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IN 1855, when the printing of the Seventh Edition of this Dic- 
tionary had begun, and Mr. Haydn's failing health prevented the 
continuance of his labours, I acceded to the request of the publisher 
to correct the press and supply the continuations of the articles. In 
doing so I soon perceived that the execution of the work was far from 
being equal to the merit of its conception ; and after much considera- 
tion, I was eventually induced to undertake its gradual revision and 
completion, in order to render the book more worthy of its established 
reputation. During the last ten years the chronological tables have 
been examined and continued ; a great number of articles have been re- 
written, and new ones inserted, and much geographical, biographical, 
literary, and scientific information supplied, together with a Table of 
the Populations and Governments 01 the various countries of the world ; 
and the Index has been greatly augmented by the insertion of dates 
relating to eminent persons of past and present times. With the 
present edition is given a table of Contemporary European Sovereigns 
since the Norman Conquest. To afford room for these additions, the 
size of the page and the bulk of the volume have been enlarged, 
and very many articles have been condensed. My aim has been 
throughout to make this book not a mere Dictionary of Dates, but a 
dated Encyclopaedia, a digested summary of every department of human 
history brought down to the very eve of publication. The latest Addi- 
tions and Corrections will be found at the end of the volume. 


FEBRUARY, 180*6, 


THE design of the Author has been to attempt the compression of the 
itest body of general information that has ever appeared in a single volume, 
and to produce a Book of Keference whose extensive usefulness may render its 
possession material to every individual in the same manner that a London 
Directory is indispensable, on business affairs, to a London merchant. 

He grounds his hope of the Public taking an interest in this work altogether 
upon its own intrinsic utility. Its articles are drawn principally from historians 
of the first rank, and the most authentic annalists ; and the DICTIONARY OP 
DATES will, in almost every instance, save its possessor the trouble of turning 
over voluminous authors to refresh his memory, or to ascertain the date, order, 
and features of any particular occurrence. 

The volume contains upwards of FIFTEEN THOUSAND ARTICLES, alphabeti- 
cally arranged ; and, from the selection x of its materials, it must be important 
to every man in the British Empire, whether learned or unlearned, or whether 
connected with the professions or engaged in trade. 

It would be dime alt to name all the authors from whose works the Compiler 
of this volume has copiously extracted ; but he may mention among the classics, 
Herodotus, Livy, Pliny, and Plutarch. He has chosen in general chronology, 
Petavius, Usher, Blair, Prideaux, and the Abbe Lenglet Dufresnoy. For the 
events embraced in foreign history, he has relied upon Renault, Voltaire, La 
Combe, Rollin, Melchior Adam, the Nouveau Dictionnaire, and chief authors of 
their respective countries. On subjects of general literature, his authorities 
are Cave's Nistoria Literaria, Moreri, Bayle, Priestley, and others of equal 
repute. And English occurrences are drawn from Camden, Stow, Hall, Baker, 
Holinshed, Chamberlayne, Rapin, Hume, Gibbon, Goldsmith, <kc. Besides 
these, the Compiler has freely used the various abridgments that have brought 
facts and dates more prominently forward ; and he is largely indebted to 

riii PREFACE. 

Chambers, Aspin, Beatson, Anderson, Beckmann, the Cyclopaedias, Annual 
Register, Statutes at Large, and numerous other compilations. In almost every 
instance the authority is quoted for the extract made and date assigned, 
though inadvertence may have prevented, in some few cases, a due 

The leading events of every country, whether ancient or modern kingdoms, 
are to be found in the annals of each respectively, as in the cases, for instance, 
But, independently of this plan of reference, when any historical occurrence 
claims, from its importance, more specific mention, it is made in a separate 
article, according to alphabetical arrangement. Thus, in the annals of 
England, the dates are given of the foundation of our universities, the 
institution of honorary orders, and signature of Magna Charta ; we find, in 
those annals, the periods of our civil wars, and remarkable eras in our history, 
set down as they have occurred ; but if more ample information be necessary 
' to the Reader, and if he desire to know more than the mere date of any fact or 
incident, the particulars are supplied under a distinct head. In the same way, 
the pages of Battles supply the date of each, in the order of time ; yet in all 
instances where the battle has any relation to our own country, or is 
memorable or momentous, the chief features of it are stated in another part 
of the volume. 

The Compiler persuades himself that the DICTIONARY OF DATES will be 
received as a useful companion to all Biographical works, relating, as it does, 
to things as those do to persons, and affording information not included in the 
range or design of such publications, 


LONDON, May, 1841. [Died ./an. 17, 1856.] 


(According to the Almanack de Gothafor 1866.) 

Anhalt, Population in Dec. 1864 

: Argentine Confederation . . 1859 

Austrian Empire . . . Oct. 1857 

Baden Dec. 1864 

Bavaria Dec. 1864 

Belgium Dec. 1863 

Bolivia 1858 

Brazil 1856 

Bremen (free city) . . . Dec. 1864 
Brunswick- Wolf enblittel . Dec. 1864 

! Chili (estimated) 1857 

Chinese Empire (estimated) . 1849 
Costa Rica (estimated) . . . 1861 
Denmark and colonies . . . 1865 
Equator (estimated) .... 1858 

Egypt 1859 

France and colonies (estimatd.) 1862 
Frankfort (free city) . . Dec. 1864 
Great Britain & colonies (estm.) 1861 
Greece and Ionian Islands (est.) 1865 

Guatemala 1858 

Hamburg (free city) .... 1860 

Hanover Dec. 1864 

Hayti and St. Domingo"(est.) . 1865 

Hesse-Cassel Dec. 1864 

H ssse-Darmstadt . . . Dec. 1864 
Hesse-Homburg .... Dec. 1864 
Holland and colonies .... 1863 

Holstein 1865 

Honduras 1858 

Italy (estimated) 1864 

Japan (estimated) 

Liechtenstein 1858 

Lippe Dec. 1864 

Liibeck (free city) 1862 

Mecklenburg-Schwerin . Dec. 1864 
! Mecklenburg-Strelitz .... 1860 

; Mexico (estimated) 1865 

i Monaco 1864 

i Montenegro (estimated) . . . 1859 

! Morocco about 

! Nassau Dec. 1864 

I New Granada 1864 

i Nicaragua 1858 

Oldenburg Dec. 1864 

Piinama 1864 

Pspal States (estimated) . . . 1863 

Pa,raguay 1857 

i Persia (estimated) 1859 

! Peru 1859 

Portugal and colonies . . Dec. 1863 

Prussia Dec. 1865 

Reuss-Greiz Dec. 1864 

Reuss-Schleiz Dec. 1864 

Roumania (Dan. Prncip.)estim. 1862 
Russia, Poland, &c. (estim.) . 1865 
Sandwich Islands (Hawaii, &c.) 1861 

San Marino 1858 

San Salvador 1858 

Saxony Dec. 1864 

Saxe-Altenburg .... Dec. 1864 

Saxe-Coburg-Gothrt . . Dec. 1864 

Saxe-Meiningen .... Dec. 1864 

Saxe- Weimar-Eisenach . Dec. 1864 

Schaumburg-Lippe . . Dec. 1864 

: Schwartzburg-Rudolstadt, Dec. 1864 

i Schwartzburg-Sondershausen ,, 1864 

i Servia 1865 

! Sleswig 1865 

! Spain and colonies 1864 

Sweden and Norway (estimtd.) 1863 

! Switzerland Dec. 1860 

i Turkish Empire (estimated) . 1865 

i Uruguay 1860 

Venezuela 1859 

Waldeck Dec. 1864 

Wiirtemberg Dec. 1864 

United States of America . . I860 


35,018 988 

22 104,789 
35 to 40 mil 










































Leopold, duke 

Bartolomeo Mitre, president . 
Francis-Joseph, emperor . . 
Frederick, grand-duke . . . 

Louis II., king 

Leopold II., king 

Gen. M. Melgarejo, president . 
Pedro II., emperor . . . , 
C. Mehr, burgomaster . . , 

William, duke 

Jose" J. Perez, president . . . 
Ki-tsiaug, emperor . . . , 
J. Ximenes, president . . . 
Christian IX., king . . . , 
G. Carrson, president . . , 
Ismail Pacha, viceroy . . , 
Napoleon III., emperor . . . 
Two Burgomasters. 
Victoria, queen 


Oct. 1. 1794. . 

Aug. 18, 1830 ! 

Sept. 9, 1826 . 

Aug. 25, 1845 . 

April 9, 1835 . 

Dec. 2, 1825'. '. 


April 25, 1806 . 

April 5, 1855 
April'8, 1818 

April 20, 1808 
May 24, 1819 

George I., king Dec. 24, 1845 

Vincent Cerna, president . . i 


George V., king May 27, 1819 

N. Fabre Geffrard, president \ 

Frederic- William I., elector . 
Louis III., grand-duke . . . 
Ferdinand, landgrave . . . 
William III., ton? .... 
Held by Austria. 
J. M. Medina, president . . 
Victor-Emmanuel, king . . 
Mikado (spiritual) ; Tycoon 

Aug. 20, 1802 . 
June 9, 1806 . 
April 26, 1783 . 
Feb. 19, 1817 . 

March 14, 1820 

John II., prince Oct. 5, 1840 

Leopold, prince Sept. 1. 1821 

Burgomasters and Senate. 
Frederic Francis, grand-duke . Feb. 28, 1823 
Frederic William, grand-duke Oct. 17, 1819 
Maximilian I., emperor . . . July 6, 1832 . 

Charles, prince Dec. 8, 1818 . 

Nicholas I., prince .... 1840 

Sidi Mohamed, sultan 

Adolphus, duke July 24, 1817 

M. Murillo, president 

T. Martinez, president 

Peter, grand-duke July 8, 1827 . . 

JilColunje, governor 

Pius IX., pope May 13, 1792 . 

F. S. Lopez i . . . . 

Nassir-ed-Deen, shah . . . \ 1829 .... 

M. Canseco, president ... I 

Louis I., king i Oct. 31, 1838 . 

William I., king I March 22, 1797 

Henry XXII., prince ... I March 28, 1846 
Henry LXIX., prince ... I May 19, 1792 . 
Alex. John I. (Cousa) hospodar March 10, 1820 
Alexander II., czar .... April 29, 1818 . 

Kamghameha V Dec. 11, 1830 . 

Capitani reggent i. 

F. Duenas, president . . . . 

John, king | Dec. 12, 1801 . 

Ernest, duke ' Sept. 16, 1826 . 

Ernest II., dul;r. June 21, 1818 . 

Bernard, duke i Dec. 17, 1800 . 

Charles- Alexander, grand-duke \ June 24, 1818 . 

Adolphus, prince ' 

Gunther, prince . ... 
Gunther, prince .... 
Michael III. (Milosch) . . . 
Held by Prussia. 

Isabella II., queen 

Charles XV., king 

Annual president 

Abdul-Aziz, sultan .... 
Gen. V. Fiords, prov. president 
J. E. Falcon, president . . , 

George V., prince 

Charles, king 

Andrew Johnson, president . 1809 . 

Aug. 1, 1817 
Nov. 6, 1793 
Sept. 24, 1801 
Sept. 4, 1825 

Oct. 10, 1830 
May 3, 1826 . 

Feb. 9,1830 '. 

Jan. 14, 1831. 

Aug. 9, 1817. 
Oct. 12, 1862. 
Dec. 2, 1848. 
April 24, 1852. 
March 10, 1864. 
Dec. 10. 1865. 
Dec. 1864. 
April 7, 1831. 
Dec, 31, 1863. 
April 25, 1831. 
Sept. 18, 1861. 
Aug. 22, 1861. 
April 3, 1863. 
Nov. 15, 1862. 


Jan. 18, 1863. 
Dec. 2, 1853. 

June 20, 1837. 
June 5, 1863. 
May 3, 1865. 

Nov. 18, 1851. 
Jan. 23, 1859. 
Nov. 20, 1847. 
June 16, 1848. 
Sept. 8, 1848. 
March 17, 1849. 

Feb. 1864. 
March 17, 1861. 

Nov. 12, 1858. 
Jan. 1, 1851. 

March 7, 1842. 
Sept. 6, 1860. 
April 10, 1864. 
June 20, 1856. 
Aug. 14, 1860. 
Sept. 1859. 
Aug. 20, 1839. 
April 1, 1864. 
March 1, 1859. 
Feb. 27, 1853. 
March 10, 1865. 
June 16, 1846. 
" ' 1862. 

Nov., 1865. 
Nov. 11, 1861. 
Jan. 2. 1861. 
Nov. 8, 1859. 
Sept. 16, 1856. 
Jan. 1859. 
March 2, 1855. 
Nov., 1863. 

April, 1865. 
Aug. 9, 1854. 
Aug. 3, 1853. 
Jan. 29, 1844. 
Dec. 24, 1803. 
July 8, 1853. 
Nov. 21, 1860. 
April 28, 1807. 
Aug. 19, 1835. 
Sept. 26, 1860. 

29, 1833. 

July 4, 1864. 
June 25. 1861. 
Feb., 1865. 
March 18, 1865. 
May 15, 1845. 
June 25, 1864. 
April 15, 1865. 


Great Britain. 










1066. Will. I. 

1057. Male. 3. 
1093. Donald 

1060. Philip. I. 

1066. Sancho II. 

1065. Sancho. 

1065. Sancho of 

1056. Hen. 4, 

1064. Sol 

1087. Wil. II. 

1094. Dune. 
1094. Donald 

1072. Alfonso VI. 

1072. Alfonso VI. 

1075. Gei 
1076. Lac 


P t 

1093. Henry, 

1098. Col 

1098. Edgar. 




i ioo. Hen I. 

1 107. Alex. I. 

1108. Louis VI. 

1109. Urracaand 
Alfonso VII. 

1104. Alfonso I. 

1 1 12. Alfonso, as 

1106. Hen. 5. 

1114. Ste 

1124. Dav. I. 

1126. Alfon.VII. 


1131. Bel 

1135. Steph. 

1137. Louis VII. 

1134. Ramiro. 

1154. Hen. 2. 

1153. MaUV. 

1157. Sancho III. 

1137. Petronella 
and Raymond. 

1139. Alfonso I., 
as king. 




1172. (Ireld. 

1165. Will. 

1152. Fred. i. 

1161. Ste 

annexed. ) 

1163. Alfonso II. 

1173. Bel 

1180. Philip II. 

1189. Rich. i. 

1185. Sancho I. 

1190. Hen. 6. 

1199. John. 

1196. Peter II. 

1 198. Philip. 

1196. Em 

1216. Hen. 3. 1214. Alex. 2. 

1214. Henry I. 

1213. James I. 

1212. Alfonso II. 

1208. Otho 4. 

1204. Lac 

1223. Louis VIII. 

las II. 

1215. Fred. 2. 

1205. An 

1226. Louis IX. 

1230. Ferdin.III. 

1223. Sancho II. 

drew I 

1235. Bel 

1249. Alex.3. 

1252. Alfonso X. 

1248. Alfon. III. 

1250. Con. 4. 

1254. Will. 

1257. Rich. 

1272. Ed. I. 

1282 (Wales 


1270. Philip III. 
1285. Philip IV. 

1284. Sancho IV. 

1276. Peter III. 
1285. Alfons. III. 

1279. Dionysius 
or Denis. 

1273. Ro- 

1270. Ste 
1272. Lao 

1792. John 

1292. Adolp. 

1295. Ferdin. IV. 1291. James II. 

1298. Alb. i. 

1290. Anc 

1307. Ed. II. 

1306. Robert 

1308. Hen. 7. 

1301. Cha 

1327. Ed. III. 

(Bruce) I. 

1314. Louis X. 
1316. John. 
Phil. V. 

1312. AlfonsoXI. 

1327. AlfonsoIV. 

1325. AlfonsoIV. 

1314. Lou. 5. 



1321. Chas. IV. 

1 342. Dav. II. 

1328. Phil. VI. 

1336. Peter IV. 


1342. Lou 

1347. Chas. 4. 

1377. Rich. 2. 

1 371. Rob. II. 

1350. John. 
1364. Chas. V. 

1380. Chas. VI. 

1350. Peter. 
1369. Henry. 
1379. John I. 

1387. John I. 

1357. Peter. 
1367. Ferdinand. 

1383. John I. 

1378. Weu- 

1382. Ma 
1387. Ma 

1399. Hen. 4. 

1390. Rob. 3. 

1390. Henry II. 

1395. Martin. 

1400. Rupert 


1413. Hen.s. 
1422. Hen. 6. 

1406. Jas. I. 

1422. Chas. VII. 

1406. John II. 

1410. Interregnm. 
1412. Ferdinand 

1410. Sigismund. 

of Sicily. 

1437. Jas. II. 

1416. Alfonso V. 

1433. Edward. 

1454. Henry IV. 

1438. Alfonso V. 

1438. Albert. 

1461. Ed.IV. 


1461. Louis XI. 

1474. Isabella. 

1458. John II. 
1479. Ferdin. II. 

1 440. Fred. 3. 

1440. Lac 
1445. Lar 

T .o, -pvi V 


I458' JVl3r 


1403* J&ci. v . 
Rich. 3. 

1483. Chas. VIII. 

1479. Ferdinand and Isabella. 

1481. John II. 

1493. Max. i. 

1485. Hen. 7. 

i 4 88.Jas.IV. 

1498 Louis XII. 

1495. Emanuel. 

1499 Switz. 

1490. Lac 




*DstlM Jl 









66. Halstan. 

1069. Olaf. 

1047. Sweyn II. 

1058. Boles- 

1068. Rom. 4 

1061. Alex. II. 

1076. Harold. 
1080. Canute IV. 

1082. Ladis- 

1071. Mich. 7 

1073. Greg. VII. 

1086. Olaus IV. 


1078. Nicep. : 

00 TT~U TT 

90. Ingo. 

1093. Magnus. 

1095. Eric I. 

us 11099. Pascal II. 

xa. Philip. 

1 8. Ingo II. 

1103. Sigurd I., 
and others. 

1105. Eric II. 

1102. Boles. 3 

1118. John 

1118. Gelas. II. 
1119. Calixt. II. 

29. Swerker. 

1124. Honor. II. 

1 1 22. Sigurd I. 

1130. Innoc. II. 

1131. Roger I. 

1143. Celest. II. 

1144. Lucius II. 

55. Eric I. 

1130. MagnusIV. 
and others. 

1137. Eric III. 

1138. Lad. 2. 
1145. Boles. 4 

1 143. Manuel 

1145. Eugen. III. 
1153. Anasta.IV. 

1154. William I. 

5i. Char. VII. 

Civil war and 

1147. Sweyn III. 
Canute V. 

1154. Adrian IV. 
1159. Alex. III. 

1166. William II. 


1157. Waldemar. 

1173. Miecis- 

1181. Lucius III. 

37. Canute. 

las III. 

1180. Alex.2. 

1185. Urban HI. 

1178. Ca- 
semir II. 

1183. Andro- 
nicus C. 

1 187. Greg. VIII. 
Clem. III. 

1189. Tancred. 
1194. William III. 

#. Swerk. II. 

1 1 86. Swerro. 

1182. Canute VI. 


1185. Isaac 2. 
1195. Alex. 3. 

1191. Celest. III. 
1198. Innoc. III. 

1197. Fred. II. of Germny 

to. Eric II. 

1202. Hako HI. 

1202. Walde. II. 

1200. Miec.3. 


1216. Honor. III. 

16. John I. 

and others. 

1202. Lad. 3. 

1222. John 

1227. Greg. IX. 

1207. Hako IV. 

1227. Boles.5 


1241. Celest. IV. 

22. Eric III. 

1243. Innoc. IV. 

1250. Conrad. 

1254. Alex. IV. 

1254. Conradin. 

1241. Eric IV. 


1261. Urban IV. 

1258. Manfred. 

;o. Birger, Jarl 

1250. Abel. 
1252. Christoph. 

1258. John 

1265. Clem. IV. 
1268-9. Vacant. 

1266. Charles of Anjou. 

56. Waldemar. 

1263. MagnusVI. 

1259. Eric V. 

1 259. Mich. 8. 

1271. Gregory X. 
1276. Innoc. V. 

Adrian V. 

5. Magnus I. 


1276. John XXI. 
1277. Nichol.III. 


1280. Eric. 

1281. Martin IV. 

1285. Chas.2. 1282. Peter 

1285. Honor. IV. 

of Arragon 

1289. Anarch. 

1282. Andro- 

1288. Nich. IV. 

1285. James 


nicus II. 

1292-3. Vacant. 


1294. Celest. V. 

)o. Birger II. 

1299. Hako V. 

1296. Ladis.4 


1295. Fred. 2 

9. Magn. II. 

1319. United to 

1320. Christo- 

1 300. Winces- 

1303. Bened. XI. 
1305. Clement V. 

1309. Robt. 


pher II. 



1314-15. Vacant. 

1334. Interregnm. 

1333. Cas. 3. 

1332. And. 3 . 

1316. JohnXXII. 

1334. Bene. XII. 

i337.Peter 2 

1350. Eric IV. 
1359. Magnus II. 

1340. Wald. III. 

1341. Johns. 

1342. Clem. VI. 
1352. Innoc. VI. 

1343. Joan. 2. 1342. Louis. 
& Andrew 1355. Fred. 3 

1363. Albert. 

1375. Interregnm. 

1370. Louis. 

1362. Urban V. 

of Hung. 

1376. Olaus V. 


1349. Louis. 1376. Maria 

9. Margaret. 

1380. United to 

1387. Margaret. 

1382. Mary. 
1384. Hedw. 

391. Man- ' 

1370. Greg. XI. 
1378. Urban VI. 

& Martin 
1381. Chas. 3. 

1396. Lad. 5. 

uel VI. 

1389. Bonif. IX. 

1385. Ladislas. 

1412. Eric. XIII. 

1434. Lad. 6. 

1425. John 6. 

1404. Innoc. VII. 
1406. Greg. XII. 
1409. Alex. V. 

1402. Mart, i 
1409. Mart. 2 
1414. Joan. 2. (United to 

1440. Christc 
8. Chas. VIII. 
I 457- Christi 

>pher III. 

an T 

1448. Christn. I. 

1445. Casi. 4. 

1448. Con- 
stant. 13. 

1410. John 23. 
1417. Martin V. 
1431. Eugen. IV. 
1447. Nicholas V. 
1455. Calix. III. 
14158 Pius II 

1410. Ferd.i 
1416. Alfo.i 

1435. Alfonso I. 
1458. Ferd. 1.1458. John. 


1433. Ma- 

1464.' Paul IL 

homet II. 

1471. Sixtus IV. 

1494. Alfo.2. 479- e a 

1483. John of Denmark. 

1481. John. 


1484. Inno. VIII. 

1495. Ferd.2. 

1492. Albert 

1492. Alex. VI. 

1496. Fred. 2. 


Great Britain, 









i5<.>9. Hen. 8. 
1513. Jas. V. 

1515. Francis I. 

1504. Joanna & 
Philip I. 

Ferdinand II. 

1521. John HI. 

1519. Chas. 5 
(I. of Sp.) 

1516. Lov 
1526. Jn. 

15,17. Ed. VI. 1542. Mary. 

1512. Ferd.V.(Cast.)II. (Arragon). 
1547. Henry II. 1516. Charles I. (V. of Germ. 1519). 


i S ,i 3 . Mary, 
ijv! EUz. 

1559. Francis II. 
1560. Charles IX. 


1 567. Jas. VI. 

1558. Ferdinand. 

1556. rnmp ii. 1557. Sebastian. 
1574. Henry III. Holland. 

1564. Maximilian I 

11579. William of 1578. Henry. 

1576. Rodolph II. 

Orange, stadt- 


1589. Henry IV. 

xsSo. Annexed to 

1598. Philip III. 1587. Maurice. Spain. 

16 > 3 . Jas. I. (VI. of Scot.) 
1615. Charles I. 

1610. LouisXIII. 

1621. Philip IV. 

1625. Fred. Hen. 

Kingdom restored 

1612. Mathias. 
1619. Ferdinand II. 

1637. Ferdinand II] 

16 [g. Commonwealth. 

1643. Louis XIV. ; 1647. William II. 

1640. John of 

1650-72. No 


1660. Charles II. 

1665. Charles II stadtfiolder. 

1656. Alfonso VI. 

1658. Leopold I. 

1667. Peter, 

16^5. James II. 

1672. Will. Hen. 


i6Jg. William and Mary. 

(Will. III. of 

1683. Peter II. 

1695. William III. 


1702. Anne. 
17^4. George I. 

1715. Louis XV. 

1700. Philip V. 

1702-47. No 1706. John V. 


1705. Joseph 
1711. Chas 6. 


17.17. George II. 

1724. Louis. 

Philip V. 

1701. Fix 


1713. Fr< 

1742. Chas. 7. 


1746. Ferd. VI. 1747. Will. Hen. 1750. Joseph. 

1 745. Francis 

1740. Fre 

r 759. Chas. III. 1757. Will. IV. 

17 Jo. George III. 

1765. Jos. 2. 

1774. Louis XVI. 

1777. Maria aiul 

Peter III. 

1786. Fn 

1788. Chas. IV. 

1786. Maria, 


1793. Lou. XVII. 

(abdicated.) alone. 
: i795. Annexed to 
France. \ 1791. Johii,regent 

1 792. Fran. 2. 

1797. Fr 

1812. (George Prince of 
Wales, regent.)* 

1802. Consulate. 
1 804. Napoleon I. 

1808. Ferd. VII. 

Jos. Bonap. 

1806. Louis,ii</. 

1816. John VI. 



1 8 K>. George IV. 

1814. Ferd. VII. 

1814. Will. Fred. 

1826. Peter IV. 
Maria II. 
1828. Miguel. 

1806. Fran. i. i 

1824. Charles X. 

1830. William IV. 
1837. Victoria. 

1 830. Lou. Philip. 

1833. Isabella II. 

1840. William II. 

1833. Maria II. 

1835. Ferd. 2. 

1840. Fr 

1848. Republic. 

1849. Will. III. 




1852. Napol. III. 

1853. Peter V. 

1860. Wi 

1861. Luis I. 

Belgium, 1831. Leopold I. 
1865. Leopold II. 







1520. Chi 

i. Gustavus 

. Eric XIV. 
. John III. 

. Sigismund 





istian II. 

1513. Christn. II. 

1323. Fredrick I. 
an d Norway. 

1534. Christ. III. 
1559. Fred. II. 


1501. Alex. 
1506. Sig. I. 

1548. Sig.II. 

iS 73 .Henry. 
1575. Steph. 
1587. Sig. 3. 

1512. Selim. 

1520. Soly- 
man II. 

1566. Sel. 2. 

1574. Amu- 
rath III. 

i595.Mah. 3. 

1503. Pius III. 
Julius II. 
1513. Leo X. 
1522. Adrian VI. 
1523. Clem. VII. 
1534. Paul III. 
1550. Julius III. 
1555. Marcel. II. 
Paul IV. 
1559. Pius IV. 
1566. Pius V. 
1572. Greg.XIII. 
1585. Sixtus V. 
1590. Urban VII. 
Greg. XIV. 
1591. Innoc. IX. 
1592. Clem. VIII. 

1501. Utu 


1533. Ivan IV. 

1584. Feodor I. 
1598. Boris. 

. Chas. IX. 

. Christina. 

. Chas. X. 
. Chas. XI. 

Chas. XII. 

1606. Basil. 
1613. Michael 

1645. Alexis. 

1676. Feodor. 
1682. Ivan V. & 
Peter I. 
1689. Peter I. 

1648. Fred. III. 
1670. Christn. V. 

1699. Fred. IV. 

1632. Lad. 7. 
1648. John C. 
1669. Mich. 
1674. John 

1697. Fredk. 
August, i. 

1603. Ach. i . 
1617. Mus. i. 
1618 Osm.2. 
1622. Musta- 
pha, again. 
1623. Am. 4. 
1640. Ibrah. 
1648. Mah.4. 
1687. Sol. 3. 
1691. Ach. 2. 
1695. Mus. 2. 

1605. Leo XI. 
Paul V. 
1621. Greg. XV. 
i62 3 .UrbanVIII. 
1644. InnocentX. 
1665. Alex. VII. 
1667. Clem. IX. 
1670. Clem. X. 
1676. Innoc. XI. 
1689. Alex. VIII. 
1691. Innoc.XII. 

Naples an 

Ulrica and 
ederick I. 


1725. Gather. I. 
1727. Peter II. 
1730. Anne. 

1730. Christn. VI. 

1704. Stan, i- 
1709. Fredk. 

1703. Ach. 3. 
1730. Mah.5. 

1700. Clem. XI. 

1721. Inno.XIII. 
1724. Bene.XlII. 

Fred. I. 

, Adolphus 


1740. Ivan VI. 

1741. Elizabeth. 

1762. Peter III. 
Gather. II. 

1746. Fred. V. 
1 1766. Christ. VII. 

/ cotw/ etc. 

1733. Fredk. 
August. 2. 

1754. Osm.3. 
1764. Stan.2. : i757. Mus. 3. 

1730. Clem. XI I. 
1740. Bene.XIV. 

1 758. Clem.XIII 
,1769. Clem. XIV. 
1774. Ach. 4. 1775. Pius VI. 

1713. Chas. 3. 
| Am. of Sa- 
voy, Sicily. 
1 1720 Annexed 
| to Germany^ 

1720. Victor- 
Amadeus. ] 

i73o.Charlss ' 
Emmau. i. 

1773. Victor- 

Gustav.IV. 1796. Paul I. 

Chas.XIII.i8oi. Alexand. I, 

Norway an- ! 

ccd. 1 828. Nicholas. 

Chas. XIV. I 



1795. Parti- 

1800. Pius VII. 

1738. Chas. 4. 
1759. Fred. 4. 

Amade. 2. 

1 796. Charles 
Emman. 2. 

1808. Fred. VI. 
1814. Norway 


1807. Mus. 4. 
1808. Mah.6. 

1823. Leo XII. 


1802. Victor- 
Emman. i. 

taken away. 
1839. Chris. VIII. 

1832. Otho I. 

1839. Abdul 

1829. Pius VIII. 
1831. Greg. XVI. 

1806. Joseph 
1808. Joach. 

to kingdom 
of Italy. 
1814. Victor- 
1 82 1. Charles 


i8^T Dharlfis 

Chas. XV. 

1855. Alex. II. 

1848. Fred. VII. 

1846. Pius IX. 

Naple and 

1815. Ferd.i. 

1825. Fran. i. 
ji83o. Ferd.2. ! 
11859. Fran. 2. 
: 1860. Annexed \ 
to Italy. 


1849. Victor- 

Emman, 2. 


i86j. Abdul 
1863. Ohrisn. IX. 1863. Geo. I. \ Aziz. 

1861. Victor-Emmanuel. 

tiee Article RUSSIA for preceding Rulers. 



AARGAU (Switzerland,) formerly included in Berne, was formed into an independent 
canton in 1803, and finally settled as such in 1815. It was much disturbed by religious dis- 
sensions in 1841 44. 

ABACUS, the capital of the Corinthian order of architecture, ascribed to Callimachus, 
about 540 B.C. This name is also given to a frame traversed by stiff wires, on which beads 
or counters are strung, used by the Greeks, Romans, and Chinese. M. Lalanne published 
an ABACUS at Paris in 1845. The multiplication table has been called the Pythagorean 

ABATTOIRS, slaughter-houses for cattle. In 1810 Napoleon decreed that five should be 
erected near Paris ; they were opened in 1818. An abattoir was erected at Edinburgh in 
1851 ; and abattoirs form part of the new London metropolitan cattle-market, opened on 
June 13, 1855. 

ABBASSIDES, descendants of Mahomet's uncle, Abbas-Ben^Abdul-Motalleb. Abul 
Abbas defeated Merwan II., the last caliph of the Ommiades, in 750, and became the ruler 
of the faithful. The Abbasside colour was blacks Thirty-seven caliphs of this race reigned 
from 750 to 1258. 

ABB AYE, a military prison near St. Germain des Pres, Paris, where 164 prisoners were 
murdered by infuriated republicans led by Maillard, Sept. 2 and 3, 1792. 

ABBEYS, monasteries for men or women. See Monachism and Convents. The first abbey 
founded in England was at Bangor in 560 ; in France, at Poitiers, about 360 ; in Ireland in 
the fifth century ; in Scotland in the sixth century. 1 10 monasteries and priories were sup- 
pressed in England, 2 Henry V. 1414. Salmon. These institutions (containing then about 
47,721 persons) were totally suppressed throughout the realm by Henry VIII., 1539.* 
Abbeys were suppressed in France in 1790 ; and in the kingdom of Italy in 1861. 

ABBOT (from Ab, father), the head of an abbey. In England, rnitred abbots were lords of 
parliament ; there were twenty-seven abbots and two priors thus distinguished in 1329 ; but 
the number was reduced to twenty-five in 1396. Coke. The abbots of Reading, Glastonbury, 
nnd St. John's, Colchester, were hanged and quartered for denying the king's supremacy, and 
not surrendering their abbeys, 1539. See Glastonbury. 

A B C CLUB. A name adopted by a number of republican enthusiasts in Paris, their 
object being to relieve the abaisses or depressed. They broke out into an insurrection on 
June 5, 1832, which was suppressed with bloodshed, after Paris had been put into a state of 
siege on June 6. These events are described by Victor Hugo in Lcs Miserables, published 
in 1862. 

* Viz., 374 large monasteries (revenue 104,919?. 13*. 30!.), 186 less monasteries ^revenue 33, 479^. i 3 s 
and 48 houses of the knights hospitallers (revenue 2385?. izs. Bd.) : total, houses, 608 ; revenue," 
1 40, 784 1. 19?. 6%d. 


ASDIC! ATIONS of* sovereigns, voluntary and compulsory, are numerous in history. The 
following are the most remarkable : 

Sylla, Roman dictator B.C. 

Diocletian, Roman emperor 


Stephen II., of Hungary 
Albert, the Bear of Br 
denburg .... 
Lescov V. of Poland 
Uladislaus III. of Poland . 
John Balliol, of Scotland 
Otho (of Bavaria), of Hun 

Eric IX., of Denmark, &c. 
Pope Felix V. ... 
Charles V., as emperor . 

,, as king of Spain 
Christina, of Sweden . 
John Casimir, of Poland . 
James II., of England . 
Frederick Augustus II., of 
Poland 1704 



1 200 



*55 6 

Philip V., of Spain (re- 
sumed) 1724 

Victor Amadeus, of Sardinia 1730 
Charles, of Naples . . . 1759 
Stanislaus, of Poland . . 1795 
Charles Emmanuel II., of 

Sardinia . . June 4, 1802 
Francis II., of Germany, 
who became emperor of 
Austria . . Aug. n, 1804 
Charles IV., of Spain, in 
favour of his son, March 19 ; 
in favour of Bonaparte. 
See Spain . . May i, 1808 
Gustavus IV. , of Sweden . . 1809 
Joseph Bonaparte, of Naples 

(for Spain) . June i, 1808 
Louis, of Holland . July i, 1810 
Jerome, of Westphalia, 

Napoleon, of France, April 5, 1814 
Victor Emmanuel, of Sar- 
dinia . . March 13, 1821 
Pedro IV., of Portugal, 

May 2, 1826 
Charles X., of France, 

Aug. 2, 1830 

Pedro I., of Brazil . April 7, 1831 
Dom Miguel, of Portugal 

(by leaving it) . May 26, 1834 
William I., of Holland, Oct. 8, 1840 
Louis-Philippe, of France, 

Feb. 24, 1848 
Louis Charles, of Bavaria, 

March 21, 1848 

Ferdinand of Austria, Dec. 2, 1848 
Charles Albert, of Sardinia, 

March 26, 1849 
Leopold' II., grand-duke of 
Tuscany . . . July, 1859 

Oct. 20, 1813 

ABECEDARIANS, followers of Stork, an Anabaptist in the sixteenth century, deriving 
their name from their rejection of all worldly knowledge, even of the alphabet. 

ABELARD AND HELOISE, celebrated for their passionate love, which commenced at 
Paris, 1118, when Heloise (a canon's daughter) was under seventeen years of age. Abelard 
built the convent of the Paraclete and made her abbess in 1121. Here he taught what was 
condemned as heresy, 1122 and 1140. After suffering an ignominious injury, he became 
a monk of the abbey of St. Denis, and died of grief in 1142, at St. Marcel. Helo'ise begged 
his body, buried it in the Paraclete, and was interred beside him in 1 163. The ashes of both 
were carried to the Museum of French Monuments in 1800 ; and the museum having been 
subsequently broken up, they were finally removed to the burying-ground of Pere La Chaise, 
in 1817. Their works and letters were published in one volume in 1616. Pope's imitations 

of the latter are well known. 

ABENCERRAGES, a powerful Moorish tribe of Granada, opposed to that of the Zegris. 
From 1480 to 1493 their quarrels deluged Granada with blood and hastened the fall of the 
kingdom. They were exterminated by Boabdil (Abu Abdallah), the last king, who was 
dethroned by Ferdinand and Isabella in 1492 ; his dominions were annexed to Castile. 

ABENSBERG. See Eckmuhl. 

ABERDEEN" (N. Scotland), said to have been founded in the third century after Christ. 
Gregory the Great conferred peculiar privileges on Aberdeen, in 893. Old Aberdeen was 
made a royal burgh in 1154; it was burnt by the English in 1336 ; and soon after New 
Aberdeen was built. The university was founded by bishop William Elphinstone, who had a 
bull from the pope Alexander VI. in 1494. King's college was erected in 1500-6. Marischal 
college was founded by George Keith, earl marischal of Scotland, in 1593 ; rebuilt in 1837. In 
1858 the universities and colleges were united. Malcolm III. having gained a great victory 
over the Danes in the year 1010, resolved to found a new bishopric, in token of his gratitude 
for his success, and pitched upon Mortlach in Banffshire, where St. Beanus was first bishop, 
1015. The see, removed to Aberdeen early in the twelfth century, was discontinued at the 
revolution, 1689, and is now a post-revolution bishopric, instituted in 1721. See Bishops. 

ABERDEEN ADMINISTRATION, called the Coalition Ministry, as including Whigs, 
Radicals, and followers of Sir R. Peel. Formed in consequence of the resignation of the first 
Derby administration; sworn in Dec. 28, 1852; resigned Jan. 30, 1855; succeeded by the 
Palmerston administration, which see. 

Earl of Aberdeen, * first lord of the treasury. 

Lord Gran worth, lord chancellor. 

Earl Granville, president of the council 

Duke of Argyll, lord privy seal. 

Lord John Russell, \ foreign. 

Viscount Palmerston, home secretary. 

Duke of Newcastle, \ colonial and war secretary. 

William Ewart Gladstone, chancellor of exchequer. 

Sir James Graham, first lord of the admiralty. 
Sir Charles Wood, president of the India board. 
P^dward Cardwell, president of board of trade. 
Hon. Sidney Herbert, secretary-at-war. 
Sir William Molesworth, chief commissioner of works. 
Marquess of Lansdowne (without office). 
Viscount Canning, Lord Stanley of Alderley, right 
hon. Edward Strutt, &c. 

* Born in 1784 ; engaged in foreign diplomacy, 1813 ; 
the party of SirR. Peel, 1846; died, Dec. 14, 1860. 

became foreign secretary, Jan. 1828 ; joined 

t Lord John Russell was succeeded as foreign secretary by the earl of Clarendon, but continued a 
member of the cabinet, without office ; he afterwards became president of the council, in the room of 
earl Granville, appointed to the duchy of Lancaster. 

J On June T i, 1854, the offices were separated ; the duke of Newcastle remained secretary of war, and 
sir George Grey was made colonial secretary. 




ABHORRERS, a political court-party in England, in the reign of Charles II. the 
opponents of the Addressers (afterwards Whigs), so called from their address to the king 
praying for the immediate assembly of the parliament which was delayed on account of its 
being adverse to the court, The first mentioned (afterwards Tories) expressed their abhorrence 
of those who endeavoured to encroach on the royal prerogative, 1680.* Hume. 

ABINGDON LAW. In 1645, lord Essex and "Waller held Abingdon, in Berks, against 
Charles I. The town was unsuccessfully attacked by sir Stephen Hawkins in 1644, and by 
prince Rupert in 1645. On these occasions the defenders put every Irish prisoner to death 
without trial : hence the term " Abingdon law." = 

T ABJURATION of certain doctrines of the church of Rome was enjoined by statute 25 
Charles II. 1672. The oath of abjuration of the pope and the pretender was first administered 
"iy statute 13 William III. 1701 ; the form was changed in after reigns. By 21 & 22 Viet. 

48 (1858) an alteration in this oath was authorised for Jews. 

ABO, a port of Russia, founded prior to 1157, was till 1809 capital of Swedish Finland. 
It has suffered much by fire, especially in 1775 and 1827; was seized by the Russians in 
Feb., 1808 ; ceded to them in 1809 ; and rebuilt by them after the fire in 1827. A university 
was erected by Gustavus Adolphus and Christina, 1640, et seq., and removed to Helsingfors 
in 1827. The peace of Abo, between Russia and Sweden, was signed in 1743. 

ABORIGINES (from db origine, without origin), a name given to the earliest known 
inhabitants of Italy (whence came the Latini) ; now applied to the original inhabitants of 
any country. The Aborigines Protection Society was established in 1838. Reports on the 
condition of the aborigines in the British colonies were presented to parliament in 1834 
and 1837. 

ABOUKIR (Egypt), the ancient Canopus. The bay is famous for the defeat of the 
French fleet by Nelson, August 1, 1798. See Nile. A Turkish army of 15,000 was defeated 
here by 5000 French under Bonaparte, July 25, 1799. A British expedition to Egypt under 
general sir Ralph Abercromby landed here, and Aboukir surrendered to them after an 
obstinate and sanguinary conflict with the French, March 8, 1801. See Alexandria. 

ABRAHAM, EKA OF, used by Eusebius ; so called from the patriarch Abraham, who died 
B.C. 1821. It began October I, 2016 B.C. To reduce this era to the Christian, subtract 
2015 years and three months. 

ABRAHAM, HEIGHTS OF, near Quebec, Lower Canada. The French were defeated here 
by general Wolfe, who fell in the moment of victory, Sept. 13, 1759. See Quebec. 

ABRAHAMITES, a sect which adopted the errors of Paulus, and was suppressed by 
Cyriacus, the patriarch of Antioch. In the ninth century, there sprang up a community of 
monks under a like designation : it, too, was suppressed, or rather exterminated, for worshipping 
images. A mongrel sect of this name was banished from Bohemia by Joseph II. in 1783. 

ABSALOM'S REBELLION, ending in his death (1024-3 B.O.) is described in 2 Sam. 
xv. xix. 

ABSENTEE TAX (four shillings in the pound) was first levied in Ireland in 1715 on the 
incomes and pensions of absentees (persons who derive their income from one country and 
.spend it in another) but ceased in 1753. A tax of 2s. in the pound was vainly proposed by 
Mr. Flood in 1773 and by Mr. Molyneux in 1783. 

ABSOLUTION, ECCLESIASTICAL. Till the third century, the consent of the congregation 
was necessary to absolution ; but soon after the power was reserved to the bishop ; and in 
the twelfth century the form "/absolve thee" had become general. 

ABSTINENCE. It is said that St. Anthony lived to the age of 105 on twelve ounces of 
bread and water daily, and James the hermit to the age of 104. St. Epiphanius lived 
thus to 115; Simeon the Stylite to 112; and Kentigern, commonly called St. Mungo, 
to 185 years of age. Spottisivood. Ann Moore, the fasting woman of Tutbury, Staffordshire, 
was said to have lived twenty months without food ; but her imposture was detected by Dr. 
A. Henderson, Nov. 1808. At Newry, in Ireland, a man named Cavanagh was reported to 
have lived two years without meat or drink, Aug. 1840. His imposture was afterwards 
discovered in England, where he was imprisoned as a cheat, Nov. 1841. See Fasts. 

* The commons expelled several members for being Abhorrers, among them sir Francis Withens 
(whom they sent to the Tower), and prayed his majesty to remove others from places of trust. They also 
resolved, " that it is the undoubted right of the subject to petition for the calling of a parliament, and 
that to traduce such petitions as tumultuous and seditious, is to contribute to the design of altering the 
constitution." Oct. 1680. Salmon. 

B 2 



ABSTINENTS, ascetics that wholly abstained from wine, flesh, and marriage, appeared 
in France and Spain in the third century. 

ABYSSINIA, a large country in N. E. Africa. Its ancient history is very uncertain. 
The kingdom of Auxumitse (from its chief town Auxume) flourished in the 1st and 2nd 
centuries after Christ. The religion of the Abyssinians is a corrupt form of Christianity 
introduced about 329 by Frumentius. About 960, Judith, a Jewish princess, murdered a 
great part of the royal family, and reigned forty years. The young king escaped : and the 
royal house was restored in 1268 in the person of his descendant Icon Amlac. In the middle 
ages it was said to be ruled by Prester John or Prete Janni. The Portuguese missions com- 
menced in the I5th century, but were expelled about 1632 in consequence of the tyranny of 
Mendez and the Jesuits. The encroachments of the Gallas and intestine disorders soon after 
broke up the empire into petty governments. Missions were sent from England in 1829 and 
1841. Much information respecting Abyssinia has been given by Bruce (1790), Salt 
(18059), Riippell (1838), and Parkyns (1853).* 

ABYSSINIAN ERA is reckoned from the creation, which the Abyssinians place in the 
5493rd year before our era, on the 29th Aug. old style : and their dates consequently exceed 
ours by 5492 years and 125 days. To reduce Abyssinian time to the Julian year, subtract 
5492 years and 125 days. 

ACADEMIES. Academia was a shady grove without the walls of Athens (bequeathed to 
Academus for gymnastic exercises), where Plato first taught philosophy, and his followers 
took the title of Academics, 378 B.C. Stanley. Rome had no academies. Ptolemy Soter is 
said to have founded an academy at Alexandria, about 314 B.C. Abderahman I., caliph of 
Spain, founded academies about A.D. 773. Theodosius the Younger, Charlemagne, and 
Alfred are also named as founders of academies. Italy is celebrated for its academies ; and 
Jarckius mentions 550, of which 25 were in the city of Milan. The following are among the 
principal academies : 

Milan, Architecture, 1380 ; Sciences, 1719. 

Munich, Arts and Sciences, 1759. 

Naples, Rossana, 1540; Mathematics, 1560; Sciences, 
1695 ; Herculaneum, 1755. 

New York, Literature and Philosophy, 1814. 

Nismes, Royal Academy, 1682. 

Padua, for Poetry, 1613 ; Sciences, 1792. 

Palermo, Medical, 1645. 

Paris, Sorbonne, 1253 ; Painting, 1391 ; Music, 1543 
and 1672 ; French (by Richelieu), 1635 ; Fine Arts, 
1648 ; Inscriptions et Bellas Lettres (by Colbert), 
1663 ; Sciences (by Colbert), 1666 ; Architecture, 
1671 ; Surgery, 1731 ; Military, 1751 ; Natural 
Philosophy, 1796. 

Parma, the Innominati, 1550. 

Perousa, Insensati, 1561 ; Filigirti, 1574. 

Philadelphia, Arts and Sciences, 1749. 

Portsmouth, Naval, 1722 ; enlarged, 1806. 

Rome, Umoristi, 1611 ; Fantascici, 1625 ; Infccoiidi, 
1653 ; Painting, 1665 ; Arcadi, 1690 ; English, 
1752 ; Lincei, about 1600 ; Nuovi Lincei, 1847. 

St. Petersburg, Sciences, 1723 ; Military, 1732 ; the 
School of Arts, 1764. 

Stockholm, of Science, 1741 ; Belles Lettres, 1753 ; 
Agriculture, 1781 ; Royal Swedish, 1786. 

Toulon, Military, 1682. 

Turin Sciences, about 1759; Fine Arts, 1778. 

Turkey, Military School, 1775. 

Upsal, Royal Society, Sciences, 1720. 

Venice, Medical, &c., 1701. 

Verona, Music, 1543 ; Sciences, 1780. 

Vienna, Sculpture and the Arts, 1705 ; Surgery, 
1783 ; Oriental, 1810. 

Warsaw, Languages, and History, 1753. 

Washington, United States, America, 1863. 

Woolwich, Military, 1741. 

American Academy of Sciences, Boston, 1780. 

Ancona, of the Caglinosi, 1642. 

Basil, 1460. 

Berlin, Royal, 1700 ; of Princes, 1703 ; Architecture, 

Bologna, Ecclesiastical, 1687 ; Mathematics, 1690 ; 

Sciences and Arts, 1712. 
Brescia, of the Erranti, 1626. 
Brest and Toulon, Military, 1682. 
Brussels, Belles Lettres, 1773. 
Caen, Belles Lettres, 1705. 
Copenhagen, of Sciences, 1743. 
Cortona, Antiquities, 1726. 

Dublin, Arts, 1742 ; Painting, Sculpture, &c., 1823. 
Erfurt, Saxony, Sciences, 1754. 
Faenza, the Philoponi, 1612. 
Florence, Belles Lettres, 1272 ; Delia Crusca (now 

united with the Florentine, and merged under 

that name), 1582 ; Del Cimento, 1657 (by cardinal 

de' Medici) ; Antiquities, 1807. 
Geneva, Medical, 1715. 
Genoa, Painting, &c., 1751 ; Sciences, 1783. 
Germany, Naturae Curiosi, now L> op Q Idine, 1662. 
GOttingen, 1750 
Haerlem, the Sciences, 1760. 
Irish Academy, Royal, Dublin, 1782. 
Lisbon, History, 1720 ; Sciences, 1779. 
London. See Societies. Royal Academy of Fine 

Arts, 1768 ; of Music, 1734-43 ; and 1822. 
Lyons, Sciences, 1710 ; Physic and Mathematics 

added, 1758. 
Madrid, the Royal Spanish, 1713; History, 1730; 

Painting and the Arts, 1753. 
Manheim, Sciences, 1755 ; Sculpture, 1775. 
Mantua, the Vigilanti, Sciences, 1704. 
Marseilles, Belles Lettres, 1726. 
Massachusetts, Arts and Sciences, 1780. 

* Abyssinia has long been in a state of anarchy. In 1855 the emperor Ras Ali was deposed by his 
son-in-law Theodore, the present ruler, who invited the European sovereigns to join him in a crusade 
against his neighbours the Turks. Our consul (Plowden) at Massowah imprudently joined this sovereign, 
and lost his life while opposing an insurrection ; and his successor (col. Cameron) and other persons are 
now imprisoned by Theodore, who is jealous of their favouring the Turks. The subject was discussed 
in parliament in July, 1865, and the consul was censured by government for havin^ disregarded his 



ACADIA. See Nova Scotia. 

ACANTHUS, the foliage forming the volutes of the Corinthian capital, ascribed to 
llimachus, about 540 B.C. 

ACAPULCO, a Spanish galleon, from Acapulco, laden with gold and precious wares 
(estimated at above i,ooo,oooZ. sterling), taken by lord Anson, who had previously acquired 
booty in his voyage amounting to 6oo,oooZ. He arrived at Spithead in the Centurion, after 
having circumnavigated the globe, June 15, 1744. 

ACARNANIA, 1ST. Greece. The people became prominent in the Peloponnesian war, 
having invited the help of the Athenians against the Ambracians, 432 B.C. The Acarnanians 
wore subdued by the Lacedaemonians in 390 ; they took part with Macedon against the Romans 
in 200, by whom they were subjugated in 197 ; finally, in 145. 

ACCENTS. The most ancient manuscripts are written without accents, and without any 
ration of words ; nor was it until after the ninth century that the copyists began to leave 
spaces between the words. Michaelis, after Wetstein, ascribes the insertion of accents to 
Euthalius, bishop of Sulca, in Egypt, A.D. 458. Accents were first used by the French in 

reign of Louis XIII. (about 1610). 

ACCESSION, THE, i.e. that of the house of Hanover to the throne of England, in the 
person of George I., elector of Hanover, the son of Sophia, the daughter of Elizabeth, the 
daughter of James I. He succeeded to the crown, Aug. I, 1714, by virtue of the act of 
settlement passed in the reign of William III., June 12, 1701, which limited the succession 
to his mother (as a protestant) in the event of queen Anne dying without issue. 

ACCESSORIES TO CRIMES. The law respecting them consolidated and amended in 1861. 

ACCIDENTS. See Coal, Fires, Railways, &c. For compensation for accidents, see 
Campbell's Act and Passengers. 

ACCLIMATISATION OF ANIMALS. This has been prosecuted with great vigour since the 
establishment of the Zoological society of London in 1829, and of the Societe" d'Acclimata- 
tion in Paris. Numbers of European animals have been naturalised in Australia ; the 
camel has been conveyed to Brazil (1859) ; alpacas are bred at Paris ; and ostriches in Italy 
(1859). On Oct. 6, 1860, the Bois de Boulogne, near Paris, was opened as a zoological 
Garden, containing only acclimatised animals. An English acclimatisation society was 
founded June 10, 1860, by hon. Grantley Berkeley, Mr. J. Crockford, Mr. F. Buckland, &c., 
and the prince of Wales became president in April, 1865. An acclimatising garden was 
established at Melbourne, Australia, in Feb. 1861, and efforts are being made to naturalise 
English birds, fishes, &c. 

ACCORDION, a small wind-instrument witli*keys, introduced into England from Germany 
about 1828. 

ACCOUNTANT-GENERAL IN CHANCEHY. The office was appointed in 1726, and 
abolished in 1841 ; it was always held by a master in chancery. Hardy. 

ACCUSERS. By the occult writers, such as Agrippa, accusers are the eighth order of 
devils, whose chief is called Asteroth, or Spy. In the Revelation, ch. xii. 10, the devil is 
called " the accuser of the brethren." False accusers were to be hanged, by 24 Henry VI. 
1446 ; and burnt in the face with an F, by 37 Henry VIII. 1545. Stow. 

ACELDAMA, a field, said to have been the one bought with the thirty pieces of silver given 
to Judas Iscariot for betraying Christ, is still shown to travellers. It is covered with an arched 
roof, and retains the name Aceldama, that is "the field of blood," to this day. Matthew 
xxvii. 8; Actsi. 19. This name was given to an estate purchased by judge Jeffreys after 
the "bloody assizes" in 1685. 

ACETYLENE, a luminous hydrocarbon gas resembling coal gas, discovered by Berthelot, 
and made known in 1862. 

ACHAIA (N. Peloponnesus), Greece ; the capital was settled by Achseus, the son of 
Xuthus, about 1330 B.C. ( ?) The kingdom was united with Sicyon or subject to the ^Etolians 
until about 284 B. c. The Achaei, descendants of Achseus, originally inhabited the neigh- 
bourhood of Argos ; but when the Heraclidse drove them thence, they retired among the 
louians, expelled the natives, and seized their thirteen cities, viz., Pellene, jEgira, ^Egium, 
Bura, Tritsea, Leontium, Rhypes, Cerynea, Olenos, Helice, Patrse, Dyme, and Pharae, form- 
ing the ACHAEAN LEAGUE, which was broken up soon after the death of Alexander of Macedon, 
323 B.C. 



Achaia invaded by Epaminondas . .B.C. 366 
The Achaean league revived by four cities 

about 280 

Aratus made praetor 245 

The league joined by Corinth, Megara, &c. 243236 

Supported by Athens and Antigonus Doson . 

War with the Spartans ; the Achseans defeated 
at Ladocea, by the Spartans under Cleo- 
menes III., 226; but totally defeat them at 
Sellasia . . 

The Social war begun ; battle of Caphyss, in 
Arcadia ; Aratus defeated . 

The Peloponnesus ravaged by the ^Etolians 

Aratus poisoned at jEgium . 

Philopcemen, leader of the league, defeats the 

Spartan tyrant Machanidas 
Alliance of the league with the Romans 
Philopcemen defeated by Nabis in a naval 

battle 194 

Sparta joined to the league . . . 191 

War with Messene : Philopcemen made pri 

soner and slain 183 


2I 9 


The Achseans overrun Messeniawitb fire & sword 182 
The Romans enter Achaia, and carry off num- 
bers of the people, among whom is the cele- 
brated Polybius 165 

Metellus enters Greece . . . . . 147 

The Achseans defeated by Mummius at Leuco- 
petra ; the league dissolved by Mummius ; 
Corinth taken ; Greece subjected to Rome, 
and named the province of Achaia . . . 146 
Achaia made a Latin principality, A.D. 1205 ; 
founded by William of Champlitte, 1205 ; ob- 
tained by Geoffrey Villehardouin, 1210 ; by 
Geoffrey II., 1218; by his brother William, 
1246 ; who conquers the Moors, 1248 ; makes 
war with the emperor Michael, 1259, and 
gains three fortresses, 1262 ; succeeded 
by Isabella, 1277 ; who marries Florenz 
of Hainult, 1291 ; their daughter Maud, 
princess, 1311 ; thrice married ; forcibly mar- 
ried to John de Gravina, and dies in prison ; 
Achaia subject to the kings of Naples . . 1324 

Conquered by the Turks 

about 1540 

ACHONRY, SLIGO (N. Ireland) ; a bishopric founded by St. Finian, who erected the 
church of Achad, usually called Achonry, about 520, and conferred it on his disciple Nathy 
(Dathy, or David), the first bishop. The see, held with Killala since 1612, was united with 
Tuam in 1834. 

ACHROMATIC TELESCOPES, in which colour is got rid of, were invented by John 
Dollond, and described in Phil. Trans, of the Royal Society, London, 1753-8. 

ACIDS (now defined as salts of hydrogen) are generally soluble in water, redden organic 
blues, decompose carbonates, and destroy the properties of alkalies, forming alkaline salts. 
The number was increased by the Arabs ; Geber (8th century) knew nitric acid and 
sulphuric acid. Theories of the constitution of acids were put forth by Becher (1669), 
Lemery (1675), and Stahl (1723). After the discovery of oxygen by Priestley, Aug. I, 1774, 
Lavoisier (1778) concluded that oxygen was a constituent of all acids ; but about 1810 Davy, 
Gay-Lussac, and others, proved the existence of acids free from oxygen. In 1816 Dulong 
proposed the binary or hydrogen theory of acids, and in 1837 Liebig applied the theories of 
Davy and Dulong to explain the constitution of several organic acids. Oxygen acids are 
now termed anhydrides. An innumerable number of acids have been discovered through the 
advance of organic chemistry. Watts. 

ACOLYTES, an inferior order of clergy in the Latin church, unknown to the Greek 
church for four hundred years after Christ. 

ACOUSTICS (from akouo), Greek, I hear), the science of sound, so named by Sauveur in 
the 1 7th century. The communication of sounds to the air by the vibrations of the 
atmosphere, strings, &c., was explained by Pythagoras about 500 B.C., and by Aristotle, 
33 B - c - 

The speaking trumpet is said to have been used by 
Alexander the Great, 335 B.C. 

Galileo's discoveries, about A.D. 1600. 

His theorem of the harmonic curve demonstrated 
by Dr. Brook Taylor, in 1714 ; further perfected 
by D'Alembert, Euler, Bernouilli, and La Grange, 
at various periods of the eighteenth century. 

Hooke calculated the vibration of sounds by the 
striking of the teeth of brass wheels, 1681. 

Sauveur determined the number of vibrations be- 
longing to a given note, about 1700. 

Velocity of sound said to be 1473 feet in a second, 
by Gassendi ; 1172 feet by Cassini, Romer and 
others ; 968 by Newton, about 1700. 

Chladni (who raised acoustics to an independent 
science) published his important discoveries on 
the figures produced in layers of sand by harmonic 
chords, <fec., in 1787, and since. 

Cagniard-Latour invented the sirdne (which 'see). 1819. 

Biot, Savart, Wheatstone, Lissajous, Helmholtz, 
Tyndall, and others in the present century have 
greatly increased our knowledge of acoustics. 

ACRE. This measure was formerly of uncertain quantity, and differed in various parts 
of the realm, until made standard by statute 31 Edward I. 1303, and fixed at 40 poles or 
perches in length, and 4 in breadth or 160 square poles, containing 4840 square yards, 
or 43,560 square feet. In certain counties and places the measure is larger. Pardon. 

ACRE, Acca, anciently Ptolemais, in Syria, was taken by the Saracens in 638 ; by the 
crusaders under Baldwin I. in 1104 ; by Saladin in 1187 ; and again by Richard I. and other 
crusaders, July 12, 1191, after a siege of two years, with a loss of 6 archbishops, 12 bishops, 
40 earls, 500 barons, and 300,000 soldiers. It was then named St. Jean d'Acre. It was 
retaken by the Saracens in 1291, when 60,000 Christians perished. This capture was 
rendered memorable by the murder of the nuns, who had mangled their faces to repress the 



fst of the infidels. Acre, gallantly defended by Djezzar Racha against Bonaparte in July, 
1798, was relieved by Sir Sidney Smith, who resisted twelve attempts by the French, between 
March 16 and May' 20, 1799, when Bonaparte retreated. St Jean d'Acre, as a pachalic 
subject to the Porte, was seized July 2, 1832, by Ibrahim Pacha, who had revolted. On 
Nov. 3, 1840, it was stormed by the British fleet under sir Robert Stopford, and taken after 
a bombardment of a few hours, the Egyptians losing upwards of 2000 in killed and wounded, 
and 3000 prisoners, while the British had but twelve killed and 42 wounded. See Syria, and 

ACROPOLIS, the citadel of Athens, was built on a rock, and accessible only on one side ; 
Minerva had a temple at the bottom. The roof of this vast pile, which had stood above 
2000 years, was destroyed by the Venetians who took Athens in 1687. 

ACS (Hungary). The Hungarians under Gorgey were defeated here by the Austrians 
and Russians, on July 10, 1849. 

ACT OF SETTLEMENT, &c. See Accession, Succession, Supremacy, and Uniformity Acts. 

ACTA SANCTORUM (acts of the saints), a work commenced by the Jesuits in the 
seventeenth century. The first volume appeared in 1643 : the publication was interrupted 
in 1734, when the fifty-third volume was published, but was resumed in 1846, and is still in 
progress : having advanced in the order of the months as far as October. From one of the 
first editors, Bolland, the writers have been named Bollandists. 

ACTINOMETER, an instrument to measure the power of the solar rays, invented by sir 
J. F. Herschel, about 1825. See Sun. 

ACTIUM, a promontory of Acarnania, W. Greece, near which was fought, on Sept. 2, 
31 B c., the battle between the fleets of Octavianus Caesar on the one side, and of Marc Antony 
and Cleopatra on the other, which decided the fate of Antony ; 300 of his galleys going over 
to Csesar. This victory made Octavianus master of the world, and the Roman empire is 
commonly dated Jan. i, 30 B.C. (the Actian Era). The conqueror built Nicopolis (the city 
of victory), and instituted the Actian games. Blair. 

ACTRESSES appear to have been unknown to the ancients ; men or eunuchs performing 
the female parts. Charles II. is said to have first encouraged the public appearance of 
women on the stage in England, in 1662 ; but the queen of James I. had previously per- 
formed in a theatre at court. Thcat. Biog. Mrs. Colman was the first actress on the stage ; 
she performed the part of lanthe in Davenant's "Siege of Rht)des," in 1656. Victor. 

most celebrated early statutes : 

Statutes of Clarendon, to restrain the power of the 
clergy, enacted in 10 Hen. II. 1164. Provisions 
of Merton, 1235-6. Statute of Marlborough, 1267. 
Of Bigamy, 1275-6. Of Gloucester, the earliest 
statute of which any record exists, 6 Edw. I., 
1278. Of (Mortmain, 1279. Quo Warranto, Oct. 
1280. Statutes of Wales, 1284. Of Winchester, Oct. 
1284. Of Westminster, 1285. Statute forbidding 
the levying of taxes without the consent of par- 
liament, 1297. Magna Charta, 1297. Of Prse- 
munire, 1306. 

Between 1823 and 1829, 1126 acts were wholly re- 
pealed, and 443 repealed in part, chiefly arising 
out of the consolidation of the laws by Mr. (after- 
wards sir Robert) Peel ; of these acts, 1344 related 
to the kingdom at large, and 225 to Ireland solely; 
and in 1856 many obsolete statutes (enacted be- 
tween 1285 and 1777) were repealed. 

By the Statute Law Revision Act of 1861, 770 acts 
were wholly repealed, and a great many pai'tially. 
By the similar Act of 1863, a great number of 
enactments were repealed, commencing with the 
Provisions of Merton, 20 Henry III. (1236), and 
ending with i James II. (1685). 

The greatest number of acts passed in any one year 

See Parliament, The following are among the 

since 1800, was 570, in 1846 (the railway year) ; 
402 were local and personal, 51 private, and 117 
public acts. In 1841, only 13 were passed (the 
lowest number), of which two were private. In 
three instances only, the annual number was 
under a hundred. The average number of the first 
ten years of the present century was 132 public 
acts. In the ten years ending 1850, the average 
number of acts, of public interest, was 112. 
The number of public general acts passed in 1851 
was 106 ; in 1852, 88 ; in 1853, J 37 '> * n I 854> 125 ; 
in 1855, 134; in 1856, 120; in 1857, 86; in 1858, 
109 ; in 1859, I01 > i n 1860, 154; in 1861, 134; in 

1862, 114; in 1863, 125; in 1864, 121. 
In 1850. i^ Viet. c. 13, was passed to curtail Repeti- 

tions in statutes. 
Statutes first printed in the reign of Richard III., 

Statutes of the Realm, from Magna Charta to 
George I., printed from the original records and 
MSS. in 12 vols. folio, under the direction of com- 
missioners appointed in 1801, 1811 28. 

The statutes passed during each session are now 
printed annually in 4to. and 8vo. Abstracts are 
given in the Cabinet Lawyer. 

ACTS, in dramatic poetry, first employed by the Romans. Five acts are mentioned by 
Horace (Art of Poetry) as the rule (about B.C. 8). 

ACTUARY, ACTUARIUS, the Roman accountant. The Institute of Actuaries founded in 
1848, publishes its proceedings in the "Assurance Magazine." 


ADAM AND EVE, ERA OF, set down by most Christian writers as being 4004 B.C. There 
have been as many as one hundred and forty opinions on the distance of time between the 
creation of the world and the birth of the Redeemer : some make it 3616 years, and some as 
great as 6484 years. See Creation. 

ADAMITES, a sect said to have existed about 130, and to have assembled quite naked 
in their places of worship, asserting that if Adam had not sinned there would have been no 
marriages. Their chief was named Prodicus ; they deified the elements, rejected prayer, ajid 
said it was not necessary to confess Christ. Eusebius. A similar sect arose at Antwerp in the 
twelfth century, under Taudemus, or Tanchelin, whose followers, 3000 soldiers and others, 
committed many crimes under spiritual names. The sect became extinct soon after the 
death of its chief ; but another of the same kind, named Turlupins, appeared shortly after in 
Savoy and Dauphiny. A Fleming named Pieard, revived this sect in Bohemia, about 1415 ; 
it was suppressed by Ziska. 

ADDINGTON ADMINISTRATION. Mr. Pitt, having engaged to procure Roman 
Catholic emancipation to secure the union with Ireland, and being unable to do so as a 
minister, resigned Feb. 3, 1801. A new ministry was formed by Mr. Addington, March 
1 80 1 ; after various changes it terminated May n, 1804. 
Henry Addington,* first lord of the treasury and 

chancellor of the exchequer. 
Lord Eldon, lord chancellor. 
Duke of Portland, lord president. 
Earl of Westmoreland, lord privy seal. 
Lord Pelham, home secretary. 

Lord Hawkesbxxry, foreign secretary. 
Lord Hobart, colonial secretary. 
Earl St. Vincent, admiralty. 
Earl of Chatham, ordnance. 
Charles Yorke, secretary -at-war. 
Viscount Lewisham, Lord Auckland, <fec. 

ADDISCOMBE COLLEGE, near Croydon, Surrey, established by the East India 
company, in 1809, for the education of candidates for the scientific branches of the Indian 
army, was closed in 1861. 

ADDLED PARLIAMENT. See Parliament, 1614. 
ADDRESSERS. See Abhorrers. 

ADELAIDE, the capital of South Australia, was founded in 1836. It contained 14,000 
inhabitants in 1850, and 18,259 in 1855. It was made a bishopric in 1847. 

ADELPHI (Greek for brothers), a series of streets on the south side of the Strand, London, 
erected about 1768 by the brothers, John, Robert, James, and "William Adam, after whom 
the streets are named. Adelphji Theatre, see under Theatres. 

ADEN, a free port on the S. W. corner of Arabia, where in 1837 a British ship was 
wrecked and plundered. The sultan promised compensation, and agreed to cede the place 
to the English. The sultau!s son refusing to fulfil this agreement to captain Haynes, a 
naval and military force, under captain H. Smith, of the Volage, was dispatched to Aden, 
which captured it, Jan. 19, 1839. It is now a coal dep6t for Indian steamers, &c. 

ADIGE, a river in N. Italy, near which the Austrians defeated the French on March 26, 
30, and April 5, 1799. 

each, since 1700, see separate articles headed with the name of the PREMIER. 

* Born 1757; became viscount Sidmouth in 1805; held various offices afterwards, and died in 1844. 
His circular to the lords lieutenants, dated March 27, 1817, directing them to adopt severe measures against 
the authors of blasphemous and seditious pamphlets, was greatly censured, and not carried into effect. 

t Until the Restoration, there was not in fact anything that could be exclusively called a Cabinet. 
The sovereign latterly governed by a collection of privy councillors, sometimes of larger, sometimes of 
smaller number, the men and offices being frequently changed. The separation of the Cabinet from the 
Privy Council became greater during the reign of William III., and the control of the chief, now termed 
the ''premier," was established in the reign of Anne. "The era of ministries may most properly be 
reckoned from the day of the meeting of the parliament after the general election of 1698." Lord 
Macaulay. " In Walpole's time there was an interior council, of Walpole, the chancellor, and secretaries 
of state, who. in the first instance, consulted together on the more confidential points." Croker's 
Memoirs of Lord Hervey. Till 1850 the cabinet council usually consisted of the following twelve members : 
First lord of the treasury ; lord chancellor ; lord president of the council ; chancellor of the exchequer ; 
lord privy seal ; home, foreign, and colonial secretaries ; first lord of the admiralty ; president of the 
board of trade; president of the board of control; chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster. In 1850, the 
number was fifteen, and included the secretary-at-war, the postmaster-general, and the chief secretary for 
Ireland. In the Palmerston-Russell cabinet (which see), the president of the poor-law-board replaced the 
secretary for Ireland. The average duration of a ministry has been set down at four, five, and six years ; 
but instances have occurred of the duration of a ministry for much longer periods : sir Robert Walpole 
was minister from 1721 to 1742 (21 years); Mr. Pitt, 1783 to 1801 (18 years); and lord Liverpool, 1812 to 
1827 (15 years). Several ministries have not endured beyond a few months, as the Coalition Ministry in 
1783, and the " Talents" Ministry in 1806. The " Short-lived" Administration lasted Feb. 10 to 12, 1746. 




HENRY VIII. Abp. Warham ; Bps. Fisher and 
Fox; earl of Surrey, &c. . . . A.D. 1509 

Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, &c 1514 

Earl of Surrey ; Tunstall, bishop of London, <fcc. 1523 
Sir Thomas More ; bishops Tunstall and Gardi- 
ner, and Cranmer (afterwards abp. of Canter- 
bury) 1529 

Abp. Cranmer; lord Cromwell, aft. earl of 

Essex ; Thos. Boleyn, earl of Wiltshire, &c. . 1532 
Thomas, duke of Norfolk; Henry, earl of 
Surrey ; Thomas, lord Audley ; bishop Gardi- 
ner ; sir Ralph Sadler, &c 1540 

LordWriothesley; Thomas, duke of Norfolk; lord 

Lisle; sir William Petre; sir William Paget, &c. 1544 
EDWARD VI. Lord Wriothesley, now earl of 
Southampton, lord chancellor (expelled) ; 
Edward, earl of Hertford, lord protector, 
created duke of Somerset; John, lord Rus- 
sell ; Henry, earl of Arundel ; Thomas, lord 
Seymour; sir William Paget; sir William 

Petre, &c . 

John Dudley, late lord Lisle and earl of War- 
wick, created duke of Northumberland ; 
John, earl of Bedford; bishop Goodrich, sir 
William Cecil, &c. . . . . . 1551 

MARY. Stephen Gardiner, bp. of Winchester ; 
Edmund Bonner, bp. of London ; William, 
marquess of Winchester ; sir Edwd. Hastings, 
&c. ...... . 1554 

ELIZABETH. Sir Nicholas Bacon ; Edward, lord 
Clinton ; sir Robert Dudley, aftd<. earl of 
Leicester; sir Wm. Cecil, aftds. lord Burleigh. 1558 
Lord Burleigh (minister during nearly all the 

reign) ; sir N. Bacon, &c 1572 

William, lord Burleigh ; sir Thomas Bromley ; 

Robert Devereux, earl of Essex (a favourite) ; 

earl of Leicester ; earl of Lincoln ; sir Walter 

Mildmay ; sir Francis Walsingham, &c. . 1579 

Lord Burleigh ; Robert, earl of Essex ; sir 

Christopher Hatton, fec 1587 

Thomas Sackville, lord Buckhurst, afterwards 
earl of Dorset ; sir Thomas Egerton, after- 
wards lord Ellesmere and viscount Brackley ; 

sir Robert Cecil, &c 1599 

JAMES I. Thomas, earl of Dorset; Thomas, 
lord Ellesmere ; Charles, earl of Nottingham ; 
Thomas, earl of Suffolk ; Edward, earl of 
Worcester; Robert Cecil, afterwards earl of 

Salisbury, &c 1603 

Robert Cecil, earl of Salisbury ; Thomas, lord 
Ellesmere ; Henry, earl of Northampton ; 
Charles, earl of Nottingham ; Thomas, earl of 

Suffolk, &c. 1609 

Henry, earl of Northampton; Thomas, lord 
Ellesmere ; Edward, earl of Worcester ; sir 
Ralph Winwood ; Charles, earl of Notting- 
ham ; Robert, viscount Rochester, afterwards 

earl of Somerset, &c 1612 

Thomas, lord Ellesmere ; Thomas, earl of 
Suffolk; Charles, earl of Nottingham; sir 
George Villiers (a favourite), afterwards vis- 
count Villiers, and successively earl, mar- 
quess, and duke of Buckingham . . . 1615 
Sir Henry Montagu, afterwards viscount Man- 

deville and earl of Manchester . . . 1620 
Lionel, lord Cranfield, afterwards earl of Middle- 
sex ; Edward, earl of Worcester ; John, earl 
of Bristol ; John Williams, dean of West- 
minster; George Villiers, now marquess of 
Buckingham ; sir Edward Conway, &c. . 1621 
CHARLES I. Richard, lord Weston, afterwards 
earl of Portland; sir Thomas Coventry, after- 
wards lord Coventry ; Henry, earl of Man- 
chester (succeeded by James, earl of Marl- 
borough, who, in turn, gave place to Edward, 
lord, afterwards viscount, Conway); William 
Laud, bishop of London ; sir Albert Morton, 

&c t6 2 8 

William Laud, noio archbishop of Canterbury ; 
Francis, lord Cottiiigton ; James, marquess . 

of Hamilton ; Edward, earl of Dorset ; sir 
John Coke ; sir Francis Windebank, &c. . 
William Juxon, bishop of London ; sir John 
Finch, afterwards lord Finch ; Francis, lord 
Cottiugton ; Wentworth, earl of Strafford ; 
Algernon, earl of Northumberland ; James' 
marquess of Hamilton ; Laud, archbishop of 
Canterbury; sir Francis Windebank; sir 
Henry Vane, &c ...... 

[The king beheaded, Jan. 30, 1649.] 
COMMONWEALTH. Oliver Cromwell, protector, 
named a council, the number at no time to 
exceed twenty-one members, or be less than 
thirteen ........ 

Richard Cromwell, son of Oliver, succeeded on 
the death of the latter. A council of officers 
ruled at Wallingford house . . . . 

CHARLES II. Sir Edward Hyde, afterwards earl 
of Clarendon ; George Monk, created duke of 
Albemarle ; Edward Montagu, created earl of 
Sandwich ; lord Saye and Sele ; earl of Man- 
chester; lord Seymour; sir Robert Long, &c. 
George Monk, duke of Albemarle, made first 
commissioner of the treasury, &c. . . . 

"Cabal" Ministry: Clifford, Ashley, Bucking- 
ham, Arlington, Lauderdale. (See Cabal.) . 
Thomas, lord Clifford ; Anthony, earl of Shaftes- 
bury; Henry, earl of Arlington; Arthur, 
earl of Anglesey; sir Thomas Osborne, created 
viscount Latimer ; Henry Coventry ; sir 
George Carteret ; Edward Seymour, &c. . 
Thomas, viscount Latimer, afterwards earl of 
Danby, made lord high treasurer June 26, 
Arthur, earl of Essex (succeeded by Lawrence 
Hyde, aft. earl of Rochester) ; Robert, earl of 
Sunderlaud, <fec ....... 

[The king nominated a new council on April 21, 
consisting of thirty members only, of whom 
the principal were the great officers of state 
and great officers of the household.] 
Sidney, lord Godolphin ; Lawrence, earl of 
Rochester : Daniel, earl of Nottingham ; 
Robert, earl of Sunderland ; sir Thomas 
Chicheley ; George, lord Dartmouth ; Henry, 
earl of Clarendon; earls of Bath and Radnor, 
&c .......... 

JAMES II. Lawrence.earl of Rochester ; George 
^narquess of Halifax; sir George Jeffreys' 
afterwards lord Jeffreys ; Henry, earl of Cla- 
rendon ; sir John Ernley ; viscount Preston, 
&c ........ , . . 

The earl of Rochester was displaced, and John, 
lord Belasyse, made first commissioner~~Df- 
the treasury in his room, Jan. 4 ; the earl of 
Sunderland made president of the council ; 
viscount Preston, secretary of state; and 
various other changes took place hi this and 
the following year .... 

[The king left Whitehall in the night of Dec. 17', 
and quitting the kingdom, landed at Amble- 
teuse, in France, on Dec. 23, 1688.] 
WILLIAM III. AND MARY. Charles, viscount 
Mordaunt ; Thomas Osborne, earl of Danby, 
created marquess of Carmarthen, afterwards 
duke of Leeds ; George, marquess of Halifax ; 
Arthur Herbert, afterwards lord Torrington ; 
earls of Shrewsbury, Nottingham and Sun- 
derland ; earl of Dorset and Middlesex ; 
William, earl (afterwards duke) of Devon- 
shire ; lord Godolphin; lord Montagu; lord 
De la Mere, &c. ...... i 

Sidney, lord Godolphin ; Thomas, earl of 
Danby; Richard Hampden ; Thomas, earl of 
Pembroke ; Henry, viscount Sydney ; Daniel, 
earl of Nottingham, &c. .... t 

Sir John Somers became lord Somers in 1697, 
and lord chancellor ; Charles Montagu, after- 
wards lord Halifax, was made first commis- 
sioner of the treasury, May i, 1698, succeeded 
by Ford, earl of Tankerville, in 1699. 










ANNE. Sidney, lord (afterwards earl of) Godol- 
phin; Thomas, earl of Pembroke, &c. May, 1702 

Robert Harley, earl of Oxford ; sir Simon Har- 
court, &c June i, 1711 

Charles, duke of Shrewsbury, made lord trea- 
surer three days before the queen's death, 
&c July 30, 1714 

GEORGE I. Charles, earl of Halifax (succeeded 
on his death by the earl of Carlisle), &c. . 1714 

Kobert Walpole, first lord of the treasury and 
chancellor of the exchequer, &c. . . .1715 

James (afterwards earl) Stanhope ; William, lord 
Cowper, &c 1717 

Charles, earl of Sunderland, &c 1718 

Robert Walpole, afterwards sir Robert Walpole, 
and earl of Orford, &c 1721 

GEORGE II. Robert Walpole, continued . . 1727 

[Sir Robert remained prime minister twenty- 
one years ; numerous changes occurring in 
the time. See Walpole.] 

Earl of Wilmington ; lord Hard wicke, &c. . 1742 

Henry Pelham, in the room of earl of Wilming- 
ton, deceased Aug. 1743 

" Broad Bottom" administration Henry Pel- 
ham; lord Hardwicke, &c. . . Nov. 1744 

"Short-lived" administration earl of Bath; 
lords Winchilsea and Gran ville Feb. 10-12, 1746 

Henry Pelham, &c. , again . Feb. 12, 1746 

Thos. H. Pelham, duke of Newcastle; earl of 
Holdernesse, &c April, 1754 

Duke of Devonshire; William Pitt, &c. Nov. 1756 

Duke of Newcastle, and Mr. Pitt, afterwards 
earl of Chatham, <fec. - ... June, 1757 

GEORGE III. Duke of Newcastle, Mr. Pitt's 
ministry, continued 1760 

Earl of Bute; lord Henley, &c. . . May, 1762 

George Grenville; earls of Halifax and Sand* 
wich, &c April, 1763 

Marquess of Rockingham; earl of Winchilsea, 

&c - July, 1765 

Earl of Chatham; duke of Graf ton, &c. Aug. 1766 

Duke of Grafton ; lord North, &c. . Dec. 1767 

Frederick, lord North ; earl Gower, &c. Jan. 1770 

[Lord North was minister during the whole of 
the American war. ] 

Marquess of Rockingham; lord Camden ; C. J. 
Fox ; Edmund Burke, &c. . . March, 1782 

Earl ofShelburne (afterwards marquess of Lans- 
downe) ; William Pitt, &c. . . . July, 

"Coalition Ministry," duke of Portland; lord 
North ; C. J. Fox ; Edmund Burke, &c, April, 1783 

William Pitt; Henry Dundas, <fec. . Dec. 

[During Mr. Pitt's long administration, nume- 
rous changes in the ministry took place.] 

Henry Addington ; duke of Portland ; lord 
Eldon, &c March, et seq. 1801 

William Pitt; lord Eldon; George Canning, 
&c May, et seq. 1804 

[Mr. Pitt died Jan. 23, 1 8o6.] 

"All the Talents" administration lord Gren- 
ville ; lord Henry Petty ; lord Erskine ; C. J. 
Fox ; sir Charles Grey (after 'wards earl Grey). 

Feb. 1806 

[Mr. Fox's death, Feb. 13, 1806, led to nume- 
rous changes.] 

Duke of Port land; lord Eldon, &c.* March, 1807 

Spencer Perceval; earl of Liverpool ; viscount 
Palmerston, <fec. . . . Nov. and Dec. 1809 

REGENCY. Mr. Spencer Perceval (shot by 
Bellingham, May u, 1812), &c., continued 

Feb. 5, 1811 

Earl of Liverpool; lord Eldon ; Mr. Vansittart ; 
lord Melville; viscount Castlereagh, &c. 

May, June, 1812 

GEORGE IV. Earl of Liverpool, &c., continued 

Jan. 29, 1820 

[During lord Liverpool's long administration, 


numerous changes in, and accessions to, 
office occurred.] 

George Canning; lord Lyndhurst ; viscount 
Goderich ; Mr. Huskisson ; lord Palmerston ; 
duke of Clarence, &c. . . . April, 

[Mr. Canning died Aug. 8, 1827.] 

Viscount Goderich : viscount Palmerston ; mar- 
quess of Lansdowne ; Mr. Huskisson, <fcc. 

Aug. ,, 

Duke of Wellington; Robert Peel; Mr. Hus- 
kisson, &c Jan. 1828 

[The ministry was reconstructed on the retire- 
ment of the earl of Dudley ; lord Palmerston ; 
Mr. Grant ; and Mr. Huskisson.] May and 

June, ,, 

WILLIAM IV. Duke of Wellington, &c., con- 
tinued June 26, 1830 

Earl Grey ; marquess of Lansdowne ; lord 
Brougham ; viscount Althorpe ; earl of Dur- 
ham ; viscounts Melbourne, Palmerston, and 
Goderich ; sir James Graham ; lord John 
Russell, &c Nov. 

[Earl Grey resigns office, owing to a majority 
against him in the lords, on the Reform Bill, 
May 10 ; but resumes his post] . May 18, 1832 

Viscount Melbourne ; <fec. . . . July, 1834 

[Viscount Melbourne's administration dissolved, 
Nov. 1834. The duke of Wellington held the 
seals of office till the return of sir Robert 
Peel from Italy, Dec. 1834.] 

Sir Robert Peel ; lord Lyndhurst ; duke of 
Wellington ; earl of Aberdeen ; &c. Nov. 

and Dec. 

Viscount Melbourne, &c. . . . April, 1835 

VICTORIA. Viscount Melbourne, &c., continued 

June 20, 1837 

[Among the subsequent accessions were F. T. 
Baring ; earl of Clarendon ; T. B. Macaulay, 

[Viscount Melbourne resigns, and sir Robert 
Peel receives the queen's commands to form 
a new administration, May 8. Thia command 
is withdrawn, and on May 10, lord Melbourne 
and his friends return to power] . . . 1839 

Sir Robert Peel ; duke of Wellington ; lord 
Lyndhurst ; sir James Graham ; earl of Aber- 
deen ; lord Stanley, &c. . Aug. and Sept. 1841 

[Among the accessions were, Sidney Herbert ; 
W. E. Gladstone, &c.] 

Lord John Russell ; viscount Palmerston ; earl 
Grey, &c July, 1846 

[Among the accessions were : earl Gran ville ; 
Mr. Fox Maule ; earl of Carlisle ; sir Thomas 
Wilde, created lord Truro, <fec.] 

[Feb. 24. Lord John Russell announced to the 
commons, and the marquess of Lansdowne 
to the lords, that the ministers had resigned, 
owing to their defeat on Mr. Locke King's 
motion respecting the franchise, the majo- 
rity against them being 48 (100 to 52) ; and 
on March 3, the same personages informed 
parliament, that it having been found im- 
possible to construct a coalition ministry, 
the queen, by the advice of the duke of Wel- 
lington, had called upon her late ministers 
to resume office. Lord Stanley (since earl of 
Derby) had been charged by her majesty, in 
the interval, to form a new cabinet, but had 
not succeeded] 

Lord John Russell and his colleagues continued. 

March, ,, 

Earl of Derby (late Lord Stanley); lord St. Leo- 
nards ; Benjamin Disraeli ; Spencer H. Wal- 
pole ; earl of Malmesbury ; sir John Paking- 
ton; duke of Northumberland, <fcc. Feb. 27, 1852 

Earl of Aberdeen : lord John Russell ; viscount 
Palmerston, &c Dec. 28 ,, 


* The duel between lord Castlereagh and Mr. Canning, Sept 22, 1809, led to the breaking up of this 





[In this last ministry various changes of offices 
took place ; a fourth secretary of state was 
appointed, by a separation of the war from the 
colonia I department. See Secretaries of State.] 

[Tbe retirement of Lord J. Russell, Jan. 24, 
1855, and a majority in the commons against 
ministers of 157(305 to 148)011 Mr. Roebuck's 
motion respecting the conduct of the war, 
led to the resignation of lord Aberdeen and 
his colleagues, Jan. 30 ; the cabinet was re- 
constructed under lord Palmerston. ] 

Viscount Palmerston; lord Cran worth ; &c. 

Feb 7, 

[Viscount Palmerston, owing to the secession 
of Sir J. Graham, Mr. Gladstone, and Mr. S. 
Herbert, had to reconstruct his ministry. ] 

Viscount Palmerston ; lord John Russell ; earl 
of Clarendon ; sir G. Grey ; sir G. C. Lewis ; 
W. Molesworth, &c. . . Feb. 24, 


On the second reading of the Foreign Con- 
spiracy bill, the government (defeated by a 
vote of censure being passed by u majority of 
19, on the motion of Mr. Milner Gibson) re- 
signed immediately .... Feb. 19, 1858 

Earl of Derby : B. Disraeli ; Spencer Walpole ; 
lord Stanley ; sir F, Thesiger (lord Chelms- 
ford), &e Feb. 26 

[The Derby administration, in consequence of 
a vote of want of confidence in it being 
carried by a majority of 13, June 10, 1859, 
resigned the next day. Earl Granville at- 
tempted to form an administration in vain ; 
and lord Palmerston and lord John Russell 
came into office.] 

P ALMEBSTON- R ussE LL administration viscount 
Palmerston; lord John (since earl) Russell, &c. 

June 1 8, 1859 

ADMINISTRATIVE REFORM ASSOCIATION derived its- origin from a general opinion 
that the disasters which occurred to the army in the Crimea in 1854-5 were attributable to 
the inefficient and irresponsible management of the various departments of the state. The 
association was organised in London, May 5, 1855. A meeting was held in Drury-lane 
theatre, on June 13, and Mr. Layard's motion on the subject in parliament was negatived 
June 1 8 following. The association was reorganised in 1856, Mr. Roebuck, M.P., becoming 
chairman, but soon became unimportant. See Civil Service. 

ADMIRAL. This distinction does not appear to have been adopted in these realms until 
about the year 1300, but the title was in use some time previously in France. Sir Harris 
Nicolas. Alfred, Athelstan, Edgar, Harold, and other kings, had been previously the com- 
manders of their own fleets. The first French admiral is said to have been appointed 1284. 
The rank of admiral of the English seas was one of great distinction, and was first given to 
William de Leybourne by Edward I. in 1297. Spelman; Rymer. The first LORD HIGH 
ADMIRAL in England was created by Richard II. in 1385 : there had been previously high 
admirals of districts the north, west, and south. This office has seldom been entrusted to 
single hands, the duties being generally executed by lords commissioners. A similar dignity 
existed in Scotland from the reign of Robert III. : in 1673, the king bestowed it upon his 
natural son Charles Lennox, afterwards duke of Richmond, then an infant, who resigned the 
office to the crown in 1703 : after the union it was discontinued. The dignity of lord high 
admiral of Ireland (of brief existence) Was conferred upon James Butler by Henry VIII., in 
May, 1534. The Admiral of the Fleet is the highest rank in the Royal Navy, corresponding 
to that of marshal in the army. "We have now three admirals of the fleet, twenty-one 
admirals, and twenty-seven vice-admirals (1865). See Navy. 

ADMIRALTY, COURT OF, said to have been erected by Edward III., in 1357 ; a civil 
court for the trial of causes relating to maritime affairs. It was enacted in the reign of 
Henry VIII. , that criminal causes should be tried by witnesses and a jury, some of the 
judges at Westminster (or, as now, at the Old Bailey) assisting. The judgeship of the 
admiralty was constituted in 1514, and was filled by two or more functionaries until the 
Revolution, when it was restricted to one. Beatson. The judge has usually been an 
eminent doctor of the civil law. In 1844 the criminal jurisdiction of this court was 
removed, and by 20 & 21 Vic. c. 77 (1857) the judge of the Probate court was to be also 
judge of the Admiralty court. Sir John Dodson, the last admiralty judge, died in 1858. 
The jurisdiction of this court was extended in 1861. 

ADMIRALTY OFFICE dates from 1512, when Henry VIII. appointed commissioners to 
inspect his ships of war, &c. In 1662 the admiralty was first put into commission, the 
great officers of state being the commissioners. During the commonwealth the admiralty 
affairs were managed by a committee of the parliament; and at the restoration in 1660, 
James, duke of York, became lord high admiral. See succeeding changes below. In 1688-9, 
the admiralty was put into commission, and the board appears to have assembled at admiral 
Herbert's lodgings, in Channel-row, Westminster, he being at that time first lord. In 
1830, 1832, and 1836 various changes were made in the civil departments, several offices 
being abolished or consolidated with others. In March, 1861, a royal commission recom- 
mended the abolition of the board of admiralty and the appointment of a minister of the 
navy department. 





1660. JAMES, DUKE OF YORK, lord high admiral, June 6. 
1673. KING CHARLES II., June 14. 

1679. Sir Henry Capel, Feb. 14. 

1680. Daniel Finch, esq., Feb 19. 

1681. Daniel, lord Finch, Jan. 20. 

1683. Daniel, earl of Nottingham, April 17. 


1685. KING JAMES II., May 17. 

Office in commission. 

1689. Arthur Herbert, esq., March 8. 

1690. Thomas earl of Pembroke and Montgomery, 

Jan. 20. 

1692. Charles, lord Cornwallis, March 10. 

1693. Anthony viscount Falkland, April 15. 

1694. Edward Russell, esq. (aft. earl of Orford), May 2. 
1699. John, earl of Bridge water, June 2. 

1701. Thomas, earl of Pembroke, April 4. 

1702. GEORGE, PRINCE OF DENMARK, lord high ad- 

miral, May 20. 

1708. Thomas, earl of Pembroke, ditto, Nov. 29. 

Office in commission. 

1709. Edward, earl of Orford, Nov. 8. 

1710. Sir John Leake, Oct. 4. 

1712. Thomas, earl of Straff ord, Sept. 30. 
1714. Edward, earl of Orford, Oct. 14. 
1717. James, earl of Berkeley, March 19. 
1727. George, viscount Torrington, Aug 2. 
1733. Sir Charles Wagner, knt., June 25. 
1742. Daniel, earl of WinchiJsea, March 19. 
1744. John, duke of Bedford, Dec. 27. 
1748. John, earl of Sandwich, Feb. 10. 
1751. George, lord Anson, June 22. 

1756. Richard, earl Temple, Nov. 19. 

1757. Daniel, earl of Winchilsea, April 6. 
,, George, lord Anson, July 2. 

1762. George M. Dunk, earl of Halifax, June 19. 

1763. George Grenville, esq., Jan. i. 

,, John, earl of Sandwich, April 23. 

,, John, earl of Egmont, Sept. 10. 
1766. Sir Charles Saunders, Sept. 10. 

,, Sir Edward Hawke, Dec. 10. 
1771. John, earl of Sandwich, Jan. 12. 

1782. Hon. Augustus Keppel, April i. 

,, Augustus, viscount Keppel, July 18. 

1783. Richard, viscount Howe, Jan. 28. 
1788. John, earl of Chatham, July 16. 
1794. George John, earl Spencer, Dec. 20. 
1801. John, earl St. Vincent, Feb. 19. 

1804. Henry, viscount Melville, May 15. 

1805. Charles, lord Barham, May 2. 

1806. Hon. Charles Grey, Feb. 10. 

,, Thomas Grenville, esq., Oct. 23. 

1807. Henry, lord Mulgrave, April 6. 
1809. Charles Torke, esq., May 10. 

1812. Robert, viscount MelviUe, March 25. 


high admiral, May 2, resigned Aug. 12, 1828. 

1828. Robert, viscount Melville, Sept. 19. 
1830. Sir James R. G. Graham, bart., Nov. 25. 

1834. George, lord Auckland, June n. 

,, Thomas Philip, earl de Grey, Dec. 23. 

1835. George, lord Auckland, April 25. 
,, Gilbert, earl of Minto, Sept. 19. 

1841: Thomas, earl of Haddington, Sept. 8. 
1846. Edward, earl of Ellenborough, Jan. 13. 

,, George, earl of Auckland, July 24. 
1849. Sir Francis Thoruhill Baring, Jan. 18. 

1852. Algernon, duke of Northumberland, Feb. 28. 

1853. Sir James Robert George Graham, Jan 5. 
1855. Sir Charles Wood, bart., Feb. 24. 

1858. Sir John Pakington, Feb. 26. 

1859. Edward, duke of Somerset, the PRESENT First 

Lord (1865). 

ADMIRALTY, Whitehall. " At the south end of Duke-street, Westminster, was seated 
a large house, made use of for the admiralty office, until the business was removed to 
Greenwich, and thence to Wallingford-house, against Whitehall." It Avas rebuilt by Ripley 
about* 1 726 ; the screen was erected, to conceal the ugliness of the building, by the brothers 
Adam, in 1776. Lord Nelson lay in state in one of the apartments on Jan. 8, 1806 ; and on 
the next day was buried at St. Paul's. 

" ADMONITION TO THE PARLIAMENT," condemning all religious ceremonies but those 
commanded in the New Testament, was published by certain Puritans in 1571. It was 
answered by abp. Whitgift. Its presumed authors, Field and Wilcox, were imprisoned. 

ADRIAN'S WALL (to prevent the irruptions of the Scots and Picts into the northern 
counties of England, then under the Roman government) extended from the Tyne to Solway 
firth, and was eighty miles long, twelve feet high, and eight in thickness, with watch-towers; 
built 121. It was named after its second founder, the emperor Adrian, and was repaired by 
Severus, 208. 

ADRIANOPLE, in Turkey, so named after its restorer the emperor Adrian (who died 
July 10, 138). Near here was fought the battle by which Constantino gained the empire, 
July 3, 323 ; also, near here the emperor Valens was defeated and slain by the Goths, Aug. 
9, 378. Adrianople Was taken by the Turks under Amurath in 1361, and was the seat of 
their empire till the capture of Constantinople in 1453. Mahomet II. was born here in 1430. 
Priestley. Adrianople was taken by the Russians on Aug. 20, 1829 ; but was restored at 
the close of the war, Sept. 14, same year. See Turkey. 

ADRIATIC. The ceremony of the doge of Venice wedding the Adriatic sea (instituted 
about 1173), took place annually on Ascension-day. The doge dropped a ring into the sea 
from his bucentaur, or state barge, being attended by his nobility and foreign ambassadors. 
The ceremony was first omitted in 1 797. 

ADULTERATION OF FOOD was the subject of legislation in England in 1267. Much 
attention was drawn to it in 1822, through Mr. Accum's book, popularly called "Death 
in the Pot," and in 1855 through Dr. Hassan's book, " Food and its Adulterations." By an 
act for preventing the adulteration of food, passed in 1860, parochial chemical analysts may 
be appointed. 

ADU 13 ML 

ADULTERY, by the law of Moses (1490 B.C.) was punished with death, Lev. xx. 10. 
Lycurgus (884 B.C.) punished the offender as he did a parricide, and the Locrians and Spar- 
tans tore out the offender's eyes. The early Saxons burnt the adulteress, and erected a 
gibbet over her ashes, whereon they hanged the adulterer. The ears and nose were cut off 
under Canute, 1031. Ordained to be punished capitally under Cromwell, May 14, 1650 : 
but there is no record of this law taking effect. In New England a law was ordained 
whereby adultery was made capital to both parties, even though the man were unmarried ; 
and several suffered under it, 1662. Hardie. Till 1857 the legal redress against the male 
offender was by civil action for a money compensation ; the female being liable to divorce. 
By 20 & 21 Vic. c. 85 (1857) the "action for criminal conversation" was abolished and tho 
"Court for Divorce and Matrimonial Causes" was established, with power to grant divorces 
for adultery and ill usage. See Divorce. 

ADVENT (adveniens, coming). The season includes four Sundays, previous to Christmas, 
the lirst being the nearest Sunday to St. Andrew's day (Nov. 30), before or after. Homilies 
respecting Advent are mentioned prior to 378. Advent Sunday, 1865, Dec. 3 ; 1866, Dec. 2 ; 
1867, Dec. i. 

ADVENTURE BAY, at the S.E. end .of Van Diemen's Land, discovered in 1773 by capt. 
Furneaux in his first voyage to the Pacific, and named from his ship Adventure. It was 
visited by captain Bligh in 1788. 

ADVENTURERS, MERCHANT, a celebrated company of enterprising merchants, originally 
formed for the discovery of territories, and the extension of commerce, by John, duke of 
Brabant, in 1296, was transferred to England in the reign of Edward III. Elizabeth formed 
it into an English corporation in 1564. Anderson. 

ADVERTISEMENTS IN NEWSPAPERS, as now published, were not general in England 
till the beginning of the eighteenth century. A penalty of 50^. was inflicted on persons 
advertising a reward with " No questions to be asked" for the return of things stolen, and 
on the printer, 25 Geo. II. 1754. Statutes. The advertisement duty was formerly charged 
according to the number of lines ; it was afterwards fixed, in England, at 35. 6d., and in 
Ireland at 25. 6d. each advertisement. The duty was further reduced, in England, to is. 6d. 
and in Ireland to is. each, in 1833, and was altogether abolished in the United Kingdom, by 
16 & 17 Vic. c. 63 (Aug. 4, 1853).* ADVERTISING VANS, a great nuisance, were prohibited 
by 16 & 17 Vic. c. 33 (1853). 

ADVOCATE, THE KING'S. This office was instituted about the beginning of the sixteenth 
century ; and the advocate (always a doctor of the civil law) was empowered to prosecute at 
his own instance certain crimes, 1597. The I^ORD ADVOCATE in Scotland is the same 
as the attorney -general in England. It was decided in the parliament of Paris, in 1685, 
that the king's advocate of France might at the same time be a judge ; so in like manner it 
was allowed in Scotland, where sir John Nesbit and sir William Oliphant were lord advocates 
and lords of session at the same time. Beatson. The Advocates' library in Edinburgh was 
established by sir G. Mackenzie in 1682. 

J5DILES, magistrates of Rome, first created 492 B.C. There were three degrees of these 
officers, with functions similar to those of our justices of the peace. The plebeian sediles 
presided over the more minute affairs of the state, the maintenance of order, the reparation 
of the streets, the supply of provisions, &c. Varro. 

LEGATES ISLES, W. of Sicily : near these, during the first Punic war, the Roman 
consul Lutatius Catulus gained a decisive victory over the Carthaginian fleet under Hanno, 
March 10, 241 B.C. Peace ensued, the Romans obtaining Sicily and a tribute of 3200 talents. 

, a Greek island, a rival of Athens, was humbled by Themistocles, B.C. 485 ; and 
taken 455. Its inhabitants, expelled 431, were restored by the Spartans, 404 : they renewed 
war with Athens 388, and made peace, 387. 

^EGOSPOTAMOS, the Goat- river, in the Chersonesus, where Lysander, the Lacedaemonian, 
defeated the Athenian fleet, 405 B.C., and ended the Peloponnesian war. 

^ELIA CAPITOLINA, built on the ruins of Jerusalem by the emperor Adrian, 131. 

* On Oct. 16, 1860, the whole of the libretto of MacFarren's opera, Robin Hood, was inserted as an 
advertisement in the Times (4^ columns). 

JEM. 14 AFF 

./EMILIA, the name given to the provinces of Parma, Modena, and the Roinagna, united 
to Sardinia in 1860 ; and now part of the kingdom of Italy. 

, the great Latin epic poem, relating the adventures of JEneas, written about 24 
B.C. by Virgil, who died Sept. 22, 19 B.C., before he had finally corrected the poem. It was 
first printed in 1469, at Rome. 

ENIGMA. Samson's riddle (about 1141 B.C. ; Judges xiv. 12) is the earliest on record. 
The ancient oracles frequently gave responses admitting of perfectly contrary interpretations. 
Gale attributes senigmatieal speeches to the Egyptians. In Nero's time, the Romans were 
often obliged to have recourse to this method of concealing truth under obscure language. 
The following epitaph on Fair Rosamond (mistress of our Henry 11. about 1173) is a medi- 
seval specimen : " Hie jacet in tomba Rosa mundi, non Rosa inunda ; Non redolet, sed 
olet, qu?e redolere solet." 

JEOLIA, in Asia Minor, was colonised by a principal branch of the Hellenic race : begin- 
ning about 1124 B.C. The ^Eolians built several large cities both on the mainland and the 
neighbouring islands ; Mitylene, in Lesbos, was considered the capital. 

AEOLIAN HARP. Its invention is ascribed to Kiroher, 1653, but it was known before. 

^EOLOPILE, a hollow ball with an orifice in which a tube might be screwed, was used in 
the 1 7th century as a boiler for experimental steam-engines. 

JEQUI, an ancient Italian race, were subdued by the Romans, and their lands annexed 
after a conflict, 471-302 B.C. 

jERAS. See Eras. 

AERATED WATERS. Apparatus for combining gases with water have been patented by 
Thomson in 1807 ; Bakewell in 1832 and 1847 ; Tylor in 1840, and by several other 
persons. Aerated bread is made by processes patented by Dr. Dauglish, 1856-7. 

AERIANS, followers of Aerius, a presbyter, in the 4th century, who held that there was 
no distinction between a bishop and a presbyter ; that there was no Pasch to be observed by 
Christians ; that the Lent and other fasts should not be observed ; and that prayers should 
not be offered for the dead. EpipJianius. 

AERONAUTICS, AND AEROSTATICS. See Plying, and Balloons. 

JSSOP'S FABLES, said to have been written about 619, 571, or 565 B.C. They are, no 
doubt, a compilation from various sources. Phsedrus's Latin paraphrases in Iambics (about 
A.D. 8) are very elegant. 

AESTHETICS (from the Greek aisthesis, perception), the science of the beautiful (especially 
in art) ; a term invented by Baumgarten, a German philosopher, whose work ' ' jEsthetica " 
was published in 1750. 

./ETHIOPIA. See Ethiopia. MTNA. See Etna. 

^ETOLIA, in Greece, a country named after JEtolus of Elis, who, having accidentally 
killed a son of Phoroneus, king of Argos, left the Peloponnesus, and settled here. After 
the ruin of Athens and Sparta, the JEtolians became the rivals of the Achseans, and alter- 
nately allies and enemies of Rome. 

The ^tolians join Sparta against Athens B.C. 455 
Subdued by Antipater during the Lamian war . 322 
Aid in the expulsion of the Gauls . . .279 
Invade the Peloponnesus, and ravage Messenia 
(Social War), and defeat the Ach&ans at 

Caphyaa 220 

Philip V. , of Macedon, invades .ffitolia, and takes 

Thermum Peace concluded . . . .217 
Alliance with Rome 211 

War with Philip, 202 ; deserted by the Romans, 

the ^Etolians make peace . . . B.C. 205 
They invite the kings of Macedon, Syria, and 
Sparta, to coalesce with them against the 

Romans 193-2 

Defeat of the allies near Thermopylae . . . IQI 
Conquered by the Romans under Fulvius . .189 
Leading patriots massacred by the Roman party 167 
Made a province of Rome 146 

AFFINITY. Marriage within certain degrees of kindred was prohibited in almost every 
age and country, but has yet taken place to a considerable extent. See Leviticus, chap, xviii. 
(1490 B.C.). In England, a table restricting marriage within certain near degrees was set 
forth by authority, 1563. Prohibited marriages were adjudged to be incestuous and unlawful 
by the 99th canon, in 1603. All marriages within the forbidden degrees are declared to be 
absolutely void by statute 5 & 6 "Will. IV. c. 54, 1835. See Marriage (of deceased Wife's 




AFFIRMATION". See Quakers. The affirmation was altered in 1702, 1721, 1837, and 
in April, 1859. The indulgence was granted to persons who were formerly Quakers, but 
who had seceded from that sect, 2 Vic. 1838 ; and extended to other dissenters by 9 Geo. IV. 
c. 32 (1828), and 18 & 19 Vic. c. 2 (1855). 

AFGHANISTAN, a large country in central Asia, formerly part of the Persian and Greek 
empires, was conquered by the Tartars about 997. 

His son and successor, Timour, died in 1793 ; whose 
son, Zemaun, was dethroned and blinded after 
reigning ten years. Since then the history is a 
series of broils, crimes, and murders. 

Runjeet Sing, the Sikh chief of Lahore, conquers a 
large part of the country in 1818. 

Dost Mohammed becomes ruler, 1829. 

The Mahommedan dynasty, the Ghaznevides, said 

to have ruled from 1186 to 1206. 
They were conquered by Genghis Khan about 1221, 

and by Tamerlane, 1398. 
Baber conquered Caubul in 1523. 
On his death Afghanistan divided between Persia 

and Hindostan. 
The Afghans revolt in 1720 ; invade Persia and take 

Ispahan; repulsed by Nadir Shah in 1728, who 

subdues the whole of the country, 1737. 
On his assassination, one of his officers, Ahmed Shah, 

an Afghan, forms Afghanistan into an independent 

kingdom, and reigns prosperously, 1747-73. 

gi"or the Afghan warwith England, see India, 1838.] 
ost Mohammed takes Herat, May 26 ; dies, after 
designating his eldest son, Shir-Ali, his successor, 
May 29, 1863 ; a war of succession ensues. 
The English remain neutral, June, &c. 1863. 
Treachery and anarchy prevailing, June, 1865. 

AFRICA, called Libya by the Greeks, one of the three parts of the ancient world, and 
the greatest peninsula of the universe ; said to have been first peopled by Ham. For its 
history see Egypt, Carthage, Gyrene, Abyssinia, Algiers, Morocco, &c. 

unexplored. His book was published in Nov. 
1857. In Fqb. 1858, he was appointed British 
consul for the Portuguese possessions in Africa, 
and left England shortly after. 

The publication of M. du Chaillu's travels in central 
Africa created much controversy and excitement 
in 1861, 

Second expedition of Dr. Livingstone, March, 1858. 

Captains Speke and Grant announce the discovery 
of the source of the Nile in Lake Nyanza Victoria, 
Feb. 23, 1863. 

[Capt. Speke was accidentally shot by his own gun 
while alone near Bath, Sept. 15, 1864.] 

Some Dutch ladies unsuccessfully explore the White 
Nile, and undergo many privations, July, 1863 

Oxford mission. Bishop Mackenzie sent out ; dies 

Du Chaillu starts on a fresh expedition, 6 Aug. 1863. 

Dr. Livingstone returns July 23, 1864. 

Death of Dr. W. B. Baikie, at Sierra Leone, Nov. 30, 

pHe was sent as special envoy to the Negro tribes 
near the Niger by the Foreign Office about 1854. 
He opened commercial relations with Central 

Mr. Samuel Baker discovered a lake, supposed to be 
another source of the Nile, which he named Lake 
Nyanza Albert, March, 1864, 

Dr. Livingstone appointed British consul for Inner 
Africa, March 24, 1865. 

AFRICAN ASSOCIATION, for promoting the exploration 
of Central Africa, was formed in June, 1788, 
principally by Sir Joseph Banks ; and under its 
auspices many additions were made to African 
geography by Ledyard, Park, Burckhardt, 
Hornemann, &c. It merged into the Royal Geo- 
graphical Society in 1831. 

AFKICAN COMPANY (merchants trading to Africa), 
arose out of an association in Exeter, formed in 
1588. A charter was granted to a joint-stock 
company in 1618; a third company was created in 
1631 ; a fourth corporation in 1662 ; another was 
formed by letters patent in 1672; remodelled in 
1695. In 1821 the company was abolished. 

AFRICAN INSTITUTION, founded in London in i8cy, for 
the abolition of the slave trade, and the civilisa- 
tion of Africa. Many schools have been established 
with success, particularly at Sierra Leone. 

Carthage subdued by the Romans 146 B.C. ; other 

provinces gained by Pompey, 82. 
N. Africa conquered by the Vandals under 

Genseric, A.D. 429-35, reconquered by Belisarius, 

The Saracens subdue the north of Africa 637 709. 

Portuguese settlements begun 1450. 

Cape of Good Hope discovered by Diaz, 1487. 

English merchants visit Guinea in 1550 ; and Eliza- 
beth granted a patent to an African company in 

Dutch colony at the Cape founded, 1650. 

(-'apt. Btubbs sailed up the Gambia, 1723. 

Bruce commenced his travels in 1768. 

Sierra Leone settled by the English 1787. '' 

Mungo Park, who made his first voyage to Africa, 
May 22, 1795; and his second voyage, January 30, 
1804, but from which he never returned (see 

Visited by Salt in 1805 and 1809; Burckhardt in 
1812 ; Hornemann in 1816 ; Denham and Clapper- 
ton in 1822 ; the brothers Lander in 1830. 

The great Niger expedition (for which parliament 
voted 6i,oooZ.) consisting of the Albert, Wilber- 
force, and Soudan steam-ships, commenced the 
ascent of the Niger, Aug. 20, 1841 ; but when they 
reached Iddah, fever broke out among the crews, 
and they were successively obliged to return, the 
Albert having ascended the river to Egga, 320 miles 
from the sea, Sept. 28. The expedition was, in 
the end, relinquished owing to disease, heat, and 
hardships, and all the vessels had cast anchor at 
Clircnce Cove, Fernando Po, Oct. 17, 1841. 

James Richardson explored the great Sahara in 
1845-6, and in 1849 (by direction of the Foreign 
Office) he left England to explore central Africa, 
accompanied by Drs. Earth and Overweg. 
Richardson died, March 4, 1851 ; and Overweg, 
Sept. 27, 1852. 

Dr. Vogel sent out with reinforcements to Dr. 
Barth, Feb. 20, 1853; in April, 1857, said to have 
been assassinated. 

Dr. Barth returned to England, and received the 
Royal Geographical Society's medal, May 16, 1856. 
His travels were published in 5 vols. in 1858. 

Dr. David Livingstone, a missionary traveller, re- 
turned to England in Dec. 1856, after an absence 
of 16 years, during which he traversed a large 
part of the heart of S. Africa, and walked about 
n,ooo miles, principally over country hitherto 

AGAPJE (agape, Greek for love, charity), "feasts of charity," referred to Jude 12, and 
described by Tertullian, of which the first Christians of all ranks partook, in memory of the 


last time when Christ ate with his disciples. In consequence of disorders creeping in, these 
feasts were forbidden to be celebrated in churches by the councils of Laodicea (366), and 
Carthage (390). These feasts are still recognised by the Greek church, and are held in their 
original form weekly by the Sandemanians, and also in some measure by the Moravians 
and Wesleyans. 

AGAPEMONI ANS, a sect which originated with Henry James Prince, an ex-clergyman of 
the church of England, who claimed the attributes of omnipotence, and thereby obtained 
great influence over his wealthy dupes in 1845. They professed to live in a state of brotherly 
love, delivering themselves up to innocent amusements, not vexing themselves with the 
cares of ordinary mortals. Various disclosures did not at all confirm these statements. 
They resided in a building called "Agapemone" (Greek for "the abode of love"), near 
Bridgewater, in Somersetshire.* 

AGE. Chronologers have commonly divided the time between the creation and the birth 
of Christ into periods called ages. Hesiod (about 850 B.C.) described the Golden, Silver, 
Brazen, and Iron Ages. See Dark Ages. 


FIRST AGE (from the Creation to the 

Deluge) 4004-2349 

SECOND AGE (to the coining of Abraham 

FOURTH AGE (to the founding of Solo- 
mon's Temple) 14901014 

FIFTH AGE (to the capture of Jerusalem) 1014 588 

into Canaan) 23481922 I SIXTH AGE (to the birth of Christ) . 588 4 

THIRD AGE (to the Exodus from Egypt) 19211491 | SEVENTH AGE (to the present time) B.C. 4 A.D. 1865 

AGE, OF. Varied in different countries. In Greece and Rome twenty-five was full age 
for both sexes, but a greater age was requisite for the holding certain offices : e.g. thirty for 
tribunes ; forty-three for consuls. In England the minority of a male terminates at twenty- 
one, and of a female in some cases, as that of a queen, at eighteen. In 1547, the majority of 
Edward VI. was, by the will of his father, fixed at eighteen years ; previously to completing 
which age, Henry VIII. had himself assumed the reins of government, in 1509. A male of 
twelve may take the oath of allegiance ; at fourteen he may consent to a marriage, or 
choose a guardian ; at seventeen he may be an executor, and at twenty-one he is of 
age ; but according to the statute of wills, 7 "Will. IV. and I Viet. c. 26, 1837, no will 
made by any person under the age of twenty-one years shall be valid. A female at 
twelve may consent to a marriage ; at fourteen she may choose a guardian, and at twenty- 
one she is of age. 

AGIXCOURT (K France), a village, where Henry V. of England, with about 9000 men, 
defeated about 60,000 French on St. Crispin's day, Oct. 25, 1415. Of the French, whose 
leaders acted with little judgment, there were according to some accounts 10,000 killed, 
including the dukes of Alen9on, Brabant, and Bar, the archbishop of Sens, one marshal, 
thirteen earls, ninety-two barons, and 1500 knights ; and 14,000 prisoners, among whom 
were the diikes of Orleans and Bourbon, and 7000 barons, knights, and gentlemen. The 
English lost the duke of York, the earl of Suffolk, and about 20 others. St. Remy asserts 
with more probability that the English lost 1600 men. Henry V. soon after obtained the 
kingdom of France. 

AGITATORS (or Adjutators), officers appointed by the English army in 1647, to take care 
of its interests : each troop or company had two. The protector Cromwell was eventually 
obliged to repress their seditious power. At a review he seized the ringleaders of a mutiny, 
shot one instantly, in the presence of his companions and the forces on the ground, and thus 
restored discipline. Hume. Daniel O'Connell, called the agitator of Ireland, was born in 
1775. He began to agitate at the elections in 1826 ; was elected for Clare, July 5, 1828 ; 
the election being declared void, he was re-elected July 30, 1829. After the passing of the 
Catholic emancipation bill, he agitated in vain for the repeal of the union, 1834 to 1843. 
He died May 15, 1847. Richard Cobden and John Bright were the chief Anti-corn-law 
agitators, 1841-45. 

*. On May 22, 1850, Thomas "Robinson sought to recover the possession of his child from the care of its 
mother ("from whom Thomas had separated) ; the application was refused by the vice-chancellor, on the 
ground that the father would instil the doctrines of this sect into the child in educating it, and the court 
held it a duty to "save it from the pollution of the parent's teaching." Several suicides have been com- 
mitted by the deluded females of this sect. On Aug. 21, 1858, Miss Louisa Jane Nottidge died, having 
transferred her property to Mr. H. J. Prince. Her brother, Mr. Nottidge, by an action, recovered from 
Prince 5728?., as having been fraudulently obtained. Extraordinary disclosures were made during the 
trial, July 25, 1860. In the autumn of 1860, the R-v. Mr. Price, after several vain attempts, succeeded in 
rescuing his wife from the Agapemone. They had both been early supporters of it. 




AGNADELLO (N. E. Italy). Here Louis XII. of France gained a great victory over the 
Venetians, some of whose troops were accused of cowardice and treachery ; May 14, 1509. 
The conflict is also termed the battle of the Rivolta. 

(from agnoia, Greek, ignorance). I. a sect founded by Theophronius of 
Cappadocia about 370 : said to have doubted the omniscience of God. 2. the followers of 
Themistius of Alexandria about 530, who held peculiar views as to the body of Christ, and 
doubted his divinity. 

AGONISTICI (from agon, Greek, a conflict), also termed circutores, a branch of the Donatists 
(which see). They preached their heretical doctrines with great boldness in public places, 
and hence incurred the severe persecution of the emperors in the 4th and 5th centuries. 

AGRA (N. W. India), founded by Akbar in 1566, was the capital of the great mogul. See 
Mausoleums. In 1658 Aurungzebe removed to Delhi. The fortress of Agra, termed the key 
of Hindostan, in the war with the Mahrattas, surrendered to the British forces, under general 
Lake, Oct. 17, 1803, after one day's siege : 162 pieces of ordnance and 240,0002. were captured. 
In June, 1857, the city was abandoned to the mutineers by the Europeans, who took 
refuge in the fort, from which they were rescued by major Montgomery and colonel 
Greathed. Allahabad was made capital of the N. W. provinces of India, instead of Agra, in 

AGRARIAN LAW (Agraria lex) decreed an equal division among the Roman people of 
all the lands acquired by conquest, limiting the acres which each person should enjoy. It 
was first proposed by the consul Spurius Cassius, 486 B.C., and occasioned his judicial murder 
when he went out of office in 485. It was re-introduced by the tribune Licinius Stolo, 376, 
and by the tribune Tiberius Gracchus, 132 B.C. The law at last proved fatal to the freedom 
of Rome under Julius Caesar, 60 B.C. Llvy ; Vossius. In modern times the term has been 
misinterpreted to signify a division of the lands of the rich among the poor, frequently 
proposed by demagogues, such as Gracchus Babeuf,* editor of the Tribun du Peuple, in 1794. 

AGRI COLA'S WALL. See Roman Watts. 

AGRICULTURE. "Abel was a keeper of sheep, but Cain was a tiller of the ground," 
Genesis iv. 2. The Athenians asserted that the art of sowing corn began with them ; and 
the Cretans, Sicilians, and Egyptians made the same claim. 

Cato the Censor (died 149 B.C.) and Varro (died 28 
B.C.) were eminent Roman writers on agriculture. 
It was brought into England by the Romans about 
A.D. 27. 

Fitzherbert's "Book of Husbandry," printed in 

Tusser's "Five Hundred Points of Husbandry," 

Blythe's "Improver," 1649. 

Hartlib's " Legacy," 1650. 

Jethro Tail's " Horse-hoeing Husbandry," 1701. 

About the end of the i8th century fallowing was 
gradually superseded by turnips and other green 

AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES. The earliest mentioned 
in the British Isles was the Society of Improvers 
of Agriculture in Scotland, instituted in 1723. 
The Dublin Agricultural Society (1749) gave a 
stimulus to agriculture in Ireland ; its origin is 
attributed to Mr. Prior of Rathdowney, Queen's 
County, in 1731. The Bath and West of England 
Society established, 1777 ; and the Highland 
Society of Scotland, 1793. County Agricultural 
Societies are now numerous. 

London Board of Agriculture established by act of 
parliament, 1793. 

Francis, duke of Bedford, a great promoter of agri- 
culture, died, March 2, 1802. 

Royal Agricultural Society of England established 
in 1838, by noblemen and gentlemen, the chief 
landed proprietors in the kingdom, and incor- 
porated by royal charter, 1840. It holds two 

meetings annually, one in London the other in 
the country ; the first country meeting at Oxford, 
in 1839. It awards prizes, and publishes a 
valuable journal. The London meeting at Batter- 
sea in June, 1862, was highly successful. 

"Chambers of Agriculture" were established in 
France in 1851. 

The Royal Agricultural College at Cirencester 
organised, 1842 ; chartered, 1845. 

delivered lectures on this subject (afterwards 
published), at the instance of the Hoard of Agri- 
culture, in 1812 ; but it excited little attention 
till the publication of Liebig's work in 1840, which 
made a powerful impression. Boussingault's 
" Economie Rurale," an equally important work, 
appeared in 1844. The immoderate expectations 
from this study having been somewhat dis- 
appointed, a partial reaction took place. Liebig's 
" Letters on Agriculture " appeared in 1859. 

AGRICULTURAL HALL, Islington, N. London, chiefly 
for the meetings of the Smithfield Club. The 
foundation stone was laid by the president, lord 
Berners, Nov. 5, 1861. A remarkable exhibition 
of dogs was opened here on June 24, 1862 ; and of 
horses and of donkeys, in July, 1864, 1865. 

In Aug. 1855, a committee presented a report on 
the best mode of obtaining accurate Agricultural 
Statistics, which has not been acted on. There 
were, in 1831, 1,055,982 agricultural labourers in 
Great Britain, and in Ireland, 1,131,715. 

* In 1796 he conspired against the directory with the view of obtaining a division of property, and was 


AGRICULTURE, continued. 



The following Table, drawn up by Mr. William Coaling, C.E., in 1827, 
Report of the Emigration Committee : 

is extracted from the Third 



capable of 








5, 3 > 

British Islands 






*9>44 1 ,944 





AGRIGENTUM (now Girgenti), a celebrated city of Sicily, built about 582 B.C. It was 
governed by tyrants from 566 to 470 ; among these were Phalaris (see Brazen Bull] ; 
Alcamanes ; Theroii who, with his step-father Gelon, defeated the Carthaginians at Himera ; 
and Thrasydaeus, his son, expelled in 470 ; when a republic was established and Agrigeritum 
became opulent and luxurious. It was taken by the Carthaginians in 405 B.C., and held, 
except during short intervals, till wrested from them by the Romans in 262 B. c. From 
A.D. 825 till 1086 it was held by the Saracens. 

AHMEDNUGGUR (W. India), once capital of a state founded by Ahmed Shah, about 1494, 
which after having fallen into the hands of the Moguls and the Mahrattas, was taken from the 
latter by Arthur Wellesley, Aug. 1 2, 1 803, and finally annexed to the British dominions in 1 8 1 7. 

AID. See Ayde. 

AIR, OB, ATMOSPHERE. Anaximenes of Miletus (530 B. c. ) declared air to be a self-existent 
deity, and the first cause of everything created. Posidonius (about 79 B. c.) calculated the 
height of the atmosphere to be 800 stadia. The pressure of air, about 15 Ibs. to the square 
inch, was discovered by Torricelli A.D. 1645, and was found by Pascal, in 1647, to vary with 
the height. Halley, Newton, and others, up to the present time have illustrated the agency 
and influences of this great power by various experiments, and numerous inventions have 
followed ; among others the AIR-GUN of Guter of Nuremberg about 1656 ; the AIR-PUMP, 
invented by Otto von Guericke of Magdeburg about 1650 ; improved by the illustrious 
Boyle in 1657 ; and the AIR-PIPE, invented by Mr. Sutton, a brewer of London, about 1756. 
The density and elasticity of air were determined by Boyle ; and its relation to light and 
sound by Hooke, Newton, and Derham. The extension of our atmosphere above the sur- 
face of the earth, long considered as about 45 miles, was thought by admiral FitzRoy to be 
only about 9 or 10 miles '(1862). Its composition, about 77 parts of nitrogen, 21 of oxygen, 
and 2 of other matters (such as carbonic acid, watery vapour, a trace of ammonia, &c.), was 
gradually ascertained by Priestley (who discovered oxygen gas in 1774), Scheele (1775?, 
Lavoisier, and Cavendish ; and its laws of refraction were investigated by Dr. Bradley, 1737. 
Dr. Stenhouse's Air-filters (in which powdered charcoal is used) were first set up at the 
Mansion-house, London, in 1854. In 1858, Dr. R. Angus Smith made known a chemical 
method of ascertaining the amount of organic matter in the air. The researches of Dr. 
Schbnbein, a German chemist of Basel, between 1840 and 1859, led to the discovery of two 
states of the oxygen in the air, which he calls ozone and antozone. See Oxygen, Nitrogen, 
Ozone, Atmospheric Railway, and Pneumatic Despatch. The force of compressed air has been 
employed in boring the Cenis tunnel, which see. 

