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Jtartoarti College liftrarg 





Established in 1908 









Harvrt.r: Oulogre Library 

3 driest of 


1/ Jao.1894 

Entered according to Act of Provincial Parliament in the Office of the Pro- 
thonotary, Quebec, 5th August, 1834. 

Entered, August 29th, 1834, in the Office of the Clerk for the Southern District 
of New- York. 



Preface, ix* 

Introduction of the subject • •• 1 


Historical sketch of discovery, previous to the time of 
Jacques Cartier. — Madoc, Prince of Wales — Claim of 
the Norwegians — Period of Modern Discovery — Co- 
lumbus — John and Sebastian Cabot — Voyage of Cor- 
tereal — Discovery by the French — Giovanni Verazzano 
- -Canon de bronze 8. 


Historical sketch continued. — First and second voyages 
of Jacques Cartier. — Discovery of Canada — and of Que- 
bec — Description of Stadacona, and the harbor of St. 
Croix — Discovery of Hochelaga, or Montreal — Return 
to St. Croix — Disastrous winter of 1536 — Return to 
France 34 


Historical sketch continued. — Third voyage of Jacques 
Cartier. — He winters at Cap Rouge — Voyage of Rober- 
val — Return of Jacques Cartier to France — Fate of 
Roberval 55 



Historical sketch continued. — Grand project of Coligny 
— Settlement in French Florida — Romantic story of the 
Chevalier De Gourgues — His speech in Champlain 
— Abortive voyage of La Roche — Other voyages — 
Pontgrave— Chauvin 71 


Historical sketch concluded. — First voyage of Champlain 
— Enterprises of De Monts— Foundation of Quebec... 89 

Etymology of the words Canada and Quebec. — The Suf- 
folk Seal— Account of the Duke of Suffolk 107 

The Castle of St. Lewis. — Foundation — Capture by Kertk 
— Remarkable scene therein — Described by La Potherie 
and by Charlevoix — Destruction by fire — Stanzas 128 

Ancient appearance of the City. — General description — 
The Citadel— The fortifications 149 

Religious establishments — Ancient and Modern. — Recollet 
Church and Convent — Jesuit's College — Hotel Dieu 
— Ursuline Convent — Seminary of Quebec — General 
Hospital 175 

Religious establishments concluded. — French Cathedral 
Church of the Congregation — St Roch— Notre Dame — 
des Victoires — Prophecy — English Cathedral — Monu- 
ments — Other places of worship — St. Andrew's Church 
—St. John's— St Patrick's— Wesleyan Chapel 222 

lutendant*s Palace. — Bishop's Palace — Parliament House 
— Court House — Government offices — Jail — Freeraa- 
sorV Hall — Chien d'Or — Montcalm House — Marine 
Hospital— Chasseur's Museum — Places of Education... 344 


Monument to Wolfe and Montcalm. — Ceremony on 
laying: the first stone — Inscriptions — Stanzas — Captain 
Alexander 265 

The Lower Town — Earliest notice — Trade— Manners — 
Climate in 1700 — Description in 1720 — Present state 
and public buildings — Exchange — Trinity House — 
Banks — Other buildings — Corporation Seal 282 

Sieges of Quebec. — Capture in 1629 — Repulse of Phipps, 
in 1690 — Abortive attempt in 1711 — Expedition in 
1759 — Preliminary sketch — Convention at Albany — 
Governor Pownall — General Townshend's Despatches 
— Battle of the Plains — Death of Wolfe — Intended 
Monument — Death of Montcalm 298 

Sieges continued. — Memorabilia of 1759 — Fraser's High- 
lander's — Anecdotes 373 

Sieges continued. — Reception of the news in England — 
Chronological series of occurrences there — Promotions, 
&c 399 

Sieges continued. — General Murray's defeat — His des- 
patches — Final acquisition of Canada 410 


Sieges concluded — Arnold's expedition in 1775— Siege 
and storming on the 31st December — Death of Montgo- 
mery 422 

Geology of Quebec and the vicinity — General character of 
the environs — Extract from Bouchette — Conclusion... 442 





My Lord, 

When His late Majesty King George the 
Fourth was graciously pleased to confer the honor 
of Commander-in-Chief of his Armies in India, on 
your Lordship, the capital of the British dominions 
in North America hailed it, amidst regret for your 
departure, as a proud mark of the Sovereign's favor, 
and approbation of your Lordship's long and ardu- 
ous administration of the Government of this part of 
the King's dominions. 


Convinced, my Lord, that whatever relates to the 

renown of this important and interesting city will not 

be unacceptable to yon, I beg leave to dedicate the 

following pages to your Lordship : they may serve 

to recall to your mind the portion of your valuable 

public life, passed in this quarter of the world, in 

which the honor of the King and the best interests 

of the Province were so conspicuously upheld by 

your Lordship. 

I have the honor to be, 

My Lord, 

Your Lordship's, 

Faithful and devoted Servant, 

47, St. Lewis Street, 

Quebec, November 10th, 1834. 


Some delay has unavoidably taken place in the pub- 
lication of this work, but the subject is so full of 
interest that it was found impossible to confine it 
within the bounds originally intended, namely, a 
volume of two hundred and forty pages. 

With a desire, therefore, of embracing the most 
important historical facts connected with this city, 
I have availed myself of the valuable information 
which has been kindly afforded by several gentlemen 
conversant with the early history of this coun- 
try ; and I beg to express my acknowledgments to 
those gentlemen, and to the many friends who have 
taken an active interest in the progress of this work. 
I should be wanting, indeed, in justice, if I did not 
here express how deeply sensible I am of the obliga- 
I tions which I owe to A. Thom, Esquire, M. A. for 
the original Prospectus of this work, which has been 
duly estimated wherever it has been read ; and I es- 
teem myself particularly fortunate in having obtained 
the assistance of J. C. Fisher, Esquire, L. L, D., 
who arranged and classified the various materials sub- 
mitted to him, and from whose classical pen the 
greatest portion of the following pages proceeds. 

A. II. 







The year 1759, so remarkable for the successes of 
the British arms, and which reflected such lustre up- 
on the expiring reign of George the Second, found 
the frontiers of Canada the chief seat of war between 
Great Britain and France. The successful result of 
a campaign, planned with singular skill, and executed 
with equal valour and conduct, placed the whole of 
the French possessions in America under the standard 
of Great Britain. The capture of the city and 
Fortress of Quebec, remarkably strong both by na- 
ture and art, was an achievement of so romantic a 
character, so distinguished by chivalrous enterprise, 
and so fraught with singular adventure, that the in* 
terest attending it still remains undiminished, and 
its glorious recollections unfaded. By the subse- 
quent capitulation, a most important Province was 
wrested from the French, and reduced under the 
British sceptre — the population of which, fostered by 
the strength and generosity of British protection, 


has grown from seventy thousand to half a million 
of souls, enjoying a degree of rational liberty and 
happiness unequalled on the surface of the globe. 
Not less in an historical than in a national point of 
view, the battle of the Plains of Abraham calls up 
the proudest feelings of patriotic exultation. The 
various advantages derived by the empire from the 
accession of so large a territory, are not more obvious 
to the statesman, than the virtue and heroism of the 
youthful leader of the expedition, and the bravery 
of his troops, are themes of just pride to the lover of 
his country. Young in years, but mature in expe- 
rience, Wolfe possessed all the liberal virtues, in 
addition to a perfect, an enthusiastic knowledge of the 
military art ; with a sublimity of genius always 
the distinguishing mark of minds above the ordinary 
level of mankind. His glorious and lamented death 
in the arms of victory — together with that of his 
gallant antagonist, Montcalm, by whom nothing was 
omitted in the power of an able and zealous officer 
to perform, — have thrown a classic celebrity around 
the subject of the present volume, and render Que- 
bec an object of attention and curiosity to the intel- 
ligent of every country. 

Whatever may be the future destiny of this re- 
markable city, whether as the Metropolis of the 
flourishing Colonies of British North America, * the 
Royal Standard of Great Britain shall continue to 
wave for ages over the battlements of its Citadel 
— rquod sit Diis visum ! — or whether in the course of 
time a new and independent empire shall spring up 
on this Continent, allied to and connected with 
Great' Britain by the remembrance of past benefits, 
tffe ^enjoyment of free institutions and of reciprocal 
mercantile advantages, Quebec, either on the ground 


of its ancient historic feme, its natural sublimity, or 
its political and commercial importance, must ever 
maintain a superior rank among the cities of the 
western world* Whatever may be thy future destiny, 
no generous stranger shall hereafter visit thee, Que-' 
bec, or wander along the classic shores of thy Saint 
Lawrence, and not gaze on the prospect before him 
with unrepressed delight — no liberal mind shall be 
insensible to the beauties of thy locality — none shall 
leave thee without acknowledging the moral and 
physical grandeur of thy associations, and without 
feeling the soul elevated by the recollection of thy 
bygone glories, both of religion and of arms ! 
While history blushes for the cruelties which tar- 
nished the Spanish occupation of Hispaniola — and 
while, in Mexico and Peru, Cortes and Pizarro sul- 
lied their glory, and moved the horror of Las Casas, 
by a war of extermination against the heathen 
tenants of the soil — here in Quebec was established 
from the earliest period at which the Colony acquired 
strength, an organized system for the conversion and 
civilisation of the Aborigines, by means of the Cross, 
not of the sword* Here peaceful pursuits were 
chiefly followed, and a friendly intercourse maintain- 
ed with the savages by means of zealous Priest?, who 
plunged fearlessly into the trackless forest, imparting 
to the wild hunter the practical results of the arts of 
civilisation, and the holy inspirations of revealed re- 
ligion. The attachment of the French to the Indian 
tribes among whom they "were thrown, may be justly 
supposed to have sprung from the hospitable recep- 
tion which the early settlers met with from the na- 
tives on their first coming to the land. The very 
earliest record, indeed, places them in the '4ty|jtst 
amiable light ; and leads to the mortifying conclu- 


sion, that Europeans, generally speaking, either 
never discovered the true methods of conciliation, or 
that they seldom remembered them in practice. The 
incident alluded to occurred in the second voyage of 
Verazzano, in 1525, and is to be found originally in 
Ramusio, Vol. III. p. 421. At the desire of 
Verazzano, a young sailor had undertaken to swim to 
land and accost the natives ; but when he saw the 
crowds which thronged the beach, he repented of his 
purpose, and although within a few yards of the 
landing place, his courage failed, and he attempted 
to turn back. At this moment the water only reach- 
ed his waist ; but overcome with terror and exhaus- 
tion, he had scarcely strength to cast his presents 
and trinkets upon the beach, when a high wave 
threw him senseless on the shore. The savages 
ran immediately to his assistance, took him up in 
their arms, and carried him a short distance from the 
sea. Great was his terror when, upon recovering 
his recollection, he found himself entirely in their 
power. Stretching his hands towards the ship, he 
uttered piercing cries, to which the natives replied 
by loud yells intended, as he afterwards found, to 
reassure him. They then carried him to the foot of 
a hill, stripped him naked, turned his face to the sun, 
and kindled a large fire near him. He was fully im- 
pressed with the horrible thought that they were 
about to sacrifice him to the sun : his companions on 
board, unable to render him any assistance, were of 
the same opinion. They thought, to use Verazzano's 
own words, " that the natives were going to roast 
and eat him." Their fears, however, were soon 
turned to gratitude and astonishment : the savages 
dried his clothes, warmed him, and showed him every 
mark of kindness, caressing and patting his white skin 


with apparent surprise. They then dressed him, con- 
ducted him to the beach, tenderly embraced him, and 
pointing to the vessel, removed to a little distance to 
show that he was at liberty to return to his friends. 
Tims did the untutored Indians treat the first European 
they had seen with true Christian charity — the phi- 
lanthropist laments to add, that it is doubtful whe- 
ther violence was not offered to the first of our red 
brethren who fell into the power of the white dis- 

rsers of civilisation. The efforts of the Jesuits 
the conversion and instruction of the savages — 
the universal kindness and benevolence of the Mis- 
nonaries wherever they succeeded in establishing 
themselves, perpetuated this friendly spirit towards 
die French among the neighboring Indians, so often 
exemplified in the annals of the country, and which 
remained after the cession of the Province in 1763. 
A proof of this feeling may yet be found in the Hu- 
ron Village and establishment of Lorette, where the 
remnant of those Aborigines were protected by 
the French ; and where they survive at this day, 
shorn, it is true, of their ancient power and domi- 
nion over the forest, but still entertaining friendship 
and respect for, and receiving protection from those 
who now rule the land of their forefathers. It may 
be well questioned, whether an Indian settlement so 
situated, under the very walls, as it were, of the ca- 
pital, can now be found in any province or part of 
the western hemisphere*. These are some of the 
peaceful and moral glories which throw such interest 
around the history and locality of Quebec. As to her 
claims to military renown, it need only be remem- 
bered, that it has been the peculiar fortune of Que- 
bec to be the arena of a conflict which affected the 
strength and influence of two of the most powerful 

a 2 



and highly civilised nations of the old world, Great 
Britain and France. Quebec is the only city on 
the North American Continent which has been re- 
gularly fortified, and which has resisted the sieges 
and assaults of disciplined troops. When it last fell, 
the whole French system of colonial empire fell 
with it — a system which, had it been followed with 
vigor equal to the conception, might have proved 
fatal to the interests of the English colonists — and a 
colonial empire which extended from the Gulf of 
St. Lawrence to the mouth of the Mississippi. The 
result of this conflict, and the circumstances which 
achieved that result, render Quebec peculiarly inte- 
resting to every true Briton ; while the conse- 
quences, so favorable to the liberty of the subject, 
and the full development of the resources of the co- 
lony, have converted the field of military defeat into 
a scene of civil triumph in the estimation of every 
loyal Canadian. To either race the ground is sa- 
cred. To the one, the Plains of Abraham are at 
once the Hastings and the Runnimede of the other. 
By our brethren of the Union, the site of Quebec 
cannot be visited without peculiar interest. The 
great event which consecrated the Heights of Abra- 
ham, while it for ever extinguished French domi- 
nion in America, established the security of the 
English colonists of that day, and eventually laid 
the foundation of the present gigantic republic. 

The scenic beauty of Quebec has been the theme 
of general eulogy. The majestic appearance of 
Cape Diamond and the fortifications — the cupolas 
and minarets, like those of an eastern city, blazing 
and sparkling in the sun — .the loveliness of the pa- 
norama — the noble basin, like a sheet of purest sil- 
ver,, in which might ride with safety an hundred sail 


of the line — the graceful meandering of the River 
St Charles — the numerous village spires on either 
ride of the St Lawrence-— the fertile fields dotted 
with innumerable cottages, the abodes of a rich and 
moral peasantry — the distant Falls of Montmorency 
— the park-like scenery of Pointe Levi— the beau- 
teous isle of Orleans — and more distant still, the 
frowning Cap Tourment, and the lofty range of 
purple mountains of the most picturesque forms 
which bound the prospect, unite to make a coup 
(fcoilj which, without exaggeration, is. scarcely to be 
mi p M B cd in any part of the world. If the scientific 
tmveller, amid the sensations experienced on scan- 
ning the various beauties of the scene, should recall 
to mind, in ascending the highest elevation of the 
promontory, that he is standing- upon the margin of 
tike primeval and interminable forest, extending 
from a narrow selvage of civilisation to the Arctic 
regions, he will admit that the position of Quebec is 
unique in itself and that in natural sublimity it 
tends, as to the cities of the continent, unrivalled, 
and alone* 




Before we proceed to the descriptive portion of 
our volume, it has been thought necessary to give a 
sketch of the progress of maritime discovery in this 
part of the continent, with historical notices and 
recollections connected with the capital of British 
North America. The original volumes in which 
the voyages of the discoverers, and the early annals 
of the country are to be found, are not always easy 
of access by general readers ; many being contained 
in scarce and costly works, or in the scattered frag- 
ments of more recondite authorities. The present 
essay has therefore been compiled to furnish a com- 
prehensive manual of the progress of civilisation in 
the Province, as an appropriate introduction to the 
immediate object of this publication. Although this 
subject has been treated by various authors, whose 
books are familiar to the public, we trust that some 
new matter, or some facts placed in a novel point of 
view, will be found to repay the reader for the time 
bestowed in the perusal of this chapter. 

If the existence of the New World, as it has fre- 
quently been called, from the late period of its dis- 
covery, was unknown to the Ancients, it would seem 
with some show of reason to have been not altoge- 
ther unsuspected by them. From several passages 


it is certain that an idea was entertained, that it was 
easy to sail from the western coast of Spain to the 
eastern shores of India. They had, however, no 
idea of the magnitude of the globe, and imagined 
that a few days would be sufficient for such a 
voyage. The existence of an immense continent 
intervening between their point of departure and the 
extreme shores of India, was beyond their concep- 
tion, as it was of the early European navigators. 
The object of the first adventurers of whom any 
tiling certain has reached us, was a passage to India, 
and it may be said that they stumbled upon Ame- 
rica in their route. Aristotle, Strabo, Pliny and 
Seneca entertained the crude opinion mentioned 
above. Strabo alone seems to have imagined the 
distance between the two continents, when he says, 
that the ocean encompasses all the earth ; that in 
the east it washes the coast of India, and in the west 
those of Africa and Spain, and that, if the vastness 
of the Atlantic did not hinder, they might soon sail 
from the one to the other upon the same parallel. 
The following remarkable passage is from the 
Medea of Seneca, the Tragedian : — 

Venient annis 
Saecula sens, quibtis Ocean us 
Vincula rerum laxet, et ingens 
Pateat tell us, Tiphysque novos 
Detegat orbee, nee sit terris 

Ultima Thule. 

" There will come a time in after ages, when 
u the ocean will loose the bonds of matter, and 
u a vast country will be discovered, and a second 
u Tiphys will reveal new worlds, and Thule shall 
u no longer be the extremity of the earth." And 
in a book, ascribed to Aristotle, the Carthagi- 


nians are stated to have discovered, far beyond the i 
pillars of Hercules, an Island in the Atlantic Ocean, { 
of great extent and fertility, watered by large and | 
magnificent rivers, but entirely uninhabited* This ; 
enterprising people are said to have planted a colony i 
there, which was afterwards recalled, owing to some j 
political objection, which forbad distant colonization* . :) 
The Tyrians are also said to have evinced some in- 3 
tention of occupying this Island, and were proceed* 4 
ing to carry their purpose into execution, when q 
they were prevented by the jealousy of the Cartha- j 
ginians. It was pretended by some writers that : 
this Island was Hispaniola, by others, one of the > 
Azores. The boldness of the Carthaginian naviga- , 
tors is sufficiently authenticated ; and however we , 
maybe inclined to doubt the probability of their 
having ventured as far as the West Indies of mo- 
dern days, it is by no means impossible that they 
had acquired some imperfect notion of Islands and 
lands in the western hemisphere. One fact, how* 
ever, is clearly ascertained, that their belief in the 
existence of such Islands or continent did not induce 
any subsequent colony to go in search of them ; nor 
is there any reason to believe, that America received 
any portion of its early inhabitants from civilised 
Europe, prior to the close of the fifteenth century. 

We may here mention a curious passage in the 
lost writings of Cornelius Nepos, quoted by Pompo- 
nius Mela : " A king of the Boii made Quintus 
" Metellus Celer then Proconsul of Gaul, a pre* 
" sent of some Indians who had been thrown by ft 
" tempest on the coast of Germany." The Roman* 
concluded from this circumstance, that coming, at 
these savages did, from India, it was practicable to 
make the tour of Asia and Europe round the north* 


by traversing the imaginary ocean which, as they 
•opposed, occupied the site of Siberia and of the 
north of Russia. This explanation cannot now be 
admitted ; but the feet still remains, that Indians, or 
dsrk eomplexioned people of some nation or other, 
actually, reached the coast of Germany or Gaul, 
Maui time before the year of Rome, 694, the eom~ 
aencement of Caesar's conquests. In all probabi- 
lity, they were Esquimaux, either from Labrador or 
Greenland. The same circumstance again occurred 
id 1680 and 1684. In Wallace's Account of Ok- 
aey, it is mentioned that some Greenlanders arrived 
there in 'the kind of boats peculiar to them, which 
we preserved in the Church of Barra, and in the 
College Museum of Edinburgh. 


On the discovery of America by Columbus, seve- 
ral prior claims were attempted to be put in by dif- 
ferent nations, founded on tradition ; and stories 
were revived which had been well nigh consigned to 
oblivion. The claim advanced by the Welch merits 
relation, as having been made by a people of kin- 
died stock with ourselves. Their tradition respect- 
ing the discovery of America is, that about the year 
1170, one of their Princes, Madoc, son of Owen 
Guyneth, Prince of North Wales, sailed to the New 
World, and there established a colony of his coun- 
trymen. The cause of his emigration is stated to 
be this : — the sons of Owen disputed the division 
tf their father's dominions, and Madoc fearing the 
consequences of the disunion, like another Teucer, 
(bote to seek a new habitation in a foreign land, 
jj other than to hazard the dangers of civil convulsion. 


He is said to have steered due west, leaving Ireland 
on the north ; and thus to have arrived at an un- 
known country, the continent of America, on which 
he landed. He afterwards returned to Wales, and 
took thence a second supply of people, but was no 
more heard of. The objections to this story are its 
improbability, and want of supporting evidence. 
The Welsh were at no period a naval people ; and 
in the age of Madoc, must have been ignorant of all 
navigation, but that of rivers and coasts. It should, 
however, be mentioned in justice to the claims of 
our Welsh fellow countrymen, that this tale was by 
no means invented after the real discovery of Ame- 
rica, in order to establish a fabricated title. Mere- 
dith Ap Rees, who died in 1477, a famous Welsh 
poet, composed an ode ia honor of this Madoc, i 
wherein was handed down the tradition, with an ac- i 
count of his discoveries, several years anterior to the ; 
time of Columbus. Of the tradition itself there can * 
be no doubt. Indeed, in an American publication a * 
few years ago, we have seen it stated, in reference to i 
this supposed voyage of Madoc, that a people quite f 
distinct from the Aborigines, both as to language - 
and physiognomy, had been lately discoveredin 
Mexico, and were supposed to be descendants from 
the colony of Madoc. Their language was said to ? 
be somewhat similar to the ancient British, or Celtic; te 
and several Celtic words have also been traced in ~ 
the Mexican tongue. The Celtic is undoubtedly 
one of the most ancient languages, and its roots may 
still be found in most of those of the civilised world,* 
from the Persian to the Scottish, Irish and Welsh* 
A few words may have been adopted into the Mexi* 
can ; it is indeed mentioned, by Vater, that he hud fi 
found eighteen Celtic words in ten American lao-^ 


guages. The traditions of the Celtic nations, and 
those derived from them, have always been of the 
most marvellous quality — witness the fanciful Tro- 
jan origin of the first settler in Britain, Brutus, who 
kindly Destowed his name on the sea-girt Island ; and 
the derivation of the Irish Celts from positive and 
direct emigration of Egyptian, Phoenician, Greek 
and Milesian origin, under various imaginary lead- 
en, all and several of whom, as well as an intermi- 
nable list of kings, are gravely set down in the 
veracious Chronicles of Eri. 


America must have been known to the barbarous 
tribes of Asia for thousands of years ; but it is sin- 
gular that it should have been visited by one of the 
most enterprising nations of Europe, nearly five cen- 
turies before the time of Columbus, without awaken- 
ing the attention of either statesmen or philosophers. 
The Norwegians, with far higher pretensions than 
the Welsh, founded their claim to the early disco- 
rery of America on their well known voyages to Ice- 
land and Greenland in the tenth and eleventh centu- 
ries ; and having undoubtedly penetrated within so 
ahort a distance from the New World, they may fairly 
be supposed to have touched on some part of that Cott- 
le tinent in their annual voyages for nearly three cen- 
turies, distinguished as the old Northmen were by 
their enterprise, hardihood and love of adventure. 
In the year 1001, Biorn is said, in Icelandic manu- 
scripts of good reputation, to have landed on the 
toast of Labrador, where he met with the Esqui- 
maux, whom he called Skraelitigues, from their very 
diminutive stature. In the following year it has 



been maintained, on reasonable evidence, that they 
had a settlement in Newfoundland, which they called 
Vinland, from the vines growing there. We shall 
find that the same fondness for the vine, and a simi- 
lar abundance of that tree, induced Jacques Cartier 
to give the name of " Isle of Bacchus," to what is 
now termed the Isle of Orleans. They passed the 
winter there, and found that on the shortest day the 
sun rose at eight o'clock, which fixes the place of 
their visit to the 49th degree, the latitude of New- 
foundland, or of the River St. Lawrence. The follow- 
ing story is amusing : — One day a German sailor of 
the name of Tuckil was missing, but soon returned 
shouting and leaping for joy ; having, as he said, dis- 
covered the intoxicating grape of his own. country, 
the expressed juice of which, according to the story, 
had had its usual effect upon his brain. To prove 
the truth of his assertion, he led some of his com- 
rades to the fortunate spot, and they gathered seve- 
ral bunches of grapes, which they presented in tri- 
umph to their commander, who called the country, 
in consequence, Vinland. This ancient settlement, 
however, after some years, seems to have been relin- 
quished, although it is believed that some traces of 
it have lately been discovered! 
' We find it mentioned in Haliburton's History of 
Nova-Scotia, that the wild vine is well known there ; 
and all New England abounds with the wild purple 
grape, some vines of which are very prolific. There 
id the best evidence that it may be turned to ac- 
count in the manufacture of wine. An American 
writer observes, that there is not the slightest doubt 
that this vine may be cultivated so as to yield a 
thousand fold more than now, of large and finer 
fruit ; and the product will be abundant of almost 


any flavored wine the manufacturer may choose. 
The pure juice, lightly expressed, and somewhat 
sweetened with sugar, will furnish a wine of most 
delicate flavor, similar in color and taste to a Fron- 
tignac and Muscat; and the quality may be changed 
by a stronger expression of the astringent qualities 
of the skins, until the wine will, in that respect, run 
through all the varieties of claret and port, still re- 
taining, however, much of the original Muscat 

A Danish gentleman, of the , name of Rafn, 
who has been engaged in researches respecting 
these early voyages, has ascertained from original 
documents, various facts previously unknown ; 
among others, that America, first discovered in 985, 
was repeatedly visited by the Norwegians in the 
eleventh, twelfth and thirteenth centuries — that the 
embouchure of the St. Lawrence, and in particular the 
Bay of Gaspe, was their principal station — that 
they had penetrated along the coast, as far south as 
Carolina, and that they introduced a knowledge of 
Christianity among the natives. We understand 
that he is preparing a work on this subject. And 
the accounts of the voyages of the old Scandina- 
vians to America, have lately gained a new confir- 
mation, by the discovery of a Runic stone : which, in 
the year 1824, was found under 73° N. latitude, on 
the coast of Greenland. The inscription translated 
is as follows : — " Erling Sigvalson, and Biorn Hor- 
" deson, and Endride Addson, Saturday before 
* Gagnday (Rogation Day) the 25th April, erected 
" these heaps of stone, and cleared the place in the 
" year 1135." 



We now come to a period at which may be dated 
the real discovery of the American Continent The 
invention of the compass had given courage to the 
timid navigators of the fifteenth century. They no 
longer coasted along the shores, and sought popula- 
rity and applause by visiting Islands adjoining the 
continent of Africa. The discoverer of unknown 
regions, ardent in the pursuit of knowledge, of 
glory, and of gain, and proud in the patronage of 
princes, verified die description of Horace, and 
launched boldly into the Atlantic main : — 

llli robur et ses triplex 
Circa pectus erat, qui fragilem truci 

Commisit pelago ratem 
Primus, nee timuit praecipitem Africum 

Decertantem Aquilonibus, 

Nee tristes Hyadas, nee iabiem noti ; 

# # # # 

# # # # 

Quern mortis timuit gradum 
Qui siccis oculis monstra natantia, 

Qui vidit mare turgidum et 
Infames scopules ? 

Or oak, or brass, with triple fold 

Around that daring mortal's bosom roll'd, 

Who first to the wild ocean's rage 

Launch'd the frail bark, and heard the winds engage 

Tempestuous, when the South descends 

Precipitate, and with the North contends ; 

Nor fear'd the stars portending rain, 

Nor the loud tyrant of the western main. 

# # # # 

# # # # 

What various forms of death could fright 

The man, who viewed with fix'd, unshaken sight, 

The floating monsters, waves infiam'd 

And rocks for shipwreck'd fleets ill-fam'd ? 



though the honor of the discovery of the New 
Id may be divided among three powers of Eu- 
, and each be content with a share of the fame 
3 West Indies having been discovered by the 
; Columbus, in 1492, for the Spaniards — New* 
lland, and the continent now called the United 
«, by the English, under John and Sebastian 
t, in 1497 and 1498 — and Canada by the 
ch, under Jacques Carrier, in 1535, we are ne- 
eless disposed to claim for the English the 
ipal merit of the discovery. We contend, that 
lendently of England having first entertained 
ropositions of Columbus in 1488, the absolute 
very of Newfoundland; by John Cabot, in 1497, 
it before Columbus discovered South America 
» mouth of the Orinoco, gives to the English 
defeasible title to the first discovery of the 
•ican Continent, although no steps were taken 
many years afterwards to establish the British 
dancy over the countries in question, 
is generally known, that the object which en- 
1 the ambition, excited the cupidity, and stimu- 
the adventures of the early navigators, was the 
rery of a passage to India and the spice coun- 
by sailing round the Southern extremity of 
% ; and thence taking an Eastern course — a 
re which was afterwards successfully effected by 
> de Gama, the famous Portuguese navigator, 
97. The Venetians are said to have had some 
nation about the West Indies in the year 1424. 
certain that about the year 1 474, the renowned 
abus, Colombo, or Colon, as he is respectively 

b 2 


called, a native of the Genoese territory, struck out 
a new and ingenious theory ; by which he contended 
on rational and philosophical principles, drawn from 
the sphericity and magnitude of the earth, which at 
that period had been ascertained — that a shorter and 
more direct passage to the East Indies might be 
found by steering across the Atlantic due West 
After first offering the result of his conviction to the 
Genoese Republic, his native land, by which it was 
neglected — afterwards to the King of Portugal, who 
basely endeavored to take advantage of the project 
without employing its author in the execution — 
Columbus proceeded to Spain, having first sent his 
brother Bartholomew to England : where, after resid- 
ing for some time in poverty and neglect, owing to 
his capture by pirates on the voyage, he succeeded 
in completing and publishing a Map of the World,, 
dated 21st February, 1480, which he afterwards 
found means to present to the King, Henry VIL 
The following lines more remarkable for their subt 
ject and their antiquity than for any poetical merit, 
were inscribed upon this Map. 

Terrarum quicunque cupis feliciter oras 
Noscere, cuncta decens docte pictura docebit, 
Quae Strabo affirmat, Ptolemoeus, Plinius atque 
Isidorus ; non una tamen sententia cuique. 
Pingitur hio etiam nuper sulcata carinis 
Hispaaig zona ilia, pnus incognita genti 
Torrida, quae tandem none est notissima mnltis. 

Pro autore, give piotore. 

And a little lower were these additional lines : 

Genoa cui patria est, nomen cui Bartholomew, 
Columbus de terrfc rubra, opus edidit istud, 
Londiniis, An. Dom. 1480, atque insuper anno, 
Octava decimaque die cum tertia mensis 
Febr. Laudes Christo cantentur abundd. 


The sense of these lines is to this effect: " Who- 

* soever may desire to obtain a correct knowledge 
u of the coasts of countries, may learn from this 

* elegant engraving, all that Strabo, Ptolemy, Pliny, 
u and Isidorns assert on this subject, although they do 
" not agree on all points. Here is also set down the 
" Torrid Zone, formerly unknown, but lately sailed 
" over by Spanish ships, and now known to many. 
u A Genoese by birth, Bartholomew Colombo, of 
" the red earth, published this work at London, on 
"the 21st day of February, 1480. Praise be to 
« Christ" 

It appears that in consequence of this application, 
the King was desirous of having the subject fully 
explained to him; and with his usual sagacity seeing 
the merits of the proposal, he assented to it, and 
despatched Bartholomew in search of his brother 
Columbus, with an invitation to the English Court. 
An agreement was actually entered into between the 
King and Bartholomew in 1488, four years before 
the voyage of Columbus in the service of Isabella of 
Castile. The latter in the mean time was engaged 
in negociations with the Spanish Princes, and so 
continued until 1492 ; when wearied and disgusted 
by vexatious delays, he was on the point of returning 
to England and availing himself of the patronage of 
its Monarch. At this critical juncture, Isabella de- 
termined to patronise and forward the discoveries 
anticipated by Columbus, out of her own resources, 
generously offering her jewels towards defraying the 
expense — while her thrifty spouse, Ferdinand of 
Arragon, refused to bear any portion of the charges, 
which were supplied from the treasury of Castile 
only. Thus it appears that England had the honor 
of first admitting the proposals of Columbus ; and 


that it was by mere accident that the discovery of 
the West Indies, was subsequently made by Colum* 
bus in 1492 under Spanish, and not under British 


Henry VII. having been thus disappointed, endea- 
vored to procure the services of other mariners of 
experience, for the purpose of making discoveries on* 
the plan submitted by Bartholomew Columbus. In j 
the year 1494, two years after the discovery of the ; 
West Indies, John Cabot, a Venetian Merchant, was - 
resident in Bristol : upon whose enthusiastic spirit 3 
the deeds of Columbus had made a deep impression ; \ 
and who thought himself capable of performing ex* *■■ 
ploits as a seaman equal to those of the great Genoese*' \ 
Fired with this ambition, he made application to the' ( 
King, Henry VIL, who readily granted him Letters 1 ■ 
Patent, dated March 5th, 1495, authorizing the said ^ 
John Cabot, or Kabotto, and his sons Louis, Sebastian* t 
and Sanchez, to sail with five ships for the discovery- ^ 
of unknown regions in any part of the globe. They- ^ 
were empowered to subdue and possess them as the4 j, 
King's Lieutenants, stipulating to pay to the Crowd ^ 
one-fifth part of the net profits of the adventure, and*^ 
to return with their vessels to the port of Bristol : ^ 
The result cf this voyage was without doubt the dis-r V 
covery of North America. On the 24th day of June, j 6 
1497, they discovered the coast of Labrador, to ^ 
which they gave the name of Terra primum visa, \- 
or Primavi8ta. The opposite Island they called St 
John's, having landed there on St, John's day, tha 
24th June. This is now the Island of Newfoundland* 
Prince says, that the land discovered by Cabot 


latitude 45. If so, it was in the peninsula of 
ova Scotia, and as they coasted the land North- 
lid, they must have entered the Gulf of St Law- 
nee in pursuit of the Northern passage. John 
abot returned to England in August, 1497, and 
as presented with ten pounds by the King from his 
ivy purse as a reward to him, " who had found 
te new Isle." In February, 1498, new style, the 
ing granted to the same John Cabot second Letters 
latent, with authority to sail from any port in 
ingland, in six vessels of not more than two hun- 
red tons each, and with more favorable terms than 
efore. In this second commission, he expressly 
mentions " the lands and isles of late found by the 

said John in our name and by our commandment." 
ibout this time, however, Sir John Cabot, who had 
scerred the honor of knighthood, died ; and in the 
immer of the year 1498, Sebastian Cabot, his son, 
[though a young man of twenty three years of age, 
tts promoted to the command of the expedition, and 
died on a voyage of discovery, in search of a north- 
rest passage into the south seas. He soon reached 
Newfoundland, and proceeded as far as the 56th de- 
Tee of latitude north ; whence, being unable to dis- 
over any such passage, he returned and examined the 
une coast towards the south, until he came to the 
eautiful country, at present called Florida. Fabian 
tates, that in the fourteenth year of Henry VII. 
.499, there were in London three wild men brought 
y Cabot to the King, " taken in the new found 
sland." They were clothed in the skins of animals, 
od eat raw flesh : they spoke in a strange uncouth 
ongue, and were very brutish in their behaviour. 
9e adds, however, that such had been their improve- 
lent in the civilising atmosphere of London, that 


when he next saw them two years afterwards, dress 
in English habits, he could with difficulty recogni 

In claiming the merit of a prior discovery of Noi 
America for the English, it must be obvious tl 
there is no intention to detract from the fame 
Columbus. It is difficult, indeed, to repress astonif 
ment at the success of that illustrious navigator, a 
at the magnitude and splendor of his discovery. V 
regard the great Columbus with admiration as i 
first who conceived and executed a mighty design, a 
brought about the revelation of anew world— t 
must not deny praise, though of an inferior degree, 
those gallant spirits who followed him in his gloric 
career. It is a remarkable historical fact, and a 
highly honorable to English enterprise, that not ot 
did Henry VII. listen favorably to the propositic 
of Columbus, some years before they were accept 
by the Spanish Court, but that, although Columfc 
landed in Hispaniola so early as February, 1493, 
did not ascertain the existence of the continent 
South America until May, 1498— whereas there 
certain evidence that almost a year before, an En] 
lish vessel had reached the shores of the North Am 
rican continent Sir John Cabot, therefore, w 
undoubtedly the first discoverer of this continei 
which Columbus did not see until a year afterward 
while his son Sebastian was the first discoverer 
Florida, so called in 1512, when it was taken posse 
sion of by the Spaniards under Juan Ponce de Leo 
who passes with many as the original discoverer. 

Neither Cabot or Columbus were destined 
know that their names were immortalised in those 
the lands they had discovered. An attempt w 
lately made to give the name of Cabotia to the Britit 


Rffinces of this continent — but that of America, 
taken from the spurious pretensions of Amerigo 
Vopuccio, a drawer of charts, has by an unaccounta- 
ble caprice, supplanted the noble name of Columbia. 
He bold usurpation of a fortunate imposter has 
nbbed the discoverer of the new world of a distinc- 
twi which belonged to him of right ; and mankind 
■e left to regret an act of injustice, which, having 
Wen sanctioned by the lapse of so many ages, they 
•n never redress, Columbus, however ungratefully 
tated, has been redeemed by fame. Sebastian 
&kot lived long in great reputation. He entered into 
ie service of Spain, but returned to England, and 
•dertook a third voyage in 1517, which it is unne- 
ftttry to touch upon in this place. He afterwards 
MAIed in London, and built a fine house at Blackwall, 
•Bed Poplar, which names still remain. In the year 
1M% he was made, by Edward VI., grand pilot of 
England, with a fee of one hundred and sixty six 

Cinds thirteen shillings and four pence per annum, 
concluding this notice of Cabot, we may mention 
Hat there are at present in Boston and Philadelphia, 
tepectable families, bearing the name and arms of 
Cabot, who are generally considered to be descen- 
dants of the great navigator. 


The next voyage in the order of discovery was 
that undertaken in 1500, three years after the re- 
tarn of Sir John Cabot, by the Portuguese : a nation 
Is whose genius and perseverance the world owes 
Ae highest triumphs of geography and navigation, 
hwas conducted by Gaspar Cortereal, a gentle- 
man who had been educated in the household of the 


King of Portugal, and who is represented as a n 
of enterprising and determined character, arden 
thirsting after glory. Pursuing the track of Sir Jc 
Cabot, lie reached the northern extremity of Nc 
foundland, and is considered to have discovered 1 
Gulf of St. Lawrence. He also sailed along the co 
of Labrador, northward ; and appears to have pei 
trated nearly to Hudson's Bay. He returned 
Lisbon on the 8th October, 1500. The character 
this voyage was less honorable to the cause of disco v< 
than any of the former ; it having been undertake 
apparently, rather for the purpose of obtaining timl 
and slaves, than for the advancement of the cause 
science. He brought back to Portugal no less tb 
fifty seven of the natives, who were coolly destir 
to slavery, and whose superior capability of lal 
appears to have been a subject of gratifying spe< 
lation. In a letter written eight days after their 
rival by the Venetian Ambassador at the Court 
Lisbon, these unfortunate persons are thus describe 
" they are extremely fitted to endure labor, and v 
" probably turn out the best slaves which have be 
" discovered up to this time." Such was the a 
blooded speculation of avarice, even among a peoj 
so renowned for honorable achievements as the P 
tuguese of that day ! It has, indeed, been conji 
tured that the name, Terra de Laborador, was giv 
to this coast by the Portuguese slave merchants, 
consequence of the admirable qualities of the natii 
as labourers, and in full anticipation of the futi 
advantages to be derived from this unchristian traf 
These cruel designs were, however, frustrated 
accumulated distress and disaster. In a second vc 
age, in 1501, Cortereal was lost at sea; and a thi 
undertaken by his brother Michael, in search of hi 


was alike unfortunate. Neither of the brothers was ever 
afterwards heard of. The King of Portugal, feeling 
i great affection for these gentlemen, is stated to have 
fitted out at his own expense an expedition, consisting 
of three armed vessels, which returned without any 
information as to the manner or place of their death. 
One brother still remained, who was anxious to re- 
new the attempt to discover their fate, but was over- 

i riled by the persuasion of the king. In an old 
map published in 1508, the Labrador coast is called 

a| Terra Corterealis ; and the entrance into the Gulf of 
St Lawrence was long known to the Portuguese by 
the name of the Gulf of the Two Brothers. On the 
strength of the voyage of Cortereal, the Portuguese 
claimed the first discovery of Newfoundland, and of 
the adjacent coast of America ; and maps were ac- 
tually forged to support these unfair pretensions. 


About the year 1504, we first hear of any attempt 
being made by the French to obtain, if not a footing 
io America, still a share in the advantages to be de- 
rived from its discovery. At this date, some Basque, 
Norman, and Breton fishermen, commenced fishing 
for cod on the great bank of Newfoundland, and near 
the adjacent shores. From them Cape Breton de- 
rives its name. In 1506, Jean Denys, a native of 
* Harfleur, made a map of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. 
i In 1508, a Pilot of Dieppe, by name Thomas Aubert, 
i brought into France some natives of America, who 
.\ naturally excited great curiosity. It does not appear 
i from what part of the coast they were taken, but 
J most probably from Cape Breton. 




Some years afterwards, the conquests of the Spa- 
niards in America began to excite the attention and 
cupidity of Europe, but the further progress of dis- 
covery in those northern parts of the continent with 
which the French fishermen were acquainted, offer- 
ing no prospect of inexhaustible mines of gold and 
silver, such as were found in Mexico and Peru — the 
French, although a people, undoubtedly, of the high- 
est genius and enterprise, evinced an unaccountable 
apathy upon this great subject, and for several years 
entirely neglected it. At length, in 1523, Francis I. 
a monarch deeply captivated with the love of glory, 
wishing to excite the enterprise and emulation of 
his subjects in matters of navigation and commerce, 
as he had successfully done in the sciences and fine 
arts, caught a generous enthusiasm for maritime dis- 
covery ; and eager to vie in all things with his great 
rival Charles V. fitted out an armament of four ships, 
the command of which he entrusted to Giovanni 
Verazzano, or Verazzani, a Florentine navigator of 
great skill and celebrity, then resident in France, and 
willing to undertake a voyage which might prove no 
less honorable than profitable to him. Previously to 
this time, a bull of donation had been issued by the 
too famous Alexander VI. then Pope, by which he 
had conferred the new world as a free gift upon the 
Kings of Spain and Portugal. Neither England or 
France, however, acknowledged the inherent right of 
the Pope to make such magnificent gifts of an un- 
known world. The English sent out voyages of dis- 
covery without demanding leave of his Holiness ; 
and a shrewd observation of the French King is 


handed down, showing that he was not disposed to 
acquiesce in any division made exclusively in favor 
of those Princes. " What," said Francis, pleasantly, 
"shall the Kings of Spain and Portugal quietly 
* divide all America between them, without suffering 
" me to take a share as their brother ? I would fain 
"see the article in father Adam's will, which be- 
" queaths that vast inheritance to them." 

Verazzano was born about the year 1485, of noble 
birth ; and from his letters to Francis I. giving an 
account of his voyage, published in Ramusio, which 
are written in a very simple and elegant style, it 
would appear that he had received a liberal education. 
Of his reasons for entering the service of the French 
Monarch nothing is known. Charlevoix makes a 
remark worthy of remembrance, that it was greatly 
to the honor of Italy, that the three great powers who 
afterwards divided among them nearly the whole of 
the new world, owed their first discoveries to the skill 
and conduct of natives of that country — the Spaniards 
to a Genoese — the English to a Venetian — and the 
French to a Florentine. Another Florentine might 
have been handed down with approbation to posterity, 
had he not by a species of treachery unworthy of a 
gentleman, given his name to the largest quarter of 
the globe, to the prejudice of the great discoverer 
and master spirit of the age, Columbus. 

Nothing certain is known of the particulars of the 
first expedition of Verazzano. He commenced his 
second voyage of discovery with a single vessel, the 
Dauphin, about the close of 1524, or the beginning of 
1525 ; and having left Madeira, he steered in a wes- 
terly direction for nine hundred leagues, until he 
arrived upon a coast, which he declared had never 
before been seen by either ancient or modern navi- 


gators—" una terra nuova, non piu dagl'antichi ne 
" da moderni vista." This land is supposed for good 
reasons to have been in latitude 32°, and is now 
known as Savannah. ' The country was thickly inha- 
bited, as he judged from the number of fires which 
were burning along the coast. Of the beauty of the 
scenery he gives a very glowing description, highly 
eulogizing the delightful climate, and the handsome 
stature and appearance of the natives. From this 
spot Verazzano, with indefatigable zeal, pursued his 
course, coasting along the shores and narrowly ex- 
amining every inlet in hopes of a passage through, 
until he reached the land discovered bv the Bretons 
in lat. 50 , which is evidently Newfoundland : thus 
completing the survey of a line of coast extending 
for seven hundred leagues, and embracing nearly the 
whole of the United States, along with a considerable 
portion of British North America. In none of the 
old accounts of this navigator, has justice been done 
to his great services and zeal. This was without 
doubt an enterprise of great magnitude and deter- 
mination, well deserving to be carefully recorded, as 
comprehending one of the most extensive ranges of 
early discovery. It is of particular interest at the 
present day, as having been the means of first mak- 
ing us acquainted with that noble country, whose 
history is so important ; and whose destinies, even 
after a progress unrivalled in rapidity, appear at this 
moment to be scarcely arrived at maturity. 

To this extensive region Verazzano, as he was 
justly entitled to do, gave the name of New France ; 
and on his return laid before his patron, Francis I. 
a plan for its further and complete survey, together 
with a scheme for the establishment of a colony 
therein. We are not informed what part of the 


continent it was the intention of Verazzano to select 
for colonization ; but it is most probable that the 
scene of his operations would hare been chosen on the 
Atlantic shore of one of the southern United States. 
Nor does it require the aid of imagination to con- 
ceive, how different would have been the historic 
detail of events, and how changed the condition of 
the whole of North America, had he been enabled 
to carry his grand project into full and successful 
execution. He was not permitted by Providence 
to do so ; and his future proceedings are enveloped 
in a mystery which it is now vain to attempt to pe- 
netrate. It is related that he actually sailed on his 
third expedition with the full intention of founding 
a colony, and that he never more was heard of. 
Hakluyt says, that he made three voyages, and pre- 
sented a chart of the coast to Henry VIII. Ramu- 
sio, the publisher of the most ancient and perhaps 
the most valuable collection of voyages extant, 
could not discover any particulars of this last expe- 
dition, or even ascertain the year in which it took 
place. It is most probable, if we divest the story 
and the supposed fate of Verazzano, of the fable and 
romance in which they have been involved by the 
lapse of ages, and the perpetuation of error — that 
finding, on his return to France, his patron Francis I. 
a prisoner at Madrid, in the hands of the Emperor 
Charles V. — having been taken at the memorable 
battle of Pavia on the 25th February, 1525, and 
detained in captivity until the 18th March in the 
following year — and seeing no chance of further em- 
ployment, he left the service of France, and de- 
pended on his own resources. It would sufficiently 
account for his never afterwards having been heard 
of^ if he withdrew from the observation of French 

c 2 


nautical men, and retired to private life in his native 

Although there is no evidence that Verazzano 
even approached any part of Canada, we have been 
more diffuse in our notice of this navigator, from 
the circumstance of a tradition extant in this coun- 
try from an early period, that the River St. Law- 
rence was the scene of his death. It certainly has 
always been asserted, and believed down to our own 
times, that his third voyage proved fatal to him and 
his crew. The truth is, that no account of the de- 
tails of his third voyage, if indeed it was commenced, 
which is rather doubtful — and least of all any relation 
of the manner or place of his death can now be 
discovered : for the best of all possible reasons, as 
will be presently shown to the satisfaction of the 
reader. The story of his having been massacred 
with his crew, and afterwards devoured by the sa- 
vages, is an absolute fable ; and it is rather hard, 
without a shadow of evidence, to fix upon the red 
inhabitants of this continent the character of An- 
thropophagi. The Baron La Hontan, who visited 
Quebec in 1683, repeats the fable, and observes : 
" Verazzano was the first who discovered Canada, 
" but to his cost, for the savages eat him." La 
Potherie, who was here in 1698, says nearly the 
same thing : — Le Beau, who arrived in Canada in 
1729, speaking of its discovery, says, that " Veraz- 
" zano took possession of the country in the name 
'* of Francis I. that he had the misfortune to be 
" devoured by the savages, without having pene- 
" trated as far as Jacques Carrier." He gives no 
authority for this assertion ; and, doubtless, only re- 
peated the tradition of La Hontan, who after all 
seems to mention it more in jest than as really be- 


lieving it Charlevoix, with better taste, repudiates 
the story as altogether fabulous. His words are ; 
u Je ne trouve aucun fondement a ce que quelques 
" uns out public, qu'ayant mis pied a terre dans un 
" endroit ou il voulait batir un fort, les sauvages se 
" jeterent sur lui, le massacrerent avec tous ses gens 
" et le mangerent." With respect to the tradition 
itself, if derived from the Indians, it is not improba- 
ble that it had reference to the manner of the death 
of Gaspar Cortereal, who perished on his second 
voyage ; and who, from his previous cruelties to- 
wards the natives, may be said to have provoked his 


A few years ago an ancient cannon of peculiar 
make, and supposed to have been of Spanish con- 
struction, was found in the River St. Lawrence, op- 
posite the Parish of Champlain, in the District of 
Three-Rivers. It is now in the Museum of Mr. 
Chasseur, and will repay the visit of the curious 
stranger. The ingenious writer of the Treatise 
upon this piece of ordnance, published in the second 
volume of the Transactions of the Literary and 
Historical Society of Quebec, has endeavored to 
show that it belonged to Verazzano — that the latter 
perished before the second voyage of Jacques Car- 
tier, either by scurvy or by shipwreck, on his way 
up the river towards Hochelaga. He also endea- 
vors, with great stretch of fancy, to explain and 
account for the pantomime enacted by the Indians 
in the presence of Jacques Carrier, in order to dis- 
suade him from proceeding to Hochelaga so late in 
the season, by their recollection of, and allusion to 
the death of Verazzano, some nine or ten years be- 


fore. But if they had really known any thing i 
pecting the fate of this navigator— and it musth 
been fresh in their memory if we recal to mind 1 
comparatively short a period had elapsed — is it 
most likely that they would have found met 
through the two native interpreters, to communic 
it to Carder ? Yet it appears that the latter ne 
so much as heard of it, either at- Hochelai, now 
Richelieu, where he was on friendly terms with 
chief of that village— or at Hochelaga, where it n 
have been known — or when he wintered at St. Cr< 
in the 'little River .St. Charles — or yet when 
passed a second winter at Carouge ! The best < 
dence, however, that the Indian pantomime had 
reference to Verazzano, and to disprove at o 
the truth of the tradition respecting his death in 
part of the St. Lawrence, is to show, which we s 
do on good authority, that at the very time w 
Carrier was passing the winter at St. Croix, Vei 
zano was actually alive in Italy. From a lette 
Annibal Caro, quoted by Tiraboschi, an autho 
undoubted reputation, in the Storia della Lett* 
tura Italiana, Vol. VII. part 1, pp. 261-262, ii 
proved that Verazzano was living in 1537, a y 
after the pantomime at St, Croix ! 

While von the subject of the Canon de Bronz< 
may be noticed that Charlevoix mentions also a 
dition, that Jacques Cartier himself was shipwrec 
at the ritouth of the river called by his name, with 
loss of one of his vessels. From this it has b 
supposed that the Canon de Bronze was lost on 1 
occasion j and an erroneous inscription to that 
feet has been engraved upon it. In the first pi 
the cannon was hot found at die mouth of the Ri 
Jacques Cartier, but opposite the Parish of Ch; 


plain : in the next, no shipwreck was ever suffered 
t>y Jacques Carrier, who wintered in fact at the 
mouth of the little River St Charles. The tradi- 
tion as to his shipwreck, and the loss of one of his 
vessels, most probably arose from the well known 
circumstance of his having returned to France with 
two ships, instead of three, with which he left St. 
Malo. Having lost so many men by scurvy dur- 
ing his first winter in Canada, he was under the ne- 
cessity of abandoning one of them, which lay in the 
harbour of St. Croix. The people of Scitadin hav- 
ing possessed themselves of the old iron to be found 
in the vessel, it of course soon fell to pieces ; and in 
process of time arose the tradition that Jacques Car- 
tier had been shipwrecked. The removal of the 
scene of his supposed disaster, from the St. Charles 
to the River Jacques Carrier, was an error of Char- 

Before we conclude this notice of Verazzano, it 
may be mentioned, that in the Strozzi Library at 
Florence is preserved a manuscript, in which he is 
said to have given with great minuteness, a descrip- 
tion of all the countries which he had visited during 
his voyage ; and from which, says Tiraboschi, we 
derive the intelligence, that he had formed the de- 
sign, in common with the other navigators of that 
era, of attempting a passage through those seas to 
the East Indies. It is much to be desired, that 
some Italian Scholar would favor the world with the 
publication of this manuscript of Verazzano. 




In the year following the supposed loss of Vc 
zano, Stephano Gomez, the first Spanish navig 
who came upon the American coast for the pur 
of discovery, sailed from Spain to Cuba and Fl< 
— thence northward to Cape Razo, or Race, in 
tude 46°, in search of a northwest passage to 
East Indies. We have not been able to find 
particulars of this voyage. It establishes the pr 
bility of the coasts of the Gulf having been vi 
by the Spaniards before the time of Jacques Car 
a tradition which is mentioned by Charlevoix, 
says that the Baye des Chaleurs, so called by 
tier, had previously borne the name in old map 
Baye des Espagnols. 

The French were partially deterred by the ill- 
cess of their endeavors to profit by the discoveri 
Verazzano ; but after the interval of a few j 
they resolved to make a new attempt. The ad 
tages of the establishment of a colony in the n 
discovered country were represented anew to 
King by Philippe Chabot, Admiral of France ; 
the project was again favorably entertained by I 
cis I. The Admiral introduced to His Maj 
Jacques Quartier, or Cartier, an experie 
navigator of St Malo, as a person eminently q 


to conduct the enterprise ; and lie was accord* 
y appointed to the command. He received his 
ructions from Charles de Mouy, Knight, Lord of 
illeraye, and Vice Admiral of France ; and the 
iptains, masters and mariners having sworn to 
ave themselves truly and faithfully in the service 
lie most Christian King of France, under the 
rge of the said Cartier, upon the 20th day of 
■5, 1534, they departed from the port of St Malo, 
i two ships of three score tons a piece burthen, 
sixty one well appointed men in each*' 1 See die 
; relation of Jacques Cartier in Hakluyt, vol. III. 
SOI. . On the tenth of May, they arrived at New- 
ndland; and made Cape Bonavista, which still bears 
same name, in latitude 48°, 30' according to the 
te relation. Undine the coast there completely 
bound, they sought for anchorage; and found 
i the harbor of St Catherine, now Catalina, four 
ive leagues to the south east. Here they remain- 
Jen days, and on the 21st May, sailing towards the 
th, they came to the Isle of Birds, which must 
no means be confounded with Bird Island in the 
If of St Lawrence ; but is supposed to be Funk 
tnd, about fourteen leagues from Cape Freels, the 
rest land. After some curious accounts of the 
Is which he found there, Cartier indulges us with 
tory of a bear, which we shall extract for the 
osement of our readers. " Albeit the said Island 
fourteen leagues from the main land, notwith- 
lding bears come swimming to eat of the said 
Is ; and our men found one there as great as any 
r, and as white as any swan, who in their presence 
ped into the sea ; and upon Whitsun Monday, 
[lowing our voyage towards the land,) we met her 
the way, swimming towards land as swiftly as we 



could sail. So soon as we saw her, we pursued fct* : 
in our boats, and by main strength took her, whoM •, 
flesh was as good to be eaten as the flesh of cattle of '■ 
two years old." 

Carrier in this voyage appears to have made a , 
pretty accurate survey of nearly the whole of New- ^ 
foundland, having almost circumnavigated it, passing \ 
through the Straits of Belleisle. Changing his course \ 
somewhat to the south, he traversed the Gulf of St 1 
Lawrence, then for the first time known to European*, j 
unless we admit the tradition respecting the prior j 
visit of the Spaniards ; and approaching the continent ■ 
on the 9th July, he came to the Baye des Chaleuri, 
so called from the great heat of the summer at that \ 
place. It has kept the name to the present day. , 
Here he was delighted with the beauty of the country; 
and with the friendly and peaceable behaviour of the , 
natives, with whom he established a kind of traffic 
The following description of the Indians is worth i 
copying in the quaint words of Hakluyt : " We saw 
certain wild men that stood upon the shore of a Lake, 
who were making fires and smokes ; we went thither 
and found there was a channel of the sea that did en- 
ter into the Lake, and setting our boats at one of the 
banks of the channel, the wild men with one of their 
boats came unto us, and brought us pieces of seals 
ready sodden, putting them upon pieces of wood : 
then, retiring themselves, they would make signs unto 
us, that they did give them us." — " They call a hat- 
chet in their tongue, cochi ; and a knife, bacon. We 
named it the Bay of Heat." 

From this hospitable place, where the natives seem 
to have displayed some of the politesse of modern 
society, Jacques Cartier proceeded to Gaspe, or 
Gachepe Bay : where on the 24th July, he erected a 


3S thirty feet high, with a shield bearing the three 
urs-de-Lys of France, thus taking possession in 
name of Francis I. Here he remained about 

days ; and on the 25th July, he commenced 
return to France. As the two natives whom he 
ried off from Gaspe acted a conspicuous part in the 
ond voyage, we shall extract the account of their 
iture. The Indians seem to have evinced some 
lousy at the erection of the cross, which they 
htly interpreted into a claim of authority over their 
ive country ; and their Chief, clad in bear's skin, 
(approached, but not so near as usual, to the ships, 

the purpose of remonstrating in a long oration, 
e French used the following stratagem to induce 
a to draw nearer. " His talk being ended, we 
>wed to him an axe, faining that we would give it 
n for his skin, to which he listened, for by little 
d little he came near to our ships. One of our 
lows that was in our boat, took hold on theirs, and 
jdenly leaped into it, with two or three more, who 
forced them to enter into our ships, whereat they 
?re greatly astonished. But our Captain did 
aightways assure them, that they should have no 
rm, nor any injury offered them at all ; and enter- 
ned them very freely, making them eat and drink, 
lien did we show them with signs, that the Cross 
is but only set up to be as a light and leader which 
iys to enter into the port ; and that we should 
ortly come again, and bring good store of iron 
ires, and other things. But that we would take 
'o of his children with us, and afterwards bring them 

the said port again — and so we clothed two of 
em in shirts, and coloured coats, with red caps, and 
it about every one's neck a copper chain, whereat 
ey were greatly contented : then gave they their 



old clothes to their fellows that went back again, an 
we gave to each one of those three that went bad 
a hatchet and some knives, which made them ver 
glad. After these were gone and had told the new 
unto their fellows, in the afternoon there came to oc 
ships six boats of them with five or six men in ever 
one, to take their farewell of those two we had dc 
tained to take with us ; and brought them some fisl 
uttering many words which we did not understanc 
making signs that they would not remove the Croc 
we had set up." From the 25th July to the 15th An 
gust, Cartier coasted along the northern shores of th 
Gulf, and would seem to have entered the mouth c 
the St. Lawrence ; but meeting with boisterous wea 
ther, without further delay he made sail for Franc* 
and passing again through the Straits of Belleisk 
he arrived in safety at St. Malo on the 5th Septem 
bar, 1534. 


Tbe Report of Jacques Cartier, and the relatio: 
of his successes and projects, highly calculated a 
they were to stimulate the nascent spirit of entei 
pfise, induced the French Court to resolve upon th 
establishment of a colony in New France. The na 
vigator himself was treated with great favor and dia 
tinction ; and through the influence of his patro; 
Charles de Mouy, Sieur de Meilleraye, Vice Admi 
ral of France, he obtained from Francis I. a nei 
commission with more ample powers than before 
together with a considerable augmentation of fore* 
When every thing was prepared* for the sailing c 
the expedition, the favor of the Almighty was in 
yoked upon the undertaking. By the express com 


mand of Carrier, who appears to have been devoutly 
disposed, the whole company, having first confessed, 
and received the sacrament in the Cathedral Church 
of St. Malo, on Whitsunday, May 16th, 1535, pre- 
sented themselves in the Choir, and received the be- 
nediction of the Lord Bishop, in his full pontifical 
robes. On' the Wednesday following, May 19th, 
Cartier embarked with a fair wind, and made sail 
with the following armament under his command : — 
the Great Hermina, of one hundred and twenty tons, 
on board which was Cartier himself, and several gen- 
tlemen volunteers — the Little Hermina of sixty tons, 
— and the Hermerillon, of forty tons burthen. The 
: number of their respective crews is not given. On 
the very next day after putting to sea, the weather 
proved contrary, and the little fleet was tossed about 
| for more than a month without making much pro- 
* gress. On the 25th June they parted company, 
each endeavoring to make the best of the way to the 
place of rendezvous, on the coast of Newfoundland. 
The General's vessel, as Cartier was called, arrived 
first at Newfoundland on the 7th July ; and awaited 
t the arrival of the others at the appointed spot. It 
•• was not, however, until the 26th of the same month, 
- that the three vessels were re-united. After taking 
rj in necessary stores of wood and water, they pro- 
i-J ceeded together to explore their way through the 
-"■ Gulf, but about the 1st August were forced to put 
:> into a harbor, which they called St. Nicolas ; and 
e* where Cartier, as before, took possession of the coun- 
try by erecting a cross. Charlevoix says, this har- 
bor was on the. north shore near the mouth of the 
Sl Lawrence ; and he describes it as being in lati- 
tude 49° 25", and as the only place which preserved 
d to his time the name originally given by Jacques 



Carder. Leaving this haven on the 7th, and coast- 
ing along the north shore, on the tenth day of 
August, a day ever memorable in the annals of 
Canada, they came, in the words of Hakluyt, to a 
" goodly great gulf, full of Islands, passages and en- 
trances towards what wind soever you please to 
bend." In honor of the Saint whose festival is cele- 
brated on that day, Carrier gave the name of St. 
Lawrence to the Gulf — or rather to a bay between' 
Anticosti and the northern shore, whence the name- 
was extended in the course of time not only to the' 
whole of this celebrated Gulf, but to the magnificent 
River of Canada, of which this is the embouchure. 

The Gulf of St. Lawrence which Jacques Carrier 
had now traversed, and to which he had given ite 
enduring name, is about eighty leagues in length; 
and in modern navigation, with a favorable wind and 
current may be sailed over in twenty-four hours. 
The French were necessarily a much longer period 
in crossing it, exploring as they proceeded princi- 
pally the northern shore. The breadth of the Gulf 
seems to have been accurately determined by Car- 
tier, who states the distance " between the southerly 
lands and the northerly," to be about thirty leagues. 
Cape Rosier, a small distance to the north of the 
point of Gaspe, is properly the place which marks 
the opening of the gigantic river ; and it is thence 
that the breadth of its mouth must be estimated at 
ninety miles. Measured from the eastern extremity 
of Gaspe, its width is one hundred and twenty miles* 

Leaving the Bay to which they had given the 
name of St. Lawrence on the 12th August, they dis- 
covered, on the 15th, an Island towards the south, to 
which Carrier gave the name of the Assumption, in 
lionor of the day. The English afterwards called it 


Anticosti, as being somewhat similar in sound to its 
Indian name, Natiscotec. From this Island Cartier 
continued his course, like an experienced mariner 
closely examining both shores of the river ; and 
when practicable, opening a communication with the 
inhabitants. On the 1st September he entered the 
mouth of the River Saguenay, which is accurately 
described ; and which must have given him an ex- 
alted idea of the country he had thus discovered. 
On the 6th he reached the Isle aux Coudres, so 
called from its filberts, which he describes as " big- 
ger and better in savour than the French, but some- 
what harder." 

In the second relation of Jacques Cartier, pub- 
lished in Hakluyt, which we have taken as the basis 
of this account, it is stated, that he obtained consi- 
derable information respecting the country he was 
approaching, from the two natives whom he had taken 
to France from Honguedo, or Gaspe, on his previous 
voyage ; and who having been several months in 
that country, were no doubt able to act the part of 
interpreters between Cartier and the natives, in his 
ascent of the St, Lawrence. It would appear from 
this, that Canada for an immense extent must have 
been peopled by one widely scattered Tribe of Abo- 
rigines — since the language spoken from Quebec to 
Gaspe was either the same, or so nearly allied, as to 
enable the interpreters to be serviceable in their 
capacity. The French, however, from their own 
ignorance of the Indian tongues, could not detect 
imposition, if any was practised or intended; and judg- 
ing as they did from their own momentary impressions, 
it is evident that they were prepared to receive as 
entitled to credit all that these men told them. For 
instance, it is scarcely possible to suppose that the 

d 2 


42 MX* WCTtfRB Of gUBSEC, 

two interpreters could have been not only personally 
known to the natives of the shore, as they landed it 
their boats in various places, but also to those of die 
St. Charles, near Quebec It is clear that the 
Indians must have spoken, as they always do 
figurately ; and that the French understood thett 
literally. At the entrance of the River Saguenay the 
following incident happened : — " We met with font 
boats full of wild men, which as far as we could per- 
ceive, very fearfully came towards us, so that some 
of them went back again, and the other came as near 
us as easily they might hear and understand one of 
our wild men, who told them his name, and then took 
acquaintance of them, upon whose word they came 
to us." Again, on coming to anchor between the 
Isle of Orleans and the north shore, Jacques Carrier 
says, " We went on land and took our two wild 
men with us, meeting many of those country people 
who would not at all approach unto us, but rather 
fled from us, until our two men began to speak unto 
them, telling them that they were Taignoagny and 
Domagaia ; who so soon as they had taken ac- 
quaintance of them, began greatly to rejoice, dancing 
and showing many sorts of ceremonies : and many 
of the chiefest of them came to our boats, ana 
brought many eels and other sorts of fishes, with two 
or three burthen of great millet, wherewith they 
made their bread, and many great musk melon* 
The same day came also many other boats, full of 
those countrymen and women to see and take ac- 
quaintance of our two men." That the mere enun- 
tiation of their names by the interpreters should have 
proved a talisman of such power is scarcely credible* 
if we regard these names merely as proper to the in* 
dividuals before their first adventure with Jacques 


Cgrtier in tbt Bay of Gaspl. But the irresistible 
supposition is, that these names, which seem to have 
produced every where sack extraordinary effect, 
most have been altogether special and peculiar, 
adopted by the interpreters themselves, according to 
the Indian custom, as designating the most remarka- 
ble event in their lives — namely, that they had been 
taken away from their own to a foreign land by white 
strangers, whence they had returned in safety. In 
this view only, is it easy to account for the apparent 
effect of the names when heard ; and for the anxiety 
of the Indians of the St Lawrence to " take ac- 
quaintance" with their travelled brethren, 


Panning his voyage which was now becoming 
more and more interesting, Cartier left the Isle aux 
Coudres, and soon reached an Island, which from its 
beauty and fertility, as well as from the number of wild 
vines which grew there, he called the Isle of Bacchus. 
It is now the Island of Orleans, and greatly enhances 
the beauty of the prospect from the high grounds of 
Quebec* Here, on the 7th September, he opened 
a friendly communication with the natives ; and on 
the following day, " the Lord of Canada, whose 
proper name was Donnacona," came with twelve 
canoes full of his people, eight being in each, to visit 
the strangers as they lay at anchor between the Is- 
land and the north shore. Commanding the attendant 
canoes to remain at a little distance, Donnacona, with 
two canoes only, approached close to the smallest of 
the three vessels. He then commenced the usual ora- 
tion, accompanying it with strange and uncouth ac- 
tion ; and after conversing with the interpreters, who 


informed him of their wonderful visit to France, and tlw 
kindness with which they had been treated by the whiM 
men, penetrated apparently with awe and respect, 1m 
took the arm of Carder, kissed it, and placed it upog 
his neck, an expression of feeling eloquent of amitj 
and confidence. Nor was Carrier backward in ex 
changing friendly salutations : he immediately wen 
into the canoe of the chief, and presented him and hi 
attendants with bread and wine, of which they par 
took together, and " whereby the Indians wen 
greatly content and satisfied." He then parted witl 
them on the most satisfactory terms. At this dis 
tance of time it is impossible not to feel great in teres 
in Carrier's first interview with the Chief of a countr] 
discovered by his perseverance and skill, and destinec 
afterwards to be so celebrated in the annals both o 
France and England. As we have before mentions 
the devout character of Carrier, it is not improbahh 
that some strong religious feeling may have promptec 
his conduct on this occasion. It is also remarkable 
and seems to corroborate the observation, that in thii 
first interview he gave them no presents, reserving 
that for a future opportunity. 

Donnacona departed with the same state in whicl 
he came : while Carrier, having so far prosperous!} 
advanced towards the interior of an unknown country; 
became desirous of finding a safe harbor for his ves- 
sels, then at anchor near the east end of the Isle ol 
Orleans, He accordingly manned his boats, and 
went up the north shore against the stream, until h< 
came to " a goodly and pleasant sound," and a " little 
river and haven" admirably adapted for his purpose. 
In this spot, after some necessary preparations, he 
safely moored his vessels on the 16th September \ 
and according to his devout and grateful custom, fc< 


imed the place the Port of St. Croix, in honor of 
tk day on which he had first entered it ; and here 
Doonacona, with a retinue of five hundred persons 
fattened to pay him another friendly visit, to welcome 
his arrival in the territory. 



As this event forms one of the most important 
epochs in the ancient history of the country, we shall 
be more particular in our account of the proceedings 
of Jacques Carrier ; and our sketch will now assume 
" a load habitation. 1 ' familiar to all who at the pre- 
sent day are acquainted with the scene, and equally 
interesting, we trust, to the intelligent antiquarian. 
There can be no doubt, that the " goodly and plea- 
lant sound," above mentioned, was the beautiful 
basin of Quebec; and that the place selected by 
Cartier for laying up his vessels, to which he gave the 
name of Port dt St Croix, and wherehe afterwards win- 
tered was in the Little River St. Charles, to the north 
of the city — which name it afterwards received, ac- 
cording to La Potherie, in compliment to Charles des 
Boiies, Grand Vicar of Pontoise, founder of the first 
mission of Kecollets of New France. The old writers, 
and Charlevoix himself, as has been mentioned above, 
have unaccountably mistaken the locality of the har- 
bor chosen by Cartier ; and misled by the name, 
lave asserted that it was at the entrance of the River 
now called Jacques Cartier, which flows into the 
St Lawrence, about fifteen miles above Quebec. 
But it has been well observed, that although three 
centuries have elapsed since the incidents we are 
recording took place, the localities still remain un- 


changeable, and may be easily recognised. The port 
of St. Croix is thus described by Cartier himself* 
" There is a goodly, fair, and delectable bay, Of 
creek, convenient and fit to harbor ships ; hard bjfj 
there is in that river one place very narrow, deep} 
and swift running, but it is not the third part of I 
league, over against which there is a goodly high 

piece of land, with a town therein, that is the 

place and abode of Donnacona : it is called Stadaconft 
.... under which town towards the north, the river 
and port of the Holy Cross is, where we staid from 
the 15th September until the 6th May, 1536 ; and 
there our ships remained dry." There cannot be a 
more accurate description. The "one place" in the 
River St. Lawrence, " deep and swift running," 
means of course that part immediately opposite die 
Lower Town ; and, no doubt, it appeared by compa- 
rison " very narrow" to those, who had hitherto seen 
our noble river only in its grandest forms. The towfl 
of Stadacona, the residence of the Chief, stood on 
that part of Quebec which is now covered by the 
Suburbs of St. Roch, with part of those of St. John, 
looking towards the St. Charles. The area or ground 
adjoining is thus described, as it no doubt appeared 
to Cartier three centuries ago : " as goodly a plot of 
ground as possible may be seen, and therewithal verf 
fruitful, full of goodly trees even as in France, suck 
as oaks, elms, ashes, walnut trees, maple trees, vines, 
and white thorns, that bring forth fruit as big as any 
damsons, and many other sorts of trees, under which 
groweth as fine tall hemp as any in France, without 
any seed, or any man's work or labor at all." The 
exact spot in the River St. Charles where Cartier 
moored his vessels, and where the people passed the 
winter, is supposed on good authority to have bee* 


ike site of the old bridge, called Dorchester Bridge, 
where there is a ford at low water, close to the Ma- 
ine Hospital. That it was on the east bank, not far 
rom the residence of Charles Smith, Esquire, is evi- 
ent from the river having been frequently crossed by 
lie natives coming from Stadacona to visit their 
rench guests. To all who witness the present state 
f Quebec — its buildings, population and trade, em- 
loying a thousand vessels — these early accounts 
anded down from the first European visitor must be 
ill of interest, generally accurate as they are in 
ascription, but falling, how far, short of the natural 
eauty of the position ! 


The relations between the French and Donnacona 
ontinued of the most friendly character, and not a 
ay seems to have passed without some communica- 
!on between them. But the object of Jacques Car- 
er was by no means attained, or his ambition satis- 
ed with the knowledge of Stadacona — he had re- 
eived from the interpreters information of the 
xistence of a city of much greater importance, the 
apital of an extensive kingdom, as they described 
t, situate at a considerable distance up the River of 
'anada. Thither he determined to proceed at all 
tazards, considering his voyage limited only by the 
liscovery of Hochelaga. Undeterred by the late- 
less of the season — deaf to the dissuasions of Don- 
kacona and the interpreters, with one of whom he 
ad every reason to be dissatisfied, he having refused 
o accompany him further — the Indians had recourse 
o a device, a kind of masquerade, or pantomimic re- 
presentation, intended to produce fear in his mind as 

46 new picture cnr Quebec, 

to the result of his expedition, either from the had 
* lily of the natives of Hochelaga, the dangers of tk 
river, or the inclemency of the winter which was fa 
•approaching. This ridiculous mummery was treati 
by Carrier with merited contempt. Charlevoix seei 
to think, that Donnacona was influenced by jealous; 
lest he and his people should be deprived of the ai 
vantages of an uninterrupted communication with tl 
white strangers, from whom the Indians had, doub 
less, obtained several presents, some of utility, othe 
gratifying to their personal vanity. It is by i 
means improbable, however, that the Indians, wl 
had given Cartier no reason to suspect their go< 
faith, were perfectly sincere. An amusing incidei 
is thus told in Hakluyt : — " Donnacona desired o\ 
captain to cause a piece of artillery to be shot ol 
because Taignoagny and Domagaia made grei 
brags of it, and had told them marvellous thing! 
and also because they had never heard nor seen an 
before : to whom our captain answered, that he wj 
content, and by and by he commanded his men i 
shoot off twelve cannon charged with bullets, ini 
the wood that was hard by those people and ship 
at whose noise they were greatly astonished an 
amazed, for they thought that heaven had fallc 
upon them, and put themselves to flight, howlinj 
crying and shrieking, so that it seemed hell ha 
broken loose." 

On the 19th September, Cartier commenced h 
voyage to Hochelaga with his pinnace, the Hermi 
rillon, and two long boats, capable of holding thirtj 
five persons with arms, ammunition and provisions 
leaving his two larger vessels in the harbor of S 
Croix, well protected by " poles and pikes drive 
into the water and set up" — but better by the stoi 


hearts of their gallant crews. His ascent of the river 
was prosperous, and he speaks of the scenery on both 
sides as extremely rich and beautifully varied, the 
country being well covered with fine timber and 
abundance of vines. The natives, with whom he had 
frequent communication, are represented as kind and 
hospitable, every where supplying him with all they 
possessed, the taking of fish being their principal 
occupation and means of subsistence. At Hochelai, 
now the Richelieu, they received a visit from the 
chief of the district, who also attempted to dissuade 
them from proceeding further, and otherwise showed 
a friendly disposition : presenting Cartier with one 
of his own children, a girl of about seven years of 
age, whom he afterwards came to visit, together 
with his wife, during the wintering of the French at 
St Croix. On the 28th they came to Lake St* 
Peter, where, owing to the shallowness of the water 
in one of the passages between the Islands, they 
thought it advisable to leave the pinnace. Here 
they met five hunters, who, says Cartier, " freely 
and familiarly came to our boats without any fear, 
as if we had ever been brought up together. Our 
boats being somewhat near the shore, one of them 
took our captain in his arms and carried hi.n on 
shore, and lightly and easily as if he had been a child 
of five years old, so strong and sturdy was this fel- 

On the 2nd October they approached Hochelaga, 
and were received by the natives there with every 
demonstration of joy and hospitality. " There came 
to meet us," says the relation, " above one thousand 
persons, men, women and children ; who afterward 
did as friendly and merrily entertain and receive us 
as any father would do his child, which he had not 




of long time seen Our captain seeing 1 their 

loving kindness and entertainment, caused all the 
women orderly to be set in array, and gave them 
beads made of tin, and other such trifles ; and to 
some of the men he gave knives. Then he returned 
to the boats to supper, and so passed that night, all 
which while all those people stood on the shore as 
near our boats as they might, making great fires, and 
dancing very merrily." 

The place where Carrier first touched the land, 
near Hochelaga, appears to have been about six 
miles from the city, and below the current of St 
Mary. On the 3rd October, having obtained the 
services of three natives as guides, Carrier, with his 
volunteers and part of his men, in full dress, pro- 
ceeded to visit the town. The way was well beaten 
and frequented ; and he describes the country as the 
best that could possibly be seen. Hochelaga was 
situated in the midst of large fields of Indian 
corn ; and from the description, must even then 
have been a very considerable place, and the metro- 
polis of the neighboring country. The name is 
now lost, but on its site stands the rich and flourish- 
ing city of Montreal. It was encompassed by pali- 
sades, or probably a picket fence in three rows, one 
within the other, well secured and put together. A 
single entrance was secured with piles and stakes ; 
and every precaution adopted for defence against 
sudden attack or siege. The town consisted of about 
fifty houses, each fifty feet in length by fourteen in 
breadth, built of wood and covered with bark, " well 
and cunningly joined together." Each house con- 
tained several chambers, built round an open court 
yard in the centre, where the fire was made. The 
inhabitants belonged to the Huron tribe, and appear 


to have been more than usually civilised. They 
were devoted to husbandry and fishing, and never 
roamed about the country as other tribes did, al- 
though they had eight or ten other villages subject 
to them. Carder seems to have been considered in 
die light of a deity among them ; for they brought 
him their aged king, and their sick, in order that he 
might heal them. Disclaiming any such power, 
Carder, with his accustomed piety prayed with them, 
and read part of the gospel of St. John, to their great 
admiration and joy. He concluded by distributing 
presents with the utmost impartiality. On reading the 
whole account, we cannot but be favorably impressed 
by the conduct and character of those Indians, so diffe- 
entfrom that of some other tribes, or the generality of 
lavages. It is probable, however, that the fighting 
men or warriors of the tribe were absent on some ex- 
pedition, Cartier appears to have behaved on the 
occasion with great discretion, and to have shown 
himself eminently qualified for his station. After 
having seen all that was worthy of note in the city, 
he set out to examine the mountain, which was about 
three miles from Hochelaga. He describes it as 
tilled all round and very fertile. The beautiful view 
from the top does not escape his notice, and he states 
that he could see the country and the river for thirty 
leagues around him. He gave it the name of Mont 
Royal, which was afterwards extended to the city 
beneath, and the whole of the rich and fertile Island, 
now Montreal. 


Carrier, having accomplished his object, returned to 
his boats accompanied by a great multitude, who 


when they perceived any of his men fatigued with 
their Ion? march, took them upon their shoulders and 
carried tnem. The natives appeared grieved and 
displeased with the short stay of the French ; and on 
their departure, which was immediate, they followed 
their course along the banks of the river. On the 
evening of the 4th October, they came to the place 
where they had left the pinnace ; and having made 
sail on the 5th, they returned happily to St. Croix, 
rejoining their companions on the 1 1th of the month. 
The mariners who had been left behind had had 
the precaution, during the absence of Carrier, to 
entrench and fortify their vessels so as to defy attack. 
On the day after their return, Carrier was visited by 
the Chief, Donnacona, who invited the French to 
visit him at his village of Stadacona. Accordingly, 
on the 13th, Carrier proceeded with all his gentlemen 
and . fifty mariners to their town, about three miles 
from the place where the ships were laid up. The 
houses were well provided, and full of all things 
necessary for the approaching winter : the inhabitants 
seemed docile, and in the words of Jacques Carrier, 
" as far as we could perceive and understand, it were 
a very easy thing to bring them to some familiarity 
and civility, and make them learn what one would." 
The country around is stated to be well tilled and 
wrought, and these Indians seem to have been by 
no means ignorant of agriculture, or deficient in 
energy to clear the land; for it is mentioned that 
they had " pulled up the trees to till and labor the 

with mmromoAL awuixAgnoNs. f* 

mumunm wnrraB, of 1536— astum to * &jtutat> 

Hn whole voyage of Carrier had been ia fer pre* 
temus* but the winter, new to Europeans, was Vet 40 
he experienced* Their want of fit clothing' ami ttt* 
customed nourishment was probably die reason why 
they were attacked with sentry, which first showed 
itself in the month of December. In March, 1590^ 
oat ef one hundred and ten persons, twenty-fire were 
dead, aad not three remained in health. Great, in- 
deed* as mast hare been their sufferings, their eon- 
rage seems never to hare deserted them ; and ther 
precautions taken by Carrier to conceal his loss and 
the extreme weakness of the garrison, as we may call 
the entrenchment round the ships, were well eon* 
ceived and proved quite successful. At length they 
were persuaded to use a decoction of the spruce fir ; 
aad the effect was so instantaneous that in six days all 
were recovered. 

The following facts, relative to the climate during' 
this winter, are gathered from the " Fastes Cbrono- 
logiques," and are worthy of notice. On the 15thr 
November, 1535, old style, the vessels in the River 
St Charles were surrounded by ice ; and the Indians 
informed Carder, that the whole river was frozen 
over as far as Montreal. On the 22nd February, 
1536, the River St Lawrence became navigable for 
canoes, opposite to Quebec, but the ice remained 
finn in St Croix harbor. On the 5th April, however, 
his vessels were disengaged from the ice. To obtain 
the modern dates of these occurrences, it will be ne- 
cessary to add eleven days to each period. 

On the 21st April, Cartier seems first to have en- 
tertained suspicion of the intentions of the Indians, 

£ 2 


from the circumstance of a number of " lusty 
strong men whom they were not wont to see/' : 
ing their appearance at Stadacona. They were 
bably the young hunters of the tribe who had 
out during the winter, in search of deer ; and 
had not previously fallen under the observation < 
French. Cartier having determined on an imme 
return to France, resolved to anticipate the n 
ments of the Indians by a coup de main on his 
and accordingly on the 3d May, and in a m; 
which not even the extreme urgency of the case 
excuse or palliate, he carried his plan into execu 
and seized Donnacona, the interpreters, and 
other Indians of note, for the purpose of prese 
them to the King. They were treated, ho\* 
with much kindness, and seem to have been soc 
conciled to their lot. 

Nothing now remained but to make sail for Fi 
which they did on the 6th May. They were 
pelled to remain by contrary winds at the Isl< 
Coudres until the 2 1st, and afterwards coasting s 
along, they finally sailed from Cape Race on the 
June ; and arriving at St Malo on the 6th July, 
they concluded this important voyage. 




If, among the perilous and adventurous occupa- 
tions of active life, there is one requiring more energy, 
skill, courage and patient endurance than another, it 
is when man, in a fragile skiff, comparatively a nut- 
shel — subject to dissolution and destruction from a 
thousand unforeseen accidents — not only entrusts 
himself to the mighty and mysterious deep, a slave to 
the elements and the sport of the waves ; but fired by 
love of science and ambition of discovery, tempts the 
secret dangers of an unproved climate, and commits 
himself to the natives of a barbarous shore, where a 
single act of indiscretion on his part, or of suspicion on 
theirs— either open violence or secret treachery, would 
be alike fatal to his return ! How long is the catalogue 
of scientific and enterprising travellers who have 
fallen victims to the cause of discovery ! Cook — 
Park — Belzoni — Burckhart — Denham — Clapperton, 
and Laing have perished for science and for fame ; 
but in a great soul it is the cause which conquers all 
personal considerations — and though the lives of dis- 
coverers are sacrificed, science is still on the advance. 
New competitors spring up, undeterred by the fate 
of those who went before, and rivals of their fame ; 
and as if it were destined that the unknown of the 
world should be revealed — the present age has wit- 


nessed with admiration the intrepid Lander, and the 
patient, highminded Ross, penetrating with equal de- 
termination into the Arctic highlands, and the torrid 
shores of Africa ! A race of people, living in a fro- 
zen region, and under a degree of cold, once suppos- 
ed to be fatal to vegetation and to life, yet possessing 
all the affections of humanity, has been discovered by 
the one — while a new outlet for the fructifying com- 
merce of Great Britain is likely to be afforded by 
the operations of the other. 

To return from this digression. Notwithstanding 
that in the discovery of Canada by Jacques Cartier, 
the love of science had but little share, the operation* 
of which we are treating undoubtedly applied a stimu- 
lus to geographical researches, and were decisive of 
future improvement. But although really of such 
magnitude and importance, their result does not seem 
to have satisfied general expectation on the part of 
the French nation. The common people affected to 
treat lightly the acquisition of a country whence nei- 
ther gold or silver could be extracted — but for the 
honor of the French name and of science, there were 
persons attached to the Court who thought differently, 
and who were not to be deterred by the failure of one 
or two attempts. They justly considered that the 
possession of New France was not to be lightly relin- 
quished — and they listened favorably to the accounts ; 
given by Cartier, who always represented the lands 
as highly fertile, the climate salubrious, and the in- 
habitants docile, kind and hospitable. He represen- 
ted above all, what had the most powerful influence 
upon his own mind, the glory of converting the na- 
tives to the true faith ; as worthy of a Prince whtf 
bore the titles of the most Christian king, and of the? . 
eldest son of the Church. The presence of the Indian 


chief, Donnacona, and his companions, no doubt 
greatly aided his representations. The reader will be 
anxious to know the fate of these Indians after their 
arrival in France. It appears that they were bap- 
tised at their own desire and request ; and having 
been introduced at Court, produced an extraordinary 
sensation. Cartier states, that Francis I. frequently 
conversed with Donnacona, who appears to have cor- 
roborated all that had been stated respecting the 
country. These natives, however, were not long 
lived : they pined away in the new state of society 
in which they were placed ; and of ten in number 
whom Cartier brought over, all died in Brittany, save 
one little girl. Probably, the change of diet, rather 
than of climate, proved fatal to them : as it did recently 
in England in the case of the King and Queen of 
the Sandwich Islands. 

