hard modifies 
the phrase "by the river.") 

However . (1) Adv., "Hoivever great." (2) €onj., "However, your 
house was not burned." 

Ill (1) Jfoan, "Throw off the ills;" "The ills of life." (2) 

Adj., "I was quite ill yesterday." (3) Adv., "Ill fares the 
larid to hastening ills a prey." 

Indeed. . . (1) Adv., "It is indeed true." (2) Conj., "Indeed, I was 
not aware of it." 

Late (1) Adj., "A late frost destroyed the fruit." (2) Adv., 

"We studied early and late" 

Like .... (1) Noun, "Like produces like" (2) Verb, "I like frank 
people." (3) Adj., "We have like chances;" " The staff 
of his spear was like a weaver's beam." (4) Adv., "He 
ran like a deer;" "The Assyrian came down like a wolf 
on the fold." (Supply coming before "on.") 

Low (1) Adj., "He is very low this evening." (2) Adv., "Aim 

low ;" "He speaks too low." 

More .... (1) Jfoun, "Have you any more?" "They saved some 
more, some less." (2) Adj., "We want more men;" "Let 
us hear no more complaints." (3) Adv., " Which returned 
not again unto him any more" 

Much . ... (1) Noun, "They made much of the little they had." 
(2) Adj., "He displayed much learning." (3) Adv., "I 
am much disheartened;" "He reads much" 

Nay (1) Noun, "The nays have it;" "I say imy." (2) Adv., 

"Nay, I said not so." 


Ay, aye, yea, are similar to nay in use and construction; as, "The 
ayes have it;" "Yea, verily." Yea and nay are also used as conjunc- 
tions to denote emphatic addition; as, "What carefulness it wrought 
in you, yea, what clearing of yourselves, yea, what indignation, yea, 
what fear, yea, what vehement desire, yea, what zeal, yea, what re- 
venge." — 2 Cor. vii, 11. 

No (1) Noun, "The noes have it." (2) Adj., "This is no 

place for mirth." (3) Adv., "I can walk no faster." 

Notwithstanding. (1) Prep., "We walked notwithstanding the 

rain." (2) Conj., "He is kind, notwithstanding he is 

Now (1) Noun, "Now is the accepted time;" "Eternity is a 

never-ending now" (2) Adv., "Come novj" (3) Conjo, 
"Now, Barabbas was a robber." 

Once .... (1) Noun, "Forgive me just this once." (2) Adv,, "He 

visits us once a year." 

Only (1) Adj., "Is this the only hotel in town?" (2) Adv., 

"I sing only, I can not play." 

Over .... (1) Adv., "They passed over;" "Turn over a new leaf." 
(2) Prep., "We drove over the bridge;" "Over the 
hills." (3) Part of a comp. prep., "Over against this 

Right ... (1) Noun, "The right will finally triumph;" "I stand 
here on my right;" "Our rights." (2) Adj., "The right 
man in the right place;" "You are right." (3) Adv., 
"Bight Eeverend;" "Let thine eyes look right on." 

Save (1) Verb, "Now save a nation and now save a groat." 

(2) Prep., "Of the Jews, five times received I forty 
stripes save one." (3) Conj., "And that no man might 
buy or sell save he that had the mark." — Rev. xiii, 17. 

So (1) Adv., "Why are you so angry?" "He said so." 

(2) Conj., "As in Adam all die, so in Christ shall all 
be made alive." 

That .... (1) Adj., "Watch that man;" "That house is sold;" "This 
is as good soil as that." (2) Rel. pron., "Ye that fear 
the Lord, bless the Lord ;" " It was 1^ not he, that did it." 

(3) Conj., "He heard that his friend was sick;" "Treat 
it kindly that it may wish with us to stay," 


The (1) Article, "The stars." (2) Adv., "The more, the bet- 
ter." (3) When the modifies an adverb, it forms with it 
an adv. phrase; as, "I like you the better for that." 

Then .... (1) lown. "Alas, the change twixt now and then" 
(2) Adv., "We then ascended the tower." (3) Conj., 
"If you do not want it, then do not buy it." 

There ... (1) Adv., "I live there; 1 '' "Grass grows there now." 
(2) Expletive, used to introduce a sentence in a par- 
ticular way; as, "There were three of us." 

Till (1) Konn, "The money was in the till" (2) Verb, 

"Farmers till the ground." (3) Prep., "Stay till next 
Monday." (4) Conj. adv., "Stay till I return." 

Up (1) Xoun, "The ups and downs of life are many." (2) 

Adv., "Go up, baldhead." (3) Prep., "They sailed up 
the river." 

Well (1) Nonn, "The well is sixty feet deep." (2) Verb, 

" Blood that welled from the wound." (3) Adj., " Is it 
well with thee?" (4) Adv., "The work was well done." 
(5) Ind. adv., "Well, what do you say?" 

What . . . . (1) Mel. pron., "Pay what you owe." (2) Int. pron., 

"What peases you?" (3) Adj., "What vessel is that?" 
(4) Adv., " What [partly] with entreaty, what with threat- 
ening, I succeeded." (5) Interj., "What! is thy servant 
a dog?" 

When (1) Nonn, "Since when was it?" (2) Adv., "When you 

were there." (3) Conj. adv., "Write when you reach 
Boston." So, where. 

Whieh. . . (1) Kel. pron., "The house in which I live." (2) Int. 

pron., "Which is he?" (3) Adj., "Which road shall I 
take?" So, who. 

While ... (1) Nonn, "That is worth while." (2) Verb, "We will 
while away an hour." (3) Adv., "While waiting for the 
train." (4) Conj. adv., "We listened while he played." 

Worse ...(1) Noun, "For better or worse." (2) Adj., "He i3 
worse to-day." (3) Adv., "He might do worse." 

Worth ... (1) Nonn, "They have lost their dignity and worth." (2) 
Verb, an old imperative of a word meaning to be, " Woe 
worth the day." (3) Adj., "He is worth a million." 


Yet (1) Adv., "Our country yet remains." (2) Conj., "I am 

disappointed, yet not discouraged." 

Yonder . . (1) Adj., "Yonder mountain." (2) Adv., "Who beckons 
to us yonder." 

Hem. 1. — Nouns may perform an adjective use, and still be re- 
garded as nouns; as, "The sun's rays;" "Gen. Harrison's resi- 
dence;" " Peter the Hermit /" "Dionysius the Tyrant. 77 

Rem. 2. — By being placed before the words which they modify, 
nouns may be used as adjectives; as, "Our Indian summer;" 
"Christmas eve;" "Strawberry short-cake." Nouns thus used may 
be modified by adjectives; as, "The High Church Party;" "The 
Protective Tariff Bill." 

A compound expression may be formed by uniting two nouns, 
or a noun and an adjective, by a hyphen; as, "Fire-clay brick;" 
" air-pump experiments;" "a white-oak pail;" "a white oak-pail." 
In all cases, the limiting noun must be in the singular number ; as, 
"A four-rod chain;" "a ten-foot pole." "This medicine cures 
ft^-diseases ;" "a spectacle-maker;" " a scissor-hill." 

A compound expression may be formed of an indefinite number 
of words, joined by hyphens, the entire phrase being used as a 
single word; as, "The Kansas- Nebraska Bill;" "an out-and-out 
falsehood;" "He was dressed in brown-once-black" 

Hem. 3. — Nouns connected by conjunctions frequently form a 
compound term, which must be regarded as a single thing, though 
composed of distinct parts; as, "Three dollars a day and board is 
all I ask;" "A horse and wagon was stolen." 

Rem. 4. — Phrases, inseparable in thought, may be formed by 
uniting prepositions with themselves or other parts of speech. 

1. A verb and preposition ; as, to cast up, to buy off, to bring to, 
to come to, to go over, &c. The preposition should be considered an 
inseparable part of the verb, but it may be parsed as an adverb. 

2. A preposition and adjective; as, on high, at large, in tamest, 
at most, &c. : inseparable phrases, either adjective or adverbial. 

3. Preposition and preposition ; as, over and over, by and by, in 
and in, through and through, &c. : inseparable adverbial phrases. 

4. Noun, preposition, and noun; as, day by day, face to face, 
stride by stride, cheek by jowl, &c. As the expressiveness of these 
phrases is destroyed by supplying any ellipsis, they should be 


classed among inseparable adverbial phrases. If preferred, how- 
ever, each word may be parsed separately, the first noun being 
made the object of a preposition understood. 

Rem. 5, — Two prepositions frequently come together : in which 
case they form a complex preposition; the first in order is an 
adverb, or both are adverbs; as, "He comes from over [complex 
preposition) the sea;" "They rode by [adverb) in a carriage;" 
"The whole subject was gone over with" (both adverbs.) 

Rem. 6.^ — Two or more conjunctions may come together: in 
which case each has its use, which should always be regarded in 
parsing: as, "Now when even had come;" "And so I penned it 

228, Exercises. 

1. He has been ill since November. 2. I will go, provided he 
sends for me. 3. Can you not still this noise ? 4. The rain still 
continues. 5. The before-mentioned facts are before you. 6. Does 
he live anywhere in Ohio ? 7. This boy is full ten years old. 8. I 
never saw a saw saw a saw as that saw saws a saw. 9. What with 
the bread, and what with the water, he sustained himself for sev- 
eral weeks. 10. Give me such as I bargained for, and as much as I 
bargained for. 

11. What, then, could be done? 12. He has come round. 13. 
That man purchased a round of beef. 14. The weight of this box 
is forty pounds. 15. The stars are out by twos and threes. 16. 
Whether is greater, the gold or the temple? 17. Sing unto the 
Lord, O ye saints of his. 18. No man can come unto me except 
the Father draws him. 19. He maketh me to lie down in green 
pastures. 20. They have promised, yet they do not perform. 21. 
One came, methought, and whispered in my ear. 

22. He that catches at more than belongs to him, justly deserves 
to lose what he has. 23. All this, I heard as one half dead ; but 
answer had I none to words so true, save tears for my sins. 24. 
Dreaming, she knew it was a dream. 25. I have told what, and 
how true thou art. 26. He thought only of his subject. 27. The 
path of glory leads but to the grave. 28. Kings will be tyrants 
from policy when subjects are rebels from principle. 29. Angling 
is somewhat like poetry : men are apt to be born so. — Walton. 

30. And the final event to himself has been that, as he rose 
like a rocket, he fell like the stick.— Paine. 31. There shall 


nothing die of all that is the children's of Israel. 32. We have 
just come from Brown and Starr's. 33. Three times seven are 
twenty-one. 34. I paid thirty-seven and a half cents for butter 
this morning. 35. Wheat is two dollars a bushel. 36. That hill 
is four miles off. 37. He ran the train at the rate of forty miles an 
hour. 38. The more I see of him the better I like him. 

