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1 ' t ; I ' A N : > l\ INC iJ T. N' 



HEALTH: 



ITS 



FRIENDS AND ITS FOES 






BY 



R D. MUSSEY, M. D., LL. D., 

LAt'k PB0FB8SOR OV AKATOMT AMD SDROBRT AT DARTMOnTH COLLKOK, V. H., 
AND OF SUROERT IV THS MEDICAL COLLKOB OF OHIO { FKJLLOW OF THB 
AXBRICAir ACADBMT OF ARTS AXTD SCIBJETOBS, BTO. KTO. 



BOSTON: 

GOULD AND LINCOLN, 

69 WASHIKOTON 8TRBRT. 

NEW YORK: SHELDON AND COMPANY. 
CINCINNATI : GEORGE S. BLANCHABD. 

1862. 



t.\3 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1862, by 

GOULD AND LINCOLN, 

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the DLitrict of Massachusetts. 



A IT DOTK b: 
BLBCTBOTTPBD BT W. F. DBAPBB. 



BOSTON MEDICAL LIBRARY 

IN THE 

FRANCIS A. COUNTWAY 

UBRfm OF MEDICINE 



PREFACE. 



It is now more tiian thirty yean since I began to take a 
special interest in the subject of Htoieke. My professional in- 
tercourse with different classes of men, in private and hospital 
practice at home, as well as my observations in numerous exten- 
sive sanitary institutions abroad, brought under my notice so 
much suffering from what I regarded as errors in Diet, Regi- 
men, and Medication, that I adopted the practice of making 
notes of &cts and cases and preserving them for future exam- 
ination, with the hope that, at some time, I might be able to 
put them into such a form as would justify my presenting them 
to the public, and thus, in some measure, discharge an obligation 
due to my profession, and do something to promote the well- 
being of my fellow-men. The facts and cases thus gathered 
form the basis of the following pages. 

From the greatly increased intercourse of tribes and nations, 
and the prevalent spirit in our time of more careful observa- 
tion of the phenomena of disease and of the effect of remedial 



•^>ft> 



VI PREFACE. 

measures, we may, I am confident, count upon valuable progress 
in Hygiene for the future. 

In the suggestions here recorded, it has been my object to 
meet the comprehension of the general reader, and, at the same 
time, to present some suggestions which, it is hoped, the young 
physician may find not wholly beneath his regard. 

It is proper to add, that portions of the following pages have 
been written at widely different periods of time ; and this will 
account for an occasional recurrence to the same subject, or 
repetition of the same idea, in different parts of the work. 

R. D. M. 

Boston, JimB, 186& 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

TAOm 

THE COBSET — CTLOTHINO — BOOTS AUD SHOES .... 18 

Seotiok I. — ThsCobsbt 18 

Sbotiok IL ~ CLOTHnro 82 

SBonov III. — Boots avd Sboxb 84 



CHAPTER II. 

VENTILATION — LIGHT — SLEEP — EXERCISE — BATHING 41 

Ssonoir I. — Ykntii^tion 41 

SsonoK n. — Light 46 

SBonoK HL — Slkep 49 

SxoTiov rv. — ExxBOira 68 

SxoTiON y. — Bathhto 64 



CHAPTER III. 

iLCOHOL — DAVlS'd EXFEBDCENTS ON CONSUHFnVE PA- 
TIENTS 68 



CHAPTER IV. 

TOBACCO — INFLUENCE UPON LIFE AND HEALTH ... 88 

SxonoN I. — Ubb of Tobacco UmrATUBAL .... 93 

SxomoB II. — EvvECTB OF TOBACCO OB Abixal Lifb ... 94 



Vni CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER V. 

PAOC 

TEA AND COFFEE 1S2 

Section I. — Tba 182 

SECnOK n. — COFFBB 188 



CHAPTER VI. 



CASFAB HAUSEB 142 



CHAPTER VII. 



OBGANIC SYMPATHIES 1£6 



CHAPTER VIII. 

MAN BY NATUBE A YEGETABLE-EATEB — YEGETABIAKISM . 109 

Sectiov I. — Man bt Natubb ▲ Yxgstabub-Eater 169 

SBOTIOV n. — YEGETABIAinSK 172 



CHAPTER IX. 

DISEASES OF THE TEETH AND OF WILD ANIMALS ... 181 

SEOTIOV I. — DlSKASKD Teeth 181 

SSOnOK n. — DiSEABBB OF VftLD AjTIlf ALS 186 



CONTENTS. IX 

CHAPTER X. 

PAdB 

MAN OMNIVOEOUS BY PRACTICE — GLUTTONY, SICKNESS, AND 
COBFULENCY — DB. BEAUMONT AND ALEXIS ST. MABTIN 
— REMEDIAL AGENCIES FOB THE CUBE OF DISEASE . 192 
SeOTIOK I. — MAK OlCiriVOIlOUS.BY PRAOTIOB .... 192 

SEcnoir II. — GLUTTOinr, Sickness, akd Cobpulekct . . 194 

SEcnon III. — Ds. Bbaumokt Ain> Alexis St. Mabtht . 197 

Seotioh it. — Bekedial Aqehoibs fob thb Belief asd Cube 
OF Disease 201 



CHAPTER XI. 

QUANTITY OF FOOD - SIMPLICITY OF DIET — ECONOMY OF 

VEGETABLE FOOD — OVEB-EATING 211 

SscTioir I. — QuAirriTT of Food 211 

Section II. — Simplicity of Diet 2U 

SsoTioir ni. — Economy of Yegetablb Food .... 219 

Section IV. — Powers of Nutrition Diminished by Over- 
Eatino 222 



CHAPTER XII. 

VEGETABLE FOOD SUFFICIENT FOB MAN — FAVOBABLE TO 
HEALTH — MOBAL AND INTELLECTUAL EFFECTS OF A 
VEGETABLE DIET — THE PBOPHET DANIEL . ... 224 
Section 1. — Vegetable Food adequate to Man's Physical 
Wants 224 

Section II. — Vegetable Food less liable than Animal to 

GENERATE DISEASE 280 

Section III. — Moral and Mental Effects of a Vxgbtablb 

Diet 282 

Section IV. — The Prophet Daniel ....*... 285 



X CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

PAOB 

OBJECTIONS TO YE6ETARIANISM — CHEROKEE ATHLETiB — 

EXPERIENCE OF SAMUEL CHINN — BEAN DEBT . . 237 

Section I. — Objections to Vbobtarianibm .... 237 

Section n. — Cherokee Athlet^a 289 

Section III. — Experience ov Sakuel Chinn .... 241 

Section IV. — Bean Diet 242 



CHAPTER XIV. 



VEGETABLE DIET — ILLUSTRATIVE CASES 244 



CHAPTER XV. 



VEGETABLE DIET — ILLUSTRATIVE CASES . . .256 



CHAPTER XVI. 



INJUDICIOUS DIET AND DISEASE — ILLUSTRATIVE CASES . 268 



CHAPTER XVII. 

VEGETABLE DIET IN CERTAIN CASES A REMEDY FOR DIS- 
EASE - H.LUSTRATIVE CASES 271 



CONTENTS. XI 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

OPHTHALMIA — D£ATHS FROM EATING — DISTILLEBT-FED '^*" 
FORK — NEW ZEALANDEBS — INTEMPERANCE IN EAT- 
ING AND DRINKING 277 

Section I. — Ophthalmia 277 

Sbotiob II. — Deaths fbox EIating 279 

Sbotiob III. — Distilleby-Fed Hogs 280 

Section IV. — New Zbalanders 282 

Seotion Y. — Intsxpsbancs in Eatino and Djunkino . 284 



CHAPTER XIX. 

SEVERE FORMS OF NERVOUS DISEASE — APOPLEXY — PALSY 

— EPILEPSY 286 

Section I. — Apoplexy 286 

Section II. — Palsy 288 

Section III. — Epilepsy 280 



CHAPTER XX. 

EPILEPSY — DYSPEPSIA 297 

Section I. — Epilepsy 297 

Section II. — Dyspepsia . 800 



CHAPTER XXI. 

CONSTIPATION — COLDS . 809 

Section I. — Constipation 809 

Section II. — Colds 819 



Xn CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER XXII. 

PAOI 

BLOOI>-y£SSELS AND BLOOD-POISONING— FABASITES . . 824 
Section I. — Blood-Vkssbls asd Blood-Poibohino ... 824 

SECTIOV n. — PASA8ITBB 829 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

MY OWN EXPEKIENCE 838 



CHAJ*TER XXIV. 

MILK AND VEGETABLE FEEDING FOB STJEGICAL OPERATIONS 848 



CHAPTER XXV. 

LENGTH OF LIFE 854 



HEALTH: 



ITS FEIENDS AND ITS FOES. 



CHAPTER I. 

THE COBSBT — CLOTHING — BOOTS AND SHOES. 

§ I. THE CORSET. 