* At that period it was computed that the soil of the United Kingdom was annually cropped in the 
following proportions : 


Brought forward 

Nursery-grounds .... 
Inclosed fruit, flower, kitchen, and other 

gardens ..... 
Land depastured by cattle . 
Hedge-rows, copses, and woods 
Ways, water, &c ....... 2, 100,000 

Wheat 7,000,000 

Barley and rye 1,950,000 

Potatoes, oats, and beans . ... 6,500,000 

Turnips, cabbages, and other vegetables . 1,150,000 

Clover, rye-grass, &c 1,750,000 

Fallow 2,800,000 

Hop-grounds 60,000 






Cultivated land 


It was reckoned by the Agricultural Committee, that the cultivation of waste lands would yield above 
2o,ooo,ooo. a year. It was calculated in 1854 that there were in England 32,160,000 acres in cultivation, of 
the annual value of 37,412,000?. Since that time much land has been brought into cultivation. See Wheat. 




AIX-LA-CHAPELLE (AACHEN), a Roman city, now in Rhenish Prussia. Here Charle- 
magne was born 742, and died 814 ; having built the minster (796-804), and conferred many 
privileges on the city, in which fifty-five emperors have since been crowned. The city was 
taken by the French in 1792 ; retaken by the Austrians, 1793 ; by the French, 1794 ; reverted 
to Prussia, 1814. The first Treaty of peace signed here was between France and Spain, 
when France yielded Franche Cbmte, but retained her conquests in the Netherlands, May 2, 
1668. The second, or celebrated treaty, was between Great Britain, France, Holland. 
Germany, Spain, and Genoa. (By it the treaties of Westphalia in 1648, of Nimeguen in 
1678 and 1679, of Ryswick in 1697, of Utrecht in 1713, of Baden in 1714, of the Triple 
Alliance in 1717, of the Quadruple Alliance in 1718, and of Vienna in 1738, were renewed 
and confirmed.) Signed on the part of England by John, earl of Sandwich, and sir Thomas 
Robinson, Oct. 7, 1748. A Congress of the sovereigns of Austria, Russia, and Prussia, 
assisted by ministers from England and France, was held at Aix-la-Chapelle, and a conven- 
tion signed, Oct. 9, 1818. The sum then due from France to the allies was settled at 
265,000,000 of francs. 

AJACCIO. See Corsica. 

AJNADIN (Syria). Here the Mahometans defeated the army of the emperor Heraclius, 
in July, 633. They took Damascus in 634. 

AKERMAN (Bessarabia). After being several times taken, it was ceded to Russia in 1812. 
Here the celebrated treaty between Russia and Turkey was concluded in 1826, which secured 
for the former the navigation of the Black Sea, recognised the Danubian principalities, &c. 

ALABAMA, a Southern slave state, originally part of Georgia, N. America ; made an 
independent state in 1819 : commercial metropolis, Mobile. It seceded from the Union by 
an ordinance passed Jan. II, 1861, and was reunited in 1865.* 

ALAND ISLES (Gulf of Bothnia), taken from Sweden by Russians, 1809. See Bomar- 

ALANI, a Tartar race, invaded Parthia, 75. They joined the Huns in invading the 
Roman 'empire, were defeated by Theodosius, 379-382. They were subdued by the Visigoths, 
452 ; and were eventually incorporated with them. 

ALARCOS (Central Spain). Here the Spaniards under Alfonso IX., king of Castile, were 
totally defeated by the Moors, July 19, 1195. 

ALBA LONGA, an ancient city of Italy, said to have been founded by Ascanius, son of 
1 152 B.C. Its history is of doubtful authenticity. 

Agrippa ; Romulus Silvius, 864 ; Aventinus, 
845 ; Procas, 808 ; Numitor . . .B.C. 

Amulius,t the brother of Numitor, seizes the 
throne, 794 ; killed by his grandson, 
Romulus, who restores Numitor . . . 

Romulus builds and fortifies Rome (see Rome) 753 

Alba conquered by Tullus Hostilius, and in- 
corporated with Rome 

Ascanius, son of JEneas, 1152 B.C. ; Sylvius Pos- 
thumus, 1143; ./Eneas Sylvius . . B.C. 1114 

Reign of Latinus, 1048 ; Alba, 1038 ; Atys, or 
Capettis, 1002 ; Capys, 976 ; Capetus 

Reign of Tiberinus, 903 ; being defeated in 
battle, near the river Albula, he throws him- 
self into the stream, is drowned, and hence 
this river is now called the Tiber 






ALBANIA, a province in European Turkey, formerly part of the ancient Epirus. The 
Albanians became independent during the decline of the Greek empire. They were success- 
fully attacked by the Turks in 1388. About 1443, under George Castriot (Scanderbeg), they 
baffled the efforts of Mahomed II. to subdue them till the siege of Scutari in 1478, when 
they partially submitted. Albania became independent under Ali Pacha, of Janina, in 1812, 
who defeated the Turkish pachas, and governed ably, but cruelly and despotically, till Feb. 
1822, when he and his two sons were slain, after surrendering under a solemn promise of 
safety. A revolt in Albania was suppressed in 1843. 

* The " Alabama," a steam- vessel belonging to the Southern States of North America, was built at 
Birkenhcad, and sailed under a false name from the Mersey, July 28, 1862. Under the command of 
captain Semmes it made much havock in the Federal trading vessels. The " Alabama " was attacked and 
sunk by the Federal iron-clad " Kearsage " near Cherbourg, on Sunday morning, June 19, 1864. Part of 
the crew were saved by Mr. John Lancaster in an English j^acht. 

t Early traditions state, that when Arnulius dethroned his brother, he condemned Ilia, the daughter 
of Numitor, to a life of celibacy, by obliging her to take the vows and office of a vestal, thereby to assure 
his safety in the usurpation. His object was, however, frustrated ; violence was offered to Ilia, and she 
became the mother of twins, for which Amulius ordered her to be buried alive, and her offspring to be 
thrown into the Tiber, 770 B.C. But the little bark in which the infants were sent adrift stopped near 
mount Aventiue, and was brought ashore by Faustulus, the king's chief shepherd, who reared the children 
as his own, and called them Romulus and Remus. His wife, Acca-Laurentia, was surnamed Lupa ; whence 
arose the fable that Romulus and his brother were suckled by a she-wolf. At sixteen years of age, Romulus 
avenged the wrongs of Ilia and Numitor, 754 B.C., and the next year founded Rome. Varro. 

C 2 


ALBAN'S, ST. (Hertfordshire), near the Roman Verulam, derived its present name from 
Alban, the British protomartyr, said to have been beheaded during the persecution by 
Diocletian, June 23, 286. A stately monastery to his memory was erected by Orfa, king 
of Mercia, about 793, who granted it many privileges. Its superior sat as premier abbot in 
parliament till the dissolution in 1539. It was taken from Cassivelaunus by Julius Csesar, 54 
B.C., and retaken with much slaughter by Boadicea or Bunduica, queen of the Iceni, A.D. 61. 
On May 22 or 23, 1455, was fought the first battle of St. Albaris, when the Lancastrians were 
defeated, their leader, Edmund duke of Somerset slain, and king Henry VI. taken prisoner, 
by the duke of York and his partisans. In the second battle, on Shrove Tuesday, Feb. 17, 
1461, queen Margaret totally defeated the Yorkists under the earl of Warwick and rescued 
the king. There was much blood shed in these desperate conflicts. St. Alban's was incor- 
porated by Edward VI. in 1553, and disfranchised for bribery, June 17, 1852. St. Alban's 
raid, see United States, 1804. 

ALBANY (on ALBAINN), the ancient name of the Scottish Highlands. The brother of 
Robert III. of Scotland was made duke of Albany in 1398. Frederick, son of George III., 
was duke of York and Albany. He died Jan. 5, 1827. 

ALBERT MEMORIAL. The Prince Consort died on Dec. 14, 1861, deeply lamented by 
the whole civilised world. A meeting to organise a method of receiving contributions for a 
great national memorial was held at the Mansion-house, Jan. 14, 1862 ; and a large sum 
was quickly subscribed. 36,000^. had been received on March i, and 50,220^. on June n, 

1862. The nature of the memorial was referred to the queen herself. In a letter to the 
lord mayor, dated Feb. 19, 1862, sir Charles Grey says, on behalf of her majesty, " It would 
be more in accordance with her own feelings, and she believes with those of the country in 
general, that the monument should be directly personal to its object. After giving the 
subject her maturest consideration, her majesty has come to the conclusion, that nothing 
would be more appropriate, provided it is on a scale of sufficient grandeur, than an obelisk 
to be erected in Hyde-park on the site of the Great Exhibition of 1851, or on some spot 
immediately contiguous to it. Nor would any proposal that could be made be more 
gratifying to the queen herself personally, for she can never forget that the prince himself 
had highly approved of the idea of a memorial of this character being raised on the same spot in 
remembrance of the Great Exhibition. " In a second letter the queen expressed her intention of 
personally contributing towards erecting the memorial, that "it might be recorded in future 
ages as raised by the queen and people of a grateful country to the memory of its benefactor." 
Shortly after a committee was appointed to fulfil her majesty's desire. As a suitable block 
of granite could not be obtained, the proposal for an obelisk was given up. On April 22, 

1863, the queen approved of the design of Mr. Gilbert G. Scott for an Eleanor Cross, with a 
spire 150 feet high, accompanied by statues, &c. ; and on April 23, parliament voted 50,000^., 
in addition to the 6o.oooZ. received by voluntary contributions. The sculptors employed 
are M'Dowell, Foley, Theed, John Bell, and Armistead : material, Sicilian marble. (Jan. 
1865.) Many memorials of the prince have been set up throughout the empire.* 

ALBIGENSES, a name giyen to various bodies of persons who opposed the doctrines and 
corruptions of the church of Rome, living at Albiga, in Languedoc, and at Toulouse in the 
1 2th century. They were persecuted as Manichseans, 1163, and a crusade (proclaimed by 
pope Innocent III.) commenced against them in 1207. Simon de Montfort (to whom Toulouse 
was given) commanded, and at Bezieres he and the pope's legate put friends and foes to the 
sword, saying, "God will find his own !" At Minerba he burnt 150 of the Albigenses 
alive ; and at La Vaur he hanged the governor, and beheaded the chief people, drowning the 
governor's wife, and murdering other women. He next defeated the count of Toulouse, but 
was himself killed in 1218. Louis VIII. and IX., kings of France, patronised the crusade ; 
count Raymond was subdued in 1229 ; and the heretics were given up to the Inquisition. 
See Waldenses. 

ALBION (probably derived from albus or alp, white). Britain is said to have been so 
called by Julius Csesar and others, on account of the chalky cliffs upon its coast. 

ALBUERA (on ALBTJHERA), Estremadura, Spain, where a battle was fought between the 
French, commanded by marshal Soult, and the British and Anglo-Spanish army, under 
marshal, afterwards lord Beresford, May 16, 1811. The allies obtained the victory, one of 

* Inscription on the "Memorial Cairn" on a high mountain overlooking 1 Balmoral palace: "To the 
beloved memory of ALBERT the great and good Prince Consort, erected by his broken-hearted widow, 
VICTORIA R., 2ist Aug. 1862." Upon another dressed slab, a few inches below the above, is this quota- 
tion :" He being made perfect in a short time, fulfilled a long time: for his soul pleased the Lord, 
therefore hasted he to take him away from among the wicked." Wisdom of Solomon, chap. iv. 13, 14. 


the most brilliant achievements of the war. The French loss exceeded 8000 men previously 
to their retreat ; but the allies lost a large number. The chief brunt of the action fell on 
the British ; colonel Inglis, 22 officers, and more than 400 men, out of 570 who had 
mounted a hill, fell, out of the 57th regiment alone ; the other regiments were scarcely 
better off, not one-third being left standing ; " 1500 unwounded men, the remnant of 6000 
unconquerable British soldiers, stood triumphant on this fatal hill." Napier. 

ALBUFERA (Spain, East Central), a lagoon, near ^vhich the French marshal Such?t 
(afterwards duke of Albufera) defeated the Spaniards under Blake, Jan. 4, 1812 : this led to 
his capture of Valencia on Jan. 9. 

ALCANTARA, an illustrious Spanish military order of knighthood, established in 1156. 
The sovereign of Spain has been grand master since 1495. 

ALCAZAR- QUIVER, hear Fez, N. W. Africa, where the Moors totally defeated the 
Portuguese, whose gallant king Sebastian was slain, Aug. 4, 1578. The Portuguese 
disbelieved his death and anxiously expected his return ; this led to the successive appear- 
ance of five impostors. 

ALCHEMY, the forerunner of the science of chemistry : its chief objects being the 
discovery of the philosopher's stone (which was to effect the transmutation of metals into 
gold), an alkahest or universal menstruum, and the elixir of life. Alchemy is said to be as 
old as the Flood ; yet few writers, from Homer till 400 years after Christ, mention any such 
thing. The alchemists assert that their founder was Hermes Trismegistus (thrice greatest), 
an ancient Egyptian king. Pliny says, the emperor Caligula was the first who prepared 
natural arsenic, in order to make gold of it, but left it off, because "the charge exceeded the 
profit. Others say, the Egyptians knew the secret. Zosimus wrote on the subject about 
410. The Arabians are said to have invented this art, wherein they were vainly followed 
(in the I3th century) by Roger Bacon, Albertus Magnus, Aquinus, and Raymond Lullius, 
by Basil Valentine (born 1394), and by Paracelsus (died 1541), and others. In 1404 the 
craft of multiplying gold and silver was made felony by 5 Hen. IV. c. 4, which act was 
repealed in 1689. A licence for practising alchemy with all kinds of metals and minerals 
was granted to one Richard Carter, 1476. Rymer's Feed. Dr. Price, of Guildford, in 1782 
published an account of his experiments in this way, and pretended to success : he brought 
his specimens of gold to the king, affirming that they were made by means of a red and 
white powder. Being a fellow of the Royal Society, he was required, upon pain of expulsion, 
to repeat his experiments before Messrs. Kirwan and Wolfe (some say Higgins) ; but after 
much equivocation and delay he took poison and died, Aug. 1783. 

ALCOHOL. Pure spirit of wine or hydrated alcohol was obtained by the distillation of 
fermented liquors by Abucasis in the 1 2th century ; and the dehydration of this liquor 
was first partially effected by Raymond Lullius in the I3th century by carbonate of potas- 
sium. Alcohol has never been reduced to the solid state, but becomes viscid at very low 
temperatures. In 1820, Faraday and Hennell obtained traces of alcohol by passing olefiant 
gas (bi-carburetted hydrogen) through sulphuric acid ; and in 1862 this process was 
examined and confirmed by Berthelot. See Distillation, Spirits, Brandy, Gin, Rum. 

AL-CORAN. See Koran, Mahomelanism, &c. 

ALDERMAN. The Saxon ealdorman was next to the king and frequently a viceroy : but 
after the settlement of the Danes the title was gradually displaced by that of earl. Aldermen 
are now next in dignity to the mayor. They were appointed in London (where there are 
twenty-six) in 1242 ; and in Dublin (where there are twenty-four) in 1323. Aldermen 
chosen for life, instead of annually, 17 Richard II. 1394. Present mode of election 
established n Geo. I. 1725. Aldermen made justices of the peace 15 Geo. II. 1741. 

ALDERNEY (English Channel), with Jersey, &c., was incorporated with the kingdom by 
William the Conqueror, 1066. The "Race" is celebrated for two fatal occurrences; 
William of Normandy, son of Henry I. of England, and many young nobles ( 140 youths of 
the principal families of France and Britain), were overtaken by a storm, and all lost, Nov. 
25, 1 120. The British man-of-war Victory, of 100 guns and 1160 men, was wrecked here, 
Oct. 5, 1744 ; the admiral, sir John Balchan, and all his crew perished. Through this strait 
the French escaped after their defeat at La Hogue by admiral Rooke, May, 1692. 

ALDERSHOT CAMP, a moor near Farnham, about 35 miles from London. In April, 
1854, the W^ar office, having obtained a grant of ioo,ooo., purchased 4000 acres of land 
for a permanent camp for 20,000 men. Additional land was purchased in 1856. Barracks 




have been since erected for 4000 infantry, 1 500 cavalry, and several batteries of artillery. 
Great improvements in military cookery were introduced here under the superintendence of 
captain John Grant in 1857. See Cookery. It was visited by the queen April 19, 1856 ; 
and on July 7 the queen reviewed the troops returned from the Crimea ; and again on the 
1 6th, in the presence of both houses of parliament. In 1859, about 15,000 men were 
stationed here. (Cost, up to Feb. 1860, said to be 1,291,531^.) An industrial and hue art 
exhibition, furnished by officers and men and their wives, was opened here June 29, and 
closed July 14, 1864. 

ALDINE PRESS, that of Aldus Manutius, at Yenice, where were printed many of the 
first editions of the Greek, Latin, and Italian classics, commencing in 1494 with Musseus. 

ALE, BEER (and Wine) are said to have been invented by Bacchus ; the first in Egypt, 
where the soil was considered unable to produce grapes. Ale was known as a beverage at 
least in 404 B. c. Herodotus ascribes the first discovery of the art of brewing barley- wine to 
Isis, the wife of Osiris. A beverage of this kind is mentioned by Xenophon, 401 B.C. The 
Romans and Germans very early learned from the Egyptians the process of preparing a 
liquor from corn by means of fermentation. Tacitus. Ale-houses are made mention of 
in the laws of Ina, king of Wessex (A.D. 688). Booths were set up in England 728, when 
laws were passed for their regulation. Ale-houses were subjected to regulation by 5 & 6 
Edw. VI. c. 25 (1551). By I James I. c. 9 (1603), one full quart of the best, and two 
quarts of small ale were to be sold for one penny. Excise duty on ale and beer was imposed 
by the parliament in 1643, and continued by Charles II. (1660). See Beer, Porter, Wine. 

ALEMANNI, OR ALL MEN (i.e. men of all nations), hence Allemand, German. A body 
of Suevi, who took this name, were defeated by Caracalla, 214. After several repulses, they 
invaded the empire under Aurelian, who subdued them in three battles, 270. They were 
again vanquished by Julian, 356, 357. They were defeated and subjugated by Clovis at 
Tolbiac (or Zulpich), 496. The Suabians are their descendants. 

ALENCON (N. France) gave title to a count and duke. 

1268. Peter made count by his father king Louis IX. 
1293. Charles I., of Valois, made count by his bro- 
ther king Philip the Fair. 
1325. Charles II., his son, killed at Crecy. 
1346. Charles III. (his son), became a priest. 
1361. Peter, his brother. 

1404. John (his son), made DUKE in 1414, killed at 
Agin court, 1415. 

1415. John II. Chis son), intrigued against the king. 

1476. Charles IV. fled after the battle of Pavia in 
1525, and died shortly after of chagrin. The 
duchy was absorbed by the crown. 

ALEPPO (anciently Beroea), a large town, X. Syria, so named by Seleucus Nicator about 
299 B.C. The pachalic of Aleppo is one of the five governments of Syria. It was taken by 
the Turks, A.D. 638, who restored its ancient name Haleb or Chaleb ; by Saladin, 1193 ; and 
sacked by Timour, 1400. Its depopulation by the plague has been frequent ; 60,000 persons 
were computed to have perished by it in 1797. It suffered by the plague in 1827, and the 
cholera in 1832. Aleppo suffered severely from the terrible earthquakes in 1822 and 1830 ; 
and has often been the scene of fanatical massacres. On Oct. 16, 1850, the Mahometans 
attacked the Christian inhabitants. They burnt everything in their way ; three churches 
were destroyed, five others were plundered, thousands of persons were slain, and the total 
loss of property amounted to about a million sterling ; no interference was attempted by the 
pacha or the Turkish soldiers. 

ALESSANDRIA, a city of Piedmont, built in 1168 under the name of Csesarea by the 
Milanese and Cremonese, to defend the Tanaro against the emperor, and named Alessandria 
after pope Alexander III. It has been frequently besieged and taken. The French took 
Alessandria in 1798, but were driven out July 21, 1799. They recovered it after the battle 
of Marengo, in 1800. Alessandria was strongly fortified by Napoleon. Its works were 
destroyed at the peace in 1814, but a European subscription was commenced in 1856, to 
restore them. 

ALEXANDER, ERA OF, dated from the death of Alexander the Great, Nov. 12, 323 B.C. 
In the computation of this era, the period of the Creation was considered to be 5502 years 
before the birth of Christ, and, in consequence, the year i A.D. was equal to 5503. 'This 
computation continued to the year A.D. 284, which was called 5786. In the next year (A.D. 
285), which should have been 5787, ten years were discarded, and the date became 5777. 
This is still used in the Abyssinian era, which see. The date is reduced to the Christian era 
by subtracting 5502 until the year 5786, and after that time by subtracting 5492. 

"ALEXANDRA CASE." See Trials, 1862-64. 




ALEXANDRA PARK, Muswell Hill, London, N., purchased by a company, and named 
after the Princess of Wales, was opened with a flower show, July 23, 1863. A portion of 
the Exhibition of 1862 is to be erected within it. The work, which rapidly proceeded in 
1864, is now suspended (1865). 

ALEXANDRIA (Egypt), the walls whereof were six miles in circuit, was built by 
Alexander the Great, 332 B.C., who was buried here, 322. It became the residence of the 
Greek sovereigns of Egypt, the Ptolemies. 

Alexandria captured by Chosroes II. of Persia, 
616 ; and by Amrou, the general of the caliph 
Omar, who ordered the library to be burnt, * 
whereby the baths were supplied with fuel 
for six months .... Dec. 22, 640 

Cairo founded by the Saracens ; which tends to 
the decay of Alexandria 969 

Alexandria surprised and plundered by the 
Crusaders 1365 

The French invade Egypt and capture Alex- 
andria July, 1798 

A British army under gen. Ralph Abercromby 
land, and defeat the French under Menou, 

March 21, 1801 

Abercromby dies of his wounds, March 28 ; 
Menou and 10,000 French surrender to 
Hutchinson, who transmit them to France, 

Sept. 1801 

Alexandria taken by the British under Fraser, 
March 20 ; evacuated by them . Sept. 23, 1807 

Railway to Cairo formed 1851 

Ptolemy Soter erects the Museum, the Sera- 

peum, the Pharo, and other edifices, and 

begins the library about . . . .B.C. 298 
These works completed by his son P. Philadel- 

phus and his grandson P. Energetes . 283-222 
Alexandria taken by Julius Csesar ; when a 

library is burnt 48 

Which Antony replaces by one brought from 

Pergamus 36 

The city restored by Adrian . . . A.D. 122 
Massacre of the youth by Caracalla, in revenge 

for an old insult 211 

Alexandria supporting the usurper Achilleus is 

taken by Diocletian after a long siege . . 297 
Alexandria disturbed by the feuds between the 

Athanasians and Arians 321 

George of Cappadocia was killed 362, and 

Athanasius finally restored .... 363 
50,000 persons perish by an earthquake . . 365 
Paganism suppressed by Theodosius, when a 

second library is burnt 390 

ALEXANDRIAN CODEX, a MS. of the Bible in Greek, said to have been written by a 
lady named Thecla, in the 6th century, and to have belonged to the patriarch of Alexandria 
in 1098. It was presented to Charles I. of England in 1628 by Cyrillus Lascaris, patriarch 
of Constantinople, and was placed in the British Museum in 1753. It was printed in fac- 
simile, 1786-1821. 

ALEXANDRIAN SCHOOLS OF PHILOSOPHY. The first school arose soon after the 
foundation of Alexandria, 332 B.C. It flourished under the patronage of the Ptolemies till 
about 100 B.C. It included Euclid (300), Archimedes (287212), Apollonius (250), Hippar- 
chus (150), and Hero (150). The second school arose about A.D. 140, and lasted till about 
400. Its most eminent members were Ptolemy, the author of the Ptolemaic system (150), 
Diophantus, the arithmetician (200), and Pappus, the geometer (350). 

ALEXANDRINES, verses of twelve syllabus, first written by Alexander of Paris, about 
1164, and since called after him. The last line of the Spenserian stanza is an Alexandrine. 
In Pope's Essay on Criticism, this verse is thus happily exemplified : 

" A needless Alexandrine ends the song, 
That, like a wounded snake, drags its slow length along." 

The longest English poem wholly in Alexandrine verse is Drayton's Polyolbion, published 
in 1612. Chapman's Homer's Iliad (1598) is in this measure. 

ALFORD (N. Scotland), BATTLE OF. General Baillie, with a large body of Covenanters, 
was defeated by the marquess of Montrose, July 2, 1645. 

ALGEBRA : Diophantus, said to be the inventor, first wrote upon it, probably about 
200. It was much cultivated in the 9th century by the Arabs, who brought it into 
Spain. Among its votaries in Italy was Leonardo Bonaccio of Pisa, in 1220. In 1494 
Luca Paciolo published the first printed book on algebra in Europe. Serret. Some of the 
algebraic signs were introduced either by Christophe Rudolph (1522-6) or Michael Stifelius 
of Nuremberg, 1544, and others by Francis Vieta, in 1590, when algebra came into general 
use. Moreri. Descartes applied algebra to geometry about 1637. The binomial theorem 
of Newton, the basis of the doctrine of fluxions, and the new analysis, 1668. Dean, 
Peacock's "Algebra" is a first-class work. 

ALGERIA. Bee Algiers. 

* The celebrated saying of Omar" That if the books agreed with the book of God, they were useless; 
if they disagreed, they were pernicious" is denied by Mahometans. It is also attributed to Theophilus, 
archbishop of Alexandria (390), and to cardinal Xiraenes (1500). 

ALGESIRAS, OR OLD GIBRALTAR (S. Spain). By this city, the Moors entered Spain ir 
710, and held it till 1343.- Two engagements took place here between the English fleet 
under sir James Saumarez and the united French and Spanish fleets, July 6 and 12, 1801. 
In the first the enemy was victorious, the English losing the Pompey ; but their honour was 
redeemed in the latter conflict, the San Antonio, 74 guns, being captured. By an unfortu- 
nate error, two Spanish ships fired on each other and took fire ; of 2000 men on board, 250 
were saved by the English. Alison. 

ALGIEKS, now ALGERIA, N. W. Africa ; part of the Ancient Mauritania, which was 
conquered by the Romans, 46 B.C. ; by the Vandals, 439 A.D. ; recovered for the empire by 
Belisarius, 534 ; and subdued by the Arabs about 690. 

General Damremont attacked Constantina 

(which see) Oct. 13, 1837 

After various engagements Abd-el-Kader sur- 
renders Dec. 22, 1847* 

An insurrection of the Kabyles subdued by the 

French, after several sharp engagements . 1851! 
The government entrusted (for a short time) 

to prince Napoleon 1858 

The Arab tribes attack the French ; defeated, 

Oct. 31 and Nov. 6, 1859 
Algiers visited by the emperor Napoleon III., 

Sept. 1860 
Marshal Pelissier, duke of Malakhoff, appointed 

governor-general of Algeria . . Nov. 1860 
The emperor promises a constitution securing 
the rights of the Arabs, saying: "I am as 
much emperor of the Arabs as of the French." 

Feb. 1863 
Insurrection of the Arabs May; submission 

announced June 15, 1864 

Death of Pelissier dies May 22 ; marshal 
M'Mahon, duke of Magenta, succeeds him, 

Sept. 8, 1864 
Fresh revolt : insurgents defeated by Jolivet, 

Oct. 2, 1864 
The emperor well received during his visit, 

May 3 June 1865 

More rights and privileges promised to the 
natives July, 1865 

The town Algiers founded by the Arabs on the 

site of Icosium about 935 

Becoming the seat of the Barbary pirates, it 

is captured by Ferdinand of Spain, 1509; but 

is retaken by Horuc and Hayreddin Bar- 

barossa, and made the capital of a state ; 

governed by a dey, nominally subject to the 

sultan of Turkey 1516 20 

The emperor Charles V. loses a fine fleet and 

army in an unsuccessful expedition against 

them 1541 

Algiers terrified into pacific measures by 

Blake, 1655 ; by Du Quesne .... 1683 
In consequence of the continued piracy of the 

Algerines, the city was successfully bom- 
barded by the British fleet, under admiral 

lord Exmouth Aug. 27, 1816 

A new treaty followed, and Christian slavery 

was abolished. 
Algiers surrendered to a French armament 

under Bourmont and Duperre", after severe 

conflicts ; the dey is deposed, and the bar- 
barian government wholly overthrown July 

5, 1830. The French ministry announce their 

intention to retain Algiers permanently, 

May 20, 1834 
The Arab chief, Abd-el-Kader, preaches a holy 

war, becomes powerful, and attacks the 

French, at first successfully . . . 1834-5 
Marshal Clausel defeats the Arabs in two 

battles, and enters Mascara . . Dec. 8, 1836 

ALHAMBRA, a Moorish palace and fortress near Granada, S. Spain, founded by Moham- 
med I. of Granada about 1253. It surrendered to the Christians Jan. 6, 1496. The remains 
have been described in a magnificent work by Owen Jones and Jules Goury, published 
1842-5. There is a fac-simile of a part of this palace in the Crystal Palace at Sydenham. 
The Panopticon (which see) was opened as a circus, &c., under this name, in March 1858. The 
Alhambra Palace Company, incorporated in July 1863, applied for dissolution in Jan. 1865. 

ALI, SECT OF, founded by Ali (who married Mahomet's daughter Fatima), about 632. 
He became Mahomet's vizir, 613; and caliph, 655. Ali was called by the prophet, "the 
lion of God, always victorious ; " and the Persians follow the interpretation of the Koran 
according to Ali, while other Mahometans adhere to that of Abubeker and Omar. Ali was 
assassinated in 660. This sect is called Shiites and Fatimites. 

ALIENS, OR FOREIGNERS, were banished in 1155, being thought too numerous. In 1343 
they were excluded from enjoying ecclesiastical benefices. By 2 Rich. II. st. I, 1378, they 
were much relieved. When they were to be tried criminally, the juries were to be half 
foreigners, if they so desired, 1430. They were restrained from exercising any trade or 
handicraft by retail, 1483, a prohibition which was relaxed in 1663. The celebrated 

* He, with his suite, embarked at Oran, and landed at Toulon on Dec. 28 following. He was removed 
to the castle of Amboisc, near Tours, Nov. 2, 1848, and released from his confinement by Louis Napoleon, 
Oct. 16, 1852, after swearing on the Koran never to disturb Africa again ; he was to reside henceforward at 
Broussa, in Asia Minor ; but in consequence of the earthquake at that place Feb. 28, 1855, he removed to 
Constantinople. In July, 1860, Abd-el-Kader held the citadel of Damascus, and there protected many of 
the Chiistians whom he had rescued from the massacres then in perpetration by the Turks. He received 
honours from the English, French, and Sardinian sovereigns. 

t 500 Arabs in a cave refuse to surrender : suffocated by smoke ; said to have been ordered by general 
Pelissier, June 18, 1845. 

J The first four successors of Mahomet Abubeker, Omar, Othman, and Ali, his chief agents in estab- 
lishing his religion and extirpating unbelievers, and whom on that account he styled the " cutting swords 
of God," all died violent deaths ; and his family was wholly extirpated within thirty years after his own 




Alien Bill passed, Jan. 1793. Act to register aliens, 1795. Tne celebrated baron Geramb, 
a conspicuous and fashionable foreigner, known ac court, was ordered out of England, 
April 6, 1812. Bill to abolish their naturalisation by the holding of stock in the banks of 
Scotland, June, 1820. New registration act, 7 Geo. IV. 1826. This last act was repealed 
and another statute passed, 6 Will. IV. 1836. The rigour of the alien laws was much 
mitigated by 7 & 8 Viet. c. 66 (1844). ALIEN PRIORIES were suppressed in England 
in 1414.* 

ALIWAL, a village in N. W. India, the site of a battle on Jan. 28, 1846, between the 
Sikh army under sirdar Runjoor Singh Majeethea, 19,000 strong, supported by 68 pieces of 
ca:iuon, and the British under sir H. Smith, 7000 men, with 32 guns. The contest was 
obstinate, but ended in the defeat of the Sikhs, who lost nearly 6000 killed or drowned in 
attempting to recross the Sutlej. 

ALKALIES (from kali, the Arabic name for the plant from which an alkaline substance 
was first procured) are ammonia, potash, soda, and lithia. Black discovered the nature of 
the difference between caustic and mild alkalies in 1736. 

The fixed alkalies, potash and soda, decomposed by 
Humphry Davy at the Royal Institution, London, 
1808. Dr. Ure invented an alkalimeter, 1816. 

The manufacture of alkalies, very extensive in 
Lancashire and Cheshire, are based on the decom- 
position of common salt (chloride of sodium), by 
a process invented by a Frenchman named Le 
Blanc, about 1792. 

Mr. Losh obtained crystals of soda from brine about 
1814. Various modifications of these processes 
are now in use. 

"Alkali works " are defined as works for the manu- 
facture of alkali, sulphates of soda, sulphate of 
potash, and in which muriatic gas is evolved. 

Mr. Wm. Gossage's process for condensing muriatic 
acid gas patented in 1836. 

In consequence of the serious injury to vegetation 
produced by the numerous alkali works in Lanca- 
shire and Cheshire, the Alkali act "for the more 
effectual condensation [of 95 per cent.] of muriatic 
acid gas " (or hydrochloric acid) was passed, July 
28, 1863, to come into operation Jan. i, 1864. 

ALKMAER. See Bergen. 

ALLAHABAD (N. W. Hindostan), the "holy city " of the Indian Mahometans, situated 
at the junction of the rivers Jumna and Ganges. The province of Allahabad was succes- 
sively subject to the kings of Delhi and Oude, but in 1803 was wholly incorporated with the 
British possessions. By treaty here, Bengal, &c., was ceded to the English in 1765. 
During the sepoy mutiny several regiments of the East India company rose and massacred 
their officers, June 4, 1857 ; colonel Neil marched promptly from Benares and suppressed 
the insurrection. In Nov. 1861, lord Canning made this city the capital of the N. W. 


ALLEGORY is as old as language, and abounds in the Scriptures and Homer : see 
Jacob's blessing upon his sons, Genesis xlix. (B.C> 1689), Ps&lm.lxxx., and all the prophets. 
Spenser's faerie Queene (1590) and Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress (1678) are allegories 
throughout ; Addison's writings in the Spectator (1711) abound in allegories. 

ALLIA (Italy), a small river flowing into the Tiber, where Brennus and the Gauls 
defeated the Romans, July 16, 390 B.C. The Gauls sacked Rome and committed so much 
injury that the day was thereafter held to be unlucky (nefas), and no public business was 
permitted to be done thereon. 

ALLIANCE, TREATIES OF, between the high European powers. The following are the 
principal. See Coalitions, Conventions, Treaties, United Kingdom, &c. 


Of England, France, & Turkey 
(at Constantinople) Mar. 12, 1854 

Of England and France rati- 
fied . . . April 3, ,, 

Of Sardinia with the Western 
Powers (at Turin) Jan. 26, 1855 

Of Sweden with the Western 
Powers . . Dec. 19, ,, 

ALLOTMENTS. See Land, note. 

ALL SAINTS' DAY (Nov. i), or All-Hallows, a festival said to have been begun by pope 
Boniface IV. about 607, and celebrated in the Pantheon at Rome, and established by pope 
Gregory IV. (about 830) for the commemoration of all those saints and martyrs in whose 

* " Foreigners have reclaimed our marshes, drained our fens, fished our eeas, and built our bridges 
and harbours." Smiles, 1861. 


Of Leipsic . 
Of Vienna . 
The Triple 
Of Warsaw . 
The Grand 
The Hague . 
The Quadruple 
Of Vienna . 

April 9, 1631 
May 27, 1657 
Jan. 28, 1668 
March 31, 1683 
May 12, 1689 
Jan. 4, 1717 
Aug. 2, 1718 
March 16, 1731 


Of Versailles . . 
Of Paris . . . 
Of St. Petersburg 
Of Sweden . . 
Of Toplitz . 
Holy Alliance . 

May i, 1756 
July 23, 1785 
May 16, 1795 
April 8, 1805 
March 14, 1812 
March 24, ,, 
Sept. 9, 1813 
Sept. 26, 1815 


honour no particular day is assigned. The reformers of the English church, 1549, struck 
out of their calendar altogether a great number of anniversaries, leaving only those which at 
their time were connected with popular feeling or tradition. 

ALL SOULS' DAY (Nov. 2), a festival of the Roman Catholic church to commemorate 
the souls that are in purgatory, instituted, it is said, at Cluny about 993 or 1000. 

"ALL THE TALENTS" ADMINISTRATION. See Grenmlle Administrations. 

ALMA, a river in the Crimea, near which was fought a great battle on Sept. 20, 1854. See 
Russo-Turkish War and Crimea. The English, French, and Turkish army (about 57,ooo 
men) moved out of their first encampment in the Crimea on Sept. 19, and bivouacked for the 
night on the left bank of the Bulganac. The Russians (commanded by Prince Menschikoff ), 
mustering 40,000 infantry, had 180 field-pieces on the heights, and on the morning of Sept. 
2Oth were joined by 6000 cavalry from Theodosia (or Kaffa). The English forces, under 
lord Raglan, consisted of 26,000 men; the French of 24,000, under marshal St. Arnaud. 
At 12 o'clock the signal to advance was made ; the river Alma was crossed, while prince 
Napoleon took possession of the village under the fire of the Russian batteries. At 4, after 
a sanguinary fight, the allies were completely victorious. The enemy, utterly routed, threw 
away their arms and knapsacks in their flight, having lost about 5000 men, of whom 900 
were made prisoners, mostly wounded. The loss of the British was 26 officers and 327 men 
killed, and 73 officers and 1539 men wounded (chiefly from the 23rd, 7th, and 33rd regi- 
ments) ; that of the French, 3 officers and 233 men killed, and 54 officers and 1033 men 
wounded. Total loss of allies, about 3300. 

ALMACK'S ASSEMBLY-ROOMS, King-street, St. James's, London, at first very 
exclusive, were erected by a Scotchman named Almack, and opened Feb. 12, 1765. 

ALMANACS (from the Arabic al manah, to count).* The Egyptians computed time by 
instruments. The Alexandrians had almanacs. Log calendars were anciently in use. In 
the British Museum and universities are curious specimens of early almanacs. Michael 
Nostradamus, the celebrated astrologer, wrote an almanac in the style of Merlin, 1556. 
Dufresnoy. Professor Augustus De Morgan's valuable "Book of Almanacs, with an index 
of reference, by which the almanac may be found for every year," was published in March, 
1851. Among the earlier and more remarkable almanacs were 

John Somer's Calendar, written in Oxford 
One in Lambeth palace, written in 
First printed one, published at Buda 
First printed in England, by Richard Pynson 
Tybalt's Prognostications .... 
Almanac Lie"geois 

Lilly's Ephemeris . 
Poor Robin's Almanac 
British Merlin 

J 533 

Moore's Almanac .... 1698 or 1713 

Lady's Diary 1705 

Season on the Seasons 1735 

Gentleman's Diary ...... 1741 

Nautical Almanac, begun by Dr. Neville Mas- 
kelyne (materially improved in 1834) . . 1767 

British Imperial Kalendar 1809 

Hone's Every-Day Book 1826 

British Almanac and Companion . . .1828 
Anniversary Calendar, published by W. Kidd 1832 
Chambers' Book of Days .... 1862 3 

Edinburgh Almanac 1683 

Connaissance des Temps (by Picard) . . . 1699 

ALMANZA (S. E. Spain). Here, on April 25 (0. S. 14), 1714, the English, Dutch, 
and Portuguese forces under the earl of Galway, were totally defeated by the French and 
Spanish commanded by James Fitzjames, duke of Berwick (illegitimate son of James II.). 
Most of the English were killed or made prisoners, having been abandoned by the 
Portuguese at the first charge. 

ALMEIDA (Portugal), a frontier town, captured by Massena, Aug. 27, 1810. The French 
crossed into Spain, leaving a garrison at Almeida, blockaded by the English, April 6, 1811. 
Almeida was retaken by Wellington (May 10), who eventually compelled Masseua to retire 
from Portugal, his route being tracked by horrid desolation. 

ALMENARA, a village, N. E. Spain, where, on July 28, 1710, an English and German 
army defeated the Spanish army supporting Philip V., the grandson of Louis XIV. of France. 
Stanhope, the English general, killed the Spanish general, Ainezaga, in single conflict, an 
act almost unexampled in modern warfare. 

Of Moore's (under the management of Henry Andrews, the able computer of the Nautical Ephemeris) 
at one time upwards of 430,000 copies were annually sold. He died in 1820. The Stationers' company 
claimed the exclusive right of publishing almanacs in virtue of letters patent from James I., granting the 
privilege to them and the two universities ; but the monopoly was broken up by a decision of the Court of 
Common Pleas in 1775. A bill to renew the privilege was lost in 1779. The stamp duty on English 
almanacs, first imposed in 1710, was abolished in August, 1834; since when almanacs have become in- 
numerable, being issued by tradesmen with their goods. Of Foreign Almanac*, the principal are the 
" Almanach de France," first published in 1699, and the " Almanach de Gotha," 1764. 



ALMOHADES, Mahometan partisans, followers of El-Mehxli in Africa, about 1120. 
They subdued Morocco, 1145 ; entered Spain and cook Seville, Cordova, and Granada, 
1146-56 ; ruled Spain till 1232, and Africa till 12/6. 

ALMONER, an office of uncertain origin, anciently allotted to a dignified clergyman, who 
had the privilege of giving the fir >t dish from the royal table to the poor, or instead thereot 
an alms in money. By an ancbnt canon all bishops were required to keep almoners. The 
grand almoner of France (le grand aumonier) was the highest ecclesiastical dignity in that 
kingdom before the revolution, 1789. Queen Victoria's almoner (now the bishop of Oxford) 
or his sub-altiioner distributes the queen's gifts on Maundy Thursday (which see). 

ALMORAVIDES, Mahometan partisans in Africa, rose about 1050 ; entered Spain by 
invitation, 1086 ; were overcome by the Almohades in 1145. 

ALMSHOUSES for aged and infirm persons have been erected by very many public 
companies and benevolent individuals, particularly since the destruction of religious houses 
at the time of the Reformation in the i6th century. A list of them, with useful information, 
will be found in " Low's Charities of London," ed. 1862. 

Cornelius Van Dun founded the Red Lion alms- Dame Owen's almshouses, Islington, built in 

houses, Westminster 1577 1613 (in gratitude for her escape from an 

Emmanuel College, Westminster, founded by arrow-shot) were rebuilt by the Brewers' 

Lady Dacre 1594 company ^Q 

Whittington's almshouses, founded in 1621, Bancroft's almshouses, Mile End, were erected 1735 

were rebuilt near Highgate-hill by the Mer- The London almshouses, in commemoration of 

cers' company 1826 the passing of the Reform Bill, built at 

The Fishmongers' company founded alms- Brixton X 833 

houses in 1618, and rebuilt them on Wands- Numerous almshouses since erected for 

worth common 1850 printers, bookbinders, &c. 

Haberdashers' almshouses, Hoxton, founded 
by Robert Aske 1692 

ALNEY. A combat is asserted to have taken place between Edmund Ironside and Canute 
the Great, on Alney, an island on the Severn, Gloucestershire, in sight of their armies ; 
when the latter was wounded, he proposed a division of the kingdom, the south part falling 
to Edmund. Edmund was murdered at Oxford shortly after the treaty, according to some 
by the treachery of JMric Streon, and Canute obtained possession of the whole kingdom 

ALNWICK (Saxon Ealmtric), on the river Alne in Northumberland, was given at the 
conquest to Ivo de Vesco. It has belonged to the Percies since 1310. Malcolm, king of 
Scotland, besieged Alnwick in 1093, when he and his sous were killed. It was taken by 
David I. in 1136, and attempted in 1174 by William the Lion, who was defeated and 
taken prisoner. It was burnt by king John in 1215, and by the Scots in 1448. Since 1854 
the castle has been repaired and enlarged with great taste and at unsparing expense. 

ALPACA (or Paco), a species of the S. American quadruped the Llama, the soft hairy 
wool of which is now largely employed in the fabrication of cloths. It was introduced into 
this country about 1836, by the earl of Derby. An alpaca factory, &c. (covering n acres), 
was erected at Saltaire, near Shipley, Yorkshire, by Mr. Titus Salt in 1852. 

ALPHABET. Athotes, son of Menes, is said to have been the author of hieroglyphics, 
and to have written thus the history of the Egyptians, 2122 B.C. Blair. But Josephus 
affirms that he had seen inscriptions by Seth, the son of Adam ; this is deemed fabulous. 

they became the ground of the Roman letters, 
now used all over Europe. Palamedes of Argos 
invented the double characters, 0, X, 4>, S,, about 
1224 B.C. ; and Simonides added, Z, *", H, 11, about 
4898.0. Arundelian Marbles. When the E was 
introduced is not precisely known. The Greek 
alphabet consisted of 16 letters till 399 (or 403) 
B.C., when the Ionic of 24 characters was intro- 
duced. The small letters, for the convenience of 
writing, are of later invention. The alphabets of 
the different nations contain the following number 
ot letters : 

The Egyptian alphabet is ascribed to Memnon, 
1822 B.C. 

The first letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew 
alphabet was ahph, called by the Greeks alpha, and 
abbreviated by the moderns to A. The Hebrew 
is supposed to be derived from the Phoenician. 

Cadmus the founder of Cadmea, 1493 B.C., is said 
to have brought the Phoenician letters (fifteen in 
number) into Greece, viz. : A, B, T. A, I, K, A, 
M, N, O, n, P, ^ T, T. These letters were 
originally either Hebrew, Phoenician, or Assyrian 
characters, and changed gradually in form till 

English . 

French .... 


Latin . 

. 26 
. 42 

Persian . 

Turkish ... 28 
Sanscrit . . . 44 
Chinese radical cha- 
racters . . .214 

Spanish . . . 

ALPHONSINE TABLES, astronomical tables, composed by Spanish and Arab astro- 
nomers, and collected in 1253 under the direction of Alphonsus X. of Castile, surnamed the 


Wise, who is said to have expended upwards of 400,000 crowns in completing the work ; he 
himself wrote the preface. The Spanish government ordered the work to be reprinted from 
the best MSS. ; three volumes have appeared, 1863-5. 

ALPS, a European range of mountains. Those between France and Italy were passed by 
Hannibal 218 B.C., by the Romans 154 B.C., and by Napoleon I. in A.D. 1800. Roads over 
Mont Cenis and the Simplon, connecting France and Italy, were constructed by order of 
Napoleon, between iSoi-6. See Simplon. A sub-alpine tunnel through Mont Cenis to 
connect Savoy and Piedmont has been in progress since 1857.* In 1859 the " Alpine Club," 
which consists of British travellers in the Alps, published their first work, " Peaks, Passes, 
and Glaciers." 

ALSACE (N. E. France), formerly part of the kingdom of Austrasia, now the departments 
of the Upper and Lower Rhine. It was incorporated into the German empire in the loth 
century. A portion was restored to France, 1648, and the whole, including Strasburg, in 
1697. The precinct of Whitefriars, London, called Alsatia, is described in Scott's "Fortunes 
of Nigel." Its privilege of sanctuary was abolished in 1696. 

ALTAR. One was built by Noah, 2348 B.C. (Gen. viii. 20) ; others by Abraham, 1921 
(Gen. xii. 8). Directions for making an altar are given Exod. xx. 24, 1491 B.C. Altars 
were raised to Jupiter, in Greece, by Cecrops, 1556 B.C. He introduced among the Greeks 
the worship of the deities of Egypt. Herodotus. The term "altar" was applied to the 
Lord's table for the first three centuries after Christ (ffeb. xiii. 10). Christian altars in 
churches were instituted by pope Sixtus I., A.D. 135 ; and were first consecrated by pope 
Sylvester. The first Christian altar in Britain was in 634. Stow. The church of England 
terms the table on which the elements are placed an altar. Since the time of Elizabeth 
there has been much controversy on the subject, and the Puritans in the civil war destroyed 
many of the ancient stone altars, substituting wooden tables. In 1845 it was decided in 
the Arches Court that stone altars were not to be erected in English churches. 

ALTER EGO (another or second /), a term applied to Spanish viceroys when exercising 
regal power ; used at Naples when the crown prince was appointed vicar-general during an 
insurrection in July, 1820. 

ALT-RANS^ADT (Prussia), where the treaty of peace dictated by Charles XII. of Sweden, 
to Frederick Augustus of Poland, was signed, Sept. 24, 1706. Frederick, deposed in 1704, 
regained the throne of Poland after the defeat of Charles XII., in 1709. 

ALUM is said to have been first discovered at Rocha, in Syria, about 1300 ; it was found 
in Tuscany about 1470 ; was brought to perfection in England by sir T. Challoner, who 
established large alum works near "Whit by in 1608; was discovered in Ireland in 1757; 
and in Anglesey in 1790. Alum is a salt used as a mordant in dyeing ; and also to harden 
tallow, to whiten bread, and in the paper manufacture. It may be made of pure clay 
exposed to vapours of sulphuric acid, and sulphate of potash added to the ley ; but is 
usually obtained by means of ore called alum slate. 

ALUMBAGH, a fort near Liicknow, Oude, India, seized and heroically defended by the 
British under sir James Outram during the mutiny in 1857. He defeated an attack of 
30,000 sepoys on Jan. 12, 1858, and of 20,000 on Feb. 21. He was relieved by sir Colin 
Campbell in March. 

ALUMINIUM, a metal, the base of the earth alumina (clay), which was shown to be a 
distinct earth by Marggraff in 1754, having been previously confounded with lime. Oerstedt 
in 1826 obtained the chloride of aluminium ; and in 1827 the metal itself was first obtained 
by F. Wohler, but was for some time merely a scientific curiosity, the process being 
expensive. The mode of production was afterwards simplified by Bunsen and others, more 
especially by H. Ste. -Claire Deville, who in 1856 succeeded in procuring considerable quan- 
tities of this metal. It is very light (sp. g. 2*25), malleable, and sonorous ; when pure does 
not rust, and is not acted on by sulphur or any acid except hydrochloric. These qualities 
will render it very useful when improved processes render it cheaper. In March, 1856, it 
was 3^. the ounce ; in June, 1857, us. or 125., and it is now much cheaper (1865). The eagles 
of the French colours have been made of it, and many other ornamental and useful articles. 
Deville's work, "De 1'Aluminium," was published in 1859. An aluminium manufactory 
was established at Newcastle in 1860, by Messrs. Belt They obtain the metal from a 

* At first the boring was effected by ordinary machinery ; in 1860 steam power was employed; but 
afterwards compressed air was used as a motive power with great success. It is confidently expected that 
the tunnel will be completed in 1870. In 1865 Messrs. Brassey proposed laying down a line of steeply 
inclined railway for 47 miles, to be used till the tunnel is completed. 


French mineral, bauxite. Their aluminium bronze, an alloy of copper and aluminium, 
invented by Dr. John Percy, F.R.S., came into use for watch-cases, &c., manufactured by 
Messrs. Reid of Newcastle, in 1862. 

AMADIS OF GAUL, a Spanish or Portuguese romance, stated to have been written about 
1342 by Vasco de Lobeiro. It was translated and enlarged by De Montalvo, about 1485. 

AMALEKITES (descendants of Amalek, grandson of Esau or Edom, the brother of Jacob} 
attacked the Israelites 1491 B.C., when perpetual war was denounced by God against them. 
They were subdued by Saul about 1079 ; by David, 1058 and 1056 ; and by the Simeonites 
about 715 B.C. 

A^MALFI, a city on the gulf of Salerno, Naples, in the 8th century became the seat of 
a republic, and flourished by its commerce till 1075, when it was taken by Roger Guiscard. 
It eventually was incorporated into the kingdom of Naples. The Pisans, in their sack of the 
town in 1135, are said to have found a copy of the Pandects of Justinian, and thus to have 
induced the revival of the study of Roman law in Western Europe. Flavio Gioia, a native 
of Amain, is the reputed discoverer of the mariner's compass, about 1302. 

AMAZON, West India mail steam ship, left Southampton on her first voyage, Friday, 
Jan. 2, 1852, and on Sunday morning, Jan. 4, was destroyed by fire at sea, about no miles 
W.S.W. of Scilly (ascribed to the spontaneous ignition of combustible matter placed near 
the engine-room). Out of 161 persons on board, 102 persons must have perished by fire or 
drowning. 21 persons were saved by the life-boat of the ship ; 25 more were carried 
into Brest harbour by a Dutch vessel passing by ; and 13 others were picked up in the bay 
of Biscay, also by a Dutch galliot. Eliot Warburton, a distinguished writer in general 
literature, was among those lost. 

AMAZONIA (S. America) was discovered by Francisco Orellana, in 1540. Coming from 
Peru, he sailed down the river Amazon to the Atlantic, and observing companies of women 
in arms on its bank, he called the country Amazonia, and gave the name of Amazon to the 
river, which had previously been called Maranon. 

AMAZONS. Three nations of Amazons have been mentioned the Asiatic, Scythian, and 
African. They are said to have been the descendants of Scythians inhabiting Cappadocia, 
where their husbands, having made incursions, were all slain, being surprised in ambuscades 
by their enemies. Their widows resolved to form a female state, and having firmly established 
themselves, they decreed that matrimony was a shameful servitude. Quintw Curtius. They 
were said to have been conquered by Theseus, about 1231 B.C. The Amazons were constantly 
employed in wars ; and that they might throw the javelin with more force, their right 
breasts were burned off, whence their name from the Greek, a, no, mazos, breast. Others 
derive the name from, maza, the moon, whom they are supposed to have worshipped. About 
330 B.C. their queen, Thalestris, visited Alexander the Great, while he was pursuing his 
conquests in Asia ; three hundred females were in her train. Herodotus. 

AMBASSADORS. Accredited agents, and representatives from one court to another, are 
referred to early ages. In most countries they have great privileges ; and in England, they 
and their servants are secured against arrest. England usually has twenty-five ambassadors 
or envoys extraordinary, and about thirty-six chief consuls, resident at foreign courts, exclu- 
sive of inferior agents ; the ambassadors and other chief agents from abroad at the court of 
London in 1865 were 47. 

The Russian ambassador's being imprisoned for 
debt by a lace-merchant, July 27, 1708, led to the 
passing the statute of 8 Anne, for the protection 
of ambassadors, 1709. 

Two men, convicted of arresting the servant of an 
ambassador, were sentenced to be conducted to 
the house of the ambassador, with a label on their 

breasts, to ask his pardon, and then one of them 
to be imprisoned three months, and the other 
fined, May 12, 1780. 

The first ambassador from the United States of 
America to England, John Adams, presented to 
the king, June 2, 1785 ; the first from Great 
Britain to America was Mr. Hammond, in 1791. 

AMBER, a carbonaceous mineral,* principally found in the northern parts of Europe, of 
great repute in the world from the earliest time ; esteemed as a medicine before the Christian 
era : Theophrastus wrote upon it ; 300 B.C. Upwards of 150 tons of amber have been found 
in one year on the sands of the shore near Pillau. Phillips. 

* Much diversity of opinion still prevails among naturalists and chemists, respecting the origin or 
amber, some referring it to the vegetable, others to the mineral, and some to the animal kingdom ; its 
natural history and chemical analysis affording something in favour of each opinion. It is considered by 
Berzelius to have been a resin dissolved in volatile oil. It often contains delicately-formed insects. Sir D. 
Brewster concludes it to be indurated vegetable juice. When rubbed it becomes electrical, and from ita 
Greek name, electron, the Urm Electricity is derived. 




AMBOISE (C. France). A conspiracy of the Huguenots against Francis II. , Catherine de 
Medicis, and the Guises, was suppressed at this place in Jan. 1560. On March 19, 1563, 
the Pacification of Amboise was published, whereby toleration was granted to the Huguenots. 
The civil war was however soon renewed. 

AMBOYNA, one of the Molucca isles, discovered about 1512 by the Portuguese, but not 
wholly occupied by them till 1580. It was taken by the Dutch in 1605. The English 
factors at this settlement were cruelly tortured and put to death, Feb. 17, 1623-4, by the 
Dutch, oh an accusation of a conspiracy to expel them from the island, where the two 
nations resided and jointly shared in the pepper trade of Java. Cromwell compelled the 
Dutch to give a sum of money to the descendants of the sufferers. Amboyna was seized by 
the English, Feb. 16, 1796, but was restored by the treaty of Amiens, in 1802. It was 
again seized by the British, Feb. 17-19, 1810 ; and again restored at the peace of 1814. 


AMEN, an ancient Hebrew word meaning true, faithful, certain. At the end of a prayer, 
it implies so be it; at the termination of a creed, so it is. It is used in the Jewish and 
Christian assemblies, at the conclusion of prayer. See I Cor. xiv. 16 (A.D. 59). 

AMENDE HONORABLE, in France, in the 9th century, was an infamous punishment 
inflicted on traitors and sacrilegious persons : the offender was delivered into the hands of 
the hangman : his shirt was stripped off, a rope put about his neck, and a taper in his hand ; 
he was then led into court, and was obliged to beg pardon of God and the country. Death 
or banishment sometimes followed. 

AMERCEMENT, IN LAW, a fine assessed for an offence done, or pecuniary punishment at 
the mercy of the court : thus differing from a fine directed and fixed by a statute. By 
Magna Charta a freeman cannot be amerced for a small fault, but in proportion to the offence 
he has committed, 9 Henry III. 1225. 

AMERICA,* the great Western Continent, is about 9000 miles long, with an area of about 
13,668,000 square miles. It is now believed to have been visited by the Norsemen or 
Vikings in the roth and nth centuries ; but the modern discovery is due to the sagacity 
and courage of the Genoese navigator, Christopher Columbus, + who, after having"his scheme 
long contemptuously rejected, sailed on his first expedition from Palos in Andalusia on 
Friday, Aug. 3, 1492, with vessels supplied by the sovereigns of Spain. 

Columbus lands on Guanahani, one of the Baha- 
mas ; takes possession of it in the name of 
Ferdinand and Isabella of Castile, and names 
it San Salvador . . . Friday, Oct. 12, 1492 

He discovers Cuba, Oct. 28 ; and Hispaniola 
(now Hayti), where he builds a fort, La Navi- 
cjad Dec. 6, ,, 

He returns to Spain, March 15 ; sails from Cadiz 
on his second expedition, Sept. 25 ; discovers 
the Caribbee isles, Dominica. Nov. 3 ; Gua- 
daloupe, Nov. 4 ; Antigua, Nov. 10 ; founds 
Isabella in Hispaniola, the first Christian 
city in the New World . . . Dec., 1493 

He discovers Jamaica, May 3 ; and Evangelista 
(now Isle of Pines), June 13 ; war with the 
natives of Hispaniola 1494 

He visits the various isles ; and explores their 
coasts ........ 1495-6 

Returns to Spain to meet the charges of his 
enemies June u, 1496 

Cabot (sent out by Henry VII. of England) dis- 
covers Labrador on the coast of North Ame- 
rica [he is erroneously said to have dis- 
covered Florida, and also Newfoundland, 
and to have named it Prima Vista] June 24, 1497 

Columbus sails on his third voyage, May 30 ; 
discovers Trinidad, July 31 ; lands on Terra 
Firma, without knowing it to be the new 
continent, naming it Isla Santa . Aug. i, 1498 

Ojeda discovers Surinam, June; and the gulf 
of Venezuela . . . . . . . 1499 

* The name is derived from Amerigo Vespucci, a Florentine merchant, who died in 1512. He accom- 
panied Ojeda in his voyage on the eastern coasts in 1498 ; and described the country in letters sent to his 
friends in Italy. He is charged with presumptuously inserting " Tierra de Amerigo " in his maps. Irving 
discusses the question in the Appendix to the Life of Columbus, but comes to no conclusion. Humboldt 
asserts that the name was given to the continent in the popular works of Waldseemiiller, a German geo- 
grapher, without the knowledge of Vespucci. To America we are indebted, among other things, for 
maize, the turkey, the potato, Peruvian bark, and tobacco. 

f Christoforo Cohimbo was born about 1445 ; first went to sea about 1460 ; settled at Lisbon in 1470, 
where he married Felipa, the daughter of Perestrello, an Italian navigator ; whereby he obtained rmich 
geographical knowledge. He is said to have laid the plans of his voyage of discovery before the republic 
of Genoa, in 1485, and other powers, and finally before the court of Spain, where at length the queen 
Isabella became his patron. After undergoing much ingratitude and cruel persecution from his own 
followers and the Spanish court, he died on May 20, 1506 ; and was buried with much pomp at Valladolid. 
His remains were transferred, in 1513, to Seville; in 1536 to San Domingo; and in Jan. 1796 to the 
Havanna, Cuba. The original inscription on his tomb is said to have been : " A Castilla y a" Leon Nuevo 
Mundo di6 Colon." "To Castile and Leon Colon gave a New World." Humboldt says beautifully, that the 
success of Columbus was " a conquest of reflection! " 




AMERICA, continued. 

to Yafiez Pinzon discovers Brazil, South 
/, Jan. 26; and the river Marafion(the 
Amazon); Cabral the Portuguese lands in 
Bra/il (see Brazil) .... May 3, 1500 

Cortereal discovers Labrador . . ,, 
i ibus is imprisoned in chains at San Do- 
n lingo by Bobadilla, sent out to investigate 
into his conduct, May; conveyed to Spain, 
where he is honourably received Dee. 17, ,, 
Columbus sails on his fourth voyage, May 9 ; 
discovers various isles on the coast of Hon- 
duras, and explores the coast of the isthmus, 
July, &c. ; discovers and names Porto Bello, 

Nov. 2, 1502 

slaves imported into Hispaniola . 1501-3 
AV irried by the machinations of his enemies, he 
returns to Spain, Nov. 7; his friend, queen 
Isabella, dies .... Nov. 20, 1504 
He dies while treated with base ingratitude by 

the Spanish government . . May 20, 1506 
Sulis and Pinzon discover Yucatan . . . 
Ojeda founds San Sebastian, the first colony on 

the mainland 1510 

Subjugation of Cuba by Velazquez . . . 1511 
The coast of Florida discovered by Ponce de 

Leon 1512 

Vasco de Balboa crosses the isthmus of Darien, 

an .1 discovers the South Pacific Ocean . . 1513 
Grijalva penetrates into Yucatan, and names it 

New Spain 1518 

Passage of Magellan's Straits by him . . 1520 
Conquest of Mexico by Fernando Cortes . 1519-21 
PizaiTO discovers the coast of Quito . . . 1526 
lie invades and conquers Peru . . . 1532-5 
I artier, a Frenchman, enters the Gulf of St. 

Lawrence, and sails up to Montreal . 1534-5 
Grijalva's expedition, equipped by Cortes, dis- 
covers California 1535 

Mendoza founds Buenos Ayres, and conquers 
the adjacent country .....,, 

Chili conquered by Valdivia 1541 

Orel! ana sails down the Amazon to the sea . . ,, 
Louisiana conquered by De Soto ,, 

Rebellion in Peru tranquillity established by 

Gasca 1548 

Davis's Straits discovered by him . . . 1585 
Raleigh establishes the first English settlement 

at Roanoke, Virginia ,, 

Falkland isles discovered by Davis . . . 1592 
De Monts, a Frenchman, settles in Acadia, now 

Nova Scotia 1604 

Jamestown, in Virginia, the first English settle- 



ment on the mainland, founded by lord de la 


Quebec founded by the French .... 

Hudson's bay discovered by him . . . . 

The Dutch build Manhattan, or New Amster- 
dam (now New York) on the Hudson . 
Settlement in New England begun by capt. 
Smith ......... 

New Plymouth built by the banished English ' 

nonconformists I 6 20 

Nova Scotia settled by the Scotch under sir 

Wm. Alexander ^22 

Delaware settled by the Swedes and Dutch . 1627 
Massachusetts, by sir H. Boswell . . ,, 

Maryland, by lord Baltimore . . . . 1632 
Connecticut granted to lord Say and Broke in 
1630; but no English settlement was made 

here till 1635 

Rhode Island settled by Roger Williams and his 

brethren, driven from Massachusetts . . ,, 
New Jersey settled by the Dutch, 1614, and 
Swedes, 1627 ; granted to the duke of York, 
who sells it to lord Berkeley .... 1664 
New York captured by the English . . . 
Carolina settled by the English .... 1669 
Pennsylvania settled by William Peun, the 

celebrated Quaker 1682 

Louisiana settled by the French . 

The Mississippi explored 1699 

The Scotch settlement at Darien (1698-9) aban- 
doned ijdty- 

New Orleans built 1717 

Georgia settled by general Oglethorpe . . 1732 

Kentucky, by colonel Boon 1754 

Canada conquered by the English, 1759-60; 

ceded to Great Britain 1763 

American war declaration of independence by 
the United States, 1776; recognised by Great 

Britain 1783 

Louisiana ceded to Spain, 1762 ; transferred to 

France, 1800 ; sold to- the United States . 1803 
Florida ceded to Great Britain, 1763 ; taken by 
Spain, 1781 ; to whom it is ceded, 1783; ceded 

to the United States 1820 

Revolution in Mexico declaration of indepen- 
dence 1821 

Revolutions in Spanish America ; independence 
established by Chili, 1810 ; Paraguay, 1811 ; 
Buenos Ayres, and other provinces, 1816 ; 

Peru 1826 

[See United States, Mexico, and other states, 
throughout the volume.] 

AMERICA, BRITISH. See British America. 

AMERICA, CENTRAL, including the states of Guatemala, San Salvador, Honduras, Nica- 
ragua, and Costa Rica, which see, declared their independence Sept. 21, 1821, and separated 
from the Mexican confederation, July 21, 1823. The states made a treaty of union between 
themselves March 21, 1847. There has been among them since much anarchy and blood- 
shed, aggravated greatly by the irruption of American filibusters under Kenny and Walker, 
x ^54-5- In Jan. 1863, a war began between Guatemala (afterwards joined by Nicaragua) and 
San Salvador (afterwards supported by Honduras). The latter were defeated at Santa Rosa 
June 1 6, and San Salvador was taken Oct. 26 ; the president of San Salvador, Barrios, fled ; and 
Can-era, the dictator of Guatemala became predominant over the confederacy. Population, 
1859, about 2,355,000. See Nicaragua, Darien, and Panama. 

AMERICA, SOUTH. See Brazil, Argentine, Peru, Paraguay, Uruguay, &c. 

"AMERICA," an American yacht, schooner-built, 171 tons burthen. On Aug. 22, 1851, 
at Cowes regatta, in a match round the Isle of Wight for a cup worth looL, open to 
all nations, she came in first by 8 miles, due to her superior construction on the wave 

AMERICANISMS : a useful dictionary of these expressions was compiled by John R. 
Bartlett, and first published in 1848. 


AMETHYST, the ninth stone upon the breastplate of the Jewish high priest ; and on it 
was engraved the name Issachar. It is of a rich violet colour. One worth 200 rix-dollars, 
having been rendered colourless, equalled a diamond in lustre, valued at 18,000 gold 
crowns. De Boot, Hist. GfemmariMn. Amethysts discovered at Kerry, in Ireland, in 1775. 

AMIENS, an ancient city in Picardy (N. France) : the cathedral was built in 1220. It 
was taken by the Spanish and English Sept. 25, 1597. The preliminary articles of the 
memorable peace between Great Britain, Holland, France, and Spain, fifteen in number, 
were signed in London by lord Hawkesbury and M. Otto, on the part of England and 
France, Oct. I, 1801 ; and the definitive treaty was subscribed at Amiens, on March 27, 1802, 
by the marquess of Cornwallis for England, Joseph Bonaparte for France, Azara for Spain, 
and Schimmelpenninck for Holland. War was declared again in 1803. 

AMMONIA, the volatile alkali, mainly produced by the decomposition of organic sub- 
stances. Its name is ascribed to its having been procured from heated camel's dung near 
the temple of Jupiter Ammon in Libya. The discovery of its being a compound of nitrogen 
and hydrogen is ascribed to Joseph Priestley in 1774. By the recent labours of chemists the 
oxide of the once hypothetical metal ammonium, and ammonium amalgam, have been 
formed ; and specimens of each were shown at the Royal Institution in 1856 by Dr. A. W. 
Hofmann, who has done very much for the chemical history of ammonia. 

AMMONITES, descended from Ben-Ammi, the son of Lot (1897 B.C.). They invaded 
the land of Canaan and made the Israelites tributaries, but they were defeated by Jephthah, 
1143 B.C. They again invaded Canaan in the reign of Saul, with an intention to put out the 
right eye of all those they subdued ; but Saul overthrew them, 1095 B - c - They were after- 
wards many times vanquished ; and Antiochus the Great took Kabbah their capital, and 
destroyed all the walls, 198 B.C. Josephus. 

AMNESTY (a general pardon after political disturbances, &c.) was granted by Thrasy- 
bulus, the Athenian patriot, after expelling the thirty tyrants with the assistance of only 
thirty friends, 403 B.C. Acts of amnesty were passed after the civil war in 1651, and after 
the two rebellions in England in 1715 and 1745. After his victorious campaign in Italy, 
Napoleon III. of France granted an amnesty to all political offenders, Aug. 17, 1859. An 
amnesty, with certain exemptions, was granted to the vanquished southern states of 
North America by president Johnson, May 29, 1865. 

AMPHICTYONIC COUNCIL, asserted traditionally to have been established at Ther- 
mopylae by Amphictyon, for the management of all affairs relative to Greece. This cele- 
brated council, composed of twelve of the wisest and most virtuous men of various cities of 
Greece, began 1498 [1113, Clinton'] B.C. Other cities in time sent also chosen citizens to 
the council of the Amphictyons, and in the age of Antoninus Pius, they were increased 
to the number of thirty. Suidas. Its immediate office was to attend to the temples and 
oracles of Delphi. Its interference caused the Sacred wars, 595 586, and 356 346. 

AMPHION, a British frigate, of 38 guns, blown up while riding at anchor in Plymouth 
Sound, and the whole of her crew then on board, consisting of more than two hundred and 
fifty persons, officers and men, perished Sept. 22, 1796. Butler. 

AMPHITHEATRES, said to have been first constructed by Curio, 76 B.C., and Julius 
Caesar 46 B. c. In the Roman amphitheatres, which were vast round or oval buildings, the people 
assembled to see the combats of gladiators, of wild beasts, and other exhibitions. They were 
generally built of wood, but Statilius Taurus made one of stone, under Augustus Caesar. 
See Coliseum. The amphitheatre of Vespasian (capable of holding 87,000 persons) was built 
between A. D. 75 and 80; and is said to have been a regular fortress in 1312. The amphi- 
theatre at Verona was next in size, and then that of Nismes. 

AMPHITR1TE, THE SHIP. See Wrecks, Aug. 30, 1833. 

AMPUTATION, in surgery, was greatly aided by the invention of the tourniquet by 
Morel, a French surgeon in 1674 ; and of the flap-method by Lowdham of Exeter in 1679. 

AMSTERDAM (Holland). The castle of Am stel was commenced in noo; the build- 
ing of the city in 1203. Its commerce was greatly increased by the decay of that of Antwerp 
after 1609. The exchange was built in 1634 ; and the noble stadthouse in 1648 ; the latter 
cost three millions of guilders, then a large sum. It is built upon 13,659 piles. Amsterdam 
surrendered, to the king of Prussia, when that prince invaded Holland, in favour of the 
stadtholder, in 1787. The French were admitted without resistance, Jan. 18, 1795. The 
Dutch government was restored in December, 1813. The crystal palace for an industrial 
exhibition was opened by prince Frederick of the Netherlands Aug. 16, 1864. 

AMU' 33 ANA 

AMULETS, on CHARMS, employed from the earliest times. Amulets were made of the 
of the true cross, about 328. They have been sanctioned in modern times by 
2dical men witness the anodyne necklace, &c. 

AMYLENE, a colourless, very mobile liquid, first procured by M. Balard of Paris in 1844 , 
by distilling fousel oil (potato-spirit) with chloride of zinc. The vapour was employed 
instead of chloroform first by Dr. Snow in 1856. It has since been tried in many hospitals 
here, and in France. The odour is more unpleasant than chloroform, and more vapour must 
be used. It is, however, thought less dangerous. 

ANABAPTISTS. The sect arose about 1521, and was known in England before 1549. 
John of Leyden, Muncer, Storck, and other German enthusiasts, about the time of the 
Reformation, taught that infant baptism was a contrivance of the devil, that there is no 
original sin, that men have a free will in spiritual things, and other doctrines still more wild 
and absurd. They committed many violences, and in 1534 seized Miinster, calling it Mount 
Zion, and declared one Mathias, a baker, to be the king of Zion. Their enthusiasm led 
them to the maddest practices, and they at length rose in arms under pretence of gospel 
liberty. Minister was taken June 24, 1535, and the chiefs of the Anabaptists were put to 
death. On Jan. 6, 1661, about 80 anabaptists in London appeared in arms, headed by their 
preacher, Thomas Venner, a wine-cooper. They fought desperately, and killed many of the 
soldiers brought against them. Their leader and sixteen others were executed, Jan. 19 and 
21. Annals of England. For the modern Anabaptists see baptists. 

ANACREONTIC VERSE, commonly of the jovial or bacchanalian strain, named after 
Anacreon of Teos, the Greek lyric poet, whose odes are much prized. He is said to have 
been choked by a grape-stone in his eighty-fifth } 7 ear, about 514 B.C. His odes have been 
frequently translated; Thomas Moore's celebrated version was published in 1800. 

ANAESTHETICS. See Chloroform, Ether, Amylcne, Kerosolene. Intense cold is also 
employed in deadening pain. 

ANADOLIA (Asia Minor), comprises the ancient Lycia, Caria, Lydia, Mysia, Bithynia, 
Paphlagonia and Phrygia, whicli^see. 

ANAGRAMS, formed by the transposition of the letters of a name or sentence : as army 
from Mary, are said to have been made by ancient Jews, Greeks, &c. On the question put 
by Pilate to Our Saviour, "Quid est veritas?" (what is truth?) we have the remarkable 
anagram, " Est vir qui adest " (the man who is here). Another good one is "Horatio Nelson, " 
and " Honor est a Nilo " (" there is Honour from the Nile"). The French are said to have 
introduced the art as now practised, about the year 1560, in the reign of Charles IX. 

AN AM. See Annam. 

ANASTATIC PRINTING. See Printing, \S^i. 

ANATHEMA, among the Jews, was the devoting some person or thing to destruction, 
as in the case of Jericho (Joshua vi. 17). The word occurs i Cor. xvi. 22. Anathemas were 
used by the primitive churches, 387. See Excommunication. 

ANATOMY (Greek, cutting up). The study of the human body was part of the philo- 
sophical investigations of Plato, Xenophon, and Aristotle ; and it became a branch of medical 
art under Hippocrates, about 420 B. c. Erasistratus and Herophilus may be regarded as 
the fathers of anatomy ; they were the first to dissect the human form, as anatomical 
research had been previously confined to animals : it is mentioned that they practised upon 
the bodies of living criminals, about 300 and 293 B.C. Galen, who died A. D. 193, was a 
great anatomist. In England, the schools were supplied with subjects unlawfully exhumed 
from graves ; and until lately, the bodies of executed criminals were ordered for dissection.* 
Pope Boniface VIII. forbade the dissection of dead bodies, 1297. The first anatomical 
plates, designed by Titian, were employed by Vesalius, about 1538. Leonardo da Vinci, 
Raphael, and Michael Angelo, studied anatomy. The great discoveries of Harvey were 

* By 32 Henry VIII., c. 42 (1540), surgeons were granted four bodies of executed malefactors for 
" anatkomyes," which privilege was extended in following reigns : but in consequence of the crimes com- 
mitted by resurrection-men in order to supply the surgical schools (robbing churchyards and even com- 
mitting murder, see Burking), a new statute was passed in 1832, which abated the ignominy of dissection 
by prohibiting that of executed murderers, and made provision for the wants of surgeons by permitting, 
under certain regulations, the dissection of persons dying in workhouses, <fcc. The act also appointed 
inspectors of anatomy, regulated the schools, and required persons practising anatomy to obtain a 
licence. It repealed the clause of the act of 1828, which directed the dissection of the body of an executed 


made in 1616. William and John Hunter were great anatomists; they died in 1783 and 
J793- Quain's and Wilson's large anatomical plates were published in 1842. Comparative 
anatomy has been treated systematically by Cuvier, Owen, Miiller, Huxley, and others. 
The anatomy of plants has been studied since 1680. See Botany. 

ANCHORITES. See MonacUism. 

ANCHORS are of ancient use, and the invention belongs to the Tuscans. Pliny. The 
second tooth, or fluke, was added by Anacharsis, the Scythian (592 B.C.) Strabo. Anchors 
were first forged in England A.D. 578. Those of a first-rate ship of war (four) will weigh 99 
cwt. each, costing 450^. Phillips. The Admiralty anchor was introduced about 1841. 
Improved anchors were made by Pering and Rodgers about 1831 ; by Porter 1846 ; by 
Costell 1848 ; by Trotman 1853 ; and by several other persons. Trotman's is attached to 
the Queen's yacht the Fairy. The anchors of the Great Eastern are of enormous size. An 
act for the proving and sale of chain cables and anchors, was passed in 1864. 

ANCIENT HISTORY commences in the Holy Scriptures, and in the history of 
Herodotus about 1687 B.C. It is considered as ending with the destruction of the Roman 
empire in Italy, A.D. 476. Modern history begins with Mahomet (A.D. 622), or Charle- 
magne (768). 

ANCIENTS. See Councils. 

ANCONA, an ancient Roman port on the Adriatic. The mole was built by Trajan, 
A.D. 107. After many changes of rulers Ancona was finally annexed to the papal states in 
1532. In 1798 it was taken by the French ; but was retaken by the Austrians in 1799. 
It was occupied by the French in 1832 ; evacuated in 1838 ; after. an insurrection it was 
bombarded and captured by the Austrians, June 18, 1849. The Marches (comprising this 
city) rebelled against the Papal government in Sept. 1860. Lamoriciere, the papal general, 
fled to Ancoua after his defeat at Castelfidaixio, but was compelled to surrender himself, tlu- 
city, and the garrison, on Sept. 29. The king of Sardinia entered soon after. 

ANCYRA, in ancient Galatia, now Angora or Engour, Asia Minor. A council was held 
here in 314. Near this city, on July 28, 1402, Tim our or Tamerlane defeated and took 
prisoner the sultan Bajazet, and is said to have conveyed him to Samarcand in a cage. 

ANDALUSIA (S. Spain), a province forming part of the ancient Lusitania and Bcetica. 
The name is a corruption of Vandalitia, acquired in consequence of its having been held by 
the Vandals from 419 to 421, when it was acquired by the Visigoths. The latter were 
expelled by the Moors in 711, who established in it the kingdom of Cordova, which they 
retained till their final overthrow in 1492. 

ANDERNACH, Rhenish Prussia, once an imperial city. Near here, the emperor Charles 
the First, while attempting to deprive his nephews of their inheritance, was totally defeated 
by one of them, Louis of Saxony, Oct. 8, 876. 

ANDORRA, a small republic in the Pyrenees, bearing the title of "the valleys and 
sovereignties of Andorra," was made independent by Charlemagne about 778, certain rights 
being reserved to the bishop of Urgel. The feudal sovereignty, which long appertained to 
the counts of Foix, reverted to the French king, Henry IV., in 1589 ; but was given up in 
1790. On March 27, 1806, an imperial decree restored the old relations between Andorra 
und France. The republic is now governed by a council elected for life ; but the magistrates 
ure appointed alternately by the French government and the Spanish bishop of Urgel. Tin,' 
population was about 18,000, in 1850. Guibcrt. 

ANDRE'S EXECUTION. See United States, 1780. 

ANDREW, ST., said to have been martyred by crucifixion, Nov. 30, 69, at Pahw, in 
Aehaia. The festival was instituted about 359. Andrew is the titular saint of Scotland, 
owing to Hungus, the Pictish prince, having dreamed that the saint was to be his friend in 
a pending battle with the Northumbrians. St. Andrew's cross ( x ) appeared in the air 
during the fight, and Hungus conquered. The collar of an order of knighthood, founded on 
this legend, is formed of thistles (not to be touched) and of rue (an antidote against poison) ; 
the motto is Nemo me impune lacessit (No one assails me with impunity}. The institution of 
the order is attributed to Achaius about 809 ; its revival is due to king James V. in 1540, 
and to James II. of England in 1687. See Thistle. The Russian order of St. Andrew was 
instituted in 1698 by Peter I. 

ANDREW'S, St. (E. Scotland). Here Robert Bruce held his first parliament in 1309 ; 
and here Wishart was burnt by archbishop Beaton, who himself was murdered here in 


The university was founded in 1411 by bishop Wardlaw. The bishopric originated 
ith the establishment of Christianity in Scotland. Sir R, Sibbald's list of the bishops of 
fc. Andrew's commences with Killach, 872. The see became archiepiscopal in 1470, and 

ceased soon after the Revolution, 1689. St. Andrew's is now a post-revolution bishopric, 

re-instituted in 1844. See Bishops. 

ANDRUSSOV, PEACE OF (Jan. 20. 1667), between Russia and Poland, by which tho 
latter lost the greater part of her conquests among the Cossacks. 

ANEMOMETER (Greek, anemos, the wind), a measurer of the strength and velocity of 
the wind, was invented by Wolfius, in 1709. The extreme velocity was found by Dr. Liud to 
bp 93 miles per hour. Osier's and Whewell's anemometers were highly approved of in 1844. 

ANEROID. See Barometer. 

ANGEL, an ancient gold coin, weighing fourjiennyweights, was valued at 6s. Sd. in the 
jn of Henry VI., and at los. in the re 
value half an angel, was struck at Paris 

, . 

ign of Henry VI., and at 105. in the reign of Elizabeth, 1562. The angelot, a gold coin, 

is when held by the English, in 1431. Wood. 

ANGELIC KNIGHTS or ST. GEORGE. This order is said to- have been instituted 
in Greece, 456. The Angclici were instituted by the emperor Angelus Comnenus, 1191. 
The Angelica, an order of nuns, was founded at Milan by Louisa Torelli, 1534. 

ANGERS (W. Central France), formerly the Roman city Juliomagus, possessing an amphi- 
theatre ; afterwards Andegarum, the capital of the county of Anjou, which see. It was 
frequently besieged, and many councils were held in it between 453 and 1448, relating to 
ecclesiastical discipline. 

ANGERSTEIN GALLERY. See National Gallery. 

ANGLESEY, called by the Romans Mona (N. Wales), the seat of the Druids, who were 
massacred in great numbers, when Suetonius Paulinus took the isle, 61. It was conquered 
by Agricola, in 78; occupied by the Normans, 1090; and with the rest of Wales was annexed 
by Edward I. in 1284. He built the fortress of Beaumaris in 1295. The Menai suspension 
bridge was erected 1818-25, and the Britannia tubular bridge 1849-50. 

ANGLICAN CHURCH. See Church of England. 

ANGLING. Its origin is uncertain ; allusion is made to it by the Greeks and Romans, 
and in the Bible; Amos, iv. 2 (787 B.C.) 

oppian wrote his " Halieutics," a Greek epic 
poem on Fishes and Fishing, probably about 

A.D. 198. k with an An file. 

' " 

Tn the book on " Hawkyncie andHuntynye," by Juliana 
Berners or Barnes, prioress of Sopwith, near St. 

Albans, "emprinted at Westmestre by Wynkyn 
de Worde," in 1496, is " The Treatise of fysshyng 

in 1653. 

alton's " CompUat Angler " was first published 

ANGLO-SAXONS, or, ANGLES, derive their name from a village near Sleswick, called 
A it glen, whose population (called Angli by Tacitus,) joined the first Saxon freebooters. 
East Auglia was a kingdom of the heptarchy, founded by the Angles, one of whose chiefs, 
Uffa, assumed the title of king, 571 ; the kingdom ceased in 792. See Britain. Csedmon 
paraphrased part of the Bible in Anglo-Saxon about 680 ; a translation of the gospels was 
made by abbot Egbert, of I on a, 721 ; of Boethius, Orosius, &c., by Alfred, 888. The Anglo-- 
Snxon laws were printed by order of government, in 1840. 

ANGOLA (S. W. Africa), settled by the Portuguese soon after the discovery, by Diego 
('am, about 1486. Loanda, their capital, was built 1578. Their authority over the interior 
is very limited. 

ANGORA. See Ancyra. 

ANGOULEME, capital of the old province of Angoumois, Central France, W., was n 
bishopric in 260. After sharing the fortunes of the country, Angoulemc became an inde- 
pendent county about 856. It was united to the French crown in 1308. It was held by 
the English, 1360 to 1372, in the reign of Edward III. The count of Angouleme became 
king of France as Francis I. in 1515. 

ANGELA'S FORT. See India, 1756. 

ANHALT, HOUSE OF, in Germany, deduces its origin from Berenthobaldus, who made 
war upon the Thuringians in the sixth century. In 1606, the principality was divided 
among the four sons of Joachim Ernest, by the eldest, John George. Tims began the four 

AXII 36 

branches Anlialt-Dessau (descended from John-George) ; Bernbourg,* extinct, 1863 ; 
Plotsgau or Coethen, extinct, 1847 ; and Zerbst, extinct, 1793. The princes of Anhalt 
became dukes in 1809. 

DUKE OF ANHALT (Subjects 181,824). #"*> h* 8 eon . prince Frederic, born April 29, 

Leopold (born Oct. i, 1794), became duke of Anhalt- 1831. 
Dessau, 1817, and of Aiihalt- Bernbourg 1863. 

ANHOLT, ISLAND OF, Denmark, \vastakenpossessionofby England, May 18, 1809, in 
the French war, on account of Danish cruisers injuring British commerce." The Danes 
made an attempt to regain it with a force which exceeded 1000 men, but were gallantly 
repulsed by the British force not amounting to more than 150, March 27, 1811. 

ANILINE, a basic oily body discovered in 1826 by Unverdorben among the products of 
distillation of indigo. Bechamp, in 1856, obtained it from benzole by the successive treat- 
ment of this substance with concentrated nitric acid and reducing agents. The scientific 
relations of aniline have been carefully examined by several chemists, more especially by 
Dr. A. "W. Hofinann. It was long known to yield a series of coloured compoiinds, but it was 
only in 1856 that Mr. W. A. Perkin showed how a violet oxidation-product (mauve) could 
be applied in dyeing. Aniline is now manufactured upon a large scale for the commercial 
production of " Mauve" and "Magenta" (rosaniline), and several other colouring matters. 

ANIMALCULES. Leeuwenhoek's researches in 1677 produced the most astonishing 
revelations. His Arcana Naturce was published at Leyden in 1696. The great works of 
Ehrenberg of Berlin, on the Infusorial Animalcule, &c., were issued 1838-57. Pritchard's 
Infusoria, ed. 1860, is a valuable summary of our present knowledge of animalcule. 

ANIMAL MAGNETISM was introduced by father Hehl, a Jesuit, at Vienna, about 
1774 ; and had its dupes in France and England in about 1788-89^ See Mesmerism. 

ANIMALS, CRUELTY TO. The late Mr. Martin, M.P., as a senator, zealously laboured 
to repress this odious offence ; and a society in London, which was established in 1824, 
effects much good this way. See Cruelty to Animals Society. Mr. Martin's act passed 
3 Geo. IV. (1822). Similar acts were passed in 1827, 1835, 1837, 1849, and 1854. Dogs 
were forbidden to be used for draught by 2 & 3 Viet. c. 47 (1839). 

ANJOU, a province in France, was inherited by Henry II. of England from his father 
Geoffrey Plantagenet, count of Anjou, who married the empress Matilda in 1127. It was 
taken from his son John by Philip of France in 1205 ; was reconquered by Edward III., but 
relinquished by him in 1360 ; and was given by Charles V. to his brother Louis with the 
title of duke. It afterwards became an appanage of the French crown. The university 
was formed in 1349. 


1360. Louis I. invested by the pope with the 

dominions of Joanna of Naples, 1381 ; his 

invading army destroyed by the plague, 1383 ; 

he dies, 1384. 

1384. Louis II., his son, receives the same grant, 

but is also unsuccessful. 
Louis III., adopted by Joanna as heir; dies 

1434. Eegnier or Rene"e (a prisoner) declared king 

of Naples, 1435 ; his daughter, Margaret, 
married Henry VI. of England, 1445 ; he was 
expelled from Anjou by Louis XL, 1474, and 
his estates confiscated. 

Francis, duke of Alencon, brother to Henry III. 
of France, became duke of Anjou; at one 
time he favoured the protestants, and vainly 
offered marriage to Elizabeth of England, 
1581-82; died 1584. . 

ANJOU, OR BEAUG, BATTLE OF, between the English and French ; the latter com- 
manded by the dauphin of France, March 22, 1421. The English were defeated : the duke 
of Clarence was slain by sir Allan Swiuton, a Scotch knight, and 1500 men perished on the 
field ; the earls of Somerset, Dorset, and Huntingdon were taken prisoners. Beauge' was 
the first battle that turned the tide of success against the English. 

ANNAM, OR ANAM, an empire of Asia, to the east of India, comprising Tonquin, Cochin 
China, part of Cambodia, and various islands in the Chinese Sea; said to have been 
conquered by the Chinese 234 B.C., and held by them till A.D. 263. In 1406 they recon- 

* Alexander, the last duke of Anhalt-Bernbourg, (born March 2, 1805 ; duke, March 24, 1834;) died 
without issue, Aug. 22, 1863, when his duchy reverted to the duke of Anhalt-Dessau. 

t It was a pretended mode of curing all manner of diseases by means of sympathetic affection between 
the sick person and the operator. The effect on the patient was supposed to depend on certain motions of 
the fingers and features of the operator, he placing himself immediately before the patient, whose eyes 
were to be fixed on his. After playing in this manner on the imagination and enfeebled mind of the sick, 
and performing a number of distortions and grimaces, the cure was said to be completed. Hehl, for a 
short time associated with Mesmer, but they soon quarrelled. Mr. Perkins (who died in 1799) invented 
" Metallic Tractors for collecting, condensing, and applying animal magnetism;" but Drs. Falconer and 
Haygarth put an end to his pretensions by performing many wonders with a pair of wooden tractors. 



quered it, but abandoned it in 1428. After much anarchy, bishop Adran, a French 
missionary, obtained the friendship of Louis XVI. for his pupil Gia-long, the son of the 
nominally reigning monarch, and with the aid of a few of his countrymen established Gia- 
long on the throne, who reigned till his death in 1821, when his son became king. In 1859 
war broke out with the French, who defeated the army of Annam, 10,000 strong, about 
April 22, when 500 were killed. On June 3, 1862, peace was made ; three provinces were 
ceded to the French, and toleration of the Christians granted. An insurrection in these 
provinces against the French, begun about Dec. 17, 1862, was suppressed in Feb. 1863. 
Ambassadors sent from Annam with the view of regaining the ceded provinces arrived at 
Paris in Sept. 1863, had no success. A new treaty with France was concluded July 26, 
1864, which established a French protectorate, toleration for Christian missionaries, &c. 

ANNATES. See First Fruits. 

ANNO DOMINI, A.D., the year of Our Lord, of Grace, of the Incarnation, of the Cir- 
cumcision, and of the Crucifixion (Trabeationis). The Christian era commenced Jan. i, in 
the middle of the 4th year of the I94th Olympiad, the 753rd year of the building of Rome, 
and in 47 1 4 of the Julian period. It is now held that Christ was born Friday, April 5, 
4 B.C. This era was invented by a monk, Dionysius Exiguus, about 532. It was intro- 
duced into Italy in the 6th century, and ordered to be used by bishops by the council of 
Chelsea, in 816, but not generally employed for several centuries. Charles III. of Germany 
was the first who added "in the year of our Lord" to his reign, in 879. 

" ANNOYANCE JURIES," of Westminster, chosen from the householders in conformity 
with 27 Eliz. c. 17 (1585), were abolished in 1861. 

ANNUAL REGISTER, a summary of the history of each year (beginning with 1758, and 
continued to the present time), was commenced by R. & J. Dodsley. (Edmund Burke at 
first wrote the whole work, but afterwards became only an occasional contributor. Prior.) 
The somewhat similar but more elaborate work, the "Annuaire des Deux Mondes," began in 
Paris in 1850. 

ANNUALS, the name given to richly bound volumes, containing poetry, tales, and essays, 
by eminent authors, illustrated by engravings, published annually. They were imitations 
of similar books in Germany, and first appeared in London in 1823. The duration of the 
chief of these publications is here given : 

Amulet 1827 34 

Keepsake 182856 

Forget-me not (Ackerrnan's) . . . 182348 

Friendship's Offering 182444 

Literary Souvenir (first as " the Graces ") 182434 

Hood's Comic Annual. . . . 1830 38 

ANNUITIES, OR PENSIONS, were first granted in 1512, when 2ol. were given to a lady 
of the court for services done ; and 61. 135. 4^. for the maintenance of a gentleman, 1536. 
13?. 65. Sd. deemed competent to support a gentleman in the study of the law, 15^4- An 
act was passed empowering the government to x borrow one million sterling upon an annuity 
of fourteen per cent., 46 Will. & Mary, 1691-3. This mode of borrowing soon afterwards 
became general among civilised governments. An annuity of il 2s. lid. per annum, accu- 
mulating at 10 per cent., compound interest, amounts in 100 years to 20,000?. The Govern- 
ment Annuities and Life Assurances Act was passed in 1864, for the benefit of the working 
classes ; since it enables the government to grant deferred annuities on condition that the 
sum required may be payable in small instalments. 

ANNUITY TAX : a tax levied to provide stipends for ministers in Edinburgh and 
Montrose, and which caused much disaffection, was abolished in 1860, and other provisions 
made for the purpose. These, however, have proved equally unpalatable. 

ANNUNCIATION OF THE VIRGIN MARY, the 2$th of March, Lady-day (which see). 
A festival commemorating the tidings brought to Mary by the angel Gabriel (Luke i. 26) : its 
origin is referred variously by ecclesiastical writers to the fourth and seventh century. The 
religious order of the Annunciation was instituted in 1232, and the military order, in Savoy, 
by Amadeus, count of Savoy in memory of Amadeus I., who had bravely defended Rhodes 
against the Turks, 1355. 

ANOINTING, an ancient ceremony observed at the inauguration of kings, bishops, and 
other eminent personages. Aaron was anointed as high priest, B.C. 1491; and Saul, as king, 
B.C. 1095. Alfred the Great is said to have been the first English king^ anointed, A.D. 871 ; 
and Edgar of Scotland, 1098. The religious rite is derived from the epistle of James, ch. v. 
14, about A.D. 60. Some authors assert that in 550, dying persons, and persons in extreme 
danger of death, were anointed with consecrated oil, and that this was the origin of Extreme 
Unction (one of the sacraments of the Roman Catholic church). 

ANONYMOUS LETTERS. The sending of anonymous letters denouncing persons, or 
demanding money, or using threats to obtain money, was made felony by the Black Act, 9 
Geo. I. (1722). See Thrcatcniny Letters. 

ANTALCIDAS, PEACE OF. In 387 r,.c. Antalcidas the Lacedemonian made peace with 
Artaxerxes of Persia, strongly in favour of Sparta, and generally in favour of Greece, but 
giving up the cities of Ionia to the king. 

ANTARCTIC POLE, the opposite to the north or arctic pole. See Southern Continent. 

ANTEDILUVIANS. According to the tables of Mr. Whiston, the number of people in 
the ancient world, as it existed previous to the Flood, reached to the enormous amount of 
549,755 millions in the year of the world 1482.* 

ANTHEMS, OR HYMNS (see Hymns). Hilary, bishop of Poictiers, and St. Ambrose were 
the first who composed them, about the middle of the fourth century. Lcnglet. They were 
introduced into the church service in 386. Baker. Ignatius is said to have introduced 
them into the Greek, and St. Ambrose into the Western Church. They were introduced 
into the Reformed churches in queen Elizabeth's reign, about 1565. 

ANTHROPOPHAGI (eaters of human flesh) have existed in all ages of the world. 
Homer says that the Cyclops and Lestrygones were such ; and the Essedonian Scythians 
were so, according to Herodotus. Diogenes asserted that we might as well eat the rlesh of 
men as that of other animals ; and the practice still exists in Africa and the South Se;i 
Islands. The annals of Milan assert that a Milanese woman, named Elizabeth, had an 
invincible inclination to human flesh ; she enticed children to her house, and killed and 
salted them ; and on a discovery being made, she was broken on the wheel and burnt, in 
1519. Cannibals were detected in Perthshire about 1339. 

ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY (antlirdpos, Greek, man) for promoting the science ,!' 
man and mankind, held its first meeting on Feb. 24, 1863. Dr. James Hunt, president, in 
the chair. The " Anthropological Review " first came out in May, 1863. 

ANTICHRIST (opponent of Christ), the name given by St. John (i Ep. ii. 18) to him 
whom St. Paul calls the Man of Sin (2 Thess. ii. 3), who, as some assert, at the latter end 
of the world, is to appear very remarkably in opposition to Christianity, t 

ANTI-CORN-LA"VY LEAGUE, an association formed for the purpose of procuring the 
repeal of the laws charging duty on the importation of foreign corn. See Corn-Laics. It 
sprang from various metropolitan and provincial associations (1834-8), headed by Messrs. C. 
Villiers, R. Cobden, J. Bright, &c. See Protcctwiiixf*. 

The Anti-Com-Law League formed at 51 an- I Bazaar at Covent- Garden opened . . Mays, 1843 

eliester Sept. 18, 1838 Great Manchester meeting, at which iho 

Meetings held in various places March & April, 1841 League proposed to raise a quarter of a 
Excited meeting at Manchester . May 18, ,, million sterling .... Dec. 2;, ,. 
A bazaar held at Manchester, at which the ', The Corn Importation Bill having passed, Juno 

League realised io,oooL . . . Feb. 2, 1842 26 ; the League is formally dissolved; and Mr. 
About 600 deputies connected with provincial Cobden was rewarded by a national sub- 

associations assemble in London, Feb. Aug. scription, amounting to nearly iv 
The League at Manchester proposed to raise July-, . . ,< 

50,000?., to depute lecturers throughout the Appointment of the Derby ministry, a revival 

country, and to print pamphlets Oct. 20, | of the Anti-Corn-Law League was proposed 
First meeting at Drury-laiie Theatre, March 15, 1843 at a meeting held at Manchester, and a sub- 
Scries of monthly meetings at Covent-Garden, j scription for the purpose was opened, which 
commenced Sept. 28; and great free-trade I produced within half an hour 27,5201. Mar. 2, 1852 
meeting at Manchester Nov. 14, 1843, and : [Subsequently, the reconstruction of the League 

Jan. 22, 1845 ' was deemed to be unnecessary.] 

* Bumet has supposed that the first human pair might have left, at the end of the first century, tell 
married couples ; and from these, allowing them to multiply in the same decuple proportion as the first 
pair did, would rise, in 1500 years, a greater number of persons than the earth was capable of holding. 
He therefore suggests a quadruple multiplication only : and then exhibits the following table of increase 
during the first sixteen centuries that preceded the Flood (at least ten times the present number of 
mankind) : 

1 10 

ir 4 o 

in. . . . 160 

iru 640 

V. 2,560 

VI. . . 10,240 

VII. . . . 40,960 
VJIl. . . . 163,840 




i IJis reign, it is supposed, will continue three years and a half, during which time there will be a 
persecution. This is the opinion of the Roman Catholics ; but the Protestants, as they differ from them, 
so they differ among themselves. Grotius and Dr. Hammond suppose the time to be past, and the cha- 
racters to 'be furnished in the persons of Caligula, Simon Magus, and the Gnostics. Some have believed 
the pope to be the true Antichrist, as at the council held at Gap, in 1603. Many consider that the k ; ng- 
d'~>m of Antichrist comprehends all who are opposed to Christ, openly or secretly. 


ANTIETAM CREEK, near Sharpsburg, Maryland, IT. S. Here was fought a terribl<: 
battle on Sept. 17, 1862, between the Federals under general M'Clellan and the Confederates 
under Lee. The latter after his victoiy at Bull Rim or Manassas, Aug. 30, having invaded 
Maryland, was immediately followed by M'Clellan. On the i6th Lee was joined by Jackson, 
and at five o'clock next morning the conflict began. About 100,000 men were engaged, and 
the conflict raged with great fury from daylight to dark. The Federals were repeatedly 
repulsed ; but eventually the Confederates retreated and repassed the Potomac on Sept. 18 
and 19. The loss of the Federals was estimated at 12,469 ; of the Confederates, 14,000. 

ANTIGUA, a West India Island, discovered by Columbus in Nov. 1493 ; settled by the 
English in 1632 ; made a bishopric, 1842. Population in 1861, 36,412. 

ANTILLES, an early name of the West Indies, which sec. 

ANTIMONY, a white brittle metal. Compounds of this mineral were early known, and 
applied. It was used as paint to blacken both men's and women's eyes, as appears from 
2 Kings ix. 30, and Jeremiah iv. 30, and in eastern countries it is used to this day. When 
mixed with lead it forms printing type metal. Basil Valentine wrote on antimony about 
1410. Priestley. 

ANTINOMIANS (from the Greek anti, against, and nomos, law), a name given by Luther 
(in 1538) to John Agricola, who is said to have held "that it mattered not how wicked a 
man was if he had but faith." (Opposed to Rom. iii. 28, and v. I, 2). He retracted in 
1540. These doctrines were condemned by the British parliament, 1648. 

ANTIOCH, Syria, built by Seleucus, 300 B.C., after the battle of Ipsus, in such grandeur 
as to acquire the name " Queen of the East." Here the disciples were first called Christians, 
A.D. 42 (Acts xi. 26). Antioch was taken by the Persians, 540 ; by the Saracens about 638 ; 
recovered for the Eastern emperor, 966 ; lost again in 1086 ; retaken by the Crusaders in 
1098, and held by them till 1268, when it was captured by the Sultan of Egypt. It was 
taken from the Turks in the Syrian war, Aug. I, 1832, by Ibrahim Pacha, but restored at the 
peace. The ERA of Antioch is much used by the early Christian writers of Antioch and 
Alexandria ; it placed the Creation 5492 years B.C. 

ANTIPODES. Plato is said to be the first who thought it possible that antipodes existed 
(about 368 B.C.). Boniface, archbishop of Mentz, legate of pope Zachary, is said to have 
denounced a bishop as a heretic for maintaining this doctrine, A.D. 741. The antipodes of 
England lie to the south-east of New Zealand, near Antipodes Island. Brookes. 

ANTI-POPES, rival popes elected at various times, especially by the French and Italian 
factious, from 1305 to 1439. In the article Popes, the Anti-popes are printed in italics. 

ANTIQUARIES. A college of antiquaries is said to have existed in Ireland 700 
years B.C. 

A society was founded by archbishop Parker, Cam- British Archaeological Association founded Dec, 

den, Stow, and others in 1572. Kpdmcn. 1843; the Archaeological Institute of Great 

\uplicution was made in 1589 to Elizabeth for a ; Britain was formed by a seceding part of th<- 

charter, but her death ensued, and her successor, ! Association, 1845. Journals are published by 

Tames I., was far from favouring the design. both societies. 

The Society of Antiquaries revived, 1707 ; received i Society of Antiquaries of Edinburgh founded in 

its charter of incorporation from George II., 1751 ; I . 1780. 

and apartments in Somerset-house granted to it Since 1845 many county archaeological societies 

in 1777. Its Memoirs, entitled Archawlogia, first 

have been formed in the United Kingdom. 

published in 1770; present president, earl Stan- The Society of Antiquaries of France (1814) began in 
hope, elected, 1846. 1805 as the Celtic Academy. 

ANTI-TRINITARIANS. Theodotus of Byzantium is supposed to have been the first 
who advocated the simple humanity of Jesus, at the close of the second century. ^ This 
doctrine, advocated by Arius about 318, spread widely after the Reformation, when it was 
adopted by Lrelius and Eaustus Socinus. Baylc. SeoArians, Socinians, Unitarians. 

ANTIUM, maritime city of Latium, now Porto d'Anzio, near Rome, after a long struggle 
for independence, became a Roman colony, at the end of the great Latin war, 340-338 B.C; 
It was mentioned by Horace, and was a favourite retreat of the emperors and wealthy 
Romans, who erected many villas in its vicinity. The treasures deposited in the temple of 
Fortune here were taken by Octavius Caesar during his war with Antony, 41 B.C. 

ANTWERP, the principal sea-port of Belgium, is mentioned in history in A.D. 517. It 




was a small republic in the eleventh century. It was the first commercial city in Europe 
till the wars of the i6th and i yth centuries. 

after a dreadful conflict, being driven into 
the citadel, cannonaded the town with red- 
hot balls and shells, doing immense mischief 

Oct. 27, 1830 

The citadel bombarded by the French, Dec. 4 ; 
surrendered by gen. Chasse . . Dec. 23, 1832 

The exchange burnt ; and valuable archives, 
&c. destroyed .... Aug. 2, 1858 

Proposal to strengthen the fortifications adopted 

Aug. 1859 

A Fine Art fete held . . . Aug. 17-20 1861 

Great Napoleon wharf destroyed by fire, loss 25 
lives and about 400,000^. . . Dec. 2 ,, 

Great fete at the opening of the port by the 
abolition of the Scheldt dues . . Aug. 3, 1863 

Ps fine exchange built in 1531 

Taken after a long siege by the prince of Parma 1585 
Truce of Antwerp (between Spain and United 

Provinces) 1609 

Much injured by the imposition of a toll on the 

Scheldt by the treaty of Munster . ' . . 1648 I 
After Marlborough's victory at Ramillies, 

Antwerp surrenders without firing a shot 

June 6, 1706 > 
The Barrier treaty concluded here Nov. 16, 1715 | 

Taken by marshal Saxe 1746 ; 

Occupied by the French . . 1792-3,1794-1814! 
Civil war between the Belgians and the House 

of Orange. See Belgium . . . 1830-31 
The Belgian troops, having entered Antwerp, 

were opposed by the Dutch garrison, who, 

APATITE, mineral phosphate of lime. About 1856 it began to be largely employed as 
manure. It is abundant in Norway, and in Sombrero, a small West India island. 

APOCALYPSE, OR REVELATION, written by St. John in the isle of Patmos about 95. 
Irenceus. Some ascribe the authorship to Cerintlms, the heretic, and others to John, 
the presbyter, of Ephesus. In the first centuries many churches disowned it, and in the 
fourth century it was excluded from the sacred canon by the council of Laodicea, but was 
again received by other councils, and confirmed by that of Trent, held in I545> e ^ Se 1- 
Although the book has been rejected by Luther, Michaelis, and others, and its authority 
questioned in all ages, from the time of Justin Martyr (who wrote his first Apology for 
the Christians in A.D. 139), yet its canonical authority is still almost universally ac- 

APOCRYPHA. In the preface to the Apocrypha it is said, "These books are neyther 
found in the Hebrue nor in the Chalde." Bible, 1539.' The history of the Apocrypha 
ends 135 B.C. The books were not in the Jewish canon, were rejected at the council of 
Laodicea about A. D. 366, but were received as canonical by . the Roman Catholic church, at 
the council of Trent on April 8, 1546. Parts of the 'Apocrypha are read as lessons by 
the Anglican church. 

i Esdras, from about B.C. 623-445 

2 Esdras 


Wisdom of Solomon . . * * 

Ecclesiasticus ( John) 300 or 180 


Song of the Three Children * 

History of Susannah . * * 

Bel and the Dragon . . 
Prayer of Manasses B. c. 


1 Maccabees, about . . 323-135 

2 Maccabees, from about . 187-161 

There are also Apocryphal writings in connection with the New Testament. 

APOLLINARISTS, followers of Apollinaris, a reader in the church of Laodicea, who taught 
(366) that the divinity of Christ was instead of a soul to him ; that his flesh was pre- 
existent to his appearance upon earth, and that it was sent down from heaven, and conveyed 
through the Yirgin, as through a channel ; that there were two sons, one born of God, the 
other of the Yirgin, &c. These opinions were condemned by the council of Constanti- 
nople, 381. 

APOLLO, the god of the fine arts, medicine, music, poetry, and eloquence, had many 
temples and statues erected to him, particularly in Egypt, Greece, and Italy. His most 
splendid temple was at Delphi, built 1263 B.C. See Delphi. His temple at Daphne, built 
434 B.C., during a period in which pestilence raged, was burnt A.D. 362, and the Christians 
were accused of the crime. Lenglet. The statue of Apollo Belvedere, discovered in the 
remains of Antium, in Italy, in 1503, was purchased by pope Julius II., who placed it in 
the Vatican. 

APOLLONICON, an elaborate musical instrument, constructed on the principle of the 
organ, was invented by Messrs. Flight and Robson, of St. Martin's lane, Westminster, and 
exhibited by them first in 1817. Timbs. 

APOSTLES (Greek apostolos, one sent forth). Twelve were appointed by Christ, 31 ; 
viz. Simon Peter and Andrew (brothers), James and John (sons of Zebedee), Philip, Nathanael 
(or Bartholomew), Matthew (Levi), Thomas, James the Less (son of Alphseus), Simon the 
Canaanite and Jude or Thaddseus (brothers), and Judas Iscariot. Matthias was elected in 
the room of Judas Iscariot, 33 (Ads i.) ; and Paul and Barnabas were appointed by the Holy 
Spirit, A.D. 45 (Acts xiii. 2). 


APOSTLES' CREED, a summary of the Christian faith, attributed to the apostles, is 
mentioned by Ruffinus, 390, and is generally believed to have been gradually composed 
a great while after their time. Irenseus, bishop of Lyons (A.D. 177), gives a similar creed. 
Its repetition in public worship was ordained in the Greek church at Antioch, and in the 
Roman church in the nth century, whence it passed to the Church of England. 

APOSTOLICI, a sect which arose at the end of the 2nd century; they renounced 
marriage, wine, flesh, meats, &c. A second sect was founded by Segarelli about 1261. 
They wandered about, clothed in white, with long beards, dishevelled hair, and bare heads, 
accompanied by women whom they called their spiritual sisters, preaching against the 
growing corruption of the church of Rome, and predicting its downfall. They renounced 
baptism, the mass, purgatory, &c. , and by their enemies are accused of gross licentiousness. 
Segarelli was burnt alive at Parma in 1300 during a crusade against his followers, who were 
all dispersed in 1307. 

APOTHECARY (literally a keeper of a storehouse). On Oct. 10, 1345, Edward III. 
settled six pence per diem for life on Coursus de Gangeland, ' ' Apothecarius London, " for 
taking care of him during his severe illness in Scotland. Rymcr's Fcedera. Apothecaries 
were exempted from serving on juries or other civil offices in 1712. The London Apothecaries' 
Company was separated from the Grocers' and incorporated 1617. Their hall was built in 
670 ; and their practice regulated and their authority extended over all England, by 55 
J o. III. c. 19 (1815), amended by 6 Geo. IV. c. 133 (1825). The Botanical Garden at 
.elsea was left by sir Hans Sloane to the company of Apothecaries, Jan. 1753, on condition 
of their introducing every year fifty new plants, until their number should amount to 2000. 
The Dublin guild was incorporated, 1745. See Pharmacy. 

APOTHEOSIS, a ceremony of the ancient nations of the world, by which they raised 
their kings and heroes to the rank of deities. The deifying a deceased emperor was begun at 
Rome by Augustus, in favour 'of Julius Caesar, B.C. 13. Tillemont. 

APPEAL, OR ASSIZE OF BATTLE. By the old law of England, a man charged with 
murder might fight with the appellant, thereby to make proof of his guilt or innocence. In 
1817, a young maid, Mary Ashford, was believed to have been violated and murdered by 
Abraham Thornton, who, in an appeal, claimed his right by his wager of battle, which the 
court allowed ; but the appellant (the brother of the maid) refused the challenge, and the 
accused escaped, April 16, 1818. This law was immediately afterwards struck from off the 
statute-book, by 59 Geo. III. (1819). 

APPEALS. In the time of Alfred (A.D. 869-901), appeals lay from courts of justice to the 
king in council ; but being soon overwhelmed with appeals from all parts of England, he 
framed the body of laws which long served as the basis of English jurisprudence. The house 
of lords is the highest court of appeal in civil causes. Courts of appeal at the Exchequer 
Chamber, in error from the judgments of the King's Bench, Common Pleas, and Exchequer, 
were regulated by statutes in 1830 and 1831. Appeals from English tribunals to the pope 
were first introduced about 1151; were long vainly opposed, and were finally abolished by 
Henry VIII. in 1534. See Privy Council. 

APPE1STZELL, a Swiss canton, threw off the feudal supremacy of the abbots of St. Gall 
early in the I5th century, and became the thirteenth member of the Swiss confederation 
in 1513. 

APPIAN WAY, an ancient Roman road, made by Appius Claudius Csecus, while 
censor, 3123.0. 

APPLES. Several kinds are indigenous to England ; but those in general use have been 
brought at various times from the continent. Richard Harris, fruiterer to Henry VIII., is 
said to have planted a great number of the orchards in Kent, and Lord Scudamore, ambas- 
sador to France in the reign of Charles I., planted many of those in Herefordshire. Ray 
reckons 78 varieties of apples in his day (1688). 

APPRAISERS. The valuation of goods for another was an early business in England ; 
and so early as 1283, by the statute of merchants, "it was enacted that if they valued the 
goods of parties too high, the appraisers should take them at such price as they have limited. " 
In 1845 their annual licence was raised from 105. to 405. 

APPRENTICES. Those of London were obliged to wear blue cloaks in summer, and 
blue gowns in winter, in the reign of queen Elizabeth, 1558. Ten pounds was then a great 
apprentice fee. From twenty to one hundred pounds were given in the reign of James I. 
Stovfs Sarvry. The apprentice tax, enacted 43 Geo. Ill, 1802. An act for the protection 

APP 42 

of apprentices, &c., was passed in 1851. The term of seven years, not to expire till the 
apprentice was 24 years old, required by the statute of Elizabeth (1563), Avas abolished in 
1814. The apprentices of London have been at times very riotous ; they rose into insurrection 
against foreigners on Evil Maij-day, which see. 

APPROPRIATION CLAUSE, or the Irish Tithe Bill of 1835, brought forward by lord 
John Russell, whereby any surplus revenue that might accrue by the working of the act was 
to be appropriated for the education of all classes of the people. The clause was adopted by 
the commons but rejected by the lords in 1835 and 1836, whereupon it was totallv 

APPROPRIATION'S (property taken from the church), began in the time of William T., 
the parochial clergy being then commonly Saxons, and the bishops and higher clergy 
Normans. These impoverished the inferior clergy to enrich monasteries, which wen- 
generally possessed by the conqueror's friends. Where the churches and tithes were so 
appropriated, the vicar had only such .a competency as the bishop or superior thought lit to 
allow. Pope Alexander IV. complained of this as the bane of religion, the destruction of 
the church, and a poison that had infected the whole nation. Pardon. 

APRICOT, Prunus Armeniaca, first planted in England about 1540, by the'gardencr of 
Henry VIII. It originally came from Asia Minor. 

APRIL, the fourth month of our year, the second of the ancient Romans. 

APTERYX (wingless), a bird, a native of New Zealand, first brought to this country in 
1813, and deposited in the collection of the earl of Derby. Fossil specimens of a gigantic 
species of this bird (named Dinornis) were discovered in New Zealand by Mr. Walter Mantell 
in 1843, and since. 

APULIA, a province in S. E. Italy, conquered by the Normans, whose leader Gniscard 
received the title of duke of Apulia from pope Nicholas II. in 1059. After many changes 
of masters, it was absorbed into the kingdom of Naples, in 1265. 

AQUARII, a sect said to have been founded by Tatian in the 2nd century, who forbore 
the use of wine even in the sacrament, and used nothing but water, during persecution when 
they met secretly* in the night, for fear of discovery. For this they were censured by 
Cyprian (martyred 258). 

AQUARIUM on AQTTAVTVAEIUM, a vessel containing water (marine or fresh) in which 
animals and plants may co-exist, mutually supporting each other ; snails being introduced 
(is scavengers. In 1849, Mr. N. B. Ward succeeded in growing sea- weeds in artificial sea- 
water ; in 1850, Mr. R. Warington demonstrated the conditions necessary for the growth of 
animals and plants in jars of water ; and in 1853 the glass tanks in the Zoological Gardens, 
Regent's Park, were set up under the skilful direction of Mr. D. Mitchell. In 1854, Mr. 
Gosse published "The Aquarium." Mr. W. Alford Lloyd, late of Portland-road, London, 
by his enterprise in collecting specimens did much to increase the value, and interest of 
nquaria. The great aquarium (50 yards long and 12 wide) at the Jardin d'Acclimatfttion ;! 
Paris, was constructed under his direction in 1860. 

AQUATINT. See JEngraviny. 

AQUEDUCT, an artificial watercourse on an inclined plane. Xo remains of Greek 
aqueducts exist. Appius Claudius advised and constructed the first Roman aqueduct, as well 
as the Appianway, about 3 12 B.C. Aqueducts of every kind were among the wonders of 
Rome. Livy. There are now some remarkable aqueducts in Europe : that at Lisbon is of 
great extent and beauty ; that at Segovia has 129 arches ; and that at Versailles is three 
miles long, and of immense height, with 242 arches in three stories. The stupendous 
aqueduct on the Ellesmere canal, in England, is 1007 feet in length, and 126 feet high ; it 
w r as completed by T. Telford, and opened Dec. 26, 1805. The Lisbon aqueduct was com- 
pleted in 1738, and the Croton aqueduct, near New York, was constructed between 1837 and 
1842. The aqueduct to supply Marseilles with water was commenced in 1830. 

AQUILEIA (Istria), made a Roman colony about 180 B.C., and fortified A,D. 168, 
Constantino II. was slain in a battle with Constans, fought at Aquileia towards the close of 
March 340. Maximus defeated and slain by Theodosius, near Aquileia July 28, 388. 
Theodosius defeated Eugenius and Arbogastcs, the Gaul, near Aquileia, and remained sole 
emperor, Sept. 6, 394. Eugenius was put to death, and Arbogastes died by his own hand, 
mortified by his overthrow. St. .Ambrose held a synod here in 381. In 452 Aquileia was 
almost totally destroyed by Attila the Hun, and near it in 489 Theodoric and the Ostrogoths 
totally defeated Odoaror. the king of Italy. 




AQUJTAINE, a province (^S.W. France). Subdued by the Visigoths, 418, and taken 
in them by Clovis in 507. Henry II. of England inherited it from his mother, 1 152. It was 
erected into a principality for Edward the Black Prince in 1362 ; but was annexed to Franc-- 
in 1370. The title of duke of Aquitainc was taken by the crown of England on tin- 
iqtiest of this duchy by Henry Y. in 1418. The province was lost in the reign of Henry \\ . 

ARABIA (W. Asia). The terms Petrwa (stony), Fdti (happy), and Deserta are said to 
have been applied to its divisions by Ptolemy, about A.P. 140. The Arabs claim descent 
from Ishmael, the eldest son of Abraham, born 1910 B.C., Gen. xvi. The country was unsuc- 
> '^sfully invaded by Gallus, the Roman governor of Egypt, 24 B.C. In A.I). 622, the Arabian* 
under the name of "Saracens, followers of Mahomet (born at Mecca, 570), their general and 
prophet, commenced their course of conquest. See Mahometan-ism. The Arabs greatly favoured 
literature and the sciences, especially mathematics, astronomy, and chemistry. To them we 
owe our ordinary numerals and arithmetical notation. The Koran was written in Arabic 
(622-632). The Bible was printed in Arabic in 1671. 

ARABIAN NIGHTS' ENTERTAINMENTS (or 1001 Tales) were translated into French 
by C-alland, and published in 1704 ; but their authenticity was not acknowledged till many 
years after. The best English translation from the Arabic is that of Mr. E. W. Lane, pub- 
lished in 1839, with valuable notes and beautiful illustrations. 

ARABICI, a sect which sprung up in Arabia, whose distinguishing tenet was, that the 
died with the body, arrd rose again with it, 207. 

AKAGON, part of the Roman Tarraconensis, a kingdom, N. E. Spain. It was 
quered by the Carthaginians, Avho were expelled by the Romans about 200 B.C. It par- 
k of the fortunes of the country, but became an independent monarchy in 1035. See 

ARAM, the ancient name of Syria, which sec. 

ARANJUEZ (Central Spain), contains a fine royal palace, at which several important 
treaties were concluded. On March 17, 1 808, an insurrection broke out here against Charles 
I V. and his favourite, Godoy, the prince of peace. The former was compelled to abdicate in 
favour of his son, Ferdinand VII. 

ARBELA. The third and decisive battle between Alexander the Great and Darius 
Codomanus decided the fate of Persia, Oct. i, 331 B.C., on a plain in Assyria, between Arbela 
find Gaugamela. The army of Darius consisted of 1,000,000 foot and 40,000 horse; the 
Macedonian arm}' amounted to only 40,000 foot and 7000 horse. Arrian. The gold and 
r.ilver found in the cities of Susa, Persepolis, and Babylon, which fell to Alexander from this 
victory, amounted to thirty millions sterling; and the jewels and other precious spoil, 
belonging to Darius, sufficed to load 20,000 mutes and 5000 camels. Plutarch. 

ARBITRATION. Submission to arbitration was authorised and made equivalent in 
fi-rcc to the decision of a jury, by 9 & 10 "Will. III. (1698). Submissions to arbitration may 
be made rules of any court of law or equity, and arbitrators may compel the attendance of 
witnesses, 3 & 4 Will. IV. c. 42 (1833). See Ouzel Gcdley. The Common Law Procedure 
Act (1854) authorises the judges of superior courts to order compulsory arbitration ; and, by 
an act passed in 1859, railway companies may settle disputes with each other by arbitration. 

ARBUTUS. The Arbutus Andrachne, oriental strawberry-tree, was brought to England 
from the Levant about 1724. 

ARCADES, OR WALKS ARCHED OVER. The principal in London are the Burlington - 
arcade, opened in March, 1819 ; and the Lowther-arcade, Strand, opened at the period of the 
Strand improvements. See, Nmnd. Exeter Change, London, was rebuilt and opened in 
1845. See Exeter Change. The Royal-arcade, Dublin, opened June, 1820, was burnt to the 
ground, April 25, 1837. 

ARCADIA, in the centre of the Peloponnesus, Grec;:c. The A read inns regarded their 
nation as the most ancient of Greece, and older than the moon (Proseluni, which word 
Doderlem conjectures to mean Prc-Hcllenic). They were more simple in their manners and 
moderate in their desires than the other Greeks, from whom they were separated by 
mountains. Pelasgus is said to have taught them to feed on acorns, as being more nutritious 
than herbs, their former food; for which they honoured him as a god. 1521 B.C. Arcadia 
hail twenty-five kings, whoso historv is altogether fabulous. 



ARCADIA (continued). 

Magna Grpecia, in S. Italy, said to have been 
colonised by Arcadians under (Enotrus, about 
1710 B.C. ; and under Evander . . B.C. 1240 

Pelasgus begins his reign . . . . . 1521 

Supposed institution of the Lupercalia, in 
honour of Jupiter by Lycaon ; reigned . . 1514 

Areas, from whom the kingdom received its 
name, and who taught his subjects agricul- 
ture and the art of spinning wool . . .1514 

Lyctean games instituted, in honour of Pan . 1320 

Agapenor appears at the head of the Arcadians 
at the siege of Troy (Homer) .... 1194 

The Lacedaemonians invade Arcadia, and are 

beaten by the women of the country, in the 
absence of their husbands (?) . . B. c. 1 102 

Aristocrates I. (of Orchomenus) is put to death 
for offering violence to the priestess of Diana 715 

Aristocrates II. stoned to death, and a republic 
established 63 1 

The supremacy of Sparta (acknowledged 560) 
is abolished by the Thebans ; Megalopolis 
founded by Epaminondas 371 

The Arcadians make alliance with Athens, and 
are defeated by Archidamus . . . -367 

Arcadia, having joined the Achtean league, on 
its suppression becomes part of the Roman 
empire 146 

ARCH. It appears in early Egyptian and Assyrian architecture. The oldest arch in 
Europe is probably in the Cloaca Maxima, at Rome, constructed under the early kings, 
about 588 B.C. The Chinese bridges, which are very ancient, are of great magnitude, and 
are built with stone arches similar to those that have been considered a Roman invention.* 
The TRIUMPHAL arches of the Romans formed a leading feature in their architecture. The 
arch of Titus (A.D. 80), that of Trajan (114), and that of Constantino (312), were magnificent. 
The arches in our parks in London were erected about 1828. The Marble Arch, which 
formerly stood before Buckingham Palace (whence it was renjoved to Cumberland-gate, 
Hyde Park, in 1851) was modelled from the arch of Constantine. See Hyde Park. 

ARCHANGEL (N. Russia), a city, is thus named from a monastery founded here, and 
dedicated to St. Michael in 1584. The passage to Archangel was discovered by the English 
navigator Richard Chancellor in 1553, and it was the only seaport of Russia till the formation 
of the docks at Cronstadt, and foundation of St. Petersburg in 1703. The dreadful fire here 
by which the cathedral and upwards of 3000 houses were destroyed, occurred in June, 1793. 