Among those who were anxious to make another 
attempt to establish a colony in Canada, was Jean 
Francois de la Roque, Lord of Roberval, a gentleman 
of high reputation in his native province of Picardy ; 
and who appears to have been familiarly known to 
and distinguished by Francis, as a man of bravery 
and talent. He solicited and obtained from the King, 
letters patent, dated the 15th January, 1541, appoint- 
ing him to the command of an expedition of discovery, 
under the high sounding, but empty titles, of Viceroy 
and Lieutenant General in Canada, Hochelaga, Sa- 
guenay, Newfoundland, Belleisle, &c; and conferring 
upon him in those countries the same powers and 
authority which he himself possessed. Cartier was 
named second in command, with the title of Captain 
General and leader of the ships. Their instructions 
were " to discover more than was done before in the 
former voyages, and attain, (if were possible,) unto 


the knowledge of the country of Saguenay," whe 
the French still fondly hoped that the precious mete 
might be discovered. The port of St. Malo, when* 
the two former voyages had been undertaken, w 
again chosen for fitting out the expedition. It h 
been stated in a recent publication, that " the kii 
would listen to no proposals for the establishment 
a colony ;" and that it was reserved for " priva 
adventure to accomplish that which had been negle 
ted by royal munificence." We find, however, 
Hakluyt's account of the third voyage of Jacqu 
Carrier, direct evidence, tending to vindicate Fran< 
I. who had hitherto been the constant friend of m 
ritime adventure, from the charge of apathy ai 
indifference on this occasion. " The king," sa 
this relation, " caused a certain sum of money to ' 
delivered, to furnish out the said voyage with fi 
ships, which thing was performed by the said Mo 
sieur Roberval and Carrier ." 

The latter, having with all diligence fitted out t 
five vessels at St. Malo, expected the coming 
Roberval with arms, ammunition and other stoi 
which he had engaged to provide elsewhere. Tl 
gentleman, who was opulent, had indeed contract 
to furnish two other vessels at his own charges, to 
fitted out at Honfieur : whither he proceeded in ord 
to expedite the equipment. Another proof of t 
interest taken by the King in this expedition is fou 
in the fact, related by Carrier, that while he * 
waiting the coming of Roberval, at St. Malo, 
received a positive command from Francis to dep 
immediately without the Viceroy, on pain of his d 
pleasure. Accordingly, Roberval gave him full po* 
and authority to act as if he himself were presec 
and promised to follow with all necessary suppli 


i Honfleur. Having victualled tke fleet for two 
«, Carder sailed on the 23d May, 1541 ; but as 
re, storms and contrary winds dispersed the ships, 
jh nevertheless at the end of a month reached the 
e of rendezvous on the coast of Newfoundland, 
e they delayed so long in expectation of being 
ed by Roberval, that it was not until the expira- 
of three months from the time of sailing, that he 
hed his former station in the harbor of St Croix, 
noe he had taken Donnacona a few years before* 
tost all the old accounts, which are singularly con- 
d and incorrect, mention that Carder fixed his 
blishment on his third voyage in Cape Breton ; 
they Are silent as to this his second visit to 
ada» But the third relation of Jaeques Carder, 
e found in Hakluy t, is conclusive on this point : 
Ve arrived not," says he, " before the haven of 
Croix, in Canada, (where in the former voyage 
bad remained eight months,) until the 23d day of 
rust." Nothing can be clearer than this descrip- 
: indeed there is no part of the ancient history 
lie country better developed, than the proceedings 
harder on his third voyage. He constantly refers 
le experience he had gained, and to circumstances 
ch happened on his former visit ; so that it is 
ter of surprise that any misconception should have 
fted as to the scene of his last operations in the 

mmediately on the arrival of the French at St. 
ox, the Indians thronged to -see them ; and appa- 
tly welcomed them with every token of satisfaction, 
e person who had succeeded to the dignity of 
ef, paid Carder a visit of ceremony with seven 
toes, and made enquiries after the absent Don- 
iona. The Captain readily acknowledged the 


death: of that chief in France, but from prudenti 
motives, concealed that of the other Indians : accoun 
ing for their absence by saying, " that the rest sta 
there as great lords, and were married, and would n 
return back unto their country." Although no em< 
tion of anger or surprise was perceivable in tl 
countenance or manner of the Indians, on receivin 
this information — and it would have been derogatoi 
to their character to evince any — it was evident th; 
they began from that time to regard their forinc 
friends with distrust and dislike. They natural! 
anticipated that a fresh supply of natives would 1 
required by these insatiable strangers — that the seen 
of the capture of Donnacona would be repeated — an 
they looked forward to the result with dismal fore 

Cartier, having for some reason become dissatisfie 
with his former position at St. Croix, probably frw 
the altered behaviour of the natives of Stadacons 
selected, on the 26th August, another station at th 
mouth of a little river, between three and four league 
higher up the St. Lawrence, where he laid up tire 
out of the five vessels he had brought with hit 
from France. Here he gave directions for construct 
ing two forts, one at the bottom of the cliff, on a leV€ 
with the water ; and another on the high land o 
point above, with a communication by means of stair 
cut in the solid rock. This fort he called Charles 
bourg Royal. The other two vessels remained n 
the road at the mouth of the river, until the 2nd Sep 
tember; when they sailed for St. Malo, under tqi 
command of his brother-in-law and nephew, botl 
excellent pilots. By them he transmitted letter* 
informing the King of what had been done, and of tita 
non-arrival of Roberval. Having witnessed the coirf 


mencement of the two forts, and appointed the 
Viscount de Beaupre* to the command in his absence, 
Carrier resolved to carry into effect, as far as possible, 
the ulterior objects of the expedition ; and he accord- 
ingly proceeded, on the 7th September, with two boats, 
for the purpose of examining the Saults or Rapids 
above Hochelaga, which he believed were to be 
passed on the way to Saguenay — " in order that he 
might be the readier in the spring to pass farther, 
and in the winter time to make all things needful in 
readiness for the business." On his way up the River 
St Lawrence, he did not fail to pay a visit to the 
hospitable chief of Hochelai, now the Richelieu, to 
whom in remembrance of his former friendship and 
services, among other presents, he gave two young 
boys, that they might learn the language. With a 
fair wind they arrived at the first Sault above Hoche- 
laga on the I lth September ; and having in vain 
endeavored to pass it in one of the boats doubly 
manned, they landed and found a portage, which 
conducted them to the second Sault. These Saults 
are described as three in number ; and form what is 
now called the Sault St. Louis, between Montreal 
and Lachine. They found the inhabitants well dis- 
posed and hospitable, serving them as guides and 
supplying them with pottage and fish. Having ob- 
tained all the information he could extract by signs 
as well as words, and having been told of a great Lake 
above the Saults, Carrier returned to the place where 
he had left the boats at the commencement of the 
first rapid. Here they found a large concourse of 
the natives to the amount of about four hundred, 
who treated them in a friendly manner ; and with 
whom they exchanged presents. Carrier, however, 
appears now to have distrusted the Indians whenever 



they appeared in numbers; and satisfied with 
knowledge he had acquired of the rapids, he prepa 
to return to the winter quarters at Charlesbo 
Royal. On the descent of the river, he again stop] 
at the dwelling of the Chief of Hochelai, who 
absent at Stadacona; whither, as Cartier afterw* 
found, he had proceeded to concert with the ot 
tribe what they should do against the French. 


We now come to another highly interesting pon 
of local history. It has been stated that the old 
.torians were apparently ignorant of this last voy 
of Cartier. Some place the establishment of the 
at Cape Breton, and confound his proceedings \ 
those of Roberval. The exact spot where Car 
passed his second winter in Canada is not mentio 
in any publication that we have seen. The 
lowing is the description given of the station 
Hakluyt : " After which things, the said cap 
went with two of his boats up the river, bey 
Canada" — the promontory of Quebec is meai 
" and the port of St, Croix, to view a haven ai 
small river which is about four leagues higher ; w] 
he found better and more commodious to ride 

and lay his ships, than the former The 

river is small, not .passing fifty paces broad, and si 
drawing three fathoms water may enter in at 
sea ; and at low water there is nothing butachai 

of a foot deep or thereabout The mouth of 

river is towards the south, and it windeth northv 
like a snake ; and at the mouth of it towards the 
there is a high and steep cliff, where we made a 
in manner of a pair of stairs, and aloft we mat 


fort to keep the nether fort and the ships, and all 
things that might pass as well by the great as by this 
naall river." Who that reads the above accurate 
lescription will doubt, that the mouth of the little 
iver Cap Rouge was the station chosen by Jacques 
harder, for his second wintering place in Canada? 
IThe original description of the grounds .and scenery 
m both sides of the River Cap Rouge is equally 
aithful, with th^t which we have extracted above." 
rhe precise spot on which the upper fort of Jacques 
Dartier was built, afterwards enlarged by Roberval, 
las been fixed by an ingenious gentleman of Quebec, 
it the top of Cap Rouge height, a short distance 
irom the handsome villa and establishment of Henry 
Atkinson, Esquire. There is at the distance of 
ibout an acre to the north of Mr. Atkinson's house 
i hillock of artificial construction, upon which are 
rees indicating great antiquity ; and as it does not 
ippear that any fortifications were erected on this 
spot, either in the war of 1759, or during the attack 
rf Quebec by the Americans in 1775, it is extremely 
probable that here are to be found the interesting site 
md remains of the ancient fort in question. 

On his return to the Fort of Charlesbourg Royal, 
the suspicions of Carder as to the unfriendly dispo- 
sition of the Indians were confirmed. He was in- 
formed that the natives now kept aloof from the 
fort, and had ceased to bring them fish and provisions 
as before. He also learned from some of the men 
who had been at Stadacona, that an unusual number 
rf Indians had assembled there — and associating, as 
he always seems to have done, the idea of danger 
with any concourse of the natives, he resolved to 
take all necessary precautions, causing every thing 
k the fortress to be set in order. 


At this crisis, to the regret of all who feel an inte- 
rest in the local history of the time, the relation of 
Carder's third voyage abruptly breaks off. Of the 
proceedings during the winter which he spent at Cap 
Rouge, nothing is known. It is probable that it 
passed over without any collision with the natives, 
although the position of the French, from their nu- 
merical weakness, must have been attended with 
great anxiety. 



It has been seen that Roberval, notwithstanding 
his lofty titles, and really enterprising character, did 
not fulfil his engagement to follow Cartier with sup- 
plies sufficient for the settlement of a colony, until 
the year following. By that time the Lieutenant 
General had furnished three large vessels chiefly at 
the King's cost, having on board two hundred persons, 
several gentlemen of quality, and settlers, both men 
and women. He sailed from Rochelle on the 16th 
April, 1542, under the direction of an experienced ; 
pilot, by name John Alphonse, of Xaintonge. The 
prevalence of westerly winds prevented their reach- 
ing Newfoundland until the 7th June. On the 8th ; 
they entered the road of St. John, where they found i 
seventeen vessels engaged in the fisheries. During his ; 
stay in this road, he was surprised and disappointed by , 
the appearance of Jacques Cartier, on his return from ^ 
Canada, whither he had been sent the year before ^ 
with five ships. Cartier had passed the winter at the ,; 
fortress described above; and gave as a reason for ^ 
the abandonment of the settlement, " that he could ,, 
not with his small company withstand the savage* ^ 


which went about daily to annoy him." He con-* 
tinued, nevertheless, to speak of the country as very 
rich and fruitful. Carrier is said, in the relation of 
Roberval's voyage in Hakluy t, to have produced some 
fold ore found in the country, which on being tried 
in a furnace, proved to be good. He had with him 
also some diamonds, the natural production of the 
promontory of Quebec, from which ihe Cape derived 
its name. The Lieutenant General having brought 
so strong a reinforcement of men and necessaries for 
the settlement, was extremely urgent with Carrier to 
go back again to Cap Rouge, but without success. It 
is most probable that the French, who had recently 
passed a winter of hardship in Canada, would not 
permit their Captain to attach himself to the fortunes 
and the particular views of Roberval. Perhaps, the 
fond regret of home prevailed over the love of adven- 
ture ; and like men who conceived that they had 
performed their part of the contract into which they 
had entered, they were not disposed to encounter new 
hardships under a new leader. In order, therefore, 
to prevent any open disagreement, Carrier weighed 
anchor in the course of the night, and without taking 
leave of Roberval, made all sail for France. It is 
impossible not to regret this somewhat inglorious 
termination of a distinguished career. Had he re* 
turned to his fort, with the additional strength of 
Roberval, guided by his own skill and experience, it 
is most probable that the colony would have been 
destined to a permanent existence. Carrier under* 
took no other voyage to Canada ; but he afterwards 
completed a sea chart, drawn by his own hand, which 
was extant in the possession of one of his nephews, 
Jacques Noel, of St. Malo, in 1587 : who seems to 
kave taken great interest in the further developement 

f 2 


of the vast country discovered by his deceased uncle. 
Two letters of his have been preserved, relating to 
the maps and writings of Cartier : the first written 
in 1587, and the other a year or two later, in which 
he mentions that his two sons, Michael and John 
Noel, were then in Canada, and that he was in ex- 
pectation of their return. Cartier himself died soon 
after his return to France, having sacrificed his for- 
tune in the cause of discovery. As an indemnification 
for the losses their uncle had sustained, this Jacques 
Noel and another nephew, De la Launay Chaton, re- 
ceived in 1588, an exclusive privilege to trade to 
Canada during twelve years; but this was revoked four 
months after it was granted. 

Roberval, notwithstanding his mortification at the 
loss of Carrier's experience and aid in his undertaking 
determined to proceed ; and sailing from Newfound- 
land about the end of June, 1543, he arrived at 
Cap Rouge, " four leagues westward of the Isle of 
Orleans," towards the end of July. Here the French 
immediately fortified themselves, "inaplace fit to com- 
mand the main river, and of strong situation against 
all manner of enemies." The position was no doubt 
that chosen by Jacques Cartier the year previow. 
The following is the description given in Hakluytof 
the buildings erected by Roberval : " The said Gene- 
ral on his first arrival built a fair fort, near and some- 
what westward above Canada, which is very beautifal 
to behold, and of great force, situated upon a high 
mountain, wherein there were two courts of building!, 
a great tower, andanother of forty or fifty feet longfc.! 
wherein there were divers chambers, an hall, a khV : 
chen, cellars high and low, and near unto it were an , 
oven and mills, and a stove to warm men in, and a « 
well before the house. And the building was situated 


ipon the great River of Canada called France-Prime 
yy Monsieur Roberval. There was also at the foot 
>f the mountain another lodging, where at the first all 
tor victuals, and whatsoever was brought with us was 
lent to be kept, and near unto that tower there is 
mother small river. In these two places above and 
>eneath, all the meaner sort was lodged." This fort 
iras called France-Roy ; but of these extensive build- 
ings, erected most probably in a hasty and inartificial 
manner, no traces now remain, unless we consider as 
such the mound above mentioned, near the residence 
of Mr. Atkinson, at Cap Rouge. 

On the 14th September, Roberval sent back to 
France two of his vessels, with two gentlemen, bearers 
of letters to the King ; who had instructions to return 
die following year with supplies for the settlement. 
The natives do not appear, by the relation given, to 
have evinced any hostility to the new settlers. Unfor- 
tunately, the scurvy again made its appearance among 
the French ; and carried off no less than fifty dur- 
ing the winter. The morality of this little colony was 
not very rigid — perhaps they were pressed by hunger, 
and induced to plunder from each other — at all events 
the severity of the Viceroy towards his handful of 
subjects appears not to have been restricted to the 
male sex. The method adopted by the Governor to 
secure a quiet life will raise a smile : "• Monsieur 
Roberval used very good justice, and punished every 
man according to his offence. One whose name was 
Michael Gaillon, was hanged for his theft. John of 
Nantes was laid in irons, and kept prisoner for his 
offence ; and others also were put in irons, and divers 
were whipped, as well men as women : by which 
means they lived in quiet." 


We have no record extant of the other proceeding! 
of Roberval during the winter of 1543. The ice broke 
up in the month of April ; and on the 5th June, the 
Lieutenant General departed from the winter quar* 
ters on an exploring expedition to the Province of 
Saguenay, as Carrier had done on a former occasion* 
Thirty persons were left behind in the fort under 
the command of an Officer, with instructions to 
return to France, if he had not returned by the 1st 
July. There are no particulars of this expedition, 
on which, however, Roberval employed a considera- 
ble time. For we find that on the 14th June, four of 
the gentlemen belonging to the expedition returned 
to the fort, having left Roberval on the way to Sa- 
guenay ; and on the 19th, some others came back* 
bringing with them six score weight of Indian com J 
and directions for the rest to wait for the return of the 
Viceroy, until the 22d July. An accident happened 
in this expedition, which seems to have escaped thf 
notice of the author of the treatise on the Canon <k 
bronze, which we have noticed in a former chapter* 
It certainly gives an authentic account of a shipwreck 
having been suffered in the St. Lawrence : to which, 
perhaps, the finding of the cannon, and the tradition 
about Jacques Cartier, may with some probability bft 
referred. The following is the extract in question i 
" eight men and one bark were drowned and lost* 
among whom were Monsieur de Noire Fontaine, and 
one named La Vasseur of Constance." The error , 
as to the name might easily arise : Jacques Cartier j 
having been there so short a time before, and his ce- ! 
lebrity in the country being so much greater than 
that of Roberval, or of any of his companions. 

The rest of Rober vat's voyage is wanting. Ha 
must have acquired a very general knowledge of the ; 


, coast, if we rely upon the account published by his 
fc pilot Jean Alphonse, who also gives a tolerably accu- 
; rate description of the River St Lawrence, and of the 
channel from sea. He is said to have examined the 
coast of North America as high as latitude 52°, in 
search of a passage to the East Indies. 

We have already said that great uncertainty and 
contradiction exist in the different historical accounts 
of Carder's third voyage, and the expedition of Ro- 
bervaL Our account is founded on the relation of 
these two voyages in Hakluyt's collection, carefully 
examined and compared with other authorities. The 
| antiquarian will be satisfied with the earlier no- 
tices of Canada ; but it is to be lamented that the 
accounts of the two last winters, passed among the 
Indians by Cartier and Roberval, have not been pre- 
served. Up to this time no progress whatsoever seems 
to have been made in the civilisation of the country ; 
and the different expeditions appear to have been 
limited to the occupation of a particular spot during 
the winter, and a fruitless exploration of the route to 
the imaginary golden region, during the period of 
open navigation. 

Roberval returned to France in 1543 ; and ani- 
mated by the duty which he owed to the King, on 
the war again breaking out between the Emperor 
Charles V. and Francis I. his active disposition led 
him back to the profession of arms. He distinguished 
himself in this war, as he had done on many previous 

After the death of his royal Patron, in 1547, 
having got together a band of enterprising men, he 
embarked again for Canada in 1549, with his brother 
Acbille, who was reputed one of the bravest warriors 
in France, and who was honorably named by Francis I. 


Le Gendarme (TAnnibaL In this voyage all these 
gallant men perished, or were never afterwards heard 
of ; and with them says Charlevoix, fell every hope 
of an establishment in America, since no one could 
flatter himself with the expectation of being more 
fortunate than these two brave adventurers. 











'he gallant and enterprising spirit of Francis I. no 
jer predominated in the French Court and coun- 
That monarch died in 1547, two months after 
death of his friend and rival, Henry VIIL, of 
;land. He was succeeded by Henry the II., in 
>se reign commenced the civil and religious trou- 

arising from the persecution of the Huguenots, 
nestic convulsion is always favorable to maritime 
loit ; and owing to the internal condition of 
nee, America continued to be regarded with at- 
tion. Checked, however, by the ill-success of 

adventurers in the north, the French began to 
ct their views towards a more southern latitude, 
nenced by the reports of some French sailors, who 

made a voyage to Brazil, the riches, beauty and 
ility of which country they greatly vaunted. The 
ibrated Gaspard de Coligny, early attached to 

Huguenot doctrines, had been appointed Admiral 
'Vance, by Henry II., in 1552. With the political 
N of aggrandizing the power of France, and of 
ending her name and institutions abroad, he corn- 
ed a patriotic desire to secure her tranquillity at 
tie. He saw no readier means of accomplishing 
h these ends, than to found a series of colonies 


composed entirely of persons of his own persuasion, 
where the doctrines of the Reformed Church, pro- 
scribed and persecuted in France, might be perpetu- 
ated in a new world ; — and where a place of refuge 
might be secured, should the political persecution of 
the age compel him to relinquish his native land. 
There is every reason to believe that this grand 
scheme extended to the projected colonization of the ' 
shores of the St. Lawrence on the one hand, and of 
the Missisippi on the other. The political effects of 
such a plan, if it were possible to carry it into execu- 
tion, might have been well anticipated by Coligny: 
a single glance at the map of North America will show 
with what a gigantic grasp a colonization, gradually ! 
extending itself along the banks of those two great 
rivers, would have hemmed in all the future settle* : 
ments on the Atlantic shores, between the Gulf of | 
St Lawrence and that of Mexico. 

Giving way to the prejudice in favor of Brazil, ! 
Coligny at first proposed to the King the establish- 
ment of a colony upon that coast. The project was 
approved, and Nicholas Durand de Villegagnon, 
Knight of St. John of Jerusalem, and Vice Admiral 
of Brittany, was appointed to the command. This 
expedition entirely failed ; but amidst the raging of 
the civil wars of France under the reigns of Francis 
II, and Charles IX., Coligny, who had put himself 
at the head of the Calvinists, found leisure to resume 
his project of a settlement in America. He now 
turned his attention to Florida, which had been seen 
by Verazzano ; and where the fertility of the soil, 
and the goodness of the climate held out every pros- 
pect of success. The River Mississippi had been 
discovered by Ferdinand de Soto, about the period 
of the last voyage of Jacques Cartier ; and the Spa- 


rds claimed the territory. Coligny, however, 
)ut the year 1562, obtained permission from Char- 

IX. to make an attempt towards establishing a 
ony in Florida, which the King was the more 
dy to grant, inasmuch as the Huguenots were his 
terest enemies ; and he hoped thus to free himself 
m some of the turbulent spirits of the age. Ac- 
dingly, on the 18th February, 1562, Jean de 
baut, a zealous Huguenot, sailed from Dieppe with 
o vessels, and a chosen crew. Having arrived on 
\ coast of Florida, about St. Mary's River, he suc- 
>ded in establishing a settlement, and built a fort. 
ro years afterwards, Coligny sent out a reinforce- 
nt under the command of Rene de Laudonniere, 

which Charlevoix takes care to record, there was 
t a single catholic. It appears from different au- 
>rities that Coligny had the great project we have 
uded to much at heart; but although the settlement 
Florida was the only part of the scheme which was 
•ried into effect, it was after a few years abandoned, 
rhaps in consequence of Coligny's death. The 
rvivors of this colony, after sanguinary wars with 
* Spaniards, accompanied by various romantic in- 
tents, finally returned to France in 1568. Although 

attempt was made to colonize any part of Canada 
ring nearly fifty years after the loss of Roberval, in 
50, — with the exception of the fishing voyages to 
2 banks of Newfoundland, and that of the two 
and nephews of Jacques Cartier in 1588 — there 
n be no doubt that the project of Coligny outlived 
it distinguished patriot, that it had been commu- 
jated to the principal Calvinists of France, and was 

no means lost in oblivion. We shall find that 
;eral of the leaders of the subsequent expeditions 
trade and discovery, both to Canada and Acadie, 


Exoidai in* diet myo, ne potters oredant 

Let this pernicious hoar 

8Und aye acenned in the calendar ! 



Although an account of the settlements made by 
» French, under the encouragement of Coligny, on 
j coast of Florida, does not strictly belong to the 
Kent subject, it would be unpardonable, in our his- 
ical recollections, to pass oyer the singular and chi- 
Irous story of the Chevalier be Gourgues : which 
much less generally known than it deserves, as ex- 
iting all the devotion of ancient heroism, and as a 
iking example of the ruling passion surviving the 
Itening operation of time, and triumphing finally 
er every impediment. 

The French and Spaniards had been long at bitter 
mity ; and the wars between them were carried on 
th all the exasperation of ancient rivalry and mutual 
fared. The encroachments of the former upon the 
•ri tones claimed by the Spaniards in Florida, raised 
5 liveliest indignation in the minds of a people not 
is martial and chivalrous than the French ; — and 
ten we add that these encroachments had been 
iefly made by the Huguenots, a race held in sove- 
ign detestation by the Catholic Spaniard, and per- 
muted to a degree of intensity by Philip II., the 
Sht of animosity to which they were excited can 
y be conceived. Nor were the French less sus- 
ptible of angry and vindictive feelings ; to which 
iy be added the poignant stings of offended na- 
»nal pride. They had never forgiven the captivity 

g 2 


of their popular and gallant Prince, Francis I. ; — the 
memory of this supposed disgrace still rankled in the 
population — nor was it ever wholly eradicated, until 
adequate reparation was made to the national honor, 
by the accession of a French Prince to the throne of 
Spain, many years afterwards. Notwithstanding a 
short cessation of the warfare between these two great 
powers, the passions we have attempted to describe 
remained in full force. 

Laudonniere passed the winter of 1564 in the 
fort which he had built near the mouth of St. Mary's 
River, and which he called La Caroline. In August 
1565, having experienced the mutinous disposition of 
part of his force, superadded to the horrors of famine, 
he was preparing to abandon, the enterprise, and to 
return to France, when he was joined by Ribaut with 
seasonable supplies. On the 4th September, they 
were surprised by the appearance in the road of six 
large vessels, which proved to be a Spanish fleet, 
under the command of Don Pedro Menendez, Hos- 
tilities were immediately commenced; and the French, 
having an inferior force of four vessels, were obliged 
to put to sea, chased by the Spaniards. The former, 
however, being the better sailors, after distancing 
their opponents, returned to the coast, and re-landed 
their troops about eight leagues from the fort of La 
Caroline. Three of the Spanish vessels kept the 
open sea, while the others lay in the road watching 
an opportunity to attack the French fort Ribaut, 
who was a brave but obstinate man, persisted in his 
resolution to put out to sea again for the purpose 
of meeting and fighting with the Spanish vessels. 
The season was extremely tempestuous, and Laudon- 
niere, having first vainly endeavored to dissuade 
his colleague from the rash attempt, fortified himself ; 



ind made every preparation to resist the attack which 
le anticipated. At length, notwithstanding the very 
teavy and long continued rains, the Spaniards were 
escried by the French sentinels advancing to the 
ssault on the 20th September. The ramparts, main- 
ained with spirit by a small force, were soon sur- 
mounted and carried — the gallant defenders slain in 
he breaches. Laudonniere, fighting his way bravely, 
ras the last to leave the fort, and succeeded in escap- 
ag to the woods ; where he rallied a few of his 
traggling countrymen, and whence he ultimately 
eturned to France. The remainder, with the fort, 
ell into the hands of the Spaniards. Nor did 
be disasters of the French end here. The vessels 
ommanded by Ribaut were driven on shore by the 
tonus then prevalent — many of the people lost — the 
nrvivors and their commander became prisoners 
o the Spaniards. The French were cruelly, and 
nth bitter taunts, put to death. Several were hung 
rom the neighbouring trees with this insulting legend 
— " Ceux-ci n'ont pas ete traite de la,sorte en qualite de 
Franfois, mais comme heretiques et ennemis de Dieu! ' 
Ample chastisement was, however, about to be in- 
licted — Champlain, who writes of this transaction 
rith the blunt and honest indignation of a soldier, in 
lis own familiar and quaint style observes, — " Ceux- 
ci furent payes de la meme monnoye, qu'ils avoient 
payes les Francis" — " they were repaid in the same 
coin with which they had paid the French." So 
Shakspeare truly says, 


In these cases, 
We still have judgement here : that we but teach 
Bloody instructions, which, being taught, return 
To plague the inventor. This even-handed justice 
Commends the ingredients of our poison'd chalice 
To our own lips. 

G 3 


This outrage excited the deepest indignation in 
France ; but the avowed hatred of the Court towards 
Coligny and the Huguenots prevented public satis- 
faction being demanded from Philip II. The instru- 
ment of a just retribution was not wanting to the 
emergency ; but it was reserved for a private indivi- 
dual to redeem the honor of the French name. " En 
Tan 1567/' says Champlain, " se presenta le brave 
Chevalier de Gourgues, qui plein de valeur et de 
courage, pour venger cet affront fait a la nation 
Franchise, et recognoissant qti'aucun d'entre la no- 
blesse, dont la France foisonne, ne s'offroit pour tirer 
raison d'une telle injure, entreprint de le faire :"— 
" In the year 1567, there presented himself the brave 
Chevalier de Gourgues, who full of valor and courage 
to avenge the insult on the French nation, and ob- 
serving that none among the nobility, with whom 
France abounded, offered to obtain satisfaction for ; 
such an injury, undertook himself to do so." He I 
was a gentleman of Gascony, and there were at that \ 
period few inferior officers in France, or perhaps in i 
all Europe, who had acquired a more brilliant repu- \ 
tation in war, or had undergone greater vicissitudes. ■ 
When very young he had served in Italy with honor; > 
and on one occasion, having the command of a small > 
band of thirty men, near Sienna in Tuscany, he was j 
able for a considerable time to withstand and repulse jj 
the assault of a part of the Spanish army : until, all ? 
his men being slain, he yielded himself prisoner. 
Contrary to the usage of war among generous foes, 
he was sent to the gallies in chains, as a robber-slave. . 
The galley, to which the indignant De Gourgues 
was condemned, was afterwards captured by the Turks r 
on the Sicilian coast, and sent into Rhodes. Again i 
putting to sea with a Turkish crew, it was encoun- . 


»d and taken by the gallies of the Knights of 
Ita ; and De Gourgues recovered his liberty and 
sword. He afterwards made several passages to 
ail, and the coast of Africa, still treasuring up 
geance on the Spaniards ; and he had just return- 
» France from one of his voyages, with the repu- 
im of the bravest and most able* among her 
igatora, when he heard of the disastrous tale of 
Caroline, and the disgraceful manner in which) 
countrymen had been put to death by the Spa^ 
•ds. Like a patriot, he felt keenly for the honor 
lis country ; and as a man, he burned for an op- 
tunity of satiating his long dormant revenge on 
perfidious Spaniards, for their unworthy treatment 
imself* At this time too there was circulated in 
nee a narrative intituled, the " Supplication of 
widows and children of those who had been mas- 
red in Florida,' 9 calculated to rouse the national 
ing to the highest pitch. These united motives 
ed De Gourgues to a chivalrous undertaking — no 
than to chase the murderous invaders from 
coasts of Florida at the sword's point, or to die in 
attempt. He accordingly proceeded to make his 
parations, which, however, were concealed with 
at skill and address. He raised a considerable 
i by selling his property, and by loans obtained 
a his friends ; and disguising his real purpose, 
e out that he was bound as before to the African 
st. The squadron consisted of three vessels, with 
rts amounting to two hundred and fifty souls, 
>ly provided for twelve months. Thus equipped 
jailed, on the 23d August, 1567, from Bordeaux ; 
after some time, began to unfold his real design, 
atiating in glowing language on the glory of the 
mpt, and the righteousness of the quarrel. 



" Mes compagnons et fideles amis de ma fortune, 
vous n'estes pas lgoorans combien je cherisles bravee 
courages comme vous, et l'avez assez tesmoign£ par. 
la belle resolution que vous avez prise de me suivre 
et assister en tous les perils et hazards honorables 
que nous aurons a souffrir et essuyer, lorsqu'ils se pre- 
senteront devant nos yeux, et l'estat que je fais dela 
conservation de vos vies ; ne desirant point vous. 
embarquer au risque d'un enterprise que je 69aurau 
reussir a une ruine sans honneur : ce seroit a mpy 
une trop grande et blasmable temerite, de hazarder 
vos personnes a un dessein d'un accez si difficile ; ce 
que je ne croy pas estre, bien que j'aye employ^ une 
bonne partie de mon bien et de mes amis, pour , 
equiper ces vaisseaux et les mettre en mer, estant le 
seul entrepreneur de tout le voyage. Mais tout cela 
ne me donne pas tant de sujet de m'affliger, comme 
j'en ay de me resjouir, de vous voir tous resolus a une 
autre entreprise, qui retournera a votre gloire, S9avoir 
d'aller venger l'injure que nostre nation a receiie des 
Espagnols, qui ont fait une telle playe a la France, 
qu'elle saignera a jamais, par les supplices et traicte- 
mens infames qu'ils ont fait souffrir a nos Francois, 
et exerce des cruantez barbares et inoui'es en leur. . 
endroit. Les ressentimens que j'en ay quelquefois, 
m'en font jetter des larmes de compassion, et me. 
relevent le courage de telle' sort, que je suis resoltt 
avec l'assistance de Dieu, et la vostre, de prendre une. 
juste vengeance d'une telle felonnie et cruant£ Ee-. 
pagnolle, de ces coeurs lasches et poltrons, qui ont.. | 
surpris mal-heureusement nos compatriotes, qu'ib ;.■ 
n'eussent ose regarder sur la defense de leurs armes., 


t assez mal logez, et les surprendrons aisement. 
es horames en mes vaisseaux qui cognoissent 
sn le pais, et pouvons y ajlez en seurete. Voicy, 
ompagnons, un subject de relever nos courages, 
paroistre que vous avez autant de bonne vo- 
i executer ce bon dessein, que vous avez 
bion a me suivre : ne serez vous pas contents 
iporter les lauriers triomphans de la despouille 
ennemis ?" 

Dmpanions, and faithful friends of my fortunes, 
e not ignorant how highly I value brave men 
ourselves. — Your courage you have sufficiently 
. by your noble resolution to accompany me in 
dangers which we shall have to encounter, as 
iccessively present themselves — my regard for 
have shown by the care I have taken for the 
of your lives. I desire not to embark you in 
terprise which may result in dishonorable fai- 
it would be in me a far too great and blameable 
fcy to hazard your safety in any design so dif- 
)f accomplishment, which, however, I do not 
>r this one to be ; seeing that I have employed 
good part of my own fortune, and that of my 
, in equipping these vessels, and putting to 
vself being the sole undertaker of the voyage. 
. this does not give me so much cause for regret, 
ive reason to rejoice, seeing you all resolved 
nother enterprise, which will redound to your 
-namely — to avenge the insult suffered by our 
from the Spaniards, who have inflicted an 
ble wound upon France, by their infamous 
ent, and the barbarous and unheard of cruelties 
lave exercised upon our countrymen. The 
)tion of these wrongs has caused me to shed 
f pity ; and inspires me now with such deter- 



mination, that I am resolved with the assistance of 
God and your aid, to take a just revenge for this 
felonious outrage on the part of the Spaniards — those ^ 
base and cowardly men, who unhappily destroyed our & 
friends by surprise, whom with arms in their hands ; j 
they dared not to have looked in the face. The enemy ( 
is poorly lodged, and may be easily surprised. I have ^ 
on board persons who know the country well, and we ,| 
can reach it in safety. Here, my dear companions, here \ 
is a subject to rouse our courage ! Let me see that 5 . 
you have as good will to perform this noble design i 
as you had affection to follow my person ! Will yot F 
not rejoice to bear away triumphant laurels, bought L 
by the spoil and ruin of our enemies ?" ^ 

This enthusiastic speech produced its full effect' ^ 
Each soldier shouted assent to the generous proposal* 
and was ready to reply with Euryalus, 

Est hie, est animus lucis contemptor ; et istum 
Qui vita bene credat emi, quo tendis, honorem ! 

Like thine, this bosom glows with martial flame, 
Burns with a scorn of life, and love of fame — 
And thinks, if endless glory can be sought 
On such low terms, the prize is cheaply bought. 

Having thus obtained the full co-operation of hit 
gallant band, De Gourgues steered for the coast of 
Florida ; and passed some time in reconnoitering the 
position of the Spaniards, and in acquiring from the jj 
Indians full particulars of their strength and resources* _ 
These were, indeed, sufficiently formidable, amount- 
ing to four hundred fighting men, provided with 
every munition of war. No way discouraged by thk 
superiority of numbers and of position, De Gourguei j 
made a furious attack upon the two forts, on the daj* 
before the Sunday, called Quasimodo, in April, 1566 


nding to capture them by escalade. The Spa* 
ds offered a very gallant resistance ; but the fury 
impetuosity of the French, stimulated by national 
pathy, by the particular nature of the revenge 
ch they contemplated, and fired by the valor and 
sonal example of their heroic chief, soon sur* 
inted all opposition. " Nostre genereux Cheva- 
de Gourgues," says Champlain exultingly, " le 
telas a la main, leur enflamme le courage, et 
lme un lion a la teste des siens gaigne le dessus 
rampart, repousse les Espagnols, se fait voye parmi 
: :" — " our brave Chevalier de Gourgues, sword 
land, inflames their courage, and like a lion at 
head of his troop, mounts the rampart, overthrows 
Spaniards, and cuts his way through them." The 
i of the Spaniards was sealed — many were killed 
the forts — the rest taken, or put to death by the 
lians. De Gourgues, thus crowned with victory, 
1 having fully succeeded in an enterprise which 
him seemed so truly glorious, brought all the pri- 
ters to the spot where the French had been mas- 
red, and where the inscription of Menendez yet 
nained. After reproaching his fallen enemies with 
ir cruelty and perfidy, he caused them to be hung 
m the same trees, affixing this writing in the place 
the former. " Je n'ay pas fait pendre ceux-ci 
mme Espagnols, mais comme traitres, voleurs, 
meurtriers :" " I hang these persons not as 
ing Spaniards, but as traitors, robbers and mur- 

De Gourgues, on developing his real design and 
stination to Florida, which he did in the first in- 
mce to his chosen friends, had pathetically com- 
uned that ever since he had heard of the Spanish 
itrage at La Caroline, he had been unable, however 


wearied with toil, to obtain his usual rest by n 
— that his imagination was ever occupied by 
semblance of his countrymen hanging from the t 
of Florida — that his ears were startled with pier 
cries for vengeance ; — and that sleep, " nature's 
nurse," would never visit him again, 

No more would weigh his eyelids down, 
And steep his senses in forgetfulness — 

until he had won her offices by a full and exqu 
revenge on the Spaniards ! The accomplishn 
of his cherished purpose must have been a high 
vivifying relief to an ardent spirit like De Gourg 
He now declared with exulting delight, that sleep, 
" balm of hurt minds," had once more deigned to ' 
his couch ; and that his rest was now sweet, like 
of a man delivered from a burthen of misery too g 
to bear ! 

Having accomplished this remarkable expedit 
and inflicted, in a spirit accordant with that of 
times, a terrible retribution on the Spaniards, 
Gourgues sailed from the coast of Florida on the 
May ; and arrived in France on the 6th June, wl 
he was received by the people with every toke: 
joy and approbation. In consequence, however 
the demand of the King of Spain for redress, 
was compelled to absent himself for some time, u 
the anger of the Court permitted him to reapp 
The narrative of this expedition was long preser 
in the family of De Gourgues. 

Champlain, in whose Voyages this romantic stor 
to be found, seems to have been a passionate adm 
of the conduct of De Gourgues, and thus enthus 
tically concludes his account of the expedition 
" Ainsi cp genereux Chevalier repara l'honneur 


a nation Fran^oise, que les Espagnols avoient offen- 
i£e : ce qu'autrement east £te un regret a jamais 
pour la France, s'il n'eust vengg 1'affiront receu do la 
nation Espagnolle. Entreprise genereuse d'un gen- 
ilhomme, qui l'exlcuta a ses proprea oousts et dee- 
pens, settlement pour l'honneur, sans autre esp&rance : 
ce qui lui a r6ussi glorieusement, et ceste gloire est 
plus a priser que tous les tresors du monde :* " Thus 
did this brave Knight repair the honor of the French 
nation, insulted by the Spaniards ; which otherwise 
had been an everlasting subject of regret to France, 
if he had not avenged tne affront received from the 
8panish people. A generous enterprise, undertaken 
by a gentleman, and executed at his own cost, for 
honor's sake alone, without any other expectation ; 
and one which resulted in obtaining for him a glory 
Cur more valuable than all the treasures of the world" 


It has been stated that the Norman, Basque and 
Breton fishermen continued their occupation on the 
great Bank, and alone the shores of Newfoundland. 
By degrees, they established a sort of barter with the 
natives ; and the traffic in furs soon became an ob- 
ject, which the love of novelty, the facility of the 
trade, and its profitable nature soon rendered of 
greater interest than the precarious life of a fisher- 
man. Many of the masters of the fishing vessels 
became fur dealers ; and carried home skins of great 
rarity and value. 

At length, after half a century of civil discord, 
France having recovered her former peace and pros- 
perity under the auspices of Henry IV., the greatest 
of her Kings, the taste for colonial adventure 



revived ; and the Marquis De la Roche, a native •: 
of Brittany, obtained from the King a commission i 
similar, and powers equal to those possessed fbiv £ 
merly by Roberval. These Letters Patent were t 
dated on the 12th January, 1598 ; and contained the •$ 
first establishment of the feudal tenure in this coon- -i 
try. Authority was given to La Roche, as the * 
King's Lieutenant, " to concede to gentlemen landi ^ 
in Fiefs, Seigniories, Counties, Viscounties and Baro* tr, 
nies, and other dignities holding from the king — and £ 
to those of lower degree, subject to such charges and ^ 
annual payments, as he might think proper to im- $[ 
pose." To this extensive commission, neither the 4* 
preparations nor the result bore any proportion; > 
La Roche contented himself by fitting out a single j* 
vessel, which he put under the command of Chedote& ^ 
an experienced pilot of Normandy; and embarked 5 *- 
himself for the purpose of exploring the countries *. 
under his government. The whole conduct of this v 
expedition was so devoid of foresight, that it would not 
be worthy of mention, but as forming a link in the .^ 
historical chain. The first fault committed by L»*5= 
Roche was the reinforcing his crew by the admission 
of forty convicts taken from the prisons — the next was s 
the place chosen for his temporary settlement. This 
was Sable Island, about twenty-five leagues to j- 
tbe South East of the Island of Cap Breton : a spot V- 
since remarkable only for the number of vessels^ . 
shipwrecked upon its dangerous sands and shores, '^ 
La Roche was probably induced to select Sabllt 
Island from its vicinity to the coasts he wished rf= 
explore ; and from the tradition that the Baron dm 
Lery had intended to establish a colony there sc£_ - 
early as 1518. Having disembarked the unfortunattp 
convicts, whose destiny proved still more misen£ 


le than if they had remained in their former cell* 
-»La Roche proceeded to survey the adjacent coasts ; 
ad returning to take off the people left on Sahle 
iland, was so lone prevented by continued gales,. 
utf hie was .constrained t> leave them to their fate,, 
nd set sail for France. The poor wretches under? 
rent every kind of hardship in their inhospitable*. 
Bodence-Hm the course of seven years but twelve 
f the forty remained alive, when a vessel sent at> 
pt to their relief took them back to France, just as 
be survivors were giving way to utter despair. 
[be King bad the curiosity to see them in their 
rild dress of skins as they landed, and presented. 
aph of them with fifty crowns* and full pardon of 
mpy offence. Smith adds, that some of their skins. 
fsre of great value, and were seized by the Captain. 
II a reoompence for his {rouble. On their arrival in 
ftance, however, they compelled him by legal means 
o return their property, and to pay them heavy 
lamages. La Roche, who was overwhelmed with 
relations arising from lawsuits, and the expenses of 
us useless expedition, soon after died broken hearted. 


Notwithstanding the failure of La Roche's expedi- 
tion, and the repeated ill success which had attended 
all previous efforts to establish a colony in Canada, 
the eager anticipation of a mine of commercial 
wealth to be found in the prosecution of the fur 
bade, with which the French began to be more 
favorably impressed, urged on new adventurers to 
i&e attempt. Although an exclusive privilege had 
f Wcn granted to La Roche, private speculators began 
It trade to the St. Lawrence, without notice on the 


part of the Government A considerable merchant 
of St. Malo, by name PonTgrave', distinguished 
himself by making several voyages to Tadoussac, 
at the mouth of the River Saguenay, whence he 
returned with furs sufficiently valuable to induce 
him to persevere. He soon perceived the possibi- 
lity of making this traffic extremely lucrative, if it 
could be brought to flow through one authorised 
channel ; and accordingly persuaded M. Chauvin, 
a captain in the navy, to make application to the 
King for an exclusive privilege, and for powers simi- 
lar to those conferred upon La Roche, Chauvin was 
a calvinist, and, in fact, of the same name as the great 
reformer, Calvin being merely the Latin name of 
Chauvin. He was jointly concerned with Pontgravl; 
and attempted without success to establish a trading 
post at Tadoussac. After making two voyages 
thither in 1600, and the following year, with but lit- 
tle profit, Chauvin died as he was preparing for a 






At this period the colonization of the country seems 
to have been entirely disregarded. The only object 
of these frequent voyages was the prosecution of a 
petty fur trade, M, Chauvin was succeeded in his 
privilege by the Commander De Chatte or De 
Chaste, Governor of Dieppe ; who founded a com- 
pany of merchants at Rouen, in order to establish the 
trade in a liberal and efficient scale. He equipped 
an armament under the command of Pontgrave ; who 
also received letters patent from the King, authoriz- 
ing hina to make further discoveries in the St. Law- 
rence, and to establish a settlement on the coast. 

Here a new epoch in the history of Canada may 
be said to present itself. Colonization, under the 
auspices of a man of talent, energy and patriotism 
was about to assume a new aspect; and after seventy 
years of mismanagement and disaster, was for the 
first time to be attended with success. Samuel 
Champlain, a gentleman of Saintonge, Captain in 
the Navy, arrived in France from the West Indies, 
where he had been employed nearly three years, and 
had acquired the reputation of a brave and expe- 
rienced officer. The Commander De Chatte, anxious 
to engage the services of an officer of such merit, 

h 3 


immediately proposed to Champlain to tahe a com- ; 
mand in the expedition destined for the St Lawrence;. < 
and the King's consent having been obtained, the - 
appointment was accepted. Champlain and Pont- , 
grav£ accordingly set sail in 1603, laid up their vea- ' 
sels at Tadoussac ; and in a light boat with a crew : 
of only five persons, ascended as far as the Sault St = 
Louis, which had been discovered by Jacques Carder. \ 
It is said that on this first voyage Champlain was > 
struck with the appearance of Quebec, and first form*- ■ 
ed the idea of selecting it as a site for a future ? 
colony. j 

The Indian settlement of Hochelaga, which in our i 
account of Carder's visit, we designated by the im- t 
posing name of a city, from its comparative impor- 
tance and population, had dwindled at the time of 
Champlain to a place of no moment. He does not 
even notice it, not having thought it necessary to go 
on shore, for the purpose of visiting it. 

Champlain made an exact chart of the coasts he 
had seen, together with a description of the country ; 
which on his return to France he submitted in* person 
to the King, who avowed his intention of patronising 
his future endeavors. The death of De Chatte, which 
they learned on their arrival at Honfleur, was matter 
of deep regret to Champlain, on account of his high 
personal qualities, and the confidence reposed in him 
by Henry. 


After the death of De Chatte, Pierre du Guast, 
Sieur de Monts, a townsman of Champlain, gen- 
tleman of the Chamber in ordinary to His Majesty, 
and Governor of Pons, obtained the most extensive 


commission yet granted by the King, reaching from 
Virginia to the Esquimaux River, or from latitude 40° 
to 54°. This gentleman had already made one voyage 
with Chauvin as a volunteer. He had also the power 
of conceding lands between latitude 40° and 46°, 
together with the usual titles of Viceroy and Lieu- 
tenant General. De Monts was a Calvinist, and 
obtained the free exercise of his form of ieligion for 
himself and all his friends ; but on the condition that 
he should establish the catholic worship among the 
natives. He reposed the utmost confidence in the 
integrity and skill of Champlain ; and to this gentle- 
man, and his predecessor, M. de Chatte, belongs the 
credit of associating in their enterprises, the cele- 
brated founder of Quebec — who by his personal qua- 
lities, high character and valuable services, greatly 
contributed to render Canada an object of lasting 
interest to France and to European Christendom. 

De Monts continued the company established by 
his predecessor, and reinforced it by the addition of 
several considerable merchants from the different 
ports of France, particularly Rochelle : so that he 
was enabled to fit out a very complete armament* 
He sailed from Havre-de-Grace on the 7th March, 
1604, with four vessels, of which two, under his im- 
mediate command, were destined from Acadie, or 
Nova Scotia. He was accompanied by Champlain, 
and by a gentleman named Poitrincourt, who had 
left France with the design of making a permanent 
settlement with his family in the new world. A third 
vessel was despatched under Pontgrav6 to the Strait 
of Canso, for the purpose of preventing any en- 
croachment by other parties on the exclusive rights 
of De Monts. The fourth was ordered to Tadoussac, 
and was destined to carry on the fur trade with 


that post. On the 6th May, De Monts arrived 
at a harbor on the coast of Acadie, where he com- 
menced the rigid assertion of his privilege by seizing 
and confiscating an English vessel. As a singular 
recompense for the loss of his ship, he called this 
harbor Port Rossignol, from the name of the master, 
which was Nightingale* Thence they sailed to the 
Island of St. Croix, about twenty leagues to the west- 
ward of the River St. John, where De Monts disem- 
barked the people, and passed the winter. Finding 
the place inconvenient, in the spring of 1605, he ■ 
removed the establishment to Port Royal, now An- 
napolis, discovered by Champlain, who had been 
diligently employed in surveying the coast. Here a 
fort was built, of which Pontgrave was at first ap- 
pointed Lieutenant ; but De Monts soon afterwards, 
bv virtue of his commission, conceded the whole 
establishment of Port Royal with a large domain to 
M. Poitrincourt ; which grant was a few years after 
recognized and confirmed by Letters Patent from the 
King, being the first concession made in North 
America. De Monts returned to France in the au- 
tumn of 1605 : when he found his influence at Court 
on the wane, heavy complaints having been made 
against him by the persons interested in the Fisheries, 
who belonged to every port in the Kingdom. They 
represented with considerable unanimity, if not with 
truth and justice, that under pretence of preventing 
their trade with the Indian hunters for furs, he had 
thrown every impediment in the way of their lawful 
occupation in the fisheries, to their great injury, and 
to the prejudice of the Revenue. These statements 
were listened to at Court, and De Monts was depriv- 
ed of the exclusive privilege, which had been granted 
to him for ten years. Not, however, disheartened 



by this reverse, he entered into a new engagement 
with M. Poitrincourt, who had followed him to 
France ; and equipped a vessel, which sailed from 
Rochelle on the 13th May, 1606, for the purpose of 
succouring the people left at Port Royal. This Co- 
lony, considering itself forgotten by the founders, 
was on the point of returning to France. Thus op- 
portunely reinforced, however, it speedily encreased 
in prosperity under the able management of Poitrin- 
court, who appears to have been a person of superior 
talents and resources. He was here joined by his 
friend Marc Lescarbot, an Advocate of Paris, who, 
urged by an eager desire and curiosity, unusual with 
persons of his profession, had left the practice of the 
Courts to examine the new world : — 

fenotis errare locis, ignota videre 
r lamina gaudebat. 

This gentleman proved of the greatest service in 
meliorating the condition of the settlement. He is 
described as now piquing the pride, and now animat- 
ing the drooping spirits of the settlers ; by which 
means, added to indefatigable exertion in his own 
person, he succeeded in gaining the love of all. 
Every day his ingenuity was successfully put to the 
test, by some invention of utility to the people ; and 
he afforded an eminent example, how advantageous 
to a new settlement are the resources of a mind 
cultivated by study, and guided by zeal and reflexion. 
It is to this learned and ingenious person that we are 
indebted for an excellent history of New France, 
published in 1609. We must acknowledge in him 
an accurate and judicious author, equally capable of 
establishing a Colony, of regulating its internal eco- 
nomy, and of writing its natural and political history. 


M. Poitrincourt maintained possession of Port Royal 
for several years, until he was dispossessed by the 
English, who finally acquired the sovereignty of 
Nova Scotia. 

The enemies of De Monts still persevered in their 
misrepresentations, and at length succeeded, to the 
great indignation of Champlain, in depriving him 
altogether of his commission, a very trifling indem- 
nification only being allowed to him in return for his 
extensive disbursements. The next year, in 1607, 
he solicited his re-appointment — but only obtained a 
renewal of his former privilege for one year, on con- 
dition of forming a settlement on the River St. Law- 
rence ; to which, by the advice of Champlain, the 
King had lately turned his serious attention. 

Neither the company to which De Monts belonged, 
or the associates of his voyages, had abandoned him 
in his adversity. Two vessels were fitted out at 
Honfleurin 1608, under the command of Champlain 
and Pontgravc for Tadoussac, and the St. Lawrence, 
while De Monts remained in France endeavoring to 
obtain an extension of his Patent, but without suc- 
cess. This failure, however, did not prevent him 
from afterwards fitting out some vessels, by the aid 
of the company, and without any commission, in the 
spring of 1610 — for the River St. Lawrence, under 
the same able command. 

Champlain, who, as stated above, was a zealous | 
catholic, makes great objection to the employment [ 
and admixture of the Huguenots in these expeditions 
of De Monts. Indeed he prognosticates ill success 
to every undertaking where so preposterous an union 
was permitted. The following story is told in his 
peculiar style : — the parties must have been com- 
posed, according to the poet, of that stubborn crew, 



Of errant Saints, whom all men grant 
To be the true Church militant ; 
And prove their doctrine orthodox 
By apostolic blows and knocks. 

" II se trouve quelque chose a redire en ceste 
entreprise, qui est, en ce que deux religions con- 
traires ne font jamais un grand fruit pour la gloire 
de Dieu parmy les infideles, que Ton veut convertir. 
J'ay veu le Ministre et nostre cure s'entre-battre a 
coups de poing, sur le differend de la religion. Je 
ne s^ ay pas qui etoit le plus vaillant, et qui donnoit 
le meilleur coup, mais je sr;ay tres bien que le minis- 
tre se plaignoit quelquefois au Sieur de Mons d'avoir 
este battu, et vuidoient en ceste fafon les poincts de 
controversde. Je vous laisse a penser si cela estoit 
beau a voir ; les sauvages estoient tantostd'un coste, 
tantost de l'autre, et les Francois meslez selon leur 
diverse croyance, disoient pis que pendre de Tune et 
de l'autre religion, quoy que le Sieur de Mons y 
apportast la paix le plus qu'il pouvoit. Ces inso- 
lences estoient veritablement un moyen a l'infidele 
de la rendre encore plus endurcy en son infidelite :" 
c< Some fault is to be found in this enterprise, and 
hat is, that two opposite religions can never produce 
food fruit, to the glory of God, among the infidels 
vho are to be converted. I have seen the Huguenot 
Minister and our Cure engage at fisticuffs, upon the 
lifference of religion. I know not which was the 
>etter man, or who gave the harder blows ; but this 
[ know very well, that the Minister sometimes com- 
plained of having been thrashed, and thus they set- 
tled their points of controversy. I leave you to 
determine if this was decent to behold : the natives 
were first on one side and then on the other ; and the 
French took part according to their respective creed, 


abusing" each other's religion, although De Mont 
did all in his power to keep the peace. These follie 
were truly a method of rendering the infidel mor 
hardened in his infidelity." 


Om the 13th April, 1608, Pontgrav6 having beei 
already despatched in a vessel to Tadoussac, Cham 
plain, who had obtained the commission of Lieute 
nant, under De Monts, in New France, set sail fron 
Honfleur, with the express intention of establishing 
a settlement on the St. Lawrence, above Tadoussa< 
at which post he arrived on the 3d June. After 
short stay, he ascended the River, carefully examin 
ing the shores ; and on the 3d July, reached the spc 
called Stadacona, now Quebec, rendered so reman 
able by the first visit of Jacques Cartier in 153! 
Champlain, whose ambition was not limited to mer 
commercial speculations — actuated by the patriotic 
and pride of a French gentleman, a faithful servan 
of his King, and warmly attached to the glory of hi 
country, — thought more of founding a future empir 
than of a trading post for peltry. After examininj 
the position, he selected the elevated promontorj 
which commands the narrowest part of the grea 
River of Canada, the extensive basin between it an 
the Isle of Orleans, together with the mouth of th< 
Little River St. Charles, as a fit and proper seat fb 
the future metropolis of New France, and there law 
the foundation of Quebec, on the 3d July, 1608 
His judgment has never been called in question, o: 
his taste disputed in this selection. Its commanding 
position, natural strength, and aptitude both for pur- 
poses of offence and defence, are evident on the firs 


view — while the unequalled beauty, grandeur and 
sublimity of the scene mark it as worthy of extended 
empire : 

hoc regnum gentibns esse, 

8i qua fata sinant, jam torn tenditqne fovetque. 

This noble site, prove fate hereafter kind, 
The seat of lasting empire he designed. 

Here, on the point immediately overlooking the ba- 
sin, and on the site reaching from the grand battery 
to the Castle of St Lewis, he commenced his labors 
by felling the walnut trees, and rooting up the wild 
vines with which the virgin soil was covered, in order 
to make room for the projected settlement Huts 
were erected, some lands were cleared, and a few gar- 
dens made, for the purpose of proving the soil, which 
was found to be excellent The first permanent build- 
ing which the French erected was a store house, or 
magazine for the security of their provisions. Cham- 
plain thus describes his first proceedings, which will 
be read with interest by the inhabitant at the present 
day : " J'arrivay a Quebec le 3 Juillet, ou e stent, 
je cherchay lieu propre pour nostre habitation ; mais 
je n'en peus trouver de plus commode n'y mieux 

scitue que la pointe de Quebec laquelle estoit 

remplie de noyers et de vignes. Aussi tost j'em- 
ployay une partie de nos ouvriers a les abbatre ; pour 

y faire nostre habitation La premiere chose que 

nous fismes fut le magazin pour mettre nos vivres a 

convert, qui fut promptement fait Proche de 

ce lieu est un riviere agreable ou anciennement 
hyverna Jacques Carder :" — " I reached Quebec on 
the 3d July, where I sought out a proper place for 
our dwelling ; but I could not find one better adapted 
for it than the promontory, or point of Quebec, 



which was covered with walnuts and vines. As sooi 
as possible, I set to work some of our laborers, to 

level them, in order to build our habitation Hm 

first thing which we did was to build a store house tc 
secure our provisions under shelter, which was quieklj 

done Near this spot is an agreeable river, 

where formerly wintered Jacques Carrier." A tem- 
porary barrack for the men and officers was subse- 
quently erected on the higher part of the positions 
near where the Castle of St Lewis now stands. It 
must be remembered that at the time of the landing 
of Champlain, the tide usually rose nearly to the base 
of the rock, or c6te ; and that the first buildings 
were of necessity on the high grounds. Afterwards, 
and during the time of Champlain, a space was re- 
deemed from the water, and elevated above the 
inundation of the tide ; on which store houses, and 
also a battery level with the water were erected, hav- 
ing a passage of steps between it and the fort, on the 
site of the present Mountain Street, which was first 
used in 1623. 

Champlain had now, humble as they were, sue* 
cessfully laid the foundations of the first French 
Colony in North America. One hundred and sixteen 
years had elapsed since the discovery of the net 
world ; and it was only in the year previous, thai 
on the whole continent, north of Mexico, a European 
nation had at length succeeded in establishing any 
settlement This was effected by the English undet 
Captain Christopher Newport, who laid the found* 
tion of a settlement at Jamestown, Virginia, on the 
13th May, 1607, two hundred and twenty seven yean 
ago. The chivalrous character and adventures oi 
Captain John Smith, and the interesting story oi 
Pocahontas, have conferred a peculiar interest oc 


he early history of this colony. It may be noted 
is a singular contrast with the growth of the English 
colonies afterwards, that at the death of Queen 
Elizabeth, in 1603, there was not a European family 
in all the northern continent : at present the great 
State of Virginia alone, — of which the germ was 
a colony of one hundred souls, of whom fifty died 
daring - the first year ; and which, as described by 
Chalmers in his political annals, " feeble in num- 
bers and enterprise, was planted in discord, and 
new up in misery/' — numbers upon its soil no 
teas than twelve hundred thousand inhabitants ! The 
disappearance and eradication of the Indians has 
been still more extraordinary. Of the countless 
tribes who filled up the back country of Virginia 
at the time of the first settlement by the English, it 
appears by the census of 1830, that there existed only 
forty-seven Indians in the whole State ! 

The summer was passed in finishing the necessary 
buildings ; when clearances were made around them, 
and the ground prepared for sowing wheat and rye : 
which was accomplished by the 15th October. Hoar 
frosts commenced about the 3d October, and on the 
15th the trees shed their leafy honors. The first snow 
fell on the 18th November, but disappeared after two 
days. Champlain describes the snow as lying on the 
ground from December until near the end of April, so 
that the favorite theory of those who maintain the 
progressive improvement of the climate, as lands are 
cleared in new countries, is not borne out by the 
evidence of Canada. From several facts it might be 
shown that the wintry climate was not more inhos- 
pitable in the early days of Jacques Cartier and 
Champlain than in the present The winter of 


1611 and 1612 was extremely mild, and the river 
was not frozen before Quebec. 

From the silence of Champlain respecting the 
hamlet or town of Stadacona, which had been visited 
by Cartier so often in 1535, it would seem probable 
that it had dwindled, owing to the migratory predilec- 
tions of the Indians, to a place of no moment* He 
certainly mentions a number of Indians who were 
" cabannez," or hutted near his settlement ; but the 
ancient name of Stadacona never once occurs. It 
will be recollected that Cartier spoke of the houses of 
the natives as being amply provided with food against 
the winter. From the evidence of Champlain, the 
Indians of the vicinity appear to have degenerated in 
this particular. They are represented as having ex- 
perienced the greatest extremities for want of food 
during the winter of 1608; and some who came over 
from the Pointe LeVi side of the river, were in such * 
state of wretchedness, as hardly to be able to drag 
their limbs to the upper part of the settlement They [ 
were relieved and treated with the greatest kindness 
by the French. 

The ice having disappeared in the spring of 1609, ' : , 
so early as the 8th April, Champlain was enabled to ■_ 
leave the infant settlement of Quebec, and to ascend 
the river on the 18th, for the purpose of further ex- 
ploring the country. He resolved to penetrate into 
the interior; and his mingled emotions of delight 
and astonishment may easily be conceived, as he 
proceeded to examine the magnificent country of 
which he had taken possession. During this summer, a 
he discovered the beautiful lake which now bears hit m 
name ; and having returned to Quebec in the autumn, _. 
he sailed for France in September 1609, leaving the Z 


settlement under the command of Captain Pierre 
Chauvin, an officer of great experience. 

Champlain was well received on his arrival by 
Henry IV., who invited him to an interview at 
Fontainebleau ; and received from him an exact ac- 
count of all that had been done in New France, with 
a statement of the advantages to be expected from 
the new establishment on the St. Lawrence, — at which 
recital the King expressed great satisfaction. De 
Monts, however, by whose means the settlement 
of Quebec had been formed, could not obtain a 
renewal of his privilege, which had now expired : — 
notwithstanding which, he was once more enabled 
by the assistance of the company of merchants, to 
fit out two vessels in the spring of 1610, under the 
command of Champlain and Pontgrav6. The latter 
was instructed to continue the fur trade with the 
Indians at Tadoussac, while Champlain, having with 
him a reinforcement of artisans and laborers, was to 
proceed to Quebec. He sailed from Honfleur on the 
8th April, and arrived at Tadoussac in the singu- 
larly short passage of eighteen days. Thence as* 
cending the river to Quebec, he had the gratification 
of finding the colonists in good health, and content 
with their situation. The crops of the previous year 
had been abundant, and every thing was in as good 
order and condition as could be expected. 

To pursue further the proceedings of Champlain, 
and his discoveries in the interior, does not properly 
&11 within the scope' of this work, but belongs to the 
History of Canada. It may be well, however, to 
observe in this place, that owing to the political error 
committed by this otherwise sagacious chief, when he 
taught the natives the use of fire-arms, and joined 
them in an offensive league against the Iroquois, 

i 2 



who were at first supported by the Dutch, and after- 
wards by the English Colonists of New- York, — 
Champlain not only laid the foundation of that 
predatory and cruel warfare which subsisted with lit- 
tle intermission between his countrymen and the fire 
nations, notwithstanding the conciliatory efforts of , 
the Jesuits — but he may with reason be considered , 
as the remote, although innocent cause, of the ani- . 
mosity afterwards engendered between the Provin- : - 
cialists and the French, owing to the excesses of the .. 
Indians in the interest of the latter, and of a war 5 
which terminated only with the subjugation of Canada ■[ 
by the British arms in 1760. \ t 

Champlain, who made frequent voyages to France * 
in order to promote the interests of the rising Colony, j; 
and who identified himself with its prospects by J ; 
bringing out his family to reside with him, was wisely jt 
continued, with occasional intermission, in the chief \ : 
command until his death. In 1620, he erected a 
temporary fort on the site of the Castle of St, Lewis; 
which he rebuilt of stone, and fortified in 1624% At 
that time, however, the Colony numbered only fifty 
souls. It appears from the Parish Register then 
commenced to be regularly kept, that the first child . 
born in Quebec of French parents was christened 
Eustache on the 24th October, 1621, being the son „ 
of Abraham Martin and Margaret L'Anglois. In _. 
1629, Champlain had to undergo the mortification of 
surrendering Quebec to an armament from England 
under Louis Kertk, who on the 22d July planted 
the English Standard on the walls, just one hundred . 
and thirty years before the battle of the Plains of , 
Abraham. Champlain was taken as a prisoner of 
war to England, whence he returned to France, 
and subsequently to Canada in 1633* The inhabi- c 


tants were well treated by Kertk, who was himself a 
French Huguenot Refugee, and none of the settlers 
left the country ; which was restored to France by 
the treaty of St Germain-en-Laye, on the 29th 
March, 1632. 

Champlain, who combined with superior talents 
and singular prudence a temperament of high courage 
and resolution, after a residence in New France of 
nearly thirty years, died full of honors, and rich in 
public respect and esteem, in the bosom of the set- 
tlement of which he was the founder, about the end 
of December, 1635. His memoirs are written in a 
pleasing and unaffected style ; and show that he was 
deficient in none of the qualities which are so essen- 
tial in the leader of difficult enterprises, and the dis- 
coverer of new countries. His obsequies were per- 
formed with all the pomp which the colony could 
command ; and his remains wer? followed to the grave 
with real sorrow by the Clergy, Officers, and the civil 
and military inhabitants, Father Le Jeune pronounc- 
ing an appropriate funeral oration. 

At the death of Champlain the French possessions 
in Canada consisted of the fort of Quebec, surrounded 
by some inconsiderable houses, and barracks for the 
soldiers, a few huts on the Island of Montreal, as 
many at Tadoussac, and at other places on the St. 
Lawrence, used as trading and fishing posts. A set- 
tlement had just been commenced at Three Rivers ; 
and in these trifling acquisitions were comprised all 
that resulted from the discoveries of Verazzano, 
Jacques Carder, Roberval, Champlain, and the vast 
outlay of De la Roche, De Monts, and other French 
adventurers. At the time we are writing, the Colony 
or Province of Lower Canada contains nearly six hun- 
dred thousand inhabitants — Quebec possesses over 


three thousand houses, and a population of near thirty 
thousand souls. That of Montreal is as numerous ; 
and Three- Rivers is progressively improving in 
wealth and resources. The social and commercial 
intercourse between these flourishing towns is main- 
tained by means of magnificent steamboats of un- 
rivalled safety and expedition — those floating palaces, 
in which a thousand human beings are often trans- 
ported from city to city. The trade of the Province, 
instead of being limited to a few small craft engaged 
in the fisheries or the fur trade, employs more 
than a thousand vessels of burthen, enriching the Pro- 
vince with an annual immigration of from twenty-five 
to fifty thousand souls, the aggregate of whose capital 
is immense ; — and conveying in return the native pro- 
duce of the Canadas to almost every part of the empire. 
Pitt must have been prophetically inspired when he 
gave to the great seal of Canada its beautiful legend, 
for nothing could be more applicable to the double 
advantages of one extensive branch of its commerce 
— the Timber trade — 

ab ipso 


Gains power and riches by the selfsame steel. 

Instead of a few huts on the River's side, the country 
on each bank of the St. Lawrence has been long 
divided into rich Seigniories, and the fertile soil cul- 
tivated by an industrious, a virtuous and contented 
population* — by a people to whom foreign dominion, 
instead of deteriorating their former condition, has 
been the herald of all that can render life precious. 
It has given to them the unrestricted enjoyment of 
their rights, language and religion — protection against 
external foes, together with the full security of their 

with wnmucif. apoepjwnoHWi ipfc 

•tic m k g * , \ totUm*) laws and profttrty-~per- 
aeiapla^ &^ the burthens of taxation, and a 
of rationl happiness and political freedom un- 
tied on the fece of the globe. . The following 
kiful passage, from Virgil will, strike every one, 
(gnlarlv applicable to the condition of the Ca- 
in fanner, Or habitant : 

Q fatnnstos nimium, sns si boss nAriot, 
' Agriootss ! qofboa ips*^ promt ditcordibot sntais# ' 
Fu**fe basso Jaoilem victoai jostissiam tolls*, i 

8t, bjs* ingests*) foribos dttaos. alts saptflbis > 

Msae s§ latsntnai totis ▼omit ssdibas aaosm | ■. 

At sseora quiet, et nescis faUere Tits, 
Dives spom variarum ; st lads otia fundi*, 

8 feloness, vivique lacas ; at frigida temps* 
ugitusque boom, mollesque sob arbors soma! 
Non sbtont. Ulic saltus, et lustra feraram, 
Et patient operant, parvoque assueta juventus, 
Sacra Deom, tanctiq ue patres. Extrema per illot 
Jnttitia excsdens terris vestigia fecit. 

O happy, if he knew his happy state, 

The twain, who free from discord and debate, 

Receives hit easy food from nature's hand, 

And jntt returns of cultivated land. 

No palace with a lofty gate Jie wants, 

To admit the tides of early visitants ; 


Bat easy quiet, a secure retreat, 

A harmless life, that knows not how to chest. 

With homebred plenty the rich owner bless, 

And rural pleasures crown his happiness. 

Cool grots are his, and living lakes, the pride 

Of meads, and streams that through the valley glide ; 

And shady groves that easy sleep invite, 


And after toil a soft repose at night 
Wild beasts of nature in his woods abound ; 
And youth, of labor patient, plough the ground, 
Inured to hardship and to homely fare ; 
Nor venerable age is wanting there, 
In great examples to the youthful train ; 
Nor ought is there religion to profane. 
From hence Astroea took her night, and here 
The prints of her departing steps appear. 

Having thus conducted the reader to the founds- . 
tion of Quebec, we conclude the historical sketch of i 
the progress of early discovery and settlement in this 
part of the North American continent 





There are few subjects on which greater ingenuity 
has been displayed, and more time and labor expend- 
ed, than on etymology. Every votary of this study 
has a favorite theory — the fancy runs' wild, and even 
the gravest writers have indited most deliberate 
nonsense, when led astray by the ignis fatuus of 
etymological research. The vulgar signs of obscure 
taverns and ale-houses have not been rejected as 
subjects for the lucubrations of antiquaries ; — and 
such uncourtly and degenerate phrases as " The Bull 
and Mouth," and " The Bag o' nails," have been 
restored by antiquarian lore into the historic and 
classic appellations of " Boulogne Mouth," and " The 
Bacchanals." Even the Spectator has elevated the 
old hostelry of Isabella Savage into that of " La 
Belle Sauvage." Taking a bolder range, Vallancey 
has demonstrated, at least to his own satisfaction, that 
thespeech of the Phoenician in the Pcenulus of Plautus 
is pure Irish ; but the climax of absurdity was reached 
by an author of the name of Lemon, who, in 1783, 
published an " English Etymology," the avowed aim 
of which was to prove, that almost all English words 
are of Greek origin. This author says, with all the 
gravity of a man in full possession of his senses, — 
" There are many words in our language that con- 


tinue to wear so strange and uncouth an appea 
as would require more than CEdipus to develop 
disentangle from their present intricate and eni 
tical disguises. Thus the expressions hot-co 
scratch-cradle, link-boy, bogle-boe, haut-gout, ban 
kickshaws, Crutched-Friars, and innumerable c 
can only be explained by their etymologies, ever 
of which is Greek ! ! 

The force of nonsense could no further go- 
the reader may be assured, that the whole work 
strict conformity with this extract : the writer 
vertheless, was a beneficed clergyman, and a m 

The etymology of the names, " Canada" 
" Quebec," has been disfigured and encumber* 
definitions equally puerile. Such fancies were j 
liar to the times, which followed the discovei 
America. Innumerable were the conceits ol 
Elizabethan age — the learned plunged without 
pass into the unknown seas of etymological discos 
and even the wise Bacon, and the severe Coke 
addicted to this pursuit. In the age before 
during the time of the bluff King Harry, " th 
vereignest thing on earth" was a name convey 
a rebus ; and such devices are still seen on the 
and mouldings of the most celebrated of die En 
Cathedrals. B ut the sagacious etymologists of fo 
days by no means recognised the necessity ol 
quaintance with the primitive language of whic 
words they undertook to explain were comp 
They pursued a " royal road" of their own ; 
undertook to discover in the Spanish tongue the 
of phrases which existed only in the aboriginal sp 
of the Indian native. Thus the etymons of Ca 
and Quebec have been sought for, where there 


: probability of finding them than in the languages 
Tapan and Otaheite ! 

ather Hennepin, one of those etymological savans, 
>se labors it were great pity should be lost, tells 
that the Spaniards were the first discoverers of 
iada ; and that finding in it nothing worthy of 
ir cupidity, they bestowed upon it the negative 
ellation of " El capo di nada," — " Cape Nothing" 
rhence by corruption its present name. La 
;herie follows in the same track, and with more 
ticularity recites the same derivation. Charlevoix 
es the same story with a little variation. He tells 
that the natives of Gaspe frequently repeated the 
•ds, " Acanada" — "Nothing here," — to the French 
ler Jacques Cartier, words which they had received 
n the Spaniards who had visited them before his 
e. Charlevoix supposes that the French were 
s induced to consider it the name of the country ; 
; in a note he adds, with some hesitation, another 
inition, to which we shall have occasion to return, 
amplain contents himself with using the word 
Canada" very sparingly, without any notice or 
)othesis as to derivation, the appellation of the 
intry being in his time New France. In the 
Beautes de Fhistoire du Canada," published in 
ris, the same fanciful etymology is given ; but 

preferable definition, noticed oy Charlevoix, is 

ced first in order, as deserving greater attention. 

e derivation of the name " Canada," as given 

►ve, is clearly fanciful. It does not appear in the 

writers, and was a weak attempt to derive from 

Spanish a word of evident Indian origin. It is, 
reover, extremely uncertain whether the Spaniards 
r touched at Gaspe, or on any part of the con ti- 
lt ; and it seems highly probable that the tradition 



itself received currency from the spurious etymology, 
which rendered it necessary, for the sake of probabi- 
lity, to show that the Spaniards had readied the 
coast previous to the coming of the French. 

Having thus discussed the fanciful derivation of the 
word, let us consider its more probable source and ety- 
mology. Carrier, in whose narrative there is no men- 
tion of the words " Aca nada," as used by the native* 
of Gasp£, or Baye des Chaleurs, gives the name of 
" Canada" indifferently to the whole region which 
he discovered from the Sault St Louis to the Golf 
of St. Lawrence — to the great River itself — and alio 
to the immediate portion of the country in which be 
wintered, and of which Donnacona is stated, in page 
forty-three, to have been Lord, And he does tins 
on the authority of the two native interpreters 
whom he had originally taken from Gaspl. We 
conceive it utterly irrational to suppose that, at that 
early period, the name of Canada was extended over 
this immense country. The migratory habits of the 
Aborigines would effectually prevent such a con- 
clusion. They usually distinguished themselves by 
their different Tribes, called from the name of 
some wild animal ; but not by the country which 
they inhabited or hunted over ad libitum, and with 
all the independence of savage life. They gave 
rather a name to the locality, than adopted their 
own from any fixed place of residence. Thus, 
the Iroquois and the Ottawas added their appella- 
tions to the Rivers which ran through their hunting 
grounds ; and the Huron Tribe, who gave their 
name originally to the Lake, on the downfall of their 
ancient dominion — even when confined within the 
limits which their too powerful enemies had imposed, 
and living in the midst of another people— still 


proudly distinguished themselves as the Hurou In- 
lians of Lorette ; and their habitation, under the 
same of the Huron Village, is visited with interest 
and curiosity to the present day. It has never been 
pretended that any tribe of Indians bore the name of 
Canada, which must inevitably have been the case, 
had that extensive region been so called by the Abo- 
rigines, as Cartier supposed. The natural conclu- 
sion is, that the word " Canada" was a mere local 
appellation, without reference to the country — that 
each Tribe had their own ". Canada," which shifted 
its position according as they migrated either from 
caprice, or from the necessity of acquiring new hunt- 
ing grounds — in short, that the suggestion contained 
in the note of Charlevoix, Nouvelle France, volume 
the first, page nine, of the quarto edition, and 
repeated in " Beautes de l'Histoire du Canada," 
affords the real solution of the difficulty : " Quel- 
qu'uns derivent ce nom du mot Iroquois Kannata, 
qui se prononce Cannada, et signifie un amas de 
cabaries ;" — " Some derive this name from the Iro- 
quois word Kannata, pronounced Cannada, signifying 
a collection of huts." The adoption of this name 
by the French under Cartier was natural. Where- 
ever they found any collection of huts in their inter- 
course with the natives from Gaspe to the Sault St. 
Louis, they met with the word " Canada" in answer to 
their enquiries ; and they accordingly believed it to 
be the name of the country, instead of the particular 
village which they had discovered. 

Father du Creux, who arrived in Canada about the 
year 1625, in the preface to his Historia Canadensis, a 
quarto volume written in elegant latin, gives the name 
of Canada to the whole valley of the St. Lawrence, 
confessing, however, his ignorance of the etymology in 


the most ingenuous manner : " Porro, de etymologii 
vocis Canada nihil satis certi potui comperire : pris- 
cam quidem esse, constat ex eo, quod illam ante 
annos prope sexaginta passim usurpari andiebam 
puer. At Marcus quidem Lescarbotius fluvium S. 
Laurentii vocat identidem Magnum fluvium Canada?, 
seu latina appositione, Magnum fluvium Canadam, 
nee de vocis origine quicquam prodit :" — " I have 
been able to discover nothing certain respecting the 
etymology of the word Canada ; but it is evident that 
it is an old name, because when a boy, more than 
sixty years ago, I heard it every where used. Mark* 
Lescarbot always calls the River St, Lawrence the 
great River of Canada, but mentions nothing con- 
cerning the origin of the words." It will be .recol- 
lected that Lescarbot, who was a man of learning 
and talent, published his book in 1609. 

From a paper among the unpublished transactions 
of the Literary and Historical Society of Quebec, we 
gather that the Indian word " Canada," which is pro- 
nounced as if written thus, Kaugh-na-daugh, is a com- 
bination formed of the first syllables of two distinct 
words, implying a collection of huts. This comprehen- 
sive method of forming a word from the first syllables 
of other words is usual with the Indians, accustomed to 
vary their definitions, according to every impres- 
sion made upon their senses and powers of perception. 
The first of these syllables is met with in several 
Indian names at present existing ; as in Kaugh-na- 
waugh-a 9 or the Village of the Rapid, an . Indian 
settlement nearly opposite to Lachine ; and in the 
word Kaugh-yu-ga, or Cayuga, one of the five nations 
or Iroquois. The latter is found in the name Oncm- 
daugh-a, Onondaga, another of the five nations; 
and both occur in the same word in Kaugh-na-dawjhr 


e, or Canandaigua, in the Gennessee country, 
harlevoix also mentions that the Kennebec Indians 
ere called Canibas, Kaugh-ni-bas; and that the 
iver Kennebec was originally called Canibequi. 
he intermediate and connecting syllable na is very 
obably the particle of, — as in Irish Celtic we find 
[ac-na-mara, Son of the sea, Con-na-mara, Head of 
e sea, or a promontory. Without falling into the 
ror of the fanciful etymologists of whom we have 
oken above, it may be remarked, that this peculiar 
rmation of the Indian compound may possibly exist 
every language, as part of the original process of 
eir invention. There are certainly some traces of 
discoverable in the Latin, a few of which, for the 
ausement of the curious, we subjoin : 

Malo is formed of . . . Magis volo. 

Nolo Non volo. 

Macte ..... Magis aucte. 

Nubo ..... Nube eo. 

Caveo . Catus eo. 

Tuens, tueor . • • Tutus ens, tutus eo. 

Aucupo ... . Avem capio. 

Manceps, mancipium . , Manu capio. 

Duco Duo cum eo. 

Contraho Con-trans-habeo. 

Traho Trans-habeo. 

That the Indian solution of the disputed etymology 
Canada is the correct one, has been lately sup- 
>rted in so remarkable a manner by the authority of 
native Indian, that it may now be considered conclu- 
rely established. Duponceau, in the transactions of 
e Philosophical Society of Philadelphia, states in a 
te his conjecture as to the origin of the name of 
lnada, founding it upon the fact that in the trans- 
ion of the Gospel of St. Matthew into the Mohawk 

k 2 


tougue, made by Brant the Indian Chief, in the 
upper Province, the word Canada is always used to 
signify a village. The mistake of the French who 
thus took the name of a part for that of the whole k 
quite pardonable in persons ignorant of the Indian 
language. They afterwards endeavored to substi- 
tute the name of New France, but without success. 

We now approach a subject of considerable inte- 
rest and no slight difficulty — namely, the etymology 
of the name of Quebec. The Indians at the time of 
Jacques Cartier uniformly called it Stadacona. 
That name had perished before the time of Champlaio, 
owing, probably, to the migration of the briginal 
tribe, and the succession of others. Indeed, the place 
itself has been shown to have been inconsiderable at 
his day, both as to importance and population. The 
Indians of Carrier's time were probably the Mon- 
tagnez, or inferior Algonquins, who afterwards retired 
to the neighborhood of the Saguenay : at the period 
of the arrival of Champlain, Quebec was possessed 
by a kindred tribe, or Upper Algonquins. 

La Potherie has furnished a derivation of this word, 
as fanciful as that which he had already given of 
Canada, without, however, vouching for its proba- 
bility ; — " On tient, que les Normands qui etoient 
avec Jacques Cartier, a sa premiere decouverte, ap- 
pendant au bout de PIsle d'Orleans, un cap fort 
eleve, s'ecrierent Quel bee I et qu'a la suite du terns 
le nom de Quebec lui est reste. Je ne suis pas 
garand de cette etymologie :" — " It is said, that 
the Normans with Jacques Cartier at his first dis- 
covery, perceiving from the end of the Isle of 
Orleans a lof cy cape, exclaimed, Quel bee ! what a 
promontory ! and that in the course of time the 
name of Quebec remained to it. I do not vouch for 


s etymology." It is hardly necessary to ob- 
ve that this derivation is entirely illusory and im- 
>bable ; although it must be confessed that the 
rd itself, according to its present orthography, 
uld lead us to consider it of Norman origin ; and 
nay generally be admitted, that in newly disco- 
id lands almost all names are taken from some 
ticular quality, or else transfered from another 
in try. The associations which give rise to this 
ictice are perfectly natural — they are connected 
;h the finest feelings of human nature, and founded 
on the love of country. It has, indeed, been inge- 
►usly argued, that Quebec was so called after 
ne spot on the River Seine, probably Caudebec ; 
)ught to the remembrance of the first discoverers 
the apparent resemblance of the locality. 
We have seen that the first Indian name of Que-* 
c was Stadacona, given to it by the tribes pos- 
sing this portion of the country previously to the 
irons. The Huron name is Tia-ton-ta-rili, 
iich signifies the place of the strait. Any one 
10 observes the narrowing of the river at Cape 
iamond, and its contraction to less than three quar- 
ts of a mile in breadth, will admit that it presents 
striking natural feature ; and it would be peculiarly 
parent to the eye of a savage, whose perception of 
ery change in the natural economy and physical 
pearance of objects, possessing the highest interest 
being connected with his sole pursuits of hunting 
d war, is wonderfully acute. All the Indian names 
places are descriptive ; and the same name, or one 
aring the same sense, in two different languages or 
ilects, will not appear to have any recognisable 
semblance to him who does not understand both, 
is highly probable, then, that Stadacona was of the 


same import as the name given by the Hurons, and 
meant the place of the strait. 

In the earlier period of the history of this country, 
when many of the inhabitants were familiar with the 
Indian tongues, and when the import of the last 
Indian name was well known, the singular error was 
fallen into of supposing that Quebec was the Indian 
word which signified the place of the strait. Char- 
levoix is the writer on whose authority this error, as 
we conceive it to be, has been transmitted ; although 
it has been somewhat inconsiderately thrown back 
upon Champlain, who wrote more than a century 
before Charlevoix. The latter says in his third letter, 
speaking of the River St. Lawrence : " Au dessns 
de Tlsle d'Orleans, il se retrecit tout acoupde cette 
sorte, que devant Quebec il n'a plus qu'une mille 
de largeur ; c'est ce qui a fait donner a cet endroit le 
nom de Quebec, qui en langue Algonquin signifie 
retrecissement .•" — " Above the Island of Orleans, it 
suddenly narrows, and that to such a degree as to be 
no more than a mile wide opposite to Quebec ; from 
which circumstance this place has been called Quebec, 
which in the Algonquin tongue signifies a strait! 1 
That this statement was made to Charlevoix upon the 
spot, there is no reason to doubt ; but it may have 
arisen from error, and was probably founded on the 
Huron name, the import of which was the place of 
the strait. The latter being familiarly known, owing 
to the residence of the Hurons at Lorette, and Que- 
bec having been considered an Indian word, in the 
course of time it came to be regarded as of the same 
meaning, although no such import can at the present 
day be traced. Thus Quebec was handed down as 
the place of the strait by Charlevoix : one writer 
repeated it after another, — 


Mensuraque ficti 
Crescit, et auditis aliquid novus adjicit auctor. 

So the story grew, 
And each narrator added something new. 

lmplain, the earliest and, doubtless, the best au- 
ity on the subject has also been adduced in 
>ort of this opinion, in a note to Smith's History 
anada, page 16 : " Quebec, in the Algonquin 
uage signifies a strait. Champlain, vol, 1. 115." 
the words of Champlain by no means prove the 
rtion here made. He says, in page 115, " Trou- 
; un lieu le plus estroit de la riviere, que les 
tans du pays appellent Quebec, je fis bastir, &c. :" 
finding a place where the River was narrowest, 
;h the inhabitants call Quebec, I began to build." 
in, at page 124, we find, " La pointe de Quebec, 
i appelle des sauvages :" — " The point of Quebec, 
ailed by the savages." This is all that Cham- 
q says, and it is by no means conclusive. There is 
certainty from this, that the name of Quebec was 
;n to this place by the Indians, prior to the foun- 
on of the city, from the mere circumstance of its 
ig the narrowest part of the River : the gramma- 
1 construction of the first quotation by no means 
icates that : on the contrary, it would appear from 
second quotation that it was the point, at the 
fluence of the Little River St. Charles with the 
Lawrence, to which the savages gave the name 
Quebec. There being nothing, therefore, in the 
lority of Champlain decisive of Quebec being 
Indian word for a strait, it may be added, that its 
; has never yet been discovered in any Indian 
ruage ; and that in the opinion of persons well 
minted with the native dialects, Quebec has not 


to the ear any sound of an Indian word. The 
Algonquin tongue is of singular softness and sweet- 
ness, and may be considered as the Italian of the 
North American languages. Quebec, originally so 
written, is a harsh, abrupt sound, of which no parallel 
can easily be found in any of the Indian tongues, 
least of all in the Algonquin ; in which the sound P 
was always substituted for that of B, while in the 
Huron language the latter consonant is altogether 
rejected. Both these facts throw considerable dif- 
ficulty around the supposed Indian derivation of the 
name, with its present, orthography. I 

On the other hand^- tne word bears intrinsic evi- | 
dence of Norman origin.- Tbe&s't syllable is French} 
and the last, bee, was obifonj^ly applied by them to 
designate a prom&rttor^Mjr cap6, of wWch abundant 
instances may T>e addu&d froifl . their ancient maps* 
But evidence has latettt^&h discovered, which esta- 
blishes, beyond doubt/ttet the word is of European 
origin, supposed on the best grounds to be Norman; 
and that it Was a placto^of sufficient importance to give 
one of his tulei to a cRitiuguudied statesman and 
warrior, so -early at Jthe 7th Jfcar of the reign of 
Henry V. of England* the. hew of Agincourt. 

