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Full text of "Hawkshead: (the northernmost parish of Lancashire) its history, archaeology, industries, folklore, dialect, etc., etc"




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HAWKSHEAD: 

(THE NORTHERNMOST PARISH OF LANCASHIRE) 

ITS 

HISTORY, ARCHEOLOGY, INDUSTRIES, 
FOLKLORE, DIALECT, 

ETC., ETC. 



BY 

HENRY SWAINSON COWPER, F.S.A., 

< / ' 

Editor of " The Oldest Register Rook of Hawkshcad. ' 



Xon&on : 

BEMROSE cS: SONS, LIMITED, 23, OLD BAILEY; 
AND DERBY. 

1899. 
[ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.] 



574971 



TO 

THE MEMORY OF 

JAMES SWAINSON COWPKR-KSSEX, 

OF 
HAWKSHEAD, AND ACTON, MIDDLESEX, 

THIS VOLUME IS DEDICATED 

BY HIS GRANDSON, 

THE AUTHOR. 



TO THE READER. 



COURTEOUS READER, 

When you take up this volume you are asked to 
bear in mind that rural England is changing very fast ; 
that ever since the first steam locomotive started on its 
smoky journey, the doom of old fashions, old industries, and 
old ideas was sealed. How radical these changes have been, 
and how relentless is the impulse which is effacing the old 
world colouring of rural life, only those who care to hold 
back the falling curtain can really tell. 

These are the extenuating circumstances I dare to urge 
for writing a volume of 564 pages devoted to a single north 
country parish. For, though changes have come, and though 
signs arc not wanting that greater changes are at hand, 
Hawkshead is still a relic of the older England. It is like 
an ancient painting which the brush of the tasteless restorer 
has just touched. A little time and he will paint out the 
mellowed tints. But, meanwhile, let us replace it in its 
frame and hang it reverently against the wall. 

Making an afternoon call recently beyond the "great 
pool " of Windermere, my fair hostess courteously en- 
quired as to the progress of the present work. Ere I 
could reply, a lady guest (a woman, in the words of Mr. 
Punch, essentially of the nineteenth century) struck in, 
" Hawkshead? What on earth can you find out to write 



viii TO THE READER. 

about Hawkshead, except that Wordsworth went to school 
there ? " " Oh," I replied meekly, " there is really a lot. There 
are the old farms, and the dialect, and the superstitions. Then 
there's the way the people used to live - " The way 

the people lived," quoth my fair critic, " why I thought 
they lived like pigs." Thereupon I collapsed ; but now 
that time has somewhat effaced the memory of these 
indignities, I can only assure my readers that there is more 
to be learned about the parish than these two great facts, 
vh., that Wordsworth was schooled here, and that the 
people lived like pigs. 

And as the thought of these affronts to my parish has 
put me into greater heart, I will venture yet more, and 
assert that this book, big though it be, is incomplete. 
For, in truth, the subjects of some of my chapters, were 
they handled by one of better parts than, and of equal 
opportunities with, myself, might be expanded into little 
volumes themselves and interesting volumes to boot. 

But to descend from fancies to facts. How can I essay 
to thank the band of friends and neighbours who, for 
over a dozen years, have helped me ranging, as they 
do, from the Steward of the Manor, whose courtly copper- 
plate letter comes in answer to some worrying query, to 
the old fell shepherd, who greets me with " I'se gitten a 
lile bit for ye, Mr. Harry." Yet, at any rate, some few 
obligations I can acknowledge To the kindness of Mr. T. 
Wilson, of Aynam Lodge, Kendal, I owe the use of the 
beautiful plate of Hawkshead Hall, originally engraved for 
Beck's great work. Mr. Herbert Bell, of Ambleside, most 
kindly gave me for reproduction the three excellent photo- 
graphs of Graythwaite Low Hall, being part of a large series 



TO THE READER. i x 

he has taken of local hall houses. I owe my thanks to 
the Councils of the Royal Archaeological Institute, and the 
Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian Association, for 
the use of blocks made to illustrate papers of my own 
in their publications. My friend, Mr. VV. G. Collingwood, 
put at my disposal the interesting plan of Peel Island ; 
while Mr. C. J. Ferguson, F.S.A., and Mr. Daniel Gibson 
furnished me with the plans of the Church, and Satterhow. 
Canon Bower has allowed me a transfer from a lithograph 
of his drawing of the Sandys monument ; and Mr. C. F. 
Archibald and Mr. Edward Benson contributed photographs 
of Rusland Hall and the Great Yew. Last, but not least, 
the Governors of the Grammar School granted me " free 
warren " in the muniment chest, and lent me the ancient 
Charter for reproduction. 

But in particular must I say a word about the second 
map. In this I have essayed to show the face of the 
parish at the time when the old Northmen had finished 
their land taking. Of course, such a map must be but 
tentative, because, in fact, we know not at what date this 
same landtakc came to an end ; and because it is certain 
that long after it did, the speech of the dalesfolk must 
have remained highly Norse, so that farms, intakes, and 
woods would continue to be named in what was essentially 
a Scandinavian tongue ; though, probably, one which had 
become corrupt to the extent of having lost its gram- 
matical forms. Even in the last days of Monastic rule, 
we find the Dalesmen baptizing their farms " ground," like 
the old Icelandic "grund." 

The map, therefore, must be considered as showing the 
parish at a date before the Abbey influence had been felt ; 



x TO THE READER. 

say the beginning of the twelfth century. Yet, none-the- 
less, we have thought it best to give (as far as may be) 
the highly Norse names in their proper grammatical forms. 
Skelwith, for instance, may not have been so named until 
" vidhr " had become in Furness " vith " or " with." But 
this we cannot now hope to learn. 

And, as a last word, let me thank the author of 
" Thorstein of the Merc " for the idea of this map sug- 
gested as it was by the similar restorations in the 
romance. And yet more, for while in my map, as in 
Chapter VII., I am responsible for not a few guesses, yet 
I acknowledge with gratitude Mr. Collingwood's kind help 
and advice in the matter of grammatical forms, without 
which, indeed, this map would have been a wilder compila- 
tion than it now is.* 

H. S. COWPER. 

ll.tvksiifmi, June, 1899. 



* It has not been possible to place two ancient names, both with a very 
X<>rse sound, on this map. I.akeleyternemire or Lawleiternemire, lay some- 
where ltween Crake and Colton, and was granted (1257) to the Abbot by 
William de Skelmersherk. 

Ravenstie, the old boundary l>etween Hawkshead and Colton, is now 
quite lost. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

PAGE 

DESCRIPTIVE - i 

Situation ; Boundaries ; Features. The Quarters or Townships ; Monk 
Conistonand Skelwith ; Brathay and its Houses ; the Pull Inn. Skelwith 
and its 'Statesmen ; Skelwith and Elterwater. The Brathay at Colwith ; 
Arnside and Ironkeld. Stang End and " Sepulchre. " Yewdale and the 
Great Yew. Tarn Hows and its Scenery. Coniston Waterhead. The 
old Waterhead Inn ; T'hopenny Yall'us. Brantwoixl. Hawkshead and 
Fieldhead Quarter ; Boundaries and Features ; Hamlets and Private 
Houses. Hawkshead Hall. Thursgill. The Environs of Hawkshead. 
The Town; Streets, Squares, and Features; Flag Street, etc. Former 
Appearance ; the Church Hill ; Architecture of the Church ; Rough-cast. 
The Grammar School. Gallowbarrow. Private Houses. Fsthwaite Lake. 
Claife Quarter and its Features. Wray. Lake District Architecture ; 
Blelham Tarn. Colthouse and " the Friends." Priest Pot. The Sawreys. 
More alxmt Architecture. A Talc of the '45. The Ferry; Longholme 
and Mr. English's Enormities. Belle Grange. Sattcrtlnvaite : its Isolation. 
Grisedale and Grisedale Hall. Dale Park and its Origin ; Graythwaite 
and its Halls. The Great Oak. Coppice. Collon. Nibthwaite and its 
Scenery. Peel Island. The River Crake. Colton West and Colton East ; 
the Church ; a Standing Stone ; Bouth. Haverthwaite, Finsthwaite, and 
Rusland. Why Rusland did not l>ecome the Chief Place in Colton. 
Rook How Meeting House ; Rusland Hall. Other Residences. Plum 
Green. Lakeside and Modern Vandalism. The Cheap Trip System. 

CHAPTER II. 
HISTORY - 64 

Earliest Occupation. The Land in Pre-Historic Days. Longheads and 
Roundheads. The Brigantes. The Romans in Furness. Roads and 
Mining. Early Mediaeval History. The Coming of the Northman. The 
Langdale Law-hill. Norse Names. Why Furness is not in Domesday. 
Amounderness. Foundation of Furness Abbey. Division of the Fells 
lietween the Ablt and the Baron of Kendal. Fishery Disputes. The 
Growth of Population. First Mention of Hawkshead Chapelry. Forma- 
tion of a Burial Ground. The Claim of Dalton. Scottish Raids. The 
Manor. Hawkshead in the Thirteenth Century. Industries, Occupations, 
and Position of the Tenants. " Parks " and " Grounds." Value of 
Hawkshead as an Abbey Estate. Granges. The Reformation ; Effects ; 
New Markets ; Iron Smelting ; Grant of a Market. Origin and 
Evolution of Tenant-right. The Code of Customs. Spread of Education 
and Foundation of the School. The Parish. The Pilgrimage of Grace ; 
Colton Chapelry made a Parish. Satterthwaite and Graythwaite 
Chapelries. Townships and Bailiwicks. The Parish Officers. Minister, 
Churchwardens, Overseers, and Parish Clerk. History of the Tithe. 
Nonconformity. The Quakers and Colthouse Meeting House. Persecu- 
tion, and Fines for Conventicles and Non-attendance at Church. The 
Baptist Chapels at Hawkshead Hill and Tottlebank. Rook How Meet- 
ing House. The Plague in Hawkshead Parish. 



xii CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER III. 

PAGE 

ARCHEOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE - - 129 

The Local Antiquary and his Work. Early Settlements, Interments, and 
Entrenchments. Stone Implements. Rarity of Bronze. Standing Stone 
at Whitestock. Woollen Hoixls ? Roman Evidences. Early Medieval. 
Alienee of Norse Relics. The Thingmount and Peel Island. Archi- 
tecture. Farmhouses. Hough-cast and Walling. Early Method of 
Construction. Later Methods. Plans. Principal Period of Building. 
Outlmildings. Description of Hawkshead Hall. Graythwaite High Hall 
and a Puzzling Date. Graythwaite Low Hall. Other Hall Houses. 
Ecclesiology. The Sandys Monument. The Muniment Chest. The 
Wardens and Market Staves. ' Market Measures. Church Plate and 
Hells. The School Seal. Hric-a-Brac. The " Past in the Present " 
in Old Home Life. The Hearth and its Accessories Spits, Toast Dogs, 
Fire Dogs, and Fire Cats, &c. Furniture. Spoliation by Dealers. 
Imitation. Cuplxttrds, Settles, Lockers, &c. " Kists " : Clocks and 
Makers. Strong Boxes. Table Accessories. Wooden Piggins and 
Trenches. I'ewtcr. Rushlight and Dip. The Farm Yard. 1'iggin and 
Churn; Peat Spade and Push-plough. The Horse-patten, Lamb-stick, 
ami Clog-wheels. Querns and Malt-mills. Various Contrivances. 



THK DALESMAN 193 

Physimte and TcmtKTtunent ; Caution and Independence ; Crime. Family 

Groupsand their Origin. Tenant-right and lilt 1 Code of Customs. The 
Effect i>f the Enclosure of the Commons. The Causes of the Decline of the 
'Statesman. Health. Longevity. The Dalesman at Play. Wrestling, 
and Noted Wrestlers. Fox-hunting in ihe Fells ; Cock-fighting ; Hobby 
Bell ; Snaring and Sprints ; Oilier Diversions. Lawlessness. The 
Finslhwaite Murder. The Gibbeting of Thomas Lancaster. The Bread 
Riots. The Casllehow Robbers. Whiskey Stills and " Lanly " Slee. 
Gipsies, Potters, and Tinkers. A Thievish Tailor. Traffic. Pack 
Horses and Wagons. Old-time Travel ; Storms and their Effects. The 
Ferry Disaster of 1635. The History of the Ferry ; the " Great lioate " 
and the Brahhwailcs : The Miller Ground Crossing. Windermere 
Navigation. A Service of Row-lxials. Steam Traffic. Windermere Fords. 
Bridges. Romances. The Finsthwaite " 1'iincess." A Coining Story. 
The Maniac of Graythwaite Woods. 

CHATTER V. 
INDUSTRIKS AND OCCUPATIONS - 258 

Sheep and Shepherding. The Origin of the Fell Sheep : Flock Marks. 
Meaning of "Ilerdwick." Comparative Numlier of Sheep in Past and 
Present Days. Extra-parochial Stints. Future of Ilerdwick Sheep. 
Weaving : a post-Reformation Industry. Origin of the Local Market. 
Yarn. Homespun Late in Use. Flax and Hemp. Costume. Market 
and Fairs. Colton Fair. Wixxlland Industries : Development in pre-Refor- 
mation Times. Turning and Swill Making. Timber, and Destruction of the 
Wcxxis. Coppice and its Depreciation. Uses of Coppice. Bobbin and 
other Mills. Iron Smelting. List of Bloomeries. Excavations. History. 
Evidence of the Coucher Book. The Bloomeries Abolished. Re-intro- 
duction of Smelting. The Dates of the various Bloomeries. Archreological 
Evidence. Conclusions. Charcoal Smelting ; Colliers ; Price of 
Charcoal ; Gun|*>wder Works ; Explosions. Mining Ventures : Copper, 
Silver, and Lead. Quarrying Green-slate and Flags. The Slate 
Industry in the Eighteenth Century. Lime Burning. Fisheries. 
Miscellaneous. Cakes and Wiggs. Cheese-making. Clock-making. 
Wood-carving and design. 



CONTENTS. xiii 

CHAPTER VI. 

PAGE 

SURVIVALS AND FOLK-LORE - 302 

A Generation Too Late. Hearth Cult. The Everlasting Fire. Rearing 
Suppers ; Threshold Sacrifice ; Fairies and House Goblins ; Malign 
Influence in the Dairy and Cowhouse. The Need- fire. Charms for 
Burning and Bleeding. The Seventh Son. Cures for Sore Eyes and 
" Tooth-wark." Bibliomancy. Witchcraft at Outgate and Monk 
Coniston. Penance and Stang-riding. Customs. Firing Over a Bride- 
groom's House. Boons. A Mock Court. Corpse Doors. Haunts ; The 
Crier of Claife ; Belmount and Hawkshead Hall ; The Waterside Boggle. 
Esthwaite. The Elinghearth Brow Dobby. Graythwaite. The Oxenfell 
Cross Dobby. Other Haunts. The Easter Pace-egg Play. Saws and 
Sayings. 

CHAPTER VII. 
DIALECT, PLACE NAMES AND FAMILY NAMES- 339 

Dialect not Definitely Separate from Cumbrian. The Norse Element and 
Test Words. What Philologists have still to do. "Tatllehorn." 
Grammatical Forms and Corruptions. (.nullification of Adjectives. 
Peculiar Application of Adjectives. Vowel Sounds. Conjunction of 
Verbs. Exclamations. Place Names. Difficulties in Study of Deriva- 
tions. Norse Personal Names. Glossary of Celtic Words in Place Names. 
Glossary of Teutonic Words. Puzzles, and more Modern Names. Family 
Names. Method of Grouping. Glossary of Forty-five of the Principal 
Family Names, with Derivations, Geographical Distribution, and com- 
parative commonness. Notes on Mining Names. Works on Dialect and 
Nomenclature. 

CHAPTER VIII. 
BIOGRAPHIES 377 

Classification. T. Alcock Beck, Antiquary ; John Beever, Author of 
" Practical Fly-fishing " ; A. Craig Gibson, Dialect Writer, etc. ; W. L. 
Linton ; Allan Nicholson ; Nathaniel Nicholson, Parliamentary Officer ; 
Christopher Nicholson, Merchant ; W. II. Overend, Artist ; The 
Rawlinsons Christopher, Antiquary ; Daniel, Merchant ; Sir Henry 
Creswicke, Orientalist, etc. ; Dr. Richard, Topographer, etc. ; Sir 
Thomas, Lord Mayor (1706) ; Sir Thomas, Lord Mayor (1753) ; Thomas 
(b 1681), Bibliophile ; Thomas (b. 1689), Inventor of the Kilt ; Sir 
William, Sergeant-at-Law ; Captain William, Parliamentary Captain ; 
George Rigg, Parish Clerk ; Rev. John Romney, Biographer of the 
Painter ; Archbishop Sandys ; Sir Edwin Sandys, Statesman ; George 
Sandys, Traveller and Poet ; Elizabeth Smith ; Isaac Swainson, M.D. 
and Botanist ; William Swainson, F.R.S. , Naturalist ; Michael Taylor, 
Mathematician ; Dr. George Walker, Divine ; Adam Walker, Lecturer 
and Inventor ; William Wordsworth, Poet Laureate. 



CHAPTER IX. 
PARISH BOOKS AND ACCOUNTS 

The Accounts of the Churchwardens and Overseers of the Poor from 1696 
to 1799. Burials in the Church. Destruction of Vermin. Re-casting the 
Bells, 1765 ; Subscribers, Accounts, and Mottoes on the Bells ; Vestry 
Minutes 1763 to 1828, mostly referring to re-pewing and erection of a 
Vestry. Other Account Books. Verses. Miscellaneous Papers. As^ess- 
ments ; Briefs ; Relief Orders, and Settlements ? A Royal Proclamation. 



xiv CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER X. 

PAGE 

THE GRAMMAR SCHOOL 463 

The Royal Letters Patent. The Statutes ; Completion of Endowment 
by Samuel Sandys, 1588-9. Accounts of School Governors, 1631. 
Sch(>lmaster's Accounts, 1650-1651. Financial Disasters. Enquiry by 
Charity Commissioners into the case of the Sun Inn. Alienation of other 
Endowments. Law-suit of 1832 to recover properties, with partial 
success. Treatment of remainder of Endowment. Ke-organization the 
Scheme of 1835 ; subsequent Schemes. The System of the School down 
to 1835. The " Cockpenny " and " Hlue Coat " Boys. Boarding 
Houses. Mingay's "School and Military Academy." Distinguished 
Scholars. Foundation of the Schixil Library by Daniel Kawlinson. 
Ke-building of Ihe School by the same benefactor. 



rilAI'TKK XI. 

Ol.l.A PODRIDA 505 

(leology of the Parish. Notable Storms and Seasons. Earthquakes. 
Natural History Notes. School-girl Humour. Conclusion. 



AlTKNDIX. 519 

(I.) The Houndary and Fishery Disputes (\Vindermere) in Kumess Fells. 
(II.) Schedule of Documents relating lo the Ferry. (III.) Rules of the 
Friendly Societies. (IV.) Incumlvnts, Schoolmasters, and Church- 
wardens. (V.) Charities. (VI.) Schedule of School Deeds. 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



HAWKSHEAD SCENERY, TARN Hows - 
OLD SKELWITH FOLD 
" HOW ARE THE MIGHTY FALLEN" - 
YEW TREE FARM .... 
HAWKSHEAD HALL .... 



HAWKSHEAD BEFORE 1875 
PLAN OF HAWKSHEAD CHURCH 

ESTHWAITK VALLEY - 
COLTON CHURCH 
HAWKSHEAD CHURCH 
STANDING STONE, WIIITESTOCK - 
ANCIENT HOOD FROM Our Duns 
PEEL ISLAND 

OLD FARMHOUSE CONSTRUCTION 
PLAN OF HIGH SATTERHOW 
Low KEENGROUND 
WINDOW AT SATTERHOW - 
GRAYTHWAITE Low HALL- 
THE SANDYS MONUMENT - 
HALBERD AND OFFICIAL STAVES 
BELLMETAI. MARKET MEASURES 
FIREPLACE GRAYTHWAITK Low HALL 

INTERIOR OF GRAYTHWAITE Low 
HALL 

A 'STATESMAN'S STRONG Box - 
THE FELI.SIDE TYPE 
FOXSCREWS FROM LANGDALE 
RUSLAND HALL 

HERDWICK SHEEP WINTERING - 
PLAN OF BLOOMERY AT CONISTON 



PAGE. 

Photo, by Mr. A. Pettitt - Frontispiece 

Photo, by the An I hoi- ... 8 

Photo, by Ed. Benson, ESI;. - - 13 

Photo, by the Author 15 

Steel Engraving from Heck's 
" Annales Fiirnesiensis," by 
kind permission of Mr. /. 
ll'ilson - - -to face 22 

Photo, by Frith & Co. - 25 

By permission of C. J. 

Ferguson, Esq., F.S.A. - - 31 

Photo, by Messrs. Brnnskill 39 

Photo, by the Author - - - 56 

Photo, by Frith &> Co. - 109 

Photo, by the Author - - 136 

Photo, by Mr. H. Bell - - - 137 

From " Thorstein of the Mere,'' 

by kind permission of W. G. 

Collingwooii, Esij. 141 

Drawing by the Author - - 147 

Plan by Dan. Gibson, Esq. - - 153 

Photo, by the Author 155 

Photo, by the Author 157 

Photo, by Mr. H. Btll 165 

Drawing by Canon Bower to face 1 68 

Drawing by the Author \"]\ 

Drawing by the Author - 175 

Photo, by Mr. H. Bell - - - 179 

Photo, by Mr. H. Bell - - 183 

Drawing by the Author - - 1 89 

Photo, by Mr. H. Btll - - 195 

Drawing by the Author - - - 218 

Painting in possession of Mrs. 

Archibald 255 

Photo, by the Author - - - 261 

Drawing by the Author - 281 



xv i 

CARVED OAK PANEL 

ARCHBISHOP SANDYS - 
ISAAC SWAINSON 

LETTERS PATENT OF THE SCHOOL 
HAWKSHEAD GRAMMAR SCHOOL 



ILLUSTRATIONS, Etc. 



Drawing by the Author - 
From ait old Engraving 
From an Engraving by Striven, 

after J. J\. Smith . - - - 
By kind permission of the Governors - 
Photo, by Messrs. Brunskill 



PAGE 
299 

399 

407 
465 
53 



MAI'S. 

I. The original Parish of Hawkshead, with its post-Reformation Sub-divisions. 

II. The Norse Settlements in Hawkshead Parish - At end of 



CORRECTIONS. 

Page 58, line 17. For " Dickon " read" Dickson." 

Page 41, line 4. The statement that Low Wray stood on the site of the present lodge 

and church is an error. The latter are on modern sites, and Low Wray 

farm lies rather to the North, on the East side of the road. 
Page 78, line 25. For " Haukrs;vtr " and " Haukrsidha " read " Haukssxtr " and 

" Haukssidha." 

Page 83, line 18. For " Haukrsxlr " read" Haukssretr." 

Page 224, line 8, and 226, line 6. For " Abbot Hanks " read " Ablx>t Banke." 
Page 259, Footnote. Far " Rev. J. Kllwood " read" Rev. T. Ellwood." 
Page 270, Footnote. For " Houseman " read " Housman." 
Page 272, line 6. Far " Mr. J. Taylor " read " Mr. T. Taylor." 
Page 2S6, line 32. For " Rev. J. Robinson " read " Rev. T. Robinson." 
Page 397, line I. The surname of the subject of this biography is more generally 

spelled Rigg, though Kigge was sometimes used. 
Page 404, line 22. For " Forster " read " Foster." 



ADDITIONS. 

Pages 17 and 49. The Monk Coniston and Grisedale Hall Estates were in the last 
century Ijoth in the possession of William Ford, of Monk Coniston. He had two 
daughters, (l) Catherine, who inherited Monk Coniston, and married George 
Knott ; and (2) Agnes, who inherited Ford Lodge, Grisedale, and married Henry 
Ainslie, M.I)., of Kendal and London. The Monk Coniston property was 
increased by the Knotts and sold to the Marshalls ; and Ford Lodge was 
abandoned as a residence by Montague Ainslie, son of Dr. Ainslie, when the new 
hall was built. 

Page 44. It should have Ijeen stated that the modern house of Hrierswood was built 
by, and is the property of, J. R. liridson, Esq. 

Page 174. Two measures, in all respects identical, were recently purchased by the 
author at Cheltenham. They were said to have come from the North. 



CHAPTER I. 

SURVEY OF THE PARISH. 

YOU, gentle reader, who no\v perhaps take up this 
volume, be it either for amusement, for study, or for 
information, have before you, if through courtesy or interest 
in our subject you shall follow us to the end, a journey 
among the by-paths of antiquity, history, and half-forgotten 
country lore. Yet, although it will be our endeavour to 
make our excursions as fruitful of interest as we can, we 
shall in this our first chapter grant you a sort of holiday, 
in some sort a day or two of light work, before we must 
settle down in company to the task before us. 

In these first pages, then, we shall hope to be your guide 
to Hawkshcad as it is : to show you, in fact, the tract of 
fair country whose past is to be treated of in later chapters. 
We shall take you by the hand and bid you turn your 
gaze at the shining meres with their fair settings of hill 
and crag. You must toil with us up rocky roads, and 
force your way by our side through rustling coppice. In 
our company, you must clamber the rocky beds of rivulet 
and gill, and we must wander together o'er fell and dale, 
among the smiling hamlets, and through the quaint old- 
world town which gives its name to our ancient parish. 

Were it, then, that an interesting subject forms an interesting 
chapter, our success in this initial venture is assured ; but 
like a lame horse an ill-chosen companion, or, still worse, 
an inefficient guide, serves but too often to take away all the 
charm of a most pleasing excursion. We can, therefore, but 
2 



2 



SURVEY OF THE PARISH. 



say, " Reader, we know our theme and love it well. Bear 
but a little with us where we fail, encourage us if we 
please, and our best endeavour shall be to make our survey 
both instructive and enjoyable." 

Right at the northernmost point of Lancashire, blocked 
in on north-west and north by the barrier of fell which 
forms the well-known hills of the Lakes, lies the ancient 
water-girt Parish of Hawkshead. In Lancashire, yet cut 
apart, with the sister district of Cartmcl, from the rest of 
the county by the great estuary of Morecambc : in the 
Lake district, yet not of it; for, though we doubt not our 
confession will bring upon us the disapproval of some at 
least of our readers, we acknowledge that to us, the 
greatest charms of our district are, that it boasts not a 
tourist centre, that it practically knows not steam traffic, 
and that the few and scattered industries it maintains 
neither pollute the sweet air of its hills nor distort the 
fair landscape we love. 

The parish of Hawkshead, not the curtailed and dismembered 
parish of to-day, but the old parish as it existed in its 
ntirety the Chapelry of Hawkshead, as it was called in 
the clays of Furness Abbey measures in extreme length 
thirteen and a half miles from Klterwater Nab on the north 
to Legbarrow point on the south, where are joined the 
Crake and Leven rivers, the outlets respectively of Coniston 
Water and Windcrmere. The greatest width is from the 
("rake at Nibthwaitc to a point on Windcrmere nearly 
due east, where it is nearly five and a half miles, and the 
total acreage is computed at nearly 36,700 acres. * 

Let us take up the one-inch Ordnance map of Lancashire 
North of the Sands, and sec how the Chapelry lies. On 
the cast, that curving margin of Windermerc forms in its 
entire length, our boundary ; while on the west, the Chapelry 
ends on the wooded shores of Coniston. Yet no part 
of Windermerc, as we shall afterwards see, belongs to 

* According to the Ordnance Survey the old . parish of Hawksliead is 
14,322 a. o r. 36/., and the old parish of Colton 22,330 a. o r. 35 p. 



e 



SURVEY OF THE PARISH. 3 

Hawkshead, or even to Lancashire, while the boundary line 
dividing this part of the Abbey possessions from those of 
the Barony of Kendal was at an early date drawn along 
the east margin of Coniston or Thurston Water, so that 
the ancient Chapelry of Hawkshead docs not now, and 
never did, own, any part of the two beautiful lakes which 
close her in on east and west. 

On the north, the busy stream of the Brathay, gathering 
its waters from the high fells around the Wrynose Pass, 
forms not only the boundary of the parish from Pierce 
How to Windermcrc, but also that between Lancashire 
and her neighbour Westmorland. While on the north- 
west, the small tributary stream of Pierce How Beck, 
running through the picturesque slate quarry country, and 
the Ycwdale Beck, which empties itself into Coniston, make 
the frontier between the parish of Hawkshead and the 
Chapelry of Church Coniston or Coniston Fleming, and 
the rocky manor of Tilberthwaite. On the south-west, 
from the foot of Coniston, the river Crake divides us from 
Blawith, Lowick, Egton, all chapclries of the ancient parish of 
Ulvcrston. Of this fair river of Crake, we shall have 
more to say, but here where it runs out, it meets, between 
Greenodd and Legbarrow Point, its sister the Lcvcn, which, 
taking a south-west course from the foot of Windcrmere, 
forms the boundary between our ancient parish and that 
of Cartmel, which, with its neighbour Furness, constitutes 
Lancashire North of the Sands. So that, as we have 
said, our district is water girt, for it is closed in by three 
lakes, Windermere, Thurston Water, and Elterwater ; three 
rivers, the Brathay, the Crake, and the Leven ; and two 
streams, Yewdale and Pierce How Becks. 

Within these limits we find a country of a singularly 
broken-up and varied character ; for although the hills nowhere 
rise above a thousand feet, there is hardly a really level mile 
of road to be found.* On the north, the Berwick Fell 



* The modern road from Greenodd to Hollow Oak is no doubt far the levellest 
in the parish : but south of Brantwood a piece of road follows the margin for a short 
distance sufficiently close to make it moderately hill-less. 



4 SURVEY OF THE PARISH. 

range, the fells about Tilberthwaite, and Claife heights stand 
out boldly, separated from each other and from the 
mightier hills of Westmorland by broad and cultivated 
valleys. But if we draw south by Dale Park, Grisedale, 
or Graythwaitc, the valleys contract and become, so to speak, 
a scries of gorges, through each of which rushes a beck, 
making its way to the Crake or the Lcvcn. Both in the 
north and south parts, the higher fells arc heather clad ; 
but while larch plantations arc fairly common in the 
Coniston and Ilawkshcad dislricts, in Colton, especially in 
the eastern part, and also in the Graythwaite and Grisedale 
districts, the count}- is still thickly covered with copse. 

The pre-Reformation Chapclry of Hawkshead became a 
parish in 1578, and in 1676 the lower half of it was cut 
off, and made into the independent parish of Colton. It 
was probably subsequent to this that each parish was 
divided into four quarters or townships, which were the 
recognised divisions until the Local Government Act, when 
lliL'se ancient boundaries were, in many cases, violated in 
the formation of the new civil parishes, for Parish Council 
purposes. Monk Coniston, for instance, was attached to 
Church Coniston, with which it had never before been 
associated ; the latter having been from early times a 
Chapclry of L'lvcrston, and part of a lay Manor, and 
never in any way connected with the Abbey estates. Obviously, 
then, we must in this chapter adhere to the older quarters 
or townships, which will be described in sequence. 

The quarters or townships of Hawkshead are : 

1. Hawkshead, which included Hawkshead Field and 

Fieldhead. 

2. Monk Coniston and Skclwith. 

3. Claife, including Colthouse and the Sawreys. 

4. Sattcrthwaite, including Dale Park, Grisedale, and 

Graythwaite. 
And those of Colton : 

1. Colton East, or East side of Colton Beck. 

2. Colton West, or West side of Colton Beck. 



SURVEY OF THE PARISH. 5 

3. Haverthwaite, Finsthwaite, and Rusland. 

4. Nibthwaite, including parts of Bcthecar Moor. 

In describing the parish, however, we shall deviate slightly 
from the above order, for the purpose of taking them in 
geographical sequence. We shall take each quarter, begin- 
ning from the north-west. The order will thus become : 

(i) Monk Coniston with Skelwith ; (2) Hawkshead ; (3) Claife ; 
(4) Satterthwaite ; (5) Nibthwaite ; (6) Colton West and Colton 
East ; (7) Haverthwaite, Finsthwaite, and Rusland. 

MONK CONISTON WITH SKKLWITII. 

Beautiful and interesting as are most of the other town- 
ships and hamlets of the old chapclry, there is no question 
that in this quarter we get the most romantic and pleasing 
scenery. Hence only do we obtain real glimpses of true 
Lake district scenery. Here on the heath-clad fellsides 
indeed, we seem to stand on the threshold of the grandest 
of all English scenery ; and although the black masses of 
Coniston Old Man and Wetherlam, the ragged peaks of 
Langdalc, and the sunny slopes of Hclvcllyn and Wansfell 
are all across the border, still they seem framed as a picture 
for Coniston and Skelwith folk to gaze at : in truth, there are 
few places where finer views of this part of the lakes can 
be got than from the slopes about Tarn Hows, Arnside or 
Skelwith Fold. 

In detailing the boundary of the chapclry itself we have 
already given that of the township on the west, north, 
and north-east. The inner boundary leaves the margin 
of Windermere on the south side of Pull Wyke and turning 
west, near Wray Castle, it crosses, by a fairly straight 
line, to Barngates Inn, called generally, but for what reason 
we hardly know, the " Drunken Duck." Thence by the 
summit of Berwick Ground Fell to Arnside, where it turns 
south, and passing by Tarn Hows it reaches High 
Cross, where the Hawkshead-Coniston road is joined by 
one from Ambleside, whence it ascends the fell and passes 



6 SUKVEY OF THE PARISH. 

along the watershed between Monk Coniston and Grisedale, 
until, after passing Lawson Park, a bend is made to the 
west, and it falls into Coniston at Beck Lcven, a short 
distance south of Brantwood. 

The township, therefore, forms a sort of elbow-shaped 
figure, or something like a joiner's square, and its area is 
greater than any of the other townships excepting that of 
Satterthwaitc, with which it is probably about equal.* 

Monk Coniston and Skehvith has three sub-divisions, two 
of which are given in the name of the quarter ; while the 
third, which boasts a modern church, is Brathay. Such 
sub-divisions would elsewhere be called hamlets the proper 
name of the sub-divisions of a township, as we know by 
a statute of 1286. But in North Lancashire the term is 
but little used, and though we find in the prc-Rcformation 
documents many references to " granges " (farms of the abbey), 
villages, hamlets, and bailiwicks, the various terms seem 
hardly to have had any very definite signification ; and 
any arbitrary sub-division of the quarters (which themselves 
would appear in our chapelry to be of comparatively modern 
datej was probably never attempted, until regular surveys 
were undertaken in modern times. In the ensuing pages, 
therefore, we shall use "hamlet" simply to denote the 
numerous clusters of farms and cottages which form a con- 
spicuous feature in the district. 

Approaching the parish from Amblcsidc, after passing 
Clappersgate we cross the Brathay by a picturesque bridge and 
enter the township at the north-cast end of the elbow. 
This corner is called, from the river, Brathay, and is in 
itself somewhat featureless. Brathay Hall,! the property 



* The bovmdaries are taken chiefly from the Ordnance map, and as in many places 
they do not ever appear to have been defined, it is not easy to get at the tiue areas. 
It is doubtful if, when these townships were arranged, any attempt at actually defining 
boundaries was made ; probably they marched with the allotments of estates. If such 
a farm was placed in Monk Coniston, all its land even its fell, " park," or intake 
was considered in Monk Coniston. When the commons were enclosed, the lines would 
become somewhat more definite. 

t Brathay Mall was built about the beginning of the present century by a 
Mr. Law, who lived in Old Braihay, or Brathay as it then was, the pleasant house at 
the foot of Brathay Bridge. 



SURVEY OF THE PARISH. 7 

of Dr. Hugh Redmayne, has a fine, bold situation on the 
lake ; but of late years so many modern villas have sprung 
up about the northern end of Windcrmere, even on its 
Hawkshead side, that the ancient character of the country 
is somewhat lost. This is especially noticeable about 
Brathay. Here stands a modern church built in the Italian 
style, forming, it is to be regretted, a very marked feature 
in the landscape, for, unfortunately, it is one totally out of 
character. " Pull Barn," which occurs often in the parish 
register, has disappeared, lost perhaps in the out-buildings 
of the modern house called Wykcfield, which boldly overlooks 
the road near Pull Wyke, and which is now leased by, 
and was until recently inhabited by, Sir William Forwood. 
Opposite Wj kefield, beyond the bay, in lovely woods, lies 
another and more considerable modern residence called Pull 
Woods, only recently erected by W. J. Crosslcy, Esquire. 
This is a fine building of the half-timber style so markedly 
developed in South Lancashire and Cheshire a style 
exceedingly picturesque but one which naturally never 
obtained a hold in the Lake district, where timber was not 
too common, and magnificent building stone abundant.* 

Formerly, we are told in Clarke's " Survey of the Lakes," 
there stood at Pull a little inn, the sign of which having 
become defaced, some waggish bard had inscribed beneath 

" What this sign is, none can tell ; 
But here's good beer and ale to sell." 

No inn exists here now, but we believe that the position 
of this was somewhere at the head of Pull Wykc, close 
to where the roads from Coniston and Hawkshead meet. 

A little west from here lies the old estate of the family 
of Bensons, who were the leading family of 'statesmen in 
this township, and played some part in local history, both 
in Hawkshead Parish and in the neighbouring county of 
Westmorland, where they also owned estates. Skelwith 
Fold passed out of their hands at the early part of the 



* To the subject of local domestic architecture we shall revert when describing 
Wray Castle, and of houses in the timber and plaster style when treating of Sawrey. 



8 SURVEY OF THE PARISH. 

present century, and has lately been acquired by Mr. 
Stephen Marshall, from whose new residence, situated a 
little cast of the old house, the most marvellous views are 
to be had. Old Skclwith Fold house still stands, a 
typical 'statesman's house of the better class, snug and 
sheltered, with a plain, unpretending rough-cast front and 
round chimneys. Inside it is cut up into cottages, but 
some plain old oak-panelling remains on the stairs and 
in one of the bedrooms. The initials and dates, T ^ 1745, 




OLD SKP.I.WITII KOI. n. 

and i. E. H., 1805, are the last surviving memorials of the 
ancient local family. 

All, or nearly all, Skelwith was in former days in the 
hands of small local proprietors 'statesmen, as they are 
termed here in the North. Indeed, as we shall see, the 
only quarters in which squirarchal families existed were 
those of Hawkshcad, Satterthwaite, and in the lower part 
of the chapclry which became Colton. In Skelwith, as 
late as 1723, it would seem that there were nearly thirty 
landowners, for a deed of that date belonging to Mr, 



SURVEY OF THE PARISH. 9 

Marshall, enumerates properties in the "ownership or possession" 
of the following individuals : John Hodgson, John Walker, 
George Holm, William Brathwayte, William Walker, Joseph 
Cumpstone, John Dixon, William Cowherd, William Holm, 
John Robinson, Richard Atkinson, Margaret Atkinson, James 
Jackson, Mary Holm, William Mackereth, Anthony Hall, 
Jane Mackereth, William Mackereth, Daniell Birkett, William 
Benson, George Cumpstone, Robert Benson, Thomas 
Brathwayte, James Cookson, .... Dummcr, John Benson, 
Edward Park, Launcelot Dobson, and Gawen Brathwayte. 

Below Skelwith Fold, on the Westmorland side of the 
Brathay, nestles the snug little hamlet of Skelwith Bridge, 
with a pretty roadside inn. This bridge was washed away 
in 1890 by a tremendous spate, following one of those 
thunderstorms which, accompanied by a tropical downpour, 
occasionally visit the Lakes. 

A little cast of Skelwith Bridge, the Brathay forms a 
pretty force or waterfall, and above this, its course, after 
traversing a spongy level from Elterwater, contracts into a 
narrow rocky ravine. This ravine in flood times, was 
insufficient to carry off quickly the superfluous water, so 
that being dammed here, as it were, the level behind was 
liable to flooding, and consequent destruction of crops : on 
this account, at some date, the rocky bed has been quarried, 
blasted, and widened, with excellent results as regards the 
meadows above. At one place where a rock}' " rig " 
projected into the stream a smaller channel has been cut 
behind it, thus forming a sort of small fortress-like crag 
artificially separated from the rest of 'the bank. The place 
is rather a trap for the antiquary, who, noticing the 
artificial ditch cut behind it, might easily formulate most 
interesting theories, attributing to it an origin far remote 
both in date and object from its true one. 

Elterwater now lies before us, and the nab or point 
projecting across it from the south is at once the northern- 
most point of our parish and county. The tarn, or 
" water," is somewhat featureless, and looks far better from 



10 



SURVEY OF THE PARISH. 



some of the fell points above it than from its margin. 
Probably the prettiest picture is that seen from the neigh- 
bourhood of High Close on the Westmorland side, whence 
the view is closed by a grand panoramic view of the 
Coniston Fells. 

Here, about Col with and Elterwater, where the noble 
valleys of Great and Little Langdalc open out to meet the 
Inn-ness hills, \vc have features plenty to charm alike the 
artist, tourist, antiquary, and student of place names. If we 
clamber over the ling-clad fcllsidcs that rise on the south 
of the Hrathay, at every turn the splendid panorama of 
shadowed hill, green plain, and winding river changes and 
varies both in contour and colouring as we pass. Up the 
hill from CoKvith drifts with the brccxc the ceaseless song 
of the force, for the Hrathay, in her long descent from 
\Vrynose, has many a trip and stumble before she leaps 
joyously into the "great pool" of Windcrmcrc. We say 
" she." for rivers are, by the courtesy of poets, fair maidens ; 
but Hrathay, fair as she is, is no wild school lass, for " she 
goes on for ever." Many a talc is she telling now, in her 
rippling tones, could we but understand, of the steel-clad 
veterans of Rome, of the herds 01 Celtic oxen, of the great 
lumbering commissariat wagons, and of the groups of British 
camp followers, apeing, perhaps, the manners of their con- 
querors, but more than half savage, who toiled along her 
banks in the olden days, on the road from the Roman camp 
at Waterhcad to the fort which lay in the pass at Hardknott. 

Stories can she tell us, too, of later days, when the long- 
limbed " sons of the bay," brown from exposure, and with 
the brine of the northern waves still clinging to their curling 
hair and beards, first forced their way through the tangled 
scrub and forest of Yewdale, and with their crescent-bladcd 
axes formed the clearings or thwaitcs for their homesteads, 
and so drave into the ground, as it were, such landmarks 
of nomenclature as we find in Tilberthwaite and Arnside. 

Whoever Ami was, however, we must leave to another 
page, but while here we should climb to his old dwelling, 



SURVEY OF THE PARISH. n 

were it only for the view. There are now two Arnsides 
High and Low veritable hill farms, planted high on the 
fell, and round them heather and rock and larch plantation 
nothing else, except the few green fields laid under cultiva- 
tion, no doubt a thousand years back, by Arni himself. At 
one of the farms lives Mr. Gillbanks, the owner, the repre- 
sentative of an old land-owning family at Wythburn, but 
who settled here after his own vale had been invaded to 
quench the thirst of Manchester. Mr. Gillbanks' home is a 
veritable museum, and to his courtesy we owe more than 
one pleasant visit to inspect his ancient oaken furniture, 
china, and other heirlooms. 

Above us rise the heath-clad points and rocks of Black- 
fell, Berwick Ground Fell, and Ironkelcl, different parts of 
the same rough range of hill, a haunt and breeding-ground 
of wild duck and black game. Ironkelcl is, we think, Ami's 
kcld, and here no doubt the old Norse farmer found a 
spring and named it. On one of these allotments is a 
quarry, one of the oldest, perhaps, in the parish, where 
tradition says in the old days the immensely thick roofing 
slate still remaining on our old farm buildings was originally 
obtained. From the highest points we have perhaps the 
most extensive views that can be got from a similar eleva- 
tion in the district. Esthwaite, Windermcre, Coniston, and 
the Langdales are all before us. Unfortunately, the young 
larch plantations near the summits are so thickly grown that 
we have to fight our way through them, with hats pulled 
over our faces and eyes closed against the sharp spikes of 
the branches. 

We have now no time to visit the farms of Park High 
Park and Low Park the names of which tell us of monastic 
rule, for we must cross the road near haunted Oxcnfcll 
Cross, close to where Guards Beck, the eastern tributary of 
Ycwdale Beck, takes its rise. In front of us is Holme Fell, 
with the farms of Holme Ground and Hodgcclosc ; and 
the enormous and unsightly masses of tipped rubbish show 
us that we have arrived at the headquarters of the only 



I2 SURVEY OF THE PARISH. 

industry left in the northern part of the ancient chapelry. 
The quarries are on both the Coniston and Hawkshcad 
sides of the boundaries, although the splendid stone obtained 
here is generally called "Coniston green slate." 

If we follow down the Tierce How Beck towards Stang 
End, where it enters the Brathay, we find a wood between 
the road and beck, bearing the curious name of " Sepulchre " 
(with the accent on the " u," if you please). Close to the 
road, within the wood, we have traced the foundations of a 
ruined square building seemingly of some antiquity. This 
building, no doubt, is connected in some way with the 
strange name of the place ; but what its origin has been we 
do not know. Possibly, but we think hardly probably, a Roman 
building stood here, and a tomb of the same date may 
have been found, and given the name. Stang End was, 
however, the home of more Bcnsons, ardent Quakers, and, as 
Quaker burial grounds are in these parts generally known 
as " sepulchres," the question arises if ever there was one 
here.' But there exists neither record nor tradition of any- 
thing of the sort. Just over the Brathay, at Birk How, 
there is a place called Chapel Mire, and the local story is 
that a chapel stood here, and its burial ground was at the 
" Sepulchre." But it seems unlikely, as the two places arc 
some distance apart, divided by a river, and even in different 
counties. Tilbcrthwaitc, its gill and waterfalls and its old 
copper workings, we must pass by, for it is over the beck in 
Church Coniston. 

Holme Ground Fell ends in bold crags dominating Yewdale, 
and parting the streams called Ycwdalc Beck and Guards 
Heck. At its foot lie two farms : High Yewdale, which is 
in Church Coniston, a typical dalchcad house, with large 
barns, and a row of quaintly clipped yews in a line with 
the front. Yew Tree Farm, close by, is on the Hawkshead 
side, and till a few years ago was often visited on account 

* Mr. C. \V. Dymond, F.S.A., who is well acquainted with the history of local 
Jriemls, assures me there was never a Friends' burial ground here: but meetings 
were held, and Quakers might, and perhaps did, bury wherever they liked. 



SURVEY OF THE PARISH. 13 

of the wonderful old yew tree standing in a field behind it. 
This tree is shown in Crosthwaite's map of Coniston, pub- 
lished over a hundred years since, with a note saying that 
its diameter was then nine feet. When we measured it 
some years ago we found it about the same, although, of 
course, a knotted and gnarled trunk will show considerable 
variations in diameter according to the point where this is 
measured. It was, however, a mere shell, up the inside of 
which it was possible to climb, and it was evident that at 




"HOW ARE THE MlGHTY FALLEN." 

some period the top had been lost. In the great gale of 
22nd December, 1894, he fell, and then it became evident 
that not only had his branches dwindled from great age, 
but his roots also, so that but little was left except his 
great gnarled trunk. Mr. Marshall, the owner, was approached 
with the view of getting the old landmark hoisted on end, 
for it was thought that if fixed with strong tackle he might 
stand, though dead, for years. The idea, however, was not 
carried out, and this unique relic of our old forest lies in 
the field slowly decaying. 



,4 SURVEY OF THE PARISH. 

Traditionally, and perhaps probably, Yewdale is named 
after the yew, or after him and dead companions. In his 
full vigour, when his great branches spread far and wide 
over the turf, and before his great gnarled trunk was much 
decayed, the Great Yew of Yewdale must have been a 
magnificent specimen. Yet we must not think of him as 
standing here when the Romans cleared their Langdale 
Road, or even in the days of the Norse occupation. 
His age is computed by one of our best authorities at 
about seven hundred years, so that he may have just been 
a stripling when the thirty sworn men marched up Yew- 
dale delimiting the frontier of Furncss Fells in the twelfth 
century.* Yet he is venerable enough to have seen a good 
deal. Perhaps under his shadow the hunted Quakers met ; 
and many rustic lovers must have sat and sighed beneath 
his branches. Poor old yew of Yewdale, you are gone '. 
What tales could you tell us could you speak ! Tales of 
storm and strife, of love and death, of feudal slavery and 
peaceful shepherd life. Strange to say, the small farm 
adjoining called Penny House, from a family of Pcnnys which 
once resided there, took fire not long after the fall of the 
yew, and was burned to a shell. Close by stands Yew Tree 
Farm, where, in the barn adjoining, may be seen one of the 
few examples of that open timber and plaster work which 
is practically unknown in this part of Lancashire. Only a 
small portion of the wall is so constructed, and is of interest 
only as a curiosity. The farm itself is a good example of 
the sort, but evidently built at two periods, the back part 
being the older, of the usual plain type, with round chimney 
and rustic porch. This was probably built in the seventeenth 
century, for it contains a large oaken fixed cupboard of the 



* Dr. J. Lowe, the author of " Yew Trees in Great Britain " (1897), to whom the 
present writer forwarded a good photograph of the fallen tree, sent in reply an interest- 
ing letter in which he estimates the probable age at about seven hundred years. He 
points out that when the tree lost its top a rapid increase of the trunk would follow 
through coalescence of adventitious stems, and that this welding is shown in the corru- 
gated and fluted appearance of our yew. Decay sets in in the central roots of the yew 
tree generally after two hundred years, so that the hollowness of a large tree like this 
is not evidence of very vast antiquity if the tree, like this one, is living ; and yew 
trees continue their growth alongside this decay. 



SURVEY OF THE PARISH. 15 

usual sort, but higher and longer than most which now remain. 
It is initialled and dated G. W. 1685. C. H. The latter 
initials, with some of the carving, is probably a later addition, 
and we believe G. W. stands for George Walker, of Yew Tree, 
whose will was proved in 1695. The front part of the farm 
is an addition of the eighteenth century, and an old lock 

on the door appears to read, as well as we can make out 

W 

through coats of paint, G A 

'743- 
The charms of Yewdale, from here to the head of the 




YEW TREK FARM. 

lake, are not easy to describe ; nor can we dwell at length 
upon them here. The beautiful stream which divides the 
valley, and so gives half Ycwdale to Church Coniston and 
half to Monk Coniston, is made the scene of a romantic tale 
by Dr. Gibson, which, though professedly of local origin, is 
evidently in great part the writer's own.* High above it, on 

* See A. C Gibson's " The Old Man," 1849, p. 126-7. The tale of Lady Eva 
and the Giant Willie of the Tarns. It is now almost impossible to say whether the 
story is altogether invention, or whether Ginson found some slight tradition. "Great 
Willie" was probably suggested by the Willie waterfall on ihe lieck running from 
Tarn Hows. The present author failed to identify the giant's grave as pointed out 
by A. C. Gibson, 



1 6 SURVEY OF THE PARISH. 

the west tower are the massive crags of Yewdale Fells, broken 
and black, scored with milky gills, and tufted here and there 
with stunted trees. From overhead, in mid air, comes the 
raven's croak, as with extended sable wings he soars in 
widening circles. To him belongs to-day the sovereignty of 
these dark crags, for his noble kinsman, the eagle, who nested 
here, has gone, driven to wilder climes by the march of civili- 
sation. 

\Ve must turn aside and climb by Tarn Gill, where, in the 
road, can be noticed masses of iron slag, the scoria; of an 
ancient smclting-hcarth, till we reach Tarn Hows, beloved, 
and rightly so, by skaters in winter and picnic parties in 
summer. Here comes every day in the season at least one 
char-a-banc load of sightseers from Amblcside or Windermere, 
for Tarn I lows is a show-place perhaps the most visited 
corner in all our chapelry, if we except a point or two on 
Windermere. 

" The Tarns," for they are thus always spoken of in the 
plural, formerly consisted of three small sheets of water : but 
some years ago the proprietor, Mr. Marshall, raised the level, 
and converted them into one, adding thus most materially to 
the great charms with which nature had lavishly endowed the 
place. 

Though we have travelled somewhat widely in Europe, Asia, 
and Africa, we can recall no place with so many varied 
beauties of colour and contour as this delightful spot, within 
ten minutes' walk of our own home. We know every inch of 
the ground, every changing view, every storm-cloud, and burst 
of sunlight. Yet we have never tired of it, and never shall. 
If we climb the hill side above the southern end on an 
autumn morning, what do we sec ? There is a winding sheet 
of water of no great length, whose shore line is marked 
with tiny promontories and bays. On each side the shores 
rise fairly steeply, here covered with autumn heather and 
golden bracken, there hidden in dark plantations of spruce 
and larch. A simple, charming scene, we hear the reader 
say, but what more? Well, there is plenty more, but how 



SURVEY OF THE PARISH. 17 

to tell it ? Somehow or another, this autumn morning, when 
all tourists are back at their homes, we can imagine here 
in a way we cannot anywhere else. Here we might be 
anywhere. In fact, if we were to knock down the one or 
two walls we see, we might be the only human denizens of 
God's earth a very pleasing idea to one of our romantic 
and misanthropic turn of mind, though possibly a condition 
which we should not like if it were really the case. 

This is one of the charms of Tarn Plows its seeming 
distance from civilization. It is not a simple basin of water 
set in a desert of crag, like some of our lakeland tarns, very 
grand and wild, but somehow a form of scenery which seems 
to give some folks (not ourselves, dear reader) a cold chill 
up the spine, so that with buttoned coats the}' rush back to 
their inn to order tea. It is the marvellous variety of this 
scene which is so delightful, for beyond this foreground of 
lakelet and heather rises that panorama we have already 
seen from Arnside. But here with our foreground the 
colouring is a marvel. The lake is blue, the banks brown, 
red, and black, the bracken gold. Behind, through a gray 
mist rising from Yewdale, lies the purple mass of Wetherlam, 
damascened in silver, the jagged lines of unmeltcd snow left 
by the first October snowstorm, white locks, as it were, on 
her hoary brow. * 

We now come down to the head of Collision or Thurston 
Waler, which is parlly enclosed wilhin Ihe boundaries of this 
township. Here aboul the watcrhead we arc, as at Brathay, 
again in ihc nineteenth century, for villas and gentlemen's 
houses cluster thickly. First we have embosomed in beautiful 
woods Waterhead House, or Monk Collision 1 1 all as il is 
somelimes called, boughl in the last century by the family 
of Knotl, and afterwards purchased by James Garth Marshall, 
Esq., M.P. for Leeds, from whom it has descended to its 
present owner. The house is a sort of modern Gothic in 
style, but it is said that some of the old rooms behind 

* The reader will find this place called in numerous guide-books Tarn haws or 
Tarnhiuse, inite.id of Tarn Hows or The Tarns. The latler are correct, but we must 
leave the discussion on this subject to a later chapter. 



,8 SURVEY OF THE PARISH. 

formed part of a house occupied in the days of the Abbey 
by a monk in residence. A local tradition however, narrated 
by Mr. A. Craig Gibson, makes Bank Ground on the east 
margin of the lake the home of a certain monk, " Father 
Brian," but we have no further confirmation of this. 

At the foot of the park, behind where the letter-box now 
stands, and right at the Watcrhcad, stood the old inn, now 
destroyed, having been replaced in 1849 by the roomy 
modern establishment nearer the mouth of Ycwdale beck. 
This older inn was not, we believe, very ancient, as it was 
called New Inn to distinguish it from a house in the village. 
We do not know that any representations of it exist, for 
certain old engravings of buildings at Watcrhcad manifestly 
represent the old farm of Boon Crag nearer to the present 
Monk Coniston House. The inn probably only dated from 
the end of last century, when the earliest tourists began to 
haunt the district. 

The oilier houses about the lake head need not detain 
us long here. The Thwaitc, an unpretending but not 
unpicturcsquc residence, occupies a commanding position 
behind the Walcrhcad Hotel, and was built about 1821. 
Tent Lodge, built by the father of the young linguist, 
Elizabeth Smith, has but little to commend itself in archi- 
tecture, for it is built in a sort of Italian style. Tent 
Cottage, on the road beside it, was originally called Townson 
Ground, and was Elizabeth Smith's home. Close by is Lane 
Head, built in 1848, at which time a curious little one- 
storied public-house was destroyed. This was commonly 
called "T'hopenny yall 'us "the half-penny ale-house from 
its exceptionally cheap tariff for refreshments. A little 
further south is Coniston Bank, and then comes Brantwood, 
built about one hundred years ago, and tenanted by not 
a few talented occupiers, before it was purchased in 1871 
by its present distinguished owner, Professor John Ruskin.* 



The Author is indebted to the pleasant anil instructive " Guide to Coniston "by 
his friend, Mr. W. G. Collingwood, for not a little information concerning the history 
of this coiner of the parish ; and to this little work lie would refer his reader for many 
details. 



SURVEY OF THE PARISH. 19 

Leave we the valley and its houses, and pass to the 
fellside above. The Old Man faces us, the grim sentry 
of the Lakeland hills to the south. Below nestles Church 
Coniston and its village, and among the trees stand out the 
great round chimneys of Coniston Hall, the old home of 
the knights and squires Fleming and le-Fleming, from whom 
their manor was sometimes called Coniston Fleming. Here 
we are at the end of the township, for the boundary 
dividing it from Hawkshead and Sattcrthwaitc sweeps along 
the crest of this brown moor on which we stand. Lawson 
Park is our southernmost house, a solitude of solitudes, once 
a grange of the rich Abbey of Furncss, now an isolated 
fellside sheep farm. :;: 

HAWKSHEAD AND FIELDHEAD. 

This quarter, or township, is the central one of the parish 
as it existed subsequent to the separation of Colton. It was, 
properly speaking, all one quarter, although it embraced two 
sub-divisions. One was Hawkshead Field, which took its name 
from the old common field of the early inhabitants, which 
extended from the town to Esthwaite Lodge, I on the western 
bank of Esthwaite ; the other was called Fieldhead, and 
occupied the northern half of the quarter, from the Hawkshead 
Hall estate up to the boundary of Skelwith. 

The northern and western sides of the whole township have 
been described in the boundaries of Skelwith and Monk 
Coniston. The southern line leaves the top of Monk Coniston 
Moor, and, crossing the head of the Grisedalc valley, takes a 
south-easterly course over the fell, passing a little north of 
Grisedalc tarn, and, traversing the northern part of Dalepark, 
falls into Cunsey beck, near Eel House, from which point to 
Windermere the beck divides Claife from Sattcrthwaite. 



* Lawson Park is included in Monk Coniston and Skelwith on the Ordnance 
Survey, but it may be doubted if this is correct, because the farm was given as an endow- 
ment to the chapelry of Satterthwaite about 1677 (see Appendix under Charities). It 
remained a glebe until 1897, when it was purchased by Mr. A. Severn, of Brantwood. 
The old spelling and modern vernacular pronunciation is Lowson Park. 

t In former times called New House in Hawkshead Field. 



20 SURVEY OF THE PARISH. 

The eastern boundary, which divides Hawkshead quarter from 
Claifc, leaves Cunscy beck at Eel House, and ascends by Out 
Dubs to Ksthwaite Water. From the head of the lake it follows 
for a short distance the Hall beck, and then diverging passes 
cast of Hawkshead Hall and Bclmount, and, leaving Outgate 
on the left, joins the beck which runs into Blclham Tarn. From 
the north-cast end of IMclham it skirts by Wray Castle, which 
is in Claifc, and joins the Skclwith boundary a short distance 
from Windermcre. All the parish east of this line formed the 
Claife quarter. The Hawkshead and Ficldhcad quarter is of 
paramount interest, as containing the ancient town and church 
which gave the whole chapelry its name. Yet, although its 
scenery is beautiful in a simple sylvan way, it can claim nothing 
like the grandeur of the quarter we have already described ; nor 
can it boast the splendid combinations of hill and lake scenery 
which may be found in all the other quarters, and in Colton 
as well. Yet its charms are great, and are peculiar to itself. 
It has its savour of antiquity and history its ancient town, with 
its nooks and corners, its grey old church, and ivy-covered 
manor-house. 

Geographically, the leading feature here, and, no doubt, that 
which led to the early colonization of the place, is a sort of gap 
in the fells for it can hardly be accurately termed a plain 
which must at an early date have attracted settlers by the 
facilities which it offered for cultivation, superior as it was to 
the rougher fells lying north, south, and cast. This question 
of the early settlement of our chapelry will be hereafter fully 
discussed, but it may well be pointed out here how an 
industrious race of new-comers would naturally select the 
head of Ksthwaite for a clearing. The slopes round Hawks- 
head would be, we think, once cleared, both dry and good 
for primitive cultivation, while the fells which rose around 
were well adapted for pasturage, and would afford excellent 
sport. Nowhere else within the limits of the chapelry were 
equal advantages to be found, for Rusland and Haverthwaite, 
although they possessed some of these features, were probably 
choked with bog and morass till a later date. 



SURVEY OF THE PARISH. 21 

The northern half of the quarter is in aspect somewhat 
featureless. The ground descends in easy stages from Borwick 
Ground Fell and the hills about the tarns, and from Hawkshead 
Hall parks and the lower elevations behind Outgate, to Hawks- 
head Hall, half-way between which and Esthwaite Lake the 
Hall beck joins another flowing from near Outgate, and these 
together form the principal feeder of the lake. 

This division of the quarter contains beside the ancient 
manor-house four scattered hamlets, several private residences, 
and various fell-side farms. The principal hamlet is Outgate, 
a snug little place of some eight or nine houses, situated on 
the direct road from Amblcsidc to Hawkshead. Some say 
that it is so named because, in proceeding from Hawkshead 
to Ambleside, the cultivated land was here left, and the 
commons of Claifc reached ; but this appears doubtful, as the 
high road does not enter Claifc at all, but proceeds more or 
less parallel with it. More probably Outgate marks the place 
where enclosed fields joined the common in early times. 

The other hamlets are Fieldhcad, Borwick Ground, and 
Hawkshead Hill, the last of which is on the road from 
Coniston, and boasts an ancient Baptist Chapel built in 
1678, and probably formed out of an ancient cottage. In 
1876 this was restored, or rather rcfrontcd, in a style which, 
although without pretensions, does not accord particularly 
well with the old architecture of the district. 

The principal modern residences are Bclmount, built in 
1774 by Mr. Reginald Braithwaite, a Vicar of Ilawkshcad. 
It occupies the site, we believe, of an old tenement called 
Rawes Ground, and has a very pleasing situation between 
Outgate and Hawkshead Hall, overlooking the Ksthwaite 
valley. The house is a square block similar to Brathay, 
a style that had really survived from the Jacobean period. 
Though by no means beautiful, it is no eyesore in the 
landscape, for its tints are mellowed by time, and fine old 
trees have sprung up around it. Behind the house we find 
a leaden water-cistern stamped with the initials of the 
first proprietor, and the date of erection R _ B ' 1 , 1774. and 



22 SURVEY OF THE PARISH. 

also the crest of the Braithwaites of Ambleside, a grey- 
hound couchant collared and stringed. Belmount was at a 
later date acquired by Dr. Whittaker, Vicar of Blackburn, 
who had here a considerable library, which was dispersed 
in 1887. It still belongs to his representatives. 

Ficldhcad House and Berwick Lodge are pretty but 
unpretentious residences. The old name of the last is 
Borwick Ground, from a 'statesman family who had lived 
there for many generations. On the summit of the hill above 
stands our own home, called in the seventeenth century High 
House. At a later date it was known as the Castle, but 
when the old building was pulled down in 1859 by J. Swainson 
Cowpcr-Esscx, the author's grandfather, he named the new 
house Ycwficld, whence has risen the present awkward name 
of Ycwficld Castle. The house was considerably added to, in 
1883, by its present owner. High House, the original farm, 
was owned till about 1697 by the Sawrcys of Sawrcy Ground, 
a family of 'statesmen, from whom it descended by a female 
heir to the Swainsons, in whose hands it remained until about 
1805, when it passed in the same manner to our own family. 
On the road from Hawkshead Hill to Ilawkshcacl Hall 
stands the modern house called Highficld, built also by 
J. S. Cowpcr-Essex, and now occupied by Mr. Win. Hopes 
1 1 eel is. 

Hawkshead Hall, however, is by far the most interesting 
feature in this part of the township, for it is the ancient 
Manorial House of the Abbey, and its old Court House, 
with work of the thirteenth and fifteenth centuries, often forms 
a subject for the artist's sketch-book or the camera. In this 
chapter we shall not go into the question of its history 
or its architecture, for these both find their place elsewhere, 
but we will content ourselves with calling the reader's 
attention to the old Gatehouse, the traceried window of 
which lights the ancient Courtroom of the Manor. This 
room was used for services when the parish church was being 
restored. The small rough cast building is part of the old 
residence, but the large parlour or hall, which formerly 



SURVEY OF THE PARISH. 23 

joined it to the Gatehouse, was pulled down by the author's 
grandfather, who built the new farm behind. * The old 
rookery standing by the ancient corn mill of the Manor 
suffered terribly in the great storm of 1894. On a tract 
of moorland belonging to this estate, which is still called 
Hawkshead Hall Parks, an ancient burial cairn exists, which 
was ' excavated by the present writer some years since, 
with not uninteresting results. Near this runs in a deep ravine a 
beck, and this was formerly dammed to feed a bobbin mill at 
Thursgill, below Hawkshead Hill. Years ago, however, the 
dam burst, flooding the gill below, and causing considerable 
destruction, and as the dam was never repaired the bobbin in- 
dustry here came to an end. The mill still stands, however, 
a most picturesque building, placed at the head of a singularly 
deep and romantic ravine, bearing the curious name of 
Thursgill. This extraordinary spot is little known, for the 
drop is so abrupt, that from a short distance there is but 
little indication that a ravine exists at all. Thursgill occurs, in 
the parish register, as the scene of a drowning case, but 
the entry does not tell us the cause of the occurrence. 

The interest of the lower half of the quarter the 
districts of Hawkshead and Hawkshead Field Head is 
confined chiefly to the low ground about the town, and 
the peaceful scenery bordering on the Esthwaite lake ; for 
the remaining part consists cither of breezy but 
featureless moor, or tangled coppice woods. Hawkshead, as 
we have said, is not a tourist centre, and is little known 
to visitors to the district, except on account of its 
connection with the poet Wordsworth. Yet, as we shall 
see, it played its part in the history of Lancashire North 



* Guide-books are notoriously inaccurate, and we are not surprised at ihe queer 
statements many contain about Hawksliead Hall. Thus, it has often been called a 
chapel, which of course it is not. And but a few days ago we found it stated in a 
new edition of Hlack's Guide that Archbishop Sandys was born here. lie was, 
however, born at Esthwaite Hall. The author of "Literary Associations of the 
English Lakes " makes the same mistake, and in another passage he accurately 
describes the position of Hawkshead Hall, but calls it Esthwaite Hall. A worse error, 
orginated in the last century, is that of writing Coniston instead of Conishead Priory. 
This has been perpetuated by almost every writer since, including some of the most 
distinguished Cumberland antiquaries. It is needless to say here, that there never was 
a Priory at Coniston. 



24 SURVEY OF THE PARISH. 

of the Sands, and at the present day has manifold points 
of interest for the antiquary, the historian, or the artist. 

The Hawkshcad and Grisedale moors, shelving off north- 
east towards the valley, end in two remarkable green 
round hills. Geologically these are moraine matter ; and arc 
named respectively Kcenground High, and Charity High, 
the latter name originating with the property having been 
purchased by the Trustees of the Grammar School with 
moneys left as a charitable bequest. Near the base of 
these hills, and sheltered by them from the south-westerly 
gales, lies our little market town, a compact cluster of rough 
cast houses, its old-world aspect broken only by a huge 
and unsightly modern police station, a modern post office, 
and a village institute, each of which edifices have, it is to 
be regretted, been built of late years, in a style the glaring 
incongruity of which, in this quaint old town, is painfully 
evident. 

If we except these buildings we find ourselves, on enter- 
ing Hawkshead, in a town the appearance of which has 
probably changed as little or less than any other in North 
Lancashire during the last two centuries. It is true that 
among the houses a few date from a later period, as docs 
also the Town Hall, which was built at the end of last 
century, and has been subsequently enlarged. But, most 
wisely, these buildings have been rough-cast with lime in the 
old style, so that their appearance is well in accord with 
the older buildings, from which they are not indeed easy 
to distinguish. Yet, although there arc but few poor in 
Hawkshead, the town has practically remained perfectly 
stationary in si/.e, a state of things due entirely to the 
extinction of the wool market, owing to the introduction of 
machinery. 

Hawkshead may be said to be composed of two streets, 
three squares, and numerous yards, alleys, or courts, term 
them which you will, which lead out of the squares and 
main thoroughfares. It has its fair share of inns, for they 
number five, and all of these are well managed and 



SURVEY OF THE PARISH. 27 

comfortable, if old-fashioned establishments. Some of these 
inns, as the Red Lion and the Brown Cow, have their yards 
behind quaint old-world places, full of nooks and corners, 
and overlooked by low, long windows, which, though they 
light but ill the little parlours they open from, have, we 
doubt not, afforded the occupants the sight of many a busy 
group during the market and fair days in the times gone 
by. Sleepy though they be, these yards are yet full of 
life, the old cobble paving still remains, and children in 
clogs still clatter through them ; and clog clatter, though 
perhaps unmusical to the Southern, is pleasant enough to 
the Northern ear, and at Hawkshcad it savours, like all 
else, of the past. 

Some of the old squares and streets and even the 
corners have names, some no doubt old, others given by 
the inhabitants in a sort of spirit of chaff. Entering the 
town from the north, we pass first on the left the hideous 
police station, and then reach the principal inn, the Red 
Lion, a very old building, although it has been refronted 
in comparatively recent times. Nearly opposite a narrow lane 
leads to the right, still cobble paved, and having a few shops.. 
This is Anne Street, but why so named we do not know.* 
After this is one of the principal open spaces, not properly 
a square, and in this case nameless. From this we pass 
beneath an arch, or, speaking more accurately, through a 
passage over which has been built a room, into the Market 
Square, which is of considerable size, with the Town Hall 
upon its southern side. At the northern corner, at the end 
of the King's Arms Inn, is another small square, sometimes 
called Berkeley Square, from which we can pass by a narrow 
picturesque corner and under another building to the top of 
Anne Street, and so into Vicarage Lane, where is situated 
the picturesque cottage called Grandy Nook, once Wordsworth's 
lodgings, and now a place of pilgrimage to most visitors to 
Hawkshead. 

* Probably a modern name, from Wordsworth's lodging-house dame, Ann Tyson, 
and coined by the townsfolk for the benefit of tourists. 



2 8 SURVEY OF THE PARISH. 

Returning to Berkeley Square we may visit Flag Street, 
which till May, 1894, was perhaps the most picturesque corner 
in the town. Flag Street is an alley running down parallel 
with Vicarage Lane, and built most strangely on the line 
of a beck. Until the date above mentioned this beck was 
only covered with large flags, in some places entirely span- 
ning it, but elsewhere carried only along one side, so that 
walking up the street the running water could be seen 
through the gaps in the flags. Where the street opened into 
the square the beck was left open, a sort of pool where the 
townspeople from time immemorial drew water for various 
household purposes. 

Of course such an arrangement was not specially sanitary, 
but it was highly picturesque, and it was, indeed, one of the 
most attractive places in the town, so that in the summer 
photographers and artists were often busy at Flag Street. 
It had its purposes, too, for in heavy rains, when a great 
spate would come from the moor, the hole at the foot of 
the street was a safety-valve by which the flood-water 
could escape without fear of Flag Street being flooded. Yet, 
in spite of the charm and even utility of the place, the 
local Highway Hoard in 1892 took measures to have the 
hole closed as dangerous and unsanitary. At the time, 
however, so much local irritation was caused among the 
townspeople that the improvement was dropped. Two years 
later, however, the owners of the houses on either side 
closed in the hole and even covered in a great portion of 
the beck, so that Flag Street exists no longer.* It is 
needless to say that on more than one occasion our pro- 
phecy of the flooding of Flag Street has been verified,! and 
that one of the most charming corners of Hawkshead has 
lost its attractions. 

Flag Street is also supposed to be alluded to by Wordsworth in the " Prelude," 
but it is hardly a matter of certainty. At the lime of the closing the writer was 
absent, or he would certainly have again protested against the proceeding. The water 
was, of course, polluted, but was never used for other than washing purposes, and no 
record exists of any accident in the hole, which was reported dangerous. 

t On June 23, 1898 when the houses on each side were flooded about eighteen 
inches deep, the road made on the lid-flags washed clean away, and the square at 
the bottom washed to bits ; and again in the November flood of 1898. 



SURVEY OF THE PARISH. 29 

The next turning up from the Market Square leads to a 
pretty corner where water comes gushing out of a wall into 
a tank. This is the " town spout," the water-supply for 
the whole town in old days. It is unused now, but the 
place is a pretty subject for the pencil. On the south side 
of the Market Square is the Town Hall, built in 1790, on 
the site of an older Market House, and considerably enlarged 
in 1887, in commemoration of the first Jubilee.* 

The characteristic features of the little town may be 
said to be the overhanging stories, which remain in many 
of the older houses, the passages under buildings, the 
numerous sharp turns and corners, and the rough-cast 
walls. Yet antique in appearance as it still is, the town 
has altered much in modern times. Formerly the vicarage 
beck, which passes under Flag Street, traversed the Market 
Square uncovered, but spanned here and there by foot- 
bridges. All the town was cobble paved, and a fine 
clatter there must have been on market day, when all 
wore clogs, or when the strings of pack-horses arrived. 
In those days several of the houses in the Market Square 
and elsewhere had pentices built along their fronts ; partly, 
it would appear, for hanging " garn " (yarn) in, in the old 
wool days, and partly as shelters for folk on market days. 



* It is worth while noticing that Wordsworth, at the beginning of Book II. of 
the " I'reliule," describes the site of the Town Hall as partly occupied in his 
schooldays by a big rock, and utilized as a school playground. On revisiting the site 

" Gone was the old grey stone, and in its place 
A smart Assembly-room usurped the ground 
That had been ours. " 

He had apparently forgotten that in his schooldays an older Market House occupied 
at least some part of the site. The contract for building the Hall was dated I4th 
December, 1789, and was signed by thirteen trustees, who had been appointed on the 
4th December previous, to represent the four quarters. In it the building is described 
as '' Market House and Shambles." The present tiustees also possess a presentment, 
dated December 1st the same year, addressed to the jury of the Court Baron, showing 
that the market shambles and butcher house (47 feet by 1 8 feet) had been long ruinous 
and decayed, and should be pulled down, enlarged, and rebuilt. The cost of the new 
building was defrayed by subscription, the principal being two donations of 20, 
given respectively by the Lords of the Manor and Mr. Wm. Matthews, of London. 
The following were the first trustees: The Rev. Reginald Braithwaite ; Thos. 
Middlefell, Hawkshead Fieldhead ; John Borwick, Borwick Ground ; Thomas Rigge, 
High Keenground ; George Law, Brathay Hall; David Kirkby, The Thwaite ; John 
Jackson, Bank Ground ; Anthony Wilson, High Wray ; William Taylor, Manchester ; 
Matthew Hodgson, Hawkshead ; Myles Sandys, Graythwaite ; William Rawlinson, 
Graythwaite Low Hall ; John Russell, Force Forge. 



3 o SURVEY OF THE PARISH. 

A few of the houses had the lower story deeply recessed 
and the upper one supported on a rude column. One of 
these still stands on the Church Hill, while another a very 
picturesque old place was knocked down to make way 
for the Institute. These recessed fronts were originally 
the town shops, in days prior to glass windows, for the 
display of goods, and here, sheltered from storm, was 
exposed the produce of the farm spinning-wheels to the 
wool badgers on market day. The house next door to 
the Institute, now occupied by Mrs. Taylor, is only about 
forty years old, having been burned down ; but there 
exists an old painting at the Brown Cow Inn, which 
shews that its predecessor had one of the pcntices we 
have mentioned, though unsupported in any way by posts. 

Behind the Market Hall there rises an isolated and 
rounded hillock, on the summit of which stands the old 
gray-towered church, dominating in a most striking way 
the little town below. It is by no means improbable 
that this knoll, naturally defensible as it is, was chosen for 
the original stockaded settlement the "saetr" or " sidha " 
of Haukr, who gave his name to town and parish. The 
site is a strong one ; there is some evidence of scarping 
and ditching, and the theory is in accordance with the 
rule, that in early settlements the first stockaded enlosurc 
was afterwards occupied by the temple or church in early 
mediaeval times a common hall or fortress for the com- 
munity.* 

The church has often been described, and we shall do 
no more here than point out the most interesting features. 
It is a very plain building, but it is perhaps the finest 
example of what may be termed the Lake District style. 
It consists of a square and somewhat massive tower, a 
wide nave and aisles, but has neither transepts nor a 
structural chancel ; and, with the exception of the doors 
and windows, the entire building is rubble masonry of 
local Silurian stone. 

* G. L. Gomme, " The Village Community," London, 1890 (p. 44). 






SURVEY OF THE PARISH. 33 

The tower appears to be the oldest part, but there is 
nothing by which we can give it a date. The nave is 
divided from the aisles by immense columns without either 
capitals or bases, supporting round arches of wide span ; 
but, curiously, while the columns on the north are round 
or cylindrical, those on the south arc roughly square in 
section. These great columns and arches at first sight 
look like rude work of Norman character, and as such 
the writer long considered them, until an opportunity 
occurred for examining the masonry under the plaster. It 
then appeared that they are constructed of thin quarried 
local stones, and the half column at the west end of the 
south arcade is not even bonded into the west wall of 
the church, which probably is also the case with the 
fellow half column on the north side. Though no one 
who has seen the masonry of these arcades exposed would 
claim a high antiquity for the body of the church, the 
question of the date remains difficult to decide. The 
south aisle contained certain windows with simple trefoil 
heads, and the east window prior to the restoration, in 1875-6, 
was a plain square-headed five-light window with similar 
trefoils. All these looked like fifteenth century work, so 
that probably the arcading was also of the same date, 
though from the masonry it might be later. Perhaps we 
may assume that the church in its present ground plan 
was rebuilt on an older site in the fifteenth century : 
although we cannot be quite sure about the north aisle, 
which was certainly built or rebuilt in the time of 
Elizabeth by Archbishop Sandys ; and the cast end of it 
was reserved as a private chapel for the use of his 
family, the " little quire " as it is called in the Parish 
Register. This chapel contains two curious effigies of the 
prelate's parents, while his own initials, arms, and date 
are still to be seen over the private entrance. * 

The fifteenth century church was low and dark, being 



See Chapter III. 



34 SURVEY OF THE PARISH. 

roofed under one span, and at some date a clerestory was 
added to give more light. The windows of this clerestory 
on the north are oak, and might be Elizabethan ; those on 
the south arc stone, and there is a date 1633, which may, 
however, perhaps refer only to the substitution on this 
side of stone for wooden mullions ; but, at any rate, the 
clerestory is later than the body of the church. 

The question arises, Is there any part of the original 
church (earlier than the fifteenth century) remaining? Unless 
it be the tower, we believe not. But the opinion of 
architectural authorities is that in these ancient north country 
churches the nave represents the six.c of the original church, 
generally pulled down at a later date and rebuilt with 
aisles. The length of Hawkshcad Church is 81 feet 8 
inches, and the nave width within the columns 23 
feet. If these measurements represent the mediaeval church, 
it was among the widest of the original churches in 
Carlisle Diocese. Other large churches are Brough, Grcystoke, 
Warwick, Crosthwaite, and Ulverston. But it remains rather 
difficult to see why so large a church should be required 
in so out of the way a district as Hawkshcad/' 

The church was restored and rc-opencd in 1875-6, and 
the result is fairly satisfactory, though we cannot but regret 
the substitution of a pointed window at the east end for 
the original square-headed five-light one, which was 
characteristic of the place and period. Before leaving the 
church we should observe the stained glass inserted in this 
window by Colonel T. M. Sandys, M.P., and also a smaller 
modern stained- glass window in the south aisle. The 
curious ornamentation and texts on the walls and pillars 
is in great part old, having been discovered at the restora- 
tion and touched up. The church bells are also worth 
inspection, and also the ancient oak muniment chest in the 

* Accounts of HawksheaH Church will be found in : 
Baines" " History of Lancashire," iv. , p. 704. 
Whitaker's " Richmomlshire," ii., p. 400. 
" Transactions of Cumberlan 1 and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological 

Society," iv., p. 28. "Hawkshead Church," by J. Cory. This gentleman 

was the architect at the restoration. 



SURVEY OF THE PARISH. 35 

tower. There are besides, in the Vicar's custody, some very 
curious churchwardens' staves, and market measures, which, 
with the parish books, will receive our attention elsewhere. 

We cannot but regret that at the restoration of the 
church the rough-cast which covered the walls externally 
was removed. No doubt there is something to be said 
for such a course, as we can study the masonry, which in 
churches often affords valuable evidence of date. But, from 
a picturesque point of view, the rough-cast was in admir- 
able keeping with the town, which the plain masonry is 
not. Whatever was the fashion with builders when the 
church was first built we arc not in a position to say, 
but at the time the greater part of the external walls were 
erected there is small doubt that rough-cast was in general 
use, for masonry as an art was then on the decline, and 
builders found that the only way to keep their walls dry 
in the humid north was by a thick coat of rough-cast. 
No doubt, in some ways, this was scamping work, but it 
served its purpose ; in fact, walls built of local Silurian 
stone arc not easy to waterproof otherwise, and we venture 
to believe that even at an earlier date the fashion prevailed. 
Rough-cast was indeed the necessary outcome of the 
material used and the climate ; and, as is ever the case, 
appears both suitable and characteristic of the country. 
Indeed, before the restoration of the church and the erection 
of the Institute and police station, the entire town was 
alike in this respect, while now these buildings give it a 
sort of magpie colouring which undoubtedly takes away 
from its appearance. 

At the foot of the Church hill, on the south-cast, nestles 
the old Grammar School, the foundation of the good Arch- 
bishop Sandys, who did so much for his native parish. The 
building retains its original form, except that the plain 
windows and door have been replaced recently by sandstone 
mullions and dressings. Over the door is a great sundial, 
and below we can read on a tablet an inscription to the 
Archbishop's memory, placed there in 1675 by Daniel 



3 6 SURVEY OF THE PARISH. 

Rawlinson, a citizen of London and native of Griscdale, 
who was himself a benefactor to the school, and whose 
great marble monument, with that of his son, Sir Thomas 
Rawlinson, now decorate the western internal wall of the 
church." 

Hut the school deserves a chapter to itself, and we must 
continue our general survey of the township. Between 
Hawkshcad and Hawkshead Hall the road passes over a 
rounded hill, on which is the hamlet of Gallowbarrow. 
Here no doubt stood in the days of monastic rule the 
Callows, erected when the feudal lords had power of life 
and death ; t and on one of the houses there was formerly 
the following inscription recording the fact that the building had 
been purchased in pursuance of the will of another member 
of the Sandys family : 

" The Rev. Thomas Sandys, Curate of St. Martin's-in-the- 
Fields, and Lecturer of St. James', London, A.I). 1717, left 
by will the interest of ^800 to endow the poorhouse and 
to maintain and educate as many poor boys as the interest 
will admit of, and the}- arc to be taught at the free school. 

I749-" 

The house was purchased in 1730, and consequently 
nineteen years before the erection of this inscription, which 
has now long disappeared. \ 

In the fields above Gallowbarrow in a pretty situation 
lies Keenground, originally built, as its name betokens, by 
a family called Keen, but now the residence of Mr. J. C. 
Cowpcr. For man}- generations, however, it was inhabited 
by a branch of the numerous clan of Rigges, ancestors of the 
present family of Wood Broughton. In modern times it 

* These monuments were formerly in the destroyed St. Dionis Backchurch, 
Fcnchurch Street. See the Author's " Monumental Inscriptions of Hawkshead, Kenclal, 
1892," pages 28, 29, and 65. 

Mr. T. Alcock Beck, in an unpublished MS., alludes to the Church Hill as 
" Gallaber," but we do not know his authority. The post-Reformation gibbet was, 
as we shall see, near the head of Ksthwaite. Galloway Lane, near Roger Ground, 
possibly owes its name to the strings of packhorses or "galloways" which came 
along it. 

t See Appendix (Charities). 



SURVEY OF THE PARISH. 37 

was acquired by the Reverend John Lodge, Librarian of 
Cambridge University, who was succeeded there by his 
nephew, Edmund Lodge, Inspector of Schools in India. 
His representatives on his demise disposed of the property 
to the writer's grandfather, who refrontcd it, much altering 
its appearance. Low Keenground is a typical north country 
farm house with round chimneys. 

Below Hawkshead and on the edge of Ksthwaitc lies 
some of the best land in the parish, and the parallelism 
of the fences and the farm name Hawkshcacl Field plainly shew 
that here in old days lay the common fields of the little 
village community. Next comes Esthwaitc Lodge, a pretty 
house, somewhat stiff and formal in architecture certainly, 
but very charmingly placed amidst well-grown timber. 
This house was the home of Thomas Alcock Heck, whose 
fine work on Furncss Abbey is yet the most important 
contribution to the literature of that subject. It is at present 
the property of his successor, Win. Alcock Beck, Esq., and 
we venture to think that this gentleman owns perhaps the 
most beautifully situated house within the limits of the 
ancient parish. 

A little further south we reach, on the margin of the 
lake, an uninteresting-looking farm. This is all that remains 
of Esthwaite Hall, the residence for several generations up to 
the close of the seventeenth century of one branch of the Sandys 
family. Here the good Archbishop \vas traditionally born, 
and we cannot but regret that a place with such associations 
as Esthwaite Hall has been suffered to fall into its present 
condition. 

So far we have said nothing about Esthwaite Water, 
which forms a delightful feature in the townships of Hawks- 
head and Claife, and is indeed the only lake which really 
belongs to the parish. Its scenery is gentle and soft, and 
though its surroundings of green fields and wooded heights 
are pretty enough, Esthwaite would be a little featureless 
were it not for the way in which its shore line is broken 
by promontories, especially those called Ees and Strickland 



3 8 SURVEY OF THE PARISH. 

Ecs. There is, however, one place where a view of quite 
exceptional beauty can be obtained. This is a point in the 
copse-wood on the road, about two hundred yards west of 
the beck which runs out of the lake at the south end. From 
here we look straight up the lake, and the promontories, with 
their trees, give a delightful variety to the scene. The charm, 
however, is in the colouring a summer's day should be 
chosen, for the foliage is the great feature and in the distant 
hills about Ilelvellyn, which close the background. We see 
right through the gap of Dunmail Raise, and beyond we can 
just discern a blue outline the slopes of Skiddaw. It needs 
but a few paces in either direction from the point and the 
picture is lost. 

CLAIKE. 

\\'e have now arrived at the third quarter or township of 
our old parish, that of Claife, the western and north-western 
boundaries of which have already been defined. To the south 
it is limited by ('uusey Heck, while on the cast, for five and a 
half miles, the western margin of Windcrmcrc forms the 
frontier, not only of the township and parish, but also of the 
count}' ol I .aneaster. 

Claife differs in every way from the quarters already treated 
of, for il is nearly entirely occupied by a range of hill, part 
moorland, part wood, and part pasture, which runs nearly north 
and south, and completely isolates the town and valley of 
Ilawkshcad from busy \Yindermerc. These heights Claife 
Heights, as they are termed as a whole are considerably more 
precipitous on the east, and from many of the points over- 
looking Windermerc wide panoramic views of the lake and 
\\ estmorland fells are to be obtained. Among these summits 
many delightful rambles are to be had, and the mixture of 
colouring of heather, gorse, ravine, and larch is, at certain 
seasons of the year, exceedingly beautiful. Claife, as we shall 
sec, is not without its history and traditions, its early pre- 
historic remains, its superstitions, its reminiscences of the 
rebellion of 1745 ; but in this chapter we must limit ourselves 
to description. 



SURVEY OF THE PARISH. 41 

Claife is now divided into Upper and Lower Claife, each 
containing its own church. The first contains the hamlets of 
Wray, Lonethwaite, and Colthouse. Wray, again, is divided 
into High and Low Wray, but the latter has disappeared, 
merged in the estate of Wray Castle. The old houses of 
Low Wray stood where now are the lodge and church. 

With Wray Castle presents itself the delicate task of 
criticising local domestic architecture, but in the interests 
of our beautiful parish we cannot conscientiously pass it by. 

Guide-book writers and others have gone into ecstacies 
over the magnificence of this stately home ; but we, alas, 
are totally unable to confirm its right to admiration. 
Wray Castle is conspicuously and outrageously feudal ; its 
heavy tower and battlements may have, in some misty 
lights, a certain picturesqueness : but, given bright weather, 
when the details are seen, its total incongruity to its 
surroundings is but too evident. 

To us it is difficult to see what excuse there is in the 
nineteenth century to build a house in this style. It can 
but be that same mistaken eccentricity which induced Mr. 
English to erect that strange enormity in archiU cture which 
decorates Long Holme, or, as it is now called in exactly 
the same fantastic spirit, " Belle Isle." Why should an 
English gentleman in the nineteenth century, in peaceful 
Lakeland, wish to live in a feudal fortress ? We understand 
well the charm of fair landscape, and the comfort of a roomy 
home for those who can afford it ; but may we not look 
forward to a period at which architects and owners will 
be content to build for what is wanted, to beautify and 
bring out detail on the lines of requirements, instead of 
imitating, and imitating recklessly and badly, buildings the 
style of which was dictated by needs of long past ages ? 
Surely this is not much to expect. It is a canon of 
architectural art which was deeply taken to heart in the 
olden days, and why not now? 

Wray Castle was commenced in 1840 for Doctor James 
Dawson, of Liverpool, and finished at an enormous cost, and 



42 SURVEY OF THE PARISH. 

the same gentleman erected the church, which is decidedly 
pretty, near the Lodge Gate. The present owner is E. P. 
Rawnslcy, Esquire, of Girsby Manor, Lincoln, who, however, 
docs not reside here. * 

Hlelham Tarn lies near here, a sheet of water less than 
half a mile in length. If we stand to-day by its reedy 
margin it is a lonely enough place, for little life shall we 
sec, unless in spring a heron sails away as we approach. 
Yet once it was different, and the black " stour " of a 
charcoal iron forge seethed up from its northern margin. 
There, at a place where a small beck joins the tarn, 
still lies a great heap of iron slag, evidence of a long 
dead and almost forgotten industry.! 

South-east from here, at the base of Claifc Heights, and 
commanding magnificent views of \Vindcrmcrc, is the hamlet 
of High \Vray, with a pretty old-fashioned house, the 
residence ot Miss \\illson, whose family has lived here 
since IJ2S, when it was built by a member of the family. 
Two modern residences. High \Vray Hank and Ballawray, 
are well situated on the slopes above the lake. 

A winding lane round Latterbarrow will bring us back 
to the neighbourhood of Esthwaite, where near the lake 
head is the double hamlet of Tollhouse, since the latter 
half of the seventeenth century a rendezvous of the Society 
of Friends, whose little rough-cast meeting house lies between 
the two clusters of buildings. In the first cluster are 
Green End and Bccksidc, both comfortable, but unpretending, 
residences, the latter of which was one of the old homes 
of the Satterthwaite family, who have always been associated 
here with the Society of Friends. Bcckside still belongs to 
them, and the present representative is William Satterthwaite, J. P., 
who resides in the modern house close by. 

1 he little meeting house, whose history we tell elsewhere, 
is worth a visit. It is built on a plan adopted by the 



Since writing the above, Wray Castle and its estate of 830 acres has been sold 
June, 1898) to Mr. David Ainsworth at the price of 25,000, the local Press remarking 
that the house alone cost in building 60,000. 
t See Chapter V. 



SURVEY OF THE PARISH. 43 

Quakers for all their meeting houses in the north, a plain 
rough-cast building, its greater length lying north and south, 
and a little porch facing the road to the east. 

There is nothing to suggest religious devotion in such a 
building ; so rigid was the rule which banished from the 
observances of this sect every sign of the pomp of ritual, 
every feeling which, in most communities, leads to a wish 
to decorate and beautify the houses of prayer, that these 
little buildings seem on first sight but humble cottages. 
Plain stone-mullioned windows, with a transom, light it on 
the south and west, while in those on the cast the mullions 
have been replaced by ordinary sashes. A heavy oaken 
door, in the lock of which is the ancient key, opens into 
the building, and within, a gallery (approached from the 
porch) appears to be old and its balusters of oak, although 
now painted. 

At the head of the lake is a solitary dub, "Priest Pot" by 
name, evidence, we think, that this was a private fishery 
pertaining to Hawkshcad Hall a far more probable deriva- 
tion than the somewhat silly explanations advanced by some 
writers.* Here, the older guide-books tell us, was formerly a 
floating island, a phenomenon which the writers of the early 
half of the century describe with great care as a prodigious 
marvel.t It seems, however, to have been but a poor affair, 
a bit of peaty earth, 24 yards by 5 or 6 yards, with a tree 
or two upon it, which had got loose from the side. Floating 
islands were a special craze, somehow, of those talented folks 
who discovered the lake district, but they seem now to have 
got neglected, and taking umbrage at their treatment have 
either formed a new and permanent attachment, or else have 
precipitated themselves despairingly to the bottom of the 
lake. 

Close by here, on the south side of the road, and on the 

' See Richardson's " Furness, Past and Present," p. 101. 

+ Housman, Otley, and others. The island is now grown to the south-east 
margin of the tarn. It probably owed its origin to the leverage of wind against trees 
which had grown on it, the pressure thus detaching a portion of the peaty margin. 
According to Housman, it broke loose about 1796. 



44 SURVEY OF THE PARISH. 

Colthouse side of the stream, formerly stood the gibbet, the 
last record of the use of which is to be found in a ghastly 
entry in the Parish Register in the year 1672. The exact 
situation was at a place still known as Gibbet Moss, as the 
Register puts it, " on the south side of Sawrey Casey (Cause- 
way) nearc unto the Pooll-stang." Though every trace of 
this gibbet has now disappeared, there were till about 1860, 
many persons who remembered the gallows-post still standing, 
anil elderly folks still do so ; while the writer of a common- 
place book, to which we shall hereafter refer, records the 
popular dread of approaching the site even by daylight. 

Lower Claife contains the hamlets of Near and Far Sawrey, 
or Sawrey Infra and Extra as they are often called in old 
documents. In general character they are somewhat alike, 
scattered, rambling villages on broken ground ; but the first 
has the advantage of pretty views of Esthwaite Lake. Each 
possesses one or two prettily-placed private residences, 
Ecswyke * at Near Sawrcy and Brierswood at Far Sawrey 
being the principal ones. The latter, a modern mansion 
in the half-timber style, was formerly called the Briers, an 
estate (like most of the old farms about Sawrcy), till the 
beginning of this century, of the Braithwaites, who, as we 
shall hereafter sec, were a regular clan in this corner of 
the parish. 

And here we must again face the invidious task of 
criticizing local domestic architecture. There are many 
modern houses in the lakes which are truly hideous. This 
is in no sense the case with the modern half-timber houses 
of Pullwoods and Brierswood, for the former is a distinctly 
beautiful building. But the architectural style is foreign, 
and such houses cannot fall into proper accord with the 
landscape. The truth is that both owners and architects, 
when building in a beautiful country, want more than good 
taste and skill : they want a knowledge of climate, history, 
and geology. The picturesque charm of all local indigenous 

* Recently purchased by Col. T. M. Sandys, M. P., and renamed Eeswyke from the 
bay on Esthwaite close by. Its name before purchase was Lake Field. 



SURVEY OF THE PARISH. 45 

architecture is due to its being of natural local development, 
the outcome of the necessities of the inhabitants, and the 
materials provided by nature for their wants. Styles in which 
wrong or unlocal materials are made use of are eccentric, 
and buildings in such styles can never be in real harmony with 
the country, though they may be of merit as buildings. But 
though these half-timber mansions may not be altogether 
satisfactory we must acknowledge the great advance in taste 
since the erection of the house at Belle Isle (Long Holme) 
one hundred years ago, and the colossal architectural 
anachronism of more recent date at Wray. 

From Far Sawrey a fell lane leads back past a building 
with the curious name of Scutching House, on to Colt- 
house heights. Tradition (not very complimentary in this 
case to the good folks of Sawrey) relates that when the 
Highlanders were marching south in 1/45, so terrified were 
the villagers that they took refuge, or rather we may conceive 
concealed themselves, in a building up this lane. But the 
Highlanders never came on this side of Windermere at all, 
so we charitably imagine that really an abandonment of the 
village was only projected if necessary, and this building 
was suggested as a place of concealment. The story is 
narrated by Miss Martincau, but is still known in the district : 
Miss Martincau, however, has fallen into one error, which 
leads us to suspect another. She designates the building 
" Cook's braw bog house " a strange blunder, for the real 
name is " Cuckoo Brow hog house," that is, the " hog 
house " or sheep shelter at Cuckoo Brow Lane. This lane, 
however, she calls Scotch Gate. Now there is a Cook's House 
near Troutbeck, on Windermere, much nearer the line of 
march, and we are almost inclined to think that Miss 
Martineau has got hold of two separate traditions on the 
subject, and blundered them into one. 

The southernmost part of Claife down to Cunsey Beck need 
not detain us long, for it approaches closely in character to 
many parts of Satterthwaite Parish. Out Dubs, like Priest Pot, 
is a solitary tarn isolated from the lake near its foot : and 



4 6 SURVEY OF THE PARISH. 

Bishop Woods may possibly record an " improvement " of the 
Bishop of Llandaff who lived a hundred years ago, across the 
lake at Calgarth. Descending a steep hill below Briers we 
come to the Ferry Nab, with a fine and well-managed 
modern hotel, its steamer pier, its steam ferryboat, and in 
summer its wcll-drcsscd little crowd, for the hotel very 
rightly attracts the best class of Lake district visitors : and 
it is here that twice a week in summer the yacht races have 
their starting-point. The Ferry will come often into these 
pages, for it docs not lack the savour of history, tradition, 
and sport: we shall have at different times to discuss its 
antiquity, its legends, and its wrestling meetings, so we must 
leave it for the present to complete our tour of the township. 

From the Ferry to \Yruy we pass first the old farm of 
Ilarrowslack, another old Braithwaitc estate. This family also 
owned the Ferry and Ferry Nab, and built the station on 
the hill above, a queer place where the old guide-book writers 
used to go into raptures over the view of the lake, which, 
seen through stained glass, was supposed to exhibit the tints 
of the various seasons. Then we enter a real woodland road, 
not a thicket like the copse grown alleys about Graythwaite, 
but real woodland, with fine trees and glorious vistas through 
them of YVindcrmcre. These woods were, we believe, planted 
by one of the Curwens, of Workington Hall, who own also 
the biggest island on \Vindcrmere, which now lies opposite us. 

Of this island we must say a word or two here, for, although 
it is in Windermere and part of Westmorland, it is within 
almost a stone's throw of llawkshead territory. It is by 
far the biggest island on the lake, and is the only one 
which has had from time immemorial a residence upon it. 
Anciently, we gather from Burns' " History of Westmorland," 
it was called " Wynandcrmcrc Island," but the general 
name till towards the close of the last century was The 
Holme, or Long Holme, and the house upon it was Holme 
House. Originally part of the estate of the Philipsons of 
Calgarth, it came in 1774 into the hands of a Mr. Thomas 
English, who pulled down the old house and built the present 



SURVEY OF THE PARISH. 47 

bastard classic structure. This gentleman committed other 
enormities, for he laid out an ugly, formal garden, which 
raised the just ire of Hutchinson, West, and Gilpin ; * and 
in these " improvements " he laid out, it is said, .6,000. 
Shortly after, it was acquired by the Curwcns, of Workington ; 
but it was probably under the hands of English that it was 
grotesquely re-named Bella Island, a new form of which 
(Belle Isle) is unfortunately still sometimes used. From the 
works carried out by Mr. English, however, some good came, 
for the remains of a "beautiful pavement, curiously paved with 
pebbles of small size," gravel-walks, and other relics were 
discovered, which prove fairly conclusively that some Roman 
building was here a summer villa, we think possibly, for the 
officer in command at the Amblcside camp. 

But the hand of time has now toned down the colouring 
of Mr. English's villa ; his formal garden has disappeared, 
and spreading oaks cluster round the house, so that it no 
longer forms a conspicuous or objectionable feature. Indeed, 
the "great island," with its rich masses of foliage, breaks up 
most effectively the span of the lake ; and, with the wooded 
heights of Claife, forms from many [joints on the Westmor- 
land side a very beautiful picture. I 

Our survey is now almost complete. The road winds by 
the lake margin past Belle Grange (Bella Grange it is on 
old maps), built either by English or the Curwcns, and soon 
after ascends the hill and reaches High Wray. Here we 
must leave Claife, and turn to the fourth township, that of 
Sattcrthwaitc, which lies to the south of those described, 
spanning the full width of the original parish. 

SATTERTHWAITE. 

Satterthwaite is the heart of Furncss fells, a land of 
broken heathery hill crests, of narrow valleys, of waving 

* "Tour in the Lakes," by W. Hutchinson, 1776, p. 188; " Guide to the Lakes," 
by T. West, 1784, pp. 59, 60; "Observations on Picturesque Beauty," by W. Gilpin, 
1792, p. 146- 

t The legend of Robin the Devil has been so frequently repeated in print that we do 
not think it necessary to give it here. 



4 8 SURVEY OF THE PARISH. 

larches, and feathery copse. Here we are less in touch with 
civilization than in any other part of the parish, for in Monk 
Coniston and Claife we have fine modern hotels: Colton has 
its railway, and even the mother township of Hawkshead 
itself is in some ways a place of pilgrimage a Wordsworth 
shrine. But in Sattcrthwaitc we arc away from all these. 
The township, indeed, touches both Windermere and Coniston 
to east and west, but their banks arc quiet, and we wander 
in solitude. On Windermere, indeed, we see the steamers 
tearing past, loaded in summer with visitors, and the white 
wings of the racing yachts dip to the water as they silently 
float by ; but nobody lands, and the pheasants and rabbits 
only lift their heads for a minute, and heed these disturbances 
no more. 

The northern limits of the township have been defined in 
describing those of Monk Coniston, Hawkshead, and Claife. 
To the south the boundary line quits the margin of Coniston 
between Kir Island and Coplands Barn, and ascends the fell 
passing between The Park and High Birk : it then turns south 
and runs to a point east of the hill called Top o' Selside, 
whence it descends to near Ash Slack by the valley of Bell 
Beck. Here, near Rook How Meeting House, it turns north- 
cast, and, passing over Striccly Kcll, reaches the Dale Park 
Beck a little distance below the farm of Low Dale Park 
Hence it goes nearly cast towards Graythwaite Hall, but, turn- 
ing south-east something over half a mile west of the house, 
it makes a sharp elbow on Great Green Hows, and then falls 
into Windermere, in a nameless bay right opposite Blake 
Holme on the eastern side. 

The township, thus bounded, is divided longitudinally, i.e., 
from north to south, by three ridges of fell, thus partitioning 
it into two lake side districts and two valleys, all of which 
are cut off from each other except by the bridle tracks which 
cross the fells. The western of the two valleys is the more 
important, for it contains the hamlet of Griscdale and village 
of Satterthwaite : the last being the old chapelry of Hawkshead 
after its severance from Colton. Grisedale lies at the head 



SURVEY OF THE PARISH. 49 

of pleasant fields, a grey little cluster of neat houses, past 
which courses Grisedale Beck on its way to Force Forge 
and Rusland. Old Grisedale Hall stood back on a road 
leading to the west, and is said to have been for some three 
centuries the home of a 'statesman family named Tomlinson. 
It was, however, for several generations, from the commence- 
ment of the seventeenth century, the home of one of the 
numerous branches of the Rawlinsons of Graythwaite, and 
from this particular line sprang Daniel and Sir Thomas, two 
city magnates, whose great marble monuments, now on the 
west wall of the Church, we have already told the strange 
story of. 

Grisedale Old Hall has been turned into a modern farm of 
no interest, but there was at one time, in the Rawlinson 
Collection of Manuscripts in the Bodleian Library, a plan 
and elevation of it, for which in 1887 we instituted a fruitless 
search. It afterwards passed to the Reverend Thomas Bow- 
man, whose son pulled down the old house. 

On the left hand of the road, after passing through the 
village, is Grisedale New Hall, a comfortable and roomy 
country house, built by Montague Ainslic, Ksquirc, who acquired 
considerable property in the valley, and effected numerous 
improvements, planting, it is said, a million and a half larch 
trees. The house was considerably added to by the late 
Mr. William Ainslie, Member of Parliament for the North 
Lonsdale division of Lancashire ; and it is now the residence 
of Mr. Ernest Ainslie, grandson of the first named. 

A mile and a half below we reach Sattcrthwaite, like 
Grisedale, on the stream pretty enough, but rather featureless, 
for although it is supposed the chapel existed in the sixteenth 
century, the present building is modern and without interest : 
below this the stream zigzags to Force Forge, a small centre 
of industry, to which we must return in a later chapter. 

Over the fell to the east lies Dale Park, owing its name 

we believe to Abbot Banke, who " of the tenements of 

Richard Myellner and others at a place called Gryesdale, 

in Furness Fells, made another park " (besides others he had 

5 



S o SURVEY OF THE PARISH. 

made in Low Furness) " to put deer into, which park is 
about five miles in compass."* This description answers 
well, and this narrow lonely valley, with its three isolated 
farms, " High, Middle, and Low Dale Parks," would, we think, 
be well suited for the purpose. 

The road which winds down Dale Park is nowadays less 
frequented and less cared for than that by Grisedale, or 
either of those on the lake margins. Yet it is a very ancient 
one the old main road, indeed, from Ulverston to Hawks- 
head and there is some reason to believe that it takes the 
place of an old Roman way. 

Over Dale Park Fell we come to Graythwaite, the wooded 
sides of which descend to Windcrmere. In this part of 
Sattcrthwaitc there arc one or two farms, three gentlemen's 
houses, Mr. Parson's Electric Works at Cunsey Mill,! on 
Cunsey Peck, near which also is the Forge, and at the 
two last-named places we find great heaps of smelted iron 
slag, the debris of the bloomcries worked here in the seventeenth 
and eighteenth centuries. 

Riding south from Ksthwaite by the Lakeside road, we 
first reach Graythwaite Hall, the seat of the family of Sandys 
since probably about the end of the fifteenth or commence- 
ment of the sixteenth century. 

The reader will find in other parts of this volume some 
description of this house, as well as a few biographies of 
members of the family who especially distinguished them- 
selves. We may note, however, here that the house is not well 
situated, for it is so low that it commands no view of 
Windcrmere, in spite of its proximity, nor is it visible 
except by occasional glimpses from the high road. Colonel 
Sandys, the present owner, has of recent years spent a large 
sum over the estate, re-building the stables, re-fronting 
the house, building stables and lodges, and re-building 



" Pleadings and Depositions, Duchy of Lancaster, "quoted by T. K.Fell. Seethe 
" Book of Coniston," by \V. G. Collingwood, page 65. 

t Cunsey Mill was first a Bloom-smithy, then a Bobbin Mill, and now an Electric 
establishment : such an aid to industry is water power. 



SURVEY OF THE PARISH. S i 

many of the farms. An enormous stone wall, which, 
however, encircles a large part of the park, effectually 
precludes the traveller from a view of the recent alterations 
about the hall. 

Immediately after Graythwaite Hall a road turns to the 
right, and crosses the fell to Rusland ; and passing the 
end of this, we see immediately the old house of the 
Rawlinsons, Graythwaite Low Hall, which faces right into 
the road. Of this charming old place we shall have much to 
say elsewhere. It is a typical old rough-cast gentleman's 
house, of the sixteenth or seventeenth century, and it still 
retains much of the ancient character. Its neat garden with 
clipped yews, its ranges of offices with the dated anil 
initialled vane, its low dark rooms with massive carved oaken 
furniture, and its great open hall hearth and cast-iron fire 
back, all speak of the lives and simple wants of an old 
north country family. The estate was in the sixteenth 
century the property of a family of Sawrcys, from whom it 
passed in the time of Henry the Eighth to the Rawlinsons 
of Colton, an ancient and probably autochthonous stock, 
who made it their principal home. A new modern house, 
commanding a view of the lake, was, however, built about 
eighty years ago by Mr. John Job Rawlinson, which is at 
present owned by one of his grandsons, Mr. J. B. Rawlinson, 
who has removed to it some of the fine old furniture and 
portraits. 

Though there was once a chapel at Graythwaite, it is 
not known where it stood, and even in Bishop Gastrell's 
time it had been so long disused that apparently only one 
boy could be found who remembered his grandfather to 
have spoken of using it as a place of worship. One other 
feature only need detain us before we turn to Colton, a 
magnificent oak tree standing by the roadside, which is 
passed on the left after leaving Graythwaite Low Hall for 
Lakeside. This tree is not remarkable for its age, but 
for its magnificent growth. Its bole is tall, straight, and 
of beautiful proportions, for the tree is in the prime of 



52 SURVEY OF THE PARISH. 

life. Unfortunately, however, the "great oak" got mauled 
in its branches by the great storm of 1894: yet it is still 
a veritable king of the woods. 

A great part of Satterthwaite, especially the south and 
east sides, is densely clothed in thick copse-wood, a 
profitable enough growth in former times, when charcoal 
was required in quantity for the numerous iron-smelting 
hearths, and when swills, trenchers, platters, pails, and 
piggins were all manufactured locally, or coopered in wood. 
Even when this demand gave out, the value of the 
coppices was maintained for some time owing to the 
demand for bobbins, after the introduction of spinning 
machinery ; but now foreign wood has come into competi- 
tion, and these copses arc so diminished in value that 
landowners arc at a loss to know what is the best to be 
done with these rough intakes, hardly more suitable for 
grazing than for crops. Even to form larch plantations is 
not easy, for the dense growth of hazel must be destroyed 
first no easy task. 

COLTON PARISH. 

We have now arrived at Colton Hawkshead's younger 
sister we may term it, for it sprang into life as a separate 
parish in 1676. Its boundaries need not detain us, for 
they have already been described in detailing those of the 
township or chapelry of Satterthwaite, and those of the 
undivided parish. The four townships into which Colton 
itself is partitioned, have also been enumerated, so that it 
only remains for us to describe them in order, taking 
them as we have done in Hawkshead, from west to east. 

NlBTHWAITE. 

Nibthwaite occupies the western side of the parish, the 
boundary line which separates it from Colton west and 
Colton east passing, according to the Ordnance Survey, in 
a zig-zag line over the fells, from the southern point of 
the Satterthwaite Valley till it joins the Crake a little 



SURVEY OF THE PARISH. 53 

below Bridgefield. But within Nibthwaite is Bethecar 
Moor, adjoining the farm of the same name,* a piece of 
fell land belonging in common to more than one township, 
and on which certain detached portions only appertain to 
Nibthwaite. 

About one-half of the eastern margin of Coniston lies in 
this part of Colton, and it is from the high ground above 
the lake, especially in the vicinity of Parkamoor, now a farm, 
and once an isolated grange of the Abbey, that in our opinion 
the grandest views of the lake can be obtained. For at the 
Waterhead the view down the water to the south is tame, 
and we are too hemmed in among the high fells for them 
to compose ; indeed, their very proximity in clear weather 
detracts to a certain degree from their beaut}', for their lines 
and colouring, unsoftcned by ha/.c, stand out too strong. 
From the hills above Nibthwaite, however, the view forms a 
true picture. Coniston Old Man and Wcathcrlam are seen 
almost end on, their contours being very striking, and with 
the more distant hills of Langdalc and Grasmcrc they make 
a most imposing group, a wonderfully effective background 
to the peaceful lake. From here, too, the light and shade 
on these hills is very beautiful, and we know no more 
charming scene than this is on a frosty morning in early 
winter, when the slopes arc streaked with silvered snow, and 
a delicate haze lingers over the \vater, and drifts, a shimmer- 
ing film, over the village and round the bases of the hills. 

At a little over a mile from the foot of the lake, and 
close to a promontory on the Colton side, lies Peel Island, 
proved in 1896, by excavations undertaken by Mr. W. G. 
Collingwood, to be an ancient stronghold. Peel Island is by 
nature a fortlet, for it lies with steep rocky sides jutting from 
the water like a little battleship, with its tiny calf or islet 
at one end like a ship's jolly-boat. It has its season now 
a season when the hollows between its rocky ridges are all 
a mass of bluebells and many are the merry parties of 

* " Bothaker," according to Baines (" History of Lancashire," iv. 701), belonging 
to one Thomas Dodgson, I Henry VIII. 



54 SURVEY OF THE PARISH. 

picnickers who land here for tea and chatter, heedless and 
ignorant of the hidden past of this romantic little place.* 

Further down we pass another nab or promontory, with 
the house of Mr. A. P. Bridson, Water Park beautifully 
placed, and, being rough-cast, thoroughly in keeping with 
the scenery. Then where the lake narrows and the Crake 
commences we get to High Nibthwaite, formerly a place 
of some little industry, for at different dates it has boasted 
its iron-smelting bloomcry, its bobbin mills, its gun-powder 
works, its tan yard, and here also was the quay where 
the slate from Tilbcrthwaitc was landed from the barges. 
Xibthwaitc was in fact the port here, and when iron, copper, 
and slate works were all in operation must have been a 
busy little place, with its barges, stock sheds, pack-horses, 
and waggons. Till 1846 there was also here, as at Priest 
Pot and Ucnventwater, a floating island, 20 yards square, 
which, with a birch or two growing on it, floated detached, 
until in October of the year mentioned a strong north- 
east wind with heavy rains put an end to its performances. 

No greater difference can we find than that between the 
Crake river, which is here our boundary, and her northern 
sister, the Brathay. The valley lies indeed between fells, 
rough in outline and clad with heather, but we may seek 
in vain for the variety we get at Colwith, Langdale, and 
Skelwith. The Crake and the Lcven are both beautiful, 
but their beauty is placid, so that they seem to say, " We 
are rivers, no mere mountain becks like those of Yewdale, 
Brathay, and Rothay, who feed but the great pools of 
Coniston and Windermcrc. To the green sea we bear the 
blue waters of these lakes, and the brave sea-birds and 
silver salmon haunt our banks and pools." 

We have but little else to note in Nibthwaite. The 
hills rise sharper from the river on our side, and we 

* There is no historical record of Peel Island as an inhabited site, but we shall have to 
revert to the subject in Chap'er III. The place enters into Mr. W. G. Collingwood's 
romance, " Thorstein of the Mere." Peel Island has two other names Montague 
Island, so called from its belonging to the Montagues, and " the Gridiron," from its lung 
ridges of rock. 



SURVEY OF THE PARISH. 55 

look across at the wooded hamlets of the chapelries of 
Blawith and Lowick, the old manor place of the last of 
which the ancient home of the Lowicks and Ambroses we can 
just see among its trees. At Lowick the river is spanned by 
a bridge, the ancient site of which may at one time have been 
a little further down, for here we reach Bridgefield, once a 
residence of a branch of the Penny family, whose chief 
home was lower down at Crake Bridge, or Penny Bridge 
as it was called when rebuilt in 1587. But the hamlets of 
Penny Bridge, Lowick Bridge, Sparkbridge with its bobbin 
mills, and even Greenodd itself, arc all on the west side 
of the river, and therefore over the border. 

COLTON WEST AND COLTON EAST. 

Colton West and Colton East, divided by Colton beck, we 
may take together. In the first named we have Abbot Park, 
a name calling us back to days of monasticism. At Tottlcbank 
there is an ancient Baptist church, founded as long ago as 
1669, in the days when Nonconformists were persecuted by 
the Conventicle Act. Tottlebank was an carl}' residence of 
the Ravvlinsons, and it was at the house of William Rawlinson, 
of Tottlcbank, on the i8th of " y e sixth month called Aug' 
1669," that the oldest entry in the books of the church was 
made. The Rawlinsons at various times favoured Noncon- 
formity, and perhaps the curious rambling building which now 
stands, more like an almshouse than a place of worship, may 
occupy the site of Rawlinson's house. * The church was reno- 
vated in 1864 and 1896. 

Opposite Greenodd, where the two rivers join, is Legbarrow 
Point, and here the Lakeside Branch of the Eurness Railway 
turns north-east to follow the Leven valley. 

The boundary between Colton East and Ilavcrthwaite follows 
Rusland Pool from the point where it joins the Lcven to a 
quarter of a mile south of Rusland, whence it crosses (un- 
defined) Rusland Moss, and meets Satterthwaite at its southern- 
most limit. It contains numerous scattered farms, most of which 

* For further details see Chapter II. 



5 6 SURVEY OF THE PARISH. 

have Norse names like " Ickcnthwaite " (perhaps the " squirrels' 
field "), Whitestock Hall, and Hulleter. Oxen Park and Bouth 
are almost villages big hamlets at any rate- while at Colton 
itself, which gives its name to the parish, there is little more 
than the Church, School, and Vicarage. Greenhead, close by, 
however, was the original home, it is said, of the clan 

Rawlinson. 

Colton church is well worth a visit a typical old lakeland 
edifice, with plain rough-cast walls, square embattled tower, 
and windows which arc for the most part of sixteenth century 




COLTON CHURCH. 

date.* Though there existed a chapel (as Gastrell tells us) 
under the Abbey, it was not consecrated until 1578, when it 
was made by Archbishop Sandys the Parochial Chapel under 
Hawkshcad. In 1603 one of the Rawlinsons, of Greenhead, 
hard by, rebuilt it, and in 1676 it was made an independent 
parish. 



* One window on the south side of two lights has original trefoil heads, similar to 
some of those at Hawkshead, and dating perhaps from late in the fifteenth century. 



SURVEY OF THE PARISH. 57 

About the church there is more than one object of interest. 
On the hill below is an ancient well of dressed freestone, dating 
in all probability from pre- Reformation days. In the church- 
yard is a dated sun-dial (1674), which the late Vicar (Mr. 
Williams) found in pieces in 1886, and restored. There are 
two fonts, one with the wardens' initials and date 1718, and 
the other found in 1889, doing duty as the base for the more 
modern one ; the earlier is octagonal, and probably of fifteenth 
century date. Lastly, there is an early bell, which hung in 
the tower till 1887, of which we shall have to speak elsewhere. 

Leaving the church we can make our way to Oxenpark, 
where, if we can unearth an old inhabitant, he will take us to 
a field close by and show us a circular ring ditch dug in the 
turf the old cockpit in the gallant days of old. From here 
we can soon reach the Rusland Valley, on the west side of 
which in a pretty situation is Whitestock Hall, the home of 
Mr. J. Romney, a .descendant of the painter. In a field nearly 
opposite the house, on the cast side of the road, stands an 
upright, weathered block of stone about four feet high, un- 
doubtedly erected by human agency, and probably at a very 
remote period. Possibly it formed once part of a megalithic 
circle, or, if erected separately, it may mark a chieftain's grave. 
Anyhow, here it stands, though probably if we ask at any 
farm-house near they will never have heard of it, and if we 
take the farmer to look at it we shall get laughed at for our 
pains. 

Though we are in sight of Rusland Hall, it lies in the 
next township, to which we shall come later. In Colton 
East there is little else to notice. In Bouth we have an 
early and interesting name, which speaks for itself. That 
the oldest settlement was at Colton beck-side we may 
infer from the fact that the chapel was erected there ; but, 
apart from the name, we have evidence that Bouth soon 
became the more important centre of population in the 
fact that the old coach road from Kendal to Dalton and 
Cumberland (for that by the river-side dates only from 
1820) made a great bend north in order to touch at it. 



5 8 SURVEY OF THE PARISH. 

The isolation of Colton church, indeed, seems to show that 
the chapelry is very old ; that when the first place of 
worship was erected, it was the centre of population but 
that Bouth having increased, the waggons, pack-horses, and, 
later, the coaches, diverged to pass through it, and so the 
neighbourhood of the church was neglected, while Bouth 
slightly increased. 

A little west of Bouth is a most uninteresting edifice of 
three stories, commonly known as the Old Hall. Anciently 
this was Colton Hall, the residence for a few generations 
of a branch of the Sandys family, a member of which, one 
Adam (who, we believe, was a grandson of the Adam who 
obtained the letters patent for the Hawkshead Market), 
devised in 1662 an estate of the annual value of 62 for 
the maintenance of a preaching schoolmaster. At Black beck, 
north-east from Bouth, there arc gunpowder works, established 
1862 by Messrs. F. C. Dickon and Co., and. here on July 25th, 
1868, an explosion took place, in which nine persons were 
killed ; and another, fortunately without loss of life, in 1898.* 

HAVERTHWAITE, FINSTIIWAITE, AND RUSLAND. 