ARCHBISHOP (Greek archiepiscopos], a title given in the 4th and 5th centuries to the 
bishops of chief cities, such as Rome, Alexandria, Antioch, and Constantinople, who pre- 
sided over the other metropolitans and bishops in the districts attached to those places. The 
word is first found in the Apology against the Arians by Athanasius, who died 373. The 
Eastern archbishops have since been styled patriarchs."^ Riddle. 

ARCH-CHAMBERLAIN. The elector of Brandenburg was appointed the hereditary 
arch-chamberlain of the German Empire by the golden bull of Charles IV. in 1356, and in 
that quality he bore the sceptre before the emperor. 

ARCH-CHANCELLORS were appointed under the two first races of the kings of France 
^418 986), and when their territories were divided, the archbishops of Mentz, Cologne, and 
Treves became arch-chancellors of Germany, Italy, and Aries. 

ARCHDEACON. The name was early given to the first or eldest deacon, who attended 
on the bishop Avithout any power ; but since the council of Nice, his function is become a 
dignity, and set above that of priest, though anciently it was quite otherwise. The ap- 
pointment in these countries is referred to 1075. There are seventy-one archdeacons in 
England (1865), and thirty-three in Ireland. The archdeacon's court is the lowest in eccle- 
siastical polity : an appeal lies from it to the consistorial court, by 24 Henry VIII. (1532). 

* The new bridge of Chester, whose span is 200 feet, was commenced in 1829. The central arch of 
London Bridge is 152 feet ; and the three cast iron arches of Southwark bridge, which rest on massive stone 
piers and abutments are, the two side ones 210 feet each, and the centre 240 feet : thus the centre arch 
exceeds the admired bridge of Sunderland by four feet in the span, and the long-famed Rialto at Venice, 
by 167 feet. See Bridges. 

t In these realms the dignity is nearly coeval wit-h the establishment of Christianity. Before the 
Saxons came into England there were three sees : London, York, and Caerleon-upon-Usk ; but soon after 
the arrival of St. Austin he settled the metropolitan see at Canterbury, 602. See Canterbury. York 
continued archiepiscopal ; but London and Caerleon lost the dignity. Caerleon was found, previously, to 
be too near the dominions of the Saxons ; and in the time of King Arthur the archbishopric was transferred 
to St. David's, of which St. Sampson was the 26th and last Welsh archbishop. See St. David's. The 
bishoprics in Scotland were under the jurisdiction of the archbishop of York until the erection of the 
archiepiscopal sees of St. Andrew's and Glasgow, in 1470 and 1491 ; these last were discontinued at the 
Revolution. See Glasgow and St. Andrew's. The bishop of Moray, &c. , is now (1865) styled Primus. The 
rank of archbishop was of early institution in Ireland. See Ferns. Four archbishoprics were constituted 
in Ireland, 1151, namely, Armagh, Cashel, Dublin, and Tuam ; until then the archbishop of Canterbury 
had jurisdiction over the Irish as well as English bishops, in like manner as the archbishop of York had 
jurisdiction over those of Scotland. Of these four archbishoprics two were reduced to bishoprics, namely, 
Cashel, and Tuam, conformably with the statute 3 fe 4 Will. IV. 1833, by which also the number of sees m 
Ireland was to be reduced (as the incumbents often of them respectively died) from twenty-two to twelve, 
the present number. See tiithojts, Caskcl, Tuam ; Pallium, d-c. 



ARCHERY. Plato ascribes the invention to Apollo, by whom it was communicated to 
the Cretans. Ishmael "became an archer" (Gen. xxi. 20), 1892 B.C. The Philistine 
archers overcame Saul (i Sam. xxxi. 3), 1055 B.C. David commanded the use of the bow 
to be taught (2 Sam. i. 18). Aster of Amphipolis, having been slighted by Philip, king of 
Macedon, at the siege of Methone, 353 B.C., shot an arrow, on which was written " Aimed 
at Philip's right eye," which struck it and put it out ; Philip threw back the arrow with 
these words : "If Philip take the town, Aster shall be hanged." The conqueror kept his 



Archery introduced into England previously to 

Harold and his two brothers were killed by 
arrows shot from the cross-bows of the Nor- 
man soldiers at the battle of Hastings in 

Richard I. revived archery in England in 1190, 
and was himself killed by an arrow in . .1 199 

The victories of Crecy (1346), Poitiers (1356), 
and Agincourt (1415), were won chiefly by 

thousand archers surrounded the houses 

of parliament, ready to shoot the king and 
the members, 21 Richard II. (Stow.) . . 1397 

The citizens of London formed into com- 
panies of archers in the reign of Edward 
III. ; and into a corporate body by the style 
of " The Fraternity of St. George," 29 Henry 
VIII. . .. . ... I53 8 

Roger Ascham's " Toxophilus, the School of 
Shooting," published in ... . 1571 

See Artillery Company, Toxophilites, &c. 

AKCHES, COURT or, the most ancient consistory court, chiefly a court of appeal from 
inferior jurisdictions within the province of Canterbury ; it derives its name from the church 
of St. Mary-le-Bow (Sancta Maria de Arcubus), London, where it was held ; and whose top 
is raised on stone pillars built archwise. Cowell. Appeals from this court lie to the judicial 
committee of the privy council, by statute, 1832. 

ARCHITECTURE (from the Greek archi-tekton, chief artificer), ornamental building. 
The live great orders of architecture are, the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian (Greek) ; the 
Tuscan and Composite (Roman). The Gothic began to prevail in the ninth century. See 
the Orders respectively and Gothic. 

B.C. 1500 ! The Parthenon finished . . . .B.C. 438 
. . 1004 i The Pantheon, &c., built at Rome . A.D. 13 
. 900 The Colosseum (or Coliseum) .... 70 
. . 650 Hadrian builds temples at Rome, &c. . . . 117 
550 Diocletian's palace at Spalatro .... 284 

Basilicas at Rome 330-900 

. 616 St. Sophia, at Constantinople, begun . . 532 
. 600 Rock-cut temples in India Caves ot'Ellora . 500-800 
500-420 | Canterbury cathedral, founded . . . . 602 
. 335 Mosque of Omar, at Jerusalem .... 637 

335 York Minster, begun about 741 

480-320 St. Peter's, Rome . . ' . . . 1450-1626 
450-420 St. Paul's, London 1675-1710 

The Pyramids of Egypt, begun about 

Solomon's Temple, begun 

Birs Nimroud, in Assyria about 

The Doric order begins about . . . . 

Doric Temple at ./Egina 

Temple of Jupiter and Cloaca Maxima, at Rome, 


Babylon built 

The Ionic order begins about 
The Corinthian order begins 
Choragic Monument of Lysikrates 
Architecture flourishes at Athens 
Erechtheum at Athens . 


Born. Dud. 
Vitruvius, about . . B.C. 27 


William of Wickham . 1324 1405 
Michael Angelo Buo- 
narotti . . . 1474 1564 

A. Palladio . 
Inigo Jones . 
Bernini . 
Christopher Wren 
J. Vanbrugh 

Born. Died. \ 

. 15181580 James Gibbs . 

. 15721652 R. and J. Adams. 

. 15981680 I A. W. Pugin . 

. 16321723 I C. Barry 

. 1670 1726 I 

Born. Died. 
. 16741754 
. 17281794 
. 18111852 
. 17951860 

An Architectural Club was formed in 1791. An Architectural Society existed in London in 1808. 
The ROYAL INSTITUTE OF BRITISH ARCHITECTS was founded in 1834 Earl de Grey, president, 1835-61. 
The Architectural Society, established in 1831, was united to the Institute in 1842. The Architectural 
Association began about 1846. 

ARCHONS. When royalty was abolished at Athens, in memory of king Codrus, killed in 
battle, 1044 B.C. (or 1070), the executive government was vested in elective magistrates 
called archons, whose office continued for life. Medon, eldest son of Codrus, was the first 
archon. The office was limited to ten years, 752 B.C., and to one year 683 B.C. 

ARCOLA (Lombardy), the site of battles between the French under Bonaparte, and the 
Austrians under field-marshal Alvinizi, fought Nov. 15 17, 1796. The result was the loss 
on the part of the Austrians of 18,000 men in killed, wounded, and prisoners, four flags, 
and eighteen guns. The loss of the French was estimated at 15,000. They became masters 
of Italy. In one of the contests Bonaparte was in most imminent danger, and was only 
rescued by the impetuosity of his troops. 

* The long-bow was six feet long, and the arrow three feet ; the usual range from 300 to 500 yards. 
Robin Hood is said to have shot from 600 to 800 yards. A Persian hero, Arish, is stated to have shot over 
between 400 and 500 miles, as related by Ferdousi ! The cross-bow was tixed to a stock, and discharged 
with a trigger. 


ARGOT (East Indies). This city (founded 1716) was taken by colonel Clive, Aug. 31, 
1751 ; was retaken, but again surrendered to colonel Coote, Feb. 10, 1760. Besieged by 
Hyder Ali, when the British under colonel Baillie suffered severe defeats, Sept. 10 and 
Oct. 31, 1780. Arcot has been subject to Great Britain since 1801. See India. 

ARCTIC EXPEDITIONS. See North-West Passage and Franklins Expedition. 

AR.DAGH, an ancient prelacy in Ireland, founded by St. Patrick, who made his nephew, 
Mell, the first bishop, previously to 454. This prelacy was formerly held with Kilmore ; but 
since 1742 it has been held in" commend am with Tuam (which sec). It was united with 
Kilmore in 1839, and with Elphin in 1841. 

ARDFERT AND AGHADOE, bishopricks in Ireland long united ; the former was called 
the bishoprick of Kerry ; Ert presided in the 5th century. William Fuller appointed in 
1663, became bishop of Limerick in 1667, since when Ardfert and Aghadoe have been united 
to that prelacy. Near the cathedral an anchorite tower, 120 feet high, the loftiest and finest 
in the kingdom, suddenly fell, 1770. 

ARDOCH. See Grampians. 

AREIOPAGUS on AREOPAGUS, a venerable Greek tribunal, said to have heard causes 
in the dark, because the judges should be blind to all but facts, instituted at Athens about 
1507 B.C. Arund. Marbles. The name is derived from the Greek Arieos pagos, the hill of 
Mars, through the tradition that Mars was the first who was tried there for the murder of 
1 [alirrhotius, Avho had violated his daughter Alcippe. The powers of this court were enlarged 
by Solon, about 594 B.C., but diminished by the jealousy of Pericles, 461 B.C. Paul preached 
on Mars' hill, A.D. 52 (Acts xvii.). 

AREZZO, near the ancient Arretium, or Aretinum, an Etrurian city, which made peace 
with Rome for 30 years, 308 B.C., was besieged by the Galli Senones, about 283 B.C., who 
defeated the Roman army Metellus sent to its relief a disgrace avenged signally by Dolabella. 
Arezzo was an ancient bishopric : the cathedral was founded in 1277. It is renowned as 
the birthplace of Maecenas, Petrarch, Yasari, and other eminent men. Michael Angelo was 
born in the vicinity. 

ARGAUM, in the Deccan, India, where sir A. Wellesley, on Nov. 29, 1803, thoroughly 
defeated the rajah of Beraraud the Mahratta chief Scindiah, who became in consequence rjuifo 
subservient to the British. 

ARGENTARIA, Alsace (now COLMATI, N. E. France), where the Roman emperor Gratian 
totally defeated the Alemanni, and secured the peace of Gaul, 378. 

ARGENTINE (OR LA PLATA) CONFEDERATION, S. America, 14 provinces. This 
country was discovered by the Spaniards in 1515 ; settled by them in 1553, and formed part 
of the great vice-royalty of Peru till 1778, when it became that of Rio de la Plata. It joined 
the insurrection in 1811, and became independent in 1816. It was at war with Brazil from 
1826 to 1828, for the possession of Uruguay, which became independent as Monte-Video, 
and at war with France from 1838-40. Buenos Ayres seceded in 1853, and was reunited in 
1859. An insurrection began in San Juan, in Nov. 1860, and was suppressed in Jan. 1861, 
J. Urquiza, elected president, Nov. 20, 1853, w r as succeeded by Dr. S. Derqui, Feb. 8, 1860. 
Gen. B. Mitre, elected for six years, assumed the president's office, Oct. 12, 1862. In April, 
1855, Lopez, president of Paraguay, made an alliance with Buenos Ayres, declared Avar 
against Mitre, and invaded the Argentine territories, May. Mitre made an alliance with 
Brazil. Population in 1859, about 1,171,800. See Buenos Ayres for the disputes with 
that state. 

ARGINUS/E ISLES, between Lesbos and Asia Minor ; near these Conon and the 
Athenian fleet defeated the Spartan admiral Callicratidas, 406 B.C. 

ARGONAUTIC EXPEDITION, 1263 B.C. (1225, Clinton), undertaken by Jason to 
avenge the death of his kinsman Phryxus, and recover his treasures seized by his murderer, 
-Eetes, king of Colchis. The ship in which Phryxus had sailed to Colchis having been 
adorned with the figure of a ram, it induced the poets to pretend that the journey of Jason 
v\*as for the recovery of the golden fleece. This is the first naval expedition on record. 
.Many kings and heroes accompanied Jason, whose ship was called Argo, from its build 07-. 

ARG 47 Aid 

ARGOS, the most ancient city of Greece, said to have been founded either by Inachus, 
1856 B.C., or his son, Phoroneus, 1807, received its name from Argus, the fourth of the 
luachiche, 1711 B.C. 

Reign of Triopas ; Polycaon seizes part of the j Sparta becomes superior to Argos . B.C. 495-490 

kingdom, and calls it after his wife, Messenia Tkemistpcles an exile at Argos . . . .471 

The Argives destroy My cense and regain their 

superiority 468 

Peloponnesian war Argos long neutral ; but 

joins Athens 420 

The aristocratical party makes peace with 
Sparta, and overthrows the democratical 
government 417 

B.C. 1552 
Gelanor, last of the Inachidse, deposed by 

Danaus, an Egyptian 1475 

Feast of the Flambeaux, instituted in honour of 
Hypermnestra, who saved her husband, Lyn- 
ceus, son of ^Egyptus, on his nuptial night, 
while her forty-nine sisters sacrificed theirs, 
at the command of their father, Dauaus . 1425 

A reaction alliance with Athens resumed 


Lynoeus dethi-ones Danaus 1425 j Pyrrhus of Macedon slain while besieging 

The kingdom divided by the brothers Acrisius Argqs 272 

ann Prcetus .... 1344(1313. Cl.) I Argos long governed by tyrants supported by , 
Perseus, grandson of Acrisius, leaves Argos, Macedon ; it is freed and joins the Achsean 

and founds Mycenae (which fee) . . . .1313 league 229 

The Heraclidae retake the Peloponnesus, and | Subjugated by the Romans . . . .146 

Temenus seizes Argos 1102 j Argos taken from the Venetians . . A.D. 1686 

Pheidon's prosperous rule .... 770-730 

The Argives fine Sicyon and JEgiua, for helping 

Cleomenes of Sparta, with whom they are at 

Taken by the Turks 1716, who held it until . 1826 
United to Greece under King Otho (see Greece) 

Jan. 25, 1833 

ARGYLE (W. Scotland), BISHOPRIC OF, founded about 1200, Evaldus being the first 
bishop ; the diocese was previously part of the see of Dunkeld ; it ended with the abolition 
of episcopacy in Scotland, 1688. Argyle and the Isles is a post-revolution bishopric, 1847. 
See Bishoprics. 

ARIAN, OR ARYAN (in Sanskrit signifying noble, warlike), a term now frequently 
applied to the hypothetical Indo-Gerinanic family of nations. 

ARIANS, the followers of Arms of Alexandria, who preached against the divinity of 
Christ, about 315, and died in 336. The controversy was taken up by Constantino, who 
presided at the council of Nice, 325, when the Arians were condemned ; but their doctrine 
prevailed for a time in the East. It was favoured by Constantius II. 341 ; and carried into 
Africa under the Vandals in the 5th century, and into Asia under the Goths. Servetus 
published his treatise against the Trinity, 1531, and was burnt, 1553. See Atlianasian 
Crml. Leggatt, an Arian, was burnt at Sinithh'eld in 1614. 

ARISTOTELIAN PHILOSOPHY : the most comprehensive system ever devised by man. 
Aristotle was born at Stagyra (hence termed the Stagyrite), 384 B.C. ; was a pupil of. Plato 
from 364 to 347 ; became preceptor of Alexander, son of Philip of Macedon, in 342 ; and died 
in 322. He divided the circle of knowledge into Metaphysics and Logic, Physics, including 
part of the science of mind, and Ethics. His philosophy was too much exalted by the 
schoolmen during the middle ages, and too much depreciated after the Reformation. His 
Avorks on natural science contain a vast collection of facts and an extraordinary mixture of 
sound and chimerical opinions. To him is attributed the assertion that nature abhors a 
vacuum, an opinion now maintained by some eminent modern philosophers. 

ARITHMETIC is said to have been introduced from Egypt into Greece by Thales, about 
600 B.C. The Chinese used the abacus at an early period. * It is asserted that the ancient 
Hindus adopted a system having ten as a basis. 

The oldest treatise upon arithmetic is by Euclid 

( 7 th, 8th, and 9 th books of his Elements), 

about B.O. 300 
The sexagesimal arithmetic of Ptolemy was 

used A.D. 130 

I tiophantus, of Alexandria, was the author of 

t hirteen books of arithmetical questions (of 

which six are now extant) . . . about 156 
Notation by nine digits and zero, known at 

least as early as the sixth century in Hindo- 

stan introduced from thence into Arabia, 

about 900 into Europe, about 080 into 

The date in Caxton's Mirrour of the World, 
Arabic characters, is 1480 

Arithmetic of decimals invented . . . 1482 

John Shirwood bishop of Durham's Ludus 
Arithmo Machine*, " printed at Rome . . . 148.2 

First work printed in England on arithmetic 
(de Arte Svpputandi) was by Tonstall, bishop 
of Durham 1522 

The theory of decimal fractions was perfected 
by Napier in his Rhabdologin, in . . .1617 

Cocker s Arithmetic appeared in . . . . 1677 

Xystrom's Tonal system with 16 as a basis pub- 

France, by Gerbert, 991 into Spain, 1050 lished 1863 

into England 1253 I 

ARIZONA, a territory of the Unitnl States, origin ally part of N>w Mexu-o, was organised 
Fob. 24, 1863 ; capital, Tucson. 


ARK. Mount Ararat is venerak'd by the Armenians, from a "belief of its being the place 
on which Noah's ark rested, after the universal deluge, 2347 B.C. But Aparnea, in Phrygia, 
claims to be the spot ; and medals have been struck there with a chest on the waters, and 
the letters NOE, and two doves : this place is 300 miles west of Ararat. The ark was 300 
cubits in length, fifty in breadth, and thirty high ; but most interpreters suppose this cubit 
to be about a foot and a-half, and not the geometrical one of six. 

ARKANSAS, originally part of Louisiana, purchased from France by the United States 
in 1803, was admitted into the Union, 1836, and seceded from it May 6, 1861. Several 
battles were fought in this state in 1862. Capital, Little Rock. 

ARKLOW (in Wicklow), where a battle was fought between the insurgent Irish, amount- 
ing to 31,000, and a small regular force of British, which signally defeated them, June 10, 
1798. The town was nearly destroyed by the insurgents in May previous. Native gold was 
discovered in Arklow, in Sept. 1795. Phil, Trans, vol. 86. 

ARLES, an ancient town in France, in 879 the capital of the kingdom of Aries or Lower 
Burgundy. Here are the remains of a Roman amphitheatre, capable of holding between 
20,000 and 30,000 persons. English bishops are said to have been present at the council 
held here against the Donatists, 314. 

ARMADA, THE INVINCIBLE. The famous Spanish armament, so called, consisted of 130 
ships of war, besides transports, &c., 2650 great guns, 20,000 soldiers, 11,000 sailors, and 
2000 volunteers, under the duke of Medina Sidonia, and 180 priests and monks. It sailed 
from the. Tagn s, May 28-30, 1588, and arrived in the channel, July 19, 1588, and was 
defeated the next day by Drake and Howard. Ten fire-ships having been sent into the 
enemies' fleet, they cut their cables, put to sea and endeavoured to return to their rendezvous 
between Calais and Gravelines : the English fell upon them, took many ships, and admiral 
Howard maintained a running fight from the 2 1st July to the 28th, obliging the shattered fleet 
to bear away for Scotland and Ireland, where a storm dispersed them, and the remainder of 
the armament returned by the North Sea to Spain. The Spaniards lost fifteen capital ships 
in the engagement, and 5000 men ; seventeen ships were lost or taken on the coast of Ireland, 
and upwards of 5000 men were drowned, killed, or taken prisoners. The English lost but 
one ship. About one-third of the armament returned to Spain. 

ARMAGH, in N. Ireland, of which it was the metropolis from the 5th to the 9th century, 
was the first ecclesiastical dignity in Ireland, founded by St. Patrick, its first bishop, about 
444, who is said to have built the first cathedral 450. Six saints of the Roman calendar 
have been bishops of this see. In the king's books, by an extent taken 15 James I., it is 
valued at 400?. sterling a year ; and until lately, was estimated at 15,000?. per annum. The 
see was re-constituted (see Pallium} in 1151. Beatson. Armagh was ravaged by the Danes 
on Easter-day, 852, and by O'Neilin 1564. 

ARMAGNACS, a political party in France, followers of the duke of Orleans, derived their 
name from his father-in-law, the count of Armaguac. About 3500 of this party were 
massacred at Paris in May, 1418, by their opponents, the followers of the duke of Burgundy. 

ARMED NEUTRALITY, the confederacy of the northern powers against England, 
formed by the empress of Russia in 1780 ; ended in 1781. The confederacy was renewed, 
and a treaty ratified in order to cause their flags to be respected by the belligerent powers, 
Dec. 1 6, 1800. The principle that neutral flags protect neutral bottoms being contrary to 
the maritime system of England, the British cabinet remonstrated, war ensued, and Nelson 
and Parker destroyed the fleet of Denmark before Copenhagen, April 2, 1801. This event 
and the murder of the emperor Paul of Russia led to the dissolution of the Armed 

ARMENIA, Asia Minor. Here Noah is said to have resided when he left the ark, 2347 
B.C. Armenia, after forming part of the Assyrian, Median, and Persian empires, became 
subject to the Greek kings of Syria, after the defeat of Antiochus the Great, 190 B.C.; the 
Romans established the kingdoms of Armenia Major and Minor, but their influence over 
them was frequently interrupted by the aggressions of the Parthians. The modern Christian 
kingdom of Armenia arose about 1080 in the rebellion of Philaretus Brachancius against the 
Greek emperor. It lasted amid many struggles till the I4th century. In all their political 
troubles the Armenians have maintained the profession of Christianity. Their church is 
governed by patriarchs, not subject to Rome. Since 1715 an Armenian convent has existed 
at Venice, where books on all subjects are printed in the Armenian language. 




ARMENIA, continued. 

City of Artaxarta built 

Antiochus Epiphanes invades Armenia 

Tigranes the Great reigns in Armenia Major 

Becomes king of Syria, and assumes the title 
of " King of Kings " 

Defeated by Lucullus, 69 ; he lays his crown at 
the feet of Pompey 

His son, Artavasdes, reigns, 54 ; he assists 
Pompey against Julius Caesar, 48; and the 
Parthians against Marc Antony 

Antony subdues, and sends him loaded with 
silver chains to Egypt 

Artaxias, his son, made king by the Parthians 

Deposed by the Romans, who enthrone Ti- 
granes II 

Armenia subjected to Parthia . . A.D. 

Reconquered by Germanicus, grandson of Au- 

After many changes Tiridates is made king by 
the Romans 

The Parthian conquerors of Armenia are ex- 
pelled by Trajan 

makes Volagarses king of part of 

B.C. 1 86 Christianity introduced, between 

S6 A= 




Armenia added to the Persian empire 

3 I2 

Tiridates obtains the throne through Dio- 
cletian, 286 ; is expelled by Narses, 294 ; 
restored by Galerius 298 

On his death, Armenia becomes subject to 
Persia, 342 ; is made neutral by Rome and 
Persia, 384 ; who divide it by treaty . . 443 

Armenia conquered and reconquered by the 
Greek and Persian sovereigns . . 577-687 

And by the Greek emperors and the Mahom- 
medans . . . . . . 693-1065 

Leon VI., last king of Armenia, taken prisoner 
by the Saracens, 1375 ; released ; he dies at 
Paris 1393 

Overrun by the Mongols, 1235 ; by Timour, 
1383 ; by the Turks, 1516 ; by the Persians, 
1534 ; t>y tb - e Turks 1583 

Shah Abbas, of Persia, surrenders Armenia to 
the Turks, but transports 22,000 Armenian 
families into his own states . ... 1589 

Overrun by the Russians 1828 

Surrender of Erzeroum .... July, 1829 
(See Syria and Russo- Turkish War.) 

ARMENIAN ERA, commenced on the 9th of July, 552 ; the ecclesiastical year on 
the nth August. To reduce this last to our time, add 551 years, and 221 days ;' and in 
leap years subtract one day from March I to August 10. The Armenians used the old 
Julian style and months in their correspondence with Europeans. 

ARM1LLARY SPHERE, an instrument devised to give an idea of the motions of the 
heavenly bodies. It is commonly made of brass, and disposed in such a manner that the 
greater and lesser circles of the sphere are seen in their natural position and motion ; the 
whole being comprised in a frame. It is said to have been invented by Eratosthenes, about 
255 B.C. ; and was employed by Tycho Brahe and other astronomers. 

ARMINIANS (OR REMONSTRANTS) derive their former name from James Arminius (or 
Harmensen), a Protestant divine, of Leyden, Holland (died, 1609); the latter name from 
his followers having presented a Remonstrance to the States-General in 1610. They 
separated from the Calvinists, considering Calvin's views of grace and predestination in 
opposition to free will too severe. A tierce controversy raged to 1625, when the Arminians, 
who had been exiled, returned to their homes. Their doctrines were condemned in 1619, 
at the synod of Dort (which see). The Calvinists were then sometimes styled Gomarists, 
from Gomar, the chief opponent to Arminius. "* James I. and Charles I. favoured the doc- 
trines of the Arminians, which still prevail largely in Holland and elsewhere. 

ARMORIAL BEARINGS became hereditary in families at the close of the I2th century. 
They took their rise from the knights painting their banners with different figures, and were 
employed by the crusaders, ^ in order at first to distinguish noblemen in battle, noo. 
The lines to denote colours in arms, by their direction or intersection, were invented by 
Columbiere in 1639. Armorial bearings were taxed in 1798, and again in 1808. The armo- 
rial bearings of the English sovereigns are given under the article England. 

ARMORICA, now Brittany, N. France, was conquered by Julius Ctesar, 56 B.C. 
Gauls retired there and preserved the Celtic tongue, A.D. 584. See Brittany. 


ARMOUR. That of Goliath is described (about 1063 B.C.) I Sam. xvii. 5. The warlike 
Europeans at first despised any other defence than the shield. Skins and padded hides were 
first used ; and brass and iron armour, in plates or scales, followed. The first body armour 
of the Britons was skins of wild beasts, exchanged, after the Roman conquest, for the well- 
tanned leathern cuirass. Tacitus. This latter continued till the Anglo-Saxon era. 
Hengist is said to have had scale armour, A.D. 449. The Norman armour formed breeches 
and jacket, 1066. The hauberk had its hood of the same piece, 1 100. John wore a surtout 
over a hauberk of rings set edgeways, 1199. The heavy cavalry were covered with a coat of 
mail, Henry III. 1216. Some horsemen had vizors, and scull-caps, same reign. Armour 
became exceedingly splendid about 1350. The armour of plate commenced 1407. Black 
armour, used not only for battle, but for mourning, Henry V. 1413. The armour of Henry VII. 
consisted of a cuirass of steel, in the form of a pair of stays, about 1500. Armour ceased 
to reach below the knees, Charles I. 1625. In the reign of Charles II. officers wore no other 




armour than a 
the present day. 

orget, which is commemorated in the diminutive ornament known at 


ARMS. The club was the first offensive weapon ; then followed the mace, battle-axe, 
pike, spear, javelin, sword and dagger, bows and arrows. Pliny ascribes the invention of 
the sling to the Phoenicians. See articles on the various weapons throughout the volume. 

ARMS. See Armorial bearings and Heraldry. 

ARMS' BILL, for the repression of crime and insurrection in Ireland, was passed Oct. 15, 
1831. It was a revival of the expired statutes of George III. The guns registered under 
this act throughout the kingdom at the close of the first year scarcely amounted to 3000, 
and the number was equally snmll of all other kinds of arms. The new Arms' bill passed 
Aug. 22, 1843. It has been since renewed, but has not been rigidly enforced. 

ARMY. Ninus and Semiramis had armies amounting to nearly two millions of fighting 
men, 2017 B.C. The first guards and regular troops as a standing army were formed by 
Saul, 1093 B.C. Eusebius, The army of Xerxes invading Greece is said to have been 
1,700,000 foot and 80,000 horse : 480 B.C. One of the first standing armies of which we 
have any account, is that of Philip of Macedon. The army which Darius opposed to 
Alexander the Great (332 B.C.) is set down as between 750,000 and a million. The first 
standing army which existed as such, in modern times, was maintained in France by 
Charles VII. in 1445. The chief European nations have had in their service the following 
armies: Spain, 150,000 men ; Great Britain, 310,000; Prussia, 350,000; Turkey, 450,000; 
Austria, 500,000 ; Russia, 560,000 ; and France, 680,000. Estimated number in Europe in 
1863, 6,000,000 soldiers, 1,000,000 horses, u,oooguns. 

ARMY, BRITISH, mainly arose in the reign of Charles II. in 1661, in consequence of the 
extinction of feudal tenures. The first five regiments of British infantry were established 
between 1633 and 1680. James II. established several regiments of dragoon guards (1685-8). 
In 1685 the army consisted of 7000 foot and 1700 cavalry. Standing armies were introduced 
by Charles I. in 1638 ; they were declared illegal in England, 31 Charles II. 1679 ; but one 
was then gradually forming, which was maintained by William III. 1689, when the Mutiny 
Act was passed. See Regiments. Grose's "History of the British Army" was published in 
1801. The effective rank-and-file of the army actually serving in the pay of Great Britain 
on the 24th Dec. 1800, amounted to 168,082 ; and the estimates of the whole army in that 
year were 17,973,000?. The militia, volunteer, and other auxiliary forces were of immense 
amount at some periods of the war ending in 1815. The strength of the volunteer corps 
was greatest between the years 1798 and 1804, in which latter year this species of force 
amounted to 410,000 men, of whom 70,000 were Irish; and the militia had increased to 
130,000 men, previously to the regular regiments being recruited from its ranks in 1809. 
The following are statements of the effective military strength of the United Kingdom at 
the periods mentioned, and of the sums voted for military expenditure : 

1780, Time of war : troops of 

the line 

1800, War 

1810, War: army including 

foreign troops 

1815, Last year of the war . 
1820, Time of peace; war in- 

cumbrances . . . 
1830, Peace ..... 
1840, Peace . . . . 
1850, Peace .'.'*..... 
1852, Peace (except Kaffir war) 101,937 
1854, War with Russia 


Original Estimate 1854-5 Actual Charge 1854-5 Estimate for 1855-6 

Army .... 6,287,486 . . . 7,167,486 .... 13,721,158 

Navy 7,487,948 .... 10,417,309 . . . 10,716,338 

Ordnance .... 3,845,878 . . . 5,986,662 .... 7,808,042 
Transports (increase in Navy) 3,582,474 . ... 5,181,465 


Sum voted. 


Sum voted. 

1855, War with Russia . . 178,645* 




1856, War with Russia (effec- 



tive men 154,806) . . 206,836 




(Sept. 5, 1856, reduced to 125,000 men, 
exclusive of the Indian army.) 



1859, Prospect of European | g 




war in April June (in > /o n 'i v th 
Great Britain) . . ) v * 

ose at home) 



1860, War with China . . 235,852 




1861, 212,773 

1 4., 168,621 





IOI >937 


1863, (With Indian army) . . 220,918 




Total. . .17,621,312 27,153,931 

VOLUNTEERS in Great Britain in 1862, stated to be 167,291. 


* Besides this national army, 14,950 foreign troops were voted for the service of the year 1855-6; and 
the English militia was called out, and increased to the number of 120,000 men, thus forming a total of 
3 I 3>595> exclusive of 20,000 Turkish auxiliaries taken into British pay. 




ARMY, BRITISH, continued. 


English .... 
Scotch. . . . 
Irish .... 

Total . . . 

Life Guards. 

Horse Guards. 

Foot Guards. 















Army Service Acts : 12 & 13 Viet. c. 37 
(June 21, 1847), and 18 Viet. c. 4 . Feb. 27, 1855 

The Mutiny Act is passed annually ; alterations 
were made in this Act and in the Articles of 
War in 1855. See Militia and Volunteers. 

Officers in the service of the East India Com- 
pany to have the same rank and precedence 
as those in the regular army . April 25, 

The office of Master-General of the Ordnance 
abolished, and the civil administration of the 
Army and Ordnance vested in the hands of . 
Lord Panmure, the Minister of War May 25, ,, 

Examination of staff officers previous to their 
appointment ordered . . . April 9, 1857 

Thf - * " * " - - - 

_. c 

The army largely recruited in 1857 and 1858, in 

consequence of the war in Indi 
The East India Company's army was transferred 

to the Queen 1859 

Much dissatisfaction arose in that army in con- 

sequence of no bounty being granted ; and 
threatenings of mutiny appeared, which 
subsided after an arrangement was made 
granting discharge to those who desired it. 
See India . . 1859 

Examination of candidates for the Military 
Academy, previously confined to pupils from 
Sandhurst, was thrown open, 1855 ; the prin- 
ciple of this measure was affirmed by the 
House of Commons by vote . April 26, 1858 

By 22 & 23 Viet. c. 42, provision made for a re- 
serve force, not to exceed 20,000 men, who 
had been in her majesty's service . . . 1859 

Flogging virtually abolished in the army : First 
class soldiers to be degraded to second class 
before being liable to it . . . Nov. 9, , , 

A report of a commission in 1858 causes great 

sanitary improvements in the army, barracks, 
&c., under direction of Mr. Sidney Herbert i 


ARMY OF OCCUPATION. The allied powers, Austria, Russia, and Prussia, by the treaty, 
signed Nov. 20, 1815, established the boundaries of France, and stipulated for the occupa- 
tion of certain fortresses by foreign troops for three years, to the intense disgust of the 

AROMATICS. Acron of Agrigentum is said to have been the first who caused great fires 
to be made, and aromatics to be thrown into them, to purify the air, by which means he put 
a stop to the plague at Athens, 473 B.C. Nouv. Diet. 

ARP1NUM (S. Italy), celebrated as the birthplace of Cicero, Jan. 3, 106 B.C. ; many 
remains still bear his name. 

ARQUEBUS. See Fire Arms. 

ARQUES (N. France). Near here the League army, commanded by tlic due do Mayenne, 
was defeated by Henry IV. Sept. 21, 1589. 

ARRACAN, a province of N.E. India. Arracan, the capital, was taken by the Burmese, 
1783 ; and taken from them by general Morrison, April I, 1825. The subjugation of the 
whole province soon followed. 

ARRAIGNMENT consists in reading the indictment by the officer of the court, and 
calling upon the prisoner to say whether he is guilty or not guilty. Formerly, persons who 
refused to plead in cases of felony were pressed to death by weights placed upon the breast. 
A person standing mute was declared convicted by an act passed 1772; but in 1827, the 
court was directed to enter a plea of " not guilty" in such cases. See Mute. 

ARRAS (N.E. of France), the ancient Atrebates, the seat of a bishop since 390. 
Here a treaty was concluded between the king of France and duke of Burgundy, when the 
latter abandoned his alliance with England, Sept. 22, 1435. Another treaty was concluded 
by Maximilian of Austria with Louis XI. of France, whereby the counties of Burgundy and 
Artois were given to the dauphin as a marriage portion ; this latter was entered into in 
1482. Vclly. Arras was held by the Austrians from 1493 till 1640, when it was taken by 
Louis XIII. 

ARRAY. On Dec. 23, 1324, Edward II. directed the bishop of Durham to -make 
"arraier" his men-of-arms, horse and foot, and cause them to proceed to Portsmouth; 
thence to proceed to the war in Gascony. Rymtr's Fculcrci. Hallam says that this was the 
earliest commission of array that he could find, and that the latest was dated 1557. The 

E 2 



attempt of Charles I. to revive commissions of array in 1642, founded on a statute of Henry 
IV., was strenuously opposed as illegal. 

AEREST FOR DEBT. The persons of peers, members of parliament, &c., are protected 
from arrest. See Ambassadors; Ferrars' Arrest. 

Statute abolishing arrest for debt on mesne 
process, except in cases wherein there is 
ground to show that the defendant designs 
to leave the country, 2 Viet. , Aug. . . 1838 

By 7 & 8 Viet. c. 96, the power of imprison- 
ment even upon final process, that is judg- 
ment debts, is abolished if the sum does not 
exceed 2ol. exclusive of costs, 1844 ; and by 
9 & 10 Viet. c. 95, the judge has no power to 
punish, except in case of fraud or contempt 
of court . . 1846 

By the Absconding Debtors' Arrest Act, ab- 
sconding debtors owing 20 1. and upwards are 
liable to arrest 1851 

Clergymen performing divine service privi- 
leged, soEdw. Ill 1375 

Seamen privileged from debts under zol, by 

30 Geo. II 1756 

Barristers privileged from arrest while going 

to, attending upon, and returning from court, 

on the business of their clients. 
By statute 29 Charles II. no arrest can be made, 

nor process served, upon a Sunday. This 

law was extended by William III. 
Vexatious arrests prevented by act, May, 1733. 

Prohibited for less than io. on process, 1779 : 

and for less than zol. . . . July, 1827 
Arrests for less than 20?. were prohibited on 

mesne process in Ireland, in June . . 1829 

ARRETINUM. See Arezzo. 

ARSENAL, a great military or naval repository. The largest in this countiy is at Wool- 
wich, which see. 

ARSENIC, a steel-gray coloured brittle metal, extremely poisonous, known in early 
times. Brandt, in 1733, made the first accurate experiments on its chemical nature. The 
heinous crimes committed by means of this mineral obliged the legislature to enact regula- 
tions for its sale, 14 Viet. cap. 13, June 5, 1851. The sale of all colourless preparations of 
arsenic is regulated by this act. In 1858 Dr. A. S. Taylor asserted that green paper- 
hangings prepared from arsenic were injurious to health ; which appears to be true, although 
doubted by some chemists. See Cacodyl. 

ARSEN1TE SCHISM. See Eastern Church, 1255. 

ARSON was punished with death by the Saxons, and remained a capital crime on the 
consolidation of the laws in 1827, 1837, and 1861. If any house be fired, persons being 
therein, or if any vessel be fired, with a view to murder or plunder, it shall be death, statute 
i Viet., July, 1837. 

ARSOUF (Syria), BATTLE OF, in which Richard I. of England, commanding the Christian 
forces, reduced to 30,000, defeated Saladin's army of 300,000 Saracens and other infidels, on 
Sept. 3 or 7, 1191. Ascalon surrendered. Richard marched to Jerusalem, 1192. 

ARTEMISIUM, a promontory in Eubcea, near which indecisive conflicts took place 
between the Greek and Persian fleets for three days ; 480 B.C. The former retired on hearing 
of the battle of Thermopylee. 

ARTESIAN WELLS (from Artesia, now Artois, in France, where they frequently occur) 
are formed by boring through the upper soil to strata containing water, which has percolated 
from a higher level, and which rises to that level through the boring tube. The fountains 
in Trafalgar square and government offices near have been supplied since 1844 by two of 
these wells (393 feet deep). At Paris the Crenelle well (1798 feet deep), was completed in 
1841, after eight years of exertion, by M. Mulot at an expense of about 12,000^., and the 
well at Passy, which it is said will supply sufficient water for nearly 500,000 persons, was 
begun in 1855, and completed in 1860 by M. Kind. Messrs. Amos and Easton completed 
an artesian well for the Horticultural Society's garden in 1862. It yielded 880,000 gallons 
of water, at the temperature of 81 Fahr., in twenty-four hours. The well at Kissingen was 
completed in 1850. Artesian wells are now becoming common. 

ARTICHOKES are said to have been introduced from the East into Western Europe in 
the 1 5th century, and to have reached England about 1502. 

ARTICLES OF RELIGION. In June 8, 1536, after much disputing, the English clergy 
in convocation published ''Articles decreed by the king's highness" Henry VIII., who 
published in 1539 the " Statute of Six Articles," viz. transubstantiation, communion in one 
kind, vows of chastity, private masses, celibacy of the clergy, and auricular confession. In 
1551 forty-two were published without the consent of parliament. These forty-two were 
modified and reduced to THIRTY-NINE in Jan. 1563 ; and they received the royal authority 
and the authority of parliament in 1571. The Lambeth Articles, of a more Calvinistic 
character, attempted to be imposed by archbishop Whitgift, were withdrawn in consequence 


of the displeasure of queen Elizabeth, 1595. One hundred and four articles were drawn up 
for Ireland by archbishop Usher in 1614. On the union of the churches, the Irish adopted 
the English articles. See Perth Articles. 

ARTICLES OF WAR were decreed in the time of Richard I. and John. Those made by 
Richard II. in 1485 appear in Grose's "Military Antiquities." The Articles of "War now in 
force are based upon an act, passed by William III. in 1689, to regulate the army about to 
engage in his continental warfare. 

ARTIFICERS AND MANUFACTURERS. Their affairs were severely regulated by the 
statutes of 1349, 1351, 1360, 1562. They were prohibited from leaving England, and those 
abroad were outlawed, if they did not return within six months after the notice given them. 
A line of iooZ., and imprisonment for three months, were the penalties for seducing them 
from these realms, by 9 Geo. II. (1736) and other statutes, which were repealed in 1824. 

ARTILLERY, a term including properly all missiles : now applies to cannon. The first 
iece was a small one, contrived by Schwartz, a German cordelier, soon after the invention 
of gunpowder, in 1330. Artillery w r as used, it is said, by the Moors of Algesiras, in Spain, 
in the siege of 1343 ; it was used, according to our historians, at the battle of Crecy, in 1346, 
when Edward III. had four pieces of cannon, which gained him the battle. We had artillery 
at the siege of Calais, 1347. The Venetians first employed artillery against the Genoese at 
sea, 1377. Voltaire. Said to have been used by the English at Calais in 1383. Cast in 
England, together with mortars for bomb-shells, by Flemish artists, in Sussex, 1543. 
Rymer's Fcedera. Made of brass 1635 ; improvements by Browne, 1728. See Cannon, 
Bombs, Carronades (under Carron), Mortars, Howitzers, Petard, Rockets, Fire-arms. The 
Royal Artillery regiment was established in the reign of Anne. 

ARTILLERY COMPANY OF LONDON, HONOURABLE, instituted in 1585, having ceased, 
was revived in 1610. It met for military exercise at the Artillery ground, Finsbury, where 
the London Archers had met since 1498. (See Archery.} In the civil war, 1641-8, the 
company took the side of the parliament, and greatly contributed towards its success. The 
company numbered 1200 in 1803 and 800 in 1861. Since 1842 the officers have been 
appointed by the Queen. On the decease of the duke of Sussex in 1843, the Prince Consort 
became colonel and captain-general. He died Dec. 14, 1861, and the Prince of Wales was 
appointed his successor Aug. 24, 1863. 

ARTISTS' FUND was established in 1810 to provide allowances for sick, and annuities 
for incapacitated members. 

ARTS. In the 8th century, the whole circle of sciences was composed of seven liberal 
arts grammar, rhetoric, logic, arithmetic, music, geometry, and astronomy. Harris. The 
Royal Society of England (which see) obtained its charter April 2, 1663. The Society of 
Arts, to promote the polite arts, commerce, manufactures, and mechanics, was instituted in 
1754 ; it originated in the patriotic zeal of Mr. Shipley, and of its first president, lord Folke- 
stone. FINE ARTS. The first public exhibition by the artists of the British metropolis took 
place in 1760, at the rooms of the Society of Arts, and was repeated there for several years, 
till, in process of time, the Royal Academy was founded. See Royal Academy. The Society 
of British Artists was instituted May 21, 1823 ; and their first exhibition was opened April 
19, 1824. The Society for the Encouragement of the Fine Arts was founded in Dec. 1858. 
See British Institution ; National Gallery. 

ART-UNIONS began in France and Germany early in the present century. The first in 
Britain was established at Edinburgh ; that in London was founded in 1836, and chartered 
in 1846, when these unions were legalised. Every subscriber is entitled to prints, and has 
the chance of drawing prizes. 

ARUNDEL CASTLE (Sussex), built by the Saxons about 800. The duke of Norfolk 
enjoys the earldom of Arundel, as a feudal honour, by inheritance and possession of the 
castle, without any other creation. Philip Howard, son of the attainted duke of Norfolk, 
was made earl of Arundel, by summons, as possessor of this castle, 1580. It was thoroughly 
repaired by a late duke at a vast expense. 

ARUNDELIAN MARBLES, called also Oxford Marbles ; one containing the chronology 
of ancient history from 1582 to 355 B.C., and said to have been sculptured 264 B.C. They 
consist of 37 statues, 128 busts, and 250 inscriptions, and were found in the isle of Paros, in 
the reign of James I., about 1610. They were collected by Mr. W. Petty, purchased by 
lord Arundel, and given by his grandson Henry Howard, afterwards duke of Norfolk, to the 
university of Oxford in '1667 ; and are therefore called also OXFORD MARBLES. The 



characters of the inscriptions are Greek. There are two translations : by Sdden, 1628 : by 
Pridcaux, 1676. A variorum edition of the inscriptions, by Maittaire, appeared in 1732, 
and a fine one by Chandler in 1763. See Kidds Tracts ; and Parson's Treatise, 1789. 

ARUSPICES. See Haruspices. 

AS, a Roman weight and coin : when considered as a weight, it was a pound ; when a 
coin, it had different weights, but always the same value. In the reign of Servius, the as 
weighed a pound of brass ; in the first Panic war, it weighed two ounces, 264 B.C. ; in the 
second Punic war, one ounce, 218 B.C. ; and afterwards half an ounce ; its value was about 
three farthings sterling. 

ASAPH, ST. (N. Wales), a bishopric founded by Kentigeru, bishop of Glasgow. On 
returning into Scotland about 560, he left a holy man, St. Asapli, his successor, from whom 
the see takes its name. It is valued in the king's books at 187^. us. 6d. By an order in 
council, 1838, the sees of St. Asapli and Bangor were to have been united on the next 
vacancy in either ; and the bishopric of Manchester was to have been then created. This 
order was annulled in 1846, and the two sees still exist. Present income, 4200?. See 


1802. Samuel Horsley, died Oct. 4, 1806. 
1806. William Cleaver, died May 15, 1815. 
1815. John Luxmoore, died Jan. 21, 1830. 

1830. William Carey, died Sept. 13, 1846. 

1846. Thomas Vowler Short (PRESENT bishop, 1865). 

ASBESTOS, a native fossil stone, which may be split into threads and filaments, and 
which is endued with the property of remaining unconsumed in fire. Cloth Avas made of it 
by the Egyptians (Herodotus), and napkins in the time of Pliny, 74 ; and also paper. The 
spinning of asbestos known at Venice, about 1500. Porta. 

ASCALON (Syria), a city of the Philistines, shared the fate of Phoenicia and Judea. The 
Egyptian army was defeated here by the Crusaders, under Godfrey of Bouillon, Aug. 12, 
1099. Ascalon was besieged by the latter in 1148, taken in 1153 ; and again in 1191. Its 
fortifications were destroyed for fear of the Crusaders by the Sultan in 1270. 

ASCENSION, an island in the Atlantic ocean, 800 miles N. W. of St. Helena, discovered 
by the Portuguese in 1501 ; and taken possession of by the English in 1815. 

ASCENSION DAY, a]so called Holy Thursday, when the church celebrates the ascension 
of our Saviour, the fortieth day after his resurrection from the dead, May 14, 33 ; first com- 
memorated, it is said, 68. Ascension day, 1866, May 10; 1867, May 30 ; 1868, May 21. 

ASCULUM, now Ascoli, a city of the Picentes, Central Italy, E. Near it, Pyrrhus of 
Epirus defeated the Romans, 279 B.C. In 268 B.C., the whole country of the Picentes was 
subdued by the consul Sempronius. In 1190 A.D. Andrea, the general of the emperor 
Henry VI., who was endeavouring to wrest the crown of Naples from Tancred, was defeated 
and slain. 

ASHANTEES, a warlike tribe of negroes of West Africa. In 1807 they conquered 
Fantee, in which the British settlement Cape Coast Castle is situated. On the death of the 
king, who had been friendly to the English, hostilities began ; and on Jan. 21, 1824, the 
Ashantees defeated about 1000 British under sir Charles M'Carthy at Accra, and brought 
away his skull with others as trophies. They were totally defeated, Aug. 27, 1826, by col. 
Purdon. The governor of Cape Coast Castle began a war with the Ashantees in spring of 
1863. The British troops suffered much through disease ; and the war was suspended by 
the government in May, 1864. 

ASHBURTON TREATY, concluded at Washington, Aug. 9, 1842, by Alexander, lord 
Ashburton, and John Tyler, president of the United States : it defined the boundaries of 
the respective countries between Canada and the state of Maine, settled the extradition of 
criminals, &c. 

ASHDOD, or Azotus, the seat of the worship of the Phoenician god Dagou, which fell 
down before the ark of the Lord ; captured by the Philistines from the Israelites, about 
1141 B.C. (i Sam. v.). 

ASHDOWN, or Assendulie, now thought to be Aston, Berks, where Ethelred and his 
brother Alfred defeated the Danes in 871. 

ASHMOLEAN LIBRARY (books, manuscripts, coins, &c ; ), was presented to the 
university of Oxford by Klias Ashmole, the herald and antiquary, about 1682. It included 




the collections of the Tradescants, to whom he was executor. He died at Lambeth in 1692. 
The Ashmolean Society, Oxford (scientific), was established in 1828. 

ASHTAROTH, a Phoenician goddess, occasionally worshipped by the Israelites (see 
Judges ii. 13) about 1406 B.C., and even by Solomon, about 984 B.C. (i Kings xi. 5). 

ASH- WEDNESDAY, the first day of Lent, which in early times began on the Sunday 
now called the first in Lent. Pope Felix III., in 487, first added the four days preceding 
the old Lent Sunday, to raise the number of fasting days to forty ; Gregory the Great (pope, 
590) introduced the sprinkling of ashes on the first of the four additional days, and hence 
the name of Dies Cinerum, or Ash-Wednesday. At the Reformation this practice was 
abolished, "as being a mere shadow, or vain show." 

ASIA, the largest division of the globe, so called by the Greeks, from the nymph Asia, 
the daughter of Oceanus and Tethys, the wife of Japhet. Asia was the first quarter of the 
world peopled : here the law of God was first promulgated ; here many of the greatest 
monarchies of the earth had their rise ; and hence most of the arts and sciences have been 
derived. Its early history is derived from Herodotus, who relates the wars of Croesus, Cyrus, 
and others. See China, India, Persia, and the oilier countries. 

ASIA MINOR (now Anatolia), comprised the Ionian colonies on the coast, the early 
seats of Greek civilisation, and the countries Mysia, Phrygia, Lycia, Bithynia, Caria, Lydia, 
Cappadocia, Galatia, &c., with the cities Troy, Ephesus, Smyrna (all which see). From the 
time of the rise of the Assyrian monarchy, about 2000 B.C., to that of the Turks under 
Osman, Asia Minor was the battle-field of the conquerors of the world. 

First settlement of the Ionian Greeks, about B. c. 1043 
Asia Minor subdued by the Medes . about 711 
Conquered by Cyrus .... about 546 
Contest between the Greeks and Persians begins 544 
Asia Minor conquered by Alexander . . 332 
Contended for by his successors ; separate 
kingdoms established .... 321-278 

Gradually acquired by the Romans B. c. 1 88 to A. D. 15 

Possessed by the Persians 609 

Partially recovered by the emperor Basil . . 874 
Invaded by Timour 1402 

Taken from the Greek enij 
as an empire by the Tur 

jr, and established 
under Mahomet I. 1413 

ASIATIC SOCIETIES. The " Asiatic Society of Bengal," at Calcutta, was established 

volumes of Eastern literature (1865). 

ASKESIAN SOCIETY (from the Greek askesis, exercise), instituted in March, 1796, by 
a number of young men for discussing philosophical subjects. Its founders were the after- 
wards celebrated Wm. Allen, Wm. Phillips, Alex. Tilloch, Luke Howard, "W. H. Pepys, and 
others. In 1806 it merged into the Geological Society. 

ASPERNE AND ESSLING, near the Danube and Vienna, where a series of desperate con- 
flicts took place between the Austrian army under the archduke Charles, and the French 
under Napoleon, Massena, &c., on May 21-22, 1809, ending in the defeat of Napoleon ; the 
severest check that he had yet received. The loss of the former exceeded 20,000 men, ami 
of the latter 30,000. The daring marshal Lannes was killed ; the bridge of the Danube was 
destroyed, and Napoleon's retreat endangered ; but the success of the Austriaus had no 
beneficial effect on the subsequent prosecution of the war. 

ASPHALT, a solid bituminous substance, which in nature probably derived its origin 
from decayed vegetable matter. The artificial asphalt obtained from gas-works began to be 
used as pavement about 1838. Claridge's patent asphalt was laid down in Trafalgar-square, 
Jan. 1864. 

ASPROMONTE, Naples. Here Garibaldi was defeated, wounded, and taken prisoner 
Aug. 29, 1862, having injudiciously risen against the French occupation of Rome. 

ASSAM (N. E. India) came under British dominion in 1825, and was surrendered by 
the king of Ava in 1826. The tea-plant Was discovered here by Mr. Bruce in 1823. A 
superintendent of the tea-forests was appointed in 1836, the cultivation of the plant having 
been recommended by lord William Bentinck, in 1834. The Assam Tea Company was 
established in 1839. The tea was much in use in England in 1841. Chinese labour has 
been introduced, and the growth of tea is enormously increasing. 

ASSASSINATION PLOT, said to have been formed by the earl of Aylesbury and 
others to assassinate William III., near Richmond, Surrey, and restore James II. Its 
object would have been attained, Feb. 14, 1695-6, but for its timely discovery by 


ASSASSINS, OR ASSASSINIANS, a band of fanatical Mahometans, collected by Hassan- 
ben-Sabah, and settled in Persia about 1090. In Syria they possessed a large tract of land 
among the mountains of Lebanon. They murdered the marquis of Montferrat in 1192; 
Lewis of Bavaria in 1213 ; and the khan of Tartary in 1254. They were conquered by the 
Tartars in 1257 ; and were extirpated in 1272. The chief or king of the corps assumed the 
title of "Ancient of the Mountain," and " Old Man of the Mountain." * They trained up 
young people to assassinate such persons as their chief had devoted to destruction. Henault. 
From this fraternity the word assassin has been derived. 

ASSAY OF GOLD AND SILVER originated with the bishop of Salisbury, a royal treasurer in 
the reign of Henry I. Du Cange. But certainly some species of assay was practised as 
early as the Koman conquest. Assay was established in England 1354 ; regulated 13 "Will. 
III. 1700, and 4 Anne, 1705. Assay masters appointed at Sheffield and Birmingham, 1773. 
The alloy of gold is silver and copper, that of silver is copper. Standard gold is 2 carats of 
alloy to 22 of fine gold. Standard silver is 18 dwts. of copper to n ozs. 2 dwts. of fine silver. 
See Goldsmith Company. 

ASSAYE (E. Indies), BATTLE OF. The British army, under general Arthur "Wellesley 
(afterwards duke of "Wellington), entered the Mahratta states on the south ; took the fort of 
Ahmednuggur, Aug. 12 ; and defeated Scindiah and the rajah of Berar at Assay e, Sept. 23, 
1803. This was "Wellington's first great battle, in which he opposed a force full more than 
ten times greater than his own (only 4500 men). The enemy retired in great disorder, leaving 
behind the whole of their artillery, ammunition, and stores. 

ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES held at Westminster, July i, 1643, convoked by order of 
parliament, to consider the liturgy, government, and doctrines of the church. Two members 
were elected for each county. They adopted the Scottish covenant, and drew up the direc- 
tory for public worship, a confession, and the catechisms now used by the church of Scotland. 
The last (u63rd) meeting was on Feb. 22, 1649. See Church of Scotland. 

ASSENT. See Royal Assent. 

ASSESSED TAXES. The date of their introduction has been as variously stated as the 
taxes coming under this head have been defined all things have been assessed, from lands 
and houses to dogs and hair-powder. By some the date is referred to the reign of Ethelbert, 
in 991 ; by others to that of Henry VIII. 1522 ; and by more, to the reign of "William III. 
1689, when a land-tax was imposed. See Land Tax. The assessed taxes yielded in 1815 
(the last year of the war), exclusively of the land-tax, 6,524,766^., their highest amount. 
These imposts have varied in their nature and amount, according to the exigencies of the 
state, and the contingencies of war and peace. They were considerably advanced in 1797 
and 1801, et seq., but considerably reduced in 1816, and in subsequent years. The last act 
for the repeal of certain assessed taxes was passed 16 & 17 Viet. cap. 90, Aug. 20, 1853, 
which was explained and amended by 17 & 18 Viet. cap. I, Feb. 17, 1854. Acts for the 
better securing and accounting for the Assessed and Income Taxes, Aug. 10, 1854. See 
Taxes and Income Tax. 

ASSIENTO, a contract between the king of Spain and other powers, for furnishing the 
Spanish dominions in America with negro slaves, began with the Flemings. By the treaty 
of Utrecht in 1713, the British government engaged to furnish 4800 negroes annually to 
Spanish America for thirty years. The contract was vested in the South Sea Company ; but 
this infamous contract was given up in 1 750. See Guinea. 

ASSIGNATS, a paper currency, ordered by the National Assembly of France to support 
public credit during the revolution, April, 1 790. At one period, eight milliards, or nearly 
350 millions of pounds sterling, of this paper were in circulation in France and its depen- 
dencies. Alison. Assignats were superseded by mandats in 1796. 


ASSIZE OF BREAD, &c. See Bread and Wood. 

ASSIZE COUETS (from assideo, I sit) are of very ancient institution in England, and in 
old law books are defined to be an assembly of knights and other substantial men, with 
the justice, to meet at a certain time and place : regulated by Magna Charta, 1215. 
The present justices of assize and Nisi Prius are derived from the statute of Westminster, 
13 Edw. I. 1284. Coke; JBlacfatone. ''The king doth will that no lord, or other of the 

* He sent his emissaries to assassinate Louis IX. of France, called St. Louis : but being afterwards 
affected by the fame of this king's virtues, and he being at the time in his minority, he gave the prince 
notice to take care of himself . Henault. This statement is doubted. 



country, shall sit upon the bench with the justices to take assize in their sessions in the 
counties of England, upon great forfeiture to the king," 20 Rich. II. 1396. Statutes, 
Urough Act. Assizes are general or special ; general when the judges go their circuits, 
and special when a commission is issued to take cognisance of one or more causes. See 
Bloody Assize. 

ASSOCIATIONS. See National Associations. 

ASSUMPTION, FEAST OF THE, Aug. 15. It is observed by the church of Rome in 
honour of the Virgin Mary, who is said to have been taken up to heaven in her corporeal 
form, body and spirit, on this day, 45, in her 75th year. The festival was instituted in the 
7th century, and enjoined by the council of Mentz, 813. 

ASSURANCE. See Insurance. 

ASSYRIA, an Asiatic country between Mesopotamia and Media, was the seat of the 
earliest recorded monarchy. Its history is mainly derived from Ctesias, an early Greek 
historian of doubtful authenticity, Herodotus, and the Holy Scriptures. The discovery of 
the very interesting Ninevite antiquities, now in the British Museum, by Mr. Layard,- and 
the deciphering of many ancient cuneiform inscriptions, by Grotefend, sir H. Rawlinson, 
and other scholars, have drawn much attention to the Assyrians. The chronologers, Blair, 
Usher, Hales, and Clinton, differ much in the dates they assign to events in Assyrian 
history, of which a large portion is now considered fabulous by modern writers. 

Nimrod or Belus reigns B.C. [2554 H. 2235 C.} 2245 
" Asshur builded Nineveh " (Gen. x. u) about 2218 
Ninus, son of Belus, reigns in Assyria, and 

names his capital Nineveh . . [2182 C*.] 2069 
Babylon taken by Ninus, who having subdued 

the Armenians, Persians, Bactrians, and all 

Asia Minor, establishes what is properly the 

Assyrian monarchy, of which Nineveh was 

the seat of empire. Blair . . [2233 C 1 .] 2059 
Ninyas, an infant, succeeds Ninus . . . 2017 
Semiramis, mother of Ninyas, usurps the 

government, enlai-ges and embellishes Baby- 
lon, and makes it the seat of her dominion 

[2130 <?.] 2007 

She invades Libya, Ethiopia, and India. Lenglet 1975 
She is put to death by her son Ninyas . 1965 

Ninyas put to death, and Arius reigns . 1927 

Reign of Aralius 1897 

Belochus, the last king of the race of Ninus 1446 
lie makes his daughter Atossa, surnamed Se 

miramis II., his associate on the throne 143? 

Atossa procures the death of her father, and 

marries Belatores (or Belapares) who reigns 1421 

The prophet Jonah appears in Nineveh, and 

foretells its destruction. Blair . . . 840 
Nineveh taken by Arbaces. [Sardanapalus, the 

king, is mythically said to have enclosed 

himself, his court, and women, in his palace, 

and to have perished in the fire kindled by 

himself.] 820 

ASTLEY'S AMPHITHEATRE. See under Theatres. 

ASTORGA (N. AV. Spain), the ancient Asturica Augusta, was taken by the French in 
1810, and treated with great severity. 

ASTRACAN (S. E. Russia), a province acquired from the Mogul's empire in 1554; visited 
and settled by Peter the Great in 1722. 

ASTROLOGY. Judicial astrology was invented by the Chaldeans, and hence was trans- 
mitted to the Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans. It was much in vogue in Italy and France 
in the time of Catherine de Medicis (married to Francis I. of France, 1533). H^nault. The 
early history of astrology in England is very little known. It is said that Bede, 673 
735, was addicted to it ; and Roger Bacon, 12141292. Lord Burleigh calculated the 
nativity of Elizabeth, and she, and all the European princes, were the humble servants of 
Dee, the astrologer and conjuror ; but the period of the Stuarts was the acme of astrology 
amongst us. It is stated that Lilly was consulted by Charles I. respecting his projected 
escape from Carisbrook castle in 1647. Ferguson. Astrological almanacs are still pub- 
lished in London. 

Phul raised to the throne. Blair, about B.C. 777 

He invades Israel, but departs without drawing 
a sword. Blair ; 2 Kings xv. 19, 20 . . 770 

Tiglath-Pileser invades Syria, takes Damascus, 
and makes great conquests . . . . 740 

Shalmaneser takes Samaria, transports the 
people, whom he replaces by a colony of 
Cutheans and others, and thus finishes the 
kingdom of Israel. Blair 72 1 

He retires from before Tyre, after a siege of five 
years. Blair 713 

Sennacherib invades Judea, and his general, 
Rabshakeh, besieges Jerusalem, when the 
angel of the Lord in one night destroys 
180,000 of his army. Isaiah xxxvii. . . 710 

[Commentators suppose that this messenger of 
death was the fatal blast known in eastern 
countries by the name of Samiel.] 

Esar-haddon invades Judea .... 680 

Holofernes is slain by Judith (?) . . . . 677 

Sarac (Sardanapalus II.) besieged, kills his wife 
and children, and burns himself in his 
palace 621 

Nineveh razed to the ground, and Assyria be- 
comes a Median province 605 

Assyria subdued by Alexander the Great . 332 

It subsequently formed part of the kingdoms 
of Syria, Parthia, and Persia. 

It was conquered by the Turks . . A.D. 1637 




ASTRONOMY. The earliest astronomical observations were made at Babylon about 
2234 B.C. The study of astronomy was much advanced in Chaldsea under Nabonassar ; it 
was known to the Chinese about noo B.C. ; some say many centuries before. See Eclipses, 
Planets, Comets. 

Lunar eclipses observed "at Babylon, and re- 
corded by Ptolemy . . . about B.C. 

Spherical form of the earth, and the true cause 
of lunar eclipses, taught by Thales, died 


Further discoveries by Pythagoras, who taught 
the doctrine of celestial motions, and believed 
in the plurality of habitable worlds, died about 

Meton introduces the lunar-solar cycle about . 

Treatises of Aristotle "concerning the heavens," 
and of Autolycus "on the motion of the 
sphere " (the earliest extant works on astro- 
nomy) about 

Aratus writes a poem on astronomy 

Archimedes observes solstices, &c. . . . 212 

Hipparchus, greatest of Greek astronomers, 
determines mean motion of sun and moon ; 
discovers precession of equinoxes, &c. . 160-125 

The precession of the equinoxes confirmed, 
and the places and distances of the planets 
discovered by Ptolemy . . . A.D. 130-150 

Astronomy and geography cultivated by the 
Arabs about 760 : brought .into Europe about 1200 

Alphonsine tables (which see) composed about . 1253 


Discoveries of Picard 

Charts of the moon constructed by Scheiner, 



Clocks first used in astronomy . . about 

True doctrine of the motions of the planetary 
bodies revived by Copernicus, founder of 
modern astronomy, author of the almagest, 
published. . 

Astronomy advanced by Tycho Brahe, who yet 
adheres to the Ptolemaic system . about 

True laws of the planetary motions announced 
by Kepler 

Galileo constructs a telescope, 1609 ; and dis- 
covers Jupiter's satellites, &c. . . Jan. 8, 1610 

Various forms of telescopes and other instru- 
ments used in astronomy invented . . 1608-40 

Cartesian system published by Des Cartes . 1637 

The transit of Venus over the sun's disc first 
observed by Horrocks . . . Nov. 24, 1639 1 

Cassini draws his meridian line, after Dante. 
SceBoloyna 1655^ 

The aberration of the light of the fixed stars 
discovered by Horrebow .... 1659 

Huyghens completes the discovery of Saturn's 
ring 1654 

Gregory invents a reflecting telescope . . 1663 ' 

Langrenus, Hevelius, Riccioli, and others, 
.' 546 about 1670 

Discoveries of Romer on the velocity of light, 

and his observation of Jupiter's satellites . 1675 
Greenwich Observatory founded . ,, 

Motion of the sun round its own axis proved 

byHalley 1676 

Newton's Principia published ; and the system, 

as now taught, demonstrated .... 1687 
350 Catalogue of the stars by Flamsteed . . 1688 
281 | Cassini's chart of the full moon executed . 1692 
Satellites of Saturn, &c., discovered by Cassini 1701 
Halley predicts the return of the comet (of 

1758) 1705 

Flamsteed's Historia Cosiest is published . . 1725 
Aberration of the stars clearly explained by 

Dr. Bradley 1757 

John Harrison produces chronometers for de- 
termining the longitude, 1735 et seq., and 

obtains the reward 1764 

Nautical almanac first published . . . 1767 
Celestial inequalities found by La Grange . . 1780 
Uranus and satellites discovered by Ilerschel. 

See Georrtium Sidux . . March 13, 1781 

Md'tanique Celeste, by La Place, published . . 1796 
Royal Astronomical Society of London founded, 

1820; chartered 1831 

Beer and Madler's map of the moon published 1834 
Lord Rosse's telescope constructed . 1828-45 

The planet Neptune discovered . Sept. 23, 1846 
Bond photographs the rnoon (see Pkotoffraphy, 

celestial) 1851 

Hanson's table of the moon published at ex- 
pense of the British government . . . 1857 
Trustees of the late rev. Richard Sheepshanks 
present lo.oooZ. stock to Trinity College, 
Cambridge, for the promotion of the study 
of astronomy, meteorology, and magnetism, 

Dec. 2, 1858 
Large photograph of the moon by Warren De 

la Rue 1863 

[For the minor planets recently discovered, see 

ASTURIAS (N. W. Spain), an ancient principality, the cradle of the present monarchy. 
Here Pelago collected the Gothic fugitives, about 713, and founded a new kingdom, and by 
his victories permanently checked the progress of Moorish conquest. For a list of his 
successors, see the article Spain. The heir-apparent of the monarchy has borne the title 
"prince of Asturias " since 1388, when it was assumed by Henry, son of John I. king of Leon, 
on his marriage with a descendant of Peter of Castile. In 1808, the junta of Asturias began 
the organised resistance to the French usurpation. 

ASYLUMS, OR PRIVILEGED PLACES, at first were places of refuge for those who by 
accident or necessity had done things that rendered them obnoxious to the law. God com- 
manded the Jews to build certain cities for this purpose, 1451 B.C., Numbers xxv. The 
posterity of Hercules are said to have built one at Athens, to protect themselves against such 
as their father had irritated. Cadmus built one at Thebes, 1490 B.C., and .Romulus one at 
Mount Palatine, 751 B.C. See Sanctuaries. 

ATELIERS NAT10NAUX (National Workshops) were established by the French pro- 
visional government in Feb. 1848. They interfered greatly with private trade, and about 
100,000 workmen threw themselves upon the government for labour and payment. The 
breaking-up of the system led to the fearful conflicts in June following. The system was 
abolished in July. 

ATHANASIAN CREED. Athanasius, of Alexandria, was elected bishop, 326. He 
firmly opposed the doctrines of Arius (who denied Christ's divinity) ; was several times exiled j 


and died in 373. The creed which goes by his name is supposed by many authorities to 
have been written about 340 ; by others to be the compilation of Vigilius Tapsensis, an 
African bishop in the 5th century. It was first commented on by Venatius Fortunatus, 
bishop of Foictiers in 570. Dr. Waterland'a History of this creed (1723) is exhaustive. See 

ATHEISM (from the Greek a, without, Theos, God, see Psalm xiv. i). This doctrine 
has had its votaries and martyrs. Spinoza was the defender of a- similar doctrine (1632 
1677). Lucilio Vaniui publicly taught atheism in France, and was condemned to be burnt 
at Toulouse in 1619. Mathias Knutzen, of Holstein, openly professed atheism, and had 
upwards of a thousand disciples in Germany about 1674; he travelled to make proselytes, 
and his followers were called Conscienciaries, because they held that there is no other deity 
than conscience. Many eminent men have professed atheism. "Though a small draught of 
philosophy may lead a man into atheism, a deep draught will certainly bring him back^again 
to the belie 1 f of a God." Lord Bacon. 

ATHE1SLEA were great festivals celebrated at Athens in honour of Minerva. One was 
called Paiiathenere, the other Chalcea ; they are said to have been instituted by Erechtheu.s 
or Orpheus, 1397 or 1495 B - c - > ana< Theseus afterwards renewed them, and caused them to 
be observed by all the Athenians, the first every fifth year, 1234 B.C. Plutarch. 

ATHEN/EUM, a place at Athens, sacred to Minerva, where the poets and philosophers 
recited their compositions. The most celebrated Athensea were at Athens, Rome, and 
Lyons: that of Koine, of great beauty, was erected by the emperor Adrian, 125. The 
ATHENJEUM CLUB of London was formed in 1823, for the association of persons of scientific 
and literary attainments, artists, noblemen and gentlemen, patrons of learning, &c., by 
the earl of Aberdeen, marquess of Lansdowne, Dr. T. Young, Moore, Davy, Scott, Mackin- 
tosh, Croker, Chantrey, Faraday, Lawrence, and others ; the clubhouse was erected in 
1829-30 011 the site of the late Carlton-palace ; it is of Grecian architecture, and the frieze is 
an exact copy of the Panathenaic procession which formed the frieze of the Parthenon. The 
Liverpool Athenaeum was opened Jan. i, 1799. At Manchester, Bristol, and many other 
places, buildings under this name, and for a like purpose, have been founded. The Athc- 
nceum, a weekly literary journal, first appeared in 1828. 

ATHENS, the capital of ancient Attica, and of the modern kingdom of Greece. The first 
sovereign mentioned is Ogyges, who reigned in Bceotia, and was master of Attica, then called 
Ionia. In his reign (about 1764 B.C.) a deluge took place (by some supposed to be the 
universal deluge), that laid waste the country, in which state it remained two hundred years, 
until the arrival of the Egyptian Cecrops and a colony, by whom the land was re-peopled, 
and twelve cities founded, 1556 B.C. The city is said to have been first called Cecropia ; the 
name having been changed to Athens in honour of Minerva (Athene), her worship having 
been introduced by Erechtheus 1383 B.C. Athens was ruled by seventeen successive kings 
(487 years), by thirteen perpetual archons (316 years), seven decennial archons (70 years), 
and lastly by annual archons (760 years). It attained great power, and perhaps no other 
city in the world can boast, in such a short space of time, of so great a number of citizens 
illustrious for wisdom, genius, and valour. The ancients, to distinguish Athens in a more 
peculiar manner, called it Astu, the city, by eminence, and one of the eyes of Greece. See 

Arrival of Cecrops . B.C. [1558 //. 1433 C7.] 1556 
The Areopagus established 1507 

Deucalion arrives in Attic; 


Reign of Amphict yon . . [1499 H.] 1497 

The Panathenajan Games . . [1481 H.\ 1495 

Erichthoniua reigns 1487 

Erechtheus teaches husbandry . . . . 1383 
Bleusinian mysteries introduced by Eumolpus 1356 
Erechtheus killed in battle with the Eleu- 

sinians 1347 

.Kgeus invades Attica, and ascends the throne . 1283 
He throws himself into the sea, and is drowned ; 

hence the name of the .'Egeaii Sea. Eusebiu* 1235 

In a battle with the Heraclidse, Codrus is killed : 
he had resolved to perish ; the oracle having 
declared that the victory should be with the 
side whose leader was killed, 1070. Royalty 
abolished; Athens governed by archons, 
Medon the first [1070 //.] . .... 1044 
Alcmeon, last perpetual archon, dies . . . 753 
Cheropa, first decennial archon . . . . 752 
Hippomcnes deposed for his cruelty ; among 
other acts he exposed his own daughter to be 
devoured by horses, on account of an illicit 

amour 713 

Erixias, seventh and last decennial archon, 

dies . . 684 

Creon first an Hi'.n.l archon . . . 683 

Draco, the twelfth annual archon, publishes his 

Theseus, his son, succeeds, and reigns 30 years 
He collects his subjects into one city, and 

names it Athens^ 1234 _ , 

Reign of Mnestheus, 1205 ; Demophoon . . 1182 laws, said "to have been written in blood " 621 

<'< mrt of Ephetes established 1 1 79 j Solon supersedes them by his excellent code . 594 

The Priaiiepsjw instituted 1178 

Melanthua conquers Xuthus in single combat 

and is chosen king -1128 

of CVlrus, his son, the last king . . 1092 

Pisistratus, the " tyrant," seizes the supreme 
power, 560 ; flight of Solon, 559. Pisistratus 
establishes his government, 537; collects a 
public library, 531 ; dios 527 




ATHENS, continued. 

First tragedy acted at Athens, on a waggon, by 

Thespis B c. 535 

Hipparchus assassinated by Harmodius and 

Aristogeiton 514 

The law of ostracism established ; Hippias and 

the Pisistratidae banished . . . .510 

Lemnos taken by Miltiades 504 

Invasion of the Persians, who are defeated at 

Marathon 490 

Death of Miltiades 489 

Aristides, surnamed the Just, banished . . 483 
Athens taken by the Persian Xerxes . . . 480 
Burnt to the ground by Mardonius . . . 479 
Rebuilt and fortified ; Piraeus built . . . 478 

Themistocles banished 471 

Cimoii, son of Miltiades, overruns all Thrace . 469 
Pericles takes part in public affairs, 469 ; he and 

Cimon adorn Athens. 464 ; the latter banished 

through his influence 461 

Athens begins to tyrannise over Greece . . 459 
Literature, philosophy, and art flourish . . 448 
The first sacred (or social) war ; which see . . ,, 
Tolmidas conducts an expedition into Boeotia, 

and is defeated and killed near Coronea . 447 
The thirty years' truce between the Athenians 

and Lacedaemonians 445 

Herodotus said to have read his history in the 

council at Athens 

Pericles obtains the government . . . . 444 

Pericles subdues Samos 440 

Comedies prohibited at Athens . . . . ,, 
Alliance between Athens and Corcyra, then at 

war with Corinth, 433 ; leads to the Pelopon- 

nesian war (lasted 27 years) ; it began . .431 
A dreadful pestilence, which had ravaged 

Ethiopia, Libya, Egypt, and Persia, extends 

to Athens, and continues for five years . . 430 
Death of Pericles of the plague . . . . 429 
Disastrous expedition against Sicily ; death of 

the commanders, Demosthenes and Nicias ; 

Athenian fleet destroyed by Gylippus . 415-413 
Government of the " four hundred ". . .411 
Alcibiades defeats the Lacedaemonians at 

Cyzicus ; which sei 

Alcibiades, accused of aspiring to sovereign 

power, banished 

Athenian fleet destroyed by Lysander at 


He besieges Athens by land and sea ; its walls 

are destroyed, and it capitulates, and the 

Peloponnesian war terminates . . . 
Rule of the thirty tyrants, who are overthrown 

by Thrasybulus 



Socrates (aged 70) put to death 

The Corinthian war begins ..... 

Cinon rebuilds the long walls, and fortifies 

the Piraeus ....... 

The Lacedaemonian fleet defeated at Naxus by 

Chabrias . ' ....... 

Philip, king of Macedon, opposes the Atheni- 

ans. See Macedon ...... 

Second sacred (or social) war . 

First Philippic of Demosthenes . 

Battle of Chaeronea, which see ; the Athenians 

and Thebans defeated by Philip . . . . 
Philip assassinated by Pausanias . . . 
Athens submits to Alexander, who spares the 

orators ........ 

Death of Alexander ...... 

The Athenians rising against Macedon, defeated 

at Cranon ; Demosthenes poisons himself . 
Athens surrenders to Cassander, who governs 

well ......... 

Demetrius Poliorcetes expels Demetrius Phale- 

reus, and restores the Athenian democracy, 

307 ; the latter takes the chair of philosophy 
A league between Athens, Sparta, and Egypt . 
Athens taken by Antigonus Gonatas, king of 
Macedon, 268 ; restored by Aratus . . 
The Athenians join the Achaean league . . . 
They join the JStolians against Macedon, and 

send for assistance to Rome . . . . 

A Roman fleet arrives at Athens . . . 
The Romans proclaim liberty at Athens . . 
Subjugation of Greece ...... 

The Athenians implore assistance against the 

Romans from Mithridates, king of Pontus, 

whose general, Archelaus, makes himself 

master of Athens ....... 

Athens besieged by Sylla, the Roman general, 

it is reduced to surrender by famine . . . 
Cicero studies at Athens, 79 ; and Horace . . 
The Athenians desert Pompey, to follow the 

interests of Caesar ...... 

Athens visited by the Apostle Paul . . A.D. 
Many temples, <fec., erected by Hadrian 
Athens taken by Alaric, and spared 

slaughter ........ 

By Mahomet II ....... 

By the Venetians ...... 

Restored to the Turks ..... 

Athens suffered much during the insurrection, 

1821-7. Taken May 17 






3 2 3 





404 Becomes the capital of the kingdom of modern 
Greece ......... 

403 Population, 50,000 ...... 

(See Article Greece.) 




. 122-135 




ATHLONE, Roscommon, Ireland, formerly a place of great strength and beauty, was 
burnt during the civil war in 1641. After the battle of the Boyne, colonel R. Grace held 
Athlone for James II. against a besieging army, but fell when it was taken by assault by 
Ginckel, June 30, 1691. See Aughrim. 

ATLANTA. See United States, 1864. 

ATLANTIC TELEGRAPH. See Submarine Telegraph. 

ATMOLYSIS, a method of separating the constituent gases of a compound gas (such as 
atmospheric air) by causing it to pass through a vessel of porous material (such as graphite) ; 
first made known in Aug., 1863, by the discoverer, professor T. Graham, F.R.S., Master of 
the Mint. 


ATMOSPHERIC RAILWAYS. The idea of producing motion by atmospheric pressure was 
conceived by Papin, the French engineer, about 1680. Experiments were made on a line of rail, 
laid down across Wormwood Scrubs, London, between Shepherd's Bush and the Great Western 
railroad, to test the efficacy of atmospheric tubes, the working of the air-pump, and speed of 
carriages upon this new principle 011 railroads in June, 1840, and then tried on a line between 
Croydon and London, 1845. An atmospheric railway was commenced between Dalkey and 
Killiney, in the vicinity of Dublin, in Sept. 1843 : opened March 29, 1844 ; discontinued 




in 1855. A similar railway was proposed to be laid down in the streets of London by Mr. 
T. W. Rammell in 1857. Mr. Rammell' s Pneumatic Railway was put in action successfully 
at the Crystal Palace on Aug. 27, 1864, and following days. An act for a pneumatic railway 
between the Waterloo railway station and Whitehall was passed in July, 1865. 

ATOMIC THEORY, in chemistry, deals with the indivisible particles of all substances. 
The somewhat incoherent labours of his predecessors (such as Wenzel in 1777) were reduced 
by John Dalton to four laws of combining proportion, which have received the name of 
"Atomic Theory." His ''Chemical Philosophy," containing the exposition of his views, 
appeared in 1808. Dr. C. Daubeny's work on the Atomic Theory was published in 1850. 
In his standard of Atomic weights Dalton takes hydrogen as I. Berzelius, who commenced his 
elaborate researches on the subject in 1848, adopts oxygen as 100. The former standard is 
used in this country, the latter on the continent. 

ATTAINDER, ACTS OF, whereby a person not only forfeited his land, but his blood was 
attainted, have been numerous. Two witnesses in cases of high treason are necessary where 
corruption of blood is incurred, unless the party accused shall confess, or stand mute, 7 & 8 
Will. III. 1694-5. Blackstone. In 1814 and 1833 the severity of attainders was mitigated. 
The attainder of lord Russell, who was beheaded in Lincoln's-inn-fields, July 21, 1683, was 
reversed under William, in 1689. The rolls and records of the acts of attainder passed in 
the reign of James II. were cancelled and publicly burnt, Oct. 2, 1695. Amongst the last 
acts reversed was the attaint of the children of lord Edward Fitzgerald (who was implicated 
in the rebellion in Ireland of 1798), July I, 1819. 

ATTICA. See Athens. 

ATTILA, surnamedthe "Scourge of God" and thus distinguished for his conquests and 
his crimes, having ravaged the eastern empire from 445 to 450, when he made peace 
with Theodosius. He invaded the western empire, 450, and was defeated by Aetius at 
Chalons, 451 ; he then retired into Pannonia, where he died .through the bursting of a 
bloodvessel on the night of his nuptials with a beautiful virgin named Ildico, 453. 

ATTORNEY (from toiir, turn), a person qualified to act for others at law. The number 
in Edward III. 's reign was under 400 for the whole kingdom. In the 32nd of Henry VI. 
1454, a law reduced the practitioners in Norfolk, Norwich, and Suffolk, from eighty to four- 
teen, and restricted their increase. The number of attorneys now practising in England, or 
registered, or retired, is said to be about 13,000. The number in Ireland is stated at 2000. 
The qualifications of practice of attorneys and solicitors are now regulated by acts passed in 
1843 and 1861. 

ATTORNEY-GENERAL, a law officer of the crown, appointed by letters patent. He 
has to exhibit informations and prosecute for the king in matters criminal ; and to file bills 
in exchequer, for any claims concerning the crown in inheritance or profit. Others may 
bring bills against the king's attorney. The first attorney-general was William de Gisilham, 
7 Edward I. 1278. Beatson. 

Sir Jeffery Palmer 1660 

Sir Heneage Finch, afterwards lord Finch 


Sir Francis North, knt., a/Ms, lord Guildford . 1673 

Sir William Jones 1674 

Sir Cresvel Levinz, or Levinge, knt. . . . 1679 

Sir Robert Sawyer, knt 1681 

Sir Thomas Powis, knt 1687 

Henry Pollexfen, esq. 1689 

Sir^George Treby, knt , 

Sir 'John Somers, knt., afterwards lord Somers . 1692 

Edward "Ward, esq 1693 

Sir Thomas Trevor, knt. , oftds. lord Trevor . 1695 

Edward Northey, esq 1701 

Sir Simon Harcourt, knt 1707 

Sir James Montagu, knt 1708 

Sir Simon Harcourt, again ; aft. lord Harcourt . 1710 
Sir Edward Northey, knt. , again . . . , , 
Nicholas Lechmere, esq., aft. lord Lecbmere . 1718 
Sir Robert Raymond, aft. lord Raymond . .1720 
Sir Philip Yorke, aft. earl of Hardwicke . . 1724 

Sir John Willes, knt 1733 

Sir Dudley Ryder, knt 1737 

Hon. William Murray, oft. earl of Mansfield . 1754 
Sir Robert Henley,'knt., a/5. earl of Northington 1756 
Sir Charles Pratt, knt., aftericards lord Camdeii 1757 

Hon. Charles Yorke 1762 

Sir Fletcher Norton, knt., aft. lord Grantley . 1763 

Hon. Charles Yorke, again ; afterwards lord 

Morden, and lord chancellor. See Chancellors 1765 
William de Grey, afterwards lord Walsingham . 1766 
Edward Thurlow, esq., afterwards lord Thurlow 1771 
Alex. Wedderburne, aft. lord Loughborough . 1778 

James Wallace, esq 1780 

Lloyd Kenyon, esq 1782 

James Wallace, esq 1783 

John Lee, esq ,, 

Lloyd Kenyon, again ; afterwards lord Kenyon ,, J 
Sir Richard P. Arden, aft. lord Alvanley . . 1784 

Sir Archibald Macdonald 1788 

Sir John Scott, afterwards lord Eldon . . 1793 
Sir J. Mitford, afterwards lord Redesdale . . 1800 
Sir Edward Law, aft. Id. Ellenborough, Feb. 14, 1801 
Hon. Spencer Percival (murdered bj, 
ham, May n, 

ncer Percival (murdered by Belling- 

1812) .... April 15, 1802 

Sir Arthur Pigott Feb. 12, 1806 

Sir Vicary Gibbs, afterwards chief justice of 

the common pleas . . . April 7, 1807 
Sir Thomas Plumer, aftei-wards first vice-chan- 
cellor of England .... June 26, 1812 
Sir William Garrow .... May 4, 1813 

Sir Samuel Shepherd May 7, 1817 

Sir Robert Gifford, aft. lord Gifford July 24, 1819 
Sir John Singleton Copley, afterwards lord 
Lyndhurst ..... Jan. 9, 1824 



Sir Chcarles Wetherell . 

Sir James Scarlett 

Sir Charles Wetherell, again . 

SirJas. Scarlett, agn. ; aft. Id. Abinge 

Sir Thos. Denmaii, aft. lord Denman 

Sir William Home 

Sept. 20, 1826 j Sir John Jervis, afterwards chief justice of the 
April 27, 1827 common pleas July 13, 1846 

eb. 19, 1828 SirJohn Romilly, aft. mast, of the rolls, July n, 1850 

June 29, 1829 I Sir Alex. James Edmund Cockburn .March 28, 1851 

Nov. 26, 1830 j Sir Frederick Thesiger, again ; afterwards lord 

Nov. 26, 1832 I Chelmsford, and lord chancellor . March 2, 1852 

Sir Alexander Cockburn, again ; aft. ch. just. 

of common plsas and queen's bench, Dec. 28, 1852 
Sir Richard Bethell .... Nov. 15, 1856 

Sir Fitzroy Kelly Feb. 27, 1858 

Sir R. Bethell (since lord Westbury, and lord 

chancellor) June 18, 1859 

Sir William Atherton .... July, 1861 
Sir Roundell Palmer (present officer) . Oct. 2, 1863 

Sir John Campbell March i, 1834 

Sir Frederick Pollock .... Dec. 17, ,, 
Sir John Campbell, again; afterwards lord 

Campbell (and, 1859, Id. chancelloi-), April 30, 1835 
Sir Thomas Wilde . July 3, 1841 

Sir F. Pollock, again; aft. chief baron Sept. 6, 
Sir William W. Pollett . . . April 17, 1844 
Sir Frederick Thesiger . . . . July 4, 1845 
Sir Thomas Wilde, again ; afterwards lord 

Truro, and lord chancellor . . July 6, 1846 

ATTRACTION is described by Copernicus, about 1520, as an appetence or appetite which 
the Creator impressed upon all parts of matter. It was described by Kepler to be a corporeal 
affection tending to union, 1605. In 1687, sir I. Newton published his "Prineipia," con- 
taining his important researches on this subject. There are the attractions of Gravitation, 
Magnetism, and Electricity, which see. 

AUBAINE, a right of the French kings, which existed from the beginning of the 
monarchy, whereby they claimed the property of every stranger who died in their country, 
without having been naturalised, was abolished by the national assembly in 1790; re-esta- 
blished by Napoleon ; and finally annulled July 14, 1819. 

AUCKLAND, capital of New Zealand (north island), was founded in 1840. The popu- 
lation of the district, in 1857, was estimated at 15,000 Europeans, and 35,000 natives. 

AUCTION, a kind of sale known to the Romans, mentioned by Petronius Arbiter (about 
66). The first in Britain was about 1700, by Elisha Yale, a governor of Fort George in 
the East Indies, who thus sold the goods he had brought home. Auction and sales' tax 
began, 1779. Various acts of parliament have regulated auctions and imposed duties, in 
some cases as high as five per cent. By 8 Viet. c. 15 (1845), the duties were repealed, and 
a charge imposed " on the licence to be taken out by all auctioneers in the United Kingdom, 
of loZ." In 1858 there were 4358 licences granted, producing 43,580^. Certain sales are 
now exempt from being conducted by a licensed auctioneer, such as goods and chattels under 
a distress for rent, and sales under the provisions of the Small Debts' acts for Scotland and 

AUDIANI, followers of Audeus of Mesopotamia, who had been expelled from the Syrian 
church on account of his severely reproving the vices of the clergy, about 338, formed a sect 
and became its bishop. He was banished to Scythia, where he is said to have made many 
converts. His followers celebrated Easter at the time of the Jewish passover, attributed the 
human figure to the Deity, and had other peculiar tenets. 

AUDIT-OFFICE, Somerset House. Commissioners for auditing the public accounts 
were appointed in 1785. Many statutes regulating their duties have since been enacted. 

AUERSTADT (Prussia). Here and at Jena, on Oct. 14, 1806, the French signally de- 
feated the Prussians. See Jena. 

AUGHRIM, near Athlone, in Ireland, where, on July 12, 1691, a battle was fought 
between the Irish, headed by the French general St. Ruth, and the English under general 
Ginckel. The former were defeated and lost 7000 men ; the latter lost only 600 killed and 
960 wounded. St. Ruth was slain. This engagement proved decisively fatal to the interests 
of James II. in Ireland. Ginckel was immediately after created earl of Athlone. The 
ball by which St. Ruth was killed is still suspended in the choir of St. Patrick's cathedral, 

AUGMENTATION OF POOR LIVINGS' OFFICE, was established in 1704. 5597 poor 
clerical livings, not exceeding 50?. per annum, were found by the commissioners under 
the act of Anne capable of augmentation, by means of the bounty then established by 

AUGMENTATIONS COURT was established in 1535 by 27 Henry VIII. c. 27, in rela- 
tion to the working of cap. 28 of the same session, which gave to the king the property of all 
monasteries having 200?. a year. The court was abolished by Mary in 1553, and restored by 
Elizabeth in 1558. 

AUGSBURG (Bavaria), originally a colony settled by Augustus, about 12 B.C. ; became 
n free city, and flourished during the middle ages. Here many important diets of the 
empire have been held. In A.T>. 952, a council confirmed the order for the celibacy of the 
priesthood; and on Sept. 25, 1555, the celebrated treaty of Nassau was signed, by which 
religious liberty was secured to Germany. League of Augsburg. A treaty between Holland 
nnd other European powers, to cause the treaties of Munster and Nimeguen to be respected, 
signed 1686. See Munster and Nimeguen. Augsburg has suffered much by war, having 
been frequently taken by siege, 788, 1703, 1704, and, last, by the French, Oct. 10, 1805" 
who restored it to Bavaria in March, 1806. 

AUGSBURG CONFESSION" (Articles of Faith, drawn up by Luther, Melanchthon, and 
other reformers, and presented to the emperor Charles V. June 25, 1530), was directly 
opposed to the abuses of the church of Rome. It was signed by the elector of Saxony, and 
other princes of Germany, and was delivered to the emperor in the palace of the bishop of 
Augsburg. See Interim. 

AUGURY. Husbandry was in part regulated by the coming or going of birds, long 
before the time of Hesiod. Three augurs, at Rome, with vestals and several orders of the 
priesthood, were formally constituted by Numa, 7103.0. The number had increased, and 
was fifteen at the time of Sylla, 81 B.C.', and the college of augurs was abolished by Theo- 
dosius about A.D. 391. 

AUGUST, the eighth Roman month of the year (previously called Sextilis, or the sixth 
from March), by a decree of the senate received its present name in honour of Augustus 
Csesar, in the year 8, or 27, or 30 B.C., because in this month he was created consul, had 
thrice triumphed in Rome, added Egypt to the Roman empire, and made an end of the 
civil Avars. He added one day to the month, making it 31 days. 

AUGUSTINS, a religious mendicant "order, which ascribes its origin to St. Augustin, 
bishop of Hippo, who died 430. These monks (termed Austin friars) first appeared about 
the nth century, and the order was constituted by pope Alexander IV., in 1256. Th'e rule 
requires strict poverty, humility, and chastity. Martin Luther was an Augustin monk. 
The Augustins held the doctrine of free grace, and were rivals of the Dominicans. The order 
appeared in England soon after the conquest. One of their churches, at Austin Friars, 
London, erected in 1354, and since the Reformation used by Dutch protestants, was partially 
destroyed by fire, Nov. 22, 1862. A religious house of the order, dedicated to S. Monica, 
mother of Augustin, was founded in Hoxton-square, London, 1864. 

AULIC COUNCIL, a sovereign court in Germany, established by the emperor Maximilian 
I., in 1506, being one of the two courts, the first called the Imperial Chamber, formerly 
held at Spires, and afterwards at "Wetzlar, and the other the Aulic council at Vienna. These 
courts, having concurrent jurisdiction, were instituted for appeals in particular cases from 
the courts of the Germanic states. 

AUR AY (N.W. France). Here, on Sept. 29, 1364, the English, under John Chandos, 
totally defeated the French and captured their heroic leader Du Guesclin. Charles of Blois, 
made duke of Brittany by the king of France, was slain, and a peace was made in 
April, 1365. 

AURICULAR CONFESSION. The confession of sin at the ear (Latin auris) of the 
priest must have been an early practice, since it is said to have been forbidden iu the 4th 
century by Nectarius, archbishop of Constantinople. It was enjoined by the council of 
Lateran, in 1215, and by the council of Trent in 1551. It was one of the six articles of 
faith enacted by our Henry VIII. in 1539, but was abolished in England at the Reformation. 
Its revival here has been attempted by the church party called Puseyites or Tractarians ; but 
without much success.* 

AURIFLAMMA, on ORIFLAMME, the national golden banner mentioned in French 
history, belonging to the abbey of St. Denis, and suspended over the tomb of that saint, 
1 140. Louis le Gros was the first king who took this standard from the abbey to battle, 
1124. Henault, It appeared for the last time at Agincourt, 1415. Fillet. 

AURORA FRIGATE, sailed from Britain in 1771, to the East Indies, and was never 
again heard of. 

* The rev. Alfred Poole, one of the curates of St. Barnabas, Knightsbridge, was suspended from his 
office for practising auricular confession in June, 1858, by the bishop of London. On appeal, the suspen- 
sion was confirmed in January, 1859. Much excitement was created by a similar attempt by the rev. 
Temple West at Boyne Hill, in September, 1858. 


AURORA BOREALES AND AUSTRALES (Northern and Southern Polar Lights), though 
rarely seen in central Europe, are frequent in the arctic and antarctic regions. In March, 
1716, an aurora borealis extended from the west of Ireland to the confines of Russia. The 
whole horizon in the lat. of 57 N. overspread with continuous haze of a dismal red during 
the whole night, by which many people were much terrified, Nov. 1765. Mr. Foster, the 
companion of captain Cook, saw the aurora in lat. 58 S. Its appearance in the southern 
hemisphere had been previously doubted.* 


AUSTERLITZ (Moravia), where a battle was fought between the French and the allied 
Austrian and Russian armies, Dec. 2, 1805. Three emperors commanded : Alexander of 
Russia, Francis of Austria, and Napoleon of France. The killed and wounded exceeded 
30,000 on the side of the allies, who lost forty standards, 150 pieces of cannon, and thousands 
of prisoners. The decisive victory of the French led to the treaty of Presburg, signed Dec.- 
26, 1805. See Presburg. 


AUSTRALASIA, the fifth great division of the world. This name, originally given it 
by De Brosses, includes Australia, Van Diemen's Land, New Guinea, New Britain, New 
Caledonia, &c. , mostly discovered within two centuries. Accidental discoveries were made 
by the Spaniards as early as 1526 ; but the first accurate knowledge of these southern lands 
is due to the Dutch, who in 1605 explored a part of the coast of New Guinea. Torres, a 
Spaniard, passed through the straits which now bear his name, between that island and 
Australia, and gave the first correct report of the latter, 1606. The Dutch continued their 
discoveries. Between 1642 and 1644, Tasman completed a discovery of a great part of the 
Australian coast, together with the island of Yan Diemen's Land (also called Tasmania). 
Wm. Dampier, an Englishman, between 1684 and 1690, explored a part of the W. and N. 
W. coasts. Between 1763 and 1766, Wallis and Carteret followed in the track of Dampier, 
and added to his discoveries; and in 1770, Cook first made known the East coast of 
Australia. Furneaux, in 1773, Bligh in 1789, Edwards in 1791, Bligh (a second time) in 
1792, Portlock same year, Brampton and Alt in 1793, an( i Bass and Flinders explored the 
coasts and islands in 1798-9 and discovered Bass's Straits. Grant in 1800, and Flinders 
again (1801-5) completed the survey. M'CullocJi. 

AUSTRALIA (formerly New Holland), the largest island and smallest continent ; with 
an estimated area of about three million square miles, including five provinces New South 
"Wales, Victoria (formerly Port Phillip), South Australia, West Australia (or Swan River), 
and Queensland (which- see). Population, with Tasmania and New Zealand, in 1863, about 

Australia said to have been known to the For- Great distress in consequence of the loss of the 

tuguese before 1550 ship " Guardian," captain Riou . . . 1790 

Alleged discovery by Manoel Godinho de First church erected .... Aug. 1793 

Heredia, a Portuguese 1601 Government gazette first printed . . .1795 

Torres passes through the straits named after Bass's Straits discovered by Bass and Flinders 1798 
him 1606 First brick church built 1802 

The Dutch also discover Australia . March, ,, , Colony of Van Diemen's Land (now Tasmania) 

The coast surveyed by Dutch navigators : i established 1803 

north, by Zeachen, 1618 ; west, by Edels, I Flinders surveys the coasts of Australia . 1801-5 

1619; south, by Nuyts, 1627; north, by Insurrection of Irish convicts quelled . . 1804 

Carpenter . 1627 ! Governor Bligh for his tyranny deposed by an 

Wm. Dampier explores the W. and N.W. coasts, insurrection 1808 

1684-90 ! Superseded by governor Macquarie . . . 1809 

Tasman coasts S. Australia . . . .1642 Expeditions into the interior by Wentworth, 

Terra Australis (Western Australia) named New 
Holland by order of the States-General . . 1665 

William Dampier lands in Australia . . . 1686 

Capt. Cook, sir Joseph Banks, and others, land 
at Botany Bay, and name the country ' ' New 
South Wales" April 28, 1770 

Governor Phillip founds the city of Sydney 
near Port Jackson, with 1030 persons, 

Jan. 26, 1788 

[The seventy-first anniversary of this event was 
kept with much festivity, Jan. 26, 1859.] 

Lawson, Bloxland. Oxley, &c. . 1813, 1817, 1823 
Population, 29,783 (three-fourths convicts) . .1821 
West Australia formed into a province . .. 1829 
Legislative council established . . ,, 

Sturt's expeditions into South Australia 1828-1831 
South Australia erected into a province . Aug. 1834 
Sir T. Mitchell's expeditions into E. Australia 1831-6 
First Rom. Cath. Bishop (Folding) arrives, Sept. 1835 
Port Phillip (now Victoria) colonised . Nov. ,, 
First Church of England bishop of Australia 

(Broughton) arrives .... June, 1836 

* The aurora is now attributed by many philosophers to the passage of electric light through the 
rarefied air of the polar regions. In August and September, 1859, when brilliant aurorfe were very 
frequent, the electric telegraph wires were seriously affected, and communications interrupted. Aurora 
were seen at Rome and Basel, and also in Australia. 




Remains of Burke and Wills recovered ; public 
funeral ...... J an . 21, 1863 

Strong and general resistance throughout Aus- 
tralia to the reception of British convicts in 
West Australia . . . . about June, 1864 

Cessation of transportation to Australia in 
three years announced amid much rejoicing, 

Jan. 26, 1863 

Morgan, a desperate bushranger and murderer, 
surrounded and shot .... April, 

Boundary disputes between New South Wales 
and Victoria, in summer of 1864 ; settled 
amicably ...... April 19, ,, 


Captain Arthur Phillip ..... 1788 

Captain Hunter ....... 1795 

Captain Philip G. King ..... 1800 

Captain William Bligh 

Colonel Lachlan Macquarie (able and successful 
administration) ...... 1809 

General sir Thomas Brisbane . . . . 1821 

Sir Richard Bourke ...... 1831 

Sir George Gipps ....... 1838 

Sir Charles Fitzroy, governor-general of all the 
Australian colonies, with a certain jurisdic- 
tion over the lieutenant-governors of Van 
Diemen's Land, Victoria, and South and 
Western Australia 
Sir William T. Denison 

Sir John Young, governor of New South Wales 




AUSTRALIA, continued. 

Colony of South Australia, founded . Dec. 1836 
's expedition overland from Adelaide to 

King George's Sound 1836-7 

Melbourne founded Nov. 1837 

Suspension of transportation 1839 

Strzelecki explores the Australian Alps . . 1840 
Great exertions of Mrs. Chisholm; establish- 
ment of " Home for Female Emigrants" 1841-6 
Census 87,200 males ; 43,700 females . . . 1841 
Very numerous insolvencies . . . 1841-2 
Incorporation of city of Sydney . . . . 1842 
Leichhardt's expedition (never returned) . 1844-5 
Sturt proceeds from South Australia to the 

middle of the continent 1845 

Census (including Port Phillip) 114,700 males ; 

74,800 females 1846 

Great agitation against transportation, which 

had been revived by earl Grey . . . 1849 
Port Phillip erected into a separate province as 

Victoria 1850 

Gold discovered by Mr. Hargraves, &c.* . . 1851 
Census males, 106,000; females, 81,000 (exclu- 
sive of Victoria, 80,000) ,, 

Mints established .... March, 1853 

Transportation ceased ,, 

Gregory's explorations of interior . . . 1856 
Death of archdeacon Cowper (aged 80), after 

about fifty years' residence . . July, 1858 

Queensland made a province . . Dec. 4, 1859 

Stuart's expeditions 1858-60 

Expedition into the interior under Mr. Lan- 

dells organised Aug. 1860 

Robert O'Hara Burke, Wm. John Wills, and 

others, start from Melbourne '. . Aug. 20, ,, 
J. M'Douall Stuart's expeditions . . . 1860-1 
Burke, Wills, and two others, cross Australian 

continent to the gulf of Carpentaria ; all 

perish on their return, except John King, 

who arrives at Melbourne . . . Nov. 1861 
Stuart, M'Kinlay, and Landsborough cross 

Australia from sea to sea .... 1861-2 

AUSTRASIA, (Estcrreich (Eastern Kingdom), also called Metz, a French, kingdom which 
lasted from the 6th to the 8th century. It began with the division of the territories of Clovis 
by his sons, 511, and ended by Carloman becoming a monk and surrendering his power to his 
brother Pepiu, who thus became sole king of ^France, 747. 

AUSTRIA, a Hamburg company's steamship, sailed from Southampton for New York 
Sept. 4, 1858, with 538 persons on board. On Sept. 13, in lat. 45 K, long. 41 30' "W., it 
caught fire through the carelessness of some one in burning some tar to fumigate the steerage. 
Only 67 persons were saved upwards of 60 by the Maurice, a French barque ; the rest by 
a Norwegian .barque. A heartrending account was given in the Times, Oct. II, 1858, by 
Mr. Charles Brews, an English survivor. 

AUSTRIA, (Estcrreich (Eastern Kingdom), anciently Noricum and part of Parmonia, 
was annexed to the Roman empire about 33 ; was overrun by the Huns, Avars, &c., during 
the 5th and 6th centuries, and taken from them by Charlemagne, 791-796. He divided the 
government of the country, establishing margraves of Eastern Bavaria and Aiistria. Louis 

* GOLD DISCOVERY. Mr. Edward Hargraves went to California in search of gold, and was struck with 
the similarity between the rocks and strata of California and those of his own district of Conobolas, some 
thirty miles west of Bathurst. On his return home, he examined the soil, and after one or two months' 
digging, found a quantity of gold, Feb. 12, 1851. He applied to the colonial government for a reward, 
which he readily obtained, with an appointment as commissioner of crown lands. The excitement became 
intense throughout the colony of New South Wales, rapidly spread to that of Victoria and other places ; 
and in the first week of July, 1851, an aboriginal inhabitant, formerly attached to the Wellington mission, 
and then in the service of Dr. Kerr, of Wallawa, discovered, while tending his sheep, a mass of gold among 
a heap of quartz. Three blocks of quartz (from two to three hundred weight), found in the Murroo Creek, 
fifty miles to the north of Bathurst, contained ii2lb. of puie gold, valued at 4000?. The " Victoria nugget," 
a magnificent mass of virgin gold, weighing 340 ounces, was brought to England from the Bendigo 
diggings ; and a piece of pure gold of 106 Ib. weight was also found. From the gold fields of Mount 
Alexander and Ballaarat, in the district of Victoria, up to Oct. 1852, there wore found 2,532,422 ounces, or 
"105 tons 10 cwt. of gold ; and the gold exported up to the same date represented 8,863,477?. sterling. In 
Nov. 1856, the "James Baines" and "Lightning" brought gold from Melbourne valued at 1,200,000?. The 
" Welcome nugget" weighed 2019^ ounces ; value, 8376?. io. zod. ; found at Baker's Hill, Ballaarat, June : 

to the ~ 

Acts for the government of Australia, 10 George 
IV., cap. 22, May 14 (1829), 6 & 7 William IV., 
cap. 68, Aug. 13 (1836), 13 & 14 Victoria, 
cap. 59, Aug. 5 (1850). Act for regulating the 
sale of waste lands in the Australian colonies, 
5 & 6 Victoria, cap. 36, June 22 (1842). 

1858. Between May 1851, and May 1861, gold 
from New South Wales and Victoria. 

ie value of 96.000,000?. had been brought to England 



the German, son of Louis le Debonnaire, about 817, subjugated Radbod, margrave ol 
Austria ; but in 883 the descendants of the latter raised a civil war in Bavaria against the 
emperor Charles the Fat, and eventually the margraves of Austria were declared immediate 
princes of the empire. In 1156 the margraviate was made a hereditary duchy by the 
emperor Frederic I. ; and in 1453 it was raised to an archduchy by the emperor Frederic III. 
Rodolph, count of Hapsburg, elected emperor of Germany in 1273,* acquired Austria in 1278 ; 
and from 1493 to 1804 his descendants were emperors of Germany. On Aug. n, 1804, the 
emperor Francis II. renounced the title of emperor of Germany, and became hereditary 
emperor of Austria. The condition of Austria is now greatly improving under the enlightened 
rule of the present emperor. The political constitution of the empire is based upon i. The 
pragmatic sanction of Charles VI., 1734, which declares the indivisibility of the empire and 
rules the order of succession. 2. The pragmatic sanction of Francis II., Aug. I, 1804, when 
he became emperor of Austria only. 3. The diploma of Francis- Joseph, Oct. 20, 1860, 
whereby he imparted legislative power to the provincial states and the council of the empire 
(Reichsratb). 4. The law of Feb. 26, 1861, on the national representation. Population of 
the empire in Oct. 1857, 35,018,988. 

rederic II., the last male of the house of 

Bamberg, killed in battle with the Hunga- 
rians June 15, 1246 

Disputed succession : the emperor Frederic II. 

sequestered the provinces, appointing Otto, 

count of Eberstein, governor in the name of 

the emperor ; they are seized by Ladislaus, 

margrave of Moravia, in right of his wife, 

Frederic's niece, Gertrude : he died childless 1247 
Herman, margrave of Baden, marries Ger- 
trude, and holds the provinces till his death 1250 
Ottocar (or Premislas), of Bohemia, acquires the 

provinces 1254 

Compelled to cede Styria to Hungary, he 

makes war and recovers it, in consequence 

of a great victory 1260 ' 

He inherits Carinthia, 1263 ; refuses to become 

emperor of Germany, 1272, and to render 

homage to Rodolph of Hapsburg, elected 

emperor 1273 ; 

War against Ottocar as a rebel : he is compelled 

to cede Austria, Caftnthia, and Styria to 

Rodolph 1274 

The war renewed : Ottocar perishes in the 

battle of Marchfeld . . . Aug. 26, 1278, 
Albert I. assassinated by his nephew and 

others, while attempting to enslave the 

Swiss May i, 1308 j 

Successful revolt of the Swiss . . . 1307-9 
They totally defeat the Austrians under duke 

Leopold, at Morgarten . . . Nov. 16, 1315 
The duke Leopold imposes a toll on the Swiss ; 

which they resist with violence : he makes 

war on them, and is defeated and slain at 

Sempach July, 1386 

Duke Albert V. obtains Bohemia and Hungary, 

and is elected emperor of Germany . . . 1437 
The emperor Frederic III., as head of the 

house of Hapsburg, creates the archduchy 

of Austria with sovereign power . Jan. 6, 1453 
Austria divided between him and his relatives, 

1457 ; war ensues between them till . . . 1463 
Burgundy accrues to Austria by the marriage 

of Maximilian with the heiress of that pro- 
vince i 477 

Also Spain, by the marriage of Philip I. of Aus- 
tria, with the heiress of Arragon and Castile 1496 
Bohemia and Hungary united to Austria under 

Ferdinand I. 1526 

Austria harassed by Turkish invasions . 1529-45 
Charles V., reigning over Germany, Austria, 

Bohemia, Hungary, Spain, the Netherlands, j Convention of Olmutz . . . Nov. 29^ 1850 

and their dependencies, abdicates (see Spain) 15^6 The emperor revokes the constitution of 
Mantua ceded to the emperor . . Jan. 3, 1708 March 4, 1849 .... 060.31,1851 
By treaty of Utrecht he obtains part of the j Trial by jury abolished in the empire Jan. is, 1852 

duchy of Milan .... April n, 1713: 
By treaty of Rastadt he acquires the Nether- 
lands 1714 I 

The Netherlands, Naples, Milan, &c., added Libenyi, Feb. 18 ; who was executed* Feb. 28, 1853 

to Austrian dominions . . . Nov. 15, 1715 

es Venice 
. Jan. i, 
Jan. 12, 

May 13, 
Oct. 24, 

Further additions on the east (Temeswar, &c.) 

by the peace of Passarowitz .... 
Naples and Sicily given up to Spain . . . 
Death of Charles VI., the last sovereign of the 

male line of the house of Hapsburg ; his 

daughter, Maria Theresa, becomes queen of 


She is attacked by Prussia, France, Bavaria, 

and Saxony ; but supported by Great Britain 
Francis, duke of Lorraine, who had married 

Maria Theresa in 1736, elected emperor . 
By the treaty of Campo Formio, the emperor 

gives up Lombardy (which see) and obtains 

Venice Oct 15, 

Francis II., emperor of Germany, becomes 

Francis 1. of Austria . . . Aug. n, 
His declaration against France . . Aug. 5, 
War : Napoleon successful, enters Vienna, 

Nov. 14, 

Austrians and Russians defeated at Austerlitz, 

Dec. 2, 
By treaty of Presburg, Austria 

and the Tyrol 

Vienna evacuated by the French 
The French again take Vienna 
But restore it at the peace 
Napoleon marries the archduchess Maria 

Louisa, the daughter of the emperor, April i, 
Congress at Vienna .... Oct. 2, 
Treaty of Vienna .... Feb. 25, 
[Italian provinces restored with additions 

Lombardo-Venetian kingdom established, 

April 7.] 

Death of Francis I., and accession of Ferdinand, 

March 2, 

New treaty of commerce with England, July 3, 
Ferdinand I. is crowned at Milan . Sept. 6, 
Insurrection at Vienna : flight of Metternich, 

March 13, 
Insurrections in Italy. See Milan, Venice, and 

Sardinia March 18, 

Another insurrection at Vienna : the emperor 

flies to Inspruck .... May 15-17, 
Archduke John appointed vicar-general of the 

empire May 29, 

A constituent assembly meet at Vienna, July 22, 
Insurrection at Vienna : murder of Count 

Latour Oct. 6, 

Revolution in Hungary and war. See Hungary. 
The emperor abdicates in favour of his nephew, 

Francis- Jose) >h Dec. 2, 

Convention of Olmutz . . . Nov. 29, 
The emperor revokes the constitution of 

March 4, 1849 . . . . Dec. 31, 
Trial by jury abolished in the empire Jan. 15, 
Death of prince Schwartzenberg, prime minis- 
ter April 4, 

Attempted assassination of the emperor by 

Libenyi, Feb. 18 ; who was executed, Feb. 28, 
Commercial treaty with Prussia . Feb. 19, 














AUSTRIA, continued. 

Austrians enter Danubian Principalities Aug. 1854 

Alliance with England and France relative to 
eastern question Dec. 2 , , 

Great reduction of the army . . June 24, 1855 

Degrading concordat with Rome . Aug. 

Amnesty for political offenders of 1 

July 12, 1856 

Austrians quit the Danubian Principalities, 

March, 1857 

Austria remonstrates against the attacks of the 
free Sardinian press . . . Feb. 10, ,, 

Firm reply of count Cavour . . Feb. 20, ,, 

Diplomatic relations between Austria and Sar- 
dinia broken off in consequence, March 23-30, ,, 

Emperor and empress visit Hungary May, ,. 

Death of marshal Radetzky (aged 92) Jan. 5, 1858 

Excitement throughout Europe, caused by the . 
address of the emperor Napoleon III. to the 
Austrian ambassador : " I regret that our 
relations with your government are not as 
good as formerly, but I beg of you to tell the 
emperor that my personal sentiments for 
him have not changed]" . . . Jan. i, 1859 

The emperor of Austria replied in almost the 
same words on .... Jan. 4, , , 

Prince Napoleon Bonaparte marries princess 
Clotilde of Sardinia . . . .Jan. 30, ,, 

Austria prepares for war ; enlarges her armies 
in Italy ; and strongly fortifies the banks of 
the Ticino, the boundary of her Italian pro- 
vinces and Sardinia . . Feb. & March, ,, 

Lord Cowley at Vienna on a " mission of peace," 

Feb. 27, 

Intervention of Russia proposal for a con- 
gress ; disputes respecting the admission of 
Sardinia Sardinia and France prepare for 
war March & April, ,, 

Austria demands the disarmament of Sardinia 
and the dismissal of the volunteers from other 
states within three days . . April 23, ,, 

This demand rejected . . . April 26, ,, 

The Austrians cross the Ticino . . April 26, , , 

The French troops enter Piedmont April 27, ,, 

The French emperor declares war (to expel the 
Austrians from Italy) . . . May 3, ,, 

Resignation of count Buol, foreign minister ; 
appointment of count Rechberg, May 13-18, ,, ' 

The Austrians defeated at Montebello, May 20 ; 
at Palestro, May 30-31 ; at Magenta, June 4 ; 
at Malegnano (Marignano) . . June 8, , , 

Prince Metternich dies, aged 86 (he had been 
actively engaged in the wars and negotia- 
tions of Napoleon I.) . . . June ii, ., 

Austrians defeated at Solferinp (near the 
Mincio) ; the emperors of Austria and France 
and king of Sardinia present . . June 24, ,, 

Armistice agreed upon, July 6 ; the emperors 
meet, July n ; the preliminaries of peace 
signed at Villa Franca [Lombardy given up 
to Sardinia, and an Italian confederation 
proposed to be formed] . . . July 12, ,, 

Manifesto justifying the peace issued to the 
army, July 12 ; to the people . July 15, ,, 

Patent issued, granting greatly increased privi- 
leges to the Protestants, announced Sept. ,, 

Conference between the envoys of Austria and 
France at Zurich . . Aug. 8 to Sept. ,, 

Many national reforms proposed . . Sept. ,, 

Treaty of Zurich, confirming the preliminaries 
of Villa Franca, signed . . . Nov. n, ,, 

Decrees removing Jewish disabilities, 

Jan 6, 10, Feb. 18, 1860 

Patent issued for the summoning the great 
imperial council (Reichsrath), composed of 
representatives elected by the provincial 
diets March 5, ,, 

Discovery of great corruption in the army 
financial arrangements, a deficiency of about 
1,700,000?. discovered ; general Eynatten 
commits suicide ; 82 persons arrested, March, ,, 

Austria protests against the annexation of Tus- 
cany, <fec., by the king of Sardinia . April, 1860 

Baron Briick, suspected of complicity in the 
army frauds, dismissed April 20; commits 
suicide April 23, ,, 

The Reichsrath assembles, May 31 ; addressea 
by the emperor June i, 

Liberty of the press further restrained . July, , 

Unsettled state of Hungary (ichich see) July-Oct. 

Friendly meeting of the emperor and the regent 
of Prussia at Toplitz . . . July 26, , , 

Free debates in the Reichsrath ; strictures on 
the concordat, the finances, &c. ; proposals 
for separate constitutions for the provinces, 

Aug. & Sept. ,, 

The Reichsrath adjourned. . . Sept. 29, ,, 

Diploma conferring on the Reichsrath legis- 
lative powers, the control of the finances, <fec., 
a manifesto issued to the populations of the 

. empire (not well received) . . Oct. 20, ,, 

Meeting of the emperor with the emperor of 
Russia and prince regent of Prussia at 
Warsaw : no important result . Oct. 20-26, ,, 

The government professes non-intervention in 
Italy, but increases the army in Venetia, 

Oct. & Nov. ,, 

The empress goes to Madeira for health Nov. ,, 

Sale of Venetia, publicly spoken of, is re- 
pudiated in Dec. , , 

Ministerial crisis : M. Schmerling becomes 
minister more political concessions, Dec. 13, ,, 

The proscribed Hungarian, count Teleki, at 
Dresden, is given up to Austria, which causes 
general indignation, about Dec. 20; he is 
released on parole .... Dec. 31, ,, 

Amnesty for political offences in Hungary, 
Croatia, <fec., published . . . Jan. 7, 1861 

Reactionary policy of the court leads to in- 
creased disaffection throughout the empire, 

Jan. & Feb. ,, 

The statutes of the new constitution for the 
Austrian monarchy published . . Feb. 6, ,, 

Civil and political rights granted to Protestants, 
throughout the empire, except in Hungary 
and Venice ..... April 8, ,, 

Meeting of Reichsrath no deputies present 
from Hungary, Croatia, Transylvania, Venetia, 
or Istria April 29, ,, 

Ministry of Marine created . . . Jan. 1862 

Inundation of the Danube, causing great 
distress Feb. 4, ,, 

Increased taxation proposed . . March, ,, 

At an imperial council, the emperor present, 
the principle of ministerial responsibility is 
resolved on April 26, ,, 

Deficiency of 1,400,000?. in financial statement 
indignation of the Reichsrath . . June, ,, 

Amnesty to condemned political offenders in 
Hungary proclaimed . . . Nov. 18, ,, 

Reduction in the army assented to ; and a per- 
sonal liberty law (resembling our habeas 
corpus act) passed .... Dec. ,, 

Polish insurrection .... Jan. 1863 

Meeting of the German sovereigns(except kings 
of Prussia, Holland, and Denmark) with the 
emperor of Austria, at Frankfort, by his 
invitation : the draft of a reform of the fede- 
rate constitution agreed to . Aug. 16-31, ,, 

The Transylvanian deputies accept the con- 
stitution, and take their seats in the 
Reichsrath Oct. 20, ,, 

Gallicia and Cracow declared to be in a state of 
siege Feb. 29, 1864 

(For events of the war with Denmark, see 

Tho emperor and the king of Prussia meet at 

Carlsbad June 22, 

Proposed reduction of the army, about Oct. 9 
Resignation of count Rechberg, foreign minis- ' 

F 2 

AUSTRIA, continued. 

ter, succeeded by count Mensdorff-Pouilly, 
about Oct. 27, 1864 

Emperor opens Reichsrath, Nov. 14 ; great 
freedom of debate ; the state of siege in 
Gallicia censured Dec. , , 

Austria supports the Confederation in the dis- 
pute respecting the duchies . . Dec. ,, 

Apparent reunion between Austria and Prussia, 

Jan. 1865 

Great financial difficulty ; proposed reduction 
in the army by the chambers . . Jan. ,, 

Contest between the government and the 
chambers respecting reduction in army, &c. , 

April, ,, 

Reported failure of Mr. Hutt's mission to 
Vienna, to promote free trade . . June, ,, 

New ministry formed, including count Mens- 
dorff as nominal premier, and counts Bel- 
credi and Esterhazy as ministers : concilia- 
tory measures towards Hungary, and other 
provinces, proposed; centralisation of the 
government to be given up, and free trade in 

prospect July, > 

(See Germany, Hungary, Vienna, &c.) 


Leopold I., 928; Albert I., 1018 ; Ernest, 1056; 
Leopold II., 1075 ; Leopold III., 1096; Albert II., 
1136; Leopold IV., 1136; Henry II., 1142 (made a 
duke 1156). 


1 1 56. Henry II. 

1177. Leopold V. He made prisoner Richard I. of 
England when returning incognito from the 
crusade, and sold him to the emperor 
Henry VI. 

1194. Frederic I., the catholic. 
1198. Leopold VI., the glorious. KiUed in battle. 

1230. Frederic II., the warlike. Killed in a battle 
with the Hungarians, June 15, 1246. 


1282. Albert I. and his brother Rodolph. Albert 
becomes emperor of Germany, 1298. 

1308. Frederic I. 

1330. Albert II. and Otto, his brother. 

1358. Rodolph. 

1365. Albert III. and Leopold II. or III. (killed at 

1395. William, and other brothers, and their cousin 
Albert IV. 

1411. The same. The provinces divided into the 
duchies of Austria and Carinthia, and the 
county of Tyrol. 

1411. Albert V., duke of Austria ; obtains Bohe- 
mia and Moravia ; elected king of Hun- 
gary and emperor, 1437 ; dies, 1439 ; suc- 
ceeded by his posthumous son. 

1439. Ladislaus, who dies childless, 1457. 

1457. The emperor Frederic III. and Albert VI. 

1493. Maximilian I., son of Frederic III. (archduke), 
emperor. (See Germany.) 


1804. Francis I. (late Francis II. of Germany), 
emperor of Austria only, Aug. n, 1804 ; died 
March 2, 1835. 

1835. Ferdinand, his son, March 2 ; abdicated in 
favour of his nephew, his brother Francis- 
Charles having renounced his rights. 

1848. Francis-Joseph, Dec. 2, 1848, emperor of 
Austria, son of Francis-Charles [born Aug. 
18, 1830 ; married April 24, 1854, to Eliza- 
beth of BavariaJ. 

[Heir; their son, the archduke Rodolph, born 
Aug. 21, 1858.] 

AUTHORS. For the law securing copyright, see Copyrights. 

AUTO DA FE (Act of faith), the term given to the punishment of a heretic, generally 
burning alive, inflicted by the Inquisition (which see). Since 1203, more than 100,000 
victims have been sacrificed by the sentence of the inquisitions of Roman Catholic countries. 
One of the last executions of this kind was at Goa, where twenty sufferers perished in the 
flames, 1717. An auto da /etook place at Lisbon, in 1761, when Malagrida, a Jesuit, was 
strangled and burnt for heresy. 

AUTOMATON" FIGURES (OR AXDROIDES), made to imitate living actions, are of early 
invention. Archytas' flying dove was formed about 400 B. c. Friar Bacon is said to have 
made a brazen head which spoke, A.D. 1264. Albertus Magnus spent thirty years in making 
another. A coach and two horses, with a footman, a page, a lady inside, were made by 
Camus for Louis XIV. when a child ; the horses and figures moved naturally, variously, 
and perfectly, 1649. Vaucanson, in 1738, made an artificial duck, which performed every 
function of a real one, even an imperfect digestion eating, drinking, and quacking. He 
also made a flute-player. The writing automaton, exhibited in 1769, was a pentagraph 
worked by a confederate out of sight. The automaton chess-player, exhibited the same 
year, was also worked by a hidden person, and so was "the invisible girl," 1800. Maelzel 
made a trumpeter about 1809. Early in this century, an automaton was exhibited in London 
which pronounced several sentences with tolerable distinctness.. In July, 1864, the "anthro- 
poglosson," exhibited in St. James's-hall, London, seemed to utter songs. 

AUTOTYPOGRAPHY, a process of producing a metal plate from drawings, made known 
by Mr. Wallis, in April, 1863 ; it resembled Nature- Printing (which see). 