On the opposite side is airengraving, which accu- 
rately represents the impression of the seal of Wil- 
liam de la Pole, Earl of Suffolk, a person of 
historical celebrity during the reigns of Henry V, 
and VI. The arms on the shield, the supporters, 
the helmet, and a representation of the Earl with the 
cap of maintenance upon his head, and ruff around 
his neck, are quite perfect. The legend which is 
mutilated may thus be supplied : " Sigillum Wil- 
lie lmi de la Pole, Comitis Suffolchi^i Domini 
de Hambury et de Quebec." It is probablti 



for tfax>&i*iS3 Brt&refQutStr. 


from the space that a third word intervened originally 
between the two latter titles. The plate is copied 
from one in Edmonstone's Heraldry, and proves be- 
yond doubt that Quebec was a Town, Castle, Barony 
or Domain, which the powerful Earl of Suffolk 
either held in his own right, or as Governor for the 
King in Normandy, or some other of the English 
possessions in France. The orthography of the 
name, corresponding literally with the present, ren- 
ders its identity with that of the capital of British 
America indisputable. The date of the seal, as 
given in Edmonstone, is the 7th Henry V., or 1420, 
the year of that King's nuptials with Catharine of 
France, daughter of Charles VI., who by her second 
marriage was grandmother of Henry VII. of Eng- 


William de la Pole, Earl, Marquess and Duke 
of Suffolk, one of the most conspicuous personages of 
the time of Henry V. and VI., was grandson of 
Michael de la Pole, first Earl of Suffolk, Lord High 
Chancellor of England, during the reign of Richard 
II., 1386. The first Earl presents a remarkable 
instance, in the days of feudal and baronial splendor, 
of an individual rising from comparatively humble 
life to the highest office of the state. He was the son 
of Michael de la Pole, an eminent merchant in Hull, 
who had been ruined by lending money to King 
Edward III. during the French wars. William de 
la Pole, the subject of this notice, is spoken of by 
Hume as a person of the greatest capacity and the 
firmest character ; and is classed among the many 
renowned generals who distinguished themselves in 


the French wars. He was constantly employed in 
enterprises of the greatest trust; and was equally 
efficient in the cabinet and in the field. It was his 
elder brother, who is introduced, as having fallen in 
the glorious battle of Agincourt together with the 
Duke of York, in the beautiful episode of Shaks- 
peare, King Henry the fifth, Act fourth, Scene 
sixth : 

From helmet to the spur, all blood he was. 
In which array, brave soldier, doth he lie, 
Larding 1 the plain ; and by his bloody side, 
(Yoke fellow to his honor-owing 1 wounds,) 
The noble Earl of Suffolk also lies. 
Suffolk first died, and York, all haggled over, 
Comes to him, where in gore he lay insteep'd, 
And takes him by the beard — kisses the gashes, 
That bloodily did yawn upon his face, 
And cries aloud — Tarry, dear cousin Suffolk / 
My soul shall thine keep company to Heaven : 
Tarry, sweet soul, for mine, then fly a-breast, 
As, in this glorious and well-fouyhten fitld, 
We kept together in our chivalry J 
Upon these words, I came, and cheer'd him up : 
He smiPd me in the face, raught me his hand, 
And, with a feeble gripe, says, — Dear my lord, 
Commend my service to my sovereign. 
So did be turn, and over Suffolk's neck 
He threw his wounded arm, and kissed his lips ; 
And so, espous'd to death, with blood he seal'd 
A testameut of noble-ending love. 
The pretty and sweet manner of it forc'd 
Those waters from me, which I would have stopp'd ; 
But I had not so much of man in me. 
But all my mother came into my eyes, 
And gave me up to tears. 

In 1423, William de la Pole, in a fierce and * 
well disputed action, defeated the Scottish and Frenek 
army commanded by John Stuart, Constable of ^ 
Scotland, and the Count de Ventadour, before Cre-. ^ 


yant in Burgundy, taking those generals prisoners, 
and leaving Sir William Hamilton and a thousand 
men dead on the field. This victory was of the greatest 
importance to the successful issue of the war, and the 
' operations of the Regent, Duke of Bedford. In 
1428, he commanded die English forces at the fa- 
mous siege of Orleans, where he displayed, under 
difficult circumstances, talents and qualities of the 
highest order. At this siege he had a train of artil- 
lery with him, which about that time was first con- 
sidered of military importance. It was here that the 
celebrated Joan of Arc, commonly called the Maid 
of Orleans, made her first appearance upon the 
scene ; and effected by means of superstition what 
the arms of France had in vain attempted. She 
succeeded in raising the siege in 1429, and Suffolk 
was compelled to retreat with his panic-stricken army 
to Jergeau, where he was besieged by the irresistible 
Joan ; and after a gallant defence forced reluctantly 
to capitulate. Suffolk was obliged to yield him- 
self prisoner to a Frenchman named Renaud ; but 
before he submitted, he asked his adversary whe- 
ther he were a gentleman ? on receiving a satisfactory 
answer, he demanded whether he were a Knight ? 
Renaud replied, that he had not yet attained that 
honor. " Then I make you one," replied Suffolk : 
upon which he gave him the blow with the sword, 
which dubbed him into that fraternity ; and he imme- 
diately surrendered himself his prisoner. 

Suffolk's disgrace and misfortune were soon com- 
pensated. Having effected his liberation by the 
is*. Payment of a large ransom, he was again at the head 
fyl «an army; and in conjunction with the powerful 
#1*; «ly of England, the Duke of Burgundy, he laid siege 
1$$ to Compiegne in 1430, the garrison of which was 



commanded by the Maid of Orleans in perso 
Here the fortune of Joan of Arc deserted her ; < 
according to common opinion, she was, through jc 
lousy on the part of some French officers, purpose 
left unprotected in a sally which she had orderc 
and was taken prisoner by the Burgundians. H 
subsequent fate was a foul blot upon the character 
the age t after some time passed in prison and 
fetters, she was burned as a sorceress in the mark 
place of Rouen, in 1432. 

At the Congress held at Arras, in 1435, Suffoi 
was owe of the English Commissioners, together wi 
the Cardinal of Winchester, to whose party in tl 
state he had attached himself, in opposition to tl 
Good Duke Humphrey of Glocester. The Cardinal 
party were desirous of peace with France, at almo 
any sacrifice ; and as they prevailed at court, Sui 
folk was despatched to Paris, in 1443, and conclude 
a truce for two years with the French King. One • 
the consequences of this truce, the marriage of Hem 
VI. with Margaret of Anjon, became so unpopular wil 
the nation, that it ultimately caused the ruin of tl 
Minister by whom it had been brought about. Sqj 
folk, who was the agent in this affair, is generall 
supposed to have had a tender interest in the regard 
of Margaret ; and his influence became paramour 
in the state, bringing with it all the ills which en 
compass the perilous station of a royal favorite i 
rude and factious times. After the King's marriag 
he was created Marquess, and first Duke of SuffoU 
and he even received a vote of thanks from the Pai 
liament. The entire loss of France a few years ai 
terwards, which was commonly attributed 'to th 
treachery t>f the Duke of Suffolk, on account < 
his supposed attachment to the Queen and th 


French interest, exasperated the minds of the people 
and he was impeached by the Commons, in 1450. 
The charges against him, which are to be found at 
fall length in the Rolls of Parliament of that reign, 
28th Hen. VI. would not probably bear any strict scru- 
tiny; bet as he was besides suspected by the people of 
having been implicated in the cruel murder of the Good 
Duke Humphrey, the favorite of the nation, the tide 
of unpopularity was too powerful for him to stem. 
Then, as now, there were few to aid a falling Minis- 
ter. The Duke, indeed, faced his accusers with great 
constancy, and made a bold and manly defence in the 
House of Peers, insisting upon his innocence, and 
even upon his merits, and those of his family in the 
public service. He stated that he had served his 
country in thirty-four campaigns — that he had been 
employed for the King in France for seventeen years 
without once returning to his native land — that he 
had been himself a prisoner, and had only regained 
his freedom by the payment of an exorbitant ransom. 
His father had died of fatigue at the siege of Har- 
fleur — his eldest brother had been killed at the battle 
of Agincourt — two others had perished at Jergeau 
where he had been taken prisoner — and his fourth 
brother, who had been his hostage while he was em- 
ployed in procuring ransom, had also died in the hands 
of the French. He complained that after his long 
services, after having repeatedly received the thanks 
of his sovereign, and of the Commons, after having 
been for thirty years an unspotted Knight of the Gar- 
ter, he should at length be suspected of having been 
debauched from his allegiance by that enemy, whom 
he had opposed with the utmost zeal and fortitude ; 
• and of betraying his royal master, who had rewarded 
his services by the highest honors and greatest offices 


that it was in his power to confer. This speech only 
the more exasperated his enemies ; and in order to 
save him from their fury, Suffolk was sent by the 
King into banishment for five years, in the hope 
that he might then return to court without danger. 
But his inveterate foes were not to be so baffled: 
they employed a fast sailing" vessel to intercept him 
in his passage to France, which came up to him near 
Dover. His head was immediately struck off on the 
side of the vessel, and the body 'cast into the sea. 
This nobleman is one of the Dramatis Persons of 
Shakspeare, in the first and second parts of King 
Henry VI. The dying scene is thus given in the 
second part, Act the fourth, Scene the first. 

Whitmore : I lost mine eye in laying the prize aboard ; 
And, therefore, to revenge it, shalt thou die. 

Suffolk : Look on my George, I am a gentleman ; 

Rate me at what thou v ilt, thou shalt be paid. 

Whitmore : And so am I : my name is — Walter Whitmore— 
How now ? why start'st thou ? what, doth 
death affright ? 

Suffolk : Thy name affrights me, in whose sound is death. 
A cunning man did calculate my birth, 
And told me — that by water I should die : 
Yet let not this make thee so bloody minded, 
Thy name is Gualtier, being rightly sounded— 
Stay, Whitmore ; for thy prisoner is a Prince, 
The Duke of Suffolk, William de la Pole. 

Captain: Convey him hence, and on our long boat's side 
Strike off his head ! 

Gentleman : My glorious lord, entreat him, speak him fair. 

Suffolk : Suffolk's imperial tongue is stern and rough, 
Us'd to command, untaught to plead for favor. 
Far be it, we should honor such as these 
With humble suit : no, rather let my head 
Stoop to the block, than these knees bow to any, 
Save to the God of Heaven, and to my King ; 
True nobility is exempt from fear : — 
More can I bear, than you dare execute. 


Some of the charges preferred by the Commons 
against Suffolk seem to afford a distant clew to the 
word " Quebec," which appears upon his seal. He 
was accused of having acquired for himself, and be- 
stowed upon his creatures and friends large posses- 
sions in France, to tlje prejudice of the Crown : — his 
unbounded influence in Normandy was complained 
of, where it appears he lived and ruled like a mo- 
narch ; and where he had so far acquired the affec- 
tions of the inhabitants, that when they threw off their 
allegiance to England, the vulgar attributed it to the 
disaffection of Suffolk himself, through the interest 
of the Queen. Having shown, therefore, that this 

Eeat nobleman had been closely connected with the 
aglish possessions in France for so many years, it 
is not unreasonable to conclude, that during his 
long services he had acquired the French title of 
" Quebec," in addition to his English honors. Many 
of the English Peers, distinguished in the wars of 
France, received titles of honor in that country ; as 
did the great Earl of Shrewsbury, "English John 
Talbot," who was created Earl of Valence by 
Henry VI. We have not been able to find, in the 
libraries to which we have access, any enumeration of 
the several titles of honor borne by the Duke of Suf- 
folk ; but there can be no doubt that such may be 
discovered in the British Museum, or the Herald's 
College. Whenever such discovery is made, the 
precise character of the place whence he took his 
title of " Quebec," which must have been of some 
importance, since it is introduced on his seal of arms, 
will no doubt be satisfactorily explained. That such 
a name existed nearly two centuries before the found- 
ation of this capital, bearing the self same orthogra- 
phy, must be acknowledged to be a striking and 

l 2 


remarkable circumstance. Even as a mere coined 
dence, it is curious, and altogether, we think, eon 
elusive, that " Quebec," so written, has no claim U 
the character of an Indian word. The earliest writer 
Champlain, and those who followed him, gave it tin 
present mode of spelling. Father du Creux,in order to 
adapt the word to the Latin, uniformily writes it, "An 
Kebeccensis, Kebeccum ;" and in the Latin inscrip 
tions which have been found in the foundations o 
the Recollet Church it is written with a K. Heno 
the initials in the French Cathedral, P. K., fo: 
" ParoBcia Kebeccensis." In Major Walley's jour 
nal of the expedition against Canada under Sft 
William Phipps, in 1690, it is caUed " Cabeck.' 
With these exceptions it has uniformly preserved th< 
Norman orthography, as given in the Suffolk seal 
Granting, then, the Norman origin of the word, i 
may be asked how we dispose of the positive evidence 
of Champlain, who tells us, that the " point o: 
Quebec was so called by the savages ?" This is no! 
so difficult as at first view it may appear. We lean 
from La Potherie, that the little River St. Charlef 
was called by the natives, Cabir-Coubat, on account 
of its serpentine course. " II y a une riviere a une 
petite demie lieue de la, appel£e Cabir-Coubat psi 
leg sauvages, a raison des tours et detours qu'elh 
fait :" Voyage de PAm6rique, Tom. 1. p. 134 
Here then is an entire change in the Indian descrip- 
tion, equally accurate, but taken from another feature 
of tie locality. • We had before, the " place of thfi 
strait :" we have now, " the winding river." It has 
been stated that there is no proof that the name oi 
" Quebec," heard by Champlain, was descriptive oi 
the former appellation : there is every probability 
that it was taken from the latter. We believe, then 


that the word, Coubat, was the sound heard by 
Ghamplain, as applied by the natives to the " point,' 9 
where the little river flows into the St Lawrence ; 
and which spot was chosen by him for his first settle- 
ment. The time and quantity of the words themselves 
correspond : the number of the syllables and letters 
is the same, while the initial breathing is exactly 
similar. One, pronounced by an Indian, might 
easily be mistaken for the other. Let any one 
slowly repeat the Indian name, Coubat, several times, 
always remembering the Italian softness of pro- 
nunciation which distinguished the Algonquin dialect; 
and he will not find it difficult to come to the conclu- 
sion, that he has at last found the true origin of the 
celebrated name, which in the mouths of the French, 
already familiarised to the present termination, ac- 
cording so well with the locality, soon assumed the 
form, orthography and pronunciation of Quebec. 

The result of the foregoing observations amounts 
to this : That the etymology of the word Canada 
is proved to be the Iroquois word Kannata, signifying 
a collection of huts, or a village ; while there are 
strong grounds for believing that the name Quebec, 
per se, is in fact a Norman word. That some Indian 
name which resembled it in sound was heard by 
Champlain, and considered to be that of the place 
where he settled — that this Indian word was most 
probably the latter division of their name for the 
River St. Charles, Cabir-Coubat ; and that from 
this word, it gradually acquired its present appella- 




Few circumstances of discussion and enquiry are 
more interesting than the history and fete of ancient 
buildings, especially if we direct our attention to the 
fortunes and vicissitudes of those who were connected 
with them. The temper, genius and pursuits of an 
historical era are frequently delineated in the features 
of remarkable edifices : nor can any one contemplate 
them without experiencing curiosity concerning those 
who first formed the plan, and afterwards created and 
tenanted the structure. These observations apply 
particularly to the subject of this chapter. 

The history of the ancient Castle of St. Lewis, or 
Fort of Quebec, for above two centuries the seat oi 
government in the Province, affords subjects of greal 
and stirring interest during its several periods. The 
hall of the old Fort, during the weakness of the colony 
was often a scene of terror and despair at the inroadi 
of the persevering and ferocious Iroquois ; who, hav 
ing passed or overthrown all the French outposts, mor 
than once threatened the Fort itself, and massacre 
some friendly Indians within sight of its walls. There 


too, in intervals of peace, were laid those benevolent 
plans for the religions instruction and conversion of 
die savages, which at one time distinguished the policy 
of the ancient Governors. At a later era, when, 
under the protection of the French Kings, die Pro- 
vince had acquired the rudiments of military strength 
and power, die Castle of St. Lewis was remarkable, 
as having been the site whence the French Gover- 
nors exercised an immense sovereignty, extending 
from the Gulf of St Lawrence, along the shores of 
that noble river, its magnificent lakes, — and down the 
course of the Mississippi, to its outlet below New 
Orleans. The banner which first streamed from the 
battlements of Quebec, was displayed from a chain 
of forts, which protected the settlements through- 
out this vast extent of country : keeping the Eng- 
lish Colonies in constant alarm, and securing the 
fidelity of the Indian nations. During this period, 
the council chamber of the Castle was the scene 
of many a midnight vigil, — many a long deliberation 
ttd deep-laid project, — to free the continent from the 
intrusion of the ancient rival of France, and assert 
tboughout the supremacy of the Gallic lily. At 
toother era, subsequent to the surrender of Quebec 
to the British arms, and until the recognition of the 
^dependence of the United States, the extent of em- 
pire, of the government of which the Castle of Quebec 
*as the principal seat, comprehended the whole 
American continent, north of Mexico ! It is asto- 
nishing to reflect for a moment, to how small, and, as 
*o size, comparatively insignificant an island in the 
Atlantic ocean, this gigantic territory was once sub- 
let ! 

Here also was rendered to the representative of 
the French King, with all its ancient forms, the fealty 


and homage of the noblesse, and military retaini 
who held possessions in the Province under 
Crown — a feudal ceremony, suited to early tux 
which imposed a real and substantial obligation 
those who performed it, not to be violated with 
forfeiture and dishonor. The King of Great Brit 
having succeeded to the rights of the French Croi 
this ceremony is still maintained.* 

In England^ it is also still performed by the Pe 
at the coronation of our Kings, in Westminc 
Abbey, although the ceremony is much curtailed 
its former impressive observances. 

The Castle of St. Lewis was in early times rat! 
a strong hold of defence, than an embellished or 
ment of royalty. Seated on a tremendous pre 
pice, — 

On a rock whose haughty brow 

Frown'd o'er St Lawrence' foaming tide— 

and looking defiance to the utmost boldness of 
assailant, nature lent her aid to the security of 
position. The cliff on which it stood rises nea 
two hundred feet in perpendicular height above 

* Fealty and homage is rendered at this day by the Seign 
to the Governor, as the representative of the Sovereign in 
following form : His Excellency being in full dress and sa 
in a state chair, surrounded by his staff, and attended by 
Attorney General, the Seignior, in an evening dress and weai 
a sword, is introduced into his presence by the Inspector 
neral of the Royal Domain and Clerk of the Land Roll, 
having delivered up his sword, and kneeling upon one k 
before the Governor, places his right hand between his, and 
peats the ancient oath of fidelity ; after which a solemn ac 
drawn up in a register, kept for that purpose, which is sig 
by the Governor and the Seignior, and countersigned by 
proper officers. 

With historical recollections. 131 

• The Castle thus commanded on every side a 
extensive prospect, and until the occupation of 
higher ground to the south west, afterwards 
i Cape Diamond, must have been the principal 
rt among the buildings of the city, 
lien Champlain first laid the foundation of the 
, in 1620, to which he gave the name of St. Lewis, 
evident that he was actuated by views of a po- 
ll, not of ^ commercial character. His mind was 
etter keeping with warlike enterprises than the 
irement of wealth, either for himself or his fol- 
rs. He was perfectly disinterested in all his 
eedings ; and foreseeing that Quebec would be- 
3 the seat of dominion, and invite a struggle for 
Future possession, he knew the necessity of a 
ig hold, and determined to erect one, in oppo- 
n to the wishes of the company of merchants, 
tells us, that on his return from France, in 
, 1620, having read the King's commission, and 
n possession of the country in the Viceroy's 
e, by his direction — " Part of the laborers 
oienced a fort, to avoid the dangers which 
it occur, seeing that without one there could 
10 security in a country removed by its dis- 
e from all hopes of assistance. I placed this 
ling in an excellent situation, upon a mountain 
jh commanded the passage of the St. Lawrence, 
of the narrowest parts of that River ; and yet 
e of the company's associates were able to per- 
e the necessity of a strong hold, for the preserva- 
of the country, and of their own property. The 
*e thus built afforded no satisfaction to them ; but 
that matter, I felt it my duty, nevertheless, to 
y into effect the commands of the Viceroy ; and 
is the real way to avoid receiving an affront, for 


an enemy, who finds that there is nothing to b 
gained but blows, and much time and expense to b 
thrown away, will be cautions how he hazards his ve* 
sels and their crews. This shows that it is not alway 
the thing to follow the passions of men, which obfci 
sway only for a time — we ought to have some con 
sideration for the future." In 1621, Champlai 
received from the King a supply of arms and ammo 
nition for his garrison ; which, however, he complain 
of as inadequate to the defence of the Fort. In 162S 
the barrack, or building for the soldiers and people 
fell into such a state of decay, that it was determine 
to construct a new one of stone ; and the site chosei 
for this building appears to have been within th 
ramparts of the Fort, nearly on the brink of th 
precipice, and where the Castle of St Lewis not 
stands. Its design is thus described by Cham 
plain as having been drawn by himself : " I mad( 
the plan of a new building, which was, to throw dowi 
all the old one, except the magazine, and in a lint 
with that to erect other considerable buildings a 
eighteen fathoms, with two wings of ten fathoms <a 
each side, and four turrets at toe four angles of th< 
edifice : with also a ravelin before it commanding th< 
River, and the whole inclosed with ditches and oral 
bridges." This description would give a front of tw 
hundred and twenty eight feet ; but it is most pro- 
bable, that it was never finished to that extent. AI 
the necessary materials were carefully collected dur- 
ing the winter of 1623, by the eighteen laborers whott 
Champlain had at his disposal ; and every one wtf 
kept in full employment. The inconvenience of at 1 
cending the mountain from the water side to the Fort 
induced him, this winter, to make a more commo- 
dious ascent by means of a winding pathway, whicb 


first opened on the 29th November. This 
1 was afterwards widened, by removing portions 
le rock ; and a row of houses was built upon it, 
nee it derived its modern name of Mountain 
et, leading from Prescott-Gate to the Lower Town 
ket-place, through Notre Dame Street, which 
the original course of the serpentine ascent made 
Champlain. The square or market-place in the 
rer Town, was' not built upon until many years 
rwards ; and was originally called La place de 
re Dame de la Victoire, the Church having, been 
jecrated in honor of the Virgin, by that title, in 
sequence of a vow made during the siege of Que- 

by Sir William Phipps, in 1690. This title 
afterwards changed to Notre Dame des Victoires, 
:onsequence of the shipwreck of the English fleet 
1711, which was considered a second victory. 
)n the 20th April, 1624, a violent gale of wind 
v off part of the roof of the Fort St. Lewis, carrying 
lirty paces over the rampart. This was caused by 
oo great height, and the second story was con- 
lently taken down. It will be recollected that a 
ilar accident happened only a few years ago, n ou- 
tstanding that the building was substantially built 
tone, and the roof strongly covered with tin. On 
1st May, Champlain marked out the line of the 
r buildings, and began to sink the foundation in 
rock. Following the custom usually observed 
similar occasions, he took care to deposit a stone 
i an appropriate inscription, commemorative of 
occasion ; an account of which merits to be tran- 
bed in the words of the original narration : " Le 
e Mai, Ton commen<ja a ma^onner les fondements, 
s lesquels je mis une pierre, ou estoient gravez 
armes du Roy, et celles de Monseigneur, avec 



la <Inttc du temps, et mon nom escrit, comme Lien* 
tenant tie mon dit Seigneur, aii pais de la nouveUq 
France, qui estoit une curiosite qui me semble 
nVstre nullement liors de propos, pour un jour i 
I'udvcuir, si le temps y eschet ; monstrer la posset- 
■ion que le Uoy en a prise, comme je Pai fait en 
quolques endrous, dans les terres que j'ay d£coih 
vertes :** — u On the 6th May, we commenced the 
mason work of the foundation, under which I depo» 
sited a stone, on which were engraved the arms tf 
the Kin^ and of the Viceroy, with the date and my 
own name thereon, as Lieutenant in the country of 
New France, which would hereafter prove a piece rf 
antiquity by no means out of place, should the tim 
over come, in order to show the possession which the 
Ktii£ had taken of the country : a proceeding thflt 
I have adopted in other countries which I have dis- 
covered." The structure of which Champlain hen 
apeaks was, in all probability, the original on which 
the present Muscle was afterwards completed ; andai 
the old foundations must still remain, it would be 
proper, —on clearing- away the present mass of ruiofc 
preparatory to ciie erection of anew residence for the 
(Jovcrnor-iu-Cliier or l>ritish North America, worthy 
of llio *iu\ -to nuke careful search for this stone* 
which would, indeed* be a curiosity of great local in- 
lcrc*t. It will, most probably, be found not far froa 
the iiorth-cu^c an^le or the main building. In order 
to a\oid confusion bee ween the terms Castle, ni 
Koit, of St. Lewis, ic should be explained, that thai 
were icparutc structures* che one wichiu the Iimitsrf 
tin* oilier ; and that in addition to the Castle* lit 
tort contained several ocher buildings, such as a* 
fcjuitus guard-room, aud barrack for the sol&ijt™ p 
together with a considerable area, the whole enetawfj^A 



a a rampart, built originally of logs ; and looking, 
ther da Crenx observes, " towards the con* 
t," that is, from the River, or towards the city, 
front towards the River is sufficiently protected 
i lofty and rugged eminence. The site of the 
■V>rt is understood, from the description of Father 
•eux, to have been at the south-east point of the 
id which is now occupied by the grand battery, 
)lace called the Sault-au~Matelot, from a favorite 
f that name which there threw itself over the 

Champlain afterwards removed it to a situation 
vhat more elevated ; and the ramparts enclosed 
>ace occupied at present by the various buildings 
taining to the Castle, and fronting towards the 

(TArmes. The street leading from the latter 
>untain Street, is still called Fort Street; and 
n the Lower Town, immediately under the Cas-> 
jars the appropriate name of Sous-ie-Fort Street 
the death of Champlain, it appears from Father 
reux, that his successor, Montmagny, put the 
into complete repair. A rampart was made 
ds the Place cFArmes, of oak and cedar filled 
th earth, and cannon were mounted on the top. 

( Ad laevam fluit aranis S. Laurentii ; ad dextram S. 

fluviolus. Ad confluentem, Proraontorium assurgit, 
t nautoe vulgo vocant, ab cane hujus nominis, qui se alias 
loco praeci pi tern dedit. Hujus in promontorii crepidkie 
diticata. Et initio quidem, ut tenuia sunt rerum vel 
irum primordia, vallum potius, quam Arx fuit, stipitibus 
que inter se commissis, extgii&que gleba coalitis, operft, 
tie Cample nii : quae moles rudis, indigestaque, cum ad 
annum perstitisset, a Montemagnio re, virisque paulo 
)re paulatira disjecta, cessit ei raunitioni quae nunc est 

firmior eadem, et ad artis regulam, normamque exactior ' 
ria Canadensis, p. 204. 


It had also a covered way for the protection of the 
garrison : the whole being surrounded by a dry 

England and France being then at war, Cham- 
plain received information, in July, 1629, of the 
arrival of an English squadron at Pointe L£vi* That 
an attack should be made so late in the season was 
entirely unexpected, and Champlain was nearly left 
alone in the Fort, his men having been detached on 
various duties. This English armament had been 
despatched by Sir David Kertk, who then lay at 
Tadoussac, and was under the command of his brother 
Thomas, as Vice- Admiral. Another brother, Louis,' 
had the command of about one hundred and fifty, 
soldiers. In his weak, and really helpless condition, 
which is feelingly portrayed in his narrative, Cham* 
plain had no alternative. He was compelled to 
capitulate. A white flag was therefore hoisted at 
Fort St. Lewis, in answer to one which had been dis- 
played by the English ; and an officer coming on 
shore, the terms of surrender, which were generous 
on the part of the assailants, were agreed upon and 
signed on the 20th July, 1629. On the 22d, Louis 
Kertk planted the English Standard on one of the 
bastions of the Fort, with all ceremony. A feu de 
joie was fired by the troops, drawn out upon the 
ramparts ; and salutes from the cannon of the Fort, 
which were answered by the shipping ia the harbor. 

Champlain, who expresses himself satisfied with 
the generous conduct of Kertk, arrived at Plymouth, 
as a prisoner of war, on the 20th October in the same 
year. In 1632 he published his " Voyages," or 
personal memoirs ; and resumed the government of 
the Colony, which had been restored to the French, 
in 1633. 


In 1,690, a remarkable scene occurred in the Castle 
' St. Lewis, which at that period had assumed an 
ipearance worthy of the Governors General, who 
ade it the seat of the Royal Government This 
gnity was then held by the Count de Frontenac, 
lobleman of great talents, long services, but of ex- 
3me pride. He had made every preparation that 
ort notice would permit for the reception of the 
nglish expedition against Quebec, under Sir Wil- 
un Phipps, which came to anchor in the basin on 
e £th October, old style. Charlevoix, using the 
sw style, makes the date the 16th. The English 
id every reason to expect that the city was without 
»fence, and that they might capture it by sur- 
mise. An officer was sent ashore with a flag of 
uce, who was met half way by a French Major ; 
id, after a bandage had been placed before his eyes, 
as conducted to the Castle by a circuitous route, 
at he might hear the warlike preparations which 
ere going on, and feel the number of obstructions 
id barriers of chevaux-de-frise which were to be 
issed, in the ascent to the Upper Town. Every 
?ception was practised to induce the Englishman to 
jlieve that he was in the midst of a numerous gar- 
son ; and some of the contrivances were ludicrous 
aough. Ten or twelve men were instructed to 
leet him, to cross his path at different places, and 
► pass and repass constantly during the way. The 
ery ladies came out to enjoy the singular spectacle 
fa man led blindfold by two Serjeants in this manner, 
id bestowed upon him the nickname of Colin Mail- 
vrd. There can be little doubt, however, that he 
arceived the trick played upon him. On arrival at 
le Castle, his surprise is represented to have been 
ttreme, on the removal of the bandage, to find him- 

m 2 


self in the presence of the Governor General, 
Bishop, the Intendant, and a large staff of Fr< 
officers, arrayed in full uniform for the occasion,* 
were clustered together in the centre of the g 
hall. The English officer immediately presente 
Frontenac a written summons to surrender, in 
name of William and Mary, King and Queei 
England ; and drawing out his watch and placin 
on the table, demanded a positive answer in an 1 
at furthest This last action completed the ex 
ment of the French officers, who had been with 
ficulty able to restrain themselves during the deli 
of the summons, which the Englishman read in a 
voice, and which was translated into French on 
spot. A murmur of indignation ran through, 
assembly ; and one of the officers present, the £ 
de Valrenes, impetuously exclaimed, " that the i 
senger ought to be treated as the envoy of a cot 
or common marauder, since Phipps was in i 
against his legitimate sovereign." Frontenac, al the 
his pride was deeply wounded by the unceremon 
manner of the Englishman, conducted himself i 
greater moderation ; and, without seeming to h 
heard the interruption of Valrenes, made the follow 
high-spirited answer : " You will have no occas 
to wait so long for my reply. Here it is. I do 
recognise King William, but I know that the Prii 
of Orange is an usurper, who has violated the id 
sacred ties of blood and of religion in dethroning 
King, his father-in-law ; and 1 acknowledge no ot 
legitimate sovereign of England than James the ! 
cond. Sir William Phipps ought not to be surpri 
at the hostilities carried on by the French and tl 
Allies — he ought to have expected that the Ki 
my master, having received the King of Engli 


i toder his protection, would direct me to make war 
a ipon people who have revolted against their lawful 
i Prince. Could he imagine, even if he had offered 
$ M better conditions, and even if I were of a temper 
& to listen to them, that so many gallant gentlemen , 
21 wraU consent, or advise me to place any confidence 
h kthat man's word, who has broken the capitulation 
A vfcichhe made with the Governor of Acadia ? — who 
J m been wanting in loyalty towards his sovereign — 
iff *ko has forgotten all the benefits heaped upon him, 
ijj to follow the fortunes of a stranger, who, while he 
Ira •wore to persuade the world that he has no other 
a j wjwtin view than to be the deliverer of England 
&t ^defender of the faith, has destroyed the laws and 
l! privileges of the kingdom, and overturned the Eng- 
i *■ Church — crimes, which that same divine justice, 
e c wrick Sir William invokes, will one day severely 
J PW»h. w 

i rf The Englishman, hereupon, demanded that this 
t;w ^plyshould be reduced to writing: which Frontenac 
i<$ Pwemptorily refused, adding, — " I am going to an- 
•lits iter your master by the cannon's mouth. He shall 
o % »* taught that this is not the manner in which a person 
W '^yrank ought to be summoned." The bandage 
eg hnng been replaced, the English officer was re-con- 
irf ducted with the same mysteries to his boat ; and was 
ir bo sooner on board the Admiral's vessel, than the bat- 

- ■■ I 80 * began to play eighteen and twenty-four pound 
3 slot upon the fleet. ISir William's own flag was shot 
r* away by a French officer, named Maricourt ; and 
y kfing been picked up by some Canadians, was hung 

- n P as a trophy in the Cathedral Church, where it 
ft probably remained until the capture in 1759. The 
i. English bombarded the town, which, in spite of the 
.. bold front of Frontenac, was in a terrible state of 


confusion and alarm ; and did some damage t 
public buildings. 

Charlevoix seems to admire greatly the hai 
bearing of Frontenac on this occasion : it is bu 
to remark, however, that by his Own showing 
Englishman executed his mission with the gr 
coolness and presence of mind ; and that the 
he received was little creditable to those who 
not how to respect a flag of truce. 

Sir William Phipps, ancestor of the present 
of Mulgrave, was generally blamed for the fail 
this expedition, perhaps unjustly. Finding the 
on its guard and prepared to receive him, it ^ 
have been madness to have commenced a re 
siege, at that advanced period of the season, 
was, he lost several of his vessels on his passage 
to Boston. It should be remembered also, tl 
was Quebec against which he was sent, itself a 
ral fortress, and when defended by a zealous 
rison, almost impregnable. And it is admitte 
Charlevoix, that had Sir William Phipps not 
delayed by contrary winds and the ignorance c 
pilots, — nay, had he even reached Quebec three 
sooner, he would have completely accomplish e 
object, and Quebec would have been capture 
fore it could be known in Montreal that it was 
in danger. 

There were great rejoicings at Quebec for the 
tory ; and the King of France ordered a medal 
struck, with this inscription : " Francia in novo 
victrix. Kebeca liberata M. DC. XC." The C 
de Frontenac was certainlv one of the most d: 
guished of the French Governors. He died in < 
bee in 1698, and was buried in the Recollet Chi 
which formerly stood near the site of the pr< 

with riitfdftiuutr BftCOi&fctriiOta Wt J 

fusn QHHKuBtfK M -Tiw on? lAeintivitt ' bf - otM" iif 
ibeei is to be found in the Street wWch was called 
i Mi firtnay inline, Bttade Street 
* ■ Hcflhriir, wito was in Quebec during the time 
be eiegrfib WBOi in an engraved view: of the erty 
Us woik; ftfati the Castle only one story. La 
HHBBiti ^Eo.wae here in 1698, gives abo a view 
ferity a* it then appeared. The' Gastle *f St' 
ris is rtpreeented as two stories high, and with * . 
jTa^tie % fbrining a very conspicuous object To 
left is sefcn the square incloeure* in which m nbW 
ted the obefiak erected to the memory of Wolfe 
1 MoKTcmc. : It was then a garden, apparently 
boat tries.- Of the Castle itself, he gives the fol- 
ifi£ description : : "It stands upon the brink of 
fst MS; oner hundred and eighty feet high* Its 
ikaAi&tm are irregular, having two bastions on the 
' ride, without any ditch. The house of the Go- 
ner General is one hundred and twenty feet long* 
wrnt of which is a terrace of eighty feet, which 
riooks the Lower Town and (he channel. The 
Beef is pleasing, both as regards its interior and ex- 
ier, on account of the wings which form the build- 
; in front and rear. It is two stories high, and 
re is still wanting a wing of thirty-three feet long, 
i the side of the house there is a battery of twenty- 
) embrasures, partly inclosed in the building, and 
rt without, commanding the Lower Town and the 
for. At four hundred paces above is Cape Dia- 
led, four hundred and eighty feet high, upon which 
tods a redoubt which commands the Upper Town 
i the adjacent country." 

Charlevoix, who arrived in Quebec, in 1720, 
toifthes an account nearly similar, though not so 
Ifae. He says, " The Fort or Citadel is a fine 


building, with two pavilions by way of wings ; 
enter it through a spacious and regular court, b 
has no garden belonging to it, the Fort being 1 
on the brink of the rock. This defect is snpplic 
some measure with a beautiful gallery, with a bale 
which reaches the whole length of the building 
commands the road, to the middle of which one i 
be easily heard, by means of a speaking-tromf 
and hence, too, you see the whole Lower Town mi 

Jrour feet. On leaving the Fort, and turning to 
eft, you enter a pretty large esplanade, and b] 
gentle declivity you reach the summit of Cape £ 
mond, which makes a very fine platform." 

Such was the state of the Castle of St Lewis, i 
occasional reparations and additions, until near 
close of the last century ; when, from its tendenq 
decay, it was found necessary to erect a new bmra 
for the residence of the Governor, on the opposite! 
of the square. This structure has no pretension 
beauty or style of architecture, but contains se 
ral well-proportioned rooms. The ancient Cm 
notwithstanding, continued to be occupied by 
officers of government until 1809, during the ad 
nistration of General Sir James Henry Ciu 
Knight of the Bath ; when it was put into comp 
repair, at an expense of ten thousand pounds 
third story superadded, and it recovered its fori 
honors as the residence of the Goverj*or-in-Cb 
of Lower Canada. Thus renovated, it acquii 
insensibly, the name of the New, while the bn 
ing opposite obtained that of the Old Chafe 
By popular error, therefore, as is not unfrequei 
the ca9e, the attributes of these two buildings * 
reversed. In the latter continue to be held^ 
Levees on state occasions ; and there are sptci 


, mi convenient rooms of reception for public enter- 
v feuments, with apartments for the residence of one of 
f , the officers of the Governor's personal staff. In 
: l . Ail building are to be seen two paintings of lasting 
.-„ interest, being the likenesses of Their Majesties, 
~. King George the Third, and Queen Char- 
J. lorn, painted by Sir Joshua Reynolds, and present- 
3 ed by His MajJbsty to this Government To those 
., *ho remember the venerable Monarch in his latter 
r fcys, this picture, taken in early manhood, will as- 
• Hue the character almost of antiquity. In the ball- 
| Upon, there is also a good copy of Sir Thomas 
Ltwrence's full length portrait of King George 
ipi Fourth. 

The length of the modern Castle of St Lewis, in- 
cluding the wings, was more than two hundred feet ; 
•nd that was the extent of the gallery in front, com- 
feuding one of the most beautiful views in the world. 
Tie depth was about forty feet. Its exterior was plain 
and unassuming, the interior well arranged, and ap- 
parently well adapted for the purpose for which it was 
wngned. The apartments on the first floor, in which 
the family of the Governor-in-Chief resided, were 
brnished in an elegant and tasteful manner, orna- 
mented by valuable paintings, drawings and prints, 
•nd various objects of vertu. Although by no means 
*rge, or equal to those found in the private residences 
rfthe nobility generally, they presented a very pleas- 
to|C coup (Tail, when thrown open to those who were 
honored with the entree. Here were given the pri- 
tote entertainments of the Governor, to which the 
fcntry of the city and vicinity were freely invited 
Jjrinjr the winter, always the season of hospitality in 


We have now to record the destruction of th 
edifice, over whose historical glories we have dwc 
with so much pleasure. About noon, on Thursda; 
the 23d January, 1834, an alarm of fire was gin 
— the tocsin sounded — and to the eager and anxioi 
enquiries of the citizens, running to and fro, the a] 
palling answer was given, " To the Castle, tl 
Castle !" On hurrying to the scene, volumes < 
black smoke, rolling from the roof, told the fearf 
truth. The fire was first discovered in a room c 
the upper story, and having spread through its who: 
extent, and taken hold of the rafters which support! 
the massive roof, it burned downwards with irrepre 
sible fury, until it triumphed over the entire builj 
ing. As no flame was apparent from the outside fi 
a considerable space of time, it was scarcely believf 
by the anxious spectator, that the whole pile was m 
dangered. Vain hopes were even entertained th 
the lower ranges of apartments might be saved. J 
last, the devouring element burst its way throug 
the strong tinned roof with tremendous force, ai 
the flames, thus finding a vent, spread with dreadfi 
rapidity through every part of the building :-— 

Toto descendit corpore pestis : 

Nee vires heroum, infusaque flumina prosunt 

Every possible exertion to subdue the conflagn 
tion was made by the different Fire Companies, tl 
troops of the garrison, and inhabitants of all classe 
Some of the most respectable citizens, of every pn 
fession, were seen busily occupied in removing tfc 
valuable furniture and effects ; and others assisted 1 
conveying to a place of safety some of the ornamen 
of the dinner table, which was laid ; and at which, t 
invitation, they were to have been partakers tb 


y day, of the Governor's hospitality. On a pedes- 
which stood at the head of the principal staircase, 
le to the entrance of the first drawing-room, was 
eed a bust of the immortal Wolfe, bearing the 
owing elegant inscription : 

Let no vain tear upon his tomb be shed, 
A common tribute to the common dead ; 
Bat let the good, the generous and the brave, 
With godlike envy sign for soch a grave ! 

is invaluable bnst, in the melSe and confusion, would 
bably have been destroyed, had not a gentleman 
de it his first care to rescue it, and to convey it, like 
ither Palladium, to a place of safety* 
Hie intense cold of the day added considerably to the 
iculty of suppressing the flames* In the morning 
■ thermometer indicated twenty-two degrees, and 
ring the day from four to eight degrees below zero, 
;h a cold and piercing westerly wind. The engines 
re, therefore, soon frozen up, and could only be 
idered serviceable by constant supplies of warm 
ter. At length it became too apparent, that any 
jcessful attempt to arrest the progress of the flames 
s hopeless — all efforts to save even a portion of 
3 building proved ineffectual — and the morning 
closed to the sight of the inhabitants a mass of 
oking ruins, to remind them of the loss which the 
ovince and the city had sustained. 
Apart from the painful sense of the destruction 
this ancient and celebrated building, so iden- 
ed with our colonial history, the sight itself was 
•ougkout the day deeply impressive — at night 
!, grand in the extreme. The extent of the 
ucture* the numerous windows and openings, its 
?at elevation and peculiar position as to the Lower 



Town, actually overhanging its streets, so that the 
burning flakes fell upon the roofs of the houses below, 
combined to make this mastery of the flames almost 
an object to be admired. The scene, from the Lower 
Town, was truly picturesque; and at' a distance, 
the view of the fire, and its reflection on the ice and 
snow, have been described as singularly beautiful. 

The Provincial Parliament being then in session, 
His Excellency the Governor-in-Chief sent down 
the following message, on the 24th January, 1834 : — 

" Aylmer, Governor-in-Chief. 
" It is with regret that His Excellency feels him* 
self under the necessity of informing the House of 
Assembly, that the ancient Castle of St, Lewis, which 
he occupied as his official residence, caught fire yes- 
terday about noon, and that notwithstanding the 
efforts of His Majesty's troops, of his Honor the 
Mayor of Quebec, of the gentlemen of the Seminary, 
of the firemen and the crowd of citizens of all classes, 
who had hastened to the spot, and exerted themselves 
unceasingly to save that public edifice, it has entirely 
become a prey to the flames. 

" Castle of St. Lewis, 
" Quebec, 24th January, 1834." 

This was replied to in the Legislative Council 
by a loyal address of condolence, and an expression 
of readiness on their part to unite in any appro- 
priation which might come before them, for the 
purpose of erecting a suitable residence for the Gover- 
nor-in-Chief of these Provinces. It has been generally 
regretted that the House of Assembly did not proceed 
upon this message ; but it is to be hoped and expect- 
ed on the part of the people of the Province, that 
another session will not be allowed to pass over with- 


oat an appropriation being made by their represen- 
tatives, for an object so necessary and indispensable, 
and at the same time, so independent of party feeling 
and prejudice. The beauty of the vacant site, and 
the extent of the area will afford an opportunity of 
erecting an edifice worthy of its ancient fame, honor- 
able to the Province, and ornamental to the city of 
Quebec, as yet too deficient in public buildings 
where taste in architecture is displayed. 

Such is a sketch of the history of the Castle of 
St Lewis, for above two centuries the seat of colonial 
government. It is now a heap of blackened ruins. 
Relics like these, however, at once engage the at- 
tention by recalling images of past grandeur, of 
names once illustrious, and of deeds that still adorn 
the historic page. Nor is there any mental associa- 
tion productive of so much melancholy pleasure, as 
that which unites the idea of those who tenanted an 
ancient edifice in its prosperous day, with the con- 
templation of the solitude and ruin to which the pile 
has since been doomed. 



Here, from these storied walls, in ancient day 
By Champlain raised, the patriot and the brave — 

The Gallic Lily once claimed regal sway, 
Where'er St. Lawrence rolls his mighty wave ! 

Thy latest* Chief, who ne'er from honor swerv'd, 
With ebbing life resigned his pride of place— 

Thy fealty changed, thy glories all preserved, 
The British Lion guards thee from disgrace ! 

Long shall thy gentler triumphs be our theme, 
Thy beauteous dames, thy gallant, plumed train : 

The great and good flit by me as a dream, 
Who once kept here their hospitable reign ! 

Here has the table groaned with lordly cheer — 
Here has the toast, the dance, the well-trilPd song, 

Welcomed each coming of the infant year, 
And served the festive moments to prolong ! 

Still, midst these luined heaps, in mental pain, 
Does faithful memory former years restore— 

Recall the busy throng, the jocund train, 
And picture all that charmed us here before ! 

Yet now, how changed the scene ! 'Tis silence all- 
Save where the heedful sentry steps his round I 

We may not look upon that ruined hall, 
Nor venerate the site so long renown'd ! 

* Montcalm. 




The settlement of colonies has always been a sub- 
ject of deep historical interest and research. Their 
8accessful establishment has, indeed, been attended 
with the happiest results to mankind. By them new 
worlds have been peopled — languages perpetuated 
—commerce extended, and the art of navigation 
brought to its present state of perfection. The bles- 
sings of true religion have been communicated to 
man, redeemed from his savage state ; while cities and 
turretted walls have supplanted the solitude of the 
desert and the forest, or taken the place of the pri- 
mitive caves and wigwams of the aboriginal inha- 
bitants. By colonies the face of the earth has been 
cultivated, and the produce of the soil rendered the 
means of subsistence and social happiness. 

The principal design of the French settlements in 
Canada, — after the trade in peltry had proved suf- 
ficiently attractive to the associated merchants of 
France, to induce them to maintain their property in 
the country — was evidently to propagate the Chris- 
tian religion as professed by the founders of Quebec, 
to tame and civilize the heathen, and to bring him 
to the worship of the true God. It was a common 

n 2 


saying of Champlain, " That the salvation of one 
soul was of more value than the conquest of an em- 
pire !" Their next object was of a more mundane 
and political complexion, namely, to acquire a prepon- 
derance on the American continent by means of their 
priesthood, — and through the influence which gra- 
titude for their services had procured them among 
the Indian tribes, to whose temporal and spiritual 
wants they had rendered themselves nearly equally 
necessary, and whose affections they left no meant 
unattempted to engage and retain. 

This policy, long acted upon, influenced every 
part of their system. It extended even to the cha- 
racter of the earliest edifices which they erected iri 
this country. * The only permanent buildings wen 
those devoted to the purposes of war and religion. 
The irregularity of the lines of the different street! 
in Quebec is attributable to the same remote cause. 
Any one who examines the site of the city will per- 
ceive at once, that the greater portion of the area 
was occupied from the first by its public buildings. 
To show this more clearly, let us take a brief survey 
of the ancient city. 

The space occupied by the buildings of the ancient 
Fort, afterwards the Castle of St. Lewis, was very ex- 
tensive, reaching from Prescott-Gate to the commence* 
ment of the acclivity of Cape Diamond, and including 
the large open space where Wolfe's column now 
stands. Formerly there were no houses between the 
Castle and the Cape, and St. Lewis Street was merely 
a military road. Immediately in front of the Castle 
was an esplanade or open space, still called the 
Place (FArmes, on one side of which stood the' Church 
and Convent of the Recollet Monks. Their build- 
ings, with the garden, occupied the whole site on 


ch stand the Court House and the English Cathe- 
L They possessed the entire area between St. 
ae and St. Lewis Streets, aqd gave the modern 
le of Garden Street Not far from the corner of 
Place (TArmes, in St. Anne Street, there stands 
lin the precincts of the Church close, a venerable 
, the last relic of those which once shaded the 
jollet fathers — a touching monument of olden time 
erhaps the last tenant of the primeval forest, 
ier this tree or on its site, tradition relates that 
implain pitched his tent, on landing and taking 
lession of his new domain. Here he lived until 
habitation, which he was building near the brink 
the rock, was ready for the reception of his little 
d. In the rear of the Recollet Church, at a short 
ance from it, was the Ursuline Convent, still oc- 
jring with its garden a considerable space enclosed 
lin St. Anne, St. Lewis and St. Ursule Streets. 
rond the latter were the ancient ramparts of the 
. St Anne Street divided the possessions of the 
uline Nuns from those of the Jesuits. The Col- 
2 of the latter stood in a considerable square, now 
market-place ; and was surrounded by a garden, 
ited with lofty and umbrageous trees, extending 
n St Anne to St. John Streets. The French Ca- 
Iral, occupying one side of this square, and its 
ched buildings covered a space reaching to Fort 
Bet, and was divided from the Place d'Armes by 
tad, which was afterwards Buade Street. At the 
sent into Mountain Street, the buildings belong- 
to the French Cathedral communicated with the 
occupied by the Bishop's Palace and gardens, 
;hi ng to the edge of the rock. The ancient Palace 
lid to have been equal to many similar establish- 
its in France. From the French Cathedral to the 


Grand Battery, the site is covered with the buildings 
and garden of the Seminary, bounded also by Hope 
Street, formerly Ste. Famille Street, and St George's 
Street. The Seminary garden overlooks the Lower 
Town, near the place formerly called the Sautt-<tu~ 
Matelot. At a short distance from it are the grounds 
belonging to the Hotel Dieu, which extend along 
the summit of the cliff from Hope-Crate, and are 
bounded irregularly by Palace Street and Couillard 
Street. The different buildings above enumerated 
with their spacious gardens, added to the sites occu- 
pied by the magazines, and other government build- 
ings, together with the spaces reserved for military 
purposes, occupied nearly the whole of the level 
ground within the ramparts. It is evident, therefore, 
that the early inhabitants had no alternative ; and 
were compelled to build in directions leading from 
one of these public buildings to another, or around 
their precincts. Those who came to settle in Quebec 
were, doubtless, attracted by the neighborhood of 
the different churches, and the protection afforded 
by the Fort. They erected their small and tempo- 
rary habitations as near as possible to the con- 
vents, whence, in times of scarcity or sickness they 
received support and medical aid. Hence the wind* j 
ing and irregular character of some of the smaller 
streets, particularly of those in the vicinity of the 
Hotel Dieu and the Ursuline Convent 

The nature of the ground, or rather rock, on which 
the city is built, effectually prevented any regularity 
of design. The most level site was the easiest aid 
cheapest — strait lines were disregarded in comparison 
with present convenience — consequently, a house 
was built only where a level foundation could best 
be found ; and those places which were rugged And 


jcipitous were left unoccupied, until some one, 
re enterprising or with better means, overcame the 
iculty, and succeeded in establishing his edifice, 
iring the first fifty years after the foundation in 
)8, the houses were extremely small, mean and 
»rly furnished ; partly from want of means, and 
tly from fear of the Iroquois, whose incursions 
)t the inhabitants in constant dread, and prevented 
r expense being incurred in these particulars, 
tie, however, sufficed for the first colonists: all 
y required was shelter and warmth during the 
iter. The summer was passed chiefly in the open 
As an example of the want of furniture and con- 
dences in the old habitations, it may be mentioned 
t when the Ho&pitcdiires arrived in Quebec in 
39, for the purpose of founding the Hotel Dieu, 
y were lodged in a house belonging to the com- 
ly of Merchants, lent to them by the Chevalier de 
wtmagny, who succeeded Champlain in the 
rernment. The house is, indeed, described as 
r ing four rooms and two closets ; but the only fur- 
ure in it for the accommodation of these ladies was 
ide kind of table made of boards, and two benches 
the same material ! The absence of architectural 
tbellishment must always be lamented ; but a suf- 
nt apology for the want of symmetry in the 
ildings of Quebec, may be found in the peculiar cir- 
mstances of the early settlers, and the subse- 
lent history of the colony. Even now, no degree 
taste is discernible in the public buildings, — 
ie architects have had principally in view strength 
ad durability — utility has rather been consulted than 
ymmetry of construction. Almost all the houses 
within the works are built of stone, either rough as it 
^e in masses from the rock, or hewn into shape 





at the fancy of the architect, and afterwards covered i 
with paint or cepient. * ! « 

The capital of the Province of Lower Canada, aal t 
the principal seat of British dominion in Amerio^ a 
cannot be approached by the intelligent Strang* i; 
without emotions of respect and admiration. Itif i 
situated on the north-west side of the great River SB 
Lawrence, in latitude 46° 59' 15", and longitodft 
71° 13\ A ridge of high land commencing at Gill 
Rouge, and extending for about eight miles along ijb 
bank, terminates at the eastern extremity in a lotif 
promontory, three hundred and fifty feet high abffltf 
the water, rising in front of the beautiful basin fonnel 
by the confluence of the little River St Charles 
the St. Lawrence. There stands Quebec, form 
the seat of the French empire in the west — pure 
ed for England by the blood of the heroic Wo 
shed in the decisive battle of the Plains of Ah 
A commodious harbor, which can afford a safe ancho- 
rage for several fleets — a magnificent river whose 
banks are secured by steep cliffs — a position on a, 
lofty rock, which bids defiance to external violence^ 
together with extraordinary beauty of scenery, 
some of the natural advantages which distinguish 
City of Quebec. The River St. Lawrence, wl 
flows majestically before the town, is one of di 
greatest, most noble and beautiful of rivers ; and# ^ 
the same time, the furthest navigable for vessels «; 
a large size of any in the universe. From its imnA .5 
in the Gulf of St. Lawrence to the harbor of Qfl^rj 
bec is three hundred and sixty miles ; and varf 
from Europe ascend to Montreal, which is <fl . 
hundred and eighty miles higher up its course. •*& t 
precipice of naked and rugged rock, nearly Amlfl 
hundred feet high, divides the Upper from the Lowrf/^ 


i. The latter, embracing the foot of the pre- 
!, and skirting the base of the promontory to a 
ierable extent on both sides, is the mart of fo- 
trade and the principal place of business. It 
It on ground made partly by excavations from 
>ck, or redeemed from the water ; and contains 
rous and convenient wharfs and store houses, for 
ccommodation of trade and navigation. The 
lei before the town is rapid — its breadth is about 
a hundred and thirty-four yards. The depth 
* river opposite the city is about thirty fathoms 
good anchorage is every where to be found. 
Upper Town presents the picturesque ap- 
ace of a fortified city — whose houses rise gra- 
f above each other in the form of an amphitheatre 
ibellished and diversified by large buildings and 
spires, pouring a flood of light and splendor 
their bright tinned roofs. 


i the extreme left, on the highest point of 
promontory, is Cape Diamond, rising three 
red and fifty feet above the level of the river, 
terminating towards the east in a round tower, 
ice is displayed the national standard of Eng- 
Immediately in the rear is the cavalier and 
rraph, and adjoining may be seen the saluting 
»y. The fortress on Cape Diamond, or Cita- 
ov Quebec, is a formidable combination of 
erful works ; and while it is admitted that 
*e is no similar military work on this continent, 
ws been considered second to few of the most 
Crated fortresses of Europe. It has frequently 
ft called the Gibraltar of America ; and 


it is, indeed, worthy of the great nation, w 
feme and enduring renown are reflected in this 
(fteuvre of nature and of art — constructed at the 
pense of Great Britain for our defence — at on 
monument of her own power, and a pledge of pr< 
tion to one of the most valuable, although reu 
possessions of the British Crown ! Quebec is 
of the strongest and most distinguished of t 
" military posts," which are alluded to in the folic 
beautiful passage from a speech lately pronounce 
the Honorable Daniel Webster in the Sena 
the United States, which we extract as pecul 
applicable to our present subject ; and as deri 
weight and interest from the splendid talents 
long established fame of the eloquent orator. 
Webster eloquently describes Great Britaii 
" a power to which, for purposes of foreign cone 
and subjugation, Rome, in the height of her g] 
is not to be compared ; a power which has dc 
over the surface of the whole globe with her po* 
sions and military posts, whose morning drum-t 
following the sun, and keeping company with 
hours, circles the earth daily with one continuous 
unbroken strain of the martial airs of Englai 
And truly, when we look to our own country, \ 
just cause of pride and dignity do we behold ! ' 
halcyon days of peace have long returned— the t 
pie of Janus is, we trust, for ever closed — yet, w 
the storm of war was at the highest, never did 
eagle wing of England soar more loftily, never 
her star beam in brighter splendor ! Then, a 
the ruin and the wreck of demoralized nations, 
stood forth the firm and generous pilot — when otl 
slept, and were worn out with their woe, she c 
watched at the giddy helm- — her sT^atnesa grew * 



madness of the gale — her swiftness hung on the 

igs of the storm — her proud pendants floated aloft 

ler course was steady — her track was secure ; and 

still pointed to that beacon where peace and 

ration showed their hallowed, but expiring flame ! 

Dape Diamond is composed of dark colored slate, 
which are found perfectly limpid quartz crystals, 
veins, along with crystallized carbonate of lime. 
>m these crystals, which are certainly extremely 
mtiful, and sparkle like diamonds, came the name 
tears. Professor Silliman considers the prevail- 
; rock to be of transition formation, from the cir- 
nstance of the region on the other side of the 

Lawrence being decidedly of that class. The 
rks upon the summit are nearly complete, according 
the most approved laws of fortification ; and will 
hly repay the visits of those who are admitted to 
amine them, both as to external beauty and interior 
cellence. The approach to the Citadel, which is 
arly two hundred feet higher than the ground 

which the Upper Town is situated, is by a 
nding road made through the acclivity of the 
tei*, from St. Lewis-Gate, and commanded every 
nere by the guns of the different bastions. This 
ads into the outward ditch of the ravelin, and thence 
'to the principal ditch of the work, built upon both 
des with walls of solid masonry, and extending 
ong the whole circumference of the Citadel on the 
rod and city sides. The main entrance is through 

massive gate of admirable construction, called 
'Alhousie-Gate, a view of which is given on 
ta other page. Within the arch of the gate are 
" e Main-Guard rooms, for a detachment and an 
® c er, who are relieved every day ; and in front of 



it is a spacious area, — used as a parade ground,— or 
rather an enlargement of the ditch formed by the 
retiring angles and face of the bastion. This is a 
splendid work, presenting a most august appearance, I 
and combining strength and symmetry with all the ! 
modern improvements in the art of fortification. It . 
is named Dalhousie-Gate and Bastion, in lienor , 
of a distinguished nobleman and gallant officer, ! 
Lieutenant General the Earl of Dalhousie, G. 
C. B. ; who succeeded the Duke of Richmond, as I 
Governor-in-Chief of these Provinces, in 1820. In 
the face of this bastion are loopholes for the fire of 
musquetry from within : on the top are embrasures 
for the cannon. The loopholes serve also for the 
admission of air and light into the casemated barracks 
within for the troops composing the garrison. Hey 
are commodious and well adapted both for comfort 
and safety, being well ventilated, and proof against 
fire and missiles of every description. These bar- 
racks are at present occupied by the Thirty-Second 
Regiment of the line, commanded by Lieutenant 
Colonel the Honorable John Maitland, third son of 
the Earl of Lauderdale. On the top of Dalhousie 
Bastion is an extensive covered way, or broad gravel 
walk, with embrasures for mounting cannon, com- 
manding every part of the ditch and glacis, and every 
avenue of approach to the citadel. From this ele* 
vated spot is obtained a delightful view of the 
surrounding scenery and the harbor — the whole 
forming a panorama that has been pronounced hy 
competent judges not inferior in beauty to the cele- 
brated Bay of Naples. An equally magnificent 
view is also commanded from the summit of the to* 
valier, on which stands the telegraph, at the eastern 
extremity of the Citadel ; as well as from the obser- 

5 ; *a 


I " 









ry of Mr. Watt, on its western point towards the 
ins of Abhaham. Within the Citadel are the 
ous magazines, storehouses, and other buildings 
lired for the accommodation of a numerous gar- 
n ; and immediately overhanging the precipice to 
south, in a most picturesque situation looking 
Dendicnlarly downwards on the river, stands a 
titiful row of buildings with a paved terrace in 
it, built of cut stone, and containing the mess 
ns and barracks for tlie officers of the garrison, 
r stables and spacious kitchens. The roof of this 
,(iing is covered with bright tin, and from it% de- 
id site, it is a heautifol and conspicuous object 
a Lorette and the road to Lake St. Charles, 
Ibout midway between the officers' barracks and 
observatory of Mr. Watt, is a building containing 
Winery worked by steam, by which large trucks 
ding masses of stone, cannon, stores, and all 
vy weights, are easily drawn up by means of a 
way on an inclined plane) from the wharf at the 
:er's edge to the summit of Cape Diamond. There 
ilso an artificial descent of near six hundred steps, 
ich conducts the workmen safely in a few minutes 
ra the garrison to the Lower Town. The inclined 
ne is about live hundred feet long ; and is reserv- 
for the use of Government only. 


Without presuming to give a technical description 
(his noble fortress, it may be said to combine every 
'ration and precaution, that science and art could 
rise and execute for the protection of the city, and 
* teenrity of the garrison. 


From the earliest times, Quebec may be said to 
have been a fortified town. The incursions of the 
Iroquois soon compelled the French to construct 
defensive fortifications at some distance from the 
Fort, which the nature of the ground permitted diem 
to do, without any very great labor. The city is 
defended on every side, except the south-west, by 
its natural elevation and almost inaccessible crags, 
varying in height from fifty to three hundred feet 
above the water. All that was necessary, therefore, 
was to erect defensive works extending from Cape 
Diamond on the south, to the River St Charles on 
the north, and facing towards the west. These, 
doubtless, supplied the original outline and design 
of every subsequent defence, and of the elaborate 
works and ramparts which now protect the city on 
that side. The first defences were very imperfect as 
fortifications, consisting, most probably, of palisades; 
with an embankment of earth. It has been shown 
that, in 1629, Charaplain had no means of de- 
fence against the English ; nor is it probable that 
the works extended beyond the site of the Fort 
Afterwards, it was found necessary to enclose the 
the various charitable and monastic institutions with 
a rampart, in order to protect them against the sud* 
den inroads of the Iroquois : thus the city gradually 
improved in resources and in efficient means of de- 
fence, until Quebec was made the seat of the Royal 
Government in 1663. 

After the death of Champlain in 1635, his succes- 
sor, Montmagny, entirely rebuilt the Fort. He 
made a rampart towards the Place cFArmes of oak 
and cedar filled up with earth, and strong enough to 
allow him to mount cannon upon it Stone bastioiH 
were afterwards constructed, one at each angle front- 

wits aounrojticAir mcollecwons. 161 

*g tlie «Uy 9 connected by a curtain. The Fort 
ten, according to Colonel Bouchette, " covered 
boot four acres of ground, and formed nearly a pa* 
ftllelograHL. Of these works only a few vestiges, 
amain, except the eastern wall, which is kept in 
olid repair* It is stated by the same author, that 
be building, where the public entertainments are 
■■ally given, once constituted " part of the curtain 
hat ran l>etween the two exterior bastions of the old 
brtress of St Lewis." 

At the period of. the fruitless attack upon Quebec 
ly £Sr William Phipps, in 1690, the fortifications 
lad assumed considerable military consequence. By 
he indefatigable activity of the Count de Frontenac, 
the chy was defended by eleven stone redoubts, 
wring as bastions, and communicating with each 
ttber by means of curtains made of pickets, ten feet in 
height, strengthened within by embankments of earth. 
The following is Charlevoix's description of the works 
m the Upper Town at this time : " A battery of eight 
pieces of cannon was commenced upon the height on 
one side of the Fort. The fortifications began at the 
iBtendanf s Palace, on the shore of the Little River 
St Charles,' ascending towards the Upper Town 
which they inclosed, and terminated at the mountain, 
aesr Cape Diamond. They also continued from the 
Mace along the cliff, in the form of a palisade, as 
far as the fence of the Seminary, where it was ter- 
minated by inaccessible cliffs, called the Sault-au- 
Matelot, on which there was a battery of three pieces 
i cannon. A second palisade was also constructed 
ibove the other, finishing at the same place, and 
erring as a protection for the musqueteers. The 
strances of the city, where there were no gates, were 
uricaded with heavy logs, and hogsheads filled with 

o 2 


earth. Small pieces of ordnance were mounted i 
them. In the course of the siege a second bat 
was made at the SauU-au-Matelot ; and a third a 

fate leading to the River St. Charles. Cannon 
esides mounted all round the Upper Town, 
particularly on a wind-mill, which served as a c 

In 1703, the Fortifications were restored bj 
Chevalier De Callieres, then Governor, who 
immediately afterwards ; but it was not until 1 
that the city was fortified in a regular manner, 
ramparts built of stone, and with bastions on 
south-west front, according to the rules of art C 
levoix, who was in Quebec at this period, in 
cribing them as an eye-witness, refers to the 
sent to France by M. Chaussegros de Lery, 
chief Engineer, to be deposited in the Louvre, 
the plans of other fortified places. This plan 
found so superior, that it was immediately ado 
by the Court of France ; and the new works i 
commenced in June, 1720, under the directio 
that eminent engineer. He was descended frc 
family of French noblesse, among whom they reck* 
Jean de Lery, who accompanied Villegagnon ir 
voyage to Brazil, under the patronage of Coli: 
noticed in page seventy-two of this work. This , 
tleman was a Huguenot Clergyman, and acte 
Chaplain to the expedition. He published an ace 
of this voyage in 1585, dedicated to Coligny, w 
is to be found in the Library of the House of Asi 
bly. The descendants of this family hold honoi 
stations in the Province to this day. 

On the occasion of taking down part of the Fr 
works on Cape Diamond, in 1795, for the pur 
of rebuilding them, a leaden plate, with the folio 1 


inscription was found, commemorating tbe com- 
mencement of the new and improved fortifications : 

Regnante Ludovico XV, 
Christianissimo Gallorum Rege, 
JEtatis Suae annum agente Xlum, Regni Vum : 
Augustissimo ac Potentissimo Principe, 

Dace Aurelianensiura Philippo, 
Regis avunculo : Regnura Guberuante. 
JUlustiaissimo ac serenissimo Principe, 
Ludovico Alexandro de Bourbon, 
Tolosee Comite, 
Concilio Maritimo Reique maritimse prseposito. 
Ulustrissimo Joanne D'Estree, Francise Marescallo, 
America) Septentrionalis, Meridionalisque pro Rege, 
Concilii Maritimi praeside, 
Ac maris prsefecti Legato : 
Philippo de Rigaud, Marchione de Vaudreuil, 
Nova? Francise Gubernatore : 
bisce Muniraentis 
Regiis sumptibus Conciliique Maritimi autoritate extructis, 
Prima haec posuit fundamenta, 
Michael Begon : 
Civilis Disciplines 
Rei Judiciariae, iErarise, ac Maritimse, 

atque huj us 'Colonise prsefectus. 
Dingente Gasp : Chaussegros de Lery : 
Regio bellicorum operum machinatore. 
Nonis Junii. An. Dom. MDCCXX. 


• la the eleventh year of the life, and fifth of tbe reign, of 
Hit Moat Christian Majesty Louis XV., King of the French— 
tbe most august and powerful Prince, Philip, Duke of Orleans, 
Unde to the King, being regent of the Kingdom — the most 
illustrious and serene Prince, Louis Alexaudre de Bourbon, 
Count of Thotilonse, President of the Maritime Council and of 
Naval affairs — the most illustrious Jean D'Estree, Marshal of 
France, President of the Maritime Council of North and South 
America, and Vice- Admiral — Philippe de Rigaud, Marquis de 
w Vaudreuil, Governor of Netv France — the first foundations of 
tb*M fortifications, built at the Royal expense, and by authority 


of the Maritime CoanHI, were laid by Michael Begon, Intendanf 
of this Colony, and of its civil, judiciary, fiscal and naval affairs 
— under the direction of Gaapard Chaussegros de Lery, Military 
Royal Engineer, on the fifth day of June, MDCCXX." 

We have already given the state of the fortifications 
in 1690 : the following is the description of the de- 
fences in the Upper Town, as they appeared to 
Charlevoix, previous to the improvements of De 
Lery, in 1720 : " On the side towards the gallery 
of the Fort is a battery of twenty-five pieces of can- 
non. Higher still is a small square Fort, called the 
Citadel, and the ways which communicate from one 
fortification to another are extremely steep. To the 
left of the harbor quite along the road, as far as the 
River St. Charles, are good batteries of cannon, with 
several mortars. From the angle of the Citadel, 
which fronts the city, has been built on oreillon of a 
bastion, from whence has been drawn a curtain at 
right angles, which communicates with a very ele- 
vated cavalier, on which stands a wind-mill fortified. 
As you descend from this cavalier, and at the distance 
of a musket shot from it, you meet first a tower for- 
tified with a bastion, and at the same distance from 
this a second. The design was to line all this with 
stone, which was to have had the same angles with 
the bastions ; and to have terminated at the extremity 
of the rock, opposite to the Palace, where there is 
already a small redoubt, as well as on Cape Dia- 

From the period of their renovation by De LeVy, 
the fortifications were maintained by the French Go- 
vernors with great care, until the capture of Quebec, 
in 1759. They were then repaired by the English, 
and again at the time of the memorable siege of 
the Americans in 1775 ; since which period they* 


m iuuivulsadi additions, and successive repara- 
HWi itngfriier with outworks of great strength on 
e \wAwi&$ m render this fortress of the north, 
the estimation of military judges, not inferior to 
iny- afstfc* net celebrated strong holds in Eu- 

of the apace within the Citadel, whose 
otkraeefcpv abomt forty acres, the fortifications are 
mtiMediill round that portion of die city which is 
rated thfc Upper Town. They consist of bastions, 
mamtHbf lofty curtains of solid masonry, and ram- 
twenty-five to thirty feet in height and 
hi thickness^ bristling with heavy 
towers, loophojed walls, and passive 
ig at certain distances in the circumfe- 
the summit of the ramparts from Cape 
the Artillery barracks near Palace-Gate* 
eerered way, or walk, used as a place of 
by the inhabitants, and commanding a most 
view of the fertile country towards the 
mt^iSSos passes over the top of St John's, and 
k. EmfeGate, where there is stationed a Serjeant's 
wtti* Above St John's-Gate, at the end of the 
beet M. that name, devoted entirely to business, 
ure is at sun-set one of the most beautiful views 
ttgiaable* The River St Charles gamboling, as 
were* in die rays of the departing luminary, 
it still lingering on the spires of Lorette and 
j, until it fades away beyond the lofty 
Htantainsof Bonhomme and Tsounonthuan, pre- 
ut an evening scene of gorgeous and surpassing 

The city being defended on the land side by its 
ttUNurta, is protected on the other sides by a lofty 
Wand parapet, based upon the cliff and commenc- 



ing near the River St. Charles at the Artillery Bar- 
racks. These form a very extensive range of build- 
ings : the part within the Artillery-Gate being occu- 
pied as barracks by the Officers and men of that 
distinguished corps, with a garden and mess-room. .■ 
They are much admired for their apparent comfort ; 
and neatness, presenting altogether a very agreeable " 
aspect. The part without the gate is used as magft* 
zines, store houses, and offices for the Ordnance depart* 
ment. These buildings were erected by the French 
before 1750, on the site of others which had formerly i 
stood there. They are of stone, two stories high* 
well secured against fire ; and are nearly six hundred 
feet in length, by about forty in depth. Until lately 
several apartments on the upper story were occupied, " 
as an armoury ; and between thirty and forty thou* . 
sand stands of arms of different descriptions we* " 
there arranged in a beautiful and imposing mammr J 
These have been removed to the Citadel, as their 
more appropriate place of deposit. 

Immediately adjoining the Artillery Barracks, and \ 
connecting the works on the left with their continua- \ 
tion along the St. Charles, stands Palace-Gat^ 
having a guard-house attached on the right Thk 
has lately been rebuilt, and is the most classical and 
beautiful of the five gates of Quebec. Though per- 
fectly strong for all purposes of defence, it has a light 
and airy appearance, not unlike in design one of the 
gates of Pompeii. It stands at the northern extre- 
mity of a broad and well proportioned street, called 
Palace Street, from the circumstance that it led tt> 
the Intendant's house or palace, which formerly stood 
on the beach of the St. Charles outside the gate oil 
the site of the present King's wood yard. Tw 


lilding was destroyed during the siege by the Ante* 
can troops under General Arnold, in 1775. 
From Palace-Gate the fortifications are continu- 
d along the brow of the cliff overlooking the mouth 
f the St. Charles, until they reach Hope-Gate, a 
fistanee of three hundred yards. A broad and level 
talk divides the outward wall from the possessions of 
ke community of the Hotel Dieu. The wall near 
9ok-Gate and guard-house is loopholed for mus- 
ketry ; and all the approaches are commanded by 
pe works, which here present a lofty and formidable 
jppearanee, projecting over the rugged cliff. On 
fee St Charles side, midway between it and the 
pie, a very picturesque view of the rock and the 
tatrks may be obtained. At Hope-Gate commences 
tie gradual elevation of the ground which terminates 
it the eastern point of Cape Diamond. Beyond the 
pte the wall is continued until it reaches a point 
epposite St. George Street, and the store house at the 
angle of the Seminary garden. Here it reaches the 
perpendicular cliff called the Sault-au-Matefof, on 
pert of which Champlain commenced his first set- 
tlement, in 1608. From this eminence the Grand 
Battery, mounting a range of heavy guns, carrying 
klls of thirty-two pounds, commands the basin and 
&e harbor below. In front of the Grand Battery 
thich extends to the Bishop's Palace, and where the 
escarpment of the cliff is nearly three hundred feet 
, Aove the water, the stone parapet is but a few feet 
jlngh; and the black artillery, as Professor Silliman 
I ibeerves, projecting over the cliff, " look like beasts 
I «f prey, crouching, and ready to leap upon their vic- 

| Close to the Bishop's Palace, long used as the 
pUce where the Sessions of the Provincial Legis- 


villas. Along this road was the favorite drive o 
Canadian belle, before the conquest, in 1759. 
lace-Gate and Hope-Gate both open to the E 
St Charles and the Lower Town. The former I 
also to the new market on the St Charles, from n 
there is a fine view of the city and fortificatioi 
that side. Prescott-Gate is the principal thoro 
fare to the Lower Town ; and notwithstanding 
steepness of the ascent, heavy burthens are conv 
up the hill with comparative ease by the hardy 
horses of Norman breed, generally employed bi 

Having thus made the circuit of the fortificat 
it is necessary to notice the different barracks 
military buildings for the accommodation of the tr 
composing the garrison. Besides those conta 
ivithin the Citadel, and the Artillery barracks, 
spacious building in the market-place, formerly 
the College of the Jesuits, has long been occu 
by the King's troops, under the name of the Jes 
Barracks. This edifice is of stone, three stories I 
and measures two hundred and twenty-four fee 
two hundred, being in shape a parallelogram, 
principal entrance into the barracks is from 
market-place, opposite to the French Cathe< 
Through a lofty passage admittance is gained in 
considerable area, the buildings around which 
occupied by the soldiers. On the other side is 
arch leading to the barrack yard and offices. 
the left of the great entrance is a large door oj 
ing into a hall. Here is the room set apart 
the Garrison library, the property of the milit 
containing a number of valuable books and m 
The barrack yard is enclosed by a wall two hum 
yards long, in St. Ann Street, in which is the 1 

* 1 Rr^Jl ^P^ 

fij^ljpi ' SKKm* 



rate and main-guard. This was formerly the 
n belonging to the College. A little beyond the 
s the barrack office, a neat and substantial stone 
ng standing nearly opposite to the Scottish 
:h. The Jesuits Barracks are at present occu- 
s the quarters of that highly distinguished Re- 
it, the 79th, or Cameron Highlanders. This 

of the few which wear the " garb of old Gaul ;" 
takes a picturesque and highly military appear- 
in the field, very attractive to the numerous 
;ers who conclude their summer tour by a visit 

interesting capital of Lower Canada. The 
Regiment is under the command of Lieutenant 
el Duncan Macdougall. 
;he Place (FArmes, opposite to the Court House, 

Commissariat Office, where the business of 
efficient department is conducted. Their ex- 
e stores are in the Lower Town, upon the 
's Wharf; and are solely appropriated to the 
ses of government. They are of stone, two 
ed and fifty feet in length, with corresponding 
, and were erected in 1821. Opposite to the 
ind entrance into the King's Wharf, is a guard 

for its protection. 

St. Lewis Street, about half way between the 
nissariat Office and St. Lewis-Gate, is a stone 
ng on the left, occupied as quarters for those 
•s of the garrison, who do not reside in the 
)el. In rear is the spacious mess-room of the 
•s of the 79th Highlanders. On the east, and 
r of the officers' quarters, at the end of a court 
;nue leading out of St. Lewis Street, is the Mi- 
:y Hospital, a building of great length, and com- 
y provided with every necessary appointment. 

to it are the remains of an old military work, on 


an eminence nearer the Cape, called Mount Cariol. 
In the print of the ancient city, in La Potherie, 
Voyage de l'Amerique, this height appears to hare 
been surmounted by a windmill, which was fortified, 
and was probably one of the outworks on that aide. 
On it stands at present a convenient cottage and 
garden, the property of government, and usually ap- 
propriated to the residence of the commanding En- 
gineer of the District. 

Opposite to the officers' quarters in St. Lewis 
Street are the military offices ; in a private house, 
rented by the Government for the purpose. Adjoin- 
ing to SL Lewis-Gate, and fronting to the Esplanade 
is the Royal Engineer Office ; and in the rear are 
the spacious yard and work shops of the Royal Sap- 
pers and Miners, a detachment of which corps is 
always stationed in Quebec. The officers of the 
Royal Engineers have charge of the Fortifications, 
and of all military works. The Government labo- 
ratory, on the right hand of the road leading to the 
Citadel, opposite to the Royal Engineer yard, stands 
on the site of an old powder magazine, close to which 
the remains of General Montgomery were interred 
on the fourth day of January, 1776. 

We have already mentioned the extensive stores 
within the Citadel, as containing all the matSrieloi 
war for a numerous garrison. In addition to these, 
and to the stores at the Artillery Barracks, the 
Ordnance Department has a spacious building of 
stone, together with a powder magazine, in tbe 
bastion between St. John's-Gate and the Artillery 
Barracks. In various parts of the works, they hare 
also large depots and magazines of cannon, gun pow- 
der, carriages, shot, and other munitions of war, for 
the convenience and supplyof the garrison. 


It iaS been seen that St* Lewis Street is jwrin- 
pally the site of the offices and buildings belonging 
the military departments. This street wis ofigi- 
Hy a military road from the Fort to the outwork** 
i tbenoe into the forest J and was called La Grand 

We cannot conclude more appropriately than by 
nscribing an elegant peroration from the pen of 
ifessor Sillimah, who visited this city in the au- 
nn of 1819 :— 

' Quebec, at least for an American city, is eer- 
ily a very peculiar place. A military town — con- 
ling about twenty thousand inhabitants — most 
apactly and permanently built — stone its sole ma- 
ial — environed, as to its most important parts, by 
lis and gates — and defended by numerous heavy 
inon— garrisoned by troops, having the arms, the 
tume, the music, the discipline of Europe — foreign 
language, features and origin, from most of those 
om they are sent to defend — founded upon a rock, 

1 in its highest parts, overlooking a great extent of 
in try — between three and four hundred miles from 

ocean — in the midst of a great continent — and 
; displaying fleets of foreign merchantmen in its 

2 capacious bay — and showing all the bustle of a 
wded sea-port — its streets narrow — populous, and 
iding" up and down almost mountainous declivities 
situated in the latitude of the finest parts of Eu- 
)e — exhibiting in its environs, the beauty of an 
iropean capital — and yet, in winter, smarting with 
e cold of Siberia — governed by a people of diffe- 
nt language and habits from the mass of the po- 
rtion — opposed in religion, and yet leaving that 
pulation without taxes, and in the full enjoyment 
every privilege, civil and religious : Such are the 

p 2 


prominent features, which strike a stranger in 
city of Quebec !" 

The latter part of the above extract may be < 
sidered a just tribute to the merit of Great Brit. 
from the pen of an accomplished and liberal mk 
foreigner, equally honorable to both. 






^ The totally different policy observed by the Eng- 
lish and French Governments, as to the religious 
establishment of their Colonies in North America, 
llthough easily assigned to the opposite motive of 
-ach, presents, at the present day, a very interesting 
contrast. The English Colonies, — founded by zeal- 
Jus Dissenters, or by persons who conceived that 
ill established forms of religion savoured ojf tyranny 
ind oppression — soon received the most -judicious 
encouragement from the Parent State, and obtained 
advantageous charters from the Crown. They en- 
tered with spirit into commercial enterprises, and 
made rapid advances to riches, prosperity, and power. 
The French, on the other hand, were established by 
men of a different stamp, attached to the forms of 
their ancient religion — who sought to enhance their 
own reputation, and to extend the glory and power 
of their country, by penetrating among the savage 
tribes — by converting them to their own faith — by 
rigidly excluding what they considered the contami- 
nation of calvinistic doctrines — and by sending among 
them Missionaries, in order to establish a religious 
dominion over them. Actuated by these powerful 


incentives, they commenced by keeping good faith 
with the savages, — they cultivated their friendship, 
and took part in their enmities as good and trusty 
allies. Thus they soon acquired over the Indian 
mind an influence far more extensive than any other 
European nation. But the result of this conduct 
was not politically successful, as regarded the advance 
of the Colony. By far too great a portion of toil, of 
zeal, and of authority seems from the first to hare 
been directed to the Indian tribes, if we may judge 
from the result of an amiable, though, perhaps, mis- 
taken policy. The subserviency of their colonial 
system, and even of commerce itself, to the propaga- 
tion of the religion of the state is apparent through- 
out the early history of this Colony, and hence ill 
tardy progress under the French Government ; ani 
its present inferiority, as to riches and population, to 
the English colonies planted about the same perWi 
Whatever neglect, however, the temporal affair* 
of New France might have experienced, before it wei 
taken under the protection of the Royal Government 
in 1663 — it is clear that nothing had been left unat* 
tempted from the earliest times, to provide for tbfl 
spiritual welfare of the settlers, and for the instrne* 
tion of the neophytes among the savages. As early 
as 1614, on the formation of a new and more exten- 
sive company of merchants trading to New Franco, 
Champlain had the devotion to introduce, and suf- 
ficient interest to obtain the passing of a clause intht 
articles, by which they engaged to defray the expeas* 
of four ecclesiastics, who were to be sent out for thi 
important object of spreading the true religion among 
the natives. The views of the pious founder of 
Quebec are thus explained : " Seeing that we had 
no Priests, we obtained some through the interfereiK* 


the Sieur Houel, who had a peculiar affection to- 
rds this holy design, and who told me that the 
icollet Fathers would be proper for this purpose, 
th to reside in our habitation, and to convert the 
idels, I agreed in this opinion, they being void 
ambition, and conforming altogether to the rule of 
. Francis. I spoke of it to My Lord, the Prince, 
10 entered into my views ; and the company offer- 
of their own accord to support them, until they 
old obtain a Seminary, which they hoped to do, by 
ians of the charitable donations, that might be 
stowed upon them for the care and instruction of 
nth." Champlain accordingly sailed from Hon- 
or on the 24th April, 1615, with four Recollet 
there ; and after a favorable passage, without meet- 
j ice or any other impediment, they reached 
doussac on the 25th May, where they returned 
inks for their safe arrival. 

The first establishment of the religious commu- 
tes of Quebec, has a peculiar interest ; and it is 
icnlt to determine which is more worthy of ad- 
ration, the liberality of the design on the part of the 
nders, or the devotedness and fearlessness display- 
by those appointed for its execution. The early 
tory of Canada teems, indeed, with instances of 
purest religious fortitude, zeal, and heroism —of 
mg and delicate females, relinquishing the com- 
ts of civilisation to perform the most menial offices 
rards the sick — to dispense at once the blessings of 
dical aid to the body, and of religious instruction 
the soul of the benighted and wondering savage, 
ey must have been upheld by a strong sense of 
y — an overpowering conviction of the utility of 
:r purposes, — a full persuasion of their efficacy, 
i towards their own eternal salvation, and that of 


their newly converted flock. Bat for such im 
sions, it would have been beyond human natn 
make the sacrifices which the Hopitalieres mad 
taking up their residence in New France. Wit 
detracting from the calm and philosophic deme 
of religion at the present day, it is doubtful wh< 
any pious persons could be found willing to und 
the fatigues, uncertainty and personal danger, e 
rienced by the first missionaries of both sexes in 
France. Regardless of climate, to whose ho: 
they were entirely unaccustomed — of penury 
famine — of danger to the person — of death, and : 
tyrdom itself — they pressed onward to the g« 
which their religious course was directed — and 
tained by something more than human fortitude- 
divine patience — they succeeded at length in < 
blishing on a firm foundation the altars, and the 
of their country and their God ! For ambit 
sake, for lucre, for fame — men have braved da 
in a hundred fights, until the world by common 
sent has elevated the successful tyrant to the i 
of a hero among his fellows — but to incur the hoi 
of savage life, the risk of torture and even death 
a word, the agonizing suspense and constant anxi< 
of a missionary, for no other reward than that of 
approbation, and with no other support than that o 
ligion — requires courage and devotion of a far hi] 
order, and merits glory of the most enduring cha 
ter. The labors and privations of the first relis 
communities, who established themselves even wi 
the walls of Quebec, were many — their paths i 
dark, dreary and intricate ; but the bright sta 
enthusiasm, like the clew of Ariadne, carried t 
along — they felt that if one glimpse of the sa 
light they bore could be brought to dawn upon 


tarighted souls of those they wished to save, their 
leal would be amply rewarded, and their labor for- 


It has been stated that the first ecclesiastics who 
ventured to the unknown regions of New France 
were R£eollets, brought out by Champlain, in 1615. 
Hey were four in number, the Superior of the 
Mission, and Fathers Joseph Le Caron, Jean 
D'Olbeau, and Pacifique Duplessis. Father Jo- 
seph is stated by Charlevoix to have accompanied 
Champlain when he wintered in the Huron country, 
in 1616 ; and having acquired some knowledge 
of the language, he even at his first visit observed 
their haunts, and fixed in his own mind the proper 
itation for evangelical missions. In the following 
fear, the alliance between Champlain and the 
Qurons would have been for ever interrupted, but 
for the skill and penetration of Father Pacifique 
Duplessis. The Hurons had murdered two French- 
men, and fearing the vengeance of Champlain, 
Mime evil disposed chief suggested a dreadful method 
rf escaping it, by the extermination of the whole 
French settlement. To this treacherous proposal 
4ere were found but few listeners : one of whom, 
afterwards, in a fit of remorse revealed the plot to 
father Pacifique. By dint of his persuasions and in- 
laence they were induced to renounce their sanguf- 
laiy intention ; and Champlain, having been 
■formed of the whole proceeding, accepted the me- 
Ijationof the R£collet, and adopted a middle course 
etween European and Indian ideas of justice. The 
plucky affair was thus compromised : one of the 


Huron murderers was given up by that people, i 
a valuable present of furs appeased the relationi 
the deceased — so that a crisis was safely passed, wb 
might have proved fatal to the existence oftheini 

In 1620, Champlain, arriving from France i 
three additional R£collet Fathers, learned with gi 
regret the death of the good Father Pacifique. 
appears that the original habitation of these eo 
siastics was on the border of the River St. Char 
where they had a small lodge and Seminary ah 
half a league from the Fort, on the spot where 
General Hospital now stands. It was comrnen 
before the year 1620 ; and in 1622 was defended 
a small Fort against the incursions of a party 
Iroquois, who being unable to effect its capti 
wreaked their vengeance upon the Hurons, sew 
of whom they surprised and put to death. 

