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Full text of "Hashish smuggling and passport fraud : ''the brotherhood of eternal love'' : hearing before the Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, Ninety-third Congress, first session, October 3, 1973"

HASHISH SMUGGLING AND PASSPORT 

FRAUD: 

"The Brotherhood of Eternal Love" 



HEARING 

BEFORE THE 

SUBCOMMITTEE TO INVESTIGATE THE 

ADMINISTEATION OF THE INTERNAL SECURITY 

ACT AND OTHER INTERNAL SECURITY LAWS 

OF THE 

COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 
UNITED STATES SENATE 

NINETY-THIRD CONGRESS 

FIRST SESSION 



OCTOBER 3, 1973 



Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary 




DOCS 



U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
23-638 WASHINGTON : 1973 



(searcfl 

ryj 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office 
Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price $1.15 

ibrary J franklin pierce law center 

Concord, New Hampshire 03301 

ON DEPOSIT JAN 4- 1974 



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HASHISH SMUGGLING AND PASSPORT 

FRAUD: 

"The Brotherhood of Eternal Love" 



HEARING 



BEFORE THE 



SUBCOMMITTEE TO INVESTIGATE THE 

ADMINISTKATION OF THE INTERNAL SECURITY 

ACT AND OTHER INTERNAL SECURITY LAWS 



OF THE 



COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 
UNITED STATES SENATE 

NINETY-THIRD CONGRESS 



FIRST SESSION 



OCTOBER 3, 1973 



Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary 




U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
2»-638 WASHINGTON : 1973 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing OfBce 
Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price $1.15 



rch 

ry FRANKLIN PIERCE LAW CENTER 

^^^^^^^ t^ ,^ ^ ^ ^ ^ J VT TT - n - -. ~ • 



Concord TSIpw Hamnchifa 02Jnl 



Boston PubUc Library 
Boston, lyiA 02116 

COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 
JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas ROMAN L. HRUSKA, Nebraska 

SAM J. ERVIN, Jr., North Carolina HIRAM L. FONG, Hawaii 

PHILIP A. HART, Michigan HUGH SCOTT, Pennsylvania 

EDWARD M. KENNEDY, Massachusetts STROM THURMOND, South Carolina 

BIRCH BAYH. Indiana MARLOW W. COOK, Kentucky 

QUENTIN N. BURDICK. North Dakota CHARLES McC. MATHIAS, Jr., Maryland 

ROBERT C. BYRD, West Virginia EDWARD J. QURNEY, Florida 

JOHN V. TDNNEY, California 



Subcommittee To Investigate the Administration of the Intebnal 
Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws 
JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 
JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas STROM THURMOND. South Carolina 

SAM J. ERVIN, Jr., North Carolina MARLOW W. COOK, Kentucky 

BIRCH BAYH, Indiana EDWARD J. GURNEY. Florida 

J. Q. SouRWiNB, Chief Counsel 

Raymond Sifly, Jr., Minority Counsel 

John R. Norpel, Director of Research 

Alfonso L. Tarabochia, Chief Investigator 



Resolution 



Resolved, by the Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate 
Committee on the Judiciary, that the testimony of John R. Bartels, Jr., 
Gene R. Haislip, Lloyd Sinclear, and Ernest Donald Strange, all of 
the Drug Enforcement Administration; and the testimony of Miss 
Frances G. Knight, AVilliam E. Duggan, and John O'DoAvd, all of the 
Passport Office, Department of State, taken in executive session on 
October 3, 1973, be released from the injunction of secrecy, be printed 
and made public. 

James O. Eastland, Chairman. 
Approved December 10, 1973. 



CONTENTS 



^ , Page 

^^ John^R. Bartels, Jr., Acting Administrator, Drug Enforcement Ad- 
ministration _ 

Lloyd Sinclair, group supervisor, DEA_ ' 

Ernest Donald Strange, special agent, DEA » 

Gene R. Haislip, Counsel, DEA ^'^ 

Afternoon Session 

Testimony of — „ , -^ _ --v ^ * * 

Miss' Frances G. Knight, Director, Passport Office, Department of 

QiX- ^ OiJ 

William" E.' Duggan,' Chief,' Legal Division, Passport Office 43 

John O'Dowd, attorney-adviser. Legal Division, Passport Office o^ 

Appendix 

(III) 



HASHISH SMUGGLING AND PASSPORT FRAUD 
"The Brotherhood of Eternal Love" 



WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 3, 1973 

U.S. Senate, 
SuBCX)MMi'rrEE To Investigate the 
Administration of the Internal Security Act 

AND Other Internal Security Laws 
OF THE Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington^ D.C. 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to notice, at 11 :30 o'clock a.m., in 
room 1318, Dirksen Senate Office Building, Senator James O. East- 
land, presiding. 

Also present : J. G. Sourwine, chief counsel ; David Martm, senior 
analvst: Ravmond Siflv, minority counsel; John R. Norpel, Jr., re- 
search director; and Alfonso Tarabochia, chief investigator. 

The Chairman. The purpose of this hearing is to look into the re- 
lated problems of international drug trafficking and passport fraud— 
both of which have a direct bearing on the internal security of our 
country. . 

It is my understanding that the testimony this mornms: will focus 
primarily, but not exclusively, on the activities of the Brotherhood 
of Eternal Love, an organization founded by Dr. Timothy Leary 
which has combined a mystical fanaticism with criminal activities, 
and which has been massively involved in passport fraud and in the 
production, smuggling, and distribution of various drugs, LSD, and 
hashish in particular. 

The Senate Subcommittee on Internal Security held extensive hear- 
ings last September and October. 1972, on the international drug 
traffic and its impact on U.S. security. The subcommittee appointed 
Gen. Lewis W. Walt, retired assistant commandant of the Marine 
Corps, to head up a staff investigation. General Walt's investigation 
covered some 20 countries, and the report which he made to the sub- 
committee, I think it is fair to say, played a major role in bringing 
about certain structural improvernents in our national drug control 
machinery, and his recommendations are closely reflected in some of 
the legislation now pending before Congress. 

Our hearings last vear focused primarily on the heroin epidemic, 
although General Walt's report did deal briefly with the interrelated 
problems of cocaine, hashish, and marihuana. We also took the testi- 
monv of Dr. Olav Braenden. the distinarished Director of the U.N. 
Narcotics Laboratory in Geneva, on the current status of cannabis 
research. 

(1) 



In today's hearing we shall be dealing with the past activities of 
Timothy t^ary's associates as the prime international manufacturers 
and distributors of LSD, and with the role his organization, the 
Brotherhood of Eternal Love, has played in the rapidly expanding 
problems of hashish smuggling into the United States. 

I anticipate that this hearing will provide us with some useful 
information on the relationship between the increasingly widespread 
use of hashish and the extensive use of marihuana--which is really 
a weaker version of hashish — before the current hashish epidemic got 
underway. 

In addition to establishing the basic facts about the rapidly mush- 
rooming problem of passport fraud, it is my hope that this hearing 
will also i^roduce certain concrete recommendations pointing to im- 
provements in passport security. 

The witnesses we have with us today are divided into two groups. 

From the Department of Justice, we have : John R. Bartels, Acting 
Administrator, Drug Enforcement Administration ; Gene R. Haislip, 
counsel. Drug Enforcement Administration; Lloyd Sinclair, group 
supervisor, Drug Enforcement Administration; and Ernest Donald 
Strange, special agent. Drug Enforcement Administration. 

From the Passport Office of the Department of State, we have : 

Frances G. Knight, Director, Passport Office, Department of State; 
William E. Duggan, Legal Counsel. Passport Office (in charge of 
investigation of passport fraud by brotherhood members) ; and John 
O'Dowd, Attorney-Advisor, Legal Division, Passport Office. 

I want to thank the witnesses for coming. 

In order to expedite the hearing, I would like to ask that you all 
rise and be sworn in simultaneously. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give the 
subcommittee will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Bartels. I do. 

Mr. Haislip. I do. 

Mr. SixcLAiR. I do, 

Mr. Straxge. I do. 

Miss Knight. I do. 

Mr. Duggan. I do. 

Mr. O'Dowd. I do. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Mr. Chairman, we will begin, if it is agreeable with 
you, with the testimony of Mr. John R. Bartels, Jr., the Acting Ad- 
ministrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration of the Depart- 
ment of Justice. 

TESTIMONY OF JOHN R. BARTELS, JR., ACTING ADMINISTRATOR, 
DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, ACCOMPANIED BY 
GENE R. HAISLIP, COUNSEL, DEA; LLOYD SINCLAIR, GROUP 
SUPERVISOR, DEA; AND ERNEST DONALD STRANGE, SPECIAL 
AGENT, DEA 

Mr. Bartels. Thank you, Mr. Chairman, distinguished members of 
the subcommittee. 

I am pleased to appear before you this morning in connection with 
this subcommittee's continuing investigation into the illicit drug traf- 



lie. In addition to other matters, you have asked that we inform you 
of the particulai-s of our investigation of a drug-oriented cult known 
as the Brotherhood of Eternal Love. 

This is one of the most fascinating investigations of recent years, 
and I have brought with me today for the pur^wse of recounting it, 
two of the officers who were responsible for its success. These are the 
gentlemen on my left, Mr. Lloyd Sinclair, presently a group super- 
visor in our Los Angeles Eegional Office; and next to him. Mr. Donald 
Strange, one of the resourceful agents who worked under Mr. Sin- 
clair's direction. I would also like at this time to recognize Special 
Agents Terry Burke, Douglas Kuehl, Gary Elliot, Donald Monier, 
and William"^ McKelvey, who also played an important role in this 
investigation, although they could not be with us today. 

To avoid any subsequent confusion of terminolog}-, let me explain 
from the outset that these gentlemen were at the time of this investi- 
gation serving within the former BNDD. This agency has since been 
merged with other units to form the new Drug Enforcement Adminis- 
tration, or DEA, which I now head ; and this more current means of 
identifying the Federal Government's enforcement arm will be used 
hereafter. 

Before Mr. Sinclair begins his narrative, I would like first to deal 
with some of the broader implications of the case about which you 
have also asked to hear. In many ways, the evolution of the drug 
trafficking activities of the members of the Brotherhood of Eternal 
Love is a tragic illustration of the cynicism into which the youthful 
drug revolution of the mid-1960's has fallen. It also underlines the 
development of new trends in the drug traffic of which the Nation 
np^ds to be aware. 

The Brotherhood of Eternal Love was founded on the basis of 
Timothy I^ary's exhortations to "Tune in, turn on. and drop out"' 
with LSD. Leary's preaching consisted of a combination of mysticism, 
the use of dnigs, and the disapproval of our society expressed in the 
phrases of rebellion which particularly appeal to youth. The novelty 
of his doctrine and the growing drug rebellion in general, drew con- 
siderable attention from the press, which merely extended the num- 
bers of young people exposed to the message. Many thousands of 
teenagers reacted to it with an idealistic and religious fer^'or. 

Mr. SouRwixE. May I interrupt, sir ? 

Mr. Bartels. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwixE. Is that perhaps a very conservative estimate? Do 
you think it would be an exaggeration to suggest that at the height of 
his influence Leary may have had as many as a million of our young 
people paying attention to his rantings in one way or another? 

Mr. Bartels. Xo ; I think that is quite right. That is quite possible. 

Mr. SouRwixE. Go ahead, sir. 

Mr. Bartels. Soon, California became the mecca for the new 
"counter-culture;'' and in October 1966, Leary, with many of his 
youthful followers, established the Brotherhood of Eternal Love as 
a tax-exempt religious corporation under the laws of that State. Al- 
though many thousands of young drug abusers were in the Berkeley 
area at this time, the brotherhood was an exclusive organization to 
which not all were admitted. High echelon brotherhood members were 
already engaged in the manufacture and distribution of LSD, al- 



though consideration of profits was probably a secondary motive in 
the beginning. In time, the drug activities of the brotherhood ex- 
panded and evolved new patterns of illicit traffic. By the time that 
our investigation reached its peak in the spring of 1973, no less than 
750 of its members had been positively identified as participants in 
criminal activities that spanned the globe. 

Mr. SouRwixE. Do you have a figure or a good estimate as to just 
how many active members of the Brotherhood of Eternal Love there 
were at the peak ? 

Mr. Bartels. If I may, I would refer you to Mr. Sinclair but I 
believe it is around 3.000 or so. 

Mr. Sinclair. That is correct, sir. 

Mr. SouRwixE. Go ahead, sir. 

Mr. Bartels. During the late 1960's when the abuse of LSD began 
to peak, brotherhood leaders undertook the development of an en- 
tirely new trade in hashish. This is one of the stronger forms of 
marihuana — normally about 10 times more potent than that smuggled 
into the country from Mexico for the manufacture of the typical 
marihuana cigarette. Earlier, in the debate on the legalization of 
marihuana. Federal drug enforcement authorities warned that the 
marihuana question could not be considered from the standpoint of 
only the milder forms of the drug then predominating the traffic. They 
predicted that a brisk trade in hashish was bound to develop from 
the increased demands for cannabis products. The activities of the 
brotherhood were, in large part, responsible for proving the accuracy 
of this prediction. In 1968, shortly after it was founded. Federal au- 
thorities seized no more than 534 pounds of hashish. By 1972, this 
had increased to a figure of 30,094 pounds. 

Mr. SouRwixE. Can I ask a question here ? 

Mr. Bartels. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SoLTiwiXE. Do you think that was because you were getting a 
higher proportion of the total traffic or was the traffic increasing in 
the same or greater proportion to your seizures? 

Mr. Bartels. I think the traffic was increasing in greater proportion 
rather than 

Mr. SouRW^XE. It was outrunning your enforcement efforts. 

Mr. Bartels. That is right. I would like to think that we were seiz- 
ing more but I think a more realistic appraisal is that that traffic was 
growing tremendously. 

Mr. SouRWixE. Go ahead. Go ahead, sir. 

Mr. Bartels. At some point late in 1967 or early 1968. members of 
the brotherhood developed their most important foreign contact for 
hashish. According to subsequent indictment, this was the Tokhi 
brothers who reside in Afghanistan on the outskirts of Kabul, its 
capital city. Brotherhood smugglers developed elaborate and success- 
ful means of getting the hashish into the Ignited States. One of their 
earlier techniques was to hide quantities of 15 to 20 pounds of the drug 
within the interiors of fiberglass surfboards which they manufactured. 
This was soon considered too small a quantity, however, and they grad- 
uated to specially designed traps in Volkswagen campers or other ve- 
hicles which could hold up to 1,300 pounds in a single shipment. 

Their mode of operation placed heavy reliance on the use of false 
passports; and with their financial resources and false documents, they 



achieved complete international mobility. Dunno: the period of their 
successes, we have estimated on the basis of hard intelligence that 
approximately 24 tons of hashish Avas smiiofjrled into this country. 
Although most of this drug came from their dealings withm Af- 
trhanistan. we also know that shipments were brought m from both 
Lebanon and India. 

Mr. SouRwiXE. Do vou mean that statement to be exclusive, that 
is, that the only places it came from were Afghanistan, Lebanon and 
others or were there other minor sources ? i • i i 

;Mr. Bartels. There may have been other sources of which we have 
no knowledge. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Thank vou. 

Mr. Bartels. Moreover, the brotherhood was not content merely 
to smuggle and market hashish. Under the guidance of one of its chief 
chemists, the brotherhood developed the manufacture of an even more 
potent product called marihuana or hashish oil. In the course of our 
investigation, six such hashish oil laboratories were seized. 

Mr. Sourwixe. Is that the same commodity that is sometimes re- 
ferred to on the street as pot oil ? 

Mr. Bartels. Yes. sir. 

The marihuana product resulting from their operation m some 
cases may have achieved a THC content of up to 90 percent. 

Mr. SouRwixE. "Was that 

Mr. Bartels. Tetrahydrocannabinol. That is the percent of the 
active product within marihuana which gives the— — 

Mr. SouRWixE. That is the hallucinitory drug is it not ? 

Mr. Bartels. That is right, and in normal marihuana it would run 
2 to 3 to 5 percent. . . , 

Mr. Soi-RwixE. Ninety percent purity is extremely high, is it not ( 

Mr. Bartels. That is right. 

Mr. SouRwixE. As an oil, vou cannot get it much higher, can you i 

Mr. Bartels. I do not believe so. We have never seen it any higher. 

A typical laboratorv such as that seized at Escanaba. Mich., could 
produce approximatelV 21/2 quarts of hashish oil per day. Normally, 
a single drop placed within a regular cigarette would constitute one 
dose, and approximately 15,000 doses could be derived in this way 

from 1 quart. • -r. 1 ■, nnn 

Marihuana— or hashish— oil was first encountered in February 1972. 
Since then the number of exhibits received has increased and so has 
the potencv as measured bv the i>ercentage of tetrahydrocannabinol 
(THC) present. During fiscal year 1973, 49.3 pounds of the drug were 
seized with an average THC content of 46 percent. This is a highly 
potent and concentrated hallucinogenic substance which can be manu- 
factured with relatively simple equipment. As such, it must be regard- 
ed as a novel and threatening shift in marihuana abuse which should 
give those who advocate its legalization cause to re-think their posi- 
tion. 

In the meantime, they continued their manufacture and distribution 
of LSD under the trade name of "Orange Sunshine." Until the recent 
enforcement successes, this product, which has now disappeared en- 
tirelv. was found in quantitv all over the world. 

The first concentrated effort to eliminate this clandestine LSD op- 
eration resulted in the seizure of a mobile laboratory facility concealed 



6 

inside a truck in Denver in 1967 and the arrest of Xicholas Sand. 
Reportedly, this was the most productive LSD laboratory in the west- 
em United States. Unfortunately, the arrest was found to have been 
legally inadequate; and therefore, the case against Sand had to be 
dropped. Under the exclusionary rule of evidence, the seized labora- 
tory equipment could not be placed in evidence and, in fact, was re- 
turned to Sand. 

Almost 6 years later, some of the same laboratory equipment, still 
bearing the evidential labels applied by Federal agents, was again 
seized when Sand's laboratory was discovered by St. Louis police in 
a warehouse which had been leased for the manufacture of LSD. Sand 
had moved to St. Louis because of the mounting police pressure being 
brought to bear on the brotherhood in California at that time. 

There are several lessons to be gained from this investigation, and 
I should like to mention them briefly, although not necessarily in 
order of importance. 

First, this case has taught us the necessity of being flexible in our 
enforcement strategy and mode of operation. For many years, the 
concept of organized crime in drugs has always meant the Mafia, or 
the Cosa Nostra, or the Union Corse — traditional and reasonably well 
identified criminal groups with specific ethnic connotations. The 
Brotherhood of Eternal Love represents one of the new recently- 
emerged forms of organized crime totally different from our past 
notions in terms of membership, motivations, lifestyles, and drugs of 
preference. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. You mentioned the Mafia, the Cosa Nostra and 
Union Corse. Is one of those the same as the Unione Siciliano ? 

Mr. Bartels. I do not know. I get frankly confused, Mr. Chairman, 
over the extent to which the Siciliano group form in with the Mafia 
or Italian organized crime. They overlap and the history of it 

Mr. SouRwiNE. It is our understanding — I would like to be cor- 
rected if this is wrong so that the record would so reflect— tliat the 
Mafia or Cosa Nostra which are interchangeable names is controlled, 
supposedly, at least by the Unione Siciliano or the Union Corse is a 
Corsican branch or similar Corsican organization which is smaller 
and some people say tougher. 

Mr. Bartels. That is right. I think there are changes now within 
organized crime from the total control that the Sicilian group had in 
its origins in Italy and Sicily as opposed to the people who have now 
taken over some of these families and have been born in the United 
States. 

Mr. Sourwine. Go ahead, sir. 

Mr, Bartels. Increasingly, this new form of organized drug traf- 
ficking activity is assuming a greater role in the enforcement problems 
we face. In the end, we see that the misguided idealism on which the 
brotherhood was first conceived finally ijave way to the usual criminal 
motivations of big money for little labor. And, although their drug 
activity centered at first around LSD, they later branched out to in- 
clude hashish and finally cocaine. In its last hour of activity, the 
hard narcotics were finally seized upon as offering the biggest profit 
for the least effort. 

Mr. Sourwine. Pardon me for continually interrupting. I want to 
make these points as they occur. You say "in its last hour of activity". 
You mean this entire Leary family group is out of business now? 



Mr. Bartels. I will let Mr. Sinclair comment on that. I think sub- 
stantially it is out of business, is that not correct ? 

Mr. Sot-RwixE. It is good news if it is true. We did not think that 
was tiiie. 

Mr. Sinclair. Severely crippled. 

Mr. SouRwixE. Go ahead, sir. 

Mr. Bartels. A second aspect with important lessons for our tactical 
approach to the drug traffic is the rapidity with which the brother- 
hood became an international operation capable of tapping and devel- 
oping illicit drug supplies in a country as remote as Afghanistan. The 
ease with which false passports may be obtained coupled with the great 
cash resources which the group possessed and the availability of mod- 
ern jet travel made it not only possible, but likely, that the effort would 
be made. 

For the last several veai-s. we have concentrated developing our 
attack on the illicit drug traffic at its traditional foreign sources in 
Turkey, in France, and in Mexico. The events in Southeast Asia 
demonstrated the potential dangers from that particular area ; and the 
investigation of the brotherhood activities proves no drug producing 
area, however remote, can be ignored in our international effort. What 
the brotherhood was able to accomplish in Afghanistan with regard 
to hashish could as easily be accomplished with regard to opium and 
heroin. 

Without the assistance which our foreign offices can offer, and with- 
out a mobility and flexibility on our part at least equal to that of crimi- 
nal organizations, we could not even learn of the criminal activities of 
such groups much less successfully cope with them. In the instant c_ase, 
our agent in Kabul plaved a major role in coordinating the investiga- 
tion with the California-based task force. Our offices around the world 
must be able to develop and exchange intelligence information rapidly 
so as to identify violatoi-s and make them targets of police activity. Our 
agents must further have the capability of using this information and 
moving rapidly throughout the world to put it to use. For example, in 
pursuit of the brotherhood investigation, DEA agents traveled to 
Paris, Kabul, Costa Rica, Mexico City, Belgium, and Honduras as 
well as traveling extensivelv within the United States. 

One of the particulars inVhich DEA will differ from its predecessor 
agencies is in the increased emphasis which we intend to place on 
the development of intelligence as the second operational arm of our 
enforcement efforts. 

Mr. SouRWixE. One more interruption, if I may. This mobility 
and ability to act is going to require agreements for cooperation with 
a great many other governments, is it not ? 
Mr. Bartels. Yes, it will. 

Mr. SouRWTXE. The work of negotiating those agreements is under- 
way now? 
Mr. Bartels. Yes, it is. 

Mr. SouR^vixE. That is really another subject. I do not want to 
push you into it but I thought we needed some mention of it here. 
Mr' Bartels. I think vou are 100 percent right. We now will have 

65 foreign offices in 49 countries which is a tremendous growth rate 

over the past several years. 



8 

Mr. SouRWiNE. I also had one other question at this point. You 
mentioned the ease with which false passports may be secured. You 
are referring to U.S. passports? 

Mr. Bartels. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouR\viNE. When you say false passports, do you mean out- 
right forgeries or do you mean actual passports which are obtained 
by persons under false names or through false pretenses? 

Mr. Bartels. The latter. 

Mr. SouRWTNE. Wlien you say false passports you do not mean 
forgeries. You mean U.S. passports issued to people other than those 
they purport to cover. 

Mr. Bartels. Yes, sir. That is what 

Mr. SoTJRWiNE. Or obtained by an actual person through false 
pretenses. 

Mr. Bartels. Yes. 

Mr. SoTjRWiNE. Go ahead. 

Mr. Bartels. Finally, this case illustrates the inadequacies of exist- 
ing criminal justice procedures in coping with contemporary high-level 
drug violators. Of the top 12 organizers of the brotherhood's activities, 
six continue to be fugitives from justice living on their ill-gotten wealth 
in foreign countries where additional enterprises can be planned. Worst 
of all, two of these were successfully arrested but were able to post 
bonds, whereupon they promptly fled the jurisdiction. Another brother- 
hood member was rearrested on three subsequent occasions and finally 
fled after forfeiting bonds totaling $125,000. 

In the more limited case of heroin trafficking, we have asked the Con- 
gress to consider imposition of new restraints on the granting of bail. 
We recognize the caution which must be exercised to safeguard con- 
stitutional rights, but we have offered new formulas for pretrial deten- 
tion which we feel strike a balance between the necessitv to protect the 
public and the rights of accused persons. This law was introduced by 
the chairman of this subcommittee and other distinguished members 
of the Judiciary Committee, and we recommend it as an appropriate 
starting point from which to consider the problem. 

I would like to turn now to Mr. Llovd Sinclair who will provide you 
with an account of the particulars of this investigation. I hope that you 
will keep in mind throughout his account, that the successes he de- 
scribes were not those of DEA alone, but were the results of the efforts 
of many State and local officers and Federal agencies, particularly 
the Department of State, which cooperated in numerous false pass- 
port investigations of brotherhood members. We shall then be pleased 
to respond to whatever questions you may have. Special Agent Donald 
Strange will also assist in answering any detailed questions concem- 
inar the conduct of the investigation. 

Mr. Sourwine. Sir, before Mr. Sinclair begins his statement, I have 
a number of questions I want to ask. I have no reason to insist that 
you answer them, but may I ask you while you are here? 

Mr. Bartels. Certainly. 

Mr. Sourwine. If you want to field them, do so; and if you want to 
pass them to one of your experts, do so. 

Wien you speak of the Department of State cooperatinsr in nu- 
merous false passport investigations, what division or branch of the 



State Department were vou referring to? Do you mean the Passport 
Office? 

Mr. Sinclair. Security, 

Mr. SouRwiXE. You mean the Bureau of Security? 

Mr. Sinclair. Xo, no. Within the Department of State. 

Mr. Sourwine. The Office of Security? 

Mr. Sinclair. Ri^ht. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Within the Department of State. 

Mr. Sinclair. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. l^Hio heads that ? 

Mr. Sinclair. I do not know. 

Mr. Strange. ]\f r. Hibbard Lamkin was the special agent in charge 
in Los Angeles, whom we worked through initially. He has since re- 
tired. 

]Mr. SouRwiNE. You are talking about cooperation at the local level 
rather than at the Washington level. 

Mr. Strange. Yes, sir, but at one point in time we called direct to 
the State Department in Washington when we had reason to believe 
that one of the brotherhood members was using a fraudulent pass- 
port. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Who did you talk with there ? 

Mr. Strange. I do not recall. It was primarily another agent's re- 
sponsibility. He maintained liaison with a member of the State De- 
partment in Washington. He spoke with him almost on a day-to-day 
basis. 

Mr. SouRwiNE, Over quite a period of time ? 

Mr, Strange, Yes. sir, 

Mr, SoTJRwiNE, Did you get the information you were telephoning 
for over a period of time ? 

Mr, Strange, Yes, sir. When documents that were obtained in either 
a search or through informant information gave us the idea that pos- 
sibly one of these brotherhood members was using an assumed name, 
we would run that name through the passport section and see if they 
had an application on file for the member under that name, and quite 
often they did, 

Mr, SouRwiNE, Now, it may be that I am here anticipating some- 
thing that one of your men plans to cover, and if so. I have no objec- 
tion to deferring the question. But let us run through these and then 
go ahead with the director's statement, 

Dr, Leary had a rather openhanded acceptance by the media or cer- 
tain areas of our media of public information, did he not? 

Mr, Barteis, Yes, he did, 

Mr, SouRwiNE. I remember two major interviews with I^ary in 
Playboy magazine, for instance. Was this access to the press and to a 
somewhat lesser but still substantial degree the airwaves, of any 
substantial or even critical importance in enabling Leary to increase 
his influence ? 

Mr, Bartels, In my opinion, it was, and I would ask Mr, Sinclair 
if he would not confirm that, 

Mr, Sinclair, Yes. absolutely, 

INIr, SouRwiNE, Was Leary himself ever arrested for trafficking in 
drugs ? 



10 

ISIr. Bartels. Yes, he was. 

Do you know his record ? I know he was in Texas once. 

Mr. Sinclair. Yes, that was Customs. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you plan to cover that ? 

Mr. Sinclair. Not the Texas incident, but we do plan to cover an- 
other aspects of his 

Mr. SouR\vaNE. Would it be out of order to tell us about the Texas 
incident now ? 

Mr. Sinclair. I am not specifically familiar with it. I recall he 
crossed the border at Texas, I believe, with his daughter, and they 
were arrested at that time. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. When — may I ask you cover the Texas incident fully 
when you correct the record either at this point or any other place 
you think it will fit best. 

Mr. Sinclair. We would be happy to. 

[The material referred to follows :] 

Dr. Timothy Leary was arrested by a U.S. Customs oflBcial in possession of a 
small quantity of marihuana at Laredo, Tex., on December 22, 1965. The facts 
of the case are as follows : 

Dr. Timothy Leary left New York on December 20, 1965, by automobile, 
accompanied by his two children, Susan, age 18, and John, age 16, and two 
other persons. Their destination was Yucatan, Mexico, and the alleged purpose 
of the trip was a Christmas vacation for the Leary children and to provide 
Dr. Leary the opportunity to write a book and to prepare for a summer 
session to be conducted with a research group at his home in Millbrook, New 
York. On December 22, 1965, Dr. Leary and the four passengers drove across the 
international boundary at Laredo, Texas, into the Republic of Mexico, stopped 
at the Mexican immigration station for several minutes, and turned back 
toward the United States. At approximately 6:45 p.m., they arrived at the 
secondary inspection area. Laredo International Bridge. Laredo. Texas. Dr. I^ary, 
the driver of the vehicle, told a U.S. Customs oflScial that they had driven across 
the boundary into Mexico within the prior hour, that they had been unable to 
secure tourist permits and had b^en told by Mexican immigration officials to 
return the following morning at 8:00 am. at which time the necessary Mexican 
permits would be given to them. 

The U.S. inspector asked the group if they had anvthing to declare from 
Mexico and was told that they had not. After the occupants alighted from the 
vehicle, the U.S. inspector observed some vegetable material and a seed on the 
floor of the automobile which appeared to him to be marihuana. Thus the five 
travelers were arrested. A search of the baggage, the vehicle and of the individ- 
uals was made. Sweepings from the car floor and glove compartment were later 
proved to be marihuana. While Dr. Leary was being searched, he stated that he 
had never used marihuana. A woman Customs inspector performed a personal 
search of the two female travelers, which resulted in the finding of a small 
metal container on the person of Susan T>eary after she had disrobed. Within 
the container were three partially smoked marihuana cig.irettes, a small quantity 
of serai-refined marihuana and capsules of detroamphetamine .sulfate. Demand 
was made of Dr. Leary for the required Treasury Department transferee form. 
He stated that he had no such form. Susan Leary. in response to the same 
demand, refused to make any .statement. Dr. Leary admitted to a U.S. Customs 
Agent that the metal box taken from his daughter. Susan, containing the mari- 
huana was his property. 

Dr. Timothy Leary and his minor daughter were jointly indicted on three 
pounts pertainine to marihuana. Dr. Leary was tried before a jury on Maroh 11. 
1969. Count 1. which charged the smucrgliuET of marihuana into the United States 
which should have been invoiced (declared), was dismissed by the court. 
Dr. Learv was found guilty, however, on Count 2. which charged transj>ortation. 
and facilitation of transportation, and concealment of marihuana after im- 
portation, in violation of 21 U.S.C. 176a, and on Count 3, which charged trans- 
portation and concealment of marihuana bv defendants as transferees, required 
to pay the transfer tax in ^^olation of 26 U.S.C. 4744 (a) (2). Dr. Ijearv w.is 
sentenced to the maximum penalties and fines provided for such offenses, subject 



11 

however, to the provisions of 18 U.S.C. 4208(b), and was ordered committed to 
the medical center at Springfield. Missouri, for a complete study to be used bv 
the court as a basis for determining the ultimate sentence in the case. 

Susan Leary was tried at the same time as her father. Dr. Leary, by the 
court without a jury (trial by jury having been waivetl) and found guilty on 
Count .3 of the indictment but not guilty on Counts 1 and 2. Imposition of 
sentence was suspended and she was placed on probation during the remainder 
of her minoritv. without supervision, under the provisions of the Youth Corrup- 
tions Act. 18 U.S.C. 5010 (a). 

Dr. Leary appealed his conviction on Counts 2 and 3 to the Court of Appeals 
for the Fifth Circuit which aflSrmed the lower courts findings. 

Dr. Leary then jietitioned to the Supreme Court and the Supreme Court agreed 
to con.sider two questions: (1) whether petitioner's conviction for failing to 
comply with the tran.sfer provisions of the Marihuana Tax Act violated his 
Fifth Amendment privilege against self-incrimination; (2) whether petitioner 
was denied due process by the application of the part of 21 U.S.C. 176a which 
provides that a defendant's possession of marihuana shall be deemed suflicient 
evidence that the marihuana was illegally imported or brought into the United 
States, and that the defendant knew of the illegal importation or bring in, 
unless the defendant explains his possession to the satisfaction of the jury. 

On May 19, 1969. the Supreme Court held in favor of the petitioner (Dr. 
Leary) on both issues and reversed the judgement of the Court of Appeals. 

Mr. SorRWiXE. Would voii say it is true the role T^earv played was 
that of an ideological trafficker, whether or not he was himself selling 
thestuif? 

Mr. Bartels. Definitely. 

Mr. SixcLAiR. Absolutely. 

Mr. SouRAvixE. He was responsible for hooking more young people, 
if I mav use that term, than a g-ood many pushers. 

Mr. Bartels. That is my opinion. 

Mr. Soi'RwixE. Because of his acceptance and the access he had 
through the media to the minds of these voung folks. 

Mr. Bartels. Developing the subculture which advocated the use 
of drugs. 

Mr. SouRwixE. Now, you gave us some figures about seizures. I do 
not remember precisely. What was the figure for hashish seizures in 
1968 ? 

Mr. Bartels. 534 pounds. 

Mr. SouRwixE. And in 1972 ? 

Mr. Bartels. 30,094 pounds. 

Mr. SouRwixE. Did you have any one big or possibly lucky seizure 
in 1972 that would increase that figure, or is that the result of a steady 
year-by-year progression ? 

Mr. Bartels. It is larsfely a steady year-by-year progression. We 
had one seizure which I believe was 1.300 pounds which was the 
largest in the historv. I mav add that we had a seizure 2 weeks asfo of 
almost 900 ]:)Ounds. But that shows what an extremely large seizure 
would be. 

Mr. SorRwixE. But your 1.300 pound seizure was not any bigger part 
of the 30.000 poimds seized in 1972 than vour largest seizure was of the 
534 pounds in 1968. 

Mr. Bartels. That is cori-ect. For instance, the figures, if I may, 
.show this sort of a progression. In 1968. as I stated, there were 534 
pounds. In 1969, 2,247 pounds. In 1970, 7,256 pounds. In 1971, 22,188 
pounds. And as I said, in 1972, 30,094 pounds. 

Mr. SouRwixE. What is vour total so far this vear ? 

Mr. B.-vrtels. Through June, from January of 1973 through June 30, 
1973, we have 11,150 pounds of hashish. 



12 

Mr. SouRwiNE. You are behind the 1972 rate, then. 
Mr. Bartels. Yes, we are slightly. 

Mr. SouRwixE. Is that because the traffic has dropped off or because 
you have been denied the force you need or for what reason ? 

Mr. Bartels. I am not sure really at this early date. We may make 
it up. It may be also that there is a feeling among the youth to turn 
to other drugs. I think it is a little early to say. 

Mr. SouRw^ixE. Can you give us any reasonable estimate of the 
amount of hashish that has been entering this country undetected? 
Obviously, you would not have a statistic on it but do you have esti- 
mates on it ? 

Mr. Bartels. No. Nothing really reliable. 

Mr. SomwixE. You told me that in your opinion, the traffic had 
gone up faster than your seizures had gone up, so you must have some 
kind of an estimate. Do you have an estimate of total traffic year by 
year ? 

Mr. Bartels. We do not because we do not know how efficient we 
are in making seizures, whether we are seizing 10 percent, 5 percent, 
20 percent, 25 percent. But we know that at the borders the nature 
of this traffic is such and the borders are so open and wide that we 
are not seizing what we would hope to, and a great deal comes in. If 
we are seizina; 20 percent of it perhaps we are doing pretty well. And, 
of course, it is more difficult once you get into hashish oil which does 
not involve as cumbersome a shinment as marihuana. 

Mr. SouRwixE. Would you have any instrument of the confirmed 
hashish imports of the Brotherhood of Eternal Love which eluded 
detection of Customs and other law enforcement agencies ? 

Mr. Bartels. Let me refer to Mr. Sinclair on that. I think we said 
24 tons, did we not ? 

Mr. Haislip. Yes. That is a total, and all of that is based on what we 
would call hard intelligence from identifiable sources. And this is due 
just to the activities of the brotherhood. 

Mr. SouRwixE, They brought in 24 tons in your opinion, over what 
period of years ? 

Mr. Haislip. 1968 to the present. 

Mr. SixclAir. During that time we seized approximately 6,000 
pounds so that means approximately 44,000. 

Mr. SouRwixE. Well, you must have seized — you mean from them. 

Mr. Straxge. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwixE. 6.000 pounds. That is 3 tons. 

Mr. Bartels. Out of 24 which is about a 12-percent seizure rate. 

Mr. SouRwixE. 12, I21/2. 

Mr. Bartels. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwixE. Do you think you are getting that much generally 
over the whole traffic ? 

Mr. Bartels. I do not know how I can estimate that. 

Mr. SouRwixE. You have not worked the whole traffic as intensively 
as you worked the brotherhood, have you ? 

Mr. Bartels. No. 

Mr. Haislip. I think it would be fair to note, too. that in the last 
year or two of the activity with regard to the brotherhood members, 
probably increasingly large amounts of their hashish was seized be- 



13 

cause of the attention given to them. At first none of it was seized. It 
was all getting: thronorh. 

Mr. SorRwixE. You do not have any estimate of what they are 
handlinof. brino^ing in and peddling now. 

Mr. Haislip. Not any reliable figure. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. You have not quit working on them yet, have you? 

Mr. Bartels. No. We have not totally quit working on them. 

Mr. SouRwixE. Can you give us a figure on Avhat hashish sells for 
wholesale in the United States? 

Mr. Bartels. I will defer to Mr. Sinclair on that. 

Mr. SixcLAiR. It depends on how much you are talking about. The 
standard price that we see and recognize is $900 a povmd. 

]Mr. SouRwixE. And that is a good deal less than it costs when you 
sell by the paper, is it not ? 

Mr. SixcLAiR. Or by the ounce. You can break it up by the bag and 
sell it at $100 an ounce. That would realize $1,600 a pound but when 
you think that it only costs $15 a pound in Afghanistan, that is a sub- 
stantial increase in profit. 

]Mr. SoTJRWixE. Everybody gets his cut. 

That retail price, then, is" about $1,600 a pound, $100 an ounce. 

Mr. SixcLAiR. Yes. 

Mr. SouRWixE. "What is the average strength of the hashish sold in 
this country ? 

Mr. Haislip. I have a figure on that based on the reports of our 
laboratories. Over a period of time they found that the variations were 
great, but that the average strength' of hashish contained approxi- 
mately 10 percent THC and that for the marihuana or hashish oil, the 
average was approximately 46 percent THC. 

Mr. SouRWixE. And then this real high strength pot oil you told us 
about that ran 90 percent was nine times as strong as the average. 

Mr. Haislip. For hashish, yes. 

Mr. Bartels. That is right. 

INIr. SouRWixE. So that, although you said that the usual dose of 
the oil was one drop to a normal cigarette, actually that will produce 
a strength 21/2 or 3 times as much as an ordinary marihuana joint, 
will it not ? 

Mr. Bartels. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwixE. How much hashish would the average person have 
to ingest in order to develop a real hashish high ? 

Mr. Sixclair. A gram or two, I believe. The size of a pencil eraser, 
a gram or two, 

Mr. SouRwixE. Now, what percentage of this $100 an ounce would 
that be ? 

Mr. Sixclair. A small part of it, sir. There are approximately 30 
grams in an ounce. 

Mr. Son?wixE. If a man buys an ounce of it for $100, does he have 
a hundred highs ? 

Mr. SixcLAre. No. Probably around 30. That would be an average 
and that could vary up and down depending on the individual. 

Mr. SouRwixE. "Was it the brotherhood which invented or first de- 
veloped hashish oil ? 

Mr. Bartels. Yes, I think that is right. It was Sand, was it not ? 
Mr, Sixclair. No. Another brotherhood member. 



23-53S 0—73- 



14 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Is any other organization producing it now that yo" 
know of ? 

Mr. SixcLAiR. There must be. yes. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. In other words, you do not know who but you know 
there is production other than the brotherhood production. 

Mr. Sinclair. That is correct. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. You raised the question of who in the brotherhood 
was responsible for the development of hashish oil. Do you want to 
put that name in the record ? 

Mr. Sinclair. According to our best intelligence sources it is Ronald 
Hadley Stark. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Getting back to this business of a dose of one drop 
in a cigarette — if he puts two drops in the cigarette, he has for prac- 
tical purpose got a serious overdose, has he not ? 

Mr. Sinclair. Again, I think that depends on the individual. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Thpre is a tolerance that develops? 

Mr. Sinclair. I do not know if it is a tolerance but you never know 
exactly how concentrated the THC or the hashish oil that you happen 
to be using is. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Well, suppose you take 45 percent which is half of the 
maximum the brotherhood was able to arrive at. And suppose a man 
gets eight drops which is about what, half a teaspoonful ? \Vhat does it 
do ? Put him out ? Kill him ? Affect his brain seriously ? 

Mr. Bartels. We don't know. It will affect his brain seriously but 
I think it is new enough, hashish oil, that we do not know what it will 
do. 

Mr. Sourwine. It might seriously affect the brain permanently. 

Mr. Bartels. That is possible. 

Mr. Sourwine. Are any experiments being made along this line to 
determine tolerance ? 

Mr. Bartels. Not to my knowledge. 

Mr. Sourwine. Is anybody making experiments alons: this line with 
animals ? 

Mr. Bartels. I do not know. 

Mr. Haislip. I think the National Institute of Mental Health has 
fjome research grants in this area but we would not be able to answer 
for what they are doing in the field. 

Mr. Sourwine. The FDA would not be working on it because it is 
not being offered in the market legally. 

Mr. Haislip. That is correct. 

Mr. Sourwine. Some of the evidence that this subcommittee took 
last year, about a year ago. suggests that there is a direct tie-in be- 
tween hashish smoking and marihuana smoking. What would your 
opinion be on this? Does the marihuana smoking lead to the use of 
hashish in any degree? 

Mr. Bartels. I think the two are interchangeable. 

Mr. Sourwine. Interchangeable. Not a matter of movement from 
the man who smokes a joint to the man who smoke hashish. It is back 
and forth. 

Mr. Bartels. I think it can lead up. In other words, the hashish be- 
ing more potent, more reliable, is more sou""ht after bv the confirmed 
and experienced marihana smoker who frequently is dissatisfied with 



15 

the 2 percent THC when he can get higher, So I would think yes, 
it can lead to it 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Before we get through I would like to cover for 
the record the connection of Leary with William Mellon Hitchcock, 
the multimillionaire Avho permitted Leary to continue his experimen- 
tation with LSD on the Hitchcock farm in Dutchess County, N.Y. 
Do you want to go into that now or leave it for one of the other men 
with you to offer ? 

Mr. B ARTELS. That is sub judice right now. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. It will be covered in a later statement. All right. 

Is the equipment for the preparation or production of hashish 
oil extensive or expensive ? 

Mr. Haislip. We have some photographs for the record that we 
have offered that will illustrate a typical laboratory. 

Mr. SouRwaxE. That is, it will be offered. 

Mr. Haislip. It is being offered now. 

Mr. Bartels. I will be happy to offer them. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. That is fine. 

Mr. Chairman, may these be received ? 

The Chairman. They will be received. 

Mr. Bartels. May I offer to you two photographs, one revealing 
a marihuana or hashish oil laboratory seized in Escanaba, Mich., and 
the other being the brotherhood "Orange Sunshine" LSD laboratory 
in St. Louis, Mo. ? 

[The photographs referred to follow :] 



16 




Marihuana or Hashish Oil Laboratory, Escanaba, Mich. 



17 




Brotherhood "Orange Sunshine" LSD Laboratory, St. Louis, Mo. 



Mr. SouRWixE. I am not a laboratory technician or expert and un- 
able to tell from looking at one of these but it does not look as though 
the equipment is very expensive. Do you have a conclusion in that 
regard ? 

Mr. Bartels. It is very inexpensive. 

Mr. SouRwixE. Very inexpensive. 

Mr. Bartels. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiXE. When you talk about hashish oil, does that mean 
it can only be prepared from hashish or can it be distilled from simple 
marihuana? 

Mr. Bartels. From crude marihuana as well. 

Mr. SouRwix'E. Marihuana and hashish are different versions of the 
cannabis plant. 