AVA in 1822 became the capital of the Burmese empire, it is said, for the third time. A 
British embassy was received here in Sept. 1855. 

AVARS, barbarians who ravaged Pannonia, and annoyed the eastern empire in the 6th 
and 7th centuries, subdued by Charlemagne about 799, after an eight years' war. 

AVEBURY, on ABURY (Wiltshire). Here are the remains of the largest Celtic or 
Druidical work in this country. They have been surveyed by Aubrey, 1648 ; Dr. Stukely, 


1720; and sir R. C. Hoare, in 1812, and others. Much information may be obtained from 
Stukely's " Abury" (1743), and Hoare's "Ancient Wiltshire" (1812-21). Many theories 
have been put forth, but the object of these remains is still unknown. They are considered 
to have been set np during the " stone age," i.e., when the weapons and implements were 
mainly formed of that material. 

A VEIN, on AVAINE (Luxemburg, Belgium). Here the French and Dutch defeated the 
Spaniards, May 20, 1635. 

"AVE MARIA ! " the salutation of the angel Gabriel to the Virgin (Luke i. 28), was 
made a formula of devotion by pope John XXL about 1326. In the beginning of the i$th 
century Vincentius Ferrarius used it before his discourses. Bingham. 

AVIGNON, a city, S. E. France, ceded by Philip III. to the "pope in 1273. The papal 
scat was removed by Clement V. to Avignon, in 1309. In 1348 Clement VI. purchased the 
city from Jane, countess of Provence and queen of Naples. In 1408, the French, wearied 
of the schism, expelled Benedict XIII., and Avignon ceased to be the seat of the papacy. 
Here were held nine councils (10801457). It was seized and restored several times by the 
French kings ; the last time restored on the suppression of the Jesuits, 1773. It was claimed 
by the national assembly, 1791, and was confirmed to France by the congress of sovereigns 
in 1815. In Oct. 1791, horrible massacres took place here. 

AXE, WEDGE, WIMBLE, LEVER, and various tools in common use, are said to have 
been invented by Daedalus, an artificer of Athens, to whom also is ascribed the invention of 
masts and sails for ships, 1240 B.C. Many tools are represented on the Egyptian 

AYACUCHO (Peru). Here the Peruvians finally achieved their independence by 
defeating the Spaniards, Dec. 9, 1824. 

AYDE, OR AIDE, the tax paid by the vassal to the chief lord upon urgent occasions. In 
France and England an aide was due for knighting the king's eldest son. One was demanded 
by Philip the Fair, 1313. The aide due upon the birth of a prince, ordained by the statute 
of Westminster (Edward I.) 1285, for the ease of the subject, was not to be levied until he 
was fifteen years of age. The aide for the marriage of the king's eldest daughter could not 
be demanded in this country until her seventh year. In feudal tenures there was an aide 
for ransoming the chief lord ; so when our Richard I. was kept a prisoner by the emperor of 
Germany, an aide of 205., to redeem him, was enforced upon every knight's fee. 

AYLESBURY, Buckinghamshire, was reduced by the West Saxons in 571. St. O'Syth, 
beheaded by the pagans in Essex, was burkd there, 600. William the Conqueror invested 
his favourites with some of its lands, under the tenure of providing ' ' straw for his bed- 
chambers ; three eels for his use in winter ; and in summer, straw, rushes, and two green 
geese thrice every year." Incorporated by charter in 1554. 

AYLESFORD (Kent). Here, it is said, the Britons were victorious over the Saxon 
invaders, 455. 

AZINCOUR. See Agincourt. 

AZOFF, SEA OF, the Palus Meeotis of the ancients, communicates by the strait of 
Yenikald (the Bosphorus Cimmerius) with the Black Sea, and is entirely surrounded by 
Russian territory ; Taganrog and Kertch being the principal places. An expedition com- 
posed of British, French, and Turkish troops, commanded by sir G. Brown, arrived at 
Kertch, May 24, 1855, when the Russians retired, after blowing up the fortifications. On 
the 25th the allies inarched upon Yenikale, which also offered no resistance. On the same 
evening the allied fleet entered the sea of Azoff, and in a few days completed their occupa- 
tion of it, after capturing a large number of merchant vessels, &c. An immense amount of 
stores was destroyed by the Russians to prevent them falling into the hands of the allies. 

AZORES, OR WESTERN ISLES (N. Atlantic), belonging to Portugal, the supposed site of 
the ancient Atlantis, are said to have been discovered in the I5th century by a Dutchman 
who was driven on their coasts by the weather. Cabral, sent by the Portuguese court, fell in 
with St. Mary's in 1432, and in 1457 they were all discovered. Martin Behem found one of 
them covered with beech trees, and he called it therefore Fayal; another abounding in sweet 
flowers, he called it Flores; and all, being full of hawks, were therefore named Azores. They 
were colonised about 1450. A violent concussion of the earth took place here for twelve 
days in 1591. A devastating earthquake in 1757. Here are fountains of boiling water. A 
volcano at St. George's destroyed the town of Ursulina, May, 1808 ; and in 1811 a volcano 


appeared near St. Michael's, in the sea, where the water was eighty fathoms deep. An island 
called Sabrina gradually disappeared, Dec. 1812. 

AZOTE, the name given by French chemists to nitrogen (which see}. 

AZTECS, the ruling tribe in Mexico at the time of the Spanish invasion (1519)- In 
1853 some pretended Aztec children were exhibited in London. They were considered to be 
mere dwarfs. 


BAAL (Lord), the male deity of the Phoenician nations, frequently made the object of 
worship by the Israelites ; and established as such by Ahab, 918 B.C. His worshippers 
were massacred by Jehu and his temple denied, 884 B. c. 

BAALBEO, HELIOPOLIS (both meaning "City of the Sun"), an ancient city of Syria, 
of which magnificent ruins remain, described by Wood (in 1757), and others. Its origin 
(referred to Solomon) is lost in antiquity. Here Septimus Severus built a temple to the sun, 
200. The city was sacked by the Moslems, 748, and by Timour Bey, 1400. 

BABEL, TOWER OF, built by Noah's posterity, 2247 B.C. (Genesis, ch. xi.) The mag- 
nificent temple of Belus, asserted to have been originally this tower, is said to have had lofty 
spires, and many statues of gold, one of them forty feet high. In the upper part of this 
temple was the tomb of the founder, Belus (the Nimrod of the sacred scriptures), who was 
deified after death. Blair. The Birs Nimroud, examined by Rich, Layard, and others, is 
considered by some persons to be the remains of the tower of Babel. 

BABINGTON'S CONSPIRACY, to assassinate queen Elizabeth, and make Mary of 
Scotland queen, was devised by John Savage, a soldier of Philip of Spain, and approved by 
Wm. Gifford and John Ballard, catholic priests. Anthony Babington and other gentlemen 
were induced to join in the scheme. They were betrayed by Pooley Aspy, and fourteen were 
executed, Sept. 20, 21, 1586. Babington was deluded by a romantic hope that Mary, in 
gratitude, would accept him as a husband. 


BABYLON,* an Asiatic empire (see Assyria], founded by Belus, supposed to be the 
Nimrod of holy writ, the son of Chus, and grandson of Ham, 2245 B.C. Lenglet. Ninus 
of Assyria seized on Babylon, and established what was properly the Assyrian empire, by 
uniting the two sovereignties, 2059 B.C. 2233 01. The second empire of Babylon com- 
menced about 725 B.C. 

Earliest astronomical observations, at Babylon, 

B.C. 2234 [2230, H. 2233, Cl.] 

Nabonassar governs 747 

Nabopolasser, the Assyrian governor, revolts, 
and makes himself king of Babylon . . 725 

Nebuchadnezzar invades Syria, 606 ; Judea, 
605 ; defeats Pharaoh Necho, and annihilates 
the Egyptian power in Asia . . . . 604 

He returns to Babylon with the spoils of Jeru- 
salem. Blair ; Lenglet ,, 

Daniel interprets the king's dream of the gol- 
den-headed imnge. Daniel ii 602 

Nebuchadnezzar goes a third time against Jeru- 
salem, takes it and destroys the temple. 
Blair ; Usher 589 to 587 

The golden image set up, and Shadrach, 
Meshach, and Abed-nego thrown into the 

furnace for refusing to worship it. Daniel 

iii B.C. 570 

Daniel interprets the king's second dream, and 

Nebuchadnezzar is driven from among men. 

Daniel iv 569 

The king recovers his reason and his throne, 

562; dies 561 

Evil Merodach (Neriglassar), king . . . 559 
Labynetus (Nabonadius or Belshazzar?) king . 555 
Babylon taken by the Medes and Persians, 

under Cyrus, and Belshazzar slain . . . 538 
Daniel thrown into the lions' den. Daniel vi. . 537 
Babylon revolts, and is taken by Darius . .518 
Taken by Alexander, 331 ; he dies here . . 323 
Seleucus Nicator, who died B.C. 280, transfers 

the seat of government to Seleucia, and 

Babylon is deserted. 

* The city of Babylon was at one time the most magnificent in the world. The Hanging Gardens are 
described as having been of a square form, and in terraces one above another until they rose as 
high as the walls of the city, the ascent being from terrace to terrace by steps. The whole pile was 
sustained by vast arches raised on other arches ; and on the top were flat stones closely cemented 
together with plaster of bitumen, and that covered with sheets of lead, upon which lay the mould of 
the garden, where there were large trees, shrubs, and flowers, with various sorts of vegetables. There 
were five of these gardens, each containing about four English acres, and disposed in the form of an 
amphitheatre. Strabo; Diodorus. Pliny said that in his time it was but a desolate wilderness. Mr. Rich 
visited the ruins in 1811, and sir R. Kerr Porter in 1818. The laborious researches of Mr. Layard, sir H. 
Rawlinson, M. Botta, and others, and the interesting relics excavated and brought to this country between 
the years 1849 and 1855, have caused very much attention to be given to the history of Babylon. Many of 
the inscriptions in the cuneiform or wedge-like character have been translated, principally by col. (now 
sir Henry) Rawlinson, and published in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. In the spring of 1855, he 
returned to England, bringing with him many valuable relics, drawings, &c. , which are now in the British 
Museum. He gave discourses on the subject at the Royal Institution, London, in 1851, 1855, and 1865. 




BACCHANALIA (games celebrated in honour of Bacchus) arose in Egypt, and were 
brought into Greece by Melampos, and were there called Dionysia, t sibou.t 1415 B.C. Diodorus. 
In Rome the Bacchanalia were suppressed, 186 B.C. The priests of Bacchus were called 

BACHELORS. The Roman censors frequently imposed fines on unmarried men ; and 
men of full age were obliged to marry. The Spartan women at certain games laid hold of old 
bachelors, dragged them round their altars, and inflicted on them various marks of infamy 
and disgrace. Vossius. A tax was laid upon bachelors in England, twenty-five years of 
age, I2/. i os. for a duke, and for a common person one shilling, 7 Will. III., 1695. 
Bachelors were subjected to an extra tax on their male and female servants, in 1785. 

BACKGAMMON". Palamedes of Greece is the reputed inventor of this game, about 
1224 B.C. It is stated by some to have been invented in Wales in the period preceding the 
conquest. Henry. 

BACTRIANA, a province in Asia, was subjugated by Cyrus and formed part of the 
Persian empire, when conquered by Alexander, 330 B.C. About 254 B.C., Theodotus or 
Diodotus, a Greek, threw off the yoke of the Seleucidse, and became king. Eucratides 
reigned prosperously about 181 B.C., and Menander about 126 B.C. The Greek kingdom 
appears to have been broken up by the irruption of the Scythians shortly after. 

BADAJOZ (S. W. Spain). An important barrier fortress, surrendered to the French, 
under Soult, March n, 1811 ; was invested by the British, under lord Wellington, on March 
1 6, 1812, and stormed and taken on April 6 following. The French retreated in haste. 

BADDESDOWN HILL, or Mount Badon, near Bath, where Bede says the Britons 
defeated the Saxons in 493 ; others say in 511 or 520. 

BADEN (S. W. Germany). The house of Baden is descended from Herman, regarded 
as the first margrave (1052), son of Berthold I., duke of Zahringen. From Christopher, who 
united the branches of Hochberg and Baden, and died in 1527, proceed the branches of Baden- 
Baden and Baden-Dourlach. By the treaty of Baden, between France and the emperor, when 
Landau was ceded to the former, Sept. 7, 1714, Baden was elected into a grand duchy, as a 
member of the Rhenish confederation, Aug. 13, 1806. Its territorial acquisitions by its 
alliances with France were guaranteed by the congress at Vienna, in 1815. In May, 1849, 
the grand-duke was expelled by his subjects, but was restored in June. In July, 1857, an 
amnesty was decreed for political offences. A concordat made with the pope, June 28, 1859, 
having greatly displeased the representative assembly, was set aside by the grand-duke, 
April 8, 1860. On June 16, 1860, the emperor of the French met the regent of Prussia, the 
kings of Hanover, Bavaria, Wurtemberg, and Saxony, and the German princes at Baden- 
Baden. The population of Baden, Dec. 1861, was 1,369,291. 

Louis William, margrave of Baden-Baden, a great 
general, born 1665 ; sallied out from Vienna and 
defeated the Turks, 1683 ; died 1707. 

Charles William, margrave of Baden-Dourlach, born 
1679, died 1746 ; succeeded by his son, 

Charles Frederic, margrave, afterwards grand-duke 
of Baden-Dourlach, born 1728, who joined to his 
dominions Baden-Baden in 1771, which were also 
increased by the favour of Napoleon. 


1806. Charles Frederic ; diesiSn; succeeded by his 

1811. Charles Louis Frederic, who died without issue 

in 1818 ; succeeded by his uncle, 
1818. Louis William, died without issue in 1830 ; 

succeeded by his brother, 
1830. Leopold, died in 1852 ; succeeded by his second 

son (the first being imbecile), 
1852. Frederic (born Sept. 9, 1826), regent April 24, 

1852; declared grand-duke, Sept. 5, 1856. 
[Heir : his son Frederic William, bom July 9, 1857.] 

BAFFIN'S-BAY (N. America), discovered by William Baffin, an Englishman, in 1616. 
The extent of this discovery was much doubted, until the expeditions of Ross and Parry 
proved that Baffin was substantially accurate in his statement. Parry entered Lancaster 
Sound, and discovered the islands known by his name, in 1818. See North- West Passage. 

BAGDAD, in Asiatic Turkey, built by Al Mansour, and made the seat of the Saracen 
empire, about 762. Taken by the Tartars, and a period put to the Saracen rule, 1258. 
Often taken by the Persians, and retaken by the Turks, with great slaughter : the latter 
took it in 1638, and have held it since. 

BAGPIPE, an ancient Greek and Roman instrument. On a piece of ancient Grecian 
sculpture, now in Rome, a bagpiper is represented dressed like a modern highlander. Nero 
is said to have played upon a bagpipe, 51. Our highland regiments retain their pipers. 


BAHAMA ISLES (N. America) were the first points of discovery by Columbus. San 
Salvador was seen by him on the night of the nth of October, 1492. New Providence was 
settled by the English in 1629. They were expelled by the Spaniards, 1641 ; returned, 1666 ; 
again expelled in 1703. The isles were formally ceded to the English in 1783. Population 
in 1861, 35,287. 

BAHAR (N. India), a province (conquered by Baber in 1530), with Bengal and Orissa, a 
princely dominion, became subject to the English East India company in 1765 by the treaty 
of Allahabad for a quit-rent of about 300,000?. 

BAIL. By ancient common law, before and since the conquest, all felonies were bailable, 
till murder was excepted by statute ; and by the 3 Edward I. (1274) the power of bailing in 
treason, and in divers instances of felony, was taken away. Bail was further regulated in 
later reigns. Bail is now accepted in all cases, felony excepted ; and where a magistrate 
refuses bail, it may be granted by a judge. 

BAILIFFS, on SHERIFFS. Said to be of Saxon origin. London had its shire-reve prior 
to the conquest, and this officer was generally appointed for counties in England in 1079. 
Hen. Cornehill and Rich. Reynere were appointed bailiffs or sheriffs in London in 1189. 
Stow. Sheriffs were appointed in Dublin under the name of bailiffs, in 1308 ; and the name 
was changed to sheriff in 1548. There are still some places where the chief magistrate is 
called bailiff, as the high bailiff of Westminster. Bum-bailiff is a corruption of bound- 
bailiff, every bailiff being obliged to enter into bonds of security for his good behaviour. 

BAIRAM, Mahometan festivals. In 1865 the Little Bairam, following the fast of 
Ramadan (which see), fell on Feb. 28, March I and 2. The Great Bairam began on May 10. 

BAIZE, a species of coarse woollen manufacture, was brought into England by some 
Flemish or Dutch emigrants who settled at Colchester, in Essex, and had privileges granted 
them by parliament in 1660. The trade is under the control of a corporation called the 
governors of the Dutch baize-hall, who examine the cloth previous to sale. Anderson. 

BAKER. See Bread. 

BAKERIAN" LECTURES, Royal Society, originated in a bequest of lOoZ. by Henry 
Baker, F.R.S., the interest of which was to be given to one of the fellows, for a scientific 
discourse to be delivered annually. Peter Woulfe gave the first lecture in 1765. Latterly 
it has been the custom to nominate as the lecture a paper written by one of the fellows. 
Davy, Faraday, Tyndall, and other eminent men have given the lecture. 

BALAKLAYA, a small town in the Crimea, with a fine harbour, 10 miles S.E. from 
Sebastopol. After the battle of the Alma, the allies advanced upon this place, Sept. 26, 
1854. On Oct. 25 following, about 12,000 Russians, commanded by gen. Liprandi, 
attacked and took some redoubts in the vicinity, which had been entrusted to about 250 
Turks. They next assaulted the English, by whom they were compelled to retire, mainly 
through the charge of the heavy cavalry, led by brigadier Scarlett, under the orders of lord 
Lucan. After this, from an unfortunate misconception of lord Raglan's order, lord Lucan 
ordered lord Cardigan with the light cavalry, to charge the Russian army, which had re- 
formed on its own ground with its artillery in front. This order was most gallantly obeyed. 
Great havoc was made on the enemy ; but of 607 British horsemen, only 198 returned. The 
British had altogether 9 officers killed, 21 wounded, and 620 men put hors de combat. The 
Russians had 550 men killed, and 6 officers (among whom was one general), and 190 men 
wounded. A sortie from the garrison of Sebastopol on the night of March 22, 1855, led to a 
desperate engagement here, in which the Russians were vigorously repulsed, with the loss of 
2000 men killed and wounded, the allies losing about 600. The electric telegraph between 
London and Balaklava was completed in April, 1855, and communications were then received 
by the British government. A railway between Balaklava and the trenches was completed 
in June, 1855. See Russo- Turkish War. 

BALANCE OF POWER, to assure the independency and integrity of states, and control 
the ambition of sovereigns ; the principle is said to have been first laid down by the Italian 
politicians of the I5th century, on the invasion of Charles VIII. of France. Robertson. 
It was first recognised by the treaty of Munster, Oct. 24, 1648. The arrangements for the 
balance of power in Europe made in 1815, without the consent of the people of the countries 
concerned, have been greatly set aside since 1830. 

BALEARIC ISLANDS, in the Mediterranean, called by the Greeks Balearides, and by 
the Romans Baleares, from the dexterity of the inhabitants at slinging : they include Majorca 
and Minorca, with the small isle of Cabrera. These islands were conquered by the Romans, 
123 B.C. ; by the Vandals, about 426 B.C., and formed part of Charlemagne's empire in A.D. 
799. They have belonged to Spain since 1232. See Minorca. 

BALIZE. See Honduras. 

BALKAN, the ancient Hjemus, a range of mountains extending from the Adriatic to 
the Etixine. The passage, deemed impracticable, was completed by the Russians under 
Diebitsch, during the Russian and Turkish war, July 26, 1829. An armistice was the 
consequence ; and a treaty of peace was signed at Adrianople, Sept. 14 following. 

BALLADS may be traced in the British history to the Anglo-Saxons. Turner. Adhelme, 
who died 709, is mentioned as the first who introduced ballads into England. "The 
harp was sent round, and those might sing who could." JBede. Alfred sung ballads. 
Malmesbury. Canute composed one. Turner. Minstrels were protected by a charter of 
Edward IV. ; but by a statute of Elizabeth they were made punishable among rogues, 
vagabonds, and sturdy beggars. Viner. "Give me the writing of the ballads, and you may 
make the laws." Fletcher of SaUoun. The sea-ballads of Dibdin were very popular in the 
French war ; he died Jan. 20, 1833. 

BALLETS began through the meretricious taste of the Italian courts. One performed at 
the interview between our Henry VIII. and Francis I. of France, in the field of the Cloth of 
Gold, at Ardres, 1520. Guicciardini. They became very popular in France ; their zealous 
patron, Louis XIV., bore a part in one, 1664. They were gradually introduced with operas 
into England in the i8th century. 

BALLINAMUCK, Longford. Here, on Sept. 8, 1798, the Irish rebels and their French 
auxiliaries were defeated and captured. 

BALLOONS.* A just idea of the principle of the construction of balloons was formed 
by Albert of Saxony, an Augustin monk in the I4th century, and adopted by a 
Portuguese Jesuit, Francesco Mendoza, who died at Lyons in 1626. The idea is also 
attributed to Bartolomeo de Guzmao, who died in 1724. The theory of aeronautics includes : 
i, the power of a balloon to rise in the air ; 2, the velocity of its ascent ; and 3, the 
stability of its suspension at any given height. The application of sails and rudders has 
been duly considered, and judged to be futile. Fatal accidents to the voyagers have been 
estimated at 2 or 3 per cent. 

Francis Lana, a Jesuit, proposed to navigate - 
the air by means of a boat raised by four thin 
balls made of thin copper, from which the air 
had been exhausted 1670 

Joseph Galien suggested the filling a bag with 
the fine diffuse air of the upper regions of the 
atmosphere 1755 

Henry Cavendish discovered that hydrogen gas 
is io'8 times lighter than common air . . 1766 

And soon after Black of Edinburgh filled a bag 
with hydrogen, which rose to the ceiling of 
the room 1767 

Cavallo filled soap bubbles with hydrogen . 1782 

Joseph Montgolfier caused a silken bag to 
ascend with heated air (the first fire-balloon) 

Nov. ,, 

Joseph and Stephen Montgolfier ascend and 
descend safely by means of a fire-balloon at 
Annonay, for which they received many 
honours June 5, 1783 

First ascent in a balloon filled with hydrogen, at 
Paris, by MM. Robert and Charles, Aug. 27, ,, 

Joseph Montgolfier ascends in a balloon inflated 
with the smoke of burnt straw and wool, 

Sept. 19, ,, 

First aerial voyage in a fire-balloon Pilatre de 
Rozier and the marquis d'Arlandes Nov. 21, 

Second ascent of Charles in a hydrogen balloon 
to the height of 9770 feet . . Dec. i, ,, 

Ascents become numerous : Andreani, Feb. 
25; Blanchard, March 2; Guyton-Morveau, 

the chemist, April 25 and June 12 ; Fleurant 
and Madame Thible (the first female ae'ra- 
naut), June 28 ; the duke of Chartres (Philip 
Egalite") Sept. 19, 1784 

The first ascent in England, made by Lunardi 
at Moorfields, London . . Sept. 15, ,, 

Blanchard and Jeffries ascend at Dover and 
cross the Channel, alighting near Calais, 

Jan. 7, 1785 

The first ascent in Ireland, from Ranelagh 
gardens, Dublin Jan 19, ,, 

Rozier and Romain killed in their descent near 
Boulogne ; the balloon took fire . June 15, ,, 

Parachutes constructed and used by Blanchard, 

Aug. ,, 

Garnerin's narrow escape when descending in 
one, in London Sept. 2, 1802 

Sadler, who made many previous expeditions 
in England, fell into the sea, near Holyhead, 
but was taken up . . . . Oct. 9, 1812 

Madame Blanchard ascended from Tivoli at 
night : the balloon, being surrounded by fire- 
works, took fire, and she was precipitated to 
the ground and killed . . July 6, i8ig 

Mr. Charles Green's first ascent . July 19, 1821 

Lieut. Harris killed descending in a balloon, 

May 25, 1824 

Sadler, jun., killed, falling from a balloon, in . 1825 

The great Nassa.u balloon, which had for some 
time previously been exhibited to the inha- 
bitants of London in repeated ascents from 

in 1865. 

Astra C.xstra ; Experiments and Adventures in the Atmosphere : by Hatton Turner," appeared 



BALLOONS, continued. 

Vauxhall gardens, started from that place on 
an experimental voyage, having three indi- 
viduals in the car, and after having been 
eighteen hours in the air descended at Weil- 
burg, in the duchy of Nassau . Nov. 7, 1836 

Mr. Cocking ascended from Vauxhall in order 
to try his parachute, in which he had great 
faith ; in its descent from the balloon it 
collapsed, and he was thrown out and killed, 

July 24, 1837 

An Italian aeronaut ascended from Copenhagen, 
in Denmark ; his corpse was subsequently 
found on the sea-shore in a contiguous island, 
dashed to pieces .... Sept. 14, 1851 

Mr. Wise and three others ascended from St. 
Louis (after travelling 1150 miles they de- 
scended in Jefferson county, New York, 
nearly dead) .... June 23, 1859 

Nadar's great balloon (largest ever made) when 
fully inflated contained 215,363 cubic feet of 
gas ; the car, a cottage in wicker work, 
raised 35 soldiers at Paris ; Nadar hoped by 
means of screw to steer a balloon in the 

Nadar's first ascent, with 14 others, successful, 

Oct. 4, 1863 

Second ascent, nearly all voyagers injured; 
saved by presence of mind of M. Jules 
Godard ; descend at Nieuburg, Hanover, 

Oct. 12, ,, 

Nadar and his balloon at the Crystal Palace, 
Sydenham Nov. ,, 

Society for promoting aerial navigation formed 
at M. Nadar's at Paris ; president, M. Barral, 

Jan. 15, 1864 

Godard's great Montgolfier or fire-balloon as- 
cends . . . July 28 and Aug. 3, ,, 

Ascent of Nadar and others in his great balloon 
at Brussels Sept. 26, 

Mr. Coxwell ascends from Belfast in a new 
balloon ; several persons are injured by the 
balloon becoming uncontrollable ; it escapes, 

July 3, 1865 


Guyton-Morveau ascended twice during the 
battle, and gave important information to 
Jourdaiii June 17, 1794 

Balloons were \ised during the battle of 
Solferino, June 24, 1859; and by the Federal 
army near Washington, in . . July, 186: 


Mr. Green affirms that he ascended from 
London, on a horse attached to a balloon, 
though few persons seem to be aware that 
the experiment was made . . . May, 1828 

He did so from Vauxhall gardens with a very 
diminutive pony .... July, 1850 

Lieut. Gale, an Englishman, made an ascent 
with a horse from the Hippodrome of Vin- 
cennes, near Bordeaux. On descending, and 
detaching the animal from the balloon, the 
people who held its ropes, from some miscon- 
ception, prematurely let them go, and the 
unfortunate aeronaut was rapidly borne in 
the air before he was quite ready to resume 
his voyage. (He was discovered next morning 
dashed to pieces in a field a mile from where 
the balloou was found.) . . Sept. 8, ,, 

The ascent of Madame Poitevin from Cremorne 
gardens, near London, as " Europa on a 
bull" (a feat she had often performed in 
France), and several ascents on horses, 
brought the parties concerned before the 
police-courts on a charge of cruelty to animals, 
and put an end to experiments that outraged 
public feeling Aug. 1852 

M. Poitevin ascended on a horse, in the vicinity 
of Paris, about the time just mentioned ; was 
nearly drowned in the sea, near Malaga, 
while descending from his balloon in 1858, 
and died soon after. 


Gay-Lussac and Biot at Paris, Aug. 23 ; Gay- 
Lussac (to the height of 22,977 feet) Sept. 15, 1804 

Bixio and Barral at Paris (to the height of 
19,000 feet. They passed through a cloud 
9000 feet thick) 1850 

Mr. Welsh ascends, Aug. 17, 26; Oct. 21 and 

Nov. 10, 1852 

Scientific balloon ascents having been recom- 
mended by the British Association and funds 
provided, Mr. James Glaisher commenced 
his series of ascents, provided with suitable 
apparatus, in Mr. Cox well's great balloon, at 
Wolverhampton : he reached the height of 
Smiles . . . " . . . July 17, 1862 

He ascended to the height of about 7 miles at 
Wolverhampton ; at 5^ miles high he became 
insensible; Mr. Coxwell lost the use of his 
hands, but was able to open the valve with his 
teeth; they thus descended in safety, Sept. 5, ,, 

He ascended at Newcastle during the meeting 
of the British Association . . Aug. 31, 1863 

His i6th ascent ; surveys London . Oct. 9, ,, 

His 1 7th ascent at Woolwich ; descends at Mr. 
Brandon's, Suffolk (ist winter ascent this 
century) Jan. 12, 1864 

He ascends from Woolwich (24^1 time) Dec. 30, ,, 

His 25th ascent Feb. 27, 1865 

(Mr. Glaisher has laid the result of his 
observations before the scientific world.) 

BALLOT (French lallottc, a little ball). Secret voting was practised by the ancient 
Greeks and the modern Venetians, and is now employed in Trance and in the 'United States 
of North America. 

The ballot-box used in a political club at Miles'a 
coffee-house, Westminster .... 1659 

A tract entitled " The Benefit of the Ballot," 
said to have been written by Andrew Marvell, 
was published in the " State Tracts " . . 1693 

Proposed to be used in the election of members 
of Parliament in a pamphlet . . . .1705 

A bill authorising vote by ballot passed the 
commons, but rejected by the lords . . .1710 

The ballot has been an open question in whig 
governments since 1835 

The Ballot Society is very energetic. The ballot 
was adopted in Victoria, Australia, in . . 1856 

Secret voting existed in the chamber of deputies 
in France fron 1840 to 1845. It has been 
employed since the coup d'etat in . Dec. 1851 

The house of commons rejected the ballot 257 
being against, and 189 for it . June 30, 1851 

For several years it has been annually proposed 
and rejected. 

BALL'S BLUFF, on the banks of the Potomac, on the Virginia side, North. America. 
On October 21, 1861, by direction of the Federal general C. P. Stone the heroic col. Baker 
crossed the river to reconnoitre. He attacked the Confederate camp at Leesburg, and was 

; visited by her majesty in 1848, 1849, 
rince Albert in 1852. In 1853 the new 
ced, from designs by Mr. W. Smith of 


thoroughly defeated with great loss. The disaster was attributed to great mismanagement, 
and in Feb. 1862, general Stone was arrested on suspicion of treason. 

BALLYNAHINCH (Ireland), where a sanguinary engagement took place between a large 
body of the insurgent Irish and the British troops, under gen. Nugent, June 13, 1798. A 
large part of the town was destroyed, and the royal army suffered very severely. 

BALMORAL CASTLE, Deeside, Aberdeenshire ; visited 
1850. The estate was purchased for 32,000^. by prince 

building, in the Scotch baronial style, was commenced, from designs by Mr. W. Smith of 

BALTIC EXPEDITIONS AGAINST DENMARK. In the first expedition under lord 
Nelson and admiral Parker, Copenhagen was bombarded, and twenty-eight sail of the Danish 
fleet were taken or destroyed, April 2, 1801. See Armed Neutrality. In the second expe- 
dition under admiral Gambicr and lord Cathcart, eighteen sail of the line, fifteen frigates, and 
thirty-one brigs and gun-boats surrendered to ^he British, July 26, 1807. 

BALTIC EXPEDITION AGAINST RUSSIA. The British fleet sailed from Spithead in 
presence of the queen, who led it out to sea in her yacht, the Fairy, March n, 1854. It 
consisted of a crowd of steam-ships of the line, of which, five were each of 120 guns and 
upwards : the whole under the command of vice-admiral sir Charles Napier, whose flag 
floated on board the Duke of "Wellington, of 131 guns. The fleet arrived in Wingo Sound, 
March 15, and in the Baltic, March 20, following. The gulf of Finland was blockaded, 
April 12. 10,000 French troops embarked at Calais for the Baltic in English ships of war, 
in presence of the emperor, July 15. The capture of Bornarsund, one of the Aland islands, 
and surrender of the garrison, took place, Aug. 16. See Bomarsund. The English and 
French fleets, the latter having joined June 14, commenced their return homeward to 
winter, Oct. 15, 1854. The SECOND expedition (of which the advanced or flying squadron 
sailed March 20) left the Downs, April 4, 1855. In July it consisted of 85 Englisli ships 
(2098 guns), commanded by admiral R. S. Dundas, and 16 French ships (408 guns), under 
admiral Pernand. On July 21, three vessels silenced the Russian batteries at Hogland 
island. The fleet proceeded towards Cronstadt. Many infernal machines * were discovered. 
Sveaborg was attacked Aug. 9. See Sveaborg. Shortly after, the fleet returned to 

BALTIMORE, a maritime city in Maryland, United States, founded in 1729. On Sept 
12, 1814, the British army under col. Ross advanced against this place. He was killed in a 
skirmish ; and the command was assumed by col. Brooke, who attacked and routed the 
American army, which lost 600 killed andovounded and 300 prisoners. The projected attack 
on the town was however abandoned. Alison, See United States, 1861. 

BAMBERG (Bavaria), said to have been founded by Saxons, in 804, and endowed with a 
church by Charlemagne. It was made a bishopric in 1 107, and the bishop was a prince of 
the empire till the treaty of Luneville, 1801, when Bamberg was secularized. It was 
incorporated with Bavaria in 1803. The noble cathedral, rebuilt in mo, has been recently 
repaired. Bamberg was taken and pillaged by the Russians in 1759. 

BAMBOROUGH, or Bamburg, Northumberland, according to the "Saxon Chronicle," 
was built by king Ida about 547, and named Bebbanbtirgh. The castle and estate, the 
property of the Forsters, and forfeited to the crown, through their taking part in the 
rebellion in 1715, were purchased by Nathaniel lord Crewe, bishop of Durham, and 
bequeathed by him for various charitable purposes. The valuable library was founded by 
the trustees in 1778. The books are lent to persons residing within 20 miles of the castle. 

BAMPTON LECTURES (Theological), delivered at Oxford annually, began in 1780, with 
a lecture by James Bandinel, D.D. The lecturer is paid out of the proceeds of an estate 
bequeathed for the purpose by the rev. John Bampton, and the lectures are published. 
Among the more remarkable lectures were those by White (1784), Heber (1815), Whately 
(1822), Milman (1827), Hampden (1832), and Mansel (1858). 

BAN BURY, Oxfordshire, a Saxon town. Tha castle, erected by Alexander de Blois, 
bishop of Lincoln, 1125, has been frequently besieged. In 1646 it was taken by the parlia- 
mentarians and demolished. At Danesmore, near Banbury, Edward IV. defeated the 
Lancastrians under the earl of Pembroke, July 26, 1469, and their leader and his brother 

* These were cones of galvanised iron, 16 inches in diameter, and 20 inches long. Each contained 
o or 10 Ib. of powder, with apparatus for firing by sulphuric acid. Little damage was done by them. 
They were said to be the invention of the philosopher Jacobi. 




were soon after taken prisoners and executed. Banbury cakes were renowned in the time of 
Ben Jonson, and Banbury Cross was destroyed by the Puritans. 


BAND A ISLES (ten), Eastern Archipelago, visited by the Portuguese in 1511, who settled 
on them,. 1521, but were expelled by the Dutch about 1600. Rohun island was ceded to the 
English in 1616. The Bandas were taken by the latter in 1796 ; restored in 1801 ; retaken 
in 1811 ; and restored in Aug. 1814. 

BANGALORE (S. India) was besieged by the British under lord Cornwallis, March 6, and 
taken by storm, March 21, 1791. Bangalore was restored to Tippoo in 1792, when he 
destroyed the strong fort, deemed the bulwark of Mysore. 

BANGOR (Banchor Iskoed, or Monachorum), Flintshire, the site of an ancient monastery, 
very populous if it be true that 1200 monks were slain by Ethelfrid, king of the Angles, for 
praying for the Welsh in their conflict with him in 707. Tangier. 

BANGOR (N. Caernarvonshire), Its bishopric is of great antiquity, but its founder is 
unknown. The church is dedicated to St. Daniel, who was a bishop, 516. Owen Glendower 
greatly defaced the cathedral ; but a more cruel ravager than he, the bishop Bulkeley, 
alienated many of the lands, and even sold the bells of the church, 1553. The see is valued 
in the king's books at 13 1 1. i6s. ^d. An order in council directing that the sees of Bangor 
and St. Asaph be united on the next vacancy in either, was issued in 1838 ; but rescinded by 
the 10 & ii Viet. c. 108 (1846). Present income, 4200^. 


1800. Win. Cleaver, translated to St. Asaph, 1806. 
1806. John Randolph, translated to London, 1809. 
1809. Henry "William Majendie, died July 9, 1830. 

1830. Christopher Bethell, died April 19, 1859. 
1859. James Colquhoun Campbell (the PRESENT 
bishop, 1865). 

BANGORIAN CONTROVERSY was occasioned by Dr. Benjamin Hoadly, bishop of 
Bangor, preaching a sermon before George I., March 31, 1717, upon the text, " My kingdom 
is not of this world " (John xviii. 36), in which he demonstrated the spiritual nature of the 
kingdom of Christ. He thereby drew upon himself the indignation of almost all the clergy, 
who published hundreds of pamphlets. 

BANISHMENT, an ancient punishment. By 39 Eliz. c. 4 (1597) dangerous rogues 
were to be banished out of the realm, and to be liable to death if they returned. See 

BANK. The name is derived from banco, a bench, erected in the market-place for the 
exchange of money. The first was established in Italy 808, by the Lombard Jews, of 
whom some settled in Lombard-street, London, where many bankers still reside. The Mint 
in the Tower of London was anciently the depository for merchants' cash, until Charles I. 
laid his hands upon the money and destroyed the credit of the Mint in 1640. The traders 
were thus driven to some other place of security for their gold, which, when kept at home, 
their apprentices frequently absconded with to the army. In 1645, therefore, they consented 
to lodge it with the goldsmiths in Lombard-street, who were provided with strong chests 
for their own valuable wares ; this became the origin of banking in England. See Savings 

Rowland Stephenson, M.P., banker and trea- 
surer of St. Bartholomew's hospital, absconds ; 
defaulter to the amount of 200,000^. ; 70,000^. 
in exchequer bills ; (caused a great depression 

among bankers) Dec. 27, 1828 

Establishment of joint-stock banks (see p. 78) . 1834 
Failure of Strahan, Paul, and Bates (securities 
unlawfully used); private banking much 
injured June u, 1855 

Samuel Lamb, a London banker, recommended 
the Protector Cromwell to establish a public 

bank 1656 and 1658 

Francis Child, a goldsmith, established a bank 

about 1663 ; he died . . . Oct. 4, 1713 
Run on the London bankers (said to be the first) 1667 
Charles II. arbitrarily suspends all payments 
to bankers out of the exchequer of monies 
deposited there by them ; they lost ultimately 

3,321,313^ Jan 2, 1672 

Hoare's bank began about .... 1680 
Bank of England established (see next article) . 1694 
Wood's bank at Gloucester, the oldest county 

bank, established 1716 

A list of bankers given in the " Royal Kalendar " 1765 
Forgeries of Henry Fauntleroy, banker ; exe- 
cuted Nov. 30, 1824 

Act passed permitting establishment of joint- 
stock banks, which see 1826 

Rogers's bank robbed of nearly 50,000?. (bank 
notes afterwards returned) . . Nov. 24, 1844 

Banks in 1855. Notes allowed to be issued. 

Bank of England . i 14,000,000 

English private banks . . . . 196 4,999,444 
English joint-stock banks (which see) 67 3,418,277 

Banks in Scotland 
Banks in Ireland 

264 22,417,721 

, 18 3,087,209 

8 6,354,494 

290 31,859,424 



BANK, continued. 

Bank of 
Venice formed 
Barcelona .... 
Amsterdam .... 
TTamburer . 


Bank of 
England .... 
Scotland . . . . 
Copenhagen . 
Berlin . 




Bank of 

Caisse d'Escompte, France 
Ireland .... 
St. Petersburg 
In the East Indies 
In North America . 


. 1786 


J 79* 


BANK OF ENGLAND was projected by William Paterson, a Scotch merchant (see 
Darien), to meet the difficulty experienced by William III. in raising the supplies for the 
war against France. By the influence of Paterson and Michael Godfrey, 40 merchants sub- 
scribed 500,000?. towards the sum of 1,200,000?. to be lent to the government at 8 per cent., 
in consideration of the subscribers being incorporated as a bank. The scheme was violently 
opposed in parliament, but the bill obtained the royal assent April 25, 1694, and the charter 
was granted July 27 following, appointing sir John Houblon the first governor, and Michael 
Godfrey the first deputy governor. The bank commenced active operations on Jan. i, 1695, 
at Grocers' hall, Poultry, + issuing notes for 20?. and upwards, and discounting bills for 44 
to 6 per cent. The charter was renewed in 1697, 1708, 1713, 1716, 1721, 1742, 1746, 1749, 
1764, 1781, 1800, 1808, 1816, 1833, 1844. Lawson. 


Bun on the bank : its notes at 20 per cent, dis- 
count; capital increased to 2,201, 171?. IDS., 

Nov. 1696 

The bank monopoly established by the prohibi- 
tion of any company exceeding six persons 
acting as bankers (Scotland not included in 
the act) 1708 

Capital raised to 5,559,995?. IDS. . . . 1710 

Bank post bills issued (ist record) . Dec. 14, 1738 

Run for gold through rebellion in the North ; 
bank bills paid in silver ; the city support 
the bank Sept. 1745 

Richard Vaughan hanged for forging bank-notes, 

May i, 1758 

10?. notes issued 1759 

Gordon riots ; since, the bank has been pro- 
tected by the military 1780 

5?. notes issued 1793 

Cash payments suspended, in conformity with 
an order in council . . . Feb. 26, 

iZ. and 2.1. notes issued . . . March, ; 

Bank restriction act passed (continued by other 
acts) May 3 , 

Voluntary contribution of 200,000!! to the go- 
vernment 1798 

Loss by Aslett's frauds (see Exchequer) 342, 697?. 1803 

Resignation of Abraham Newland, 50 years 
cashier Sept. 18, 1807 

The bank issues silver tokens for 35. and is. 6d., 

July 9, 1811 

Peel's act for the gradual resumption of casn 
payments July, 1819 

Cash payments for notes to be in bullion at the 
mint price, May i, 1821 ; in the current coin 
of the realm May i, 1823 

Great commercial panic many iZ. notes (acci- 
dentally found in a box) issued with most 
beneficial effects Dec. 1825 

The act for the establishment of joint-stock 
banks breaks vip the monopoly . . . 1826 

By the advice of the government, branch banks 
opened at Gloucester, July 19 ; Manchester, 
Sept. 21 ; Swansea, Oct. 23 . . . . ,, 

And at Birmingham, Jan. i ; Liverpool, July 

2 ; Bristol, July 12 ; Leeds, Aug. 23 ; Exeter, 
Dec. 17 . ...... 

The bank loses 360,000?. by Faun tleroy's forgeries 

Statements of the bank affairs published 
quarterly ........ 

Peel's bank charter act : renews charter till 
Aug. i, 1855, and longer, if the debt due from 
the public to the bank (11,015,100?.), with in- 
terest, <fec., be not paid after due notice ; 
established the issue department; requires 
weekly returns to be published ; limited the 
issue of notes to 14,000,000?., &c. '. July 19, 

Commercial panic : lord John Russell autho- 
rises relaxation of restriction of issuing 
notes (not acted on); bank discount 8 per 
cent ....... Oct. 25, 

Bank clerks establish a library and fidelity 
guarantee fund .... March, 

Gold bullion in the bank (consequent on dis- 
covery of gold in Australia), 21,845,390?. 

July 10, 

Branch bank, Burlington-gardens, London, W., 
opened ...... Oct. i, 

Committee on the bank acts appointed July, 

Bank discount o per cent. ; lord Palmerston 
authorises addition to issue of notes [to the 
amount of 2.000,000?. were issued] Nov. 12, 

Committee on the bank acts appointed in Dec. 
i, 1857 ; report recommending continuance 
of present state of things . . July i, 

Bank discount, 3 per cent. Feb. 1858 ; 6 per 
cent, (demand for gold in France), Nov. 15, 
1860 ; 7 per cent. Jan. 7 ; 8 percent, (demand 
for money in France, India, and United States, 
&c.), Feb. 14; 3 per cent. Nov. 7 , 1861 ; 2^ per 
cent. Jan. ; 3 per cent. April ; 2^ per cent. 
July ; 2 per cent. July 24 ; 3 per cent. Oct. 
Dec .......... 

Much alarm through the announcement of the 
bank solicitor that a quantity of bank paper 
had been stolen from the makers (forged 
notes soon appeared) . . Aug. 16, 

The culprits, soon detected, were tried and con- 
victed (see Trials). . . . Jan. 7 12, 







* Instituted by laws passed April 14, 1803, and April 22, 1806. The statutes were approved Jan. 16 
1808. In 1810, Napoleon said that its duty was to provide money at all times at 4 per cent, interest. 

t The foundation of the bank in Threadneedle-street was laid, Aug. i, 1732, by sir Edward Bellamy, 
governor ; it was erected by G. Sampson, architect. Great additions have been made from time to time 
by successive architects : sir Robert Taylor, sir John Soane, and Mr. C. R. Cockerell. It now occupies 
the site of the church, and nearly all the parish of St. Christopher-le-tocks. The churchyard is now 
termed "the garden." 




, continued. 

Bank discount, 1863, raised to 4 per cent., Jan. 
16 ; to 5, Jan. 28 ; reduced to 4, Feb. ; to 3^ and 
3, April ; raised to 4, May ; raised to 5, 6, iu 
Nov. ; to 7 and 8, and reduced to 7, in Dec. 

Bank discount, 1864, raised to 8, Jan. 20; reduced 
'to 7, Feb. 12; to 6, Feb. 25; renaftZ to 7, April 
16 ; to 8, May 2 ; to 8, May 5 ; reduced to 8, May 19 ; 

to 7, May 26 ; to 6, June 16 ; raised to 7, July 25 ; 
to 8, Aug. 4; to 9, Sept. 5 ; reduced to 8, Nov. 10; 
to 7, Nov. 24, 

Bank discount, 1865, reduced to 5^, Jan. 12 ; to 5, 
Jan. 20 ; raised to 5^, March 2 ; reduced to 4, March. 
30 ; raised to 4^, May 4; reduced to 3^, June i ; to 
3, June 15; raised to 3^, July 27 ; to 4, Aug. 3. 


1718 . 

. 1,829,930 
. 7,030,680 
. 10,217,000 
. 15,450,000 




. 23,904,000 

. 27,174,000 




18,215,220 I 1855 

17,231,000 I 1857 

. 19,262,327 1859 

19,776.814 ! 


DEC. 27, 1856. 

Assets Securities 
Bullion . 
Liabilities . 


Balance 3,260,000 

Nov. ii, 1857. (Time of Panic.) 
Assets Securities . . 35,480,281) ,. 

Bullion . . . 7,170,508} 42-650,789 
Liabilities 39,286,433 

Balance 3,364,356 

Sept. 14, 1859. Assets. Securities, 30,099,179?. Bullion, 17,120,822?. Liabilities, 43,503.214?. Balance, 3,716,787?. 
Feb. 14, 1861. ,, ' ,, 29,095,172?. ,, 11,571,332?. ,, 37> l6 7,336?. ,, 3,499,168?. 

Aug. 30, 1862. ,, 30,106,295?. ,, 17,678,698?. ,, 44,453,778?. ,, 3,331, 215?. 

Aug. 9. 1865. ,, 31,823,066!. 14,223,390?. ,, 42,528,577?. 3>5i7>879 ? - 





. 9,100,000 
. 10,700,000 
. 11,686,000 


. 14,686,000 
. 11,015,100 

BANK OF IRELAND. On Dec. 9, 1721, the Irish house of commons rejected a bill for 
establishing a national bank. Important failures in Irish banks occurred in 1727, 1733, and 
1758 : this le"d gradually to the establishment of the bank of Ireland at St. Mary's-abbey, 
Dublin, June I, 1783. The business was removed to the late houses of parliament, in 
College-green, in May, 1808. Branch banks of this establishment have been formed in most 
of the provincial towns in Ireland, all since 1828. Irish banking act passed, July 21, 1845. 

BANKS OF SCOTLAND. The old bank of Scotland was set up in 1695, at Edinburgh, and 
began Nov. I, the second institution of the kind in these kingdoms : lending money to the 
crown was prohibited. The Royal bank was chartered July 8, 1727; the British Linen 
Company's bank, 1746 ; the Commercial bank, 1810 ; National bank, 1825 ; Union bank, 
1830. The first stone of the present bank of Scotland was laid June 3, 1801. The Western 
bank of Scotland and the Glasgow bank stopped in Nov. 1857, causing much distress. 
Scotch banking act passed, July 21, 1845. 

BANK OF SAVINGS. See Savings' Banks. 

BANKS, JOINT STOCK. Since the act of 1826, a number of these banks have been esta- 
blished. In 1840, the amount of paper currency issued by joint-stock banks amounted to 
4, 138,618?. ; the amount in circulation by private banks, same year, was 6,973,613?. the 
total amount exceeding eleven millions.* In Ireland similar banks have been instituted, 
the first being the Hibernian bank, in 1825. The note- circulation of joint-stock banks, on 

* THE ROYAL BRITISH BANK was established in 1849, by Mr. John McGregor, M.P., and others, under 
sir R. Peel's joint-stock banking act, 7 & 8 Viet. c. 113(1844); as an attempt to introduce the Scotch 
banking system of cash credits into England. On Sept, 3, 1856, it stopped payment, occasioning much 
distress and ruin to many small tradesmen and others. In consequence of strong evidence of the existence 
of fraud in the management of the bank, elicited during the examination before the court of bankruptcy, 
the government instructed the attorney-general to file ex-officio informations against the manager, Mr. H. 
Innes Cameron, and several of the directors. They were convicted Feb. 27, 1858, after 13 days' trial, and 
sentenced to various degrees of imprisonment. Attempts to mitigate the punishment failed (May, 1858) ; 
but all were released except Cameron and Esdaile, in July, 1858. In April, 1860, dividends had been paid 
to the amount of 155. in the pound. The attorney-general brought in a bill called the Fraudulent Trustees' 
Act, 20 & 21 Viet. c. 54, to prevent the recurrence of such transactions. On April 19, 1860, a deficiency of 
263,000?. was discovered in the Union Bank of London. Mr. George Pullinger, a cashier, confessed himself 
guilty of forgery and fraud, and was sentenced to 20 years' imprisonment. 1 Feb. 18, 1861, it was dis- 
covered that John Durden, a clerk of the Commercial Bank of London, had robbed his employers of 67,000?., 
of which 46,000?. might be recovered. In Dec. 1864, J. W. Terry and Thomas Burch, manager and secre- 
tary of the Unity Bank, were committed on a charge of conspiracy for fabricating accounts ; but acquitted 
pn their trial. 




Oct. i, 1855, was, in England, 3,990,800?. ; in Scotland, 4,280,000?. ; and in Ireland, 
6, 785,000?. ; total, with English private banks, about 19,000,000?. : and with the bank of 
England, above 39,000,000?. 

Chief London Banks. . Founded 

London and Westminster 1834 

London Joint-Stock 1836 

Union Bank of London 1839 

Commercial Bank of London . . . 

Joint-Stock Hanks, Jan. 1860 : 
England and Wales (including London) . . . 94 
Scotland 15 

Chief London Sank?. 
London' and Count}' 
City Bank . 
Bank of London . 


. . 1839 



British and foreign colonial banks with offices 
in London . 

BANKRUPT (signifying either bank or bench broken 1 ), a trader declared to be unable 
to pay his just debts. The laws on the subject (1543, 1571 ct seq.) were consolidated and 
amended in 1825, 184^, 1852, 1854, and 1861. 

Lord chancellor Thurlow. refused a bankrupt 
his certificate, because he had lost five pounds 
at one time in gaming . . July 17. 1788 

Enacted that members of the house of com- 
mons becoming bankrupt, and not paying 
their debts in full, should vacate their seats 1812 

Present Bankruptcy Court was erected by 2 
Will. IV. cap. 56, 1831 ; bills for reforming 
bankruptcy law were in vain brought before 
parliament, 1859, 1860; at length in 1861 was 
passed the bill brought in by the lord chan- 
cellor (formerly sir R. Bcthell), 24 & 25 Viet. 

. 134 (1861), by which great changes were 
ade ; the court for relief of insolvent debtors 

was abolished, and increased powers given to 
the commissioners in bankruptcy, &c. ; the 
new orders were issued . . Oct. 12, 1861 
[This act has not produced public satisfac- 
tion (1865).] 
The Irish bankruptcy laws consolidated in 

1836, and further amended in ... 1857 
The Scotch bankruptcy laws consolidated in 
1856, and further amended in . . . ,, 



1830 . 




1800 . 
1820 . 


. 2OOO 

. 2683 

1845 England . 
1850 ditto 


1857 England 

1859 ditto . 

1860 ditto 
1863 ditto . 

. 1488 

. 1268 
. 8470 

In 1857 there were in Scotland, 453 ; Ireland, 73 ; in the United Kingdom, 2014. 
1860 ,, 445 ,, 113 ,, 1826. 

BANNATYNE CLUB, named after George Baunatyne (the publisher), was established 
in 1823 by sir "Walter Scott and others, for printing works illustrative of the history, 
antiquities, and literature of Scotland, of which about 113 volumes were issued. 

BANNERET, a personal dignity between baron and knight, anciently conferred by the 
king under the royal standard. Its origin is of uncertain date : Edmondson says 736; but 
it was probably created by Edward I. John Chandos is said to have been made a banneret 
by the Black Prince and the king of Castile atNajara, April 3, 1367. The dignity was con- 
ferred on John Smith, who rescued the royal standard at Edgehill fight, Oct. 23, 1642. 
It fell into disuse, but was revived by Geo. III. in the person of sir William Erskiue, in 

BANNERS were common to all nations. The Jewish tribes had standards or banners 
Num. ii. (1491 B.C.) The standard of Constantino bore the inscription, In hoc signo vinces 
" By this sign thou. shalt conquer," under the figure of the cross. See Cross. The magical 
banner of the Danes (said to have been a black raven on a red ground) was taken by Alfred 
when he defeated Hubba, 878. St. Martin's cap, and afterwards the celebrated auriflamma, 
or oriflammc, were the standards of France about noo. See Anrifiamma, Standards, &c. 

BANNOCKBURN (Stirlingshire), the site of the battle between Robert Bruce of Scotland 
and Edward II. of England, June 24, 1314. The army of Bruce consisted of 30,000 ; that 
of Edward of 100,000 men, of whom 52,000 were archers. The English crossed a rivulet to 
the attack, and Bruce having dug and covered pits, they fell into them, and were thrown 
into confusion. The rout was complete : the English king narrowly escaped, and 50,000 
were killed or taken prisoners. At Sauchieburn, near here, James II. was defeated and 
slain on June u, 1488, by his rebellious nobles. A national monument was founded here, 
June 24, 1 86 1. 

* According to a return to parliament made at the close of February, 1826, there had become bankrupt 
in the four months preceding, 59 banking-houses, comprising 144 partners ; and 20 other banking establish- 
ments had been declared insolvent. Every succeeding week continued to add from seventy to a hundred 
merchants, traders, and manufacturers to the bankrupt list. This was, however, the period of bubble 
speculation, and of unprecedented commercial embarrassment and ruin. 


BANNS, in the feudal law, were a solemn proclamation of any kind : hence arose the 
present custom of asking banns, or giving notice before marriage ; said to have been intro- 
duced into the church about 1200. 

BANQUETING-HOUSE, Whitehall, London, built by Inigo Jones, about 1607. 

BANTAM (Java), where a rich British factory was established by captain Lancaster, in 
1603. The English and Danes were driven from their factories by the Dutch in 1683. 
Bantam surrendered to the British in 1811, but was restored to the Dutch at the peace in 
1814. It was not worth retaining, the harbour being choked up and inaccessible. 

BAN.TINGISM. See Corpulence. 

BANTRY BAY (S. Ireland), where a French fleet, bringing succour to the adherents of 
James II., attacked the English under admiral Herbert, May I, 1689 : the latter retired to 
form in line and were not pursued. A French squadron of seven sail of the line and two 
frigates, armed en flute, and seventeen transports, anchored here for* a few days, without 
effect, Dec. 1796. MUTINY of the Bantry Bay squadron under admiral Mitchell was in 
Dec. 1801. In Jan. 1802, twenty-two of the mutineers were tried on board the Gladiator, at 
Portsmouth, when seventeen were condemned to death, of whom eleven were executed ; the 
others were sentenced to receive each 200 lashes. The executions took place on board the 
Majestic, Centaur, Formidable, Temeraire, and L'Achille, Jan. 8 to 18, 1802. 

BAPTISM, the ordinance of admission into the Christian church, practised by all sects 
professing Christianity, except Quakers. John the Baptist baptized Christ, 30. (Matt, iii.) 
Infant baptism is mentioned by Irenseus about 97. In the reign of Constantine, 319, 
baptisteries were built and baptism was performed by dipping the person all over. In the 

west sprinkling was adopted. Much controversy has arisen since 1831 (particularly in 1849 
and 1850), in the church of England, respecting the doctrine of baptismal regeneration, 
which the Arches' Court of Canterbury decided to be a doctrine of the church of England. 

BAPTISTS (see Anabaptists). A sect distinguished by their opinions respecting (i) the 
proper subjects, and (2) the proper mode of baptism : the former they affirm to be those who 
are able to make a profession of faith ; the latter to be total immersion. There are seven 
sections of Baptists Arminian, Calvinistic (or Particular), &c. The first Baptist church 
formed in London was in 1608. They published a confession of faith in 1689. In 1851 
they had 130 chapels in London and 2789 (with sittings for 752,353 persons) in England and 
Wales. Rhode Island, America, was settled by Baptists in 1635. 

BARBADOES, discovered by the Portuguese, was the first English settlement in the West 
Indies. About 1605 it gave rise to the sugar trade in England ; and was, with other 
Caribbee islands, settled by charter granted to James, earl of Marlborough, 2 Charles I., 
1627. Barbadoes has suffered severely from elemental visitations ; in a dreadful hurricane, 
Oct. 10, 1780, more than 4000 of the inhabitants lost their lives. A large plantation with 
all its buildings was destroyed, by the land removing from its original site to another, 
and covering everything in its peregrination, Oct. 1784. An inundation, Nov. 1795; and 
two great fires, May and Dec. 1796. Bishopric established, 1824. Awful devastation, with 
the loss of thousands of lives, and of immense property, by a hurricane, Aug. 10, 1831. 
Nearly 17,000 persons died of cholera here in 1854. On Feb. 14, 1860, property to the 
amount of about 300,000^. was destroyed by a fire at Bridgetown, the capital. 

BARBARY, in N. Africa, considered to comprise Algeria, Morocco, Fez, Tunis, and 
Tripoli, with their dependencies. Piratical states (nominally subject to Turkey) were 
founded on the coast by Barbarossa, about 1518. 

BARBERS existed at Rome in the 3rd century B.C. In England, formerly, the business 
of a surgeon was united to the barber's, and he was denominated a BARBER-SURGEON. A 
London company was formed in 1308, and incorporated, 1461. This union was partially 
dissolved in 1540, and wholly so in 1745. ''No person using any shaving or barbery in 
London shall occupy any surgery, letting of blood, or other matter, except only drawing of 
teeth." 32 Henry VIII. 1540. 

BARCA (N. Africa), the Greek Barce, a colony of Gyrene. It was successively subju- 
gated by the Persians, Egyptians, and Saracens. In 1550 the sultan Solyman combined 
Barca with the newly conquered pashalik of Tripoli. 

Yalentinus, after refuting them, and added the denial of the incarnation, the resurrection, 


BARCELONA, an ancient maritime city, (1ST. E. Spain), said to have been rebuilt by 
Hamilcar Barca, father of the great Hannibal, about 233 B.C. With the surrounding 
country, it was held by the Romans, Goths, Moors, and Franks, and, with the province of 
which it is the capital, was made an independent county about A.D. 864, and incorporated 
into Aragon in 1164, the last count becoming king. The city has suffered much by war. The 
siege by the French, in 1694, was relieved by the approach of the English fleet, commanded 
by admiral Russell; but the city was taken by the earl of Peterborough in 1706. It was 
bombarded and taken by the duke of Berwick and the French in 1714, and was taken by 
Napoleon in 1808, and retained till 1814. It revolted against the queen in 1841, and was 
bombarded and taken in Dec. 1842, by Espartero. 

BARCLAY, CAPTAIN. See Pedeatrimism. 

BARDESANISTS, followers of Bardesanes, of Mesopotamia, who embraced the errors of 
iiitinus, aft< 
about 175. 

BARDS. Demodocus is mentioned as a bard by Homer ; and we find bards, according 
to Strabo, among the Romans before the age of Augustus. The Welsh bards formed an 
hereditary order, regulated, it is said, by laws, enacted about 940 and 1078. They lost their 
privileges at the conquest by Edward I. in 1284. The institution was "revived by the Tudor 
sovereigns ; and their Eisteddfodds (or meetings) have been and are frequently held ; at 
Swansea, Aug. 1863 ; at Llandudno, Aug. 1864; and in the vale of Conway, Aug. 7, 1865. 
The Gwyneddigion Society of Bards was founded in 1770. Turlogh O'Carolan, the last of 
the Irish bards, died in 1737. Chambers. 

BAREBONES' PARLIAMENT. Cromwell, supreme in the three kingdoms, summoned 
122 persons, such as he thought he could manage, who with six from Scotland, and five from 
Ireland, met, and assumed the name of parliament, July 4, 1653. It obtained its appellation 
from a nickname given to one of its members, a leather- seller, named "Praise-God Barbon," 
a great haranguer and frequent in prayer. Although violent and absurd propositions were 
made by some of the members, the majority evinced much sense and spirit, proposing to 
reform abuses, improve the administration of the law, &c. The parliament was suddenly 
dissolved, Dec. 13, 1653, at the instance of Sydenham, an independent, and Cromwell was 
invested with the dignity of Lord Protector. 

BAREILLY, province of Delhi (N. W. India), ceded to the East India company by the 
ruler of Oude in 1801. A mutiny at Bareilly, the capital, was suppressed in April, 1816. 
On May 7, 1858, it was taken from th.e sepoy rebels, who had here committed many 

BARFLEUR (N. France), where William, duke of Normandy, equipped the fleet by 
which he conquered England, 1066. Near it, prince William, son of Henry I., in his 
passage from Normandy, was shipwrecked, Nov. 25, 1120.* Barfleur was destroyed by 
the English in the campaign in which they won the battle of Crecy, 1346. The French 
navy was destroyed near the cape by admiral Russell, after the victory of La Hogue, in 1692. 

BAR! (S. Italy), the Barium of Horace, was, in the 9th century, a stronghold of the 
Saracens, and was captured by the emperor Louis II., a descendant of Charlemagne, in 871. 
In the loth century it became subject to the eastern empire, and remained so till it was 
taken by Robert Guiscard, the Norman, about 1060. A great ecclesiastical council was held 
here on Oct. i, 1098, when the filioqiie article of the creed and the procession of the Holy 
Spirit were the subjects of discussion. 

BARING ISLAND, Arctic Sea, discovered by captain Penny in 1850-1, and so named by 
him after sir Francis Baring, first lord of the admiralty in 1849. 

BARIUM (Greek, barys, heavy), a metal found abundantly as carbonate and sulphate. 
The oxide baryta was first recognised as an earth distinct from lime by Scheele, in 1774; and 
the metal was first obtained by Humphrey Davy, in 1808. Watts. 

BARK. See Jesuits' Baric. 

* In this shipwreck perished his legitimate son, William, duke of Normandy, and his newly married 
bride, Matilda, daughter of Fulke, earl of Anjou ; the king's natural son, Richard; his niece, Lucia; 
the earl of Chester, and the flower of the nobility, with 140 officers and soldiers, and 50 sailors, most 
i'f the latter being intoxicated, which was the cause of their running upon the rocks near Barfleur. 
This lamentable catastrophe had such an effect upon Henry that he was never afterwards seen to smile. 
Hcnault ; Hume. 


BARMECIDES, a powerful Persian family, celebrated for virtue and courage, were 
massacred through the jealousy of the caliph Haroun-al-Raschid, about 802. His visir Giafar 
was a Barmecide. The phrase Barmecide (or imaginary) feast originated in the story of the 
barber's sixth brother, in the Arabian Nights' Entertainments. 

BARNAB1TES, an order of monks, established in Milan about 1530, were much engaged 
in instructing youth, relieving the sick and aged, and converting heretics. 

BARNARD'S, Sm JOHN, ACT (7 Geo. II., cap. 8), entitled, "an act to prevent the 
infamous practice of stock-jobbing," was passed in 1734, and repealed in 1860. Sir John 
Barnard (born 1685, died 1764) was an eminent and patriotic lord mayor of London. 

BARNET, Hertfordshire. Here Edward IV. gained a decisive victory over the Lancas- 
trians, on Easter-day, April 14, 1471, when the earl of Warwick and his brother the marquis 
of Montacute, or Montague, and 10,000 men were slain. A column commemorative of this 
battle has been erected at the meeting of the St. Alban's and Hatfield roads. 

BAROMETERS. Torricelli, a Florentine, having discovered that no principle of suction 
existed, and that water did not rise in a pump through nature's abhorrence of a vacuum, 
imitated the action of a pump with mercury, and made the first barometer, about 1643. 
Pascal's experiments (1646) enhanced the value of the discovery by applying it to the measure- 
ment of heights. Wheel barometers were contrived in 1668 ; pendent barometers in 1695 ; 
marine in 1700, and many improvements have been since made. In. the Aneroid barometer 
(from a, no, and neros, watery) no liquid is employed ; the atmospheric pressure being 
exerted on a metallic spring. Its invention (attributed to Conte", in 1798, and to Yidi, about 
1844) excited much attention in 1848-9. Barometers were placed at N.E. coast stations in 
1860, by the duke of Northumberland and others. 

BARON, now the lowest title in our peerage, is extremely ancient. Its original name in 
England, Vavasour, was changed by the Saxons into Thane, and by the Normans into Baron. 
Many of this rank are named in the history of England, and undoubtedly had assisted in, or 
had been summoned to parliament (in 1205) ; but the first precept found is of no higher date 
than the 49 Henry III. 1265. The first raised to this dignity by patent was John de Beau- 
chainp, created baron of Kidderminster, by Richard II., 1387. The barons took arms against 
king John, and compelled him to sign the great charter of our liberties, and the charter of 
our forests, at Runnymede, near Windsor, June, 1215. Charles II. granted a coronet to 
barons on his restoration. 

BARONETS, the first in rank among the gentry, and the only knighthood that is here- 
ditary, were instituted by James I. 1611. The rebellion in Ulster seems to have given rise 
to this order, it having been required of a baronet, on his creation, to pay into the exchequer 
as much as would maintain "thirty soldiers three years at eightpence a day in the province 
of Ulster in Ireland." It was further required that a baronet should be a gentleman bom, 
and have a clear estate of loool. per annum. The first baronet was sir Nicholas Bacon (whose 
successor is therefore styled Primus Baronettorum Anglicc), May 22, 1611. The baronets of 
Ireland were created in 1619 ; the first being sir Francis Blundell. Baronets of Nova Scotia 
were created, 1625 ; sir Robert Gordon the first baronet. All baronets created since the Irish 
union in 1801 are of the United Kingdom. 

BARONS' WAR, arose in consequence of the faithlessness of king Henry III. and the 
oppression of his favourites. The barons, headed by Simon de Montfort, earl of Leicester, 
and Gilbert de Clare, earl of Gloucester, met at Oxford in 1262, and enacted statutes to 
which the king objected. In 1263 their disputes were in vain referred to the decision of 
Louis IX. of France. War broke out, and on May 14, 1264, the king's party were totally 
defeated at Lewes : and De Montfort become the virtual ruler of the kingdom. Through 
treachery the war was renewed ; and at the battle of Evesham, Aug. 4, 1265, De Montfort 
was slain, and the barons were defeated. They, however, did not render their final sub- 
mission till 1268. A history of this war was published by Mr. W. H. Blaauw in 1844. 

BARRACKS (from " Baroque JIutte que font les soldats en campagne pour se mettre a 
convert") were not numerous in these countries until about 1789. A superintendent-general 
was appointed in 1793, since when commodious barracks have been built in the various 
garrison towns and central points of the empire. A report, censuring the condition of many 
barracks, was presented to parliament in 1858 ; and great improvements were effected under 
the direction of Mr. Sydney Herbert. See Aldershot. 

BARRICADES, mounds formed of trees and earth, and for military defence. During 
the wars of the League in France, in 1588, the people made barricades by means of chains, 


casks, &c., and compelled the royal troops to retire. Barricades composed of overturned 
vdi ides, &c., were erected in Paris in the insurrections of July, 27-30, 1830, and June 23, 

BARRIER TREATY, by which the Low Countries were ceded to the emperor Charles VI., 
was signed by the British, Imperial, and Dutch ministers, Nov. 5, 1715. 

BARRISTERS are said to have been first appointed by Edward L, about 1291, but there 
is earlier mention of professional advocates in England. They are of various rank, as 
King's or Queen's Counsel, Serjeants, &c., which see. Students for the bar must keep a 
certain number of terms at the Inns of Court, previously to being called ; and by the 
regulations of 1853 must pass a public examination. Irish students must keep eight terms 
in England. 

BARROSA, OR BAROSSA (S. Spain), where a battle was fought on March 5, 1811, between 
the British army, commanded by major-general sir Thomas Graham, afterwards lord 
Lynedoch, and the French under marshal Victor. After a long conflict, the British achieved 
one of the most glorious triumphs of the Peninsular war. Although they fought at great 
disadvantage, the British compelled the French to retreat, leaving nearly 3000 dead, six 
pieces of cannon, and an eagle, the first that the British had taken ; the loss of the British 
was 1169 men killed and wounded. 

BARROW ISLAND (N. Arctic Sea), discovered by captain Penny in 1850-51, and named 
by him in honour of John Barrow, Esq., son of sir John. 

BARROW'S STRAITS (N. Arctic Sea), explored by Edwd. Parry, as far as Melville 
Island, lat. 74 26' N., and long. 113 47' W. The strait, named after sir John Barrow, was 
entered on Aug. 2, 1819. The thermometer was 55 below zero of Fahrenheit. 

BARROWISTS, a name given to the Brownists, which sec. 

BARROWS, circular mounds found in Britain and other countries, were ancient 
sepulchres. Sir Richard Hoare caused several barrows near Stonehenge to be opened ; in 
them were found a number of curious remains of Celtic ornaments, such as beads, buckles, 
and brooches, in amber, wood, and gold : Nov. 1808. 

BARS in music appear in the madrigals of Bonini, 1607. Their common use in this 
country is attributed to Henry Lawes, about 1653. Eng. Cyc. 

BARTHOLOMEW, ST., martyred, 71. The festival (on Aug. 24, O.S., Sept. 3, N.S.) 
is said to have been instituted in 1130. * ^ The monastery and hospital of St. Bartholomew 
(Austin Friars), founded in the reign of Henry I. , by Rahere, about 1 100. On the dissolution 
the HOSPITAL was re-founded, 1539, and was incorporated in 1546-7. It was rebuilt by 
subscription in 1729. In 1861 it contained 580 beds, and relieved about 70,000 patients : 
it has since been considerably enlarged. The MASSACRE commenced at Paris on the night of 
the festival of St. Bartholomew, Aug. 24, 1572. According to Sully, 70,000 Huguenots, or 
French Protestants, including women and children, were murdered throughout the kingdom 
by secret orders from Charles IX., at the instigation of his mother, the queen dowager, 
Catherine de Medicis.f 

BARTHOLOMEW, ST., a West Indian island, held by Sweden. It was colonised by 
the French in 1648 ; and has been several times taken and restored by the British. It was 
ceded to Sweden by France in 1785. 

BARTHOLOMITES, a religious order of Armenia, settled 1307, at Genoa, where is pre- 
served in the Bartholomite church the image which Christ is said to have sent to king 
Abgarus. The order was suppressed by pope Innocent X. 1650. 

BARTON AQUEDUCT (near Manchester) was constructed by James Brindley, to carry 
the Bridgewafer canal over the Irwell, which was done at a height of 39 feet above the river. 
It is said to be in as good a state now as it was on the day it was completed, in 1761. 

* The charter of the FAIR was granted by Henry II., and was held 011 the ground which has been the 
former scene of toTirnaments and martyrdoms. The shows at the fair were discontinued in 1850, and 
the fair was proclaimed for the last time in 1855. In 1858 Mr. H. Morley published his " History of Bar- 
tholomew Fair," with many illustrations. See Smitlifield. 

The number of the victims is differently stated by various authors. La Popetionere calculates the 

)le at 20,000 ; Adriani, De Serrcs, and De Thou say 30,000 ; Davila states them at 40,000 ; and Pe're'fixe 
makes the number 100,000. Above 500 persons of rank, and 10,000 of inferior condition, perished in Paris 
alone, besides those slaughtered in the provinces. The pope, Gregory XIII., ordered a TeDeum to be per- 
iormcd on the occasion, with other rejoicings. 

G 2 


BASLE, a rich city in Switzerland. The i8th general council sat here from 1431 to 
1443. Many important reforms in the church were proposed, but not carried into effect : 
among others the union of the Greek and Roman churches. The university was founded in 
1460. Treaties of peace between France, Spain, and Prussia were concluded here in 1795. 

BASHI-BAZOUKS, irregular Turkish troops, partially employed by the British in the 
Crimean war, 1854-6. 

BASIENTELLO (S. Naples). Here the army of the emperor Otho II. fell into an 
ambuscade, and was nearly cut to pieces by the Greeks and Saracens on July 13, 982 ; the 
emperor himself barely escaped. 

BASILIANS, an order of monks, which obtained its name from St. Basil, who died 380. 
The order was reformed by pope Gregory, in 1569. A sect, founded by Basil, a physician 
of Bulgaria, held most extravagant notions ; they rejected the books of Moses, the eucharist, 
and baptism, and are said to have had everything, even their wives, in common, mo. Basil 
was burnt alive in 1118. 

BASILIKON DORON (Royal Gift), precepts on the art of government, composed by 
James I. of England for his son, and first published at Edinburgh in 1599. The collected 
works of this monarch were published at London, 1616-20, in one vol. fol. 

BASQUE PROVINCES (N. W. Spain, Biscay, Guipuscoa, and Alava). The Basques, 
considered to be descendants of the ancient Iberi, were termed Vascones by the Romans, 
whom they successfully resisted. They were subdued with great difficulty by the Goths 
about 580 ; and were united to Castile in the I3th and I4th centuries. Their language, 
distinct from all others, is conjectured to be of Tartar origin. 

BASQUE "ROADS. Four French ships of the line, riding at anchor here, were attacked 
by lords Gambier and Cochrane (the latter commanding the fireships), and all, with a great 
number of merchant and other vessels, were destroyed, April 12, 1809. Cochrane accused 
Gambier of neglecting to support him, and thereby allowing the French to escape. At a 
court-martial (July 26 Aug. 4), lord Gambier was acquitted. 

BASSORAH, BASRAH, OR BUSSORAH (Asia Minor), a Turkish city, founded by the caliph 
Omar, about 635. It has been several times taken and retaken by the Persians and Turks. 

'BASS ROCK, an isle in the Firth of Forth (S. Scotland), was granted to the Landers, 
1316; purchased for a state-prison, 1671 j taken by the Jacobites, 1690; surrendered, 1694; 
granted to the Dalrymples, 1 706. 

B ASS'S STRAIT, AUSTRALIA. Mr. Bass, surgeon of the Reliance, in an open boat from 
Port Jackson, in 1797, penetrated as far as "Western Port, and affirmed that a strait existed 
between New South Wales and Van Diemen's Land. Lieutenant Flinders circumnavigated 
Van Diemen's Land, and named the strait after Mr. Bass, 1799. 

BASSET, OR BASSETTE, or Pour et Contre, a game at cards, said to have been invented 
by a noble Venetian, in the I5th century ; introduced into France, 1674. 

BASTARD, a child not born in lawful wedlock. An attempt was made in England, in 
1236, to mako bastard children legitimate by the subsequent marriage of the parents, but it 
failed, and led to the memorable answer to the barons assembled in the parliament of 
Merton : Nolumus leges Anglice mutari " We will not have the laws of England changed." 
Women concealing their children's birth deemed guilty of murder, 21 James I., 1624. 
Viners Statutes. In Scotland bastard children had not the power of disposing of their 
moveable estates by will, until 6 Will. IV. 1836. A new act, facilitating the claims of 
mothers, and making several provisions for proceeding in bastardy cases, was passed 8 Viet. 
cap. 10(1845). 

BASTILLE, PARIS, a castle built by Charles V., king of France, in 1369, for the defence 
of Paris against the English ; completed in 1383. It was afterwards used as a state prison, 
and became the scene of much suffering. Henry IV. and his veteran army assailed it in 
vain in the siege of Paris, during the Avar that desolated France between 1587 and 1594. 
On July 14,- 1 5, 1789, it was pulled down by the infuriated populace ; the governor and 
other officers were seized, conducted to the Place de Greve, and had their hands and heads 
cutoff. The heads fixed on spikes were carried in triumph through the streets. "The 
man with the iron mask," the most mysterious prisoner ever known, died here, Nov. 19, 
1703. See Iron Mask. 



BATAVIA, the capital of Java, and of all the Dutch settlements in the East Indies, built 
by that people about 1619. Taken by the English, Jan. 1782. Again, by the British, under 
general sir Samuel Auchmuty, Aug. 26, 1811 ; restored in 1814. 

BATH (Somerset), a favourite station of the Eomans. About 44 B.C. was remarkable 
then for its hot springs . Coel, a British king, is said to have given this city a charter, an cl 
the Saxon king Edgar was crowned here, A.D. 973. 

Bath plundered and burnt in the reign of Wil- I Theatre, Beaufort-square, opened . 

liam Rufus, and again in .... 1137 J Bath philosophical society formed 

The abbey church commenced in 1405 ; finished 1606 
Assembly-rooms built ...... 1771 

Pump room erected ...... 1797 

. . 180; 
. 1817 

Victoria park opened by princess Victoria . .1830 
British association met here . . Sept. 14, 1864 

1802. Richard Beadon, died 
1824. George Henry Law, died 

BATH AND "WELLS, BISHOPRIC OF. The see of Wells, whose cathedral church was 
built by Ina, king of the "West Saxons, in 704, was established in 909. The see of Bath was 
established' in 1078. John de Villula, the sixteenth bishop, having purchased the city of 
Bath for 500 marks of Henry I., transferred his seat from Wells to Bath in 1088. Disputes 
arose between the monks of Bath and the canons of Wells about the election of a bishop, 
which were compromised in 1135. Henceforward the bishop was to be styled from both 
places ; the precedency to be given to Bath. The see is valued in the king's books at 
531^. 15. 3d. per annum. 'Present income, 5000?. 


. April 21, 1824 I 1845. Richard Bagot, died . . . May 15, 1854 
. Sept. 22, 1845 | 1854. Robert John, baron Auckland (PRESENT bishop). 

BATH ADMINISTRATION. Mr. Pelham and his friends having tendered their resigna- 
tion to the king (George II.), Eeb. 10, 1746, the formation of a new'ministry was undertaken 
by William Pulteney, earl of Bath ; but it expired on Feb. 12, while yet incomplete, and 
received the name of the "Short-lived" administration. The members of it actually 
appointed were : the earl of Bath, first lord of the treasury ; lord Carlisle, lord privy seal ; 
lord Winchilsea, first lord of the admiralty ; and lord Granville, one of the secretaries of state, 
with the seals of the other in his pocket, "to be given to whom he might choose." Mr. 
Pelham and his colleagues returned to power. Cox's Life of Pelham. 

BATH, ORDER OF THE, said to be of early origin, but formally constituted Oct. n, 
1399, by Henry IV., two days previous to his coronation in the Tower ; he conferred the 
order upon forty-six esquires, who had watched the night before, and had bathed. After 
the coronation, of Charles II. the order was neglected until May 18, 1725, when it was 
revived by George I., who fixed the number of knights at 37. On Jan. 2, 1815, the prince 
regent enlarged the order, forming classes of knights grand crosses (72), and knights, com- 
manders (180), with an unlimited number of companions. By an order published May 25, 
1847, all the existing statutes of this order were annulled ; and by the new statutes, the 
order, hitherto exclusively military, was opened to civilians. In 1851, Dr. Lyon Playfair, 
and other promoters of the Great Exhibition of that year, received this honour. 

2nd Class. 
3rd Class. 

Knights grand cross, 
Knights commanders, 

50 military, 

25 civil. 

BATHS were long used in Greece, and introduced by Agrippa into Rome. The thermse 
of the Romans and gymnasia of the Greeks (of which baths formed merely an appendage) 
were sumptuous. The marble group of Laocoon was found in 1506 in the baths of Titus, 
erected about 80, and the Farnese Hercules in those of Caracalla, erected, 211. See Batli. 


In London, St. Agnes Le Celre, in Old-street- 
road, was a spring of great antiquity ; baths 
said to have been formed in 1502. 

St. Chad's-well, Grey's-inn-road, derives its name 

from St. Chad, the fifth bishop of Lichfield . 667 

Old Bath-house, Coldbath-square, in use . . 1697 

A bath opened in Bagnio-court, now Bath-street, 
Newgate-street, London, is said to have been 
the first bath in England for hot bathing . 1679 

Peerless (Perilous) Pool, Baldwin- street, City- 
road, mentioned by Stow (died 1605) ; en- 
closed as a bathing place 1743 

Turkish sweating-baths very popular in . . 1 860 

The Oriental baths in Victoria- street, West- 
minster, were completed in . . . . 1862 


The first established by Mr. Bowie in the neigh- 
bourhood of the London docks . . . 

Acts were passed to encourage the establishment 
of public baths and wash-houses, "for the 
health, comfort, and welfare of the inhabi- 
tants of populous towns and districts," in 
England and Ireland . . . . . 

In the quarter ending Sept. 1854, 537,345 
bathers availed themselves of the baths in 
London, and in this period there were 85,260 

Public baths and wash-houses have since been 
established throughout the empire. 




BATON", a truncheon borne by generals in the French army, and afterwards by the 
marshals of other nations. Henry III. of France, before he ascended the throne, was made 
generalissimo of the army of his brother Charles IX., and received the baton as the mark of 
the high command, 1569. Renault. 

BATTERIES along the coasts were constructed by Henry VIII. (who reigned 1509-47). 
The famous floating batteries with which Gibraltar was attacked, in the memorable siege of 
that fortress, were the scheme of D' Arcon, a French engineer. There were ten of them, and 
they resisted the heaviest shells and 32-pound shot, but ultimately yielded to red-hot shot, 
Sept. 13. 1782. See Gibraltar. 

BATTERING-HAM, Testudo Arietaria, with other military implements, some of which 
are still in use, are said to have been invented by Artemon, a Lacedaemonian, and employed 
by Pericles, about 441 B.C. These ponderous engines (from 86 to 120 feet long) by their 
own weight exceeded the utmost effects of the battering cannon of the early part of the last 
century. Desaguliers. Sir Christopher Wren employed a battering-ram in demolishing the 
old walls of St. Paul's church, previously to rebuilding the edifice in 1675. 

BATTERSEA PARK originated in an act of parliament passed in 1846, which 
empowered Her Majesty's commissioners of woods to form a royal park in Battersea- 
fields. Acts to enlarge the powers of the commissioners were passed in 1848, 1851, and 
1853. The park and the new bridge connecting it with Chelsea were opened in April, 1858. 

BATTLE-ABBEY, Sussex, founded by William I., 1067, on the plain where the battle 
of Hastings was fought, Oct. 14, 1066. It was dedicated to St. Martin, and was given to 
Benedictine monks, who were to pray for the souls of the slain. The original name of the 
plain was Hetheland. See Hastings. After the battle of Hastings, a list was taken of 
William's chiefs, amounting to 629, and called tlie BATTEL-ROLL ; and amongst these chiefs 
the lands and distinctions of the followers of the defeated Harold were distributed. 

BATTLE, WAGER OF, a trial by combat formerly allowed by our laws, where the defen- 
dant in an appeal of murder might fight with the appellant, and make proof thereby of his 
guilt or innocence. See Appeal. 

BATTLE-AXE, a weapon of the Celtse. The Irish were constantly armed with an axe. 
Burns. At the battle of Bannockburn king Robert Bruce clove an English champion down 
to the chine at one blow with a battle-axe, 1314. Hume. The battle-axe guards, or beau- 
fetiers, who are vulgarly called beef-eaters, and whose arms are a sword and lance, were first 
raised by Henry VII. in 1485. They were originally attendants upon the king's buffet. See 
Yeoman of the Guard. 


BATTLES. Palamedes of Argos is said to have been the first who ranged an army in a 
regular line of battle, placed sentinels round a camp, and excited the soldier's vigilance by 
giving him a watchword. Lenglet. See Naval Battles, British. The following are the most 
memorable battles, arranged in chronological order. The fifteen battles marked by a f are 
termed " decisive " by Professor Creasy ; n. signifies naval. 


Abraham defeats kings of Canaan (Gen. xiv.) . 1913 

Joshua subdues five kings of Canaan (Josh. x.). 451 

Gideon defeats the Midianites (Judges vii.) 245 

Trojan war commenced .... 193 

Troy taken and destroyed ... 184 

Jephthah defeats Ammonites . . . 143 

Ethiopians defeated by Asa (2 Chron. xiv.) 941 

*Horatii vanquish Curiatii .... 669 

*Halys (Medes and Lydians, stopped by eclipse) 585 

t*Marathon (Greeks defeat Persians) Sept. 28 490 

*Thermopylai (heroism of Leonidas) Aug. 7-9 480 

*Salamis, n. (Greeks defeat Persians) . Oct. 20 ,, 

*Mycale (ditto) .... Sept. 22 479 

*Plateea (ditto : Pausanias) . . Sept. 22 ,, 

*Eurymedon n. (ditto : Cimon) . . . 466 

*Coronea (Bceotians defeat Athenians') . . 447 

Romans totally defeat Veientes . . 437 

Torone (Clean killed : Athenians defeat Spartans) 422 

*Mantinea (Spartans defeat Athenians) . . . 418 
t Athenians defeated before Syracuse . .413 

*Cyzicus ?i. ( A Icibiades defeats Spartans) . . 410 

*Arginusse (Conon defeats Spartans) . .B.C. 
*^Egospotamos n. (Athenian fleet destroyed) 



*Cunaxa(Cfyrws defeated and killed by Artaxerxes) 401 

Cnidus, n. (Conon defeats Spartans) . . . 394 

*Coronea (Argesilaus defeats Athenians and allies) ,, 

*A\li&(Brennus and the Gauls defeat Romans) . 390 

Volsci defeated by Camillus . . ... 381 

Volsci defeat the Romans ..... 379 

Naxus (Chabrias defeats Lacedcemonians) 376 or 377 

*Leuctra (Ihebans defeat Spartans) . . . 371 

Camillus defeats the Gauls ..... 367 

*Cynocephalpe (Thebans defeat Thessalians) . 364 

*Mantinea (Ihebans victors: Epaminondas slain) 362 

*Crimesus (Timoleon defeats Carthaginians) . 339 

*Chajronea (Philip defeats Athenians, <fcc.) . . 338 
Thebes destroyed by Alexander . . -335 

*Granicus (Alexander defeats Darius) May 22, 334 

*lss\is (ditto) ...... Oct. 333 

*Pandosia (Alexander of Epirus dftd. and slain) 332 

i*Arbela (Alexander defeats Darius) 
*Cranon (Antipater defeats Greeks) . . 
fCaudine Forks (Roman army captured) 

Oct. i, 


[The battles which are thus marked * are more fully described in their alphabetical order.] 




BATTLES, continued. 

fGaza (Ptolemy defeats Demetrius) . . B.C. 312 

Fabius defeats the Tuscans . . . . 310 

llimera (Gelon defeats Agathocles) . . . 

Ipsus (Seleucus defeats Antigonus, who is slain) . 301 

!um (Romans defeat Samnites) . . . 295 

Asculum (Pyrrhus defeats Romans) . . . 279 

.\mtum (Romans defeat Pyrrhus) . . 275 

I'unic Wars begin 264 

Myl;e, n. (Romans defeat Carthaginians) . . 260 

Xautippus defeats llegulus 255 

Paiiormus (Asdrubal defeated by Metellus) . 250 

f Drepanum n. (Carthaginians defeat Romans) . 249 

V%: ties n. (Romans defeat Carthaginians). . 241 

Olusium (Gauls defeated) . ... 225 

Sellasia (Macedonians defeat Spartans) . . 222 

Caphyas (Achceans defeat JEtolians) . . . 220 
Saguutum taken by Hannibal . . . .219 
2nd Punic War. Ticinus (Hannibal defeats 

Romans) 218 

'Trebia (ditto) ,, 

Thrasymenes (ditto) 217 

liaphia (Antiochus defeated by Ptol. Pldlopater) 

' Canute (Victory of Hannibal) . . Aug. 2, 216 

Scipio defeats Hasdrubal in Spain . . . 215 

Marcellus and Hannibal (former killed) . . 209 

t "Mutaurus (Nero defeats Asdrubal, who is killed) 207 

'Zaiua (Scipio defeats Hannibal) . . , . 202 

Abydos (siege of) 200 

*Cynocephalse (Romans defeat Macedonians) . 197 

Magnesia (Scipio defeats Antiochus) . . . 190 

Pydna (Romans defeat Perseiw) . . June 22, 168 

- ; Punic War (the Third) 149 

Carthage taken by Publius Scipio . . . 146 

Mummius takes Corinth . , . . . ,, 

* .Metellus defeats Jugurtha .... 
Aqua 1 Sextise (Aix ; Marius defeats the Teutones) 

Ciinbri and Romans (defeated by Marius) . 

*Chseronea (Sylla defeats Mithridates' army) . . 

Marius defeated by Sylla 

Tigranocerta (Lucullus defeats Tigranes) . . 

Pistoria (Catiline defeated) 

Csesar defeats Cassiyelaunus . . . . 

Can-has (Crassus defeated by the Parthians) 

June 9, 

*Pharsalia (Ccvsar defeats Pompey) . . Aug. 9, 
*Zela (Ccesar defeats Pharnaces ; ivrites, "Veni, 
vidi, vici ") - 

Thapsus (<7cesr defeats Pompey' s friends) . . 

Munda, in Spain (Pompey's sons subdued) 

Mar. 17, 
*Philippi (Brutus and Cassius defeated) '. . . 

Agrippa defeats Pompey the Younger 
*Actium, n. (Octavius defeats Antony) . Sept. 2, 

tVarus defeated by Herman (or Armmius) . . 

*Drusus defeats Germans 

*Shropshire (Caractacus taken) . . . . 

Sunbury (Romans defeat Boadicea) . 
* Jerusalem taken 

Agricola conquers Mona 

He defeats Galgacus and Caledonians . . . 

Dacians defeated and Decebalus slain 

Issus (Niger slain) 

Lyons (Severus defeats Albinus) 

Naissus (Claudius defeats Goths, 300,000 sluLi) . 

Verona (emperor Philip defeated) . . . 

Decius defeated and slain by Goths 

Valerian defeated and captured by Sapor . . 

Chalons (Aurelian victor over rivals) . 

Alectus defeated in Britain . . . . 

Constantmedef. Maxentius (see Cross), Oct. 27, 
*Adrianople (Constantine defeats Licinius) . 
*Aquileia (Constantine II. slain) . . . . 
*Argentaria (Gratian defeats Gauls) . 

*Aquileia (Maximus slain) 

*Aq\iileia (Eugenius slain) 

Pollentia (Stilicho defeats Alaric) . Mar. 29, 

Rome taken by Alaric . . , Aug. 24, 

3 r 


, *9 


Ravenna taken by Aspar . . . A.D 

*Franks defeated by Ae'tius .... 
Genseric takes Carthage 

t*Chaions-sur-Marne (Atilla defeated by Aetius) 
Aylesford (Britons defeat Saxons) . . , 

Crayford, Kent (Hengist defeats Britons) . 

*Soissons (Clovis defeats Syagrius) . . ., 

*Tolbiach or Zulpich (Clovis defeats Alemanni) , 

Saxons defeat Britons 

Victories of Belisarius 533-4 

Narses defeats Totila 552 

Heraclius defeats the Persians (Ckosroes) . 622 
Beder ( first victory of Mahommed) . . . 623 
Muta (Mahometans defeat Romans) . . . 629 
Hatfield (Heathfield ; Penda defeats Edwin) . 633 

Saracens subdue Syria 636-8 

Kadseah (Arabs defeat Persians) . . . 638 
Saracens take Alexandria " 

*Near Oswestry (Penda defeats Oswald of North- 

*Leeds (Oswy defeats Penda, who is slain) . . 

*Saracens defeated by Wambp, in Spain . 

*Xeres (Saracens defeat Roderic) . . . . 

t "Tours (Chas. Martel defeats the Saracens) 
Victories of Charlemagne 

*Roncesvalle (death of Roland) 
Clavijo (Moors defeated) 
Albaida (Musa and Moors defeated) 



. 675 
. 711 
. 732 
. 778 
. 844 
. 852 


Hengestdown (Danes defeated by Egbert) . . 835 

Charmouth (Etltelwolf defeated by the Dan" s) . 840 

Danes defeat King Edmund of East Anglia . 870 

Assendon or Ashdown (Danes defeated) . . 871 

Morton (Danes victorious) ,, 

Wilton (Danes victorious over Alfred) . , . 872 

fAndernach (diaries the Bald defeated) Oct. 8, 876 

Ethandun (Alfred defeats Danes) . . . 878 

Farnham (Danes defeated) .... 894 

Bury (Edward defeats Ethelwald and Danes) . 905 

*Soissons (king Robert victor, killed) . . .923 
*Semincas (Spaniards defeat Moors ?) . 934 or 938 

Nicephorus Phocas defeats Saracens . . 962 

Basientello (Otho II. defeated by Greeks, <fcc.) 

July 13, 982 

[The Saxons and Danes fought with different 
success from 638 to 1016.] 

Assingdon, Ashdon (Canute defeats Edmund) . 1016 
*Clontarf (Danes defeated) 1014 

Civitella (Normans defeat Leo IX) . . . 1053 
*Dunsinane (Macbeth defeated) .... 1056 

Stanford Bridge (Harold defeats Tostig) Sept. 25, 1066 
t "Hastings (IFittiaw/. defeats Harold) Oct. 14, ,, 

Fladenheim (emperor Henry defeated) . . . 1080 
*Alnwick (Scots defeated, Malcolm slain) . . 1093 

*Crusades commence 1096 

*Ascalon (Crusaders victorious) . . Aug. 12, 1099 
*Tinchebray (Robert of Normandy defeated) . 1 106 

Brenneville, Normandy (Henry I. victorious) . 1119 
*Northallerton, or Battle of the Standard, 

(David I. and Scots defeated) . Aug. 22, 1138 
*0urique (Alfonso of Portugal defeats Moors,) 

July 25, 1139 

*Lincoln (Stephen defeated) . . Feb. 2, 1141 
*Alnwick (William the Lion defeated) . July 13, 1174 
*Legnano (Italians defeated Frd. Barbarossa), 

May 29, 1176 

Ascoli (Tancred defeats emperor Henry VI.) '. . 1190 
*Ascaloii surrenders (Richard I.) . Sept. 7, 1191 

Arcadiopolis (Bulga.rians defeat Emp. Isaac) . 1194 

Alarcos (Moors defeat Spaniards) . . July 19, 1195 
*Gisors (Richard I. defeats French) . Oct. 10, 1198 
*Arsoul (Richard I. defeats Saracens) Sept. 7, 1199 

Tolosa (Moors defeated) 1212 

*Bouvines (French defeat Germans) . . . 1214 
*Lincoln (French defeated) . . May 19, 1217 
*Mansourah (Louis IX. and Crusaders dcftated) , 1250 

[The battles which arc thus marked * are more fully described in their alphabetical order.] 



BATTLES, continued. 

*Lewes (English barons victorious) . May 14, 1264 
*Evesham (Barons defeated) . . Aug. 4, 1265 
*Benevento (Chas. of Anjou defeats Manfred) 

Feb. 26, 1266 

*Tagliacozzo (Charles defeats Conradin) Aug. 23, 1268 
~ yr '&a,rcYifel.(\.(Austrians defeat Bohemians) Aug. 26, 1278 

Llandewyer (Llewellyn of Wales defeated) . .1282 

Dunbar (King of Scots taken) . . April 27, 1296 

Cambuskenneth (Wallace defeats English) . 1297 
*Falkirk (Wallace defeated) . . July 22, 1298 
*Courtray (Flemings deft. Count of Artois) July n, 1302 

Roslin, Scotland .... Feb. 24, 1303 
tCephisus (Duke of Athens defeated) . . .1311 
*Bannockburn (Bruce defeats English) June 24, 1314 
*Morgarten (Swiss defeat Austrians) . . . ,, 
*Foughard or Dundalk (Ed. Bruce defd.) Oct. 5, 1318 
*Boroughbridge (Edward II. defeats Barons) . 1322 
*Muhldorf (Bavarians defeat Austrians) . . ,, 

Duplin (Edward Baliol defeats Mar) Aug. n, 1332 
*Halidon Hill (Edward III. defs. Scots) July 19,- 1333 

Auberoche (earl of Derby defeats French) . . 1345 
*Cressy (English defeat French) . Aug. 26, 1346 
*Durham, Nevil's Cross (Scots defeated) Oct. 17, 

La Roche Darien (Charles of Blois defeat(d) . 1347 
*Poitiers (English defeat French) . Sept. 19, 1356 

Cocherel (Du Guesctin defeats Navarre) May 16, 1364 
*Auray (Du Guesclin defeated) . Sept. 29, ,, 
*Najara (Black Prince defts. Henry of Trastamare) 

April 3, 1367 

*Montiel (Peter of Castile defeated) March 14, 1369 
*Rosbecque (French defeat Flemings) . Nov. 17, 1382 
*Sempacn (Swiss defeat Austrians) . . July 9, 1386 
*Otterburn (Chevy Chase ; Scots victors) Aug. 10, 1388 
*Nicopolis (Turks defeat Christians) . Sept. 28, 1396 
*Ancyra (Timour defeats Bajazet) . . July 28, 1402 
"Homeldon Hill (English defeat Scots) Sept. 14, 
*Shrewsbviry (Percies, &c., defeated) . July 23, 1403 

Monmouth (Glendower defeated) . . May n, 1405 
*Harlaw (Lord of the Isles defeated) . July 24, 1411 
*Agincourt (English defeat French) . Oct. 25, 1415 
*Anjou, Beauge (English deft, by Scots) March 22, 1421 

Crevant (Snfflith deft. French and Scots), June 1 1 , 1423 
-Verneuil (ditto) .... Axig. 27, 1424 
*Herrings (English defeat French) . Feb. 12, 1429 
t*Patay (English defeated, Joan of Arc), June 18, 

Kunobitza (Huniades defeats the Turks), Dec. 24, 1443 
*Brechin, Scotland (Huntly defeats Crawford) . 1452 
*Castillon, Chatillon (French defeat Talbot) 

July 23, 1453 


*St. Alban's (Yorkists victorious) . May 22 or 23, 1455 
*Belgrade (Mahomet II. repulsed) . Sept. 10, 1456 
*Bloreheath(roriste victors) . . Sept. '23, 1459 
*Northampton (ditto Henry VI. taken) July 10, 1460 
*Wakefield (Lancastrians victors) . Dec. 31, 

Mortimer's Cross (Yorkists victorious) Feb. 2, 1461 
*St. Alban's (Lancastrians victors) . Feb. 17, 
*Towton (Yorkists victorious) . . March 29, 
*Hexham (Yorkists victors) . . May 15, 1464 
*Banbury (ditto) .... July 26, 1469 

Stamford (Lancastrians defeated) March 13, 1470 
*Barnet (ditto) ..... April 14, 1471 
*Tewkesbury (ditto) .... May 4, 

*Granson (Swiss defeat Charles the Bold) April 5, 1476 

Morat (ditto) ..... June 22, 
*Nancy (Charles the Bold killed) . . Jan. 4, 
*Bosworth (Richard III. defeated) . Aug. 22, 

Stoke (Lambert Simnel taken) .... 

St. Aubin (Bretons defeated) ..... 
*Blackheath (Cornish rebels defeated) 
*Cerigno\a (Cordova defeats French) Ap 
*Agnadello (French defeat Venetians) M 

June 22, 
April 28, 
ay 14 

* Ravenna (Gaston deFoix, victor, killed) April n, 
*Novara (Papal Swiss defeat French) June i, 
*Guinegate (Spurs) ( Fren ch defeated) Aug. 16, 
*Flodden (English defeat Scots) . Sept. 9, 




*Marignano (French defeat Swiss) Sept. 13-15, 1515 

Bicocca, near Milan (Lautrec defeated) . .1522 

Pavia (Francis I. defeated) . . Feb. 24, 1525 

*Mohatz (Turks defeat Hungarians) Aug. 29, 1526 

*Cappel (Zwinglius slain) . . . Oct. n, 1531 

Assens (Christian III. defeats Danish rebels) . 1535 

Solway Moss (English defeat Scots) Nov. 25, 1542 

fCeresuola (French defeat Imperialists) April 14, 1544 

*Stuhlberg (Chas. V. defts. Protestants) April 24, 1547 

Pinkey (English defeat Scots) . . Sept. 10, ,, 

Ket's rebellion suppressed by Warwick, Aug. 1549 
*St. Quintin (Spanish and English defeat French), 

Aug. 10, 1557 

Calais (taken) Jan. 7, 1558 

Gravelines (Spanish and English defeat French), 

July 13, ,, 

Dreux, in France (Huguenots defeated), Dec. 19, 1562 
St. Denis (ditto) . . . . Nov. 10, 1567 
Langside ( Mary of Scotland defeated) May 13, 1568 
Jarnac (Huguenots defeated) . . March 13, 1569 
Moncontour (Coligny defeated) . Oct. 3, ,, 
Lepanto n. (Don John defeats Turks) Oct. 7, 1571 
* Alcazar (Moors defeat Portuguese) Aug. 4, 1578 

"Zutphen (Dutch and English defeat Spaniards) 

Sept. 22, 1586 

Coutras (Henry IV. defeats League) Oct. 20, 1587 

t "Spanish Armada defeated, n. . . Aug. 1588 

*Arques (Henry IV. defeats League) . Sept. 21, 1589 

*Ivry (Henry IV. defeats League) . March 14, 1590 

Blackwater (Tyrone defeats Bagnal) . . 1598 

Nieuport (Maurice defeats Austrians) . . . 1600 

Kinsale (Tyrone reduced by Mountjoy) . . 1601 

Kirchholm (Poles defeat Swedes) . . . . 1605 

Gibraltar (Dutch defeat Spaniards) . . . 1607 

"Prague (king of Bohemia defeated) . Nov. 8, 1620 

*Rochelle (taken) 1628 

*Leipsic (Gustavus defeats Tilly) . Sept. 7, 1631 
*Lech (Imperialists defeated; Tilly killed) April 5, 1632 
*Lippstadt, Lutzingen, or Lutzen (Swedes vic- 
torious ; Gustavus slain) . . Nov. 16, ,, 
*Nordlingen (Swedes defeated) . . Aug. 27, 1634 
Arras (taken by the French) .... 1640 


Worcester (prince Rupert victor) . Sept. 23, 
*Edgehill fight (issue doubtful) . Oct. 23, 
*Leipsic or Breitenf eld (Swedes victors), Oct. 13, 
*Chalgrove (Hampden killed) . . June 18, 

Bramham Moor (Fairfax defeated) . March 29, 
*Stratton (Royalists victorious) . . May 16, 
*Rocroy (French defeat Spaniards) . May 19, 
*Lansdown (Royalists victorious) . July 5, 

Round-away-down (ditto) . . July 13, 
*Newbury (Royalists defeated) . . Sept. 20, 

Cheriton or Alresford (ditto) . . March 29, 

ri$d.buYg (Turenne victor) .... 

Cropredy Bridge (Charles I. victor) June 29, 
*Marston Moor (Rupert defeated) . July 2, 
*Newbury (indecisive) .... Oct. 27, 
*Naseby (king totally defeated) . June 14, 
*Alford (Montrose defeats Covenanters) July 2, 

Kilsyth (ditto) Aug. 15, 

Nordlingen (Turenne defeats Austrians) . 
*Benburb (O'Neill defeats English) . June 5, 
*Dungan-hill (Irish defeated) . . July 10, 
*Preston (Cromwell victor) . . . Aug. 17, 
*Rathmines (Irish Royalists defeated) Aug. 2, 
*Drogheda (taken by storm) . ' . Sept. 12, 
*Corbiesdale (Montrose defeated) . April 27, 

* Dunbar (Cromwell defeats Scots) . Sept. 3, 

* Worcester (Cromwell defeats Charles II.), Sept. 3, 

[End of the civil war in England. ] 

Galway (surrendered) 

Arras, France (Turenne defeats Condi) . . . 

"Dunkirk (ditto) June 14, 

Estremoz (Don John defeated by Schomberg), 

June 8, 
Candia (taken by Turks) . . . Sept. 6, 









[The battles which are thus marked * arc more fully described in their alphabetical order.] 



JATTLES, continued. 

Clioczim (Sobieski defeats Turks and Condf) . 1673 
Seneffe (indecisive) .... Aug. i, 1674 
Mulhausen(Tttmifi defeats Allies) Dec. 31, ,, (Turenne killed) . . July 27, 1675 
*Drumclog (Covenanters defeat Claverhouse), 

June i, 1679 
*Bothwell Brigg (Monmouth defeats Covenanters), 

June 22, ,, 

* Vienna (Turks defeated by Sobieski) Sept. 12, 1683 
*Sedgemoor (Monmouth defeated) . July 6, 1685 
*Mohatz (Turks defeated) . . . Aug. 12, 1687 
*KIlliecrankie (Highlanders defeat Mackay), 

July 27, 1689 
*Newton-butler (James Il.'s adherents defeated) 

July 30, ,, 

*Boyne ( William III, defeats James II.), July i, 1690 
*Pleurus (Charleroi, Luxembourg victor), July i, 
*Aughrim (James II. 's cause ruined) . Jxily 12, 1691 
*Salenckernen (Louis of Baden defeats Turks), 

Aug. 1 8, 
*Enghein (Steenkirk, William IIL defeated), 

July 24, 1692 

*Landen(JFiiar/i ///. defeated) . July 19, 1693 
Marsaglia (Pignerol) (French victors) Oct. i, 
fZeata, (prince ugene defeats Turks) . Sept. n, 1697 
*Narva (Charles XII. defeats Russians) Nov. 30, 1700 
Carpi, Modena (Allies defeat French) July 9, 1701 
Chiari (Austrians defeat French) . Sept. i, ,, 
Santa Vittoria (French victors) . . July 26, 1702 
'"Pultusk (Swedes defeat Poles) . May i, 1703 

*Hochstadt (French defeat Austrian s) Scj^t. 20, ,, 
Schellenberg (Marlborough victor) . July 2, 1704 
^Gibraltar taken by Rooke . . July 24, ,, 
f "Blenheim (Marlborough defeats French), Aug. 

13, N. s. 

Mittau (taken by Russians) . . Sept. 14, 1705 
Cassino (prince Eugene ; indecisive) Aug. 16, ,, 
Tirlemont (Marlborough successful) July 18, ,, 
*Ramilies (Marlborough defeats French) May 23, 1706 
Turin (French defeated) . ' . . Sept. 7, ,, 
*Almanza (French defeat Allies) April 14 or 25, 1707 
*0udenarde (Marlborough defeats French), July 

ii, 1708 

Liesna, Lenzo (Russians defeat Swedes) autumn, ,, 
Lisle (taken by the Allies) . . . Dec. 
t*Pultowa (Peter defeats Charles XII.) July 8^1709 
Dobro (Russians defeat Swedes) . Sept. 20, : 
*Malplaquet (Marlborough defeats French), Sept. 

ii, , 

*Almenara (Austrians defeat French) July 28, 1710 
Saragossa (ditto) .... Aug. 20, 
Villa Viciosa (Austrians defeated) . Dec. 20, 
Aiieux (Marlborough forces French lines), 

Aug. 5, 1711 

Bouchain (taken "by Marlborough) . Sept. 13, ,, 
*Denain (Villars defeats Allies) . July 24, 1712 
Friburg (taken by French) . . Nov. 26, 1713 

*Preston (rebels defeated) . . Nov. 12, 13, 1715 
*Dumblane; Sheriff-Muir (indecisive) Nov. 13, ,, 
"Peterwardein (Eugene defeats Turks) Aug. 5, 1716 
*Belgrade (taken by Eugene) . . Aug. 22, 1717 
*Bitonto (Spaniards defeat Germans) May 26, 1734 
*Parma (Austrians and French, indecisive), June 

29, ,, 

G^mstnlln (Austrians defeated) . . Sept. 19, ,, 
Erivan (Nadir Shah defeats Turks) . June, 1735 
j Krotzka(7 T r*s defeat Austrians) .' July 22, 1739 
*Molwitz (Prussians defeat Austrians) April 10, 1741 
-Dettingen (George II. defeats French) June 16, 1743 
*Fontenoy (Saxe defeats Cumberland) April 30, 1745 
Friedberg (Prussians defeat Austrians), June 4, 


*Prcston Pans (rebels defeat Cope) . Sept. 21, 1745 
Clifton Moor (rebels defeated) . Dec. 18, ,, 
*Falkirk (rebeli defeat Hawley) . Jan. 17, 1746 

*Culloden (Cumberland defeats rebels) April 1 6, ,, 

St. Lazzaro (Sardinians def. Austrians) June 4, 1746 

Rocoux (Saxe defeats Allies) . . Oct. i, 

<Bergen-op-Zoon (taken) . . . Sept. 16, 1747 

Laffeldt (Saxe defeats Cumberland) . June 20, ,, 

EKilles (Sardinians defeat French) July 8, 

Fort du Quesne (Braddock killed) . July 9. 1755 

*Calcutta (taken) .... June 18, 1756 

SEVEN YEARS' WAR, 1756-63. 

Prague (Frederick defeats Allies) . May 6, 1757 
*KoIlin (Frederick- defeated) . . . June 18, 
*Plassey (dive's victory) . . . June 23, 

Norkitten (Russians defeated) . . Aug. 13, 
*Rosbach (Frederick defeats French) . Nov. 5, 
*Breslau (Austrians victors) . . . Nov. 22, 
*Lissa (Frederick defeats Austrians) . Dec. 5, 

*Creveldt (Ferdinand defeats French) . June 23, 1758 

Zorndorff (Frederick defeats Russians) Aug. 25, ,, 

*Hochk.irchen (Austrians def. Prussians) Oct. 14, ,, 

*Bergen (French defeat A Hies) . . April 13, 1759 

* Niagara (English take Fort) . . . July 24, 
*Minden (Ferdinand defeats French). Aug. i, ,, 
*Cunnersdorf (Russians def. Prussians) Aug. 12, ,, 
*Quebec(JFbZ/e, victor, killed) . . Sept. 13, 

Wandewash (Coote defeats Lally) . Jan. 22, 1760 

Landshut, Silesia (Prussians defeated) June 23, ,, 
Warburg (Ferdinand defeats French) July 31, ,, 

*Pfaffendorf (Frederick def. Austrians) Aug. 15, 

Campen (French defeat Russians) . Oct. 15, ,, 

*Torgau (Frederick defeats Danes) . . Nov. 3, ,, 

Johannisberg (French defeat Prussians) Aug. 30, 1762 

*Buxar (Munro defeats army of Oude) . Oct. 23, 1764 

Choczim (Russians defeat Turks) . . , . 1769 

Silistria (taken) 1774 


^Lexington (Gage victor, with gr>at loss) April 19, 1775 
*Bunker's Hill (Americans repulsed) June 17, ,, 

*Long Island (Americans defeated) . Aug. 27, 1776 

* White Plains (Ho we def eats Americans) Oct. 28, ,, 
*Rhode Island (taken by Royalists) . Dec. 8, ,, 
"Brandy wine (Howe defeats Washington)Sept. ii, 1777 
*Germanstown (Surgoyne's victory) . Oct. 3, 4, ,, 
+*Saratoga (he is compelled to surrender) Oct. 17, ,, 
*Briar's Creek (Americans defeated) March 16, 1779 
"Camden (Cornwallis defeats Gates) . Aug. 16, 1780 
*Guildford (ditto) . . . . March 16, 1781 

Eutaw Springs (Arnold def. Americans) Sept. 8, ,, 
*York Town (Cornwallis surrenders) . Oct. 19, ,, 

[Many inferior actions with various success.] 
Hyder Ali defeated by Coote. . . July i, ,, 

Bednore (taken by Tippoo Saib) . April 30, 1783 

*Martinesti (Austrians deft. Turks) . Sept. 22, 1789 

Ismael (taken by storm by Suwarrow) Dec. 22, 1790 

*Seringapatam (Tippoo defeated) May 15, 1790, 

b. 6, 1792 


Quievrain (French repulsed) . . April 28, 1792 

Meiiin (French defeat Austrians) . June 20, ,, 
t*Valmy (French defeat Prussians) . Sept. 20, ,, 
*Jemappes ( French victorious) . . Nov. 6, 

Neerwinden (French beaten) . . March 1 8, 1793 

St. Amand (French defeated) . . . May 8, 
^Valenciennes (ditto) . . May 23, July 26, 
*Lincelles (Lake defeats French) . Aug. 18, 
*Dunkirk (Duke of York defeated) Sept. 7, 8, 
*Quesnoy (reduced by Austrians) . Sept. ii, 

Wattiguies (French defeat Coburg) . Oct 16, ,, 
*Toulon (evacuated by British) . . Dec. 17, ,, 

*Cambray (French defeated) . . April 24, 1794 

Troisville, Landrecy (taken by Allies) April 30, 
*Tourcoing (Moreau defeats Allies) May, 18-22, ,, 
*Espierres (taken by Allies). . . May 22, ,, 

Howe's naval victory. . . . June i, ,, 
* Charleroi, Fleurus (Fre nch defeat A Hies) June 26, , , 

[The battles which ai*e thus mai-kcd ai'e more fully described in their alphabetical order.] 




BATTLES, continued. 

x Bois-le-Duc (duke of York defeated) Sept. 14, 1794 

*Boxtel (ditto) . . . . . Sept. 17, ,, 

*Warsaw or Maciejowice (Poles defeated) Oct. 4, ,, 

*Nimeguen . . . Oct. 28, and May 4, ,, 

* Warsaw (taken by Suwarrow) . . Nov. 4, ,, 

Bridport's victory of I/Orient, n. June 22, 1795 

*Quiberon (Emigrants defeated) , Jvily 21, ,, 

*Manuheim (taken) . . . Sept. 20, 

Laono (French defeat Austrians) . Nov. 23, ,, 

*Montenotte (Bonaparte victorious) . April 12, 1796 

*Moiidovi (ditto) .... April 22, ,, 

*Lodi (ditto) . . . . . May 10, ,, 

Altenkirchen (Austrians defeated) . June 4, 

and Sept. 16, ,, 

Bassano (French defeat Austrians) . Sept. 8, ,, 

*Biberach (ditto) Oct. 10, 

*Castiglione and Lonato . . . Aug. 3-5, ,, 

*Neresheim (Moreau def. Archd. Charles) Aug. 10, ,, 

*Arcola (Bonaparte victorious) . Nov. 15-17, ,, 

Rivoli (ditto) Jan. 14, 15, 1797 

*Cape St. Vincent, n. (French defeated) Feb. 14, ,, 
"Tagliamento (Bonaparte defeats Austrians) 

March 16, ,, 

"Camperdown n. (Duncan defeats Dutch) Oct. u, 


-Kilcullen (Rebels successful) 
*Naas (Rebels defeated) . 
*Tara (ditto) 

*Oulart (Rebels successful) 
*Gorey, *Ross (ditto) 
tArklow (Rebels beaten) 

May, 1798 

May 23, 1798 
May 24, ,, 
May 26, 
May 27, 
June 4, ,, 
June 10, 

*Ballynahinch (Nugent defeats Rebels) June 13, 

* Vinegar Hill (Lake defeats' Rebels) . June 21, 

fNile (Nelson defeats French fleet) ' . Aug. i, 

*Castlebar (French auxiliaries defeated) Aug. 28, 

Ballinamuck (French and Rebels defeated) 

Sept. 8, 

*Pyramids (Bonaparte defeats Mamelukes) July 


* Jaffa (Stormed by French) . . March 7, 
Stokach (Austrians def eat French) March 27, 
Verona (Austrians defeat French) March 28-30, 
Nagnano (Kray defeats French) . . April 5, 
Mount Thabor . 


*Cassano (Suwarrow defeats Moreau) 
x Seringapatam(Tippoo killed) 

April 1 6, 
April 27, 
. May 4, 
May 20, 
, May 27, 
June 5, 

*Acre (relieved : Sir Sydney 

Adda (Suwarrow defeats French) . 
*Zurich (French defeated) . 

^Trebia (Suwarrow defeats French") June 18, 19, 
*Alessandria (taken by French) . . July 2, 
*Aboukir (Turks defeated by Bonaparte) July 25, 
*Novi (Suwarrow defeats French) . Aug. 15, 
*Bergen and Alkmaer (A Hies defeated) Sept. 19, 

Oct. 26, 
"Zurich (Massena defeats Russians) . Sept. 25, 

'Engen (Moreau defeats Austrians) . Mays, 

Moeskirch (ditto) May 5, 

*Biberach (ditto) May 9, 

*Montebello (Austrians defeated) . . June 9, 
-Marengo (Bonaparte defeats Austrians) June 14, 
*Hochstadt (Moreau defeats Austrians) June 19, 
*Hohenlinden (ditto) . . . . Dec. 3, 

Mincio (French defeat Austrians) . Dec. 26, 
'"Alexandria (Abercrombie's victory) March 21, 
{Copenhagen (bombarded by Nelson) April 2, 

Ahmednuggur.(JFetoZe?/ victorious) Aug. 12, 
*Assaye (ditto, his first great victory) . Sept. 23, 
*AYgzMm(Wellesley victor) . . . Nov. 29, 

Furruckabad (Lake defeats Holkar) . Nov. 17, 
*Bhurtpore (taken by Lake) . . April 2, 
*Ulm surrend. (Ney defeats Austrians) Oct. 17-20, 
^Trafalgar (Nelson destroys French fleet, killed) 

Oct. 21, 




;; 'Austerlitz (Napoleon defeats Austrians) Dec. 2, 1805 

*Buenos Ayres (taken by Popham) . June 28, 1806 

Maida (Stuart defeats French) . . July 4, ,> 

*Jcna Stadt j (^'ench defeat Prussians) Oct. 14, 

*Pultusk (French and Allies, indecisive) Dec 26, ,, 
Mohrungen (French defeat Russians and 

Prussians) Jan. 25, 1807 

*Eylau (indecisive) .... Feb. 7, 8, ,, 

*Friedland (French defeat Russians) June 14, ,, 

* Buenos Ayres ( W/iilelock defeated) . July 7, ,, 
Copenhagen (bombarded by Cathcart) Sept. 6-8, ., 
*Baylen (Spaniards defeat French) . July 20, 1808 


*Vimiera ( WelUsley defeats Junot) . Aug. 21, 1808 

Tudela (French defeat Spaniards) . Nov. 23, ,, 

*Corunna (Moore defeats French) . Jan. 16, 1809 

Landshut (Austrians defeated) . April 21, ,, 

*Eckmuhl (Davoust defeats Austrians) April 22, ,, 

Oporto (taken) . . . March 29, May 12, 

*Es?ling ] ( Na P leon Weated) . May 21, 22, 

*Wagram (Austrians defeated) . . July 5, 6, ,, 

*T&\aversi (Wellesley defeats Victor) July 27, 28, ,, 

Silistria (Turks defeat Russians) . Sept. 26, ,, 

Ocana (Mortier defeats Spaniards) . Nov. 19, ,, 

*Busaco ( Wellington repulses Massena) Sept. 27, 1810 

*Barrosa (Graham defeats Victor) . March 5, 1811 

*Badajos (taken by the French) . March n, ,, 

*Fuentes d'Onore ( Wellingt. def. Massena) May 5, ,, 

*Albuera (Beresford defeats Soult) . May 16, ,, 

*Ciudad Rodrigo (stormed by English) . Jan. 19, 1812 

*Badajos (taken by Wellington) . April 6, ,, 

*Salamanca ( ll'ellington defts. Marmont) July 22, , , 

*Mohilow (French defeat Russians) . July 23, ,, 

*Polotzk (French and Russians) . July 30,31, ,, 

*Smolensko (French defeat Russians) Aug. 17-19, ,, 

:> } O*") -... Sept. ,, 

*Queenstown (Americans defeated). Oct. 13, ,, 

*Moscow (burnt by Russians) . . Sept. 14, ,, 

*Polotzk (retaken by Russians) . Oct. 20, ,, 

Malo-Jaroslawatz, or Winkowa . Oct. 24, ,, 

*Witepsk (French defeated) . . Nov. 14, ,, 

*Krasnoi (ditto) .... Nov. 16-18, 

*Beresina (ditto) .... Nov. 25-29, ,, 

"-French Town (taken by Americans) . Jan. 22, 1813 

*Kalitsch (Saxons defeated) . . Feb. 13, ,, 

Castella (SirJ. Murray defeats Suchet) April 13, ,, 

*Lutzen (Napoleon checks Allies) . . May 2, ,, 

*Bautzen (Nap. and Allies; indecisive) May 20, ,, 

*Wurtzchen (ditto) .... May 21, ,, 

*Vittoria ( Welling, defeats king Joseph) June 21, ,, 

*Pyreiiees (Wellington defeats Soult) . July 28, ,, 

Katzbach (Blucher defeats Ney) . Aug. 26, ,, 

^Dresden (Napoleon checks Allies) Aug. 25,27, 

St. Sebastian (stormed, by Graham) . Aug. 31, 

*Dennewitz (Ney defeated) . . Sept. 6, 

*Mockern (indecisive) .... Oct. 14, 

*Leipzic (Napoleon defeated) . . Oct. 16-18, 

*Hanau (Napoleon defeats Bavarians) Oct. 30, 

*St. Jean de Luz (Welling, defeats Soult) Nov. 10, 

[Passage of the Neve ; several engagements 

between the Allies and French, Dec. 10 to 13, 


*St. Dizier, France (French defeated) . Jan. 27, 1814 

*Brienne (ditto) Jan. 29, ,, 

*La Rothiere (Napoleon defeats Allies) Feb. i, 

Bar-sur-Aube (Allies victors) . . . Feb. 7, 

Mincio (pr. Eugene defeats Austrians) Feb. 8, 

Champ Aubert (French defeat Allies) Feb. 10-12, 

Montmirail (ditto) .... Feb. n, 

Vauchamps (ditto) . . . Feb. 14, 

*Fontainebleau (ditto) . . . Feb. 17, 

*Montereau (ditto) .... Feb. 18, 

*0rthez (Wellington defeats Soult) . Feb. 27, 

*Bergen-op-Zoom (Graham defeated) March 8, 

[The battles which are thus marked * are more fully described in their alphabetical order.] 




BATTLES, continued. 

*Laon (French defeated) . . . March 9-10, 

Rheims (Napoleon defeats St. Priest) March 13, 

'Tarbes ( Wellington defeats Soult) . March 20, 

' Fere Champenoise (French defeated) March 25, 

Paris, Montmartre, Rornainville (ditto) Mar. 30, 

Battle of the Barriers Marmont evacuates 

Paris, and the allied armies enter that capital, 

March 31, 

'Toulouse ( Wellington defeats Soult) . April 10, 


Fort George (token by Americans) . May 27, 
Burlington Heights (Americans routed) June 6, 


Chrystler's Point, Canada 

Black-rock, America 
"Craonne (Blucher dffeated) . 
*Phirmnw.i \(Britigh defeated) . 

Mnppawa \( Americans defeated) 
*Fort Erie (British repulsed) . 
*Bladensburg (Americans defeated) , 
Bellair (ditto) .... 

"Baltimore (British defeated, and 

'New Orleans (BritisJi repulsed) Jan. 

Nov. ii, 
Dec. 26. 
March 7, 

July 25, 
Aug. 15, 
Aug. 14, 
Aug. 30, 

Sept. ii, 

5, 12, & 13, 

"Tolentino (Murat defeated) . . May 3, 

*Ligny (Blucher repulsed) . . June 16, 

"Quati-e Bras (Ney repulsed) . . June 16, 

apoleon finally beaten) June 18, 

*Algiers (bombarded ly ExmoutJi) . . 
Kirkee (Hastings defeats Pindarrees) 
Maheidpore (Hislop defeats Holkar) . 
Dragaschan (Ipsilanti defeated) . 
Valtezza (Turks defeated) 

Aug. 27, 
Nov. 5, 
Dec. 21, 

June 19, 

May 27, 
Oct. 5, 
July 13, 
Sept. 16, 

Tripolitza (stormed by Greeks) . 

Thermopylae (Greeks defeat Turks) 

Corinth (taken) .... 
*Ayacucho (Peruvians defeat Spaniards) Dec. 
*Bhurtpore (taken by Combermere) . Jan. 