After the capture of Quebec by the Kertks 
1629, the Recollet Fathers returned to France. 
its restoration to the French Crown in 1632, 
return of these ecclesiastics to Canada was opposed 
the Company, on the ground that being of die m 
dicant order, they were ill adapted to the wants o 
new country. This policy prevailed until 16 
when they obtained from the King of France an e< 
for their re-establishment. Father Cesare'e H] 
veau, accompanied by two other Priests, and a 
brother, accordingly sailed for Quebec on the li 
July in that year ; together with M. Talon, i 
Intendant, and a portion of five hundred famili 
whom the King was about to send out as settU 
This vessel having been obliged to put into Lish 
after three months boisterous weather, in returni 
to Rochelle, foundered in sight of that harbor, a 


every soul was lost. In May 1670, Father Ger- 
main Allard, Provincial of the Recollets, embarked 
for Quebec with M. Talon, three other eccle- 
siastics, and a Deacon of the name of Brother 
Luke, famous for his skill in painting. This voyage 
was prosperous, and the Provincial had the gra- 
tification of seeing his brethren once more placed 
in possession of the property on the River St. 
Charles, which they had held before the capture 
of Quebec by the Kertks, in 1629. He then 
returned to France. The Recollets having been 
thus re-established, rendered by their piety and 
example the greatest services to the colony, where 
they were greatly respected. They continued to 
reside on the River St. Charles until 1690; when 
Monseigneur de St. Vallier, then Bishop of Que- 
bec, being desirous to establish a General Hospital, 
as an asylum for all the poor, and the house which 
was occupied by the Recollets at Notre Dame des 
dnges, on the bank of the St. Charles, appearing 
e?ery way convenient for that object, a negociation 
was entered into between the Bishop and the Fathers 
far the transfer of their property. . The Recollets 
•ere desirous to approach nearer to the scene of their 
duties ; and the proposal of the Bishop having been 
Hade acceptable to them, they ceded their property 
en the St. Charles, and received a lot of land imme- 
diately opposite to the Fort of St. Lewis, between 
8t Anne, St. Lewis, and Garden Streets, when they 
loon afterwards erected their Church and Convent. 
La Potherie and Le Beau, the latter of whom 
"ended with the Recollet Fathers for a year, both 
peak of their Monastery and Church as handsome 
ind convenient. Charlevoix gives the following 



description of it : " The Fathers Recollet ha\ 
large and beautiful Church, which might do ti 
honor even at Versailles. It is very neatly wains 
ed, and is adorned with a large tribune or gal 
somewhat heavy, but the wainscoting of whicl 
extremely well carved, and in which are inch 
the confession seats. This is the work of one oft! 
brother converts. In a word, nothing is wantinj 
render it complete, except the taking away some 
tures very coarsely daubed ; Brother Luke has pu 
some of his hand which have no need of those f 
Their house is answerable to the Church ; it is la 
solid and commodious, and adorned with a spac 
and well cultivated garden." 

The ancient Church and Convent of the R£co 
were destroyed by fire in 1 796, and on the site ste 
now the English Cathedral, of which we shall ; 
sently make more particular mention. 

The following inscriptions were discovered 
years ago, on plates deposited in the corner stone 
the former R£collet Church and Convent, 
first was found on the 23d July, 1824, by s< 
workmen employed in levelling the Place d'An 
on part of which those buildings stood : the sec 
was discovered some time afterwards. 

D. O. + M. 
Anno Dni. 1693, 14 Jul. Qusb 
Seraphici Bonaventurje festo solemnis 
Agebatur, Sedente Innocentio XII ° . sura mo 

RegnaDte Rege Christianissimo 
Ludovico, Magno X1I1I ; 
Ad perpetuam Dei Gloriara, 

Virginis Deiparae honorem, 
Seraphici Patris Francisci laudem, 
Necnon, Divi Antomj de Padua 


Expressam invocationem : 
niastri88imii8 ac Reverendissimus Dnus. Daus. 
Joannes De La Croix de Saint Vallier, 
Secundus, Episcopus Quebecensis, 
Re&dificandse novae ff 'um mino : Kecollectoram 
Ecclesiffi et Domus gratia : Joco Conventus antiqui 

nostra Domiose Angelorum. 
Eoramdem flf'um, ab ipsomet eximia charitate 

et pietate in xenodochium mutuati et 
mutati, necnon, sequanirai pietate et 

gratitudine, ab Iisdem ff 'bus libere cessi : 
Hone hujuRce Ecclesia? et Conventus 
Sancti Antonij de Padua, 
primarium Lapidem 
admovit ; 

And on the reverse side the following : 

eidem ministrabat 

F. Hyacinth us Perrault, 

Commissarius prov'lis tot i us 

Missionis Guardianus dicti contus, 

et novi ^Edificij promotor indignus. 


To God the best and most high, 

In the year of our Lord 1693, 14th July, 

On which was celebrated the festival of the Seraphic 

Boua venture, 

During the Pontificate of Innocent XII. Sovereign Pontiff, 

In the reign of the most Christian King 

Louis the Great XIV. 

To the perpetual glory of God, 

The honor of the Virgin Mother of God, 

In praise of the Seraphic Father Francis, 

And the express Invocation of St. Anthony of Padua : 

The Most Illustrious and Most Reverend Lord 

John de la Croix de Saint Vallier, 

Second Bishop of Quebec, 

In order to the rebuilding a new Church and mansion, 

For the minor-brothers Recollets, 


Instead of the Ancient Convent of our Lady 
Of Angels belonging to the same Brothers, which he, with per- 
fect Charity and Piety acquired and converted into an asylum, 
and which the same Brothers with equal piety and gratitude 
freely surrendered, hath placed this, the First Stone of this 
Church and Convent of St. Anthony of Padua. 

On the reverse side. 

Assisted by 

Brother Hyacinthe Perrault, 

Provincial Commissioner of the whole mission, 

Guardian of the same Convent, 

And the undeserving forwarder of the new edifice. 

The second inscription was as follows : — 

D. O. + M. 

Anno Domini 1693, 14 Julii, 

Seraphim sacra die, 

illustri8simus ac nobilissimus Dominus 

Dominus Joannes Bochart de Champigny 

Noray, rei judiciariae civilis necnon aerarii 

regii in tota nova Francia praefectus, 

concessis a se fratribus minoribus Recoil : missionum 

Canadensium, pro insigni erga ipsos charitate, 

in vicinio suo, terra et fundo, eorum Eremitor : 

Nostra Dominse de Portiunculo nuncupati, 

prope memoriale perenne veteris 

eorum Conventus, tunc usui Pauperum sacri, 

hujus primarii Lapidis eorum novae sancti 

Anton lj de Padua Ecclesiae et Conventus 

Quebecensis positione munificentiam 

" et benevolum affectum 

' consignavit. 


To God the best and highest, 

In the year of our Lord, 1693, 14th July, 

A day sacred to the Seraphim, 

The most illustrious and noble Lord 


John Boohart de Champipny Noray, 

Intendant of Justice of Police and of the 

Royal Treasury in all New France, — # 

having granted a lot and ground on his premises 

to the minor Brothers Recollets of the Canadian 

Missions— through great charity towards them, 

hath, (by placing this first Stone of their 

new Church and Convent of St. Anthony 

of Padua at Quebec) recorded the 

munificence and benevolent Intent of those 

Anachorites of our Lady called Portiunculam 

in perpetual memorial of their ancient 

Convent near Quebec, 

at that time sacred to the use of the Poor. 


i 1624, Champlain, who had arrived in France 
i Quebec, found that the Duke de Montmorency 
resigned the Viceroyalty of New France to his 
hew, Henry de Levy, Duke de Ventadour, a 
eman of great piety, who had retired from pub- 
iffairs, and devoted himself solely to spiritual 
ems. His object was to use the weight of his 
ence, and all the means which he possessed, in 
conversion of the Indians ; and having continued 
government of the country in the hands of 
mplain, he does not appear to have further in- 
ited himself in its temporal prosperity. He was 
tly attached to the Order of Jesuits, and deter- 
;d to employ them in the execution of his pious 
jns. Accordingly, three Jesuits, by name, Fa- 
i Lallemant, Le Brebceuf, and Masse', and 
Friars, Francois and Gilbert, embarked with 
>aen, in 1625, and arrived safely in Quebec, 
e they founded the Jesuits' mission. They were 
of extraordinary zeal and piety, eminently qua- 
for the undertaking, and were all afterwards 

o 2 


distinguished in the history of the country. Father 
Breboeuf, after many years residence among the 
savages, fell at last a victim, by an excruciating death, 
to the ferocity of the Iroquois, together with the 
Huron tribe with whom he resided. Champlain am 
of this worthy Priest, that he had a peculiar gift in 
acquiring languages, and that he had learaecf more 
of the Indian tongues in three years than others had 
done in twenty. 

On the arrival of these Jesuits in Quebec, they 
were hospitably received by the Recollets ; and were 
entertained for the space of two years at their house 
on the St. Charles, until they were able to establish 
themselves. On the 10th March, 1626, they obtain- 
ed a grant of the Seigniory of Notre Dame des Anga> 
one league in front by four in depth, in which wis 
situated the R£collet Church and Fort 

On the 15th April, 1626, Champlain embarked 
for Quebec, and with him three other Jesuits, Fathers 
Noyrot, De La Noue, and a Friar. They arrived 
at Tadoussac on the 29th June, and at Quebec on 
the 5th July. In the vessel with the Jesuits, which 
was freighted by themselves, were twenty laborers, 
who were a great acquisition to the colony at that 
time. The permanent population then amounted to 
only fifty-five souls ; and the ecclesiatics were scat- 
tered throughout the different missions in the country 

From what is stated by Champlain, it appeals L 
that the Jesuits, as well as the Rdcollets, resided 
on the little River St. Charles, in their lately acquired . 
seigniory. They afterwards, however, removed * 
into the city, still keeping their pastures and garden 
on the St. Charles, called La Vaeherie. Champ- 
lain says, in 1629 : " As to the Reverend Jesuit 


Fathers, they have only sufficient land cleared and 
in crop for themselves, and their servants to the num- 
ber of twelve The R6collet Fathers have much 

more land cleared and in crop, and: were only four 
in number." The latter had however only between 
four and five acres in cultivation. 

After the capture of Quebec in 1629, Louis 
Kertk visited the habitation of the Jesuits, and ac- 
cepted three or four pictures which they offered him. 
The English Chaplain also took some books which 
he asked from the Priests. After having examined 
the residence and clearance of the Jesuits, Kertk 
proceeded to visit the Recollets, from whom it does 
not appear that he received any thing, probably on 
account of their well known poverty and self denial. 
Their pictures, however, were at that day famous, 
owing to the skill of one of their order, Brother 
Luke. It must not be concluded from this, that 
either the Priests, or the French inhabitants, gene- 
rally, were ill-treated on this occasion. Champlain 
expressly says : " On recevoit toute sorte de cour- 
toisie des Anglois." The only complaints he made 
were against the conduct of a French renegado in 
the English service, who did every thing in his power 
to annoy his former friends and countrymen. 

The Jesuits, as well as the other ecclesiastics, re- 
turned to France in the autumn of 1629. On their 
embarkation, however, at Tadoussac, we regret to / 
state that they were deprived of their silver chalices^ 
by order of Sir David Kertk, who imagined he was 
performing a meritorious service, instead of laying 
himself open to the accusation of avarice and un- 
licensed plunder, unworthy of the doctrines he 
professed, and the country whose commission he 


The following curious scene occurred at Tadoua* 
sac, before the embarkation of the Jesuits. One of 
the parties was the celebrated De Breboeuf, whose 
miserable death we have before alluded to — the other 
was Captain Jacques Michel, a French Calvinist, 
who held a command under Kertk, and was reputed 
a brave and experienced officer. 

" General Kertk, speaking to the Jesuit Fathers, 
observed, ' Gentlemen, you had certainly some bo* 
siness in Canada, if it was only to enjoy what belong* 
ed to M. De Caen, of which you have dispossessed 
him/ ' Pardon me, Sir,' replied the Father, « it was 
only the pure intention of promoting the glory of 
God which brought us here, exposing ourselves to 
all dangers and perils for that object, and the con- 
version of the savages of this country/ Michel 
interrupting him, said : * Aye, aye, — convert the 
savages ! rather to convert the beavers !' Upon 
which the Father promptly, and without reflection, 
replied, * that is false.' The other lifted up his hand 
saying, ' but for the respect due to the General, I 
would strike you, for giving me the lie.' The Father 
rejoined : ' you must excuse me, I did not intend 
to give you the lie. I should be very sorry to do so, 
the term I used is one in use in the schools, when 
a doubtful question is proposed, not considering it 
any offence. Therefore I ask you to pardon me, 
and to believe, that I did not say it with any inten- 
tion of offending you.' " 

When Champlain resumed the Government of 
New France, in 1633, after the treaty of St Ger- 
main-en-Laye, he was accompanied by Fathers De 
Breboeuf, and Masse. Fathers Le Jeune and De . I 
No'rie had embarked for Quebec the year previous. ' ^ 
Father Noyrot had perished by shipwreck in 162& * 





lie number of officiating priests in Quebec, in 1636, 
as fifteen, with four lay brethern, employed in the 
location of youth. 

Charlevoix represents their Indian allies as 
ghly gratified at the return of the French ; and 
yes an amusing description of the impression made 
)on them by the different manners of the English, 
iring their occupation of Quebec, from 1629 to 
S33. The savages were much disconcerted when 
ey found the new comers by no means disposed 
allow them the same liberties, which the French had 
emitted with the greatest good-humor. This was 
id enough, but matters soon became worse. The 
idians had been accustomed to enter the houses of 
eir French friends and protectors, with the greatest 
sedom and absence of ceremony. To the French, 
10 adapted themselves with great facility to any 
ie of conduct which was likely to conciliate, it was 
gy to permit this familiarity. But it was widely dif- 
rent with the English. They by no means tolerated 
e intrusion of the Indian, whose habits and feelings 
ey little understood ; and at last became so much 
moyed with it, as to chase the astonished savage, 
4 expel him from the threshold, as Charlevoix ex- 
esses himself, d coups de batons. The consequence 
is, that although the Indians continued to trade 
tth the English in furs, they, generally speaking, 
isented themselves from Quebec during the stay 

Kertk ; and when the French returned, welcomed 
eir re-appearance with every sign of sincerity and 

The Jesuits adroitly took advantage of this feel- 
g and began to establish distant missions. Fathers 
•e Brebceuf, Daniel, and Davost went to reside in 
« Huron country : not, however, without op- 


position on the part of some of the chiefs. After I 
some years they made several proselytes among the 1 
Hurons, and even many of the chiefs came and de- 
manded the rite of baptism. 

The colony was now encreasing every year in 
population and resources ; and it began to oe con- 
sidered, that nothing could tend more favorably to 
the reformation of morals and the diffusion of religion, 
than a College for the instruction of youth. In 
16*25, on the first coming of the Jesuits to New 
France, the idea of forming such an establishment 
captivated the imagination of Rene Rohault, eld- 
est son of the Marquis de Gamache, who had 
become a member of the Society of Jesus. His refap 
tions enabled him to offer six thousand crowns of gold 
to the General of the Order, in order to effect At 
foundation of a College in Quebec. The donation 
was graciously accepted ; but the capture of die 
place by the English necessarily delayed the perfor- 
mance of the condition. After the restoration, it 
was determined to prosecute the original design* 

The foundation of the Jesuits' College was ac- 
cordingly laid with great ceremony, in December, 
1635. The site was the same as that which die 
buildings now occupy, on the other side of the squirt 
in which the French Cathedral and Seminary weft 
afterwards built. Their Church, however, stood upon 
that part of Garden Street, which has since acquired 
the name of the Haymarket. On the removal of de 
Church, the street was widened to its present breadlfc* 
Behind the College and Church, were the extensive 
grounds and garden belonging to the order, b 
1639, the Jesuits' Church served as the Paroissedfe 
Quebec : it is described as being then a handsome 
building of wood, with an arched roof and gallery? 



ind such appropriate decorations as gave it all the 
tppearance of a Church. 

In 1640, on the 14th June, the College and Church 
f the Jesuits was entirely destroyed by fire ; and 
be Fathers were accommodated by the Hospitaliires 
f the Hotel Dieu with the loan of their own house. 
rhe Chapel of the Hotel Dieu then became the 
?arois9e of Quebec ; and the Hospitaliires went to 
eside at a house in the neighborhood. 

The establishment of the Jesuits' at Syllery was 
ommenced in 1637, under the auspices of their 
mperior, Father Le Jeune. The funds were sup- 
plied by the generosity of the Commandeur de 
Syixkbi, who sent out workmen from France for the 
ixpress purpose. The site was chosen by Father Le 
feiine* about four miles above Quebec on the north 
bore, and still retains the name of the founder. 
Sere were established several Indian families who 
lad become Christians — and the intention was by 
heir proximity to Quebec, to preserve them from 
he attacks of the Iroquois — and from the danger of 
amine, by instructing them to cultivate their own 
ands. The Hospitaliires, who arrived from France 
n 1639, assisted the Jesuits in the good work ; and 
luring four years took up their residence at Syllery, 
vhere they tended the sick under circumstances of 
peat privation, self denial, and fortitude. 

It was also to the representations of the Jesuits 
bat the subsequent establishment of the Hotel Dieu 
ind of the Ursuline Convent were owing : — the for- 
tter for the attendance of the sick, and the latter for 
;be instruction of female children — both objects of 
die greatest importance to the welfare of a new co- 


The following is the account given by La Po* 
tkerie of the old College and Church of the Je- 
suits : — it must be observed that the present build- 
ings were erected subsequently to the visit of 
Charlevoix in 1720 : — " The College was founded 
by Father Gamache, who made a donation thereto 
of twenty thousand crowns. The Church is very 
handsome. The ceiling is in compartments of square^ 
filled with various figures and symmetrical ornaments. 
The garden is large, having a small wood of lofty 
trees, where there is a very pretty walk." Charle* 
voix gives a less favorable description : M The 
College iq some sort disfigures the city, and threaten 
falling to ruin every day. Its situation is for fro* 
being advantageous, it being deprived of the greatest 
beauty it could possibly have had, which is that rf 
the prospect It had at first a , distant view of tk 
road, and its founders were simple enough to imagine 
they would always be allowed to enjoy it ; but tney 
were deceived. The Cathedral and Seminary now 
hide the view, leaving them only the prospect of the 
square, which is far from being a sufficient compen- 
sation for what they lost. The court of this College 
is little and ill-kept, and resembles more than any \ 
thing else a farmer's yard. The garden is large and . 
well kept, being terminated by a small wood, the ; 
remains of the ancient forest which formerly covered \ 
this whole mountain. The Church has" nothing . 
worth notice on the outside except a handsome stee- 
ple ; it is entirely roofed with slate, and is the only 
one in all Canada which has this advantage : all the 
buildings here being generally covered with shinglefc 
It is very much ornamented on the inside : the gat 
lery is bold, light and well wrought, and is surround- 
ed with an iron balustrade, painted and gilt, and of jj- 


With historical recollections. 193 

excellent workmanship : the pulpit is all gilt, and 
the work both in iron and wood excellent : there are 
three altars handsomely designed, some good pic- 
tures, and it is without any dome or cupola, but a flat 
ceiling handsomely ornamented. It has no stone 
pavement, in place of which it is floored with strong 
planks, which makes this church supportable in win- 
ter, whilst you are pierced with cold in the others." 
The Jesuits' College was afterwards rebuilt in its 
present form, and must have been considered at the 
time a noble edifice. From this seat of piety and 
learning issued those dauntless Missionaries, who 
made the Gospel known over a space of six hundred 
leagues, and preached the Christian faith from the 
St. Lawrence to the Mississippi. In this pious work 
many suffered death in the most cruel form : all un- 
derwent danger and privation for a series of years, 
with a constancy and patience that must always com- 
mand the wonder of the historian, and the admiration 
of posterity. 

The property which the Jesuits acquired by pur- 
chase, by grants from the King, and by donations 
from individuals, was very considerable. In the year 
1764, the order was abolished by the King of France, 
and the Members of the Society became private in- 
dividuals. The last Jesuit, Father Casot, died in 
1800, when the property of the Order fell to His 
Majesty, in whom it is still vested. 

It has been stated that the Church originally stood 
in the Haymarket, opposite to Garden Street. The 
College has been long appropriated by the Imperial 
Government as a barrack for a Regiment of Infantry, 
which has always been quartered in the city. Until 
a few years ago, the last surviving trees of the forest 
were to be seen in the angle in the rear of the barrack 



office. They have since perished, or have been i 
moved ; and the spacious barrack yard now occup 
the site where the Jesuits once rejoiced in th< 
umbrageous walks, and were wont, like the Philoc 
phera of old — 

— inter sylvas academi qtuerere vernm. 

We have already mentioned the dangers and p: 
vations endured not only by the Missionaries, w 
were conducted by religious fervor into the recess 
of the forest, far from the habitations of civilis 
man — but by young and delicate females, sprui 
from ancient and respectable families, who flock 
to New France as to a glorious field of Christi 
exertion. Of these none were more conspicuous th; 
the Hospitalieres, or religious ladies forming tl 
community of the Hotel Dieu. 

One of the first objects of the Colony of Chai 
plain after its restoration to the French, in 163 
was the foundation of an Hotel Dieu in Quebe 
Europeans, who came to establish themselves in 
rude and untried climate, after a navigation in th<x 
days both long and perilous, were subject to frequei 
and distressing maladies, particularly during the wii 
ter ; against the rigors of which they were unprovidt 
both as to clothing and diet. To alleviate the evi 
which arose from the general want of those comfor 
which are peculiar to a state of advanced civilisatio 
they had no other resource than in public and chi 
ritable foundations. Nor was such an establishmei 
as the Hotel Dieu less necessary in regard to tl 
Indians. In addition to the absence of medical cai 


ong themselves — their ignorance of the more for- 
iable diseases, and their natural dislike to witness, 
ch less long to tolerate, even their nearest con- 
dons in a state of feebleness and sickness — ren- 
ed them insensible, while in their savage state, 
the delicacy of medical attendance, and incapable 
providing other than temporary remedies for sick- 
js or accident. To the Nuns Hospitalieres the 
ages, who were overcome by sickness, in the 
ghborhood of Quebec, owed the cure of their 
lies, and their soul's health — zeal and charity 
nbitied to render such proselytes dear — and Chris- 
lNity must have appeared to the converted Indians 
its most attractive and endearing aspect — not only 
firing happiness in a future state, but presenting 
mediate consolation and relief from the bitterness 
their personal maladies. 

The colony being as yet too poor to undertake 
s necessary establishment, through the represen- 
ions of the Jesuits, the subject came to be discuss- 
, and soon to be popular among the rich and 
werful of the mother country. In 1636, the 
ichess D'Aiguillon, niece to the famous Car- 
nal De Richelieu, resolved to found an Hotel 
tEU in Quebec, at her own expense. She was, 
wever, liberally assisted by her relative ; and 
ring their joint lives, they continued to testify 
;ir kindness and affection towards the foundation. 
r contract passed on the 16th April, 1637, they 
ve an annual rent of fifteen hundred livres, on a 
pital of twenty thousand, as a commencement of 
?ir laudable and benevolent design : on condition 
that the Hospital should be dedicated to the death 
d precious blood of the Son of God, shed for the 
jrcy of all mankind ;" and that masses should be 


said forever for the repose of the souls of the founders. 
This donation was afterwards doubled in amount — but 
the revenues appear never to have been equal to the 
expenses incurred ; and of late years the pecuniary 
aid of the Legislature has been frequently bestowed 
upon this deserving community. 

In the execution of the foundation, the Duchess 
D'Aiguillon obtained from the Company of mer- 
chants a considerable concession of waste lands, 
which they called Ste. Marie ; and a grant of a piece 
of ground within the precincts of the city, being thfe 
site now occupied by the Hotel Dieu, its buildings 
and spacious garden, covering altogether abont twelvt 

The Duchess had proposed to the Hospitalises tf 
Dieppe to take charge of the new foundation at 
Quebec. These Nuns joyfully accepted the offer; 
and three of their community eagerly prepared them- 
selves for a voyage across the Atlantic, in discharge 
of what they considered a religious duty. The eldest 
was chosen superior : her age was twenty-nine — the 
youngest was only twenty-two years old. 

The fleet for New France at that time had its 
rendezvous at Dieppe ; where, amidst the encourage- 
ment and congratulation of all classes interested in . 
the design, they embarked on the 4th May, 1639, i 
accompanied by other vessels, having on board 
Madame De La Peltrie, and three Ursuline Nuns, 
destined for a new Convent at Quebec — several Je* 
suits, and other Priests for the different missions. 
After a rough passage, and some danger from the 
ice, they arrived safe at Tadoussac on the 15th July. 
Here they remained some days, subjected to much 
inconvenience, until they found a small vessel to 
take them up the river to Quebec. On the 31st 


July, they approached the harbor, but the tide being 
against them, it was resolved to land upon the Isle 
of Orleans, then uninhabited. They passed the 
night in wigwams constructed for the purpose, one 
for the Nuns, another for the Priests, and a third for 
the crew. The next morning they prepared to de- 
part, having first ordered the muskets to be dis- 
charged, and fires to be made in the woods, in token of 
their joy and gratitude for their safe arrival in the . 
land of promise — the scene of their Christian labors. / 
These fires being observed from Quebec, the Che- 
valier de Montmagny, who had succeeded Cham- 
plain in the Government, sent forward a canoe, 
which soon returned with the gratifying intelligence 
of the arrival of the Nuns. The first of August, the 
day on which these ladies arrived, so long and so 
ardently desired, was thought worthy of being cele • 
brated as a Fete. The shops were closed, and all 
labor suspended. The troops were under arms, and 
the Governor at their head received the religious 
heroines on the river side, under a salute from the 
Fort. On landing, they reverentially kissed the 
chosen ground; and after the first compliments, 
were led by the Governor, amid the acclamations of 
the people, to the Jesuits' Church, then the Paroisse, f 
where Tedeum was sung, and High Mass performed, ' 
in thanksgiving for their safe arrival. 

Notwithstanding the joyful reception which these 
Nuns met with, such was then the poverty of Que- 
bec, that they for some time suffered the greatest 
privations, even to the want of necessary food and 
clothing, until they were permanently established in 
the Hotel Dieu, which did not arrive for many years 
afterwards. They were at first lodged, as has been 
stated elsewhere, in a small house belonging to the 

r 2 


Company, where their only furniture was a tabl< 
two benches. They were even indebted to the 
vernor for {heir first meal in New France ; an 
their baggage was still on board their vessc 
Tadoussac, they were obliged to sleep on bran 
of trees, laid upon the floor, until the 15th Au| 
when they received their furniture and effects. 

After taking lessons in the Algonquin tongue f 
Father Le Jeune, they commenced their labor 
receiving several sick persons, whom they tei 
with great care, as well Indians as French, 
small pox broke out among the former with g 
virulence, and the nature of their employment w 
have been intolerable to delicate females, had ( 
, not been supported throughout by a powerful s< 
j. of religious duty. 

In 1640, they gave up their house in Que 
to the use of the Jesuits, whose residence had 1 
destroyed by fire ; and retired to St. Michel, w 
had been lent to them by Monsieur de Puise 
As the site of their grant in the city, on which 
Hotel Dieu now stands, appeared to them, in 
infancy of their pecuniary means, every way in< 
venient from its rocky and uneven nature, and 
deficiency of water, which could only then be obt 
ed by descending the steep cliff to the River 
Charles — they determined to suspend the build 
which had been commenced upon it, and to ere 
stone house at Sillery, in the neighborhood of 
establishment of the Jesuits there. They \ 
induced to do this the rather, as the Indians gre 
preferred a residence there to Quebec ; altho 
not long afterwards, the incursions of the Iroqi 
rendered Sillery a much less secure position. ' 
Hospitaliires of Quebec, having been joined in 1< 


two additional Nuns from the community of 
ppe, making* in all five, laid the first stone of their 
[dings at Sillery, on the 9th July, with great ce- 
tony ; but continued to reside at St. Michel until 
'as habitable in 1641. Their condition on taking 
session of this house, which was in an unfinished 
e, was uncomfortable in the extreme. They 
e more than a league from Quebec, living among 
ages, with no other French protectors than the 
isionaries. Here they passed the first winter in 
it distress, still, however, continuing their atten- 
i to the savages, converting and healing them. 
;y resided at Sillery four years, after which, 
og to the frequent incursions of the Iroquois, they 
e obliged to return to Quebec, — where they resid- 
in a small house on the river side, lent to them by 
Governor — and resumed their building on the 
sent site of the Hospital. They were at this 
3 seven in number. 

ls soon as a portion of this first building, which 
>d upon the site of the present Hotel Dieu, was 
»red in, the Hospitaliires took possession ; and 
sonally aided the workmen in completing it by 
r manual labor. Their Chapel was consecrated 
he 16th March, 1646, an occasion of great joy 
be little community, which consisted at this time 
nly five professed Nuns, a Chaplain, four boarders, 
male domestic, and seven laboring men. During 
year, they successively administered relief to 
y-six natives of France, and one hundred and 
nty savages, some of whom remained five and 
months in the Hospital. They had moreover 
ler their constant protection a wigwam of ten 
ages, whom they maintained all the year round. 


It appears by a bargain made by these Nui 
the clearance of the ground about the Hotel I 
that one hundred and fifty livres per arpent, \ 
to six pounds five shillings, Halifax currency 
the common price at this time for the performai 
such work. 

At this period they had acquired, partly by 
chase and partly by concession, the farm o 
Sauveur ; having sold their lands at Sillery t« 
D'Auteuil. They also received a gift of the 
St. Ignace, half a league in front by six in depth, 
M. Giffard, Seignior of Beauport, as a dowry ft 
daughter, who took the veil in 1648. The dre 
the Iroquois, however, prevented the settlemej 
this Seigniory until the year 1662. 

Three Nuns having arrived from France in 1 
the number of these devoted ladies was encr* 
to nine. About this time a number of fan 
came out from France to settle in Quebec ; an 
these the kindness and attention of the Hospital 
were found of signal benefit immediately after 

In 1649, after the utter destruction by the Iro< 
of two Huron Villages, called St. Joseph anc 
Ignace, and the cruel death of Father de Brel 
and Gabriel Lallemant, the Missionaries, the ui 
tunate Hurons — broken hearted, and utterly ui 
to bear up against the incessant attacks of i 
hereditary enemies — or rather, the sad remain 
that once powerful and interesting people, tool 
fuge near Quebec, where they were kindly rece 
and hospitably treated by the Hospitalises and 
Jesuits. The descendants of these Huron refuj 
are now to be found in the village of Indian Lor 
— presenting a striking and melancholy contrast ? 


ieir former power and condition, when they stepped 
j lords of the soil over the magnificent country 
Inch borders the waters of Lake Huron. Relative 
d the massacre of St. Joseph and St. Ignace, there is 

picture at present in the Chaplain's room of the 
Iotel Dieu, which derives its interest from its sub- 
ect, the dreadful death of the Missionaries, and the 
orture to which they were exposed by the refined 
Tuelty of the Iroquois. 

The first Hospital, being built of wood, and only 
burteen feet wide, was soon found too limited for the 
iccommodation of the numerous applicants. By great 
ixertions, and by the donations of generous individu- 
ils both in the colony and in France, the Hospita- 
Hreswere enabled to build another, more commodious 
n dimension, and far more solid in construction. 
Che first stone was laid on the 15th October, 1654, 

5M. De Lauzon, the Governor, in presence of the 
ergy and principal inhabitants. The new buildings 
fhich consisted of an Hospital, now the female ward, 
i choir, and a Church were finished in 1658, and the 
atter was consecrated by the Abbe de Quelus, 
3rand Vicaire, on the 10th August. Mass was first 
celebrated on the 15th of the same month. 

The weakness of the Colony, and the defenceless 
fate of Quebec in 1660, may be imagined from the 
act, that such was the dread inspired by the Iroquois, 
irho hovered around to the number of seven hundred 
warriors, that it was not considered safe for the 
EospitalieYes and the Ursulines to remain in their 
ftipective convents during the night. They accord- 
%ly removed every evening to the Jesuits' College, 
*fere apartments were assigned to them. Patroles 
*tte established at night to protect the city, which, 


but for these precautions, would assuredly have fc 
fired by their daring and implacable assailants. "T 
state of alarm continued for three weeks ; when 
Iroquois made a simultaneous attack on all 
posts between Three-Rivers and Quebec, kili 
no less than eighty French, and a great number 
Algonquins and Hurons. They established the 
selves in the Isle of Orleans, whence M. De Lau» 
son of the former Governor of that name, i 
his own valuable life, and the lives of his fi 
lowers, in vainly attempting to dislodge them* S 
tisfied with their triumph, they at length retire 
leaving Quebec once more to repose ; and restorii 
the Nuns to their accustomed charitable duties. 

In 1672, the Colony "had acquired sufficie 
strength to ensure its security from the Iroquois; ti 
as many settlers came out each spring, the wants 
an encreasing population rendered the augmented 
of the Hotel Dieu again necessary ; and under tl 
liberal patronage of M. Talon, the Intendant, wl 
may be called the Pericles of Quebec, anoth 
ward and an additional wing were undertaken, a 
first stone of which was laid on the 5th May, 167 
in the presence of trie Bishop, and other dignitarfc 
On the 20th of the same month, the Intendant, 
order to show the respect he entertained for tl 
Duchess D'Aiguillon, the original founder of u 
Hotel Dieu, caused a brass plate to be insert 
into the foundation stone, bearing the arms of th 
illustrious lady, and the following Latin inscripW 
written by his Nephew, who is spoken of as a yotti 
man of much promise at the time : — 



Clemente X. 
cgn&nte invicto, pacifico Rege Christianissimo, Ludovico 
IV, benedicente Francisco, primo Canadensium Episcopo, 
tprecaoto Virginnm Hospitalarium, preside Renata a Na- 
ntate, complaudente Colonia universa : nee non pro siugulari 
tt in pauperes et segros incolas charitate, procurante illus- 
faiiBo Viro D. D Joanne Talon, JEnrm, Jari, ac toti 
tKticn Rei, Novae Gallia? summo Praefecto. Quod olim pie 
■■Awi Notocomium, angescente Colonia, hoc novo liberaliter 
Dftt Hospitio, immortalis memoriae et omni laadum genere 
wnentissimi Ducis Cardinalis Armandi superstes, et sorore 
•P& dignissiraa, Maria & Vigenerot Ducissa, cni sal us et 
**wmpiteriWL Anno salutis instaurata M.D.CLXXII. 


To the honor of the blood of Christ, shed for mankind, and 
• Mother of Mercy, in the Pontificate of Clement X. in the 
K* of the invincible, peaceful and most Christian King 
fell XIV. with the benediction of Francis, first Bishop of 
1 Canadians, and at the request of Rene de la Nativite, 
perior of the Nuns Hospitalieres, with the applause of the 
o]« colony, also as a mark of his peculiar affection towards 
' poor and the sick, and by the instrumentality of Jean 
U)n, Intendant of Justice, Police and Finance in New 
Uice — the same Hospital which she had originally so piously 
nded, on the encrease of the Colony, was augmented by a 
>nd liberal donation, by Maria de Vignerot, Duchess 
Uguillon, surviving niece of the immortal and most eminent . 
xlinal Duke Armand, to whom be health and everlasting / 
ry. In the year of salvation MDCLXXII. 

In 1696 considerable additions were made to the 
tidings of the Hotel Dieu, which, with subse- 
ent improvements gradually assumed their present 

The present edifice is a substantial and capacious 
ilding, three stories high, standing between Palace- 
He and Hope-Gate. Its longest portion is one 


hundred and thirty yards, by seventeen in de; 
On the north-west side, the wing is only fifty y 
long, and two stories high. Every medical care 
delicate attendance is here gratuitously afforde 
the afflicted poor by the religious community, wl 
consists of a Superior, about thirty three Nuns, 
Novices and a postulant./ The Church is simple 
plain, having a few paintings which may be seei 
proper application being made to the Chap] 
Several are also distributed throughout the var 
rooms and wards. Three or four pictures are sU 
to be originals, and are by eminent masters : as 
Nativity, by Stella, a French painter who diet 
1661 : — The Virgin and Child, by Coypel, who i 
in 1707, and St. Bruno, by the celebrated Eusti 
Le Sueur, who died in 1655. He was called 
Raphael of France, and his principal work was 
life of St. Bruno, in a series of twenty-two pictn 
preserved in the Chartreux, at Paris. 


This Institution/as well as that of the Hotel D 
owes its origin to the powerful representations oi 
Jesuits settled in New France. The object of 
latter was not, however, merely to provide the mi 
of religious instruction and education for the fei 
children of the French residents. They cont 
plated the instruction also of the young daughte: 
the converted Indian — so extensive and philant 
pic were the views of this order. The Comj 
of merchants to whose direction the temporal af 
of the Colony were confided, — men of worldly vi 
and more anxious for a good return of furs, 
solicitous of extending to the savage benefits, w 


seemed to them unnecessary and premature — took 
no steps to promote the settlement of the Ursulines. 
In justice it should be added, neither did they take 
measures to prevent it. 

Several unsuccessful attempts were made to carry 
into effect a foundation so desirable as that of the 
Ursulines, whose peculiar province it was to devote 
themselves to the education of female children. At 
length, as in the case of the Hospitalieres, it was re- 
served for a young widow of Alenfon, a person of 
rank and fortune, named Madame De la Peltrie, 
to surmount every obstacle ; and to accomplish her 
purpose by devoting her whole fortune, and conse- 
crating even personal labor to the good work. With 
two Ursulines from Tours, and one from Dieppe, 
the attended the rendezvous of the Canada fleet ; 
and sailed on the 4th May, 1639, for Quebec, in 
company with the Hospitalieres, as mentioned above. 
The courage and devotion of Madame De La 
Peltrie have been highly celebrated. Persons of 
similar qualities have appeared in almost every age 
to meet the wants of society — without whose energy 
and self denial few of those philanthropic institu- 
tions, to which the world owes so much at the present 
day, would have been matured, and successfully 
established* This devout lady give up all to carry 
into effect her laudable design ; and is even said 
to have at one time worked with her own hands in 
the cultivation of the ground, on which the Ursuline 
Convent now stands. She divested herself of all 
superfluous clothing, and parted with her wardrobe 
to supply raiment to the poor children of the colo- 
v lifts, whom she fed as well as clothed : her whole 
u life indeed was a series of charitable deeds, which 
t lave rendered her name illustrious in the religious 



annals of Canada. The fruits of her valuable foun- 
dation are to this day experienced, in the excellent 
education which is afforded to young females in the 
school of the Ursuline Convent 

The reception of the Urkulines has been already 
described under the Hotel Dieu. The Hospttor 
lieres went immediately to Sillery — the Ursulines 
were established in a small house on the river side, 
most probably on the St Charles. Like the Ho* 
pitalieres they suffered trials and privations innume- 
rable. Scarcely had they arrived, when the small 
pox broke out in Quebec. But they were not dis- 
concerted : they indeed preserved their health, and 
had presence of mind enough, in the midst of death* 
to employ themselves in the study of the Indian 
languages, in order to render themselves more use- 
ful to the community among which they had begun 
their pious career. It has been stated that their list 
intention was to educate the female children of the 
Indians. Finding this to be inconvenient, and almost 
impracticable, they were, after some years, reluc- 
tantly compelled to abandon that part of their de- 

The Ursulines completed their first Convent in 
1641. It was built most probably of wood ; and 
stood within the present possessions of the Commu- 
nity, between St Lewis, Garden, St Anne, and St 
Ursule Streets. A very curious pictorial plan, or \ 
map, of the original Convent is still in existence, j 
In this, St Lewis Street appears merely a broad road i 
between the original forest trees, and is called lA \ 
Grande Allie — without a building immediately o» J, 
either side. At a little distance to the north of Z* 3- 
Grande Allee, is a narrower path, called Le Pd* (, 
Chemin, running parallel and leading into the fbrtffc i; 





3 smaller path went exactly through the choir of 
present Chapel ; the great door of which is be- 
in the two roads, but close to the narrower one, 
escribed in the map. A small brook ran, appa- 
ly from Cape Diamond, diagonally across both 
Grande Allee and Le Petit Chemin ; and thence 

Garden Street. Close to the spot where the 
pel now stands, and nearly in front of the 
.t door, was the residence of Madame De La 
trie, the founder of the Convent ; which is 
ribed in the plan as occupying, in 1642, the 
er of Garden Street, nearly opposite to the classi- 
chool and residence of the Reverend D. Wilkie. 

Ursuline Convent itself stood to the north- 
; of Madame De La Peltrie's house, abutting 
r je Petit Chemin, which ran parallel to St. Louis 
et, and fronting towards Garden Street. It is 
esented as being a well proportioned and substan- 
building, two stories high, with an attic — four 
inies, and a cupola, or belfry in the centre. The 
ber of windows in front were eleven on the upper 
r ; which contained the parloir, dormitory, and 
mary. On the lower story were the Chapel, 
other necessary apartments. The door leading 
le par loir ) which was in the upper story, opened 
he south end : that of the Chapel was in front 
le building. The Convent was surrounded by a 
t, in which, according to the ancient plan, was the 
, Several female children are represented as 
ig their recreation there between the hours 
chool attendance. In other compartments of 

singular map are seen, La Mere de l'In- 
nation, so celebrated by Charlevoix, instruct- 

the young sauvagesses, under an ancient ash 

;— Mire St Joseph, going to teach the cate- 


chism to the Huron and Algonquin neophytes ; 
Mire St Croix, accompanied by a young Cana 
boarder, proceeding to visit the wigwams of the 
vages, some of whom are represented as residin 
the forest, inclosed within the precincts of 
Ursulines. With the exception of the building 
the Convent, its court yard, and Madame Di 
Peltrie's house, all the ground including both i 
of St. Lewis Street, is represented in the pictui 
in the natural state. In La Grande AlUe — the 
sent St. Lewis Street — we see M. Daillebout, 
Governor, on horseback, riding gently along- 
has, apparently, just been conversing with 
dame De La Peltrie, who is entering her 
house, conducting a young female by the nan d. 
Garden Street are several priests, probably Re< 
lets, approaching the Convent. 

The plan we have attempted to describe is pri 
bly the most ancient, as it is the most interest 
representation extant of any portion of Quebet 
its early days. 

In 1650, the Convent was destroyed by fire- 
enemy which proved most destructive to the e 
establishments of Quebec. The fire broke out on 
30th December ; and was occasioned by some c 
which had been left by a sister employed in the bi 
house, which was in a cellar at the north end of 
building. The Nuns made their escape by the < 
at the south end, which led by a staircase to 
parloir ; but the building was entirely consul) 
Its inmates, to the number of fourteen, were kii 
received, and hospitably entertained during tl 
weeks, by the Nuns of the Hotel Dieu. On the ! 
January, 1651, they removed to the house of Mad 
De La Peltrie, which had been prepared for t 


option. On this occasion a solemn act, or conven- 
:, was drawn up and executed by the Superiors of 
Ursulines and the Hospitalieres, the purport of 
ch was, " that in order to preserve a perpetual 

indissoluble union and love between the two 
nmunities, there shall exist between them for the 
ire an entire friendship, and participation of spi- 
al goods, with a mutual exchange of good offices, 


n the plan of the old Convent to which we have 
ve referred, there is also introduced a represen- 
>n of Sister St. Laurent, a woman of extraor- 
try merit, who is described as one of the most 
ted Nuns the Community ever possessed. She 
itly contributed to the re-establishment of the 
suline Convent, after this fire, not only by her 
lligence and economy, but even by personal 

>n the 21st October, 1686, on the Ftte of St. 
iula, and during the performance of high mass, 
Convent caught fire, and was a second time 
led to the ground, without any conjecture as to 
manner in which the accident originated. No- 
p was saved from the rapidity of the flames, 
tier provisions, or linen, or any other clothing 

that in use at the time. Once more, the Ur- 
nes took refuge with the Hospitalises, who 
ived them as kindly as before, to the number of 
ity-five ; and they again remained for the space 
tree weeks under the roof of the Hotel Dieu, 
iving every possible mark of attention and corn- 
ration from that Community. In the mean time, 
. was the utility of this Institution, that every 
took an interest in the reparation of the disaster. 

Governor and the Intendant, the Jesuits and 

s 2 



other Communities all contributed by every means in 
their power. The rebuilding of the Convent was 
soon commenced ; and a small bouse was hastily 
constructed, in which they passed the winter, all the 
necessary furniture and utensils having been gene- 
rously supplied by the HospitaliSres. It was singu- 
lar, that on the very day on which the Ursulines Left 
the Hotel Dieu, accompanied, as a mark of respect 
and friendship, by the Superior and one or two of the 
Nuns Hospitaliere^ the latter were near being reduc- 
ed to the same extremity as that from which they had 
relieved the Ursulines. One of the Hospitalitm, 
who had returned much fatigued, after passing the day 
in assisting the Ursulines to establish themselves in 
their temporary residence, fell asleep in her cell, 
leaving a candle burning in the socket, which soon 
communicated to the furniture. Fortunately, the 
sister whose duty it was to see that all was secure 
before retiring for the night, discovered the accident 
in time to save the life of the careless Nun, and pro- 
bably the whole building from destruction. 

The Ursuline Convent of Quebec having been 
found of such utility, the inhabitants of Three- 
Rivers made application to Monseigneur de St 
Vallier, then Bishop, for a separate foundation of 
Ursulines for that Borough. This was accomplish- 
ed in 1697, when the Ursuline Convent was esta- 
blished there, depending upon the Community of 
Quebec ; and uniting, with their own consent, thfc 
office of Ursulines with that of Hospitalieres—at 
once educating the female children, and administer- 
ing to the wants of the sick. A similar union of the 
duties of these two Communities was found convenient 
in Louisiana, where the Ursulines were established 


ew Orleans in 1725, and combined with their 
* occupations the care of the Hospital, 
le Nunnery, which with its garden and outbuild- 
occupies seven acres of ground within its own 
of St Joseph, is a plain but commodious edifice 
roe, two stories high, forming a square of about 
jr-eight yards long, by forty feet deep. The rest 
e site, with the exception of the court, is occu- 
by a productive garden, and surrounded by a 
» walL The Chapel and Choir of St. Ursula 
inety-five feet long, and forty-five feet broad, 
e plain and unpretending without, its altars are 
ly adorned, and the whole interior is not deficient 
renerable and religious appearance. Within the 
ng, it is connected with the Convent ; and opens 
e public towards Garden Street In the ancient 
above mentioned, the exact site of the present 
is accurately laid down, as we have described it 

fithin the precincts of the Convent lie buried the 
tins of the gallant Marquis De Montcalm, who 
mortally wounded in the eventful battle of the 
as of Abraham, 13th September, 1759. A 
or two ago a plain marble slab was placed in 
Ursuline Chapel to the memory of this brave 
unfortunate soldier, by His Excellency the 
i Aylmer, Governor-in-Chief of these Pro- 
es. The following is the simple inscription up- 
his slab : — 


Montcalm ! 

Le destin en lui derobant 

La Victoire, 

L'a recompense par 

Une Mort Glorieuse ! 


The Ursuline Chapel contains several good pi 
tures, which may be examined on application to tl 
Chaplain. Among them is a Mater Dolorosa 1 
Vandyke : a picture on a religious subject by tl 
celebrated Le Sueur : — The Capture of Christian 
by Algerine pirates, by Restout, historical painter 
the King of France, who died in 1753 : — Two pi 
tures, The Saviour at meat in Simon's house, an* 
A full length portrait of the Redeemer 9 by Champagu 
an eminent Flemish painter, who was afterwar< 
painter to the Queen of France, and died in 1674 

The community of the Ursulines consists of 
Superior, forty-two professed Nuns, and some novice 
Their rules are rigidly exclusive, and their Convei 
is not open to public inspection, beyond the Park 
and the Chapel. It is in its interior neat, wellai 
ranged, and tastefully decorated. The Nuns ai 
devoted to the instruction of young females in usef 
knowledge, and ornamental education when require 
their school has long been esteemed one of the besti 
the Province. The paintings executed by then 
selves are much admired : their embroidery and fan< 
work are sold at high rates. The proceeds of tl 
skill and labor of these Nuns go to augment tl 
common stock, and enable them to extend the 
usefulness without diminishing the fixed property < 
their Community. 


This highly useful and meritorious establishmei 
was founded and endowed by Monseigneur D 
Laval de Montmorency, first Bishop of Canada, i 
the year 1663. It was intended at first chiefly a 
an Ecclesiastical Institution, with a few young pupil 

with Historical recollections. 213 

) were educated here for the ministry. — At the 
taction of the Jesuits' Order, the members of the 
ebec Seminary, although the institution was in 
ressed circumstances, threw open its doors to the 
ith of the country generally. Professorships were 
kblished, and all the ordinary branches of litera- 
5 and science began to be taught. The buildings 
e twice burned to the ground, during the life of 
renerable founder, who had resigned his Bishopric, 

retired to the Seminary ; where he spent the last 
nty years of his useful and pious life — he died 
the 6th May, 1708. The first fire took place on 

15th November, 1701, during the absence of 
it of the priests. The Bishop escaped half dressed, 
, with the other ecclesiastics, was received into 
Bishop's Palace. Not discouraged by the des- 
tion of this offspring of his piety and munificence, 
letermined that no means should be left untried 
ebuild it A strong representation was made to 
Court ; and a yearly pension of four thousand 
v was granted as an aid towards its re-establish- 
it After four years labor had been bestowed 
n it, it was again set on fire, on the 1st October, 
5, by the carelessness of a workman, whose 
j communicated to some combustible matter. 

this occasion Bishop De Laval retired to the 
lits* College. The Seminary was rebuilt, but 

destined to be almost totally destroyed during 
siege of 1759, previous to the battle of the Plains 
ibraham. Its disasters were even not yet com- 
e, for it was once more partially consumed by 
in 1772. 

lie authority of the Seminary resides in a Board 
directors, five or seven in number, one of whom is 
)erior, elected triennally. The other officers are 


:■•.: r imi 

.:•;■• - 'ne 

.: . r 
■r : 

- » -i 


to which must be added lessons in Natural History, 
Mineralogy, Geology, Drawing, Music, &c. 

The collegial course is divided into nine classes, 
occupying so many years — boys who can read and 
write are admitted into the first or elementary class — 
with higher qualifications, they are allowed to enter 
Into more advanced classes — boys of superior talents 
will of course complete their studies in less time. 

In this Institution no payment is made for tuition 
— the boarders pay £17 10s. yearly, but of that 
sum a deduction is made for all absences of eight 
days or more. The day scholars pay 10s, in the fall, 
and a like sum in the spring, for wood, candles, &c. 
A small salary is paid to professors who are not mem- 
bers of the establishment 

The annual public exercises are very splendid and 
interesting — they are attended by crowds of the most 
respectable citizens — the Governor-in-Chief, if not 
absent from town, usually assists at the distribution 
of prizes with which the exercises close. 

The commencement or vacation takes place about 
the 15th August. The pupils return at the expira- 
tion of six weeks. 

The funds of the Seminary hardly suffice for its 
support. It has, however, by means of long and strict 
economy, and still more by large sums of money 
arising from the sale of property given to the Institu- 
tion by several rich individuals in France, previously 
to the French Revolution, and partly recovered since 
the restoration of the Bourbons, been rebuilt upon 
a much larger plan, since 1820. 

The Seminary buildings, including the Chapel, 
are divided into four wings, three stories, and in 
some parts four stories high. Three of these wings 
inclose a spacious court, where the pupils spend their 


hours of recreation. The fourth wing, instead of com* 
pleting the square, turns out at right angles with the 
central one, and faces with it a large and beautiful 
garden. The latter is one hundred and seventy 
yards long and two hundred broad, containing seven 
acres of ground. It faces the grand battery and 
overlooks the harbor. It includes several rows of 
planted fruit trees, lilachs, &c. ; a bocage of forest 
trees, and a terrace from which the view of the basin 
and of the surrounding scenery is most magnificent 

The whole length of the Seminary buildings on 
three of its sides is seventy yards. The fourth wing 
is fifty yards long. They are in width forty-two feet, 
except the old or central wing, which is only thirty 
feet wide. The interior is traversed at each story by 
immense corridors leading to the halls, dormitories, 
refectories, classes, apartments of the Priests and of 
the Bishop, who resides in the Seminary. In the 
Bishop's antichamber are suspended the portraits of 
his twelve predecessors. 

The Chapel of the Seminary, the vestibule of 
which is at the grand entrance to the buildings from 
the Cathedral and market square, contains the best 
collection of paintings to be seen in the country, of 
the French school and by eminent masters. They 
are, The flight of Joseph to Egypt, by Jean Baptiste 
Vanloo, a French portrait painter, who died in 1746. .. 
He was the brother of Carlo Vanloo, in great esteem j 
at Paris. Jean Baptiste Vanloo was painter to the 
King of France. He went to England, and became 
the favorite painter in London. His pictures are 
natural, thoroughly finished, and in no part neglect- 
ed. The wise men of the East adoring the Saviour, 
by Bourieu ; — The Saviour's sepulchre and interment, 
by Hutin ; — The Ascension of the Lord Jesus, — The 


\y of Pentecost, — and St Jerome writing, by the 
)thers Champagnes. These were both eminent 
ists, uncle and nephew, and natives of Brussels : 
ilip was a landscape painter and died in 1674. 
i was painter to the Queen of France, and mem- 
• of the Academy of Painting. He designed cor- 
ily, had an agreeable tone of color, and well 
derstood the principles of perspective. His ne- 
»w, Jean Baptiste Champagne, died in 1688. He 
i a good artist, and studied under his uncle. He 
» professor of the Royal Academy. The trance 
SL Anthony, by Panocel d'Avignes : — Peter's de- 
trance from prison, by Charles De la Fosse, a 
ench painter, who died in 1716. He was a dis- 
•le of Le Bran, and was sent by Louis XIV. to 
ish Ids studies at Rome. He imitated Titian 
1 Paolo Veronese, and became an excellent colo- 
;. He was fond of large compositions, and much 
ployed in royal palaces and public buildings. He 
s invited to England by the Duke of Montague, 
1 employed by him in ornamenting his townhouse, 
w the British Museum. The Baptism of Christ, 

Claude Guy Halle : The terror of St. Jerome 
the recollection of a vision of the day of Judgment, 

D'Hullin : The Egyptian Hermits in the soli- 
\e of Thebais, and another on the same subject, by 
lillot : The Virgin ministered unto by Angels, 

De Dieu : The Saviour, and the Woman of 
naria at JacoVs well, by Lagren£e : A large 
ire of the Saviour on the Cross, by Monet; — and 
ve the altar, a small oval picture, representing 
> Angels, by Charles Le Brun, an illustrious 
jnch painter of Scottish extraction, who died in 
>0. He is reported to have drawn figures with 
rcoal at three years old. At twelve, he drew a 



picture of his uncle, which is even now considered a 
fine piece. 

A very beautiful apartment, adorned with modern 
Ionic columns, is the congregation hall, or interior 
Chapel of the Students. The library contains about 
8000 volumes. In the Philosophical Cabinet are to 
be seen a very valuable collection of instruments, 
which is rapidly increasing : a number of antiquities 
and Indian utensils, — a small mineralogical cabinet, 
composed at Paris under the direction of the cele- 
brated Abbe" Haiiy — some geological specimen*, 
fossils, petrifactions, &c. — numerous specimens of 
the precious and other ores from South America- 
shells, insects, — and an imitation of the Falls of 


It has been stated in the account of the Recollet 
Convent, that this extensive establishment, — situate 
on the River St. Charles, about a mile from the 
walls, and near the spot where Jacques Cartier 
first wintered in New France — owes its foundation 
to Monseigneur de Saint Vallier, second Bishop of 
Quebec, who bought the property of the Recollets 
at Notre Dame des Anges, and procured for them a 
site opposite the Fort of St Lewis, on which at pre- 
sent stands the English Cathedral. The Bishop 
expended a very large sum in those days, one hun- 
dred thousand crowns, on the buildings, which were 
intended for a General Hospital for invalids, and 
as an asylum for persons permanently afflicted with 
disease. The Hotel Dieu was instituted for the 
care of incidental maladies. 


Previously to the foundation of the General 
Hospital, there had been established at Quebec 
since 1688, an office for the relief of the poor, Bu- 
reau despauvres, to which every colonist and com- 
munity was bound to furnish an annual sum, to be 
expended under the management of Trustees. The 
revenue of this office amounted to two thousand 
twres a year, which were sufficient at that time to 
relieve the helpless poor, and to prevent mendicity, 
which was not tolerated. The country parishes in 
the same manner provided for the maintenance of 
their poor. The Bishop, having undertaken to relieve 
the city from the support of its helpless and infirm 
poor, obtained the junction of these funds with the 
revenue of his own foundation ; and the Trustees of 
the Bureau des Pauvres were chosen also adminis- 
trators of the General Hospital. 

The foundation was at first under the charge of 
the sisters of the Congregation ; but afterwards, in 
1692, not without great objection on their part, it 
was placed under the care of the Hospitalidres, re- 
ceiving from the community of the Hotel Dieu its 
Supenor, and in all twelve professed Nuns. In 1701, 
the Nuns of the General Hospital were made a 
separate and independent community, and are so at 
thepresent day. 

The following is the account given by Charlevoix 
of this splendid foundation : 

" At the distance of half a quarter of a league you 
find the H6pital-G&neraL This is the finest house 
in all Canada, and would be no disparagement to our 
largest cities in France ; the Fathers rt^collets for- 
merly owned the ground on which it stands. M. 
De St. Vallier, Bishop of Quebec, removed them 
into the city, bought their settlement, and expend- 


ed a hundred thousand crowns in buildings, furniture, 
and in foundations. The only fault of this hospital 
is its being built in a marsh ; they hope to be able 
to remedy it by draining ; but the River St Charles 
makes a winding in this place, into which the waters 
do not easily flow, so that this inconvenience can 
never be effectually removed. 

" The prelate, who is the founder, has his apart- 
ments in the house, which he makes his ordinary 
residence ; having let his palace, which is also his 
own building, for the benefit of die poor. He even 
is not above serving as Chaplain to the Hospital, as 
well as to the Nuns, the functions of which office he 
fills with a zeal and application which would be ad- 
mired in a simple priest who got his bread by it 
The artisans, or others, who on account of their great 
age, are without the means of getting their subsis- 
tence, are received into this hospital until all the beds 
in it are full, and thirty Nuns are employed in serv- 
ing them. These are a scion or colony from the 
hospital of Quebec ; but in order to distinguish them, 
the Bishop has given them certain peculiar regula- 
tions, and obliges them to wear a silver cross on their 
breast. Most part of them are young women of 
condition, and as they are not those of the easiest 
circumstances in the country, the Bishop has portion- 
ed several of them." 

The General Hospital is at present a Nunnery, 
governed by a Superior, having forty-five professed 
Nuns, a few Novices and Postulantes, The whole ap- 
pearance, both external and internal, of this Hospital is 
regular and pleasing ; while the general arrangement 
and economy are highly creditable to the institution. 
Its front is two hundred and twenty-eight feet long 
— its form nearly square. The main building is 


rty-three feet deep ; but on the south-west side, a 
je of one hundred and thirty feet long has fifty 
; in breadth. 

lie Chapel is very neat, and has a gallery commu- 
ting with the Hospital, for the use of the indigent 
A separate house is appropriated to the recep- 
of the insane : the Province, however, requires 
stablishment on a larger scale for these unfortu- 
8. At Three- Rivers there is an establishment 
he insane under the charge of the Ursulines of 

he means of the General Hospital, from its 
stricted character, have been found inadequate to 
ly the expenses of the establishment, and the 
iency is occasionally supplied by grants from 
Provincial Parliament. The Nuns are distin- 
led for the manufacture of Church ornaments, 
for their skill in gilding. The produce of the 
of these works becomes part of the general fund 
e Institution. 

t 2 




The rise and prosperity of the Colony, and the 
improvement of Quebec, may be dated from the 
period when it became the seat of the Royal Govern- 
ment in New France. The Colony began imme- 
diately to reap the fruits of the change of system, 
which followed the resignation of the Company's 
charter into the hands of the King, Measures were 
adopted to infuse a more liberal spirit into the Colo- 
ny, to raise the quality and character of the settlers, 
and to give a higher tone to the society. The King 
took a most judicious method to accomplish this. 
He resolved to confer upon the Government a degree 
of comparative splendor, worthy of the great nation 
of which it was a dependency. In 1664, he sent out 
to Quebec the most brilliant emigration that had 
ever sailed from France for the new world. It con- 
sisted of a Viceroy, a Governor-General, an Inten- 
dant, and other necessary officers of the Civil 
Government — the Regiment of Carignan, command- 
ed by Colonel de Salieres, and officered by sixty or 
seventy French gentlemen, most of whom were 
connected with the Noblesse. Many of these gentle- 


settled in the Province, and having obtained 
ssions of the waste lands, became the Noblesse 
e Colony, and were the ancestors of the best 
;h families of the present day. The beneficial 
er in which this infusion of superior blood, edu- 
i and accomplishments must have operated, as 
is the social and domestic manners of the Colo- 
previously devoted to the humblest occupations 
ide, may be easily imagined. Liberal tastes 
encouraged — sentiments of honor and genero- 
jervaded the highest rank in society, the influ- 
of which was speedily felt through every class 
\ inhabitants. The Marquis de Tracy, who 
he Commission of Viceroy, staid little more 
i year in the Province. He made a successful 
lition against the Iroquois, and returning to 
;e, carried with him the affections of all the 
itants. He maintained a state which had never 
3 been seen in Canada, rightly judging, that in a 
ly at so great a distance from the Mother Coun- 
be royal authority should be maintained before 
iblic eye in all its external dignity and observan- 
3esides the Regiment of Carignan, he was allow- 
maintain a body guard, wearing the same 
•m as the Garde Roy ale of France. He always 
red on state occasions with these guards, twenty- 
(i number, who preceded him. Four pages im- 
tely accompanied him, followed by six valets, — 
hole surrounded by the officers of the Carignan 
nent, and of the civil departments. M. De 
celles, the Governor General, and M. De 
n, the In ten dan t, had each a splendid equipage, 
nentioned in an interesting French manuscript, 
which we have taken much valuable informa- 
ever before published, that as both these gen* 


tlemen were men of birth, education, handsome 
figure and accomplished manners, they gave a most 
favorable impression of the royal authority, then first 
personally represented in New France. 

Although Quebec at this period contained little 
more than seventy private houses, after the establish- 
ment of the Seminary it was found necessary, viewing 
the march of improvement which had just commenced, 
to construct the Cathedral Church on a scale suf- 
ficiently large for the encreased population ; and with 
a splendor corresponding with the new prospects 
of the Colony under the Royal Government. After 
about three years labor, the French Cathedral was 
finished on its present site, between Buade Street, 
the Bishop's Palace, and the Seminary, with its front 
towards the Jesuits' College. It was consecrated 
under the title of the Immaculate Conception, on the 
18th July, 1666, with all the imposing ceremonies 
usually observed on similar occasions. Before this 
time, the Jesuits' Church had been used as the Pa- 
roisse of Quebec. 

The French Cathedral was built under the 
auspices of Monseigneur Francois de Laval, first 
Bishop of Quebec, to whom tne Colony was also 
indebted for the creation of the Seminary. 

In 1659, the great success of the Missionaries in 
converting the Indians to the true faith induced the 
Jesuits to recommend the appointment of an Eccle- 
siastic of superior rank, in order to confirm the nascent 
piety of the colony, and to repress any disorders in 
its spiritual government which might arise, without 
the care and supervision of an authorised head of the 
Church. At their instance, Fran<jois De Laval, 
Abbe de Montigny, of the noble house of Montmo- 
rency, and at that time Archdeacon of Evreux, was 


?ted as the person on whom the Episcopal dig- 
should first be conferred in New France. He 
ed in Quebec, according to Charlevoix, on the 
une, 1659, with the title of Bishop of Petrjea, 
he rank of Vicar Apostolical, accompanied by 
al Priests and Chaplains, He was received 
every mark of joy and distinction in his new 
se, as the first Prelate of New France ; and took 
is residence for three months after his arrival in 
ments belonging to the Nuns Hospitalieres, 
ie Hotel Dieu, The first Pontifical Mass is 
ioned in the Jesuits' Journal to have been per- 
id on the 29th June : doubtless in their own 
ch, which then served as the Paroisse. Quebec 
not, however, erected formally into a Bishops' 
until 1670, owing to some difficulties which 
. It was to hold of the Pope, but to be attaeh- 
> the Archbishopric of Rouen. In order to 
)rt the See, the King conferred upon it the 
Lues of the Abbey of Maubec ; which in the 
of Monseigneur de St, Vallier, the second 
>p, were augmented by those of the Abbey of 
vent. The Bishop was entitled to the second 
n the Council, or that next to the Governor, 
chapter originally was composed of the Dean, 
d Precentor, Grand Archdeacon, a Theologal, 
welve Canons. This establishment was, how- 
afterwards reduced, for want of sufficient reve- 
The Bulls, and other necessary and expensive 
ilities for installing the new Bishop were still to 
tained, and they required his presence in France; 
it it was not until 1674, that the King's Letters 
it were finally issued, and the See was officially 
tuted. This excellent prelate finding, in 1684, 
is strength was not equal to the fatigues of his 


Diocese, repaired to France ; and obtained the Kino's 
permission to retire. He was succeeded by the Abb6 
De St. Valuer, who came out in 1685, and was after* 
wards consecrated second Bishop. Bishop Ds Laval* 
as stated above, retired to his foundation of the Send* 
nary, where he lived respected and beloved until hk 
death in 1708, at an advanced age. To the second 
Bishop of Quebec, the city was also indebted ft* 
the establishment of the General Hospital, where he 
himself resided, having let the Episcopal Palace fill 
the benefit of the poor. 

The French Cathedral occupies the south side 
of the market square in the Upper Town, and im- 
mediately adjoins the Seminary. It is distinguished 
rather for its solidity and neatness, than for splendor 
or regularity of architecture. The aisles, considera- 
bly lower than the nave of the Church — and the lofty 
tower and spire built without, and separated from 
it on the south side — in the manner of the round 
towers which are seen near the old Churches in 
Ireland and in other countries, — destroy all external 
symmetry, yet do not detract from the religious ap- 
pearance of the pile. The Cathedral within is very 
lofty, with massive arches of stone dividing the nave 
from the aisles, above which is a gallery on each side 
running the whole length of the interior. It is de- 
scribed by Colonel Bouchette, in his statistical work, 
as two hundred and sixteen feet in length, by one 
hundred and eight in breadth, It is able to contain 
a congregation of about four thousand persons. At 
the east end are the grand Altar and Choir, superbly 
decorated. There are also four small Chapels in the 
aisles, dedicated to different Saints. In a transverse 
gallery at the west end is the Organ, which though 

With historical recollections. 2527 

>, ui by no means so powerful in tone as that in 

English Cathedral. 

Fhe Church suffered severely during the bom- 
dment prior to the battle of the Plains, in 1759. 
an old print extant, it is represented as almost in 
is, having been set on fire by shells discharged 
En Pointe Levi. The consequence was, that the 
s pictures and other ancient ornaments of the 
khedral were mutilated, or entirely destroyed. 
ose which are now seen upon the walls were 
ced there when the building was renovated, after 

cession of the Province to Great Britain. 
Within the Choir, a little to the right of the Altar, 
, marble tablet with the following inscription to 
memory of the late Bishop, Monseigneur Plessis, 
y is freshly remembered for his piety and virtue : 

D. O. Iff. 

Hie Jacet, 

Ulust : et Rev : J. O. Plessis, 

Episcopus Quebecensis. 

Ingenio perspicaci, 

Singulari in rebus agendis peritia, 

Constant! tuendse disciplinse studio, 

Mnltisque dotibus aliis ornatum praeclaris 

Vix parens reperias. 

Eximia pietate, zelo, summa prucLentia 

Ac doctrina, necnon eloquentiae gravitate, 

Canadensi, per quatuor lustra, praefuit ecclesia?. 

Scientiarum studiis honorem, 

Patrin decus, religion! splendorem 


Magna raoliri, ardua vincere, 

Consiliis adversa suis patienter sustinere 

Ipsi praeclara laus fait. 

Quera iter trans mare aggredientem, 

Quo bonis amplioribus affluerent oves dilectae, 

Anxia viderat, 


Roma redocem post 13 menses, et votis redditom, 

Tota ci vitas exultans recepit. 

Plurimisque ma^nis rebus gestis, majora meditates, 

Vita? laboris et gloriae 

Cursum con fecit, 

Anno rep. sal. MDCCCXXV. prid. Non. Decemb. 

Aetatis suae LXIII. 

Hie ora, Lector, 
Ubi vivens orabat. 

The Roman Catholic Church of the Co 
gregation stands on the hill leading from t 
Esplanade to St John's-Gate. It is not of ancic 
construction, and perfectly plain in its interior, '. 
spire is seen immediately above the ramparts. 

The Roman Catholic Church of St. Roci 
is the place of worship frequented by the inhabita 
of that populous suburb. It is also a modern edif 
of very spacious dimensions, with a spire ; and 
situated in an open space, fronting towards 1 
Vacherie* or former possessions of the Jesuits. Il 
well finished within, and has several paintings, 
the Sacristy are portraits of Pope Pius VII, and 
Bishop Plessis, a great benefactor to this Chun 
The ground on which this Church is built was giv 
by the Honorable John Mure. 

The Church of Notre Dame des Victoires is t 
only one in the Lower Town belonging to the Fren 
inhabitants. It stands in the square, or mark 
place, plain and substantial within and without ; a; 
possesses claims to antiquity, having been built ai 
used as a Church previously to 1690. In that ye 
amid the joy caused by the defeat of Sir Willia 
Phipps, in his attempt to capture the Town, the Ft 
of Notre Dame de la Victoire was established, to 1 
annually celebrated in this Church on the 7th Oct 


-that being the day on which the first intelligence 
e coming of the English was received. On that 
ion, it is stated that M. De La Colombiere, the 
ideacon, preached an eloquent discourse. After 
ihipwreck of the English fleet in 1711, which 
considered by the inhabitants as a second victory, 
ittle less than a miraculous interposition in their 
■, this Church received the name of Notre 
le des Vicioires, in order to commemorate both 
lions at the same time. The same preacher, M. 
La Colombiere, is stated in our French manu- 
t to have again delivered a most eloquent ser- 
, " which was listened to by the auditors with 
iports of joy." 

his Church was also destroyed by the fire from 
Pointe Llvi batteries in 1759. It is said that 
retained at that time a picture representing a 
■in flames, with an inscription stating " that in 
year 1711, when Quebec was menaced with a 
s by Admiral Walker and General Hill, one of 
Relig&uses prognosticated that the Church and 
Lower Town would be destroyed by the British 
^ration before the year 1760." We know 
r this tradition may be founded on fact ; 
d seem that the inscription, in those terms, 
t been placed upon the picture after the 
was accomplished. The story is, however, 
e been well attested, and to have made 
lilt impression on the minds of the people 
Uur French manuscript mentions the 
t the defeat of the attempt in 
a allusion to the supposed pro- 



It has been stated that the Convent, Church and 
Garden of the Uecollet Fathers occupied the site 
in the front of the Castle of St. Lewis, as far as 
the Ursuline Convent in the rear, and contained 
within St. Lewis, St. Anne and Garden Streets. 
After the burning of the Church and Convent in 
1796, the buildings were razed to the foundation] 
on the extinction of the order, and the ground ap- 
propriated as a site for the new English Cathedral. 
The Court House is also built on part of the 
ground. The area in the centre of the Place rf Amies 
was not always so large. Until a few years ago the 
foundations of the Recollet Church were to be traced 
upon the rocky surface, several yards in advance of 
the present boundary on the western side. On le- 
velling these foundations, and the rock on which they 
stood, two plates were found, the inscriptions on which 
were given in the account of the Recollet Church. 
In the month of July, 1834, on sinking one of the 
posts which surround the area of the Place cTArmes, 
some human bones were discovered very near the 
surface. As, from their situation, they "must have 
been outside the Convent, it may be fairly supposed 
that they were the remains of one of the Aborigines, 
buried there before the coming of the French. 

The English Cathedral was built by the bounty of 
Government, upon the representations of the first 
Bishop of Quebec, and consecrated in 1804. It is an 
edifice of regular architecture and very respectable 
appearance, standing in a spacious area, handsomely 
enclosed by iron rails and gates, and planted with 
trees. Its exterior length is 135 feet, its breadth 


73; the height of the spire above the ground, 152; 
from the floor to the centre of the arch within, 41. 
The communion plate of this Church is very mag- 
nificent, and persons in London went to see it while 
making in the hands of Rundell and Bridge. This 
plate, together with the altar cloth, hangings of 
the desk and pulpit, which are of crimson velvet 
and cloth of gold, and books for divine service, was 
% private present from King George the Third. A 
£Ood peal of eight bells, of which the tenor bell is 
about 16 cwt, was procured some few years ago, 
by the subscriptions of the congregation. The 
Church has an excellent organ and a regular Cathe- 
Iral choir, but no Dean and Chapter. It serves also 
is the Parish Church, until such an edifice shall be 
erected, with a reservation in favor of the Episcopal 
rights. Near the altar is an elegant font of white 

Two new galleries have been recently constructed 
In the Cathedral, thrown back on each side of the 
argan, for the accommodation, respectively, of the 
children attending the male and female National 
Schools — the front of each is allotted to the orphans 
of the Asylums, in their distinctive dresses. 


A beautiful monument, to the memory of the late 
Bishop of Quebec, the Right Reverend Jacob 
Mountain, D. D., has lately been erected in the Ca- 
thedral Church, within the rails of the communion- 
table, immediately over the spot where his mortal 
remains are deposited, occupying the lower part of 
the space of which the remainder is appropriated to 
the second table of the commandments. 


The dimensions of this monument are eight feet 
by six, and its weight exceeds two tons. The work, 
which is executed by Nicholls, is of white marble, 
upon a marble ground, finished off in a semi-circular 
form at the top. The execution is very superior, 
the whole effect extremely striking, and the likeness 
of the Bishop most satisfactory, — although the friends 
who remember him in this country, where the nature 
of the climate induced him to dispense with the wig, 
regret that the head is not represented with his own 
venerable hair. The principal object is his bust in 
the episcopal dress, the whole head inclining forward 
and standing out entire, from the shoulders upward. 
The bust rests upon a pedestal on which the arms, 
surmounted by the mitre, are carved, and below, the 
inscription is engraved. On the other, a full length 
figure of Religion, clasping a bible to her breast, with 
the emblematical appendages of the cross and the 
crosier, or pastoral staff. 

The monument forms a conspicuous ornament of 
the church, and is a suitable memorial of the excellent 
prelate who was the first occupier of the see, and 
procured the erection of the building itself. It is 
a circumstance, however, which ought not to be left 
unnoticed, that, upon his demise, a desire was ex- 
pressed by his clergy, and formed the subject of very 
gratifying communications which passed among them, 
to combine in paying a tribute of this nature them- 
selves to his memory, if not rendered unneces- 
sary by the proceeding which might be adopted by 
the family. The inscription is as follows, and we 
are sure that it will be regarded as simple and mo- 
dest : — 


Hie Jacet 

Vir ad mod am reverend us 

Jacob Mountain, S. T. P. 

Episcopus Quebeceosis, 

Ecclesiae Anglicana?, 

in Canadis fundator, 

Qui obiit A. S. MDCCCXXV. 

-fitatis su» LXXV, 

Episcopatus XXXIII ; 

Praesul in divino munere obeundo, 

Promptus, fidelis, indefessus ; 

in memoriam 

viri egregi\, 

et sibi carissimi, 

hoc marmor 

conjux et liberi 


P. C. 

The remains of Charles Lennox, Duke of 
Richmond, Lennox, and Aubigny, Governor 
General of these Provinces, are interred beneath 
the altar. He died, supporting to the last the tor- 
ments of hydrophobia with undaunted constancy, on 
the fc 28th day of August, 1819. No monument has 
yet been erected to his memory, although no man 
died more universally beloved. 

The following are the inscriptions upon the other 
monuments : — 

Sacred to the Memory 

of Lieutenant General Peter Hunter, 

LieutenantGovernor of UpperCanada and Commander-in-Chief 

of his Majesty's forces in both the Canadas, 

who died at Quebec, on the 2 1st August, 1805, 

aged 59 years. 

U 2 


His life was spent in the service of his King and country. 
Of the various stations, both civil and military, wbicb he filled, 
He discharged the duties with spotless integrity, 
unwearied zeal, and successful abilities. 

This memorial to a beloved brother, whose 

mortal part rests in the adjacent place of burial, 

Is erected by John Hunter, M. D. of London. 

In memory of Thomas Dunn, Esq. of Durham, in England, 
who departed this life on the 15th April, A. D. 1818. 
In the 88th year of his age. 
During his long residence in this country, 
where he established himself soon after the conquest, 
He held several important situations under Government: 
He was one of the original Members of the Legislative 
and Executive Councils, 
In which last capacity, during two different vacant intervals, 
He administered the Government of the Province. 
His known integrity and goodness 
procured him the confidence and respect of the community ; 
And he was eminently possessed of those private qualities 
Which cause men to be beloved during life, and lamented 

in death. 

"blessed are the dead 
"which die in the lord." 

Sacred to the Memory of 
The Honble. Carleton Thomas Monckton, 
Fifth son of Robert Arundel, fourth Viscount Galway, 
By his wife Elizabeth, daughter of Daniel Matthew, Esquire, 

of Felix Hall, Essex, 
And great nephew of the Honble. BrigadierGeneral Monckton, 
who succeeded to the command of the British army 
Upon the death of General Wolfe, at the splendid victory 



chieved on the heights of Abraham, 13th Sept-, A. D. 1759. 

At the age of fifteen he entered the army and served in Spain, 

And at the Battle of Waterloo was a Lieutenant 

in the 16th Regt. of Light Dragoons. 

He some years afterwards became a Captain 

q the 24th Regt. of Infantry, which he accompanied to Canada, 

and died after a short illness at Quebec, on the 10th May, 

A. D. 1830, 

In the 34th year of his age, beloved by his brother Officers, 

and sincerely lamented by all who knew him. 

This tablet was erected by his sorrowing brothers and sisters, 

as a testimony of their fond affection to one 

most justly dear to them, 

and in the humble hope that, through faith in Christ Jesus, 

the only Saviour, they, together with him, 

may be blessed as are those that die in the Lord. 

Sacred to the Memory 


Captain Thomas Impett, 

late of the 32nd Regiment, 

who died at Quebec 

on the 15th February, 1833, 

aged 40 years and 5 months. 

This monument was erected by his 
Brother Officers, as a token of their esteem and regard. 

The dignitaries of the Church of England are : 
The Honorable and Right Reverend Father in God, 
Charles James Stewart, Lord Bishop of Que- 
iec, attached to the Province of Canterbury, 
ounger brother of the Earl of Galloway: — and the 
ery Reverend George Jehosaphat Mountain, 
). D,, Archdeacon of Quebec, son of the first 
Bishop of the diocese. 


There are four Chapels of the Church of England 
within the Parish of Quebec. The principal of these 
is that of the Holy Trinity, in St. Stanislaus Street, 
Upper Town, which is a private chapel, built by Chief 
Justice Sewell in 1824, at the suggestion of the late 
Bishop of Quebec, to provide for the increase in the 
Cathedral congregation. It is a handsome building, 
with a front of cut stone, in length 74 feet, in breadth 
48 — it has an organ, and is calculated to hold 700 
persons. The officiating Clergyman is the Reverend 
Edmund Willoughby Sewell. 

The other three chapels, which are small and with- 
out any kind of architectural pretensions, are St. 
Matthew's, or the Free Chapel, in St. John's Sub- 
urbs, fitted up, as it now exists, in 1828, where the 
services and the accommodation are altogether gra- 
tuitous: — St. Paul's, or the Mariner's Chapel, at the 
base of Cape Diamond, close to the place called 
UAnse des Mires, built of wood, (over a school 
house of stone, connected with the institution,) con- 
secrated in 1832, and served without additional salary 
by the evening lecturer of the Cathedral ; — and St. 
Peter's, or the French Protestant Chapel, now fitting 
up in the Suburb of St. Roch, in the upper part of 
a building recently purchased for a Male Orphan 
Asylum. It is called the French Protestant Chapel, 
because it is in part designed to provide a service for 
Guernsey and Jersey families resident in Quebec, 
some of whom are imperfectly acquainted with the 
English tongue. The orphans, who will be accom- 
modated below, are at the charge of the Rector and 
Church Wardens of the Parish, and their mainten- 
ance is defrayed out of the collections made weekly 
in the Cathedral, which also provide for several 


charitable objects. The interior economy of 
astitution is confided to a Committee of ladies, 
e Female Orphans before mentioned occupy 
)oms over the two school rooms, in the National 
)l house, a building in the plain Gothic style, . 
St. John's-Gate, within the walls. Both the 
lal fitting up of the rooms for the Female Or- 

Asylum, and the maintenance of the inmates 
been solely provided for by means of the annual 
jut held by the ladies composing the Committee 
3 National School, who also assisted, from their 
Bazaar, many other charities in the place. 


is believed that a regularly ordained Clergyman 
5 Church of Scotland has officiated to the Pres- 
ians of that persuasion in Quebec, ever since 
on quest in the year 1759 ; but it is certain that 
apartment was assigned by the King's repre- 
tive in the Jesuits' College, as a place of worship 
le members of the Scotch Church," previous 
e year 1767, and occupied as such without 
ruption, until the 6th October, 1807: when 
lei Isaac Brock, Commandant, (His Honor the 
dent having declined to interfere in the matter,) 
ssted the congregation to be prepared to remove 
;e " on the shortest notice," as it was found ne- 
ry to appropriate it to the accommodation of 

l the 3rd November, 1807, the Governor-in- 
f commanded his Secretary to address a letter 
e Clerks of the Peace, of which the following is 
ctract : 


" The Governor~in-Chief having found it neces- 
sary to appropriate to military purposes the room in 
the Jesuits' Barracks, which has hitherto been made 
use of by the Presbyterian congregation at Quebec^ 
as a place of worship, I have it in command from Hit 
Excellency to desire, that, till a more permanent 
provision for their accommodation can be made, yon • 
will allow the said congregation to assemble on the \ 
Sundays in the lower room of the Court House, in < 
which the Justices of the Peace hold their Sittings.* 

On the 30th November, 1808, letters patent 
were issued by His Excellency Sir James Henry 
Craig, Knight of the Most Honorable Order of the 
Bath, granting, as a place for the erection of a Church 
for the public worship or exercise of the religion of 
the Church of Scotland, a certain lot or piece of 
ground in St Anne's Street, Upper Town, unto 
Alexander Spark, John Blackwood, John Mure, 
David Munro, and John Paterson, and their succes- 
sors, in trust for ever. 

In the month of February, 1809, the Committee 
appointed by the congregation to solicit subscriptions, 
reported that the sum of £1547, currency, had been 
subscribed, and such farther subscriptions expected, 
that they considered themselves authorized to contract 
for the building of a Church on their lot, sixty feet by 
forty, inside the walls — which, being finished, was 
consecrated and set apart by the name of Saint 
Andrew's Church, for the ordinances of christian 
worship, on the 30th November, 1810, by the late 
Rev. Dr. Spark. 

Dr. Spark died suddenly on the 7th March, 
1819. The Rev. Dr. Harkness, the present incum- 
bent, was ordained as his successor by the Presbytery 
of Ayr in Scotland, on the 7th March, 1820, and 


died for the first time to the congregation on 
Ith June following. 

the year 1821, the Church being found far from 
uate to the accommodation of its members, a 
ion was presented by the Trustees to His Ex- 
ncy the Earl of Dalhousie, for an additional space 
ound to enable them to enlarge it — with which 
Excellency was graciously pleased to comply, 
Uso to grant an aid of £300 currency, out of the 
es arising from the Jesuits' Estates, besides ge- 
usly subscribing £50 currency, towards carrying 
ame into effect. 

he enlargement was completed in May, 1824, 
with the exception of the above mentioned sums, 
the congregation by voluntary subscription near- 
2300 currency. The Church, as it now stands, 
* feet by 48 inside the walls, and can accommo- 

1300 sitters. The number of communicants 
eds 300 : upwards of 260 individuals received 
Sacrament of the Lord's Supper in the Church, 
le 2d day of March last. 

le Trustees are incorporated by an Act of the 
incial Parliament, which was assented to by His 
?sty in Council, on the 31st January, 1831, 
the royal assent thereto was signified by the 
[amation of His Excellency the Governor-in- 
f, on the 29th April, 1831. 

school, in connection with the Church, was 
ted by the Trustees in the year 1831, who re- 
*d in aid of the building, the liberal sum of £400 
ency, from the Provincial Legislature. The 
ol is under the management and direction of six 
ibers of the Church, chosen annually by ballot 
k general meeting of the congregation, held on 
first Sunday in the month of May, in the Church 


immediately after divine service in the forenoon, 
when a report of the proceedings of the Committee 
for the previous twelve months is furnished by the 
Secretary. The number of scholars now in atten- 
dance is 112. The present teachers are Mr. Seaton, 
and his assistant, Mr. Laurie. 

There is also a Sunday School in connexion witk 
the Church, which meets every Sunday at half-part 
9 o'clock, and is numerously attended. 

The late Dr. Spark had an allowance from Go- 
vernment of £50 sterling per annum, which has been 
continued to his successor. This is the only pro* 
vision as yet made by Government for the Clergy 
of the Church of Scotland in Lower Canada, with 
the exception of a similar sum allowed annually to 
the Senior Clergyman of Saint Gabriel's Church, 
Montreal, although the Presbytery of Quebec con- 
sists, at present, of twelve regularly ordained Cler* 
gymen of the Church of Scotland. 

In 1830, the congregation of Saint John's Church, 
(previously an independent or congregational Cha- 
pel,) professing themselves to be willing to con- 
form to the doctrine, discipline and laws of the 
Church of Scotland, made application to the Glasgow 
Colonial Society for Missionary purposes, to send 
them out a regularly ordained Clergyman to be their 
Pastor, and in consequence, the Rev. Mr. Clugston 
was ordained to that Church by the Presbytery of 
Forfar in Scotland. The present number of com- 
municants is from 120 to 130, 

st. John's church. 