There are several conditions necessary to the highest 
and most enduring health. One of these is the purity of 
the blood. The lungs are designed to aid in maintaining 
the purity of this fluid, by relieving it of the noxious mate- 
rials it has acquired in the round of its circulation, and by 
furnishing fresh supplies of oxygen to repair the tissues 
of the organs, ever wasting under the processes of vital 
action. 

The walls of the chest are so contrived as to give admis- 
sion of air to the lungs by elevation of the ribs and the 
depression of the diaphragm. It is necessary that this 
bellows movement of the chest, by which the lungs are 
supplied with air, should be free and unrestrained ; for the 
ribs are so connected together, that whatever arrests the 
motion of one or two of the long ribs on both sides of the 
chest affects the motion of the whole ; and it would be as 
philosophical to tie the handles of a bellows together in 
order to have it work well upon a fire, as to apply a belt 
or any other article of dress so firmly about the chest as 

2 



14 TEE CORSET. 

to arrest the motion of the ribs in respiration. Were it 
not for the diaphragm, which has a motion of its own, life 
would be sustained but a few minutes under an entire 
arrest of the motion of the ribs. When the lower part 
of the cheat is in a state of compression, the diaphragm, 



acting from a smaller circumference from its fixed mar- 
gin, moves less efficiently, and its embajTassment is still 
further increased when the walla of the abdomen are so 
compressed upon the viscera, the stomach, epleen, livei', 

1 OaUlDe of a weU-deieloped ibnutle boiy, — lli« Vtans ie Hedlcl, — nscon- 
stratned by dcen. 



THE CORSET. 15 

inteetines, etc., as to obstruct the risiDg and falling move- 
inent belonging to a natural respiration. 

The lungs of a well-developed adult occupy the space 
of a hundred and fifty to three hundred cubio inches. 
They consist largely of air cells, so minute that some 
anatomists have stated their number as high as six hun- 

Fig. 2. 



flKELETON OP CHEBT OP PIO. 1. 

drcd millions in both lungs. (Rochonx). Lieberkiihn has 
estimated the amount of eur&ce on whioh the blood is 
exposed to the action of th% air in them, to be not less 
than fourteen hundred square feet. 

Whatever mechanical contrivance is bo applied to the 
chest as to shut out from the Innga a part of the air they 
are capable of receiving, causes a degeneration of the 
blood, increases the liability to disease, and becomes the 



16 



THE COBSET. 



ground-work of prematnre decay and death. Br. Herbst, 
by actual experimcDt made oa young men who wore the 
Rusaian belt or corset, aBoertaioed that wheu belted tbcy 
inhaled, at their deepest inspiration, from one fourth to 

FTg. 8. 




one third less air than when the belt was removed, and 
the chest left free from constraint. 

It is obvious that the lungfof a child, although healthy, 
are not large enough to aerate or purify the blood of an 
adult. A certain proportion, between the capacity of the 
lungs and the size of the other organs, is necessary to 



1 Eflbct Of oor^ a] 



a Fig, I, obangiDg tbe fo 



THE CORSET. 17 

their healthy activity and power of endurance. If, in 
childhooci, or duiing tbe peiiod of the growth of the 
hodf, the chest is kept in a State of coraprcBsion, bo aa 
to prevent the natural and full development of the lungs, 
the healthy proportion between them and the other organs 
is violated, and the injnry can never be fully repaired. 
When diseaeo attacks one lung, and permanently shuts up 
one half or the whole of its air cells, there is not left the 

Tig.i. 



same vigor of health, or power of resistance to the causes 
of disease, which nature intended. I have seen this veri- 
fied in the case of a young lady, Miss M. At the age of 
about seventeen she had an inflammation of the right side 
of the chest, which terminated in complete hepatization or 
consolidation of the right lung. The sound on percussion 
was dull or flat. The ribs on the right side were shut 

1 SkeletoD of cbesl of Fig. 3. 



18 THE COBSET. 

down closely upon each other, and had Dot the glightest 
appreciable motioa in respiration. In this condition, with 
only one lung to act upon the blood, she lived, in delicate 
and fluctuating health, for five years, when, on a cold day 
in winter, she rode out a few miles and took cold, which 
was followed by inflammation of the left lung, and a rapid 
consumption, which carried her off in a few weeks. Had 



both lungs been sound, she might very probably have so 
far. resisted the cold as to have experienced nothing worse 
from it than a slight indisposition. 

Among the lower animals those that are best fitted for 
activity, strength, and prolonged mnscular exertion pos- 
sess large lungs, as the race-horse and 'the greyhound. 
Dealers in horses always look out for an animal with a 
large chest, or " good wind." Would it be well to apply 
a corset to these animals for the chase ? Do they not 
need it as much as women and children ? 



THE nOBSET. 



19 



Within tbe last seventy years female infants at the 
breast have been put in corsets. I have in rny possession 



Fig. r. 




IK UNITED STATES,! 
188& 

•1 One needs a fan and an open window in order to look at such figures as 
5, 6, 7. 



20 THB CORSET. 

a corset presented to me by a lady who assured me that it 
was worn by her grandmother's first child from the time 
of its birth until it was nine months old, when it died. 

It has been the common practice in our country, for 
more than half a century, to apply corsets or tight waists, 
or some article of dress tight about the chest, to female 
children at a tender age " to preserve the form," as the 
phrase is ; in other words, to prevent the natural expan- 
sion of the chest during its growth. 

The motions of the heart are influenced by tight dress : 
the pulse is less free and open, and under exercise is flut- 
tering, hard, and sometimes irregular. The breathing, too, 
is oppressed and frequent, as comparatively little air enters 
the lungs at each inspiration. A lady, tight dressed, on 
entering a room in a hot day, hurries to a seat, her face 
flushed, and her fan in quick motion. 

In crowded apartments, the air becoming impure from 
the respiration of the many, fainting sometimes occurs, and 
the unfortunate individual must be carried into the open 
air, and the dress loosened to save life. 

Sometimes death is the direct consequence of thus 
excluding air from the lungs. In the interior of New 
Hampshire, some years since, a girl walking to church on 
a hot summer's morning, sunk unconscious in the road; 
attempts were made to revive her, but in vain, — she was 
dead. Two corsets were found upon her, one over the 
other, and each laced as tight as could be done with the 
aid of her sister. More than twenty years ago I was 
called early one morning to the principal hotel in the 
place of my residence, to a servant girl who had just been 
found motionless in her bed. She had probably been dead 
several hours. A corset was drawn excessively tight on the 
body, and from the practice which the family informed me 



THB CORSET. 21 

she was in, of lacing up her corset every night at bedtime, 
I could not doubt it was the principal, if not the only 
cause of her death. 

Among the chronic effects of wearing the dress too 
tight upon the chest, may be mentioned an imperfect 
development of the mammary glands, which, in many 
instances, so far impairs the natural power of these organs 
as to prevent their furnishing nature's food for early 
infancy. I have known in two instances a small and very 
painful chronic tumor, denominated by that eminent sur- 
geon. Sir Astley Cooper, the irritable tubercle of the 
female breast, caused, as it seemed to me, by constant 
pressure upon the part of the gland situated over the 
anterior extremity of a rib pushed forward out of its natu- 
ral position by the habitual tightness of the dress. 

The organs below the diaphragm, as the stomach, liver, 
and intestines, suffer from pressure. Shoemakers, from 
being much in the sitting posture, with the body bent 
forward, compressing the stomach and contiguous viscera, 
are peculiarly liable to dyspepsia. These organs suffer, 
not merely from the direct mechanical pressure of a dress 
too tight, but also from being compelled to do their work 
with an impure blood circulating through them, from 
which they must elaborate their materials ; instead of a 
blood renovated and pure, coming from a free and unob- 
structed action of the lungs. This impurity of the blood 
pervades all the organs of the body, and fixes the stand- 
ard of health at a lower point than nature intended ; and 
of course with an increased, liability to every form of 
disease. There cannot be a reasonable doubt that the 
imperfect fanning of the lungs in respiration, and the 
necessarily sluggish motion in their minutest vessels of 
the blood loaded with impurities, must be concerned in 



22 TUB CORSET. 

the production of tubercles, and inducing consumption, 
that fearful scourge of civilized Europe and America. 

A medical frieu<i mentioned that he was consulted by a 
young lady for a pain in the side, which commenced upon 
her dress being loosened at bedtime and lasted so as to 
prevent sleep from one to two hours. The doctor pre- 
scribed loosening the dress two hours before bedtime. He 
understood the case. The blood, rushing into the vessels 
from which it had been excluded during the day, threw 
upon the stretch the minute sentient nerves interlaced 
among them, causing the pain, and it required an hour or 
two to restore the equilibrium of the circulation. Had 
the doctor prescribed a permanently loose dress, his ad- 
vice might have been too unwelcome to be followed. 