39. Let your communication be yea, yea, and nay, nay. 40. As 
far as the east is from the west, so far hath He removed our trans- 
gressions from us. 41. Therefore, if thine enemy hunger, feed him ; 
if he thirst, give him drink : for in so doing, thou shalt heap coals 
of fire on his head. 42. It is good for us to be here. 43. Consider 
the lilies of the field, how they grow ; they toil not, neither do they 
spin. 44. A little one shall become a thousand, and a small one a 
strong nation. 45. If I forget thee, O Jerusalem, let my right 
hand forget her cunning. 

46. Hitherto shalt thou come, but no further. 47. Yet man is 
born unto trouble, as the sparks fly upward. 48. One fault he has; 
I know but only one. 49. " Madam," said I emphatically, " you 
are in an error." 50. In this case, it will vanish by degrees. 51. 
To be a foreigner, was always in England a reason of dislike. 
52. How feeble were the attempts at planting towns, is evident from 
the nature of the tenure by which the lands near the Saco were 
held. — Bancroft. 53. This is — what shall we call it? 54. It is he, 
even he. bb. He w r as not even invited to be present. 

66. Are you fond of skating? — Somewhat. 57. Is your health 
good, now? — Eather so. 58. The garret was filled with broken 
chairs, cast-off garments, and what not. 59. He gave me such a 
warm reception. 60. How long w r as it before the man came to? — 
About three-quarters of an hour. 61. How did he come by his 
property? 62. No quips, now r , Pistol : indeed "I am in the waist two 
yards about. 63. That 's certain ; I for my part knew the tailor 
( that made the wings she flew withal. 

64. He that w T ill not when he may, 
When he would, he shall have nay. 

65. Then say not man 's imperfect, Heaven in fault ; 
Say, rather, man 's as perfect as he ought. — Pope. 

66. For what is worth in any thing 

But so much money as ? t will bring? — Butler* 

67. O, what a tangled web we weave, 
When first we practice to deceive. — ScotL 


68. The swaD on still St. Mary's lake, 

Float double, swan and shadow. — Wordswwth. 

69. In the hexameter rises the fountain's silvery column, 

In the pentameter aye falling in melody back. — Coleridge. 

70. Here lies what once was Matthew Prior; 

The son of Adam and Eve : 
Can Bourbon or Nassau claim higher? — Matt. Prior. 

71. "Moreover, it is written that my race 

Hewed Ammon, hip and thigh, from Aroer 
On Arnon unto Minnith." Here her face 
Glowed as I looked at her. — Tennyson. 

72. I can not tell what you and other men 
Think of this life ; but for my single self, 
I had as lief not be as live to be 

In awe of such a thing as I myself. — Shahpeare. 

73. Think for thyself— one good idea, 

But known to be thine own, 
Is better than a thousand gleaned 
% From fields by others sown. — Wilson. 

74. So we were left galloping, Joris and I, 

Past Looz and past Tongres, no cloud in the sky : 
The broad sun above laughed a pitiless laugh; 
'Neath our feet broke the brittle bright stubble like chaff; 
Till over by Dalhem a dome-spire sprang white, 
And " Gallop," gasped Joris, " for Aix is in sight." 


75. Fate seemed to wind him up for four-score years: 
Yet proudly fan he on ten winters more: 

Till like a clock worn out with eating time, 

The wheels of weary life at last stood still. — Dryden. 

76. This well may be 

The Day of Judgment which the world awaits; 

But, be it so or not, I only know 

My present duty, and my Lord's command 

To occupy till he come. So at the post 

Where he hath set me in his providence, 

I choose for one to meet him face to face, — 

No faithless servant frightened from my task, 

But ready when the Lord of the harvest calls. — Wliittier. 


229. Definitions. 

1. A Figure of Speech is a departure from the 
ordinary form, regular construction, or literal signification 
of words. 

2. A Figure of Etymology is a departure from the 
usual form of a word. 

3. A Figure of Syntax is a departure from the usual 
construction of words. 

4. A Figure of Rhetoric is a departure from the 
primitive or literal sense of a word. 

230. Figures of Etymology. 

1. Apheresis is the elision of a letter or syllable from 
the beginning of a word; as, 'gainst, for against; 'gan, 
for began. 

2. Prosthesis is the prefixing of a letter or syllable to 
a word; as, adown, for down; beloved, for loved. 

3. Syncope is the omission of one or more letters in 
the middle of a word; as, ne'er, for never; slumbering, for 

4. Tmesis is the separation of a compound word by 
the insertion of a word between its parts; as, to us ward, 
for toward us; how high soever, for howsoever high. 

5. Apocope is the omission of the last letter or syllable 
of a w r ord; as, th\ for the; yond, for yonder. 

6. Paragoge is the addition of a letter or syllable to 
the end of a word; as, bounden, for bound; withouten, for 


7. Syneresis is the contraction of two syllables into 
one; as, donH, for do not; canH, for can not. 

8. XHeresis is the separation of two vowel letters 
which might otherwise form a diphthong or digraph; as, 
aerial, preeminent 

231. Figures of Syntax. 

1. Ellipsis is the omission of a word, phrase, or clause 
which is necessary to complete the construction of a sen- 

Note. — For examples of Ellipsis, see 1 190. 

2. Pleonasm is the use of more words than are 

Ex. — "I saw it with these eyes." "All ye inhabitants of the 
world, and dwellers on the earth" 

Rem. l. — Polysyndeton is the repetition of a conjunction ; as, 
" He is good, and wise, and generous." 

Rem. 2. — Asyndeton is the omission of connective words in a 

Ex. — "I came, I saw, I conquered;" "He is wise, honest, faith- 
ful ;" " We walked slowly, noiselessly, with bated breath." 

Rem. 3. — Anadiplosis is the use of the same word or expres- 
sion in the termination of one clause of a sentence, and at the 
beginning of the next. 

Ex. — "Has he a gust for blood? Blood shall fill his cup." 

Rem. 4. — Epizeuxis is the emphatic repetition of the same 
word or words. 

Ex. — Alone, alone, all, all alone, 

Alone on a wide, wide sea. — Coleridge. 

3. Enallage is the use of one part of speech, or of one 
form, for another. 

Ex. — We, for I; you, for thou; "Slow [slowly] rises worth;" 
" What is writ is writ." 


4. Hyperbaton is the transposition of words from the 
plain grammatical order. 

Ex. — "He wanders earth around;" "From peak to peak, the 
rattling crags among;" "Lightly from fair to fair he flew" 

5. Syllepsis is the agreement of one word with the 
figurative sense of another. 

Ex. — "The Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us: and 
we beheld his glory. 7 ' — John i, 14. "A dauntless soul erect, who 
smiles on death." — Thomson. 

6. Parenthesis is the insertion of a word or sentence 
between the parts of another sentence. 

Ex. — "Every planet, (for God has made nothing in vain,) is 
most probably inhabited." 

7. Zeugma is a figure by which an adjective or verb, 

which agrees with a nearer word, is referred to one more 


Ex. — "Lust overcame shame; boldness, fear; and madness, 

232. Figures of Rhetoric. 

1. Simile is an express or formal comparison. 
Ex. — Like a dog, he hunts in dreams. — Tennyson. 

Then felt I like some watcher of the skies 
When a new planet swims into his ken ; 

Or like stout Cortez, when with eagle eyes 
He stared at the Pacific. — Keats. 

2. Metaphor is the expression of similitude without 
the signs of comparison. 

Ex — "A flash of wit;" "A sea of troubles;" "The moralist is 
a scout for consequences;" "The wish is father to the thought." 

3. Personification consists in attributing life and 
mind to inanimate objects. 


Ex. — "O Winter! ruler of the inverted year;" "The earth 
mourneth and fadeth away." 

" Yes, the Year is growing old, 

And his eye is pale and bleared: 
Death j with frosty hand and cold, 
Plucks the old man by the beard, 
Sorely, sorely ! " — Longfellow. 

4. Allegory is a discourse in which one subject is de- 
scribed by another resembling it. 

Ex. — The Pilgrim's Progress; Spencer's Faerie Queene; Swift's 
Tale of a Tub ; The Vision of Mirza. 

Kem. 1. — A Fable is a short allegory. 

Ex. — ^Esop's and La Fontaine's Fables. Most fables are short 
stories about certain animals that are regarded as representatives of 
particular qualities ; as, the fox, of cunning ; the lion, of strength. 

Rem. 2. — A Parable is a relation of something real in nature 
from which a moral is drawn. 

Ex. — Parable of the Poor Man and his Lamb. — 2 Sam. xii, 1-5. 
Of the Sower.— Matt. xiii. Of the Ten Virgins.— Matt. xxv. 

5. Synecdoche is a figure by which the whole is put 
for a part, or a part for the whole; a species for a genus, 
or a genus for a species, &c. 

Ex. — Roof, for house or dwelling; bread, for food generally; 
cut-throat y for assassin. 

"Belinda smiled and all the world was gay." — Pope. 

Rem. l. — Antonomasia is the use of a proper name for a com- 
mon name, or the name of some office, rank, profession, trade, or 
peculiarity, instead of the true name of a people or class. 

Ex. — "He is a Buckeye" i. e., an Ohioan; "The Crescent City" 
i.e., New Orleans. 

"Some mute, inglorious Milton here may rest, 

Some Cromwell, guiltless of his country's blood." 

Rem. 2. — Euphemism is the substitution of a delicate word oi 
expression for one which is harsh or offensive. 


Ex. — Departed, gone to rest, fallen asleep, for dead; stopped payment, 
for become bankrupt; embezzlement, for theft. 

"Sleep had seized her senses. 
There did the traveler find her in the morning: 
Death had released her." — Southey. 

6. Metonymy is a change of names, or a figure by 
which one word is put for another. 

Ex. — Gray hairs, for old age; purse, for money ; fare, for a pas- 
senger ; city, for its inhabitants; "Ye devour widow's houses;" 
" They have Moses and the prophets." 

7. Antithesis is the opposition of words and sentiments 
contained in the same sentence. 

Ex. — "Excess of ceremony shows want of breeding;" "Wit 
laughs at things; Humor laughs with them." — Whipple. 

"Men may come and men may go, 
But I go on forever." — Tennyson. 