This building stands in St. Francis Street, and is 
without ornament. It was erected in the year 1816, 


and up to the year 1830, it had been occupied as a 
flace of worship by Congregationalism. It is now, 
jnd has been since the date last specified, a place of 
worship in connexion with the Church of Scotland, 
and is named St. John's Church. The Minister and 
Trustees of St John's Church were incorporated 
by Act of Parliament in the year 1831. 

st. Patrick's church* 

The Irish Catholics of Quebec, finding by the 
rapid increase of their number, that they could no 
longer conveniently assemble for public worship in 
the small Church of the Lower Town, came to the 
spirited determination of building a Church on an 
extensive scale, which would afford accommodation to 
all the Catholics of the City and Suburbs, using the 
English language. To effect this, they called a ge- 
neral meeting of all the members of their body, and 
mmediately opened a subscription, which to the ever- 
asting honor of their fellow citizens of every deno- 
nination, met with the strongest marks of public 
ipprobation, evinced by the gratifying circumstance, 
hat many of the most generous subscribers to the 
indertaking were Protestants. 

In the fall of 1831, a spacious lot of ground in rear 
>f Palace Street was purchased for the sum of 
£2,300 ; and in the month of June following, the cor- 
ner-stone of St. Patrick's Church was laid with the 
usual ceremony. This circumstance took place just 
at the ever memorable time when that dreadful 
scourge, the Cholera Morbus, first burst upon the 
inhabitants of Quebec. The spirit and zeal of the 
Congregation on this trying occasion are beyond all 



praise, for their persevering magnanimity in prose- 
cuting the undertaking through all the unforeseen 
difficulties which arose out of the panic created in 
the public mind by that desolating pestilence— w 
that in the short space of twelve months the building 
was ready for dedication, which ceremony took place 
on the first Sunday in July, 1833, amid the hearty 
rejoicings and thanksgivings of a generous people. 

St. Patrick's Church is a fine substantial stone 
building, covering an area of 136 feet by 62. It 
fronts St. Helen Street, and is entered by three well 
moulded doors, the largest of which is in the tower, 
the other two in the side aisles, besides the two en- 
trances to the east and west It is lighted on each 
side by a double tier of windows well made and in 
admirable proportion. The roof and galleries are 
supported by massive pillars with bases and capital* 
The ceiling is to be 48 feet high, richly embossed 1 
and ornamented with scriptural emblems. The 
steeple is handsome and well proportioned, and stands 
120 feet from the ground to the ball which supports 
the cross. There are very extensive and mag- 
nificent galleries round the inside, terminating over 
the Sanctuary, furnished with a triple range of ele- 
gant pews, which, with those of the ground flat, are 
calculated to accommodate an immense congrega- 

The interior of this Church when finished, com- 
prising pillars, columns, arches, ceilings, the grand 
variegated altar, tabernacle and canopy, the adorned 
Sanctuary, the flank and end windows, organ, &c. 
with all their varied tracery, will present a coup (Fail, 
to strike the beholder with religious awe and admira- 


'here is attached to this Church, under the patro- 
e of the Pastor, the Rev. Mr, McMahon, a 
istian Doctrine Society, whose duty it is to in- 
ct the youth of the congregation in the principles 
duties of their religion. The members of this 
iety have founded a circulating library, consisting 
iligious and moral works, for the benefit of the 
;regation, a circumstance highly creditable to the 
and public spirit of the Irish Catholics of Que- 


he Wesleyan Methodists have a Chapel situated 
t. Anne Street in the Upper Town. This build- 
svas erected in 1816, and is, both in the exterior 
interior, extremely plain. The congregation is 
rally as large as can be comfortably accommo- 
d ; and it has been in contemplation to remove 
present, and erect a larger edifice in the same 

hey have also a smaller Chapel in Champlain 
et in the Lower Town. This was built in 1830, 

was intended to afford the means of grace to 
of the sailors who visit this port during the 
oner, as were disposed to attend divine worship, 
here are two Sabbath Schools connected with 
3 Chapels ; and the number of children attending 
, with the attention they give to the instruction 

which they are furnished, afford much encou- 
ment to those by whom they are conducted. 





Next to that of the Governor General, the 
office of Intendant was of the greatest importance 
and celebrity in Quebec. It was established by the 
Proclamation of the King of France, in 166% 
erecting the Sovereign Council for the affairs of the 
Colony ; which consisted of the Governor General, 
the Bishop, the Intendant, four Councillors, to be 
named by the preceding, with an Attorney General 
and chief Clerk. The number of Councillors was 
afterwards encreased to twelve. 

The authority of the Intendant was, indeed, little 
inferior to that of the Governor, except in being 
judicial, not executive. He had the superintendance 
of four departments ; namely, of Justice, Police, 
Finance and Marine. The Intendant was declar- 
ed to be President of the Sovereign Council, leaving, 
however, the first place to the Governor, and the 
/ second to the Bishop. This caused great displea- 
sure to the Governor, on whose continued repre- 
sentations it was afterwards ordered, in 1680, that 
the Governor and Intendant should assume no 
other quality in the Council than that of their re- 


pective offices. La Potherie, who visited Quebec 
a 1698, says, that the Governor was then merely an 
xmorary Councillor. He sat at the upper end of a 
ound table, meaning most probably at the part 
arthest removed from the door. The Bishop sat on 
lis right, also an honorary Councillor, and the 
Intendant on the left. The latter performed the 
office of President, although he had not the title* 
Fhe Councillors themselves were seated according to 
seniority, and all wore their swords. The Inten- 
dant collected the votes, beginning with the junior 
Councillor, and finishing with the Governor Ge- 
neral. He then gave his own opinion, and pro- 
lounced the judgment of the Council. In Le Beau's 
ime, who visited Quebec in 1729, the arrangement 
f the seats was somewhat different. The Council- 
>rs were then twelve in number, nearly all merchants 
f the Lower Town. " The Intendant," he says, 
claimed the right of presiding in the Council ; but 
le Governor General took his seat in the Hall 
f Justice, in such a situation as to be opposite the 
attendant, with the Councillors, or Judges, arranged 
i either side : so that they both seemed to preside 
i an equal degree." The Intendant named 
riginally by the King was M. Robert, whose com- 
tission was dated 21st March, 1663. This gentle- 
lan, however, never arrived in Quebec ; and the 
rst Intendant was M. De Talon, who arrived in 
665, with the Marquis DeTracy, and the Carignan 
legiment. Of this gentleman the most honorable 
lention is made in the annals of the country. The 
allowing anecdote has been handed down, of his first 
rrival in Quebec Previous to his leaving France, 
le Superior of the Hotel Dieu had written to him, 
'commending that Community to his protection. 

x 2 


On the next day after his arrival, with the true gal- 
lantry of a French gentleman, he determined to 
assure her in person of his good wishes, but first put 
in practice a little ruse, which, as the story runs, 
redounded, in the denouement, both to his own and 
to the credit of the Superior. Coming to the Nun- 
nery, without equipage and plainly dressed, be 
requested to speak with the Superior, without giving 
any name. The Superior approached, accompanied 
by a Nun, the Mother Marie de la Nativite, — when 
assuming the character of his own gentleman or 
valet, he assured them in the most polite and well 
conceived terms of the respect and interest which 
M. De Talon had always felt towards their Commu- 
nity, and promised on his part that nothing should be 
wanting to promote their welfare. As he spoke 
admirably, with great confidence and earnestness 
of manner, the other Nun, who was a person of saga- 
city, making a sign to the Superior, replied, that she 
was not deceived in believing him to be of higher 
rank than that which he chose to assume. On M. De 
Talon's requesting to be informed, what there was 
about him to induce her to entertain such an opinion, 
the clever Nun made answer, that there was that 
in his language and appearance which convinced her 
that she had the honor of speaking to the Intendant 
himself. On this he acknowledged his attempt at 
dissimulation, and his great satisfaction at receiving 
so elegant and so obliging a compliment. It may be 
imagined that the result of this interview was a last- 
ing friendship between the Intendant and the Com- 
munity. He was mainly instrumental some years 
afterwards, in rebuilding the Hotel Dieu on a more 
extended scale, as described in our account of that 


tfablishment ; and was besides distinguished for 
is liberality on many other occasions. 


Immediately through Palace-Gate, turning to- 
wards the left, and in front of the Ordnance buildings 
ad storehouses, once stood an edifice of great extent, 
urrounded by a spacious garden looking towards the 
Uver St Charles, and as to its interior decorations, 
ir more splendid than even the Castle of St Lewis, 
t was the Palace of the Intendant, so called, because 
ie sittings of the Sovereign Council were held there, 
(iter the establishment of the Royal Government 
i New France. A small district adjoining is still 
ailed, Le Palais, by the old inhabitants, and the 
ame of the Gate, and of the well proportioned street 
rhich leads to it, are derived from the same origin. 

The Intendant's Palace was described by La Po- 
lerie, in 1698, as consisting of eighty toises, or 
>ur hundred and eighty feet, of buildings, so that it 
Dpeared a little town in itself. The King's stores 
ere kept there. Its situation does not at the pre- 
;nt time appear advantageous, but the aspect of the 
iver St Charles was widely different in those days. 
he property in the neighborhood belonged to the 
rovernment, or to the Jesuits — large meadows and 
3wery parterres adorned the banks of the river, and 
cached the base of the rock ; and as late as the time 
• Charlevoix, in 1720, that quarter of the city is 
token of as being the most beautiful. The en- 
ance was into a court, through a large gateway, the 
ling of which, in St. Vallier Street, still remain, 
'he buildings formed nearly a square — in front of 


the river were spacious gardens, and on the sides 
the King's store houses. Beyond the Palace, to- 
wards the west, were the pleasing grounds of the 
Jesuits, and of die General Hospital, 

This building, like most of the public establish- 
ments of Quebec, went through the ordeal of fire, 
and was afterwards rebuilt with greater attention to 
comfort and embellishment. In September, 171% 
M. Begon arrived as Intendant, with a splendid 
equipage, rich furniture, plate and apparel befitting 
his rank. He was accompanied by his wife, a young 
lady lately married, whose valuable jewels were the 
general admiration. A fire, which it was found im- 
possible to extinguish, broke out in the night of the 
5th January, 1713 ; and burned so rapidly, that the 
Intendant and his lady with difficulty escaped in their 
robes de chambre. The latter was obliged to break 
the panes of glass in her apartment, before she had 
power to breathe, so as to attempt her escape through 
the smoke with which the passages were filled. Two 
young French women, who attended Madame Begon, 
perished in the flames — the Intendant's valet anxious 
to save some of his master's clothes, ventured impru- 
dently within the burning chambers, and was con- 
sumed by the flames — his secretary, desirous of 
rescuing some valuables, passed several times through 
the gardens towards the river in front of the house, 
without shoes, and was frozen. He died in the Hotel 
Dieu, a few days afterwards. The loss of the Inten- 
dant was stated at forty thousand crowns : his lady 
lost her jewels and rich dresses. Such, however, 
were the resources of M. Begon, that he is said to 
have lived with as much state in the Bishop's Palace, 
where he established himself, as he had maintained 
before the fire. On this occasion, the papers and 


cords of the Treasury were lost, as well as the regis- 
re of the Council, and other valuable documents 
rlonging to the King op France, The Palace 
is afterwards rebuilt in a splendid style by M. 
boon at the Kino's expense. The following is its 
gcription, given by Charlevoix, in 1720, a few 
an afterwards ; " The Intendant's house is called 
e Palace, because the Superior Council assembles 
it This is a large pavilion, the two extremities of 
kich project some feet ; and to which you ascend 
r a double flight of stairs. The garden front which 
ees the little river, which is very nearly on a level 
th it, is much more agreeable than that by which 
u enter. The King's magazines face the court on 
5 right side, and behind that is the prison. The 
te by which you enter is hid by the mountain on 
ich the Upper Town stands, and which on this 
e affords no prospect, except that of a steep rock, 
fremely disagreeable to the sight. It was still 
rse before the fire, which reduced some years ago 
i whole Palace to ashes ; it having at that time no 
er court, and the buildings then facing the street 
ich was very narrow. As you go along this street, 
to speak more properly, this road, you come first 
ill into the country." 

Fhe Intendant's Palace was neglected as a place 
official residence after the conquest in 1759. 
1775, it was occupied by a detachment of the 
lerican invading army, and destroyed by the fire 
the Garrison. The only remains at present are 
rivate house, the gateway alluded to above, and 
eral stores belonging to Government, formed by 
airing some of the old French buildings. The 
trie is now known by the name of the King's wood- 



This is one of the ancient buildings of Quebec* 
having been erected soon after the establishment 
of the See ; and possesses a degree of historical 
interest, standing on, probably, the first cleared 
land in this part of the continent. Nothing contt 
be more beautiful than the site chosen. It is at the 
south-eastern extremity of the grand battery, be* 
tween it and the descent into the Lower Town bf. '■) 
Mountain Street It is believed that here was toe 
first clearance made by Champlain, who commenced : 
his labors at the end of St George Street, near the 
stone store of the Ordnance department, and continue 
ed them as far as the Recollet Convent and the Plact \ 
(FArmes. He' built his first Fort nearly on the site 
of the Bishop's Palace. It was afterwards, as has 
been mentioned in another place, removed to a more 
commanding position, that of the Castle of St. 

The Bishop's Palace commands an extensive 
prospect towards the north, with a delightful view of 
the basin, and of Pointe Levi. The garden was for- n 
merly inclosed, reaching to the brow of the precipice \ 
called the Sault-au-Matelot. It was divided from .j 
that of the Seminary by a wall, as at present ; and ■< 
another wall ran along the ascent from the Lower < 
Town. A gateway, which was nearly opposite the % 
rear of Mr. Clouet's house, gave admittance to the ^ 
Eveche, or the official residence of the Bishop, to 
which it has been customary to apply the title of 

It was originally intended that the Bishop's Pa- 
lace should make in figure an oblong square, the 



fourth side bounded by a wall fronting the ascent from 
Mountain Street The Chapel, left centre, and one 
wing towards the south-west were, however, the only 
buildings that were finished. With the exception of 
the Chapel, which was lately pulled down to make 
way for the loftier fa fade of the new House of As- 
iembly, these buildings remain as they were originally 
finished. They are of cut stone ; and although the 
Palace was little more than half executed on the 
original plan, it must have been, even so, an elegant, 
ipadous and not unworthy residence for the Bishops 
Of New France. The first Prelates, however, do 
not appear to have made much use of this habitation. 
Bishop De Laval retired to the Seminary, and 
Bishop De St. Vallier to the General Hospital. 
In 1713, it was occupied by the Intendant, M. 
Begon, after the destruction of his house by fire. 

La Potherie, after giving an accurate descrip- 
tion of the Palace as it appeared then, says : " There 
are few Episcopal Palaces in France which would 
equal this in beauty, if it were finished. All the 
Cures from the country Parishes, who have business 
in the city, are here accommodated with lodgings, 
and generally dine with the Bishop, who is almost 
constantly in the Refectory." Charlevoix mentions: 
w In the Episcopal Palace there is nothing finished 
but the Chapel, and one half of the building project- 
ed by the plan, according to which it is to be an 
oblong square. If ever completed, it will be a mag- 
nificent edifice. The garden extends to the brow of 
the rock, and commands the prospect of all the road." 

When its present Constitution was given to this 
Province, the Bishop's Palace was chosen as the 
place for the sittings of the Legislative Council 
rod Assembly. The Bishop received in lieu of it 


an annuity from the Imperial Government The 
Chapel of the Palace was fitted up as a Chamber 
for the Provincial Assembly. It was sixty-five feet 
long by thirty-six wide, and in this building the Ses- 
sions continued to be held, until it was removed to 
make way for the new edifice. 

The Legislative Council Chamber is at present 
in that part of the Bishop's Palace which im- 
mediately adjoins the new building ; commanding 
from the windows in the rear one of the most beautiful 
views imaginable. The Chamber is fitted up in an . 
appropriate manner. At the upper end is the 
Throne, from which His Excellency the Gover- J 
nor-in-Chief addresses the two other branches of I 
the Legislature, at the opening and close of the 
Session. It is of crimson and gold, surmounted by 
the Imperial Arms. On the right, is a full length 
picture of His Majesty George III., after Sir 
Joshua Reynolds : — on the left, one of His late Ma- 
jesty George IV., after Sir Thomas Lawrence, 
This building, together with the south-western wing, 
contains the Library, Speaker's Room, Committee 
Rooms, and Offices, belonging to the Legislative 
Council. In the vaulted rooms below, which are spa- 
cious and airy, receiving light from the east, are the 
offices of the Secretary of the Province. These 
formed once the Refectory of the Bishop's Palace, 
where the Prelate showed daily hospitality to the 
Cures, who came to visit him from the country pa- 

The reader is referred to the Plate representing 
Prescott-Gate. On the right he will find a south 
view of the Bishop's Palace, which has remained in 
the same state, with the exception of the loop-holed 
wall in front, since its first erection. 



The Plate on the opposite side represents the 
'arliament House, as finished, on the site of the 
hsHOP's Palace. The centre and north-western 
ring are only completed, so that the whole build- 
ng, including the old part, now for the first time 
las assumed the figure intended at the original 
oundation. The union of the old and the new parts 
f this building, while it speaks by contrast the great 
dvance of the Province in resources and population, 
orms an interesting link between its ancient and 
oodern history. The venerable Palace of the 
Bishops, neglected without, but useful and com- 
modious within, rears its modest front by the side of 
be massive fa fade of its less unpretending, but more 
urable successor ; affording a moral lesson of the 
ise and decay of buildings, of empires, of man him- 
elf, and of the mutability of all sublunary affairs. 

It has been stated that the sittings of the Provin- 
ial Assembly were held in the Bishop's Chapel 
ntil 1834. It will be remembered, that the House 
if Commons in England holds its sittings in what 
ras once the small Chapel of St. Stephen, West- 
iinster. The Bishop's Chapel stood upon the 
ite of the central part of the new Parliament 
louse, the facade of which is imposing from its 
trength and loftiness, and from the dome and spire 
nth which it is crowned. Four massive cut pillars 
upport a pediment, within which will be contained 
he " Imperial Arms of Great Britain," as repre- 
ented in our Plate, taken from the original design 
rith which we were favored. "Within the facade 
$ the new House of Assembly, a spacious Cham- 


ber, seventy-nine feet long by forty-six broad, and 
twenty-eight feet high from floor to ceiling. The 
interior is not yet finished, but it will, no doubt, be 
worthy of the building and of the Province, From 
the dome there is a splendid view of the picturesque 
scenery around, which is gained by ascending a stair- 
case until the spectator reaches a small gallery on 
the outside, and encircling the dome, at the base of 
the lantern. The whole building is solid and sub- 
stantial, being of cut stone. The remaining apart- 
ments are all for the use of the Assembly. The 
Wardrobe and Library are large and in due propor- 
tion : the passages and staircases wide and well ven- 
tilated. Every care has, in truth, been taken to 
meet the convenience of the Members, and to expe- 
dite the business of the Province. The centre of the 
New Parliament House was designed by Mr. 
Berlinguet, the wings by Mr. Baillarge\ The whole 
was built by Mr. Fortier, Master Mason ; and the 
sums voted by the Legislature to defray the expense 
amount to £16,000. 

It is to be hoped that no long time will elapse, ere 
the liberality of the Legislature shall have provided 
for the completion of the New Parliament House, 
as represented in the engTaving. But in order that 
the building should be seen' to advantage, it is 
highly necessary that the row of houses, which would 
seem to have intruded themselves between Freema- 
sons' Hall and the Seminary, should be removed by 
an Act of the Legislature, on a fair compensation. 
When these improvements are made, the Parlia- 
ment House will appear one of the finest buildings 
in North America. 



It has been stated that the Court House occu- 
pies part of the site once belonging to the Recollet 
Fathers, and forming the western side of the ancient 
Place d'Armes, immediately opposite to the Fort 
The Court House stands at the angle of St. Lewis 
Street and the Place d'Armes, to the south of the Eng- 
lish Cathedral. Its front is on the north side of St 
Lewis Street, looking towards the Commissariat Office 
across an open space, in which is a broad walk 
of stone flags. The edifice is built of grey stone, 
plain and substantial, standing within an area inclosed 
by an iron railing, and is one hundred and thirty-six- 
feet long, by forty-four feet broad. The roof, like 
that of most of the public buildings, is covered with 
tin. The approach from St. Lewis Street is by a dou- 
ble flight of stone steps, leading to an arcade, or ves- 
tibule ; from which are passages leading to the rooms 
below, and wide staircases to the Courts above. Im- 
mediately in front of the lower story, and facing the 
arcade, is the chamber in which the Court of Quar- 
ter Sessions is held. On the right are the Police 
Office, the Justices' Room, and Grand Jury Room. On 
the left, the Offices of the Prothonotary of the Court 
of King's Bench. On the upper floor is the Court 
of King's Bench, fitted up in an appropriate manner, 
with a gallery for spectators. Immediately behind 
the Bench, as in the , Quarter Sessions' Room, are 
the Imperial Arms. To the left of the Court of 
King's Bench are the Judges' Chambers, and 
the Court of Appeals ; and on the right, the 
Vice-Admiralty Office, the Sheriffs Office, and the 
Advocate's Wardrobe. The Court of Vice-Ad- 


miralty is generally held in the Quarter Sessions' 
Room. In the basement are kept the records of 
the Courts. 

Previous to the erection of the Court House, 
the Judges sat in the Jesuits' College. The Com- 
missioners appointed for the work, were the Honor- 
able Jonathan Sewell, now Chief Justice of the 
Province, John Mervin Nooth and Amable 
Berthelot Dartigny, Esquires. The Court 
House was finished in 1804, at an expense to the 
Province of £30,000. Though entirely void of orna- 
ment, it is, generally speaking, convenient, although 
the great encrease of the legal business of the Pro* 
vince seems to require greater accommodation as to 

the government offices. 

These Offices, several of which were formerly held 
in the lower apartments of the Bishop's Palace, and 
others in different parts of the Upper Town, are now 
for the most part united in a large building, which 
stands on the north side of the Place d'Armes, and 
adds considerably to its general appearance. It is a 
well proportioned and strongly built stone house, 
three stories high, eighty-six feet in length, and forty- 
four in breadth. It was built in 1803, by a joint- 
stock company, incorporated by an Act of the 
Provincial Parliament ; and was originally design- 
ed for a grand hotel for the reception of stranr 
gers visiting Quebec, under the title of the Union 
Hotel. This spirited undertaking did not, how- 
ever, answer the expectations of the projectors; and 
the property was subsequently offered at public 


, and purchased by His Honor the Chief Jus- 
:, who raised an additional story. It is rented 
i this gentleman by the Province, it having 
1 found most convenient to concentrate the 
es of Government as much as possible under 

roof. The following offices are at present 
t in this building : — The offices of the Civil 
retary of His Excellency the Governor-in- 
ef, and of the Assistant Secretary : — Of the 
cutive Council, the Commissioner of Crown 
ds, the Inspector General of Public Accounts, 

Surveyor General, the Royal Institution, the 
atant General of Militia, and the Hydrogra- 
al Office, under the superintendence of Captain 
field, R. N. 

►n the first floor, in front of the principal story, 
he rooms occupied, with permission of the Go- 
ment, by the Literary and Historical So- 
y of Quebec, founded, in 1824, by the Earl of 
.housie, Governor-in-Chief, and incorporated in 
). In the large room are their extensive collec- 
i of mineralogical and other specimens, admira- 
arranged and scientifically classed. In the 
ier one are held the meetings of the Society ; 
here, during the winter, are delivered their lec- 
i on classical and scientific subjects. 


has been mentioned that under the early French 
?rnment the public Prison was situated in rear 
e old Palace of the Intendant. Fifty years 
the vacant apartments of the Recollet Con- 
' were used as a place of temporary restraint for 

y 2 


prisoners, who had fallen under suspicion of treason- 
able practices ; but latterly, the common Jail was 
kept in part of the range of buildings which now 
adjoin the Artillery Barracks, at the east end. 

The present Jail was erected during the admhnV 
tration of Sir James Craig, and was first occupied 
in 1814. The cost, to the amount of £15000, was 
defrayed by a vote of the Legislature. It is one 
hundred and sixty feet in length, by sixty-eight feet 
in breadth. Behind it, in a separate building, is the 
House of Correction for females; and between the 
two is the court yard of the male prison, in part of 
which the inmates are allowed to take exercise under 
certain regulations. 

The situation of the Jail is advantageous as to 
elevation and airiness, being at the top of St Stanis- 
laus Street, in a line towards the north with tk 
Scottish Church. There are, however, strong ob- 
jections to its position in the heart of a populous 
city. Its interior is under the best regulations, and 
is remarkable for cleanliness and general salubrity. 
For some years past an useful society of gentlemen, 
among whom are numbered the heads of the Clergy, i 
have met, by permission of the Sheriff, in the Chapel !■ 
of the Jail, once a week, where any prisoner may 
state any peculiar hardship that may attach to his 
case. It is called the " Quebec Jail Association," 
and its objects are to promote education, industry, 
and moral improvement among the prisoners. It 
is supported by donations and annual subscriptions. 

freemasons* hall. 

This building is immediately opposite to the Ge- 
neral Post Office, situated in Buade Street, near 



steps leading through Prescott-Gate, to the 
wer-Town. The house formerly had an uninterr 
ted view in front as far as the wall of the Seminary, 

buildings which now intervene being of modern 
e. It is remarkable in the local history of the 
r % for a representation in stone over the entrance 
in Buade Street, of a dog gnawing a bone, with 

inscription in French. This having been al- 
ps gilt, has acquired the name of Le Chien (FOr ; 
1 the following explanation of its origin has been 
ided down to the present day : — 
Mr. Philibert, who resided in this house, was a 
>rchant of high distinction during the time when 

Beg on, whom we have mentioned above, was 
endant of New France. The latter had formerly 
m a merchant of Bordeaux ; and came to Quebec 
1712. Differences occurred between him and 

Philibert, over whom superior interest and 
ver gave M. Begon every advantage. Unable 
>btain redress for his injuries, real or supposed, 

Philibert bitterly, although covertly, expressed 
sentiments under the image of the Chien cT Or, to 
ich he added the following inscription in old 
;nch : 

Je jsvis vn Chien qvi ronge l'os. 


Vn tems viendra qvi nest pas venv 
qve je mordray qvi mavra mordv. 

Begon determined on revenge, and M. Phili- 
*t, descending the Lower Town hill, received the 

>rd of M. De R , a French Officer of the 

rison, through his body. The perpetrator of this 
rder made his escape and left the Province ; but 

crime was too atrocious to be forgiven. The bro- 


ther of M. Philibert came to Quebec to settle the 
estate, with a full determination of taking nersonal 
vengeance on the assassin. So determined was lie 
to execute this part of his mission, that having as- 
certained that M. De R had gone to the East 

Indies, he pursued him thither. They met in a 
street of Pondicherry— engaged on the spot — and the 
assassin fell mortally wounded under the sword of 
the avenger. 

The Chien (FOr remains to perpetuate this tale of 
bloodshed and retribution. 


A little to the west of Hope-Gate, within the 
Fortifications, and immediately adjoining the termi- 
nation of the garden wall of the Hotel Dieu, looking 
towards the north-east, stands the building once 
inhabited by the brave Marquis De Montcalm. It 
is now divided into three private residences. The 
entrance appears originally to have been through a 
court yard in the rear ; and as the walls of the build- 
ing next to the fortifications are very thick, and the 
foundations massive, it is very probable that it was 
once intended for defence on the side looking to the 

It is at present no otherwise remarkable than as 
having been the residence of the French General, 
whose fame the battle of the Plains of Abraham has 
perpetuated in the same scroll with that of his suc- 
cessful and lamented antagonist. 

f ' • • 



Ths building, of which, as it will appear when 
lied, a view is given on the other side, is situated 
far from the General Hospital, on the bank of 
Little River St. Charles ; and nearly opposite 
he spot where Jacques Cartieu first wintered 

i 1831, it was resolved to erect an Hospital, out 
le city, for the reception of sailors and persons 
ing by sea who might be afflicted with disease. 
H. M. Blaiklock, Architect and Civil Engineer, 
appointed to prepare plans and estimates under 
Commissioners, Messrs. Clouet, Cannon and Dr. 
Tin, which plans were approved by the Gover- 
-in-Chief. The estimated cost was £23,000, 
the expenditure up to the present time has been 
,000, defrayed by different votes of the Legisla- 

'he Marine Hospital, when completed, will 
ain upon the ground or first story, Catholic and 
;estant Chapels, with apartments for the officiat- 
Ministers : — Housekeeper's and Steward's apart- 
ts and store-rooms : — Nurses' apartments : — two 
2 kitchens : — Wards for sixty patients, with 
ib and all necessary conveniences. The prin- 
1 story will contain a large entrance hall, ap- 
ched by a double flight of stone steps on the 
rior : — a Museum, forty-five feet in length : — 
tments for the Medical Officers : — examining 
as : — operating theatres, and accommodations for 
f eight patients. The third story will have 
tments for the chief Nurses, and wards for one 
Ired and forty patients. The upper story is 


also planned as a Lj/ing-in Hospital, only, for tl 
four patients, and the attics will contain sixty, 
ing a total of accommodation for three hunflra 
sixty-two persons. Each story is fitted up wit! 
cold and vapor baths ; and each ward has fan 
to three ventilating flues to convey the foul i 
the roof of the building by machinery. The 
used is drawn from the River St. Charles, fil 
and conveyed to the top of the Hospital. ] 
basement story are extensive cellars, kitchens, 
dry, and other domestic conveniences. 

The exterior of the Marine Hospital is < 
Ionic order ; and the proportions are taken fro 
Temple of the Muses or the Ilissus near Ai 
With the wings it measures two hundred and si 
from east to west The wings are one hundre 
in depth ; and the whole premises contain an a 
about six acres, to be laid out in gardens anc 
menade grounds for the convalescents. 

The ceremony of laying the first or centre 
took place amid a large concourse of respectabl 
zens on the anniversary of the King's birth day 
May, 1832. It was laid by His Excellent 
Lord Aylmer, Governor-in-Chief, and a 
commemorating the occasion, with the date 
name of the Architect, Mr. Blaiklock, and 
Commissioners, was deposited with the usual : 

The centre and west wing are completed, ai 
building was opened as an Hospital in July, 1 

chasseur's museum. 

In St Helen's Street, in the Upper Town, 
yards from St. Patrick's Church, is the resi 
of Mr. Chasseur, formerly Carver and Gil 


8 city: who with a love of science that cannot be 
much applauded, commenced, in 1824, to employ 
leisure in making a collection of the indigenous 
nab of Canada, chiefly, however, limited to birds 
quadrupeds. His collection of birds amounts to 
at five hundred, among which several very curi- 
ornithological specimens will be found. His 
tions have so far met with the approbation of the 
islature, that a few years ago a pecuniary aid 
voted to this enterprising zoologist, who has cer- 
y made the best collection of natural curiosities 
ut in the Province. He intends to complete the 
seum with an enlarged collection of all our native 
mis ; and is daily making progress in his lau- 
e undertaking, 

1 this Museum is to be seen the brass cannon, 
vn as the Canon de bronze, which was found a 
years ago in the- River St. Lawrence, nearly 
)site the Parish of Champlain. It is to be la- 
ted that there is upon it an inscription, err on e- 
y stating it to have been found at the River 
[ues Cartier, and to have been once in the pos- 
on of the discoverer of New France, being 
eby adduced as a proof that Jacques Cartier 
been wrecked at the mouth of the River, which 
s his name. This subject has been treated in 
is thirty-one, and sixty-eight, of this work. 


esides the Quebec Seminary, these are the 
mmar School of the Royal Institution, con- 
;ed by the Reverend R. Burr age : the Clas- 
L School of the Reverend D. Wilkie : The 


National School, already mentioned : the Sc 
of the Quebec Education Society, and 
British and Canadian School* The three lag 
chiefly elementary. There are also several pr 
Schools for both sexes, Sunday Schools, and 
useful establishment of Infant Schools has 1 
been successfully introduced into this city. Ii 
Esplanade, is the highly valuable establishme 
Mr. McDonald for the instruction of deaf 
dumb children. In the Parish of St Koch tb< 
also a School supported by the Roman Cat 
Bishop ; and in the Suburbs of St Lewis is the 
ritorious foundation of J. F. Perrault, Esquire 
venerable and consistent promoter of elementar 
struction in his native city. 




That nearly seventy years should have elapsed, 
hout this well merited tribute to the military vir- 
and devotion of these Heroes having been 
d in the country of their fame, can only be attri- 
ted to the circumstances of a gradually rising 
lony, whose attention to the Arts and to architec- 
al embellishment could only be expected after 
irs of prosperity, peace, and the accumulation of 
bes. Pericles, having enriched his country by 
irs of prosperous administration, civil and mili- 
y, betook himself to the embellishment of his na- 
e city. Rome had been long victorious over every 
3m y, before her heroes and patriots had leisure 
m the camp to adorn the Forum with edifices, 
ose magnificent remains are the admiration of all 
liolders. The family De' Medici did not excel 
the Arts, or contribute to the classic riches of 
.orence, until a long course of commercial enter- 
se and success had elevated them from merchants 
the rank of Princes. So it has been in all ages, 
,t the Arts, as well as the Laws, have been silent 
ring periods of war and commotion ; nor has their 
ce been listened to, except under circumstances 
en the human mind, withdrawn from the turmoil 



of active collision, has sought repose in the chanmBg 
studies which elegant ease alone enables men tft 
pursue with steadiness and effect. Amongst tk 
eople of the United States, it is only within i 
ew years that any public tribute, or classic memorial, 
has testified the common admiration of the world 
directed towards the memory of Washihgtoi. |1 
The chisel of Canova, and the hand of Chantut 
have still more recently been employed on natind 
monuments to his honor. Indeed, there is soa» 
what of morbid feeling in this propensity of mankfoi 
to neglect the offering of public tokens of gratitude 
to great men, during the age which witnessed thsb 
deeds, and benefitted most from their services. It k 
the consciousness of this fact, which has directed tk 
views of illustrious men rather to the certainty d 
posthumous fame, than to the rewards of pretest 
celebrity and popular appla 

Sui memore8 alios fecere merendo. 

And this feeling is part of the divine inspiration, of 
that immortal breath, which more or less is the'ani- 
mating principle of great souls ; — but which the 
grosser impressions of mankind, in the main envious 
and detracting, have derogated by calling it ambi- 
tion. Memorials, therefore, of a purely classical 
nature have generally been the works of posterity; 
and the experience of time demonstrates, that as 
there is nothing more honorable to the age which 
confers them, so there is nothing more lasting and 
perennial than the feme, which is handed down by 
such monuments. Well, indeed, did the Poet feel 
this truth, and it must be given in his own language 
to have its full effect, when he prophetically enume- 



, among the means of immortality to illustrious 
>ns — 




was reserved for the Earl of Dalhousie, then 
ernor-in-Chief of these Provinces, — a noble • 
whose generous spirit and munificent patronage 
dready been evinced in the foundation of the 
■ary and Historical Society — to bring this inte- 
ig subject before the public, and set the exam- 
n raising a fit monument to the memory of 
„fe and Montcalm in the Metropolis of British 
h America, the stake for which these gallant 
3rs contended. A subscription list for the pur- 
was accordingly circulated among the gentry of 
bec, under the auspices of His Excellency ; 
the call for so laudable an object was promptly 
nded to. Not only the inhabitants of British 
i, but the Canadian public, headed by the Ro- 
Catholic Bishop and several of the Clergy, 
illy contributed to the erection of this Monu- 


lis praiseworthy design was not improbably 
ested to the mind of the Earl of Dalhousie, by 
rusal of the letter of Monsieur De Bougain- 
s to the great Earl of Chatham, then Secretary 
ate, inclosing a copy of an inscription for an 
ded Monument to be erected at Quebec to the 
ory of Montcalm by the French Government, 
answer of Lord Chatham, speaking no doubt 
entiments of the youthful Monarch, was con- 
d in the most generous spirit. The marble 
with the inscription was engraved, and shipped 


for Canada ; but the vessel never reached her des- 

A general meeting of the subscribers to the in- 
tended Monument was held at the Castle of St 
Lewis on the 1st November, 1827, His Excellency 
the Earl of Dalhousie in the chair, who address- 
ed the meeting in a speech, of which the following 
is an extract : — 

" Gentlemen, I feel it peculiarly my duty to address this 
meeting to-day, as having taken the lead in proposing for 
consideration a subject chiefly interesting to the public in and 
near Quebec. 

" When I first notified the proposal of raising a monument 
to the memory of Generals Wolfe and Montcalm, I did not 
presume to offer any advice, nor did I urge feelings that bad 
prompted to my own mind the undertaking of such a work— 
these I was sure would come far better at a General Meeting 
from individuals infinitely better qualified than I am ; and it 
is therefore my principal object in calling this meeting to-day, 
to hear the opinions and suggestions of all who may be dis- 
posed to express them. 

" In the first place, however, 1 beg permission to present to 
you two drawings, or designs, which are the performance 
and composition of Capt. Young, of the 79th Regiment. I 
think, I may take the liberty with him to say, that these are 
produced from repeated conversations he and I had on this 
subject, during our daily walks last winter : they are subject 
to revisal, to alteration, and even to a total abandonment of 
them for others, if other suggestions shall be made, or larger 
means than we have calculated upon shall be found. But on 
this point, I would particularly impress upon your considera- 
tion, that I do not propose any splendid trophy equal to the 
great names, the subject of it. A monument worthy of Ge- 
neral Wolfe, and worthy of England, has been placed in 
Westminster Abbey. My only object is to remove a subject 
of general regret, * that in Quebec, nothing is found to honor 
the memory of Wolfe, nothing more than if his great achieve- 
ments had been effected in other countries distant or unknown 
to us.' — Thus limiting our views, I think a plain Colo mo, 
simple and unpretending in its architecture, the most fit, and 


le least obnoxious to public criticism ; I think it the most 
ecoming a private subscription, and above all, most likely to 
e immediately accomplished — these designs, however, are 
ow submitted to you. 

*■ 1 ought, here, to state, that a most handsome offer has 
een made at New York, to contribute to the subscription list ; 
nd although it had not been intended to go beyond the limits 
f Canada on the subject, yet I have accepted the offer as the 
rpression of these liberal feelings. 

" There remains only one point more for me to remark upon, 
at it is one which I feel as peculiarly calling for an explana- 
on. It is the idea, that it may, by some, be thought great 
resumption in any individual to stir and act upon a matter of 
ich high public interest as this is, without having previously 
10 wn that the public, (I mean the Legislature of this Pro- 
inoe) has not cnosen to undertake the work ; to this, Gen- 
emen, I have only to say,, that it is my intention to submit 
he subject, and also our progress in it, to the consideration of 
tie Legislature ; but f would also prepare the -means of work- 
og upon the smaller funds, should my public recommendation 
f it mil oa the greater scale. 

M I shall, by and by, beg leave to propose a small Committee 
f Management in all minor details, but always with the idea 
f renewing my calls for General Meetings, as our progress 
lall advance. 
** I now leave the subject, Gentlemen, to yourselves." 
His Excellency then named the following Committee ; 

The Honorable the Chief Justice, — Chairman, 

Mr. Justice Taschereau, 

Major General Darling, 

Lieut. Colonel Cockburn, R. A. 

Opt. Young, 79th Highlanders, 

Capt. Melhutsh, R. £. 

Mr. George Pemberton. 

On Thursday, the 15th November, 1827, the very 
mposing and interesting ceremony, of laying the 
rst stone of the Monument, took place in the pre- 
snee of a large and most respectable assemblage of 
pectators. The troops of the garrison, consisting 
f the 66th and 79th Regiments, under the com- 
land of Colonel Nicol, 66th Regiment, paraded 

z 2 


at eleven o'clock, and formed a double line, facing! 
inwards, their right reaching to the foot of the Glacis, I 
and the left resting upon the Castle Guard-House, 1 
The Masonic procession, with Claude Denechau, ] 
Esquire, Right Worshipful Grand Master, at their ! 
head, the Officers composing the Grand Lodge is < 
full Masonic costume, the Merchants and Frires <ht 
Canada, the Sussex and St. Andrew's Lodges, react- 
ed the Castle of St. Lewis, preceded by the Bandj^. 
the 66th Regiment ; and entering the lower garden 
through the Castle yard, lined each side of the prin- 
cipal walk, through which the Countess of Dait 
housie, and a party of ladies, reached the spot 
where the ceremony was to be performed* In the 
mean time His Excellency the Earl of Dal- 
housie, attended by the Chief Justice, the Lord 
Bishop, his Staff, and the Committee, passed through 
the avenue of troops from the Castle, receiving the 
usual honors. His Excellency, having first con- 
ducted the Countess, and the other ladies, to a sta- 
tion most convenient for witnessing the ceremony, 
placed himself in front of the stone, and in a clear (• 
and audible voice, spoke as follows : — 

" Gentlemen of the Committee, we are assembled upon an ■, 
occasion most interesting to this country — if possible more 80 j, 
to this city — We are met to lay the Foundation of a Column ij 
in honor of two illustrious men, whose deeds and whose fall \ 
have immortalized their own names, and placed Quebec in the 
rank of cities famous in the history of the world. 

" Before, however, we touch the first stone, let us implore 
the blessing of Almighty God upon our intended work." 

The Rev. Dr, Mills, Chaplain to the Forces, 
then offered up the following 


O Almighty Lord of Heaven and Earth ! without whose 
blessing no work of man can prosper, look down, we beseech 


|Thee, with an eye of favor upon this our undertaking 1 . We 
[know, O Lord ! that, unless Thou buildest the fabric, their 
[kbour is but lost that build it; and therefore we humbly pray, 
t that this Column, which we are about to erect in honor of 

■ those distinguished Warriors, whose names it is destined to 
. War, may transmit their Fame to distant ages, uninjured by 

iood or by flame, unscathed by the Thunder's rending bolt, or 

the mining shock of the Earthquake. May no assault of fo* 

'_ M%n foe, no dangerous division within our walls, loosen oue 

■ tone from the structure ; but may it long — long rear its head 
_ Jiniiple majesty, the brightest gem and ornament of our city. 
) r^lfnath pleased Thee, O Lord I in thy good Providence, in 
' i great degree to tranquillize the world : there is a great calm 
: tithe Universe: Thou hast said to the desolating tide of hu- 

4an Warfare — " Peace, be still ; hitherto shalt thou come, 
hit no further, and here shall thy proud waves be stayed 1" 
We pray, O Lord 1 — most humbly and heartily do we pray,— - 
that this happy state of things may continue and abound more 
*nd more, till every source of discord dried up — every jarring 
interest harmonized — the heavenly influence of the glorious 
Gospel— that Charter of Love and Mercy to the whole human 
**ce- — be universally felt and acknowledged ; till the glad 
t train of w Peace on earth, good will toward men," which 
Ushered in the Nativity of the Saviour, find a ready echo in 
every bosom ; and the blessed time at length arrive, when the 
Bword shall be turned into the plough-share, and the spear into 
the pruning-hook — when nation shall not lift up sword against 
nation, neither shall they learn war any more. But of this 
bour, — now seen afar off only in indistinct vision, knoweth no 
man : in the mean time, O Lord ! the wrath of man shall 
praise Thee, while the remainder of wrath it is — and will be — 
thy province to restrain. 

Meanwhile also, O Lord ! we humbly hope and trust, that 
we are not forbidden to pray, even amidst all the pomp and 

Stter of military parade, by which we are surrounded, in be* 
If of these our Brethren — with an anxious concern for their 
honor as Soldiers, while we feel for their salvation as Men— 
that the great examples of the illustrious dead, whom we this 
day hold out as patterns for their imitation, may now and ever 
be regarded by them with an ardent desire to emulate their 
worth. Yes I Soldiers, Friends and Brethren ! we implore 
the God of Armies, that should the battle once more be set in 
array against you, you may — each of you — buckle on your har- 

374 Wrir ncnrU 6* BthEBfce, 

new, in humble — yet weu-gronnded — confidence in the Dtrin* j 
protection — with no tenon of an evil conscience to appal you 
in too hoar of peril — do besetting tin to unnerve your inn, 
and raider It powerless in the conflict Thus prepared— thai 

will look forward, with the 070 
■ brighter crown — a fairer wreath, then Monar 
and this Faith, triumphant over death and all its agonies, will 
enable yon, more than any thing else, to evince, even amiiiil 
the eeTere* t struggles of expiring; Nature, the same heroic re- 
signation, the fame loyal devoted new to your King, and glov- 
ing attachment to yoar Conn try, which blazed forth— like the 
Son's lait flash before its lotting — with in 1 uueKtinguisliable 
lustre, in the breast* of tbeae departing Warriors* 

Grant, O Lord ! of Thine infinite Mercy grunt, thatsndi, 

•■-reTer duty calls them, may be the genuine feelings of Bri- 

Soldiers ; — that their Patriotism, their Loyalty and their 

' ' unded upon Religion as :'■■■ :\ ■■•. 11 : - 1. ■ 

these feeling* deeply rooted in our 01m 

wherever duty calls them, may be the genuine feelings of Bri- 
tiah Soldiers ; — that their Patriotism, their Loyalty and their 
Valour may be founded upon Religion as the best and surat 
basis : and, with these feeling* deeply rooted in our 
breast*, let as pray for our Conntry— afj great and glorii 
she is — as* n red that they that love her shall prosper, i'eact 
bo within her walls, and plenteonsness within her palaces. 
For our brethren and companions' lakes, we will wish her 
prosperity. And seeking — and not seeking only, hut striving 
to do her good and to advance her glory by every means in our 
power, do Thou, O Ood ! prosper the work of our handa dpod 
us : O prosper Thou our handy-work I Amen and Amen. 

This emphatic prayer concluded — His Lordship 
thus addressed the Masonic Brethren ; — 

" Right Worshipful Grand Master and Worshipful Brethien 
of the Giand Lodge, 1 crave your assistance in performing Mi» 
sonic Ceremonies and honors on this occasion. 

The R. W. Grand Master, supported by the 
R. "W. Dy. G. Mr. Oliva on his right, and P. Dy. 
G. Mr. Thompson on his left, with two G. Deacons 
took his station on the east side of the foundation. 
The Rt W. the G. Masters and Rt. W. the G. 


lain placed themselves on the opposite sides, 
i the Corner Stone was lowered and laid with 
isual Masonic ceremony — the G. Master sup- 
d as above described, then advanced towards 
lordship, to give the Three Mystic Strokes on 
itone. Daring this part of the ceremony — the 
tfaster repeated the following short Prayer, 
ly this undertaking prosper with the Blessing 
lmighty God/' 

le presence on this occasion of Mr. James 
&1PSON, then in his 95th year, added to the deep 
est felt in the scene. The venerable companion 
ens of Wolfe was a connecting link between the 
;hat witnessed his glory, and that about to erect 
mument to his fame. While one remained who 
uered with him, the age of his glory was not 
* extinct : — the present took charge of the de- 
, and pledged itself to its sacred keeping, by the 
nony which we are now describing, 
is Excellency turning to Mr. Thompson, re- 
ted him to assist in the ceremony, in these 
Is : — 

if r. Thompson — we honour you here as the companion in 
md a venerable living witness of the fall of Wolfe, do us 
avor to bear witness on this occasion by the mallet 
>ur hand." 

!r. Thompson then, with a firm hand, gave the 
se Mystic Strokes with the Mallet on the Stone. 
be following appropriate prayer was next pro- 
iced by the Reverend Dr. Harkness, the Pro- 
Lai Grand Chaplain : — 

>st Gracious God J We adore Thee as the Great ArchU 
{ Nature. In the beginning 1 Tbou laidest the foundations 
» Earth — The Arches of Heaven are the workmanship of 

974 raw Heron of gunsc* 

Thjr Hand,— and by Thee was the Spirit of Maafocsaed 
him. Thou makest the Clouds Thjr Chariot— TTr 
upon the Wings of the Wind— Thou waterest the 
Thy Chambers,— and the Earth is satisfied with the (hit 
Thy Works. Thou causest Grass to grow for the use ofGaV 
tlty-and Herb for the service of Bfao. Thou hast spsobtoi 
the Moon for seasons, and the Sun kooweth his jprinr dw»,| 
O Lord, how manifold and wondrous are Thy Worka I la 
'Wisdom hast Thou made them alt The Earth is foil of TV 
Riches* Though Thou dwellest on high in light i imoow s w r 
and full of dory,— -yet we rejoice to think, that Thoo heartiest 
Thyself to behold every thing that is done in this lower wtrR 
And we fervently and earnestly pray that Thou wouMtt now 
look down with a propitious and approving eye on the pretest 
undertaking of Thy nmnble Servants. Hay the iw M> 
tmment % the foundation stone of which has nov, been kid, gt h 
on and prosper, and when finished, may it completely answer' 
the laudable designs of those by whom it is undertaken sal 
promoted — We intreat Thee, O Lord, to give each of usgrsee, 
that we may be enabled in oar respective spheres, to emolsti 
the Virtues of those Gnat, and Brave and Good Jfta,tM 
Memory of whose Heroic Deeds this Column is intended to 
perpetuate. Enable us more and more to cherish and cultivate 
the genuine Spirit of Christian Benevolence, which is ever 
ready to pity the Objects of Misery and relieve Subjects of 
Distress — which ever fills the heart with the tenderest sympa- 
thy and the warmest compassion, — and which. ever disposes os 
to regard our fellow-creatures with the purest sentiments of 
affection and the sincerest dispositions to promote their wel- 
fare and happiness — Whatever diversity of religious sentiment 
may be found to exist among us, may we all be united in tan 
grand essential of the Religion of Jesus, " Charity towards a& 
Men,** And may all our hopes of future happiness be built 
upon u the foundation of the Apostles and Prophets, Jem 
Christ himself being; the Chief Corner Stone* 1 

Grant, O Most Merciful Father ! these the sincere desires sf 
our hearts, for the sake of Jesus Christ, our Lord, and Re- 
deemer. Amen. 

^ Captain Melhuish, R. E. then deposited gold, 
silver and copper coins of the present reign, in a 
cavity prepared in the foundation stone, over which 


plate with the following inscription, by the Rev. 
)r. Mills, was firmly rivetted : — 





P. t\ 









Die Noverubris XVa. 


Tlie plan and elevation of the intended Monum- 
ent, designed and executed with equal skill and 
ste by Capt. Young, 79th Highlanders, was then 
esented to the Countess of Dalhousie, who ac- 
pted the same with marked satisfaction. 
The ceremony finished with a feu de joie from 
e garrison, after which the regiments presented 
ms, the Bands playing the National Air. Three 
ritish Cheers then rent the air, given by the troops 
id spectators to the memory of British valor, and 
rench gallantry. The troops on their return to 
eir Barracks passed the Governor in Chief in 
view order, which concluded the ceremonies of 
e day. 

The work was commenced in the spring of 1828, 
it the sums subscribed, although extremely liberal, 


amounting to near seven hundred pounds, were faudji x 
inadequate to defray the expense of the Monument 


What was wanting was, however, supplied by uw »c 
liberality of Lord Dalhousie, to a large amonBt;|i 
who continued to feel the deepest interest in its con- \ 
pletion, long after the favor of the Sovereign had $ 
placed His Lordship in the supreme military com- > c 
mand in the East Indies. ^ 

The memorial in honor of the two military chiefs ^ 
who fell at the head of the opposing armies, in that l. 
decisive battle which made these Provinces a portion { 
of the British Empire, is now completed, and is a s 
conspicuous, as it is the only classical, ornament of ^ 
the city. It was originally designed by Captain, r _ 
now Major Young, of the 79th, or Cameron IliaH* £ 
landers, (then on the personal Staff of His Excel- 
lency the Earl of Dalhousie,) an officer whose 
taste had been greatly cultivated by foreign travel; * 
and is a combination of various beautiful proportions 1 
to be found in some of the celebrated models of and- - 
quity. It stands on the west side of Des Carriires { 
Street, leading from the Place d!Armes to the glacis j' ; 
of Cape Diamond, within an area taken from the '/ 
upper garden belonging to Government. In front 
is a broad walk, which has become a public pro- , 
menade, overlooking the Castle garden, and com- 
manding a fine vie w of the harbor, and the beautiful 
scenery beyond it* 

The Monument is a conspicuous object from the 
River; but on account of the numerous spires which 
rise around it in a distant view, it is seen to the best 
advantage from the centre of the channel between 
the Lower Town and Pointe Levi. It is strictly 
classical in the proportions of every part To the 
top of the surbase is thirteen feet from the ground. 


this rests the Sarcophagus, seven feet three 
tes high. The obelisk measures forty-two feet 
it inches, and the apex two feet one inch, mak- 
in the whole an altitude of sixty-five feet from 
ground. The dimensions of the obelisk at the 
» are six feet, by four feet eight inches, taper- 
conically to the apex, where the sides are dimi- 
led to three feet two inches, by two feet five 
les. This classical ornament of our city was 
shed, with the exception of the inscription, on the 
September ; and its completion was witnessed by 
zealous patron of the work, the Earl of Dal- 
jsie. On the morning of that day, not to be 
gotten by the numerous friends of that noble 
•d, being the day of his departure from the Pro- 
se, the Government of which he had conscien- 
isly administered for eight years, His Lordship, 
ompanied by his successor in the Administration 
he Government, Lieutenant General Sir James 
mpt, G. C. B., and attended by the Staff, several 
itary officers, and a party of ladies and gentlemen 
he city and vicinity, proceeded to the walk in front 
he Governor's garden, to witness the completion 
he Monument. A few minutes after eight o'clock, 
apex, or cap-stone, was placed upon the summit ; 
. the ceremony of tapping it with the mallet was 
formed by his nephew and Aide de Camp, Cap- 
i Fox Maule, 79th Highlanders, as proxy for 
noble Earl, who ascended to the top of the obe- 
: for that purpose. Thus was this chaste memo* 
to Wolfe and Montcalm, through the exertions 
Mr. John Phillips, the builder, completed during 
summer of lb28, to the great gratification of 
5 Excellency, who had all along expressed the 

2 A 


strongest wish for its completion before his departure 
from Quebec. 

A prize Medal was offered, by the Committee for 
the erection of the Monument, to the person who 
should furnish the most appropriate inscription. The 
author of " Men and Manners in America," 
travelling in Canada, has thought fit to object to the 
inscription being in the Latin language. He has also 
found fault with the Monument itself, as copied too 
closely from one in Italy. To this latter objection, 
it has already been replied, when it was stated that the 
Monument is a combination of separate beauties 
contained in distinct works of art, here made to pro- 
duce the happiest effect, and possessing the most 
perfectly classical union. It is, in fact, no copy of 
any particular Monument, either as to composition, 
or geometrical proportion. In answer to the former 
objection, it is sufficient to observe that to have adopt- 
ed an inscription in either French or English might 
have been dissatisfactory to one portion of the inhabi- 
tants ; and that by selecting the Latin, — a language 
common to every civilised nation, to all scholars, and 
almost universally adopted on similar occasions, — all 
objections seemed to be obviated. Of the many 
strangers who have visited this Monument, most have 
expressed decided approbation on both the points, 
objected to by Mr. Hamilton. Indeed the truly 
Attic elegance and simple grandeur of this obelisk, 
together with the chivalrous generosity and ingenuous 
discrimination of its erection to the immortal memo- 
ry of both of those heroes, Wolfe and Montcalm, 
deserve the grateful commemoration of every liberal 


The Monument presents the following inscription 
oa the Sarcophagus, or Cenotaph of the heroes. On 
the front, in large letters : 





This inscription was honored with the prize Medal, 
and was written by J. Charlton Fisher, L. L. D. 
On the rear is the following, altered from that which 
was inscribed upon the Plate deposited with the 
foundation stone : 














On the north side of the Sarcophagus, looking to the 
country, is the simple word " Montcalm," in large 
characters ; and on the opposite side, that towards 
the River by which he reached the scene of his 
glorious victory and death, is inscribed the name of 
" Wolfe." 

880 wnr pictuu or gunsc, .... - P 

The following lines were written en the, pcmioe 
ef laying the first stone of the Monument : the Litk 
tetrastich by the author of the prise incriptfee»*Mf 
the English ode by an officer of the 66th Regiiwafr; 



Gosmroui vwtvs— atots perenne decvs— 


VUDiCAir*-JRSBHCM yivsre fama dedit. 

8? ANZAS ■ ■ "' «»•■ ••■■*■■' 

'. I. . . '■♦ I/- 

Appbeotd to Hif Excellency the Earl or Dalhoghb, . 

.• ■ i 


Shall thousand Cenotaphs proclaim 
On battle fields each glorious name, 

And on this hallowed spot— - 
These smiling Banks his valor gain'd, 
Those frowning Heights his blood hath stain'd, 

Is only Wolfe's forgot ? 

Deeply each British heart hath monrn'd 
His dust nor tronhied, nor inurn'd, 

Unnoticed and unknown — 
Be thine the stain to wash away, 
Be thine thy Country's debt to pay, 

And for the wrong atone. 

And thou, brave Veteran, on whose breast 
Wolfe, dirgM by Victory, sank to rest, 

Come consecrate the Pile !— - 
Virtue and Valor have agreed, 
The Christian Priests shall bless the deed, 

And Heaven above shall smile, 


Having replied to the somewhat illiberal censure 
f the author of " Men and Manners in America" 
re must now advert, as connected with the too hasty 
mpressions and frequently erroneous conclusions of 
ravellers, to a statement contained in a recent pub- 
ication, intituled, " Transatlantic Sketches" by Cap- 
tain Alexander, 42d Royal Highlanders, F. R. G. 
S. and M. R. A. S. It is known to all residents in 
Quebec, that at the corner of St. John and Palace 
Streets, there is a public house, yclept " General 
Wolfe's Hotel ;" and that in a niche at the angle of 
the wall, there has long been a diminutive statue, of 
painted wood, said to be of that hero. Captain 
Alexander thus gravely introduces it to his readers : 
" I promenaded about the city, and had pointed out 
tome the various objects of interest, particularly the 
small statue of Wolfe, in a red coat, cocked hat and 
knee breeches, set up in a corner of a street, to mark 
the spot to which the conqueror of Quebec pene- 
trated as a spy previous to his victory !" It is 
certainly true that this statue was set up in honor 
of Wolfe, after the conquest, by an individual of 
more patriotism than taste ; but the tale of his having 
penetrated into St. John Street as a spy is in itself 
so very improbable, and is besides so completely 
negatived by the well known facts of his attack upon 
the city, that it is really surprising how a traveller of 
any reputation could have been so far imposed upon 
as to record a story which his own historical infor- 
mation ought to have warned him to reject. 

2 Ad 






It has been stated that the Lower Town of Quebec 
is built principally upon ground either gained by 
excavation from the rock on which the Upper Town 
stands, or, in the course of time, redeemed from the 
water's edge. As the early inhabitants had recourse 
to neither of these expedients, the site of their build- 
ings in the Lower Town must have been very 
confined. Before the establishment of the Royal 
Government in 1663, a few scattered houses, maga- 
zines and stores, occupied all the River side, from 
the foot of the Sault-au-Matelot to the base of Cape 
Diamond. The oldest account of the Lower Town 
is to be found in the Latin work of Father Da 
Creux, who came to New France about 1625, and 
whose book is dated in 1664. He says : — " Below 
the Citadel, from the Sault-au-Matdot to Cape Dia- 
mond, there is a level space, convenient for landing 
merchandise, and the cargoes of vessels. This, S 
protected by a wall of masonry, would be evidently 
well adapted for a harbor, since the road is every 
way proper for ships, the force of the waves being 
broken by the interposition of the Isle of Orleans. 


On this level space are the magazines of the French 
merchants : at some distance apart, the store-houses 
if some distinguished French gentlemen ; and, now 
ind then, some habitations of Frenchmen, who have 
Exchanged Old for New France." 

In the Voyage de FAmerique of La Potherie, 
vho visited the Province in 1698, there is an en- 
graved representation of the Upper and Lower 
Town. From this it appears that the River then 
washed the foot of the cliff along St. Paul Street ; 
and very few houses are seen from the Point to the 
centre of Sault-au-Matelot Street. The greater 
number. are in the vicinity of the Plate de Notre 
Dame, or Lower Town Market-place, where they 
were rather thickly clustered. Sous le Fort Street 
is plainly delineated, as well as the Queen's Wharf, 
which was then a platform planted with trees, where 
there was a battery level with the water. Towards 
the west, the buildings extended but a little way 
beyond the King's Wharf. 


As an interesting recollection in the present ad- 
vanced condition of Colonial trade, — now that the 
commercial character of the British population is 
folly developed, — we shall give an account of the 
early traffic of the Lower Town, on the authority of 
La Potherie. The houses, in which the merchants 
lived for the convenience of business, were well 
built, and of cut stone. All persons, except the 
Clergy, and some of the Officers, Civil and Military, 
were engaged in commerce, the revenues of their 
lands being insufficient to maintain their families ; 
ind the country being in too rude a state to supply 


184 MEW ncrtTM 4f £0ftttCr ' 

all the conveniences of life. The prineipdl 
was in peltry, which chiefly consisted of die 
ef*the beaver. Those who were fortunate 
to take these valuable animals, carried thea*4*i 
Farmer's Office, Bureau de la Ferine, die 
of which paid for them in Bilk of 
France. In 1700, these Bills amounted to' 
hundred and thirty thousand tieres. T!*e 
merchandise, was by no means considerable! 
was only profitable to a few foreign miiuihaiifaiWiij 
brought with them, or every year imported ;f 
France, goods to the amount of seven or eight ^ 
sand franc*. Some few imported to die 
twenty thousand ; but they found it difficult 4o 
a sale during that year. Greater sale* wisre 
of wine and brandy, than of any othe 

The period of most active business at Quebec, M 
the olden time, was during the months of August, 
September and October, in which the vessels arrived 
from France ; so that at that time, one passage out- 
ward and inward was all they were able to accomp- 
lish. After the arrival of the vessels, there was a 
kind of fair in the Lower Town— every shop and 
store displayed newly imported treasures— and no- 
thing was heard in the streets but the bus of tke 
shopkeepers recommending their wares, and of cah 
tomers endeavoring to make the best bargains they 
could. About the end of October, the Habitant 
came in from the country to make purchases., Every 
one endeavored to arrange his business before the 
departure of the vessels ; as the Captains nator*- 
ally took advantage of the fine weather, fearfid 
of a gale from the north-east, which generally came 
a few days before or after Allsaints' day. They con* 
sidered that by postponing their departure until 


lovember, they ran some risk of meeting with ice 
Uthe River. From this reasoning of the shipmas-* 
Mrs of that day, it would appear that there has been 
m change in the climate for the last century, since 
lie Captains at present always hurry their departure 
iter the 10th November ; and various proofs might 
He adduced from the old writers to show that it was 
[ mild, and the' spring as early, in the time of 
Jhamplain as at present 

La Potherie remarks the change in the appear- 
ance of the Lower Town after the departure of the 
dripping : " The road," he says, " which is all at 
wee left without craft has somewhat of a melancholy 
ippearance. All is still, and we are left in the situ- 
Ition of ants, having nothing to do but to lay in our 
provisions for the winter, which is very long." 



About the end of September they began their pre- 
parations by preserving vegetables for their soup. 
Other vegetables and sallads were arranged in their 
cellars, which appeared like so many kitchen gar- 
dens. Every one, according to his means, provided 
himself with butchers' meat, poultry and game; 
which when frozen they preserved all the winter. 
The snow fell in quantities about the middle of No- 
vember — all trade was at an end, and the greatest part 
of the shops were closed. While the snow continu- 
ed to fall, people remained at home, La Potherie 
adds, as it were in their dens ; but it was widely 
different when it became hard on the surface. 
Then every body was in motion, carioles began to 


run, vehicles which were found extremely coma* ji 
dious, and which are described exactly as they m n 
used at present. They were then, perhaps, baud- m 
somer than now, being adorned with painting? i*j h\ 
j armorial bearings. *f 

Advent was passed with all the observance! p p 
religion. On New Year's day, they interchanged Ik 
visits of friendship and congratulation, as atpreW^V- 
The visiting season, however, than extended to ejjjkl pi 
days, during which time everyone wasinmoMjtf 
and nothing was seen but gentlemen on foottaifpo 
in carioles running from house to house. As tkntl* 
was no business to do, this was by no meansadfcp 
agreeable method of killing a week during a 1<*H « 
winter — now, it would be found difficult to . dewfrfc 
so long a period even to so pleasant an employmeMM 
Until Lent, the time was passed agreeably enougktk 
Joy and pleasure held undisputed reign : handset 
entertainments were given : some there were » 
aristocratic and exclusive, that persons were only 
invited who were unexceptionable as to havt to* 
People were entertained on other days according H 
their rank in life : one day, Officers of Government L 
and their Ladies — on another, Councillors and thdr t 
wives — on a third, the citizens generally. The** 1 u 
men of the tiers etat in those days are represent* \ 
very favorably, and as far superior to persons of tkl :« 
same condition in the Provinces of Old France,u* t 
even in Paris itself. La Potherie says, theffo 
spoke perfectly well, and with good accent. Tltff p 
had no dialect, which indeed is generally lost * 
a Colony. They had wit, delicacy, good voiced % 
and loved dancing to excess. They were naturattf i 
prudent, and little addicted to trifling — so that whet^ 




Ley admitted the addresses of a lover, it was 
end in marriage. 

t was found a season the most tedious and diffi- 
pass of any part of the year, the climate dur- 
i months of February and March being the 
svere of the winter. The cold, was then exces- 
ut the weather nevertheless fine, and the sky 
a Canadian winter possesses indeed this dis- 
i, that there is very little foggy weather, so 
ery one preserved their health. People got 
med to the cold as to every thing else, and 
; wearing too many clothes, the men went for 
•st part with their coats open. When there 
ly two feet of snow upon the ground they 
it a very mild winter ; but it was generally 
six feet deep, especially in the woods, 
long duration of the snow rendered it im- 
i to commence the sowing of grain before 
but the harvest was nevertheless gathered in 
the months of August and September. This 
nee of snow was like manure, enriching and 
ig the soil. If the winters were cold, the sum- 
r hich in point of fact were only June and July, 
>t less insupportable. The heat was then ex- 
, more so than in the West Indies. Like the 
came on without preparation, as it were tout 
No spring was felt bringing on the warm 
by imperceptible gradations : the thaw came 
; being remarked, and there were no de- 
f rain as at Paris. Hard frost was some- 
nown in the mornings of August ; but it used 
away and the warm days to return. Thun- 
\ frequent in summer : it had a dull and hollow 
and generally fell whenever it was heard, 
the thunder in the West Indies, it occurs in 

888 vxw norms or gtunnM^ 

Canada in extremely close weather, wheal 
not a breadth of air* It is then thai the heat 
tolerable, and a cold, or rather a hoarseness 
guarded against 



Chariatoix, speaking of the harbor, < 
"there is no other city besides this in the kaomn 
that can boast of a fresh water harbor ana " 
and twenty leagues from the, sea, and that 
containing an hundred ships of the Knew lt< 
stands upon the most navigable river in 4e ! 
The fottowinff is his description of .the, 
Town : " When Ch amflain founded this 
160% die tide usually rose to the foes of tike 
Since that time the river has retired by fittla 
little, and has at last left dry. a large piece of u 
on which the Lower Town has since been built, aai 
which is now sufficiently elevated above the watcrt 
edge, to secure the inhabitants against the rounds* 
tion of the river. The first thing you meet with, OS 
landing, is a pretty large square, and of irregular 
form, having in front a row of well built houses, the 
back part of which leans against the rock, so tint 
they have no great depth. These form a street ef 
considerable length, occupying the whole breadth of 
the square, and extending on the right and left SB 
far as the two wpys which lead to the Upper Town. 
The square is bounded towards die left by a small 
Church, and towards the right by two rows of hoosei 
placed in a parallel direction. There is also anothei 
street on the other side between the Church and tin 
harbor, and at the turning of the river under Cap 
Diamond, there is likewise another pretty long fligh 


>uses on the banks of a creek called UAnse des 
?8. This quarter may be reckoned properly 
gh a sort of Suburb to the Lower Town. Be- 
q this Suburb and the great street, you go up 
e higher town by so steep an ascent, that it has 

found necessary to cut it into steps. Thus it 
possible to ascend it, except on foot. But in 
r from the square towards the right, a way has 
made, the declivity of which is much more gen- 
nd which is lined with houses. At the place 
e these two ways meet begins that part of the 
$r Town which faces the River, there being 
ler Lower Town on the side towards the Little 
r St. Charles. The first building worthy of 
e you meet with on your right hand in the for- 
>f those sides, is the Bishop's Palace ; the left 
f entirely occupied with private houses." 
lis topography of Charlevoix is perfectly cor- 
and intelligible at the present day, very little 
ition having taken place. It will be remem- 
1 that there was then no Gate near the Bishop's 
ice — a simple barrier of pickets was all the de- 
• ; and so it remained at the capture in 1759, 
shown by an ancient print with which we have 

favored. It has been noticed in a former place, 
the path, afterwards called Mountain Street, 
made by Cham plain after building the first 
It is most probable that the descent into the 
ie-Sac 9 by the steps opposite to Mr. Neilson's 
ting Office, was the most ancient way to the 
er Town, and was the one made by Champlain. 

other descent for carriages was made subse- 
tly, and is spoken of by Le Beau, who was 
(uebec nine years after Charlevoix, as being 
is time extremely difficult for carriages. It 

2 B 


was so, indeed, until macadamized a few years ago; 
and even now it is very steep. 

Until the year 1682, the houses in the Lower 
Town were of wood. On the 5th August, in that 
year, a fire took place which consumed the whole of 
the buildings, except one house. All the merchan- 
dise in the stores, which were full, was destroyed ; 
and as expressed in our French manuscript, " they 
lost that night more valuables than all Canada at 
present possesses." The house which escaped the 
flames belonged to M. Aubert De Lachenaye. 
He was a rich and generous merchant, and liberally 
assisted his countrymen with his power and means 
in rebuilding their houses. He lent his money so 
freely that there was scarcely a house in the Lower 
Town which was not mortgaged to him ; and this 
he did for no sordid purpose, but for the good of 
the Colony, and of his fellow citizens. 

The Lower Town, as might be expected, suffer- 
ed greatly from the fire of the British batteries in 
1759. We have seen an old print representing the 
state of the Place de Notre Dame, or Lower Town 
Market Place, drawn upon the spot, in 1761. The 
Church was entirely destroyed, nothing remaining 
but the walls very much shattered. The houses in 
Notre Dame Street, and on the opposite side of the 
square, appear untenanted, many of them roofless, 
and all in the vicinity more or less injured. The 
size and height of the houses are the same as they 
are now : that on the south-west angle of the square 
appears exactly as at present. This print is inte- 
resting, as showing the substantial and convenient 
manner in which the best houses in the Lower Town 
had been rebuilt, after the great fire mentioned above, 
in 1682. In point of appearance they were little 


ferior to the buildings at present on the site : ma- 
f 9 no doubt, are the same, having been substantially 
•paired after the cession of the Province. 


The Upper and Lower Towns of Quebec, toge~ 
ter with the Suburbs, occupy a site which may be 
escribed as a triangle, the Banlieu line being the 
ase, the Rivers St Lawrence and St. Charles form- 
lg the sides, and the Point, at the confluence of 
hose Rivers, being the apex. The Lower Town 
deludes all the extent of buildings underneath the 
liff, from the spot where the Banlieu line strikes the 
St. Lawrence on the south, to the King's wood-yard 
in the St. Charles, towards the north. Beyond the 
rood-yard is the populous Suburb of St Roch. The. 
louses in Mountain Street below Prescott-Gate 
ire also in the Lower Town. 

Owing to the great increase of late years in the 
irade of the Province, several new wharfs, on which 
ire extensive storehouses, have recently been con- 
structed on lots redeemed from the water, particularly 
n the neighborhood of the Quebec Exchange. 
8ut although very considerable improvements have 
teen made in the extent of its mercantile accommo- 
lation, the Lower Town is still too much confined 
or the convenience of the trade. Several counting 
ouses and mercantile establishments are still obliged 
o be kept at such a distance from the centre of bu- 
iness, as to be extremely inconvenient during the 
irgency of the navigable season. During the last 
r ear above one thousand vessels arrived in this port, 
nd this season the number will probably be as great. 


One consequence has been, a very great influx of emi- 
grants from the mother country, who arrive in vessels 
engaged in the timber trade ; and who during their 
stay in the harbor, and in their transit through the 
Province, expend in the aggregate a very large sum 
of ready money, out of the capital which they bring 
with them for agricultural and other purposes. It is to 
be hoped that these Provinces will long continue to be 
annually enriched by the immigration of an indus- 
trious and moral population from the mother country. 
In noticing the subject of immigration, it would be 
unpardonable to omit the conveniences afforded to 
settlers and travellers by the numerous steam-bouts 
on the St Lawrence, originally established by the 
enterprise of the Honorable John Molson, of Most- 
real. Their safety, speed, and general excellence 
are universally acknowledged by the numerous stran- 
gers who visit this Metropolis. 


As a building devoted to general mercantile pur- 
poses, this institution demands particular attention. 
The first institution of this description in Quebec is 
dated in 1817. It was established in a house at the 
south end of St. Peter Street, whence it was removed, 
in 1822, to a handsome room in the new building 
erected by the Fire Assurance Company. An 
annually encreasing subscription list led eventually 
to the erection of the present commodious edifice of 
cut stone. The ground on which it stands, a water 
lot, was purchased in June, 1828, and contains ten 
thousand superficial feet. The Honorable Matthew 
Bell, from whom the site was purchased, gave, in 

with historical recollections. 29$ 

lie most handsome manner, as his subscription to 
le undertaking, a fifth part of the purchase money, 
is donation amounting to two hundred pounds. The 
>ublic spirit of the projectors of this undertaking was 
ruly commendable, and liberally supported by the 
>ublic. One thousand pounds was soon subscribed 
o erect the building, and the income being conside- 
able, arising from annual subscriptions to the read- 
ng room, no difficulty was found in raising the funds 
lecessary for its completion. The first stone was 
laid with Masonic ceremonies on the 6th September, 

The edifice is situated at the east end of St. Paul 
Street ; and has answered the most sanguine expec- 
tations of the Proprietors, who were incorporated by 
Act of the Provincial Parliament in 1830. 

The lower part, or ground floor, was intended for 
an Exchange, " where merchants most do congre- 
gate," and make engagements for the transaction of 
business. The centre story contains the excellent 
Reading Room, fifty feet long, thirty broad, and 
sixteen in height ; the windows of which command 
a complete view of the basin and river. The upper 
part is occupied at present by the Board of Trade ; 
but by an arrangement between the respective pro- 

frietors, it is generally understood that the Quebec 
jbrary will be removed from its present situation 
on the 1st May next, to a spacious room on that 

The excellent arrangement of the Reading Room 
was mainly owing to the ability, zeal, and intel- 
ligence of the late Mr. Henry Thompson, who had 
for several years been the Keeper of the Exchange. 
He fell a victim to the Asiatic Cholera, after a few 
hours illness, in July, 1834, greatly esteemed and 



lamented by all who knew him* The establishment 
is at present under the judicious management of 
Mr. R. Roberts, late merchant of this city. 


This is a corporate establishment for the due re- 
gulation of the Pilots who ply in the River St 
Lawrence, and for their charitable support after they 
are disabled by age, accident, or infirmity. There is 
also a fund for the relief of their widows and chil- 
dren. It is governed by a Master, Deputy Master, 
and Wardens, who are generally Merchants of Que- 
bec. The business of the Corporation is transacted 
in a house in St. Peter Street, not far from the 
Quebec Exchange. 

This establishment was no doubt founded in 
imitation of similar institutions in England. In 
the reign of Henry VII I., certain officers were incor- 
porated by the name of Master and Wardens of the 
Holy Trinity : " they were to take care of the 
building, keeping and conducting of the Royal 
Navy." This Corporation had a foundation at Dept- 
ford, in Kent, containing fifty-nine houses for de- 
cayed Pilots and Masters of Ships, or the widows of 
such; and the men were allowed twenty, and the 
women sixteen shillings per month. There is also 
a noble establishment of this kind at Hull, in York- 

the banks fire assurance company. 

The Quebec Bank occupies the lower story of 
the handsome stone edifice built by the Quebec 


FifcE Assurance Company, fronting in St. Peter 
Street. It was incorporated in 1822, and is a Joint 
Stock Company. 

The Quebec Fire Assurance Company's Office 
is on the second story of the building. This is also 
b corporation. Above is the Quebec Library, a 
large and valuable collection of books amounting to 
iipwards of six thousand. The property is vested in 
Trustees, elected annually by the proprietors, and 

Srsons are also received as yearly subscribers. This 
brary was founded in the year 1779, during the 
administration of His Excellency General Haldimand, 
who liberally contributed one hundred volumes of 
valuable works towards its formation. 

The Office for Discount and Deposit for the 
Montreal Bank, which is a branch of the parent 
Bank in that city, is situated at the corner of St. Peter 
Street and St. James's Street, not far from the Ex- 
change. It was also incorporated in 1822, and is a 
Joint Stock Company. 

king's wharf and custom house. 

The King's Wharf has already been mentioned 
as appropriated to the purposes of Government ; and 
as having upon it the extensive stores belonging to 
the Commissariat Department. Here is a battery 
level with the water ; and the wharf itself is the 
place of embarkation and landing of the King's 
troops, for the Governors, and Officers of the Navy 
and Army. 

Immediately adjoining, on the west, is the New 
Custom House, which has so far been lately com- 
pleted. It is a plain stone edifice, well and substan- 

$9$ mw ncruuf op ftDWWf 

If.': TW 

tially built The interior is well , gdaptfd far, fl$ 
Convenience of business, ud the long roonvhaa bftgt 
generally admired, . ... '• ,^ 

... Very nearly opposite to the Cuatom ^opfV*M^ 
flood anciently a barrier, where the two ways di?c» 
one to the steps leading to the Upper Town* a&4j|{ 
Other to the harbor. It was near this spqt.^ 
the American General Montgomery, and other 
officers, were killed by the discharge of a cannon, it 
his daring attack upon the Lower Town, on the last 
day of December, 1775. 

At some distance beyond this remarkable spot, at 
the foot of Caps Diamond, is the inclined piano 
from the Citadel, which has been previously men- 
tioned; and further still is Wolmis Cots, when 
that intrepid leader performed his extraordinary ex- 
ploit, and to the astonishment of the French, suc- 
ceeded in ascending the cliff, and in forming hi 
army in battle, array on the Plains of Abraham. 

Among the recent improvements in the Lower 
Town, a spacious market for cattle, hay, wood, and 
other articles of country produce, was opened during 
the last year, at the west end of St. Paul Street, 
near the King's wood-yard. 

The city of Quebec was incorporated by Act of 
the Provincial Parliament in 1833. It is divided 
into ten wards. The Common Council consists of 
twenty members, from whom the Mayor is annually 
chosen. The first Mayor was Elzear Bedard, Es- 
quire ; and for the current year, Edouard Caeon, 

The Corporation seal represents a female figure, 
in a sitting position, leaning upon a shield, on which 
is a lion passant, holding a Key. Above is a cor- 
nucopia, and on the side a bee-hive. At her feet 


seen a beaver. The figure points to the river, 
here there is a ship at anchor. In the back ground 
i a representation of Cape Diamond. The follow- 
ag are the legends on the seal, above — Natura 


Juebecense, A. D. MDCVIIL Civitatis Regi- 
hne Donata, A. D. MDCCCXXXIII. 




One, who is conversant only with the petty and 
broken lines of European geography, cannot form 
any adequate conception of the political importance 
of our impregnable fortress. Placed, as if by the 
most consummate art, at the very lowest point that 
effectually commands the navigation of the largest 
body of fresh water in the world, Cape Diamond 
holds, and must for ever hold, the keys not only of all 
the vast and fertile regions, drained by our magnificent 
river, but of the almost untrodden world between 
Lake Superior and the rocky mountains. — On one 
side the icy barriers of the north, on the other, the 
dangers, delays and distempers of the Mississippi will 
for ever secure an almost exclusive preference to the 
great highway of the St. Lawrence. In Quebec and 
Montreal, respectively, must centre the dominion and 
the wealth of half a continent. 

Quebec has been styled the Gibraltar of America 
— a comparison that conveys a more correct idea of 
its military strength than of its commercial and po- 
litical importance. Let the European reader com- 
plete the comparison by closing the Baltic, the Elbe 
and the Rhine, turning the Danube westward into 
the English channel, and placing Gibraltar so as to 


command that noble stream's navigation of two thou- 
sand miles. 

Quebec, moreover, derives a vast degree of relative 
importance from its being almost the only fortified 
spot in North America. Over the whole continent 
nature has not planted a single rival ; while art in 
the more level districts of the south was in a great 
measure suspended by swamps and forests. 

The spirit of the French system of American colo- 
nization appreciated fully the unrivalled advantages 
of Quebec, and made Cape Diamond the fulcrum of 
a lever that was to shake the English colonies from 
their foundations. Every page of the earlier history 
of these regions forces on the reflecting mind a fun- 
dunental distinction, between the English and the 
French colonies in North America. The former 
were planted by an intelligent people ; the latter 
were founded by an ambitious government. 

The English settlements, forming, as it were, so 
many mutually independent states, directed their 
Unfettered energies into the natural channels of agri- 
culture and commerce. — The French ones, entangled 
in the meshes of a net of unparallelled extent, were but 
the inert parts of a political machine, powerful, indeed, 
but unwieldy, expensive and unproductive. The 
French sought dominion in military power — the 
English cherished the spirit and enjoyed the bless- 
ings of freedom. Their fundamental distinction, 
while it gave France a temporary preponderance, 
could not fail to secure the ultimate triumph of her 
more enlightened, though less crafty, rival. 

From" the struggles between these hereditary rivals 
sprung most of the eventful scenes, which form the 
subject of this chapter ; and one cannot but wonder 
that Quebec, the source of all the evils that afflicted 


the English settlements, was not more frequently 
the main object of attack. 

Sieges are from various causes, such as the vicis- 
situdes of fortune, the concentration of interest, the 
pre-eminent display of valour and generosity, and 
other popular virtues, the most spirit stirring occur- 
rences in warfare ; but one of the sieges of Quebec 
is peculiarly interesting and important, from its cot* 
ting off the contending commanders in the decisive 
hour of victory, changing the civil and political con- 
dition of vast and fertile regions, and bringing to * 
dose the European warfare which had rendered the 
basins of the St Lawrence and the Mississippi one 
vast field of blood and battle. 

Many years, however, before the political jealousies 
of France and England rendered Quebec the object 
of unremitting and vigorous contention, several Ifi- 
dian tribes, influenced partly by a natural dislike of 
foreign intruders, and partly by hereditary hostility 
towards the native allies of the strangers, had at- 
tempted to sweep away the scarcely formed germs of 
our ripe and rich metropolis. In the year 1621, 
when the whole population of Quebec fell short of 
three score souls, the Five Nations, or, as they are 
often termed, the Iroquois, surrounded a fortified 
post on the shore of the River St. Charles, but fear- 
ing the consequences of an actual assault, turned 
their murderous wrath on the chief objects of their 
vengeance, the Indian allies of the colony. It is but 
just here to offer the tribute of applause to the supe- 
riority of the French over the English in conciliating 
the aboriginal savages of the North American con- 

While the English fought their way by inches in 
almost every settlement, the French generally lived 




in fraternal terms with their immediate neighbors,' 
ind engaged in hostilities with distant tribes rather 
u allies than as principals. The Indian wars of the 
English were generally civil ones; those of the 
French were almost universally foreign. — In the in- 
cursions, of which we have instanced one, the aim of 
the Iroquois was not so much the French, as the 
Hurons and the Algonquins. 

. After a lapse of eight years of dubious security, 
Quebec, as if in anticipation of its final and perma- 
nent destiny, fell into the hands of the hereditary 
enemies of France. 

In the preceding year, that is in 1628, Sir David 
Kertk, accompanied by William de Caen, a traitor 
o his country, penetrated as far as Tadoussac with 
i powerful squadron, and thence summoned the 
governor of Quebec to an immediate surrender. 
2h am plain, who had founded the colony, and whose 
lame will live for ever in a Lake rich in historic 
ecollections, had at that time the command of Que- 
bec. The gallant commander, relying perhaps as 
iiuch on a bold front, as on the strength of the de- 
ences or the prowess of the garrison, saved the set- 
lement from Kertk's irresistible force by the spirited 
eply of himself and his companions. 

In July following, an English fleet under two bro- 
kers of Sir David Kertk, who remained himself at 
Tadoussac, anchored unexpectedly before the town. 
Those, who know the difficulty, even in the present 
lay, of conveying intelligence, between Quebec and 
be lower parts of the river, will not be surprised that 
bis fleet should have, almost literally, brought the 
xst intelligence of its own approach. 

The brothers immediately sent, under the protec- 
ion of a white flag, the following summons, which 

2 c 




breathes at once a consciousness of strength and a 
feeling of generosity. 

July 19th, 1629. 

Our brother having last year informed youth! 
sooner or later be would take Quebec, he desires u 
to offer you his friendship and respects, as we ato 
do on our part, and knowing the wretched state of 
your garrison, we order you to surrender the Fort 
and settlement of Quebec into our hands, offering 
you terms that you will consider reasonable, and 
which shall be granted on your surrender. 

Champlairi8 answer. 


It is too true that owing to the want of succour I 
and assistance from France, our distress is very | ; 
great, and that we are incapable of resistance— I 
therefore desire that you will not fire on the town, 
nor land your troops until the articles of capitulation 
can be drawn up. 

Articles of Capitulation proposed by Champlain. 

That Messieurs Kertk shall produce the Kingof Eng- 
land's Commission, by virtue of which they summon 
the place to surrender, as an evidence that war had 
been declared between France and England. That 
they should also produce authority by which they 
were empowered by their brother David Kertk, Ad- 
miral of the Fleet. That a vessel should be furnished 
for transporting to France all the French, without 
excepting two Indian women. 

That the soldiers should march out with their arms 
and baggage. 


That the vessel to be provided to carry, the gar- 
ison to France shall be well victualled, to be paid 
for in. peltries. 

.That no violence or insult shall be offered to any 
person* : 

•That the vessel to be procured shall be ready for 
Leparture three, days after their arrival at Tadoussac, 
Hid that they shall be transported. 

Answer of the Kertks. 

That they had not the commission from the King 
of. England^ but that their brother had it at Tadous- 
sac, that they were empowered by their brother to 
treat with Mr. Qhamplain. 

That a vessel would be provided, and if not suf- 
ficiently large, they would be put on board the ships 
of the fleet of England, and from thence sent to 

That the Indian women could not be given up for 
reasons to be explained when they met. 

That the officers and soldiers should march out 
with their arms, baggage and other effects. 

Champlain's own proposals of capitulation satis* 
fiactorily demonstrate that, down to 1629, France had 
hardly any permanent footing in the country. By 
stipulating for the removal of " all the French," in 
Quebec, Champlain seems to have considered that 
the Province was virtually lost to France ; and the 
single vessel, which was to furnish the means of a 
removal, reduces " all the French" in Quebec to a 
very paltry number. The humanity of the victors, 
however, had the effect of inducing most of the colo- 
nists to remain under the English Government. 


With Quebec fell of course the whole of Canada fc 
into the power of England. 

Champlain, with the partiality of a father for his 
child, strove by the most pressing entreaties, and by 
the most natural exaggerations, to make his country 
wrest Quebec from England by negociation or by 
arms. His countrymen, however, did not unani- 
mously second the unsuccessful commander's blended 
aspirations of patriotism and ambition. With the 
exception of a few placemen, and of a few zealots for 
commercial intercourse and maritime enterprise, 
most of the leading men of France considered Canada 
merely as an expensive toy, — The government, 
therefore, permitted three years to elapse without 
employing any active means of recovering the lost 
colony, and at last adopted the alternative of nego- 
ciation, its cheapest and most powerful weapon against 
the generous prowess of England. 