The bending of the spine or backbone, causing deform- 
ity of the body, is sometimes the result of tight dressing. 
This is brought about by confining the muscles which 
erect the spine, so as to prevent their free and natural 
action. It is exercise which gives vigor and volume to 
muscles. The hammer arm of the blacksmith is an exam- 
ple. The spinal muscles, when deprived of the proper 
amount of exercise, become incapable of sustaining their 
destined actions, the spine bends, and ultimately becomes 
confirmed in this position, causing distortion of the chest, 
and throwing out the point of one shoulder-blade. How 
often the physician is applied to by the solicitous mother 
for a plaster to keep the shoulder-blade of her daughter 
from growing out. 

This lateral curvature of the spine is very seldom met 
with in boys. They suffer no constraint from dress, and 
find means, even in cities, of taking free exercise in the 
open air. At a late period of the career of that eminent 
surgeon. Dr. P. S. Physick, of Philadelphia, I had the 



THE CORSET. 23 

opportunity of asking him whether he had often seen 
cases of lateral curvature of the spine in boys. After a 
short pause he replied, " I do not remember to have seen 
above one case in a boy." You have seen it, sir, in girls ? 
"Yes," said he, promptly and- emphatically, "in thousands." 
The female boarding-schools, as they were conducted some 
years ago, were a fruitful source of this complaint. The 
girls were compelled to occupy seats without a back or 
anything to lean against; were required to sit prim for 
several hours, in order to keep the body erect. The effect 
of this was to tire out the muscles in their unremitted 
exertions, and allow the spine to bend under the weight it 
had to sustain. Dr. Forbes, an eminent London physician, 
mentions having found in a boarding-school of upwards 
of forty young misses, a large proportion of them having 
their spines affected in this way. Within the last few 
years some improvements, as to seats and exercise, have 
found their way into these institutions, in our country. 

In the early stage of this affection, when the curvature 
is but slight, and the patient, by a strong muscular effort 
to resist downward pressure made upon the top of the 
head, can, for a few moments, so erect the spine as to 
bring the spinous processes into a straight vertical line, 
the case is remediable ; and even when the affection is in 
a form somewhat more grave its progress may often be 
arrested. 

In the treatment of lateral curvature of the spine an 
entirely loose dress should be prescribed, an early morn- 
ing sponge bath in tepid or cold water, followed by free 
dry friction, especially to the back and limbs, daily and 
persevering exercise in the open air, and a plain, unstim- 
ulating but substantial diet. In the early stage of the 
complaint, carrying a weight on the head, as suggested by 



THE CORSET. 



1 Cem, tbe goddess of sraia i 



THE COBSBT. 



Mr. Wilson, in order to compel the mnscles to a tempo* 
rary extra effort, may be required aa an auxiliary to the 



26 THB COBSET. 

end in view. A convenient form for tbe weight is ft bag 
of sand, which can eaailj' be graduated to the Btreogth of 
the Bpinal muscles to sustun it, under a strong voluntary 
exertion for ten minutes or more, until a slight sense of 
s%. ID. 



&tigne is felt. This may be repeated several ^mes in a 
day. It is well known that those individuals who are in 

' Hebe, CDp-beare7 la tbe gods. 

Wbat ■ contrast between tbeee IiBt tbree flgnrea ud tbe whole tribe of 
corseted gentry. Tbe ceatas or girdle or <uh brlDgs tbe (ouf or tanlo looselr 
upon tbe wiielwlt 



THB COBSBT. 27 

the habit of carrying heavy weights on the head are re- 
markably erect in their persons. In lateral cnrvatare, all 
soits of machinery, in the form of braces for mechanical 
supports, are useless, nnless as palliatives in confirmed 
cases with great deformity.^ 

A physician is not nnfrequently consnlted in the case 
of a female patient who complains of a pain in the side, 
headache, sometimes dizziness, a dry cough, capricious 
appetite, with derangement of function in the alimentary 
canal. Among other suggestions, the doctpr recommends 
a perfectly loose dress. The lady assures him that she 
does not dress tight; she could never bear anything tight 
about her in her life. If she be young, and her mother 
is present, this statement is confirmed in a matronly de- 
cision, given with unappealable emphasis, again and again 
repeated. The doctor, if not convinced nor disposed to 
relinquish his position, asks for a piece of tape or narrow 
ribbon, passes it round the lower third of the chest of the 
patient, comparing its circumference under a prolonged 
expiration with that of the fullest inspiration, and show- 
ing a difference, if any at all, of from a quarter to half an 
inch. This experiment, with the proper explanations, puts 
a period to the discussion, if it fails to enforce observ- 
ance of the advice. No lady considers herself as dressing 
tight if she knows any one who dresses tighter. A per- 
son accustomed to a tight dress feels a want of support 
without it. ^ 1 feel as though I should fall to pieces with- 
out my stays ; and then how I should look with nothing 
snug and genteel about me!" To the question sometimes 
put, What is tight dressing ? the answer is, any article of 
dress that shuts the blood from a single vessel, or the air 

1 It ia said that from a reoent inyention (1862) l)eneflt has nsnlted in lateral 
carratnre of not very long standing. 



28 THB CORSET. 

from a single air-cell, is too tight for the most perfect 
health.^ 

Is there no moral aspect belonging to this custom of 
tight dressing? By what right may I violate a law of my 
physical being, when the tendency of the yiolation is to 
enfeeble health and shorten life ? Who made the human 
body ? it is fitting to ask, if the edicts of fashion are to 
be listened to, and its hideous transformations sought after 
and received with more than religious devotion. No ! the 
machinery of the human body was not made by an ap- 
prentice ; it came from the hand of a Master, — one who 
understood and established all the sympathies and rela- 
tions of its internal parts to each other and to external 
objects. What has He himself said of it? He "saw 
everything that he had made, and behold it was very 
good.** 

FatheiTS, mothers, take care how you mar God's work- 
manship. You are the constituted guardians of the 
health, the life, and the prosperity of your children. Lis- 
ten to the voice that whispers, " Take this child and bring 
it up for me," — not strangle it, nor poison it; and can 
you turn away heedless of the celestial mandate? O 
then, when you bend over that coffin, to take the last look 
of your darling child, be prepared to hear conscience 
speak out and say, " Tour love of fashion and disregard 
of the laws of health destroyed this child ; " and be pre- 
pared to answer the charge at another time, and on a far 
different occasion. 

As a matter of taste, this custom admits of animadver- 

1 My stndent, Mr. Manwaring, says he saw a young lady who was attacked 
with nose-bleeding, which continued so long as to cause great alarm and appre- 
hension lest it would terminate fatally, when a person, who had the sagacity to 
understand the case, directed to have her corset strings cut, which being done 
the bleeding stopped almost immediately. 



THR CORSET. 29 

slon. Among the Greeks and Romans the ceatus or girdle 
was employed to gather the flowing roba around the 
waist, leaving the form 
and proportions of the 
body free and natural. 
When and where the 
tight waist or corset 
first appeared, it is not 
easy, nor is it import- 
ant, to determine, but it 
has existed for several 
centuries, and has been 
almost, if not quite, ei- 
olusively foand among 
nations enlightened, and 
nominally Christian. In 
what costume more be- 
coming or attractive has 

'^ COURT KBEBS IM ITS*. 

woman ever appeared 

than in the impersonation of beauty and elegance in 

Hebe, Ceres, and Nemesis ? 

There ia but one word that can be offered in fiivor of 
the cnstom of tight dressing, and that word is Faahion, 
Reason and common sense are against it ; anatomy, phys- 
iology, the love of health and life, are gainst it ; good 
taste, humanity, and reli^on are against it. Who could 
have been the prime instigator of a fashion so hostile to 
health and life ? 

In the finctuations of fashion nnder every new modifi- 
cation the corset has not relinquished its essential feature, 
viz. its stifling power on the organs of respiration ; bat 
as if commissioned by the Maker of the human body to 
compress the lower half of the chest, it does Its work 
8* 



so THE CORSET. 

with Dnremitting fidelity. It is known to naturalists that 

Kg, 12. *■'■- M- 



the huge serpent, the boa constrictor, kills his prey by 

' Among the enlriTagincep of ftBhion the remarkable hcwi-dreai of 1782 
preients itrong cIhIuib for laeertloa. The fbanditlon of tlilB ImmenBe itnie- 
turewuB pile of tow with the hslr tnrned up over It; (kise hair whb added 
In l»rge euris, strings of pearls or glasa beads, then Howere, sod aboie #11 
nodded large ostrich feathers. A large qoantity of pomatum and powder was 
wrought into tbe fabrics, which added about three feet to the height of the 
wearer. When ilding the wearer had to kneel and hold her head out of (he 
carriage window to prevent dlscompoBure of the ornamented noddle, and at 
night these adjunct! were oarcftilly supported with soft boletera, a servant 

With core this head-dress would "keep," as the word was, fbr three weeks 
belbre It roust be lateu down and bnllt over again by the bair-dresser. A 
plenty of medicaments were advertised accompanied with the most positive 
assurances that they would IdU the vermin which nestled In the pomatum 
aod powder, and thus sustain thefebric considerably beyond three weeks. 