Athens (taken) .... 
*Navarino (Allies destroy Turkish fleet) 

Brahilow (Russians and Turks) . 

Akhalzikh (ditto) . .' . . 
*Varna (surrenders to Russians) . 
*Silistria (ditto) 

Kainly (Russians defeat Turks) . 
*Balkan (passed by Russians) . 
*Adrianople (Russians enter) 
* Algiers (conquered by French) 
*Paris (Days of July) 
*Grochow (Poles defeat Russians) . 

Praga (Poles and Russians) . 
*Wawz (Skrzynecki defeats Russians) 
*Seidlice (Poles defeat Russians) . 
"Ostrolenka (ditto) . . ... 

Wilna (Poles and Russians) 
*Warsaw (taken by Russians) . 

Beylau (Ibrahim defeats Turks) , 
"Antwerp (taken by Allies) 
*Konieh (Egyptians defeat Turks) 

Hernani (Carlists defeated) 
*St. Sebastian (ditto) . 
*Bilboa (siege raised ; British Legion) 

Hernani . . . . . 
*Inm (British Legion defeats Carlists) 

Valentia (Carlists attacked) 
*Herera (Don Carlos defeats Buereno) 
*Constantina (Algiers ; taken by French) Oct. 13 
*St. Eustace (Canadian rebels defeated) Dec. 14, 

Penneccrrada (Carlixts defeated) . June 22, 
*Prescott (Canadian rebels defeated) Nov. 17, 
*Ghiznee (taken by Keane) . 
*Sidon (taken by Stopford) 
*Beyrout (Allies defeat Egyptians) 

Afghan War. See India. 
*Acre (stormed by Allies) . . Nov. 3, 

Kotriah (Scinde : English victors) . . Dec. i, 

May 17, 

Oct. 20, 

June 1 8, 
. . Aug. 27, 
. Oct. ii, 
. . June 30,^ 
July i, 
July 26, 
. Aug. 20, 
July 5, 

July 27, 28, 29, 
. Feb. 20, 
Feb. 25, 
March 31, 
April 10, 
May 26, 
, June 1 8, 
Sept. 7, 
, July 29, 
Dec. 23, 
, Dec. 21, 
May 5, 
Oct. i. 
Dec. 24, 
March 15, 
May 17, 
July 15, 
Aug. 24, 

July 23, 
Sept. 26, 
Oct. 10, 











Chuen-pe (English victors) . . Jan. 7, 
Canton (English take Bogv.e forts) . Feb. 26, 

Amoy (taken) Aug. 27, 

Chin-hae (taken) Oct. 10, 

Candahar (Afghans defeated) . . March 10, 
Ningpo (Chinese defeated) . . March 10, 
*Jellalabad (Khyber Pass forced) . April 5, 6, 
Chin-keang (taken) .... July 21, 
*Ghiznee (Afghans defeated) . . Sept. 6, 
*Meeanee (Napier defeats Ameers) . Feb. 17, 
*Maharajpoor((?ow#/i defeats Mahrattas), Dec. 29, 

Isly (French defeat Moors) 
*Moodkee (Hardinge defeats Sikhs) 
*Ferozeshah (ditto) 
*Aliwal (Smith defeats Sikhs) . 
*Sobraon (Gough defeats Sikhs) . 
*Montery (Mexicans defeated b 

Aug. 14, 1844 

. Dec. 18, 1845 

Dec. 21, 22, ,, 

Jan. 28, 1846 

. Feb. 10, ,, 

Sept. 21-23, 

Palo Alto (Taylor defeats Mexicans) May 8, 9, 
Bueno Vista (Americans deft. Mexicans), Feb. 22, 
St. Ubes (Portugal) . . . May 9, 
Ozontero (Americans def. Mexicans), Aug. 19, 20, 
*Curtalone (Austrians defeat Italians) May 29, 
Custoza (ditto) . . . . . . July 23, 

Velencze (Croats and Hungarians) . Sept. 29, ,. 

*Mooltan (Sikhs repulsed) . . . Nov. 7, 

*Chilianwallah (Gough defeats Sikhs) Jan. 13, 1849 

*Goojerat(ttfo) Feb. 21, ,, 

*~i$ovar&(Radf.tzky defeats Sardinians) March 23, ,, 

Pered (Russians defeat Hungarians) June 21, 

Acs (Hungarians repulsed) . . . July 10, 

Waitzen (taken by Russians) . July 17, ,, 

Schassberg (Russians def eat Bern) . July 31, ,, 

*Temeswar(-Hay?iau defeats Hungarians) Aug. 10, , , 

Idstedt (Danes defeat Holsteiners) . July 25, 1850 


*01tenitza (Turks repulse Russians) . Nov. 4, 1853 

*Citate (Turks defeat Russians) . . Jan. 6, 1854 
' x Silistria (ditto) . . . . June 13-15, 

Giurgevo (ditto) .... July 8, 

Bayazid (Russians defeat Turks) . . July 30, ,, 

*Kuruk-Derek (ditto) . . . Aug. 5, ,, 

*Alma (Allies defeat Russians) . Sept. 20, ,, 

*Balaklava (ditto) .... Oct. 25, ,, 

*Inkermann (ditto) . . . Nov. 5, ,, 

Eupatoria (Turks defeat Russians) Feb. 17, 1855 
*Malakoff Tower (Allies and Russians) 

May 22, 23, 24, ,, 

Capture of the Mamelon, <fcc. . June 7, ,, 
Unsuccessful attempt on Malakoff tower, and 

Redan (Allies oMd Russians) . . June 18, ,, 
*Tchernaya or Bridge of Traktir (A Hies defeat 

Russians) Aug. 16, ,, 

*Malakoff taken by the French . Sept. 8, 

*l-ngo\ir (Turks defeat Russians) . . Nov. 6, ,, 

Ba'idar (French defeat Russians) . . Dec. 8, 


*Bushire (English defeat Persians) . Dec. 10, ' 1856 

Kooshab (ditto) . . . . . Feb. 8, 1857 

Mohammerah (ditto) . . . March 26, ,, 

INDIAN MUTINY. (See India.) 

^Conflicts before Delhi. May 30, 31 ; June 8 ; 

July 4, 9, !8, 23, 1857 
Victories of General Havelock, near Futteh- 

pore July 1 1, Cawnpore, &c. July 12 to Aug 16, 

Pandoo Nuddee (victory of Neill) . Aug. 15, 
Nujuffghur(dea</t of Nicholson, victor) Aug. 25, 

Assault and capture of Delhi . Sept. 16-20, ,, 
Conflicts before Lucknow, Sept. 25, 26 ; 
Nov. 18, 25, 
Victories of Col. Greathed, Sept 27 ; Oct. I0 , 

*Cawnpore (victory of Campbell) . Dec. 6, '' 

Futteghur (ditto) Jan. 2, 1858 

Calpi:(ncton/ of Inglis) . . . Feb. 4 

*Alumbagh (v ictory of Outram) . .Feb. 21' " 

[The battles which are thus marked * arc more fully described in their alphabetical order.] 




BATTLES, continued. 

Conflicts at Lucknow (taken) . March 14-19, 1858 

Jhansi(.R0se victorious) . . . April 4, ,, 

Kooneh (ditto) . . . . . May n, ,, 

Gwalior (ditto) .... June 17, ,, 

Rajghur (Mitchell defeats Tantia Topee), Sept. 15, ,, 

Dhoodea Khera (Clyde def. Beni Mahdo) Nov. 24, , , 
Gen. Horsford defeats the Begum of Oude, 

Feb. 10, 1859 

ITALIAN WAR. (See Italy.) 

Austrians cross the Ticino . . April 27, 1859 

French troops enter Piedmont . . May, 

*Montebello (Allies victorious) . . May 20, ,, 

Palestro (ditto) .... May 30, 31, ,, 

-Magenta (ditto) June 4, ,, 

*Malegnano (ditto) .... June 8, ,, 

*Solferino (ditto) June 24, ,, 

(Armistice agreed to, July 6, 1859.) 

*Taku, 'at the mouth of the Peiho or Tien- 
Tsin-ho (English attack on the Chinese Forts 

defeated) June 25, 

*Castillejo (Spaniards defeat Moors) . ' Jan i, 1860 

*Tetuan (<Htlo) ... . . . Feb. 4, ,, 

*Guad-el-Ras (ditto) .... March 23, ,, 

Calatifimi (Garibaldi defs. Neapolitans) May 15, ,, 

*Melazzo (Garibaldi defeats Neapolitans) July 21, 

Taku forts taken (see China) . . Aug. 21, ,, 
"Castel Fidardo (Sardinians defeat Papal troops) 

Sept. 1 8, ,. 

Insurrection in New Zealand; English re- 
pulsed, March 14, 28 ; June 27 ; Sept. 10, 19 ; 

Oct. 9, 12, ,, 

Maohetia (Maoris defeated) . . Nov. 6, ,, 
Chang-kia wan, . Sept 18; and Pa-li-chiau 

(Chinese defeated) .... Sept. 21, ,, 

"Volturno (Garibaldi defeats Neapolitans) Oct. i, ,, 

Isernia (Sardinians defeat Neapolitans) Oct. 17, ,, 

*Garigliano (ditto) . . . . Nov. 3, 

Sardinians defeat Neapolitan re-actionists, 

Jan. 22, 1861 

*Gaeta taken by the Sardinians . Feb. 13, ,, 


*Big Bethell (Federals repulsed) , . June 10, ,, 

*Carthage (Federal victory) . . July 10, 

Rich Mountain (ditto) . . . July u, ,, 
*Bull Run or Manassas (Federal defeat and panic) 

July 21, ,, 
Wilson's Creek (Federals, victors, lose Gen. Lyon) 

Aug. 10, 

Carnifex ferry (Rosencrans defeats Floyd, Con- 
federate) . . . . . . Sept. 10, ,, 

Lexington (taken by Confederates) . Sept. 20, 
Pavon, South America (Mitra defeats Urquiza) 

Sept. 17, 

Turks defeat Montenegrins . Oct. 19, Nov. 21, 1861 j 
'Ball's Bluff (Federals defeated) . Oct. 21, 
Mill Springs, Kentucky (Confederates defeated 

and their general Zollicofff.r killed) Jan 19, 1862 j 
Roanoke island, N.C. (Federals victors) Feb. 

7> 8, 

Sugar Creek, Arkansas (Confederates defeated) 

Feb. 8, 

Fort Donnelson (taken by Federals) , Feb. 16, 
Pea Ridge, Arkansas (Federals met. ) March 6, 7, 
Hampton roads (Merrimac and Monitor used) 

March 9, 

Tittsburg landing, or Shiloh (indecisive) April 

6, 7, 

Williamsburg (Federals repulsed) . May 5, 
Puebla (Mexicans defeat French) . May 5, 
Successful sortie of Confederates from Rich- 
mond May 14, 

Orizaba (Mexicans defeat French) . May 18, 
Winchester (Federals repulsed) . May 25, 
Near Orizaba (French defeat Mexicans) June 13, 
Fairoaks (before Richmond, indecisive) May 31, 

June i, 

^Severe conflicts between Federals and Con- 
federates before Richmond the former re- 
treat .... June 26 to July i, 
Cedar Mountain (favourable to Confederates) 

Aug. 9, 

Severe conflicts on the Rappahannock 
Aug. 23-29, 

:C 'Bull Run (defeat of Federals) . . Aug. 29, 
Aspromonte (Garibaldi and his volunteers cap- 
tured by Royal Italian Troops) , Aug. 29, 
*Antietam (severe; Confederates retreat) Sept. 17, 
Perryville (Confederates worsted) . . Oct. 8, 
*Fredericksburgh (Federals defeated by Lee) 

Dec. 13, 

*Murfreesburg (indecisive) . . Dec. 29-31, 
Nashville (Confederates defeated) . . Jan. 2, 1863 
<Chancellorsvirie (Confederates victors) May 2-4, ,, 
Winchester (Ewell defeats Confederates) June 13, ,, 
^Gettysburg (severe but indecisive) . July 1-3 ,, 
"ChicamMigo. (Confederates victorious)Sept. 19-20, 
Campbell's Station, &c. (Longstreet defeats 

Burnside) Nov. 14-17, ,, 

Spottsylvania, <tc., in the Wilderness, near 

Chancellorsville (indecisive) . May 10-12, 1864 
Petersburg,' near Richmond (indecisive, but 

Grant advances) . . . June 15-18, ,, 
Petersburg (Lee defeated ; Richmond evacuated) 

March 31; April 2, 1863 
~Fa.rj3a.viUe (Lee finally defeated) . . April 6, ,, 

Oeversee (Danes and Allies) . . Feb. 6, ,, 
Diippel (taken by the Prussians) . . April 18, ,, 
Alsen (ditto) . . . . June 29, ,, 

[The battles which are thus marked * are more fully described in their alphabetical order.] 

BAUG& See Anjou. 

BAUTZEN and WURTZCHEN (in North Germany), the sites of battles fought May 20, 
and 21, 1813, between the French commanded by Napoleon, and the allies under the 
emperor of Russia and the king of Prussia. The struggle commenced on the iQth with a 
contest on the ontposts, which cost each army a loss of above 2000 men. On the 2oth (at 
BAUTZEN) the French were more successful ; and on the 2ist (at WUETZCHEN) the Allies 
were compelled to retire ; but Napoleon obtained no permanent advantage from these san- 
guinary engagements. Duroc was among the killed at Bautzen, to the great sorrow of the 
emperor and the French army. 

BAVARIA (part of ancient Noricum and Vindelicia), 
conquered from the Celtic Gauls (Boii) by the Franks between 630 and 660. 

a kingdom in South Germany, 
The country 

was afterwards governed by dukes subject to the French monarchs. Tassillon II. was 
deposed by Charlemagne, who established margraves in 788. The first duke was Leopold I. 

t We have no space for the numerous smaller conflicts, of which the accounts arc very uncertain. 




895. Guelf of the house of Este was made duke by the emperor Henry IV. in 1071. His 
descendant Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony, Bavaria, and Brunswick (ancestor of the 
present Brunswick family, see Brunswick), was dispossessed in 1180 by the emperor Frede- 
rick Barbarossa (who had been previously his friend and benefactor). Otho of Wittelsbach 
became duke, whose descendants reigned till 1777, when the elector palatine acquired 
Bavaria, which was made an electorate 1623. In Dec. 1805, Bavaria was erected into a 
kingdom by Bonaparte, and obtained by the treaty of Presburg the incorporation of the 
whole of the Italian and German Tyrol, the bishopric of Anspach, and lordships in Germany. 
Bavaria suffered much by its alliances with France against Austria in 1726 and 1805. The 
king joined the Allies in Oct. 1813. Population, Dec. 1861, 4,689,837. 

1596. Maximilian the Great ; the first ELECTOR ot 
Bavaria, 1623; the palatinate restored, 1648. 

1651. Ferdinand and Mary. 

1679. Maximilian Ernamiel ; allies with France, 
1702 ; defeated at Blenheim, 1704 ; restored 
to his dominions, 1714. 

1726. Charles Albert ; elected emperor of Germany 
in 1742 ; defeated, 1744. 

1745. Maximilian- Joseph I., as elector. The house 
of Wittelsbach extinct at his death, 1778. 

1778. Charles Theodore (the elector palatine of the 
Rhine since 1743). The French take Munich ; 
treats with them, 1796. 

1799. Maximilian- Joseph II., as elector; territories 
changed by treaty of Luneville, 1801 ; made 
king, by treaty of Presburg, Dec., 1805. 





Guelf I. , an illustrious warrior. 

Guelf II. 

Henry the Black. 

Henry the Proud. He competed with Conrad 
of Hohenstaufen for the empire and failed, 
and was deprived of Bavaria. 

Leopold of Austria. 

Henry of Austria. 

Henry the Lion (son of Henry the Proud), 
restored by the emperor Frederick Barba- 
rossa, but afterwards expelled by him ; and 

Otho, count of Wittelsbach, made duke. 

Louis of Wittelsbach. 

Otho II., the Illustrious: his son Louis was 
raised to the electoral dignity. 

Henry and Louis the Severe. 

Louis III. (the palatinate separated). 

Stephen I. 



Albert I. 

John II. and Sigismund. 

Albert II. 

William I. 

Albert IIL 

William II. 


1805. Maximilian-Joseph I. deserts Napoleon, and 
has his enlarged territories confirmed to him, 
Oct. 1813 ; grants a constitutional chai'ter, 

1825. Louis-Charles, Oct. 13; abdicated March 20.* 

1848. Maximilian-Joseph II. (son) born Nov. 28, 
1811 ; dies March 10, 1864. 

1864. Louis II. (son) March 10; born, Aug. 25, 1845 : 
Heir : his brother Otho, born April 27, 1848. 

BAYEUX TAPESTKY, said to have been wrought by Matilda, queen of William I. It 
is 19 inches wide, 214 feet long, and is divided into compartments showing the events, from 
the visit of Harold to the Norman court, to his death at Hastings ; it is now preserved in 
the town house at Rouen. A qppy, drawn by C. Stothard, and coloured after the original, 
was published by the Society of Antiquaries in 1821-3. 

BAY ISLANDS (the chief, Kuatan), in the Bay of Honduras, Central America, belonged 
to Spain till 1821, then to Great Britain, which formed them into a colony in 1852, but 
ceded them to Honduras, Nov. 28, 1859. See Honduras. 

BAYLEN (S. Spain), where on July 20, 1808, the French, consisting of 14,000 men 
commanded by generals Dupont and "Wedel, were defeated by the Spaniards under Reding;, 
Coupigny, and other generals, whose force amounted to 25,000. .The French had nearly 
3000 killed and wounded, and the division of Dupont (about 8000 men) was made pri- 

BAYONET, the short dagger fixed at the end of fire-arms, said to have been invented at 
Bayonne, in France, about 1647, 1670, or 1690. It was used at Killiecrankie in 1689, and 
at Marsaglia by the French, in 1693, "with great success, against the enemy unprepared for 
the encounter with so formidable a novelty." The ring bayonet was adopted by the British, 
Sept. 24, 1693. Aspin. 

BAYONNE (S. France), an ancient city. It was held by the English from 1265 till it 
was taken by Charles VII. The queens of Spain and France met here in 1565 the cruel 
duke of Alva, it is supposed to arrange the massacre of St. Bartholomew. Charles IV. of 
Spain abdicated here in favour of "his friend and ally" the emperor Napoleon ; and Ferdi- 
nand, prince of Asturias, and Don Carlos and Don Antonio renounced their rights to the 
Spanish throne, May 5, 1808. In the neighbourhood of Bayonne was much desperate 
fighting between the French and British armies, Dec. 10, u, and 13, 1813. Bayonne was 

* The abdication of Charles-Louis was mainly caused by his attachment to an intriguing woman, 
known throughout Europe by the assumed name of Lola Montes, who, in the end, was expelled the king- 
dom for her interference in state affairs, and afterwards led a wandering life. She delivered lectures in 
London, in 1859, and thence proceeded to the United States. She died at New York, Jan. 17, 1861. 

BAY 94 BE A 

invested by the British, Jan. 14, 1814 ; on April 14 the French made a sally, and attacked 
the English with success, but were at length driven back. The loss of the British was con- 
siderable, and lieut.-gen. sir John Hope was wounded and taken prisoner. A Franco-Spanish 
industrial and fine-arts exhibition was opened at Bayonne in July, 1864. 

BAYREUTH (N. Germany), a margraviate, held formerly by a branch of the Branden- 
burg family, was with that of Anspach abdicated by the reigning prince in favour of the 
king of Prussia, 1790. The archives were brought (in 1783) from Plasseiiburg to the city of 
Bayreuth, Avhich was incorporated with Bavaria by Napoleon in 1806. 

BAZAAR, or Covered Market, a word of Arabic origin. The bazaar of Ispahan is magni- 
ficent, yet it is excelled by that of Tauris, which has several times held 30,000 men in order 
of battle. In London, the Soho-square bazaar was opened by Mr. Trotter in 1816 to relieve 
the relatives of persons killed in the war. The Queen's bazaar, Oxford-street, a very exten- 
sive one, was (with the Diorama) burnt down, and the loss estimated at 50,000?., May 27, 
1829. It was rebuilt, and converted into the Princess's Theatre, opened Sept. 30, 1841. 
The St. James's bazaar was built by Mr. Crockford in 1832. There are also the Pantheon, 
the "Western Exchange, &c. The most imposing sale termed a bazaar was opened for the 
benefit of the Anti-Corn-Law League, in Cogent-garden theatre, May 5, 1845 ; in six weeks 
25,000^. was obtained, mostly by admission money. 

BEACH Y HEAD, a promontory on the S.E. coast of Sussex, where the British and 
Dutch combined fleet, commanded by the earl of Torrington, was defeated by a superior 
French force, under admiral Tourville, June 30, 1690 ; the allies suffered very severely. 
The Dutch lost two admirals, 500 men, and several ships sunk to prevent them from 
falling into the hands of the enemy ; the English lost two ships and 400 men. The 
admirals on both sides were blamed ; ours, for not fighting ; the French, for not pursuing 
the victory. 

BEACONS. See Lighthouses. 

BEADS were early used in the East for reckoning prayers. St. Augustin mentions them, 
366. About 1090, Peter the Hermit is said to have made a series of 55 beads. To Dominic 
de Guzman is ascribed the invention of the Rosary (a series of 15 large and 150 small beads), 
in honour of the Blessed Virgin, about 1202. Beads soon after Were in general use. The 
Bead-roll was a list of deceased persons, for the repose of wkose souls a certain number of 
prayers was recited, which the devout counted by a string of beads. Beads appear to have 
been used by the Druids, being found in British barrows. f 

BEAM AND SCALES. The apparatus for weighing goods was so called, "as it weighs so 
much at the king's beam." A public beam Avas set up in London, and all commodities 
ordered to be weighed by the city officer, called the weigh-master, who was to do justice 
between buyer and seller, statute 3 Edw. II. 1309. Stow. Beams and scales, with weights 
and measures, were ordered to be examined by the justices at quarter sessions, 35 Geo. III. 
1794. See Weights and Measures. 

BEANS, BLACK AND WHITE, were used by the ancients in gathering the votes of the 
people for the election of magistrates. A white bean signified absolution, and a black one 
condemnation. The precept of Pythagoras to abstain from beans, abstinc a fabis, has been 
variously interpreted. "Beans do not favour mental tranquillity." Cicero. The finer 
kinds of beans were brought to these countries at the period of the introduction of most 
other vegetables, in Henry VIII. 's reign. 

BEAR-BAITING, an ancient popular English sport, prohibited by act of parliament in 

BEARDS.* The Egyptians did not wear beards ; the Assyrians did. They have been 
worn for centuries by the Jews, who were forbidden to mar their beards, B.C. 1490. Lev. 
xix. 27. The Tartars waged a long war with the Persians, declaring them infidels, because 
they would not cut their beards, after the custom of Tartary. The Greeks wore their beards 

* A bearded woman was taken by the Russians at the battle of Pultowa, and presented to the czar, 
Peter I., 1724: her beard measured i| yard. A woman is said to have been seen at Paris with a bushy 
beard, and her whole body covered with hair. Did. de Trevoux, The great Margaret, governess of the 
Netherlands, had a very long stiff beard. In Bavaria, in the time of Wolfius, a virgin had a long black 
beard. Mdlle. Bois de Chene, borne at Geneva (it was said) in 1834, was exhibited in London, in 1852-3, 
when, consequently, eighteen years of age : she had a profuse head of hair, a strong black beard, large 
whiskers, and thick hair on her arms and down from her neck on her back, and masculine features. 


till the time of Alexander, who ordered the Macedonians to be shaved, lest the beard should 
give a handle to their enemies, 330 B.C. Beards were worn by the Romans, 297 B.C. The 
emperor Julian wrote a diatribe (entitled " Misopogon") against wearing beards, A.D. 362. 
In England, they were not fashionable after the Conquest, 1066, until the I3th century, and 
were discontinued at the Restoration. Peter the Great enjoined the Russians, even of rank, 
to shave, but was obliged to keep officers on foot to cut off the beard by force. Since 1851 
the custom of wearing the beard has gradually increased. 

BEAUGE". See Anjou. 

BEAULIEU, ABBEY OF, founded by king John, in the New Forest, Hampshire, in 1204. 
It was dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, had the privilege of sanctuary, and was devoted to 
monks of the reformed Benedictine order. It afforded an asylum to Margaret, queen of 
Henry VI., after the defeat of the earl of "Warwick at Barnet, April 14, 1471. Here, too, 
Perkm Warbeck obtained refuge in the reign of Henry VII., in 1497. 

BEAUVAIS (K France), the ancient Bellovaci, and formerly capital of Picardy. On the 
town being besieged by Charles the Bold, duke of Burgundy, at the head of 80,000 men, the 
women under the conduct of Jeanne Fourquet, or Laine', also De la Hachette, from her using 
that weapon, particularly distinguished themselves, and the duke was obliged to raise the 
siege, July 10, 1472. In memory of this, the women of Beauvais walk first in the procession 
on the anniversary of their deliverance. Henault. 

BECKET'S MURDER.* Thomas Becket, archbishop of Canterbury, was murdered at 
the altar, Dec. 29, 1170. The king was absolved of guilty knowledge of the crime in 1172, 
and did penance at the tomb in 1 1 74. The bones of Becket were enshrined in gold and 
jewels in 1220 ; but were burned in the reign of Henry VIII. 1539. 

BED. The ancients slept on skins. Beds were afterwards made of loose rushes, heather, 
or straw. The Romans are said to have first used feathers. Feather-beds were in use in 
England in the reign of Henry VIII. The bedsteads of the Egyptians and later Greeks, like 
modern couches, became common among the Roman upper classes. The ancient great bed 
at Ware, Herts, capable of holding twelve persons, was sold, it is said, to Charles Dickens, 
Sept. 6, 1864. A bedstead of gold was presented to the queen on Nov. 2, 1859, by the 
Maharajah of Cashmere. Air-beds and water-beds have been made since the manufacture of 
india-rubber cloth by Clark in 1813 ; and by Macintosh in 1823. Dr. Aruott's hydrostatic 
bed was invented in 1830. 

BED OF JUSTICE, a French court presided over by the king, whose seat was termed 
a " bed." It controlled the ordinances of the parliament. The last was held by Louis XVI. 
at Versailles in 1787. 

BEDER (Arabia). Here Mahomet gained his first victory (over the Koreish of 
Mecca), 623. It was considered to be miraculous. 

BEDFORD, a town, N.N.W. London, renowned for its many free educational establish- 
ments endowed in 1561 by sir Win. Harpur, a London alderman. Here John Bunyan 
preached, wrote " The Pilgrim's Progress," and died (in 1688). 

BEDFORD LEVEL, a portion of the great fen districts in the eastern counties, drained 
in the early part of the I7th century by the earl of Bedford, aided by the celebrated Dutch 
engineer, sir Cornelius Vermuyden, amid great opposition. See Levels. 

BEDLAM. See Bethlehem. 

BEDOUINS, wandering tribes of Arabs, living on the plunder of travellers, &c. They 
profess a form of Mahomedanism, and are governed by sheikhs. They are said to be descen- 
dants of Ishmael, and appear to fulfil the prophecy respecting him, Gen. xvi. 12, 1911 B.C. 
They are the scourge of Arabia and Egypt. 

BEEF-EATERS. See Battle-axe. 

* Thomas Becket was born in 1119. His father Gilbert was a London trader, and his mother is stated 
to have been a convert from Mabomedanism. He was educate4 at Oxford, and made archdeacon by Theo- 
bald, archbishop of Canterbury, who introduced him to the king Henry II. He became chancellor in 1155, 
but on being elected archbishop of Canterbury in 1162, he resigned the chancellorship, to the great offence 
>f the king. He opposed strenuously the constitutions of Clarendon in 1164, and fled the country ; and, 
m 1 1 66, excommunicated all the clergy who agreed to abide by them. He and the king met at Fretville, 
in Touraine, on July 22, 1170, and were formally reconciled. On his return he re-commenced his struggle 
with the king, which led to his tragical death. The Merchant- Adventurers were at one time termed "the 
Brotherhood of St. Thomas a Becket." 


BEEF-STEAK SOCIETY, the members of which dine together in a room behind the 
Lyceum theatre, was founded in 1735 by John Kich, patentee of Covent-garden theatre, and 
George Lambert, the scene-painter, in whose work-room the society originated. Beef-steak 
clubs existed in 1709 and 1733. 

BEER, See Ale, Porter, Victuallers. 

BEES. Mount Hybla, on account of its odoriferous flowers, thyme, and abundance of 
honey, has been poetically called the "empire of bees." Hymettus, in Attica, was also 
famous for its bees and honey. The economy of bees was admired in the earliest ages ; and 
Eumelus, of Corinth, wrote a poem on bees, 741 B.C. There are 292 species of the bee or 
apis genus, and 1 1 1 in England. Bees were first introduced into Boston, New England, by 
the English in 1670, and have since spread over the whole continent. Mandeville's satirical 
" Fable of the Bees" appeared in 1723. Huber published his observations on bees in 1792. 
The Apiarian Society had an establishment at Muswell Hill, near London (1860-2). The 
Liguiian variety of the honey-bee was successfully introduced into England in 1860. 

BEET-EOOT is of recent cultivation in England. Beta vulgaris, red beet, is used for 
the table as a salad. Margraff first produced sugar from the white beet-root in 1747. M. 
Achard produced excellent sugar from it in 1799 ; and the chemists of France, at the 
instance of Bonaparte, largely extracted sugar from the beet-root in 1800. 60,000 tons of 
sugar, about half the consumption, are now manufactured in France from beet. It is also, 
largely manufactured in other countries. A refinery of sugar from beet-root has been erected 
at the Thames-bank, Chelsea. 

BEGGAES were tolerated in ancient times, being often musicians and ballad- singers. In 
modern times severe laws have been passed against them. In 1572, by 14 Eliz. c. 5, sturdy 
beggars were ordered to be "grievously whipped and burnt through the right ear." By the 
Vagrant Act (1824), 5 Geo. IV. c. 83, all public beggars are liable to a month's imprisonment. 
See Poor Laws and Mendicity Society. The "BEGGAR'S OPERA," by John Gay, a satire 
against the government of sir Eobert "Walpole, was produced at the Lincoln's-inn-fields 
theatre, 1727, and had a run of 63 nights. 

BEGUINES, a congregation of nuns, first established at Liege, and afterwards at Nivelle, 
in 1207, some say 1226. The "Grand Beguinage" of Bruges was the most extensive. Some 
of these nuns imagined that they could in this life arrive at impeccability. The council of 
Vienne condemned this error, and abolished a branch of -the order in 1311. They still exist 
in Germany and Belgium, acting as nurses to the sick and wounded, &c. 

BEHEADING, the Dccollatio of the Romans, introduced into England from Normandy 
(as a less ignominious mode of putting high criminals to death) by William the Conqueror, 
1076, when Waltheoff, earl of Huntingdon, Northampton, and Northumberland, was first so 
executed. Since then this mode of execution became frequent, particularly in the reigns of 
Henry VIII. and Mary, when even women of the noblest blood thus perished.* 

BEHISTUN, in Persia. At this place is a rock containing important inscriptions in 
three languages, in cuneiform (or wedge-shaped) characters, which were deciphered and 
translated by sir H. Eawlinson in 1844-6 and published in the Journal of the Eoyal Asiatic 
Society. Each paragraph commences with " I am Darius the Great King." 

BEHEING'S STEAIT, discovered by captain Vitus Behring, a Danish navigator in the 
service of Eussia. He thus proved that the continents of Asia and America are not united, 
but are distinct from each other about thirty-nine miles, 1728. He died at Behring's island 
in 1741. The current from the west between the shores is very inconsiderable, the depth 
not being more than from twelve to thirty fathoms. In 1788 captain James Cook accurately 
surveyed the coast of both continents. 

BELFAST, capital of Ulster, Ireland, First mentioned about 1315 ; its castle, supposed 
to have been built by John de Courcy, was then destroyed by the Scots under Edward Bruce. 
See Orange. 

* Among other instances (besides queens of En gland) may be mentioned the lady Jane Grey, beheaded 
Feb. 12, 1554 ; and the venerable cxmntess of Salisbury, the latter remarkable for her resistance of the 
executioner. When he directed her to lay her head on the block, she refused to do it : telling him that 
she knew of no guilt, and would not submit to die like a criminal. He pursued her round and round the 
scaffold, aiming at her hoary head, and at length took it off, after mangling the neck and shoulders of the 
illustrious victim in a horrifying manner. She was daughter of George, duke of Clarence, and last of the 
royal line of Plantagenet. May 27, 1541. Hume. 




BELFAST, continued. 

Belfast granted by James I. to sir Arthur 
Chichester, then lord deputy, 1612 ; and 
erected into a corporation .... 1613 
The long bridge with 21 arches, 2562 feet long, 

built 1682-6 

The first edition of the Bible published in Ire- 
land, printed here 1704 

The castle burnt April, 1708 

The bank built 1787 

The mechanics' institute established . . . 1825 
The Queen's bridge (5 arches) built on site of 

the long bridge 1841 

Of three colleges established in Ireland under 
the act 8 & 9 Viet. c. 60, passed in 1845, one 

was inaugurated in Belfast . . . Oct. 1849 

(See Colleges in Ireland.) 

Much rioting at Belfast through Mr. llanna 
persisting in open-air preaching, July, Aug., 

and Sept 1857 

Victoria chambers were bumt down ; the loss 

was estimated at ioo,ooof. . . July 2, 1859 
Exciting religious revivals . . . Sept. ,, 
Fierce conflicts between Roman Catholics and 
Protestants on account of the foundation of 
the O'Connell monument at- Dublin 9 lives 
lost and 150 persons injured . Aug. 10 27, 1864 

Rioting again April 30, 1865 

Election riots July, 

BELGIUM, late the southern portion of the kingdom of the Netherlands, and anciently 
the territory of the Belgse, who were finally conquered by Julius Csesar, 51 B.C. Its size is 
about one-eighth of Great Britain. The population, December 31, 1862, was 4,836,566. Its 
government is a liberal constitutional monarchy, founded in 1831. For previous history, 
see Flanders, Netherlands, and Holland. 

The revolution commences at Brussels, Aug. 25, 1830 
The Provisional Government declares Belgium 

independent Oct. 4, ,, 

Antwerp taken .... Dec. 23, ,, 

Belgian independence acknowledged by the 

allied powers Dec. 26, 

Duke de Nemours elected king (his father, the 

French king, refused his consent) . Feb. 3, 1831 
Surlet de Chokier is elected regent Feb. 24, 
Leopold, prince of Coburg, elected king, July 12, 

enters Brussels .... July 19, ,, 
The king of the Netherlands commences war 

Aug. 3, 
Conference of ministers of the five great powers 

held in London : acceptance of 24 articles of 

pacification Nov. 15, ,, 

France sends 50,000 troops to assist Belgium, 

and an armistice ensues . . . Aug. 1832 
Antwerp besieged, Nov. 30 ; and taken by the 

French Dec. 23, ,, 

The French army returns to France Dec. 27, ,, 
Riot at Brussels (see Jirussds) . . April 6, 1834 
Treaty* between Holland and Belgium signed 

in London April 19, *839 

Queen of England visits Belgium . . Aug. 1852 

The king and his son visit England . Oct. 1852 
Increase of army to 100,000 men voted May 10, 1853 
Opposition to religious charities' bill t June, 1857 
A new ministry under M. Charles Rogier Nov. 9, ,, 
The chambers dissolved ; re-assembled Dec. 10, ,, 
The king proclaims Belgium neutral in the 

Italian war May, 1859 

Death of M. Potter .... July 2*2, ,, 
The king visits England . . . June, 1860 
Vague rumours of annexation to France produce 

warm loyal addresses to the king . June 13, ,, 
The octrois abolished . . . July 21, ,, 
Successful military volunteer movement Aug. , , 
Commercial treaty with France signed May i, 1861 
Continued illness of the king ; with occasional 

amendment .... May, June, 1862 
Commercial treaty with Great Britain adopted 

by the chamber .... Aug. 22, 
Great distress through decay of trade Aug. 
Fierce dissensions between Roman Catholics, 
Jan. ; the ministry resigns, but resumes 
office, Feb. 4 ; dissolution of the chambers, 
July 17 ; the Protestants superior in the 
election Aug. 1864 


1831. Leopold, t first king of the Belgians ; born 
Dec. 16, 1790 ; inaugurated July 21, 1831, at 
Brussels ; married Aug. 9, 1832, Louise, 
eldest daughter of Louis Philippe, king of 

the French; she died Oct. n, 1850. The 
PRESENT king, 1865. < 

Heir : his son Leopold, duke of Brabant ; born 
April 9, 1835 ; married archduchess Maria 
of Austria, Aug. 22, 1853. 

BELGRADE, an ancient city in Servia, on the right bank of the Danube. It was taken 
from the Greek emperor by Solomon, king of Hungary, in 1086 ; gallantly defended by 
John Huniades against the Turks, under Mahomed II., July to Sept. 1486, when the latter 
was defeated with the loss of 40,000 men. Belgrade was taken by sultan Solyman, 1522, and 
retaken by the Imperialists in 1688, from whom it again reverted to the Turks in 1690. It 
was besieged in May, 1717, by prince Eugene. On Aug. 5 of that year, the Turkish army, 
200,000 strong, approached to relieve it, and a sanguinary battle was fought at Peter- 
waradein, on August 22, in which the Turks lost 20,000 men ; after this battle Belgrade 
surrendered. In 1739 it was ceded to the Turks, after its fine fortifications had been 
demolished. It was again taken in 1789, and restored at the peace of Reichenbach, in 
1790. The Servian insurgents had possession of it in 1806. In 1815 it was placed under 

* This treaty arose out of the conference held in London on the Belgian question ; by the decision 
of which, the treaty of Nov. 15, 1831, was maintained, and the pecuniary compensation of sixty millions of 
francs offered by Belgium for the territories adjudged to Holland, was declared inadmissible. 

_ t At the revolution in 1830, the Roman Catholic clergy lost the administration of the public charities, 
which they have struggled to recover ever since. In April, 1857, M. Decker, the head of the ministry, 
brought in a bill for this purpose ; the principle of which was carried. This led, however, to so much 
agitation that the ministry were compelled to withdraw the bill, and eventually to resign. 

t Leopold married, in May, 1816, the princess Charlotte of Wales, daughter of the prince regent, 
afterwards George IV. of England; she died in childbed, Nov. 6, 1817. 




prince Milosch, subject to Turkey. The fortifications were restored in 1820. On June 19, 
1862, the Turkish pacha was dismissed for firing on the town during a riot. University 
established by private munificence, 1863. See Servia. 

BELL, BOOK, AND CANDLE : in the Romish ceremony of Excommunication (which see), 
the bell is rung, the book is closed, and candle extinguished ; the effect being to exclude the- 
excommunicated from the society of the faithful, divine service, and the sacraments. Its 
origin is ascribed to the 8th century. 

BELL-ROCK LIGHTHOUSE, nearly in front of the Frith of Tay, one of the finest in 
Great Britain ; it is 115 feet high, is built upon a rock that measures 427 feet in length 
and 200 feet in breadth, and is about 12 feet under water.* It was erected in 1 806-10 ; it is. 
provided with two bells for hazy weather. 

BELLAIR, in North America. The town was attacked by the British forces under sir 
Peter Parker, who, after an obstinate engagement, were repulsed with considerable loss ;. 
their gallant commander was killed, Aug. 30, 1814. 

BELLEISLE, an isle on the south coast of Brittany, France, was erected into a duchy in 
favour of marshal Beileisle, in 1742, in reward of his brilliant military and diplomatic 
services, by Louis XV. Beileisle was taken by the British forces under commodore Keppel 
and general Hodgson, after a desperate resistance, June 7, 1761, but was restored to France 
in 1763. 

BELLES-LETTRES, OR POLITE LEARNING. See Academics and Literature. 

BELLMEN, appointed in London to proclaim the hour of the night before public 
clocks became general, were numerous about 1556. They were to ring a bell at night and 
cry " Take care of your fire and candle, be charitable to the poor, and pray for the dead.' : 

BELLOWS. Anacharsis, the Scythian, is said to have been the inventor of them, about 
569 B.C. ; to him is also ascribed the invention of tinder, the potter's wheel, anchors for 
ships, &c. Bellows were not used in the furnaces of the Romans. The production of the 
great leviathan bellows of our foundries (suggested by the diminutive domestic bellows) must 
have been early, but we cannot trace the time. See Blowing-Machines. 

BELLS were used among the Jews, Greeks, and Romans. The responses of the Dodonsean 
oracle were in part bells. Strabo. The monument of Porsenna was decorated 
by pinnacles, each surmounted by bells. Pliny. Introduced by Paulinus, bishop of Nola, 
in Campagna, about 400. First known in France in 550. The army of Clothaire II., king of 
France, was frightened from the siege of Sens by the ringing of the bells of St. Stephen'.' 
church. The second excerption of our king Egbert commands every priest, at the propel 
hours, to sound the bells of his church. Bells were used in churches by order of pope John 
IX., about 900, as a defence, by ringing them, against thunder and lightning. First cast in 
England by Turketel, chancellor of England, under Edmund I. His successor improved th 
invention, and caused the first tuneable set to be put up at Croyland abbey, 960. Stow 
The celebrated "Song of the Bell," by Schiller (died 1805), has been frequently translated 
The following list is that given by Mr. E. Beckett Denison in his discourse on bells at th 
Royal Institution, March 6, 1857. 

Weight Tons Cwt. 
Moscow, i7s6;f broken, 

1737 250 ? 

Another, 1817 . . . 110 ? 

Three others 
Novgorod . 

Weight Tons Cwt. 
16 to 31 

. 31 o 
. . 17 18 

Tons Cwt 
Vienna, 1711 . . . 17 14 
"Westminster, 1856, t "Big 
Ben" . ... 15 

* Upon this rock, tradition says, the abbots of the ancient monastery of Aberbrothock succeeded ii 
fixing a. bell in such a manner that it was rung by the impulse of the sea, thus warning mariners of thei 
impending danger. Tradition also tells us that this apparatus was carried away by a Dutchman, who wa 
afterwards lost upon the rock, with his ship and crew. 

t The metal has been valued, at the lowest estimate, at 66,565?. Gold and silver are said to have beei 
thrown in as votive offerings, 

I The largest bell in England (named Big Ben, after sir Benjamin Hall, the then chief commissione 
of works), cast at Houghton-le-Spring, Durham, by Messrs. Warner, under the superintendence of Mr. E 
Becket Denison and the rev. W. Taylor, at an expense of 3343?. 14.?. gd. The composition was 22 part 
copper and 7 tin. The diameter was 9 ft. 5^ in. ; the height 7 ft. io in. The clapper weighed 12 cwl 
Rtv. W. Taylor. 





Weight Tons Cwt. 

Wehjht Tons Cwt. 

Weight Tons Cwt. 

Erfurt, 1497 . 

JO 1C 

York, 1845 

. 10 


Lincoln, 1834 



Westminster, 1858,* " St 
Stephen" . 

13 io| 

Bruges, 1680 
St. Peter's, Rome . 




St. Paul's, 1716 f . 
Ghent . 




jo 9 

Oxford, 1680 . 


Boulogne new 


Paris, 1680 . 

2 l6 

Lucerne, 1636 


Exeter, 1675 ' . 


10 'i 

Montreal, 1847 


- *5 

Halberstadt, 1457. 



Old Lincoln, 1610 . 



Cologne, 1448 
Breslau, 1507 

1 3 


Antwerp . 




Fourth quarter-bell, West 

minster, 1857 - ..40 

Gorlitz . 

o 17 

Dantzic, 1453 




RINGING OF BELLS, in changes of regular peals, 
is almost peculiar to the English, who boast of 
having brought the practice to an art. There 
were formerly societies of ringers in London. 
Holden. A sixth bell was added to the peal of 
five, in the church of St. Michael, 1430. Stow. 
Nell Gwynne left the ringers of the bells of St. 
Martin's-in-the-fields money for a weekly entertain- 
ment, 1687, and many others have done the same. 

BAPTISM OF BELLS. They were anointed and 
baptized in churches it is said from the loth century. 
Du Fresnoy. The bells of the priory of Little Dun- 
rnow, in Essex, were baptized by the names of St. 
Michael, St. John, Virgin Mary, Holy Trinity, &c., 
in 1501. Weever. The great bell of Notre Dame, in 
Paris, was baptized by the name of Duke of Angou- 
le"me, 1816. On the continent, in Roman Catholic 
states, they baptize bells as we do ships, but with 
religious solemnity. Ashe. 

BELOOCHISTAN, the ancient Gedrosia (S. Asia). The capital was taken by the British 
in the Afghan war, in 1839 ; abandoned in 1840 ; taken and held for a short time in 1841. 

BELVIDERE EXPLOSION. See Gunpowder (note). 

BENARES, in India, a holy city of the Hindoos, abounding in temples. It was ceded 
by the nabob of Oude, Asoph-ud-Dowlah, to the English in 1775. An insurrection took 
place here, which had nearly proved fatal to the British interests in Hindostan, 1781. The 
rajah, Cheyt Sing, was deposed in consequence of it, in 1783. Mr. Cherry, capt. Conway, 
and others, were assassinated at Benares, by vizier Aly, Jan. 14, 1799. In June, 1857, col. 
Neil succeeded in suppressing attempts to join the Sepoy mutiny. See India. 

BENBURB, near Armagh (N. Ireland). Here O'Neill totally defeated the English under 
Monroe, June 5, 1646. Moore says that it was "the only great victory since the days of 
Brian Boru, achieved by an Irish chieftain in the cause of Ireland." 

BENCOOLEN (Sumatra). The English East India Company made a settlement here 
which preserved to them the pepper trade after the Dutch had dispossessed them of Bantam, 
1682. Anderson. York Fort was erected by the East India Company, 1690. In 1693 a 
dreadful mortality raged here, occasioned by the town being built on a pestilent morass : 
among others the governor and council^perished. The French, under count D'Estaign, 
destroyed the English settlement, 1760. Bencoolen was reduced to a residency under the 
government of Bengal, in 1801, and was ceded to the Dutch in 1825, in exchange for their 
possessions in Malacca. See India. 

BENDER (Bessarabia, European Russia) is memorable as the asylum of Charles XII. of 
Sweden, after his defeat at Pultowa by the czar Peter the Great, July 8, 1 709. The peace of 
Bender was concluded in 1711. Bender was taken by storm, by the Russians, in Sept. 
1770 ; was again taken by Potemkin in 1789, and again stormed in 1809. It was restored 
at the peace of Jassy, but retained at the peace of 1812. 

BENEDICTINES, an order of monks founded by St. Benedict "(lived 480 543 \ who 
introduced the monastic life into western Europe, in 529, when he founded the monastery 
on Monte Cassino in Campania, and eleven others afterwards. His Eegula Monachorum (rule 
of the monks) soon became the common rule of western monachism. No religious order has 
been so remarkable for extent, wealth, and men of note and learning, as the Benedictine. 
Among its branches the chief were the Cistercians, founded in 1098, and reformed by St. 
Bernard, abbot of Clairvaux, in 1116 ; and the Carthusians, from the Chartreux (hence 
Charter-house), founded by Bruno about 1084. The Benedictine order was introduced into 
England by Augustin, in 596 ; and William I. built an abbey for it on the plain where the 

* The bell "Big Ben," having been found to be cracked on Oct. 24, 1857, it was broken up and another 
bell cast with the same metal, in May, 1858, by Messrs. Mears, Whitechapel. It is rather different in shape 
to its predecessor, "Big Ben," and about 2 tons lighter. Its diameter is 9 ft, 6 in. ; the height 7 ft. 10 in. 
It was struck for the first time, Nov. 18, 1858. The clapper weighs 6 cwt. half that of the fonner bell. 
The note of the bell is E natural ; the quarter-bells being G, B, E, F. On Oct. i, 1859, this bell was also 
found to be cracked. It remains in this state (Sept. 1865). 

t The clapper of St. Paul's bell weighs 180 Ibs. ; the diameter of the bell is 10 feet, and its thickness 10 
inches. The hour strikes upon this bell, the quarters upon two smaller ones. See Clocks. 

H 2 

BEN 100 BEO 

battle of Hastings was fought, 1066. See Battle- Abbey. "William de "Warrenne, earl of 
Warrenne, built a convent at Lewes, in Sussex, in 1077. " At Hammersmith is a nunnery, 
whose inmates are denominated Benedictine dames." Leigh. Of this order it is reckoned 
that there have been 40 popes, 200 cardinals, 50 patriarchs, 116 archbishops, 4600 bishops, 
4 emperors, 12 empresses, 46 kings, 41 queens, and 3600 saints. Their founder was 
canonised. Baronius. The Benedictines have taken little part in politics, but have 
produced many valuable works : especially the congregation of St. Maur, who published the 
celebrated I" Art de Verifier les Dates, in 1750, and edited many ancient authors. 

BENEFICE (literally a good deed or favour), on FIEF. Clerical benefices originated in 
the 1 2th century, when the priesthood began to [imitate the feudal lay system of holding 
lands for performing certain duties : till then the priests were supported by alms and oblations 
at mass. Vicarages, rectories, perpetual curacies, and chaplaincies, are termed benefices, in 
contradistinction to dignities, bishoprics, &c. A rector is entitled to all the tithes ; a vicar, 
to a small part or to none. All benefices that should become vacant in the space of six 
months, were given by pope Clement YII. to his nephew, in 1534. Notitia Monastica. An 
act for the augmentation of poor benefices, by the sale of some of those in the presentation 
of the lord chancellor, was passed in 1863. 

BENEFIT SOCIETIES. See Friendly Societies. 

BENEVENTUM (now Benevento), an ancient city in South Italy, said to have been 
founded by Diomedes the Greek, after the fall of Troy. Pyrrhus of Macedon, during his 
invasion of Italy, was totally defeated near Beneventum, 275 B.C. Near it was erected 
the triumphal arch of Trajan, A.D. 114. Benevento was formed into a duchy by the 
Lombards, 571. A.t a battle fought here, Feb. 26, 1266, Manfred, king of Sicily, was 
defeated and slain by Charles of Anjou, who thus became virtually master of Italy. The 
castle was built 1323 ; the town was nearly destroyed by an earthquake, 1688, when the 
archbishop, afterwards pope Benedict XIII., was dug out of the ruins alive, and contributed 
to its subsequent rebuilding again, 1703. It was seized by the king of Naples, but restored 
to the pope on the suppression of the Jesuits, 1773. Talleyrand de Perigord, Bonaparte's 
arch-chancellor, had the title of prince of Benevento conferred upon him. Benevento was 
restored to the pope in 1814. 

BENEVOLENCES (Aids, Free Gifts, actually Forced Loans) appear to have been claimed 
by our Anglo-Saxon sovereigns. Special ones were levied by Edward IV. 1473, by Richard 
III. 1485 (although a statute forbidding them was enacted in 1484), by Henry VII. 1492; 
and by James I. in 1613, on occasion of the marriage of the princess Elizabeth with the king 
of Bohemia. In 1615 Oliver St. John, M.P., was fined 5000?., and chief justice Coke 
disgraced, for severely censuring such modes of raising money. Benevolences were declared 
illegal by the bill of rights, Feb. 1689. 

BENGAL, the chief presidency of British India, containing Calcutta, the capital. It 
was ruled by governors delegated by the sovereigns of Delhi, till 1340, when it became 
independent. It was added to the Mogul empire by Baber, about 1529. See India and 


The English first permitted to trade to Bengal 1534 ' India Bill; Bengal made the chief presidency ; 
' They establish a settlement at Hooghly about 1652 supreme court of judicature established 
Factories of the French and Danes set up . . 1664 June 16, 1773 

Bengal made a distinct agency . . . . 1680 Bishop of Calcutta appointed . . July 21, 1813 

The English settlement removed to Hooghly . 1698 | Railway opened Aug. 15, 1854 

Imperial grant vesting the revenues of Bengal 

in the company, by which it gained the See India. 

sovereignty of the country . . Aug. 12, 1765 

BENZOLE, a compound of hydrogen and carbon, discovered by Faraday in oils (1825), 
&nd by C. B. Mansfield in coal tar (1849), the latter of whom unfortunately died in con- 
sequence of being severely burnt while experimenting on it (Feb. 25, 1855). Benzole has 
become useful in the arts. Chemical research has produced from it aniline (which see], the 
source of the celebrated modern dyes, mauve, magenta, &c. 

BEOWULF, an ancient Anglo-Saxon epic poem, describing events which probably 
occurred in the middle of the 5th century, and supposed to have been written subsequent 
to 597. An edition by Kemble was published in 1833. It has been translated by Kenible, 
Thorpe, and Wackerbath. 

BER 101 

BERBICE (British Guiana, S. America), settled by the Dutch, who surrendered it to the 
British, April 23, 1796, and again Sept. 22, 1803. It was finally ceded to England in 

BERENGARIANS, followers of Berenger, or Berengavius, archdeacon of Angers, a 
learned man, who about 1049 uttered opinions opposed to the Romish doctrine of trausub- 
stantiation or the real presence in the Lord's supper. Several councils of the church were 
held condemning his doctrine. After much controversy he recanted about 1058. He 
died grieved and wearied in 1088. 

BERESINA, a river in Russia, crossed by the French main army after its defeat by the 
Russians, Nov. 25-29, 1812. The French lost upwards of 20,000 men, and their retreat was 
attended by great calamity and suffering. 

BERG (W. Germany), on the extinction of the line of its counts, in 1348, was incorporated 
with Juliers. Napoleon I. made Murat grand-duke in 1806. The principal part is now held 
by Prussia. 

BERGEN (in Germany), BATTLE OF, between the French and allies, the latter defeated, 
April 13, 1759. (In HOLLAND) The allies under the duke of York were defeated by the 
French, under gen. Brune, with great loss, Sept. 19, 1799. In another battle, fought Oct. 
2, same year, the duke gained the victory over Brune ; but on the 6th, the duke was 
defeated before Alkmaer, and on the 2Oth entered into a convention, by which he exchanged 
his army for 6000 French and Dutch prisoners in England. 

BERGEN-OP-ZOOM, in Holland. This place, whose works were deemed impregnable, 
was taken by the French, Sept. 16, 1747, and again in 1794. An attempt made by the 
British under general sir T. Graham (afterwards lord Lynedoch), to carry the fortress by 
storm, was defeated ; after forcing an entrance, their retreat was cut off, and a dreadful 
slaughter ensued ; nearly all were cut to pieces or made prisoners, March 8, 1814. 

BERKELEY CASTLE, Gloucestershire, was begun by Henry I. in 1108, and finished in 
the next reign. Here Edward II. was cruelly murdered by the contrivance of his queen 
Isabella (a princess of France), and her paramour, Mortimer, earl of March, Sept. 21, 1327. 
Mortimer was hanged at the Elms, near London, Nov. 29, 1330 ; and Edward III. confined 
his mother in her own house at Castle Rising, near Lynn, in Norfolk, till her death. 

BERLIN (capital of Prussia, in the province of Brandenburg), was founded by the mar- 
grave Albert, surnained the Bear, about 1163. Its five districts were united under one 
magistracy, in 1714 ; and it was subsequently made the capital of Prussia. It was taken by 
an army of Russians, Austrians, and Saxons, in 1760 ; but they were obliged to retire in a 
few days. On Oct. 27, 1806, after the battle of Jena (Oct. 14), the French entered Berlin ; 
and from this place Napoleon issued the famous Berlin decree or interdict against the com- 
merce of England, Nov. 20. It declared the British islands to be in a state of blockade, 
and ordered all Englishmen found in countries occupied by French troops to be treated as 
prisoners of war. On Nov. 5, 1808, Napoleon entered into a convention with Prussia, by 
which he remitted to Russia the sum due on the war-debt, and withdrew many of his troops 
to reinforce his armies in Spain. An insurrection commenced here in March 1848. Berlin 
was declared in a state of siege, Nov. 1848. The continuation of this state of siege was 
declared to be illegal without its concurrence by the lower chamber, April 25, 1849. The 
railway to Magdeburg was opened, Sept. 10, 1841. The first constituent assembly was held 
here on June 21, 1842. 

BERMUDAS, OR SOMERS' ISLES, a group in the North Atlantic ocean, discovered by 
Joao Bermudas, a Spaniard, in 1522 or 1527, but not inhabited until 1609, when sir George 
Somers was cast away upon them. They were settled by a statute 9 James I. 1612. Among 
the exiles from England during the civil war, was Waller, the poet, who wrote, while resi- 
dent here, a poetical description of the islands. There was an awful hurricane here, Oct. 31, 
1780, and another, by which a third of the houses was destroyed, and all the shipping driven 
ashore, July 20, 1813. 

BERNAL COLLECTION of articles of taste and virtu, formed by Ralph Bernal, Esq., 
many years chairman of committees of ways and means in the house of commons. He died 
Aug. 26, 1854. The sale in March, 1856, lasted 31 days, and enormous prices were given. 
The total sum realised was 62,680?. 65. Sd. 

BERNARD, MOUNT ST., so called from a monastery founded on it by Bernardine 
Menthon in 962. Yelan, its highest peak, is about 8000 feet high, covered with perpetual 
snow. Hannibal, it is said, conducted the Carthaginian army by this pass into Italy 

/\ i: ; BER 102 BHO 

(218 B.C.); and it was by the same route, in May, 1800, that Bonaparte led his troops to 
the plains of Lombardy, before the battle of Marengo, fought June 14, 1800. On the 
summit of Great St. Bernard is a large community of monks, who entertain travellers in 
their convent. 

BERNARDINES, a strict order of Cistercian monks, established by St. Bernard, of 
Clairvaux, about 1115. He founded seventy- two monasteries. 

BERNE, the sovereign canton of Switzerland, joined the Swiss League 1352 ; the town 
Berne surrendered to the French under general Brune, April 12, 1798. The town has bears 
for its arms, and some of these animals are still maintained on funds specially provided for 
the purpose. 

BERRY, an ancient province (Biturigum regis], central France, held by the Romans 
since the conquest of Gaul by Csesar (5850 B.C.) till it was subdued by the Visigoths; 
from whom it was taken by Clovis in 507. It was erected into a duchy by John in 1360, 
and was not incorporated into the royal domains till 1601 ; since then the title of duke has 
been merely nominal. 

BERSAGLIERI, the sharpshooters of the Sardinian army, first employed about 1848. 

BERWICK-ON-TWEED, a fortified town on the north-east extremity of England. It 
has been the theatre of many bloody contests between the English and Scots ; and while 
England and Scotland remained two kingdoms, w r as always claimed by the Scots as belonging 
to them, because it stood on their side of the river. It was taken from the Scots, and annexed 
to England in 1333 ; and after having been taken and retaken many times, was finally ceded 
to England in 1482. In 1551 it was made independent of both kingdoms. The town, 
surrendered to Cromwell in 1648, and afterwards to general Monk in 1659. Since the union 
of the crowns (James I. 1603), the fortifications, which were formerly very strong, have been 
much neglected. 

BESSARABIA, a frontier province of European Russia, part of the ancient Dacia. After 
being possessed by the Goths, Huns, &c., it was conquered by the Turks in 1474, and ceded 
to Russia in 1812. 

BETHLEHEM (Syria) now contains a large convent, enclosing, as is said, the very birth- 
place of Christ ; a church erected by the empress Helena, in the form of a cross, about 
325 ; a chapel, called the Chapel of the Nativity, where they pretend to show the manger in 
which Christ was laid ; another, called the Chapel of Joseph ; and a third, of the Holy 
Innocents. Bethlehem is much visited by pilgrims. The Bethlehemite monks existed in 
England in 1257. 

BETHLEHEM HOSPITAL (so called from having been originally the hospital of St. 
Mary of Bethlehem), a royal foundation for the reception of lunatics, incorporated by Henry 
VIII. in 1546. The old Bethlehem Hospital, Moorfields, erected in 1675, pulled down in 1814, 
was built in imitation of the Tuileries at Paris. The present hospital in St. George' s-fields 
was begun April, 1812, and opened in 1815. In 1856 extensive improvements were 
completed under the direction of Mr. Sydney Smirk, costing between nine and ten 
thousand pounds. 

BETTING-HOUSES, affording much temptation to gaming, and consequent dis- 
honesty, in the lower classes, were suppressed by an act passed in 1853 (16 & 17 Viet. c. 119), 
a penalty of lool. being enforced on the owners or occupiers. 

BEYROUT (the ancient Berytus), a seaport of Syria, colonised from Sidon. It was 
destroyed by an earthquake, 566 ; was rebuilt, and was alternately possessed by the 
Christians and Saracens ; and after a frequent change of masters, fell into the power of 
Amurath IV., since when it remained with the Ottoman empire up to the revolt of Ibrahim, 
Pacha, in 1832. The total defeat of the Egyptian army by the allied British, Turkish, and 
Austrian forces, and evacuation of Beyrout (the Egyptians losing 7000 in killed, wounded, 
and prisoners, and twenty pieces of cannon), took place Oct. 10, 1840. Sir C. Napier was 
the English admiral engaged. Beyrout suffered greatly in consequence of the massacres in 
Syria in May 1860. In Nov. 1860 above 2 7,000 persons were said to be in danger of starving. 
See Syria. 

BHOOTAN, a country north of Lower Bengal, with whom a treaty was made April 25, 
1774. After fruitless negotiations, Bhootan was invaded by the British in Dec. 1864, in 
consequence of injurious treatment of an envoy. See India, 1864-5. 




BHURTPORE (India), capital of Bhurtpore, was besieged by the British, Jan. 3, 1805, 
and attacked five times up to March 21, without success. The fortress was taken by general 
Lake, after a desperate engagement with Holkar, the Mahratta chief, April 2, 1805. The 
defeat of Holkar led to a treaty, by which the rajah of Bhurtpore agreed to pay twenty lacs 
of rupees, and ceded the territories that had been granted to him by a former treaty, 
delivering up his son as hostage, April 17, 1805. On the rajah's death, during a revolt 
against his son, Bhurtpore was taken by storm, by lord Combermere, Jan. 18, 1826. See 

BIANCHI (Whites), a political party at Florence, in 1300, in favour of the Ghibelines 
or imperial party, headed by Vieri de' Cerchi, opposed the Neri (or Blacks), headed by 
Corso de' Donati. The latter expelled their opponents, among whom was the poet Dante, 
in 1301. 

BIARCHY. When Aristodemus, king of Sparta, died, ho left two sons, twins, Eury- 
stheues and Procles ; and the people not knowing to whom precedence should be given, 
placed both upon the throne, and thus established the first biarchy, 1102 B.C. The descen- 
dants of each reigned alternately for 800 years. Herodotus. 

BIARRITZ, a bathing-place, near Bayonne. Here resided the comtesse de Montijo and 
her daughter Eugenie, now empress of the French, till her marriage Jan. 29, 1853 ; since 
when it has been annually visited by the emperor and empress. 

BIBERACH (Wurtemberg). Here Moreau twice defeated the Austrians, under Latour, 
Oct. 2, 1796, and under Kray, May 9, 1800. 

BIBLE (from the Greek biblos, a book), the name especially given to the Holy Scriptures. 
The Old Testament is said to have been collected and arranged by Ezra between 458 and 
450 B.C. The Apocrypha are considered as inspired writings by the Roman Catholics, but 
not by the Jews and Protestants.* See Apocrypha. 


Genesis contains the history 

of the world from B.C. 4004 1635 
Exodus . . . 1635 1490 
Leviticus . . . 1490 
Numbers . . . 1490 1451 
Deuteronomy.- . . 1451 
Job > . about 1520 
Joshua . . from 14511420 
Judges .... 1425 1120 
Ruth . . . . 1322 1312 
ist and 2nd Samuel . 1171 1017 
ist and and Kings . . 1015 562 
ist and 2nd Chronicles 1004 536 
Book of Psalms (princi- 
pally by David) . . 1063 1015 
Proverbs written about 1000 700 
Song of Solomon about 1014 
Ecclesiastcs . about 977 
Jonah. . . about 862 
Joel . . . about 800 

Hosea . 


Isaiah . 


Nahum . 




Habakkuk . 



Obadiah .f 


Esther . 

Haggai . 







7 8 7 





607 534 




520 518 




GOSPELS by Matthew, Mark, 

Luke, and John. B.C. 5 A.D. 33 

Acts of the Apostles . A,D. 33 65 

EPISTLES ist and 2nd to Thes- 

salonians . . about 54 

Galatians . . . . 58 

ist Corinthians . . 59 

snd Corinthians . . . 60 

Romans .... 60 

Of James 60 

ist of Peter .... 60 
To Ephesians, Philippians, 
Colossians, Hebrews, 
Philemon . . .64 
Titus and ist to Timothy 65 
and to Timothy . . . 66 
2nd of Peter . . . .66 
OfJude . . . : . 66 
ist, 2nd, and 3rd of John 

after 90 
Revelation . . 96 

he most ancient copy of the Hebrew Scriptures 
existed at Toledo, called the Codex of Hillel ; it 
was of very early date, probably of the 4th century 
after Christ, some say about 60 years before Christ. 
The copy of Ben Asher, of Jerusalem, was made 
about 1 1 oo. 

he oldest copy of the Old and New Testament in 
Grctk, is that in the Vatican, which was written 
in the 4th or sth century, and published in 1586. 
The next in age is the Alexandrian Codex (referred 
to the sth century) in the British Museum, pre- 
sented by the Greek patriarch to Charles I. in 

1628. It has been printed in England, edited by 
"Woide and Baber, 1786 1821. Codex Ephraerni, 
or Codex Regius, ascribed to the sth century, in 
the Royal Library, Paris : published by Tischen- 
dorf in 1843. 

The Hebrew Psalter was printed at Bologna in 1477. 
The complete Hebrew Bible was first printed by 
Soncino in Italy in 1488, and the Greek Testament 
(edited by Erasmus) at Rotterdam, in 1516. Aldus's 
edition was printed in 1518; Stephens' in 1546; 
and the textus receptus. (or received text) by the 
Elzevirs in 1624. 

* In April, 1865, was published a proposal for raising a fund for exploring Palestine in order to 
illustrate the Bible by antiquarian and scientific investigation. The first meeting was held June 22, 1865, 
the archbishop of York in the chair. 

t The division of the Bible into chapters has been ascribed to archbishop Lanfranc in the nth and to 
archbishop Langton in the 1 3th century ; but T. Hartwell Home considers the real author to have been 
cardinal Hugo de Sancto Caro, about the middle of the i3th century. The division into sections was 
commenced lay Rabbi Nathan (author of a Concordance), about 1445, and completed by Athras, a Jew, in 
1661. The present division into verses was introduced by the celebrated printer, Robert Stephens, in his 
Greek Testament (1551) and in his Latin Bible (1556-7). 




BIBLE, continued. 


The Old Testament, in Greek, termed the Septuagint \ 
(which see), generally considered to have been made I 
by order of Ptolemy Philadelphus, king of Egypt, I 
about 286 or 285 B.C. ; of this many fabulous ac- 
counts are given. 

Origen, after spending twenty-eight years in col- 
lating MSS., commenced his polyglot Bible at 
Cassarea in A.D. 231 ; it contained the Greek ver- 
sions of Aquila, Bymmachus, and Theodotion, all 
made in or about the 2iid century after Christ. 

The following are ancient versions : Syriac, ist or 
and century ; the old Latin version, early in 
the 2nd century, revised by Jerome, in 384 ; who, 
however, completed a new version in 405, now 
called the VULGATE, which see; the first edition 
was printed in 1462 ; Coptic, 2nd or 3rd century ; 
Ethiopia ; Armenian, 4th or sth century ; Sclavonic, 
gth century ; and the Mceso-Gothic, by Ulfilas, 
about 370, a manuscript copy of which, called the 
Codex Argenteus, is at Upsal. The Psalms were 
translated into Saxon by bishop Aldhelm, about 
706; and the Gospels by bishop Egbert, about 
721 ; the whole Bible by Bede, in the loth 


MS. paraphrase of the whole Bible at the 
Bodleian Library, Oxford, dated by Usher . 1290 

Versions (from the Vulgate) by Wickliffe and 
bis followers about 1380- 

[Part published by Lewis, 1731 ; by Baber, 1810 ; 
the whole by Madden and Forshall, 1850.] 

William Tyndale's version of Matthew and Mark 
from the Greek, 1524 ; of the whole New Testa- 
ment 1525 or 1526 

Miles Coverdale's version of the whole Bible . 1535 

[Ordered by Henry VIII. to be laid in the choir 
of every church, ' ' for every man that would 
to look and read therein."] 

T. Matthews' (fictitious name for John Rogers) 
version (partly by Tyndale f and Coverdale) . 1537 

Cranmer's Great Bible (Matthews' revised) . 1539 

Geneva version (the first with figured verses) 


Archbishop Parker's, called "The Bishop's 
Bible " (eight of the fourteen persons em- 
ployed being bishops) 1 568 

King James' Bible, } the present authorised ver- 
sion Translation began 1604 ; published . i6it 

Roman Catholic authorised version : New Tes- 
tament, at Rheims, 1582 ; Old Testament, at 
Douay 1609-10 

Dr. Benjamin Blayney's revised edition . . 1769 

Authorised Jewish English version . . . 1851-61 


Flemish . . . .A 

D. 1477 


Italian . 

I 47 I 


Irish . . 1602 


Spanish (Valencian) 
German . . 1522 


Spanish , 
Russian (parts) 



Georgian . 
Portuguese . 


I 74 8 










French . 



Hungarian . 



Turkish . 



Swedish . 


I 54 I 

Bohemian . 

1488 ; 




Danish . 


Polish . 

I S5 I 

1561 i 

Modern Greek 





Virginian Indians 


1663 | 

Chinese . 

. 1814 


The British and Foreign Bible Society continue to make and print translations of the Bible 
in all the dialects of the world. See Polyglot. 

BIBLE DICTIONARIES. The most remarkable are Calmet's "Dictionary of the Bible," 
1722-8 ; Kitto's "Cyclopaedia of Biblical Literature," 1843 ; and Smith's " Dictionary of 
the Bible/' 1860. See Concordances.^ 

BIBLE SOCIETIES. Among the principal and oldest societies which have made the 
dissemination of the Scriptures a collateral or an exclusive object, are the following : The 
Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge was formed 1698 ; Society for Propagating the 
Gospel in Foreign Parts, 1701 ; Society in Scotland, for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 
1 709 ; Society for Promoting Religious Knowledge among the Poor, 1 750 ; Naval and 
Military Bible Society, 1780; Sunday School Society, 1785; French Bible Society, 1792; 
British and Foreign Bible Society, 1804 ; Hibernian Bible Society, 1806 ; City of London 
Auxiliary Bible Society, 1812. A bull from the Pope against Bible Societies appeared in 1817. 

BIB LI A PAUPERUM (the Bible for the Poor), consisting of engravings illustrating 
scripture history, with texts, carved in wood, a "block book," printed early in the I5th 
century, was compiled by Bonaventura, general of the Franciscans, about 1260. A fac- 
simile was published by J. Russell Smith, in 1859. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY, the Science of Books. Gesner's " Bibliotheca Universale " appeared 
in 1545 : and De Bure's "Bibliographic Instructive" in 1763. The following works on this 
subject are highly esteemed : Peignot, Manuel, 1823 ; Home, Introduction to the Study of 

* " The Bible of Every Land," ed. 1860, published by Messrs. Bagsters, London, is full of information 
respecting ancient and modern versions of the Bible. 

t He was strangled at Antwerp in 1536, at the instigation of Henry VIII. and his council. His last 
words were, "Lord, open the king of England's eyes!" 14 editions of his Testament had then been 

J An " Index to the Persons, Places, and Subjects occurring in the Holy Scriptures," by B. Vincent, 
editor of the present work, is sold by the Queen's printers. 

At the end of 1850 this society had issued 24,247,667 copies of the Bible or parts of it ; in May, 1863, 
the number had risen to 43,044,334. In 1857 they published a catalogue of their library, which contains a 
large number of remarkable editions of the Bible. 

BIB 105 BIL 

Bibliography, 1814 ; Scriptural, Orme, Bibliotheca Biblica, 1824 ; Darling, Cyclopaedia 
Bibliographica, 1854-8 ; Classical, the works of Fabricius, Clarke, and Dibdin ; English, 
Watts' Bibliotlieea Britanniea, 1824 ; Lowndes, Manual, 1834 (new edition by Bohn, 
1857-64) ; French, Querard, 1828-64 5 Brunet's Manuel du Libraire (first published in 1810) 
is exceedingly valuable : the 5th edition, 1862-5 ; British Catalogues, by Sampson Low, 

BIBLIOMANIA (or book-madness) very much prevailed in 1811, when Dr. Dibdin's 
work with this title was published. See Boccaccio. 

BIDASSOA. The allied army under lord "Wellington, having driven the French from 
Spain, effected the passage of this river, Oct. 8, 1813, and entered France. 

BIDDENDEN MAIDS. A distribution of bread, and cheese to the poor takes place at 
Biddenden, Kent, on Easter Sundays, the expense being defrayed from the rental of twenty 
acres of land, the reputed bequest of the Biddenden maids, two sisters named Chalkhurst, 
who, tradition states, were born joined together by the hips, and shoulders, in iioo, and 
having lived in that state to the age of thirty-four, died within six hours of each other. 
Cakes, bearing a corresponding impression of the figures of two females, are given on Easter 
day to all who ask for them. Hasted deems this tale fabulous, and states that the print on 
the cakes is of modern origin, and that the land was given by two maiden ladies named 
Preston. See Siamese Twins. 

BIGAMY. The Romans branded the guilty party with an infamous mark ; with us 
the punishment of this offence, formerly, was death. The first act respecting it was passed 
5 Edw. I. 1276. Viner's Statutes. Declared to be felony, without benefit of clergy, i James 
I. 1603. Subjected to the same punishments as grand or petit larceny, 35 Geo. III. 1794. 
Now punished, according to circumstances, by imprisonment or transportation. 

BIG BETHEL (Virginia, U.S.). On June 10, 1861, the Federals were defeated in an 
attack on some Confederate batteries at this place. 

BILBOA (N.E. Spain), was taken by the French in 1795. This place, which had 
been invested by the Carlists under Villareal, and was in considerable danger, was delivered 
by the defeat of the besiegers by Espartero, assisted by British naval co-operation, Dec. 24, 
1836. Espartero entered Bilboa in triumph next day." 

BILL OF EXCEPTION'S. The right of tendering to a judge upon a trial between parties 
a bill of exceptions to his charge, his definition of the law, or to remedy other errors of the 
court, was provided by the 2nd statute of Westminster, 13 Edw. I. 1284. Such bills are 
tendered to this day. 

BILL OF PAINS, &c. See Queen Caroline's Trial. BILL OF RIGHTS, &c. See Rights. 

BILLIARDS. The French ascribe their invention to Henrique Devigne, an artist in 
the reign of Charles IX., about 1571. Slate billiard tables were introduced in England 
in 1827. 

BILLINGSGATE, the celebrated market-place for fish in London, is said to have derived 
its name from Belinus Magnus, a British prince, the father of king Lud, 400 B.C., but Stow 
thinks from a former owner. Mortimer. It was the old port of London, and the customs 
were paid here under Ethelred II., A.D. 979. Stow. Billingsgate was made a perfect free market, 
1669. Chamberlain. Fish by land- carriage, as well as seaborne, now arrives daily here. 
In 1849, the market was very greatly extended and improved, and is now well cleaned, 
lighted, and ventilated. 

BILLS OF EXCHANGE were invented by the Jews as a means of removing their 
property from nations where they were persecuted, 1160. Anderson. Bills are said to have 
been used in England, 1307. The only legal mode of sending money from England, 4 
Richard II. 1381. Regulated, 1698 ; first stamped, 1782 ; duty advanced, 1797 ; again, 
June, 1801 ; and since. It was made capital to counterfeit bills of exchange in 1734. In 
1825, the year of disastrous speculations in bubbles, it was computed that there were 
400 millions of pounds sterling represented by bills of exchange and promissory notes. The 
present amount ^s npt supposed to exceed 50 millions. The many statutes regarding bills of 
exchange were consolidated by act 9 Geo. IV. 1828. Airact regulating bills of exchange 
passed 3 Viet. July, 1839. Great alterations were made in the law on the subject by 17 & 
18 Viet. c. 83 (1854), and 18 & 19 Viet. c. 67 (1855). 

BILLS OF MORTALITY FOR LONDON. These bills were first compiled by order of 
Cromwell, about 1538, 30 Hen. VIII., but in a more formal and recognised manner in 




1603, after the great plague of that year. No complete series of them has been preserved. 
They are now superseded by the weekly returns of the registrar-general. The following 
show the numbers at decennial periods : 


i8 49 

Christenings. Burials. 

. 16,634 20.507 

. . 18,980 . . 18,038 

.. 19,176 . . 23,068 




Christenings. Burials. 

1810. . . 19,930 . . 19,892 1840 
1820 . . 26,158 . . 19,348 1850, 

1830. . . 27,028 . . 23,524 


Births. Deaths. I 

1856 . . 657,453 . . 390,506 I 1861 

1858 . . 655,481 . . 449,656 1862 

1859 . . 689,881 . . 441,790 1863 

1860 ' . . 684,048 . . 422,721 1864 


Deaths. Births. 

Christenings. Burials. 
. 30,387 . . 26,774 
39,973 36,947 

1858 (Females, 43,400). 88,620 (Females, 31,319) 63,* 

Births. Deaths. 

. 696,406 . . 436,114 

.712,684 . . 436,573 

. 729,399 . . 475,582 

739,763 495,520 


1859 (Females, 45,367). 92,556 (Females, 30,166) 61,617 
1862 .... 97,114 . . . 66,950 
1864 .... 102,187 77,723 

BINARY ARITHMETIC, that which counts by twos, for expeditiously ascertaining the 
property of numbers, and constructing tables, was invented by Baron Leibnitz of Leipsic, 
the celebrated statesman, philosopher, and poet, 1694. MorerL 

BINOMIAL ROOT, in Algebra, composed of only two parts connected with the signs 
plus or minus ; a term first used by Recorda, about 1550, when he published his Algebra. 
The celebrated binomial theorem of Newton was first mentioned in 1688. Hutton. 

BIOGRAPHY (from the Greek bios, life, and grapho, I write), defined as history teaching 
by example. The book of Genesis contains the biography of the patriarchs ; and the Gospels 
that of Christ. Plutarch wrote the Lives of Illustrious Men ; Cornelius Nepos, Lives of 
Military Commanders ; and Suetonius, Lives of the Twelve Caesars (all three in the first 
century after Christ); Diogenes Laertius, Lives of the Philosophers (about 205). Boswell's 
Life of Johnson (published in 1 790) is the most remarkable English biography. 

BIOLOGY, a name given to the science of life and living things, by Treviramis, of 
Bremen, in his work on Physiology, published 1802-22. Biology includes zoology, anthro- 
pology, and ethnology, which see. 



The black (Betula nigra), brought from North America, 1736. 
birch tree known as the Betula pumila, introduced into Kew-gardens, England, by Mr. 
James Gordon, from North America, 1762. The tree known as the Birch is noAV largely 
cultivated in all the countries of Europe. Hardy's Annals. 

BIRDS were divided by Linnaeus into six orders (1735) ; by Blumenbach, into eight 
(1805) ; and by Cuvier, into six (1817). The most remarkable works on birds are those 
published by John Gould, F.R.S. ; they are to consist of about 31 folio volumes of coloured 
plates, &c. Each set bound will cost about 500^. 

BIRKENHEAD (Cheshire), a prosperous modern town on the Mersey, immediately 
opposite to Liverpool. The great dock here was projected by Mr. John Laird, constructed 
by Mr. Rendell, and opened in Aug. 1847 by lord Morpeth. In 1861 Birkenhead was made 
a parliamentary borough, and Mr. Laird was elected first representative. Population in 1831, 
200; in 1861, 51,649. See Wrecks, 1852. 

BIRMAN EMPIRE, on EMPIRE OF AVA. See Burmese Empire and India. 

BIRMINGHAM, formerly Bromwicham and Brummegem (Warwickshire), existed in the 
reign of Alfred, 872 ; and belonged to the Bermengehams, at Domesday survey, 1086. 
There were "many smythes " here in the time of Henry VIII. (Leland), but its great 
importance commenced in the reign of William III. It has been styled "the toyshop of 

Grammar school founded 1552 

Besieged and taken by prince Rupert . . . 1643 
Button manufactures established . . . 1689 
Soho works established by Matthew Boulton 

about 1764 ; and steam engine works about . 1774 
Birmingham canal was originated . 

Riots against persons 
French revolution . 

. 1768 

commemorating the 
. . . July 14, 1791 

Theatre destroyed by fire . . Aug. 17, 1792 

More commotions Nov. 1800 

Theatre burnt Jan. 7, 1820 

Political Union, headed by T. Attwood, formed, 

Feb. 1831 
Birmingham made a borough by Reform Act . 1832 

Town-hall built 1833 

Political Union dissolved itself . . May 10, 1834 




BIRMINGHAM, continued. 

Birmingham and Liverpool railway opened as 

the Grand Junction . . . July 4, 1837 
London and Birmingham railway opened its 

entire length .... Sept. 17, 1838 
Great Chartist riot ; houses bm-nt . July 15, 1839 
Town incorporated, and Police Act passed . ,, 
Meeting of British Association . Aug. 29, ,, 

Queen's College incorporated 1843 

Corn Exchange opened . . . Oct. 27, 1847 
Meeting of British Association (and time) 

Sept. 12, 1849 

Queen's Cojlege organised . . . Jan. 1853 
Public park opened (ground virtually given by 

Mr. Adderley) Aug. 3, 1856 

New music-hall opened .... Sept. 3, ,, 
Another park opened by the duke of Cambridge, 

100,000 persons present (ground given by 
lord Calthorpe) . . .* . June i, 1857 
Death of G. F. Muntz, M P. . . July 30, 
J. Bright elected M.P., Aug. 10, 1857, <fc April, 1859 
The Queen and Princo Consort visit Birming- 
ham, Warwick, &c., for the first time, and 
open Aston park . . . June 14-16, 1858 
The Free Library opened . . . April 4, 1861 
Dreadful factory explosion ; 9 killed and many 

injured .... . June 23, 1862 
The people's park purchased by the corpora- 
tion Sept. 1864 

New Exchange solemnly opened . . Jan. 2, 1865 
The bank of Attwoods and Spooner stop pay- 
ment and cause much distress -. March 10, ,, 
Meeting of British Association (yrd time) 

Sept. 6, 

BIRTHS. The births of children were taxed in England, viz., birth of a duke 30?., of a 
common person 2s., 7 "Will. III. 1695. Taxed again, 1783. The instances of four children 
at a birth are numerous ; but it is recorded that a woman of Konigsberg had five children at 
a birth, Sept. 3, 1784, and that the wife of Nelson, a journeyman tailor, of Oxford-Market, 
London, had also five children at a birth, in Oct. 1800. See Bills of Mortality and Registers. 
The Queen iisually presents a small sum of money to a poor woman giving birth to three or 
more children at one time. 

BISHOP (Greek episcopos, overseer), a name given by the Athenians to those who had 
the inspection of the city. The Jews and Romans had also like officers. The bishop has 
the government of church affairs in a certain district. St, Peter, styled the first bishop of 
Rome, was martyred 65. The episcopate became an object of contention about 144. The 
title of pope was anciently assumed by all bishops, and was exclusively claimed by Gregory 
VII. (1073-85). 

BISHOPS IN ENGLAND* were coeval with tho introduction of Christianity. The see of 
London is said to have been founded by Lucius, king of Britain, 179. 

Bishops made barons 1072 

The Congt! d'Elire of the king to choose a bishop 

originated in an arrangement of king J ohn. 
Bishops were elected by the king's Congd 

d'Elire, 25 Hen. VIII. t .... 'J534 
Bishops to rank as barons by stat. 31 Hen. 

VIII 1540 

Seven were deprived for being married . . 1554 
Several suffered martyrdom under queen Mary, 

See Cranmer. *555-6 

Bishops excluded from voting in the house of 

peers on temporal concerns, 16 Charles I. . 1640 
Several committed for protesting against the 

legality of all acts of parliament passed while 

they remained deprived of their votes, Dec. 28, 1641 
The order of archbishops and bishops abolished 

by the parliament .... Oct. 9, 1646 
Bishops regain their seats . . . Nov. 1661 
Seven sent to the tower for not reading the 
king's declaration for liberty of conscience 
(intended to bring the Roman Catholics into 
ecclesiastical and civil power), June 8, and 
tried and acquitted . . June 29-30, 1688 
The archbishop of Canterbury (Dr. Sancroft) 
and five bishops (Bath and Wells, Ely, Glou- 
cester, Norwich, and Peterborough) sus- 
pended for refusing to take the oaths to 
William and Mary, 1689 ; deprived . . 1690 


Sees. Founded. 
London (abpc.) . (?) 179 
York(a6pc.) . 4th cent. 
Sodor and Man . 4th cent. 
Llandaff . . sth cent. 
St. David's . . sth cent. 
BangorJ . . about 516 
St. Asaph . . about 560 
Canterbury . . 598 
London (see above) . 609 
Rochester . . 604 

Sees. Founded. 
East Anglia (after- 
wds. Norwich, 1091) 630 
Lindisfarne, or Holy 
Island (afterwards 
Durham, 995) . . 634 
West Saxons (after- 
wards Winchester, 
705) . . .635 
Mercia (afterwards 
Lichfield, 669) . . 656 

Sees. Founded 
Hereford . . . 676 
Worcester . . . 680 
Lindisse (afterwards 
Lincoln, 1067) . . 
Sherborne (afterwards 
Salisbury, 1042) . 705 
Cornwall (afterwards 
Devonshire, after- 
wrds. Exeter, 1050) 909 
Wells . 

Bath . 
Ely . 
Bristol! . 
Oxford . 
Ripon . 

* Bishops have the titles of Lord and Right Rev. Father in God. The archbishops of Canterbury and 
York, taking place of all dukes, have the title of Grace. The bishops of London, Durham, and Winchester 
have precedence of all bishops ; the others rank according to seniority of consecration. 

t Retirement of Bishops. In 1856 the bishops of London and Durham retired on annuities. The new 
bishops held their sees subject to future provision. In 1857 tne bishop of Norwich also resigned. 

t An order in council, Oct. 1838, directed the sees of Bangor and St. Asaph to be united on the next 
vacancy in either, and Manchester, a new see, to be created thereupon : this order, as regarded the union 
of the sees, was rescinded 1846. 

The sees of Bristol and Gloucester were united, 1856. 




BISHOPS IN IRELAND are said to have been consecrated in the 2nd century. 

Prelacies were constituted, and divisions of the 
bishoprics in Ireland made, by cardinal Pa- 
paro, legate from pope Eugene III. . . 1151 
Several prelates deprived by queen Mary . . 1554 
Bp. Atherton suffered death igiiominiously . 1640 
Two bishops deprived for not taking the oaths 

to William and Mary 1691 

Church Temporalities Act, for reducing the 
number of bishops in Ireland, 3 & 4 Will. IV. 
c. 37, passed Aug. 14.. 1833 

[By this statute, of the four archbishoprics of 
Armagh, Dublin, Tuam, and Cashel, the last 
two were to be abolished on the decease of the 
then archprelates which has since occurred ; and 
it was enacted that eight of the then eighteen, 
bishoprics should, as they became void, be 
henceforth united to other sees, which wr,s ac- 
complished in 1850 : so that the Irish Church 
establishment at present consists of two arch- 
bishops and ten bishops.] 


Ossory . . . 402 


about 500 

Ferns . . about 598 

Cashel, before 901 ; 

Killala . about 434 

Tuam, about 501 ; 

Cloyne . before 604 

abpc. . . . 1152 

Trim . . . 432 


. 1152 

Cork . . about 606 

Killaloe, abpc. . . 1019 

Armagh, 445 ; abpc. 1152 
Emly . . about 448 

Kildare . 

about 510 
before 519 

Glandalagh . before 612 
Derry . before 618 

Waterford . . . 1096 
Limerick . before 1106 

Elphin . . . 450 

Meath . 

. . 520 

Kilmacduach, about 620 

Kilmore . . .1136 

Ardagh . . . 454 
Clogher . before 493 

Achonry . 
Louth . 


Lismore . about 631 
Leighlin . . . 632 

Dublin, aJjpc. . .1152 
Kilfenora . before 1254 

Down . . about 499 


. . 548 

Mayo . . about 665 

(For the new combina- 

Ardfert and Aghadoe 


. 558 

Raphoe . before 885 

tions, see the sepa- 

before 500 Ross . 

about 570 

rate articles.) 

BISHOPS IN SCOTLAND were constituted in the 4th century. Episcopacy was abolished 
in 1638 ; but restored by Charles II. 1661, which caused an insurrection. Episcopacy was 
again abolished in Scotland in 1689.* 


Orkney . Uncertain. 
Isles . . . 360 
Galloway . before 500 
St. Andrew's, 800 ; 

abpc. . . . 1470 
Glasgow, about 560 ; 

abpc. . . .1488 
Caithness . about 1066 

Brechin . 
Moray . 
Ross . 
Aberdeen . 
Dunkeld . 
Dunblane . 
Argyll . 
Edinburgh . 

before 1155 
befor 1153 




Edinburgh . . 1720 
Aberdeen and the 

Isles . . . 1721 

Moray .(and Ross) . 1727 

Brechin . . .1731 

Glasgow (and Gallo- 
way) . . 

St. Andrew's (Dun- 
keld, Dunblane, 
&e.) . . . . 1733 

Argyll and the Isles 1847 

BISHOPS, COLONIAL. The first was Samuel Seabury, consecrated bishop of Connecticut 
by four nonjuring prelates, at Aberdeen, in Scotland, Nov. 14, 1784. The bishops of New 
York and Pennsylvania were consecrated in London, by the archbishop of Canterbury, Feb. 
4, 1 787, and the bishop of Virginia in 1 790. The first Roman Catholic bishop of the United 
States was Dr. Carroll of Maryland, in 1789. By 15 & 16 Viet. c. 52, and 16 & 17 Viet, 
c. 49, the colonial bishops may perform all episcopal functions in the United Kingdom, 
but have no jurisdiction. 


Nova Scotia 
Calcutta . 
Barbadoes . 
Jamaica . 
Montreal . 
Bombay . 




New Zealand . 
Guiana . 
Huron . 
Cape Town 
Melbourne . 




Australia) . 
Rupert's Land . 
Victoria . 
Sierra Leone 
Natal . 
Christchurch . 
Perth . 




Brisbane . 
British Columbia 
St. Helena . 
Waiapu . 
Melanesian Islands 
Kingston, Canada 
Ontario, Canada 
Nassau, Bahamas 
Central Africa . 




Toronto , . 
Gibraltar .. 


Newcastle . 
Sydney (formerly 

Wellington . 


Grafton, Australia 
Niger territory 



BISMUTH was recognised as a distinct metal by Agricola, in 1529. 
and brittle, and of a yellowish white colour. 

BISSEXTILE. See Calendar and Leap Year. 

It is very fusible 

* Bishop Rose connected the established episcopal church of Scotland with that form of it which is now 
merely tolerated, he having been bishop of Edinburgh from 1687 till 1720, when, on his death, Dr. Fullarton 
became the first post-revolution bishop of that see. Fife (now St. Andrew's, so called in 1844) now unites 
the bishopric of Dunkeld (re-instituted in 1727) and that of Dunblane (re-instituted in 1731). Ross (of 
uncertain date) was united to Moray (re -instituted in 1727) in 1838. Argyll and the Isles never existed 
independently until 1847, having been conjoined to Moray and Ross, or to Ross alone, previously to that 
year. Galloway has been added to the see of Glasgow. 





BITHYNIA, a province in Asia Minor, previously called Bebricia, is said to have been 
invaded by the Thracians under Bithynus, son of Jupiter, who gave it the name of Bithynia. 
It was subject successively to the Assyrians, Lydians, Persians, and Macedonians. Most of 
the cities were built by Grecian colonists. 

Dydalsus revolted and reigned about . B. c. 430 440 

Botyras, his son, succeeds 378 

Bas, or Bias, son of Botyras, 376 ; repulses the 

Greeks 328 

.Zipcetas, son of Bias, resists Lysimaehus . . 326 
He dies, leaving four sons, of whom the eldest, 
Nicomedes I., succeeds (he invites the Gauls 

into Asia) 278 

He rebuilds Astacus, and names it Nicomedia . 264 

Xielas, son of Nicomedes, reigns 

Intending to massacre the chiefs of the Gauls 
at a feast, Zielas is detected in his design, 
and is himself put to death, and his son 
Prusias I. made king, about .... 228 

Prusias defeats the Gauls, and takes cities . . 223 

Prusias allies with Philip of Macedon, and 
marries Apamea, his daughter . . . 208 

He receives and employs Hannibal, then a 
fugitive ....... 

Who poisons himself to escape betrayal to the 


Prusias II. succeeds ..... 
Nicomedes II. kills his father Prusias anc 


Nicomedes III., surnamed Philopator . 
Deposed by Mithridates, king of Pontus 
Restored by the Romans .... 
Bequeaths his kingdom to the Romans . 
Pliny the younger, pro-consul . . . A.D 
The Oghusian Tartars settle in Bithynia 
The Othman Turks take Prusa, the capital (and 

make it the seat of their empire till they 

possess Constantinople) ..... 






BITONTO (Naples). Here Montemar and the Spaniards defeated the Germans, on May 
26, 1730, and eventually acquired the kingdom of the Two Sicilies for Don Carlos. 

BLACK ASSIZES. See under Oxford. 

BLACK BOOK* (Liber Niger), a book kept in the exchequer, which received the orders 
of that court. It was published by Hearn in 1728. 

BLACKBURN, Lancashire, so called in Domesday-book. The manufacture of a cloth 
called Blackburn cheque, carried on in 1650, was superseded by Blackburn greys. In 1767, 
James Hargreaves, of this town, invented the spinning-jenny, for which he was eventually 
expelled from the county. About 1810 or 1812, the townspeople availed themselves of his 
discoveries, and engaged largely in the cotton manufacture, now their staple trade. 


See Plagues, 1340. 
See Dominican. 

BLACKFRIARS BRIDGE, London. The first stone was laid Oct. 31, 1760, and it was 
completed by Mylne, in 1770. It was the first work of the kind executed in England, in 
which arches, approaching to the form oLan ellipsis, were substituted for semicircles. It was 
repaired in 1834, and in 1837-1840. Since 1850 the bridge gradually sank. The old bridge 
was pulled down : and a new temporary one opened for use in 1864. The foundation stone 
of the new bridge (to be erected according to a design by Mr. J. Cubitt) was laid by the lord 
mayor, Hale, July 20, 1865. The first railway train (London, Chatham, and Dover) entered 
the city of London over the new railway bridge, Blackfriars, Oct. 6, 1864. 

BLACKHEATH, near London. Here "Wat Tyler and his followers assembled June, 
1381 ; and here also Jack Cade and his 20,000 Kentish men encamped, June i, 1450. See 
Tyler and Cade. Battle of Blackheath, in which the Cornish rebels were defeated and 
Flannock's insurrection quelled, June 22, 1497. The cavern, on the ascent to Blackheath, 
the retreat of Cade, and the haunt of banditti in the time of Cromwell, was re-discovered 
in 1780. 

BLACK-HOLE. See Calcutta. 
BLACK LEAD. See Graphite. 

BLACK LETTER, employed in the first printed books in the middle of the I5th 
century. The first printing types were Gothic ; but they were modified into the present 
Roman type about 1469 ; Pliny's Natural History being then printed in the new characters. 

BLACK-MAIL, a compulsory payment made in parts of Scotland by the lowlanders 
to the highlanders, for the protection of their cattle, existed till within a few months 
of the outbreak of the rebellion, 1745. It rendered agricultural improvement almost 

* A book was kept in the English monasteries, wherein details of the scandalous enormities practised 
in religious houses were entered for the inspection of visitors, under Henry VIII. 1535, in order to blacken 
them and hasten their dissolution : hence possibly the phrase, " I'll set you down in the black book." 

BLA 110 BLE 

BLACK MONDAY, Easter Monday, April 6, 1351, "when the hailstones are said to 
have killed both men and horses, in the army of our king Edward III. in France." Bailey. 
"This was a memorable Easter Monday, which in the 34th of Edward III. happened to be 
full dark of mist and hail, and so cold that many men died on their horses' backs with the 
cold," 1351. Stow. In Ireland, Black Monday was the day on which a number of. the 
English were slaughtered at a village near Dublin, in 1209. 

BLACK ROD has a gold lion at the top, and is carried by the usher of the Order of the 
Knights of the Garter (instituted 1349), instead of the mace. He also keeps the door when 
a chapter of the order is sitting, and during the sessions of parliament attends the house of 
lords and acts as their messenger to the commons. 

BLACK SEA, THE EITXINE (Pontus Euxinus of the Ancients), a large internal sea 
between the S. W. provinces of Russia and Asia Minor, connected with the sea of Azoff by 
the straits of Yenikale, and with the sea of Marmora by the channel of Constantinople. 
This sea was much frequented by the Greeks and Italians, till it was closed to all nations by 
the Turks after the fall of Constantinople in 1453. The Russians obtained admission by the 
treaty of Kainardji, in 1774. In 1779 it was partially opened to British and other traders, 
since which time the Russians gradually obtained the preponderance. It was entered by the 
British and French fleets, Jan. 3, 1854, at the requisition of the Porte, after the destruction 
of the Turkish fleet at Sinope by the Russians, Nov. 30, 1853. A dreadful storm in this 
sea raged from Nov. 13 to 16, 1854, and caused great loss of life and shipping, and valuable 
stores for the allied armies. See Russo- Turkish War. By the treaty of 1856 the Black Sea 
was opened to the commerce of all nations. 

BLACKWALL (London). The site of fine commercial docks and warehouses. See 
Docks. The Blackwall railway was opened to the public, July 4, 1840 ; the eastern terminus 
being at Blackwall wharf, and the western in Fenchurch- street. 

BLACK "WATCH, armed companies of the loyal clans (Campbells, Monros, &c.) 
employed to watch the Highlands from about 1725 to 1739, when they were formed into the 
celebrated 42nd regiment, which was formally enrolled " The Royal Highland Black "Watch, " 
in 1 86 1. Their removal probably facilitated the outbreak in 1745. They wore dark tartans, 
and hence were called Slack Watch. 

BLACKWATER, BATTLE OF, in Ireland, Aug. 14, 1598, when the Irish chief O'Neal 
defeated the English under Sir Henry Bagnall. Pope Clement VIII. sent O'Neal a conse- 
crated plume, and granted to his followers the same indulgence as to crusaders. 

BLADENSBURG. See Washington, 1814. 

BLANK TERSE. See Verse. 

BLANKETEERS. A number of operatives who on March 30, 1817, met in St. Peter's 
field, near Manchester, many of them having blankets, rugs, or great coats rolled up and 
fastened to their backs. This was termed the Blanket meeting. They proceeded to march 
towards London, but were dispersed by the magistracy. It is stated that their object was 
to commence a general insurrection. See Derby. Eventually the ringleaders had an inter- 
view with the cabinet ministers, and a better understanding between the working classes and 
the government ensued. 

BLANKETS are said to have been first made at Bristol by T. Blanket, about 1705. 

BLASPHEMY was punished with death by the la\v of Moses (Lev. xxiv. 1491 B.C.) ; 
and by the code of Justinian, A.D. 529. It is punishable by the civil and canon law of 
England, regulated by 60 Geo. III. c. 8 (1819). In Scotland the blasphemer's tongue was 
cut out ; he was punished with fine and imprisonment by law, 1696-7. Daniel Isaac Eaton 
was tried and convicted in London of blasphemy, March 6, 1812. Robert Taylor, a protestant 
clergyman, was tried twice for the same crime. He was sentenced to two years' imprison- 
ment, and largely fined, July, 1831. In Dec. 1840, two publishers of blasphemous writings 
were convicted. 

BLAZONRY. Bearing coats-of-arms was introduced and became hereditary in France 
and England about 1192, owing to the knights painting their banners with different figures, 
thereby to distinguish them in the crusades. Dugdale. 

BLEACHING was known in Egypt, Syria, India, and Gaul. Pliny. An improved 
chemical system was adopted by the Dutch, who introduced it into England and Scotland in 
1768. There are large bleach-fields in Lancashire, Fife, Forfar, and Renfrew, and in the 
vale of the Leven, in Dumbarton. The application of the gas chlorine to bleaching is dtie 
to Berthollet about 1785. Its combination Avith lime (as chloride of lime) was devised by 




Mr. Tennant, of Glasgow, who took out a patent for the process hi 1798, and by his firm it 
is still extensively manufactured. In 1822 Dr. Ure published an elaborate series of experi- 
ments on this substance. In 1860 bleaching and dyeing works were placed under the regu- 
lations of the Factories' Act. 

BLENHEIM, or Blindheim, in Bavaria, the site of a battle fought Aug. 2 (new style, 13)' 
1704, between the English and confederates, commanded by the duke of Maryborough, and 
the French and Bavarians, under marshal Tallard and the elector of Bavaria, The latter 
were defeated with the loss of 27,000 killed, and 13,000 prisoners (including Tallard). 
Bavaria became the prize of the conquerors. The British nation gave Marlborough the 
honour of Woodstock and hundred of Wotton, and erected for him the house of Blenheim.* 

BLIND. The first public school for the blind was established by Valentine Haiiy, at 
Paris, in 1784. The first in England was at Liverpool, in 1791 ; in Scotland, in Edinburgh, 
in 1 792 ; and the first in London in 1 799. Printing in raised or embossed characters for the 
use of the blind was begun at Paris by Haiiy in 1786. The whole Bible was printed at 
Glasgow in raised Roman characters about 1848. A sixpenny magazine for the blind, edited 
by the rev. W. Taylor, F.R.S., so eminent for his exertions on behalf of these sufferers, was 
published in 1855-6. There is hardly any department of human knowledge in which blind 
persons have not obtained distinction, f Laura Bridgman, born in 1829, became dumb and 
blind two years after : she was so well taught by Dr. Howe, of Boston, II. S., as to become 
an able instructor of blind and dumb persons. By the census of 1851, there were in Great 
Britain, 21,487 blind persons, 11,273 males ; 10,214 females : about one blind in 975. 

BLINDING, by consuming the eyeballs with lime or scalding vinegar, was a punishment 
inflicted anciently on adulterers, perjurers, and thieves. In the middle ages the penalty 
was frequently changed from total blindness to a diminution of sight. A whole army was 
deprived of their eyes, by Basil, in the nth century. See Bulgarians. Several of the 
eastern emperors had their eyes torn from their heads. 

BLISTERS, used by Hippocrates (460-357 B.C.), made, it is said, of cantharides, which see. 

BLOCK BOOKS. See Printing. 

BLOCKADE is the closing an enemy's ports to all commerce ; a practice introduced by 
the Dutch about 1584. The principle recognised by the European powers is that every 
blockade, in order to be binding, must be effective. The Elbe was blockaded by Great 
Britain, 1803 ; the Baltic, by Denmark, 1848-49 and 1864 ; the gulf of Finland, by the 
Allies, 1854 ; and the ports of the Southern States of North America by president Lincoln, 
April 19, 1 86 1. See Orders in Council, and Berlin. 

BLOCKS employed in the rigging of ships were much improved in their construction by 
"Walter Taylor, about 1781. In 1801, Mark I. Brunei invented a mode of making blocks 
which was put into operation in 1808, and in 1815 was said to have saved the country 
20,000?. a year. 

BLOOD. The circulation of the blood through the lungs was 'known to Michael 
Servetus, a Spanish physician, in 1553. Ca3salpinus published an account of the general 
circulation, of which he had some confused ideas, improved afterwards by experiments, 1569. 
Paul of Venice, or Father Paolo (real name Peter Sarpi), discovered the valves which serve for 
the circulation ; but the honour of the positive discovery of the circulation belongs to 
"William Harvey, between 1619 and 1628. Freind. 

EATING BLOOD was prohibited to Noah, Gen. ix., to 

the Jews, Lev. xvii., &c., and to the Gentile con- 
verts by the apostles at an assembly at Jerusalem, 

A.D. 52, Acts xv. 
BLOOD- DRINKING was anciently tried to give vigour 

to the system. Louis XI. , in his last illness, drank 

the warm blood of infants, in the vain hope of 

restoring his decayed strength, 1483. Henaull. 
In the i sth century an opinion prevailed that the 

declining vigour of the aged might be repaired by 

TRANSFUSING into their veins THE BLOOD of young 
persons. It was countenanced in France by the 
physicians about 1668, and prevailed for many 
years, till the most fatal effects having ensued, it 
was suppressed by an edict. It was attempted 
again in France in 1797, and more recently there, 
in a few cases, with success ; and in England (but 
the instances are rare) since 1823. Med. Journ. 
"An English phj^sician (Louver, or Lower) prac- 
tised in this way ; he died in 1691." Freind. 

* On Feb. 5, 1861, a fire broke out at this place, which destroyed the "Titian Gallery" and the 
pictures ; the latter, a present from Victor Amadous, king of Sardinia, to John, the great duke of 

t James Holman, the "blind traveller " (born 1786, died 1857), visited almost every place of note in the 
world. His travels were published in 1825. In April, 1858, a blind clergyman, rev. J. Sparrow, was 
elected chaplain to the Mercers' Company, London, and read the service, &c., from embossed books. 
Viscount Cvanbourne (blind) was the author of many interesting historical essays. He died in June, 

1865. On July 13, 1865, Henry Fawcett, the blind professor of political economy at Cambridge, was elected 

M.P. for Bi 

BLO 112 BOD 

BLOOD'S CONSPIRACY. Blood, a discarded officer of Oliver Cromwell's household, 
with his confederates, seized the duke of Ormond in his coach, and had got him to Tyburn, 
intending to hang him, when he was rescued by his friends, Dec. 4, 1670. Blood afterwards, 
in the disguise of a clergyman, attempted to steal the regal crown from the Jewel-office in 
the Tower, May 9, 1671 ; yet, notwithstanding these and other offences, he was not only 
pardoned, but had a pension of 500^. per annum settled on him by Charles II., 1671. He 
died in 1680, in prison, for a libel on the duke of Buckingham. 

" BLOODY ASSIZES," held by Jeffreys in the west of England, in Aug. 1685, after the 
defeat of the duke of Monmouth in the battle of Sedgmore. Upward of 300 persons were 
executed after short trials ; very many were whipped, imprisoned, and fined ; and nearly 
1000 were sent as slaves to the American plantations. 

BLOOMER COSTUME. See a note to article Dress. 

BLOOMSBURY GANG, a cant term applied to an^ influential political party in the 
reign of George III., in consequence of the then duke of Bedford, the chief, being the 
owner of Bloomsbury square, &c. The marquess of Stafford, the last survivor, died Oct. 
26, 1803. 

BLOREHEATH (Staffordshire), BATTLE OF, September 23, 1459, in which the earl of 
Salisbury and the Yorkists defeated the Lancastrians, whose leader, lord Audley, was slain 
with many Cheshire gentlemen. A cross commemorates this conflict. 

BLOWING-MACHINES, the large cylinders, used in blowing-machines, were erected 
by Mr. Smeaton at the Carron iron works, 1760. One equal to the supply of air for forty 
forge fires was erected at the king's dock-yard, Woolwich. The hot-air blast, a most 
important improvement, was invented by Mr. James B. Neilson, of Glasgow, and patented 
in 1828. He died Jan. 18, 1865. It causes great economy of fuel. 

BLOW- PIPE. The origin is unknown. An Egyptian using a blow-pipe is among the 
paintings on the tombs at Thebes. It was employed in mineralogy, by Andrew Yon Swab, a 
Swede, about 1733, and improved by Wollaston and others. In 1802, professor Robert Hare, 
of Philadelphia, increased the action of the blow-pipe by the application of oxygen and 
hydrogen. By the agency of Newman's improved blow-pipes, in 1816, Dr. E. D. Clarke 
fused the earths, alkalies, metals, &c. The best work on the blow-pipe is by Plattner and 
Muspratt, 1854. 

BLUE was the favourite colour of the Scotch covenanters in the i6th century. Blue 
and orange or yellow, became the whig colours after the revolution in 1688 ; and were 
adopted on the cover of the whig periodical, the "Edinburgh Review," first published in 
1802. The Prussian blue dye was discovered by Diesbach, at Berlin, in 1710. Fine blues 
are now obtained from, coal-tar, 1864. See Aniline. BLUE-COAT SCHOOLS, so called in 
reference to the costume of the children. The Blue-coat school in Newgate-street, London, 
was instituted by Edward YI. in 1552. See Christ's Hospital. BLUE-STOCKING, a term 
applied to literary ladies, was originally conferred on a society comprising both sexes 
(1760, et seq.). Benjamin Stillingfleet, the naturalist, an active member, wore blue worsted 
stockings ; hence the name. The beautiful Mrs. Jerningham is said to have worn blue 
stockings at the conversaziones of lady Montagu. 

under Admiralty, &c. 

BOATS. Flat-bottomed boats, made in England in the reign of William I. ; again 
brought into use by Barker, a Dutchman, about 1690. See Life- Boat. A mode of 
building boats by the help of the steam-engine was invented by Mr. Nathan Thompson 
^>f New York in 1860, and premises were erected for its application at Bow, near London, 
in 1861. 

BOCCACCIO'S DECAMERONE, a collection of a hundred stories or novels (many 
very immoral), severely satirising the clergy, feigned to have been related in ten days, during 
the plague of Florence in 1348. Boccaccio lived 1313 75. A copy of the first edition 
(that of Yaldarfer, in 1471) was knocked down at the duke of Roxburgh's sale, to the duke 
of Marlborough, for 22601. , June 17, 1812. This identical copy was afterwards sold by 
public auction, for 875 guineas, June 5, 1819. 

BODLEIAN LIBRARY, Oxford, founded in 1598, and opened in 1602, by sir Thos. 
Bodley (died, 1612). It is open to the public, and claims a copy of all works published in 
this country. For rare works and MSS. it is said to be second only to the Yatican. 




BCEOTIA, a division of Greece, north of Attica, known successively as Aonia, Messapia, 
Hyantis, Ogygia, Catlmeis, and Boeotia. Thebes, the capital, was celebrated for its exploits 
and misfortunes of its kings and heroes. The term Boeotian was used by the Athenians as a 
synonym for dulness ; but unjustly, since Pindar, Hesiod, Plutarch, Democritus, Epami- 
nondas, and Corinna, were Boeotians. The early dates are doubtful. See Thebes. 

Arrival of Cadmus, founder of Cadmea (Hales, 
1494 ; Clinton, 1313) .... B.C. 1493 

Reign of Polydore 1459 

Landachus ascends the throne .... 1430 
Amphion and Zethus besiege Thebes, and de- 
throne La'ius 1388 

CEdipus, not knowing his father La'ius, kills 
him in an affray, confirming the oracle fore- 
telling his death by the hands of his son . 276 
CEdipus resolves the Sphinx's enigmas . . 266 
War of the Seven Captains .... 225 

Thebes besieged and taken 213 

Thersander reigns 1198 ; slain .... 193 
The Thebans abolish royalty (ages of obscurity 

follow) about 1 120 

The Thebans fight with the Persians against 
the Greeks at Plataea 479 

Battle of Coronea, in which the Thebans defeat 
the Athenians B.C. 447 

The Thebans, under Epaminondas and Pelopi- 
das, enrol their Sacred Band, and join Athens 
against Sparta 377 

Epaminondas defeats the Lacedaemonians at 
Leuctra, and restores Thebes to independence 371 

I^lopidas killed at the battle of Cynoscephalae . 364 

Epamiuondas gains the victory of Mantiiiea, 
but is slain 362 

Philip, king of Macedon, defeats the Thebans 

and Athenians near Chaeronea . . . 338 

Alexander destroys Thebes, but spares the 
house of Pindar 335 

Bceotia henceforth partook of the fortunes of 
Greece ; and was conquered by the Turks 
under Mahomet II. .... A.D. 1456 

BOGS, probably the remains of forests, covered with peat and loose soil. An act for 
the drainage of Irish bogs, passed March, 1830. The bog-land of Ireland has been estimated 
at 3,000,000 acres ; that of Scotland at upwards of 2,000,000 ; and that of England at near 
1,000,000 of acres. In Jan. 1849, Mr. Eees Eeece took out a patent for certain valuable 
products from Irish peat. Candles and various other articles produced from peat have been 
since sold in London. 

BOHEMIA, formerly the Hercynian Forest (Boiemum, Tacitus}, derives its name from 
the Boii, a Celtic tribe. It was governed by dukes, till Ottocar assumed the title of king, 
1198. The kings at first held their territory from the empire, but at length threw off 
the yoke : and the crown was elective till it came to the house of Austria, in which it is 
now hereditary. Prague, the capital, is famous for sieges and battles. Population in 1857, 
4,705,525. See Prague. 

The Slavonians seize Bohemia about . . 550 

City of Prague founded 795 

Introduction of Christianity .... 894 
Bohemia conquered by the emperor Henry -_ 
III., who spreads devastation through the 

country 1041 

Ottocar (or Premislas) I., first king of Bohemia 1198 
Ottooar II., rules over Austria, and obtains 

Styria, &c., 1253; refuses the imperial crown 1272 
Ottocar vanquished by the emperor Rudolph, 
and deprived of Austria, Styria, and Car- 
niola, 1277; killed at March! eld . . . 1278 
King John (blind), slain at the battle of Crecy 1346 
John Huss and Jerome of Prague, two of the 
first Reformers, are burnt for heresy, which 
occasions an insurrection . . 1415, 1416 
Ziska, leader of the Hussites, takes Prague, 

1419; dies of the plague ..... 1424 
Albeit, duke of Austria, marries the daughter 
of the late emperor and king, and receives 
the crowns of Bohemia and Hungary . . 1437 
The succession -infringed by Ladislas, son of 

the king of Poland, and George Podiebrad, a 

Protestant chief 1440-1458 

Ladislas, kin? of Poland, elected king of Bo- 
hemia, on the death of Podiebrad . . . 1471 
The emperor Ferdinand I. marries Anne, sister 

of Louis the late king, and obtains the crown 15:27 
The emperor Ferdinand II., oppressing the 
Protestants, is deposed, and Frederic the 
elector-palatine, elected king . Sept. 5, 1619 
Frederic, totally defeated at Prague, flies to 

Holland Nov. 9, 1620 

Bohemia secured to Austria by treaty . . 1648 
Silesia and Glatz ceded to Prussia . . . 1742 
Prague taken by the Prussians . . . . 1744 
The Prussians defeat the Austrians at Prague 

May 6, 1757 

Revolt of the peasantry 1775 

Edict of Toleration promulgated . . .1781 

The French occupy Prague 1806 

Insurrection at Prague, June 12 ; submission, 
state of siege raised . . . . July 20, 1848 


1198. Premislas I., or Ottocar I. 

1230. Wenceslas III. 

1253. Premislas II., or Ottocar II. 

1278. Wenceslas IV., king of Poland. 

1305. Wenceslas V. 

1306. Rudolph of Austria. 

1307. Henry of Carinthia. 

1310. John of Luxemburg (killed at Crecy). 

1346. Charles I., emperor (1347). 

1378. Wenceslas VI., emperor. 

1419. Sigismund I., emperor. 

1437. Albert of Austria, emperor. 

1440. Ladislas V. 

1458. George von Podiebrad. 

1471. Ladislas VI., king of Hungary (in 1490). 

1516. Louis king of Hungary (killed at Mohatz). 

1 526. Bohemia united to Austria under Ferdinand I. 
elected king. 

BOHEMIAN" BBETHKEN, a body of Christians in Bohemia, appear to have separated 
from the Calixtines (which see), a branch of the Hussites in 1467. Dupin says "They 




rejected the sacrament of the church, were governed by simple laics, and held the scriptures 
for their only rule of faith. They presented a confession of faith to king Ladislas in 1504 to 
justify themselves from errors laid to their charge." They appear to have had communica- 
tion with the Waldenses, but were distinct from them. Luther, in 1533, testifies to their 
purity of doctrine, and Melanchthon commends their severe discipline. They were doubt- 
less dispersed during the religious wars of Germany in the lyth century. 

BOII, a Celtic people of 1ST. Italy, who emigrated into Italy, and were defeated at the 
Yadimonian lake, 283 B.C. They Avere finally subdued by Scipio Nasica, 191 B.C. 

BOILING- OF LIQUIDS. Dr. Hooke, about 1683, ascertained that liquids were not 
increased in heat after they had once begun to boil, and that a fierce fire only made them 
boil more rapidly. The following boiling points have been stated : 

Ether . 
Water . 

94 Fahr. 

212 ,, 

Nitric acid 
Sulphuric acid 

187 Fahr. 
600 ,, 

Oil of turpentine . .312 Fahr. 
Sulphur . . . . 822 ,, 
Mercury . . . 662 

BOILING TO DEATH, made a capital punishment in England, by statute 22 Henry VIII. ,. 
1531. This act was occasioned by seventeen persons having been poisoned by John Roose, 
the bishop of Rochester's cook, two of whom died. Margaret Davie, a young woman, suffered 
in the same manner for a similar crime, in 1542. 

BOIS-LE-DUC, Dutch Brabant, the site of a battle between the British and the French 
republican army, in which the British were defeated, and forced to abandon their position 
and retreat to Schyndel, Sept. 14, 1794. This place was captured by the French, Oct. 10 
following ; it surrendered to the Prussian army, under Bulow, in Jan. 1814. 

BOKHARA, the ancient Sogdiana, after successively 'forming part of the empires of 
Persia, of Alexander, and of Bactriana, was conquered by the Turks in the 6th century, by 
the Chinese in the 7th, and by the Arabs about 705. After various changes of masters it 
was subdued by the Uzbek Tartars, its present possessors, in 1505. The British Envoys, 
colonel Stoddart and captain Conolly, were murdered at Bokhara, the capital, by the khan,, 
in 1843. 

BOLIVIA, a republic in South America, formerly part of Peru. 

Population in 1858, 

The insurrection of the ill-used Indians, headed 

by Tupac Amaru Andres, took place here, 1780-2 
The country declared its independence, Aug. 6, 1824 
Took the name of Bolivia, in honour of general 

Bolivar Aug. n, 1825 

First congress met .... May 25, 1826 
Slavery abolished . . . ' , . . . 1836 
General Sucre governed ably . . . 1826-8 

BOLLAKDISTS. See Acta Sanctorum. 

Santa Cruz ruled ...... 1828-34 

Free -trade proclaimed 1853 

General Cordova, president .... 1855-7 
Succeeded by the dictator Josd Maria Linares, 

March 31, 1859 

George Cordova, constitutional president . . 1860 
Succeeded by Jose" M. de Acha. . May, 1861 

BOLOGNA, central Italy, the ancient Bononia, a city distinguished for its architecture. 

after the battle of Marengo, in 1800 ; and re- 
stored to the pope in 1815 

A revolt suppressed by Austrian interference . i83r 

The Austrians evacuate Bologna : and cardinal 
Ferretti departs : the citizens rise and form 
a provisional government . . June 12, 1859 

Which decrees that all public acts shall be 
headed "Under the reign of king Victor 
Emmanuel," &c Oct. i, 1860 

He enters Bologna as Sovereign . May 2, ,. 

University founded by Theodosius . . . 433 
Bologna joins the Lombard league . . . 1167 
Pope Julius II. takes Bologna ; enters in 

triumph Nov. n, 1506 

It becomes part of the States of the Church . 1515 
In the church of St. Petronius, remarkable for 

its pavement, Cassini drew his meridian line 

(over one drawn by Father Ignatius Dante 

in i575) 1653 

Bologna was taken by the French, 1796; by. 

the Austrians, 1799; again by the French, 

BOMARSUND, a strong fortress on one of the Aland isles in the Baltic sea, taken by 
sir Charles Napier, commander of the Baltic expedition, aided by the French military con- 
tingent under general Baraguay d'Hilliers, Aug. 16, 1854. The governor Bodisco, and the 
garrison, about 2000 men, became prisoners. The fortifications were destroyed. 

BOMBAY, the most westerly and smallest of our Indian presidencies, was visited by the 
Portuguese in 1509, and acquired by them in about 1530. It was given (with Tangier in 
Africa, and 300,000?. in money) to Charles II. as the marriage portion of the infanta, 
Catherine of Portugal, 1661. In 1668, it was granted to the East India Company, \vho had 




long desired it, "in free and common socage," as of the manor of East Greenwich, at an 
annual rent of lol. Confirmed by William III. 1689. The two principal castes at Bombay 
are the Parsees (descendants of the ancient Persian fire -worshippers) and the Borahs (sprung 
from early converts to Islamism). They are both remarkable for commercial activity. 

First British factory established at Ahmed- 

nuggur 1612 

Mi . Gyfford, deputy-governor, 100 soldiers, and 
other English, perish through the climate, 

Oct. 1675 Feb. 1676 

Captain Keigwin usurps the government . 1681-84 
Bombay made chief over the company's settle- 
ments ........ 1687 

The whole island, except the fort, seized and 

held for a time by the mogul's admiral . . 1690 
Bombay becomes a distinct presidency . . 1708 
Additions to the Bombay territory : Bancoot 
river, 1756 ; island of Salsette . . . 1775 

Bishopric established 1833 

Population of the presidency, 12,034,483 . .1858 

The benevolent sir Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy, a 
Parsee (who erected several hospitals, &c.) 
dies April 15, 1859 

His son, sir Cursetjee, visits England . . 1860 

Rioting against the income-tax suppressed 

Nov. & Dec. ,, 

Sir Henry Bartle Frero appointed governor 

March, 1862 

Greatly increased prosperity through the cot- 
ton trade, leads to immense speculation, Nov. 1864 

Reported failure of Mr. Byramjee Cama, a Par- 
see, for 3,300,000?. ; other failures, and great 
depression ; the projected international ex- 
hibition in 1867 abandoned . . . May, 1865 

Recovering from commercial crisis . Aug. ,, 

BOMBS (iron shells filled with, gunpowder), said to have been invented at Yenlo, in 
1495, and used by the Turks at the siege of Rhodes in 1522. They came into general use 
in 1634, having been previously used only by the Dutch and Spaniards. Bomb- vessels were 
invented in France in 1681. Voltaire. The shrapnel shell is a bomb filled with balls, and 
a lighted fuse to make it explode before it reaches the enemy ; a thirteen-inch bomb-shell 
weighs 198 Ibs. 

BONAPARTE FAMILY, &c. See France, 1793, and note. 

BONDAGE, or YILLANAGE. See Villanage. 

BONE-SETTING cannot be said to have been practised scientifically until 1620. Bell. 

BONES. The art of softening bones was discovered about 1688, and they were used in 
the cutlery manufacture, &c., immediately afterwards. The declared value of the bones of 
cattle and of other animals, and of fish (exclusive of whale-fins) imported into the United 
Kingdom from Russia, Prussia, Holland, Denmark, &c., amounts annually to more than 
300,000^. (in 1851 about 32,000 tons). Bone-dust has been extensively employed in manure 
since the publication of Liebig's researches in 1840. 

BONHOMMES, hermits of simple and gentle lives, appeared in France about 1257 ; in 
England about 1283. The prior of the ortler was called le bon homme, by Louis YI. 

BONN, a town on the Rhine (the Roman Bonna), was in the electorate of Cologne. It 
Las been frequently besieged, and was assigned to Prussia in 1814. The Prince Consort of 
England was a student at the university, founded in 1818. 

BOOK OF SPORTS. See Sports. 

BOOKS (Anglo-Saxon, boc; German, buck). Books were originally made of boards, or 
the inner bark of trees : afterwards of skins and parchment. Papyrus, an indigenous plant, 
was adopted in Egypt. Books with leaves of vellum were invented by Attains, king of 
Pergamus, about 198 B.C., at which time books were in volumes or rolls. The MSS. in 
Herculaneum consist of Papyrus, rolled and charred and matted together by the fire, and 
are about nine inches long, and one, two, or three inches in diameter, each being a separate 
treatise. The most ancient books are the Pentateuch of Moses and the poems of Homer and 
Hesiod. The first PRINTED BOOKS (see Printing) were printed on one side only, the leaves 
being pasted back to back. 

Books of astronomy and geometry were or- 
dered to be destroyed in England as being 
infected with magic, 6 Edw. VI. Stow . .1552 

2032 volumes of new works, and 773 of new 
editions, were published in London in . 1839 

3359 new works, and 1159 new editions, exclu 
sive of 908 pamphlets, were published in 1852 

3553 volumes were published in . . . 1864 
In Paris, 6445 volumes were published in 1842 
and 7350 in 1851. See Bibliography. 

PRICES OF BOOKS. Jerome (who died 420) states 
that he had ruined himself by buying a copy of the 
works of Origen. A large estate was given by 
Alfred for one on cosmography, about 872. The 
Roman de la Rose was sold for about 3o/. ; and a 
homily was exchanged for 200 sheep and five quar- 
ters of wheat. Books frequently fetched double or 
treble their weight in gold. They sold at prices 
varying from lol. to 40^. each in 1400. A copy of 
Macklin's Bible, ornamented by Mr. Tomkins, was 
declared worth 500 guineas. Butler. A yet more 
superb copy was insured in a London office for 3000 1. 
See Boccaccio. 

I 2 




BOOKS (continued). 

BOOK-BINDING. The book of St. Cuthbert, the 
earliest ornamental book, is supposed to have 
been bound about ...... 

A Latin Psalter, in oak boards, was bound in 
the gth century. 