The boundaries of this township, the last of the divisions 
of Hawkshead, have been defined, so that we need but 
give some description of this very charming district. In 
many ways it is not dissimilar to Nibthwaitc, but here we 
are far more in touch with civilization, for the branch of 
the Furness Railway traverses the Leven Valley, on the 
Hawkshead side, from Grecnodd to Lakeside, and thence 
the busy steamers transport their loads of visitors to the Ferry, 
Bowness, or Ambleside. 

The Lake and River Leven thus form the east and 
south-east boundaries, sweeping round and enclosing the 
same rough copse-grown heights that we have already got 
accustomed to, which, however, just south of Bortree Tarn 
rise to an elevation of 795 feet. 

* See also Chapter V. 



SURVEY OF THE PARISH, 59 

Entering this township by the Dale Park Road from 
Havvkshead, we first pass Thwaite head (" T'waite head " we call 
it in the vernacular*), and then following the course of 
Ashes beck, so called from the debris carried down from 
a bloomery site at Low Dale Park, we suddenly emerge 
on the dale of Rusland, which, in this land of narrow 
vales and wooded " rigs," is quite an important valley. 

As Hawkshead, the home of Haukr, was from its situation 
the most important settlement in the northern part of the 
parish, so was Rusland, the land of Hrolf, in the south. 
Not that they were necessarily earlier than Finsthwaite, 
Havcrthwaite, or Satterthuaitc, for the more level land round 
them, overgrown with scrub and forest, as it would be at 
that date, was not necessarily very superior to other sites 
on the breezy hillsides, so that we cannot be certain that 
the valleys were settled first. But when the lower country 
was cleared, and the jungle turned to meadow, the land 
slowly acquired greater value than the hillside homes. Why, 
then, may we ask, did not the Colton chapelry have its 
centre of population in Rusland Vale, instead of on the 
rough hillside overlooking Colton beck ? 

To this we do not find it easy to make an adequate 
reply ; but, as far as we can sec, the best explanation is 
that the waterways of Coniston and Windermere dragged 
aside to some extent the traffic which would otherwise have- 
followed the Dale Park and Rusland Road to Hawkshead. 
Consequently, Rusland did not fill up as it otherwise would 
have done. Probably, also, the course of Rusland Pool, lower 
down, remained boggy and grown up, while a capital fellside 
track led up the east side of Colton beck. The important 
track, too, from Kendal to Dalton passed along the hillsides 
above the Leven, far away from Rusland, but within a more 
moderate distance of Colton itself, where the chapel was 

* From the peculiar pronunciation often given to this Norse word, we are inclined to 
think that the people, ignorant of its origin, believe that the true name is " Waite," and 
the " Th " the article "The " contracted in the local manner to " t." Thus, Thwaite 
head is distinctly t'Waite head, and elsewhere we find " Waite " only. Thus we get 
the pronunciations " Waite Mills " and " HaVattes" (Hallthwaites), in Cumberland. 



60 SURVEY OF THE PARISH. 

established. Later, when the mountain track became a defined 
coach road, Bouth had become large enough for the road to 
be deflected to pass through it, and consequently it usurped 
the place of Colton, and had its two yearly fairs, which 
continued till about fifty years ago. 

Where Grisedalc beck and Dale Park or Ashes beck 
unite to form Rusland Pool, there are numerous cross roads' 
which are very puzzling to the stranger. On one of these is 
the hamlet of Crosslands, named possibly from a long destroyed 
wayside cross. Not far distant on the Dale Park -Colton 
Road is the modern church of Rusland, originally built 
1745 as a chapel-of-easc, and restored in 1868. Further 
west, nestling in trees on the hillside near where the 
Satterthwaite and Dale Park roads unite, is Rook How, or 
Abbot Oak, a Friends' meeting house, established in 1725,* 
for monthly meetings. Retracing our steps across the pool, 
we come to Rusland Hall, the residence of Mrs. Archibald, 
which, though situated with its back right on the road, looks 
well from the front and commands a fine view of the 
valley. 

Rusland Hall, like many of the old houses in High Furness, 
probably owes its erection to the Rawlinsons. It was, at 
any rate, the property of a branch of that family from the 
clays of Thomas (born 1574) to William, who died in 1760. 
The eldest son of the first-named was, however, perhaps the 
first to reside there one Captain Rawlinson, who raised a 
body of local volunteers, and was present at Marston Moor. 
It is said he commenced the iron works at Force Foree and 

o ' 

probably on this account took up his residence at Rusland. 
In or about 1760 it was purchased by the Walkers, from whom 
it descended to the present family of Archibald. Rusland Hall 
consists of a square block, probably of late seventeenth century 
date, with formal rows of tall windows to the front, and a 
central door. Possibly these windows had originally transoms 
and mullions, and if so, the house would date from the time 

* Rook How is half meeting house, half cottage ; and the date of building is 
preseived both on a pierced iron lock and an oak locker in the dwelling part. 



SURVEY OF THE PARISH. 61 

of Charles II. In modern times two wings have been added 
on either side, without altering the old building, and much 
increasing the accommodation. An old picture of the house 
preserved at Rusland shows the house as it was, with the 
public road running in front instead of behind it. 

Following the course of Rusland Pool, we eventually come 
on to the old coach road, where we pass Abbots Reading, 
the residence of A. B. Dickson, Esq. A cross road leads from 
Causeway end to the 1820 road, where we pass Hollow Oak, 
the residence since the beginning of last century of the 
Machclls and Penny Machells. Havcrthwaite (the oatlands 
clearing), is a pretty village, close to the railway, with its 
church built in 1825 a short distance away, and the railway 
station about half-way on the road to Backbarrow. 

If we drive through Graythwaite Woods to Lakeside, we 
pass Stot Park, lately bought by Mr. Dcakin, and then we 
come to a place where the road forks ; that to the right 
leading directly to Finsthwaite, while the other takes us to 
Lakeside and Newby Bridge. 

Finsthwaite is a retired hamlet of the usual character, the 
chapel of which 'was originally built in 1724, and rebuilt in 
1874." Further along the road we come to Finsthwaite 
House, a picturesque old residence which probably dates from 
the last century. Finsthwaite House was formerly Plum 
Green, or " Ploome Greene," as it is generally called in the 
Hawkshead Register, and was for generations the home of the 
principal branch of the Tailors or Taylers, a strong clan in 
this district. At the end of the last century it was in the 
occupation of Mr. James King, who erected a tower or 
observatory above Newby Bridge, which still forms a pro- 
minent landmark. 

Lakeside, naturally a singularly charming place, is sadly 
disfigured by the modern hotel and railway station, for this 
is a terminus to the Furness branch line from Ulverston. 

* There are many stories and traditions in this part of the Fells which must 
'be reserved for a later chapter. Among them are those of Clementina Sobiesky 
Douglass, the " Princess," buried at Finsthwaite ; Black Jack of Graythwaite ; 
Kitty Dawson ; The Elingharth brow "dobbie"; The Rutland Kawlinsons and 
Copper Mining. 



62 SURVEY OF THE PARISH. 

The long quay for the steamers, backed by the sheds of the 
railway station, sadly marr the beauty; and the hotel is built 
in a style of architecture in every way unsuited to the sur- 
roundings. This end of Windermcre is remarkably like the 
Nibthwaite end of Coniston, but while the one is absolutely 
spoiled, the other retains its beauties undcsecrated. 

We do not feel that much, if any, good would come of 
entering a protest here against the policy adopted of recent 
years by the Furness Railway Company of running numerous 
cheap trips to the Lake district. Much as we sympathise 
with those who say that the overworked of crowded cities 
deserve to sec and enjoy the lovely scenes and pure air of 
our district which steam traffic has brought within access 
even to the poor we do not hesitate to say that we have 
no sympathy with those who arc mainly instrumental in 
forwarding the cheap-trip system policy. With both railway 
company, inn and lodging-house keepers, and owners of boats 
and traps, it is of course purely a question of what pays them 
best. Hut this purely selfish policy, unchecked as it is by 
those who ought to oppose it tooth and nail, is slowly but 
surely ruining, sentimentally, the Windermcre district. Those 
who have known Bowncss, Ambleside, and Windermere during 
the last twenty years will comprehend all we say. 

The keepers of the first-class hotels know that every year, 
as trips increase in numbers, the upper class of visitors the 
paying sort decrease, and, disgusted at the continual uproar 
and rowdyism, seek other holiday resorts further from the 
" madding crowd." Fortunately, in Hawkshead ancient parish 
we see little of all this. A crowded train arrives at Lakeside, 
and the steamer, packed with trippers so densely that they 
can hardly stir, whirls them away to the discordant sounds of 
the concertina, past the Ferry Hotel, to Bowness or Ambleside, 
where they are landed, and regaled by brass band and nigger 
troupes ; and where, perhaps, meeting the tide of another cheap 
trip, brought by the London and North Western Company to 
Windermere Station, they contrive to turn this unfortunate 
district into a perfect pandemonium. 



SURVEY OF THE PARISH. 63 

With relief, then, we turn our backs on Lakeside, and, 
passing Mr. Newby Wilson's house, "The Landing," we follow 
the road to the fine old bridge spanning the river, which 
we should cross either on the road to Kendal or Cartmel. 
Here stands the Swan Inn, or the White Swan as it was 
formerly generally called, a real picturesque old country 
hostelry that does one good to look at an old posting 
house in coaching-days, and a notable resort for anglers 
even now. 

As on the Crake, so on the Levcn, do we find that the 
chief hamlets are on the bank outside our boundaries. Back- 
barrow and Lowwood are the principal ones, both places of 
some little industry at different periods, with ironworks, mills, 
and powder works. Yet, in spite of railway and mills, a 
beautiful place is the Levcn, with its bridges, its sluices and 
dams, and its islets beautiful in its hanging woods and 
eddying pools. Here we must leave the Levcn leave her 
tripping along her moss-grown banks, with her silvery laughter 
and dimpling cheeks, until at Greenodd she meets her 
fair young sister, Crake, and hand in hand they dance merrily 
to the sea. 



f 



CHAPTER II. 
HISTORY. 

MODERN science, as it advances, tends to relegate the 
origin of mankind to epochs so remote, that we are 
forced to step from archeology to anthropology and geology, to 
trace man in his earlier history. Dates have to be cast 
aside, and even figures and statistics, based upon the growth 
of rocks and alluvial deposits, bewilder us with their long 
rows of ciphers, and even more with the widely divergent 
conclusions which eminent anthropologists draw from these 
calculations upon the origin of mankind. 

With these dim epochs and abstruse problems we are, 
however, perhaps fortunately, not brought into contact in 
treating of the history of Ilawkshead; for hitherto no 
evidence has been found in this part of England of palaeolithic, 
and much less of pleistocene, man. Evidences, however, are 
not wanting that this district was inhabited in remote 
prehistoric times the epochs when man wrought his tools 
and weapons from the native rock, and forged his spear 
and dagger of shining bronze. Here, then, commence the 
annals of Ilawkshead. 

In these days- the clays of the earliest known human 
occupation the face of the district known now as Furness 
Fells must have worn a vastly different aspect to that at 
the present time. Consisting as it docs of a series of 
undulating valleys and minor fells, and placed at the foot of 
the rugged heights and higher hills which close it in to 
north and west, it would appear to the first-comers, if they 
approached from the south, as an immense cul-de-sac, where 



HISTORY. 65 

at any rate the "faint hearts," as they surveyed the rocky 
barrier, whose summits are so often cloud-capped, would 
probably pitch their wigwams ; and pause, at least, before 
entering an inhospitable mountain region, which for all they 
knew might extend for many miles. 

If, on the other hand, they came from the north, the 
horrors of the fells were to them a thing of the past. 
From rugged Kirkstone and Helvellyn's slopes their keen 
eyes would have scanned the lesser heights of Furness, with 
its broad sheets of water, and its valleys filled, no doubt, 
at that period with a dense growth of scrub and under- 
wood, recognizable only at such a distance by its hue.* 
Far away beyond they would have caught a glimpse of 
the fretted coast-line, the broad sands, and the silver sea. 
The tangled underwoods teemed with game, and the placid 
meres with fish, and as the fellsides were high enough to 
be clear of the jungle and marsh fog, and so low as to be 
free from clouds, the first-comers, from whichever direction 
they approached, would, we think, hardly pass without leaving 
a colony of some sort. 

We will ask our reader to accompany us, in the character 
of one of these aborigines, to the summit of Coniston Old 
Man. At our feet and seven miles away to the cast, 
gleam in sunlight the waters we now call Coniston and 
Windermere : but otherwise the scene is different from that 
of to-day. No fair green fields, no larch plantations, no 
stone walls, and, above all, no smiling villas or grey church 
towers arrest our view. Wherever we look, the lower 
ground presents a dusky tinge, which, Reader, we, who, axe 
and bow in hand, have traversed the country, know to be 
a tangled and impenetratable growth of scrub and forest, 
in which can be found the great urus, the wild swine, and 
even wolves, red deer, and bears.f Through this jungle 

* Even as late as the time of the foundation of Furness Abbey the district was 
called & forest ; so is it termed in Stephen's own foundation charter. 

t Mr. Jno. Watson, in " The Westmorland Natural History Record" (Kendal, 
1889), suggests the following dates for the extinction of large animals in these parts : 
Brown bear, 500-1000 ; wild boar, 1620; wolf, 1680; beaver, c. 1100-1200. Mac- 
pherson, however, considers the wolf was rare, if not extinct, at end of the thirteenth 
century. 
6 



66 HISTORY. 

there are no roads ; it lies evenly over all the low ground, 
and even clothes the fellsides to a height of five or seven 
hundred feet above sea-level. The hoary heads of all the 
oreat fells to the north and east are clear of it, while 

o 

between us and Windermere, the lesser heights of Ironkeld, 
Latterbarrow, Colthouse, Hawkshead Moor, and further south 
of Bethecar and Finsthwaite rise up bare like islands from 
the sea of scrub. 

On the margins of the three lakes, and along the banks 
of the rivers and larger streams, a different shade marks 
where grow gnarled oaks and other ancient forest trees, and 
the steamy haze which hangs over each lake and valley 
betokens the marshy character of all the lower ground. Few 
and far between are, indeed, the signs of human occupation. 
Here and there from the base of Latterbarrow from the 
shores of Ksthvvaite from Hawkshead Moor, rise blue curling 
wreaths of smoke. The first marks a rude village of wigwams 
nestling on a hillside above a small tarn. At Esthwaite 
a few skin-clad fishermen cast their nets ; while the smoke 
on Hawkshead Moor bears witness of the funeral pyre of 
a dead warrior. If we turn south we shall see more. Here 
stretches from the foot of Coniston Old Man a wide range 
of dreary uplands, to which the scrub does not reach except 
in patches ; and all this bears signs of human life. Far 
above it though we are, we can discern rude stone enclosures, 
within the walls of which are crowded skin-covered wigwams 
and wattle-built bee-hive huts. Faint streaks denote the walls 
of the greater enclosures for the protection of cattle from 
the wild beasts ; and the numerous dark specks arc the 
mounds of the dead. The dark dots which are in motion 
arc of various sizes. Some are cattle and some are tribesmen. 
Of the latter we can discern in one direction a party making 
for the low ground, probably to beat the covers or to fish 
the lake. Others clamber the rocks of Walney Scar in 
pursuit of the eagle and wild goat ; while a few may be seen 
driving the nimble fell sheep to the best pastures. Far 
away beyond, where the range dips towards the sea, the 



HISTORY. 67 

rising curls of smoke show where lies the great parent settle- 
ment on Heathwaite Fell. * 

Let us now, still disguised as ancient Britons, make our 
way to the scene on Hawkshead Moor. It will take us half 
a day to descend and force our way through the jungle and 
swamp near Coniston Waterhead and to climb the fellside 
of Monk Coniston to our destination. But as we toil 
through the ling to the top, what a strange sight greets us. 
Half a dozen huts of turf and skins of the most miserable 
description are erected on the bare fellside facing to the 
north-east. Close by, on an elevated knoll, blazes a great 
bonfire of peat and ling, in which the body of the dead chief 
is being consumed. They have wrapped him in his great 
tawny wolf-hide, and with his war-club by his side, and his 
flint knife in his hand, he is going to join his fathers. Round 
the pyre are grouped his family and a number of tribesmen, 
chanting their wild death-song, and performing strange 
funeral rites. A few hours hence, when the pyre has burned 
out, they will gather the ashes of the dead, dig a rude hole 
for them in the earth, and pile on the place a great heap 
of stones to mark the spot. 

All this is fiction founded on fact ; romance, perhaps, but 
romance built up and justified by certain early remains 
found in the parish,! and by the conclusions arrived at by 
scientific enquirers into the earlier ages in Britain. 

Anthropologists, excavators, and antiquaries tell us of 
certain waves of population which in prehistoric days spread 
in succession over the face of Britain. Of the earliest of 
these the Palaeolithic race there is not, as we have already 
noticed, any local evidence. 

But after them (and how long after, and whether in any 
way descended from them, no man can tell) we find another 
race, far advanced in culture, for not only did they form 

*Of the archaeology of these remains we shall have more to say in Chapter III., 
but the reader who wishes for a full and technical description must refer to the writer's 
paper on "The Ancient Settlements and Cemeteries of Furness," printed in the 
" Archseologia," Vol. 53, p. 389, with numerous plans. 

t These will be discussed in Chapter III. 



68 HISTORY. 

their tools or weapons of stone, but they had the craft of 
grinding them and polishing them. These people, called 
by some an Iberian race, by others Silures, Basques, or 
Mediterranean, were a somewhat puny race, averaging only 
about five feet four inches in height, with oblong skulls, 
burying their dead in oblong grave mounds. Upon this 
people intruded at a subsequent period one or more waves 
of races of the so-called " Celtic " blood, people of Aryan 
origin, tall fellows of five feet eight inches on the average, 
with round capacious skulls, who curiously laid their dead 
beneath round tumuli. These " bullet-heads," some call 
Turanians and others Cimbric ; and Professor Rhys considers 
that they arrived in two waves, the Goidels and Brythons. 
Anyhow, they were an enterprising race, and possessed on 
their arrival some knowledge of metals, at any rate of 
bronze : so that before their superior armament the little 
long-heads with their clumsy stones went to the wall and for 
some time, at least, lost their identity. They were probably not 
exterminated, but subjugated and enslaved, and when we 
find that long-heads and intermediate skulls crop up again 
towards the end of the round barrow age, and in the 
earlier iron age, we conclude that the enslaved long-headed 
race, being numerically superior, was again coming to the 
front as a result no doubt of inter-marriage and concubinage. 

Whether the round-heads appeared too late in the field, 
or whether their numbers were very small, we hardly know, 
but certain it is that at this day their bronze weapons and 
tools are much rarer than those of polished stone. It is 
thought, however, and with great probability, that though 
they knew and valued bronze, it was with them a rare and 
precious possession, and that many of the more elaborated 
polished stone weapons, and almost certainly the perforated 
axe-hammers, frequently found in Furness belong to their 
age. In a future chapter we shall recur to the types and 
attempt to assign them and other remains to their proper 
periods. 

Probably from a fusion of these races sprang the great 



HISTORY. 69 

tribe or nation of Brigantes, the dominant race in this 
quarter of Britain when the Romans arrived. Though 
occupying an extensive area, spreading indeed over the hills 
and woods of parts of Yorkshire, Lancashire, Westmorland, 
Cumberland, and even Northumberland, and containing many 
sub-tribes, they were far less advanced in civilization than 
the tribes in South Britain. Some writers consider they were 
true British aborigines driven by successive invasions into 
the north ; but however this may be, we know that one 
of their sub-divisions was the tribe of Sctantii or Sistuntii, 
who are supposed to have dwelt about West Lancashire, 
probably round Morecambe Bay, the hills between Yorkshire 
and Lancashire, and it is supposed the Lake district. They 
had their own harbour on the coast, variously fixed by 
antiquaries, about Lancaster, the mouth of the \Vyre, or 
the mouth of the Ribble. 

All that we know of the Brigantes is, of course, from 
Roman sources, and with the history of the Roman 
occupation of this part of Britain begins and ends their 
story. Now, although, like many another rural parish in 
England, we have no actual evidence that the Romans ever 
erected port or villa within our boundaries, there can be 
no doubt whatever that the conquest told its tale here to 
no inconsiderable degree ; and it is well worth our while to 
consider here the movements of the conquerors in the 
immediate vicinity of our parish. Although the first invasion 
of Britain took place half a century prior to our era, it was 
not until late in the first century that the mountainous 
region to the north-west was brought under subjection. The 
Brigantes had suffered in Yorkshire under the hands of 
Petilius Cerealis (A.D. 69 and 70) a rebuff that probably 
weakened the entire tribe, and they appear to have remained 
fairly quiet until the time of Antoninus Pius (A.I). 138- 
161), when, in consequence of their having attacked the 
Genuni, a tribe under Roman protection, a punitive expedition 
was sent against them under Lollius Urbicus, resulting it 
is believed in their extermination as a tribe of any power. 



7 o HISTORY. 

Ten years, however, after their first reverse, Agricola in 
his second campaign marched north from Chester, and it 
has been suggested that, supported probably by a fleet, he 
executed a remarkable march by the sea-coast from Lancaster 
to the Solway. In doing so he must have crossed the 
sands of Kent, Lcvcn and Duddon, and there is some 
evidence that he established a fort and garrison at Dalton, 
and possibly also something of the same sort at Broughton- 
in-Furncss. It is unnecessary here to follow him further, 
except to note that on this line we find a series of Roman 
stations, one of them placed at Ravcnglass, where the Esk, 
rising in the fells, joins the sea. This over-sands Roman 
road is more or less an article of faith with Cumberland 
antiquaries ; and knowing the evidence upon which it stands 
we arc certainly much inclined to accept it. Lancashire 
antiquaries however seem somewhat sceptical, a scepticism 
due, we venture to think, possibly only to their failing to 
make themselves properly acquainted with the topography 
of this outlying part of the Palatinate, and with the adjacent 
counties of Cumberland and Westmorland, than to more 
weighty reasons. 

Accepting, therefore, the over-sands Roman road, which, if 
made, was no doubt maintained, it is obvious that such an 
approach to the stations in the north was not strategically the 
best for the movement of troops. Consequently we find the 
more direct route by Kendal, Amblesidc, and Keswick to 
Old Carlisle. This road, later than the coast route, may 
be, as Chancellor Ferguson has suggested, the tenth Iter of 
the Antoninc " Itinerary." From the Roman station at 
Ambleside, variously identified as Amboglana, Dictis, Galacum, 
and Alone, a connecting road was then carried up the 
Brathay Valley and over the pass of Wrynose to the 
walled fort at Hardknott, and thence to the camp and 
port at Ravenglass on the coast. This road would no 
doubt cross and rccross the Brathay by fords at the bends, 
and so in places pass through parts of our parish: but as 
no single trace of a made road is to be found, we may 



HISTORY. 71 

perhaps conclude that the Romans contented themselves 
with a cleared track rather than an engineered road. That 
communication was kept open between Ravenglass, Hard- 
knott, and Ambleside, we may however be absolutely certain. 

Now in what way would this environment of Roman roads 
affect Furness Fells. To begin with, we may be sure that 
the Romans were not the men to overlook such a water- 
way as Windermere. Communication would be necessary 
between the stations at Ambleside and Dalton, and for this 
purpose the lake would be used. Stores, building stone and 
lime, could be sent from Dalton by the road as far as Conishead, 
and thence by boat and barge to some point near Greenodd, 
or even up the Leven almost to Lowwood Bridge,* whence 
the distance to the foot of the lake is only about four 
miles. Along the banks of the Leven, where it could not 
be navigated, the stones would be carried by a pack-animal 
track, and at the foot of the lake they could be then 
re-shipped into barges and carried directly to the Ambleside 
camp. Half-way up the lake, on the great island, they 
erected a building of some sort, perhaps an outpost at first, 
which afterwards became a Roman officer's summer resi- 
dence, f 

With such a route, however, Roman genius would not 
rest content. Although the distance between Ambleside and 
Dalton is less than twenty-one miles, as the crow flies, yet 
when one of our stiff south-westers was blowing, the clumsily 
rigged vessels at Ambleside would be useless, and to row 
the heavy barges would be nearly impossible. Again, in the 
winter months, the lake would be frozen in patches, and at 
times, neither by hook nor crook would the shivering garrison 
at Ambleside be able to loosen the ice-bound galleys at 
Waterhead. 

There is fairly strong evidence that for these reasons the 
Romans constructed a road direct from Ambleside to 

"The ore for the Backbarrow Iron Works (founded 1710) was formerly carried by 
barge from Low Furness to this point. 

t Traces of such a building were found in 1774. See the " Lonsdale Magazine," 
Vol. II., p. 85. 



?2 HISTORY. 

Dalton. Here again we do not think a regularly engineered 
military road was made, but that they cleared a line through 
scrub and jungle, bridged here and there where necessary, 
and, where the soft ground could not be avoided, drained 
it, and made a causeway, or laid a "corduroy" of felled 
timber. This would be sufficient to keep open communication, 
or for marching reliefs when necessary. 

The actual evidence of this road we discuss elsewhere. 
We believe that it ran as directly as possible from Ambleside 
to Hawkshead, and thence down the Dale Park Valley, and 
from there by Rusland and Bouth to Penny Bridge. It is 
important to notice that as early as 1246, deeds call the 
last-named place " the great ford of Craich which is called 
Tumvath." From Tunwath the direct line would pass over 
or round a hill called Castlcbank, and close to Broughton 
(Borgartun) Beck. 

These three words Tun, Borgar, and Castle, indicate 
certainly that in early mediaeval days this point was the 
principal passage into Furncss Fells, and seem to point to 
earlier structures, probably military, which may well have 
been utilised by the Norse colonists." 

Although the Roman occupation of the northern part of 
Britain was essentially military, it would appear that the 
station at Ambleside became something more than a mere 
garrison post. Camden has described the ruins in his day 
as " the carcase of an ancient city with large ruins of walls ; 
and without the walls, the rubbish of old buildings in many 
places " ; and the number of coins and other relics found 
formerly on the site seems to indicate the development of 
urban population. Freestone, which must have made its 
way up from Low Furness by Windermere, has at times 
been discovered, though little has ever been done by way of 
scientific exploration at the site. 

* The reader should consult Mr. Atkinson's Coucher Book for the detailed evidence. 
In 1246 and 1276 we get "a magno vado de Craich quod dicitur Tunwat . . . et sic 
usque in liroctunbec," etc. (p. 348 and p. 378) ; in 1274, three acres between " Brogh- 
tonhevede et Hroghton bee," and " pontcm de Crayc." The pons was, we think, a 
foot-bridge, for as late as 1578 Penny ISridge was Crake Ford (West's " Furness "), 



HISTORY. 73 

The condition of such British tribes as remained in High 
Furness during the Roman period must have been the same 
as that of many savage races whose territory is occupied by 
a dominant civilized army. Their independence lost, their 
cohesion broken, and themselves degraded, they sank, no 
doubt, rapidly to a condition of menial poverty. While some 
would be introduced into the garrisons as slaves, others 
preserved a nominal freedom by ministering to the necessities 
and vices of the conquerors. The tribesmen would bring in 
skins and game from the forest and fells, for barter and sale, 
in return for which they would receive iron, metal weapons, 
trinkets, and intoxicants, which no doubt played havoc with 
the brains of many a poor mountaineer. A hybrid race 
would grow up, and as this strange-blooded population 
increased, houses and shops were erected to accommodate 
them, for, doubtless, like the Eurasian of British India, they 
would scorn the barbaric manhood of the conquered, and 
ape the civilization of the conqueror. We do not think 
that looking at the frequent raids of the Picts and Scots, the 
Romans would long have to fear anything from rebellion in 
these parts, for the Cumbrian Britons would know too well 
that without the protection of their conquerors their position 
would be far from enviable. After the first withdrawal of 
the garrison in 387 by Maximus, it seems pretty certain, 
from Gildas and other historians, that the condition of the 
Britons in the vicinity of the wall, subject as they were to 
the devastating attacks of the northern invaders, was truly 
miserable ; and at their great irruption of 407 it seems far 
from improbable that they were entirely broken up, and 
many of the camps wrecked or destroyed.* 

Local tradition makes out that under Roman rule the arts 
of mining copper and smelting iron were introduced into 
High Furness, but though such a thing is possible, there does 
not appear to be one grain of proof. Iron smelting, as we 
shall see, has been at some period extensively carried on in 

* See the excellent tabulation of Gildas' account in Skene's "Celtic Scotland," 
Vol. I., p. 113. 



74 HISTOR Y. 

the parish, and the Coniston copper mines are undoubtedly 
of considerable age; but in face of the complete want of 
evidence, we hesitate to accept a theory which probably only 
arises from the instinct common to country folks to ascribe 
to remote antiquity anything of which they themselves have 
failed to preserve the real origin. Though the Romans might 
easily discover the rich veins of ore in Low Furness, it 
would require a very efficient intelligence department to find 
and appreciate the value of the copper which lurks in the dark 
Silurian rocks of the Coniston Fells. 

With the Roman evacuation comes a dark period in local 
history, and the chronicles of British Strathclyde, of which 
our Cumbria formed the southernmost part, throw such feeble 
light on local matters that we are not justified in going into 
them in detail. 

North Britain was not like the southern portion of the 
Province, and the evidence that the natives had to any 
degree adopted the civili/.ation of their masters is but slight. 
We may well doubt, indeed, that once the Romans were 
gone, when the border lay stricken and bleeding from the 
onslaughts of the Picts, much organisation or order in matters 
civil or military remained. The Roman camps were in many 
cases sacked and burned, and the terror-stricken Britons who 
had escaped massacre seem to have fled from the sites, and 
reverted to their pristine barbarism. Possibly, when things 
quieted down a bit, there would collect again round the camps 
weak colonies of the hybrid half Roman class, who would 
repair and occupy the houses and military quarters, which, 
though ruinous, would be superior in accommodation to the 
rude British hill-dwellings ; but such colonies would only be 
the offscourings and hangers-on of the departed garrison, a class 
over whom the military authorities had no authority, and in 
whom they had no confidence. In a generation or so they would 
become merged in such tribes as remained. That the Roman 
camp at Ambleside did not retain a permanent population is 
shown by the fact that, like so many other Cumbrian camps, 
it was not occupied in the later Teutonic settlements. 



HISTORY. 75 

The Anglo-Saxon conquest, which commenced almost 
synchronously with the lapse of Roman authority, never pro- 
bably affected our parish. We find indeed two place names, 
Colton and Blelham, having seemingly in their terminal 
syllables the test words of Saxon and Anglian nomenclature ; 
but, as we shall elsewhere see, the first may well be Norse, 
and the other a corruption of Blelholmc. The Lake hills, 
in fact, were part of Kymric Strathclyde, which was not 
seriously menaced for a long while by the new-comers, 
possibly, we would suggest, as much on account of the rugged 
and inhospitable character of the country, as because serious 
opposition was encountered or apprehended. 

In 573, however, the Battle of Ardderycl (Arthuret, near 
Carlisle), fought between two factions of Britons, had the 
double result of transferring such importance as still 
remained at Carlisle to Alclyde or Dumbarton, and of 
concentrating the mission work of Kentigcrn at Glasgow. 
^Ethelfrith's victory at Chester in 607 extended English 
territory, perhaps, to the southern side of Morecambe Bay ; * 
while the campaigns of Ecgfrith, the Northumbrian king, seem 
to have still further shattered any British political organisa- 
tion which still remained near the border, and drove, perhaps, 
some of the surviving tribes to the Lake hills. Thus, in 
Bede's " Life of St. Cuthbcrt," we find that Ecgfrith, in 677, 
gave to the Saint the lands of Carthmcll (a very Celtic 
name), with all the Britons in it : and if there were then 
Britons in Cartmcl, it seems probable enough that there were 
others in the Hawkshead Fells just over the river Levcn. 
It looks, indeed, as if this dying race found a shelter here, 
protected on the north by the Lake district hills and on the 
south by the broad sands of Morecambe. Yet, absolutely 
degenerate as there is only too much evidence that the 
Cumbrian Britons were, they seem to have lingered in the fells 
for more than a couple of centuries. The Danes invaded 



* It is of course the case that about the middle of the seventh century Deii an 
territory was considered to extend to the West Sea, and apparently included as far 
north as the river Derwent, but the Angles never settled the Fells, even south of that 



7 6 HISTORY. 

England, destroyed Carlisle in 876, and planted settlements 
on the plains round the hills, and perhaps in Cartmel, where 
Danish stycas have been found ; yet, though in this period 
we get no contemporary glimpse of Hawkshead, we know 
that these two centuries were of deep import to all between 
Solway and Morecambe, for then it was that an actual 
Christian Church first emerged from the devoted efforts of 
the earlier missionaries. 

Then comes the Norse immigration, and about the same 
date the final elimination of the Celtic element from the 
fells. Yet, to what extent the latter is due to the former, or, 
on the other hand, to the expedition of Edmund, in 945, 
into Cumberland, and Thored, in 966, into Westmorland, it 
is not easy now to decide. The actual date of the Norse 
colonization is not recorded in history, and is not indeed 
quite certain, and the real reasons for the expeditions depend, 
as will be seen, somewhat on this date. We will put before 
our readers views taken by two students of local history at 
this period : 

" In 945 King Edmund, Athclstane's successor, wasted 
Cumbria, overthrew the British King Dunmail, in a battle 
said to have been fought in the wild pass now called Dun- 
mail Raise ; and the King handed over the district to 
Malcolm of Scotland as a feudal fief of England, although 
it was not an integral part of England." * 

Mr. Robert Ferguson, in his " Northmen in Cumberland 
and Westmorland," has advanced the view that the Norwe- 
gians, who had sailed round Scotland, having by this time 
planted settlements on the Irish coast and Man, must have 
often cast longing glances at the bold hills of Black Combe 
and Scawfell and the great bay of Morecambe, all of which, 
to some degree, would remind them of their own grand coast- 
line. Therefore, he suggests that this Norse colonization, 
unrecorded but not the less certain, took place after this 
battle, when the native tribes were broken and dispersed. 

Mr. W. G. Collingwood, however, takes a slightly different 

* R. S. Ferguson's " History of Cumberland," 1894. 



HISTORY. 77 

view, which would relegate the date of the arrival of the first 
Norse invaders to a somewhat earlier period the end of the 
ninth century. For this contention he quotes the Heimskringla : 
" Harald the King speered to wit how Vikings harried the 
mainland they who a-winter were beyond the western sea. 

. . . Then was it on a summer that Harald the King 
sailed with his host west over sea. He came first to Shet- 
land. . . . Thence sailed to the Orkneys and cleared 
them all of Vikings. After that fared he all in the South 
Isles, and harried there. . . . He fought there many 
battles, and had always victory. Then harried he Scotland 

. . . But when he came west to Man, there they had 
already speered what harrying he had garred before there 
in the land. Then fled all folk into Scotland, and the island 
was unpeopled of men." 

Mr. Collingwood holds that this shows that it was the 
Ulster Norse in Man who, thus fleeing from Harald, settled 
first on our coasts. True, the Saga says Scotland ; but, as 
Mr. Collingwood points out, the Cumbrian and Furness coast 
was Scotland " until Rufus expelled Dolfin from Carlisle." 
This would put the first arrivals of the Norse between 870 
and 895 A.D. Thus, by the first supposition it was King 
Edmund's expedition which laid the country open to the 
wild Vikings ; by the second it was the presence of the new 
colonists which created the necessity for the expeditions both 
of King Edmund, in 945, and of Thorecl of York, in 966. 
To the English kings, all Northmen were Danes, and all 
Danes were to be dreaded. The harnessing of a Scandi- 
navian colony was no doubt of far more pressing importance 
than any punitive expedition against a few starving and 
isolated British tribesmen. 

The results, anyhow, were the total disappearance of the 
British race in the Lakes. After the Battle of the Raise, 
local history knows them no more. Some say they fled to 
Man and Wales, and, if any remained, they were so few in 
number that they became merged soon in the new race, for 
they have left but little trace either in dialect or in the 
physique of the country people. 



7 8 HISTORY. 

If the Norse were in the fells when King Edmund came, 
there is no evidence that they offered him resistance. No 
doubt their numbers were as yet insufficient, and they 
wisely avoided an engagement, while the hot-headed Celts 
seem to have rushed to their own destruction. Yet the 
Norse stayed where they were, and waxed so in numbers 
that to this day Furness Fells, in place names, dialect, and 
even manners and customs, is as deeply impregnated with 
Scandinavian features as any part of the North. Yet, probably 
because the district was not then English land, this wonderful 
colonization remains practically unrecorded by the English 
chroniclers. 

And here comes in a curious piece of confirmatory 
evidence. Just outside the bounds of our parish there stands an 
ancient Norse Thingmount or law hill, the character of which 
is recognised and acknowledged by students of local history ; 
but this we must leave to be discussed in its proper place. 
The very name of our parish is taken from one of these 
bold sea-rovers. Haukr, whoever he was, may have beached 
his long ship at Hammersidc, or Ililpsford on Walney, and 
with his fellows having forced their way through the valley at 
the head of the lake, cleared a broad " thwaitc " at the foot of 
the fells, and there built a long rambling tenement of timber, 
and a great hall of the same make with dab and wattle. 
This he named Haukr-ssetr, or Haukrsidha, and so sprang 
into life our Hawkshcad. As the Vikings crossed the low 
Plain of Furness they must have passed the "hams" and 
" tons " of the Saxon and Angle setters ; but probably these 
earlier arrivals did not grudge the new-comers the poor soil 
of the fells, while the Britons, if Britons there still were, had 
neither numbers nor leaders to make a stand. So they were 
allowed to pass in peace, and the pages of their story are 
now graven in the streams, woods, and clearings, which they 
named as they settled their new territory. 

In the year 1000 Aethelred the King marched into and 
reduced Cumbria, " at that time," as Henry of Huntingdon 
says, " a stronghold of the Danes." Possibly his " Danes " 



HISTORY. 79 

were the Norse, the chronicler using his phrases loosely, 
as we call too often all Syrians, Egyptians, and North 
Africans, " Arabs." At this time Cumberland was wasted 
and pillaged, and the King's fleet made at the same time 
a descent on Man, the old home of the Norse. But the 
people in Man are now Celtic, while our daleside men are 
Scandinavian, so that this expedition, like those that had 
preceded it, failed altogether in checking the vigour of the 
Scandinavian colony. 

We have been compelled to write thus generally of the 
history of the North, to bring before our reader the 
circumstances which stamped so deeply the impress of 
Scandinavia on our parish as portion of the Cumbrian Fells. 
It will now be our endeavour to trace as well as we can 
the history of the place during the period succeeding the 
Norman conquest : a not too easy task, for the chronicled 
history of Hawkshcad is but slight, partly from its remote 
and somewhat inaccessible position, and partly because it 
early became a possession of a great monastery, in the 
chronicles of which as a member we only occasionally 
catch a glimpse of our subject. 

It is not within our scope to discuss the Domesday 
survey as it relates to Lancashire North of the Sands. Yet 
though neither Ilawkshead nor any place within our boun- 
daries are mentioned there, and only one or two names that 
can with any degree of probability be assigned to High 
Furness, we cannot avoid some mention of it. 

Chancellor Ferguson has pointed out, that at the time 
the survey was made, Cumbria was not England a very 
good reason for its not appearing in the survey.* But 
Cumbria, the land of the few remaining Britons and the 
Norse settlers, must have included the fells down to the 
Furness plain, for these are equally ignored. Hougun and 
Hougenai, names which appear to be preserved in Walney 
and Walney Scar, occur in the survey, and Dr. Whitaker 

* See also "The Pipe Rolls, or Sheriffs' Annual Accounts, of Cumberland, West- 
morland, and Durham," published by the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne, 1847, p. iv. 



8o HISTOR Y. 

has surmised without improbability that the site of the 
manor of the former has disappeared owing to the subsidence 
of the coast. 

The fact is that the fells were the hinterland, the bush, 
desert, or what you will, of the occupants of the country, 
and when the survey was made, no frontier had been 
defined. But High Furness was within the "sphere of 
influence " of the Norman race, and in later times, as we 
shall see, it became necessary to appoint commissions and 
fix the boundaries, as priest and baron pushed their way 
into this new country. 

But in the survey itself, all Low Furness and certain 
places in Westmorland appear to be indicated as pertaining 
to Amoundcrncss, for there is no new heading after that, 
until the places in Lonsdalc North and South of the Sands 
have been described ; and Amounderness, probably as part of 
Northumbria, is placed in the West Riding of Yorkshire, for 
Lancashire did not yet exist. Consequently, at that date 
High Furness was a no-man's-land, inhabited chiefly by 
Norse, but within the sphere of influence of the Crown 
as Baron of Amounderness. Now, prior to the Conquest, 
Earl Tosti, Harold's brother, had ruid great possessions in 
various parts of Amounderness, including Hougun, and most 
of these were granted by the Conqueror to Roger of Poictou, 
the first Lord of Lancaster ; but upon his banishment these 
lands returned to the Crown, and in the time of William 
Rufus, Amounderness was granted to Ivo de Tailbois, the 
first Baron of Kendal, and for some time from this date the 
Hawkshead district was no doubt considered parcel of the 
barony, as its caput being close at hand, a better acquaintance 
with the fell country would soon be attained. * 

* Chancellor Ferguson, in his "History of Cumberland " (p. 71, 74, 115, etc.), 
and the editor of "The Pipe Rolls, or Sheriffs' Annual Accounts, of Cumberland, 
Westmorland and Durham'' (1847, P- xliii.), allude to the grant of Amounderness to 
Ivo, or Yvo, but the Lancashire antiquaries and historians do not seem to mention it. 
For their account of the early grantees of Amounderness, see Baines's " Lancashire " 
(IV., p. 289), Gregson's " Portfolio of Fragments," 1869 (p. 55), Fishwick's "History 
of Lancashire " (p. 57), and Whitaker's " Kichmondshire " (p. 421). On the contrary, 
Baines and Fishwick say it was granted to Theobald Walter, temp. Henry I. and 
Stephen. It should be also remarked that Athelstan's grant of Amounderness to York 
at an earlier period defines the bounds, giving it a much more limited area, 



HISTORY. 8r 

The Honour of Lancaster was, however, given by Henry I. 
to Stephen of Blois, called Earl of Bologne, who thereby 
became the second Lord of Lancaster. Stephen, in 1127, 
founded the monastery of Furness, and with this foundation 
we enter upon the later mediaeval phase of our parish history. 

We need not here quote the often printed charter of 
foundation, but it should be noted that, though the forest of 
Furness and Walney and Lordship of Furness are all men- 
tioned, no actual boundaries are described. The reason we 
have seen no boundaries could be defined because it was 
intended that the grantees of the Crown, whether barons or 
monks, might annex all they could of the fells ; and any 
frontier squabbles between their civilized selves they must 
arrange as best they could. And it was exactly this which 
happened, for the earliest actual historical mention of any 
places in High Furness or Hawkshead arc to be found in 
a document which resulted from a dispute between the 
Abbot and William dc Lancaster, * Baron of Kendal, as to 
their boundaries in the "Montana; de Fourneis" or Furness 
Fells. 

For, just as we might expect, the Abbot and Baron must 
soon have been " fratching " (as we say in the vernacular) 
about this very territory ; for, in the latter half of the 
twelfth century, they found it necessary to have a distinct 
boundary settled. Thirty men, about half from their names 
Norsemen, and all probably settlers in the plain and retainers 
of the Abbot and Baron, were sworn in for this purpose ; 
and their decision, ratified afterwards by a Royal charter of 
Henry "II., settled the boundaries of the ancient parish and 
manor of Hawkshead. In the ratification it is first stated 
that Furness Fells are thus separated from Kendal : I 
"From where the water descends from Wrynosc into Little 
Langdale, and thence to Elterwater, and from there by 
Brathay into Windermere, and so by Windcrmcre as far as 

* He was at first de Tallboys, and was son of Gilbert, Baron of Kendal. He was 
the first of the three Williams de Lancaster (see Appendix). 

t The date of this confirmation is 1157 or 1163. See Appendix for schedule of 
deeds about this and other disputes which followed. 

7 



82 HISTORY. 

the Leven, and so by the Leven even to the sea." Between 
this line and the river Duddon was the disputed territory. 
The Abbot then drew a division line from north to south. 
" From Elterwater by the valley to Tilberthwaite, and from 
there by Yewdale back to Coniston, and thence to the head 
of Thurston (Coniston) water, and by the bank of the same 
water as far as the Crake, and thence to the Leven." The 
Abbot drew the line, so the Baron made choice. And his 
choice fell on the side which joined the Abbot's line on the 
west, i.e., the Coniston and Duddon side, to hold from the 
Abbot by a yearly rent of twenty shillings, and it was arranged 
that his son should also do the Abbot homage. The eastern 
division forming the old chapelry of Hawkshcad fell to the 
latter, except only the sporting rights ("cervum cervam et 
ancipitrcm "), which the Baron retained. Thus it is evident 
that the Baron's share constitutes Furness Fells proper (i.e. 
the fells belonging to Furness Abbey), and that to apply the 
name to the moors of Coniston and Torver is hardly correct. 

Two generations later, yet before the end of the century 
(i 196), we find a sort of sequel to this decision in an exchange 
effected between Gilbert, son of Roger Fitz Reinfred (who 
had married Helwyse, daughter of William de Lancaster II., 
and granddaughter and eventual heiress of the first William), 
and the Abbot, the Baron relinquishing the hunting rights, 
and receiving instead certain properties in Ulverston. But 
soon after, in 1223, William de Lancaster III., son of the 
last, was summoned by the Abbot to Westminster, and accused 
among other things of seizing his fisliery of Windermere. The 
pleadings and counter pleadings of this impudent charge are 
given in the Appendix. Each party claimed the right, abused 
each other roundly, and made accusations of trespass and violence. 
The verdict found was, that as the charters merely alluded to 
Windermere as a boundary, the Abbot could have no claim 
on the fishery, and the Baron was acquitted. Having, how- 
ever, cleared himself, in 1246 he granted to the Abbot a 
right to have two fishing boats, each with twenty nets, and 
two larger boats for carrying goods on Windermere and 



HISTOR Y. 83 

Coniston ; but in view of the monkish predilections for en- 
croachments, he inserted a careful clause about punishing any 
servants of the Abbot found poaching. This grant of fishery 
in no way transferred the lake itself, which became part of 
the Richmond fee belonging to the Lindesays ; and, as a matter 
of fact, there seems no actual evidence that the Abbot ever 
exercised the right thus granted. At any rate, at the Dis- 
solution no fishery of Windermcre appears among the Abbey's 
temporalities.* 

It is, however, to be noticed that in these boundary treaties 
of the twelfth century the name of Hawkshead docs not 
occur, partly because it was as yet a place of small importance, 
and partly because the limits and not the regions enclosed 
were under discussion. The first actual documentary mention 
of Hawkshead is about the beginning of the thirteenth century ; 
but before proceeding, we should turn our attention for one 
moment to the results of the evidence we have. 

By the time of the Domesday Survey, Haukrsretr had probably 
begun to grow in a sort of way, for the old Northern settler's 
family would have increased, scrub and forest round the lake 
head would have been felled, and the younger branches of the 
stock, finding that better land was not easily to be had near 
at hand, would build their steadings close to their grandsire's 
older house, and so in this primitive timber-built hamlet 
commenced the growth of Hawkshead. It should, however 
be kept in mind that this was not the only place within the 
limits of our present parish where this was going on ; and we 
must guard against imagining that Hawkshead at this early 
period was the only place of habitation, because it eventually 
gave name to the parish, for this was only an accident. 
Rusland (Rollo's or Hrolf's land), Finsthwaite (Finni's clear- 
ing), Arnside (Ami's hill home). Haverthwaite (Oatlands 
clearing), Nibthwaite (the new brer thwaite), Satterthwaite 
(the SEetr in the clearing), Grisedale (wild boar valley), Skel- 
with (the shed wood), Sawrey, Oxenpark, Hawkshead Hill and 
Outgate are all places of similar character and origin, though 

* See Appendix (Disputes as to Boundaries and Fisheries). 



8 4 HISTORY. 

some take their names from their founders, and others from 
other characteristics ; but owing to its situation in a wide and 
fertile vale, Hawkshead grew into a town, and gave name to 
manor and parish, while the other hamlets remained simple 
clusters of farms in origin the houses of the first Norse 
settlers and their progeny, and even in some cases till quite 
recent times, almost entirely owned and occupied respectively 
by families bearing one common name. 

The first historical mention of the Chapclry of Hawkshead 
indeed, of Ilawkshcad at all is a curious one. Just about 
the commencement of the thirteenth century we find the 
Archdeacon of Richmond giving leave to the Abbot of Furness 
to celebrate mass with wax candles at the private altars, at a 
time when the country was under a papal interdict ; and for 
this purpose he assigned the Chapclry of Hawkshead with one 
bovate of land and four tofts in Dalton : in other words, the 
revenues of the Chapelry were to be applied to the purposes 
of the abbey ritual. 

This interdict was perhaps, but not certainly, that in the 
time of King John in 1208. Now interdicts varied in severity, 
but even in the less severe ones all masses were forbidden 
except on great festivals. * But in this particular case we 
find a curious piece of local evidence bearing on this grant 
of Hawkshead Chapel to the monks. We have seen already 
how their boundary line had been determined ; and then the 
C'hapelry (not \ery old probably at this date) was placed in 
their hands ; and accordingly, as we may perhaps conclude 
they would be to some extent compelled to inactivity by 
the interdict, they took the opportunity of erecting their 
Manor house at Hawkshead Hall, where a few monks and 
lay brethren could reside, to attend to both the spiritual and 

* There is a great deal of difficulty about dating this grant exactly, the difficulty 
being that the initial of the Archdeacon is given as "H.," presumably Honorius 
(who heid the post 1 198-1200), while the heading commences, " Idem Archidiaconus," 
winch would appear to refer to the Archdeacon mentioned in certain preceding docu- 
ments, whose initial was " W.," presumably William, who was appointed 1217. 
There is evidently a blunder on the part of the scribe, but whether in the initial or not 
it does not seem possible to say. For a full discussion of the difficulty we refer 
the reader to the original documents in Mr. Atkinson's excellent edition of the Coucher 
Book (Chetham Society, XIV., 646). 



HISTORY. 85 

civil business of Furness Fells. In support of this we find 
in the Courthouse at Hawkshead Hall, which we describe 
elsewhere, some traces of architectural design dating from the 
thirteenth century. 

Soon after (1219-20), we come to some important docu- 
ments in the Coucher Book" bearing upon the consecration of 
a burial-ground at Hawkshead. From these we may learn that 
the population was increasing, and that the chapel had already 
existed for some time ; long enough, as it is put in one of these 
instruments, for the evidence of " ancient clerks and laymen " 
to be called for to settle questions in dispute. 

In the first place the inhabitants complained reasonably 
enough of having to remove their dead to Dalton for burial, 
a distance of about twenty miles, if we measure from 
chapel to church. Thereupon it seems the Abbot proposed 
to separate the Chapelry from Dalton, apparently with the 
intention of attaching it independently to the monastery. 
But this proposal elicited opposition from the Vicars of 
Dalton and Urswick, and an appeal was made to the papal 
court. In reply, Honorius III. issued a commission appointing 
the Priors of St. Bees, Lancaster and Cartmel, to enquire 
into the merits of the case, and to adjudicate thereon. In 
their decision they state that the Abbot and monks had 
sufficiently proved by witnesses and deeds that Hawkshead 
Chapel should be free and is separate (i.e., at a distance) 
from Dalton Church ; and that the Vicar of Dalton had 
renounced his appeal in order that a burial-ground might 
be formed at Hawkshead. Accordingly a papal Bull for a 
chaplain and cemetery was issued : I yet in spite of this, it 
does not seem that a formal division was made, for as late 
as the Dissolution, we find the chapelry styled " parcell of 
the personage of Dalton." At the same time we find 
Robert, the parson of Ulverston, abandoning a claim which 
he had before upheld on the chapelry, but which was proved 



* CCCCIX. and CCCCXVII. in the Chetham Society's edition, 
f The Bull itself is torn out of the Coucher Book, but an abstract occurs in the 
"Tabula Sententialis," Chetham Soc., Vol. IX., p. in. 



86 HISTOR Y. 

on the testimony of ancient clerks and laymen to have had 
no foundation. Yet, for some reason, the document chronicling 
this ends : " Yet the aforesaid Robert shall hold the chapel 
of Hoxet from the church and parson of Dalton fully and 
quietly in all things, cxce'pt bodies (i.e., funerals), which 
belong to Dalton, all his life, by the acknowledgment of 
half-a-pound of incense at the feast of St. Michael." 

The same century which had witnessed the foundation of 
Furncss Abbey, was that in which Lancashire was formed 
by joining the Mercian lands between the Ribble and Mersey 
to the northern hundreds reckoned in the Domesday 
Survey in the West Riding.* It was also but a short 
time after the foundation (1138) that one of the most 
destructive Scottish incursions took place. It is, however, un- 
certain whether Duncan's son William, nephew also to David, 
King of Scots, did indeed, with his wild northerners, de- 
vastate Furncss, although the possessions of the Abbey are 
expressly noted by some chroniclers as objects of their 
fury. Mr. Beck, however, has suggested that these were 
the Craven estates of the monastery ;f but other authors 
hold that Furncss itself suffered. Other incursions followed 
in the time of lid ward II. the first affecting Furness so 
seriously that a new and reduced taxation was levied on 
the ecclesiastical property of the district.} The second, under 
the leadership of the Bruce himself, led, it is believed, to 
the erection, or possibly re-erection, of the Abbey fortress 
of Picl (or the Pile of Fondrcy) on an island near the 
southernmost point of the promontory. 

Thus far, we have heard only of the Chapelry of Hawks- 
head ; but at this time the manorial system was established, 
and, although there was no Domesday Manor of Hawksheadj 
there can be no doubt that as soon as the boundaries of 
the Abbey lands within the fells were ascertained, the district 

* Green's " Conquest of England." p. 237 (note), quoting Stubbs' " Constitutional 
History," Vol. I., p. 129. Baines found the earliest mention of the county, 2 Henry II. 
(1164), in a Sheriffs Return (Pipe Rolls, Exchequer Office). 

t " Annales Furnesienses," p. 125. 
J " Annales Furnesienses," p. 253. 



HISTORY. 87 

was at once, as a natural sequence, considered for civil 
purposes in the light of a manor. This, the original 
Manor of Hawkshead, or Furness Fells, was conter- 
minate in every way with the Chapelry. * Now every 
manor had its Caput, which in ordinary cases, was the 
lord's residence or castle, and whether a fortress or a 
wooden hall, was the manor place. But at Hawkshead, 
there was no resident lord, cither in prc- or post- 
conquest times ; so that its place was occupied by a 
modest building, which, with the manor mill, the monks 
appear to have erected in the thirteenth century, about 
half-a-mile north of the town, beside a brawling beck. ! 
It may be useful now to take a glance at the condition of 
Furness Fells under monastic rule. Hawkshead, a chapelry 
of some age, as we have seen, as early as the beginning of 
the thirteenth century, and dignified about the same time 
with a manor place, was the capital, and presented, no doubt, 
in the fourteenth century, a fair type of a feudal village. 
Although Abbey tenants, as Scott points out in " The 
Monastery," possessed great advantages in these restless days 
over those who owed allegiance to marauding border barons, 
they were nevertheless liable for military service, although, of 
course, the calls upon them were less frequent than on their 
less fortunate brethren beneath the turbulent lay lords. 
Moreover, they were at least in the eye of the law mere 
serfs or villeins for the most part, though emancipated at a 
later date by the indulgence of the abbots. Can we picture 
to ourselves the little grey hamlet of cottars' huts, all tumbled 

* Hawkshead and Colton have now for long been treated as distinct lordships, 
but it is not at all clear when this originated. The two agreements of 1509 and 1532 
(see pages 92, 93) show that even in lire-Reformation times the district was for certain 
manorial purposes regarded as divided, the division line, " Ravenstie," being now 
difficult to identify; but later (1585), in the Code of Customs for Hawkshead in Kurness 
Fells, no distinction is made, and the jury is drawn equally from Colton and Hawks- 
head. Parts of Colton are so continually placed under the heading of Hawkshead in 
old documents, that it is evident that it was general to treat the two districts as sub- 
divisions of one manor. No distinction is made in the Commissioners' Certificate, or 
in Abbot Roger's Rental. 

t For Hawkshead Hall, see Chapter III. The round hill on which the church 
stands is remarkably like an Anglian " burh " or moated mound : but neither Angle 
nor Saxon, we think, ever got here. Possibly, however, this mound was the original 
site of the Norse settlers' house, replaced later by the church. 



88 HISTORY. 

and jumbled together (more so even than to-day), mostly 
one storied, and one or two roomed, half of stone, half of 
roughly-chopped timber, and roofed, most likely, with ling 
and rushes rather than with slate; on the hill above, the 
chapel, a roomy building, probably even then, but low-roofed 
and dark within? Above all, can we call up to mind the 
grim gibbet (true emblem of medievalism), standing out 
black and clear on the hill half-way between the town and 
hall, which men still call Gallowbarrow ? South of the town, 
and extending some distance along the margin of Esthwaite 
Lake lay the common fields which the tenants tilled for their 
own wants and also for the Abbey, and the grain from which 
would be carried to be ground at the manor mill. These 
fields would originally be divided into narrow parallel strips, 
of an acre each, divided by unploughed divisions or balks. 
But these balks have long since disappeared, the holdings 
have been amalgamated, and the name of Hawkshead field, 
and the parallelism of the stone walls, alone remain as 
evidence of this ancient form of agriculture. 

But the inhabitants of the fells were no doubt always, as 
at the present day, shepherds rather than agriculturists. The 
corn lands round the vill were scanty: sufficient, indeed, in 
good years for their own wants, but liable, no doubt, to give 
short supplies in bad seasons. The early dalesmen would 
occupy the original thwaites or clearings made by the first 
Xorse settler, but these would have by the fourteenth century 
been extended The slopes of the hillsides were still covered 
with ancient timber, but the fell tops were clear, and thither 
the tenants drove their flocks of herdwick sheep. It was 
the face of the country which dictated the sites of our 
picturesque fell-side farms, for the people of High Furness 
have never, and will never, draw together into centres of 
an}' size for this reason. Villeins, though they were held, 
and nominally bound in a servile tenure, the life of the 
dalesman of old, was, compared with that of the tenants 
of a midland manor, probably much superior. Fresh and 
sweet air he always breathed, and his diet of mountain 



HISTOR Y. 89 

mutton, cheese, milk, and oatmeal porridge, was one from 
which a race of Titans ought to spring. 

The customary tenants, then, of the Hawkshead Manor, 
although sprung from the race of the free Norse rovers, and 
curbed by the far-reaching spread of English feudalism, were 
not ill off. The numerous advantages they gained as Abbey 
tenants amply compensated for the withdrawal of a certain 
amount of liberty, and the better settlement of the territory 
itself under monastic rule, coupled with the encouragement 
given by their lord to agriculture and industry, may well 
have rendered their position one of envy among the tenants 
of the adjacent baronies. Yet even in Furness Fells, such 
was the lawlessness of the age that outlaws were not 
unknown. Mr. W. G. Collingvvood has noted in his " Book 
of Coniston," that Adam of Beaumont and his brother, and 
Will Lockwood, Lacy Davvson and Haigh fled here after 
slaying Sir John Elland, in revenge for the murder of Sir 
Robert Beaumont. 

" In Furness Fells long time they were 
Boasting of their misdeed, 
In more mischief contriving there 
How they might yet proceed." * 

This was in 1346, and here they stayed, a band of robbers, 
till 1363 or later. 

But there were other industries and occupations which 
employed the inhabitants of the parish besides agriculture 
and herding. In Stephen's original charter of foundation, 
Furness is termed a forest, a designation, probably, especially 
applicable to Furness Fells, where the valleys are still 
thickly grown with coppice : it was on account of the 
wooded character of this district that the industry of iron 
smelting was introduced an industry of which we shall 
have much to say further on. We do not indeed know 
at what period charcoal smelting was commenced in Furness 
Fells, but the bloomeries or heaps of smelted slag are 
numerous, and frequently reveal a site when no other 

* " The Book of Coniston," p. 65, referring to Whitaker's " Loidis and Elmete," 
1816, Vol. II., p. 396. 



9 o HISTORY. 

evidence, historical or otherwise, is forthcoming. Though 
these bloomeries arc probably of various dates, it is known 
that during the days of the monastic rule the industry was 
one of the sources of revenue of the Abbot of Furness. 
The fact is, that the ore which was mined in the rich 
iron country of Low Furness was conveyed to the Fells, 
partly by pack-horse, and partly, no doubt, by the water- 
ways of Coniston and Windermcre, because the plentiful 
supply of wood fuel rendered it worth while. After the 
Reformation these forges were suppressed at the request of 
the inhabitants, because they were so destructive to the 
woods, the croppings of which were required for their 
cattle. 

We have seen also that fishery in Windcrmere and 
Coniston was granted to the Abbey in 1246; and perhaps 
the netting of fresh water fish for the Abbey would, for a 
short time, form a not unimportant industry in the fells. 
But the \Vindermcre right was apparently soon abandoned, 
and so also probably that on Coniston, for in the Com- 
missioners' Certificate of the revenues of the Abbey taken in 
1537, we find only enumerated Blalam Tcrne (Blelham) and 
1 laverthwaite and Finsthwaite, * and the " thyrde Estwater" 
(Esthwaitc), which were " always reserved for the'xpence of 
the said late monastery," and of these the I laverthwaite 
fishery was by far the most valuable. It would seem by 
this that a third part of the whole take in Esthwaite went 
to the refectory tables at the Abbey, and also the products 
of Blelham, the Leven at Haverthwaitc and the tarns in 
Finstluvaitc. Priest Pot at the head of Hawkshead, was, no 
doubt, a private fish-pond for the Hall, and the remaining 
streams and becks might be fished by the tenants for them- 
selves. 

In the same way huntsmen and hawkers would be main- 
tained in the fells to supply the Abbey tables with game. 
This had indeed become the right of the monastery by the 



* The Finsthwaite fishery is, in the "Decree for Abolishing the bloom smithies " 
called Dulas, a name not now known. It was probably Bortree Tarn. 



HISTORY. 91 

exchange, in 1196, with Gilbert, son of Roger FitzReinfred, 
and this was confirmed by Edward III. (1337), who granted 
free warren to the Abbot in all their demesne lands in 
Lancaster, Yorkshire, and Cumberland/" The buck, doe and 
falcon mentioned in the early charters, give us some clue 
as to the most prized sorts of game. The first two were 
probably the red deer, and the falcon (ancipiter) must refer 
to a breed which they domesticated and trained for hawking 
possibly similar to the valuable Manx species. The wolf 
and wild pig must have still abounded ; and, amongst winged 
game, the red grouse, herons, and various sorts of water 
fowl, now scarce, though not extinct. 

We can find traces, too, of the land tenure in prc-Reforma- 
tion days in many of the farm names. 

The most important of these is the word " Park," which is 
common in Furncss Fells, and signifies nothing more than an 
enclosure of fell or woodland. Some writers state that an 
abbot, in the time of Kdward I., obtained license from the 
King to enclose large tracts in Furness Fells, but we can 
find no authority for this ; but in the Couchcr Book there is 
a license from the third Fdward (1338) for parks to be made 
at Clayf, Furness Fells, and other places.! These parks, 
however, were mere enclosures, although it appears that, in 
1516, Abbot Banke made a real deer park, five miles in 
circumference, in Grisedale, which we have already suggested 
was, most probably, the valley known as Dale Park at the 
present day ; and we have no record of any other park 
having ever been formed for the same purpose. 

Less extensive in size than the " Parks," but much more 
numerous, are the holdings called " Ground," which are found 
in many parts of the fells, but principally in the northern 

* In the grant in the Coucher Book, No. LXIII., is a schedule of the places, those in 
Hawkshead Chapelry being put first. They are Haukeshed, Sourer (Sawrey), Clayf, 
Graythwait, Saterthwait, Grisedale, Finnesthwait, Haverthwait, Rolesland (Rusland), 
Bouthe, Colton, Neburthwaite (Nibthwaite), Kunyngeston (Monk Coniston). 

t The principal parks are Oxen, Hell, Slot, Dale, Elterwater, Waterside, Lawson 
or Lowson, and Robert Banke Parks, also Park-a-moor. All these are enumerated in 
Abbot Roger's Rental (Beck's " Annales Furnesienses," p. 329), among the granges of 
Furness Fells. There are also Hawkshead Hall Parks. 



92 HISTORY. 

part. In these farms we have in every case a family name 
affixed, as Sawrey-Ground and Thompson-Ground. So 
common are they that we find no less than fifty-three names 
of this sort, of which thirty-six are in Furncss ; and the list 
is probably not complete.* In almost every case these farms 
arc upon what was formerly Abbey land, and it is generally 
believed that in every case we have the record of the 
enclosure of a piece of land to a farm by a tenant of the 
Abbey. The origin of these " grounds " seems to have been, 
however, as late as the sixteenth century. At that date 
monastic rule was tottering, and in the period of confusion 
whicli heralded the impending Reformation the management 
of secular affairs became lax, and the tenants of Furness 
Fells and Hawkshead took advantage of the condition of 
affairs, and made greater enclosures to their farms than they 
had a right to. Accordingly, two agreements were made, 
one between the Abbot and convent and the tenants of 
Furness Fells (1509), and the other between the same authorities 
and the tenants of Hawkshead (1532). These two documents, 
which have been printed by Beck and West,* are almost 
identical in terms. They set forth that the Abbot and convent 
" have found them greved with theire tenantes ... for soe 
much as the saide tenantes haith enclosed common of pastur 
more largclie than they aughte to doe, under the colour of 
one bargaine called Bounden of the Pastur." And that it 
was now agreed as follows : 

" Every vj s viij d yerlie rente, which payeth iiij d for boundery 
(" bounding " in the other agreement) shall have one acre 
and halfe of such ground as haith been of common pasture 
within tyme of man's mynde ; and those tenantes that haith 
more then iiij d for vj viij d of yerelie rent, to have there 
improvements more largelie, and those that payeth less then 
iiij to have their improvements thereafter." On their side 
the tenants undertook not to improve beyond these limits, 

* The list (made by the writer) has been printed in the "Westmorland Note 
Book," Vol. I., p. 143, Kendal, 1888-9. 

* West's " Antiquities of Furness," 1774, p. 154 ; Beck's " Annales Furnesienses," 
PP- 303, 3I3- 



HISTORY. 93 

to fence in their enclosures, and that such as exceeded the 
limits of their agreement should forfeit their tenant-right. The 
Furness Fells agreement is signed at Colton by the Abbot, 
four monks, and twenty-two tenants ; while that of Hawks- 
head is signed at Hawkeshall (Hawkshead Hall) by the 
Abbot, six monks, and forty-five tenants. * 

It was probably when these acre-and-a-half allotments 
were sanctioned that the dalesmen dignified their holdings 
with the name of " ground," and this concession on the part 
of their feudal lords was as important a step in the progress 
of the emancipation of the Furness 'statesman as it is a 
feature in the place-names of to-day. 

It will be seen by the reader that the material relating 
to our chapelry in pre-Reformation times is anything but 
abundant. Documents relating to the parish are rare, and 
very little is chronicled of purely local interest. The fells 
formed but a member of the Abbey estates, and the Abbey 
itself was somewhat distant, and was itself the centre of local 
history. Moreover, in Hawkshead there was no territorial 
family under the Abbey, so that there are no grants or 
charters on record. There was as yet no market, so that, 
although as a portion of the Abbey land the Manor was of 
great value, there is little recorded of the life of the inhabi- 
tants. Here and there arc glimpses indeed of transactions of 
one sort or another, but as a rule they arc unimportant, and 
nearly always just before the Dissolution. A lease of Hawks- 
head Hall, in 1513, to one Robert Dowlyng, is given by Beck,f 
and in 1531 (22 Henry VIII.) information was laid by 
one William Tunstall against Abbot Bankc the same bad 
abbot who had imparked at Grisedalc. One of Tunstall's 

* In the signatures of the tenants we find the names of the principal families of the 
period. At Hawkshead we have ten Braithwaites, five Satterthwaites, two Holmes, 
two Pennys, three Rigges, two Kirkbys, and two Tomlinsons. In Colton four Raw- 
linsons, three Robinsons, four Dodgsons, two Taylors, etc. There is a record of another 
visit of the Abbot to Hawkshead Hall in 1520-1 in the "Pleadings and Depositions in 
the Duchy Court of Lancaster" (Record Soc., Vol. II., p. 93, et seq.}. The Abbot of 
Furness v. Christopher Bardesay. A witness, Thomas Richardson, deposes that in that 
year he offered 66s. 8d. to the Abbot, who was at a court at Hawkshead, being a 
moiety of the rent of a tithe barn, etc., at Bardsey, which was in dispute. 

t " Annales Furnesienses," p. 304. 



94 HISTOR Y. 

charges was that the abbot had levied an illegal tax on his 
poor tenants "dwellyng nye Colton Chapelle in Furness," and 
the abbot's reply was a denial. There is no record of 
proceedings having been taken on this and the accompanying 
charges, and the chief interest is that it proves the existence 
of a pre-Reformation chapclry at Colton. * 

The most important information we have, however, is to 
be found in the Rental of Abbot Roger, which, as well as 
the Certificate of the revenues of Furness Abbey, by the Com- 
missioners of Henry VIII., 15 37, has been printed by Beck.t 

By analysing the data in these documents, we arrive at 
the following facts : 

The total income of the Convent, according to Abbot 
Roger's rental, is .945 odd ; and if we pick out all the 
items of Furness Fells, we find that this district contributed 
to that amount no less than .240 8s. 8d. This was made 



follows : 
Fisheries 




2 


S. 

q 


d. 
n 


Hawkshead Hall 
Furncss Fells Granges 
Villanorum 


2 
... 102 
AA 


O 

H 
I e 


O 
2 
6 


The Chapel, with its tithes, etc. 


... 8 7 


10 







240 


8 


8 



The Commissioners' certificate of 1537 is a little different. 

Fisheries... ... ... ... ... 418 8 

Lands and Tenements... ... ... 157 18 10 

Herdwicks and Shepecots ... ... 39 13 4 

Chapel, tithes, etc. ... ... .. 90 o o 



292 10 10 I 



"Duchy Office Pleadings," Vol. VI., R. I, quoted by Beck in " Annales 
Furnesienses," p. 312. 

t For the first, p. 325, and for the last, Appendix No. VI. 

J To this, the Commissioners add s. d. 

Mills (four) 578 

Rent of Ironworks ... ... ... ... 20 o o 

Woodland industries ... ... ... ... 13 6 8 

It is therefore evident that these three items were not let out by the Convent, 
though all three were certainly in operation. 



HISTOR Y. 95 

Again, we can compare the value of Hawkshead Chapelry 
with those of the mother church of Dalton and the ancient 
parish of Urswick, and in doing so, we find that though 
but a chapelry under the former, it was between two and 
three times its value, and four times as much as that of the 
last named. We find also that while in the entire rental 
only 164 stone of wool is mentioned, 80 stone of this is 
from our Chapelry. 

A somewhat peculiar point in the first named document 
may be noticed in examining the rentals of the farms in 
the fells. The largest batch is headed " Fournes felles," and 
at the end of it in giving the total these are styled " granges." 

These " granges " occupy the entire district except what 
formed afterwards the townships of Hawkshead and Ficldhead, 
and Monk Coniston and Skclwith, the north and north-west 
extremities of the parish. The latter are given separately 
under the heading " Rentale Villanorum ibidem," and include 
the following items : Brathay, Skelwith, Waterhead and Conis- 
ton, Hill and Fieldhead, Hawkshead field, and Setter parke.* 

We cannot decide now what was the distinction between 
these granges and the farms of the villatii. It is chiefly 
in this northern part of the parish where we find the " grounds," 
which were taken in by the tenants in 1532, and it is 
abundantly evident that at that date they were not feudal 
serfs of the kind that "villanas" originally signified. Possibly, 
and perhaps probably, the explanation is that the "villani" 
were the farmers of the corn and pasture lands, while the 
granges were nearly entirely devoted to sheep runs. Possibly, 
also, the "villani" of these named places were originally under 
the direct superintendence of the lay brethren at Hawkshead 
Hall, and the name of " villanus " remained till the sixteenth 
century. In the Commissioners' certificate a different division 
is made, i.e., into " lands and tenements," and " hcrdwyks 
and shepecots " ; but the latter are only three in number, 
Waterside, Lawson Park, and Parkamoor. 

* We cannot locate the last. West gives Slot Park, but this is amongst the 
granges ; so also is Satterthwaite. It may, however, be Satterhow at Far Sawrey. 



9 6 HISTORY. 

As the mills, ironworks, and woodland industries (all valued 
by the Commissioners) do not enter into the rental, we see 
that all these were kept in the hands of the convent for 
supplying their own wants. Of these we shall have some- 
thing to say in the chapter on industries, but we may notice 
here that the corn mill at Hawkshead was considered worth 
4, while those at Beckmyll, Sattcrthwaite, and Cunsey were 
only worth in all 1 45. 8d. We see, also, that for civil 
purposes the Manor was divided into seven bailiwicks, namely, 
Colton, Nibthwaite, Finsthwaitc, Claife, Graythwaite, Hawks- 
head and Brathay, and Grisedale, to each of which was 
appointed from amongst the best to do of the inhabitants a 
bailiff, each of whom received yearly sixteen shillings, except 
the bailiff of Hawkshead and Brathay, who received i 8s. 6d. 
What the duties of these officers were, we see from the 
Commissioners' certificate. 

" vii particlcr Baylycs in ffurneys fells whiche kepe the 
\voodcs ther, gather the strctts :;: and amercyaments and geve 
warning to the Tenaunts to appere at the Courts and to paye 
their rentes to the Rcceyvours cij s viij d ." 

We need hardly be surprised, considering the value of the 
district, that just before the Reformation the Chapelry actually 
attracted the envious glances of the Crown. Mr. Beck has 
printed in the " Annalcs Furncsienses " a letter from Abbot 
Roger, which shows that the king had condescended to demand 
of him the presentation. In this letter, which is addressed 
to Cromwell, Roger Pele sticks at neither adulation, nor even 
at bribes, for he sends him " ten Ryalles for one token," and, 
complaining that the king has desired him to send "our 
letters of presentacionc under our convent sealle," he invokes 
Cromwell's intervention, arguing that Hawkshead never was 
"ony personage or benefice, bott of long tyme haithe been 
one chapellc of ease within the perochene of Dalton " ; further, 
that in consequence of its distance from the mother church, 
license had been given to celebrate sacraments within the 

* Query " escheats " reversion of an estate to the lord on a tenant dying without 
heirs, or upon his committing treason or felony. 



HISTORY. 97 

chapel ; and " if it shulde fortune that ony suche presentacionc 
be had to the seid Hawkeshed, both I and my brethercn be 
utterly undone, and thereby shulde be compelled to leve of 
such power hospytalite as we have heretofore kept in the 
seid monastery." 

On the 9th of February, 1537, Roger Pcle, the Abbot, 
Briand Garnor, the Prior, and twenty-eight monks surrendered 
the Abbey to Henry VIII. From that date till 1662, the 
Liberty and Lordship of Furness, including the Manor of 
Hawkshead, remained in the Crown, when they were granted 
to the Duke of Albcmarlc, from whom they have descended 
to the present Duke of Buccleuch. 

In a parish like Hawkshead, the nursling of a great monas- 
tery, the Reformation necessarily makes a complete change in 
the scene. The old actors in the local drama arc swept away, 
and new ones appear. Before, we could but dip into the 
stream of history of the great parent house, and catch here 
and there at the shreds of information as best we might. 
But now the valleys waken to a life of their own : folks 
must think and fend for themselves ; new routes and new 
centres arc formed to the wants of the local community 
and our little stage becomes crowded with actors, each eager 
to play his part. But the more matter we have to deal 
with, the greater the necessity of marshalling our facts so 
that they may be lucid and consecutive. The sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries are so recent that to rush blindly into 
an account of them would be only to bewilder our readers 
with an undigested mass of parochial detail, development of 
trade and industry, progress of religion and dissent, many of 
which we would prefer to treat separately. We will, there- 
fore, attempt to keep as straitly as we may to the historical 
side, showing as best we can the bare outlines, which else- 
where we attempt to fill up in detail. 

The Reformation must have been a great blow to all the 

ecclesiastical districts, and trade and agriculture throughout 

Furness was probably paralyzed for the moment. The Abbey, 

indeed, was the market for all the produce of the fells. 

8 



9 8 HISTOR Y. 

Mountain mutton, wool (raw and spun), smelted iron, crates 
of trout, and, perhaps, char all were conveyed, we may feel 
sure, by pack-horse and barge to supply the wants of the 
Abbey, or of the town of Dalton, which had grown up 
under her wing. Grain was supplied chiefly by the tenants 
of Low Furncss, for it is doubtful if the hill-men grew much 
more corn than was sufficient for themselves.* Thus, as their 
old market had gone so their life changed, and new outlets 
for their produce must be found. As Dalton fell to decay, 
Ulverston rose to importance, which helped Hawkshead, as 
Ulverston wanted mutton and wool like the Abbey, and 
access was handier than to Dalton. Kendal was becoming 
the great centre of the weaving industry, and its traders 
wanted the fleeces from the " hcrdwyks and shepecots " of 
Furncss, so that Hawkshead became a wool market. But the 
inhabitants did not content themselves with selling wool and 
home-spun yarn, but they started weaving themselves, and 
set up their looms ; and though throughout the length and 
breadth of the parish no single loom remains to-day, we 
have but to question old folks to hear where they were still 
to be seen in the days of their youth. 

In pre- Reformation times the convent had had one to 
three iron charcoal smelting forges in operation in Furness 
Fells, f and these were let on behalf of the Crown to 
William Sandys and John Sawrey for 20, who no doubt 
counted upon the sale of smelted and forged metal to the 
tenants on the Abbey estates. But the tenants most reasonably 
objected to buying from a private firm that which in the 
old days had, no doubt, been allowed freely to them by their 
feudal lords in consideration of their services. Accordingly, 
they complained to the Crown, with the result that in 1 564 
a decree was issued abolishing the bloomsmithies because of 
the destruction of the woods, which were required for the 
flocks of Furness Fells. The tenants, moreover, agreed to 



* \Ve have, however, already discussed the difficult question whether the " villani " 
were not occupiers of grazing and corn farms. 

) Commissioners' Report, 1537. 



HISTORY. 99 

make good to the Crown the 20 which was thus lost, 
but they were permitted to smelt iron themselves for their 
own use. * 

We see here, also, that the dalesmen were now alive to 
the fact that their livelihood was dependent chiefly upon 
their flocks of herdwick sheep, and their fleeces ; and they 
saw plainly that they must make a stand against anything 
which might injure in any way this rising industry. It 
is, indeed, probable that they were at this time, or at any 
rate shortly after, considering the possibilities of getting 
Hawkshead an authorized market ; for the advantages of a 
central depot of their own, which would be easily accessible 
for the inhabitants of Ambleside, Kendal, Ulverston, and Dalton, 
must have become very evident. 

Their plans were consummated in the reign of James I., 
when letters patent were granted for a weekly Monday 
market, and two yearly fairs to be held at Hawkshead, 
the first to be held on the Feast Day of St. Matthew, 
and the day following, t and the other on the Feast of the 
Ascension and the day following, with all tolls, customs, 
privileges, and free customs, belonging to such fairs and 
markets, with a pie powder court, etc., for the relief of the 
poor of Hawkshead. For these privileges, Hawkshead was 
indebted to Adam Sandys, one of the family of Graythwaite, 
to whom the town owes so much. 

Now let us glance for a moment at the condition of the 
tenants of the Manor. The tenure in Furness Fells is 
neither freehold nor copyhold, but what is called customary, 
a kind of tenure that is also found in Cumberland and 
Westmorland, where, however, it varies somewhat in detail from 
that of Hawkshead. Now in origin, these customary tenants 
were, as we can see by the foundation charter of Stephen, 
regarded as villeins, completely at the will of the lord ; 
yet in process of time this tenure became very little 

* For full details see Chapter V. 

t Not Matthias as in West ; the original Charter is believed to be at Graythwaite, 
but we have never been able to see it ; and the exact year has never been recorded ; 
but see Chapter V. 



too HISTORY. 

inferior to a freehold ; although this was only accomplished 
by gradual steps. To begin with, the proximity of the 
Scottish border to these Northern counties necessitated a 
regular defensive arrangement among the lords, whether lay 
or ecclesiastical, and in order to effect this, every barony 
fee, or lordship, was bound to provide so many armed and 
unarmed men for Military service. And because, as a rule, 
each tenement or holding was expected to send one man-at- 
arms, it was necessary to take precautions that the tenements 
should not be divided or alienated by caprice or by will of 
the tenant ; so that it became in most parts the ordained rule 
that such estates were to pass undivided from father to son 
in the same family. This established gradually the position 
of the tenant, who, as a 'statesman, in course of time found 
himself in complete possession of an estate equal in most 
points to a regular freehold. 

But this was not done all at once the grub passes the 
chrysalis state before he becomes the moth, and the tenant 
did not bloom all at once into the 'statesman. 

The fact is, that after the Dissolution the tenants must 
have found themselves in a very uncertain position. Under 
the mild rule of the Abbey they had little to dread, even 
if they had not much to expect. But the Act which 
abolished the Abbey placed them directly under the Throne, 
and upon that throne sat Henry VIII. How were they to 
judge what was next to happen, and whether it would be 
good or ill ? 

Amongst the Muster-rolls we get some details as to how 
these armed men were portioned out in the various districts 
of High Furness. In the General Muster-roll of 1553 we 
find Ballcwickc of Hawkeshcad ... ... xvij. 

Nybthwaite ... ... viij. 

Grisdale ... ... vij. 

Gythwt ... ... ... x. 

Claife ... ... ... vij. 

In all, forty-nine men ; * and in the decree for abolishing the 

i* H a /J' M - S ' 22 ' 9; but Baines > in "History of Lancashire" (I., 506), quoting 
another Mb., gives also Colton 8, making in all 57 men. 



HISTORY. ioi 

bloomsmithies (1564) the tenants are ordered to "furnish, and 
have in readiness, when they shall be thereunto required 
. . . . forty able men, horsed, harnised, and weaponed, 
according to their ability, by statute of armoury, and horses, 
meet to serve in the war, against the enemies of her queen's 
majestic, her heirs and successors, for the defence of the 
haven and castle, called the Peel of Foudray, or otherwise 
upon that coast, without allowance of wages, coat, or conduct 
money ; or elsewhere, as need shall require, and shall be 
thereunto commanded and appointed, out of the rcalme, 
having allowance of coat, conduct money, and wages as 
inland men have." 

And again, in the Muster of 1608, we get a more detailed 
account : 

Bills. Archers. Sliott. Muskett. Pyke. Unfur. 

Hawkesheade u i o o o 84 

Graythwaite ... ... 10 2 i o o 67 

Nibthwaitc baliffe ... 5 o i o o 33 
Haverthwaite baliffc... 3 o I o o 70 
Coulton baliffc ... 4 o o o o 60 
Or a total of thirty-nine armed men and three hundred and 
fourteen unarmed. * Now in the Abbot's rental and Com- 
missioners' certificate we find a list of forty-six farms and 
hamlets with their rentals, so that we may conclude that 
for the most part each one of these supplied one man-at- 
arms, f The fact is that most of these hamlets had grown 
up gradually from a single tenement, some founded in the 
old Viking days, and some later, but all in the same manner. 
Sons and sons' sons had built their houses by the parent 
homestead, and so many of these hamlets presented a type 
of the patriarchal system, inhabited almost entirely by people 
of the same name and blood, united by the same interests, 
following the same employments, and owing suit and service 
at the same court. 

* Harl. MS., 2219. 

t So we get in " Flodden Field " : 

" From Silverdale to Kent Sandside, 

Whose soil is sown with cockle-shells, 
From Cartmel eke to Connyside 

With fellows fierce from Furness Fells." 



1 02 HISTOR Y. 

The truth is, that although the Norman barons and 
prelates, to whom these Northern settlers were originally 
apportioned, chose to regard them as feudal serfs, our dales- 
men never surrendered completely the free man's pride they 
had brought with them from the North ; and the unsettled 
condition of these parts of England fitting well with their 
habits, there grew up this military tenure, out of which 
evolved the 'statesman and the modern customary estates. 

The copyholders and customary tenants of plain Furness 
had a battle to fight with the Attorney-General Brograve, 
which resulted in a victory for them in the twenty-fifth year 
of Elizabeth's reign, upon which their rights became properly 
established ; * and the tenants of the Crown manors of 
Westmorland and Cumberland had a far more important 
struggle with James the First, which was not finally settled 
till about 1626, ending fortunately in the interests of justice 
in a confirmation of their rights. \ 

Hut Furness Fells and Hawkshead managed more fortunately, 
for they were implicated in neither dispute ; and although 
West tells us that, immediately after the Reformation, "frequent 
commissions had been issued to settle the affairs of Furness, 
and particularly of the customary tenants," it remained till 
the twenty-seventh year of Elizabeth's reign (1585) for a 
proper code of customs and bye-laws to be drawn up by the 
tenants of the Manor, which was approved and recorded in 
the following year (1586). 

This code has been printed in full by West.t and as we 
shall have occasion to analyse it somewhat carefully else- 
where, we need do no more than briefly notice it here. The 
list of the jury who drew up the code was drawn impar- 
tially from all parts of the parish, and contains the local 



* See West's "Antiquities of Furness," 1774, p. 123 et seq. 




t Page 157 et seq. A copy, in the handwriting of the period, is at Graythwaite 
Low Hall. It differs only in immaterial points from West's version, and in that the 
names of the jury are somewhat differently spelled. 



HISTORY. 



103 



names of Sandys (of Graythwaite), Nicholson (of Hawkshead 
Hall), Benson (of Skelwith), Brayethwaite (Brathwaite of 
Sawrey ?), Rigge, Holme, Wilson, Sawreye (Sawrey), Dodgson, 
Taylor (of Finsthwaite), Rawlinson (of Graythwaite), Pcnnington, 
Hirdson, and Redhead. The code itself consists of two parts : 
first, the verdict for the Queen, containing chiefly the forfeits 
or fines incurred by tenants for breaking the manorial customs 
or for other defaults ; and, secondly, the verdict for the tenants, 
setting forth their rights as to alienation of property, and the 
regulation of the descent and division of tenements, and 
charges upon estates. 

So it came about that by the end of the sixteenth century 
the 'statesmen of Furness Fells found themselves in a position 
to have everything their own way. There was no resident 
Lord of the Manor, no Squire, even gentle families were few 
and far between, and the line of demarcation between them 
and the better-to-do yeomen was hard to discern. Graythwaite 
boasted two such families those of Sandys and Rawlinson, 
and at Hawkshead Hall lived the Nicholsons, a collateral branch 
of whom were merchants at Newcastle. * All other residents 
were 'statesmen, greater or less, though among them there 
were numerous sub-branches of gentle families within and 
without the parish. 

This period the end of the sixteenth century was an 
eventful one in the annals of Hawkshead. The Reformation 
had shattered the ancient systems to their foundation ; it had 
changed the life of the people and paralyzed its trade, and 
dealt, it might have appeared to some, a death-blow to 
both industry and education. But this was not really so, 
for the Furness folks grasped soon at their new freedom, 
which, as we have just seen, was not long in receiving 
royal confirmation. And this was not all. Blindfold as the 
people had walked under the blighting rule of Monasticism, 



* The Nicholsons owned the tithe, or part of it, at one time, but how they got 
possession of the Manor House I have not ascertained. For their pedigree and earlier 
lessees of Hawkshead Hall, see the present writer's paper in "Transactions Cumber- 
land and Westmorland Antiquarian and Arclireological Society," Vol. XL, and this 
work, Chapters VII. and VIII. 



io 4 HISTORY. 

the time had come when another step was to be taken 
the first rung on the ladder of civilization ; for, during the 
time of Edward VI. and Elizabeth, there dawned on the 
moors of Westmorland and its neighbourhood the sun of 
education. This tendency towards the advancement of know- 
ledge was evinced by the foundation of grammar schools, in 
which might be learned the elements of the classic tongues. 
Rapidly the fashion spread, and Mr. Hodgson, in his " Descrip- 
tion of the County of Westmorland," writes : 

" Before the conclusion of the seventeenth century, semi- 
naries of this kind were commenced in every parish, and 
almost in every considerable village in Westmorland ; and 
education to learned professions, especially to the pulpit, 
continued the favourite method of the Westmorland yeomanry 
of bringing up their younger sons till about the year 1/60, 
when commerce became the high road to wealth, and Greek 
and Latin began reluctantly and by slow gradation to give 
way to an education consisting chiefly of reading, writing, 
and arithmetic." 

In this movement our little town was not behindhand, for 
in the twenty-seventh year of Queen Elizabeth (1585) Edwin 
Sandys, Archbishop of York sprung from the Graythwaite 
family, and himself probably a native of the parish obtained 
letters patent for a grammar school to be established at 
Ilawkshead. The foundation charters and statutes, which arc 
dated three years later, show us what was considered a good 
education in these days. We note that the education was 
to consist of " Gramm', and the Pryncyples of the Greeke 
tongue, w th other Scycnses ncccssaric to be taughte in a 
gramm' schole," and that nothing was to be charged for 
these advantages. We see also what long, hard hours of 
work were considered necessary, for between the Annunciation 
of the Blessed Virgin Mary and St. Michael the Archangel 
it was ordered that work on every work day should com- 
mence " at six of the Clock in the Morninge, or at the 
furthcstc within one halfe hourc after, and soe to contynewe 
until Eleven of the Clocke in the forenoone, and to begyne 



HISTORY. 105 

agayne at One of the Clocke in the aftcrnoone, and so 
continewe, untill ffive of the Clocke at Nighte." And, between 
Michaelmas and the Annunciation of the Virgin Mary, the 
hours were from seven or half-past seven till eleven in the 
morning, and then from half-past twelve till four in the 
afternoon. Special prayers were composed to be read before 
and after work : and before sitting down to dinner the 
scholars were to "Sing a Psalme in Meter in the said 
Schole." Holidays were but few and far between. The first 
was from a week before Christmas to the next working day 
after the twelfth day of Christmas ; and the other was a 
fortnight at Easter. Also it was ordained that at the 
breaking-up time " The chiefeste Schollars of the said Schole 
shall make Oracons, Epistles, verses in Latyne, or Grceke 

. . . that thcrbie the said Scholemastcr maic see how 
the said schollars have pfytcd." Provision was made to keep 
the wilder spirits in bounds, for we read that, " Alsoc they 
shall use noe weapons in the scholc as sworde, dagger, 
waster, or other lyke to fightc, or brawle withal, nor any 
unlawfull gamming in the scholc. They shall not haunt 
Tavernes, Aylehowscs, or playingc at anic unlawfull games, 
as Cardes, Uyce, Tables or such lykc." ' : 

Thus we sec that, by the pious act of the good Arch- 
bishop, the path to knowledge was first laid open to the 
ignorant dalesmen and inhabitants of this retired corner of 
Lancashire. During the seventeenth, and great part of the 
eighteenth centuries, the school flourished, for those were the 
days \\ hen the classic tongues were esteemed, and " good 
mercantile educations" were unknown. The old monkish 
tradition of reading and writing in Latin was not yet 
extinct. Rome yet lived in a way, even here in the far 
north. Boys scribbled in Latin on the first page of their 
task books ; parsons kept their parish registers in Latin ; even 
auctioneers' sale schedules were partly made out in the same 
tongue. To patter Latin was in the vernacular " collership," 
and the father whose son possessed this accomplishment was 



* See Chapter X. for the Statutes in full. 



io6 HISTORY, 

a proud and happy man. But the system came too late, for 
it came just before that great trade stimulus which was to stir 
the British people from north to south, and by which England 
was destined to climb to that mercantile supremacy which she 
now holds, or which, must it be said, she has hitherto held. 
For this new life the dead tongues were not wanted, and so 
Hawkshcad and other grammar schools founded on similar 
principles, lost, to a large extent, the reputations they had won, 
and were ultimately compelled to seek re-organisation on newer 
and more modern principles. 

Now let us turn to the parish itself. We have seen already 
that the formal Papal decision in favour of the separation of 
the Chapelry from the mother church of Dalton, in the thirteenth 
century, was never, for some unexplained reason, really made 
absolute ; and that in more than one document at the time of 
the Reformation, Hawkshcad is still referred to as a chapelry 
under Dalton. We have shown also its origin as the Abbot's 
share, when the boundaries were laid out between the Monastery's 
estates and those of the Baron of Kendal. The Chapelry was, 
as a natural sequence, contcrminatc in every direction with the 
joint lordships, including, therefore, the whole of the old parish 
of Hawkshcad and the present parish of Colton, which fills up 
the triangle between the foot of Coniston Lake and Windermere, 
and has its apex at the junction of the Crake and Leven at 
Grecnodd. 

Ilawkshead played a small part in the futile rising of 1537 
called the " Holy Pilgrimage," or the " Pilgrimage of Grace," 
which followed the dissolution of the smaller monasteries, being 
no doubt fomented by many of the lately dispossessed clergy. 
As the history of this rising can be found in numerous works, 
and as the local connection with it has been treated at length 
already in two local books, the briefest mention only is required 
here. * The leader of the revolt, in which forty thousand took 
part, was one Robert Askc, by some called a gentleman of 

* Clarke's " Survey of the Lakes," 1789, p. 149 ; Tweddell's " Furness Past and 
Present," I., p. 75, See also " Aske's Rebellion," 1536-7, by George Watson, in 
" Transactions Cumberland and Westmorland Archaeological and Antiquarian Society." 
XIV., H . 335"?. 



HISTORY. 107 

Yorkshire, and by others a man of low parentage. The object 
was to bring before the King a series of vague and ill-considered 
charges. To the contingents raised at various places Aske 
issued proclamations, and that despatched to Hawkshead is 
still preserved, and although it has been already printed we 
venture to reproduce it : 

" To the Commyns of Hawkeside Parish, Bailiffs, or Constables, 
with all the Hamletts of the same. 

" Well beloved, we greet you well ; and whereas our brother 
Poverty and our Brother Roger goith forward, is openly for the 
aide and assistance of your faith and holy church, and for the 
reformation of such abbeys and monasterys now dissolved and 
subpressed without any just cause. Wherefore gudde brethers 
forasmuch as our sayd brederyn hath sendc to us for ayde and 
helpe, wee do not only effectually desire you, but also under 
the paine of deadly sinne we comaunde you, and eury of you 
to be at the stoke Greene beside Hawkeside Kirkc, the Saturday 
next being the xxviii day of October, by xi of the clock in your 
best array ; and as you will make answer before the heigh 
judge at the dreadfull day of dome, and in payne of pulling 
doune your houses, and leasing of your gudds, and your bodies 
to be at the Capteyn's will : for at the place aforesaid, then and 
there, yee and wee shall take furthur directions concerning our 
faith, so farre decayed, and for gudde and laudable customcs of 
the country, and such naughty inventions and strange articles 
now accepted and admitted, so that our said brother bee 
subdued, they are lyke to goe furthwards to utter undoing 
of the Comynwealth." 

"Our brother Roger" mentioned in this strange document 
has been conjectured to be the last Abbot of Furness, while 
"our brother Poverty" was Mr. A. Craig Gibson has sur- 
mised a Hawkshead fisherman. It is, however, more probable 
that he was one of the four Penrith captains, named Hutton, 
Beck, Whelpdale, and Burbeck, who were respectively known 
as Charity, Faith, Poverty, arid Pity. * The rioters eventually 

* See A. Craig Gibson in "The North Lonsdale Magazine," 1866, p. 259, and 
also Mr. Watson's paper already cited. 



io8 HISTORY. 

met the Duke of Norfolk at Doncastcr, and through him a 
long list of demands was laid before Henry VIII. 

The King replied by a somewhat derisive letter, but 
pardoned the rioters who dispersed. Aske and the Lords 
Darcy and Hussy were afterwards beheaded, and so also, 
according to Clarke's " Survey of the Lakes," " the Abbot and 
Prior of Sawrey, near Hawkshead." This must surely be an 
error of " Salley," the last Abbot of which monastery, as well 
as the Abbot of Whallcy, suffered capital punishment. 

Hut this rising forms only a sequel to the Reformation, and 
the post-Reformation history of Hawkshead as a parochial unit 
really commences in 1578, when Archbishop Sandys, who after- 
wards founded the school, constituted it an independent parish 
by an act of metropolitan power, and at the same time made 
Colton parochial and consecrated its chapel. 

Now this parochial Chapelry of Colton was destined to become 
an independent parish in 1676, and a few words about it and 
the minor Chapclrics are necessary before proceeding. 

There is evidence that a chapel existed at Colton in pre- 
Rcformation times, but when it was founded we have nothing 
to shew. The " Liber Regis" mentions it as such, and so also 
Bishop Gastrell, who styles it a " mean, unconsecrated chapel." 
The first actual mention of it (in 1531) we have already noticed,* 
but there is some evidence of greater antiquity, notably the 
existence of a pre-Reformation bell and a fifteenth century font. 
At the Dissolution it was placed under Dalton, in conjunction, 
that is, with Hawkshead ; for when the latter place was made 
a parish, Colton Chapelry was undoubtedly considered a 
dependency. 

The Chapelry of Satterthwaite is believed to have been 
consecrated about the .time of the Reformation, and as 
an unconsecrated Chapelry it may possibly be older, t It 
certainly existed in 1650, for in the Parliamentary Surveys of 
Church lands of that year (Inquisition, June 19, 1650) we find 



94. 

t See Gastrell's " Notitia Cestrienu's," ed. by F. R. Raines for the Chetham 
boc., Vol. XXII. ; also Tweddell's " Furness Past and Present," I., p. 107. 







u 

a 

rsi 




HISTORY. in 

the inhabitants praying that "Satterthwaite Chapel maybe made 
a Parish Church, and that Graisdale, Parkeymore, Daleparke, 
Graithwaite, and Risland, consisting of one hundred families 
or thereabouts, and four miles distant from the Parish Church, 
may be added thereunto." This petition was ignored, as is 
evident from the fact that the inhabitants continued to register 
till 1/66 at Hawkshead. 

There was one other ancient chapel in the parish, situated 
at Graythwaite, but its site is now unknown. Neither is it on 
record why it was abandoned, or at what period. Indeed, the 
only record remaining of it appears to be that in Bishop 
Gastrell's " Notitia Cestriensis " : "This was formerly a chapel, 
but not made use of in ye memory of man. One Rob. Sater- 
thwaite w' n a Boy heard his grand f. say he had been sev. times 
at Worship there. Certif. by Min., An. 1722. A poor mean 
building, about 12 yards long, not six within. The walls 
made use of for a maltkin and Turfroom by a Quaker in whose 
possession it now is. An. 1722." Not improbably this chapel 
owed its origin to the Archbishop. ''' 

It is difficult to tell at what period the parish was broken up 
into the townships, quarters, or divisions as they existed during 
the eighteenth century, for no parish account book is extant 
earlier than 1696. It should be noticed that as both Colton and 
Hawkshead have their four quarters, it is probable that it was 
subsequent to the separation of Colton from the mother parish 
that these sub-divisions were made for the organizing of 
parochial business. They probably in a great measure replaced 
the seven pre-Reformation Bailiwicks, which are the only 
divisions we find mention of at an earlier date, t 

The conduct of parochial affairs rested in the hands of the 
following officials : The Minister or Curate ; the four Church- 
wardens; the twenty-four Sidesmen; the Overseers of the 



* The other ecclesiastical establishments are of modern date. Finsthwaite, 
erected 1724; Rusland, 1745; Haverthwaite, 1826. The churches of Brathay, Wray 
(in Claife), and Sawrey are still more recent. 

t " In 1649, the following bailiwicks are mentioned : Nibthwaite, Colton, Have- 
thwaite, Satterthwaite, Sawrey, and Graythwaite ; and in 1633 \Vm. Sawrey was made 
bailiff of Hawkeshead, with Hill Hawkesheacl, Robert (Bank Park) Water Park, and 
divers other hamlets, with a fee of 2 135. 4d." West, ist ed., u. 180. 



ii2 HISTORY. 

Poor; the Overseers of the Highways; and the Parish 
Clerk. 

The Incumbent was a stipendiary minister or curate, for no 
rectory or vicarage is believed to have ever been instituted. 
In Abbot Roger's Rental we find that 6 135. 4d. was the 
salary of John Tayleyor, the only pre-Reformation curate 
whose name we know. In 1585 the parishioners petitioned 
the Ouccn to increase the minister's allowance, which was 
then only .10, and was inadequate. A commission was 
accordingly appointed, and although it collected evidence and 
reported that the salary should be increased to ^30, we have 
no record of the result. ::: During the seventeenth century the 
stipend depended on various bequests of money and rent of 
some land and houses. Among the latter was an inn in 
Friday Street, called the " Three Blackbirds," which was 
destroyed in the great fire of London.) 

No parsonage house appears to have existed prior to about 
1650, when Dr. Walker, incumbent of St. John the Evangelist, 
in Walling Slrcct, a native of Ilawkshead and an eminent 
Puritan divine, gave the house called Walker Ground for this 
purpose. The present vicarage is no doubt the same building, 
allhough the residence of Mr. Lane, J.P., adjoining, is now 
called Walker Ground. Dr. Walker also made an allowance 
of /,2O per annum to the minislcr then in charge, who was 
Mr. William Kcmpe. 

'1 he twenty-four Sidesmen were a sort of committee ap- 
pointed by the Vcslry for the management of parochial affairs. 
It has been conjectured thai " Sidesman " was originally 
" Synodsman," because these officials had the power of pre- 
senting any offender against religion at the Episcopal Synod. 
Though no list of the twenty-four at Hawkshcad remains 
earlier than 1694, we think that they were appointed before 
Hawkshcad and Colton were separaled, and nol improbably 
before Hawkshcad was constituted a parish. They were 
chosen from among the most responsible men, genlle and 

* For this petition see Appendix under Lists of Incumbents, 
t See Appendix (Charities). 



HISTORY. 113 

simple, within the parish, and were portioned out six to each 
quarter. Their duties were manifold. They had to help the 
Churchwardens generally, and to advise them in all matters 
relating to the well-being of the parish. They presented parish 
officers who neglected their duty, and fined themselves for 
non-attendance at their meetings." Charities and endowments 
seem to some extent to have passed through their hands, and, 
to put it in a nutshell, they constituted a sort of Parish 
Council of those days. 

The Churchwardens were four in number, one for each 
division or quarter. They were elected annually at Easter, 
and most resident 'statesmen came in sooner or later for his 
term of office. Owing to the fact that no Churchwardens' 
accounts exist prior to 1696, we are in ignorance what the 
precise arrangements were prior to the division of Ilawksheacl 
and Colton, but the probability is that before that date the 
latter place had its own Chapelwarden, and that Churchwardens 
were appointed for the less distant parts of the parish.! 

Although the first book of Churchwardens' accounts com- 
mences in 1696, it is most meagre in detail until about 
1720, and it is perhaps doubtful if earlier books were kept. 
We can, therefore, only judge of the duties of these officials 
during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries from what we 
find recorded in the eighteenth century. Probably, however, 
in most matters these duties in a rural parish were subject to 
little change. The account book of the eighteenth century 
includes general expenses, bread and wine at Christmas, Easter, 
and Whitsuntide, mending the clock, flagging and strawing 
the church, new ropes for the bells, seeing to the steeple, 
mossing the leads to keep out the damp, ringing the bells at 
festivals, whipping dogs out of church, glazing the windows, 
general repairs, paying for the destruction of foxes and ravens, 
washing the church linen, buying Books of Articles and Forms 
of Prayer, mending tlie surplices, leathering the bell tongues, 

* The general parish meetings were held on St. Stephen's Day and Tuesday in 
Easter week. 

t The first actual mention of Churchwardens which we have seen is in 1683, in 
an order of the Kirkbys to the Churchwardens, to fine parishioners for non-attendance 
at church. 



u 4 HISTORY. 

smithy work, lime and carriage, loads of sand, journeys to the 
Sessions at the end of the Warden's term of office, cleaning 
the church plate, making and mending the Communion cloth, 
and cushions and pews. Much ale was charged for ringing 
at festivals and on other occasions. The dues payable for 
burials within the church are continually mentioned. It was 
also the duty of the Churchwardens to collect fines imposed 
for non-attendance at church, to aid in the suppression of 
Quaker conventicles, and probably to see that all shops were 
closed during service, and to herd any idlers from the public- 
houses or churchyard into the church at the commencement 
of the service and of the sermon. 

The Overseers of the Poor were four in number, and were 
elected, like the Churchwardens, at Easter. As in the case 
of the Churchwardens, there are no accounts extant earlier 
than the eighteenth century. Through the Overseers' hands 
went the various little charitable bequests which had at dif- 
ferent times been left to the poor. Their accounts were 
examined at the Easter Vestry, and probably were passed at 
the same time as the Churchwardens' accounts at the Sessions. 
Their duties were to provide relief for the poor in the shape 
of clothing, clogs, and sometimes meat ; old and destitute 
females were furnished with spinning wheels, to give them a 
chance of earning a living ; treatment of the sick,* the dis- 
bursement of lying-in and midwife expenses, boarding-out 
poor people and conducting them to their homes, the settle- 
ment of funeral expenses and arvel, and the provision of 
coffins, shifts, etc. 

The Overseers of the Highways, sometimes called Surveyors, 
were always elected the 26th of December, and were probably 
originally four in number, one for each ward. During the 
eighteenth century their number was increased, and they were 
elected to represent hamlets instead of divisions. It is an 
office of no great antiquity, and one no doubt very loosely 
administered in former days. Their chief duties would be to 

* The earliest mention of a doctor noticed is in 1 769, 



HISTORY. 115 

see that the pack-horse tracks were kept in some sort of 
repair. 

The duties of the Parish Clerk at Hawkshead seem to have 
been of a varied description. The register seems to have been 
sometimes kept by liim, he blew the pitchpipe to give the 
keynote to the Psalms, he cleaned the church, and no doubt 
dug the graves. A special annual allowance of i was left 
him in 1677, under the will of Mr. Daniel Rawlinson, to attend 
at tlie Monday (market day) service, which was instituted 
under the same bequest. 

Let us now see what became of the tithes subsequent to 
the Dissolution. We have shown that about that date we 
have two valuations, one in Abbot Roger's Rental, and the 
other in the Commissioners' Certificate of the Abbey Revenues 
in 1537. The first gives their value as ,87 odd, and the 
other go, and they consisted of lambs' wool, Lenten tithes, 
offerings, etc. In 1539 we find that Hawkshead Hall was 
leased to one Gyles Kendal, and from some Duchy of Lan- 
caster pleadings at a later date we learn that he farmed the 
Rectory. The tithes, however, appear to have been impro- 
priated soon after, and were leased to various persons. About 
the twenty-ninth Elizabeth (1587) they were let to Adam and 
Edwin Sandys, for thirty-one years, at a rent of (}o per 
annum for the first thirteen years, and .100 per annum for 
the remainder of the term. In the third year of James I. 
(1605) they surrendered their lease to the King, paying .250 
" in name of a fine," and obtained a new one for fort}' years 
at the rent of 100 per annum. Rut this lease was not 
allowed to run out, for in the ninth year of the same reign 
(1611) the tithes were granted by the King to Francis Morris 
and Francis Phillips ; and in the sixteenth year of James I. 
(1618) we find Francis Morice and Edmund Sawyer, citizens 
of London, disposing of them by indenture to Roger Kirkby, 
of Kirkby Hall, for i,c,^o.' : '- 

In 1649 efforts were made to increase the poor livings by 
grants out of sequestrated tithes, which were in the hands of 

* A copy of this conveyance is among the Hawkshead Hall papers. 



n6 HISTORY. 

Royalist malignants, and the Parliamentary Commissioners 
reported of Hawkshead that it " hath neither Viccaridge nor 
Parsonage only some small Tythes of Wool and Lamb and 
other small tithes within Hawkshead Bailiwicke, the value of 
the Tithes not being known paid to Richard Kirkby of Kirkby 
Esq r . as Impropriate to him and his heirs. . . . That the 
proffits issuing out of Hawkshead parish and belonging to the 
minister arc nothing worth but only what the people please 
to contribute save 20 per arm. which is given and paid to 
the Minister by Mr. Walker the Minister of John the Evan- 
gelist in Watling Street ... of which 20 the Parishioners 
have not any assurance nor know whether their said benefactor 
will settle the same upon the Church." 

An indenture was made on July 16, 1649, by Richard 
Kirkby, by which ,75 was settled, upon a composition, out 
of the tithes of Nibthwaitc, Colton, Haverthwaite, and Satter- 
thwaite, for the use of the Minister of Hawkshead. But this 
got into arrears, and was so in 1657, when it was ordered 
that 30 should be paid to the Minister of Colton, as a 
proportion.'" 

In 1689 Roger Kirkby, great-grandson of the last-named, 
mortgaged these tithes for 2,000 to Sir Francis Fowle, and 
the mortgage being foreclosed they passed to William Mead 
and Robert Brightall, of London, Goldsmiths, in trust for 
Jane and John Mead, executors of John Mead, of London, 
Goldsmith, who disposed of a portion of them in 1719 for 
109 4s. lid., to Myles Sandys, Esq., of Esthwaite, William 
Braithwaite, of Briers, Gent, and William Braithwaite, of 
Eoulyeat, Jonathan Braithwaite, of Fold, and William Rigg, 
of Foldyeat, Yeomen. Thus we see that, unless during the 
days of Presbyterian ism, the Curate-in-charge received no tithe, 
and even then it is doubtful if he got any. The tithe, as a 
matter of fact, was simply bandied about from squire to 
banker as a speculation. In Colton the tithes were purchased 

* See " A Survey of Church Lands, anno 1649," in the Lambeth Library. Local 
extracts are printed in Dr. Barber's " Furness and Cartmel Notes," 1894, p. 198. 
Sec also the " Register of Church Livings," 1654, Lansdowne MS. 459. 



HISTORY. 117 

from the impropriator about the end of the seventeenth 
century.* 

In the seventeenth century the inhabitants made an abortive 
attempt to prove that they were not liable to the payment 
of tithe, on two technical points, one of which was the 
supposition that all lands which had been held of the 
Cistercian Abbeys were exempt from this charge. The oppo- 
sition was not confined to High Furness, for many fruitless 
and vain attempts to prove the exemption were made in 
various districts where the inhabitants held what had been 
abbey land. West, in his "Antiquities of Furness," has much 
interesting information on the subject, including the statement 
of the case of Hawkshead and the opinion of Sir Matthew 
Hales, who was made Chief Baron of the Exchequer soon 
after the Restoration, and afterwards Chief Justice of the 
King's Bench.tJ 

Let us now turn to Hawkshead as a centre of Nonconformity 
in the seventeenth century. Between the Reformation and 
this date Popery had again for a brief period replaced 
Protestant Episcopacy, and had again given way to it. In 
the time of Charles I. a new religious change had taken 
place, and Presbyterianism had superseded Protestant Fpis- 
copacy. Through the agency of the "Westminster Assembly of 
Divines" (of which Dr. George Walker, born in Hawkshead, 
was a member) the Parliament in 1646 divided Lancashire 
into nine classical presbyteries, the ninth of which consisted 
of Aldingham, Urswick, Ulverston, Hawkshead, Colton, Dalton, 

* See the Rev. A. A. Williams in "The Rural Deanery of Cartmel (Parish of 
Colton)"; but I am indebted to an unpublished MS. by the author of the " Annales 
Furnesienses " for some of the above details. 

t West, first edition, p. 75 et seq. 

\ In the Duchy of Lancaster Pleadings, 6th November, 1646, we find that at one 
time the Nicholsons of Hawkshead Hall claimed the tithe as having been sold them 
by Morris and Philips in 1612, but we find no confirmation of this claim. An interest- 
ing document, however (amongst the hall deeds), is in our possession. In November, 
1605, Allan Nicholson had a grant of the Manor corn mill for thirty-one years, to 
commence from the end of a nine years' lease then running. The inhabitants of Claife 
objected to have to take their corn there and pay multure, and erected a new mill on 
" Smoobeck," in Colthouse. Susannah, the widow of Allan Nicholson, sued them in 
the Duchy Court, and in 1619 got a verdict, the Claife people being ordered to destroy 
their mill or convert it to other uses. The former appears to have been done, for we 
know of no buildings or ruins on Smoothbeck. 



It 8 HISTORY. 

Cartmel, Kirkby, and Pennington. With Charles II. Protestant 
Episcopacy once more became the State religion, and at this 
date also commenced the history of modern Dissent. 

The earliest evidence of Nonconformity is thus chronicled 
in the Parish Register : 

(Burials 1658. ffeb. x l1 ') "Agnes the wife of Edward Rigge 
de Hye Wray a Quaker which was buryed at Coulthouse 
in George Braithwt. packc (parrock) the same beinge an 
Intended buryinge place for that Sect, and shee the first 
Corps which was laydc therein." 

Now George Fox did not make his first visit to Furness 
till 1652, and his own meeting-house was not built at 
Swarthmoor till 1688. At first sight, therefore, it looks as if 
the Hawkshcad meeting-house is the oldest in the north. 
But this is not the case, although the formation of the burial 
ground in 1658 is a proof how rapidly the earnest doctrines 
of this remarkable man took root in High Furness. The 
deeds which are kept at Kcndal do not actually state the 
date of erection, but they show that while the land for the 
burial ground was acquired in 1658, that for the meeting- 
house was not purchased till 1688 ; and also that previous 
to 1698 most of the meetings were held at Hawkshead, 
while in 1698-9 they were held at Colthouse,* but whether 

* ISaines (" History of Lancashire ") says the meeting-house was erected in 1653 
(probably an error for 1658), which, as the deeds show, is only the date of the 
formation of the burial ground. The following are extracts from a schedule of deeds 
kept at Kendal, prepared by and kindly shown me by Mr. C. W. Dymond, F.S.A., 
of High Wray : 

(1) 4 March, 1658. A conveyance from Geo. Braithwaite to J. Rigge and J. 
liraiihwaite, Quakers, of High Wray, for 4 of "one peece or p'cell of arable land or 
lands ... at the low side of my close called pocke (parrock) adjoyninge the 
hye-way which goes from Hawkshead to Sawrey and to the Low Thwaite, which said 
p'cell or p'cell^ of ground is now known by the common names of " Buriall place" 
with a little pocke adjoyninge to the south end . . . being by estimat". the tenth 
part of an acre or thereabout ... to the sole only propp. use or uses, benefitt 
and behoofe of the Church of God att the Hyewray " and for the use of local Friends. 

It is curious to notice that in this the close of land was already known as " Buriall 
place," although only one interment had apparently taken place, and that, reckoning 
by "old time," less than a month before. 

(2) 18 1 1 month, 1669. A feoffment of the same, in which the land is alluded to 
as at Causey End, in Collhouse. 

(3) 31 May, 1688. This refers to the purchase of the meeting-house ground 
at Benson Orchard, extending from the hye-way to the wall on the west side, and 
from the wall on the north side to certain stakes on the south side, containing half a 
rood of ground. It does not appear that the meeting-house was then erected. 



HISTORY. 119 

at the present meeting-house or in some private dwelling we 
do not know. Probably, however, the meeting-house was 
completed and first used about this date. The necessity for 
a burial ground was in all cases more urgent than that for 
a meeting-house, for in these early days the Friends generally 
gathered in the private house of one of the more prominent 
of their number. 

It was in 1664 that there began the persecution of Non- 
conformists, by the " Conventicle Act," which ordained that 
every person above sixteen, attending any Dissenting meeting 
after that date, was liable to imprisonment for three months, 
or a fine of 5 for the first offence, double for the second 
offence, and for the third, a fine of 100 or seven years' 
transportation to the American plantations, from which escape 
was death. That this tyrannical Act was no dead letter at 
Hawkshcad, a warrant for the suppression of such a meeting 
at High-Wray, which is now in Kendal museum, well illustrates. 
This warrant is dated i6th January, 1684, and is signed by 
Roger Kirkby of Kirkby Hall, the lay impropriator of the 
Hawkshead Tithes, and the son of that Colonel Kirkby who 
was the relentless persecutor of George Fox and Margaret 
Fell. The meeting took place on the 3Oth day of the 
previous November, at the " Mansion house of George 
Braithwaite," who is described in the warrant as " Husbandman," 



(4) 113 month, 1704. A feoffment with two memos. The first provides that a 
parcel at the north end of the burial ground is to be reserved for the family of William 
Rawlinson or of such as he shall consent to be buried there, and for no oilier purpose. 
The other states that on this day"quiett and peaceable possession and seizin was 
taken and delivered by the above named friends of and in the p'cell of ground al;ove 
granted, by cutting up a small clod of earth, and delivering the same clod, pte. of the 
premises, in the name and lieu of possession of the premises." 

This year the burial ground was finally walled in. 

(5) 27 3 month, 1729. Feoffment of the burying ground. Refers to the new 
house called " the Meeting-house," lately built and walled round. A memo, notes 
the delivery of the key, a twig of wood, and a clod of earth, as token of delivery of 
possession. 

The records of the Hawkshead Quaker colony are not all together. The books 
of the quarterly, monthly, and preparative meetings are at Ulverston, in the hands of 
Mr. J. H. Clayton, Richmond Terrace ; the deeds and conveyances are at Kendal ; 
and there are other documents, we believe, at Devonshire House, in London. Mr. 
Craig Gibson (in Vol. VI., "Lancashire and Cheshire Historic Society," p. 68) notes 
that the Meeting-house was endowed with 10, to provide hay for the horses of 
worshippers coming from a distance. 



I20 HISTORY. 






which then meant farmer. The following were the convictions 
and fines : 

George Braitewaite for suffering the conventicle 
above mentioned to bee kept in 
his said house the sume of 20 o o 
William Atkinson of Monke Coniston, tanner, 
for his being present at the con- 
venticle aforesaid, and for his having 
before committed (and been duly 
convicted of) the like offence. oo 10 oo 
William Satterthwaitc, Colthouse, mercer, for 

the like oo 10 oo 

Edward Satterthwaitc of Town end, tanner, for 

the like offence ... ... ... ... OOIOOO 

Charles Satterthwaitc of Greene end, husband- 
man, for the like ... ... ... ... oo 10 oo 

Thomas Rawlinson of Graithwaite, gen., for 
his beinge present at the conventicle 
aforesaid, being his first offence ... oo 05 oo 

John Park, of Skelwith, hatter, for the like OO 05 oo 
John Birkctt, of the same, carpenter, for 

the like OO 05 OO 

Mylcs Birkctt, of Cartmelfell, yeoman, for 

the like ... ... ... ... ... OO 05 oo 

Agnes Satterthwaite, wife of the said Edward 

Satterthwaite, for the like ... ... oo 05 OO 

Barbary Satterthwaite, wife of the said 

Charles Satterthwaitc for the like ... oo 05 oo 
And because the said Agnes Satterthwaite, and Barbary 
Satterthwaite, arc feme coverts severally cohabiting with 
their said husbands, I have therefore adjudged the said 
several! ffines of five shillings (imposed on each of them, 
the said Agnes Satterthwaite, and Barbary Satterthwaite) 
to bee levied of the severall goods and chatells of their 
said husbands respectively. 

A certaine man, unknowne, for his teachinge and preachinge 
in the conventicle aforesaid, hath forfeited (by virtue of the 




HISTORY. 121 

said statute) the sume of twenty pounds, and because the 
same man is a stranger, and his name and habitation 
unknowne, soe that the said sume of twenty pounds by him, 
soe forfeited cannot bee levied of his goods and chattells, 
I have therefore (by my discretion) adjudged the same 
twenty pounds to be levied of the severall goods and chattells, 
of the respective persons (who were also present at the 
same conventicle) whose names are hereunder next mentioned, 
in manner following (that is to say). 

The said William Atkinson, of Monke 
Coniston (in parte of the same 20) 
the sume of ... ... ... .. 05 oo oo 

The said William Satterthwaite of Coult- 

house (in further parte thereof) other 05 oo oo 
The said Thomas Rawlinson, of Graithwaite 

(in further parte thereof) other ... 05 oo oo 

The said Myles Birkett, of Cartmell (the 

residue thereof) other ... ... ... 05 oo oo 

Even earlier than this date, fines were imposed for non- 
attendance of Church, for it was presumed that Nonconformity 
was the cause of such neglect. The following order is 
fifteen months prior to the last cited : 

" This is to the Churchwardens of Hawkshead, to fine the 
persons named within for not attending Church 3 Sundays 

i ;th Oct. 1683. 
Com. Lanes. 