< Sir William Ruesell, ■ Ikvorite courtier of Queen Elizabeth, with his 
etuObd eleevea and vest and breeches, and an immehM ruff opou hie neck 
■md Bbouldera, and saneled waist. 



THB COBfiET. SI 

throwing a ooil of his body around the chest of the animal 
he attacks, crushing in his ribs, pig. ii. 

and Btopplng the breathing and 
the heart's motion of his victim. 
The corset, if longer in doing 
its work, is not less certain. 
This article of dress, by exclud- 
ing from the lungs a part of the 
air they were made to receive, 
renders the blood less pure than 
it woold bo in its natural state, 
and, other things being equal, 
ahortens the period of life. 

In addition to the corset we 
have the old-fashioned hooped 
skirts come ^ain, convenient 
for concealing stolen articles, and said to be well-suited to 
our climate,— very cool in summer and warm in winter. 
These hoops were banished Irom court by a royal edict 
of George IV^ probably one of the most philanthropic 

■ The urpent'ii coll and Ihe nonet operete on tbe suae prludple In ■hortening 
nib, namelf, by excluding sir nam tbe lunge. The coll l> prompt, and does 
ite work without dekf j the coiHt la alow, but enre of Its prey In the end. 

Tbe (cnlpto™ concerned In bringing out the (hr-timed and much admired 
group of Laocoon and bia sons, no« In tbe Vatican at Rome, leem to have 
been Ignorant of the mode of attack by all the large and non-venomaua 
serpenta, aa the python, tbe boa, and the anaconda, which Ii, to throw ft 
coll or two of Ib^ own aroond the cheat of the animal aaaalled, to enuh 
In bla ribs, and slop the breathing and the motion of tbe heart at once. 
If they were not Ignorant, It Ii difficult to perceive their motive for bo 
great a deilatlon troia nalnre. Tbeir carved BDakea have oolls npon the 
armi and legs of tbe old man and hlB two boye, ae If to preient their rnn- 
DiDg away or nslng their bands In self-defence, while their bodies are leR 
five for breathing and crying out ad libitum. Tbe aerpents would require 
perhaps an boor or more flir killing tbeir victims In this way, whereas, by 
their own native method, a minute for each victim would suffice. TIrgll'a 
account Is more cornet. 



82 CLOTHINa. 

acts of his reign. Applied to little girls from three to 
ten years of age, extending only as low as the knee, 
they increase the liability to suffer from cold in winter, 
the lower limbs being frequently clad with nothing but 
cotton drawers. All this besides the indecent exposure 
they almost necessarily occasion while the little sufferers 
are thus dad. 

i n. CLOTHING. 

In a climate so variable as that of the northern section 
of the United States, the importance of sufficiently warm 
clothing is far from being generally* appreciated. The 
edicts of fashion, always religiously observed, would seem 
to have been issued under an intelligent hostility to health. 
At one period, while the upper part of the body is swathed 
so closely as to exclude one third of the amount of air 
required by the lungs, the lower part, and the limbs which 
support it, are invested with a series of skirts, sometimes 
amounting to twenty in number, let the season be cold or 
warm. Under another regime, the same parts are sur- 
rounded by garments spread out somewhat like a Chinese 
umbrella, while the feet and ankles are so thinly clad as 
to suffer from cold and wet. The large, bagging, open 
sleeves expose the whole of the arms to the slightest 
changes of temperature, as if inviting consumption to 
creep by the armpits into the lungs. * 

In late autumn, in winter, and in spring, an under 
waistcoat and drawers should be worn by every one who 
can afford them. Soft woollen flannel is to be preferred 
for those who inherit a tendency to consumption ; and for 
those whose skin is too irritable to tolerate a woollen 
covering the Canton or cotton flannel may be adopted. 



CLOTHING. 33 

There are those who wear cotton stockings through the 
winter, but lambs' wool is safer and better. A warm day 
in early spring creates a temptation to leave off some 
article of winter clothing; when yielded to, it is often 
followed by indisposition, sometimes severe. The winter 
clothing should not be laid aside till mild weather is fully 
established. For summer, an under waistcoat and drawers 
of muslin may be worn with benefit. In the application 
of clothing to the body and limbs, the rule should never 
be dispensed with, that it be so loose as not to obstruct 
the circulation of the blood in the smallest vessels. After 
free or protracted exercise in hot weather, causing sweat 
or &tigue, it is justly deemed unsafe to sit down to rest 
in a cool place without the addition of some extra article 
of clothing. My friend Dr. H., who passed two yeara at 
Cape Palmas, tells me that the inhabitants find an over- 
coat very convenient during the rainy season, when the 
thermometer stands at 70**. 

The heat-making power is strikingly unlike in different 
individuals of the same age, even when not affected by 
chronic diseases; and no one comes to old age without 
the conviction that some part of this attribute of life has 
left him. Dr. Rush mentions that Dr. Chosat, of Phila- 
delphia, — who lived to be eighty-five, — for many years 
before he died slept in a baize nightgown, under eight 
blankets and a coverlet, in a stove-heated room. "The 
servant of the Prince De Beaufremont, who came from 
Mt. Jura to Paris, at the age of one hundred and twenty- 
one, to pay his respects to the General Assembly of 
France, shivered with cold in the middte of the dog-days, 
when he was not near a good fire." 

In a northern climate, persons advanced in life ought to 
guard themselves well with clothing, and avoid much 



84 BOOTS AND SHOES. 

cxposare abroad in a winter colder than the average. 
The following statistics are from a paper by Dr. Heberden, 
in the Philosophical Transactions : ^ In the month of Jan- 
nary, 1795, the thermometer in London, upon an average, 
stood at 23^ in the morning, and at 29-4^ in the after- 
noon, — always, yon will observe, below the freezing point. 
In the same month in 1796, it stood at 43-5^ in the morn- 
ing, and at 50** in the afternoon, — always mach above the 
freezing point. The average difference in the two months 
was more than 20®. 

"In the five weeks beginning npon January 1st, 1795, 
there were 2,823 deaths ; in the five weeks beginning npon 
January 1st, 1796, there were only 1,471. The difference, 
1,352, is enormous. The mortality in the former year was 
nearly double that in the latter. 

**It is very instructive to remark in what class of 
persons the severe weather of winter is most felt. The 
increased mortality was found to be among the very 
young and the very old; in other words, among those 
in whom the recuperative power of generating heat is the 
feeblest. In January, 1795, there were in London 717 
deaths of persons above sixty years old ; while in January, 
1796, there were only 153 such deaths, or scarcely more 
than one fifth of the former number."^ 



§ m. BOOTS AND SHOES. 

Under the caprice of fashion in civilized communities, 
the human foot has been subjected to pain, inflammation, 
deformity, permanent lameness, fi*ost-bite, and death. The 
Chinese fogt presents the extreme of deformity. Females, 

1 Dr. Watson, Lecture 7, p. 04. Note by Dr Condie. 



BOOTS AND SHOES. 85 

and those only of a certain rank, are privileged with this 
badge. In infancy the foot and ankle are snugly ban- 
daged, and the foot thrust into a metallic slipper. This 
apparatus is kept applied till the period of adult life. 
The compression, so great and constant, raises a trans- 
verse fold across the sole of the foot, just anterior to 
the heel, which is from three fourths of an inch to an 
inch deep. The great toe points forward, and all the 
small toes are tucked into the sole so as not to be dis- 
tinguishable on the upper side of the 
foot. The individual with these feet 
can never walk, except a short distance, 
without great pain. I have two speci- 
mens of this sort of slipper, which I 
procured from a Chinese female brought 
to New York several years ago. She 
had worn them till fairly worn out. The 
length of the shoe is five and one fourth 
inches, the widest part is but an inch and three quarters, 
the middle of the sole in the widest part scarcely an 
^ j^ inch. The upper part of the shoe is 

satin, ornamented at the toe; the sole 
seems to have been of a coarse, firm 
cloth fabric, with numerous layers of 
CHINESE 8HPFEH. ^^^^^^ wrapped round it, and made to 

adhere to each other by glue, or gum, or paste. Fig. 15, 
shows the deformed foot and lower part of the leg ; Fig. 
16, the shoe. 

A deformity less striking than the Chinese, but suffi- 
ciently revolting and painful, is not unfrequently met with 
among us. It is caused by pressure from boots and shoes 
too small for the foot. The shoe is narrow at the part 
corresponding with the bases of the toes, and the foot. 