8. Epigram is a sentence in which the form of the 
language contradicts the meaning conveyed. 

Ex. — "I can not see the city for the houses." "Summer has 
set in with its usual severity." — Walpole. "Any thing awful 
always makes me laugh."- — Lamb. "Nothing so fallacious as 
facts, except figures." — Canning. "I believe it, because it is im- 

Rem. l. — The Epigram awakens attention by the seeming ir- 
relevance of the assertion, or by the form given to it. 

Rem. 3. — The Paronomasia, or Pun, is a play on the various 
meanings of the same word. 

Ex. — A friend of Curran, hearing a person near him say curosity 
instead of curiosity, exclaimed, "How that man murders the English 
language ! " " Not so bad," said Curran, " He has only knocked an 
* out." / 

Rem. 3 — The Conundrum is a sort of riddle, in which some 
odd resemblance between things unlike is proposed for dis- 

9. Hyperbole is an exaggeration of the meaning in- 


tended to be conveyed, by magnifying objects beyond their 
proper bounds. 

Ex. — "Bivers of water run down mine eyes because they keep 
not thy law." "The land flows with milk and honey." "The 
English gain two hours a day by clipping words." — Voltaire. 

10. Interrogation is the putting in the form of a 
question what is meant to be strongly affirmative. 

Ex. — " Canst thou by searching find out God ? " 
" Oh, who can hold a fire in his hand, 
By thinking on the frosty Caucasus? 
Or cloy the hungry edge of appetite 
By bare imagination of a feast?" — ShaJcspeare. 

11. Climax is an arrangement of the parts of a sen- 
tence, by which they are made to rise step by step in 
interest or importance. 

Ex. — " It is an outrage to bind a Eoman citizen ; to scourge him 
is an atrocious crime; to put him to death is almost a parricide; 
but to crucify him — what shall I call it?" — Cicero. 

Rem. — Anti-climax is any great departure from the order 
required in climax. 

Ex. — "That all-softening, overpowering knell, 

The tocsin of the soul — the dinner-nell."* — Byron, 
"Die, and endow a college or a cat." — Pope. 

12. Exclamation is the animated or impassioned ex- 
pression of sudden and intense emotion 

Ex. — " Oh, what a pity ! " "A horse, a horse, my kingdom for 
a horse ! " " Blow, winds, and crack your cheeks ! " 

13. Apostrophe is the turning away from the real 
auditory, and addressing an absent or imaginary one. 

Ex. — "Ye winds that wafted the Pilgrims to the land of 
promise, fan, in their children's hearts, the love of freedom!" — 

"Ye toppling crags of ice! 
Ye avalanches, whom a breath draws down, 
In mountainous overwhelming, come and crush me." — Byron. 


Rem. — Etypotyposis, or Vision, is a description of things in 
such strong and lively colors, as to bring the absent before the 
mind with the force of present reality. 

Ex. — " I see the rural virtues leave the land." — Goldsmith. 
"Greece cries to us by the convulsed lips of her poisoned, dying 
Demosthenes." — Everett. 

14. Innuendo is a covert suggestion of an author's 
meaning, instead of an open expression of it. 

Ex. — "What evil have I done that he should praise me?" 
"He did his party all the harm in his power: he spoke for it, and 
voted against it." 

15. Irony is a mode of expression by which what is 
said is contrary to what is meant. 

Ex. — " No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom will die 
with you." 

"And on our City Hall a justice stands : 
A neater form was never made of board; 
Holding majestically in her hands 

A pair of steelyards and a wooden sword, 
And looking down with complaisant civility — 
Emblem of dignity and durability," — HallecJc. 

Rem. — Sarcasm is a keen, reproachful, and scornful expression. 

Ex. — "Who but must laugh, if such a man there be? 

Who would not weep if Atticus were he ? " — Pope. 

16. litotes is a mode of expressing something by deny- 
ing the contrary. 

Ex. — "Nor are thy lips ungrateful, sire of men, 
Nor tongue inadequate: for God on thee 
Abundantly his gifts hath also poured." — Milton. 

17. Catachresis is wresting a word from its original 
signification, and making it express something at variance 
with its true meaning. 

Ex. — "Silver curling-irons;" "A glass ink-horn;" "Her voic© 
as but the shadow of a sound." — Young. 


233. Definition. 

1. Punctuation is the art of dividing written dis- 
course into sentences and parts of sentences, by means of 
points or marks. 

Rem. i. — Points are principally used for the purpose of ren- 
dering the sense more intelligible. They do not mark all the 
pauses made in reading, though a pause is generally made where 
a point is used. 

Rem. 2. — A change in the punctuation of a sentence, generally 
produces a change in the meaning. 

Ex. — John Keys the lawyer says he is guilty. 
John, Keys the lawyer says he is guilty. 
John Keys, the lawyer says he is guilty. 
" John Keys the lawyer," says he, "is guilty." 

2. The principal marks used in punctuation are the 
following : 

Comma, .... 
Semicolon, . . . 


Period, .... 
Interrogation Point, 

Exclamation Point, ! 

Dash, — 

Curves, ....() 
Brackets, . . . . [ ] 

234. The Comma. 

The Comma denotes the slightest degree of separation 
between the elements of a sentence. 

Rule I. — A complex subject, if long, should be sep- 
arated from the predicate by a comma. 

Ex.— The patriarchal church, inconsiderable in size and mean 
in decoration, stands on the outermost islet of the Venetian 
group. — Ruthin. 


Rule II. — A clause used as subject, if it ends with a 
verb, should be separated from the predicate by a comma. 

Ex. — 1. Whatever is, is right. 2. Whosoever perseveres, will 

Rule III. — Nouns and pronouns in the absolute case 
by pleonasm or direct address, should be separated from the 
rest of the sentence by commas. 

Ex. — 1. Our souls, how heavily they go, to reach immortal 
joys. 2. Take, O boatman, thrice thy fee. 3. Think of that, 
Master Brook. 

Rule IV. — Adjective, participial, appositive, and abso- 
lute phrases, should be separated from the context by 

Ex. — 1. Faithful to his promise, he assisted me in obtaining 
employment. 2. Having once lost the good opinion of our friends, 
it is difficult for us to reclaim it. 3. The maxim, M Enough is as 
good as a feast," has silenced many a vain wish. 4. The storm 
having ceased, we weighed anchor and set sail. 

Rem. i. — Nouns in apposition, unmodified, or modified by the 
only, are not separated by commas ; as, " The Emperor Nero was 
a cruel tyrant ;" " Thomson the poet was indolent." 

Rem. 2. — An appositive word or expression introduced by as or 
or, should be set off by a comma ; as, " So that he, as God, sitteth 
in the temple of God ;" " Maize, or Indian corn, is a staple produc- 
tion of the United States." 

Rule Vo — Transposed words, phrases, and clauses are 
usually set off by commas. 

Ex. — 1. Doubtless, the r%an is guilty: the evidence, however, 
is not conclusive. 2. Now, faith is the substance of things hoped 
for, the evidence of things not seen. 3. Integrity is, no doubt, the 
first requisite. 4. Whom ye ignorantly worship, Him declare I 
unto you. 

Rem. i. — A transposed objective element is not usually set off 
by a comma ; as, " That book he has never returned." 

Rem. 2. — When an inverted expression begins with it is or only, 
it is not set off by a comma; as, "It is a pleasant thing to see 


the sun;" "Only on slight occasions they felt disposed to be 


Rule VI. — Parenthetical words, phrases, and clauses 
should be separated from the rest of the sentence by 

Rem. — A parenthetical word or expression is one which is not 
essential to the grammatical construction of a sentence, but is 
required to express its full meaning. 

Ex. — 1. He invented, it is said, the theory of moral science. 
2. That excitement, too, was of the most dangerous kind. 3. Their 
great predecessors, it is true, were as bad critics as themselves. 

Rule VII. — Adverbs used independently, or modify- 
ing an entire proposition, should be set off by commas. 

Ex. — 1. Yea, the earth itself shall pass away. 2. Well, if this 
is law, I want no more of it. 3. Indeed, you must wait awhile. 

Rule VIII. — When a verb is omitted to avoid repe- 
tition, its place is usually supplied by a comma. 

Ex. — 1. One murder makes a villain; millions, a hero. 2. War 
is the law of violence ; peace, the law of love. 3. The young are 
slaves to novelty; the old, to custom; the middle-aged, to both; 
the dead, to neither. 

Rem. — There are many exceptions to this rule. The general 
practice is, to omit the comma unless clearness and precision 
demand its insertion; as, "Reading maketh a full man, confer- 
ence a ready man, and writing an exact man." — Bacon. 

Rule IX. — Antithetical words, phrases, and clauses 
should be separated by commas. 

Ex. — 1. Talent has many a compliment from the bench, but 
tact touches fees. 2. Strong proofs, not a loud voice, produce con- 
viction. 3. Though deep, yet clear ; though gentle, yet not dull. 

Rule X. — The members of compound sentences, when 
short and connected by conjunctions, should be separated 
by commas. 


Ex. — The simplicity of his character inspired confidence, the 
ardor of his eloquence roused enthusiasm, and the gentleness of his 
manners invited friendship. 

Rule XI. — Two correlative clauses should be separated 
by commas. 

Ex. — As the lightning that lighteneth out of the one part under 
heaven, shineth unto the other part under heaven, so shall the 
Son of Man be in his day. 

Rem. — Two correlative clauses, joined by as or than, should 
not be separated by a comma; as, "She is as old as he?" "A good 
name is rather to be chosen than great riches." 

Rule XIIo — The clauses of complex sentences should 
be separated by commas, unless the dependent clauses are 
very short and the connection very close. 

Ex. — 1, Men of great and stirring powers, who are destined to 
mold the age in which they are born, must first mold themselves 
upon it. — Coleridge. 2. I took notice, in particular, of a very 
profligate fellow, who, I did not question, came loaded with his 
crimes; but upon searching his bundle, I found that, instead of 
throwing his guilt from him, he had only laid down his memory.— 

Rule XIII. — When words are arranged in pairs, each 
couplet should be set off by commas. 

Ex. — 1. Hope and fear, pleasure and pain, diversify our lives. 
2. Sink or swim, live or die, I give my hand and my heart to 
this vote. 

Rule XIV. — Each term of a series of words in the 
same construction, should be set off by commas. 

Ex. — 1. War, peace, darts, spears, towns, rivers, every thing, in 
his writings, is alive. 

2. Sky, mountains, river, winds, lake, lightnings ! ye 
With night, and clouds, and thunder, and a soul 
To make these felt and feeling, w T ell may be 
Things that have made me watchful. — Byron. 

Rem — Two words, closely connected by a conjunction, should 
not be separated ; as, " Honor and fame from no condition rise." 