Mr. Bartels. That is right, a different process. 

Mr. Sourwix'e. And the hashish oil that you get from one in an equal 
degree of concentration would be just the same as what you get from 
the other ? 

Mr. Bartels. Yes, sir. 



18 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Does hashish oil have the characteristic cannabis 
odor so that it can be detected by your trained dogs that are used by 
the Customs and Post Office Departments ? 

Mr. Bartels. I defer to Mr. Strange on that. Do you know? 

Mr. Haislip. I think in most cases the oil would be sealed in a 
container in any case which would probably make it less subject to that 
type of discovery because it would be tightly sealed. 

Mr. Sinclair. Usually in glass vials. 

Mr. SouRwixE. Do you know whether the oil has a similar aroma 
or flavor when put in a cigarette or smoked to what you would get if 
you used marihuana? 

Mr. Haislip. The best report we have on that is that it is not as 
easily detectable and that is just a street report. 

Mr. SouRwixE. I have no more questions at this time. Do you want 
to go ahead ? Mr. Sinclair next ? 

Mr. Bartels. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sinclair. Thank you. 

Mr. Chairman, distinguished members of the subcommittee, to the 
agents who participated in the Brotherhood of Eternal Love investi- 
gation, it was not just another routine case. For nearly a year and a 
half, we felt the pulse of what has come to be realized as one of the 
largest and most complex drug systems in the history of this country's 
narcotic law enforcement efforts. 

Possibly you might ask: Are these notorious international traf- 
fickers from Italy. Mexico, or Turkey, or from the Golden Triansfle in 
Southeast Asia? No. gentlemen, the great majority of these violators 
are from California; but, our story does not beerin there. Although 
no one knew it at the time, the Brotherhood of Eternal Love began 
with Dr. Timothy Francis Leary at Harvard University in 1963. 

It was in 1963 that Dr. Leary was fired from his post at Harvard as 
a result of his experimentation with LSD. He soon found a friend in 
multimillionaire. "William Mellon Hitchcock, and was allowed to con- 
tinue his experimentation with LSD from Hitchcock's 4.000-acre 
estate in Millbrook, a quiet community in Dut^'hess County, N.Y. 

From 1963 to 1966. Dr. Timothy Leary planted the seeds of "mysti- 
cism through drufifs" in the minds of countless thousands of vovmsr 
Americans. Even Dr. Leary never realized the f ruitfulness of his crop 
or the international ramifications of its harvest. 

From Millbrook, Dr. Leary traveled to Berkeley. Calif., and from 
Berkelev to a small city in southern California called Laguna Beach. 
This village-type community was soon to become the psychedelic drug 
capital of the world. 

In October 1966, the Brotherhood of Eternal Love became a lecral 
corporation in the State of California. The brotherhood was also 
granted a tax-exempt status on the basis that it claimed to be a reli- 
gious organization. 

The brotherhood was heavily drug oriented. From its inception, in 
addition, intelligence indicates that the group was ceremoniouslv prac- 
ticing group sexual freedom in connection with the use of drugs. 

From 1966 to 1968. the brotherhood flourished by dealing in mari- 
huana smuggled in 100-pound lots from Mexico and bv traffickins: in 
LSD obtained from illicit sources and from Sandoz Chemical "Works 
in Basel, Switzerland. 



19 

Mr. SouRwixE, Do you imply that the LSD obtained from the Basel 
firm was legally obtained ? 

Mr. SixcLAiR. There was a time when lysergic acid diethylamide was 
available commercially. The first person to synthesis it worked for 
Sandoz and Sandoz actually manufactured it commercially. 
Mr. SouRwixE. Thank you. 

Mr. Sinclair. But, that was not enoucrh; and in the latter part of 
1967, Glenn Lynd and two other brotherhood members traveled to 
Afg:hanistan in search of a permanent source of supply for brother- 
hood hashish. 

Mr. SouRwixE. That is Glenn Lynd, L-y-n-d ? 
Mr. Sinclair. That is correct, sir. 

Thev purchased 125 pounds of high-quality Afghanistan hashish 
from their suppliers in Afghanistan for $15 a pound and smuggled 
it back into California where thev sold it for $900 a pound. This was 
to be the first 125 pounds of nearly 24 tons of hashish smuff^led into 
the United States from Afghanistan, Lebanon, and India by the 
Brotherhood of Eternal T>(Ove. 

In the summer of 1968, brotherhood members traveled to San Fran- 
cisco in an attempt to secure a permanent source of supply for LSD — 
which they found. The LSD was to be called orange sunshine and 
the laboratory was to be set up in December 1968. 
Mr. SouRwixE. May I interrupt for a moment, sir? 
Mr. Sinclair. Yes. sir. 

Mr. SouRwixE. Here again, you used this 24-ton figure as though it 
was the end of the Leary operation. Do you know that 24 tons or any 
other amount is all thev were ever going to smuggle in ? 
Mr. SixcLAiR. Xo, sir. 

Mr. SouRwixE. Have you put them out of the business ? 
Mr. SixcLAiR. No, sir. 

Mr. SouRwixE. So that is only what you know about that they have 
done heretofore ? 

Mr. SixcLAiR. That is correct. 
Mr. SouRwixE. Go ahead. 

Mr. Strange. Two weeks affo there were 923 pounds of hash seized 
in Xew York and Las Vegas. That was a brotherhood shipment. 
Mr. Soi-rwixe. Where in Las Vegas ? 

Mr. Straxge. It came in from Amsterdam through Kennedv Air- 
port to New York and from there to Las Vegas. It cleared U.S. cus- 
toms in Las Vegas and it was seized on the outskirts of town, being 
transported from Las Vegas to southern California in a large Ryder 
truck. 

Mr. SouRwixE. Came in through the McCarran Airport in Las 
Vesras. All right go ahead. 

Mr. Sixclair. In March 1969, the first batch of "orange sunshine" 
LSD was made bv brotherhood membere in a laboratory located out- 
side of San Francisco. Slightly under 1 million tablets were produced 
in this first endeavor. Numerous millions were to be made in the next 
4 years. 

At this point in time, the Brotherhood of Eternal Ix>ve was the larg- 
est supplier of hashish and LSD in the Ignited States. 

Mr. SouRWiXE. Let us get the reference. That phrase "point of time" 
has meant a lot of things. You are talking about March 1969. 



20 

Mr. Sinclair. That is correct, sir. 

Mr. SouRWixE. Go ahead. 

Mr. Sinclair. The center of their operations was still La^na Beach, 
Calif., although they were fast becoming international travelers and 
were purchasing property in Hawaii, Canada, Central America, and 
several States neighboring California. 

From 1966 to 1971, members of the brotherhood traveled throughout 
the world using false identities with passports obtained under assumed 
names. Their operations were virtually untouchable during this period 
of time. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Why was that ? 

Mr. Sinclair. Because of their mobility, because no one was really 
aware of the extent of their activities. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Do they have any untouchability today ? 

Mr. Sinclair. No, sir. 

Mr. SoTJRwiNE. Their pretentions to be a religion do not do them any 
good any more, do they ? 

Mr. Sinclair. No, sir. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Go ahead. 

Mr. Sinclair. No arrests were made of major figures in the organiza- 
tion, and thousands of pounds of hashish and millions of dosage units 
of "orange sunshine" LSD were being distributed through outlets in 
southern California. Local authorities were aware of the brotherhood's 
existence but could not penetrate the organization's outer wall. 

The only significant accomplishment by local authorities during this 
period was the arrest of Dr. Timothy Leary on December 26, 1968, in 
Laguna Beach, Calif., for possession of marihuana. Dr. Leary was 
convicted in February of 1970 and sentenced to State prison for a term 
of 1 to 10 years. According to one of his companions, I^ary escaped 
from prison in September 1970 with the help of the Weathermen fac- 
tion of the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) who also pro- 
vided him with false papers and arranged for his flight abroad. 
According to several sources, the brotherhood paid $50,000^ to the 
Weathermen to see their spiritual leader set free. 

While in Algiers and Switzerland. Leary, despite the fact that he 
was in exile, still exercised a major influence over the brotherhood, and 
was visited constantly by the higher echelon of the brotherhood 
organization. 

In November of 1971, the brotherhood suffered its first rnaior set- 
back when George Oliphant Avas arrested in Lebanon while in pos- 
session of 800 pounds of hashish. It was later determined that Oliphant 
and otlier members of the bi'otherhood had smu.ofgled approximately 
4,000 iKMinds of I^banese hashish into the United States since 1968. 

Mr. SoLTiwiNE. Did they make almost $900 a pound on all of that? 

Mr. Sinclair. Yes, sir. Oliphant is still in prison in Lebanon. 

On December 15, 1971, brotherhood member Donald Alexander 
Hambarian was arrested in Lagima Beach, Calif., while operating a 



1 In the pxperpt from his hook, "Confessions of a Pooe Fiend." on p. 35, Timothy l^nry 
sav.s : "I Kiuldenlv flashed on the meshlnj: of nnderprounrl energy systems. Dope dealers raise 
.?25.000 to finance the hreakont. And the hread goes to the manic ffuerrlllas." The suhcom- 
mlttee has no way of estnhllshlnjr whether the amount paid to the Weathermen was actually 
!i!.50.000 as stated" to the Drup Enforcement Acency by a member of the brotherhood who was 
Involved In the fundralslnpr and Is now cooperating with the DEA, or whether It was .$25,000 
as stated by Leary in his hook. What does appear certain Is that a very substantial sum was 
paid to the Weathermen to arrange Leary's escape from the prison and from the country. 



21 

hashish oil laboratory. This hashish oil was to be the first encountered 
in the United States. Hambarian was also in possession of 86,000 
dosage units of LSD. 

Also in December of 1971, the two Afghan sources came to the 
United States accompanied by a brotherhood member, Robert Dale 
Ackerly, now serving: sentence. Their trip appeared to be nothing 
more than a sightseeing tour until it was learned that two shipments 
of hashish totaling over 2,000 pounds were on their way to southern 
California. The Afghans were overseeing these shipments. 

In January of 1972, brotherhood member Michael Lee Pooiey was 
arrested in Laguna Beach, Calif., while in possession of 133,000 dosage 
units of "orange sunshine" LSD. 

Mr. SouRwixE. What did that sell for ? 

Mr. SixcLAiR. Well, it depends again on supply and demand. You 
can sell tablets for as little as $1 apiece, or you can sell as many as 
4,000 of them for $600. It just depends. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Go ahead, sir. 

Mr. SixcLAiR. Later that same month, the first of the Afghan hashish 
shipments was seized in Portland, Oreg. This shipment totaled 1,330 
pounds and still stands as the largest quantity of hashish ever seized in 
the United States. 

In February of 1972, the second shipment of Afghanistan hashish 
was seized in Vancouver, British Columbia. This load totaled 729 
pounds. According: to outstanding indictments, both the Portland and 
the Vancouver shipments belonged to Brothei-hood Chief Robert Lee 
Andrist. At this time, intelligence revealed Andrist was in control of 
the hashish smuggling arm of the brotherhood, while Michael Boyd 
Randall was generally considered to be the head of the "orange sun- 
shine" LSD operation. Both Andrist and Randall became fugitives 
subsequent to indictment in this matter. 

In March of 1972, Gordon Fred Johnson was arrested in Laguna 
Beach, Calif., for distributing approximately 50,000 dosage units of 
"orange sunshine" LSD. Over $46,000 in cash was found in Johnson's 
residence upon execution of a search warrant. Also in March, Eric 
Chastain was arrested in southern California for distributing 45,000 
dosage units of "orange sunshine" LSD. 

Mr. SouRwixE. Chastain is part of this Leary family, too ? 

Mr. SixcLAiR. He is part of the brotherhood ; yes, sir. 

It became apparent that the mere seizures of hashish and LSD were 
doing very little to disrupt the Brotherhood of Eternal Love as a major 
drug system. As a result of this observation. Federal, State, and local 
narcotic officers formed a strike force, with the brotherhood as their 
sole target. 

Mr. SouRwixE. That was done in what year ? 

Mr. Six'CLAiR. That was done in early 1972. 

This strike force operated under the code name "Operation BEL." 
The tool used by Operation BEL agents was the strongest weapon nar- 
cotic officers have in their battle against drug traffickers. The con- 
spiracy laws. 

On August 3, 1972, the Orange County, Calif., grand jury climaxed 
many months of investigation by Operation BEL agents when it re- 
turned indictments against 29 members of the brotherhood organiza- 
tion. This indictment was aimed primarily at the hashish smuggling 
arm of the brotherhood. 



22 

On August 5, 1972, at 6 a.m., Operation BEL agents executed 
search warrants and arrest warrants in Hawaii, Oregon, and in nu- 
merous locations in southern California. Sixteen major brotherhood 
figures were arrested, and over $40,000 in cash was seized, along with 
a total arrest of 53 individuals. 

In November 1972, a DEA special agent of the BEL Task Force 
traveled with an IRS agent to Brussels, Belgium, to investigate a lab- 
oratory relative to Ronald Hadley Stark. As a result of the investiga- 
tion and subsequent followup, Stark was indicted by a Federal grand 
jury in April 1973. (Stark is a chemist from New York who in 1964 
was worth approximately $1,400 and who in 1968 was reportedly worth 
approximately $1,200,000. Stark is a close associate of Nicholas Sand, 
and according to some reports, was the first person to ever produce 
hashish oil from solid hashish.) 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Can you give us lists of the names and whatever you 
have in the way of identification of the individuals in these two groups ; 
that is, the 29 and the 53 that you just mentioned? 

Mr. Sinclair. Yes, sir, for the record. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Can that be provided for the record later? 

Mr. Sinclair. Yes, sir, it can. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. May that be the order, Mr. Chairman ? 

The Chairman. So ordered. 

[The information referred to may be found in the appendix, p. 79.] 

Mr. Sinclair. The investigation continued, and on December 6, 1972, 
the Orange County grand jury returned another indictment, this time 
aimed primarily at the brotherhood's "orange sunshine" LSD system. 
On December 31, 1972, one of the major figures in the LSD system, 
Michael Boyd Randall, was arrested in San Francisco. Randall is cur- 
rently a fugitive wanted on four separate narcotic and false passport 
warrants. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Now, that statement indicates that something hap- 
pened in there to change his status. After he was arrested, how did 
he get loose so he is now a fugitive? 

Mr. Sinclair. I would like to defer to Mr. Strange in this par- 
ticular matter, because he had a great deal of 

Mr. SouRwiNE. He will cover it? 

Mr. Sinclair. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Would you like to talk 

Mr. Strange. As you wish. Michael Boyd Randall was indicted 
by the Orange County grand jury on December 6, 1972. He was ar- 
rested in San Francisco, Calif., on the night of December 31, 1972. 
He was brought down to Orange County where his bail was set at 
$250,000. It was 

Mr. Sourwine. Will you pardon me ? We are going to get into quite 
a story here. Let us save it, and let the present witness finish his state- 
ment, and then we will come back to you. 

Mr. Strange. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sinclair. On January 14, 1973, Dr. Timothy Leary was located 
by DEA agents in Kabul, Afghanistan; and on January 18, 1973, he 
was returned to Los Angeles, Calif. State and Federal agents arrested 
Leary on the BEL charges and for escape from a California prison 
farm in 1970. Leary was arraigned on BEL charges in State court on 
January 30, 1973, and bail was set at $5 million. Leary Avas convicted 



23 

of the escape and, on April 23, 1973, was sentenced to 5 years in State 

prison. , , r. i 

On January 19, 1973, brotherhood chemist Nicholas Sand was ar- 
rested in St. Louis, Mo., and his laboratories seized. These illicit labo- 
ratories proved to be the largest of their kind ever seized in the United 
States, with a value of approximately $500,000. The tableting press 
for the "orange sunshine" LSD was also seized along with 50,000 
dosage units of the drug already tableted. Powdered LSD capable of 
producing over 14 million tablets of "orange sunshine" was found at 
two locations, along with the formulas and raw materials for the pro- 
duction of over 100 different psychedelic drugs. 

On Easter Sunday, April 22, 1973, BEL Task Force agents arrested 
four members of BEL in Santa Cruz, Calif. Three of those arrested 
were fugitives from other jurisdictions. Some contraband was seized, 
along with seven phony passports. Huge stores of false identification 
Avere seized, indicating this was a point of contact of BEL fugitives 
desiring false identification and papers. 

On April 25, 1973, Nicholas Sand, Timothy Scully, Michael Randall, 
and four other major figures in the LSD operation were indicted by a 
Federal grand jury in San Francisco, Calif. Four of these higher 
echelon members are still fugitives. 

Mr. SouRwixE. Now, for the record, would you identify the four 
that you did not name, and indicate which of the eight are the four that 
are still fugitives ? 

Mr. Sinclair. Yes, sir. The individuals referred to are David Lee 
Mantel; Charles Druce, currently a fugitive; Lester Friedman; and 
Ronald H. Stark, currently a fugitive. In addition to these four in- 
dividuals, one of those previously mentioned, Michael Randall, is also 
a fugitive. i t j i 

That, briefly, is a chronological summary of the Brotherhood of 
Eternal Love investigation. Overall statistics of Operation BEL con- 
cerning arrests and seizures are nearly unbelievable. To date, the 
brotherhood investigation has resulted "in the arrests of over 100 in- 
dividuals, including Dr. Timothy Leary who is currently serving 15 
years in Folsom prison. Four LSD laboratories have been seized, along 
with over 1 million "orange sunshine" LSD tablets, and LSD powder 
in excess of 3,500 grams, capable of producing over 14 million dosage 
units of the drug. In addition, the source of diversion for the raw ma- 
terials needed in the production of LSD was identified in Europe. 

A total of six hashish oil laboratories were seized, along with over 
30 gallons of hashish oil and approximately 6,000 pounds of solid 
hashish. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Now, those hashish oil laboratories were m this 
country. 

Mr. Sinclair. Some were. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Some were not. 

Mr. Sinclair. That is correct. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Would you differentiate that for the record when 
you correct it ? 

Mr. Sinclair. Yes, sir ; I will. 

[The information requested follows :] 

Of these six laboratories, four were being operated within the United States, 
three of which were in California and one in Hawaii. Two others were being 
operated within foreign countries ; one in Costa Rica, and one in Afghanistan. 



24 

Mr. SouRwiXE. And with regard to the diversion of raw materials, 
the source of diversion in Europe, would you identify, that for the 
record ? 

Mr. Sinclair. Yes, sir ; we will. 

[The information requested follows :] 

That individual is Charles Druce. a British citizen, indicted on April 25th for 
conspiracy in connection with the illicit manufacture of LSD. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Go ahead, sir. 

Mr. SixcLAiR. Grand jury indictments were obtained on Amanullah 
and Hayatullah Tokhi, two brothers who are alleged to be the sources 
of Afghanistan hashish for the Brotherhood of Eternal Love. The 
Afghanistan Government has been advised of these indictments. 

Mr. SouRWiXE. Now, where were they indicted ? 

Mr. Sinclair. In Orange County, Calif. 

Mr. SouRwixE. Had they been in Orange County ? 

Mr. Sinclair. Yes, sir, they had. 

Mr. SouRwixE. All right. 

Mr. SixcLAiR. Other drugs and articles seized were 104 grams of 
peyote, 8 pounds of amphetamine powder, 13.64 pounds of cocaine. 
2 marihuana canning operations, "Orange Sunshine" pill press, 7 
vehicles, 546 acres of property in southern California, and over $1.8 
million cash either seized or located in foreign banks. The Internal 
Kevenue Service and the California Franchise Tax Board have as- 
sessed the Brotherhood of Eternal Love corporation for over $70 
million in back taxes. 

Mr. SouRWixE. Which would indicate that the brotherhood accord- 
ing to the IRS, must have made something over $200 million in its 
illicit operations. 

Mr. SixcLAiR. That is right, yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiXE. Go ahead. 

Mr. SixcLAiR. On September 23. 1973, the State Department pub- 
licly announced that a tougher screening process would be used in the 
issuing of passports due to the Brotherhood of Eternal Love. State 
Department officials working with Operation BEL agents uncovered 
120 cases of passport fraud within the period of 1 year. 

With these astonishing statistics, one might get the impression that 
the brotherhood organization is a thing of the past. Nothing could 
De further from the truth. Out of the 52 brotherhood members in- 
dicted by State and Federal grand juries, 22 are fugitives, including 
the No. 1 man in both hashish and the LSD operations. 

Brotherhood members continue to operate from outside the United 
States. On September 15, 1973, 923 pounds of hashish concealed in 
false bottom commercial sound speakers was seized in Las Vegas, Nev. 
It is now known that this hashish shipment was enroute to southern 
California components of the Brotherhood of Eternal Love. 

No doubt, the brotherhood organization was dealt a severe blow by 
Operation BEL, but not a terminal one. At the moment, it remains 
disorganized and severely crippled. Hopefully, continued enforce- 
ment effort can be brought to bear until this complex drug distribution 
system is completely eliminated. 

In concluding my remarks, Mr. Chairman, I would like to offer for 
the record a copy of an interview with Jennifer Dohrn, sister of 
Weathermen leader, Bernardine Dohrn, describing her meeting with 



25 

Timothy Leary and Eldridge Cleaver in Algiers in October of 1970. 
The article appeared in the Underground publication, Good Times, 
for January 8, 1971. I believe it is interesting because of the light it 
throws on the lifestyle and motivations and associations of these 
people. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Mr, Chairman, I would like to suggest that this 
it€m be incorporated into the record as an appendix. 
The Chairman. So ordered. 

[The article referred to may be found in the appendix, p. 80.] 
Mr. SouRwixE. If I understand your figures correctly, however, is 
it not true that the brotherhood in terms of its operations and its power 
and its financing is now several times as strong as it was 10 years ago 
from which it built up to $100 million operation within the space of 
less than 10 years. 

Mr. Sinclair. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Xow, I do not know whether this is the proper place 
to raise this question, but the committee is in possession of a flyer put 
out by the California Department of Justice giving the photographs 
and descriptions of 26 members of the Brotherhood of Eternal Love. 
Have you gentlemen seen it? I presume you have. 

Mr. Sinclair. Yes, sir. We furnished the committee with that 
flyer. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Well, now, I think it would be very useful, if the 
Chair agrees, if these pictures and descriptions could be put in our 
record but we cannot reproduce them from this. Can you furnish us 
with glossies of these pictures that we can use to reproduce in our 
hearing record ? 
Mr. Sinclair. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. May that be the request, Mr. Chairman ? 
The Chairman. So ordered, 
[The photographs follow :] 



26 




CA-LIKORNIA. DEFA-RTMENT OF JUSTICE 

BUREAU OF NARCOTIC ENFORCEMENT 




The individuals shown below are active members of the BROTHERHOOD OF ETERNAL LOVE. This is a pseudo-religious 
organization responsible for the importation and sale of large quantities of hashish and manufacture and distribution of LSD 
on a worldwide level. 

On August 3, 1972 the Orange County Grand )ury indicted these individuals, charging them with a variety of narcotic 
violations and 182,I,V Penal Code (Conspiracy to Violate California State Narcotic Laws). 

Since these fugitives extensively utilize false identification, every effort should be made to notify California Department of 
Justice of their fingerprint classification as soon as possible, to obtain a positive identification before releasing subject. 




MAY, Edward Joseph 



PADILLA, Gerald James 






ANORIST, Robert Lee 



ACKERLY, Robert Dale 



BECKER, Dale Andrew 




STAMTON. Mark Patrick 



SMITH, Brenice Lee 



DAW, John Robert 





SIMMONS, Peter David 



Dafgp - r«ghi Itg 



27 



\ 

ASHBROOK, Travis Grant 






^^ 



SCOTT, Charles Fredrick TOKHI, Hayatullah 




TIERNEY, Robert Edward TOKHI, Amanullah Salam 




SEXTON, Gordon Albert 



HALL, David Alan pratT Sunford Leon DRURY, Donald Karl HARRINGTON, )ohn Joseph Jr. 





n 



GERMAN, Lyie Paul 



The Orange County Sheriffs Office holds Superior Court Bench Warrant Number C 28976 for the arrest of these individuals. 
If you have any information concerning the location of these persons, please contact: 

WARRANT DETAIL ■ ORANGE COUNTY SHERIFF'S OFFICE ■ (714) 834-3061 
DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, ORGANIZED CRIME AND CRIMINAL INTELLIGENCE BRANCH, SACRAMENTO 
(LARRY D. MILES) (916) 322-2438 - 24 HOUR NUMBER 



28 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Now, I think we have one more prepared statement, 
have we not ? 

Mr. Sinclair. No, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Well, then, it may be proper to ask some of these 
questions now. 

You made it pretty clear that the brotherhood case is an illustration 
of the inadequacies of existing criminal justice procedures in coping 
with contemporary high level drug; violators. This is interesting to us 
because it is one of the central points that was made by Gen. Lewis 
Walt in his report to the subcommittee last September on the world 
drug situation and its impact on security. 

Among other things General Walt recommended that Congress 
consider the imposition of new restraints on the granting of bail to 
drug traffickers. Would you gentlemen have a recommendation in that 
area ? 

Mr. Bartels. Yes, we do. There is a bill presently before the Senate, 
S. 1300, which would provide for pretrial detention pending trial in 
heroin cases, mider certain circumstances. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. The facts given us here certainly underscore that 
need. 

Now, you mentioned one brotherhood member who apparently was 
arrested on four consecutive occasions and posted bond on each oc- 
casion and finally fled the country. Who was that, Randall ? 

Mr. Bartels. No, sir. Donald Drury. 

Mr. Strange. He is now in custody. 

Mr. Sourwine. May we then go back to you and get the Randall 
story, the rest of it, and then you can tell us about the others. 

Mr, Strange. As I stated earlier, Michael Boyd Randall was in- 
dicted on December 6, 1972, by the Orange County grand jury. He was 
arrested in San Francisco, Calif., on December 31, 1972, and taken to 
Orange County where his bail was set at $250,000 pursuant to the 
grand jury indictment. 

He retained counsel and over a period of time had his bail lowered 
to $25,000. 

In the month of March we came up with some information revealing 
that a primary figure in the LSD operation was unknown to us. We 
had a name but we did not know who it was. The name was that of 
Michael Thomas Garrity. This name appeared on shipping docu- 
ments where a Jaguar had been shipped from the LSD laboratory in 
Brussels, Belgium, to New York and it appeared on several other 
legal documents concerning the purchase of property in Riverside 
County, in southern California. 

Just as a chance, agent Elliot submitted this name with agent Keel 
to the passport office and it turned out that Michael Thomas Garrity 
was in fact Michael Boyd Randall. 

This greatly strengthened our case against Randall and it also 
^ave us an additional charge, under 18 U.S.C. 1542, 1544, for obtain- 
mg a passport fraudulently. 

On March 9, when we got the passport application from Wash- 
ington, we filed that charge withh the Central District of California 
and we arrested Randall that night at the beachfront home of his 
two attorneys. 



29 

He had marihuana in his possession at the time of the arrest and 
we filed local charges for that also. We had the $25,000 bail in Cali- 
fornia court, and it appeared later we had $10,000 bail for the pass- 
port charge and then $1,000 for the marihuana possession for a total 
of $36,000 bail which on approximately April 20 he fled and we do 
not know where he is. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. That is Randall. The bail forfeited? 
Mr. Strange. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SonRWiNE. Do you know where he is now? 

Mr. Strange. No, sir. 

Mr. SotJRWiNE. He is a fugitive from justice. 

Mr. Strange. Yes, sir. He was indicted April 25 by the Federal 
grand jury in San Francisco but by that time we believe he was 
already out of the country. He is probably traveling under another 
assumed name under a false passport. Some of these individuals 
have as many as four passports, four complete sets of identification, 
which is an interesting story itself. It includes driver's license, social 
security card, selective service card. University of California Irvine 
student ID card, and birth certificate. 

Mr. SoTJRWiNE. And birth certificate? 

Mr. Strange. That is the key. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. That is an interesting package of identification but 
who carries a birth certificate? 

Mr. Sinclair. Members of the brotherhood. 

Mr. Strange. That is one way you know — this thins: was a learn- 
ing process, and that is one characteristic that enabled us to put to- 
gether a profile of this organization. We arrested people who ordi- 
narily do not have anything on them, much less a complete package 
of identification, and we said who are you and he said my name is 
so and so and we say, really? What have you got to show? And he 
pulls out a birth certificate, social securitv card, driver's license, in 
the neatest set of identification that vou have ever seen and it just 
did not fit with the person. After checking on several of these we 
found out they were not correct. 

Mr. Sourwine. T^Hien you ran into one you knew it was phony. 

Mr. Strange. A lot of times. 

Mr. SouRAViNE. Does that conclude your statement? 

Mr. Strange. About Randall. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. You are sfoins: to tell us about the other fellow. 

Mr. Sinclair. I think Mr. Strange will also tell you about Mr. 
Drury. 

Mr. Strange. Mr. Drury had posted and fled on a total of $125,000 
in bonds from 1970 up until approximately 6 months ago when we 
arrested him in Hawaii. Each time he was arrested under a different 
set of identification and it was just a 

Mr. SouRAviNE. Four sets. 

Mr. Strange. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Four arrests. 

Mr. Strange. When we arrested him again he had another one, so 
that makes five. 

Mr. Sourwine. Five. The new one was in Hawaii. 

Mr. Strange. Yes, sir, and we were not aware of that one at the 
time we arrested Mr. Drury on the last occasion. The problem with the 



30 

brotherhood organization, and what took law enforcement so long to 
catch up with it, was their high degree of mobility. It is virtually im- 
possible to keep up with their pace of international travel. 

For instance, he was arrested in August of 1972 in Berkeley. Calif. 
He had a complete set of false identification. They booked him there, 
and set bail at $22,000. An individual still unknown to us appeared 
that night with $22,000 cash, bailed him out and by the time his finger 
prints had come back revealing that he was a fugitive on three other 
warrants, it was too late because he was already out. So they stay one 
jump ahead of the game by using that procedure. 

Mr. SouRw^jsTE. Well, does that explain why the courts kept letting 
him out on bail? In each case they did not know he was a bail jumper? 

Mr. Strange. In each case they did not know who he was. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. He jumped each bail separately. 

Mr. Sinclair. That is correct. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Well, now, you have got him out on bail on the fifth 
charge. 

Mr. Sinclair. No, sir. 

Mr. Strange. No, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Let the record show that two witnesses answered 
that question in unison. Where is he now ? 

Mr. Strange. He is in the Orange County jail. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Any indication the courts are going to admit him to 
bail or have you been able to defeat that ? 

Mr. Strange. I have been at one bail reduction motion on his part 
and I do not think there is any chance. 

Mr. Sour WINE. Xow, I think we have covered the point of the 
brotherhood operating in a virtually untouchable manner between 
1966 and 1971. Would you have anything to add, Mr. Strange? 

Mr. Strange. Only that the reason for this is that they built up a 
reputation as being an untouchable organization. This is a hard thing 
to OA-ercome on our part. We could not get anv information out of these 
people we were arresting because they were firmly of the opinion that 
we would never get the hiarher echelon members of the brotherhood. 

That was our greatest difficulty to overcome. The statistics we have 
given you and the facts on seizures and resource information are ex- 
tremely well documented. We now have approximately five high-rank- 
ing or moderately ranking members of the brotherhood who arp 
Government witnesses and when we tell you we know 4.000 pounds of 
hashish were smuggled out of I^banon, we know that because he told 
us he personallv smuggled 4.000 pounds out, and when we tell you the 
first batch of "Orange Sunshine" LSD was around a million, we know 
that because our informant was in that laboratory which produced that 
first batch 

Mr. SouRwiNE. You told us. Mr. Sinclair, that Leary escaped with 
the help of Weathermen and there was a $50,000 payment for the es- 
cape operation. Is your operation on that point as ifirm as what Mr. 
Strange has talked about ? 

Mr. Sinclair. Yes, sir. Yes. sir, absolutely. 

Mr. Strange. We have been fortunate enough to have the right 
people in the right places as far as our witne?ses and 

ISIr. Sinclair. Also, our witnesses liave corroborated each other un- 
knowingly. 



31 

Mr. SouRwixE. I do not want to interfere with your case as you are 
building it. but if your case permits, would you insert for the record at 
this point in correcting your record the sources of your information 
about this $50,000 payment ? 

Mr. Strange. One of the Government witnesses was asked to con- 
tribute funds to this prior to Leary's escape. That is one way we know 
it. The individual who collected the money, to pay the Weathermen, 
was Randall, whom I mentioned earlier. 

Mr. SouRWixE. Was Bernardine Dohrn of the AVeathermen involved 
in either the planning or execution of Leary's escape? 

Mr. Straxge. That information comes to us by way of an informant 
who lived Avith Timothy Leary since he escaped and he says that Leary 
told him that. 

Mr. SouRwixE. That Dohrn was involved. 

Mr. Straxge. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwixE. In what way, both in the planning and the execu- 
tion? 

Mr. Straxge. She was reportedly in the car that picked him up 
after he climbed over the high tension wire. 

Mr. Sour WINE. Now, you mentioned Robert Lowe Andrist as the 
No. 1 man in the brotherhood hashish operation. Where is he now ? 

Mr. Straxge. He is a fugitive. He has four false sets. 

Mr. SouRWixE. He also jumped four bonds ? 

Mr. Straxge. No, sir. He has never been arrested. 

Mr. SoL-RwixE. Mr. Sinclair, I think you told us that a total of six 
hashish oil factories were seized along with 30 gallons of hashish oil 
and some 6,000 pounds of solid hashish. Could you give us for the 
record, a tabulation of those seizures, show the date, place, the amount 
seized in each case? 

Mr. Haislip. Can you do that research ? 

There are several cubic feet of files. I do not know if you can do that 
without a great deal of labor. Is is possible? 

Mr. SouRwixE. I do not want to put you to a great deal of labor. 

Mr. Haislip. We, of course, do not have our file organized to respond 
to that. 

Mr. SouRwixE. I just want to identify each seizure and get maybe 
a short paragraph about the essential facts and the amounts involved, 
the value. 

Mr. Haislip. Could we confine that to the major or principal seizures 
instead of 

Mr. SouRwixE. Sure. I would think so. Set your own figures as to 
what is important. We just want the big ones. 

Mr. Sinclair, I understand you said that Michael Boyd Randall, 
whom vou considered the No. 1 in the LSD operation, was first 
arrested on December 31, 1972 ? 

Mr. SixcLAiR. That is correct. 

Mr. SouR^\^XE. And is currently a fugitive wanted on four separate 
narcotics and false passports warrants, or is that five now? 

Mr. Sinclair. No. It is still four. 

Mr. SouRwixE. Four. 

The subcommittee has been informed that after his first arrest Ran- 
dall retained the services of two attorneys, ^lichael Kennedy and Mi- 
chael Tigar, both of whom have a long record of involvement in the 



32 

defense of left win^ militants including Angela Davis and the Chi- 
cago 7 and the Seattle 9. Is our information accurate in that respect 
as far as you know ? 

Mr, Sinclair. Yes, sir, it is. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Are these men still representing him? 

Mr. Sinclair. To the best of mv knowledge, yes. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Could you or Mr. Strange add anything to what 
you have told us about the circumstances under which Randall became 
a fugitive? Did vou cover that as fully as you think it needs to be? 

Mr. Strange. I would iust like to say that Mr. Kennedy now repre- 
sents Nicholas Sand in the Federal indictment in San Francisco. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Does he or Tigar represent any of the other brother- 
hood members? 

Mr. Strange. No, sir. He went back to France. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Who did ? 

Mr. Strange. Mr. Tigar returned to France after Randall fled. 

Mr. Sourwine. Now, Mr. Strange, we understand that you were in 
charge of the arrest of Michael Boyd Randall for a second time on 
March 6 of this year ; is that right ? 

Mr. Strange. March 9. 

Mr. SoTTRwiNE. March 9. Can you tell us something about the cir- 
cumstances leading up to that arrest and about the arrest itself? 

Mr. Strange. Yes, sir. We obtained an arrest warrant from the 
Central District of California, Federal District, earlier that day for 
the 18 U.S.C. 1544 passport violation which we were to execute for 
the State Department, Secretary of State, and we attempted to locate 
Mr. Randall that afternoon and that night at his home, his parents' 
home, and were unable to do so. We then went to Laguna Beach 
thinking that he might be in that area. We saw him in his vehicle 
with his wife pass us where we were parked in the street and we pur- 
sued him. 

We lost sisrht of him and we went on down the Pacific Coast High- 
way there and could not catch up with him. So we assumed he turned 
off in the area of the beach house of Mr. Kennedy and Mr. Tigar. 

Mr. Sourwine. They were living together. 

Mr. Strange. Yes, sir. We went to that address and his car was 
there, still hot, of course, leading us to believe he had just arrived, 
and we were faced with the delicate situation of arresting the defend- 
ant in the attorney's home. 

Mr. Sourwine. You had an arrest warrant for him ? 

Mr. Strange. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Wherever found. 

Mr. Strange. Yes, sir. So, to be sure, we called the Chief of the 
Superior Court Division of Orange County and advised him of the 
circumstances and our advice from counsel was that you have a valid 
arrest warrant for him. You have to arrest him. So we had a meeting 
outside the house, myself and the other Federal and local and State 
agents that had plaved such a great part in this investigation, nnd 
we decided that under no circumstances were we to approach that 
house without either badge and credentials or both clearly shown. 

So we went to the front door en masse and knocked on the door. 
Mr. Kennedv opened the door. We could see Randall standing in the 
kitchen through the window, so we knew at this time that he was in 



33 

there. Mr. Kennedy opened the door and. of course, he reco^jnized my- 
self and State Agent Barnes. AVe all had our credentials out and we 
advised him that Ave had a warrant, who we were, what we were there 
for, and he slammed the door and bolted it and refused us entry into 
the house. 

A forced entry was required and Mr. Randall was taken into custody 
and those six marihuana cigarettes were found on his possession at the 
time and he was also charged with possession of marihuana in the 
State court. 

Mr. SouRwixE. Well, did Mr. Kennedy resist you any further after 
you forced entry ? 

Mr. Straxge! Just through verbal abuse and 

Mr. SouRwixE. You mean he cussed at you ? 
Mr. Straxge. Sir ? 
Mr. SouRwixE. He cussed at you ? 
Mr. Strax-^ge. Yes. sir. 
]Mr. SouRwixE. Used vile language, did he? 
Mr. Straxge. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Well, I will not ask you to repeat it for this record, 
then. 

Now, what happened then ? Did you take Randall down and book 
him? 

Mr. Strange. Yes, sir. We took him to the Laguna Beach Police 
Department where we removed his shirt, took photographs of him 
without a shirt on so that we could answer any charges later that he 

was beaten, and 

Mr. SouRWixE. You felt that was necessary. 
Mr. Straxge. Yes, sir. And it proved to be. 
Mr. SouRwixE. They made such charges ? 
Mr. Straxge. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sourwixe. Then your forethought paid off. 
Mr. Straxge. Yes, sir. 

[In the remarks that follow, 113 lines of the typewritten testimony 
given in executive session were deleted for security reasons, at the re- 
quest of the Drug Enforcement Administration.] 
Mr. Sourwixe. So you put him in jail ? 
Mr. Strax'Ge. Sir? 

Mr. Sourwixe. You put the prisoner in jail ? 

Mr. Straxge. Well, we fingerprinted him and photographed him 
but we had no recourse but to release him. 

Mr. Sourwixe. Well, did he come up with the $50,000? 
Mr. Straxge. He did not have to. The Federal district judge or- 
dered him released on his own recognizance. 
Mr. Sourwixe. Then, what happened ? 

Mr. Straxge. Then we went back through the svstem and tried to 
get a bail hearing on our part and we did and bail was finally set in 
the amount of $10,000. 

Mr. SoiTtwixE. Pretty low bail for a man with his record of skip- 
ping ; would you not say ? 

Mr. Straxge. He had no record of skipping up to that point. 
Mr. SoiTiwixE. He did not have. But he did skip that bail. 
Mr. Strax'ge. Yes. sir; and two others. 
Mr. Sourwixe. "\Mio put up the bail for him ? 



u 

Mr. Strange. We do not know. 

Mr. SouRwixE. Do you know of any other members of the Brother- 
hood of Eternal Love defended by either Michael Kennedy or Michael 
Tigar? 

Mr. Strange. Just Michael Boyd Randall and Nicholas Sand. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Those are the only ones ? 

Mr. Strange, Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Now, when you said that brotherhood members had 
false passports, do you mean each had one false passport or did some 
of them have several ? 

Mr. Strange. Some have none, others have as many as four or five. 

Mr. Soura\t:ne. I thought the indicia of these people was they all had 
a complete ID package. That did not include passports in all cases? 

Mr. Strange. That is almost exclusively true of the hashish 
smugglers; but some who worked internally with the distribution of 
LSD did not need a false passport. 

Mr. Sourwine. So the passports were on a need-to-use basis. 

Dr. Strange. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Could you provide us with a list of brotherhood 
members as far as you are informed who have operated or have had in 
their possession multiple false passports or multiple passports in false 
identitv ? 

Mr. Strange. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Haislip. We could provide a list of those who have been indicted 
on such charges easily. Would that be sufficient for the record? 

Mr. Sourwine. I would rather leave it on the basis of the information 
available to you than on the basis of the indictment. We might get 
a few more names that way, I do not know. 

Mr. Bartels. We will do our best to net you them. 

FThe information renuested mav be found in the appendix, p. 83.] 

Mr. Sourwine. That is all that anybody can do. 

Can one of you gentlemen tell us briefly for the record, the Rick 
Bevans story ? 

Mr. Sinclair. It will have to be Mr. Strange. 

Mr. Strange. Mr. Bevans was arretted in Mav of 1972. in Kabul. 
Afghanistan. Excuse me. I^et me rephrase that. He was taken into 
custody by the local authorities at Kabul, Afghanistan, in that period 
of time pursuant to a brotherhood photoo-raT^h a*" the aimort there a^" 
Kabul. Thev realized who he was from the photograph. They notified 
our asrent there and he sent a teletype to Los Angeles informing us 
that Mr. Bevans was there traveling under the name Rodney Parks 
and had a passport to support that. Based on that we ffot a complaint 
asrain out of the central district. And Ajrent Burke escorted 
Mr. Bevans from Kabul back to the United States in custodv and he 
was arraigned and bail was set at $10,000, which he promptly forfeited. 

Mr. Sourwine. Now. I show you and vour colleasrues several charts. 
Did vou provide these for the committee's information ? 

ATr. BartI':ls. Yes. Ave did. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you have anv objection if they are put in the 
record ? 

Mr. Haislip. No. 

Mr. SouRw^iNE. Mav that be the order, Mr. Chairman, that they be 
inserted in the record ? 



35 

The Chairman. So ordered. 

[The charts referred to may be found in the appendix, p. 87.] 

Mr. SouRwiXE. Xow, you have touched upon the escape of Timothy 
Leary, although not in great detail. He tells the story quite fully in 
his recently published book. "Confessions of a Hope Fiend." Have 
any of you read it ? 

Mr. Straxge. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sourwixe. You have read it. As far as you know, did he tell 
the truth? 

Mr. Strax'ge. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRWixE. !Mr. Chairman, may a passage from this book tell- 
ing how he shimmied aci'oss a telephone cable and above the level of 
the prison lights and climbed down a pole, and so forth, be put in the 
record at this point ? 

The Chairmax. So ordered. 

[The information referred to follows :] 

[From Confessions of a Hope Fiend, Bantam Books] 
(By Timothy Leary) 

Slowly picked my way to the roof end looking down over ro^d, fence, com- 
pound, and way below car lights on the highway. I sat down and laced the right 
sneaker. 

The socks in my pocket. I put on the left sock and tied the sneaker. Pulled on 
handball gloves. I lay down on the angled roof just under the cable. Grabbed it 
with hands ,and hooked ankles. I reached my hands above my head and pulled 
out on the wire. 

It was hard going. The cable had wire looped every ten inches holding a tele- 
phone cord below. My legs bumped and tangled in the wire. There were no 
smooth easy sweeping pulls. Reach hands. Pull body ten inches. Pull leg. Hands 
up. Pull body. Haul legs. The cable bouncing and swinging. A strain to hang on. 
Wrenched my hands. Strain legs. Weird wrestling motions, my body clinging to 
the swaying wire. Sweating. Heaving awkwardly. After fifty pulls — a pause. 
Horrid discovery. Completely exhausted. Lungs gasping. Arms drained of energy. 
Body limp and weak. Can't go another foot. Only one-third across the wire. 
Hadn't even reached the ro^d. The wire was longer than expected. Two-thirds 
to go. Exhausted. My hands can't hold the weight of my body. With desperate 
sexual writhing I embraced the cable with elbows and knees. Rested. The cable 
was slowly swinging. Nightmare thoughts. What are you doing this time? In- 
eflScient wizard dangling from a cable twenty feet high escaping from life im- 
prisonment in full view of two gun trucks? Once again the little experiment has 
gotten out of hand. Professor. Turned my head horizontal toward the gun truck. 
The interior light snapped on. He's seen me. Put on light to sound alarm. The 
word is flashing. I'm pendant waiting for patrol cars to scream up. Will they 
poke me down like a wild raccoon with sticks? Dangling, I had to laugh. 