In 1632, France recovered, by the treaty of St 
Germain-en- Lay e, Canada along with the Acadian 
Peninsula and the Island of Cape Breton. 

Connected with this point of our interesting sub- 
ject, a few observations on the colonial supremacy of 
Britain may not be deemed impertinent by the intel- 
ligent reader. 

Before the decay of the feudal system, and the 
establishment of standing armies, had consolidated 
the gigantic kingdoms of Spain and France, England 
was more than a match in a fair field for either of her 
more populous and more extensive rivals. Subse- 
quently, however, to the introduction of those politi- 
cal and military innovations, England was induced 
as well by necessity as by inclination to cherish 
her navy, as the safest and most efficient means of 
maintaining her high position among the powers of 


Europe. Not only has her navy secured to her the 
uninterrupted blessings of national independence, and 
the proud rank of arbitress of Europe ; but it has 
enabled her to reap the rich fruits of the colonial en«? 
terprise of France, Portugal, and Holland. Sic vos 
non vcbi*, would have been the appropriate, though 
haughty, inscription of her omnipresent and omnipo- 
tent banner. As if by the unerring hand of destiny, 
colony after colony, from Ganges' banks to Erie's side, 
has been made to submit, notwithstanding repeated 
restitutions, to the permanent dominion of the British 
name; and a nation separated from all other nations, 
owes, chiefly to that very separation, the mastery of a 
world, far more extensive than the " whole world," of 
the Roman bard. But however humiliating to rivals 
may have been the colonial conquests of England, the 
conquered colonies have found, in the blessings of 
political liberty and comparatively unrestricted com- 
merce, an ample recompense for their share of na- 
tional humiliation, and have generally acquiesced 
with a feeling of peaceful gratitude in the milder and 
happier order of things. 

Champlain was reinstated in the government of 
the recovered colony, and during the remaining years 
of his honorable life was exempted from the troubles 
at least of foreign invasion. 

Quebec seems to have enjoyed a kind of dubious 
tranquillity, untilabout twenty years after Champlain's 
death, the Five Nations, to the unusually large num- 
ber of seven hundred warriors, after having massacred 
the natives and the colonists in the open country, and 
committed the most cruel devastations, blockaded 
Quebec for several successive months. — Such a siege 
may occupy a very small share of our consideration; 
but the recollections of the tomahawk, and the knife 

2c 3 

9M mew fictuu of gurnet 

of the yelling children of the forest, are still 
enough in Canada, to rouse pur definite lymfjftwi 
for the dangers and the distresses of the nnhitoy 
citizens. Trie scene most have teemed with picb* 
resque horrors ; and many bold and thrilling achieVf* 
ments doubtless deepened its terrible interest ' 

This siege, although ultimately baffled, was urt 
prejudicial to the welfare of Quebec : its dangers ins 
terrors drove many of the settlers to France ift &Oh 
pair, and almost led to the ruin of the colony;* 

After a lapse of about thirty years, Quebec, nadir 
the command of the gallant Count de Frontenaty 
made a vigorous and honorable defence in lMty 
against the forces of Sir William Phipps, Governor 
of Massachusetts. 

As this siege in addition to its intrinsic interest* 
was the fruit of the colonial system of France pie* 
viously noticed, it demands a fuller and more cir- 
cumstantial detail in any historical sketch of Quebec 

For some years before the date of this siege, 'the 
French had vigorously availed themselves of their 
geographical position not merely to harass, but to 
circumscribe the colonies of New England and New 
York. The possession of Acadia, which had been 
restored by England, in defiance of the remonstrance 
of the neighboring provinces, enabled France to 
command and cripple the commerce and the fisheries 
of the eastern colonies ; while the discovery of the 
Mississippi, in the year 1673, and the subsequent 
attempts of France to colonise its banks excited se- 
rious alarms for the security of the more westerly 

The English colonies, roused to a sense of the 
impending dangers, made unparalleled exertions both 


f land and sea to deliver themselves from their 
afty and restless neighbours. 

In 1690, they took Port Royal in Acadia with a 
nail force of seven hundred men ; and in the same 
*ar made a judiciously planned attempt on Quebec, 
ie true centre of the French power in America. 
'he immediate cause of this attempt was the cruel 
ivasion of the state of New- York by the French in 
ie beginning of the year. The French had concerted 
a attack on the city of New- York, to be made si- 
raltaneously by sea and land ; but, though their 
lain design was disappointed by unforeseen circum- 
tances, they sent forth marauding parties to the 
oath, that laid waste the country with fire and sword, 
nd murdered in cold blood the unresisting inhabi- 
ints of Schenectady with more than barbarian fero- 

The English colonists, provoked by an attack so 
owardly, so atrocious and so uncommon even in the 
nnals of American warfare, and haunted by unde- 
ined terrors of future encroachment and cruelty, 
etermined, by means of their commissioners assem- 
ledat New-York, to carry the war into Canada with 
11 possible diligence. Having in vain requested 
rom the mother country a supply of ships and am- 
aunition, the colonists gallantly resolved to bear the 
rhole burden of the invasion, and to extricate them- 
elves at all hazards from the rapidly closing net of 
he French. It is more than probable that had their 
nvasion of Canada been successful, they would have 
esisted by something more than remonstrances the 
estitution of the Province to their inveterate and 
tnplacable enemies, and have anticipated by a per- 
lanent conquest the triumphs of the immortal 





The invading forces consisted of an army, that wy 
to cross the country under General Winthrop, ao4 F 
a naval squadron under the command of Governor 
Phipps. Of the army nothing more needs be said, 
than that like pvery other army on a similar errand, 
it was completely unsuccessful; to the squadron, wind* 
conducted the siege of Quebec, our last attention 
must be given. 

As soon as the Count de Frontenac, who had tun- 
ed his earliest attention to the operations of the bund 
army, was apprised of its retreat, he led back Hi 
troops with all possible diligence to reinforce the go* 
rison of Quebec, having ordered the governors of 
Montreal and Three- Rivers to follow him with their 
disposable forces of militia and regulars. 

By extraordinary exertions, the gallant Count ptf 
the city in a state at least of temporary defence* f)fc» 
fore the arrival of the hostile squadron, and seems to 
have infused into his soldiers his own heroic confi- 
dence of success. 

Sir William Phipps appeared before the town 
on the 5th October, old style. Charlevoix, who uses 
the new style adopted by the French as early as 
1582, calls it the 16th. Although he was certainly 
neither a traitor nor a coward, the delay and irreso- 
lution of the General were afterwards complained o£ 
probably owing to the great disappointment of the 
English colonists, at the failure of the expedition and 
the fruitless expense which had been incurred. On 
the 6th October " it was concluded," says Major 
Walley in his narrative, " that a summons should be 
sent ashore," of which the following is a copy : 


■ cc To Count Frontenac, Lieutenant General, and 
Governor for the French King at Canada, or in 
his absence, to his deputy, or him or them in 
chief command. 

u The war between the two crowns of England 
ttd France, does not only sufficiently warrant, but 
Xe destruction made by the French and Indians un- 
er your command and encouragement, upon the 
arsons and estates of their Majesties' subjects of 
Jew England, without provocation on their part, 
Bth put them under the necessity of this expedition, 
»r their security and satisfaction, and although the 
ruelties and barbarities used against them by the 
Tench and the Indians, might upon the present oc- 
asions prompt to a severe revenge ; yet being de- 
irous to avoid all inhumanity and unchristian-like 
ctions, and to prevent the shedding of blood as 
mch as may be, I, William Phipps, Knight, do 
ereby and in the name and on behalf of their most 
zcellent Majesties' William and Mary, King and 
^ueen of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, 
efendersof the faith, and by order of their Majesties' 
aid government of the Massachusetts colony in New 
England, demand a surrender of your Forts and 
Nasties and the things and other stores, unembezzled, 
dth a seasonable delivery of all captives, together 
rith a surrender of all your persons and estates to 
ny disposal. 

u Upon the doing whereof you may expect mercy 
Torn me, as a christian, according to what shall be 
Found for their Majesties' service and the subjects' se- 
curity, which if you refuse forthwith to do, I come 
provided, and am resolved by the help of God, on 

whom I trust, by force of arms, to revenge all wrong) P- 
and injuries offered, and bring you under subjection * 
to the Crown of Biiglrad ; and when too late Biah * 
you wish you had accepted the favor tendered. 

** Your answer positive in an hour — returned with c 
your own trumpet, with the return of mine, in re - 
quired upon the peril that will ensue." 

The circumstances i attending the reception of iht ■ 
EiigKah officer, the attempt made to impose upon la - 
imagination, his behaviour, and the spirited reply el" - 
Frontenac will be found- i* a former chapter, in our ' 
account of the Castle of St Lewis. 

finding the place prepared for defence, S i it Wn - 
Iiam after a fruitiest attempt to capture it, on the 
land side, by an attack en the River St. Charlia 
contented himself with a bombardment of the cfr > ' 
and retired after staying a week in the harbor. All 
the English narratives of tlie siege plausibly enough 
ascribe the defeat to Sir William's procrastinating 
disposition, but he seems on this occasion at least M 
have had sufficient justification in the obvious impro- 
priety of attacking a city almost impregnable by 
nature, and swarming with zealous defenders. 

Charlevoix mentions that he was delayed by heal 
winds and by bad pilots. But Sir William's delay, 
from whatever circumstances it sprung, was indubita- 
bly the sole cause of the subsequent disgrace and 
disaster. Had the English forces arrived but three 
days sooner they could not have failed to achieve an 
easy and almost bloodless conquest : but during that 

fieri od, time for defence was afforded, and M. de Gal- 
ieres, Governor of Montreal, had reinforced tht 
garrison with the troops of the upper country, and 
rendered the besieged numerically superior to tie 
besiegers. But even in this apparently untoward 


rcumstance Phipps might have discerned the gleams 

5 certain victory, for N the increased consumption of 
ipplies, originally scanty, would soon have enlisted 

6 his side the powerful aid of famine. 

Oar French manuscript clearly shows that even 
fcfore Sir William's hasty departure, the garrison had 
deply tasted the horrors of famine. The Nuns re- 
ricted themselves to a daily morsel of bread ; and 
10 loaves which they furnished to the soldiers, were 
fepatiently devoured in the shape of dough — terror 
ad distress reigned in the city, " for," in the simple 
ut affecting language of the writer, " every thing 
iminished excepting hunger." To add to the ge- 
teral confusion, the English squadron kept up a tre- 
mendous cannonade more to the alarm than to the 
DJnry of the inhabitants. Major Walley's Journal, 
tesides being too prolix for our limits, is less likely 
o interest the sympathies of the reader than the nar- 
ative of one of the besieged. We therefore take 
he following extracts from our French manuscript : 

" It is easy to imagine how our alarms redoubled, 
rhen we heard the noise of the cannon we were more 
lead than alive, every time that the combat was re- 
lewed. The bullets fell on our premises in such 
lumbers, that in one day we sent twenty-six of them 
x> our artillerymen to be sent back to the English, 
Several of us thought that we were killed by them ; 
lie danger was so evident that the bravest officers 
regarded the capture of Quebec as inevitable. In 
ipite of all our fears we prepared different places for 
the "reception of the wounded, because the combat 
had commenced with an air to make us believe that 
our hospital would not be capable of containing those 
irho might have need of our assistance : but God 
•pared the blood of the French ; there were few 





wounded and fewer killed. Quebec was very badly a 
fortified for a siege ; it contained very few arms and $ 
no provisions ; and the troops that had come from |J 
Montreal had consumed the little food that there w* 
in the city." " The fruits and vegetables of our gar- 
den were pillaged by the soldiers ; they wanned 5 
themselves at our expense and burned our wood." 
" Every thing appeared sweet to us, provided we 
could be preserved from falling into the hands of those 
whom we regard as the enemies of God, as well is 
of ourselves. We had not any professed artillery- 
men. Two Captains, M. De Maricourt and M. 
De Lorimier, took charge of the batteries and point- 
ed the cannon so accurately as hardly ever to mis*. ^ 
M. De Maricourt shot down the flag of the Admiral, 
and, as soon as it fell, our Canadians boldly ventured 
out in a canoe to pick it up, and brought it ashore 
under the very beard of the English." 


The defeat of Sir William Phipps was sensibly 
felt by the people of New England, who indeed 
were called upon to defray the expense, amounting 
to one hundred and fifty thousand pounds. They 
frequently represented to the British Ministry the 
commercial advantages, which would result from the 
total expulsion of the French from North America. 
At last, in 1707, during the military glories of the 
reign of Queen Anne, distinguished by a Marlbo- 
kough, as this age is by a Wellington — the Earl 
of Sunderland, Secretary of State, determined to 
make another attempt to dislodge the French from 
their almost impregnable position at Quebec The 


armament intended for this object, under the com- 
mand of General Macartney, was, however, divert- 
ed from its destination, and ordered to Portugal, 
in consequence of the disastrous condition to which 
the affairs of the Queen's Ally, Charles III. King 
of Spain, had been reduced by the defeat of the 
allied forces at Almanza. 

• In 1711, the project was resumed, only to result 
in a signal and mortifying failure. The plan of this 
expedition was suggested by a provincial officer, 
General Nicholson, who had just taken possession 
of Nova Scotia, on which occasion he had given 
the name of Annapolis to Port Royal. This 
officer had brought to London four Indian Chiefs, and 
had the address to persuade the Ministry to enter 
into the views of the New England States. The ex- 
pedition consisted of five thousand troops from Eng- 
land, and two thousand provincials, under Brigadier 
General Hill, brother to the Queen's favorite, Mrs* 
Masham. The naval force was very strong, and 
was placed under the command of Sir Hovenden 
Walker. The fleet met with constant fogs in the 
Gulf of St. Lawrence, and was nearly destroyed on 
the Egg Islands on the 22d August. Despairing of 
success, the Admiral called a council of war, and it 
was determined to return to England without mak- 
ing any further attempt. Eight transports were lost 
on this disastrous day, with eight hundred and 
eighty ^our officers, soldiers, and seamen. The pro- 
vincial land forces under General Nicholson, which 
had advanced as far as Albany, and had been joined 
by six hundred Iroquois, returned to their respective 

Juarters on hearing of the failure of the naval expe- 
ition. It is remarkable that during the heat of the 
factions of that day, the Whigs affected to consider 

2 d 

&I4 • wkw wumxam or 

this attempt on Qnmo eo perfis cd wr 
undertaking, that it was made one off the 
impeachment against Hamlet,. EaeLa£ iQnoasyl)# 
► bad suffered it to 

^ ** -» ■ ■ — * - _^s 
raseunr . Mi|NMMIV9 


he had suffered it to goon* -rvi.i* M*rf 

The Marauis Da VAVMsmi* ikm4!mmmk 

General off Gavada, omitted ne date ef a Jsm» 

The Marauis Da Vabmehil, thm -4S**tM*tjt 
al off Guiada, omitted ne data < 
and prudent officer on thie oenasion, Th# 

and prudent officer on una oananon, ifieccpnsji 
at Quebec mere aatamlly mat at a* sigsala 
Kverance; and the Church oi Notre Hmiii A afcifti 
tolre spoke the piaua gratitude ol the is%i os * 
inhabitants, by assuming the tide itNetnDmm tin 
Victoirts. .*..* «■ 

npninnoi'Oi 17661 

If k be- the province of Hmramr tahaetmfcgsjrt 
s^ons and glonous aducvements, thaaa ^aaaaot^ 
a nobler subject than, this expedition* a* elistas- 1 
guished for enterprise, conduct and success, fif 
the common consent of the world, Quebec is fa 
ever identified with the renown of the two great na- 
tions who contended for its possession ; and the his- 
tory of this period will always be referred, to ss 
equally interesting, attractive and important. The 
varied incidents of the expedition— the arrival before 
the town — the attack of the fire ships— the fruitless 
engagement at Montmorenci — the bombardment 
from Pointe-Levi— the landing under the heights 
of Abraham — the battle of the Plains — the death ef 
the two heroic leaders — the surrender— the subse- 
quent fight at Sillery — the siege by the French— 
and the arrival of the English fleet, form a series of 
spirit-stirring events, which possess the. mind of. the 
reader with the eager interest of vicissitude* as they 
in turn develope the great game of war, played: by 


the motit skilful hands, and for the noblest stake ! 
The scene of this heroic drama, the actors, and the 
fevent will be for ever memorable. The tale has been 
handed down by various writers — but to do justice 
to the narration requires the pen of Wolfe himself 
—whose style was adorned with all the felicity of 
Casar, and whose celebrated letter to Mr. Pitt is 
still considered unsurpassed as a military compo- 


A brief review of colonial affairs between the peace 
of Utrecht, in 1713, and the commencement of the 
campaign of 1759, appears a necessary introduction 
to the glorious expedition of Wolfe. Notwithstand- 
ing the peace of Utrecht, the English Colonists 
had never forgotten the defeat of Phipps in 1690, 
or the failure of the expedition in 1711. They still 
smarted with the irritation occasioned by the inroads 
rf the Indians in the French interest ; and although 
their hopes of finally curbing the encroachments of 
the enemy had been often excited and disappointed, 
they were far from being extinguished. The erec- 
tion by the French of the strong forts of Niagara, 
Ticonderoga and Crown Point, — all in most com- 
manding situations, as a reference to the Map will 
demonstrate, — was viewed by them as an infringe- 
ment of the treaty of Utrecht, which provided thatno 
encroachment should be made on territories belonging 
to the Five Nations. The attempts, also, made by 
emissaries from Canada to detach those Indians from 
the English alliance, naturally exasperated the colo- 
nists, and led to the sanguinary conflicts which were 
so frequent about the middle of the eighteenth cen- 



The peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, in 1748, was in 

one sense only gratifying to the colonists ; inasmuch 
as the expense of the successful expedition against 
Louisbourg had been reimbursed to them by the 
British Parliament. But they were disgusted, and 
with reason, that Cape Breton, " their own acqui- 
sition," as they proudly termed it, Jiad been restored 
to France by that treaty. Very soon after the peace, 
however, the restless Spirit of the French began to 
display itself. The American continent was not 
destined to enjoy the blessings of internal tranquillity 
for many years yet* to come. The Governor of 
Canada had sent a message to the Indians on the 
eastern frontier of New England, dissuading them 
from any peace with the English ; and on the other 
side the French began to enlarge their own and to 
circumscribe the territories of their rivals. They had 
constructed a chain of forts at the back of Vir- 
ginia, Pennsylvania, and New York. An Eng- 
lishman taken in Ohio was passed along from fort to 
fort until he arrived at Quebec* One of these forts, 
that of Du Quesne, was actually in the territory of 
Virginia. Crown Point was always an annoy- 
ance to the Colonists, and from Ticonderoga issu- 
ed those ferocious incursions of French and Indians 
which spread terror and desolation throughout the 
English settlements. So great was the dread of 
this fortress, that its capture by General Amherst, 
in 1759, was hailed by the northern colonies with 
every demonstration of joy. 

On all accounts it was seen in America that the 
peace could not be of long continuance. While the 
Governor General of Canada continued his endea- 
vors to seduce the Five Nations, — he was evidently 
preparing materials for a war which terminated in 


ike lost of all the French possessions on this con- 


Such was the condition of affairs in 1754, when 
the English Minister recommended a convention of 
delegates from the different assemblies, to be held at 
Albany. This was an assembly the most deserving 
rf respect of any which had ever been convened in 
America* The erection of the French forts — the 
tending out of troops from France — the constant 
meroachments of the Canadians were insisted upon ; 
ind in language not altogether unlike the groans of 
he ancient Britons, the colonists complained, that 
rithout strong and energetic opposition, they were 
ikely to be driven at last into the sea by their inde- 
itigable enemies. At this convention appeared 
Jenjamin Franklin, who produced a plan for a 
eneral union of the different States, and for esta- 
lishing a quota, and fixed rule for levying men 
nd money throughout the colonies. This paper 
ras admirably drawn up, and presents the outline of 

very practicable federal union. The plan was 
nanimously voted by the convention, but the diffe- 
ent states were not disposed to entertain it; and no 
otice was ever taken of it at home. 

One great object of the remarkable convention, held 
t Albany in July, 1754, was to establish that unity 
f action and resistance which was so desirable and 
o necessary in the operations of the sister colonies 
gainst the French. The English colonies were 
ulnerable in different degrees, and at different points, 
fhey were under separate local governments. The 
French possessions, from the Gulf of St. Lawrence 




to the Gulf of Mexico, were subject to one Go* 
vernment ; and the energies of the whole could be 
directed to the attack of any particular colony that 
the Governor General at Quebec might choose to k 
select. The Legislature of each particular colony & 
had the exclusive control of its own militia ;— and § 
the contingents of men and money to be furnished » 
by each of the sister colonies in aid of the colony as* i 
sailed, depended upon the votes of each particular 
Legislature. Hence there was a great difficulty in 
obtaining an unity of action on the part of the whole 
of the British colonies, corresponding with that which 
prevailed in the French North American posses- 


The flames of war — the last war in America be- 
tween the natives of England and France, — a war 
in many cases of extermination, from the violence of 
the passions excited, and the employment of the 
Indians on both sides, were kindled in 1755. We 
must omit the details — the unfortunate expedition of 
Braddock — and the victory of the famous Sir Wil« 
liam Johnson over Baron Dieskau, in which the 
former was wounded, and for which he was created a 
Baronet. The three following campaigns were disas- 
trous to the colonists, who were unable to make any 
impression on the Canada side. The French troops 
were commanded by the Marquis De Montcalm, an 
officer of great military skill, who had already dis- 
tinguished himself in various parts of the world. On 
tho 14th August, 1756, he captured the Fort of 
Oswego ; and on the 9th August, in the following 
year, besieged and took possession of Fort William 


try, defended by a numerous garrison, and com-* 
ded by officers of proved courage and experience, 
atrocities committed by the Indians in the 
ich interest, upon the unhappy and defenceless 
ives on this occasion, showed the impossibility 
inducting the war, with such allies, on European 
riples. It formed no part of the Indian warrior's 
I, that moderation in success added a nobler 
th to the victor's brow, nor could he under- 
1 the distinction, 

Parcere subjectis, et debellare superbos. 

7TCALM had no participation in the cruel mas- 
5 of part of the captive garrison of William 
try : he exerted himself to the utmost to restrain 
r ury of the Indians, but in vain, 
ndismayed by the result of three unsuccessful 
>aigns, the colonists were determined to proceed 
eir hostilities. In 1758, the Earl of Loudoun, 
mander-in-Chief of the Forces, appointed a meet- 
>f the Governors of New York and the New Eng- 
) colonies at Hartford, on the 20th February, 
ike measures for another campaign. Nothing 
factory was concluded at this assembly, and Lord 
doun shortly afterwards returned to England. 
be next sitting of the Massachusetts Assembly, 
rs were received from Mr. Pitt, calling upon 
Provincials to assist in the reduction of Canada ; 
so popular was this proposal, that no less than 
a thousand men were voted. This was the 
test exertion ever made by the Province. The 
uest of Canada alone could ensure the colo- 
future peace ; and freedom from that dis- 
which they were liable to whenever a war 


htfeke oat between EiroLAif i>. and FsttMsV 
were a«v^ that whenever Noam KuwmKkjkt 
be united under ike Barron Grown* there wi 
be no longer reason to dread their Frank 
Indian enemies, who bad been a eooargfrftti 
colonies from their first settlement. It wnLnsji 
therefore, be believed, that die first proposal t£ 
Ministry to undertake the reduction of: CjdUBi* 
a* expedition on a grand scale, was received by 
colonists with joyful co-operation. 

The largest army that had ever been seen in A 
rica, consisting of six thousand regular troops 
nine thousand provincials, under General Abkbcb 
bob, embarked on the placid bosom of Lake Get 
fbrTicoNDBMOGA, July 5tfc, 176ft only tomeeti 
disgrace and disaster. The attack upon this Fsst 
ed completely, with the loss of fifteen hundred i 
including the popular and gallant Lord Hows,* 
brother of the Admiral, and of Sir William, a yc 
nobleman of the greatest promise. The Asset 
of Massachusetts, to testify their respect fo; 
merit and services, voted two hundred and fifty po 
for the erection of a Monument to his men 
which was put up in Westminster Abbey. 

As some compensation for the ill-success of G 
ral Abercrombie, who was immediately reca 
the fortified and strongly garrisoned town of Lc 
bourg, in Cape Breton, was taken in the most 
lant style by the army under General Amherst, 
Brigadier General Wolfe, who there develops* 
extraordinary bravery, activity and military quali 
Fort Frontenac, and Fort Duquesne, near 
Ohio, were also captured by the colonists ia 
campaign of 1758. 


The year 1759 foundthe British Government still 
termined to prosecute with vigor the reduction of 
Untada. Mr, Pitt again called upon the colonists to 
fee the same number of men as in the year before, 
omising a recompense proportioned to the extent 
their exertion, 

The plan for the operations of 1759 was laid with 
Bater care, and had better chances of success, from 
a various points of attack, and the superior cha- 
ster of the officers and troops employed in its ex- 
Qtion, than any of the previous campaigns. There 
d been no attack of Canada by the River St. Law- 
bee since the unfortunate expedition of 1711, 
tile the various attempts by Lake Champlain had 
en foiled by the bravery, vigilance, and good for- 
ne of the French commanders, who were far supe- 
t in the mode of warfare required. In 1759, 
irever, it was determined once more to combine 
ral with military operations ; and to found upon 
f plans of 1690 and 1711, a better combination, 
1 a more extended system of attack. 


The first idea of the combined operations of 1759 
st be referred to the convention at Albany, in 
S4. Mr. Pown all, afterwards Captain General 
Massachusetts Bay, whence he was removed to 
> Government of South Carolina, was present at 
s assembly ; and laid before the Commissioners 
reral valuable memorials on the subject of the Co- 
lies. He also transmitted, in 1754 and 1755, to 
b Earl of Halifax, then Secretary of State, various 
ters proposing a general plan of operations found- 
upon the nature of the service in North America. 

These are Btill extant, and are documents of 
eminent ability, full of practical wisdom and 
combinations. The King having united the s< 
in the Colonies into one power of action, and 
one direction, by appointing a Command er-in- 
over all North America, Mr. Pownall after 
condensed the substance of these letters into i 
morial, by order of the Duke of Cumberlanr 
presented it to His Knyal Highness, on arrivi 
England, in 17.56. Mr. Pownall then prepos 
the Earl of Halifax,—" That after the Englis 
been repeatedly disappointed in their attempts 
netrate the country by the way of Crown Poir 
Lake Champlain. and bad lost Oswego and the 
mand of the Lake Ontario, considering the i 
there was also to expect the defection of the h 
in consequence thereof; there remained no 
alternative, but either to make peace, or toe 
the ohjcct. of the. war, by making a direct attai 
lite Hirer St Lawrence Opon Quebec itself, 
to a radical destruction of Canada." He n 
mended the necessity of two fleets, and two n 
one for the attack of the River St LawreW 
other to take post between Albany and Mor 
s* as to cover the English Colonies. One f 
fleets to escort and convey the army up. the 
St Lawrence, and the other to cover and prote 
sea line of the Colonies. Nothing was rloae, 
ever, with reference to this plan, in 1757 ; i 
the following year the naval operations were )i 
to the capture of Louisbourg. ■ ' 

We iearn from Governor Pownall's paper 
so far back as 1676, the French bad a brigan 1 
ten tons on Lake Ontario, and in the year folk 
a vessel of sixty tons upon Lake Erie. Hi 


Imirable account of the system by which the 
ch acquired and maintained their influence over 
ndian nations — their policy in building forts 
i makes a distinction between the English and 
ch settlements, which is somewhat curious. He 
;s of the English lands as settlements, and of 
rench, as possessions : the English having merely 
d without possession, as farmers, millers and 
•men— whereas the French, made not only actual 
jment, but took military possession and the 
Band of the country. Governor Pownall gives 
t of the French forts, and estimates the num- 
of troops in the different posts in Louisiana 
ro thousand; whereof there were at New Orleans 

hundred and seventy-five, at Mobile four hun- 
. and seventy-five, in the Illinois three hundred, 
the rest detached in the smaller forts. We find 

that in consequence of his recommendation, that 
able species of force, called " Light Infantry," 

first employed in America, in the year 1757. 
'as originally composed of provincials, and its use 

qualities in American warfare are admirably 
i the year 1 758, Governor Pownall addressed to 

Pitt a letter, dated from Boston, December 5th, 
ailed, an " Idea of the service in America for the 
" 1759," from which we extract the following 
arkable passages, showing the extent of his in- 
lation, and how nearly the event corresponded 
i his recommendations. " If we have changed 
point, and brought it to its true issue, its natural 
is, whether we, as provinces of Great Britain, or 
iada, as the province of France, shall be superior 
America ; then the service to be done, is a general 
sion of Canada, in conjunction with the European 


troops and fleet ; then is our national strength 
employed, and we must consequently be natality 

superior." " The road to Quebec, up theft 

Lawrence River, we possess by superiority qfot) 
marine navigation. There is neither danger nor 
difficulty, nor do I see how there can be any oppf 
sition to hinder the fleet getting up to the blew 
Orleans ; and a superior army in the possession 4- 
that, may, by proper measures, command the resttf 
the way to Quebec. If our army can once set do** 
before Quebec, it must take it : If Quebec betake^ 
the capitulation may at least strip Canada of all w 
regulars, after which the inhabitants might possMj 

be induced to surrender." " But although th 

attempt on Quebec, by way of the St Lawrctf 
River, may be the only real, and will be the <*° 
effectual attack on Canada: yet one other, if not t? 
false attacks will be necessary, one by way ,of I-* 
Champlain, the other by way of Lake Ontario. 1 
by way of Lake Champlain, may, as far as C^* ( 
Point, be offensive ; and should then change i* 11 
defensive measure, by taking strong- post tl* e 

• " A number of provincials will certair*lj 

necessary, and these such as are used to the %va 
and marine navigation ; for such will be of the ** 
essential service in the passage of the armyfroffl 
lower end of the Isle of Orleans to Quebec, tvh 
most of the difficulty and danger will be" 

The result of the campaign proved the fores/# 
of Governor Pownall. Quebec was taken as soon a 
the army, by the glorious battle of the Plains, wa 
enabled to sit down before it ; and the operations <« 
General Amherst were limited during the camp&p 
of 1759 to the capture of Crown Point, which he for- 
tified and made a defensive post. The operations on 


e Ontario were carried just to that effect which 
led the way for the next campaign, in 1760, 
in General Amherst went that way to take pos- 
ion of Canada. 

fte project of the campaign, ultimately adopted 
the Ministry, was to make impressions on three 
erent parts at once, so as to distract the attention 
I divide the forces of the French. The command 
phief was entrusted to General Amherst, who with 
army of twelve thousand men under his particular 
nmand, was to reduce Ticonderoga and Crown 
ut He was then to cross Lake Champlain, and 
feeding along the River Richelieu, was to reach 
St. Lawrence, and unite himself to the army 
lined to attack Quebec. General Prideaux, with 
therarmy, and with a large body of friendly In- 
t .under Sir William Johnson, on whom they 
' relied, was ordered to capture Fort Niagara, 
h commanded the interior of the country, and 
considered one of the most important of the 
ch. posts. He also, if successful, was to descend 
ontreal, and undertake the attack of that city, 
immediate attack from the sea was directed 
p against Quebec, and the troops were placed 
r the command of Major General James Wolfe, 
kictd distinguished himself so eminently the year 
^ at the siege and capture of Louisbourg, and 
possessed the confidence and the affections of 
^Hay to an extraordinary degree. The Minister 
** choice of the youthful General regarded merit 
*&• He required a man on whose abilities he could 
f » and he was fully persuaded of the professional 
Hit of Wolfe, and of the immense resources of 
'Blind and character. Patronage Mr, Pitt disre- 
rte^as the General was undistinguished by family 

2 £ 


connexion or fortune ; although those who were 
placed under his command possessed, in addition to 
great merit, the recommendations of high birth and 
ministerial interest It is understood that Wolfe W 
the selection of all his Staff Officers ; and if so, no- 
thing could more clearly demonstrate his own judg- 
ment than the admirable selection which he nub 
He had ample reason to be satisfied with every it* 
partment; for never was a General served witk 
greater zeal, courage and conduct. 

The naval forces for the service in North America 
consisted of twenty sail of the line, two ships of fifty 
guns, twelve frigates, and fourteen smaller vessel*. 
Transports were to be procured, or were to meet 
them, at Halifax and Louisbourg. The whole waitt* 
der the command of Vice Admiral Saunders, who W 
under him Rear Admirals Philip Durelland Chad* 
Holmes, all officers of distinction in the service A 
their country. Admiral Durell had wintered at ■ 
Halifax, and pursuant to instructions sailed for the 
River St. Lawrence as early as the state of the n»" 
vigation would permit, for the purpose of interrupt- 
ing the early convoys from France. In this he *W 
unsuccessful, three frigates, having in convoy seven- 
teen vessels, with provisions, stores and a few recruify 
having reached Quebec a few days before his arrinl [ 
at Bic, on the 23d May. Here, however, he per* ^ 
formed a signal service to the expedition. Having 
hoisted French colors, the pilots in the River think- 
ing his a French fleet, which might have been expect 
ed at that time, came unhesitatingly on board, and ( 
were detained until the arrival of Admiral Saunders 
and the troops. They were then compelled to piM 
the fleet up to the Isle of Orleans, which, although 



evously, as may be supposed, against their will, 
jy safely accomplished. 

Rear Admiral Holmes sailed on the 14th Febru- 
r for Halifax, with orders to hasten the prepa- 
ions there and at Louisbourg ; and on Saturday, 
J 17th February, Admiral' Saunders sailed from 
ithead with General Wolfe and the troops from 
igland. The rendezvous was appointed at Louis- 
org; but in consequence of that harbor being 
►eked up with ice, the fleet proceeded to Halifax, 
are every exertion was made to forward the expe- 
ion; and General Wolfe obtained the admiration 
1 confidence of the army by the clearness and dis- 
ctness of his orders, as well as by his personal 
ivity and zeal. The transports having been pre- 
fed for sea, the fleet sailed for Louisbourg, where 
y were joined by the regiments in garrison, and 
other reinforcements from the Bay of Fundy, 
king the whole force eight thousand men. 
^n the 6th June, they got clear of the harbor of 
aisbourg, and made sail for the River St Law- 
ce. They reached Isle aux Coudres on the 23d, 
B *e they found Admiral Durell, who furnished the 
*t with the French pilots whom he had detain- 
on board a month for that purpose. Admiral 
*ell, whose force was augmented with some of the 
?sr ships of war, remained at Isle aux Coudres by 
sr of Admiral Saunders, to prevent the enemy 
3a interrupting the siege on that side. On the 
h June, the fleet and transports came to anchor 
the Isle of Orleans. 

X may be here remarked, that as if the destiny of 

French rule in North, America was about to be 

amplished, not the smallest disaster interrupted 

progress of the English fleet and army up the 

M& vitr picruftx or guttrtcc, ' 

St Lawrence. fc We have already mentMded 
difficulty with which Sir William Phipp« ?d«d 
way from the Gulf, in 1690 ; and have noticed 
shipwreck and destruction of part of the 4eet i 
Sir Horenden Walker in 1711. Btfth those* 
ditions, however, were commenced at later ^Je 
of the rieason, when the navigation of the St ! 
rence is not altogether certain. Phippg arrive 
fore Quebec in tne month of October, tfntf W 
was shipwrecked in the latter end of ' August, 
mini Saunders, in addition to the French j 
whom he had received from Ddrell, at Isk tffcr 
dri*f navigated the river, by the assistance o 
moat accurate, charts then m existence y atw 
skill of Captain Cook, afterwards so eetebiafl 
a discoverer^ was advantageously shown ^iq 
occasion.* The buoys in the Traverse ~ 

* Captain James Cook, was born at Marton, in the ( 
of York — the parish register states, that he was baptise 
v ember 3, 1728, his father was day labourer to Mr. Nei 
In the year 1 745, he was apprenticed for four rears to a ; 
at Snaitb, about ten miles from Whitby — haying disoov 
strong propensity for the sea, bis indentures were givei 
he was afterwards bound for three years, . to Mr. Wal 
Whitby, and sailed on board the Freelove, a vessel of 
four hundred tons, engaged in the coal trade between Nen 
and London— he quitted the merchant service io 1758, ; 
order to try his fortune as he expressed it, entered on 
His Majesty's ship Eagle, of 28 guns — nothing was heart 
him by any of his friends, until August, 1758, when a lett< 
received dated on board the Pembroke, before Louisbourf 
30, 1758, in which he gave a distinct account of our sua 
that expedition — on the recommendation of Sir Hugh P 
he received the appointment of Master, and on the 1 0th 
1759, joined the Mercury, then under orders for Canada, 
Charles Saunders, at the siege of Quebec, committed to hi 


Isle of Orleans had been removed by the French, 
(lit the passage had been so well explored by Ad- 
Ibiral Durell, that the fleet got through without 

Although the Marquis De Vaudreuil, who had 
keen Governor of Louisiana, was at that time Go- 
vernor General of all New France, being stationed 
Lt Montreal with five thousand men, the military 
operations and defence of Quebec had been entrusted 
40 the well known talents and bravery of the com- 
nander of the land forces, the Marquis De Mont- 
adm, already so distinguished by his former cam- 
paigns. He took every military precaution that a 
Eealoiis and experienced General could take, to 
lefeat the enterprize of the English, and to pre- 
serve the colony. He was in possession of a com- 
manding situation, of strong entrenchments, of a 
fortress almost impregnable — with an army com- 
posed of men combating upon their own soil, en- 
couraged by the veteran troops of France, and 
commanded by gallant, zealous and distinguished 
officers. In a military point of view the chances of 
war were all in favor of the French. But the Eng 
lish were commanded by one who was a Hero in the 
truest sense of the word, undismayed by accumulated 
difficulties, and with an appetite for glory which no 
prospect of danger could affect or deter. 

We can imagine the feelings with which Wolfe, 
having safely landed his army on the 27th June, 

services of the first importance. Lord Colville, and Sir Charles 
both patronised him, and by their recommendations he was ap- 
pointed to survey the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the coasts of 
Newfoundland — he received a commission as Lieutenant, April 
1st, 1760, and was made Captain 25th May, 1768. 

2 E 3 


near the Church of St. Laurent, on the Isle of Or-* 
leans, — where they encamped in one line, about fr 
mile from the shore — proceeded to the west end of 
the Island to reconnoitre the position of the enemy* 
It must be confessed that the view he then beheld 
was most magnificent and imposing. Amidst the 
native beauty of the scenery, the French army pre- 
sented its formidable front, extending along the 
sloping ground upon the north shore, and occupying 
the heights of Beauport, from Quebec on the right, to 
the cascade of Montmorenci on the left* The vil- 
lage of Beauport rose in the centre, among the bat- 
talions of Old France — the right rested upon the St 
Charles, with the beautiful village of Charlesbourg 
in its rear — the left extended to the chasm of the 
FaHs. The whole front was entrenched, and pro- 
tected from the English cannon — while all accessible 
points along the shore were occupied and defended 
by batteries, and by every means which the science 
of war provides. Beyond the right, a bridge had beer 
thrown over the River St. Charles, in order to com- 
municate with the town and garrison. This was pro- 
tected by teles du pont and strong works at each 
end, as well as by two batteries, of eight guns each 
mounted upon hulks, sunk in the channel. The 
enthusiastic spirit of Wolfe must have comprehendet 
all the strength of this position, and all the glory oi 
surmounting it ; nor could his gentle and highlj 
cultivated mind have been insensible to the extreme 
beauty of the scene, the tranquillity of which his 
operations were so immediately to disturb. Looking 
upon the calm basin of the St. Lawrence, how aptly 
might he have exclaimed : 

Bella, horrida bella, 

Et Tybrim multo spumantem sanguine cerno I 


French army was composed of about thirteen 
sand men, six battalions of which were regulars,, 
the remainder well disciplined Canadian Militia, 
. some cavalry and Indians. The right was 
er the command of Brigadier General the Baron 
St, Ours, the centre of Brigadier General De 
ezergues, and the left of M. Herbin. The 
ison was commanded by M. De Ramezay. 
lthongh the fleet had safely arrived at the place 
lisembarkation, no sooner were the troops on 
e than it met with one of those storms of wind 
rain which are frequent in the River St. Law- 
e. The hurricane was of such violence as to do 
t damage to the transports, and boats of the 
;, by their driving on board each other. The 
lent of fire was also employed for its destruction, 
happily without success. At midnight on the 
i June, the enemy sent down with the tide seven 
ships, whose appearance at first was very for- 
ible, as they lay in the proper channel. The 
ach crews, however, being anxious to get to land, 
I the trains on board much too soon, which en- 
d the fleet to prepare for their reception. Ac- 
ingly they were grappled with, and towed clear 
le shipping, with the characteristic coolness and 
aridity of British sailors. These repeated es- 
» from imminent danger seemed to afford happy 
ages of ultimate success and triumph. 
; being absolutely necessary for the combined 
'ations of the two services, that the English should 
ess the command of the Basin, General Monck- 
, second in command, was detached on the night 
be 29th with four battalions, with orders to land 
leaumont, and to clear the south shore from that 
ige to Pointe Levi, which post he was to occupy 


and fortify— a duty which he accomplished wkl 
little opposition. Here he immediately erected bat 
teries and works, the remains of which may-be trac* 
at the present day. In the mean time, Colonel Gin 
Carleton, afterwards Lord Dorchester, eite 
blished himself at the western point of the Isle o: 
Orleans, where he erected works for the defence o 
the magazines, stores, and hospitals. 

Montcalm, who too late perceived the importance 
of the works at Pointe Levi, sent a corps of sixteei 
hundred men against them ; but these troops un- 
luckily for themselves, and for the English General 
who was anxious to defeat so large a detachment 
fell into confusion, and having fired upon each othe 
instead of upon the enemy, returned in utter discom 
fiture. The batteries were completed at interval 
from Pointe Levi Church, where MoNCKTON'scam] 
was, to the heights immediately opposite to thi 
Citadel ; and the Lower Town, together with th 
principal buildings of the Upper Town, was laid ii 
ruins by their fire. After the surrender, it was foun< 
that upwards of five hundred houses had been des 
troyed, a damage the more to be regretted as it fel 
upon the inhabitants only, very little injury having 
been done to the defences of the place. 

General Wolfe, perceiving that the ground tc 
the eastward of the Falls of Montmorenci, on whicl 
rested the left flank of the French army, was highei 
than that on the enemy's side, determined to take 
possession of it ; and having passed the north chan- 
nel, he encamped there on the 9th July, not without 
severe skirmishing and considerable loss. Here he 
erected batteries which greatly galled the left of the 
French in trench merits. He was aware that there 
was a ford at the bottom of the Falls, through which 


kike habitans pass at ebb tide ; and he had also hopes 
that possibly means might be found of passing the 
River Montmorenci above, so as to fight with 
Montcalm on terms of less disadvantage than direct- 
ly attacking his intrenchments. 

Admiral Saunders, having advanced his vessels 
nearer to the city, compelled the French naval force 
to proceed up the River to Batiscan, leaving their 
crews, however, who formed part of the garrison and 
were useful in serving the artillery. So great, in- 
deed, was the unanimity between the two services, 
and the desire of mutual co-operation, that in order 
that General Wolfe might carry with him as large 
a body of troops as possible on landing at Montmo- 
renci, the Admiral ordered all the marines to be 
landed on the Isle of Orleans, and to do duty in the 
works which had been erected there. 

On the 18th July, at night, General Wolfe de- 
termined to proceed some distance up the river for 
the purpose of reconnoitring the banks above the 
town. With two men of war, two armed sloops and 
some troops, he safely passed the batteries of the 
garrison ; and after a close observation found every 
accessible landing place protected by the enemy from 
Cape Diamond to Cape Rouge. He could not 
avoid coming to the conclusion, that even if he should 
effect a landing, the body first put on shore could not 
be reinforced before it was attacked by the enemy's 
whole army. He seems, however, to have almost 
determined on making the attempt at St. Michel, 
about three miles from Quebec ; but finding the 
enemy suspicious of his design, and some artillery 
having been brought from the garrison to play upon 
the shipping, he was forced to relinquish his inten- 
tion. The reader will find that circumstances finally 


compelled the army to adopt this mode of i 
although at this period the General did not co 
it advisable to attempt it Colonel Carleto 
ordered to land at Pointe aux Trembles with ad 
ment, where he was disappointed in finding tl 
gazines he had been led to expect ; and bi 
away only a few prisoners, for the sake of acq 

On Wolfe's return to Montmorenci, h( 
ceived the design of attacking the French ii 
entrenchments. This attack, which looking 
difficulties of the ground, appears to hare 
carefully considered and planned with jud| 
took place on the 3 1st July. It failed throng) 
of caution and excess of courage on the part 
grenadiers, although the grounding of the boat 
the ledge, some distance from the shore, was, ' 
less the primary cause of the disaster. Time, 
was precious — since the tide making would < 
their retreat by the ford, if unsuccessful — was 
sarily lost by this accident, and the troops 
thrown into some disorder. As soon as a nevi 
of disembarkation had been found, the grenadi 
the number of thirteen companies, supported 1 
hundred of the second Royal American Bat 
made good their landing. Before, however, 
dier General Monckton's corps, designed t 
port them, could reach the shore, the grei 
rushed forward impetuously to the attack of t 
trenchments in great disorder and confusion, 
sioned by the hurry of landing ; and recei 
severe a check from the enemy's fire, as to be o 
to take shelter in a redoubt at the water's 
which the French abandoned to them on tli< 
vance, contenting themselves with a cannoi 


the entrenchment that commanded the re* 
)t In this situation these gallant men continued 
some time under a most galling fire. Their 
era, careless of their persons and regarding only 
r duty, fell in great numbers ; until at length 
eral Wolfe, finding his object defeated, called 
ke grenadiers, and ordered them to form them- 
es behind General Monckton's corps, which 
landed in good order. The whole afterwards 
ibarked without further loss or molestation, 
[any affecting incidents occurred on this occasion. 
English Officers, many of whom were unaccus- 
ed to the nature of the warfare, particularly to 
Indian mode of attack, fell easy victims to the 
rring rifle of the latter ; yet never forgot their 
acter as soldiers, or their honor as Englishmen, 
disgrace attached to the soldiers — some instances 
avotion occurred which would have done honor 
icient history. 

fter the failure of the attack at Montmorenci, 
' share in which the grenadiers nobly redeemed 
le subsequent battle of the Plains, Brigadier 
eral Murray, afterwards Governor of Quebec, 
detached up the river with twelve hundred men. 
r two unsuccessful attempts to land, he effected 
lisembarkation at Deschambaud, where he took 
r prisoners, and burned a magazine, full of stores, 
isions, and spare clothing for the French army. 
a] the prisoners, they obtained gratifying intel- 
ice from the army of General Amherst, who 
been the first in motion of the three separate 
es, and who had taken possession of Ticonderoga. 
was this the only suceess. They also learned 

Sir William Johnson had captured Fort 
sara, on the 25th July previous. The month 



of August was passed in various skirmishes, and in 
expeditions on both shores of the river, rendered 
necessary by the desultory hostilities of small parcel 
of Indians and Canadians — in the conduct of which 
the inhabitants suffered unavoidably all the horrors 
of war. 

The despatches of General Wolfe and of the 
Admiral, from which the foregoing particulars are 
principally taken, were dated September 2d and 5th. 
He touches with delicacy upon his own severe illnefl% 
and describes feelingly, but with perfect self posses- 
sion and confidence, the difficulties which he expe- 
rienced : 

" The Admiral's despatches and mine would have gone eight 
or ten days sooner if 1 had not been prevented from writing DT 
a fever. I found myself so ill, and am still so weak, thai I 
begged the general officers to consult together for the public 
utility. They are of opinion, that as more ships and provision 
are now yet above the town, they should try, by conveying! 
corps of four or five thousand men, which is nearly the whole 
strength of the army, after the Points of Levi and Orleans are 
left in a proper state of defence, to draw the enemy from their 
present situation and bring them to an action. I have ac- 
quiesced in their proposal, and we are preparing to put it in 
execution. The Admiral and I have examined the town, with 
a view to a general assault ; but after consulting the chief en- 
gineer, who is well acquainted with the interior part of it, and 
after viewing it with the utmost attention, we found that, 
though the batteries of the Lower Town might be easily 
silenced by the men of war, yet the business of an assault 
would be little advanced by that, since the five passages leading 
from the Lower to the Upper Town are carefully entrenched, 
and the upper batteries cannot be affected by the ships, which 
roust receive considerable damage from them and from the 
mortars. The Admiral would readily join in this or any other 
measure for the public service; but 1 could not propose to him 
an undertaking of so dangerous a nature, and promising so lit- 
tle success. 

" To the uncommon strength of the country, the enemy ha?e 
added, for the defence of the river, a great number of floating 


iftteritos and boats ; by the vigilance of these, and the Indians 
mod onr posts, it has been impossible to execute any thing 
f surprise. We have had almost daily skirmishes with these 
mages, in which they are generally defeated, but not without 
m dm onr side. By the list of disabled officers, many of 
from are of rank, yon may perceive, 8ir, that the army is 
inch weakened. By the nature of the river, the most for- 
jMable part of this armament is deprived of the power of act- 
g, yet we have almost the whole force of Canada to oppose. 
* this situation, there is such a choice of difficulties, that I am 
itself at a loss how to determi ne. The affairs of Great Britain, 
knew, require most vigorous measures ; but then the courage 
fa handful of brave men should be exerted only, where there 
i tome hope of a favorable event. However, you may rest as- 
tred, 82r, that the small part of the campaign which remains 
lull be employed, as far as I am able, for the honor of His 
lajesty, and the interest of the nation, in whioh I am sure of 
naf seconded by the Admiral and by the Generals, happy 
lifar efforts here can contribute to the success of His Ma- 
rty's Arms in any other part of America. 

I have, &c. 

James Wolfe." 

Return of loss at the battle of Montmorenci. 

Killed. Wounded. Missing. 

Officers, 11 46 

8erjeants, 9 26 

Drummers, 7 

Rank and file, 162 571 15 

182 650 15 


To the council of war alluded to in the above ex- 
ract from this famous despatch, it is generally be- 
ieved, on contemporary information, that Wolfe 
imself proposed a second attack upon the entrench- 

2 F 


ments between Montmorenci and the River St. 
Charles. However gallant such a design, and how- 
ever gloriously the martial spirit of Wolfe was 
displayed by the proposal, it appeared to the other 
general officers, who had never flinched in the hour 
of duty, so fraught with ruin and so big with dange- 
rous consequences, as rather to be declined than car- 
ried into execution. They protested, therefore, 
against that design ; and in their turn proposed to 
Wolfe to attack Quebec in the unexpected and 
surprising manner by which it was subsequently ta- 
ken, and which will be admired to the latest posterity. 
The honor of having proposed this plan in the coun- 
cil of war has been claimed by the family of Gene- 
ral Townshend for their distinguished ancestor. 
Wolfe, having always his country's interest upper- 
most in his thoughts, like a true patriot gave up his 
own opinion, or rather instantly acknowledged the 
splendid design which had been suggested to him ; 
generously resolving to put it into execution, and to 
place himself at the head of the enterprise — well as- 
sured that he would be nobly seconded by the other 
Generals. Such conduct on both sides was highly 
honorable to the officers present at this council, all 
of whom were young men, full of ambition, and the 
desire of personal distinction. 

The failure at Montmorenci had made a deep im- 
pression upon the mind of Wolfe. He had a spirit 
impatient of anticipated censure — unable to bear 
disappointment, where he was conscious of having 
deserved success — and he cherished an eager desire to 
retrieve the laurels which he feared some might 
think had fallen from his brow. His situation, 
however, was such that he despaired of finding an 
opportunity ; he was often heard to sigh, and ob- 


d to betray great inward agitation. His con- 
ion, naturally delicate, gave way under his 
ement ; which added to the great fatigues he 
undergone, brought on a fever and dysen- 
and for some time totally disabled him. Such 
the affection of the whole army for Wolfe, 
his sickness made a general impression upon 
; and when his health, after ten days severe 
$s, permitted him to return to the camp, and 
more to visit the guards and posts as usual, they 
the strongest proofs of the most heartfelt joy, 
lis presence infused fresh spirits into the troops. 
r ith a view to the ulterior operations above the 
, several of the men of war had passed the 
ries, without receiving much damage, on the 
, 29th and 30th August ; and on the 1st Sep- 
er, the sick and wounded were removed from 
tmorenci, to the Isle of Orleans. By the 4th 
ember, the whole had left the camp at Mont- 
nci and taken post at Pointe Levi. This move- 
;, however, did not escape the notice of Mont- 
i ; who on the 3d, detached two large columns to 
lorthward, with the apparent design of crossing 
upper ford, and of either attacking General 
jfe in his camp with diminished forces, part of 
jmy having been already transported to Pointe 
— or to fall upon his rear as he was quitting his 
>, and incommode him in re-imbarking the 
>s. Wolfe, however, had so well digested his 
, that his operations were performed without 
loss. No sooner were the French troops ob- 
*d in motion, that General Monckton ordered 
ge detachment from his post at Pointe L6vi to 
irk in boats, and to stand towards the Beauport 
*. This feint had the desired effect, and Mont- 


calm recalled his two columns in haste. In tk 
mean time General Wolfe, having withdrawn liL a 
artillery, set fire to the camp, destroyed the wdtf J^ 
he had erected, and re-imbarked his troops withotf 
interruption, most of whom he ordered to encamp it 
Pointe Levi, the remainder on the Isle of Odea* 
The latter afterwards joined the main body at Poinfc 

The plan for landing under the heights of Abba- 
ham having been completely digested, a series of 
operations took place upon the south shore for the 
purpose of deceiving, and distracting the attention of 
the enemy. In this they were quite successful On 
the 5th September, a corps of six hundred men 
marched up the south shore from Pointe Llvi, aft- 
tended by sloops carrying one month's provision* 
On the 6th, the main body received orders to march 
above the town, taking with them only one spare 
shirt, and one pair of stockings. They forded the 
River Etchemin, and proceeded to a spot, whence 
they embarked on board of the men of war and trans- 
ports, under the command of Admiral Holmes, who 
conveyed then some distance above Cape Diamond 
General Montcalm did not suspect, from the 
small number of ships, that Wolfe had convey- 
ed his main body up the river. He contented him- 
self, therefore, with detaching Bougainville with 
two thousand men to Cape Rouge to watch their 
motions. On the 10th, the weather being wet, 
and the troops much crowded on board, they were 
landed on the south shore for exercise and refresh- 
ment, and marched to the Church of St. Nicolas 
where they took post, all their movements adding to 
the uncertainty of the French as to their destina- 
tion. Every preparation having been made — and 


Admiral Saunders having engaged to co-operate 
>y a feint attack upon the entrenchments at Beau- 
•ort — the eventful day approached when the blow 
flas to be struck. Rear Admiral Holmes had the 
ommand of the naval force employed in covering 
le disembarkation, the immediate management of 
'hich was entrusted to Captain Chads, a name to this 
ay distinguished in the Royal Navy. On the 12th 
eptember, General Wolfe issued the following 
rder : 


" The enemy's force is now divided : great scarcity of pro- 
•ions is in their camp, and universal discontent among the. 
madians. The secon a officer in command is gone to Montreal, 
St. Johns ; which gives reason to think that General Amherst 
advancing 1 into the colony. A vigorous blow struck by the 
ay at this juncture may determine the fate of Canada. Our 
ops below are in readiness to join us : all the light artillery 
1 tools are embarked at Pointe Levi ; and the troops will 
d where the French seem least to expect it. The first 
\y that gets on shore is to march directly to the enemy, and 
ve'them from any little post they may occupy. The officers 
st be careful that the succeeding bodies do not, by any mis- 
e, fire upon those who go before them. The battalions must 
m upon the upper ground with expedition, and be ready to 
irge whatever presents itself. When the artillery and troops 
landed, a corps will bo left to secure the landing place, while 
! rest march on, and endeavor to bring the French and Ca- 
lians to a battle. The officers and men will remember what 
iir country expects from them, and what a determined body 
loldiers, inured to war, is capable of doing, against five weak 
3Dch battalions, mingled with disorderly peasantry. The 
diers must be attentive and obedient to their officers, and 
i officers resolute in the execution of their duty." 

The plan adopted was, that the troops should be 

nveyed some distance up the river for the purpose 

deceiving the enemy, and of amusing M. De 


348 nw PICT0EE o» swmcv 

Bfcogaamlle* They war*' afterwwds in th» 
to drop down- with the tide, and to land ea th%j 
■bote about a mile above Cape Diamond, ift 
expectation of being able to ascend the ~ 
Abraham, and, to gain the open ground 
the city, where it was most open to attach, 
could be more hazardous in the execution fafc] 
this design — the slightest accident might 
the whole course of the operation*— a night 
was always liable to' mischance — yet the plan? Jeff] 
carried into effect not only with complete succeed 
but with singular ease and good fortune. 

On the evening of the 12th September, Adminl 
Saunders ordered all the boats of the fleet bale* 
the town to rendezvous astern of one of the frigstsr 
Into these he put all the marines he could sparer 
and under cover of some frigates and sloops of wift; 
ordered them to work up, and just at break of daj, 
on the 13th, to stand over to the Beauport shore, as 
if intending a descent there. The frigates and sloopt 
were ordered to approach as near as possible, and to 
cannonade the French lines. This feint had a good 
effect, as it compelled Montcalm to leave a stronger 
body, than he at first designed for that service, to 
protect the entrenchments : at the same time that it 
drew off his attention from the more important scene 
ol action above the town. 

At night on the 12th, the main body quartered eo 
the south shore were ordered to embark in flat bot- 
tomed boats, and to proceed up the river with the 
tide of flood. The first division was composed of 
the light infantry, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel 
the Honorable William Howe, the regiments of 
Bragg, Kennedy, Lascelles and Anstruther, with a 
detachment of Highlanders, and the grenadiers of 


m Royal American Regiment, under the command 
: Brigadiers General Monckton and Murray. 
ke night was clear and star light, and Bougain- 
liLB perceiving the boats, marched up the north 
ttk of the river to prevent any landing. About 
i hour before day light, the boats fell down the 
per with the tide of ebb, with great rapidity by the 
lp of oars, and keeping close to the shore. They 
»re followed at some interval by the shipping, and 
th luckily escaped observation. About day-light 
jy arrived at a cove below Sillery, now for ever 
lebrated as Wolfe's Cove, which was the place 
osen for the disembarkation. The light infantry, 
rich had been carried a short distance below by 
s rapidity of the tide, were the first that landed, 
d scrambling up the woody precipice — the ascent 
which was so difficult, that the soldiers were oblig- 

to pull themselves up the roots and boughs of 
>es — displaced a French guard at the top, under the 
mmand of Captain De Vergor, which defended 
3 narrow path, and thereby enabled the rest of the 
rision to reach the summit. The boats in the mean 
fie had returned for the second division under 
dgadier General Townshend, which arrived and 
ided in like good order. General Wolfe was 
th the first division, and he was one of the first on 
ore. On seeing the difficulty of ascending the pre- 
)ice, he observed in a familiar strain to Captain 
onald McDonald, a very gallant officer of Fraser's 
ighlanders, who commanded the advanced guard of 
e light infantry : — " I don't believe there is any 
>ssibility of getting up; but you must do your en- 

The exultation of Wolfe on thus finding himself, 
ith scarcely any loss, on the heights of Abraham, 

MA nw Heron 0* Qtnmc, -▼ 

may easily be conceived. ■- After - nose tfoa 
months of solicitude, the object of his longandi 
wishes was before him — his only remaining hopr 
that Montcalm wfuld give him battle-^of thtrfj 
suit he entertained no doubt The hour of 
so long sought for, so eagerly expected, wasatll 
—he was determined that day .to decide the 
macy of England or France, in America, beto^l 
the wallsof her most important fortress.: -j ■. 9 

» ' ill* 

Coospioit in pianos hostem descenders oanpoe, ' 
Oblatumqtie videt Yotis ribi mills' petitam '^ 

Itapua, in extremos quo mitteret omnia 



The first care of General Wolfe was to csptsu 
a four gun battery on the left of the British, wbiA 
was accomplished by Colonel Hows — the next, W 
draw up his little army to the best advantage, as iKl 
regiments landed, in order to meet General Most- 
calm, who was observed to be on his march from 

Montcalm could scarcely give credit to the fint 
messenger who brought him the news of the successful 
landing of the English. Wolfe's extraordinary 
achievement had indeed baffled all his plans, and 
astonished to the utmost by this unexpected event, 
he yet prepared for the crisis with promptness and 
courage. He immediately adopted the resolution of 
meeting Wolee in the field, and of deciding the fate 
of Canada in a pitched battle. In this determination 
he is said to have acted against the opinion of the 
Governor General, the Marquis De Vaudreuil, 
who had come down from Montreal. 

About -nine o'clock the enemy advanced in three 
columns, having crossed the bridge of boats on the St 
Charles. Their force consisted of two thousandregular 


•ops, fire thousand disciplined militia, and five hun- 
*d savages. At ten, Montcalm's line of battle was 
•tried, at least six deep, having their flanks covered 

a thick wood on each side — along the bushes in 
>nt he had thrown about fifteen hundred Canadians 
d Indians, whose fire was as galling as it was in- 
rsant, until the battle became general. 
The official despatches of General Townshbnd 
e full details of this memorable conflict, and of 

subsequent surrender of Quebec. To them we 
11 subjoin several authentic and interesting par- 
liars, which have been collected in order to illus- 
;e and throw into the clearest light the glory of 
i achievement, rendered for ever illustrious by the 

of the two leaders. 

lerfrom the Honorable Brigadier General Monckton to 
\e Right Honorable Mr, Secretary Pitt, dated, Camp at 
'ointeLevi, September 15, 1759. 

I have the pleasure to acquaint you, that, on the 13th in- 
t, His Majesty's troops gained a very signal victoryover 
French,*, little above the town of Quebec. General Wolfe, 
rting himself on the right of our line, received a wound 
,ty early, of which he died soon after, and I had myself the 
it misfortune of receiving one in ray right breast by a ball, 
; went through part of my lungs (and which has been cut 
under the blade bone of my shoulder,) just as the French 
e giving way, which obliged me to quit the field. I have 
efore, Sir, desired General Townshend, who now commands 
troops before the town, (and of which I am in hopes he will 
oon in possession,) to acquaint you with the particulars of 
; day, and of the operations carrying on. 

I have the honor to be, &c. 

Rob. Monckton. 

'. S. — His Majesty's troops behaved with the greatest stea- 

388 and bravery. 

A.S tho Surgeons tell me there is no danger in my wound, 

n in hopes that I shall be boon able to join the army before 



Utter from the Honorable Brigadier General Tome 
to the Bight Honorable Mr, Secretary Pitt, dated, 
before Quebec, Sept. 20, 1759. 


I hare the honour to acquaint yon with the auooen 
Majesty's Arms, on the 1 3th instant, in an action w 
French, on the heights to the westirard of this town. 

It being determined to carry the operations above th 
the posts at Pointe Levi and fide <f Orleans being seen 
General marched, with the remainder of the force, from 
Levi the 5th and 6th, and embarked them in transports 
had passed the town for that purpose. On the 7th, i 
9th, a movement of the ships was m»de op, by Admiral , 
in order to amuse the enemy now posted along ihi 
shore ; but the transports being extremely crowded, i 
weather very bad, the General thought proper to cant 
his troops on the south shore; where they were refines) 
re-imbarked upon the 12th at one in the morning. T 
infantry, commanded by Colonel Howe, the regiments ol 
Kennedy, Lascelles, and Anstruther, with a detach 
Highlanders, and American Grenadiers, the whole bein 
the command of Brigadiers Monckton and Murray, w 
into the flat-bottomed boats, and after some movemen 
ships made by Admiral Holmes, to draw the attentio: 
enemy above, the boats fell down with the tide, and la 
the north shore, within a league of Cape Diamond, 
before day break. The rapidity of the tide of ebb carri 
a little below the intended place of attack, which obli 
light infantry to scramble up a woody precipice, in 
secure the landing the troops, by dislodging a Captai 
which defended the small intrenched path the troops 
asceod. After a little firing, the light infantry gained 
of the precipice, and dispersed the Captain's post ; b 
means, the troops, with a very little loss from a few Cc 
and Indians in the wood, got up, and were immediately 
The boats, as they emptied, were sent back for the sec 
barkation, which 1 immediately made. Brigadier Mun 
had been detached with Anstrut tier's battalion to at 
four gun battery upon the left, was recalled by the Gene 
now saw the French army crossing the ftiver SL 
General Wolfe thereupon began to form his line, ha 1 


covered by the Louisbourg grenadiers ; on the right of 
again he afterwards brought Q (way's ; to the left of the 
liers were Bragg's, Kennedy's, Lascelles's, Highlanders, 
inslrulher's ; the right of this body was commanded by 
lier Monchton, and the left by Brigadier Murray ; his 
ad left were protected by Colonel Howe's light infantry, 
as returned from the four gun battery before mentioned, 

was soon abandoned to him. General Montcalm haying 
ed the whole of his force from the Beauport side, and 
;ing, shewed his intention to flank our left, where I was 
lately ordered with General Amherst's battalion, which 
ed en potence. My numbers were soon after increased 
arrival of the two battalions of Royal Americans; and 
s was drawn up by the General, as a reserve, in eight 
isions with large intervals. The enemy lined the bushes 
r front, with 1500 Indians and Canadians, and I dare 
1 placed most of their best marksmen there, who kept up 
galling, though irregular, fire upon our whole line, who 

with the greatest patience, and good order, reserving 
re for the main body, now advancing. This fire of the 

was, however, checked by our posts in our front, which 
ted the forming our own line. The right of the enemy 
•niposed of half the troops of the Colony, the battalions 
Sarre, Languedoc, and the remainder of their Canadians 
dians. Their centre was a column, and formed by the 
ons of Beam and Guienne, Their left was composed of 
aaining troops of the colony, and the battalion of Royal 
'Ion. This was, as near as J can guess, their line of bat- 
They brought up two pieces of small artillery against us, 
q had been able to bring up but one gun ; which being 
ibly well served, galled their column exceedingly. My 
od to the left will not permit me to be very exact with 

to every circumstance which passed in the centre, much 

the right ; but it is most certain that the enemy formed 
d order, and that their attack was very brisk and aniraat- 
that side. Our troops reserved their fire, till within forty 

which was so well continued, that the enemy every 

gave way. It was then our General fell at the head of 
fs, and the Louisbourg grenadiers, advancing with their 
ets. About the same time, Brigadier General Monckton 
ed bis wound at the head of Lascelles's. In the front of 
pposite battalions fell also Montcalm ; and his second in 
and is since dead of his wounds on board of our fleet. 
)f the enemy made a second faint attack. Part took to 


1 1 
and which do army can itself solely supply ; the immense libs* 
in artillery, stores, and provisions ; the long watchiagsanisV 
tendance in boats ; the drawing up our artillery by the seasNs) 
even in the heat of the action ; it is my duty, short ss ay 
command has been, to acknowledge, for that, how greats ikan 
the navy has had in this successful campaign. 

I have the honor to be, && 

Geo. Townshend. 

Articles of Capitulation agreed on between General Towkshekd JA 
and M. De Rauesay, Commander of Quebec. 

Article I. M. De Ramesay demands the honours of war for & 
his garrison, and that it shall be conducted back to the army ii j 
safety by the shortest road, with their arms, baggage, six piece 2 
of brass cannon, two mortars or howitzers, and twelve round* 

The garrison ofthetown % composed of land forces, mans**, 
and sailors, shall march out with their arms and baggage, drum 
beating, lighted matches, with two pieces of cannon, and twdm 
rounds, and shall be embarked as conveniently as possible, in of 
der to be landed at the first port in France. 

II. That the inhabitants shall be maintained in the posses* 
sion of their houses, goods, effects and privileges. 

Granted, provided they lay down their arms. 

HI. That the said inhabitants shall not be molested on ac- 
count of their having borne arms for the defence of the town, as 
thev were forced to it, and as it is customary for the inhabitant* 
of the colonies of both crowns to serve as militia. Granted. 

IV. That the effects belonging to the absent officers, or in- 
habitants, shall not be touched. Granted. 

V. That the said inhabitants shall not be removed nor 
obliged to quit their houses until their condition shall be settled 
by a definitive treaty between their most Christian and Bri- 
tannic Majesties. Granted. 

VI. That the exercise of the Catholic, Apostolic, and Roman 
religion shall be preserved, and that safeguards shall be granted 
to the houses of the Clergy, and to the monasteries, particularly 
to the Bishop of Quebec, who animated with zeal for reli<non, 
and charity for the people of his diocese, desires to reside con- 
stantly in it, to exercise freely and with that decency which his 
character and the sacred mysteries of the Catholic, Apostolic, 


toman Religion require, his Episcopal authority in the 
of Quebec, wherever he shall think it proper, until the 
tsion of Canada shall have been decided by a treaty be- 
i their most Christian and Britannie Majesties. 
efree exercise of the Roman Religion, safeguards granted 
religious persons, as well as to the Bishop, who shall be at 
r to come and exercisefreely and with decency the functions 
office wherever he shall think proper, until the possession 
lada shall have been decided between their Britannic and 
Christian Majesties. 

[. That the artillery and warlike stores shall be delivered 
tafide, and an inventory taken thereof. Granted. 
II. That the sick, wounded, commissaries, chaplains, 
jians, surgeons, apothecaries, and other persons employed 
hospitals, shall be treated agreeable to the cartel, settled 
en their Most Christian and Britannic Majesties, on 
ary 6, 1759. Granted. 

That before delivering up the gate, and the entrance of 
wn, to the English forces, their General will be pleased 
i some soldiers to be placed as safeguards at the Churches, 
>nt8, and chief habitations. Granted. 
That the commander of the City of Quebec shall be per- 
l to send advice to the Marquis De Vaudreuil, Governor 
al, of the reduction of the town ; as also that this Gene- 
ill be allowed to write to the French Ministry to inform 
;hereof. Granted. 

That the present capitulation shall be executed accord- 
its form and tenor, without being liable to non-execution 

pretence of reprisals, or the non-execution of any pre- 
; capitulation. Granted. 

i present treaty has been made and settled between us, and 
ates signed at the Camp before Quebec, September 18, 

C. Saunders, G. Townshend, De Ramesay. 

ted in the Battle of the \3th. — One General, one Captain, 

eutenants, one Ensign, three Serjeants, forty-five rank 


unded — One Brigadier General, four Staff Officers, twelve 

ins, twenty-six Lieutenants, ten Ensigns, twenty-five 

ints, four Drummers, five hundred and six rank and file. 

%g, three rank and file. 


Artillery. — One Engineer wounded, one Gunner killed, out 
Bombardier, one Gunner, five matrasses, wounded. 

An Account of the guns, ^c. found in Quebec on Us surrender 
to His Majesty* a troops: 

Brass guns 6 pounder]. Brass mortars 13 Inches 1. 

" 4 " 3. Do. howitzers 8 " a J* 

" 2 " 2. Iron mortars 13 « 9. * 

Iron guns 36 " 10. " 10 u 1. * 

« 24 " 45. " 8 a a * 

" 18 * 18. " 7 « a *4 

(( 12 "13. Shells 13 Inches 770 ** 

« 8 « 43. " 10 " 150 

6 " 66. « 8 and > ^ * 

" 4 •« 30. « 6 J w * 

" 3 " 7. Brass petards 2 ■ 

« 2 « 3. :: 

With a considerable quantity of powder, ball, small arms and f : 

intrenching tools, &c. the number of which cannot be atce** ^ 


There have been also 37 guns and one mortar found on sere- 
ral batteries between St. Charles and Beauport. 

Letter from Vice-Admiral Saunders to the Right Honorable 
Mr. Secretary Pitt, September 20, 1759. 




I have the greatest pleasure in acquainting you, that the \\ 
town and citadel of Quebec surrendered on the 18th instant, \ 
and I enclose you a copy of the articles of capitulation. The ^ 
army took possession of the gates on the land side, the same 
evening, and sent safeguards into the town to preserve order, 
and to prevent any thing being destroyed; and Captain Palliscr, 
with a body of seamen, landed in the Lower Town, and did 
the same. The next day, our army marched in, and near a 
thousand French officers, soldiers, and seamen, were embarked 
on board some English catts, who shall soon proceed for 
France, agreeable to the capitulation. 

I had the honor to write to > ou the 5th instant, by the Rod- 
ncy cutter : The troops mentioned in that letter, embarked on 


sard the ships and vessels above the town, in the night of the 
th instant, and at four in the morning of the 13th, began to 
nd on the north shore, about a mile and a half above the town. 
-eoeral Montcalm, with his whole army, left their camp at 
kauport, and marched to meet him. A little before ten both 
inies were formed, and the enemy began the attack. Our 
oops received their fire, and reserved their own, advancing 
11 they were so near as to ran in npon them, and push them 
ith their bayonets ; by which, in a very little time, the French 
ire way, and fled to town in the utmost disorder, and with 
neat loss ; for our troops pursued them quite to the walls, and 
ilfted many of them upon the glacis, and in the ditch ; and if 
le town had been further off, the whole French army must 
ave been destroyed. About 250 French prisoners were taken 
lat day, among whom are ten Captains, and six Subaltern 
Dicers, all of whom will go in the great ships to England, 

I am sorry to acquaint you, that General Wolfe was killed 
l the action ; and General Monckton shot through the body ; 
at he is now supposed to be out of danger. General Mont- 
ilm y and the three next French officers in command, were 
illed; but I must refer you to General Townshend (who 
rrites by this opportunity) for the particulars of this action, 
he stale of the garrison, and the measures he is taking for 
eeping possession of it I am now beginning to send on shore 
be stores they will want, and provisions for 5000 men ; of 
rhich I can furnish them with a sufficient quantity. 

The night of their landing, Admiral Hobnes, with the ships 
nd troops, was about three leagues above the intended landing 
•lace : General Wolfe, with about half his troops, set off in 
>oats, and dropped down with the tide, and were, by that 
seans, less liable to be discovered by the French centinels, 
totted alt along the coast. The ships followed them about 
hree quarters of an hour afterwards, and got to the landing- 
tlaoe just in the time that had been concerted, to cover their 
anding ; and considering the darkness of the night, and the 
apidity of the current, this was a very critical operation, and 
nary properly and successfully conducted. When General 
Wolfe, and the troops with him, had landed, the difficulty of 
pining the top of the hill is scarce credible : It was very steep 
n its ascent, and high, and had no path where two could go 
t-breast ; but they were obliged to pull themselves up by the 
tumps and boughs of trees, that covered the declivity. 



Immediately after our victory over their troops, I sent ip 
all the boats in the fleet with artillery, and ammunition ; aw 
on the 17th went up with the men of war, in a disposition to 
attack the Lower Town, as soon as General Townshend&adl 
be ready to attack the upper ; but in the evening they seat (Ml 
to the camp, and offered terms of capitulation. h 

I have the farther pleasure of acquainting you, that, duriig £ 
this tedious campaign, there has continued a perfect good un- 
derstanding between the army and navy. I have receives 1 
great assistance from Admirals Dureli and Holmes, &nd from all 
the Captains ; indeed every body has exerted themselves ii 
the execution of their duty ; even the transports have willing { 
assisted me with boats and people on the landing the troops, 
and many other services. 

I have the honor to be, &c. 

Charles Saunders. 


Any one who visits the celebrated Plains of Abra- 
ham, the scene of this glorious fight — equally rich 
in natural beauty and historic recollections — will 
admit that no site could be found better adapted for 
displaying the evolutions of military skill and dis- 
cipline, or the exertion of physical force and deter- 
mined valor. The battle-ground presents almost a 
level surface from the brink of the St. Lawrence, to 
the St. Foy road. The Grande- Allee, or road to Cape 
Rouge, running parallel to that of St. Foy, passed 
through its centre, — and was commanded by a 
field redoubt, in all probability the four-gun battery 
on the English left, which was captured by the light 
infantry, as mentioned in General Townshend's 
letter. The remains of this battery are distinctly 
seen near to the present race-stand. There were 
also two other redoubts, one upon the rising ground, 


k the rear of Mr. C. Campbell's house — the death 
iene of Wolfe — and the other towards the St. Foy 
tod, which it was intended to command. On the 
£e of the country seat called Marchmont, the pro- 
erty of the Honorable J. Stewart, and at present the 
esidence of Mr. Daly, Secretary of the Province, 
lore was also a small redoubt, commanding the 
itrenched path leading to the Cove. This was ta- 
en possession of by the advanced guard of the light 
riantry, immediately on ascending the heights. At 
le period of the battle, the Plains were without 
mces or enclosures, and extended to the walls to 
he St. Lewis side. The surface was dotted over 
r ith bushes, and the woods on either flank were 
lore dense than at present, affording shelter to the 
''rench and Indian marksmen. 

In order to understand the relative position of the 
wo armies, if a line be drawn to the St. Lawrence 
pom the General Hospital, it will give nearly the front 
>f the French army at ten o'clock, after Montcalm 
tad deployed into line. His right reached beyond 
he St. Foy road, where he made dispositions to turn 
he left of the English. Another parallel line, some- 
what in advance of Mr. C. 6. Stewart's house on the 
St. Foy road, will give the front of the British army, 
lefore Wolfe charged at the head of the grena- 
liers of the 22d, 40th, and 45th regiments, who had 
cquired the honorable title of the Louisbourg Gre- 
iadiers,from having been distinguished at the capture 
rf" that place, under his own command, in 1758. To 
neet the attempt of M ontcalm to turn the British left, 
jreneral Townshend formed the 15th regiment en 
wtence, or presenting a double front. The light 
nfantry were in rear of the left, and the reserve was 





placed in rear of the right, formed in eight sob- PV 
divisions, a good distance apart. 

The English had been about four hours in posse* 
sion of the Plains, and were completely prepared to 
receive them, when the French advanced with great ¥ 
resolution. They approached obliquely by the left, 
having marched from Beauport that morning. Oi 
being formed, they commenced the attack with great 
vivacity and animation, firing by platoons. It was 
observed, however, that their fire was irregular and fc 
ineffective, whereas that of the English was so well di- & 
rected and maintained, as to throw the French into 
immediate confusion. It must be stated, that al- 
though the French army was more numerous, it was 
principally composed of colonial troops, who did not 
support the regular forces as firmly as was expected of 
them. Montcalm, on his death bed, expressed him- 
self bitterly in this respect. The English troops, on 
the contrary, were nearly all regulars, of approved 
courage, well officered and under perfect discipline. 
The grenadiers burned to revenge their defeat at 
MontmOrenci ; and it was at their head that Wolpi, 
with great military tact, placed himself at the com- !■■(! 
mencement of the action. k 

About eight o'clock, some sailors had succeeded k 
in dragging up the precipice a light six-pounder, £ 
which, although the only gun used by the English in i 
the action, being remarkably well served, played p 
with great success on the centre column as it ad- ^ 
vanced, and more than once compelled the enemy to 
change the disposition of his forces. The French 
had two field pieces in the action. The despatches 
mention a remarkable proof of coolness and presence 
of mind, on the part of troops who had no hopes bat 
in victory, no chance of safety but in beating the 




y — for had they been defeated, re-embarkation 
I have been impracticable. The English were 
ed to reserve their fire until the French were 
a forty yards. They observed these orders 
strictly, bearing with patience the incessant fire 
; Canadians and Indians. It is also stated that 
fe ordered the men to load with an additional 
i, which did great execution, 
e two Generals, animated with equal spirit, met 

other at the head of their respective troops 
3 the battle was most severe. Montcalm was 
e left of the French, at the head of the regi- 
3 of Languedoc, Bearne and Guienne — Wolfe 
e right of the English, at the head of the 28th, 
he Louisbourg Grenadiers. Here the greatest 
ions were made under the eyes of the leaders 
i action in the centre and left was comparatively 
mish. The severest fighting took place be- 
1 the right of the race-stand and the Martello 
•s. The rapidity and effect of the English 
laving thrown the French into confusion, or- 
ivere given, even before the smoke cleared away, 
arge with the bayonet. Wolfe exposing him- 
t the head of the battalions, was singled out by 

Canadian marksmen, on the enemy's left, and 
lready received a slight wound in the wrist. Re- 
ess of this, and unwilling to dispirit his troops, 
Ided a handkerchief round his arm, and putting 
;lf at the head of the grenadiers, led them on 
3 charge, which was completely successful. It 
►ought, however, with the life of their heroic 
r. He was struck with a second ball in the 

; but still pressed on, and just as the enemy 
about to give way, he received a third ball in 
:east, and fell mortally wounded. Dear, indeed, 



was the price of a victory purchased by the death of 
Wolfe— of a hero, whose uncommon merit wm 
scarcely known and appreciated by his country, be- 
fore a premature fate removed him for ever from her 
service. It might have been said of him, as of Mar- 

Ostendent terris hunc tantiim fata, neque ultra 

Esse sinent Nimiam yobis Romana propago J& 

Visa potens, superi, propria b»o si dona ruisaent 

He met, however, a glorious death in the moment 
of victory — a victory which in deciding the fate el 
Canada, commanded the applause of the world, and 
classed Wolfe among the most celebrated Generak 
of ancient and modern times. Happily, he survived 
his wound long enough to learn the success of the 
day. When the fatal ball took effect, bis principal 
care was, that he should not be seen to falL — " Sap* 
port me," — said he to an officer near him, — " let not 
my brave soldiers see me drop. The day is ours, 
keep it !" He was then carried a little way to 
the rear, where he requested water to be brought 
from a neighboring well to quench his thirst. The . 
charge still continued, when the officer — on whose [ 
shoulder, as he sat down for the purpose, the ■ 
dying hero leaned — exclaiming, " They run ! they 
run !" — " Who run ?" asked the gallant Wolfe, 
with some emotion. The officer replied, — " The 
enemy, Sir : they give way every where !"— 
" What ?" said he, " do they run already ? Pray, 
one of you go to Colonel Burton, and tell hiin 
to march Webb's regiment with all speed down to 
St. Charles River, to cut off the retreat of the fugi- 
tives from the bridge. — Now, God be praised, I dib 
happy !" So saying the youthful hero breathed his 


1st. He reflected that he had done his duty, and 
e knew that he should live for ever in the memory 
f a grateful country. His expiring moments were 
keered with the British shout of victory, 

— pulchrumque mori succurrit in armis. 

uch was the death of Wolfe upon the Plains of 
lBRAHAM, at the early age of thirty-two years ! It 
as been well observed, that " a death more glorious 
ad attended with circumstances more picturesque 
sd interesting, is no where to be found in the an- 
al* of history." His extraordinary qualities, and 
ngular fate, have afforded a fruitful theme of pane- 
yric to the historian and the poet, to the present 
ay. How they were appreciated by his gallant 
>mpanions in arms, may be learned by the subjoin- 
i extract from a letter written after the battle by 
reneral, afterwards Marquess, Townshend, to one of 
is friends in England : — " I am not ashamed to own 
> you, that my heart does not exult in the midst of 
lis success. I have lost but a friend in General 
Wovfb. Our country has lost a sure support, and 
perpetual honor. If the world were sensible at 
ow dear a price we have purchased Quebec in his 
eath, it would damp the public joy. Our best con- 
olation is, that providence seemed not to promise 
bat he should remain long among us. He was him- 
elf sensible of the weakness of his constitution, and 
letermined to crowd into a few years, actions that 
rould have adorned length of life." The feeling 
rod affecting manner in which Wolfe is spoken of 
n this letter, and its elegance of expression, confer 
jqual honor upon the head and heart of the ac- 
complished writer. The classical reader will agree 
irith us in thinking, that he had in his mind at the 

time the eulogy of Marcellus which we have ' 
quoted above. 

The spot consecrated by the fall of General 
Wolfe, io the charge made by the grenadiers upon 
the left of the French line, will to the latest day be 
visited with deep interest and emotion. On tbe 
highest ground considerably in advance of the Mir* 
tello Towers, commanding a complete view of lit 
field of battle — not far from the fence which divides 
the race-ground from the enclosures on the east, 
and opposite to the right of the English — i 
remains of a redoubt against which the attack was di> 
rected which Wolfe so gallantly urged on by his per- 
sonal example. A few years ago a rock was pointed 
out, as marking the spot where he actually breathed nil 
last; and in one of the enclosures nearer to the road if 
the well whence they brought him water. It is 
tinned in the statistical work of Colonel Bouchettf. 
that one of the four meridian stones, placed in 
17»0 by Major Holland, then Surveyor General o( 
CVnada, " stood in the angle of a field redoubt where 
General Wolfe is said to have breathed his last" 
As lie had been conveyed a short distance to the rent 
after being struck with the fatal ball, it must be pre- 
sumed that this redoubt had been captured ; and 
that the grenadiers were pressing on, when he receiv- 
ed his mortal wound. This is corroborated by a letter 
which we have met with, written after the battle by 
an officer of the 28th regiment, serving at the time 
as a volunteer with the Louisbourg Grenadiers un- 
der Colonel Murray. He speaks of the redoubt in 
question as " a rising ground," and shows that 
Wolfe was in possession of it previously to his last 
wound i " Upon the General viewing the position of 
the two armies, he took notice of a small rising 


ind between our right and the enemy's left, 
zh concealed their motions from us in that quar- 
upon which the General did me the honor to 
,ch me with a few grenadiers to take possession 
lat ground, and maintain it to the last extremity, 
?h I did until both armies were engaged, and 
i the General came to me ; but that great, that 
* memorable man, whose loss can never be enough 
etted, was scarce a moment with me till he re- 
ed his fatal wound." 

"he place is now, however, about to be marked 
osterity by the erection of a permanent memorial, 
mission has been given to the writer of this ac- 
at, to announce the intention of His Excellency 
Lord Aylmer to erect a small column on the 
; where Wolfe expired. This act of soldier-like 
erosity will be duly appreciated ; and posterity 
have at last amply redeemed their long neglect, 
wiped away a reproach of more than seventy years 
ition. The Monument in Quebec, common to 
>lfe and Montcalm — the stone placed in the 
uline Convent in honor of the latter — -and the 
Her column on the Plains, died with the blood of 
>lfe, will form a complete series of testimonials 
onorable to the spirit of the age, and worthy of 
distinguished individuals under whose auspices 
f have been executed. 

7he memorial on the Plains will bear the follow- 
inscription : 




H 2 




A death no less glorious closed the career of the t 
brave Marquis De Montcalm, who commanded the i 
French army. He was several years older than i 
Wolfe, and had served his King with honor and ■■ 
■ success in Italy, Germany, and Bohemia, In the 
earlier campaigns of this war he had given signal 
proofs of zeal, consummate prudence and undaunted 
valor. At the capture of Oswego, he had with his 
own hand wrested a color from the hand of an Eng- 
lish oth'cer, and sent it to be hung up in the Cathe- 
dral of Quebec. He had deprived the English of 
Fort William Henry j and had defeated General 
Abekcrombie at Ticonderoga. He had even foil- 
ed Wolfe himself at MoNTMORENcr ; and had 
erected lines which it was impossible to force. When, 
therefore, he entered the Plains of Abraham at the 
head of a victorious army, he was in all respects an 
antagonist worthy of the British General. 