86 



BOOTS AND SHOES. 



instead of being allowed to spread as Nature intended, to 
form a fit support for the body, with a free motion of the 
toes for adjusting the equilibrium of the superincumbent 
weight, is so compressed as to render the toes nearly use- 
less. In this way the natural elasticity of the foot is 
destroyed, and the individual walks as if the front part 
of the foot had been amputated, or the toes taken off by 
mortification. Who has not seen on Change, in some of 
our cities on a pleasant day, not very hot nor very cold, 
some of the dons of the town, their feet muffled with 
moccasins, cautiously moving by aid of one or two canes 
apiece. The dandy boots of early and middle life, with, 
in some instances, the reinforcement of an occasional fit of 
gout, give the explanation. If one of those artificial feet 
be inspected, the great toe is observed to be turned off 
towards the central line of the foot ; on the joint connect- 
ing it with the foot is a 
large tumor, called a bun- 
ion; the small toes jam- 
med together, and one of 
them, commonly the index 
or second toe, riding upon 
its two neighbors, the first 
and third; the little toe 
turned under the fourth, and almost out of sight, has been 
compressed into an irregular three-sided pyramid; and, 
to complete the physiognomy, all the 
small toes are embossed with corns. 

But this style of deformity is not 
confined to males. Females have a 
share. Our ladies, like the Chinese, 
have a horror of a large foot, as being 
vulgar. Hence they take great pains, with small and tight 



Fig. 17. 




COBNS AND BUNIONS. 



Fig. 18. 




child's foot. 



B00T3 AND SHOES. 87 

shoes, to prevent its full development. Many a lady wears 
a shoe with a sole not more than half the width of the 
foot at its widest part, — viz. at the root of the toes, — 
hence corns, bunions, and one toe riding upon its neigh- 
bor. A com upon the front part of the sole of the foot 
is liable to arise from walking on pavements and side- 
walks in thin-soled boots and shoes. 

A sufficient number, both of males and females, are too 
familiar with the effects of corns to j^ ^^ 

render necessary a description of the 
pain and crippling they occasion. 
The proper preventive and perma- 
nent remedy for these morbid growths 
is a perfectly loose boot or shoe ; and 
one of a thick sole, to equalize the 
pressure in walking, for a com upon 
the sole. So dominant is fashion, 
that, in some of the large cities, the 
business of com -cutting is a lucrative 

«x«^^/^««:^,. A Ax™, nrr^n.^ ^l^^^ A ^^«.^ DANDT'S BOOT OP 1889. 

proiession. A tew years since a corn- 
cutter in Paris was in the habit of giving annually a 
splendid dinner to a fashionable boot-maker, as an ac- 
knowledgment of his services in supplying him with 
patients. 

Fig. 17 shows the bunion, corns, and riding toe. Fig. 
18 shows the natural direction of the toes in the foot of a 
child. In some few instances the riding toe is observed 
in a new-bom child, transmitted, like some other peculiari- 
ties of form, from the parent. Fig. 19, a fashionable boot 
of the present time, 1859 ; a small and high heel, and an 
antero-posterior arch in the sole. Now the smaller the 
heel, and the higher the heel of the boot or shoe, the more 
difficult is walking. A small heel requires extra muscular 

4 




38 



BOOTS AND SHOES. 



Fig. 20. 
I 




lu>t'8 shoe— irsB. 



effort to prevent the inward or outward turning of the 
foot. With a high heel the centre of gravity is thrown 

too far forward upon the foot. 

U. When a student of medicine, I 

I assisted my preceptor in reduo- 

\a ing a forward dislocation of the 

leg upon the foot, caused by the 
high heel of the patient's shoe 
being caught upon the edge of a 
step as she descended a stairway. 
Fig. 20, specimen of a wedding 
shoe 1795. I remember to have 
heard a lady accustomed to high-heeled shoes remark, 
that she could not walk at all with the foot flat upon the 
ground ; in other words, she could not walk on her own 
heels. 

The human foot is strictly a tripod. The weight of the 
body is sustained upon three points, — the heel, the joint 
at the base of the great toe, and that at the base of the 
little toe. Strong muscles are connected with these three 
points. The arch in the sole of a boot, made, as is sup- 
posed, to correspond with the arch in the human foot, 
is not physiological. The foot is 
made to tread upon a flat or level 
surface. The arch, or hollow of the 
foot, is evidently designed to allow 
the muscles which go from the heel 
to the toes to play freely and un- 
.compressed, giving a due elasticity to the step. If a shoe 
"he made with a high arch and a stifl* sole it interferes, by 
compression, with the action of those muscles, rendering 
the gait in walking stiffj unsightly, and uncon^fortable. A 
tight boot or shoe sonaetimes crowds the flesh upon the 



Fig. 21. 




LONG BHOB, 
TIME OF BICHABD II. 



1 




BOOTS AND SHOES. 89 

comer of the great toe-nail, causing a painful inflamma- 
tion or a bad ulcer. Chilblains are liable to occur in cold 
w «« or wet weather, when the feet are 

pinched, or not well clad; and 
frost bite, sometimes followed by 
mortification, occasionally comes 
in the same way. I recollect the 
case of a college student, who, in 

LONG BHOB, HOUSE OF YORK. ^^^ ^^j^ WCathcr, had his tOCS 

80 badly frozen in a pair of tight boots as to require a 
good deal of surgical attention. 

Square-toed, round-toed, and sharp-toed boots have all 
had their day. Figs. 22 and 23 ^^ ^ 

prevailed at different periods of 
English history ; and Fig. 23 has 
a remarkable clog, as an oma- 
ment and support. 

A London bootmaker recom- 
mends that boots, instead of being 

made ^ rights and lefts," should be made on a straight last, 
and then worn rights and lefts. It may be added, that a 
boot or shoe should have a flat sole, fully as wide as the 
foot, in every part, with a capacity sufficient to admit of 
unrestrained motion of all the toes, and a heel broad, and 
of very little thickness. Cork movable soles, such as are 
now very commonly used, are valuable in guarding the 
feet against cold and dampness, and in diffusing more 
equally the pressure they are exposed to from walking 
upon irregular surfaces. In the early part of the Christian 
era this matter seems to have been understood. The 
elegant equestrian statue, in bronze, of Marcus Aurelius, 
on Capitoline Hill, at Rome, exhibits the Fmperor in 
round-toed shoes, with broad, flat soles, and wide and 
low heels. 




40 BOOTS AND BH0E3. 

Every part of the foot ehoald be free from pressure, bo 
&r as to allow a free circulation of tbc blood in tlie amall- 
est vessels. Some years 
ago I wore a boot which 
waa rather IJght over the 
instep of my left foot, 
though it was not par- 
ticularly uncomfoitable. 
In three months I ob- 
served that there was a 
permanent nambness on 
a patch of skin whei'e 
I the pressure had been 
the greatest. From this 
time I took care to have 
the boot for that foot, 
which was always a lit- 
tle larger than the 
right, made perfectly 
loose ; but it was two 
full years before the 
paralysis was entirely 
BxaciBiTK-iwt' removed. 

■ Fig. SI represents Bn Engliah diiiid; or exgninte of 164B. His hat with ■ 
mpir-Jtxf crown, h bunch of ribbon on one aide, und ■ fealbor on tbe other. 
Hla eoHw edged with lace, a mouatache aboul his month, cheeks dotted with 
pUchea; two love-toclie, one on eacli eide of the head, hanging down Id front 
of tbe boaom, tied with bows of ribbon at the end. A light Test partly opened, 
and between it and his breechet large folds of hie shirt hang onl. His breeches 
omamenteiJ with many points at the knees, and abore them great bunches of 
ribbon of Tsrkius oolon. His boot-tops so large as to rei^nlie a stntddllng 
walk. 



CHAPTER II. 

VENTILATION — LIGHT — SLEEP — EXEBCISE — BATHING. 

S L VENTILATION. 

The necessity of pure air to the preservation of health 
is admitted by all, and appreciated only by few. In 
the constmction of dwelling-houses, the same want of 
regard to this subject, with here and there an exception, 
is manifest that existed forty years ago. In the northern 
parts of our country great pains is taken, by tight rooms 
and double windows, when they can be afforded, for shut- 
ting the air out, but no provision made in way of regular 
supply for letting it in. Very extensively in our farming 
districts the open fire-place, sometimes broad enough for 
a rousing fire of wood four feet long, besides a row of 
children inside the jamb, has given place to the close iron 
stove. The large open fire, when in brisk action, secured 
an adequate ventilation, while the close stove requires 
only air enough for the combustion of the fuel within. 
One stove often answers for the whole family, during the 
cold season. The warming, cooking, and washing are all 
done in one room. The exhalations fi*om the cooking- 
vessels, and from the lungs and persons of the whole 
family, are all mixed together, and breathed over and 
over, to sustain the movements of life. Is it to be won- 
dered at that consumption is, as I am assured by some of 

4* 



42 VENTILATION. 



» 



my friends, far more common among the Green Moan- 
tains of Vermont than it was twenty-five or thirty years 
ago, before the close stove was generally used, as now, 
instead of the open fire ? 