Dangling from a sAvinging wire I start squirming toward life. Five more 
wrenching feet. Stop. Wrists and arms exhausted. Panting. I .should have quit 
smoking. I .should have pushed more iron. It seemed .so easy. Xow I know why 
no com have escaped this w-ay. Olympic gymnastics on a high wire in the gun- 
sights. I should have waited until the winter fog. Maybe they leave the cable 
strung over the fence as a trap? They're hunters waiting in trucks, rifles cradled 
on knees, waiting for wild animals to blunder into the ambush? The slaughter 
hole. My hands trembling could hold no more. With desperate lunge I hooked 
elbow\s over the wire, with clumsy crablike grabs pulled bo<ly along by elbows. 
Stop to rest. Look down at macadam road sixteen feet below and over into TV 
rooms where cons watch the shadow tube. 

A sudden glare of light. Forty feet away a patrol car slowly turns from the 
compound road toward me. I'm captured. The auto rolls closer, a soft crunch 
of tires on gravel. My blue denim arms turned yellow in the headlight. I looked 
down directly at the guard leaning over to crush his cigarette in the ashtray. 
Car rolled by to the comer and disappeared. 



36 

Now tumble into some delirious trance. Arms crassed, elbows hooked to wire 
Inching caterpillar crawl. All hope of escape given up. My only goal to reach the 
fence so I'd fall to freedom outside the i^erimeter. I must remember when I fall 
to let feet go first. My hand kept getting tangled in the phone wire loop. A com- 
pulsive wrench to free my hand sets the cable bouncing wildly. Mouth gasping, 
face bulging, glasses t\visted, sweat dripping, face grimacing. Another skin of 
the teeth. I wanted Errol Plynn and out came Harold Tvloyd. I felt very alone. 
Forty-nine years and 325 days of this life built up to this moment of ordeal. My 
life hung on a needle point. In trance of Sun Dance initiates whirl suspended 
by hooked burning pain in the chest muscles. There was no fear only a nagging 
embarrassment. Such an undignified way to die, nailed like a sloth on a branch ! 
Other men and women in prison would be pained by my failed escape. My fall 
would please the guards. See we told you. You can't escape. There is no escape. 

No more thoughts. From some inner reservoir of JylVE ! LIVE! LIVE! SUR- 
vrv^E ! came an energy flow and a curious erotic lightness. Hands reached up in 
easy strong pulls, legs kicking, body wiggling, arms flailing, shoulders pushing 
propelled by uterine squeeze. My gla.sses fell but my arms smoothly reeled cable. 
Thus I butted head first dripping wet into this New Life. 

Hqnd over hand till fingers hit the pole. Hanging by my legs (I'd practiced 
it a thousand times in my bunk) I reached right hand over head, grabbed metal 
spike, dropped legs, twisted body, wrapped legs around splintery wood, silid 
down. Exultant feet hit liberated ground FREE ! 

♦ *•**** 

I was swaying sweating panting. I saw the glasses lying on ground outside 
of fence. I adjusted them on my nose, funny professor gesture. I looked around. 
All silent. Electric lights shining on the steel fence and the green grass. Cell- 
blocks forty feet away shining still in the night. No motion. 

I staggered to the wall, slid down, lay head against the stone, drained, 
deeply breathing, listening. Alert fox hiding from hunters, waiting for pursuit 
cars to scream down road. Silence. I started down the bank. The barracks of the 
open-prison compound lay scattered below. Lights were on. Watch for fire patrol. 
Steep decline. My first steps dislodged a rock avalanche. I slipped and slid, 
stones rattling aVound me. Hit the hill bottom and started loping carefully, 
probing, wary like a kickoff return. 

♦ ***♦♦* 

Up ahead I saw the dim outline of trees next to the highway. Climbed out 
of the culvert and ran to the first tree. Standing five feet from highway at the 
base of the second tree, I saw three trees joined at the root trunk. Well, they 
have the symbols right. 

A long wait for the pickup. Scanning the cars roaring by. Two minutes. Five 
minutes. Ten minutes. 

A car is coming. Right blinker flashing. It pulled up in front of the tree. 
I ran from the shadows. The car door swung open. A girl with long dark hair 
leaped out. Code words swapped. 

—Kelly ! 

^Tino! 

We embraced. I ducked into the back seat grabbing the hand of the blond girl 
behind the wheel. Kellv jumped in slamming the door. Motor gunned we roared 
off. 

— I'm Maru, said the driver. 

—Where is She? 

— In Denver waiting for you. You'll .see Her Monday. 

I had mixed feelings. I hoped She was out of the country safe but exultant 
we'd meet in two days. 

Kelly was talking fast. 

— Brother, we're glad to see you ! We made two passes by the pickup spot. 
We were worried. You were late. I was going to start walking back the tracks 
to look for you. In case you were hurt. 

Kelly pointed to the back seat.— There's a new set of clothes. Change. I started 
stripping off prison denim. 

—Give them to me, said Kelly. 

— I'd like to save them. For Barker and Horowitz the archivists. 
— No. We're going to transfer your clothes to another car. They'll drive south 
near L.A. and leave them in a gas station re&troom. To maUe the pigs think we're 
heading south. 
— How many cars do you have operating tonight? 



37 

Four. You'll only be in this car for five minutes. We have a camper in Morro 
Bay to take you to Oakland. A third car goes south. And the fourth has the 
shortwave set to monitor police calls. Hotv much of a lead do we have? 

— I don't think I was seen leaving. So we have two hours before they discover 
I'm gone. 

Maru was driving smooth and easy. In four minutes we reached a road by 
the beach. Car stopped. Maru turned back grinning. — OK brother. You get out 
now. I'll see you in Oakland. 

I pulled the knit ski cap over my head and followed Kelly out of the car 
over the sand dunes down the beach. It was still a B movie, spy thriller, World 
War II. 

After a hundred yards Kelly turned away from the sea, over dunes to a parked 
camper. A beautiful woman waited. We kissed. A sturdy gray-haired man came 
around the side of the camper and we shook hands. 

— Welcome. 

Kelly motioned me in back of trailer. 

— I'm going to dye your hair now. A strange trailer just pulled up. They look 
suspicious. We don't want to pull out suddenly. We'll hang around here for a 
few minutes and then hit it. 

I sat on the edge of the bunk bed. Kelly standing at the sink filling a pail of 
water. She squirted spray-can hair dye on my scalp and began massaging. After 
a while she stopped and smiled. 

Kelly is my code name, not my real name. I'm not always a beautician. My 
father is Senator and the name of our tribe is the Weathermen Under- 
ground. 

I began to laugh. It all figured. The maniac reckless guerrilla tribe. Scourge 
of the FBI. 

— We had to keep it secret. We hope it's all right with you. 

I suddenly flashed on the meshing of underground energy systems. Dope 
dealers raise twenty-five thousand dollars to finance the breakout. And the 
bread goes to the maniac guerrillas.^ 

— ^The twenty-five thousand went to buy dynamite? Kelly laughed. 

— Dynamite, hair dye, and fast cars. 

Mr. SotrmvixE. Do you know the names of all of the individuals 
including' those other than Bernardine Dohrn. who were in the car 
when he Avas picked up? 

Mr. Strange. No, sir. 

Mr. SouRwixE. Do you know of the names of any of them ? 

Mr. Straxge. No, sir. 

Mr. Sourwixe. Just Bernardine Dohrn. 

Mr. Straxge. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwixE. Now, the man who you said lived with Jjeary in 
Algeria and in Switzerland, was he an undercover agent? 

Mr. Straxge. No, sir. 

Mr. Sourwixe. "\^Tio was he? 

Mr. Strax^ge. His brother is married to Timothy Leary's daughter. 

Mr. Sourwixe. "\'Miat is his name ? 

Mr. Str-vxge. Dennis Martino. 

Mr. Sourwixe. "Where is he now ? 

Mr. Straxge. He is in Los Angeles. 

Mr. Sourwixe. Is he in jail ? 

Mr. Straxge. No. sir. Ho is a Government witness. 

Mr. Sourwixe. He is a Government witness ? That might keep him 
out of jail. 

You do not know whether he knows the identities of all of the 
"Weathermen who were in the car ? 

Mr. Straxge. No, sir. 



^ See footnote on p. 20. 



38 

[In the remarks that follow, 20 lines of the typewritten testimony 
given in executive session were deleted for security reasons, at the 
request of the Drug Enforcement Administration.] 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Mr. Chairman, I have no more questions to ask of 
these witnesses. I note that we have arrived at a point later than 1 
o'clock, I would respectfully suggest that we inquire of Miss Knight 
whether she wants to go ahead without lunch, or whether she wants 
a recess for lunch. 

Miss Knight. It is up to you entirely, sir. 

Mr. SoIJR^vINE. Mr. Chairman, maybe we could break until 2 o'clock 
for luncheon and come back here to hear Miss Knight and the people 
from her office. 

I think we should say we are extremely grateful to you, sir, and the 
men you brought with you. It is obvious that you have been doing a 
very fine job with respect to the Leary — at least the Leary family. 

Mr. Bartels. Thank you, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE, And it heartening to hear your recommendations, I 
would like to ask just this one question before you leave the stand. 

Are you getting the money you need? Are you getting appropria- 
tion support you need and other congressional support you need for 
the job you are trying to do ? 

Mr. Bartels. Yes, sir. Yes, we are. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Mr. Chairman, I would like to offer for the record 
a clipping from the Washington Post of Friday, August 24, 1973, 
being the Washington Merry-Go-Eound column by Jack Anderson 
and Les Whitten under the caption "U.S. Losing Drug Smuargling 
War." I would like to ask this go in the record, and I would like to 
ask you, sir, if you will, when vou are correcting the testimony, to in- 
sert for the record anv comments you have on this or any information 
you can give us in this area that would be helpful. 

[The article referred to may be found in the appendix, p. 90.] 

Mr. Bartels, Thank you, 

Mr. SouRWiNE, We do thank you for coming. 

The Chairman, I also want to express mv appreciation to vou for 
coming here to testify, I think you have performed a real public serv- 
ice, and I want to congratulate you on the effective work your agency 
is doins: and on the remarkable successes you have had in your drive 
against the Brotherhood of Eternal Love. 

Mr, Bartels, Thank you. We are honored. 

[Whereupon, at 1 :15 p.m., the hearing was recessed, to reconvene at 
2 p.m., this same day.] 

afternoon session 

The Chairman, Miss Knight, we thank you and Mr, Duggan, and I 
apologize for running beyond the time set for resumption of this 
hearing. 

As I think you have been told, the committee wants to bring its rec- 
ords up to date on the status of passport frauds. We are considering 
legislation in this area and want to be sure that we have the latest and 
up-to-date information. 

We are, of course, particularly interested in the Leary family pass- 
port fraud case, and we look to you to tell us about that. 



39 

Your previous testimony recorded your deep concern about the 
fraudulent documentation and identification used by criminal elements 
to obtain passports. "Would you like to make a formal or semiformal 
statement bringing up to date this fraud situation as it affects 
passports ? 

TESTIMONY OF FRANCES G. KNIGHT, DIRECTOR, PASSPORT OFFICE, 
DEPARTMENT OF STATE, ACCOMPANIED BY WILLIAM E. DUG- 
GAN, CHIEF, LEGAL DIVISION, PASSPORT OFFICE, DEPARTMENT 
OF STATE, AND JOHN O'DOWD, ATTORNEY-ADVISER, LEGAL DI- 
VISION, PASSPORT OFFICE (previously sworn) 

Miss KxiGHT. Yes, Mr. Chairman. I have such a statement, and I 
hope it will be helpful. It really is more of the same except that the 
situation is worse now than it was 1 year ago or 6 months ago. 

Mr. William E. Duggan, Chief of the Passport Office Legal Division, 
is with me today because he is thoroughly familiar with the fraud cases 
and the seriousness of the substantial increase in document fraud. 

If you agree, I would like to read my statement prior to Mr. Dug- 
gan's discussion on fraud cases. 

The Chairman. Go right ahead. Miss Knight. 

Miss Knight. Thank you, sir. 

Fraud is usually discovered after the fact. In other words, while the 
fraudulent act occurs at the point where an individual submits fraudu- 
lent documents in the form of a fraudulent birth certificate, or bap- 
tismal certificate, fraudulent social security card or driver's license, the 
Passport Office detects the fraud only upon scrutinizing and adjudi- 
cating the application for a passport. If the passport application is 
accepted by a facility other than the Passport Office, the personal 
evaluation of the applicant is lost to us. 

In other words, we detect fraud in the documents submitted with the 
passport application. We may attempt to contact the applicant. If he 
is an experienced criminal, he will not give us a specific address but will 
indicate a post office box or even indicate that he "will call'' for the 
passport within a reasonable period of time. If the criminal gets any 
notion that we question the authenticity of his credentials, he dis- 
appears — we see neither hide nor hair of him. Undoubtedly, he will 
try again, elsewhere, by assuming another identity. 

We use clerks of court in Federal and State courts and a few probate 
courts. A total of approximately 2,800 courts cooperate with the Pass- 
port Office in accepting passport applications. However, the courts are 
so backlogged with cases that in the past few years, they have been 
bowing out of this work. 

Currently, we have 819 post offices accepting passport applications, 
and while such a spread is convenient to the public, and adjudication 
of these applications require much closer review than those applica- 
tions received by the Passport Office and its agencies or from the 
clerks of court who are more inclined to question an individual's 
identity than a post office employee. 

Mr. SouR-waxE. At that point, if I may interrupt. Miss Knight, is 
it not true that there is a substantial difference in the quality of train- 
ing of the employees who as employees of a court receive applications, 
and those who as employees of the" Postal Service receive them ? 



40 

Miss Knight. I think that is true, yes. 

Mr. SouRwixE. They are much better paid than the Postal Service. 

Miss KxiGHT. I do not know what the pay is, now that it is an inde- 
pendent organization. 

Mr. Sor^R^^^XE. Go ahead. 

Miss Knight. As a matter of fact, it is the consensus of our security- 
minded staff that if a criminal wanted to get a dozen passports under 
a dozen different identities, he would choose to do so through a postal 
facility and not through a passport agency or clerk of court. But we 
have no way of checking this obviously less than secure method of ac- 
cepting passport applications. Our own trained passport agents in 
their eyeball confrontation with the applicant have detected fraud on 
the spot. We have only one such detection from a post office employee. 

The Postal Service through its 819 facilities accept approximatelv 
30 percent of our total application workload. Under an agreement 
made bv the Department of State, the Postal Service, now a private 
enterprise, is reimbursed $2 per application accepted, or a total of 
$1,633,366 in the past fiscal year. The Post Office workload has de- 
veloped to a great extent from the Federal courts which could no lonarer 
cope with the volume. The Passport Office, however, continues to ad- 
judicate all applications, contact applicants when errors occur, process 
the passport, and mail it to the bearer. 

One other point I would like to make be^-ause it is directly related 
to our concern with security : As the post office pro.(rram evolved, we 
in the Passport Office sought to educate postal officials on the urgent 
need to check the accuracy of the passport application and accompany- 
ing documents. We prepared an analysis form for each post office send- 
ing in applications, and indicated on this form the errors made — 
dividing them into serious errors and not-so-serious errors. The work- 
load resultant was horrendous. In a period of 10 months, we forwarded 
1,398 correction sheets covering a total of over 8.000 errors. We finally 
gave up this educational program because we did not have the neces- 
sary personnel to render such service. Correction sheets are now being 
sent out to post offices by passport field agencies when time and work- 
load permit. Statistics indicate that for the period of January 1 
through Ausrust 1973, a total of 31,770 letters of notification were sent 
to post officer, advisin^r them of over 73,000 errors. Those are the ones 
we caught. T have no idea of how many we missed. 

The extent of fraudulent documentation presented to the post offices 
and to the clerks of courts is unknown. We only know what we dis- 
cover in the course of our careful adiudication of the pa=sport ap- 
plications after they are received in the Passport Office. T^Tien there 
is no p^^rson-to-person contact by trained Passport Office personnel, 
there obviously is a lesser chance of observation and detection of 
fraud. 

In 1968, the International Civil Aviation Organization composed of 
delegates representing 126 countries, established a panel of passport 
experts representing eight member nations to studv the development of 
a new passport document with the aim of facilitating travel across the 
international frontiers. Reprasented on this panel are Australia. 
Canada. France, Germany. India, Kenva, Sweden, and the United 
States. I was selected to represent the United States. 



41 

The first meeting of the panel took place in June 1969 at Montreal, 
Canada. Subsequent meetings took place at Paris in May 1970 and 
at Montreal in January 1972. "Work of the panel is presently being 
continued by correspondence, with possible further meetings in mid- 
1974. 

There was premature enthusiasm among several members of the 
passport panel for a "passport card" — similar to a credit card in size 
with identifying data. We did not share in the enthusiasm because of 
some very specific drawbacks to a "card passport" and our concern 
to meet the expectations and requirements of our citizens by providing 
them with a secure document ; tamperproof identification as well as 
convenience. 

In the discharge of my responsibilities, both as Director of the 
Passport Office and as a member of the ICAO Panel, I appointed on 
January 10, 1969, an internal study committee within the Passport 
Office composed of knowledgeable passport officers. This committee 
was charged with studying the passport card which had been pro- 
posed by several European members of the international panel and 
about which we held grave reservations. Subsequently, the card pass- 
port Avas considered a questionable substitute for the traditional book 
format. 

It should be remembered that the U.S. Passport Office issues more 
passports in 1 year than all the other countries represented on the 
Panel combined, so our arguments on the deficiencies of the card con- 
cept carried some weight, especially with the security advisers to the 
Panel, such as the representative from INTERPOL. Informal con- 
sultations with the U.S. security community indicated their whole- 
hearted support of the Passport Office position. 

In connection with this study, the Passport Office on August 4, 1969, 
requested the inclusion of $o5.b00 in its fiscal year 1971 budget, subse- 
quently upped on August 28 to $75,000, to begin the research and de- 
velopment of a new and improved passport document. Unfortunately, 
this modest initial request for funds to begin this essential work was 
denied by the Department on the recommendation of the Bureau of 
Security and Consular Affairs of which we are a component office. The 
Passport Office was not permitted to address its request to higher au- 
thorities since I was advised that the Bureau's denial of funds was 
supported by the Department. 

Thus, the research of the internal Passport Office Committee was 
forced to proceed without funds, depending entirely upon the gratis 
cooperation of private companies in the identification and documenta- 
tion field. Over a 3-year period, the committee discussed existing 
technology in identification documentation with 80 companies, all of 
which cooperated with us for free. 

On May 28. 1970, the Passport Office once again requested $75,000 
for research and development of a new passport be included in a 
supplemental budget for fiscal year 1971. Again this request was not 
supported by the Bureau nor approved by the Department's Budget 
Office. Frankly, we Avere talking into a vacuum, because we only have 
access to persons totally devoid of any basic knowledge or concern 
with travel documents. The project was essentially dead and the mem- 
bers of the ICAO Panel expressed astonishment that our Government 



42 

was so disinterested in a matter which merited top level concern and 
support in all high volume tourist countries. 

In desperation I wrote to the President in December 1970, asking for 
an appointment. This was promptly arranged for December 14, 1970, 
and I discuss our security, fraud, and project problems with him. The 
President showed enthusiasm for the project of researching and de- 
veloping a new passport, especially since I thought it could be de- 
veloped in time for the Bicentennial. He asked me how much I needed 
for this project and I cited the figure of $75,000. The President in- 
dicated his approval and it is a fact that the White House commu- 
nicated the President's personal interest in and support of this project, 
but despite this, 6 months elapsed before any action was taken by 
the Department. 

Finally, the project was expanded and with the President's support 
$150,000 was appropriated in the fiscal year 1972 budget to let a con- 
tract for the research and development of a new passport and im- 
proved methods of issuance. These funds became available to the 
Passport Office on July 22, 1971, 23 months after the Passport Office 
requested them. 

The committee within the Passport Ofilce bee;an to draft a compre- 
hensive statement of the work to be included in the solicitation for 
bids on the contract. The request for proposals was released on Jan- 
uary 5, 1972. Deadline for bids on the contract was February 11, 1972. 

Bids were received from over 20 companies and research organiza- 
tions. A review panel of experienced passport officers Avas constituted 
to read, study and evaluate each proposal against the criteria set forth 
in the request for proposals. On the basis of technical evaluation and 
Avithin the funds' restrictions imnosed by the Department, the field was 
finallv narrowed down to two bidders. A series of nearotiations fol- 
lowed and the contract was awarded to Commiter vSciences Corp. on 
May 15. 1972. 33 months after the Passport Office asked for funds and 
17 months after the President had expressed his interest in and sup- 
port of the proiect to the Department. 

So much, Mr. Chairman, for the backo^round on how we finallv 
manao^ed to p-et moving on the program to develop a new concept for a 
travel document. 

[The followinqf articles were ordered into the record on p. 76.] 

[From the New York Times, May 17, 1972] 
U.S. Okdebs a Study op Passport System 

Washington, May 16. — Frances G. Knight, director of the United States Pass- 
port Office, announced today a $1.50,000. one-year research award to determine 
what passport improvements might be made in these days of growing travel 
abroad. 

In annonncine: the study contract with Coninuter Sciences Corporation of Los 
Ajigele.s. Mi.ss Knight made plain she does not believe a simple identification card 
pa.ssport would suffice for travel by United States citizens all over the world "in 
the foreseeable future." 

Segments of the travel industry and the passport panel of the International 
Civil Aviation Organissation have recommended adoption of a card type of pass- 
port. 

Passports of the United States and most other governments include identifica- 
tion of the pa.ssport holder and pages for insertion of visas and stamped nota- 
tions of entry into other countries. 

More than 140 countries now require visas for United States travelers. An 
identification card passport would have little space for stamping a visa. 



43 

[From the Washington Star, May 21, 1972] 
Passport Change Is Under Study 

Director Frances G. Knight of tiie U.S. Passport office lias announced award- 
ing of a private research contract to study the creation of a new and better "in- 
ternational travel document." 

Miss Knight, generally acclaimed for having "revolutionized ' the passport of- 
fice since she became director 17 years ago, said she was proud of the progress but 
wanted to see if a new document to replace the three types of American passports 
now being used would serve travelers better. 

She said that while the present operation Ls "described internationally as the 
most efficient passport operation in the world," she and her staff still were looking 
for "constructive change" to provide better and more efficient service. 

The office in 1971 issued 2.3 million passports. 

It took in about $22 million, while the direct cost to the government for the 
operation was between $8 million and $9 million. 

The research contract, awarded to Computer Sciences Corp., calls for the ex- 
penditure of $150,000. 

Contract Awarded for Passport Study 

U.S. Passport Director Frances G. Knight announced yesterday a $150,000. one- 
year research award to determine what U.S. passport improvements might be 
made in these days of mushrooming travel abroad. 

Mr. SouRWiNE, Do you want to turn over to Mr. Duggan now ? 
Miss Knight. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Xow. Miss Knight, that is fine. Mr. Duggan may 
proceed but I wish you would stand by because the committee is very 
much interested in this matter of passport security. As you know, we 
have taken testimony on it before. We knew of the award of the con- 
tract which was a matter of public record and we just cannot let this 
record stop back in May 1972. We have got to know more about it. 

I will ask you when^Mr. Duggan is through, and you may make 
notes in the meantime if you want to, but we would like to have a state- 
ment from you that will bring this whole subject up to date. 
Miss Kntoht. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRw^iNE. Right down to where we are now when Mr. Duggan 
finishes his presentation. 
Miss Knight. Yes, sir. 

Mr. DuGGAX. Mr. Chairman, distinguished members of the subcom- 
mittee, I will be glad to answer any questions you may have to the 
best of my ability. In my 33 years with the Passport Office, I have been 
exposed to most'of our'lega'l and security problems. Therefore, I can 
speak from years of experience and personal involvement in my area 
of work. I believe you may be interested in the overall passport fraud 
situation as it now exists. 

The overall passport fraud picture shows that, during the fiscal 
year 1973, we detected 449 fraudulent domestic applications. This is 
an increase of 149 over the previous fiscal year, when we detected 300 
fraudulent applications filed in the United States. This is an increase 
of 158 percent. This increase is indicative of some of the evds which 
beset our society, namely, the drug trafficking problem and the illegal 
alien problem. Since most of our frauds are perpetrated by persons 
falling within an identifiable age group it is realistic to put this fraud 
percentage in practical terms. In fiscal year 1972, we issued 921,260 
passports to persons within this age group. During the same period, 
we uncovered 300 domestic frauds within that age group. This amounts 
to one fraud discovered for each 3,070 applications. 



u 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Do you think that is all the fraud cases there are or 
are you missing some ? 

Mr. DuGGAx. I do not think there is any doubt but we are missing 
some. I think fraud detection is similar to the iceberg — where the 
greater proportion is well concealed and undetected. 

In fiscal year 1973, we issued 945,080 passports to persons within the 
age identifiable age group. In fiscal year 1973 we discovered 449 do- 
mestic frauds within that age group. This amounts to one fraud for 
each 2,104 applications. In addition to the frauds perpetrated by drug 
traffickers and illegal aliens, we also have frauds perpetrated by mili- 
tant groups, confidence men and fugitives. 

Examples of the various types of frauds will be cited later in the 
statement. Eeduced to simple terms, passport frauds and those frauds 
relating to passport frauds are symbolic of other fraudulent activities 
in the United States. Reduced to basic terms, it concerns what might 
be termed "the mystery of identification in our present open society." 

With regard to drug-related passport frauds, the greatest problem 
we now have is caused by the activities of the group called the Brother- 
hood of Eternal Love. We became involved in this activity in June of 
1972. The activities of this group were discussed briefly by Miss 
Knight when she testified before this committee on September 15, 1972. 
Pertinent information is contained on pages 5 and 6 of the report of 
the hearing. Information on the Brotherhood and related passport 
fraud information was updated in Miss Knight's communication to 
Senator Strom Thurmond which was inserted in the Congressional 
Record on June 28, 1973. That information is now outdated. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Mr. Chairman, may I ask that the letter to Senator 
Thurmond be placed in this hearing record in an appendix and identi- 
fied at this point in the record ? 

The Chairman. Without objection. 

[The letter referred to may be found in the appendix, p. 91.] 

Mr. SouRWTNE. Go ahead, sir. 

Mr. DuGCAN. Therefore, I would like to submit a revised table to 
the committee bringing the information on the Brotherhood frauds 
up to October 1, 1973. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Tliat is fine. Now, when Miss Knight testified on 
September 15, 1972, I believe she told us that 40 cases of passport 
fraud had been sent to the Office of Security for investigation in con- 
nection with the Brotherhood of Eternal Love and that another 10 
or 12 cases previously sent for investigation had been tentatively 
identified as members of the Brotherhood. By April 27, 1973, the 
number of passport frauds detected in connection with the Brother- 
hood of Eternal Love had risen to what? 

Mr. DuGGAN. 73. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. By June 1, 1973, how many was it? 

Mr. DuGGAN. 120. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. As of August 1973, how many? 

Mr. DuGGAN. August 1973, I will have to refer to my notes. I have 
a fisnire for July 12. 1973. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Well, give us July 12. 

Mr. DuGGAN. July 12, 1973, 124. 

Mr. SouRwixE. And how many now? 

Mr. DuGGAN. 130. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. 130. Do vou think vou have them all yet? 



45 

Mr. DuGCAx. "We again relate to the iceberg theory pertinent to all 
fraudulent activities. 

Mr. SouRWiXE. Do you not know how many more there may be? 

Mr. DuGGAx. Xo, I do not. 

Mr. SouRWiXE. In connection with this one organization. 

Mr. DuGGAX. No. The fraud is hidden, as Miss Knight stated. 

Mr. SouRWixE. Go ahead, sir, you have a table you want to put in 
the record. 

Mr. DuGGAX. That is the exhibit. 

Mr. SouRWiXE. May this be received, Mr. Chairman? 

The Chairmax. "Without objection. 

[The document referred to follows:] 

BROTHERHOOD FRAUDS 



April 27, 
1973 



June 1, 
1973 



July 12, 
1973 



October 1 
1973 



Number of frauds 73 120 124 130 

Type of fraud: 

Alteration of passport.. 2 2 2 2 

Fraudulent 4jse of passport ..- 2 2 2 2 

Identifying witness 9 17 19 20 

False statement... 60 99 101 106 

Place passport application filed (false statement viola- 
tions): 

Los Angeles 22 31 32 32 

San Francisco 13 24 24 25 

Miami 6 6 6 

Chicago - 4 4 4 4 

PostOffice 4 5 5 5 

New York - 3 5 5 5 

Kabul 3 3 3 3 

Clerk of court 2 6 6 8 

Other 9 15 15 18 

Year fraudulent application filed (prior to 1969) (false 

statement violations)... 3 5 5 6 

1969 10 11 11 12 

1970 - 11 20 20 21 

1971 21 35 35 36 

1972 - - -- 13 23 23 24 

1973 2 5 7 7 

Detected before issue (1972-73): 

San Francisco - 4 4 4 4 

Seattle 1111 

Miami 1111 

Los Angeles 1112 

Hawaii 11 

Lookout system 111 1 

New Orleans 1 1 

Total 8 8 10 11 

Referred U.S. Attorney 45 

Indicted 25 

Convicted. 2 

Declined: 

1— No reason 

2— Charged other offense -.. 3 

Counterfeit birth certificates detected 27 45 48 51 

Purported issuing authority: 

Hospital 5 6 6 6 

Nebraska 8 8 8 

Missouri 4 5 6 6 

Chicago 1* * * 1 

Colorado 2 2 2 2 

Utah 2 3 3 3 

North Carolina 3 3 3 

New York 2 

Ohio 2 2 2 

California * 

Other (Less than 2 apiece) 12 14 11 

Mr. Duggax. This table shows that as of October 1, 1973, we had 
detected 130 passport violations connected with the Brotherhood of 
Eternal Love. 



23-538 0—73- 



46 

Of this number, 42 have be^n submitted to the U.S. Attorney for 
prosecution, 25 have been indicted, and five have been convicted. In 
three cases, prosecutions were declined by the U.S. Attorney, since 
persons were charged with other offenses. You will note that, of the 
total number of frauds, 31 concerned jDassport applications which 
were filed during the years 1972 and 1973. The majority of the viola- 
tions concerned applications which were filed prior to 1972. Of the 31 
fraudulent applications filed in 1972 and 1973, 11 or over 35 percent 
were detected before issuance. 

Mr. SouRwixE. You mean two-thirds of the fraud cases now known, 
the passports were issued? 

Mr. DuGGAX. That is correct. We will get into that problem. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Go ahead. 

Mr. DuGGAN. This effectiveness in detection is largely due to an 
intensive fraud training program directed at passport office agents 
throughout the country which we initiated in the Spring of 1972. 

At this point I would like to correct the statement made by Mr. 
Sinclair this morning. On page 10 of his statement he states : 

On Sept. 23, 1973, the State Department publicly announced that a tougher 
screening process would be used in the issuing of passports due to the Brother- 
hood of Eternal Love. 

So far as I know, the State Department did not issue any such 
statement on that particular day or at any other time. Our training 
program began in the Spring of 1972. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. What is the date in question now ? 

Mr. DuGGAx. It is on page 10 of Mr. Sinclair's statement. He said : 

On Sept. 23, 1973, the State Department publicly announced that a tougher 
screening process would be used in the issuing of passports due to the Brother- 
hood of Eternal Love. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Well, I call your attention to the fact that the Phila- 
delphia Sunday Bulletin of Sunday, September 23, 1973, in its travel 
and resorts section, had a special feature article advertised on the front 
of the resort section as "Inside Report on America's Passport Lady," 
purporting to be an interview with Miss Barbara M. Watson, Admin- 
istrator of the Security and Consular Affairs, by reporter Edward 
Neilan of the Philadelphia Bulletin, or at least labeled "Special to 
the Bulletin" with a Washington dateline. Have you seen that? 

Mr. DuGGAN. I have not, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. I do not know whether I should ask you to comment 
on it or ask Miss Knight to comment on it. 

Miss Knight, have you seen this Philadelphia Bulletin story I refer 
to? 

Miss Knight. Yes, sir, I received a copy of it yesterday in my office. 

[The article referred to may be found on p. 76.] 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Well, then. I will wait until Mr. Duggan is through 
and ask you to comment on it, I will say, to me, as counsel for the com- 
mittee, what is said here is inherently incredible and if it is true, I 
think we certainly want to know about it. You are moving back into 
the dark ages if this is true. 

Go ahead, Mr. Duggan. 

Mr. Duggan. In 49 of the cases, counterfeit birth certificates were 
submitted. The States involved are listed. 



47 

Mr. SouRwiNE. 49 of what cases ? I lost yon. 

Mr. DuGGAN. I am sorry. I refer to the table I submitted regardmg 
the brotherhood frauds. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Go ahead. 

Mr. DuGGAX. In 49 of the cases counterfeit birth certificates were 
submitted. The States involved are listed on page 5 of the chart here- 
with submitted. The city of Chicago seems to be a favorite target of 
the drug traffickers since 14 cases involving false claims of birth in 
Chicago have been micovered. 

One of the founders of the brotherhood, Timothy Francis Leary, 
obtained a passport on a false identity on September 22, 1970, 10 days 
after his escape from a State prison" at California on September 12. 
1970. With his fraudulently obtained passport, he left the United 
States and ended up in Algeria as a guest of Eldridge Cleaver, one of 
the leaders of the Black Panthei-s. Ultimately, Leary left Algeria and 
successfully fought an extradition order in Switzerland. After being 
"requested'' to leave Switzerland, in December 1972, he ultimately 
appeared in Kabul on January 14. 1973, where he was apprehended 
and returned to the United States on January 18, 1973. He is now- 
back in prison in California. . ^^ 

In a book entitled, "Timothy Leary— Confessions of a Hope Fiend, 
published in July 1973, the author described the methods by which he 
and his wife obtained LT.S. passports in false identities. I think the 
best method of revealing the basic facts is to quote from the book. 

The author attempts to cloud the circumstances by the use of code 
names, false names, and false locations. Despite this tactic the meth- 
ods used, as well as other facts, are quite evident. 

With regard to the methods used by Mrs. Rosemary Leary to obtain 
the passport in a false identity the author quotes his wife on pages 97, 
98 and 99 as follows : 

We had a heavy schedule. Wig, makeup, photographs, license bureau, library, 
social security card. 

Getting a new head took the most time. I never knew there could be so many 
kinds of wigs. 

Looking at myself in the mirror I saw the faces of my midwestern cousins. 
Oh, Lord, must I look this way? Fresh from the beauty shop plastic lady. The 
longer I looked the less I liked her. But have a little sympathy. What's her story? 
Twenty-eight Single. She needs makeup, her skin is too sallow. What's her 
name? Margaret Ann McCreedy. Lived with her parents until last month, got 
her owTi apartment in Berkeley. Supersecretary for an insurance firm. 

Let's see what emerges after some makeup. Department store cosmetics. 
Orange-pink lipstick. Dark brown eyebrow pencil. False eyelashes. Need help 
there. The salesgirl was obliging. 

OK, Pam. Behold Margaret Ann McCreedy. I felt weird. What a change. 

Next morning to the passport office in the cold-steel Federal building. I filled 
out forms using national holidays for my parents' birthdays. My occupation is 
student. 

I was worried about the driver's license so I held up my right hand and pledged 
allegiance, smiling and thanking him. He told me I could come back and pick it 
up that afternoon. 

A fat woman clerk was talking on the phone with an index file in front of 
her. A long wait and she asked me my name. I couldn't remember it ! I flushed 
and dropped my bag. I prayed. I stood up and said Margaret Ann McCreedy. I 
took the passport and fled back to hotel. That night we flew back to San Fran- 
cisco. I wish you could see my passport picture. It's so funny. 

With regard to his own obtention of a passport in a false identity, 
the author quotes his companion as follows : 



48 

There's a wallet and set of IDs in the pocket. Your name is William McMillan. 
Your birthday is November 14, 1929. Your address is 2925 Northridge Road, Salt 
Lake City. 

I'm going to dye your hair now. A strange trailer just pulled up. They look 
suspicious. 

The person dyeing Leary's hair says : 

Kelly is my code name, not my real name. * * • and the name of our tribe is 
the Weathermen Underground. 

The escape of Leary from the United States is then discussed by 
the group as follows : 

Let's use a simple plan. We're having a set of IDs made here. Use a faraway 
city address. Tucson, Arizona, or Atlanta, Georgia. Friday you go down and get 
a Utah State driver's license. There won't be time for a picture but your descrip- 
tion will be on the temporary license. Sunday you fly to New York, Monday 
apply for a passport. You can get it in a day. Monday night you fly to the Third 
World. Surface with Eldridge Cleaver in Algeria. 

How the Learys leave the United States is discussed on page 150. 

Apply for a passport or hijack a plane? 

They'll be looking for me to dress up or hide behind a beard. The strategy is to 
take off my hair. Bald. Who's the barber? Kelly — 

the person he was riding with at the time — 

Kelly snipping my top hair close to the scalp. It was a slow process. 

"Not bad. Now let's shave it clean." 

"Take it easy, bloody gashes will betray." 

I walk to the bathroom and peer in the mirror at a high-domed, chicken-plucked 
moose-faced baldpate stranger. 

Then we turn to page 157 when he describes going into the Pass- 
port Office. 

A nice Detroit policeman directed us to the Federal Building. I recalled coming 
to testify for John Sinclair and the Seven in Judge Hoffman's court as Pam 
guided me up the elevator to the door of the U.S. State Department Passport 
Division. 

I pulled out the ID cards and paper with my personal history. My name and 
birth date. Now create a father's name and date and invent a mother's name 
and date and a wife named Sylvia and two lovely children. 

A large sign above the counter listed the requirements for a passport. Birth 
certificate. OK. Photos. OK. Personal identification with picture. That's the 
problem. 

I flash a slight smile of understanding — 

to the clerk. 

You'll have no bureaucratic trouble from W. J. McMillan, a fine upstanding 
Catholic businessman with two lovely children. Her eyes twinkled. Birth cer- 
tificate. That's fine, Mr. McMillan. Personal ID? Driver's license? No. I'm afraid 
I don't drive. Will Social Security card do? She frowned in concern. No it has to 
have your picture or identification. 

Ah, I do have something here. Aunt Bridget took my hunting license in her 
plump hand. 

Yes, Mr. McMillan, I can accept this. It has your description. 

You or your friend can pick up your passport in three hours at the counter 
over there. 

Later in the afternoon : 

The plane was to leave for Madrid at 5:30 and we had to be at the airport at 
4 :30. At 4 :00 I looked down to .see Pam and Kelly leaping out of the cab. They 
breezed into the hotel room flashing the ink-wet passport. 



49 

I would like to submit to the subcommittee for observation photo- 
graphs of Dr. Leary and Mrs. Leary as they normally appear, and 
photographs as they appeared after physical changes were made. I 
think you will agree that the differences in appearance are most 
striking. 

Mr. SouRwixE. Mr. Chairman, may these go in the record if they can 
be satisfactorily reproduced ? 

The Chairman. So ordered. 

[The photographs referred to follow :] 

Timothy Francis Leary - Rosemary Leary 
Before and After 



Timothy Francis Leary 



AKA 



William Mc Millan 





yJ^ 



i ^ 



Rosemary Leary 



AKA 



Margaret Ann Mc Creedy 




% 



*•»■ «^ 




50 

Mr. Dttggan. The question obviously comes to mind, is the method 
used by Leary the only method used to obtain U.S. passports 
fraudulently ? 

In our experience, the answer is emphatically no. A more complete 
story is told in an underground pamphlet entitled "The Paper Trip." 
It is, in effect, a brazen "how to do it" manual s^ivin^ extensive in- 
formation on methods of obtaininjs: bona fide birth certificates as well 
as identification. The recommended procedure is called the obituary 
method or the obtention of birth certificates of children who die in 
infancy. 

Mr. SouRWixE. We are familiar with that document, and I respect- 
fully su2:g:est to the Chair that no useful purpose can be served by 
havinfi: us reprint it in this record. "We do not want to give it any more 
circulation than it already has. 

Mr. DuGGAN. I appreciate that. I think the more circulation given to 
this undergfround pamphlet, the more problems we are going to have. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. It is a handbook on how to commit fraud on 
passports. 

Mr. DuGGAx. Riarht. 

Mr. SouRWTNE. You are telling us you are familiar with it, and from 
your experience people practice what it preaches. 

Mr. DuGGAx. As a matter of fact, that is so, and we will submit 
proof to show that one of our passport frauds actually used that par- 
ticular pamphlet to get a passport. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. All right. Go ahead. That Avould interest us. 

Mr. DuGGAX. Well, I will provide documentary proof that the book- 
let. "The Paper Trip," is used bv persons to obtain T-S. passports. I 
submit to the subcommittee a letter dated July 8. 1973, from a person in 
Los Angeles who admitted that she and her liusband used the instruc- 
tions in "The Paper Trip" to assist them in obtaining passports in 
false identities. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. May this be received, Mr. Chairman ? I notice por- 
tions of this have been blocked out. The purpose of it is to protect the 
identity of the writer ? 

Mr. DuGGAN. Yes. To protect the identity of the writer, and since 
it is in the process of prosecution and investigation, I think it is best 
to delete all names. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. But you are not protecting the writer from investiga- 
tion or possible prosecution. 

Mr. DuGGAx. No. 

Mr. SoTJRWixE. And you are proceeding. 

Mr. DuGGAN. Yes. It is merely proof to show that "The Paper Trip" 
has in fact been used as we have suspected. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. I ask that this may go into the record, Mr. Chairman- 

The Chairman. So ordered. 

[The document referred to follows :] 

July 8, 1973. 
U.S. State Department, 
Passport Agency, 
Lawndnle, Calif.: 

This letter Is In regard to two passport applications filled out In September and 
November of last year. I recently contacted the passport oflSce in Los Angeles and 
explained my situation and have been advised to write this letter. 



51 

In September, 1972, 1 filled out a passport application under the name of — 



-, which is my maiden name. I was married at the time and my legal name 

was . On the passport application I stated that I wasn't married. 

The reason I filled out the application in my maiden name was because I had 
separated from my husband a month before and when we got back together 
I used my maiden name because I no longer considered myself "married" to 
him. I had started divorce proceedings while we were separated which were 
stopped when we reconciled. Also, my husband had numerous bill collectors 
hounding him because of debts incurred before we were married. By using the 

name of , I would not have the hassle from the collectors who were looking 

for my husband for something that I had nothing to do with. On the application 
I gave a post office box address for the passport to be sent to. 

Shortly thereafter a passport application was filled out by my husband. 

, who I was living with at the time. For this passport he tried to change his 

name to , I do not know how this was done. I later learned that he put 

as the person to notify in case of emergency. A few days later I 

received a letter at , where we were living at the 

time. The letter was in regards to the application and was the first time 

I knew of such an application. Then there were phone calls to my relatives in 

regard to my whereabouts plus questions about " ". This scared me because 

I thought I was going to be in trouble about having lied on the application 

(during this time the passport had been sent to the post office box address 

and had been returned by the post office to your office.) I w^as also afraid I 

would be tied in to the application which I didn't have any thing to do 

with. Unfortunately instead of being rational and smart. I had already planned 
to leave Los Angeles to drive across the United States, so I left as planned. 
I had seen a book entitled, "The Paper Trip" in the Los Angeles Free Press 
claiming to tell you how to change your ID "legally". I thought this was a solu- 
tion, not fully realizing the seriousness of the situation. 

The drive across took a week and was made by myself and my husband. We 
arrived in Miami and stayed with relatives for a week. We then left for Penn- 
sylvania where we stayed for a month in a house we rented. In Pennsylvania is 
where we received "The Paper Trip" and started gathering the necessary things 
to obtain the passports (birth certificates and other identification). In "The Paper 
Trip" it is fully explained how to do this : find the name of someone deceased, 
in old newspapers obtainable in any large library, who is close to the age you 
would like to be, obtain the death certificate, from the df^ath certificate you 
get the information necessary for the birth certificate. For $2.00 you can obtain 
the birth certificate. 

Once I obtained the birth certificate, I left for New York still without the neces- 
sary identification. In New York a printer printed school identification cards 
with all the necessary information ; with a picture attached and laminated it 
looked like a regular school ID card. 

In New York the time for receiving passports was too long, so we drove to 
Philadelphia to fill out the application. This was November 27, 1972. I filled out 
and received a passport (enclosed) as on this day. On Decem- 
ber 5 we left for Europe ; staying in London for two months, while trying to get 
a business going importing guitars. When this was unsuccessful we returned. 

It took me three months to get the money to take the trip back to Los Angeles. 
I was in New York for two weeks with friends and in Pennsylvania for two and a 
half months. I separated from my husband in Pennsylvania and I'm in the proc- 
ess of obtaining a divorce. I'm now living with my parents and my only wi.sh is 
to correct my records. I realize now that I only made matters worse by not clear- 
ing it up in the beginning, but I was young (19) and very foolish at the time. 
I feel that things went far enough and that now is the time to have things cor- 
rected. If there are any further questions, I can be reached at : 



I hope things can be straightened out and I'm very sorry. 
Thank you. 