Foreasmuch as the several persons hereunder named 
did not upon Sunday, the sixteenth of September last 
past, nor upon Sunday then next following, nor upon Sunday 
then next following, resort or repair to any church, chappell, 
or any other place appointed for common prayer, and there 
heare divine service according to the form of the statute 
in that behalfe (made) and being called before us did not 
make sufficient excuse for their said defaulte to our satisfaction 
these are therefore .... to will and require you or 
one of you doe levye by distresse and sale of the goods 
of their several persons hereunder named respectively three 



122 HISTORY. 

shillings for their defaulte aforesaid to be employed to and 
for the use of the poor of your parish (rendering to every 
of them the overplus of the money) raised of the goods 
aforesaid respectively soc to be sould. And in defaulte of 
such distresse that you doe certify us or one of us thereof 
with all convenient speed to the end we may further proceed 
therein as to Justice do appertayne. Hereof fail not at your 
perils. 

" Givc'd under our hands and seals ye seventeenth day of 
October Ann" Rcgni Regis Caroli Secundi vicesimo quinto 
Anno Domini 1683." 

This mandate is signed by Roger and William Kirkby, 
and bears two impressions on wax of the Kirkby Arms. 
The list of names of the delinquents numbers about sixty- 
one, many being married couples ; and we recognize among 
them several who appear at the High Wray Conventicle, 
viz: John Birkctt, William Atkinson, George Braithwaite, 
William Sattcrthwaitc, Edward Satterthwaite and his wife, 
and Thomas Rawlinson. 

The next oldest Nonconformist establishment in the district 
is the Baptist church or chapel at Tottlebank in Colton. 
This was established at the house of one William Rawlinson 
"on the i8 th day of ye sixth month called Aug st 1669," 
and among the members joining at that time were the 
Rev. Gabriel Camelford or Camerford, who had already 
been ejected from Stavely Chapelry by the Act of Uniformity, 
and Roger Sawrey of Broughton Tower, an old Cromwellian 
officer already nicknamed " Praying Sawrey." Camelford 
became the first pastor, and during his time the place was 
visited by George Fox. 

In 1678 a small Baptist chapel was founded at Hawks- 
head Hill, and about the same time, and in connection 
with it, one at Sunnybank in Torver.* The one at 
Hawkshead Hill, recently re-edified, appears to have been 
formed out of an older cottage. Its old records are 



* The actual date of the foundation of the Sunnybank chapel was the I5th 
of the fourth month (June), 1678, and probably of that at Hawkshead Hill also. 



HISTORY. 123 

unfortunately lost. Its burying ground is still occasionally 
used, but contains no epitaph earlier than 1750. The most 
recent of the old Nonconformist chapels is that of the 
Friends at Rook How or Abbot Oak in Colton, which was 
founded in 1725. All these Quaker meeting-houses have a 
strong family likeness, and this should be compared with 
that at Colthouse, and both with the one at Swarthmoor. 
Rook How was erected as a convenient centre for monthly 
meetings, and it is believed that there were at that date 
but few, if any, resident Quakers in this neighbourhood. 

We cannot leave the history of the parish without saying 
something about the devastation wrought in the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries by the Plague. Here comes in 
the great value of our ancient parish registers, which, read 
aright, are far more than bare catalogues of names : and 
we can trace exactly, from the fluctuations in burials and 
marriages, the years in which this scourge attacked the 
people of our parish ; we can learn the names of the 
families which suffered most, and to some extent we can 
watch its effect on the survivors. The story told is one 
of calamity and suffering calamity of a kind which, fortun- 
ately, rural England seldom is brought face to face with 
now : and it is terrible to picture to ourselves the horror 
of those days, when day after day saw the mournful funeral 
processions to the old grey church, and whole families, 
living in the fellside homesteads, in the fairest scenery in 
the north, were swept away by the hand of pestilence.* 

Few northern towns did not suffer from the plague during 
the latter part of the sixteenth century. It was bad at New- 
castle in 1570, but in the Hawkshcad register it first makes 
its appearance in 15/2 and i573> when the burials were con- 
siderably over the average. Three healthy years followed, and 
then in 1 577 the number of burials suddenly increased to 86, 
or 24 above the average for the decade, and as much as 48 
more than in the previous year. We find also a pathetic 

* For a more detailed account of the local effects of the Plague see the 
present writer's "Oldest Register Book of Ilawkshead," 1897, p. Ixxi. 






1 24 HISTOR Y. 

note entered in the register in November, the month it 
broke out: " * In this monthe begane the pestelent sicknes 
in o r pishe w ch was brought in by one George Barwicke 
whereof is depted all those yt are thus marked.* " 

Thirty-eight names are accordingly starred as victims, and 
all these were buried between the igth November and the 
25th February. Thirty-two deaths were in December and 
January, and the whole thirty-eight were confined to eight 
surnames, so that we may conclude that the pestilence was 
confined to a few households. 

The families who were attacked were the Tomlinsons, 
Hodgsons, Barwicks, Kirkbys, Wattersons, Walkers, Rigges, 
and Dixons, and of these the Tomlinsons and Hodgsons were 
the chief sufferers, the former losing twelve members and 
the Hodgsons eight. On one day alone, the l/th January, 
three Tomlinsons were buried. 

In the years 1580 and 1583 the mortality was again high, 
and in 1591 it reached 67, or 21 above the average for the 
decade ; and although there remains no local record of a 
pestilence the figures arc sufficient to show that the plague 
was in our valley. The next plague year was 1597, when 
the disease raged disastrously all through Cumberland and 
Westmorland. At Hawkshead there were 84 burials (only 
two less than in 1577), but the mortality was more generally 
distributed through the whole year than in 1577; and, as 
there were 66 burials in 1598, it is evident that it was slow 
in going. Its route through the north has been conjectured 
to have been : Newcastle, Kirkoswald, Penrith, Appleby, and 
Kendal, but it broke out at Penrith in September, whereas 
the mortality at Hawkshead was heaviest during the earlier 
months, so that it probably reached Furness by some other 
route. 

The plague had as yet far from completed its work. The 
next recorded visitation was 1623, but there is evidence in 
the register of less virulent outbreaks in 1612 and 1613. In 
1623 however, the mortality, as evinced by burials, rose to 
97, or more than double the average of the years 1618-1628. 



HISTOR Y. 



I2 S 



This epidemic devastated all Cumberland, Westmorland, and 
the south of Scotland, and many places are known to have 
suffered far more than Hawkshead.* 

The worst months, locally, were August, September, 
November, and February, in the first-named of which 21 
victims were buried. There is no special mention in the 
register of deaths by plague, and it does not appear to have 
been confined to a few households, like the pestilence of 
1577 ; although there are some six or seven examples of 
husband and wife succumbing. As the following year is 
omitted in the register, it seems possible that the registrar 
himself suffered. 

In 1636 the mortality was again high, and it then became 
fairly normal until 1668, when there ensued a scries of bad 
years, the average mortality from that to 1672 inclusive being 
no less thon 62^, and the highest (1672) 69, or 26 above 
the average for the clccadc. These years contain many 
examples of several deaths at a single farm. 

This series of sickly years was, from the prolonged period it 
extended over, in a way more serious than some of the 
isolated but acute plague years. It will be noticed that they 
followed soon after the great visitation of London in 1665. 
As that was practically the last of the epidemic in the 
Capital, so these years were practically the last in the 
seventeenth century at Hawkshead, for a much lower average 
mortality followed. 

One very curious thing comes to light in examining the 
registers during these epidemics. During those years in which 
the mortality was above normal the number of marriages was 
also above normal, but the ensuing years in each case were 
the reverse. 

Thus, in 1572 and 1573, both plague years, the marriages 
numbered 14 and 16, but in 1574 they dropped to 8. In 
1580, when there were 52 burials, the marriages numbered 
14, but in the following year only 6. In 1583 there were 



* The deaths at Greystoke were five times the average, and at Lancaster the 
burials amounted to 270. 



126 HISTORY. 

1 6 marriages, and in 1584 only 7; while in the bad year of 
1597 the marriages were 16, and in 1598 only 8. 

Of course the month of the year in which the epidemic 
broke out sometimes influenced this. The visitation of 1577 
commenced in November, and the first plague-burial took 
place on the igth of that month. The number of marriages 
in that year was already above the average, but no more 
were celebrated until September in the ensuing year, although 
the plague had ceased. 

The plague of 1597 was more general throughout the 
year, and at Penrith, where the population was much greater, 
no wedding was celebrated until the summer. At Hawks- 
head no one ventured on matrimony, except three couples, 
until October, yet by the end of the year there had been 
sixteen. 

But we observe a similar effect when the sickly years of 
1668 to 1672 came on. During these five years the marriages 
were respectively 6, 12, 10, 7, and 10 ; but during the next 
four years, in which the burial rate was low, the marriages 
dropped to 5, 3, 3, and 5. It should be noticed that Colton 
was made a parish in 1676, but it does not appear that this 
division made any difference in the burials and marriages at 
Hawkshead, for the Colton register was kept at least as 
earl}' as 1623, although it is full of gaps and apparently 
carelessly kept until 1676. The truth may possibly lie in 
the suggestion of the writer of the criticism on our edition 
of the " Parish Register," which appeared in the " Westmor- 
land Gazette" in October, 1897: 

" The explanation is most probably to be found in the 
prudence rather than the levity of the survivors. As death 
unexpectedly removed the heads of families, their places 
would be filled more rapidly than usual by marriages among 
the younger generation ; and when the cause of this acce- 
lerated movement ceased, the effect would cease too." 



HISTORY. 127 



PRINCIPAL WORKS CONSULTED FOR CHAPTER II. 



ATKINSON, Rev. J. C. "Coucher Book of Furness Abbey," edited 
for the Chatham Society, Vols. IX., XL, and XIV. 

BAINES, EDWARD. " History of the County Palatine of Lancaster," 
4 Vols., 1836. 

BARHKK, HENRY, M.D. "Furness and Cartmel Notes," 1894. 

BECK, THOMAS AI.COCK. " Annales Furncsienses," 1844. 

CAMDEN'S "Britannia." 

"Cartmel, the Rural Deanery of, in the Diocese of Carlisle," 1892. 

CLARKE, J. "Survey of the Lakes," 1789. 

COLLINGWOOD, W. G. " Thorstein of the Mere," 1895; "The 
Bondwoman," 1896; "The Book of Coniston," 1897. 

COWPER, H. S. " Ancient Settlements and Cemeteries of Furness, 
Archasologia," Vol. LIII. ; " The Oldest Register Book of 
the Parish of Hawkshead," 1897. 

FERGUSON, R. S. "History of Cumberland," 1890; "History of 
Westmorland," 1894; "Diocesan History of Carlisle," 1889; 
" An Attempt at a Survey of Roman Cumberland and 
Westmorland," Cumberland and Westmorland Arch, and 
Antiq. Soc., Vol. III. 

FERGUSON, ROKERT. "Northmen in Cumberland and Westmor- 
land," 1856. 

FISHWICK, LiEUT.-CoL. "History of Lancashire," 1894. 

GASTRELL, BISHOP. " Notitia Cestriensis," edited by F. R. Raines, 
Chetham Society, Vols. XIX. and XXII. 

GATEV, GEORGE. " How Customary Tenure was Established in 
Westmorland," No. XL of Cumberland and Westmorland 
Society of Literature and Science. 

GREEN, J. R. ' The Conquest of England," 1881. 

NEWCASTLE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. "The Pipe Rolls or Sheriffs 
Annual Accounts of Cumberland, Westmorland, and Dur- 
ham," 1847. 

"North Lonsdale Magazine," 1866. 






128 



HISTOR Y. 



RICHARDSON, J., and TWEDDELL, G. M. " Furness Past and Pre- 
sent," 2 Vols., 1880. 

RHYS, J. "Celtic Britain," 1882. 

SCARTH, REV. H. M. " Roman Britain." 

SULLIVAN, J. " Cumberland and Westmorland, Ancient and 
Modern," 1857. 

WEST, THOMAS. " The Antiquities of Furness," various editions. 

WHITAKER, DR. T. D. " History of Richmondshire," 2 Vols., 
1823. 

WRIGHT, THOMAS. "The Celt, the Roman, and the Saxon," 1852. 

Various Chronicles. 



CHAPTER III. 
ARCHAEOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE. 

IT is a fact, a very melancholy fact, that nine educated 
people out of ten fly at the very name of Archaeology. 
We ourselves know men and women of high social rank, 
sympathetic by nature, refined in thought, and familiar in 
every way with modern social life, yet who, suddenly con- 
fronted with this word, gasp, trip, and stumble over it as if 
it were some unpronounceable tribal African or Madagascar 
name. 

Now this is intelligible, but entirely wrong. Archaeology 
is simply the study of the evidences of history,' which no 
one can ignore ; and though the latter study should perhaps 
rightly be placed before it, the great value of Archeology 
merits recognition, not ridicule. 

An antiquary that is, the genuine article is born as 
such, and you can no more lead him from his study than 
you can train a man without the archaeological bump, so 
to speak to be an archaeologist. You may, indeed, train 
him to be a collecting machine, or even a classifying machine, 
but you cannot make an inspired antiquary of him ; for that 
is only, as the Arabs would put it, " Min Allah" If you 
ever find an archaeologist of eminence from training, you 
may be sure that the bump was on his head, and that drew 
him into the path, not chance or education. 

Local archaeological publications are proverbially, and very 
often really, dull. Consequently, there is but a small buying 
public of such works, and hence the origin of local Archaeo- 
logical Societies bodies of persons who, being all interested 
10 



i 3 o ARCHEOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE. 

in the past of a special locality, unite, and by joint subscrip- 
tions publish all such matter as they can, to illustrate 
it. 

Many local antiquaries, and excellent ones, too, are men 
of incomplete education, and it may indeed be said that 
the percentage of local workers which possesses real literary 
skill is very small. Naturally, therefore, their publications 
are not popular, though often they are valuable and impor- 
tant Let them remember, however, that their names will 
often be remembered in their parish or county at a period 
when that of many an author of sensational fiction will have 
been long buried in oblivion. 

Here and there we find a skilled litterateur who is an 
antiquary or historian at heart ; and we could mention certain 
works of fiction which have probably done more to stimulate 
popular interest in the past than whole sets of Learned Society 
transactions. Baring Gould and Charles Reade are such men ; 
and locally Mr. W. G. Collingwood's Saga romances, 
" Thorstein," and the " Bondwoman," shew how research can 
be served up in a most palatable form in fiction. 

Many a time has it been said to the writer by neighbours 
or visitors to the Lakes, " There is not much of historical 
interest in this part, I believe " ; and as far as national 
history may be concerned this may be true. But the student 
of local history can find plenty to interest him in local 
things, and evidence of any sort of ancient population, 
however insignificant it may be in detail, or even the absence 
of such remains, tells a story to those that read aright. 

To the student of local history nothing should be too 
small. He must wander miles through thick heather to visit 
a mound of which he has heard, and must feel no discourage- 
ment if it prove a heap of glacial debris, or a pile of stones 
cleared from a pasture, instead of a cairn or tumulus. Pencil 
and pocket-book must be ready to note down dated stones 
or furniture, to make sketches of stone implements, and the 
Ordnance sheet should be in his wallet to mark down the 
lines of any ancient trackways or disused roads. He should 



ARCHAEOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE. 131 

be pedestrian, bicyclist, and horseman ; and, above all, he 
should have eyes and ears, for without the faculty of 
observation, as an antiquary he will be naught. 

In this chapter we propose to gather up for our reader 
brief notes of local archaeology. The majority of things we 
touch on, we have elsewhere described in detail, so that long 
and technical descriptions can be dispensed with, and those 
who require them can find the necessary references in the 
footnotes. 

EVIDENCES OF EARLY HABITATION. 

For the size of the parish the early remains that have 
been noticed are but few. And this is somewhat curious, 
for the fell country to the west, and also across Windermere 
to the east, are prolific (in some cases remarkably so) in rude 
early remains. The moors of Kirkby, Torvcr, and Dunnerdale 
are, in fact, thickly interspersed with ancient walled enclosures, 
with their attendant cemeteries of sepulchral cairns. Circular 
rings of turf and stone are often found, and stone-built dikes, 
and entrenched ramparts are not unfrequently met with.* 
It is difficult to put a date to these sites, for little scientific 
exploration has ever taken place. Some few cairns have 
been opened, and cists of stone, fragments of pottery, and 
rude flints have been turned out with burned bones. The 
evidence, in fact, is little worth, although it rather points to 
these cairns having been constructed in what we call the 
British bronze age. The settlements arc in no sense forts, 
but the homes of primitive communities placed high on the 
moorlands to be clear of the jungle and morass which filled 
the valleys. At whatever date the series originated, we have 
no proof that wild Britons did not utilise them even long after 
the Roman period.t The circles of upright stones (the Druids' 
temples of the old antiquaries, and also, too often, of our 

* For a full description of all these in Furness see the author's " Ancient Settle- 
ments, Cemeteries, and Earthworks of Furness," with numerous plans. Archreologia, 
Vol. LIII. 

f In the Westmorland Fells other types are known to the writer, which, though 
certainly not Roman, are placed near Roman roads, and bear evidence of greater 
structural knowledge. They may well be the work of Romanized Britons, but the 
subject awaits investigation. 



1 32 ARCHEOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE. 

Ordnance Survey) still exist in Cumberland, and not infrequently 
in propinquity to the settlements. This, again, points to a 
pre-Roman origin for the series. 

On one of the highest points of the intake called Frith, 
on the Hawkshead Hall estate, and about one mile north- 
west by west of the town, is a large round cairn of earth 
and stones which was dug out in 1883 under the writer's 
superintendence. The result was the discovery of a deposit 
of burnt bones placed with a most beautifully finished little 
flint knife, in a rudely-formed square hole cut in the natural 
soil, and protected by a large stone. Elsewhere in the cairn 
were found deposits of charcoal and burnt earth, but 
nothing else.* 

South of this, in Hawkshead Hall Parks, which are intakes 
of moor, we find a curious construction, which may or may 
not be coeval with the sepulchral cairn. There are two broad 
mounds or ramparts of earth, one running north-east and 
south-west, and the other leaving it at right angles and running 
south-cast. The first is nearly a quarter of a mile in length, 
and about eleven feet wide, with a shallow trench or ditch 
about four feet in width on its east side. Its composition 
appears to be chiefly earth, and it is not now over two feet 
in height. The other is of similar construction, with its trench 
on the south side, but in one place a small brooklet takes 
the place of the trench. This rampart crosses a small ravine, 
and, ascending, passes between two small elevations, which 
looks as if it was not constructed for defensive work. On 
the summit it becomes nearly lost, but further on a similar 
work nine feet in width without a trench can be traced 
for about a hundred yards, running south-south-west, when 
it turns at a right angle and passes down a hillside in its 
original direction, and again accompanied by a trench. Here 
it is more stony, and, being again commanded by higher 
ground, does not appear to have been constructed for defence. 
The rampart altogether is a little over half a mile in length, 

" Transactions Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological 
Society," Vol. IX., pp. 202 and 497-8. 



ARCHAEOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE. 133 

and the trench would seem to have been formed by throwing 
up the rampart, and with no other object. 

There is but one other dike of this character in the neigh- 
bourhood, and this is situated at Bleaberry Haws, Torver, on the 
west side of Coniston Lake.* This example runs north-west 
and south-east, crossing a valley and the summits of the hills 
on either side. Its construction is very similar to that near 
Hawkshead, and, like it, it is associated with cairns which have 
yielded interments, and other early enclosures. 

These dikes are a great puzzle, and numerous and widely 
diverse explanations of their origin have been advanced. 
Canon Atkinson, in his " Forty Years in a Moorland Parish," 
describes numerous similar entrenchments drawn across the 
headlands which cross and divide the dales of the Cleveland 
Hills. His suggestion that they were the work of an advancing 
force from the seaboard (perhaps the Bronze Age folks 
penetrating the land of the ruder Stone Age people), and 
throwing up, as they advanced, new defensive lines to hold 
the adverse tribes in check, has some plausibility. But it is 
far from proved ; and though both the Torver and Hawkshead 
dikes cross moorland ridges from cast to west, we have 
pointed out that the lines taken are but poor ones for defence. 
A suggestion, which has been made, that they were deer- 
traps, crossing each other at right angles, and that the deer 
were driven into the angles by beaters, is ridiculous, for the 
labour of constructing such broad and massive dikes would 
be quite unnecessary. 

There is just another possibility as to the origin of these 
dikes, which we give for what it is worth. In the " Ere- 
dwellers Saga " we read of Thorolf Bccgifot being buried 
" strongly in howe." Thereafter he gave such trouble by 
"walking" that he was dug up and conveyed to, and buried 
on, a headland, to which his name adhered : and across the 
neck of the promontory a strong wall was built, so high that 
only birds could cross it, to keep him in ; while on the two 

* For description see the papers already cited in the " Arcruw>logia " and "Trans- 
actions Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archa'ological Society." 






i 3 4 ARCHEOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE. 

other sides the sea effected the same purpose. Now the 
Furness dikes cross moorland ridges, and both are near burial 
" howes." Can we have the same idea here ? It seems doubtful, 
because we have here no sea to complete the prison, so that 
if the dikes were not themselves enclosures, what was to 
prevent the restless dead from creeping round the dike or 
wall ends ? At Torver, indeed, the dike finishes at each end 
at a beck, and very likely it was so at one time on Hawks- 
head Moor. Is it possible that the charm of running water 
against the unnatural would suffice?* 

There are two other small cairns i| miles distant from the 
Frith cairn to the south-west on Monk Coniston Moor, and 
the partial examination of one brought to light charcoal, 
and nothing more ; and at about half the distance between 
these and the Frith cairn there is a rude earth and stone 
ring hidden in a larch wood. It is 39 feet in diameter, enclosing 
a hollow centre 18 feet across, the material excavated having 
apparently been thrown out to form the ring. It is near but 
not on the summit of the fell, and, as it has never been 
examined, it cannot be said whether it is a barrow of the 
ring-mound type, or a pit-dwelling. Another solitary cairn 
is on Bcthecar Moor in Colton. 

Stone implements have turned up occasionally in our parish, 
the localities being Rusland, Bank Ground, Coniston, Wray, 
the writer's own home, and Sike-side in Claife. Few though 
these examples arc, we find among them various types, the 
large perforated hammer-axe so frequently occurring in the 
north, well-finished polished celts or axes, the rude perforated 
adze form, and a curious pestle-like specimen with a hole to 
hang it to the girdle, which is probably unique. \ 

Though bronze weapons have occurred in Low Furness and 
Westmorland, no single instance is on record in Hawkshead 
parish. But the types of stone weapons we have described, 

* May we not take it that the true object of all tumuli, coffins, ring mounds, and 
even pyramids, is to weigh clown the restless dead and keep them from "walking"? 
Surely this is more likely than that they are memorials only an object easily effected 
by a simple post or upright stone. 

t For details see " Transactions Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and 
Archaeological Society," IX., 204. " Proc. Soc. Antiq. Lond.,"2nd S. xi., 227 et seq. 



ARCHAEOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE. 135 

and also the shape of the cairns and interment belong to 
classes which our most competent antiquaries believe to be 
posterior to the introduction of that metal into the country. 
But the fact is, bronze was always a rare and valuable 
commodity, owned probably by few, and the scantiness both 
of structural remains and of implements in Hawkshead parish 
seems to shew that there was no tribal centre here, only 
probably a few stragglers from the great settlements at Kirkby, 
Woodlands, and Coniston. A small outlying community such 
as this, would possess but few of the bronze treasures, while 
the stone weapons were easily made. These, the earliest 
dalesmen of whom we have any trace, were most probably 
a mixed race of the round and long headed people, and we 
may fancy that a few wild fellows, armed only with stone 
axes and knives, gazed with wrath from the heights of Latter- 
barrow at the glitter of Roman arms, as the intruders first 
forced their way through the tangle and bog to Windermere 
Waterhead. 

One other thing may be mentioned. In a field right 
opposite Whitestock Hall, in Colton, stands an upright 
glaciated boulder, about four feet high, planted on its end 
on a footing of stones, on a hillock. It may be a solitary 
stone remaining of a stone circle ; it may mark the tomb 
of an early chief. Perhaps it was a meeting-place or ren- 
dezvous for an open-air court ; but there is nothing to tell 
us. ;|: All we can say is that it was erected by the hand of 
man, and that it is not a post for cattle to rub against. 

A curious discovery was made in 1867 by men digging 
peats at Out-Dubs, near the south end of Esthwaite Water. 
The diggers turned up, some four to six feet below the 
surface, six large felt bags of a conical shape, which are 
said to have all been neatly folded and laid one upon the 
other. At the time there appears to have been no one in 
the district who took any interest in the find, and the writer 
only heard of it about 1884, when all had been lost except 



* Or it may even be a Norse Thor's stone, or sacrifice stone. Such are still standing 
in Iceland, and can be identified by the Sagas. 



136 



ARCHAEOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE. 



one, which is now in his possession. It is made of a soft 
warm felt, brown in colour (but this may be due to peat 
stain), and when laid out flat, about two feet wide at the 
widest part, and about one foot seven inches in length. This 
has been exhibited at the Society of Antiquaries, at the 
British Association, and elsewhere ; and though various sugges- 




STANDING STONE AT WHITKSTOCK. 

tions have been made, the best is that they are hoods of 
primitive manufacture. Such finds are rare, but not unknown. 
Mr. Anderson, in his " Scotland in Pagan Times," figures a 
beautiful fringed hood of wool, which was found in peat in 
Orkney, and which is now in the Museum at Edinburgh ; 
and there is some evidence that it belongs to the Viking 
age. In Scandinavia itself, woollen garments have also been 






ARCHEOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE. 



137 



preserved in graves and mosses, and they appear to belong 
to the Bronze Age and the second century of our era. Hoods 
were, however, no doubt a common form of head-dress from 
very early times till late in the Middle Ages ; and there is 
no possible way to judge of the age of the Out-Dubs finds, 
even if they are hoods, except in their extreme plainness and 
lack of ornamentation. The fact that they do not appear to 




ANCIENT HOOD (?) FOUND AT OUT-DUBS. 

have formed part of any cape or garment is also worth 
noticing. 

ROMAN EVIDENCES. 

We have said elsewhere that there is some evidence that 
a Roman vicinal way passed through the parish from the 
camp at Waterhead to Dalton. Baines, in his " History of 



138 ARCHEOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE. 

Lancashire,"* writes : " Traces of a Roman road have been 
perceived on the eastern borders of Satterthwaite, pointing 
towards Ambleside, and apparently constructed as a vicinal 
way from Low Furness " ; and pieces of Roman tile and 
brick have been taken out of the ancient walling at Hawks- 
head Hall when under repair. A bronze coin of Aurelius 
(161-180 A.n.) has also been found near Colthouse. 

We arc entirely unable to find out anything concerning the 
portion of road mentioned by Baines, and the coin is of little 
value as evidence ; but it is hardly possible to account for 
the presence of Roman fragments at Hawkshead Hall, except 
by the supposition that a ruined building of Roman date was 
standing somewhere near at the time of construction. We do 
not believe that Roman engineers would make a road or track 
down the Grisedalc valley, for Dale Park (to the east) presents 
far less difficulty in gradients. This also is the oldest main 
line of communication within recorded times, and being in 
Satterthwaite parish, the discovery mentioned by Baines may 
well have been in Dale Park. Thence the road led, we 
believe, fairly direct to Penny Bridge, and in another place 
we have pointed out some interesting evidence in the place- 
names at this point. 

EARLY MKDI/EVAL PERIOD. 

Although Furness, like all the Cumbrian fells, is saturated 
with traces of the Scandinavian occupation, finds of actual 
Norse remains are practically unknown ; and we cannot, 
indeed, point to the discovery of any ruins or antiquities of 
Norse character within the limits of our parish. The reasons 
arc somewhat obscure, but the absence of such finds points 
out, we think, that the very copious Norse nomenclature is 
evidence rather of the greatly superior intellectual energy of 
the new settlers over such weakened tribesmen as were left, 
than of a very numerous population. They were probably 
poor, owning but few valuables, but they were men of 



* Vol. IV., p. 704. See also Watkins" " Roman Lancashire," p. 85, and " The 
Archaeological Journal," XXV., 337. 






ARCHAEOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE. 139 

industry and commercial energy, so that they stamped their 
language on the features of the country around. 

There is, however, just outside the northern boundary of 
the parish, a singularly interesting memorial of this period, 
to the probable character of which the present writer was 
the first to call attention. It is situated immediately in rear 
of the farm of Fell Foot, at the base of the hill road leading 
from Ambleside to Wrynose, Hardknott, and Ravenglass, and 
consists of an oblong platform, about seventy feet by twenty 
feet, surrounded by stepped platforms about fourteen feet wide. 
It thus forms a terraced mound, which in character, though 
not in plan, is almost identical with the Tynwald Hill in 
Man. The site is at the junction of a series of mountain 
passes, and at the point where the Roman road from Amble- 
side to Hardknott was probably met by one from Keswick, 
through the Stake Pass, Great Langdale Head, and the Bleatarn 
Pass. Another road, which may possibly also have been a 
Roman trackway, led from Yewdale and Coniston to Broughton, 
and yet another by Tilberthwaite to Hawkshead. 

We have, therefore, not only a mound identical in character 
to the historical Thingmount of Man, but situated in every 
respect suitably for a similar purpose. The first attention 
was drawn to it by that industrious student of the district, 
Mr. A. Craig Gibson, and although it was with some diffidence 
that we first suggested the above origin, it has been received 
with approbation generally by those who have made a deep 
study of Scandinavian archaeology. * 

Although the absence of finds of the Norse population has 
led us to surmise that the colony was never a dense one, 

* See A. Craig Gibson, in the " Lancashire and Cheshire Historical Society" 
(New Series), Vol. VIII. ; H. S. Cowper, on " A Law Ting at Fell Foot, " Transac- 
tions Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society," Vol. 
XI., p. I ; W. G. Collingwood, in "The Vikings of Lakeland" (Sagabook, Viking 
Society, 1896), with illustration of the Thingmount ; and the same writer in " Furness 
a Thousand Years ago " (1896), " Reports and Proceedings of the Barrow Naturalists' 
Field Club" (1896). 

There seems to be no doubt that Mr. Craig Gibson had some sort of " inkling " 
as to the character of this mound, although he never ventured to discuss it. In his 
paper, " The Langdales," he mentions it, and then notes that in a fine dell, or cove, 
near, are " a great number of small conical mounds," which he suggests are glacial, 
but thinks their proximity to the " probably judicial tumulus at Fell Foot" renders 
excavation desirable. The mounds in question we have never seen. 



i 4 o ARCHEOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE. 

the existence of such a Thingmount indicates a considerable 
amount of cohesion and organisation among the Viking settlers 
of our dales. The Thingmount must have been a central point 
for a large area, and the site was, as we have seen, well 
chosen ; but the Norse were an organizing race, and their 
physical energy was equalled by their intellectual activity. 
The Lawmount is a proof that the Roman roads were still 
passable, and that our Norse ancestors knew and appreciated 
their value, and by their means the whole colony were in 
communication with each other, and a thorough knowledge 
of the geography of the hills no doubt obtained. 

A mile and a half from the foot of Coniston Lake, and 
close to the only striking promontory on the eastern side, 
lies a rocky islet, about one hundred yards in length. Its 
axis lies north-east and south-west, and at its southern end 
projects from the water a ridge of rock of much less 
size. 

This is Peel Island, Montague Island, or the Gridiron, 
names which tell their own story, for at one time it was a 
little fortress, at another it belonged to the family of Buccleuch, 
whilst the last name arises from the parallel rocky crests that 
run from end to end. 

" Peel " means a fortress, and this suggested to Mr. Collingwood 
an examination, to find if it contained traces of buildings. The 
island consists of two parallel ridges running the full length, 
that on the cast side dropping steeply with the dip of the 
rock to the deep water, and although on the west side of 
the other, or central ridge, there intervenes a leveller area, 
the actual western shore or edge of the islet is sufficiently 
rocky to be almost impracticable for landing. 

The little place is, in fact, a natural fortlet. Two tiny 
harbours lie at the south-west end, by the "Calf" rock, where 
boats can be beached ; but they are commanded immediately 
from the steep ends of the ridges of rock. There is a 
possible but very steep landing at the opposite end, which 
could be easily and sufficiently barricaded. In betwixt the 
ridges, habitations could be formed by simply roofing across, 



PEELISLANP 




ARCHEOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE. 143 

using the ridges themselves for walls ; and a very snug, if 
somewhat limited, dwelling thus formed. 

In this area Mr. Collingwood dug, and traced out the ill- 
preserved walls of chambers and rooms, while on the west 
side of the central ridge other foundations were found. Relics 
of any value there were as was probable absolutely none, 
but numerous rusted nails showed that timber had been con- 
siderably used in the buildings, while some few fragments of 
pottery were turned up, which competent authorities have 
decided are mediaeval, and probably of the thirteenth 
century. 

Now it is a very singular thing that there is absolutely 
no record in local history of this place. The Coucher Book 
of Furness Abbey (which owned the lordship of Ilawkshead) 
and the records of the Coniston Manor may be searched in 
vain. The question is how could any petty chieftain main- 
tain himself on this island fortalice without bringing upon 
himself the notice of the lords of the land. 

We must remember, however, how far the fells were from 
the Abbey, and we have seen that Beaumont, Lacy, Lock- 
wood, and Davvson were outlaws in the fells in the fourteenth 
century. Indeed, something not far from akin to outlawry 
existed in the parish within almost the memory of man, as we 
shall elsewhere relate. The best explanation we can at present 
give is that Peel Island was once the refuge and home of 
some petty law-breaker. We do not fancy that such a tenancy 
would, however, be long tolerated, for the lake as a highway, 
would be too public a place ; and the increase of population 
and settlement of the country would render a more hidden 
retreat necessary.* 



* The writer has in his possession a curious heavy stone vessel, of unexplained use, 
which came from the farm at Parkamoor, on the hillside above. Its primitive appear- 
ance suggests that it may have come from Peel Island, when the occupation of that 
island came to an end. 

In " Thorstein of the Mere," Mr. Collingwood makes his hero take up his 
residence at Peel Island in 942 A.n., and there he is attacked in 945 A.D. There is, 
of course, no evidence that the island was inhabited at this date, but on the other hand 
there is no improbability. 






144 ARCHEOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE. 

ARCHITECTURE. 






The Lake District is perhaps anything but a good place 
for the professional architect to learn his business in, but for 
the student of local development of methods and material 
it is by no means uninstructive. We cannot, indeed, boast 
the noble churches of Lincolnshire, and we can point to the 
battlements of no proud castles ; but in the modest parish 
churches, the sturdy tower-houses of the 'squires, and the low. 
substantial, rough-cast dwellings of the old 'statesman families, 
we may read a lesson of considerable local interest, and far 
from being devoid of instruction. 

In treating this subject, we prefer to climb the ladder, 
instead of descending it ; that is, to examine first the dwellings 
of the people, as we find them in the fell-side farms, and 
then to pass on to the few hall- houses, or gentlemen's resi- 
dences, of past time, reserving our notes on ecclesiology for 
the last. 

In taking the architecture of the farmhouses first, it should 
be noticed at once that there are in Hawkshead parish, as 
in all the fell districts of the Lake country, but very few 
of really modern construction, a fact which adds value to the 
subject, for the material at hand is copious. On the other 
hand, few farms exist which have not been altered ; so that 
what we have to do is to strip away, if we can, these more 
recent adaptations, and lay bare where possible the original 
methods and plans, to see what they teach us. 

The first thing that strikes us as we approach a fell-side 
farm is that, as a rule, or at any rate oftener than not, the 
house fronts either with its face to the fell or along its side. 
Never or hardly ever has it been built especially for a 
south aspect, or to command the lovely view which generally 
is to be obtained from the actual site ; and very frequently, 
where a view could be seen from the windows, it has been 
carefully built out by the barns and outhouses attached to 
the farm. 

The reason is plain : taste in scenery had not been invented 



ARCHEOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE. 145 

or discovered in the dales when these houses were built. 
Walling was barely wind-tight, and windows still less so ; so 
that, to men whose lives were on the fells, a snug fireside was 
deemed better than a view from the parlour window. 

The next thing we observe is that the house is white, and 
the other buildings of the farm grey or blue local stone. 
The habitation only has been dashed with a thick coating 
of rough-cast. 

Now step first into the house, and then into the barn, and 
we shall see the reason. It is again snugness (often amounting 
here to stuffiness), for in the barn the wind whistles through 
the walling of rough hardly-squared fragments of Silurian 
slate, and flutters the brackens on the floor. 

Rough-cast, then, and aspect, had both their good reasons, 
that of the comfort of the habitants ; and rough-cast was 
universal in the dales because the stone did not lend itself 
to really good masonry. It was a question whether the 
walls were to be grouted internally with cement, or dashed 
externally with rough-cast, and the latter method was adopted 
because it was simpler and equally efficacious. 

That which is simple and efficacious is generally good ; and 
where the exigencies of a damp climate have introduced an 
architectural method, whether in ancient or modern times, the 
method is universally satisfactory, and the building thus 
treated drops naturally into its place as part and parcel of 
the landscape. 

The dalesman's home, then, probably ever since walling 
was at all understood, has been a pretty white speck on the 
fell-side. Lake district architects now think they know better, 
so they grout their walls internally to render them air and 
damp proof. This they accomplish because they have greater 
knowledge than the old builders, but they leave their houses, 
hotels, or farms, ugly plum coloured blotches which look wet 
through, for no lime shews between the stones, and the wall 
is all chinks and crannies. But this is by the way.* 

* Wordsworth, in his " Description of the Scenery of the Lakes," fell foul of 
rough-cast ; and A. C. Gibson, in "The Old Man," fell foul of Wordsworth on this 
account. The poet felt only the romance of the hills, but the country doctor knew far 
more truly the life of the dales and its wants. 
II 



I 4 6 ARCHEOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE. 

Now if we grope about a few of these farms and farm 
buildings for a few days we shall find a curious thing. We 
shall find that there have been two methods of construction 
adopted, one of which has a much more primitive look about 
it than the other. Though instances are not very common, 
we must take this primitive form the first. 

The method, and a curious one it is, is found oftener 
in barns and out-buildings than in the farmhouse itself. 
Externally, no difference can be noted from other buildings, 
but, stepping inside, it is at once perceived. In these buildings 
the principal beams do not rest, as is usual, on the wall- 
plate, but spring from a footing in the wall, some one to 
three feet from the ground. Occasionally they actually 
protrude through the walling, which is built up against 
them on either side. The beams are oaken, and very massive, 
and they curve in order to meet at the ridge of the roof. 
But sometimes this curve is not graduated through the entire 
length of the beam, but forms a slight shoulder some three 
or four feet from the ground, or, occasionally, much higher 
up. They thus form a sort of rude wooden arch ; and, if 
the walls were destroyed, the framework would still stand, 
and would look something like the ribs of an inverted and 
dismantled ship. 

This type of dwelling is not confined to the Lake District 
Whitaker describes something very similar in his " History of 
Whalley," and the engraving of the hall at Radcliffe Towei 
in that work shows this method adapted to a house of much 
higher pretensions. In the Cleveland District it was formerly 
known, and it is discussed by Canon Atkinson in his " Forty 
Years in a Moorland Parish," from which we learn that 
examples are now very scarce.* 

On this subject, indeed, Canon Atkinson is very interesting. 
The examples he describes seem practically identical with 
those in our parish ; but he believes that the external 
walls are a more modern addition, and that the framework 

* ' Forty Years in a Moorland Parish," p. 23 el seq. 





O) O 

s! 



o 






ARCHEOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE. 149 

is all that remains of the original edifices in these 
houses. 

His contention (as we understand it) is that in making 
these primitive dwellings the framework was set up first, 
then end walls were built, filling up the two frames, and, 
lastly, the place was roofed or thatched down to, or nearly 
down to, the ground ; if not quite, the space was filled up 
with turf or stones. The house was then complete, one 
roomed, with a single door (in an end wall), and, probably, 
with a fireplace in the centre of the floor, and a hole in 
the roof for smoke exit. He conceives that the building 
up of proper walls to the usual height, and so contriving a 
roof and windows, were alterations with the advance of 
civilization and its requirements. This implies a tolerably 
primitive era of architecture for these buildings ; but we 
feel hardly justified in going quite so far as Mr. Atkinson. 
There can, indeed, be no doubt that the builders were in 
all cases following a traditional method of which the archetype 
was such a house as Mr. Atkinson supposes. But \ve do 
not consider it necessary to imagine that all the houses thus 
constructed were originally one- roomed, and without side 
walls. Some of the buildings now remaining have several 
bays, and their length suggests more than one room, if not 
more than one story. But again, in our cases, where the 
beams rest on wall plates in the wall, we discern no difference 
in the walling below the beam end, and that which is above, 
and we see nothing to shew that such a wall is an addition. 
We believe, therefore, that in some houses at any rate, the 
walls were run up outside the beams, and lofts formed inside, 
making an upper story. 

Whether any of the frameworks belong to the primitive 
one-roomed sidewall-less cottages or not, is, however, not 
very important. The method here adopted shows that such 
existed as the earliest peasant dwellings of the district. In 
these primitive homes, the bones of which may or may not 
exist, the walls would be of timber, or dab and wattle, or 
turf only. But in cases wheje stone was used, it would be 



150 ARCHEOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE. 

picked from the stream bed, not quarried. For roofing, we 
imagine some kind of thatching would be in use.* 

But the farmhouses we generally see are widely different in 
construction from those we have described. They stand higher, 
to the roof tree, and are always two-storied. Generally speaking 
we have three windows at the front on the ground floor, 
and three on the upper floor : and a porch, either of enormous 
flags or else fairly-built masonry, stands a little out of the 
centre of the building. 

These houses are, consequently, plain enough in appearance ; 
for seldom even have the windows mullions, like we see in 
similar houses in Westmorland. The truth is that no 
workable stone was here within reach, so the windows were 
made with oaken mullions, which, in process of time, decaying, 
have been replaced by sash windows. Here and there a 
mullioned window is left to show what was the fashion. 

Inside, the plan, where it is unaltered, is simple enough. 
Over the threshold we pass straight into the house or house- 
place the hall or common living-room of old days. On 
the right is an oaken partition separating the house-place 
from the bower, parlour, or second living-room, and in this 
partition stands the great carved oaken bread cupboard, part 
of the house. Facing that is the hearth, and one or two 



* Examples of this construction may be seen at a house and barn at Hawkshead 
Hill, at Hawkshead Field, and in barns at Field Head and Sawrey Ground, and in a 
barn at Satterhow. See illustration. 

Fig. I. Barn at Field Head, containing four sets of forks. Three of these are in the 
figure as shown. But the same type, only with an equal curve in the 
beams, can be seen in an old house, now turned into a stable, at Hawks- 
head Field. 

Fig. 2. Barn at Hawkshead Hill. This building has three pairs of forks, and, conse- 
quently, four bays. There is an advance in type here, by the use of a 
collar beam. Part of the north-east side of this barn has a wooden framing 
set with upright slabs instead of a stone wall. It is possible that this 
building is an ancient cottage ; but it should be noticed that the farmhouse 
to which it belongs has been of the same construction. 

To this type also belongs a barn near the ruined farm at Satterhow, Far 
Sawrey, which has, however, only one pair of forks. 

Fig. 3 shows one pair of forks in the same barn as figure I, and is, probably, an altera- 
tion. A further advance is shown by the use of extra beams resting on 
the wall-plate. It seems possible, however, that these form a sort of 
deputy rafter. 

Fig. 4. Barn at Sawrey Ground, which is possibly also an old house. Two pairs of 
forks and three bays. Here the south wall is higher thin that on the 
north, and an additional beam, mentioned in the last, is used. 



ARCHEOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE. 151 

windows light the house-place ; if two, the smaller in the 
corner near the hearth, and the larger half-way between the 
door and the wall. There is a door right opposite the front 
door, and the staircase generally ascends here on the left ; on 
the right a door leads to the kitchen (if there is one) and 
pantry. 

Of course, this plan has various modifications, and often is 
exactly reversed, the house-place or hall lying to the right of 
the entrance, and the parlour to the left. :;: The staircase and 
pantry are, however, in a lean-to building thrown out from the 
back of the building, which without them is in plan a simple 
parallelogram ; t and sometimes this lean-to is expanded into 
a regular roofed building, with a kitchen and pantry. When 
this is so it is often an addition, and we think it not improbable 
that the lean-to, with staircase, is sometimes so also. If so, 
however, a simple newel would be the method by which originally 
access was obtained to the loft or upper rooms. 

The illustration represents High Satterhow, at Sawrey, now 
in ruins, but especially interesting as showing a complete 
yeoman's house of apparently the early seventeenth century, 
with large additions, probably late in the same century. 

The older house occupies all the cast end of the building ; 
A is the old house-place and kitchen combined, the front door 
of which, facing the hill, is now blocked by a flight of steps. 
Opposite the door a newel stair, in a small chamber projecting 



* In " Beauties of England and Wales," Mr. Hodgson has given a technical 
description of Westmorland farms, which, with notes, was reprinted in " The North 
Lonsdale Magazine," Vol. Ill, p. 298. It is useful as preserving certain technical 
terms for certain parts of the house, as thnslnvood for threshold, the ha//tn, or lobby, 
and the heck, a passage leading into the houseplace. But after careful perusal we are 
quite unable to reconcile his descrilxxl plan as that which is typical of both Kurness 
and the Westmorland fells. He makes the chief entrance into the downhouse, a 
sort of lean-to bakery, and the house-place lies on the right of the hallen, or lobby, 
and divided from it by a central wall, in which is the fireplace. The Ixnver, or 
]rlour, and pantry are put at the opposite end to the downhouse, on the other side of 
the house-place, and the staircase ascends to the " loft " out of the bower. This would 
not be far wrong if the front door was put at the end of the house-place next to the 
bower ; but placed where he places it it throws the whole description out. We cannot 
but think his account is compiled from some single farmhouse which had undergone 
alterations of plan. 

) The back door is sometimes at the stair foot, but sometimes, when the stairs lead 
up straight opposite, at the top of the first flight. It is thus when the ground rises 
behind the house, and in small houses is sometimes entirely dispensed with. 



152 ARCHEOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE. 

from the line of the wall. Behind the partition lies the 
old parlour (B), and a smaller room (c), either the chief bed- 
room or pantry. All this part of the house has solid limestone 
mullions to its windows, each light divided for security by a 
central iron bar. A drip moulding is carried over the window 
and door-head on the south front. D, E, and F is the new 
house, added later ; D is the new house-place, entered by a 
porch on the north side, with a mullioned window over it. 
Fireplace, oven, and wicker flue still remain. The pantry (F'] 
is in a lean-to with the staircase, and E is the new parlour. The 
old house-place (A) was apparently now used as a kitchen. 
The newer part of the house has oak-mullioned windows, also 
with central iron bar, and the doors in both parts arc of 
pegged oak. The old partitions are of lath and plaster and 
oak planks.* 

The upper floor in all these old houses was open to the 
great oaken beams throughout the length of the house, though 
generally it has been ceiled in modern times. In most farms 
of any pretensions, however, there was at one end a room divided 
off by an oaken partition, and here slept the master and mistress. 
The remainder of the loft was the common sleeping-place of 
the family and household, of all sexes and ages, and there was 
no fireplace in the second story at all. 

All this is fairly primitive, and perhaps not conducive to 
good sanitation or morality ; yet such is the kernel of nine 
out of ten farmhouses in the parish. Many have been added 
to in various ways, obliterating the original plan ; the loft has 
been divided into two or three bedrooms, and fireplaces have 
been introduced. A lobby has been cut off the house-place 
by a modern partition, but if we knock out these alterations 
we generally find the house as described above. 

The furniture and appliances of these houses in old days 
will be dealt with later on. We should, however, note here 
that the cylindrical chimneys so common in Westmorland are 
scarce in our parish, except in a few of the larger farmhouses 
and at the Hall. We find it difficult to account for the absence 

* The plan is kindly supplied by Mr. Dan. Gibson, of Marley Lodge, Windermere. 







13 



X 

'_" 



v 

_QJ 

I 



ARCHEOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE. 



155 



of this feature,* so characteristic in some of the surrounding 
districts, but we incline to think that this fashion, which seems 
to have extended over a considerable period, had died out to 
a great extent by the time these Hawkshcad farmhouses were 
erected. What this date was we shall now enquire. 

We have seen how, by the Code of Customs and Bye-laws 
of 27 Eliz., the position of the tenant was established. From 
that date his prosperity indeed steadily increased, so that, 
about 1650, a fashion for rebuilding set in with such vigour 
that during the next sixty years nearly every homestead seems 




Low KKENGROUND. 

to have been altered or rebuilt. Few houses themselves bear 
inscribed dates, for the stone did not lend itself to chiselled 
ornament ; but the great oaken bread cupboard, built into the 
oak partition, remains in many farms, and these, with such 

* We think it partly explainable by the fact that most of these houses are built 
of quarried stones. In districts where the stone quarried badly, or there was a 
plentiful supply of glaciated or stream-bed gravel, the stones worked better into a 
cylindrical than a square shape. Round chimneys, however, still are to be seen at 
the following places, and this list is probably not exhaustive : Hawkshead Hall and 
School, Rawlinson Ground, Yew Tree Kami, Thwaitehead, Far Sawrey, Skelwith 
Fold, The Crag Colthouse, Kookhow (Meeting House), Low Keenground, and High 
Dale Park. Probably also elsewhere in Colton district. 



156 ARCHEOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE. 

other chests or articles of furniture as have survived, in nine 
cases out of ten, bear carved dates between 1650 and 1710. 

The reasons for this we need not go far to seek. In the 
first place, the border warfare, smouldering for a long while 
and fanned to a flame by Henry VIII. and Wolscy, was 
destined at last to die out. While the "troubles" and the 
Civil War held the country in agitation and distress, no small 
landowner could put his hand to the improvement of his estate, 
or to the building of a homestead ; but the pacification of the 
Border had commenced at the end of the sixteenth century, 
and the reduction of Scotland by General Monk, followed by 
the Restoration of Charles II., in 1660, opened up to the dales- 
man a prospect more peaceful and encouraging than he had 
ever yet known. Added to this was the spread of education, 
consequent on the founding of the Grammar School by Arch- 
bishop Sandys, nearly a hundred years before, which we may 
be sure had by this time told its tale upon the residents of 
the parish. 

At the end of the seventeenth century the men of Furness 
Fells with one accord pulled down their old, low, dark, and 
ill-contrived houses, and built those which still stand to-day, 
and form such a picturesque feature in our landscapes. 

The buildings attached to the farms the byres and ship" 
pons need not detain us long ; for there was no regular plan 
adopted in their disposition, and their size and number depended 
on the affluence of the dalesman family who owned the farm. 
A large proportion of them date from the same time as the 
houses, but the walling is not so good, nor is it rough-cast. 
It was very usual to build alongside the house a stable and 
barn, of which the front wall and rooftrec followed the lines 
of the house, so that it all formed one. But almost equally 
often we find the house closed in on either side, with barns and 
buildings projecting from its front, now cosy and sheltered, at 
a right angle. We know no instance in which a farm was 
built in a complete quadrangle, as if for strength or defence ; 
and the only signs that security was at all considered are that 
in a few cases, where the ancient door remains, it is of massive 






ARCHEOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE. 



T 57 



oak, with great iron or wood studs ; and that where a mullioned 
window is preserved the lights are very narrow, as if to preclude 
forcible entry. 

Frequently (and within memory of man even more fre- 
quently) are, or were to be seen picturesque galleries on these 
outbuildings, the roof being carried out further than the wall, 
and then supported by and sheltering a passage-way of strong 
wooden framework. Or we find a penthouse projecting simply 
from the wall at a lower level. It has been thought that in 
these we may possibly trace a survival of Icelandic custom 




WINDOW AT SATTERHOW. 

a reminiscence of the outside stairs and galleries which are 
known to have been built by the Vikings. Such, of course, 
is possible, but we think no other explanation is necessary 
than the wetness of the climate, and the smallness of the 
within-doors accommodation that the people provided them- 
selves with. Under these galleries and penthouses were stored, 
we imagine, produce and effects which should be kept from 
rain. Peat fuel was seasoned here ; and, above all, here was 
hung up to dry the yarn, spun with distaff and wheel, by the 
busy fingers of the daleswomen. 



158 ARCHEOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE. 

It was the land of stone-built homestead. No need here for 
the picturesque timber and plaster cottages which stud the 
clayey plains of some of our Midlands ; yet, strange to say, 
that method was not actually unknown, and here and there, 
as at Yew Tree Farm, we find a little piece of such work 
introduced into an out-building. What such sporadic growths 
may mean we hardly know. Possibly that the builder of this 
tenement was a great traveller, who, perhaps, in the course of 
a wild, mis-spent youth, had wandered far afield to Southern 
Lancashire, and there had seen the art ; for, two hundred years 
back, a fell fanner who got so far from home must have been 
either a man of a vagrant turn of mind, or else a prodigal son. 

Hall houses and domestic architecture of the wealthier classes 
are naturally but poorly represented in our parish ; though there 
is matter of interest at Hawkshcad Hall, the manor house in 
monastic days, and at the two Graythwaitcs and Rusland. The 
first, indeed, offers some decidedly unusual features. * 

The picturesque beauty of this old place, with its rookery, 
its brawling beck, and its ancient mill has been alluded to 
elsewhere. But in touching upon the architectural features the 
first thing we must note is, that what remains is only a 
portion of what was standing until recently. The grey building 
on the cast with the mullioned window was, until some seven 
and twenty years ago, joined to the isolated, rough-cast building 
now used as a cottage, by a low, straight-roofed range of the 
same local type ; and altogether these buildings formed three 
sides of a quadrangle, which there is some evidence was, at 
an earlier date, closed in on the fourth side by a wall or more 
buildings. (See Plate facing p. 22). 

The house as it then stood was the home of the Nicholson 
and Copley families from the middle of the sixteenth to the 
middle of the eighteenth centuries ; and although, with the 
exception of the Court house on the east, the building probably 
owed its construction in a great measure to the first of these 

* For a full description and plan see " Hawkshead Hall," by the present writer, in 
"Transactions Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society." 
Vol. XL, p. 7. 



ARCHEOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE. 159 

families, there is evidence that they incorporated some older 
work of the Abbey period in their alterations and additions. 

The first interest of the building, however, now centres in 
the Court or Gate house, which is altogether of pre-Reformation 
work ; for it consists of a rectangular block, with an entrance 
or gateway passing through it, and one large room above. 
The gateway has what is called technically a drop arch of 
dressed sandstone, with a sculptured keystone, * over which 
is a lion's head, and over this again a niche which until 1834 
contained a seated figure of the Virgin. 

On either side of the entrance passage are rooms now used 
as stables, and that on the south side was probably originally 
a porter's lodge. These rooms were both entered from the 
court-yard. 

The great room above, forty feet in length, and open to the 
roof, is entered by an external stair in the north end of the 
building. It was originally lighted by four trefoil-headed 
windows, of two lights each, and a large pointed one at the 
south end, looking towards the road. Only two of the former 
remain, those on the east side ; but the large pointed window 
with the cinqucfoil heads, holes for bars, and grooves for glazing, 
still remains. The tracery is rather unusual in character, and 
we should place its date perhaps early in the fifteenth century. 

But now comes an architectural puzzle : for although nothing 
we have yet seen about the court-house seems earlier than the 
last-mentioned date,! we are confronted by a fire-place of simple 
design in the east wall, along the edge of which runs the 
dog-tooth ornament, which is essentially characteristic of the 
thirteenth century. 

Possibly, but not probably, this is an insertion from an 
older building ; but it has every appearance of being in its 
original position. We have elsewhere observed that the house 
may have been built during the interdict, on the occasion 



* This keystone, being utterly decayed and rotten, was replaced a few years since 
by an exact reproduction, the weathered stone being removed and built into the wall 
of the adjacent cottage. 

t Except a round-headed doorway into the court-yard, which might belong to 
either period. 



160 ARCHEOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE. 

when Honorius granted permission to the convent to celebrate 
masses at their private altars, assigning for this purpose our 
Chapelry. We incline, upon the whole, to believe that the 
court-house was then built, but if so it was evidently com- 
pletely altered in the fifteenth century, and it is even possible 
that it was not till that date that the archway, making it into 
a gate-house, was cut through. 

The latter supposition, however, is not altogether likely, 
because the fire-place, if in situ, shews that from the beginning 
a room existed upon the upper floor. The height beneath 
this is insufficient for a hall or room of importance, and being 
a monastic building, not a fortress, such a room would be on 
the ground level, if there were not some reason against it. If 
it was a gate-house from the first the reason is before us. 

There were, however, other buildings here coeval with, if not 
older than, the present court-house. The portion destroyed 
consisted of a dining hall and parlour, the latter of which fitted 
with its north-east angle against the south-west angle of the 
court-house. The end wall of this building is still standing, 
and the two buildings were not bonded, whence in ordinary 
building we should judge that they were not of the same 
date. And, still more remarkable, the court-house was built 
on to the angle of the parlour, not vice versa, so that the 
latter building looks as if it must have been standing when 
the former was erected. 

But this want of bond here carries no evidence of priority 
of date, for all through the court-house we find the same 
feature, the walls having apparently been run up without any 
preconcerted plan. 

We know, however, nothing further than that at this corner 
there stood a building which must at least have been as old 
as the court-house. Probably it was the residential part, con- 
sisting of a hall and kitchen. The gate-house building, being 
entirely devoid of bedrooms, ovens, or other domestic con- 
veniences, was, we may be almost sure, built for the purpose 
which its present name betokens the holding of the manor 
court. There is some evidence that at the south end of the 






ARCHAEOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE. 161 

court-room there was a dais, and that in the angle where the 
buildings joined, a spiral staircase was constructed, by which 
the Abbot and dignitaries could enter the court while the 
tenants approached by the door at the north end. 

The remainder of the house was, before mutilation, a typical 
Lake district hall-house of the sixteenth or seventeenth century. 
It formed an L-shapcd building, the lower limb, which joined 
the court-house, being the longer, and containing the big house- 
place or hall, the full width of the building, and also, we 
believe, originally extending to the rafters. Between this and 
the court-house lay the parlour, while the other end, the upper 
part of the L, was occupied by two rooms, one of which was 
the kitchen. The wall dividing the hall from the kitchen 
was nine feet thick, for it had not only to contain the great 
hall fire-place, but also the kitchen ovens. There is a massive 
oaken staircase in this wing, leading to the upper floor. 

Externally there is little of interest except the chimneys, 
two of which are cylindrical/' while that over the thick wall 
is a very curious, though rudely built, clustered stack', contain- 
ing four flues. 

The plan of the whole house is so extremely simple, that 
there is nothing improbable in the idea that the entire build- 
ing is of early date, though in post- Reformation times the 
residential part has gradually lost all the features of its earlier 
existence. 

The only thing which remains to notice is the rough work 
characterizing the entire building. The masonry is the very 
roughest rubble, formed of boulders and cobbles of all shapes 
and sizes, many, if not most of which, are unquarried, picked 
no doubt from the stream-bed. The sandstone facings and 
windows were, of course, quarried somewhere in the neighbour- 
hood of the parent monastery, but the simplicity of the designs 
shows possibly that the stones were dressed by local masons, 
under the supervision of the monks.f Throughout the building 

* That nearest the front is, however, a modern addition. 

t But, if so, they would have to be instructed in the use of hammer and stone 
chisel : for we doubt the existence, at this early period, of ashlar masons at Hawks- 
head. 

12 



1 62 ARCHEOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE. 

there is indeed a special character the result of the 
sudden contact between high monastic culture and art, and 
the rude traditional methods of the earlier dalesfolk. 

Of the other three houses we need say but little. Gray- 
thwaitc Hall or Graythwaite High Hall, the old scat of the 
Sandys family since the fifteenth century, is a good old north- 
county house of ordinary type, situated low and badly, but in 
an undulating park. The house has, quite recently, been much 
altered in appearance by its owner, Colonel T. M. Sandys, who 
has, however, while adding new sandstone dressings and quoins, 
not altered the ancient plan of the structure. By tradition, the 
Colonel tells us, this is the second house on the site, and the 
plan of the building a central hall, with dining and drawing 
rooms on either side might well be of Elizabethan date, 
possibly of the time of the Archbishop. The hall, however, is 
cut down in size, and now contains some seventeenth-century 
panelling, which is said to have come from Tytup Hall, near 
Dalton. 

Within the house the chief interest is in the valuable series 
of family portraits preserved in the dining room, among which 
are pictures of the Archbishop, the poet, and other distinguished 
members of the family. On the front of the house is an 
armorial stone, which was removed from another part of the 
house, and put in its present place during the recent altera- 
tions. The arms arc those of Sandys, differenced by a crescent, 
ami the shape of the shield is of ornate Elizabethan type. On 
the sinister side are the initials ,.. and on the dexter side r 

1,, v~, 

while beneath is the elate 1178. 

Of course this date has given rise to all sorts of specula- 
tions. Some antiquaries, ignoring the character of the work, 
the shape of the shield, and the use of Arabic numerals, 
have contented themselves with saying the stone must have 
come from the older home of the family in Cumberland. 
Others, with greater probability, think it chronicles some date 
preserved in the family, the meaning of which has been for- 
gotten. But there now appears no record of the family prior 
to 1377. 



ARCHEOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE. 163 

In examining this stone we expected to detect a mutilated 
second figure, and to find that it had originally been an 
Elizabethan 5. But this does not seem to be the case, and 
we cannot suggest the reason for placing this early date upon 
the stone.* We would, however, suggest that the initials may 
well be those of Christopher, Edwin, and Cicely Sandys. The 
first-named was resident at Graythwaite after about 1551, and 
according to one account his wife was Cicely Carus. Edwin, 
his brother, the Archbishop, used the crescent on his arms, 
and his second wife's name was certainly Cicely ; and we 
think that Christopher, the resident squire, and his illustrious 
brother, repaired or rebuilt the hall, though what they 
intended to convey by the date, if it has always been what 
it now appears, we cannot hazard a guess. 

Graythwaite, or Graythwaite Low Hall, is a place of a very 
different character. It lies close to the Hawkshead and Lake- 
side Road, on to which it directly faces, and although a 
perfectly plain, almost factory-like block in appearance, is yet 
very charming from its old-fashioned garden, its ivied walls, 
and its large barns built close to the house, with wrought- 
iron vane initialled and dated. 

It is difficult to give a date to this house. It belonged 
to the Sawreys in the time (if Henry VIII., and from them 
it passed to the Rawlinsons, who have owned and generally 
occupied it since. The house is in plan like the letter T, 
the stem of which, now containing the kitchens, may possibly 
be older than the crossbar which now forms the front. But 
the plan of internal arrangement docs not tell us much, for 
such houses of the lesser gentry from the sixteenth to the 
eighteenth century varied but little. The front of the house 
has a spacious but low hall, with narrow stairway and a 
huge open hearth, and on either side are pleasant parlours. 
The house is three stories high, and the oak balusters of 
the stairs lead to the attics, which shows that this has always 
been the case. The windows are formal upright openings, 
and the general style of this part suggests no greater 

* The stone is now (1897) painted, but the figures ate very clear. 



1 64 ARCHAEOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE. 

antiquity than the seventeenth century, although it is possible 
that its appearance may be due only to considerable altera- 
tions' about this date. Probably at one time the windows 
were fitted with oaken or stone mullions ; but the absolute 
lack of architectural detail makes it impossible to assign 
certain dates to any parts of this charming old residence. 

The other hall houses in the parish are architecturally 
unimportant, and have been mentioned before. Rusland Hall, 
perhaps of the time of Charles II., is the most interesting; 
but Grisedale Hall, at one time a house of the Rawlinsons, 
is now a comparatively modern farmhouse. Esthwaite Hall 
and Colton Hall, or " Old Hall," at Bouth, were both residences 
of the Sandys family. The former is partly demolished, and 
its original plan untraceablc ; while the latter is a totally 
uninteresting structure, having been modernized into cottages. 
It was never, however, probably a place of any pretensions. 

ECCLESIOLOGY. 

Elsewhere we have described the church, so we now pass 
to the various curiosities connected with it. 

If we enter the church and walk straight up the north 
aisle, which is believed to have been rebuilt by the Arch- 
bishop, we come to "the little quire or chancel" of the 
Sandys family of Graythwaitc, this being a portion of the 
east end of the aisle, divided off by a tasteful oaken screen. 
No doubt this private chapel was reserved for the use of 
his family by the Archbishop when he rebuilt the aisle, and 
a private entrance into the " loose box," as it is irreverently 
termed, was also made, over which are the Sandys arms, and 
the initials, E. S., with the date, 1578, showing who was the 
builder. * Within the screen, and with the end towards the 
east wall, is a large table monument of considerable interest, 
for it was erected by the Archbishop to the memory of his 
father and mother, William Sandys, of Graythwaite (Receiver- 
General of the Liberties of Furness), and his wife, Margaret, 

* The character of the work is very similar to lhat of the Graythwaite date stone, 
and is most probably by the same mason. Is it possible that the latter was a spoiled 
stone meant for the church ? The date is the same except one figure. 




o 



O 



I 






ARCHEOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE. 167 

daughter of John Dixon, by Anne his wife, daughter of 
Thomas Roos, of Witherslack. 

Upon this monument, with their feet to the east, lie the 
sculptured figures of the old Furness squire and his wife. 
The work is rude and rough, unlike many of the beautiful 
effigies to be found in our southern counties, and the figures 
lie but half cut from the freestone a sort of mezzo-relievo, 
it may be termed. The squire and his wife are placed both 
with their hands pressed together, as if in prayer. Late as the 
period is, he is in a complete suit of armour, with his head 
on a cushion and" a lion at his feet. The lady's dress is 
equally shown in detail, but in place of the lion a lapdog 
supports her feet. As is usual, she is placed on the left 
hand of her lord.* 

On the fillet round the figures is the following inscription, 
written, it is thought, by the Archbishop himself: 

South side. 

CODIT R HOC TVMVLO GVLIELM S SAND S ET VXOR 
CVI MARGARETAE NOMEN ET OMEN ERAT 
ARMIGER ILLE FVIT i>CHAR s - REGIB S OLIM 
ILLA SED EXEMPLAR RELI61OIS ERAT 

East side. 

CONIVGII FVERANT AEQVALI SORTE BEATI 
FOELICES OPIBVS STEMMATE PROLE FIDE 

North side. 

PIGNORA Divll FVERAT HAEC MAGNA FAVORIS 
HAEC TAME EDWINI CVCTA RETVDIT HONOS 
QVI DOCTO R ' RECT OK q5 SCHOLAE- CES" K Q q5 P'SVL 
TER FVERAT - MER1TO PHOEB S IN ORBE SACRO 

* William Sandys is represented with the vizor of his helmet raised, and in armour 
composed of a gorget of plate, cuirass, pauMrons, brassarts, coutes, vambraces, gaunt- 
lets, short straight-edged skirt of taces (without either tuilles, tassets, or mail skirt), 
cuisses, genouillieres, jambarts, and round-toed sollarets, all of plate. The pauldrons, 
coutes, and genouillieres are each composed of several plates. On his left hangs a 
cross-handled sword, suspended by a horizontal hip-belt, which passes round the waist 
at the top of the skirt of taces ; and on his right is a misericorde bearing three small 
knives in the sheath. The lady wears on her head a curious hood, which falls in folds 
over her shoulders. She is dressed in a gown with tight sleeves, gathered in round 
the waist by a girdle formed of a cord which hangs down in front, and ends in two 
tassels. The gown is closed down the front and extends up to the throat. By her 
sides hang long false sleeves coming from under her hood and unconnected with her 
arms. 



1 68 ARCHAEOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE. 

West side. 

QVOS AMOR ET 1'IETAS -_LECTO COIVXIT . EODE 
HOS SVB SPE VITAE COTINET ISTE LAPIS - 

This inscription has been thus rendered into English 

verse by Dr. J. 1C. Sandys, of S. John's College, Cambridge 

the public orator for that University: 

Buried beneath this tomb lie William Sandys and his Consort, 

Margaret ; happy her name ; happy her name and her fame ; 

He an Esquire who rejoiced in his day in the favour of Princes ; 

S/ic a Pattern to all, holy and saintly in life. 

Happy were they in their home, in the equal lot of their 
wedlock ; 

Blest in their wealth and their faith ; blest in their sires 
and their sons. 

Great were the pledges of favour divine they received in 
abundance ; 

Greatest of all was the fame won them by Edwin their son. 

Doctor was he, and Proctor, and Head of a College at Cam- 
bridge : 

Thrice as a Bishop enthroned, thrice was he Head of a See. 

They that were one in their life, and their love, and their 
hallowed affection, 

Resting beneath this stone wait for the life for to come. 

Upon the head and sides of the tomb are the arms of 
Sandys,* with the initials E S on cither side of the shield. 
Formerly, as we learn from West, these arms were in stained- 
glass in the north window of the chapel, impaled with those 
of Dixon, and on a label, " William married Margaret." 

We need not linger over the other monuments in the church, 
except to notice the huge and ornate mural tablets on 
each side of the tower arch. It is easy to see that these are 
not local work ; and their history is curious. They comme- 
morate two of the Rawlinsons Daniel, a merchant, who died 
in 1629, and Sir Thomas, his son, Lord Mayor of London in 
1706; and it was only subsequent to 1878 that they were 

* With crosses patlees fitchees instead of crossletts, which is the usual bearing. 




THE SANDYS MONUMENT, HAWKSHEAD. 






ARCHAEOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE. 169 

transferred to Hawkshead from the destroyed St. Dionis Back- 
church, in London. As their ponderous later inscriptions have 
been elsewhere printed, * and of the worthies of this family 
we must treat anon, let us pass through the tower arch 
screen and examine the old parish chest. 

This very interesting old chest probably dates from the 
commencement of the seventeenth century. On the 25th 
October, 1597, a constitution was made by the Archbishop, 
Bishops, and Clergy of Canterbury concerning the better keeping 
and preservation of the Parish Registers. In this we find the 
following clause : 

" Neque vcro in unius cujusdam custodia librum ilium, 
sed in cista publica, caque trifariam obscrata reservandum 
putamus, ita ut ncquc sine ministro gardiani ncc sive utrisquc 
gardianis minister quicquam possit innovarc." I 

The ordinances of this constitution were also embodied in an 
ecclesiastical mandate of 1603, where it is enacted : 

" And for the safe keeping of the said book, the church- 
wardens, at the charge of the parish, shall provide one sure 
coffer with three locks and keys, whereof the one to remain with 
the minister, and the other two with the churchwardens severally, 
so that neither the minister without the two churchwardens, nor 
the churchwardens without the minister, shall at any time take 
the book out of the said coffer." 

Our old chest is the " sure coffer with three locks," which 
was obtained in obedience to this mandate. It is made of 
a vast oaken beam six feet eight inches long and sixteen inches 
deep ; but the box cavity is only three feet in length, and we 
have no doubt that the intention in using such a huge mass 
of wood for so small a receptacle was as a precaution against 
theft. Here, in fact, we find a primitive form of safe burglar 
proof, no doubt, in those days, if not fireproof. 

The lid is crossed by three stout oaken bands, which arc 
connected to others at the back by a hinge. From them over 

* In the present writer's " Monumental Inscriptions of Hawkshead Parish," 
1892. Nos. 122 and 124. 

t See Burns' "History of Parish Registers," 1852, p. 23. 



1 70 ARCHAEOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE. 

the front hang three other bands, which can be secured to strong 
staples by the old-fashioned padlock. It is of course long since 
the registers were kept in this patriarchal coffer, but it is not 
long since we rescued from the mass of rubbish it still holds 
a large number of most valuable " burial in woolen " certificates 
sadly injured by damp.* 

This type of chest is not unique. One, smaller, belongs to 
the Grammar School, and was made in accordance with the 
original Statute. In this case the letters-patent of the founda- 
tion and other documents were to be kept in it, and the keys 
were to be held respectively by two of the governors and the 
schoolmaster. Another similar chest belongs to Satterthwaite 
Church. 

There are still preserved at the Vicarage three curious staves 
and a handsome malacca cane, which were in days gone by the 
insignia of the parochial officials. The most interesting is 
a wooden staff, finished at the lower end with a ferrule, 
and at the top with a pierced metal halberd. The staff is 
painted black, and the total length, with the head, is five 
feet four and a half inches. 

The pierced iron head is thickly gilt, the gilding being either 
a later addition, or it has been renewed. In design it represents 
a pikeman with a plumed helmet, his pike in his right hand, 
a sword with a guard, slung on his left, and habited in trunk 
hose and stockings. It can be seen that beneath the thick 
gilding the metal has had shallow chasing, showing the buttons 
and other detail of costume. 

Below the head comes the socket, ornamented with a pierced 
hollow knob, and beneath this is a heavy tassel, the upper part 
of which is embroidered with silver thread over a thick roll of 
felt. The tassel fringe is of yellow and red .silk, with a few 
silver wires in it. 

The costume of the figure gives the approximate date of this 
staff, which is about 1610. Although pikemen were still habited 



* Now mounted in a book by the present writer and indexed. See a list in " The 
Oldest Register Book of the Parish of Uawkshead," p. 395. 







HALBERD AND OFFICIAL STAVES. 



ARCHEOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE. 173 

much the same for twenty-five years or so later, the trunk hose 
became gradually less wide and baggy. 

The other two staves are of the same age and wood, but they 
have no ferrules, and are finished at the top with a plain wooden 
knob painted yellow. They appear to have originally been five 
and a half feet in length, but have each lost about an inch. 

The cane is a beautiful malacca, measuring 3 feet loj inches, 
and surmounted with a massive silver knob, inscribed " Hoc 
et alteru Dona Dan Rawlinson cives ct Oenopola; London 
guardianis ccclcsi;e Hauxoniensis servand et Sencschallis nun- 
dinar ibidem pro temporc cxistcn successive in pcrpctuum 
post leiturgium Anglican in cadcm habit utend, ct usu corund 
quolibet opportuno temporc habit cisdcm rcstitucnd," which 
Dr. Sandys has thus translated: "This staff and its fellow arc 
the gifts of Daniel Rawlinson, citizen and vintner of the city 
of London, to be kept by the churchwardens of Hawkshcad 
Church, and to be used in perpetuity, after the service in the 
said church, by the successive stewards of the market held at 
Hawkshcad for the time being, and after use to be returned 
to the churchwardens at some convenient season." 

The interest of the inscription lies in the fact that it tells 
of another staff of the same date, which is now lost, and gives 
also a clue as to the way the older set of staves were used. 
The malaccas it seems served a double purpose : firstly, they 
were used each Sunday as churchwardens' insignia, and then 
were handed to the stewards of the weekly Monday market, 
whose duty was no doubt to maintain order, and who carried 
these canes as badges of their office. Now, the letters-patent 
for Hawkshead market were obtained by Adam Sandys, who 
died in 1608, which is close to the date we have assigned to 
the halberd. We therefore conjecture that the older set were 
given by the Sandys family soon after the institution of the 
market, and that Daniel Rawlinson (d. 1679) gave the new 
malaccas to fulfil the same purposes, considering perhaps the 
original ones given by the ancestors of his neighbours the 
Sandys as obsolete and out of fashion. This was only one 
instance of the good-natured rivalry which seems always to 



174 ARCHEOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE. 

have existed between the two families who lived only a stone's 
throw apart. 

As we have touched on the market, we may notice here 
two curious bell-metal measures which according to Mr. A. 
Craig Gibson were discovered in clearing rubbish from a building 
near the church.* They are respectively the quart and pint, 
excellently made old flagons, and very massive and heavy. 
The quart is 6g inches in height, with a handle, but the pint 
is like a tumbler, with no handle. There can be little doubt 
that these were originally the standard market measures, and 
we believe that it was the rule that such measures should be 
kept in the church. I 

The church was provided with a new peal of bells in 1765, 
and these, with their quaint rhyming inscriptions, are worth 
examination, but we shall have something to say about them 
in the chapter about the parish accounts. The communion 
plate, both of I lawkshcad and Satterthwaite, has little special 
interest, being of eighteenth century work. As both sets are 
fully described in " Old Church Plate of the Diocese of Car- 
lisle, "J we spare our readers a repetition here. 

At Colton, however, there is a valuable Elizabethan chalice 
and paten, with the date mark 1571-2. Colton is indeed 
worth a visit for another relic, a pre-Re formation bell, inscribed 
"iji Campana bcati Johannes Appli"- The bell of Saint John 
the Apostle which inscription raises a question if the bell was 

* These vessels are punch-marked on the rim, first with a monogram of a W 
between two R's (ojwp) beneath a crown, and secondly with a cheque pattern ; but 
we do not know what marks were in use for bronze or bell-metal. These vessels are 
mentioned in " Old Church Plate in the Diocese of Carlisle," 1882, p. 253, but the 
writer of this section incorrectly describes the first mark on the quart measure as 
" Crowned initials surmounting a cross stave," and the same mark on the pint as 
" R over a crown, of which the punch has slipped, and three sides of a rectangle." 
Others have called the cheque pattern a portcullis. 

t See Canon Rawnsley in "Old Church Plate of the Diocese of Carlisle," p. 254. 
A quart measure of this sort was formerly used in Ravenstonedale. 

t Pp. 202, 252, and 256. We should, however, note an error in this work. The 
terrier of 1783 specifies the pewter set as consisting of two flagons and a dish, but the 
editor describes one flagon as missing. Both are, however, now forthcoming : and 
curiously a pewter chalice was found by the writer's brother in a stable at Hawkshead 
Hall, where service was held during the church restoration. No pewter chalice is 
mentioned in the terrier, but it must have existed, and the pewter set being used at 
the Hall, it seems to have been mislaid there and forgotten. This vessel, which we do 
not doubt belongs to the pewter set, is at present in the possession of the writer's 
brother. 



ARCHAEOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE. 



'75 



originally made for Colton, the church being dedicated to the 
Holy Trinity. It appears, however, that church bells were 
sometimes dedicated differently to the church they hung in, 
a similar case being found at Dacrc. It is conjectured that 
the Colton bell is the work of John de Kirkham, a York 
founder towards the end of the fourteenth century, to whom 
several bells in the north with similar inscriptions are attributed." 
Another curiosity connected with the church is the old pitch- 
pipe, the payment for which is given in the parish accounts. 
It has a brass scale, bearing the date 1/64. There is also in 
the writer's possession a fine old key, which was found some 




BELL-METAL MARKET MEASURES. 

years ago in clearing out a cellar in the house now occupied 
by Mr. Simon, close to the church. It is 6;| inches long, and 
very heavy, and within the ring of the handle is a sort of rude 
fleur-de-lis. The house was formerly occupied by Mr. Watson, 
who was a churchwarden, and it seems likely that this key 
belonged to one of the doors of the church before it was 



* The font at Colton, a large oclagonal one, was turned up in 1889 serving as a 
base for the one that had then been in use for 178 years. It was re-erected, but 
unfortunately not before it had been re-dressed by over-keen masons in the Vicar's 
absence. When Hawkshead Church was restored, the old font was buried in the 
churchyard. As far as we can learn it was a poor affair of no antiquity, but it seems 
an odd way to treat a font. 



176 ARCHAEOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE. 

restored. Though of rude work the type of the key does not 
appear older than the seventeenth century. 

We cannot dismiss the subject of parochial curios without 
mentioning the Grammar School seal. It is of silver, of massive 
work, with a diameter of 2^ inches. The engraved design is 
curious and of great interest. In the centre, upon a large 
armchair, we see seated the schoolmaster, " a pedagogue in 
his glory," cap on head, and magnificent with a long flowing 
robe. With his left hand raised he admonishes the poor little 
knickerbockercd pupil, who with open book stands trembling 
before him, while with his right he brandishes a formidable 
birch rod. On the master's right are the arms of the See of 
York, and on his left the family arms of Sandys, while above 
on a tablet is the motto 

D O C E M D O 

DI8CIMVS 

and on a scroll surrounding the figures 

SIGILLVM LIBER/E SCHOL/E GRAMATIC EDWYVU 
SAUJES EBORACEILSIS ARCHIEPISCOPI EV1DATORIS 

The work of the seal is good and careful for the period, 
and it is queer to observe how numerous the errors are in the 
inscription, chiefly in omitting to reverse the letters S and N. 

BRIC-A-BRAC. 

Those who have been at any pains to really learn about life 
in England in the past, must, the deeper they dive into the 
fascinating study, become more and more struck with the 
absolute change in rural life, even in remote districts, since 
the commencement of the present century. Of course, we 
continually meet survivals, often very remarkable ones, of most 
primitive usages and appliances. These are, as Dr. Mitchell 
aptly terms them, evidences of the " past in the present," but, 
taking a broad view, it is sheer nonsense to talk of " the old 
country life " as still extant. Survivals may be numerous, and 
often are intensely important to the student, but they are the 
merest drop in the ocean compared with the sweeping changes 



ARCHEOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE. 177 

which we see on all sides. Yet it is this very fact which 
renders it so desirable to gather up every item of evidence 
existing about old country life. To the young student of 
local history we would say, " Do not be carried away by the 
enthusiasm of those learned archaeologists who must pooh-pooh 
everything that is not pre-Adamite, Roman, or Early Mediaeval. 
Never think a subject does not merit thrashing out because it 
is recent. If it is local history, manners, customs, superstitions, 
or what not, you cannot thrash it too hard, since, though 
the evidence may be obtainable to-day, to-morrow it may be 
forgotten." 

We have dealt in some way with the farmhouse as it is 
and was, and now we shall show, as well as we can, how these 
houses were fitted and furnished ; and we shall indicate a few 
of the numerous appliances which were in use in domestic life 
and in farming and other operations, but which, owing to the 
civilizing power of steam traffic, and the consequent introduc- 
tion of improvements and inventions, have disappeared either 
entirely, or are only to be found amidst the farm lumber. Such 
objects may be conveniently called nco-archaics, and there are 
some such, which, though in regular use fifty years ago, would 
not be recognised at all if now shown to a farm-lad. 

Domestic life in communities, not necessarily primitive, but 
lacking the refinement of high culture, has always centred round 
the hearth, insomuch that the " domestic hearth " as a term 
has almost the same meaning as "home": and thus it became the 
special feature of northern climates, in which the hearth was not 
only necessary for the preparation of food, but added so much 
to the warmth and comfort of the inmates. 

In the simpler type of farmhouse, the house-place and kitchen 
were one, and the hearth, often perhaps the only one in the 
house, stood at the end of the room, right opposite the oaken 
press. There were, however, two sorts, and we are not able to 
say if the fashions did or did not prevail at the same period. 
The simplest was a vast cavity at least half, and often three- 
quarters, of the width of the room, and of sufficient depth to 
place chairs within its recess on either side of the turf fire. 
'3 



178 ARCHEOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE. 

It did not extend quite the height of the room, and the lintel 
was either horizontal or with a very slight segmental arch. 

In the other kind the hearth projected into the house-place, 
and the flue was built into the loft, by which a considerable 
amount of room was lost in both cases. The hearth back was 
the wall, from which the hearthstone projected, and the flue, 
pyramidal in form, was built of lath and plaster, and descended 
only to the floor of the loft, which had the necessary aperture 
left, about four to six feet wide, for the smoke a mighty 
uneconomical and inflammable construction. 

Very few of cither of these types, since the introduction of 
grates and kitchen ranges, remain ; but here and there in an 
abandoned farm we can find them, and if we peer up the smoky 
chimney we can see the " ranncl balk," or cross-beam, which, 
firmly fixed across the chimney at the level of the loft floor, 
served for suspending the ratten or racon-crook.* This latter 
was a chain or rod so arranged with hooks that its length could 

o o 

be regulated as required in cooking. Here, too, might we find 
the brandrcth or brandiron, a small iron tripod, which, placed 
over the fire, supported an iron plate rather over two feet in 
diameter, on which was baked the appetizing haver-bread (oat- 
cake). The plate is the girdle or girdle-plate. 

At the back of the fire sometimes stood against the wall a 
cast-iron plate initialled and dated.f and at cither side rough 
cast-iron fire-dogs or andirons. Spits and toasters of various 
sorts were in use, some in the bigger houses consisting of two 
upright bipedal standards, with hooks, which supported a rod 
sometimes six feet long on which the meat was secured to 
hooks, and then revolved by a handle. Others for toasting 
cakes and bread were small affairs with three or four sets of 
double prongs, and sometimes arranged to elevate or lower 
according to the heat of the fire. In Northumberland these 



* ' iriginally racon' or racken-crook because it could be racked out to any length 
(if, rntchct reach, etc.), and in old documents thus spelled; but by corruption 
turned to ratten-crook or the " rats-swing." 

t They do not seem to have been common. One with initials and three figures 
is to be seen at Keenground, and a very fine one at Gra>thwaite Low Hall ; another 
at Miss Willson's house at llighwray. 




From a Photo, by Mr. H. Bell. 

GRATE AND FIREBACK AT GRAYTHWAITE Low HALL. 



ARCHEOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE. 181 

were called hake-sticks, and in Cumberland they were shaped 
like a dog and called toast-dogs. 

From toast-dogs and fire-dogs it is not a far cry to the fire- 
cat, an ingenious appliance made of a wooden ball and six legs 
of turned wood. On three of the legs was placed a plate of 
buttered toast, or anything else, to keep warm, while the other 
three legs supported it. The fire-cat a most useful thing- 
seems quite obsolete in the Lakes, though once quite common, 
and often constructed of brass, to be seen in modern drawing- 
rooms at the present day. The meaning of the name is 
obvious, for, however you may throw it, it alights upon its 
feet. 

When the Furness Fells farmsteads were rebuilt, during the 
latter half of the seventeenth century, they were furnished to 
match. Here and there we find a chest, or chair as early 
as 1610-1620, but they are anything but common. Indeed, 
even of examples of the last half of the century, few except 
those that were fixtures remain. Up to the time when the 
fashion for collecting old oak, china, and bric-a-brac set in, 
there were few fell farms which had not their heirlooms in 
the shape of rudely-carved chairs, tables, settles and chests. 
But the opening up of the Lakes as a pleasure resort, the 
growth of centres like Bowness and Amblcside, attracted 
not only visitors but dealers, and twenty years have made a 
terrible sweep-out of these relics. The worst of it is, how- 
ever, that the dealers are not content with buying up and 
selling out of the district really good examples, but they 
purchase the rougher made, the dilapidated, or the uncarved 
pieces, and " fettle " them up into totally alien forms, carving 
and dating them with ancient dates and initials. These 
fabrications are generally, but not always, easily recognizable 
by a practised eye, but the most fabulous and idiotic prices 
are given for them by the wealthy Manchester " offcomes," 
who build their villas round Windermere, and wish to " sport 
their oak " in true old English style. This mo-archaic school 
of furniture may be recognizable now to the initiated, but 
how will it be a hundred years hence? We fear that the 



i8 2 ARCHAEOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE. 

museums of that day will exhibit many an example of seven- 
teenth century furniture manufactured in the nineteenth. 

The principal articles of furniture were (i) the long table, 
(2) the bread cupboard and locker, (3) the settle, (4) the 
sconce, (5) chests, (6) chairs, (7) the clock. 

The long table was the board or hall table of old England : 
and its use \vas dying out when the fell farms were rebuilt. 
We still talk of a man's hospitable " board," and of " board 
and lodging," because originally this table was a huge board 
laid on three trestles. In our north-country farms it was 
placed alongside the wall, beneath the window in the house 
place, and its length depended on the size of the room. 
It had two or three pair of turned legs, joined near the 
foot by a continuous rail. All the occupants of the house 
sat down together at meals to it. Very few examples remain 
in Ilawkshcad, though they arc common in Westmorland 
farms," and it seems very probable that when the Hawkshead 
farms were rebuilt, the great table fashion had partly died 
out. It was succeeded by the eight-legged circular or oval 
table with leaves or flaps, which could be elevated, and 
supported by the folding legs. This form is indeed only 
the long table curtailed to four legs, and then the leaves 
added. Such an example we own, of very massive work, 
and dating apparently from early in the seventeenth century, 
which has undergone this transformation. 

The oak press or bread cupboard was perhaps the most 
characteristic article of furniture. It stood, as we have said, 
right opposite the hearth in the house-place, and as a rule 
was fixed into the oaken partition which divided that room 
from the parlour. Consequently many are still left in the 
farmhouses, for they are part of the building, and when the 
'statesmen sold their little estates, they went with them, and 
became the landlord's property. Most of these cupboards 
are very similar. They are generally about five feet square, 
although a few fill up the whole height from floor to ceiling. 
Some are let in with their front flush with the wall, the 



* They are often so immense that probably they were put together inside the house. 




o 

u, 

o 






AKCH.EOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE. 185 



back projecting into the parlour ; but, in other cases, the 
projection is in the house-place. In shape they have three 
tiers of cupboards, the two lower having plain panels, with 
the top rail sometimes carved : there is then a ledge four 
or five inches wide, where the front is set back. The upper 
cupboards have in most examples carved panels, and above 
these there is a projecting carved cornice with pendent 
knobs at each end ; but in a few examples these knobs are 
exchanged for spiral or other balusters.* The date and initials, 
which often are really those of the rebuilding of the farm, 
are generally to be found on the cornice or lower rail : and 
the original use of this piece of furniture was, as its name 
betokens, to store the oat-bread in. Probably the older houses 
had a similarly situated, but much ruder, piece of furniture 
in the same position. 

The long-settle stood by the fireside, the scat no doubt 
of master and mistress in origin. Very few now remain, 
and on the examples we have seen, there is seldom much 
carving, unless it be on the top rail. The settle as a rule 
was about six feet long, with a back very upright and 
panelled in three or four compartments. The seat part was 
like a plain chest, and often was such ; part of bench being 
cut and hinged for a lid. Well cushioned, it might be 
cosy, but hardly comfortable. The settle is no doubt the 
direct descendant of the Norse Vikings' high-seat, or scat 
of honour, so often described in the Sagas : and we cannot 
but regret its disappearance from the old farmhouses.t 

The locker was a small cupboard fixed in the wall with 
a panelled front often dated and initialled, and sometimes 
finely carved. Its position was in the end wall of the house- 



* A fine example of this larger type, alluded to elsewhere, is at Yew Tree Farm in 
Yewdale. As a general rule, it may be remarked that bread cupboards of this district, 
whether found in farmhouses, or in a dealer's shop, are not in their original condition 
if the lower panels are carved. 

t See the engravings of old Norse high seats in Du Chaillu's " The Viking Age,'' 
IF., p. 254 et seq. The Sconce described in the Lonsdale Magazine (III., p. 289 and 291) 
seems to have been a sort of additional settle, sometimes opposite and sometimes next 
to the long-settle, which could be drawn in front of the fire. But we believe the term 
was often applied to a bench within the ingle-nook alongside the fire. 



i86 ARCHEOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE. 

place between the hearth and front wall. Being a fixture, 
a good many remain. 

Chairs may be dismissed quickly, because to all intents and 
purposes they no longer exist in the district. The shapes 
also were much the same as the seventeenth century chairs 
of other districts. There was the type with a square-panelled 
carved back : and another in which the backs were high 
and formed of moulded parallel upright laths of oak. Another 
shape had the back made of three upright oaken bars, on 
the top of which was fixed a horizontal cross-piece. This 
pattern prevailed over a very long period, for in the writer's 
possession are examples, dated 1629 and 1762, both obtained 
in the parish. Arm-chairs also existed, differing in little 
except in the arms from the ordinary sort. And in nearly 
all the varieties the front legs were turned, while the back 
ones were square. Horizontal rails between the legs added 
much to the strength. Carved oaken four-post bedsteads 
may possibly have existed in some of the houses of the 
larger 'statesmen, but we know of none such remaining: 
nor does the very limited and primitive arrangements of the 
sleeping-loft lead us to believe that such were in general use, : ' : 
and we are not aware of a single example left of the old 
carved cradle. The oaken chests, sometimes richly carved 
over the entire front, but more often with a running pattern 
and elate and initials only on the rail, are still to be found, 
and the number that exist shows that formerly they must 
have been in great request. Though generally termed "kists" 
the full name is " linen kist," which shows their original 
purpose. Many of these kists were made to contain the 
dower of the daughters of the house on marriage ; and as 
such they seem to have been handed down in the family 
as heirlooms. 

Every house had one or more grandfathers' clocks, dignified 
old time-keepers, generally winding by the weight-chain every 

* In the writer's possession is an old oak bedstead bought in Bouth. The back 
is uncarveil but wilh very deep moulded panels, while the foot posts are massive turned 
balusters. It came originally from Kirkby in Furness, and no doubt a few of the 
better-to-do 'statesmen in the fells possessed such. 






ARCHAEOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE. 187 

twenty-four hours. Though at one time Hawkshead boasted 
its own clockmaker, the supply of clocks for Lancashire north 
of the Sands, and a large tract of Westmorland, seems to 
have been almost at one time a monopoly of Jonas Barber, 
of Winster. We do not know if Barber was born in West- 
morland, but in 1682 he was admitted a member of the 
Clockmakers' Company, being then described of Ratcliffe Cross. 
By that time he had probably made his reputation, so that we 
may conclude that his clocks range generally over the last half 
of the seventeenth century. They are still very common in 
the district,* but we doubt very much if a single example 
exists in which the case originally had any carving. 

There is little else in furniture we need noticc.t The 
spinning-wheel, once common, has entirely disappeared, though 
two centuries ago it must have been most common. Few of 
the cupboards or kists were originally made with locks, but 
sometimes the 'statesman had a very primitive sort of safe for 
his title deeds and other valuables. This was a very strongly- 
made box of oak, uncarvcd, and strongly bound with iron and 
attached by a short but ponderous chain to the wall, so that 
it could not be removed. Occasionally, the door-locks were 
dated, and we have elsewhere noticed an instance in Yewdale. 

The room partitions of oak, where they exist, are not regularly 
panelled as in better-class houses. The}' consist of planks of 

* The history of local clock-making remains to be worked out. The clocks of Jonas 
Barber commence with brass dials with Imt little engraving, and an hour hand only. 
Then more artistic dials and hour and minute hands. Some of his instruments, 
probably of a later date, have white enamelled dials. We have seen one example 
with the case dated G.R., 1657, which probably shows he was working as early as 
that date. 

Most of Barber's local clocks are wound every twenty-four hours by the chain. But 
he sometimes made elaborate instruments, winding by the key every eight days, and 
with chiming and repeating movement. Philipson, of Winster, most of whose clocks 
have enamelled dials, may have succeeded him in the local manufacture. 

We have seen well-made twenty-four hour clocks, by two Hawkshead makers, John 
Braiihwaite and Thomas Burton, but there is nothing unusual about them. But some 
of these country makers turned out remarkable timekeepers. Thomas Ponson, of 
Kendal, of whom we have no further record, made at least one key-winding clock, 
which ran for a month. The dial, elaborately engraved, was triple, two small ones 
on the face of a large one. Each had one hand ; that on the large dial marking the 
minutes, while those on the upper and lower of the small dials respectively indicate 
the seconds and the hour. Bracket clocks were made by Kendal makers at least as 
early as 1654. 

t Of the designs and character of the carving on the furniture, we treat in 
Chapter V. 






i88 ARCHAEOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE. 

oak standing upright at brief intervals, ornamented only with 
a plain moulding down the centre. The spaces between the 
planks were lath and plaster. 

The accessories of the table in the 'statesman's home were 
primitive enough. Wood was, apparently, used for nearly every- 
thing in the earlier days, though later on, pewter superseded 
it among the bettcr-to-do. But the use of wooden trenchers 
(made generally of sycamore or ash) lingered on in out-of-the- 
way corners till probably this century: and sometimes we 
come across piggins, for porridge or pudding, made exactly 
like the old-fashioned milking-pail, being coopered in wood 
with one projecting handle. Tiny hand-churns, of the up-and- 
down shape, less than a foot in height, were made, apparently, 
to churn a portion of butter for two or three persons only. 
Pewter plates and dishes (or " doublets," as they were termed) 
came into fashion, and ousted the wooden trenchers ; and the 
pewter again, although only recently, gave way to earthenware. 

Although early rising and early retiring to rest formed, no 
doubt, the regular rule in the clays of our forefathers, the 
'statesmen were not, of course, independent of artificial light. 
This, of course, was obtained by means of the flint strike-a- 
light and tinder, yet although tinder-boxes were in general use 
till some fifty or sixty years ago, they are now so rare that 
the present writer has failed in all his wanderings to see more 
than one or two examples in the parish.* Sulphur spunks, 
the prototype of the present match, followed, rough-shaped 
fragments of wood, generally four to six inches in length. 

The lights used in the farms were the rush candle and the 
dip. Both were home-made. For the first, the farm lasses 
gathered, in late summer, the seaves or rushes, and after 
peeling them, they were dipped in fat, and when dry stored 
away for use. White, in his " History of Selborne," estimates 
the cost of rush candles to the user, and finds out that burning 
only one at a time, five-and-a-half hours' light was manufactured 
for one farthing. The dip was what its name purports a 
wick dipped in fat ; but at a later date, perhaps from the 

* This is an example of the total extinction of a " neo-archaic " in a very short time. 



ARCHEOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE. 191 

middle of last century, the farmers moulded their candles in 
tin moulds, and these are often to be found amongst the 
lumber of the out-house. 

But it is in the candle-holders that the interest in this subject 
centres, for there is hardly any limit to the variety of the 
shapes in which these were made during the seventeenth 
and eighteenth centuries. They were all of wrought iron, or 
of iron and wood, and in nearly all cases the socket for the 
dip is supplemented by a nipper or tweezer, to hold the 
rush candle at the requisite angle. The simpler forms are 
made with a turned wooden base, into which the socket is 
driven ; but some are found all of iron with three legs, and 
sometimes very pretty in design. Occasionally they were 
driven into the posts of the bedstead or panelling. Pendent 
types, made to adjust in length, were used in the outbuildings 
and for sheep-salving ; and there was a sort of standard 
candlestick, made of a tall wooden pole, on which, by various 
methods, the socket might be adjusted at the required eleva- 
tion. The study of the 'statesman's candlestick is a fascinating 
one, but the types arc far too numerous to describe hcrc. :: 

The farmyard and dairy are happy hunting-grounds for 
the student of the obsolete. There arc the calf piggins 
and stripping pails of coopered wood totally cast aside, and 
sometimes remarkably Scandinavian in form. There is the 
up-and-down churn, used often now for some totally alien 
purpose. The peat spade, by which the peats were " graved " 
and stocked for fuel, and the push-plough, by which the 
rough " gale " and ling was pealed off, when a new bit of 
ground was broken up. Where the ground was boggy, as 
about Haverthwaite, they shod the furrow-horse in ploughing 
with a great wooden " horse-patten," to keep him from 
sinking in to his fetlocks ; while in the fell farms, we may 
rout out of the shippon a rusted " lambstick,'' or shepherd's 
crook, or the ashen " bands " which were formerly used to 

* See "The Domestic Candlestick of Iron in Cumberland, Westmorland, and 
Furness," a fully illustrated paper by the present writer, in the "Transactions of the 
Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society," Vol. XII., 
p. 122. 






192 ARCHAEOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE. 

secure by the neck both cattle and sheep in pen and byre. 
Occasionally we come across the clogwheels, which preceded 
the spoked wheel in farm carts, heavy lumbering discs of 
wood fastened to and revolving with, not upon, the axle. 

There is no real evidence of the quern or hand-mill being 
in actual use in recent times, but, considering the number 
of stones that are found, and the distance of some farms 
from any corn mill, we cannot but think that the use of 
the quern has died out only in comparatively modern times in 
the Lake district. Hand-mills of other sorts were in use until 
this century. The old sort of malt mill was a quern of upper 
and lower stones, but the upper was made to rotate by simple 
machinery with cogged wheels and a trundle. The more usual 
and probably more modern type was like a large coffee-mill 
attached to a beam in the loft of the house. 

Other quaint relics of past methods may be easily found 
by the "nco-archaist." "Hotts" were panniers, by which manure 
was carried on to the farm land, before the use of carts was 
common; " Tar kits " were wooden receptacles for sheep salve; 
Cow horns, and occasionally even shells, were used by the 
dalesmen to call in their labourers from the fells to dinner 
a custom evidently owning a very early origin. For travelling, 
saddles of a different fashion to those of the present day 
were used ; and leathern saddlebags slung behind with light 
luggage. If the dalesman's worn an folk went a journey, they 
sat behind their lords and masters on a well-padded pillion. 
All these appliances, and many similar ones, have been killed 
by the nineteenth century : and if in future we arc to know 
the ways and customs of the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries, examples of all such should be rescued from the 
lumber rooms and lofts of farms, and stored with labels and 
localities in museums in county towns. 

NOTE. The reader will find illustrations of the appliances afterwards enumerated 
in the following papers by the present author in the " Transactions of the Cumberland 
and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society " : 

" On some Obsolete and Semi-obsolete Appliances," Vol. XIII., p. 86. 

" Illustrations of Old Fashions and Obsolete Contrivances in Lakeland," Vol. XV., 
p. 252. 

Girdle and brandreth, toasters and spits, fire-dogs, cats, firebacks, candle-holders, 
flint and tinder-boxes, candle moulds, strong boxes, trenchers, piggins, clog-wheels, 
horse pattens, horns, sheep bands, peat spades and push ploughs, mortars, pillions and 
saddlery, querns, etc. etc. 



CHAPTER IV. 
THE DALESMAN. 

T^LSEWHERE we have hinted at the fact that many 

L ' of the older farms were, in origin, the first " sjets " or 

habitations of the Norse settlers ; but now we have to deal 

with the dalesmen themselves, the descendants and pretty 

pure-blooded descendants, too of this immigration. 

Yet in this branch of local study we find ourselves a 
generation too late ; and when we come to the folk-lore this 
is even more markedly the case. Hawkshead and its ways 
may, indeed, have stood still more than most of the sur- 
rounding districts, but still the nineteenth century has told 
its tale. With the decline of the small landowner, the cause 
of which we shall have to treat of, the population itself has 
undergone a certain amount of change. Many old names remain, 
but some of the most prolific stocks have almost disappeared. 
New names have come in recently with tenant farming, and 
at an earlier period with quarrying and copper mining, and 
it is now not so easy to say who among a crowd such 
as we meet at the local agricultural show arc true Furness 
Fell men and who are not. If, however, we take the type in 
preference to the individual, this is of small consequence, 
because although " off-comes " may be fairly plentiful, most 
of them are from the adjacent Cumberland or Westmorland 
fell districts, and consequently of the same origin. Conse- 
quently, our crowd in the show-field is the same crowd that 
thronged the Market Place two centuries ago, except that 
they dress differently and talk less dialect. 

The dalesman of Hawkshead parish, as we see him now 



i 9 4 THE DALESMAN. 

is a very " pretty fellow " as regards stature, but he is seldom 
a giant. In fact, at the present day we seldom see very 
tall men, although undoubtedly the stature is above the 
average. Really big men were, however, often enough turned 
out, as we see by examining the annals of the wrestling ring; 
and if we take the heights of the nineteen principal heroes given 
in Messrs. Robinson and Gilpin's " Wrestling and Wrestlers," 
who are all from Cumbria or North Lancashire, we find the 
very respectable average of 5 ft. 1 1 f ins. The point of interest 
here, however, is that out of these nineteen, seven are Hawks- 
head men, and of these seven, six are over 6 ft., and the 
seventh 5 ft. 10 ins.* Another man from Lowick, close on 
our borders, is also a 6 ft. man ; and the average for the 
eight in question is over 6 ft. i in. Let us inscribe the 
names of these worthy sons of our parish on the roll of 

fame : 

Weight in 
Ft. Ins. Stones. 

Myles Dixon, born at Sawrey... ... 6 3 ... 15! 

James Dixon, ditto (brother of Mylcs) 6 3 ... 14 

Rowland Long, born at Graythwaitc ... 6 2 ... 18 

John Long, ditto (brother of Rowland) 5 10 ... 14 

Arthur Burns, of Ullctcr ... ... 6 o 

J. Harrison, of Lowick ... ... ... 6 o (about)!/ 

Robert Robinson, Cunsey (not a wrestler 

of note) ... ... ... ... 6 O 

William Wilson, born at High Wray... 6 4 (at22yrs.)!S 

So that of these eight, the only wrestlers from our parish 
recorded in that work, only one is below 6 ft. in height. 

Nevertheless, these men are, and no doubt were, always the 
exception, not the rule ; men who from their great physical 
strength made their mark in the great local sport. The 
ordinary dalesman is and was above the middle height, broad 
of shoulder and deep of chest, a man of great though some- 
what latent physical power, and generally walking with a 
slight forward stoop, due, no doubt, to the heavy boots 

* " Wrestling and Wrestlers Biographical Sketches of Celebrated Athletes, "etc., 
by Jacob Robinson and Sidney Gilpin, London and Carlisle, 1893. 







THE FEI.I.SIDE TYPE. 
(Mr. Georsft: Black, aged ninety-two, 1897. ) 



THE DALESMAN. 197 

and clogs he and his forefathers have had to wear in breast- 
ing the steep ling-covered hills. Large of bone and spare 
of flesh are our men of the hills ; fair in complexion, some- 
what aquiline in feature, with grey-blue eyes with plenty of 
intelligence therein. Certainly nothing of the Celt or Ancient 
Briton about them, so that we must conclude that here 
again we see the Viking type.* 

The late Mr. Robert Ferguson, the champion of the Norse 
descent theory, has called attention to the swarms of fair-haired 
children at our fcllside farms, evidence, he hints, of his cause. 
Racial characteristics arc, however, an unsafe basis really for 
such deductions, as is well known ; especially after a prolonged 
period of isolation from a parent stock, even although but 
little new blood has been introduced by marriage. There 
are, we know, many causes which may effect considerable 
changes of type, and among these not the least are climate, 
geographical position, and the general conditions of life. In 
some countries you may swamp a population over and over 
again, yet the new comers revert to the old type. This is 
not, however, especially marked in Great Britain, although the 
tendency is not absent ; but the existence of such a tendency 
at all suffices to necessitate the greatest caution in drawing 
deductions by type as to the origin of any race. 

But the character, peculiarities, and temperament, of the 
people arc more marked than their physical characteristics, 
and they arc also, possibly, of greater significance. Extreme 
reserve of manner is general, and this to the stranger seems 
hardly compatible with the frank openness of nature which 
is really there, though hidden. Hard of a bargain, though 
never grasping the true characteristic of most poor but free 
communities, like the Bedawin, who plunder the caravan and 
show open hospitality to all comers, because these arc points 
of honour : shrewd rather than intelligent, probably because 
the brain, though active enough, has had to work among 
the lonely fells and dales, not in an open country where 



* See a full scientific description of the Cumbrian type by Dr. Thurnam in the 
"Crania Britannica," I., p. 215. 



198 THE DALESMAN. 

new scenes, new sights, and new folks are presenting them- 
selves. In other words, the shrewdness is intellectual power, 
which, stunted by surroundings, has stopped a trifle short. 
Turn a dalesman into a busy mercantile centre, with oppor- 
tunities, and see what he will develop into. 

But the most distinguishing and often the most amusing 
feature is an excess of caution. This is, however, rather in 
words than deeds, although hare-brained acts are scarce. But 
in conversation, the reason for caution is the same as that 
for their shrewdness. They have lived their lives in the hills, 
where nothing need be done in a hurry. They will not venture 
a decisive opinion on any matter, and even if ignorant upon it ; 
why should their ignorance be acknowledged ? Rarely will 
you hear a dalesman of the old school make a positive 
expression of like or dislike. He is slow to praise or con- 
demn ; char}' of making an appointment. You may tell him a 
story of foreign lands, or of something beyond his ken ; and 
he answers, " Why, now," or " Suer," but the very intonation 
of his voice seems to imply scepticism. His manner is 
distinctly well-bred, (there never was such a thing as a vulgar 
'statesman, or even fell farmer) hut his independence is exces- 
sive. Kv n now, very few of the older men, in however humble 
a position, "Sir "their " b< ttcrs," by which we mean "betters" 
in fortune, or "gentlefolks," as the term goes. To touch the 
hat to the squire, . among the old hands, is a recent, and in 
our opinion, a regrettable innovation, for it shows a distinction 
in classes \\hich formerly had no place here; and in talking 
to the young squire of his father, the dalesman would often 
use the plain Christian name instead of Mr. So-and-so, and 
this especially if lie respect him, the use of the titular prefix 
among the old-fashioned fcll-siders certainly implying, if any- 
thing, a certain amount of distrust. To the dalesman of old, 
all men were his equals, squire and priest included, and 
nothing more ; and though his representatives of to-day have, 
in leaving their position as landowners, dropped in some 
degree these extremes of independence, the traditional feeling 
can be found in the fact that they still make good friends and 
bad servants. 



THE DALESMAN. 199 

Our fell farmers brewed their October ale at home, and 
were fond enough of a " sup." But they are not, and never 
were, drunkards. Sprees were common enough, and perhaps 
came too often, and many a man still gets drunk by the 
Calendar a time-honoured method. Again, drinking for wagers 
was not unknown, as we see by the quaint entry in the 
Parish Register (dated December i6th, 1689), which records 
the death of Bernard Swaineson an apprentice, who, in a 
shop in Hawkshead, wagered that he would drink nine noggins 
of brandy ; the liquor, if consumed according to the wager to 
be paid for by his companions, while if he failed, he was 
to pay himself. The unfortunate young fool won his bet, and 
instantly fell down, and being carried home, he la}' twenty- 
two hours without speech, and then died, a victim to alcoholic 
poisoning. 1 " 

Crime of any sort was rare, as it is now, through all the 
dales of Cumberland, Westmorland, and Furness. Certain sorts 
of misdemeanours, especially those which were parti}- done 
in the spirit of bravado, such as illicit spirit-making, or 
poaching, were common enough ; and of some of these we 
shall have more to say. Immorality, as evidenced by the 
birth of illegitimate children, was common, but the fault was 
sanctioned by immemorial custom ; but crime, brutal, savage, 
and blackguardly, was most rare. Murder was but little known, 
yet occasionally, when instigated by drink or excessive hatred, 
was committed with great ferocity. This, we think, is a trace 
of the Norse Berserking Viking, half of whose time was spent 
in domestic and peaceful home life, but who, when raiding a 
village, thought it but sport to toss, in devilish play, the 
infants of his foes from spear point to spear point. 

But we have now to consider a remarkable feature in our 
community, which we have already hinted at in the historical 
chapter. This is what we venture to term, in default of a 
better word, the clan system the cohabitation of hamlets and 
areas by many folks owning the same surname and a common 

* See " The Oldest Register Book of Hawkshead," p. Ixxxvii., where the entry 
is given in full. 



200 THE DALESMAN. 

origin. We have indeed shown, to some extent, the reasons 
for this, and here we need do little more than consider the 
evidence of its existence down to more recent times, for it 
is indeed barely dead yet. West, in his " Antiquities of 
Furness," first noted that in the Court Rolls of the time of 
Henry VIII., certain stocks were grouped thickly together. 
The Braithwaitcs then lived about Brathay, Sawreys at Sawrey, 
Hirdsons at Bouth, Rawlinsons at Haverthwaite, Turners at 
Oxenpark, and Riggc.s at Hawkshead. Tomlinsons were found 
at Grisedalc, Redheads at Nibthwaite, Taylors at Finsthwaite, 
and Sattcrthwaites at Colthouse. 

But in writing the prefatory chapters to " The Oldest 
Register Book of llaw.kshcad " we were enabled to get a 
great deal more minute information on this interesting sub- 
ject. We found that out of some four hundred surnames 
in the Register a very small proportion thirty-three, to be 
exact occupied a very important place, being borne by a 
very large percentage of the body of inhabitants. These 
thirty-three stocks had all over one hundred mentions in the 
Register, out of which fourteen were with between three and 
four hundred, twelve with over four hundred, and eight over 
six hundred. Three families alone arc mentioned over a 
thousand times, and one clan (the Braithwaitcs) is easily first, 
being mentioned 2,513 times. These arc the twelve tribes in 
order of size : 



Braithwaitc ... ... 2,513 

Rigge or Rigg ... 1,631 

SaUerthwaitc 1,539 

Sawrey ... ... 830 

Holm or Holmes ... 789 

Mackereth ... ... 796 



Sandys ... ... 761 

Taylor ... ... 649 

Benson ... ... 489 

Dodgson 433 

Walker 432 

Knipe... ... ... 412 

And the remaining twenty-one families which occur between 
one and four hundred times are Ashburner, Atkinson, Bank 
or Banks, Berwick, Dickson, ffisher, ffrearson, Harrison, Hodgson, 
Jackson, Keen or Keene, Kirkby, Rawlinson, Robinson, Scale 
or Scales, Strickland, Tomlinson, Townson, Turner, Watterson, 
and Wilson. 



THE DALESMAN. 201 

As in Chapter VII. we shall go into the location and origin 
of all these stocks, we must refer our readers to that for these 
details.* Most of them are more or less found grouped, as 
if springing from a common origin, although of course they 
are not all autochthonous. But of the twelve principal names 
we find the Bensons cropping up in dozens in the Skclwith 
district, the Braithwaites by scores all over the northern half 
of the parish, but especially at Sawrey, while the Dodgsons 
are scattered ; the Holmes were a clan about Tilberthwaitc 
and Oxenfcll, and the Knipes spread widely in the north-west 
of the parish ; the Mackereths were abundant at Skclwith and 
elsewhere, while the Riggcs clustered thickly round Hawkshcad ; 
the name of Sandys, as might be expected, abounded in the 
south-cast, while the Satterthwaites, springing from Sattcrthwaite 
itself, occupied the more central area ; the Sawrcys, hailing 
from Sawrey, spread to Graythwaite, Sawrey Ground, and the 
Monk Coniston side, while the Taylors swarmed in the lower 
ground about Finsthwaitc, Colton, and Penny Bridge ; the 
Walkers, a largish clan, were widespread, but most common 
in the north. 

Though we call this the clan system, we have noticed 
that the term is barely satisfactory. There was not in his- 
torical times anything in common between it and the Scottish 
clan system. But the origin of the latter is somewhat obscure, 
though if we may take the old description published by Sir 
Walter Scott as accurate, the two systems were not so wide 
apart at their rise as we might expect, f The Celticism of 

* See also "The Oldest Register Book of the Parish of Hawkshead," pp. xxvi. 
and xciii-ci. 

t " The property of the Highlands lielongs to a great many different persons, who 
are more or less considerable in proportion to the extent of their estates and to the 
command of men that live upon them or follow them on account of their clanship out 
of the estates of others. These lands are let by the landlord on a short tack to people 
whom they call goodmen, and who are of a superior station to the commonalty. 
These are generally the sons, brothers, cousins, or nearest relations of the landlords. 
(Those sons who marry) are preferred to some farms. This, by means of a small por- 
tion and the liberality of their relatives, they are able to stock, and which they, the 
children and grandchildren, possess at an easy rent till a nearer descendant be again 
preferred to it. As the propinquity removes they become less considered, till at last 
they degenerate to be of the common people. As this hath been an ancient custom, 
most of the farmers and cottars are of the name and clan of the proprietor." Burl's 
" Letters from Scotland," II., p. 341 ; quoted in Gomme's " Village Community," 
P- 135- 



202 THE DALESMAN. 

the Highlands and the Scandinavian element of our fells 
might easily develop, the one to the organized and con- 
federate group of septs, the other to the free but allied 
communities we find in Furness. 

The Furness groups were all or mostly 'statesman families 
of greater or less degree, equal in rank, and owing no allegi- 
ance to any chieftain beyond the rents and services due to 
the Lord of the Manor. But in some of the more secluded 
localities it seems probable that in consequence of the 
number of families bearing the same name, it became', for 
convenience, the custom to call the 'statesmen by the names 
of their homes in preference to their patronymics. Such was 
the case till quite recently about the head of Langdale and 
Scathwaite, where all were Tysons, and where, in consequence, 
the different members were distinguished by such names as 
"Daniel of Cockley Heck," "Harry o' t' Hinging House," etc.* 
Now though Cocklcj- Heck, at the head of the Duddon 
Valley, is outside the limits of Hawkshead, it is close to the 
junction of the three Lakeland counties at " Three Shire 
Stones " ; and having got into the subject of the Tysons, we 
cannot dismiss them without an anecdote which bears on this 
very clan system question. One of the Tysons of Cockley 
Heck, we believe John, who died in 1893, and was son of 
Daniel of Cockley Heck above mentioned, had occasion to 
go to the nearest market town, no doubt Hroughton, for a 
parcel which was consigned to his father. Parcels and letters 
were probably but very rarely received by such remote hill- 
dwellers, and no postal or parcel delivery came within several 
miles of their isolated home in the fells. John set off and 
trudged his eleven miles like a Briton, and repairing to the 
carrier's house or Post Office, enquired if there was anything 
for his " faddcr." " Oh yes," they said, " there is a parcel 
for Mr. Tyson." Now John had never heard of his father 
but as " Daniel of Cockley Heck," and to him " Mr. Tyson " 

* See A. C. Gibson's "The Old Man " (1849), p. 45. It is said, and we believe 
correctly, that the late Mr. James Tyson, the well-known squatter millionaire, was 
the son of a William Tyson who emigrated from Eskdale or Wastdale. 



THE DALESMAN. 203 

conveyed nothing. So muttering to himself that he " mud 
try again efter a lile bit," he walked straight out of the 
house and over the fells to his home.* 

We have attempted to show, in treating of the history 
of the parish, that the inhabitants, although originally free 
men, fell in post-Norman days into the position of feudal 
tenants ; and we have pointed out that owing partly to 
the military organization necessary in the disturbed condition 
of the northern counties, they never became more than 
nominally villeins, retaining an amount of freedom which 
did not exist contemporaneously in more southern manors. 
It is worth our while now to analyse the Code of Customs 
drawn up in 1585, and ratified the ensuing year. As this 
code has been published by West, we shall, without re-printing 
it, examine the portions relating to the tenant's position as 
a land-owner, and see in what way it affected him. 

In the verdict of the jury for the Queen, we notice the 
following points : I 

Fourtli //. Any tenant who shall sell his customary 
tenement before being properly admitted is to forfeit 2Os., 
and the purchaser the same. 

* Another story is told of one of the Tysons of Cock ley Beck, which shows at 
once the unfamiliarity wiih the requirements of civilization which prevailed in the 
upland farms, and the on 'd way of looking at what are (to them) novelties. Our Tyson 
on a visit to Ambleside sawyer the first time a four-wheeled conveyance. " Wha ivver 
saw t' like," quoth he, " t' girt wheel keeps trundling efter t' lile yan, and nivver 
catches it up." We do not vouch for the truth or originality of this story, but it should 
be remembered that the Hardknott and Wrynose Road on which he lived was pro- 
bably always too rough for carriers' wagons, and that the goods traffic, which was 
considerable until the beginning of this century, was, we believe, always by pack 
animals. 

+ There is at Graythwaite Low Hall a contemporary copy of the Code of Customs, 
which differs somewhat, but immaterially as a rule, from West's version. West, 
however, in the third item of the verdict of the jury for the Queen, omits altogether 
the Latin forms of admittance and alienation fines, which, being interesting, and 
having never before been printed, we give here. Instead of " in the usual form," as 
given by V\ est, read " in this or the like form in effecte, viz., of an heire in this forme." 

Ad hanc curia Juratores presentat qd C. D. tenens custom huius manerii seisitus in 
dnico suo ut de feod secundu consuetudine huius manerii unius mesuage et acr 

terr custom rn ptin vocat a fermhoulde jacent in hamlet de C. p. reddit. p. ann. x s . 
post ultima curiam obiit inde seisitus et qd C. D. est filius eius et heres ppinquior et 
qd. p. consuetudine eiusdem manerii pred C. D. debet solvere dne regine p. fine p. 
ingressu suo inde hendo xx s . , viz., veru valore reddit tentor p'ctcor p. duos annos sup 
quo venit hie in plena curia prdicus C. D I et soluit finem prdd ballio hamlett predd 
de C. et petit qd admittatu tenens tento prddco secundu consuetudine manerii prd et 
admittitur inde tenens et fecit fidelitate saluo jure cuiuslibet licite petentis," 



204 THE DALESMAN. 

A purchaser is to present himself, and announce the 
purchase, at the first manor court, failing which the penalty 
is 2Os. If he has not done so by the second court held 
after such purchase, he shall forfeit 403. : and the land 
shall be seized by the Crown until he has paid all fines 
and forfeits due. 