The intelligence of the unexpected landing of 
Wolfe above the town was first conveyed to the 
Marquis De Vaudkeuil, the Governor General, 
about day-break. By him it was communicated 1 
without delay to Montcalm. Nothing could ei- 
ceed the astonishment of the latter at the intelligence 
— he refused at first to give credence to it, observ- 
ing : — *• It is only Mr. Wolfe with a small party, 
come to burn a few houses, look about him and re- 
turn." On being informed, however, that Woife 
was at that moment in possession of the Plains of 
Abraham.—" Then,"— said he, "they have at last 
got to the weak side of this miserable garrison. 
Therefore we must endeavor to crush them by oar 


ers, and scalp them all before twelve o'clock." 
ssued immediate orders to break up the camp, 
;d a considerable portion of the army across the 
• St. Charles, in order to place them between 
ty and the English. Vaudreuil, on quitting 
nes at Beauport, gave orders to the rest of the 
i to follow him. On his arrival at the Plains, 
rer, he met the French army in full flight to- 
i the bridge of boats ; and learned that Mont* 
had been dangerously wounded. In vain he 
ptedto rally them — the rout was general —and 
>pes of retrieving the day, and of saving the 
' of France were abandoned. 
:>ntcalm was first wounded by a musket shot, 
ng in the front rank of the French left, — and 
yards by a discharge from the only gun in the 
ssion of the English. He was then on horse- 
directing the retreat— nor did he dismount until 
ad taken every measure to ensure the safety of 
smains of his army. Such was the impetuosity 
which the Highlanders, supported by the 58th 
lent, pressed the rear of the fugitives, — having 
m away their muskets and taken to their broad 
Is, — that had the distance been greater from the 
of battle to the walls, the whole French army 
1 inevitably have been destroyed. As it was, 
roops of the line had been almost cut to pieces, 
i their pursuers were forced to retire by the fire 
the ramparts. Great numbers were killed in 
retreat, which was made obliquely from the 
r St. Lawrence to the St. Charles. Some severe 
ing took place in the field in front of the Mar- 
Tower, No. 2. We are informed by an officer 
e garrison, that, on digging there some years ago, 
mber of skeletons were found with parts of sol- 


diers' dress, military buttons, buckles, and other re- 

It is reported of Montcalm, when his wounds 
were dressed, that he requested the surgeons in atten- 
dance to declare at once, whether they were mortal. 
. On being told that they were so, — " I am glad of 
it," — said he. He then enquired how long he might 
survive. He was answered, — "Ten or twelve hours, 
perhaps less."—" So much the better," — replied he, 
— ™ then I shall not live to see the surrender of 
Quebec." On being afterwards visited by M, De 
Ramesay, who commanded the garrison, with the 
title of Lieutenant de Rot, and by the Commandant 
de lioHSsillon, he said to them — " Gentlemen, I 
commend to your keeping the honor of France. 
Endeavor to secure the retreat of my army to-night 
beyond Cape Rouge : for myself, I shall pass the 
night with God, and prepare myscif for death." On 
M. de Ramesay pressing to receive his commands 
respecting the defence of Quebec, Montcalm ei- 
claimerl with emotion : — " I will neither give orders, 
nor interfere any further : I have much business 
that must be attended to, of greater moment than 
your ruined garrison, and this wretched country.— 
My time is very short — so pray leave me. — I wish 
you all comfort, and to be happily extricated from 
your present perplexities." He then addressed him- 
self to his religious duties, and passed the night with 
the Bishop and his own confessor. Before he died, 
he paid the victorious army this magnanimous com- 
pliment ; — " Since it was my misfortune to be dis- 
comfited and mortally wounded, it is a great conso- 
lation to me to be vanquished by so brave and 
generous an enemy. If I could survive this wound, 
J would engage to beat three times the number of 


Vuch forces as I commanded this morning, with a 
third of British troops." 

Almost his last act was to write a letter, recommend- 
ing' the French prisoners to the generosity of the vic- 
tors. He died at five o'clock in the morning of the 
14th September ; and was buried in an excavation 
node by the bursting of a shell within the precincts 
rf the Ursuline Convent — a fit resting place for the 
refrains of a man who died fighting for the honor and 
defence of his country. 

Besides the similarity of their fete, there was a re- 
markable coincidence in the prominent points of the 
characters of Wolfe andMoNTCALM. As competitors 
Tor victory and fame, they had equal merit ; and both 
eminently possessed those military qualities which 
ire necessary to attain success. Equally gallant, 
sealous, and devoted to their country — animated with 
the same love of glory — they were in other respects 
similarly situated. Each had received literary cul- 
iration before he entered the military service. 
Wolfe left a widowed mother, his father having 
died in the same year, — Montcalm in addition to a 
mother, left behind him a widow and children. 
These, with an attachment to his unstained memory 
which cannot be too highly esteemed, defended the 
fame of Montcalm from the insinuations contained 
in the calumnious defence of the Intendant Bigot, 
who was arraigned for the mal-practices of his finan- 
cial administration. They succeeded in fully vin- 
dicating the memory of their son and husband ; and 
their triumphant refutation was made by the French 
Government as public as were the calumnies. 

It is due to the military character of Montcalm 
to state, that he did not at first despair of the French 
cause, notwithstanding his own wounds and the loss 

2h 3 



of the battle. He declared to the council of war; mm 
that twelve hours would suffice to re-assemble the 
troops at Cape Rouge, and others scattered at a dis- 
tance from the field of battle — to re-unite them to Ifr 
the beaten forces, and to those who had not been en- I* 
gaged — and to attack the victorious army with far *»■ 
superior numbers, before they had secured then- 
selves by entrenchments. This spirited advice mil 
not acted upon by the council of war. Vaudreuil 
commenced a disorderly retreat towards Montreal, is 
by way of Indian Lorette, compelling the Huronsto i 
accompany him ; notwithstanding which apparent 
act of hostility, the Indian Village remained unin- 
jured by the English. 

There is no record in history of so important a 
victory being gained with so trifling a loss on the 
part of the conquerors. The English had only forty 
five rank and file killed, and five hundred and six 
wounded. The total loss, including officers of all 
ranks, was six hundred and sixty-four. The loss of 
the French amounted to fifteen hundred killed, wound- 
ed and prisoners, among whom were many officers. 

General Monckton, who succeeded to the com- 
mand on the fall of Wolfe, was almost immediately 
shot through the lungs, at the head of the 47th re- 
giment, where he had been greatly distinguished. 
The command then devolved on General Towns- 
hend, who had been engaged on the left. Colonel 
Guy Carleton, Quarter Master General, received 
also a severe wound in the head. The Adjutant 
General, Major Barre', afterwards Secretary at War, 
and a distinguished member of the British Parlia- 
ment, was also wounded. 

The French General Officers were even more un- 
fortunate. The Baron De Senezuerges, second in 


fcommand, was mortally wounded, and being taken 
prisoner, died on board the fleet the next day. 
The Baron De St, Ours also died of his wounds. 

General Townshend had the honor of finishing 
the battle ; and preserved such an appearance of 
Rood order and strength, that Bougainville, who 
£ad advanced from Cape Rouge with two thousand 
fresh troops, thought it most prudent to retire. The 
-battle of the Plains was, therefore, gained — the 
English remained masters of the field. Gene- 
rals Townshend and Murray then performed the 
gratifying duty of going to the head of every 
regiment, and thanking them for their gallant con- 
duct. The following days were employed in en- 
trenching the camp, and in erecting batteries 
against the town. On the 17th, however, propo- 
sitions were made, which were accepted and ratified 
on the, 18th, and Quebec surrendered to the British 

The same day Lieutenant Colonel Murray, com- 
manding the Louisbourg Grenadiers, with three 
companies of his battalion, a piece of cannon, and a 
detachment of Royal Artillery, took possession of the 
Gates and of the Upper Town. The British stand- 
ard was hoisted on the highest part of the fortifica- 
tions. The Lower Town was occupied by Captain 
Hugh Palliser, and a body of seamen detached 
by Admiral Saunders. The French garrison march- 
ed out with the honors of war, and with the prisoners 
who were not wounded, were embarked the next day 
on board of transports for France. 

Thus was effected by an inferior force, and without 
any assistance from the troops under General Am- 
herst, the surprising and almost miraculous capture 
of Quebec, — a fortress nearly impregnable — while 

968 *ct ncnru w gtUfect 


M» De Levi, Governor of Moktkial, was stiH •! 
the heed of a numerous srmy^while tbeisrtifisstis* 
were uninjured, and while the garrison ms in ctf*» 
munication with Bougainville, and in daily expec* l^ 4 
tation of being reinforced with men, stores and pit* 1^^, 
visions by that enterprising officer* \ m i 4 

Quebec having been reduced, General Tow** 1^ 
Hilt d sailed on his return to England, with AdraW 
Saunders. He had, indeed, accepted a eomrii- frf 
skm only to serve during* the campsjogn, *nd tmdat 
the express condition of returning at its ternmutiot* 
On their arrival in the channel, Saunders. rssatYsd 
intelligence of the Brest squadron having put tout 
Instead, therefore, of making an English port, 1* 
hurried to reinforce Admiral Hawke with time mA 
of the line, in which spirited resolution he was joined 
by Towhshend, who was his passenger. 

A garrison of five thousand men, well fismkhid 
with provisions and stores, was left in Quebec under \&m 
General Murray. 

General Monckton soon recovered of his woaodi 
at New- York, whither he had proceeded, and of 
which he was soon afterwards Governor. 


Of the Naval and Military force on the Expedition agaiast 
. Quebec, together with the General and Staff Officers. 

Twenty ships of the Line, two of fifty guns ; eight frigates; 
nine sloops ; three ketches ; three fire ships ; two armed ships; 
one cutter ; one store ship. 

Charles Saunders, Commander in Chief, Vice Admiral of 
the Blue. 

Philip Durell, Rear Admiral of the Red. 
Charles Holmes, Rear Admiral of the White. 








ijor General James Wolfe, Commander-in-Chief. 

C Honble. Robert Monckton, } 
Lionels < Honble. George Townshend, > Brigadier Genls. 

( Honble. James Murray. ) 

sutenant Colonel Guy Carle ton, Quarter Master General, 
ijor Isaac Barre, Adjutant General. 

. ( Hervey Smith, > Aides de Camp to the Com man 
*"*• I Thomas Bell, J der-in-Chiefc 
C Hi chard Guillem, ") 

Pt8 ' i Ho h o. Srd Maitland, \™*™ rfBri ^ 
sat. Henry Dobson, J 

P* 8 * > Leslie^ ' \ As8 ' 8tants to tne Quarter Master Genl. 

ijor Patrick Mackellar, Chief Engineer. 

■st Brigade, .... - General Monckton, 
Regiments. Commanding Officers. 

15th .... Major Irvine, 
43d - • Lieut. Col. James, 

48th .... Lieut. Col. Burton, 
78th - - Lieut. Coi. Fraser, 

sond Brigade, - - General Townshend, 
28th - - - Lieut. Col. Walsh, 

47th ... Lieut. Col. Hale, 
60th, 2d Bat. - - Major Prevost. 

ird Brigade, - - General Murray, 

35th .... Lieut Col. 'Fletcher, 
58th ... Major Agnew, 

60th, 3d Bat. - - Lieut. Col. Young. 

e Grenadiers of the above ten Hegiments, Lt. Col. Carleton. 

n c t • v.*. t c 4. c ) Lt. Col. Hon. Wni. Howe, 

Corp* of L, e ht Infantry from ( h R d ^ 

be Repraents of the Line. $ J?hn D J Ung 
iorps of Rangers • - Major George Scott. 



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Strength of the French Army at the Battle of Quebec, 
13th September, 1759. 

Colony troops 550 

Regt. of l.a Sarre 500 

Reel, of T.aoguedoc 550 

Militia and 1 six pounder 400 


Regiment of Beam 3S0 

Guienne 360 

Militia 1200 

Regiment Royal Houssillon 650 

Colony Troops C50 

Grand Total 7520 

The Natal Force of the French consisted of the followiaj 

:■ -t 
King's Frigates. Guns. < 

L'Atalante 60' '' 

La Pomoue 32 ' 


Le Machault 84 

Le Seneclere 24 " 

Le Due de Frons&c 24 ',' 

Le Bienfaisant... 24 

The lovely Nancy 84 

La Chexine 22 



In order to do ample justice to the interesting 
abject of which we now treat, and satisfied that no- 
ling which tends to illustrate the glorious campaign 
f 1759, will be read with indifference at the present 
ay, we devote this chapter to a selection from the va* 
ious anecdotes and reminiscences, which have been 
anded down, relative to the chief actors in the 
ventful crisis which added another wreath to the 
ational fame, and a new Province to the British 



The following anecdote of Mr. Pitt, the Minister who se- 
ected Wolfe as eminently fit for the command of the expe- 
ition against Quebec, was communicated by his under Secretary 
4 State, Mr. Wood, to a friend of his, ana is a striking proof 
►f his honesty and energy of purpose. 

Mr. Pitt sought out merit wherever he could find it ; and 
cnowing that he could not give General Wolfe a sufficient 
»omber of troops, he told him that he would make it up to him 
8 well as he could, by giving him the appointment of all his 
officers. Wolfe sent in his list, in which was the name of an 
'fficer, Lieutenant Colonel Guy Carleton, who had unfortu- 
ately made himself obnoxious to the then King, by some un- 
°arded expression, concerning the Hanover troops, and which 
a d, by some officious person, been repeated to His Majesty. 

I 2 

9M . mr ncrou of grant) 

Lord Ligonier, than OHMiander-in-Chiaf of all Hit Majestj 
land forces, took in the list to the King, who, as he oxpecti 
made objections to a particular name, and refused to sifi ti 
commission. Mr. Prrr sent Lord Ligonier into the closet a f 
cond time, with no better success. His Lordship refused to go 
a third time at Mr. Pitt's suggestion, He was, however, ts 
his plaoe would be Tacant if he did not ; and that, on praseati 
the name to the sovereign, for the third time, ho should t 
him the peculiar situation of the ataje of the expedition.; si 
that in order to make an y General completely responsible I 
his conduct he should be made as mnch as possible inaxenst) 
if ha tailed ; and that, in consequence, whatever an afin 
ontroatri with M J sfrrice of conusance, r<^n*ete4sbjaji 
possible, be complied with. Lord Ligonior wont in a til 
time, and told his Sovereign, what he was directed tossj f /tl 
good sense of this so completely disarmed his resentment ta 
he signed the partienlar commission as be was requested. ; 


Otnnal Jambs Woxn was born January tniklTfJ^i 
the Parish of Westerham, Kent. The County of York at 
claimed the honor of his birth, and there was a dispute oaf) 
subject. His father was Lieutenant General Edward Wolf 
who died Colonei-in-Chief of the 8th Regiment, on the 271 
March, in the same year with his illustrious son. Hecoi 
manded that Regiment at the battle of Culloden, in 1745. B 
was the second son — the eldest, Edward, a youth of great pr 
mise, also entered the array, and died young in Germai 
Another brother, younger than James, is mentioned as bafii 
been at Louisbourg. 

In the mismanaged expedition against Rocbford, under 8 
John Mordaunr, in 1757, Wolfe was Quarter Master Geaef 
with the rank of Lieutenant Colonel in the army. When tl 
General's conduct came under examination, he was called ope 
as an evidence by both parties. The candor, precision, a 
knowledge of his profession, with which he delivered it,gaiw 
him esteem ; and though only thirty years of age, his miiitsi 
talents in conversation appeared with such lustre as reeoi 
mended him to the patronage of the Ministry, and of His M 
jesty George II. His gallant conduct at the capture 
Louisbourg completely established his fame, and led to his J 
pointment to the command of the expedition against Quebb 


In personal appearance he was what might he called a plain 
tan. He had a face sharp and thin, red hair, coarse skin, fair 
ttd freckled. His eyes were blue and benignant, he had a 
nailing mouth, and a manner which assured you of the plea- 
wt and happy disposition of him that wore it. 

Wolfe's Physician, Dr. Hinde, died lately at Newport, 
Centucky, at the advanced age of ninety-two years, He was 
epresented in some of the pictures of the death of Wolfe, as 
seliog the fast ebbing pulse of the wounded hero. General 
(foLFE was the object of his liveliest recollection, and to his 
atest days he was accustomed to describe him as "a tall and 
■boost person, with fair complexion and sandy hair, possessing 
Looantenance calm, resolute, confident, and beaming with in- 

General Wolfe was to have been married on his return from, 
Quebec to a most amiable and accomplished lady, Catherine, 
laughter of Robert Lowther, Esquire, of Westmoreland, for- 
merly Governor of Barbadoes. Six years after the death of 
Wolfe, she became the wife of the last Duke of Bolton, and 
lied in 1809. 

The letters of General Wolfe, amounting to more than two 
pondred, passed from the hands of his friend General Ward, 
hthose family lived at Westerham, into those of Mr. Southey, 
trho has written the life of Wolfe, published in Murray's 
tamily Library. We regret that this work has not yet fallen 
Into our hands. An account of his life was published in 1759, 
Igr Kearsley, the Bookseller, written by J. P., Master of Arts. 



The late Professor Robinson, of Edinburgh, at that time a 
Ifidshipman in the Royal Navy, happened to be on duty in the 
%4atin which General Wolfe went to visit some of his posts 
the night before the battle. The evening was line, and the 
tone, considering the work they were engaged in, and the 
dooming to which they were looking forward, was sufficiently 
impressive. As they rowed along, the General, wkh much 
feeling, repeated nearly the whole of Gray's Elegy, — which 
bad recently appeared, and was yet but little known — to an 
officer who sat with him iu the stern of the boat, adding as he 
concluded, %( that he would prefer being the author of that 
poem to the glory of beating the French to-morrow." To- 
morrow came, and the life of this illustrious soldier was glo- 


riously terminated amidst the tears of his friends, and the shoots 
of his victorious army : — 

" The paths of glory lead but to the grave ! M 


It appears from General Townshend's despatch that the 
landing was effected somewhat to the eastward of the entrench* 
ed path, now the winding road from Wolfe's Cove. This 
path after reaching Marchmont. crossed the Plains and joined 
the St. Lewis road where the entrance is at present to the 
course. The light infantry having ascended the precipice below 
the pathway, dislodged the guard, and thus enabled the first ani 
second divisions to make use of the path, having freed it from 
its impediments. It was very fortunate that the landing was 
effected below the spot intended, as an alarm would otherwise 
have been given, and greater loss would have been sustained in 
gaining the summit. 

The following anecdote is abridged from Smollett : 
" The French had posted sentries along shore, to challenge 
boats, and give the alarm occasionally. The first boat bmxf 
questioned accordingly, a Captain of Fraser's Regiment, who 
had served in Holland, and was perfectly well acquainted with 
the French language and customs, answered to Qui vit t which 
is their challenge word, La France. When the sentinel de- 
manded, « quel regiment ? — the Captain replied, De la Heine, 
which he knew by accident, to be one of those commanded by 
Bougainville. The soldier took it for granted it was the ex- 
pected convoy, and saying, Passe, the boats proceeded without 
further question. One of the sentries more wary than the 
rest, running down to the water's edge, called out, Pourquoi 
est ce que vous ne parlez plus haul ? — to which the Captain 
answered, with admirable presence of mind, in a soft tone of 
voice, Tai toi, nous serons entendus. Thus cautioned, the 
sentry retired without further altercation." This officer's 
name frequently occurs, it was Captain Donald McDonald, of 
Fraser's Highlanders. 


A little circumstance, eloquently related, has been handed 
down, which shows a delicacy of sentiment, and a justness of 
thinking, not very commonly exceeded, even among persons in 
the higher walks of life. 


The mother of General Wolfe was an object marked for 
public commiseration, by great and poignant distress. That 
which gave cause of general exaltation, could not but pierce 
it er breast with peculiar sorrow. In the accomplished officer, 
whom the country and the world admired, she had lost a dutiful 
&nd affectionate son ; doubly endeared by his high public me- 
rit, and by the amiable virtues that adorned his private life. 
Be was her only son ; and within a few months she had lost 
llis father ! The populace of the village where she lived, 
'Weaterham, in Kent, unanimously agreed to admit no illumina- 
tion or firings, or any sign of rejoicing whatever near her house, 
let* they should seem by an ill-timed triumph, to violate the 
Baeredness of her grief. 


The remains of the lamented Hero were brought to Eng- 
land for interment, with all houor and respect, on board the 
JHoyal WiUiam, of 84 guns. 

At seven o'clock in the morning of the 17th November, this 
vessel, lying in Portsmouth harbor, fired two signal guns on 
the removal of the corpse. At eight o'clock, the body was 
lowered into a twelve oared barge, which was towed by two 
ether twelve oared barges, and attended by twelve more, 
to the end of the point, in a train of gloomy, silent pomp, 
"which suited the melancholy occasion. During the solemnity, 
ail the honors that could be paid to the memory of a gallant 
officer, were rendered to the remains of Wolfe. Minute guns 
were fired from the ships at Spithead, from the time of the 
body's leaving the ship, to its being landed on the point at 
Portsmouth, which was one hour. The Regiment of Invalids 
was ordered under arms before eight o'clock ; and being joined 
by a company of the train in garrison at Portsmouth, marched 
from the parade there to the end of the point to receive the 
remains with military honors. At nine, the body was accord- 
ingly landed, and placed in a travelling hearse, attended by a 
mourning coach, and immediately proceeded through the 
garrison. The colors in the Fort were struck half Hag-staff : 
the bells were muffled, and rung in solemn concert with the 
march. Minute guns were fired from the platform, from the 
entrance of the corpse to the end of the procession. The 
company of the train led the van, with arms reversed — the 
corpse next — and the Invalids followed the hearse. They 
conducted the body to the Land-port gate, where the train open- 

2 i 3 


ed to the right and left, and the hearse passed through then 
on its way to London. 

Although there were many thousands of people assembled oa 
this occasion, not the least disturbance happened. Nothing 
was to be heard but murmuring and broken accents in praise 
of the dead Hero. The corpse was privately interred it 
Greenwich, in the family vault, on the 20th November. 



The subject is the tragic story of the General's death in the 
very moment of victory. He is represented in the last agonies 
of expiring heroism, with his hand closing the wound which 
the ball that killed him had made in his breast, and falling into 
the arms of a grenadier, who catches and endeavors to support 
him on his haunches, while with one hand he holds his feeble 
arm, and with the other points to glory, in the form of an Angel 
in the clouds, holding forth a wreath ready to crown bin. 
On the pyramid, in relief, is the faithful Highland Serjeant who 
attended him, in whose countenance the big sorrow, at the 
mournful sight of his dying master, is so powerfully and pathe- 
tically expressed, that the most insensible human being cannot 
look upon him, without, in some sort, sharing in his grief. 

This monument does equal honor to the artist who designed 
it, and the sculptor by whom it was executed. Every part is 
masterly. The lions that rest upon the base, and the wolves' 
heads that ornament the flanks, are animated ; but, above all, 
the alt-relief that decorates the front, and represents the landing 
at Quebec, conveys such a lively view of the horrid rocks and 
precipices which the soldiers had to climb, and the sailors to 
surmount with the cannon, before they could approach to attack 
the enemy, that one cannot tell which most to admire, the bra- 
very of the troops, who could conquer under such difficulties, 
or the art of the sculptor, who conld make a representation so 
striking. The inscription carries no marks of ostentation, but 
simply records the facts in the following words : 

To the memory of 

James Wolfe, 

Major General and Commander-in-Chief 

Of the British Land Forces, 

On an expedition against Quebec ; 

Who having surmounted, 


By ability and valour, 

All obstacles of art and nature, 

Was slain in the moment of victory, 

On the 13th of September, 1759. 

The Kins: and Parliament of Great Britain 

Dedicated this monument. 


In April, 1760, a plain monument to the late General Wolfe 
was erected in the Parish of Westerhara, in the County of 
Kent, by some gentlemen of the vicinity. In the Inscription, 
which is here given, the extraordinary honor intended to his 
memory by the King and Parliament is alluded to, and the im- 
propriety of a more expensive monument in that place justly 


Son of Col. Edward Wolfe and Henrietta his Wife, 

Was born in this Parish, January 2nd, 


And died in America, September the 13th, 


Whilst George in sorrow bows his laurelled head, 
And bids the artist grace the soldier dead ; 
We raise no sculptur'd trophy to thy name, 
Brave youth ! the fairest in the list of fame. 
Proud of thy birth, we boast th' auspicious year, 
Struck with thy fall, we shed a general tear ; 
With humble grief inscribe one artless stone, 
And from thy matchless honors date our own ! 


The death of General Wolfe was a national loss, universally 
lamented. He inherited from nature an animating fervor of 
sentiment, an intuitive perception, an extensive capacity, and 
a passion for glory, which stimulated him to acquire every 
species of military knowledge that study could comprehend, 
that actual service could illustrate and confirm. This noble 
warmth of disposition seldom fails to call forth and unfold the 
liberal virtues of the. soul. Brave above all estimation of dan- 


ger, he was also generous, gentle, complacent, and humane: 
the pattern of the officer, the darling of the soldier : there wv 
a sublimity in his genius which soared above the pitch of ordi« 
nary miuds ; and had his faculties been exercised to their foil 
extent by opportunity and action, had his judgment been folly' 
matured by age and experience, he would, without doubt, 
have rivalled in reputation the most celebrated Captains of 


The ensuing sketch of Montcalm is extracted from Manuel'* 
L* Annee Francaise : 

" Ce sont les sacrifices faits a la societe qui donnent dtf 
droits au souvenir de la posterite ; elle ne peut point oublier et 
General. II est ne, il a vecu, et il est mort dans les camp? 
Son education n'en fut pas moins soignee. II apprit la langot ' 
d'Hom£re avant de prendre la lance d'Achille. Son esprit M 
developpoit comme son courage ; et egalement propre aux bfr 
failles et aux academies, son tiesir etoit d'unir aux lauriersde 
Mars les palmes de Minerve. Mais la guerre occupa presqae 
toute sa vie ; avec des talens et de 1'activite, on l'appeloit par 
tout ou il falloit commander et se battre. . Chaque grade fut 
marque par des blessures ; et en tres peu de terns, il merita 
d'etre a la tete des troupes dans l'Amerique septentrienale. 
C'est la que se sont montrees les qualites de ce Capitaine — c'est 
la qu'il a fait voir a quel degre il reunissoit la bravoure da 
soldat et la grandeur d'ame du heros, la prudence du conseilet 
la celerite de l'execution ; le sang froid que rien n'altere, cette 
patience que rien ne rebute, et cette resolution courageuse qui 
ose repondre du succes dans des circonstances ou la tiraide 
speculation aurait a- peine entrevu des resources. C'est la 
qu'au milieu dessauvages dont il etoit devenu le pere, on l'avu 
se plier a leurcaractere feroce, s'endurcir aux memes travaux, 
et se restreindre aux aiemcs besoins, les apprivoiser par la 
douceur, les attirer par la confiance, les attendrir par tous les 
soins de Phumilite, et faire dominer le respect et I'amoursur 
des aines egalement indociles aujougde l'obeissanceetau freia 
de la discipline. C'est la que des fatigues et des dangers sans 
nombre n'ont jamais rallenti son zele ; tantot present a des 
spectacles dont 1' idee seule fait fremir la nature ; tantot expose 
a manquer de tout, et souvent a mourir de faim. Reduit 
pendant onze mois a quatre onces de pain par jour, mangeant 


hot oheval pour donner l'exemple, il fat le meme dans tous les 
feint, satisfait de toot endurer. 

" Un des Chefs Canadians etonne que celui qui faisoit des 
Artodiges fut d'une petite taille, s'ecria la premiere fois qu'il le 
At-— •" Ah ! que tu es petit ! mais je vois dans tes yeux la 
tetear du chene, et la vivacite des aigles." 

translation of a Letter from M. de Bougainville, Member of 
the Academy of Sciences, to the Right Honorable William 

The honors paid, during your Ministry, to the memory of 
Mr. Wolfe, give me room to hope that you will not disapprove 
ftf the grateful efforts made by the French troops to perpetuate 
fche memory of the Marquis de Montcalm. The corpse of that 
General, who was honored with the regret of your nation, is 
buried at Quebec. I have the honor to send to you an Epitaph 
■rhieh the Academy of Inscriptions and Belles Lettres have 
wrote for him ; and I would beg the favor of you, Sir, to read 
it over, and if there be nothing improper in it, to procure me 
ft permission to send it to Quebec, engraved in marble, to put 
orer the Marquis de Montcalm's tomb. If this permission 
thoald be granted, may I presume, Sir, to entreat the honor of 
m line to acquaint me with it, and at the same time to send me 
a, passport, that the engraved marble may be received on board 
of an English vessel, and that Mr. Murray, Governor of Que- 
bec, may give leave to have it put up in the Ursuline Church. 
I ask. pardon, Sir, for taking off your attention, even for a mo- 
ment, from your important concerns : but to endeavour to 
immortalize great men and illustrious citizens, is to do honor 
to you. 

I am, &c. 


Paris, March 24, 1761. 

Mr, Pitt's Answer. 

It is a real satisfaction to me to send you the King's con- 
sent on such an interesting subject, a very handsome Epitaph 
drawn by the Academy of Inscriptions at Paris, for the Marquis 
de Montcalm, which is desired to be sent to Quebec, engraved 
on marble, to be set up on the tomb of the illustrious warrior. 


Hostis acer, Victor Mansuetus. 

Fortuuam virtute, virium inopiam, peritia 

Et celeritate compensavit, 

Imminens Colonise Fatum et conditio et man a per 

quadriennium sustiouit. 

Tandem ingentem exercitum Duce strenuo et 

Claesemque omni bellorum mole gravem, 
Multiplici prudentia, diu ludificatus, 
Vi pertractus ad dimicandum, 
In prima acie, in primo conflictu, vulneratus, 
Religion?, quam semper coluerat, in ni tens, 
Magno suorum desiderio, nee sine hostium 

moerore extinct us est. 

Die XIV. Septem. A. D. M.DCC.LIX. 

Mtat. XLVIII. 

Mortales optimi Ducis exuvias, in excavata humo, 

Quam Globus bellicus decidens, desiliensque 


Galli lugentes deposuerunt 

Et geaerostt Hostium fidei commendarunt. 



In either hemisphere to live for ever, 

Lewis Joseph de Montcalm Gozon, 

Marquis of St. Veran, Baron of Gabriac, 

Commander of the Order of St. Lewis, 

Lieutenant General of the French army. 

Not less an excellent citizen than soldier ; 

Who knew no desire but that of true glory. 

Happy in a natural Genius, improved by literature ; 

Having gone through the several steps of military honors 

With an uninterrupted lustre, 

Skilled in all the arts of war, 

The juncture of the times, and the crisis of danger ; 

In Italy, in Bohemia, in Germany, 

An indefatigable General : 

He so discharged his important trusts, 

That he seemed always equal to still greater. 

At length grown bright with perils, 

Sent to secure the Province of Canada 

With a handful of men, 


He more than once repulsed the enemy's forces. 
And made himself master of their Forts 
Replete with troops and ammunition. 
Inured to cold, hunger, watching* and labours, 
Unmindful of himself, 
He had no sensation, but for his soldiers: 
An enemy with the fiercest impetuosity; 
A victor with the tenderest humanity, 
Adverse fortune he compensated with valour ; 
The want of strength, with skill and activity; 
And, with his counsel and support 
For four years protracted the impending 
Fate of the Colony. 
Having with various artifices 
Long baffled a great army, 
Headed by an expert and intrepid commander, 
And a fleet furnished with all warlike stores, 
Compelled at length to an engagement, 
He fell, in the first rank, in the first onset, 
Warm with those hopes of Religion 
Which he had always cherish'd ; 
To the inexpressible loss of his own army, 
And not without the regret of the enemy's. 
XIV. September, A. D. M.DCC.LIX. 
Of his age XLVIII. 
His weeping countrymen 
Deposited the remains of their excellent General in a grave; 
Which a fallen bomb in bursting had excavated for him, 
Recommending them to the generous faith of their enemies. 


This gentleman, having served with much reputation under 
Montcalm, afterwards became a naval officer, and will be 
placed by impartial posterity in the first rank of circumna- 
vigators. His merits have been considered as nearly eqaal 
to those of the celebrated Captain Cook, whose precursor 
he was. He was scarcely twenty years of age at the time of 
the surrender of Quebec, although at that early age in com- 
mand of nearly two thousand men. lie was warmly attached 
to Montcalm ; which was evinced by his well known applica- 
tion to Mr. Pitt, respecting the erection of a monument to that 


General. Bougainville was afterwards Vice Admiral, a Sena- 
tor ; and was finally killed by a revolutionary mob at Paris, on 
the 10th August, 1792. 


This nobleman's father had also been Governor General of 
all New France. The son, who surrendered Montreal to 
General Amherst, had been a Captain in the Navy. There 
was a Marquis de Vaudreuil, who commanded the French fleet 
in the West Indies, about 1783, to whom Admiral Lord Hood 
was opposed. If this was the same person with the Governor 
General, he must at the latter date have been between seventy 
and eighty years of age. 


Brigadier General the Honorable Robert Monckton was 
the second son of the first Viscount Gal way, by Elizabeth, 
daughter of John Duke of Rutland, who died in 1730, at the 
early age of 21, leaving four children. General Monckton 
was of about the same age as Wolfe. 

The family of Monckton is of great antiquity, having been 

{possessed of Nun Monckton, in Yorkshire, near Boroughbridge, 
ong previous to 1326, when it became a Nunnery, called after 
the family. In 1454 they acquired the Manor of Cavil, which 
still remains in the family. 

General Monckton was appointed Governor of New- York, 
in 1761. In 1762, he was appointed to the command of 
eighteen Regiments, destined for the attack on Martinique, 
which was reduced. He afterwards possessed himself by 
capitulation of the whole of the Windward Islands. He 
died in 1782, a Lieutenant General in the Army. His young • 
er brother, the Honorable John Monckton, died at the pa- 
triarchial age of 91, at his seat, Fineshead Abbey, Northamp- 
tonshire, on the 2nd January, 1830. He was Colonel in 
the army, and was dangerously wounded at the battle of 
the Plains, under the immortal Wolfe. In the celebrated 
picture by West of the death of General Wolfe, the portrait 
of Colonel Monckton is represented in the group of officers 
supporting the body of the dying General. 

2 K 



The family of General Townshend settled in England doriig 
the Reign of Henry I. ; and obtained the Manor of Rayohtt, 
in the County of Norfolk, which has ever since remained thi 
chief seat of their descendants. 

• General George Townshend, was the eldest son of Chirla, 
third Viscount Townshend, and was born on the 28th Febru- 
ary, 1724, being three years older than Wolfe. He had send 
in the battles of Dettingen, Culloden, and Lafeldt, previously to 
that of Quebec. In 1767, he was appointed Lord Lieutenant of 
Ireland, where he is still remembered for the gaiety of bis 
court, and the humour and kindness of his disposition. It 
1787, he was created Marquess Townshend. He died a Field 
Marshal, and Colonel of the 2nd Dragoon Guards, in 1807, 
aged 83. 


Brigadier General the Honorable James Murray was of so 
ancient Scottish family. He was fifth son of the fourth Lord 
Elibank. After the capture of Montreal, he was for some 
years Governor of the Province. His published documents 
show hirn to have been a man of keen enquiry and observation, 
just and impartial in his Government, though rather hasty in 
his temper. He was also at another peiiod Governor of 
Minorca. He died a General in the Army, in June 1794,leav- 
ing a son, Colonel James Patrick Murray. 


Colonel Guy Carleton, afterwards created Lord Dor- 
chester, and a Knight of the Bath, was descended from an 
Jrish family of respectable antiquity. He was born at Newry, 
in 1722. lie was many years Governor of this Province, ana 
is remembered with the greatest esteem. In May, 1772, he 
married Maria, daughter of the Earl of Effingham, and died 
in 1808, aged 86. 


The services of Sir William Johnson, a sell taught General, 
like Lord Clive, were equally useful and important, during 
the many campaigns in which he was engaged in North Anie- 


• On two occasions he had captured the commanders of 
enemy whom he fought, and had materially crippled their 
per. As a reward for these great services, he was raised to 
rank of Major General in the Army, from being a provincial 
ser, and received a Parliamentary grant of £5000, to which 
; Majesty added the title of Baronet. Throughout the war 
proved himself a most active and skilful partisan, display- 
peculiar talent for that species of warfare best calculated 
the woods and swamps of America. His strict integrity, 
ciliating manners, and perfect acquaintance with the man- 
8 of the aborigines, gave him great influence over the 
liaas and provincial troops, whom he managed so as to ren- 
- them eminently useful to the service. He was a native of 
land, and had been early sent to America by his uncle, Sir 
fcer Warren, to manage an estate which he had purchased 
re. His decendants remain in this Province. 

The following was the opinion of an Indian Sachem, at the 
se of the campaign of 1759 : — " The English, formerly 
men, are now turned men ; and are thick all over the coun- 
as the trees in the woods. They have taken Niagara, 
taroqui, Ticonderoga, Louisbourg, and Quebec, and they 
1 soon eat the remainder of the French in Canada^ or drive 
m out of the country." 


Among the many tributes with which the periodical 
blications of the day teemed, we have extracted 
few of some poetical merit : 


Here rests from toil, in narrow bounds confin'd, 

The human sh<4l of a celestial mind : 

Who once, with splendor, fill'd a scene so large, 

And took the fate of Empires in his charge. 

A Hero, with a Patriot's zeal inspir'd — 

By public virtue, not by passion fir'd : 

A Hero, disciplin'd in wisdom's school, 

In action ardent, in reflection cool : 

In bloom of years, who gained a glorious name, 

And reap'd, betimes, the harvest of his fame. 


Before Quebec he charg'd the daring foe, 
And quick as lightning struck the fatal blow: 
By active valor made the day his own, 
And liv'd to see his country's foe o'erthrown. 
Crown'd by just Vict'ry, drew his latest breath, 
As wont to smile on danger, smil'd on death ; 
And, having bravely for his country fought. 
Died nobly as he wish'd, and calmly as he ought, 
The troops around him shar'd* a glorious grief, 
And while tbey gather'd laurels, wept their Chief— 
Their Chief ! to whom the great Montcalm gave way, 
And fell, to crown the honors of the day ! 


G reatest in fame ! and to thy country dear ! 

E ternal honors must surround thy bier. 

N o power of language can thy worth express, 

£ nquiring nations hear, admire, and bless ! 

B equiting kingdoms pour the loud applause, 

A nd Bourbon owns in sighs, how just the cause. 

L et France exult in thy too hasty doom, 

W e'll hang immortal trophies o'er thy tomb. 

O ! could the Muse fulfil her high desire, 

L oud to rehearse the praise thy deeds inspire, 

F or Britain's glory she'd expend her breath, 

E nraptur'd sing thy life, or weeping mourn thy death ! 

On the dispute between York and Kent as to the birth 

place of Wolfe. 

Around the world when Homer's genius shone, 
And Ilium stooped to Homer's chief alone : 
When peaceful Ithaca Ulysses sought, 
And spread that wisdom which the Poet taught — 
Contending cities then, inspir'd by fame, 
To Homer's birth advanc'd their eager claim. 
.Not with less pride, each county now, behold ! 
Among her sons has gallant Wolfe enroll'd : 
Was there a bard like Homer to rehearse 
His glorious deeds — they ask no meaner verse — 
His own Achilles rivall'd he might tell, 
Whilst in Quebec a second Ilium fell ! 



There are in Canada so many interesting recol- 
lections connected with the 78th Regiment, or 
Fraser's Highlanders, that we have endeavored 
to obtain the best information relative to this gallant 
corps, many of whom, as well officers as men, after- 
wards settled in these Provinces, 

About ten years after the battle of Culloden, which 
terminated the unfortunate Rebellion of 1745, Mr. 
Pitt, observing with a liberal and statesman-like eye 
the high spirit of loyalty towards those who placed 
confidence in them, which was the distinguishing 
characteristic of the Highland clans, resolved to 
employ them in the foreign service of Great Britain, 
under the command of officers chosen from the most 
esteemed Scottish families. He knew the chiefs 
could be depended upon where their faith was en- 
gaged ; and he was aware of the devotion with which 
the clansman followed the fortunes of his Chieftain. 
The experiment succeeded to the fullest extent ; and 
Mr. Pitt had the merit of drawing into the British 
service a hardy and intrepid race of men, who served 
the Crown with fidelity, who fought with valor, and 
who conquered for England in every part of the 

Following up this enlightened policy, in 1757, 
the Honorable Simon Fraser, who had himself been 
engaged in the rebellion, and whose father, Lord 
Lovat, had been beheaded for high treason on 
Tower Hill, was appointed Lieutenant Colonel Com- 
tnandant of a Battalion, to be raised upon the for- 
feited estate of his own family, then vested in the 
Crown. Without estate, money, or influence, be- 


9M* -■■■■■ imr ntmnrr - rr wrr— ti\ \ •■• 

yond &e hereditary attachment of his cb% 
Matter of Lotat found himself ia a few: 
head of eight hundred men, entirely recruited Mr! 
himself! His kinsmen, officers of the regiment, m , 
the tfentlemeA of the country around* added* amA] 
htrodred more. The battalion was thus fonmi^j 
thirteen companies of one hundred and five 
each, making in all one thousand four hundted«i 1 
sixty men, including tizty-fire Serjeants, and tU# 
pipers and drummers. 

They were a splendid body of men, 
wards carried the military reputation of their nattoft 
to the highest pitch ; and by the temperance and nA 
deration of their general behavior, gave every whns 
B'favorable impression of the sons of the monntaii 
and the flood. In all their movements ther waar 
attended by their Chaplain— the Reverend nonklf 
Macphebsok, who was called by them Caipal M$^ 
from his large stature. They wore the full llj g h * 
land dress, with musket and broad sword. Many of 
the soldiers added at their own expense the dirk, and 
the purse of otters' skin. The bonnet was raised 
or cocked on one side, with a slight bend inclining 
down to the right ear, over which were suspended 
two or more black feathers. Eagles' or hawks' fea- 
thers were worn by the officers. 

Fraser's Highlanders were highly distinguish- 
ed at the capture of Louisbourg, in 1758 — at the 
battles of Montmorenci, and the Plains of Abraham, 
in 1759— and of Sillery, in 1760. At the battle of 
the Plains, the loss of Fraser's Highlanders 
amounted to three officers, one Serjeant, and four- 
teen rank and file killed — ten officers, seven Ser- 
jeants, and one hundred and thirty-one rank and 
file, wounded. The disproportion in the number of 


;le killed to that of the wounded, must be ascribed to 
the irregular and unsteady fire of the enemy, which 
was put a stop to on the charge of the British. 

At the battle of Sillery, in 1760, fell the gallant 
Captain Donald McDonald, who had been so high- 
ly distinguished at the landing at Wolfe's Cove, and 
to whose presence of mind and knowledge of French, 
%VB8 in a great measure owing the success of the at- 
tempt. He was brother to the Scottish Chief, called 
the Captain of Clanronald ; and was a highly ac- 
complished officer and gentleman. The regiment 
also suffered very severely at the battle of Sillery. 
Two officers and fifty-five non-commissioned officers 
and privates were killed — twenty-seven officers, and 
one hundred and twenty-nine non-commissioned 
officers and privates, wounded. * 

The regiment was quartered alternately in Canada 
and Nova Scotia, until the conclusion of the war, 
when great numbers settled in the Provinces. From 
them, in 1775, were raised the Highland Emigrants, 
commanded by Colonel Maclean, a regiment which 
was of great service during the invasion by the 
Americans, in 1775. 

During six years in North America, Fraser's 
Highlanders continued to wear the kilt both winter 
and summer. They, in fact, refused to wear any 
other dress, and their men were more healthy than 
other regiments which wore breeches and warm cloth- 

The French had formed the most frightful and absurd notions 
of the Sauvages fPEcosse t sis they called them. They believed 
they would neither give nor take quarter, and that they were 
80 nimble, that as no man could catch them, so nobody could 
escape them — that no one had a chance against their broad 
•words — that with a ferocity natural to savages, they made no 
prisoners, and spared neither man, woman, nor child. 

Of tht Qffioers of Fbabbe's HraauNMas, 

dated, 5th January, 1757. 

LORrnofAirr coram. comujffDAlrr. ■ : •'" 
Honorable 8imon Fraeer, died Lienteaaat Oaooral, \m 1MV 


James Clephane. 

John Campbell, of Dunoon, ifternrii Iieerteaaflt Galad 
Coinmanding tht Campbell Highlander* in Geraaany. I I) 



John MaePherson, brother of Clunie. 

John Campbell, of Baltimore, ■ .. <..r 

Simoo Fraser, of Inverloeby, killed on the heights of Aka* 
ham, 1759. 

Donald Macdonald, brother of Claaronald, killed at W*!% 

John iKaodontll of Lochfanr, afterwards lieatenaat GeV 
nel of the 76th, or Macdonald** Regiment, died in lVa\ 

Alexander Cameron, of Dnngallon. 

Thomas Ross of Culrossie, killed on the heights of Abrshf 

Thomas Fraser, of Strui. 

Alexander Fraser, of Culduthel. 

Sir Henry Seton, of Abercorn, Baronet. 

James Fraser, of Belladrum. 

Simon Fraser, Captain Lieutenant, died a Lieutenant Geat- 
ral, in 1812. 


Alexander Macleod. 
Hugh Cameron. 

Ronald Macdonald, of Keppoch. 
Charles Macdonel), of Glengarry, killed at St. John's. 
Roderick Macncill, of Barra, killed on the Heights of Abra- 
William Macdonell, 
Archibald Campbell, son of Glenlyon. 
John Fraser, of Balnaiu. 

Hector Macdonald, brother to Boisdale, killed in 1759. 
Allan Stewart, son of Innernaheill. 
John Fraser. h 


Alexander Macdonell, son of Barrisdale, killed on the heights 
P Abraham. 
Alexander Fraser, killed at Louisbourg. 
Alexander Campbell, of Aross. 
John Douglass. 
John Nairn. 

Arthur Rose, of the family of Kilravock. 
Alexander Fraser. 

John Macdonell, of Leeks, died at Berwick, 1818. 
Goftmo Gordon, killed at Sillery, 1760. 
David Baillie, killed at Louisbourg. 
Charles Stewart, son of Colonel John Roy Stewart. 
Ewen Cameron, of the family of Glenevis. 
Allan Cameron. 

John Cuthbert, killed at Louisbourg. 
Simon Fraser. 

Archibald Macalister, of the family of Loup. 
James Murray, killed at Louisbourg. 
Donald Cameron, son of Fassafearn, died on half* pay, 1817. 


John Chisholm. 
John Fraser, of Erroggie. 
8imon Fraser. 
James MacKenzie. 

Malcolm Fraser, afterwards Captain, 84th Regimeut, or 
lighland Emigrants. 
Donald Macneill. 
Henry Munro. 

Hugh Fraser, afterwards Captain, 84th Regiment. 
Alexander Gregorson, Ardtornish. 
James Henderson. 
Robert Menzies. 
John Campbell, killed. 

Chaplain, Reverend Robert Macpherson. 

Adjutant, Hugh Fraser. 

Quartermaster, John Fraser. 

Surgeon, John Maclean. 


In a publication of the day it is stated, that an old Highlan- 
J i% a gentleman of seventy years of age, who accompanied 
laser's Regiment as a volunteer, was particularly noticed for 


the dexterity and force with which he wielded his claymort, 
when his Regiment charged the enemy. On two occasieat 
small parties of them were ordered, at the battle of the Plaiaa, 
to advance, sword in hand, and drive the sharpshooters out if 
some brushwood on the right, from which they galled ourliaa. L| 
It was from the right that General Wolfe was first wouoddL 
This old man's conduct particularly attracted the notice #i 
General Tovvnshend, who sent for him after the engagement, 
and praising his gallaut behaviour, expressed surprise that he 
should leave his native couutry at such ac advanced age, and 
follow the fortune of war. He was so struck with the old 
man's magnanimity, that he took him to England along with 
him, and introduced him to Mr. Pitt. The Minister pre- 
sented him to the King, who was graciously pleased to gilt 
him a commission, with leave to retire on full-pay. This ges- 
tlemau was Malcolm Macpubrson, of Phoiness, in the Count? 
of Inverness. A long and ruinous law suit, and as lie himaeff 
said, a desire of being revenged on the French for their trea- 
cherous promises, in 1745, made him take the field as a soldier 
in his old age. A near relation of his of the same .name, whet 
well advanced in years, (for he had also joined the Rebellion, 
in 1745,) acted nearly in a similar manner. In the year 1770 
he went to India as a Cadet, and living to a great age, attained 
the rank of Lieutenant General, and died there in 1815, leav- 
ing a handsome fortune to his relations in Badenoch. 


The officer, who was wounded at Sillery, had been engaged 
in the Rebellion of 1745, aud was in Stewart of Appin's Re- 
giment, which had seventeen officers and gentlemen of the 
name of Stewart, killed, and ten wounded, at Culloden. Char- 
les Stewart was severely wounded on that occasion, as he was 
at Sillerv. As he lay in his quarters some days after that un- 
fortunate affair under General Murray, speaking to some bro- 
ther officers on the recent battles, he exclaimed, — "From 


April battles, and Murray Generals, good Lord, deliver me!" > 
He alluded to his wound at Culloden, where the vanquished A * 
blamed Lord George Murray, the Commander-in-Chief of the 


rebel army, for lighting on the best ground in the country for |^, 
regular troops, artillery, and cavalry. In like manner he al- 
luded to General Munay, who had marched out of garrison to 
attack an enemy treble his numbers, also in an open field. Ooe jty 




those story retailers) who are sometimes about head-quarters, 
Id the disrespectful prayer of the rebellious clansman. But 
raeral Murray, who was a man of humor and of generous 
nd 9 called upon the wounded officer the following morning, 
d heartily wished him better deliverance in the next battle, 
■en he hoped to give him occasion to pray in a different 


This gentleman, a Lieutenant in Fraser's Highlanders, 
bad been out," in 1745, as had his father, the Laird of 
lenlyoo,in 1715. But his elder brother had entered the Royal 
no v, and was a Lieutenant in the old Black Watch. After 

• father's death, in 1746, the Royalist officer, nowGlenlyon, 
as ordered with a party of men to garrison his own house, and 

• aid in seising all concealed rebels. His brother was iu this 
tuation, and lying hid in a deep den above Glenlyon House, 
ring supplied with provisions by his sisters and friends. On 
M occasion, owing to some interruption, he had not seen his 
•ters for two nights ; and leaving his hiding place rather too 
irly in the evening of the third night under the influence of 
nnger,and in the hope of seeing some of them, he was observ- 
i by his brother and some English officers, who were walk- 
ig about. The brother, afraid of a discovery, pretending to 
ive the alarm, directed the officers to call out the soldiers im- 
aediately, while he kept the rebel in sight. He ran after him, 
tnd called out to his brother, in Gaelic, to run for his life, and 
9 take to the mountains. When the party made their appear- 
race, no rebel was to be seen ; and the unfortunate outlaw was 
Bore careful in future. Ten years afterwards, he was appoint- 
tftD Fraser's Highland Regiment, along with several others 
silo had been engaged iu the Rebellion, and was shot through 
the body at the battle of Sillery Wood, iu 1760. 

The following interesting and honorable anecdote is told 
f Fraser'8 Highlanders. It is related from the words of 
ta venerable Mr. Thompson, who was present at the battle of 
lontmorenci : 

M General Murray, being in want of funds to 'carry on his 
bTernment during the winter, summoned all the officers 


and enquired if they had any money, and if their soldiers had 
any money that they could lend to the Governor until the m* 
plies arrived from England in the spring. We were told of tM 
wants of the Governor, and the next day we were paraded, 
every man, aud told that we should receive our money baft, 
with interest, as soon as possible ; and in order to prevent uy 
mistake, every man received his receipt for his amount, ami far 
fear he should lose it, the Adjutant went along the ranks, nd 
entered in a book the name and sum opposite to every nut; 
and, by the Lord Harry ! when they came to count it up, the? 
found that our regiment alone, Fraser's Highlanders, had 
mustered six thousand guineas ! It was not long after we 
had lent our money, that one morning a frigate was sees 
coming round Pointe Levi with supplies. We were sooo af- 
terwards mustered, and every man received back his mosey 
with twelve months interest, besides the thanks of the Gene- 


The remarkable story of Captain Ochterlony and Lin- 
tenant Peyton of the Royal American Battalion, tending * 

happily to the honor of British sol<iiers, has been often pab- 
lished. It is to be found in JSmoixett, in Smith's Canada, and 
in ^illiman's Tour. The sequel is not so generally known; 
and is here related on the authority of Mr. Thompson, at the | 
time belonging to the Regiment : J 


" As our company of grenadiers approached, I distinctly saw j 
Montcalm on horseback riding backwards and forwards. He « 
seemed very busy giving directions to his meu, and I heard him 
give the word to lire. Immediately they opened upon us, and 
killed a good many of our men, I don't recollect how many. 
We did not fire, for it would have been of no use, as theytcert 
completely entrenched, and we could only see the crown ofthtir 

heads." " We were now ordered to retreat to our boats, 

that had been left afloat to receive us ; and by this time it was 
low water, so that we had a long way to wade through the 
mud. A Serjeant Allan Cameron, of our company, seeing a 
small battery on our left with two guns mounted, and appa- 
rently no person near it, thought he would prevent its doingus 
any mischief on our retreat, so he picked up a couple of bayo* 


to that lay on the beach, and went alone to the battery, when 
lie drove the points of them into the vents as hard as he could, 
-Mid then snapped them off short. 

• M When the French saw us far enough on the retreat, ther 
■cent their savages to scalp and tomahawk our poor fellows that 
Jay wounded on the beach. Among the number was Lieute- 
nant Pktton of the Royal American Battalion, who was se- 
verely wounded, and had crawled away as far as the pains he 
endured would allow. After the savages had done their bu- 
aineee with the poor fellows that lay nearest to the French 
batteries, they went back, except two who spied Lieutenant 
Pktton, and thought to make a good prize or him. He hap- 
pened to have a doubled barrelled fusil, and ready loaded, and 
at he had seen how the savages had treated all the others that 
eame into their clutches, he was sure that if they got the better 
nf him, they would butcher him also. Fortunately his pre- 
sence of mind did not forsake him, and he waited until the first 
■avage came near enough, when he levelled his fusil, and 
brought him to the ground ; the other savage thinking that 
the Lieutenant would not have time to reload, rushed in upon 
him boldly with his tomahawk ready to strike, when Lieute- 
nant Peyton discharged his fusil right into his chest, and he 
fell dead at his feet. We saw no more of the savages after 
that, at least on that occasion ; but we saw enough of them 

" While poor Lieutenant Peyton lay upon the ground al- 
most exhausted from his exertions and loss of blood, he was 
accosted by Serjeant Cameron, who had no other means of 
helping him than carrying him away ; and he was well able to 
do it, for he was a stout, strong, tall fellow. He slung the 
Lieutenant's fusil over his shoulder along with his own, and 
took him on his back, telling him to hold fast round his neck. 
As he had a long way to carry him, he was obliged every now 
and then to lay him down in order to take breath, and to give 
the Lieutenant some ease, as his wcund was exceedingly pain- 
ful. In this way he got him at last to one of the boats, and lay- 
ing him down, said, " Now Sir, I have done as much for you as 
lay in my power, and I wish you may recover." It so happened, 
that in returning to camp, the Lieutenant was taken to the 
Isle of Orleans, and Cameron to Pointe Levi. 

" After some time Lieutenant Peyton was considerably re- 
covered from his wounds, and he sent an officer over to Pointe 
Levi to Cameron, to say that he wished to see him. Cameron 

2 L 

told tb# oJaosr, that ha would oot go, * Why ?" am t» 
oJaosr, to Ganucon--" Why, *> y«t drink, Sir, I woold leui 
ounp without orders T* Thb wasoat of deMoncy tohitfteV 
iafpk Tha offioer then procured a pasty and brought fit-to 
Cameron, who at last oooaanUd to go o?w to the Jslsei 
lientanant Perron said ho was extremely glad to see Aim 
aad. to thank him for the Tory mat serrioea, ha had readsni 

; and that' ~ 

Jum in preserving his life ; aad that if erer it was in his sow 
he wonld give him substantial proof of tha. obligation iaaar 
which ha lay. Wu wtra order** to tha rodaotion of MoatiW 
in tha spriiig of thenar! year, which eapitalated withontaar 
icing a shot From Montreal, Cameron was ordered to-Btv 
Ton, whara ha reoeired an Bnsigacy in a oorpaof Jtanjon 
throogh tha means of liairtsnaat FBraaif'a frianda, 9 * 

~ TbeFinnehandlonnedt^ 

pftha6inwoya#<f£coaH,asthay oJnfalAam. Thay peh a ia i 
ttey wottl&neither gite nor take quarter* and that jlhey*rmf 
so nimble, that as no aaan eonid- oatoh ti^am* s* ( imbed* *annV 
aasapa t ham that no one bed a ohauos aanine* dmUnaeJ 
awocufr-**Jurt with Jinmoftp^^ 
prisoners, and spared noithar aaan, women, nor eMd. /v . 








The public mind in England, which had been 
greatly depressed by the news of the failure of 
Wolfe at Montmorenci, was elevated in an equal 
degree by the intelligence of the victory of the 
Plains, and of the subsequent surrender of Quebec 
Colonel Hale, who was the bearer of General 
Townshend's despatches, and Captain James Doug- 
las, of the Alcide, who brought those of the Admiral, 
arrived in London on Tuesday, 16th October. It 
was the day of the publication of the London Gazette, 
and in the Extraordinary of that date, the Ministry 
had ordered for publication the previous despatches, 
detailing the less fortunate operations of the army, 
down to the 2nd September, which had been receiv- 
ed only two days before. The satisfaction with 
which they received the glorious accounts brought 
by Colonel Hale, on the same evening with the pub- 
lication of the Gazette, may be well imagined. 

The first feeling which pervaded all ranks, and 
reached every part of the kingdom, was that of joy 
and exultation at the success of the British arms 
-—the next was a deep national regret at the fall of 
the accomplished Wolfe. Their joy was shown by 


the most splendid public illuminations — and their 
mourning by wreaths of black crape intermingled 
with the laurel, wherever the national colors were 
elevated. Exactly the same display of feeling was 
made on the death of the immortal Nelson, in 1805, 
A day of public thanksgiving was set apart by au- 
thority for the signal success of His Majesty's 
Arms. Dr. Louth preached before the King at 
the Chapel Royal. The Sermon before the House 
of Lords was preached by the Bishop of Wor- 
cester — before the House of Commons by Dr. 
Dayrell. A great many sermons preached on this 
occasion were published in various parts of the coun- 
try. Addresses of congratulation were presented to 
the King from both houses of the English Parlia- 
ment — from the Parliament of Ireland, which was 
first in Session — from the city of London which set 
the example on this occasion — from the Universities 
— and from the principal corporations throughout the 
kingdom. The House of Commons addressed His 
Majesty to erect a national Monument to the me- 
mory of Wolfe, in Westminster Abbey ; which 
was carried into effect, and to this day remains an 
object of patriotic interest and exultation. The 
thanks of the Commons of England were also 
voted to the officers and men engaged in this memo* 
rabie achievement. Subscriptions were set on foot 
to alleviate the distresses of the widows and orphans 
of those who fell in the battle — a life of General 
Wolfe was published by Kearsley — the Muses 
were invoked to celebrate and immortalize the hero 
himself — a Greek Ode, EIIINIKIOS, was published 
— and, in short, every demonstration of national pride 
and gratitude was made by a grateful, an exulting, 
and highly excited people. 



Captain James Douglas received from His Ma- 
jsstt the honor of Knighthood, and shortly after- 
wards was appointed to a higher command in the 
Leeward Islands. Colonel, afterwards General, Hale 
obtained a commission to raise a regiment of Light 
Dragoons ; and each received a gift of five hundred 
pounds to purchase a sword. Admiral Saunders 
was made Lieutenant General of Marines, and ap- 
pointed to a command in the Mediterranean. Ad- 
miral Holmes received the command of the Jamaica 
Fleet. The Generals were also promoted — but the 
scanty rewards of that period are not to be put in 
competition with the liberality which a long and glo- 
rious war, has, in our day, in a manner compelled 
the nation to evince in the distribution of honors and 
rewards. None of the Generals received the Order 
of the Bath, — which, however, was soon afterwards 
worthily conferred upon Admiral Saunders. It is, 
indeed, apparent from contemporary evidence, that 
the limited rewards of the Ministry on this glorious 
occasion excited remark at the time. General Blake- 
net had been made a Knight of the Bath, and an 
Irish Peer, with a pension of £1000 per annum, for 
giving up Minorca. Prince Ferdinand had been 
rewarded for the battle of Minden with £2,500 per 
annum, a richly ornamented sword of great value, 
besides a gratification of £20,000, and the Knight- 
hood of the Garter. It is remarkable with reference 
to the battle of Minden, that this word has been 
lately inscribed upon the colors and appointments of 
certain Regiments present on that occasion ; while, 
we believe, no Regiment of those engaged in an 
achievement as glorious to the British Arms as any 
recorded in its annals, bears among its insignia the 
name of Quebec ! 

2 k 3 


The following chronological series of occurrences 
in England connected with the acquisition of ike 
Province, and the reception of the news during 
the eventful years 1759 and 1760, has been extrac- 
ted from contemporary publications, as possessing 
considerable interest for the curious reader : 


Wednesday, \bth February, 1759. 
Sailed from Spithead, Admiral Holmes, in the Somerset, 
of 70 guns, with the Northumberland 74, Terrible 74, Trident 
64, Intrepid 64, Medway 60, and the Maidstone, Adventure, 
Diana, Trent, Europe, Vestal, Euros, Boreas, and Crescent, 
frigates, with 60 sail of transports, supposed for New-Yobk. 

Saturday, 17/A> 
Admiral Saunders, after being made Vice Admiral of the 
Blue, and hoisting his flag accordingly, sailed from Spithead 
for Louisbourg, having in his squadron the following ships : 
Neptune, 90 guns, Royal William 84, Shrewsbury 74, Warspite 
74, Orford 70, Alcide 64, Stirling Castle 64, Dublin 74, and 
Lizard 20 ; Scorpion sloop, the Baltimore, Pelican, and Race- 
horse bombs ; and the Cormorant, Strombolo, and Vesuvius 
fire ships. 

Promotions in January, 1 759. 
Lieutenant Henry Caldwell, of Colville's Regiment, to be 
Assistant Quarter Master General in North America. 

February, 1759. 

John Hale, Esquire, to be Lieutenant Colonel of the 47th 
Regiment of foot, and to rank as Colonel in America only. 

Paul us iBmilius Irving, Esquire, to be Major in the 15th 
Regiment of foot. 

Colonel George Townshend, to be Brigadier General in 

March, 1759. 
Hector Theophilus Cramahe, Esquire, to be Deputy Judge 
Advocate in North America. 


April, \7 59. 
Captain Christie, to be Deputy Quarter Master General in 
Ifortn America, with the rank of Major. 

Wednesday, 9Mh September, 1759, 
The last advices from General Wolfe's Army, are dated, 
July 12th, advising : " That he had landed all his Army at 
Pointe Levi, fronting" the upper end of Quebec, on a rising 1 

Gound : at the extremity of which point he had erected two 
tteries, one of twenty twenty-four pounders, and the other of 
eighteen mortars. These batteries overlook the Lower, and 
are npon a level with the Upper City, distant from the former 
three-fourths of a mile. The camp is pitched in a vale at the 
inner part of this point, a full mile from the batteries ; notwith- 
standing which the cannon from the ramparts of the Upper 
City throw their shot a full half mile beyond their tents. The 
14th July, the batteries were to be played off, and three sixty 
gun ships were appointed to attack a small encampment, and 
some batteries and outworks at the lower end of the city, whilst 
the centre of the place is entertained with three three-deckers, 
and two bomb-ketches." And as our Commanders, both by 
sea and land, are men of merit and approved courage, little 
doubt can be made of their being in possession of that city long 
before this time. 

Promotions in September, 1759. 
Jeffrey Amherst, Esquire, to be Major General* 

Tuesday, \6th October, 1759. 

This day an extraordinary Gazette was published containing 
letters from General Wolfe, dated September 2nd, and from 
Admiral Saunders, dated September 5th. 

The same evening arrived Colonel John Hale, and Captain 
James Douglas from Quebec, with other letters to Mr. Secre- 
tary Pitt, containing an account of the surrender of Quebec. 

Wednesday, 1 7th. 
H. R. H. the Prince of Wales and the Royal family, with 
the most of the nobility in town, waited upon His Majesty at 
Kensington, to pay their compliments on the joyful news of 
taking Quebec. The Park and Tower guns were fired, flags 
every where displayed from the steeples, and the greatest illu- 
minations were made throughout the city and suburbs that 
were ever known. 

4tt4 ifstr picmmt *t QtmsEc, 

Daring the illuminations this evening, the following iejeris* 
dons appeared ; \ 

The only fiver of Victory, 

The renewed lustre of 
The British name. ' * 

General Jambs Worn, 


Dauntless, but deliberate, 

Under numerous difficulties* 

September Soft, 1759. : '£ 

Engaged to employ bis little Amy, 

For the honor and interest - ' ' 
Of hit country ; 
In a few days after, ; 
Gloriously fulfilled his promise, 

At the expense of his life. 


t »■ 




Saturday, 20th. 

This day the Bight Honorable the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, 
and Common Council of the City of London, waited on .His 
Majesty, and being introduced by the Right Honorable Mr. 
Secretary Pitt, made their compliments in the Address, el . 
which the following is an extract : 

" Above all, the conquest of Quebec, in a manner so glorioej 
to your Majesty's Arms, against every advantage of situation 
and superior numbers, are such events, as will for ever render 
your Majesty's auspicious reign the favorite era in the history 
of Great Britain. 

" But whilst we reflect with surprise and gratitude upon this 
last and most important conquest, permit us, Most uracioot 
Sovereign, to express our great regret for the immense (though 
almost only) loss which has attended it, in the death of that 
gallant General, whose abilities formed, whose courage attempt- jE 
ed, and whose conduct happily effected the glorious enterprise 
in which he fell, leaving to future times an heroic example ef 
military skill, discipline and fortitude." 






Saturday t 26th, 
A proclamation was issued for a Public Thanksgiving, to be 
observed on Thursday, the 29th November next, throughout 
England and Wales. 

Tuesday, 30th. 
His Majesty has been pleased to order a present of £500 to 
ir James Douglas, Captain of the Alcide man of war; and the 
sum to Colonel Hale,, who brought the account of the 
"faking of Quebec, 

The French Ministers are in such dread of popular resent- 

aaent, that they have recourse to the grossest, and most direct 

ialsehoods, merely to conceal for a time what cannot fail to be 

known at last, so that they have even caused Te Deum to be 

gang for the defeat of the English before Quebec, at the very 

time they knew it was taken. 

Tuesday > November 13M, 1759. 

This day Parliament was opened by Commission. In the 
speech the capture of Quebec was alluded to in these terms : — 
* The conquest of so many important places in America, with 
the defeat of the French Army in Canada, and the reduction of 
their capital city of Quebec, effected with so much honor to 
the courage and conduct of His Majesty's officers both at sea 
and land, and with so great lustre to his intrepid forces.'' 

The Addresses in answer from the Jjords and Commons 
Marly echoed the terms of the speech ; but the Lords added 
that the reduction of Quebec " has exceeded the most sanguine 
hopes of your Majesty's faithful subjects." 

On the 30th October the Irish House of Commons also voted 
n Address 'to the King, of which the following is an extract : 

••Witness Quebec ! which lately beheld a youthful warrior, 
with unabated order, lead on a few selected troops, and under 
the influence of your Majesty's happy auspices, attack and de- 
feat her numerous bodies of regulars and Canadians, supported 
by her auxiliary savages. 

* Pardon us, Most Gracious Sovereign, if we suspend awhile 
ear otherwise unclouded joy, to lament the loss of that gallant 
General. How gloriously has he finished his short but bril- 
liant career, and left a name, so long as fame shall wait upon 
aeroic deeds, consecrated to posterity, and an example as dif- 
ficult as it is worthy of imitation." 


Saturday, 17 th November. 
This day, the remains of General Wolfe were landed at 
Portsmouth, from on board the Royal William man of war, 
During the solemnity, minute guns were fired from the shipc 
at Spithead ; and all the honors that could be paid to the me* 
mory of a gallant officer were paid on this occasion. 

Ttesday, 20th. 
This day, the corpse of General Wolfe was interred in a 
private manner, at night, in the family vault at Greenwich. 

Wednesday, 21st November. 

The House of Commons " Resolved, That an humble Addrew 
be presented to His Majesty, most humbly to desire His Mus- 
ty, that he will be graciously pleased to give directions, that a 
monument be erected in the Collegiate Church of St. Peter, West- 
minister, to the memory of the ever lamented late Commander 
in Chief of His Majesty's land forces, on an expedition agaioit 
Quebec, Major General James Wolfe, who, surmounting by 
ability and valor, all obstacles of art and nature, was slain 
in the moment of victory, at the head of his conquering troop*, 
in the arduous and decisive battle against the French Army, 
near Quebec, fighting for their capital of Canada, in the year 
1759; and to assure His Majesty, this House will make good 
the expense of erecting the said monument." 

At the same time it was " Resolved, That the thanks of the 
House be given to the Admirals and Generals employed in this 
glorious and successful expedition against Quebec." 

Friday, 23rd. 
Some of the ships from Quebec being arrived at Plymouth, 
and some at Spithead, the Lords of the Admiralty began to be 
in pain for Admiral Saunders, when they received a letter of 
excuse from him, dated in the channel, acquainting them that 
as he had heard the Brest Squadron, under M. Conflans, had 
sailed on the 1 4th, he hoped he would be pardoned for going to 
join Admiral Sir Edward Hawke, without orders. In this 
noble enterprize he is joined by General Townshend, who was 
returning home on board his ship. Admiral Saunders had 
three sail of the line with him. 

Promotions in November, 1759. 
November 6th. — Brigadier General James Murray, to be 
Colonel of a Battalion of the Royal American Regiment vice 



Brigadier General Honorable Robert Monckton to be Co- 
lonel of the 17th Regiment. 

Brigadier General Honorable George Townshend to be 
Colonel of the 28th Regiment, from the 64th. 

Major General Barrington to be Colonel of the 8th Regi- 
ment,.m££ Lieutenant General Edward Wolfe, deceased. 

General Gray, to be Colonel of the 67th Regiment, vice 
Major General James Wolfe, killed in action at Quebec. 

Saturday, December 15th, 1759. 
Admiral Saunders who landed at Cork, set out from that 
port and arrived this day in Dublin. At night being- at the 
Theatre, he was saluted by the audience with the highest de- 
monstrations of applause. He arrived in London on the 26th. 

Monday, 24>th. 
A subscription was commenced in different parts of London, 
to raise a sum of money to be distributed amongst the Infantry 
that signalised themselves in the two glorious actions of Min- 
den and Quebec, and for the relief of the widows and orphans 
of those who bravely lost their lives in those ever memorable 
days of action. It is expected that the same will be imitated 
in several other parts of the kingdom. 

Monday, 31*/. 
* The Chezine, from a place twenty leagues above Quebec, 
of near 500 tons, mounting 22 six pounders, with one hundred 
men, and six English prisoners, was sent into Bristol by the 
Bipon man of war. She sailed from Quebec with four or five 
others : the forts fired at her as she passed the town, but did 
little or no damage. It was thought impossible that they could 

'Promotions in December, 1759. 

The King has been pleased to appoint Vice Admiral Saunders 
to bo Lieutenant General of the Marine Forces. 

John Hale, Esquire, to be Lientenant Colonel Commandant 
of a Regiment of Light Dragoons, now raising. 

Brigadier General the Honorable James Murray to be Go 
vernor of Quebec. 

Wednesday, 23d January, 1 760. 
Vice Admiral Saunders, Rear Admiral Holmes, and Briga- 
dier General Townshend, being come to the House op Com- 


glTI -.v 

acquainted them that tbe House 
nimouily reeolred, that the thanks of tbe Bouse bt 
tbe Adndrala and Generals employed in the glorious 
flii lfa l ezpeditioo against Quebec, and Mr. Speak < 
■—; j *a — ^^Uw thanks ofthe House accordingly. 

Tutmtag, VVIi February. 
a Wat set on fool at Leeds, for the relief oCttt 
wioowe ut orphans of our brave countrymen who fell before 
the valla of Qiittfcc, and on the riaiiig'of Minrien, a ch«i7 
Wghl y dawning ii i ' , . ; i i . 

- Letter! wwarejoeircd from Halifax, stating that Lord Car 
tuxb had tailed from that port with all hia squadron for tat ) 
Bt. Lawrence, »o that, in all probability, he would get up the i 
'rtW beta* % It-possible for any vessels from Fiance to if 
tin. ■ 

Am, 1760. 
■'.:■■ Lavrof Regiments in North America. 
Major Gene Amhi :■■■. Command er-in- Chief. 

lit Royal Scottish, 2nd Batf. „^ 3J ' 

15th. Major General Amherst, Quebec 

17th. Brigadier General Monefctod 

82nd. Brigadier "encral Win (wore, Louuboon 

27th. Lord Blakeney 

28th. Brigadier General Towuslieud Quebec 

35th. Lieutenant General Olway, Quebec 

40tb. (late) General Barringtoo'x Loaisboo/f 

42nd. Royal Highlanders, Snd Jlatt 

43rd. Lieutenant General Kennedy Quebec 

44th. Lieutenant General Abeicrombie, ... 

46th. Lieutenant General Warburtoo, I.eni»bour£ 

46th. Lieutenant General Murray,. 

47th. Lieutenant General Lam pI lei,, Quebec 

48th. Major General Webb, Quebec 

55th. Colonel Oughton 

58th. Major General Anatruthrr's Quebec 

60th. Royal Americans, Four liatt 

77th Highlanders, Colour! MiMit^omery,.,, 

78th Ditto, Colonel Fraser, Quebec 

80th, Brigadier General Gage 


Promotions in August, 1760. 
c_, Honorable Richard Maitland, to be Adjutant General to the 
. troops in Canada, with the rank of Lieutenant Colonel. 

Saturday, October Uh, 1760. 
This day Major Barr6 and Captain Deane arrived express in 
the Vengeance Frigate, from Quebec, in 23 days, with the news 
m . of the surrender of Montreal and all Canada. 


Sunday, 5th. 
Early this morning Mr. Secretary Pitt waited, upon His 
Majesty with the above important news. At noon the Park 
and Tower guns were fired. 

Wednesday, 15th. 

By the Union, Dennis, arrived at Portsmouth from Quebec, 
came advice, that Colonel Eraser with 800 men from Quebec, 
invested and took Fort Jacques Cartier, September 9th, before 
be knew of the surrender of Montreal. It was defended by 
the Marquis cTAlbergotti, who held out until he was reduced 
to thirty pounds of powder. 

Thursday,] 6th. 
The Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and Common Council of Lon- 
don waited upon His Majesty, at Kensington, with an Address 
on the reduction of all Canada. The honor of Knighthood 
was conferred upon the Sheriffs, Alderman Kite, and William 
Hart, Esquire. 

2 M 




the sieges continued. battle near siller* 

wood the french raise the siege general 

Murray's despatch. 

It has been stated that, on the fleet under Admiral 
Saunders returning home after the successful expe- 
dition of 1759, General Murray was left Governor 
of Quebec, with a garrison of five thousand men. 
Other accounts make the number sis thousand, which 
appears more nearly correct. They were first employ- 
ed in repairing upwards of five hundred houses which 
had been almost entirely destroyed by the lire of the 
English batteries at Pointe Levi ; and in putting 
the fortifications in a condition fit for defence. Se- 
veral affairs of posts occurred during the winter, 
which all redounded to the advantage of the British. 
St, Foy and Lorette were occupied by General 
Murray as outposts ; and those of the French at 
Lake Calvaire, St. Augustin, and Maistm Brv- 
lee, were successively attacked and dispersed. 

Owing to the rigour of the climate, and the con- 
stant living on salted provisions, without vegetables, 
the scurvy — the same disease which had proved so 
fatal to the little band of Jacques Cartier, in 
1535 — broke out amongst the garrison in so inveter- 
ate a manner, that before the end of April a thou- 


sand men were dead, and two thousand more rendered 
unfit for service. 

The main force of the French army, which had 
been cantoned during the winter between Jacques 
Cartier and Three Rivers, was in the spring 
collected in the neighborhood of Montreal, under 
the command of M. de Levi, an officer of merit, 
activity and enterprise. It consisted of ten battalions 
of regular troops, making about four thousand five 
hundred men — which had been reinforced by six 
thousand disciplined Canadian Militia — two hiradred 
of whom were mounted and acted as cavalry — and by 
two hundred and fifty Indians — amounting in all 
to ten thousand seven hundred and fifty effective 
men. This statement is taken from the French ac- 
count : the English accounts at the time stated them 
to be fifteen thousand men. The first intention of 
M. de Levi had been to capture Quebec by a coup 
de main during the depth of winter ; and to that end 
he had provided snow shoes, scaling ladders, and 
fascines. He had also a large depot of provisions 
at Pointe Levi. These, however, were immediately 
captured by a detachmeut of the English garrison, 
which marched across the ice for the purpose. Find- 
ing that the vigilance of General Murray, and of 
his outposts, was not to be baffled, the French com- 
mander altered his plans, and resolved to attempt 
the reduction of Quebec by a regular siege, which 
he flattered himself he could bring to a termination 
before the place could be relieved by Lord Col- 
ville's Fleet, then lying at Halifax. He was 
favored in such an operation by the absence of all 
British naval forces in the St. Lawrence, while he 
had six French frigates of from forty-four to twenty 


six guns each, which secured to him the command of 
the river between Montreal and Quebec. 

On the 17th April, 1760, M. de Levi, having 
embarked his baggage and military stores in small 
craft and batteaux, under convoy of his frigates, reach- 
ed Pointe aux Trembles with his army by land. 
The stores being disembarked at St, Augustin, on 
the 27th, he arrived at the Plains of Abraham by 
the way of the St Foy road. 

The French accounts state that the advanced post 
of the British at the ford of Cape Rouge River, con* 
sisting of the Light Infantry, would have been cut 
off but for the following incident : On the 27th 
April, a sentinel, on board the Mace-horse sloop of 
war, hearing cries upon the river, informed Captain 
Macartney therewith ; who ordered out a boat, and 
brought on board a French soldier, belonging to the 
artillery, who had been floating up and down on a 
field of ice. The poor fellow, although treated with 
all humanity, was unable for nearly two hours to give 
any account of himself. He then stated, that he had 
formed one of the crew of a batteau belonging to the 
French Army under M. de Levi, consisting of ten 
thousand men, who were advancing to the attack of 
Quebec. On this information it is said that the post 
at Cape Rouge was called in, the French all the 
while pressing close upon the rear. 

General Murray, for reasons explained in his 
despatches, resolved to hazard a battle ; and accord- 
ingly marched out of Quebec on the morning of the 
28th April, with all his troops fit for duty, amounting 
to no more than three thousand men. He took post 
on the celebrated Plains of Abraham, where so 
many laurels had been gathered the year before ; 
and with great gallantry made a powerful attack on 


the French centre, posted upon some rising ground 
not far from Sillery Wood. The French were 
well commanded, and fought so well, that General 
Murray, finding it impossible to avoid being sur- 
rounded by a body three times as numerous as his 
own, was forced to recal his men, and to retire af- 
ter sustaining a very heavy loss. Far from being 
discouraged by the loss of the battle, — in which it 
must be acknowledged that his troops behaved most 
admirably, the loss of the French being admitted to 
be nearly double that of the English — he resolved 
to trust for defence to the fortificatiohs % of Quebec. 
By alfnost incredible exertions, he built two cava- 
liers, and mounted upon the ramparts one hundred 
and thirty-two pieces of artillery. The enemy broke 
ground before the place, but made slow progress in 

String up their artillery. On the 9th May, General 
urray was encouraged by the arrival of the 
Lowestojfe Frigate, Captain Deane ; who informed 
him that Commodore Swanton, with a fleet from 
England, was in the river. Lord Colville, also, 
bad sailed from Halifax on the 22nd April, and 
might be daily expected. 

Although M. de Levi had made every exertion to 
commence the siege, he was not able to open his 
fire until the 1 1th. His batteries were soon 'Silenced 
by the superior fire and weight of metal of the Eng- 
lish. On the 15th, to the great joy of the garrison, 
and the equal discomfiture of the French, the fleet 
under Commodore Swanton arrived before the city, 
and Quebec was soon delivered from the presence 
of the enemy. On the next day, two men of war were 
detached against the French naval force above the 
town, which consisted of two frigates, two armed ves- 
sels, and a number of smaller craft. The attack was 



completely successful — one of the French frigates 
was driven upon the rocks above Cape Diamond— 
the other ran ashore, and was burned at Pointe mat 
Trembles — the rest were taken or destroyed. On 
this occasion, however, the Lowestoffe was lost, hav- 
ing run upon some hidden rocks. 

M. de Levi, concerned at the loss of his ship- 
ping, and believing the * vessels which had already 
arrived to be the forerunners of a larger reinforce- 
ment, determined forthwith to raise the siege. He 
accordingly broke up his camp, and retired with such 
a recipitation towards Montreal, that General Mur- 
ray was unable to come up with the rear guard before 
it had crossed Cape Rouge River. He, however, 
captured the stores, provisions, and artillery of the 
enemy, together with all the entrenching tools used 
in the siege. 

On the 27th June, the following despatch was re- 
ceived by Mr. Pitt from General Murray ; to 
which we refer as containing all that it is necessary 
to preserve, relative to the siege of Quebec by the 
French : 

Friday, 21th June, 1760. 

This morning arrived Major Maitland, and Captain Schom- 
berg, with the following letter from the Hon. James Murray, 
Governor of Quebec, to the Right Honorable Mr. Secretary 

Quebec, May 25, 1760. 

" Having acquainted General Amherst, three weeks 
ago, that Quebec was besieged by an army of 15,000 men, I 
think it necessary to do myself the honor of addressing direct- 
ly to you, the more agreeable news of the siege being raised, 
lest, by your receiving the former intelligence, before the lat- 
ter, some inconvenience may arise to His Majesty's service. 


" By the Journal of my proceedings, which I have the honor 
to transmit to you, you will perceive the superiority we have 
maintained over the enemy during" the winter, and that all 
Lower Canada, from the Pointe aux Trembles was reduced, and 
had taken the oath of fidelity to the King. You will no doubt 
be pleased to observe, that the enemy's attempts upon our 
posts, and ours upon theirs, all tended to the honor of His Ma- 
jesty's arms, as they were always baffled. 

" I wish I could say as much within the walls ; the exces- 
sive ooldness of the climate, and constant living upon salt pro- 
visions, without any vegetables, introduced the scurvy among 
the troops, which getting the better of every precaution of the 
officer, and every remedy of the Surgeon, became as universal 
as it was inveterate, in so much, that before the end of April, 
1000 were dead, and above 2000 of what remained, unfit for 
any service. 

M In this situation I received certain intelligence, that the 

Chevalier de Levi was assembling his army, which had been 

cantoned in the neighbourhood of Montreal ; that he had 

completed his eight battalions, and 40 companies of the Troupes 

de Colonie, from the choice of the Montrealists ; had formed 

these forty companies into four battalions ; and was determined 

to besiege us the moment the River St. Lawrence was open, of 

Which he was entirely master, by means of four King's frigates, 

and other craft, proper for this extraordinary river. 

u As I had the honor to acquaint you formerly that Quebec 
could be looked upon in no other light than that of a strong 
cantonment, and that any works I should add to it, would be in 
thai style, my plan of defence was, to take the earliest oppor- 
tunity of entrenching myself upon the heights of Abraham, 
which entirely command the ramparts of the place at the dis- 
tance of 800 yards, and might have been defended by our num- 
bers against a large army. But the Chevalier de Levi did not 
give me time to take the advantage of this situation : The 
23d, 24th,and 25th of April, 1 attempted to execute the project- 
ed lines, for which a provision of fascines, and of every neces- 
sary material had been made, but found it impracticable, as the 
earth was still covered with snow in many places, and every 
where impregnably bound up by frost. 

" The night of the 26th, I was informed that the enemy had 
landed, at Pointe aux Trembles, 10,000 men, and 500 barbarians. 
The post we had taken at the embouchure of the River Cap 
Rouge, (the most convenient place for disembarking their ar- 


them before they had formed. We soon beat them from 
ights they had possessed, though they were well disput- 
ld Major Dalling, who cannot be two much commended 
i behaviour this day, and his services during the winter, 
their corps of grenadiers from a house and windmill 
ad taken hold of to cover their left flank : Here he, and 
I of his officers, were wounded ; his men, however, pur- 
he fugitives to the corps which were now formed to sus- 
iem : They halted, and dispersed along the front of the 
which prevented that wing from taking advantage of the 
ipression they bad made on the enemy's left. They had 
lately orders given them to regain the flank, but, in at- 
ng this, they were charged, thrown into disorder, retired 
rear, and from the number of officers killed and wounded, 
never again be brought up, during the action. Otway's 
stantly ordered to advance and sustain the right wing, 
the enemy in vain made two attempts to penetrate. On 
KJcasions, Captain Ince, with the grenadiers of Otway's 
listinguished. While this passed there, the left was not 
they had dispossessed the enemy of two redoubts, and 
led with unparalalled firmness the bold united efforts of 
amy's regulars, Indians and Canadians, till at last fairly 
; down, and reduced to a handful, though sustained by 

battalion of Royal Americans from the reserve, and 
>d v's from the centre, where we bad nothing to fear, they 
ibiiged to yield to superior numbers, and a fresh column 
issillon, which penetrated them, 
le disorder of the left was soon communicated to the 

but the whole retired in such a way, that the enemy did 
nture upon a brisk pursuit. We left most of our cannon, 
roughness of the ground, and the wreaths of snow, made 
>ssible to bring them off ; what could not be brought 
>re nailed up. 

ar killed and wounded amounted to one-third of those in 
Id ; that of the enemy, by their own confession, exceeds 
aen, which may be readily conceived, as tbe actioa lasted 
ir and three quarters. 

ere I think it my duty to express my gratitude to the 
i in general, and the satisfaction I bad in the bravery of 


the night of the 28th, the enemy opened trenches against 
vn, and, at the same time, we set to work within, to 

it, which we never had in our power to attempt sooner, 


from the severity of this climate daring the winter, aodttepnc 

absolute necessity of executing works of more immediate ifpm 

portance, last autumn, before the frost set in. I wanted tWl^o 

assistance of Major Mack ell ar, the chief engineer, dangerow^f »< 

wounded in the action ; his zeal for, and knowledge in ft™ 

service is well known ; but the alacrity of the garrison madef 

tor every defect. * 

" My journal of the siege, which accompaiiies this, setofenV 

in full, what was done: and I flatter myself, the extraordim^ 

performances of the handful of brave men I had left will pkait ||V1 

His Majesty as much as they surprised us who were eye-wfr 

nesses to them. ' - 

" Great praise is due to Commodore Swanton, andtheGjpfa 

tains Schombcrg and Deane ; I have not words to express ta fi 

readiness, vivacity, and valour they showed in attacking 1 asi ■» 

destroying the enemy's squadron. Captain Deane has lost w 

ship, but it was in a good cause, and be has done honor to M 


" The morning of the 17th of May, I intended a strong 
to have penetrated into the enemy's camp, which, from thei 
formation of the prisoners I had taken, and the concurrents 
count of deserters, I conceived to be very practicable. 