52 




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NAM^: 



cm^;. 



_^TAff: 



/./ pp£> BM r^^nm m^mpm^ji^. j 



53 

Mr. DuGGAN. Now, on pa^e 15 of "The Paper Trip," reference is 
made to the "U.S. Driver's License Guide" issued by a private com- 
pany in California. 

Now, this book contains reproductions of every driver's license is- 
sued by every State in the Union. I was concerned that the booklet in 
the wrong hands would add to the problems of law enforcement agen- 
cies. I drafted a letter to the firm expressing my concern. Copies of my 
letter and reply are offered for the information of the subcommittee. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. May these go in the record, Mr. Chairman ? 

The Chairman. So ordered. 

[The documents referred to follow :] 

Septembeb 26, 1972. 
Mr. Keith Doebqe, 
President, Drivers License Ouide Co., 
Redwood City, Calif. 

Dear Mb. Doeroe : I refer to your letter of September 13, 1972, forwarding a 
courtesy copy of the 1973 edition of the Drivers License Guide. 

In reviewing the 1973 edition, I have noted that there are many changes from 
the original edition. For this reason, I am recommending that a number of copies 
of the 1973 edition be obtained for our organization. I would like to make one 
observation. Tour guide is designed to help prevent fraud and it is very helpful 
in this regard. However, it would appear that there are no controls placed 
upon persons who can obtain this manual. For this reason, persons who wish 
to perpetrate frauds by obtaining drivers licenses fraudulently find their efforts 
greatly eased by resorting to your manual. 

I would appreciate being informed i)ersonally what efforts, if any, your 
organization makes to endeavor to keep this manual in the hands ot persons 
using it for the law-enforcement purpose for which it was created. 
Sincerely, 

W. E. DUQGAN, 

Chief, Legal Division, Passport Office. 



Drivebs License GtrroE Co., 

October 5, 1972. 

Mr. W. E. Dtjqgan, 

Chief, Legal Division, 

Passport Office, Department of State, 

Washington, D.C. 

Dear Mb. Duggan : Thank you for your help in recommending the Guide for 
use. 

I can understand your concern with the proper distribution of the Guide, and 
we do try to maintain control. 

Originally, this was discussed with Department of Justice personnel and 
various police forces. The conclusion reached was as follows : 

Criminal elements counterfeiting licenses do so by reference to a real, 
valid license from that state. These are not difficult for him to obtain. 
Law enforcement and business operations are forced to detect those coun- 
terfeit licenses with no reference at all or with the reproductions in the 
Drivers License Guide. 
The conclusion was that the counterfeiter wasn't gaining much by having a 
Guide if he could get one, but that the detection of counterfeits would certainly 
be helped. 

I hope that this explains the position taken. While we screen requests and 
control locations where it's available, we do want valid law enforcement and 
business interests to be protected. 
Thanks again for your interest. 
Sincerely, 

Keith Doerge, President. 

Mr. Duggan. The obituary method is being used as of this moment. 
I might state that during the first week of September, we received 



54 

information that two individuals posing as insurance actuaries ob- 
tained permission to review State vital records on an Eastern State. 
After these individuals had been engaged for some time in their activi- 
ties, the suspicion of one of the experienced employees was aroused. 
It was ascertained that the two individuals were checking death rec- 
ords as well as birth records for deceased children. A short time later, 
requests were being received from individuals for copies of the very 
records which were reviewed by these two persons. The Passport Of- 
fice is taking appropriate action to forestall the issue of passports in 
the names involved. How many times similar procedures are being 
used or have been used to get into vital records, one can only hazard a 
guess. 

Steps have been taken by the Passport Office to detect persons fraud- 
ulently applying for U.S. passports using the techniques expounded 
in "The Paper Trip." In all frauds detected, the Passport Office is rec- 
ommending vigorous prosecution. 

There is no mystery as to why persons engaged in criminal activities 
desire U.S. passports and will go to any lengths to obtain them. In 
most oases, these individuals are already known in their true identities 
by law enforcement agencies, and some of them are being sought as 
criminals by law enforcement agencies. To continue their illegal activi- 
ties, they need new identities. Since the U.S. passport is considered 
one of the best, if not the best document of identification that exists, 
the carefully laid plans and persistent efforts of the criminal element to 
secure U.S. passports in false identities is understandable. 

The basic problem underlying most of our passport frauds reduces 
itself down to the question of identification. How is the identity estab- 
lished of an individual who applies for a U.S. passport? How is the 
identity established of any person who applies for a driver's license, a 
credit card, a social security number, or any other document? 

There is no single document issued in the United States available to 
the general public which conclusively establishes identification. The 
United States has no national registration, and there is no coordina- 
tion between birth and death records. There are millions of people in 
this country who are unidentifiable by any documentary standards. 

Drivers' licenses issued by the various States are the commonly 
accepted documents of identification in obtaining credit cards, cashing 
checks, and so forth. However, a close look at the methods by which the 
various States issue drivers' licenses makes one thino; crystal clear: 
There is no effort on the part of the issuing authorities to establish 
the identification of the person appearing before them for a driver's 
license. 

In a newspaper article appearing in the AVashington Post of 
August 28, 1973, it is stated in the headlines that "identity proof" 
will be required of a person applyins: for a driver's license in the Dis- 
trict of Columbia. In reading the article carefully, however, it becomes 
evident that what the District is requiring is the submission of a birth 
certificate to establish the age of the applicant. But it is a fact that a 
birth certificate is not evidence of identity. It is merelv evidence that 
the peison named in the certificate was born in the United States, and 
that is all. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. As a matter of fact, have you ever researched the 
question of whether it is a violation of any Federal law to get a birth 



55 

certificate issued to any person with a view to using it fraudulently 
in order to procure a passport or other Government document? 

Mr. DuGGAX. Yes. It would be part of the violation of 18 U.S.C. 
1542. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. On what theory ? 

Mr. DuGGAX. On the theory that this is part of your corpus. 

Mr. SouRwixE. I do not think you understood me. I do not mean 
to cut you off short. It is perfectly clear that if I obtain a birth cer- 
tificate issued for my brother and presented it as my own birth cer- 
tificate and apply for a passport, I am committino: an offense because 
that is fraud. But when I write to the Bureau of Vital Statistics in 
my hometown and ask for my brother's certificate or the birth cer- 
tificate of any other named individual, I am not committing any fraud 
even though! may intend thereafter to use it fraudulently. 

Mr. DuGGAX. There is no Federal statute violated. 

Mr. SoTjRWixE. Xo violation. 

Mr. DuGGAx. To my knowledge, there is no Federal statute which 
would cover that situation. That would have to be covered by State 
law since a State document is involved. Some States do have such laws. 
But Federal Government, no. 

Mr. SoTJRWixE. There is no Federal statute in this area at all. 

Mr. DuGGAX. Right. 

Mr. SouR%^axE. In your judgment, would it be helpful if we had 
one? 

Mr. DuGGAX. It certainly would be helpful if we had one. 

Mr. SouRWixE. Forgive my interjection. Go ahead. 

Mr. DroGAx. AVe have found, in fraud case after fraud case, that 
the procedure outlined in Learv's book works. Obtain a birth certificate 
using one of the methods described in "The Paper Trin" ; submit the 
birth certificate to the req;istrar of motor vehicles: and it is accepted at 
face value that the anDlicant is the person named in the birth certif- 
icate. It is a cycle of fraud begetting fraud. It is a known fact that 
driver's licenses of manv States haA'e been counterfeited. It is also a 
fact that genuine blank forms of driver's licenses have been stolen from 
registrars' offices, thus permitting persons to insert in the blank spaces 
anv personal data thev mav wish. It is a fact that a driver's license, 
regardless of the sophistication of the card itself, is not secure evidence 
of identitv since it is so easily obtainable. 

Mr. SorRwixE. There is a great tendency to accept Social Security 
cards as evidence of identity and, of course, they are not in any sense 
of the word, are they ? 

Mr. DrCrGAX. Thev are not and they so state on the face. 

Mr. SouRWixE. I know. And I can get a Social Security card under 
any name I want to and fiet another one tomorrow and I am not even 
committing an offense when I do it. xVs long as I do not use the card 
to misrepresent myself for a fraudulent purpose as beins some person 
other than what I am. I can even so to work under that false name and 
if I am not defrauding anybodv there is no offense committed, is there? 

Mr. DuGGAX. Xot so far as I know. 

Mr. SouRWixE. No part of the Social Security law prohibits a man 
from having, two, three, five or any other number of Social Security 
cards under anv name he wants, is there ? 

Mr. DroGAx. Onlv if von trv to collect benefits under each one. 

Mr. SoFRWTXE. Onlv if he tries to collect— he cannot use them for 
that purpose but they are not in any sense a violation. 



56 

Mr. DuGGAN. Not unless they try to collect benefits under different 
identities. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. And yet the Internal Revenue Service uses social 
security numbers for identification. There is a great move in the direc- 
tion of giving everybody a number. And the number is no identifica- 
tion at all. A man has a number and that number is no more iden- 
tification than the name or a phony birth certificate or a phony 
passport. 

Go ahead. 

Mr. DuGGAN, Now, we get into the area of fraudulent birth docu- 
ments. If the committee so desires I will be glad to submit a number 
of counterfeit birth documents. 

Mr. SouRWiisrE. May these be received, Mr. Chairman, subject to the 
order that if they can be accurately reproduced, they may be printed 
in the appendix of this hearing. 

The Chairman. So ordered. 

[The documents referred to may be found in the appendix, p. 97.] 

Mr. DuGGAN. Now. these kinds of documents are produced by com- 
panies which advertise in newspapers. They can also be produced bv 
criminal underground groups with printing- equipment and through 
photographic processes. Any black and white document can be re- 
produced easily with equipment that is generally available to the 
public. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Off the record. 

[Discussion off the record.] 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Go ahead, sir. 

Mr. DuGGAx. The easy reproduction of black and white is one of 
the reasons we encourage State registrars to use safety paper or other 
features that would make it more difficult for counterfeiting. This is 
also why we insist on an embossed raised seal on a birth certificate. 

There are some ways in which counterfeit documents can be readily 
ascertained. These techniques are fully developed during our fraud 
training seminars. 

While we have many cases showing the effectiveness of our training 
program, I will refer to one fairly recent case which uncovered a fugi- 
tive who was associated with illegal drug activities. 

On July 10, 1973, a female applied for a passport in the Washing- 
ton Passport Agency. The agent handling the case, using techniques 
which we have developed in the past 2 years, sensed that there was 
something which did not ring true in the application. Since the ap- 
plicant claimed to have lived in Akron, Ohio, a telephone call to the 
Akron police resulted in the information that the applicant was a 
parolee. She was subseouentlv arrested by the Metropolitan Police of 
the District of Columbia. Later developments showed that a substan- 
tial sum of money was found in the car she was using and she was 
connected with a large drug operation. The police authorities in 
AVashin<Tton and Ohio are now investi.qratin(r the activities of the 
applicant. 

Mr. SouRwiXE. Was that an unusual case of acuitv on the part of 
your employee who made the discovery or became suspicious, at least, 
of fraud or are all of your people trained in such a way that you ex- 
pect them to do this ? 



57 

Mr. DuGGAN. At the present time, our people are trained to look for 
precisely what this agent looked for in this particular case. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Now, how about the postal clerks who handle pass- 
port applications? Do they have this training? 

Mr. DuGGAN. No. The postal clerks do not have it nor do the clerks 
of court have it. 

Mr. SouRWixE. Have the postal clerks caught any phony applica- 
tions as far as you know ? 

Mr. DuGGAN. I think one case. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Have the clerks of court caught any ? 

Mr. DuGGAN. The clerks of court have caught, I think, three cases 
during the past year. 

Mr. SouRWixE. Do you have any figures or can you give us a figure 
proportionately what proportion of all passport applicants your own 
people have detected to be fraudulent and what proportion of applica- 
tions handled by them, respectively, have been detected as fraudulent 
by either the clerks of court or the Postal Service ? 

Mr. DuGGAN. Yes. I can furnish those. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. May that be furnished for the record, Mr. Chairman, 
to be inserted when the record is corrected by the witness ? 

The Chairman. So ordered. 

[The material referred to follows :] 

COMPARISON OF DOMESTIC FRAUDS DETECTED BEFORE ISSUE IN PROPORTION TO PERCENTAGE OF EXECUTED 
APPLICATIONS SUBMITTED BY SOURCE— FISCAL YEAR 1973 



Source 

Post office - --- 

State clerks of court - ..- 

Passport agencies 

Mail-in applications 

Federal clerks of court 

Military passport agents 

Legal division passport office 72 51.4 

Domestic passport frauds, fiscal year 1973 

Total frauds detected before issue 1^0 

Total frauds detected after Issue 309 

Total domestic frauds detected 44Q 

Frauds detected before issue 

Frauds detected by post oflBce 1 

Frauds detected by clerks of court 

Frauds detected by other law enforcement agencies 12 

Frauds detected by Legal Division Passpore Office 60 

Frauds detected by passport agencies 

Frauds detected on applications executed by agencies 29 

Frauds detected by agencies during adjudication of applications executed 
by post office 15 

Frauds detected by agencies during adjudication of applications executed 

by clerks of court 23 

Total detected by agencies .--- 67 

Total frauds detected before issue 140 



Percentage of 
executed 
applications 
submitted 


Number of 

frauds 

detected 

before issue 


Percentage of 

frauds 

detected 

before issue 


30 
30 . 


1 


0.7 


21 
10 


67 


47.9 


5 


4 



58 

Frauds detected after issue 

Frauds detected by post oflSce 

Frauds detected by clerks of court 

Frauds detected by other law enforcement agencies 182 

Frauds detected by Legal Division Passport OflBce 119 

Frauds detected by passport agencies 

Frauds detected on Applications executed by agencies 3 

Frauds detected by agencies on applications executed by post oflSce 2 

Frauds detected by agencies on applications executed by clerks of court.- 3 

Total detected by agencies 8 

Total frauds detected after issue 309 

Mr. SouRwixE. Go ahead, sir. 

Mr. DuGGAX. Now, with regard to the activities of militants in ob- 
taining passport by fraud, I refer to the news item concerning the 
shooting of a Xew Jersey policeman by a militant group on May 2. 
1973. In the automobile the militants were driving, there was found 
a quantity of blank birth certificates, identity documents and one 
U.S. passport. Investigation disclosed that the passport had been 
obtained fraudulently through the submission of a counterfeit birth 
certificate. The militant group is known as the Black Liberation Army. 
I would also like to furnish the news item concerning the arrest by the 
FBI of Herman Bell — one of the 10 most wanted criminals — in New 
Orleans. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you have a number of items of this general nature 
that you want to submit ? 

Mr. DuGGAx. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwixE. Mr. Chairman, may they be received en bloc for in- 
sertion in the record ? 

Off the record. 

[Discussion off the record.] 

[The material referred to may be found in the appendix, p. 104.] 

Mr. DuGGAx. The potential use of the lost or stolen U.S. passports 
by foreign militant groups is a constant source of worry. When the 
Arab guerrillas blew up the three planes in the African desert in 
1970. we found a number of U.S. passports belonging to the U.S. 
citizens who were on board the planes were missing. We have, of 
course, taken appropriate action to prevent illegal use of these 
passports. 

To this date. I am happy to say. we have not been faced witli the 
use of any of these passports in anv hijackings or guerrilla activities. 
Wliether such passports have, in fact, been used in crossing interna- 
tional borders abroad cannot, of course, be ascertained. It would be 
naivo to assume that such groups would not realize the value of such 
documents to cover their activities. 

We also live with the ever-present potential of the use of U.S. pass- 
ports by foreign intelligence agencies. 

The use of T"''.S. passports bv Colonel Abel, the convicted Soviet 
espionage agent and his coworker. Mr. Hayhanen. are now of public 
record. I think it is also known that Colonel Abel had in his possession 
two or three birth certificates in different names at the time that he 
was arrested. It is a well known fact that, in just about every espionage 



59 

case throucrhout the world, fraudulently obtained passports are in- 
volved. In most cases, thev do not involve t^.S. passports. 

It has recentlv come to mv attention that Mr. J. Bernard Hutton, 
who is identified as "Former Czecho Comunist Official" has written 
a book entitled, "The Subverters." On page 57 of this book, he relates 
how one Soviet subverter was provided with a U.S. passport to enter 
the United States from Canada. Prior to her assignment in the United 
States, she had undergone 10 years of training in the Soviet Gaczyna 
Spy School. On pages 79 and 80, the following statement appears : 

The Gaczvna Spy School provided 15 master-subverters to be transported to 
the United States of America in 1961. Every year after that, until 1966, another 
15 joined the team. In 1967, 1968, and 1969, the number of master-subverters 
was stepped up to 18— and in 1970, to 20. This formidable army of profes-sionals 
has at its disposal many AAidespread networks of native-bom hard-core under- 
cover subverters who obey orders unquestioningly. These men and women work 
ceaselessly to provoke strikes and work-to-rule, riots, bomb explosions, arson, 
kidnapings and killings. 

It is reasonable to assume that U.S. passports were used to get 
these subverters into the United States. It is not improbable that the 
abilitv of these subverters to get a U.S. passport to enter the United 
States may be the final test of his passage of the training in the spy 
school. 

Off the record. 

[Discussion off the record.] 

Now, bearing in mind these interlocking criminal factors on the 
outside, what is the Passport Office doing to combat fraud ? Tlie Pass- 
port Office, in its internal fraud seminars, has emphasized its philos- 
ophy that identity is a composite of a number of factors: it cannot 
be compressed into a single clocument or even two or three documents. 
A person's identity is factuallv as unique as his fingerprints. The basic 
document or documents of identity submitted by an applicant, such 
as a driver's license or other document with his physical description, 
constitute merely a starting point to be considered along with all the 
other information furnished by the applicant. Careful evaluation of 
discovered frauds has enabled us to come up with 10 to 15 points of 
reference which must be analyzed by the person adjudicating a pass- 
port application. This takes time, experience and alertness. It also 
takes personnel as well as additional facilities to reduce the pressure 
on our agents. 

My memorandum of April 27, 1973 to ]Miss Knight — which was 
inserted in the Congressional Eecord of June 28. 1973, by Senator 
Thurmond — clearlv states my position on this point. 

I would like to close on a personal note, if I mav. We must get out of 
the horse and bugg>' budget harness of productivity and realistically 
look at the problems which are tearing at the very fibers of the in- 
tegrity of the I^.S. passport and the passport svstem. If we do not, we 
will become second best rather than the leader. When that happens, we 
will have a more and more unmanageable securitv problem. After 33 
years, I call the shots as I see them. Our fraud training is off to a good 
start but it is only a start. We must permeate the entire system of 
passport issuance here and abroad with the program. At the present 
time, discussions with others interested in the identitv field indicates 
that we are leaders in our new approach, but we must do better. 



60 

Mr. SouRwiNE. If our security is inadequate it is not because we are 
not the best. But if the best is"^ not good enough ; we have got to be- 
better. 

Mr. DuGGAN. That is correct. 

Mr. SoTJRwixE. Go ahead. 

Mr. DuGGAN. We are the best, but the best is not good enough. 

We have to do better or we will be victimized in the future by the 
opposition as represented bv the examples given in this statement. 
I^nless T get the staff I need for fiscal years 1974 and 1975, I will be 
as effective as the little Dutch boy using his fingers to plug the many 
holes in the dike. 

Mr. SouRwixE. Have you made your request of the Appropriations 
Committee? 

Mr. DuGGAN. Yes. We have made repeated requests for additional 
personnel to the Department. 

Mr. SouRwixE. That is what I am trving to cover now. Has your 
request gone through and been submitted to the Congress or is it still 
with the Department ? 

Mr. DuGOAN. It is with the Department. 

Mr. SoTJRWixE. Manv times we come up against a situation, some 
program is curtailed, there are serious results. Congress is blamed 
because they did not provide the appropriation. If it never cleared the 
Department, was not presented to the Congress, you cannot blame the 
Cona:ress, can you? 

Mr. DuGGAX". I affree. 

Mr. SouRw^ixE. Now. is there any law that would prohibit vou from 
putting in this record a statement of what you asked your Depart- 
ment for? 

Mr. DuGGAN. I do not know of any law that would prohibit it. 

Mr. SouRWTXE. If there is no law ap-ainst it, I would like to ask the 
Chair that that be the order, that vou furnish us with a statement with 
respect to what vou have asked for in this area for the past several 
years and the coming fiscal year. 

Mr. DuGGAX. All right. 

[The material referred to follows :] 

Statement of Legal Division Personnel Requests Over the Past Sevebal 

Years 

To put in proper perspective the manpower picture for the Legal Division of the 
Passport Office the following points should be made : 

(a) Passport Office annual budget submissions to the State Department include 
requests for new personnel positions. Sometimes these requests are denied in total 
at Departmental level or are reduced in quantity before the submissions reach 
the Congress. 

(b) Although these positions are justified by indicating in what functions of 
the Passport Office they are to be utilized, once approved, they are granted in 
total to be employed wherever most needed. Personnpl positions are not ear- 
marked to be used in specific segments of the Passport Office. 

(c) Becau<^e of the increase in passport fraud cases over the past few years, 
there has also been a great demand for increases in personnel in the Legal Divi- 
sion. As a matter of priority, however, emphasis has been given to filling Legal 
Division personnel requirements fir.=!t at the expense of other activities if neces- 
sarv even thonch all other workloads in the Passport Office have also been in- 
creasing steadily. 

(d) Because of the tremendous expansion in fraud control workload, the 
normal means of reouesting increa.ses in manpower, namely the annual budget 
cycle, has not proven sufficiently successful in supplying the Legal Division 



61 

increased personnel requirements in a timely manner. Consequently, diversions 
of manpower from other lower priority functions of the Passport Office to the 
Legal Division have been necessary from time to time. This has created acute 
manpower problems throughout the Passport Office particularly when total in- 
creased manpower requests made by the Passport Office have been denied or 
reduced before they reach the Congress. 

(e) Even when personnel positions are authorized for hire the various re- 
strictions, limitations and procedural obstacles which must be surmounted such 
as Assistant Secretarial approvals for outside hire, stringent quotas on clerical 
hire, and security clearance backlogs have prevented bringing new personnel on 
board anywhere near as rapidly as desired. 

The following table graphically illustrates the above points : 

INCREASES IN LEGAL DIVISION PERMANENT PERSONNEL REQUESTS AND AUTHORIZATION COMPARED TO PASS- 
PORT OFFICE TOTALS 







Fiscal 


year— 






1972 
(actual) 


1973 
(actual) 


1974 
(projected) 


1974 

(budgeted) 


Total passport Office increases requested.. 

Legal division increases .eq'jested.. 

Total Passport Office increases authorized or proposed... 
Legal division increases authorized or proposed 


35 
3 

35 
3 


49 

4 

129 

«5 


36 
4 

27 
57 


102 
7 

8 18 

7 



1 Passport Office request reduced from 49 to 29 by the controlling bureau in the State Department. 

2 Passport Office request reduced from 36 tn 7 by the coniroljipg bureau in the State Department. 

3 Passport Office request reduced from 102 to 18 hy the controlling bureau in the State Department. 
J Increased by one by Internal Passport Office reprograniing. 

5 Projected to be increased by 3 by Internal Passport Office reprugraming. 

Mr. Sour\vint:. All right. Do you have anything else to offer us 
voluntarily ? I have a few questions I want to ask if that is the case. 

As you know, we were particularly interested in the Brotherhood 
of Eternal Love, the so-called Leary family. We have heard testimony 
here that this is probably the largest and most sophisticated organiza- 
tions of its type in the world. We have been told that some 750 brother- 
hood members and criminal associates have been identified throughout 
the world. 

Xow, are you and the State Department aware of who these 750 
brotherhood members are ? 

INIr. DuGGAN. Do we have that list ? 

Mr. O'DowD. We have a list, sir, of approximately 550 members with 
aliases. We have searched all the names through the passport records. 
We have come up with over 300 passport files relating to these people. 
We have then checked the birth and when possible the identity of each 
of these individuals. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. I am going afield a little bit but I am following what 
you just said. Can jou provide us with a statement that will show year- 
by-year begimiing in 1970 the number of passport fraud cases detected 
which involved or were subsequently identified as involving members of 
the brotherhood ? 

Mr. DuGGAN. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. And then show us for each year how these were 
detected ? They are detected in the passport office or by BISTDD or in 
the legal division or office of security or FBI or however. 

Mr. DuGGAX. Correct. 

Mr. SouRwixE. And then tell us in how many of those cases each 
year there were counterfeit birth certificates. 

Mr. DuGGAN. Yes. 

23-538—73 5 



62 

Mr. SoTimwiNE. And in how many of each of those years there were 
actual birth certificates f raiidulen.tly presented. 

Mr. DuGGAX. Yes. 

Mr. SouKwiNE. Can you do that ? 

Mr. DuGGAN. Yes. 

Mr. SoTJRWiNE. If you will do that for each of those years, 1970, 19 i 1, 
1972, 1973 as far as it has gone, it will be very helpful. 

Mr. DuGGAK. We will be glad to. 

[The material referred to may be found in the appendix, p. 109.] 

Mr. SoTTRWiNE. We can iim the totals up. You need not total it if you 
can give us that information. 

Now% the question I asked specifically Avas whether, if it istrue that 
750 brotherhood members and criminal associates have been identified 
throughout the world, shouldn't you Jaiow the identities of the whole 
750 and shouldn't you have some way to flag them? Do you have a 
computer system for flagging them ? 

Mr. DuGGAN. That, we do. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Well, shouldn't these people be in your computer 
system for flagging ? 

Mr. DuGGAN. They should. 

Mr. Sot-RwaxE. Just to be sure you do not issue passports to anv of 
them ? That will not be^ — it will not completely insure it because if a 
man comes in ^vith a new identity and suppoi-ting documents and gets 
by the persons that he applies to he is going to get a passport before 
you ever have a chance to stop it. 

Mr. DuGGAX. May I make one statement. Mr. Sourwine? Since 1969 
we have beeTi working with BXDD and, of course, DEA has just been 
created, to try to fui-ther our liaison so that we could cooperate, and 
we have extended to them our lookout facilities. 

T\Ir. SouRwiXE. What do you mean by "them" ? 

Mr. DuGGAX. And we are furnished with the ones they feel should 
be furnished. 

Mr. Sourwine. What do vou mean bv "them" ? 

Mr. DuGGAX. BNDD. 

Mr. Souravixe. You do this with others. You Avill accept warnings 
from an^'body that lias information that will be useful to you. 

Mr. DuGGAx. That is correct. 

Mr. SouRWixE. Any Government department or agency. Hovv^ about 
warnings from cooperating police departments. State, and Federal? 

Mr. DuGGAX. x\bsolutely. 

Mr. SouRWiXE. You receive them, 

Mr. DuGGAX. That is right. 

!Mr. SouRWTXE. And you get a good deal of it. do you 7iot ? 

Mr. DuGGAX. We get a good deal of it. 

Mr. SorRAViXE. Now. specifically with regard — I aiii not trying to 
go into your computer system. I am trying to get at this brotherhood. 
Wo were told there are 750. You say you know about 550 of them. 
Who is holding out on you ? Where are the other 200 ? 

Mr. O'DowD. With the 550, sir — we have had a number of aliases. 
We have liad a number of parties who will give us a name where we 
have not located the passport file which means this might be a local 
distributor purely operating in California or he may have a passport 
in a name they are not yet aware of and we are not yet aware of. But 
we have searched well over a thousand passport files altogther. 



63 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Well, you li:ive searched well over a thousand but 
1 am trying to get down to the point of whether this Government 
agency which tells us they have identified 750 brotherhood members 
and their criminal associates has given you the list of the 750 or they 
have only given j^ou 550. 

Mr. DuGGAN. The answer is no, they have not. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Have you sought it 'i 

Mr. DuGGAN. We have a meeting scheduled for Friday with a 
member of the new organization and this I will take up with him. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you have any doubts you are going to get it? 

Mr. DuGGAN. I do not think there will be any doubt that I will get it. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Mr. Chairman, may I ask that the witness be in- 
structed if he does not get it or make satisfactory arrangements for 
getting it, if lie will so indicate when he is correcting his testimony. 

]Mr. DuGGAN. I certainl}' will. 

October 16, 1973. 

On October 5, 1973, I had a meeting with Mr. George Belk, Chief, Intelligence 
Operations of the Drug Enforcement Agency. During this meeting I made ar- 
rangements to have Mr. Daniel Casey, Chief of Domestic Operations for DEA, 
to meet with me for the purpose of obtaining the list of all the members of the 
Brotherhood. We also agreed that during this meeting all possible avenues of 
cooperation be explored. 

Mr. Casey and I have tentatively agreed to meet the latter part of this week 
or the first part of next week. 

]\Ir. SouRWiNE. All right. 

Xow. we had a figure — I think it is a little out of date — of 85 mem- 
bers of this brotherhood who have been arrested and charged with 
violations relating to drugs, income tax, or fraudulent passports. Does 
this vary from your figure ? Do you have a different figure ? 

Mr. DuGGAN. Well, our figure was only related to j^assport viola- 
tions and our figure indicates that we have referred 42 cases to the 
U.S. Attorney with regard to the brotherhood. Twenty-five of these 
have been indicted, five convicted, and three declined. 

Mr. Sour WINE. Well now, where do I have it from in my mind that 
there were 240 false or fraudulent passport cases involved with mem- 
bers of the Leai-y family, that is, these brotherhood members? 

Mr. DuGGAN. Well, there are 130 that we Imow about. Again, there 
may be a lack of commimication. I heard tliis morning that some one 
person got as man}^ as five passports. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. I think that is a point. Did we not have testimony 
from you or from someone or a figure, a chart from someone in the 
Passport Office for 240 fraudulent passport cases involved with the 
brotherhood? That would include the duplications if there are four 
or five in one person ? 

It would be in effect if that figure were that of 140 people involved 
whom you knew to be involved, you had 240 individual passports. 
Some of them have two, three, four or more. 

Mr. DuGGAN. Our figure is 130. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Not 240. 

Mr. DuGGAN. No ; our figure is definitely 130. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Either persons or passports ? 

Mr. DuGGAN. These are passport violations. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Passport violations, involving how many persons? 

Mr. DuGGAN. How many persons? I think the figure is 106. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. 106 persons? 



64 

]\Ir. DuGGAN. We o:et some duplication because in some cases there 
are more than one violation of the passport statutes. 

Mi: SouKWiNE. You are way ahead of us there because the figure we 
had, I think, was 85 brotherhood members arrested and charged, for 
all violations including passport violations. 

]Mr. O'DowD. We do not have that many who we know have been 
indicated for passport fraud. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Well, what is the figure you just gave me ? 
Mr. O'DowD. We have only had 25 indictments that we are aware of. 
Mr. SouRWiNE. Well, you have got 140— you said your fig-ure was 
130. 

Mr. DuGGAN. These are violations. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. 130 violations. That means individual passports 
were fraud cases. 
Mr. DuGGAN, Right. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Only 25 people involved. 

Mr. O'DowD. No, sir. There are more people involved. The U.S. 
Attorneys have not returned indictments on some of them. Others 
are so recent we have not had a chance to evaluate and record them. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. To clarify this, can you furnish when you correct 
your testimony, the most up-to-date possible chart showing how many 
members of the brothei^hood known as such have been involved in 
passport fraud cases, How many total pass]5ort fraud cases have been 
uncovered that are comiected with the brotherhood ? We are not ask- 
ing you to say how many passports in each case but that will givp 
the committee an idea. That is just two figures. Will you do that? 
Mr. DuGGAN. Yes. 
Mr. O'DowD. Certainly. 

[The figures referred to may be found in the table on p. 45] 
Mr. SouRWiNE. I have no more questions to ask of you gentlemen. 
I would ask you, Mr. Chairman, in line with what you said previously, 
that if these jrentlemen have finished, that Miss Knight come back 
because we do have some questions to ask her. We will hear her presen- 
tation in response to the earlier request and then I have some ques- 
tions to ask. 

Miss Knight. Well, sir, do you wish me to bring the record up to 
date on the contract ? 

Mr. So"DRWiNE. Yes, please. 

Miss Knight. As I said, the contract was awarded to Computer 
Science Corp. on May 15, 1972. The contract, vrhich ran for 1 year, re- 
quired the contractor to identify all of the problems and requirements 
associated with international travel documents, and on the basis of 
an analvsis of these problems and requirements to recommend a new 
passport document and new and improved methods for its issuance. 
Present status.— On the basis of all of the information gathered and 
analyzed by the contractor workins: with the staff of the Passport Of- 
fice,"the Government Printing Office and various segments of private 
industry, concepts of the new passport were developed and prototypes 
manufactured. The final report from the contractor with the problems 
and requirements identified, as well as recommendations, were deliv- 
ered on May 15, 1973. After a careful review by members of the Pass- 
port Office 'Task Force, the document was referred to the Undersec- 
retary for Security Assistance for consideration. The details in the 



65 

final report and recommendations arc currentlj^ held on a "need-to- 
know" basis in order to preclude misinformation, misrepresentations 
and other o-uesswork from those who have no basic knowledge of the 
criminal conditions which give this project a sense of urgency. Secu- 
rity of the document, as well as its mission to establish the citizenship 
and unalt orable identity of the bearer are the basic guidelines to which 
we have adhered. 

If a new passport document is developed, possessing the required 
security and international acceptance for which the Passport Office 
strives, a target date should be set. As of January 1973, the Passport 
Office considered July 4, 1976 as a possible starting date for the 
issuance of a new and improved document. Over a 5-year period, the 
old passports would be phased out through expirations. This timetable 
would coincide wdth the President's program for the Bicentennial. 
However, thanks to delays over which we had no control we are now 
quite far behind in our schedule. 

The next 12 months will be critical in the development of the 
document. A pilot project will have to be established and operated in 
order to eliminate the bugs. Personnel will be required not only to 
bring the Passport Office up to its present staff requirements but an 
in-house technical staff will have to be hired to work with outside 
contractors on the project. Currently, the Passport Office has one tech- 
nician on its staff. V^e have no researcliers and no technical employees 
available to man the pilot project. 

I have no idea, and I hesitate to make any prediction, regarding the 
reception of our 5-year effort to develop a passport which I believe 
aould become the model for a standardized international travel docu- 
ment adopted by scores of countries who seek and approve of stand- 
ardization in size, format, and content. 

One more thought, if you please. The U.S. passport is a document 
belonging to the Federal Government and it attests to the citizenship 
and identity of the individual to whom it is issued. Any legislation 
that will help enhance the security and integrity of this valuable 
document is of tremendous importance to us at this time. 

Documentation fraud v: rnmpant in this country not only in those 
documents which are submitted with passport applications but those 
submitted for social security, for health benefits, for pensions, for 
almost any service or financial proifit which can be chiseled out of tlie 
Federal Government. The Immigration and Naturalization Service 
has had a horrendous fraud problem for years, and no one knows 
this better than the immigration lawyers who admit it, off the record, 
of course. 

Mr. SouRv/iNE. Miss Knight, I might interject to say that perhaps 
this committee knows it almost as well as the immigration lawyers. 
We have been making a record of these problems since 1942 to my 
knowledge under this committee and under the Immigration Sub- 
committee of the Judiciary Committee, and it has always been a 
serious security problem and it has always been a mess. 

Please go ahead. 

Miss KxTOHT. Thank you. sir. 

Visa frauds also need a microscropic examination. _ 

Scores of Washington hostesses are hiring full-time domestic help 
who came in on student visas but who never set foot in a classroom. 



66 

As one very prominent socialite in our Capital pointed ont "I do not 
want to know how they aet into this country." 

There is a thriviiig business in the marriage racket whereby a 
U.S. citizen will marry an alien for a substantial down payment, 
bring the alien into the United States as a dependent, apply for citizen- 
ship^ apply for a passport, get a social security number, get a job and 
finish tlie farce by getting a divorce, thus freeing the U.S. citizen 
for another marrying project. 

There is also a substantial baby racket, details of which can only 
be pieced together with the cooperation of other governments. Phony 
hospital records can be provided for a price and a cliild brought into 
the TTnited States only to bo farmed ont again for a fee to a childless 
couple who do not wish to go through legal adoption channels. 

Years ago document frauds were estimated to co=^t the U.S. Govern- 
ment a half billion dollars annually in the loss of taxes. Today, the 
cost may be doubled, maybe trebled. The hidden total is anybody's 
guess — and this tremendous drain of revenue must be made up by 
every American who conscientious^ y pays his taxes. 

]Mr. SouRWiNE. If I understand you correctly, you are saying that 
document frauds today in your opinion, are costing the U.S. Govern- 
ment between a billion dollars and a billion and a half dollars annually. 

Miss Knight. Yes. sir. 

Mr. SouRwiXE. Go ahead. 

jSIiss Kntght. The appalling fact is that most of our citizens are 
abysmally igiiorant of the facts. They are constantly being diverted 
to "other matters, relatively unimportant when placed in juxtaposition 
to the existing strata of crooks and criminals operating in American 
society. 

If firm and stern corrective action is taken nationally perhaps the 
States will get busy and tighten up access to their birth and death 
records. Other countries have had national registration for years- 
birth and death records are married — and while there will always be 
some fraud attempted — I doubt that there is another country as lacka- 
daisical in protecting the integrity of its vital records as we are. Only 
Congress has the key to flushing out this nationwide racket in fraudu- 
lent documents. 

IVfr. SoTTRwiNE. That, of course, has to be recognized. You had spoken 
earlier of the States getting busy to relate their birth and death rec- 
ords. I am sure you realize, as your last sentence indicates, that the 
States cannot do'this because it is of no value if the State of Alabama 
shows vou evervbody born there and everybody who died there when 
two-thirds of the people who were born there died somewhere else 
and two-thirds of the people who died there were born somewhere else, 
which may or may not be the fact. There would have to be a complete 
correlation, a national registration, or else the proiect of the com- 
puterization and correlation of all the birth and death records of all the 
States which would be a stupenrlous task. 

Miss Kntght. Yes, sir; but it may pay off in less document fraud. 

Mr. SoTTRWiNE. Are you recommending that this be done or only 
that we start a national registration and try to achieve a national 
record of evervbodv ? 

Miss Kntght. "Well, I think it should be looked into and all the facts 
assessed. At the present time there is no area in the Federal Govern- 



67 

meiit, there is no area in any of the State governments, tliat is bringing 
all these facts together so that they can be studied. 

Mr. SoTJRWiNE. No. You have a birth certificate of an individual. 
You have no way of knowing if the individual is still alive unless you 
have personal knowledge. You have a death certificate. You have no 
way of knowing that the person was born inider that name or where. 

Miss Knight. You are right. 

Mr. SouRwixE. This is perfectly true. All you are asking is that 
something be done about it. 

Miss Knight. Yes, sir. Some effective coordination is essential. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. That it be recognized as a threat to security, not only 
in the passport area, I take it, but in other areas as well. 

Miss Knight. I also think, sir, that we owe a system of identity with 
integrity to our citizens. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. All right. Go ahead. I am sorry I interrupted you. 

Miss Knight. There is no use denying the fact that those of us who 
are exposed to the machinations of the criminal element in this coun- 
try, are frustrated and discouraged by the lack of action on our re- 
peated warnings to the dangers of fraudulent documents submitted to 
the Federal and State governments for the purpose of supporting false 
identification. As I pointed out in my September 15, 1972, testimony, 
the Passport Office has been ringing the alarm on passport and identi- 
fication fraud for 43 years. I can testify to the fact that in the past 15 
years, while I have been Director of the Passport Office, we have tried 
every Imovrn method to get som.eone in the Department of State to pay 
some attention to tliis very serions problem. The only result of our per- 
sistent efforts hasbeen that the situation has deteriorated almost beyond 
description and redemption within the past decade. 

It is a fact on record that I have repeatedly requested personnel to 
combat the growing workload and attendant fraud situation. We have 
spent a great deal of time attomi^ting to get our message across and 
making recommendations to the t)epartment of State through budget 
presentations, through conferences and reports and memoranda which 
are rarely, if ever, favorably acted upon. There has been little or no evi- 
dence of support or even a casual interest in our problem. The cost of 
this neglect cannot be overestimated. 

If we ever could get effective support, there are, in my estimation, 
some immediate and long-term remedies. For instance : 

1. The enactment of legislation which would make it a criminal of- 
fense for any organization or individual to apply for or procure any 
identification pertaining to another person for the purpose of estab- 
lishing by such identification a false identity. This would coyer the cur- 
rent misuse of birth and baptismal certificates, driver's licenses and 
other identifying documents for the purpose of obtaining illegally 
passports and other benefits from the Federal Government. 

2. It should be remembered that passport applications come to us 
thiough the mail and any legislation contemplated should take note of 
the fact that the Postal "Service is thus involved in the transmittal of 
the fraudulent documents. 

3. The Passport Office must be supported in its staffing requirements. 
"We cannot go through another year of mounting workload, directly 
and indirectly related to the issuance of passports. Meat-axe cuts of 
essential security and public services, which pay for themselves many 



times over, are not justified at any time, but they are especially ob- 
noxious when compared to the waste of time and manpower in the 
duplication of effort and unessential paperwork which we see at the 
echelons above us. 

4, The Passpoi't Office must be supported in its requirements for 
prompt and thorough investigation of the fraud cases which presently 
we forward to the Department's Office of Security. In my opinion, we 
cannot and should not be forced to wait 6 months or a year or 2 years 
for investigations of violations of passport criminal statutes. I want to 
make it clear that I am not blaming the Office of Security for the long 
delays. That office is understaffed according to its Director. The Office 
of Security has felt the axe as lias the Passport Office. Now, if the De- 
partment of State cannot handle these investigations promptly, I sug- 
gest that the investigative process on passport frauds be transferred 
to some other area of Government which can do the job expeditiously 
and i:)rofessionally. 

5. The Passport Office services to U.S. citizens must be expanded 
through new field agencies and facilities. I have been recommending 
this solution to our situation for 5 years and for 5 years it has been 
denied — not by the Congress but within the bureaucratic machinations 
of the annual intradepartmental budget hearings. In these exercises 
everybody acts as an expert and seer on the matter under discussion 
and arbitrary decisions are made by officials who have little or no ex- 
perience in the problems of a line operation. "We have now spent close 
to a quarter of a million dollars on research and development con- 
tracts to get independent confirmation of many of the recommenda- 
tions made by the passport office over the years. We know what is 
needed. Our recommendations are based on facts, experience and prece- 
dence. But our warnings and recommendations and suggestions have 
fallen on deaf ears. We seem to be operating in a "Let them eat cake" 
atmosphere. 

That is about all I have to say, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. SoTjRWiNE. Miss Knight, I have just a few questions, if the 
chair will permit. 

Can you furnish us for the record, with a statement tabulating j^our 
budget requests in the passj^ort security field and what the Depart- 
ment submitted to the Congress and what the Congress gave you ? 

Miss KisriGHT. I can — I would be very glad to submit the Passport 
Office budget requests. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Yes. 

Miss Knight. But when you specify security field, there is an Office 
of Security in the Department. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. I understand that, but I am talking about — if you 
want to submit your total budget, that is all right, but I was only 
asking for what you had requested that bore on this area of passport 
security. 

Miss Knight. Yes, sir ; we can furnish that. Virtually every phase 
of our operation has a security aspect. 

[The material requested may be found in the appendix, p. 111.] 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Now, that would be in some instances personnel. In 
some instances it will be equipment. In some instances it will be field 
security. And then, you requested several times before you got it, 
money for this passport study and I do not know, you may have in 



69 

your budget now money to implement the passport study. We want to 
know what you requested up to this coming fiscal year, what the De- 
partment has cleared insofar if they have cleared anything, and what 
the Congress gave you. 

JSIiss Knight. We can supply that. 

[The material requested may be found in the appendix, p. 114.] 

Mr. Sourwt:ne. We will see if you are being shorted and who is 
doing the shorting, whether it is the Congress or somebody else. 

Now, you spoke of the Office of Security. What have you done in 
the way of calling on them for help ? 

Miss' Knight. Well, I think Mr. Duggan can answer that because 
he has liad contact with the security office. We have sent memoranda 
to the Office of Security and I think the latest go around has been 
initiated in ]Mr. Duggan's shop. 

]Mr. Duggan. Previous communications are in Miss Knight's testi- 
mony of September 15 before the subcommittee. On May 11, 1973, a 
memorandum was sent to SY in which we stated as follows. 

Mr. SouKV/iNE. Do you have a copy of that memorandum ? 

Mr. Duggan. Yes. 

Mr. SouKwiNE. Furnish it to go in at this point. 

Mr. Duggan. Yes. 

[The information referred to follows :] 

U.S. Government, Memorandum 

Mat 11, 1973. 
To : A/SY/— Mr. Donald D. Daley A/SY/I/PVB. 
From : PT/L — W. E. Dnggan. 
Subject : Passport fraud, fugitives. 