Fifth item. This regulates the division of estates. It is 
ordered that, because the division of customary estates " hath 
been a great decayc and impoverishment to this Lordship, 
in hinderingc of the service to her highness for horses, and 
to the spoylc and utter wastingc of her majestie's woods," 
and also a cause of impoverishing the people, no tenement 
shall be divided, unless the least parcel thus divided, be of 
the ancient yearly rent of 6s. 8d., and that each part must 
have had before division its own " house and onset." Persons, 
however, who buy a complete tenement of less rent, may 
bequeath as usual. But if a person wishes to sell a parcel 
tenement, and the tenant of the residue tenement (i.e., that 
which was divided from it) be willing to buy at a reasonable 



Translation. At this court the Jurors present that C. D., a customary tenant of 
this manor is seized in his demesne (or of his own right), as of fee according to the 
custom of the manor of one messuage and acres of customary land belonging to the 
manor, called a "fermhoulde," lying in the hamlet of C., of the rent of ids. per 
annum, that after the last court, the man who was then seized died, and that C. D. is 
his son and nearest heir, and that by the custom of the said manor, the aforesaid C. 
D. has to pay to our Lady the Queen, as a fine and for admittance, thereupon to be 
had, 2os. as the real amount of rent of the aforesaid tenements for two years. Where- 
upon the said C. D. has come here in full court, and has paid the aforesaid fine to the 
bailiff of the aforesaid hamlet of C., and has claimed that he may be admitted tenant 
of the aforesaid tenements, according to the custom of the aforesaid manor, and there- 
upon he is admitted tenant, and has made the fealty in inviolate right of such as 
lawfully make claim. 

" Of an alienacon in this forme : 

"Ad hanc cur Jur. presentat qd C. D. tenens custom huius manerii seilus in Dnico 
suo ut de feod scdum consuetudine maner unius messuag, etc., post ultima cur alieavit 
tenta pred cuidam H. A. hend et tenend eidem H. A. et hered suis scdm consuetudine 
manerii pred qd pred JH. A. p. consuetudine maner pred debet soluere dne manerii 
pro ingressu suo inde hendo xx s viz., ut supa as by dyvers copies of the like doth 

and may appear." 

Translation. At this court the Jurors present that C. D., a customary tenant of this 
manor, being seized in his demesne as of fee according to the custom of the manor, of 
one messuage, etc., after the last court alienated the aforesaid tenements to one H. A., 
to be had and held by the same H. A., and his heirs, according to the custom of the 
aforesaid manor, that the aforesaid H. A., by the custom of the aforesaid manor, has 
to pay to the Lord of the Manor for his own admittance thereupon to be held, zos , 
namely, as above. 






THE DALESMAN. 205 

price, it is to be sold to him. But if not, it may be sold to 
any other tenant, or to someone who will dwell on it. 

In the tenth item it is laid down that houses are to be kept 
tenantable, failing which the tenant forfeits 6s. 8d. 

Eleventh item. No one may fell timber or top saplings 
" without deliverie of the bailiff," under penalty of 6s. 8d. 

Twelfth item. No " underwoods, topps, loppes, croppes," are 
to be sold, and no man may cut down or carry away his 
neighbours " cllers hollings " or " garthings," under the penalty 
of 6s. 8d. 

Thirteenth item. Anyone closing a public path or occupation 
road, or turning a brook course, forfeits 6s. 8d. 

For the tenants there are six clauses or items : 

First item. Any estate may be lawfully sold ; but for failing 
to acquaint the steward the penalty is 2Os. An estate may 
be left to any person by will : but a tenant dying intestate shall 
be succeeded by his eldest son " or next cossinge." 

Second item. If a tenant dies leaving no sons, the eldest 
unmarried daughter shall have the estate ; but she shall pay 
to her younger sister (if only one) twenty years' ancient rent. 
If more younger sisters, forty years' ancient rent, equally 
divided. 

Third item. The widow of a tenant shall have, so long as 
she remain unmarried and chaste, her widow right, which is 
one-third (of the profits) of the estate. 

Fourth item. Regulates provision for younger sons. The 
heir shall pay twelve years' rent to his brother, if he have only 
one. If there be two, sixteen years' rent between them ; and 
if three or more, twenty years' rent among them. Hut a father 
may, by will, proportion these sums as he thinks right, so long 
as he does not exceed them. 

Fifth item. A regulation concerning marriage covenants. If 
a tenant promises his heir (whether son or daughter) an estate, 
at the time of such heir's marriage, he shall publish it at the 
next Manor Court, or to the steward within six months, and 
it is then a binding agreement. This rule is a protective one 
on behalf of the young dalesman or dalesvvoman, who, if the 



206 THE DALESMAN. 

parent choose to bequeath his estate to a child born later, 
could probably not afford to marry. 

Sixth item. Any tenant having a child who is idiot or 
impotent (not being his heir) and such tenant die intestate, 
the said idiot is to be sustained out of the estate. 

Now these arc the main rules of the customaryhold estates 
as we find them in Furness Fells. It will be seen that while 
the lord had no power whatever to deprive the tenant of his 
estate, the chief aim of the customs was to tie up the estate 
so that it pass, whether by purchase or inheritance, without 
being divided ; and it was also expected that the owner should 
be resident. The reason was that the tenure was originally 
military, and each estate had to provide one suitably armed 
man. Hence it was that these estates descended so often 
complete in the same family of cstatcsmen to the beginning 
of this century. 

Customary tenure, found only in Cumberland, Westmorland 
and Lancashire North of the Sands, lies in some ways 
between copyhold and freehold ; but it is very distinct from 
either. But customaryhold as practised in Westmorland differed 
in one or two rather curious ways from the local development 
To begin with, in the case of there being only daughters, the 
estate passed to the eldest, not to the eldest unmarried daughter, 
as was the case in the Manor of Hawkshcad. The reason, we 
presume, for the latter unusual arrangement, was that it was 
supposed that the married daughters were already provided for, 
and consequently the ordinary law of primogeniture might be 
dispensed with ; but it is plain that such a custom was hardly 
in the interests of justice, because it would be easy for a young 
woman intending to contract matrimony, to arrange to delay 
such an event, and so secure a property, thus defrauding both 
elder married and younger unmarried sisters. In the regulation 
for widow-right, the idea of keeping the property in the hands 
of one individual was less strictly adhered to than in Westmor- 
land, where the widow took the whole property during her 
chaste widowhood. In ordinary freeholds, the widow-right was 
the same as at Hawkshead, from which we conclude that this 



THE DALESMAN. 207 

custom was an innovation upon the ancient local customs; or 
rather, a relaxation allowed at the time of codifying the 
customs, owing to the more settled condition of the country. 

The twelfth item of the verdict for the Queen shows that 
the tenant of the Manor had no more rights over the timber 
than he had over the minerals. But timber was lavishly 
allowed by the bailiff for the construction of tenements, as 
we know by the immense oak beams in existing structures. 
Mr. Gatey, in his paper, " How Customary Tenure was estab- 
lished in Westmorland," says that " the timber on customary 
estates belonged to the customary holder, not to the lord " ; 
while Mr. Heelis states that " they " (the tenants of the 
Kendal Barony) "had no interest or property in any \vo.ds 
whatsoever, but only under a certain acknowledgment called 
Greenhue rent," * from which we must conclude that the cus- 
toms in the different manors did not coincide on this point. 

There are two other interesting manorial customs not men- 
tioned in the code the delivery of possession of an estate, 
and the "common right." The symbol of the former seems 
to have been by cutting up a clod of earth and delivering it 
and a twig of wo >d to the new tenant. This was probably 
originally done by the manor bailiff at the Manor Court : 
but we see that it was practised till the last century, by the 
deeds we have quoted referring to the purchase of the 
chapel and burial-ground of the Quakers at Colthouse. 

The common right was the universal privilege enjoyed by 
every tenant to run a certain amount of sheep upon the 
unenclosed fell. But this right, though it appears to have 
been universal, was certainly not unlimited. It was regulated 
by the size of the farm, or, to speak with greater accuracy, 
the number of sheep a tenant might turn on to the fell was 
that which he could conveniently winter on the enclosed land 
surrounding his farm. 

A hundred years ago the whole face of this parish had 
a very different aspect, from one point of view. The high 

* " The Barony of Kendal and Manor of Hawkshead," by W. Hopes Heelis. 
Reprinted from "Transactions Cumberland and Westmorland Association for the 
Advancement of Literature and Science," Part IV. 



zo8 THE DALESMAN. 

ground or fell which forms such a large portion of the area 
was all unenclosed common land, and very much better to 
the eye, we doubt not, than it now is, with the ugly bare 
stone walls crossing and cutting it in every direction. 
Common enclosure went on over a long period, and a few 
of our older men can remember a very different state of 
things to that at the present day. Mr. George Black, who 
was born in 1805, can recollect when a great part of Claife 
was unenclosed,* and Outgate marks, we believe, the point 
where the " gate " or road left the enclosed fields and passed 
on to common land : but alas, this is not the only change 
which has taken place, for men of fewer years than Black 
can remember when all the district about Wray and Blelham 
was in the hands of now dispossessed 'statesman stocks. 

Where sheep formed such an important element in country 
industry 'as it did here, it is manifest that the prosperity 
of a 'statesman family depended on the number of its flock, 
which again, as we have shown, depended on the capacity 
of the enclosed lands for wintering. We cannot, therefore, 
sec how the enclosure of the commons, supposing it carried 
out fairly, can have much precipitated, as has sometimes 
been asserted, the decline of our yeomen. In one way it 
may have helped, for there is no doubt that a number of 
hcrdwick sheep pastured, say, on a mountain range unenclosed, 
would thrive more than the same flock on the same area 
cut into various enclosures. The reason is, that in the latter 
case the animals would have less range and less variety ; so 
that while one section of the flock enjoys a dry fellside, another 
is starving on a rock, or slops in a sunless bog. And no doubt, 
also, the closer inbreeding which would follow the division of 
the flocks would add to the deterioration. But on the other 
hand the continuous tendency to overstock the unenclosed fell 
by the smaller tenants was impossible to check, and was 



* " An Act for dividing, allotting and enclosing the Commons, or waste lands, called 
Claife Heights or Claife Commons, except a certain plot of land called the Heald within 
the Township or Division of Claife, in the Parish of Hawkshead, in the County Palatine 
of Lancashire," 34 Geo. III., 1794. The actual award is dated 1799. 



THE DALESMAN. 209 

equally, if not more, injurious, than the causes we have referred 
to, of deterioration where the fell is enclosed. 

The real reason for the decline of the customary tenant 
must be sought in the introduction of machinery towards 
the end of the eighteenth century, which extinguished not only 
the local spinning and weaving, but was also the death- 
blow of the local market. Before this time, idleness at a 
fellsidc farm was unknown, for clothes and even linen were 
home-made, and all spare time was occupied by the youths 
in carding wool, while the girls spun the " gam " with 
distaff and wheel. The looms were dotted about over the 
country face, but we believe that, during the seventeenth century 
at any rate, the weaving itself was not done by the fanners. 
The sale of the yarn to the local weavers, and at the 
local market, brought important profits to the dalesman, so 
that it not only kept all hands busy, but put money into 
his pocket. But the introduction of machinery for looms 
and for spinning, and consequent outside demand for fleeces 
instead of yarn and woven material, threw idle not only 
half of the family, but the local hand-weavers, who were 
no doubt younger sons of the same stock. Thus idleness 
took the place of thrift and industry among a naturally 
industrious class, for the sons and daughters of the 'statesmen, 
often too proud to go out to service, became useless encum- 
brances on the estates. Then came the improvement in 
agricultural methods, which the 'statesman could not afford 
to keep abreast of: and be it noticed that by this time 
the new generation which was coming into the properties, 
was the very one which the first of their race had grown up 
in idleness. What else could take place but that which did. 
The estates became mortgaged and were sold, and the rich 
manufacturers, whose villas arc on the margin of Windermere, 
have often enough among their servants the actual descendants 
of the old 'statesmen, whose manufactures they first usurped 
and whose estates they afterwards absorbed.* 

* See an interesting paper, "Former Social Life in Cumberland and Westmorland," 
by W. Wilson, in " Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Association 
for the Advancement of Literature and Science," No. XII., p. 67. 

IS 



210 THE DALESMAN. 

Constitutionally, as physically, our dalesmen were a powerful 
race, a strength we attribute partly to their origin and partly 
to the splendid air they breathed. Their diet was an ultra 
force-giving diet, rather than a wholesome one, consisting 
as it did so largely of oatmeal and dried (tiot fresh, mind) 
meat. Only strong stomachs could stand such fare, and 
fortunately for them, these organs were generally strong ; 
but by no means always : and to the curse of dyspepsia, 
coupled with financial straits and depressing effects of a very 
wet climate, we cannot but attribute the painful number 
of suicides which have occurred, and do still occur, in the 
parish. 

Dr. George Parsons, whose long practice in the parish 
qualifies him well to speak on the subject of local health 
considers that diphtheria, rheumatic fever, and quinsy are 
perhaps the commonest complaints ; and all, he thinks, even 
diphtheria, may to some extent be due to the dampness of 
the climate. Undoubtedly this helps, but we venture to think 
that these complaints point rather to hereditary taint, due 
to centuries of improper alimentation. 

There is at the Brown Cow Inn in Hawkshcad a great 
curiosity. It is known as "Haksid girt clog," and "girt" it 
certainly is, for it is twenty inches in length, eight inches 
wide at the bottom, and sixteen inches from welt to welt 
across the front. This wonderful shoe was actually worn 
by one John Wattcrson, of Outgate, a mole catcher, and was 
made by John Rigg, of Outgate, clogmaker, about two genera- 
tions back-. Watterson's other foot was normal in size, and 
we presume that the growth was elephantiasis : a disease little 
known in the North of England. 

Though we have no records of people of abnormal age in the 
parish, the fell folk are, generally speaking, long-lived, though 
probably not so much so as on the Cumberland coast.* That, 
even at advanced age, they arc not wanting in enterprise, the 

* In the Colton Register we note among burials: 22nd May, 1793: "James 
Money, of Cragghead, 104, his wife, aged 84, having died on i8th April previous." 
On February 28th, 1812, " Henry Nelson Ickenthwaite, 104." The evidence of the 
later Hawkshead register on longevity has not yet been examined. 



THE DALESMAN. 211 

following extract from the Morning Chronicle and London 
Advertiser of 27th January, 1782, will show: "Tuesday, the 
1 7th instant (? ultimate), was married at Hawkshead, by the 
Rev. Mr. Braithwaite, Mr. Matthew Jackson, of Outycat, near 
that place (commonly called Fine Matthew), 97 years and six 
months old, to Mrs. Frances Jackson, of the same place, 
67 years of age, whose former husband had been dead almost 
four months." 

The Cumberland Pacqnetoi December I7th noticed this curious 
wedding, and says that among the large number who attended 
the ceremony was a Liverpool gentleman, who enquired the 
bridegroom's age, and was answered that he " wanted two years 
and a lile bit off a hundred." The bride had a settlement on 
her of 6 a year, and she asked the bystanders how long they 
thought Matthew would live. " Three or four years," said they. 
"O Lord!" quoth the bride, "so long, think ye?" After 
a dinner and jovial evening the guests retired, and on visiting 
the happy couple next day they found the bridegroom teasing 
wool and the bride spinning.* 

THE DALESMAN AT I'I.AY. 

Down to about fifty years ago the dalesman's relaxation, if 
you can call it such, was wrestling, a sport for which the northern 
fells are still celebrated, although, as we shall see, it is now on 
a totally different footing to what it used to be. Mr. Robert 
Ferguson sees in this amusement another northern survival, and 
he notes that the local pronunciation " wrussle " is nearer the old 
Norse " rusla " than the Anglo-Saxon " wrestlian." Wrestling 
was also a great feature, according to Mr. Metcalfc.t in Iceland, 
where, under the name of "glima," it was practised much until 
one hundred and twenty years ago. Nevertheless, wrestling was 
too general all over England, and, indeed, over most of the world 
in old times, to justify us in finding for the local development 



* The notes from the Cumberland Pacquet we take from a commonplace book 

of the late Mr. T. Taylor, of Sawrey, lent us by his widow, to which we are 
indebted for not a few curious and interesting facts. 

t " The Englishman and the Scandinavian," 1880, p. 325. 



212 THE DALESMAN. 

any special Scandinavian origin ; but we give here for the 
edification of our wrestling readers an account of a wrestling 
bout among the Vikings, from the Grettir saga : 

" Thord rushed at Grettir, but he stood still without flinching. 
Grettir then stretched his hand to. the back of Thord, and got 
hold of his breeches, lifted him off his feet, over his head, and 
threw him down behind him, so that Thord's shoulders came 
down with a heavy thud. Then they said that the two brothers 
should attack him at the same time, and they did so ; there was 
a hard tussle, and each had the better by turns, although Grettir 
always had one of them under him. They fell by turns on 
their knees, or dragged each other along ; they grasped each 
other so tightly that they were all blue and bloody. All thought 
this the greatest fun, and when they stopped, thanked them for 
the wrestling, and it was the opinion of all who were present 
that the two brothers were not stronger than Grettir, though 
each of them had the strength of two strong men."* 

In the last century " wrussling " bouts were the order of the 
clay at certain seasons of the year, and the competitors met 
purely for sport. Grasmcrc sports arc a modern development 
entirely, and formerly great rings of fashionable sightseers and 
visitors were unknown. All was done in love and honour; and 
a plain leathern belt, with sometimes a small sum of money, 
were the utmost that were contended for beyond the distinction 
of victory. 

Of course some of these meetings had their reputation, 
probably because they were at convenient centres. Thus Mel- 
merby "rounds" held on old Midsummer day, and Langwathby 
" rounds " on New Year's day and the following day, were both 
noted meetings towards the end of last century in Cumberland. 
Unfortunately, but little record was kept of these gatherings ; 
and although Hawkshcad parish turned out in this century 
a very fair share of the best wrestlers, it does not appear that 
regular meetings of any size were held till those round Winder- 
mere in this century. There were meetings at Arradfoot and 
the Flan, near Ulverston, which were both fairly well known ; 

* " The Viking Age," by P. B. du Chaillu, Vol. II., p. 373. 



THE DALESMAN. 213 

and until about 1830 there was regular annual wrestling and 
racing at Bouth Fair on Whit Saturday and on the Saturday 
nearest to the 1st of October. In the southern part of the old 
parish there were also early in this century meetings at Back- 
barrow, Finsthwaite, and Oxenpark. 

We find the same thing at the northern end of the district. 
At Hawkshead itself there was an annual wrestle, probably of 
great antiquity, which took place after the October fair, and 
when last held was in a field near the Red Lion Inn. This, we 
believe, gave place to a small meeting at Outgatc, which was 
held sometimes in a " parrock " on the cast side of the hamlet, 
sometimes in the triangular field opposite the little inn. It was, 
we believe, at one of these two meetings that the veteran Tom 
Longmire won his spurs as a lad of seventeen or eighteen.* 

At Skelwith Bridge there was also an annual " bout," which 
took place at the " hay fair," which was held towards the end 
of the hay season. t We have a plain leather belt, with brass 
buckle, which was won about 1834 at this meeting. 

But none of these meetings obtained anything more than 
a strictly local reputation. At the Ferry, on the other hand, the 
annual wrestling became widely known in the early part of this 
century, when the Lake district was getting "boomed" by 
literary celebrities. We are ignorant when this meeting was 
started ; but although it seems at one time to have been an 
annual gathering on Easter Monday, it is improbable that it 
is of any great age. Possibly it took its rise in 1785, when, on 
the occasion of a long frost, a great wrestling, with a Kendal 
band of music and plenty of good cheer, was held on the ice 
near Rawlinson's Nab. The wrestlers were in ordinary clogs, 
and a "slape" business it must have been. 

But the Windcrmcrc regattas, at which there were not only 
boat and other races, but excellent wrestling, became afterwards 
very well known, and were sometimes held at the Ferry, some- 
times at Low-wood, and sometimes at Amblcside. The 

* Champion Wrestler of England, died Feb. II, 1899, xt 76. 

t The editors of "Wrestling and Wrestlers," Carlisle, 1893, say the Skelwith 
meeting was got up by Mr. Hranker, of Clappersgate. No date is given, but the 
hay fair is an ancient institution, and, no doubt, the wrestling also. Mr. Branker 
was of Croft Lodge about 1840, and a Liverpool merchant. 



214 THE DALESMAN. 

wrestling ranked next to the Flan sports, and at the Ferry was 
held on the bowling green, which is the site of the modern hotel. 
The meeting was at Ambleside in 1809, at Waterhead 1810, and 
at the Ferry in 1811 and 1819; but we do not know if any 
regular alternation was observed about this date. Wrestling 
was still kept up at the Ferry till 1861 or thereabouts, but the 
gathering had declined in popularity, and it is now shifted to 
Grasmere, while the yacht races in July, which still start from 
the Ferry, represent the old regatta. 

Miles and James Dixon were the sons of a Sawrey woodman, 
the first named being born in 1781 ; and though the family 
migrated across the lake when the sons were only lads, we 
may rightly claim both him and his brother as Hawkshead 
men. They adopted the profession of walling, and in 1829 
they built for Lord Muncaster a bridge over the Esk, which, 
in consequence of the tremendous spates that river frequently 
brings down in flood seasons, had baffled the efforts of more 
than one builder. 

Miles Dixon stood six feet three inches, and had a wrestling 
weight of fifteen and a half stones. He appears to have gained 
his reputation from his immense strength rather than from great 
skill, for he was hardly an enthusiastic wrestler. Professor 
Wilson said of him " Honest and worthy Miles, if put into 
good heart and stomach, and upon his own dunghill, was, in 
our humble opinion, a match for any cock in Cumberland." 

His first belt was won from John Fletcher, a sixteen-stone 
man, when only about sixteen, but his victories were numerous. 
At Waterhead, in 1810, he threw Litt, and Professor Wilson 
mounted the belt for him with a silver inscribed plate. He 
died in 1843. 

His brother, James Dixon, was of the same height, but his 
wrestling weight was less by a stone and a half. Among other 
victories, he was the champion wrestler at the Ferry in 1811. 

There was another brother, George, a great bandy-legged 
chap ; and at a Windermere meeting, Miles and James being 
thrown, everyone was muttering that the day was over, for 
no one was left to stand against Rowan Long. But into 



THE DALESMAN. 215 

the ring stumped suddenly George, with " Tak' time, lads ! 
Tak' time ! Awt" Dixons errant down yet." And hereditary 
genius prevailed, and Rowan was grassed. 

Rowan (Rowland) and John Long were the sons of a Gray- 
thwaite farmer, the former being born in 1778, and the latter in 
1780. Rowan was a woodcutter in the copses round Windermere 
by trade, and such was his strength that, it is said, on the 
steep slopes he used often to bring down a heavy cart of 
wood, working between the shafts like a horse. This may well 
be true, for besides being six feet two inches, he weighed 
seventeen stones when seventeen years old, anil when full- 
grown, never less than a stone more. 

Like Miles Dixon, his success, which as a wrestler was 
immense, was due to his enormous strength rather than great 
skill. Between 1796 and 1812, he won ninety-nine belts, and 
although only a young man, it is said he never succeeded 
in making up the hundred. There is, however, a singular 
lack of information about his victories, and it is known that 
both he and his brother were thrown at Ambleside by William 
Richardson, of Caldbeck. Rowan's last belt was won at the 
Ferry in 1812, and about 1824 he retired, and kept a nursery 
and vegetable garden at Ambleside. In his private life, as in 
the ring, he was noted for his straightforwardness and integrity, 
as well as industry. He died in 1852, and it is on record 
that the coffin measured twenty-seven inches across the breast 
inside. 

John Long, four inches shorter, about four stones less in 
weight, and a remarkably well-built man, was always con- 
sidered a better wrestler. He was a woodcutter and sheep 
shearer, and in later years is well-remembered as chief boatman 
at the Ferry. In 1811, he threw Tom Nicholson at Ambleside, 
but in spite of his reputation, he does not seem to have 
attended the more distant meetings. 

A. Craig Gibson, in his " Folk Speech of Cumberland," 
makes our hero tell the eerie tale of the " Calgarth skulls": 

" And Benjamin's chief ferryman was stalwart old John Long, 
A veteran of the wrestling ring (its records hold his name) ; 
Who yet in life's late autumn was a wiry wight and strong, 

Though grizzly were his elflocks wild, and bow'd his giant frame." 



216 THE DALESMAN. 

John Long died at Kirkstone Inn in 1848. 

William Wilson is probably the most brilliant wrestler the 
parish has produced. He was born at High Wray, and at 
the age of twenty-two was six feet four inches in height, 
with a weight of fourteen to fifteen stones. His wrestling 
career was short, figuring prominently only from about 1818 
to 1822, but during these years his successes were remarkable. 
He threw Rowan Long, at Ambleside, and in 1818, at Keswick, 
came across Tom Richardson, called " The Dyer," in the final, 
by whom he was thrown. In 1819, he got the first prize 
and belt at the Ferry, and at Keswick, the same year, although 
he did not get the first prize, he was the hero of the day, 
for he " hyped " with great case the enormous Highlander, 
John McLaughlan, who stood six feet six inches, and was 
five or six stones heavier than himself. This fall, one of the 
most brilliant in wrestling traditions, is still talked of in the 
North. In 1820, he came out victor at Keswick, throwing, 
in the final, William Richardson ; but in 1822, he was thrown 
at Low-wood, and at Keswick he overbalanced himself in 
lifting Weightman, and so lost the belt. He was a sufferer 
from asthma, anil through this seems to have retired from 
the ring, becoming an inn-keeper successively at Amblesidc 
and at Patterdalc. The " chip," as it is called, or special fall, 
that he brought to such perfection was the " standing hype," 
or '' inside strike," and it was by this most of his opponents 
were grassed. He died in 1836. Other local wrestlers of 
note were Arthur Burns, of Ullctcr ; James, his brother; John 
Wren, of Bouth ; Brian Christophcrson, of Oxcupark ; and 
William Coward, of Outgate. * 

Fox Hunting. There arc no keener hunters than the fcllsidcrs 
of Lakeland, but the sport as practised locally would, we imagine, 
make the Nimrod of the shires look rather astonished. For 
although the " sound of the horn " will effectually bring the 
dalesman " from his bed/' such a thing as preserving the fox 
for the sport never occurred to his mind. It is, and has 

* For most of the above details of local wrestlers I am indebted to " Wrestlers 
and Wrestling," before mentioned. 



THE DALESMAN. 217 

been traditional and constant warfare against poor Reynard 
from time immemorial, not only by the shepherds and farmers, 
but by the parish officials, by whom a regular tariff of rewards 
was ordered for their heads as vermin. Thus, as we shall 
see in the Parish Accounts, during the early part of the 
eighteenth century, five shillings was the reward for killing a 
fox, half-a-crown for a fox's cub, and fourpcncc for a raven 
if the head was produced. At Cartmel, they impaled poor 
Reynard's head on the Church-gates, and in the account book 
of Sir Daniel Fleming, of Rydal, small payments to " fox- 
killers " are several times mentioned. 

As a rule, a few couples of hounds and terriers were kept 
in each valley, and these were turned out when foxes became 
a nuisance. Nowadays, there is a regular pack, whose kennels 
are at Amblcsidc, and the hounds arc " walked " at the farms ; 
but all the same the hounds turn out, as in the old days, at 
the most incongruous season of the year. There are, or were, 
two breeds of foxes in High Furncss and the Lakes ; the fell 
fox, which is the tallest of the two, and reddest in colour, and 
the wood fox, which is shorter, with black legs. The latter, 
we have been told, is not indigenous, and the breed was first 
introduced by Mr. Townlcy, of Towncnd, near Lake side. At 
any rate, the fell fox was the gamest ; and the author of 
that interesting pamphlet, the " Cumberland Foxhounds," has 
quoted a capital description of him : " Fierce as a tiger, long 
as a hay-band, and with an amiable cast of features like 
the Chancellor of the Exchequer ! " :: 

The field was always on foot, and we need not say 
that the fox and hounds were often miles away from the 
enthusiastic hunters. But much can be done to see a good 
deal of the hunt by local knowledge of the lie of the fells 
and the " manners and customs " of the fox. However, hounds 
were, of course, continually lost or drowned, and the kills 
were often enough simply a matter between the hounds and 
the fox, with no enthusiastic hunters within miles. 



* Mr. Macpherson alludes to the popular belief in the two varieties, but does not 
say if he considers it correct. See " Vertebrate Fauna of Lakeland," p. 16. 






218 



THE DALESMAN. 



Extraordinary runs were sometimes given by old foxes. 
There is a story of one sly old chap that ran twice from 
Kirkby-in-Furness to Threlkeld, but trying the same manoeuvre 
for a third time was killed somewhere in the neighbourhood 
of Wetherlam. 

The huntsman carried with him a terrible instrument, 



FOX-SCKKWS, FROM LANGDAI.E. 

which was made use of if the fox took refuge in a borran 
or under a heap of stones. This was the " fox-screw," a 
cruel thing about four inches in length like a double cork- 
screw, which, being fastened to the end of a wooden pole, 
could be run into the hiding-place and screwed firmly into 
the body of the unfortunate animal, or into his mouth, if, 



THE DALESMAN. 



219 



as was most usual, he snapped at it. A smaller instrument 
of the same sort, or a briar, was frequently used for rabbits ; 
while for foumarts, which were hunted with terriers, an instru- 
ment called the foumart tongs was in use. This ingenious 
appliance was on the lazy tongs principle, constructed so that 
by closing the handles, the tongs were shot out to a considerable 
distance, and the forceps seized simultaneously the animal.* 

Packs of hounds were kept by Mr. J. G. Marshall, of 
Monk Coniston, and by Mr. Braithwaite Hodgson, of Colthousc 
(harriers), during the first half of the present century. 

Cock Fighting. This form of amusement was popular in the 
fells for probably a very long while ; and although, togcther 
with bull-baiting and badger-drawing, it was made a misde- 
meanour in 1835, there is no doubt that often since that date, 
and even yet, mains arc fought in secluded parts of the parish. 
" Cocking " scientifically carried out was a far less cruel 
pastime than is generally believed, ami certainly far greater 
abuses go still unchecked. With properly made spurs the 
wounds inflicted were cither fatal, or clean and quick healing, 
which is far from the case with the natural spur. That the 
sight of two handsome game birds in combat is both picturesque 
and exciting, no one who has seen two cock pheasants fighting 
can deny ; and surely we need not condemn as wantonly cruel, 
the country people, who, in following this pastime, simply 
imitated their betters in fortune and education. 

In most parts of England, and very generally in the 
north, Shrovetide was the great season. In many of the 
north country schools there was on Shrove Tuesday an 
annual cock-fight among the scholars, and a tax called a 
" cock-penny " was paid by each taking part. At Wreay, in 
Cumberland, the prize was a silver bell, and at Bromfield, 
in the same county, there was a similar prize given for cock- 



* In Wales they used this type of tongs for ejecting dogs from churches. Mr. 
Macpherson in " Vertebrate Fauna of Lakeland " (p. 30), quotes from The Westmor- 
land Gazette, of 1845, a good description of a foumart hunt in Claife on Feb. 7th 
in that year. 



220 THE DALESMAN. 

fighting, which followed the curious custom of " barring out " 
the master. * 

Before cock-fighting became illegal, many of the village 
greens had a carefully prepared little arena, or pit, a circular 
table-like piece of sward, measuring from six to eleven yards 
in diameter, surrounded by a shallow trench, from which 
the earth is thrown up to form a ring bank on the outer 
side. The cocks fought on the central arena ; the feeders 
and setters occupied the trench, while the ring bank was 
the barrier over which the spectators might not pass. 1 !" 

Examples of these pits are common in the north of 
England, and very often we find them close to old endowed 
schools. We know, however, only one example within the 
limits of our parish, namely, at Oxenpark in Colton, on the 
green called "Robin Hall." This example, which is only 
poorly preserved, is six yards across the central arena. 

The scene of the combats was, however, both prior to 
and after 1835, as often in a closed barn or out-building, 
the floor of which was carefully sodded for the purpose. 
Annual mains were fought on Easter Saturday in the public- 
house barn at Oxenpark, and sometimes there were as many as 
thirty battles in one day. A barn near Skehvith Bridge was 
also the scene of regular cock-fights on Friday in Shrovetide ; 
and there is an upstairs room at the Brown Cow Inn, in 
Hawkshead, which, in former days was regularly frequented by 
" gentlemen of the sod." At these " closed pit " mains, a 
shilling entrance was charged, no doubt for the benefit of 
the innkeeper. 

After the legal prohibition it was notorious for many 
years that cock-fighting went on all along the Brathay from 
Skclwith to Langdale. The reasons are obvious ; many of 
the inhabitants of this district are quarrymen, whose predilection 
for cock-fighting is well known. But the strategical advantages 
of the district were admirable, for, being situated on the 

* The London schoolboys fought cocks on Shrove Tuesday in the lime 
of Henry II. See Slrutt's "Sports and Pastimes," Ed. 1833, p. 281. See 
also Chapter X. of this work for the "Cock-penny" at Hawkshead. 

t See descriptions, with plan, in the writer's paper " Obsolete and Semi-obsolete 
Appliances," p. 97. 



THE DALESMAN. 221 

border of two counties, all the cock-fighters had to do if 
their look-out signalled " police," was to bag their cocks, 
cross the Brathay, and turn to work in Westmorland. 

But all over this end of the parish the old inhabitants will 
tell you places which were regularly resorted to, many no doubt 
since 1835. Amongst these were Colthousc, Sawrey Ground, 
Berwick Ground, a field between Barngates and Outgate i 
Ironkeld, Arnsidc, and on the old road from High Cross to 
Monk Collision. 

Only recently (5th January, 1897) there died at the Miner's 
Cottage near Pull VVyke, at the age of 81, an old man 
called " Bobby " Bell, who in his early days was extremely 
well known among the local cock-fighting fraternity. He had 
been, we believe, to some extent a professional feeder of game 
cocks, although in this capacity he was not so well known 
as one Miles Askew, who lived at Waterside, Ksthwaite, and 
afterwards at Hannikin. Though "Bobby' 1 was somewhat infirm, 
and certainly quite innocent of having broken the law for many 
years, he was very reticent about the sport in which he made 
his reputation. An interesting fact, however, he remembered, 
namely, that it was the local custom sometimes to string up 
a bettor to the rafters of a barn, immured in a basket, a 
punishment which we know was inflicted on persons who bet 
more than they could pay at cock-fights. ' ;: 

Apart from betting, cock-fighting was sometimes decidedly 
remunerative to the successful. + We have heard of a bird 



* The shadow ol a man thus suspended is shewn in Hogarth's picture of a 
cockpit, and the editor of "The Works of Mr. Hogarth Moralized," London, 1788, 
makes special reference to the subject. 

t The following, tearing on Hawkshead diversions, are from " Home Life in 
North Lonsdale," by John Fell, "Transactions Cumberland and Westmorland 
Archaeological and Antiquarian Society," XL, p. 38. The first is from a letter among 
the Rawlinson papers : 

" 1763. I find by thine you have had fox hunts going forward as well as we. At 
one of 'em w'ch was the finest to be sure all the gent", had tlie Pleasure to get 
heartily drunk and many of them returned satisfied indeed with their 
diversions." 

The source of the next is not stated, but it is evidently from some local family 
papers : 

"1740 II Nov. Won at Cards at Newby Bridge ...020 

,, Nov. 14 Lost at Cards 002^ 

,, ., 24 Won at Cards at Cartmel Club ... o iS 6 

1746 Won at Cards ... ... ... ... o 14 o 

,, Spent at Bouth Cockfight 012 

,, I'.iid Mr. Richardson for the Cocks 

and feeding ... ... ... o 10 o 



222 THE DALESMAN. 

which won for his master at different meetings half-a-dozen 
chairs, a load of meal, a quarter of beef, a watch, and a 
chest of drawers. 

Of badger-baiting or drawing there is little record, although 
we do not doubt it was common enough, for it can be 
remembered that just about the date the prohibitory Act 
was passed, a badger was kept by one of the Warriners at 
Outgate, and regularly baited in a barrel. 

Snaring. A peculiar snare, chiefly for woodcock, but some- 
times for other game birds, was formerly very much in use in 
Furness Fells, and doubtless in other parts of the Lakes, though 
we do not know that it was elsewhere used. Pennant des- 
cribes it thus in the neighbourhood of Windermere:* "See on 
the plain part of these hills numbers of springes set for 
woodcocks, laid between tufts of heather, with avenues of 
small stones on each side to direct these foolish birds 
into the snares, for they will not hop over the pebbles." 
Wordsworth over a hundred years ago amused himself in 
this way on Hawkshcad Moor, doubtless without leave from 
the landowners. 

" T'was my joy 

With store of springes o'er my shoulder hung 
To range the open heights where woodcocks run 
Along the smooth green turf. Through half the night, 
Scudding away from snare to snare, I plied 
That anxious visitation." 

Prelude, Bonk II. 

These snares, which were called sprints, arc now nearly 
disused, but we could point out the lines of stones on many 
places in the fells. The chosen sites were generally dips or 
passes between rocks, and across the hollow a line of stones 
was placed touching each other. At one place a stone was 
omitted, and in the space the sprint was set. Poor " cock " 
came running through the hollow, and rather than hop the 
barrier made for the gap. A drawing of a sprint will be 
found in Macpherson's " Fauna of Lakeland," p. Ixxxvii. 

There were not many other diversions in the life of the 
dalesman. Story-telling and, no doubt to some extent, card 

* "Tour in Scotland," Vol. II., p. 36. 



THE DALESMAN. 223 

playing went on at home, but the fact is the dalesman had 
not learnt the want of diversion as we know it. His " day 
out " was market day, and after that he settled down for a 
week, and the scandal and what-not he had heard on 
Monday served to fill up gaps in the conversation till the 
next Monday came round. Not that other jollifications 
besides wrestling and cock-fighting were unknown, for the 
summer " clippins " or sheep shearings were noted for the 
feasting and mirth which accompanied them. " Merry neets " 
and " aid wife hakes " were gatherings at Christmastide, 
which was most strictly observed as a holiday from Christ- 
mas Eve to Twelfth Day. The former were dances at a 
public-house with a fiddler for orchestra ; but it is said, and 
probably with truth, that the " Merry neet " was a late 
introduction into the life of the neighbourhood, and owed 
its origin to the decline of the weaving trade, which turned 
two-thirds of the people into farm hands, whom the 'states- 
men, now fewer, did not care to entertain. 1 This is likely 
enough, for the merry nights of older times probably took 
place in the farm barns. 

Besides the regular fair clays, there were the Skelwith hay 
fair and the cherry fair at the Ferry. Both may be of great 
antiquity. The former we have mentioned before as connected 
with wrestling. The last was a free invitation to all to 
gather fruit from a clump of fine wild cherry trees which 
stood behind the old inn at the Ferry, during two or three 
consecutive Sundays at the cherry season. To this may be 
compared Martinclale Cherry Sunday and Langwathby Plum 
Sunday, where exactly the same thing took place. In every 
case there was an inn adjoining, which of course benefited 
by the presence of the crowd of fruit-gatherers. 

LAWLESSNESS. 

The dalesman was not immaculate, and when he broke 
the law he generally did it with a vengeance and became a 

* " Old Customs and Usages in the Lake District," by John Wilson, " Transac- 
tions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Association for the Advancement of 
Literature and Science," XII., p. 67, etc. 






224 THE DALESMAN. 

berserk. Little acts of meanness and petty theft were hardly 
known, so that if a dalesman broke out he became a violent 
criminal (though this was very rare) or else a persistent law 
defier. 

Beck tells a curious story in his great work on Furness 
Abbey, ::: about a fatal quarrel between two yeomen called 
Roland and John Tayllour, which took place in the time of 
Abbot Banks, probably about 1529. The subject of the dis- 
pute was the office of under-bailiff of Finscott or Finsthwaite. 
Roland requested the Abbot to arrest John and bind him 
over to keep the peace, and this was done ; but when the 
latter requested his liege lord to do the same by Roland, 
as he was going in fear of his life, the Abbot, who it was 
said was a kinsman of Roland, refused. John accused the 
Abbot of encouraging his adversary, stating that he " had 
entered into their quarrel with so savage and unchristian a 
spirit as to excite and even command Roland to become his 
murderer, promising to hold him harmless in case he com- 
mitted the deed." Three days later the latter found John up 
a holly tree which he was pruning, and the sequel shows that 
the unfortunate man had good reason for his statement, for 
Roland, taking advantage of his position, brought him down 
by chopping at his legs with an axe. He then made an 
attempt to decapitate the wounded man, and failing to do so 
to his satisfaction he finished him off by cleaving his head 
open. Apparently through the Abbot's influence the murderer 
obtained a royal pardon. 15ut the matter did not rest there. 
One Thomas Kendall, a London leather-seller, and perhaps a 
relative of the murdered man, took up the matter, and in his 
bill of complaint affirmed that the Abbot was never indicted 
as an accessory to the deed by reason of his influential posi- 
tion, and he prayed that this should be done as an example 
to the king's subjects. 

In reply the Abbot stated that the bill was insufficient, and 
that the principal having been pardoned there could be no case 

* 1'age 314. 



THE DALESMAN. 225 

against accessories ; and he also denied the accusation, 
stating that all in his power had been done to reconcile the 
parties. 

Unfortunately, in the interests of justice the ultimate issue 
of this curious case remains unrecorded. It was this same 
Abbot Banks whom we have already seen accused of unjustly 
levying a tax on his poor tenants of Colton, and everything 
we know of him tallies with his apparently unjust action in 
the Finsthwaite dispute. 

This is a pretty bad case, but 140 years later we find in 
the oldest Register Book of the parish the record of a case 
of wholesale poisoning of exceptional tcrriblcness. It is the 
only recorded murder in this volume of the Register ; indeed, 
if we except the Finsthwaite case, as far as we know at 
present in the history of the parish ; and to its credit we 
are glad to say that the murderer was not a Hawkshead 
man, but a Cumbrian. The entry is as follows : 

1672, " Aprill 8. Thomas Lancaster who for poysonninge 
his owne family was Adjudg't att the Assi/.cs att Lancaster 
to bee carried backc to his owne house att IIyc = \vrey where 
hee liv'd : and was there hang'd before his owne cloorc till 
hec was dead, for that very facte then was brought with a 
horse and a carr into the Coulthousc meadows and forthwith 
hunge upp in iron Chaynes on a Gibbet which was sett for 
that very purpose on the south = syde of Sawrcy Casey ncarc 
unto the Pooll = stang: and there continued untill such tymes 
as hee rotted cvcryc (?) bone from other . . . ." 

The ruffian was brought up before Sir Daniel Fleming, of 
Rydal, and afterwards sentenced as above said. This is how 
Sir Daniel, writing on November 24th, 1671, to Sir Joseph 
Williamson, alludes to the case : 

"Being lately in Lancashire I received there as a justice 
of the peace of that county an information against one 
Thomas Lancaster, late of Threlkeld in Cumberland, who, it 
is very probable, hath committed the most horrid act that hath 
been heard of in this countrey. He marryed the 3Oth of 
January last a wife in Lancashire, who was agreed to be 
16 



22 6 THE DALESMAN. 

marryed that very day or soon after, to another ; and her 
father afterwards conveyed all his reall estate to this Lancaster 
upon him giveing security to pay severall sums of money to 
himselfe and his daughters. And through covetousness to save 
these and other payments it is very probable that Lancaster 
hath lately poysoncd with white arsenic his wife, her father, 
her three sisters, her aunt, her cosingerman, and a servant 
boy, besides poyson given to severall of his neighbours who 
arc and have been sick that people as it is presumed 
might think the rest dyed of a violent fever. I have com- 
mitted him prisoner unto Lancaster Castle, and shall take 
what more evidence I can meet with or discover against the 
next assizes that he may there have a fair triall, and if he 
be found guilty such a punishment as the law shall inflict 
on such like offenders." 

On April jrd, 1672, Sir Daniel wrote to Sir George Fletcher, 
at Hutton, mentioning that Lancaster had been convicted at 
Lancaster of poisoning eight persons, and was to be hanged 
in chains ; and in another letter to Sir William Wilde, Judge 
of the Common Pleas, dated April 24th, he intimated that 
the murderer had confessed to having poisoned " the old 
woman " with arsenic for a bribe of 24. from the heir to her 
estate, which was worth 16 per annum." 

The place where the gibbet stood at Pool Stang is yet 
called (iibbet Moss, and lies just beyond the pool bridge 
going to Colthouse on the right hand of the road. Although 
we arc unaware of any record of any other hanging taking 
place here, and although it would appear from the entry that 
a special gibbet was placed here for Lancaster, it is a fact 
that elderly people can still remember the stump of the 
gibbet standing ; nay more, superstitions had grown up con- 
nected with it, of which we shall speak elsewhere. It is 
possible that this was the first and last gibbeting at this 
place, for it is always supposed, and probably correctly, that 
the monastic " furca " was on Gallow-barrow. 



* For these letters see " Historical Manuscripts Commission," Twelfth Report, 
Appendix Part VII., pp. 86, 90, 91. 



THE DALESMAN. 227 

The Bread Riots Under the title of " The last popular 
risings in the Lancashire Lake district," printed in the " Trans- 
actions of the Lancashire and Cheshire Historic Society," " ; 
Mr. Craig Gibson has left a most interesting account of the 
proceedings of the quarrying population about Langdale and 
the district ; and as there can be no doubt that many of 
those who took part were from the great quarries about Holme 
Ground and Hodgeclose, the rising merits a place here. 

In 1799 and 1800 oatmeal had risen to eight shillings the 
stone of fourteen pounds, and as the quarrymen at the 
beginning of the century were largely local men, this was 
severely felt by them, as oatmeal was their staple food. 
The scarcity they laid at the door of the millers of Low 
Furness, who they believed were withholding their stores of 
meal in order to raise exorbitant prices. Accordingly, they 
decided on coercion, and mustering in Langdale, they inarched, 
increasing in number as they went, through Tilbcrthwaite and 
by way of Coniston and Torvcr to Kirkby-in-Furness. Here 
at the mill they were disappointed in their expectation of 
finding a store, so they marched on by Pcnnington to 
Bardsey, where the mill was found to contain a store of 
meal, but upon the miller promising to take it to the 
Diversion market, they did not molest him. They then 
proceeded to Ulverston, and finding a large barn full of 
meal, they seized the contents, and distributed part of it at 
the Market Cross amongst the women of the town. Com- 
plete order, however, seems to have been maintained among 
the ranks of the law-breakers ; and they desisted from dis- 
tributing the entire store upon the owner entering into the 
same undertaking as the miller at Bardsey. 

After visiting other meal stores and coercing the millers 
in the same way, the quarrymen peaceably quitted the town 
and gained their homes after a raid of fifty miles. It does 
not appear that in Ulverston the authorities interfered with 
the rioters, nor were steps taken to punish them, probably 

* Vol. IX., P . 45. 



228 THE DALESMAN. 

because the distress was known to be widespread, and because 
the proceedings, though lawless, were perfectly orderly. 

Emboldened by their first success, however, the quarry- 
men, only a few years later, made a second descent from the 
fells to the plain ; their grievance on this occasion being the 
compulsory recruiting for the militia. The system was indeed 
often little superior to conscription, because the men who were 
recruited were frequently after drafted into the regular army. 
The quarrymen made their appearance in Ulverston at the 
very time the magistrates were sitting to arrange the militia 
ballot for the coming year. The rioters forcibly entered the 
Sessions House, and all the magistrates except one were 
expelled. The one who stood his ground was Justice Brooks, 
and in order to bring his worship to reason a huge quarry- 
man swung him through the open window, and holding him 
by the heels, flourished him about a bit head downwards. 
They then collected the papers, and in defiance of the Riot 
Act, which was read, they burned them at the market house, 
and left the town. 

This was too flagrant a breach of the law to overlook, and 
accordingly a small body of cavalry was soon despatched by 
Coniston Lake to the fells in order to bring the headstrong 
dalesmen to their wits. But the news travelled faster than the 
troops, and the rioters in their rocky fastness might laugh at 
cavalry. Nevertheless, the latter marched up to the quarries, 
and found, no doubt, that the great chasms of rock and under- 
ground passages were but ill-fitted for cavalry manoeuvres. 
But the men were in the quarries, so the soldiers, leaving, 
we may imagine, their chargers outside, clambered in single 
file through the low wet levels spurs, sabres, and all. As 
they entered the quarries the quarrymen climbed out at the 
top all, tradition says, save one man, who was left sitting 
on an isolated rock, and as he could neither retreat nor be 
reached, there he remained coolly chaffing the "sodgers" in 
broad dialect. 

From time to time other attempts were made to take 
the ringleaders, but without success. Yet it would seem that 



THE DALESMAN. 229 

the place was carefully " shadowed " by the authorities, for 
Mr. Gibson says that some of the rioters found it necessary 
to migrate to Borrowdale in Cumberland, while one or two 
gave themselves up, and a few even made their peace by 
enlisting. The Government, however, withdrew the prosecution, 
and those who gave themselves up escaped with the payment 
of rather heavy costs. 

The Castlehow Robbers. We have seen that in the four- 
teenth century there were outlaws in Furncss fells, and we 
have suggested that Peel Island was in early mediaeval times 
an outlaw's home, but we should hardly expect to find that 
only little over a hundred years ago anything of the sort 
remained. Yet such a tradition remains, but the evidence is 
too scanty to really say what the truth is. The story is that 
about that date there was a gang of robbers, the leader of 
which was one Castlehow, but it would appear that there were 
more than one of this name. Anyhow, Castlehow himself 
lived at Castlehow intake, still called after him, a high-lying 
breast of fell now on the Keenground estate, but at that date 
unenclosed. Here close to the old fell trackway to Satter- 
thwaite, at about one mile from the town and seven hundred 
feet above the sea, he built himself a rude house, the foundations 
of which can still be seen. His depredations at last became 
such a nuisance that the people collected and, with the parish 
constable, contrived to take him unaware. Driven to the top 
of the stairs, he defended himself desperately with a pitchfork, 
but he was overpowered, and lodged in the lock-up at Hawks- 
head. In his hut considerable stolen property was discovered. 
However, from the lock-up he managed to escape, but, being 
discovered, he was pursued across the valley. Somewhere about 
the head of the lake, the pursuers coming up to him, one 
managed to seize him by the waistband of his breeches, and this 
giving way, and the breeches being unsecured by braces, down 
these garments dropped about his knees, and he was igno- 
miniously captured. 

Thus far an account, which appeared in The Westmorland 
Gazette of January 29th, 1887, and this is much the story as 



2 30 THE DALESMAN. 

generally heard. Others confusing, no doubt, Lancaster's case, 
add that he was lynched on the spot and gibbeted on Pool 
Stang, and at the same time his house was raided and was 
burned down. But it is strange how the story of so recent an 
occurrence should have got so utterly wrapped up in mystery 
as this has. Old folks talk of it, but they can give no date, 
and if we lacked all real record it might be a tradition of the 
middle ages. The Castlehows are generally spoken of in the 
plural, but one seems to have been head of a gang. 

They are said to have been wallers ; and a large and well- 
built barn at Keenground was traditionally built by them. It 
looks about one hundred years old. It is said that one of them, 
probably the head man, was of enormous strength, and that in 
the alehouses he could take a pewter pint and crush it in his 
palm like another man would a piece of paper. 

The building on Castlehow has been a small one of two 
or three rooms, the only one sufficiently preserved to be mea- 
sured being about nine yards by five yards. They seem, 
however, to have had other places of the same character, for 
a ruin very like it near High Cross Tarn was described to the 
writer as their hiding-place by one of his oldest and most clear- 
headed informants. Curiously this last place was alluded to by 
another old man by the name of Frankhousesteads, and was at 
one time said to be haunted by fairies. The name is known no 
longer, but as we shall see, one of the Castlehows was actually 
named Frank. 

The only actual record on the subject is in the parish 
accounts, and although we get the actual date, the information 
is very meagre. About 1783 the "bill of Frank Castlehow" is 
more than once alluded to, but in the account book for 1784 and 
1785 we get the following entries, which evidently relate to this 
matter : 

Monk Coniston with Skelwith Poor Account. 
June 16. Paid Reckoning at Stampers upon a con- 
sultation with Mr. Braithwaite, Mr. Jackson, and 
Mr. Varty concerning Richard Castlehow as to 
giving him a certificate ... ... o i o 



THE DALESMAN. 231 

June 1 8. Drawing a certificate for Richard Castle- 
how and attending the execution thereof by the 
Churchwardens and overseers ... 068 

June 19. Paid Thos. Stamper for journey to Mr. 
Taylor to get the certificate allowed and for 
expenses at the signing thereof by the Church- 
wardens and overseers ... ... ... ... 036 

Sep. 7. Paid John Robinson for apprehending 
Richard Castlehow and bringing him before 
Mr. Braithwaite, who committed him ... ... 013 O 

In 1786-7 bread for Castlehow's wife is charged for. 

It is tantalising to get no further than this in such a recent 
matter, but in the absence of written record there is nowhere to 
look, and the oldest inhabitants only vaguely remember hearing 
their fore-elders talk of it. We imagine that the Castlehows had 
more than one iron in the fire, and that while carrying on their 
honest trade in the town, their hill shelters at which it is 
improbable perhaps that they really lived were used by them 
as rendezvous for sheep-stealing forays, and possibly for actual 
highway robberies. They may (as, indeed, is sometimes 
asserted) have also carried on spirit distilling, but the two huts 
on Havvkshead moor and at High Cross are too near ancient 
highways for this purpose. For the same reason they could 
not be places of concealment from justice, and can only have 
served for night shelters and places of meeting. 

Lanty Slee. Forty years ago illicit distillation of spirit was 
not uncommon in the fells, where it was possible to carry on 
such operations in defiance of the excise officers : and among 
the names of those who defied the law none is so well 
remembered as that of Lancelot Slee, or " Lanty," as he is 
generally called 

From his surname we believe that Lanty was descended from 
one of the numerous offcome stocks which have been introduced 
by the quarrying and mining industries ; but, no doubt, he was 
born in the district, so that in speech and manner he was 
a dalesman. He has been described to us as a stiff, fresh- 






232 THE DALESMAN. 

looking man with great power of endurance. But his persistence 
in law-breaking bespeaks a foreign origin, for generally the 
dalesmen are most amenable to law and order. Lanty Slee 
was, in 1849, a farmer at Low Colwith, but he afterwards 
removed to Low Arnsidc farm, which had been tenanted by 
William Pattinson. The isolated position of Arnside farm was 
eminently suited for Lanty 's operations, and it was here he had 
his chief still in a snug retired field close to the farm.* The 
place is still called Lanty's Cave. 

But Lanty did not content himself with one still. He had 
another at Hallgarth above Langdale, and a third at a quarry 
at Tilberthwaitc. The late George Milligan, of Colthouse, 
told us that he worked in the quarry for four years close to 
the still without ever knowing it was there, so cleverly was it 
concealed. It docs not, however, seem quite certain whether 
these stills were in operation all at once, or were new starts 
after being in trouble : perhaps the latter is the most probable. 
Though he seems to have been convicted and heavily fined 
several times, it was not until 1853 that the Arnside still was 
seized and he was compelled to clear out. The fact is that 
neighbours, high and low, winked at the " industry," and 
patronized it well. Dr. Dawson, who was on the magistrates' 
bench when Lanty last appeared, is said himself to have been 
a liberal patron, and the truth seems to be that, although the 
fines inflicted were very heavy, they were generally subsequently 
reduced, and being partly subscribed by the sympathizing neigh- 
bourhood, were insufficient to deter Lanty from re-opening his 
establishment. It is said that after working hard all day on 
his farm he would set out with dark, carrying the spirit in 
bladders to Seathwaitc or Kendal, and be back again at work 
on his farm in the morning. Evidently he was an industrious 
man, even if his industry was ill-directed. 

Lanty was not a safe man to thwart or quarrel with, yet he 
was informed against, more than once ; indeed, his final dis- 
appearance from the parish was due to an enemy in the camp. 

* The site may still be seen. Mr. Gillbanks, the owner, recently examined it to 
find if it was carefully flagged ; but the flags, if they existed, had been removed, 
although the shape of the still is very apparent on the turf. 



THE DALESMAN. 2.53 

Before this took place, however, he was on one occasion informed 
against by one Fleming Parker, and, says tradition, when Slee 
next met him on a bridge at Coniston he " varra nigh brayed 
him to death." 

The ultimate break-up of Lanty's Arnside operations took 
place in 1853, his conviction taking place on May Qth. It is 
generally said that Pattinson, who had tenanted Arnside before 
Slee, was to some extent in the business. However this may 
be, there is no question that it was through Pattinson that 
Lanty came to grief. Pattinson and another having quarrelled 
with Lanty, they laid an information against him, and the stills 
were seized, and he was brought before the llawkshcad bench 
of magistrates. Of those with whom we have talked there is 

o 

a difference of opinion as to whether Lanty was imprisoned or 
not, but fined he was, and to the tune of ;l$o or thereabouts, 
which, however, was reduced afterwards to about one-half. 
Pattinson, perhaps remembering the braying of Fleming Parker, 
left the district, and settled at Kentmcre, or, as an old farmer 
put it, " he was sa fleyt at what he'd done, he tak' away through 
t'churchyard and ower t'fells," without waiting to " interview " 
the unfortunate Lanty. 

Although Lanty was an elderly man, between sixty and 
seventy, it is said, when this took place, it is doubtful if he ever 
gave up entirely his habits. He left Arnside, and purchased 
a field in Little Langdale, where he built a cottage called Ivy- 
howe, and it is said that not only did he have a still there, but 
another at Red Tarn, right up in the fells, near the three shire 
stones. Nevertheless, from the time he left Arnside there was 
little illicit spirit distillation in the parish. 

Of course, of such a man there are still innumerable stories 
going in the district. It was not so long after the trial that 
Mr. John Usher, builder, was working, with some of his men, 
at a barn end at Sand Ground, and they were discussing 
whether Lanty would give up his ways or not. Slee who, 
unheard, had approached, stepped quietly into the ring, with 
" There nea aid ship, hooiver battered by t'storm, but she'll 
be ment (mended) up and gang again." 

Lanty's whiskey was, it is said, good stuff. We found, 




234 THE DALESMAN. 

recently, an old man, working on the fellside near Arnside, 
who remembered him well. He chuckled as he told us how 
he and his master met Slee once, at or near the Stake 
Pass, and how Slee, having sold his master some rudd or 
ruddle (for Slee had discovered a vein of iron ore in the Langdale 
fells, and dug it to sell for marking sheep), asked him if he 
would like " some o' t'uclder stuff." When the barrel of rudd 
came, a bottle of " t'udder stuff" was in it. And though, said 
my informant, it had nothing unusual in flavour, " my word, 
but it did warm ye efterwards." The usual price seems to 
have been about IDS. a gallon. But in negotiating a purchase 
it was necessary to be initiated ; instead of asking for 
whiskey, you enquired if Lanty had a " good crop of taties 
this year." 

On the occasion of the death of Mr. D. J. Flattcly, in 
October, 1 897, who was for some years supervisor of the 
excise in this district, a story of Lanty was related in the 
local press. 

Lanty appeared one morning before the bench on the usual 
score, having spent the night in the lock-up, and a magistrate 
remarked, " I am told that you are able to furnish your 
friends with a glass of spirit at any time when desired, but 
1 think we have broken the spell this time." Upon which 
our hero promptly drew from his pocket a full bottle, quietly 
remarking, " M'appcn ye'r wrang. Will ye hcv a touch?" 

Bravado was indeed characteristic of the man, and some- 
times served him in good stead ; for once, forgetting it was 
the market day in Ulverston, he found himself right in the 
town with a big " sack of taties "' on his back. He had gone 
too far to retire, and it lay between crossing the thronged 
market place or slipping down a side street, where he might 
be cleverly caught if anyone was on the look-out. Wisely 
enough he chose the former, and sauntered casually and quite 
unnoticed, " sack of taties " and all, through the crowd. 

We have heard another story of Slee's queer life for which 
we can hardly vouch, because our informant, who is a person 
of great age, mixed the reminiscences of her life in a very 



THE DALESMAN. 235 

confusing manner. According to this, Slee was once living 
at Park Yeat, Coniston, an old house which we remember 
roofless for many years. A woman in the house was sent to 
get, from a barrel, a hornful of blasting powder, and in doing 
so she ignited the powder, which exploded, blowing off the 
roof; the woman's body was found, terribly burned, some 
distance away, and most strange, an infant which was in the 
house was bodily blown on to the top of the wall which had 
supported the roof, but whether it was killed or not our 
informant did not know. That the story has some foundation 
we feel no doubt, but we have never heard elsewhere that 
Lanty lived at this house at any time. From the same 
source we heard that with Lanty " there were allus twa girt 
black dogs with curly tails and thin heads ( ? greyhounds) 
that would guard him frae owt." Lanty died about 1878 or 
1879. Some of his progeny, steady and respectable people, 
are still in the country ; but as an old farmer remarked, 
Lanty was a " terrible strang man and a rough, and a girt 
age when he died." * 

But though Lanty was best known, he was not the only 
distiller in the parish. It is said that a brother-in-law 
occupied himself the same way in Dale Park. And Miss 
Archibald, of Rusland Hall, informs me that it is well known 
that at Ashslack, at Ickenthwaitc in Colton, there was a 
distillery in a hole beneath the floor of the stable. The hole 
could be entered by a trap-door in one of the stalls, and 
consequently was completely hidden by the bedding of the 
stable. On one occasion when a search was being made, the 
entire plant of the still was thrown into an adjacent peat bog. 

GIPSIES, POTTERS, AND TINKERS. 

The enclosure of our wastes was a terrible blow to the 
vagrant communities of gipsies and potters : and the former, 
partly in consequence of this, and partly owing to the 



* We have omitted to say that on two occasions when Lanty was in trouble, his 
still, worm, and plant, which had been impounded and locked up in Ambleside, 
were missing in the morning, having been cleverly abstracted. 






236 THE DALESMAN. 

relentless persecution of the authorities, have disappeared 
rapidly during this century. The wonder of the thing is 
that these people stuck to their nomadic ways as long as 
they did ; for vagabondism is in deadly opposition to high 
civilization. It was, however, in the eastern blood of the 
gipsies, and so long as there were great waste spaces left 
in England, which kept up for them feebly the tradition 
of the steppes and deserts of Asia, they could not change 
their life. With the enclosure of commons, and activity of 
rural police and magistracy, they became submerged or 
" flitted." 

But gipsies do not seem to have been much known in 
the Lakes in the last few centuries. In the oldest Register 
book of the parish we find but one entry : 

Baptisms, 1632 "January xiij th Thomas Washington 

fil Henry an Egiptian," 

and the parish poor accounts contain, we believe, no mention 
of them. There were, however, a few about Hawkshead in 
the early part of the century, and they had their regular 
camping-grounds. The old road from High Cross to Monk 
Coniston, which is now disused, having been diverted, was 
once a favourite place, and here in summer they would 
camp sometimes three weeks at a time. Another of their 
haunts was a piece of unenclosed land on the border of 
Esthwaitc on the Sawrcy Road, and a little south of 
Waterside Cottage, formerly a poorhouse. 

The latter, however, were said to be, not gipsies, but 
potters and tinkers, yet, although these classes are probably 
distinct in origin from gipsies, the line of demarcation 
between the two is rather hard to find now, for their 
common methods have drawn them together, and we would 
suggest that many potter families have gipsy blood in their 
veins. The Cumbrian potter, however, was in origin simply 
the indigenous vagrant, and Mr. Sullivan, in his " Cumberland 
and Westmorland Ancient and Modern," has suggested that 
this name comes from " pattering " or begging. 

" Potterdom " is not yet extinct, and although the potters 



THE DALESMAN. 237 

camp less than formerly, their vagrant habits are still strong. 
The fact is, the itinerant tinker and seller of pots and besoms, 
who generally combines in his trade the buying of old iron, 
is by no means a useless member of society. The curious 
point is the way they keep, and always have kept, clannishly 
together. In Hawkshead, Outgate and Gallow-barrow were 
formerly centres for the potter and tinker community, and 
the latter is still so. The custom is for a fraternity of con- 
siderable numbers to rent a house among them, and take turns 
to be on the road. The house could not, indeed, contain 
the whole community at the same time, nor was it expected 
to do so. The names of Miller and Lowther were formerly 
common among the Hawkshead potters. 

Here is a very characteristic letter, written by a dales- 
woman in the first half of last century. The original, 
which is before us, is in a clear bold hand, though the 
punctuation is weak. It came from a mass of MS. material 
relating to the parish, but Dalebottom, from where the 
letter is dated, is on Nacldlc Beck between Thirlmcrc and 
Keswick. It was written to a brother in Ilawkshead 
parish, and it has strong local colouring. In it we note 
the itinerant tailor, in this case a rogue, who went from 
farm to farm making up clothes of the homespun. We 
get allusion to the hiring fairs, and to the " mcrrcy nights," 
of which we have already said something. Mary Turner 
was probably the daughter of a small 'statesman, and it 
will be noticed the " merrcy night " mentioned by her is 
not alluded to as taking place at a public-house, but at 
John Simpson's, probably a neighbour's, farm. 

" To Mr. John Turner at Oxenfell 

These " 
" Louing Brother 

These are To Let you know yt I am in good 
health as I hoope These will find you all a border of my 
mothers being at Dalebottom Last Munday night who Told 
me you heard 1 was for hiring into Keswick but I ncucr 



238 THE DALESMAN. 

had such a thought but if I meet with a place in y 6 Contery 
agreable shall hire my masf will Direct me what he Can 
yt man yt was hear is yt Honest Talor which makes 
people Remember Him where he goos and I am afraid my 
mother will haue suffered The fate of others he was at 
a merrcy night at J n " Simpsons and Lay with a young 
man and Got from him A guiney and 4 d or 5' 1 in money 
& Got of in y c morning before y e man mist his money They 
set out to seek him but Took y e wrong way so if he 
Come To you Againc I give you This by way of Caution 
you may Let me know by Two Lines whethe (sic.) he 
Came back to you or how you proued with him my masf 
& Dame giucs There Complements To you all no more at 
present but Duty to my mother and kind Louc to brothers 
and sisters I am yo r Affecenat sist r 

Mary Turner 
Dalebottom y e 8 th of 

february 1753 

And here we venture to produce apropos of nothing, or, 
at all events, of very little, an anecdote which we cannot 
find place for elsewhere. Fieldhead, since it became a 
private residence has changed occupants over and over 
again. Well, there lived there at one time one Smith, of 
whom we know little, save that he was frequently wanted for 
debt. Now Mr. Smith, like many other chronic debtors, was 
likewise a chronic humorist : and on one occasion, seeing the 
sheriff's officers approaching by the avenue, he waited until 
they had stabled their horses, and then, slipping out of 
his back-door, with " neatness and dispatch," he removed 
the shoes of the forefeet, and hung them in the sheriffian 
stirrups. This done, he mounted his own horse and rode 
to the front door, and gracefully saluting his guests through 
the window, he requested the pleasure of their company 
for a ride. They rushed to the stable, and he cantered 
round to observe the effects of his joke. 






THE DALESMAN. 239 

TRAFFIC. 

Except on market day, Hawkshead, in the sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries, must have been a quiet little place 
quieter even than now, when each morning in the season 
brings in its char-a-banc loads of tourists on their way from 
Windermere to Coniston. Little was there to wake it up, 
except the strings of pack-horses, with their jangling bells, on 
their way to and from Kendal. Prior to 1752 there were six 
pack-horses twice a week from Hawkshead to Kendal, and 
eighteen a week from Whitehaven ; but before the latter place 
sprang into importance at the end of the seventeenth century, 
the pack-horses probably travelled from the old port of Raven- 
glass. 

Mr. George Milligan, of Colthouse, who died an octo- 
genarian in 1896, lived as a lad with his parents in Langdale, 
and he remembered well hearing his father talk about the 
pack-horse strings which came over Hardknott and Wry nose 
about a hundred years since. But this method of conveyance 
would, no doubt, remain over this high rough road long after 
main roads in the lower ground had been made passable for 
the huge carriers' wagons. Pack-horses, indeed, arc now only 
known by tradition, but every octogenarian has a vivid remem- 
brance of the numbers of wagons which crossed the parish, 
or converged from the centres of Keswick, Ambleside, Ulver- 
ston, and Broughton. Coaches there were none, for not even 
in more modern days, when the stage-coach system became 
fully developed, was there a coach road in the parish, except 
where the old road from Diversion to Kendal entered the 
parish at Penny Bridge, and, passing through Bouth, left it at 
Newby Bridge." So that such as made a journey to Kendal, 
Lancaster, or Ravcnglass, did it on horseback, with their women 
folk on a pillion, if they had a mind to go with them. 

The first mention of a wheeled conveyance we know is in 

* This old line of traffic was succeeded by the straight road from Greenodd to 
Backbarrow in 1820. The old road was made a turnpike in 1761. See Stockdale's 
"Annals of Cartmel," p. 525. 






2 4 o THE DALESMAN. 

the Parish Accounts for 1792, when a "chaise driver" is men- 
tioned, but it is not clear if a chaise was then a local institution. 
At any rate, in 1819, when Green's "Guide" was published, 
there were " several decent inns at Hawkshead, but only one 
post-chaise, which is kept at the Red Lion." Thirty years later 
(1849), or perhaps even earlier, the Lakes had become fashion- 
able, for we find the "Jenny Lind " coach running daily in 
summer from the Ferry to Coniston. 

All this corroborates what we know, namely, that roads, that 
is in the sense which we know them, fitted for wheeled traffic, 
were practically unknown in the parish till a comparatively 
modern date. The best of them, those that were the lines of 
traffic, were no better than our roughest fell roads in the high 
ground, while in the valleys they became spongy, miry tracks, 
along which the traveller and his steed floundered, and occa- 
sionally, perhaps, stuck fast. 

We have pointed out elsewhere that there were almost 
certainly two Roman roads through the district one of them 
from Amblcside through Dale Park to about Penny Bridge 
and then to Dalton, and the other from the same centre to 
Ravcnglass, by Hardknott and Wrynose, which skirted through 
the top of our parish about Colwith and Skelwith. The latter 
was of no importance in the history of our parish, though the 
line of traffic always remained ; but the Dale Park route con- 
tinued until this century the main approach to Hawkshead from 
Low Furncss, in preference to the Sattcrthwaite and Grisedale 
road, which was formerly as much the worse, as it is now the 
better, of the two. 

But the majority of the roads are simply track-ways or 
easements in origin, which in some cases have, from their con- 
venience, ousted the older lines of traffic. The Norse settlers, 
with their innate independence, struck out from the old Roman 
lines, and squatted wherever their fancy dictated, and in pro- 
"ress of time tracks of communication were formed between 

o 

their thvcits, and tuns, and sects which are now represented by 
our cross-roads and bridle-paths. 

Thus the features of the ground on the eastern margin of 



THE DALESMAN. 241 

Coniston, and the smelting furnaces which were worked there 
at the beck mouths, led to a track from Nibthwaite to Coniston 
waterhead, and so to Ambleside and Hawkshead, which caused 
a partial abandonment of the Dale Park route. The tracks 
to the old chapelry of Satterthwaite had the same tendency : 
and in the same manner, in quite modern times, the formation 
of a good carriage road through Yewdale to Skclwith and 
Ambleside, has diverted much of the traffic from the road 
over High Cross the ancient line of communication between 
Broughton and Ambleside. The Yewdale road was little but 
a track some forty years ago, and the road as now made has 
opened up to carriages some of the grandest scenery in the 
southern part of the Lakes.* 

The ancient pack-horse route to Kendal followed the line 
of the modern road, crossing the head of Esthwaite by the 
same line as at present. When this track was originally 
made all this level was bog, and a regular causeway had to 
be laid across it, from which it took the name of Sawrey 
Casey or Causeway, as we have seen in the entry about the 
gibbeting of Lancaster, the murderer. The " Pool " was crossed 
anciently by a wooden bridge, and in January, 1836, in cutting 
a drain, part of this bridge was found by one Hawkrigg. The 
road had been formed across the bog by placing quantities 
of juniper and ling, gathered on Colthousc Heights, upon the 
bog surface, and gravel heaped upon it. The original wooden 
bridge was followed by a stone one, which again was super- 
seded by the modern iron structure. The road passed through 
the two Sawreys and over the Ferry an institution possibly 
of Roman age, and of which we shall have more to say 
Another old track led by Esthwaite and Graythwaitc to Xcwby 
Bridge and the ancient town of Cartmcl. It was most pro- 
bably by this and the old road from Ulvcrston via Penny 
Bridge to Newby Bridge, that the ore from Low Furness was 
brought on pack-horses to the furnace at Cunsey. Another 
road, now but little used, and only just passable by a two- 
wheeled trap, leaves the old Ambleside-Coniston road at 



* Teesdale's Map of Lancashire (1820) shows that the old road went behind 
instead of in front of High Yewdale Farm. 



2 4 2 THE DALESMAN. 

Berwick Ground, and winds over Berwick Ground Fell to 
Oxcnfell, and thence to Langdale. This road is built up 
and constructed in a way which shows it once had more 
importance than now, and was probably the pack-horse road 
from Ravenglass (and later from Whitehaven) to Hawkshead 
and Kendal. For a caravan of pack animals, with no wheels 
to consider, a considerable saving of distance was thus made. 

The dalesman of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, 
as at the present day, found small need for long journeys, and 
even the roads which existed saw few passengers except the 
pack-horses and the local people. An occasional journey to 
Kendal, Ulverston, or Ambleside, and still more rarely to 
Keswick or Lancaster, was the furthest afield the 'statesman 
stirred : most of these he would tramp and think little of it, and 
for the longer journeys his horse and small leather saddle-bag 
were all he wanted. Real highwaymen there were, as far as we 
know, none, for travellers worth robbing were too scarce ; but 
the roads were so universally bad, so ill marked, and so 
devious, that easy it was at night to lose one's way, and then 
woe betide the luckless traveller on the fells, without compass, 
guide book, or Ordnance map. 

Now and then a terrible storm would devastate the county, 
washing away roads and bridges, and on one occasion, as we 
shall see, causing great loss of life. In the "Oldest register 
book " we find a vivid description of such a calamity. 

" Bee it remembered that upon the Tenth day of June att 
nighte in the ycare of our lord the one thousand sixxe hundred 
eighty and sixxc there was such a fcarefull Thunder with fyre 
and rayne which occasioned such a terrible flood as the like 
of it was never scene in these parts by noe man liveinge ; 
for it did throwe downe some houses and millcs and tooke 
Away seuerall briggs ; yea the water did run through houses 
and did much hurte to houses ; besydes the water wash't 
upp greate trees by the roots and the becks and gills carried 
them with other greate trees stocks and greate stones a 
greate way off and layd them on men's ground ; yea further 
the water did soe fiercely run down the hye-ways and made 



THE DALESMAN. 243 

such dcepe holes and ditches in them that att seuerall places 
neither horse nor foote coulde passe ; and besydes the becks 
and rivers did so breake out of their races as they broughte 
exceedinge great sand beds into men's ground att many places 
which did greate hurte the neuer like was knowne ; I pray God 
of his greate mercy graunte that none which is now liveinge 
can never see the like againe." 

In the possession of Miss Hodgson, of Green End, we find 
an interesting confirmation of this entry in a small MS. volume 
containing an account of the disbursement of a small charitable 
bequest left by James Braithwaitc to the poor of Claifc. The 
earliest memorandum about the charity is dated 1697-8, but 
before this date the volume has been used as a private account 
book, and among these entries occurs this note : 

" 1686. The great thunder, lightening and flood The 10 day 
of June, betwixt 6 and 10 in the afternoonc." Mr. T. Taylor 
also, in his commonplace book, mentions that a workman 
employed by William Satterthwaite, in draining above Pool 
Bridge, discovered a part of a water-wheel and some pieces 
of building wood, " embedded in sand and beck-washed stones, 
with full three feet of peat moss upon them." These Mr. 
Taylor considered, and with much probability, were evidence 
of the 1686 storm. "Houses and millcs " are mentioned in 
the Register, and the latter may have been the corn mill at 
Hawkshead Hall.* 

Traffic and storms bring us to a very interesting subject the 
Ferry crossing, and the serious fatality which occurred there 
in 1635, when nearly fifty persons were drowned. By local 
tradition, the victims were the entire wedding party returning 
from a wedding at Hawkshead Church, but of this we shall 
say more. It is very singular that although we have some 
information on the subject from more than one source, the 
accident is ignored in the Hawkshead Register, which other- 
wise is so full of matter of this character. The most authentic 
account we have is in an entry in the Grasmere Parish Register, 

* For an almost equally destructive storm in modern times, see Chapter XI. 



244 THE DALESMAN. 

which was copied and supplied to me by Mr. Jennings, the 
Vicar. It is as follows : 

"The xix lh of Octob. 1635 these were all drowned in 
VVindcrmcr Water in one boate coming over from Hawks- 
head 

" Mr George Wilson of Kendall 
John Beck, his wife, his son, and a servant maide of 

Kendall 

Thomas Powc of Kendall 
Randall Noble of Kendall 
John Kitchens son of Strickland feild 
John Pearson and his wife of Skelsmore 
Christofer Phillipson of Ashes 
Gervis Stricklands wife of Staveley 
Mary daughter of John Phillipson 
Thomas Milner boatcman and his 2 daughters 
Henry Pearson and Dorothie his sister 
Tho : Bateman of Crooke 
James Warriner of the same 
John Sattherwayte of the same 
Christopher Willans wife 
Holland Strickland 
Myles Powe 
Anthony Sewart 
Anthony Ellcray 
Richard Robinson 
Thomas Parke son of Rolland 
Willrh Park of Colgarth 
James Sewart 

Myles Birkehead son of Myles 
Willm Roberts son of Thomas 
Christoph : Parke of Colgarth Willrhs brother 
Willrh Rawes 
Thomas Woods wife 
Nicholas Bell wife 
George Baxter and his wife 
John Rowanson 



THE DALESMAN. 245 

Willrh Holme 

Richard Robinson 

Willm Scwarts wife 

Richard Scills daughter 

Marke Harrinsons wife 

Arthur Ellis 

Myles Rigge 

and 2 more or 3 and 7 horses and one that escaped." 

Among the verses of Thomas Hoggart, of Troutbeck, com- 
monly called " Aid Hoggart," we find the following on this 
subject : 

"Upon the igth day of October 1630 the great Boat 
upon Windcrmeer water sunck about sun setting, when was 
drowned fforty seavcn persons and clcavcn horses : ffrom sudcn 
Death Libera nos. 

EPITAPH. 

Weepe not sweet friends, but wipe away all teares, 

We are delivered from all human feares ; 

Let no man rashly judge of this our fall, 

But rather let't a warning be to all, 

And let none censure what we did, 

Our thoughts were known to God, to mortals hid ; 

And though our bodyes sunke into the tlcepc ; 

Our soules did mount, and therefore do not wcepc." * 

In the "English Topographer" (1720) we have the following 
reference to the catastrophe : 

" Of Hawkshead we have some short account in the Preface 
to a book entitled, ' The Fatall Nuptiall ; or the mournefull 
Marriage. Relating the heavy and lamentable Accident lately 
occurring by the drowning of 47 Persons, and some of these 
of Especiall Quality, in the water of Windermcre in the 
North, October igth, 1635. Lond. 1636. 12." 

This book or pamphlet is of very great rarity, and we have 
not even succeeded in seeing a copy in the National library. 

* From " Remnants of Rhyme, by Thomas Hoggart, of Troutbeck, selected 
from an old MS. collection of his writings preserved by his descendants." 
Kendal, 1853. 



246 THE DALESMAN. 

It is also given in Worrall's " Biblotheca Legum," where it 
is described as " Octavo, 2s." And Mr. T. Sanderson, who 
compiled a scrap bibliography of Cumbria, which is now in 
the Carlisle Library, notes that, like ourselves, he never saw 
or heard of a copy. 

The late Mr. T. Taylor gives in his commonplace book a 
transcript of the Grasmere entry, and says also, that the couple 
whose marriage had been celebrated were Thomas Benson and 
Elizabeth Sawrey, who were married on Oct. I5th, the first a 
Bowncss yeoman, and the bride of Sawrey (see Hawkshcad 
Register). 

Traditionally, also, he tells us that the unfortunate couple 
were buried beneath the yews in Bowncss Church ; but as 
these names arc not in the Grasmere list of the victims, we 
may doubt the truth of this part of the story. Burn and 
Nicholson allude to the accident as a party returning from 
Hawkshcad market, and Mr. Taylor notes that the iQth of 
October, 1635 (old style), was Monday, and market day, but 
there is no reason why there should not have been both a 
wedding and a market party together. The same storm is 
alluded to by Wharton, the Chronologist of Kendal, who says : 
" Eighteenth of October 1635, the river Kent came into the 
Vestry. And I9th Thomas Miller, boatman, and 47 men and 
women were drowned in Windermere water, with 9 or 10 horses, 
having been at a wedding." 

The Ferry accident brings us to the history of that 
institution, which is undoubtedly of great antiquity, situated 
as it is at the narrowest point on Windermere, where two 
projecting nabs lie opposite, suited admirably for landing 
places ; and at a point on the most convenient line between 
Hawkshead and Kendal. A writer recently, in a local paper, 
maintained that it was only a few years subsequent to the 
Ferry accident that the public crossing was instituted at 
its present site ; and that prior to that date it was at 
Miller Ground, where the Lake is at its . widest. Besides 
the great improbability of such having ever been the case, 
there seems to be absolutely no evidence in favour of it. 



THE DALESMAN. 247 

Indeed, the documents we have examined prove almost 
conclusively the reverse. While giving here a summary of 
these evidences, we must relegate to an appendix the abstracts 
themselves.* 

We have treated elsewhere of the disputes in pre-Reformation 
times concerning Windermere boundaries, and rights on the 
lake. After the Reformation, the lake was always regarded 
as parcel of the Richmond Fee, and we find that " Fishing 
and Ferry of Windermere, 6," was granted by Charles II., 
with other rents in the Richmond and Marquis Fees, to 
Queen Catherine as jointure.! The Lake from time im- 
memorial has been divided into three " cubbies," or " cubles," 
and ten fisheries, some of which belong to the Rawlinson and 
Sandys families, and the 6 rent was ahvays apportioned among 
all the proprietors of the fisheries. The right of ferriage, that 
is of carriage of goods, went with the fishing, but, as we shall 
see, was under distinct restrictions. As early as 1575, an 
award shows that the main ferry was in the middle cubic ; 
and another award of 1670, shows that the right of ferriage 
over the whole lake then belonged to the Braithwaites, who 
were of Braithwaite Fold in Undcrmilbcck, on which estate 
was the promontory called Ferry Nab.J In 1699, Thomas 
Braithwaite attempted to raise the toll, which had always 
been one penny for the return journey ; but this attempt 
raised a commotion among the inhabitants on both the 
Lancashire and Westmorland sides, and with the co-operation 
of the Sandys and Rawlinson families, it was agreed to 
challenge this, and to litigate if necessary. The articles 
of agreement (sec Appendix) entered into arc of especial 
interest as describing the Ferry (which the context shows 

* See Appendix (Schedule of Ferry Deeds). 

+ Burn and Nicholson's "Westmorland," I., p. 60. 

J The estate, or part of it, was also called " The Boat " for obvious reasons, and 
it does not seem improbable that there were two smill properties or perhaps 
tenements with the two names. Mr. George Browne furnishes us with the 
following from the Windermere Parish Register : 

" Bapt. 1690, July 20th, Thomas, son of Thomas Braythwaite, of Boat in Stors. 

Bapt. 1692, Nov. 2Oth, Agnes, daughter of Thomas Brathwaite, of Boat." 

Like the Braithwaites, their kinsmen on the Lancashire side, the family sold their 
property, and in 1747 Mr. Fletcher Fleming was admitted tenant at the Manor 
Court of Undermilbeck, of Boat, at a yearly rent of 6s. 8d." 



248 THE DALESMAN. 

to be the present one), as having been used time out of 
mind and before the memory of man. In 1707, the tenure 
of the Ferry was transferred from the Braithwaites of 
Undermilbeck, to their kinsmen of Sawrey Extra, in the 
person of William Braithwaite of Satterhow, from whom 
it descended to Mr. George Braithwaite of Harrowslack, 
who was the owner at the end of the last century. Clarke, 
in his "Survey of the Lakes" (1789), mentions it as the 
property of Mr. Braithwaite of Harrowslack, and says the 
" Navigation Cross " is a freehold paying a " Merk Lord's 
rent." It was one of this family who built the station or 
summer house above; but the "Great Boat" or Ferry Inn 
itself, the Harrowslack, Briers, and Satterhow properties, 
were sold off piecemeal by th; Braithwaites, in the same 
way that " Boat " and Braithwaite Fold on the Westmorland 
side left the family." The Ferry itself passed about the 
commencement of the present century into the hands of the 
Curwcn family, who had acquired the Island. 

There is reason to think that an inn has stood for long at the 
Ferry. In an account book of Benjamin Browne, of Troutbeck, 
in 1724, is found "June: going to Hawkeshead at Great 
Boat, 8d " ; and as the Ferry toll was a penny a head, the 
expenditure must have been in part for baiting and refreshment. 

The conclusions are that the Ferry is a very old established 
concern. The lake here is about 500 yards wide ; at 
Miller Ground about 1,600 yards. At the latter place arc 
no nabs, no inn, and no places called " Boat." The situation 
was inconvenient for the Kcndal-Hawkshead route, and pack- 
horses from Ravcnglass to Kendal would go quicker and safer 
by adhering to the old road by Watcrhcad. 

But that there was a crossing, and probably an old 
established one, from Miller Ground to a point a little 

* In Clarke's "Survey," 1789, "Great Boale" (tlie Inn, etc.) belonged to 
Braithwaites, and also Harrowslack ; but the Curwens then owned the Island. 
When Crosthwaite's 1794' map was published, the Ferry iiself had passed to the 
Curwens, but Harrowslack belonged to Mr. Braithwaile Hodgson. At a later date 
the Hndgsons, who inheiiteJ the remaining Braithwaite properties, disposed of them, 
Harrowslack going to the Curwens, and Briers (now called Brierswood) more 
recently lo J. R. Briilson, Esq. Satterhow, now in uiins, had gone at an earlier date 
to the Sandys family. 






THE DALESMAN. 249 

South of Belle Grange, was certainly the case. It was 
unimportant, taking only foot passengers from the Upper 
Claife, Brathay, and Outgate districts. Its landing stage 
can still be seen ; and possibly it was known as " little 
boate," as distinct from the "great boate," which took pack- 
horses, wagons, and whatever came, and, being at the narrowest 
point, ran in most weathers. 

Before about 1836 or 1837 there was no regular service 
of any sort for passengers up and down Windermcre, but in 
one of these years, Mr. James Gibson, of Ambleside (father 
of the present Mr. Gibson, grocer), and Mr. White, of the 
Swan Hotel at Newby Bridge, commenced a joint concern 
for this purpose. The boats were large rowing boats and 
were two in number. Mr. Gibson's ran from Ambleside as 
far as the Ferry, and the passengers then changed into 
Mr. White's to complete their journey. The present Mr. 
Gibson remembers them well, as it was his duty to blow 
a horn in Ambleside to let the people know when the 
boat was about to start. Although the journey must have 
been a slow one in rough weather, it is said that very few 
days were missed.* 

Steam traffic was introduced on to the lake in 1845 by a 
company, but the boat service continued for about a year 
after this elate, when it was abandoned. The first steamer 
was the " Lady of the Lake," and the second, put on in 
1848, and called the "Lord of the Isles," was burned in 
Bowncss Bay ; some say that it was the result of jealousy 



* Mr. Gibson, through whose enterprise this concern was partly started, was 
the author of a pamphlet " A Guide to the Scenery on Windermere, 1843," which, 
although no doubt to some extent an advertisement of the Lake district, contains 
useful information. On page 5 he gives the following about his boat service : 

" There are likewise two public Boats, daily to Bowness and Ambleside, up the 
Lake a distance of 14 miles ; the first Boat leaves Newby bridge at 8 o'clock in the 
Morning, meeting the one at the Ferry Inn which leaves Amblrside at the same hour ; 
the second Boat leaves each place again at I o'clock in the Afternoon, and meets as 
before at the Ferry. This is a very great accommodation to visitors, as it affords an 
opportunity of seeing the whole Lake at a light expense, the fare being only three 
shillings; a private boat to the Ferry Inn, is charged five shillings, besides the 
Boatman, and five shillings to Buwness, tlie Boatman in such cases expects three 
shillings or three shillings and sixpence, as he has no other pay but what visitors give 
him. " 



250 THE DALESMAN. 

on the part of the Windermere boatmen, who believed that 
steam traffic would do away with all pleasure boating ; while 
according to another account, it was the consequence of 
sentimental agitation against the introduction of smoking 
funnels into a district of great natural beauty. It was not 
until 1859 that the steamer was launched on Coniston, and 
the same vessel is still in use. 

Stockdalc records the fact, that there were formerly two 
fords across the Levcn river where it leaves Windermere. 
T hey were close together, and were probably ancient pack- 
horse crossings, before Ncwby bridge was built. The most 
northerly was opposite Fell Foot, and was 55 yards across, 
and on the average two or three feet deep. The other, called 
"Tinklers" Ford, was at the "Landing," which, in fact, takes 
its name from the ford, and was eighty yards across, and 
about two feet deep when the lake was normal. The rights 
of way to these fords were quite lost in Stockdale's time, 
for no doubt they had long been disused. Indeed, the fords 
do not exist, because at the introduction of steam traffic 
the shallows were cut through, presumably in the belief 
that steamers might eventually be taken all, or part of, the 
way to Ncwby bridge.* 

Bridges arc, naturally, very numerous in a country of the 
character of 1 lawkshcad, and many appear to be very ancient. 
Indeed, if we take the trouble to get under any of the 
more important bridges on the main lines of traffic, such 
as Hawkshead Hall, Rothay or Brathay bridges, we may 
see that they have originally been very narrow structures, 
added to at different periods to get greater width. The 
original narrow bridge is the old pack-horse bridge, and 
is 'generally better built than the additions.! 

It is, of course, impossible to say anything about the actual 
antiquity of the bridges. The most important on the north of 
the parish arc Colwith, Skelwith, and Brathay bridges, all over 

* Stockdale's "Annals of Cartmel," p. 524-526. 

t In strengthening Rothay bridge in 1897, the pack-horse part was found to be in 
much the soundest condition. 



THE DALESMAN. 251 

the river Brathay. The latter two have, however, both been 
destroyed by spates and re-built ; that at Skelwith fell on 
Oct. ist, 1890. Brathay bridge, however, fell in the seventeenth 
century, but was re-built, and has been widened since. In Sir 
Daniel Fleming's account book we find this memorandum : 
"1681 Oct : 19 memorandum. This morning the greater 
arch of Brathay bridge did fall all into the river a little 
after Reginald Brathwaite son had gone over it with some 
cattel." 

On the south, we have Ncwby bridge (marked in Gibson's 
edition of Camden, as New Bridge), Backbarrow and Low- 
wood bridges. Pool bridge is on the old road over Rusland 
Pool. Over the Crake arc Penny, Spark, and Lowick 
bridges ; but the first of these was originally Crake Ford. 
Bouthray bridge crosses the same river near the foot of 
Coniston. 

Across Ycwdalc Beck there arc several bridges : but Yew- 
dale bridge itself, near the village, is probably comparatively 
modern : Shepherd bridge a little above it being, probably, 
the ancient pack-horse crossing. This old bridge now leads 
to " nowhere," but it is an ancient and substantial structure, 
which, although it has been widened, was originally only 
about seven feet across. Bannock stone bridge, rather below 
Yewdale bridge, consisted originally of two large flags thrown 
across the stream ; its only interest lies in a tradition 
associated with it, which will be recorded elsewhere. Further 
up the same stream we find behind High Yewdale farm 
another old pack-horse bridge, called Shepherds' bridge, which 
owes its preservation to the diversion of the road in front 
of the farm, when it was made into a good carriage-way. 
The Ordnance Survey of 1850 shows the old line this roacl 
took over this bridge, and at the back of Penny House, 
and the old yew tree. 

But amongst the minor bridges on the old track ways 
there are many picturesque examples, though they are too 
numerous to mention. Over Farra Grain Gill, near Satter- 
thwaite, are two good instances, both of which have been 



252 THE DALESMAN. 

widened ; * and Slater's bridge, over the Brathay, though just 
outside the boundaries of our parish, deserves mention as a 
characteristic example of the narrow bridge of the fell districts.! 

ROMANCES. 
The Finstliwaite " Princess."- 

" Buried Clementina Johannes Sobiesky Douglass, of 
Waterside, Spinster, May the i6th day 1771." 

So runs an entry in the Finsthwaite parish register. The 
questions arc : First, who was the lady bearing the name 
of the old pretender's wife, Maria Clementina Sobieski, who 
died in 1735? and second, how did she come to die at 
Finsthwaite ? 

But the coincidence of the baptismal names is not all- 
It is well known that Prince Charlie used " Douglas " as an 
incognito, though not, Mr. Andrew Lang thinks, before 1744 
at the earliest. And there is a very curious local tradition. 
Who ever Clementina was, the old people of Finsthwaite 



* Apparently in the seventeenth century, for amongst the Rawlinson papers we 
found the following : 

XV' 1 ' die Maij 1663. 

It is this day ordered at the priuie sessions then at Uluerston that Mr. William 
Kawlinson of Graithwait doe imploy that money w ch remaineth in his hands from the 
repair of fforagrange Bridge and the wear at Powbridge beeinge three pounds tenn 
shillinges towards the repair of a bridge near Graithw' beeinge in the highway twixt 
Cartmcll and Iliwkshcade giuen under o r hands the day and year aboue said. 

Thomas Preston 

Robert Rawlinson 

Matth. Richardson 
Another paper in the same bundle : 

Sessions p. Mr. Rawlingson charges of Grisdale Bridje. 

ffor ye p r cept fr wiltnesses ... ... ... ... ... o 2 6 

drawinge ye bill yt indiptemt ? ... ... ... ... ... o I o 

& wittnesses charges 5 s apiece ... ... ... ... ... o 10 o 

my fee ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... o 3 4 

order for ye brigge money ... ... ... ... ... o I 6 

Poole ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... o 13 4 

sollicking ffee ... ... ... ... ... ... ... o 6 8 

motion to amend ye Poole ... ... ... ... ... o 3 4 

to ye clarke for mendinge it ... ... ... ... ... 020 



2 3 8 

Srs I send you this account for ye Bridge yt you may account w" 1 ye workmen fr 
soe Tho : Pcnnington desiret me ye Kest is yt 

I am y or servant R. Woodburne, 

t See an engraving of it in a paper on " The Lnngdales," etc., by A. C. Gibson' 
in " Lancashire and Cheshire Historic Society," Vol. VIII., article IV. 






THE DALESMAN. 253 

have often heard her talked of, and she was always called 
the "Princess." She arrived, it is said, somewhere about I745 ) 
with two servants, and lived in seclusion as a lodger at 
Waterside house, an old residence of the Taylor family ; 
but it is rather uncertain who were the occupants at that date.* 
When she died and was buried, it is said that she refused to 
have tombstone or epitaph over her : tradition, however, said 
that the " Princess " had wondrous fair hair, and when 
digging a grave alongside, about 1867, a long lock of fair 
hair was turned out, and was, it is believed, subsequently 
re-interred. 

There is no doubt there is here a curious nut for the 
local antiquary to crack. Miss Wakcficld published the story 
in "Notes and Queries" in January, 1897, and although 
Chancellor Ferguson, Andrew Lang, and others have had a 
try, the mystery is as far from solution as cvcr.f 

Prince Charlie himself was at Kendal, not so far away, 
in 1745 : but this brings us no nearer. It was suggested 
by Chancellor Ferguson that she might be the mistress, or 
child by some irregular connection, of one Charles Douglas, 
fourth and last Lord Mordington, a title to which he 
succeeded but which he never bore. Douglas was one of 
the 127 prisoners against whom true bills were found by 
a grand jury at Carlisle in 1746, for being concerned in 
the rebellion: he died in 1755, and Clementina may have 
settled, after this, at Waterside for economy. But all this, 
as the Chancellor himself says, is " mere conjecture." Another 
idea is that she may have been a lunatic, who insisted on 
bearing this name, and who was boarded out in a place 
where she could give no trouble : there arc other examples 
of well-born "cranks" treated thus in the North. 

With this brief note we must leave this very curious 
story : for we have tried in vain to elucidate it. Some 

* It contains an ancient oaken staircase, oak panelled doors, and R. T - H. 1675 
c. R ' A. in ornamental plaster work. R. T ' H. are no doubt Taylor initials. The others 
we have not identified. 

t In Miss Wakefield's account, a Scotch thistle is said to have been planted by a 
mysterious stranger after the burial : but we are credibly assured that the thistles 
which abound in the churchyard were planted by a recent vicar. 






254 THE DALESMAN. 

of the old people at Finsthwaite laugh us to scorn if we 
suggest that she was not really some near relative of the 
" bonny " prince, and a veritable princess. Patient research 
on the spot would probably sooner or later give a clue as 
to the identity : but we venture to think that the true 
story would prove much less sensational than the tradition. 

A Coining Story. The following very curious tale has 
never before been printed, and, indeed, it was only told us 
recently : but the station and character of our informant leaves 
no doubt whatever that it is an old Furncss fells fireside talc. 
We neither wish to slander nor whitewash the time-honoured 
name of the family it concerns, but we believe the story 
to be an instance of the way in which, when handed from 
generation to generation and from hearth to hearth, a story 
may become completely diverted from the original form. 
If this be so, it should sound a note of warning to all 
collectors of folklore and tradition. 

The copper mines at Grccnburn on Weatherlam were 
once, runs the story, in the hands of the branch of the 
Rawlinsons which lived at Rusland Hall. Many of the 
miners were Germans, as they were also at Keswick and 
Coniston ; and the ore of Grecnburn was so excellent, that 
it occurred to these ingenious Teutons to fabricate guineas 
and half-guineas a dangerous branch of industry. The 
coining plant was set up at Rusland and the affair throve 
most monstrously, everybody, of course, thinking that the 
mines were the source of success, whereas the output of 
Rusland guineas was the true cause. Well, one day there 
was an " aid wife hake " at Hawkshcad, and amongst the 
dancers was a Grcenburn miner, with his pockets full of 
Rusland gold. Dancing was dancing in those days, and 
in one of his leaps and bounds, by ill luck, a pocket burst 
and away streamed, all over the floor, the beautiful glittering 
guineas of Rusland. News spread fast, and the truth being 
guessed at, the nearest county magnates authorised a search 
to be made at Rusland. But, naturally, there was some 
delay, and the news of the accident got to Rusland long 






THE DALESMAN. 



255 



before the search-warrant. The Rawlinson of the period 
was away ; but his wife was equal to the occasion. She 
had the guineas and the coining plant, in its entirety, carried 
down to Rusland Pool and thrown in : and there, says the 
story, they are unto this day. 

Now Rusland Hall was inhabited by the family from 
the days of Thomas Rawlinson, who was born 1574, to 




RUSI.AND MALI., AS i r WAS. 

Fniin an itLt painting in /V,-iV.oYi'// <'/ .Vt's. Arcliil'altl. 

William, who died there 1/60, about which date it was 
purchased by the Walkers. The eldest son of the first 
named was Captain Rawlinson, who was present at Marston 
Moor, raised a body of local volunteer horse, and engaged 
in iron-smelting works at Force Mills. The place appears 
to have been bought by Thomas Rawlinson, but Captain 
Rawlinson is the first who is recorded to have lived there ; 



zs6 THE DALESMAN. 

and probably he did so specially for the convenience of 
being near Force forge. His eldest son turned Quaker, and 
the present story emanates from a Quaker source. 

The following lines in Baines' " Lancashire " may explain, 
we think, this very fishy story : " There are no mines at 
work in this parish, nor arc there any minerals found here, 
except some fine specimens of copper ore, which are picked 
up occasionally near tlie brooks in Rus/a/tc/.'' 

The " fine specimens of copper ore " may, in the gossip 
of the country side, have become " guineas found in Rusland 
Pool " ; and then, to explain such an occurrence, the coining 
story has grown up round it. As Rawlinson was smelting 
at Force forge, he may have also had a hand in the 
Grecnburn mine, and the fact of his being an industrious 
and inventive man would signal him out to attach the 
tradition to. 

The following pathetic story is given in one of a series 
of articles, in Vol. II. of the Lonsdale Magazine (1821), 
called " Letters from the Lakes," under the signature of 
Leonard Atkins. The writer gives it as told by a Grayth- 
waitc woodman to himself and his father. The story has 
strong local colouring, and is worth reprinting, partly because 
it is no doubt founded on fact, and partly because the 
Lonsdale Magazine is now rare and difficult to get. 

Kitty Dau'son, the Maniac of Graitlnvaite Woods. " It 
is now a lang time sen (began the woodman) that Kitty 
Dawson leevd here. She was reckoned yan of the handsomest 
lasses, I suppose, about Dalepark, when she was a lass. 
Her father was a poor honest man, and a woodcutter like 
myscl ; but Kitty was his only child, and she was, as ye 
may guess, a favourite. When she was about sixteen, she 
fell in with a young man that sometimes cut wood with 
her father. He was a stiddy young fellow ; he was careful, 
and had saved a little matter of brass. Kitty's parents 
could sec no objection to such a match, if they wod wait 
till she was a few years elder. They were looked on by 
ivery body as a par, and they both considered the coming 



THE DALESMAN. 257 

day as sartan, though delayed. I wccl remember hearing 
my father tell it. He was cutting wood that day his sell, 
in that varra wood. They had just sitten down to their 
dinner, under some trees, for they thought it wod be a 
shower, it looked so black over the water. The storm 
came on. It was the terriblcst thunderstorm, my father 
said, he ever knew. Jem Park, him that was to wed 
Kitty, had laid his head again the rock, when a thunder- 
bolt fell on it, and rolled down, and killed him dead on 
the spot. It was a sorry day at Dalcpark when they 
took Jem home dead, for he was a lad that ivery body 
respected. Kitty, ye may be sure, took it terribly out. 
After the wood was done, the colliers left the cabin standing, 
as they commonly do, and Kitty went to it, and staid 
there as long as she lived. Her friends could niver persuade 
her to come back, for if they got her away by force, she 
was soon at the cabin again. She nivcr thought of leaving 
her cabin till she was hungered out, and then she wod 
just gang to some farmhouse, and tak what they had a 
mind to give her. This she wod carry back to her cabin, 
and live on it as long as it lasted, and then go off some 
whither for another supply. I can just rememmer, when I 
was a lile lad, being sent with a basket of meat sometimes 
to old Kitty's cabin, for ivery body was good to her, poor 
silly thing. When I went she wod just tak the basket 
out of my hand, and empty it, and give it me back again ; 
but she hardly iver spoke, and at most only said, ' Good 
lad, good lad.' I can just recollect that one morning some 
gentlemen had been out with their guns ; and, as usual, 
had looked in at Kitty's cabin to give her something, when 
they found her lying dead on the straw beyond the fire. 
Yan of em sent a cart, and had her taken to a house at 
Dalepark, and they buried her, I believe, at their own 
expense. If I was in the wood, I could show you the 
varra spot where old Kitty's cabin stood, for I have been 
at it many a time. But it's quite down lang sen, and 
hardly anybody knows that poor old Kitty Dawson ever 
lived there. Poor thing ! poor thing ! " 
18 



CHAPTER V. 

INDUSTRIES AND OCCUPATIONS. 

SHEEP AND SHEPHERDS. 

A YEAR or so ago, a young Scottish farmer was a 
guest of the present writer. New to Lakeland, to 
its scenery, its climate, and its agricultural methods, he was 
taken abroad on to the fells for his first morning's walk. 
Our friend is a widely travelled man, but it was not long 
before we astonished him. A flock of Herdwick sheep crossed 
our path, skipped lightly over a 5-foot wall on our right and 
disappeared. " Good gracious," quoth our friend, " what on 
earth are those mangy animals?" "Those," we replied, some- 
what in the tone of a menagerie showman, " are examples of 
the celebrated Herdwick sheep." 

Herdwick sheep are indeed utterly unlike any other 
British breed, and their origin, being apparently distinct, has 
formed the subject of more than one theory. One of these 
is that the breed came from an Armada ship, wrecked near 
Muncaster in Cumberland ; * while another says that they 
are descended from forty sheep which were saved from a 
Norse Viking ship wrecked somewhere on the coast.t 

Widely different as these two traditions are, it will be 
seen that they agree in bringing our Herdwick sheep to 
the coast in a foreign vessel ; and this very fact is, we 

*See Ferguson's "History of Westmorland." 

f Dickinson's " Cumbmna " ; Ferguson's "Northmen in Cumberland and 
Westmorland." 



INDUSTRIES AND OCCUPATIONS. 259 

think, of considerable value as evidence that the tradition 
or traditions have a really ancient origin, and are in no 
way the result of modern imagination. Bearing in mind 
the widely separated dates of the Norse colonization and 
the Armada, we will leave it to our readers to draw their 
own conclusions when we have said what we have to say 
upon local sheep and sheep farming. 

When we come to treat of dialect we shall note that 
a great proportion of the shepherding terms used by the 
dalesman are very Norse many, indeed, being identical in 
Iceland, Norway and Cumbria. Tivinter and Trinter (two 
and three winter sheep) and Giinincrs, or ewe lambs, are 
examples. The lug mark is said to be the log mark or 
law mark, although it was, as we shall see, a punch mark in 
the "lug" or car. Your fell shepherd daubed his sheep 
with a sinit mark of ruddle or iron stain, and sinita means 
"to smear" in Icelandic.* 

Now, the necessity of marking all sheep with distinctive 
marks was, of course, the fact that many flocks summered 
in common upon the open fell. As a custom it appears 
to be in regular use in Scandinavia. In Norway each 
herd of reindeer has its own lug mark, and this can be 
appropriated by no one else. No one, it is said, may 
make a new mark ; but that of an extinct herd must be 
bought ; and all the marks are carefully registered. In 
Scandinavia indeed it seems that not only sheep and 
reindeer were marked, but also eider ducks and inanimate 
objects ; but quadrupeds had the mark like our fell sheep 
on the ear. These marks were announced and registered 
at the Thing.! 



* The Rev. J. Ellwood, of Torver, was the first to call attention to the Norse 
origin of these terms in the publications of the Local Antiquarian Society. 

t See Lawrence Gomme's "Village Community," 1890, pp. 267 and 268. These 
flock marks the author seems to identify with house marks, such as are found in 
Denmark over doors, and on teams in Holstein. But these, and perhaps those on 
implements and inanimate objects, seem to us different in origin from flock marks 
which have a specific purpose. The house mark is probably in origin a totem, or 
tribal mark : and from them, in Lakeland, descended the custom of inscribing lintels 
and dating furniture. Perhaps also the unauthorised rude heraldic Ijearings that 



'statesman families sometimes used. 






260 INDUSTRIES AND OCCUPATIONS. 

Those who would study the intricacies of lug marking 
and smitting must turn to the pages of one of the many 
editions of 



THE 

SHEPHERD'S GUIDE, 

OR 

A DELINEATION 

OF THE 

WOOL AND EAR MARKS 

OF THE DlFFKRENT 

STOCKS OK SHEEP 

IN 

LANCASHIRE, CUMBERLAND AND WESTMORLAND. 



generally called the " Sheep Book." The names of the 
different methods of cutting and punching the ear are as 
quaint as the engravings of the sheep themselves. Bitted, 
clicked, cropped, forked, fold bitted, halved, keybittcd, punched, 
rittcd, shear bitted, sneck bitted, stove forked, are the principal 
and well-recognised lug markings. The full description of 
the markings of a stock read, no doubt, strangely enough 
to a south country car, and, for the benefit of such readers, 
we select one at random from the sheep book of 1849: 
" John Clarke, Ickenthwaite (Colton). Cropped and punched 
near car, under fold bitted far, a stroke over the 
fillets and down both lisks, and a pop on the tail head." 
Which means, the left ear cut straight off near the top 
and a circular hole punched through the portion left ; a 
triangle cut out of the lower side of the right ear, a broad 
red stroke across the back and down the sides just in 
front of the hind legs, and a big splash of red where the 
tail joins the body. 



INDUSTRIES AND OCCUPATIONS. 



261 



The fell sheep are very small and very hardy probably 
they can make a living on a poorer pasture than any 
other English breeds. They are grey-faced, and the fleece 
is, as a rule, grey, although there are blacks and browns. 
A Herdwick " tup," or ram, with his curling horns, is a 
very pretty fellow indeed, for there is a sort of wild-game 
looking character about these sheep which contrasts strongly 
with our low-country breeds. 

The fleece of the Herdwick sheep is poor, that is, it is 




HERDWICK SHEEP WINTERING AT HAWKSIIEAD HIM.. 

harder or more hairy than those of most breeds, and therefore 
poorer in quality and value. Consequently the offal (the 
skin, etc.,) of the sheep is of little value ; and this militates 
against the breeding of pure Herdwick sheep, which would 
undoubtedly soon become extinct if it were not that the high 
ground will keep no other breeds. 

Nevertheless, old hands will tell you that the character of 
the fell sheep has changed a good deal during the last gene- 
ration, even in the pure stock. The older type is not now 
often to be found ; but it was larger in bone, and the coats 



262 INDUSTRIES AND OCCUPATIONS. 

were even harder and more hairy than those now seen. This 
change is considered to be due to breeding, but not to cross- 
breeding. Yet it must be remembered that although a pure 
bred stock is maintained for the fells, the same ewes have 
bred with Leicester and other rams, in order to have lambs 
for sale ; and it is quite conceivable that this would suffice to 
change the character of the pure bred Herdwick lambs. 

Fell sheep arc generally called " Herdwick " sheep, a term 
that requires some explanation ; especially as by misappre- 
hension of the origin of the word it has become usual to call 
them " Herd wicks " instead of Herdwick sheep, and this 
involves a distinct error. Herdwick is really the name of a 
sheep farm, not of the sheep, and is formed of " herd " (a 
flock ; or, perhaps in this case, one who tends a flock), and 
" wick," as in bailiwick, a district, or here, a run. Herdwick 
sheep are simply sheep kept at a hcrdwick, and to talk of the 
sheep themselves as " Hcrdwicks " only, is consequently ridi- 
culous. For proofs that the above is the real application of the 
word, we need only look at the Commissioners' Certificate of 
the Abbey Revenues in the time of Henry VIII., to find a 
list of farms called " Herdwyks and Shcpecots," and also the 
decree for abolishing the Bloomsmithics, in Elizabeth's time, 
for precisely the same use. 

There appears to be no doubt that shepherding has always 
been the principal pursuit of the 'statesmen and farmers of 
Furness Fells. The question arises, can we make any com- 
parison between the flocks kept in the Middle Ages and at 
the present day. If we again turn to Abbot Roger's rental, 
and the Commissioners' Certificate of 1537, we find that in 
the latter the chapel tithes of Hawkshead, which included lambs 
and other things, were valued at go, but that the different 
items have not their value detailed. In the rental, however, 
nearly the same items amount to ,87 los. od., and here we 
have the specified information. 

Imprimis Angnis xx xx (20 score). 

So that we may conclude, that if these were actually tithe 
rendered in kind, the four hundred lambs represented four 



INDUSTRIES AND OCCUPATIONS. 263 

thousand lambs, dropped in the year, by the ewes belonging 
the fell farmers of the parish. 

Herdwick sheep drop a smaller percentage of lambs than 
other sheep ; about 90 per cent, is considered the average. 
Consequently we may consider that 4,000 lambs would repre- 
sent about 4,450 breeding ewes. And, basing our calculations 
upon modern returns, we may add about one-fourth of the 
combined number of breeding ewes and lambs ; in this class 
being included both tups,* yearlings, and gimmers. The 
result is 

Breeding ewes ... ... ... ... 4,450 

Lambs under a year ... ... ... 4,000 



8,450 
Other sheep (tups, gimmers, etc.) ... 2,112 



Total of sheep of all kinds ... 10,562 

The method of calculating the above stock is based upon 
the modern statistics and comparative tables. Manifestly in 
the time of Henry VIII., different methods may have been in 
use, and the comparative ratio of breeding sheep and non- 
breeding sheep may not have been quite the same. l?ut the 
result may be probably accepted as not very wide of the 
mark. 

Now, let us compare the modern estimates : 

Sheep of all sorts. 

Hawkshcad ... ... ... ... ... 2,155 

Claife 2,386 

Monk Coniston ... ... ... ... 5,147 

Skelwith ... ... ... ... ... 1,028 

Satterthwaite ... ... ... ... ... 2,884 

Colton, East ... ... ... ... ...1,513 

West 452 

Rusland, Finsthwaite, and Haverthwaite ... 1,080 

Total 16,645 t 

* One Herdwick ram or tup will serve 70 to 80 ewes. 

fThis estimate does not appear to include Nibthwaite, which probably carries 
another 1,800 or so; but the excessive number in Monk Coniston is probably due 
to the great proportion of that township being occupied by one estate, which has 
also a wide extent of fell across the Yewdale Beck, and outside the parish ; and 
probably the Monk Coniston farmers run their sheep upon these, 



264 INDUSTRIES AND OCCUPATIONS. 

So that it would seem that at the present day more than 
half as many more sheep are kept in Furness Fells than 
was the case about the Reformation. 

The sole reason why fewer sheep were kept in the parish 
360 years ago, is, we think, not difficult to find. The 
number which any farmer can keep, is that which he has 
sufficient ground in the valleys to winter, not that which 
there was sufficient fell to summer. At the time of the 
Reformation, large tracts at the valley bottoms, now well 
drained and dry, were still mere bogs and scrubby thicket. 
As this was gradually improved, more sheep could be 
wintered, and the fells still sufficed for the summer pasturage, 
and after a time, the farmers finding that actually a greater 
number of sheep could be kept in the cold season in the 
low ground, than their fells would support in summer, ac- 
quired rights of stint or pasturage in the higher fells of 
Cumberland and Westmorland, where the sheep farmers, having 
but little low ground, had plenty of fell to spare. 

The Sheep Book of 1849 enumerates altogether, in the 
parish, sixty-three different flocks. In a good many cases, 
we find that two, and occasionally three flocks, were in the 
hands of one owner, or attached to one farm. If we treat 
these flocks as single ones, the number is reduced to forty- 
seven ; but we need not do this, as probably most of these 
were separate flocks, which had fallen into the hands of a 
single owner. Moreover, the list is incomplete, for although 
forty-nine are enumerated in Hawkshead aud Satterthwaite, 
and fourteen in Colton, none are given in the latter parish 
East of Rusland Pool. For this district we may add about 
seven flocks, giving us a total of seventy, which may be 
compared with the number of tenants (twenty-two for Colton, 
and forty-five for Hawkshead) who signed the agreements 
in 1509 and 1532, called " Bounden of the Pastur." 

In another place we have pointed out that the number of 
sheep a commoner might summer on the fell or common, 
was limited to that which he had pasture sufficient to 
winter. This was of course abused, and there being no 




INDUSTRIES AND OCCUPATIONS. 265 

hod of checking the abuse, many commoners encroached, 
turning more sheep on to the common than they had any 
right, so that the flocks in general suffered. Ultimately, of 
course, this led to the enclosure of commons, which had 
both good and bad results. But before this took place, 
certain farms acquired, but at what period does not seem 
known, the right to send so many fell sheep into the high 
fells in the townships of St. John's Castlerigg, and Wyth- 
burn, in the manor of Crosthwaite and county of Cum- 
berland. From whom these rights were originally obtained 
is hardly apparent. It would rather appear that at some 
date the lord of the manor let them off separately to the 
Furness men, because the fell was more than their own 
tenants could use. At any rate the farmer paid both lord's 
rent, tythc, and poor rates, for them, and they descended 
from father to son with the Hawkshcad farms, or were 
sold with them.* 

In the 1849 Sheep Book the farms possessing Cumberland 
and Westmorland stints are specified : 

John Forrest, Grisedale, goes in summer to Wythburn. 
Montague Ainslic, Grisedale, goes in summer to Wythburn. 
Jacob Keen, Howe, goes in summer to Wythburn. 
Hugh Hawkrigg, Sawrey, goes in summer to Wythburn. 
John Hawkrigg, Colthouse (two flocks), goes in summer 

to Wythburn. 
George Hirdson, Atkinson Ground, goes in summer to 

Helvellyn. 

Richard Jackson, Hawkshead, goes in summer to Wythburn. 
John Croasdcll, Skinnerhow (two flocks), goes in summer 

to Wythburn and Scandal. 
William Salkeld, Skelwith Fold, goes in summer to 

Scandal. 

George Black, Attwood, goes in summer to Seat Sandal. 
John Pattinson, Park, goes in summer to Scandal. 

* Apparently at one time the farmers of Low Furness held a similar right over 
the fells: West says "some tenants in Low Furness claim the privilege of sum- 
mering a stated number of sheep on the commons ; others claim and enjoy this 
privilege." 



266 INDUSTRIES AND OCCUPATIONS. 

But there were also one or two farms in Colton, such as 
Longmire, which had also rights in Wythburn, so that in 
all there were some fourteen to sixteen flocks holding 
outside stints. Each of these farms owned so many stints, 
or, as they are sometimes termed, "grasses." The number 
of animals to each stint varied on different fells. In Wyth- 
burn it was one cow or ten sheep, while in Legberthwaite 
it was one cow or only five sheep. On Wythburn Fells it 
is said there are in all 523 stints, of which 189 were owned 
by persons out of the manor.* 

It was in 1876 when the Manchester Corporation deter- 
mined on acquiring land in the neighbourhood of Thirlmere 
for their proposed waterworks. Between that time and the 
completion of the works they acquired by purchase land, 
manorial rights, and the stints themselves, which exist no 
longer. A few of the Furness Fells farmers seem to have 
made arrangements to continue to send a few sheep, but 
last year the number who did so were two, Mr. Hugh 
Hawkrigg, of Sawrcy, and Mr. John Dugdale, of Grisedale ; 
and when we write this (1898) the latter remains the last 
of the stint-holders. Though we have had a good deal to 
say about these extra-parochial pastures, Hawkshead sheep- 
farming in no way depended upon them. The majority of 
the sheep were always summered upon the local fells. Mr. 
Hawkrigg, above referred to, tells us that although he has 
just stopped sending to Wythburn he will still keep some 
300 sheep on Claife Heights, and his flock is of course only 
one of many. 

The singular way in which Herdwick sheep follow their 
own part of the pasture is well known. Suppose that on a 
large open fell there are several individual flocks, each will 
keep its own part of the fellside, and although to some 
extent the members of the flocks will ramble and intermix 
during the day, they are said to return at sunset. This is 

* This statement is from a pamphlet on the Thirlmere waterworks, "Thirlmere to 
Manchester," by J. Wilson, Ambleside, 1894, and the writer cannot vouch for its 
accuracy. If correct, and if all these stints were owned in Hawkshead, the farmers 
sent 1,890 sheep to Wythburn, or an average of about 126 sheep each. 



INDUSTRIES AND OCCUPATIONS. 267 

called following their " heaf," * and is said to be due partly 
to careful shepherding when the flock goes up. It is also 
said that when the sheep are brought down, stragglers will 
often make their way alone from the fells to their own 
home pasture, even from Wythburn fells to Colton. 

It is still usual, when a farm is let, for the sheep to be 
valued by viewers on behalf of owner and tenant, and 
sometimes, but not always, the outgoing tenant is expected 
to offer any surplus stock he may have at a valuation. 

With regard to the future of the Herdwick breed, it seems 
impossible that the pure stock can die out. No large sheep 
nor even half-bred Herdwick sheep will do on the fells, even 
on the Hawkshead Fells, such as Claife Heights ; consequently, 
though the farmers may breed more half-bred lambs for sale, 
they cannot afford to leave their fells quite unstocked, how- 
ever poorly the Herdwick sheep may pay.t But the fact 
that the offal of the last is of so little value militates 
against the farmers showing much enterprise, and conse- 
quently with the neglect of the sheep comes the depreciation 
of the fell itself. But Herdwick mutton, killed at the right 
age and in the right condition, is unapproachable, and we 
think that a little energy would suffice to make this better 
known, and to secure a much larger demand in the great 
towns than is now the case. 

WEAVING. 

It was of course natural that sooner or later a sheep 
country like Furness Fells should develop a weaving industry, 
but it was, of course, only a fairly modern development. 
In pre-Reformation times the fleeces of the fell sheep no 
doubt went to the Dalton market for sale, and very probably 
also yarn or homespun thread ; but there is no evidence, and 
we think no reason to believe that woven material was at that 

* Sometimes called " Heave" and " Heath" in books. 

t Those who have tried to improve the fell sheep say that as soon as you get the 
breed with a tetter fleece, they refuse to pasture the higher fells ; that is, they lose 
their true Herdwick hardiness. Breeders will also tell you that " Herdwicks " are the 
only sheep that will face a storm, all other sorts turn their tails to it. 



z68 INDUSTRIES AND OCCUPATIONS. 

time supplied as an export from the fell homesteads. It is 
very well worth noting that in Abbot Roger's rental we 
find that while he received from Hawkshead chapelry eighty 
stone of wool (tythe, it should be remembered), the churches 
of Dalton and Millom yielded only twenty stone and forty 
stone respectively of the same commodity. But on the other 
hand we may be sure that from a very early period (pro- 
bably from the date when the Norse adventurers occupied 
the hillsides of the skin-clad aborigines) the fell-folk had 
been in the habit of not only spinning but also weaving 
rough homespun cloth for their own use. In the Lake dales, 
as in some out-of-the-way parts of the highlands, it is known 
that the earliest form of spinning, that by spindle and whorl, 
was recently occasionally practised. This was certainly the case 
in Borrowdalc until three or four generations ago,* and it 
was not, we may be sure, the only survival of the primitive 
method. 