" For this purpose I had ordered the regiments of Amhers^ 
Townshend, Lascelles, Anstruther and Highlanders, with the 
grenadiers and light infantry, under arms; but was informed by 
Lieutenant M'Alpin, of my battalion (whom I sent out to 
amuse the enemy with small sallies) that their trenches were 

u 1 instantly pushed out atthe head of these corps, not doubt- 
ing but we must have overtaken and forced their rear, and m 
ample revenge for the 28th of April ; hut I was disappointed, 
for they had crossed the River Cap Rouge, before we could 
come up to them. However, we took several prisoners, and 
much baggage, which would otherwise have escaped They 
left their camp standing ; all their baggage, stores, magazine! 
of provision and ammunition, 34 pieces of battering cannon, 
four of which are brass 12 pounders, ten field pieces, six mor- 
tars, four petards, a large quantity of scaling ladders, and en- 
trenching tools beyond number, and have retired to their 
former asylum, Jacques Cartier. From the information of 
prisoners, deserters, and spies, provisions are very scarce; 
ammunition does not abound ; and the greatest part of the Ca- 
nadians have deserted them. At present they do not exceed 


men. The minute I am joined with that part of my gar- 
ni which was sent from hence last autumn, I shall endeavor 
o»operate with Mr. Amherst, towards completing the reduc- 

1 of this country ; though, if rightly informed, he can hardly 
by the lakes before the month of July, of which I am the 
re convinced, because from the intelligence forwarded to 
i last February, of the enemy's designs, by Lieutenant Mon- 
K>r, he would certainly have been upon them before now, 
I it been at all practicable. 

r Major Maitland, the bearer of these despatches, who has 
ad as Adjutant General this last winter, is well acquainted 
•b all our transactions here : he has a thorough knowledge 
(be country, and can give you the best lights with regard to 
> measures farther to be taken, relative to His Majesty's 
wa in Canada. 

* I cannot finish this long letter, without observing how 
i«h I think myself obliged to the Lieutenant Governor, Co- 
ld. Burton; his activity and zeal were conspicuous during 

* whole course of this severe winter's campaign, and I flatter 
neelf, Sir, you will be pleased to lay his services before His 

* P. S. — Since I have wrote the above, a nation of Indians 
l surrendered, and entered into an alliance with us. 

I have the honor to be, with regard, 
Your's, &c. 

James Murray. 

Admiralty Office. — Captain Schomberg arrived with des- 
efcches from Lord Colville, dated at Quebec, the 24th May, 
%ing an account, that having on the 14th May received advice 
at the enemy had besieged Quebec, he got under sail with the 
:most despatch, and anchored above rointe Levi the 15th, 
fare he received a message from the General, earnestly re- 
tanmending the speedy removal of the French naval force, 
misting of two frigates, two armed ships, and many smaller 
tosels. In consequence of which, he ordered Captain Schom- 
arg, and Captain Deane, to slip the cables and attack the 
lemy; but they were no sooner in motion, than the enemy 
sd in hurry and disorder. The Pomona, one of the fri- 
Ites, was driven on shore above Cape Diamond ; the Atalanta, 
le other frigate, ran ashore, and was burnt at Poiute aux 
Yemble, about ten leagues from the town ; and most of the 


other ships and vessels were likewise driven ashore, ortf»| 
tually destroyed. 

The night following, the enemy raised the siege of 
very precipitately, leaving their cannon, small arms, 
&c. behind them. The Lowtstoffe ran upon some on 
rocks, in pursuit of the enemy, and was irrecoverably lost,) 
the officers and men were saved. 

All attempts to recover possession of 
having thus completely failed, the Marquis de V 
dreuil determined to take his last stand on 
of French dominion at Montreal. To this 
he called in all his detachments, and here he coll 
and concentrated his remaining strength. But 
net was fast closing around him — the fate of Can 
was already decided — General Amherst was 
proaching from Lake Champlain — and the 
from Quebec and Lake Ontario having arri 
on the same day before Montreal, a capital 
was signed on the 8th September, and the conqui 
of Canada was completed in little more than two 
years from the reduction of Louisbourg. 

The intelligence of the surrender of Montreal 
and of the whole Province — which was looked upon 
by the nation as a worthy termination to the expe- 
dition of Wolfe — was received in London on the 
4th October, and the despatches were published in 
the London Gazette on the 6th. 

His Majesty George II. outlived the glorious 
news only a few days. On the lfeth, he received an 
Address of congratulation from the Lord Mayor, Al- 
dermen and Common Council-men of London. Ob 
the 4 25th, in the midst of the hearty rejoicings of the 
people for the* acquisition of so immense an extent 
of Empire, the King was suddenly seized with ill* 



, and soon expired in the 77th year of his age, 
the 34th of his reign. 

[is Majesty George III. had the gratification 
*ceiving the homage of his new subjects. In the 
mer of 1763, the Chevalier Chaussegros ds 
y and his lady were presented at Court, and 
j the first of His Majesty's Canadian subjects 
had that honor. The young and gallant Mo* 
h, on receiving Madame de Lery, who was a 
beautiful woman, observed to her, — " If all the 
*s of Canada are as handsome as yourself, I have 
ed made a conquest." 

2 N 




The invasion of Canada by the troops of the 
American Congress rendered the year 1775 remark- 
able in the annals of the Province. The principal 
points which will demand our attention are the ex- 
pedition of Arnold, the storming of Quebec, and the 
death of Montgomery. 

Canada, supposed to be perfectly secure, had been 
left almost destitute of regular troops, nearly all of 
which had been removed to Boston. The whole 
force of this description consisted of only two Regi- 
ments of Infantry, the 7th Fusiieers, and the 26th, 
amounting to no more than eight hundred men. Of 
these the greater part were in garrison at St. John's, 
the rest dispersed through the various posts. The 
Province was, however, extremely fortunate in the 
character, talents and resources of the Governor, 
General Carleton. 

On the 17th September, 1775, Brigadier General 
Richard Montgomery, who had formerly been in the 
British service, appeared at the head of an army, 
before the Fort of St. John's ; which, after a gallant 
defence, surrendered on the 3rd November, the gar- 





ison marching out with the honors of war. Mon- 
real, which was entirely defenceless, capitulated on 
de 12th November ; and General Carleton, con- 
eivirig it of the utmost importance to reach Quebec, 
be only place capable of defence, passed through 
le American force stationed at Sorel, during the 
ight, in a canoe with muffled paddles ; and arrived 
a Quebec on the 19th, to the great joy of the gar- 
ison and loyal inhabitants, who placed every con- 
idence in his well known courage and ability. 

While the Province was thus threatened with 
ubjugation on the side of Montreal, a new danger 
►resented itself from a quarter so entirely unexpected, 
hat until the particulars were ascertained, the fears 
,nd superstitions of the inhabitants of the country 
parishes had ample subject for employment and ex- 
aggeration. An expedition of a singular and daring 
inaracter had been successfully prosecuted against 
Quebec from the New England States, by a route 
vhich was little known and generally considered im- 
jracticable. This expedition was headed by Colonel 
Arnold, an officer in the service of the Congress ; who 
arith two regiments, amounting to about eleven hun- 
dred men, left Boston about the middle of September, 
md undertook to penetrate through the wilderness 
to Pointe Levi, by the means of the Rivers Kennebec 
and Chaudiere. 

The spirit of enterprise evinced in this bold design, 
and the patience, hardihood and perseverance of the 
new raised forces employed in the execution, will 
forever distinguish this expedition in the history of 
offensive operations. A handful of men ascending 
the course of a rapid river, and conveying arms, am- 
munition, baggage, and provisions through an almost 
trackless wild — bent upon a most uncertain purpose 


—can scarcely be considered, however, a regular 
•peration of war. It was rather a desperate attempt, 
suited to the temper of the fearless men engaged in 
it, the character of the times, and of the scenes which 
were about to be acted on the American continent 
The project, however, of Arnold was by no means 
an original thought. It had been suggested by Go* 
vernor Pownall, in his " Idea of the sendee of Ame- 
rica," as early as the year 1758* He says, — " The 
people of Massachusetts, in the counties of Hamp- 
shire, Worcester and York are the best wood-heaters 

in America. I should think if about a hundred 

thorough wood-hunters, properly officered, could be 
obtained in the County of York, a scout of such 
might make an attempt upon the settlements by way 
of Chaudiere River." 

On the *22nd September, Arnold embarked on the 
Kennebec River in two hundred batteaux ; and 
notwithstanding all natural impediments — the ascent 
of a rapid stream — interrupted by frequent portages 
through thick woods and swamps — in spite of fre- 
quent accidents — the desertion of one -third of the 
number — they at length arrived at the head of the 
River Chaudiere, having crossed the ridge of land 
which separates the waters falling into the St. Law- 
rence from those which run into the sea. They now 
reached Lake Megantic, and following the course 
of the Chaudiere River, their difficulties and priva- 
tions, which had been so great as on one occasion 
to compel them to kill their dogs for sustenance, 
were speedily at an end. After passing thirty-two 
days in the wilderness, they arrived on the 4th No- 
vember at the first settlement, called Sertigan, twenty 
five leagues from Quebec, where they obtained all 
kinds of provisions. On the 9th, Colonel Arnold 


arrived at Pointe Levi, where he remained twenty-four 
hours before it was known at Quebec ; and whence it 
was extremely fortunate that all the small craft and 
canoes had been removed by order of the officer 
. commanding the garrison. On the 13th, late in the 
evening, they embarked in thirty-four canoes, and 
very early in the morning of the 14th, he succeed- 
ed in landing five hundred men at Wolfe's Cove, 
without being discovered from the Lizard and Hun- 
ter, ships of war. The first operation was to take 
possession of what had been General Murray's house 
on the' St. Foy Road, and of the General Hospital, 
They also placed guards upon all the roads, in order 
to prevent the garrison from obtaining supplies from 
the couutry. 

The small force of Arnold prevented any attempt 
being made towards the reduction of the fortress un- 
til after the arrival of Montgomery from Montreal, 
who took the command on the 1st December, and 
established his head quarters at Holland House. 
Arnold is said to have occupied the house near Scott's 
Bridge, lately inhabited by the Honorable Mr. Jus- 
tice Kerr. 

The arrival of the Governor on the 19th Novem- 
ber had infused the best spirit among the inhabitants 
of Quebec. On the 1st December, the motley gar- 
rison amounted to eighteen hundred men — all, how- 
ever, full of zeal in the cause of their King and 
country, and well supplied with provisions for eight 
months. They were under the immediate com- 
mand of Colonel Allan Maclean, of the 84th Re- 
giment or Royal Emigrants, composed principally of 
those of the gallant Fraser's Highlanders, who had 
settled in Canada. 

2 n 3 



70 Royal Fneileers, or 7th Regiment. 
230 Royal Emigrants, or 84th Regunent. 

22 Royal Artillery. 
330 British Militia, under Lt. Col. Caldwell. 
543 Canadians, under Colonel Dupre\ 
400 Seamen under Captains rhuniKoo and Maekeraie. & 

50 Blasters and Mates. i 

35 Marines. 
ISO Artificers. 

1800 Total bearing anna. 

The siege, or rather the blockade, wat maintained 
during the whole month of December, although the 
incidents were few and of little interest. The Ame- 
ricans were established in every house near the walls, 
more particularly in the Suburb of St. Roch, near 
the Intendant's Palace. Their riflemen, secure in 
their excellent cover, kept up an unremitting fire 
upon the British sentries, wherever they could ob- 
tain a glimpse of them. As the Intendant's Palace 
was found to afford them a convenient shelter, from 
the cupola of which they constantly annoyed the 
sentries, a nine pounder was brought to bear upon 
the building ; and this once splendid and distinguish- 
ed edifice was reduced to ruin, and has never been 
rebuilt. They enemy also threw from thirty to 
forty shells every night into the city ; which fortu- 
nately did little or no injury either to the lives or 
the property of the inhabitants. So accustomed did 
the latter become to the occurrences of a siege, that 
at last they ceased to regard the bombardment with 
alarm. In the mean time, the fire from the garrison 
was maintained in a very effective manner upon 
every point where the enemy were seen. On one 


occasion, as Montgomery was reconnoitring near the 
town, the horse which drew his cariole was killed by 
I cannon shot. 

During this anxious period the gentry and inhab- 
itants of the city bore arms, and cheerfully perform- 
td the duties of soldiers. The British Militia were 
xmspicuous for zeal and loyalty, under the command 
>f Major Henry Caldwell, who had the Provincial 
-ank of Lieutenant Colonel. He had served as De- 
mty Quarter Master General with the army, under 
General Wolfe, and had settled in the Province 
ifter the conquest The Canadian Militia within 
the town was commanded by Colonel Le Comte 
Dupr£, an officer of great zeal and ability, who ren- 
iered great services during the whole siege. 

General Montgomery, despairing to reduce the 
place by a regular siege, resolved on a night attack, 
in the hope of either taking it by storm, or of find- 
ing the garrison unprepared at some point. In this 
design he was encouraged by Arnold, whose local 
knowledge of Quebec was accurate, having been ac- 
quired in his frequent visits for the purpose of buy- 
Lag up Canadian horses. The intention of Mont- 
gomery soon became known to the garrison, and 
General Carleton made every preparation to prevent 
surprise, and to defeat the assault of the enemy. 
For several days the Governor, with the officers and 
gentlemen, off duty, had taken up their quarters in 
the Recollet Convent, where they slept in their 
clothes. At last, early in the morning of the 31st 
December, and during a violent snow storm, Mont- 
gomery, at the head of the New York troops, advanc- 
ed to the attack of the Lower Town, from its western 
extremity, along a road between the base of Cape 
Diamond and the river. Arnold, at the same time, 


advanced from the General Hospital by way of St 
Charles Street. The two parties were to meet at 
the lower end of Mountain Street, and when united 
were to force Prescott-Gate. Two feint attacks in 
the mean time on the side towards the west, were to 
distract the attention of the garrison. Such is the 
outline of this daring plan, the obstacles to the ae- ■ 
complishment of which do not seem to have entered 
into the contemplation of the American officers, who 
reckoned too much upon their own fortune and the 
weakness of the garrison. 

When, at the head of seven hundred men, Mont- 
gomery had advanced a short distance beyond the 
spot where the Inclined Plane has since been con- 
structed, he came to a narrow defile, with a precipice 
towards the river on the one side, and the scarped 
rock above him on the other. 1 his place is known 
by the name of Pns-dt-J'Ule. Here all further ap- 
proach to the L^ver Town was intercepted, and 
tvinn.andcd by a battery of three pounders placed in 
a han^ard to t/.e «omh of the pass. The Post was 
entrusted to a Ca;U;.in of Canadian Militia, whose 
force consisted or" thirtv Canadian and eight British 
Militiamen, with r.ine British seamen to work the 
guns, as artillerymen, under Captain Barnsfare, 
A!a>ter i»t a tra-^port, laid up in the harbor during 
the winter. At Jay-break, some of the guard, being 
on the look our. discovered, through the imperfect 
liirht, a bodv of troops in full inarch from Wolfe's 
Cove upon the Post. *l he men Lad been kept un- 
der arms waiting w ith the utmost steadiness for the 
attack, which they had reason to expect, from the 
reports of deserters: and in pursuance of judicious : 
arrangements which had been previously concerted, \ 
the enemy was allowed to approach unmolested 


'Irithin a small distance. They baited at about fifty 
Jyards from the barrier ; and as the guard remained 
~ ctly still, it was probably concluded that they 
re not on die alert. To ascertain this an officer 
seen to approach quite near to the barrier. Af» 
ter listening a moment or two, he returned to the 
body ; and they instantly dashed forward at double 

Snick time to the attack of the post This was what 
te Guard expected : the artillery-men stood by 
vith lighted matches, and Captain Barnsfare at the 
critical moment giving the word, the fire of the guns 
fend musketry was directed with deadly precision 
against the head of the advancing column. The 
aonsequence was a precipitate retreat — the enemy 
sras scattered in every direction — the groans of the 
Brounded and of the dying were heard, but nothing 
certain being known, the pass continued to be swept 
by the cannon and musketry for the space of ten 
minutes. The enemy having retired, thirteen bodies 
were found in the snow, and Montgomery's Orderly 
Serjeant desperately wounded, but yet alive, was 
brought into the guard room. On being asked if the 
General himself had been killed, the Serjeant evaded 
the question, by replying, that he had not seen him 
for some time, although he could not but have known 
ike fact. This faithful Serjeant died in about an 
hour afterwards. It was not ascertained that the 
American General had been killed, until some hours 
afterwards, when General Carleton, being anxious to 
ascertain the truth, sent an Aide-de-Camp to the 
Seminary, to enquire if any of the American officers, 
then prisoners, would identify the body. A field 
officer of Arnold's division, who had been made pri- 
soner near Sault-au-Matelot barrier, consenting, 
accompanied the Aide-de-Camp to the Prfo-de-ViUe 

480 nw pictuwc or quibec, 

guard, and pointed it oat among the other bodies* a? 
file same time pronouncing, in accents of grieft 
ft glowing eulogium on Montgomery's bravery Sflft 
worth. Besides that of the deneral, the bodies 4 
his two Aides-de-Camp were recognised among tfef 
shun. The defeat of Montgomery** foWe was con£ 
plete. Colonel Campbell, his secoiid in commto^ 
immediately relinquished the undertaking, a&d hi; 
back his men with the utmost precipitation. 

The exact spot where the barrier was erected be- 
fore which Montgomery fell, may be described si 
Grossing the narrow road under the mountain, iduA£ 
diately opposite to the west end of a building^wUdf- 
tftands on the south, and was formerly occupied Vf 
Mr. Racey as a brewery. It is now numbered flB 
At the time of the siege this was called the Pfaftlfc 
The battery extended to the south, add neariy ttlfct 
river. An inscription commemorating the erettt 
might properly be placed upon the opposite rock. 

Soon after the repulse of the enemy before the 
post at Pr£s-de-Ville 9 information was given to the 
officer in command there, that Arnold's party, from 
the General Hospital, advancing alongthe St. Charles, 
had captured the barrier at the Sault-au-Mateht, 
and that he intended an attack upon that of Prhr 
de-Ville 9 by taking it in the rear. Immediate pre- 
parations were made for the defence of the Post 
against such an attack, by turning some of the guns 
of an inner barrier, not far from the Custom House, 
towards the town ; and although the intelligence 
proved false, — Arnold having been wounded and his 
division captured, — yet the incident deserves to be 
commemorated as affording a satisfactory contradic- 
tion to some accounts which have appeared in print, 
representing the Guard. at Pris-de-ViUe as having 



been paralysed by fear, — the post and barrier " de- 
serted," — and the fire which killed Montgomery 
merely " accidental." On the contrary, the circum- 
stances which we have related, being authentic, prove 
that the conduct of the Pr£s-de-Ville Guard was 
firm and collected in the hour of danger ; and that 
by their coolness and steadiness they mainly con- 
tributed to the safety of the city. Both Colonel 
Maclean and General Carle ton rendered every jus- 
tice to their meritorious behaviour on the occasion. 

In the meantime . the attack by Arnold, on the 
north eastern side of the Lower Town, was made with 
desperate resolution. It was, fortunately, equally 
unsuccessful, although the contest was more protract- 
ed ; and at one time the city was in no small danger* 
Arnold led his men by files along the River St. 
Charles, until he came to the Sault-au-Matelot 9 
where there was a barrier with two guns mounted* 
It must be understood that St. Paul's Street did not 
then exist, the tide coming up nearly to the base of 
the rock, and the only path between the rock and 
the beach was the narrow alley which now exists in 
rear of St. Paul Street under the precipice itself. 
Here the curious visitor will find a jutting rock, 
where was the first barrier. The whole of the street 
went by the name of the Sault-au-Matelot from the 
most ancient times. Arnold took the command of 
the forlorn hope, and was leading the attack upon 
this barrier, when he received a musket wound in 
the knee which disabled him, and he was carried 
back to the General Hospital. His troops, however, 
persevered* and having soon made themselves mas- 
ters of the barrier, pressed on through the narrow 
street to the attack of the second, near the eastern 
extremity of Sault-au-Matelot Street. This was a 

battery which pr otes te d the on* of «h*tw*str**i 
caMtd St Feter Street and Sa&im-MaUht, extent 
ing, by meant ef hangarde meatited with cannot 
fan the rock to the mar. 11a Montreal Beak, 
then a private home, had aanea aaqjeatinff fian 
the end window*, aa had a home aft <be end miSaaU- 
mhMakbt Street Tbe enemy took abeltar in tkt 
honaea on each side, and in the narrow pais leafeg 
reand the bane of the eKff Umaw ii Hepe*Gate, whgi 
they were secured by the angle ef Aa nock from tk 
ire of the gone at the barrier. Heat the; enemy 
■wt wita a oexeruiUHNi reauRanoe, wniea m waauanr 
rfUe to ov ct ee mc ; and General Cnshitoa kajjlg 
ordered a aortie rrem Anaee-Oata an4nr*:QlpaBi 
Lnwe, in order to take then ia the 
rear guard, <ander Captain Deerkern, ha 1 
aar re ad ci cd - I k e dmsk* of Arnold ' 
ter, and were brought prisoner* te the Upper Tew* 
The officers were confined in the Seminary* Tbe 
contest continued for upwards of two hours, and dw 
bravery of the assailants was indisputable. Through 
the freezing cold, and the pelting of tbe storm, wf 
maintained tbe attack until all hope of sacces an 
lost, when they surrendered to a generous enemy, 
who treated the wounded and prisoners with huna- 

The Americans lost in the attack about ene 
hundred killed and wounded, and six officers of 
Arnold's party, exclusive of the loss at PrSs-de-Vilk. 
The British lost one officer, Lieutenant Anderson of 
of the Royal Navy, and seventeen killed and wound- 
ed. The following is a statement of the force which 
surrendered : 


1 Lieutenant Colonel, " 

2 Majors, 

8 Captains, 

15 Lieutenants, v , , , 

1 Adjutant, > Not wounded. 

1 Quarter-Master, I 
4 Volunteers, ) 

350 Rank and file, J 

44 Officers and soldiers, wounded. 

426 Total surrendered. 

By the death of Montgomery the command de- 
volved upon Arnold, who had received the rank of 
Brigadier General. In a letter dated, 14th January, 
1776, he complains of the great difficulty he had in 
keeping his remaining troops together, so dishearten- 
ed were they by their disasters on the 31st Decem- 
ber. The siege now resumed its former character 
of a blockade, without any event of importance, until 
the month of March, when the enemy received re- 
inforcements that encreased their numbers to near 
two thousand men. In the beginning of April, 
Arnold took the command at Montreal, and was re- 
lieved before Quebec by Brigadier General Wooster. 
The blockading army, which had all the winter re- 
mained at three miles distance from the city, now 
•approached nearer the ramparts, and re-opened their 
fire upon the fortifications, with no better success than 
before. In the night of the 3rd May, they made an 
unsuccessful attempt to destroy the ships of war and 
vessels laid up in the CuL-de-Sac, by sending in a 
fire ship, with the intention of profiting by the con- 
fusion, and of making another attack upon the works 
by escalade. At this time they had reason to expect 
that considerable reinforcements, which they had no 
means of preventing from reaching the garrison, 

2 o 


would shortly arrive from England ; and giving up 
all hope of success, they became impatient to return 
to their own country. A Council of War was called, 
on the 5th, by General Thomas, who had succeeded 
Wooster ; and it was determined to raise the siege at 
once, and to retire to Montreal. They immediately 
began their preparations, and in the course of the 
next forenoon broke up their camp, and commenced 
a precipitate retreat. 

In the mean time the gallant Carleton and his in- 
trepid garrison were rejoiced by the arrival, early in 
the morning of the 6th May, of the Surprize Frigate, 
Captain Linzee, followed soon after by the Isis, of 
fifty guns, and Martin Sloop of war, with a rein- 
forcement of troops and supplies. Nothing could 
exceed the delight of the British at this seasonable 
. relief. After the toil and privation of a six months 
siege, it may be imagined with what feelings the in- 
habitants beheld the Frigate rounding Pointe Levi, 
and how sincerely they welcomed her arrival in the 
basin. The Isis was commanded by Captain, after- 
wards Admiral Sir Charles Douglas, Baronet, father 
of Major General Sir Howard Douglas, the late 
popular Lieutenant Governor of New-Brunswick. 
Captain Douglas had made uncommon exertions to 
force his ship through fields of ice,— having by skil- 
ful management and a press of sail carried her for the 
space of fifty leagues, through obstacles which would 
have deterred an officer less animated by the zeal 
which the critical service on which he was employed 
required. The troops on board the vessels, consisting 
of two companies of the 29th Regiment, with a party 
of marines, amounting in all to two hundred men, 
were immediatelv landed, under the command of 
Captain Viscount Petersham, afterwards General the 


Earl of Harrington. No sooner had they arrived in 
L the Upper Town, than General Carleton, who had 
learned the retreat of the enemy, determined to make a 
sortie and to harass their rear. He accordingly march- 
ed out at the head of eight hundred men ; but so rapid 
was the flight of the enemy, that a few shots only 
were exchanged, when they abandoned their stores, 
artillery, scaling ladders, leaving also their sick, of 
whom they had a great many, to the care of the 
British. The humanity with which they were treat- 
ed was afterwards commemorated by Chief Justice 
Marshall in his life of Washington. 
* The conduct of General Carleton throughout the 
siege was beyond all praise. He always wore the 
same countenance, and as his looks were watched, 
his conduct infused courage into those of the inha- 
bitants, who, unused to a siege, sometimes gave way 
to despondency. He was, indeed, a man of true 
bravery, guided by discrimination, conduct and ex- 
perience. During the attack of the 31st December, 
he had taken post at Prescott-Gate, where he knew 
would be made the combined attack of Montgomery 
and Arnold, had they succeeded in passing the bar- 
riers at Pris-de-Ville and the Sault-au-Matelot. 
Here he took his stand, and there is every reason to 
believe that he would have defended the post even 
to death. He had been heard to say, that he would 
never grace the triumph of the enemy, or survive 
the loss of the town. 

The despatches announcing the retreat of the 
American forces from before Quebec were taken 
home by Colonel Caldwell, who received the usual 
present on the occasion. His Majesty immediately 
bestowed the Knighthood of the Bath upon General 
Carleton. The following extract from his despatches 


to Lord George Germaine, Secretary of State, shows 
his own sense of the general conduct of the officers 
and men under his command. Among the Canadian 
officers who particularly distinguished themselves, 
were Colonel Dupr6, Major Ecuyer, and Captains 
Bouchette, Laforce and Chabot of the Marine. 

* Thtis," says General Carleton, " ended our siege aid 
blockade, during which the mixed garrison of soldiers, sailors, 
British and Canadian militia, with the artificers, from Halifax 
and Newfoundland, showed great zeal and patience, under 
very severe duty, and uncommon vigilance, indispensable in a 
place liable to be stormed, besides great labor necessary to 
render such attempts less practicable. 

" I cannot conclude this letter without doing justice to Lieu- 
tenant Colonel Maclean, who has been indefatigably zealous 
in the King's service, and to his regiment, wherein he has col- 
lected a number of experienced good officers, who have been 
very useful. Colonel Hamilton, Captain of His Majesty's 
ship, Lizard, who commanded the battalion of seamen, his 
officers and men, discharged their duty with great alacrity and 
spirit. The same thing must be acknowledged of the masters, 
inferior officers and seamen, belonging to His Majesty's trans- 
ports, and merchantmen, detained here last fall : only one sea- 
man deserted the whole time. The militia, British and 
Canadian, behaved with a steadiness and resolution, that could 
hardly have been expected from men unused to arms. Judges, 
and other officers of government, as well as Merchants, cheer- 
fully submitted to every inconvenience to preserve the town : 
the whole, indeed, upon the occasion, showed a spirit and per- 
severance that do them great honor. 

" Major Caldwell, who commanded the British militia all 
winter, as Lieutenant Colonel Commandant, and is bearer of 
these despatches to your Lordship, has proved himself a faith- 
ful subject to His Majesty, and an active and diligent officer. 
He, and, indeed, almost every loyal subject, are very conside- 
rable sufferers by the present hostile invasion." 

Having thus brought to a close our account of the 
various and eventful scenes which have passed under 
review, it may be observed, that Quebec is remark- 


able among North American cities, for having been 
five times invested by regular forces : — First, in 
1629, when, in the infancy of the Colony, it fell into 
the hands of the English, — in 1690, after its natural 
capabilities for defence had been improved by the 
art of fortification, when it successfully resisted the 
attack of Sir William Phipps, — in 1759, when, 
after the battle of the Plains, it was once more won 
by England, — in 1760, when, having been main- 
tained during the winter, it was unsuccessfully be- 
sieged by de Levi ; — and lastly, in 1775, when after 
having been stormed without success — after having 
sustained a siege and blockade of six months dura- 
tion — the enemy was compelled to abandon his camp 
in despair. Since that time no hostile banner has 
been displayed before its walls ; and so long as it is 
defended by a garrison, loyal and resolute to do their 
duty — so long as England maintains the glory of her 
Navy — Quebec may bid defiance to external attack 
and foreign violence. May the " time honored" stan- 
dard of Great Britain continue to wave from the bat- 
tlements that crown this renowned fortress, never to 
be removed but by her own act, with the consent and 
free will of her generous people ! Should it ever be 
lowered, may it be only in the spirit of honor and 
benevolence, in order to promote the rising destinies 
of a new North American Empire, called into exis- 
tence by the force of events, and by the operation of 
those progressive changes which human means can 
neither foresee, or prevent from occurring in the 
lapse of years, and in the fullness of time ! 

But it is not our province to indulge a presump- 
tuous speculation into futurity, — satisfied that the 
past can never be forgotten, or undone ; and that 
whatever may be its fate to come, " so long as fame 



shall wait upon heroic deeds/' the renown of Quebec 
will derive its chief lustre from the reflected glories 
of England, her might, valor and enduring genero- 
sity ! 

Pradena fatari temporis exitum 

Caliginosa nocte premit Deus : 


eras vel atra 

Nube polum Pater occupato, 
Vel sole puro : non tamen irritum 
Quodcumque retro est, efficiet ; Deque 
Diffioget, infectumque reddet, 
Quod fugiens semel bora vexit. 


Richard Montgomery was a gentleman of good family, is 
the North of Ireland, and connected by marriage with Viscount 
Ranelagh of that Kingdom. He had been Captain in the 17th 
Regiment of Foot, and had fought successfully the battles of 
England, nnder the immortal Wolfe, on the Plains of Abra- 
ham. He afterwards married the daughter of Judge Livingston', 
of Livingston Manor, on the North River, who was living in 
1818. Montgomery imbibed the prevalent politics of his 
father-in-law's family, and joined the cause of the Colonists 
against the mother country. 

Marshall, however, in his life of Washington, remarks, 
that, '* though he had embraced the American cause with en- 
thusiasm, he had become wearied with its service He had 

determined to withdraw from the army, and had signified, be- 
fore marching from Montreal, his resolution to resign the com- 
mission which had been conferred upon him." Marshall 
adds as a probable incentive to the storming of Quebec on the 
31st December, 1775, " the desire of closing his military career 
with a degree of brilliancy suited to the elevation of his mind, 
by the conquest of Quebec, and the addition of Canada to the 
United States." 

The excellence of his qualities and disposition procured him 
an uncommou share of private affection, as his abilities and 
services had of public esteem. Soon after his death, the Con* 
tinental Congress ordered a magnificent Cenotaph to be erected 


tm bis memory, in St. Paul's Church, New- York, with the fol- 
lowing inscription ; 

Montgomery falls ! Let no fond breast repine, 

That Hampden's glorious death, brave Chief, was thine. 

With his shall Freedom consecrate thy name, 

Shall date her rising- glories from thy fame, 

Shall build her throne of Empire on thy grave — 

What nobler fate can patriot virtue crave ! 

The following matter of fact relating to the disinterment of 
the remains of this officer is unquestionably authentic. In the 
year 1818, a request having been made to the Governor-in- 
Chief, Sir John Sherbrooke, for leave to disinter the remains 
of General Montgomery, in order that they might be conveyed 
to New- York, and there re-interred, His Excellency acceded to 
the request, which came to him on the part of Mrs. Montgo- 
mery, the widow of the General. MrT James Thompson, an 
old gentleman of respectability, serving in the Engineer De- 
partment at Quebec, (a Serjeant under General Wolfe at the 
conquest,) who bore arms during the siege of the winter 1775-6 
in defence of the city, and on the morning after the attack, had 
found the body of the deceased General, and afterwards saw it 
interred in one of the bastions near St. Lewis-Gate, by order of 
the British Commander, was now ordered to explore the place 
of interment and dig up the remains. This he accordingly did* 
in the presence of one of His Excellency's Aides-de-Camp, 
-Captain Freer ; and although the spot where the body had been 
deposited was entirely altered in appearance, from the demo- 
lition of an old building or powder magazine which was near it, 
-and the subsequent construction of a range of barracks, he hit 
upon the foot of the coffin, which was much decayed, but of 
the identity whereof there could not be a doubt, no other body 
-having been interred in its immediate neighbourhood, except 
those of the General's two Aides, M ( Pherson and Cheeseman , 
which were placed on each side of their master's body, in their 
clothes, and without coffins* Mr. Thompson gave the follow- 
ing affidavit of the facts in order to satisfy the surviving rela- 
tions and friends of General Montgomery, that the remains 
which had been so disinterred after the lapse of forty-two years 
by the same hand that had interred them, were really those of 
the late General : 

" I, James Thompson, of the city of Quebec, in the Province 
of Lower Canada, do testify and declare— that I served in the 


en parity of an Anistant Engineer during the siege of this, 
invested during the years 1775 and I77C by the Amrriicu 
forces under the coin 111 and of the late Major Genera! Rkhibs 
Montijomeuv. Thai in an attack made by the American troopl 
under the immediate command of General Montgomery, ia thi 
night of the 31st IlccemW, 17V.,. una jio-r. at tin 
aonthernmoM extremity of (he city, near l'r-:s-th- Viltr, \\\i 
General received a mortal wound, and with him were tilled 
bis two Aidt'»-Jr>-< 'amp, Mc I 'tiifsnii and (.'hei-sf man, who were 
found in the morning of the 1st January, 1 778, almost cowed 
with wiow. Thai Mrs. Prentice who kept au Hotel, at Que- 
bec, and with whom General Montgomery had prarioadi 
boarded, wait brought to view the body, after it was placed in 
the Guard Rooni, and wliich she recognised by a particular 
mark which in> mi the side of his head, fo be the I i mural-. 
That the body was tlieu couveyed to a bouse, (GohertV)' 
by order of Mr. Craroalie, who provided u ^cutcel coffin for At 
General's bodv, which was lined inside with flannel, and out- 
side of it with" black doth. That in the night of the 4-tli Janu- 
ary, it was conveyed by me from Gobert'l bonsf, and wis 
interred sis feet in front of the gate, within a wall that sur- 
rounded a powder magazine near the ramparts bound in; 
St. Lewis-Gate. That the funeral service was perform, 
the grave by the Reverend Mr. de Moiitmoliu, then Chaptiip 
of the garrison. That his two Aiiii's-d,! Camp were buried io 
their clothes without any coffins, and that uo penou was bu- 
ried within twenty .five yards of the General. . That I m 
positive and can testify and declare, that the coffin of the 
fate General Montgomery, taken up on the morning of Ik 
16th of the present month of June, 1818, is the identH 
ooffiu deposited by me on the day of his burial, and tl 
the present coffin contains the remains of the late General I 
do further testify and declare that subsequent to the findisf 
of General Montgomery's body, I wore hie sword, being lighter 
than my own, and on going to the Seminary, where the Ame- 
rican officers were lodged, they recognized the sword, which 
affected them so mnch, that numbers of them wept, in conse- 
quence of which t bave never worn the sword since. 

" Given under my hand, at the city of Quebec, Province of 
Lower Canada, 19th June, 1818. 




This gentleman commanded the Canadian Militia during the 
riege of 1775-6. He had first received a commission from the 
Marquis Duquesne, Governor General of Canada, as Captain. 
lit June, 1755, he was appointed Major, and in the following* 
November, Lieutenant Colonel. In consequence of his beha- 
viour during 1 the siege, on the 4th March, 1778, he was ap- 
pointed Colonel Commandant for the City and District of 
Quebec, by General Sir Guy Carleton. He continued in 
this extensive command for more than twenty years, and his 
oonduct deservedly obtained the friendship, confidence, and 
gratitude of all the Militiamen of the District. 

The following anecdote deserves to be known, it occurred in 
Kovember, 1775: 

- The enemy was at the gates of the city, when three Serjeants 
of the Canadian Militia formed a conspiracy to admit the Ame- 
ricans through a small wicket near the powder magazine, 
where one of them commanded a guard. Colonel Dupre', 
going' his rounds one night about eleven o'clock, became sus- 
picious, and soon discovered this plot, and communicated it to 
Lieutenant Governor Cramahe'. The Serjeants were secured, 
and kept in prison until the following May. They were then. 
tried, and admitted that the city had been saved by the sagacity 
of Colonel Dupre'. The Americans, enraged at the discovery 
•f the plot, did all the damage they could to the Colonel's pro- 
perty. Four hundred were quartered at his house and land 
near Quebec, which they luined. At his seigniory they des- 
troyed his flour, and broke in pieces his furniture. On being 
offered a grant of land as a reward for his services, and as a 
compensation for his losses, he refused to accept it, saying, that 
he served out of regard to his country and his king, and re* 
quired no remuneration. 





No Picture of Quebec, in these enlightened days, 
will be considered complete, if it do not contain 
some information upon the geological structure of 
the site of that City and its environs, which are the 
subjects of its delineations. It is not consistent 
with the nature of the work, to enter into details; 
but, avoiding these, we propose to give a condensed 
outline of those geological features which will be 
most likely to come under the observation of the 
intelligent traveller. As, however, it it is usual to 
introduce geological descriptions by a topographical 
outline of the country they embrace, in conformity 
with that custom, the following slight one is offered. 

The site of the metropolis of Lower Canada, when 
viewed from the river, must in all times, have fixed 
the eye of the stranger, whether crowned with mo- 
dern architecture, as in the present day, or by the 
primeval forest, as Champlain first saw it ; a sight 
which might well draw from his followers the excla- 
mation of Quel bee, whence some writers derive 
Quebec. * 

* This, however, is a disputed point. It appears by a refe- 
rence to pa#e 1 18 of this volume, that so far back as the time 
of Henry V. the word Quebec occurs in the Arms of the Earl 
of Suffolk. This interesting fact was introduced for the first 
time by A. Stuart, Esq. into a paper which he read before the 
Literary and Historical Society of Quebec. 



This promontory, which forms so conspicuous a 
feature in the river scenery immediately above the 
Island of Orleans, is the narrow north-eastern ter- 
mination of an oblong tongue of land which, rising 
from the valley of Cap Rouge, about 8 miles south- 
westward of Quebec, attains at the latter place its 
extreme altitude of 330 feet above the St. Law- 
rence, whilst its greatest breadth, which lies towards 
the western extremity and nearly opposite to the 
parochial church of St. Foy, is about 2^ miles. 

The whole of this feature is insulated by a valley 
out of which it appears to rise, like the back of a 
leviathan from the deep. Through the southern 
branch of this valley flows, between rocky preci- 
pices, the noble St. Lawrence, pressed by its hun- 
dred wings of commerce, and here attaining an 
extreme breadth of two miles, * while the northern 
branch spreads out into low alluvial lands, through 
which meander the St. Charles and St. Michel 
rivers, whose waters, though from western and north- 
ern sources in the mountains which close the visual 
horizon on this side from east to west, become 
nearly simultaneously confluent with the St. Law- 
rence at the Vacherie. 

The valley of Cap Rouge, which breaks the con- 
tinuation of the tongue of land before mentioned to 
south-westward, is in the present day, characterized 
only by an insignificant stream; but it appears 
to be probable that the St. Lawrence once passed 
an arm this way round, thereby insulating all the 
land to the right of it. 

* The breadth of the river from the Queen's Wharf across 
to McKenzie'8 Wharf, has been measured on the ice, and found 
to be 1133 yards, 2 feet 9 inches. 


Casting the eyes around from any elevated posi- 
tion in this metropolis, they will pass over all the 
four Grand Divisions into which rocks have been 
divided, viz. : the Primary, the Transition, the Se- 
condary and the Tertiary; sometimes naked and 
prominent, at others deeply covered by alluvions, 
diluvions or vegetable deposits. 

Primary Bocks. 

The Primary or .granitic portion of our forma- 
tions within view, is confined to that range of moun- 
tains and its lateral spurs which, commencing at 
•Cape Tourment, 30 miles below Quebec, on the 
northern shore of the St. Lawrence, where it forms 
a conspicuous dome-shaped headland, trends away 
to the westward in a series of consecutive mom- 
tains and vallies, the former holding a course nearly 
parallel to the St. Lawrence, and preserving an ave- 
rage distance from it of ten or twelve miles. Beyond 
this line of demarcation to the northward, for manv 
miles, no " Land of Promise" for the settler is met 
with ; and the semi-civilized Indian traverses this 
inhospitable region, in the pursuit of the moose 
and the caribou, consoled by the reflection, that I 
here, at least, for many years to come, his wan- 
derings will suffer little interruption from the white 

The highest point of this range is considered not ! 
to exceed 2000 feet of altitude above the St. Law- j 
rence, but usually falls much short of it. The coun- . 
trv which it traverses has been explored, but by no | 
individual possessed of sufficient geological know- 
ledge to allow 7 him to describe the rocky masses met I 
within language sufficiently scientific to be intelli- ii 



^ible to the initiated. However, an examination of 
-those off-spurs and boulders which lie nearest the 
town, has led those who understand the subject to 
infer,- that granite, granitic gneiss, mica slate, 
(rarely), syenite, syenitic gneiss* horneblende slate, 
and primary greenstone, are the species of rocks 
which most prevail. 

Transition Books. 

The term Transition in Geology, is becoming obso- 
lete ; yet it is one of great convenience, and liable 
to no abuse when employed by those who study 
facts more than theories. We will, therefore, con- 
tinue to employ it in the designation of certain rocks 
which are largely developed in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood of Quebec, and on one or two members of 
which, indeed, we consider that City to stand. 

When placed on the highest summit of Cape 
Diamond, 350 feet above the river at its base, all 
the natural stony fixed features of ground around 
and beneath us on this side the valley of the St. 
Charles and on the opposite side of the St. Law- 
rence, consist of Transition rocks. — This formation 
characterizes both shores of the St. Lawrence for 
some distance above Quebec ; but below it appears 
to be, for the most part, confined to the islands and 
southern shore, which it exclusively occupies for 
many miles. 

The members which compose this formation, in 
the extent to which we now limit our attention, are 
the following : — Clay slate, grey wacke, compact 
limestone and limestone conglomerate: the two 
first occur in very subordinate quantity, while the 
two former abound and frequently alternate with 


MS . MKV.,ttGTB9* W.«WWft .... 

each other. The dip of the stratification of these 
nicks, which shows this alternation, is usually at a 
high angle to the S. E. ; but occasionally the reverse 
of this dip is noticed, and the inclined planes of the 
strata front the N. VV-, the hearing of N. E., S. W. 
remaining generally undisturbed. 

Cape Diamond, in which this formation attains 
its greatest height, at least in the neighbourhood of 
Quebec, consists of a day elate, but of anomalom 
constituents, among which are to be reckoned a large 
portion of carbonate of Lime, carbon and bitumen;* 
and in consequence, the rock has been called a car- 
boniferous limestone by those who attend more to tbe 
niineralogical than geological character; forg-umm; 
at the same time, that tue term carboniferous, im- 
plies bearing carbon, not containing it, the carboni- 
ferous being the lowest rock of the coal formation. 
We must not omit to state, however, that it is a ques- 
tion of controversy with Geologists, whether carbon- 
iferous limestone be the lowest of the Secondary or 
uppermost of the Transition class. — Be this at it may, 
the dip of the rock in question, conformable to that 
of the series iu the vicinity, of decided Transition 
character, together with the rarity (to say the most) 
of the occurrence of fossils in it, corresponds so well 
with the Transition class around, while these charac- 
ters are so perfectly at variance with those of the ho- 
rizontal fossil bearing | strata of Beauport, which is 

* The abundance of quartz crystals also with which it ii 
studded, and to the presence of which it owes its name, nnj 
he likewise considered aa an anomalous characteristic. 

f We do not know of any positive instance of the occurrenre of 
fossileiuthe Black Rock of Quebec; butliivnUularirnpressieu 
have sometimes (though rarely) been noticed in the confonu- 



really conceived to be carboniferous limestone, that 
we have no hesitation in claiming for the former, both 
a higher degree of geological* antiquity and a distinct 
geological epoch. 

Secondary Rocks. 

The Secondary rocks of the vicinity next come 
under consideration: they consist, almost exclu- 
sively, as far as we have yet noticed, of a limestone 
which is fetid, fossilized and horizontally stratified, 
holding a position topographically between the Pri- 
mary range to the northward, and the Transition 
masses we have just alluded to on the opposite or St. 
Lawrence side of the valley, while their relative geo- 
logical arrangement is either over the edges of the 
highly inclined clay slates or grey wackes, or where 
they basset out, abutting against the planes of their 
stratification, or, when these rocks are absent, com- 
ing into similar contact with the primary stratified 
formations beneath, or simple contact alone, either 
vertically or laterally, with the unstratified portion of 
the same : in short, always in a position relatively un- 
conformable to those rocks we have stated to repre- 
sent the Primary and Transition classes of the neigh- 

The localities which offer the best sections of the 
limestone we are discussing, are, the village of Beau- 

ble limestone conglomerates which form the northern preci- 
pice, from the corner of Peter-street towards No. 4 Tower. It 
is worthy of remark, that the planes of stratification of the Black 
Rock often exhibit continuous markings, analogous to trellis 
work, which have a high relief, as well as a anthracitic lustre. 
It has just been discovered that this rock forms by the usual 
process, an excellent water cement, &c. 

446 mkw ncrufts of gimQ 

pact and the Moo tmorend river ; the former an arti- 
ficial quarry, the latter, we conceive, the result oft 
natural watery erosion. Both there sections km 
been closely examined by Dr. Bigsby, who bar tbt 
credit of having been one of the first individuals ii 
this country to stir up a taste for similar investiga- 
tions; and we cannot do better than introduce here 
an extract of his, taken from Professor Sillimai's 
« Tour between Hartford and Quebec," the only 
tour published among the many through this plae» 
jrhich affords accurate geological information on tie 
locale, and which, in other re spe c ts, is a work s* 
pleasantly (and as for as we may presume to judge 
correctly) written— -breathing throughout sacha tout 
of conciliation as to enlist the sympathies of As 
reader in its behalf, whether he be American or Brit- 
ish, while k tends to his conviction that the author 
is, not only a scholar, but also a liberal minded gen* 
tleman: — 

" The lowest visible rocks, rising six or eight feet 
from the bed of the river, are dough shaped moundf 
of granite, (gneiss?) vertical, with a south-west directi- 
on, with many irregular quartz veins, half a foot thick. 
On it, lies a perfectly horizontal sand stone, so coane 
as to resemble conglomerate, (I suspect this sand 
stone is a coarse gray wacke.) It is four feet thick, 
and weathered red and white. Upon this rests light 
hair brown, highly crystalline lime stone, very fetid, 
full of shells, vegetable filaments, massive blende, 
and a mineral, like brown spar. This gradually be- 
comes dull, less crystalline, and at length at the top 
of the bank, is nearly a common blue lime stone, 
with a conchoidal fracture, and still here and then 
containing small crystals of carbonates. The whole 
height here, is perhaps, forty feet" 


About one mile above the place of which the fore- 
going extract is a geological description, occurs a 
gorge or deep section in the river which, from the 
step-like {placement of portions of the horizontal 
strata forming its sides, has been called, appropri- 
ately, " The Natural Steps." Here is met with a 
vfery interesting geological section, consisting of a 
succession of horizontal strata of fetid limestone, 
filled with the " Medals of Creation," as fossils have 
been eloquently called, the most abundant among 
which are othoceratites. Near the base of this sec- 
tion, a little above the river, a thin stratum may be no- 
ticed, which is literally composed of ammonites about 
there or four inches in circumference ; some of them 
very perfect and beautiful. This stratum is pressed 
by a superincumbent mass of limestone, of from 30 
to 40 feet high. Both banks of the river here ex- 
hibit much the same appearances, being characte- 
rized by the same fossils and limestone. Among 
other fossils characteristic of the carboniferous lime- 
stone met with in this formation, both here and at 
Beauport, are certain corallites, trilobites, encrinites 
products, terbratulae, conulariae quadrisulcatae, 
(rare), and nautulites. * 

Tertiary — Alluvial — Diluvial Formations* 

We class all these hydraulic deposits together, 
because, in fact, with one exception, it is in general 

* Art. 9, vol. 1. Transactions of the Literary and Historical 
Society of Quebec, affords good Topographical and Geological 
Notes on the country in the neighbourhood of the Falls of 

2p 3 

4S0 ww ptcroM w gram 

no easy matter to djitingmsli tben*~-os* this C*sti- 
nent at least They towo oil erignated in the mm 
oanse, differing only as to its antiquity and activity* 
The exception alluded to, embraces certain receH 
or Modern alluviums, which are now forming in esm> 
lies, on the sea shores, and at the mouths and on ti* 
tanks of inland rivers. No example of the first two 
actions, of course, come under our present noma; 
but as wo descend towards and through tho GaK 
they may be seen constantly in unceasing operatic* 
The St Charles and St Michel rivers afford gwd 
instances of tho two last; and the Vaeherie, in sH 
probability, owes its existence to the mated actios 
of these two confluent streams. Pursuing a cow* 
nearly at right angles to each other, they traverse fi* 
some distance, before joining the St, Lawrence, 4* 
the way from their western and norther* soones,* 
country covered with loose or plastic, silicious or alht- 
minou8 deposits, in which they sometimes form deep 
sections, and in which, in their progress, they are 
constantly producing a change, either in the way of ' 
abstraction or addition, — stealing from a salient angle 
what they restore at a re-entering one. Now, it is pre- 
cisely such deposits as form the origmai sections of 
the portions of these rivers we allude to, that puzzle 
the Geologist who wishes to determine whether 
they are to be considered Alluvial, Diluvial or Terti- 
ary. From the recent or modern alluvium just de- 
scribed, they are easily distinguished, as well by the 
superior relative altitude at which they are found, as 
by the fact of their having long ceased to increase, 
the cause of that increase being no longer in action 
on the spot where they are found. But it is quite 
different as regards the distinction between the more 
ancient deposits we are discussing ; — here is no well 


defined geological horizon ; they often seem to mi- 
rage as it were, or merge one into the other. 

The structure of these deposits may be best seen 
on the St Michel and Beauport rivers. The former 
presents us witb sections of sand or loam bedded on 
clay, sometimes containing drift wood and boulders, 
and assuming, occasionally, a stratified arrangement 
The latter discloses embaying cliffs and heights of 
plastic clay, surmounted by sandy deposits, and in 
one remarkable instance, by an entire bank of ma- 
rine shells, whose greatest depth is from 25 to 80 
feet In many parts of these cliffs stratification is a 
distinct feature, and towards their bases it assumes 
the appearance even of that of the indurated clay 
slates of the neighbourhood ; but the ease with which 
its hardest portions may be moulded under the ac- 
tion of the fingers and moisture into any form, is a 
sufficient distinction — a distinction which has proba- 
bly an analogous origin to that which exists between 
loam and the brick which is made from it This 
alluminous substratum we are disposed to class among 
Tertiary formations, while the loose and more silici- 
ous materials above, including the fragments of pri- 
mary aggregates imbedded in them, we would re- 
er, in geological strictness, to the ancient alluvium, 
not but what (and hence arises the difficulty of distin- 
guishing them) the tertiary formations are also of an 
alluvial character, and may, in fact, be considered the 
most ancient of alluviums, (the Secondary and Tran- 
sition rocks, which, for the most part were once so, 
having undergone geological changes which have 
removed them from that class, the most striking of 
which changes in general is the degree of induration 
they have acquired and their fixture in water.) But 
some Geologists attempt, not always very sueeesa- 

48§ • »* Kcnnv 0f i^iBUW, u^ 

folly, it mast be confessed, to establish* iifmail 
between ttin trrtimy formations md tfan smiiniHinV 
lnviums: It it mack easier to ooooeiye tike 4Mbw^ 
than to describe in what it oonsiftta, ibpe««a||fe 
flame analogy exists between them afl'-lfeiitpas* ifci 
ancient ana recent alluviums, theonebiiii^ «A*fc 
caused by the breaking up of the oth«ti»%^ -vr>> ^n 
The bank of shells we here described as em* 
lying in one. spot the plastic clay t» &e >depaV 
(a maximum) of 25 or 30 feet, coaeisfes of anintot* 
mixture of silicious sand, and for the maettpa&V 
bivalve sheik) stained hers ; and then with the ft**' 
oxide of iron. The shells are usually hkadbodaa* 
brittle, sometimes exhibiting a pearly naere, and *k 
ways, we conceive, in the possession of a fttttieiMai 
their animal gluten. The bivalve dkefle aaacarla 
be the following, set down in the order «f^tk«i^ 
abundance: — 

Hiatella (arctica), (in the largest proportion.) 

Tellina ( ? ) 

Mya (truncata.) 

Mytelus (Borealis?) 

Pecten ( ? ) 

Terebratula (psittacea.) 
Among univalves have been found — 




Buccinura (undatum ?) 


Scalaria (rare.) 
A Mutivalve, also the Balanus tintinnabulus, in 
fragments, is also common. 

It is remarkable in this bank, that the two largest 
genera of shells found in it, viz. : the Mya and the 


Pecten, occupy in layers, the lowest portion of it. 
Et has also been observed, that the clay here, though 
rapporting this calcareous burthen, does not in the 
east effervesce with acids. 

If much diligence were used in the research, it 
night be possible to find, perhaps, as many more as 
hose enumerated above, differing from them either 
n genus or species ; but these are all we could col- 
ect, after several examinations of the bank ; and hav- 
ng little information on the subject ourselves, they 
mve been submitted, in the first instance, to the 
Dountess of Dalhousie, and subsequently to Mrs. 
Sheppard, of Woodfield, — two females whose refined 
iastes have led them to a successful cultivation of 
more than one branch of Natural History ; and to 
)ne or other of these ladies we are indebted for the 
ibove quoted names. Mrs. Sheppard observes on 
the singularity of finding a fresh water shell (mela- 
lia) mixed up with the others which are exclusively 
)f marine origin. The fact would seem to imply, 
hat when this bank of shells was deposited land was 
lot far off. 

The commonest of these shells, the Hiatella and 
"ellina, have been traced from hence to other places 
l the neighbourhood, even to ( harlesbourg and In- 
ian Lorette ; but they are far from occurring in 
4ch profusion as here. The fact appears to be, that 
xe bank suddenly wedges out to a very thin stratum 
r layer. 

Whether this bank is to be considered a member of 
te Tertiary formation, the Pliocene of Lyell, for 
istance, or an ancient alluvium, in the strict geolog- 
ical interpretation of the term, we cannot decide. 

Captain Bayfield, R. N., is, we believe, about to 
•ansmit to Mr. Lyell, a collection of specimens from 

454 VIW FICTUEE or qvmbec, . 1 

this locality, which will, no doubt, enable thebLttatelft 
afford us that correct information on the sdHtftllt 
which he most possess, from haying so deeply staff! I*; 
it in connection with its European developemt*i|l* 
in the mean time, we recommend a visit to die spslflto 
to all those who are fond of casting back a tetrapflOT 
tive glance to the days which have left no other if In 
cords behind them than such as are to be found Jiv 
the materials composing these ancient deposits. Tte|tl 
feelings and thoughts which such a visit will exriteJ 
may be somewhat vague; but they will scarcely falle 
to prove both interesting and instructive. 

before we bring this subject to a conclusion, scuei 
thing must be said of a portion of the 




which, as yet, has obtained only an incidental us 1 
tice. It is manifest that the fineness or coarseness if 
the deposits which accompany an alluvial action, mo* 

depend upon the force of the latter. Where, in the 
present day, this action has been moderate and con- 
tinual, we often find deep deposits of the finest 
materials. In places, on the contray, liable to a vio- 
lent rush of waters, these materials are of the coarsest 
description. Apply this remark to some of our anci- 
ent alluviums, and it will appear that they could only 
have been deposited by the action of a deluge, either 
rushing suddenly to its climax or as suddenly sub- 
siding from it, and to such the term diluvium is ap- 
plied. They are to be found at all levels — sometimes 
encumbering the surface of the ground in large 
rounded masses (boulders,) or as a coarse gravel, con- 
trasting usually both mineralogically and geologically 
with the fixed masses of rock they overlie. 

To satisfy one self that water has been in general 
the transporting cause, we have only to turn our 
eyes to the beds of some of our rivers, in which, 






lumerically, this geological feature is best examined. 
It is not pretended, however, that the velocity of the 
waters which now pass over or struggle through the 
ATgest of boulders found in such placss, is sufficient 
50 account for their presence ; — undoubtedly not— 
rhey could, in general, only owe their position to the 
motion of an immense body of water suddenly sub- 
liding to a lower level through the channels in which 
they are now found. 

It is usual to attribute the position of large bould- 
ers and extensive beds of coarse gravel, whether in 
rivers, flats or high lands, to the operation of the 
punitory Deluge of Moses ; and there is no doubt 
that such a catastrophe is fully sufficient to account 
for much that is actually observed ; but the study 
of Geology informs us that the Mosaic Deluge is by 
Bo means the only one which has visited the surface 
of the globe since its creation. On the contrary, the 
Tertiary and even Secondary strata, bear witness to 
.the repeated action of anti-diluvial floods. Besides, 
partial floods originating in the bursting of lakes, &c 
JtaVe produced, in all times, individual erosive ef- 
fects over a comparatively small surface equal to the 
greatest we notice. Now, let it be borne in mind, 
[that effects, at first partial as to extent, become gene- 
ifcal to the whole globe, after innumerable repetitions 
Over its surface ! Thus, if the phenomenon of the 
emergence of a mountain in the flats of Flanders 
khould be repeated every century, in the course of 
time that country, which is now remarkable for its 
Uniform level, would become mountainous. A re- 
mark which is the germ of modern Geology, the va- 
>lie of which, however, depends upon not being re- 
stricted as to time. 


To return more particularly to the distribution if 
boulders: — The buoyancy of ice has been calledi 
to explain it; but this cause, although, no donkt, 
entitled to some attention, particularly in climaW 
like Canada, can have been but in partial operation, 
and cannot certainly aeeount for the distribution " 
boulders under the tropics, without, indeed, what 
very improbable, those climes onco possessed a frigid 
atmosphere. T he fact appears to be, that no one net 
one of two causes will answer satisfactorily for tleii 
position, which has been influenced probably bf 

'I he neighbourhood of Quebec, as well as CanaA 
in general, is much characterized by boulders, and 
the size and position of some of them is very strik- 
ing. There are two crowning the height which over- 
looks the Domain Farm at Beauport, whose col- 
lective weight is little short, by computation of forlf 
tons. The heights of Abraham, also are, or ratter 
were, crowded with them; and it should never be 
forgotten that it was upon one of these hoary symbols, 
the debacle of the Deluge, as they are generally es- 
teemed to be, that the immortal and mortal parts of 
two rival heroes separated from each other — the for- 
mer to unite in realms apportioned to the departed 
brave ! 

It has often occurred to us, that one of the most 
suitable monuments to the memory of Wolfe and 
Montcalm might have been erected with these masses, 
in the form of a pyramid or pile of shot, instead of 
burying them, as in many instances has been done, 
in order to clear the ground. 

It is true, that the farmer sees no beauty, and 
feels no interest in these mysterious and primeval 
intruders, which we call boulders. He naturally 


p* regards them with a feeling similar to that with 
e which he views the unextracted stumps, that for 
i some time retard the progress of the plough, and 

• impede his agricultural improvements. To us, how- 
p ever, they are far from unwelcome. We never see 
i one without the excitement of curiosity, and the 

• stimulative of research. We would investigate, 
; and gladly discover its age, origin, and the means 

whereby it occupied its present position upon the 
otherwise stoneless surface — sometimes indeed, we 
yield a pardonable indulgence to fancy in picturing 
the extraordinary events which might be disclosed 
in the " Genuine Memoirs of a Boulder !" 

[For the foregoing Geological account, we are indebted to 
Lieutenant Baddeley, R. E., Member of the Geology Society 
of France.] 


To all admirers of romantic scenery, and to the 
general observer of manners and character, a visit to 
the interior of the country parishes of Lowbr Ca- 
nada will afford objects of peculiar interest and 
attraction. In those parts of the Province, where 
immigration from the British possessions in Europe 
has taken root, no perceptible difference of man- 
ners is to be expected. The same industry, and 
agricultural improvement — the same national varia- 
tions of character and temperament will here be 
found — softened, refined and amalgamated by social 
intercourse and friendly collision. The remark is 
equally good as applied to the American popula- 
tion. But in the same degree as the Artist seeks to 

2 2 

study nature i»,her inqrfsiiiplo gwe^tksraifcpt 
especial, chapa .for thnphilneophfo spettatatf im&m 
simplicity **4 oaturtkehamterrftfoJfobiimH^ 
French peasantry. of th*frovi*ce«. . All iitisiUuNfci 
awl almost primiiive people, uninfluenced* 
censes that are every day , working imprrtikewh 
apttqg* their ileighbom,^and.whoee dte*S;S^4i*t» 
lect prove their identity, with the racernttfattd) .krft 
we on- the shorn, of Nob* ajwyt— can Qever/bemlT 
interesting i to the contemplation of *he<< ednsstafc 
tijaveUer*- ■. ii.-. .■■■.*.■: «n'*? * f | j«.?v 

; While the 4otist will be delighted to ind the 
pictures ' of i hia imagination realised,, in the motk 
oeautiful combinations that rock, wood and stream, 
can be supposed to produce— 4be Tourist, ia paw- 
ing through the country parishes, will be strnck with 
the intelligent eye, the gay countenance and hospita- 
ble manners of the inhabitants* Their address is 
eminently polite ; and their familiar intercourse is 
distinguished by personal courtesy. They have been 
emphatically, and truly, called unpeuple gentilhomme. 
Respect shown to a superior, when free from fear 
or servility, and founded on a belief in the connexion 
betweeti a higher rank and moral and intellectual 
acquirements, displays the genuine, unsophisticated 
mind of him by whom it is offered ; and the Tra- 
veller, as he returns the obeisance of the peasant, 
is pleased to reflect, that even so trivial a mark of 
courtesy would scarcely be vouchsafed, where a cor- 
rupted state of manners had confounded the dis- 
tinctions of rank : — or where the lower classes, 
uninstructed in the rules of morality, had lost their 
claim to regard from their superiors. 

It is not our intention to give a separate descrip- 
tion of the various natural beauties which present 


themselves in every direction near Quebec. There 
are so many publications which embrace such des- 
criptions— amonjr which we more particularly allude 
to Professor Silliman's " Tour from Hartford to 
Quebec" — and they are so generally known, that 
any minute account is unnecessary in this work, 
the principal aim of which has been to collect and 
preserve from oblivion the historical remains and 
recollections of this remarkable city. We shall, 
therefore, confine ourselves to a general description ; 
and here we feel great satisfaction in availing our- 
selves of the following eloquent, and highly attrac- 
tive extract from the statistical work of Lieutenant 
Colonel Bouchette, Surveyor General of Lower 
Canada, —a production, which, in the words of a 
Report of a Committee of the Literary and His- 
torical Society of Quebec, "from its minute- 
ness in detail, and excellence in execution, will 
remain a lasting monument of the ability of the first 
native Canadian Geographer." 

Colonel Bouchette thus expresses himself in 
respect to his native place : — " The summer sce- 
nery of the environs of Quebec may vie in exqui- 
site beauty, variety, magnificence, sublimity, and 
the naturally harmonized combination of all these 
prominent features, with the most splendid that 
has yet been portrayed in Europe, or any other 
part of the world. Towards Beauport, Charle- 
bourg, and Lorette, the view is diversified with 
every trait that can render a landscape rich, full, and 
complete ; the foreground shows the River St. Charles 
meandering for many miles through a rich and 
fertile valley, embellished by a succession of objects 
that diffuses an unrivalled animation over the whole 
scene. The three villages, with their respective 

t he dmn ifo ie* Ud i«t?fgnlly ifc ftfc ^ e fninanoo^i qpi 
•biiJtwydbtmttyykiiMifyiBir^ thejnienrnli hiiwwi 
A&m<ikfltitf mamj: of the met etranglgr aptffat 
aptocijMat «f I w Mt v f cee c tj fe tod. tfa* 
r too«trjr<«var}r where juaeypiaraiiwi of ffrtilfry v 
t f ood L e rtt i r atwV' ope* whm the e jre mi the j^ecpjfc 
hmndeit wkh' jeiMaloiB delight Ae the frape* 
ffceedeelt is stiU liefcMfttieg, *he UiuL lung «« 
;datia», height *w<;htigbt, having the,*Uirnd.1»- 
-twaeidocoeedibg elevaHaoDS filled UB^rithfuimlNl 
-fbmte,' until the wholes terminated by a' etwpnadflg 
vidg* of monnUuMy wheee loftyfow ere daily «m» 
jthrot£h*he aerial espeaaa. The .earn* of mooji 
gndted to the utmost; aad the epeotaier wrer.ftu) 
fee luni wkh ivgrct fhnn ithe totttom^ 
-it allowed ^to be tone of- the moat seperb views avaa- 

" Nor is it on this side only that the attention is 
arrested ; for turning towards the basin, which k 
about two miles across, a scene presents itself that is 
not the less gratifying for being made a secondary 
one; it is enlivened by the ever changing variety of 
ships coming up to and leaving the port. On the 
right hand, Pointe Levi, with its church and group of 
white houses, several other promontories on the same 
shore clothed with lofty trees ; and the busy anin*- 
tion attendant on the constant arrival and departure . 
of ferry-boats; in front, the western end of the I 
beautiful and picturesque Island of Orleans, display- f 
ing charming and well-cultivated slopes down almost §< 
to the water's edge, backed by lofty and thick woae} n 
and every where deeorated with neat farm-house^ i ^ 
present altogether an interesting and agreeable sab»j %i 
ject fo the observer, {ft fine still weather, thei ^ 


mirage, or reflects of the different objects around the 
margin, in all their variety of coloring, are thrown 
across the unruffled surface of the water with an al- 
most incredible brilliance. On the Plains of Abra- 
ham, from the precipice that overlooks the timber 
grounds, where an incessant round of activity pre- 
vails, the St. Lawrence is seen rolling its majestic 
wave, studded with many a sail, from the stately ship 
down to the humble fishing-boat; the opposite bank, 
extending up the river, is highly cultivated, and the 
houses, thickly strewed by the main road, from this 
height and distance, have the appearance of an al- 
most uninterrupted village, as far the eye can reach 
in that direction. The country to the southward 
rises by a very gentle ascent, and the whole view, 
which is richly embellished by alternations of water, 
woodland and cultivation, is bounded by remote and 
lofty mountains, softening shade by shade until they 
melt into air. Whoever views the environs of Que- 
bec, with a mind and taste capable of receiving im- 
pressions through the medium of the eyes, will 
acknowledge, that as a whole, the prospect is grand, 
harmonious, and magnificent ; and that, if taken in 
detail, every part of it will please, by a gradual un- 
folding of its picturesque beauties." 


' The subject of which we have treated has proved 
so attractive — so great a variety, such unexpected 
; mines of historical matter have been discovered, re- 
f lative to the ancient establishments of Quebec — and 
so many reflections of great and diversified interest 
have occurred in the progress of the work — that it 



jurage the prosecution of labors similar to the 
resent among many native writers, but on the larger 
nd more comprehensive scale of a general History 
f Canada. For ourselves, attachment to the coun« 
ry — an admiration of its scenery — an ardent curio- 
ity respecting its early history and ancient vestiges 
-with a warm respect for many of its inhabitants, 
agpirited us to accomplish the task confided to our 
are ; and should deficiencies be ascertained, we trust 
bat we shall be allowed to plead these motives in 
litigation of critical censure. The nature of the 
rork is so generally remote from subjects of party 
seling — or at least is so when conducted with an 
onest intention — that it may confidently be submit- 
3d to the judgment of every class of inhabitants in 
lese Provinces. Our humble efforts will have been 
rell employed, if they conduce to excite literary and 
istorical enquiry amongst us ; and more particularly 
f they assist in rendering our capital, Quebec, bet* 
er known as to its local interest, more frequently 
risited by learned and distinguished men, and more 
luly appreciated by the people of that magnificent 
Empire, of which this Province is so valuable an 




[ft i*, indeed, mentionedby Voter, Page 12.] 

Vhter remarks, in liU introduction to the account of ta« 
American language*, that they have, eomparati rely speak 
■ MWtderaMe number of wordi in common with the Fiuniili. 
He liniU, however, only lil'ry-one similar words where 
affinity (haul J he most distinct, namely, in all the languages of 
North America and Northern Asia. 

Out of tit American language*, chiefly on the East side, 
V ater fi>u ii< I ' iii/: i ii'onk of I'^imjiii' origin, Out often American 
la nonages, lie found i iijhtteit words of Celtic origin. 

The following is n conifurison of six Algonquin, and six Jri'h 
or Celtic words, admitting the specimen to be lha most favor- 
able in li: ; tables : 


Irith or Celtic. 


An Island 


Ga - 

• Falsehood 

- Gai! 




- Soft 

- Bog. 


All - 


Kaki-na - 

■ Each - 


Our readers may remark the similarity between this lasl 
word andHt'iW.iinil A'uliein/i.i of the tiieek.also a Celtic lan- 
guage. Isca, water, was the name of the River Exe in Devon- 

Irish word for water, Vtice, so similar to the Algonquin. 


NOTE 2. 

[Columbus — Page 17.] 

louse is still shown in the village of Cogoletto, near 
i, as that in which Columbus was born. At tho door of 
lilding is a stone, on which the following inscription in 
i has been inscribed since 1650. It bears the name of a 
of the same family. The two other inscriptions in Latin 
>een recently added. Like the birth-place of our own 
peare, at Stratford-on-Avon, that of Columbus is visited 
curious travellers, who regard the birth-place of the 
discoverer of the New World, as oue of the most inte- 
X sites in their route. The inscriptions are subjoined, 
mitations in English. It will be perceived that in the 
i, there is a play upon the meaning of Colombo, which 
1 be ineffective in the translation. 


Cristoforo Colombo, scopritor dell' America l'anno 
-scritti nella casa di sua nascita, nel paese di Cogoletto, 
da Giuggiolo — 


Con generoso ardir dalP area all' onde 
Ubbidiente il vol Colombo prende, 
Corre, s'aggira, terren* scopre, e frond e 
D'olivo,in segno, al gran Noe nerende. 
L'imitain cio Colombo, ne s'asconde, 
£ da sua patria il roar solcande fende ; 
Terrenoal fin scop rend o diede fondo, 
Offrendo al' Ispano un nuovo Mondo. 

Jl 2 Decern bre, 1650. 
Prete Antonio Colombo. 


Hospes siste gradum ; Fuit H I C lux prima 

Orbe viro majori, Heu ! nimis arcta Domus ! 

Unas erat Mnndns ; Duo sunt, ait 1 8 T E ; 
fuerunt — 1826. 


The above imitated : — 

In Praise 

Of Christopher Columbus, discoverer of America in the 
year 1492 — written in the bouse of his birth, in the country of 
Cogoletto, in the district of Giuggiolo. 

Swift from the Ark, above the watery waste, 
The Dove, obedient, flies with generous haste ; 
Still onward speeds, nor pauses in her flight 
Until the long-sought land relieves her sight — 
Thence as a token of the welcome strand, 
An olive branch she bears to Noah's hand ! 
Like her Columbus scorns inglorious ease, 
Far from his country ploughs the maiden seas — 
Nor casts he anchor, nor a sail was furl'd, 
Until to Spain he gave another world ! 


S» l ay, traveller, stay ! before these narrow walls 

Awhile thy weary pilgrimage restrain — 
Hero first Columbus breath 'd the vital air ; 

This roof held one — the world could not contain ! 


The World was one — Columbus said, they are two — 
He found a World, and made the saying true ! 

note 3, 

[Port of St. Croix— Page 46.] 

On further examination, the exact spot where Jacques 
Cartier wintered may be fixed a little way above Mr. Smith's 
house, where the small River Larrey, whose banks are clearlr 
traceable, runs into the St. Charles, from the north. 

note 4. 

Lander — Page 56.] 

While this work was in press the intelligence of Lander's 
death was received. He adds another distinguished name to 
the catalogue in the text. He was basely murdered. 


The following interesting information was also received after 
this chapter was printed off: 

" The discovery of the land towards the South Pole, made 
by Captain Briscoe, id the Brig Tula, accompanied by the 
Cutter Lively, both vessels belonging to Messrs. En derby, ex- 
tensive owners of ships in the whale fishery, has been commu- 
nicated to the Royal Geographical Society. 

" It is supposed that the land forms part of a vast continent, 
extending from about longitude 47—31, east, to longitude 
69 — 29 west, or from the longitude of Madagascar round the 
whole of the Southern or South Pacific Ocean, as far as the 
longitude of Cape Horn. On the 18th February, 1832, Captain 
Briscoe discovered land, and during the following month re- 
mained in the vicinity ; he clearly discovered the black peaks 
of mountains above the snow, but he was, from the state of the 
weather, and the ice, unable to approach nearer than about 30 
miles. The Stormy Petros was the only bird seen, and no fish. 
It has been named Enderby's land, longitude 47 — 31 East, la- 
titude 66 — 30 S. An extent of about 300 miles was seen. 
The range of mountains E. S. E." 

note 5. , 

[Jacques Cartier at Cap Rouge— Page 63,] 

Having visited the mansion at Cap Rouge, and walked over 
the ground with Mr. Atkinson, since this volume was at press, 
it is proper to add that the " trees indicating great antiquity," 
mentioned in the text, have been lately removed. In other re- 
spects the site remains as before. 

A few months ago Mr. Atkinson's workmen in levelling the 
lawn in front of the house, and close to the point of Cap Rouge 
height, found beneath the surface Some loose stones which had 
apparently been the foundations of some wall, fortification or 
building. Among these stones were found several iron balls 
of different sizes, adapted to the calibre of the ship guns used 
at the period of Jacques Carder's and Roberval's visit. On 
clearing, also, a piece of ground in rear of the garden, iutended 
for the Bowling green, traces were plainly discovered of ancient 
furrows, showing that the spot had been once cultivated by 
Europeans. Upon the whole, the evidence of the presence of 
the French at Cap Rouge may be considered conclusive. Nor 
is there any good reason to doubt that Roberval took up his 


nut pi 



mb in the fort which Jacques Cartier had loft. Tii 
t» of the early writers are very vugue his to distance* in 

ily u typographical error in page 06, Robert's] is said to hut 
Hailed from Newfoundland " alio lit 1 lie end of June, ]"'"" 
The year should be IMt 

J»c<jtE* Cahtieh was horn at St. Malo, about 1.500. 
(lav .>! Iii> lii i lli i a nil or he ilisi'nvered, nor can ilit- lime or place 
of hi* dentil. Most probably lie finished bis useful life at St. 
Main ; for wc find, under the date nf the :>!)lh November, 15+9, 
that the celebrated iwvijratui', with hi., ivite Catherine Des 
Granpes, founded on obit in the Cathedral of ^t. Malo assign- 
ing the fium of four francs tor that purpose. His life was writ- 
ten by the Abbe Monet, but we have nut been able to find it in 
thin country. The mnituary registers, of St. Malo, make no 
mention of hi* death, nor is there any tradition on the subject. 

NOTE 6. 

[Jloberval on the way to Sogucnay — Page 6H.] 

This must Dot lie understood as the river of that name, 
hut the supposed Province of ^a^'uenay, which was to be 
reached by ascending- the St. Lawrence tollochelago, and thence 
by the Ottawa 

\Champlain token a prisoner of war to England, p. 106.] 

This is incorrect : be was taken to rngland by capitulation 
on his way to France, hut staid voluntarily Home lime in 

I Quebec has not to tke tar any sound of an Indian teord,p. 1 1IJ 

Since this chapter was at press, we have been favored wh« 
a copy of Lee Atanturts de Stair Le Beau, who arrived in 
Quebec, in June, 1729, a few years after Charlevoix. L« 
Dean gives the strongest testimony that this latter writer 
was entirely misinformed when he gave to the word, Quebec, 


an Indian derivation. Le Bean says : " Moreri se trorape 
fortement, lorsqu'il avance dans son dictionnaire, que cette ville 
se trouve ainsi nominee de la hauteur de sa montagne, parce 
que, dit cetauteur, les sauvages appellent Quebec, les hauteurs 
ou Elevations de terrain : Ce qui me parait faux, d'autaut plus 
que m'etant informe par curiosite de l'Etymologie de ce nom, 
aux sauvages memes avec qui je me suis trouve dans la suite, 
et qui possedoient differentes langues barbares, ils me repon- 
dirent, que le nom de Quebec etoit Francois : quUls ne connois- 
soient aucun mot sauvage qui sonndt de cette fagon % et qu'ils 
savoient bien, que les Algonkins, les Abenakis, les Iroquois, et 
les Hurons appelloient autre fois cette montagne Stadaka" 
This is the best evidence yet produced on the subject, and esta- 
blishes that Quebec was not an Indian word. Le Beau, for 
want of a better, adopts the derivation from Quel bee ! 

In conclusion of the suggestion that Quebec was adopted 
from the Indian name of the little River Coubat, La Potherie 
expressly tells us that it was the Point which gave the name to 
Quebec. Speaking of the Seminary, he says : " II est sur la 
plateforrae de la Pointe qui donna le nom de Quebec" Now 
this Point is atjthe confluence of the little River with the St. 
Charles ; and it was on this Point that the French first heard 
what they considered the name of Quebec. They might easily 
have mistaken therefore the name of the river for that of the 

NOTE 9, 

[Michael de la Pole, an eminent Merchant in Hull, p. 119.] 

The father of the first Earl of Suffolk was a M6rchant at 
Ravensburg, formerly a flourishing town of trade at the mouth 
of the H umber ; but having removed to the new town of King- 
ston-upon-Hull, in the time of Edward III., gave that Kimj a 
magnificent entertainment, when, in the sixth year of his reign 
he even mortgaged his estate for his Royal Master's use. Such 
services could not go unrewarded by so generous and success- 
ful a Prince. Sir William was made Knight Banneret in the 
field, and had settled on him and his heirs lands at Kingston 
to the value of five hundred marks a year. Upon his return 
to England, the grant was made a thousand marks per annum. 
He was finally made Chief Baron of the Exchequer. 

Sir William de la Pole died in 1356, after he had begun a 
Monastery, at Hull, for the Carthusians. His son. Sir Michael 


was made Lord Chancellor by Richard II. He finished Um 
Monastery, and founded likewise the Hospital called God's 
House. He built also a stately Palace, on being created Earl 
of Suffolk, which honor he obtained in right of his wife Eliza- 
beth, eldest daughter of Sir John Wingtield, who married the 
heiress of Gilbert Granville, Earl of Suffolk. In 1388, he was 
impeached of high treason, and fled for his life to France where 
he died. His grandson was the possessor of the seal, of which 
a plate is given at page 1 18. 

John de la Pole married the sister of Edward IV. and so be- 
coming allied to the Royal blood, was by that means, exposed 
to varions misfortunes. 

The famous Cardinal de la Pole, who flourished in the reign 
of Mary, descended from the marriage above mentioned. 

The old Hospital, at Hull, called God's House, was pulled 
down in 1643, and rebuilt in 1673. The arms of the de la 
Poles, being found among the rains, were placed oyer the door 
of the Hospital, with this inscription : 


NOTE 10. 

Champlain arrived at Plymouth as a prisoner of war, p % 136.] 
See Note 7. 

note 11. 

[Sir William Phipps— Page 140.J 

Most of the Peerages fall into the error of stating that the 
family of Mulgrave is descended from Sir William Phipps, 
the inventor of the Diving Bell, who in reality, as we find on 
further enquiry, left no issue. In the reign of Charles 1. 
Colonel Phipps raised a regiment, on his estate in Lincoln- 
shire, joined the Cavaliers and fell in battle. His grandson, 
Sir Constantino Phipps, was Lord Chancellor of Ireland dur- 
ing the latter years of Queen Anne, and his great grandson, 
Sir Constantino's son, married the heiress of the Duchess of 
Buckinghamshire, who was natural daughter of King James 
II. Lady Katherine Phipps succeeded to the estates of her 
brother, the young Duke of Buckinghamshire, among which 


was Mulgrave Castle in Yorkshire, whence the subsequent 
title. We mention this for the sake of correcting 1 the error 
into which we were led by the Peerage. 

note 12. 

[It has been stated that there are five gates — Page 169.) 

Before the conquest there were only three Gates to the 
City of Quebec : St. John's, St. Lewis, and that at the end of 
Palace-street ; which was contrived in the rock, flanked on 
one side by a bastion, and guarded on the other by batteries 
erected in a large building, which was used as a Barrack, now 
the Ordnance Stores. Between the rock in Mountain-street 
and the flank of the Bishop's Palace, there was a Barrier of 
pickets only, where Prescott Gate now stands ; and the same 
probably at Hope Gate, which last is not noticed in a Plan of 
Quebec, dated in 1752, with which we have been favored. 

note 13. 

\They ceded their property on the St. Charles — Page 181.] 

From General Murray's Report, made in 1762, it would 
appear that the Recollets, some years before the conquest, had 
a house and church in St. Roch's, on the site of which part of 
the Inteodant's buildings was erected. The Recollets acted 
as Chaplains to the army. 

note 14. 
[The Jesuits were deprived of their silver Chalices, p. 187.] 

In Rymer's F&dera, under the date, 5th March, 1630, in the 
fifth year of Charles I, is this entry : 

" Commissio specialis Hurafrido May et aliis, de scrutinio 
faciendo pro Mercandisis, Bonis, &c. captis per Capitaneum 
Kertke & Gallis apud Fortalitium Kebec" 

note 15. 

[The Isle of Orleans then uninhabited — Page 197.] 

The Isle of Orleans was in 1676 created an Earldom, by 
the title of St. Laurent, which, however, hat long been ex- 

2 R 3 


tinct The first Comte de St Laurent was of the name of 

note 16. 

[In 1696 considerable additions were made — Page 203.] 

General Murray mentions in his Report, that the Hotel 
Dieu had been again burned a few years before the conquest 

note 17. 

[The Intendant's Palace— Page 247.] 

The last Intendant was M. Bigot. His estimate, transmitted 
from Canada to France, on the 29th August, 1758, for the ser- 
vice of the following year, amounted to from thirty-one to 
thirty-three millions of livres. Twenty-four millions were 
actually drawn for before the taking of Quebec in September 

NOTE 18. 

[Mr. James Thompson, then in his ninety-fifth year. p. 273.] 

Mr. James Thompson was not, we understand, actually pre- 
sent with the troops engaged in the battle of the Plains, being 
detached on duty. He was, however, Wolfe's companion in 
arms at Louisbourg and at Montmorenci ; and though not ac- 
tually on the spot, was doing duty with the army which cap- 
tured Quebec. He was a Serjeant at the time. Afterwards 
he held an honorable station in the Engineer department, of 
which, enjoying perfect health and the possession of his facul- 
ties, he discharged the duties to the last. He was frank and 
communicative, and every way an interesting old gentleman. 
He kept a Journal, now in the possession of his family, which 
must contain some interesting particulars of his long life* 
Lord Dalhousie, thinking him fully entitled at this late period 
to an honorable retirement, with characteristic benevolence, 
signified his disposition to interest himself with His Majesty's 
Government to procure Mr. Thompson a pension for the re- 
mainder of his days. The old gentleman politely acknow- 
ledged his sense of His Lordship's kindness, but preferred the 
continuance of his duties while strength remained sufficient 
to attend his office. 


NOTE 19. 

[On the rear is the following— p. 279.] 

This inscription, having" been found to require too large a 
slab, to be placed on the rear of the Sarcophagus, has been 
placed in front of the surbase, where it has a better effect. 

The several inscriptions were completed, and finally affixed 
on Thursday, the 6th November, 1834. 

note 20. 

[Montcalm— Page 362.] 

The following" is a copy of a certificate in the possession of 
Louis Panet, Esquire, the original of which is countersigned 
by General Montcalm : 

" Nous officier command tun detachement a l'Ange Gardien 
" Certifions que le nome Charles Con tin, habitant du lieu, 
" a fourni un mouton a l'Ange Gardien, ce 26e Aout, 1759. 

" Hertel.' 
a Vu, Montcalm." 

note 21. 

[Quebec having been reduced — Page 368.] 

Population of Quebec in 1759 6700 souls. 

" Three Rivers 1500 " 

" Montreal 4000 " 

Total of the Militia force, from the age of sixteen to sixty, 
2700 men. 

note 22. 

[35th Regt. or Otways, Lieutenant Colonel Fletcher— p. 369.] 

At the late presentation of Colors to the 35th Regiment in 
Dublin garrison, on the 21st July, 1834, their Colonel-in-Chief, 
Lieutenant General Sir John Oswald, G. C. B. mentioned in 
the course of his address, that when he first joined the Re- 
giment in 1791, he found in it several of the companions of 
Wolfe. " The Colonel-in-Chief was Fletcher, of a distin- 
guished Scottish family. He led the 35th, under General 

Wrti.Fr, through the surf of Lnuisbourg, placed Ihem first 
after the British Grenadiers in line, on the Plains of Abraham, 

and there during the contest, eh^iri'iu,' t!i« I i r.itrh < li-eiudier?, 
carried ofl'tlis n-hiti /,/<:n„, which t\,r half a century this bat- 
talion bore. Hii Majesty George III. was so pleased with 
Colonel Fletcher's conduct, that when a Lieutenant Colonel 
■ gave him the Colonelcy in 

I Puts* ill.hrmi.ih lis-: Amo'irnn force stationed at Screl—ji. ii'i.' 

Captain Bouciiette, of the Provincial Navy, father of the 
present Surveyor General, succeeded in safely conducting Ge- 
iii-raL Cnrl'.'EOu through the enemy's forces oil the fiver and 
banks of the St Lawrence to Quebec in 1 775, after the capture 
of Montreal by Montgomery, 

NOTE 2*. 

Among the many sources from which we have derived va- 
luable information in the course of this work, we were favored 
with an excellent Plan of Quebec on a large scale with ite- 
rances, executed iu 1752, and containing a perfectly plain deli- 
neation of the fortifications, and of the limits of the different 
religions establishments. We have made great use of this. 

Frequent reference has also been had to " Twelve views of 
the principal buildings in Quebec, from drawings taken on the 
■pot, at the command of Vice Admiral Saunders, by Richard 
Short, purser of His Majesty's ship the Prince of Orange. 
Published in 1761, price two guineas. This work, complete, 
is seldom to be met with, although detached prints are in exis- 
tence in Quebec. It shows the damage done by the bombard- 
meat, and is otherwise curious. Besides the views of Quebec 
as a whole, it possesses different views of the Intendant's 
Palace — Treasury and Jesuits' College — Inside of Jesuits' 
Chapel— The Cathedral — Recollet Fnars Church — The Ur- 
■uline Convent — Bishops' Palace, with a wall and gate in front 
Place and Church or Notre Dame iu the Lower Town, && 

Another scarce work, which was obligingly lent to us, is 
" The Natural and Civil History of the French Dominions in 



North and South America, with an historical detail of the 
acquisitions and conquests made by the British arms in those 
parts, illustrated by maps and plans." Published in 1761 in 
folio, and dedicated to General Townshend. 

This work contains an official Plan of the City of Quebec, 
as it surrendered in 1759, giving- the fortifications in the St. 
Charles River with military accuracy. There is also a similar 
Plan of Montreal. 

We have taken an account of the Field of Battle and the 
position of the armies, principally from a plan in this work on 
a considerable scale, made by an officer of distinction present 
thereat We have used also another plan of the whole opera- 
tions on both sides of the river from the camp at Orleans to 
the landing 1 at Wolfe's Cove, drawn by a captain in the navy. 

The examinations of these and other documents has enabled 
us to make our descriptions both exact and authentic ; and as 
records of past events, and of ancient boundaries, the docu- 
ments themselves will every day acquire encreasing value, and 
will, doubtless, be carefully preserved by their respective pos- 



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