In our cities and large villages many a lady, who has 
the windows of her sleeping rooms opened for a short air- 
ing once a day, supposes that nothing more is necessary 
for the twenty-four hours. Speak to her on t^e impor- 
tance of. ventilation, — she agrees with you, remarking 
that her chambers are always ventilated every day. How 
surprised she would be, on being assured that seven to 
ten cubic feet of air per minute to each individual in an 
apartment should be admitted, in order to maintain its 
atmosphere in a state fit for healthy respiration. 

In sickness, no sanitary influence is of more value than 
pure air. This is especially the case in fevers. In typhus, 
typhoid, and eruptive fevers, the exhalations from the 
bodies of the sick are sometimes so intense as to cause 
nausea and vomiting among the attendants. Soon after 
I commenced the practice of medicine, I had a patient, 
sick with typhoid fever, who was ill cared for, in a badly 
ventilated room. At one of my visits I inhaled effluvia 
so- offensive as to create a nausea that lasted two hours. 
Within five days I was attacked with a similar form 
of fever, which confined me to my chamber for six 
weeks. Some years since, at Baltimore, I received a 
horrid impression, which I can never forget, from looking 
into a room, apparently wholly unventilated, containing 
ten colored men with small-pox. In one of our large 
cities I was requested to look in upon my friend, the 

Rev. Dr. , who, I was told, was sick with scarlet 

fever. I found him in his bed, which lay up snug in 
one comer of the chamber, although it was a large one. 



VBNTILATIOir, 43 

He was surrounded by bed-curtains, with an opening 
sufficient to allow his friends to peep through and see 
him. I left the chamber with the impression that he 
would die of that sickness, as he did. In unpromising 
cases, the ^vorable change in the symptoms, when the 
patient, sunk and apparently near to death, is transferred 
to a cleanly and well-ventilated apartment, is sometimes 
Tery striking. 

In the winter of 1837-8, while occupied at the Fairfield 
Medical School, Herkimer County, New York, I was re- 
quested to visit two patients, sick of typhoid fever, which 
for several weeks had prevailed in that neighborhood. 
One was a girl of sixteen, whose life was despaired of 
by her physician. She lay in a small bedroom without a 
window, the door of which opened into a larger room 
warmed by a close stove, the smoke-pipe of which com- 
municated with the chimney through a fire-board that 
shut from the room a large fire-place. The poor girl lay 
unconscious, the mouth open and dry, the eyes half open, 
turned upward, motionless and glassy. I made a remark 
that the prospect for life of the patient, in that small place, 
with little else to breathe but the steam of her own body, 
was to my mind veiy much like that of the persons whose 
bodies had recently been laid in the burial-ground hard 
by. This remark, if it seemed harsh, had the effect to 
promote a ready observance of the suggestions which fol- 
lowed. She was to be removed to a clean bed in the 
large room, the stove and fire-board to be taken away, 
and a brisk fire made upon the hearth, as the weather was 
then cold, — the patient to be fed, in the small way, with 
diluent and farinaceous drinks, and to be covered with 
sufficient bed-clothing. In two or three hours conscious- 
ness returned. This was in the afternoon. She slept sev- 



44 VENTILATION. 

eral hoars that night, was comfortable the next day, and 
had a rapid recovery, almost without medicine. The 
other patient, in the same house, a student of the Acad- 
emy, had been sick several days, — his case not very un- 
promising, except that he had been daily getting rather 
worse. He was in a small chamber, warmed by a close 
stove. This and the fire-board were removed, and the 
room kept well ventilated. He, too, recovered under 
good nursing. How impotent is medicine in such cases, 
compared with pure air. 

Dr. Thayer, in his Report on Practical Medicine, read 
at the annual meeting of the New Hampshire Medical 
Society, in 1858, remarking on the importance of ventila- 
tion in the treatment of disease, refers to the case of a 
large number of " emigrants, who arrived at Perth Amboy, 
from Liverpool, with ship fever, and who, for want of suf- 
ficient accommodation, were placed in shanties wh^re 
they were exposed to the pure air, the buildings being so 
loosely constructed that they admitted the rain. Of the 
whole nugiber of eighty-two patients not one died; of 
four others, who were removed to an ordinary dwelling- 
house, and who were subjected to precisely the same 
medical treatment, two died?^^ 

" The deaths of new-born infants, between the kges of 
one and fifteen days, which, in the Dublin Lying-in Hos- 
pital, amounted in the course of four years to 2944 out of 
7650 births, were suddenly reduced to only 269 deaths 
during the same period, after a new system of ventilation 
had been adopted."* 

^Dr. Watson refers to an epidemic fever in Ireland, where <<the mortal- 
ity among the patients, who were placed in sheds upon straw, and left 
with very little medical attention, and even without any great personal atten- 
tion from others, was very small indeed." — Lecture 86. 

' Blackwood's Magazine, Sept. 1828. 



LIGHT. 45 

Notwithstanding the increasing interest felt upon this 
subject, there is probably not one building in a hundred, 
in our large cities, that is erected with due reference to 
ventilation. Churches, and lecture-rooms and court-rooms, 
with but rare exceptions, are fitted up to seethe an assem- 
bly in the noxious e^alations from two or three thou- 
sand pair of lungs. I have seen a chief justice, in a large 
court-room, fast asleep upon his high bench. How could 
he help it ? He had been inhaling, for several hours, the 
oppressive vapors of two hundred human lungs and skins, 
unloading themselves of their nauseous animalized ordors, 
mixed with liquor and tobacco.^ 

S n. LIGHT. 

The influence of sunlight upon organic developments, 
and its necessity in the maintenance of health, seem not to 
have been extensively enough appreciated. From want of 
this vivifying power, the nutrient juices are deteriorated, 
the human countenance becomes pale and waxy, and some 
form of chronic disease is liable to follow. Sir James 
Wilie, for many years physician to the Emperors Alex- 
ander and Nicholas, of Russia, remarks that in a certain 
barrack at St. Petersburg the mortality on the dark side — 
that from which the sunlight was always excluded — was 

1 In all the recently constmcted hospitals of England, the cubic space for 
each patient ranges from 1600 to 2400 feet. The latest and most approved 
plan for warming and ventilating hospitals and other public buildings in 
England, is by open flre-places in connection with openings for the admis- 
sion of fresh air over the tops of the windows or near the ceiling, filled with 
wire-gause or perforated plates, to break the force of the current, or with 
frames so placed as to throw the current upwards towards the ceiling; dif- 
fusing it, and preventing its falling directly in a body on those below. In 
large establishments the air of the room, especially in hot weather, is 
changed by forced currents, kept in motion by the aid of machinery. 



46 LIGHT. 







four times greater than on the side on which the sun 
shone and penetrated into the windows and doors of the 
apartment ; and this, notwithstanding that equal attention 
was paid to ventilation op the two sides of the institu- 
tion.* 

At the annual meeting of the N4w York State Medical 
Society, in 185iB, Dr. Augustus Willard, President of the 
Society, gave an excellent address on the subjects of Air, 
Exercise, and Light, in relation to health ; in which are 
presented, in an impressive manner, the claims of sunlight 
to a high place as a hygienic agent. The experience and 
remarks of that intrepid explorer. Dr. Kane, in his two 
Arctic expeditions, are referred to as strongly supporting 
the position. 

" At the withering temperature, sometimes, of 60° and 
75° below zero, Dr. Kane and his companions passed two 
years nearer the north pole than had been, in modern 
times, the wintering place of any voyager before them. 
They had a night of total darkness of more than two 
months in each winter. For one hundred and twenty- 
four days the sun was below the horizon, and one hundred 
and forty passed before his rays reached the rocky shadow- 
ings of the brig. Animal life languished. Dr. Kane, 
under date of December 20, — the day preceding their 
** solstitial day of greatest darkness," — makes the follow- 
ing record: — 

"In truth, we were all undergoing changes uncon- 
sciously. The hazy obscurity of the nights we had gone 
through made them darker than the corresponding nights 
of Parry. The complexions of my comrades, and my 
Own, too, were toned down to a peculiar waxy paleness ; 

1 North BritlBh Beview, Kufso^ ^868. 



LIGHT. 47 

oar eyes were more recessed^ and strangely clear. Com- 
plaints of shortness of breath became general ; oar appe- 
tite was almost ludicrously changed,. • • . and oar inclination 
for food was at best very slight ; more than this, oar com- 
plete solitade, joined with the perpetual darkness, began 
to affect our morcUe,^^ January 22. ^ I long for the day. 
The anomalous host of evils which hang about this vege- 
tating in the darkness, are showing themselves in all their 
forms. My scurvy patients, — those, I mean, on the sick 
list, — with all the care it is possible to give them, are, 
perhaps, no worse; but pains in the joints, rheumatism, 
cougjis, loss of appetite, and general debility, extend over 
the whole company. .... We are a ghastly set of pale- 
£ices, and none paler than myself" 

In his second expedition, Dr. Kane notices the same 
influence of darkness in causing disease ; and most of his 
dogs, '' although the greater part of them were natives of 
the Arctic circle, died of an anomalous form of disease, 
to which," he believes, ^the absence of light contributed 
as much as the extreme cold." 