Though there is absolutely no evidence to tell us when 
the spinning-wheel began to displace from general use the 
spindle and whorl, it is difficult to imagine that it was not 
fairly well introduced by the beginning of the seventeenth 
century. The rarity of old spinning-wheels at the present 
day is of no use as evidence, considering that in the early 
days of their disuse they were destroyed as rubbish, and 
but a little later were bought up by the avaricious dealers. 

Elsewhere we have tried to show how it came that after 
the dissolution of the monasteries, the consequent change in 
the position of the markets, the necessity which arose for 
the dalesmen striking out a line for themselves, and the 
already long-established position of Kendal as a centre of 
the weaving industry,) all led to the institution of a market 

* See the editor's paper, " Illustrations of Old Fashions and Obsolete Contrivances 
in Lakeland"; "Transactions Cumberland and Westmorland Archaeological and 
Antiquarian Society," Vol. XV., p. 254. A copy of such a spindle and whorl was 
recently in p ssession of Mrs. Pepper, Manageress of the Langdale linen works ; and 
the original (now lost) was known, by tradition in her family, to have been used in 
Korrowdale. The copy was recently doing duty in Central Africa, whither it was 
taken by a lady missionary to introduce spinning to a tribe who had never learned the 
art. 

) John Kemp and his Flemish weavers settled at Kendal temp. Edward III. 



INDUSTRIES AND OCCUPATIONS. 269 

at Hawkshead. Yet nearly all we can learn nowadays about 
the spinning and weaving that gave our old market town its 
brief spell of prosperity from early in the seventeenth cen- 
tury till the end of the eighteenth century, is to be gleaned 
only from the memory which old folks have of what their 
fore-elders told them. The men as well as the women folk 
carded the wool, and the yarn was always spun at home with 
distaff and wheel by the farmers' wives and daughters. 
Probably originally, also, it was the rule for each house to 
have its own handloom, but this was not the case at a more 
recent period, for looms had sprung up in many places in the 
parish which were worked by professional weavers, who were 
no doubt younger sons of the old 'statesman stocks.* The 
sites of some of these looms can still be remembered. There 
was a house at Hannikin which old people can still remem- 
ber as full of weaving plant. At Hawkshead Hill there is 
a cottage which can still be traditionally remembered as a 
weaver's house, and not far away a piece of waste ground 
called Tenter Hill is the spot where the woven material 
was stretched to bleach. There was a fulling mill at Sawrcy 
Extra when the Commissioners made their report in I537i 
and a "fulling or walk mill" at Hawkshead Hill as late as 

1737- 

The yarn which was not kept for home use, was either 

sold in open market in Hawkshead, or exposed for examina- 
tion under the penthouses which lined the market square, 
or else it was bought by the itinerant wool badgers or mer- 
chants' agents who came round from Kendal and elsewhere 
to the farms for this purpose.! But at a later date, when 
the market declined, it was often sent direct to Kendal by 

* In some districts it seems, however, to have remained the custom for the farmers 
to do their own weaving. Mr. W. Wilson, in his interesting article in "Transactions 
Cumberland and Westmorland Association," No. XII., p. 70, says this was the case, 
alluding, it seems, to Grasmere. Housman, however, in his " Topographical descrip- 
tion of Cumberland," 1800, p. 58, says, "Every village is supplied with a weaver or two, 
who weave their home-made cloth " ; while John Gough, the author of " Manners and 
Customs of Westmorland in the former part of the eighteenth century, by a Literary 
Antiquarian" (1812 and 1827), says that the home-made yarn was made into duffel 
and russet " by a neighbouring weaver." 

f In the Hawkshead Register, 1599 (burials) : 

Septemb. xix., Jenatt Braithwt Badger wif. 



270 INDUSTRIES AND OCCUPATIONS. 

the carriers' carts. The local weavers, however, who bought 
the yarn, manufactured chiefly linsey petticoats of various 
colours, and this and woven web went to Kendal to be dis- 
posed of to the merchants and shearman dyers.* 

Now, with regard to the production of the looms for home 
use. West, writing his "Antiquities" in 1774, says: "Within 
the memory of man, every family manufactured their own 
wearing apparel ; at present few wear anything that is not 
imported." And John Gough, in " Manners and Customs of 
Westmorland" (1812), writes: "One hundred years ago the 
people wore very little cloth of any kind that was not home 
spun." Speaking broadly, the date referred to by both these 
authors may be taken to mean 1710-1720, and it would 
appear that at that time the modern method of buying town- 
made cloth or clothes had not been introduced either into 
Low Furncss or the district round Kendal. 

Whatever was the exact date when these innovations com- 
menced in those comparatively thickly-populated districts, 
there is every reason to believe that their appearance was 
considerably later among the fell districts, such as Hawkshead ; 
and we imagine that could we step into the Market Place in 
Hawkshead a hundred years ago from the present day, we 
should find a very considerable proportion of the dalesmen 
dressed partly or entirely in homespun. Old methods and 
manners die hard in these secluded districts, and we have 
talked with more than one village elder who remembered 
seeing in their youths yet earlier elders who still appeared 
in the ancient garb. 

But costume in the old days was not entirely of wool. 
Flax and hemp were grown in some quantity, and a flax 
mill is mentioned in the parish accounts in 1789-^ These 

* Linsey or Linsey woolsey (coarse cloth of mixed wool and linen) cost, in the 
memory of man (say 65 years ago), 3/- and 3/6 a yard. But this and kersey and 
duffel (both coarse woollens) occur in the churchwardens' accounts, to the chapter on 
which we must refer our readers for their value in the last century. 

t Yet in Kendal in 1812 flax spinning was nearly forgotten and the hemp plant 
known by few. " Manners and Customs of Westmorland." 

Houseman gives exactly the same testimony. A cotton mill was established at 
Spark Bridge just outside our parish last century and worked till about 1860. It 
issued its own five-guinea notes. 



INDUSTRIES AND OCCUPATIONS. 271 

came in for Sunday shirts for men and for female " fripperies," 
and of course also in the mixed linsey woolsey and the aprons, 
dark blue for weekdays and check for high days and holidays, 
which were still the regular thing for maidservants some 
sixty years ago. Flax was indeed spun by ladies (the Misses 
Machell, of Hollow Oak, to wit) at that date, and the use of 
the spinning-wheel in farms was still common, though far 
from universal ; but before this date the local weaving had 
become extinct. 

The old costume must have been picturesque enough. As 
far as we know the coats were of mixed black and white 
fleeces, duffel as it was called, always undyed, with brass 
buttons ; knee breeches of the same, buttoning round the 
waist, for braces are a nineteenth century luxury ; blue or 
grey homespun and hand-knit stockings, the heels of which 
were coated with pitch by the housewife, which kept them 
from quickly wearing to holes in the rough clogs, lined, as was 
the custom, for warmth, with straw ; for in these homely times 
the 'statesman who wore shoes, except, perhaps, for church, 
was accounted of a high stomach. The petticoats and aprons 
of the women we have mentioned, and to this should be 
added the bedgown ; clogs, like the men, but with brass 
instead of iron clasps. The itinerant tailor, who made up the 
clothes in the homestead, was a survival of the time in which 
the cloth was manufactured at the homestead only ; but his 
profession lasted till long after the time when country people 
began to buy their cloth. 

All these methods disappeared, not without a struggle, yet 
really very rapidly. Machinery and turnpike roads between 
them gave the deathblow to homespun. Very queerly reads 
the following paragraph, written in 1812 by a very close 
observer, on this question of ready-made cloth and clothes : ' 

" So great indeed is the aversion to a homespun dress at 
present that the poor buy a kind of second-hand finery from 
dealers in old clothes. . . . The trade may be censured 
as an encouragement to a spirit of pilfering in the capital, 

* John Gough, 



272 INDUSTRIES AND OCCUPATIONS. 

by extending the market for stolen goods ; and it has a pro- 
bable tendency to disseminate maladies in the country, for 
few substances receive contagion sooner, and preserve it longer, 
than cotton and woollen stuffs." 

We will close our notes of yarn and weaving by a quotation 
from Mr. J. Taylor's commonplace book. He writes, about 
1 860, concerning the market : 

" All the old women and not a few young ones attended 
each Monday from a wide district round with the week's 
spinning. At this time- (i.e., about a century earlier) every 
cottager had a common right and kept a few sheep. Such 
a clatter of tongues did the old ladies create over their bar- 
gains with the manufacturers in attendance that ' like a garn 
market ' became a common expression for any unusual hurri- 
cane of words, and still remains so." 

After the introduction of machinery had caused the aban- 
donment of the spinning-wheel, there was a popular song : 

" The farmers' daughters formerly were learned to card and spin, 

And by their own industry good husbands they could win ; 
But now the cards and spinning-wheels are forced to take their chance, 
And they've hopped off to boarding schools to learn to sing and dance." 

The origin of the market by letters patent from James I. 
we have alluded to in the chapter on History, and these letters 
were, according to West, in the possession of the Sandys 
family at that time. Possibly they are so still, but Baines, 
in his " History of Lancashire" (p. 707), reported that they were 
believed to be lost ; at any rate such enquiries as we have 
made have failed to find their present whereabouts, a fact 
much to be regretted, as they have never been published in 
any form. West's precis of their contents contains, moreover, 
an error probably a slip of the pen or memory, but one 
which shows that he never saw the papers : 

" letters patent for a weekly market on every Monday 
at Hawkshead, and two fairs in the year ; one to be held 
on the feast day of St. Matthias, and the day after ; and 
the other on the feast of the Ascension of our Lord, and 
the day after." 

St. Matthew's day (September 2ist) was, however, the 



INDUSTRIES AND OCCUPATIONS. 273 

day, not St. Matthias' (February 24th). These two days, 
September 2ist and Holy Thursday, remained long the 
annual fair days ; but at some date, apparently early this 
century, they were changed, the September one being altered 
to October 2nd, and the other one being held on the Monday 
previous to Ascension Day. Other fair days were observed 
on Easter Monday and Whit Monday ; and the Easter and 
October fairs were the most important about fifty years ago.* 

Though no one living can remember Hawkshcad market 
or fairs in the best days of the town (for those were over 
a century ago), yet both within the memory of man were 
very busy scenes indeed. Sixty years ago, on fair days, 
the roads round were blocked with cattle and sheep ; and 
the crowd in the market square was such that (an old 
farmer tells us) you might walk on the heads of the people. 
Hawkshead was still a centre for a large pastoral district, 
and great-boned dalesmen and buxom farm wenches flocked 
in from far and near. There were all the " publics " that 
there are to-day, and regular farmers' ordinaries, or hot 
dinners, were served in these, on fair days and market day. 
" Old men," we were recently told, " used to be seen then 
at the Inns, instead of young ones, as now." Naturally ; 
because then, they were resorted to by substantial farmers, 
as a rendezvous for business, or for their well-earned 
dinners ; whereas, they are now not much frequented, except 
as tourists' hostelries or village idlers' haunts. 

The Hawkshead fairs were also hiring fairs ; though, 
of course, this is a thing quite of the past. The farm 
hinds who wished to hire, " stood the fair," with a brog 
(bit of stick or straw) in their hats, to show what they 
were there for. There arc still old men alive who hired 
thus, about fifty years ago, at the Easter and October fairs, 
in Hawkshead ; but they are few and far between. 

We have tried, in another Chapter, to tell our readers 

* Martin's " Natural History " (1763) gives the old fair days, Holy Thursday and 
September 2lst. So also the " Lanes. Gazetteer " of 1830; the correctness of which 
we doubt : for the new days were in use when Baines compiled his County History, 
printed in 1836 (Vol. IV., p. 707). 

19 



274 INDUSTRIES AND OCCUPATIONS. 

what the market square was like in the last century, before 
the Market-house was built. Well, even sixty years ago, 
though somewhat modernized, no doubt, it was a fairly busy 
scene on Mondays, and in summer on Mondays and Fridays. 
The open-arched rooms beneath the Market Hall were called 
the " shambles," and were occupied by about five butchers, 
who came to the market town from different parts of the 
parish. Anthony Gaskcth, of Coniston Hall ; Matthew 
Kirk by, of Wattcrson Ground ; John Hawkrigg, of Sawrey ; 
and others. Even about this time there were only two 
butchers in Amblcsidc, so that the Hawkshead men fre- 
quented that market as well as their own. Now-a-days there 
is absolutely no market, and the fairs are merely nominal. 
Machinery, railways, and auction marts have killed both. 

Colton had its fairs as well as Hawkshead ; and they 
were held at its toy capital of ]?outh, on Whit Saturday, 
and the Saturday before or after October ist. They are 
chiefly remembered for the wrestling and racing ; but by 
1848, the fair, like those of Hawkshead, was on its last 
legs. Sec what Sonlbys Advertiser of that year says: 

" Saturday was the clay fixed for this annual fair ; which 
may now, in all but the name, be considered obsolete, for 
had it not been that the hounds from Thurstonville hunted 
round the village during the day, and that there were a few 
displays of pugilism (? wrestling or fights) in the evening, 
the place in all probability would have been as quiet as on 
any other day in the year." 

WOODLAND INDUSTRIES. 

Hawkshead, however, is not all heathery fell ; though this 
has always been a predominant physical feature, and one 
which naturally gave rise to the two industries we have 
just described, one of which is extinct, while the other still 
lives. But in the old days, and even yet in a minor degree, 
High Furness was much of a woodland country ; and this 
character originated a variety of lesser occupations, which 
though they have passed through vicissitudes, and to some 



INDUSTRIES AND OCCUPATIONS. 275 

extent declined, are by no means extinct. Furncss, in Stephen's 
Charter, is a " forest," and the term thus used, may be taken 
to mean, a tract largely wooded and little cultivated. 1 " 

The industries which have existed, or do exist, may be thus 
classed : Coopery and Turnery, Swill making, Bobbin making, 
Charcoal burning, Iron smelting, Gunpowder works. 

Now, if we again turn to the 1537 Commissioners' report, 
we have a very valuable and interesting entry, to show what 
the woodland industry in the fells, at the Reformation, con- 
sisted of: 

" Also there ys another ycrcly profyttc commyng and 
growing of the said Woodcs, called Grenchcwe Bastyng, 
Blocking, byndyng, making of Sadcltrecs, Cartwheles, Cuppcs, 
Disshes, and many other thynge.s wrought by Cowpcrs and 
Turners, with makyng of Coles, and pannage of I loggcs, 
according as hath al-ivayfs ben accustumed to be made in the 
said woodes, to the ycrely valewc by cstymacyon of xiijli vj s vij' 1 ." 

The " cuppcs and disshes " turned out by these cou-pcrs and 
turners, were doubtless the same as the trenchers and piggins 
in use a hundred and fifty years ago. I The " cartwhclcs," 
clog wheels such as our grandfathers heard their fathers tell 
of; and the " sadeltrees " were the strong framings of the 
pack-saddles, on which nine-tenths of all merchandise must 
have been carried. The wonder is that we find cart wheels 
mentioned at such an early date. Probably they were made 
for use in the leveller trackways in plain Furncss. 

" Byndyng " no doubt means cooper's work generally, barrels, 
baskets, and hoops; while " bastyng " signifies the manufac- 
ture of coarse matting from bark rind. Possibly, in this 
case, it applies specially to the making of swills, or baskets 
of plaited bark, always and still a local industry. "Blccking" 
must be bleaching, used here, we take it, for the drying of 
bark ; while " pannage of hogges " needs no explanation. 



* " Forestam meam cle Fudernesio et Wagneiam." 

( In some districts dish-turners and wool-combers were itinerant workmen, who, 
like the tailors, went from house to house, and worked on the home material. 
John Gough, in "Manners and Customs." 



276 INDUSTRIES AND OCCUPATIONS. 

These occupations we find sometimes illustrated in the old 
Register Book. 

Burials, 1623, "May iij th , Jo : Taylor, Thrower." A Thrower 
is one who throws or turns an article on a lathe : and we 
sometimes find in old local inventories a " Throwen chair," 
meaning a chair in which the legs and back are turned 
instead of being roughly cut to shape. 

Burials, 1673, "May 13: John Harrison Swiller, who dyed 
at Grysdall." 

There is but little grown timber in Furness Fells at the 
present day, and we shall see later on that both in 1537 
and 1649, two different sets of Commissioners reported 
concerning the woodlands that there was little timber of 
any size. No doubt even by the earlier date the primeval 
forests had been fairly cleared, and the coppice woods, 
valuable for all the industries we are describing, had taken 
their place. But that there was still a considerable growth 
of timber somewhere in the district seems certain from the 
wealth of oak beams used, not only in the roofs of the 
farmhouses, but also in the furniture, both of which are 
unquestionably of seventeenth century date. We do not, 
however, think it necessary to suppose that this timber was 
brought from outside the parish. The Commissioners in the 
Survey of the Lordship of Furness Abbey in 1649,* report 
" Memorandum. There are growing, upon the lands of 
customary tenants in High Furness, between three and four 
thousand timber trees (most of them are of small growth), 
which estimate worth, to be sold, 713 IDS. od. " ; and to 
this they add a memorandum that they certify concerning 
this timber ; because, as the tenants are allowed to make 
coals (i.e., charcoal for smelting) from the shredings, lops, 
tops, crops, under and other woods, other than actual timber, 
and dispose of the same to their uses, it appeared to them 
that timber itself was to be preserved : but as they found 
no actual grant reserving the timber to the crown, they 
refrain from certifying the timber as demisable, and content 

* West's "Furness," First edition, p. 178. 



INDUSTRIES AND OCCUPATIONS. 277 

themselves with a true copy of tenants' rights and grants, 
so that the trustees may form their own conclusions. 

This right of the tenants to use the woods for charcoal 
was by the reservative clause in the bloomery decree, to 
which we shall have to revert : but we must note here 
that 1649 was probably about the beginning of the era of 
the re-erection of the farmhouses. The three or four thousand 
trees would probably suffice for the re-building and furnishing 
of all the houses in the parish ; and by the eleventh item 
in the code of customs of the time of Elizabeth, the tenants 
had the right to demand, from the bailiff of the manor, 
timber for house repairs. Probably from 1649 to 1700, in 
pursuance of this right, the tenants claimed and cut down 
such timber as was then standing, most of which remains 
to this day in the roofs of the farms and shippons. 

Coppice-wood is the natural growth springing from the 
roots of felled timber : and the large area of dense 
coppice which even yet covers the face of the southern 
part of the old parish of Hawkshead, is in this way the 
lineal representative of the primeval forest. It was encouraged 
and preserved because it was the only growth under which 
the rocky, ridgy ground of Satterthwaite and Colton could 
be made of any value at all. A variety of causes have, 
however, combined to reduce so greatly its value at the 
present day, that the owners of land in Colton and the 
surrounding districts find their estates extremely depreciated. 

The practice now, as always, is to cut a coppice every 
fourteen to sixteen years. Mr. Hodgson, in his topographical 
description of Westmorland (printed, we believe, in 1820), 
tells us that its value at that date was 10 to .15 an 
acre, and if all of oak perhaps 20 guineas.* In 1866, 
Mr. A. C. Gibson writes that coppices " are tolerably profitable 
to the properties, the growth being sold about every fourteen 
years and fetching an average of 2$ an acre." I At the 

* 6 for the charcoal and ,15 for the bark. He further tells us that hoops 
were sold in the wood at ^5 a thousand : generally manufactured in the country 
and sent by sea to Liverpool. 

t" Lancashire and Cheshire Historical Society," Vol. VI., new series, p. 169. 
But this is certainly exaggerated: the average about that date not exceeding 
or 



278 INDUSTRIES AND OCCUPATIONS. 

present day their value is 2 to 8 per acre, or an 
exceptionally good coppice may bring 10. The average 
price docs not probably exceed 6. 

In Whellan's "History of Westmorland," p. 41, we find 
some suggestive remarks upon the subject of coppice. It 
is there pointed out that the invention of spinning machinery, 
which doomed local spinning, created also the demand for 
bobbins, so that the coppice woods of Westmorland and 
Furncss became of greater value. The writer shows, however, 
that this new occupation did not suffice to give employment 
to the many hands thrown idle by the lack of demand 
for home-spun articles. Coppice, even if it could supply 
the place of wheel and loom in local manufacture, could not 
hinder the dispersal of the fell-side industrial community. 

This is only true to a certain point, because we have 
shown that the woodland industries existed and flourished 
long before bobbins were demanded ; that it had its place 
indeed at the Reformation alongside the shepherding industry, 
when probably the local weaving was only slightly developed. 
No doubt when the demand for bobbins came in, a new 
stimulus was given to the care of the woods, and in parts 
of Satterthwaite and Colton new coppices were even planted: 
but this new stimulus did not more than counterbalance 
the value of woods for charcoal manufacture, which had 
long languished. 

The sites of mills at the present day appear, in most 
cases, to have long been in use. There arc bobbin mills 
at Force Forge and Stot Park, at both of which places 
they make hoops, swills, and similar things. At Cunsey 
there was also a bobbin mill, the history of which is 
curious, for it was originally a bloomery, then a bobbin 
mill, and now the site is occupied by electric works, 
from which the electric launches on Windermere are charged. 
At High Cunsey there is a saw-mill and hoopery ; and at 
Thursgill, near Hawkshead Hill, there is a picturesque mill 
at the head of a deep ravine : but bobbins have not been 
made here since the reservoir on the fell above burst, although 



INDUSTRIES AND OCCUPATIONS. 279 

swills are still made. There was another bobbin mill at 
Nibthwaite, and swills were also made at Oxenpark : and 
there are saw and various other mills at Hawkshead Hall, 
and elsewhere. At Skelwith bridge, now only a saw-mill, 
bobbins were formerly made : but the mill is on the 
Westmorland side of the river. 

IRON SMELTING. 

Iron smelting by charcoal is as much a woodland industry 
as those we have described, but we have left it to the last 
because in Hawkshead parish the recorded history of this 
occupation has to be examined alongside a mass of evidence 
of an archaeological character by no means easy to sift, the 
reason being that at first sight the history and archaeology 
seem much at variance in the conclusions they suggest. 

All over High Furness, and also in the adjacent fell districts 
without the boundaries of the old parish, we meet with heaps 
of slag, the debris, evidently, of old iron smelting operations. 

In every case of which the writer is aware these slag heaps 
or bloomerics arc situated close to but not always on the 
actual edge of a beck, the situation sometimes being markedly 
close to a gill or ravine. The heaps vary much in size, being 
as a rule fairly well turfed over, and in a good man}' cases 
there are no signs of buildings to be traced in their vicinity. 

The following is a list of all the sites we know in High 
Furness and neighbourhood at which there is evidence of iron- 
smelting having taken place. Those in italics arc mere heaps of 
slag with no tradition attached to them, while of those printed 
in ordinary type there is, as we shall later see, historical record 
of smelting operations : 

LIST OF CHARCOAL SMELTING-IIEAKTHS IN THE ANCIENT 
PARISH OF HAWKSHEAD. 

Ordnance 6 in. Maps. 

Backbarrow 12 N.W. 

Blelham Tarn 2 S.W. 

Colthome Heights 5 N.W. 



280 INDUSTRIES AND OCCUPATIONS. 

Ordnance 6 in. Maps. 

Coniston Lake (IV. side], Beck Leven ... ... 4 S.E. 

Coniston Lake ( W. side], below Parkamoor ... 4 S.E. 

Coniston Lake ( W. side], Selside Beck ... ... 7 N.E. 

Cunscy Mill 5 S.E. 

Cunscy Forge ... ... ... ... ... 5 S.E. 

Elinglicarth 8 S.W. 

Finstlnvaite " Cinder Hill" near Finsthwaite House 8 S.W. 

Force Forge ... ... ... ... ... ... 8 N.W. 

Nibthwaitc (Low Nibthwaite Forge) ... ... 7 S.E. 

Penny Bridge Furnace? ... ... ... ... II N.E. 

Rusland, near Betliccar moor (Ashslack ?) 7 S.E. or 8 N.W. 

Rnsland and Graythwaite (between) " Cinder Hill" 8 N.W. 
Rusland (three-quarters of a mile S.E.) between 

Birch Parrock and Walker Parrock ... 8 S.W. 

Sattertlnvaite (Farragrain Bridge) ... ... 5 S.W. 

Sattertlnvaite, Low Dale Park 8 N.W. 

Stot Park, near "Smithy Haw" Wood? ... 8 S.E. 

Tarn Gill, Tarn Hows, Monk Coniston... ... 2 S.W. 

LANCASHIRE FELLS OUTSIDE THE PARISH OF HAWKSHEAD. 

Coniston, The Forge ... ... ... ... 4 N.E. 

Coniston Lake, Tlie Springs, Deer Park... ... 4 N.E. 

Coniston Lake, Water Park, Coniston Hall ... 4 N.E. 

Coins ton Lake, Harrison Coppice ... ... ... 4 S.E. 

Coniston Lake, near Stable Harvey ... ... 7 N.E. 

Coniston Lake, Afoor Gill ... ... ... ... 4 S.E. 

Dunncrdalc, Cinders tone Beck, near Stoncstar ... 6 N.E. 

Spark Bridge ... ... ... ... ... 11 N.E. 

ANCIENT PARISH OF ULVERSTON. 
Newton in Egton ... ... ... ... ... II S.E. 

ANCIENT PARISH OF CARTMEL. 
Low Wood, River Leven ... ... ... ... 12 N.W. 

WESTMORLAND, ON CONFINES OF HAWKSHEAD PARISH. 
Colwith Forge (Hacket) 25 S.E. 

CUMBERLAND, ON CONFINES OF LANCASHIRE. 
Duddon Bridge, The Forge ... ... ... 88 E. 



INDUSTRIES AND OCCUPATIONS. 



281 



This list is no doubt far from exhaustive, although we 
believe that the majority of slagheaps in the parish are here 
included. The number of sites in the district has indeed 
long attracted the attention of antiquaries, who, recognizing 
that the historical evidence we have of medieval ironworking 
does not account for the large number of sites, have from 




50 feet. 

PLAN OF EXCAVATIONS AT SPRINGS BLOOMERY, 
CONISTON HALL. 

A B C D E Trenches. 234 Smelting-hearths. 

time to time advanced what appear to be wild and unnecessary 
theories as to their having been worked in Roman or Saxon 
times. Up to 1897, indeed, no one had thought of examining 
a bloomery-heap to see if any evidence of date or methods 
in use could be got by the aid of pick and shovel. 



z8z INDUSTRIES AND OCCUPATIONS. 

In 1897, however, the writer and Mr. W. G. Collingwood 
co-operated in digging out a large bloomery in Coniston Hall 
Park, a site which, though outside the -parish of Hawkshead, 
was of exactly the same character as many of those within. 
The results, though disappointing, were not valueless, for 
foundations were laid bare of several rudely-constructed cir- 
cular smelting-hearths, six to seven feet in diameter, which 
must have been in no way superior to many of the simple 
smclting-hcarths which arc in use, or were so until recently, 
among many semi-barbarous races.* No relics were discovered 
of the least use for fixing a date to that particular site, but 
this was no surprise, for iron-smelting docs not necessitate, 
like some industries, the use of fictile vessels ; nor arc there 
necessarily rubbish heaps such as accumulate near inhabited 
sites. The lack of relics, indeed, is of no value whatever as 
evidence of the smelters at the Coniston Hall bloomery having 
been in a primitive stage of civilization. 

Now, let us turn to local history and sec what it has to tell 
us. In the Couchcr Book of Furncss Abbey there is, on the 
question of iron-working, a certain amount of evidence not 
very definite, indeed, but still valuable. Direct allusion to 
smelting in the fells is wanting, but there is plenty to show 
that the industry was of a valuable and important character 
in pre-Reformation times. It was no doubt one of the Lord 
Abbot's sources of revenue. The ore was mined in the rich 
metalliferous country in Low Furncss, and was conveyed to 
the fells because the plentiful supply of wood for charcoal 
made it worth while. Transport would be by pack-horse, and 
for the bloomeries on the edge of Coniston, and at Cunsey on 
Windcrmcre, partly perhaps by the waterways of the two lakes. 

On the subject of these operations in monastic days, Mr. 
Atkinson has, in the able preface to the Chctham Society's 
edition of the Coucher Book,t some interesting remarks. He 



* Kor full descriptions of this bloomery, and the evidence it afforded (with a 
plan), see " Transactions Cumberland and Westmorland Archaeological and Anti- 
quarian Society," Vol. XV., p. 211, and " Archaeological Journal," Vol. LV., p. 88. 

f Vol. XIV., p. xii. et seg. 






INDUSTRIES AND OCCUPATIONS, 283 

points out that in this book we get no information as to the 
extent to which iron was worked by the convent, what the 
fuel was, or whence it was obtained ; while from the Gisburnc 
(Guisborough) Chartulary we learn that there, no limit was 
placed on the use of timber and wood, while at Rievaulx we 
know that the monks might use dead wood only. 

At Gisburne, too, we learn from him that the furnaces (astra, 
favercce, fabricce, forgice} were built in groups of three, four, or 
more ; and that water was a desideratum, if not a necessity, 
although how it was utilized is not exactly ascertained. In 
the Furness Charters, however, we hear of water privileges, 
the water being " ad lavandum," i.e., for washing the ore. 
The convent also bestowed on their tenants one ton of 
livery iron for repairing their ploughs and farm gear." 

For any definite information as to the operations in Furness 
Fells, we have, however, to wait till Reformation days : and 
we must again turn to that often quoted document, the 
Commissioners' Certificate of 1537. 

" Also there ys moche wood growing in Furneysfells in 
the mountcynes there, as Byrk, Holey, Asshc, Ellens, Lyng, 
lytell shortc Okcs, and other Undrewood, but no tymbcr of 
any valcwe, wherin the Abbotts of the same late Monastery 
have ben accustumcd to have a Smythey, and somctyme 
two or thrc, kepte for making of Yron to th'usc of their 
Monastary. And so no\vc the said Commyssyoners have 
letten unto William Sandes and John Sawrcy as moche of 
the said woodes that is to saye, of Byrkcs, Ellcrs, Hasells, 
old rotten trees, and other unclrewoodes, as wyll maynteyne 
iij Smythcys, for the whychc they ar content and agreed to 
paye yerely to the Kinges Highnes, as long as hit shall please 
his grace they shall occupyc the same, xxli." 

Here we find that the smelting industry formerly in the 
hands of the Monastery was leased to two private individuals, 
who no doubt entered the business with the intention of sup- 
plying the forged metal to the tenants of the Abbey manors, 

* Atkinson's "Furness Coucher Book," Chelham Soc., Vol. XIV., p. 15; also 
Beck's " Annales Furnesienses," p. 14. 




284 INDUSTRIES AND OCCUPATIONS. 

their needs in this respect having, it would appear, been 
satisfied, at any -rate to some extent, direct from the Abbey 
prior to the Dissolution. But this speculation for a specula- 
tion it unquestionably was was not destined to be successful ; 
for in the ;th Elizabeth (1564), we find the smithies being 
abolished by Royal decree, in consequence of the destruc- 
tion of the woods, which were necessary for the flocks 
of High Furness. No doubt this may have been so ; but 
it seems likely that the tenants were disgusted at finding 
themselves obliged to buy from a private firm that which, 
up to that date, they had received freely from their feudal 
lords in payment for their services. So long as the destruc- 
tion of the woods entailed by the industry benefited directly 
the Abbey, and indirectly themselves, they had not grumbled ; 
the case was different when all profits were passing into 
the pockets of private individuals. 

The Royal decree, like the 1537 Report, is of no help 
in identifying the sites of the bloomeries. As it is printed 
in full in West's " Furness " (Appendix No. IX.), and is extremely 
diffuse and technical, we shall content ourselves with an ab- 
stract, for it is too important to pass over entirely in a 
volume devoted to the history of the parish. 

The decree sets forth first that the Queen's woods in 
Hawkshcad and Colton arc threatened with decay due to the 
recently erected and farmed-out smithies ; and that the 
tenants have had rights of browsing, fuel, and hedge repairs 
in the said woods, for which rent has been paid, in addi- 
tion to their tenement rent ; that the decay would effect, 
on the termination of the lease, a loss to the Crown of both 
the tenants' wood rents and the smithy rent. It therefore 
orders the abolishment and surrender of the smithies, stipu- 
lating that the tenants in future shall not only pay the 
usual lord's rents, but make good among them the 20 
paid by the lessees for the smithies, the sum to be assessed 
among them by twenty-four specially chosen tenants. Then 
follows the order that the tenants are to provide forty men 
at arms, which we have alluded to in Chapter II., and this 



INDUSTRIES AND OCCUPATIONS. 285 

is succeeded by a summary of the admission fines and 
other manor customs. And because after the closing of the 
said smithies, the tenants " shall hardly come by the same 
(i.e., by iron), by reason that seldom any iron is brought, from 
the partes beyond the seas, into any of the coasts 
near adjoining . . . and when any shall happen to be 
brought .... yet the same cannot scarce, by any prob- 
able means be carried .... because that the ways 
. . . . be so strait and dangerous, and do ly over such 
high mountains and stoney rocks, that no carriage of any 
weight can there pass," it was further enacted that all 
having wood upon their holdings over and above their hedge 
cart and plow boots, may make coals, burn and make 
iron for their own use, using the shreadings, tops, lops, 
crops, and underwood, but not timber, " at or in any iron 
smithies or other convenient place, at or upon any water 
pool, stream, or beck" in the lordship. The decree ends with a 
clause stating that should hereafter any lease be granted for 
smithies contrary to the tenor of the present decree, and 
such be not done away with in twelve months after complaint 
by the tenants, the 20 rent from the tenants shall cease, 
and, nevertheless, the new leases shall be void, and the 
present decree remain in force except as regards the pay- 
ment of the rent of 20. 

Hence arose the bloomsmithy or wood-rent mentioned in 
the 1649 survey, where it is shown that two-thirds of the 
total was paid by the tenants of Colton, Ilavcrthwaite, 
Satterthwaite, Sawrcy, and Graythwaite, which proves that 
the three smithies were in the southern half of the parish. 
In some townships it is not, indeed, yet extinguished. It 
was payable on the Feasts of the Annunciation of the 
Virgin Mary and St. Michael the Archangel, i.e., Lady 
Day and Michaelmas. 

Nevertheless, about the middle of the seventeenth century, 
charcoal smelting furnaces were re-introduced into Hawkshcad 
Parish as private ventures, and wood for charcoal becoming 
valuable, the tenants (as West tells us) enclosed their coppices 



286 INDUSTRIES AND OCCUPATIONS. 

to preserve them for this purpose. Iron works were commenced 
at Force Forge by William Rawlinson, of Rusland Hall, the 
Parliamentary Captain, who died in 1680, and soon after at 
Cunscy, by Mylcs Sandys, of Graythwaitc ; this last we believe 
being upon the site of one of the old ones abolished by the 
Elizabethan decree. The Backbarrow forge was founded in 
1710 by the Machell and Sandys families, and still works, 
being, we believe, the only charcoal forge left in Great Britain.* 
That at Ncwlands, which is in Ulverston parish, was founded in 
1747, and it was in use as late as 1880. The Low Wood iron 
works were, we believe, erected about the same time as those 
at Backbarrow ; at any rate they were in blast in 1766, at which 
date also were those at Low Nibthwaite. The Duddon Bridge 
works arc shown on West's map, which is dated 1745, and that 
is believed to have been about the date of their foundation. 

Concerning the numerous bloomcrics outside the Abbey 
estates, little history is to be found ; yet a careful search 
would almost certainly reveal numerous sites. In the 
thirteenth century William de Lancaster granted to the Canons 
of Conishcad all the dead-wood in Blawith for their bloomcries, 
and we know from the report of the Kcswick German 
miners, that about 1650 a smelting hearth was close to 
Coniston. In 1674 we find this entry in Sir Daniel Fleming's 
account book, " March 24, 1674-5. Given as earnest unto 
Charles Russell, hammer man now at Conswick (a clerical 
error for Cunsey, as the Ilawkshead Register shows), to be 
hammer man at Coniston Forge, for 35s. per tun, to have 
grease for the bcllowcs, and leave for some sheep to go on 
the fell 00 053. ood." 

The Forge at Hacket (Colwith) is bequeathed in the will 
of Gawen Braithwaite, of Ambleside, in 1653, and is men- 
tioned in 1709 by the Rev. T. Robinson in his " Natural 
History of Cumberland." Coniston Forge was still in use in 



* In 1898 considerable alterations were made at Backbarrow, but the old hearth 
still remains, with a lintel inscribed, T.M.W.R.S.C., 1711, *fc H.A. & Co., 1870. 
The first date is no doubt that in which it was first put in blast, and the modern 
initials are those of Harrison, Ainslie & Co. 



INDUSTRIES AND OCCUPATIONS. 287 

1750; but the numerous sites on the margin of Coniston 
have neither history nor tradition.* 

It will thus be seen that during monastic days and up 
to 1564, there were at most three bloomeries, and these, 
no doubt, being so few in number, were probably upon a 
considerable scale. Very likely they were placed on the 
Crake and Leven, where fuel was plentiful and water-power 
excellent ; and possibly one was at Cunsey, where, in later 
times, the Sandys family erected their hearth. Then follows 
a period of rather more than one hundred years, during which 
no bloomeries were in blast for commercial purposes, although 
the tenants no doubt exercised the privileges they had 
obtained under the 1564 decree, and smelted iron for their 
own use when and where they pleased. 

To this period we venture to assign the numerous slag-heaps 
concerning which there is no tradition. When, after 1650, 
the big works came into operation, many of the private 
bloomeries would cease, and would soon be forgotten. 

A word more about the archaeology of the bloomeries. The 
loose condition of the slag in that examined at Coniston Hall 
seemed quite against the theory of any great antiquity. 
Yet, as the foundations of the hearths were but a course or 
two high, and few stones of size were found near them, the 
conclusion was that they had never been loft}' erections, with 
stone chimneys, such as the Stiickofen or improved Catalan 
type of forge ; in fact, they appeared to have been as rude 
as smclting-hcarths well could be. The fact that several 



* The following may l>e of interest : In 1738 Backbarrow turned out sixteen tons 
of pig iron, but in 1750 it produced about two hundred and sixty tons of bar iron, and 
in 1796 seven hundred and sixty-nine tons of cast iron. In 1750, Coniston Forge was 
turning out about eight tons of bar iron in the year. Spark Bridge Furnace produced 
one hundred and twenty tons in 1750, and in 1796 Newland was making seven 
hundred tons of cast iron. Duddon Bridge worked from about 1745 to 1866. At 
Cunsey Forge and Cunsey Mill there are separate heaps of slag. At the first-named 
also, there remains a charcoal store barn, remains of a mill-race, and, it is said, 
circular hearths. Force Forge was a smithy till alxiut 1834. Mr. W. G. Collingwond 
says that the landing-place for Cunsey on Windermere was at Hammerhole, close to 
Home Well : but there is the regular " ore gate " also, leading towards the Hawks- 
head Road. Elinghearth is presumably a bloomery site : for West in his " Furness," 
I?74> Appendix No. IX., defines " eling " as wood ashes. The landing-place on 
Coniston, for Coniston Forge, is, according to Mr. Collingwood, at Robin Wray, near 
the present steamer pier ; and perhaps that for the bloomery at Tarn Gill, at the head 
of the Lake, Ijecause occasionally slag fragments are found at these places. 




288 INDUSTRIES AND OCCUPATIONS. 

hearths were found in the same heap, indicated probably, that 
as work went on, it was easier to build new hearths, utilizing 
as far as possible the material of the old ones, than to clear 
the debris from the site ; possibly also it means that to extract 
the bloom it was necessary to partly destroy the hearth. All 
this evidence of rudeness is just what we should expect in a 
case where fellside farmers and shepherds were suddenly 
turned to iron smelting ; an operation of which they had 
hitherto had absolutely no knowledge. We cannot, indeed, see 
that there is any necessity to argue further against the idea 
that these hearths are early, because they are not elaborate 
in construction. 

There remains, however, a point never properly cleared up 
the question how the blast in these minor hearths was 
obtained, and for what reason the smelting was performed 
in the vicinity of a running stream, a noticeable feature, as 
we have said, at every site, and one specially allowed for 
in the decree. 

The running water could hardly have been meant for 
washing only, because these bloomeries on the lake margins 
are also carefully placed by a beck-side. Possibly, running 
water is more effective ; yet it is impossible to imagine 
that as the ore had to be carried all the way from Low 
Furness, it would not be cleansed at the pit-mouth to 
lighten weight and lessen bulk. It naturally occurs to one 
that the object was to carry a little mill-race and work a 
water-wheel to press the bellows. But against this, there are 
almost insuperable arguments. To begin with, at least at 
two sites, Farra Grain and Tarn Gill, the slag-heap is on 
a hillock right above the ravine, in such a position that it 
would be nearly impossible, or, at any rate, most difficult, to 
conduct the mill-race to the hearth. And yet suitable sites 
arc close by, on the very edge of the beck, where such 
difficulties would not exist. Again, at other sites, as at the 
excavated bloomery, the hearths were fifty yards from 
the beck, which was quite unnecessary. It should be 
noticed also that in these bloomeries there is no trace in 



INDUSTRIES AND OCCUPATIONS. 289 

the soil of any mill-race, although at Cunsey, which we 
know was worked at a late date and for commercial 
purposes, the race can be seen ; but Cunsey forge was 
certainly a bigger affair. 

The conclusions we have come to, are, that in these 
minor private works there was in all cases a small smithy 
at hand for working up the metal on the spot. This would 
account for the necessity of running water, and would save 
the tenants the trouble of carrying their blooms to distant 
centres. Such was even the case in the larger and more 
modern works, which still in nearly all cases are called 
"Forges"; so that in High Furness it does not seem that 
the furnace master and the forge master were distinct 
callings ; at any rate they were both practised on the same 
site. 

If these arguments be considered conclusive, it follows 
that at the smaller hearths the primitive methods of smelting 
by natural air-blast or by hand-bellows were in use ; a 
conclusion which, under the circumstances, we have no reason 
to be astonished at, taking into account the peculiar condi- 
tions under which the local smelting must have been carried 
on after 1 564. 

Side by side with iron-smelting went the sister industry, 
or perhaps we should here call it the parent industry, of 
burning charcoal. "Making of Coles,'' we find in the 1537 
report as well as in the 1564 decree. Coal was charcoal, 
and one who burned for charcoal was a " colicr " down to 
a much later date than this. 

Burials 1701: "December 10 Clement Holm colicr dc 
Deal Park." 

The re-opening of the larger smelting works in the 
seventeenth century stimulated the charcoal-burning at once. 
In 1662 we find Rawlinsou buying it in large quantities 
for his new Force Forge Mills. Here is a memorandum on 
the subject from the GraythwaUc Old Hall deed boxes : 

"The 4th day of August 1662. 
Memorand That Mr. Thomas Massock chirurgion the day 

20 



2 9 o INDUSTRIES AND OCCUPATIONS. 

and yeare abousaid haue sold fourteene wainloads of charre- 
coalcs to be deliuered at Boweth unto William Rawlinson 
of Graythw' for xix s a loade at pitteing, and hath receiued 
v 1 ' in pte of paymt thereof and the remaindr when they 
are deliuered, w cn is to be at or before the xij th day of 
October next wittnes my hand the day and yeare aboue 
written. 

Tho: Mossocke. 
wittnes Margaret B;iyly. 

X marke." 

And thirteen years later (1675) Col. W. Fleming informs 
his brother that coals at \~J\- a ton were delivered at 
Coniston. 

The stimulus in charcoal-burning was the cause of a 
decided increase in the woodcraft class in Colton and Satter- 
thwaite. These " coliers " became a wood-dwelling race, 
living during the time they were at work in strange circular 
huts built of poles interwoven with twigs and bits of bark, 
and " tliacked " with ling and turf. They do so still ; and 
probably these rude huts were made exactly in the same 
form in early mediaeval clays, if not, indeed, in prc-historic 
ages. There was a regular lake traffic in charcoal boats 
both on Windermere and Coniston. Clappersgate, near 
Ambleside, was the charcoal and slate port at the north- 
end of Windermere* as late as 1819; and Mr. Gilpin 
says that charcoal was regularly brought to Bowness and carried 
thence into Westmorland in 1772.! 

When charcoal-smelting was dying out, another use for 
the woods was found and adopted to some extent. Gun- 
powder works were started at Black Beck, near Bouth, and 
at Low Wood, just over the Leven, and Elterwater in 
Westmorland. Though the latter two are not actually within 
the parish, they are both the centres of wooded districts 
which lie half within its bounds. Many of the operatives, 

'Robinson's "Guide to the Lakes," 1819. 

+ " Observations relative to picturesque beauty made in I77 2 >" by William 
Gilpin. Published 1792. 






INDUSTRIES AND OCCUPATIONS. 291 

however, at these works are not local women, being chiefly, 
we believe, Scottish. Disastrous explosions have more than 
once happened at both Low Wood and Black Beck. On the 
25th July, 1868, at the latter place, nine persons lost their 
lives ; and on the 28th November the same year at Low 
Wood works, five persons were killed. And as late as on 
the ipth January, 1898, a drying-stove at Black Beck, 
containing 3,500 Ibs. of gunpowder, blew up, absolutely 
destroying the building itself, but, most fortunately, with 
no loss of life. The report of the Government Inspector, 
which lies before us, contains his conclusions, which show 
that the accident was due to ignition of an accumula- 
tion of powder-dust on the iron ceiling of the stove, probably 
caused by the falling in of an old roof. 

MINING. 

Mining never came to anything in Hawkshead parish. The 
copper mines at Coniston, of unknown antiquity, and employing 
a hundred and forty hands in Elizabethan times, came to an 
end in the Civil wars ; although they were re-opened and worked 
in a moribund fashion during the eighteenth century. In 
1820 they were again discontinued, but about 1835 they took 
a new lease of life, so that by 1855 monthly wages were paid 
to the amount of ,2,000." This revival caused all sorts of 
people to grub and scratch in the hope of finding other rich 
veins, but no successful finds were made in Hawkshead. At 
Pull Beck, near Holmes Head farm (near the road from Barngates 
into Pull Wyke), may be seen the mouths of two workings 
which were opened for copper sometime during the copper 
boom. I In Parks Gill, above Hawkshead Hill, an attempt 
was also made to get copper, and it is said a shipload 
or two went from there, but these workings never came to 
anything. Rather more interesting is an old working in Dale 
Park, just above Thwaite Head, and on the west side of Dale 

* Collingwood's "Book of Coniston," p. 82. 

t There is a third working near Pull cottage, and an old shaft in a field near Pull 
brow ; above which, near the waterfall, is another short level. 



292 INDUSTRIES AND OCCUPATIONS. 

Park Beck. Here is the mouth of a working of unknown length, 
and close by a pit deep in the rock ; but both are always full 
of water, and it is not possible to explore them. This working, 
however, was for silver and lead, and the metalliferous seam 
can be traced in the vicinity as an outcrop.* It is locally 
believed to have been first commenced by Mr. John Walker, 
who about 1760 purchased Rusland Hall from the ironworking 
Rawlinsons. Bits of copper ore are sometimes turned out of 
Rusland Pool, which perhaps put him on the scent of a mine. 
Anyhow, it did no good as far as we can learn, although the 
Archibalds, who inherited the Rusland Hall estate from Walker, 
have at least once opened it up and made efforts to work it. 
It is now so forgotten that it is very difficult to get any 
information about it. 

QUARRYING. 

Although the finest roofing-slate in England comes 
from a corner of this parish, and building-stone is found 
everywhere, it does not appear that any quarrying, except what 
the tenants of the manor required for their own purposes, was 
carried on in old times, nor indeed until last century. There 
is no mention of stone as a profit under the Monastery ; because, 
although the local building-stone is good of its sort, all the 
surrounding districts were provided with as good metal, and in 
Low Furness they had their own red sandstone, an infinitely 
more tractable material. 

But with regard to the green slate which is now used for 
roofing, it seems probable that the present methods of riving 
this extremely hard stone into quite thin slabs was only recently 
discovered. In early days it is believed that most houses were 
thatched, but where an old roof exists it is of thick slabs of green 
slate of great weight. In the old days the dalesmen do not 
appear to have gone deep for the slate, but simply quarried the 
surface. On Berwick Ground Fell there is an old quarry, whence 
by tradition Hawkshead roofing-slate was always obtained at 
one time. This quarry is in the same geological formation as 

* In 1849 30 Ibs. of lead ore were found at Meadow Lodge, Blawith no doubt 
the same seam. 



INDUSTRIES AND OCCUPATIONS. 293 

the great quarries at Tilberthwaite, yet all the work seems 
to have been done on the surface. 

In the last century, however, quarrying developed rapidly, 
and on the Coniston flag formation various quarries were 
opened. From one near the writer's home the Swainsons 
sent flags out from about 1720, even as far as Ulverston 
church. These were not roofing-slates, but flags for floors 
and walls. Other flag quarries, probably of similar age, 
are Coldwcll and Brathay quarries near Pull Wyke, the 
latter being still worked. These flag quarries are in upper 
silurian rocks. 

The green slate for roofing is a totally different material. 
It is a consolidated volcanic ash of the lower silurian 
system, and of extreme hardness. In the north-west corner 
of the parish there are large quarries in this rock, about 
Hodgeclose and Holme Ground Fell. Across Pierce How 
Beck we are in the manor of Tilberthwaite, and in 
this district the fellsides arc simply honeycombed with 
quarries and levels. 

It is possible that the increase in these works in the 
eighteenth century was due to the slack condition of the 
mines. At any rate, by West's time they had assumed 
large proportions. He calls them " the most considerable 
slate quarries in the kingdom," and tells us that the principal 
quarries were in the hands of a Hawkshcacl firm of Riggcs, 
who exported 1,100 tons a year and upwards ; the carriage 
from the quarries to Greenodd being 6s. lod. to 73. loci, a 
ton.* Like the copper ore from Coniston the slates were 
carried to Kirkby Quay, near Watcrhead, and then shipped 
on sailing boats to Nibthwaite, where the copper mines 
had already established a regular little port. Green, in his 
guide book in 1819, describes the quay at the head of the 
lake with its carts of slates and sailing vessels as a " scene 
of bustle and animation." 

* In 1786 Westmorland roofing slate sold in Kendal from i 35. 41!. for the 
coarsest sort to i 155. od. for the finest. Watson's " Chemical Essays," 1786, 
Vol. IV., p. 320. 



294 INDUSTRIES AND OCCUPATIONS. 

In spite of the acknowledged excellence of the slates 
themselves, it is an industry that has paid but poorly of 
late years. The reasons seem to be that the facilities for 
transport are bad, there being no railway nearer than Coniston. 
There is further, not only the outside competition of cheap 
Welsh slate to contend with, but the great number of 
local quarries, not in Tilbcrthwaite and Holme Ground only, 
but also in other parts of the Lakes, adds to the difficulties. 
Even the quarries on and about the boundary of our 
parish are in the hands of several firms, which, if they 
could arrange to amalgamate, would have a far better 
chance of securing a satisfactory market. It would, however, 
be out of place in this volume to go into statistics ' or 
methods of modern quarrying.* 

LIME BURNING. 

Although a band of limestone runs right across the northern 
part of our parish, entering it in Yewdale and leaving at 
the side of Windermere between Wray and Brathay, the 
burning of lime was, and is, but little practised. The truth 
is that the use of lime on land was not much known. Both 
Hodgson and Housman testify to this in Cumberland and 
Westmorland, even as late as this century, and they both 
give the same reason, namely, the dearness of coal for burning 
it. Bishop Watson (Llandaff) wrote that lime for land culture 
came at great expense from Kcndal or up Windermere, and 
he counselled the use of coppice for burning local limestone 
instead of for making charcoal. Stockdale, also, in his " Annals 
of Cartmcl " (p. 525), mentions that the barges which took 
the Langdalc slate down the lake carried loads of limestone 
on their upward passage. 

That this traffic of lime up the lake is of old standing we 
know from an entry in the Parish Register : 

"1697. September 16: James Braithwait late of Crofthcad 
did goe to the waterfoote for a boate load of lyme stones for 



* A. C. Gibson in " The Old Man," p. 133, gives a vivacious account of local 
quarrying and the names of the varieties of slates. 



INDUSTRIES AND OCCUPATIONS. 295 

William Braithwait of briers, and as hee was comenge backe 
Againe was drownd in Windermere water : and three men 
that was with him by Gods greate mercy gott all out of. the 
water and sav'd there lives ; the boate which they were in 
beinge loaden with lyme stones was lost & did sinkc into 
the bottom of the sayd water : and lice was buried the day 
of the moneth first mentioned." 

Just at this period all the Furness houses were being 
rebuilt, and much lime would be required for rough-casting 
the walls. It is much more probable that it was for this 
purpose rather than for agriculture that these Cartmel " lyme- 
stones " were being conveyed. Nevertheless they must have 
been locally burned, and Mr. Taylor, to whose commonplace 
book we elsewhere refer, alludes to this entry and then r, 
describes certain deep holes in the ground near Sawrcy, well 
paved at the bottom, stoutly walled at the sides, and bearing 
evidence of fire." These holes he evidently imagines may 
have been old limekilns, but as \ve have never personally 
been able to learn their whereabouts we can neither corroborate 
nor attempt to refute his suggestion. Nevertheless it seems 
equally probable that the holes he stumbled across were the 
remains of seventeenth century iron-smelting hearths. 

At a later period, probably after the Bishop's suggestion 
and perhaps due to his example, limekilns were established 
along the line of our local band of limestone, and they can 
yet be found, some in good preservation, at Yewdale, Berwick 
Ground Fell, Sunnybrow, Pull Beck, Wray, and at the point 
on the east side of Windermere where the limestone band 
emerges. None of these are, however, now worked, but the 
Yewdale kiln can be remembered as in use about fifty, and 
that at Sunnybrow was worked about sixty years ago. 

FISHERIES. 

Although, as we have seen, a right of fishery, both on 
Coniston and Windermere, was granted to the Abbot in 1246, 
by the Baron of Kendal, we have no evidence of it having 

* Since writing the above Mr. C. F. Archibald tells me that a mile lielow Rus- 
land there is a deep hole called " Limekiln Hole," adjoining Limekiln Field, showing 
that Rusland Pool was formerly used as a canal. 



296 INDUSTRIES AND OCCUPATIONS. 

ever been exercised at either place. The Windermere fishery 
has always been treated as parcel of the Richmond fee, 
and^ neither fishery appears in the 1537 certificate among 
the perquisites of the Abbey. Yet the minor fisheries were 
important, as they were all carefully enumerated in this 
document: " Blalam terne-ij s Haverthwayte fyshing lxvj s viij d , 
another Finsthwayt ffyshing xx s , and the thyrde Estvvater x s , 
whiclic (among others) were alweys reserved for thexpence of 
the said late monastery " ; but not a word about the two 
great lakes. Again, three of the above small fisheries are 
enumerated in the decree for abolishing the bloomeries as 
being exempt from tenant right ; but they were then, of 
course, under lease from the Crown. " The fishing of Esth- 
waite occupied by the executors of William Sandys ; the 
fishing of Blallam Tarn occupied now or late by John 
Sawrey . . . the fishing of Dulas in Finsthwaite, now or 
late occupied by the same." At the present day these 
fisheries arc not of much value, nor since the Reformation 
do they seem to have been accounted so. Blelham fishery 
is vested in the Lord of the Manor ; but the Curwens and 
Wilsons of High Wray have at different times claimed each 
half of it. The following bailiffs memorandum on the 
subject is worth printing : - 

" Mannr. of 

" Hawkshead. Whereas ye ffishery of Blaylolme Tarne is 
become forfeited to ye lady of this manor, for noe paymt. 
of ye rent of 2s. per ann and Clem' Rigg gent of Hawks- 
head having undertaken (for ye consideration of an oak 
tree, to be delivered out of Braithwaite Garrs) to pay eight 
shillings ye arrears of ye said rent and to continue ye pay- 
ment of ye accrewing rente I do therefore so farr as in 
me lyes order and authorise ye sd Clem 1 Rigg to take 
possion of ye sd ffishery and do also hereby direct ye 
Bailiff of the sd mannr to delivt-r such Oak tree for ye 
making of a Boat for ye sd ffishery and that Mr. Benjamin 
Brown be acquainted with ye delivery of ye sd Tree. 

"W. KNIPE 
"20 Nov 1716"* 
*Beck MSS. 



INDUSTRIES AND OCCUPATIONS. 297 

The fishery of Esthwaite fell like various other privileges, 
into the hands of the Sandys family, and it is not many 
years since the rights of fishing and boating on this lake 
became the subject of litigation between the present repre- 
sentative of the family and certain inhabitants of the parish. 
Col. Sandys succeeded in duly establishing his claims, and 
the lake is now admitted to be his private property. The 
Sandys and Rawlinson families also each hold one of the ten 
fisheries of Windermere ; but these fisheries arc none the less 
Westmorland properties, being situated in the Richmond Fee. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Time out of memory, Hawkshead has been associated 
with two sorts of Cakes and there is no reason to doubt 
the recipes boast a very respectable antiquity, like every- 
thing else in Hawkshead. Miss Mary Noble's bakery, where 
they are still made, is a very old-established business indeed ; 
and the cakes have always been so well-known, that many 
years ago her father, who resided in the house, although he 
took no part in the bakery, bore (like everyone in those 
days), a soubriquet, of " Bun Dick." 

Hawkshead " wiggs " are a very nice tea-cake indeed, for 
those who eat such things. But why wigg ? Well, we confess 
we do not know. But it is a very good and well recognized 
word. Hear what Pepys saith : 

" Ap. 8, 1664. Home to the only lenten supper I have had 
of wiggs and ale." 

After Hawkshead wiggs comes Hawkshead cake, and then, 
at any rate for the author, abdominal chaos. We remember 
well the days when we ate Hawkshead cake, and to this day 
our mouth furtively waters if we think of it. It is, however, 
on record, that at local Band of Hope meetings the piece de 
resistance has always been Hawkshead cake, and also that 
after tea the members sing : 

"Here we suffer grief and pain." 

Cheese -making was a regular farm industry, and even yet 
occasionally a cheese or two is made in old-fashioned farms. 



298 INDUSTRIES AND OCCUPATIONS. 

In a sale book of a sale at Berwick Ground, in 1818, we find 
no less than thirteen items of cheese, ranging from 10 Ibs. to 
12 Ibs. each, which were sold at 5^d. to 6|d. a Ib. 

Hawkshead even boasted its hat manufacturers in former 
days : 

Burials, 1668, "September 9: Issabell, the wife of William 
Braithwt hatter in the Church." 

But long after this hats were locally made. There is a small 
building on a farm at Hawkshead Hill which was used for 
this purpose till a comparatively recent time. 

In the days when clock-making was regularly carried on in 
country centres, Hawkshead had three makers who turned out 
well-made grandfathers' clocks. These were John Braithwaite, 
Thomas and Samuel Burton. A few only of their instruments 
now remain in the parish, good twenty-four hour timepieces 
of the patterns usual from 1690 1730. None of these makers 
ever seem to have become members of the Clockmakers' 
Company, as Barber of Winster, did. But there arc forty of 
Barber's clocks to one by a Hawkshead maker. 

Thomas Burton was probably a son of Samuel, for in 1746 
he was repairing the church clocks. The Burtons were " off- 
comcs," for the name docs not occur in the older register. Of 
Braithwaite nothing further is known ; but curiously, as late 
as sixty years ago, a Braithwaite was living in the parish, who, 
because he understood clock and watchwork sufficiently to do 
repairs, was invariably known as " Watchie " Braithwaite. It 
seems probable that he was a descendant of the clock-maker, 
and that the intermediate generations had kept in their hands 
the business of clock repairing. 

Wood Carving. There is, unfortunately, practically no 
evidence to show whether the rude carvings on the oaken 
furniture, with which, during the seventeenth century, the 
dalesmen filled their houses, was their own work, or that of 
the local craftsmen who made the furniture. On the whole, 
however, though reluctantly, we cannot but confess that the 
latter hypothesis is the most tenable ; because, when the chests 
or cupboards were once put together, the difficulty of working 



INDUSTRIES AND OCCUPATIONS. 



299 



on the wooden panels would be certainly much greater than 
when the oak boarding was loose. 

Yet it remains the fact that this decoration of furniture was 
during this period a practised industry; and as the cost of 
furniture must have been greater or less, according to the 
amount of carving supplied, it follows, if we assume the 
carving to be the furniture maker's work, that every carved panel 
or chair back we see is a manifestation of a crude sense on 
the part of the dalesmen of decorative art ; and further, it is 
evidence of rude luxury ; of the fact, indeed, that there were 
few households, however humble, that were unable to expend 
a little on what was not mere necessity. 




CARVED PANEL OF OAK CUPBOARD (1686). 

The interest in the designs we find, arc rather archaeological 
than artistic. The carving is rough and read}- as a rule, and 
any degree of neatness and finish is rarely seen. Yet the 
very sketchiness of the work, which proves the absence of the 
" design book " method, emphasizes the value of the work as 
the product of local feeling. Though the same patterns occur 
and recur, we should have great difficulty in finding two 
panels where important variation does not exist. It looks as 
if the workman, while generally producing certain traditional 
ornament patterns, executed them from his memory and 
imagination, and not from another panel which was lying 



300 INDUSTRIES AND OCCUPATIONS. 

before him. And this fact lends a certain amount of colour 
to the theory that the carving was the home work of the 
dalesman ; a theory which, for reasons we have stated, seems 
otherwise improbable. 

The patterns may be roughly classified thus : 

I. Endless interlacing knots of intricate design, and of 
infinite variety. One of these patterns generally fills 
up a panel. These designs are manifestly very ancient, 
and here in Lakeland may possibly be, as Mr. Col- 
lingwood has suggested, the Norse " worm twist." 
On local furniture it ranges over the whole period, 
that is from about 1610 to 1760. 

2. Foliated scroll work, generally found on upright divi- 
sions between panels, and on horizontal rails. Like 
the last there is great variety ; but the pattern is 
persistent, and undoubtedly of an ancient origin. 
3. A pattern originally representing a Roman or Norman 
archway and columns. This is generally applied 
to the front panels of a chest, which consequently 
together represent a facade. This pattern probably 
crept in from the South, and is a trace of Mediaeval 
Gothic work. It is not common in the Lakes ; and 
where found is often very debased, the columns 
having become rude gashes, or even figures like 
fronds of ferns. 

4. Crude floral designs, which are associated with later 
dates, generally after 1720. These are evidently of 
no great antiquity. 

There are also a few other patterns of a st-mi-geometrical 
character, which are apparently early, though, perhaps, not so 
much so, as classes i and 2. Human figures and inlay are 
hardly ever found. 

If, as is believed to be the case, the furniture prior to the 
end of the sixteenth century was of a totally rude and 
uncarved character, the question arises how these ancient 
traditional designs were handed down. It is impossible to 
believe that design and its execution lay dormant for five or 






INDUSTRIES AND OCCUPATIONS. 301 

six hundred years, and then started again at the exact point 
where it died out. If there is any truth that the interlaced 
knot pattern is the Norse twist, introduced by the Viking 
settlers in the ninth century, how was it kept in the minds 
of the dalesmen during these long dark centuries, when the 
hereditary arts of his race lay crushed beneath the blighting 
load of feudalism and monasticism. We recommend this 
enquiry to the members of the Viking Club and to students 
of the evolution of design. 






CHAPTER VI. 
SURVIVALS AND FOLKLORE. 

r I "'HERE arc probably but few branches of antiquarian 
research which are of more human interest, or, indeed, of 
greater value, than that of folklore ; yet, unfortunately, that 
very intellectual stimulus which has turned the minds of 
savants towards this vein of material, is the same which 
has swept away so much, and will sweep off far more, of 
the precious matter itself. Folklore students, in fact, come a 
generation too late upon the scene, and as they dig and delve 
into the quarry face, they root out, not the fair smooth fossils 
they hope for, but the weathered holes and crannies where 
these treasures have lain ; and it is from these poor worn frag- 
ments they must gather, by microscope and analysis, the best 
they can, to reconstruct the organism. 

Seventy years ago, or a good deal less, a man alive to the 
importance of the study might have constructed a volume 
on traditionary custom and superstition in Hawkshead, 
which would have been invaluable ; but no such man was 
forthcoming. Seventeen years back there were still living all 
over the parish, hale men of seventy years, who, had there 
then been a student, might and would if properly interviewed, 
have told enough of the same subject to have made up 
a useful text-book of north-country folklore. But those 
seventeen years are past ; and with them have disappeared 
almost completely the generation of elders who formed a 
link with the past. Year by year the writer has seen these 
patriarchs of the dales pass away ; and mingled with the 



SURVIVALS AND FOLKLORE. 303 

sorrow that all must feel at the death of those whose 
years and character alike have commanded respect, is the 
regret that we naturally experience as each link which 
connected the " old order " with the new is torn asunder. 

The question is now, Can we still do anything, and is it 
worth doing ? The dalesmen never were, like Celtic 
races, highly superstitious, and the churchyards, waterfalls, 
and wells, were never peopled with pixies, fairies, wraiths, 
or other " peculiar people," as we find in some districts. 
Unfortunately, also, the branch of folklore of especial local 
interest, traditional customs and habits, is the very one which 
the nineteenth century has affected. The present generation 
of dalesmen, without a railway and far from a populous 
centre, has in some ways cast off more completely these 
customs and habits, than is frequently found to be the case 
in densely populated towns. This sounds curious, but the 
reason is obvious. The dalesman is naturally highly intelligent, 
and with the opening up of the Lake district, the intro- 
duction of newspapers, and the advance of education, he 
has absorbed new ideas and ways far more quickly than the 
crowded poor who live face to face with squalor and poverty 
in a large manufacturing town. It may be nay, frequently 
is the case that an operative working in one of the most 
advanced industries of the present century, is far more of 
the savage than the simplest clod-breaker or shepherd 
in the country. Turn a party of operatives and a party of 
fell-shepherds on to two separate desert islands, and see which 
most quickly establishes a civilized, organized, and orderly 
community. 

There is another difficulty with which the student of folk- 
lore has in Lakeland to contend, namely, that self-same 
excessive caution and " standoffishncss" which is so marked 
in the local character. No student who is not himself a 
dalesman, or thoroughly conversant with the mental tone of 
the people, could ever penetrate this in some subjects ; for 
a man who will never commit himself to praise or 
condemnation, will not be likely to " give himself away " by 




3 o 4 SURVIVALS AND FOLKLORE. 

deliberately telling a ghost story, or by describing an 
apparently meaningless custom. All that can be done is to 
mix and talk with the people on everyday subjects of the 
past and the present, and the very pearls you may require 
must be gleaned in conversational "by the ways "and paren- 
theses. There has indeed been a good deal written about 
Lakeland customs and habits generally, and much of the 
matter recorded applies equally to our parish, but there is no 
need to go over this ground in a parish record such as this. 
In the following pages we shall restrict ourselves almost 
entirely to the local survivals and superstitions which have 
come to our own notice, trivial sometimes in themselves, but 
being purely local and many unpublished, certainly merit 
record in this volume. 

HEARTH-CULT SURVIVALS. 

Probably everyone has heard of hearth-cult and ancestor 
worship, a simple and primitive form of household religion 
of which traces can be found to-day in nearly every country 
and every faith. In this, the homestead is the temple and 
the cult itself centred round the hearth-place, beneath which, 
folklore students say, the family ancestor in primitive 
conditions of life was either really or by tradition buried. 
Thus writes Mr. G. L. Gomme on the subject : * 

" An analysis of the customs which attended the primitive 
hearth-cult shows us that the sacred fire on the hearth 
was never allowed to go out ; that the ritual attendant 
upon marriage, birth, and death, centred round the sacred 
fire ; that offerings to the ancestral god at the hearth were 
made from the food of the household ; and that the hearth 
represented to its early worshippers the source of all their 
happiness and prosperity." 

Of this hearth-cult we have recent survivals in Havvkshead 
parish. Mr. A. Craig Gibson has left to us the following 
interesting account of everlasting hearth-fire, as kept burning 



* "The Village Community," London, 1890, p. 129. 



SURVIVALS AND FOLKLORE. 305 

at the lonely farmsteads of Parkamoor and Lavvson Park.* 
Writing in 1864 he says: 

" Previous to the invention of lucifer matches, and probably 
for long after, the fire on the stone hearths of these two 
"Granges" had not been extinguished, it was said, for many 
centuries, probably not even yet. Their fuel being peat, 
was easily kept smouldering throughout the longest night, 
while their distance from neighbours, and the consequent 
difficulty of providing means of re-lighting their fires, if 
extinguished, made their many generations of inmates careful 
to preserve them alight." 

No doubt many who read this will argue that deductions 
from such an instance arc useless that the very facts 
that lucifer matches were unknown, that peat smouldered 
slowly, and that re-lighting was difficult, sufficiently accounts 
for such a state of things. But the point is, the custom 
was so widely spread that, though we cannot find in it 
any evidence of particular racial descent, there remains no 
room for doubt as to its observance as a primitive traditional 
custom. Mr. G. L. Gomme, in his " Folklore Relics of Early 
Village Life,"! cites exactly the same thing in New Zealand, 
North America, England, and the Isle of Man ; and Mr. 
Ellwood himself knew examples in which the hearth-fire was 
religiously maintained for three generations.* Probably a hun- 
dred years ago, when 'statesman families were still numerous, 
there existed numbers of such " ancient lights," but with the 
extinction of the class came that of the hearth-fire, and 
it may be doubted if such a fire now remains. 

In the same primitive stage of culture the foundation of 
the homestead was celebrated in more than one way, and 
of these the most important were sacrifice and feast. The 
latter still lingers in the " rearing suppers," invariably given 
to the workmen by the master or employer on the day 
when the roof timbers are reared or raised into their place. 

* See Vol. VI. of "Transactions Lancashire and Cheshire Historic Society," 
p. 178, etc., ' Hawkshead Town," by A. C. Gibson. 

t Pp. 96-7. 1 " The Landnama Book of Iceland," etc., 1894, p. 8. 

21 



306 SURVIVALS AND FOLKLORE. 

The "house warmings" of other parts have the same origin, 
and a mightily interesting origin it is. 

The foundation sacrifice was equally universal, and was 
no doubt a propitiatory offering to the spirits of evil to 
avert ill luck. Gomme, in his " Folklore Relics," cites such 
sacrifices from all over the world from Borneo, Hawaii, 
Xormandy, Turkey, New Zealand, Africa, Japan, and else- 
where, and many of them, though not all, were human 
sacrifices. The interesting points are that the sacrifice was 
generally made, if for a village, at the principal gate, and 
if for a house at the threshold, and there the victim was 
buried ; and that the object was to avert malignant super- 
natural power. 

Now at one time in Hawkshead parish, if a cow gave 
birth to more than one dead calf, the body was taken 
and buried at the threshold of the cowbyre, which act 
changed the luck. In other words, the herd was bewitched, 
and the dalesman, without knowing of it, simply performed 
part of the foundation sacrificial rite which had been evolved 
by his ancestors in the primitive past, in hallowing the 
homestead. ;r The sacrifice was made at the byre threshold 
to avert witchcraft in precisely the same way as originally 
it was done at the village gate or the house threshold. 
The intermediate link between the threshold sacrifice and 
the disease charm is still to be found among the Mambwe 



* In the adjacent parish of Troutbeck, it is said that in two cases in the memory 
of man calves were sacrificed ; in one case a bull calf being roasted alive, because 
the cows were all calving males, instead of females ; in the other, a calf was burned 
to death in a field because of miscarriage among the herd. At Bassenthwaite, in 
1876, a calf was buried alive for the same reason. " Troutbeck, Its Scenery, Archi- 
tecture, etc.," 1876, pp. 61-64. 

The calf immolation was indeed widespread and deeply rooted as a Lakeland 
practice. Mr. Dickinson describes it in his "Cumbriana," 1826, p. 135. He says 
that the first abortive calf which shows signs of life was thus buried, alive or dead, to 
break the spell : and that sometimes the alxirtive calf, if living, was burned to death 
at midnight. He seems to think that, as the sacrifice had to be made by one person 
only, and was supposed to looser, the disease devil, it would not lie undertaken until a 
prolonged course of the malady rendered it, in the opinion of the owners of the herd, 
necessary. Consequently it often did not take place until the disease or malady had 
worn itself out naturally as it usually does in three years. And the cessation, really 
the result of nature, was looked upon as the result of the sacrifice. 

Atkinson (" Forty Years in a Moorland Parish," p. 62) mentions exactly the 
same custom in Cleveland ; and Henderson (" Folklore in the Northern Counties," 
p. 149) gives instances of calf sacrifice at Portreath, and lamb-burning alive in Corn- 
wall, in 1800, for similar reasons. 



SURVIVALS AND FOLKLORE. 307 

in Central Africa, among whom Sir Harry Johnston tells us 
a child prematurely born is cut into five pieces and burned 
beneath the floor of his mother's tent.* The analogy 
between this and the local custom is complete and most 
striking. 

In Furness Fells we are not in Fairyland, but at one 
time the dalesmen were not without their familiar spirits, 
or hearth gods, the haus geist of the Teutons. The hob- 
thrush, or throb-thrush, was the same as the " brownie," 
and was as a rule a good little devil, often helping the 
farmer at his work, but equally often performing some mad 
prank effectually counterbalancing the good he had done.i 
Little though we hear of him in modern days, the follow- 
ing fragment of a Furness song shows that he was a true 
hearth goblin : 

"Then oft the rannel balk I took him, 
And right bitterly I shook him 
At every stroke 
These words I spoke 
'Thou shall come here no more to spoil my smoke.'" 

Both hob-thrushes and fairies are now extinct, and little 
can be gleaned on the subject. One old fellow told the. 
writer indeed that in his young days strange were the 
reputed doings of the little folk in Amblesidc fair and 
market. Dressed as common folk, they would mingle with 
the marketing folk, and then by blowing at the women at 
the market stalls they became invisible, and were enabled 
to steal things from the stalls. Curiously, the same old 
man remembered Frankhousesteads as a place reputed to 
be haunted by fairies ; and Frankhousesteads, as we have 
already seen, was probably only one of the hiding-places 
of the Castlehovv thieving gang, which was broken up about 

* " British Central Africa," p. 417. 

t The names throughout of all these elves are curious and intimately connected. 
Thus the Normandy kobohi seems the same as our goblin, which, transposed, Incomes 
bogle or boggle and boggart. But generally he was some form of " Rolxjrt," and the 
question arises, is this the same in origin as the forms given ? Thus we have Robin 
Goodfellow, Hobthrush, Hol^goblin, and Dobbie, formed from Robert seemingly in 
the same ways as Robinson, Hobson, and Dobson. [Whence also Robin Hood and 
Hop o' My Thumb, etc.] Yet from the Hebrides it comes back to us as Boduchs or 
Boddus. But what signifies the terminal boo, in bogey boo ? 
" And every time I saw him smile, I thought on the bogey boo." Old Furness Song. 

But see Sullivan's " Cumberland and Westmorland, Ancient and Modern, "p. 158. 



308 SURVIVALS AND FOLKLORE. 

1785. Here we get an instance of the way a place con- 
nected with any mystery or crime became quickly in the 
eyes of the people a subject of superstition. 

One day the writer was chatting with old George 
Milligan, now, alas, gone to his fathers ; a typical dales- 
man, who having spent his early days in Langdale, and 
being not only extremely intelligent, but possessed of a 
splendid memory, was a veritable mine of lore to the 
enquirer. Moreover, George had less than usual of that 
awful reserve which we cannot help regarding as often a 
fault in the dalesman ; and he quite well saw the use of 
such enquiries. Superstitious, however, he was not, and 
laughed at the idea of the uncanny. But the days when 
such beliefs were general he well remembered, and as he 
put it, when he was a lad, " dobbies and sic like were 
aw up and down, and t' childer hardly dare put their noses 
ayont t' threshold at ncct." In Little Langdale the Busk 
and the Forge, the latter place only separated from our 
parish by the Brathay, were regularly visited by fairies 
harmless little beings it would seem, of the house-goblin class, 
for their principal occupation seems to have been churning 
butter after the family had retired for the night. They 
were, however, rather thriftless little folk, for near the Forge 
it was common to find bits of butter scattered in the 
woods, dropped, it would seem, by the uncanny churners in 
their morning flight. 

Now butter-making fairies were no more confined to 
Langdale or High Furness than was calf sacrifice ; for as 
that observant student, Mr. Atkinson, tells us, they did 
exactly the same thing right away on the East Coast in 
Danby in Cleveland. 

The fact is that the cowbyre and the dairy were both the 
proper and natural resort of the house-goblin ; and witchcraft, 
which is closely associated with the evil eye, the belief in 
which seems absolutely universal, was more prone to take 
effect in these departments of the farm than elsewhere. This 
is singular in a sheep country, yet we never remember to 



SURVIVALS AND FOLKLORE. 309 

have heard any instance of a stock of sheep being 
bewitched, or of any charms being necessary for disease 
among the fell flocks. 

Later on I shall come to witchcraft proper ; but witching 
permeates everything in folklore, and few maladies were there 
which were not attributed to such influence. It seems indeed 
almost certain that when Christianity once became rooted, 
those misfortunes which in Pagan times were laid at the door 
of the malignant spirits, were reluctantly removed and placed 
instead upon the shoulders of unfortunate old ladies and 
gentlemen, who, under the title of witch, became the devil's 
scapegoats. Once sitting in a cottage with probably the oldest 
inhabitant of Satterthwaitc, we had listened to a long story 
of the past, and as it came to an end, our informant's wife 
chimed in, " Now I'll tell ye what. Ye were axing tudder 
day about witching. Well, my auld man yance saw a cawf 
with eight legs and twa heeads." To us, as we say in the 
vernacular, this was " plain as a pikestaff." The freak of 
nature was unhesitatingly put down to the cow having been 
bewitched. 

So with the butter : when anything went wrong in 
churning it was witchcraft which was the cause ; and, we 
take it, the house-goblin was called in as the representative 
of the spirit of goodwill to join battle with the farmer 
against the witch as typifying the spirit of malignity. 
Probably all stories of hob-thrushes churning, were, in their 
original forms, the description of the triumphant victory of 
the house-goblin over witchcraft. The butter wouldn't 
come for the housewife, when lo ! in stepped the hob-thrush 
and did it for her. But the farmer's wife had another antidote 
for witched milk besides her auxiliary. She got twigs of 
mountain-ash or rowan, and either stirred the milk with it or 
placed it in the milk. We have heard of witched milk at 
Nibthwaite Grange, where this method was resorted to, and 
the same old lady who unhesitatingly accepted the deformed 
calf as the result of witchcraft, remembers, as a farm girl, 
her mistress surrounding the churn with a sort of chaplet of 



310 SURVIVALS, AND FOLKLORE. 

the magic wood, and though they knew the witch (one Betty 
Postlethwaite), something was wrong, for still the butter 
wouldn't come ; so that, concluded our informant, rather 
lamely, she " doubted seeap (soap) or summat had gitten intil 
t' cream." All this rowan-tree superstition, common in the 
north of England, smacks of Scandinavianism, the rowan 
being the sacred tree of Thor, by which indeed he was saved 
from drowning. 

But the last embers of the popular belief in witchcraft as 
applied to farm stock were perhaps extinguished at the last 
flare of the need-fire in Hawkshead. Into the archaeology 
and distribution of this most remarkable custom, it would 
require far too much space to enter here, and indeed the 
subject has received wide notice in many books. Suffice it 
to say that it is widely spread in Europe and Asia, and 
probably also in America, and that whatever the true deri- 
vation of the term, its origin as a purificatory rite by sacred 
fire can admit of no question. We can indeed in it trace 
no special racial descent, but no less have we in the local 
examples we shall quote, a survival of a most ancient religious 
cult, the application of the sacred clement of pure fire as an 
antidote for malign influence. 

We have ascertained that the need-fire has been lighted 
at least at five separate places within the limits of oUr 
parish within the memory of man, but it does not appear 
that they were all upon the same occasion. We give them 
here, with the names of our informants, but it will be seen 
that it is by no means a simple matter to arrive at the 
exact years when the rites were observed. 

Finstlnuaite Heiglits. Mr. Robert Scales, of Satterthwaite, 
aged 84 (1897), can well remember a need-fire being lighted 
near Chapman House, at Finsthwaite, where he was then 
working, and that the cattle from surrounding farms were 
collected and driven through the smoke to cure them of some 
disease. He cannot remember whether the fire was made 
or brought to Finsthwaite, but he can remember well that it 
was currently reported that the fire, to be efficacious, must be 



SURVIVALS AND FOLKLORE. 311 

either brought from another fire or made by friction with dry 
rotten ash. The fuel used was purposely damp, so that there 
should be plenty of smoke, and he believes that the " murrain " 
died out after the smoking. Of the date he cannot be certain, 
but it is certainly over sixty years ago, that is, 1837 or a little 
earlier. 

Keenground. -This is remembered by Mr. Isaac Hodgson, 
postman of Hawkshcad. The site was below Low Keen- 
ground Farm. The fire was brought in a pan from elsewhere, 
but Mr. Hodgson knew it had been made by friction. The 
cattle were driven through the smoke until they " slavered " 
at the mouth, when the cure was considered to be effected. 
The date was over sixty-three years ago, which would be 1836 
or before. 

Sawrey. In Mr. Taylor's commonplace book is a full 
description of a need-fire lighted at this place. Mr. Taylor's 
book is dated 1850, but as he writes up to 1874, and the 
entries arc undated, it is not possible to give the exact year. 
The entry in question, however, appears to have been made 
fairly soon after he began to keep the book, and it probably 
refers to the same date as the need-fire lighting at Ilollin 
Bank and Fieldhcad, which, as we shall see, were about 1845-7. 
It is not improbable that the entry in question was written 
for some local paper, perhaps by Mr. Taylor himself: 

" A scene of the most ludicrous and gross superstition took 
place at Sawrey about ten years ago. A well-to-do old fanner 
having lost several of his cattle by some disease then very 
prevalent in the neighbourhood, and being able to account 
for it in no way so rationally as by witchcraft, he had recourse 
to the following remedy, recommended to him by a weird 
sister in the district as an effectual protection from the attacks 
of the foul fiend. A few Stones were piled together in the 
farmyard, and wood and straw having been laid thereon the 
fuel was ignited by fire obtained by friction, all the neighbours 
for miles around attending with their cattle to go through 
the solemnity. The cattle were made to pass through the 
fire and smoke in the order of their dignity and age, 



3 i2 SURVIVALS AND FOLKLORE. 

commencing with the horses and ending with the swine. The 
ceremony having been duly gone through, the enlightened 
owners of the herds and flocks, along with their families, 
followed the example of the cattle, and the ' sacrifice to Baal ' 
was considered complete ; and the assembled throng repaired 
to their several homes in the full gratification of having per- 
formed a great deed." 

Hollin Bank, Monk Coniston. Mr. Wilson, owner of Hollin 
Bank Farm, remembers the need-fire being lighted by friction 
about 1847. 

Ficldhead. Mr. John Usher, of Dodgson Ground, has often 
heard of the need-fire being lighted here about fifty-two years 
ago (i.e., 1847), but the only man to whom he can refer as an 
eye-witness (Joseph Milligan) is dead. People came from 
all the farms around. 

Besides these local instances there is plenty of evidence 
of the same custom in the neighbouring districts. It is 
remembered at Wythburn ; and it was kindled at Hartsop 
Hall, on the road to Pattcrdale. It was last lighted in Trout- 
beck about 1851,* and Mr. Dickinson, in his " Cumbriana," 
mentions it as observed in Cumberland in 1840 (the fire 
coming from Yorkshire), but he does not state exact locality.! 
Mr. W. Wilson, in a paper in the pages of a local society, 
says it was last used in the Keswick District in 18414 when 
the fire was brought over Dunmail Raise from farm to farm. 

It thus appears that on two occasions within the memory 
of man this ancient practice was resorted to. The first was 
about 1835, and the second about 1845 or 1847. This seems 
to be the latest instance in our parish, though more recently 
it was apparently observed at Troutbeck and elsewhere, and 
apparently it was used for any epidemic, although Dickinson 
describes it for the foot and mouth disease. 

"Troutbeck. Its Scenery, etc.," p. 46. f P- '33- 

J "Transactions Cumberland and Westmorland Society for Literature and 
Science," No. XII., p. 85 et seq. In the same paper, however, he says, " upwards 
of thirty years since," and the date of the volume being 1887, this would bring it some 
fourteen years later. But there is possibly here a misprint, or perhaps the latter date 
is not local. 

At Stamfordhatn, Northumberland, apparently about 1860. See Henderson's 
" Folklore in the Northern Counties," p. 169. 






SURVIVALS AND FOLKLORE. 313 

That the need-fire is really the neat fire, or oxen fire, we 
feel but little doubt, although there appears to be a Teutonic 
root word which signifies friction. This, however, needs no dis- 
cussion here. All we need observe is that fifty years ago the 
people of Hawkshead believed that a miraculous cure could be 
effected by driving the infected animals through a fire ignited 
either by friction or brought from elsewhere, and which was 
carefully made to give a great smoke. It is quite immaterial 
to give an accumulation of world-wide analogies or to cite 
historical mentions, such as the prohibition of " ncdfri " or 
" notfyrc," in 742, by the Synodus Francisca,* for such would 
only serve to obscure the points we wish to insist upon, 
namely, the deeply-rooted belief in the popular mind in the 
existence of malign influence, and the survival to the nine- 
teenth century in our dales of what we cannot doubt is a 
trace of the belief in the sacred and purifying character of 
fire ; which is nature worship and nothing else. 

The " weird sister," mentioned in Taylor's account of the 
Sawrey need-fire, shows us that up to that time the belief in 
wisemen and wisewomen, who often had the power of counter- 
acting evil spells, had not died out. She was another 
incarnation of benign influence as banded against the malign, 
or witchcraft, influence. Though we never hear of village 
" wisemen " now-a-days, there is little doubt that in former 
days there was one such in every village. Perhaps their 
wisdom was more often consulted for ailments among cattle 
than for anything else, and Robert Scales, of Sattcrthwaite, 
remembered that seventy years ago such a wiseman still 
lived at his village, and was consulted for this purpose. But 
he had other functions than this, and one was the recovery 
of stolen property. Mr. Taylor gives us a curious example, 
in his commonplace book, from Cartmel Fell, which, having 
never been published, and being only just beyond the limits 
of our parish, we reproduce. It seems that a burglary 
had taken place at a cottage near St. Anthony's Chapel, 

* See Sullivan's " Cumljerland and Westmorland," p. 116 ; and " The Reliquary 
and Illustrated Archaeologist," Vol. II. p. 77 : in the latter of which, methods of 
raising need-fire are discussed. 



3 i4 SURVIVALS AND FOLKLORE. 

and the cottager went to consult the local wiseman, whom 
he found prosaically enough in the Bowling Green alehouse. 
He paid his fee in a pot or two of beer, and in return 
received instructions to stand on a tombstone in the " Kirk- 
garth," and as the congregation left the chapel, to cry with 
a loud voice, that if his stolen property should not be 
returned by the following Sunday, the thief would find him- 
self, willy nilfy, perched on the roof-tree of the chapel during 
the Morning service : for thus had ordained the wiseman. 
This was done, and the property was returned in due time, 
doubtless, because the thief was equally superstitious with the 
thieved. 

Mr. Taylor has a further note on wisemen, which may 
be from his own observations. He said that in every village 
there was a person with a special gift to stay a flow of 
blood. It was hereditary, but " could only be communicated 
from opposite sexes," which we take to mean that a girl 
only could stop a man's wound, and vice versa. The blood- 
stopper simply retired into a corner and muttered ; and burns 
and scalds were treated the same way. 

For bleeding, burns, and scalds, there were, however, really 
recognized formulae used as charms, and these, with variants, 
may be found widely distributed over England. A few years 
ago, Mr. S. Marshall lent the present writer some papers, 
which he had found among the title deeds of the Skelwith 
Fold estate ; and among them were two formulae, which had 
turned up among papers connected with the neighbouring 
property of Bull Close, of the date of 1736 175 1 - 
The first, for bleeding, runs as follows : 

" To stop Bleeding in Man or Beast at any Distance, 
first you must have some Drops of y e Blood upon 
a Linen Ragg and wrap a Little Roman Vitrioll 
upon this Ragg put it under your oxter (armpit) 
and say these words thrice into yrself ' There was 
a Man Born in Bethlem of Judea Whose name 
was Called Christ. Baptized in the River Jordan 
In the Watter of the flood and the Child also was 



SURVIVALS AND FOLKLORE. 315 

meak and good and as the waiter stood So I desire 
thee the Blood of Such a person or Beast to stand 
in their Bodie, in the name of the father son and 
Holy Ghost Amen.' Then Look into the Ragg 
and at that moment the Blood stopcth the Blew 
powder is Turned into Blood by sympathy." 
Similar to this, is one given in Dickinson's " Cumbriana," 
(p. 123). 

THE CHARM TO STOP BLEEDING. 

" In Bethlehem a child was born, 
In Jordan was a flood ; 
Sweet Jesus, stop this blood, 
In the name of the Father, Son, and Hoi)' Ghost, Amen." 

While from Dartmoor we get this version : 

To STOP BLEEDING. 

" Our Saviour Christ was born in Bethlehem 
And was baptized in the river Jordan 
The waters were mild of mood 
The child was meek gentle and good 
He struck it with a rod and still it stood 
And so shall thy blood stand " 
Say these words twice, and the Lord's Prayer once.* 

The other Skchvith charm runs as follows : 

" To cure Burns or Scalds by Blowing thrice and Saying 
these words after each Blowing Coutha Cold under 
the Clay trcmbleing is there any here that would 
Learn of the Dead to Cure the sores of Burning 
in the Name of God And in the name of God 
be it Amen First say then Blow then say then 
Blow and it is done " I 

These charms could no doubt be used either by wisemen 
or ordinary folks, and the formulas were laid up in the 

* Henderson's " Folklore in the Northern Counties," p. 269. 

t What is the meaning of " Coutha," here apparently invoked as a familiar 
spirit ? Halliwell gives " Couthe," a cold. 



316 SURVIVALS AND FOLKLORE. 

'statesman's deed box, as valuable possessions. We seem, 
however, to get another glimpse of special powers in one 
Agnes Warriner, who once lived at Outgate. It was said 
that she had the special power of curing jaundice by a 
spell. Possibly she had some power of diagnosis, for although 
no medicine was prescribed, the patient had to take urine 
for examination. A man died but a year or two ago, who 
professed to have been thus cured. 

The old idea that the seventh son has a miraculous power 
of healing is well known, and it has been conjectured that 
it derives its origin from the story of the seven sons of 
Sceva the Jew (Acts xix. 13). We know, however, one 
local example only. Mr. Tyson, who keeps the bank at 
Hawkshead, was one of the old stock of Tysons, of Little 
Langdale. Me was one of a large family, and one of his 
brothers being the seventh son, was sought out by a woman 
working in Collision Copper Mines in order to be cured of 
some ailment on the arm, perhaps scrofula. Mr. Tyson's 
brother had no faith in such healing, but the woman per- 
sisted, coming once every week for seven weeks, early in 
the morning, to Dale End Farm, when the operator had 
to tic some charm or spell round her neck. Yet in spite 
of the scepticism of the operator, the charm had due effect. 
The local value, however, of this example is not so great, 
because there is some reason to think that the patient, like 
many of the mines' people, was of Cornish extraction, and 
had brought the superstition with her. 

Most of the minor ailments were indeed supposed to be 
curable by non-medical means, and all such methods were, 
in origin, superstitious ; so that it is plain that disease 
generally was, in the older days of country society, attributed 
to malign influence. Thus, although we look upon the 
Society of Friends as perhaps the least likely body to find 
associated with superstition, it is on record that William 
Knipc, of Knipe Fold, who, in 1699, left some property to 
the Quaker Meeting House, bequeathed also "a gold ring, 
which is kept in Mary Satterthwaite's hands, yt any 



SURVIVALS AND FOLKLORE. 317 

poor friends may have it to wash sore eyes with."* And 
in the Hawkshead Parish accounts for 1786 we find the 
following entry, which may refer to a Wiseman's charm, as 
in that year there was a local doctor, and it does not seem 
likely that a patient would be taken to a retired valley 
like Long Sleddale, unless Mr. Kellet, who could hardly be 
another doctor, was a wiseman of repute. 

" Journey horse hire and expenses to Eliner Preston to take 
her child to Mr. Kellet's of Long Sleddale to be cured of a 
scabbed head 2s. 6d." 

But the strangest local charm of all was that for tooth- 
ache. We have described elsewhere the gibbeting of Thomas 
Lancaster for wholesale murder in 1672, and have mentioned 
that not a few old people can yet remember the rotting 
stump of the gibbet still standing. George Milligan, to 
whom we have already referred, was among these, and he 
assures us that even in his time people suffering from 
toothache used to repair there, to obtain a stopping from 
the wood of the gallows tree. This placed in the tooth 
was considered, he said " a terrblc suer thing for toothwark." 

This cure again, was not confined to Hawkshead. 
Henderson gives two instances of the same thing.t In one 
case the inhabitants of Stamfordham, in Northumberland, 
used to walk no less than twelve miles to Winter's gibbet, 
on Elsdon Moor, for the very same purpose. The other 
case is even more striking, for we arc told that the inhabi- 
tants of Durham and the neighbourhood went for the same 
purpose to a gibbet near Ferry Hill, called Andrew Miles' 
Stob, where, in 1683, a boy was executed for murdering 
the three little children of his master. The character and 
date of this murder render the two cases of Hawkshead 
and Ferry Hill extremely similar. 

Bibliomancy, or divination by Bible and key, is, of course, 
akin to spells and charms, but from its very nature it was 
enlisted in the benign influence cause, instead of that of 

* Mr. Taylor's Commonplace Book. Knipe's Bible is still preserved at the 
Meeting House. 

t "Folklore in the Northern Counties," 1879, p. 145. 



3i8 SURVIVALS AND FOLKLORE. 

witchcraft. Nevertheless, it was superstition pure and simple, 
and its origin is lost in remote antiquity. How late it 
may have been practised in Hawkshcad we do not know, 
but we have only heard of two instances. Unfortunately, 
old people who remember them, forget the details, and we 
have to content ourselves with ascertaining the existence of 
such superstitions within the memory of man, which, after 
all, is the main point. Thomas Martin, of Fieldhead, or 
"Tommy," as he was generally called, died in 1895, at an 
advanced age. His father was John Martin, who appears 
elsewhere in this chapter. A year or two before the death 
of the son he told us that he could distinctly remember 
his father using the Bible and key, and that to the best 
of his recollection he used them to find out if anyone, or 
probably if a certain individual, were acting maliciously 
towards him. The manipulation of the Bible and the key 
was not distinctly remembered, but they appear to have 
been balanced against each other on end, and some words 
or a spell muttered. John Martin gave up the practice with 
advancing years, but it was evidently divination, and nothing 
else. The other instance was told me by Miss Udal, of 
Monk Coniston, now aboul seventy-six years of age, who 
remembers, as a girl, to have seen it practised by a servanl 
at Hollow Oak, in Colton, lo ascertain if some person, who 
had thrown a stone through a window, was a certain groom, 
who was suspected. The time of this occurrence was 
about 1836.* 



* The reader will find no difficulty in getting better examples of bibliomancy 
elsewhere. There are several examples quoted in Henderson's work. On page 236 
he quotes the " Universal Fortune Teller," where the operation necessary to discover 
the name of your future partner in life is descriljed. The key is to Ije placed with the 
wards on Canticles, chapter viii. verses 6 and 7, the ring of the key projecting from 
the top of the book about one inch. Close the book, and tie it tight with your garter. 
Then the diviner and another must suspend the Bible by placing their middle right 
hand fingers under each side of the key ring. One operator repeats the named verses 
and the other the alphabet, and when the initial of the future bride or bridegroom is 
arrived at, the book will turn. 

Another method, rather different from Sprouston, is given on p. 233, the object 
here l>eing to recover stolen property ; and the spells consisted of two chapters of the 
Bible, one Ijeing the history of Saul and the witch of Endor (I Sam. xxviii. ). 
Reginald Scott mentions this form of divination in his " Discovery of Witchcraft," 
1599 : and Mr. Henderson actually cites an instance which came into a London police 
court in 1832. The more usual method was to place the wards of the key on the 



SURVIVALS AND FOLKLORE. 319 

No doubt enough has been said to show that a time 
existed, and that not very distant, when witchcraft permeated 
pretty thoroughly the existence of the dalesman, and when 
ills of all sorts and kinds were put down to this cause. 
But so far we have not come face to face with any 
individual witch, probably because the dalesfolk, being not 
racially superstitious, abandoned the idea of individual witches 
before they got rid completely of a belief in the effects 
of it. Another thing is that the excessive caution of 
character, we have so often alluded to, prevented, to a great 
extent, the noisy, brainless chatter and scandal which is so 
common among less intelligent and less serious races. We 
can therefore hardly expect that by simple enquiry among 
the country people, we should discover many actual instances. 

We can, however, give one example of real witchcraft, as 
told to us a year or so ago by an old man, now about eighty 
years of age, who distinctly remembered his mother talking 
about the subject. There lived formerly at Outgate, and 
indeed until comparatively recently, a family whose name it 
is unnecessary to give here. The proceedings of this family 
generally seem to have been eccentric " queer," as our 
informant put it, with an intonation that evidently suggested 
" uncanny." At any rate, one of the women of the family 
was a notorious witch, and possessed the faculty, well recog- 
nized in witches, of transforming herself into animal form, 
generally that of a hare. The hounds, apparently those kept 
by Braithwaite Hodgson of Grecnend, while working the 
valley often found this hare, and it was well known for the 
capital runs it afforded, generally terminated by its mysterious 
but complete disappearance, scent and all, close to Outgate, 
leaving the hounds at fault. No doubt the reader can supply 
the remainder of the story, which, however, must be given. 

passage in the first chapter of Ruth, "Whither thou goest, I will go," and then 
proceed in much the same way as given above. This method is descriljed in Harland 
and Wilkinson's "Lancashire Folklore," 1882, where, however, it appears that a 
girl repeats the names of various admirers, and the one to Ix; accepted is decided by 
the turning of the Bible and key. In another case cited by Mr. Henderson at Liullow 
in 1878, the Bible was laid open and the key on the first chapter of Ruth. The 
diviners then touched the ends of their fingers in the form of a cross over it, and at the 
repetition of " Whither thou goest," etc., the key was expected to jump about. 



320 SURVIVALS AND FOLKLORE. 

One day the hare was run right into the hamlet, and making 
straight for the house of the "queer" family it jumped for an 
open window. Just at that moment, however, it was "clicked" 
by the leg by the foremost hound, a black one, and at the 
same moment there came from within the building this wild 
screaming chorus : 

" Switch Grandy Switch, 
Here comes t' black bitch." 

But it was too late, for as the hunters ran to the spot they 
found instead of the hare the notorious Outgate witch. 

Now what we would like to know is, who made up this 
story, and where was it first told ? Mr. Atkinson finds that 
exactly the same thing happened in his East Yorkshire parish. 
There the Westerdale sportsmen are put on to the hare by 
the witch herself, who, however, cautions them not to slip the 
black dog at it. However, a strange black hound joins the 
hunt, and the result is the same as at Outgate.* Yet again 
the same thing, only with a number of hares, is given in 
Henderson's work, where we also read a Devonshire version 
in which the hares or witch's grandson is heard crying at 
the critical moment : 

"Run Granny, run for your life." f 

which is simply paraphrastic of the local distich given above. 

The puzzle to the writer is not that witches become hares 
all over England, although, as the hare has been uncanny 
ever since the time of the goddess Freya, to whom they seem 
to have acted as lightbcarcrs and attendants, that is curious 
enough ; but that the stories should be so identical in form and 
apparently of so recent a date. Of course they are not really 
so, but being of great antiquity and deeply rooted in the 
popular mind, they are continually being freshly applied as 
occasion offers, and it is this tendency we shall find so marked 
when we have to treat of the ordinary haunts in the parish. 

The only other witch whom we can in person introduce we 
must confess we feel rather sceptical about. The story was 



" Forty Years in a Moorland Parish," p. 83 et seq. 
" Folklore in the Northern Counties," p. 201. 



SURVIVALS AND FOLKLORE. 321 

first told in Mr. A. C. Gibson's "The Old Man" (1849, p. 74), 
but between the facts that that lively writer gives us no notes 
as to the source of his story, and that he loads it with a greater 
amount of detail than we can generally obtain from the dales- 
people, even about comparatively modern events, we cannot 
help feeling that the writer had either entirely invented it or 
had greatly polished up some crude tradition that he found 
among the villagers. As we have reprinted the story in full 
elsewhere :|: we need do no more than give an outline here. 

Mr. Gibson puts his witch in residence in a hut on a spit 
of land at the mouth of Yewdale Beck, on Coniston. He 
gives her no name, but the sequel shows her period was pre- 
Reformation. In her old age, becoming nervous about the 
very uncomfortable hereafter she expected for her deeds, she 
goes to Father Brian, a monk living at Bank Ground, in 
Monk Coniston. The good man prescribes severe penance 
and abnegation of evil ways, instructing her, if assailed by the 
devil, to appeal to Father Brian and Saint Herbert. The 
latter proves necessary, for Satan himself turns up shortly to 
claim his own, when away goes Mr. Gibson's witch up stream, 
screaming the holy names as prescribed. At Bannock stone 
bridge, just below the present road, the devil, in hot pursuit, 
is just about to lay his claw upon her shoulder, when plump ! 
his red-hot foot goes deep into a stone in mid beck, and there 
he sticks, while our witch cuts away triumphantly, much to 
the credit of Father Brian's acuteness. 

Bannock stone bridge, now a wooden one, formerly con- 
sisted of two great flags, which were washed away by a spate. 
Under this bridge Mr. Gibson tells us to examine the stone, 
which, according to his account, bore the imprint of a large 
heel so unmistakably that he was induced to enquire for a 
legend to fit it. Gibson, in his own account, is plainly laugh- 
ing in his sleeve, and it seems really very doubtful if the 
whole is not pure fiction. We ourself can find no imprint 
the least unusual, and although the villagers undoubtedly know 



* " Hawkshead Folklore," by H. S. Cowper, in " Transactions Cumberland 
and Westmorland Antiquarian Society," Vol. XIV., p. 379. 



322 SURVIVALS AND FOLKLORE. 

something of the story now, we prefer to believe that they 
got it from our enquirer or his book, rather than that he got 
it from them, some fifty years ago. 

Penitence and witchcraft bring us to penance, which was 
frequently performed in public in England down to last cen- 
tury. Penance was generally done by women, and most 
commonly for unchastity, though sometimes, as in historical 
instances, it was for sorcery, or for both these crimes. We 
have come across no documentary evidence of it in Hawks- 
head, but our informant, George Milligan, could distinctly 
remember his parents talking of a woman having to do pen- 
ance in the church in a white sheet and with bare feet. He 
could recollect no further details, but had every reason to 
believe it happened in the time of his parents, so that not 
improbably it took place within the present century. The 
punishment of " riding the stang " is so well known that it needs 
no description. The last occasion it was observed in this 
parish, as far as we can ascertain, was about 1864, when a 
man called Shaw was stang-ridden from Colthouse to Hawks- 
head Hill and back, amid the jeers of the people. The penalty 
was inflicted for immorality. 

MISCELLANEOUS CUSTOMS. 

Firing muskets over the bridegroom's house. This is a very 
interesting survival, and is not yet extinct, although much less 
general than formerly. It was certainly done about 
twelve years ago at Ilawksheatl, and we are told is still 
common in Colton. The firing party, after firing, ask for a 
present they call " hen-silver." It is noticeable that the 
custom is said to be practised in Norway, though as the 
Lakes were colonized in prc-gunpowder days, it is plain we 
have only a parallel development from some earlier custom. 

It appears to us that there are two possible origins. 
Either it is simply a relic of the marriage by capture 
ceremony, the explosion being the last survival of a regular 
"lab el-barud,"* or mimic combat; or else it is on all fours 

* Lab el-barud, the Arab "powder play," 



SURVIVALS AND FOLKLORE. 323 

with the Californian practice of piling torches against the 
lodge of the wedded pair,* one of many fire and flame 
customs connected with marriage. If so, the transition from 
the torch or hearth embers to the matter of fact fowling- 
piece is interesting. 

The origin of boons and boon-days is now almost lost 
in the mist of antiquity. Although boons were often regular 
manorial customs, we do not doubt that the custom took 
its rise long prior to that of the manorial system. Boon 
services, paid by customary tenants to their lords, were no 
doubt but one of the thousand burdens which were imposed 
by the lord of the soil on the back of the peasant ; but 
boons proper, are, we think, traceable only in the gratuitous 
assistance given by the neighbours to an incoming farmer, 
generally in the shape of boon-ploughs. The word may 
be derived, as in our local glossaries, from a Norse word 
" bon," a prayer, and it may be connected with " bond," an 
undertaking. But whether this is so, or we have simply a 
corrupt form of " bona," is immaterial, because the custom 
being a communal one and found anciently in Wales under 
the name of Cymhortha, is evidently, like the need-fire, no 
evidence of racial descent among the local people. 

As late as a generation ago there was held at Outgatc a 
curious mock-court, which may possibly be a survival of a 
very ancient custom, although in the belief of those now 
living who have heard of it, it was only a sort of frolic. 
Whichever it was, however, it was sufficiently singular to 
merit a place here ; for although not published, we arc 
not without hopes that similar customs may prove to have 
been observed in other dales. 

The four principal dignities of this august assembly were 
thus filled: 

John Martin ... ... The Bishop. 

William Warriner of 

Birkwray ... ... Lord Short of Birkvvray. 

John Rigg ... Justice. 

Rowley Scales ... ... Parson. 

* Gomme's " Folklore Relics," p. 104. 



3 2 4 SURVIVALS AND FOLKLORE. 

Before this quorum were brought all sorts of minor offences, 
such as drunkenness ; and as far as I can ascertain, they 
really imposed small penalties and fines ; so that it is possible 
that in the days when petty sessions were held no nearer 
than Ulverston or Lakeside, it may really have acted as 
some slight check on the more lawless spirits. The court 
seems not to have sat on any special day of the year, which 
militates perhaps against its antiquity. But it seems to us 
just possible that the following entry in the parish, among 
burials, 1699, may refer to a similar custom 
ffcbruary xvij" 1 Jo. Rigg lord.* 

On the whole it docs not seem impossible that in this 
Outgate mock court we have a survival of a custom some- 
what akin to those once prevalent in various parts of England, in 
which a mock mayor was elected and a procession held ; and 
between which and certain customs practised by the Non- 
Aryan castes in Indian villages, Mr. G. L. Gomme has 
drawn parallels. f But unless we can find similar instances in 
the Lake district, we cannot hope to prove or disprove it. 

We have seen in Chapter III. how a Viking's grave 
was walled in so that the restless dead should not 
return to the habitations of man. But the same idea, or 
rather, one closely akin, was deeply and widely rooted in 
the popular mind, namely, that the spirit must have free 
exit from the body at death, and that precautions should 
be taken that it docs not return to the house. Hence is 
the savage custom of taking the dying out of the wigwam, 
and in more civilized communities, of unlatching the door at 
the time of death, and even removing the body through 
the window. 

Some time ago the father of the present writer was 
making alterations at a farm at Hawkshead Hill, and in doing 



The writer of a criticism in the " Carlisle Patiiot," on the author's "Oldest 
Register Book of Hawkshead," suggests this only means "laird," in some parts of 
Cumlxirlaml, simply the equivalent of 'statesman. But 'statesman, not " lord " or 
"laird," is the regular term in the fells, and the first never occurs in the register, 
and " lord " only once. Moreover, at this time all farmers in Hawkshead were 
landowners, and it is unlikely that the term would be applied in the register. 

f " The Village Community," 1890, p. 107. 



SURVIVALS AND FOLKLORE. 325 

so, it was found that the door opposite the front door, which 
we have mentioned in the description of farm-house archi- 
tecture, was, as is often the case, at the head of a short 
flight of steps, and had been walled up. One of the work- 
men, a man long connected with the district, said he had 
heard that these doors were originally made to take coffins 
out by. To us this seems very probable. The original idea 
of these doors on the first floor was partly superstitious 
they were the corpse doors, by which the dead were re- 
moved, so that the spirit might not find his way in again 
by the threshold, which was always open. Moreover, the 
very fact that so many of these doors arc now walled up, 
shows that they were not really necessary, and superstition 
becoming moribund, the dalesmen felt the cold draught and 
closed them. This may be guesswork, but we do not think 
it is. In Pembrokeshire it was once the custom to drag 
the corpse in a shift to the chimney top, and then lower 
it again.* This strange custom has been conjccturally ex- 
plained as a " purification by fire " rite, but we venture to 
see in it simply a survival of a time when the dead were 
hoisted through a hole in the roof, for exactly the same 
reason which we have suggested the first-floor back doors in our 
farmhouses were originally made for. 

Haunted Places. Before enumerating the various places 
which among the country people are, or have been, regarded 
as haunted, it is necessary to say a word or two about the 
" Crier of Claife," which has become the stock local haunt 
of all the popular Lake district books. The story does not 
seem to occur prior to Craig Gibson and Miss Martineau, 
between whose accounts there is not much divergence. We 
are told that about three hundred years ago, or about the 
time of the Reformation, a party of travellers were at the 
Ferry Inn, when a cry was heard from the Ferry Nab that 
is the Westmorland side. The ferryman sets off across the 
lake in a storm, and shortly returns dumb with horror. 
Next day he is seized with fever, and dies without giving 

* See " Pembrokeshire Antiquities " Solva, Williams, 1897. 



326 SURVIVALS AND FOLKLORE. 

any explanation. For a long time fearful cries and noises 
are heard every stormy night over the lake ; until finally 
a monk dwelling on one of the islands lays the ghost at 
a quarry, now known as " The Crier of Claife." 

This story strikes us as in great part a modern invention, 
and in this detailed form should probably be looked at 
with as much scepticism as the Ycwdale witch story. We 
should note that while the scene is fixed unmistakably at 
the Ferry, the "Crier of Claife" quarry is over a mile and 
a half away in Hcald Wood. No doubt there was some old 
tradition about fearful cries over the lake, but if these cries 
were heard from the Ferry Inn, coming from the Nab, 
evidently the " Great boat " ferry, why should the haunt be 
laid nearly iwo miles away. Or if the cry happened at the 
Miller Ground crossing, which is not far from the "Crier" quarry, 
how could the people at the " Great boat " ferry be aware of 
it. There never was an inn at the Miller Ground crossing 
on either side ; ant! there is no evidence that that at " Great 
boat " is of very great antiquity. On the whole, we cannot 
help suspecting that the compilers of this story have muddled 
wilfully or by accident two traditions, one probably arising from 
the great boat accident of 1635, and the other, some story of 
the supernatural, localized near the quarry, and most probably 
of quite distinct origin. The fact that the country people 
now know the story, is worthless as evidence, since it has 
been repeated by guide book after guide book for at least 
thirty years. 

The simplest form of haunt is simply that in which a par- 
ticular place bears a bad reputation without there being 
attached to it any distinct apparition. Gibbet Moss, often 
referred to, is of this character, and so long as the stumps of 
the grim gibbet were standing this was easily comprehensible. 
Mr. Taylor, in his commonplace book, says that people 
dreaded it even by daylight, but probably there are now 
many people who are unaware that a gibbet ever stood 
here. Boglcy Crag, overhanging the road just before Satter- 
thwaitc is reached, is thoroughly haunted, although we have 



SURVIVALS AND FOLKLORE. 327 

never heard of any distinctly-recorded apparition. No doubt, 
however, there was such at one time. 

We shall probably not be far wrong in judging that haunted 
places, as we find them in our parish, are simply the result 
of a strange jumbling of actual tragedies and mysteries and 
very ancient folklore, early forms, indeed, of northern super- 
stition ; in fact a murder or a suicide takes place, and the 
people promptly crowd the site, so to speak, with bogeys, 
whose exact counterpart existed a thousand years ago. 

But there is another curious point. Your country ghost can 
be moved, if circumstances arc favourable, from one site to 
another, or from one house to another, and of this we can give 
an example. 

Belmount, built a little over a hundred years ago, has, to 
the best of our knowledge, never been the site of any crime, 
mystery, or tragedy. It has only been unfortunate, and not 
being on the edge of fashionable Windcrmcrc, has frequently 
lain untenanted for long spells of years. Yet it is distinctly 
haunted ; or rather, until a few years ago, when it got 
re-tenanted, a very pretty community of ghosts were strolling 
about it, apparently examining it with a view of taking it on 
a long term. Sometimes at night travellers would see the 
windows brilliantly illuminated, when the house was empty, 
or the gates would fly open as a person passed. Caretakers 
or servants living in the house during the periods of its inter- 
mittent tenancy would hear indescribable sounds at night, and 
in the morning would find all the doors wide open ; and even 
the " boots " at a neighbouring town hotel was, we arc credibly 
informed, nearly frightened out of his wits when he lived as 
a boy, at Hawksheacl, by an apparition here. 

The tall, white-robed female which has been seen by 
ramblers whose curiosity has prompted them to peer through 
the windows of the house, would seem, however, to have 
walked more regularly on the road between Belmount avenue 
and Hawkshcad Hall, or in Scarhouse Lane. But why should 
a modern house, with no grisly tale connected to it, be thus 
afflicted ? 



328 SURVIVALS AND FOLKLORE. 

Some time ago the oldest inhabitant of Satterthwaite told 
us that when working at Hawkshead, as a lad, about 1825, 
he was riding in a cart from Hawkshead Hall towards Gallow- 
barrow, when he saw a tall female figure, dressed well but old- 
fashionedly, suddenly leave the highway and rapidly ascend 
into the air, finally disappearing from sight. The earnestness 
with which the absurd story was told convinced us of the 
absolute faith our old companion had in what he told us, and 
we were remarkably struck when he finished by " There 
nca doobt but ther summat terrble queer about Haaksid 
Hall." 

Here we have a clue. Seventy years ago Hawkshead Hall, 
the manor house, and a place of great antiquity, was universally 
and very suitably believed to be haunted. Belmount was a mere 
mushroom ; but years went by, and it became unlucky, and lay 
often empty. The writer's grandfather bought the Hall, pulled 
down part of the old building, and built a spick and span new 
farmhouse ; whereupon the ghost in dudgeon gave notice to 
quit, and finding Belmount most handy and convenient, a 
quarter of a mile away, it proceeded to locate itself there, 
with the success we have seen. 

Esthwaitc Water, or rather the road which runs along its 
margin, is badly haunted in several places. The most widely 
known and least explicable, however, is certainly the Water- 
side boggle, which has terrified many an honest man on the 
road between the residence called Eeswyke * and the cottage 
at Waterside, which at one time was the Claife Poor-house. 
The apparition here takes a variety of shapes. It has been 
seen as a man in light blue, as an animal neither calf nor 
donkey (a good acquisition, this, for Barnum's " Greatest Show 
on Earth"), or as a white fox or foxes. As a rule the spectre 
is suddenly sighted by a night pedestrian, and when approached 
as suddenly disappears. 

It is worth noting that the Waterside boggle does not 
confine its unsolicited attentions to the uneducated. One 
of the vicars of the parish used to tell his friends how 



* Till a few years ago the residence of the late Mrs, Ogden, and^ known as Lake 
Bank. See p. 44. 



SURVIVALS AND FOLKLORE. 329 

walking one night from Savvrey, he observed, as he 
approached the Poor-house, an old lady walking before 
him, with an old-fashioned bonnet on. It was early spring, 
and the road had been whitened by a slight snow shower. 
The vicar trudged along until he was abreast of the figure, 
and then, thinking she was probably a parishioner, bade her 
" good-night " as he passed. Getting no response, he half 
turned to see who the unsociable old body was, when, to 
his horror, he saw beneath the wide-brimmed bonnet, a 
death-like face, with goggle eyes, which gleamed like the 
red bull's eye at the back of a carriage lamp. The apparition 
then disappeared suddenly, apparently through a gap in the 
wall, up to which the vicar marched, but no trace of the 
figure could be seen. He then looked back along the road 
he had come. The moon was bright, and he noticed a 
strange thing. The snow bore the marks of but one pair 
of feet, and those were his own. 

One form, however, which the apparition assumes, and 
that we believe the commonest, is rather significant. Xight 
pedestrians, on arriving at this part of the road, would sec 
a white calf, and this would suddenly disappear, followed 
at once by a sound resembling that of a cartload of stones 
being emptied into the lake, or sometimes into the road. 
This is uncommonly like the old Teutonic " Barguest," or 
" Barnghaist," who, in different variations, seems to be always 
a big beast and a big noise. Thus " Padfoot," a northern 
county form, was a big animal, sometimes a dog, and the 
sound of a chain," or even worse " trash," a big dog which 
walks with a most awful splashing sound, and sometimes 
sinks into the earth at the feet of the terrified spectator, 
with a noise like that of a heavy stone being thrown into 
the road.t 

Elsewhere we have narrated the story how an old woman 
in the parish, who lived many years ago at the Poor-house, 
asserted that she had, in person, seen and spoken with the 
Waterside ghost, which she made out to be no other than 

* Henderson's " Folklore in the Northern Counties," p. 274. 
( Harland and Wilkinson's " Lancashire Folklore.." 



330 SURVIVALS AND FOLKLORE. 

the wraith of one Roger Dugdale, who was drowned one 
night in crossing the lake from near the How to Water- 
side. Dugdale, she said, was murdered, and she not only 
gave us plenty of particulars, but so manifestly believed 
them, that our first feeling was, that we had run the Waterside 
boggle to earth. A few enquiries, however, only were 
necessary to find out that Roger Dugdale was certainly not 
murdered, but simply accidentally drowned,* and that, indeed, 
the place had a mightily bad reputation before the occurrence. 
Indeed, there seems to have been a suicide considerably 
prior to Dugdale's death, and even before that the place 
was haunted. The old lady's narrative, ghastly and circum- 
stantial as it was, was, however, valuable, for it showed us 
most clearly how uneducated people fix on a local tragedy 
to account for a superstition which may be of remote antiquity. 
One of the most practical of our farmers, a man eminently 
unsuperstitious, told us that it is really most remarkable 
how cattle often become partly panic-stricken near the Poor- 
house, so that it is with difficulty they can be driven past. 
Me, himself, had often had this experience ; and that horses 
continually shy badly here is well known, and has often been 
experienced by the writer. 

Continuing our peregrination of Esthwaite we pass, some- 
where about the foot of the lake, a mysterious, but uninteresting 
headless lady, for no tradition or story seems to be attached 
to licr. On the western margin we find, however, another 
instance seemingly, of the tendency to fix an old form of 
superstition on the site of a tragedy. An old woman is said 
to have been murdered somewhere about the How Farm, 
and, although suspicion fell upon more than one, it does 
not appear that anybody was brought to book. The story 
is that the woman owned a bag of spade guineas, which she 
used to take to the market and count, with the result that she 
was murdered, and the guineas were no more seen. Now here 
comes the interesting feature. Carts passing along the road 



* Mr. Taylor's Commonplace Book gives an account, of the case which leaves no 
doubt that it was an accident. 



SURVIVALS AND FOLKLORE. 331 

at night are suddenly jumped upon by the spirit of old Nelly, 
and no amount of " whip behind " is effectual. This is 
apparently the same as the Scandinavian skrat, whose kinsman, 
or kinswoman, the German schrat, or schritel, was wont to 
jump into carts, which immediately became too heavy for 
the horse. 