A MS. copy of the Four Evangelists, the book 
on which our kings from Henry I. to Edward 
VI. took their coronation oath, was bound in 
oaken boards, nearly an inch thick 

Velvet was the covering in the i4th century ; 
and silk soon after. Vellum was introduced 
early in the isth century ; it was stamped 
and ornamented about 

Leather came into use about the same time. 


The rolling machine, invented by Mr. Wm. 
Burr, was substituted for the beating-ham- 
mer, and gas-stoves began to take the place 
of the charcoal fires used to heat the gilder's 
finishing tools about 1830 

Cloth binding superseded the common boards 
generally about 1831 

Caoutchouc, or India-rubber, backs to account- 
books and large volumes, were introduced in 1841 

BOOK-HAWKING SOCIETIES (already in Scotland) 
began in England in 1851 by archdeacon 
Wigram (since bishop of Rochester). The 
hawkers vend moral and religious books in 
a similar manner to the French colporteurs. 

BOOK-KEEPING. The system by double-entry, called originally Italian book-keeping, 
was taken from the course of Algebra published by Burgo, in the I5th century, at Venice. 
John Gowghe, a printer, published a treatise ' ' on the kepyng of the famouse reconynge 
. . . Debitor and Creditor," London, 1543. This is our earliest work on book-keeping. 
James Peele published his Book-keeping in 1569. John Mellis published "ABriefe Instruc- 
tion and Manner how to Keepe Bookes of Accompts," in 1588. Improved systems were pub- 
lished by Benjamin Booth in 1789 and by Edw. Thos. Jones in 1821 and 1831. 

BOOKSELLERS, at first migratory like hawkers, became known as stationarii, from 
their practice of having booths or stalls at the corners of streets and in markets. They 
were long subject to vexatious restrictions, from which they were freed in 1758.* 

BOOTHIA FELIX, a large peninsula, the N.W. point of America, discovered by sir 
John Ross in 1831, and named after sir Felix Booth, who had presented him with 20,000?. 
to fit out his Polar expedition. Sir Felix died at Brighton in Feb. 1850. 

BOOTS, said to have been the invention of the Carians, were made of iron, brass, or 
leather. Leather boots were mentioned by Homer 907 B.C., and frequently by the Roman 
historians. A variety of forms may be seen in Fairholt's "Costume in England." An 
instrument of torture termed " the boot" was used in Scotland so late as 1690. 

BORAX (Boron), known to the ancients, is used in soldering, brazing, and casting gold 
and other metals, and was called chrysocolla. Borax is produced naturally in the mountains 
of Thibet, and was brought to Europe from India about 1713. Homberg in 1702 discovered 
in borax boracic acid, which latter in 1808 was decomposed by Gay-Lussac, Thenard, and H. 
Davy, into oxygen, and the previously unknown element, boron. Borax has lately been 
found in Saxony ; and is now largely manufactured from the boracic acid found by Hoefer to 
exist in the gas arising from certain lagoons in Tuscany ; an immense fortune has been made 
by their owner M. Lardarel since 1818. 

BORDEAUX. See Bourdeaux. 

BORNEO, an island in the Indian Ocean, 
-discovered by the Portuguese about 1520. 

'The Dutch trade here in 1604, and establish 
factories in 1776 

The pirates of Borneo chastised by the British 
in 1813, and by captain Keppel in March, 1843 

By a treaty with the sultan, the island of La- 
booan, or Labuan (N.W. of Borneo), and its 
dependencies, incorporated with the British 
empire, and formally taken possession of in 
presence of the Bornean chiefs . Dec. 2, 1846 

James Brooke, rajah of Sarawak, by whose 
exertions this island was annexed to the 
British crown, governor of Labuan and 
consul-general of Borneo, visits England and 
receives many honours . . . Oct. 1847 

He destroys many of the Bornean pirates . 1849 

Labuaa made a bishopric ; the bishop was con- 

the largest in the world except Australia, was 

secrated at Calcutta, the first English bishop 
consecrated out of England . . Oct. 18, 1855 

The Chinese in Sarawak rise in insurrection, 
and massacre a number of Europeans ; sir J. 
Brooke escapes by swimming across a creek ; 
he speedily returns with a force of Malays, 
&c., and chastises the insurgents, of whom 
2000 were killed .... Feb. 17, 18, 1857 

He comes to England to seek help from the 
government, without success .... 1858 

His health being broken up, an appeal for a 
subscription for him made ,, 

Deputation of merchants waits on the earl of 
Derby, recommending the purchase of Sara- 
wak, which is declined . . . Nov. 30, 

Sir J. Brooke returns to Borneo . . Nov. 20. 1860 

* BOOKSELLERS' ASSOCIATION. In 1829 a number of eminent publishers in London formed themselves 
into an association for the regulation of the trade, and fixed the amount of discount to be allowed, Dec. 
29, 1829, and for some years restricted the retail booksellers from selling copies of works under the full 
publishing price. A dispute afterwards arose as to the right, maintained by the latter, to dispose of 
books (when they had once become theirs by purchase) at such less profit as they might deem sufficiently 
remunerative. The dispute was refeired to lord chief justice Campbell, before whom the parties argued 
their respective cases, at Stratheden House, April 14, 1852. His lordship gave judgment in effect against 
the association ; this led to its immediate dissolution, May 19 following. 

>RNOU, an extensive kingdom in central Africa, explored by Denliam and Clapperton, 
were sent out by the British government in 1822. The population is estimated by 
Denham at 5,000,000, by Barth at 9,000,000. 

BORODINO, a Russian village on the river Moskwa, near which a sanguinary battle Avas 
fought, Sept. 7, 1812, between the French under Napoleon, and the Russians under Kutusoff; 
240,000 men being engaged. Each party claimed the victory, but it was rather in favour of 
Napoleon ; for the Russians retreated, leaving Moscow, which the French entered, Sept. 14. 
See Moscow. 

BORON. See Borax. 

BOROUGH, or BURGH, anciently a company of ten families lining together, now such 
towns as send members to Parliament, since the election of burgesses in the reign of Henry 
III. 1265. Charters were granted to towns by Henry I., 1132 ; which were remodelled by 
Charles II. in 1682-4, but restored in 1688. 22 new English boroughs were created in 1553. 
Burgesses were first admitted into the Scottish parliament by Robert Bruce, 1326 ; and 
into the Irish, 13^65. The "Act to amend the Representation of the People in England and 
Wales" was passed June 7, 1832 ; and the Act for the Regulation of Municipal Corporations, 
Sept. 9, 1835. See Constituency. 

BOROUGH-BRIDGE (W. R. of York), the site of a battle between the earls of Hereford 
and Lancaster and Edward II., March 16, 1322. The latter, at the head of 30,000 men, 
pressed Lancaster so closely, that he had not time to collect his troops together in sufficient 
force, and being defeated and made prisoner, was led, mounted on a lean horse, to an 
eminence near Pontefract, or Pomfret, and beheaded by a Londoner. 

BOROUGH-ENGLISH, an ancient tenure by which the younger son inherits, is men- 
tioned as occurring 834. It was abolished in Scotland by Malcolm III. in 1062. 

BOSCOBEL, near Donington, Shropshire, where Charles II. concealed himself after his 
defeat at Worcester (ivhich see), Sept. 3rd, 1651.* The " Boscobel Tracts " were first pub- 
lished in 1660. In 1 86 1 Mr. F. Manning published "Views," illustrating these tracts. 

BOSNIA, a province in Turkey, formerly a dependent upon Servia, conquered by 
the Turks about 1526, who still retain it after losing it several times. 

BOSPHORUS, THRACIAN (now channel of Constantinople). Darius Hystaspes threw a 
bridge of boats over this strait when about to invade Greece, 493 B. c. See Constantinople. 

BOSPORUS (improperly BOSPHORTJS), now called Circassia, near the Bosphorus 
Cimmerms, now the straits of Kertch or Yenikale. The history of the kingdom is involved 
in obscurity, though it continued for 3^0 years. It was named Cimmerian, from the 
Cimmeri, who dwelt 011 its borders, about 750 B.C. 

Battle of Zela, gained by Julius Czesar over 
Pharnaces II. (Csesar writes home, Veni, vidi, 
vici, " I came, I saw, I conquered ") . B.C. 47 

Asander usurps the crown 

Caesar makes Mithridates of Pergamus king 

Polemon conquers Bosporus, and, favoured by 

Agrippa, reigns 

Polemon killed by barbarians of the Palus 

Mteotis A.D. 

Polemon II. reigns, 33 ; Mithridates II. reigns 
Mithridates conducted a prisoner to Rome, by 

order of Claudius, and hia kingdom made a 

province of the empire. 


The Arcbsonactidse from Mitylene rule, B.C. 502-480 

They are dispossessed by Spartacus I. . 480-438 

Seleucus, 431 ; Satyrus 1 407 

Leucon, 393; Spartacus II., 353 ; Parysades . 348 

Eumelus, aiming to dethrone his brother Saty- 
rus II., is defeated ; but Satyrus is killed . 310 

Prytanis, his next brother, ascends the thi-one, 
but is murdered by Eumelus . . . 310-9 

Eumelus puts to death all his relations, 309 ; 
and is killed '1304 

The Scythians conquer Bosporus . . . . 285 

Mithridates VI., of Pontus, conquers Bosporus 80 

He poisons himself ; and the Romans make his 
son, Pharnaces, king . . . -63 

BOSTON, a city in the United States, built about 1627. Here originated that resistance 
to the British authorities which led to American independence. The act of parliament laying 
duties on tea, papers, colours, &c. (passed June, 1 767), so excited the indignation of the 
citizens of Boston, that they destroyed several hundreds of chests of tea, Nov. 1773. Boston 
seaport was shut by the English parliament, until restitution should be made to the East 
India Company for the tea lost, March 25, 1774. The town was besieged by the British 
next year, and 400 houses were destroyed. A battle between the royalists and independent 
troops, in which the latter were defeated, took place on June 17, 1775. The city was 
evacuated by the king's troops, April, 1776. The inhabitants were very zealous against 
slavery. An industrial exhibition was opened here in Oct. 1856, and lasted two weeks. 

* The king, disguised in the clothes of the Pendrills, remained from Sept. 4-6, at White Ladies on 
Sept. 7 and 8 he lay at Boscobel house, near which exists an oak, said to be the scion of the Royal Oak in 
which the king was part of the time hidden with col. Careless. Sharps. 




BOSWORTH FIELD, Leicestershire, the site of the thirteenth and last battle between 
the houses of York and Lancaster, Aug. 22, 1485 ; Richard III. was defeated by the earl 
of Richmond, afterwards Henry VII., and slain. Sir Wm. Stanley at a critical moment 
changed sides, and thus caused the loss of the battle. It is said that Henry was crowned on 
the spot with the crown of Richard found in a hawthorn bush, near the field. 

BOTANY. Aristotle is considered the founder of the science of botany (about 347 B.C.). 
Historic*, Plantarum of Theophrastus was written about 320 B.C. Authors on botany 
"became numerous at the close of the I5th century. Fuchsius, Bock, Bauhin, Cresalpiiius, 
and others, wrote between 1535 and 1600. The system and arrangement of the great 
Linnteus was made known about 1750 ; and Jussieu's system, founded on Tournefort's, and 
called ''the natural system," in 1758. At Linnseus's death, 1778, the species of plants 
actually described amounted in number to 11,800. The number of species now recorded 
cannot fall short of 100,000.* J. C. London's " Encyclopaedia of Plants," a most compre- 
hensive work, first appeared in 1829. De Candolle's "Proclromus Systematis Naturalis 
Kegni Vegetabilis" (of which Vol. I. appeared in 1818), is nearly completed (1865). 


Leipsic . 
Paris (Jardin des 
Plantes) , 



Madrid . 
Kew (greatly im- 
proved, 1841-65) 




Cambridge . 
St. Petersburg 
Calcutta . 
Dublin . 
Horticultural Soci- 
ety's, Chiswick 




Royal Botanic So- 
ciety's, Regent's 

1785 ] Park . . . 

1793 Royal Horticultural 
Society's, S. Ken- 
sington . 



BOTANY BAY, Australia, was discovered by captain Cook, April 28, 1770, and took its 
name from the great variety of plants which abounded on the shore. It was fixed on for a 
colony of convicts from Great Britain. The first governor, capt. Arthur Phillip, who sailed 
from England in May, 1787, arrived at the settlement in Jan. 1788. The colony was 
eventually established at Port Jackson, about thirteen miles to the north of the bay. See 
New South Wal'es and Transportation. 

BOTHWELL BRIDGE, Lanarkshire. The Scotch covenanters took up arms against 
the intolerant government of Charles II. in 1679, and defeated the celebrated Claverhouse 
at Drumclog. They were however totally routed by the earl of Monmouth at Bothwell 
Bridge, June 22, 1679, and many of the prisoners were cruelly tortured and afterwards 

BOTTLE-CONJUROR. On Jan. 16, 1748, a charlatan at the old Haymarket theatre 
had announced that he would jump into a quart bottle. The theatre was besieged by 
thousands anxious to gain admittance and witness the feat. The duped crowd nearly pulled 
down the edifice. 

BOTTLES in ancient times were made of leather. Bottles of glass were first made in 
England about 1558. See Glass. The art of making glass bottles and drinking-glasses was 
known to the Romans at least before 79 ; for these articles and other vessels have been found 
in the ruins of Pompeii. A bottle which contained two hogsheads was blown, we are told, 
.at Leith, in Scotland, in Jan. 1747-8. 

BOULOGNE, a seaport in Picardy, N. France, was taken by the British under Henry 
VIII. on Sept. 14, 1544, but restored at the peace, 1550. Lord Nelson attacked Boulogne, 
disabling ten vessels and sinking five, Aug. 3, 1801. In another attempt he was repulsed 
with great loss, and captain Parker of the Medusa and two-thirds of his crew were 'killed, 
Aug. 1 8 following. In 1804 Bonaparte assembled 160,000 men and 10,000 horses, and a 
flotilla of 1300 vessels and 17,000 sailors to invade England. The coasts of Kent and 
Sussex were covered with martello towers and lines of defence ; and nearly half the adult 
population of Britain was formed into volunteer corps. It is supposed that this French 
armament served merely for a demonstration, and that Bonaparte never seriously intended 
the invasion. Sir Sidney Smith unsuccessfully attempted to burn the flotilla with fire- 
machines called catamarans, Oct. 2, 1804. Congreve-rockets were used in another attack, 
and they set the town on fire, Oct. 8, 1806. The army was removed on the breaking out of 
war with Austria in 1805. Louis Napoleon (now emperor) made a descent here with about 

.* Robert Brown, who accompanied Flinders in his survey of New Holland in 1803, died June 10, 185! 
aged 85. He was acknowledged to be the chief of the botanists of his day (facile princeps). 

BOU 119 BOW 

50 followers, Aug. 6, 1840, without success. On July 10, 1854, he reviewed the French 
troops destined for the Baltic, and on Sept. 2, following, he entertained prince Albert and 
the king of the Belgians. See France. 

BOUNTIES, premiums granted to the producer, exporter, or importer of certain articles ; 
a principle introduced into commerce by the British parliament. The first granted on corn 
in 1688, were repealed in 1815. They were first legally granted in England for raising naval 
stores in America, 1703, and have been granted on sail-cloth, linen and other goods. 

BOUNTY MUTINY, took place on board the Bounty, an armed ship which quitted 
Otaheite, with bread-fruit trees, April 7, 1789. The mutineers put their captain, Bligh, and 
nineteen men into an open boat, near Annamooka, one of the Friendly Isles, April 28, 1789 ; 
these reached the island of Timor, south of the Moluccas, in June, after a perilous voyage 
of nearly 4000 miles ; their preservation was next to miraculous. Some of the mutineers were 
tried, Sept. 15, 1792; six were condemned and three executed. For the fate of the others, 
see Pitcairn's Island. 

BOURBON, HOUSE OF (from which come the royal houses of France, Spain, and Naples), 
derives its origin from the Archambauds, lords of Bourbon in Berry. Robert, count of 
lermont, son of Louis IX. of France, married the heiress Beatrice in 1272 : their son 
Louis 1. was created duke of Bourbon and peer of France by Charles IV. in 1327. The last 
of the descendants of their elder son Peter I. was Susanna, wife of Charles, duke of Mont- 
pensier, called constable of Bourbon, who, offended by his sovereign Francis I., entered into 
the service of the emperor Charles V., and was killed at the siege of Rome, May 6, I5 2 7- 
From James, the younger son of Louis I., was descended Antony, duke of Vendonie, who 
married (1548) Jean d'Albret, daughter of Henry, king of Navarre. Their son the great 
Henry IV. was born at Pan, Dec. 23, 1553, and became king of France, July 31, 1589. 
The crown of Spain was settled on a younger branch of this family, 1700, and guaranteed by 
the peace of Utrecht, 1713. Rapin. The Bourbon FAMILY COMPACT (which see) was made 
1761. The Bourbons were expelled France, 1791 ; restored, 1814 ; again expelled on the 
return of Bonaparte from Elba, and again restored after the battle of "Waterloo, 1815. The 
elder branch was expelled once more, in the person of Charles X. and his family, in 1830, in 
consequence of the revolution of the memorable days of July in that year. The Orleans 

kingdom. See France, Spain, Naples, Orleans, Parma, C'onde, and Legitimists. 

BOURBON, ISLE OF (in the Indian Ocean), discovered by the Portuguese about 1545. 
The French are said to have first settled here in 1642. It surrendered to the British, 
under admiral Rowley, Sept. 21, 1809, and was restored to France in 1815. Alison. An 
awful hurricane in Feb. 1829 did much mischief. See Mauritius. 

BOURDEAUX, OR BORDEAUX ("W. France), was united to the dominions of Henry II. 
of England by his marriage with Eleanor of Aquitaine. Edward the Black Prince brought 
his royal captive, John, king of France, to this city after the battle of Poictiers in 135$, and 
here held his court during eleven years : his son, our Richard II., was born at Bourdeaux, 
1366. Bourdeaux finally surrendered to Charles VII. of France in 1453. The fine eques- 
trian statue of Louis XV. was erected in 1743. Bourdeaux was entered by the victorious 
British army after the battle of Orthes, fought Feb. 27, 1814. 

BOURIGXONISTS, a sect founded by Antoinette Bourignon, who, in 1658, took the 
Augustine habit and travelled in France, Holland, England, and Scotland ; in the last she 
made many converts about 1670. She maintained that Christianity does not consist in faith 
and practice, but in inward feeling and supernatural impulse. A disciple named Court left 
her a good estate. She died in 1680, and her works, in 21 volumes 8vo, were published 
in 1686. 

BOURNOUS, the Arabic name of a hooded garment worn in Algeria, which has been 
introduced in a modified form into England and France since 1847. 

BOUVINES (N. France), the site of a desperate battle, July 27, 1214, in which. Philip 
Augustus of France obtained a complete victory over the emperor Otho and his allies, 
consisting of more than 150,000 men. The earls of Flanders and Boulogne were taken 

BOWLS, on BOWLING, an English game as early as the I3th century. Charles I. played 
at it, and also Charles II. at Tunbridge. Grammont. 

EOW 120 BRA 

BOW-STREET. See Magistrates. 
BOWS AND ARROWS. See Archery. 

BOXING, OR PRIZE- FIGHTING, the pugilatus of the Romans, once a favourite sport with 
the British, who possess an extraordinary strength in the arm, an advantage which gives the 
British soldier great superiority in battles decided by the bayonet. A century ago boxing 
formed a regular exhibition, and a theatre was erected for it in Tottenham-court. Brough- 
ton's amphitheatre, behind Oxford-road, was built 1742. Schools were opened in England 
to teach boxing as a science in 1790. Mendoza opened the Lyceum in the Strand in 1791. 
Boxing was much patronised from about 1820 to 1830, but is now out of favour.* John 
Gully, originally a butcher, afterwards a prize-fighter, acquired wealth and became M.P. for 
Pontefract in 1835. He died March 9, 1863. 

BOXTEL (in Dutch Brabant), where the British and allied army, commanded by the 
duke of York, was defeated by the French republicans, who took 2000 prisoners and eight 
pieces of cannon, Sept. 1 7, 1 794. 

BOX-TREE, indigenous to this country, and exceedingly valuable to wood-engravers. 
In 1815 a large box- tree at Box-hill, Surrey, was cut down, and realised a large sum. 
Macculloch says, that "the trees were cut down in 1815, and produced upwards of 10,000?." 
About 1820 the cutting of all the trees on the hill produced about 6oool. 

BOYDELL'S LOTTERY for a gallery of paintings was got up in 1791 at a vast expense 
by alderman Boydell, lord mayor of London, a gr,eat encourager of the arts. The collection 
was called the Shakspeare gallery, and every ticket was sold at the time the alderman died, 
Dec. 12, 1804, before the decision of the wheel. 

BOYLE LECTURES, instituted in 1691 by Robert Boyle (sou of the great earl of 
Cork), a philosopher, distinguished by his genius, virtues, and benevolence. Eight lectures 
(in vindication of the Christian religion) are delivered at St. Mary-le-bow church, London, 
on the first Monday in each month, from January to May and September to November. 

BOYNE (a river in Kildare, Ireland), near which William III. defeated his father-in- 
law, James II., July i, 1690. The latter lost 1500 (out of 30,000) men ; the Protestant army 
lost about a third of that number (out of 30,000). James fled to Dublin, thence to Water- 
ford, and escaped to France. The duke of Schomberg was killed in the battle, having been 
shot by mistake by his own soldiers as he was crossing the river. Here also was killed the 
rev. George Walker, who defended Londonderry in 1689. Near Drogheda is a splendid 
obelisk, 150 feet in height, erected in 1736 by the Protestants of the empire in commemora- 
tion of this victory. 

BOYNE, man-of-war of 98 guns, destroyed by fire at Portsmouth, May 4, 1795, by the 
explosion of the magazine ; numbers perished. Portions were recovered June, 1840. 

BRABANT (now part of the kingdoms of Holland and Belgium), an ancient duchy, part 
of Charlemagne's empire, fell to the share of his son Lothaire. It became a separate duchy 
(called at first Lower Lorraine) in 959. It descended to Philip II. of Burgundy, and in 
regular succession to the emperor Charles Y. In the 1 7th century it was held by Holland 
and Austria, as Dutch Brabant and the Walloon provinces, and underwent many changes 
through the wars of Europe. The Austrian division was taken by the French in 1 746 and 
1794. It was united to the Netherlands in 1814, but has formed part of Belgium, under 
Leopold, since 1830. His heir is styled duke of Brabant. See Belgium. 

BRACELETS w r ere worn by the ancients, and armillce were Roman military rewards. 
Those of pearls and gold were worn by the Roman ladies. 

BRADFIELD RESERYOIR. See Sheffield, 1864. 
BRADFORD. See Poison. 

BRADSHAW'S RAILWAY GUIDE was first published by Mr. G. Bradshaw in Dec. 
1841. He had previously published occasionally a Railway Companion. 

* On April 17, 1860, a large number of persons of all classes assembled at Farnborough to witness a 
desperate conflict between Thomas Sayers, the (rnampion of England, a light Sussex man, about 5 feet 
8 inches high, and John Heenan, the " Benccia B->y," a huge American, in height 6 feet i inch. Strength, 
however, was matched by skill ; and eventually the fight was interrupted. Both men received a silver 
belt on May 31 following. Tom King beat Mace, and obtained the champion's belt, &c., Nov. 26, 1862 ; 
he beat Goss, Sept. i, 1863, and Heenan (nearly to death) Dec. 10, 1863. A trial, in consequence of the 
last fight ensued : the culprits were discharged, on promising not to offend again, April 5, 1864. On Jan. 
4, 1865, Wormald obtained the championship after a contest with Marsden. 

BRA 121 BRA 

BKAGANZA, a city in Portugal, gave title to Alfonso, natural .son of Pedro I. of Portugal 
tin 1422), founder of the house of Braganza. When the nation, in a bloodless revolution in 
1640, threw off the Spanish yoke, John, duke of Braganza, as John IV., was called to the 
throne ; his family continues to reign. See Portugal and Brazil. 

BRAHMINS, the highest of the four castes of the Hindoos. Pythagoras is thought to 
have learned from them his doctrine of the Metempsychosis ; and it is affirmed that some of 
the Greek philosophers went to India on purpose to converse with them. The modern 
Brahmins derive their name from Brahmah, one of the three beings whom God, according 
to their theology, created, and with whose assistance he formed the world. The modern 
Indian priests are still the depositaries of the sacred learning of India. See Vedas. 

BRAINTREE CASE (in Essex), which was decided in 1842 by Dr. Lushington, who 
determined that a minority in a parish vestry cannot levy a church rate. 

BRAMHAM (W. R. York) : near here the earl of Northumberland and lord Bardolf were 
defeated and slain by sir Thomas Rokeby, the general of Henry IV., Feb. 19, 1408; and 
Fairfax was defeated'by the royalists under the duke of Newcastle, March 29, 1643. 

BRANDENBURG, a city in Prussia, founded by the Slavonians, who gave it the name 
of Banber, which signified Guard of the Forest, according to some ; others say, Burg, or 
city of the Brenns. Henr}' I., surnamed the Fowler, after defeating the Slavonians, fortified 
Brandenburg, 926, as a rampart against the Huns, and bestowed the government on Sigefroi, 
ymnt of Ringelheim, with the title of Margrave, or protector of the marches or frontiers. 
The emperor Sigismund gave perpetual investiture to Frederick IV. of Nuremburg, ancestor 
)f the Royal family of Prussia, who was made elector in 1417. For a list of the Margraves 
since 1134, see Prussia. 

BRANDENBURG HOUSE, Hammersmith. See Queen Caroline. 

BRANDY (German Branntwein, burnt wine), the spirit distilled from wine. It appears 
:o have been known to Raymond Lully in the I3th century, and to have been manufactured 
in France early in the I4th. It was at first used medicinally, and miraculous cures were 
ascribed to its influence. In 1851, 938,280 gallons were imported with a duty of 15*. per 
gallon. It is now manufactured in Britain. 

BRAND YWINE, a river in N. America, near which a battle took place between the 
British and the revolted Americans, in which the latter (after a day's light) were defeated 
with great loss, and Philadelphia fell into the possession of the victors, Sept. n, 1777. 

BRASS was known among all the early nations. Usher. The British from the remotest 
period were acquainted with its use. Wftitaker. When Lucius Mummius burnt Corinth 
to the ground, 14613.0., he found immense riches, and during the conflagration, it is said, 
all the metals in the city melted, and running together, formed the valuable composition 
described as Corinthian Brass. This, however, may Well be doubted, for the Corinthian 
artists had long before obtained great credit for their method of combining gold and silver 
with copper ; and the Syriac translation of the Bible says, that Hiram made the vessels for 
Solomon's temple of Corinthian brass. Dit Fresnoy. Some of the English sepulchral 
engraved brasses are said to be as old as 1277. 

BRAURONIA, festivals in Attica, at Brauron, where Diana had a temple. The most 
remarkable that attended these festivals were young virgins in yellow gowns, dedicated to 
Diana. They were about ten years of age, and not under five ; and therefore their consecra- 
tion was called " dekateuein," from deka, ten ; 600 B.C. 

BRAY, THE VICAR OF. Bray, in Berks, is famous in national song for its vicar, the 
rev. Symon Symonds, who is said to have been twice a papist and twice a Protestant in 
four successive reigns those of Henry VIII., Edward VI., Mary, and Elizabeth, between 
the years 1533 and 1558. Upon being called a turn-coat, he said he kept to his principle, 
that of " living and dying the vicar of Bray." Fuller's Church History. 

BRAZEN BULL, contrived by Perillus, a brass-founder at Athens, for Phalaris, tyrant of 
Agrigentum, 570 B.C. He cast a brazen bull, larger than life, with an opening in the. side 
to admit the victims. A fire was kindled underneath to roast them to death ; and the throat 
was so contrived that their dying groans resembled the roaring of a bull. Phalaris admired 
the invention and workmanship, but said it was reasonable the artist should make the first 
experiment, and ordered his execution. Ovid mentions that the Agrigentes, maddened by 
the tyrant's cruelties, revolted, seized him, cut his tongue out and roasted him in the brazen 
bull, 549 B.C. 



BRAZIL, an empire in South America, was discovered by Alvarez de Cabral, a Portu- 
guese, who was driven upon its coasts by a tempest, Jan. 26, 150x3. He called it the land of 
the Holy Cross ; but it was subsequently called Brazil, on account of its red wood. The 

French having seized on Portugal in 1807" the royal family and nobles embarked for Brazil, 
and landed March 7, 1808. The dominant religion is Roman Cath< " 
tolerated. Population in 1856, 7,677,800. See Portugal. 

Catholic ; but others are 

Pedro Alvarez Cabal discovers Espirito Santo, 

coast of Brazil, and lands . . . May 3 1500 
Brazil explored by Amerigo Vespucci, about . 1504 
Divided into captaincies by the king of Portugal 1 530 
Martin Le Souza founds the first European 

colony at San Vincente 1531 

Jews banished from Portugal to Brazil . . 1548 
San Salvador (Bahia) founded by Thome de 

Souza 1549 

French Protestants occupy bay of Rio Janeiro . 1555 

Expelled 1567 

Sebastian founded ,, 

Brazil, with Portugal, becomes subject to Spain 1 580 
James Lancaster captures Pernambuco . . 1593 
The French establish a colony at Maranham . 1594 

Belem founded by Caldeira 1615 

The French expelled 

The Dutch seize the coast of Brazil, and hold 
Pernambuco ....... 1630 

Defeated at Guararapes 1646 

Give up Brazil 1661 

Gold mining commences 1693 

Destruction of Palmares 1697 

The French assault and capture Rio Janeiro 1710-11 
Diamond" mines discovered in Sezzo Frio . .1729 

Jesuits expelled 1758-60 

Capital transferred from Bahia to Rio Janeiro 1763 
Royal f amily of Portugal arrive at Brazil, Mar. 7, 1 808 
First printing-press established . . . . 
Brazil becomes a kingdom. .... 
King John VI. returns to Portugal, and Dom 

Pedro becomes regent 1821 

Brazil declares its independence . Sept. 7, 1822 
Pedro I. crowned emperor . . Dec. i, ,, 
New constitution ratified . . March 25, 1824 
Independence recognised by Portugal, Aug. 29, 1825 
Abdication of Dom Pedro I. . . April 7, 1831 

Reform of the constitution 1834 

Accession of Pedro II. 1840 

Steam- ship line to Europe commenced . . 1850 
Suppression of the slave-trade ; railways com- 
menced 1852 

Rio Janeiro lit with gas 1854 

The British ship "Prince of Wales" wrecked 
at Albardas, on coast of Brazil, is plundered 
by some of the natives, and some of the crew 

killed, about June 7, 1861 

Reparation long refused ; reprisals made ; five 
Brazilian merchant ships being seized by the 




British Dec. 31, 

The Brazilian minister at London pays 3,200^. 
as an indemnity, under protest . Feb. 26, 

The Brazilian government request the British 
to express regret for reprisals ; declined ; 
diplomatic intercourse between the two 
countries suspended . . May 5-28, 

Dispute between the British and Brazilian 
governments respecting the arrest of some 
British officers at Rio Janeiro (June 17, 1862) 
is referred to the arbitration of the king of 
Belgium, who decides in favour of the latter 
June 18, 

New ministry formed ; F. J. Furtado, presi- 
dent prospect of reconciliation with Great 
Britain Aug. 30, 

U. S. war-steamer "Wachusett" seizes the 
Confederate steamer " Florida," in the port 
of Bahia, while under protection of Brazil, 
Oct. 7 ; after remonstrance, Mr. Seward, 
U. S. foreign minister, apologises. [The 
" Florida" had been (inadvertently?) sunk.] 
Dec. 26, 

The Comte d'Eu and the Princess Isabella (on 
their marriage tour) land at Southampton 

Feb. 7, 

War with Uruguay the Brazilians take Pay- 
sandu, and march upon Monte Video, Feb. 2, 

Lopez, president of Paraguay, declares war 

against the Argentine Republic, which unites 

with Brazil New combinations forming 

April, May, 

Amicable relations with England restored 


The emperor joins the army marching against 
Lopez Aug. 


1825. Dom Pedro (of Portugal) first emperor, Oct. 
12, abdicated the throne of Brazil in favour of his 
infant son, April 7, 1831 ; died Sept. 24, 1834. 

1831. Dom Pedro II. (born Dec. 2, 1825) succeeded 
on his father's abdication : assumed the govern- 
ment July 23, 1840 ; crowned July 18, 1841 ; mar- 
ried Sept. 4, 1843, Princess Theresa of Naples ; the 
PRESENT emperor (1865). 

Heiress : Isabella, born July 29, 1846 ; married to 
Louis comte d'Eu, son of the Due de Nemours, 
Oct. 15, 1864. 

iS6 5 

BREAD. Ching-Noung, the successor of Fohi, is reputed to have been the first who 
taught men (the Chinese) the art of husbandry and the method of making bread from wheat, 
and wine from rice, 1998 B.C. Univ. Hist. Baking of bread was known in the patriarchal 
ages; see Exodus xii. 15. It became a profession at Rome, 170 B.C. After the conquest of 
Macedon, 148 B.C., numbers of Greek bakers came to Rome, obtained special privileges, and 
soon obtained the monopoly of the baking trade. During the siege of Paris by Henry IV., 
owing to the famine which then raged, bread, which had been sold whilst any remained for 
a crown a pound, was at last made from the bones of the charnel-house of the Holy 
Innocents, A.D. 1594. Henault. In the time of James L, barley bread was used by the 
poor ; and now in Iceland, cod-fish, beaten to powder, is made into bread ; potato-bread is 
used in Ireland. 'The London Bakers' Company was incorporated in 1307. Bread-street 
was once the London market for bread. Until 1302, the London bakers were not allowed 
to sell any in their own shops. Stow. Bread was made with yeast by the English bakers in ; 
1634. In 1856 and 1857 Dr. Dauglish patented a mode of making "aerated bread," in; 
which carbonic acid gas is combined with water and mixed with the flour, which is said to ; 
possess the advantages of cleanliness, rapidity, and uniformity. In 1862 a company was : 

\\ aa 




formed to encourage Stevens' bread-making machinery.* 
was passed in July, 1863. 

An act for regulating bakehouses 

rtern Loaf (4*6 

. sioz.) 



I80 5 . . 

1810 . 
1812 (Aug.) . 
1814 . 




1835 . . . . 7 d. 
1840 . . 9 

June. Dec. 

1858 . 
1860 . 

3 [For 4 weeks, 






Four-pound loaf 
1825 . 


1850 . 7 6i 
1854 . .10 ii 
1855 . . ii io 
1856 . .11 ioi 
1857 . 92- 84 

1862 . 
1864 . 



June. Dec. 

8d. 7 d. 

8 7^ 

9 9 
9 8 
8 7 
7 7 


7 74 

BREAD-FRUIT TREE, mentioned by Dampier, Anson, Wallis, and other voyagers. 
A vessel under captain Bligh was fitted out to convey these trees to various British colonies 
in 1789 (see Bounty}, and again in 1791. The number taken on board at Otaheite was 1151. 
Some were left at St. Helena, 352 at Jamaica, and five were reserved for Kew Gardens, 1793. 
The tree was successfully cultivated in French Guiana, 1802. 

BREAKWATERS. The first stone of the Plymouth breakwater was lowered August 12, 
1812. It was designed to break the swell, and stretches 5280 feet across the sound ; it is 
360 feet in breadth at the bottom and more than thirty at the top, and consumed 3,666,000 
tons of granite blocks, from one to five tons each, up to April, 1841, and cost a million and 
o half sterling. The architects were Mr. John Rennie and his son sir John. The first stone 
of the lighthouse on its western extremity was laid Feb. i, 1841. Breakwaters are now in 
course of construction at Holyhead, Portland, Dover, &c. (1865). 

BREAST-PLATE. One was -worn by the Jewish high priest, 1491 B.C. (Exod. xxxix.). 
Goliath "was armed with a coat of mail," 1063 B.C. (i Sam. xvii.) Breast-plates dwindled 
to the diminutive gorgets. Ancient breast-plates are mentioned as made of gold and silver. 

BRECHIN, Scotland ; sustained a siege against the army of Edward III., 1333. The 
battle of Brechiu was fought between the forces of the earls of Huntly and Crawfurd ; the 
latter defeated, 1452. The see of Brechin was founded by David I. in 1150. One of its 
bishops, Alexander Campbell, was made prelate when but a boy, 1556. The bishopric, dis- 
continued soon after the revolution in 1688, was revived in 1731. 

BREDA, Holland, was taken by prince Maurice, of Nassau, in 1590; by the Spaniards, 
under Spinola, in 1625 ; and by the Dutch, in 1637. Our Charles II. resided here at the 
time of the restoration, 1660. See Restoration. Breda was taken by the French in 1793. 
The French garrison was expelled by the burgesses in 1813. The " Compromise of Breda" 
was a proposal to Philip II., deprecating his harsh measures in the Netherlands, presented 
and refused in 1566. 

BREECHES. Among the Greeks, this garment indicated slavery. It was worn by the 
Dacians, Parthians, and other northern nations ; and in Italy, it is said, was worn in the 
time of Augustus Caesar. In the reign of Honorius, about 394, the braccarii, or breeches- 
makers, were expelled from Rome ; but soon afterwards the use of breeches was adopted in 
other countries, and at length became general. 

BREHONS, ancient judges in Ireland, are said to have administered justice with religious 
impartiality, but in later times with a tendency to love of country. It was enacted by the 
statute of Kilkenny, that no English subject should submit to the Brehonlaws, 40 Edw. III., 
1365. These laws, however, were recognised by the native Irish till about 1650. A trans- 
lation of them was proposed in 1852, the publication of which may be expected. 


BREMEN (N. Germany), said to have been founded in 788, and long an archbishopric 
and one of the leading towns of the Hanseatic league, was allowed a seat and a vote in the 
college of imperial cities in 1640. In 1648 it was secularised and erected into a duchy and 

* ASSIZE OF BREAD. The first statute for the regulation of the sale of bread was 3 John, 1203. The 
chief justiciary, and a baker commissioned by the king, had the inspection of the assize. Mattheic Paris. 
The assize was further regulated by statute in 51 Henry III. 1266, and 8 Anne, 1710. Bread Act, Ireland, 
placing its sale on the same footing as in England, i Viet. 1838. Bread was directed to be sold by weight 
in London in 1822 ; the statute " Assessa Panis " was repealed in 1824; and the sale of bread throughout 
the country was regulated in 1836. 

BRE 124 BRI 

held by Sweden till 1712, when it was taken possession of by Denmark in 1731, by Avhora 
it was ceded to Hanover. It was taken by the French in 1757, who were expelled by the 
Hanoverians in 1758. Bremen was annexed by Napoleon to the French empire in 1810; 
but its independence was restored in 1813, and all its old franchises in 1815. Population of 
the province in 1862, about 90,000. See Hanse Toums. 

BRESCIA, N. Italy (the ancient Brixia), became important under the Lombards, and 
suffered by the wars of the Italian Republics. It was taken by the French under Gaston de 
Foix in 1512, when it is said 40,000 of the inhabitants were massacred. It surrendered to 
the Austrian general Haynau, March 30, 1849, on severe terms. 

BRESLAU, in Silesia, was burnt by the Mongols in 1241, and conquered by Frederick 
II. of Prussia, in Jan. 1741. A fierce battle took place here between the Austrians and 
Prussians, the latter under prince Bevern, who was defeated Nov. 22, 1757. Breslau was 
taken : but was regained, Dec. 21, the same year. It was besieged by the French, and sur- 
rendered to them Jan. 1807, and again in 1813. 

BREST, a sea-port, N.W. France, was besieged by Julius Csesar, 54 B.C. possessed by 
the English, A.D. 1378 given up to the duke of Brittany, 1390. Lord Berkeley and a 
British fleet and army were repulsed here with dreadful loss in 1694. The magazine burnt, 
to the value of some millions of pounds sterling, 1744. The marine hospitals, with fifty 
galley slaves, burnt, 1766. The magazine again destroyed by fire, July 10, 1784. From 
this great depot of the French navy, numerous squadrons were equipped against England 
during the late war, among them the fleet which lord Howe defeated on the 1st of June, 
1794. England maintained a large blockading squadron off the harbour from 1793 to 1815 ; 
but with little injury to France. It is now a chief naval station of that country, and from 
the fortifications and other vast works of late construction it is considered impregnable. The 
British fleet visited Brest, Aug. 1865. 

BRETAGNE. See Brittany. BRETHREN. See Bohemian and Plymouth Brethren. 

BRETIGNY, PEACE OF, concluded with France, May 8, 1360, by which England retained 
Gascony and Guienne, and acquired other provinces ; renounced her pretensions to Maine, 
Anjou, Touraine, and Normandy ; was to receive 3, 000,000 crowns, and to release king John, 
long a prisoner. The treaty not being earned out, the king remained and died in London. 

BRETON. See Cape Breton. 

BRETWALDA (wide-ruling chief), one of the kings of the Saxon heptarchy, chosen by 
the others as a leader in war against their common enemies. The following are mentioned 
by Bede (500 to 642), Ella, king of Sussex ; Ceawlin of Wessex ; Ethelbert of Kent ; 
Redwald of East Anglia ; Edwin, Oswald, and Oswy of Northumberland. The title (then 
become obsolete) was bestowed upon Egbert, 828. 

BREVIARY (so called as being an abridgment of the books used in the Roman Catholic 
Service), contains the seven canonical hours, viz. : matins or lauds, primes, tierce, sexte, 
nones, vespers, and complines. Its origin is ascribed to pope Gelasius I. about 492. It was 
first called the custos, and afterwards the breviary ; and both the clergy and laity use it 
publicly and at home. It was in use among the ecclesiastical orders about 1080 ; and was 
reformed by the councils of Trent and Cologne, and by Pius V., Urban VIII. , and other popes. 
The quality of type in which the breviary was first printed gave the name to the type 
called brevier (in which this page is printed). 

BREWERS are traced to Egypt. Brewing was known to our Anglo-Saxon ancestors. 
Tindal. "One William Murle, a rich maltman or brucr, of Dunstable, had two horses all 
trapped with gold, 1414." Stow. In Oct. 1851, there were 2305 licensed brewers in England, 
146 in Scotland, and 97 in Ireland ; total 2548 : these are exclusive of retail and inter- 
mediate brewers. There were 40,418 licensed brewers in the United Kingdom in 1858 ; the 
revenue from whom to the state was in that year 81,030?. In 1858 in England there were 
205 great brewers. See Ale, Porter. 

BRIAR'S CREEK (N. America), near which the Americans, 2000 strong, under general 
Ashe, were totally defeated by the English under general Prevost, March 16, 1779. 

BRIBERY forbidden, Deut. xvi. 19. Samuel's sons were guilty of it, B.C. 1112. (i Sam. 
viii. 3.) Thomas de Weyland, a judge, was banished for bribery in 1288 ; he was chief 
justice of the common pleas. William de Thorpe, chief justice of the king's bench, was 
hanged for bribery in 1351. Another judge was fined 20,000?. for the like offence, 1616. 
Mr. Walpole, secretary-at-war, was sent to the Tower for bribery, in 1712. Lord Strangford 
was suspended from voting in the Irish house of lords, for soliciting a bribe, January, 




Messrs. Sykes and Rumbold fined and im- 
prisoned for bribery . . . March 14, 1776 

Messrs. Davidson, Parsons, and Hopping, im- 
prisoned for bribery at Ilehester . April 28, 1804 

Mr. Swan, M.P. for Penryn, fined and im- 
prisoned, and sir Manasseh Lopez sentenced 
to a fine of io,oool. and to two years' im- 
prisonment for bribery at Grampound, Oct. 1819 

The members for Liverpool and Dublin un- 
seated in t 1831 

BRIBERY AT ELECTIONS. In 1854 an important act was passed consolidating and 
ending previous acts relating to this offence, from 7 Will. III. (1695) to 5 & 6 Viet. c. 184.* 

The friends of Mr. Knight, candidate for Cam- 
bridge, convicted of bribery . . Feb. 20, 1835 
Elections for Ludlow and Cambridge made void 1840 
Sudbury disfranchised, 1848 ; St. Alban's also . 1852 
Elections at Derby and other places declared 

void for bribery, in I 8 53 

Gross bribery practised at Gloucester, Wake- 
field, and Berwick, in ^59 

Mr. Edward Leatham convicted of bribery at 
Wakefield July 19, ^60 

BRICKS were used in Babylon, Egypt, Greece, and Rome ; in England by the Romans 
r.boiit A.D. 44. Made under the direction of Alfred the Great, about 886. Saxon Chron. 
The size regulated by order of Charles I., 1625. Taxed 1784. The number of bricks 
which paid duty in England in 1820 was 949,000,000; in 1830, above 1,100,000,000; in 
1840, 1,400,000,000 ; and in 1850, 1,700,000,000. The duties and drawbacks of excise on 
1 nicks were repealed in 1850. In 1839 Messrs. Cooke and Cunningham brought out their 
machinery by which, it is said, 18,000, bricks may be made in ten hours. Messrs. Dixon 
ml Corbett, near Newcastle, in 1861, were making bricks by steam at the rate of 1500 per 
hour. The machinery is the invention of Clayton & Co., London. 

BRIDEWELL, originally a palace of king John, near Fleet-ditch, London, Avas rebuilt 
by Henry VIII., 1522, and given to the city for a Avorkhouse by Edward VI., 1553. The 
Xew BrideAvell prison, erected in 1829, Avas pulled doAvn in 1864 ; that of Tothill-fields was 
rebuilt in 1831. 

BRIDGES were first of Avood. The ancient stone bridges in China are of great magni- 
tude. Abydos is famous for the bridge of boats Avhich Xerxes built across the Hellespont, 
480 B.C. Trajan's magnificent stone bridge over the Danube, 4770 feet in length, Avas built 
in A.D. 105. Brotherhoods for building bridges existed in S. France about nSo.f 

The fine chain suspension bridge at the Menai 
Strait I 8 2 5 

Westminster, 1750; Blackfriars, 1769 ; Water- 
loo, 1817; Southwark, 1819; Hungerford, 
1845 ; Chelsea, 1858 ; Vauxhall, 1816. 

A railway bridge 2^ miles long is projected 
over the Firth of Forth . . . Dec. 1864 

Probably the widest bridge in the world at pre- 
sent is the Victoria bridge over the Thames 
(by which the London, Chatham, and Dover 
railway will enter the Victoria station, Pim- 
lico) ; founded by Lord Harris . Feb. 22, 1865 

For details see separate articles, and also Tubu- 
lar bridge, Victoria bridge, &c. 

BRIDGEWATER, Somersetshire, Avas incorporated by king John, in 1200. In the Avar 
between Charles I. and the parliament, the forces of the latter reduced part of the town 
to ashes, 1643. Here stood an ancient castle in Avhich the ill-advised duke of Monmouth 
lodged Avhen he Avas proclaimed king in 1685. 

BRIDGEWATER CANAL, the first great work of the kind in England, Avas begun by 
the duke of BridgeAvater, styled the father of canal navigation in this country, in 1759, and 
opened 1761. Mr. Brindley Avas the engineer. It commences at Worsley, seven miles from 
Mam/hester ; and at Barton Bridge is an aqueduct Avhich, for upwards of 200 yards, conveys 
the canal across the river Invell. The length of the canal is about tAventy-niue miles. 

BRIDGEWATER TREATISES. The rev. Francis, earl of Bridgewater, died in April, 
1829, leaving by will Soool. to be given to eight persons, appointed by the president of the 

Triangular bridge at Croyland Abbey referred 
to in a charter dated ... . 943 

First stone bridge erected at Bow, near Strat- 
ford, by queen Matilda . . about 1 100-18 

Bishop's bridge, Norwich 1295 

London Bridge : one existed about 978 ; one 
built of wood 1014; one by Peter of Cole- 
church 1176-1209 ; new London Bridge 
finished ^831 

The first large iron bridge erected over the 
Severn, Shropshire 1777 

Bunderland bridge by Wilson, 100 feet high, an 
arch, with a span of 236 feet . ... 1796 

* On April 17, 1858, in the case of Cooper v. Slade, it waj ruled that the payment of travelling expenses 
was bribery ; and in the same year an act was passed which permits candidates to provide conveyances 
fur voters, but forbids payment of travelling expenses. 

t The Devil's bridge, in the canton of Uri, so called from its frightful situation, was built on two high 
ricks, so that it could scarcely be conceived how it was erected, and many fabulous stories were invented 
to account for it. At Schaffhausen an extraordinary bridge was built over the Rhine, which is there 400 
feet wide : there was a pier in the middle of the river, but it is doubtful whether the bridge rested upon 
it : a man of the lightest weight felt the bridge totter under him, yet waggons heavily laden passed over 
vdthout danger. The bridge was destroyed by the French in 1799. 




Royal Society, who should write an essay "on the Power, Wisdom, and Goodness of God, 
as manifested in the Creation." The essays (by sir Charles Bell, Drs. T. Chalmers, John 
Kidd, William Buckland, William Front, Peter M. Roget, and the revs. William Whewell 
and A\ r illiam Kirby) were published 1833 5. 

BRIEF, a written instrument in the Roman Catholic church, of early but uncertain date. 
Briefs are the letters of the pope despatched to princes and others on public affairs, and are 
usually written short, hence the name, and without preface or preamble, and on paper ; in 
which particulars they are distinguished from bulls. The latter are ample and are always 
written on parchment. Briefs are sealed with red wax and the seal of the fisherman, or St. 
Peter in a boat, and always in the presence of the pope. The Queen's letter authorising 
collections in churches for charitable purposes are called "briefs." 

BRIENNE (N.E. France). Here the allied armies of Russia and Prussia were defeated 
by the French, Feb. I and 2, 1814. 

BRIGHTON, or BRIGHTHELMSTONE, in Sussex, formerly inhabited chiefly by fishermen, 
now a place of fashionable resort. The length of the esplanade here from the Steyne is 
about 1250 feet. 

The Block-house swept away . . March 26, 1786 
Part of the cliff fell ; great damage Nov. 16, 1807 
Chain-pier, 1,134 feet long, J 3 wide, completed 1823 
Brighton made a parliamentary borough . 1832 
The i-ailway to London opened . Sept. 21, 1841 
Collision of trains in Clayton tunnel, 23 per- 
sons killed and many wounded . Aug. 25, 1861 

Here Charles II. embarked for France after the 
battle of Worcester 1651 

The Prince of Wales (afterwards George IV.) 
founded the Pavilion, 1784; greatly enlarged 
and made to resemble the Kremlin at Mos- 
cow, 1784-1823 ; it was sold to the town for 


BRILL (or Briel), Holland. A seaport, seized by the expelled Dutch confederates, 
became the first seat of their independence. Brill was given up to the English in 1585 as 
security for advances made by Queen Elizabeth to the states of Holland. It was restored in 

BRISTOL (W. England), built by Brennus, a British prince, 380 B.C., is mentioned in 
A. r>. 430 as a fortified city. It was called Caer Oder, a city in the valley of Bath ; and 
sometimes Caer Brito, the British city, and by the Saxons Brightstowe, pleasant place. 
Gildas and Nennius speak of Bristol in the 5th and 7th centuries. 

Taken by the earl of Gloucester, in his defence 
of his sister Maud, the empress, against king 

Stephen 1138* 

Eleanor of Brittany (daughter of Geoffrey, son 
of Henry I.) dies in the castle after 39 years' 

imprisonment 1241 

St. Mary's church built 1292 

Bristol made a distinct county by Edward III. 1373 
Bishopric founded by Henry VIII. . . . 1542 

A new charter obtained 1581 

Taken by prince Rupert, July 26, 1643 ; by 

Cromwell Sept. 1645 

Edwd. Colston's hospital, a free school, and 
other charities established [his birthday, 

Nov. 14, kept annually] 1708 

Act passed for new exchange, 1723 ; erected . 1741 

Bread riots 1753 

Bridge built May, 1760 

Attempt to set the shipping on fire . Jan. 22, 1777 

Riot on account of a toll ; the troops fire on the 
populace, and many are wounded . Oct. 25, 1793 

Docks built 1804-9 

Riot on the entrance of sir Charles Wetherell, 
the recorder, into the city. He was opposed 
to the reform bill, and thus obnoxious to 
the lower classes. The mansion house, the 
bishop's palace, several merchants' stores, 
some of the prisons (the inmates liberated), 
and nearly 100 houses had been burned and 
many lives lost . . . Oct. 29-31, 1831 
Trial of rioters, Jan. 2 (four executed and 
twenty-two transported). Suicide of Col. 
Brereton, during his trial by court-martial 

Jan. 9, 1832 

Meeting of British Association . . . Aug. 1836 
Railway to London completed . June 30, 1841 
Clifton Suspension-bridge opened . Dec. 8, 1864 
Industrial Exhibition about be to opened . Oct. 1865 

BRISTOL, SEE or, one of the six bishoprics erected by Hemy VIII. out of the spoils 
of the monasteries and religious houses Avhich that monarch had dissolved, 1542. The 
cathedral was the church of the abbey of St. Austin, founded here by Robert Fitz-Harding, 
son to a king of Denmark, and a citizen of Bristol, 1148. It is valued in the king's books 
at 338?. 85. ^d. Paul Bushe, provincial of the Bons-hommes was the first bishop, in 1542 
deprived for being married, 1554. The see of Bristol was united by an order in council 
with that of Gloucester, in 1836, and they now form one see under the name of Gloucester 
and Bristol. The cathedral (under repair "since 1844) was reopened in 1861. 

* From the period of Henry II. in the i2th to the middle of the i8th century, Bristol ranked next to 
London, as the most populous, commercial, and flourishing place in the kingdom ; but since the latter 
time it has declined, and been exceeded in these respects by Liverpool, Manchester, Leeds, Birmingham, 
and Glasgow. 




BRISTOL, continued. 


Hon. G. Pelham, translated to Exeter . 1807 
John Luxmoore, translated to Hereford 1808 
Win. Lort Mansell, died . June 27, 1820 
John Kaye, translated to Lincoln . . 1827 

1827. Robert Gray died . . . Sept. 28, 1834 
1834. Joseph Allen, the last bishop, translated 
to Ely in June, 1836. (In October the 
diocese was united with Gloucester.) 

BRITAIN (called by the Romans Britannia,* from its Celtic name Prydhain, Camdcn}. 

'The earliest records of the history of this island are the manuscripts and poetry of the Cam- 

1 1 iaiis. The Celts, the ancestors of the Britons and modern Welsh, were the first inhabi- 

<>f Britain. It is referred to as the Cassiterides or tin-islands by Herodotus, 450 B.C. ; 

'ion or I erne by Aristotle, 350 B.C. ; Polybius, 260 B.C. Britain, including England, 

nul, and Wales, was anciently called Albion, the name of Britain being applied to all 

the islands collectively Albion to only one. Pliny. See Albion. It was invaded by 

Julius Cfesar, 55 B.C. ; subdued by Agricola, A.D. 84; left by the Romans, about 426'; 

i ivaded by the Saxons, 429 ; the southern part became one kingdom under Egbert, 828 ; 

.subdued by William I., 1066. See England, Scotland, and Wales. 

Severus keeps his court at York, then called 
Eboracum, 208 ; finishes his wall, and dies 

at York 211 

Carausius usurps the throne of Britain " . . 286 
He is killed by Alectus, another usurper . 294 
Constantius recovers Britain from Alectus . . 296- 
St. Alban and 17,000 Christians martyred (Bede) 304 
Constantius, emperor of Rome, dies at York . 306 
British bishops at the council of Aries . . 314 
Scots and Picts invade Britain, 360 ; routed by 

Theodosius 3 6S 

Romans gradually withdraw from Britain . 402-418 
The Saxons and Angles are called in to aid the 

natives against the Picts and Scots . 429 or 449 
Having expelled these, the Anglo-Saxons attack 

the Britons, driving them into Wales . . 455 
Many Britons settled in Armorica (Brittany) 388-457 
The Saxon Heptarchy ; Britain divided into 

seven or more kingdoms . . . .457 
Supposed reigns of Vortigern, 446 ; Vortimer, 

Divitiacus, king of the Suessones, in Gaul, 
said to have supremacy over part of Britain 

B.C. 57 

First invasion of Britain by the Romans, under 
Julius Caesar 55-54 

He defeats Cassivelaunus, general of the 
Britons 54 

Cvmbeline (Cunobelin) king of Britain . . 4 

Aulus Plautus defeats the Britons, A.D. 43 ; he 
and Vespasian reduce S. Britain ... 47 

Caractacus defeated by Ostorius, 50 ; carried 
in chains to Rome 51 

Romans defeated by Boadicea ; 70,000 slain, 
and London burnt : she is defeated by Sue- 
tonius ; 80,000 slain 61 

Agrie.ola conquers Anglesea, and overruns 
Britain in seven campaigns, and reforms 
the government 78-84 

He defeats the Caledonians under Galgacus ; 
surrenders the islands 

The emperor Adrian visits Britain, 120 ; and 
builds a wall from the Tyne to the Solway . 121 

Lucius, king of the Britons, said to have sent 
an embassy on religious affairs to pope 
Eleutherius, about 181 

The ]>ritons (allies of Albums) defeated at ___ 
I.y >ns by Severus 


them Britain subdued and divided by the 
nans into two provinces . 


464 ; Vortigern again, 471 ; Aurelius Ambro- 
sius, 481 ; and Arthur Peiidragon . . 500 
The renowned king Arthur said to reign . 506-542 
Arrival of St. Augustin (or Austin), and re- 
establishment of Christianity . . . . 597 
Cadwallader, last king of the Britons, reigns . 678 
Landisf arne church destroyed by the Northmen 794 
The Saxon Heptarchy ends, and Egbert, king 
of Wessex, becomes KING OF ENGLAND . 828- 


KENT. [The shire of Kent.] 
Hengist. [473, Saxon Chronicle.] 
yEsc, Esca, or Escus, son of Hengist; iri honour 

of whom the kings of Kent were for some time 

called JEscings. 
Octa, son of JEsc. 

Hermenric, or Ermenric, son of Octa. 
St. Ethelbert ; first Christian king (styled Rex 


Eadbald, son of Ethelbert. 
Ercenbert, or Ercombert, son of Eadbald. 
Ecbert, or Egbert, son of Ercenbert. 
Lother, or Lothair, brother of Ecbert. 
Edric ; slain in 687. [The kingdom now subject 

to various leaders.] 
Wihtred, or Wihgtred. 

IthSrt II., I so 

Edbert, or Ethelbert Pryn ; deposed. 

796. Cuthred, or Guthred. 

805. Baldred; who in 823 lost his life and kingdom 
to EGBERT, king of Wessex. 

SOUTH SAXONS. [Sussex and Surrey. ] 
490. Ella, a warlike prince, succeeded by 
514. Cissa, his son, whose reign was long and peace- 
ful, exceeding 70 years. 
[The South Saxons then fell into an almost total 

dependence on the kingdom of Wessex.] 
648. Edilwald, Edilwach, Adelwach, or Ethelwach. 
686. Authun and Berthun, brothers ; reigned jointly ; 
vanquished by Ina, king of Wessex, 689 ; king- 
dom conquered in 725. 

WEST SAXONS. [Berks, Southampton, Wilts, Somerset, 

Dorset, Devon, and part of CornwalL] 
519. Cerdicus. 

534. Cynric, or Kenrick, son of Cerdic. 
560. Ceawlin, son of Cynric ; banished ; dies in 593. 

* The Romans eventually divided Britain into Britannia Prima (the country south of the Thames and 
n); Britannia Secunda (Wales); Flavia Cwsariensis (between the Thames, Severn, and Humber); 
ma Ctesariensis (between the Humber and the Tyne); and Fa lentia (between the Tyiic and the Firth 

of Forth). 

t The term, " Octarchy " is sometimes used ; Northumbria being divided into Bernicia and Deira, 

ruled by separate kings. 








BRITAIN, continued. 

Ceolric, nephew to Ceawlin. 


| Cynegils, and in 

) Cwiclieim, his son reigned jointly. 

Cenwal, Cenwalh, or Cenwald. 

Sexburga, his queen, sister to Penda, king o 

Mercia ; of great qualities ; probably deposed 
Escwine ; in conjunction with Centwine ; on 

the death of Escwine. 
Centwine rules alone. 
Caidwallo : went to Rome, to expiate his deeds 

of blood, and died there. 
Ina or Inas, a brave and wise ruler ; journeyed 

to Rome ; left an excellent code of laws. 
Ethelheard, or Ethelard, related to Ina. 
Cuthred, brother to Ethelheard. 
Sigebright, or Sigebert, having murdered his 

friend Cunibran, governor of Hampshire, was 

compelled to fly. He was slain by one of his 

victim's retainers. 
Cynewulf, or Kenwulf, or Cermlpe, a noble 

youth of the line of Cerdic ; murdered by a 

banished subject. 
Bertric, or Beorhtric : poisoned by drinking ol 

a cup his queen had pi-epared for another. 
EGBERT, afterwards sole monarch of England, 

and Bretwalda. 

EAST SAXONS. [Essex, Middlesex, and part of Herts.] 
526, 527, or 530, Erchenwin, or Erchwine. 

587. Sled da ; his son. 

597. St. Sebert, or Saberfc ; son of the preceding : 
first Christian king. 

614. Saxred or Sexted, or Serred, jointly with Sige- 
bert and Seward ; all slain. 

623. Sigebert II. surnamed the little : son of Seward. 

655. Sigebert III. surnamed the good ; brother of 
Sebert : put to death. 

661. Swithelm (or Suidhelm), son of Sexbatd. 

663. Sigher, or Sigeric, jointly with Sebbi, or Sebba, 
who became a monk. 

693. Sigenai'd, or Sigehard, and Suenfrid. 

700. Offa ; left his queen and kingdom, and became 
a monk at Rome. 

709. Suebricht, or Selred. 

738. Swithred, or Swithed ; a long reign. 

792. Sigeric ; died iu a pilgrimage to Rome. 

799. Sigered. 

323. Kingdom seized by EGBERT of Wessex. 

NORTHUMBRIA. [Lancaster, York, Cumberland, West- 
morland, Durham, and Northumberland.] 
* r * Northumbria was at first divided into two sepa- 
rate governments, Bernicia and Deira ; the for- 
mer stretching from the river Tweed to the 
Tyne, and the latter from the Tyne to the 

547. Ida ; a valiant Saxon. 
560. Adda, his eldest son ; king of Bernicia. 
Ella, king of Deira ; afterwards the sole king of 

Northumbria (to 587). 
567. Glappa, Clappa, or Elapea : Bernicia. 

572. Heodwulf; Bernicia. 

573. Freodwulf ; Bernicia. 
580. Theodoric ; Bernicia. 

588. Ethelric ; Bernicia. 

593. Ethelfrith, surnamed the Fierce. 

617. Edwin, son of Ella, king of Deira in 590. The 

greatest prince of the heptarchy in that age. 

flume. Slain in battle with Penda, of Mercia. 

634. The kingdom divided ; Eanfrid rules in Ber- 

nicia, and Osric in Deira ; both put to death. 

635. Oswald slain in battle. 

642. Osweo, or Oswy ; a reign of great renown. 
670. Ecfrid, or Egfrid, king of Northumbria. 
685. Alcfrid, or Ealdferth. 
705. Osred, son of Ealdferth. 

716. Cenric ; sprung from Ida. 

718. Osric, son of Alcfrid. 

729. Ceolwulf ; died a monk. 

737. Eadbert, or Egbert ; retired to a monaster 

757. Oswulf, or Osulf ; slain in a sedition. 

759. Edilwald, or Mollo ; slain by Aired. 

765. Aired, Ailred, or Alured ; deposed. 

774. Ethelred, son of Mollo ; expelled. 

778. Elwald, or Celwold ; deposed and slain. 

789. Osred, son of Aired ; fled. 

790. Ethelred restored ; afterwards slain. 
794. Erdulf, or Ardulf ; deposed. 

806. Alfwold. 

808. Erdulf restored. 

809. Eanred. 

841. Kingdom annexed by EGBERT. 

EAST ANGLES. [Norfolk, Suffolk, Cambridge, 
571 or 575. Uffa ; a noble German. 
578. Titilus or Titulus ; son of Uffa. 
599. Redwald, son of Titilus; the greatest pi 

of the East Angles. 
624. Erpwald, Eorpwald, or Eordwald. 
627. Richbert. 

629. Sigebert, half-brother to Erpwald. 
632. Egfrid, or Egric ; cousin to Sigebert. 
635. Anna, or Annas ; a just ruler ; killed. 

654. Ethelric, or Ethelhere ; slain in battle. 

655. Ethelwald ; his brother. 
664. Aldulf, or Aldwulf. 

713. Selred, or Ethelred. 

746. Alphwuld. 

749. Beorna and Ethelred, jointly. 

758. Beorna alone. 

761. Ethelred. 

790. Ethelbert, or Ethelbryht ; treacherously put 
to death in Mercia in 792, when Offa, king 
of Mercia, overran the country, which was 
finally subdued by EGBERT. 

VIERCIA. [Gloucester, Hereford, Chester, Stafford, 
Worcester, Oxford, Salop, Warwick, JJerb;/, 
Leicester, Bucks, Northampton, Notls, Lincoln, 
Bedford, Rutland, Huntingdon, and part oj 

586. Crida, or Cridda, a noble chieftain. 

593. [Interregnum Ceolric ] 
597. Wibba, a valiant princ 

.ce, his son. 

15. Ceorl, or Cheorl ; nephew of Wibba. 

626. Penda ; fierce and cruel ; killed in battlfe. 

55. Peada, son of Penda ; killed to make way for 

56. Wulfhere (brother) ; he slew his two sous with 

his own hand. 

675. Ethelred ; became a monk. 
704. Cenred, Cendred, or Kendred ; became a monk 

at Rome. 
709. Ceolred, Celred, or Chelred ; son of Ethelred. 

16. Ethelbald ; slain in a mutiny by one of his own 

chieftains, his successor, after a defeat in 
755. Beornred, or Bernred ; himself slain. 

Offa ; he formed the great dyke on the borders 
of Wales known by his name. 
794. Egfrid or Egferth, son of Offa ; died sudd 
, Cenulph, Cenwulph, or Kenulph ; slain. 
9. Kenelm, or Cenelm, a minor ; reigned 

months ; killed by his sister Quendreda, from 
the hope of reigning. Hume. 
,, Ceolwulf, uncle to Kenelm ; expelled. 
32i. Beornulf ; killed by his own subjects. 
323. Ludecan ; a valiant ruler ; sfein. 
525. Withlafe, or Wiglaf. 
$38. Berthulf, or Bertulf. 
352. Burhred, or Burdred. 
874. Ceolwulph ; deposed by the Danes 877. 

[The kingdom merged into that of England. 



I five 





BRITANNY. See Brittany. 

BRITISH AMERICA comprises Lower and Upper Canada, Nova Scotia, New Bruns- 
wick, Newfoundland and Prince Edward's Island, Labrador, British Columbia and Van 
couver's Island. Population about 3,334,000. Delegates from the first six provinces 
met at Quebec on Oct. 10, 1864, and on Oct. 20, agreed to the basis of a Federal union, 
with the Queen as the executive (represented by the governor-general), a legislative council 
of 96 members for life, and a house of commons of 194 members. The project has 1>< >< 1 1 
transmitted to lay before parliament, and the secretary for the colonies, Mr. Cardwell, 
expressed his approval of the plan, Dec. 3, 1864. The plan was opposed by New Brunswick,' 
March 7, 1865. Messrs. Cartier and Gait came to England, in April, 1865, to advocate the 
project, and were well received. 

BRITISH ASSOCIATION for the Advancement of Science, was established by sir 
David Brewster, sir R. I. Murchison, &c. in 1831. Professor John Phillips was secretary till 
1863. It holds annual meetings ; the first of which was held at York on Sept. 27, 1831. 
One of its main objects is "to promote the intercourse of those who cultivate science with 
each other." It appoints commissions and makes pecuniary grants for scientific research ; 
and publishes annually a volume containing Reports of the proceedings. Kew observatory 
was presented to the association by the Queen in 1842. 

1. York Meeting 

2. Oxford . 

3. Cambridge 

4. Edinburgh . 

5. Dublin 

6. Bristol . 

7. Liverpool . 

8. Newcastle . 

9. Birmingham 


10. Glasgow . . 1840 
u. Plymouth. . 1841 

12. Manchester . . 1842 

13. Cork . . . 1843 

14. York (2nd time) 1844 

15. Cambridge (2nd) 1845 
1 6. Southampton . 1846 

17. Oxford (and) . 1847 

18. Swansea . . 1848 

19. Birmingham(2d) 1849 

20. Edinburgh (and) 1850 

21. Ipswich 

22. Belfast . . . 

23. Hull . . . 

24. Liverpool (2nd). 

25. Glasgow (and) . 

26. Cheltenham . 

27. Dublin (2nd) . 


28. Leeds . .1858 

29. Aberdeen . . 1859 

30. Oxford (srd) . !86o 

31. Manchester (2d) 1861 

32. Cambridge (^rd) 1862 

33. Newcastle (and) 1863 

34. Bath . . .1864 

35. Birminghamfed) 1865 

36. Nottingham for 1866 

BRITISH BANK. See Banks, Joint Stock. 

BRITISH COLUMBIA (N. America). In June, 1858, news came to California that in 
April gold had been found in abundance on the mainland of North America, a little to the 
north and east of Vancouver's Island. A great influx of gold-diggers (in a few weeks above 
50,000) from all parts was the consequence. Mr. Douglas, governor of Vancouver's Island, 
evinced much ability in preserving order. The territory with adjacent islands was made a 
British colony with the above title, and placed under Mr. Douglas. The colony was 
nominated and the government settled by 21 & 22 Vic. c. 99 (Aug. 1858), and a bishop 
nominated in 1859. For a dispute in July, 1859, see United States. The colony is said to 
be flourishing. 

BRITISH GUIANA, &c. See Guiana. BRITISH HONDURAS. See Honduras. 

BRITISH INSTITUTION (for the encouragement of British artists, Pall Mall, founded 
in 1805) opened Jan. 18, 1806, on a plan formed by sir Thomas Bernard. In the gallery 
(erected by alderman Boydell, to exhibit the paintings executed for his edition of Shaks*- 
peare), are exhibited pictures by the old masters and deceased British artists. 

BRITISH LEGION, raised by lord John Hay, col. De Lacy Evans, and others, to 
assist queen Isabella of Spain against the Carlists in 1835, defeated them at Hernani, May 
5, 1836, and at St. Sebastian's, Oct. I. 

BRITISH MUSEUM, originated with the grant by parliament (April 5, 1753) of 20,000?. 
to the daughters of sir Hans Sloane, in payment for his fine library, and vast collection of 
the productions of nature and art, which had cost him 50,000^. The library contained 50,000 
volumes and valuable MSS., and 69,352 articles of virtu enumerated in the catalogue. 
Montagu-house was obtained by government as a place for their reception. The museum 
was opened in 1759, and has since been enormously increased by gifts, bequests, and pur- 
chases ; by the Cottonian, Harleian, and other libraries ; by the Townley marbles (in 1812) ; 
by the Elgin marbles (1816) ; by the Lycian marbles obtained by sir C. Fellows (1842-6) ; 
by the Assyrian antiquities collected by Mr. Austin Layard between 1847 and 1850 ; by the 
antiquities brought from Halicarnassus (now Budrum), including remains of the celebrated 
tomb of Mausolus, by Mr. C. T. Newton (Nov. 1858) ; and by antiquities from Carthage (1860), 
Cyrene, Rhodes, and the Farnese palace (1864). George II. presented the royal library in 
1757; and in 1823, George IV. presented the library collected at Buckingham-house by 




George III., consisting of 65,250 volumes, and about 19,000 pamphlets. In 1846 the right hon. 
Thos. Grenville bequeathed to the museum his library, consisting of 20,240 volumes. Great 
additions to, and improvements in, the buildings have since been made, independently 
of the annual grant.* The fine iron railing enclosing the frontage, was completed in 
1852. The magnificent reading-room, erected by Mr. Sydney Smirke, according to apian 
by Mr. Antonio Panizzi, the librarian, at a cost of about 150,000?., was opened to the 
public, May 18, 1857. The height of the dome is 106 feet, and the diameter 140 feet. The 
room contains about 80,000 volumes, and accommodates 300 readers. The daily increasing 
library contained in 1860 above 562,000 volumes, exclusive of tracts, MSS., &c. In 1861 
the incorporation of the four library catalogues into one alphabet began three copies being 
made. The proposed separation of the antiquarian, literary, and scientific collections, was 
disapproved by a commission in 1860 ; and a bill to remove the natural history collections 
to South Kensington was rejected by the commons on May 19, 1862. A refreshment room 
for readers was opened Nov. 21, 1864. Mr. Panizzi resigned his office in 1865. 


BRITTANY, OR BRETAGNE (N. W. France), the ancient Armorica, which see. It 
formed part of the kingdom of the Franks. 

Nomenoi revolts and becomes the first count . 841 
Geoffrey I., the first duke .... 992 

Alan V., 1008; Conan II 1040 

HoelV., 1066; Alan VI 1084 

Conan III 1112 

Hoel VI. expelled ; Geoffrey of Anjou elected 

duke 1155 

Conan IV. duke, 1156; on the death of Geof- 
froy, cedes Brittany to Henry II. of England, 
and betroths his daughter, Constance, to 
Henry's son, Geoffrey (both infants) . . 1159 
Geotfroy succeeds, 1171 ; killed at a tournament 1185 
His son, Arthur, murdered by his uncle, John 
of England ; his daughter, Eleanor, impri- 
soned at Bristol (for 39 years) . . . . 1202 
Alice, daughter of Constance, and her second 
husband, Guy de Thours, proclaimed duchess, 
1203 ; marries Peter of Dreux, made duke . 1213 
John I., duke, 1237; John II. .... 1286 
John HI., 1312 ; dies without issue . . . 1341 

The succession disputed between John of 
Montfort (John IV.) supported by Edward 
of England, and Charles of Blois, made duke 
by Philip VI. of France. John is made pri- 
soner ; his -wife, Jane, besieged at Henne- 
bonne, holds out, and is relieved by the 
English, 1343 ; Jolm of Montfort dies . 1345 

Charles of Blois defeated and slain at Auray 
Sept. 29 : John V., son of Montfort, duke 1364 

John VI., duke, 1399; Francis I. . . 1442 

Peter II., 1450; Arthur III. . . . 1457 

Francis II., 1458 ; takes part with the Orlean- 
ists in France ; defeated at St. Aubin, July 
28, 1488 ; he dies in 1488 ; his heiress, Anne, 
compelled to marry Charles VIII., who 
annexes Brittany to France . . . . i 

Brittany held by the Spaniards, 1591 ; re- 
covered by Henry IV. i 

The Bretons take part in the Vendean insur- 
rection (see La Vendee) in i 

BROAD ARROW, a mark for goods belonging to the royal dockyards or navy is said 
have been ordered to be used in 1698, in consequence of robberies. 

"BROAD BOTTOM" ADMINISTRATION. The Pelham administration (which 
was so called because it formed a coalition of parties, Nov. 1 744. 

BROCADE, a silken stuff, variegated with gold or silver, and enriched with flowers ai 
figures, originally made by the Chinese ; the manufacture was established at Lyons in 1757. 

BROCOLI was brought to England from Italy in the I7th century. 

BROKERS, both of money and merchandise, were known early in England. 
Appraisers. They are licensed, and their dealings regulated by law in 1695-6, 1816, ai 
1826. The dealings of stock -brokers, were regulated in 1719, 1733, and 1736, and sul 
quently. See Pawnbroker and Barnard's Act. 

BROMINE (from the Greek Irdmos, a stink), a poisonous volatile liquid element di 
covered in salt water by M. Balard in 1826. It is found in combination with metals 
mineral waters, but not as yet in the free state. 

BRONZE was known to the ancients, some of whose bronze statues, vessels, &c. are 
the British Museum. The bronze equestrian statue of Louis XIV., 1699, in the Place 
Vendome at Paris (demolished Aug. loth, 1792), the most colossal ever made ; it contained 
60,000 Ibs. Bronze is composed of copper and tin, with sometimes a little zinc and lead. 
Ure. The present bronze coinage, penny, halfpenny and farthing (composed of 95 parts of 
copper, 4 tin, i zinc), came into circulation Dec. 1860. 

* The total expenditure by the government en the British Museum for the year .ending March 31, 
i?6o, was 78,445?.; 1861, 92,776?. ; 1864, 95,500?. : the numler of visitors to the general collection in 1851 
(exhibition year), 2,524,754; in 1859, 517,895 ; in 1862 (exhibition year), 895,007 ; in 1863, 440,801. 




BROWNIAN MOTION. So called from Robert Brown, the celebrated botanist, who, 
in 1827, by the aid of the microscope, observed in drops of dew a motion of minute particles 
which at first was attributed to rudimentary life, but was afterwards decided to be due to 
currents occasioned by inequalities of temperature and evaporation. 

BROWNISTS (afterwards called Barrowists), the first Independents (which see}, began 
with Robert Brown, a schoolmaster in Southwark, about 1580. In 1592 there were said to 
be 20,000 Brownists. Henry 'Penry, Henry Barrow, and other Brownists, were cruelly 
executed for alleged sedition, May 29, 1593. 

BRUCE' S TRAVELS. James Bruce, the "Abyssinian Traveller," set out in June, 1768, 
to discover the source of the Nile. Proceeding first to Cairo, he navigated the Nile to Syene, 
thence crossed the desert to the Red Sea, and, arriving at Jedda, passed some months in 
Arabia Felix, and after various detentions reached Gondar, the capital of Abyssinia, in Feb. 
1770. On Nov. I4th, 1770, he obtained a sight of the sources of the Blue Nile. He 
returned to England in 1773, and died in 1794. 

BRUGES, Belgium, in the 7th century was capital of Flanders, and in the I3th and I4th 
centuries had become almost the commercial metropolis of the world. It suffered much 
through an insurrection in 1488, and the consequent repression. It was incorporated with 
France in 1794, with the Netherlands in 1814, and with Belgium in 1830. 

BRUNSWICK CLUBS, established to maintain the house of Hanover and the Protestant 
ascendancy in church and state, began in England at Maidstone, Sept. 18, 1828 ; in Ireland 
at the Rotunda in Dublin, Nov. 4, same year. Other cities formed similar clubs. 

BRUNSWICK, HOUSE OF. The duchy of Brunswick, in Lower Saxony, was conquered 
by Charlemagne, and governed afterwards by counts and dukes. Albert- Azzo, marquis of 
Italy and lord of Este, died in 1055, and left by his wife Cunegonde (the heiress of Guelph, 
duke of Carinthia in Bavaria), a son, Guelph, who was invited into Germany by Imitza, his 
mother-in-law, and invested with all the possessions of his wife's step-father, Guelph of 
Bavaria. (See Bavaria.) His descendant, Henry the Lion, married Maud, daughter of Henry 
II. of England, and is always looked upon as the founder of the Brunswick family. His 
dominions were very extensive ; but having refused to assist the emperor Frederick Barbarossa 
in a war against pope Alexander III., through the emperor's resentment he was proscribed at 
the diet at Wurtzburg, in 1180. The duchy of Bavaria was given to Otho, from whom is 
descended the family of Bavaria ; the duchy of Saxony to Bernard Ascanius, founder of the 
house of Anhalt ; and his other territories to different persons. On this, he retired to 
England ; but at the intercession of our Henry II. Brunswick and Lunenburg were restored 
to him. The house of Brunswick in 1409 divided into several branches. Brunswick was 
included by Napoleon in the kingdom of Westphalia in 1806, but was restored to the duke in 
1815. Population of the duchy of Brunswick in 1858, 273,400 ; 1862, 282,400. 

Lewis-Rodolph, and succeeded him. 

1735. Charles (son). 

1780. Charles- William-Ferdinand (son) : a great 
general (served under his uncle Ferdinand 
in the Seven Years' War, 1756-1763) ; married 
princess Augusta of England : was killed at 
the battle of Auerstadt, Oct. 14, 1806 ; suc- 
ceeded by his fourth son (his elder sons being 
blind, abdicated). 

1806. William-Frederick, whose reign may be dated 
from the battle of Leipsic in Oct., 1813 ; fell 
at Quatre-Bras, commanding the avantgarde 
under the duke of Wellington, June 16, 1815 ; 
succeeded by his eldest son, 

1815. Charles-Frederick-William; assumed govern- 
ment Oct. 30, 1823. [Revolution at Bruns- 
wick ; the duke retires to England, Sept. 7, 

1830. William- Augustus- Louis, brother ; bom April 


1139. Henry the Lion, succeeded by 

1195. Henry the Long and William (sons). 

1213. Otho I. (son of William). 

1252. Albert I. (son of preceding). 

1278. Albert II. (son). 

1318. Otho, Magnus I., and Ernest (sons). 

1368. Magnus II. (Torquatus) (son of Magnus I.) 


First Branch. 

1409. Henry I. (son of Magnus II.) 
1416. William I. and Henry II. (sons). 
1482. Frederic and William II. ) f w -iv T 

4 95 . Henry III. and Eric. } sons of Wllham L 
1514. Henry IV. (son of Henry II.) 
1568. Julius (son of preceding). 
1589. Henry Julius (son). 
1613. Frederic- Ulric (son) died without issue. 

Second Branch. 
1634. Augustus (son of Henry of Luneburg). 
1666. Rodolph-Axigustus ; who associated his next 

brother, Anthony-Ulric, in the government, 

from 1685 ; died, 1704. 
1704. Anthony Ulric now ruled alone; became a 

Roman Catholic in 1710 ; died in 1714. 
1714. Augustus-William (son). 
1731. Lewis-Rodolph (brother). 
1735. Ferdinand- Albert, dxike of Brunswick-Bevern, 

married Antoinette-Amelia, daughter of 

25, 1806; succeeded provisionally, Sept. 7, 
1830; and, on the demand of the Germanic 
diet, definitively, April 25, 1831 ; the PRE- 
SENT duke ; unmarried. (His magnificent 
palace was destroyed by fire, Feb. 24, 1865.) 


1409. Bernard (son of Magnus II., duke of Bruns- 
wick. S*e above). 

1434. Otho and Frederic (his sons). 
1478. Henry (son of Otho). 




BRUNSWICK, continued. 

1532. Ernest T. (son of Otho). His sons were 

1546. Henry (founder of second branch of Brunswick- 
Wolf enbuttel) and William, whose seven sons 
cast lots to determine who should marry. 
The lot fell on GEORGE, sixth son. Four of 
the brothers reigned, viz. : 

1592. Ernest II. ^ 

1611. Christian. 

1633. Augustus. 

1636. Frederic II 


>no issue. 

1648. Christian-Lewis (son of the George above-men- 

1665. George-William (brother of Christian-Lewis), 
dies in 1705 ; leaving as heiress SOPHIA- 
DOROTHEA, his daughter, who married in 
1682 her cousin, prince GEORGE-LEWIS of 
Hanover, afterwards George I. of England 
(son of Ernest of Hanover, youngest son of 
the abone-mentioned George. 

(See Hanover and England.) 

BRUNSWICK THEATRE, Well-street, East London, was built to replace the Royalty, 
burnt down April 11, 1826. It was opened Feb. 25, 1828. On the 2gih the building was 
destroyed by the falling in of the walls, due to too much weight being attached tp the heavy 
iron roof. Fortunately, the catastrophe happened in the day time (during a rehearsal of Guy 
Mannering), and only twelve persons perished. 

BRUSSELS, once capital of Austrian Brabant, now of Belgium (since 1831), was 
founded by St. Gery, of Cambray, in the 7th century. It is celebrated for its fine lace, 
camlets, and tapestry. The Hotel de Ville has a turret 364 feet in height ; and on its top is 
a copper figure of St. Michael, 17 feet high, which turns with the wind. See Belgium. 

Bombarded by marshal Villeroi, 14 churches 

and 4000 houses destroyed . . Aug. 1695 
Taken by the French, 1746 ; and by Dumouriez, 1792 
The revolution commences . . Aug. 25, 1830 
The costly furniture of 16 houses demolished 
iu consequence of a display of attachment to 
the house of Orange . . . April 5, 1834 

Maritime conference to obtain uniform me- 
teorological observations held here . . 1853 

International philanthropic congress meet 

Sept. 1856 

International "association for social science 
meet Sept. 22-5, 1862 

BRUTTIUM (now Calabria Oltra), S. Italy. The Bruttians and Lucanians defeated and 
slew Alexander of Epirus at Pandosia, 332 B.C. They were conquered by Rome, 277 B.C. 

BUBBLE COMPANIES. See Companies, Law's Bubble, and South-sea Bubble. 

BUCCANEERS,* piratical adventurers, chiefly French, English, and Dutch, who com- 
menced their depredations on the Spaniards of America soon after the latter had taken 
possession of that continent and the West Indies. Their numbers were much increased by a 
twelve years' truce between the Spaniards and Dutch in 1609, when many of the discharged 
sailors joined the Buccaneers, and extended the range of their ravages. The first levy of 
ship-money in England in 1635 was to defray the expense of chastising these pirates. The 
principal commanders of the first Buccaneers were Montbar, Lolonois, Basco, and Morgan, 
said to have murdered thousands and plundered millions. The expedition of Van Horn, of 
Ostend, was undertaken in 1603 ; that of Gram out in 1685 ; and that of Pointis in 1697. 

BUCENTAUR, the vessel in which the doge of Yenice used to proceed to wed the 
Adriatic, from the twelfth to the eighteenth century. 

BUCHANITES (in Scotland) : followers of Mrs. Buchan, who about 1779 promised to 
conduct them to the new Jerusalem, prophesied the end of the world, &c. She died in 1791, 
when her followers dispersed. 

BUCHAREST (in Wallachia). Preliminaries of peace were ratified at this place between 
Russia and Turkey, it being stipulated that the Pruth should be the frontier of the two 
empires ; signed May 28, 1812. The subsequent war between these powers altered many of 
the provisions of this treaty. Bucharest was occupied by the Russians, Turks, and Austrians 
successively in the Crimean war. The last quitted it in 1856. 

BUCKINGHAM PALACE, the London residence of the sovereign. Old Buckingham- 
house was built on the "Mulberry-gardens," by John Sheffield, duke of Buckingham, in 
1703. In 1761 it was bought by George III., who in 1775 settled it on his queen, Charlotte. 
She made it her town residence ; and here all her children, except the eldest, were born. 
Here were married the duke of York and princess Frederica of Prussia, in 1791 ; the duke 
of Gloucester and princess Mary, 1816 ; the prince of Hesse-Homburg and princess Elizabeth, 
1818 ; and the duke of Cambridge and princess of Hesse the same year. The house was pulled 
down in 1825, and the present palace commenced on its site. After an expenditure of 

* Rayual asserts that the na me is derived from a Caribbee word boucan, signifying the place where 
the native savages dried their fo od by smoke ; a custom necessarily adopted by the pirates from their 
mode of life. 




irly a million sterling it was completed, and occupied by queen Victoria, July 13, 1837. 
irther improvements were made in 1853. The marble arch, taken down from the exterior 
this palace was re-erected at Cumberland-gate, Hyde-park, March 29, 1851. 

BUCKLERS, used in single combat, are said to have been invented by Proetus and 
Acrisius of Argos, about 1370 B.C. When Lucius Papirius defeated the Samnites, he took 
from them bucklers of gold and silver, 309 B.C. The light cuirass of the horse-soldiers called 
cuirassiers is something akin to the ancient buckler. 

BUCKLES were first worn instead of shoe-strings in the reign of Charles II., and soon 
me fashionable and expensive from the richness of their material ; about 1791 they had 
fallen out of use. Buckles continue to be used in court dress and by persons of rank in" most 
countries of Europe. 

BUDA, on the Danube, once called the Key of Christendom, is, in conjunction with Pesth, 
the capital of Hungary. It was taken by Charlemagne in 799 ; and sacked by Solyman II. 
after the battle of Mohatz, when the Hungarian king, Louis, was killed, and 200,000 of his 
subjects carried away captives, 1526. Buda was sacked a second time, when the inhabitants 
were put to the sword, and Hungary was annexed to the Ottoman empire, 1541. Retaken 
by the Imperialists, under the duke of Lorraine, and the Mahometans delivered up to the 
of the soldiers, 1686. It suffered much in 1848-9. See Hungary. 

BUDE LIGHT (so named from Bude in Cornwall, the residence of Mr. Goldsworthy 
rurney, its inventor), consists of two or more concentric argand gas-burners, one rising above 
another, which produce a most brilliant flame, like the petals of a rose. The illuminating 
powers were increased by subjecting to the action of the flame manganese, &c., in order to 
produce ojygen and hydrogen gas. The patent was issued in 1841. 

BUDDHISM, the religion (formerly of India, and now of a large part of Asia beyond the 
Ganges and Japan) from which Brahminism is said to be derived. Buddha (also Bud, Bot, 
and Foot), or the Wise, flourished about 1000 or 800 B. c. The Buddhists believe that the 
soul is an emanation from God, and that if it continue virtuous, it will return to him on the 
death of the body ; but if not so, that it will undergo various degrees and changes of abode. 
Buddhism was expelled from India about A.D. 956. 

BUDGET (from the French bougette, a small bag), a term applied to the English chan- 
cellor of exchequer's statement of the finances of the country. The budgets of Sir R. Peel 
in 1842 (including the income-tax) and 1846 (free trade), and of Mr. Gladstone in 1860 (in 
connection with the treaty with France^ are the most important in recent times. 

BUENOS AYRES, a republic of S. America. The country was explored by Sebastian 
Cabot in 1526, and the capital founded by Don Pedro de Mendoza in 1535. In 1585 the 
city was rebuilt and recolonised, after several abandonments. Population in 1859 about 

A British fleet and army, under sir Home Pop- 
ham and general Beresford, take the city 
with slight resistance, June 27 ; it is re- 
taken Aug. 12 1806 

Monte Video taken by storm by sir Samuel 
Auchmuty, Feb. 3 ; evacuated July 7 . . 1807 

General Whitelock and 8000 British enter 
Buenos Ayres ; severely repulsed . July 5, 1807 

Independence of the province declared, July 19, 1816 

Recognised as forming part of the Argentine 
confederation Feb. 1822 

[A prey to civil war through the violent in- 
trigues of Rosas, Oribe, Urquiza, and others, 
for many years.] 

Oribe defeated by general Urquiza, to whom 
Buenos Ayres capitulates . . Feb. 3, 1852 

Rosas flees, arrives at Plymouth . April 25, ,, 

Urquiza deposed, Sept. 10 ; invests the city ; 
after some successes he retires . . Dec. 1852 

Buenos Ayres secedes from the Argentine con- 
federation, and is recognised as an inde- 
pendent state ; the first governor, Dr. D. 
Pastor Obligado, elected . . Oct. 12, 1853 

Dr. Valentin Alsina elected governor . May, 1857 

War breaks out ; Urquiza, general of the forces 
of the Argentine confederation, has an inde- 
cisive conflict with the Buenos Ayres genex-al 
Mitre Oct. 23, 1859 

A treaty signed, by which Buenos Ayres is re- 
united with the Argentine confederation 

Nov. n, 1859 

Fresh contests : Mitre defeats Urquiza in an 
almost bloodless contest at Pa von ; Urquiza 
retires Sept. 17, 1861 

BUFFOONS were originally mountebanks in the Roman theatres. Their shows Avere 
discouraged by Domitian, and abolished by Trajan, 98. See Jesters. 

BUILDING. In early times men dwelt in caves ; wood and clay were the first building 
materials. Building with stone was early among the Tyriaus ; in England it may be referred 
to Benedict the monk, about 670. In Ireland a castle was built of stone at Tuam by the 
king of Connaught, in 1161 ; and it was "so new and uncommon as to be called the 

BUI 134 BUL 


Wonderful Castle.'" Building with brick was introduced by the Romans into their provinc 
Alfred encouraged it in England in 886. It was adopted by the earl of Arundel, about 1598, 
London being then almost wholly built of wood. See Architecture. 

BUILDING ACTS were passed by Elizabeth in 1562, 1580, and 1592 ; and by Charles II. 
in 1667. Recent acts are very numerous ; and building is now regulated by stringent pro- 
visions enforced by law. The Building Act for the Metropolis is 7 & 8 Viet. c. 84 (1844), 
amended in 1855 and 1860. 

BUILDING SOCIETIES, formed to enable a person to purchase a house by paying 
money periodically to a society for a certain number of years, instead of paying rent to a 
landlord, began about 1836, when an act was passed for their regulation. 

BULGAEIA, anciently Moesia, now part of European Turkey. The Bulgarians were a 
Slavonian tribe, who harassed the Eastern empire and Italy from 499 to 678, when they 
established a kingdom. They defeated Justinian II., 687; but were subdued, after several 
conflicts, by the emperor Basil, in 1018, who in 1014, having taken 15,000 Bulgarian 
prisoners, caused their eyes to be put out, leaving one eye only to every hundredth man, to 
enable him to conduct his countrymen home. The kingdom was re-established in 1096 ; but 
after many changes, it was conquered and annexed to the Ottoman empire, about 1391. In 
Jan. 1 86 1, it was stated that the Bulgarians had seceded from the Greek to the Roman 

BULL, OR EDICT OF THE POPE. The bulla is properly the seal, either of gold, silver, 
lead, or wax. On one side are the heads of Peter and Paul ; and on the other the name 
of the pope, and year of his pontificate. A bull against heresy was issued by Gregory IX. 
in 1231. Pius V. published a bull against Elizabeth, April 25, 1570 ; in 1571 bulls were 
forbidden to be promulgated in England. The bull Unigenitus against the Jasenites was 
issued by Clement XI. 'in 1713. The Golden Bull of the emperor Charles IV.. so called 
from its golden seal, was made the fundamental law of the German empire, at the diet of 
Nuremberg, 1356. See Brazen Bull. 

BULL-BAITING, OB, BULL FIGHTING, a sport somewhat equivalent to the fights of the 
gladiators among the Romans, still exists in Spain, where the ladies are among the spectators. 
It is recorded as being an amusement at Stamford so early as the reign of John, 1209. Bull- 
running was a sport at Tutbury in 1374. In the Sports of England, we read of the "Easter 
fierce hunts, when foaming boars fought for their heads, and lusty bulls and huge bears were 
baited with dogs ;" and near the Clink, London, was the Paris, or Bear Garden, so celebrated 
in the time of Elizabeth for the exhibition of bear-baiting, then a fashionable amusement. 
A bill to abolish bull-baiting was thrown out in the commons, chiefly through the influence 
of the late Mr. Windham, who made a singular speech in favour of the custom, May 24, 
1802. It was made illegal in 1835. See Cruelty to Animals. Bull-fights were introduced 
into Spain about 1260 : abolished there, "except for pious and patriotic purposes," in 1784. 
In June, 1833, ninety-nine bulls were killed at bull-fights at Madrid. There was a bull- 
fight at Lisbon, at Campo de Santa Anna, attended by 10,000 spectators, on Sunday, 
June 14, 1840. 

BULLETS of stone were in use, 1514. Iron ones are mentioned in the Fcedera, 1550. 
Leaden bullets were made before the close of the sixteenth century. The cannon-ball in 
some eastern countries was long of stone. Aslie. The conoidal cup rifle-ball was invented 
by capt. Minis', about 1833 ; a modification of this (conoidal but without cup), by Mr. 
Pritchett (1853), is used with the Enfield rifle. Other bullets have been since devised. 

BULLION, uncoined gold and silver. The "Bullion Report" of a parliamentary com- 
mittee in 1810, principally guided by Mr. Horner and Mr. (afterwards Sir R.) Peel, established 
the conclusion, that paper money is always liable to be over-issued and consequently depre- 
ciated, unless it be at all times immediately convertible into gold. This principle has been 
adopted in British monetary arrangements. 

BULL RUN BATTLES. See Manassas. 

BULAVER-CLAYTON TREATY, ratified July 4, 1850, by which sir Henry Lytton 
Bulwer on behalf of the British, and Mr. Clayton on behalf of the American government, 
declared that neither would obtain exclusive control over the proposed ship canal through 
Central America, or erect any fortification on any part of the country. Disputes afterwards 
arose with respect to this treaty and the connection of Great Britain with the Mosquito 
territory (which see), which were settled in 1857. 

BUNKER'S HILL (near Boston, U.S.), the site of a severe contest on June 17, 1775, 
between the British (nearly 3000) and the revolted Americans (about 2000) ; the latter wero 
ultimately compelled to retreat. It was one of the earliest actions in the war, and the 
Americans refer to it with national pride, on account of their heroic resistance. Ralph 
Farnham, who was present at the battle, died on Dec. 28, 1860, aged 104^ years. He was 
introduced to the prince of Wales when in America. 

BUONAPARTE. See France. 

BURFORD CLUB, the appellation given (according to Mr. Layer, the barrister, a con- 
spirator, see Layer) by the Pretender and his agents to a club of Tory lords and others, of 
which lord Orrery was chairman, and lord Strafford, sir Henry Goring, lord Cowper, Mr. 
Hutcheson, the bishop of Rochester, sir Constantine Phipps, general Webb, lord Bingley, 
lord Craven, Mr. Dawkins, lord Scarsdale, lord Bathurst, Mr. Shippen, and lord Gower, 
were members. This club was said to meet at the members' houses, to form designs against 
the government. This story was set aside by the solemn declarations of lord Cowper and lord 
Stratford, that they did not know of its existence. The list of this pretended club was 
published in the Weekly Journal, printed in Whitefriars ; but when Read, the printer of the 
paper, was ordered to appear at the bar of the house, he absconded. March, 1 722. Salmon. 

BURGESSES, from the French Bourgeois, a distinction coeval in England with its corpo- 
rations. They were called to parliament in England, 1265 ; in Scotland in 1326 ; and in 
Ireland about, 1365. Burgesses to be resident in the places they represented in parliament, 
I Hen. V. (1413). See Borough. 

BURGHER SECEDERS, a small number of dissenters from the church of Scotland, 
from a difference regarding the lawfulness of taking the burgess oath, 1 739. 

BURGLARY was a capital offence till 1829. Formerly, he who convicted a burglar was 
exempted from parish offices, 1699 ; Statute of Rewards, 5 Anne, 1706 ; and 6 Geo. 1. 1720. 
Receivers of stolen plate and other goods to be transported, 10 Geo. III. 1770. Persons 
having upon them picklock-keys, &c., to be deemed rogues and vagabonds, 13 Geo. III. 
1772-3. The laws with respect to burglary were amended by Mr. (afterwards sir Robert) 
Peel's acts between 1823 and 1829. 

BURGOS (Spain), the burial place of the Cid, 1099. Lord Wellington entered Burgos 
on Sept. 19, after the battle of Salamanca (fought July 22, 1812). The castle was besieged 
by the British and allied army, but the siege was abandoned Oct. 21, same year. The forti- 
fications were blown up by the French, June 12, 1813. 

BURGUNDY, a large province in France, derives its name from the Burgundians, a 
Gothic tribe who overran Gaul in 275, but were driven out by the emperor Probus : they 
returned in 287, and were defeated by Maximin. In 413 they established a KINGDOM, 
comprising the present Burgundy, large parts of Switzerland, with Alsace, Savoy, Provence, 
&c. Gondicar, their leader, was the first king. The second kingdom, consisting of a part of 
the first, began with Gontran, son of Clotaire I. of France, in 561. The kingdom of Aries, 
Provence, and Transjurane Burgundy, were formed out of the old kingdom. In 877 Charles 
the Bald made his brother-in-law Richard the first DUKE of Burgundy. In 938, Hugh the 
Great, count of Paris, founder of the house of Capet, obtained the duchy. His descendant, 
Henry, on becoming king of Franco, conferred it on his brother Robert, in whose family it 
remained till the death of Philippe de Rouvre, without issue, in 1361. In 1363, king John 
of France, made his fourth son, Philip, duke, who greatly -enlarged his dominons by marrying 
the heiress of Louis, count of Flanders, Artois, &c. (See Austria, and Germany.) 

1363. Philip the Bold. 

1404. John the Fearless (son), joined English in- 
vading France ; supposed to have been privy 
to the assassination of the duke of Orleans 
in 1407 ; was himself assassinated at Mon- 
tereau, in the presence of the dauphiu, Sept., 

1419. Philip the Good (son), the most powerful duke 

in the world ; married to Margaret of York, 

sister to Edward IV. 
1467. Charles the Bold : killed in an engagement 

with the Swiss, before Nancy, Jan. 4, 1477. 
1477. Mary (daughter); married Aug., 1477, to 

Maximilian of Austria ; died March 27, 1482. 
1479. Louis XI. annexed Burgundy to France. The 

other dominions fell to Austria. 

BURIALS. Abraham buried Sarah at Machpelah, 1860 B.C., Gen. xxiii. Places of 
burial were consecrated under pope Calixtus I. in A.D. 210. Eusebius. The Greeks had 
their burial-places at a distance from their towns ; the Romans near the highways ; hence 
the necessity for inscriptions. The first Christian burial-place, it is said, was instituted in 
596 ; burial in cities, 742 ; in consecrated places, 750 ; in churchyards, 758. Many of the 
early Christians are buried in the catacombs at Rome. See Catacombs. Vaults were 




erected in chancels first at Canterbury, 1075. Woollen shrouds were used in England, 1666. 
Linen scarfs were introduced at funerals in Ireland, 1729 ; and woollen shrouds used, 1733. 
Burials w r ere taxed, 1695 again, 1783. The acts relating to metropolitan burials were 
passed 1853, 1854, 1855, and 1857. See Cemeteries. Parochial registers of burials, births, 
and marriages, were instituted in England by Cromwell, lord Essex, about 1538. Stow. 
A tax was enacted on burials in England for the burial of a duke 50^., and for that of a 
common person 45. under Will. III. 1695, and Geo. III. 1783. See Bills of Mortality. 

BURKING, a new species of murder, committed in Britain, thus named from Burke, the 
first known criminal by whom it was perpetrated. His victims were killed by pressure or 
other modes of suffocation, and the bodies, which exhibited no marks of violence, were sold 
to the surgeons for dissection. He was executed at Edinburgh, Jan. 28, 1829. A monster 
named Bishop was apprehended in Nov. 1831, and executed in London, Dec. 5, with 
Williams, one of his accomplices, for the murder of a poor friendless Italian boy named 
Carlo Ferrari. They confessed to this and other similar murders. 

BURLINGTON HEIGHTS. Here a fierce contest took place between the British and 
the United States American forces, June 6, 1813. The British carried the heights. 

BURMESE, OR BIRMAN, EMPIRE, founded in the middle of the i8th cencury by 
Alompra, the first sovereign of the present dynasty. Our first dispute with this formidable 
power in 1795, was amicably adjusted by general Erskine. Hostilities were commenced by 
the British in 1824, and they took Rangoon on May n. The fort and pagoda of Syriam 
were taken in 1825. After a short armistice, hostilities were renewed, Dec. I, same year, 
and pursued until the successive victories of the British led to the cession of Arracan, and to 
the signature of peace, Feb. 24, 1826. For the events of this war, and of the war in 1851, 
see India. Pegu was annexed to our Indian empire, Dec. 20, 1852. The war ended June 
20, 1853. 

BURNING ALIVE was inflicted among the Romans, Jews, and other nations, on the 
betrayers of counsels, incendiaries, and for incest. The Britons punished heinous crimes by 
burning alive in wicker-baskets. See Stonehenge. This punishment was countenanced by 
bulls of the pope ; and witches suffered in this manner. See Witches. Many persons have 
been burned alive on account of religious principles. The first sufferer was sir William 
Sawtre, parish priest of St. Osyth, London, 3 Hen. IV., Feb. 9, 1401. In the reign of 
Mary, numbers were burned ; among others, Ridley, bishop of London, Latimer, bishop of 
Rochester, and Cranmer, archbishop of Canterbury, at Oxford in 1555 and 1556.* 
Bartholomew Leggatt and Edward Wightman were burned for heresy in 1612, by warrant 
of James I. 

BURNING THE DEAD was practised among the Greeks and Romans, and the poet 
Homer gives descriptions of it. It was veiy general about 1225 B.C., and was revived by 
Sylla about 78 B. c. It is still practised in parts of the East Indies. See Suttees, Barrows. 

BURNING-GLASS AND CONCAVE MIRRORS. Their power was known to Archimedes, 
and it is even asserted that by their aid he burnt a fleet in the harbour of Syracuse, 214 B.C. ; 
their powers were increased by Settalla ; Tschirnhausen, 1680 ; BufFon, 1747 ; and Parker 
and others more recently. The following experiments were made about 1800, with Mr. 
Parker's lens or burning mirror, which cost 700?., and is said to have been the largest ev~~ 
made. It was sold to capt. Mackenzie, who took it to China, and left it at Pekin. 

Substances fused. Weight. 

A crystal pebble . . 7 grains 6 

Flint 10 ,, 30 

Cornelian 10 ,, 75 

Pumice stone . . . . 10 ,, 24 ,, 
Green wood takes fire instantaneously ; water boils 
immediately ; bones are calcined ; and things not - 
capable of melting at once become red-hot, like 

BURWELL FIRE. A number of persons assembled to see a puppet-show in a barn at 
Burwell near Newmarket, Sept. 8, 1727. A candle having set fire to a heap of straw, 
seventy-six individuals perished, and others died of their wounds. 

* It is computed, that during the three years of Mary's reign, there were 277 persons brought to the 
stake ; besides those who were punished by imprisonment, fines, and confiscations. Among those who 
suffered by fire were 5 bishops, 21 clergymen, 8 lay gentlemen, 84 tradesmen, 100 husbandmen, servants, 
and labourers, 55 women, and 4 children. The principal agents of the queen were the bishops Gardiner 
and Bonner. The latter is said to have derived a savage pleasure from witnessing the torture of the 

Substances fused. 
Pure gold 
Copper . 


. . 20 gK 
. 2O 

ht. Time. 
tins 4 seconds. 





2 5 

Cast iron (a cube) 
Steel . 
A topaz 
An emerald 


. 10 

. 10 

. IO 



BUR 137 BUT 

BURY ST. EDMUND'S, Suffolk, named from St. Edmund, king of East Anglia, who 
was murdered by the Danes in 870, and buried here, and to whom its magnificent abbey was 
i founded. It shares with Runnymede the honour of producing Magna Charta in 1215 ; it 
having been prepared here by the barons in 1214. Henry VI. summoned a parliament in 
1447, when Humphrey, duke of Gloucester, was imprisoned, and died here, it is supposed by 
poison. It was almost consumed by fire in 1608 ; and was desolated by plague in 1636. 

BURYING ALIVE. A mode of death adopted in Boeotia, where Creon ordered Antigone, 
the sister of Polynices, to be buried alive, 1225 B.C. The Roman vestals were subjected to 
it for any levity that excited suspicion of their chastity. The vestals buried alive on a charge 
of incontinence, were Minutia, 3376.0. ; Sextilla, 2746.0. ; Cornelia, A. D. 92. Lord Bacon 
gives instances of the resurrection of persons who had been buried alive ; the famous Duns 
Scotus is of the number. The two assassins of Capo d'Istria, president of Greece, were 
sentenced to be immured in brick walls built around them up to their chins, and to be 
supplied with food in this species of torture until they died, Oct. 1831. 

BUSACO, or BUZACO (Portugal). Here the British, under lord Wellington, repulsed 
the French army, commanded by Massena, Sept. 27, 1810. The latter losing one general 
and 1000 men killed, two generals and about 3000 men wounded, and several hundred 
prisoners ; the loss of the allies did not exceed 1300 ; the British retreated to the lines of 
Torres Vedras, which were too strong for Massena to force, and the two armies remained in 
sight of each other to the end of the year. 

BUSHEL. This measure was ordered to contain eight gallons of wheat, 12 Henry VIII. 
1520 ; the legal Winchester bushel was regulated 9 Will. III. 1697 ; the imperial corn 
bushel of 2218-192 cubic inches is to the Winchester of 2150*42, as 32 to 31. Regulated by 
act 5 Geo. IV. June, 1824, which act came into operation Jan. I, 1826. 

BUSHIRE (on the Persian Gulf), attacked by sea by sir H. Leeke and by land by 
general Stalker, was taken Dec. 10, 1856. The place proved stronger than was expected, 
and was bravely defended. Brigadier Stopford and col. Malet were killed in a previous 
attack on the fort at Reshire, Dec. 9. The loss of the British was four officers killed, and 
one wounded ; five men killed and thirty-five wounded. 

BUSSORAH. See Bassorali. 

BUSTS. This mode of preserving the remembrance of the human features is the same 
with the hermce of the Greeks. Lysistratus, the statuary, was the inventor of moulds, from 
which he cast wax figures, 328 B.C. Pliwj. Busts from the face in plaster of Paris were 
first taken by Andrea Verrochi, about A.D. 1466. Smaller busts and statuettes are now 
accurately produced from larger ones by machinery. 

BUTCHERS. Among the Romans there were three classes : the Suarii provided hogs, 
the Boarii oxen, which the Lanii killed. The butchers' company in London is ancient > 
although not incorporated till 1604. 

BUTE ADMINISTRATION. John earl of Bute, tutor of prince George (afterwards 
George III.), obtained great influence over him. His administration formed in May, 1762, 
resigned April, 1763. It was severely attacked by Junius and John Wilkes. 

John, earl of Bute, first lord of the treasury. Lord Ligonier, ordnance. 

Henry Fox, afterwards lord Holland, paymaster of 
the forces. 

Sir Francis Dash wood, chancellor of the exchequer. 
Lord Grenville, president of the council. 

Duke of Bedford, privy seal. \ Viscount Barrington, treasurer of the navy. 

Earl of Halifax, admiralty. ' Lord Sandys, first lord of trade. 

Earl of Egremont and George Grenville, secretaries \ Duke of Marlborough, earl Talbot, lord Huntingdon , 

of state. lord North, &c. 

BUTTER. It was late before the Greeks had any notion of butter, and by the early 

Romans it was used only as a medicine never as food. The Christians of Egypt burnt 

butter in their lamps instead of oil, in the 3rd century. Butter forming an important article 

I of commerce as well as food in these countries, various statutes have passed respecting its 

i package, weight, and sale ; the principal of which are the 36th & 38th Geo. III. and 10 Geo. 

IV. 1829. In Africa, vegetable butter is made from the fruit of the shea tree, and is of 

| richer taste, at Kebba, than any butter made from cow's milk. Mungo Park. The import 

i duty of 55. per cwt. on foreign butter (producing in 1859, 104,587?. on 421,354 cwts.) was 

repealed in 1860. 

BUT 138 CAB 

BUTTONS, an early manufacture in England ; those covered with cloth were prohibited j 
by a statute, thereby to encourage the manufacture of metal buttons, 8 Geo. I. 1721. They 
are now made of glass, porcelain, c. 

BUXAR, a town in Bengal, near to which, on Oct. 23, 1764, sir Hector Monro (with] 
857 Europeans and 6215 sepoys) gained a great victory over the troops of the nabob of Oude, i 
&c., 50,000 in number ; 6000 of these were killed, and 130 pieces of cannon were taken. 
The loss of the English was trifling. 

BY-LAWS, OR BYE-LAWS (from Danish, l>ye), a town, private ordinances made by sub- 1 
ordinate communities, such as corporations. These laws must not militate against the law 
of the land. By 5 & 6 Will. IV. 1834, those made by corporate bodies become valid, if not 
disallowed by the king's council within forty days after their enactment. 

BYNG, HON. ADMIRAL JOHN, was charged with neglect of duty in an engagement with 
the enemy off Minorca, May 20, 1756, condemned for an error of judgment, and shot on 
board the Monarch at Spithead, March 14, 1757. 

BYRON'S VOYAGE. Commodore Byron left England on his voyage round the globe 
June 21, 1764, and returned May 9, 1766. He discovered the populous island in the Pacific 
Ocean which bears his name, Aug. 16, 1765. Though brave and intrepid, such was his 
general ill-fortune at sea, that he was called by the sailors of the fleet " Foulweather Jack." 

BYZANTIUM, now Constantinople, founded by a colony of Megarians, under Byzas, 
667 B.C. ; but various dates and persons are given. It was taken successively by the Medes, 
Athenians, and Spartans. In 340 B.C., in alliance with the Athenians, the Byzantines 
defeated the fleet of Philip of Macedon. During the wars with Macedon, Syria, &c., it 
became an ally of the Eomans, by whom it was taken, A.D. 73. Rebelling, it was taken 
after two years' siege and laid in ruins by Severus in 196. Byzantium was re-founded by 
Constantine in 324, and dedicated in May 22, 330, all the heathen temples being destroyed ; 
from him it received the name of Constantinople. See Constantinople. BYZANTINE ART 
flourished from the time of Constantine to about 1204. The Byzantine or Eastern empire 
really commenced in A.D. 395, when Theodosius divided the Roman empire. See East. 


CABAL (from Italian and Spanish, cabala, secret knowledge). In English history, the I 
term was applied to the cabinet of Charles II. in 1670 ; the word Cabal being formed from the I 
initials of their names : sir Thomas, afterwards lord Clifford (C) ; the lord Ashley (A), \ 
(afterwards earl of Shaftesbury) ; George Villiers, duke of Buckingham (B) j Henry, lord : 
Arlington (A) ; and John, duke of Lauderdale (L). 

CABBAGE. Varieties were brought to these realms from Holland about 1510. To sir j 
Arthur Ashley of Dorset the first planting in England is ascribed. It was introduced into 
Scotland by the soldiers of Cromwell's army. See Gardening. 

CABBALA, a Hebrew word, signifying recension or tradition, applied to a mystical mode i 
of interpreting the Scriptures as well as natural things, said to have been given to Adam by 
angels, and transmitted from father to son by his descendants. It is said to have been lost 
at the Babylonian captivity (587 B.C.), but to have been revealed again to Ezra. The i 
Cabbalists were opposed by the philosophers and by Talmudists, which see. 

CABINET COUNCIL. There were councils in England as early as the reign of Ina, 
king of the West Saxons, 690 ; Offa, king of the Mercians, 758 ; and in other reigns of the 
Heptarchy. State councils are referred to Alfred the Great. Spelman. See Adminis- 
trations, p. 8. 

CABLES. A machine was invented in 1792, for making the largest, by which human 
labour was reduced nine-tenths. Chain cables were introduced into the British navy 
about 1812. 

CABRIOLETS (vulgo Cabs), one-horsed vehicles, were introduced into the streets of 
London in 1823, when the number plying was twelve. In 1831 they had increased to 165, 
and then the licences were thrown open. The number in 1862 running in the metropolis 
exceeded 6000 (of which about 1800 only plied on Sunday). Previous to throwing open the 
trade, the number of hackney carnages was limited to 1200, when there were few omnibuses, 
which see. 



CABRIOLETS, continued. 

'aZ> Strike. On June 28, 1853, an act (called 
Mr. FitzRoy's act) was passed for "the bet- 
ter regulation of metropolitan stage and 
hackney carriages, and for prohibiting the 
use of advertising vehicles," by which the 
cab fares were reduced to 6d. a mile. It came 
into operation July n, and on the 2jth a 
general strike of the London cabmen took 
place. Much inconvenience was felt, and 
every kind of vehicle was employed to sup- 
ply the 'deficiency. Some alterations (pre- 
viously agreed on) having been made in the 
act, the cabs re-appeared on the stands on 
the soth. 

Cabmen's clubs began at Paddington in . Feb. 1859 

A London General Cab Company published its 
prospectus, professing a reformed system, 

July, 1862 

Cab Tragedy. S. H. Hunt, a servant of Butler 
and MacCulloch's, seedsmen, Covent-garden, 
London, poisoned his wife and children in a 
cab, on Nov. 7, 1863 ; and himself on Nov. 9, 
at his own house, just before his apprehen- 

The cabmen in Paris strike against a company ; 
above 3000 vehicles stopped, June 16 ; fierce 
attack on men who give in ; strike subsides, 

June 23, 1865 

CABUL, OR CABOOL, a city of Afghanistan, taken 977 by Subuctajeen, grandfather of 
[ahomed, founder of the Gaznevide dynasty. It was taken by Nadir Shah in 1738. It was 
capital of the Durani empire at the end of the last century. In 1809 the sovereign Shah 
oojah was expelled, and eventually Cabul came into the hands of Dost Mahomed, a clever and 
mbitious chieftain. In 1839 the British restored Shah Soojah ; but in 1842 a dreadful out- 
reak took place. The chief British civil officer, sir Wm. M 'Naghten, was massacred, and 
lie British commenced a most disastrous retreat. Of 3849 soldiers, and about 12,000 camp 
blowers, only one European, Dr. Dryden, and four or five natives escaped. In the same 
ear (Sept. 16) general afterwards sir George Pollock retook the town, and rescued lady Sale 
nd many of the prisoners. After destroying many public buildings, he left Cabul to its 
ate, Oct. 12, 1842. 

CADDEE, OR LEAGUE OF GOD'S HOUSE, the celebrated league of independence in Swit- 
erland, formed by the Grisons to resist domestic tyranny, 1400 to 1419. A second league 
f the Grisons was called the Grise or Gray League, aboiit 1424. A third league, called the 
*eague of Ten Jurisdictions, was formed in 1436. 

CADE'S INSURRECTION". Jack Cade, an Irishman, a fugitive on account of his 
rimes, assumed the name of Mortimer, and headed about 20,000 Kentish men, who armed 
to punish evil ministers, and procure a redress of grievances." He defeated and slew sir 
lumphrey Stafford, at Sevenoaks, June 27, 1450 ; entered London in triumph, and beheaded 
lie lord treasurer, lord Saye, and several other persons of consequence, July 3. The insur- 
gents at length losing ground, a general pardon was proclaimed ; and Cade, deserted by his 
bllowers, fled. A reward was offered for his apprehension : he was discovered, and refusing 
o surrender, was slain by Alexander Iden, sheriff of Kent, July n. 

CADIZ (W. Spain), anciently Gadiz, the Roman Gades ; said to have been built by the 

One hundred vessels of the Spanish armada 

destroyed in the port by sir Francis Drake . 1587 
Cadiz was taken by the English, under the earl 
of Essex, and plundered . . Sept. 15, 1596 
Mainly attacked by sir George Rooke .. . 1702 
bombarded by the British in . . . . 1797 
blockaded by lord St. Vincent for two years 1797-9 
\gain bombarded by the British . . Oct. 1800 
k. French squadron of five ships of the line and 

a frigate surrender to the Spaniards and 

British June 14, 1808 

Besieged by the French, but the siege was 

raised after the battle of Salamanca . July, 1812 
Massacre of a thousand inhabitants by the 

soldiery Mar^h 10, 1820 

Taken by the French in 1823, and held till . 1828 
Declared a free port 1829 

CADMIUM, a metal, discovered by Stromeyer in 1818. 

CAEN (N. France), a place of importance before 912, when it became the capital of the 
possessions of the Normans, under whom it flourished. It was taken by the English in 1346 
ind 1417 ; but was finally recovered by the French in 1450. 

CAERNARVON (N. Wales). In the castle (founded in 1283 or 1284) Edward II. was 
oorn, April 25, 1284; and the town was chartered by Edward I. in the same year. The 
;own suffered by the civil war of Charles, but was finally retained for the parliament. 

CJ1SAREAN SECTION, which, it is said, first gave the name of Caesar to the Roman 
'amity, is performed by cutting the child out of the womb, when it cannot otherwise be 
delivered. The case of. Alice O'Neal, an Irishwoman, who survived the section, which was 
ined by a female, is authenticated by Dr. Gabriel King, of Armagh, and surgeon Duncan 
Stewart, of Dungannon. In Jan. 1847, the operation was performed in St. Bartholomew's 
lospital, London, on a young woman of diminutive stature, under the influence of ether : 

but she died the next day. On Dec. 9, 1860, a similar operation 

by Dr. James Edmunds at Bethnal Green. On the continent the operation is said to 
been more frequent and more successful. Cooper's Surgical Dictionary (ed. 1861) contair; 
a table, which, out of 2009 cases, gives a mortality of 55 '4 per cent, of the mothers ant 
29-45 P er cen t- of the children. 

CJESARS. See Rome : Emperors. The Era of the Caesars or Spanish Era, is reckoner 
from the 1st of Jan. 38 B.C., being the year following the conquest of Spain by Augustus; 
It was much used in Africa, Spain, and the south of France ; but by a synod held in 1181 
its use was abolished in all the churches dependent on Barcelona. Pedro IV. of Arrago' 
abolished the use of it in his dominions in 1350. John of Castile did the same in 1383. I 
was used in Portugal till 1415, if not till 1422. The months and days of this era arl 
identical with the Julian calendar ; and to turn the time into that of our era, subtract thirtji 
eight from the year ; but if before the Christian era, subtract thirty-nine. 

CAESIUM (Latin, bluish), a rare alkaline metal, found in some mineral waters by Bimse 
in 1861, by means of the "Spectrum analysis," which see. 

CAGLIARI. See Naples, note. 

CA IRA ! the burden of a popular song, during the French revolution, 1791 : 
" Ah ! ca ira, ca ira, ca ira ! Les Aristocrates a la lanterne !" (" It will proceed ! &c. Hang the aristocrats.' 

CAI-FONG (China), was besieged by 100,000 rebels, in 1642. The commander of thi 
relieving forces, in order to drown the enemy, broke doAvn its embankments. All thj 
besiegers perished ; but 300,000 of the citizens also. 

CAIRO, OR GRAND CAIRO, the modern capital of Egypt, remarkable for the minarets ( 
its mosques, and the sepulchres of its caliphs, in what is called the " city of the dead." 

It was built by the Saracens .... 969 

Burnt to prevent its occupation by the Cru- 
saders . > 1 220 

Taken by the Turks from the Egyptian sultans 1517 
Ruined by an earthquake and a great fire, 

when 40,000 persons perished . . June, 175! 

Taken by the French under Napoleon Bona- 
parte ; they enter the city . . July 23, 179 

Taken by the British and Turks, when 6000 
French capitulated . . . June 27, i8c 

CALABRIA (the ancient Messapia, S.E. Italy), was conquered by the Romans, 266 B.C 
It formed part of the kingdom of the Ostrogoths under Theodoric, A.D. 493 ; was re-con 
quered (for the Eastern empire) by Belisarius, 536 ; subdued by the Lombards and joine 
to the duchy of Benevento, 57 2 - After various changes, it was conquered by Rober 
Guiscard, the Norman, 1058, who obtained the title of duke of Calabria, and eventual! 
that of king of Naples. See Naples. 

CALAIS (N. W. France), taken by Edward III. after a year's siege, Aug. 4, 1347, an* 
held by England 210 years. It was retaken by the duke of Guise, in the reign of Mary 
Jan. 7, 1558, and its loss so deeply touched the queen's heart, as to cause some to say i 
occasioned her death, which occurred soon afterwards, Nov. 17, same year. ""When I an 
dead," said the queen, "Calais will be found written on my heart." It was held by th 
Spaniards, 1594-6 ; and was bombarded by the English, 1694. Here Louis XVIII. lande< 
after his long exile from France, April 1814. 

CALATRAVA. See Knighthood. 

CALCIUM, the metallic base of lime, was discovered at the Royal Institution, Loi 
by Humphrey Davy in 1808. 

CALCULATING MACHINES. With the utmost care, errors in computation anc 
printing will always occur in logarithms and tables of figures. To avoid them, machines t 
calculate and print have been devised. Pascal, when nineteen years of age, invented on 
about 1650. The construction of Mr. C. Babbage's machine was commenced at the expens 
of government, in 1821, and continued till 1833, when the work was suspended after a; 
expenditure of above 15,000?. The portion completed is in the library of King's College 
London. In 1857, Messrs. E. and G. Scheutz, two Swedish engineers, published in Londo. 
specimen tables, calculated and printed by machinery constructed between 1837 and 1843 
after a study of the account of Mr. Babbage's machine. Messrs. Scheutz brought thei 
machine to England in 1854. It was bought for lOOoZ. by Mr. J. F. Rathbone, an America: 
merchant, to be presented to Dudley observatory in his own town, Albanv. In 1857, Messrs 




heutz were engaged to make one for the British government, which is now completed. 
r. Wiberg's machine, exhibited at Paris, Feb. 1863, was much commended. 

CALCUTTA, capital of Bengal and British India. 
:e was made in 1689. 

The first settlement of the English 

as purchased as a zemindary, and Fort Wil- 
am built, in ....... 1698 

e the head of a separate presidency . . 1707 
fort attacked and taken by an army of 
,000 horse and foot, and 400 elephants (146 
the British crammed into the "Black-hole 
ison," a dungeon, about 18 feet square, 
om whence 23 only came forth the next 
orning alive) .... June 18, 

utta retaken by Clive, and the Soubah put 
death ...... Jan. 2, 1757 



Supreme court of judicature established 
College founded ..... 
Bishopric of Calcutta instituted by act . July, 1813 
An industrial exhibition held in . . Jan. 1855 
Great cyclone, followed by a " bore " or spring 
tide in the Hooghly ; water rises 30 feet high ; 
immense damage done to shipping and 
houses ; 43 lives lost in Calcutta (see Cyclone) 

Oct. 5, 1864 
Population in 1850, 413,582. 

See Bengal and India. 

CALEDONIA (now Scotland). The name is supposed by some to be derived from Gael, 
'i-men, or Gadel-doine, corrupted by the Romans. Tacitus, who died 99, distinguishes 
portion of Britain by the appellation of Caledonia. Yenerable Bede says that it 
.rained this name until 258, when it was invaded by a tribe from Ireland, and called Scotia. 
Hie ancient inhabitants appear to have been the Caledonians and Picts, tribes of the Celts, 
passed over from the opposite coast of Gaul. About the beginning of the fourth 
iry of the Christian era they were invaded (as stated by some authorities) by the 
M uyths or Scythins (since called Scots), who, having driven the Picts into the north, settled 
11 the Lowlands, and gave their name to the whole country. Hence the remarkable 
li.,ti action of language, habits, customs, and persons between the Highlanders and the 
oMthern inhabitants. See Scotland. 