Rule XV. — The terms of a coordinate series, used as 
the antecedent of a relative pronoun, should be set off by 
commas, to show that the relative belongs equally to each 

Ex. — The oxygen, nitrogen, and carbonic acid, which unite to 
form the atmosphere, are mingled in unequal proportions. 

Rule XVI. — A direct quotation, separated by a principal 
clause, should be set off by commas. 

Ex. — 1. "Oh, Mr. Pickwick," said Mrs. Bardell, trembling with 
agitation, " you ? re very kind, sir." 2. " Sir," said Mr. Adams, 
"my definition of charity is, a generous disposition to relieve the 

Rule XVII. — A quoted sentence, a long infinitive phrase, 
or an indirect quotation, introduced by that, should usually 
be set off by a comma. 

Ex. — 1. He asked, "Why are you so melancholy?" 2. I have 
heard say of thee, that thou canst understand a dream to inter- 
pret it. 3. To correct such gross vices as lead us to commit a real 
injury to others, is the part of morals, and the object of the most 
ordinary education. — Hume. 

Rule XVIII. — Words repeated for emphasis should be 
set off by commas. 

Ex. — 1. Verily, verily, I say unto you. 2. "Treason, treason, 
treason," reechoed from every part of the house. 

Rule XIX. — Whenever ambiguity would arise from its 
omission, a comma should be inserted. 

Ex. — 1. I have a house with nine rooms, and out-buildings. 
2. He has seven yoke of oxen, and horses. 


Insert commas wherever required in these sentences: 

1. A man who does so care has a garment embroidered with 
hooks v/hich catches at every thing that passes by. 2. There were 
burly tradesmen with an air of quiet satisfaction sauntering about 
or leaning against railings. 3. Come Eollo — let us take a walk- 


4. Ill-sorted marriages will hardly bring agreement and from those 
of convenience will hardly come love. 5. We often commend as 
well as censure imprudently. 

6. The deaf and the blind and the lame were there. 7. The 
rich and the poor — the high and the loww-the learned and the un- 
learned — have access alike to this fountain of peace. 8. It shows 
a love breaking through the reserve and distance which we all feel 
to belong to the method of teaching us by his works alone. 9. I 
see then in revelation a purpose corresponding with that for which 
human teaching was instituted. 10. The oranges, lemons and figs 
which grow in the northern range of the Southern States are of an 
inferior quality. 

11. "Think you Abel" said Paul at last "that the storm drove 
thither?" 12. Yes, I am sure it is so. 13. As it was then so it is 
now. 14. If one burden can be borne so can another and another. 
15. He that seeketh findeth. 16. I lisped in numbers for the 
numbers came. 17. Concession is no humiliation nor admission of 
error any disgrace. 18. The idle want steadiness of purpose ; the 
indolent power of exertion. 19. It was said of Socrates that he 
brought philosophy down from heaven to dwell among men. 

20. " No no no," said she greatly agitated. 21. He plagues you 
with no doubts no half views no criticism. 22. Daniel Webster 
the great American statesman died at Marshfield Mass. 23. An 
indirect advantage but a very considerable one attendant upon 
various modes of recreation is that they provide opportunities of 
excelling in something to boys and men who are dull in things 
which form the staple of education. 

235. The Semicolon. 

The Semicolon denotes a degree of separation greater 
than that denoted by the comma. 

Rule I. — The semicolon should be used before as, 
namely, to wit, viz., introducing an example or an illus- 

Ex. — 1. One part only of an antithesis is sometimes expressed; 
as, "A friendly eye would never see such faults." 2. Some men 
distinguish the period of the world into four ages ; viz., the golden 
age, the silver age, the brazen age, and the iron age. 


Rule II. — The semicolon is used to separate the mem- 
bers of a compound sentence, when the connective is 

Ex. — The earth glows with the colors of civilization ; the banks 
of the stream are enameled with the richest grasses ; woodlands 
and cultivated fields are harmoniously blended ; the birds of spring 
find their delight in orchards and trim gardens, variegated with 
choicest plants from every temperate zone; while the brilliant 
flowers of the tropics bloom from the windows of the green-house 
and the saloon. — Bancroft. 

Rule III. — The members of a compound sentence, if 
long, or if their parts are set off by commas, should be 
separated by semicolons, even when joined by connectives. 

Ex — 1. And he gave some, apostles; and some, prophets; and 
some, evangelists ; and some, pastors and teachers. 2. I only know 
that I had been torn from my dromedary, borne along, and buried 
by the sand ; and that the young child was still in my arms.— 

Rule IV. — Successive clauses having a common depend- 
ence, should be separated by semicolons. 

Ex. — My imagination would conjure up all that I had heard or 
read of the watery world beneath me; of the finny tribes that 
roam in the fathomless valleys ; of shapeless monsters that lurk 
among the very foundations of the earth ; and those wild phan- 
tasms that swell the tales of fishermen and sailors. — Irving. 

Rem. — This rule applies, also, to a series of phrases, some one 
of which is composed of parts separated by commas ; as, " To be 
delivered from trouble ; to be relieved from power ; to see oppres- 
sion humbled ; to be freed from sickness and distress ; to lie down 
as in a bed of security, in a long oblivion of our woes ; to sleep 
in peace without the fear of interruption; — how pleasing the 

prospect ! " 


Rule V. — An inferential, contrasted, or explanatory 
clause, introduced by for, but, and, or an equivalent con- 
nective, is usually set off by a semicolon. 

Ex. — 1. Eejoice the soul of thy servant; for unto thee, O Lord, 


I lift up my soul. 2. The person he chanced to see, was, to ap- 
pearance, an old, sordid, blind man ; but upon his following him 
from place to place, he at last found, by his own confession, that 
he was Plutus, the god of riches, and that he was just come out 
of the house of a miser. 

Rem. — When the clauses are short, the semicolon is frequently 
replaced by the comma; as, "I go, but I return;''* "They had not 
come in search of gain, for the soil was sterile and unproductive." 


Insert semicolons wherever required in these sentences: 

1. A Scotch mist becomes a shower, and a shower, a flood, and 
a flood, a storm, and a storm, a tempest, and a tempest, thunder 
and lightning, and thunder and lightning, heaven-quake and 

2. And besides this, giving all diligence, add to your faith, 
virtue, and to virtue, knowledge, and to knowledge, temperance, 
and to temperance, patience, and to patience, godliness, and to 
godliness, brotherly kindness, and to brotherly kindness, charity. 

3. Wit is abrupt, darting, scornful, and tosses its analogies in 
your face, Humor is slow and shy, insinuating its fun into your 
heart. 4. An enigma is a dark saying, an obscure question, a 

5. I take no notice of his brutal conduct, I do not speak of his 
treachery and malice. 6. Never value yourself upon your fortune 
for this is the sign of a weak mind. 7. He has two farms namely 
a large one and a small one. 

236. The Colon. 

The Colon denotes a degree of separation greater than 
that indicated by the semicolon. 

Rule I. — The colon should be used after the formal 
introduction to a speech, a course of reasoning, a lengthy 
quotation, or an enumeration of particulars. 

Ex. — 1. Then closing the book, he proceded in a lower tone: 
" The philosophers of whom you have read in the dictionary, pos- 
sessed this wisdom only in part, because they were heathens." 


2. The reason of things, also, doth help to explain these words, 
and to show why they are prohibited : because these harsh terms 
are needless ; because they are commonly unjust : because they are 
uncharitable ; because, also, they produce mischievous effects, 

3. Be our plain answer this : the throne we honor is the people's 
choice; the laws we reverence are our brave father's legacy; the 
faith we follow teaches us to live in bonds -of charity with all 
mankind, and die with hope of bliss beyond the grave. 

Rule I!* — The colon should be used before an explan- 
atory remark, or one which presents the meaning of the 
preceding sentence in another form. 

Ex. — 1. All reasoning is retrospective : it consists in the appli- 
cation of facts and principles previously known. 2. By degrees he 
infuses into it the poison of his own ambition : he breathes into it 
the fire of his own courage. 

Rule III. — The members of a compound sentence, 
whose parts are phrases or clauses set off by semicolons^ 
should be separated by colons. 

Ex. — We do not say that his error lies in being a good mem- 
ber of society; this, though only a circumstance at present, is a 
very fortunate one: the error lies in his having discarded the 
authority of God, as his legislator; or, rather, in his not having 
admitted the influence of that authority over his mind, heart, or 


Insert colons wherever required in these sentences: 

1. There are five senses, sight, hearing, feeling, taste, and smell. 
2. The discourse consisted of two parts, in the first was shown 
the necessity of exercise ; in the second, the advantages that would 
result from it. 3. Men's evil manners live in brass, their virtues 
we write in water. 4. Write on your slates the following example, 
the lake is very deep. 

5. He sunk to repose where the red heaths are blended ; 
One dream of his childhood his fancy passed o'er, 
But his battles are fought, and his march it is ended ; 
The sound of the bagpipe shall wake him no more. 


237. The Period. 

The Period denotes the greatest degree of separation. 

Rule I. — The period should be placed at the end of a 

declarative or imperative sentence. 

Ex. — 1. Contrivance proves design. 2. Study diligently. 

Rem. — A period is sometimes placed at the end of the first of 
two or more complete sentences joined by conjunctions; as, "See- 
ing, then, that these things can not be spoken against, ye ought 
to be quiet, and to do nothing rashly. For ye have brought 
hither these men, who are neither robbers of churches, nor yet 
blasphemers of your goddess." 

Rule II. — The period should be placed at the end of 
every abbreviated word. 

Ex.— 1. H. M. Swainson, Esq., b. Feb. 10, 1757, d. Ap. 3, 1812. 
2. See Ms., pp. 5 and 6. 

Rem. l. — The period, thus used, is a part of the abbreviation. 
Except at the end of a sentence, the point required by the con- 
struction should be used after it ; as, " Sir Humphrey Davy, 
F. K. S., &c. ;" "Ohio is bounded N. by Mich, and L. E. ; E. by 
Pa. and Va.; S. by Va. and Ky. ; W. by Ind." 

Bern. 2. — Some proper names, though shortened, should not be 
regarded as abbreviations; as, "Tom Moore ;" "Will Shak- 
speare;" " rare Ben Jonson." 

Sem. 3. — Such expressions as 4to, 8vo, 12mo, 1st, 2d, 3d, 5's, 
IPs, 4°, 7', &c, are not abbreviations. The figures supply the 
place of the first letters of the words, and the signs or indices 
supply the place of words. 

Rem. 4. — The period should be placed before decimals, and 
between the denominations of sterling money; as, $35.75; 
£5. 125. 6d. 