Down in Colton, at Klinghcarth Brow, there is a very 
well-established haunt, also of the same character. It is 
well known as the " Elinghcarth Brow clobby." Whether the 
place was haunted before or not, we do not know, but its 
present bad reputation seems intimately connected with the 
suicide of a woman, near here, by drowning. One story is 
that it was in consequence of ill-treatment by her mistress, 
but this is uncertain, and also quite immaterial. The date 
has been given us as about sixty or seventy years ago, but 
this is again uncertain. Anyhow, a female form, clothed in 
white, often has appeared, and, according to the testimony 
of a Rusland man, one of whose ancestors was a carrier, its 
approach was generally heralded by a strange "waffling" 
sound in the coppice near the road. Sometimes it only 
accompanied foot passengers up the hill, but often it seated 
itself in the cart in exactly the same way as the old lady 
at the How, and it " waffled " away as mysteriously as it 
appeared. A very sad story is told about this selfsame dobby 
in Mr. Taylor's commonplace book. I Ic tells how a youth 
of the age of eighteen, one Christopher Cloudsdale, had to 
go from Finsthwaite bobbin mill to the smithy at Rusland. 
His work kept him there till late, and a lot of idle fellows 
standing about plied him assiduously with every tale of 
horror concerning the " dobby " that they could remember or 
invent. The consequence was that when he left, instead of 
taking the Elinghearth Brow road, his direct route, he struck 
on to Grecnhows, an unfrequented barren waste of ground 
dividing Rusland from Windermerc. A bitter snowstorm 
came on, and the unfortunate lad lost his way. When found, 
he was lying dead on his face, and the traces in the snow 
proved that he had wandered miles, but had never gone one 



332 SURVIVALS AND FOLKLORE. 

hundred yards in the right direction. The snow had balled 
on his clogs, and in his panic-stricken struggles he had " brayed " 
them to pieces, and struggled on barefoot until he fell. 

The only other haunt we know in the southern part of the 
parish is the apparition of a murdered child, which is believed 
to appear between the great oak below Graythwaite and the 
head of the hill called Baswicks, near Cunsey. 

Monk Coniston and Skelwith also are not without their 
respective bogeys, and perhaps the best known is the 
Oxcnfell Cross dobby, which frequented a place near the 
road between Ycwdale and Skelwith. Here again we are 
met by one of those circumstantial narratives of A. Craig 
Gibson, which we probably must not believe in too implicitly. 
The story, as Mr. Gibson tells it in excellent dialect in his 
" Folk Speech in Cumberland," lays the scene of the tragedy, 
which he makes to be the origin of the haunt, at a place 
on the lonely track between Hodgeclosc and Oxenfell 
Cross. At this point travellers would at night be startled 
by the sound of a fearful struggle in the darkness ; and 
to explain this, we have a grim tale of a lover murdering 
a rival, who, after a dance, had escorted the object 
of their mutual affections to her home at Tilbcrthwaite. 
Without question the place has had for years a bad 
reputation, but we have not yet met anyone who vouched for 
this story. We have indeed heard of a phantom coach and 
four appearing here, but what has this to do with a murdered 
lover? Phantom coaches, in whatever they take their origin, 
are a perfectly recognised form of apparition, and Mr. C. F. 
Archibald, of Rusland Hall, tells us that the same vague story 
exists about a rough fell- road in Colton. This is a curious 
and inexplicable form of haunt, for it is difficult to see why 
the people should associate coaches and fours with such 
unlikely localities. For it must be remembered that it is only 
within quite modern times that the Yewdale road has been 
made into a coachable road, and the hill-tracks in Colton 
are equally unlikely. 

But whatever the reason, there is no doubt that the uncanny 






SURVIVALS AND FOLKLORE. 333 

is not only often illogical, but even ridiculous. The same 
old resident in whose youthful days dobbies were " aw up 
and down," remembered an absurd haunt at Smartfield above 
Coniston. The site, a certain " hogus " or sheep-shelter above 
the farm, is close, it may be noticed, to the British burial- 
ground on Banishcad or Banniside Moor. The place had a 
bad reputation ; but most strange, inanimate objects sometimes 
became animate, and on one occasion a workman was nearly 
scared out of his wits and driven back to the farmhouse by 
the insane antics of a besom, which, leaning peacefully against 
a wall when he entered, suddenly dashed into the middle of 
the floor and executed a vigorous hornpipe round the terrified 
rustic. 

But ghosts are not, or were not recently, extinct in the 
parish. Hitherto we have ventured to name the localities 
when they were resident, because we were enabled to lay 
them to our own satisfaction ; but now we must be more 
cautious, because, in the following example, we can neither 
explain away nor exorcise the phantom. Upon the margin 
of one of the three lakes which lie within or bound our 
parish, exists a handsome modern house, where, quite recently, 
" a lady in white " walked regularly, and was regularly seen 
by the inmates. This fair shade (for fair all who have seen 
have pronounced her) appeared anywhere in the house, and we 
believe at any hour. She caused no annoyance, was well 
behaved, and, as far as was known, had no history. There is, 
however, a curious thing connected with a lonely farm on the 
fell at no great distance. The farmer was repairing or 
altering a wall of a small outbuilding on a ruined farm 
close by his own. In doing so, he found a skull and 
several pieces of bone embedded in mortar, placed in a hole 
evidently prepared for their reception in the thickness of the 
wall. The skull was examined by a medical man, and was 
believed to be that of a woman. The other pieces of bone, 
which were small, had been sawn in two. What seemed to 
fix the date of this tragedy (for tragedy there undoubtedly 
was) as recent, was that the building had been re-roofed in 



334 SURVIVALS AND FOLKLORE. 

modern times, and if the skull was there when this took 
place, it must have been found by the workmen. This, how- 
ever, does not prove perhaps very much, because it is quite 
conceivable that an ignorant workman on making such a 
discovery would pop the skull back into its resting-place, and 
hastily finish his job, thinking it best not to meddle in such 
a queer affair. But none of this part of the building seems 
very old, and we feel little doubt that the tragedy, although 
unrecorded, is of quite modern date. Curiously the farm has 
been untcnanted for many years, and is now becoming quite 
ruinous. There is absolutely no evidence to connect the 
apparition with the tragedy, but it is curious that the white 
lady is described as dressed in a costume according with the 
probable date of the latter. 

THE EASTER PACE-EGG PLAY. 

The following version, a fragmentary one no doubt, may be 
compared with others in Lancashire and elsewhere. It belongs, 
properly, to Sattcrthwaite, and was formerly regularly acted 
there. Last year (1898) it was taught by Mrs. Hyde, a 
Sattcrthwaite woman, to Hawkshead children, who dressed 
up and performed it at most of the houses round. King 
George is, of course, properly St. George. 

CHARACTERS : King George, Lord Nelson, The Doctor, 
Tosspot, Bessy Brown Bags* 

Tosspot. Stir up the fire, and strike a light, 
And sec these jolly boys act to-night. 
If you don't believe me, what I say, 
Step in, King George, and clear thy way. 
King George. In steps I, King George ; King George, it is 

my name. 

My sword and dagger by my side, I hope to win the 
game. 

* The concluding song shews that there are two Tosspots and two Bessies. The 
duplicates no doubt replace older and forgotten characters. 



SURVIVALS AND FOLKLORE. 335 

Lord Nelson. The game, sir, the game, sir, it's not in all thy 

power ; 

I'll cut thee and I'll slice thee in less than half-an-hour. 
K. G. What is this thou sayest ? 
L. N. What I say I mean to do. 
K. G. Pull out thy purse and pay. 
L. N. Before I'll pull out my purse and pay, 
I'll pull out my sword and fight my way. 
K. G. My head is made of metal brass, my body's made 

of steel, 
My hands and arms arc knuckle-bone; I'll challenge 

thee to feel. 
[Here they fight with their swords. Then enter Tosspot, 

who says : ] 

T. Oh, George ! Oh, George ! what hast thou done ? 
Thou'st gone and slain mine only son. 

Mine only son ! Mine only heir ! 

How canst thou see him bleeding there ? 

K. G. He challenged me to fight, and why should I deny ? 
I'll let him know King George was born to conquer or 

to die. 
T. I'll give five pounds for a doctor; I'll give ten pounds 

for a doctor ; fifteen, twenty, twenty-five pounds for 

a doctor. Doctor ! Doctor ! 
Doctor. Here am I. 
7'. How came you to be a doctor ? 
D. By my travels. 
T. How far have you travelled ? 
D. From Italy, Sicily, France, and Spain, 

All around England and back again. 
T.ls that all, sir? 
D. No ; from the top of yon tally i ocean (? Italian ocean), sixty 

degrees below the bottom, where I saw houses made 

of snow, pancakes for slates, black puddings for 

nails ; even roasted pigs running up and down the 

street with knives and forks stuck in their cheeks, 

crying, " Eat me, eat me ; " for such a living man as 

I should never die. 



33 6 SURVIVALS AND FOLKLORE. 

T.ls that all, sir? 

D. No ; from my grandmother's bedside to the corner cup- 
board, where I got so much bread and cheese, which 
makes me look so bulky and fat. 
T. I wasn't talking about fat. 
D. Neither was I. 
T. What were you talking about ? 
D. About what I can cure. 
T. What can you cure ? 
D. The ickity pickity plague within, the plague without. 

If there's nineteen devils in this man I'll surely cast 
twenty out. 

And I've got a little bottle in my inside, outside, right 
side, left side waistcoat pocket, which my grand- 
mother gave me when I left Spain, 

That will surely turn this dead man to life again. 

Here, Jack, take a little of my nip-nap; 

Let it run down thy tip-tap. 

Rise up and fight King George again. 
L. N. (sitting up). Oh, my back ! 
/j. What is the matter with thy back? 
L. N. My back it is broken ; my heart is confounded, 

Driven into seven senses fourscore, 

Which never saw the light of old England before. 
T. Take him away, doctor ; take him away. 

SONG. 

K. G. Here's two or three jolly boys, all in one mind. 
We've come a pace-egging I hope you'll prove kind. 
I hope you'll prove kind with your eggs and strong beer, 
We'll come no more nigh you until the next year. 

Fal the ray, fal the ray, fal the riddle ar al I day. 

L. N. So the first that comes in is Lord Nelson, you see ; 
He's a bunch of blue ribbons tied down to his knee ; 
He's a star on his breast, like diamonds do shine, 
And I hope you'll remember it's pace-egging time. 
Fal the ray, etc. 



SURVIVALS AND FOLKLORE. 337 

D. So the next that comes in is our jovial Jack Tar, 
He fought for Lord Nelson all during last war ; 
He fought for his king and his country so good, 
He fought for Lord Nelson while he shed his blood. 

Fal the ray, etc. 

T. (enters). In comes I that niver come yet, 
With my lile head and my gert wit. 
If my wit be ever so small 
Me and my Pompey will conquer them all. 
T. So the next that comes in is old Tosspot, you see. 
He's a valiant old fellow in every degree. 
He's a hump on his back, and he wears a pigtail, 
And all his delight is in drinking mulled ale. 

Fal the ray, etc. 

Bessy Brown Bags. In comes I, auld Molly Masket. 
Under my arm I carry my basket, 
Into my pocket I drop my cash, 
And think myself a jolly auld ass. 

B.B.B. -So the next that comes in is auld Bessy Brown Bags. 
For the fear of her money she goes in old rags. 
She has plenty of money, and plenty in store, 
But she's come along with us and hopes to get more. 

Fal the ray, etc. 

All. So here we all are, full five in a row, 
A set of jolly sailors as ever you saw. 
Neither money nor eggs we will not refuse 
Although we are pace-eggers we are not to choose. 

Fal the ray, etc. 

So ladies and gentlemen that sit by the fire, 
Put your hands in your pocket that's all our desire. 
Put your hands in your pocket and pull out your purse 
And give us a trifle you'll not be much worse. 

Fal the ray, fal the ray, fal the riddle ar al I day. 

NOTE. I. Underground Passages. There are two instances of this common belief in 
the parish. One is at the Rawlinsons' old house at Graythwaite, where it is 
believed that a tunnelled passage exists from beneath the thick wall dividing 
the dining hall from the drawing room, to a mount in the garden, which, 
according to Clarke's " Survey of the Lakes," is built over acellar. In the other 



338 SURVIVALS AND FOLKLORE. 

case a subterranean passage is said to run from beneath Hawkshead Hall to 
Furness Abbey, nearly nineteen miles as the crow flies. Though by no means 
equally absurd, both are probably equally untrue. 

II. Saws and Sayings. These have never been properly collected. Mr. T. Taylor 
gives the following in his Commonplace Book, some being no doubt found else- 
where. 

" A wet and windy May, fills the barns with corn and hay." 

" Who doffs his coat on winter day, 
Will gladly put it on in May." 

"A green Christmas makes a fat churchyard." 
"A peck of March dust is worth its weight in gold." 
"If the sun shines not on Christmas day, the apple crop will surely fail." 
Mr. A. C. Gibson gives a variety in a pajier in the "Transactions Lancashire 
and Cheshire Historical Society," from which we reproduce the following as 
belonging to the High Furness district. 

" The towns are finished and the country unfinished," 

which seems to mean that Hawkshead, the capital, has stopped advancing; 
while the fells of Collision, Seathwaite, elc. , are ragged rocks and wild scenery 
to which the final touch has never lieen given. 

" We'll have to borrow Langden lid," 

used in wet seasons, and referring, presumably, lo the excessive rainfall in 
Langdale, and the fact that it is so enclosed with hills that it could be covered 
in like a saucepan. 

"Nowt good comes ower t'Raise." 

This must have lieen said by Amblesiders and Hawkshead people: but is 
shows the traditional rivalry between the people on either side of the past 
(I)unmail Raise). 

III. fenny Green Teeth. This lady is the slime or ooze on the margin of stagnant 
water. She must be a near relative of the German Nixe, a water demon with 
great green teeth, who hid among the reeds of stagnant pools, and lured the 
careless or the melancholy to the death of drowning. 






CHAPTER VII. 
DIALECT, PLACE-NAMES, AND FAMILY NAMES. 

i. DIALECT NOTES. 

THE pages of a parish record are not the place in 
which to attempt to deal exhaustively with dialect, 
because, although it is essentially of local interest, the parish 
area is not as a rule sufficient to have its own peculiar 
dialect. It is indeed the fact that often dialect has slight 
but certain variations in contiguous areas, where there is no 
reason to suspect any difference in blood ; but in these cases, 
there is generally a marked gash or separation of some 
sort in the face of the country, a great river, or a range of 
mountains which has always had the effect of preventing the 
inhabitants from intermingling. 

The barriers which bound Hawkshead are insufficient for 
this purpose. Lakes are easily crossed, and the dales of 
Cumberland and Westmorland are filled with people of the 
same race as Furness Fells. The speech, consequently, is 
what is generally called Cumbrian, and such differences as 
exist from that of the remainder of the fells are only those which 
are brought about by the contact with the folks of plain 
Furness. 

There is indeed a fairly copious literature on local dialect, 
and to this the reader who wishes to study the subject must 
turn.* In the glossaries, he will see how deeply impregnated 
with the Scandinavian element is the Cumberland vocabulary. 



* See list at end of this Chapter. 






340 DIALECT NOTES. 

Mr. Robert Ferguson, indeed, seems to be of opinion that 
of the whole vocabulary in local use, some twenty per cent, 
of the words are Scandinavian, while of words which differ 
from those of ordinary English, sixty per cent, may be perhaps 
of Scandinavian origin.* 

When we come to treat of place names, we shall find a 
marked preponderance of Scandinavian words used to express 
the most characteristic landscape features. But tarn, gill, 
beck, and fell, are living words to-day, as well as place 
names, though to most Cockneys, they would be in a foreign 
tongue. Celtic words, however, are uncommon, and appear 
to be generally confined to certain agricultural terms, articles 
of diet, a few household utensils, personal nicknames and 
epithets ; and these, we may assume, are just the terms 
which would be borrowed by the conqueror for use in 
communication with the conquered. Most interesting, perhaps, 
arc the shepherding terms, which Mr. Ellwood has pointed 
out are all paralleled in Iceland or Norway by nearly 
identical words. The principal of these have been enumerated 
on page 259.! But, as a matter of fact, most words for farm- 
stock and adjuncts, like lathe, midden, yand, or shot, are of 
northern origin. 

There are also certain particles which may probably be 
accepted as purely Scandinavian. At, for the infinitive "to"; 
Fra, " from " ; Intil, for " into " ; Sair, for " very " ; are of this class, 
and are in regular use. 

There probably remains, however, a great deal to do for 
the philologist in the Cumbrian dialects. It may be too 
late, indeed, to collect many unrecorded words, but the 
identification of their real origin is as yet far from satis- 
factorily carried out. Most of the workers in this field 
have been content to collect words and then to look up the 
analogous forms in Icelandic, Norse, and other dictionaries. 
But may it not be taken that a large number of colloquial 

* " Dialect of Cumberland," p. 220. 

f Where it would have been more correct to render the Icelandic smiia ' ' to steam 
after being anointed." 



DIALECT NOTES. 341 

words in these languages are totally unrecorded in their 
dictionaries. The dialect words we have given above are 
used by Englishmen at the present day, but Nuttall's 
dictionary contains neither smit, trinter, giiiuiter, nor latke ; 
yet these words are surely a part of the English language. 
The fact is that when we can bring together a committee 
formed of half a dozen students of Northumbrian, Cumbrian, 
and Yorkshire dialects, to sit in conclave with a similar 
number of workers from Iceland, Scandinavia, and the 
Hebrides, we may look to see the local glossary as it should 
be, but hardly before. 

Here is a curious example of an unrecorded yet particularly 
interesting dialect word, which the present writer has often 
heard. 

Taffle-horn, or Tajjiclwrn, is a sobriquet often applied to 
a weak-minded or thoughtless fellow. Now the meaning of 
this seems pretty clear. Taji (Scandinavian), means dice ; 
consequently, a tajjie-liorn is a dice box, from which 
emanates a meaningless clatter. No local glossary gives this, 
but in Dickinson we find tajflc, to throw into disorder ; 
taffy a weak-minded person."' And though no derivation is 
suggested, it is obvious that to dice and to throw into 
confusion are not far apart. However, tajflc, the verb, seems 
to have got corrupted in Cumbria to sliajfle, for we get the 
word sliajjlelwni with a meaning but little changed, i.e., a 
dull, inefficient person. Sliajjlt:, also, is found in local glossaries 
as the equivalent of our shuffle, to vacillate ; but all and 
every of these forms look like the tajl or dice, and nothing 
else.t 



* Tatty, the nickname, is considered only the short of .David. But it looks rather 
as if it was a Kurness Norseman who rhymed about his neighbour, the aboriginal Celt, 
whom he found in the fells 

Tally was a Welshman ; Tally was a thief ; 
Tarly came to my house and stole a lump oi beef. 

t Toft, in Cleasby and Vigfusson's " Icelandic Dictionary," is defined as borrowed 
at a very early date from Latin tabula, a game like old Knglish "tables," draughts, 
and later, chess, and various other games. The Icelandic form is hneftajl, knave- 
table, and in the game as played in Iceland, dice are cast to determine liow tar each 
piece is to move. Whether, thereiore, taji is properly the board, the draughtsman, or 
the die, it is correct to call the box the ta/liiorn. SAeve{bua.id was presumably so-called 
because played with tabula, taffies, s/iovels, or what you will. 



342 DIALECT NOTES. 

There are certain grammatical forms, and also certain cor- 
ruptions and abbreviations which are always used and very 
noticeable, and of these that which is most heard is probably 
the clipping of " the " into t'. " T hee rooad's a girt way 
rund, thud't better gang by t' fell ; " i.e., " The high road is a 
long way round, you had better go by the fell." It is, of 
course, not peculiar to Hawkshead or even Cumbria. In 
talking " fine " with an " offcome " a dalesidc farmer might 
say " the," but hardly otherwise. 

Another feature is the omission of the terminal " s " of the 
genitive "Jacob lilc me-ar," not " Jacob's little marc." Similar 
to this apocope is the frequent dropping of the word " is " 
in stating a fact. Thus, to the question " Whose mare is 
that?" we get answer "It" (pronounced like " idt ") "Jacob 
lilc me-ar," or sometimes the future " It'll be Jacob me-ar." 

Simple sentences arc often quccrly arranged. Thus, instead 
of saying " Yon's a good cawf" (calf), the regularly used 
form is "It's "(or It) "a good cawf, is yon," thus really giving 
two sentences where one would suffice. 

The slurring or softening of certain terminal syllables is 
usual. "Manage," "managed," become manisk, inanished ; 
and " famished " and " wedded " are fatniskt and weddt. This 
is only a step beyond the accepted slapt instead of 
" slapped." 

Adjectives arc frequently qualified when there is no reason 
whatever to do so. This is part of the excessive caution 
we have alluded to the rooted objection to make a positive 
statement. You greet a dalesman on a soaking day with 
"Wet clay, John." In reply you get " Raydcr wcttish to-day," 
or still worse, " Aye, it a bit soft." There is no limit to this 
tendency to minimize facts. On the occasion of the 1887 
Jubilee a huge bonfire was lit on the moor above Hawkshead. 
The pile contained about thirty cartloads of inflammable 
wood, thoroughly soaked with tar and paraffin. The blaze 
was enormous, and the flames themselves ten feet or more in 
length ; yet one of the men who had helped to build it, a 
true dalesman, who had probably never seen anything bigger 



DIALECT NOTES. 343 

in fires than that upon his own kitchen hearth, after staring 
a bit at it quietly remarked, " Aye, it's a warmish mess is 
yon now." 

Curious phrases are used to express enumeration of quan- 
tity. " A lile few " means hardly as many as there should 
be ; "a gert few," rather more than were expected : " terrblc 
few," hardly any; and " ower few" signifies not as many as 
there should have been. On the other hand " a gcrt many," 
" terrble many," "owcr many," but never "a lile many." 

Porridge, the old staple article of diet, and apparently a 
Celtic word, is always plural. You flavour " them " with salt, 
serve " them " in a piggin, and sup " them " with a spoon. 

In Furness talk long " a " becomes a double syllable, " c-a," 
as "lame" and "cake" le-ame and ce-ake ; while the broad 
"o"in some words, as " home " and "stone," is treated nearly 
in like fashion he-ante and ste-ane. In words beginning with 
" h," like the first, it is, however, frequently more like a " y " 
aspirated, than "he" hyame, and then the sound is nearly 
monosyllabic. " Oa," as in "coal," becomes oo-a coo-nl. 

" Oo," in monosyllabic words, has different local sounds. 
In " nook " and " flook " (a flounder) it becomes dissyllabic 
iie-iik and fle-uk ; but where followed by " 1," as in "wool," 
we only find the terminal letter omitted " wool " and " pool," 
woo and poo. In the same way double " 1, " following " a " or 
" u," is mute, as in pit for " pull," Im or boo for " bull," and ivo 
for " wall." " Ow," when broad, as in " cow," is pronounced 
oo, as coo ; but when the sound is as in " crow " or " know " 
it becomes long "a" era and kna. "Aw," as in "hawk," 
is similar, liak. 

The single " o " varies in dialect as it does in the standard 
tongue. When it commences a word it is generally a " y," as 
yan, for "one;" yak, for "oak." "Mot" becomes het, yet 
"not" is generally nit; "spot," however, remains as else- 
where, and " got," being a participle, is not used, its place 
being taken by git ten. 

"Ha" and "a" at the commencement of a word are 
sometimes sounded like " o " in a similar position. " Hare 



344 DIALECT NOTES. 

is hyare, and " ale " yale. " G," in " gate," is softened, and 
we get yett. 

" Th," when it is found in the middle of a word, is often d or 
dd. Thus, while " father " is /adder, " rather " becomes ravder. 
"V" is often changed into b, and when followed by "en" 
they are sounded like bin elebm, for " eleven." 

"Summer" and "hammer" are generally pronounced, as 
far as the letters in go, in the ordinary way ; but curiously 
a dalesman will sometimes, when talking " fine " that is, to a 
southerner, or to a person of superior education change the 
sound to ;;//; siunbcr and liamber. 

"Al," as in "calf" and "half," is aw cawf and hawf. 

The conjugation of verbs in the dialect grammar is most 
irregular, but we have no space to give the variations here. 
As a typical example we may quote : 

Present. Past. Past Participle. 

Brust (burst) Brast or brost Brossen or brosten 

It has been noticed that in the Cumbrian dialects there 
are an excessive number of words for the actions of striking 
and beating. This may be due partly to the descent of the 
inhabitants from the pugnacious Vikings, and partly to the 
unsettled condition of the border counties in more modern 
days. Dickinson has enumerated nearly a hundred such words 
in his Cumberland glossary, and many of these are common 
to High Furness. 

There are also a number of remarkable expressions in use 
which to the stranger seem totally meaningless ; but Mr. Craig 
Gibson derives them, seemingly correctly, from Roman Catholic 
expletives. Goy and goyson, gock and gockson, appear to be 
"God" and "God's Son"; cocks wins is "God's wounds"; 
and cocks wunters or cocks winters must be " God's wonders." 
These arc all exclamations of astonishment in common use, 
and there are others similar. Dine is the ordinary form for 
"damn." 



PLACE-NAMES. 



345 



II. HAWKSHEAD PLACE NAMES. 

In the following lists we endeavour to deal with the place 
names of the parish. In recent years, however, Lake district 
nomenclature has received considerable attention, and it 
is not necessary to enter deeply into the general question 
here. All we need remark is that Celtic forms are very 
rare, and that where they occur there is some reason to think- 
that they are sometimes Manx or Irish introduced by the 
Norse settlers. The great mass of the roots is Teutonic, 
and it is now generally conceded that throughout the Fells 
the place names are largely Scandinavian, and contain forms 
closely allied to the Icelandic. 

There is, however, no doubt that among a large number of 
affixes and suffixes there arc Danish and often Anglo-Saxon 
equivalents ; and even the words which some writers on local 
names have given as Norse " tests," will hardly bear scrutiny. 
" Garth," containing the hard guttural, may be accepted as 
Norse : but " hause " and " holm " have both Anglo-Saxon 
forms ; while " ton " and " ham " put often forward as 
characteristically Anglian and Saxon, both occur in Iceland. 

Nevertheless, the main features of the landscape in Hawks- 
head are nearly all Norse in name. All streams are " becks," 
each valley is a " dale," each moor a " fell " ; while the lesser 
lakes are " tarns," and the ravines arc " gills." " Scale," 
"thwaite," and "hag," record the results of Norse colonization ; 
and these eight words enter very largely into the nomen- 
clature of our parish. 

Although De Quincey was the first to point out the 
Scandinavian element in Lakeland names, the late Mr. Robert 
Ferguson may properly be described as the pioneer in this 
particular branch of enquiry. But Mr. Ferguson's work, as 
must be the case with that of all pioneers, while indicating 
broadly the main lines that the enquirer must follow, left large 
patches on his chart which little by little must be filled in 
by local workers in detail. Later students suggest that 
he finds an undue number of settlers' personal names ; and 



346 PLACE-NAMES. 

probably this may be the case. But it should be remembered 
that the derivation of place-names is, and must remain, a 
very uncertain matter. Names which can be plausibly 
derived in three or four ways are numerous, and to us it 
seems unduly arbitrary to lay down as certain, the derivation 
of many such words. There is no doubt that settlers' personal 
names do enter into many local place-names ; and such as 
Ami in Arnsidc, Finni in Finsthwaite, Haitkr in Hawkshead, 
and Hrolfr in Rusland, appear tolerably certain. Yet there are 
numerous names where similar derivations are at least doubt- 
ful ; and the following list embodies such words as may 
contain personal names, although some arc certainly capable 
of other explanations. Those marked with an asterisk * are 
especially doubtful, for most of them arc but little known 
as regular Norse names in the Sagas, although they may 
have been used as nicknames, or among the Danes. 

AMEL, HAMF.L or HAMIT.L. Ambleside still called Amclset or 

Hamclsid : perhaps also Great Ilamlin Head. 
ARNI, Arnside and Arnsbarrow. Apparently corrupted to 

Iron, in Ironkcld, near Arnside, and Iron Crag, near 

Arnsbarrow ; but possibly from Orn (genitive arnar), an 

eagle. 
*BAKKI, Bakestone Barrow. Backbarrow, opposite to which, 

over the Lcvcn, arc Back Heights ; not, however, a 

recognised Norse name. 
-BANNER. Bandrake Head ; in old documents, Banryghead. 

Like the last, does not seem to be known. (See " Band," 

in Glossary). 

FiNNR, in Finstliwaitc (Finns-thveit). 
HARRI and HARALD. Harrow Slack, close to Harewood 

Hows (Harold's How ?). Harry Guards Wood and 

Harry Intake may be modern. 
HASTIN. Hasty Mire; possibly only hesta-myrr, horse 

pasture. 
HAUKR, Hawkshead. The old form should be Hauks-saetr 

or Hauks-sidha, though an old spelling suggests Hakonar 

or Hakons-sidha. 






PLACE-NAMES. 347 

HRAFN, in Ravencrag (if this is not from the bird), and 
in Ravenstie, temp. Henry VIII., but now lost. HRAMN, 
another form of same name, perhaps in Ramphall and 
Ramstcad Coppice. 

*HRANI (nickname). Randy Pike, Renny Park, and Rcnny 
Crag. Might also be from rani, a projecting tongue 
of hill (sec "Pike" in Glossary). 
*HROI, Raw End and Rose Cottage. Very doubtful (see 

" Raise," " Rose," and " Raw," in Glossary). 
HkOLFR, Rusland in time of Henry II. was Rolesland, from 

the Normanized form Rollo. 
:|: HVATI (nickname), Waterbarrow. But the Norse sound of 

Hv renders it doubtful. 

KLEPPR, Clappersgate. Hut the terminal / should have 
been lost in the genitive (Kleppsgata). Klnppar= stepping 
stones, is suggestive. 
KOLLI or KOLK, Colwith and Colton (but see " With " and 

" Ton," in Glossary). 

LAMBI (PLamb, nickname). Lammer Slangs. 
*LlNA Linsty Green ? 

LjOTK. Light How (Ljots haugr), now Light Hall. 
ORMR. Wonnhole Hill. Either Orm's How or Serpent's 

Hole. 

SuLVl. Silver Holme (Solva-holmr). 

*SPORR. With a genitive sfarrar; (nickname), Sparrow How. 
SvEIN. Swinsty How. 
THORSTEIN. Thurstan Water. Temp. Henry II., Tiirstini 

watra. 
TOKI. (Tocka was also a twelfth century Furness Monk), 

Tockhow. 
^'VADI. ( ? a nickname), Wadbarrow. 

Probably there are other names or nicknames, though 
they arc difficult to identify. Rook How, Sweetcnthwaitc, 
Bletherbarrow,f and Spark Hridgc, are all suggestive, and we 
recommend them to the scrutiny of students of Norse, for 



t " Bleyda bjar^," Coward's Hill ? 



348 PLACE-NAMES. 

whom there is indeed a regular mine to be worked among 
names of fields and minor features in the Lakes. Such 
enquirers, however, should bear in mind that however, Scandi- 
navian they may find any district, it would be absurd to 
suppose that every place was baptized in the days of Norse 
colonization. No doubt the local dialect remained full of 
purely Scandinavian words for many years, possibly centuries, 
and, although the dalesmen may have lost the olden grammar 
of the Vikings, they may have long continued to have named 
their clearings and steadings in the old Saga fashion. But 
every " thwaiie " and " side " is not a thousand years old ; nor 
must we necessarily reject a Norse derivation because it breaks 
a rule in Icelandic grammar. 

In the two Glossaries which follow, are comprised (i.) the 
lew Celtic forms which occur, and (ii.) those of Teutonic 
origin. Both are alphabetical, and short as they are, it has 
not been thought necessary to sub-divide them grammatically 
or in subjects. The distinctive and generally descriptive 
syllables are given, and under each the different place-names 
in which it is combined. The figures in brackets denote the 
sheet of the six-inch Ordnance Survey on which the name 
occurs. Names not under these heads, mostly of later date, 
we shall mention after the Glossary. 

GLOSSARY No. i. CELTIC WORDS. 

BOIREANN (Irish). Properly a piece of rocky ground ; but 
applied to a place with a ruined building. It has been 
suggested that this word is found locally as " burn," and 
that it has been introduced by the Norse from Man. 
Greenburn, and Greenburn Beck, just without our parish, 
are close to tlie old law hill in Little Langdale. The 
Roman Camp at Ambleside is in Borrans field ; and a 
borran, or borrant, is a cairn. Possibly it remains in 
Burntriggs (2), Burn Knotts and Burntwood (8), the two 
being on the line we have suggested for a Roman road 
from Ambleside to Ualton. 



PLACE-NAMES. 349 

BRAID (Irish). A gorge : may survive in Brathay (2), the 
district undoubtedly taking its name from the river. 
If so, the Norse settlers added a (water). 

CAER, or CAIRN, possibly in Carron (5). 

CARRAIG, or CARRIG, in Crag. This may be taken as un- 
doubted. Examples : Calf Crag (i), Man Crag (2), or the 
Rock Crag ; Renny Crag (2), possibly Hrani's Crag ; Boon 
Crag (4) (Pen Crag?); Boglcy Crag (5), Cat Crag, Crag 
Head, and Iron Crag (7), the latter probably being Ami's 
crags ; Charlie Crag (8). Another example with a Norse 
personal name, is probably Raven or Hrafn's Crag?(i). 

FRITH. The name of an intake on Hawkshead moor, belong- 
ing to the Hawkshead Hall estate. Frith undoubtedly, as 
an inland word, means " wood," though the place is now 
bare moorland. Halliwcll (" Diet, of Archaic and Provincial 
Words") quotes, "Also there is difference between the fryth 
and the fell," etc., "Noble Art of Venerie," 1611, p. 98. 
Welsh ffridd, a wood, J. P. Morris, "Glossary of Words 
and Phrases in Furncss." 

GLAS. Irish for "stream": may exist in Glass Knot (8), on Bell 
Beck. In the Bloomsmithy decree, the Finsthwaite fishery 
is called Dulas, probably diibli-glas (black water). This 
word may, like boireaiin, be an importation from Man. 

LEVEN, the river, and Beck Lcven (4), are seemingly cognate 
with a Celtic word ior stream. The Manx l/iuig (Gaelic 
linne] may perhaps be traced in Lin Bridge (8), but in 
Lindeth Wood (12) we find more probably, O.N., liiui, lime, 
or linden. 

MAN (Celtic, macii). Applied to a rock or heap of stones 

on a hill top. Man Crag (2), High Man (5). 
MEAYLL (Manx) and MEALL (Gaelic), meaning a bare headland, 
possibly survives in Oatmeal ( ? Out-meal) Crag (5). This 
should not be confounded with Norse words meaning 
sandbeds (jiieols}. 

PARK, ETC. The numerous parks of Hawkshead parish arc 
of mediaeval origin, and have been treated elsewhere. 
It has long been in common use as applied to small 



550 PLACE-NAMES. 

enclosures, under the form " parrock." It may be a loan 
word of Celtic origin (cf. Irish, pairc) brought from Man 
by the Norse settlers. It is not found in Iceland. 

I'KKL may have the same history. It is well established 
in Cumbria, and in Hawkshead is found in Peel Island. 
It always signifies a fortified site. 

PEN. Both Cymric and Gaelic A hill. This almost certainly 
occurs in Pen Intake (4), and in Pcnrice or Penres 
( ? Pen-raise or Pcn-rcth) (5). Pinstones (5), on Windermere, 
is more doubtful. With B, instead of P, we have Ben 
wood (7) and Benthause? (ll). Boon Crag, near Coniston 
Watcrhcad (4) may possibly be really Bondi's crag, but 
it may be compared with Bonchcster, near Jcdburgh. 

UlSGE. Irish and Gaelic for water. Uskdale gap. 



GLOSSARY No. II. TEUTONIC. 
O.N., Old Norse. A.S., Anglo-Saxon. 

A. Norse; EA, A.S.; principally a suffix for a river. It is 
found in Braitha(2), where it may be compounded with Celtic 
braid ; or it may simply be " broad river." Cunsey 
Beck (5), perhaps Ko mngsa King's stream. A common 
old spelling was Cunza. Arklid (7), on the Crake, may 
be Ar-klidlir, the murmur of the streams, or Ar-ktettr, the 
rock of the pools (cf. Clitherbcck, in Danby), but see 
under " Hlid." " A " possibly exists in Sawrey (5) ; Sourer 
temp. Kd. III., though we hardly think that saur muddy, 
or clayey is applicable here. See under " Wray." 

BAND. Both O.N. and A.S. for a fastening or boundary, 
applied to an elongated ridge of fell. Yewband (i). 
Bandrake (7) is most probably Rand-hryggr. 

BANK occurs in Sagas as a place-name, and explains itself. 
We have Priests Bank, and Break Bank (8) i.e., Brekka 
Bank, the sloping Bank ; Brock Bank Woods (8) and 
Tottle Bank(ii). " Tottle " is a puzzle : it suggests Toft, 
a Danish place-word, hardly locally known : or Tuthill, 



PL A CE-NAMES. 3 5 1 

a look-out place, a suggestion of Dr. Christison.* A 
more common-place, but perhaps more common-sense, 
derivation is Todhole Fox earth. Toft, however, is 
possible, as it is old established for " farm steading." 
Bank ground is named after a family of Banks. 

BARROW. O.N., berg or bjarg, and also Anglo-Saxon forms ; 
the first meaning a hill or rock only, but when found 
with a proper name it may often signify tumulus. Some- 
times, but we do not think locally, barrow represents 
burg, a fortified house. We have Brockbarrow (7) (badger 
hill), Gallowbarrow (2) (gallows hill), and Latterbarrow 
(2), apparently Liitm-bjarg, the hill where the animals 
lie (see " Latr "). In Arnsbarrow (7), Backbarrow (12), 
Wadbarrow (2), Watcrbarrow (5), and peihaps Blether- 
barrow (7), we have perhaps the sites of sepulchral hills 
with names of the occupants (see list). Bakestone barrow 
(i) seems to be the barrow by the "ton" or homestead 
of Bakki. Skowbarrow (8) contains cither skogr, a \v< ocl, 
or skiir, a ridge. Ycwbarrow (8) is possibly Ulf's barrow, 
and Legbarrow, which has been suggested to be the 
Law mount (Logburg), mi\y equally well be Lug bjarg, 
or the hill in the glade (sec " Lag "). 

BECK. O.N., bckkr, the general word for a brook. Generally 
an affix, as Canker Beck (2), but occasionally a suffix, 
as Beck Leven (4). 

BELL. Common in Lakeland, and is conjectured, perhaps 
wildly, to be evidence of some carl}- cult, Celtic, or 
possibly Semitic, cf., Baal, beltain ; bal, O.N., a sacrifice, 
etc. It is perhaps found in Hclvellyn. Bell has probably 
more than one origin, and in the lower ground, like 
Furness, may be from Scandinavian ball, a grassy bank. 
We have Bell beck (4, 7, 8), Bell Intake (8), Bell 
Wood (7), and Bell Moss (8). Some of these probably 
take name from a Bell family. 

BlRK. O.N., bjork, a birch, and birki, a birch-wood. Birk 

* " Early Fortifications in Scotland," p. 16. 



3S 2 PLACE-NAMES. 

Knott, Moss, and Paddock (8), High Birk (4), Birk 
Row (7), Birkley Moss (5), Three Birks Wood (5). 

BUTTS occurs once (8). Probably only allotments of common 
field, but possibly from Budh (see below). 

Bunil. A booth, O.N., remains in Bouth (12), and probably 
in Stockbird-IIcad close by (12), Stokkr-bAdh-had (see 
also Stock). Bcthccar (7), formerly Bothacar or Bottocar, 
is, \vc think, Budliar-kjarr, the copse of the shanties. 
Possibly also in Butts. 

BY. The Danish is by, but the Old Norse form was beer 
(genitive b(cjar\ which dropped the terminal r, the sign 
of nominative in pronunciation, and was sounded like 
by. In large groups by is no doubt Danish : but 
scattered examples, as with us, may well be Norse. 
Newby Bridge (8) is probably late mediaeval, while 
Nibthwaitc, being Neburthwaite in time of Edward III., 
is probably i/y-lxcr-t/ircit, or more grammatically ny- 
bcejar-thveit. 

CALK. As in Man and Iceland, with signification of a hillock 
by a hill, or an islet by an island. Calf Crag (i) 
below Long Fell in Ycwdalc. 

CAM. Norse, kambr, with meaning of a ridge. Cam stones 
(2), Cam Wood and Brow (5). The ridge of stones on a 
wall arc the " camb." 

CAR or CAKR. O.N., kiarr, copse or grove in Bethccar (see 
under " Btidh "), and possibly, but not probably, in Carron 
(5), which we have mentioned in Glossary No. I. 

CLAIKK. O.N., klcif, a cliff. There was Adam Clayfe, 
temp. Edward III. 

CLOSK. With its present meaning in Hodgeclose (i), Rake 
Close (5), (see also " Rake,") and Bull Close (2). The 
last raises a question discussed under Pull. " Close " is 
not, however, a recognised O.N. word. 

COTT or COTE. Not specially Scandinavian. It is found as 
a place-name suffix in Low Furness, and just possibly 
as an affix in Colthousc. The High Furness farms in 
the time of Henry VIII. were called " herdwicks and 



PLACE NAMES. 353 

shepecots," and a shed or waiting room at the Ferry, 
in old deeds, is always a " cote house." 

COL. O.N., kollr, a peak. K oil-tun or Colton, a farm on 
a peak. Colwith is either the wood on a peak or the 
wath or ford near the peak ; either is applicable. There 
are, however, the personal names Kolr and Kolli. 

CRAKE, the river (11), is no doubt the same word as our 
Creek. The Norse krcekja to wind, seems closely akin, 
but, as a stream name, it seems unknown in Iceland : 
so Crake may be pre-Norse. 

CROFT signifies a ditched field, similar to a close. N., grafa, 
to dig, whence peat graving at present day, and our 
grave. We have Gill Croft (4), and Wood Crofts 
(12). But Croft, like Close, is probably of comparatively 
late application. 

DALE. dalr, O.N., and Icelandic, connected with dcila, to 
divide. It has been suggested that " dalesman " does 
not come immediately from dalr but from " dale," a 
division or portion of common land. In "dealing" cards 
this meaning is preserved : and the Norse and Cumbrian 
dales piobably mean valleys allotted or dealt out to 
different owners. We have Yewdalc (i), which probably 
had always its modern meaning, for in the time of 
Henry II. we find Yedale beke (Furncss Coucher Book). 
Uskdale (i), where it is compounded with Celtic uisge 
water. Dale Park (5), Dales wood (4), and Grisedalc 
(5), no doubt Gris-dalr, wild pig valley. 

DUB. A piece of standing water less than a tarn. The 
Scandinavian forms djup, etc., seem only to be applied 
to pools ; but in Man it has the same meaning as in 
Cumbria. We have Dubs (i), Out Dubs (5), a pool out 
or distant from its big neighbour Esthwaite ; Doup Moss 
(8) near Rusland Pool, and Clough Dub (8) (pronounced 
Cloo), a waterfall on Dale Park Beck. " Clough " is a ravine 
or a wood (Halliwell). 

EES. Ees (5) and Strickland Ees (5) are promontories on 
Esthwaite Lake (Eesthwaite), now nearly, and probably 
24 



354 PLACE NAMES. 

at one time quite, surrounded by water. Ees How (5) 
is a hill at the foot of the same lake. The O.N. for 
island was ey ; and the usual form we find in North 
England is the affix ey, as in Walne.y. Probably these 
three hillocks were known in early mediaeval days 
collectively as the Eys, and the clearing around as 
Eysthwaitc : but in later times, when the land became 
divided among different estates, it was forgotten that 
the form was plural, and each hillock retained the 
terminal s. 

FELL. Icelandic for a hill, and fjall for a range of hills ; 
locally for all hills. There arc the high and low fells. 
Oxcnfell (2) has a parallel form in Norway; High Park 
Fell, Ausin Fell (8), and Wanefell Beck (5). 

FLES. In Iceland a green spot in the hills. Flass (11). 

FORCE. -fors, O.N., and in Iceland the regular word for 
waterfall. Force beck, forge and mills (8). 

FOLD. There are both Icelandic and A.S. forms. Some 
writers consider it an enclosure of felled timber. Skel- 
with Fold (2), Foldyeat (5), Sawrey Fold (5). 

GATE, or YEAT. O.N., gata, a road. Clappersgate (2) (see 
under Norse names), Bellgate Moss (8), Outgate or Out- 
ycat (2), the place where the road leads on to common 
land ; and Stonygate (5), Buckyeats (8) (compare Back- 
barrow). 

GlLL. O.N., 77, -the regular word for a stream in a ravine, 
and used in same sense in Man and Iceland. Tom Gil 
(2), Gill Croft (4). Thurs Gill (2) is the Goblin's Ravine, 
whether in Old Norse or Old English.* 

GRAIN found in Farra Grain (5), seems to be like the Ice- 
landic grein, a division. Farra Grain Gill may be Fjor- 
greina-gil four branches gill. 

GROUND. The origin of this word as a farm name under 
monastic rule is discussed elsewhere. Though grund 

* A capital name for such a gloomy place. Tfiyrce, T/tussi, Tkurs the Goblin 
is preserved in the Northern Hobthrush. See notes on the various forms in the 
" Reliquary," Vol. IV., pp. 134, 135, and 209. Thursa Gil would be the original 
O.N. form. 



1 



PLACE NAMES. 355 

in Iceland is found as a farm name, there is no reason 
to think that any of our " grounds " date back to the Norse 
settlement. It shows, however, that the Norse terms 
remained in use. We have in all collected fifty-six farms 
so named, but the following are in Hawkshead : Atkin- 
son, Bank, Berwick, Dixon, Dodgson, Holme, Kcene, 
Knipe, Rawes, Rawlinson or Rownson, Roger, Sand 
(Sandys), Sawrey, Thompson, Townson, Walker, and 
Wattcrson Grounds. 

GUARDS or GARTH. From O.N. gardr, plural gardhar, a 
fenced enclosure. The English "yard" is soft, from the 
A.S. form, gcnrd. We have Garth, Harry Guards Wood 
(i), Pullgarth (2), and Guards (4). The last syllabic in 
Elinghearth appears to have a different origin. 

HAGG. Pasturage, both in Iceland and Furncss. Hagg Wood 
(5), and Hagg Scar (8), and possibly Haybridgc (8). Com- 
pare Hague, Haigh, and our hedge. 

HAM. Common in Anglian districts, but, as hciinr, found 
in Norway and Iceland. Blclham (2), the name of a 
tarn, is very doubtful, however. Edward Blcalclme, 1606, 
in the Parish Register ; so that a family may have given the 
tarn its name or taken theirs from it. Perhaps it was 
Blealholm. 

HAMMER. O.N., liainarr, a crag. Hammerhole (5). 

HAVER. O.N., liafrar, oats, in Haverthwait (oatlands clearing). 

HAUSE. O.N. and A.S. lidls, a neck, applied to a depression 
between ridges of fell. Benthause ( 1 1 ). 

HEALD Like the A.S. forms, //<?//, wold, and weald, signify- 
ing Woodland. Hcald Wood on Windermere (2), and 
Heald Brow on Coniston (4). 

HELL, as in Hellpotbridge (11), from hella, to pour. "Hell" 
is, however, open to various derivations. 

HLIDH O.N., fellside. Hdrg(s)lidh, holy place fellside, has 
been suggested for Ark-lid (7), but another derivation 
(see under " A ") seems preferable. 

HOLM. O.N., liolmr, an island or low ground liable to be 
flooded round ; sometimes locally applied to a steading on 






35<5 PLACE NAMES. 

a stream bank. Holmes Head (2) is possibly from an 
owner, but Beeholme (2) on Windermere and Elterholme (5) 
on Esthwaite are narrow-necked promontories. The first 
is possibly Vt< holmr, temple or holy house holm. Silver 
Holme (8), perhaps also Blelham. 

How. O.N., haugr, a hill, not necessarily sepulchral, but 
probably often so when associated with a Viking name. 
Such may be Sparrow How (5), Tock How (2), Light How 
(now Light Hall) (8), while Raise How (2) is simply kreysa- 
haugr, cairn tumulus. We have also How (5), Ees How 
(5), Pierce How (i), Howgraves (2), Howdiggings (?), How- 
head (4), Satteihow (5), scctra-haugr (but see "Saetr"), 
and Swinstyhow apparently Svein-stigi-haugr, Swein's- 
hillpath-hill (see "Sty"). 

Tarn Hows (i). This name has caused much miscon- 
ception. Nowadays it is more generally applied to the 
sheet of water than to the adjacent farm ; but in the 
Parish Register, 1 598, under spelling Tarnhouse, we find 
it certainly applied to the latter. In 1656 it becomes 
Tarnhows, and later Tarnchowes or Tarnehows. The 
guidebook fraternity, however, and other exploiters of 
the Lake District know only the beautiful sheet of water, 
which they advertise as Tarnhause, because " hause " is a 
hollow in the hills. This form is, however, their own 
invention. Until the dam was made and the level raised 
there were three tarns, and they were called "The Tarns" 
or " The Three Tarns," and no doubt the fellside where 
they arc, Tarn Hows or Hows-intake. 

No doubt the farm got its name from the adjacent 
lakelets. We incline to think that the 1598 spelling is 
the original one, identical in form with Highhouse; but 
if Tarn Hows it is pure Norse, from the hilly ground round 
the farm steading. 

The Domesday name for Furness Hougun has been 
derived from haugr, but it is doubtful. Hougenai seems 
to remain in Walney (Island). Walney Scar is uncer- 
tain ; it may mean Hawks Scar, 



PLACE NAMES. 357 

ING. O.N., eng : meadow, may be preserved in Grassings 
Coppice d). 

INTACK (Intake). As Pen or Castlehow intack ; common 
and of comparatively modern date. 

KELDA. O.N., etc., a well, spring, or beck source. Iron 
Keld (2), Arna-kelda, i.e., Ami's spring. 

KNOTT. O.N., Km'itr, but with parallel A.S. form, a knuckle- 
like hillpoint. Knott Scar (5) (see " Scar "), Glass Knott (8), 
the stream knott, with Celtic prefix. Great Knott (7), 
and Birk Knott (7). 

LAG. See under " Ley." 

LAND. O.N. and A.S. We have Rusland = Rollos, or Holfsland 
(Rolesland, temp. Henry II.), and there is Riisland in 
Norway; Crosslands (8); and Rhudland (5), i.e., perhaps 
rand-land, " red " or " rud " with iron ore. Ireland moss ( 1 2) 
? Irishman's land moss. 

LATTER. O.N., Idtr, where animals lie, or lay their young ; 
like our " litter." Latterbarrow (2), Idtra-bjarg. Hulletcr (8), 
possibly ulfa-ldtr, wolf-lair. 

LEA, LEY, and LAG. Lag, leg, etc., both O.N. and A.S. forms. 
So "lie" in the vernacular is "lig," and Asmunderlcy 
once was Asmunderlag. Birkley Moss (5), and Stricelcy 
Wood (8), the Lag (i), and Lag Parrock (8), Logwood (7). 
Legbarrow Point (il), the south promontory of Furness- 
fells, may be fieldbarrow. 

MERE. We hesitate to pronounce on the origin of our only "mere." 
One of the best suggestions for Windermere is a personal 
name, Onundarmyrr (Onund's mere), formed like Asmun- 
derley. But if this is correct, Canon and Ravens Winder, 
Windyhow, and the surname Winder, have still to be dealt 
with. 

MlRE. With same meaning, myrr, in Iceland ; Hasty mire, 
Long and Cringle Mires (8), (circle mire). See " Hastin " in 
list of names. 

NAB. More correctly, knab, like Icelandic knappr, but there 
is also the form- nabbi. Applied to headlands on Winder- 
mere, we have Rawlinson Nab (5), evidently recent ; Red 
Nab (2). 



358 PLACE NAMES. 

ODD. Icelandic, oddi. Greenodd (Graenoddi) (u). 

PlKE. A pointed hill : is found in Randy Pike (2). See 
" Hrani " in list of names ; but possibly modern corruption of 
Reynold. Piaka, O.N., is to pierce, and Pik was a nick- 
name. So " pike " may be fairly modern. 

PULL. O.N., pollr, a pool : but there are similar Celtic words. 
Generally as in Pool (5). Steers Pool and Rusland Pool 
(12), the slackwatcr of a beck in low ground. The derivation 
of Pull Wyke (2), a bay on Windermere, we think question- 
able, because not only is there Pull Garth close by, but 
the beck falling down the fellside is Pull Beck, and high 
up the fellside, near its sources, we have Pull Brow and 
Pull Scar. It is difficult to fancy that the name has thus 
climbed the fell from the bay on Windermere ; and when 
we find, at no great distance from Pull Scar and Brow, a 
farm called Bull Close, the question arises if we have not 
really, in this series, the root bol, another name for a 
dwelling, cf. Bolstadher, in Iceland (Saga of the Ere 
dwellers). As pull and bull arc "poo" and "boo" in 
dialect, the confusion seems likely. The stream running 
into a pool-like bay, might easily add to it. 

POT. O.N., pottr ; properly a hole worn in the rocky bed of 
a torrent, but applied locally to any circular water-filled 
cavity, or depression. Like " dub," it was late in use. Priest 
Pot (5) and Hell Pot (n). 

RAISE. O.N., hreysi, a cairn (generally sepulchral). Raise 
How (2), Hhreysa-haugr. Penros, a field near Kecnground, 
was spelled Penres, temp. Henry VIII., and Rose cottage, 
or castle, a modern building, is close to Raise How. But 
the word rose is obscure. Hross, O.N., a horse, and r/ws, 
Welsh, a moor, have been suggested. Roose, near Barrow, 
however, is locally pronounced Ree-as, which looks like 
raise. 

RAKE. Icelandic, rcik, a walking or going. Reika, to walk, and 
reka to drive. An " outrake " is a fellside sheeptrack. 
Rake close (5). Bandrake head (7) is doubtful, and has 
been mentioned under " Band." 



PLACE NAMES. 359 

RAW. In Raw End (5). Very uncertain ; perhaps Row end, or 
" raa " (?) damp. Less likely is the personal name Hroi. 

RIDDING. Probably a mediaeval form, though we have O.N., 
A.S., and Icelandic, rydia, rjodr, and riddan, to clear. It 
is much like thwaite in meaning, though the latter seems 
to be applied to the clearings for the homestead itself. 
Riddingjis common about Colton ; Riddings (8), Kiddings 
coppice (2), Riddings Wood (5), and Riddingside (i i), Allen 
Riddings, (5), Abbot Riddings (12), Roger Riddings (8), and 
Cow Riddings (11). Rhudland is doubtful. 

RlGG. O.N., hryggr, with a parallel A.S form. A rigg is still 
a ridged hill. The Riggs (7), Burnt Riggs (2), Rigg Wood (5), 
and Rigg Scar (7). Rigg Wood, however, may be named after 
the family. Bandrakc is probably baiid-liryggr. " Rig " is 
mentioned in the 1196 boundary between Collision water- 
head and Crake river. 

SATTER. From the O.N., sietr, a homestead, or, more par- 
ticularly, a dairy farm. Compare our country "scat" and 
"settlement." Satterhow (5) and Satterthwaite are quite 
clear, but the pronunciation, as well as variations, in old 
spelling of some old names, as Hawkshead and Ambleside 
(pronounced Hakset and Amelset) raise confusion between 
s&tr, sidka, and /iced. As the old spelling teaches little, 
we are thrown back on the position of the sites. Thence 
we judge Ambleside and Hawkshead to be s<s?fr, and 
certain fellside farms to be sidlia (which see). 

SCALE. O.N., skali, a hut or booth, as for a woodman or 
shepherd. Scale Ivy (5) and Scale Hill (5). Skclwith is 
skal-vidlir shedwood. Scale Green (5), however, is 
probably from the Scales family. 

SCAR is either skard/i, a notch, or skiir, a ridge, with local 
meaning of a cliff face. Knott Scar (5) and Rigg Scar 
(7) are characteristic ; we have also Hagg Scar (8) and 
Scarhouse (2). 

SEL. O.N., Icelandic, and A. S. forms. Generally a small 
habitation, farm steading, or, perhaps, shepherds' huts. 
Selside (7) (see sidlid) and Sales (7). 



360 PLACE NAMES. 

SlDHA. Fellside (homestead), as noted previously, very difficult 
to distinguish from scztr and heed. Arnside (2), from its 
position, is doubtless Arna-sidha, and it probably remains 
in Sidehouse (7) (sidha-haugr ?) and Selside (7). Hawks- 
head, in old documents, has the last syllable both "side" 
and "set." 

SlKE. O.N. and A.S. forms. Signifying a watercourse liable 
to run dry. Sike Side (2) and Hannikin Sike (2). Black, 
possibly Blakkas' sikc (8) and Broadsike (8). 

SLACK. O.N., slakkr, a slope, still in use when meaning of 
a hollow, often boggy. Harrow (Haralds?) Slack (5), Slack 
(5), Slack Cross and Wood (5), Ashslack (8), and Longslack. 

STANG. O.N., siting, is found in Stang End (i), Stang Moss 
(7), and Lammer Stangs (8). 

" Stang " is good local dialect for a wooden pole or 
beam, and was no doubt formerly used for a wooden foot- 
bridge. The bridge over the Brathay is now on the 
Ordnance Survey, Stang End Bridge, but no doubt was 
originally only The Stang, and the farm became Stang End 
from its position. This is carried out by the entry in the 
Parish Register, 1672, which refers to the Pool Stang 
near the gibbet. This must have been the old wooden Pool 
Bridge, as there was not then, nor is there now, any other 
feature near Gibbet Moss which could bear a name. 

STOCK. O.N., stokkr, A.S., stoc, with the meaning 
apparently of a log hut or stockaded enclosure. The 
" Stoke greene " (lost now as a place name) was the 
rendezvous for the insurgents at Hawkshead in the 
" Pilgrimage of grace." It was " beside Hawkeside kirke." 
We have Stocks (7), White Stock (8), Brim Stock (5), 
from its site on the fell edge, and Stockbird Head (12). 
stokkr-budh-h<zd=stoc\izd&d booth hill. 

STEAD. O.N., stad/ir, with cognate A.S. form, and common 
in Iceland. A residence or abode. Ramstead (2) is 
Hramnsstadhr. Bowkerstead (7) perhaps is beyka- 
stad/ir=Cooper's stead ; and Barkhouse Bank close by, 
may contain the same name. 



PLACE NAMES. 361 

STY. In O.N., stigi, and A.S., a rough hill track. In 
Furness a ladder is a " stee." Breasty Hall (5;, Linsty 
Green (8) (see under Leven) and Swinsty How (8), Svein- 
stigi-haugr. (Jstick moss (5) may be Ulf's sty or stigi, 
retaining the guttural Norse terminal. 

TARN, O.N., tjorn. The ordinary Lakeland word for a 
small lake. Tarn Hows (2), Blelham- (2), Allen- (7), and 
Bortree (Elder-tree) (8) Tarns. 

THWAITE. O.N., thvcit. In Iceland a field sloping to a level, 
but usually explained as a forest clearing, and hence an 
enclosure. We have Cooperthwaitc (2), Lonethwaite (2), 
probably lann or Hidden thwaite ; Esthwaitc (5) (Ees- 
thwaite), Graythwaite (5), possibly from the name Grctti, 
or else only " 1'oor man's " thwaite ; Finsthwaite (8), 
Finni's clearing ; Satter, Sunny, and Sweeten thwaites (5), 
Thornthwaitc (5), The Thwaite (4), Kirkthwaite, and 
Thwaite Head (8). Nibthwaitc (7) has medieval forms 
Newburthwait and (temp. Ed. III.) Neburthwait (sec " By 
baer ") ; Ickcnthwait (8) has, among other old forms, 
Yccornethewayt, which has been explained as Squirrels' 
thwaite ; Tilberthwaitc was spelled (temp. Rich. I.) Tildes- 
burgthwait, and is supposed to be tjald-borgar-thveit 
tent-fort-clearing (compare Tjaldastadir (Icelandic) and 
Tildcsley in Lancashire); Havcrthwaite (12) is liafmr- 
tliveit oatlands clearing. 

TON. Isolated examples, as found in the fells, ma}- well be 
Norse. As tun it is well known in Iceland, and is paral- 
leled by the border " town." Colton (7) may be cither 
the farm on the koll or hill, or Kolli's town ; Collision 
konungs-ti'tn King's town, and old spellings bear this 
out ; Monk Coniston is the part of the valley in the 
monks' manor; Bakestone (i), Bakki's-tun (?) ; . Tunwath 
(Penny Bridge) ; and Broughton was just outside of the 
parish. 

TONGUE. Both O.N. and A.S., a tongue-shaped hill. Tongue 
Intack (2), Tongue Wood (5). 



362 PLACE NAMES. 

WATER. O.N., vatr and vatn. The majority of the larger 
lakes are "waters." Elterwater (i) may be either Eldertree 
lake or perhaps kolda-vatr, the Statesman's Lake ; Conis- 
ton Lake formerly was always Thurstan Water, from 
Thorstein, Turstini watra (temp. Henry II.) ; Esthwaite Water. 
WATH. O.N., vad/i, a ford, exists probably in Blawith. Col- 
with, Skelwith, and Lindeth are, however, with more 
probability derivable from With (which see).* 
WYKE, etc. O.N., vik, a bay. Pull Wyke (2) and Robin Wyke 
(5). Kiddockwood (2), on Windermere, is possibly kelda 
vlk , and Baswicks (,5), also close to bays on the lake, 
may be only where perch were caught. 

WlCK. In Lowick, the only place name containing "wick," 
we seem to have the same Saxon word as in Herdwick 
and Bailiwick. Low-lying village is applicable ; but the 
O.N. veggr, a building, and vegr, a way, should be borne 
in mind ; the old spelling, Lofwic, should be noted. 
WITH. O.N., vidhr, a wood. Colwith, Skelwith (2), and Lin- 
deth (12) (see " Wath," " Col," " Scale," and " Lcven ") ; Bla- 
with, being just over the Crake river, is more probably bld- 
vadli, blue (stream) ford. 

WUAY. O.N., ra, a nook. Wray (2), Birkwray (2) ; but Savvrey 
(5) we have mentioned as possibly containing a = water. 
Placed, however, as it is at the south corner of the same 
fell which terminates at its northern end at Wray, may it 
not be Sudr-rd, i.e., South Wray ? 

In conclusion, a few names may be mentioned which are 
not covered by the above glossary. First we give a few 
puzzles words concerning which no very plausible origin has 
suggested itself to us. 

Hanikin (2), a point on W'indermere, and Hannikin (5) near 
Hawkshead. The latter in the Register is Hanikin, or Anny- 
kin Sike. Ausin Fell (8), the Crams Wood (n) and Moss 
(12) on Rusland Pool, Argent Close (5), Scutching House (5), 
and Hecate Scar (5); Roam Moss (12) and Roam Wood; 
Scab Moss (2) and Moss Eccles Moss 15). 



* Elsewhere it has been shown that Penny Bridge was Tunwath (7'iin-vad/i). 



PLACE NAMES. 363 

There are a few other queer names which have a more modern 
sound, but are equally difficult to explain. They are Shive 
(slice) of Cheese (8), Wise-een-Moss (5), Goosey Foot Moss (5), 
Round Table (5), and Spy Hill (7). 

Names marking some peculiarity in situation arc of course 
common. Outcast Coppice (5), outlying from its farm ; Park- 
a-moor (4), the enclosure in or on a moor ; Crooks (8), from 
the windings of Rusland Pool ; Scavy (or rush}') Mere Moss (5) ; 
Canker Beck (2), where the water is tinged with iron ore, like 
canker or rust ; Wall in Green and Wallet Wood (Wallhcad 
Wood) (8), close together, may show the forgotten site of 
some ruin, the place being about on the line of the presumed 
Roman road ; Glcad (or kite's) Nest (8). 

Besides the numerous grounds, many other names contain 
those of former owners. Such are Allen Tarn (7) and Ridding 
(5), Charley Crag (8), Hodgeclosc (i), Penny House (i), 
Strickland Ees (5). Castlchow Intack is where the Castlehows 
had their hut ; Water Barnctts (2) is an intack where the road 
from Outgatc to Skclwith crosses that from Amblcsidc to 
Coniston. It is, possibly, Walter Harriett's (intake), for it 
should be noticed that while " water " in dialect becomes 
" watter," "Walter" is changed to "Water." 

The Cross (5) and Grasslands (8) may mark the sites of 
wayside crosses, but High Cross (2) and Oxcnfcll Cross (12) 
are only cross roads. 

Priest's Bank (8), Pot (5), and Wood (5), and Abbot('s) Oak 
(8), Park (7), and Ridding (12) tell of the days of monastic 
rule. Gallowbarrow (5) was the site of the monastic furca ; 
Gibbet Moss of the later felon's gibbet. 

Justice Scar (8) takes, no doubt, its name from some local 
magnate, as Bishop Wood (5) was the property of Bishop 
Watson (Llandaff), whose estate lay across Windermcrc. 

Devil's Galop (5) and Bogley Crag (5) arc sites of local 
superstitions, and Holywell Wood (8) no doubt the site of 
some spring regarded with superstitious reverence. Sepulchre 
Wood (2) we have elsewhere suggested may have been the 
site of a Quaker interment. 

Names from industries are not common. Tenter Hill and 



364 FAMILY NAMES. 

Tenter Close (2) show, no doubt, where locally-spun cloth 
was stretched to bleach. Galloway Lane (5) is perhaps where 
the villagers first caught sight of the strings of pack-horses 
or galloways entering the valley from Ulverston. Names 
with " ash " and " cinder" in them are common in Rusland and 
Colton, and generally mark the sites of ancient iron bloomeries. 
Ashslack, Cinder Hill (8), Ashes Bridge (8), Ashes Wood (12). 
The bloomery heaps at Low Dale Park and Farra Grain are both 
locally known as Cinder Hill. Great Ore Gate (5) is the track 
by which the pack-horses carried in the ore to the Cunsey 
Forge, and Klinghearth seems to be the hearth where wood 
ashes or charcoal arc made (see West's " Furness," 1775, Ap- 
pendix IX., where he explains "eling" thus). 

Guinea Hill, New South Wales, and China Plantations are 
all on Grisedale Moor. They are larch woods, all, conse- 
quently, of modern date, and named no doubt by the Ainslies, 
who had been much connected with the cast. 

III. FAMILY NAMES. 

We have said something elsewhere about the clan system, 
as we have ventured to call it ; but in the following pages 
we give alphabetically the thirty-eight families, the names of 
which occur most frequently in the Register from 1568 to 
1704. All these arc mentioned in the Register over seventy 
times, and all were resident within the limits of the parish. 
With them are included, for special reasons, seven other names 
which occur less often. These are Rawes an'l Blumer, which 
seem indigenous, although they disappeared early ; Redhead and 
Swainson, which are characteristic of Furness Fells, although 
their centres arc on the boundary of the parish not within 
it, so that they registered elsewhere. Fell is included, 
though locally scarce, for reasons that will be given. Bouth, 
as a surname, occurs prior to but not in the register, and 
Finsthwaitc still occurred just out of the parish in the Cartmel 
district till the eighteenth century. 

The names may be classed in four distinct groups : 
(i.) Patronymics, ending in " son " ; (ii.) names taken from 
sites of habitation, or place names ; (iii.) names derived 



FAMILY NAMES. 



365 



from occupations, (iv.) names derived from personal characteristics, 
and nicknames, and (v.) Norse names. Under these headings 
we subjoin them ; but several in the place-name list are not 
certain, and these arc so marked. One of the patronymics is 
characteristically Norse, and appears also under that heading ; 
and Redhead may be either place-name or nickname. It is 
highly probable that all these families, with a few exceptions 
(Nicholson, Borwick, Sandys, and Strickland), have been Furness 
stocks ever since surnames became hereditary, and probably 
most of them took their rise within the limits of the Parish. It 
will be seen that there is nothing specially Scandinavian 
about the list. The " sons " are very numerous, and this was a 
Scandinavian form. But to attempt to derive them, as has 
been done by some authorities, from Scandinavian, Maesogothic, 
or Frisian originals, when almost all arc direct!}' paralleled by 
modern Christian names and their abbreviations, appears to 
us very far fetched. 

Place Names. Patronymics. Occupations, Nicknames. Norse. 

Keen ? Ashburner ? 
Redhead ? 

(Swainson) 



Banks 


Atkinson 


Blumcr 


Borwick 


Benson 


ffishcr 


Bouthe 
Braithewaite 

Fell 


Dickson 
Dodgson 
ffrearson 


Taylor 
Turner 
Walker 


Finsthwaitc 


Harrison 




Holm 


Hirdson 




Kirkley 
Knipe 
Mackereth ? 


Hodgson 
Jackson 
Nicholson 


ffrearson } 
. (friars' son ?) ' 
1 Herdson 


Pennington 
Penny ? 
Redhead ? 


Rawlinson 
Robinson 
Swainson 




Rigge 


Tomlinson 




Ravves ? 


Townson 




Sandys 
Satterthwaite 


Waterson 
Wilson 




Sawrey 
Scales 






Strickland 







366 FAMILY NAMES. 

Analysis of the family names of Hawkshead parish, the 
probable derivation, the location of the stock, and the number 
o f occurrences in the parish register, 1568 to 1704: 

ASHBURNER (209). It has been conjecturally derived from the 
charcoal smelting industry : but the Norse name Asbjorn 
makes genitive Asbjarnar ; and it seems possibly a 
patronymic from which the " son " has been dropped. 
Compare Swinburne and Ashkettle and the forms Svein 
Bjorn and Askctil. The home of this family, though it 
was fairly numerous, appears south of the parish. 

ATKINSON (269). Atkin dim. of Adam. Widely spread in 
the parish. Eltenvatcr Park, Monk Coniston, Stot 
Park, Outgatc, Kclhousc, etc. 

BANK(S), BANCK(S), BANKKS (272). Possibly contracted from 
Bankhousc. It may be of purely local origin. It left its 
name at Bank-ground in Coniston. 

BF.NSON (489). Foster, in his ''Lancashire Pedigrees," deduces the 
descent of the Bruthay Valley Bcnsons from a Yorkshire 
family, Lords of Ryssup in the twelfth century. We know, 
however, no evidence of this, and from their numbers would 
consider them of purely local growth. Benson may have 
originally been Bcnnctson, Furncss Abbey having been at 
first Benedictine, i.e., of the Order of St. Benedict or St. 
Bcnnct This old 'statesman stock was seated chiefly at 
Skehvith Fold, Bull Close, and Stang End in Hawkshead, 
but extended into Westmorland, where they owned Bays- 
lirown Manor, and estates at Loughrigg, and Hugill near 
Windermere. Some branches of them married with the 
important local families of Braithwaite of Ambleside, Gilpin 
of Kcntmerc, Sandys of Graythwaite, Preston of Holker, 
Rawlinson, etc., and in all the older documents concerning 
Hawkshead they figure conspicuously. There was another 
stock of Bensons at Blackbcck, in Colton. 

BORWICK (133). This family probably sprang from Berwick, 
near Lancaster. In the parish they existed at Monk 
Coniston, Hawkshead, and Fieldhcad, and they left their 
name at Berwick Ground. 



FAMILY NAMES. 367 

BOUTHE (DE) occurs in the Furness Couchcr book early in the 
fourteenth century. There is no occurrence in the older 
Register book. 

BRAITHWAITE, BRAYTHWAIT, BKATIIWAIT, BRATWHAT, 
BRATHATE, etc. (2,513). This, the most numerous and 
characteristic of our surnames, did not probably originate in 
the parish, but must have sprung from one of the north 
country villages of the name. The suggestion that they 
took their name from the Brathay is valueless, the terminal 
" ay " being quite distinct from " thwaite." The most 
important stock of this family was at Ambleside Hall, just 
beyond our limits, and they and collateral branches became 
large landowners in Westmorland. But the name was so 
deeply rooted in Hawkshead, that it is probable that these 
squirarchal families were but branches of the Furness Fell 
stock which had risen to affluence. A good idea of 
the geographical distribution of this family can be got 
from the "Calendar of Richmond Wills," 1457 to 1748 
(Record Soc.). By tliis we find that out of about one 
hundred and seventy-seven wills of Braithwaites, about 
one hundred and twenty-four are of Hawkshead Parish. 
There are no less than thirty-five which can be identified as 
of inhabitants of Sawrey, nine of Wray, six of Skclwith and 
vicinity, four of Brathay and vicinity, and of the remaining 
seventy, a considerable number are not specified as of any 
particular part of the parish, and probably mostly belong to 
the Sawrey clan. The Skclwith, Wray, and Brathay groups 
are, perhaps, to some extent, offshoots of the Ambleside 
stock; but the Sawrey group (Briers, Satterhow, Harrow- 
slack, etc.) is so strong that it may well have been the 
earliest settlement of the name. 

UlCKSON, DlXON (284). The name Richard would, no doubt, 
give rise to several stocks, so that we find it widely spread. 
It is found at Satterthwaitc, Keenground, and just out of 
the parish at Tilberthwaite. They left their name at three 
Dixon-grounds one in Coniston, one at Dalton, and the 
local one at a farm which about 1700 became amalgamated 



368 FAMILY NAMES. 

with High House, the old name of the present writer's 
home. 

DODGSON, DODGHSON, DODGHSHON, DODSON (433). The best 
derivation is, like Hodgson, from Roger's son. But there 
are early mediaeval forms, Dodo, Dadi, etc., which render it 
uncertain. About half of the wills under this name in the 
Richmond Calendar are from Hawkshead. They left 
their name at Dodgson Ground, and were also at Hawks- 
head, Hawkshead Hill, Nibthwaite, and elsewhere. 

FELL, FFELL. It is very interesting to observe that while in 
Ulverston and Low Furness, the Fells swarm, they are in 
High Furness very scarce. No doubt there were several 
original stocks of the name living on the lower fells, 
just above plain Furness. These men, in mediaeval times, 
when surnames became fashionable, were known, no 
doubt, in the Dalton market and on the more thickly 
inhabited plain, generally as John or William " of the 
Fell," and hence the name. Right in the fells, as at 
Hawkshead, it would not be distinctive to designate a 
family thus, and, consequently, the Fells are scarce, and 
no doubt those which occur had migrated north. 

FINSTHWAIT(K), FINSTHWAYTE, FINSTWATE, FINSTWHAT, 
FlNSTAT. Not in the oldest register book, but must have 
originated in the parish. There are eight wills in the 
" Richmond Calendar," all of Cartmel, Carke, or Staveley, 
in Cartmel, between 1597-1711. 

FFISHER, FISHER (205). Though fairly numerous, there are few 
local wills, and the family probably came from the 
shores of Morecambe Bay whence their name. 

FFREAKSON, FFREARESON, FFREARSONE (199). The name may 
be Friar's son. Frere, and le or del Freres, occurs in 
the Furness Coucher Book, temp. Richard II. and Edward 
ill. Few wills in the "Richmond Calendar," but most 
of the earlier are from this parish. 

HARRISON(E), HARRINSON (127). Like Dickson, common 
throughout Archdeaconry of Richmond. In Hawkshead 
they belong to Colinpit, Low Wray, How Head, Tarn Hows, 
Waterhead, etc. 



FAMILY NAMES. 369 

HIRDSON(E), HERDSON, HYRDSON, HURDSON (96). In the fells 
every man was a " herd " or flock master, so the name 
is fairly common. Hyrde and Herde also occur, but 
Shepherd and Coward (cowherd) are not common. Most 
of the Herdsons are from Colton, and about half of 
the wills in the Archdeaconry are from the parish. 

HODGSON, HODSON, HODGEON, HODGSIION, HOODGSON (247). 
Presumably Roger's son. Roger was a popular name in 
Furness in mediaeval times, as the Abbey Coucher Book 
shows. The name is common in the Archdeaconry, but 
found locally at Tarn Hows, Bouth, Gallowbarrow, Hollin 
Bank, Watterson Ground, Tilberthwaite, Oxenfell, etc. 

HOLM(E), HOLMES (789). Took their name from some Holm 
(see Glossary of Place-names), perhaps, but not necessarily, 
on the coast. Holme Ground was the centre of the settle- 
ment of this stock, and they are found at most of the 
farms round it, both within and without the boundary 
of the parish. Also at Claife, Outgate, and Colton. 

JACKSON (254). So universal that it needs no comment. 
Chiefly at Park and Elterwater Park. 

KEEN(E) (294). On this name, which seems to be almost 
peculiar to the parish, we can venture no opinion, 
although the probability is, it is a Norse adjective. 
Found chiefly close to Hawkshead, at Keenground, 
Thompson Ground, etc., but occurs also at Yewtree, 
Cowpark, and Oxenpark. 

KIRKBY(E), KIRKEBYE, KIRBY (289). They appear to be all 
branches of the Kirkbys, of Kirkby, in Furness, who 
strayed north-east. Hollin Bank, Rusland, Monk Coniston, 
and Sawrey Ground. 

KNIPE, KNYPE, KNYPPE, KNYPP (412). No doubt from 
" Gnipa," a peak. Gnype, temp. Richard II., in the 
Furness Coucher Book. The family may have sprung from 
a place of the name in Broughton, but it is most com- 
mon in Cartmel and Hawkshead parishes. About one- 
third of all the wills are from the latter. They left their 
2 5 




370 FAMILY NAMES. 

name at Knipe Fold, and occur also in Monk Coniston, 
Grisedale, and elsewhere. 

MACKRETH, MACKERETH, MACKARETH, MAKRETH, MAKERETH, 
MAC(E)RETH, MACRETHE, MACKETH (796). The origin of 
the name is obscure, and we hesitate to pronounce upon it. 
Compare Magrath and McReath, but the analogy is 
doubtful. 

A very characteristic local name, about twenty-six 
out of thirty wills in the Archdeaconry being from 
Hawkshead, so that the family may be autochthonous. 
Chiefly found at Sawrey, Skelwith, Outgate, and Thompson 
Ground. 

NICOLSON, NICHOLSON, NICKOLSON (100). Son of Nicholas. 
There were five generations of Nicholsons at Hawkshead 
Hall in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries ; and 
among others a branch at Lowson Park. There is reason 
to think they came from the Kendal or Amounderness 
districts in the fifteenth or sixteenth centuries. 

PENINGTON, PENNINGTON, PEMINGTON, PENIGTON (78). 
Either an offshoot of the Pcnningtons of Pennington, before 
their migration to Muncastcr, or an independently originated 
'statesman stock. The colony was chiefly in Colton, 
Bandrakehead, Cowridding, Longmirc, Oxenpark, etc. One 
of this Colton stock married a Rawlinson, and in one 
of Dugdale's visitation pedigrees a shield bears in the 
second quartering, Or 5 fusils in fess sa. 

PENNY, PENNYE, PENEY, PENNEY (83). The derivation of the 
name is a crux, but apparently contains the Celtic " pen." 
The clan belongs to the Crake valley, and gave name 
to Penny Bridge, at the end of the sixteenth century. 
Nearly all the Richmond wills are from this district, 
and out of the thirty-five, about eleven are on the 
Hawkshead side. In the parish, Colton, Bouth, White- 
stock, Nibthwaite, Yewtree, Tarn Hows. Besides Penny 
Bridge, they left their name at Penny House, in Yewdale. 

RAWLINSON(E), RAWLINGSON, RAWLISON, ROLLINGSON, 

ROWLINSON, ROLLINSON (213), or with ROWLANDSON, 



FAMILY NAMES 371 

etc., which may be the same (257). -- This is 
apparently a purely local stock. The natural deriva- 
tion is from Rawland, or Rowland, but it is most 
interesting to note that the whole family centres 
round Rusland, which, as we have seen, was still Roles- 
lande, temp. Ed. III. It seems quite possible that we 
have Rollosons of the original Norse stock, and Rollo- 
son is indeed very nearly the modern local pronunciation. 
As an armigerous family they existed at Graythwaite and 
Carke Hall, in Cartmel. Their name was, however, widely 
scattered in the parish, but they were most numerous in 
Colton (Greenhcad and Rusland). Also at Grisedale ; 
while they left their name at Rawlinson Ground. 

REDHEAD, READHEAD(E), RIDDHEAD^O). A purely local stock, 
but its centre was just out of the parish, over the Crake. 
(Blawith, etc.) The name was also common at Nibthwaitc. 
It may be a nickname, or possibly Riddhcad, a place- 
name with same root as in " ridding." 

RlGG, RlGGE (1,631). From " rigg," the name of some place 
(see Glossary). This is the second strongest Hawkshead 
family, and out of one hundred and forty-four Richmond 
wills, ninety-seven are from the parish. They seem of 
purely local growth, and were chiefly located about the 
town, where, in fact, few farms were not, at one time 
or another, inhabited by a Rigge. Further afield they 
were found at Satterthwaite, Sawrcy, Haverthwaite, Water- 
son Ground, Penny Bridge, etc. They strayed to Bouth 
and Nibthwaite, but seldom left the parish. Keen ground, 
till the beginning of last century, belonged to the Rigges, 
now of Wood Broughton, in Cartmel. Like Braithwaite, it 
is now rare. 

ROBINSON (125). Diminutive of Robert. Common all over 
the Archdeaconry. Locally strong in Colton. 

ROWES and RAWES (7) Though only seven occurrences in the 
register, all but two are prior to 1589, and as there was 
once Rawes Ground, near Hawkshead, they seem to be a 
local family, becoming early extinct. The derivation is 



372 FAMILY NAMES. 

most doubtful, but is possibly a corruption of Raw House, 
Damp House (?) ; but see " Rose," etc., in Glossary of Place- 
names. 

SANDS, SANDES, SANDYS (761). The family came from the 
Cumberland coast, where they took their name from the 
sands, "del Sandes." Settled at Graythwaite about fifteenth 
century, but found also at Bouth, Hawkshead, Grisedale, 
and Finsthwaite, all no doubt of the same stock. 

SATTERTHWAITE (numerous spellings) (1,539). A place-name 
(see Glossary). The woodland clearing settlement. This 
is the third most prolific stock, and, of course, quite 
local. The name seems to have spread less than the other 
great families, and out of eighty Richmond wills, seventy 
belong to the parish. At Satterthwaite itself, they were 
however, in the sixteenth century, less strong than else- 
where, being found also at Sawrey, Colthouse, Parkamoor, 
Roger Ground, etc. Colthouse was, however, their strong- 
hold, and the family there (still represented) have long 
been members of the Society of Friends. 

SAWREY, SAREY, etc. (830). Like the last, a local place-name 
(see Glossary), but not so prolific as Satterthwaite and 
Rigge, and now nearly extinct. In the time of Henry 
VIII. they existed as an armigerous family at Graythwaite, 
but migrated to Plumpton Hall, near Ulverston, being 
supplanted at Graythwaite by the Rawlinsons. Originally, 
of course, at Sawrey, but out of sixty-one Richmond wills, 
there are only five of Sawrey members of the family, 
although no less than forty-three belong to members of 
the family within the parish. Another branch, evidently 
closely akin to the Graythwaite branch, from the identity 
of Christian names, were of Sawrey Ground and High House, 
but both became extinct at the end of the seventeenth 
century, and both little estates passed by a female heir 
to the Swainsons. They are also found scattered over 
Monk Coniston and Fieldhead quarters. The name is 
now rare. 



FAMILY NAMES. 373 

SCALE, SCALES, SCHALES, SKELE (274). Named probably from 
Scales, a village in Aldingham (see " Scale " in Glossary of 
Place-names), but seem to have migrated early to Hawks- 
head parish. They were at Grisedale, but most numerous 
in Colton, at Bowkerstead, Thwaite Head, etc. The latter 
family is still represented by Robert Scales, of Satter- 
thwaite (see pages 310 and 313). 

STRICKLAND (190). Probably a branch of the Westmorland 
Stricklands. The local colony was in Colton, chiefly at 
Ickenthwaite, Rusland, etc. 

SWAINSON, SWENSON (14). The name is perhaps the best 
example of a purely Norse surname Swein's son. The 
stock belongs, properly, to the fells of North Lancashire, 
but only made its appearance as a Hawkshead family 
on the marriage of Christopher Swainson with the last 
of the Sawreys of High House in 1692. They were, 
however, very numerous about the Crake Valley and in 
Cartmcl Fell, and the Ulverston parish register index 
contains nearly two hundred references to the name. 
They appear to be purely local in origin, for we find 
a Henry Fitz Swain, one of the thirty sworn men in 
the twelfth century dispute about the Abbot's boundary ; 
also John Swaynsone, Inq. P.M., Will de Coucy, Lord 
of half of manor of Ulverston, temp. Edward III. 
(Furness Coucher Book). Mr. Collingwood makes the 
hero of his Norse romance about Coniston, Thorstein 
Sweinson, discover Thurston Water in 934. 

TAYLOR(E), TAYLEK, TAYLIOR, TAILOR(E), TAILER (649). 
Probably the meaning is tax or due collector (cf., Taillage, a 
tax, Anglo-Norman, Halliwell). The stock is very numerous 
locally, but by no means confined to the parish. The 
name occurs in various forms in the Coucher Book of 
Furness Abbey. In the parish it belongs especially to 
Finsthwaite (Plum Green), but is found in other parts 
of Colton and at Sawrey. 

TOMLINSON(E), THOMLINSON (190). From a diminutive of 
Thomas ; by no means confined to Hawkshead, but found 
locally at Grisedale, Hawkshead, Roger Ground, etc. 




374 FAMILY NAMES. 

TOMPSON, TOMSON (85). From Thomas, common everywhere : 
but they left their name at Thompson Ground. 

TOWNSON(E), TOWNESON, TOWENSON(E), TOWSEN, TONSON(E) 
(363). Either a contraction of Tomlinson (Robert Townson 
or Tolneson occurs in the Richmond Calendar), or else 
from Anthony, i.e., Toneyson. They left their name at 
Townson Ground, the site of which is now occupied by 
Tent Cottage. 

TURNER (241). An occupation name. The Commissioners' 
certificate (37 Henry VIII.) mentions " sadeltrees, cart- 
wheels, cuppes, etc., wrought by Cowpers and Turners." 
Chiefly found in south half of the parish, which was 
woodland, i.e., Colton, Rusland, Satterthwaite, Nibthwaite, 
Haverthwaite, and further north at Outgate and Knipe 
Fold. 

WALKER (432). Evidently an occupation name like Turner. 
A walker and a walk-mill are respectively a fuller and 
a fulling-mill. The name is widely spread, but they have 
left their name at Walker Ground, near Hawkshead. 

WATERSON, WATTERSON (113), or with Walters and Wattson, 
which may be contractions of the same (125). Waterson 
is the first stage in the process of contraction from 
Walter's son to Watson, and the stock seems peculiar 
to Hawkshead, three out of four Wills in the Richmond 
Calendar belonging to the parish. Though not very 
prolific, we find Waterson Ground, near Outgate. 

WlLSON(E), WILLSON(E), WiLLSONN(E) (283). From William. 
A common name both in Westmorland and Furness. In 
Hawkshead, at Colton, Rusland, Oxenfell, Fieldhead, Skel- 
with, etc. The family of this name, who have been for 
several generations at High Wray, came, about 1728, from 
Langdale. 
With these should perhaps be classed Blumer, which has 

fifty-six entries in the register, and these being early in the 

volume, it appears that the family became extinct. The name 

is always spelled with the mark of contraction over it, 

Blumer, but it is most probably an occupation name, i.e., 






FAMILY NAMES. 375 

bloomer, or a worker of iron blooms in the bloomery forges. 
It seems commonest in the south part of the parish, where 
we know these works were. 

But there is a very interesting series of surnames in the 
register, of an entirely different origin to those given. They 
are Godmunt or Godmunte, Mozer or Moser, Phemcke, 
Puthpker, Pughpker or Poughpker, Raylesley or Relsle, and 
perhaps Russell. These arc names brought into the lakes, 
in the sixteenth century, by the German copper-mining 
colonies at Keswick and Coniston. The names got curiously 
mauled, and altered locally, as the register shows.* 

In concluding this chapter, we must ask the reader to 
excuse the continuous use of the words " perhaps," " probably," 
and " possibly," in those pages which treat of place-names ; 
but in the present state of the study they are certainly 
unavoidable. Below we give a list of works which cover 
dialect and place-names locally, and to the opinions of the 
various writers we have liberally helped ourselves. To Mr. 
W. G. Collingwood, however, who knows Iceland well person- 
ally, and has especially studied the comparative forms of 
place-names, we are particularly indebted : and he has most 
kindly read over and made suggestions for the pages which 
treat on place-names. Nevertheless, the reader must under- 
stand that the " shots " at derivations, for which the present 
writer is responsible, are fairly numerous. 



DIALECT. 

i. DICKINSON, W. " Glossary of Words and Phrases pertaining to 
Dialect of Cumberland," English Dialect Society, 1878. A 
new edition by Dr. Prevost, of Gloucester, is now being 
prepared. 

Among the less common Christian names in the first register book we find Abra- 
ham, Ambrose, Balthazar (Pughpker), Barnard, Bartle and Bartholemew, Cornelius, 
Ferdinando, Gawen, Hopkin, Huan, Jenkin, Jepthah, Jeremiah, Johnathan, Joell, 
Josuah, Lament, Nathan, Oswald, Renald, Sander, and Theophilus. Amongst the 
women, Barbary, Bathsheba, Christibel, Deborah, Dinah, Ealse, Emmas, Emmott, 
Gebaye, Gilliane, Judeth, Luck, Magdalen, Naameh, Oliedience, Prudence, Rachel, 
Radagunga, Rebecca, Rosamond, Tomalin, Towsy, and Zuriall. 



376 FAMILY NAMES. 

2. ELLWOOD, REV. T. "Lakeland and Iceland," Dialect Society, 1895. 

3. FERGUSON, ROBERT. "The Dialect of Cumberland," 1873. 

4. GIBSON, A. C. "The Folk Speech of Cumberland," 1880. 

5. MORRIS, J. P. " A Glossary of Words and Phrases of Furness," 

1869. 

6. PEACOCK, R. B. " A Glossary of the Dialect of the Hundred of 

Lonsdale," Philological Society (ed. Atkinson), 1869 ; 
and the dialect poets Stagg, Sanderson, Lonsdale, Anderson, Rayson, 
and Richardson. 

PLACE NAMES. 

1. BARKER, DR. HKNRV. "Furness and Cartmel Notes," 1894. 

2. COLI.INGWOOD, W. G. "Thorstein of the Mere," 1895. "Some 

Manx Names in Cumbria " (Cumberland and Westmorland 
Antiquarian Society, XITI.). "The Vikings in Lakeland," 
Viking Club, 1896. 

3. ELLWOOD, REV. T. "The I^indnama Rook of Iceland, etc.," 

1894. 

4. FERGUSON, ROBERT. "The Northmen in Cumberland and West- 

morland," 1856. 

5. MOORE, A. W." Surnames and Place Names in Man," 1890. 

6. SULLIVAN, J. " Cumberland and Westmorland, Ancient and 

Modern," 1857. 







CHAPTER VIII. 
BIOGRAPHIES. 

"" I ^HOSE whose biographies we give in brief in the follow- 
*- ing pages may be grouped as follows : 

(1) Persons born in the ancient parish; 

(2) Persons descended from local families, but not neces- 

sarily intimately connected in life with the parish. 

(3) Persons who have settled in the parish or have been 

closely connected with it some portion of their lives, 
but not of local birth.* 

For all necessary purposes, however, the first two of these 
may be amalgamated under the head of representatives of 
High Furness families ; and it is worth while to notice that 
among these a very large proportion owe their reputations 
(whether great or small) to one or other form of brain work ; 
while those whom we know as men of action only, or from their 
commercial enterprise, are comparatively few. We find, in 
fact, that literature, science and art, law and divinity, claim 
fifteen individuals : the army two, and commerce but four. 
Detailed they are as follows : 

Literature and Arcluzology T. A. Beck, Christopher 
Rawlinson, Sir Henry Rawlinson, Richard 
Rawlinson, D.D., Thomas Rawlinson (b. 1681), 
Sir Edwin Sandys, George Sandys ... 7 

Divinity Archbishop Sandys, Dr. George Walker 2 

* Each biography is marked with a number showing the class the subject falls 
into, I, 2, or 3. 



378 BIOGRAPHIES. 

Science Adam Walker, Isaac and William Swainson, 

Michael Taylor ... ... ... 4 

Law Sir William Rawlinson ... ... ... I 

ArfW. H. Overend I 

Military Nathaniel Nicholson, William Rawlinson 

(b. 1606) 2 

Mercantile Christopher Nicholson, Daniel Rawlin- 
son, Sir Thomas Rawlinson (2, both Lord Mayors) 4* 

In the other class, settlers, or, as better expressed by the 
local word, "offcomes," we find: 

literature A. C. Gibson, W. J. Linton and Mrs. 
Linton, John Romney, Elizabeth Smith, and 
William Wordsworth ... ... ... ... 6 

Art W. J. Linton (also in Literature). 

And it should be noticed that were we to break through our 
rule of not treating of the living generation, both these classes 
would be expanded by the addition of the names of John 
Ruskin,f Arthur Severn, W. G. Collingwood, and L. J. Hilliard. 
The result of this tabulation is curious. In the local class 
we find hard thinkers, but no sentimentalists. We have two 
men who studied local history, but there is no single example 
of a local-sprung man known for his appreciation of beautiful 
and romantic nature so specially characteristic of the land 
he rose from. The men of Furness cared nought for all 
this, and made their mark elsewhere and by other means. On 
the other hand the settler class is chiefly sentimental poets, 
artists, and painters, attracted by fair and romantic country ; 
they sought, in fact, their inspiration here ; but no two classes 
could well be further apart. 

* Politics might be given as a class, but it would overlap the others. In it would 
be Sir H. C. Rawlinson, Sir Edwin Sandys, and William Lord Sandys. The first- 
named comes also in the military group. 

f Since Professor Ruskin has in his later days fixed his home at Brantwood 
(purchased in 1871 from Linton), he will rightly be esteemed among future generations 
among the greatest of the " worthies '' of our old parish ; for it must be remembered 
that his influence in teaching what is right and beautiful, what we should do and see, 
has been as marked locally as it has been world-wide. Monk Coniston has, indeed, 
by its beauties attracted literati for many years. Tennyson in 1848 spent his honey- 
moon at Tent Lodge, and Brantwood itself has been occupied at intervals by Gerald 
Massey, and Dr. Kitchin, Dean of Durham. 



BIOGRAPHIES, 379 

We have laid under contribution a number of works in 
writing these biographies. " The Dictionary of National 
Biography," Foster's " Lancashire Pedigrees," Stockdale's 
" Annals of Cartmel," Baines' " Lancashire," and the tercen- 
tenary pamphlet of Hawkshead School, have all been con- 
sulted and collated for the Sandys and Rawlinson families ; 
Mr. Collingwood's reprint of " Fly Fishing," for John Beevcr ; 
a paper on the " Poets and Poetry of Cumberland," by the 
Rev. T. Ellwood, and other works, for A. C. Gibson ; while for 
varied information we have been indebted to Rawnsley's 
" Literary Associations of the English Lakes," Jopling's " Fur- 
ness and Cartmel," Tweddell's " Furness Past and Present," 
" Tait's Magazine," Green's " Guide to the Lakes," " Troutbeck, 
its Scenery and Archaeology," and Richard Braithwaitc's 
" Remains after Death ; " and for special information we are 
indebted to Mr. Win. Alcock-Beck, of Esthwaite Lodge ; Mr. 
George Browne, of Troutbeck ; Mr. J. W. Ford , the late Capt 
A. L. Swainson, R.E. ; and to Mr. J. B. Rawlinson, of Low 
Graythwaite, for access to his family papers. 

In the following biographies the references to epitaphs arc 
to the numbers in the author's " Monumental Inscriptions of 
Hawkshead" (Kendal, 1892). 

y BECK. THOMAS ALCOCK BECK, the author of " Annales 
Furnesienses," was born 3ist May, 1795, at Ncwcastlc-on- 
Tyne, being the son of James Beck, of the Grove, near 
Hawkshead, and grandson of James Beck, of Burton 
in Westmorland (d. 1798), by his wife (a Northumber- 
land lady), Jane Alcock. This James Beck lived first 
at Sawrey House, but his son James, father to the 
subject of this notice, moved to a property on the edge 
of Esthwaite, called " The Grove," though its old 
name was " New House in Hawkshead field," and at 
Hawkshead he organized a reed band, which, in his 
day, had a considerable reputation. Thomas Alcock Beck 
was educated at Hawkshead school and by private 
tutors, and seven years after his father's death in 1812, 
having become, owing to a spinal complaint, partly 



380 BIOGRAPHIES. 

crippled, he began to build the modern house called 
Esthwaite Lodge, the grounds of which were specially 
laid out with easy gradients for his invalid chair. Here 
he gave up nearly all his time to " Annales Furnesienses : 
History and Antiquities of Furness Abbey," a work 
of infinite research and labour, though, of course, not 
quite abreast with the knowledge we now possess of 
the structure and economy of monastic establishments. 
The production of this work was very sumptuous, with 
fine engravings by Le Keux, Willmore, Carter, and others. 
It appeared in 1844, at the price of seven guineas, with 
a limited issue of 250 copies; but by a review we have 
before us, it appears that 2,000 was expended on the 
engravings and letterpress only. The loss on the edition 
must have been considerable, for after the author's 
death a " remainder " was sold at terms under which 
the purchaser was enabled to retail copies at 3^ guineas. 
Mr. Beck also made collections for histories of Cartmel 
parish and Lancashire North of the Sands, which were 
never published ; and he was also an active governor of 
Havvkshead grammar school. He died 24th April, 1846, 
and, though married, he left no family ; and his property, 
including a library of two thousand volumes, at 
Esthwaite, afterwards passed to the present owner, 
William Alcock Beck, J.P. (Epitaphs 10, u, and 12.) 
3 BEEVER. Mr. JOHN BKEVER was born in 1795, being the 
son of Mr. William Becvcr, merchant, in Manchester, 
who settled at The Thwaite, in Monk Coniston. The 
son is known as the author of " Practical Fly Fishing," 
published in 1849, and reprinted in 1893 by Mr. 
W. G. Collingwood, with a memoir and notes. The 
little work is held in considerable esteem by fly fishers, 
for, as the author of his memoir notes, he was a diligent 
and affectionate observer, as well as a sportsman and 
fisherman. Behind The Thwaite he formed an artificial 
pond, which he stocked for the purpose of estimating 
the speed of fish-growth, and with the help of a local 



BIOGRAPHIES. 381 

joiner he made a printing press, at which more than 
one little book, written by his sister, Susanna, was 
printed. Mr. Beever died on January loth, 1859, and 
was buried at Hawkshead. (Epitaph 13.) 

3 GIBSON. ALEXANDER CRAIG GIBSON, F.S.A., M.R.C.S., 
L.S.A., and L.M. (Edin.), writer in local dialects both 
in verse and prose, merits a longer notice than we can 
afford space for here. He was born at Whitchavcn on 
March 17, 1813, the son of a shipowner who com- 
manded his own ship, while his mother, whose name 
was Craig, was a Dumfriesshire woman. Young 
Gibson spent his earlier years, it is believed, near his 
mother's home, and having served his apprenticeship 
to a Whitehavcn surgeon, he studied in Edinburgh and 
then commenced to practise in West Cumberland. In 
1844* he settled at Yewdale Bridge, just on the 
margin of our parish, and five years later married a 
Miss Bowman, of Lamplugh. Although he was 
Medical Officer to the Coniston Mines, in 1851 I he 
removed his practice and home to Hawkshead, where, 
however, he only remained to 1857, when, finding the 
work too heavy for him, he removed again to Bcbing- 
ton, in Cheshire, where he became the Honorary 
Curator of the Lancashire and Cheshire Historic 
Society, and remained, with brief intervals of travel, 
until the time of his death in 1874. Mr. Gibson's first 
book, " The Old Man, or Ravings and Ramblings 
round Coniston," was written and published when 
he lived at Yewdale Bridge. This little book, which 
is quite a literary curiosity, taken with his " Folk Speech 
of Cumberland," affords an excellent clue to Gibson's 
talents and nature. The first is a collection of essays 
on the country, its features, people, and places of 
interest, which display not only acute observation but 



* 1843 in the " Dictionary of National Biography." 

t 1849 in the same, but a farewell presentation was made to him in 1851, as 
Mr. Ellwood notes. 




382 BIOGRAPHIES. 

a peculiar sense of the ridiculous and of satire. It is 
distinctly eccentric, yet clever. There is nothing of 
the guide-book about it, and its interest arises from 
the perfect familiarity the writer had with his dis- 
trict, coupled with the thorough grasp he possessed of 
the character of the dalesfolk amongst whom he prac- 
tised. The other volume of dialect stories and poems 
evinces the last fact even more strikingly, but it also 
shows the author as a singularly facile verse writer in 
his own line. Every verse he wrote in the Fell dialect, 
tuneful, bright, and often really witty, smacks of the 
fells. There is nothing artificial about them. The 
action and thought is the action and thought of the 
real people. Of this volume Carlyle wrote to the 
author a characteristic and flattering letter. Gibson 
was also author of a series of papers on Hawkshead, 
Coniston, and other local subjects, which were printed 
in the transactions of his society, and the titles of 
which we append below. To these articles the present 
writer has had on more than one occasion to refer, 
for they recorded for the first time much interesting 
matter which hitherto had been unnoticed. Moreover, 
their pleasant and popular treatment does not detract 
from their value, for generally speaking the facts and 
conclusions are accurate and well digested, whereas the 
local traditions in his " Old Man " appear often more 
fiction than fact. Though evidently not a profound 
thinker he was eminently versatile, and had he and 
T. A. Beck chosen to collaborate upon a history of 
the parish they would no doubt have effectually fore- 
stalled the present volume. 
Mr. Gibson's local publications are : 

" The Old Man, or Ravings and Ramblings round 
Coniston" (1849), published first in the " Kendal 
Mercury " and then revised as above. 

" Folk Speech of Cumberland and some Districts 
Adjoining." Three editions, 1869, 1872, 1880. 






BIOGRAPHIES. 383 

Papers in the " Transactions of the Lancashire and 

Cheshire Historic Society" 

1857. Vol. IX., "The Last Popular Risings in 
the Lake Country." 

1861. Vol. XIII., "Popular Rhymes and Pro- 
verbs (Cumberland)." 

1863. Vol. XV., "Popular Rhymes and Pro- 
verbs (Cumberland)," second series. 

1865. Vol. XVII., " Hawkshead Church, Town, 
and School." 

1866. Vol. XVIII., "Hawkshead Parish." 

1867. Vol. XIX., "The Two Conistons." 

1868. Vol. XX., " Yewdale, Tilberthwaite, Conis- 
ton, and Seathwaite." 

The article in Vol. XVII. was reprinted in the "North 
Lonsdale Magazine" for 1867. He also contributed the 
section on " The Geology of the Lake Country " to Miss 
Martineau's " Guide to the Lake District." 

The reader will find some interesting matter on Gibson 
in " The Poets and Poetry of Cumberland," by the Rev. T. 
Ellwood,* to which the present writer is indebted for some of 
the facts above given. 

3 LlNTON. MR. W. J. LlNTON, " poet, printer, wood engraver, 
chartist, and republican," as Rawnsley has styled him, 
lived at Brantwood from about 1855 to 1871, when he 
sold it to Professor Ruskin. It was not long after the 
collapse of Chartism, when Linton, who had come to 
Brantwood, plastered its walls with revolutionary 
mottoes. This, no doubt, was a simple matter, for he 
had his printing press in an out-building, from which 
he produced his periodical, " The Republic." As a 
wood engraver his works are of great merit, Rossetti 
judging him the best exponent of the art of his time. 
Linton's talented wife, Mrs. Lynn Lynton, daughter 
of Vicar Lynn, of Crosthwaite, and granddaughter on 



* Transactions, Cumberland and Westmorland Association for the Advancement 
of Literature and Science, Vol. IX., pp. 154-163. 



384 BIOGRAPHIES. 

her mother's side of Bishop Goodenough, had an even 
briefer connection with our parish. Her works are too 
well known and her death too recent to necessitate a 
long notice here ; " Christopher Kirkland " and " Lizzie 
Lorton " have, however, a special local interest, and at 
Brantwood she wrote " The Lake Country " (published 
1864) and some of her works of fiction. Linton himself 
died in America on January 4th, 1898, aged 85, and 
his wife on the i6th of July, the same year, in London, 
aged 76. 

THE NICHOLSONS. There were five generations of Nichol- 
sons, of Hawkshcad Hall, beginning with Rowland 
Nicholson (son of John), who was one of the 
original jury on the Elizabethan Code of Customs. 
One branch of the family remained as landowners at 
Hawkshead, while another settled as merchants at 
Ncwcastle-on-Tyne. The Hawkshead line ended with a 
female heir, Beatrix, who married three times, the estate 
passing to the issue of her second marriage, John 
Copley. She died in 1726. 

(?) 2 ALLAN NICHOLSON, the second of the name at Hawks- 
head Hall, died in 1616. Richard Braithwaite, in his 
" Remains after death," published in 1618, wrote thus 
of him : 

" Upon the late decease of his much-lamented friend 
and kinsman, Allen Nicholson, a zealous and 
industrious member both in church and common- 
wealc : 

" llauxide laments thy Death, Grasmyre not so, 
Wishing Thou hadst tjeen dead ten yeares agoe ; 
For then her market had no so been done t 
But had suruiu'd thy age in time to come : 
And well may Hauxide grieue at thy Departure, 
Since shee receiu'd from thee her ancient charter, 
\Yhich Grasmyre sues (since Thou art turn'd to grasse) 
To bring about, & now hath broght to passe. 
This much for Thee : nor would I have thee know it, 
Kor thy pure zeale could nere endure a Poet ; 
Yet for the Loue I Ixire thee, and that Blood 
Which twixt us both by Native course hath flow'd : 
Tins will I say, and may ; for sure I am 
' The North nere bred sincerer Purer man.' " 



BIOGRAPHIES. 385 

The allusions in this epitaph are somewhat obscure. We 
do not know that any blood relationship existed between 
Nicholson and the author of " Drunken Barnaby " ; but a niece 
of the former, Eleanor, married Braithwaite's cousin's son, 
William Braithwaite, of Ambleside ; and possibly there was 
some relationship through the Bindloss family, though it was 
very distant. The two allusions to the market and charter 
we can only explain by the supposition that Nicholson co- 
operated with Adam Sandys in obtaining it from James I. 
But it is difficult to see why it is called " ancient," unless 
merely to fill up the line. It looks also as if the grant of 
a market at Hawkshead caused jealousy at Grasmerc, which 
appears to have been competing as a fell-side wool centre. 
Outspoken as Braithwaite was, the epitaph is high testimony 
to Nicholson's character.* 

1 2 NATHANIEL NICHOLSON, of Hawkshead Hall, eldest 
son of the last, was an officer in the Civil wars on the 
Parliamentary side ; though whether he took an active 
part is unknown. There is a genealogical puzzle in this 
generation about the marriages between the Nicholsons 
and Gilpins of Kentmere Hall, but we have no room 
to discuss it here. The connection, however, resulted 
in a claim on the part of the Nicholsons to Kentmcrc 
Hall, and Nathaniel partly resided there, as he appears 
as a " disclaimer " at the Westmorland visitation of 
1666. The Philipsons, however, also claimed the estate, 
and after protracted litigation, they got it. Nathaniel 
Nicholson was also one of the Lancashire gentlemen who 
compounded for knighthood at Lancaster, in 1631-2, by 
payment of a fine of 10. He died about 1672. 

1 2 CHRISTOPHER NICHOLSON, his brother, was alderman and 
merchant of Newcastle, Sheriff of Newcastle, 1648, and 
Governor of the Merchant Adventurers Company, 1648- 

* It is worth note that " Drunken Bamaby " only mentions Hawkshead once : 
" Donee Hauxide specto sensim ; " " Thence to Hauxicle's marish pasture ; " when he 
visited it as a horse-dealer. The fact is, that as a near relative of the Ambleside Hall 
Braithwaites, he did not care in his capacity as " Drunken Barnaby " to be associated 
closely with a place familiar to his family. 
26 



386 BIOGRAPHIES. 

1670 ; born 1602, died 1670. Epitaph at St. Nicholas' 
Church, Newcastle. (Brand's " History of Newcastle.") 
A full account of the Nicholsons, with a pedigree and 
details of the Kentmere law suit, is included in the author's 
paper on " Hawkshead Hall," in the " Transactions of the Cum- 
berland and Westmorland Antiquarian Society." 

2 OVEREND. MR. W. H. OVEREND, the marine artist, and painter 
of naval subjects, was grandson on his mother's side of 
Braithwaite Hodgson, of Green End, Colthouse, through 
whom he was descended from the Braithwaites, of the 
Briers, Satterhow, and Harrowslack (see p. 248). Born 
1851, and educated at Charterhouse, he soon became 
connected with The Illustrated London News and other 
papers ; but he also exhibited several times at the 
Academy. The United States Government commis- 
sioned him also to paint Admiral Farragut at the battle 
of Mobile Bay, which has been engraved. Mr. Overend 
was a member of the Institute of Painters in Oil, but 
was known rather from his black and white work, and 
from his scholarly rendering of naval scenes, both ancient 
and modern. Few landsmen had greater technical know- 
ledge of marine detail, a fact which was acknowledged 
by all sailors who studied his work. He died on March 
1 8th, 1898, in London, just seven days after his last 
drawing, " Gun Drill on a Man-of-war," had appeared 
in The Illustrated London News. Mr. Overend frequently 
spent his holidays at Hawkshead, up till close to his 
death. 

2 THE RAWLINSONS. CHRISTOPHER RAWLINSON, of Carke 
Hall, Greenhead in Colton, and Mireside, was the son of 
Curwen Rawlinson, of Carke, by his wife Elizabeth, niece of 
General Monk, Duke of Albemarle, and great-great-grand- 
son of William Rawlinson, of Greenhead, who died 1603. 
Christopher Rawlinson was born I3th June, 1677, and 
became gentleman commoner of Queen's College, Oxford. 
His tastes were literary and antiquarian, and being a student 



BIOGRAPHIES. 387 

of Anglo-Saxon, he published in 1698, Alfred's Saxon ver- 
sion of " Bcethius de Consolatione Philosophic" Besides 
this, he formed a large collection of topographical MSS. 
concerning Cumberland, Westmorland, and Lancashire, 
but dying without heirs his estate descended through his 
aunts to the Rigges of Wood Broughton, who were 
originally of Keenground. The greater part of his 
MSS. were then sold by auction at Carke, for a few 
pence a bundle,* to the villagers. By will Christopher, 
Duke of Albemarle, left Rawlinson his estates should he 
survive the Duchess, whom, however, he predeceased by 
one month. He died in London 8th Jan., 1732-3. 
There is a monument to him at St. Alban's Abbey 
Church, and several portraits, two of which have been 
engraved by Nutting, and another (1701) by Smith, 
after Grace. 

1 2 DANIEL RAWLINSON, citizen and wine merchant,! of 
London, was son of Thomas of Grisedale, who was 
descended from John Rawlinson, of Grcenhead.t He 
was baptized at Havvkshead, and the baptism is 
chronicled in the register thus : 

1614. "January viij 1 ' 1 Daniell Rawlinson fil: Tho: " 

To Hawkshead he was, after Archbishop Sandys, the 

most important benefactor, for in 1669 he founded the 

school library, at the same time making other charitable 

gifts to the poor and the school, and he also repaired 

* Sir Daniel Fleming is said to have made extracts from the Westmorland MSS., 
and it is said that these extracts are preserved at Kydal (Hodgson, " Topographical 
Description of Westmorland," p. 240; Hum and Nicholson, p. iv.), but the truth 
is more probably that Rawlinson incorporated in his MSS. the accounts written by Sir 
Daniel, of Cumberland and Westmorland in 1671. Kawlinson was really a generation 
later than Sir Daniel. The MS. of the latter on Westmorland is the Kawlinson MS. 
436 in the Bodleian, and has been printed by the Cumberland and Westmorland 
Antiquarian Society. 

t In the " Dictionary of National Biography," under Sir Thomas (d. I75)> '' ' s 
stated that this Daniel kept the Mitre, in Fenchurch Street, and also owned the Grise- 
dale property. 

I In Foster's " Lancashire Pedigrees," Thomas, father of Daniel, is made the 
son of a John Rawlinson, of Grisedale ; but Mr. Geo. Browne, of Troutbeck, some 
years ago sent_the writer extracts of family wills, which were strong evidence that he 
was eldest son of a Robert Rawlinson, of Grisedale, whose W.D. 1606, and was buried 
at Hawkshead 1608. 









3 88 



BIOGRAPHIES. 



and re-edified the school itself in 1675, putting up an 
inscribed memorial stone to the founder, which we 
mention elsewhere. He was in London a personal 
friend of Pepys, the diarist, and after his death the large 
mural monument which we have mentioned on page 
36 and 168, was erected. This monument, with that 
of his son, Sir Thomas (Lord Mayor, 1706), were, 
upon the removal of the city church in 1878, transferred 
by the united efforts of Mrs. Rawlinson, then of Grayth- 
waite, and of Mr. Jno. W. Ford, of Chase Park, Enfield, 
to their present position in Hawkshcad Church. He 
died 1679. (Epitaph 122.) 

2 SIR HENRY CRESWICKE RAWLINSON was descended from the 
eldest son of Captain William Rawlinson, the Parlia- 
mentarian captain (whom see), who turned Quaker and 
founded a line of merchants near Lancaster. This 
distinguished man's career is of too recent date and too 
widely severed from Hawkshead to allow us to linger over 
it here. He was born in 1810, and it is difficult to say if 
his services to Assyriology, philology, or Oriental politics 
have contributed the most to his reputation. The 
decipherer of the Behistun inscription, Assyrian excavator 
explorer, envoy to Persia, geographer, M.P., writer, 
hunter, soldier, shooter, and rider, he stands as a striking 
type of robust and intellectual English manhood. 
Hawkshead may certainly feel pride that a family 
nourished from infancy in the glades of Colton turned out 
in the nineteenth century such a man. His services were 
acknowledged by a K.C.B. and a baronetcy, and his death 
took place in 1895. In 1898 his biography appeared) 
written by his brother, Canon Rawlinson, also well known 
as scholar and Orientalist. 

2 RICHARD RAWLINSON, a younger son of Sir Thomas (Lord 
Mayor, 1706), and grandson of Daniel, was, like his 
brother Thomas, eccentric almost to madness. He was 
born 3rd January, 1689-90, and partly educated at Eton 
and St. John's, Oxford ; he was LL.D., F.R.S., and one 



BIOGRAPHIES. 389 

of the founders of the Society of Antiquaries, 1727. 
Non-juring bishop, consecrated 1728 ; and governor of 
Bridewell, Bethlehem, and St. Bartholomew's Hospitals. 
Richard Rawlinson, on the death of his brother, went to 
live at London House, Aldersgate, a house, as we shall see, 
already stocked to repletion with literary treasures. 
Nevertheless, he himself kept on collecting books, charters, 
coins, MSS., and every sort of literary curiosity. His 
brother's collection being sold in 1734, gave him, no 
doubt, full scope to follow his inclinations. He died in 
1755, and was buried at St. Giles', Oxford,"' with, it is 
said, the head of Counsellor Layer, who had been 
executed for felony, in his hand. The eccentricity of 
some of his bequests makes this credible. His MSS. and 
some other collections he left to the Bodleian I, and to 
St. John's College he bequeathed his heart and a 
considerable estate. He also founded an Anglo-Saxon 
professorship : and the sale of his books and prints lasted 
for no less than sixty-eight days. Amongst the numerous 
works he wrote or edited was " The English Topo- 
grapher," 1720, which was published anonymously ; and 
other topographical works. 

In 1887 the present writer had a search made among the 
Rawlinson MSS. at Oxford for a plan of Grisedalc Hall, said to 
exist there ; and, although it could not be found, it was noticed 
that his letters originally addressed " To the Right Reverend," 
had in many cases had these words torn away. 

2 SIR THOMAS RAWLINSON (Lord Mayor of London, 1706) was 
the son of Daniel, of whom we have given an account. 
He was citizen and wine merchant, and was born in the 
parish of St. Dionis, 1647. Sheriff of London, 1687 ; 
master of Vintners' Company, 1687 and 1696; knighted, 
1686; appointed colonel of trained bands July, 1690, and 
colonel of White Regiment, 1705 : and governor of 

* At Islington, according to Foster's " Lancashire Pedigrees." 

t Catalogues of these MSS. are now (1898) being printed by the Clarendon Press. 



390 BIOGRAPHIES. 

Bridewell and Bethlehem Hospitals, 1705. During his 
mayoralty he repaired the Guildhall, and an inscription 
was placed on the porch to commemorate the fact. 
Sir Thomas married Mary, daughter of Richard Taylor, 
of Turnham Green, who was also a vintner, and kept the 
celebrated " Devil " tavern next to Temple Bar, and over 
against St. Dunstan's in Fleet Street. The tavern sign 
was the Devil having his nose tweaked by good St. 
Dunstan. Ben Jonson has immortalized the house by 
writing the club rules, which, engraved in marble, are still 
preserved at Child's Bank, which occupies the site. Sir 
Thomas died in 1708, and was buried in St. Dionis Back- 
church, and a still larger marble monument than that of 
Daniel was erected to him and others of his family, and 
this also now occupies a place in Hawkshead Church. 
The inscription we have printed elsewhere, but its 
opening sentence will bear repetition: "Juxta Colum- 
nam, cui adhacret Avorum, momumentum requiescit 
par magna Gentes Rawlinsoniana:, viz., Thomas Rawlin- 
son, ab Antiqua & Honesta Stirpe apud Brigantes 
ortus : Virtute sua illustris : Principi suo Jacobo 11 
R.O.M., fidelis." (Epitaph 124.) 

2 SIR THOMAS RAWLINSON, a grandson of the last, was 
Lord Mayor of London 1753. He was Sheriff of London 
and Middlesex, 1748; knighted, 1760; colonel of trained 
bands and vice-president of Hon. Artillery Company, 
1766; alderman of Broad Street, 1746; and died at 
Fenchurch Street, 1769. This gentleman purchased the 
estate of Stowlangtoft in Suffolk. 

2 THOMAS RAWLINSON, eldest son of Sir Thomas (Lord Mayor, 
1706) and brother of Dr. Richard Rawlinson, was born 
1 68 1 at Old Bailey. He was educated at Eton and St. 
John's College, Oxford, and was called to the Bar 1705. 
He also travelled in the Low countries. As a collector 
his passion was similar to that of his brother, and seems 
to have amounted to something akin to insanity. These 
accumulations were commenced at Gray's Inn, where, for 



BIOGRAPHIES. 



39 1 






want of space, he slept in a passage. In 1716 he went to 
London House (afterwards re-stocked by his brother), and 
this large building he simply crammed with MSS., 
Elzevirs, Aldines, Caxtons, and literary treasures. He is 
believed to be the original of Addison's " Tom Folio," 
" a learned idiot an universal scholar, so far as the title 
pages of all authors." He managed, however, to find 
time to be governor of several hospitals, and was elected 
F.R.S. and F.S.A. ; but he showed his eccentricity by 
marrying his maid, formerly a coffee-house waitress. A 
large portion of his library was sold before his death, 
which took place in 1725 ; yet in 1734 the remainder was 
divided into sixteen parts, each of which took from fifteen 
to thirty days in dispersing. This was the largest book 
sale up to that date.* 

2 THOMAS RAWLINSON, son of William, of Graythwaite, and 
great grandson of Captain William Rawlinson, was born 
1689. The only title this Rawlinson has to a place here 
is as inventor of the Highland kilt, for which, in its 
modern form, he seems responsible. No doubt owing 
to his knowledge of the family bloomcrics at Force 
Forge, he became the manager of the ironworks at 
Glengarry, which were worked by a Liverpool Company, 
with Highland workmen. The latter, it appears, dressed 
in the uncouth sort of night-gowns common to semi- 
barbarous folk, which, if they retained them, impeded 
their work, while those who threw them off shocked 
the delicacy of Rawlinson, who was of Quaker birth. 
With the aid of a London tailor he devised the 
separation of the garment into an upper and a lower 
part, the last being plaited and fastened round the 
waist, becoming the Highland felie or kilt. Rawlinson, 
it is said, wore it first, then the chief of Glengarry, and 
slowly making its way against prejudice, it became 
fashionable over the Highlands. 

* According to a paper on the Rawlinsons, recently read before the Bibliographical 
Society, the sixteen sales were held between 1721 and 1724. 



392 BIOGRAPHIES. 

The authorities for the story are, (i) a letter from Ivan 
Baillie, Esquire, of Abereachan, in the Edinburgh Magazine of 
1785, where the invention is said to have taken place about 
fifty years before ; (2) a letter said to exist on the subject 
from Rawlinson to the Lord Advocate, 24th May, 1728. 
Some details also will be found in a paper by Rev. A. Hume 
on "British Antiquities," Vol. VIII. (new series) of Lancashire 
and Cheshire Historic Society, the author quoting there 
Pinkerton's Essays, Ulster Journal, Vol. VI., p. 316; also 
Foster's " Lancashire Pedigrees," and in " Notes on the Ancient 
Iron Industry of Scotland," by W. Ivison Macadam, printed 
in the " Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scot- 
land." 