Under all the privation and suffering endured by these 
ice-bound explorers in the dreary polar night, it is natural 
that they should greet with joy the approach of day. 
Says Dr. Kane : ** The day is beginning to glow with the 
approaching sun. The south, at noon, has almost an 
orange tinge. In ten days his direct range will reach our 
hill-tops; and in a week after, he will be dispensing his 
blessed medicine among our sufferers. The coming sun 
will open appliances of moral help to the sick, and give 
energy to the hygienic resorts which I am arranging at 

this moment For the last ten days we have been 

watching the growing warmth of the landscape as it 
emerged from the buried shadow through all the stages 



48 UQHT. 

of distinctness of an India-ink washing, step by step, into 
the sharp, bold definition of a desolate harbor scene. We 
have marked every dash of color which the great painter, 
in his benevolence, vouchsafed us ; and now the empurpled 
hues, clear, unmistakable ; the spreading lake, the flick- 
ering yellow, peering at all these poor wretches ! Every- 
thing superlative lustre and unspeakable glory." 

"I saw him (the sun) once more," says he, "and upon 
a projecting crag nestled in the sunshine. It was like 
bathing in perfumed water." 

Arctic voyagers are very subject to scurvy. That this 
liability is largely owing to the privation or scanty simply 
of sunshine can hardly be doubted ; while the diet and 
the extreme cold contribute to the deterioration of the 
blood. 

The convicts in our penitentiaries, who enjoy but little 
of direct sunshine, make a singular impression upon the 
mind of a stranger who attends their chapel worship Sab- 
bath morning, — their hair sheared close upon their heads^ 
and row upon row of expressionless, waxy faces, without 
a spot of rouge or tint of a brunette upon one of them. 

It will be recollected by those who are familiar with the 
history of Caspar Hauser, that he lived sixteen or seven- 
teen years with but little light, never having the direct 
rays of the sun in his cell. His diet was the simplest 
possible, — bread and water; better for him, doubtless, 
than seal's flesh and bear meat. 

The physiological influences of an Arctic climate im- 
press the conviction that it was never designed for the 
comfortable residence of human beings. What a mistake, 
that sunshine must be shut out of our houses, and para- 
solled away from the fece, neck, and arms of our women, 
from the lady of the parlor to the girl of the wash-tub. 



SLEEP. 49 



S III. SLEEP. 

It is a law of the animal economy in man and all the 
inferior tribes, that some part of the time must be passed 
in sleep. This seems to be necessary for the renewal of 
nerve-power, expended under the excitements of the 
waking period, and for restoitng the equilibrium of blood- 
distribution in parts which, during the same period, 
have been most exposed to changes of temperature, or 
enfeebled by extra exertion. 

In infancy, the nervous power is largely employed in 
the processes of building up the organs; hence a great 
part of the time is passed in sleep. Night sleep is more 
refreshing than day sleep; and this must be true even 
when daylight is excluded from the sleeping-room. It has 
been asserted that the atmospheric electricity, from eight 
o'clock in the evening till four the following morning, has 
less protective influence over the human nerves than at 
any other period of the same length in the twenty-four 
hours ; that at eight o'clock, p. m., the positive electricity 
begins to wane ; that it sinks to its minimum from twelve 
to two, and is re-established at four. Be this as it may, it 
is a noteworthy fact that in severe forms of disease, as 
croup or cholera, the attack is either made in that period, 
or the symptoms aggravated, if the disease had already 
existed. 

"Two colonels in the French army had a dispute 
whether it was most safe to march in the heat of the 
day, or at evening. To ascertain this point, they got 
permission from the commanding ofiicer to put their re- 
spective plans into execution. Accordingly, the one, with 
his division, marched dming the day, although it was in 

5 



50 SLEEP* 

the heat of summer, and rested all night ; the other slept 
in the day, and marched during the evening and part of 
the night. The result was, that the fii-st performed a 
journey of six hundred miles without losing a single man 
or horee, while the latter lost most of his horses and 
several of his men." ^ 

How many hours should be expended in human sleep ? 
Putting infancy and old age* out of the question, the re- 
marks of John Wesley are worth considering. He says, 
"If any one desires to know exactly what quantity of 
sleep his own situation requires, he may very easily make 
the experiment which I made about sixty years ago. I 
then waked about twelve or one, and lay awake for some 
time. I readily concluded that this arose from my lying 
in bed longer than nature required. To be satisfied, I 
procured an alarum, which waked me the next morning at 
seven, near an hour earlier than I rose before ; yet I lay 
awake again at night. The second morning I rose at six ; 
but, notwithstanding this, I lay awake the second night. 
The third morning I rose at five ; but nevertheless I lay 
awake the third night. The fourth morning I rose at four 
(as by the grace of God I have done ever since), and lay 
awake no more. And I do not lie awake, taking the year 
round, a quarter of an hour together in a month. By the 
same experiment (rising earlier and earlier every morning) 
may every one find how much sleep he really wants." 
Wesley's period was six hours. Jeremy Taylor speaks 
of three hours. Lord Coke and Sir William Jones, seven, 
Sir John Sinclair, eight. Hon. Joseph Story, an eminent 
jurist of the United States Supreme Court, — an indefati- 
gable student, — required, as he believed, eight hours of 

^ Quoted from Van Langin on Diet by Dr. McNifih. 



SLEEP. 51 

sleep. From six to eight hoars may be regarded as the 
proper part of the twenty-four to devote to sleep. Sleep- 
ing too mach, like sleeping too little, enfeebles and pros- 
trates. The man who eats too much requires more sleep 
to rid him of the excess than he who eats just enough to 
supply the healthy wants of his organs. He is a loser in 
two ways, — he works the machinery of .life too hard, and 
gets a less refreshing rest than needful. 

Carnivorous animals sleep, it is said, more than the veg- 
etable-eaters. They are day sleepere, dozing away the 
time till night, and then prowling abroad in quest of their 
prey. John Wesley's great self-control in eating and 
drinking aids in explaining his six hours complement of 
sleep for sixty years, under the extraordinary amount of 
labor which he accomplished. 

In dreaming, the feeling of surprise is never present. 
Let the elements of the dream be ever so incongruous, let 
the personages dreamed of be individuals long since dead, 
the dream goes on in a bond fide manner, — the incongru- 
ity never once thought of. 

The lapse of time in dreams is not appreciated as in the 
waking state. A dream may run through the mind in a 
minute, which seems to the dreamer to have occupied 
days, or even years. " A person who was suddenly aroused 
from sleep by a few drops of water sprinkled in his face, 
dreamed of the events of his entire life, in which happi- 
ness and sorrow were mingled, and which finally termi- 
nated in an altercation upon the borders of an extensive 
lake, into which his exasperated companion, after a con- 
siderable straggle, succeeded in plunging him." 

Opium, in certain doses, increases the absurdities of 
dreams. I knew a physician, several years since, who, 
under an attack of inflummation of the lining membrane 



52 SLEEP. 

of the stomach, had but very little sleep for about two 
weeks. A distinguished medical friend from a distance 
visited him, and prescribed a large dose of laudanum, to 
be given by injection. The patient had a disturbed sleep, 
and a dream which made a strong impression. He saw 
himself suspended vertically in the air, heels up and head 
down, the head out off, and remaining nine or ten inches 
below the body, — all without any visible means of sup- 
port, resting as if held quiet and motionless by a magnet. 
Nobody could inform him how long his body and head 
were to remain in that predicament. 

De Quincey, in his "Confessions of an Opium-Eater," 
has described the influence of this drug upon dreams, as 
follows : " Under the connecting feeling of tropical heat 
and vertical sunlight, I brought together all creatures, 
birdsj beasts, reptiles, all trees and plants, usages and 
appearances, that are found in all tropical regions, and 
assembled them together in China and Hindostan. From 
kindred feelings, I soon brought Egypt and all her gods 
under the same law. I was stared at, hooted at, grinned 
at, chattered at, by monkeys, paroquets, cockatoos. I ran 
into pagodas, and was fixed for centuries at the summit, 
or in the secret rooms. I was the idol. I was the priest. 
I was worshipped. I was sacrificed. I fled from the 
wi'ath of Brahma through all the forests of Asia. Vishnu 
hated me. Seeva lay in wait for me. I came suddenly 
upon Isis and Osiris. I had done a deed, they said, at 
which the ibis and the crocodile trembled. J was buried 
for a thousand years in stone cofiins, with mummies andr'' 
sphinxes, in narrow chambers, at the heart of etemalVpyn 
amids. I was kissed with cancerous kisses by crocodil|^s, 
and laid confounded with all unutterable slimy thin| 
amongst reeds and Nilotic mud." 