The Passport OflSce is seriously concerned with three categories of passport 
fraud cases which have been pending in the OflBce of Security for two or more 
years with no end in view. 
These categories are : 

1. Cases referred to SY for investigation over two years ago and on which no 
substantial inquiries have been made by your agents ; 

2. Cases in which all investigatory leads have been unsuccessfully explored 
without locating or identifying the applicants or witnesses necessary to prove 
violations of passport laws ; and 

3. Fugitive cases — a case in which prosecution has been thwarted because the 
perpetrator's whereabouts is unknown. 

In the interest of both Offices, it is requested that all special agents be in- 
structed to immediately close out and returned the passport files with closing 
reports to the Passport Office in categories 1 and 2 which have been pending 
in SY for more than two (2) years. The closing report may cite this memo- 
randum as authority for closing the investigations. 

Cases in category 3 — prosecution is not possible because the perpetrator is a 
fugitive or the U.S. Attorney has not acted on the case within a period of one 
year due to a heavy workload. These cases should be returned to the Passport 
Office with a closing report only if a federal felony warrant for the fugitive's 
arrest has been secured and is outstanding. A copy of the warrant should be 
submitted with the case. 

If warrants of arrest have not been obtained in such cases, it is essential and 
it is urged that your agents personally visit the United States Attorneys as- 
signed to prosecute the cases and explain to them that : 

1. Under the provisions of 51.70(a), of Title 22, Code of Federal Regulations, 
the Passport Office has authority to deny a passport to the subject of an out- 
standing federal felony warrant of arrest. Section 51.71 of Title 22 provides 
for the revocation of passports obtained by applicants in false identities. Thus, 
in the absence of a felony warrant of arrest, the Passport Office cannot lav^^ully 
refuse to issue a passport based on an application executed by a fugitive in 
his true identity. 



70 

2. In order to record the fng:itives' names with the National Crime Infor- 
mation Center, Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Center requires that the 
felonv warrants of arrest be outstanding. 

3. The Passport Office records the names of violators of passport and other 
federal laws and sends appropriate notifications to all diplomatic and consular 
posts abroad. This procedure often results in locating such fugitives. 

4. The revocation of a passport based on an outstanding federal felony warrant 
of arrest and the notification to a foreign government of the reason for the 
revocation generally immobilizes a located fugitive and hinders any further 
criminal activities by him. In addition, when the fugitive returns to the United 
States, a U.S. Marshal may be alerted and have the authority to apprehend 
the fugitive on arrival. 

5. The issuance of a warrant of arrest for a fugitive would toll the statute 
of limitations. (18USC3291) 

Your agents should urge U.S. Attorneys to secure the issuance of warrants 
so that all prosecutions involving fugitives which have been pending more than 
one year may be closed out on or before June 30, 1973. The agent should assure 
the United States Attorney that when the fugitive is apprehended, the case 
^ill be immediately returned to him for prosecution. 

Your cooperation in instructing Special Agents-in-Charge to review eases 
under their jurisdiction to comply with the foregoing, will be appreciated. 

Enclosures : 100 copies for distribution to your special agents. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Did you get a reply ? 

Mr. DuGGAisr. Yes. 

Mr. SoTjRwiNE. Is there any subsequent interchange of memoranda? 

Mr. DuGGAN. Yes. I have about four memos. 

Mr. SoiTRWiNE. May we haA^e the whole set ? 

Mr. DuGGAN. We will be glad to furnish the whole set. 

[The memoranda follows:] 

September IS, 1973. 
A/SY— Mr. G. Marvin Gentile 
PPT— Frances G. Knight 

(1) Passport Fraud Case of Timothy Francis Leary alias William .John Mc- 

Neills and Rosemary Leary alias Sylvia Edith McGaffin. 

(2) Delinquent Passport Fraud Investigations 

On February 8, 1973, Mr. William E. Duggan of the Passport Office's Legal Di- 
vision sent a memorandum to A/SY, Mr. Robert L. Berry, requesting a prompt 
inve'=;tigation looking toward the prosecution of Dr. Timothy Francis Leary. 
Mr. Duggan attached to his memorandum a comprehensive summary of the case 
including an analysis of the information adduced from a manuscript of a book 
which Leary allegedly intended to publish. SY has to date failed to forward any 
report written or verbal to the Passport Office in this matter. 

The international importance of this notorious individual in the illegal drug 
field hardly needs any explanation. Nor does the urgency of our request for in- 
vestigation into his passport activities need further justification. The failure of 
the Office of Security to pursue this investigation is, to put it mildly, in- 
excusable. 

The manuscript attached to Mr. Duggan's memorandum was extensively evalu- 
ated and an analysis prepared by the Passport Office. This manuscript was orig- 
inally obtained by SY at the request of PPT. The manuscript with minor changes 
has now been nublished in an edition entitled Timothy Leary — Confessions of a 
Hope Fiend. The book was published in .July 1973 by Bantam Books, Inc. As 
exr>ectpd, this book outlines in detail the circumstances under which Leary and 
his wife obtained United States passports in false identities. Given this fact, 
the failure of the Office of Security to conduct the investigation requested in 
Mi-. Duggan's memorandum of February 8. 1973 is, in my mind, a clear case of 
negligence in the administration of the passport criminal statutes. The onus of 
such neglisence falls directly on the Office of Security. While I am aware of the 
personnel shortages in the Office of Security. T cannot and will not permit any 
criticism for the failure to pursue this important passport fi-aud case to be 
placed on the Passport Office. 

I refer to my memornnduni to you of .Tune Ifi. 1972. which was published as an 
attochiucnt to my testimony of Septeml)er 15. 1972 at a hearing held by the 
Subcommittee to Investigat? the Administration of the Internal Security A.ct 



71 

and Other Internal Security Laws of the Committee on the Judiciary, United 
States Senate, 92nd Congress, 2nd Session. I also refer to my memorandum to you 
of August 9, 1972 which was also published as an attachment to my testimony 
of September 15, 1972. In your reply of August 17, 1972, you stated : 

"I can assure you that SY will make every effort to reduce the current 
delinquency during the upcoming fall months when the applicant case load 
is normally lighter." 
It is over a year since your reply and I must state that the results of your 
"effort to reduce the current delinquency" in passport cases are hardly stimu- 
lating. 

In response to a request from Senator Strom Thurmond, I informed him that 
the investigation backlog as of April 24, 1973 was 501. As of August 8, 1973, 
there were 582 passport fraud investigation cases pending in SY. These workload 
figures break dov.-n as follows : 



Apr. 24, 1973 Aug. 8, 1973 



Cases opened in 1973.. _ -— 165 249 

Cases opened prior Jan. 1, 1973 336 333 



Total pending. 



501 582 



These figures will differ in minor respects from SY figures. This difference is 
caused by the hiatus between the time cases are actually received and docu- 
mented as opened or closed in SY and the time they are actually received and 
documented as opened or closed in PPT. This is a normal "pipeline" difference. 
While I could go on indefinitely with horrible examples of delinquent cases, 
let me just refer to one additional item. On May 11, 1973, Mr. Duggan sent a 
memorandum to Mr. Donald D. Daley, A/SY, the purpose of which is stated as 
follows : 

"The Passport OflSee is seriously concerned with three categories of pass- 
port fraud cases which have been pending in the Oflice of Security for two 
or more years with no end in view. 
These categories are : 

1. Cases referred to SY for investigation over two years ago and on 
which no substantial inquiries have been made by your agents ; 

2. (^"ases in which all investigatory leads have been unsuccessfully ex- 
plored without locating or identifying the applicants or witnesses necessary 
to prove violations of passport laws ; and 

3. Fugitive cases — a case in which prosecution has been thwarted because 
the perpetrator's whereabouts is unknown." 

One hundred copies of this memorandum were given to SY for your conven- 
ience for distributing them to your special agents. It was requested that this 
review of old cases be completed by June 30, 1973. On July 26, 1973, Mr. Robert 
D. Johnson, Deputy Director, Passport OSice, sent a memorandum to Mr. Daley 
extending the due date to July 31, 1973. This was done at the specific request of 
Mr. Raymond Scroggs of your office. On July 30, 1973. Mr. Scroggs telephoned 
Mr. James Ritchie, Passport Office, and stated that SY could not comply with 
the extended due date of July 31, 1973, due to other commitments. On August 2, 
1973, Mr. Johnson sent Mr. Daley a memorandum requesting the Office of Secur- 
ity to submit a memorandum within ten days stating the reasons for the failure 
to comply with the due date for this review. On August 8, 1973, Mr. Daley sent 
a memorandum to Mr. Johnson giving the following explanation : 

"Please be advised that a continuing effort is being made to comply with 
your request of May 11, 1973. The delay in obtaining full compliance with 
your request has been unavoidable. Over the past few months, we have had 
to align our priorities to the unusual demand for protective services, and 
urgent personnel investigations. Also, we have had retirements of key offi- 
cers, which resulted in several disruptive transfers. 

"On July 30, 197.3, Mr. Ritchie was advised of the above by Mr. Scroggs. At 
which time, Mr. Scroggs told Mr. Ritchie that every effort would be made 
to complete the requested action by September 1, 1973." 
As of this date, September 17, 1973, while some progress has been made, the 
project has stiU not been completed. I think you will agree that any comment 
on this item from me would be entirely superfluous. The facts speak for them- 
selves. 



72 

Despite authorization from PPT to terminate old investigations, as of Sep- 
tember 1, 1973. SY was further behind in pending investigations than at the 
beginning of the year. For the first eight calendar months of 1973, PPT sent 292 
cases to SY for investigation. During this same period, SY completed 210 cases. 
This is an increase of 82 pending cases. 

In the light of the facts, I must demand an immediate explanation. If the Office 
of Security is unable to take positive action within the next thirty days to per- 
form its responsibilities to investigate known and suspected violations of the 
passport criminal statutes promptly and effectively, I see no alternative but to 
recommend to the Acting Deputy Under Secretary, Dr. Curtis W. Tarr, that the 
passport fraud investigation function be turned over to the Passport Office. In 
view of the success of the field agents of the Office of Security in investigating 
passport frauds in the past when they were permitted to do so, I am most re- 
luctnnt to take this action. Y'>u must understand that, by reason of my position 
as Director of the i'asspoit Oiiice, I must ensure that the integrity and security 
of the United States passport is constantly maintained by swift and efficient 
detection, investigation, and indictment of persons violating the passport crim- 
inal statutes. On the basis of the facts at hand, I see no other recourse. 

Please let me know before September 24, 1973, what action you intend to take. 



Department of State, 
Washington, D.O., Scptcmher 2^, 191S. 
Memorandum 

To : PPT— Miss Frances G. Knight 
From : A/SY— G. Marvin Gentile 
Subject : 

(1) Passport Fraud Case of Timothy Francis Leary alias William .John 

McNeills and Rosemary Leary alias Sylvia Edith McGaffin 

(2) Delinquent Passport Fraud Investigations 

Reference is made to your memorandum of September 18, 1973 regarding the 
indicated Subject. As defined in previous responses, SY has not been in a position 
to respond to service requests from your office because of overall priority requests 
from other areas of the Department. 

As you were previously advised on August 17, 1972, the SY delinquency in the 
investigation of passport fraud cases has been caused by such factors as the 
heavy deluge of applicant cases received by SY during the early part of the year 
(the.se include summer hires, interns, and Passport Office peak cases) and several 
high priority security requirements in other aspects of the total security program. 
SY lost twenty one positions in the personnel cut effective June 30, 1972. In April 
1973 this office was authorized to fill existing vacancies, and recruitment was 
immediately started. Processing foreign service candidates is most difficult, and 
it will take several months for SY to reach its authorized manpower structure. 
We have the pipeline established, and officers are finally being placed in positions, 
but there is training time involved, perhaps 12 to 18 months, when the criminal 
nature of Passport Fraud investigations is concerned. 

SY has been intimately concerned with the problems of terrorism to include 
hi-jackings. letter bombs, kidnappings and murders of principal officers pre- 
dating the Khartoum tragedy. This problem, as you know, must take first priority. 
SY has also been heavily engaged in the protection of foreign visitors, particularly 
those from the People's Republic of China. 

The licarv case was first brought to the attention of SY by an oral request 
from PPT/buggan on October 7, 1970. Mr. Duggan requested that SY verify 
birth records in names used by the Ueary's when they obtained passports which 
they used to flee the United States. The information was obtained on an urgent 
basis and oral reports were made to :\Ir. Duggan on October 30, 1970 and Novem- 
ber 6, 1970. These oral reports were followed by formal written reports. 

Tlie first written request from PPT office concerning Dr. Leary was dated 
September 17. 1971 which requested that SY obtain a copy of a manuscript 
allegedlv prepared by Dr. Leary. The attempts to obtain the manusr-ript from the 
publishers proved uiisuccessful. however, the Department's interest in the manu- 
script was reported in New York Times of October 10, 1971. A detailed report 
on SY's efforts to obtain the manuscript was sent to the Passport Office on 
October 10. 1971. 

On October 18, 1971 the Passport Office requested SY to vertify Leary's driver's 
license and to interview the real McNellis (name used by Leary). On October 22. 
1971. the San Francisco Field Office reported on this request. 



73 

On Jauuarv 14, 1972 the New York Field Office received an unsolicited call from 
a person who had read of the State Department's interest in Dr. Leary's manu- 
script This person volunteered to turn over a copy of the manuscript to SY. The 
manuscript was obtained by SY and forwarded to the Passport Office on January 
19 1972 

On March 1, 1972 the San Francisco Field Office closed the case and except for 
Subject's connection with the "Brotherhood" investigation, our interest in Dr. 
Leary was terminated. . 

On January 18, 1973 Dr. Leary, who had escaped from state prison near ban 
Luis Abispo, California on September 12, 1970 and had fled the United States 
using a false passport, was returned to the United States in custody of BNDD 
agents and was arrested on arrival in Los Angeles, California. 

On February 8. 1973 almost one year after receiving the manuscript, the Pass- 
port Office returned the manuscript to SY and requested an investigation "in 
order to prepare a foundation for prosecution of IS USC 1542", with additional 
instructions that the manuscript of Dr. Leary be submitted to the "Strike Force \ 
Orange County, California for their information, analysis and evaluation. 

On April 3, 1973 Dr. Leary was convicted on the escape charge by the State of 
California and is presently incarcerated. There has been a premise in the past,, 
that when a passport violator is incarcerated, the need for urgent investigation is 
somewhat lessened. The passport memorandum of September 18, 1973 was the 
first indication SY had received suggesting that the Leary case had reached a 
critical stage. 

Reference is made to your May 11, 1973 memorandum concerning the review 
requested for closing three categories of Passport Fraud cases which have been 
pending for more than two years. Although the Passport Office requested review 
of several categories of investigations. PPT did not define a total number of 
pending cases. The criteria for closing such cases was left to the discretion of SY. 

The requested procedure involved complete case studies by SY. and primarily 
involved a direct study by Special Agents in Charge at New York, Los Angeles 
and San Francisco, where the greatest volume of work existed. Because of person- 
nel shortages, work demands, and SY requirements, this study was necessarily 
delayed on several occasions. However. SY has been able to close 55 investiga- 
tions in these categories, primarily at New York and Los Angeles, and has 
requested the Special Agent in Charge at San Francisco to give the matter prior- 
ity attention, consistent with constant service requests from other segments of 
the Department. SY will make every effort to complete this project by October 15, 
1973. „^ .^ 

Despite manpower shortages and priority requirements levied upon SY, it 
should be noted that SY closed 557 passport fraud investigations during FY 72, 
342 during FY 73. and 71 during the first two months of FY 74. 

For your information, the Department has presented a FY 74 budget amend- 
ment to the Congress to provide SY with positions to combat terrorism overseas 
and in the United States. We are hopeful that this legislation will be approved 
which will properly stafE SY to handle its additional tasks, and release its regular 
components to handle the very important passport investigations emanating from 
your office. 

October 11, 1973. 
A/SY— Mr. G. Marvin Gentile 
PPT — Frances G. Knight 

(1) Passport Fraud Case of Timothy Francis Leary, Alias William John Mc- 

Neills and Rosemary Leary. Alias Sylvia Edith McGaffin. 

(2) Delinquent Passport Fraud Investigations 

I refer to your memorandum of September 24, 1973 concerning the subject mat- 
ter. I have read it carefully and. unfortunately, I cannot regard it as a construc- 
tive answer to my memorandum of September 18, 1973. It reiterates your person- 
nel problems, to which I am sympathetic. It reiterates the priorities which you 
assign to investigative work loads. It is apparent that passport investigations still 
have the lowest priority in your current operation. As I have stated before. I am 
sympathetic to your problems, but your systems of priorities places the Passport 
Office in an untenable position. Passport fraud cases must be investigated 
promptly and effectively, and it is my responsibility to see that such action is 

I note your attempt to excuse the lack of action by SY in the Leary case r si nee 
Mr. Duggan's memorandum of February 8, 1973) by referring to the lapse be- 



74 

tween the time PPT received the manuscript of "Confessions of a Hope Fiend" 
and tlie return of the manuscript to SY. Your inference is that no action has been 
taken by the Passport Office in the interim. This is definitely not true. Since SY 
is an investigative agency, I thinli it is fair to state that this office was justified 
to assTime that an investigative agency would realize the potential significance 
of the manuscript and make some effort to utilize, or at least to ascertain, 
whether it had any investigative loads even though this was not expressly 

Since the Passport Office received the manuscript, it has been reviewed and its 
contents analyzed. This review and analysis required going over the material 
many times and checking numerous other documents and files. Extra care was 
taken because of the author's obvious efforts to bec'oud facts, circumstances, and 
locations in which activities occurred. The evaluation necessitated the review of 
manv lists of names in passports issued as well as passport files in order to iden- 
tify the application upon which passports were fraudulently obtained by Dr. and 
Mrs. Leary. A careful evaluation was also necessary in order to obtain investi- 
gative h'iuls to the followed since SY had t.-iken no initiative in the matter. 

In addition to this activity, the Passport Office initiated communications with 
a number of foreign service posts in an effort to locate information which would 
be helpful in the hoped for investigation as well as trying to keep a lookout on 
the whereabouts of the subject. As you know, these efforts culminated in the suc- 
cessful return of the subject on January 18, 1973. 

Tour memorandum of September 24, 1973 indicates that no action has been 
taken by your office in the matter since it was sent to you on February 8. 1973. 
A review' of Mr. Duggnn's memorandum of February 8, 1973 reveals that the 
requested investigation to be pursued by SY to obtain the successful prosecution 
in this case could hnve been accomplished by experienced investigators in the 
local off.ces involved within two weeks. 

Let me call your attention to one more item regarding the Leary case. In your 
memorandum, you state that, on March 1. 1972, your San Francisco field office 
"closed the case and except for subjects's connection, with the 'Brotherhood' 
invefifirjation, orir intercfit iv Dr. Lrnri/ ir^'s terniinrffrd." There v-' no indication 
in any of the memorandxnns which you have sent to the Passport Office that 
your Security Office has ever considered this case closed. As a matter of fact, 
"this case, according to your records, have been, and still is, considered "pending". 
A review of the file reveals that we made a written request for investigation 
on September 21, 1971 (5 days prior to the receipt of your latest memorandum 
dated September 24. 1973) to establish a foundation for possible criminal prose- 
cution under 18 USC 1542. This investigation ivas never completed. 

Another statement in your memorandum of September 24 which merits atten- 
tion is that "the passport memornndvm of September 18, 1973. vas the first in- 
dication SY had received snggestinrj that the Leary ease had reached a critical 
stage" simply ignores what is obvious to most people that Dr. Leary is a notorious 
criminal. Leary returned to the United States within direct reach of our 
criminal procedures. This, in and of itself, should normally indicate the urgency 
of the situation. You state there has been a premise (of which I am not aware) 
"that when a passport violator is incarcerated, the need for urgent investiga- 
tion 7.V somewhat lessened'". The failure to investigate the ease of a notorious 
individual for more than eight months violates, beyond any comprehension, even 
the premise you created. 

In summary, the record shows that, during the year the Passport Office had 
the manuscript, it performed hundreds of hours of work in the case, something 
of a miracle considering our chronic shortages of employees. The record .shows 
that, since the matter was referred to you on February 8. 1973. the Office of 
Security has either done nothing or failed to report any action. 

I regret the necessity of going over the chronolo^iy in the Leary case in re- 
buttal to your memorandum. Obviously, this does not get the work accomplished. 

The statement in your memorandum of September 24 Ihat Mr. Duggan's mem- 
orandum of May 11. 1973. concerning the review requested for closing three 
categories of passport frnuds "left the criteria for closing such cases to the dis- 
cretion of SY" is not a fact. These criteria were repeated in my memorandum 
to you of September 18. There is no discretion to be exercised: the specified cri- 
teria irere to be applied to the cases already assigned to your agents. 

The reason the Legal Division did not indicate v>'hich cases to close is that 
PT/L has not been kept informed about the current status of the individual 
cases because SY/I does not regularly submit pending or closing reports. Further, 



7a 

PT/L's requests for such reports go unanswered or generate excuses rather than 
substantive data. Under these circumstances, the SY agent assigned to the 
case is the only person in a position to i^now the current status and to apply the 
criteria stated in the May 11 memorandum. 

It PT/L possessed current reports on the status of the pending fraud cases, 
that office would have applied the criteria and transmitted a list of cases to 
close. As you know, some cases closed by your agents, citing the May 11 memo- 
randum, have been returned to your office for investigation because specified cri- 
teria were not met. It is therefore self-evident that the cited memorandum did 
not contemplate that special agents exercise their discretion and close passport 
fraud cases. 

Before leaving this point, let me stress that the cited criteria do not reflect 
on the probability of fraud ; they reflect only on the probable availability of 
witnesses and/or evidence because the investigations are stale. 

In the penultimate pax-agraph of your memorandum, you refer to the fact that 
SY closed 557 passport fraud cases during FY 1972, 342 during FY 1973. and 71 
during the first two months of FY 1974. The decline in the efforts of SY in 
passport fraud investigations is evident in your own memorandum. I believe it 
is accurate to .state that, of the 71 completed during the first two months of 
FY 1974, many of them fell within the closing authority contained in Mr. Dug- 
^an's memorandum of May 11, 1973. 

It is a matter of record that the passport fraud problem has been the subject 
of considerable concern by the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee and the 
Passport Office has committed itself to expanding the staff of the Legal Division 
to combat the situation. This is a matter of record in the Department budget 
hearings. The failure of SY to give investigative support will, if pennitted to 
continue, further detract and ultimately nullify the effects of the passport fraud 
program. I would be lacking in integrity and frankness if I did not bring to the 
attention of tnp officials of '.he Department considering the budget and the pass- 
port fraud problem the results of the present position taken by the Office of Se- 
curity. Therefore, as I indicated in my memorandum of September 18 to you, I 
am sending you copies of our correspondence to Dr. (""urtis W. Tarr. I am at- 
taching a copy of my memorandum to Dr. Tarr, which is self-explanatory. 



U.S. Government, Memorandum. 

October 11, 1973. 
To : M— Dr. Curtis W. Tarr, Acting 
From : PPT— Frances G. Knight 
Subject : Delinquent SY Passport Fraud Investigations 

We continue to have a serious problem in securing prompt and effective in- 
vestigation in passport fraud cases which we refer to the Office of Security. The 
Passport fraud proI)lem becomes increasingly serious with the passage of time. 
You are. no doubt, aware of the concern and interest in passport frauds liy the 
Senate Internal Security Subcommittee and their recent call to have me testify 
on the subject on October 3, 1973. 

You will recall that, on August 9, 1973, at the Department's Budget Hearing, we 
were requested to submit further data on the fraud problem so that it could be 
determined what effect it would have ou the work load of the Office of Security. 
On August 21, 1973, this additional information was furnished to Miss Barbara 
Watson, SCA, and I hope that it was, in turn, forwarded to the proper authori- 
ties : however, we have had no indication of what action was taken on the mate- 
rial we provided. 

Because of the long delays and backlog of cases, I sent a memorandum to Mr. 
Marvin Gentile, SY, on September 18, 1973 (copy attached) requesting a state- 
ment from him advising this office what steps he intended to take to insure prompt 
and effective investigations of passport fraud cases. In his reply to me. Mr. 
Gentile failed to present any positive program showing that he would take action 
to implement prompt and effective passport fraud investigations. (Copy at- 
tached). 

I have indicated to Mr. Gentile that the Passport Office has a duty and respon- 
silulity to present to Congress and to 0MB, at their request, the facts and the 
seriousness of the apparent lack of action within the Department of State. Ab- 
sent immediate action to overcome the present dormant position of the priorities 
given to passport fraud investigations in SY, I must request that the investiga- 
tive responsibility be transferred, along with personnel, to some other area of 



76 

governmeut. It has been suggested that the Passport Office assume these duties 
but the uncooperative and indifferent attitude of the Bureau of Security and 
Consular Affairs is not conducive to support or promote action on any matter 
dealing with national security. 

The Senate Internal Security Subcommittee has made some very pertinent 
inquiries into the passport fraud situation ; the lack of support for our program ; 
the obvious lack of interest in and action on our previous warnings ; the mount- 
ing incidence of fraud ; and the inordinate and inexplicable delays in the investi- 
gation process. 

I would, indeed, appreciate your thoughts on this very serious matter as soon 
as possible. I know how very busy you are. I know that one crisis has followed 
another in rapid succession, but I have been waiting for years to get an atten- 
tive and sympathetic ear within the Department and some support for the Pass- 
port Office efforts in this area, only to receive the yearly meat-axe approach in 
personnel and budget cuts, as well as the general sabotage which is the by-product 
of SCA's continual harassment of the Passport Office staff. 

I am attaching for your information copies of the interchange of communica- 
tions with the Office of Security. 

Mr. SouKwiNE. Off the record. 

[Discussion off the record.] 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Now, I have just two more things. 

Mr. Chairman, I spoke earlier of the newspaper reports with re- 
spect to the awarding of the research contract in connection with the 
new and secure passport. I have two of these reproductions of news- 
paper clippings here. I would like to ask that they be inserted in the 
record at the appropriate place. 

The Chairmax. So ordered. 

Mr. Soitrwint:. Now, Miss Knight, here is the story from the Phila- 
delphia Bulletin about Mr. Edward Neilan's interview with Miss Bar- 
bara Watson. He starts out by saying : 

The passport of the future could look more like a credit card than the present 
version of the standard passport which has pages for stamping of entry and exit 
visas. "Studies are underway to create a streamlined passport", said Miss Bar- 
bara M. Watson. Administrator to the Bureau of Security and Consular Affairs 
which directs visa and passport matters for all American citizens. Miss Watson, 
known among her colleagues in Washington as "the passport lady" suggests that 
one version of the passport of the future might be a plastic IBM type card with 
certain data pre-punched In coding. 

That is archaic, Miss Knight. They were prepunching and coding 
data when I came to Washington 40 years ago. Computers were not 
even invented yet. I find this thing preposterous. 

[The article referred to follows :] 

[From the Philadelphia Bulletin, Sept. 23, 1973] 

Meet the Passport Lady : She Wobeies About You 

(By Edward Neilan) 

Washington. — The passport of the future could look more like a credit card 
than the present version of the standard passport which has pages for stamping 
of entry and exit visas. 

"Studies are under way to create a streamlined passport," said Miss Barbara 
M. Watson, administrator of the Bureau of Security and Consular Affairs, which 
directs visa and passport matters for all American citizens. 

Miss Watson, knoviTi among her colleagues in Washington as "Tlie Passport 
Lady," suggests that one version of the passport of the future might be a plastic 
IBM-tyi)e card with certain data prepunched and coded. 

When a person arrived at a foreign border he would produce his "computer- 
ized" data card and the border officials would run it through a machine. Anyone 
whose card wasn't properly punched would be detained ior questiuning. 



77 

''Can you imagine how many man-hours of hiborious hand-stamping and 
scribbling in passports this would save?" asked Miss Watson. 

With more Americans traveling around this summer than ever before, the 
State Department's worldwide network of consular otfice.s is swamped with appli- 
cations, requests, complaints and visitors who "just dropped by to say 'hello' ". 

Miss Watson presides over the some 250 Amei-ican consular offices in 127 
countries. The offices are staffed by about 2,000 local and American workers. 

The number of Americans going overseas this year will be well over eight 
million. 

That compares to fewer than five million in 1968. 

Adding to the consular duties of the State Department is the fact that about a 
million and a half Americans now reside abroad— although devaluation of the 
dollar has sent thousands scurrying back "home". 

Miss Watson said that consular services rendered have more than doubled 
in the last decade, going from 450,000 in 1D62 to 929,068 in 1972. 

Some 2.6 million passports v»'ere issued last year and the demand is seen as 
growing steadily in coming years. One important step toward facilitating issu- 
ance of new passports was the recent decision to use the U.S. Post Offices as 
receiving points for passport applications. This has provided more than 700 
points across the country where citizens may apply. 

Miss Watson is the daughter of a one-time judge of the New York Muuicipal 
Court. 

An attorney, she joined the State Department in July, 1960, as special assistant 
to the deputy undersecretary for administration. 

In 1968 she was sworn in as administrator of the passport and consular office, 
with the rank of assistant secretary of state. That made her the first black person 
ever to hold a position at that level in the Department of State. 

Miss Watson, who said her hobby is "people." noted that with so many more 
Americans traveling to foreign countries ; "it is not surprising that more and 
more are getting into trouble of one sort or another abroad." 

She said "in many cases this is due to nothing more than a lack of knowledge 
of local customs, mores and languages." 

One of her department's most serious problems, she said, is assisting Americans 
who are arrested in foreign lands. 

"It comes as a shock to many Americans who feel that all they have to do — 
when arrested in a foreign country — is to say they are Americans and they will 
be let free, or, at worst, will be tried under American law. Of course, this is not 
the case at all. 

"It is tragic," said Miss Watson, "but the number of young Americans 'busted' 
in drug raids overseas has become very serious. The number is dipping slightly 
now but there are still 1,084 young Americans in jail in foreign countries on drug 
charges. Three of every four are under 25 years of age." 

Miss Watson advised Americans who live abroad and plan to purchase property 
in foreign countries to check with their local American consular offices. "There 
are legal intricacies that the unwary buyer must know about or he might some- 
day lose the property because of clauses in the fine print." 

Visits by foreigners to the United States have increased by 200 percent in the 
last 10 years, she noted. 

Nonimmigrant visas issued rose from 775.027 in 1962 to 2.290.576 last year. 
Immigrant visas issued increased from 273,190 in 1962 to 293,966 in 1972. 

Miss Watson said that current immigration laws may be changed to give per- 
sons born in the Western Plemisphere a better change to immigrate to the United 
States if they can qualify under certain "skills" criteria. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. You say you had a chance to read it, Now, will you 
comment on it? Is there a vestige of truth in it? "Wliat is the situation? 

Miss Knight. Mr. Chairman, a marked copy of the article was 
mailed to me from a Philadelphia source and I received it yesterday. 
INIy only comment is that I was appalled by the statements reported 
regarding passports which are totally inaccurate, incorrect, and irre- 
sponsible. I can only regard these efforts to mislead the press and the 
public as a deliberate and unconscionable attempt to sabotage the 
tremendous effort which has already been invested in our long search 
for an effective, efficient, secure, and machine-readable passport, ac- 

23-538—73 6 



7S 

ceptable to other countries which require nov\- and in the foreseeable 
future visas for U.S. citizens. Currently there are 147 countries that 
require visas on U.S. passports. In my opinion the statement made by 
the official quoted in the story, regarding a plastic card passport, is so 
stupid, in the light of our research and detailed analysis that any per- 
son with a minimal Imowledge of world travel requirements and a 
grade-school understanding of national security would promptly dis- 
miss it as a hoax or figure that it was a misprint. 

jSIr. SouRWiNE. Mr. Chairman, I will ask that the full text of the 
newspaper story in question go into the record at the point where I 
asked Miss Knight about it so that her comment thereafter may follow 
logically. 

I have no more questions. Miss I^iight. Thank you very much for 
coming up here and waiting so patiently and ansAvering our questions 
so fully. 

The Chairman. Miss Knight, we are always glad to have you here 
and we know you for an earnest and dedicated and mighty hard- 
working public servant and we sure do thank you. 

Miss Knight. Thank you. sir. 

[Whereupon, at 3 :55 o'clock, the hearing was concluded.] 



APPENDIX 

List of Brotherhood of Eternal Love Indictees 

CLASS I 

1. Druce, Charles, England. _ . „ , 

2. Friedman, Lester, Dr., DOB 9/14/28. 361S Concord Drive, Beacliwood, 

3 Hitchcock, William Mellon, DOB 9/6/30. Box 503, Millbrook. N.T. 

4. Leary, Timothy Frances, DOB 10/22/20, in custody, CaUforma State 
Prison. 

5. Randall, Michael Boyd, DOB 8/27/43, fugitive. 

6. Scully, Robert Timothy, DOB 8/27/44, San Francisco, Calif. 

7. Stark, Ronald Hadley. DOB 4/9/38. fugitive. 

8. Mantell, David Leigh, DOB 4/25/40, fugitive. 

9. Sand, Nicholas, DOB 5/10/41, in custody. 



1. Ackerly, Robert Dale. DOB 1/23/44. in custody, Federal prison. 

2. Andrist, Robert Lee, DOB 11/3/45, fugitive. 

3. Ashbrook, Travis Grant, DOB 1/9/45, fugitive. 

4. Bevan, Rick C, DOB 11/20/48, fugitive. 

5. Crittenden, James Leroy, DOB 8/14/42, Mariposa County, Calif. 

6. Dmry, Donald Karl, DOB 3/18/37, in custody. 

7. Gale, John Charles. DOB 8/4/47. Las Vegas, Nev. 

8. Johnson, Gordon Fred, DOB 3/25/45, in custody. California State Prison. 

9. Lange, Edveard Jeffrey, DOB 11/26/47, Orange County, Calif. 

10. Scott, Charles Frederick, DOB 12/28/41, fugitive. 

11. Tokhi, Hayatullah, DOB 1939, fugitive, Afghanistan. 

12. Sexton, Gordon Albert, DOB 1/29/46. fugitive. 

13. Smith, Brenice Lee, DOB 4/6/45, fugitive. 

14. Tiernev, Robert Edward. DOB 4/22/47, in custody, Panama. 

15. Tokhi, Amanullah Salem, DOB 3/15/33, fugitive, Afghanistan. 

16. Bevan, Ronald, DOB 9/19/46. f ugtitive. 

17. Caserta, Daniel Phillip, DOB 8/9/47, fugitive. 

18. German, Lyle Paul, DOB 3/7/39, fugitive. 

19. Hall, David Alan, DOB 10/6/42, fugitive. 

20. May, Edward Joseph, DOB 2/1/33. fugitive, San Francisco. 

21. Padilla, Gerald James, DOB 8/13/47. fugitive. 

22. Stanton, Mark Patrick, DOB 9/20/46, fugitive. 

CLASS III 

1. Allen, Linda Pohl, DOB 3/15/47, Laguna Beach, Calif. 

2. Arthur, David Alan, DOB 1/8/43, fugitive. 

3. Becker, Dale Andrew, DOB 12/28/42. fugitive, Australia. 

4. Bidwell, Thomas Blake, DOB 2/18/45, San Diego, Calif. 

5. Clav, James Henry, DOB 11/28/45, in custody, California State Prison. 

6. Crawford. Ronald Ray, DOB 4/15/43, Hawaii. 

7. Daw, John Robert, DOB 10/10/43, fugitive. 

8. Delaney, Calvin Larry, DOB 10/31/42, Hawaii. 

9. Harrigan, Russell Joseph, DOB 8/19/40, fugitive. 

10. Harrington, John Joseph, Jr., DOB 9/18/42, fugitive. 

11. Lynd, Glenn Craig, DOB 3/23/42. 

12. McAdams, Brian Kendall, DOB 4/9/46. 

13. McAdams. Yonica Menne, DOB 4/9/47. 

14. Otto, Jimmy Gregg, DOB 2/14/45, Laguna Beach, Calif. 

(79) 



80 

15. Palma, Franklin, DOB 1/18/46. 

16. Polil, Gerald, DOB 6/31/48, fugitive. 

17. Pooley, Michael Lee, DOB 2/22/49. 

18. Pratt, Jill Barnett, D,OB 3/16/45, fugitive 

Jo l^fS^^lF'-'V'^ ^l''''^'' ^9.^ S/10/4S, in custody, California State Prison. 

20. Pratt, Stanford Leon, DOB 8/6/45, fugitive 

21. Bowyer, Chester Allen, DOB 8/3/39, in custody, Federal prison 



[From Good Times, Jan. 8, 1971] 
Getting High With Jennifer 

^^iStndTf-iuI Sr?™i ""^^n?^^^ returned to the United States after visiting 
political exiles Eldridge Cleaver and Timothy Leary in Algeria, and accom- 
panying Leary on an attempted meeting with Al Fatah in Lebanon. Last week 
she visited Good Times and told us : ) 

In October I got the opportunity to go to Algeria with five other people. Tim- 
othy had been out about three weeks when I arrived. It's really a trip to get 
on an airp ane and get off a day later in Africa and there's Timothy Leary and 
Hi?"/-'r, ^^^^T^^ to Sveet you, two men I'd never met, but really important, 
beautiful people. The first week I spent just getting to know the people there 
the Panthers and Rosemary and Timothy, building up a kind of trust, getting 
close to people so that we could have a friendship 

The Panthers in Algiers . . . Eldridge and Kathleen, two Panthers from the 
m^'^Ty*^ .V, ■^' '^^^^ "^^ t^^^™ underground in this country for a year and a half 
Ihe I anthers have been granted the status of a national liberation front and 
been given an embassy and they've established diplomatic relations with people 
like the North Vietnamese and the North Koreans. When you're there the 
first feeling you get is that you're a diplomat. 

Algiers is a good place to be right now. One reason for this is the easy access 
ot this country. You can fly right there. Another thing is that every national 
liberation front m the world has a center there, which I don't think happens in 
any other city. The Panthers have the opportunity to set up what they call a 
peoples embassy and they really see themselves as an international part of 
this movement, setting up relations for all of us. We found that out on the trip 
to the Middle East because of a whole series of communcations. We were in 
Cairo and all the lines between Cairo and Algiers were down. It took four days 
to send a wire. We found out that Eldridge had the Chinese, Koreans and the 
North \ letnamese looking for us. In fact at one point the Koreans wired K^m 
II Sung and he sent a wire to Cairo saying that they should find us because we 
were their comrades. And that position is because of the work Eldridge has done 
in establishing diplomatic relations with other countries. At the same time, it's 
very contradictory in Algiers now because the government is beginning to nego- 
tiate diplomatic relations with the U.S. and if that does happen it's certainly 
going to have an effect as far as that being a sanctuary. 

I think the impression that I've had of Eldridge is that he's one of the warm- 
est, most open revolutionaries that I've met, very direct, verv brilliant. He has 
the ability to perceive relations. He really has an understanding of youth culture, 
understands that it's a revolutionary force in this country. One of the biggest 
problems for the Panthers in Algiers is that they're verv isolated from the move- 
ment here, very cut off. People in this country think they're on the moon or some- 
thing and think that they can't call them or write them. Because of that people 
J^ri }^^ *^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^"*^ ^^^^ papers re.gularly, send them letters and tapes. 
.^ „• doesn't the U.S. government hold back a lot of the stuff that's sent to 
them? 

Sure, a lot of it gets ripped off. But they should have a paper every week be- 
cause It s tlieir only way of really being a part of this movement ... for us to 
relate to them. 

One of the things that struck me over and over was how hard it is to be in 
exile. One of the fir.st things Eldridge would say is how much he wanted to be 
back because fighting in one's own country is really important and necessary to 
a revolutionary. Wlien we were there we had a birthday party for Tim and Bobby 
beale. A\ e had a really nice celebration for Tim's birthday and freedom and for 
fighting for Bobby's freedom. 



81 

GT : What about reports that the Algerian government is hostile to the U.S. 
political refugees? ^. ^, , ... .... „, 

It's not true at all. There was never a question about Timothy s getting political 
asvlum • it was granted as soon as he was there. The Panthers wouldn't have been 
given an embassy and invited to all these meetings and affairs unless they were 
in a very good position there. ij j*. /^ 

I think the whole image was perpetrated to make it seem like we couldn t go 
anywhere. The Algerian government sponsored a trip for four of us to go to the 
Middle East to meet with the Palestinian guerrillas. Field Marshall D. C. and 
Alartv Kenner, who's chairman of the Panther Defense Fund, and Timothy and 
mvseif went to the Middle East. What happened was that when we arrived m 
Beirut we were supposed to be met by members of Al Fateh, who were then going 
to take us into Damascus or Aman, depending on how heavy the fighting was in 

Aman that week. ^ . ^ ^, . • <. „ 

When we arrived in Beirut there was no one there to meet us. At this point we 
weren't too upset because we didn't know anything about Beirut at the time, so 
we thought we'd just go to a hotel for the night and wake up and make contact 
<-he next day and that evervthing would be fine. So we went off and the Lebanese 
government put us up in this hotel and we went to sleep thinking everything 
would be fine the next day. Well, we didn't know a couple of things. One was that 
■\ DPI reporter had identified Timothy on the plane from Cairo to Beirut and put 
it out over the wire the first night that we were there in the city. The second 
thing was that the hotel that the Lebanese government had recommended turned 
out to be the headquarters for Western press in Beirut. So after two days we 
found out that CBS had the room next door, Newsweek and everyone was m this 
hote^ So we get up the next morning thinking that we'd just have breakfast ana 
so out and meet the people from Al Fateh. So we stepped out on this little balcony 
on the hotel room and find reporters on top of cars with telescopic lenses. Every 
time I opened the door, men would grab me and try to drag me into the hall to 
make a statement. . ., . , i. 

This incredible situation developed that the Western press m their determina- 
tioi- to "et a story on Tim Learv completely endangered our safety and caused 
such a stir that Al Fateh in Beirut, who hadn't received the proper communica- 
tions from Algiers, didn't know what was happening and the CIA was beginning 
to try and move on us. There's no extradition treaty in Lebanon so the Lebanese 
<^ovemment couldn't arrest us, but they were being put in a position of going to 
have to ask us to leave. It was a very complicated situation, mainly because 
Beirut is like a completely open city where anything goes. For Timothy and D. C. 
it was like being in O'Hare Airport ... it was that serious. 

W^hat finally happened on the Middle East trip is that the press situation m 
Beirut made it necessary to return to Algiers. At one point we had a car that was 
going to take us to Damascus, but without the proper contacts with the gnernlla 
forces it would have been very dangerous to go further in. So we decided to return 
to Algeria until that whole problem straightened up. We went back through 
Cairo and Eiryptian authorities checked us out and were very warm to us. While 
we were in Cairo we went to the Algerian embassy and the ambassador came in 
and was verv happy to see us and arranged for our flight back. 

To fly from Cairo to Algiers is really complicated. You have to go through 
Tunis and Tripoli. Tunis is another open city so we couldn't go through customs 
and get off the plane, especially at this point because everyone in the world knew 
where we were every minute. So they arranged for our flight back so that we 
would never have to get off the plane and we were with Algerians the whole 

way back. „ , , j. n j ^ „ 

While we were in Cairo we met with the Middle East press and talked to a 
lot of people there. The three things they know about were the Black Panther 
Party, the bombings in this country and Muhammed Ali. Mostly they wanted to 
to Ik about him because he's a big hero to them. It was really sad that we conldn]t 
meet with the Palestinians because the people in the Middle East are such beauti- 
ful people. _ , . , ^ J , xi-!i. J 

I found out a lot about what the pig press is like. We tried to take an attitude 
that said, like our security, our safety is the first thing and as soon as we re 
in a safe place, we'll talk to the press, but our first concern is to get out («f here 
alive And they, for very definite reasons could only print the most outrageous 
kinds of things, like headlines saying "The High Priest of Hashish" is in town. 
It's really amazing, people will ask me questions like, "How was Tim Leary 
received in places in Algeria and the Middle East?" He's received very well and 
it's because of this human consciousness that he has about explaining about 



82 

drugs. Reporters would say, Dr. Leary, could you tell us what LSD is? and 
he'd explain what the whole movement has been about in this country, explaining 
that dope is a very important part of our culture and that it's very revolutionary, 
and what it's meant in this country in the last ten years. You know, dropping out 
of this society's values, turning on, the whole political movement that's developed 
from that. He'll explain that and at the same time say, but I vinderstand that in 
other cultures, in different societies, and even in the same culture at a different 
time, dope can play a very different role — like it's certainly different in the 
ghetto in this country than in the youth culture. 

In Algeria and in the Middle East dope has been used as a very oppressive 
thing and tlie revolutionaries have all had to fight against it, but the attitude 
that Timothy has and we all had was to be very open and understanding, and ask- 
ing about the history of it in their own revolutions meant that he was received 
very well. He was respected and he really wanted to learn about the revolution 
in other places, so there was never any problem to our meeting with revolutionary 
groups about Timothy Leary's position in the movement. 