1 2 SIR WILLIAM RAWLINSON, Sergcant-at-law, son of Captain 
William Rawlinson, born at Graythwaite and baptized 
at Hawkshead 

1640, "June xvj th William Rawlinson, fil Willm ", 
was called to the bar in 1667. He became a Chancery 
lawyer, and was Commissioner of the Great Seal from 
1688-1692. The king proposed to raise him to Chief 
Baron of the Exchequer, but this was opposed with 
success by John Somers (afterwards Baron Evesham) 
who had been made Lord Keeper of the Great Seal. 
Sir William Rawlinson died in 1703, and was buried 
at Hendon, where there is a monumental effigy to his 
memory. 

1 2 CAPTAIN WILLIAM RAWLINSON, son of Thomas Rawlin- 
son, of Graythwaite, is known as an active officer on 
the Parliamentary side in the Civil wars. He was born 
in 1606 and baptized at Hawkshead. 

" Januarie xix th W m . Rawlinson fil : Thomas " 
and is known as having raised, in Furness, a troop of 
seventy horse. He was also, by an order of 1647, 
appointed collector of a moiety of the ;6o,OOO which 
was levied by the Parliamentary commissioners. At the 
Restoration, information was filed against him by the 






* Foster gives March and as the day of his birth. 



BIOGRAPHIES. 393 

Attorney General, for the part he had taken in the 
troubles : but this, owing chiefly to the intervention of 
his kinsman, Robert Rawlinson, of Carke Hall, the 
Royalist, fell through. This Captain Rawlinson we 
have mentioned elsewhere as opening up the iron- 
smelting at Force Forge, for which purpose he lived 
partly at Rusland Hall, which was also tenanted by 
other Rawlinsons after him. He died in 1680 and was 
buried in the parish church. 
"September 10: Mr. W nl . Rawlinson, of Graythwaite in 

the Chancell." 

His sword and huge pistol-holsters are still at 
Graythwaite, in the possession of Mr. J. B. Rawlinson : 
but the pistols themselves arc at Duddon Hall. 

The following documents about Rawlinson's services 
were transcribed by the writer from the originals kindly 
lent him by Mr. J. B. Rawlinson. Several of them have, 
however, been already printed in Tweddell and Rich- 
ardson's " Furness, Past and Present " ; but from a few 
slight variations it seems probable that other copies 
exist among the Rawlinson papers. At any rate they 
well merit a place here. 

(a) The accompt of Captaine Willih Rawlinson Capt n of a 
troope of voluntiers, consistingc of 70 horse raised w thout 
being Chardge to the State about the 2 th of Octob 1 ' 1643 
being from thenceforth kept in rcadines for the service of the 
King & Parliament onely in actuall service these tymes 
followinge 

ffirst When Baronett Curwen \v th share of Cumb r lands 
fforces advanced into Millom being on the bord rs 
of Lane we were then commanded to Kirkby 
and lay there 4 dayes till they retreated 
2 About the I th of Januarie on Saturday we were 
comanded to Lanc r when it was noised that 
S r Jo. Girlington, and S r W m Bradshaw being 
then in Yorkeshire were upon the inarch towards 
Lanc r w th force of and staid ther till 

Wednesday. 




394 



BIOGRAPHIES. 



3 Three dayes attendance at Braythay bridge beinge 

a passage upon the bord rs of Westm r land, when 
S r - Lowth r , w th Cumb r lands fforcs marced 
that way to Kendall 

4 When we were comanded to Manchesf the 

xvij th of May 1644 Prince Rupert being broken 
into the County and retreated to Lane and 
the service to Yorke till the xxix th of Septemb 1 " 
followinge 

5 Our service upon severall Alarms as when Collonell 

Gray toke Kendall and upon seuerall ord rs f om 
Coll Alexand 1 ' Rigby we went ou r sands when 
report was fforcs cominge to Chesf to raise 
the siedge & seuerall oth r Alarms to the 
numb r of 22 daycs or therabouts 

6 When the lord Digbye marched towards Scotland 

& retreated backe on service and conducting 
the prison 1 " 8 to Lane that tymc xij dayes 
(/;) The accompt and arrcarc due from the State to Captaine 
Willin Rollinson for his service as Capt of a Troope of 
horse in the Rcgim 1 of Colonel! George Doddingc Cast upp 
and accordinge to ordnance of Parliam' By the Comr 

for the Countie of Lanc r . 

ffor his service as Captaine of a Troope 
of horse in the Regim 1 of Coll 
George Doddinge as aforesaid from 
the 2O th of Octob r 1643 untill the 
13 th of March 1645 being 873 daics 
at OO39 S ? p diem untill i8 th Aprill 
1645 3 6s untill 13 th March 1645 
Out of w ch to bee deducted 
ffor money reed from the said Collonell 
Doddinge in Westm r land and Lanc r 
ffor ffree quarter accordinge to ordnance 
of Parliam 1 

In all 

Residue 



s . d. 
1633 oo oo 



13 06 08 



541 
554 



04 04 

I I OO 



1,078 09 oo 




BIOGRAPHIES. 395 

We the com rs for the countie of Lanc r 
doe hereby certify that this accompt 
of Capt Willrh Rollinson is justly 
allowed by us all deducons beinge 
made accordinge to ordnance of 
Parliam' And there remains ... 1,078 09 oo 
Signed by us Ric. Shuttleworthe 
John Starkie 
Robt. Cunliffe 

(c) 73 horse and a half charged on Forties and Cartmell 

Kirkby constablewicke 4 horse 

Dun r dale & Seathat 3 

Uluston wholl Townshipp 15 

Penington 02 

Aldingham tovvnshipp 05 

Urswicke Tovvnshipp 04 

Leece Townshipp 03 

Dalton pish 09 

hauxhead constablewicke 06 

Colton constablewicke 04 & a halfc 

Broughton in Cartmell 07 & a halfe 

holker Townshipp 06 

Alithwt Townshipp 04 & a halfe 

Tho: ffell 
19 October 1648. 

(d) It is ordered, that you cause the sevall Troupps und r yo' 
comand to deliuer back againe the horses into the Kendall 
Towneshippe from whence they had them that they may be 
hereafter had when their shal be occasion for the safety of the 
Country ; and that you cause the Money that was assessed for 
their pay to be collected and paid to the soldiers for the tyme 
they have serucd Giuen und r o r hands at Uluston the day and 
yeare aboues d 

George Dodding 
To Captain Will m Rawlinson these. Tho. Ffell. 

()Theiseare to certifieallitwhomitmay concerne That Captaine 
William Rawlinson of Graythw 1 in the County of Lanc r gentl 



396 



BIOGRAPHIES. 



Comanded a troope . of Horse for the service of the parliam' for 
the space of fyve yeares last past And was in the ffield service 
at Marston Moore Battaile And did very good service at Ribble 
Bridge in Lane 1 And tooke Maio 1 " Munday and his company in 
ffurneis, And hath done seuerall other faithfull & honest 
service for the parliam 1 Att all such tyme or tymes as he had 
any opportunitie to advance the said service. 

Will Knipe 

Adam Sandys 

Nathamell Nicholson 

Tho. Wither 

Will"' Gardnr 

James Thornton 



Feb. 1 4th, 1048. 
vera copia. 

" Maio 1 ' Munday ' 



Tho. ffell 
Tho. Rippon 
John Sawrey 
Wm. West 
Tho. Hunter 
Will Waller 
Tho. Westmore 
James Bacchus 
Tho. Toller. 



afterwards was executed at Lancaster. 
Among the names will be observed Nathaniel Nicholson, also 
a Captain in the Parliamentary forces. 

There are, besides these, a quantity of miscellaneous papers 
of the same period, for which we have no room here. Among 
them we may note a certificate, dated 1651, of which the 
signature has unfortunately gone, notifying that Sir George 
Middlcton, of Leighton (a Royalist), having duly paid his 
composition, must be allowed to go free from all annoyance. 
There is also a long and most interesting letter from Jane, 
wife of Sir Thomas Strickland, to her brother-in-law, suggesting 
various ways for him to raise sufficient money to compound 
for his estate. There are numerous notices and receipts for 
the collections of the assessments for Fairfax's army in Cart- 
mel and Furness : and there is an order dated 22nd May, 
I 65S, by the commissioners for removing obstructions in the 
sale of the lands and estates of a delinquent, and commanding 
the appearance of various tenants of lands in Bolton and 
Adgarley, parcel of the estate of the late Earl of Derby, which 
had been sold to William Rawlinson, elder and younger, and 
for which tenants refused payment of rents and fines. 



BIOGRAPHIES. 397 

1 2 RlGGE. GEORGE RIGGE merits, we think, a few lines in 
this chapter. He occupied, for long, the humble position 
of parish clerk at .Hawkshead. He began to keep the 
register in 1640, and, there is reason to think, was 
appointed the official lay register in 1656. He con- 
tinued registering till at least 1697. '' By his will, made 
in 1706, this faithful old servant of the church closed 
his useful, if uneventful, life by a bequest of 126 for 
the use of the poor of the parish.f Such a sum, for 
a person in his position, is a large one ; and we think 
George Rigge deserves well the rank of a Hawkshead 
worthy. 

3 ROMNEYS. Whitestock Hall, in Colton, was formerly 
Whitestock How, and this estate was bought by the 
Romneys about 1800, in the lifetime of the painter, 
and probably by himself. 

The painter, however, never lived here. The present 
house was built immediately after his death (1802) by 
the Reverend John Romney, his only surviving son, 
and here, on his marriage in 1806, he resided, while 
his mother, the painter's widow, lived at Whitestock 
Cottage, close by, until her death in 1823. 

John Romney, the son (b. 1758), was Fellow of St. 
John's College, Cambridge, 1785, and B.A. and M.A. 
In 1830 he published the memoir of his father, and 
died 1832. One daughter married John Job Rawlinson, 
of Graythwaite ; and various studies, by the painter, and 
other heirlooms, remained with the surviving daughter, 
Elizabeth, until her death, and were dispersed the year 
after (1894), at Christie's. 

1 ? 2 THE SANDYS FAMILY. EDWIN SANDYS, Archbishop of 
York, so often mentioned in these pages, was the third son 
of William Sandys, Receiver-General for the Liberties of 
Furness, whose tomb, erected by the Archbishop, lies in the 
" little quire " of Hawkshead Church. It is believed he was 






* " Oldest Register Book of Hawkshead," p. Ixii. 
t See Appendix under Charities. 



39 8 BIOGRAPHIES. 

born at Esthwaite Hall, in 1519,* and that he received 
his education at Furncss Abbey ; and for a story that 
some writers give, that he was educated at an Abbey 
School at Hawkshcad, there seems no foundation. 
Subsequently, he went to St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge, taking B.A. 1539, M.A. 1541, B.D. 1542, and 
D.D. 1549. In 1548, on the death of his father, he 
was rector of Haversham, in Bucks.; in 1547, Master 
of St. Catherine's Hall ; and in consequence of his 
zealous sermons in favour of Church Reform, in 1549 
he was appointed Canon of Peterborough, followed, in 
1552, by the same post at Carlisle; and Vice-Chancellor 
of Cambridge, 1553. 

After the death of Edward the Sixth, he advocated, 
in a powerful sermon, the succession of Lady Jane 
Grey, acting, it is said, under the instigation of the 
Duke of Northumberland. This action, however, brought 
him to the Tower, where he was confined for thirty-two 
weeks : when he was removed to the Marshalsea prison, 
where though well treated, he had to spend a further nine 
weeks. On gaining his liberty, he found it necessary, 
owing to the persecution of the Bishop of Winchester, 
who, it is said, intended to bring him to the stake 
as a heretic, to fly the country, which he managed 
to do, going first to Strasburg, and afterwards to 
Zurich, whence in 1558 he returned, on Queen Mary's 
death, in answer to a summons from Elizabeth. 

His first wife (a lady of his own name) having died 
abroad, he married again this year a daughter of Sir 
Thomas Willford. In 1559 he was appointed Com- 
missioner for the Revision of the Liturgy, and one of 
the Lent preachers in 1558-9 and 1561. The last- 
named year, he also took part as a Commissioner to 
make an Ecclesiastical Visitation ; and in 1559, after 
refusing the see of Carlisle, he became Bishop of 
Worcester. 

1516 in the " Dictionary of National Biography," but all other authorities give 1519. 



BIOGRAPHIES. 40 1 

From 1563, when Sir John Bourne, having attacked 
him, was committed to the Marshalsea, we continually 
find Sandys in some sort of dispute. However, in 
1565, he was one of the translators of the "Bishops' 
Bible," a work for which his scholarship well qualified 
him; and in 1570, he followed Grindal to the See of 
London. The translation of the 1572 Bible owed to 
him, Hosea, Joel, and Amos to Malachi inclusive. He 
took part in repressing the " mass-mongers," at the 
house of the Portuguese Ambassador; and in 1575 
was chief mourner at Archbishop Parker's funeral at 
Lambeth. 

At last, on March 8th, 1575, he was translated to 
York, in succession again to Grindal ; and after this, 
his tendency to fall out with everyone seemed to 
increase. We find him disputing with Aylmer as to 
the revenues of the See of London, taxing \Yhittingham, 
the " Puritan Dean " of Durham, with not being properly 
ordained, and quarrelling with the Dean of York. 
Lastly, a difference with Sir Robert Staplcton got him 
into a very ugly position. Stapleton, wishful of getting 
lands from him on an easy lease, by a disgraceful plot 
introduced a woman into the Archbishop's bedroom in 
an inn at Doncaster. The innkeeper, the husband of 
the woman, who was in the scheme, then rushed into 
the room, and a tableau ensued. Sandys, horrified at 
the position, weakly paid blackmail, but when Staplcton 
began to push his extortions beyond bounds he brought 
the matter to the Star Chamber, where his name was 
thoroughly cleared. 

Sandys' quarrels and Papist hunts no doubt made 
him unpopular everywhere, but he was nevertheless a 
thoroughly honest and very able prelate. His doctrines 
were elevated, though puritanical to fanaticism. He even 
objected to the sign of the cross at baptism. With 
greater tact and less fondness for dispute he might 

have ranked among the very highest of our prelates. 
27 



I 



402 BIOGRAPHIES. 

He died in 1588, and was buried at Southwell Minster, 
where there is a monument and inscription. The 
former is engraved in RastalFs " History of South- 
well," * and the latter is given in Strype's " Life of 
Whitgift." His portrait is at Ombersley, and another 
belongs to the Bishop of London, and there are copies 
both at Graythwaite and Hawkshead School. There 
are several engravings, one of which we reproduce. 
These portraits show a dignified and handsome face 
with flowing beard and ample brow. 

How Sandys loved and worked for the parish of 
Hawkshead, his old home and that of his family, will 
be read in other parts of this volume. The foundation 
of it as an independent parish, the consecration of 
Colton Chapel, the foundation of the Grammar School, 
and part rebuilding of the church, are all due to him. 
He was Hawkshead's most conspicuous worthy, and 
those who think of our little town only as a Words- 
worth shrine, should remember that while it was only 
an incident in a poet's youth, it was three hundred 
years ago the loving care of a great divine. 

- Sir EDWIN SANDYS, the second son of the Archbishop, was 
in his day statesman, writer, and an active worker in 
the earlier history of colonial expansion. Born in 1561, 
he was educated at the Merchant Taylors' School and 
Corpus Christ! College, Oxford, B.A., M.A., and B.C.L. 
1589. He first entered the church, but gave up a pre- 
bend of York and entered Parliament 1586. In 1593 
he undertook with George Cranmcr a continental 
journey, the result of which was a work entitled 
' a Euro/>ce Speculum, or a View or Survey of the State 
of Religion in the Western Parts of the World," which, 
though aimed at Popery generally, was written with 
considerable moderation. The story is, that it was 
first printed from a stolen copy of his MS. in 1605, 



* Also in Dickinson's " Antiquities Historical, Architectural, etc. , and Itinerary 
in Nottinghamshire" (1807). 




BIOGRAPHIES. 403 

and that the edition was burned in pursuance with an 
order obtained by the author. Several subsequent 
editions and translations, however, appeared. 

In 1599 he again turned to politics, but we have 
not space for enumerating the measures he supported 
here. He was an active worker on the committee 
of the East India Company, and also a member of the 
Somers Island Company after 1615, the " Sandys tribe" 
on that island being named from him. He was likewise 
member of Council of the Virginia Company, the 
history of which from 1617 to 1624 contains a mass 
of matter relating to his conduct as treasurer and of 
the disputes between the Sandys and Warwick parties. 
He was knighted 1603, M.P. for Sandwich 1620, and 
died at Northbourne Court, Kent, his home, in 1629. 
An engraving of him from a portrait at I Ian ley is in 
Nash's " Worcester." 

2 GEORGE SANDYS, poet and traveller, born 15/7, the seventh 
son of the Archbishop, matriculated at Oxiord (St. Mary 
Hall) 1589. In 1610 he made a long journey through 
Italy, and in Turkey, Egypt, and the Holy Land. The 
result of this was a book, " A relation of a journey 
begun An. Dom. 1610. Foure books containing a 
description of the Turkish Empire, of /Egypt, of the 
Holy Land, of the Remote parts of Italy, and the 
Islands adjoyning," which gave him a well-merited 
reputation as a traveller of observation." At a later 
date he took part in colonial enterprise as owner of 
shares, and holder of posts in the Bermuda and Virginia 
Companies. 

His poetry, produced mostly at Boxley Abbey, near 
Maidstone, was in his time highly thought of. His 
works include "Paraphrases of the Scriptures" (1635- 

* Original edition in 1615, but editions or reprints followed in 1621, 1627, 1637, 
1652, 1670, and 1673 (" Dictionary of National Biography "). The writer's copy has 
two title pages, one sixth edition, 1670, and the other seventh edition, 1673. The 
book is enriched with many maps and engravings, and the author, being familiar with 
many places visited by Sandys, can testify to the keenness and accuracy of his 
observation. 



404 BIOGRAPHIES. 

1648), "Psalms," the "Song of Solomon," and the 
" Metamorphoses of Ovid," the last being considered 
his best work. He died 1643, at Boxlcy, where the 
Parish Register alludes to him as " Poetarum Angloi urn 
sui saeculi facile princeps." His portrait is at Ombersley, 
the seat of the Marquis of Downshire, who is descended 
from an elder brother. An engraving by Raddon 
appeared in 1823, of which the writer has two impres- 
sions. They show a man under middle age, with long 
and wavy hair, and pointed moustache and beard. The 
features, which are singularly like his father's, are in 
expression mild and sweet. 

Those who would know more of the various members of 
this family who have made their mark must turn to the huge 
pedigree in Foster's " Lancashire Families." From Sir Samuel 
Sandys, the Archbishop's eldest son, descended the Sandys 
family of Ombersley, the first baron being William, Lord 
Sandys, M.P. for Worcester, Speaker, and Smollett's "motion 
maker." The connection of the other Sandys family, " Sandys 
of the Vync," who were ennobled, does not seem to be at all 
certain, though alluded to by Strype and incorporated in 
Forster's pedigree. 

2 SMITH. ELIZABETH SMITH was the second child and eldest 
daughter of Captain Smith, a son being Charles Felix 
Smith, the distinguished Commanding Officer of the 
Royal Engineers. She was born at Burnhall, Co. Durham, 
in 1776: but the family, through losses by a bank 
failure, were compelled to leave, and Captain Smith, 
after joining and leaving the army, then decided to 
settle in the Lakes. They first went to Pattcrdale, but 
in 1801 they migrated to Townson Ground in Monk 
Coniston, now known, for reasons we shall mention, by 
the name of Tent Cottage. 

"Bessy" Smith, as she was familiarly called, was a 
genius, and, with the opportunities she had, a most 
remarkable linguist. De Quincey, in Taifs Magazine, 
wrote thus of her : 




BIOGRAPHIES. 405 

" It appears that she made herself mistress of French, 
the Italian, the Spanish, the Latin, the German, the 
Greek, and the Hebrew languages. She had no incon- 
siderable knowledge of the Syriac, the Arabic, and the 
Persic. She was a good mathematician and algebraist. 
She was a very expert musician. She drew from nature, 
and had an accurate knowledge of perspective." 

All these, except French, were self-taught ; and by 
her death, all, as well as Greek and Latin, were fairly 
mastered. She began her studies young; for by 1785 
she had made good progress in music. In 1793 she 
could read Spanish well, and at the end of 1/94 she 
had commenced Persian and Arabic. Latin she began 
in November, 1794, and by the following February she 
had read Caesar's commentaries and Cicero. Two years 
later she was translating Genesis from the Hebrew, and 
by 1799 she could read with ease the Testament in 
Syriac. 

This was a pretty good record of mental work, but 
her character and disposition seem to have been as 
amiable as her brain was versatile. But, owing to a 
chill contracted by reading near the lake in summer, 
consumption set in, and she died 7th August, 1806, 
only 29 years of age. 

Some of the writings she left, were published 1808- 
1814. They consisted of philological collections in 
Welsh, Chinese, Icelandic, and African languages. Verses, 
graceful, but of no great merit, and translations that 
of Job being highly commended by Dr. Magee and 
other competent judges. 

Opposite the cottage the Smiths tenanted, across the 
road, a tent had been erected by the family, either as 
a view place, or, as De Quincey seems to hint, as a 
shelter for the dying Bessy. Anyhow, the story is that 
in her decline she suggested that this should be the 
site of their long-talked-of new house. Her wishes 
were observed, and the new house was called Tent 



406 BIOGRAPHIES. 

Lodge, while their old home has curiously changed its 
name of Townson Ground to Tent Cottage. Wilkinson, 
the Yanwath yeoman poet, and a friend of the family, 
laid out the grounds of the new house after poor 
Bessy's death, in Hawkshead Church a simple marble 
slab records her name : though, as De CJuinccy has 
said, the inscription is both " unsatislactory and common- 
place." 

" In memory of Elizabeth, eldest daughter of George 
Smith of Collision, Lsq 1 . She died August 7th, 1806, 
aged 29. She possessed great talents, exalted virtues, 
and humble piety." 

1 2 SWAINSUN. ISAAC SVVAINSON, M.D. and botanist, was the 
son of John Svvainson, yeoman of High House (d. 1750), 
by his second wile Lidia Faik, and grandson of Christopher 
Swainson (d. 1722), who married, 1692, Agnes, daughter 
and eventually heiress of Henry Sawrey of High House. 

Born in 1/40 he made his way young to London to 
seek his fortune : and, alter serving as assistant to a 
Dr. Alercier, he acquired possession ol a patent medicine 
called " Velno's Vegetable Syrup," which became after- 
wards well-known, and was extravagantly puffed in 
Bannantine's collection ot squibs called " New Joe 
Miller" (1800-1801;. By this he, no doubt, made 
money, but he studied medicine also in an orthodox way, 
taking his M.D. in 1785. He was, however, best known 
as a learned and indefatigable botanist, especially in 
medical botany, and at Heath Lodge, Twickenham (an 
old river-side seat of the Lords Ferrers, which he re- 
built and lived in), he laid out extensive botanical 
gardens, which became well known. He formed a 
collection of over fifty folio volumes of rare botanical 
plates ; and at Twickenham and Frith Street, Soho 
(his London house), he collected a library of six 
thousand volumes, containing many fine botanical works, 
and rare editions of plays, poems, and squibs. He also 
made a small, but choice collection of paintings by 




ISAAC* SWAINS ox 

<". ^// '.,//.../...,.. ./' 



BIOGRAPHIES. 409 

Geo. Morland, James Ward, Northcote, and others. 
Isaac Swainson appears to have had curious ideas of 
politics and religion. Among his friends were enume- 
rated the Bishop of Llandaff, George Morland, "Anthony 
Pasquin " (John Williams), an American satirist and 
democrat, denominated by Lord Macaulay a " malignant 
and filthy baboon," Bannantine, the editor of " New 
Joe Miller," and champion of Colonel Dcspard, who 
was executed for treason, and also John Bellamy, the 
wine merchant, appointed " housekeeper " to the house 
of Commons, because his cellars being under the old 
houses of Parliament, it was necessary to keep on good 
terms with him.* Probably these social eccentricities 
were due to a second-rate education, for his tastes were 
eminently scientific. Although he never published any- 
thing, he left several classified botanical indices in MS. 

Swainson died /th March, 1812, and was buried at 
Twickenham, where there is a long inscription to him 
and other members of the family. Me was married, 
but had no family. The High House property passed, 
by the marriage of Mary, daughter of his half-brother 
James Swainson, to the writer's great-grandfather, Thomas 
Cowper. High House, called about 1800 the Castle, 
was re-built in 1859 by James Swainson Cowper-Essex, 
and the botanical collections, and portions of the library 
and some of the paintings arc still preserved here. 

His portrait, painted by J. R. Smith, was engraved 
in 1805 by Scrivcn. (Sec illustration.) 

2 WILLIAM SWAINSON, F.L.S., F.R.S., the eminent naturalist, 
was born Oct. 8th, 1789, being the son of John 
Timothy Swainson, Collector of Customs at Liverpool 
and Lord of the Manor of Hoylakc, and great-grandson 
of Henry Swainson, of High House, younger son of 
Christopher, who died in 1722. He was first placed 
in the Custom House Service, but caring little for the 



* The Yeomen of the Guard, after searching the vaults at the opening of 
Parliament, always went to Bellamy's cellars to drink the King's health. 



410 BIOGRAPHIES. 

work he was appointed to the establishment of Com- 
missary-General Wood, and served in that department 
of the British army in the Mediterranean from 1807 to 
1815. During his period of service he found much 
time to follow his tastes for Zoology, both in Sicily, 
North and South Italy, and even during a visit on 
leave in Greece. In 1815, however, having attained the 
rank of Assistant Commissary-General on the staff of 
the Mediterranean Army, he was compelled by ill-health 
to return to England. He then left the service, and 
having been elected Fellow of the Linnean Society he 
went in 1816 to Pcrnambuco, and after a delay caused 
by the rebellion of 1817 he travelled to Bahia and Rio 
dc Janeiro, being part of the time with Langsdorff, the 
traveller. On his return to England with enormous 
zoological collections, he was elected (1820) F.R.S. at 
the recommendation of Sir Joseph Banks. He now 
began writing on natural history subjects, utilizing, 
we believe for the first time, lithography for zoological 
plates. He took up his residence in London, and after 
producing his "Exotic Conchology " and "Zoological 
Illustrations" he applied unsuccessfully for a vacant 
post in the British Museum. He married in 1823, and 
on the death of his father soon after, he settled down 
to literary work. He first of all undertook an " Encyclo- 
paedia of Zoology " for Longman, Orme, Browne & Co., 
but this afterwards appeared as the various zoological 
volumes of " Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopaedia," the editor 
entrusting the whole of that section to his hands. He 
then settled at Tittcnhanger Green, arid for the next 
fifteen years his output of natural history literature 
was very large. In 1835 his wife died, and he himself 
having suffered large monetary losses through the 
failure of Mexican mines, at last determined to emigrate 
to New Zealand, which he did in 1837. His literary 
work came to an end, and it is said that much of his 
collections were lost on the voyage. He married a second 



BIOGRAPHIES. 4 1 1 

time, was made J. P. in New Zealand, and died at Welling- 
ton Dec. 6th, 1865. His books, published between 1808 
and 1847, number about twenty-five, and some of them, 
like his "Zoological Illustrations" (three vols., 1820-23), 
still command high prices. Eleven volumes alone he 
contributed to " Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopaedia." * As 
might be expected, such enormous literary energy on 
such a wide field brought on him some rough criticism 
from specialist naturalists. Waterton in 1837 fell very 
foul of him in an " Ornithological Letter to Wm. 
Svvainson, Esq., E.K.S.," and became abusive to a degree 
in his " Essays on Natural History," where he styled 
Swamson a "wholesale dealer in closet zoology." In 
a privaie letter he also asserted that except Audiibon 
no one had done so much harm to science as Swainson 
altogether not a bad compliment to Swainson's 
attainments. 

There is an excellent portrait of him in his last work, 
" Taxidermy, with the Biography of Zoologists, London, 
1840," which also contains an autobiography and list of 
his publications, which, however, is not complete. 

1'AYLuR. -MICHAEL TAYLOR. Boutu was the native place of 
the late Mr. Michael Taylor, the celebrated calculator for 
the Board of Longitude, who has perpetuated his name in 
the mathematical world by his correct and comprehensive 
tables of logarithms, signs, tangents, etc. " Green's 
Guide to the Lakes," 1., p. 127. 

1 WALKER. UR. GEORGE WALKER, a celebrated Puritan divine 
and benefactor of the clergy, was born, as Fuller tells us, 
at Hawkshead. His age when he died in 1651 is given 
as 70, which would put his birth in the year 1581. 
Probably, however, the following entry in the Parish 
Register refers to him : 



1 2 



* Thirty-six scientific papers are also enumerated in the Royal Society's 

Catalogue, viii., 893 ; see also particulars in " Gentleman's Magazine," 1856, 

532-3.; " Froc. uimean Society," 1855-6, p. 49; "Dictionary of National 
biography.' 1 



4 1 2 BIOGRAPHIES. 

Baptisms 1582 " Oct vij George Walker fil : Edward." 
We know nothing further of his family ; or, indeed, little 
beyond what is given by Fuller, whose biography we 
quote in full below. About 1650, by the "Survey of 
Church Lands " (Lambeth Library), we find that he then 
allowed the minister of Hawkshead twenty pounds a 
year ; " of which the parishioners have not any assurance 
nor know whether their said Benefactor will settle the 
same upon the church." At that time there was no 
residence for the incumbent ; but Walker about that date 
gave the present vicarage, which was then called 
Walker Ground, and was probably the old home of his 
family ; though the name is now attached to the 
residence of Mr. W. Lane, J.P., just alongside it.* 

We may add in addition to the interesting details 
given by Fuller, that the date of his appointment to 
St. John the Evangelist was 1614, and that he is 
supposed to have been schooled at the Grammar 
School. He published several sermons and controversial 
tracts : and in 1635 was prosecuted by Laud in the Star 
Chamber, with the result of fine and imprisonment, as 
Fuller states. He was noted for his controversies with 
the Papists, especially with one named Smith or Norris, 
and as colleague with L)r. Featley against Fisher. In 
1643 he was chosen one of the Westminster Assembly 
of Divines, and during the Commonwealth preached 
several times before Parliament. On his death he was 
buried in his own church. 

" George Walker was born at Hauxhead in Fournifells, 
of Religious Parents. Being visited when a child with the 
Small-poxc, and the standers-by expecting his dissolu- 
tion, he started up out of a Trance with this ejaculation, 
Lord, take me not aivay till I have shewed Jortli Thy 
praises, which made his Parents devote him to the 
Ministery after his recovery. 



* Both houses are old, however, and it is not easy to say which is the 
original Walker Ground. 






BIOGRAPHIES. 413 

" He was bred B.D. in St. Johns Colledge, in Cambridge, 
where he attained to be well skilled in the Oriental 
Tongues, an excellent Logician and Divine. Mr. Foster 
(formerly his Tutor) resigned unto him his living of 
St. John the Evangelist, London, wherein Mr. Walker 
continued the painful Preacher well-nigh fourty years, 
refusing higher preferment often preferred him. Dr. 
Felton (the same morning he was elected Bishop of Ely) 
made him his Chaplain, and Dr. Featly chose him his 
second in one of his Disputations against Father Fisher, 
yea. Mr. Walker alone, had many encounters with the 
subtillest of the Jesuitical party. 

" He was a man of an holy life, humble heart, and 
bountiful hand, who deserved well of Sion Colledge 
Library, and by his example and pcrswasion advanced 
about a Thousand pounds towards the maintenance of 
preaching Ministers in this his Native County. He ever 
wrote all his Sermons, though making no other use of his 
Notes in the Pulpit, than keeping them in his pocket, 
being wont to say that he thought he should be out if 
he had them not about him. His Sermons, since 
printed, against the prophanation of the Sabboth and 
other practises and opinions, procured him much trouble 
and two years' Imprisonment, till he was released by 
the Parliament. He dyed in the seventy year of his 
age, Anno Dom., 1651." " Fuller's Worthies," 1662. 

ADAM WALKER, the philosophical lecturer, belongs to a 
Hawkshead stock, being grandson of Adam Walker, and 
great grandson of Mylcs, of Hawkshead Church Stile, 
whose name is found in 1664 in the Hawkshead 
register. Adam, the grandfather, migrated across 
Windermere, and settled at the Crosses in Applcthwaite, 
and his marriage is found in the Windermere register 
in 1690. The subject of the present notice was born at 
Troutbeck Bridge in 1732, probably at the farm called the 
Crosses, where his father was engaged in a small way in 
the woollen manufacture. As a lad he showed his 



4H BIOGRAPHIES. 

mechanical bent by making model mills on a beck near 
his home ; and his propensity for mental work, by 
building himself a hut for Sunday study in the woods. 
At fifteen he became usher to a Yorkshire school, and 
after four years, assistant master at a school at Macclesfield. 
Here he attempted to embark in trade, which proved a 
failure, but some lectures on astronomy proved so successful 
that he established a school himself. His lectures 
had, however, attracted much attention, so that in 
1778, by the recommendation of Dr. Priestley, after 
giving up his school, he opened the Haymarket Theatre 
for public lectures ; and, after that date, his reputation 
advanced fast, and he was frequently invited to lecture 
at the great public schools. 

Adam Walker's inventions and writings are numerous. 
Among the former were engines for raising water ; 
methods of pumping out ships ; wind and steam carriages ; 
a harpsichord ; a planetarium or orrery, which he called 
" Eidouranion " ; the revolving lights on the Scilly 
Islands ; a boat to work against stream ; a complicated 
instrument to gauge rain, wind, and moisture of air, 
combined with a clock and barometer ; a road mill ; 
and a variety of other things. 

He wrote upon " Familiar Philosophy " (1799) ; on 
curing smoky chimneys ; causes and effects of bad air ; 
remarks on a tour in the Lakes (1791); use of the 
globes ; his continental travels ; and numerous papers 
and verse in periodical magazines. He died February 
nth, 1821. Notices appeared in the "Gentleman's 
Magazine," Rose's " Biographical Dictionary," " Bibliotheca 
Britannica," and Michaud's " Bibliographic Universelle." 
A portrait of him, by Drummond, was published in 
1792 by J. Sewell, and shows a plainly-dressed man 
with strongly marked features, penetrating eyes, a 
determined mouth, and very high forehead. 

One of his sons, William Walker (b. 1766, d. 1816), 
inherited his talent for lecturing, for the " Monthly 






BIOGRA PHIES. 4 1 5 

Magazine " mentions him at the age of sixteen lecturing on 
Natural Philosophy, and explaining the " Eidouranion." 
He also drew up an "Epitome of Astronomy" (1798), 
and is alluded to by the " Gentleman's Magazine " in high 
terms as a lecturer, and as possessing considerable 
knowledge of modern languages and the classics. 

Adam Walker, the ex-champion wrestler, represents 
a collateral branch of the same family. 

3 WORDSWORTH. WILLIAM WORDSWORTH. Properly speaking 
William Wordsworth has no title to a place in this chapter. 
He was neither born in the parish, descended from a local 
family, nor resident within the parish during that period of 
his life when his writings had made him a name. Yet it 
cannot be denied that his connection with the town as a 
school-lad has made the name of our little market town 
familiar in a thousand homes, where, but for him, it 
would never have been heard. There is little doubt 
that the beauties of Hawkshead valley had much to 
do in forming the impressionable and plastic mind of 
the young poet. The nine years he spent (1778-1786) 
before college among lakes and brawling becks, were 
well calculated to foster that intense sensibility towards 
the beautiful in nature, which among commonplace 
surroundings would, at any rate, have been stunted and 
ill-developed. How the lad loved the country we know 
well from the " Prelude " ; but it must be remembered 
that this retrospective poem was composed long after 
he had left school." What he tells us of his general 
life there, is of great interest, for we learn not only 
something of the lad himself, but a great deal generally of 
school-boy life over a century ago. His skating excursions, 
woodcock snaring, and raven nesting expeditions show 
the-school lad ; while his long early morning rambles, 
and his dreamy reveries by lake and on fell side display 
the sentimental part of his nature. 

* The " Prelude " was begun in 1799 and completed in 1805. 



4 :6 BIOGRAPHIES. 

But, taking into consideration the interval between 
his school-boyhood and the writing of the " Prelude," 
we feel that attempts to explain and identify every 
scene and action in the latter are hardly logical. The 
poet cast in sounding verse the general impressions 
which still lingered with him of his happy youth ; but 
is it not an impression only ? The writer never meant, 
we believe, that his descriptive pieces should be analyzed, 
and that the time and place where this was done, 
and that was thought of, should be marked off in an 
almanack or laid down on the Ordnance sheet ; and 
our own intimate acquaintance with the topography 
of Ilawkshcad and its surroundings convinces us that 
the " Prelude " should be looked on as a poem only. 

It is not, of course, only to the " Prelude " to which 
we turn for mention of Hawkshead. " Matthew," " The 
Two April Mornings," and "The Fountain" contain 
many allusions ; and " A Memorial Ode " and " Lines left 
upon a scat on a Yew Tree" were composed, at any 
rate, partly when he was at school ; while his " Conclusion 
of a poem composed in anticipation of leaving school," 
written at sixteen, is probably to us Hawkshead folk 
as interesting as anything he wrote. It is too well 
known to need requesting. There arc also " The Hawks- 
head Brook," and " Address to the scholars of the village 
school of- "(1798). Wordsworth, as far as the dead 
languages go, is believed to have been an idle boy at 
Hawkshead ; but he devoured the old English classics. 
He cut his name in the orthodox school-boy way in 
the Grammar schoolroom, and this, Dame Tyson's pretty 
cottage, and Flag Street, form the three points of visitation 
for the Wordsworth pilgrim. Sometimes one especially 
enthusiastic will make his way down to Waterside to 
identify the yew tree, and does so perhaps to his own 
satisfaction, for, although the real tree was destroyed 
by Mr. Braithwaite Hodgson, of Green End, in Word- 
worth's lifetime, another stands not far from the site, 



BIOGRAPHIES. 417 

and has been called by the name of, and we believe 
is pointed out as, " Wordsworth's Yew." 

With this we must bring to a close our list of 
worthies ; for it is manifestly neither advisable nor 
possible to trace out persons who have descended in 
a less direct way from an ancestor in the parish. There 
may be thousands such, but one or two names which 
occur to us may be mentioned here. John Gough, 
the blind philosopher, was on his mother's side descended 
from the Wilsons, of High Wray. The late Birket Foster, 
the landscape painter.showed a descent through the Birketts 
of Cartmel Fell to the Sandys family. John Bright 
was descended by his mother's family the Woods, 
from Michael Satterthwaite, of the Crag in Colthouse ; 
and George Foster Braithwaite, the veteran angler and 
author of " Salmonidae of Westmorland," belonged to 
a family of Braithwaites, which, though for long at 
Kendal, came originally from High Wray.* 



* The Times obituary column of November 5th, 1898, chronicles the 
death of Mr. George Montague Buck, classical schoolmaster of the City of London 
School. Mr. Buck was a grandson of George Black, the nonagenarian farmer, whose 
portrait appears on page 195 of this work. Mr. Buck was a Fellow of Cains College, 
Cambridge, 1893, Craven Scholar 1892, and Senior Chancellor's Medallist for 
Classics 1893. He died on 2nd November. 

28 



CHAPTER IX. 

PARISH BOOKS AND ACCOUNTS. 
PARISH ACCOUNT BOOKS AND PAPERS. 

T T NDER this head, even at the risk of being tedious, we 
*~-J propose to give some extracts of the older parochial 
books, other than the register, which still exist. 

The earliest register book itself is in print, and we do not 
despair of one day seeing the eighteenth century register also 
in the hands of the public. With this in view we shall not, 
therefore, notice the later register here, but will confine our- 
selves to the other MS. material (chiefly accounts), which, 
although containing much local matter of interest, has naturally 
a great deal of repetition, so that to print it in cxtcnso seems 
hardly desirable. We shall, therefore, take the two volumes 
of accounts first, and go through them, giving such entries as 
elucidate their character, or arc otherwise of value. We adopt 
this method of consecutive description in preference to giving 
a more popular account of the general contents, because, by 
doing so, the ensuing pages can be used as a sort of index 
to the volumes themselves. 

A word about the handwriting of the accounts. Allowing 
for the variation of pens and ink, we are not able to point 
to any place where a new hand takes up the work between 
1720 and 1782. The writing following the first-mentioned 
year is a careful round hand. About 1737 it becomes freer 
and bolder, but equally legible ; and about 1750 it assumes 
a settled, but somewhat less bold, character, in which, 
however, we fail to recognize any change of hand, until 



PARISH BOOKS AND ACCOUNTS, 419 

about 1773 a certain tremulousness appears, which is evidently 
characteristic of old age. This rapidly becomes accentuated, 
till in 1781 every line is evidently traced with difficulty, 
and after 1782-3 it is replaced by a flowing and totally 
different writing. 

From 1745 to this date the hand is undoubtedly that of 
John Hodgson, the clerk who was appointed in 1744 and 
died in 1785. We can trace him in the register: for in 
the second volume we find, at the end, two notes inserted : 

" John Hodgson entered Parish Clark Hawkshead on 
Wednesday y c 28 th of March, 1744." 

The other note runs : 

John Hodgson Parish Clerk was a Shoemaker Geo. 
Pennington Parish Clerk was a Shoemaker Jno. Rooks 
Parish Clerk- was a Shoemaker Samuel Green Shoemaker 
enterd Parish Clerk on Tuesday the lyth Day of Augt 
1819:" and Hodgson's death is chronicled, 1785 (Burials), 
"John Hodgson of Hawkshead Parish Clerk dyed Jan. 1 6 
and was buried Jan. i8th in the church y d aged 76 years. 
He was Parish Clerk upwards of 40 years." 

There is no marked break or change in the writing in 
1744-5) as we have said, and though there arc minor changes 
in character, we cannot point to any given point where a 
new hand takes it up prior to this date. In 1721 Hodgson 
was only twelve years of age, and the writing has no 
appearance of being a mere lad's. It is possible that the 
accounts were, however, kept on loose paper and first 
entered about 1726, in which case Hodgson may possibly 
have been the scribe, although he was not to be clerk till 
nearly twenty years later.* 

The ordinary accounts of the churchwardens and overseers 
from 1720 to 1771 (excepting the year 1768), arc in the 
volume we call Vol. No. I. Year 1768, and from 1772 to 
1797 are in Vol. No. II., which contains also other matter. 
The following are extracts from these accounts : 

* It is evident that the accounts were copied from the originals into the volume, 
because the signatures of the persons who passed the accounts yearly are in the same 
writing as the accounts themselves. 



4 2o PARISH BOOKS AND ACCOUNTS. 

ACCOUNT ROOK, VOL. No. I. (and part of No. II.). 
Vol. I. is bound in calf. On the inside of the binding : 

" Memd that Mr. W m . Bank of Bank ground in Conistone 
gave the Church Bible & Corhon Prayer Book to Hawks- 
head Church in the year 1713 Liveing then in Cony Street 
in York Whitesmith" and below this, "This Account Book 
was repaired in the Old Binding in June 1894, by us, 

EDWARD W. OAK, Vicar, 
H. S. COWPER, F.S.A. 

A BOOKE MADE FOR THE USE OF 

THE CHURCH OF HAUXHEAD, 

ANNO DOMINI, 1696. 

Then follows some of the recipients of local charities in 
1717 and 1718. These charities we shall treat of elsewhere. 

" Augt y e 8 th 1718 

Mem : y' y e day abovcs d Chuthbert Hodgson 
has undertaken & it is agreed w th him that from henceforth 
he Repair y e roof of y c Church steeple & y' he keep y 6 
s d steeple dropp dry for term of his life for \v ch the parish 
is to pay him four shillings every yeare " 

Hitherto the accounts have been very meagre, but from 
1720 the}' begin to be kept in full detail, both by wardens, 
overseers, and surveyors. 

CHURCHWARDENS' Acer., 1720. 
Receipts. 

s. d. 

Eight burials, y ^d p peicc ... ... ... I 6 8 

Hugh Cowperthw 1 : a poor Bill & a Quartr ... 311 o 

Disbursements. 
When we Etercd into office each a Journey to 

UlVstone ... ... ... ... ... 040 

for repairing the clock ... ... ... ... o I 8 

for bread & wine at Whitsuntide w th a Journey... o 16 4 

for Ringing y e first of August ... ... ... 026 

to James Keen for Strawing y e Church ... o 5 o 

for a Bell rope ... ... ... ... ... 026 

for a clock rope ... ... ... ... ... 026 

Expenses w n y e new bowl* was sent for ... o 2 4 

for a box to carry y e old bowl into London ... o I O 

* This and the following allusions to the bowls refer to the Communion Cup, 
which bears the hall mark 1720-1. 






PARISH BOOKS AND ACCOUNTS. 421 

for Carriage of y e old Bowl & postage & postage s. d. 

of Lett rs 026 

for repairing ye Church stile on ye South side 

(also repairs to Porch and roof) ... o 5 o 

Ite for mending Curplacc & Comon pray r Book o i o 

Ite for Railing y e comunion Table about ... o 10 10 

Ite for a new Bowl and y e Carrage ... ... 03 1 8 o 

Ite for y e old Bowl Sodering ... ... ... 030 

Ite y e carriage of both bowls from London ... o 3 8 

Ite expenses w n they came safe back from London 028 

Ite to y e Aparrif for bringing a form of pray 1 o i 6 

Ite for psentmts Drawing & book of Articles... 050 

Ite for Laying ye flags upon ye steeple ... o I 10 

Ite for bread & wine at Easf with a Journey o 17 6 

Ite comissary ffees ... ... ... ... ... o 8 10 

Ite Each of us a journey to Ulverstonc at our 

going out ... ... ... ... ... 40 

Ite to y e Clerk for writeing y e Parish concerns 10 o 

POOR ACCOUNT, 1720 (FIELDIIEAD). 

Ite to Eliz : Atkinson, 6d p month & is 6d over 070 

Ite her house rent to J no Swainson ... ... o 10 o 

Ite for her peats geting ... ... ... ... 036 

also for giving notice for a sale & to y e Cry r 008 

To Agnes Walker one Shilling & sixpence p week 3 13 6 
the same a paire of Stockins a Smock & making 

& thread ... ... ... ... ... 2 lOob 

CHURCHWARDENS' ACCOUNT, 1721. 

Receipts. 

Imp 14 burials in the Church ... ... ... 268 

Disbursements. 

to Clemt Rigge for peats w n y e leads were sod rd o 10 

for flaggs for y e steeple windows & carriage ... o 4 O 

to Robt Wilson for 2 load of lime & carriage 040 

to ffisher for cotrclls * for y e littc bell ... o i 4 

Expences on the Proclamation day ... ... o 7 6 

for ringing on that day ... ... ... ... 020 

to James Keen for strawing the Church ... o 5 6 

to the Apparitor for a book concerning y e plague o i 6 

for the Pew making... ... ... ... ... 200 

to James Keen Whissiter \ ... ... ... ... 050 

for mossing & pventing a drop ... ... ... 015 o 

* Cotteril, a small iron wedge for securing a bolt (Halliwell). 
t Perhaps an error for " whissiler. " In the register we find whistlers, pipers, and 
fiddlers all mentioned. 



422 PARISH BOOKS AND ACCOUNTS. 

s. d. 
to Geo : Walker for 2 load of slate ... ... O 2 O 

for 4 stone & 3 pound of hair at iO d p stone 036 
for stairs to the Pulpit and a trap door ... O 12 6 

POOR ACCOUNT, 1721. 

a pair of cloggs for Dorothy Sawrey ... ... o I 2 

POOR ACCOUNT, 1722. 

for a pair of Cloggs & tobacco for Agnes Benson 022 
for 4 Journeys to ye sessions ... ... ... O 2 8 

to the Justices Clarks at my going out ... o I O 

for my account drawing ... ... ... ... o o 6 

Be it Remembered that so many of us as arc here present 
(y u 26 Day of Deccmb' 1726) viz: of y c 24 do freely give 
our consents yt y c 10 li left to ye poor & y e 10 li to the 
minister by y c Last Will & Testa mt of Geo : Banks of 
Bank-groung (sic) shall be let out by the Churchw" 5 & 
Overseers of y e poor of y c Bayliffcwick as y c said Will 
directs with prop 1 " securities for the same & ordr our names 
to be subscribed as followeth 

Thomas Braithwt de Castle* 
Myles Townson Myles Sawrey 

Kdw d Scales Will Kirkby 

Rich' 1 Riggc Rich' 1 Harrison 

Robt Knipc Gawen Braithwt 

Thomas Walker Robt Robinson 

Robt Benson John Copley 

W nl Satterthw' Beckside 
(below in another hand) 

pray rcmcmb r the fines then spent. 

CHURCHWARDENS' ACCOUNTS, 1723. 
Disbursements. 

for ringing on ye Proclamation day 5th of 

Novemb 1 " and Christmas Eve ... ... 012 o 

for whiping ye Dogs ... ... ... ... ... o 5 o 

for iron work to ye great bell .. ... ... 040 

for leather to y e great bell tongue... ... ... O I O 

for a pig of lead to ye clock ... .. ... 018 o 

CHURCHWARDENS' ACCOUNTS, 1724. 
Disbursements. 

a new lock & key to ye church door ... ... o 5 o 

for ringing on ye 3 ffestival Days ... ... ... 012 O 

to Habakkuk for work ... ... ... ... OO2 

* This was the farm called Castle in Sawrey, not Castle alias High House, in 
Hawkshead and Fieldhead. 



PARISH BOOKS AND ACCOUNTS. 423 

CHURCHWARDENS' ACCOUNTS, 1725. 

Disbursements. s. d. 

(Reginald Grigg) for stones and trailing*... ... o 7 6 

CHURCHWARDENS' ACCOUNTS, 1728. 

Disbursements. 
Bread and wine at Easter ... ... ... ... 0190 

2 loads of lime and carriage ... ... ... 042 

a spade ... ... ... .., ... ... o i 9 

CHURCHWARDENS' ACCOUNTS, 1729. 
Disbursements. 

fflaging the midle Alleyf ... ... ... . o 11 6 

for the fflaggs ... ... ... ... ... 115 9 

fflaging the church porch ... ... ... ... 020 

a new clock string ... ... ... ... ... 026 

Poor Account 1729 is headed: 

The Acct of Will Benson ov'.s er of y p poor 1729 for his 

estate at Ha\vksh d field, 
to John Woodburn bastard 3d a week 36 and 

for clothes for him 6s ... ... i 10 o 

POOR ACCOUNT, CONISTONK AND SKKLLKTII, 1729. 
four yards of harden at lod. per yard ... ... o 3 4 

POOR ACCOUNT, CLAIFE, 1729. 

for 4 yards & 3 quart rs of cloth ... ... ... 077^ 

a pair of clogs is 2d and an hatt 8d ... ... o i 10 

2 pair of stockins is 40! ... .. ... ... o I 4 

a pair of shooes for Scotty ... ... ... 034 

Spent in Westmorland abt taking Elix : Burtons 

false pretend r \ ... ... ... ... 030 

CHURCHWARDENS' ACCOUNTS, 1730. 

Receipts. 
For 4 Burials in the Church .. ... ... 013 4 

Disbursements. 
Itm to Henry Swainson for flaggs and stones... o i 8j 

* Trailing no doubt conveying stones by a sledge. 

t It is possible that this was the first flagging of the church, but not likely. 
There is no charge for strawing this year, but it is found after. 

% There is nothing to explain this entry. 

The Swainsons, of High House, had a flag quarry, from which the stone was in 
great request. In 1724 Henry's brother, John Swainson, of High House, sent flags to 
Ulverston Church See introduction to Bardsley's Ulvcrston Parish Register, p. Ixxii. 



424 



PARISH BOOKS AND ACCOUNTS. 





o 



d. 

o 



O 10 O* 



O 2 
O 2 



Itm to ye Parriter for Book of Articles 

Itm for Two foxes killing near Graithw' 6 35 : 4d 

p peice and 2 cubs in Claiffe is: 8(d) p 

peice ... 

POOR ACCOUNT, HAWKSHEAD, 1731. 

ffor Lanclot Jeffinson winding sheet 

a shift cloth thred and makeing for Agnes Atkinson 

An Acct w h was spent ab' Clarah Braithw' 

setlem 1 in Whitehav 

Imprh 2 horses to Graithw' ... ... ... o I o 

2 horses to Whitehaven ... ... ... 076 

To Ad. Walker for her Entertainm' ... o i 6 

To Jane Godfrey for cnt'tainm' ... ... o o 6 

Spent in our Journey to Whitehaven ... O 13 9 

an horse 3 times to Graithw' ... ... o I 6 

Expenses and repairing sadles ... ... o I 5 

expenses to Carlisle ... ... ... o 11 10 

for carrying her to Whitehaven ... ... o 9 O 

Enftainm' for man & horse at Carlisle i 15 10 
(and other lawyers expenses, filing bills, 
affidavits, etc.) 

POOR ACCOUNT, (MONK) CONISTON, 1731. 
for coat vest and 2 pair of Breeches ... ... o 8 5 

CHURCHWARDENS' ACCOUNT, 1731. 

Receipts. 
for ii burials in ye church .. ... ... I 16 8 

Disbursements. 



to Hen Swainson for flags 


O 


19 


o 


4 Ravens killing 4d p piece 


o 


i 


4 


a fox killing ... 


o 


5 


o 


POOR ACCOUNT, CLAIFE, 1731. 








for conducting Walmsley to Lanc r 


i 








my horse & my self 9 days 


O 


9 





CHURCHWARDENS' ACCOUNTS, 1732. 








Receev'd for burials in the Church 


i 





o 


Disbursements. 








the Book of Articles 


O 


5 


o 


ffor an old ffox & one cubb 


o 


7 


6 


1 1 raven heads 


o 


3 


8 



* This is the first mention of rewards for vermin. 



PARISH BOOKS AND ACCOUNTS. 425 

POOR ACCOUNT, (MONK) CONISTON, 1732. 

s. d. 
for a pair of Cloggs and cokering* ... ... o i 3 

POOR ACCOUNT, CLAIFE, 1732. 

for Katherine Sauls Coffin ... ... 049 

her winding sheet ... 030 

the arvallt ... ... 062 

for selling her cloaths 006 

for winding her ... ... ... ... ... o I 6 

CHURCHWARDENS' ACCOUNT, 1733. 

Disbursements. 
for 3 rowlers to ye bells ... ... ... ... 020 

for 5 ravens heads ... ... ... ... ... o I 8 

POOR ACCOUNT, HAWKSHEAD, 1733. 

for clothes to a litle boy ... ... ... ... o 19 3 

for his boarding it weeks is 2d a week ... o 12 10 

for a quarter of Beef ... ... ... ... 070 

half a bushell of meall ... ... ... ... 034 

CHURCHWARDENS' ACCOUNTS, 1734. 

Disbursements. 

High rooff mossing & mending ... ... o 6 O 

for one old ffox & 3 cubbs ... 012 6 

to Habbakuk for shafting a spade ... ... o O 8 

for 4 ravens heads ... ... ... ... ... o I 4 

POOR ACCOUNT, CONISTON AND SKELWITH, 1735. 

for removing Mary Grave into Cumberland a 
journey to Cartmcll & charg of a 
warrant & a coppy on't 2 journeys to 
her ffathers house ... ... ... ... 066 

CHURCHWARDENS' ACCOUNT, 1735. 
7 raven heads at 4d a piece ... ... ... 024 

CHURCHWARDENS' ACCOUNT, 1736. 

Receipts. 
burials in ye Church ... ... ... ... o 16 8 

Disbursements. 

in exchange of a pewder dish ... ... ... oo 02 2 

a spade shaft 8d 6 ravensheads 2s ... ... oo 02 8 

* Cokers or Calkers were the irons fitted on the clog soles. 

f Arvall or arval the funeral refreshments. The Scandinavian arval was also 
the funeral feast. 



426 PARISH BOOKS AND ACCOUNTS. 

POOR ACCOUNT, CLAIFE, 1736. 

Expences ab l writing letters to Sedbergh & s. d. 
giving notice to 2 Scotch women to 
leave ye Parish ... ... ... ... ooooio 

CHURCHWARDENS' ACCOUNT, 1737. 

Receipts. 

for ii burials in the Church ... ... ... i 16 8 

Disbursem**- 

4 raven heads ... ... ... ... ... o I 4 

to J no Swainson for Stones and flaggs ... ... o 5 6 

POOR ACCOUNT, HAWKSHEAD, 1738. 

a worm plaist 1 ' 3d a new prim r (4^d) schooling 

20 weeks is 6d ... ... ... ... o 2 ij 

CHURCHWARDENS' ACCOUNT, 1738. 

Receipts. 

for 9 burials in the Church ... ... ... [ 10 O 

Disbursements. 

to J"" Swainson for flags ... ... ... 043 

for a fox killing ... ... ... ... ... 050 

8 ravens heads ... ... ... ... ... o 2 8 

CHURCHWARDENS' ACCOUNT, 1739. 

by burials in y c Church ... ... ... ... I 34 

12 raven heads ... ... ... . . ... 040 

POOR ACCOUNT 1739. 

to yc wak rs * & drink at funerail 5s 6tl, to 

winders is 6cl ... ... ... .. 070 

CHURCHWARDENS' ACCOUNT, 1740. 

Receipts. 
for burials in the Church ... ... ... ... o 16 8 

CHURCHWARDENS' ACCOUNT, 1741. 

Receipts. 
for burials in the church ... ... ... ... ooiooo 

Disbii rseincnts. 

to I.eo (1 Tyson for making clock face ... ... o 5 O 

for painting the cluck face... ... ... ... I 10 O 

a form of pray r is 6cl to Bibby for 2 stangsl is 6d o 3 o 

4 ravcnsheads ... ... ... ... ... ... o 1 4 

An Homily book ... ... ... ... ... 050 

* Wakers, i.e., those who waked or watched the corpse. 
j" Slangs, i.e., poles of some sort. 






PARISH BOOKS AND ACCOUNTS. 427 

CHURCHWARDENS' ACCOUNT, 1742. 

Receipts. s. tl. 

burials (in the church) ... ... ... ... 016 8 

Disbursemts. 

to John Mouson for taking y e string of old Church 

cloth and scting tape abt it ... ... 008 

to Thos Atkinson for mending old cloth... ... o o 6 

Id for making ye new Church cloth ... ... o i 6 

12 Ravenshcads 43 ... ... ... ... ... o 4 o 

POOR ACCOUNT, 1743. 

(Mary Berry) for a chaff bed, 3* 6d to ye 

Docf for her childe 5s ::r ... ... o 8 6 

POOR ACCOUNT, CLAIFK, 1745. 

To yc Bastard five yards cloath & thread 6s id 
a pair Hodys is for making cloaths & 
stumager rod Taylor 4d stumager one 
pair clogs is ... ... . ... 93 

CHURCHWARDENS' ACCOUNT, 1744. 

Rcc. six Burials ... ... ... ... ... i o o 



To Rowland Kllcray for painting Little gates & . 

porch door ... ... ... ... ... 036 

To Henery Swainson for stone posts & other stones 0X2 

To John Swainson for three crow heads ... o o 6 
To one fox 5s one cub 2s 6d 4 ravens 

heads is 4d ... ... ... ... o 8 10 

CHURCHWARDENS' ACCOUNT, 1745. 

For six Burials ... ... ... ... ... i o o 

Disbitrsiiitx. 

To 8 raven heads 2s 8d Two Foxes los ... o 12 8 

To Tho s Burton for mending & dressing Clock o i o 

To ringing iO th Feb- v ale had then 2s 6d ... 046 

To ringing Dukes Birthday 2(3) ale then 35 .. 050 

To ringing 3 ld day April 2s ale had then 2s 040 

To ale 3 festivals X ms 2s II th June 2s 5 Nov 2s 060 

To ale given at Hanging Midle bcllt... ... o 3 o 



* First mention of a doctor noted. 

t No mention of ale before these. A shilling apiece to the ringers on festivals 
had always been given. 



428 PARISH BOOKS AND ACCOUNTS. 

CHURCHWARDENS' ACCOUNT, 1746. 

Receipts. s. d. 

Nine Burials .................. i 10 o 

To Geo Taylor & Jos Keen for Hanging Great 

Bell & Tounge ............ 2 13 10 

To Geo Taylor for mending door sneck & takeing 
Great Bell Tongue ought & puting in 

again... ... ... ... ... ... O I 4 

Three Fox 153 nine raven heads 35 ... ... 0180 

To Tho s Burton for mending Clock & Hamer* o I 10 

Expences at Great Bell taking down & puting up o 10 o 

Four Acts Parliamt about Horned Cattel ... O 4 O 



1725 We whose names are hereto subscribed 
do hereby agree that if any Parish officer or officers within 
our Parish of Hawkeshead in the County Palatine of Lan- 
caster do neglect his or their duty in his or their office or 
offices to the dctrmcnt of any of the severall divisions 
within the said Parish of Hawkeshead that such officer or 
officers so neglecting his or their duty or refuse or neglect 
to give his or their Accounts when lawfully surhoned or if 
any person or persons misapply any of the Parish money 
he or they are to be presented at the expense of the 
severall divisions within the said Parish of Hawkeshead. 

And it is furthur agreed by the majority of the ffour 
and twenty within the Bayliffcwick of Hawkeshead to presente 
William Dixon of Dixon-ground within Church Conistone 
in the said County of Lancaster Tanner and George Harrison 
of Thistone Waterhead in the said Bayliffcwick of Hawkes- 
head Yeoman according as the law directs at our joynt 
expence which is to be laid by a poore rate 

Myles Sandys Robt Benson Edward Scailes 

John Copley Robert Rolinson Thomas Dixon 

Gawcn Braithwait Hugh Addison Tho Walker 

Rich d Harrison Myles Sawrey The + mark of 

George Bankes William Braithwait Thomas Braithwaite 

Myles Townson 
William Satterthwaite 
elder t 

Wee whose Names are under written the p r s< Sidesmen 
or four & twenty chosen for the Parish of Hawkshead do 

* See page 298. 

t This document has the original signatures, and, with the one which follows, 
has apparently been written in the middle of the book, when a great part of it was 
blank. The Dixon-ground in Church Coniston must not be confounded with that in 
Hawkshead Parish : and we cannot explain why one of these Dixons was appointed a 
parish officer, unless he had also property in Monk Coniston, 



PARISH BOOKS AND ACCOUNTS. 



429 



hereby promise & agree to & with each other that from and 
after the twenty ninth day of this present Septemb r If any 
of us do not appear in Hawkshead Church at the Day & 
Hour appointed by usuall notice on some Sunday before 
for our meeting there nor send a reasonable excuse for his 
or their absence by word or writeing to to (sic) be allowed 
by the majority of such the s d four and twenty as shall 
then & there appear or if any of us shall absent our 
selves from the two usual meetings of the said Parish 
on the feast of St. Stephen & Tuesday in Easter week 
without an excuse or reason to be given & allowed as above 
mencon'd, then everyone of us so failing of attendance as 
afores d shall and will forfeit and pay for his not appearing 
at such meetings for the Parish business one Shilling of the 
Currant coin of Great Britain towards the defraying of the 
expences of such of the Said four and twenty as shall at 
the several! appointed times appear Witness our hands the 
third day of September 1721 



Myles Sandys 
John Copley 
Robert Robinso 
Hugh Addison 
Will" 1 Braithw' 
De Bryers 
Gawen Braithwt 
Rich d Harrison 
George Bank 
in whose room 
W m Kirkby elected ! 
Tho s Dixon 9 

Miles Sawrey* 10 

W m Braithw 1 fould 1 1 
W m Satterthw' 12 

Tho s Sattrthwt 13 

W m Braithw 1 Wray 14 
W m Mackreth 15 

Robt Benson 16 



i 

2 

3 
4 

5 

6 

7 

U 



Clemt Ri 



Walker 



Robt Knipe 



17 
18 

19 



ffor Hawksh* Quar tr 
John Copley 
Robert Robinson f 
Hugh Addison t these 

Clemt Rigge six 

W m Braithw 1 
Edw d Scales 

ffor Conistone & Skellcth Q r 
Gawen Braithwt 
W m MacrethU 
Rob' Benson ' these 

Rich d Harrison six 

Miles Sawrey [| 
W m Kirkby 

ffor Satterthivt & Grizedale. 
Myles Sandys Esq \ 
Thomas Walker 
Richd Riggett these 

Thos Dixon six 

Myles Townson 
Rob' Knipe 



* " Miles " erased and " Anthony " inserted in a later hand, probably owing to 
retirement or death, as also 
t Jo" Rigge substituted, 
I Jno Waterson, 
Geo Rigge, 
T Antho Atkinson, 
|j Antho for Miles. 
** J substituted for Clem', 
ft W" 1 Turner substituted.. 



43 



PARISH BOOKS AND ACCOUNTS. 



Rich d Rigge* 20 

W m Braithw' ffoulyeat 21 

Edwd Scales 22 

Myles TownsS 23 

Tho s Braithw' 24 



ffor Clalfe. 
Will Braithwt gent f 
W"' Braithwt de ffouldj 
Thomas Braithwt de Castle 
W m Satterthw' Beckside 
W m Satterthw 1 Birkhow || 
W m Braithw' Ray 



these six 

The Sidesmen or four & twenty then in beinge this twenty 
Seventh day of io br 1736. Ellected are 

ffor Grysdale & Satterthwt these 6. 
Myles Sandys Esq.^ 
Thomas Walker 
Thomas Dixon these 

Will"' Turner 
Robt Knipe 
& Myls Townson 



Myles Sandys Esq 
John Copley gent 
Richard Harrison gent 
Gawen Braithwt gent 
W m Braithw' of ffoulyeat 
Edw d Scales 
Jno Watcrson of Wafsoii 

Ground 

Thos Walker of Dalepark 
Thos Dixon & W"' Turner 
both in Sattcrthwaitc 
Robt Knipe & Myles Town- 
son both in Grysdale 
W m Kirkby of thwaitc 
Antho: Sawrey of Wat' head 
Antho : Atkinson of park 
W m Braith wt of Low Satrhow 
Adam Walker of Hawksh' 1 
John Braithwt of ffould in 

Sawrey 

Leo Benson of Skelleth 
Geo: Rigge of Skin r how 
W m Satterthwt of Beckside 
Tho s Satfth' of Green End 
W m Braithwt of Highwrey 
Tho s Braithw 1 de Castle 



for Claiffc Quart" 
John Braithwaitell 
Will 1 " Braithwaite 
Thos Braithwaite these 
W m Satterthwaite six 

Tho s Satterthwaite I 
W m Braithwaite 

for Haivkshead Quarf 
John Copley gent v 
W" 1 Braithwaite** 
Edward Scales these 

Adam Walkertt six 

John Watson 
Geo: Rigge 

ffor Conistone & Skeleeth QuarP 
Rich d Harrison gent 
Will"' Kirkby 

Antho: Sawrey these 

Gawen Braithw' gent r six 
Antho: AtkinsonJt| 
Leo Benson | 



* W m Turner substituted. 

t W m Taylor id. 

\ -Satterhow substituted for ffould. 

M' John for W 1 . 

|| Banks Robinson substituted. 

IT M r Taylor substituted. 

** Geo for W">. 

ft Willi m Satterthwt id : 

+t & lined through ; and at end of the list is written John Robinson James 
Benson Ent' Easter Tuesday 1739 W ra Satterwt Reg d Braithwt ent' d East' Tues 
I743- 



PARISH BOOKS AND ACCOUNTS. 431 

There are altogether seven lists of the twenty-four on record 
as far as we know. Two of these, 1694 and 1704, are 
printed on p. Ivi.-lviii. of the present writer's edition of 
the register. Two others are in the volume before 
us, and one of these (1751) we shall arrive at in due 
course. The other, 1716, we give a place to here, as it is at the 
end of the volume unconnected with other matter. 

Aprill ye 3rd 1716. 

Sattenv*- Division. 

M r Myles Sandys of Graithwt 

Robt Satterthwaite* 

Geo Dixonf 

W m Knipej 

James Taylor 

W m Townson 

Claife Division. 
W m Braithwt 
W"' Sawreyf 
W m Satterthwt 
James Braithwt 
W m Satterthwt 
W m Braithwt of ffold in Saw: extra 

Hawkeshead Division. 
M r John Copley 
Hugh Addison 

W m Rigge of Hawkeshead feild 
Geo Berwick || 
Robt Robinson 
W nl Mackereth** 

Skelw th Division. 

W m Mackereth of Low Skelwith 

Robt Benson 

Gawen Braithwt 

Geo Banke 

Rich d Harrison 

Myles Sawrey 



Names substituted are 
* Myles Townson 
t Thomas Dixon, his son. 
\ W" Dixon. 
Thomas Walker. 

f Will Taylor, of Graithwt, and after, Robt Knipe. 

|| Tho^ Braithwt, of Sawrey-infra : " Deceast " is added, and underneath Edw' 1 
Scales, of fTouleyeat . 

** Below this name, W m Braithwt, of Hawkshd field. 



432 PARISH BOOKS AND ACCOUNTS. 

CHURCHWARDENS' ACCOUNT, 1747. 

Receipts. s. d. 

One Burial ... 034 

Disbursments. 
To 8 Hooks about Horned Cattel & one Book 

pray r ... ... ... ... ... ... 096 

To one Fox 53 five ravenheads is 8d ... ... O 6 8 

To 3 Carts of Stones from John Swainsons ... O I 8 
To ale iith June 2s 5th Nov r 2s Xmas as ... 060 
To Ringing that afternoon Admiral Warren* took 

ye shiping is 8d spent then 2s 6d ... 040 

POOR ACCOUNT, CONISTON & SKELWITH 1748. 
To Filliating Eliz Townson Child ... ... o 3 O 

CHURCHWARDENS' ACCOUNT, 1748. 

Receipts. 

By burials I 3 4 

To one Form of prayer and Proclamation ... o i 6 

To ringing that afternoon Peace was Proclaimed! o i 6 
To Ed w Walker 3 ravens heads ... ... ... O I o 

The Sidesmen or four and twenty in being this nineth day of 
April 1751 Ellected are 
Hawkshead Q r 

John Copley gent 
Gco Braithw te 
Ed Scales 

M r W m Satterthw te 
John Watterson 
Geo Rigge 

For Gris : & Sattertkw' e 
Myles Sandys Esq 
Myles Walker 
Thos Dixon 
W m : Turner 
W nl : Penny 
Myles Townson 

For Claif Quarter : 

M r W m : Taylor 
W m : Braithw te 
Tho 5 : Braithw te 
M r : Jo n : Satterthw ty 
Banks Robinson 
W m : Braithw te 

* This was the victory over the French squadron by Sir Peter Warren. He died 
1752. 

t This was the treaty of peace signed at Aix-la-Chapelle, October, 1748. 



PARISH BOOKS AND ACCOUNTS. 433 

For Con : & Skelwith Q : 

Rich : Harrison gent 
W-": Kirkby 
Anthony Sawrey 
Gowen Braithw te 
Jo" Robinson 
Jam : Benson 

We have probably given sufficient to show the character 
of these accounts. Of course, numerous items are of regular 
yearly occurrence. Dog-whipper's fee, and the fee for strawing 
or strewing the church floor continue to the end of these 
accounts. 

We have seen that burials in church occurred every year 
or nearly so, for each a fee of 33. 46. being paid. The order 
of 1694, which is printed in the oldest register book (p. Ivi.), 
fixed the fee for a burial in the chancel at 6s. 8d. ; but at 
that date there was no special fee for other parts of the 
church. When the fee for the latter was fixed we are not 
aware, but it was in force in 1720. 

In our introductory chapter to the Register we have shown 
that from 1601 to 1704, 1,109 burials are specially recorded 
as having taken place in the church, giving an average of 
about ii^ a year. These accounts give us similar information 
during the eighteenth century, and we find that from 1720-1792 
(73 years) 320 intra-mural interments were made. This equals 
about 4f a year, but about ten years have no entries, and 
in most cases the omission is probably from careless book- 
keeping, not because there were none. 

Tf, therefore, we compute the intervening fifteen years between 
1704 and 1720 at five burials per year, we may add another 75 
burials, which gives us a fairly approximate total of 1,404 
burials between 1601 and 1792 in Hawkshead church. Before 
1601 there is no record, but as the entire parish had been 
burying at the Parish Church for four centuries, it seems 
highly probable that since its erection some five to seven 
thousand bodies may have been laid to rest within the walls 
of St. Michael's Church. 

After 1792 there were no burials paid for until 1797, the 



434 PARISH BOOKS AND ACCOUNTS. 

reason being that in 1793 a faculty was obtained for pewing 
the church. When this was finished, the Vestry increased 
the fees for intra-mural burials, making them 5 : 5 : o for any 
part except the chancel, for which the fee was put at 10 : 10 : o, 
besides the expenses necessary to moving and re-setting the pews. 
The accounts for 1797 contain one entry of such an interment, 
namely, Mr. William Braithwaite, for whose burial 5:5:0 
is charged. These fees were, of course, meant to be practically 
prohibitory. 

The records of vermin killing for rewards are not without 
interest, but it should be noted that neither eagles, otters, 
marts, nor badgers occur ; foxes and ravens only. Of the 
former only 18 foxes and 10 cubs were paid for; but between 
1730 and 1797, 421 ravens were done to death at 46. each. 
This gives an average of over six ravens killed a year, but 
the years in which the greatest slaughter was made were 
1758 (17), 1759 06), 1769 (18), 1772 (19), 1773 (14), 1780 (24). 
No wonder corvus corax is now rare. The slaughter was 
going on in Wordsworth's boyhood, and in his " Description 
of the Scenery of the Lakes," we find, " I recollect frequently 
seeing, when a boy, bunches of unfledged ravens suspended 
in the churchyard of tj(awkshead), for which a reward of 
so much a head was given to the adventurous destroyer." 

In the accounts subsequent to 1751, the following are 
some of the more interesting entries : 

CHURCHWARDENS' ACCOUNTS, 1750 To ye alteration of y e 
prayer for ye Royal Family o : i : o. 1751 To alteration of 
form of prayer o : I : o. 1753 To new Register Book for 
marriages o : 12 : i To ye marriage act* o : I : 6. 1755 To 
New Common prayer Book & Carriage 3:3:4. 1756 To 
Ed Scales for 4 H d of Hart \ Latts at 45. p H d o 16 o 
To John Jackson for 28 Load slate & bringing it 2 : 16 : O 
To W Mitchel for Free stone rigging & Bringing o : 2 : 10. 
1757 To W m Braithw te a Bottle screw 0:0:4. T 758 To 
Thos Burton for mending Flaggan lid J o : O : 2. 1759 to 



* Lord Hardwicke's Act (26 Geo. II.), which ordered proper register books to be 
kept. 

t Query, Heart of Oak Laths ? 

J Probably the : pewter flagon belonging to the communion service. 



PARISH BOOKS AND ACCOUNTS. 435 

ringing 3 days at taking Gadalupe, Minden & Luebeck 
0:4:6. 1760. To ringing at the Kings proclamation * 
0:3:0. To 3 forms of prayer i proclamation 0:3:6 
To ale given 3 Festivals o : 2 : o. 1761 To i Proclamation 
for fast day O : o : 6. 1762 To Ringing at his royal Highness 
Prince Geo : Birth t Ditto for taking the Havana o : I : 6. | 
1763 To Jos Keen for ale & trouble taking Bells down 
13:0 To Isaac Holme for a pitch pipe plan of vestry 
7 : 6. 1764 To John Braithw te for carrying gt Bell Penny- 
brige 5 : o. To carrying gt Bell from penny bg to Connysidc 
Bank 2 : 6 To expenses at takeing Bells down & sending 
away 2 : o. 1765 To one old Fox head in Skelwith 0:6:8 20 
bushels of lime I : o : o To W m Benson for Rough Casting 
steeple & mending slate 3 : 1 1 : 6. To Carriage of gt Bell from 
Hammerside hill to Preston o : 2 : oil To Robt Jopson for 
Turnpike o : I : o. 1769 To one new whip for Dog whiper 
0:2:3 To Parchmt for copping regester upon o : I : 4^. 
1778 To one Form of prayer for her magesty Delivery 
O : I : o. 1784 To 16 yards of FirritlF at 3d. per yard 0:4:0 
To Firrit setting and nailing on to Desk & Cloths o : i : O. 

1787 To George Pearson for dressing the Golgotha o : O : 6.** 

1788 A Prayer for the King is. It 1790 To Church Bible 
& Common Prayer Book, Box & Flannel for cover 10 : 16 : 6. 

POOR ACCOUNTS. 

1754 (a quarter of mutton cost lod. to 1/3). 1757 To 
expenccs at puting Jos: Robinsons apprentice 153. Ditto 
one suit of cloaths 1:1:9. 

1758 To Isabel Clark i yd half thick 2s 
i^ y d Blue Harden \\ is 4^d To one p clogs 
& Ironing is. to \\ y d of plading is to 2\ 



y d of scotch stuff & Dying 2s id to \ white 



harden 6d to i Linnen cloth 3d to I p of 
stays 53 to Hanke & thread 8d to Tayler 
is 8d to 12 w ks at is 8d & 40 w ks at is 
p wk 

(the same year a blanket was 3/4, a shift 2/4) 



3 : 15 :6J 



* Accession of George III. 

t Birth of George IV. 

J Capitulation of the Havana, at which the booty was valued at ^3, 000,000. 

It is now in the author's possession and is dated 1764. 

|| This and the preceding entries refer to expenses connected with the recasting of 
the bells, which we shall have occasion to allude to later. 

^[ Kirrit, narrow woollen tape. 

** The Golgotha was some outbuilding for storing sculls and bones turned up 
when grave-digging. Ten years later a charge is made for clearing it of wood. 

ft George III. was taken seriously ill, but recovered the following year. 

Jt Harden, coarse cloth of linen or flax. 



436 PARISH BOOKS AND ACCOUNTS. 

To expenses about Ann Wilson Tryal before 1:5:6 
Ditto Clark peace booking y e appeal &c 0:7:10, Ditto 5 
men at is 6d p day 6 days 2:5:0 Ditto 6 horses^6 days at 
is 6d p day 2 : 14 : o Ditto Daniel Fleming 33 Subpaena 
is Tho Lancaster Sawrey same 0:9:0. 1762 To crying 
notice of y e Poor House 0:0:4 Robt Braithwt oil spinning 
weaving & milling 14 y d cloth o : 10 : 6. 1783 To one p 
Cards 1 : 10 to a wool wheel 2:0 (3 : 1O;. 1784" To one 
Days work of Peats geting & leading 5:0 i'o one Cart 
of Peats i : 6 & 3 carts of '1 ops 1:6 (3:0) 

To expences at Backbarrow when agreed with , 
the master for two of his (John Nicholson's) I O: I :6 
Daughters to stay in the Cotton works j 

1786 Journey Horse Hire & expences to Backbarrow to 
order Lliner Preston to take her child to Mr Kellets of 
Long SledUale to be cured of a scabbed head 0:2:6 To 
Mr Kellet for curing him I : i : o t (The same year a spinning 
wheel I : 5 a card stock 8d and in 1787 2 half loads of 
meal i : 10 : o and a quarter of veal 4 : 9;. 

1789 To John Hayton for Duffel 1 for Breeches 2s ud 
Harden thread and buttons 9d For ale when his wife lay 
corpse 0:7:6 For oat Bread and White Bread till she 
was Buried 0:6:2 io Miles Robinson lor her coffin 8d 
for a shroud 2 : 2 to George Ritson for bidding to Funeral 
&c. o : 2 : O to Agnes Holme for wailing and dressing the 
corpse &c 0:2:0. 1792 Paid for weaving Dressing and 
dying 21 yards o : 14 : 7 Paid to the Carrier for carrying 
her (a pauper) over the sands to Lancaster bs : 6d Io tue 
Chaise driver is To 6 yds white Kersey at 2od io : 10 
2 yds blue Duffel at 2Od 43 : 9d two D u Stripe Linsey ac 
I5d 2s : 6d three yds Pladding 2s : 4^d 

(The same year a flax mill is mentioned : new clogs cost 
2/3 3/2 and cawkenng them was 6d. A letter to White- 
haven was 6d.) 

HAWKSHEAD QUARTER POOR ACCOUNT. 

1795 To John Robinson for William Flemings board 2:15:0 

1796 Paid to John Robinson of Hawkshead Hill) 
for old Sir Williams Board j 



* A constable is mentioned this year, but there was probably one prior to 
this date. 

f Kellet, of Long Sleddale, whose fees were those of a West End physician, may 
have been a "wiseman," and the child was taken to be charmed (see p. 317). 

J Uufiel coarse, rough cloth. 



PARISH BOOKS AND ACCOUNTS. 437 



7:1:8 



1797 To Sir Williams Board with John Robinson 
at Hill 38 weeks at 13 : 133. : od by the year 
g : 19:.. : 6d Reed by two payments of his Pension 
&6 : Os. : Od ballance ."4 : 193. : 6d paid for two shirts 
two Blankets & a new chaff Bed o : 18 : n Two 
night-light wakes and Funeral expences .1 : 33 : 3d 

The subject of these entries was a pauper, and probably 
also insane ; his death is thus recorded in the register : 
1797 " William Wilson of Hill commonly call'd Fleming a 
Pensioner Died Feb f y 4 Buried 6 in Churchyard a pauper." 

There are no charges for a hearse in the accounts, but 
there are a few entries separately at the end of the first 
volume ot accounts which give the date, we believe, for 
the hrst introduction 01 such an appliance. It should be 
noticed that this hearse belongs to Claife." 

" Hawkshead From the 30"' of May 1796 The Hearse 
belonging to the Bailifvvick and the Division of Claile lent out 

29 th Augt 1796 to Cartmel with the Corpse of 

Mrs Taylor of Hawkshead ... ... 5 O 

3 1 3 ' March (1797) to Grasmere with the Corpse 

of Agnes Vickers of Oxenfel ... ... 5 O 

1799 Oct br 12 for carrying the Corpse of John 
Kirkbys Wife from Knipefold to 1'ottle- 
bank 2 Days 7 6 

and other similar entries. 

ACCOUNT BOOK, No. 2. 

This volume is bound in old vellum, and contains at the 
beginning the following inscription : 

" This Account Book was repaired in the old Binding in 
June, 1894, uy us, 

EDWARD W. OAK, Vicar. 
H. S. COWPER, F.S.A." 

It contains besides the ordinary accounts after 1771 (already 
noticed) a quantity of recent matter of considerable local 
interest. At one end, and taking up a considerable part of 
the volume, are the vestry minutes from 1763. One of these 
(No. 2), 9th April, 1765, records the resolution to recast the 
peal of bells, the expenses to be defrayed by voluntary 

* Tnough at a Vestry meeting in 1792, one was to be ordered for Hawkshead. 



438 



PARISH BOOKS AND ACCOUNTS. 



subscriptions and by rates. This was carried out, and the bells, 
with the exception of one which was again recast in 1810, 
are those now in use. At the other end of the book we 
get first a list of the subscribers, and, secondly, the full accounts 
for the entire work, which we think of sufficient interest to 
reproduce in full. 

March ye 3Oth 1765. 

We whose names are under written being willing to Encourage 
a Design, so manifestly tending to the Advantage of the 
Parish of Havvkshead. Have Contributed as is below specified 
towards obtaining a (peal) of Six Bells.* 

s. d. 

Myles Sandys Esq r 30 o O i Joseph Keen ... 
John Benson Eq r ! Mathew Hodgson 

Betholme 30 o o Samuel Holme 

William Ford Esq r 10 o o Robert Waterson 
Thomas Strickland John Waterson 

Eq r 5 o o Joseph Wilson 



Pierce Grove Eq r ... 
Mrs Agnes Bordley 



500 Agnes Cowperthwaite O 



500 John Sawrey ... 

Robert Alexander ... i i O John Grainger 
Gawen Brathwaite ... 2 2 o Thomas Taylor 
John Sattcrthwaite j Esther Rigge ... . 

i i o John Holmes ... 

Thomas Lancaster , 

o 10 6 John Bibby 



s. d. 
050 
i i o 
026 

I I O 

050 
o 10 6 
o 
o 
o 



o 5 

O 2 



Colthouse 

William Braithwaite 

Wray 

Robert Jopson 



O I o 
O 10 6 
o i o 
040 



026 Mrs Margret Satter- 



M r Richard Hewett I I O thwaitc 

Jane Swainson ... o 5 o Mary Keen 

Eleanor Brathwaite O 5 O William Braithwaite 

Richard Jesson ... o 10 6 Satterhow 

Dorothy Whinficld... 050 The Rev Isacc Knipe 



I 

O 



1 I 



Ellen Mowson 

Richard Otley 

Thomas Cowper- 
thwaite 

Mary Noble 

Isacc Holme 

William Braithwaite 
Sadler .. 



o 5 
o 5 



Amblcside 



Widow Keen ... 



John Gillbanks 
050 John Braithwaite 
o i o George Rigge . . . 
030' Samuel Sandys 

Thomas Moor... 
05 o | William Jackson 



O 

6 



o 
o 



I 

o 

050 

050 

050 

I I O 

10 6 

1 I O 



* In the writer's possession there is a contemporary copy of the following list of 
subscriptions, which differs slightly ; but the one before us is the official one. In the 
copy, John Benson, Esq., is entered " one Bell " instead of ^30 : O : O, and this was 
actually his gift, as was also that of Myles Sandys ; see the inscriptions quoted 
hereafter. 



PARISH BOOKS AND ACCOUNTS. 



439 



James Benson 

William Nicholson... 
Edward Atkinson ... 

John Berwick 

Hugh Tyson 

John Brocklebank ... 

Alice Deason 

William Spedding ... 

Oliver Otley 

Johnathan Park 
Paul Posselthwaite... 
Joseph Garner 
John Berwick junr... 
Dorothy James 
John Walker 






s. 


d. 


i 


I 


o 


o 


I 


o 


o 


2 


o 


o 


3 


o 


o 


3 


o 


.0 


5 


o 





5 





o 


i 


o 


o 


i 


o 


o 


i 


o 





2 


6 


o 


I 


o 


o 


2 


6 


o 


I 


o 





I 


o 


37 4 



The men who did 
subscribe and did 
not pay their money 

The Rev d Rich d Dix- 
son London 



s. d. 



500 



M r Ben Dixson do 5 o o 

John Nicholson ... i i o 

Leonard Tyson ... o 2 6 

Nicholas Tyson ... O 2 6 



1 1 



unpaid 

The general account which follows speaks for itself. 
It will be seen that the bells were paid for by weight to 
Mr. Harrison, the Lincolnshire bell founder, and that they 
came to over 36 cwt, the price per cwt. being 6 4$. od. It 
appears that the old set consisted of three bells, two of which 
are noted as discounted with Mr. Harrison, and a third was 
sold separately to Mr. Irton, who was at that date the owner 
of Hawkshead Hall. What became of this bell is quite 
unknown. Irton died in 1/66, a year or so after he acquired 
it, and possibly his relations finding it a white elephant handed 
it back to the churchwardens, and it went into the melting- 
pot after all. It re-appears in the account for carriage of 
the new bells, so that it was evidently sent off somewhere. 



44 



PARISH BOOKS AND ACCOUNTS. 



- 

vo O O ^ ^ vo 



O\ M O O 



z 

I N 











CO rt 



pa 



H S M 3 



O 



c. K 5 .2 



u i 

"5 H 

U H 



H l ~ 



c ^ 

^ 

K 



BJ a : 

"3 'S O ii 

i i sl 

.-S c^ 



u u u 
(S 



o s 



c '\ 
" 









aid for the 

Hawks 



? 

2 Q 



o o 
* o 



i a 
C s 



s 5 

a 



-S -S 

^ c 
c >2 

i M 

f| 

E - 



S 
*o S 



pa 

"o 



H " 

>, 3J 

W c 

rt 

P 



o 



.a M 



Balla 



S 
M 



O >S o. a. 

j2 ^: J^ ^ 

rt rt rt rt 

U U U O 

o o o o 

H H H H 



U 



- S 

2 O 

H "^ 



PARISH BOOKS AND ACCOUNTS. 441 

Before we leave the subject, we should note the pretty 
and quaint rhyming inscription on the church bells. We 
wonder how many of the villagers who hear the weekly 
music know of these verses or have ever climbed into the 
belfry : 

First Bell, the treble- 
Awake, awake, day is restor'd, 
Awake, arise, to praise the Lord, 
Reguard, look to, the peal I lead. 

Second Bell 

We to the first must take good heed. 

Third Bell- 
In the third place I take my swing. 

Fourth Bell 

I mind the third when we do ring. 

Fifth Bell- 
In the fifth place I give my sound. 

Sixth Bell 

I close the peal, ring the bells round. 

The bells have also the founder's stamp " Barrow, J. H., 1765." 
The first has also got the same date in large figures under 
the lines. The third has "James Harrison, of Barrow, in 
Lincolnshire, 1765." The fifth "John Benson, Esq., of Bcethom, 
Westmoreland. Recast in 1810. Glory to God in the highest"; 
and the sixth " Memento mori, Myles Sandys, Esq., Graythwaite 
Hall, 1765." The last inscription seems to show that the 
bells were ordered in 1765, and dated that year, but that 
they were not completed until the following year, for Myles 
Sandys, of Graythwaite, died April 29th, ' 1766. But 

if this is so Harrison's bill must have been paid in 
advance, or what is perhaps more probable, the date as given 
in the account sheet is a clerical error for 1766. The full 
statement was evidently not made out until 1768. 

ABSTRACTS OF THE MINUTES OF THE VESTRY 
MEETINGS. 

No i. 27 Sept 1763. 

At a vestry meeting held in the Parish Church of Hawks- 
head in the County of Lancaster on Tuesday the twenty- 
seventh day of September in the year of our Lord one 



442 PARISH BOOKS AND ACCOUNTS. 

thousand seven hundred and sixty-three, at ten of the Clock 
in the forenoon of the same day (after due notice had 
been given of such meeting to the Parishioners of the Parish 
of Hawkshead aforesaid in the said Parish Church, in time 
of Divine Morning Service on the Sunday preceeding the 
same, and by tolling ye Bell immediately before the said 
meeting). It is resolved and agreed by a majority of 
Parishioners . . . that the common forms or seats . . . which 
are old, decayed, and in a ruinous condition . . be taken 
down . . and new seats or Pews with Backs and Doors 
thereunto . . be erected and built . . the Churchwardens 
applying all ye Materials of the said old forms (so far as 
serviceable) towards the carrying on the said intended erections. 
Also that a vestry be built on the North side of the Steeple 
. . . . in length eighteen feet and in Breadth fifteen 
feet . . . for which purposes the churchwardens should apply 
for the leave order and authority of the Ordinary . . . and 
that an equal and proportionable rate ... be laid . . . 
for the expences. 

signed by Reginald Brathwaite minister 
two churchwardens and fourteen parishioners. 

2. 9 April 1765. 

Resolved that the three Bells . . be taken down and disposed 
to the best advantage, and that a Peal or Ring of six bells 
(the largest of which not exceeding 8 hundredweight) be 
hung up in ye steeple .... A rate to be laid for that 
part of the expencc which cannot be defrayed by subscriptions 
. . . and that the subscriptions to be paid to the Bell founder 
when the bells are hung : and the remainder, twelve months 
after the first payment. 

Forty three signatures including Minister 
and churchwardens. 

3. 2 Dec 1765. 

Agreed by a majority of the Sidesmen that two Bottles of 
red Port be allowed yearly for the use of the Communicants 
at Satterthwaite chapel. 

4. 4 Jan 1766. 

Resolved that an annual Sallery of three pounds three shillings 
be raised by rate for the six Bell ringers to be payed in 
equal sums to the said Bell ringers on the first Monday 
in every November. That the said Bell ringers shall begin 
to ring every Sunday Morning at half an hour past nine 
o'Clock at ye latest, & shall continue ringing till y e Bell 
toll for divine service to begin. That they shall ring for a 
quarter of an hour at the least, beginning immediately after 



PARISH BOOKS AND ACCOUNTS. 443 

divine morning service is ended. That they shall ring the 
greatest part of the three following festivals, namely on 
Christmas day, on the Kings Accession to the Throne, and 
on the Papists Conspiracy. 

5. 3 June 1766. 

Vestry held to elect sidesmen. 
Elected 

Claiffe 

William Taylor of Briars in far Sawrey 
Joseph Taylor of Nar Sawrey 
William Mouson of far Sawrey 
William Rigge of Colthouse 
John Satterthwaite of Colthouse 
William Braitliwaite of Wray 

Coniston Skelwith and Arnsidc 
William Kirkby of Thwaite 
John Jackson of Bank Ground 
William Knipe of Hawkshcad 
James Benson of Skelwith 
John Benson of Skelwith 
Gawen Braithwaite of Brathey 

Satterthwaite Dale Park Grisedale & Graythwaite 
Myles Sandys Esq : of Graythwaite Hall 
Thomas Strickland Esq : of Kendal 
William Ford Esq : of Coniston 
William Townson of Grizedale 
John Kitchin of Satterthwaite 
William Penny of Grizedale 

Hawkshead Hawks head field and Fieldhead 
George Braithwaite of Fowlyeat 
George Benson of Howe 
Robert Alexander of Hawkshead 
Robert Waterson of Waterson Ground 
John Braithwaite of Hawkshead Hill 
John Berwick Jun r of Berwick Ground 

6. 8 Jan 1770. 

Robert Alexander and William Kirkby sidesmen having 
died, their respective sons James Alexander, and David 
Kirkby elected in their place. 

7. 30 Aug 1768. 

Resolved that the deficit of 15 i6s. 2d. (which includes 
11 75. 6d. unpaid subscriptions) due to M r Harrison bell 
founder be raised by a rate. 



444 PARISH BOOKS AND ACCOUNTS. 

8. 24 Sept 1770. 

Resolved That the Reading Desk & Pulpit which at present 
are incommodious both for hearing and performing divine 
Service, be altered so that y e Pulpit be rixed adjacent to ye 
place where ye reading Desk now stands and both of them 
be made large enough 1 U1 cloths belonging to the said Church 
and intended for each of them. Expenses by rate. 

After this follow a long series of vestry minutes chiefly 
respecting the pewing of the church, from which it will be 
seen that, although the question was first raised in 1763 
(see No. i), and the completion of the work was planned 
for 1779 (see No. n), the faculty was not granted until 
J 793> nor was the pewing apparently actually completed till 
well into the following year. These minutes being very long 
and technical we are unable to give more than brief resumes 
in these pages 

9. 21 Oct 1777. 

Very similar to No. i, in tenor ; also, That a fourth part 
of the said new pews to be erected and completed every 
year from the within date, Till the whole be erected and 
compleated. And that unless a majority of the Parishioners 
of the said Parish at a meeting on the 4th November next 
consent to a Division of the pews into four parts, each 
quarter of the said Parish to have one-lourth part of the 
said church, the present resolutions are to be null and void. 
Agreed to without one dissentient. 

10. 4 Nov 1777. 

The minute recapitulates and ratifies the last and concludes: 

It is also agreed that after the said Church is so new seated 
and pewed, according to the Plan hereto annexed, the dividing 
of such new Seats and Pews shall be made in the following 
manner by Ballot, namely, That Cjuarter which has the first 
choice shall have the eighth choice, the Cjuarter which has 
the second choice shall have the filth, tne Cjuarter which 
has the third choice snail have tne sixth, and that Cjuarter 
which nas the fourth choice shall have the seventh choice, and 
so on successively in the manner aioresaid 'til all the Pews 
shall be chosen, the said Plan being expressed in .Figures in 
the following manner 

N i 234 

2341 

3412 

4123 

Signed by 26 parishioners, there being one dissentient, James 
Rowlandson 






PARISH BOOKS AND ACCOUNTS 445 

n. 24 March 1778. 

Resolved that the forms be moved and replaced (as above) 
and that the Font be removed to near the S.W. Door as 
marked in annexed plan, ;;: reserving for the common use of 
the Parishioners, a space 19 feet 8 inches on the N. side of 
the little "lie" lying on the N. side of the middle lie, which 
19 feet 8 inches are to be measured from the N.W. door of the 
church, and to be made up into lour seats or Pews with Backs 
but no doors thereto : also reserving for the common use a 
space 22 feet 8 inches on the S. side of the little lie situate 
on the South side of the middle lie, to be measured from 
the S.W. door, and made up into five seats as above. Also 
sufficient room on the South side of the staircase ( ? to the 
gallery) for a similar pew nine feet by 2 feet 6 inches. Also 
reserving two similar pews on the N. side of the staircase and 
between it and the .N.vV. door, each 7 feet by 2 feet 6 inches 
also a pew 1 1 feet by 4 feet 6 inches for the singers of 
psalms. Also another pew 1 1 feet by 4 feet 6 inches, half 
lor the Churchwardens, and half to be lelt common. The 
body of tne Church to be divided into and amongst the four 
quarters viz Satterthwaite and Grisedale, Claife, Conistone and 
Skelwith, and Hawkshead Hawkshead field and Havvkshead 
field-head. The manner of allotting and ballotting to be that 
the names of the quarters written on pieces of paper be put 
into one hat, and the numbers 1234 written on other slips 
put into another hat, which are then to be drawn by some 
" indifferent and disinterested Person " a name with one hand, 
and a number with tiie other. 

Further resolved that all the pews be erected and compleated 
by 24 lh March 1779, within six weeks after which completion, 
another vestry is to be called to divide the allotted pews into 
private shares " that every such Parishoner or Inhabitant as 
may be entitled to a share or shares in the said Pews within 
the Cjuarter where his Property lies, may know his respective 
snare or shares," such private shares to be determined by a 
majority at that vestry. When the Pews are allotted and 
divided, they snail be paid for by a rate or assessment, or as 
each Cjuarter can agree among themselves. It is further 
resolved that a copy of the plan shall be transcribed in the 
" Parish Book or Register," shewing each persons share, and 
the rate to be paid lor such : and lastly " in order more 
effectually to silence any clamour or dispute which may 
happen to arise with respect to any doubts that should at 
any time hereafter be started " reference shall be made to the 
Rev D r Burn of Orton, and if he decline to determine, 



* There is no plan in the booti with this minute. 



446 PARISH BOOKS AND ACCOUNTS. 

arbitrators shall be appointed by the Vestry, whose determina- 
tion shall be final. 

Then follows the construction of the pews : 

A sole to be laid 5 in. square of oak on each side of the 
lies, properly supported from the surface of the Burying 
Ground. Joists to be 4 in. by 2\ in. of the same. Floor to 
be i in. thick of Riga deal, Partitions and doors of the same 
sort (deal), the frameing wherof \\ in. Pannels adjoining lies 
J in. thick and to be raised on outside. Pannels of middle 
partitions in. and plain, but Frame to be stuck on both sides 
Bottom rail of each door at least 6 in. Top rail 4 in. There 
shall be a coping at top of seats or Partitions sufficiently 
broad to cover a moulding I in. on each side. Seats tb be 
I foot broad, i| in. thick. Doors hung with edge hinges at 
least 2 in. at joints : and height of each pew to be 3 feet 7 in. 

Lastly this order to be transcribed into Parish book 

signed by 40 parishioners, the 
minister, and 3 churchwardens. 

An endorsement gives the result of the ballot, although the 
facility was not granted till 15 years later. 

No I to Satterthwaite and Grisedale Quarter 

No 2 to Claife Quarter 

No 3 to Hawkshead, Hawkshead field and Fieldhead 

Quarter 
No 4 to Conistone and Skelwith Quarter. 

12. 21 January 1783. 

ELECTION OF SIDESMEN 
Hawkshead 

George Benson of How 
Richard Coulthred of Hawkshead field 
William Knipc of Hawkshead 
John Berwick of Berwick Ground 
John Rigge of Skinner How 
Robert Robinson of Fieldhead 

Claife 

William Braithwaite of High Wray 
William Rigge of Green End 
John Strickland Esq r of Ulverstone 
The Rev d M r John Braithwaite of Sawrey 
George Braithwaite of Harrowslack 
John Hogarth of Sawrey 



PARISH BOOKS AND ACCOUNTS. 447 

Satterthwaite 

Mylcs Sandys Esq r of Graythwaite Hall 
John Russell the younger of Force Forge 
Robert Cousin of Satterthwaite 
James Fisher of the same 
James Rovvlandson of the same 

Monk Coniston 

George Knott Esq r Waterhead 
Mr John Jackson Bank Ground 
John Wilson Skelwith 
William Benson same 
James Jackson of Low Parke 

At the same vestry it was agreed that the Churchwardens 
should purchase a new surplice for the minister: and also an 
umbrella for shelter for the minister's use, in walking with the 
corpse to the grave. 

What happened to put an end to these schemes for pewing 
in 1778, when they had got so far, there is nothing to 
show. Abandoned they certainly were, and the next entry is : 

13. Notice of meeting of vestry for u May 1792 to consult 
about repewing. also about building a vestry and buying a 
Parish hearse. 

14. II May 1792. 

Resolved as to removing of pews and font as in No. II. 
Reserving 7 pews on N. side of little He lying on N. side 
of middle He, and 8 like pews on S. side of little lie lying 
on S. of Middle He for the common use of the Parish. 
The Churchwardens pew to be removed and placed against 
wall on S. side of Gallery stairs, to be in common without 
a door. The He in the W. end of the Church to be new 
flagged. Also a pew for common use without a door on 
each side of the passage into the intended vestry. Also a 
churchwardens pew with a door in the place of that to be 
removed. Three pews for singers of psalms to be fixed 
where their present seat is. All pews to be completed by 
u May 1793. Old materials to be used where practicable 
etc. Then follows a specification of the work identical with 
that in No. II. except that it is stated that in laying the 
floor " the flags in all the lies must be taken up, and relaid 
properly again between the soles," and the pews are to be 
3 feet 6 in. instead of 3 ft. 7 in. To be paid for, one half 
at end of a month after completion, and the other half 
at end of second year from the date of this order. It is 
also resolved that the same be carried out, and divided as 



448 PARISH BOOKS AND ACCOUNTS. 

allotted by Vestry order 24 March 1778 (No II), except 
that the Quarters of the Parish marked and numbered on 
the plan as 3 and 4, shall take to the pews in the place 
where the present Reading Desk and Pulpit stand, instead 
of those in the place where the same are by the present 
order to be removed to. And that the several pews are to 
be single instead of double. 

Sixteen signatures. 

15. ii May 1792. 

A further order about the Vestry on the N. side of the 
steeple. To extend in length from W. end of the Church 
Northward 17 feet 6 inches, and in breadth from steeple 
15 feet 6 inches. Details as to door step, joists, ceiling, etc 
the last to be about q feet 8 inches high. A chimney in 
W. wall. Window in N. side about 4| feet by 3^ feet with 
a sliding sash. To be completed by II May 1793. 

1 6. ii May 1792. 

Further resolved that the reading desk and Pulpit be 
removed from present place, to the place where the pulpit 
formerly was against the second pillar of the N. He. The 
Churchwardens are to order a hearse. 

17. 25 Nov 1792. Notice for a Vestry to be held on 
27 Nov. for the purpose of applying for a faculty license. 

1 8. 27 Nov. 1792. 

Copy of the Formal application by the Minister, Church- 
wardens, Landowners, etc. to George Markham, Clerk, M.A. 
Commissary, for a faculty to carry out the proposed alterations 
and also "to take away the double folding gate, and the single 
gate thereto, leading into the said churchyard and instead of 
the present entrance, to make two regularly ascending roads 
or Paths of the width of 12 feet, to lead from the Public 
market place or street up to the said church, with a 
Breast Wall to the said street, and a gate to each of the said 
paths." Committee appointed of the Minister, six landowners, 
and three churchwardens. 

19. i May 1793. 

A copy of the faculty granted on above date, signed and 
sealed by Jas Barrow, Dep. Reg r . 

20. Copy of full contract for work, 30 July 1793. 

It contains full details of laying the sole, measurements of 
pews, etc. The specification for removal of the pulpit (not 
a new one) mentions alterations which include a " sound board." 



PARISH BOOKS AND ACCOUNTS. 449 

The vestry is to have a " Fashionable grate with freestone 
hobs and slabs." All to be completed by i Oct. 1794, except 
the vestry, which is to be covered i Nov. next, and the inside 
finished by 25 Dec r . The room underneath the vestry for the 
hearse. Also all work specified to be done in Riga deal, shall 
instead be done in red deal without sap. 

The following tenders accepted, 

Joiners work. Oliver Barrow of Cartmel, and George Taylor 
of Ulverston, 188^. 

Wallers work. Thomas Usher of Walker Ground, waller, 
and Thomas Johnson of Ambleside, partners 






21. 22 November 1794. 

Notice of a vestry to be held on 3 rd Dec to allot pews. 

22. 3 Dec r 1794. 

Resolved that the pews be painted light stone colour on 
the outsides and upper railing. Also that the little pew 
erected where the pulpit had been, should be appropriated to 
the master of the Grammar School. 

23. 17 Dec 1794. 

General public Vestry meeting. 

Resolved by all Landowners and Inhabitants, ratepayers of 
Quarter of Hawkshead, Hawkshead field, and Hawkshcad 
fieldhead, that the pews belonging to that Quarter be sold 
to ratepayers of the Quarter. No person to buy two sittings 
until every ratepayer has had opportunity to buy one. Sale 
to be 14 Jan. next. Expence of erecting pews to come out 
of proceeds of sale ; surplus to be returned. 

21 signatures including Minister and 
one churchwarden. 

Resolved by majority of Landowners etc. of Coniston and 
Skelwith Quarter, that the proprietors of ancient messuages 
should pay the expence of erecting the pews ; and should be 
entitled to them as marked and numbered in the order they 
have unanimously chosen them. 

List follows of pews thus chosen. 
Example 

Pews marked. Proprietors names. Tenements. 

C & S John Benson Skelwith Fold and 

Bull Close. 

Resolved in Claife Quarter as in Hawkshead Quarter. 
Ten signatures. 

For Satterthwaite and Grisedale Quarter, Thomas Bellingham 
chapelwarden appeared and stated that it was the sense of the 
said Quarter to let the pews for one year. 

30 



450 PARISH BOOKS AND ACCOUNTS. 

At the same vestry it was resolved that in future the fee 
for burying in the body of the church should be 5:5:0, 
and also the expence of breaking ground, and disturbing and 
replacing seats. And in the Chancel 10 : 10 : O, and the like 
expenses. 

24. Notice that at the sale to be held on 14 th Jan 1795, 
will be put to the vote, whether, it will not be better to sell 
by pews instead of seats. 

25. 14 Jan 1795. 

Meeting of Landowners, Occupiers, and Inhabitants etc. of 
Hawkshead Quarter. 

Resolved as above to sell by pews, those marked H. I 
to 21. 

List of buyers and prices given 

s. d. 
highest 13. Robt Robinson Hawkshead ficldhead... 13 o O 

lowest II. J no Taylor Oldham, Hawkshead ...220 
Total 125 : 1 1 : O 

Resolved in same manner, by inhabitants etc of Claife. 
Pews sold C, I to 21. 

s. d. 

highest, 16. W m Hraithwaitc for Town End ... 915 o 

Mich 1 Satterthwaite 

lowest, 14. John Thomas Rigge, Low Fold ... I II O 

Total 109 : 19 : 6. 

26. 17 Jan 1804. 

Resolved that the Clock being very old and irregular, be 
altered from a twenty-four hour clock to an eight day clock ; 
and that a clocks mith be employed for the same. 

27. 12 March 1828. 

A committee appointed for conducting and ordering matters 
relating to an intended organ to be purchased by subscription, 
and placed in a central situation in the gallery. Appointment 
of organist to be vested in the committee. A collection in 
Church once a year for his salary. If short of .12 deficiency 
to be supplied by church rate. 

The remaining entries down to 1846 are general Parish or 
Vestry meetings relating to the laying of the yearly church 
rates. 



PARISH BOOKS AND ACCOUNTS. 451 

OTHER ACCOUNT BOOKS. 

Besides the two account books we have treated of, there 
are two others of less importance. One of them, bound in 
leather, contains an account of the yearly distribution of the 
charitable bequest of George Rigg, the old parish clerk, from 
1707, the year after his death, to 1761. The other is 
nothing more than a few leaves within a paper back, containing 
" An account of ye poor pcntioners Within the Division of 
Monk Conistone & Skelwith 1725 ", and other similar 
disbursements to 1743. 

Concerning George Rigg's Charity something will be said 
in the Appendix ; but we give here some verses inscribed 
on blank leaves towards the end of the book. The hand- 
writing appears to be about 1750, and is very similar to 
that in which the accounts were kept at that date ; though 
it may not be the same. 

Deep in the covert of a wood ; 

upon a verdant Spot, 
with many a winding path enclosed 

Appeared a spacious grot 

Grave Contemplation on the roof 

had fix'd her awful seat 
and elms and hazles thick cntwin'd 

oershade the calm retreat 

In vain for peace and sweet content 

we search the great mans dome 
Content and peace and bloomy health 

had mad(e) this Cot their home 

and oft around with balmy breath 

the Gentle Zephyrs play'd 
and near a pensive purling rill 

in wild meanders stray(d) 

before the Cave the blushing rose 

and white rob lily sprung 
and in th' adjoining bushes perch'd 

the thrush and linnet sung 

here Dwelt a man from noise retired 

the subject of my tale 
whom all the neighbouring shepherds call d 

the hermit of the vale 



PARISH BOOKS AND ACCOUNTS. 

his beard was silvered oer with age 

Like Drifts of mountain Snow 
his hoary locks adown his back 

in careless order flow 
here Dwelt this happy man alone 

nor wished a loftier sphere 
his body felt no foul Disease 

his bosom felt no care 

Called by his early crowing cock 

at Dawn of Day he wakes 
and oer the Dew besprinkled lawn 

his morning ramble takes 
and whilst he views the earth beneath 

the glowing sky above 
No passion touchd his beating heart 

But pure celestial love 
The vernal sweets around difused 

to him a calmness Give 
Oh think of this ye city Lords 

and Learn from him to Live 
But when he seeks his Custom'd meal 

no far fetch'd dainties smoak 
his dainties were a plate of herbs 

his table was of Oak 

No silver plate around the Cot 

a splendid light disclosed 
a Deaths head and an hour Glass 

his furniture Composed 
Oh all ye mortals view the glass 

and Count the hours that fly 
Vain Creatures view the head ot Death 

and Learn from thence to die 

though such the meanness of his lot 

though such his simple cheer 
yet hospitality benign 

her hand could open here 

if ever pilgrim thro' the wood 

far from his path should stray 
He glad receiv'd him at his board 

Or Lead him on his way 
but when still Night ascends her throne 

he Climbs the mountain high 
and thence with raptur'd eye observes 

the stars that gild the sky 



PARISH BOOKS AND ACCOUNTS. 453 

he pours celestial hymns of praise 

to god the king of all 
who sitts in majesty enthron'd 

In th' emperaean hall 

but once my heart still bleeds to tell 

and flies the mournful sound 
the moon still view'd him and disfused 

her conscious light around 

the pious hermit seiz'd with joy 

unusual joy I trow 

seemed in a trance to mount the skies 

relieved from mortal woe 

Just at that instent Death grim king 

Like morpheus seal'd his eyes 

Hut ere he died to heav'n he thus 

With holy fervour Cries 

MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS FROM THE PARISH 
MUNIMENT CHEST. 

There remain a few other papers, which, though trivial in 

. character, merit record, when so little documentary evidence 

of old parochial life has been preserved. First is an assessment 

by the churchwardens in 1690, and earlier, consequently, than 

anything in the Parish account book. 

th T I Assessrht of several disbursints layd downe by 

1600 Churchwardens for the Church ncssaryes (sic} 

this yeare 







s. 


d. 


M r Samuell Sandys... 




I 


6 


M r Willm Rawlinson 




I 


6 


Miles Sandys Esq r 


... X 


o 


9* 


Miles Sands Sen r ... 




o 


8 


Dauid Sands Tenemt 




o 


6 


Miles Sandys Esq r ... 


... X 


o 


4 


William Walker 




o 


6 


Miles Walker 


... X 


o 


5 


Jane Walker... 




o 


i 


John Lindall... 




o 


i 


John Scale . 


... X 


o 


8 


for Great field... 


... X 


o 




Tho Strickland 


X 





4 


James Taylor 


... X 


o 


4 


Tho Strickland Jun r 


... X 


o 


2 



* The crosses probably mean that the sums were paid. 






454 PARISH BOOKS AND ACCOUNTS. 



Willm Walker 
Ocups of M r Sandys land 
John Rawlinson Esq r 
Mr Abraham Rawlinson ... 
John Kendall 
Rowland Taylor ... 
Ocup of Apltreflat 
John Scale ... 


... X 

... X 


s. 
O 
O 
O 
O 
O 
O 
O 

o 


d. 

3 

3 
6 

7 

2 
I 
I 
c 


Ux r Jo Hirdson 
James Penington 
Robert Penington ... 
Ocup of Miles Gilpin tent 
Root Taylor 


... X 
... X 


O 

o 
o 

O X 
O x 


2 

2 ob 

2 

4 

9 


Robt Sattcrthwait 
John Turner... 


X 




o 


3 
I 


William Sattcrthwait 
Miles Rigge ... 


X 

... X 


o 
o 


3 

A 


Rich. Riggc ... 


X 


o 


c 


Rich Dixon 




o 


-} 


Geo Rig^e 


X 


o 




Ocup Will Kirkby Tent ... 
M r Tho Strickland 
William Sawrey 
William Pepper wife 
William Turner 
S r Tho Rawlinson knight... 
Tho Walker 


... X 
... X 
X 

... X 

x 


o 
o 
o 
o 
o 

I X 

o 


5 
S 
5 
i 

2 

4 


John Townson 
William Townson ... 
Willi Towns MI & Isabel! ... 
John Scale 


... X 

... X 

... X 
... X 


o 
o 



o 


6 

5 

2 

c 


James frearson 
William Townson Jun r 
Robert Knipc 
William Knipe 
John Townson Senr 
William Townson ... 
William Sands 
Robt Ri'rgc 


... X 

X 
... X 

... X 


o 

O x 

o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 


3 
3 
4 
4 

5 
i 
i 
ob 


M r Rodger ffleeminge 
sessors ? of this bill 
Richard Rigge 
James Braithwait 
This bill comes to 
of \v ch p Richard Rigg... 
Rests yet due 
& more for 3 burials 


li 

... O : 
... O : 
... O : 


O X 

s. 
: 
I I : 

9 : 
10 : 


3 

d. 

5 
3 

2 
O 



PARISH BOOKS AND ACCOUNTS. 455 

More interesting are a few briefs which turned up in the 
same chest. " Briefs " were Royal warrants, or Letters Patent, 
issued authorising church or other parochial collections for 
building or rebuilding churches, for repairing damage by 
fire, flood, or other catastrophe, or for ransoming the captives 
of Barbary corsairs. They were issued from the Court of 
Chancery, and were very numerous during the seventeenth 
and eighteenth centuries. 

We have, among the old chest papers, a few such lists 
of collections by brief, but though none are dated, it is 
evident that they are all about the middle of the last 
century. 

No. i. 

" A gethethering (? gathering) for a brief in Wiltshire by fire. 

Doctor Jesson ... ... ... ... ... ... ,0 o 2 

W m Nicholson Hanekin... ... ... ... ... o o 2 

M rs Bordley Hanekin ... ... ... ... ... o o 6 

M r Biby Rodger Gd ... ... ... ... ...002 

W m Denison Rodger Gd ... ... ... ... o o 2 

James Park ... ... ... ... ... ... o o I 

Edw d Thwaits ... ... ... ... ... ... o o 2 

George Benson How ... ... ... ... ... o o 2 

M r Coulthred ... ... ... ...002 

Edw d Willson ... ... ... ... ... ... o o I 

George Braithw te foulyeat ... ... ... ... o O 2 

M r Rigg Walker Gd 003 

John Grigg Walker Gd... ... ... ... ... o o i 

Margret Gregg ... ... ... ... ... 002 

Robt Thwaits ... ... ... ... ... ... o o i 

Robt Dickinson ... ... ... ... ... ... ooi 

Thos Tayler ... ... ... ... ... ... o o i 

Tho s Eckels ... ... ... ... ... ... o o i 

M r Gibson ... ... ... ... ... ... o o 2 

John Rigg ... ... ... ... ... ...002 

Isabel Boonas ... ... ... ... ... ... o o 2 

M rs Satterthw te 002 

M rs Braithw te Satterhow ... o o 2 

Marget Robinson ... ... ... ... ... o O I 

M r Stephenson ... ... ... ... ... ... o o 2 

Robt Allexander ... ... ... ... ... 002 

Myles Robinson... ... ... ... ... ... o o 2 

W m Knipe ... 002 

M r Willson 002 



456 PARISH BOOKS AND ACCOUNTS. 

M rs Sargison ... ... ... ... ... ... ,0 o i 

Tho s Hodgson ... ... ... ... ... ... o o 2 

Tho 5 Parker ... ... ... .. ... ... 002 

Clement Satterth wte ... O o I 

Hugh Troughton ... ... ... ... ... o o 2 

M r Moor 002 

John Biby ... ... ... ... ... ... o o i 

Hugh Tyson ... ... ... ... ... ...,o o 2 



o $ 8 

Brought over ... ... ... ... ... 5 8 

John Sawrey ... ... ... ... ... ... o o 2 

Edw d Braithw te ... ... ... ... ... ... 002 

Mally Kcene and Jane Wilkinson ... ... ... o O 2? 

Joseph Tayler ... ... ... ... ... ... ooi 

Jane Dixon ... ... ... ... ... ... o O I 

Joseph fforster .. ... ... ... ... ... 002 

M rs Jane ... ,. .. ... ... ... ... ... o o i 

Joseph Keen ... ... ... ... ... ... o O 2 

M rs Braithwt e ... ... ... ... ... ... o O I 

Mally Nouble ... ... ... ... ... ... o o I 

M r Cowperthw te ... ... ... ... ... o O I 

Peeter Sawrey ... ... ... ... ... ... o O I 

M rs Whinfield ... ... ... ... ... ... 002 

Thos Stamper ... ... ... ... ... ... 002 

Mary Keen ... ... ... ... ... ... o O I 

Edw d Otley ... ... ... ... ... ... 002 

M rs Mawson ... ... ... ... ... ... OO2 

Oliver Otley ... ... ... ... ... ... o o I 

M rs Sattcrthw te Red Lion ... ... ... ... o o 2 

M rs Briggs ooi 

Miller Hawkshead Mill ooi 

Easter Rigg Skinner How ... ... ... ... o o 2 

Robert Wattcrson Tanner ... ... ... ... o O 3 

Mathew Jackson Outyeat ... ... ... ... o o I 

Robt Rigg fieldhead OO2 

Edvv d Atkinson Outyeat ... ... ... ... o O I 

Saml Torner widdow ... ... ... ... ... o o I 

W m Jackson ... ... ... ... ... ... O O I 

Thos Warriner ... ... ... ... ... ... O O 2 

George Birket fieldhead ... ... ... ... O o 2 

John Mawson fieldhead not p d ... ... ... O O 6 

Paul Postlethwaite OO2 

Joseph Garrnet ... ... ... ... .. ...ooi 

M r John Berwick Juniour ... ... ... ... o o 2 

John Bank 002 

John Berwick Seeniour ... ... ... ... O o 2 



PARISH BOOKS AND ACCOUNTS 457 

Joseph Braithw te Hill ... ... ... ... ... o o 2 

James Swainson... ... ... ... torn away 

Lidy Swainson and her neightbour ... ... ...torn away 

A> I) 

Brought over ... ... ... ... ... oil 5 

W"> Park Hill 002 

Henery Swainson ... ... ... ... ... o o i 

George Kigg Hill ... ... ... ... ... o o 2 

John Braithw te Hill ... ... ... ... ... o o 2 

W m Turner town ... ... ... ... ... o o 2 

Dame Redy and Jane Bailiff ... ... ... o O 2 

Isaac Holme ... ... ... ... ... ... o o i 

Doctor Hodgson ... ... ... ... ... o o 3 

M r Biggland officer ... ... ... ... ... o o 3 

M r James Allixander ... ... ... ... ...003 

Hawkshead ... . . ,0 13 2 

Skelwith ... ... ... o 5 2 

Claife ... .. ... o 5 i 

i 3 5 

No. 2. For the Rebuilding the Chapels of Hindlcy & Padiham 
both in the Bottom of this County. 

s. d. 