Rem. 5. — The period should always be placed after letters used 
as numerals ; as, Ps. lxxv., 6, 7. ; George III., King of England. 

Rem. 6. — The period should be placed at the end of titles, 
headings, &c. ; as, " Concerning Veal." " Hopkins & Co." " The 
Preposition." " Chap. XXVII." 
H. G. 21/ 


Insert periods wherever required in these sentences: 

1. It was a past that never was present 2. By indignities men 
come to dignities 3. D. K, Merwin Esq was chosen chairman 
4. H C Cartwright b A D 1825, d Feb 2, 1854 5. See Eev xii 11. 
6. Chapter XX I IV Part II 7. It cost in London, £6, 7s, 8d. 

238. The Interrogation Point. 

The Interrogation Point denotes that a question is 

Rule I. — The interrogation point should be used at the 
end of an interrogative sentence. 

Ex. — 1. Were you there? 2 By whom was this extraordinary 
work of art executed ? 

Rem. l. — When a question is composed of several parts, and 
when several questions are contained in one sentence, one answer 
only being required, the interrogation point is placed only at the 
end ; as, " By whom is this profession praised, but by wretches 
who consider him as subservient to their purposes ; sirens that 
entice him to shipwreck ; and cyclops that are gaping to devour 

Rem. 2. — The interrogation point should be used after each 
successive particular of a series of questions, related in sense, but 
distinct in construction; as, "Why was the French revolution so 
bloody and destructive? Why was our revolution of 1641 com- 
paratively mild? .Why was our revolution of 1688 milder still? 
Why was the American revolution, considered as an internal 
movement, the mildest of all?" 

239. The Exclamation Point. 

The Exclamation Point denotes passion or emotion. 

Rule I. — The exclamation point should be placed after 
expressions denoting strong emotion. 

Ex. — 1. Avaunt, thou witch! 2. Mercy, sir, how the folks will 
talk of it ! 3. Alas, poor Yorick I 


Rem.— The exclamation point should not be used after inter- 
jections closely connected with other words, but at the end of 
each expression of which the interjections form a part; as, "Fie 
upon you!" "All hail, ye patriots brave!" 


Insert the points required in these sentences: 

1. What did my father's godson seek your life He whom my 
father named 2. See there behold look lo if I stand here I saw 
him 3. Is this a vision Is this a dream Do I sleep Master Ford 
awake awake 4. What is civilization — where is it — what does it 
consist in — by what is it excluded — where does it commence — 
where does it end — by what sign is it known — how is it denned — 
in short, what does it mean 

240. The Bash. 

The Bash is a straight, horizontal line, placed between 
the parts of a sentence. 

Rule I. — The dash should be used where there is a 
sudden break or stop in a sentence, or a change in its 
meaning or construction. 

Ex. — 1. Dim — dim — I faint — darkness comes over my eyes. 
2. It glitters awhile — and then melts into tears. 3. He stamped 
and he stormed — then his language ! — Oh, dear ! 4. Miss frowned, 
and blushed, and then was — married. 5. The flowers, the fruits, 
the birds, the woods, the waters, the course, the vicissitudes, and 
the vast phenomena of nature, created, regulated, and preserved by 
the mighty hand of an Omnipotent Being — all are legitimate and 
reasonable sources of enjoyment, within the reach of every rational 
being. — Paulding. 

Rule II. — The dash is frequently used before words 
repeated in an emphatic manner. 

Ex. — 1. Why should I speak of his neglect — neglect did I say? 
call it rather contempt. 2. The consequences which resulted from 
the events of that day, to us, to this continent, and to the world — 
consequences which we know must continue, and rain their innu- 


ence on the destinies of mankind to the end of time, surpass all 
the most arduous study of the closet, and even the inspiration of 
genius. — Webster. 

Rule III. — The dash is frequently placed both before 
and after a parenthesis — the curves being omitted. 

Ex. — They see three of the cardinal virtues of dog or man — 
courage, endurance, and skill — in intense action. 

Rein. — A comma should precede each dash used to set off a 
parenthetical expression; as, "The archetypes, the ideal forms of 
things without, — if not, as some philosophers have said, in a meta- 
physical sense, yet in a literal one, — exist within us." 

Note. — An interrogation or an exclamation point should pre- 
cede the second dash, when the parenthetical expression is a 
question or denotes emotion. 

Rule IV. — The dash is often used where there is an 
omission of letters or figures, or of words commonly used 
to introduce an enumeration of particulars. 

Ex. — 1. L— d B — n; i. e., Lord Byron. 2. Ps. xxxv., 6 — 10; i. e., 
Ps. xxxv., 6, 7, 8, 9, 10. 3. Amongst us men, these three things 
are a large part of our virtues, — to endure, to forgive, and our- 
selves to get pardon. 4. He looked like his works, — nimble, 
vigorous, and gentle; open, and yet reserved; seeing every thing, 
saying not much; capable of heartiest mirth, but generally 
quiet. — Dr. Brown. 

241. The Marks of Parenthesis. 

The Curves include an expression which has no neces- 
sary connection, in sense or construction, with the sentence 
in which it is inserted. 

Rem. — Such an expression is called a parenthesis. 

Rule. — The curves should include those words which 
may be omitted without injury to the sense, or without 
affecting the grammatical construction of the sentence. 

Ex.— 1. Shall we continue (alas, that I should be constrained 


to ask the question!) in a course so dangerous to health, so 
enfeebling to mind, so destructive to character? 

2. The tuneful Nine (so sacred legends tell) 

First waked their heavenly lyre these scenes to tell! 

Rem. 1. — When any point is required after the word preceding 
a parenthesis, it should be placed after the second curve; as, "My" 
gun was on my arm (as it always is in that district), but I let the 
stoat kill the rabbit/ ' 

But, should the parenthesis be a question, or an exclamatory 
expression, the point should be placed before the first curve, and 
that which belongs to the parenthesis before the second; as, " She 
had managed this matter so well, (oh, she was the most artful of 
women !) that my father's heart was gone before I suspected it was 
in danger." 

Rem. a. — The words included by the curves should be punc- 
tuated as an independent expression; as, 

" The Frenchman, first in literary fame, 
(Mention him, if you please. Voltaire? — The same.) 
With spirit, genius, eloquence supplied, 
Lived long, wrote much, laughed heartily, and died." 

Rem. 3. — The curves sometimes include letters or figures used 
to enumerate subjects or divisions of a subject, treated of in didactic 
or scientific works; as, "(a.) What it does; (b.) What it is." 
"The beds of the Jackson epoch, or Upper Eocene, are (1) Lig- 
nitic clay; (2) White and blue marls, the former often indurated." 
They are also used to include references; as, "(See page 21.)" 
"(§V., Eem. 7.)" "(247, a., 6.)" 

Insert the dash and the curves wherever required in these sentences: 

1. He had a large blunt head; his muzzle black as night, his 
mouth blacker than any night ; a tooth or two, being all he had, 
gleaming out of his jaws of darkness. 2. The faithful man acts not 
from impulse but from conviction, conviction of duty, the most 
stringent, solemn, and inspiring conviction that can sway the 

3. Know ye not, brethren, for I speak to them that know the 
law, that the law hath dominion over a man as long as he 


4. The Egyptian style of architecture see Dr. Pocock, not his 
discourses, but his prints was apparently the mother of the Greek. 

242. Brackets. 

Brackets are used to inclose words, phrases, and clauses 
explanatory of what precedes them, or to correct an error. 

Ex. — 1. They [the Indians] are fast disappearing. 2. I wish 
you would do like [as] I do. 

243. Other Marks Used in Writing. 

I. The Apostrophe [ 9 ] is used to denote the omission 
of one or more letters, or to mark the possessive case. 

Ex. — 1. You're overwatched, my lord. 2. Variety's the very 
spice of life. 3. The King's English. 4. Webster's Dictionary. 

Rem. — The apostrophe is also used in forming the plurals of 
letters, figures, marks, &c. ; as, " Dot your i's and cross your tf's." 
"Cast out the 9's." "fs and ?'s." 

II. The Hyphen [ - ] is used (1) to join the parts 
of compound words and expressions; (2) to divide words 
into syllables; (3) after a syllable at the end of a line, when 
the rest of the word is carried to the next line. 

Ex. — 1. Heaven-born band. 2. Thou many-headed monster 
thing. — Scott. 3. He is my father-in-law, and always wears a pep- 
per-and-salt suit. 4. Com-mu-ni-ca-tive-ness. 

III. The Quotation Marks [ " " ] are used to show 
that a passage is taken verbatim from some author. 

Ex — Cowper says, " Slaves can not breathe in England." 

Rem. — A quotation included within another should be preceded 
by a single inverted comma and closed by a single apostrophe ; as, 
" ' War, war,' is still the cry, ' war even to the knife.' " 

IV. The Index [ ^iP* ] and Asterism [ %.* ] point 
out a passage to which special attention is directed; as, 
"tig^ Do not forget the time and place of meeting." 


V. The Asterisk [ * ] , the Obelisk, or J>agger, 

[ t L tne ® oufele I>agger [ J ], the Section [ § ], the 
Parallels [ ] , and the Paragraph [ ^[ ] refer to notes 
in the margin, or at the bottom of the page. 

Rem. — Lower case letters and figures7 of a smaller size, or 
letters and figures included in curves, are used for reference 

VI. A long dash. [ ] or several asterisks 

[ * * * * ] denote the omission of letters in a word, of 
words in a sentence, or sentences in a paragraph. 

Ex Miss M *'* * * n. Mr. A -h. 

VII. The Brace [ ,~ A — n ] connects a number of 
words with a common term. 

VIII. The Paragraph [ % ] denotes the beginning 
of a new subject. 

IX. The Section [ § ] denotes the divisions of a 

X. The Tilde [ n ], — a Spanish mark placed over n, — 
annexes to it the sound of y; as, canon, pronounced 

XI. The Cedilla [ § ], — a French mark, joined to 
c, — gives to this letter the sound of s; as, fagade. 

XII. The Caret [ a ] is used in writing, to show that 
some letter, word, or phrase has been omitted. 

a not countries 

Ex. — The sesons are alike in all of the same region. 

A A A 

XIII. The Macron [ ~ ] marks a long sound, as in 
lone; the Breve [*.■], a short sound, as in not; the 
IHeresis [ •• ] separates two vowels into two syllables, as 


XIV. The Acute Accent [ x ] commonly denotes a 
sharp sound; the l^rave Accent [ v ], a depressed sound; 
the Circumflex Accent [ ^ or ^ ], a broad sound. 