AVe mostly were going to meet with Al Fateh. It's not a revolutionary organi- 
zation . . . it's more like a loosely knit nationalist organization. They are the ones 
who have relations with the Algerian government. There are po.sters for Al 
Fateh all over the Cairo airport and the rest of the city. The thing about the 
people, like in Cairo, is that they really look to the movement, to the black 
struggle, to the youth movement. They really see a revolution in this country and 
it's totally connected with their own freedom. They rt>ally look to this country 
for leadership. There's an incredible sense that this is the real heart. 

I want to say that my sister, Bernadine, was never in Algiers. It's really an 
important thing to understand because when I got back and found out the whole 
story that had developed about her being there, I found that people were really 
depressed and shaken about it. It had the effect of people saying that it really 
wasn't like the picture we get of how it is to be underground. Like maybe it 
wasn't true and maybe they couldn't make it. It is a defeating kind of feeling 
that people had about it. It's important for people to understand that she is here. 

Let's talk about Timothy. 

People ask all the time why did he change and how he has changed and what 
he's like now. I think there are a couple of things that caused his development 
to wanting to become a revolutionary. One is that he saw in the whole youth 
movement that developed around him — the dropping acid and dropping out— 
that you find internal freedom ... he saw that the reople who took only that 
road ended up with very self-indulgent totally degenerate lives, totally ignoring 
that there's an imperialist state that's oppressing people all aroimd the world 
That we need two '.-inds of revolutions together . . . they're not separate . . . 
they're all about being a revolutionary. Which is like fighting to build new 
men and v.'omen, tiying to build new structures, new ways of living. That's what 
we're really about . . . that we're trying to live it as we're also fighting to build 
new men and women, trying to build new structures, new ways of living. That's 
what we're really about . . . that we're trying to live it as we're also fighting a 
revolution. And you can't have one without the other. 

Timothy said in this tape I brought back that a political revolutionary who 
isn't turned on is a political robot, and the system which he seeks to build is no 
better than the one he's destroying. So he really began to see that you just can't 
go off and find a nirvana when you can walk into Harlem or Watts and be hit 
with the genocidal war against blacks nnd people all over the world being op- 
pressed. You can't just go off and think that you can find a new kind of internal 
freedom. 

Going to jail and being in prison ... I gness it was nine or ten months . . . 
certainly changed him. He says that he really began planning his escape from 
the moment he entered prison. He was very careful about not having press 
conferences, about not being a public figure, he convinced Reagan and all the state 
authorities that he was a very h.irmless man who should be put in minimum 
security. In fact the day before he escaped, he cleaned out his locker and taped 
inside the door a newspapf^ clipi)!ng that said that Gov. Rengan says Timothy 
Leary was a completely liarmless man who cnnld be ))ut i'l rainiiinim s(-'.urity. 
He just under lined it in rc-d and t.'iped it to the inside of his locker, knowing 
that they would find it a day later when he was free. He worked out a lot when 
he was in prison and he's very strong. 

The day of his escape two pigs came to the prison ... I don't know if they were 
FBI or what. But they were going to take him to New York where he was going to 
be tried on some other charges and these pigs knew him because they had been 



83 

chasing liiin and buf^ting him for years. So they called him into the warden's 
office and said, "Timothy, we have to take you back to New York. We can either 
leave today and drive or wait "til Monday and fiy back." So he said, "Why don't 
you take tiie weekend off and we'll fly in on Monday. That's fine with me." He 
had this great image that they'd go off and get drunk for the weekend and wake 
on Monday and find these headlines that Timothy Leary had escaped. 

In his actual escape he found that he couldn't go out of the prison as he had 
actually planned. He in fact had to climb over a part of the wall that was under 
floodlights with guards walking back and forth. He got halfway up this wail and 
his hands were all cut from the wire ... he was just hanging there, not knowing 
if he could make it. He said that the thought he had was if they shoot me I want 
to fall over the wall to let people know I was trying to be free. He also carried 
out a statement he had written in prison that was later released. It shows he was 
in a good place before he escaped. 

The week that he spent with the Weather underground [after his escape] was 
a really incredible experience for him. The first night he was takeu to a house 
in the city and found everything he could have wanted while he was in prison. 
He had a bubble bath and there w;ts a refrigerator full of food, lots of dope. And 
the next day he was out on the streets walking around. He said he was terrified 
of this image that you're going to be taken to some basement or to some mountain 
top, but that we're certainly not going to be around people. But he was in dis- 
guise and had a new i.d. 

He said he was with Weather brothers and sisters who are so confident, who 
are part of the youth culture in this country and so they can move around any- 
where. They're us. And because they are, they can move in so many places. They 
can go wherever we go. And they've developed a real strength and confidence 
which he couldn't help but feel. So he learned this whole new way of moving. 

They got in a car the first day and were driving down the street when thi^ 
carload of freaks drove by, started honking the horn and waving, causing all 
this commotion so Tim panicked that someone had recognized him, but he kind of 
smiled and waved back and then a Weather sister sitting next to him said. "That 
was Mark Rudd who just waved to you. Another thing Tim did during that week 
was the day Jimi Hendrix died ... he was a very good friend of Timothy's . . . 
he and Rosemary and Bernadine and Jeff Jones got stoned and went to see 
"Woodstock", which was a very meaningful thing for him. 

I won't compare Eldridge and Timothy but they're two of the most brilliant 
people I've ever met. They have a real respect for one another and they have a 
lot to learn from one another. There's a real .sense of friendship between them. 
Eldridge's whole understanding about acid and dope is really right on. When we 
went to Algiers we found out that his favorite records are by Bob Dylan ami 
Leonard Cohen so we bought him a whole bunch of their records. But he's been 
learning a lot from Timothy. 

And Timothy and Rosemary . . . you go into their room and it's this totally 
psychedelic room with all these bri,ght colors and incense an*' warmth ar.d you 
see copies of all Kim II Sung's works that Timothy's reading. He's tripping on 
reading it. It's like this whole new thing that really fits in. His becoming a revo- 
lutionary is something that some people view as just another trip or that he's 
mouthing words that he doesn't believe like he's been brainwashed or somethinr.. 
but I found by being with him that it's a natural i)rocess. that he's struggling 
through things and finding that his progression toward wanting to become a revo- 
lutionary is a very natural thing. 



On page 34, Special Agent Strange was asked to provide a list of brotherhood 
members who are believed to have obtained multiple passports falsely identifying 
themselves. A list of brotherhood members believed to have obtained one or 
more passports under assumed names follows : 

The Beothebhood — Master List (Passsport) April 18, 1973 

ackeey, robert dale 

Secured PPT # K696983 at San Francisco 5/26/69 (in true name). 
Secured PPT # K157638 at San Francisco 11/21/69; in name of Christopher, 
Robert John. 



84 

Secured PPT # B2081110 at San Francisco 9/9/71 (in true name). 
Status.— Complaint 18 USC 1542— Secured by SFFO 4/18/73. 

ANDRIST, ROBERT LEE 

Secured PPT # N1239807 at Los Angeles 10/16/68 (in true name). 

Secured PPT # A1787934 at Los Angeles 8/19/70; in name of Schmitt, Carl 

Felix. 
i8'fo*«».— Complaint 18 USC 1542— Secured 7/25/72. 

AETHT7K, DAVID ALAX 

Secured PPT # E042S02 at Los Angeles 1/9/64 in true name). 
Renewed at Los Angeles 12/20/66. 

Secured PPT # H 046053 at Los Angeles 2/13/67 ; in name of Levine, Jonathan 
David. 

ASHROOK, TRAVIS GRANT 

Secured PPT # H 1215898 at Los Angeles 10/18/67 (in true name). 

Secured PPT # K725942 at Los Angeles 5/26/69; in name of Bliss, IVHchael 

Eugene. 
Secured PPT # B388181 at Los Angeles 3/10/71 ; in name of Mooney, Richard 

Alan. 
Status.— Comjila.int 18 USC 1542 2/22/78. 

BATES, ROGER 

Secured PPT # Z 748300 at Seville. Spain 12/27/67 (in true name) . 
Secured PPT # K 657198 at New York 5/9/69 ; in name of Jacobs, Paul Irvin. 
Status. — Pending prosecution in New York. 

BEVAN, RICK 

Secured PPT # J 043040 at Los Angeles 2/6/68 (in true name) . 

Secured PPT # K 10798*4 at San Francisco 7/2/69 ; in name of Crockett, Ira Lee. 

Secured replacement PPT # K 1494385 at Los Angeles 10/2/69; in name of 

Crockett (Claimed K 1079844 lost). 
Secured PPP # A 1804757 at Los Angeles 10/1/60 ; in name of Parks, Rodney. 
Applied for PPT at Portland, Oregon on 12/18/72 ; in name of Haul, Jason Emile 

(not issued). 
Applied for PPT at San Francisco on 2/28/73; in name of Hyatt, Bobby Joe 

(not issued). 
Status.— IndictQ^ two counts 18 USC 1,542 on 7/3/72. Fugitive— no bail. Bench 

warrant outstanding. 

BOWYER, CHESTER ALLEN, JR. 

Secured PPT # K 029312 at Los Angeles 1/6/69 (in true name). 

Secured PPT # A 1706031 at San Francisco 8/18/70 ; in name of Hanson, John 

Walter. 
Status. — Under investigation. 

CASEETA, DANIEL PHILLIP 

Secured PPT # K 693981 at San Francisco 5/20/69 (in name of Strickland, 

Albert Lee). 
Status. — Presented to U.S. Attorney, San Francisco, May 1972. 

CLAT, JAMES HENRY 

Secured PPT # K 808064 at New York 5/22/69 (in name of Greer, Jason 
Andrew). 

CONNOLLY, IflCHAEL STEPHEN 

Secured PPT # J 1360950 at Los Angeles 12/9/66 (in true name). 

Secured PPT # B 2219108 at Los Angeles 11/1/71 (in name of Ruggles, Michael 

Duncan ) . 
Status.— Indicted one count 18 USC 1542 on 1/22/73. Pled guilty 3/26/73— to be 

.sentenced 5/7/73. 



85 

DALE, JAMES HOWARD 

Secured PPT # A 1789701 at Los Angeles 8/24/70 (in that name). 

Secured PPT # B 412460 at Honolulu 3/26/71 (in name of Gibson, Richard 

Gerald). 
Status. — Under investigation. 

DE JABETTE, JON JAY 

Secured PPT # B 1574311 at San Francisco 7/7/71 (in name of Jacobs, Paul 

Michael ) . 
Status.— Comiplaint 18 USC 1542 at San Franscico 11/15/72. Placed as hold with 

San Bernardino Sheriff's Office. 

FRIEND, JOHN CHBISTOPHEE 

Secured PPT # B 1347656 at Los Angeles 7/9/71 (in that name). 

Secured PPT # B 1753065 at Los Angeles 7/29/71 (in the name of Gates, Ronald 

Thomas ) . 
Status. — Under investigation. 

FULLER, LESTER SAMUEL 

Secured PPT # J 498838 at Los Angeles 5/1/68 (in name of Stanton, Mark). 
Secured PPT # A 200927 at Los Angeles 2/25/70 (in true name). 
Status. — Under investigation. 

GARRISON, GARY ALLEN 

Secured PPT # B 843252 at Los Angeles 5/12/71 (in name of Cromwell, Gary 
Travis). 
)S^a*«s.— Complaint 18 USC 1542 secured 7/25/72. 

KIMBALL, ROBERT RICHARDSON 

Secured PPT #B 188729 at Los Angeles 6/5/61 (in true name). 

Secured PPT # Z 33660S at Leopoldville 7/27/64 (in same name). 

Secured replacement PPT #Z 706672 at Paris 12/21/64. Claimed Z 336608 lost. 

Secured PPT # A 1866965 at New York 9/3/70 (in true name). 

Secured PPT #B 2020957 at Los Angeles 10/27/71 (in name of McFarr, Malcolm 

Coyne). 
Status. — Under investigation. 

LANGE, EDWARD JEFFBY 

Secured PPT # K 030398 at Los Angeles 1/9/69 (in true name) . 

Secured PPT #K 1562638 at Los Angeles 11/17/69 (in name of Turner, Paul 

Gene). 
Secured PPT # Z 1603319 at Costa Rica 7/7/72 (in name of Robertson, Henry 

Alan). 
Status.— Indicted two counts 18 USC 1542 1/22/73. 

LEABY, TIMOTHY 

Secured PPT (number unknown) at Chicago 9/22/70 (in name of MeXellis, 

William John). 
Status. — Under investigation. 

MABTINO, DAVID RUSSELL (LEARY'S SON-IN-LAW ) 

Secured PPT # (?) at Los Angeles 11/24/69 (in true name). 

Secured PPT # B 399506 at Los Angeles 3/25/71 (in name of Carter, Joseph 

Aaron). 
/SfiaiMS.— Complaint— 18 USC 1542 7/25/72. 

MABTINO, DENNIS JOHN 

Secured PPT # J 049406 at Los Angeles 2/26/68 (in true name). 

Secured replacement PPT # K 1561436 at Los Angeles 11/12/69 (in true name). 



86 

Secured PPT # B 1224710 at New York 6/21/71 (in name of Viertel, Richard 

Lon ) . 
Status. — Under investigation. 

MILES, STEVEN LOUIS 

Secured PPT (number not legible) at Sau Francisco, November 1972 (iu tliat 

name). 
Note. — No birth record in that name. 
Status. — Under investigation. 

MORRELL, WALTER DAVID 

Secured PPT # B 2136275 at Seattle 10/22/71 (iu that name). 

Secured replacement PPT # Z 1422924 at Tokyo, Japan 12/30/71. Claimed B 

2136275 lost. 
*9ffltMS.— Under investigation. Identity unknown. No birth record in that name 
in Colorado. 

NEWMAN, JAMES CARROLL III 

Subject's twin brother, Jeffry Clark Newman secured PPT # J 1239252 at Los 
Angeles 10/14/68. When subject was arrested in Amsterdam 3/9/72, he had it 
in his possession and admitted using Jeffry's passport wliich Jeffry had re- 
ported lost. 

James secured PPT # B 2298987 at San Francisco 11/17/71 (iu name of Parker. 
Jeffrey Alan). 

Status.— Prosecution declined by U.S. Attorney San Francisco. 

NICHOLS, LEE ALLEN 

Reportedly secured PPT # H 1215905 at Los Angeles 10/18/67 (in name of Lynd, 

Glen). 
Status. — PPT record search requested. 

PRATT, STANFORD LEON 

Secured PPT # K 1608803 at Los Angeles 12/8/69 (in that name). 

Secured PPT # B 2082142 at San Francisco 9/13/71 (in name of Wideman, Jesse 

Stanford). ^^^^ 

Status.— Presented to U.S. Attorney, San Francisco. May 1972. 

RANDALL, MICHAEL BOYD 

Secured PPT # B 801984 at Los Angeles 4/21/71 (in name of Garrity, Michael 

Thomas). „ ,<^„ ,„„ 

Status.— ComvlSiint 18 USC 1542 secured 3/9/73. Indicted six counts 3/26/ (o— 
Failed to appear 4/24/73. Bench Warrant outstanding. 

SMITH, BRENICE LEE 

Secured PPT # J 498837 at Los Angeles 5/1/68 (in name of Nicklesburg, Lee 

Alan). 
Status. — Under investigation. 

STEVENS, JAMES ROBERT 

Secured PPT # 1890248 at New York 10/15/70 (in name of Gleason, Graylin 

Robert). 
Secured replacement PPT # A 1981937 at Los Angeles 12/21/70. Claimed A 

1890248 (lost in same name) . 
Secured replacement PPT # Z 1429835 (?) at Madrid, Spain, 7/16/71. (in same 

name). 
Probable true name : McGuire, Francis. 
Status. — Under investigation. 

STONE, JOHN LEROY 

Secured PPT # C 021145 at San Francisco 1/19/70 (in la.st name). 
True name. — Blackmun, Barrel David. 
Status. — Under Investigation. 



87 

THURSTOX, CRAIG DON 

Secured PPT # G 893288 at Los Angeles 8/9/66 (in true name). 

Secured PPT # A 202115 at Los Angeles 2/26/70 (in name of Drew, Sean). 

Secured PPT # B 880488 at Honolulu 9/30/71 (in true name). 

Status.— Complaint— 18 USC 1542 2/22/73. 

WALTERS, SAUL 

Secured PPT # B 1862111 at San Francisco 8/24/71 (in that name). 
True name — Anthony "Tony" Sage. 
Status. — Under investigation. 

WILENCHIK, MITCHELL ALLEN 

Secur-vi PPT # B 3900545 at Los Angeles 3/1.5/71 (in name of Phillips, Mitchell 

Alkii). 
Secured PPT # B 1757044 at Los Angeles S/3/71 (in name of Allen, John Carl — 

a joint PPT with wife ( ?) Pamela Jean Allen) . 
Status.— Corn-plaint 18 USC 1542 on 7/25/72. Indicted two counts 18 USC 

1542 on 10/11/72. On 1/4/73 pled guilty to one count of PPT fraud (2nd count 

dismissed) and one count Selective Service violation. Sentenced to 3 years 

on each count, concurrent. 

WILSON, ROBERT DAVID, JR. 

Secured PPT # B 116571 at Honolulu 7/15/71 (in name of Black, Jacob Martin). 
Status.-Indicted. one count IS USC 1542 at Honolulu 10/6/72. Fugitive. 



HASHISH REMOVED 
[In pounds] 

Calendar year- 



1973 

through 

1968 1S69 1970 1971 1972 June 

Domestic (OEA) 239 234 882 1,151 73 

Ports and borders (customs and INS).. 132 1,602 3,811 6,900 8,754 4,447 

DEA/forelgn cooperative... 402 406 3,211 14,406 20,189 6,630 

Total... 534 ^247 A256 22, 188 30, 094 11,150 



Me. Gene R. Haislip, Acting Chief, Congressional Relations Section, 
Acting Chief, Scientific Services Division 

hashish and "hashish oil" st.atistics 

The total number of marihuana exhibits and percent of the total workload 
over the past three fiscal years are as follows : 

TABLE 1 







Fiscal 


year 






1971 




1972 


1973 


Number of marihuana exhibits 

Percent of total workload 


7,298 

25% 




9,319 

27% 


15,163 
34% 









Note: A further breakdown of the abovt totals into drug codes is listed below. 



TABLE 2 

Fiscal year- 
Drug code and item 1971 1972 

7360-Marihu3na - 1,693 2,864 

7361— Extract of cannabis 652 605 

7362— Fluid extract of cannabis 13 17 

7363— Tincture oi cannabis 28 13 

7354— Marihuana (granulated, powder, etc.) 4,072 5,334 

7365— Marihuana plant - 617 286 

7366— Marihuana seeds 217 197 

7367— Marihuana rcsin (hashish) (') 0/ 

7368— Marihuana oil (hash oil) (0 (0 

7370— THC (synthetic).. .--- 1 

7371— TKC(oinanic) .- 5 3 

7372— Cannfii;i Jiol 

7373— Cannablnol 

1 Not reported as hashish or marihuana oil per se for the fiscal year 1971 and 1972 periods. 

The above data can be broken down into refined (prepared) and non-refined 
(non-prepared) general categories. 






TABLE 3.-REFINED 
(Number of exhibits) 




















Fiscal 


year— 










1971 


1972 




1973 


1974 
(July and 

August) 


Extract cannabis 

Fluid extract cannabis 

Tincture cannabis 






652 
13 
28 


605 
17 
13 




348 
19 .. 

490 " 
63 
.. 
15 .. 


47 
... 












18 


THC (synthetic) 






1 
5 



3 





























TABLE 4— NONREFINED 
[Number of exhibits] 



Fiscal year- 



1974 

(July and 

1971 1972 1973 August) 



Marihuana 1,693 2,864 4,254 1.031 

Marihuana (granulated, powder) 4,072 5,334 9,394 2,038 

Marihuana plant 617 28d 266 2i 

Marihuana seeds 217 197 301 68 

Total, (nonprepared exhibits) - 



On the basis of the most recent complete year reported above, the range of 
tetrahydro cannablnol (THC) content of those exhibits reported specifically as 
"Marihuana Resin (Hashish)" and "Marihuana Oil" are as follows: 

(In percent] 



THC content 


Minimum 


Maximum 


Average 


Marihuana resin (hashish) 


, 0.1 

.6 


34 
90 


10 
46 









89 

As indicated in table #3, the laboratory analysis data did not separate "Mari- 
huana Resin (Hashish)" or "Marihuana Oil" into individual categories before 
FY-1973. However, inspection of this table reveals that the "hashish" exhibits 
vvere probably previously (FY-71 and 72) reported as Extract of Cannabis. 

Marihuana oil was first encountered in February of 1972. Follov\ing subsequent 
encounters, it was assigned a specific drug code during the first part of FY-73. 
"Marihuana Resin (Hashish)" was also assigned a specific drug code at this time 
as indicated above. 

As regards the total quantity of "Hashish" removed from the domestic market. 
The following data are presented from the Statistical Report on Federal Per- 
formance Measurements for FY-73. 

DOMESTIC REMOVALS (DEA) 



Fiscal year 




1971 1972 1973 






1.054 127 1.148 




To date the amount of 


"Marihuana Oil" 


encountered is as follows : 






Fiscal year— 




1974 (July 
1973 and August) 






49.3 15.1 





It should be pointed out that the concentration of THC in "Marihuana Oil" 
is continuing to increase. The first few exhibits reported had concentrations of 
THC no higher than .30%. Some of the latest exhibits reported have concen- 
trations of THC up to 90%. 

Following is additional information on marihuana in general. This informa- 
tion includes all types of marihuana exhibits encountered in the laboratory sys- 
tem during Fiscal year '73. 

MARIHUANA EXHIBITS 

1st 2d 3d 4lh Lab 

Laboratory quarter quarter quarter quarter totals 

Chicago 602 609 339 594 2,144 

Dallas 586 555 707 657 2 505 

Miami 380 395 300 440 1,515 

New York.. 303 283 235 273 1,094 

Special testing. 14 24 39 24 101 

San Francisco 306 213 258 216 993 

Washington 1,662 1,759 1,999 1,391 6,811 

Total exhibits 15, 163 

Total workload exhibits 44, 619 

No. DEA Marihuana exhibits (includes DALE) 3,241 

No. State, local, and other Federal marihuana exhibits 11, 922 

Percentage of total workload {all exhibits examined) 

Percent 

DEA 07 

Other 27 

Percentage of total marihuana exhibits only 

Percent 

DEA 21 

Other 79 



\ 90 

[From the Washington Post. Aug. 24, 1973] 

U.S. Losing Drlg-Smuggling War 

(By Jack Anderson aud Les "Wliitten) 

The government's war against drug smuggling, trumpeted as one of tlie major 
domestic successes of the Xixon administration, is losing the battle to fleets of 
small private planes and fast boats. 

Classified docume.iis from the Customs Bureau made available to us demon- 
strate the extent of : 1..^ government's failure. They flatly state that the narcotics 
agents cannot compae with the ingenuity of the smugglers. 

The dope runners have organized the most important small boat operation since 
the evacuation of Dunkirk, and the government's fragmented narcotics forces 
are unable to cope with them. 

"We must undertake a program to provide Customs control of small boat traflSc 
entering the United States," one of the documents asserts. "Smuggling of nar- 
cotic drugs by small boats is a serious problem. At present, we have no means 
of effecting interdiction of drugs entering the United States by this means." 

The high flying dope peddlers operate v.ith equal freedom, hauling their cargo 
of white powder from Mexico and Canada with virtually no opposition. 

"Smuggling by means of private aircraft has grown in a situation where con- 
trol of this commerce, for technical reasons, was not possible," the documents 
said. 

In short, the situation is so out of hand that Mafia and free-lance traffickers 
have virtual carte blanche to haul their wares across the United States borders. 

Federal anti-narcotics officials have made elaborate plans to increase their 
efficiency in the air and on the water, but budget conscious bureaucrats have cut 
out this capability. For this fiscal year alone, the Office of Management and 
Budget has sliced the Customs budget for these plans from $11.4 million to $3.3 
million. 

This penny-wise policy is preventing narcotic- agents from acquiring sophisti- 
cate<l tools, including aircraft with special tracking equipment, boats fast enough 
to catch smugglers' craft, and sensors to seek out the dope runners. 

The drug fighters are using some electronic sensors borrowed from the mili- 
tary, but find them virtually worthless. 

The heavily publicized seizures of millions of dollars worth of narcotics are 
largely the work of old-fashioned customs and narcotics agents at ports or else- 
where, based on leads from painstakingly nurtured informants. Arrests of 
smugglers through random checks of small planes or boats have been few and 
infrequent. 

Presently, the air-sea fight against drugs is badly fragmented between Customs 
at the Treasury Department and the new Drug Enforcement Administration 
(DEA) at the Justice Department. A memorandum describing a meeting last 
month between Customs' air intrusion coordinator and George Brosan, a top 
Customs enforcement official, makes clear that neither agency knows what the 
other is doing. 

There are about 50 planes of various kinds available at any one time to the two 
agencies for air and boat surveillance. But without cooperation between them 
through use of informers who signal the departures of a shipment from some 
lonely harbor or airport, the planes are useless. They cannot "picket-line" the 
entire border. 

DEA, which may wind up with the whole program eventually, is too busy re- 
organizing to take on any new duties, particularly ones as complicated as the 
"Air Intrusion" operation. 

The overall mess is best summed up by Brosan : 

"Both the Drug Enforcement Administration and the Immigration and Nat- 
uralization Service have token programs. Neither can compare with the present 
Customs effort, and possibly some thought ought to be given to combining the 
three programs." 

CIA Pig- Sticker— The men who work for the Central Intelligence Agency are 
traditionally regarded as closemouthed characters who spend their waking 
hours tracking spies and tapping telephones. 

Angus MacLean Thuermer, the agency's "public information officer," defies 
tradition. He is one of the nation's foremost "pig stickers," and he doesn't mind 
talking about it. 

He became addicted to the exotic sport of "pig sticking" nicely underplayed 
British term for "hunting wild boar on horseback with a spear" — while serving 
with the Foreign Service in India. 



91 

Last year, Thuermer went back to India for another hog- limit. When lie 
returned to the States, he broke CIA tradition and publishtd his memoirs of 
the hxmt in an obscure weekly newspaper called the "Piedmont Virginian." 

Although Thuermer rarely has anything to say to reporters about CIA affairs, 
he waxes poetic about pig sticking. 

Footnote: So proud of his pig-sticking prowess is Thurrmer that hf keeps 
Ms spear in his office. He invited us over to see it, but we politely refused when 
he added that "it isn't every day that you get to stick an Anderson man." 



Francis G. Knight, Directok, Passport Office, June 8, 1973 

On September 15, 1972, I testified before the Internal Security Subcommittee 
of the Senate Judiciary Committee concerning passport fvnud, particularly ;is 
it relates to the world narcotics traffic. At that time. I also testified concerning 
passport fraud in general and the problem the Passport OflSce faces in combating 
this criminal activity. 

The passport fraud statistics I submitted on September 15, 1972 are sadly out 
of date now. The statistics available today show that passport fraud committed 
within the United States continues to increase in volume. I would like to submit, 
for the record, a chart (number 1) setting forth the fraud statistics for fiscal 
years 1970 through 1972 and for the first 11 months of fiscal year 1973. The chart 
also gives a month-by-month breakdown of fraud statistics for the first 11 mouths 
of fiscal year 1973. 

As you will see from the chart, the number of frau.is totaling 622 detected thus 
far in fiscal year 1973 already exceeds the total for fiscal year 1972, which was 
614. Perhaps of greater significance is the increase in the number of domestic 
frauds, that is, those frauds committed within the United States detected thus far 
in fiscal year 1973. During the entire fiscal year of 1972. we uncovered 300 do- 
mestic frauds. During the first 11 months of this fiscal year, we uncovered 362 
frauds. This is an increase of 62. Averaging out the frauds for the entire year 
shows that v.e have an increase of over 31% this fiscal year over last fiscal year. 
Also, it is startling to note that the number of domestic frauds detected in the first 
11 months of this fiscal year, which amounts to 362, in more that double the num- 
ber of domestic frauds detected for the entire fiscal year 1970. Since every pass- 
port fraud is perpetrated for the piu-pose of covering another illegal activity, this 
enormous increase in domestic passport frauds from 1970 to the current time dis- 
turbs me greatly. One of the principal reasons for my roncprn is the fact that 
persons involved in domestic passport frauds, especially at this time, are engaged 
in trafficking in narcotics. For this reason, I should like to direct this statement 
to the domestic fraud picture. 

A vivid example of the currency of the narcotics-connected passport fraud 
problem is shown by the apprehension by Customs agents on May 12, 1973 in 
Boston of John, Kathy. Richard, Peter, and Dennis Murray for importing 1.5 
million dollars worth of hashish. It was discovered that the Murrays had been 
traveling as John, Paula, Richard. Kathy, and Christopher Mosley on United 
States passports obtained by fraud. 

Investigation thus far conducted by the Passport Office with the assistance of 
the Di\isiou of Vital Statistics, Department of Health. Education and Welfare, 
and officials in New Jersey disclosed that, in each instance, counterfeit Nebraska 
birth certificates and counterfeit New Jersey drivers' licenses were used as evi- 
dence of birth and identity to obtain these five passports. In addition, Peter 
and Dennis Murray had obtained two other passports using counterfeit do<-,i- 
mentation. To add' to the problem, it has been ascertained that the Murrays' 
father and uncle had passports obtained in false identities using counterfeit 
dociunentary evidence. Thus, in connection with this one recent drug seizui-e, nine 
fraudulent passport applications have surfaced. 

The Murrays have been identified with the Brotherhood of Eternal Love, an 
international narcotics smuggling ring, originally founded by Timothy Leary 
and referred to in my testimony of September 15, 1972. 

At that time. I stated that 91 passport files had been located which related to 
the Brotherhood : that 40 cases had been documented and .sent to the Office of 
Security of the Department of State for investigation as passport frauds : and 
that another 10 to 12 cases previously sent for investigation had been tentatively 
identified as members of the Brotherhood. 

Todav, almost 250 flies have been located and 120 passport frauds established. 
I would like to submit, for the record, a chart (number 2) showing the growth 



92 

of our investigation of passport frauds connected with the Brotherhood. Although 
the Brotherhood is the largest narcotics organization perpetrating passport 
frauds uncovered to date, it is but one of several groups which are committing 
passport frauds for the purpose of facilitating the international trafficking of 
narcotics. Page 2 of the chart also reflects the growing trend toward the use of 
counterfeit birth documents. These documents are of a high quality, which makes 
their detection very difficult absent a referral to the state which purportedly 
issued the documents. This fact illustrates the sophistication of the fraud per- 
petrators which confronts the Passport Office at tlie present time. 

Another reason for my concern is the use of United States passports obtained 
fraudulently by illegal aliens in the United States. This type of illegal activity has 
been the subject of Congressional concern for some time. 

In my testimony of September 15, 1972, I submitted background information 
concerning Dominican and Mexican nationals illegally in tlie United States who 
were using birth certificates issued for persons bom in Puerto Rico or the several 
states bordering Mexico for the puri^ose of obtaining United States passports. 
This type of fraud is not limited to nationals of Mexico or the Dominican 
Republic. 

On October 6, 1972, the Immigration and Naturalization Service of the Depart- 
ment of Justice received information that a group of Philippine nationals illegally 
in the United States had obtained United States passports in false identities. To 
date, investigation by both the Immigration and Naturalization Service and the 
Department of State's Office of Security have documented 23 such cases. 

In each case, the Philippine national was approached by a so-called "broker", 
an individual dealing in fraudulent citizenship, travel, and identity documents. 
For a fee of $2,000, the broker provided the alien with documentation showing 
birth in the United States. The alien applied for a passport using the birth certi- 
ficate provided by the broker. In most cases, the broker served as the alien's iden- 
tifying witness when the alien applied for the passport in his false identity. 

In at least 12 cases, the "broker" identified the aliens when tliey applied for 
loans in order to pay the broker's $2,000-fee. In addition to the $2,000-fee, investi- 
gation indicates that these Philippine nationals subsequently were subject to 
blackmail or extortion by the "broker". 

This case illustrates the type of "brokerage" operation through which aliens 
who obtain United States passports in false identities for the purpose of remain- 
ing in the United States illegally are then victimized by the "broker" who made 
the aliens' frauds possible. 

A significant factor in the statistics for the first six mouths of fiscal year 1973 
is the fact that, of the 135 domestic frauds detected during that period, 54 were 
discovered in the application stage before a passport was issued. This compares 
with the figure of 25 discovered in the application stage for the same period in 
fiscal year 1972. 

In my opinion, the dramatic increase in the detection of frauds in the applica- 
tion stage is a direct result of fraud seminars being conducted by attorneys of 
the Legal Division of the Passport Office. This program was initiated by the 
Passport Office in 1972 when it became apparent that domestic passport fraud 
was on the increase. To date, all permanent Passport Office personnel in the 
United States who accept or adjudicate passport applications have attended at 
least one of these seminars. This program continues with the goal of extending 
fraud training to all persons taking passport applications. 

You may be interested to know that enterprising persons involved in illegal 
activities have written a "manual" on how to get documents to assume a fnlse 
identity. The "manual" describes how the documents necessary to substantiate the 
false identity can be obtained from official government sources. It also describes 
in detail how to get birth certificates and identity documents. The "manual" 
pays the Passport Office a left-handed compliment by emphasizing the fact that 
the United States passport is the single most valuable document which an im- 
poster can have to substantiate a false identity. Possession of a valid passport in 
a false identity gives the alien, narcotics trafficker, fugitive, or criminal a free- 
dom of movement which would otherwise be denied to him. 

A few days ago, the Passport Office was informed that the manual had been 
revised. Although a copy is not available, it is believed that those portions of the 
manual descriliing how to obtain a valid passport in a false identity have been 
the subject of much of the revision. 

While the fraud seminar program has proved successful, as demonstrated by 
the dramatic increase in the number of frauds detected in the application stage, 



93 

it is, at best, only a partial solution. I believe that more frauds would be detected 
in tlie application stage if the pressures on Passport Office personnel are reduced 
1*0 rG3.1istic IgvgIs 

These pressures are especially acute in the passport field agencies where the 
majority of all United States passports are issued and where, as a result, the 
greatest fraud potential exists. In this regard, I would like to submit for the 
record a copy of a memorandmn of April 27, 1973 (number 3) sent to me by Mr. 
William E. Duggan, Chief of the Passport Office Legal Division. This memoran- 
dum vividly portrays some of the problems the Passport Office confronts in com- 
bating passport fraud. Comment number one on page two of this memorandum is 
significant with regard to the detection of passport fraud in the application stage. 

The acceptance of passport applications by non-Passport Office personnel has 
relieved to some degree the pressure on passport field agency personnel working 
day-after-day under the stress and strain of handling hundreds of passport ap- 
plicants pushing and arguing for expeditious service. It has done little to reduce 
the other pressures since each application must be examined and adjudicated 
by Passport Office personnel for the purpose of establishing the applicants citizen- 
ship and identity. It has in fact increased the pressure in applications where 
there is an identity and possibly a fraud question. The (luestion which might 
easily be resolved by a trained person in a face-to-face confrontation cannot 
be resolved with mere documents in front of you. Thus more paperwork is 
engendered. 

The Passport Office has been drowning in paper work involved in management 
studies, reports, statistics, time-studies, manpower utilization studies, productivity 
analysis, and other such matters which seep down to us from upper echelons of 
management and administration. 

However, the passport field agencies are not the only areas experiencing acute 
pressures. The Legal Division of the Passport Office, with many responsibilities 
other than fraud detection and processing, has at present ?.5 permanent employees 
of whom only 9 are attorneys. This staff will be decreased by the retirement of 
one attorney on .June 30, 1073. To give you a better understanding of the law 
enforcement procedures, I would like to submit for the record a copy of a 
memorandum (No. 4) which describes the procedural steps involved when a 
fraud is uncovered or when a fraud is suspected in a given case. Given the in- 
creasing number of passport frauds, the limited number of personnel available to 
process these cases in the Legal Division, and the many other responsibilities of 
the Legal Division, it is obvious that the fraud seminars conducted by Legal 
Division attorneys, as valuable as the seminars are proving, imposes tremendous 
strains, physically and operationally, on the legal staff. 

Without adequate staffing, the pressures on the Legal Division continue to in- 
crease and an exorbitant amount of costly overtime is the only answer. In due 
course, a point will be reached this patchwork remedy will become counter- 
productive. 

Even when fraud cases have been expeditiously processed through the Legal 
Division, the Passport Office is frustrated )>y long delays by the Department's 
Office of Security in investigating such cases. This was explained in considerable 
detail in my testimony of September 15. 1972. To update this data. I would like 
to submit, for the record, a copy of a chart (No. 5) which shows the number of 
cases pending investigation by the Office of Security as of April 24, 1973. 

The explanation given by the Office of Security for the number of delinquent 
investigation cases continues to be a "shortage of manpower." as well as "several 
high priority requirements in other aspects of the total security program." 

I do not take exception to the explanation furnished by the Office of Security. 
I am reasonably sure that the office is interested in endeavoring to meet our 
requirements and. I might say from personal observation, the local field agents 
are inten.sely interested in helping us combat passport frauds. I think I can state 
without fear of contradiction that this interest stems from the fact that passport 
fraud cases, as a category, offer real challenges to a professional investigation. 

It seems eminently clear that the Office of Security does not have sufficient 
manpower to meet our passport fraud problems and that the "delinquency" is 
due. in good measure, to greater priority given to other "security requirements." 

By now, it should be obvious, as illustrated by the Brotherhood of Eternal 
Love, the Philippine alien cases, and the "manual" on fraudulent identities 
which I have described, that the individuals committing passport fraud are be- 
coming increasingly more knowledgeable in methods of obtaining fraudulent birth 
and identity documentation. We are endeavoring to meet this increased knowl- 

23-538—73 7 



94 

edge on the part of our '-opposition" by maldng our personnel more alert and 
knowledgeable in detecting symptoms of fraud. It is an established fact that 
careful and thorough examination by trained personnel of passport applications 
and their accompanying documents will result in the detection of many frauds 
in the application stage. A face-to-face confrontation increases the possibility 
that such frauds will be detected before the passports are issued and used in 
the furtherance of illegal activities. At the present time, while we are doing our 
best, our efforts are diminished and frustrated by the inadequate facilities and 
insufficient personnel furnished to the Passport Office. 

Passport fraud as it pertains to narcotics and to illegal aliens is only one 
phase of a serious problem which we, in the Passport Office have struggled with 
for years and called to the attention of anyone who would listen. Frankly. I am 
very discouraged about the whole situation and I don't believe that a piecemeal 
approach to the problem will be successful. One hole in the dike may be plugged 
up, but two others will develop. 

The Passport Office has been fighting, for years, this battle of fraudulent 
documentation to protect the integrity of the United States passport as well as 
the ensuing evils to society, such as illegal drug activity, which flows from 
the use of such a valuable document. However, this evil is not restricted to pass- 
ports; it also involves credit cards, social security cards, welfare and pension 
payments, birth records, drivers' licenses, and the list goes on ad nauseam 
into the very fabric of our society. 

In summary, I think it is plain that the problem of the effects of fraudulent 
documentation and impersonation are not restricted to the passport area. It is 
symptomatic of one of the serious ills of our society at the present time, and 
it is time we work together and say a vigorous "no" to the enemies of our society. 

It is with considerable regret that I advise you that in my opinion no action 
will be taken by the Executive Branch of our Government imtil such time the 
Congress steps in with clear language legislation to make the use and presenta- 
tion of fraudulent identifying documents to any Government Department or 
Agency or unit thereof a very expensive, unprofitable and unpleasant experience 
for the perpetrator. Furthermore, the Congress should insist upon swift prosecu- 
tion of these cases for two valid and relatively simple reasons. Swift prosecu- 
tion by the Department of Justice would engender second thoughts by criminals 
engaged in the practice of deceiving Government Agencies by the use of false 
identity documents and this, in turn, would help put the prodiicers of such docu- 
ments "out of a very lucrative bu.siness which is presently flourishing around 
the United States. The second reason is that the salutary effect of swift and stem 
government action will save millions of dollars now wasted or irretrievably lost 
by such Federal and private operations as the Passport Office. Social Security, 
Insurance Companies, Banks, Health Services, Pension Funds and even extend to 
the world-wide credit card racket. It is a known fact that the United States 
Passport is used the world over as an instrument of identity. Therefore, it makes 
sense to see to it that it is protected by law and that the Passport Office is given 
financial and administrative support in its role to maintain the integrity of the 
document. 

In my considered opinion, it has been proven impossible to obtain from the 
Executive Bureaucracy the required support, consideration and protection which 
the Passport Office requires to carry out its statutory functions to provide effi- 
cient and effective passport and citizenship services to United States citizens 
both here and overseas. 

Attachments 
ExMhit 

1. Fraud Statistics— fiscal year 1970 through May fiscal year 1973 and 
fraud statistics breakdown — fiscal year 1973 

2. Brotherhood fraud table 

3. Memorandum of April 27, 1973 by Mr. Duggan 

4. Procedures used in the processing of passport fraud cases 
.5. Cases pending SY investigation as of April 24, 1973 



95 



FRAUD STATISTICS, FISCAL YEAR 1970 THROUGH MAY FISCAL YEAR 1973 



Fiscal year 



1970 



1971 



1973 

(through 

1972 May) 



Domestic 

Foreign 

Total. 



174 
327 



288 
316 



300 
314 



362 
260 



501 



604 



614 



622 



FRAUD STATISTICS BREAKDOWN, FISCAL YEAR 1973 



Foreign 



Total 



July 

August 

September.. 

October 

November... 
December... 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

Total. 



21 
30 
14 
13 
34 
23 
34 
58 
59 
19 
57 



362 



260 



622 



Apr. 27,1973 June 1,1973 



Number 

Type fraud: 

Alteration 

Use 

Identifying witness 

False statement 

Place tiled: 

Los Angeles 

San Francisco 

Miami. 

Chicago 

Post Office 

New Yorl< 

Kabul 

Clerl< of court 

Other 

Date filed prior 1969 

1969.. 

1970... 

1971.. 

1972 

1973 

Detected before issue 

San Francisco 

Seattle 

Miami 

Los Angeles 

Lookout system.. 

Counterfeit birth certificates 

Hospital birth certificates 

Nebrasl<a 

Missouri 

Chicago 

Colorado 

Utah 

North Carolina 

Ohio.. 

Referred United States attorney. 

Indicted 

Prosecution declined 

Convicted 



120 



22 

13 



4 

4 

3 

3 

2 

9 

3 

10 

11 

21 

13 

2 

5 

4 

1 

1 

1 

1 

26 

5 



4 

14 

2 

2 





34 

17 

3 

2 



31 

24 

6 

4 

5 

5 

3 

6 

15 

5 

11 

20 

35 

23 

5 

8 

4 

1 

I 

1 

1 

45 

6 

8 

5 

4 

2 

3 

3 

2 

41 

19 

3 

4 



Note: 1 each from Iowa; Albion, New York; San Diego County; Los Angeles County; New York State; Wisconsin; Seattle 
County; Syracuse, New York; Orange County, California. In addition counterfeit birth certificates were picked up in a 
brotherhood raid from Missouri (2); Nevada; Seattle-King County; Washington; Newark, New Jersey and Ohio. 



96 

April 27, 1973. 
To : PPT — Miss Frances G. Knight 
From: PT/L — William E. Duggan. 
Subject: Observations regarding counter work at New York 

The team of attorneys observed that the number of persons applying for pass- 
ports in the New York Agency began to accelerate about 9:45. The number of 
applicants continued to increase until about 2:30 to 3:00 in the afternoon. At 
that time there were in the neighborhood of 20 to 25 or possibly 30 applicants in 
front of each station. The number of applicants gradually diminished until 
about 4 :00 when there were about 10 applicants in front of each station. With 
the closing of the Agency doors, the agents were able to complete the work about 
4:45 or 5:00. 

Observations indicated that each agent took about 3 to 5 minutes per applicant. 
The average time an applicant stood in line during the peak period of 11 to 3 
was about 45 minutes. Obviously, persons are not in the best frame of mind 
after being required to stand in line for this length of time. This factor is men- 
tioned because it exerts further pressure upon the agent in performing his job. 
Given the number of persons in line, it is a practical impossibility for the agents 
to spend more than 3 to 5 minutes with each applicant. 