'aledonian monarchy, said to have been 
i founded by Fergus I. , about . . B.C. 
'he Picts from England settle in the south 
Agricola carries the Roman arms into Cale- 
; donia, in the reign of Galdus (Corbred II.) 

le defeats Galgacus, and builds a wall between 

the Frith and Clyde 

! Vail of Antoninus built 

Jlpius Marcellus repels their incursions . 
Ihristianity introduced in the reign of Donald I. 


20 1 

The Caledonians* invade South Britain, 207 ; 
repelled by the emperor Severus, who ad- 
vances to the Moray Frith .... 209 

Caledonia invaded by the Souths, or Scotti, 
from Ireland, about 306 

Caledonian monarchy revived by Fergus II. . 404 

After many wars, Kenneth II.,**king of the 
Scotti, subdues the Caledonians and Picts, 
and unites the country under one monarchy, 
then named Scotland . . . 838 to 843 

CALEDONIAN CANAL, from the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean. The act for its 
Construction received the royal assent July 27, 1803 ; and the works were commenced same 
ear. The nautical intercourse between the western ports of Great Britain and those also of 
reland to the North Sea and Baltic, is shortened in some instances 800, and in others 1000 
niles. A sum exceeding a million sterling was granted by parliament from time to time ; 
md the safe navigation for ships of nearly every tonnage was opened Nov. i, 1822. It has 
lot paid. Annual income from tonnage, May i, 1859, 5080?. ; expenditure, 695 il. 

CALENDAR. The Roman Calendar, which has in great part been adopted by almost all 
mtions, was introduced by Romulus, who divided the year into ten months, comprising 304 
'lays, 738 B.C. This year was of fifty days' less duration than the lunar year, and of sixty - 
>ne less than the solar year, and its commencement did not of course correspond with any 
ixcd season. Numa Pompilius, 713 B.C., corrected this calendar, by adding two months'; 
.ud Julius Caesar, 45 B.C., desirous to make it more correct, fixed the solar year at 365 days 
nd 6 hours, every fourth year being bissextile or leap year. See Leap Year. This almost 
erfect arrangement was denominated the Julian style, and prevailed generally throughout 
jhe Christian world till the time of pope Gregory XIII. The calendar of Julius Ctesar was 
lefective in this particular, that the solar year consisted of 365 days, 5 hours, and 49 
uimites; and not of 365 days 6 hours. This difference, then, amounted to 10 entire days, 
he vernal equinox falling on the nth instead of the 2ist of March. To obviate this error, 
Jregory ordained, in 1582, that that year should consist of 356 days only (Oct. 5 became 
)ct. 15) ; and to prevent further irregularity, it was determined that a year beginning a 
entury should not be bissextile, with the exception of that beginning each fourth century ; 
hns, 1700 and 1800 have not been bissextile, nor will 1900 be so : but the year 2000 will be 
leap year. In this manner three days are retrenched in 400 years, because the lapse of 
leven minutes makes three days in about that period. The year of the calendar is thus 
nade as nearly as possible to correspond with the true solar year, and future errors of 
hronology are avoided. See New Style and French Revolutionary Calendar. 




CALENDAR, continued. 


Year of the world (Jewish) 
Julian period . 
Hegira, 1282 (began May 27, 
15, 1866). 

; ends, May 


Foundation of Rome (Varro) 
United States' Independence 
Year of Queen Victoria 
Year of Napoleon III. . 

. 89-90 

2 9-3o 


CALENDER, a machine used in glazing various kinds of cloth, was introduced into; 
England by the Huguenots, who were driven by persecution from France, Holland, and the 
Netherlands to these countries, about 1685. Anderson. 

CALENDS were the first day of the Roman months. The Nones of March, May, July, 
and October, fell on the yth ; and their Ides on the I5th. The other months had the Nones 
on the 5th and the Ides on the I3th. As the Greeks had no Calends, ad Grcccas Calendas, 
"on the Greek Calends," meant never. 

CALICO, the well-known cotton cloth, is named from Calicut, a city of India, which 
was visited by the Portuguese in 1498. Calico was first brought to England by the East 
India Company in 1631. Calico-printing and the Dutch loom engine were first used in 
1676, when a Frenchman established a factory at Richmond, near London. Anderson. 
Calicoes were prohibited to be printed or worn in 1700 ; and again in 1721, a penalty of 5^. 
was laid on the wearer, and 20?. on the seller of calico. In 1831, by the exertions of Mr.' 
Poulett Thompson, afterwards lord Sydenham, and others, the consolidated duty of ^\d. on 
the square of printed calico was taken off. Since 1834, the manufacture has been greatly 
increased by the applications of science. Cylinders for printing are now engraved by 
galvanism, and new dyes have been introduced by the discoveries of Liebig, Hoffmann, 
Perkin, &c. See Cotton and Dyeing. 

CALIFORNIA (from the Spanish, Caliente Fornalla, hot furnace, in allusion to the 
climate) was discovered by Cortez in 1537 ; others say by Cabrillo in 1542 ; and visited by 
sir Francis Drake, who named it New Albion, in 1579. California was admitted into the 
United States in 1850. It is advancing rapidly in wealth and importance, but society is still 
in a very disorganised state. The population in 1856 was 506,067 ; in 1860, 700,000. 

The Spanish establish missionary and military 
stations . 1698 

California becomes subject to Mexico . . . 1823 

After a bloodless revolution, it becomes virtu- 
ally independent 1 836 

Occupied by the army of the United States . 1846 

Ceded to the United States . . . .1846 
Gold discovered in great abundance by Capt. 

Sutter and Mr. Marshall . . . Sept. 1847 

Made a sovereign state 1850 

Numerous murders in San Francisco Lynch 

law prevails 1853-60 

CALIPER COMPASS, whereby founders and gunners measure the bore or diameter oi 
cannon, small arms, &c. : shot is said to have been invented by an artificer of Nuremberg 
in 1540. 

CALIPH (Arabic), Vicar, or Apostle, the title assumed by the sophi of Persia, as suc- 
cessor of Ali, and, since 1517, by the sultan of Turkey, as successor of Mahomet. The 
caliphat began with Abubeker, the father of the prophet's second wife. 

632. Abubeker. 
634. Omar I. 
644. Othman. 

655. Ali. 

661. Hassan. 

The OMMIADES ruled 661 750. 

The ABBASICES ruled 750 1258. 

In 775 they were styled caliphs of 

Haroun-al-Raschid ruled 786 809. 

See Ommiades and Abba&ides. 

CALIPPIC PERIOD, invented by Calippus, to correct the Metonic cycle, consists ol 
four cycles, or of seventy-six years, at the expiration of which he imagined the new and ful] 
moons returned to the same day of the solar year ; which is incorrect. This period began 
about the end of June, in the third year of the H2th Olympiad, in the year of Rome 424, 
and 330 B.C. 

CALIXTINS, a sect derived from the Hussites, about 1451, demanded the cup (Greek, 
Kalix) in the Lord's supper. Also the followers of George Calixtus, a Lutheran, who died in 
1656. He wrote against the celibacy of the priesthood, and proposed a re-union of Catholics 
and Protestants based on the Apostles' creed. 

CALI YUGA, the Hindoo era of the Deluge, dates from 3101 B.C. (according to some, 
3102), and begins with the entrance of the sun into the Hindoo sign Aswin, now on April 
n, N.S. In 1600 the year began on April 7, N.S., from whjch it has now advanced four 
days, and from the precession of the equinoxes is still advancing at the rate of a day in sixty 
years. The number produced by subtracting 3102 from any given year of the Cali Yuga era 
will be the Christian year in which the given year begins. 

CAL 143 CAM 

CALLAO (Peru). Here, after an earthquake, the sea retired from the shore, and returned 
i:i mountainous waves, which destroyed the city in 1687, and on Oct. 28, 1746. 

CALLIGRAPHY (beautiful writing). Calibrates is said to have written an elegant 
(.iistich on a sesamum seed, 472 B.C. In the i6th century Peter Bales wrote the Lord's 
Prayer, Creed, and Decalogue, two short Latin prayers, his own name, motto, day of the 
Mouth, yearof our Lord, and of the reign of Queen Elizabeth (to whom he presented them 
at Hampton-court), all within the circle of a silver penny, enchased in a ring and border of 
gold, and covered with crystal, so accurately done, as to be plainly legible. Holinshed. 

CALMAR, UNION OF. The treaty, whereby Denmark, Sweden, and Norway, were united 
under one sovereign ; Margaret of Waldemar, "the Semiramis of the North," being the first, 
, June, 1397. The deputies of the three kingdoms assembled at Calmar for the election of a 
lung ; and Margaret, having defeated Albert of Sweden (whose tyranny had caused a revolt 
of his subjects) in 1393, was made choice of to rule over Denmark, as well as Sweden and 
Xonvay, of which she was then queen. This union was dissolved by Gustavus Vasa in 1523. 

CALMUCKS. See Tartary. 

CALOMEL (''beautiful black"), a compound of mercury, sulphuric acid, and chloride of 
sxlium, first mentioned by Crollius early in the I7th century. The first directions given for 
r;s preparation were by Beguin in 1608. 

CALORESCENCE. In Jan. 1865 Professor Tyndall rendered the ultra-red rays of the 
j spectrum of the electric light visible by causing them to impinge on a plate of platinum 
r'dsi'd to a white heat. He termed the phenomenon Calorescence. See Fluorescence. 
CALORIC. See Heat. 

CALOTYPE PROCESS (from the Greek Jcalos, beautiful), by which negative photographs 
are produced on paper, is the invention of Mr. Henry Fox Talbot, about 1840. 

CALOYERS (meaning good old men). The monks of the Greek church, of the order 
cr St. Basil. Their most celebrated monastery in Asia is at Mount Sinai, endowed by 
Justinian (died 565) ; the European one is at Mount Athos. 

CALVARY, MOUNT, the place where the Redeemer suffered death, April 5, A.D. 30; 
(Hales, 31 ; Clinton, 29, others, 30). See Luke xxiii. 33. Adrian, at the time of his per- 
secution of the Christians, erected a temple of Jupiter on Mount Calvary, and a temple of 
Adonis on the manger at Bethlehem, 142. The empress Helena built a church here about 
326. See Holy Places. 

CALVES' HEAD CLUB, noblemen and gentlemen, who exposed raw calves' heads at 
.the windows of a tavern, Jan. 30, 1735, tne anniversary of the execution of Charles I. An 
i incensed mob was dispersed by soldiers, and the club was suppressed. 

CALVI (Corsica). The British forces besieged the fortress of Calvi, June 12, 1794. 
After fifty-nine days it surrendered on Aug^io. It surrendered to the French in 1796. 

CALVINISTS, named after John Calvin (or Chauvin), who was born at Noyon, in 
Pioardy, July 10, 1509. Adopting the reformed doctrines, he fled to Angouleme, where he 
(.'imposed his Insiitutio Christiance Religionis in 1533; published in 1536. He retired to 
,Basle, and settled in Geneva, where he died, May 27, 1564. He was instrumental in burn- 
ing Servetus for denying the Trinity in 1553. A formal separation between the Calvinists 
and Lutherans first took place after the conference of Poissy in 1561, where the former 
jexpressly rejected the tenth and other articles of the confession of Augsburg, and took the 
jnatne of Calvinists. In France (see Huguenots) they took up arms against their persecutors. 
Honry IV., originally a Calvinist, 011 becoming king, secured their liberty by the Edict of 
Nant'.'sin 1598 (which see). Calvinistic doctrines appear in the Articles 'of the Church of 
.'England and in the Confession of the Church of Scotland, and are held by many Protestant 

CAMBIUM REGIS. See Royal Exchange. 

CAMBRAY (K France), an independent archbishopric in 1007, and lordship in 1076, 
[*ives name to cambric. It was taken by the Spaniards by surprise in 1595 ; and has been 
itaken and retaken several times. Fenelon was archbishop in 1695. 

It was invested by the Austrians, Aug. 8, when 
the republican general, Declay, replied to the 
imperial summons to surrender, that "he 
knew not how to do that, but his soldiers 

: knew how to fight." It was, however, taken 

by Clairfait, the Austrian general, on 

Sept. 10, 1 70*1 

The French were defeated at Caesar's camp, in 
the neighbourhood, by the allied army under 
the duke of York .... April 24, i 794 

CAMBRAY, continued. 

Cambray seized by the British, under sir 
Charles Colville .... June 24, 1815 

League of Cambray against the republic of 
Venice, comprising pope Julian II., the em- 
peror Maximilian, and Louis XII. of France, 
and Ferdinand of Spain, entered into Dec. 10, 1508 

Treaty between Francis I. of France and 

Charles V. of Germany (called Paiz des 
Dames, because negotiated by Louisa of 
Savoy, mother of the French king, and Mar- 
garet of Austria, aunt of the emperor) . 
Treaty between the emperor Charles VI. and 
Philip V. of Spain 1724- 

Jesus College, by John Alcock, bishop of Ely . 1496 
St. John's College, endowed by Margaret, 

countess of Richmond 1511 

Magdalen College, by Thomas, baron Audley . 1510 

Trinity College, by Henry VIII. . . . I54 6 

Emmanuel College, by sir Walter Mildmay . 1584 
Sidney-Sussex College, founded by Frances 

Sidney, countess of Sussex . . . . 1598 
Downing College, by sir George Downing, by 

will, in 1717 ; its charter .... i8co ! 


Clare Hall, or College, first by Dr. Richard 
Baden, in 1326 ; destroyed by fire and re- 
established by Elizabeth de Burg, sister to 
Gilbert, earl of Clare .... about 1342 ' 
Trinity Hall, by Wm. Bateman, bp. of Norwich 1350 
St. Catherine's College or Hall, founded . . 1473 | 
[Cambridge University Calendar}. 


CAMBRIA, ancient name of Wales (which see). 

CAMBRICS were first worn in England, and accounted a great luxury, 1580. Stow. 
Their importation was restricted in 1745 ; and prohibited in 1758 ; re-admitted in 1786. 

CAMBRIDGE, the Roman Camboricum and the Saxon Granta, frequently mentioned hy 
the earliest British historians, was burnt by the Danes in 870 and 1010. Roger de Mont- 
gomery destroyed it with fire and sword to be revenged of king William Rufus. 

The university, said to have been commenced 
by Sigebert, king of the East Angles, about 
A.D. 630; lay neglected during the Danish 
invasions, from which it suffered much ; was 
restored by Edward the Elder in 915 ; and 
began to revive about mo 

Henry I. bestows many privileges . . . ,, 

Henry III. granted a charter to the university, 

1230 or 1231 

Incorporated by Elizabeth in . . . . 1571 

In Wat Tyler's and Jack Straw's rebellion, the 
rebels entered the town, seize the university 
records and burn them in the market-place . 1381 

University press was set up . . . . 1534 
' Letters patent granted by Hemy VIII. . . 

The university refuses the degree of M.A. to 
father Francis, a Benedictine monk, recom- 
mended by the king ; and the presidency of 
Magdalen college to Farmer, a Roman Catho- 
lic, notwithstanding the king's mandate . 1687 

Cambridge Philosophical Society established 
in 1819, and chartered in .... 1832 

Railway to London opened . . . June, 1845 

Commissioners were appointed for the govern- 
ment and extension of this university and 
Eton college, by 19 & 20 Viet. c. 88 . . 1856 

New statutes confirmed by the Queen . . . 1858 

British Association met here, 1833, 1845, 1862. 

Fitzwilliam museum, endowed 1816; founded 
1837 ; completed 1847 


Peterhouse College, by Hugo de Balsham, 

bishop of Ely, founded 1257 

Pembroke College, founded by the countess of 

Pembroke 1347 

Gonville and Caius, by Edmund Gonville . . 1348 
Enlarged by Dr. John Caius in . . . . 1558 

Corpus Christi, or Benet 1352 

King's College, by Henry VI 1441 

Christ's College, founded 1442; endowed by 

Margaret, countess of Richmond, mother of 

Henry VII 1505 

Queen's College, by Margaret of Anjou . .1448 

CAMBUSKENNETH (Central Scotland). Here Wallace defeated the English in 1297. 

CAMDEN (N. America). A battle was fought here Aug. 16, 1780, between general 
Gates and lord Cornwallis, the former commanding the revolted Americans, who were 
defeated. At a second battle, between general Greene and lord Rawdon, the Americans 
were again defeated, April 25, 1781. Camden was evacuated and burnt by the British, May 
13, 1781. 

CAMERA LUCID A, invented by Dr. Hooke about 1674 ; another by Dr. Wollaston in 
1807. CAMERA OBSCURA, or dark chamber, constructed, it is said, by Roger Bacon in 
1297 ; and improved by Baptista Porta, about 1500 ; and remodelled by sir -Isaac Newton. 
By the invention of M. Daguerre, in 1839, the pictures of the camera are fixed. See 



Charles, duke of Somerset, elected . 
Thomas, duke of Newcastle . 
Augustus Henry, duke of Graf ton . 
H.R.H. William Frederick, duke of Gloucester 1811 
John, marquess Camden . . ... 1834 
Hugh, duke of Northumberland . . . 1840 
The Prince Consort [died Dec. 14, 1861.] Feb. 28, 1847 
Duke of Devonshire .... Dec. 31, 1861 


Divinity . . . . ..... 

Laws, Hebrew and Greek ..... 

Arabic ......... 

Mathematics ....... 

Music ......... 

Chemistry ........ 

Astronomy ...... 1704, 

Anatomy ........ 

Modern History, Botany ..... 

Natural and Experimental Philosophy 
Mineralogy ........ 

Political Economy ..... . 







CAMERONIANS, a name frequently given to the Reformed Presbyterian Church 
of Scotland, the descendants of the covenanters of the iyth century, the established 
church, 1638-50.* Charles II. signed the League and Covenant in 1650, in hopes of 
recovering his kingdoms, but renounced it in 1661, and revived episcopacy. A revolt 
ensued in 1666, when many covenanters were slain in battle (in the Pentland hills, &c.), 
and many refusing to take the oaths required, and declining to accept the king's indulgence, 
died on the scaffold, after undergoing cruel tortures. The name Cameronian is derived from 
Richard Cameron, one of their ministers, who was killed in a skirmish, in 1680. In 1689 
they raised a body of soldiers to support William III., who enrolled them under the 
Command of lord Angus, as the 26th regiment, since so famous. In 1712 they renewed the 
public covenants, and are described in one of their tracts as "the suffering anti-popish, and 
anti-prelatical, anti-erastian, true presbyterian church of Scotland." They have now bet\y<-n 
thirty and forty congregations in Scotland. The 79th regiment (Cameron Highlanders] , 
raised in 1793 by Allan Cameron, has no connection with the Cameronians. 

CAMISARDS (from chemise, a shirt, which they frequently wore over their dress in night 
attacks), a name given to the more warlike French Protestants in the neighbourhood of the 
CYvennes (mountain chains in S. France), who defended themselves and attacked their 
enemies after the revocation of the edict of Nantes, in 1685. They were suppressed in 1704. 
Their leader, Cavalier, is said to have been made governor of Jersey by William III. 

CAMLET, formerly made of silk and camel's hair, but now of wool, hair, and silk. 
Oriental camlet first came here from Portuguese India, in 1660. Anderson. 

CAMP. The Hebrew encampment was first laid out by divine direction, 1490 B.C. 
(Numbers ii.) The Romans and Gauls had intrenched camps in open plains; and vestiges 
of such exist to this day in England and Scotland. A camp was formed at Hyde Park in 
1745 and 1814. See CkoWiam and Aldcrshott. 

CAMPANIA (S. Italy), was occupied by Hannibal and declared in his favour 216 B.C., 
but regained by the Romans, 213. Its capital was Capua (which see). 

CAMPBELL'S ACT, introduced by lord Campbell, in order to compel railway companies 
to grant compensation for accidents, was passed in 1846 ; amended in 1864. In accordance 
with it the family of a gentleman killed through the breaking of a rail, obtained a verdict 
for 13,000^. from the Great Northern Railway Company. On appeal the sum was reduced. 

CAMPEACHY-BAY (Yucatan, Central America), discovered about 1520, and settled in 
1540; was taken by the English in 1659 ; by the buccaneers, in 1678 ; and by the free- 
booters of St. Domingo, in 1685. These last burnt the town and blew up the citadel. The 
English logwood-cutters made their settlement here about 1662. 

CAMPERDOWN : south of the Texel, Holland, near which admiral Duncan defeated 
the Dutch fleet, commanded by admiral De Winter ; the latter losing fifteen ships, either 
taken or destroyed, Oct. n, 1797. The British admiral obtained a peerage. He died sud- 
denly on his way to Edinburgh, Aug. 4, 0.804. 

CAMPO FORMIO (N. Italy). Here a treaty was concluded between France and 
Austria ; the latter yielding the Low Countries and the Ionian Islands to France, and Milan, 
Mantua, and Modena to the Cisalpine republic, Oct. 17, .1797. By a secret article the 
emperor gained the Venetian dominions. 

CAMPO SANTO (Holy Field), a burial-place at Pisa, surrounded by an arcade erected 
by archbishop Ubaldo, abo\it 1300, which is celebrated for the frescoes painted on the walls 
by Giotto, Memmi, and others. 

CANAAN (Palestine), is considered to have been settled by the Canaanites, 1965 B.C. 
(Clinton, 2088). The land was divided among the Israelites by Joshua, 1445 (Hales, 1602). 

CANADA (N. America), was discovered by John and Sebastian Cabot, in June, 1497 ; 
in 1535 Jacques Cartier (a Breton mariner), ascended the St. Lawrence as far as where 
Montreal now stands. See Montreal and Quebec. 

Quebec fcmnded 1608 

Canada taken by the English 1628 ; restored . 1632 
War begins in 1756 ; Canada conquered by the 
English 1759 (see Quebec\ confirmed to them 

by the peace 

Legislative council established ; the French 
IHWS confirmed, and religions liberty given to 
Roman Catholics 1774 

* They were frequently called hill-men or mountain-men, and wiety people (from the places and modes of 
)rsbip to which they were frequently reduced), and McMillanites, from John McMillan, their first 
mis'er, after their secession from the*cburch of Scotland on account of its subserviency to the English 
vernmcnt, and its declining from its original rigid principles. 





CANADA, continued. 

The Americans under Montgomery invade 
Canada, and surprise Montreal, Nov. 1775 ; 
expelled by Carleton . . March 1776 
Canada divided into Upper and Lower . . 1791 
The " clergy reserves " established by parlia- 
ment one seventh of the waste lands of the 
colony appropriated for the maintenance of 

the Protestant clergy ,, 

During the debates on this bill the quarrel 
between Mr. Burke and Mr. Fox arose. Mr. 
Fox seemed anxious for a reconciliation, but 
Mr. Burke rejected it with disdain . . 

Canada made a bishopric 1793 

The Americans invade Canada at different 
points, with 30,000 men, but are forced to 
retire after several sanguinary battles . . 1812 
Beginning of opposition to the clergy reserves 


First railway in Canada opened . . July, 1836 
The Papineau rebellion commences at Montreal 

by a body called Fils de la Liberte . . -1837 
The rebels defeated at St. Eustace . Dec. 14, 
Repulsed at Toronto, by sir F. Head . Jan. 5. 1838 
Earl of Durham appointed gov.-gen. . Jan. 16, 
Lount and Mathews (rebels) hanged April 12, 
Lord Durham resigns his government . Oct. 9, 
Rebellion appears in Beauharnais Nov. 3 ; the 
insurgents at Napierville, under Nelson, are 
routed with great loss Nov. 6 ; the rebellion 

suppressed Nov. 17, ,, 

Acts relating to government of Lower Canada, 

passed in Feb. 1838, and . . . Aug. 1839 
Upper and Lower Canada reunited . July 23, 1840 
Lord Sydenham appointed governor . Feb. 10, 1841 
The Canada clergy reserves, after much discus- 
sion, abolished by the British parliament 

May 9, 1853 
Lord Elgin gov.-general (1846-54) concluded an 

important treaty with United States June 7, 1854 
The grand trunk railroad of Canada, 850 miles 

long, from Quebec to Toronto, opened Nov. 12, 1856 
On reference having been made to the queen, 
Ottawa, formerly Bytown, appointed the 
capital ; this decision was unpopular ; a 
federal union of the N. American colonies 
has been since proposed . . August, 1858 
Canada raises a regiment of soldiers (made one 

of the line, and called the looth) . . ,, 

The prince of Wales presents the colours at 

Shorncliff . . . . . Jan. 10, 1859 
The prince of Wales, the duke of Newcastle, &c., 
arrived at St. John's, Newfoundland, July 24 ; 

visit Halifax July 30 ; Quebec Aug. 18 ; 
Montreal AVL%. 25 ; Ottawa Sept. i ; leave 
Canada Sept. 20 ; after visiting the United 
States, embark at Portland Oct. 20 ; and 
ai-rive at Plymouth . . . Nov. 15, 1860 

Lord Monck assumes office as gov.-gen. ,Nov. 28, 1861 

In consequence of the ' ' Trent " affair (see 
Umted States, 1861), 3000 British troops were 
sent to Canada; aud warlike preparations 
were made Dec. 

Brit.N. American Assoc. founded in London Jan. 1862 

Cartier's ministry defeated on Militia bill ; Mr. 
J. Sandfield Macdonald becomes premier 

May 20-23, 

The assembly vote only 5000 militia and 5000 re- 
serve towards the defence of the country ; 
this causes discontent in England . July, ,, 

Political changes : Mr. J. Macdouald again pre- 
mier May 20, 1863 

New Militia bill passed . . . Sept. ,, 

Military measures in progress . . Sept. 1864. 

Meeting of about 20,000 volunteers ; delegates 
from N. American colonies at Quebec, to de- 
liberate on the formation of a confederation, 
Oct. 10 ; agree on the bases . . Oct. 20, 5> 

Between 20 and 30 armed confederates quit 
Canada and enter the little town of St. Al- 
ban's, Vermont ; rob the banks, steal horses 
and stores, fire, and kill one man, and wound 
others, and return to Canada, Oct. 19 ; 13 are 
arrested, Oct. 21 ; but are discharged, on 
account of some legal difficulty by Judge 
Coursol Dec. 14, ,,. 

Great excitement in the United States, general 
Dix proclaims reprisals ; volunteers called 
out in Canada to defend the frontiers ; presi- 
dent Lincoln rescinds Dix's proclamation 


Lord Monck opens the last Canadian parlia- 
ment Jan. 19, 1865 

The confederation scheme rejected by New 
Brunswick March 7, ,, 

The British parliament grant 50,000?. for de- 
fence of Canada .... March 23, ,, 

The St. Alban's raiders discharged by justice 
Smith March 30, 

Mr. Seward gives up claim for their extradi- 
tion April 

Messrs. Gait and Cartier visit England to advo- 
cate confederation .... April, ,, 

Population in 1857: Lower Canada, 1,220,514 ; 
Upper Canada, 1,350,923. 

CANALS (artificial watercourses). A canal in China, commenced in the loth century, 
is said to pass over 2000 miles, and to 41 cities. 

The canal of Languedoc, which joins the Medi- 
terranean with the Atlantic Ocean, was com- 
pleted in 1681 

That of Orleans from the Loire to the Seine, 
commenced in 1675 

That between the Baltic and North Sea, at 
Kiel, opened 1785 

That of Bourbon, between the Seine and Oise, 
commenced 1790 

That from the Cattegat to the Baltic . 1794-1800 

The great American Erie canal, 363 miles in 
length, was commenced in .... 1817 

That of Amsterdam to the sea . . . 1819-25 
(See Ganges Canal, the most stupendous mo- 
dern one.) 


The first was by Henry I., when the Trent was joined 
to the Witham, 1134. 

Francis Mathew in 1656, and Andrew Yarranton in 
1677, in vain strongly urged improvement in in- 
ternal navigation. 

In England there are 2800 miles of canals, and 2500 
miles of rivers, taking the length of those only 
that are navigable total, 5300 miles. (Mr. Porter,' 
in 1851. says 4000 miles.) 

In Ireland there are 300 miles of canals ; 150 of navi- 
gable rivers ; and 60 miles of the Shannon, navi- 
gable below Limerick ; in all, 510 miles. Williams. 

The prosperity of canals, for a time largely checked 
by the formation of railways, is now greatly re- 

New river canal, commenced 1608 

Brought to London 


Thames made navigable to 
Oxford .... 1624 

Kennet navigable to Reading 1715 

Lagan navigation commence 
Caermarthen shire canal 
Droitwich to the Severn 


Duke of Bridgewater's navi- 
gation (first great canal), 
commenced (see Bridge- 
water) 1759 

CAN 147 CAN 

CANALS, continued. 

Northampton navigation . 1761 
imbliii to the Shannon (the 

Runcorn to Manchester . 1776 ! Thames to Fenny Stratford . 1800 
Trent and Mersey, opened . 1777 Buckingham canal . . 1801 

Grand) . . . 1765-1788 
: il and Worcester, com- 

Chesterfield to the Trent . . 
Belfast to Lough Xcagh . 1783 

Grand Surrey, Act passed . ,, 
Brecknock canal . . . 1802 

menced . . . . ,, 
Cn-md Trunk commenced by 
Brindley . ... 1766 
Forth to Clyde, commenced . 1768 

Severn to the Thames, com- 
pleted 1789 
Forth and Clyde, completed . 1790 
Bradford completed . . 

Caledonian canal begun . . 1803 
Ellesmere aqueduct . . 1805 
Ashby-de-la-Zouch, opened . 1805 
Aberdeen, completed . .1807 

Birmingham to Bilston . ,, 

Grand Junction canal . . 

Glasgow and Ardrossan, 

Oxford to Coventry, com- 

Birmingham and Coventry . 

opened .... 1811 

menced .... 1769 
lade navigable from 

Monastereven to Athy . .1791 
Worcester and Birmingham . 

Leeds and Liverpool, opened 1816 
Wye and Avon . . . . ,, 

Jl err ford to Ware, 1739 ; to 

Manchester, Bolton, and 

Edinburgh andGlasgowUnion i8rS 

l."n Ion .... 1770 


Sheffield, completed . . .1819 

Liverpool . . . ,, 

Warwick and Birmingham . 1793 

Regent's canal . . . 1820 

Mv'iikland (Scotland), com- 

Barnsley, cut . . . 1794 

Caledonian canal, completed 

menced ,, 

Rochdale, Act passed . . , , 

Oct. 30, 1822 

Ellcsmere and Chester . . 1772 

Huddersfield, Act passed . 

Birmingham and Liverpool, 

lasingstoke canal begun . ,, 

Derby, completed . . . ,, 

begun 1826 

Liverpool to Wigan . . . 1774 

Hereford and Gloucester . 1796 

Gloucester andBerkeley,ship- 

tooud to the Severn . . 1775 Paddington canal begun .1798 

canal, completed . . .1827 

ishire canal, begun . 1776 Kennet and Avon, opened . 1799 

Norwich and Lowestoft navi- 

Stourbridge canal, completed | Peak-forest canal, completed 1800 

gation opened . . .1831 

CANARY ISLANDS (N. "W. Africa), known to the ancients as the Fortunate Isles. 
The first meridian was referred to the Canary Isles by Hipparchus, about 1403.0. They 
wen- re-discovered by a Norman named Bethencourt, about 1400 ; his descendants sold them 
to the Spaniards, who became masters, 1483. The canary-bird, a native of these isles, 
brought to England about 1500. Teneriffe is the largest island. 

CANCER HOSPITAL, West Brompton, near London, was founded by Miss Burdett 
Coutts, May 30, 1859. A temporary hospital began in 1851. 

^ CANDIA, the ancient Crete, an island in the Mediterranean Sea, celebrated for its 100 
cities, its centre Mount Ida ; and the laws of its king Minos, and its labyrinth to secure the 
Minotaur (about 1300 B.C.). It was conquered by the Romans 68 B.C. It was seized by the 
Saracens A.D. 823, when they changed its name ; taken by the Greeks in 960 ; sold to the 
Venetians, 1204, and held by them until the Turks obtained it, after a twenty-four years' 
siege, during which more than 200,000 men perished, 1669. It was ceded to the Egyptian 
p;idia in 1830, but was restored to Turkey in 1840. An insurrection, which broke out here in 
May, 1858, when a reduction of taxation was demanded, soon subsided on the adoption of 
conciliatory measures. A persecution of the Christians took place, July 31, 1859. 

CANDLEMAS DAY, Feb. 2, is kept in the church in memory of the purification of the 
Virgin, who presented the infant Jesus in the Temple. From the number of candles lit (it 
is said in memory of Simeon's song, Luke ii. 32, "a Light to lighten the Gentiles," &c.), 
this festival was called Candlemas, as weU as the Purification. Its origin is ascribed by Bede 
to pope Gelasius in the 5th century. The~"practice of lighting the churches was forbidden by 
order of council, 2 Edw. VI. 1548 ; but it is still continued in the church of Rome. 

CANDLES.* The Roman candles were composed of string surrounded by wax, or dipped 
in pitch. Splinters of wood fatted were used for light among the lower classes in England, 
about 1300. At this time wax candles were little used, and esteemed a luxury ; dipped 
caudles were usually burnt. The "Wax-Chandlers' company was incorporated 1484. Mould 
caudles are said to be the invention of the sieur Le Brez, of Paris. Spermaceti candles are 
of modern manufacture. The Chinese make candles from wax obtained from the berries of 
a tree, winch wax is fragrant, and yields a bright light, f The duty upon candles made in 
England, imposed in 1709, amounted to about 500,000?. annually, when it was repealed in 
1831. Very great improvements in the manufacture of candles are due to the researches on 
oils and fats, carried on by "the father of the fatty acids," Chevreul, since 1811, and 
published in 1823. At Price's manufactory at Lambeth, the principles involved in many 
patents are carried into execution ; including those of Gwynne (1840), Jones and Price (1842), 

* The custom of selling at public auctions by inch of candle is said to have been borrowed from tho 
church of Rome, where there is an excommunication by inch of candle, and the sinner is allowed to 
come to repentance before final excommunication, while yet the candle burns. 

t The candlebury myrtle (Myrica, cerifer<i), at Nankin, in China, nourishes with beautiful blossoms and 
fruit. The latter, when ripe, is gathered and thrown into boiling water ; the white unctuous substance 
which covers the kernels is thereby detached, and swims at the top ; it is skimmed off and purified by a 
second boiling, when it becomes transparent, of a consistence between tallow and wax, and is converted 
into randUs. It is said that specimens of this tree were brought to England from America in 1699. Its 
cultivation in America in a commercial point of view has been recommended. 

L 2 

;md Wilson in 1844, for candles which require no snuffing (termed composite). Palm ai 
cocoa-nut oils are now extensively used. In 1860, at the Belmont works 900 persons were 
employed, and in winter 100 tons (7000?. worth) of candles are manufactured weekly. 
Candles are manufactured at Belmont from the mineral oil or tar brought from Kangoon in 
the Burmese empire and from Trinidad. 

CANDLESTICKS (or lamp-stands) with seven branches were regarded as emblematical 
of the priest's office, and were engraven on their seals, cups, and tombs. Bezaleel made 
" a candlestick of pure gold " for the tabernacle, B.C. 1491 (Exod xxvii. 17). Candlesticks 
were used in Britain in the days of king Edgar, 959, (" silver candelabra and gilt candelabra 
well and honourably made ;") but in 1388 they were not common. 

CANDY (Ceylon), was taken by a British detachment, Feb. 20, 1803, who capitulated 
June 23 following, anxious to evacuate the place on account of its unhealthiness : on the 
third day many were treacherously massacred at Columbo. The war was renewed in October, 
1814 ; the king was made prisoner by general Brownrigg, Feb. 19, 1815; and the sovereignty 
vested in Great Britain, March 2, 1815. 

CANNJS (Apulia). Here on Aug. 2, 216 B.C., Hannibal with 50,000 Africans, Gauls, 
and Spaniards, defeated Paulus ^Emilius and Terentius Varro, with 88,000 Romans, of whom 
40,000 were slain. The victor sent to Carthage three bushels of rings, taken from the 
Roman knights. The place is now denominated by some "the field of blood." 

CANNIBALISM. See Anthropophagi. 

CANNING ADMINISTRATION.* The illness of lord Liverpool, led to the formation 
of this Administration, April 2430, 1827. See Goderich. 

George Canning, first lord of the treasury and choM- 

cellor of the exchequer. 
Lord Harrowby, president of the council. 
Duke of Portland, lord privy seal. 
Lord Dudley, viscount Goderich, and Mr. Sturges 

Bourne, secretaries of state. 
W . W. Wynn, president of the India board. 
Win. Huskisson, board 

Lord Palmerston, secretary ot war. 

Lord Bexley, chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster. 

Duke of Clarence, lord l<igh admiral. 

Lord Lyndhurst, lord chancellor, &c. 

Marquess of Lansdowne, without office ; afterwards 
home secretary. 

On Mr. Canning's death (Aug. 8) the cabinet was re- 

CANNON. See Artillery. Gibbon described a cannon employed by Mahomet II. at the 
siege of Adrianople, in 1453 ; the bore was 12 palms wide, and the stone balls weighed each 
600 Ib. 

At Ehrenbreitstein castle, one of the strongest 
forts in Germany, opposite Coblentz on the 
Rhine, is a prodigious cannon, eighteen feet 
and a half long, a foot and a half in diameter 
in the bore, and three feet four inches in the 
breech. The ball made for it weighs 180 Ib., 
and its charge of powder 94 Ib. The in- 
scription on it shows that it was made by 
one Simon 1529 

In Dover castle is a brass gun called queen 
Elizabeth's pocket pistol, which was pre- 
sented to her by the states of Holland ; this 
piece is 24 feet long, nnd is beautifully orna- 
mented, having on it the arms of the states, 
and a motto in Dutch, importing thus 
" Charge me well, and sponge me clean I'll 
throw a ball to Calais green." 

Some fine specimens are to be seen in the 

A leathern cannon was fired three times in the 
King's park, Edinburgh Phillips . Oct. 23, 1788 

The Turkish piece now in St. James's park, 
was taken by the French at Alexandria ; but 
was retaken, and placed in the park March, 1803 

Messrs. Horsfall's monster wrought-iron gun 
was completed in May, 1856, at Liveipool. 
Its length is 15 feet 10 inches, and its weight 

21 tons 17 cwt. i qr. 14 Ib. Its cost was 
3, Soot. With a charge of 25 Ib. it struck a 
target 2000 yards' distance. It has been 
since presented to government. 

Of late years very great improvements have 
been made in the construction of cannon, by 
Messrs. Whitworth, Mal'et, Aimstrorg. and 
others. Mr. Wm. G. Armstrong knighted 

Feb. 18, 1859 

He bad been working for four years on gun- 
making, and had succeeded in producing " a 
breech-loading rifled wrought-iron gun of 
great durability and of'extreme lightness, 
combining a great extent of range and ex- 
traordinary accuracy." The range of a 32-lb. 
gun, charged with 5 Ib. of powder, was a 
little more than 5 miles. The accuracy of 
the Armstrong gun is said at equal distances 
to be fifty-seven times more than that of our 
common artillery, which it greatly exceeded 
also in destructive effects. The government 
engaged the services of sir W. Armstrong 
for ten years (commencing with 1855) for 
2o,ooof., as consulting engineer of rifled ord- 
nance Feb. 22, 

A parliamentary committee on ordnance was 
appointed Feb 20, and reported on July 23, 1860 

* George Canning was born April n, 1770 ; became foreign secretary in the Pitt administration, 1807; 
fought a duel with Castlereagh and resigned in 1809 ; president of the council in 1820 ; disapproved of the 
queen's trial and resigned in 1821 ; appointed governor-general of India in 1822, but became soon after 
foreign secretary, and remained such till 1827, when he became premier. He died Aug. 8, same year. 




CANNON, continued. 

Sir W.Armstrong resigned the appointmt. Feb. 5, 1863 

The Armstrong gun was said to be very effec- 
tive in the attack oil the Chinese forts at 
Taku Aug. 21, 1860 

Mr. Whitworth'sguns and rifles have also been 
greatly commended. 

An American cannon, weighing 35 tons, stated 
to be the largest in the world, cast in . . ,, 

Great endeavours made to improve the con- 
struction of cannon, to counterbalance the 
strength given to ships of war by iron plates, 
and trials at Shoeburyness, Essex . . . 1862 

Targets of the thickness of the iron sides of 
the Warrior, three s-inch plates of wrought 
iron bolted together, were pierced three times 
by 156 Ib. shot from an Armstrong gun 
smooth bore, 3oo-lb., muzzle-loaded with 
charges of 40 Ib. of powder, twice, and once 
of 50 Ib. April 8, ,, 

The Horsfall gun mentioned above, with a 
charge of 75 Ib. of powder and a shot of 270 
Ib. totally smashed a Warrior target 

Sept. 16, 

Mr. Whitworth's shells were sent through 54 


inch iron plates and the wood-work behind 
it Nov. 12, 

Armstrong's gun "Big Will" was tried and 
pronounced to be a perfect specimen of work- 
manship. It weighed 22 tons ; its length, 
15 feet; range with shot weighing 510 Ib., 
748 to 4187 yards . . . Nov. 19, 

Clark's target was destroyed . . July 7, 

Reed's target was tried successfully . Dec. 8, 

The competitive trial between the Armstrong 
and Whitworth guns began . . April i, 

The Iron-plate commission experiments closed 
on Aug. 4, 

Capt. Palliser, by experiment, has shown that 
iron shot cast in cold iron moulds instead of 
hot sand, is much harder and equals steel ; 
he also suggested the lining cast iron guns 
with wrought iron exits, which is stated to 
be successful. 

The competitive trials of Armstrong's and 
Whitworth's cannon upon the Alfred target- 
ship at Portsmouth closed . . Nov. 15, 

"Hercules target," 4ft. 2 in. thick, ni inches 
of iron, resist-? 300 pounders . . June, 



CANONISATION, of pious men and martyrs as saints, was instituted by pope Leo III., 
800. Tallent. Every day in the calendar is now a saint's day. The first canonisation was 
of St. Udalricus, in 993. Henault. On June 8, 1862, the pope canonised 27 Japanese, who 
had been put to death on Feb. 5, 1597, near Nagasaki. 

CANONS, APOSTOLICAL, ascribed by Bellarmm and Baronius to the Apostles ; by others 
to St. Clement, are certainly a forgery of much later date (since 325). The Greek church 
allows 85, the Latin 50 of them. The first Ecclesiastical Canon was promulgated 380. 
Usher. Canon law was introduced into Europe by Gratiaii, the canon law author, about 
1140, and into England in 1154. Stow. See Decretals. The present Canons and Consti- 
tutions of the Church of England, collected from former ordinances, were established in 1603 
by the clergy in convocation, and ratified by king James I. An intermediate class of reli- 
gious, between priests and monks, in the 8th century, were termed canons, as living by a rule. 

CANOSSA, a castle in Modena, celebrated on account of the degrading penance submitted 
to by the emperor Henry IV. of Germany, in deference to his greatest enemy, pope Gregory 
VII. (Hildebrand), then living at the castle, the residence of the great countess Matilda. 
Henry was exposed for several days to the inclemency of winter, Jan. 1077, till it pleased 
the pope to admit him. Matilda greatly increased the temporal power of the papacy by 
bequeathing to it her large estates, to %he injury of her sscond husband, Guelph, duke of 

CANTERBURY (Kent), the Durovernum of the Romans, and capital of Ethelbert, king 
of Kent, who reigned 560 616. He was converted to Christianity by Augustin, 596, upon 
whom he bestowed many favours, giving him land for an abbey and cathedral, which was 
dedicated to Christ, 602.* St. Martin's church was the first Saxon Christian church in 
Britain. The riot at Boughton, near Canterbury, produced by a fanatic called Tom or Thorn, 
who assumed the name of sir William Courtenay, occurred May 31, 1838. See Tfiomites. 
The railway to London was completed in 1846. The ARCHBISHOP is primate and metropo- 
litan of all England, and the first peer in the realm, having precedency of all officers of state, 
and of all dukes not of the blood royal. Canterbury had formerly jurisdiction over Ireland, 
and the archbishop was styled a patriarch. This see has yielded to the church of Rome 18 
saints and 9 cardinals ; and to the civil state of England, 12 lord chancellors and 4 lord 
treasurers. The see was made superior to York, 1073. See York. The revenue is valued 
in the king's books at 2816^. 75. yd. Bcatson. Present income, 15,000^. 

* Tb.3 cathedral was sacked by the Danes, ion, and burnt down 1067 ; rebuilt by Lanfranc and Anselm, 
and the choir completed by the prior Conrad in 1130, and in which Becket was murdered, 1170, was burnt 
1174. It was rebuilt by William of Sens (1174-78) and by " English William," 1178-84. A new nave was 
built and other parts, 1378-1410. The givat central tower was erected by prior Goldstone about 1495. The 
gorgeous shrine of Becket was stripped at the reformation, and his bones burnt. Here were interred 
Edward the Black Prince, Henry IV., cardinal Pole, and other distinguished persons. During the civil 
war, Cromwell's dragoons used the cathedral as a stable. 

CANTERBURY, continued. 


655-66 4 . 

693-73 1 - 

735-74 1 - 

923 (?) 



St Augustine, or Aus- 

tin, died May 26. 
St. Lawrence. 
St. Mellitus. 
St. Honorius. 
JDeusdedit (Adeodatus). 
Theodore of Tarsus. 

Jaenbehrt, or Lambert. 

St. Dunstan. d. May 19. 

St. ^Elphage, murdered 
by the Danes, April 19. 
Lyfing, or ^Elfstun. 

St. Eadsi 

Robert of Jumie'ges. 


of J 

Stigand : deprived. 
St. Lanfranc, d. May 24. 

[See vacant 5 years.] 
Radulphus de Turbine. 
William de Curballio. 


1162-1170. Thomas Becket : mur- 
dered Dec 29. 
[See vacant. J 

1174-1184. Richard. 

1184-1190. Baldwin. 

1191. ' Reginald Fitz-Joceline, 
died Dec. 26. 
[See vacant.] 

1193-1205. Hubert Walter. [Regi- 
nald the sub-prior, and 
John Grey, bishop of 
Norwich, were succes- 
sively chosen, but set 

1206-1228. 'Stephen Langton, died 
" July 6. 

1229-1231. Richard Weathershed. 

1233-1240. Edmund de Abingdon. 

1240-1270. Boniface of Savoy. 

1272-1278. Robert Kilwarby (re- 

1279-1292. John .Peckham. 

1293-1313. Robert Winchelsey. 

1313-1327. Walter Reynolds. 

1327-1333. Simon de Mepham. 

1333-1348. John Stratford. 

1348-1349. John de Ufford. 

1349. Thomas Bradwardin. 

1349-1366. Simon Islip. 

1366-1368. Simon Langham (re- 

1368-1374. Wm. Whittlesey. 

1375-1381. Simon Sudbury, be- 
headed by the rebels, 
June 14. 

1381-1396. William Courtenay. 

1397-1398. Thos. Fitzalan or Arun- 
del (attainted). 

1398. Roger Walden (ex- 



1399-1414. Tho. Arundel (restd) 
.1414-1443. Henry Chicheley. 
1443-1452. John Stafford. 
1452-1454. John Kemp. 
1454-1486. Thomas Bouchier. 
1486-1500. John Morton. 
1501-1503. Henry Deane or Dem 
1503-1532. Wm. Warham. 
1533-1556. Thos. Cranmer (bur 

March 21). 
1556-1558. ReginaldPole,d.Nov.i3 
1559-1575. Matt. Parker, d. May: 
1576-1583. Edm.Grindal,d. July 6. 
1583-1604. JohnWhitgift,d.Feb.2 9 . 
1604-1610. Rd. Bancroft, d. Nov. 2. 
1611-1633. Geo. Abbot, d. Aug. 4. 
1633-1645. Wm. Laud (beheaded, 

Jan. 10). 

[See vacant 16 years.] 
1660-1663. Wm. Juxon, d. June 4. 
1663-1677. Gilb. Sheldon, d. Nov.g. 
1678-1691. Win. Bancroft (deprived 

Feb. i), d.Nov. 24,1693. 
1691-1694. JohnTillotson,d.Nov.22 
1695-1715. Thos.Tenison, d.Dec.i4- 
1715-1737. Wm. Wake, d. Jan. 24. 
1737-1747. John Potter, d. Oct. 10. 
1747-1757. Thos.Herring,d. Mar. 13. 
1757-1758. Matt.Hutton, d. Mai-. 19. 
1758-1768. Thos. Seeker, d. Aug. 3. 
1768-1783. Fred. Cornwallis, died 

Mar. 19. 

1783-1805. John Moore, d. Jan. 18. 
1805-1828. Chas. Manners Sutton, 

died July 21. 

1828-1848. Wm.Howley, d. Feb.n. 
1848-1862. J ohn Bird Sumner, died 

Sept. 6. 
1862. Chas. Thos. Longley, PRESENT 


CANTERBURY TALES, by Geoffrey Chaucer, were written about 1364 ; and first 
printed about 1475 or 1476 (by Caxton). 

CANTHARIDES, venomous green beetles (called Spanish flies), are used to raise bliste 
This use is ascribed to Aretseus of Cappadocia, about 50 B.C. 

CANTON", the only city in China with which Europeans were allowed to trade, till 
treaty of Aug. 29, 1842. Nearly every nation has a factory at Canton, but that of Englai 
surpasses all others in elegance and- extent. Merchants arrived here in 1517. Afire desti 
ing 15,000, houses, 1822. An inundation swept away 10,000 houses and 1000 persoi 
Oct. 1833. Canton was taken by the British in 1857 ; restored, 1861. See China 183^ 
1839, 1856, 1 86 1. Population estimated at 1,000,000. 

CANULEIAN LAW, permitting the patricians and plebeians to intermarry, was pas 
at Rome 445 B.C. 

CAOUTCHOUC, OR INDIA RUBBER, an elastic resinous substance that exudes 
incisions from several trees that grow in Cayenne, Quito, and the Brazils, the Hcevia 
chouc and Siphonia elastica (vulgarly called syringe trees). It was first brought to Eui 
from South America, about 1730. 

In 1770, Dr. Priestley said that he had seen "a 
substance excellently adapted to the purpose 
of wiping from paper the marks of a black 
lead pencil." It was sold at the rate of 38. 
the cubic half -inch. 

India rubber cloth was made by Samuel Peal 
and patented 

Vulcanised rubber formed by combining India 
rubber with sulphur, which process removes 
the susceptibility of the rubber to change 
xinder atmospheric temperatures, was pa- 
tented in America, by Mr. C. Goodyear 


Invented also by Mr. T. Hancock (of the firm 


of Mackintosh and Co.), and patented . 

Mr. Goodyear invented the hard rubber 
(termed Ebonite) as a substitute for horn 
and tortoise-shell, for combs, paper-knives, 
veneer, walking-sticks, <fec 

A mode of retaining India rubber in its natu- 
ral fluid state (by applying to it liquid am- 
monia) was patented in England, on behalf 
of the inventor, Mr. Henry Lee Norris, of 
New York 

Caoutchouc imported in 1850, 7617 cwts. ; in 
1856, 28,765 cwts. ; in 1864, 71,027 cwts. 




CAP. The general use of caps and hats is referred to 1449. See Caps and Hats. 

CAPE BRETON, a large island, W. coast of N. America, said to have been discovered 

by the English in 1584 ; taken by the French in 1632, but was afterwards restored ; and 

s taken in 1745, and re-taken in 1748. It was finally captured by the English in 1758, 

when the garrison of 5600 men were made prisoners, and eleven French ships were captured 

or destroyed. Ceded to England in 1763. 

CAPE-COAST CASTLE (S. W. Africa). Settled by the Portuguese in 1610 ; but it 
soon fell to the Dutch. It was demolished by admiral Holmes in 1661. All the British 
factories and shipping along the coast were destroyed by the Dutch admiral, De Ruyter, in 
1665. It was confirmed to the English by the treaty of Breda, in 1667. See Ashantees. 

CAPE DE VERDE ISLANDS (N. Atlantic Ocean), were known to the ancients as Gor 
gades ; but not to the moderns till discovered by Antonio de Noli, a Genoese navigator in the 
service of Portugal, 1446, 1450, or 1460. The Portuguese possess them still. 


CAPE LA HOGUE. See La Hague. 

CAPE OF GOOD HOPE, a promontory on the S.W. point of Africa, called "Cabo 
Tormentoso " (the stormy cape), the " Lion of the Sea," and the " Head of Africa," dis- 
covered by Bartholomew de Diaz in 1486. Its present name was given by John 11. of 
Portugal, who augured favourably of future discoveries from Diaz having reached the 
extremity of Africa, Population in 1856, 267,096. 

The cape was doubled, and the passage to 
India discovered by Vasco de Gama, Nov. 20, 1497 

CAPE TOWN, the capital, planted by the Dutch 1651 

Colony taken by the English, under admiral 
Elphinstone and general Clarke . Sept. 1795 

Restored at the peace in 1802 

Taken by sir D. Baird and sir H. Popham, Jan. 8, 1806 

Finally ceded to England in 1814 

British emigi-ants arrive in . . March, 1820 

The Kaffres make irruptions on the British set- 
tlements; and ravage Grahamstown. (See 
Kajfraria) Oct. 1834 

Bishopric of Cape Town founded . . . 1847 

The inhabitants successfully resist the attempt 
to make the cape a penal colony . May 19, 1849 

The constitution granted to the colony promul- 
gated and joyfully received on . July i, 1853 

General Pratorius, the chief of the Trans- Vaal 
republic, died in . , . . Aug. ,, 

The British having given up its jurisdiction 
over the Orange river territory, a free state 
was formed (Bee Orange river) . Mai-ch 29, 1854 

The first parliament meets at Cape-Town July i, ,, 

The Kaffres were much excited by a prophet 
named Umhla-kaza. By the exertions of sir 
George Grey, the governor, tranquillity was 
maintained Aug. 1856 

The cape visited by prince Alfred in . July, 1860 

The first railway from Cape Town, about 58 
miles long, opened . . about Dec. 

CAPE ST. VINCENT (S. "W. Portugal). Sir George Rooke, with twenty-three ships of 
war, and the Turkey fleet, was attacked by Tourville, with 160 ships off Cape St. Vincent, 
when twelve English and Dutch men of war, and eighty merchantmen, were captured or 
destroyed by the French, June 16, 1693. Sir John Jervis, with the Mediterranean fleet of 
fifteen sail, defeated the Spanish fleet of twenty- seven ships of the line off this cape, taking 
four ships and destroying others, Feb. nj^. 1797. For this victory sir John was raised to the 
peerage, as earl St. Vincent. Nelson was engaged in this battle. 

CAPET (or Capevigians), the third race of the kings of France, named from Hugo Capet, 
count of Paris and Orleans, who seized the throne on the death of Louis V., called the Indo- 
lent, 987. Henault. The first line of the house of Capet expired with Charles IV., in 1328, 
when Philip VI. of Valois ascended the throne. See France. 

CAPILLARITY (the rising of liquids in small tubes, and the ascent of the sap in plants) 
is said to have been first observed by Niccolo Aggiunti of Pisa, 160035. T ^ e theory has 
been examined by Newton, La Place, and others. Dr. T. Young's theory was put forth in 
1805, and Mr. "VVertheim's researches in 1857. 


CAPITATION TAX. See Poll-tax. 

CAPITOL, so called from a human head (caput) being found when digging the founda- 
tions of the principal fortress of Rome, on Mons Tarpeius, on which a temple was built to 
Jupiter, thence called Jupiter Capitolinus. The foundation was laid by Tarquinius Priscus, 
6i6B.c. The building was continued by Servius Tullius, and completed by Tarquinius 
Superbus, but was not dedicated till 507 B. c. by the consul Horatius. It was burnt during 
the civil wars, 83 B.C., rebuilt by Sylla, and dedicated again by Lutatius Catulus, 69 B.C. 
The Roman consuls made large donations to this temple, and the emperor Augustus bestowed 
on it 2000 pounds weight of gold, of which metal the roof was composed : its thresholds were 
of brass, and its interior was decorated with shields of solid silver. It was destroyed by 



lightning 188 B.C. ; by fire, A.D. 70, and rebuilt by Domitian. The Capiloline gajncs, insti- 
tuted 387 B.C., were revived by Domitian, A.D. 86. The Campidoglio contains palaces of the 
senators, erected on the site of the Capitol by Michael Angelo soon after 1 546. 

CAPITULARIES, the laws of the Prankish kings, commencing with Charlemagne (801 ). 
Collections have been published by Baluze (1677) and others. 

CAPPADOCIA, Asia Minor. Its early history is involved in obscurity. 

Pharnaces said to have founded the kingdom . 

Cappadocia conquered by Perdiccas, regent of 
Macdon ; the king, Ariarathes I., aged 82, 
crucified ........ 

Recovers its independence . . . . 

Conquered by Mithridates of Pontus 

Held by Seleucus Nicator 

Ariarathes V. , Philopator, reigns, 162; dethroned 
by Holophernes, 130, but restored by the 
Romans, 158 ; killed with Crassus in the war 
against Aristonicus 

His queen, Laodice, poisons five of her sons ; 
the sixth (Ariarathes VI.) is saved ; she is 
put to death 

Ariarathes VI. murdered, by Mithridates Eu- 
pator ; who sets up various pretenders. The 





Roman senate declares the country free, and 
appoints Ariobarzaues I. king . . B.C. 

He is several times expelled by Mithridates, 
&c. , but restored by the Romans ; dies 

Ariobarzanes II. supports Pompey,and is slain 
by Crassus 

Ariarathes VII. deposed by Antony 

Archelaus is favoured by Augustus, 20 B. c. ; 
but accused by Tiberius, he comes to Home 
and dies there, oppressed with age and infir- 
mities A.D. 

Cappadocia becomes a Roman province 

Invaded by the Huns . ... 

And by the Saracens .... 

Recovered by the emperor Basil I. 

Conquered by Soliman 1074 

Annexed to Turkish Empire .... 1360 

CAPPEL (Switzerland). Here the reformer Zwinglius was slain in a conflict between 
the catholics and the men of Zurich,- Oct. n, 1531. 

CAPRI (Caprese), an island near Naples, the sumptuous residence of Augustus, and par- 
ticularly of Tiberius, memorable for the debaucheries he committed during the seven last 
years of his life, 27. Capri was taken by sir Sidney Smith, April 22, 1806. 

CAPS AND HATS.* About 1750 Sweden was much distracted by two factions thus 
named, the former in the interest of the Russians, and the latter in that of the French. 
They were broken up and the names prohibited by Gustavus III. in 1771, who desired to 
exclude foreign influence. His assassination by Ankarstrom, March 16, 1792, set aside all 
his plans for the improvement of Sweden. 

CAPUA (Naples), capital of Campania, took the part of Hannibal when his army 
wintered here after the battle of Cannse, 216 B.C., and it is said became enervated through 
luxury. In 211, when the Romans retook the city, they scourged and beheaded all the 
surviving senators ; the others had poisoned themselves after a banquet previous to the 
surrender of the city. Only two persons escaped degradation, a woman who had prayed for 
the success of the Romans, and another who succoured some prisoners. During the middle 
ages Capua was in turn subjugated by the Greeks, Saracens, and Normans, and Germans. 
It was restored to Naples in A.D. 1424, and was taken Nov. 2, 1860, by Garibaldi. 

CAPUCHIN FRIARS, Franciscans, so named from wearing a Capuchon, or cowl hang- 
ing down upon their backs. The Capuchins were founded by Matthew Baschi, about 1525. 

CAR. The invention is ascribed to Erichthonius of Athens, about 1486 B.C. Covered 
cars (currus arcuati) were used by the Romans. The lectica (a soft cushioned car), next 
invented, gave place to the carpentum, a two-wheeled car, with an arched covering, hung 
with costly cloth. Still later were the carrucce, in which the officers of state rode. Tri- 
umphal cars, introduced by Tarquin the Elder, were formed like a throne. 

CARACAS (S. America), part of Venezuela, discovered by Columbus 1498. It was 
reduced by arms, and assigned as property to the Welsers, German merchants, by Charles 
V. ; but from their tyranny, they were dispossessed in 1550, and a crown governor appointed. 
The province declared its independence of Spain, May 9, 1810. The city Leon de Caracas, 
on March 26, 1812, was visited by a violent earthquake, and nearly 12,000 persons perishe " 
See Venezuela. 

CARBERRY HILL (S. Scotland). Here on June 15, 1567, lord Hume and the 

* None allowed to sell any hat for above zod. nor cap for above 23. 8d. 5 Henry VII. 1489. It 
enacted in 1571 that every person above seven years of age should wear on Sundays and holidays, a cap L 
wool, knit, made, thickened, and dressed in England by some of the trade of cappers, under the forfeiture 
of three farthings for every day's neglect, 1571. Excepted : maids, ladies, and gentlewomen, and every 
lord, knight, and gentleman, of twenty marks of land, and their heirs, and such as had borne office of 
worship, in any city, town, or place, and the wardens of London companies. 

CAR 153 CAR 

federate barons dispersed the royal army under Bothwell, and took Mary queen of Scots 
prisoner. Bothwell fled. 

CARBOLIC ACID (or phonic acid), obtained by the distillation of pit-coal, is a powerful 
antiseptic. It is largely manufactured for medical purposes, and has been advantageously 
used at Carlisle and Exeter in the deodorisatioiv of sewage (1860-1). 

CARBON was shown to be a distinct element by Lavoisier in 1788. He proved the 
diamond to be its purest form, and converted it into carbonic acid gas by combustion. 

CARBONARI (colliers, or charcoal-burners), a powerful secret society in Italy, whicE 
derived its origin, according to some, from the Waldenses, and which became prominent 
early in the present century. It aimed at the expulsion of foreigners from Italy, and the 
establishment of civil and religious liberty. In March, 1820, it is said that 650,000 joined 
the society, and an insurrection soon after broke out in Naples, general Peps taking the com- 
mand. The king Ferdinand made political concessions, but the allied sovereigns at Laybach 
assisted Ferdinand to suppress the liberal party. The Carbonari were henceforth denounced 
as traitors. The society since 1818 spread in France, and doubtless hastened the fall of the 
Bourbons in 1830 and 1848. It has been frequently but incorrectly confounded with free- 

CARBONIC ACID GAS, a compound of carbon and oxygen, which occurs in the air, 
and is a product of combustion, respiration, and fermentation. The Grotto del Cane yields 
2OO,ooolbs. per annum. No animal can breathe this gas. The briskness of champagne, 
Deer, &c., is due to its presence. It was liquefied by atmospheric pressure by Faraday in 
1823. On exposing the liquid to the air for a short time it becomes solid, in the form o'f 

CARDIFF CASTLE (S. Wales). Here Robert, duke of Normandy, eldest son of William 
I., was imprisoned from 1106 till his death, 1135. 

CARDINALS, ecclesiastical princes in the church of Rome, the council of the pope, and 
the conclave or sacred college, at first were the principal priests or incumbents of the 
parishes in Rome, and were called cardinales in 853. They began to assume the exclusive 
power of electing the popes in 1181. They first wore the red hat to remind them that 
they ought to shed their blood for religion, if required, and were declared princes of the 
church by Innocent IV., 1243 or 1245. In 1586 Sixtus V. fixed their number at 70; but 
there are generally vacancies. In 1860 there were 69 cardinals, in 1861, 63, in 1864, 59. 
Paul II. gave the scarlet habit, 1464 ; and Urban VIII. the title of Eminence in 1623 or 
1630. Ducange. 

CARDROSS CASE. See Trials, 1861. 

CARDS (referred to the Chinese, Hindoos, and Romans), are said to have been invented 
in France in 1391, to amuse Charles IV. during the intervals of a melancholy disorder. 
Piquet and all the early names are French. Cards first taxed in England 1710. 428,000 
packs were stamped in 1775, and 986,000 in 1800. In 1825, the duty being then 2s, 6d. 
per pack, less than 150,000 packs were stamped ; but in 1827 the stamp duty was reduced 
to is., and 310,854 packs paid duty in 1830. Duty was paid on 239,200 packs in the year 
ending 5th Jan. 1840 ; and on near 300,000, year ending 5th Jan. 1850. By an act passed 
in 1862 the duty on cards was reduced to ^d. per pack, and the sellers were required to take 
out a licence. 

CARIA, Asia Minor, was conquered by Cyrus, 546 B.C. ; by Dercyllidas, a Lacedae- 
monian, 397; his successor Hecatomnus became king, 385 B.C.; for his son Mausolus the 
Mausoleum was erected (which see). Caria was absorbed into the Turkish empire . 

CARICATURES. Bufalmaco, an Italian painter, about 1330, drew caricatures and put 
labels to the mouths of his figures with sentences. The modern caricatures of Gilray, Row- 
landson, H. B. (John Doyle J = EB), Richard Doyle, John Leech, and John Tenniel are 
justly celebrated. The well-known " Punch " was first published in 1841. The most eminent 
writers of fiction of the day and others, (Douglas Jerrold, Thackeray, A' Becket, Professor E. 
Forbes, &c.) have contributed to this amusing periodical. 

CARINTHIA, a Bavarian duchy, was annexed to Austria, 1363. 




CARISBROOKE CASTLE (Isle of Wight), said to have been a British and Roman 
fortress, was taken 530, by Cerdic, founder of the kingdom of the West Saxons. Its 
Norman character has been ascribed to William Fitz-Osboriie, earl of Hereford in William 
I. 'a time. Here Charles I. was imprisoned in 1647. Here died his daughter Elizabeth, 
aged fifteen, too probably of a broken heart, Sept. 8, 1650. 

CARLAVEROCK CASTLE (S. Scotland), taken by Edward I. July, 1300, the subject of 
a contemporary poem published, with illustrations, by sir Harris Nicolas in 1828. 

CARLISLE (Cumberland), a frontier town of England, wherein for many ages a strong 
garrison was kept. Just below this town the famous Picts' wall began, which crossed the 
whole island to Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and here also ended the great Roman highway. The 
great church, called St. Mary's, is a venerable old pile ; a great part of it was built by St. 
David, king of Scotland, who held Cumberland, Westmoreland, and Northumberland, in 
vassalage from the crown of England. The castle, restored in 1092 by William II., was the 
prison of Mary queen of Scots in 1568. Taken by the parliamentary forces in 1645, and by 
the young Pretender, Nov. 15, 1745 : retaken by the duke of Cumberland, Dec. 30, same 
year. The see was erected by Henry I. in 1132, and made suffragan to York. The cathe- 
dral had been founded a short time previously, by Walter, deputy in these parts for William 
Rufus. It was almost ruined by Cromwell, and has never recovered its former great beauty, 
although repaired after the Restoration. It has been lately renovated at a cost of 15,000?. 
and was reopened in 1856.. The see has given to the civil state one lord chancellor and two 
lord treasurers; it is valued in the king's books at 530?. 45. lid. per aimum. Present 
income 4500?. 


V9 1 - Edward Venables Vernon, trans, to York, 1807. 
1808. Samuel Goodenough, died Aug. 12, 1827. 
1827. Hugh Percy, died Feb. 1856. 

1856. Hon. H. Montagu Villiers, trans, to Durham 

May, 1860. 
1860. Hon. Samuel Waldegrave (PRESENT bishop). 


CARLOVINGIANS, the second dynasty of the French kings. See France. 

CARLOW (S. E. Ireland). The castle, erected by king John, surrendered after a 
desperate siege to Rory Oge 0' Moore, in 1577 ; again to the parliamentary forces, in 1650. 
Here the royal troops routed the insurgents, May, 1 798. 

CARLSBAD (or Charles's Bath), in Bohemia, the celebrated springs, discovered by the 
emperor Charles IV. in 1358. On Aug. I, 1819, a congress was held here, when the great 
powers decreed measures to repress the liberal press, &c. 

CARMAGNOLE, a Piedmontese song and dance, popular in France during the reign of 
terror, 1793-4. The chorus was " Dansons la Carmagnole : vive le son du canon ! " 

CARMATHIANS, a Mahometan sect. Carmath, a Shiite, about 890, assumed the title 
of "the guide, the director," &c., including that of the representative of Mahomet, 
St. John the Baptist, and the angel Gabriel. His followers subdued Bahrein in 900, and 
overran the east. Dissensions arose amongst themselves, and their power soon passed away. 

CARMELITES, or WHITE FRIARS, of Mount Carmel, one of the four orders of mendi- 
cants with austere rules, founded by Berthold about 1156, and settled in France in 1252. 
Henautt. These rules were moderated about 1540. They claimed descent from Elijah. 
They had numerous monasteries in England, and a precinct in London without the Temple, 
west of Blackfriars, is called Whitefriars to this day, after a community of their order, 
founded there in 1245. 

CARNATIC, a district of Southern Hindustan, extending along the whole coast of Coro- 
mandel. Hyder Ali entered the Carnatic with 80,000 troops, in 1780, and was defeated by 
the British under sir Eyre Coote, July i, and Aug. 27, 1781 ; and decisively overthrown, 
June 2, 1782. The Carnatic was overrun by Tippoo in 1790. The British have possessed 
entire authority over the Carnatic since 1801. See India. 

CARNATION, so called from the original species being of a flesh colour (carnis, of 
flesh). Several varieties were first planted in England by the Flemings, about 1567. Stow. 

CARNEIAN GAMES, observed in many Grecian cities, particularly at Sparta (instituted 
about 675 B.C. in honour of Apollo, surnamed Carneus), lasted nine days. 

CARNIVAL (Carni vale, Italian, i.e. Flesh, farewell /), a festival time in Italy, parti- 
cularly at Venice, about Shrove-tide, or beginning of Lent. 




CAROLINA (N. America). Said to have been discovered by Sebastian Cabot in 1498, 
orbyDe Leon in 1512. A body of English, about 850 persons, landed and settled lure 
about 1660 ; and Carolina was granted to lord Berkeley and others a few years afterwards. 
The cultivation of rice was introduced by governor Smith in 1695, and subsequently cotton. 
The province was divided into North and South in 1719. See America. The Carolinas 
slave states. Great excitement prevailed in them in Nov. 1860, on account of Mr. 
.Abraham Lincoln's election to the presidency of the United States, he being strongly 
posed to slavery. South Carolina began the secession from the United States, Dec. 20, 
160: North Carolina followed, May 21, 1861. See United States, 1861-5. 

CAROLINE ISLANDS were discovered by the Spaniards in the reign of Charles II. 1686. 

CARP, a fresh-water or pond fish, was, it is said, first brought to these countries about 
1525. Walton. It is mentioned by Lady Juliana Berners in 1496. 

CARPETS are of ancient use in the East. The manufacture of woollen carpets was 
introduced into France from Persia, in the reign of Henry IV., between 1589 and 1610. 
Some artizans who had quitted France in disgust established the English carpet manufac- 
ture, about 1750. A cork-carpet company was formed in 1862. 

C ARRACK, or Karrack (Italian, Caracca), a large ship in the middle ages. The Santa 
Anna, the property of the knights of St. John, of about 1700 tons, sheathed with lead, was 
built at Nice about 1530. It was literally a floating fortress, and aided Charles V. in taking 
Tunis in 1535. It contained a crew of 300 men and 50 pieces of artillery. 

CARRIAGES. Erichthonius of Athens is said to have produced the first chariot about 
1486 B.C. Rude carriages were known in France in the reign of Henry II. A.D. 1547 ; in 
England in 1555 ; Henry IV. of France had one without straps or springs. They were made 
in England in the reign of Elizabeth, and then called whirlicotes. The duke of Bucking- 
ham, in 1619, drove six horses ; and the duke of Northumberland, in rivalry, drove eight. 
Carriages were let for hire in Paris, in 1650, at the Hotel Fiacre ; hence the name, fiacre. 
See Car, Cabriolets, and Coaches. 

CARRICKFERGUS (Antrim, Ireland). Its castle is supposed to have been built by 
Hugh de Lacy, in 1178. The town surrendered to the duke of Schomberg, Aug. 28, 1689. 
The castle surrendered to the French admiral Tlmrot, 1760. See Thurot. 

CARRON IRON-WORKS, on the banks of the Carron, in Stirlingshire, established in 
1760. The works in 1852 employed about 1600 men. Here since 1776 have been made the 
pieces of ordnance called carronades. 

CARROTS and other edible roots were imported from Holland and Flanders, about 1540. 

CARTESIAN DOCTRINES, promulgated by Rene Des Cartes, the French philosopher, 
in 1637. His metaphysical principle is, "I think, therefore I am ;" his physical principle, 
"Nothing exists but substance." He accmmts for all physical phenomena on his theory of 
vortices, motions excited by God, the source of all motion. He was born 1596; and died at 
Stockholm, the guest of queen Christina, in 1650. 

CARTES DE YISITE. The small photograph portraits thus termed are said to have 
been first taken at Nice, by M. Ferrier in 1857. The duke of Parma had his portrait placed 
upon his visiting cards, and his example was soon followed in Paris and London. 

CARTHAGE (N. coast of Africa, near Tunis), founded by Dido or Elissa, sister of 
Pygmalion, king of Tyre, B.C. 878 (869, Blair; 826, Niebuhr). She fled from that tyrant, 
who had killed her husband, and took refuge in Africa. Carthage became a great com- 
mercial and warlike republic, and disputed the empire of the world with Rome, which 
occasioned the Punic wars. The Carthaginians bore the character of a faithless people, 
hence the term Punic faith. Cato the censor (about 146 B.C.) ended his speeches in the 
senate with Carthago delenda! "Carthage must be destroyed ! " 

Defeated by Agathocles, they immolate their B.C. 
children on the altar to Satum . . . 310 
The first Punic war begins (lasts 23 years) . . 264 
The Carthaginians defeated by the Roman con- 
sul Duilius in a naval engagement . . . 260 

Xantippus defeats Regulus 255 

Hasdrubal defeated by Metellus at Panormus 251 

Regulus put to death 250 

Romans defeated before Lilybamm . . . 250 
The great Hannibal born 247 


First alliance of Carthaginians and Romans . 509 
The Carthaginians in Sicily defeated at Himera 

by Gelo ; the elder Hamilcar perishes . . 480 
They enlarge their territories .... 410 
They send 300,000 men into Sicily . . . . 407 
Take Agrigentum ...... 406 

The siege of Syracuse 396 

The Carthaginians land in Italy . . . -379 
Their defeat by Timoleon 339 




CARTHAGE, continued. 


End of first Punic war ; Sicily lost by Carthage 241 
War between the Carthaginians and African 

mercenaries 241 

Hamilcar Barcas is sent into Spain : he takes 
with him his son, the famous Hannibal, at 
the age of nine years, having first made him 
swear an eternal enmity to the Romans . . 237 
Hasdrubal founds New Carthage (Carthagena) . 229 

Hasdrubal is assassinated 220 

Hannibal subjects Spain, as far as the Iberus . 219 
The second Punic war begins (lasts 17 years) . 218 
Hannibal crosses the Alps, and enters Italy with 

100,000 men 218 

He defeats the Roman consuls at the Ticinus and 
Trebia, 218 ; at the lake Thrasy menus, 217, 
and at Cannae (which see) . . . Aug. 2, 216 
Publius Scipio carries war into Spain and takes 

New Carthage 210 

Hasdrubal, brother of Hannibal, arrives with 
an army, and is defeated and slain at the 

B.C. 207 


I 49 


The Carth-iglnians expelled Spain 
Hcipio arrives in Africa, and lays siege to Utica . 204 
Hannibal recalled from Italy .... 
Hannibal totally defeated at Zama (which see) . 

End of the second Punic war 

The third Punic war : Scipio invades Africa 
Carthage taken and burned, by order of the 

senate i 4 6 ; 

Colony settled at Carthage by C. Gracchus .122 
Its rebuilding planned by Julius Csesar . . 46 

And executed by his successors. 
It becomes an important Christian bishop- 
ric A.D. 215 

And Cyprian holds a council here . . .252 
Taken by Genseric the Vandal . . . 439 

Retaken by Belisarius 53- 

Taken and -destroyed by Hassan the Saracenic 

governor of Egypt 69? 

Carthaginian antiquities brought to the British 
Museum . 

CARTHAGENA, OR NEW CARTHAGE (S. E. Spain), built by Hasdrubal, the Carthaginian 
general 229 B.C. ; was taken by Scipio, 210. The modern Carthagena was taken by a British 
force under sir John Leake in 1706, but was retaken by the duke of Berwick, 1707. 
CARTHAGENA, in Columbia, South America, was taken by sir Francis Drake in 1585 ; was 
pillaged by the French of 1,200,000?. in 1697 ; and was bombarded by admiral Vernon 
in 1740-1. 

CARTHUSIANS, a religious order (springing from the Benedictines) founded by Bruno 
of Cologne, who retired with six companions from the converse of the world about 1080, to 
Chartreuse (which see), in the mountains of Dauphine". Their austere rules were formed by 
Basil VII., general of the order. They appeared in England about 1180, and a Carthusian 
monastery, founded by sir William Manny, 1371, was the site of the present Charter-house, 
London. See Charter-house. The Carthusian powder, of father Simon, at Chartreuse, was 
first compounded about 1715. 

CARTOONS. Those of RAPHAEL (twenty-five in number) were designed (for tapestries) 
in the chambers of the Vatican under Julius II. and Leo X. about 1510 to 1516. The seven 
preserved were purchased in Flanders by Rubens for Charles I. of England, for Hampton 
court palace in 1629. They represent I, the Miraculous draught of Fishes ; 2, the Charge 
to Peter ; 3, Peter and John healing the Lame at the Gate of the Temple ; 4, the Death of 
Ananias ; 5, Elymas the Sorcerer struck with blindness ; 6, the Sacrifice to Paul and 
Barnabas, at Lystra ; 7, Paul preaching at Athens. The cartoons were removed, to 
South Kensington, April 28, 1865. The tapestries executed at Arras from these designs are 
at Rome. They were twice carried away by invaders, in 1526 and 1798, and were restored 
in 1815. The Cartoons for the British Houses of Parliament were exhibited in 1843. 

CARVING. See Sculptures. CASH-PAYMENTS. See Bank of England. 

CASHEL (Tipperary, Ireland). Cormack Cuillinan, king and bishop of Cashel, was the 
reputed founder or restorer of the cathedral, 901. In 1152, bishop Donat O'Danergan was 
invested with the pall. See Pallium. Cashel was valued in the king's books, 29 Henry 
VIII., at 661. 135. 4d. Irish money. By the Church Temporalities act, 1833, it ceased to be 
archiepiscopal, and was joined to Waterford and Lisinore. 

CASHMERE, in the Himalayas ; was subdued by the Mahometans in the i6th century ; 
by the Affghans in 1754 ; by the Sikhs in 1819 ; and was ceded to the British in 1846 ; who 
gave it to the Maharajah Gholab Singh, with a nominal sovereignty. The true Cashmere 
shawls were first brought to England in 1666 ; but are well imitated at Bradford and 
Huddersfield. Shawls of Thibetian wool, for the omrahs, cost 150 rupees each, about 1650. 

CASSATION, COURT OF, the highest court of appeal in France, was established in 1790 
by the national assembly. 

CASSITERIDES. See Stilly Isles. 

CASTEL FIDARDO, near Ancona, Central Italy. Near here general Lamoriciere and 
the papal army of 11,000 men were totally defeated by the Sardinian general, Cialdini, Sept. 
1 8, 1860. Lamoriciere w r ith a few horsemen fled to Ancona, then besieged. On Sept. 29, 
he and the garrison surrendered, but were shortly after set at liberty. 

CAS 157 CAT 

CASTES, a distinct section of society in India. In the laws of Menu (see Menu}, the- 
Hindus are divided into the Brahmans, or sacerdotal class ; the Kshatrya or Chuttree, 
military class ; the Vaisya, or commercial class ; and the Sudras, or sooders, servile class. 

CASTIGLIONE (N. Italy). Here the French under Augereau defeated the Austrians, 
commanded by Wurmser, Avith great loss, Aug. 3 5, 1796. 

CASTILE (Central Spain). A powerful Gothic government was established here about 
800. Ferdinand, count of Castile, became king, 1035. Ferdinand of Arragon married 
Isabella of Castile in 1474, and formed one monarchy, 1479. See Spain. 

CASTILLEJOS (N. Africa). Here on Jan. i, 1860, was fought the first decisive action 
in the war between Spain and Morocco. General Prim, after a vigorous resistance, repulsed 
the Moors under Muley Abbas, and advanced towards Tetuau. 

CASTILLON, in Guienne. Here the army of Henry VI. of England was defeated by 
that of Charles VII. of France. An end was put to the English dominion in France, Calais 
alone remaining, July 23, 1453. Talbot, earl of Shrewsbury, was killed. 

CASTLEBAR (Ireland). French troops, under Humbert, landed at Killala, and assisted 
by Irish insurgents here, compelled the king's troops to retreat, Aug. 28, 1798. 

CASTLEPOLLARD (Ireland). Fatal affray at a fair here between some peasantry and a 
i<>dy of police, when thirteen persons lost their lives, and more than twice that number were 
\vounded, May 23, 1831. The chief constable, Blake, and his men, escaped punishment. 

CASTLES. The castle of the Anglo-Saxon was a tower keep, either round or square, 
and ascended by a flight of steps in front. William I. erected 48 strong castles. Several 
hundreds, built by permission of Stephen, between 1135 and 1154, Avere demolished by 
Henry II., 1154. Many were dismantled in the civil wars. 

CATACOMBS. The early depositories of the dead. The first Christians at Rome met 
for worship in the catacombs ; and here are said to have been the tombs of the apostles 
Peter and Paul. Belzoni in 1815 and 1818 explored many Egyptian catacombs, built 3000 
years ago. He brought to England the sarcophagus of Psammetichus, formed of oriental 
alabaster, exquisitely sculptured. In the Parisian catacombs (formerly stone quarries), 
human remains from the cemetery of the Innocents were deposited in 1785 ; and many of 
the victims of the revolution in 1792-4, are interred in them. 

CATALONIA (W. Spain), was settled by the Goths and Alani, about 409 ; conquered by 
the Saracens, 712 ; recovered by Pepin and Charlemagne. It formed part of the Spanish 
marches and the territory of the count of Barcelona (which see). The natives were able 
seamen : being frequently unruly, their peculiar privileges were abolished in 1714. 

CATALYTIC FORCE. The discovery in 1819 by Thenard of the decomposition of 
peroxide of hydrogen by platinum, and by Dobereiner in 1825 of its property to ignite a 
mixture of hydrogen and oxygen, formed the groundwork of the doctrine of Catalytic Force, 
also termed "action of contact or presence," put forth by Berzelius and Mitscherlich. 
Their view has not been adopted by Liebig and other chemists. 

CATAMARANS (or carcases), fire-machines for destroying ships ; tried in vain by sir 
Sidney Smith, Oct. 2, 1804, on the Boulogne flotilla destined by Bonaparte to invade England. 

CATANIA, a town near Etna, Sicily, was founded by a colony from Chalcis, about 753 
B.C. Ceres had a temple here, open to none but women. Catania was almost totally over- 
thrown by an eruption of Etna in 1669, and in 1693 was nearly swallowed up by an earth- 
quake : in a moment more than 18,000 of its inhabitants were buried in the ruins. An earth- 
quake did great damage, Feb. 22, 1817. In Aug. 1862, the town was held by Garibaldi and 
his volunteers, in opposition to the Italian government. He was captured on Aug. 29. 

CATAPHRYGIANS, heretics in the 2nd century, who followed the errors of Mon- 
tanus. They are said to have baptized their dead, forbidden marriage, and mingled the 
bread and wine in the Lord's supper, with the blood of young children. 

CATAPULTS, military engines of the cross-bow kind, for throwing huge stones as well 
as darts and arrows ; invented by Dionysius, the tyrant of Syracuse, 399 B.C. Josephus. 

GATEAU CAMBRESIS (N. France), where, on April 2, 3, 1559, peace was concluded 
between Henry II. of France, Philip II. of Spain, and Elizabeth of England. France ceded 
to Philip Savoy, Corsica, and nearly 200 forts in Italy and the Low Countries. 

CATECHISMS. The catechism of the church of England in the second book of Edward 


VI., 1552, contained merely the baptismal vow, the creed, the ten commandments, and the 
Lord's prayer, with an explanation : but James I. ordered the bishops to enlarge it by adding 
an explication of the sacraments, 1612. It was increased subsequently by the doctrinal 
points of the established religion. The catechism of the council of Trent was published in 
1566 ; that of the Assembly of Divines at Westminster in 1648. 

CATHARI (from the Greek katharos, pure), a name given to the Novatians (about 251), 
Montanists, and other early Christian sects. 

CATHERINE. The order of knights'of St. Catherine was instituted in Palestine, 1063. 
The ordqr of nuns called Catherines was founded in 1373. An order of ladies of the hi 
rank in Russia was founded by Catherine, empress of Peter the Great, 1714. They were to 
be distinguished, as the name implied (from katharos, pure), for purity of life and manners. 

CATHOLIC MAJESTY. This title was first given by pope Gregory III. to Alplionsus I. 
of Spain, 739. Licenciado. The title was also given to Ferdinand V. and his queen in 1474 
by Innocent VIII. on account of their zeal for the Roman Catholic religion, and their 
establishment of the Inquisition in Spain. 

CAT ISLE. See Salvador. CATHOLICS. See Roman Catholics. 

CATILINE'S CONSPIRACY. L. Sergius Catiline, a Roman of noble family, having 
squandered away his fortune by debaucheries and extravagance, and having been refused the 
consulship (B. c. 65), meditated the ruin of his country, and conspired with many of the 
dissolute aristocracy to extirpate the senate, plunder the treasury, and set Rome on fire. 
This conspiracy was timely discovered and frustrated. A second plot (in 63), was detected 
by the consul Cicero, whom he had resolved to murder. Catiline's daring appearance in the 
senate-house, after his guilt was known, drew forth Cicero's celebrated invective, "Quousque I 
tandem, Catilina !" on Nov. 8. On seeing five of his accomplices arrested, Catiline retired 
to Gaul where his partisans were assembling an army. Cicero punished the conspirators ;it 
home, and Petreius routed Catiline's ill-disciplined forces ; the conspirator being killed in j 
the engagement, December, 62 B.C. 

CATO, SUICIDE OF, termed the "era destructive of the liberties of Rome." This Roman j 
philosopher, considering freedom as that which alone "sustains the name and dignity of man,' 
and unable to survive the independence of his country, stabbed himself at Utica, 46 B.C. 

CATO-STREET CONSPIRACY, a gang of desperate politicians, formed by Arthur 
Thistlewood, which assembled in Cato-street, Edgware-road, proposed the assassination of 
the ministers of the crown, at a cabinet dinner, and the overthrow of the government. They 
were betrayed by one of their number, and arrested Feb. 23, 1820, and the principals, 
Thistlewood, Brunt, Davidson, Ings, and Tidd, were executed with the horrors adjudged to 
the punishment of traitors, on May I, following. 

CATTLE. The importation of horned cattle from Ireland and Scotland into England 
was prohibited by a law, 1663 ; but the export of cattle from Ireland became very extensive. 
In 1842 the importation of cattle into England from foreign countries was subjected to a 
moderate duty, and in 1846 they were made duty free. In 1850, were imported of all sorts 
of cattle, 217,247 ; in 1854, 397,430 ; in 1859, 347,341 ; in 1864, 727,977. In 1849, 53,480 
horned cattle were imported; in 1863, 150,898; in 1864, 496,243 from all countries. In 
April, 1857, great disease arose among cattle abroad, but by great care it was almost excluded 
from this country. The cattle-plague now raging in England (Sept., 1865) appeared in 
June. The nature and origin of the disease caused much dispute. It is generally considered 
to be a typhoid fever, and of foreign origin. Active preventive and remedial measures have 
been adopted, under the authority of the privy council. The importation of cattle from 
England into Ireland was prohibited Aug. 25, 1865. See Metropolitan Cattle-market and 

CAUCASUS, a lofty mountain, a continuation of the ridge of Mount Taurus, between the 
Euxine and Caspian seas. Prometheus was said to have been tied on the top of Caucasus by 
Jupiter and continually devoured by vultures, (according to ancient authors, 15486.0.). The 
passes near the mountain were called Caucasian Portce, and it is supposed that through them 
the Sarmatians or Huns invaded the provinces of Rome, A.D. 447. See Circassia. 

CAUDINE FORKS, according to Livy, the Furculce Caudince (in Samnium, S. Italy), 
were two narrow denies or gorges, united by a range of mountains on each side. The 
Romans went through the first pass, but found the second blocked up ; on returning they 
found the first similarly obstructed. Being thus hemmed in by the Samnites, under the 
command of C. Pontius, they surrendered at discretion, 321 B.C. (after a fruitless contest, 
according to Cicero). The Roman senate broke the treaty. 

CAU 159 CEL 

CAULIFLOWER, said to have been first planted in England about 1603 ; it came from 


CAUSTIC IN PAINTING, a method of burning colours into wood or ivory, invented by 
ausias of Sicyon. He painted his mistress Glycere sitting on the ground making garlands 
itli flowers ; the picture was hence named Steplianoplocon. It was bought by Lucullus for 
vo talents, 335 B.C. Pliny. 

CAUTIONARY TOWNS (Holland), (the Briel, Flushing, Rammekins, and Walcheren), 
ere given to queen Elizabeth in 1585 as security for their repaying her for assistance in 
icir struggle with Spain. They were restored to the Dutch republic by James I. in 1616. 

CAVALIER. The appellation given to the supporters of the king during the civil war 
om a number of gentlemen forming themselves into a body-guard for the king in 1641! 
hey were opposed to the Roundheads, or friends of the parliament. Hume. 

CAVALRY. The Romans were celebrated for the discipline and efficiency of their 
ivalry. Attached to each Roman legion was a body of 300 horse, in ten turnife ; the com- 
Ender always a veteran. The Persians had 10,000 horse at Marathon, 4903.0. ; and 10,000 
ersiaii horse were slain at the battle of Issus, 333 B.C. Plutarch. In the wars with 
apoleon I. the British cavalry reached to 31,000 men. Our cavalry force, in 1840, was, 
i household troops, 1209 ; dragoons, hussars and lancers, 9524; total, 10,733. ^ n 1856 
ie total was stated to be 21,651 ; in 1861, 23,210. See Horse Guards, &c. 

CAVENDISH EXPERIMENT. In 1798 the hon. Henry Cavendish described his 
:periment for determining the mean density of the earth, by comparing the force of terres- 
ial attraction with that of the attraction of leaden spheres of known magnitude and 
msity, by means of the torsion balance. Brande. 

CAWNPORE, a town in India, on the Doab, a peninsula between the Gauges and 

imna. During the mutiny in 1857 it was garrisoned by native troops under si? Huo-h 

Tieeler. These broke out into revolt. An adopted son of the old Peishwa Bajee Rao 

ana Sahib, who had long lived on friendly terms with the British, came apparently to their 

assistance, but joined the rebels. He took the place after three weeks' siege, June 26 ; and 

in spite of a treaty massacred great numbers of the British, without respect to age or sex, in 

the most cruel manner. General Havelock defeated Nana Sahib, July 16, at Futtehpo're, 

md retook Cawnpore, July 17. A column was erected here, in memory of the sufferers, by 

their relatives of the 32nd regiment. In Dec. 1860, Nana was said to'be living at Thibet ; 

and in Dec. 1861 was incorrectly said to have been captured at Kurrachee. See India, 1857.' 

CAYENNE, French Guiana (S. America), settled by the French 1604-35. It afterwards 
3ame successively into the hands of the English (1654), French, and Dutch. The last were 
expelled by the French in 1677. Cayenne was taken by the British, Jan. 12, 1809, but was 
restored to the French in 1814. Here is produced the capsicum, baccatum, or cayenne pepper. 
Many French political prisoners have been sent here since 1848. 

CECILIAN SOCIETY. See under Music. 

CEDAR TREE. The red cedar (Juniperu? Virginiana} came from North America 
before 1664 ; the Bermudas cedar from Bermudas before 1683 ; the cedar of Lebanon (Pinus 
Vc.drus) from the Levant before 1683. In 1850 a grove of venerable cedars, about 40 feet 
high, remained on Lebanon. The cedar of Goa (Cupressus Lusitanica) was brought to 
Europe by the Portuguese about 1683. See Cypress. 

CELERY is said to have been introduced into England by the French marshal, Tallard, 
luring his captivity in England, after his defeat at Blenheim by Marlborough in 1704. 


CELIBACY (from ccelels, unmarried), was preached by St. Anthony in Egypt about 
505. His early converts lived in caves, &c., till monasteries were founded. The doctrine 
ivas rejected in the council of Nice, 325. Celibacy was enjoined tQ bishops only in 692. 
The Romish clergy generally were compelled to a vow of celibacy by pope Gregory VII. in 
1073-85. The decree was opposed in England, 958-978. Its observance was finally estab- 
ished by the council of Placentia, held in 1095. The privilege of marriage was restored to 
1m English clergy in 1547. The marriage of the clergy was proposed, but negatived at the 
Council of Trent (1563). 

GEL 160 CER 

CELL THEORY (propounded by Schwann in 1839) supposes that the ultimate particles 
of all animal and vegetable tissues are small cells. Some of the lowest forms of animal and 
vegetable life are said to be composed of merely a single cell, as the germinal vesicle in 
the egg and the red-snow plant. 

CELTIBERI. See Numantine War. CELTS, a group of the Aryan family. See Gauls. \ 

CEMETERIES. The burying-places of the Greeks and Romans were at a distance from [ 
their towns ; and the Jews had their sepulchres in gardens and in fields. (John xix. 41 ; 
Matthew xxvii. 60. ) Public cemeteries planted after the manner of the great cemetery at 
Paris, named Pere La Chaise* have been opened in all parts of the kingdom. See Catacombs, \ 

Kensal-green cemetery, 53 acres ; consecrated i Nunhead cemetery, about 50 acres ; conse- 

Nov. 2, 1832 j crated .....". July 29, 1840 

Soiith Metropolitan and Norwood cemetery ; 40 j City of London and Tower Hamlets cemetery, 

acres; consecrated . . . Dec. 6, 1837 30 acres ; consecrated . . . . . 1841 

Highgate and Kentish-town cemetery,22 acres; \ London Necropolis and National Mausoleum, 

opened and consecrated . . May 20, 1839 j at Woking, Surrey, 2000 acres ; the company 

Abney Park cemetery, Stoke Newington, 30 incorporated in July 1852 ; opened . Jan. 1855 

acres; opened by the lord mayor . May 20, 1840 j City of London cemetery, llford; opened 

Westminster, or "West London cemetery, Ken- June 24, i 

sington-road ; consecrated . . June 15, 1840 I 

CENIS, MOUNT. See under Alps. 

CENSORS, Roman magistrates, whose duty was to survey, rate, and correct the manners 
of the people. The two first censors were appointed 443 B. c. Plebeian censors were first 
appointed 131 B.C. The office, abolished by the emperors, was revived by Decius, 251 A.D. 
See Press. 

CENSUS. The Israelites were numbered by Moses, 14906.0. ; and by David, 1017 B.C. ; 
and Demetrius Thalereus is said to have taken a census of Attica, 317 B.C. In the Roman 
polity, a general estimate of every man's estate and personal effects, delivered to the govern- 
ment upon oath every five years ; established by Servius Tullius, 566 B.C. In England the 
census, formerly not periodical, is now taken at decennial periods, of which the latest were 
in 1801, 1811, 1821, 1831, 1841, 1851 and 1861 (April 7). For the latest census taken in 
other countries, see Table, p. viii., after the preface. 

CENTRAL AMERICA. See America. A large American steamer of this name was 
wrecked during a gale in the gulf of Mexico, Sept. 12, 1857. Of about 550 persons only 
152 were saved : several of these after drifting on rafts above 600 miles. The loss of about 
24 million dollars in specie aggravated the commercial panic at New York shortly after. 
The captain and crew behaved heroically. 

CENTRAL CRIMINAL COURT, established in 1834. Commissions are issued to the 
fifteen judges of England (of whom three attend in rotation at the Old Bailey) for the 
periodical delivery of the gaol of Newgate, and the trial of offences of greater degree, 
committed in Middlesex and parts of Essex, Kent, and Surrey ; the new district is considered 
as one county. 

CENTURION, the captain, head, or commander of a subdivision of a Roman legion j 
which consisted of 100 men, and was called a ccnturia. By the Roman census each hundred \ 
of the people was called a centuria, 556 B.C. 

CENTURY. The Greeks computed time by the Olympiads, beginning 776 B.C., and the j 
Roman church, by Indictions, the first of which began Sept. 24, A.D. 312. The method o! i 
computing time by centuries commenced from the incarnation of Christ, and was adopted ir ! 
chronological history first in France. Dupin. 

CEPHALONIA, one of the Ionian islands, was taken from the ^Etolians by the Romans. \ 
189 B.C., and given to the Athenians by Hadrian, A.D. 135. See Ionian Isles. 

CEPHESUS, a river in Attica, near which Walter de Brienne, duke of Athens, wai 
defeated and slain by the Catalans, 1311. 

CERBERE, French brig, mounted nine large guns, had a crew of eighty-seven men, am 
was lying at Port Louis. The harbour was entered in a ten-oared cutter manned with onl" 
eighteen men, commanded by lieut. Paddon, who cut out and made good their prize, Jur' 
29, 1800. 

* Pfere La Chaise was the favourite and confessor" of Louis XIV. who made him superior of a gre; 
establishment of the Jesuits on this spot, then named Mcnt Louis. The house and grounds were lougl 
for a national cemetery, which WHS laid out by M. Brongniart, and first used on May 21 1804. 

CER 161 CHA 

CEREMONIES, MASTER OF THE, an office instituted for the more honourable reception 
of ambassadors and persons of quality at court, I James I. 1603. Tne or(ier maintained 
by the master of the ceremonies at Bath, "Beau Nash," the " King of Bath," led to the 
.adoption of the office in ordinary assemblies : he died in his 88th year, 1761. Ashe. 

CERES, a planet, 160 miles in diameter, was discovered by M. Piazzi, at Palermo, Jan. I, 
i So i ; he named it after the goddess highly esteemed by the ancient Sicilians. 

CERES [TOLA (N. Italy). Here Francis de Bourbon, count d'Enghien, defeated the 
imperialists under the marquis de Guasto, April 14, 1544. 

CERIGNOLA (S. Italy). Here the great captain Gonsalvo de Cordova and the Spaniards 
defeated the due de Nemours and the French, April 28, 1503. 

CERINTHIANS, followers of Cerinthus, a Jew, who lived about 80, are said to have 
combined Judaism with pagan philosophy. 

CERIUM, a very rare metal, discovered by Klaproth and others in 1803. 

CEUTA (the ancient Septa), a town on N. coast of Africa, stands on the site of the ancient 
Abyla, the southern pillar of Hercules. It was taken from the Vandals by Belisarius for 
Justinian 534; by the Goths 618; by the Moors (about 709), from whom it was taken by 
the Portuguese 1415. With Portugal, it was annexed in 1580 to Spain, which power still 
retains it. 

CEYLON (the ancient Taprobane), an island in the Indian Ocean, called by the natives 
the seat of paradise. It was discovered by the Portuguese Almeyda, 1505 ; but it was known 
to the Romans in the time of Claudius, 41. The Dutch landed in Ceylon in 1602 ; they 
captured the capital, Colombo, in 1603. Frequent conflicts ensued between the Caudians 
and the Europeans, and peaceful commercial relations were established only in 1664. Inter- 
course with the British began in 1713. A large portion of the country was taken by them 
in 1782, but was restored in 1783. The Dutch settlements were seized by the British; 
Trincomalee, Aug. 26, 1795, and Jeffnapatam, in Sept. same year. Ceylon was ceded to 
Great Britain by the peace of Amiens in 1802. The British troops were treacherously 
massacred or imprisoned by the Adigar of Candy, at Colombo, June 26, 1803. The com- 
plete sovereignty of the island was assumed by England in 1815. The governor, lord Tor- 
rington, was absolved from a charge of undue severity in suppressing a rebellion, May 1851. 
The prosperity of Ceylon greatly increased under the administration of sir H. Ward, 
1855-60. Sir J. E. Tennent's work, "Ceylon," appeared in 1859. 

CH^RONEA (Bceotia). Here Greece lost its liberty to Philip ; 32,000 Macedonians 
defeating 30, ooo Thebans, Athenians, &c., Aug. 6 or 7, 338 B.C. Here Archelaus, lieutenant 
of Mithridates, was defeated by Sylla, and 110,000 Cappadocians were slain, 86 B.C. See 

CHAIN-BRIDGES. The largest and^ldest chain-bridge in the world is said to be that 
at Kingtung, in China, where it forms a perfect road from the top of one mountain to the 
top of another. Mr. Telford constructed the first chain-bridge on a grand scale in England, 
over the strait between Anglesey and the coast of Wales, 1818-25. See Menai Straits. 

CHAIN-CABLES, PUMPS, AND SHOT. Iron chain-cables were in use by the Veneti, a 
people intimately connected with the Belgae of Britain in the time of Csesar, 55 B.C. These 
cables came into modern use, and generally in the royal navy of England, in 1812. An Act 
for the proving and sale of chain-cables and anchors was passed in 1864. CHAIN-SHOT, to 
destroy the rigging of an enemy's ship, were invented by the Dutch admiral, De Witt, iu 
1666. CHAIN-PUMPS were first used on board the Flora, British frigate, in 1787. 

CHAINS, HANGING IN. By the 25th Geo. II. 1752, it was enacted that the judge should 
direct the bodies of pirates and murderers to be dissected and anatomised, or hung in chains. 
The custom of hanging iu chains was abolished in 1834. 

CHALCEDON, Asia Minor, opposite Byzantium, colonised by Megarians, about 684 B.C. 
It was taken by Darius, B.C. 505 ; by the Romans, 74 ; plundered by the Goths, A.D. 259 ; 
taken by Chosroes, the Persian, 609 ; by Orchan, the Turk, 1338. Here was held the 
" Synod of the Oak," 403 ; and the fourth general council, which annulled the act of the 
" Robber Synod," Oct. 8, 451. 

CHALCIS. See Euboea. 




CHALD JL4, the ancient name of Babylonia, but afterwards restricted to the S. W. portion. 
The Chaldeans were devoted to astronomy and astrology. See Dan. ii. &c. The CHALDEAN: 
REGISTERS of celestial observations were commenced 2234 B.C., and were brought down to the: 
taking of Babylon by Alexander, 331 B.C. (a period of 1903 years). These registers were!) 
sent by Callisthenes to Aristotle. CHALDEAN CHARACTERS : the Bible was transcribed from' 
the original Hebrew into these characters, now called Hebrew, by Ezra, about 445 B.C. 

CHALGROVE (Oxfordshire). At a skirmish here with prince Rupert, June 18, 
John Hampden, of the parliament party, was mortally wounded. A column was erected to' 
his memory June 18, 1843. 

CHALONS-SUR-MARNE (N. E. France). Here the emperor Aurelian defeated Tetricus, 
the last of the pretenders to the throne, termed the Thirty Tyrants, 274; and here in 451 
Aetius defeated Attila the Hun, compelling him to retire into Pannonia. 

CHAMBERLAIN", early a high court officer in France, Germany, and England. The office 
of chamberlain of the exchequer was discontinued in 1834. The chamberlain is also a civic 
officer, as in London, of ancient origin. 

sixth great officer of state, whose duties, among 
others, relate to coronations and public solemnities. 
The rank long appertained to the family of De Vere, 
earls of Oxford, granted to it by Henry I. in noi. 
On the death of John De Vere, the sixteenth earl, 
Mary, his sole daughter, marrying lord Willoughby 
d'Eresby, the right was established in that noble- 
man's family by a judgment of the house of peers, 
2 Charles I. 1625. On the death of his descendant, 
unmarried, in July 1779, the house of lords and 
twelve judges concurred that the office devolved to 
lady Willoughby d'Eresby, and her sister the lady 
Georgina Charlotta Bertie, as heirs to their brother 
Robert, duke of Ancaster, deceased ; and that they 
had powers to appoint a deputy to act for them, not 

under the degree of a knight, who, if his majesty 
approved of him, might officiate accordingly. Beat- 
son. The office is now held by the present lord Wil- 
loughby d'Eresby (1865). 

ancient office. The title is from the French Cham- 
bellan, in Latin Camerarius. He has the oversight 
of the king's chaplains, the officers of the standing 
and removing wardrobes, beds, tents, revels, music, 
hunting, and of all the physicians, surgeons, apo- 
thecaries, messengers, tradesmen, and artisans re- 
tained in his majesty's service. Sir William Stanley, 
knt., afterwards beheaded, was lord chamberlain, 
i Henry VII. 1485. A vice-chamberlain acts in the 
absence of the chief ; the offices are co-existent. 

CHAMBERS. See Commerce, Agriculture. 

CHAMBERS' JOURNAL was first published in Feb., 1832. 

CHAMBRE ARDENTE (fiery chamber), an extraordinary French tribunal so named 
from the punishment frequently awarded by it. Francis I. in 1535 and Henry II. in 1549 
employed it for the extirpation of heresy, which led to the civil war with the Huguenots in 
1560 ; and in 1679 Louis XIV. appointed one to investigate the poisoning cases which arose 
after the execution of the marchioness Brinvilliers. 

CHAMP DE MARS,* an open square in front of the Military School at Paris, with 
artificial embankments on each side, extending nearly to the river Seine. Here was held, 
July 14, 1790, the "federation," or solemnity of swearing fidelity to the "patriot king" 
and new constitution : great rejoicings followed, public balls were given by the municipality 
in the Champs Elysfas, and Paris was illuminated. On July 14, 1791, a second great meeting 
was held here, directed by the Jacobin clubs, to sign petitions on the " altar of the country," I 
praying for the abdication of Louis XVI. A commemoration meeting took place July 14, I 
1792. Another constitution was sworn to here, under the eye of Napoleon I., May I, 1815, j 
at a ceremony called the Champ do Mai. The prince president (now Napoleon 111.) had a I 
grand review in the Champ de Mars, and distributed eagles to the army, May 10, 1852. 

CHAMPAGNE, an ancient province, N".E. France, formed part of the kingdom of j 
Burgundy, and was governed by counts from the loth century till it was united to Navarre, 
count Thibaut becoming king, in 1234. The countess Joanna married Philip V. of France I 
in 1284 ; and in 1361 Champagne was annexed by their descendant king John. 

CHAMPION OF THE KING OF ENGLAND, an ancient office, which since 1377 has been 
attached to the manor of Scrivelsby, held by the Marmion family. Their descendant, sir 
Henry Dymoke, the seventeenth of his family who has held the office, died Apr. 28, 1865, 
and was succeeded by his brother John. At the coronation of the English kings, the 
champion used to challenge any one that should deny their title. 

CHAMPLAIN. See Lake Champlain. 

* The ancient assemblies of the Frankish people, the germ of parliaments, held annually in March, 
received this name. In 747, Pepin changed the month to May. ' 




CHANCELLOR OF ENGLAND, LORD HIGH, ranks after the princes of the blood royal 
the first lay subject. Anciently the office was conferred upon some dignified ecclesiastic 
[ <'ii,nccllariu$, or doorkeeper, who admitted suitors to the sovereign's presence. Arfastns 
Here-fast, chaplain to the king (William the Conqueror) and bishop of Elmham, was lord 
ancellor in 1067. Hardy. Thomas h, Becket was made chancellor in 1154. The first 
rson qxialified by education, to decide causes upon his own judgment, was sir Thomas 
ore, appointed in 1529, before which time the office was more that of a high state func- 
>nary than the president of a court of justice. Sir Christopher Hatton, appointed lord 
ancellor in 1587, was very ignorant, on which account the first reference was made to a 
aster in 1588. In England, the great seal has been frequently put in commission; in 
113 the office of Vice- Chancellor was established.* See Keeper, and Vice- Chancellor. 

John Moreton, archbishop of Canterbury. 
William Warham, aft. archbshp. of Canterbury. 
Thomas Wolsey, cardinal and abp. of York. 1713. 

Sir Thomas More. 1714- 

Sir Thomas Audley, keeper. 
Sir Thomas Audley, chancellor, aft. Id. Audley. 
Thomas, lord Wriothesley. 

William, lord St. John, keeper. 1725. 

Richard, lord Rich, lord chancellor. 
Thomas Goodrich, bishop of Ely, keeper. 1733. 

The same ; now lord chancellor. *737- 

Stephen Gardiner, bishop of Winchester. 1756. 

Nicholas Heath, archbisbop of York. 1757- 

Sir Nicholas Bacon, keeper. 

Sir Thomas Bromley, lord chancellor. 1761. 

Sir Christopher Hatton. 

The great seal in commission. 1766. 

Sir John Puckering, lord keeper. 1770. 

Sir Thomas Egerton, lord keeper. 
Sir Thomas Egerton, now lord Ellesmere, lord 

Sir Francis Bacon, lord keeper. 1770. 

Sir FrancisBacoii, cr . lord Verulam, Id. chancellor. 1771, 
The great seal in commission. 
John, bishop of Lincoln, lord keeper. 

, , . 

Sir Thomas Coventry, afterwards lord Coven- 
try, lord keeper. 

Sir "John Finch, afterwards lord Finch. 

Sir Edward Lyttelton, afterwards lord Lyttel- 
ton, lord keeper. 

The great seal in the hands of commissioners. 

Sir Richard Lane, royal keeper. 

In the hands of commissioners. 

In commission for the commonwealth. 

Sir Edward Herbert, king's lord keeper. 

In commission during the remainder of the 

Sir Edward Hyde, lord chancellor, afterwards 
created lord Hyde, and earl of Clarendon. 

Sir Orlando Bridgmaii, lord keeper. 

Anthony Ashley, earl of Shaftesbury, lord 

Sir Heneage Finch, lord keeper. 

Heneage, now lord Finch, lord chancellor, 
afterwards earl of Nottingham. 

Sir Francis North, cr. lord Guilford, Id. keeper. 

Francis, lord Guilford ; succeeded by 

George, lord Jeffreys, lord chancellor. 

In commission. 

Sir John Trevor, knt., sir William Rawlinson, 
knt. , and sir George Hutchins, knt. , commis- 
sioners or keepers. 

Sir John Somers, lord keeper. 

Sir John Somers, cr. lord Somers, chancellor. 

Lord chief justice Holt, sir George Treby, chief 
justice C. P., and chief baron sir Edward 
Ward, lord keepers. 

Sir Nathan Wright, lord keeper. 

Right hon. William Cowper, lord keeper, after- 
wards lord Cowper. 

William, lord Cowper, lord chancellor. 










In commission. 

Sir Simon Harcourt, cr. lord Harcourt, keeper. 
Simon, lord Harcourt, lord chancellor. 
William, lord Cowper, lord chancellor. 
In commission. 

Thomas, lord Parker, lord chancellor; after- 
wards earl of Macclesfield. 
In commission. 

Sir Peter King, cr. lord King, chancellor. 
Charles Talbot, created lord Talbot, chancellor. 
Philip Yorke, lord Hardwicke, lord chancellor. 
In commission. 
Sir Robert Henley, afterwards lord Henley, 

last lord keeper. 
Lord Henley, lord chancellor, afterwards earl 

of Northington. 

Charles, lord Camden, lord chancellor. 
Hon. Charles Yorke, lord chancellor. 
[Created lord Mordan ; died within three days, 
and before the seals were put to his patent of 
In commission. 
Hon. Henry Bathurst, lord Apsley ; succeeded 

as earl Bathurst. 

Edward Thurlow, created lord Thurlow. 
Alexander, lord Loughborough, and others, 

Edward, lord Thurlow, again. 
In commission. 
Alexander Wedderburne, lord Loughborough, 

lord chancellor. 
John Scott, lord Eldon. 
Hon. Thomas Erskine, created lord Erskine. 
John, lord Eldon, again. 

John Singleton Copley, created lord Lyndhurst. 
Henry Brougham, created lord Brougham. 
Lord Lyndhurst, again. 
Sir Charles Christopher Pepys, master of the 

rolls, vice-chancellor Shadwell, and Mr. 

justice Bosanquet, C. P., commissioners. 
Sir Charles Christopher Pepys, created lord 

Cottenham, lord chancellor. Jan. 16. 
Lord Lyndhurst, a third time. Sept. 3. 
Lord Cottenham, again lord chancellor. July 6. 
[His lordship on signifying his intention to 
retire, June 19, 1850, was created earl of 
Cottenham. ] 
Lord Langdale, master of the rolls, Sir Laun- 

celot Shadwell, vice-chancellor of England, 

and sir Robert Monsey Rolfe, B.E., commis- 
sioners of the great seal. June 19. 
Sir Thomas Wilde, lord Truro. July 15. 
Sir Edward Sugden, lord St. Leonards. Feb. 27. 
Robt. Monsey Rolfe, lord Cran worth. Dec. 28. 
Sir Frederic Thesiger,lord Chelmsford. Feb. 26. 
John, lord Campbell, June 18 ; died June 23, 

Richard Bethell, lord Westbury, June 26. 

Resigned July 4, 1865. 
Thomas, lord Cranworth, again. July 6. 

* In 1863 was passed the Lord Chancellor's Augmentation Act. 
certain livings in his gift for the augmentation of poor benefices. 

ntation Act. It enabled him to sell the advowson 

M 2 




CHANCELLOR OF IRELAND, LORD HIGH. The earliest nomination was by Richard I., 
1 1 89, when Stephen Ridel was elevated to this rank. The office of vice-chancellor was 
known in Ireland in 1232, Geoffrey Turvillo, archdeacon of Dublin, being so named. 

From the Revolution. 


1690. Dec. 29. Sir Charles Porter. 
1697. Jan. 12. Sir John Jeffreyson, Thomas Coote, 

and Nehemiah Donellan, lords keepers. 
,, March n. J. Methuen. 

Dec. 21. Edward, earl of Meath, Francis, earl 
of Longford, and Murrough, viscount Bles- 
singtou, lord keepers. 

1702. Aug. 26. Lord Methuen, lord chancellor. 
1705. Aug. 6. Sir Richd. Cox,bart. ; resigned in 1707. 
1707. June. Richard Freeman. 

1710. Nov. 28. Robert, earl of Kildare, archbishop 

(Hoadley) of Dublin, and Thomas Keightley, 

1711. Jan. 22. Sir Constantine Phipps; resigned 

Sept. 1714. 

1714. Oct. ii. Alan Brodrick, afterwards viscount 
Middleton ; resigned May, 1725. 

1725. June. " Richard West. 

1726. Dec. 21. Thomas Wyndham, afterwards lord 

Wyndham of Finglas. 

1739. Sept. 7. Robert Jocelyn, afterwards lord New- 
port and visct. Jocelyn ; died Oct. 25, 1756. 

1757. March 22. John Bowes, afterwards lord Bowes 
of Clonlyon ; died 1767. 

1763. Jan 9. James Hewitt, afterwards viscount 
Lifford ; died April 28, 1789. 

1789. June 20. John, baron Fitzgibbon, afterwards 

earl of Clare ; died Jan. 28, 1802. 
1802. March 15. John, baron Redesdale ; resigned 1 

Feb. 1806. 

1806. Mar. 25. George Ponsonby ; resigned Ap. 1807. 

1807. May. Thomas, lord Manners, previously an 

English baron of the exchequer ; resigned i 

Nov. 1827. 
1827. Nov. 5. Sir Anthony Hart, previously vice-: 

chancellor of England ; resigned Nov. 1830. j 
1830. Dec. 23. Wilh'am, baron Plunket ; resigned j 

Nov. 1834. 
1835. Jan. 13. Sir Edward Burtenshaw Sugden, 

resigned April 1835. 
,, April 30. William, baron Plunket, a second' 

time ; resigned June, 1841. 
1841. June. John, baron Campbell ; resigned Sept. , 

Oct. Sir Edward Sugden, afterwards lord St. 1 

Leonards, a second time; resigned July, 1846. 
1846. July 16. Maziere Brady ; resigned Feb. 1852. ' 

1852. March. Francis Blackburn ; resigned Dec. 

1853. Jan. Maziere Brady, again. 

1858. Feb. Joseph Napier. 

1859. June. Maziere Brady, again. The PRESEKT 

lord chancellor of Ireland (1865). 

CHANCELLOR OF SCOTLAND, LORD. In the laws of Malcolm II., who reigned! 
1004, this officer is thus mentioned : "The chancellar sail at al tymes assist the king in | 
giving him counsall mair secretly nor the rest of the nobility. . . The chancellar sail be : 
ludgit neir unto the kingis Grace, for keiping of Ids bodie, and the seill, and that he may be i 
readie, baith day and nicht, at the kingis command." Sir James Balfour. Evan was lord j 
chancellor to Malcolm III., surnamed Canmore, in 1057 ; and James, earl of Seafield, after- 1 
wards Findlater, was the last lord chancellor of Scotland, the office having been abolished in 
1708, after the union. See Keeper, Lord. 


CHANCELLORSVILLE, Virginia, U. S., a large brick hotel, once kept by a Mr. 
Chancellor, was the site of severe sanguinary conflicts, on May 2, 3, and 4, 1863, between i 
the American federal army of the Potomac under general Hooker, and the confederates i 
under general Lee. On Apr. 28, the federal army crossed the Rappahannock ; on May 2, j 
general "Stonewall" Jackson furiously attacked and routed the right wing, but was 
unfortunately mortally wounded by his own party firing on him by mistake. Gen. Stuart 
took his command, and after a severe conflict on May 3 and 4, with great loss to both 
parties, the federals were compelled once more to retreat across the Rappahannock. The i 
struggle has been compared to that at Hougomont during the battle of Waterloo. Jackson j 
died May 9. 

CHANCERY, COURT OF. According to some, instituted as early as 605, to others, by 
Alfred, in 887 ; settled upon a better footing by William I., in 1067 (Stow) or 1070. This 
court had its origin in the desire to render justice complete, and to moderate the rigour of ' 
other courts that are bound to the strict letter of the law. It gives relief to or against 
infants, notwithstanding their minority : and to or against married women, notwithstanding 
their coverture ; and all frauds, deceits, breaches of trust and confidence, for which there is 
no redress at common law, are relievable here. Blackstone. See Chancellors of England. 
The delays in chancery proceedings having long given dissatisfaction, the subject was brought 
before parliament in 1825, and frequently since ; which led to the passing of important acts 
in 1852, 1853, and 1855, to amend the practice in the court of chancery. See County Courts. 

CHANDOS CLAUSE. See Counties. 

CHANTING the psalms was adopted by Ambrose from the pagan ceremonies of the 
Romans, about 350. Lenglet. About 602, Gregory the Great added tones to the Ambrosian 
chant, and established singing schools. Chanting was adopted by some dissenters about 1859. 




CHANTRY, a chapel endowed with revenue for priests to sing mass for the souls of the 
j donors. See Chanting. Chantries were abolished in England in 1545. 

CHAPEL. _ There are free chapels, chapels of ease, the chapel royal, &c. Cowel. The 
men pensioners (formerly poor knights of Windsor, who were instituted by the direc- 
jtion of Henry VIII. in his testament, 1546-7) were called knights of the chapel. See Poor 
Knights of Windsor. The place of conference among printers, and the conference itself, are 
by them called a cliapel, it is said because the first work printed in England by Caxton was 
j executed in a ruined chapel in "Westminster- abbey. 

CHAPLAIN, a clergyman who performs divine service in a chapel, or who is retained by 
la prince or nobleman. About seventy chaplains are attached to the chapel royal. The chief 
personages invested with the privilege of retaining chaplains are the following, with the 
[Dumber that was originally allotted to each rank, by 21 Hen. VIII. c. 13 (1529) : 

i Archbishop 

Bishop . 

Marquess . 

Earl . 
Viscount . 
Baron . 

Knight of the Garter . 3 
Duchess . . .2 
Marchioness . . . 2 
Countess . 2 

Baroness . . .2 

Master of the Rolls . 2 

Almoner . . . 2 

Chief Justice . . i 

CHAPLETS, the string of beads used by the Roman Catholics in reciting the Lord's 
prayer, Ave Maria, &c. See Beads. 

CHAPTER. Anciently the bishop and clergy lived in the cathedral, the latter to assist 
;tlie former in performing holy offices and governing the church, until the reign of Henry VIII. 
The chapter is now an assembly of the clergy of a collegiate church or cathedral. * Cowel. 
|rhe chapter-house of Westminster-abbey was built in 1250. By consent of the abbot, the 

oiamoners of England held their parliaments there from 1377 until 1547, when Edward VI. 

granted them the chapel of St. Stephen. 

CHARCOAL AIR-FILTERS were devised by Dr. John Stenhouse, F.R.S., in 1853. 
About the end of the last century Lb'witz, a German chemist, discovered that charcoal 
((carbon) possessed the property of deodorising putrid substances, by absorbing effluvia and 
:use*. Air-filters, based on this property, have been successfully applied to public build- 
ings, &c. Dr. Stenhouse also invented charcoal respirators. 

CHARING CROSS, so called from one of the crosses which Edward I. erected to the 
memory of his queen Eleanor, who died 1291 ; Charing being the name of the village in which 
Lt was built. Some contend that it derived its name from being the resting-place of the ch&re 
\reyne, dear queen. It was yet a small village in 1353, and the cross remained till the civil 
jwars in the reign of Charles I., when it was destroyed as a monument of popish superstition. 
'A. new cross was erected by the South Eastern Railway Company in 1865. Charing-cross 
vas built about 1678, nearly as it appeared before the new buildings were commenced in 
1829. The first stone of Charing-cross hospital was laid by the duke of Sussex, Sept. 15, 
1831. Hungerford-bridge (or Charing-cross bridge) was opened May I, 1845; taken down 
|hily, 1862, and the materials employed m erecting Clifton suspension bridge, beginning 
'March, 1863. See Clifton. The CHARING-CROSS RAILWAY. The first train passed over it 
Ore. 2, 1863, and it was opened to the public on Jan. u, 1864. The new Hungerford rail- 
way bridge is built of iron with brick piers. It was constructed by Mr. Hawkshaw. 

CHARIOTS. Chariot racing was one of the exercises of Greece. The chariot of the 
| Ethiopian officer (Acts viii. 27), is supposed to have been in the form of our chaise with four 
.vlict'ls. Csesar relates that Cassibelaunus, after dismissing all his other forces, retained no 
fewer than 4000 war-chariots about his person. See Carriages, Coaches, &c. 

CHARITABLE BEQUESTS, &o. Boards for their recovery were constituted in 1764 
land 1800, and a board for Ireland (chiefly prelates of the established church), in 1825. The 
Roman Catholic Charitable Bequests act passed in 1844, and an act for the better adminis- 
tration of Charitable Trusts in 1853, when commissioners were appointed, who have from 
time to time published voluminous reports. The law relating to the conveyance of land for 
[Charitable Uses was amended in 1861. 

CHARITABLE BRETHREN, an order founded by St. John of God, and approved by 
pope Pius V. 1572 ; introduced into France, 1601 ; settled at Paris, 1602. Uenault. 

CHARITIES AND CHARITY SCHOOLS are very numerous in this country. The Charity 
Commission reported to parliament that the endowed charities alone of Great Britain 
amounted to 1,500,000?. annually, in 1840. Parl. Rep. Charity schools were instituted in 
London to prevent the seduction of the infant poor into Roman Catholic seminaries, 3 James 

CHA 166 CHA 

II., 1687. Rapin. See Education. Mr. Low's " Charities of London " (2nd edition) was 
published 1862. 

CHARLEROI, in Belgium. Great battles have been fought near this town in several \ 
Avars ; the principal in 1690 and 1794. See Fleurus. Charleroi was besieged by the prince 
of Orange in 1672, and was again invested by the same prince with 60,000 men, in 1677;; 
but he was soon obliged to retire. Near here, at Ligny, Napoleon attacked the Prussian . 
line, making it fall back upon Wavres, June 16, 1815. 

CHARLES-ET-GEORGES. Two French vessels of this name, professedly conveying free \ 
African emigrants (but really slaves), were seized by the Portuguese, in Conducia Bay, : 
Nov. 29, 1857, sent to Lisbon, and condemned as slavers. They were demanded haughtily 
by the French government, who, on the hesitation of the Portuguese, sent two ships of wart 
to the Tagus. The captured vessels were then surrendered under protest. The conduct of 
the British government (that of Lord Derby), to whom the Portuguese had referred the dis- 
pute, was considered more prudent than dignified. The emperor of France, however, gavel 
up the free emigration scheme. 

CHARLESTOWN (Massachusetts) was burnt by the British forces under general Gage, 
June 17, 1775. Charleston taken by the British, May 7, 1779. 

CHARLESTON (South Carolina). The English fleet here was repulsed with great loss, j 
June 28, 1776. It was besieged by the British troops at the latter end of March, 1780, and! 
surrendered May 13 following, with 6000 prisoners ; it was evacuated April 14, 1783. Great 
commotion arose here on Nov. 1860, through the election of Mr. Lincoln for the presidency, j 
he being opposed to slavery. On April 12, 1861, the war began, by the confederates capturing' 
Fort Sivmter, See United States, 1863. In Dec. 1861, the federals sank a number of vessels 
laden with stone in order to choke up the entrance to Charleston harbour. On Feb. 17, 1865, < 
the confederates were compelled to retire from Charleston, and the federals replaced their! 
standard on Fort Sumter, April 14, the day on which president Lincoln was assassinated. 