Rem. — In most works on elocution, the acute accent denotes 
the rising inflection; the grave accent, the falling inflection; the 
circumflex, a union of the acute and the grave. 


Note to Teachers. — Exercises in punctuation may be selected 
from the Eeaders in general use. Require pupils to give rules or cite 
remarks for the use of all the points they may find. Select, also, pas- 
sages from good authors, and pronounce the words in consecutive order, 
slowly and distinctly, as in a spelling lesson, without indicating the 
grammatical construction by tone or inflection. Require pupils to 
write these as pronounced, and to separate them into sentences and 
parts of sentences by the proper points. 

Punctuate properly the following examples, and observe ike rules for 

the use of capitals: 

the noonday sun came slanting down the rocky slopes of la 
riccia and its masses of entangled foliage whose autumnal tints 
were mixed with the wet verdure of a thousand evergreens were 
penetrated with it as with rain I can not call it color it was con- 
flagration purple and crimson ana scarlet like the curtain of God's 
tabernacle the rejoicing trees sank into the valley in showers of 
light every separate leaf quivering with buoyant and burning life 
each as it turned to reflect or to transmit the sunbeam first a 
torch and then an emerald. rushin 

What tubero did that naked sword of yours mean in the battle 
of pharsalia at whose breast was its point aimed what was then 
the meaning of your arms your spirit your eyes your hands your 
ardor of soul what did you desire* what wish for I press the 
youth too much he seems disturbed let me return to myself I 
too bore arms on the same side cicero 

presently my soul grew stronger hesitating then no longer 
sir said I or madam truly your forgiveness I implore 
but the fact is I was napping and so gently you came rapping 
and so faintly you came tapping tapping at my chamber door 
that I scarce was sure I heard you here I opened wide the door 
darkness there and nothing more poe 



2M. Definitions. 

1. Prosody treats of the quantity of syllables, of 
accent, and of the laws of versification. 

2. A Terse is a line consisting of a certain number of 
accented and unaccented syllables, disposed according to 
metrical rules. 

3. Versification is the art of metrical composition. 

4. Discourse is written either in Prose or Verse. 

5. Prose is discourse written in language as ordinarily 
used, having reference, mainly, to a clear and distinct state- 
ment of the author's meaning. 

6. Poetry is discourse written in metrical language. 
Its aim is to please, by addressing the imagination and the 

7. Poetry is written either in Rhyme or in Blank Verse. 

8. Rhyme is a correspondence of sound in the last 
syllables of two or more lines, succeeding each other im- 
mediately, or at no great distance. 

Ex. — "Onward its course the present keeps; 
Onward the constant current sweeps." 

Rem. 1. — Perfect rhymes require, (1) that the syllables be ac- 
cented, and that the vowel sounds be the same; (2) that the 
sounds following the vowels be the same; (3) that the sounds 
preceding the vowels be different. 

Ex. — Talk and walk, town and crown are perfect rhymes. Breathe 
and teeth, home and conic are imperfect rhymes. 


Rem. 2. — A single rhyme is an accented syllable standing alone 
at the end of a line ; as, mind, refined. 

A double rhyme consists of an accented syllable, followed by 
an unaccented one ; as, dreaming, seeming. 

A triple rhyme consists of an accented syllable, followed by 
two unaccented ones ; as, fearfully, cheerfully. 

Rem. 3. — A couplet, or distich, consists of two lines rhyming 

A triplet consists of three lines rhyming together. 

Rem. 4. — Middle rhyme is that which exists between the last 
accented syllables of the two sections of a verse or line. 

Ex.- — " We were the first that ever burst 
Into that silent sea."- — Coleridge. 

" Come weal, come woe, we '11 gather and go, 
And live and die wi' Charlie." — Burns. 

9. Blank Verse is verse without rhyme. 

Ex. — "The primal duties shine aloft, like stars; 

The charities that soothe, and heal, and bless, 
Are scattered at the feet of man, like flowers." 

Rem. — In blank verse, every line should end with an impor- 
tant word. 

10. A Stanza is a group of lines forming a division 
of a poem. 

245. Poetic Feet. 

1. A Foot is a certain portion of a line in poetry, 
combined according to accent. 

2. Accent is a stress of voice on a certain syllable of 
a word or foot. 

Rem. l. — In Greek and Latin, verse is made according to the 
quantity of syllables ; i.e., the relative time employed in pronounc- 
ing them. A long syllable requires twice the time in uttering it 
that a short one requires. 


In English, verse is composed wholly according to accent. An 
accented syllable is considered long ; an unaccented syllable, short. 

Rem. 2. — In poetry, monosyllables receive accent. 
Ex. — " And to' | and /ro 7 , | and m 7 | and out/ 
The wan 7 | stars danced 7 | between." 

3. The principal feet used in English verse, are the 
Iambus, the Trochee, the Pyrrhic, the Spondee, the Ana- 
pest, the Dactyl, and the Amphibrach. 

Rem. — In the formulas, an accented, or long syllable, is repre- 
sented by a; an unaccented, or short syllable, by u. 

4. The Iambus consists of an unaccented and an ac- 
cented syllable. Its formula is ua. 

Ex. — "A mind 7 | not to 7 | be changed 7 | by place 7 | or time 7 ." 

5. The Trochee consists of an accented and an unac- 
cented syllable. Its formula is a u. 

Ex — " Eu 7 in | seize 7 thee, | ruth 7 less | king'." 

6. The Spondee consists of two accented syllables. 
Its formula is a a. 

iTx. — "Kocks 7 , caves 7 , | lakes 7 , fens 7 , | bogs 7 , dens 7 , | and 
shades 7 [ of death 7 ." 

7. The Pyrrhic consists of two unaccented syllables. 
Its formula is u u. 

Rem. — The pyrrhic is sometimes used in iambic verse, to avoid 
accenting an unimportant word. 

Ex.— "What could 7 | be less 7 ] than to | afford 7 | him praise 7 ?" 

Instead of resting on a short syllable, the accent is sometimes 
allowed to pass to the first syllable of the next foot, making that 
foot a spondee. 

Ex. — "Of the ) low, sun 7 - | set clouds 7 , | and the | blue 7 sky 7 ." 

8. The Anapest consists of two unaccented and an 
accented syllable. Its formula is u u a. 

Ex. — "All at once 7 | and all o'er 7 | with a might 7 - | y uproar 7 ." 


9. The Dactyl consists of one accented and two unac- 
cented syllables. Its formula is a u u. 

Ex. — "Heed 7 not the | corpse 7 , though a | king's 7 , in your | 
path 7 ." 

10. The Amphibrach consists of one unaccented, 
one accented, and one unaccented syllable. Its formula 
is u a u. 

Ex. — "A pret 7 ti- | er din 7 ner | I nev 7 er | set eyes 7 on." 

11. A long or accented syllable used as one foot is called 
a Caesura. 

Ex.— Gold 7 , | gold 7 , | gold 7 , | gold 7 ! 

Hea 7 vy to | get 7 and | light 7 to | hold 7 .— Hood. 

12. A foot of three unaccented syllables is called a Tri- 
brach. It is rarely found in English poetry. 

Rem. l. — The iambus and the anapest, — the accent falling on 
the same part of the foot in each, — are interchangeable feet. 

Ex. — "There were grace 7 - | ful heads 7 , | with their ring 7 - | lets 
bright 7 , 
Which tossed 7 | in the breeze 7 , | with a play 7 | of light 7 ." 

Rem. 2. — For a similar reason, the trochee and the dactyl are 
sometimes used promiscuously. 

Ex. — "Joy 7 to the | spirit | came 7 , 

Through 7 the wide | rent 7 in | Time's e- | tergal | veil 7 ." 

Rem. 3. — The following lines by Coleridge will assist in remem- 
bering the character of the different kinds of feet : 

"Tro 7 cliees | trip 7 from | long 7 to | short 7 . 
From long 7 | to long 7 , | in sol 7 - I emn sort 7 , 
Slow 7 Spon 7 | <lee 7 stalks 7 ; | strong foot 7 , yet | ill 7 able 
Ev 7 er to | come 7 up with | B>ac 7 tyl tri-, | syllable. 
lam' | bics march 7 | from short 7 | to long 7 . 
With a leap 7 | and a bound 7 , | the swift An 7 | apests throng 7 . 
One syl 7 la- ( ble long 7 , with | one short 7 at | each side 7 
Amphi 7 brach- | ys hastes 7 with | a state 7 ly stride." 


246. Kinds of Terse. 

1. Verse is named from the kind of foot which pre- 
dominates in a line; as, the Iambic, from the iambus; the 
Trochaic, from the trochee; the Anapestic, from the ana- 
.pest; the Dactylic, from the dactyl. 

2. A verse containing one foot is called a Monometer; 
one containing two, a Dimeter; one containing three, a 
Trimeter; one containing four, a Tetrameter; one con- 
taining five, a Pentameter; one containing six, a Hex- 
ameter; one containing seven, a Heptameter; and one 
containing eight, an Odometer. 

3. Verse, therefore, may be Iambic Monometer, Iambic Dimeter, 
&c. ; Trochaic Monometer, Trochaic Dimeter, &c. ; Anapestic Mono- 
meter, Anapestic Dimeter, &c; Dactylic Monometer, Dactylic Di- 
meter, &c. 

4. A verse or foot in which a syllable is wanting at the 
end, is called catalectic: a frill verse or foot is called acata- 
lectic: a verse or foot in which a syllable is wanting at the 
beginning, is called acephalous : a line which has a redun- 
dant syllable at the end, is called hypermeter, or hyper- 

247. Poetic Pauses. 

1. There are two pauses in every verse: a Final and 
a Ccesural. 

2. The Final Pause is a pause made at the end of 
a line, in reading. 

Rem. — Some kinds of verse can be distinguished from prose 
only by means of the final pause. This pause should always be 
observed in reading verse, even when not required by the gram- 
matical construction. 

3. The Csesural Pause is a pause in a verse. 


Rem. — The csesural pause is a natural suspension of the voice 
in reading. The shorter kinds of verse are without it. Its natural 
place is near the middle of the line ; but the sense often requires 
that it be placed elsewhere. In well-constructed verse, it always 
occurs where the thought requires a pause. 

Ex. — "Warms in the sun, || refreshes in the breeze, 

Glows in the stars, || and blossoms in the trees." — Pope. 

"And now |] my tongue the secret tells." 

"And on the sightless eyeballs || pour the day." 