The following conclusions must be stated in fairness to the agents concerned 
as well as our fraud prevention program: 

1. Given the number of factors which must be considered, a period of 3 to 5 
minutes is totally inadequate to do a thorough job of taking a passport applica- 
tion : 

2. The constant pressure of applicants in front of an agent also creates barriers 
which make it difficult for the agent to detect fraud ; 

.3. The physical limitations of the reception room are inadequate and create 
at times a sense of turmoil. This also lessens the effectiveness of our agents : 

4 From a fraud point of view, I feel it is necessary to state that except for 
the most obvious frauds, it is totally unfair to the agents concerned to hold them 
acrnnutable for such frauds as may filter through ; 

5. Some action must be taken to reduce the pressure on agents taking applica- 
tions in New York if we are to expect an acceptable standard of fraud detection 
in that Agency ; 

6. The "melting pot" population situation in New York is peculiarly conducive 
to fraud potential. 

COMMENTS 

1. It seems obvious to me that the current program of having a number of 
Clerks of Court and Post Offices accept applications has not solved the counter 
problem at New York City although it has helped to a certain extent. The 
apparent reason for this seems to be that individuals wish to go to the Agency 
responsible for issuing the passport rather than to a Post Office or Clerk of 
Court whenever it is possible to do so. 

2. Since New York is the most important overseas departure airport in the 
United States, the Agency has an exceptional load of emergency cases which must 
be handled at the counter. 

SUGGESTED SOLUTION TO THE PROBLEM 

Despite the views of the upper echelon in the Department of State that 
increase of Passport Agencies is a "bureaucratic" maneuver, I recommend as 
stronglv as I can, that we establish several sub-agencies in the New York area 
to accept applications. One obvious area is in the so-called Financial Di.strict of 
New York. The other areas can be determined by a review of counter applications 
to determine the areas from which the counter applications are coming. During 
mv trip to New York I tentatively made arrangements to have counter applica- 
tions segregated and sent to Washington for a survey to obtain statistics which 
would support a rational basis for establishing sub-agencies in New York. 

April 24, 1973. 



To : PPT — Miss Frances G. Knight. 
From : PT/T.^ — William E. Duggan. 
Subject: Current procedures used in the processing of passport fraud cases. 

When information appearing on a passport application, or received subsequent 
to the issuance of a passport, raises the possibility tliat a person has perpetuated 
a fraud, the case is referred to the Legal Division of the Passport Office. An 



97 

attorney in the Legal Division reviews the entire file in order to determine what 
evidence is available to establish a prima facie case of fraud or what additional 
evidence may be required to establish such a case. 

The attorney then prepares a detailed memorandum outlining the facts 
involved and the investigative action necessary to establish a prima facie case of 
fraud. This memorandum and the case file are forwarded to the Office of Security 
of the Department of State which has investigative jurisdiction in passport 
fraud cases. Upon completion of the requested investigation, the file is returned 
to the Legal Division of the Passport Office along with whatever evidence and 
information was developed in the course of the investigation. 

If the concerned Passport Office attorney is satisfied that the investigation has 
developed sufficient admissible evidence to establish a prima facie case of pass- 
port fraud, he prepares a "Criminal Prosecution Summary." The "Summary" 
along with the file, then is forwarded to the appropriate U.S. Attorney through 
the Office of Security of the Department of State. This procedure is designed to 
offer the U.S. Attorney with as much personal assistance and contact as possible 
with the Department of State. 

After receipt and, in due course, review of the case, it is the responsibility 
of the U.S. Attorney to decide if prosecution should be initiated or declined. If 
prosecution is declined, the case is returned to the Passport Office, through the 
Office of Security, with a statement from the U.S. Attorney giving his reasons 
for not initiating prosecution. If the U.S. Attorney accepts the case for prosecu- 
tion, he initiates the necessary procedures to bring the case to trial. 

Cases pending by investigation as of April 2^, WIS 

Cases opened in 1973 165 

Cases opened prior to January 1, 1973 221 

Cases opened prior to January 1, 1972 78 

Cases opened prior to January 1, 1971 20 

Cases opened prior to January 1, 1970 ■ 17 

Total cases pending 501 



Samples of Fraudulent Documents op Identification Obtained and Used by 
Members of the Brotherhood of Eternal Love 

1. counterfeit birth certificates 

[Note : The four birth certificates that follow are all counterfeit. As will be 
seen by the chart on page 83, fraudulent Brotherhood birth certificates were 
more or less evenly divided between outright counterfeits and valid birth cer- 
tificates fraudulently obtained by individuals professing to be the persons de- 
scribed in the certificates. Applicants for such valid but fraudulent certificates 
almost invariably employ the technique of applying for a birth certificate of a 
deceased person whose age, if alive, would approximate their own. The Passport 
Office felt it would be inappropriate to provide samples of such birth certificates 
for reproduction, out of consideration for the feelings of surviving family 
members. 

It is interesting to note that both of the birth certificates issued to "Ruth Ellen 
Simms," one in Seattle, Washington and the other in Newark, New Jersey, were 
complete counterfeits (see page 101). 

As examples of how widespread the printing of counterfeit birth certificates 
is, we reproduce on page 98 copies of counterfeit certificates of birth dupli- 
cating the certificates issued by the city of Elizabeth, New Jersey and by the 
Tennessee Department of Public Health. The Tennessee certificate is accom- 
panied by an investigative report to the Special Agent In Charge, Los Angeles, 
describing the seizure of certificates and of the counterfeiting ring involved, by 
the Dallas Police Department.] 

August 28, 1972. 
Chief. Division of Investigations 
SAC — Los Angeles 
Counterfeit birth certificates 

Sgt. J. W. Heard, General Assignments Unit, Dallas Police Department was 
interviewed on 8/22/72 by S/A E. A. Vina. Source stated that his office appre- 
hended three individuals in a counterfeiting operation. Seized at that time was 
23-538 — 73 8 



98 

a quantity of counterfeit Tennessee Birth Certificates wliich were alleged to 
command a price of $150.00 apiece on the market. According to Source, the error 
discovered on these certificates (a Xerox copy is attached) is the printed legend 
on the left border reading "By Courtesy of Tennessee Department of Public 
Health. This Reproduction Should Be Carefully Preserved." Also the letter "R" 
in "Civil District" is blurred. 

A sidelight on this matter is that Heard stated that the three apprehended 
■are all homosexual. 

This information is forwarded to you for the possible information of the 
Passport Office. 



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CERTIFICATE OF LIV 

OIV. OF VITAL STATISTICS STAIf Of TCNNISSEE- 

COOPISATINC WITH DIPT. Or COMMIMCf lU 


E BIRTH 






— DIPT. Of PUBLIC HIAITH 


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4. USUAL ■CtlDKMCC Of MOYHIR 




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CITY OF EI>IZAKin''H, NEW jr.RSBY 
Bureau of Vitai- Statistics 




I 






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Certificate anil Hecncii of IHictij 

M<}i n(i7}ie of- —. 

'Tim . , 
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STANDARD CERTIFICATE OF LIVE BIRTH 

LOCAL REGTSTRAR S STATE CFOMlO BIRTM NO 4 '7 fi '^ 

NUMBER O ^ Tt CCLUMBU5 OHIO OATt PlECElVEoi ""^ /— ^2, 



.l^rATnK'ilu JOHN 


M;j.:.t till 

PETER LANE 




**a 1 e >( S'"*'' 2 ■'■♦^n C '■'"pi" ; n ur*-"^"nj° T^^vj 


A. COUNTY 

Stark 1 


''clt^lB Stark^" 


LOCATION Canton 


ji C. C'TY, TOWN llf oiitijjf corpctitc limiti. JO ipccify) 

II locATroN Canton 


C. HOSPITAL ill'no: in r.oiri^Jlfi .n^!llLCu,n. siveitiMi J 

WHERE Bo«N Canton ComfTunitv 


JJrCil) !} D STftCET ADDRESS RURAL ROUTE ETC. 


7. FATHER OF CHILD f.r.: M.JJIc Lj> 


1 


a. MOTHER OF CHILD f.I.t M.JJJc L. .1 



B. COLOR OR RACE 



White 



Henry Pau I Lane 

27 



(Maulc.n rumcl 



D. BIRTHPLACE iSt»fc uf FciciKi Cuumry) 

MIchio<?n 



-Ana -_-_-_- Ml I lor 

; C PRESENT AGE 



tiNO OF BUSINESS 

-i:onstrucll an 



. Wh I te ^ I 

Ca.l |-f.orjiJa_ 



25 











I HEREBY Ct'PTiry that tro forcyoing copy kcs been conpiired 
by r.ic v/ith the original docunter.t and is a true, full and 
correct copy of the original certificate as the same appears 
on file in the vital statistics section Of the Ohio State 
Department of Health and in my official care and custody, 




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Chis Certines that ionj^^iAmRjiAmiL 



'^ WAS BORN IN THE POMONA COMMUNITY HOSPITAL 

AtIiRI _■__. -l-M. H0yE!1B"R 24 

3n Witness iUhcrtofTHE 



19 _« 



HE ATTENDING PHYSICIAN HAS HEREUNTO 
SET HIS HAND. AND SAID HOSPITAL HAS CAUSED THIS CERTIFICATE TO EE 
SIGNED BY ITS DULY AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVE AND ITS OFFICIAL SEAL 
TO BE h)£RETO A^FI/E^: 



►E.NT OP ».OW»lTAL 



-,M. D. 



%. l!is:^iji;i«%j?^^^JS^«;5?^sji;ss?^s^ 






100 



TLACE OFUIRI'l. 

r.u.,'-,.f 

1'."^"./ 



STATE OF MISSOURI 

Poitau nf V,rj| S(«inii,. 



s, Comm. Hos p. 



4? 

r OfltfitI Ns. 



38 



lEGlSTEnno NO- 



A9_3_ 



FULL NAMC OF CHILD 




_ LAURA 


f-IARIE 


.MADOCK 






SEX OF 

""^'' Female 


tcGiri. 

M.T£, Yq5 


TWIN. 

Tuii'irr. 

OIIOlHCdT 


Sql. ! 


1 NUMDCR 

AND \ '"OdOtn 

( Of u:iUH 


"bIrth' Nov. 

(Mnnlli) 


25* 


iVc.t) 


FULL 
NAMC 

R.Lcha_ 

699 i 

COLOR 

raSc Wh I te 


FATHER 

rd David Madoc>i_ 




FULL MOTHER 

MAIDEN 

NAME Laura Ann Vomer 




5. Oakwood 




p o ADDnrss 

Sams 








age at last 
dirthoay 


29 




coi on 

""Sc Wh 1 te 


AGE AT LAST 


26 




(Yet! 






lYci.i 





OinTHPLACE DIRTHPLACE 

El Paso, Texas Jon lln. Missouri 


OCCUPATION 

Fl reman 


OCCUPATION 



Numbcl ofchilj oF this mo(Ii< 



.(n|»ci„in .YO.^jn 



CrRTIFlCATE OF ATTENDING PHYSICIAN OH MIDWIFI. 



■in>» 



I hereby certify ihil I >tic,iJidil,cl>i.il."t.filM,cl.ilJ..nJ.lijl il occuiirJ on_J\) Pv • /s'^ ^ "I ' " ' '''^'^'^ •i'7/2-SAm. 

} tr miJu ,r,. Itc III t^lbtr. mill: r. /,,,«. ^ (S.grudlle) T^.V} _ i^l^^^n^ ^/„ ,_^ , 

\l„M,:iu..lbnUmjkillhnli.rn. f (I W A J"A- 



GlVlN N*ME AODCO THOM SUPri EMtNIAL llCrOHT 
'. . 19_ 



101 



SEATTLE-KING COUNTY 

DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC HEALTH 

VITAL STATISTICS SECTION 

1100 Public Safety Building, ■Sealtlo 4, Washmoion 

rjP.TlFIED COPY OF BIRTH CERTIFICATE 

£L "k" 6 2 5 ~"V!?;"" i732i CERTIF I CATE OF LIVE BIRTH ""n^ 3025 

TrZHTrcirTri7bT"7TA3t , i<. middll NAvt I ic. LASi iiAM£ 

RUTH : ELLE?; ' SIMMS 

ii. FLACt OF tilKlM— ci:i cs I0»» (.f tuii.ct cocmw.it u.its. .em KM", a-h ..■i » ■.UJiii ic.) I ti. COU N r Y 

Seattle I Kine 

Sc t'JLL f:A'-'iL"Ar.D AD0fiE55 OF H0SFJ7AL OK ItiST ITUtlOS— (i. .at i« ws^irii o« i.i..rui.OfHivt ii«im3»»lis o« t' .iio'.) 

University of '-JashinRton Hosp ital 

365 J. East 65th Street I King 



t:. CUV OR TCV.'.N (irouiji£tc:*i«jtuTtLi-:Tj, aR.u(»uRAI.M3ii»iito.-i.ti-LST ro*-) I Cp. SiATt 

Seattle : , I Washington 

VllAiDtiN NAME CF .•.■OrntK-fiBirmar ;•. Mtrru roNt I 7. l.si ►«»!: , S. COLOK OH KACLOF KOTn-.h 

Susan ; Kav ! Jo nes I White 

S. A&£OFT;oiH£.F. uir..[c*i«:!t..r«i I :1). DIP.Trl^LACE iiT.it o. f»ii',. c>,<:..) j 1!. WAILiriG ADDRESS OF MOTHER (,r o,.-rc=i«n«- ui.it «:;oo!ii 

23 YFiasI Fo r tl and, Orepon I SAME 

U.. NAME Or FAIr.E.S-.lBST i.ak£ , III. fAaZLZ kAH£ il2t. HSINAKd 1 IJ. COEOKOS RAi,t. OF FAlhi-R 

Anthony Lie^^t ■ Sim -ns I White 

rTAGEOf FATHr;5c<''ii«!cFMii;»i»)| 15. BISrhPLACE <ii.ii e» .c.c:;i cs^T-.i I 16.. UiUAL OCCUPATION I 16i. Kmo OF ausi«5S0R INIVJSTHY 

9Q Yf<.-.l Tr-:ron^- Wanhinrton I Ppvc bolo r-' t Tn<^tJ II. ofWn?;h. 



T"^z.\'ii7-:\^-::-: "-■'■'- "''•'-\S-'^l I u. of w. hoso. 

I teRcBY CERTIFY, That l^e lorccomg 13 a true, full end correct copy of Iho 



orlflinsl OLr|,f,c~'o cl Birlh en f.lc In (Iks olfice. 

....J....E..X^/L,.v.c^....A{'..,..fe 



By.. 



it.lJcK.ns Couni, Rt«,.l(.r^/ 






!■'. Kll ' 






!"!' !i r'/' ''V' ^ '; 'I' • . • - f 

g'y\M|?^jy f. ^ V ■■'U-«^^'H.H.^.....;'ra:M^^F..H -J 

\J\\ DL' ;> lo C.<-l:f.j InMtl.iirolWng;-, co-rrc-ly.opcdf, 

t' r' CO NOT ACCEPT THIS CEHTIFICATE UNLEES THE nASEO SI 



g .^ 



"3 



-Tcorri of B''-:h In uny 'r'f'cr. _ .-'> 

L-.' rjl CO NOT ACCEPT THIS Ct-K I ll-tt-Al t urvL.t»3 iit-. ,i/-.^t,y ..EAU OF TrfIS OU,<fZ \U S r . _ .y .t ■ . ^^, 

^ qi ■ Kuth Ellen Siirjas |Feir.?.le j _ nx wat,-,^, ,-i j L^^f-i-i-^l.- 



Jsrr.es Edward Simms Donna Ellen McCoy 



% Hi 111 Wi!:irminil;iTrof. I s^voi harcuVo :of my )xr,J od it!;..,a tU iool oi B.roa. of Vitol S'o:;ii;cs. i^.-r^r^. N^w Jo-so/, Ii;: •; 

^. jl ll,;._llth.doy of Februar:^, ^. d, ,9.72_ .^ ^ .; ;.; .^_^ A^Haskm | ^^ 

?;■ -^ M„ d.iio will .ippri.,- u.con Ih.) "Dslo Filod" llr.o telcw unlo-.s Ino b.rih wo: ii-^orii ,r;, -i 

- ^^ Uler tVior, or.s y.lsriiltr;! occurred. ' « ;>■; ■]. 

Ir^ '^■Jy<'^ ^;^ ;::...;;.:....■.■>';.•;; ;i Filed within_20 days of birth .,,45 %l 

'" ' ' •■ • "'.'■" o.r.cv.*... <■..■.'...... '....( ;[•; v 



||__/____:_^:-; ■;.;;;; 



102 

2. Other counterfeit identification documents : 

Counterfeit Opebatob's License 

STATE OF OHIO • DEPT. OF HIGHWAY SAFETY , r%^'' A f^ O 

OPERATOR'S LICENSE NO j fj ^; I 4 5 O 

SHOULD BE CARRIED WHILE DRIVING °^" 



SHOULD DC. CAKHltU WHILt UKIVinu ' j r-— 

EXPIRES ON LICENSEE'S BIRTHDAY IN is j 7U [ V°g 
PREV.UC.no. « - - S. S. NO. 853-71-8441 

NAME LAURA M, MA DOCK 

ADDRESS 173 S, Clark Aveo 

P.O. .Mcron OHIO 351 



HATE 1 MO- 


DA. 


YR. 


SFX 


WGT. 


HGT. 


CCLOR Hi|R 


CCLOR EYES 


BIRTH 11 


25 


U8 


r 


115 


5»5" 


Bm, 





DEP. REG. 
Al 



Akron 



.^0 3-26-71 

FRED RICE. REGISTRAR 
BUREAU OF MOTOR VEHICLES 



SIGNATURE OF LICENSEE 



Blank Counteefeit Selective Service Form 



SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM 

NOTICE OF CLASSIFICATION 

This is to certify that 

(First name) (Middle mdial) (Lasi name) 

Selective Service No. 



is classified in Qass_ 



UQtil 

by Local Board unless otherwise 

checked below: 

n by Appeal Board 

vote of to 



D by President 



1 



(Date of mailing) 



(Member. Execjtiv? Secrctir,,. or clerti of 
local board) 



(Registrant's signature) 

SSS Form 110 (Rev. 5-25-67) 
(Previous printings arc obsolete) 
(Approval noc required) 



The law requires you to have this 
Notice in addition to your Registration 
Cerci6cate, in your personal possession 
at all times and co surrender it upon 
entering active duty in the Armed 
Forces. 

Tht law requires you to notify your 
local board in wtitine within 10 days 
after it occurs, (I) of every change m 
your address, physical condition and 
occupitiorul (including student), man- 
cal. family, dependency and mditary 
sutus, and (2) of any other ract which 
might change your cUssinc.ition. 

Any person v.ho alrt-rs, torges, know- 
ingly destroys, knowingly mutilates or 
in any manner chances this certmcate or 
who, for the purpose ot false idcntihca- 
tion or teptescatation. has in his posscs_- 
sion a certihcate of another or who 
delivers his ctrtiiicate to another to be 
used for such purpose, may be fined not 
to exceed ^10,000 or imprisoned tor not 
more dian 5 years, or both. 

_ — Lq^- — 

*o/-^> 7 



3^ 



(LOCAL BOARD STAMP) 
SEE OTHER SIDE 



103 



BLANK COtJNTEEra;iT OPERATOR'S FORM 



Dlivtl llCENSE NVIMSei 



v\l^K><^ '■^• 
.'Ji!__,:^_— 



/•••;•■■ : r;: '■■^'■'yr- 



if;^'- • STATE OF NEW JERSEY' 

(v^v^^ 'division of motor vehicles 



■\V\ DRIVER LICENSE 






• tXPlRATlON OATJ 

1;,/;,. ■■-. •'■ •>•,,.- 


• .' ■ 




ISSUE, OAU 


; 


k^csw. ..-;>. ■ 






. 


•■ ..'. 



:;^^'.M^^^,<-•''V■v. 7.,:.... >'.r.-''..:.:' .;:■■••.. . 



--^^••••■/f:^:-^;^^ 





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itjtaict 




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. 








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SIGN 
HERE X. 



lS-147 A (82/70) CiBJCTOH 

f ~ ~^' DRIvm llCtMSE NUMBER 



V\Hj 



; REQ.UEST TO CHANGE 

.' DRIVER LICENSE 

-.If the information on the aftoched license i$ in- 
cprrect or should change, please print the correct 
data on/y below ond moil to the N. J. Division of 
Motor Vehicles. 



New NAME 


Ht>M STREET ADDRESS 


Nev/ CITY. STATE. ZIP CODE 


DATE Of t.KIH 

MONin TfX 


ETES 


SEX 


WEIGMl 


MtlOMT 
H »JCMCS 


RESTRICTION 



SEE REVERSE SIDE FOR INSTRUCTIONS 

IS U7 6 (R2/65) 



104 

[From the Washington Post, May 3, 1973] 
Troopeb, Militant Die in N.J. Clash 

East Brunswick, N.J., May 2: A state trooper was killed and another 
wounded in a pre-dawn shooting on the New Jersey Turnpike today after they 
stopped a white Pontiac carrying three persons, including a woman sought in 
the slaying of two New York City policemen, police said. 

The woman, identified as a member of the Black Liberation Army, was wounded 
and a male companion shot to death. He was identified as Zayd Malik Shakur 
former deputy prime minister of the Black Panther Party. 

The third occupant of the car fled on foot in the direction of nearby Milltown. 

State Police Superintendent David B. Kelly said the shooting began after 
trooper James M. Harper, stopped the auto for "speeding slightly." Before ap- 
proaching the car, Harper radioed for a backup patrol car. 

Trooper Werner Foerster arrived, and the two troopers approached the stopped 
auto. Foerster questioned a man and a woman who were passengers in the ear, 
while Harper talked with the driver at a patrol car, authorities said. 

Kelley said there was a discrepancy in the driver's license and registration. 

He said the woman, later identified by fingerprints as Joanne Deborah Chesi- 
mard, 25, pulled a gun and fired at Foerster. The troopers and the two other men 
pulled guns and about 30 rounds were fired, he said. 

"As we put it together, the girl fired from within the car. Harper retreated, 
there was a fireflght and all people involved were shooting," Kelly said. 

Harper, wounded in the shoulder, managed to walk 300 yards to the Turnpike 
Administration building to summon help. Other troopers arrived and found 
Trooper Foerster dead of gunshot wounds. 

The auto was gone. Shortly after that, Trooper Robert Palentehar spotted 
the car five miles to the south, and saw a man fleeing into the woods. 

Palentoher ordered him to halt and opened fire when the command went un- 
heeded. The man, later identified as the driver of the car, disappeared into the 
woods. 

The trooper found the wounded Miss Chesimard at the car. The other pas- 
senger, identified as James Costan, 32, of New York City, was dead of bullet 
wounds, Kelly said. 

Miss Chesimard was listed in satisfactory condition under guard at Middlesex 
General Hospital in New Brunswick. 

(She was recently named by former New York City Police Commissioner 
Patrick V. Murphy as one of six persons being sought for questioning in a series 
of attacks on policemen believed to have been carried out by members of the 
black militant organization. The two policemen who were killed were Gregory 
Foster and Rocco Laurie, shot on New York's Lower East side in January 1972.) 

Kelley said four handguns were found near the scene of the turnpike shootout. 
He also said troopers found a "whole carload of false identification," including 
passports, birth certificates and Social Security and credit cards. 



[From the Washington Star-News, Sept. 3, 1973] 
Man on Most "Wanted List Captured in New Orleans 

New Orleans : Herman Bell, 25, one of the FBI's 10 most wanted fugitives, 
has been captured on a New Orleans street. 

Bell, wanted in the killing of two New York City policemen, offered no resist- 
ance when arrested yesterday. 

Bell went before a U.S. magistrate in New Orleans and was put under a 
$500,000 bond. 

The FBI said Bell had been sought in connection with the killing of the two 
police officers on May 21, 1971, and also with the robbery of a branch of the Bank 
of America in San Francisco, Calif., on Sept. 20, 1971. 

Bell was arrested by FBI agents, New Orleans police and New York City police 
detectives. 

TT.S. Magistrate Morey Sear set a Sept. 12 date for a removal hearing at 
which time Bell could be sent back to New York for trial. 

Robert Tanenbaum, an assistant district attorney from Manhattan, said he 
anticipated that extradition proceedings would be started in state court here 
tomorrow. 



106 

Both Tanenbaum and U.S. Atty. Gerald Gallinghouse of New Orleans asked 
that Bell be held without bond. Gallinghouse cited the "vicious crimes" involved 
and said Bell was extremely dangerous. 

Sear ruled that Bell was indigent and appointed New Orleans attorney Martin 
E. Feldman to represent him. 

At Bell's apartment police said they confiscated $3,800 in cash, two .12-gauge 
shotguns, a .308 lever-action rifle with a telescopic sight, a .9-milimeter auto- 
matic pistol and a .38-caliber revolver. Police said one of the shotguns was a 
sawed-off, slide action type. 

Police said they also seized several blank birth certificates, a marijuana 
plant, ammunition, a machete, medical supplies such as bandages and hyper- 
dermics. and knives. 

Bell said that he had not worked in the past six months, but had saved money. 
He gave a New Orleans address as his most recent residence and several San 
Francisco addresses. 

Bell said his only prior conviction was second-degree robbery in Oakland, 
Calif. He said he had attended Oakland College there for a time. 

Tanenbaum said he and three New York City detectives had been in New 
Orleans since Thursday after receiving information a week ago that Bell was 
in the city. 

Bell's wife was also booked by the New Orleans police on charges of harbor- 
ing a fugitive and possession of stolen property. Their children, Jonas Bell, 2%, 
and Richard Keith Hanna, a stepson, 5, were placed in the care of juvenile 
authorities. 



[From the Miami News, Dec. 22, 1971] 

11 Arrested in Phony-ID Raids in Dade 

(By William Tucker) 

Metro officers roimded up 11 persons, including a recent candidate for Hia- 
leah mayor, in synchronized raids early today tied in with the printing of thou- 
sands of bogus draft cards and driver's licenses. 

Narcotics, burglary and robbery also were involved in the three-month inves- 
tigation, Metro police said. 

The crackdown focused on the Centur Inc. printing firm at 401 NW 1st Ct. 
which was first raided on Dec. 1. Then, police seized 1,500 counterfeit voter regis- 
tration cards and 2,000 counterfeit selective service cards, they said. 

Raided again today, the firm was found back in operation, agents said, Centur 
Printing is not to be confused with the Center Printing Co. Inc., at 1044 NW 54th 
St., a respected business here since 1944. 

Among those arrested was Hialeah Attorney Alden Sanford Tarte, 45, who 
finished last in a field of six in the recent Hialeah election for mayor. 

Tarte, of 1015 W. 51st PI., Hialeah, was charged with conspiring with the 
alleged operator of the printing firm, Robert Verne Schaffer, to burglarize 
the home of a former member of the firm to obtain corporate records. Tarte also 
was charged with one count of robbery in connection with the same incident. 

Ralph Page, Metro public information spokesman, said the complex investiga- 
tion started Oct. 6 when North District vice squad detectives tried to make a 
cocaine buy from a suspect. Instead, the suspect offered to sell them a set of 
stolen identification papers including a draft card, driver's license social securi- 
ty card and travelers checks. 

From that point. Page said, the investigation led through "an entangled web 
of stolen property, narcotics and counterfeiting." 

Informed counterfeit as well as stolen IDs were available, the xmdercover 
agents ordered and paid for 10 draft cards, 10 notice of classification cards, 10 
blank Florida driver's licenses, and 10 auto registration forms, all counterfeit. 
The Highway Patrol called them the best job of counterfeiting licenses it had ever 
seen. 

The undercover probe also bought up a number of business firm checks reported 
stolen in various burglaries. 

At one point in the undercover work, they reported, they saw a suitcase "con- 
taining at least a half -million dollars worth of stolen checks." 

As police moved into the ring, the undercover men obtained the names of vari- 
ous salesmen and printers. They bought $2,000 worth of narcotics and pretended 
to fence $20,000 worth of jewels and other stolen goods. 



106 

With enough evidence to raid the printing firm, agents obtained a federal 
search warrant from the FBI because bogus draft cards were involved. 

In the Dec. 1 raid with that warrant, agents picked up a number of blank 
driver's licenses as well as hundreds of draft cards and voter cards allegedly 
printed right at the plant. Photo-engraving negatives for the printing also were 
seized. 

In the meantime, agents heard about the burglary of the home of James Mil- 
gram at 525 NW 73rd Ave., on Nov. 6 which turned into a robbery when the 
Milgrams came home to find the intruders. 

Page said that Milgram formerly was associated with Schaffer in the Centur 
firm and the purpose of the breakin was to obtain records. The various investiga- 
tions were now "dovetailed." Page said. 

For today's raids, the agents obtained warrants to arrest 11 individuals and 
to search the house of the alleged chief salesman, Walter O. (Buddy) Bowers, 
and the Centur plant for the second time. 

At Bowers' home, agents said they found two stolen checks worth $11,000. They 
were issued by the William Lehman automobile firm. 

They kicked in the door at Centur Printing and found new photoengraving 
negatives for draft cards, driver's licenses, birth certificates and voter cards. 
They also found three camera lenses reported stolen in the Milgram burglary. 

Schaffer, 33, of 4315 W 2nd Ave., a photographer by trade was charged with 
one count of possession of a counterfeit driver's license ; one count of possessing 
counterfeiting plates for such licenses ; one count of forgery, one count of 
robbery, one count of burglary, one count of conspiracy to commit burglary, and 
one count of buying, receiving and concealing stolen property. 

Bowers, 28. of 18911 NW 39th Ct., was charged with five counts of forgery and 
two counts of buying, receiving and concealing stolen property. 

Others arrested, all in connection with the same investigation, and the charges 
against them, were : 

Michael Plolland, 34, of 6400 W. Okeechobee Rd., Hialeah, one count of 
robbery. 

Robert Lewis Daniels, 33, of 206 SW 29th PI., Fort Lauderdale, breaking and 
entering with intent to commit grand larceny. 

Carl Edward Purvis, 23. 390 Fisherman St., Opalocka, two counts sale of 
mari.iuana, two counts possession of marijuana, one count of breaking and 
entering with intent to commit grand larceny. 

Tiffany Urguarte, 25, a woman, same address as Bowers, one count of pos- 
session of narcotics. 

Anota Mara Lombard. 25. 18820 NW 44th Ave., one count possession of 
marijuana, two counts of possession of the drug THC, one count possession of 
hashish, one count of possession of central nervous system stimulant, one count of 
contribnting to the delinquency of her baby, whose diaper pail contained 
marijuana. 

Dana Gene Lombard, 23, her husband, same address, two counts possession 
of marijuana, one count possession of hashish, two counts possession of THC, 
one count sale of THC. one count of contributing to the delinquency of a minor. 

Joe Smith, 29, 420 Seaman St., Opa-locka, two counts ))reaking and entering. 

Jacob Decker, 34, of 15401 NW 32nd Ave., one count of armed robbery, one 
count of buying, concealing and receiving stolen goods. 

All the arrests were made between 1 : 30 and 2 a.m. today by teams totaling 
35 to 40 men. Several Hialeah officers joined the raids in their jurisdiction. 



[From the Washington Star, Jan. 9, 1972] 

Slating of Informer Linked to Latin Passports Fraud 

(By Jeremiah O'Leary) 

When two gunmen pumped three .45-caliber bullets into "Chocolito" in a West 
Side New York hotel room four days before Christmas, oflScials could only .specu- 
late on whether the murder was an act of revenge by the Caribbean underworld. 

Whatever it was, the slaying took place just eight days after State Depart- 
ment security agents broke up a fraudulent passport ring that had brought 
scores of illegal aliens into the United States. "Chocolito" (Little Chocolate), 
whose real name was Carlos Ramon Batista-Castro, was an ex-Dominican police- 



107 

man who informed for a variety of U.S. law enforcement agencies. He played an 
important role in the three-year passport fraud case. 

It was almost an anti-climax when the mastermind of the ring, Francisco 
Familla-Tobal, 45, like "Chocolito" a Dominican citizen, pleaded guilty last week 
in federal court in New York to 5 of 39 counts against him. Familia was in jail in 
default of $20,000 bail at the time "Chocolito" was killed. 

The murder of Batista-Castro took place about midnight Dec. 20. The clerk at 
the Park Plaza Hotel at 50 West 77th St. told police two men of black-Spanish 
appearance came to the hotel and went to the 12th floor where "Chocolito" lived. 
They left 10 minutes later and nobody heard anything, even though a .45 makes 
a noise like a cannon. 

At 4 a.m. on Dec. 21, a Dominican girl named Amelia who had been sharing 
Room 1222 with "Chocolito" found his body on the floor. There were bullet holes 
in his head, arm and back. There was no sign of a struggle. Police said Amelia 
was hysterical but she didn't know anything either. 

Nobody wasted time asking Familia about the end of "Chocolito." He was in 
the House of Detention, and a man couldn't have a better alibi than that. 

If "Chocolito" was slain crudely, there was nothing crude about the case in 
which he played such a key part as a man who knew where to find Dominicans 
either in Santo Domingo or New York. Security agents say the ring was able to 
slip at least 100 illegal aliens into the country before the case was broken. 

The loopholes in the system of obtaining U.S. passports have now been closed 
and the technique will no longer work, ofiicials said. This is how it operated for 
three years : 

To obtain a fraudulent passport, Familia had to know the name, birthday and 
birthplace of a Puerto Riean or other American with a Spanish name. He used 
to hang around the Hotel Victoria and other places in New York where Spanish- 
speakers can be found and pretend to be a reader of horoscopes. 

For example, he would learn that Juan Miranda Torres (an invented name), 
an American citizen, was born on April 22, 1930, in Caguas, Puerto Rico. Familia 
or others in his ring would find a Dominican "customer" of about that age. The 
customer had to pay his .$1.50 to get the o])eration started and subsequently up 
to .'?1,000 to complete it. 

The customer also had to furnish him with passport-sized photos. Familia 
collected these between New York. Santo Domingo, Haiti and Puerto Rico. 
Back in New York, he would write to Puerto Rico under Juan Miranda Torres 
name and say that he had lost his birth certificate and needed another one. 
Puerto Rioan authorities have taken steps to see that this kind of request is 
no longer filled automatically, but for three years it worked. 

Then Familia would find look-alike for the photo of the Dominican client, and 
the look-alike would use the birth certificate to obtain some other form of identi- 
fication under Miranda Torres name, such as a New York driver's license. 

Having obtained the fraudulent U.S. passport, Familia would go to the Do- 
minican Republic and have his client obtain a legitimate Dominican passport 
under his real name. Familia and his client would then travel to Port an Prince, 
Haiti. 

The reason for this move, officials speculate, was so Familia would violate 
no Dominician laws. In Haiti, he would receive the rest of the money from the 
client and hand the client the U.S. passport. The last step was to put the client — 
now known as Juan Miranda Torres — on the next plane for the United States. 

The frauds began to be suspected by consular employees at the U.S. Embassy in 
Santo Domingo four years ago. More definite information involving Familia was 
obtained, probably with the help of "Chocolito." and he was arrested by Dominican 
officials at the request of the ITnited States in December 1970. But by the time a 
grand jury of the U.S. District Court for Southern New York indicted Familia on 
three counts of passport fraud, Familia had trickled out of Dominican custody 
and disappeared. 

He was finally arrested Dec. 13 in New York City. He appeared before .Judge 
Edward C. McLean the next day and bail was set at $20,000. Familia could not 
make the bail. 

Officials Indicated agreement was reached between the U.S. attorney and 
counsel for Familia for the prisoner to plead guilty to five of the counts. The 
others will he dropped. 

The penalty for passport fraud is five years or $2,000. FamiUa's sentence will 
depend on the probation report and the disposition of the court. 

As for "Chocolito," the detective handling the case said he had no leads last 
week. It would come as a surprise to the Caribbean underworld if the murder is 
ever solved. 



108 

[From the Chicago Sun-Times, Apr. 20, 1972] 

Thbee Aeeested in Breakup of Fake Dfiv er License Ring 

(By Art Petacque) 

A five-month investigation has resulted in the arrest of three men and the 
breakup of a ring geared for widespread sale of fraudulent driver's licenses, the 
Illinois secretary of state's office disclosed Wednesday. 

Asst. Sec. of State Edmund J. Kucharski also revealed that a warrant has been 
issued for a fourth suspect in the case, a man believed to have fled to Canada. 

Kucharski said that almost 200 stolen blank drivers' license cards — the type 
carried by drivers in wallets or purse.s — have been recovered as a result of the 
investigation, which involved several undercover agents and informants from 
Cook Coun*^y .Tail. 

Tliose avested ^-o far were identified as Kenneth Fomianek, 32, of 309 S. Oak- 
wood. Willow Springs, apparently the ringleader, investigators said ; Daniel Otto, 
26, who gave various addresses, and Fred Nigro, 29. of 14230 S. Palmer. Posen, 
The man being sought was identified as Daniel Nelson, 29, of 4611 N. Hermitage. 

Kucharski said the investigation began last Dec. 28, when Rafael Garcia, 38, 
of 1420 W. 50th, a restaurant owner, was stopped for a minor traffic offense. 

He showed a driver's license on which his name apparently had been typed— 
a variation from the usual computer-printout cards issued to Illinois motorists, 
Kucharski said. 

FAKE trSED AS BOND 

A check proved the license to be fraudulent, investigators said. The investi- 
gators learned further that Garcia's own license had been revoked. They said 
he told of buying the fradulent license for $400, but said he couldn't identify the 
seller. 

At about the same time, a similar case popped up, Kucharski said. A man was 
arrested in Benton, 111., for driving an auto without state license plates. His 
typev.-ritten driver's license identified him as Ronald Anderson. 36, of 4942 N. 
St. Louis, Chicago. 

The man surrendered the fraudulent driver's license as bond, but failed to 
show up for a court appearance. 

FIND CAR LEASED 

Investigators couldn't locate Anderson at the Chicago address. Next, they 
checked on the sales of hundreds of new Chevrolets, without success. 

Finally they determined that "Anderson" had leased the auto from a North- 
west Side firm. Further checking determined that Anderson actually was Arden 
Smith, an AWOL soldier who had been sentenced to one year in County Jail on a 
grand theft conviction. 

Smith, interviewed at the jail, admitted buying a blank driver's license card for 
$65 from the owner of a Southwest Side auto body shop. Riding with investigators, 
he pointed out Formanek's shop at 2659 S. Springfield as the one in question. 

BtTTEBS BOUCITED 

A surveillance of Formanek's shop ensued. He was arrested as he drove from 
the shop in a car without license plates. He was charged with driving with a 
fraudulent driver's license; driving when his license was revoked, and theft of 
state property. The latter charge related to the theft of 200 blank license cards 
from a state supplier, Eveready Business Forms Division of Safeguard Industries 
Inc., 3159 W. 36th. ^ . 

Kucharski said Otto was arrested after investigators learned he was offering 
to sell driver's license blanks from the same stolen lot. Investigators posing as 
truck drivers met him at Montrose and Kedzie with $900 in marked money and 
bought 51 blanks, Kucharski said. Another 140 blanks were recovered later at 
his residence, according to the state official. Otto was charged with selling 
fraudulent licenses. 

Investigators said Otto named Formanek as the source of the stolen blanks. 
Both Formanek and Otto have prison records, according to investigators. 

The third man arrested, Nigro, also was charged with selling fraudulent 
licenses. 



109 

Summary of Passport Frauds Committed by Brotherhood of Eternal Love 

Tatle 

Number and type of frauds 1 

Place application filed 2 

Year application filed 8 

Frauds detected before issue 4 

Source of passport application fraud detected 5 

Fraudulent birth certificates detected 5 

Single and multiple violations 7 

Counterfeit birth certificates detected S 

Prosecutive action ^ 

BROTHERHOOD FRAUDS 
TABLL 1 



Apr. 27. 1973 June 1, 1973 July 12, 1973 Oct. 1, 1973 



Number of frauds 

Type of frauds: 

Alteration of passport 

Fraudulent use of passport 

ldentlfvin£ witness 

False statement 



120 



124 



13a 



2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


9 


17 


19 


20 


60 


99 


101 


106 



TABLE 2 



Place passport application filed 



Apr. 27, 1973 June 1, 1973 July 12, 1973 Oct. 1, 1973 



False statement violation: 

Los Angeles 

San Francisco... 

Miami 

Chicago_-_ 

Post office 

New York 

Kabul 

Clerk of court 

Other 



TABLE 3 



Year fraudulent application filed 



Apr 27, 1973 June 1,1973 July 12, 1973 Oct 1, 1973 



False statement violations: 

Prior to 1969... 

1969... 

1970.. 

1971 

1972 

1973..- 



3 


5 


5 




10 


11 


11 


12 


11 


20 


20 


21 


21 


35 


35 


36 


13 


23 


23 


24 


2 


5 


7 


7 



TABLE 4 



Apr 27, 1973 June 1, 1973 July 12, 1973 Oct 1, 1973 



Detected before issue (1972-73) 

San Francisco 

Seattle... 

Miami 

Los Angeles 

Hawaii 

Lookout System 

New Orleans 

Total.. 



4 


4 




4 


1 


1 




1 


1 


1 




1 


1 


1 




2 










1 


1 


1 




1 










1 



no 



TABLE 5.— SOURCE OF PASSPORT APPLICATION FRAUD DETECTION 







Year detected— 






Total 

detected 


Detected by— 


1970 


1971 


1972 


1973 






2 


7 
4 


17 
8 
3 

18 
8 
3 


26 


BNDD 




12 








3 


Legal Division, Passport Office. -. 


3 


7 


15 
2 
16 


33 
10 


Other 1 


3 ... 




22 







1 Federal Bureau of Investigation and other law enforcement agencies. 

TABLE 6.-C0UNTERFEIT BIRTH CERTIFICATES AND VALID BIRTH CERTIFICATES FOR YEARS 1970, 1971, 1972, AND 

1973 



Year detected 



Counterfeit 

birth 

certificates 



Valid birth 

certificates 

presented 

fraudulently 



1970. 
1971. 
1972. 
1973. 



TABLE 7— SINGLE AND MULTIPLE VIOLATIONS 



Violations 



Single violations: 

Fraudulent applications 

Fraudulent alteration (photo subslitution). 



Subtotal. 



62 



Multiple violations: 

4 passports 1 identity, 1 passport 2d identity .- 

3 identities 

2 identities -- 

Identifying witness 

3 applications same false identity.. 

2 applications same false identity.. 

Fraudulent use by 2 persons of passport issued to another couple. 



Subtotal. 
Total.... 



,68 



130 



Persons 



5 


1 


6 


2 


26 


13 


20 


20 


3 


1 


6 


3 


2 


1 



103 



TABLE 8 




Apr. 


27, 1973 


June 1, 1973 


July 12 


,1973 


Oct. 1, 1973 








27 


45 




48 


51 








Purported issuing authority: 

Hospital 






5 

4 
14 
2 
2 







6 
8 
5 
4 
2 
3 
3 

2 

12 




6 
8 
6 
4 
2 
3 
3 

2 

14 


6 
8 






6 


Chicago_ 




4 
2 


Utah 




3 






3 


New York. 

Ohio 




2 
2 






4 


Other (less than 2 people) 




11 









Ill 

Table 9. — Prosecutive Action as of Octobee 1, 1973 

Referred U.S. Attorney 42 

Indicted 25 

Convicted 5 

Declined : 1 — no reason, 2 — charged other offense 3 



Passport Office Budget Data 

It is a fact that virtually every position in the Passport Office relates directly 
or indirectly to the public service rendered to T'.S. citizens in the field of passport 
issuance and citizenship determination. In addition, every job also relates directly 
or indirectly to maintaining the integrity of the passport document as one which 
identifies the citizen to be the individual named and described in the passport 
document. In our concentration to maintain passport integrity, the positions of 
passport agent.s, adjudicators, file searchers and reviewers, legal researchers and 
attorneys, recorders, and even our mail clerks are all related to an intensive 
office-wide fraud alert. In directing a function such as the Passport Office, one 
cannot segregate one phase of the operation, such as fraud, from aU the other 
functions. Each is an integral part of the other. 

The following Table shows the Passport Office budget requests in total dollars 
from FY 1970 through FY 1974 inclusive : 



Fiscal year 
(a) 

1970 

1971.... 

1972.. -- ---- 

1973 - - 

1974 

Note: The above amounts do not include pay of permanent personnel since these funds are managed centrally by the 
State Department- 

In each fiscal year, Column (c), the budget amount submitted to the Congress 
by the State Department for the Passport Office, is less than the amount re- 
quested by the Passport Office, Column (b) . 

Although the Congress had never disapproved on the record any amount re- 
quested by the State Department for the Passport Office during these years, 
the Passport Office is unable to ascertain what exact amounts the Congress al- 
lowed the Pas.sport operations since these are never specified. Unfortunately. 
Congressional enactment of State Department appi'opriations do not specifically 
earmark funds approved for the Passport Office. 

Mrs. Ruth B. Shipley, former Director of the Passport Office, stated in writ- 
ing that she had never received the full amount of the funds allowed tlie Pass- 
port Office by the Appropriations Committees since a ijortion of the Passi)ort 
Office allotment was always withheld by the Department for other unsi)eeified 
purposes. 

There are many items which have caused the reductions noted in Column (c). 
Several of the most significant reductions or deletions of Passport Office require- 
ments are depicted below. One significant reduction by the State Department 
is not reflected in the above table. This involves the Passport Office requests 
for permanent personnel authorizations. The Passport Office includes requests 
for increases in permanent personnel and related funds in its annual Budget 
Submissions, but as indicated above, these funds are retained and managed cen- 
trally at the Departmental level. 