M r Alexander ... ... ... ... ... ... o 2 

John Braithwaite ... ... ... ... ... ... o 2 

John Dixon ... ... ... ... ... ... ... o i 

Henery Swainson ... ... ... ... ... ... o 2 

George Rigge ... ... ... ... ... ... o 2 

George Berwick ... ... ... ... ... ... o 2 

John Berwick .. ... ... ... ... ...02 

John Marling ... ... ... ... ... ... o i 

Robert Rigge ... ... ... ... ... ... o 2 

Thomas Warrincr ... ... ... ... ... ... o i 

W m Denison ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 2 

Ned Whaites (?) i 

Geo Benson ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 2 

Geo. Braithwt. ... ... ... ... ... ... 2 

Edwi Willson I 

Edw d - Scales ... ... ... ... 2 

M r Colthred i 

Isaac Wilson... ... ... ... ... ... ... 2 

M rs Bordley 6 

W m Nicholson 2 

Jos: Keen ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 2 

M r Stephenson ... ... ... ... 2 

Alice Deason ... ... ... ... ... ... i 

Tho s Lancaster I 



458 PARISH BOOKS AND ACCOUNTS. 

s. d. 

W m Knipe 2 

John Sawrey... ... ... ... ... ... ... I 

Edw d Otley 2 

W m Satterthw. 6 

Mary Keen i 



Ib. s. d. 48 

Wm Braithw te Sadler O O 2 

Edwd Braithwte ... ... ... o o 2 

Widow Rig 002 

Robert Waterson ... ... ... o o 6 



o i o 
048 



S 8 

No. 3. The Charity of Skelwith and Conistone Quarter 
towards the fire at Bighton in the County of Southampton. 

s. d. 
Gawen Braithwaite ... ... ... ... ... ... O 3 

John Benson ... ... ... ... ... ... ... O 2 

James Benson ... ... ... ... ... ... o 3 

James Jackson ... ... ... ... ... ... o 3 

Anthony Atkinson ... ... ... ... ... ... o 3 

John Gillbanks ... ... ... ... ... ... O I 

Edw d Bownas ... ... ... ... ... ... O I 

Geo Walker ... ... ... ... ... ... ... o 2 

W" 1 Knipc ... ... ... ... ... o 2 

Robt Knipe .. O 2 

James Midlebrough ... ... ... ... ... ... o 2 

M r Harrison ... ... ... ... ... ... ... o 3 

W m Kirkby 02 

James Harrison ... .. ... ... ... ... O 2 

Anthony Sawrey ... ... ... ... ... ... o i 

s. d. 

2 8 

s. d. 

John Wilson ... ... ... ... ... ... ... o i 

W nl Johnson ... ... ... ... ... ... ...03 

Robt Birket O I 

Mathas Kirkby ... ... ... ... ... ... o I 

Geo Kirkby ... ... ... .. .. ... ...02 



o 8 

2 8 

3 4 



PARISH BOOKS AND ACCOUNTS. 



459 



No. 4. Illengworth Chapel 
in Yorkshire. 



s. d. 



John Gillbanks 
Antx Holme 
Anthy Atkinson 
James Benson 
John Benson 



O 
o 
o 
O 
O 



No. 5. Black Rod 
in Lancaster. 



Will"' Ford ... 
James Midellbr. 
John Gillbankss 
Anthoy Holme 
James Jackson 
James Benson 
John Benson 
Mary Braytruvaite 



Chapel 



s. 
o 
o 



o 
o 
o 
o 


d. 
6 

i 

i 

2 
I 
I 


e ... o 


4 



These two are on one piece of paper. 

On another paper 

Collections for Briefs. 



Waters Upton Church 

for Marsh Gibbon ... 

for Sleap 

Oyster Dredgers Ch. of Medvvay 

for Holy Trinity Church... 

for Polsworth Church 

for Much Wenlock Church 

for Huby & North marston 



s. d. 

1 10 
1 6 9 

5 2* 
8 6 

2 7 

2 9* 

4 'i 

6 10 



s. d. 
8 ;i 



Four papers of the eighteenth century regarding the manage- 
ment of the parish poor, are all that remain beside the 
overseers' accounts. Two of these are orders signed by a 
magistrate for maintenance and relief. Another is a " settlement," 
which means a Justice's order for the removal of a strayed 
Hawkshead pauper back to her parish, by the parochial 
authorities of Whitehaven, whither she had strayed, and to 
the wardens and overseers' of Hawkshead to provide for her 
on her return. The fourth we omit, being only a certificate from 
the minister and parish officers of Cliburn in Westmorland, 
that such and such are legally settled in that parish. No 
doubt they had strayed to Hawkshead and there applied for 
relief, but on this certificate, would be returned' to their own 
parish. 

I Order for Relief 



County Palatine 
of Lancaster 



., 



Myles Sandys Esq re one of his 
Majesties Justices of the Peace of 
and for the County aforesd This 




460 PARISH BOOKS AND ACCOUNTS. 

to the Churchwardens and Over- 
seers of the Poor for the Division 
of Hawkshead and Cunistone with 
Skelwith in the said County 

Complaint being made unto me by Thomas James That 
by Reason of his Poverty the bad state of Health of his 
Wife and the Disability ot two of their Children through 
their Infancy he is not able to provide for himself and 
Family but must perish if not timely relieved by some weekly 
or other allowance. These are therefore to corhand you to 
relieve him the said Thomas James and his said Family 
or irhccliately to appear before me to shew Cause if you 
can why he and they shall not have a weekly relief granted 
them Given under my Hand and seal the eleventh day of 

February 1748-9 

Myles Sandys 

Gentlemen 

The Truth of the above Complaint is sufficiently 
confirmed to me yrs M.S. 

2. Another one dated March 7th, 1750, ordering relief to 
Widow Mulby, of Sawrcy, ill of a fever. Signed, Myles 
Sandys and addressed to John Hodgson, overseer of the 
Poor of the Division of Claif. This is an informal letter. 

3 A Settlement. 

"To the Chappell Wardens & Overseers of the Poor of 
the Town of Whitehaven in the Parish of St Bees in the 
County of Cumberland And to the Churchwardens & Over- 
seers of the Township of Hawkside in the County of 
Lancaster & to each of them 

Cumberland Upon Complaint of the Chappell Wardens 
to wit & Overseers of the Poor of the Township 

of Whitehaven unto us whose names are 
Subscribed two of his Majestys Justices of 
the Peace & for ye sd County of Cumber- 
land & one of us of the Quorum that 
Elizabeth Braithwaite an Infant of Three 

Peter How Years Old was lately brought into ye s d 
Township by Clara Braithwaite single woman 
and that the said Elizabeth Braithwaite is 
now chargeable to the said Township of 
Whitehaven & likely to continue so, We 
therefore upon Due proof made upon oath by 
Clara Braithwaite Mother of the s d Eliz 
Braithwaite, who hath swore that the sd 





PARISH BOOKS AND ACCOUNTS. 461 

Eliz : Braithwaite is her Bastard Child & was 
born in Hawkside in the County of Lancaster, 
do upon Due Consideration of the Premises 
adjudge the same to be true And we do 
Tho : Lutwidge likewise Adjudge Thai the settlement of the 
s d Eliz : Braithwaite (that is the last legal 
settlem') is att Hawkside in the County of 
Lancaster by its Birth there as a Bastard 
We do therefore Require you to Convey the 
sd Eliz : Braithwaite from Whitehaven to 
the Township of Hawkside in the County 
of Lancaster And we do also Require you 
the said Churchwardens & Overseers of the 
Poor of the Township of Hawkside in the 
County of Lancaster to Receive & provide 
for her as an Inhabitant of your Parish or 
Township. Given under our Hands & Seals 
this 3i sl day of March 1739 

Royal Proclamations and forms of prayer occur more than 
once in the Churchwardens' accounts. Here is such a printed 
proclamation rescued from the old parish chest. The forms 
of prayer ordered at the end to be used on this occasion 
are duly charged in the wardens' accounts for this year at 
three shillings. 

G R 




By the King 

A Proclamation 

For a General Fast 

George R 

Whereas we have been obliged for vindicating the honour 
of our Crown, securing the Trade and Navigation of Our 
Subjects, and Defending Our undoubted Right, to declare 
War against the King of Spain ; and arc determined to 
prosecute the same with the utmost Vigour, till, by the 
Blessing of God on Our Arms, We shall obtain that Satisfaction 
and Security, which we may hope from the Justice of Our 
Cause ; We therefore, putting Our Trust in the Divine 
Assistance, have resolved, and do, by and with the Advice 
of Our Privy Council, hereby command, That a publick 
Fast and Humiliation be observed throughout that Part of 



462 PARISH BOOKS AND ACCOUNTS. 

Our Kingdom of Great Britain called England, Our Dominion 
of Wales, and Town of Berwick upon Tweed, upon Wed- 
nesday the Tenth Day of November next ; that so both 
We and Our People may humble Ourselves before Almighty 
God, in order to obtain Pardon for Our Sins ; and may, 
in most devout and Solemn Manner, send Our Prayers and 
Supplications to the Divine Majesty, for averting those heavy 
Judgements, which our manifold Sins and Provocations have 
most justly deserved ; and imploring his Blessing and 
Assistance on Our Arms, and for restoring and perpetuating 
Peace, Safety, and Prosperity to Us, and Our Kingdoms. 
And We do strictly charge and command, That the said 
Publick Fast be reverently and devoutly observed by all 
Our loving Subjects in England, Our Dominion of Wales, 
and Town of Berwick upon Tweed, as they tender the 
Favour of Almighty God, and would avoid his Wrath and 
Indignation ; and upon Pain of such Punishment, as we may 
justly inflict on all such as contemn and neglect the 
Performance of so religious and necessary a Duty. And for 
the b'-ttcr and more orderly solemnizing the same, We have 
given Directions to the Most Reverend the Archbishops, and 
the Right Reverend the Bishops of England, to compose a 
Form of Prayer suitable to this Occasion, to be used in 
all Churches, Chapels, and Places of publick Worship ; and 
to take care the same be timely dispersed throughout their 
respective Dioceses. 

Given at Our Court at Kensington, the Fifteenth 
Day of September, 1742, in the Sixteenth Year of 
Our Reign * 

GOD SAVE THE KING. 

LONDON 

PRINTED BY THOMAS BASKETT, PRINTERS TO THE KING'S 
MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY, 1742. 



CHAPTER X. 
THE FREE GRAMMAR SCHOOL OF HAWKSHEAD. 

THE Royal Letters Patent, dated loth of April, 27 Eliz. 
(1585), are still preserved in good condition at the 
Grammar School. They arc written in a beautiful hand of 
the period on a sheet of vellum, measuring 31 inches by 
25 1 inches, and the initial letter contains a portrait of the 
queen, enthroned, crowned, and carrying her orb and sceptre. 
The first line is very ornate, with beautifully " tricked " 
border in which arc depicted the lion, crowned rose, dragon, 
fleur de lis and harp. The royal seal is lost, for at some 
date a small iron case has been made to contain the MS., 
and the seal has been removed to preserve separately. 
The transcript we give preserves the original spelling and 
contractions." 

<Bft(za6ef0 <fi)et (Bracta (ftngfte Sttwcie ef JgtBernie Regina 

fidei defensor etc <J)tttm6u0 ad quos presentes litere peruenerint : 
Salutem : Cum reuerendissimus in Xpo pater Edwinus prouidencia 
diuina Ebor Archiepus nobis humilime supplicavit ut infra poch 
de hawkesheade in (Join lane unam scholam gramatical ad bonam 
educacoem et instruccionem pueror et Juvenum ibidem et circa 
partes vicinas hitancm et comoran erigi et stabiliri dignaremur. 
SctaftB qd nos huic pie peticoi libent annuentex gracia nostra speciali 
certa sciencia et mero motu nostris volumus concedimus et ordinamus 
pro nobis heredibus et successoribus nostris qd de cetero sit et 

* The Letters Patent have never been published in any permanent work, but in 
the 1835 anil 1863 rules of the school they are printed with the contractions expanded, 
and spelling somewhat modernized. 



164 THE GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 

erit una schola gramatical infra poch de hawkesheade predict que 
erit et vocabitur liba schola gramatical dicti Edwini Ebor Archiepi 
pro educacoe institucoe et instruccoe pueror et Juvenn in gramatica 
ppetuis temporibus futur duratur, Ac scholam ill de uno magro siue 
pedagogo pro ppetuo duratur erigimus creamus ordinamus et fundamus 
per presentes. <f ut intencio nostra predict inelior capiat effcm 
et ut terr tenementa reddit reuercoes et al ad sustentacoem schole 
predict concedend assignand et appunctuand melius gubernentur 
volumus et ordinamus qd de cetero Samuellus Sandes Christoferus 
Sandes Adamus Sandes genero's, VVillmus Sawrey, Bernardus Benson, 
Rowlandus Nicholson Thomas Rawlingson et Jacobus Taylor Yeomen 
suit erunt et vocabuntur gubernaior possessionn revencionn et bonor 
dee schole vulgarit vocat et vocand libe schole gramatical Edwini 
Ebor Archiepi infra poch de hawkesheade in Com nostro lancastr, 
Et qd iidem gubernator in re fco et noie de cetero sint et erunt 
unu corpus corporal et politicum iinppm per nomen gubernator 
possession!! reuencionn et bonor libe schole grammatical Edwini Ebor 
Archiepi infra poch de Hawkesheade in Com nostro lancastr 
incorporat et erect, Ac ipos gubernator possessionum reuencionn et 
bonor libere schole gramatical Edwini Ebor Archiepi infra poch de 
hawkesheade in Com nostro lane per presentes corporamus ac corpus 
corporal et politicum per idem nomen impm duratur realit et ad 
plenn creamus erigimus ordinamus facimus et constituimus per 
.presentes. $c $ofutttU6 ^t per presentes ordinamus et concedimus 
pro nobis heredibus et successoribus nostris qd iidem gubernatores 
possessionn revencionn et bonor dicte libe schole gramatical Edwini 
Ebor Archiepi infra poch de hawksheade predict habeant successionem 
perpetuam, Et per idem nomen sint et erint psone hiles et in lege 
capaces ad hend pquirend et recipiend maner terr tenementa prat 
pasc pastur reddit reuercoes reuenc et hereditament quecunq3 tarn 
de nobis heredibus vel Successoribus nostris qm de dicto Archiepo 
hered vel Assignat suis vel de aliqua al psona siue de aliquibus 
aliis psonis quibuscunq3jiumodo non excedant clarum annu valorem 
tngmt librar bone et leglis monete Anglie ultra omnia onera et repris, 
Et qd ipsi de cetero licite et impune omnia et singula terr tenementa 
piata pasc pastur et cetera hereditamenta quecunqj ad sustentac seu 
manuten schole predict aliquo tempore imposterum obtinend seu 
pquirend et quamlt mde pt et pcell quibuscung} ligeis nostris pro 








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THE GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 467 

termino anni vel annor concedere dimittere vel assignare possint et 
valeant imppm. Ita qd eedem dimissiones sic fiend non sint contra vel 
repugnant legibus siue ordinac fiend siue stabiliend pro melior gubernac 
et relevamine schole predict ut inferius in his Iris paten appunctuat est. 
(Etf (UffertUB de uberior gracia nostra ac ex certa sciencia et mero 
motu nostris volumus ac pro nobis heredibus et Successoribus nostris 
per presentes concedimus prefat gubernator et Successoribus suis 
qd de cetero imppm habean coe sigillum ad negotia sua et ceter 
in his Iris nostris paten express seu specificat seu aliquam inde parcell 
tangen seu concernen deseruitur Et ipsi gubernator per nomen 
gubernatoj possessionum reuenc et honor libere schole gramatical 
Edwini Ebor Archiepi infra poch de hawkesheade in Com lane 
plitare et implitari prosequi defendere et defendi respondere et 
responderi possint et valeant in omnibus et singulis causis querelis 
accionibus realibus psonalibus et mixtis cuiuscunq^ generis fuerint 
siue nature in quibuscunq^ placeis locis et Cur nostris ac placeis 
locis et Cur hered et Successorum nostroj ac in placeis locis et 
Cur al quojcunq} coram quibuscunq^ Justiciar et Judicibus 
ecclesiasticis et secular infra Regnu nostrum Anglic vel alibi et ad 
ea ac ad omnia et singula al faciend agend recipiend et exequend 
adeo plene libere et integre ac in tarn amplis modo et 
forma prout cetcr ligei nostri psone hiles et capaces in 
lege infra idem Regnum nostrum Anglie faciant et facere 
poterant in Cur placeis et locis predict ct coram Juticiar 
et judic supradict. (^c (JlffeftUS de uberior gracia nostra ac 
ex certa sciencia et mero motu nostris dedimus et concessimus 
ac per presentes damus et concedimus pro nobis heredibus et 
Successoribus nostris prefat Edwino Ebor Archiepo pro et duran 
termino vite natural ipsius Edwini et post ejus decessum Samueli 
fil et hered apparent ipius Edwini pro termino vite ipsius Samuelis 
plenam potestatem et auctoritatem nominand et appunctuand 
pedagogum schole predict tociens quociens eadem schola de 
pedagogo vac fuer, Et si pedagogus schole predict illiterat vel 
aliter minime idoneus pro aliqua causa quacunq} fore videbitur 
vel seipm non bene gesserit in Offic pedagogi qd tune et tociens 
bene liceat et licebit prefat gubernator schole predict pro tempore 
existen cum assensu et consensu Epi Cestr pro tempore existen 
eundem pedagogum ita illiterat aut pro aliqua causa minime idoneum 
a loco vel offic pedagogi illius expellere et amouere, et unum 



468 THE GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 

alium probiorem et magis idoneum in pedagogum schole predict 
eligere nominare et preficere in loco ipsius sic expulsi siue amoti 
existen, Et hoc tociens quociens casus sic accident Et qd predict 
Edwinus Ehor Archiep~us duran vita sua natural faciet et facere 
valeat et possit idonea et salubria statuta et ordinac in script 
concnen et ' tangei7 ordinac gubernac et direccoem pedagogi et 
scholar schole predict pro tempore existen, Ac stipendii et salarii 
eiusdem pedagogi ac omnia alia quecunq^ eandem scholam vel 
ordinem gubernac direccoem aut disposicionem predict pedagogi 
vel reddit et Revencionn predict aut eos alicuius concernen, Que 
quidem statuta et ordinac sic fiend volumus et concedimus et per 
presentes precipimus inviolatbilit obseruari de tempore in tempus 
imppm. (Bf Cprefered de uberlori gracia nostra speciali ac ex 
certa sciencia et mero motu nostris dedimus et concessimus ac 
per presentes damns et concedimus pro nobis heredibus et 
Succcssoribus nostris prefat modcrnis gubernatoribus et Successor 
suis plenam potestatem et autoritatem post mortem predict Edwini 
et prefat Samuel perpetuis temporibus duratur cum assensu et 
consensu Epi Cestr pro tempore existen nominand assignand et 
appunctuand pedagogum schole predict tociens quociens eadem 
schola vacua flier de pedagogo, Et qd ipsi Gubernator et Successores 
sui post mortem predict Edwini Ebor Archiepi et prefat Samuel 
Sands cum assensu et consensu Epi Cestr predict pro tempore 
existen de tempore in tempus facient et facere valeant et possint 
idonea et saluberrma statuta et nrdinac in script concernen et 
tangen ordinac gubernac et direccoem pedagogi et scholar schole 
predict pro tempore cxisten ac stipend et salar eiusdem pedagogi 
ac omnia al quecunq} eandem scholam vel ordinac gubernac 
preseruac et disposicocm reddit et reuencionn ad sustentacoem 
eiusdem schole appunctuat et appunctuand aut aliquo tempore 
imposter hend siue perquirend tangen vel concernen, Ita nd 
ordinacoes et statuta pdict non sint contrar ad statuta et ordinacoes 
dicti Edwini fact vel fiend. Que quidem statuta et ordinac sic 
fiend volumus concedimus imutabiliter obseruari de tempore in 
tempus imppm. <{ QlfferiuE <Je uberiori gracia nra dedimus 
et concessimus ac per presentes damus et concedimus prefat 
gubernator dicte libere schole gramatical dicti Edwini Ebor 
Archiepi infra poch de hawkesheade predict et successoribus suis 
licenciam nostram specialem Iibamq3 et licitam facultatem et 



THE GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 469 

auctoritatem hend recipiend et perquirend eis et eo ? Successoribus 
imppm ad sustentacionem et manntenc schole predict tarn de nobis 
heredibus et Successoribus nostris qm de prefat Edwino Ebor 
Archiepo hered executor vel assign suis vel de al quibuscumqj pson 
, et al psona quacunq^ maner mesuag terr tenement Rectorias decim 
et al hereditament quecunq^ infra Regnum Anglic seu alibi infra 
Dnia nostra dumodo non excedant dcm clarum annuu valorem 
trigint librar bone et legalis monete Anglie ultra omnia onera et 
repris ac dumodo non tenentur de nobis in Capite nee per seruicium 
militare nee de aliqua alia psona siue aliquibus al psonis per 
seruicium militar Statut de terr et tenement ad mamT mortuam 
non ponend. Aut aliquo al statute actu ordinac seu prouisione 
aut aliqua alia re causa vel materia quacunq-? in contrar incle habit 
fact edit ordinac seu prouis in aliquo non obstan. <^f (Pofumug 
ac per presentes ordinamus qd omnia exit reddit et rcuenc omniu 
predict tcrrarum tenementoj et possessionum dand ct assignand ad 
sustentacoem pedagogi aut schole predict ut predrm est de tempore 
in tempus conntantur ad sustentac predict pedagogi et schole 
predict pro tempore existen et ad sustentac et manntenc terrar 
tenementojs et possessionum predict et non aliter nee ad aliquos 
al usus siue intencoes. <jf (Pofumue ar per presentes concedimus 
prefat gubernator et Successoribus suis <|d quandocunq-? contiger 
aliquem eo^ gubnatt schole pd existen obirc vel a loco et Officio guber- 
nator schole predict pro aliqua causa rationabili ainoueri qd tune et 
tociens bene liceat et licebit ceter gubernator schole pdict et Successori- 
bus suis seu maiori numero eo^ gubernator ad tune supuiuen vel 
remanen vnn al melior et magis probiorem et discretum virum in guber- 
nator et ad Officium illud eligere nominare et preficere loco ipsius sic 
morien vel amoti existen et hoc tocies quocies casus sic accideret 
aut requiret. (jf (pofutrU0 ac per presentes concedimus prefat 
gubernator qd heant et habebunt has literas nostras patentes sub 
magno Sigillo nostro Anglie debito modo fact et sigillat absq^ fine 
seu feod magno vel pvo nob in hanaperio nostro seu alibi ad 
usum nostrum proinde quoquo modo reddend soluend vel faciend. 
(Bo <Qb (,r))re80ft (JtlettCtO de vero valore annuo aut de aliquo 
alio valore vel certitudine premissorum siue eoj alicuius aut de aliis 
donis siue concessionibus per nos seu per aliquem progenito^ siue 
predecessoji nostro^ prefat Gubernatoribus ante bee tempora fact in 
presentibus minime fact existit, Aut aliquo statuto actu ordinacoe 



470 THE GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 

prouisione proclamacoe siue restriccione in contrarum inde ante hac 
fact edit ordinal siue prouls, Aut aliqua alia re causa vel matia 
quacumqj in aliquo non obstan 3n CutU8 ret testimonium has 
literas nostras fieri fecimus patentes egfe me ipa apud Grenewiche 
decimo die Aprilis Anno regni nostri vicesimo septimo 

per b7e de priuato sigillo et de dat pd aucte pliamen 

Powle 

Three years elapsed, during which no doubt negotiations 
were being conducted by the founder and the Governors he 
had appointed, for the acquisition of certain estates with 
which he purposed endowing the school ; and on the 1st 
of April, 1588, only three months before his death, he 
issued his statutes and rules for the management of the 
school. Like the Letters Patent these still are preserved at 
the Grammar School, and are of such great interest that 
we give here a verbatim and literatim copy. They are carefully 
written in a vellum roll of pages, the leaves of which 
measure ten inches by fourteen inches, and are indented at the 
top and side edges. The statutes themselves occupy pages 
five to eighteen inclusive, but there are a good many blank 
leaves to contain the affirmations of new governors as they 
are appointed. The Archbishop's signature is not appended, 
probably because of failing health ; but we find instead that 
of his son Samuel, who concluded the endowment.* 

ftff QCf'ett $eopfe to whom this pnte wrytinge Quadruptyte 
indented of the ffoundacon of one ffree Grammer Schole 
w th in the pishe of Hawksheade, in the countye of Lancaster shall 
come. 

d5btt))?tt JJftttbg by the puidence of god Archbushoppe of 
Yorke, Primate of England and Metropolitan, Sendethe gretinge 
in o' lord god evelastinge 

* The only publication in which, so far as we know, these statutes have ever 
been printed is Abingdon's " Cathedral Church of Worcester," 1717, where the copy 
used was one in the possession of Thomas Rawlinson, F. R.S., in which all con- 
tractions were expanded, and spelling brought up to date. It does not appear that 
the statutes have ever been printed locally, and thus put into the hands of the 
parishioners, though as amended under the 1835 scheme, they certainly were. The 
present transcript has been made with the greatest care by the writer, who believes 
he now places for the first time a verbatim copy of the original statutes in the hands of 
the inhabitants of Hawkshead. 



THE GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 471 

our Sou'eigne ladye Elizabethe the Queens Ma tie , that 
now ys : Alt the humble peticon of me the said Edwyn Arch- 
bushope of Yorke By her highnes Lres Patents under the great 
Scale of England, Bearinge date att Grenwiche the tentheday of Aprill in 
the Twentie and seaventh yeare of her ma' 5 ' raigne jj)ftf graunted, and 
Ordayned, <0af from hence forthe ther shoulde be one gramm 1 Schole 
w th in the pishe of Hawksheade in the Com of Lancasf afforesaid ; And 
that Samuell Sands Xpofer Sands Adam Sands, gentillme Willm 
Sowrey, Barnarde Benson, Rowland Nycholson, Thomas Rawlinson, 
and James Taylor yeomen, shoulde be Gou'nors of the possessions, 
Revenews, and goodes of the said Schole, and shoulde be one Bodie 
Corporate, and polytique for eu r by the name of the gou'nors of the 
possessions, revenews, and goodes of the said ffree gramm' Schole, 
and that they the said Gou'nors, shoulde haue ppetualle Succession, 
and by the same name shoulde be psons, able and capable in 
law, to receive Manners, landes tenem 15 , and heredytam' 5 , As well 
of her Ma lye , her heirs and successors, as oi me the said Edwyn 
Archbushope of Yorke, or of anie other pson or persons, Soe the 
said lands tents, and heredytam' 5 exceade not the yeerelie value 
of Thirtye poundes of lawfull monie of England, aboue all reprises, 
And soe that the same lands, tents, and heredytam' 5 , be not holden 
of her Ma' ie in Capite, no' by Knights Service, nor of anie 
other pson, or psons by Knights Service, ffor the Sustentacon, 
and Mayntenaunce of the said Schole, And that the said Gou'nors 
of the possessions, Revenews. goods and Chattells of the said 
Schole, should have a Comon Scale, And that I the said Edwyn 
Archbushope of Yorke, duringe my naturall lyffe, shoulde, and may 
make, and ordayne Statutes, and Ordinauncs in wrytinge, touchinge, 
and concrninge the well orderinge, direccon, and gou'm' of the 
Scholemaster, and Schollers of the said Schole for the tyme 
beinge, And as conc'ninge the Stypende & Sallarie of the said 
Scholemaster, and all other things concerninge the said schole, or 
the well gou'mt, Orderinge, direccon, or dysposinge of the said 
Scholem' or of the Rents, revenewes, and goods of the afforesaid 
Schole, As by the said Ires patients more att Large yt dothe and 
maie appeare. fj^nott) 8C that I the said Edwyn Archbushop of 
Yorke, By vertue of the foresaid Ires patients, by this pnte wrytinge, 
fcoe constytute, ordayne, erecte, establyshe, make, and declare the 
ffoundacon, erreccon, rules and ordinauncs of the foresaid ffree 



472 THE GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 

Gramm' Schole in Hawkshead afforesaid, as hereafter ensewethe, 
That is to saie 

1 Sftrete 3 <Drfcagne Constitute m&6e estabiishe and erecte 

That one ppetuall, and ffree Schole of Gramm', from hence- 
forthe be in Hawksheade afforesaid, Of one Scholemaster, and 
his Successors in one howse ther, for that purposse by me puicled, 
and soe to contynew from one Scholem' to another in succession 
tor eu'. To teache gramm', and the pryncyples of the Greeke 
tongue, w"' other Scyences necessarie to be taughte in a gramm 
schole The same to be taughte in the said schole freelie, w'hout 
takinge anie Stipende, wage or other exaccon of the Schollers, 
or of anie of them resortinge to the said Schole to learne, 
w'h said Schole shall from henceforthe be called for eu r 

ffre (Brammer |k0ofe of (Sowpn JJanoe 

of T^orftCt in Hawksliead afforesaid, according to the foresaid 
graunte and Lycence from her Maiestie. 

2 rt&fgo I doe Constytute, electe, nomte, ordaine, and appointe 

Peter Magson m r of arte Scholem' of the said gramm' Schole, 
And ffurthur I doe give to the said Peter Magson the said 
Rowme and Office of Scholemastershippe in Hawksheade 
afforesaid. To have and to holde the said office and Rowme 
of Scholem'shippe to the said Peter Magson, and his 
successors, successivlie after him to be Chosen Scholemasters 
of the same Schole, accordinge to the Constitucons and Orders 
hereafter menconed, And by me the said Archbushoppe here- 
after to be declared ordayned, or made at anie tyme duringe 
my lyffe. 

3 (&f00 I ordayne, will, and declare by these pnts, That I the 

said Edwyn Archbushoppe of Yorke, duringe my lyffe natural!, 
And after my decease, Samuell Sands, my sonne duringe his 
lyffe, shall have the nomcon, donacon, guifte and graunte of 
the said office and Rowme of Scholemastershipe, or Schole- 
master of the said ffree Schole, when and soe often, as the 
same shall become voide by deathe, deprivacon, or otherwysse 
to giue, graunte, and dysposse the same to suche pson, and 
persons, as shalbe apte, and able therunto, accordinge to the 
Ordinaunce herein declared and hereafter by me to be declared, 
and after my decease, and the deathe of the said Samuell 



THE GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 473 

Sands, the gounors of the foresaid fre grarnm' schole for 
the tyme beinge, or the moste pte of them, w"' the assente 
of the Bushoppe of Cheister for the tyme beinge, shall for eu r have 
the nomynacon, donacon, guyfte, and graunte of the said 
Office and Rowme of Scholemastershippe, or Scholemaster 
of the said ffree Schole in Hawksheade, when, and soe often 
as the same shall become void, by deathe depryvacon or 
otherwyse, giue and gr te the same to suche pson, and psons as 
shalbe apte, and able therunto, accordinge to the Ordnauncs 
herein declared, and hereafter by me to be declared. 

"00C I Ordayne and appoynte that the said Scholemaster 
shalbe well sene and have good understandinge in the 
Greeke and Latyne tongues, and shall teache and infonne 
the same to suche schollers of the same schole, as shalbe 
most meete and apte for the same, accordinge to the 
dyscrecion of the said Scholemaster, And that the said Schole- 
master, before he shall begyne to teache the said Schole 
(after my decease) shalbe allowed by the Ordinarie of the 
place for the tyme beinge, accordinge to the Statute in that 
case puided. 



1 ordayne and constytute, that the said Scholemaster 
of the said schole, and his successors for eu r , shall haue 
under him, one usher in the foresaid Schole, to be an 
usher in the said schole to teache suche Children and Schollers 
in the said Schole of the loweste fformes, as to him shalbe 
appoynted by the said Scholemaster, and his successor And 
that the said usher shalbe chosen from tyme to tyme by the 
said Scholemaster and gounors of the said schole, or the 
moste pte of them, for the tyme beinge, And alsoe that 
uppon anie mysbehauiour to be Comytted by the said usher, 
yt shalbe lawfull for the said Scholemaster and gou'nors, or 
the most pte of them, to depryve the said usher, and at 
ther pleasure to appointe another in his place, as affore ys said, 
And yf the foresaid Scholemaster shall fortune to dye, then 
the usher of the said Schole for the tyme beinge, shall teache 
the Schollers in the said Schole, as Master therof, untyll ther 
be a Scholemaster placed in the said Rowme and Office to 
exercyse the same accordinge to the Ordinauncs, and ffoundacon 



474 THE GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 

of the said Schole, And the said usher soe teachinge in the 
said vacacon tyme, shall duringe the same tyme appoynte 
one scholler of the same Schole to be an usher under him, 
w ch scholler soe teachinge as usher shall haue for the said 
tyme he shall teache as usher, the Stypende and allowaunce 
belonginge to the usher, And the said usher to haue soe 
longe as he teachethe as Master, the Stypende and allowaunce 
belonginge to the said Scholemaster. The w cb somes of 
monye shalbe paide to the said usher teachinge as master, 
and scholler teachinge as usher by the said gou'nors, and ther 
successors for the tyme beinge, as before ys expressed. Provided 
allwaies, that after my decease, and the decease of the saide 
Samuell Sandes my sonne, yf the foresaid gou'nors of the 
foresaid free Schole, and ther Successors for the tyme beinge, 
w"' the Consume of the Bushoppe of Cheister for the tyme 
beinge, doc not give and graunte the said Scholemastershipe 
w' h in the space qf Thirtie daies, nexte after the Avoidaunce 
thereof, to one apte and able pson, accordinge to the 
Ordinauncs afforesaid, That then the Bushopp of the dyocesse 
of Cheister lor the tyme beinge, alone, shall haue the guifte, 
graunte, and dysposytion of the said Office and Rowme of 
Seliolemastershipe for that tyme, soe that the said Bushope 
for the tyme beinge, give and graunte the same w lh in Thirtie 
daies, next after the foresaid Thirtie daies, appointed to the 
foresaid gou'nors of the said Schole ; and yf the said Bushope 
of Cheister for the tyme beinge, doe not giue and graunte( 
the said Scholemastershippe w lhi " the said Thirtie daies so 
lymyted unto him as before ys said to one able pson, accord- 
inge to the Ordyiauncs afforesaid, That then the Deane and 
Chapter of Chester afforesaid for the tyme beinge, shall haue 
the guifte and graunte, of the said Office and Rowme of 
Scholemastershipe ' for that tyme, And soe from tyme to 
tyme as often as anie suche defaulte as afforesaid shall happen 
to be. 

6 ($f00 I ordayne, and constytute, that the said Scholemaster, 
and hys successors, for the tyme beinge, shall eu'ie workedaie, 
betweene the Annunciation oT the blessed virgyn Marye, and 
S' Mychaell Th archangell, be in the said schole, and begyn , 
to teache at six of the Clocke in the Morninge, or at the 






THE GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 475 

furtheste within one halfe houre after, and soe to Contynewe 
untill Eleven of the Clocke in the forenoone, and to begyne 
agayne at One of the Clocke in the afternoone, and soe to 
Continew, untill ffive of the Clocke at night, And eu'ie work- 
daie betweene the ffeaste of Mychillmas, and the Annuciacon 
of the blessed virgyn, to begine to teache at seaven of the 
Clocke in the morninge, or w'hin halfe an howre after at the 
furtheste, and soe to Continew untill Eleven of the Clocke 
before Noone, and then to begine schole againe, at halfe an 
howre before One of the Clocke in the afternoone, and soe 
to Contynewe untill ffowre of the Clocke at nighte, duringe 
all w ch tymes, I will, that the scholemaster shalbe presente in 
the schole w lh the usher, and shall teache all suche good 
Aucthors, w ch doe Conteyne honeste Precepts of vertue, and 
good Lyterature, for the better education of youthe, And 
shall once eu'ie weeke at the leaste, instructe, and examyne 
his schollers in the Pryncyples of trewe Religion, to the ende, 
they maie the better knowe, and feare god, And that the 
said Scholemaster,- and usher shall not use of Custome to be 
absente from the foresaid schole, duringe the tymes afforesaid, 
nor w'Mrawe themselues from thence, but onelie for and uppon 
honeste, necessarie, and reasonable Causes, and that yt shall 
not be lawful! for the said Scholemaster or usher to be 
absente from the said schole, aboue six weeks at one, or 
seu'all tymes in the whole yeere uppon necessarye busines, 
Excepte they ohtayne the specyll Lycence of the said gou'nors, 
or the most pte of them, for the tyme beinge, Soe that the 
Scholemaster and usher be not bothe absente at one tyme. 

I ordayne and Constytute, that certaynt: godlye Prayers here- 
after sett downe and ymedyatlie followinge in these Constytucons, be 
made in the said schole by the scholemaster for the tyme 
beinge, the usher and schollers of the same schole, eu'ie 
mornynge before the said scholemaster, and usher begyne to 
teache the said schollers and everie eveninge ymediatlie before 
the breakinge up of the said schole, And eu'ie day before they 
goe to dynner to singe a Psalme in Meter in the said schole. 

$ prater for We (Jttormnge. 

Most v mightie god, and m'cyfull ffather, we sinners by nature, 
yett thy Children .by grace, here pstrate before thy devyne Ma" e , 



: 



476 THE GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 

doe acknowledge our Corrupcon in nature, by reason of our 
synne to be suche, that we ar not able as of our selues to 
thinke one good thought much lesse able to pffytte in good 
learninge and lyterature, and to come to the knowledge of thy 
sonne Chryste o' sauiour, excepte yt shall please the of thie 
great grace and goodnes to illumynate o r understandinge, to 
strengthen o r feable memories, to instructe us by thy holie 
spyritt, and soe to powre upon us thy good guifts of grace, 
that we may learne to knowe and knowe to practyse those 
thyngs in these o r studies, as may most tende to the glorye of 
thy name, to the profitt of thy Churche, and to the pformaunce 
of our Chrystyan dewtie, Heare us O god, graunt this our 
Peticon, and blysse o r studies O heavenlye ffather, for thy sonne 
Jesus Chrystcs sake, in whose name we call uppon the, and 
saye O our father &c. 

(ft pmger for f0e (Queenee Qtta fie . 

O lord our heavenlic father, highe and myghtie kinge of 
kinges, lord of lords, the onlie ruler of Prynces, w ch doest fom 
thie throne beholde all the dwellers uppon the earthe, most 
hartelie we beseche the w lh thy favour to beholde our moste 
gratious Sou'eigne Ladie Queene Elizabethe, and soe replenishe 
her w" 1 the grace of thie holie spirytte, that she may allwaie 
inclyne to thy will and walke in thy wayc, indue her plenti- 
fullie w" 1 lieavenlic gifts, graunte her in healthe and welthe, 
longe to live, strenghe her, that she maie vanquishe and ou'come 
all her Enymes, and finallie after this lyffe, she may attayne 
eu'lastinge ioye and felicytie, throughe Jesus Chryste o' Lorde 
Amen. 



att breakinge up of the Schole. 

Most gratious god and most irTcyfull father we acknowledge 
how muche we ar bownde to thy divine Ma" for all those great 
guifts and manifolde m'cyes w ch thou of thy mere grace and 
favour hathe bestowed uppon us, as well for o r Eleccon, Creacon, 
Redempcon, Justification, and sanctificacon, w th all other good 
giftes of bodie and mynde, and what else soeu r we haue of thy 
grace and fauour we haue re'ceyued yt. As alsoe for that thou 
haste moved the mynde, and stirred up the harte of Edwyn 
Archbushopp of Yorke our ffounder to purchase and puide 



THE GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 477 

this free gramm' Schole for us for o r educacon, and breedinge 
in good literature and learninge. Graunt O god that we may 
eu r be thankfull for the same, and giue us grace not to abuse 
this great gifte of mercie ; but that we may soe applie 
o' studies holpen and directed by thy holie spiritt, that we 
maie increase in all good knowledge and learninge to the 
glorie and prayse of thy name. Graunte this O god for thy 
sonne Jesus Chryst's sake o r onelie Redem' and savio' 

All hono r glorye and praise be giuen to the most m'cifull 
father and gratious god, for all thy louingc kindnes and 
manifolde graces powred downe uppon us, Namelie that yt hath 
pleased the to ptecte us this daie from all daingers of the 
Enimie bodelie and ghostlie, and to increase thy giftes of know- 
ledge. and godlines in us. Graunte us O good god to loue the 
for these soe great m r cies, still to growe in thankfullnes more and 
more towards the : And for soe muche as thou haste 
appointed the Nighte to reste in, as the daie to travill, giue 
unto us suche quiete and moderate sleepe, as may strengthen 
our weake bodies to beare those labours wherunto thou shake 
appoint them. Suffer not the Prince of darkncs to preuaile 
in the darknes of the nght, nor for eu r againste us : but watche 
thou still ou r us \v"' thine Eye, and garde us \v th thy hand 
againste all his deceypts, and assaulte, and thoughe o r bodies 
doe slepe, make thou our soules to watche, lokinge for the 
appearinge of the sonne Jesus Chryste that we may be 
wakinge to mete him in the Cloudes to entre \v' h him into 
eternall ioye & blissednes. These things we Craue at thie 
handes for thy Sonne Christe Jesus sake, to whom w' h the 
and the holie ghoste be rendred all praise glorie and ma tie for 
eu r and eu r Amen. 



I ordaine, will, and appoynte, that the said scholemaster 
usher and schollers for the tyme beingc from tyme to tyme 
shall use, and frequente the Churche upon the Sabbothe daie, 
and holie daies, to heare divine Seruice, and Sermons, and that 
the said scholemaster, usher, and schollers, shall sytt together 
in some conveniente place in the chauncell of the said Churche, 
and that the said scholemaster, and usher for the tyme beinge 
doe giue good regarde, that the said schollers doe at all tymes 



478 THE GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 

behaue themselues soberlie and reu'endlie in the Churche 
especiallie duringe the tyme of diuyne seruice and sermons. 



I ordayne and Constytute, that yf the aboue said Schole- 
master, and his Successors or anie of them, hereafter, intende, 
goe aboute, attempte, pcure, will assente, or agree to doe or 
comytt anie herysie, treason, murder, or fellonie, that ymediatlie 
by and uppon suche intente, goeinge aboute, attempte, pcurement, 
will assent, or agremt w th out and before anie other acte or 
thinge comytted or done the said office of Scholemastershipe, 
and the guifte and graunte therof to the said Master soe 
intendinge, goeinge aboute, attemptinge, pcuringe, willinge, or 
agreinge as afforesaid to be utterlie voide. And that then yt 
shalbe lawfull for me duringe my lyffe, and after my decease 
to and for the said Samuell Sandes duringe his life, and after 
my decease, and the deathe of the said Samuell Sands, to and 
for the gou'nors of the foresaid free schole, and their successors 
or the inoste pte of them, with the assente of the Bushope 
of Chester for the tyme beinge, and after that uppon suche 
defaulte of them, to and for the said Bushope of Chester 
for the tyme beinge, and in defaulte of the said Bushope, to and 
for the Deane and Chapter of Chester as afforesaid, to giue 
graunte and dysposse the same Office of Scholemastershipe, to 
one other apte and able pson, accordinge to the trewe rneaninge 
and intente of this pnte ffoundacon, and of those orders and 
Constytutions in manner and forme as before in these pntes 
ar lymited and appointed. 



I doe ordaine Constytute and will, that yf the said Schole- 
master and his successors or anie of them be a comon drunckard, 
or shalbe remysse or necligente in teachinge the said schollers, 
or shall haue or use anie ill or notable vice, Cryme offence, or 
Condicon, or haue anie suche greuous dysease, or infirmitie, 
that he shall not be able and meete therbie to teache the said 
schole, and that the foresaid gou'nors of the said free Schole for 
the tyme beinge or the moste pte of them knowinge or beinge 
informed therof, and upon due Examinacon therof had and 
made findinge the same to be trewe. Then I ordaine, will and 
Constytute, that ymmediatlie uppon the same examinacon and 



THE GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 479 

offence soe founde as afforesaid, the said Office and Schole- 
mastershippe to be voide, and that yt shalbe lawfull for me 
the said Archbushoppe duringe my liffe, and after my decease, 
for the said Samuell Sands my Sonne duringe his lyffe, ffor the 
foresaid gou'nors of the said free schole and ther successors after 
our deathes w th the assente of the said Bushoppe of Chester for 
the tyme beinge and after that to and for the aboue said 
Bushoppe of Chester for the tyme beinge, and in defaulte of 
the said Bushoppe, the Deane and Chapter of Chester afforesaid 
in mann r and forme before expressed, to giue graunt and dispose 
the same Rowme and Office of Scholemastershippe, to anie other 
sufficient, able and apte pson, accordinge to the trewe meaninge 
and intente of these pnts : declaring in ther said graunte the 
Cawse of the Avoydaunce of the said office of scholemaster- 
shippe. Prouided allwaies, and I ffurthur ordayne Constytute 
and will, that yf the said scholemaster or his successors, or 
anie of them, haue done or comytted anye of the Offences, 
acts, or Crymes laste before menconed, that before he be 
dysplaced of his said Office of Scholemastershipe, The gou'nors 
of the said schole for the tyme beinge, or the moste pte of 
them, openlie before the Stipendarie Mynister of Hawksheade 
Churche afforesaid, and some other honeste psons of the said 
pyshe shall giue three Monycons or Warnings to the said 
scholemaster to leaue and amende the said faulte and offence, 
and betweene eu'ie the said monytions to be one monethe, 
and not aboue, and yf the said Scholemaster uppon the said 
monitions or anie of them doe amende or leaue the said 
ffaulte or offence, then he to Concynewe his place and office 
of Scholemastershipe, accordinge to the trewe intente and 
meanynge of these pnte Instytucons and ordinauncs, And yf 
the said scholemaster shall not reforme, and amend his said 
faulte, offence, and evill Condicons upon the monycions 
given as affore ys said : That then the foresaid gou'nors of 
the foresaid free schole for the tyme beinge or the moste 
pte of them shall pceade againste the said Scholemaster for 
the removinge of him from his said Office and place as afore 
is lymyted and appointed. 

fgO I Ordayne, will, and Constytute, that the said Schole- 
master and his successors for the tyme beinge, shall breaks 



480 THE GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 

uppe ther Schole, and teachinge onelie at two tymes in the 
yeare, That ys to saie, One full weeke nexte before Xpmas, 
and to begine to teache againe the nexte working dale after 
the Twelfte daie of Xpmas, And shall breake upe againe, 
One full weeke nexte before Easter and shall begine to teache 
againe the Mondaie sennytt after Easter, Againste w ch seu'all 
tymes of breakinge up, the Cheifeste Schollars of the said 
Schole shall make Oracons, Epistles, verses in latyne or Greeke 
for ther exercyse that therbie the said Scholemaster maie see 
how the said schollers haue pfyted. 

12 ($nfc fuH0ur be yt prouided, and alsoe I ordayne and Con- 

stytute that yt shalbe lawfull for me the said Archbushoppe 
of Yorke, att all tymes duringe my naturall lyfe soe often 
as I shall thinke meete and Conveniente, to Chaunge, or 
remove, the aboue said Scholemaster, and all and eu'ie his 
successors, and all ushers of the said Schole from ther said 
Offyces and Rowmes, and to increase, inlarge abate or 
dyminyshe the seu'all Stypends of the said Scholemaster and 
usher, And alsoc to alter, Chaunge adde, dyminyshe or make 
anew att my will and pleasure anie of the Ordinauncs and 
Constytucons beioresaid or herafter menconed, or anie pte therof, 
Anyc thinge beforesaid to the Contrarye therof in aniewyse 
notw"'standynge. 

13 ($f60 I Ordayne, will, and Constytute, that the usher of the 

foresaid Schole shalbe obedyent to the Master therof, and 
that all schollers shalbe obedyent to all good and lawfull 
Statuts, and Ordinauncs now made, and hereafter to be made, 
touchinge the good gou'm', and orderinge of the said schole, 
and shalbe of honeste and vertuous Conversacon, obedient tb 
the Master and usher in all things touchinge good inann's, and 
learninge, bothe in the schole, and ellswher, and shall Con- 
tynuallie use the latyne tongue, or the Greeke tongue w th in the 
Schole, as they shalbe able. Alsoe they shall use noe weapons 
in the schole as sworde dagger, waster, or other lyke to fighte, 
or brawle w' h all, or anie unlawfull gammynge in the schole., 
They shall not haunte Tau'nes, Aylehouses, or playinge at anie 
unlawfull games, as Gardes, dyce, Tables, or suche lyke. Alsoe 
they shall kepe ther howres in cominge to the schole, before in 



THE GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 481 

these Statuts menconed. Alsoe in the absence of the master 
the said schollers shalbe Obediente to the usher, and to suche 
Preposytors as the Master shall appoynte, touchinge good orders 
in the schole, All w ch Statuts now made, and hereafter to be 
made by me the said Edwyn Archbushope of Yorke they shall 
invyolablie kepe, and obscruc uppon payne of expulcon from 
the foresaid schole, after three warnyngs had and given, Con- 
c'nynge the p'mysses by the scholemaster of the said schole for 
the tyme beinge, or by the usher therof, in vacation tyme, when 
ther is noe master of the said Schole. And the said scholler or 
Schollers soe expulced shall not be receyued into the Schole 
agayne, w lh out humble suyte, and earnest petycion, made to the 
gou'nors, and master, of his or ther reconciliacon. 



14 $f60 I ordayne, Constytute, and appoynte that the gou'nors 
of the said schole, and ther successors, from tyme to tyme 
shall well and sufficientlie repayre, sustayne, tipliolde, preserue, and 
mayntayne the same Schole, and Schole liowse and the said 
Messuage or Customarie tenemente, and the howses, buildings, 
and ffences of the same w'"all needfull Reparacons from tyme 
to tyme as often as neede shall require, and shall pvyde that 
all Comodyties, and Revenewes assigned and belonginge for 
the better preseruacon, and Contynuaunce of the said schole, 
be ymployed to suche uses, intents, and purposses as appearethe 
in her Ma" es Ires Patents touchinge the Krecon, gou'nauncc, 
and p'seruacon of the said Schole and as ar menconed, 
expressed, lymited, and appoynted in these Ordinaunces and 
Constytucons. 

T 5 (&f60 I ordayne, Constytute, and appoynte, that the said 
Gou'nors shall yeerelie paie, or cause to be paide to the 
Scholemaster of the said schole, for the tyme beinge, and 
his Successors, the Some of Twentie poundes of lawful! monye 
of Englande for his yeerelie Stypende, or sallarie, and to the 
usher of the said Schole for his yeerelie Stypende, the some 
of Three poundes six shillings Eighte peence of like lawfull 
monie of England Alt the ffeaste of the Annunciacon of 
the blessed virgyn Marie, And St Mychaell Th archaungell, 
by even porcons. The said seu'all Stipends to be yeerelie 
paide to the said Scholemaster, and usher of the Rents, 

32 



482 THE GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 

Revenewes, yssues, and pffitts of suche Messuags, landes, and 
tenemt 5 , as I haue Conveyed and assured unto the foresaid 
Gou'nors, and ther Successors for the Sustentacon, and mayn- 
tenaunce of the said Scholemaster, usher, and Schole. And 
yf the foresaid Peter Magson now pnte Scholem', of the 
foresaid Schole, duringe suche tyme as he shall Contynewe 
in the Office and Rowme of Scholemastershippe ther, be 
desirous to haue in his possession and occupacon One 
Messuage, or Customarie Tenemt, and certayne landes and 
groundes to the same Messuage helonginge lyinge and beinge 
at Hawksheade Churchesteele in ffurnesfells in the Countie 
of Lancaster afforesaid, or the usinge, demysinge, or lettinge 
of the same w ch Messuage and Tenemt w"' the lands, and 
grounds to the same belonginge, I latelie purchased of one Will'" 
Sowrey, and ar by me assured unto the foresaid Gou'nors, 
and ther Successors, for the sustentacon and mayntaynaunce 
of the said Scholemaster, usher, and Schole Then I ordayne, 
will, and appoynte, That the said Peter Magson now pnte 
Scholemaster ther, duringe suche tyme as he shall Conteynewe 
Scholemaster ther, shall haue the usage, occupacon, lettinge, 
and demysinge of the same, And ou r , and besides the same 
Tente shall have yeerelie paide unto him ; by the foresaid 
gou'nors, and ther successors for the tyme beinge, Att suche 
dayes and tymes, and in suche inann' and forme as before 
in these pntes ys declared, Onelie the some of Thirteene 
poundes, six shillings eighpeence of lawfull monie of England, 
and noe more, Duringe all w dl tyme as he the said Peter 
Magson now Scholemaster ther, Shall haue the usage, occupacon, 
lettinge, or demysinge of the said messuage, or Tente, The said 
Peter Magson now Scholemaster ther, shall well and trewlie from 
tyme to tyme paie, or cause to be paide to the Lords or 
Lords (sic) of the same, for tyme beinge, All and all mann r 
of Rents, ffynes, Gressomes, heryotts, Customes dewtyes and 
services due, or of righte accustomed for the same, Att the 
ffeasts, daies, and tymes as the same shalbe dewe, and payable, 
And shall alsoe well, and sufficientlie repaire, upholde mayn- 
taine, and defende the said Messuage or Customarie Tente, 
and the houses, buildinges, walls, hedgs, and fences of the 
same, w' h all mann r of needfull and necessarie Reparations, 
from tyme to tyme as often as neede shall require. 



THE GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 483 

1 6 ($f00 I doe Ordayne and appoynte, that the said goiTnors, and 

ther successors or the moste pte of them, shall at the leaste 
twyse eu'ie yeere, and soe often besydes as neede shall 
require, vysitt the said Schole, and shall make dyligent inquirie 
from tyme to tyme, whether the Scholemaster, usher and 
Schollers of the said Schole, doe ther dewties as becomethe 
them or noe, and as they shall finde anie thinge amysse, or 
out of Order they shall redresse, and amende the same pntelie, 
or soe sone as they Convenientlie can. 

17 $fgO I Ordayne and appointe, that the foresaid gou'nors, and 

ther Successors shall yeerelie appoynte one of themselues by 
the noiacon of the greateste pte of the said gou'nors to Collecte, 
and gather upp all the Rents, Revenewes, yssues, and pfitts 
of all suche Messuags, lands, and Tents, as ar by me Conveyed 
and assured to the said Gouernors for the mayntenaunce of the 
said Scholemaster, usher, and Schole And that suche pson 
or psons soe to be appoynted Collector of the Rents yssues, 
and profytts of the said Messuags, landes, and Tents, shall 
before he enter to the Colleccon or Receyvinge of the Rents, 
Revenewes and pfitts of the same, enter into bonde by obligacon 
to the residue of the said gou'nors and ther successors, \v th 
one or two sufficient suerties to be bounde w" 1 him or them, 
to make a juste, and trewe accompt, pamente, and satysfaccon 
to the said gou'nors and ther successors for the tyme beinge 
or the most pte of them, of all the said Rents Revenewes, 
yssues, and profytts of the said landes, tents, and oth' the 
p'mysses, when the said gou'nors or the most pte of them shall 
require the same. And yf the said pson soe appoynted as 
afforesaid, to Collecte and gather upe the said Rents, yssues, 
and pffitts of the said landes, uppon reasonable requeste to 
him made by the said gou'nors or the most pte of 
them shall refuse to make suche accompte, pamente, and 
satysfaccon as afforesaid. That then yt shalbe lawfull for the 
reste of the said gou'nors, or the moste pte of them, to depose 
and dysplace suche pson soe offendinge from his office, or 
place of gou'nor of the said schole, accordinge to ther good 
dyscreations, and to pceede to an new eleccon of an other 
gou'nor, accordinge to the order, and forme sett downe in 
the Queens ma" Ires patents. 



484 THE GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 

1 8 (ftfgo I furthur Ordayne, Constytute, and appoynte that before 

anie gou'nor be admytted to the office of gou r norshipe of 
the foresaid free schole he shall not onelie giue his Consente 
to the execucon of these statuts and Ordinauncs, but alsoe 
shalbe sworne to be trewe, and iuste towardes the said schole, 
and to the preservacon, gou'mt, and faithfull sustentacon of 
the same. 

19 ($f60 I doe furthur Constytute, ordaine, and appoynte, that 

one stronge and substanciall Chyste, w"' three stronge Lockes 
and Keyes of thru seu'all fashons and makings to the same, 
be made and placed in some conveniente place in the fore- 
said Scholehowse, In \v u ' Chyste, I will and appoynte shalbe 
saffelie kepte the Queens Ma" es Lres Patents, conteyninge the 
ffoundacon of the said ffree grammer Schole, And all the 
Evidences Chers, wrytings, escripts, inunym 15 , Statuts, Consty- 
tucons, and Ordinauncs, touchinge, Conc'ninge, appteyninge, or 
belonginge to the said grammer Schole, Or to the lands, 
Tents, and heredytam ls assured and Conveyed to the gou'nors 
of the said schole, or hereafter to be Conveyed, and assured 
to the gou'nors of the said schole, and ther successors for the 
use supportacon, and mayntenaunce of the said Scholemaster, 
usher, and Schole : And alsoe all suche Surplusags, and 
su'plus of monye arysinge, Comynge or growynge of the 
Rents, Kevenewes, yssues, and pffytts, of all suche Messuags, 
landes, and tents as ar by me Conveyed and assured, or 
hereafter by me, or anie other shalbe Conveyed, and assured 
to the said gou'nors, and ther successors for the mayntenaunce 
of the foresaid Scholemaster, usher, and Schole. w ch surplusage 
of monie, I ordaine and appointe to be bestowed, and ym- 
ploied for the mainteynaunce of the scholehowse, and for the 
defendinge of anie suite \v lh shall or may at any tyme here- 
after aryse, or growe, Conc'ninge the foresaid Messuags landes, 
tents, and other the p'mysses aboue menconed. And that 
the Scholemaster of the said schole and his successors, for 
the tyme beynge shall haue the kepinge of one of the said 
three keyes, and the two lyrste named gou r nors ot the fore- 
said schole for the tyme beinge, and ther successors to haue 
ether of them one of the said Keyes in ther Custodie, Soe 



THE GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 485 

as the said Chiste may not be opened, w th out the Consente 
of all the said three psons, soe named and appoynted as ys 
afforesaid. 

20 ($f0o I Ordaine, will, and appoynte, that the said gou'nors 
for the tyme beinge, and ther successors, and assignes at all 
tymes hereafter, and from tyme to tyme duringe suche tyme 
as they or anie of them shall haue the demysinge lettinge, 
settinge, or occupacon of the said Messuage, or Customarie 
Tente before menconed w" 1 the landes to the same belonginge, 
shall well and trewlie satysfie, Contente, and paie, or cause 
to be trewlie satysfied, Contented, paide, and aunswered to 
the Lord or Lordes of the said Messuage, and Customarie 
Tente aboue said, All suche Rents, ffynes, gressomes, heryotts 
suits, seruice and Customes as shall hereafter from tyme 
to tyme be dewe and Payable for the same. Att suche 
ffeasts, daies, and tymes as the same shalbe due. And shall 
alsoe paie for the ffreholde landes, and Tents afforesaid, to 
the Cheife Lord or Lordes of the same for the tyme beinge 
All suche Rents, suits, service, and Customes as of righte ar 
due and payable for the same, and att the ffeasts and tymes 
when the same ar due to be paide 



I wi'li ordaine, and Comauml, That all the 
Ordinauncs and Constytucons, before in these puts declared 
expressed and sett downe for and concerninge the good order, and 
gou'mente of the said Scholemaster, Usher, and Schole, and 
the landes, Tents and lieredytam" to the same belonginge, 
and apptayninge be trewlye firmelie, and inviolablie observed, 
and kepte, in eu'ie poynte by the foresaid Gou r nors of the 
foresaid schole for the tyme beinge, and ther successors, and 
alsoe by the master, usher, and Schollers of the same for 
the tyme beinge, and eu'ie of them, \v'"out violacon, or 
infringing of the same orders, and Constytucons, or anie of 
them, Accordinge to my good meaninge, and accordinge to 
the truste by me reposed in the said Gou'nors, scholemaster, 
and Usher Jn 1Q9tffne0 Thereof all these Constytucons 
and ordinauncs afforesaid The w th in named Edwyn Arch- 
bushope of Yorke hathe Caused them to be wrytten, and ingrossed 
in these books indented the ffirste daie ot Aprill in the Thirtethe 



486 THE GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 

yeere of the Raigne of our said sou'eigne ladie Elizabethe, By 
the grace of god of England, ffraunce, and Ireland Queene 
defender of the faithe &c. And hathe alsoe caused the psons 
hereafter named to subscribe ther names therunto w th ther owne 
hands as witnesses therof 

Sa: Sandys* 
Robt Briggs 

Arthur Best 

The Oath prescribed by my lord of 
Chester for the Gouerners of the 
free schoole of Hauxehead 

I 15. C. doe sweare that I haue not giuen Any thing, nor haue 
Indirectly laboured, to be Made Gou r n r of this Schoole, And I 
will Dilligently and faithfully to the uttermost of myne Abillity 
keep by my selfe and cause to be keept by others (as much as 
I can) inviolably All these Statutes, and I will not doe any Act 
at Any tyme which I shall knowe, beleeue, or thinke wilbe pre- 
iudiciall to the good of the said Schoole, And I will not Appropriate 
convert or Apply to myne use, or to the use of any of myne, 
any part of the profittes of the Revenewes giuen to the said Schole, 
But will doe my best to improue and encrease them to the best 
Aduantage of the Schoole, Schoolem's and Ushers in ppetuity, and 
to such Ends onely as are sett downe in the foundation, and in 
these present Statutes, and noe otherwse.l 

Then follow fifty-six signed certificates of the oaths taken 
by different governors down to the time when the 1863 
scheme came into force : after which the form was changed. 
The first reads : 

"This oath was voluntarily taken at Great Lever the xvj" 1 day 
of ffebruary 1631 in the pnce of ye Lord Bp of Chester and 
ffrancis Magson School Master, by us, who subscribed 

Tho Benson 

sign Jacobi ft Braithwait" 

* The name has been signed "Sandes," and altered, subsequently and 
apparently at a later date, to " Sandys." 

t This oath is in a different hand to that of the statutes themselves. 



THE GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 487 

In most cases, however, the oaths were taken in Hawks- 
head in the presence of the vicar and schoolmaster, or of 
a justice of the peace and one or more of the governors. 

The Archbishop died in July the same year, and, although 
a deed poll was prepared conveying to the school the various 
properties he had acquired for the purpose, it was not 
executed, and it devolved upon his son Samuel to complete 
the foundation, which was accordingly done by deeds dated 
loth February, 1588-9. These estates, forming the original 
endowment, consisted of houses, etc., in Kirk-gate and North- 
gate, in Wakcfield, then rented at ,5 2s., houses, gardens, 
etc., in Fynkell Street, in Kendal, then rented at 535. 46., 
house, garden, etc., called Dykehouse Fall in Trumflctt and 
Moseley, with a few acres of land at Anne's Holme, and 
other property at Trumflctt, Bramwythc, Moseley and Sandal, 
all in Yorkshire. The other part of the endowment was 
the tenement at Hawkshead Church Stile, which became the 
school, and certain lands adjoining thereto. 

Before entering, as we must do to some extent, into the 
terrible mismanagement of these properties, which, during 
the eighteenth century, resulted in reducing the school, by 
the commencement of the present century, to a condition 
from which it has never been able to recover, it is worth 
while to look at some of the few seventeenth century papers 
and accounts which have been preserved. Those we give 
first are accounts rendered by two of the governors in 1631, 
namely, Christopher Sandys and James Braithwaite the 
elder, of expenses incurred by them on behalf of school 
business. Both of these documents arc from the school 
chest, and that of Sandys has suffered so from damp that 
it is in fragments, and we have been compelled to leave 
gaps where words are missing. They suffice to show, how- 
ever, that, at this period, the office of governor of Hawkshead 
School was no sinecure. Long overland journeys on horse- 
back to Wigan, Chester, and the Yorkshire property, haggling 
with the tenants to get rent, break-down of horses, and other 
difficulties, all contributed to make their duties anything but 



488 THE GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 

a pleasure. It should also be noticed that one entry in 
Sandys' account unquestionably refers to some proceeding on 
the part of Magson, the schoolmaster, in regard to the 
property, which was unauthorised by the governors, and is 
the first evidence of the lack of systematic control which 
eventually led to such bad results. 

GOVERNOR'S ACCOUNTS 1631 

CHRISTOPHER SANDYS. * 
"The second day of March Ano Bom 1631 

The account of Christopher Sandys for (a)ll the monie he receiued 
concerning the schole of Haukshead as allsoe how the same money 
was disbursed 

Receued ffiue Pounds ffifteene shillings (for) one yeare rent of the 

lands in Waikefeeld, And ffiue Pounds beinge halfe of the . . . 

tennit at Trumphlct \v ch said fine was the last money belonging 

to the schoole ed w ch ? money was laid up w lh the 

consent of all the gou'nors, and disbursed (as followe)th ? To the 

ushers of the said sch(olc) Pounds six shillings 

eight peence, To the workeman when he began to git 

us to board the Schoolehouse flore Thirtie shillings 

ffbr reu'ssing and recalling of the in Yorkeshiret 

w ch had beene passed and made by M r Magson then schoolemaster 
w"Y>ut the knowledge of any of the gou'nors, and alsoe for com- 
pounding and sclleing theire estates of the said lands for the good of 
the schoole, Thirtie fower shillings seven? peence. 

Then two of us gou'nors did goe, to (W)iggan before my lord of 
Chester, to aquaint him w" 1 ye cause and diference, betwixt M' 

Magson dyes then seven shillings, 

whereof I receiued fiue shillings, of my fellow gou'nors Then my 
lord did appoint a time to here both M r Magson and us gou'nors 
before him at Wiggan, Fower gou'nors then went, w ch cost me tenn 
shillings w" 1 something then paied for writting 

* Both this and Braithwaite's accounts have l>een enclosed in modern sheets of paper 
and endorsed, probably in 1819 or at the time of the law-suit hereafter to be described. 
The endorsement of Sandys' account contains this note : 

" The facts hinted at in this paper induced the Bishop of Chester to prescribe 
an oath to the governors w ch was first taken Feb 16 1631." 

On examining the wording of ihe oath, as given at the end of the statutes, this 
conclusion appears to us doubtful. 

t Beck in his M.S. puts the word "lands" in this gap, which, however, 
must have contained more than one word. 



THE GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 489 

Then we gou'nors were called to Chester before my lord ; and 
my fellowes intreated me to goe w ch Journey cost me ffifteene shillings 
and eight shillings for writing and other waies as I aquented my 
fellowes. 

Then uppon a new admonition from my lord we hyred a man 
w th a letter w ch had twelue shillings and twelue pence writting. 

Then, being called to Kendall before M r Wilkinson at the Visita- 
tion aboute the said cause And there atented (sic] two daies by 
Comaund of M r Wilkinson, we were to make our accompt to 
M r Daniell Maiors, how M r Magson receiued his wadges, for the 
schoole w ch we did accordinglie, my Chardges about this fiue shillings. 

Then the gou'nors being com(anded) to Chester againe James 

Braithwaite and I was intreated by our fellows uppon 

w ch Journey my horse fell sicke and [ames returned backe w lh him 

Journey cost me ffourteene shillings sixpeence and 

James chardges and other beside aboute that busines 

seven shillings were disbursed for writting at times in 

the behalfe of us all fiue shillings sixpence 

Into Yorkeshire for the rent id as allsoe to se some 

housses, there fallen into mine to take course for (the re) peare thereof : 
and to stay a worke in a stone qu'ell ?, w th a man had ma . . 
. . . . e . Croft of land belonging to the said schoole for 
w ch trespasse we agreed (he shou)ld pay ffortie shillings, and levell 
the ground againe, Chardges uppon this .... twelue shillings 

sixpence. Disburssed as I take it esed twentie 

two shillings w lh the mee 

by me 

Chr: Sandys." 

JAMES BRAITHWAITE, 1631. 

" James Braithwaite elder receiued of William hills of Wakefield 
for stones getting on the backe syde of his house belonging to the 
Schole lands the summe of 

iij 1 

disbursed oute of ye same 
To M r Myles Sands ... ... vij s 

To M r Samuell Sands 

To M r Nathaniell Nicolson ... vij" 

To M' William Rawlinsori ... vij' 

To James Braithwaite Junio r ... vij s 

ffor the said James himselfe ... ... vij s 

To M r Grige the usher ... 



490 THE GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 

Att the intreatie of M' Nicolson M r Rawlinson and his neighbour 
James being his fellowe gouernors of the sayd schole, the said 
James did trauell seauen dayes in Yorkeshire to Trumphlett and 
Wakefield for Recieueing the schole Rent, for which seauen dayes 
trauell man and horse hee thinks ij s a day litle enough, yet referrs 
himselfe to the rest of his fellowes. 

Alt the Intreatie of his ffellowe Gouernors he traueled these 
Journeyes as followeth 

To the Bp of Chester att Wigan 

To Chester and through Cheshire w" 1 M r Nicolson to where the 
Deane laid which Journey was xj score myles backwards and forwards 

To Leuer to the Bp with M' Thomas Benson att onother (sic) 
tyme 

The next Journey to the Bp att Lancaster 

And another Journey to Kendall the Bp of Yorkes officers 

Att another tyme M' Christopher Sands and the sayd James the 
elder was trauelling towards Chester att Garstange where M r Sands 
horse fayled and James Returned backe with him and lent M r Sands 
his horse to Chester, which horse through hard trauell was soe ouer 
sett, that hee neuer did any good after for he lost him afterwards 

Another Journey when M r Dauid Sands had beene in Yorkeshire 
and could gett noe Rents, they sent the sayd James and he brought 
all the money that was then due : It was immediately after the death 
of John Wright. 

All these Journeys hee was requested to trauell by his ffellowe 
gouerno 5 , whoe promissed him that what he trauelled more then his 
parte, hee should be satisfied when they renewed any leases or when 
other Revenewes should happen oute of the schole lands." 

It may be remarked here that Christopher Sandys and James 
Braithwaitc describe the same journey to Chester, and that 
the latter and Thomas Hraithwaitc arc the first who arc re- 
corded in the book of Statutes as having taken at Lever the 
oath prescribed by the Bishop of Chester.* 

The only other documents of the seventeenth century relating 
to the working of the school (other than legal deeds) which 
we have come across, are certain accounts kept by Mr. William 



* There are other accounts of Robt. Satterthwaite, 1669-1673, but they are rough 
and less interesting. 



THE GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 491 

Bordley, the third master (1647-1669). These were among a 
mass of papers kindly placed in our hands by Mr. J. B. 
Rawlinson, of Graythvvaite, whose family have from its com- 
mencement had much to do with the school. They give us 
a further insight into the financial troubles in which apparently 
the school got so soon implicated, and tell us the same 
story of long journeys for collecting the rent, and other 
troubles of the same sort. Some entries arc very interesting, 
such as that which records the breakage of the school key 
at a " barring out " : and, in another place, the poor over- 
taxed pedagogue waxes truly pathetic when complaining of 
his poor six weeks' holiday in four years, " and weary of 
Hawkshead " he contemplates if he cannot " live elsewhere." 

ACCOUNTS OF WILLIAM BORDLEV (1647-1669). 

March ye 3? 165 r. Reed from the first of March 1650 as 
followeth 

Reed in Whitsunweek 

li s ,1 

Inprimis of widdow fulkingham ... ... ... ..12 o o 

It of Willm Hill for this yeares rent ... ... ... 2 2 o 

It of Tho : Allan in pt of his bill ... ... ... o 12 6 

It at Kendall since feb : 1650 ... ... ... ... i 13 4 



in all ... ... ... 1 6 7 TO 

whereof disbursed as followeth 
Inprimis to ye user for three q r ters of i ... ...500 

a yeare w ch began ffeb : 10 | more 

1650 ' ffel) 1651 ... i 13 4 
It to the stone getters in pt of a greater suine ... ... i o o 

It to Giles Walker in earnest of the bargaine for wrighting 

y e barne ... ... ... ... ... ... o i 6 

It to Tho : Rigg in earnest for his walling the same barne 006 
It for myne oune half yeare wages ... ... ... 4 o o 

It for the leases drawing ... ... ... ... ... 13 \ 

It spent in going about the seaseing before Candlem : 

1651 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... o 14 o 

It in drinke to the stone leaders ... ... ... ... o i 6 

(various items erased) 

It for mosseing and glassing the schoole... ... ...038 

It for a new key to the schoole doore the old broke 

at the last barring out ... ... ... ... o o 6 

reckoned ffeb 10 1650 

Sum total ... 15 7 10 
here follows an erased statement of 

amount "in the hands of me W. Bordley." 



492 THE GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 

Damages sustained by going about the ffree schoole busines 
in Yorkshire ; And medling w' the Tenmt at ye 
rate of xij" p ann now 4 yeares w'out a barne 
Inprimis lost by a mare that I bought of purpose for the li 

first journey ... 3 

It of that that old James B: was ordered to pay me... i o o 
It for want of a barne it cannot supposed that I lost 

lesse yearely than ... ... ... ... 4 o o 

It It is considerable that I horsed my selfe 8 tymes into 

Yorkeshire about the schooles affaires, one of w ch 

tymes I also pcured 2 freindes on their oune 

horses, for all w ch I nev r reckoned, nor had offered 

a peny beside bare charges spent in travell 
It Add hereunto the daily exclamacons that haue beene 

& are ag st me for neglecting ye schoole when I was 

busined meerely concning it 
It As for any neglicence or absence about myne oune 

occasions, my worst foes cannot say that in foure 

yeares I have spent 6 weekes, albeit ye schoole 

statutes euy yeare 6 weeks 
The Rembrance of the p'misses (unconsidered &c) hath 

made me weary of Havvkshead, and to try if I can 

live elsewhere. 
On another sheet : 

Reed of the ffeoffees of the ffree Gramar Schoole of Arch-bipp Sandes 
at Hawkeshead, and of others since August 10 1647 as followeth viz'. 

li s d 

Inprimis of the ffeofees themselves Octob : 25 1647 ... 4 19 6 
It of Widdow Wright at Whitsund next following ... 5 o o 

It of James Braithw' in June last viz' 1649 ...800 
It of 3 of the Tennts in Kendall in all ... ... 2 16 8 

It more of John Wright at Christmas 1649 ... 10 o o 

It of the Tennts in Wakefield at the same tyme ... 4 lo 

It more of Widdow ffalkingham for Anne Wright then 

also 200 



in all 37 6 2 

Whereof spent in fetching as followeth viz' 
Inprimis for the 3 first Journeys allowed to me W : B : by 

the ffeoffees themselues at a form' meeting ... i 4 o 

It in charges, the last Christmas viz" 1649 for 3 men & 3 

horses ... 5 6 n 

I: the last time when I went to Trumflet into Yorkeshire 

9 dayes & nights ! 3 5 






THE GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 493 

It in charges more for this journey now last ... ... i 15 2 

It tor an arreare of Rents at Hawkeshead to 1'ollards man 

when he distrained my goods ... ... ... i 7 7 

It for the distrainers fees ... ... ... ... ... o 6 o 

It more rent yet claymed by the same distrainers ... - 

9 13 i 

Required also to be allowed out of the s;iid receipts as 
ffolloweth 

Inprimis to the W : B for his stipend the first hafe yeare 

viz' from August 10, 1647 till ffeb following ... ... 10 o o 

It for himselfe for 3 yeares vi/,' till ffeb 1650 ... ... 24 o o 

It for the usher 2 yeares & an halfe vi/.' since Turner 

went from the place ... .. ... ... ...1613 4 

Reed since about Martinmas 1650 of Ann Wright ... 5 2 6 

It of Will'" Saurey at Wakefield ' o TO 6 

It now of late of Wakefield... ... ... ... ... 419 6 

It at Kendall in all, about ... ... ... ... ... 6 o o 

Disb. 9 13 i reed 16 11 6 

34(?) oo 38 06 02 16116 

913 i 
rein 8 15 4 63 13 i 54 17 8 

26 4 7 

On back of same sheet : 
Reed of Anne Wryght since Ap 1642 

ii 
40 o o 

March 17 1650 

Reed all the whole stipend belonging both to schoolem 
& usher since my first entry at Haukeshead till 
ffeb 10 last p:ist before the date hereof 

p me U '" ISordley 

Payd to the schoolem' out of that was last reed at 

Trumflet the sume of 8' 1 154 
It to Robt Rawlinson ... 14 2 
It to M r Nicolson ... i 4 2 
It to James Brath : ... 112 2 
It to Tho : Baites ... i o o 
It M r Raw' : Charges ... i 15 2 
It to M' Miles Sands ... o 18 8 
It to Edw. Saw : ...300 

It to M r Raw 1 : forme'ly M.ircli i/th 1650 

disbursed ... ... 3 4 4 yet owinge unto me ... 2 5 o 

22 4 o in chardges at meetings 

since ... ...036 

more i 3 

more since vi" 1 . 



494 THE GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 

March 8 1651 
Reed of the Governors of Haukeshead ffree schoole 

& of others by their appointmt at & before the li s d 
day abouesde in full discharge for all by past for 300 
schoolem' & other the sume ot 

By me W Bordley 

Taken upon the day abouesde to be accounted for | , 
hereafter the sume of ) 

By me W Bordley 

Yet, in spite of all these vexations, the school rubbed along 
and flourished in a sort of way through the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries : for the very reason that these were the 
good days of Hawkshead, and the class of schooling 
provided suited the state of local society. Consequently, the 
school, with its free teaching, was well-attended, and it was 
only when the industrial and trade changes that we have 
elsewhere described, coupled with the altering value of money, 
began to show the necessity for both changing the type of 
education and of increasing the salaries, that the rotten financial 
condition into which the school had been allowed to get, became 
apparent. 

In consequence, when the Commissioners appointed to 
inquire concerning charities for the education of the poor, 
visited Hawkshead in July, 1819, a most astounding state of 
things presented itself. They found, first of all, situated close 
to the school a substantial public-house, called the Sun Inn, 
with barn, stable, smith}', and garden, built upon part of the 
original property with which the school was endowed, and 
which, although they estimated its value at thirty to forty 
pounds, had, in fact, never paid the schoolmaster within the 
memory of man anything but a paltry twelve shillings a year, 
and was claimed as private property by a Mrs. Ladyman. 

Such a state of affairs merited inquiry. Mrs. Ladyman 
being asked to show title, produced an indenture dated 1801, 
conveying the property from one John Strickland to her 
late husband ; another conveyance cited Myles Strickland's 
will of 1770, bequeathing the said property held from 1720 
for three consecutive terms of 99 years each up to 1,000 years, 
subject to a rent of twelve shillings. Thomas Ladyman had 
paid for this .251. 



THE GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 495 

But no such lease was forthcoming, high or low, and when 
the Commissioners departed, Bowman the master, and a 
lawyer, rummaged the school chest in vain. They reported 
the whole matter to Mr. Brougham, noting that Ladyman 
had much improved the value of the property, and asking 
advice how to proceed. Brougham, in reply, suggested 
application to a Court of Equity. 

After this it turned out that Ladyman, having borrowed 
money of a local gentleman, had deposited with him his 
deeds as security : and search being again made, deeds were 
found which indicated as follows : 

First, that on the 6 Jan., 1720, the Governors for the time 
being, had actually demised to one George Walker, innkeeper, 
the property in question, consisting of dwelling-house, barn, 
stable, and smithy (which he, Walker, had erected on the 
school property with the consent of the governors), for the 
three consecutive terms of 99 years each to the end of 1,000 
years. In 1734 it was sold by George Walker to Cornelius 
Robinson : and again in the same year by Cornelius Robinson 
to Clement Sattcrthwaitc and William Braithwaitc, and in 
1741 by William Braithwaite to Robert Robinson, who conveyed 
it to the Stricklands. In every case there appeared to have 
been substantial payment, and it was sold subject to the 
twelve shillings rent payable to the Governors. 

An abstract of these evidences was then forwarded to the 
Commissioners, with the remark that the statement that Walker 
had built the house did not appear to be absolutely the case, 
as part of the building appeared much older ; but in their 
report in 1820, the Commissioners seem to have accepted the 
fact that part of the buildings were, at an}' rate, the erections 
of Walker, the first lessee, and that they were the consideration 
of the lease. Mr. Carlisle, the secretary of the Commissioners, 
refused at that date to give advice on behalf of that body, 
and Brougham, on being applied to, answered that proceedings 
should probably be " by information under the late construction 
put on the 52 George III." ; but as it appeared that the 
then master did not wish to push the question, it would, 



496 THE GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 

perhaps, be advisable to delay proceedings during his 
incumbency. Upon this, in 1820 a meeting of Governors was 
called, and as Mr. Bowman, the master, declared himself content 
with matters as they stood, and protested against action being 
taken, this course was unanimously agreed to. Such was the 
state of affairs in 1820 when the Commissioners issued their 
report, adding that there was no memorandum or notice of 
this lease in the school records, and that they had no proof 
of such except from the recitals in later deeds which had 
been furnished. 

But there was more besides. The houses in Fynkcll Street 
in Kcndal, which Samuel Sandys had apparently granted 
as full freeholds, and which in the time of Elizabeth were 
rented at 2 33. 4d., appeared to be also practically lost. The 
Commissioners found that from time immemorial, ground- 
rents for five tenements, amounting to 1 iSs. 5id., had been 
received, and nothing more. They found also in the school 
chest an indenture dated 1607 conveying one tenement at 
135. 4d. yearly rent, though no price was given; and there 
was no evidence that any price had ever been paid, or even 
the 1 3s. 4d. 

In 1829 Dr. llickie succeeded Mr. Bowman as master, and 
he was not one to let the grass grow under his feet. In 
1832, although opposed by the Governors, he filed a bill in 
the Court of Chancery to recover both properties. The result 
was successful as far as the Sun Inn was concerned, and this 
property was recovered ; but the evidence on the subject of 
the Kendal houses was so meagre in the total absence of 
deeds, that this part of the case was dropped. The expenses 
of the suit were ordered to be paid out of the School Estates, 
and for this purpose the Governors borrowed 1,139 5s. id. 
from the Trustees of the Thomas Sandys Charity, which was 
a later benefaction of the school. Surely, it would be hard 
to find a grosser case of mismanagement than we have here. 
From the culpable neglect, if not actual fraudulencc of the 
Governors in 1720, the valuable income of one portion of the 
school estates was alienated for over one hundred years : another 



THE GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 497 

property was lost altogether ; and it does not appear that 
the Governors would have ever taken steps to recover 
these losses if it had not been for the energy of Hickie. There 
is nothing to show that from 1720 to 1820 any Governor 
ever took the trouble to look into the original endowment of 
the school or to examine the papers to find out why the 
school was not receiving the full rents of the estates. The 
title deeds, crammed anyhow, no doubt, into the old damp 
muniment chest, contained no one knew what, nor does it 
seem that anyone cared. * 

As it is not our intention, nor, indeed, would it be within 
the scope of the present volume to enter in detail into the 
modern financial condition of the school, we must dismiss 
the subsequent charities very briefly. A very full account 
of these can, indeed, be easily got at by reference to the 
Report of the Charity Commissioners appointed to inquire 
into Educational Charities, which was issued in 1820, and 
reprinted and brought up to date in 1852 by S. Soulby, 
of Ulvcrstoni ; and to that, those who require detailed 
information must turn. 

The Wakcfield property, part of the original endowment, 
was sold in 1791 for 762 ios., and with part of the 
purchase money the twenty-two acre farm of Knipefold, 
near Hawkshead, was acquired in 1793 ; and in 1796 a 
small sum was laid out in purchasing a slip of land called 
Sark Slieve, adjoining the schoolhousc. The Trumflett Estate 
still belongs to the school, but like other landed property 
has depreciated much in value, for while it was let in 1813 



* The deeds till this year were still kept in the old log muniment chest, and were 
all suffering exceedingly from damp ; some, indeed, of the older ones being reduced to 
a state ol pulp, ijuito illegible, and, indeed, barely recognisable as documents. 
Surely, with the warning of the above losses to the school, the importance 
of preserving the title deeds in a proper air, tire and damp-proof safe ought 
to have become sooner apparent. The Letters- Patent and original statutes, as well as 
the modern conveyances, were all in the same receptacle ; in fact, we believe the 
entire documentary evidences of the institution, whether of historical or legal 
importance. Among the papers in this chest we found a schedule of the 
original deeds handed to the Governors (31 KHz.), and this we add in the 
Appendix. 

t The account we have given of the endowment estate is compiled chiefly 
from this and a statement of proceedings taken 1819-20 by the Trustees and 
Governors re the Sun Inn, which exists in the school chest. 

33 



4 g8 THE GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 

for 45, it only produced 30 in 1890. Most of the other 
charities will be found in the general list we give in 
the Appendix. They consist of those of Daniel Rawlinson 
(1669) ; the Rev. Thomas Sandys (1717), 1,000 for the 
education of poor boys, formerly called " blue-coat boys " ; 
and George Satterthwaitc (1731); and in 1817 the Rev. W 
Wilson gave ,100, the interest of which was to be applied 
to the purchase of useful books to be lent to the scholars 
at the master's discretion ; or, should it be thought more 
desirable, a portion, or occasionally the whole, might be 
given in prizes for efficiency in English and the classics. 

After the conclusion of the lawsuit the Sun Inn paid a rent 
of 35 a year ; but the whole fabric of the school was 
tottering, and a new scheme for the application of the 
improved income (as it was apparently ironically termed) and 
for regulating the school, was submitted to the Court of 
Chancery, and approved by the Master on May 12, 1835. 
Nevertheless, this new decree embodied to a very large extent 
the original statutes ; indeed, considering how far society 
had changed since the foundation, the small amount of change 
is extraordinary. In Rule I. Grammar and Greek were 
changed to English, Latin, Greek, writing, and arithmetic, 
and free teaching was limited to scholars residing in the 
vicinity of llawkshead. Rule XII. was omitted ; and in 
Rule XV. the stipends of the master and usher were altered 
to two-thirds of the income of the School Estates for the 
former, and 50 per annum for the latter. School hours 
remained the same ; but holidays became five weeks at summer 
and four weeks at Christmas. Four new rules were added : one 
for applying surplus money for prizes, or to the improvement 
of the estates : and three regulating the application of the 
income from later bequests, and fixing the powers of 
Governors to lease the school lands for building or otherwise. 
Everything else was retained. No miracles were worked 
by this scheme. In 1856 one of the Governors, in corre- 
spondence with the Charity Commissioners, reported that 
" there is only one boy to whom Latin is taught, the remaining 



THE GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 499 

scholars being blue-coat boys who go according to the provision 
of the founder's will." At this date, indeed, there was renewed 
friction between the Master and Governors, as a result ol 
which, application was made in 1862 for a further new scheme 
to regulate the educational charities of Hawkshead. 
Commissioners were sent down, evidence taken, and a draft 
scheme was submitted, and, being approved by the Governors, 
was sealed on the 7th August, 1863. This scheme, and the 
subsequent one of 1891, were on totally different principles, 
practically abrogating the original statutes ; and, being modern 
history, need not be entered into here. It cannot, however, 
be said that cither has much revivified the school. 

The system of the school up to the time of the 1835 scheme 
remained very primitive. All boys of the parish, who were 
able to read, were instructed free in English anil the classic 
tongues Scholars, however, whose homes were beyond the 
limits of the parish, paid an entrance fee of two guineas 
each, and a Shrovetide " Cockpcnny," which, in 1820. was 
one to three guineas each. Some of the sons of better- 
class parishioners also paid these sums, but very few ; 
and in all cases they were of the character of "honoraria," 
which could not be demanded. The cockpenny had 
originated as a " backshish " to the pedagogue in old days, 
to allow the boys their Shrovetide " mains," and in 1 68 1 
Sir Daniel Fleming paid IDS. for the cockpcnnics of his 
four sons who were at Hawkshead. In 1829, after Hickic's 
accession, it was resolved to do away with this institution, 
" which originated in barbarism and barbarous custom," and 
to substitute for it a quarter!}' payment not exceeding one 
guinea for English tuition to boys from without the parish. 
Writing and arithmetic remained extras, and had to be 
paid for down to 1835. 

But beside the ordinary scholars, there were the poor 
boys who were educated freely at the school under the 
special provisions ot the Thomas Sandys' Charity. To them 
English was taught free ; but the Governors defrayed the 
extra cost 01 their instruction in writing and arithmetic. 



Soo THE GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 

They were boarded free, and were commonly called " Blue- 
coat boys " from the suit of clothing provided under the 
will of the benefactor. At the time of the 1822 report the 
number of these boys had been reduced from nine to five ; 
and in the 1863 scheme, when the school was broken into 
two, " The Upper or Grammar School " and " The English 
or Lower School," the Governors were given the power of 
appointing fourteen foundation scholars, of whom eight were 
from the Lower School, and the remaining six from the 
Upper. All these were educated free, but the Lower School 
foundation boys were also provided yearly with a suit of 
clothes. In the 1890 scheme, the Lower School was made a 
separate foundation, under the name of the Hawkshead 
Public Elementary School Foundation. 

No provision being made in the original statutes for 
lodging the scholars in the school-house, it remained the 
custom till well into this century for the parents of scholars 
whose homes were distant to arrange for their accommodation 
in houses in the town. Such we know was the case with the 
poet Wordsworth ; and probably, dames and widow women 
had regular lodging-houses in Hawkshead when the school 
was most flourishing. It was, no doubt, this lack of accom- 
modation which led to the idea of the scheme pointed to in 
this manifesto. 

Haivkshead School and Military 

Academy, Lancashire. 
Mr. Mingay 

BEGS leave to inform his Friends and the Public, that he is 
fitting up, and intends opening, on Monday the I2th of 
January 1789, a genteel and commodious House, in a pleasant and 
airy Situation, adjoining HAWKSHEAD SCHOOL, for the reception of 
young GENTLEMEN as Boarders, where such Youths as may be 
committed to his care, will be prepared either for the ARMY, 
NAVY, UNIVERSITY, or COUNTING-HOUSE, at twenty-five Pounds 
a Year, and three Guineas Entrance. 



THE GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 501 

The Languages and Sciences taught in this Academy on the 
above Terms are English, Latin, Greek, and French, Writing in all 
Hands, Arithmetic, Merchants' Accounts, Geography, and the Use 
of the Globes, Dancing, Fencing, and Music. 

The Young Gentlemen will receive the Classical and Mathe- 
matical Parts of their Education at HAWKSHKAD SC?IOOL ; the 
head Master of which is the Rev. T. BOWMAN, A.M. and Fellow 
of Trinity College : the second Master A.I!, of Sidney College, 
Cambridge. The other Branches will be taught by Mr. MINGAY, 
and able Assistants. 

*** Mr. MINGAY assures his Friends that nothing will be 
wanting to render the Situation of his Pupils pleasant and agree- 
able : their Morals, Manners, and Address will be particularly 
attended to ; and their Constitutions, Tempers, and Genius, 
judiciously consulted. 

This printed circular we found among the Rawlinson papers, 
and it will be noticed that it was proposed to open this 
establishment just two years after Wordsworth left the school. 
There is no record that it ever came to anything : it was, 
in fact, far too ambitious a castle in the air, no doubt. It 
is difficult to say whether the "genteel and commodious" 
house was any building then or now standing ; or if it was 
proposed to build such ; but at any rate no more was 
heard of it. 

The largest number of scholars seems to have been about 
1/85, when there were over one hundred. In 1820 there 
were forty, of which half were inhabitants of the parish. 

Among scholars of Hawkshcad who have distinguished 
themselves are William Wordsworth, the poet ; Dr. Words- 
worth, Master of Trinity College, Cambridge ; Lord Brougham, 
who, as we have seen, was afterwards applied to for advice 
about the school ; Dr. Joshua King, senior wrangler 1819, 
and Master of Queen's College, Cambridge ; Sir James 
Scarlett, Attorney-General, and afterwards Lord Abinger ; 
Edward Raines, the historian of the county of Lancaster ; 
Mr. Beck, author of " Annalcs Furnesienses " ; and Dr. Walker, 
the seventeenth century divine. 



S o2 THE GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 

The school library was founded under the gift of Daniel 
Rawlinson in 1669 (see Appendix), by which the interest 
of 100 was to be applied every sixth year to buy 
books for the school, and to buy stationery and pay for a 
writing master. But Rawlinson did far more than this. He 
worked up his personal friends and induced them to present 
books to the school library, and by this means got together 
a little library of about 120 works, which formed the nucleus 
of the present collection. Of these there are several lists ; 
and one of these is headed 

" A Catalogue of Books giucn to Haukeshead Schoolc in 
the County of Lancaster by Daniel Rawlinson Citti/cn and 
Vinf- ol London and by his friends att his Request." 

Among the donors we find county gentlemen, city clergy, 
court officials, city magnates and merchants, a bishop, and 
others. These are some of the names : Daniel Rawlinson, 
Curwcn Rawlinson of Carkc, and other members of the 
family ; various members of the Sandys family ; Christopher 
Nicholson, of Newcastle, merchant, one of the Hawkshcad 
Hall Nicholsons; Daniel Fleming, of Rydal ; Preston, of 
Holker; Sadler, Bishop of Chester ; Dr. Sancroft, then Dean 
of St. Paul's; Jno. Sharpc, Archdeacon of Berks and Chaplain 
to the Lord Chancellor; Dr. Layficld, Archdeacon of Essex 
and Canon of St. Paul's ; The Rectors of Bootlc in Cum- 
berland, St. Dunstan's in the West, St. Olavc's in Hart 
Street, St. Dionis Back Church, Croston, in Lancashire, 
St. Mary's, Colchester, and of Market Depeing ; the Vicar 
of Millom ; Thos. Benson, master of the Vintners' Company ; 
the Clerk of the same; Samuel Hall, warden of the same; 
Sir William Wade, knt. ; Col. Abraham Slanyon ; John 
Blashficld, citizen and fishmonger ; Edward Sherborn, one 
of H.M. principal officers of Ordnance ; George Wharton, 
treasurer of Ordnance ; Simon Corbctt, yeoman rider to his 
Majesty ; and John Mazine, equerry ; lastly, George Rigg, 
the old parish clerk. 

The library was augmented under the bequest of the 
Rev. Thomas Sandys in 1717, by which he not only directed 






THE GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 



53 



that money should be laid out on books, but also left a 
collection of his own. 

Mr. Bowman about 1789 was also a benefactor of 
the school, and it was on his suggestion a meritorious 
custom was put in practice, of every scholar annually sub- 
scribing 5s. to the library, and presenting a book or books 
on leaving the school. This custom, however, fell into 
disuse when his successor Dr. Ilickie became master. Mi- 
Wilson's bequest of 1817 we have already noticed. 




From a photo, /'t'] 



HAWKSHKAD GRAMMAR SCHOOL 
(liEFORE THE RECENT ALTERATIONS). 



The books were formerly stored in a " press " given for 
the purpose by Kdwin Sandys of Esthwaite, 1670 ; but, they 
are now kept in the library in open shelves, with the 
exception of a few rare volumes which have recent!}' been 
put under lock and key. We regret to say that the entire 
collection is, in spite of the room being regularly used 
during term time, suffering extremely from damp. It is 
not, in fact, probably too much to say that, unless the 
Governors take measures soon to have the room kept really 



5 o 4 THE GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 

dry with heating apparatus, the entire library will be rendered 
valueless. 

The total number of books is now about 1,080 ; and they 
consist of travels, theology, classics, and other sorts of works. 
The volumes of greatest interest are the Founder's own 
Bible, folio, 1572; a history of Greece, and Hoole's " Tasso's 
Jerusalem," given by Wordsworth and some friends on leaving 
the school ; a quarto Chaucer of 1561 ; Fox's Martyrs, 1641 ; 
Purchas, his pilgrims, 1625 ; Hooker's " Ecclesiastical Polity," 
1617; Archbishop Sandys' Sermons; Sandys' " Europe 
Speculum " ; Works of Joscphus ; Camdcn's " Britannia," etc. 

Daniel Rawlinson also rebuilt the school itself between 
1669 and the date of his death ; and over the door is an 
inscribed tablet commemorating the foundation of the school 
put up by Rawlinson at the time. 

MEMOKI.K RKVKKKNDMI D.D. EDWINI 
SANDYS EKOR. OLIM AKCIIIKPISCOPI 

SCIIOUE HUJUS FUNDATORIS 
DANIKL RAWLINSON Civis LOND. 
GRAISDALIA COM. LANC. OKIUNDUS 

POSUIT 

ANNO DOMINI 
1675. 

Above which arc the arms, crest, and motto of Sandys of 
Graythwaite, The red sandstone framework with date 1585 
and the quoins of the windows were added by Colonel 
Sandys, M.P., in 1891.* 



* During these alterations, in removing tile plaster on the inside of the walls and 
the roughcast externally, many stones were found with names and dates cut upon them. 
These seem to have all Ijeen the work of scholars during the rebuilding of the school 
itself. None are earlier than 1664, and none later than 1676. The conclusion is, 
perhaps, that in 1664 the old roughcast was peeled off to repair or rebuild the walls, 
but that they were not roughcast again till 1676. Some of these stones have l>een 
preserved built into the wall face in the lower schoolroom. The principal ones are 
DANIEL KAWLINSON, 1670; EDWAKD WRIGHT, 1676; JOHN PHIUPP, 1664; H.S., 
1664; C.R., 1667; I.M., 1668. 



CHAPTER XI. 
(Qlla Podrida.J 

GEOLOGICAL, METEOROLOGICAL, AND ZOOLOGICAL. 

GEOLOGY. 

SOME ten to twelve years ago the present writer spent 
much of his time with hammer and wallet among 
the few beds of fossiliferous rock which occur in the parish. 
Of late years other work has prevented him following the 
study, but the experience then gained enables him to testify 
to the fascination of field geology in the Lakes. At that 
date the Geological Survey Sheet, which shows the upper 
half of the parish, was not published ; but, on the other 
hand, a very charming work, full of minute observation and 
information, was already old literature. Mr. John Holton, though 
self-taught, was the pioneer of the science in the Lakes, and 
had published his ''Geological Fragments" in 1860, and this 
work contains a mass of valuable matter concerning both 
High and Low Furncss. With this, and the two geological 
sheets, the field geologist will have no difficulty in finding 
his way to the most interesting parts of the district. 

In the Lake district a wide belt of country from 
Keswick to Windcrmere and from Hawcswater to Millom 
is occupied by bedded fclspathic ash rocks belonging to the 
Lower Silurian system. South of this we come to a narrow band 
of limestone of the same age, and overlying this, everything 
to the south, at least as far as our parish is concerned, 
belongs to the Upper Silurian period. 



S o6 GEOLOGY. 

In a small portion only of our parish, the extreme 
north and north-west, we find the Lower Silurian rocks 
represented. If we enter the parish about Elterwater, and 
walk in a straight line through to Finsthwaitc, we shall 
pass over all the formations in the following sequence : 

LOWKK SILURIAN 

Green slates, and altered volcanic ash 
and Breccias ; about two miles. 
Collision limestone and shale band Bala Limestone. 

UPPER SILURIAN 

Band of fossiliferous shales (Stockdalc 

shales) ... ... ... ... Tarannon Shales. 

Collision flags and grits ; about 2j 

iniks... ... ... Denbighshire Grits and Flags. 

Bannisdalc scries of sandy mudstonc 

and grit; about six miles ... ... Wcnlock Shale. 

The volcanic ash rock, which we first meet, is the 
splendid material of which our Collision and Holme Ground 
slates are made. It appears to be coeval with some of the 
Bala and Llandeilo rocks of Wales, but is immensely hard, 
fine in texture, and is unfossilifcrous. 

Crossing Borwick Ground Fell, we next come at Sunny- 
brow farm, to the Collision limestone band, here, in conse- 
quence of a large fault, much displaced and thrown south 
to the extent of a full mile. As this limestone band is 
essentially local, and the most interesting feature, we must 
trace il a little in detail. 

The Coniston limestone band, which forms the top layer 
of the Lower Silurian rocks, is first found at Hartley 
Ground, near Broughton-in-Furness, and thence we trace it in a 
fairly direct line to Coniston, where it traverses Yewdale 
on the 'west side of Yewdale Beck. At Low Yewdale it 
disappears under a small alluvial plain, but the Stockdale 
shales, which overlie the limestone and which have formed 
the cast bank of the beck, continue to be traceable as far 
as Yew Tree farm. Here, however, we arrive at the 






GEOLOGY. 507 

great fault already mentioned, and to find both bands again 
we must climb over to Mr. Marshall's house at Waterhead. 
From Waterhead it follows a slightly sinuous line by the 
east side of the Tarn Hows to Sunnybrow limekiln, where 
it suddenly expands ; but here we are again at the other 
end of the fault, which, it may be remarked, is the largest 
in the whole twenty-five miles of the band. To find it 
again we go nearly north, rather over a mile, to Holmes Head, 
where it is much broader (with the shale a third of a mile), 
and from this point it runs, narrowing as it goes, down to 
Pull Wykc on Windcrmerc. With its subsequent course 
across Westmorland we have no concern here. 

The limestone band is of a concretionary character, so 
dark coloured as to suggest little to the lay eye of its nature, 
and very subject to weathering. Here and there it is replaced 
by bands of ashy sandstone. It has been found of little use 
for burning, and of less as a building stone ; so that its chief 
interest lies in its highly fossiliferous character. 

The best localities for the fossil hunter arc near the limekilns 
in Yewdalc and at Sunnybro\v, on the rocks cast of the Tarns, 
and near Limestone hill behind Sunnybrow. All these sites 
yielded the writer, in his days of geological enthusiasm, numerous 
examples of trilobitcs, corals, and bivalves, such as orthis and 
lingula.* But the fossils show badly, and arc difficult to 
get, except where the rock is weathered ; and then the 
organisms themselves must be treated delicately, for they arc 
soft. Moreover, they arc often squeezed by pressure into 
the most " cock-eyed " shapes, and trilobitcs arc most irri- 
tatingly bisected, heads here and tails there, but complete 
crustaceans most scarce. Yet the great number, variety, and 
clearness of these very early organisms give a wonderful 
zest to the sport, as we think it may fairly be called ; 
and an excellent mixed bag may always be anticipated at 
certain localities. 



* The Geological Survey "Memoir" and Bolton's "Geological Fragments," 
p. 58, may be referred to for lists of the species, but probably not ,1 few remain 
unnamed. 



So8 GEOLOGY. 

The Stockdale shales, the base of the upper Silurian 
rocks, form a thin band accompanying and overlying the 
limestone throughout. They contain a graptolite bed if 
you are fortunate enough to find a piece exposed and 
weathered and some of the forms of these curious fossils 
arc remarkably beautiful. 

Between the shale and a fairly straight line drawn from 
Dodgson Wood on the margin of Coniston to Esthwaite 
Lodge, and thence to a point between Belle Grange and 
Slape Scar, we have the Coniston flags and grits. The 
northern half of this area is chiefly of flag formation, 
excellent both for walling and floors ; but there is an irregular 
band of grit traversing it, and just south of this and geo- 
logically above it a few fossils are found in the flags. At 
Coldwcll quarry, which has given a name to this fossilifcrous 
band, a few encrinitcs, and examples of the blunt-tailed 
phacops (phlusicaudatd) will reward the student. But, 
again, this trilobitc is found invariably irritatingly halved, 
so that the quarrymen called the lower halves " butterflies," 
to which, indeed, they have a great similarity. The grits 
which fill up the other half of this area arc less useful 
than the flags, and fossils are hardly known. 

South of the line from Dodgson Wood to Windcrmere, 
the rest of our parish is of the Bannisdale series, except 
at the south-west corner, round Colton, where the Coniston grits 
re-appear. These rocks arc sandy mudstoncs interbedded 
with coarse grits and sandstones : they are no use for slate, 
and make worse flags than the Coniston flags and grits. 
They arc not unfossilifcrous, but we are not aware that 
fossils have been found within the parish. 

The Coniston limestone, green slates, and lower flags and 
grits, are crossed by numerous faults running generally north 
and south ; and these no doubt have partly caused the broken 
surface features found about Monk Coniston and Berwick 
Fell. In other parts of the parish, however, they are very 
few. There are a few felsite dikes in Satterthwaite, Dale 
Park, Rusland, Brathay, etc., but they are not numerous. 



METEOROLOGY. 509 

The copper and silver deposits which we have elsewhere 
mentioned at Dale Park and near Pull Wykc, appear to 
be connected with these dikes, but the geological map marks 
no ore deposits within the parish. The student of glaciation 
and drift will find plenty of interest in the rounded rocks, 
grooved boulders, and the great moraine heaps which lie at 
the head of Esthwaite and elsewhere. 

Though a country of quick-running streams, there is not 
much alluvium in Hawkshead. The largest alluvial plain is 
the Rusland Valley, which extends from Rusland Church 
to Havcrthwaite and Grecnodd. This is in the main, real 
sediment, or river wash from the fells. Hut the loamy 
plain which extends from the head of Ksthwaite to Hawks- 
head Hall, and also in places on the west margin, and 
round Out Dubs, speaks probably of a time when Esthwaite 
was three miles in length, and when this sediment was 
dropped and deposited on its bed. In the same way the 
head of Coniston has been a good deal silted up by wash 
from the high fells. There arc besides, numerous small loamy 
levels in the fells, many, if not most, of which were probably 
at one time lakelets or tarns. Such, no doubt, existed in 
the bottom of Sattcrthwaite and Dale Park valleys, and 
again, perhaps, below Thwaitc Head ; and similar but smaller 
sites arc traceable. True pcat-bogs arc common in the fells, 
but except near Haverthwaitc and below Rusland, they are 
never of any extent ; yet sometimes large trunks of trees, 
generally of oak, occur in them. The writer possesses a 
bookcase made from a tree thus found in Hawkshead Hall 
Park. The wood is sound and very dark, and cut up 
into excellent planks a foot wide. But such trunks arc not 
numerous. 

NOTABLE STORMS AND NOTABLE SEASONS. 

The Lake district weather is proverbially queer, and its 
reputation for excessive rain is perfectly merited. As country 
gentlemen in the parish have on this account an enormous 
amount of idle time thrown on their hands, a most meritorious 



5io METEOROLOGY. 

fashion has sprung up in their ranks or " keeping a rain 
gauge," which seems to take the place of a hunter in the 
shires, or a yacht at Cowcs. This is right and proper ; and 
as their statistics appear regular!}' in the local papers, the 
present writer feels that the necessity of working up material 
for a chapter on climate is but trifling, seeing that so much 
scientific material is being collected and recorded ; and 

urtlicr, that a conscientious account, if written as it should 
be for the popular eye, would only bring the author into 
evil odour with his numerous neighbours, and with many 
public bodies whose dearest wish is to exploit the Lakes, and 
by shrouding its demerits and proclaiming its charms, to 
draw yet more crowded trains of excursionists, and besprinkle 
yet more thickly the lovely lake margins with modern villas. 
\\'c content ourselves, then, almost entirely with the record 
of a remarkable modern storm, which the reader may compare 
with that of if) 86 which we have mentioned on pages 242-3. 
The gale of December 2 1st and 22nd, 1894, is certainly the 
biggest storm in the memory of man, and almost equalled 
in destructive effects that chronicled in the Parish Register. 
It began to blow on the night of December 2 1st, and con- 
tinued with considerable severity until / a.m. the following 
morning, when it greatly increased in force, and it was 
after that hour that most of the damage took place. Its 
direction was from a point north of west, but towards mid- 
day it veered towards the north, and moderated somewhat. 
The most notable feature was the destruction of timber, ol 
which no class was spared. In places like Hawkshcad Hall 
rookery, where there was timber of large size, the destruction 
was enormous, many of the largest trees being completely 
uprooted, while from those which remained standing, huge 
branches were completely torn away, or in some cases the 
tree split entirely in two ; while others were whirled round, 
and their roots so loosened, that their destruction was assured 
in subsequent gales. Among plantations of larch and conifers, 
the ravages were equally great, and in places ten to twenty 
trees were blown down or snapped off side by side. Farm 



METEOROLOG Y. 511 

roofs suffered greatly, some being nearly halt stripped of their 
slates. Numerous temporary buildings were partly destroyed, 
or overthrown, and the great Yew of Yewdale was 
blown bodily over. Haystacks were blown away ; and 
in the churchyard an upright marble headstone to the memory 
of the writer's grandfather was broken in half by the force of 
the wind. A substantial corrugated iron building, used by the 
Golf Club, was moved bodily about a yard, but was not 
overturned. 

This storm was disastrous all over a great part of the north, 
but nowhere more than in our parish ; at Birkcnhead, 
however, the registered speed of the wind was 120 miles 
an hour, and its picssurc 80 Ibs. to the foot. 

This remarkable storm was followed by the great frost of 
January, February, and March in 1895, which was so marked 
over all England, and indeed Europe, that it is not local 
history. The thermometer frequently was below zero, and 
all the Lakes, including the whole of Windermcrc, were 
skated over ; the last was an almost unknown thing to the 
present generation. The frost was followed by a drought 
of the early summer, and the final oddity of this eccentric 
year was a tropical September, the thermometer locally 
rising to a maximum ot over So. 

It is worth remark that droughts arc frequently preceded 
by big storms. We have before us a note of an excep- 
tional thunderstorm in this valley on 3rd September, 1867, 
when eight trees were struck at Lakefield, Sawrey, and four 
sheep killed at Low Wray. 1868 was an exceptionally dry 
summer, for from the first week in June there were only 
three showers in nine weeks. Water was sold at Grange 
for 2d. a glass, and cattle had frequently to be driven 
several miles to drink. On some days at the end of July 
water neither ran into, nor out of, Esthwaite ; and butler 
became double its normal price. On the 6th August there 
fell more rain than during the whole of the previous ten 
weeks.* 



* Mr. T. Taylor's commonplace book. 



S i2 ZOOLOGY. 

Earthquake shocks have several times been felt in the 
Lake district in the present century. One, which seems to 
have been fairly severe, occurred on February 23rd, 1867, 
between one and two o'clock in the morning. It was felt 
at Langdale, Grasmerc and Windermere, at Bowness and 
Coniston, and within the parish, at Hawkshead, Sawrey, and 
Finsthwaitc. The motion is described as coming apparently 
from north to south ; the night was clear, and a noise 
accompanied the shock longer and louder than any thunder- 
clap. At Loughrigg and Tilberthwaite, domestic articles were 
thrown down, and at Ambleside and Grasmere, many people 
were so startled that the)' rose and dressed themselves. 
Another is recorded as having occurred on March 17th, 
1871, being distinctly felt at Langdale, Sawrey, Coniston, 
Hawkshead, and Wray. There were three shocks. The 
first, at 6.50 p.m., was accompanied by a noise, and 
was of sufficient violence to shake houses and make things 
rattle. The second, at 11.10 p.m., was a regular earth-tremor, 
and the noise, " like a grating sound,'' was louder and more 
prolonged. The third, at 3 a.m., was only felt out of doors. 
The air was still and warm ; but, in spite of the vibration, 
it does not seem that any buildings were damaged.* 



NATURAL HISTORY NOTES. 

The following is a brief list of some of the rarer or 
more interesting animals and birds only. For a great part 
of the information we are indebted to Mr. C. F. Archibald, 
of Rusland Hall, and to Mr. Macpherson's "Vertebrate 
Fauna of Lakeland." 

MAMMALS. 

The true WILD CAT (Fc/is Catus) lingered in many parts 
of the Lakes till about 1790, and was fairly common 
at Hawkshead, although it was never paid for as 

* Most of these notes on earthquakes are from Mr. Taylor's commonplace 
book. 



ZOOLOGY. 513 

vermin, by the Churchwardens. Pennant (Second tour, 
1772) says that between Esthwaite and Graythwaite 
" The roads are excellent amidst fine woods, with grey 
rocks pitched with moors rising above. In one place 
observed a Holly Park, a tract preserved entirely for 

sheep Wild cats inhabit in too great plenty 

these woods." * 

The PINE MARTEN or SWEET MART (Martes Sylvestris). 
Rare, but not extinct. Two were killed in spring, 1897, 
near Skelwith, whither they had probably strayed from 
the heathery rocks about Pull Brow. 

The FOUMART or POLE CAT (Mnstcla Putoria). Common 
till about fifty years ago, but now nearly, if not quite, 
extinct. All over the north they were hunted and 
trapped, and their skins were worth 2s. 6d. each. Both 
marts were formerly regularly hunted with dogs by the 
dalesmen. 

The BADGER is extinct. OTTERS arc still fairly common ; 
and among the smaller species the DORMOUSE is 
occasionally found. 

BIRDS. 

BITTERN. An occasional visitor. Examples have been shot in 
1867 at Esthwaite, and about the same date at High 
Cross Tarn, and at Rusland about 1850 and 1896. 

BRAMBLING. Rusland, and Abbot's Reading. 

BUZZARD. Nested at Rusland within human memory. 

CRAKE. The spotted crake, though searched for by Mr. 
Archibald for the last dozen years, was observed for 
the first time at Rusland in 1898. As a pair of old 
birds and a young bird were killed within a month 
near the same ground, it seems probable that they had 
bred there. 

CROSSBILL. Occasional. 

* Of Esthwaite he writes : " Its fish are perch, called here bass, pike, 
eels ; but no trout. The eels descend in multitudes through the river that 
flows from this mere into Winander, beginning their migrations with the first 
floods after mid-summer, and cease on the first snows. The inhabitants of the 
country take great numbers in wheels at that season, when it is their opinion 
that the eels are going into salt water, and that they return in spring." 

34 



SH /.OOLOGY. 

DUCK. Wild duck have always frequented the three lakes ; 
and Esthwaite, from its quietness, has always been a 
favourite haunt. In 1891 Mr. Archibald counted about 
1 20 duck and thirty teal at Out Dubs, but this was 
very exceptional. Colonel Sandys now breeds duck at 
Esthwaite, and they arc often seen in small numbers 
about the smaller tarns. 

The Tufted Duck has been noticed at Esthwaite by 
the Rev. H. T. Baincs, of Sawrey ; and shell duck- 
have recently taken to nesting in the fells. 

EACLK. There is no historic record of the eagle. It was 
never paid for as vermin by the Churchwardens, though 
this was regularly done at Crosthwaitc (Cumberland) 
till 1765. Yet it must have existed in the parish, for 
Pennant says they bred in many places in the mountains 
about the head of Windcrmcrc. One, seen at Esthwaitc 
in March, 1845, was - f course, only a visitor.* 

GOI.DKN EYKS. Occasional. 

GOOSK. The wild goose occasionally crosses the parish, 
seldom alighting. 

GOOSANDKK. One, Rusland, 1862. 

GROUSE. Blackgamc, now fairly common on Hawkshead 
fells wherever savinc grows, were introduced in more 
than one locality between 1830 and 1840, and in 1845 
and 1849 were still uncommon enough to be remarked 
upon in the local papers. It is thought that the 
formation of larch plantations suggested the idea of 
trying them in High Furness, but since they were 
abundant on the border in the seventeenth century, the 
opinion we have often heard that they always existed 
in small numbers in the fells, is probable enough. The 
red or ordinary grouse is, and has always been, common. 

GULLS. A solitary pair of great black-backed gulls is 
known to breed in strictly preserved land near Rusland, 
where they have been carefully watched by Mr. Archibald. 

* Carlisle Patriot, 141)1 March, 1845. 



ZOOLOGY. 515 

GUILLEMOT. One shot at Graythwaite, November, 1888. 
HERON. There is an old-established heronry in Rusland. 
KITE. The kite nested in the trees by the old Ferry Inn 

till 1790. Notice also the farm name Glead Nest. 
MERLIN. One or two pairs still nest in the fells. 
OWL. The barn and wood owls still fairly common. The 

long-eared owl occasionally seen. 
PINTAIL. One, shot at Rusland. 
PLOVER (GOLDEN). A very rare visitor. 
POCHARD. An example has been shot at Esthwaite. 
RAVEN. Rare. See the accounts of its slaughter in the 

Parish Accounts. 
SHRIKE (GREAT GKEV). Four occurrences of recent years 

near Rusland, Graythwaite, and Abbot's Reading. 
SMK\V. An example shot at Rusland, 1891. 
SNOW-BUNTING. Occasional. 
SWAN. In 1830 a herd of wild swans, whoopcrs, visited 

Esthwaite, and one was shot. In 1895 twenty were 

observed by Mr. Archibald's keeper flying high over 

Rusland. 

WIDGEON. Occasional. 
WOODCOCK. Not found in great numbers, though the record 

bag, eighteen killed out of nineteen shot at, was made by 

R. Holme, Mr. Archibald's keeper, on November 27th, 1889. 

The woodcock nests pretty freely in the wooded parts 

of the parish. To their wholesale snaring or sprinting 

we have alluded elsewhere. 

The following note on the commoner but characteristic 
birds, is extracted from a letter to the author from Mr. 
Archibald : 

" A considerable number of curlews breed on the fells : 
our streams are enlivened by the presence of the dipper, 
grey wagtail, common sandpiper, more rarely the kingfisher, 
and in the sluggish water the dabchick ; our mosses attract 



516 ZOOLOGY. 

the water-rail, grasshopper warbler, and reed-bunting ; our 
woods shelter the goldcrest, treecreeper, lesser redpoll, and 
bullfinch ; whilst the kestrel, night-jar, barn and wood owls 
are a continual source of pleasure."* 

Schoolgirl Humour. When Mr. C. W. Rawson, now Vicar 
of Brathay, was at Wray, one of his school lasses was noted 
for her waggery. The Vicar one day was endeavouring to 
impress on his class the force of the word " covenant." 
" Now, children," said he, " I want you to understand. If I 
was to arrange with a man to do something for me and 
then go away, what should I do, if when I returned, I 
found that it had not been done ? " " Oh ! please sir, I 
know, sir," answered Martha with alacrity ; " Blaspheme, sir" 

The same class had to write an essay on " Cats." Here 
is Martha's : 

" Cats is a cautious animal. There's lots of cats between 

here and Hawkshead. Cats eat rats. Rats live in cellars. 

A rat once ran up a man's leg and bit him and he 
died." 



We lay aside our pen : and to you, kind reader, for whom 
at this desk we have wrought for ten months, we must bid fare- 
well. A brief rest and then the toil- the toil and drudgery of 
proof-slips and revises. Yet, why grudge it ? From where 
we sit by the desk, at which for fifteen or sixteen years 
we have jotted our Hawkshead Notes, our eye wanders over 
a wide panorama. Bathed in evening light, the fair Vale of 
Esthwaite, the grey church tower, the silvered mere, and 
even glimpses of Windcrmere, are spread map-like almost 
before us. It is a fair scene this land of the Dalesman. 
No doubt it looks vastly different with its green fields and 
trim hedges and walls, from what it did with its bog and scrub 
and mire, as we have tried to depict it in olden days. But 

* A very fine collection of Lake district birds is being formed at Tullie- 
house Museum, Carlisle, under the energetic supervision of the Rev. H. A. 
Macpherson. 



ZOOLOGY. 517 

the scattered farms, with their yews and sycamores, still 
shelter the same brave hearts and stalwart frames which they 
did of yore ; the same shrewd grey eyes glance at you as 
you pass the byres ; the same roses mantle in the cheek, 
and the same sweet northern tones are at every homestead 
which the old sea-pirates brought here a thousand years 
ago. It is the Saga of these, the men of the Fells, that 
we have sought to tell in these pages. It is for them and 
their stock, wherever it is spread over the world, that we 
mean our book. Critics at large may be kind or may be 
cruel but, whether they drag us in the mire or crown us 
with laurel, it matters but little, if the story is found 
welcome to our only true critics, THE DALESMEN. 



f <T- 



APPENDIX, 
i. 

THE BOUNDARY AND FISHERY DISPUTES IN 
FURNESS FELLS.* 

The following schedule gives abstracts of all the deeds we 
know of, which hear on the early Boundary and Fishery disputes 
between the Barons of Kendal and the Abbots of Furness. The 
sources are the " Coucher Book of Furness Abbey," edited by 
Canon Atkinson, collated with extracts from original charters which 
have been most kindly furnished us by an indefatigable worker, 
Mr. W. Farrcr, of Marton House, Skipton. The abstracts are, 
of course, only of such parts of the documents as bear on the 
question, and are translated from the Latin. The pedigree of 
the Lancasters appended will make the evidence intelligible. 

i. 1157 or 1163. Confirmation by Henry II. of an agreement 
between the Monks of Furness, and William Fitz Gilbert (or de 
Lancaster I.) respecting the division of the fells. This deed is the 
Duchy of Lancaster Royal Charter, No. 27, and it is also in the 
" Coucher Book of Furness Abbey," p. i, No. I., and p. 343, No. 
CCV.t The spelling varies in these deeds, and in our extracts 
(p. 81-82) has been modernized. 

Mr. W. Farrer puts the date of this charter 1153 or 1167, 
and we quote his letter on the subject : 

" Date, This (deed) is witnessed by Hugh, Bishop of Durham, 
and Robert, Bishop of Lincoln, therefore it lies between 1153- 
1168 (28 January). From 14 August, 1158, to 25 January, 1163, 
Henry II. was abroad, and also from March, IT 66 to 1168." 

* See ante, pp. 82, 90, 295-6. 

t Also Beck's " Annales Furnesienses, " App. IV., p. 1., and West's " Furness," 
1774, p. 27. 



520 APPENDIX I.