Show the place of the ccesural pause in the following : 

Many are poets who have never penned 

Their inspirations, and, perchance, the best. 
They felt, and loved, and died, but would not lend 

Their thoughts to meaner beings ; they compressed 
The God within them, and rejoined the stars 

Unlaurerd upon earth, but far more bless'd 
Than those who are degraded by the jars 

Of passion, and their frailties linked to fame, 
Conquerors of high renown, but full of scars. — Byron. 

248. Iambic Measures. 

1. Iambic Monometer , 

Invite 7 , 
Delight 7 . 

2. Iambic Dimeter . . . . u a X 2 

And called 7 | the brave 7 
To blood 7 - | y grave 7 . 

3. Iambic Trimeter waX3. 

What sought 7 | they thus 7 | afar 7 ? 
Bright jew 7 - | els of 7 | the mind 7 ? 

4. Iambic Tetrameter . . . . u a X 4. 

Majes 7 | tic mon 7 - | arch of 7 | the cloud 7 ! 
Who rear'st 7 | aloft 7 | thy re 7 - j gal form 7 . 

5. Iambic Pentameter . . . . u a X 5. 

O then 7 , | meth ought 7 , | what pain 7 | it was 7 | to drown 7 I 
What dread 7 - | ful noise 7 | of wa 7 - | ters in 7 | my ears 7 1 


Rem. — This is often called Heroic Measure, because epic or 
heroic poetry is written in it. Khymed iambic pentameter is some- 
times called Heroic €onplet. 

6. Iambic Hexameter . . . . u a X 6. 

Then from 7 | her bur 7 - | nished gate 7 , | the good 7 -ly glit'- 1 

tering East 7 
Gilds ev 7 - \ ery loft 7 - | y top 7 , | which late / | the hu 7 - j mor- 

ous Night 7 
Bespan 7 - | gled had 7 | with pearl 7 , | to please [ the Morn 7 - 1 

ing's sight 7 . 

Rem. — This verse is called Alexandrine. 

7. Iambic Heptameter . . . . u a X 7. 

How hard 7 | when those 7 | who do 7 | not wish 7 | to lend 7 , | 

thus lose 7 , | their books 7 , - 
Are snared 7 | by an 7 - | glers, — folks 7 | that fish 7 | with lit 7 - [ 

era 7 - | ry hooks 7 ! 

8. Long Meter is iambic tetrameter, arranged in stanzas of 
four lines, rhyming in couplets or alternately. 

Ex. — Praise God 7 | from whom 7 | all bless 7 - | ings flow 7 : 
Praise him 7 | all creat 7 - | ures here 7 I below 7 ; 
Praise him 7 | above 7 , | ye heaven 7 - | ly host 7 ; 
Praise Fath 7 - | er, Son 7 , | and Ho 7 - | ly Ghost 7 . 

9. Common Meter is a stanza of four iambic lines, the first 
and third being tetrameter, the second and fourth, trimeter. 

' Ex. — Come let 7 | us join 7 | our cheer 7 - | ful songs, 7 
With an 7 - | gels round 7 | the throne 7 : 
Ten thou 7 - | sand thou 7 - | sand are 7 | their tongues'', 
But all 7 | their joys 7 | are one 7 . 

10. Snort Meter is a stanza of four iambic lines, the first, 
second, and fourth being trimeter, the third, tetrameter. 

Ex. — There sin 7 | and sor 7 - j row cease 7 , 

And ev 7 - | ery con 7 - j flict's o'er 7 ; 
There we 7 | shall dwell 7 [ in end 7 -.| less peace 
Nor thirst 7 | nor hun 7 - j ger more 7 

11. Hallelujah Meter is a stanza of six iambic lines, the first 
four being trimeter, the last two, tetrameter. 


Ex. — Now may 7 | the king 7 | descend 7 , 

And fill 7 | his throne 7 | of grace 7 ; 
Thy seep 7 - | ter, Lord 7 ! | extend 7 , 

While saints 7 | address 7 | thy face 7 : 
Let sin'- | ners feel 7 | thy quick 7 - | 'ning word 7 , 
And learn 7 | to know 7 | and fear 7 | the Lord 7 . 

Rem. — The last two lines are frequently separated into four, 
containing two iambics each. 

12. Gay's stanza has the formula u a X 3 + for the odd lines; 
for the even, lines, u a X 3. 

Ex. — 'T was when 7 | the sea 7 | was roar'- | ing 
With hoi 7 - | low blasts 7 | of wind 7 , 
A dam 7 - | sel lay 7 | deplor 7 - | ing 
All on 7 -|*a rock 7 | reclined 7 . — Gay. 

13. Bnrns's Stanza consists of six lmes, having the formula 
waX4 for the first, second, third, and fifth, and uaX2 for the 
fourth and sixth. 

Ex. — Some hint 7 | the lov 7 - | ers harm 7 - | less wile 7 ; 
Some grace 7 | the maid 7 - | en's art 7 - | less smile 7 ; 
Some soothe 7 | the la 7 - | b'rer's wea 7 - | ry toil 7 , 

For hum 7 - | ble gains 7 , 
And make 7 | his cot 7 - | tage scenes 7 | beguile 7 

His cares 7 | and pains 7 . — Burns. 

13. Byron's Stanza, (the Ottava Rima of the Italians,) consists 
of eight lines, the first six rhyming alternately, the last two, in 
couplets. Its formula is usually ua><5. 

Ex. — 'T is sweet 7 | to hear 7 | the watch 7 - | dog's hon 7 - | est bark 7 
Bay deep- 7 | mouth'd wel 7 - | come as 7 | we draw 7 | near 
home 7 ; 
'T is sweet 7 | to know 7 | there is 7 | an eye 7 | will mark' 

Our com 7 | ing, and 7 | look bright 7 - | er when 7 | we come'; 
'T is sweet 7 | to be' | awak 7 - | en'd by 7 | the lark 7 , 

Or lull'd 7 | by fall 7 - | ing wa 7 - | ters ; sweet 7 | the hum 7 
Of bees 7 , | the voice 7 | of girls 7 , | the song' ) of birds 7 , 
The lisp 7 | of chil 7 - | dren, and 7 | their ear 7 - | liest words 7 . 

14. The Elegiac Stanza consists of four iambic lines, rhyming 
alternately, with the formula «aX5. ^ 


Ex. — The cur 7 - | few tolls 7 | the knell 7 | of part 7 - | ing day / ; 

The low 7 - | ing herds / | wind slow / - | ly o'er 7 | the lea 7 ; 

The plow 7 - | man home 7 - | ward plods 7 | his wea 7 - | ry way 7 ; 

And leaves 7 | the world 7 | to dark 7 - | ness and 7 | to me 7 . 


15. The Spenserian stanza (so called because invented by 
Spenser, author of the Fairy Queen , which poem is written in 
this stanza,) consists of nine iambic lines, the first eight having 
the formula m«X5, the last, w a X 6 ; the first and third rhym- 
ing ; the second, fourth, fifth, and seventh ; and the sixth, eighth, 
and ninth. 

Ex. — A lit 7 - | tie low 7 - | ly her 7 - | mitage 7 | it was 7 

Down in 7 | a dale 7 , | hard by 7 | a for 7 - | est's side 7 , 
Far from 7 | resort 7 | of peo 7 - | pie that 7 | did pass 7 
In trav 7 - | el to 7 | and fro 7 : | a lit 7 - | tie wide 7 
There was 7 , | a ho 7 - | ly chap 7 - | el ed 7 - | ified 7 , 
Wherein 7 | the her 7 - | mit du 7 - | ly wont 7 | to say 
His ho 7 - j ly things 7 | each morn 7 | and ev 7 - | en-tide 7 ; 
Thereby 7 ! a crys 7 - | tal stream 7 j did gen 7 - | tly play 7 , 
Which from 7 ] a sa 7 -J cred fount 7 -) ain well 7 - j ed forth 7 1 alway 7 . 


16. A Sonnet is a poem complete in fourteen iambic lines. 
Its formula is «aX5. 

17. Iambic Hypermeters. 

«o+ Relent 7 - j ing. 

it a X 2 + * Thine eye 7 - | lids quiv 7 - | er. 

waX3+ 'T is sweet 7 | to love 7 | in child 7 - | hood. 

«oX4+ . . . . What seek 7 1 ye from 7 1 the fields 7 | of heav 7 - | en? 
u a X 5 + . . The air 7 | is full 7 | of fare 7 - | well to 7 j the dy 7 - 1 ing. 
«cX6+ . Thine eye 7 | Jove's light 7 - | ning seems 7 , I thy voice 7 | 

his dread 7 - | ful thun 7 - | der. 
u a X 7 + I think 7 | I will 7 | not go 7 | with you 7 | to hear 7 | the 
toasts 7 ! and speech 7 - | es. 

249. Trochaic Measures. 

1. Trochaic Monometer 

Rang 7 ing. 

H. G. 22. 

Trochaic Dimeter . . . a u X 2. 
Hope 7 is | vanished, 
Joys 7 are | ban 7 ished. 


3. Trochaic Trimeter au X 3. 

Then 7 let | mem /, ry | bring 7 thee 
Strains 7 I | used 7 to j sing 7 thee. 

4. Trochaic Tetrameter . . . . a u X 4. 

Tell 7 me | not 7 in | mourn 7 ful | num 7 bers, 
Life 7 is | but 7 an | emp 7 ty | dream 7 . 

5. Trochaic Pentameter . . . . a u X 5. 

Nar 7 rowing | in 7 to | where 7 they \ sat 7 as- | sem 7 bled, 
Low 7 vo- | lup 7 tuous | mu 7 sic | wind 7 ing | trem / bled. 

6. Trochaic Hexameter .... a u X 6. 

On 7 a | mountain | stretched 7 be- ] neath 7 a | hoai^y | wil 7 low, 
Lay 7 a | shep 7 herd | swain 7 , and | viewed 7 the | roll 7 ing | 

7. Trochaic Heptameter, . . . au>(7. 

In 7 the | spring 7 a | fee / ble | crim 7 son | comes 7 up- | on 7 the | 

rob 7 in's | breast 7 ; 
In 7 the | spring 7 the | wan 7 ton | lap 7 wing | gets 7 him- | self 7 

an- | oth 7 er | nest 7 . 

8. Trochaic Hypermeters. 

au+ Mei^ry | May 7 . 

o«X2+ All 7 that's | bright 7 must | fade 7 . 

a u X 3 + Chill'y | win 7 ter J s | gone 7 a- | way / . 

a u X 4 + . . . . Fdle | af 7 ter | din 7 ner | in 7 his | chair. 7 
awX5+ . . . Hail 7 to | thee 7 , blithe | spirit ! | bird 7 , thou | 

nev 7 er | wert 7 . 
otiXH • • Half 7 the | charms 7 to | me 7 it | yield 7 eth, | mon 7 ey | 

can 7 not | buy 7 . 
a u X 7 + Bet 7 ter | fif 7 ty | years 7 of | Eu 7 rope | than 7 a | cy 7 cle | of y 
Cath- | ay 7 . 