Passport office 


State DeparN 


initial budget 


ment budget 


requested 


submission 




for passport 


(b) 


(c) 


§2, 593, 000 


§2,391,155 


3.215,000 


3, 034, 600 


4,838,600 


4,500,400 


6, 326, 100 


5,995,300 


8,305,300 


7,293,500 



112 



PASSPORT OFFICE, PERMANENT PERSONNEL BUDGET REQUESTS AND SHORTAGES 



Fiscal year Type of request 



Number 
requested Date of request 



Department of State ac- 
tion approval/denial/ Congressional action 

date 



1970 Annual budget 

1970 Passport office sup- 
plemental 
1970. Proposed Congres- 
sional amendment 



1971 Annual budget. 

1972 do 

1973 do... 



1974. 



do. 



1975. 



do. 



24 September 1958 Denied September 1968.. Never presented. 

24 August 1969 Denied October 1969 Do. 

24 December 1969 Not applicable Initiated on Senate 

floor but denied in 
joint committee. 

February 1970 24 provided from within Never presented. 

State Department re- 
sources. 

29 August 1969.. Approved September 1969 Enacted. 

for President's budget. 

35 August 1970 Approved October 1970 Do. 

for President's budget. 

49 August 1971 20 denied October 1971, Reduction by State 

29 approved ror Piesi- Department en- 
dent's budget. acted. 

36 July 1972 10 denied October 1972, Pending enactment 

26 approved in Presi- of reduction by 
dent's budget (19 more State Department, 
denied October 1973, 
leaving 7 approved) 
102 July 1972 84 denied, 18 approved.. Not yet presented. 



The Department's cuts in Passport personnel were so deep and arbitrary that 
at an 0MB Hearing on October 5, 1973, this Budget was returned to the De- 
partment for more practical consideration. Not readily evident in the above table 
are the long and inexplicable delays experienced by the Passport Office in 
securing the authorized positions, even as reduced by the Department (it took 
18 months to get the 24 positions reqluested for FY 1970). Not evident to the 
outsider are the lengthy delays experienced in getting personnel on board to 
man the positions authorized. The Passport Office routinely has a chronic shortage 
of personnel ; the year round average of 60 vacant permanent out of its current 
authorization of 572, and at times this has climbed to 82 vacancies as it did in 
April of 1972 which is the height of the travel season. These unreasonable delays 
become particularly damaging when urgently needed attorney positions remain 
unfilled in the face of constantly mounting fraud cases requiring their efforts. 
Outside hire restrictions, as well as other limitations, such as quota restrictions 
on clerical personnel aggravate these continuing personnel problems. 

All reviews, interminable conferences and meetings, procrastinations, delays 
in action, arbitrary decisions by so called management exjjerts who have no 
practical experience or knowledge of the Passport function mitigate against even 
minimal safeguards on document fraud. Indeed, the criminal community, domestic 
and foreign, could ask for no greater support or assistance than the harassment 
received by the Passport Office from the current upper echelon. 

The following Table depicts Passport Office requests for new facilities to adapt 
to increasing workloads. 

NEW PASSPORT FIELD AGENCIES AND ACCEPTANCE FACILITIES 







Number and 








Department 








description of 




Funds 




of state 


Congressional 


Fiscal year 


Type of request 


request 




requested 


Date of request 


action 


action 


1970 , 


.. Annual budget.. 


3 new agencies.. 




, $204,000 


September 1968... 


. Denied 


Never presented. 


1970 


.. PPT supple- 
mental. 


do. 


..... 


. 240,000 


August 1969 


do 


Do. 


1970 


.. Senate amend- 
ment. 


do 





. 110,000 


December 1969... 


. NA. 


Proposed on Senate 
floor denied in 
joint committee. 


1971 


.. Annual budget.. 


do 




. 240,000 


August 1969 


. Denied 


Never presented. 


1972 


.do 


, do 




. 240,000 


August 1970 


....do 


Do. 


1973 


do 


do 




. 240,000 


August 1971 


....do 


Do. 






1 acceptance offer.. 


. 30, COO 


do 


....do 


Do. 


1974 . 


do 


. 3 new agencies.. 




. 255,000 


July 1972. 


....do 


Do. 






1 acceptance offer.. 


. 85. 000 


do. , 


....do 


Do. 


1975.. 


.do. 


. 3 new agencies.. 




, 270,000 


July 1973 


....do 


NA. 


Justification : Substatntially 


the same 


justification 


is applicable to each 



budget submission and is repeated below : 

This request provides funds for the establishment of three new agencies at 
Houston or Dallas, Detroit and a city in Connecticut, It is necessary to relieve 



113 

the pressure of the ever increasiug workload in some of the hirger agencies where 
it is difficult to obtain additional space and to recruit additional staff personnel. 
By further decentralization the areas covered by the present agencies will be 
realigned and the workload volume redistributed. Funds for all items except rent 
will be required in the full amount regardless of when the agencies are opened. 
The funds for rent will be reduced proportionately. Personnel to staff the new 
agencies will be provided for within current authorizations. 

The FY 1973 and FY 1974 Budgets also included requests for Acceptance Of- 
fices apart from the Agency in New York. 

The continuing need for expanding facilities is exemplified by our experience 
at the Los Angeles Passport Agency. In 1970 an acceptance facility was opened 
on Wilshire Avenue in addition to the downtown Los Angeles Passport Office 
location. In February 1973, the Los Angeles Agency was moved out of town to a 
public building in Hawthorne and the Wilshire facility ordered closed by the De- 
partment. Because of the public outcry, emphasizing the need for a downtown 
application acceptance facility, the Department was forced to authorize the re- 
establishment of an acceptance facility in downtown Los Angeles. A new Annex 
Office was opened on June 11, 1973, at the U. S. District Court and Federal 
Building. 

In addition to the above budget requests, the Passport Office requested au- 
thority to establish from within its own resources new acceptance facilities at 
various locations in the United States. For example, on September 30, 1968, the 
Passport Office requested the controlling bureau to establish a Passport Services 
Office in Houston, Dallas and Detroit. This request was denied. 

A statement was made at the Hearing that the FY 1975 Budget submitted by 
the Passport Office may include a request for funds to implement a developmental 
study, completed in May 1973, on a new travel document and processing sys- 
tem. This study is currently being considered for approval at the State Depart- 
ment Under Secretarial level. If approved, implementation funds will be re- 
quested as a separate project. 

Following is a Table showing past budgetary actions concerning this study : 

PASSPORT OFFICE REQUEST FOR FUNDS TO STUDY THE DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW TRAVEL DOCUMENT 



Fiscal year Type of request 



Date of request 



Amount of Department of State 

funds action approval/ Congressional 

requested denial/date action 



1971 Annual budget September 1969. 

1970. Amendment December 1969.. 



1972 Annual budget August 1970. 



1974. 



.do July 1972. 



$75, 000 Denied October 1969. Never presented. 

75,000 Not applicable Proposed on Senate 

floor as amend- 
ment to supple- 
mental but denied 
in joint committee. 
75,000 $150,000 approved 
in Oclober 1970 
for inclusion in 
President's 
budget. • 
2 350,000 Denied August 1972. Never presented. 



1 Amount v^as doubled by the Department of State to Include both document development and development of improved 
processing system. Research and development contract for an international travel document, $75,000. A study applying 
computer or other processing techniques to accelerate the issuance of passports, $75,000. 

s Implementation of travel document study. 

For several years the Passport Office has requested funds for a badly needed 
training film. Our experience with this budget item is depicted below : 

PASSPORT OFFICE REQUEST FOR FUNDS TO DEVELOP A TRAINING FILM 



Fiscal year 



Type of request 



Funds Department of Slate 
requested action 



Congressional 
action 



1971 Annual budget. 

1974 do 

1975 do 



"$25,000 Approved.... Enacted. 

35,000 Denied Never presented. 

35,000 Denied in preliminary Not applicable. 
reviev»s. 



• This item was approved in August 1970. Bids were received from several film production companies and a selection 
recommended to the Department. Subsequently, we were advised that one of the original bidders had changed the amount 
01 his proposal making him the lowest bidder. Since it appeared that procurement procedures may not have been properly 
applied, it was decided in the best interest of the Department not to award the contract. Time did not permit a new ad- 
vertisement for a contract before the funds lapsed. 



23-538—72 



114 

Justification: An oiK-i-atimi such a« the T'assjKirt office ciinnor luncnnii 
econoraieallv and effectively unless provided jiroper training tools— one nf whi'-li 
is a training film. A training film for the Passport Ofiice is urgently required to 
improve fraud detection, to improve and expedite training of new employees and 
to help reduce error in passport issuances. In the opinion of professional training 
oflBcers. a training film is an outstandingly effective tool of management. 

One of the important points to be covered in any training film would be an 
introduction to the "points of reference" or items which would assist in detecting 
the presence or potential presence of frauds in adjudication work. This film would 
be an important first step for new employees in becoming aware of the fraud 
problems Involved in passport w^ork. The failure to have such film requires all of 
this preliminary work to be done in personal fraud seminars. While the fraud 
seminars have been effective, they have been diluted by the necessity of covering 
preliminary aspects which could appropriately be included in a training film. The 
training film would thereby make it possible to concentrate the personal fraud 
seminars on the more sophisticated aspects of fraud detection. 

The Passport Ofiice is years behind other federal agencies in realizing benefits 
that can be derived from a training film. INS. IRS. USIA. VA. AGRICULTURE, 
FAA. POST OFFICE. CT'STOMS, AID AND FSI make wide use of training 
filma. The Passport Office program is not dissimilar to these agencies. IRS, the 
Post Office and Customs have a special orientation film for all new employees. 
Most of the agencies listed above also use training films dealing specifically with 
the job functions, area of assignment, etc., which are shown to selected groups of 
employees as part of the orientation and refresher training programs. Addi- 
tionally, these agencies use either a slide tape or video tape or both presentations 
to supplement film showings. 



Passport Office Legislative Proposals and Pills Introduced in Congress fob 
THE Relief of the Passport Office 1956-1973 

Since 1956 the Passport Office has consistently supported legislation which 
would provide more eflScient and expeditious service to the public while maintain- 
ing the reputation of the U.S. passport for integrity and security. 

The most consistent and important piece of legislation of this nature has been 
a proposal to establish a semi-autonomous United States Passport Service obtain- 
ing policy guidance from the Department of State; operating with a revolving 
fimd which would permit the Passport Office to use some of the revenue which it 
returns to the Treasury each year to finance its operational and administrative 
requirements. 

The first such legislation was S-3340 introduced by Senator Hubert H. 
Humphrey in the 84th Congress on March 1, 1956. Senator Humphrey, as a mem- 
ber of the Cxovernment Operations Committee, had just participated with the 
Director of the Passport Office. Miss Frances Knight and other areas of the 
Executive Branch of Government in the complete modernization of Passport Of- 
fice operations. New equipment and modern personnel and management pro- 
cedures were introduced. This modernization moved the Passport Office from the 
19th to the 20th Century. Senator Humphrey recognized that in order to keeii 
up with the ever increasing volume of passport services required by I'.S. citizens 
the Passport Office must be in a flexible position to update and modernize its 
procedures to meet the challenge and requirements of the times. 

j3;_3340 contained provisions for a T'.S. Passport Service and a revolving fund. 
The Passport Office fully supported this proposed legislation, but the Department 
of State bitterly opposed it on grounds that it interfered with their organizational 
structure and their budgetary flexibility. 

Similar bills. S-2()95 and IIR-54.55. were introduced on .Tune 3. 1959 and 
March 9. 19.59 Ity Senator Karl Mundt and Congressman Thomas L. Curtis of 
Missouri in the S6tli Congress. 

A short version Passport Service Bill. S-718, was introduced by Senator John 
L. McCellan in the 87th Congress on January 31. 1961. In the same Congress, 



115 

Congressman Thomas L. Curtis of Missouri reintroduced his Service Bill on 
July 6, 1961 as HR-i077 and again in the S9th Cousress on January 13, 1965 
as HR-2596. 

In its preliminary legislative program for 1969, the Passport Office proposed 
a number of measures to the Department of State. One was an omnibus passport 
bill includiug the establishment of a semi-autonomous U.S. Passport Service, a 
revolving fund, establishment of self-supporting Passport Field Agencies when 
and where needed and numerous other urgently needed procedural and manage- 
ment improvements. Additional proposals included various pieces of the omnibus 
legislation touching on such matters as criminal penalties for violation of geo- 
graphical restrictions, an increase in the fee for execution of a passport applica- 
tion acceptance function and a long overdue reclassification of the positions of 
Director and Deputy Director of the Passport Office commensurate with their 
responsibilities. All of these proposals were arbitrarily rejected by the Bureau 
of Security and Consular Affairs, and to the best of our knowledge deleted from 
any reports and papers bucked on to the upper echelons of the Department. 

In 1970 the Passport Office submitted a preliminary legislative program to the 
Department substantially similar to its 1969 proposals. These were again rejected 
by the Bureau of Security and Consular Affairs. The Passijort Office recommen- 
dations died at that Bureau level. 

In 1970 in the 91st Congress, Congressmen Robert N. Giaimo and Lowell P. 
Weicker, Jr. of Connecticut cosponsored HR-13123 which, while it did not provide 
for a U.S. Passport Service, did provide for the establishment of Passport Field 
Agencies when and where they were needed and a revolving fund for the Pass- 
port Office. Seventeen identical companion bills were introduced, sponsored by 
over 40 Congressmen. Hearings were held before a subcommittee of the House 
Foreign Relations Committee. The Director of the Passport Office, Miss Frances 
G. Knight, testified before the committee in support of the legislation but again 
the Department of State opposed it offering stop-gap substitute measures such 
as niirht shifts in some agencies and the acceptance of passport applications by 
Post Offices. As a result, all these bills died in Committee. Time has proved 
Passport Office predictions that these jury rigged measures were not a solution 
to the overall problem. Indeed, they were nothing more than sugar-coated 
pacifiers. Increasing acceptance facilities and temporary night shift measures 
are not the type of long range solutions required for the management and pro- 
duction problems of the Passport Office. 

On April 7, 1970 in the 91st Congress, the late Senator Thomas Dodd. recog- 
nizing the problems more clearly, introduced S-3684. This was an omniiius act 
similar to previous U.S. Passport Service proposals with some additional re- 
finements in the management area. The Department again opposed this legislation 
for the same reasons it had given in the past. 

In 1971 the Passport Office again submitted to the Department a preliminary 
legislative program including an omnibus passport act and other proposals to 
increase the passport fee and to provide criminal penalties for violation of 
geographical area restrictions. The Bureau of Security and Consular Affairs 
again deleted these proposals from the Department's program. No effort was 
ever made to discuss these proposals with the Passport Office. 

However, recognition of Passport Office problems and effective solutions, 
similar to those in previous bills and Passport Office proposals, came during the 
92nd Congress in the form of two bills : S-1812 introduced by Senator John G. 
Tower on May 10, 1971 and S-2769 introduced by Senator Hul>ert H. Humphrey on 
October 28, 1971. These bills once again proposed the establishment of a U.S. 
Passport Service and solutions similar to or identical with those spelled out in 
former bills. The Department of State was consistent in its adamant opposition 
to all these salutory measures. 

In 1972 the Passport Office again submitted proposals to the Department for 
omnibus passport legislation and these were again deleted by the Bureau of 
Security and Consular Affairs without consultation. 

Finally, in the 93rd Congress, four more U.S. Passport Service Bills were intro- 
duced by legislators who recognized the urgency of problems and correctly 



116 

devined the solution. Senator Hubert H. Humphrey reintroduced his hill on 
March 26, 1973 designated as 8-1363. Congressman Samuel L. Devine, for him- 
self and Congressman Donald I). Clancy, introduced a similar bill, HR-918G 
on July 11, 1973. Senator Strom Thurmond followed with S-2331 on August 2, 
1973 and Congressman Devine introduced HR-9873 on August 3, 1973 for 
himself and 10 other colleagues. 

While there are some minor differences in these bills, they are basically 
similar in that they continue to propose a semi-autonomous U.S. Passport Service, 
a revolving budget, establishment of Passport Field Agencies when and where 
necessary and other management reforms. 

The Passport Office in submitting its legislative proposals in 1973 endorsed 
8-1363, HR-9186, S-2331 and HR-9873 as providing the best possible solutions 
to the problems of the Passport Office. These problems deliberately ignored by the 
Bureau of Security and Consular Affairs and adroitly side-tracked from highei' 
level consideration, have increased over the years and have now entered the 
crisis stage in terms of national security and well-being. 

It is of considerable significance that the basic U.S. Passport Service proposal:- 
beginning in 1956 and continuing in the present Congress have been supported 
by every spectrum of both major political parties in both the House and the 
Senate. It has been a truly remarkable bipartisan recognition of the problems 
which have beset the Passport Office. 



Passpobt Office — Year End Report — Workoad and Accomplishments — Fiscal 

Year 1972 

Passport Office Workloads and Accomplishments — Fiscal Year 1972 

In Fiscal Year 1972 the Passport Office issued a total of 2,605,321 passports. 
This volume of passports issued represents an increase in workload of 12.1% over 
the passports issued the previous year. Personnel utilization increased by 12.0% 
in FY 1972 from 702 man-years utilized in FY 1971 to 786 man-years utilized 
in FY 1972. 

During FY 1972 the Passport Office collected an estimated $25,955,783 in pass- 
port fees, an increase of 14.2% over FY 1971. Direct operating funds for FY 1972, 
including pay for permanent personnel for which funds are not allocated to the 
Passport Office, amounted to approximately $ll,3.sO,000, resulting in a surplus of 
collections in excess of direct operating funds amounting to approximately 
$14,570,000. 

In addition to the basic workload of processing and issuing passports, the 
Passport Office also furnished numerous other services and performed many 
other significant and important work functions, studies and projects not directly 
related to the processing and issuance of passports. These seldom discussed, but 
nonetheless significant and substantial workloads, are summarized on the follow- 
ing pages to provide a more detailed disclosure of the services performed, and 
the multitude of work projects imposed on the component Divisions of the 
Passport Office in FY 1972. 

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISION WORKLOADS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS — FISCAL TEAR 19T2 

The Administrative Division is primarily responsible for providing personnel 
and administrative support, technical services, equipment and supplies to all the 
operating areas of the Passport Office. The Division's work functions are gen- 
erally service oriented and, in the main, are not directly related to passport 
processing. In several significant functions, however, such as mail processing, 
filing of applications, accounting, and name clearances the workloads performed 
in this Division are closely associated with passport processing. 

During Fiscal Year 1972 the Administrative Division experienced increases in 
all categories of support work, as well as increases in nonmeasured workloads 
involving budget submissions, data for other agencies of government, special 
studies, projects and services. 

The following table lists the various categories of work performed by the Divi- 
sion which are either directly or indirectly involved in the processing and issu- 
ance of passport books. The great increase in each work category must be 
weighed in all future considerations of personal and budget requirements. 



117 

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISION WORKLOADS AND ACCOWIPLISHWIENTS, FISCAL YEAR 1972 



± Percent 

fiscal year 

Fiscal year— 1972 over 

fiscal year 



Work category 1971 1972 1971 



Incoming mail handled 2,694,862 3,074,574 +14.1 

Outgoing mail handled 109,533 116,134 +6.0 

Correspondence section 1... nH'ola oiatii. j-?4 

Documents retrieved ,?5?'o.. , nnoSc? iiq? 

Docun<enls processed and filed 3,444,254 3.902,761 +13.3 

Passport books distributed 2,711,656 2,889,393 +6.6 

Forms, brochures, etc., distributed 16, 528, 579 19, 007, 865 +15.0 

Total items ot printing ordered. 11,444,257 20,363,018 +//.» 

Clearances processed, foreign IJi-^iS ^l^'.ci I'ol'i 

U.S. insular clearances.... 13,820 17,460 +26.3 

File searr'^es and Federal records center phone requests 55,031 )!^'xli "*" ? c 

Computer updates._._ 28,737 28,295 -1.5 

Requests tor birth and marriage records 7,307 i'f!i, 

Emoloyer interviewing and counseling NA 1,044 Torn 

Training of personnel 110 ^10 lu 4 

Personnel ac'jons .- 1,448 1,656 +14.4 

Peak season employment --- „ 271 3/4 T, S" n 

Checks returned... .- ^ 2,700 3,050 +13.0 

Checks recovered 2,382 ^ j9J i-a. i 

Waivers. 1.720 2,392 +39.1 



I Includes only measured coorespondence prepared by a special activity whose principal function is to answer letters 
from the public. 
Revised. 

DOMESTIC OPERATIONS DIVISION WORKLOADS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS, FISCAL 

YEAR 1972 

The Domestic Operations Division is primarily responsible for the issuance of 
passports in the United Stiites and for the operations of the ten Pas.sport Field 
Ai,'encies and the National Office in Washington, D.C. 

In addition to its normal workload of issuing pas.sports to the general public, 
the Division is also involved in numerous services and work functions as well 
as staft and management duties which are not directly related to the processing 
and issuance of passports to the general public. These signillcant and substantial 
workloads are summarized in the following table. Diplomatic and Official pass- 
ports are listed as additional workloads performed by the Domestic Operations 
Division since they are handled as a special service for other government agencies. 

DOMESTIC OPERATIONS DIVISION CASEWORK COMPLETED 



± Percent 

fiscal year 

1972 over 

Fiscal year Fiscal year fiscal year 

1971 1972 1971 



Amendments, extensions, renewals, etc., Washington and agencies 279,514 94,361 —66.2 

Telephone inquiries: ,,. noo m iot a >; 

Washington 144,033 131,727 — 8.b 

Agencies (e'stima'te)::::::::::::'.::.: i,o86,oi4 1,091,014 +0.5 

Locater and status cards filed: , „ ^ ,„, ^,„ , ,^ - 

VifashinHton 687,945 791,519 +15.9 

Agencies (estima'te)."::::::::::::::. 2,200,000 2,400,000 +9.1 

Correspondence, Washington and agencies (estimate). 151,988 ^°I-},I en 

Visas obtained for diplomatic and official travel (Washington only) 10,434 9,918 -b. 

Diplomatic passports issued 5,214 4,994 _i_uin n 

Courtesy diplomatic passports issued 14 -, ,i, t c 

Official passports issued 72,916 ^M5i Tn' r 

Air crew certificates (Washington only)... 2,021 t^Iq jZo? i 

Duty officer services (Washington only) 6,337 'iX? «'i 

Requests for validation of passports for travel to restricted areas 989 464 —53.1 

Specially expedited passport applications: 

Congressionals............ 86,295 91,807 +6.4 

Washington (46,295) (64,405) 

Agencies (estimate).. (40, 000) (27, 402) 

General 400,104 404,714 +1.2 

Washington (115,785) (80,032) 

Agencies (284,319) (324,682)... 

Post adjudication of insular applications (Washington only) 22,514 (0 re'n'A'o 

Review of post office applications (Washington only) 53,895 399,244 +604.8 



1 Not yet received. 



118 



FOREIGN OPERATIONS DIVISION WORKLOADS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS, FISCAL YEAR 1972 

Durinji FY 1972 the Foreign Operations Division received a total of 46,844 
cases from the Foreign Service Posts and other areas throughout the world 
which required action or advisory opinion. This represents an increase of 12.4% 
over the 41,689 ca.ses received from the same sources during FY 1971. In FY 
1972. 45,965 cases were completed as compared to 40,208 in FY 1971, an increase 
of 14.3%. 

The Foreign Operations Division performs a multitude of services and support 
activities which are both directly and indirectly involved in the processing and 
protluction of passports issued overseas. 

The following table lists the various categories of work performed by the Di- 
vision and the percentage of increase or decrease in work experienced in FY 
1972 over FY 1971. 

FOREIGN OPERATIONS DIVISION— CASEWORK COMPLETED 



Casework category 



Fiscal year— 



1971 



± Percent 
fiscal year 

1972 over fiscal 

1972 year 1971 



Fraudulent naturalization 45 

Certificates of loss of nationality 1- 834 

Registration applications _ 3, 779 

Passport applications 

Consular reports of birtti ..- - -- 

Correspondence and consular letters _ 

Reactivated cases 

Appeals 

Advisory opinions 

Lost and found 

Total 40,208 



2,986 
5.506 
395 
87 
4,571 
12, 157 



115 
1,967 
3,017 
11,431 
2,863 
8,435 
268 
66 
3,397 
14,406 



45, 965 



+156.0 
+7.3 
-20.2 
+29.2 
-4.1 
+53.2 
-32.2 
-24.1 
-25.7 
+18.5 



+14.3 



LEGAL DIVISION WORKLOADS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS, FISCAL YEAR 1972 

The Legal Division performs mainly service oriented work of a legal and quasi- 
legal nature. These activities and services are not directly related to the process- 
ing and Issuance of passports. 

The following table lists the various categories of work normally performed 
by the Legal Division v/hich are not related to passport issuance. 

LEGAL DIVISION— CASEWORK COMPLETED 



Fiscal year- 



Casework category 



1971 



1972 



± Percent 
fiscal year 
1972 over 
fiscal year 
1971 



+4.2 
-.6 



Travel control cases.. 1,594 2,589 4-62.4 

Discretionary actions. 105 357 +240.0 

Fraud cases 604 614 +1.7 

Domestic 288 300 

Foreign.. 316 314 

Criminal prosecutions 87 120 +??•? 

Submitted 90 69 -23.3 

Closed 53 37 -30.2 

On hand 124 ^ 152 +22.6 

Passports lost '20,620 22,902 +11.1 

Passports found 3,458 3,968 +14.7 

Mental cases 85 116 +35.5 

Child custody cases 483 369 -23.6 

Miscellaneous cases 1.584 1,986 +25.4 

Circular outlooks - 426 887 +108.2 

Civil actions 2__ 8 +300.0 

Total 29^919 34^788 +16.3 



' Revised. 



INDEX 



(Note. — The Senate Internal Security Subcommittee attaches no significance 
to the mere fact of the appearance of the name of an individual or organization 
in this index.) 

A Paee 

Abel, Colonel (Soviet spy) 58 

Ackerly, Robert Dale 21, 26, 79, 83 

Afghanistan 4, 5, 7, 13, 19, 21, 22, 23, 24 

Government 24 

Akron, Ohio 56 

Al Fatah 80,81, 82 

Alabama, State of 66 

Algeria 37, 47, 48, 80-82 

Algiers 20,25, 80-83 

Allen, Linda Pohl 79 

Aman 81 

Amelia (Dominican girl) 107 

Amsterdam 19 

Anderson, Jack 38, 90 

Anderson, Ronald 108 

Andrist, Robert Lee 21, 26 

Andrist, Robert Lowe 31. 79, 84 

Appropriations Committee, Senate 60 

Arthur, David Alan 79, 84 

Ashbrook, Travis Grant 27. 79, 84 

Atlanta, Ga 48 

Australia 40 

R 

Bank of America 104 

Barnes, State Agent 33 

Bartels, John R 2-38 

Basel, Switzerland 18. 19 

Bates, Roger 84 

Batista-Castro, Carlos Ramon (Chocolito) lOf?, 107 

Becker, Dale Andrew 26, 79 

Beirut 81 

BEL Task Force 22, 23, 73 

Belgium '* 

Belk, George 63 

Bell, Herman 58, 104, 105 

Bell, Jonas 105 

Berkeley, Calif 18, 30, 47 

Berry, Robert L 70 

Bevan, Rick C 26,34,79,84 

Bevan, Ronald 27, 79 

Bidwell, Thomas Blake 79 

Black Liberation Army 58 

Black Panther Party 104 

Black Panthers 47, 80. 81 

BNDD (Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs) 3.61.62 

Boston 91 

Bowers, Walter O. (Buddy) 106 

Bowyer, Chester Allen 80, 84 

Braenden, Dr. Olav 1 

II) 



Page. 

Brosan, George 90 

Brotherhood of Eternal Love 1-4, 

6, 8, 9, 12-14, 18-26, 29, 34, 38, 44-47, 61, 63, 64, 73, 74, 91-93, 97 

Brotherhood of Eternal Love Inditees List of 79 

Brotherhood Frauds (chart) 45 

Brotherhood, The— Master List (Passport) April 18, 1973 (List of Brother- 
hood members believed to have obtained one or more passports under 

assumed names) 83 

Brotherhood "Orange Sunshine" LSD Laboratory (photography) 17 

Brussels, Belgium 22, 28 

Bureau of Security 9 

Bureau of Security and Consular Affairs 41, 76, 115, 116 

Burke, Terry 3 

Bureau of Vital Statistics 55 

C 
Cairo 80, 81, 82 

California 3, 6, 7, 1^-24, 29, 47, 53 

California Department of Justice 25, 26 

California Franchise Tax Board 24 

Canada 20, 40, 59 

Caserta, Daniel Phillip 27, 63, 79, 84 

CBS (Columbia Broadcasting System) 81 

Central America 20 

Central District of California 28, 32 

Centur Printing 105, 106 

Chastain, Eric 21 

Chesimard, Joanne Deborah 104 

Chicago 7 32 

Chicago Sun-Times (nevpspaper) 108 

China, People's Republic of 72 

CIA (Central Intelligence Agency) 81 

Clancy, Congressman Donald D 116 

Clay, James Henry 79, 84 

Cleaver, Eklridge 25, 47, 48, 80 

Cohen. Leonard 83 

Computer Sciences Corp 42, 64 

Comparison of domestic frauds detected before issue in proportion to per- 
centage of executed applications submitted by source — Fiscal year 1973 

(chart) 57 

"Confessions of a Hope Fiend" (book) 20, 35, 47, 70, 74 

Congressional Record 44, 59 

Connolly, Michael Stephen 84 

"Contract Awarded for Passport Study" (newspaper article) 43 

Cook County Jail 108 

Cosa Nostra 6 

Costa Rica 7, 23 

Costan, James 104 

Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit 11 

Crawford, Ronald Ray 79 

Crittenden, James Leroy 79 

Curtis. Congressman Thomas L 114, 115 

Customs 10, 12, 18, 90 

D 

Dale, James Howard 85 

Daley, Donald D 69, 71 

Dallas Police Department 98 

Damascus 81 

Daniels. Robert Lewis 106 

Davis, Angela 32 

Daw. John Robert 26, 79 

Decker, Jacob 106 

DeJarette Jon Jay 85 



Ill 

Page. 
Delaney, Calvin Larry 79 

Denver ^ 

Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Division of Vital Sta- 

tistics — — ———^ — __«.—— — — vX 

Department of Justice 2, 53, 90, 94 

Department of State 2, 

8, 9, 32, 39^1, 42, 46, 48, 50, 60, 61, 67, 72, 73, 75, 77, 92, 97, 106, 111, 

112, 114, 115 

Budget Office 41 

Devine, Congressman Samuel L 116 

District of Columbia 54, 56 

Dodd, Senator Thomas 115 

Doerge, Keith --— - g 

Dohrn, Bernardme -^i <>J-. o». o^ 

Dohrn, Jennifer 24, 80 

Dominican Republic ^2 

Drivers License Guide Co £3 

Druce, Charles 23, ^, <9 

Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) 2, 3, 7, 8, 20, 22, 33, 38, 62, 63, 90 

Drury, Donald Karl ^''''-^'31^ 

Duggan, William E 2, 38, 39, 43-50, 53-64, 69, 70, 73, 93, 96 

Dutchess County, N.Y 15, 18 

Dylan, Bob *^ 

E 
Eastland, Senator James O l~i^ 



Eden Press. 



52 

'11 Arrested in Phony ID Raids in Dade" (newspaper article) 105 

Elliot, Gary -_- 3, 28 

Escanaba, Mich 5, 15, 16 

Europe 24, 51 

Eveready Business Forms Division of Safeguard Industries, Inc 108 

F 

Familla-Tobal, Francisco 107 

FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation) 37, 61, 70, 82, 104, 106 

FDA (Food and Drug Administration) 14 

Federal Government 3 

Feldman, Martin E 105 

Foerster, Werner . 104 

Folsom Prison 23 

Formanek, Kenneth 108 

Foster, Gregory 104 

France 7, 32, 40 

Fraud statistics (chart) 95 

Friedman, Lester 23, 79 

Friend, John Christopher 85 

Fuller, Lester Samuel 85 

G 

Gaczyna Spy School, Soviet 59 

Gale, John Charles 79 

Gallinghouse, Gerald 105 

Garcia, Rafael 108 

Garrison, Gary Allen 85 

Garrity, Michael Thomas 28 

Geneva, Switzerland 1 

Gentile. G. Marvin 70, 72, 73, 75 

German, Lyle Paul 27, 79 

Germany 40 

"Getting High With Jennifer" (newspaper article) 80 

Giaimo, Congressman Robert N 115 

Golden Triangle 18 

Good Times (newspaper) 25,80 



IV 

Page. 
Government Operations Committee 114 

Government Printing Office 64 

H 
Haiti 107 

Haislip, Gene R 2, 12-15, 18, 31, 34 

Hall, David Alan 27, 79 

Hambarian, Donald Alexander 20, 21 

Hanna, Richard Keith 105 

Harper, James M 104 

Harrigan, Russell Joseph 27, 79 

Harrington, John Joseph, Jr 27, 29 

Harvard University 18 

Hashish and hashish oil statistics (chart) 87 

Hashish removed (chart) 87 

Hawaii 20, 22, 23, 29 

Hayhanen, Mr 58 

Heard, Sgt. J. W 98 

Hendrix, Jimi 83 

Hialeah, Fla 105 

Hitchcock, William Mellon 15, 18, 79 

Hoffman, Judge 48 

Holland, Michael 106 

Honduras 7 

Hotel Victoria 107 

Humphrey, Senator Hubert H 114-116 

Hutton, J. Bernard 59 



Immigration and Naturalization Service 65,90,92 

Increases in Legal Division Permanent Personnel Rquests and Authoriza- 
tion Compared to Passport Ofl3ce Totals (chart) 61 

India 5, 19, 40 

"Inside Report on America's Passport Lady" (newspaper article) 46 

Internal Revenue Service (IRS) 22.24,56 

International Civil Aviation Organization 40, 41 

Interpol 41 

Italy 6, 18 

J 

Johnson, Gordon Fred 21, 79 

Johnson, Robert D 71 

K 
Kabul 4, 7, 22, 34, 47 

Keel, agent 28 

Kelly (code name) 36,37,48 

Kelly. David B 104 

Kennedy Airport 19 

Kennedy, Michael 31, 32. 33. 34 

Kenner, Marty 81 

Kenya 40 

Khartoum 72 

Kim II Sung 80,83 

Kimball, Robert Richardson 85 

Knight. Frances G 2,38-43,46,64-70,72.73,75-78,91.96 

Koreans, North 80 

Kucharski, Edmund J 108 

Kuehl. Douglas 3 

L 

Laredo, Tex 10 

Laguna Beach, Calif 18, 20, 21, 32 

Police Department 33 

Lange, Edward Jeffrey 79, 85 



Page. 

Las Vegas 19- 24 

Laurie, Roceo 104 

Leary family 6, 21, 38, 61, 63 

Leary, John 10 

Leary, Mrs. Rosemary 47, 49, 70, 72-74, 80. 83 

Leary, Susan 10, 11 

Leary. Timothy 2, 

3, 9-11, 15, 18-20, 22, 23, 25, 30, 31, 35, 37, 47-50, 55, 70, 72-74, 

79-83, 85, 91 

Lebanon 5, 19, 20, 30, 80, 81 

Lehman, William 106 

Lombard, Auota Mara 106 

Lombard, Dana Gene 106 

LorTng7i;;::::::::::::::::::::iiiiii-iiii"""--------X^^ 

Los Angeles Free Press (newspaper) 51 

Lynd. Glenn Craig 1^' '^ 

Mc 

McAdams, Brian Kendall J^ 

McAdams, Yonica Menne *^ 

McCarran Airport j^ 

McClellan. Senator John L ii^ 

McCreedy, Margaret Ann 4', 49 

McGaffin. S.vlvia Edith (alias of Rosemary Leary) 70, n, i6 

McKelvey, William ^ 

McLean, Judge Edward C 1^^ 

McMillan, William — ^°' tr, 

McNeills. William John (alias of Timothy Francis Leary) <0, 7-, i6 

M 

Madrid ^| 

Mafia ---•- r ^ 

"Man on Most Wanted List Captured in New Orleans" (newspaper) 

article) IJ^ 

Mantel, David Lee -^ 

Mantell, David Leigh T% 

Marihuana or Hashish Oil Laboratory (photograph) lo 



Marihuana Tax Act- 



11 



Martin, David ^ 

Martino, David Russell (Leary's son-in-law) 85 

Martino, Dennis John 37, 85 

Maru (code name) 36,37 

May, Edward Joseph 26, 79 

"Meet the Passport Lady : She Worries About You" (newspaper article)— 76 
Memorandums concerning passport fraud case of Timothy Francis Leary 
alias William John McNeills and Rosemary Leary alias Sylvia Edith 

McGaffin ; delinquent passport fraud investigations 70, 72, 73, 75 

Memorandum concerning passport fraud, fugitives 69 

Mexico 4, 7, 10, 18, 92 

Mexico City 7 

Miami 51 

Miami News (newspaper) 105 

Middle East 80, 81, 82 

Miles, Steven Louis 86 

Milgram, James 106 

Millbrook, X.Y 10, 18 

Monier, Donald 3 

Montreal. Canada 41 

Morrell, Walter David 86 

Morro Bay 37 

Mosley, Christopher 91 

Mosley, John 91 

Mosley, Kathy 91 



VI 

Page. 

Mosley, Paula 91 

Mosley, Richard 91 

Muhaiumed Ali 81 

Mimdt, Senator Karl 114 

Murphy, Patrick V 104 

Murray, Dennis 91 

Murray, John 91 

Murray, Kathy 91 

Murray. Peter 91 

Murray, Richard 91 

N 

National Crime Information Center TO 

National Institute of Mental Health 14 

Nebraska 91 

Neilan, Edward 46, 76 

Nelson, Daniel 108 

New Jersey 58, 91 

New Jersey Turnpike 104 

New Orleans 58, 104, 105 

New York 10, 19, 22, 28, 51, 73, 80, 82, 83, 96, 104, 106, 107 

New York Municipal Court TJ 

New York Times (newspaper) 42,72 

Newman, James Carroll III 86 

Newsweek (magazine) 81 

Norpel, John R., Jr 1 

Nichols, Lee Allen 86 

Nigro, Fred 108 

Nixon administration 90 



Oakland, Calif 37, 105 

O'Dowd, John 2, 39, 61, 62, 64 

Office of Security 9, 44, 68-72, 74, 75, 91-93 

O'Leary, Jeremiah 106 

Oliphant, George 20 

OMB (Office of Manpower and Budget) 75, 112 

"Operation BEL" 21-24 

Orange County, Calif 21,22,26,30,73 

Orange County grand jury 28 

Oregon 22 

Otto, Daniel 108 

Otto, Jimmy Gregg 79 

P 

Pacific Coast Highway 32 

Padilla, Gerald James 26, 79 

Page, Ralph 105 

Palentchar. Robert 1(>4 

Palma, Franklin 80 

Panther Defense Fund 81 

"Paper Trip, The" (book) 50-55 

Paris 7, 41 

Park Plaza Hotel 107 

"Passjiort Change Is Under Study" (newspaper article) 43 

Passport Office 2 . 

9, 3(J-42, 48, 50, 53, 54, 59, 53~-^5, 67-71. T3-76, 91-94. 96, 111-110 

Budget data HI, 

Legal Division 3<j 

53, 70, 74, 92, 93, 96, 97 
Legislative Proposals and Bills Introduced in Congress for the Relief 

ot the Passport Office 1950-73 114 

Ta.sk Force ~_~ 64 

Year-end report I 116 



VII 

Page. 

Pennsylvania ^ 

Petacque, Art ^*^° 

Philadelphia 'J 

Philadelphia Sunday Bulletin (newspaper) 46, <6 

Plavboy magazine 9 

Pohl, Gerald 80 

Pooley, Michael Lee 21,80 

Port au Prince, Haiti lOT 

Portland, Oreg 21 

Postal Seryico 39, 40, 57 

Pratt. Jill Barnett 27,80 

Pratt. Stanford Leon 27, 80, 86 

President, the 42 

Puerto Rico 92, 107 

Purvis, Carl Edward 106 

R 

Randall, Michael . 23 

Randall, Michael Boyd ^— 21,22,28,29,31-34,79,86 

Reagan, Governor 82 

Reddy. David Mark 80 

Redwood City, Calif 53 

Ritchie, Jame.s 71 

River.side County, Calif 28 

Rudd, Mark 83 

S 

St. Louis, Mo 6, 15, 17 

Salt Lake City 48 

Samples of fraudulent documents of identification obtained and used by 

members of the Brotherhood of Eternal Love 97 

San Francisco 19, 22, 23, 28, 29, 32, 47, 72, 73, 74, 104, 105 

San Luis Abispo, Calif 73 

Sand. Nicholas 6, 13, 23, 27, 32, 34, 79 

Sandoz Chemical Works 18,19 

Santa Cruz. Calif 23 

Santo Domingo 107 

Schaffer, Robert Yerne 105,106 

Scott, Charles Frederick 27, 79 

Scroggs, Raymond 71 

Scully, Robert Timothy _ 79 

Scully, Timothy 23 

Seale, Bobby 80 

Sear, Moray 104, 105 

Seattle 9 32 

Secretary of State 32 

Sexton, Gordon Albert 27, 79 

Shipley, Mrs. Ruth B 111 

Shakur, Zayd Malik , 104 

Sicily .6 

Sifly, Raymond-- : : . 1 

Simmons, Peter David 26 

Sinclair, John 48 

Sinclair, Loyd 2-4, 7-14, 18-25, 28-32, 34, 46 

"Slaying of Informer Linked to Latin Passport Fraud" (newspaper ar- 
ticle) 106 

Smith, Bernice Lee 26, 79, 86 

Smith. Joe 106 

Sourwine, J. G 1-78 

Southeast Asia 7, 18 

Springfield, Mo 11 

Stanton, Mark Patrick 26, 79 

Stark, Ronald Hadley ^ 14,22,79 

Statement of Legal Division Personnel Requests Over the Past Several 
Tears 60 



VJII 

Page. 

Strange, Ernest Donald 2, 3, 8, 9, 12, 19, 22, 28-35, 37, 83 

Stevens, James Robert 86 

Stone, John Leroy 86 

Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) 20 

•'Subverters, The" (book) 59 

Summary of Passport Frauds Committed by Brotherhood of Eternal Love 

(chart) 109 

Superioi- Court Division of Orange County 32 

Supreme Court 11 

Sweden 40 

Switzerland 20, 47 

T 

Tanenbaum, Robert 104. 105 

Tarabochia, Alfonso 1 

Tarr, Dr. Curtis W 72,75 

Tarte, Alden Sanford 105 

Tennessee 98 

Texas 10 

"Three Arrested in Breakup of Fake Driver License Ring" (newspaper 

article) 108 

Thurmond, Senator Strom 44, 59, 71 

Thurston. Craig Don 87 

Tiemey, Robert Edward 27. 79 

Tigar, Michael 31. 32, 34 

Tokhi, Amanullah 24.27, 79 

Tokhi brothers 4 

Tokhi, HayatuUah 24, 27, 79 

Torres, Juan Miranda 107 

Tower, Senator John G 115 

Treasury Department 10, 90 

Trjtjoli 81 

"Trooper. Militant Die in N.J. Clash" (newspaper article) 104 

Tucker, William 105 

Tucson, Ariz 48 

Tunis 81 

Turkey 7, 18 

V 

U.N. Narcotics Laboratory 1 

Union Corse 6 

Unione Siciliano 6 

United States 2, 

4, 6, 7, 10, 13, 19, 20, 21, 23, 24, 40, 42, 44, 47, 48, 50, 51, 54, 58, 59, 
65, 66, 68, 70, 78, 80, 81, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 106, 107, 113 

Attorney 46, 63, 64, 70 

Government 66, 67 

University of California 29 

UPI (United Press International) 81 

"U.S. Driver's License Gi;ide" 53 

"U.S. Losing Drug Smuggling War" (newspaper column) 38,90 

"U.S. Orders a Study of Pa.ssport System" (new.spaper article) 42 

V 

Vancouver, British Columbia 21 

Vietnamese, North 80 

W 

Walt, Gen. Lewis W 1,28 

Walters, Saul 87 

Washington 9, 28, 46, 65, 76 

Wa>shington Merry -Go-Round (newspaper column) 38 

Washington Passport Agency 56 

Washington Post (newspaper) 38,54,90,104 

Washington Star (newspaper) 43,106 



IX 

Page. 
, 104 

Affairs 83 

Weather underground -^ .-,q 24 30~31,37. 48 

Weathermen _"_'_r_'__-— ' 115 

Weicker, Congressman Lowell P ^2 

White House, the "IIIIIIIIIIII I— 38,90 

Whitten, Les 87 

Wilenchik, Mitchell Allen " gy 

Wilson, Robert David, Jr ~_ 3^ 

World War II 

Y 

106 

Yrguarte, Tiffany 



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