" CHARTE," the French political constitution acknowledged by Louis XVIII. in 1814. 
The infraction of this constitution led to the revolution of 1830. The " Charte " was; 
sworn to by Louis- Philippe, Aug. 29, 1830 ; but set aside by the revolution of 1848. 

CHARTER-HOUSE (a corruption of Chartreuse, which see), London, formerly a Carthu- 
sian monastery, founded in 1371 by sir Walter de Manny, one of the knights of Edward III., 
now an extensive charitable establishment. The last prior, John Houghtou, was executed 
as a traitor, for denying the king's supremacy, in 1535. After the dissolution of monasteries 
in 1539, it passed through various hands till Nov. I, 1611, when it was sold by the earl of; 
Suffolk to Mr. Thomas Sutton for 13,000?., who obtained letters patent directing that it 
should be called "the hospital of king James, founded in the Charter-house," and that 
"there should be for ever 16 governors," &c. Oil the foundation are 80 poor brothers, and, 
44 poor scholars. Sutton died Dec. 12, 1611. The expenditure for 1853-4 was 22,396^.; 
the receipts 28,908^. 

_ CHARTER-PARTY, a covenant between merchants and masters of ships relating to the! 
ship and cargo, is said to have been first used in England about 1243. 

CHARTERS granted to corporate towns to protect their manufactures by Henry II. ini 
1132 ; called in and modified by Charles II. in 1682 ; the ancient charters restored in 1698. 
Alterations were made by the Municipal Reform Act in 1835. See Magna Charta and 

CHARTISTS, the name assumed by large bodies of the working people, shortly after thei 
passing of the Reform Bill in 1832, from their demanding the people's Charter, the six 
points of which were Universal Suffrage, Vote by Ballot, -Annual Parliaments, Payment of 
the, Members, the Abolition of the Property Qualification (which was enacted, June, 1858),;'! 
and Equal Electoral Districts. In 1838 the Chartists assembled in various parts of thejl 
country, armed with guns, pikes, and other weapons, and carrying torches and flags. They 
conducted themselves so tumultuously, that a proclamation was issued against them, Dec. 12, 
Their petition (agreed to at Birmingham, Aug. 6, 1838) was presented by Mr. T. Attwood,' 
June 14, 1839. They committed great outrages at Birmingham, July 15, 1839, and at 
Newport (which see), Nov. 4, 1839. They held for some time a sort of parliament called 
the " National Convention," the leading men being Feergus O'Connor, Henry Vincent, Mr. 
Stephens, &c. On April 10, 1848, they proposed to hold a meeting of 200,000 men on 
Kennington Common, London, to march thence in procession to Westminster, and present 
a petition to parliament ; but only about 20,000 came. The bank and other establishments 




were fortified by military ; and the preventive measures adopted by the government proved 
so completely successful, that the rioters dispersed after some slight encounters with the 
police. The monster petition, in detached rolls, was sent in cabs to the house of commons, 
and not less than 150.000 persons of all ranks (including Louis Napoleon, now emperor) 
were voluntarily sworn to act as special constables. From this time the proceedings of the 
Chartists became insignificant. 

CHARTREUSE, LA GRANDE, famous as the chief of the monasteries of the Carthusian 
order, is situated among the rugged mountains near Grenoble, in France. It was founded by 
Bruno of Cologne about 1084. At the revolution in 1792, the monks were expelled and 
their valuable library destroyed. They returned to the monastery after the restoration in 

CHARTS AND MAPS. Anaximander of Miletus was the inventor of geographical and 
celestial charts, about 570 B.C. Modern sea-charts were brought to England by Bartholomew 
Columbus to illustrate his brother's theory respecting a western continent, 1489. The first 
tolerably accurate map of England was drawn by George Lilly, who died in 1559. Gerard 
Mercator published an atlas of maps in 1595. See Mercator. 

CHASTITY. The Roman laws justified homicide in defence of one's self or relatives ; 
and our laws justify a woman for killing a man in defence of her chastity ; and a husband or 
a father in taking the life of him who attempts to violate his wife or daughter. In. 1000 
years from the time of Numa, 710 B.C., to the reign of Theodosius the Great, A.D. 394, only 
eighteen Roman vestals had been condemned for incontinence. See Vestals, Acre, and 

CHATHAM (Kent), a principal station of the royal navy. Its dockyard, commenced by 
queen Elizabeth, contains immense naval magazines. The Chatham Chest, for the relief of 
wounded and decayed seamen, originally established here by the queen and admirals Drake 
and Hawkins, in 1588, was removed to Greenwich in 1803. In. 1667, on the loth June, the 
Dutch fleet, under admiral De Ruyter, sailed up to this town and burnt several men-of-war ; 
but the entrance into the Medway is now defended by Sheerness and other forts, and 
additional fortifications were made at Chatham. On Feb. 8, 1861, a violent outbreak of the 
convicts was suppressed by the military, and many of the rioters severely flogged. About 
1000?. worth of property was destroyed, and many persons were seriously hurt. 

CHATHAM ADMINISTRATION.* Formed Aug. 1766; terminated Dec. 1767. 

Earl of Chatham, first minister and lord privy seal. 
Duke of Grafton, first lord of the treasury. 
Lord Camden, lord chancellor. 
Charles Townshend, chancellor of the exchequer. 
Earl of Northing ton, lord president. 
Earl of Shelburne and general Conway, secretaries of 

Sir Charles Saundei's (succeeded by sir Edward 

Hawke), admiralty. 
Marquess of Granby, ordnance. 
Lord Hillsborough, first lord of trade. 
Lord Barrington, secretary at war. 
Lord North and Sir George Cooke, joint paymasters. 
Viscount Howe, treasurer of the navy. 
Duke of Ancaster, lord le Despenser, &c. 

CHATILLON (on the Seine, France). Here a congress was held by the four great 
powers allied against France, at which Caulaincourt attended for Napoleon, Feb. 5, 1814 ; 
the negotiations for peace were broken off on March 19, following. 

CHAT MOSS (Lancashire), a peat bog twelve miles square, in most places so soft as to 

be incapable of supporting a man or horse, over which George Stephenson, the railway 

engineer, carried the Liverpool and Manchester railway, after overcoming difficulties con- 

(1 invincible. The road (literally a floating one) was completed by Jan. i, 1830, when 

the first experimental train," drawn by the. Rocket locomotive, passed over it. 

CHATTANOOGA (Tennessee). Near here the federal generals, Sherman and Thomas, 
defeated the confederate general Bragg, after storming the entrenchments, Nov. 25, 1863. 
The result was very injurious to the confederates. Bragg retreated into Georgia, and Long- 
street into Virginia. 

CHAUMONT (on the Maine, France), TREATY OF, entered into between Great Britain, 
Austria, Russia, and Prussia, and signed by these powers respectively, March i, 1814. This 

* William Pitt, earl of Chatham/called the great commoner), was born Nov. 15, 1708, entered parliament 
in 1735 ; became secretary of state" (but virtually the premier) in the Devonshire administration, Nov. 
1756, and secretary in the Newcastle administration, Jan. 1757. In 1766 he became premier, lord privy 
seal, and earl of Chatham, which lord Chesterfield called a fall upstairs. He opposed the taxation of the 
American colonies, but protested against the recognition of their independence, April 7, 1778, and died 
May 1 1 following. 

CHE 168 CHE 

treaty was succeeded by the celebrated treaty of Paris, April II following, by which 
Napoleon renounced his sovereignty over France. See Paris. 

CHEATS are punishable by pillory (since abolished), imprisonment, and fine, I Hawk* 
L.C. 1 88. A rigorous statute was enacted against them in 1542. Persons cheating at play, 
or winning at any time more than lol. or any valuable thing, were deemed infamous, and 
were to suffer punishment as in cases of perjury, 9 Anne, 1711. Blackstone. 

CHEESE. It is supposed by Camden and others that the English learned cheese- 
making from the Romans about the Christian era. Wilts, Gloucester, and Cheshire make 
vast quantities ; the last alone, annually, about 31,000 tons. In 1840 we imported from 
abroad about 10,000 tons; and in 1864, 41,742 tons. The duty on foreign cheese, pro- 
ducing annually about 50,000?., was taken off in 1860. 

CHELSEA. On the site of a college founded by James I. in 1609 for theological dispu- 
tations against popery, but converted by Charles II. in 1682 to its present purpose, stands 
CJielsea college, an asylum for wounded and superannuated soldiers. The erection was 
carried on by James II., and completed by William III. in 1690. The real projector was sir 
Stephen Fox, grandfather of the orator C. J. Fox. The architect was sir Christopher Wren, 
and the cost 150,000^. In 1850 there were 70,000 out- and 539 in-pensioners. The body of 
the duke of Wellington lay here in state, Nov. 10 17, 1852. The physic garden of sir 
Hans Sloane, at Chelsea, was given to the Apothecaries' company in 1721. The Chelsea 
waterworks were incorporated 1722. The first stone of the Military Asylum, Chelsea, was 
laid by Frederick, duke of York, June 19, 1801. The bridge, constructed by Mr. T. Page 
to connect Chelsea with Battersea-park, was opened in the spring of 1858. 

CHELTENHAM (Gloucestershire). Its celebrated mineral spring was discovered in 
1718. The king's- well was sunk in 1778 ; and other wells by Mr. Thompson in 1806. 
Magnesian. salt was first found in the waters in 1811. The theatre was erected in 1804. 

CHEMICAL SOCIETIES. One. formed in London in 1780, did not long continue. 
The present chemical society was established in 1841. The Chemical Society at Paris was 
established in 1857. 

CHEMISTRY was introduced into Europe by the Spanish Moors, about 1150 ; they had 
learned it from the African Moors, and these from the Egyptians. In Egypt they had, in 
very early ages, extracted salts from their bases, separated oils, and prepared vinegar and wine ; 
and embalming was a kind of chemical process. The Chinese also claim an early acquaint- 
ance with chemistry. The first chemical students in Europe were the Alchemists (see 
Alchemy)-, but chemistry could not be said to exist as a science till the I7th century; 
during which its study was promoted by the writings of Bacon and the researches of Hooke, 
Mayow, and Boyle. In the early part of the i8th century, Dr. Stephen Hales laid the 
foundation of Pneumatic Chemistry, and his contemporary Boerhaave combined the study of 
chemistry with medicine. These were succeeded by Black, Bergman, Stahl, &c. In 1772, 
Priestley published his researches on air, having discovered the gases oxygen, ammonia, &c. ; 
and thus commenced a new era in the history of chemistry. He was ably seconded by 
Lavoisier, Cavendish, Scheele, Chaptal, &c. The igth century opened with the brill iai 
discoveries of Davy, continued by Dalton, Faraday, Thomson, &c. Organic Chemistry ' 
been very greatly advanced by the labours of Berzelius, Liebig, Dumas, Laurent, Hofmam 
Cahours, Frankland,* &c., since 1830. See Pharmacy, Electricity, Galvanism. For tl 
analytical processes termed "Spectrum analysis," invented by Kirchhoff and Bunsen (1861^ 
and "Dialysis" (1861), and " Atmolysis" (1863), invented by Mr. T. Graham, see thos 
articles. The Royal College of Chemistry, Oxford Street, London, was established in 1845 
The publication of Watt's great " Dictionary of Chemistry" began in April, 1863. 

CHEQUES. See Drafts. 

CHERBOURG, the great naval fortress and arsenal of France on the coast of Brittair 
about 60 or 70 miles equi-distant from Portsmoiith and Plymouth. It was captured by o\ 
Henry V. in 1418, and lost in 1450. Under the direction of Louis XIV., some works w 
erected here by the great Vauban, which with some shipping, &c., were destroyed by 
British, Aug. 6, 7, 1758. The works were resumed on a stupendous scale by Louis XVI, 

* In 1828 "Wohler succeeded in producing artificially urea, a body hitherto known only as a product < 
the animal organism. Since then, acetic acid, alcohol, grape sugar, various essential oils, similar to those 
of the pine apple, pear, garlic, &c., have been formed by combinations of the gases, oxygen, hydrogen, and 
carbonic acid. The barrier formed by chemists between organic and inorganic bodies is thus broken down, 
though the names are still retained. 

CHE 169 CHI 

but their progress was interrupted by the revolution. The breakwater, commenced in 
resumed by Napoleon I. about 1803, and finally completed in 1813, is a magnificent woi 
forming a secure harbour, capable of affording anchorage for nearly the whole navy of 
France, and protected by strong fortifications, increased by the present emperor. On Aug. 
4, 5, 1858, the railway and the Grand Napoleon docks were opened, the latter in the 
presence of the queen of England and court. The British fleet visited Cherbourg, Aug. 
15-17, 1865, and the officers and men were treated with much hospitality. 

CHERITON DOWN (Hants). Here sir Win. Waller defeated the royalists under lord 
Hopton, May 29, 1644. 

CHEERY, the Prunus Cerasus (so called from Cerasus, a city of Pontus, whence the 
tree was brought by Lucullus to Rome, about 70 B. c. ), was first planted in Britain, it is said, 
about 100. Fine kinds were brought from Flanders, in 1540, and planted in Kent, with, 
much success. 

CHERSON. See Kherson. CHERSONESUS. See Crimea. 

CHESAPEAKE. At the mouth of this river a contest took place between the British 
admiral Greaves and the French admiral De Grasse, in the interest of the revolted states of 
America ; the former was obliged to retire, 1781. The Chesapeake and Delaware were 
blockaded by the British fleet in the American war of 1812, and the bay was, at that 
period, the scene of great hostilities of various results. The Chesapeake American frigate, 
commanded by capt. Lawrence (50 guns, 376 men), struck to the Shannon British frigate 
(49 guns, 330 men), commanded by capt. Philip Vere Broke, after a severe action of eleven 
minutes, June i, 1813. Capt. Lawrence, who had invited the contest, died of his wounds. 

CHESS, a game invented, according to some authorities, by Palamedes, 680 B.C. ; and 
according to others, in the fifth century of our era. The learned Hyde and sir William Jones 
concur in stating that the origin of chess is to be traced to India. The automaton chess- 
player (a piece of machinery) was exhibited in England in 1769.* A chess congress was 
held at New York in 1857, and an international one in London in June and July, 1862. 

CHESTER (England, N. W.), the British Caerleon and the Roman Deva, the station of 
the twentieth legion, Valeria Victrix, quitted by them about 476. The city wall was 
first built by Edelfleda, 908 ; and Hugh Lupus, the earl, nephew of William I., rebuilt the 
Saxon castle in 1084, and the abbey of St. Werburgh. Chester was incorporated by 
Henry III. and made a distinct county. It was ravaged by the Danes, 980 ; and nearly 
destroyed by an accidental fire in 1471. A fatal gunpowder explosion occurred Nov. 5, 
1772. The exchange and town hall were burnt Dec. 30, 1862. The SEE was anciently part 
of Lichfield, one of whose bishops, Peter, removing the seat hither in 1075, occasioned his 
successors to be styled bishops of Chester ; but it was not erected into a distinct bishopric 
until the dissolution of monasteries. Henry VIII. in 1542 raised it to this dignity, and 
allotted the church of the abbey of St. Werburgh for the cathedral. This see is valued in 
the king's books at 420^. is. 8d. per annnm. Present income 4500?. 


1800. Henry Wm. Majeiidie, trans, to Bangor, 1809. 
1810. Bowyer Edward Sparkle, trans, to Ely, 1812. 
1812. George Henry Law, translated to Bath, 1824. 

1828. John Bird Sumner, trans, to Canterbury, 1848. 
1848. John Graham, died June 15, 1865. 
1865. William Jacobson (PRESENT bishop). 

1824. Chas. J. Blomfield, trans, to London, Aug. 1828. 

CHEVALIER D'EON. See D'Eon. CHEVY CHASE. See Otterlurne. 

CHICAMAUGA ("the stream of death"), near the Chattanooga, Tennessee, North 
America. Near here the confederates under general Bragg, aided by Longstreet, totally 
defeated the federals under Rosencrans, Sept. 19, 20, 1863. The loss was severe on both 
sides. The credit of the victory is attributed to Longstreet ; its fruitlessness is assigned to 

CHICHESTER (Sussex), built by Cissa, about 540. The cathedral was completed 
about 1088, burnt with the city in 1114, and rebuilt by bishop Seftrid about 1187. The 
present cathedral was erected during the I3th century. The spire fell Feb. 2O>, 1861, and the 
foundation of a new one was laid May 2, 1865. The bishopric originated thus : Wilfrida, 
archbishop of York, compelled to flee by Egfrid, king of Northumberland, preached the 
gospel in this country, and built a church in the Isle of Selsey, about 673. In 68 1 Selsey 

* A chess-club was formed at Slaughter's coffee-house, St. Martin's lane, in 1747. M. F. A. Danican, 
known as Phillidor, played three matches blindfold at the Salopian ; he died in 1795. The London Chess- 
club was founded in 1807, and St. George's in 1833. In Dec. 1861 Herr Paulsen played ten games at once, 
of which he won five, and lost one ; three were drawn, and one not played out. 




became a bishopric, and so continued until it was removed to Chichester, then called Cis 
Caester, from its builder, Cissa, by Stigand, 1070. This see has yielded to the church twc 
saints, and to the nation three lord chancellors. It is valued in the king's books at 
677?. 15. -$d. per annum. Present income, 4200?. 


1798. John Buckner, died May 2, 1824. 

1824. Robert J. Carr, trans, to Worcester, Sept. 1831. 

1831. Edward Maltby, translated to Durham, 1836. 

1836. Charles Otter, died Aug. 20, 1840. 

1840. Philip Nicholas Shuttleworth, died Jan. 7,1842. 

1842. Ashurst Turner Gilbert (PRESENT bishop). 


CHICORY, the wild endive, or Cichorium Intybus of Linnseus, grows wild in calcareous 
soils. It has been raised to some extent in England as herbage, its excellence in this respect 
having been much insisted upon by Arthur Young.* 

CHILDERMAS DAY, Dec. 28, observed by the Roman church, in memory of the 
slaughter of the Holy Innocents. (Matt, ii.) 

CHILDREN. Many ancient nations exposed their infants, the Egyptians on the banks 
of rivers, and the Greeks on highways, when they could not support or educate them ; in 
such cases, they were taken care of, and humanely protected by the state. The custom, 
which long previously existed, of English parents selling their children to the Irish for 
slaves, was prohibited in the reign of Canute, about 1017. Mat. Paris. See Foundling. 

CHILI (S. America), discovered by Diego de Almagro, one of the conquerors of Peru, 
1535. When Almagro crossed the Cordilleras, the natives, regarding the Spaniards on 
their first visit as allied to the Divinity, collected for them gold and silver amounting to 
290,000 ducats, a present which led to the subsequent cruelties and rapacity of the invaders. 
Chili was subdued, but not wholly, in 1546. Population in 1857, 1,558,319. 

The Chilians declare their independence of 

Spain Sept. 18, 1810 

2rht wi 

Fight with varying success ; decisive victory 
gained by San Martin over the royal forces, 
Feb. 12 ; the pi-ovince was declared inde- 
pendent 1817 

Present constitution established in . 1833 

Manuel Montt elected president . Oct. 18, 1856 

Insurrection headed by Pedro Gallo, Dec, 
1858, suppressed .... April, 1859 

Jose" Perez, president . . . Sept. 18, 1861 

Conflagration of the Jesuits' church at San- 
tiago (see Santiago), more than 2000 persons 
perished Dec. 8, 1863 

Rupture between Chili and Bolivia respecting 
the " Guano " isles . . . March i, 1864 

CHILLIANWALLAH, BATTLE OF, India, between the Sikh forces in considerable 
strength, and the British commanded by lord (afterwards viscount) Gough, fought Jan. 13, 
1849. The Sikhs were completely routed, but the loss of the British was very severe : 26 
officers were killed and 66 wounded, and 731 rank and file killed, and 1446 wounded. The 
Sikh loss was 3000 killed and 4000 wounded. f On Feb. 21, lord Gough attacked the Sikh 
army, under Shere Singh, in its position at Goojerat, with complete success ; and the whole 
of the enemy's camp fell into the hands of the British. 

CHILTERN HUNDREDS (viz. Burnham, Desborough, and Stoke), an estate of 
crown on the chain of chalk hills that pass from east to west through the middle 
Buckinghamshire, the stewardship whereof is a nominal office, with a salary of 2os., confer 
on members of parliament when they wish to vacate their seats, as, by accepting an of 
under the crown, a member becomes disqualified, unless he be again returned by his c( 
stituents. The strict legality of the practice is questioned. 

CHIMNEY- TAX. See Hearth. 

CHIMNEYS. Chafing-dishes were in use previous to the invention of chimneys, whic 
were first introduced into these countries, in 1200, when they were confined to the kitche 
and large hall. The family sat round a stove, the funnel of which passed through the 

* Chicory had been for many years so largely mixed with coffee in England, that it became a matter 
of serious complaint, the loss of revenue being estimated at ioo,oooL a-year. An excise order was issued, 
Aug. 3, 1852, interdicting the mixture of chicory with coffee. The admixture, however, has since been 
permitted, provided the word " chicory " be plainly printed on each parcel sold. In 1860 a duty of 35. per 
cwt. was put upon English-grown chicory until April 1861 ; after that date to be 55. 6d. per cwt. 

t The duke of Wellington (commander in chief) did not think the victory complete. Gough was 
superseded, and sir C. Napier sent out (March 1849), who did not arrive in India till Gough had redeemed 
his reputation. 




ceiling, in 1300. Chimneys were general in domestic architecture in 1310. Act to regulate 
chimney-sweeping, 28 Geo. III. 1789. The chimney-sweeping machine was invented 
by Smart in 1805. A statute regulating the trade, the apprenticeship of children, the 
construction of flues, preventing calling "sweep" in the streets, &c., passed 1834. By 
5 Viet. 1840, it is not lawful for master sweeps to take apprentices under sixteen years 
of age : and since July I, 1842, no individual under twenty-one may ascend a chimney. In 
1864, the enforcement of this law was made more stringent, it having been neglected. At 
the chemical works, Glasgow, is a chimney (there termed a stalk) 420 feet in height ; the 
height of the Monument in London being 202 feet ; of St. Paul's, 404 feet. 

CHINA, the "Celestial Empire," in Eastern Asia, for which the Chinese annals claim an 
antiquity of from 80,000 to 100,000 years B.C., is allowed to have commenced about 2500 u. < i . ; 
by others to have been founded by Fohi, supposed to be the Noah of the Bible, 2240 B.C.* 
We are told that the Chinese were acute astronomers in the reign of Yao, 2357 B.C. 
Towards the close of the yth century B.C., the history of China becomes more distinct. 
Twenty-two dynasties have reigned, including the present. In the battle between Phraates 
and the Scythians, 129 B.C., the Chinese aided the latter, and afterwards ravaged the coasts 
of the Caspian, which is their first appearance in history. Lenglet. The population of 
China was estimated at 190,348,228 in 1757 ; and at 414,607,000 in 1860. 

The Chinese state their first cycle to have com- 
menced B.C. 2700 

The first dates fixed to his history, by Se-ma- 

tsien, begin 651 

Supposed age of Confucius (Kungfutze), the 

Chinese philosopher ..... 550 
Stupendous wall of China completed 298 or 211 
The dynasty of Han .... 202 or 206 
Literature and the art of printing encouraged(?) 202 
Religion of Tao-tse commenced . . .15 
Religion of Fo commenced . . about A.D. 60 
Pretended embassy from Rome . . . 166 

Nankin becomes the capital 420 

The atheistical philosopher, San-Shin, flourishes 449 
The Ncstorian Christians permitted to preach 635 
They are proscribed and extirpated . . . 845 
China ravaged by Tartars, gthto nth centuries 
Seat of government transferred to Pekin . . 1260 
Marco Polo introduces missionaries . . .1275 
Canal, called the Yu Ho, completed . about 1400, 
Europeans first arrive at Canton . . . . 1517 
Macao is granted to the Portuguese . . . 1536 
Jesuit missionaries are sent from Rome . . 1575 
The country is conquered by the eastern or 
Mantchou Tartars, who establish the present 

reigning house 1616-47 

Tea brought to England 1660 

An earthquake throughout China,buries 300,000 

persons at Pekin alone .... 1*1662 
Commerce with East India Company begins . 1680 

Jesuit missionaries preach 1692 

Commercial relations with Russia . . 1719-27 

The Jesuits expelled 1724-32 

Another general earthquake destroys 100,000 

persons at Pekin, and 80,000 in a suburb . 1731 
In a salute by one of our India ships in China, 
a loaded gun was inadvertently fired, which 
killed a native ; the government demanded 
the gunner to be given up ; he was soon 
strangled. Sir George Staunton . July 2, 1785 
Earl Macartney's embassy* arrives at Pekin ; 

his reception by the emperor . Sept. 14, 1793 
He is ordered to depart . . . Oct. 7, ,, 
And arrives in England . . . Sept. 6, 1794 
The affair of the Company's ship Neptune, when 

a Chinese was killed 1807 

Edict against Christianity 1812 

Lord Amherst's embassy; f he leaves England 

Feb. 8, 1816 

Exclusive rights of the E. I. Co. cease April 22, 

Opium dispute begins 

Free-trade ships sail for England . April 25, 
Lord Napier arrives at Macao, to superintend 
British commerce .... July 15, 
Affair between the natives and two British 
ships of war; several Chinese killed, Sept. 5, 
Lord Napier dies, and is succeeded by Mr. 
(afterwards sir John) Davis . . Oct. n, 
Opium trade interdicted by the Chinese, Nov. 7, 
Chinese seize the Argyle and crew . Jan. 31, 
Opium burnt at Canton by the Chinese, Feb. 23, 
Captain Elliot becomes chief British commis- 
sioner Dec. 14, 

Admiral Maitland arrives at Macao . July ra, 
Commissioner Lin orders seizure of opium, 
March 18 ; British and other residents for- 
bidden to leave Canton, March 19 ; the f ac - 
tories surrounded, and outrages committed, 
March 24 ; captain Elliot requires of British 
subjects their surrender to him of all opium, 
promising them on the part of government 
the full value of it, March 27 ; half of it is 
given up as contraband to the Chinese, April 
20 ; the remainder (20,283 chests) surrendered, 
May 21 ; captain Elliot and the British mer- 
chants leave Canton, May 24 ; the opium 
destroyed by the Chinese . . June 3, 
Affair between the British and American sea- 
men and the Chinese ; a native killed, July 7, 
Hong-Kong taken .... Aug 23 
The British boat Black Joke attacked, and the 
crew murdered, Aug. 24 ; the British mer- 
chants retire from Macao . . Aug. 26, 
Affair at Kow-luhg between British boats and 

Chinese junks Sept. 4, 

Attack by 28 armed junks on the British 
frigates Volage and Hyacinth : several junks 

blown up Nov. 3, 

The British trade with China ceases, by an 

edict of the emperor, and the last servant of 

the company leaves this day . . Dec. 6, 

Edict of the emperor interdicting all trade and 

intercourse with England for ever . Jan. 5, 

The Hellas ship attacked by armed junks, May 

22 ; blockade of Canton by a British fleet, 

by orders from sir Gordon Bremer, June 

28 ; the Blonde with a flag of truce fired on 

at Amoy, July 2 ; Ting-hai, in Chusan, sur- 




_* This embassy threw some lighten the political circumstances of the empire; it appeared to be 
divided into 1 5 provinces, containing 4402 walled cities ; the population of the whole was given at 333,000,000 : 
its annual revenues at 66,ooo,oooZ. : and the army, including the Tartars, 1,000,000 of infantry, and 800,000 
cavalry ; the religion Pagan, and the government absolute. Learning, and the arts and sciences, were 
encouraged, and ethics studied. 

t His lordship failed in the objects of his mission, having refused to make the prostration of the 
kou-tou, lest he should thereby compromise the majesty of England. 




CHINA, continued. 

renders, July 5 ; blockade established along 
the Chinese coast, July 10 ; Mr. Staunton 
carried off to Canton .... Aug. 6, 
Captain Elliot, on board a British steam-ship, 
enters the Peiho river, nearPekin, Aug. n, 
The ship Kite lost on a sand-bank, and the cap- 
tain's wife and a part of the crew are captured 
by the natives, and confined in cages Sept. 15, 
Lin finally degraded ; Keshin appointed im- 
perial commissioner, Sept. 16 ; capt. Elliot's 

truce with him Nov. 6, 

British plenipotentiaries arrive off Macao, 

Nov. 20, 

Admiral Elliot's resignation announced, Nov. 29, 
Mr. Staunton released . . . Dec. 12, 
Negotiations cease, owing to breaches of faith 
on the part of the Chinese emperor . Jan. 6, 
Chuen-pe and Tae-coc-tow, and 173 guns (some 
sent to England), captured . . Jan. 7, 
Hong-Kong ceded by Keshin to Great Britain, 
and 6,000,000 dollars agreed to be paid within 
ten days to the British authorities . Jan. 20, 
Hong-Kong taken possession of . Jan. 26, 
The emperor rejects Keshin's treaty, Feb. u ; 
hostilities resumed, Feb. 23 ; Chusan evacu- 
ated, Feb. 24 ; rewards proclaimed at Canton 
for the bodies of Englishmen, dead or alive ; 
50,000 dollars to be given for ringleaders and 

chiefs Feb. 25, 

Bogue forts taken by sir G. Bremer ; admiral 

Kwan killed ; 459 guns captured . Feb. 26, 

The British squadron proceeds to Canton 

March i ; sir H. Gough takes command of the 

army, March 2 ; hostilities again suspended, 

March 3 ; and again resumed, March 6 ; 

Keshin degraded by the emperor March 12, 

Flotilla of boats destroyed, Canton threatened, 

the foreign factories seized, and 461 guns 

taken by the British forces . March 18, 

New commissioners from Pekin arrive at 

Canton April 14, 

Hong Kong Gazette first published . May i, 

Capt. Elliot prepares to attack Canton May 17, 

Heights behind Canton taken . May 25, 

The city ransomed for 6,000,000 dollars ; 

5,000,000 paid down ; hostilities cease May 3 1, 

British forces withdrawn, June i ; and British 

trade re-opened .... July 16, 

Arrival at Macao of sir Henry Pottmger, who, 

as plenipotentiary, proclaims the objects of 

his mission ; capt. Elliot superseded Aug. 10, 

Amoy taken, and 296 guns destroyed . Aug. 27, 

The Bogue forts destroyed . . Sept. 14, 

Ting-hae taken, 136 guns captured, and Chusan 

re-occupied by the British, Oct. i ; they take 

Chin-hae, Oct. 10; Ning-po,Oct. 13 ; Yu-yaou, 

Tsze-kee, and Foong-hua . . Dec. 28, 



Chinese attack Ning-po and Chin-hae, and are 
repulsed with great loss, March 10 ; 8000 
Chinese are routed near Tsze-kee March 15, 184 

Cha-pou attacked ; its defences destroyed, 

May 18, 

The British squadron enters the river Kiang, 
June 13 ; capture of Woosung, and of 230 
guns and stores, June 16 ; Shang-hae taken, 
June 19 ; the British armament anchors near 
the " Golden Isle," July 20 ; Chin-Keang 
taken ; the Tartar general and many of the 
garrison commit suicide, July 21 ; the ad- 
vanced ships reach Nankin, Aug. 4 ; the whole 
fleet arrives, and the disembarkation com- 
mences, Aug. 9 ; Keying arrives at Nankin, 
with full powers to treat for peace . Aug. 12. 

Treaty of peace signed before Nankin, on board 
the Cornwallis by sir Henry Pottinger for 
England, and Keying Elepoo* and Neu-Kien 
on the part of the Chinese emperor [Con- 
ditions : lasting peace and friendship between 
the two empires; China to pay 21,000,000 of 
dollars ; Canton, Amoy, Foochoofoo, Ning- 
po, and Shang-hae to be thrown open to the 
British, and consuls to reside at these cities ; 
Hong- Kong to be ceded in perpetuity to Eng- 
land, <fcc. ; Chusan and Ku-lang-su to be held 
by the British until the provisions are ful- 
filled] t Aug. 29, ,, 

The ratifications signed by queen Victoria and 
the emperor formally exchanged, July 22 ; 
Canton opened to the British by an imperial 
edict July 27, 1843 

Appointment of Mr. Davis in the room of sir 
Henry Pottinger .... Feb. 16, 1844 

Bogue forts captured by the British . April 5, 1847 

Hong-Kong and the neighbourhood visited by 
a violent typhoon ; immense damage done to 
the shipping ; upwards of 1000 boat-dwellers 
on the Canton river drowned . . Oct. 1848 

H.M. steam-ship Medea destroys 13 pirate 
junks in the Chinese seas . . March 4, 1850 

Rebellion breaks out in Quang-si . . Aug. ,, 

Appearance of the pretender Tien-teh,} March 1851 

Defeat of Leu, the imperial commissioner, and 
destruction of half the army . June 19, 1852 

Successful progress of the rebels ; the emperor 
applies to the Europeans for help, without 
success .... March and April, 1853 

The rebels take Nankin, March 19, 20 ; Amoy, 
May 19; Shang-hae . . . Sept. 7, ,, 

And besiege Canton without success Aug.-Nov. 185 

The scanty accounts are unfavourable to the 
rebels, the imperialists having retaken Shang- 
hae, Amoy, and many important places . . 185 

Outrage on the British lorcha Arrow, in Canton 
river Oct. 8, i8 

* He took part (it was said without authority) in arranging the treaty of Tien-sin in June, 1858. 
was in consequence condemned to death by suicide. 

t The non-fulfilment of this treaty led gradually to the war of 1856-7. 

j The emperor Taou-Kwang, who died Feb. 25, 1850, during the latter part of his reign, became liber 
in his views, and favoured the introduction of European arts ; but his son, the late emperor, a rash a 
narrow-minded prince, quickly departed from his father's wise policy, and adopted reactionary measur 
particularly against English influence. An insurrection broke out in consequence, Aug. 1850, and quickl 
became of alarming importance.^ The insurgents at first proposed only to expel the Tartars ; but in Marcl 

obtained some literary knowledge at Canton about 1835, and also to have become acquainted at that tir 
with the principles of Christianity from a Chinese Christian, named Leang-afa, and also from the mi 
sionary Roberts in 1844. He announced himself as the restorer of the worship of the true God, Shang-t 
but has derived many of his dogmas from the Bible. He declared himself to be the monarch of all beneat- 
the sky, the true lord of China (and thus of all the world), the brother of Jesus, and the second son of God, 
and demanded universal submission. He made overtures for alliance to lord Elgin, in November, 1860. 
His followerg are termed Taepings, " princes of peace," a title utterly belied by their atrocious deeds. 
The rebellion was virtually terminated July 18, 1864, by the capture of Nankin, the suicide of 
Tien-wang, and the execution of the military leaders. 

It was boarded by the Chinese officers, 12 men out of the crew of 14 being carried off, and the national 
ensign taken down. Sir J. Bowring, governor of Hong-Kong, being compelled to resort to hostilities, 




CHINA, continued. 

After vain negotiations with commissioner Yeh, 
Canton forts attacked and taken . Oct. 23, 1856 

A Chinese fleet destroyed and Canton bom- 
barded, by sir M. Seymour . Nov. 3, 4, 

Imperialists defeated, quit Shang-hae Nov. 6, ,, 

The Americans revenge an attack by capturing 
three forts .... Nov. 21 23, ,, 

Rebels take Kuriking . . . Nov. 25, ,, 

Other forts taken by the British . . Dec. ,, 

The Chinese burn European factories Dec. 14, ,, 

And murder the crew of the Thistle . Dec. 30, ,, 

A- him, a Chinese baker, acquitted of charge of 
poisoning the bread .... Feb. 2, 1857 

Troops arrive from Madras, and England ; and 
lord Elgin appointed envoy . . March, ,, 

No change on either side : Yeh said to be 
straitened for money ; the imperialists seem 
to be gaining ground upon the rebels May, ,, 

Total destniction of the Chinese fleet by com- 
modore Elliot, May 25, 27 ; and sir M. Sey- 
mour and commodore Keppel . . June i, ,, 

Blockade of Canton .... Aug. , , 

Stagnation in the war lord Elgin departs to 
Calcutta, with assistance to the English 
against the Sepoys, July 16 ; returns to Hong- 
Kong Sept. 25, ,, 

Gen. Ashburnham departs for India, and gen. 
Straubenzee assumes the command Oct. 19, ,, 

Canton bombarded and taken by English and 
French, Dec. 28, 29, 1857 ; who enter it Jan. 5, 1858 

Yeh* sent a prisoner to Calcutta . . Jan. ,, 

The allies proceed towards Pekin, and take the 
Pei-ho forts , May 20. ,, 

The expedition arrives at Tien-Sin . May 20, ,, 

Negotiations commence June 5 ; treaty of peace 
signed at Tien-sin by lord Elgin, baron Gros, 
and Keying (who signed the treaty of 1842) 
[Ambassadors to be at both courts ; freedom 
of trade ; toleration of Christianity ; expenses 
of war to be paid by China ; a revised tariff ; 
term I (barbarian) to be no longer applied to 
Europeans] .... June 26, 28, 29, 

Lord Elgin visits Japan, and concludes an im- 
portant treaty with the emperor . Aug. 28, ,, 

The British destroy about 130 piratical junks 
in the Chinese seas . . Aug. and Sept. ,, 

Lord Elgin proceeds up the Yang-tse-Kiang to 
Nankin, Jan. ; returns to England . May, 1859 

Mr. Bruce, the British envoy, on his way to 
Pekin, is stopped in the river Pei-ho (or Tien- 
sin); admiral Hope attempting to force a 
passage, is repulsed with the loss of 81 killed,, 
and about 390 wounded . . . June 25, ,, 

The American envoy Ward arrives at Pekin, 
and refusing to submit to degrading cere- 
monies, does not see the emperor, July 29 ; 
the commercial treaty with America is con- 
cluded Nov. 24, 

The English and French prepare an expedition 
against China Oct. 

Lord Elgin and baron Gros sail for China, April 
26; wrecked near point de Galle, Ceylon, 
May 23 ; arrive at Shang-hae . June 29, 1860 

The war begins : the British commanded by sir 
Hope Grant, the French by general Montau- 
ban. The Chinese defeated in a skirmish 
near the Pei-ho . . . . Aug. 12, 

The allies repulse the Tae-ping rebels attacking 
Shang-hae, Aug. 18-20 ; and take the Taku- 
forts, losing 500 killed and wounded ; the Tar- 
tar general San-ko-lin-sin retreats Aug. 21, 

After vain negotiations, the allies advance to- 
wards Pekin ; they defeat the Chinese at 
Chang -kia-wan and Pa-li-chiau Sept. 18 & 21, ,, 

Consul Parkes, captains Anderson and Bra- 

bazon, Mr. De Norman, Mr. Bowlby (the 
Times' correspondent), and 14 others (Euro- 
peans and Sikhs), advance to Tung-chow, to 
arrange conditions for a meeting of the minis- 
ters, and are captured by San-ko-lin-sin ; 
capt. Brabazon and abbe" de Luc beheaded, 
and said to be thrown into the canal ; others 
carried into Pekin . . . Sept. 21, 

The allies march towards Pekin ; the French 
ravage the emperor's summer palace, Oct. 6 ; 
Mr. Parkes, Mr. Loch, and others, restored 
alive, Oct. 8 ; capt. Anderson, Mr. De Norman, 

- and others die of ill-usage . Oct. 8-n, 

Pekin invested ; surrenders, Oct. 12 ; severe 
proclamation of sir Hope Grant . Oct. 15, 

The bodies of Mr. De Norman and Mr. Bowlby 
buried with great solemnity in the Russian 
cemetery in Pekin, Oct. 17 ; the summer 
palace (Yuen-ming-yuen) burnt by the 
British, in memory of the outraged prisoners 

Oct. 18, 

Convention signed in Pekin by lord Elgin and 
the prince of Kung, by which the treaty of 
Tien-sin is ratified ; apology made for the 
attack at Pei-ho (June 25, 1859) ; a large in- 
demnity to be paid immediately, and com- 
pensation in money given to the families of 
the murdered prisoners.&c. ; Kow-loon ceded 
in exchange for Chusan, and the treaty and 
convention to be proclaimed throughout the 
empire Oct. 24, 

Allies quit Pekin .... Nov. 5; 

Treaty between Russia and China the former 
obtaining free trade, territories, &c. Nov. 14, 

Mr. Loch arrives in England with the treaty 

Dec. 27, 

First instalment of indemnity paid . Nov. 30, 

Part of the allied troops comfortably settled at 
Tien-sin Jan. 5, 

Adm. Hope examines Yang-tse-Kiang, <fec. Feb. 

English and French embassies established at 
Pekin March, 

The emperor Hienfung dies . . Aug. 24, 

Canton restored to the Chinese . Oct. 21, 

Ministerial crisis ; several ministers put to 
death ; Kung appointed regent . Dec. 13, 

Advance of the rebels ; they seize and desolate 
Ning-po and Hang-chow . . . Dec. 

They advance on Shang-hae, which is placed 
under protection of the English and French, 
and fortified Jan. 

Rebels defeated in two engagements . April, 

English and French assist the government 
against the rebels Ning-po retaken May 10, 

French admiral Protet killed in an attack on 
rebels May 17, 

Captain Sherard Osborne permitted by the 
British government to organise a small fleet 
of gun-boats to aid the imperialists to 
establish order July, 

Imperialists gaining ground, take Kan-sing, &c 


Commercial treaty with Prussia ratified Jan. 14, 

The imperialists under Gordon, defeat the 
Taepings under Burgevine, &c. . Oct. 

Gordon, commanding the imperialists, captures 
Sow-chow (after a severe attack on Nov. 27, 
28) ; the rebel chiefs treacherously butchered 
by the Chinese .... Dec. 4, 5, 

Capt. Osborne came to China ; but retired in 
consequence of the Chinese government de- 
parting from its engagements . Dec. 31, 

Gordon's successes continue . Jan. to April, 

After a severe repulse he takes Chang-chow -foo, 

Mar. 23, 




applied to India and Ceylon for troops. On March 3, 1857, the house of commons, by a majority of 19, 
censured sir John for the " violent measures " he had pursued. The ministry (who took his part) dissolved 
tho parliament ; but obtained a large majority in the new one. 

* He died peacefully at Calcutta, April 9, 1859. He is said to have beheaded above 100,000 rebels. 




CHINA, continued. 

He takes Nankin (a heap of ruins) ; the Tien- 
wang, the rebel emperor, commits suicide 
by eating gold leaf. Chang- wang and Kan- 
wang, the rebel generals, are " cut into a 
thousand pieces ;" . . . . July 18, 1864 

The Taepings hold Ming-chow ; the Mahome- 
tan rebellion progressing in Honan March, 1865 

Taepings evacuate Ming-chow . . May 23 ,, 

A rebellion in the north, headed by Nien-fei ; 
Pekin in danger .... July 

The Chinese general San-ko-lin-sin defeated 
and slain ; his son more successful . July 


1627. Chwang-lei. 

1644. Shun-che (first of the Tsing dynasty). 

1669. Kang-he. 

1693. Yung-ching. 

1735. Keen-lung. 

1795. Kea-king. 

1820. Taou-Kwang. 

1850. Hieng-fimg, Feb. 25. 

1861. Ki-tsiang, Aug. 22 ; born April 5, 1855. 

CHINA PORCELAIN introduced into England about 1531. See Pottery. 

CHINA ROSE, &c. The Rosa indica was brought from China, and successfully planted 
in England, 1 786 ; the Chinese apple-tree, or Pyrus spectabilis, about 1 780. 

CHIOS (now Scio), an isle in the Greek Archipelago, revolted against Athens, 412 B.C. 
It partook of the fortunes of the Greeks, being conquered by the Venetians, A.D. 1124; by 
the Crusaders, 1204 ; by the Greek emperor and Romans, 1329 ; by the Genoese, 1329, and 
by the Turks in 1459. A dreadful massacre of the inhabitants by the Turks took place April 
n, 1822, during the Greek insurrection.* 

CHIPPAWA (N. America). Here the British under Riall were defeated by the 
Americans under Browne, July 5, 1814. The Americans were defeated by the British, 
under generals Drummond and Riall, July 25 following, but the latter was wounded and 
taken prisoner. 

CHIYALRY arose out of the feudal system in the latter part of the 8th century 
(chevalier, or knight, being derived from the caballarius, the equipped feudal tenant on 
horseback). From the I2th to the I5th century it tended to refine manners. The knight 
swore to accomplish the duties of his profession, as the champion of God and the ladies ; 
to speak the truth, to maintain the right, to protect the distressed, to practise courtesy, to 
fulfil obligations, and to vindicate in every perilous adventure his honour and character. 
Chivalry, which owed its origin to the feudal system, expired with it. See Tournaments. 
By letters patent of James I. the earl-marshal of England had "the like jurisdiction in the 
courts of chivalry, when the office of lord high constable was vacant, as this latter and the 
marshal did jointly exercise," 1623. See Kniglitlwod. 

CHLORINE (Greek cliloros, pale green), a gas first obtained by Scheele in 1774, 
treating manganese with muriatic (hydrochloric) acid. Sir H. Davy, in 1810, proved 
gas to be an element, and named it chlorine. Combined with sodium it forms comm( 
salt (chloride of sodium), and combined with lime, the bleaching powder and disinfectant 
chloride of lime. The bleaching powers of chlorine were made known by Berthollet in 178' 
In 1823 chlorine was condensed into a liquid by Faraday. 

CHLOROFORM (the ter-chloride of the hypothetical radical formyl) is a compound 
carbon, hydrogen, and chlorine, and was made from alcohol, water, and bleaching pow< 
It was discovered by Soubeiran in 1831, and its composition was determined by Dumas 
1834. The term " chloric ether" was applied in 1820 to a mixture of chlorine and olefk 
gas. Chloroform was first applied as an anaesthetic by Dr. Simpson of Edinburgh ; it 
first administered in England on Dec. 14, 1848, by Mr. James Robinson, surgeon-dentist.- 

CHOBHAM COMMON, in Surrey. A military camp was formed here on June 14, i8< 
by a force between 8000 and 10,000 strong. The last field-day took place Aug. 17, i 
Only one serious case of misconduct was reported during all the time. 

CHOCOLATE, made of the cocoa berry, introduced into Europe (from Mexico and 
Brazils) about 1520, was sold in the London coffee-houses soon after their establishment, 1 

* The slaughter lasted 10 days : 40,000 of both sexes falling victims to the sword, or to the fire, wl 
raged until every house, save those of the foreign consuls, was burned to the groiind. 7000 Greeks, 
had fled to the mountains, were induced to surrender by a promise of amnesty, guaranteed by the con 
of England, France, and Austria : yet even they were all butchered ! The only exception made during the 
massacre was in favour of the young and more beautiful women and boys, 30,000 of whom were reserved 
for the mai-kets. 

t A committee of the Eoyal Medical and Chirurgical Society in July, 1864, after examining statistics, 
reported that the use of anaesthetics had in no degree increased the rate of mortality. 




CHOIR. This was separated from the nave of the church in the time of Constantino. 
The choral service was first used in England at Canterbury, 677. See Chanting. 

CHOLERA MORBUS, known in its more malignant form as the Indian cholera, made 
ccrcat ravages in the north, east, and south of Europe, and in Asia, where alone it carried oil' 
more than 900,000 persons, in 1829-30. In England and Wales in 1848-9, 53,293 persons 
died of cholera, and in 1854, 20,097. 

Cholera appears at Sunderland . . Oct. 26, 1831 

And at Edinburgh .... Feb. 6, 1832 

First observed at Rotherhithe and Limehouse, 
London, Feb. 13 ; and in Dublin . March 3 ,, 

The mortality very great, but more so on the 
Continent ; 18,000 deaths at Paris, between 

March and August, 1832 

Cholera rages in Rome, the Two Sicilies, Genoa, 
Berlin, <fec., in . . July and August, 1837 

Another visitation of cholera in England : the 
number of deaths in London, for the week 
ending Sept. 15, 1849, was 3183 ; the ordinary 
average 1008 ; and the number of deaths 
by cholera from June 17 to Oct. 2, in London 
alone, 13,161. The mortality lessened and 
the distemper disappeared . . Oct. 13, 1849 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Hexham, Tynemouth, 

and other northern towns, suffer much from 
cholera Sept. 1853 

It rages in Italy and Sicily ; above 10,000 are 
said to have died at Naples ; it was also very 
fatal to the allied troops at Varna, autumn, 1854 

Cholera very severe for a short time in the 
southern parts of London, and in Soho and 
St. James's, Westminster . Aug. and Sept. ,, 

Raging in Alexandria, June ; abated . July, 1865 

Prevailing in Ancona (843 deaths) Aug., sub- 
siding Sept, ,, 

Very severe in Constantinople, nearly 50,000 
deaths, Aug. ; subsides after the great fire, 

Sept. 6 

Cases at Marseilles, Toulon, and Southampton, 
end of Sept. ,, 

CHORAGUS, a Greek officer who regulated the chorus in the public feasts, worship, 
&c. Stesichorus (or Tysias) received this name, he having first taught the chorus to dance 
to the lyre, 556 B.C. Quintil. 

CHORUS-SINGING was early practised at Athens. 
off the prize for the best voice, 508 B.C. Parian marbles. 

Hypodicus, of Chalcides, carried 
See Music. 

CHOTJANS, a name given to the Bretons during the war of La Vendee in 1792, from 
their chief Jean Cottereau, using the cry of the Cliat-haunt, or screech-owl, as a signal. He 
was killed in 1794. Georges Cadoudal, their last chief, was connected with Pichegru in a 
conspiracy against Napoleon when first consul, and was executed in 1804. 

CHRISM, consecrated oil, was used early in the ceremonies of the Roman and Greek 
churches. Musk, saffron, cinnamon, roses, and frankincense, are mentioned as used with the 
oil, in 1541. It was ordained that chrism should consist of oil and balsam only ; the one 
representing the human nature of Christ, and the other his divine nature, 1596. 

CHRIST. See Jesus Christ. CHRIST'S HOSPITAL (the Blue-Coat school) was established 
by Edward VI. 1553, on the site of the Grey Friars monastery. A mathematical ward was 
founded by Charles II., 1672, and the city of London and the community of England have 
contributed to render it a richly endowed charity. The Times ward was founded in 1841. 
Large portions of the edifice having fallen^ into decay, it was rebuilt : in 1822 a new infirmary 
was completed, and in 1825 (April 25) the duke of York laid the first stone of the magnificent 
new hall. On Sept. 24, 1854, the master, Dr. Jacob, in a sermon, in the church of the 
hospital, censured the system of education and the general administration of the establish- 
ment, and many improvements have since been made. The subordinate school at Hertford, 
for 416 younger boys and 80 girls, was founded in 1683. CHRIST'S-THORN, conjectured to 
be the plant of which our Saviour's crown of thorns was composed, came hither from the 
south of Europe before 1596. 

in 1698 to promote charity schools, and to disperse bibles and religious tracts. It has an 
annual revenue of about ioo,oooZ. MOST CHRISTIAN KING; Christianissimus Rex, a title 
conferred by pope Paul II. in 1469 on the crafty Louis XL of France. 

CHRISTIANIA, the capital of Norway, built in 1624, by Christian IV. of Denmark, to 
replace Opslo (the ancient capital founded by Harold Haardrade, 1058), which had been de- 
stroyed by fire. On April 13, 1858, Christiania suffered by fire, the loss being about 250,000?. 
The university was established in 1811. New Storthing (parliament house) built 1861-2. 

CHRISTIANITY. The name Christian was first given to the believers and followers of 
Christ's doctrines at Antioch, in Syria, 43 (Acts xi. 26, i Peter iv. 6). The first Christians 
were divided into episcopal (bishops or overseers), presbyteroi (elders), diaconoi (ministers or 
deacons), and pistoi (believers) ; afterwards were added catechumens, or learners, and ener- 
gumcns, who were to be exorcised. See Persecutions. 

CHRISTIANITY, continued. 

Christianity said to be taught in Britain, about 

64 ; and propagated with some success (Bede) 
Christianity said to be introduced into Scotland 

in the reign of Donald I., about . . . 
Constantino the Great professes the Christian 


Fruruentius preaches in Abyssinia . about 
Introduced among the Goths by Ulfilas . . 
Into Ireland in the second century, but with 

more success after the arrival of St. Patrick in 
Christianity established in France by Clovis . 
Conversion of the Saxons* by Augustin . . 
Introduced into Helvetia, by Irish missionaries 
Into Flanders in the 7th century. 
Into Saxony, by Charlemagne .... 
Into Denmark, under Harold . . . 

Into Bohemia, under Borzivoi 


Into Russia, by Swiatoslaf . . . about 
Into Poland, under Meicislaiis I. ... 

Into Hungary, under Geisa 

Into Norway and Iceland, under Olaf I. . 
Into Sweden, between ioth and nth centuries. 
Into Prussia, by the Teutonic knights, when 

they were returning from the holy wars 
Into Lithuania ; paganism was abolished about 
Into Guinea, Angola, and Congo, in the isth 

Into China, where it made some progress (but 

was afterwards extirpated, and thousands of 

Chinese Christians were put to death) . 
Into India and America, in the i6th century. 
Into Japan, by Xavier and the Jesuits, 1549; 

but the Christians were exterminated in 
Christianity re-established in Greece . . . 

998 . 





CHRISTMAS-DAY, Dec. 25 (from Christ and the Saxon mcesse, signifying the mass 
and a feast), a festival in commemoration of the nativity of our Saviour, said to have been 
first kept 98 ; and ordered to be held as a solemn feast, by pope Telesphorus, about 137-f 
In the eastern church, Christmas and the Epiphany (which see) are deemed but one and the 
same feast. The holly and mistletoe used at Christmas are said to be the remains of the 
religious observances of the Druids. See Anno Domini. 

CHRISTMAS ISLAND, in the Pacific Ocean, so named by captain Cook, who landed 
here on Christmas-day, 1777. He had passed Christmas-day at Christmas-sound, 1774. On 
the shore of Christmas GEIarbour, visited by him in 1776, one of his men found a piece of 
parchment with this inscription : " Ludovico XV. Galliarum rege, et d. Boynesregi a sccretis 
ad res maritimas,,amlis 1772 et 1773." On the other side of it captain Cook wrote : 
"Naves Resolution et Discovery de rege Magnets Britannice, Dec. 1776," and placed it in a 
bottle safely. 

CHRISTOPHER'S, St. (or St. Kitt's), a West India island, discovered in 1493, by 
Columbus, who gave it his own name. Settled by the English and French 1623 or 1626. 
Ceded to England by the peace of Utrecht, 1713. Taken by the French in 1782, but 
restored the next year. The town of Basseterre suffered from a fire, Sept. 3, 1776. 

CHROMIUM (Greek, chrome colour), a rare metal, discovered by Yauquelin in 1797. It 
is found combined with iron and lead, and forms the colouring matter of the emerald. 

CHROMO-LITHOGRAPHY. See Printing in Colours. 

CHRONICLES. The earliest are those of the Jews, Chinese, and Hindoos. In Scrip- 
ture there are two "Books of Chronicles." Collections of the British chroniclers have been 
published by Camden, Gale, &c., since 1602 ; in the present century by the English Historical 
Society, &c. In 1858, the publication of " Chronicles and Memorials of Great Britain and 
Ireland during the Middle Ages," commenced under the direction of the Master of the Rolls. 
Macray's " Manual of British Historians" was published 1845. 

CHRONOLOGY (the science of time) has for its object the arrangement and exhibit 
of the various events of the history of the world in the order of their succession, and 
ascertaining the intervals between them. See Eras and Epochs. Valuable works on the 
subject are V Art de Verifier les Dates, compiled by the Benedictines (1783 1820). Play- 
fair's Chronology, 1784; Blair's Chronology, 1753 (new editions by sir H. Ellis, in 1844, 
and by Mr. Rosse, in 1856). The Oxford Chronological Tables, 1838. Sir Harris Nicolas' 
Chronology of History, 1833 ; new edition, 1852. Hales' Chronology, 2nd edition, 1830 ; 
Mr. H. Fynes-Clinton's Fasti Hellenici and Fasti Romani (1824-50). 

CHRONOMETER. See Clocks and Harrison. 

* It is, traditionally, said that Gregory the Great, shortly before his elevation to the papal chair, 
chanced one day to pass through the slave-market at Rome, and perceiving some children of great beauty 
who were set up for sale, he inquired 1 -' 
to have cried out in the Latin langut 

-would not be English, but angels, if ._- 

desire to convert that unenlightened nation, and ordered a monk named Austin, or Augustin, and others 
of the same fraternity, to undertake the mission to Britain in the year 596. 

t Diocletian, the Roman emperor, keeping his court at Nicomedia, being informed that the Christians 
were assembled on this day in great multitudes to celebrate Christ's nativity, ordered the doors to be shut, 
and the church to be set on fire, and 600 perished in the burning pile. This was the commencement of the 
tenth persecution, which lasted ten years, 303. 





CHRONOSCOPE, an apparatus invented by professor Wlieatstone in 1840, to measure' 
small intervals of time. It has been applied to the velocity of projectiles, and of the electric 
current. Chronoscopes were invented by Pouillet, and others in 1844. 

CHUNAR, TREATY OF, concluded between the nabob of Oude and governor Hastings, 
by which the nabob was relieved of all his debts to the East India Company, on condition of 
his seizing the property of the begums, his mother and grandmother, and delivering it up to 
the English, Sep. 19, 1781. This treaty enabled the nabob to take the lands of Fyzoola 
Khan, a Rohilla chief, who had settled at Eampoor, under guarantee of the English. The 
nabob presented to Mr. Hastings ioo,oooZ. 

CHURCH (probably derived from the Greek Tcyrioikos, pertaining to the Lord, Kyrios], 
signifies a collective body of Christians, and also the place where they meet. In the New 
Testament, it signifies "congregation," in the original ekklesia. Christian architecture 
commenced with Constantino, who, after he was settled in his government, erected, at Rome, 
churches (called basilicas, from the Greek basileiis, a king) ; St. Peter's being erected about 
330. His successors erected others ; and adopted the heathen temples as places of worship. 
Several very ancient churches exist in Britain and Ireland. See Architecture ; Choir and 
Chanting ; Rome, Modern : and Popes. 

CHURCH OF ENGLAND.* The following are important facts in her history : for details, 
refer to separate articles. See Clergy. 

Britain converted to Christianity (" Christo 
subdita, " Tertullian) . . . and century 

Invasion of the Saxons, 477 ; converted by 
Augustin and his companions 

Dunstaii establishes the supremacy of the mo- 


nastic orders, about 

The aggrandising policy of the Church, fostered 
by Edward the Confessor, was checked by 
William I. and his successors . . 1066 et seq. 

Contest between Henry II. and Becket re- 
specting the " Constitutions of Clarendon," 


John surrenders his crown to the papal legate 1213 

Rise of the Lollards Wickliffe publishes tracts 
against the errors of the Church of Rome, 
1356 ; and a version of the Bible, about . 1383 

The clergy regulated by parliament, 1529 ; they 
lose the first fruits 

The royal supremacy imposed on the clergy by 
Henry VIII., 1531 ; many suffer death for re 
fusing to acknowledge it 

Coverdale's translation of the Bible commanded 
to bo read in churches 

" Six Articles of Religion " promulgated 

First book of Common Prayer issued . 

The clergy permitted to marry 

" Forty-two Articles of Religion " issued 

Restoration of the Roman forms, and fierce 
persecution of the Protestants by Mary . 1553-8 

The Protestant forms restored by Elizabeth ; 
the Puritan dissensions begin . . 1558-1603 

" Thirty nine " Articles published . . . 1563 

Hampton Court conference with the Puritans 1604 

New translation of the Bible published . . 1611 

Book of Common Prayer suppressed and Direc- 
tory established by parliament . . . 1644 

Presbyterians established by the Common- 
wealth . . !6 4 9 

Act of Uniformity (14 Chas, II. c. 4) passed 
2000 nonconforming ministers resign their 
livings X 662 

Attempts of James II. to revive Romanism ; 






" Declaration of Indulgence " published . 1687 
Acquittal of the seven bishops on a charge of 

" seditious libel" i6S8 

The Non-juring bishops and others deprived ; 

(they formed a separate communion) Feb. i, 1691 
" Queen Anne's Bounty," for the augmentation 

of poor livings 1704 

Act for building 50 new churches passed . . 1710 
Fierce disputes between the low church and 

high church ; trial of Sacheverell . . . ,, 
The Bangorian con troversy begins . . -1717 
John Wesley and George Whitefield commence 

preaching 1738 

Rise of the Evangelical party in the church, 

under Newton, Romaine, and others, in the 

latter part of the i8th century. 
Church of England united with that of Ireland 

at the Union 1800 

Clergy Incapacitation Act passed . . . 1801 

Acts for building and enlarging churches 1828, 1838 
200 new churches erected in the diocese of 

London during the episcopate of C. J. Blom- 

field 1828-56 

"Tracts for the Times" (No. 1-90) published 

(much controversy ensued) . . 1833-41 

Ecclesiastical Commission established . . 1834 
New Church Discipline Act (3 & 4 Viet. c. 86) . 1841 
" Essays and Reviews " published, 1860 ; nume-' 

rous Replies issued (see Essays and Reviews) 1861-2 

[The Church of England is now said to be 
divided into High, Low (or Evangelical), and 
Broad Church: the last including persons 
who hold the opinions of the late Dr. Arnold, 
the Rev. F. D. Maurice, and others.] 

Dr. Colenso, bishop of Natal, publishes his work 
on "The Pentateuch," about Oct., 1862; 
great cry against it ; the bishops, in convo- 
cation, declare that it contains "errors of 
the gravest and most dangerous character," 

May 20, 1863 

A Church Congress at Manchester, Oct. 13, 14, 15, ,, 

* The church of England consists of three orders of clergy bishops, priests, and deacons; viz., two 
archbishops and twenty-five bishops, exclusive of the see of Sodor and Man. The other dignities are 
chancellors, deans (of cathedrals and collegiate churches), archdeacons, prebendaries, canons, minor canons, 
and priest-vicars : these and the incumbents of rectories, vicarages, and chapelries, make the number 
of preferments of the established church, according to official returns, 12,327. The number of beejices in 
England and Wales, according to parliamentary returns, in 1844, was 11,127, an( i * ne number of glebe- 
houses 5527. The number of parishes is 11,077, and of churches and chapels about 14,100. The number of 
benefices in Ireland was 1495, to which there were not more than about 900 glebe-houses attached, the rest 
having no glebe-houses. An act was passed in 1860 for the union of contiguous benefices. See ChurCh, of 

CHU 178 CIL 

CHURCH OF ENGLAND, continued. 

Bishop Colenso deposed by his metropolitan, are said to have signed ; it was presented to 

Dr. Gray, bishop of Capetown . April 16, 1864 the archbishop of Canterbury . May 12, 1864 

Bishop Colenso's appeal came before the privy i " Bishop of London's Fund," for remedying 

council, which declared bishop Gray's pro- spiritual destitution in London, established ; 

ceedings null and void (since a colonial the Queen engages to give (in three years) 

bishop can have no authority except what 3000?., and prince of Wales loooL . March 7, 

is granted by parliament or by the colonial i 100,456?. received; 72,003?. promised, Dec. 31, 

legislature) .... March 21, 1865 : The Queen engages to give 15,000?. in 10 years, 

Church congress at Bristol . . . Oct. 1864 ! April, 1865 

" Oxford Declaration" (authorship ascribed to New form of clerical subscription proposed by- 

archdeacon Denison and Dr. Pusey), respect- 
ing belief in eternal punishment, drawn up 

a commission in 1864 ; adopted by parliament, 


and signed on Feb. 25, and sent by post to Church congress met at Norwich . Oct. 3-7 

the clergy at large for signature : about 3000 Congress to be at York in . . . .1866 

CHURCH OF IRELAND is now in connection with, that of England the United 
Church of England and Ireland. Previously to the Church Temporalities Act of Will. IV. 
in 1833, there were four archbishoprics and eighteen bishoprics in Ireland, of which two 
archbishoprics and eight bishoprics have ceased ; that act providing for the union or abolition 
of certain sees, according as the possessors of them died. See Bishops. 

CHURCH OF NORTH AMERICA. The Episcopal church was established in Nov. 1784, 
when bishop Seabury, chosen by the churches in Connecticut, was consecrated in Scotland. 
The first convention was held at Philadelphia in 1785. On Feb. 4, 1787, two more American 
bishops were consecrated at Lambeth. In 1851 there were 37 bishops. 

CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. See .Bishops in Scotland. On the abolition of Episcopacy in 
Scotland in 1638, Presbyterianism became the established religion. Its distinguishing tenets 
were first embodied in the formulary of faith, said to have been compiled by John Knox, in 
1560, which was approved by the parliament and ratified in 1567, finally settled by an act of 
the Scottish senate in 1696, and secured by the treaty of union with England in 1707. The 
church of Scotland is regulated by four courts the general assembly, * the synod, the presby- 
tery, and kirk sessions. See Presbyterians. A large body seceded from this church in 
1843, and took the name of the "Free Church of Scotland," which sec. 

CHURCH-RATES. The maintaining the church (i. e. the [building) in repair belongs 
to the parishioners, who have the sole power of taxing themselves for the expense when 
assembled in vestry. The enforcement of payment, which is continually disputed by dis- 
senters and others, belongs to the ecclesiastical courts. Many attempts have been made to 
abolish church-rates. A bill for this purpose has passed the commons only several times 
since 1855 ; one was thrown out in May, 1861. See Braintree. 

CHURCH-SERVICES were ordered by pope Vitellianus to be read in Latin 663 ; by 
queen Elizabeth in 1558 to be read in English. 

CHURCH-WARDENS, officers of the church, appointed by the first canon of the synod 
of London in 1127. Overseers in every parish were also appointed by the same body, and 
they continue now nearly as then constituted. Johnson's Canons. 

CHURCHING OF WOMEN is the act of returning thanks in the church by women after 
child-birth. It began about 214. Wheatley. See Purification. 

CHUSAN, a Chinese isle. See China, 1840, 1841, 1860. 

CIDER (Zidcr, German), when first made in England, was called wine, about 1284. The 
earl of Manchester, when ambassador in France, is said to have frequently passed off cider 
for a delicious wine. It was subjected to the excise in 1763 et seq. A powerful spirit is 
drawn from cider by distillation. Many orchards were planted in Herefordshire by lord 
Scudamore, ambassador from Charles I. to France. John Philips published his poem 
"Cider" in 1706. 

CILICIA, in Asia Minor, partook of the fortunes of that country. It became a Roman 
province 67 B.C., and was conquered by the Turks, A.D. 1387. 

* The first general assembly of the church was held Dec. 20, 1560. The general assembly constitutes 
the highest ecclesiastical court in the kingdom ; it meets annually in Edinburgh in May, and sits about 
ten days. It consists of a grand commissioner, appointed by the sovereign, and delegates from presbyteries, 
royal boroughs, and universities, some being laymen. To this court all appeals from the inferior ecclesias- 
tical courts lie, and its decision is final. 

CIM 179 CIR 

CIMBRI, a Teutonic race, who came from Jutland, and invaded the Roman empire about 
1 20 B.C. They defeated the Romans, under Cn. Paperius Carbo, 113 B.C. ; under the consul, 
Marcus Silanus, 109 B.C., and under Maulius, on the banks of the Rhine, where 80,000 
Romans were slain, 105 B.C. Their allies, the Teutones, were defeated by Marius in two 
battles at Aqua? Sextise (Aix) in Gaul ; 200,000 were killed, and 70,000 made prisoners, 
102 B. c, The Cimbri were defeated by Marius and Catulus, as they were again endeavouring 
to enter Italy ; 120,000 were killed, and 60,000 taken prisoners, 101 B.C. They were 
afterwards absorbed into the Teutones or Saxons. 

CIMENTO (Italian, experiment}. The " Accademia del Cimento," at Florence, held its 
first meeting for making scientific experiments, June 18, 1657. It was patronised by 
Ferdinand, grand duke of Tuscany. Its establishment was followed by the foundation of 
the Royal Society of London in 1660, and the Academy of Sciences at Paris in 1666. 

CINCINNATI. A society established in the American army soon after the peace of 
1783, "to perpetuate friendship," and to raise a fund for relieving the widows and orphans 
of those who had fallen during the war." On the badge was a figure of Cincinnatus. The 
people dreading military influence, the officers gave up the society. 

CINNAMON, a species of laurel in Ceylon, is mentioned among the perfumes of the 
sanctuary, Exodus xxx. 23. It was found in the American forests, by Don Ulloa, in 1736, 
and was cultivated in Jamaica and Dominica in 1788. 

CINQUE-CENTO (five hundred) ; ter-cento, &c., see note to article Italy. 

CINQUE PORTS, on the south coast of England, were originally five (hence the name) 
Dover, Hastings, Hythe, Romney, and Sandwich : Winchelsea and Rye were afterwards 
added. JeaJce. Their jurisdiction was vested in barons, called wardens, for the better security 
of the coast, these ports being nearest to France, and considered the keys of the kingdom ; 
instituted by William I. in 1078. Rapin. The latest lord-wardens were the duke of 
Wellington, 1828-52 j the marquess of Dalhousie, 1852-60 ; lord Palmerstoii, appointed 
March, 1861. 

CINTRA (Portugal). The convention of Cintra was concluded between the British army 
under sir Hew Dalrymple, and the French under marshal Junot. By this compact, on Aug. 
30, 1808, shortly after the battle of Vimeira (Aug. 22), the defeated French army was allowed 
to evacuate Portugal in British ships, carrying with them all their spoil. The convention 
was publicly condemned, and in consequence a court of inquiry was held at Chelsea, which 
exonerated the British commanders, who, however, were never again employed. Wellington 
and Napoleon both justified sir Hew Dalrymple. 

CIRCASSIA (Asia, on N. side of the Caucasus). The Circassians are said to be descended 
from the Albanians. They were unsubdued, even by Timour. In. the i6th century the 
greater part of them acknowledged the authority of the czar, Ivan II. of Russia, and about 
1745, the princes of Kabarda took oaths"bf fealty. Many Circassians became Mahometans in 
the 1 8th century. 

Circassia surrendered to Russia by Turkey by I tinople, and suffer much distress, and are 

~.e (but the Circassians, relieved . . 1 860 

the treaty of Adrianople (but tl 

under Schamyl, long resisted) 
Victories of Orbelliani over them 

June, Nov., Dec., 1857 
He subdues much of the country, and expels 

the inhabitants .... April, 1858 
Schamyl, their great leader, captured, and 

treated with much respect . . Sept. 7, 1859 
About 20,000 Circassians emigrate to Constan- 

Tho last of the Circassian strongholds cap- 
tured, and the grand duke Michael declares 
the war at an end . . . June 8, 1864 

Above a million Circassians emigrate into 
Turkey, and suffer many privations, par- 
tially relieved by the sultan's government, 

June, et seq. ,, 

CIRCENSIAN GAMES were combats in the Roman circus (at first in honour of Census, 
the god of councils, but afterwards of Jupiter, Neptune, Juno, and Minerva), instituted by 
Evander, and established at Rome 732 B.C. by Romulus, at the time of the rape of the 
Sabines. They were an imitation of the Olympian games among the Greeks, and, by way 
of eminence, were called the Great games, but Tarquin named them Circensian ; their 
celebration continued from Sept. 4 to 12. 

CIRCLE. The quadrature, or ratio of the diameter of the circle to its circumference, 
has exercised the ingenuity of mathematicians of all ages. Archimedes, about 221 B.C., 
gave it as 7 to 22 ; Abraham Sharp (1717) as I to 3 and 72 decimals, and Lagny (1719) as 
i to 3 and 122 decimals. 

x 2 

CIRCLES OF GERMANY (formed about 1500, to distinguish the members of the diet of 
the empire) were, in 1512, Franconia, Bavaria, Upper and Lower Rhine, Westphalia, and 
Saxony ; in 1789, Austria, Burgundy, Westphalia, Palatinate, Upper Rhine, Suabia, Bavaria, 
Franconia, and Upper and Lower Saxony. In 1804 these divisons were annulled by the 
establishment of the Confederation of the Rhine, in 1806 (which see). 

CIRCUITS IN ENGLAND were divided into three, and three justices were appointed to 
each, 1176. They were afterwards divided into four, with five justices to each division, 
1 1 80. Rapin. They have been frequently altered. England and Wales are at present 
divided into eight each travelled in spring and summer for the trial of civil and criminal 
cases ; the larger towns are visited in winter for trials of criminals only : this is called 
"going the circuit." There are monthly sessions for the city of London and county of 

CIRCULATING LIBRARY. Stationers lent books on hire in the middle ages. The 
public circulating library in England, opened by Samuel Fancourt, a dissenting minister 
of Salisbury, about 1 740, failed ; but similar institutions at Bath and in London succeeded, 
and others were established throughout the kingdom. There was a circulating library at 
Crane-court, London, in 1748, of which a catalogue in two vols. was published. No books 
can be taken from the British Museum except for judicial purposes, but the libraries of the 
Royal Society and the principal scientific societies, except that of the Royal Institution, 
London, are circulating. The London Library (circulating) was founded in 1841, under the 
highest auspices, and is of great value to literary men. Of the subscription libraries 
belonging to individuals, that of Mr. C. E. Mudie, in New Oxford -street, is the most 
remarkable for the large quantity and good quality of the books : several hundreds, some- 
times thousands, of copies of a new work being in circulation. It was founded in 1842, and 
grew into celebrity in Dec. 1848, when the first two volumes of Macaulay's History of 
England were published, for which there was an unprecedented demand, which this library 
supplied. The hall, having the walls covered with shelves filled with new books, svas 
opened in Dec. 1860. The "Circulating Library Company" was founded in Jan. 1862. 


CIRCUMCISION (instituted 1897 B.C.) was the seal of the covenant made by God with 
Abraham. It was practised by the ancient Egyptians, and is still by the Copts and some 
oriental nations. The Festival of the Circumcision (of Christ), originally "the Octave of 
Christmas," is mentioned about 487. It was introduced into the Liturgy in 1550. 

CIRCUMNAVIGATORS. Among the most daring human enterprises at the period 
when it was first attempted, was the circumnavigation of the earth in 1519.* 

Magellan first entered the 

Pacific Ocean . . .1519! 
Groalva, Spaniard . . . 1537 
Avalradi, Spaniard . . ,, j 
Mendana, Spaniard 1 . . . 1567 I 
Sir Francis Drake, first Eng- 
lish 1577 ; 

Cavendish, first voyage . . 1586 
Le Maire, Dutch . . .1615 
Quiros, Spaniard . . . 1625 

Tasman, Dutch 
Cowley, British 
Dampier, English . 
Cooke, English . 
Clipperton, British 
Roggewein, Dutch . 
Anson (afterwards lord) 
Byron, English . 
Wallis, British 
Carteret, English 




James Cook .... 1768 
On his death the voyage was 

continued by King . . 177 
Bougainville, French . .17 
Portlocke, British . . 
King and Fitzroy, British 1826- 
Belcher, British . . 1836- 
Wilkes, American . .1 
See North- West Passage. 

CIRCUS. There were eight (some say ten) buildings of this kind at Rome ; the la 
the Circus Maximus, was built by the elder Tarquin, 605 B.C. It was an oval figure ; l 
three stadia and a half, or more than three English furlongs ; breadth 960 Roman feet. 
was enlarged by Julius Caesar so as to seat 150,0x30 persons, and was rebuilt by Augustus. 
Julius Caesar introduced in it large canals of water, which could be quickly covered with 
vessels, and represent a sea fight. . Pliny. See Amphitheatres. In the 5th and 6th centuries 
after Christ, Constantinople was greatly disturbed by the white, red, green, and blue factions 
of the circus. In 501, about 3000 persons were killed. In Jan. 532 a fierce conflict between 
the blue and green factions lasted five days, and was only suppressed by the efforts of 
Belisarius after a frightful slaughter. The watchword was "*Nika ! " (conquer). 

CIRRHA, a town of Phocis (N. Greece), razed to the ground in the Sacred War, 586 B.C., 
for sacrilege. 

* The first ship that sailed round the earth, and hence determined its being globular, was Magellan*! 
or Magelliaen's ; he was a native of Portugal, in the service of Spain, and by keeping a westerly course ' 
returned to the same place he had set out from in 1519. The voyage was completed in 3 years and 29 (" 
but Magellan was killed on his homeward passage, at the Philippines, iu 1521. 

CIS 181 CIV 

CISALPINE REPUBLIC (N. Italy) was formed by the French in May, 1797, out of the 
Cispadane and Transpadane republics, acknowledged by the emperor of Germany to be 
independent, by the treaty of Campo Formio (which see), Oct. 17 following. It received 
a new constitution in Sept. 1798 ; but merged into the kingdom of Italy in March, 1805. 
See Italy. 

CISTERCIANS, an order of monks founded by Robert, a Benedictine, abbot of Citeaux 
(the order of Citeaux), in France, near the end of the nth century. For a time it governed 
almost all Europe. The monks observed silence, abstained from flesh, lay on straw, and 
wore neither shoes nor shirts. De Vitri. They were reformed by St. Bernard. See 

CITATE. The Russian general Gortschakoff, intending to storm Kalafat, threw up 
redoubts at Citate, close to the Danube, which were stormed by the Turks under Omer 
Pacha, Jan. 6, 1854. The fighting continued on the 7th, 8th, and 9th, when the Russians 
were compelled to retire to their former position at Krajowa, having lost 1 500 killed and 
2000 wounded. The loss of the Turks was estimated at 338 killed and 700 wounded. 

CITY. (French cit&, Italian citta, Latin civitas, ) The word has been used in England 
only since the conquest, when London was called Londonburgh. Cities were first incorporated 
1079. A town corporate is called a city when made the seat of a bishop and having a 
cathedral church. Camden. 

CITIZEN. It is not lawful to scourge a citizen of Rome. Livy. In England a citizen 
is a person who is free of a city, or who doth carry on a trade therein. Camden. Various 
privileges have been conferred on citizens as freemen in several reigns. The wives of citizens 
of London (not being aldermen's wives, nor gentlewomen by descent) were obliged to wear 
minever caps, being white woollen knit three-cornered, with the peaks projecting three or 
four inches beyond their foreheads ; aldermen's wives made them of velvet, I Eliz. 1558. 
Stoiv. On Oct. 10, 1792, the convention decreed that "citoyen"and "citoyemie" should 
be the only titles in France. 

CIUDAD RODRIGO, a strong fortress of Spain, invested by the French, June 11, 1810, 
and siirrendered to them July 10. It remained in their possession until it was stormed by 
the British, under Wellington, Jan. 19, 1812. 

CIVIL ENGINEERS. See Engineers. 

CIVIL LAW. A body of Roman laws, founded upon the laws of nature and of nations, 
was first collected by Alfrenus Varus, the civilian, who flourished about 66 B. c. ; and a 
digest of them was made by Servius Sulpicius, the civilian, 53 B.C. The Gregorian code 
was issued A.D. 290 ; the Theodosian in 438. Many of the former laws having grown out of 
use, the emperor Justinian ordered a revision of them (in 529-534), which was called the 
Justinian code, and constitutes a large jjart of the present civil law. Civil law was restored 
in Italy, Germany, c. 1127. Blair. It was introduced into England by Theobald, a 
Norman abbot, afterwards archbishop of Canterbury in 1138. It is now used in the spiritual 
courts only, and in maritime affairs. See Doctors' Commons, and Laws. 

CIVIL LIST. This now comprehends ths revenue awarded to the kings of England in 
lieu of their ancient hereditary income. The entire revenue of Elizabeth was not more than 
600,000?., and that of Charles I. was about 800,000?. After the revolution a civil .list 
revenue was settled on the new king and queen of 700,000?., the parliament taking into its 
own hands the support of the forces both maritime and military. The civil list of George II. 
Avas increased to 800,000?. ; and that of George III. in the 55th year of his reign, was 

In 1831, the civil list of the sovereign was fixed 

at5io,ooo., and in Dec., 1837, the civil list 
of the queen was fixed at 385,0001. 
Prince Albert obtained an exclusive sum from 
parliament of 30,000?. per an. on . Feb. 7, 1840 

Sir H. Parnell's motion for inquiry into the 
civil list led to the resignation of the Wel- 
lington administration . . Nov. 15, 1830 

A select committee was appointed by the house 
of commons for the purpose . Feb. 2, 1860 

CIVIL SERVICE. Nearly 17,000 persons are employed in this service under the 
direction of the treasury, and the home, foreign, colonial, post, and revenue offices, &c. In 
1855 a commission reported most unfavourably on the existing system of appointments, 
and on May 21 commissioners were appointed to examine into the qualifications of the 
candidates, who report annually. The civil service superannuation act passed in April, 
1859. Civil service for the year (ending March 31) 1855, cost 7,735,515?.; 1865, 10,205,413?. 




CIVIL WARS. See England, France, &c. 

CLANSHIPS -were tribes of the same race, and commonly of the same name, and 
originated in feudal times. See Feudal Laws. They are said to have arisen in Scotland, in 
the reign of Malcolm II., about 1008. The legal power of the chiefs of clans and other 
remains of heritable jurisdiction were abolished in Scotland, and the liberty of the English 
was granted to clansmen in 1747, in consequence of the rebellion of 1745- 1' ne following 
is a list of all the known clans of Scotland, with the badge of distinction anciently worn by 
each. The chief of each respective clan was, and is, entitled to wear two eagle's feathers in 
his bonnet, in addition to the distinguishing badge of his clan. Chambers. A history of the 
clans by "Win. Buchanan was published in 1775. 

Name. Badrje. 
Buchanan . Birch, 
Cameron . Oak. 
Campbell . Myrtle. 
Chisholm . Alder. 
Colquhoun . Hazel. 
Gumming . Common sallow. 
Drummond . Holly. 
Farqnharson Purple foxglove. 
Ferguson . Poplar. 
Forbes . . Broom. 
Frazer . . Tew. 
Gordon . . Ivy. 
Graham . Laurel. 
Grant . . Cranberry heath. 
Gun . . Rose wort. 

Name. Badge. 
Lament . . Crab-apple tree. 
M'Alister . Five-leaved heath. 
M'Domld . Bell-heath. 
M'Donnell . Mountain heath. 
M'Dougall . Cypress. 
M'Farlane . Cloud-berry bush. 
M'Gregor . Pine. 
M'Intosh . Box-wood. 
M'Kay . . Bull-rush. 
M'Kenzie . Deer-grass. 
M'Kinnon . St. John's wort. 
M'Lachlan . Mountain- ash. 
M'Lean . . Blackberry heath. 
M'Leod . Red whortle-berries. 
M'Nab . . Rose blackberries. 

Name. Badge. 
M'Neil . Sea-ware. 
M'Pherson Variegated box-wd. 
M'Quarrie Blackthorn. 
M'Rae . Fir-club moss. 
Menzies Ash. 
Munro . Eagle's feathers. 
Murray Juniper. 
Ogilvie . Hawthorn. 
Oliphant Great maple. 
Robertson Fern, orbrechans. 
Rose . Briar-rose. 
Ross . Bear-berries. 
Sinclair . Clover. 
Stewart Thistle. 
Sutheiiand Cat's-tail grass. 

CLARE AND CLATIENCE (Suffolk). Richard de Clare, earl of Gloucester, is said- to have 
seated here a monastery of the order of Friars Eremites, the first of this kind of mendicants 
who came to England, 1248. Tanner. Lionel, third son of Edward III. becoming possessed 
of the honour of Clare, by marriage, was created duke of Clarence. The title has ever since 
belonged to a branch of the royal family.* CLARE was the first place in Ireland for 140 
years that elected a Roman Catholic member of parliament. See Roman Catholics. At the 
election, held at Ennis, the county town, Mr. Daniel O'Connell was returned, July 5, 1828. 
He did not sit till after the passing of the Catholic Emancipation Act, in 1829, beinj 
elected July 30, 1829. 

CLARE, NUNS OF ST., a sisterhood, called Minoresses, founded in Italy about 121: 
This order settled in England, in the Minories without Aldgate, London, about 120 
by Blanche, queen of Navarre, wife of Edmund, earl of Lancaster, brother of Edward 
At the suppression, the site was granted to the bishopric of Bath and "Wells, 1539. Tann 

CLAREMONT (Surrey), the residence of the princess Charlotte (daughter of the princ 
regent, afterwards George IV.), and the scene of her death, Nov. 6, 1817. The house w 
originally built by sir John Vanbrugh, and was the seat successively of the earl of Clare, 
afterwards duke of Newcastle, of lord Clive, lord Galloway, and the earl of Tyrconnel. 
w T as purchased of Mr. Ellis by government for 65,000?. for the prince and princess of Sa: 
Coburg ; and the former, now king of Belgium, assigned it to prince Albert in 1840, T 
exited royal family of France took up their residence at Claremont, March 4, 1848 ; and 
king, Louis- Philippe, died there, Aug. 29, 1850. 

CLARENCIEUX, the second king-at-arms, formerly subject to the duke of Clarein 
his duty was to arrange the funerals of all the lower nobility, as baronets, knights, esqu 
and gentlemen, 011 the south side of the Trent, from whence he is also called sur-roy 

CLARENDON, CONSTITUTIONS OF, were enacted at a council held Jan. 25, 1164, 
Clarendon, in Wiltshire, the object of which was to retrench the then enormous power of 
clergy. They were the ground of Becket's quarrel with Henry II., and were at first cc 
demned by the pope, but afterwards agreed to in 1173. 

* DUKES OF CLARENCE: 1362, Lionel, born 1338, died 1369. See York, dukes of. 1411, Thomas (s 
son of Henry IV.), born 1389, killed at BaugS 1421. 1461, George (brother of Edward IV.), murdered 147 
1789, William (third son of George III.), afterwards William IV. 





I. All suits concerning advowsons to be deter- 
mined in civil courts. 

II. The clergy accused of any crime to be tried by 
Civil judges. 

III. No person of any rank whatever to be per- 
mitted to leave the realm without the royal licence. 

IV. Laics not to be accused in spiritual courts, 
except by legal and reputable promoters and wit- 

V. No chief tenant of the crown to be excommu- 
nicated, or his lands put under interdict. 

VI. Revenues of vacant sees to belong to the king. 

VII. Goods forfeited to the crown not to be pro- 
tected in churches. 

VIII. Sons of villains not to bo ordained clerks 
without the consent of their lord. 

IX. Bishops to be regarded as barons, and be sub- 

jected to the burthens belonging to that rank. 

X. Churches belonging to the king's see not to be 
granted in perpetuity against his will. 

XI. Excommunicated persons not to be bound to 
give security for continuing in their abode. 

XII. No inhabitant in demesne to be excommuni- 
cated for non-appearance in a spiritual court. 

XIII. If any tenant in capite should refuse sub- 
mission to spiritual courts, the case to be referred 
to the king. 

XIV. The clergy no longer to pretend to the right 
of enforcing debts contracted by oath or promise. 

XV. Cause's between laymen and ecclesiastics to 
be determined by a jury. 

XVI. Appeals to be ultimately carried to the king, 
and 110 further without his consent. 

CLARENDON PRINTING-OFFICE, OXFOED, erected by sir John Vanbrugh, in 1711-13, 
the expense being defrayed out of the profits of lord Clarendon's History of the Rebellion, 
the copyright of which was given by his son to the university. The original building has 
been converted into a museum, lecture-rooms, &c., and a new printing-office erected by 
Blore and Robertson, 1826-9. Sharp. 

CLARION, it is said by Spanish writers, invented by the Moors in Spain, about 800, was 
at first a trumpet, serving as a treble to trumpets sounding tenor and bass. A she. Its tube 
is narrower and its tone shriller than the common trumpet. Pardon. 

CLARIONET, a wind instrument of the reed kind, invented by Joseph Denner, in 
Nuremberg, about 1690. 

CLASSIS. The name was first used by Tullius Servius (the sixth king of ancient Rome), 
in making divisions of the Roman people, 573 B.C. The first of the six classes were called 
classici, by way of eminence, and hence authors of the first rank (especially Greek and Latin) 
came to be called classics. 

CLAVICHORD, a musical instrument in the form of a spinnet (called also a manichord) ; 
much in use in France, Spain, and Germany, in the 1 7th century. 

CLEARING-HOUSE. In 1775, a building in Lombard-street was set apart for the use 
of bankers, in which they might exchange cheques, bills, and securities, and thereby save 
labour and curtail the amount of floating cash requisite to meet the settlement of the different 
houses, if effected singly. By means of transfer tickets, transactions to the amount of 
millions daily are settled without the intervention of a bank note. In 1861, the clearing- 
house was used by 117 companies, and e*i May, 1864, it was joined by the Bank of England. 
The railway clearing-house in Seymour-street, near Euston-square, is regulated by an act 
passed in 1850. 

CLEMENTINES, apocryphal pieces, attributed to Clemens Romanus, a contemporary of 
St. Paul, and said to have succeeded St. Peter as bishop of Rome. He died 102. Niceron. 
Also the decretals of pope Clement V. who died 1314, published by his successor. Bowyer. 
Also Augustine monks, each of whom having been a superior nine years, then merged into 
a common monk. CLEMENTINES were the adherents of Robert, son of the count of Geneva, 
who took the title of Clement VII. on the death of Gregory XL, 1378, and URBANISTS, 
those of pope Urban VI. All Christendom was divided by the claims of these two pontiffs : 
France, Castile, Scotland, &c., adhering to Clement ; Rome, Italy, and England, declaring 
for Urban. The schism ended in 1409, when Alexander V. was elected pope, and his rivals 
resigned. See Anti-Popes. 

CLEPSYDRA, a water-clock. See Clocks. 

CLERGY (from the Greek Meros, a lot or inheritance) in the first century were termed 
presbyters, elders, or bishops, and deacons. The bishops (episcopoi or overseers), elected from 
the presbyters, in the second century assumed higher functions (about 330), and, under 
Constantino, obtained the recognition and protection of the secular power. Under the Lombard 
and Norman kings in the 7th and 8th centuries, the clergy began to possess temporal power, 
as owners of lands ; and after the establishment of monachism, a distinction was made 

CLE 184 CLI 

between the regular clergy, who lived apart from the world, in accordance with a regula or 
rule, and the secular (worldly) or beneficed clergy. See Church of England. * 

CLERGY CHARITIES. The Clergymen's Widows' and Orphans' Corporation was 
established in England, 1670, and incorporated 1678. William Assheton, an eminent theo- 
logical writer, was the first proposer of a plan to provide for the families of deceased clergy. 
Watts 's Life of Assheton. The festival of the "Sons of the Clergy," held annually at St. 
Paul's cathedral, was instituted aboiit 1655 ; the charity called the "Sons of the Clergy" 
was incorporated July i, 1678. There are several other charities for the relatives of the 

CLERK. See Clergy. 

CLERKENWELL, a parish near London, so called from a well (fons dericorum) in Ray- 
street, where the parish-clerks occasionally acted mystery-plays ; once before Richard II. in 
1390. Hunt's political meetings in 1817 were held in Spa-fields in this parish. In St. 
John's parish are the remains of the priory of the knights of St. John of Jerusalem. 
Clerkenwell prison was built in 1615, in lieu of the noted prison called the Cage, which was 
taken down in 1614 ; the then Bridewell having been found insufficient. The prison called 
the House of Detention, erected in 1775, was rebuilt in 1818 ; again 1844. At Clerkenwell- 
close formerly stood the house of Oliver Cromwell, where some suppose the death-warrant of 
Charles I. was signed, Jan. 1649. 

CLERMONT (France). Here was held the council under pope Urban II. in 1095, in 
which the first crusade against the infidels was determined upon, and Godfrey of Bouillon 
appointed to command it. In this council the name of pope was first given to the head of 
the Roman Catholic Church, exclusively of the bishops who used previously to assume the 
title. Philip I. of France was (a second time) excommunicated by this assembly. Renault. 

CLEVES (N.E. Germany). Rutger, count of Cleves, lived at the beginning of the nth 
century. Adolphus, count of Mark, was made duke of Cleves by the emperor Sigismund, 
1417. John William, duke of Cleves, Berg, Juliers, &c., died without issue, March 25, 1609, 
which led to a war of succession. Eventually Cleves was assigned to the elector of Brandenburg 
in 1666 ; seized by the French in 1757 ; restored at the peace in 1763, and now forms part of 
the Prussian dominions. 

CLIFTON SUSPENSION-BRIDGE, over the Avon, connecting Gloucestershire and 
Somersetshire, constructed of the removed Hungerford-bridge, was completed in Oct. 1864 ; 
opened Dec. 8, 1864. It is said to have the largest span (702 feet) of any chain bridge in 
the world. In 1753 alderman Vick of Bristol, bequeathed lOooZ. to accumulate for the 
erection of a bridge over the Avon. In 1831 Brunei began one which was abandoned, after 
the expenditure of 45,000^. 

CLIMACTERIC, the term applied to certain periods of time in a man's life (multiples of 
7 or 9), in which it is affirmed notable alterations in the health and constitution of a person 
happen, and expose him to imminent dangers. Cotgrave says, "Every 7th or gth or 63rd 
year of a man's life, all very dangerous, but the last most." The grand climacteric is 63. 
Hippocrates is said to have referred to these periods in 383 B.C. Much misemployed 
erudition has been expended on this subject. 

* The clergy were first styled clerks, owing to the judges being chosen after the Xorman custom fr 
the sacred order, and the officers being clergy : this gave them that denomination, which they keep tot 
day. Blackstone's Comm. " As the Druids," says Pasquier, " kept the keys of their religion and of lett 
so did the priests keep both these to themselves ; they alone made profession of letters, and a man of let 
was called a clerk, and hence learning went by the name of clerkship." The English clergy add " clerk" 1 
their name in legal documents. In 992, the distinction began in France. Henault. The BENEFIT OF CLERGI 
Privilegium Clericale, arose in the regard paid by Christian princes to the church, and consisted of: ist, a 
exemption of places consecrated to religious duties from criminal arrests, which was the foundation 
sanctuaries ; 2nd, exemption of the persons of clergymen from criminal process before the secular judg 
in particular cases, which was the original meaning of the privilegium cUricale. In the course of time, ho\ 
ever, the benefit of clergy extended to every one who could read, which was thought a great proof of lean 
ing ; and it was enacted, that there should be a prerogative allowed to the clergy, that if any man wl 
could read were to be condemned to death, the bishop of the diocese might, if he would, claim him as 
clerk, and dispose of him in some places of the clergy as he might deem meet. The ordinary gave ti 
prisoner at the bar a Latin book, in a black Gothic character, from which to read a verse or two ; and if tl 
ordinary said, " Legit ut Clericus " (" He reads like a clerk "), the offender was only burnt in the ha~ J 
otherwise he suffered death, 3 Edw. I. (1274). This privilege was restricted by Henry VII. in 1489, 
abolished, with respect to murderers and other great criminals, by Henry VIII., 1512. Stow. The readi 
was discontinued by 5 Anne, c. 6 (1706). Benefit of clergy was wholly repealed by statute 7 & 8 Geo. 
c. 28 (1827). 

CLI 185 CLO 

CLIO. The initials C. L. I. 0., forming the name of the muse of history, were rendered 
famous from the most admired papers of Addison, in the Spectator, having been marked by 
one or other of them, signed consecutively, in 1713. Gibber. 

CLOACA MAXIMA, the chief of the celebrated sewers at Rome, the construction of 
which is attributed to king Tarquinius Priscus (588 B.C.) and his successors. 

CLOCK. The clepsydra, or water-clock, was introduced at Rome about 158 B.C. by 
Scipio Nasica. Toothed wheels were applied to them by Ctesibius, about 140 B.C. Said to 
have been found by Csesar on invading Britain, 55 B.C. The only clock supposed to be then 
in the world was sent by pope Paul I. to Pepin, king of France A.D. 760. Pacificus, arch- 
deacon of Genoa, invented one in the gth century. Originally the wheels were three feet in 
diameter. The earliest complete clock of which there is any certain record was made by 
a Saracen mechanic in the thirteenth century. Alfred is said to have measured time by wax 
tapers, and to have invented lanterns to defend them from the wind about 887. 

The scapement ascribed to Gerbert . . . 1000 ' lum, about 1659 

A great clock put up at Canterbury cathedral, j Repeating clocks and watches invented by 

cost 30^ 1292 Barlow, about 1676 

A clock constructed by Richard, abbot of St. The dead beat, and horizontal escapements, by 

Alban's, about 1326 

John Visconte sets up a clock at Genoa . . 1353 
A striking clock in Westminster . . . 1368 
A perfect one made at Paris, by Vick . . . 1370 
The first portable one made . . . . 1 530 
In England no clock went accurately befor* 
that set up at Hampton-court (maker's 

initials, N.O.) 1540 

Richard Harris (who erected a clock at St. 
Paul's, Covent-garden) and the younger 
Galileo constructed the pendulum . . 1641 
Christian Huygens contested this discovery, 
and made his pendulum clock some time pre- 
viously to 1658 

Fromantil, a Dutchman, improved the pendu- 

Graham, about 1700 

The spiral balance spring suggested, and the 

duplex scapement, invented by Dr. Hooke ; 

pivot holes jewelled by Facio ; the detached 

scapement, invented by Mudge, and improved 

by Berthould, Arnold, Earnshaw, and others 

in the i8th century. 

Harrison's time-piece (which see) constructed . 1735 
Clocks and watches taxed, 1797 ; tax repealed 1798 
The Horological Institute established . . 1858 
The great Westminster clock set up . May 30, 1859 
266,750 clocks and 88,621 watches imported into 

the United Kingdom in 1857 ; the duty came 

off in 1861. 

(See Electric Clock, under Electricity.) 

CLOGHER (Ireland). St. Macartin, a disciple of St. Patrick, fixed a bishopric at 
Clogher, where he also built an abbey "in the street before the royal seat of the kings of 
Ergal." He died in 506. Clogher takes its name from a golden stone, from which, in times 
of paganism, the devil used to pronounce juggling answers, like the oracles of Apollo PytMus. 
Sir James Ware. In 1041 the cathedral was built anew and dedicated to its founder. 
Clogher merged, on the death of its last prelate (Dr. Tottenham), into the archiepiscopal see 
of Armagh, by the act of 1834. 

CLONFERT (Ireland). St. Brendan founded an abbey at Clonfert in 558 : his life is 
extant in jingling monkish metre in the Cottonian library at Westminster. In his time the 
cathedral, famous in ancient days for its_ seven altars, was erected ; and Colgan makes St. 
Brendan its founder and the first bishop ; but it is said in the Ulster Annals, under the 
year 571, " Mcena, bishop of Clonfert- Brenain, went to rest." Clonfert, in Irish, signifies a 
wonderful den or retirement. In 1839 the see merged into that of Killaloe. See Bishops. 

CLONTARF (near Dublin), the site of a battle fought on Good Friday, April 23, 1014, 
between the Irish and Danes, the former headed by Bryan Boroimhe, monarch of Ireland, 
who signally defeated the invaders, after a long and bloody engagement, but was wounded, 
and soon afterwards died. His son Murchard also fell with many of the nobility ; 1 1,000 of 
the Danes are said to have perished in the battle. 

CLOSTERSEVEN (Hanover), CONVENTION OF, was entered into Sept. 8, 1757, between 
the duke of Cumberland, third son of George II., and the duke of Richelieu, commander of 
the French armies. By its humiliating stipulations, 38,000 Hanoverians laid down their 
arms, and were dispersed. The duke immediately afterwards resigned all his military 
commands. The convention was soon broken by both parties. 

CLOTH. See Woollen Cloth and Calico. 

CLOUD, St. , a palace, near Paris, named from prince Clodoald or Cloud, who became a 
monk there in 533, after the murder of his brothers, and died in 560. The palace was built 
in the i6th century, and in it Henry II. was assassinated by Clement in 1589. 

CLOUDS consist of minute particles of water, often in a frozen state, floating in the air. 
In 1803 Mr. Luke Howard published his classification of clouds, now generally adopted, 
consisting of three primary forms cirrus, cumulus, and stratus ; three compounds of these 






forms ; and the nimbus or black rain-clouds (cumulo- cirro-stratus). A new edition of 
Howard's Essay on the Clouds appeared in 1865. 

CLOVESHOO (now Cliff), Kent. Here was held an important council of nobility and 
clergy concerning the government and discipline of the church, Sept. 747 ; and others were 
held here 800, 803, 822, 824. 

CLOYNE (S. Ireland), a bishopric, founded in the 6th century by St. Coleman, in 
1431 united to that of Cork, and so continued for 200 years. It was united with that of 
Cork and Ross, 1834. See Bishops. 

CLUBMEN", associations formed in the southern and western counties of England, to 
restrain the excesses of the armies during the civil wars, 1642-9. They professed neutrality, 
but inclined towards the king, and were considered enemies by his opponents. 

CLUBS, originally consisted of a small number of persons of kindred tastes and pursuits, 
who met together at stated times for social intercourse. The club at the Mermaid tavern, 
established about the end of the i6th century, consisted of Raleigh, Shakspeare, and 
others. Ben Jonson set up a club at the Devil tavern. Addison, Steele, and others, fre- 
quently met at Button's coffee-house, as described in the Spectator. The present London 
clubs, some comprising 300, others about 1500 members, possess luxuriously furnished 
edifices, several of great architectural pretensions, in or near Pall Mall. The members 
obtain the choicest viands and wines at very moderate charges. Many of the clubs possess 
excellent libraries, particularly the Athenseum (which see). The annual payment varies from 
61. to nl. us. -, the entrance fee from gl. 95. to 31 A us. The following are the principal 
chibs : 

Kit-Cat (which sei) . . 1703 United Service . . 1815 Abbotsford, Edinburgh . 1835 

Beef-Steak (which see) 
White's (Tory), established 
Boodle's .... 
Literary Club (vMch see), 

termed also " The' Club,' 

and Johnson's Club . 
Brooke's (Whig) 
Alfred .... 
Guards' . . . May i 
Arthur's .... 
Roxburghe, London . 

CLUBS, FRENCH. The first of these arose about 1782. They were essentially political, 
and were greatly concerned in the revolution. The Club Breton became the celebrated Club 
des Jacobins, and the Club des Cordeliers comprised among its members Dantou and Camiile 
Desmoulins. From these two clubs came the Mountain party which overthrew the Giron- 
dists in 1793, and fell in its turn in 1794. The clubs disappeared with the Directory in 
1799. . They were .revived in 1848 in considerable numbers, but did not attain to their 
former eminence, and were suppressed by decrees, in June 22, 1849, and June 6, 1850. 

CLUB-FOOT, a deformity produced by the shortening of one or more of the muscles, 
although attempted to be cured by Lorenz in 1784, by cutting the tendo Achillis, was not 
effectually cured till 1831, when Stromeyer of Erlangen cured Dr. Little by dividing the 
tendons of the contracted muscles with a very thin knife. Judicious after-treatment is 

CLUGNY, OE CLUNY, ABBEY OF, in France, formerly most magnificent, founded by 
Benedictines, under the abbot Bern, about 910, and sustained afterwards by "William, duke 
of Berry and Aquitaine. English foundations for Cluniac monks were instituted soon after. 

CLYDE AND FORTH WALL was built by Agricola 84. The Forth and Clyde CAN 
was commenced by Mr. Smeaton, July 10, 1768, and was opened July 28, 1790. It for 
communication between the seas on the eastern and western coasts of Scotland. 

CNIDUS, in Caria, Asia Minor ; near here Conon the Athenian defeated the Lacede- 
monian fleet, under Peisander, 394 B. c. 

COACH (from coiicher, to lie). Beckniaim states that Charles of Anjou's queen entered 
Naples in a caretta (about 1282). Under Francis I. there were but two in Paris, one 
belonging to the queen, the other to Diana, the natural daughter of Henry II. There were 
"but three in Paris in 1550; and Henry IV. had one without straps or springs. John de 
Laval de Bois-Dauphin set up a coach on account of his enormous bulk. The first coach 
seen in England was about 1553. Coaches were introduced by Fitz- Allen, earl of Anmdel, 




United Service 
Travellers' . . . 
Union .... 






United University 
Bannatyne, Edinburgh . 
Aihensewm. (which see) . 
Oriental .... 
United Service (Junior) 
Maitland, Glcisgoto . 
Oxford and Cambridge 
Carlton (Conservative) . 




Abbotsford, Edinburgh . 
Reform (Liberal) 
Army and Navy 
Etching, London . 
Spalding, Aberdeen . 
Conservative . 
Whittington (founded 
Douglas Jerrold and others) 1846 

See Working Men's Clubs. 





580. Stow. A bill was brought into parliament to prevent the effeminacy of men 
riding in coaches, 43 Eliz. 1601.* Carte, liepealed 1625. The coach-tax commenced in 
1747. Horace Walpole says that the present royal state coach (first used Nov. 16, 1762) 
cost 75 28^. See Car, Carriages, Chariots, Hackney Coaches, Mail Coaches, &c. 

COAL.f It is contended, with much seeming truth, that coal, although not mentioned 
by the Komans in their notices of Britain, was yet in use by the ancient Britons. Brandt. 
Henry III. is said to have granted a licence to dig coals near Newcastle-upon-Tyne in 1234; 
some say earlier, and others in 1239. Sea-coal was prohibited from being used in and near 
London, as being "prejudicial to human health ;" and even smiths were obliged to burn 
wood, 1273. Stow. In 1306 the gentry petitioned against its use. Coal Avas first made an 
article of trade from Newcastle to London, 4 Rich. II. 1381. Rymcr's Fcedera. Notwith- 
standing the many previous complaints against coal as a public nuisance, it was at length 
generally burned in London in 1400 ; but it was not in common use in England until the 
reign of Charles I. 1625. 



. . . 317,000 chald. 1810 . . . 980,372 chald. 1835 . . . 2,299,816 tons. 
. 510,000 ditto. 1820. . . . 1,171,178 ditto. 1840 . . . . 2,638,256 ditto. 
. 814,000 ditto. 1830 . . . 1,588,360 ditto. 1850 . . . 3,638,883 ditto. 

c86o. Coal brought to London, 3,573,377 tons coast ways ; 1,499,899 tons by railways and canals. 
[861. ,, 5,232,082 tons; in 1862, 4,973,823 tons. 

An act for the regulation and inspection of 
mines was passed in . . . -. . . X 86o 

Coal-pitmen's strikes frequently occur ; a long 
and severe one arose in Staffordshire in . 1 864 

ACCIDENTS. About 1000 lives are lost annually by 
accidents in coal-mines. 

In 1858, by explosions in coal-mines, 52 persons 
perished at Bardsley ; 20 at Duffryn, near Newport ; 
52 at Tyldesley, near Leeds ; and about 36 in different 
parts of the country. 

On Aprils, 1859, 26 lives were lost at the chain 
colliery, near Neath, through the irruption of water. 

In 1860, 76 lives were lost on March 2, at Burra- 
don, near Killingworth ; 145 at the Riscamine, near 
Newport, Dec. i ; aud 22 at the Hettoii mine, North- 
umberland, Dec. 20. 

On June n, 1861, 21 lives were lost through an 
inundation in the Claycross mines, Derbyshire. 

In 1862, 47 lives were lost at Cethiii mine, Merthyr 
Tydvill, S. Wales, Feb. 19; at Walker, near New- 
castle- on-Tyne, 15 lives lost, Nov. 22 ; Edmund's 
Main, near Barnsley, 60 lives lost, Dec. 8. 

In 1863, 13 lives lost atCoxbridge, near Newcastle, 
March 6 ; 39 lives lost at Margam, S. Wales, Oct. 17 ; 
14 lives lost at Moestig, S. Wales, Dec. 26. 

In 1865, 6 lives lost at Claycross, May 3 ; 24 at 
New Bedwelty pit, near Tredegar, June 16. 

(For still more fatal accidents, see Lundhill and 

85 lives were lost at Lalle coal-mine, in France, in 
Oct. 1861. 

COAL EXCHANGE, London, established by 47 
Geo. III. c. 68(1807). '1'he present building 
(a most interesting structure) was erected by 
Mr. J. B. Banning, and opened by prince 
Albert Oct. 30, 1849 

COAL-WHIPPERS* BOARD, to protect the men 
employed in unloading coal-vessels from pub- 
licans, formed by an act of parliament in 
1843, lasted till 1856, when the coal-owners 
themselves established a whipping-office. 

The coal-fields of Great Britain are estimated at 
5400 square miles ; of Durham and Northum- 
berland, 723 square miles. Bakewdl. In 
1857 about 6si millions of tons were ex- 
tracted (value about 16,348,6761!.) from 2095 
collieries ; about 25 millions are consumed 
annually in Great Britain. 

Coal obtained in Great Britain and Ireland : 
In 1861, 86,417,941 tons; in 1862, 81,638,338 
tons ; in 1863, 86,292,215 tons (valued at 
51,000,000^); in 1864 (from 3268 collieries), 
92,787,873 tons. 

Mr. Sopwith, in 1855, computed the annual 
product of the coal-mines of Durham and 
Northumberland at 14 million tons : 6 mil- 
lions for London, 2^ millions exported, 2^ 
millions for coke, i million for colliery en- 
gines, &c., and 2 millions for local consump- 

By a stipulation in the commercial treaty ot 
1860, in consequence of the French govern- 
ment greatly reducing the duty on imported 
coal, the British government (it is thought 
by many imprudently) engaged to lay no 
duty on exported coal for ten years. In 1859* 
abovit 7,000,000 tons of British coals were 
exported, of which 1,391,009 tons went to 

The first ship laden with Irish coal arrived in 
Dublin from Ne wry 1742 

Sale of Coal Regulation Act 1831 

The duties on the exportation of British coal, 
which had existed since the i6th century, 
were practically repealed 1834 

Sir R. Peel imposed a duty of 45. a ton in 1842 ; 
caused much dissatisfaction ; repealed . . 1845 

Women were prohibited from working in Eng- 
lish collieries in 1842 

The consumption of coal in France, in 1780 only 
400,000 tons, rises to 6,000,000 tons in 1845. 
The United States produced between 8 and 9 
millions of tons ; Belgium, 5,000,000 ; and 
France, 4,500,000, in . 1855 

* In the beginning of the year 1619, the earl of Northumberland, who had been imprisoned ever since 
the gunpowder plot, obtained his liberation. Hearing that Buckingham was drawn about with six horses 
; in his coach (being the first that was so), the earl put oil eight to his, and in that manner passed from the 
\ Tower through the city. Rapin. 

t There are five kinds of fossil fuel : anthracite, coal, lignite, bituminous shale, and bitumen. Nosatis- 
, factory definition of coal has yet been given. The composition oiwood is 49' i carbon, 6'3 hydrogen, 44-6 
i oxygen ; of coal 82-6 carbon, 5-6 hydrogen, n'8 oxygen. 




COALITIONS AGAINST FRANCE generally arose through England subsidising the great 
powers of the continent. They were entered into as follows : 

Austria, Prussia, and Great Britain . . . 1793 
Great Britain, Germany, Russia, Naples, Por- 
- tugal, and Turkey, signed . . June 22, 1799 
Great Britain, Russia, Austria, and Naples, 

Aug. 5, 1805 

Great Britain, Russia, Prussia, and Saxony, 

Oct. 6, 1806 

England and Austria . . . April 6, 1809 

Russia and Prussia; the treaty ratified at 

Kalisch March 17, 1813 

See Treaties. 


COAST GUARD. In 1856, the raising and governing this body was transferred to the 
admiralty. A coast brigade of artillery was established in Nov. 1859. 

COAST VOLUNTEERS. See under Navy of England. 

COBALT, a rare mineral found among the veins of ores, or in the fissures of stone, at an 
early date, in the mines of Cornwall, where the workmen call it mundic. Hill. It was 
distinguished as a metal by Brandt, in 1733. 

COBURG. See Saxe-Coburg. 

COCCEIANS, a small sect founded by John Cocceius, of Bremen, about 1665, who held, 
amongst other opinions, that of a visible reign of Christ in this world, after a general 
conversion of the Jews and all other people to the Christian faith. 

COCHIN (India), held by the Portuguese, 1503; by the Dutch, 1663 ; taken by the 
British, 1735 ; ceded to them 1814. 


COCHINEAL INSECT (Coccus cacti), derives its colour from feeding on the cactus, and 
became known to the Spaniards soon after their conquest of Mexico in 1518. Cochineal 
was brought to Europe about 1523, but was not known in Italy in 1548, although the art of 
dyeing then flourished there. In 1858 it was cultivated successfully in Teneriffe, the 
vines having failed through disease. 260,000 Ibs. of cochineal were imported into England 
in 1830 ; 1,081,776 Ibs. in 1845 ; 2,360,000 Ibs. in 1850 ; and 3,034,976 libs, in 1859. Duty 
repealed 1845. 

COCKER'S ARITHMETIC. The work edited by John Hawkins, first appeared in 1677. 

COCK-FIGHTING, practised by the Greeks. It was introduced at Rome after a victory 
over the Persians, 476 B.C. ; and was brought by the Romans into England. William Fitz- 
Stephen, in the reign of Henry II., describes cock-fighting as the sport of school-boys on 
Shrove-Tuesday. It was prohibited by Edward III. 1365 ; by Henry VIII. ; and by 
Cromwell, 1653. Part of the site of Drury-lane theatre was a cock-pit in the reign of James 
I. ; and the cock-pit at Whitehall was erected by Charles II. Till within these few years 
there was a Cock-pit Royal in St. James's Park ; but the governors of Christ's Hospital would 
not renew the lease for a building devoted to cruelty.* Cock-fighting is now forbidden 
by law. 

COCK-LANE GHOST, an imposition practised by William Parsons, his wife, and 
daughter, by means of a female ventriloquist, during 1760 and 1761, carried on at No. 
33, Cock-lane, London, was at length detected, and the parents were condemned to the 
pillory and imprisonment, July 10, 1762. 

COCOA, OR CACAO, the kernel or seed of the tree TJieobroma cacao (Linn.), was introduced 
into this country shortly after the discovery of Mexico, where it forms an important article 
of diet. From cocoa is produced chocolate. The cocoa imported into the United Kingdom, 
chiefly from the British West Indies and Guiana, was in 1849, 1,989,477^8.; in 1851, 
4,349,0s* ft>s. ; in 1855, 7,343,458 Ibs.; in 1859, 6,006,759 Ibs; ; in 1861, 9,080,288 Ibs.; 
in 1864, 7,920,912 Ibs., about half for home consumption. - 

* Mr. Ardesoif , a gentleman of large fortune and great hospitality, who was almost unrivalled in the 
splendour of his equipages, had a favourite cock, upon which he had won many profitable matches. The 
last wager he laid upon this cock he lost, which so enraged him, that in a fit of passion he thrust the bird 
into the fire. A delirious fever, the result of his rage and inebriety, in three days put an end to his life. 
He died at Tottenham, near London, April 4, 1788. On April 22, 1865, 34 persons were fined at Marl- 
borough-street police-office, for being present at a cock-fight. 




COCOA-NUT TREE (Cocos nucifera, Linn.), suppli 
need, as bread, water, wine, vinegar, brandy, milk, oil, 

the Indians with almost all they 
honey, sugar, needles, clothes, 

thread, cups, spoons, basins, baskets, paper, masts for ships, sails, cordage, nailsj covering 
for their houses, &c. Ray. In Sept. 1829, Mr. Soames patented his mode of procuring 
stearine and elaine from cocoa-nut oil. It is said that 32 tons of candles have been made in 
a month from these materials at the Belmont works, Lambeth. 

CODES, see Laws. Alfrenus Varus, the civilian, first collected the Roman laws about 
66 B.C. ; and Servius Sulpicius, the civilian, embodied them about 53 B.C. The Gregorian 
and Hermoginian codes were published A.D. 290 ; the Theodosian code ^438 ; the celebrated 
code of the emperor Justinian, in 529 a digest from this last was made in 533. Alfred's 
code of laws is the foundation of the common law of England, 887. The CODE NAPOLEON, 
the civil code of France, was promulgated from 1803 to 1810. The emperor considered it 
his most enduring monument. It was prepared under his supervision by the most eminent 
jurists, from the 400 systems previously existing. It has been adopted by other countries. 

CODFISH. See Holland., 1347. 

COD-LIVER OIL was recommended as a remedy for chronic rheumatism by Dr. Percival 
in 1782, and for diseases of the lungs about 1838. *De Jongh's treatise on cod- liver oil was 
published in Latin in 1844 ; in English in 1849. 

COEUR DE LION, on THE LION-HEARTED, a surname given to Richard I. of England, 
on account of his courage about 1192 ; and also to Louis VIII. of France, who signalised 
himself in the crusades, and in his wars against England, about 1223. 

COFFEE. The tree was conveyed from Mocha in Arabia to Holland about 1616 ; and 
carried to the "West Indies in 1726. First cultivated at Surinam by the Dutch, 1718. The 
culture was encouraged in the plantations about 1732, and the British and French colonies 
now grow the coffee-tree abundantly. Its use as a beverage is traced to the Persians. It 
came into great repute in Arabia Felix, about 1454 ; and passed thence into Egypt and Syria, 
and thence (in 1511) to Constantinople, where a coffee-house was opened in 1551. M. 
Thevenot, the traveller, was the first who brought it into France, to which country he returned 
after an absence of seven years, in 1662. Chambers. 

Coffee was brought into England by Mr. Natha- 
niel Caiiopus, a Cretan, who made it his 
common beverage at Balliol college, Oxford, 
in 1641. Anderson. 

The quantity of coffee imported into these 
realms and entered for home consumption in 
1843 was 29,979,404^)8.; in 1850, 31,166,358 
tts. ; in 1857, 34,367,484 fts. ; in 1859, 
34,492,947 Ibs. ; in 1860, 35,674,381 Ibs. (duty 
3d. per lt>. raw coffee; 40*. roasted.) Totat" 
imported in 1861, 83,532,525 Ibs. ; in 1863, 
117,334,217 Ibs. ; in 1864, 109,370,213 Ibs. 

The first coffee-house in England was kept by 
a Jew, named Jacobs, in Oxford . . . 1650 

Mr. Edwards, an English Turkey merchant, 
brought home with hitn a Greek servant, 
named Pasquet, who opened the first coffee- 
house in London, in George-yard, Lombard- 
street 1652 

Pasquet afterwards went to Holland, and opened 
the first house in that country. Anderson. 

The Rainbow coffee-house, near Temple-bar, was 
represented as a nuisance to the neighbour- 
hood 1657 

Coffee-houses were suppressed by proclamation 
in 1675 ; but the order was revoked in 1676, 
on the petition of the traders in tea and 

COFFERER OF THE HOUSEHOLD, formerly an officer of state, and a member of the 
privy council, who had special charge of the other officers of the household. Sir Henry 
Cocks was cofferer to queen Elizabeth. Some of the highest statesmen filled the office up to 
1782, when it was suppressed by act of parliament, and the duties of it ordered to be dis- 
charged by the lord steward and the paymaster of the household. eatson. 

COFFINS. Athenian heroes were buried in coffins of cedar ; owing to its aromatic and 
incorruptible qualities. Tlmcydides. Coffins of marble and stone were used by the Romans. 
Alexander is said to have been buried in one of gold ; and glass coffins have been found in 
England. Gough. The earliest record of wooden coffins amongst us is that of the burial of 
king Arthur in an entire trunk of oak hollowed, A.D. 542. Asser. Patent coffins were 
invented in 1796. Air-tight metallic coffins were advertised at Birmingham in 1861. 

COHORT. A division of the Roman army consisting of about 600 men. It was the 
sixth part of a legion, and its number, consequently, was under the same fluctuation as that 
of the legions, being sometimes more and sometimes less. The cohort was divided into 
centuries. In the time of the empire the cohort often amounted to a thousand men. 




COIF. The Serjeant's coif was originally an iron skull-cap, worn by knights under their 
helmets. The coif was introduced before 1259, and was used to hide the tonsure of such 
renegade clergymen as chose to remain advocates in the secular courts, notwithstanding 
their prohibition by canon. BlacTcstone. The coif was at first a thin linen cover gathered 
together in the form of a skull or helmet, the material being afterwards changed into white 
silk, and the form eventually into the black patch at the top of the forensic wig, which is 
now the distinguishing mark of the degree of serjeant-at-law. Foss's Lives of the Judges. 

C01MBEA was made the capital of Portugal by Alfonso, the first king, 1139. The only 
Portuguese university was transferred from Lisbon to Coimbra in 1308 ; but only and finally 
settled in 1527. In a convent here, Alfonso IV. caused Inez de Castro, at first mistress and 
afterwards wife of his son Pedro, to be cruelly murdered in 1355. 

COIN. Homer speaks of brass money as existing 1184 B.C. The invention of coin is 
ascribed to the Lydians, who cherished commerce, and whose money was of gold and silver. 
Both were coined by Pheidon, tyrant of Argos, 862 B.C. Money was coined at Rome under 
Servius Tullius, about 573 B.C. The most ancient known coins are Macedonian of the fifth 
century B.C. ; but others are believed to be more ancient. Brass money only was in use at 
Borne previously to 269 B.C. (when Fabius Pictor coined silver), a proof that little correspon- 
dence was then held with the east, where gold and silver were in use long before. Gold was 
coined 206 B.C. Iron money was used in Sparta, and iron and tin in Britain. Dufrcsnoy. 
Julius Csesar was the first who obtained the express permission of the senate to place his 
portrait on the coins, and the example was soon followed. In the earlier days of Rome the 
heads were those of deities, or of those who had received divine honours. The gold and 
silver coinage in the world is about 250,000,000?. silver, and 150,000,000?. gold. Twies, 
June 25, 1852. See Gold, Silver, and Copper. 


The first coinage in England was under the 
Romans at Camalodunum. or Colchester. 
English coin was of different shapes, as 
square, oblong, and round, until the middle 
ages, when ro\md coin only was used. 

Coin was made sterling in 1216, before which 
time rents were mostly paid in kind, and 
money was found only in the coffers of the 
barons. Stow. 

Queen Elizabeth caused the base coin to be re- 
called and genuine issued in 1560. During 
the reigns of the Stuarts the coinage was- 
greatly debased by clipping, &c. 

A commission (lord Somers, sir Isaac Newton, 
and John Locke) was appointed by William 
III. to reform the coinage, an act was 
passed, withdrawing the debased coin from 
circ\ilation, and i, 200,000!!. was raised by a 
house duty to defray the expense . . 1696 

English and Irish money were assimilated 

Jan. i, 1826 

The coin of the realm was valued at about 
12,000,000?. in 1711. Duvenant. At 16,000,000?. 
in 1762. Anderson. It was 20,000,000?.. in 
1786. Chalmers. 37,000,000?. in 1800. Phil- 
lips. The gold is 28,000,000?,, and the rest 
of the metallic currenpy is 13,000,000?., while 
paper largely supplies the place of coin. 
Duke of Wellington, 1830. The metallic cur- 
rency calculated as reaching 45,000,000?., 
1840; and was estimated as approaching 
in gold and silver 60,000,000? 1853 

Napier's coin-weighing machine at the bank of 
England was constructed in . . . . 1844 

The law respecting coinage offences was con- 
solidated in 1861 

The first gold coins on certain record, struck 
42 Hen. Ill 

Gold florin first struck, Edw. III. (Camden) . 

He introduced gold 6s. pieces, and nobles of 
6s. 8d. (hence the lawyer's fee), afterwards 
half and quarter nobles. 

Old sovereigns first minted .... 

Shillings first coined (Dr. Kelly) . ... 

Edw. IV. coined angels with a figure of Michael 
and the dragon, the original of George and 
the dragon. 

Hen. VIII. coined sovereigns and half-sove- 
reigns of the modern value. 

Crowns and half-crowns coined 

Irish shilling struck . . . . . . 

Milled shilling of Elizabeth . 

First large copper coinage, putting an end to 
the circulation of private leaden pieces, &c. . 

Modern milling introduced 

Halfpence and farthings coined 

By the government, 23 Car. II 

Guineas first coined, 25 Car. II. 

Double guineas 

Five guineas 


Quarter-guineas coined, 3 Geo. I. ... 

Seven-shilling pieces coined . . . . 

Two-penny copper pieces 

Gold 78-pieces authorised . . Nov. 29, 

Sovereigns, new coinage 


Silver florin 

Bronze coinage issued .... Dec. i, 







James I. . 
Charles I. 




Charles II. . 
James II. 
William III. 



George I. 
George II. 
George III. 
George IV. 

74, SGI, 5 86 

001 191 COL 

COIN, continued. 

William IV. . . 10,827,603 
Victoria, from 1837 to 1848, gold, 
29,886,457?. ; silver, 2,440,614?. ; 
copper, 43,743*- 1848-1852, gold, 
silver, and copper, 19,838,377?. 
Coined in 1859, 1,547,603 sove- 
reigns, and 2,203,813 half sove- 


Value of ten 'years (1849-59) gold 
coinage . . . 54,490,265?. 

Coined from July i, 1854, to Dec. 
31, 1860, gold, 27,632,039?. ; sil- 
ver, 2,432,116?. 

Coined in 1861 : gold, 8,053,069?. ; 

silver, 209,484?. ; bronze, 273,578?. 
135. ^d. (No crowns, half-crowns, 
or four-penny pieces coined.) 
Coined in 1862 : gold pieces, 
,836,413; silver pieces, 4,035,412; 


nze pieces, 4,125,977,600. 

COINING. Originally performed by the metal being placed between two steel dies, 
struck by a hammer. In 1553, a mill, invented by Antonie Bracher, was introduced into 
England, 1562. An engine was invented by Balancier, 1617. Great improvements were 
effected by Boulton and Watt, at Soho, 1788. The erection of the Mint machinery, London, 
began 1811. 

COLCHESTER (Essex), Camalodunum, a Roman station, supposed to be the birthplace 
of Constantino the Great; obtained its first charter from Richard I. in 1189. Its sixteen 
churches and all its buildings