250. Anapestic Measures. 

1. Anapestic Monometer . ... una. 

Move your feet 7 
To our sound 7 . 

2. Anapestic Dimeter uuay^% 

In my rage 7 , | shall be seen 7 
The revenge 7 | of a queen 7 . 



3. Anapestic Trimeter uua^XS. 

I have found' | out a gift/ | for my fair 7 . 

I have found 7 | where the wood 7 - | pigeons breed 7 . 

4. Anapestic Tetrameter .... «waX4. 

Through the ranks 7 | of the Sax 7 - | ons he hew'd 7 | his red 

way 7 — 
Through Ian 7 - | ces, and sa 7 - | bers, and hos 7 - | tile array 7 . 

Rem. — The first foot of an anapestic verse may be an iambus. 

Ex. — Our life 7 | is a dream 7 , 
Our time 7 , | as a stream 7 , 
Glides swift 7 - | ly away 7 . — Wesley. 

5. Anapestic Hypermeters. 

u u a X 2 + . . . . Like the dew 7 j on the mount 7 - | ain. 
Like the foam 7 | on the riv 7 - | er. 

u u a X 3 + .... If they rob 7 | us of name 7 , | or pursue 7 | us with 
bea 7 - | gles, 
* Give their roof 7 | to the flame 7 | and their flesh 7 | 
to the ea 7 - | gles. 

251. Dactylic Measures. 

1. Dactylic Monometer . auu. 
Fear 7 fully. 

2. Dactylic Dimeter . auuy^2. 
Coital reefs | un 7 der her, 
Read 7 y to | sun 7 der her. 

3. Dactylic Trimeter a u u X 3. 

Wearing a- | way 7 in his | usefulness, 
Love 7 liness, | beau 7 ty, and j truth 7 fulness. 

4. Dactylic Tetrameter auu\4. 

Boy 7 will an- j tic 7 ipate, | lav 7 ish, and | dis 7 sipate 
All 7 that your | bu 7 sy pate | hoard 7 ed with | care. 

5. Dactylic Hexameter duuyib -\- au. 

This 7 is the | forest pri- | me 7 val; but | where 7 are the [ 

hearts 7 that be- | neath 7 it 
Leaped 7 like the | roe 7 , when he | hears 7 in the [ wood 7 land 

the I voice 7 of the I hunt-er? 


Rem. — A dactylic verse rarely ends with a dactyl. It is some* 
times catalectic, or ends with a trochee; sometimes hypermeter, 
or ends with a long syllable. 

Ex. — Brightest and | best 7 of the | sons 7 of the | morning, 
Dawn 7 on our | darkless, and | lend 7 us thine | aid 7 . 

252. Amphibrach Measures. 

1. Amphibrach Monometer uau. 

Hearts beat 7 ing, Tears starting, 

At meet 7 ing; At part 7 ing. 

2. Amphibrach Dimeter u a u X 2. 

O would 7 I | were dead 7 now, 
Or up 7 in | my bed 7 now, 
To cov 7 er ( my head 7 now, 

And have 7 a | good cry 7 , 

3. Amphibrach Trimeter uauX3. 

A breath 7 of | submission | we breathe 7 not ; 

The sword 7 we | have drawn 7 we | will sheathe 7 not, 

4. Amphibrach Trimeter Catalectic . . . . u a u X 3 — . 

Ye shep 7 herds | so cheerful | and gay 7 , 
Whose flocks 7 nev- | er care 7 less- | ly roam 7 . 

5. Amphibrach Tetrameter wawX4. 

The flesh 7 was | a pict 7 ure | for paint 7 ers | to stud 7 y, 
The fat 7 was | so white 7 and | the lean 7 was | so rud'dy. 

6. Amphibrach Tetrameter Catalectic . . . u a a X 4 — . 

But hang 7 it, — | to po 7 ets | who sel 7 dom | can eat 7 , 
Your ver 7 y | good mut 7 ton 's | a ver'y | good treat 7 . 

253. Mixed Terse. 

1. Different kinds of feet are often found in the same 

2. Different measures are frequently used in the same 



Tell what feet compose each line of the following examples: 

1. My heart was a river 

Without a main, — 
Would I had loved thee never, 
Florence Vane. — Cooke. 

2. Merrily swinging on briar and weed, 

Near to the nest of his little dame, 
Over the mountain-side or mead, 

Robert of Lincoln is telling his name, 
Bob-o-link, Bob-o-link; 
Spink, spank, spink; 
Snug and safe is that nest of ours, 
Hidden among the summer flowers. 
Chee, chee, chee. — Bryant. 

3. My tears must stop, for every drop 

Hinders needle and thread. — Hood. 

4. No matter, no matter! the path shines plain 
These pure snow-crystals will deaden pain; 
Above, like stars in the deep blue dark, 
Eyes that love us look down and mark. 

Let us go, let us go 
Whither heaven leads in the path through the snow. 

Miss Muloch. 

254. Poetic License. 

Poetic XJLcense is an indulgence in the use of peculiar 
words, forms, and expressions, allowed to poets by com- 
mon consent. 

Rem. l. — The requirements of versification render poetic license 

Rem. 3. — Poetic license permits the use of antiquated words 
and phrases, foreign words, and common words shortened, length- . 
ened, or changed in pronunciation. 

Ex. — Eke, erst, eyne, eve, beweep, evanish, albeit, fount, trow, hight 
(called), vastly, wis, ween, wight, &c. "A train-band captain eke was 
he;" "His timeless death beweeping." 


Rem. 3. — It permits the use of compound epithets to a greater 
extent than prose. 

Ex. — Sphere-descended, violet-embroidered, dim-discovered, broad-eyed, 
&c. " Music! sphere-descended hiaid;" "Pun-provoking thyme." 

Rem. 4. — It permits intransitive verbs to be used trans- 

Ex. — They lived the rural day, and talked the flowing heart. 

Rem. 5. — It permits the use of foreign idioms. 

Ex. — "He came; and, standing in the midst, explained 
The peace rejected, and the truce detained" 

Rem. 6. — Poets make use of an inverted order of arrangement 
more frequently than prose writers. 

Ex. — Predicate . . Subject; as, "Sunk was the sun" 

Object .... Predicate; as, "His voice they heard. 11 

Noun .... Adjective; as, " Visions fair;" "Twilight gray" 

Object .... Preposition; as, "The rattling crags among" 

Rem. 7 — Poetic license permits any ellipsis which will not per- 
vert or destroy the sense. 

Ex. — Of the antecedent; as, "Who steals my purse, steals trash." 
Of the relative; as, "There's nothing ill can dwell in such a temple." 
Of the pronoun it; as, " Suffice to-night, these orders to obey." 
Of the article; as, "Like shipwrecked mariner on desert coast." 

255. Scanning. 

Scanning is an analysis of versification. To scan a 
line is to divide it into the feet of which it is composed. 

Rem. — The following are intended to be used not only as 
scanning exercises, but as final Review Exercises in Analysis and 


1. Sweet day ! so cool, so calm, so bright, 
The bridal of the earth and sky; 
• The dews shall weep thy fall to-night; 
For thou must die. — Herbert. 


2. Under the greenwood tree 
Who loves to lie with me, 
And tune his merry note 
Unto the sweet bird's throat, — 

Come hither, come hither, come hither I 

Here shall he see no enemy 
But winter and rough weather. — Shakspcare. 

3. Nature, attend! join, every living soul, 
Beneath the spacious temple of the sky; 
In adoration join ; and, ardent, raise 

One general song! To Him, ye vocal gales, 

Breathe soft, whose Spirit in your freshness breathes ; 

Oh, talk of Him in solitary glooms, 

Where, o'er the rock, the scarcely waving pine 

Fills the brown shade with a religious awe. — Thomson. 

4. With fruitless labor, Clara bound 

And strove to stanch the gushing wound: 
The Monk, with unavailing cares, 
Exhausted all the church's prayers: 
Ever, he said, that, close and near, 
A lady's voice was in his ear, 
And that the priest he could not hear, 

For that she ever sung, 
" In the lost battle, borne down by the flying, 
Where mingles war's rattle with groans of the dying !" 

So the notes rung. — Scott. 

5. Bird of the wilderness, 
Blithesome and cumberless, 

Sweet be thy matin o'er moorland and lea! 

Emblem of happiness, 

Blest is thy dwelling-place, — 
Oh to abide in the desert with thee ! — Hogg. 

6. What is this stanza called? 

Full many a gem of purest ray serene, 

The dark, unfathomed caves of ocean bear; 

Full many a flower is born to blush unseen, 

And waste its sweetness on the desert air. — Gray. 

7. We look before and after, and pine for what is not: 
Our sincerest laughter with some pain is fraught; 

Our sweetest songs are those which tell of saddest thought. 



8. What is this stanza called? 

And this is in the night : most glorious night ! 
Thou wert not sent for slumber ! let me be 
A sharer in thy fierce and far delight, 
A portion of the tempest and of thee ! 
How the lit lake shines, a phosphoric sea, 
And the big rain comes dancing to the earth! 
And now again ? t is black, — and now the glee 
Of the loud hill shakes with its mountain mirth, 
As if they did rejoice o'er a young earthquake's birth. 


9. Do you hear the children weeping, O my brothers ! 

Ere the sorrow comes with years? 
They are leaning their young heads against their mother's, 

And that can not stop their tears. 
The young lambs are bleating in the meadows, 

The young birds are chirping in the nest, 
The young fawns are playing in the shadows, 

The young flowers are blooming from the west; 
But the young, young children, O my brothers! 

They are weeping bitterly ! 
They are weeping in the play-time of the others, 

In the country of the free. — Mrs. Browning. 

10. Our bugles sang truce, for the night-cloud had lowered, 

And the sentinel stars set their watch in the sky; 
And thousands had sunk on the ground overpowered ; 
The weary to sleep, and the wounded to die. — Campbell. 

11. Thou art! — directing, guiding all, — Thou art! 

Direct my understanding, then, to Thee; 
Control my spirit, guide my wandering heart; 

Though but an atom midst immensity, 
Still I am something fashioned by thy hand! 

I hold a middle rank 'twixt heaven and earth,- 
On the last verge of mortal being stand, 

Close to the realms whe"re angels have their birth, 
Just on the boundaries of the spirit land. — Derzhaven. 



\ S 


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