\ 



BXERCISB. 53 

Alcoholic drinks often bring frightfal images in sleep, 
and their influence sometimes extends to the waking state, 
as in delirium tremefis, calling up, as if by natural affinity, 
ferocious beasts, serpents, and demons. A stomach over- 
charged with food, especially when mixed with alcoholics, 
makes its appropriate exhibition in the hideous monstrosi- 
ties oP nightmare. 

§ IV. EXERCISE, 

Of all the occupations of men for the promotion of 
health, the tiller of the ground has the best. He exer- 
cises the muscles of his body and limbs, breathes the 
open air of heaven, has his nerves soothed by the light 
of day, takes his meals at regular times, and retires to 
rest when the labors of the day are over. In other voca- 
tions nothing can fully supply the place of exercise. A 
sound body and a sound mind are properly regarded as 
holding a natural relation to each other. The institutions 
of Lycurgus required much athletic exercise, both for 
males and females, in order to rear a hardy and invincible 
race. For nearly five hundred years Sparta maintained 
her independence and her power, and was only overcome 
by the corrupting influence of wealth, and its ordinary 
accompaniments of luxury, efieminacy, and crime. 

What single influence can do more to arrest the deter- 
ioration of our times, than connecting with our educa- 
tional institutions some regular system of exercise ? The 
Gymnasia of Germany, within the last few years, have 
been doing a great work for that part of Europe ; and if, 
in the United States, in every school, from the primary 
to the college and university, calisthenio and gymnastic 
exercises were made indispensable, and if in every city 

6* 



54 BATHING. 

gymnasia should be established at the public expense, for 
clerks, and others who lead an indoor life, what an im- 
proved aspect would the coming generation exhibit. The 
exercise of walking, riding on horseback, cricket, ten-pins, 
skating, and boat-rowing, are all of value. A few years 
since, workshops for coarse cabinet furniture were tried in 
our literary institutions, but they did not last long. The 
students thought they ought to prepare themselves for 
" head work," rather than any sort of handicraft. There 
was an establishment of this sort at the Theological Semi- 
nary at Andover, Mass.; but as this part of the instruction 
was not compulsory, it was ultimately abandoned. The 
Rev. Henry Little, now of Madison, Ind., tells me that 
his class, while at Andover, wrought in the shop an hour 
and a half each day ; that they were graduated, thirty- 
nine in number, in 1829; and that they are all, except 
one, still living this October 24, 1858. This period of 
twenty-nine years speaks favorably for the workshop. 

The influence of the habitual employment and neglect 
of different sets of muscles was well illustrated in a shoe- 
maker I knew several years ago. I saw him at the age of 
eighty-two, still working at his trade. It was with diffi- 
culty that he could walk across the room; yet he had 
such command of his fingers that he wrote for me a few 
lines, in a fair, legible hand. 

§ V. BATHING. 

Cleanliness is entitled to rank as a virtue in those 
communities where eating and drinking are among the 
leading elements of social refinement. Indeed, it is most 
natural to infer that an organ of so great extent as the 
human skin, and occupied in casting out from the blood 



BATHING. 55 

the worn-out tissaes of the several organs, ought to be 
kept in a state in activity and vigor. In aid of this excre- 
tory function, bathing, of some form, is generally regarded 
as valuable ; and still it cannot be denied that great num- 
bers of individuals, in our fanning districts, pass many 
years without, in a single instance, plunging or washing 
their entire bodies in water, and notwithstanding attain 
to an advanced age. Dr. Livingstone, in a communication 
recently read before the British Scientific Association, 
mentions that, in African explorations this year (1860), 
he found a tribe who live in villages ; are industrious, cul- 
tivate and manufacture cotton, work in iron, and produce 
fruits, grains, and esculent roots. They have a healthy 
climate, judging from the number of white-headed men, 
apparently very old. They are averse to ablutions, or to 
bathing in any form. ^ An old man said he remembered 
washing himself once, when a boy, — never repeated it, — 
and from his appearance, the truth of his statement could 

hardly be doubted." " The castor oil with which they 

lubricate themselves, and the dirt, serve as additional 
clothing." 

The sponge-bath is one of the least troublesome vari- 
eties, occupying less time than any other. The apparatus 
is simple, viz. a basin of water, a sponge, a towel, and a 
mat, or bit of carpet, to stand upon. With the sponge, 
the body and limbs are moistened with water, and then 
rubbed dry with the towel. The water may be tepid or 
cold, according to the preference of the bather. In cold 
weather, when it is ah object to excite a free re-action 
upon the skin, a hair mitten or a flesh-brush may be used 
after the towel. 

The plunge-bath and the shower-bath may be warm 
or cold. Bathing should not be resorted to while the 



56 BATHING. 

stomach is occupied in the process of digestion. Eleven 
o'clock in the forenoon is a good hour for the tonic effect 
oF the warm bath, or of the cool or cold bath, in hot 
weather, if the person has eaten nothing since six or seven 
o'clock. 

For the shower-bath, the head should be protected by 
an oiled silk cap, unless the hair be so short as to be easily 
wiped dry. In the natural drying of much hair upon the 
head, too much heat is abstracted from the brain. 

Few individuals have the resolution to encounter the 
cold shower or cold plunge bath in winter. I know an 
English gentleman who believes that the daily morning 
shower-bath, through summer and winter, protects him 
from a tormenting rheumatism, which had lasted for years. 
At Liverpool, in 1830, I made the acquaintance of Mr. 
Maury, the United States consul in that city. He in- 
formed me that after having, for a number of yeai's, 
suffered much from rheumatism, he was advised to resort 
to the cold plunge-bath every morning; that he had 
practised this method for the last forty years, and during 
that period had enjoyed an exemption from the malady. 
He was then, as nearly as memory serves me, not far from 
eighty-three yeara of age. At the suggestion that a good 
share of firmness was necessary to perseverance in the 
practice, he remarked that for many years he had not 
come up to that tub of cold water, which was about to 
receive him bodily, without a momentary feeling of repul- 
sion and dread. 

Almost every one knows that bathing is not healthful 
unless speedily followed by a sense of warmth upon the 
surface ; or a feeling of exhilaration, rather than languor 
or depression. 

The public baths of Imperial Rome were among her 



lArTFT^r, C 



V « 



still TiiLtOe cif "lirise :if T.^asi. I^-cIiiliJi* is?! Cjurnk-jLllj;. 
Those c^ Cxrur.iZ-A wert fij:L-si»ei wl;i sj[i<vci l*T.Irv»i 
seats o^ ssJiriC'*- -Liiia wi-rc. ilrt* ;l:-2si:i'i jtfrfcc* <v<il-l 
be seated 32 iiit ^a^rtt rj=ie- '*'Ti'.-i5«e -cf Ih^vltiiia sslin 
passed aZ ilft c-i^rs £* «l» xr.! *.xz:j:«:^2s:es5. cc" vi^n^- 
oratfoa.'* Til* j-z.\l: Icu^ Ir iZ lie c£:-les cf Kcor^.^ 
freqiieiite«i \j aZ dijtssiei. ^iIzhjcIt Wcirie $»l^i^.v!l:^ i^t" 
idleness^ c:5c=LZz.trj, i^l B^teztir-^ssL-ess^ arl Lil eo ss2:x1I 
share in Er.r.yrrir^ lie j^cwcr wLi^h Lid ecz ^'::c'Tv:d *he 
world. 

PcppoML the wiSe cf X^rx hi I at ter co2tTv»i five fc:;a- 
died she assess in wL*>se irilk she vas woe; to Uiihe> 1k>r 
the bene£t, as she szz j-Zfue-L of her con: j: lexioa. 

The last work (.^n baih:=z: i of Dr. John Be'A of Phi!a- 
delphia, p^ubHsbe*! in I^jJ^ seecis to have ejJiaQsted the 
literature of the suhjed, leaving nothing for subse^iuent 
laborers in that dej mtmest. Upon water, as a prophj^ 
lactic^ and a remedLd agent in certain diseases^ both in 
its ancient and modem history, it is Terr fnIL This book 
is entitled to a pLice in eTerr medical iibrarj. 



CHAPTER III. 



ALCOHOL DAVIS'S EXPERIMENTS ON CONSUMPTIVE 

PATIENTS. 



Alcohol, when taken somewhat dilute into the human 
stomach, produces a sensation of warmth, which is in no 
long time diffused among the several organs, accompanied 
by a general feeling of exhilaration. 

The pulse, in half an hour to an hour, is sometimes 
accelerated to the extent of six to ten beats in a minute, 
while the respirations are but slightly, if at all, changed 
in frequency. 

In certain conditions of the nerves, however, even small 
doses of distilled or fermented liquor operate as a direct 
sedative upon the pulse. I have a medical friend, who, 
in convalescence from an attack of hemiplegia, tried, by 
the advice of his physicians, wine and Huxham's tincture 
of bark. The taking of a tea-spoonful of either of these 
articles was very soon followed by a falling of the pulse 
from fifty-two to forty-eight and forty-six. This effect 
was uniform on repeated trials. At the same time, there 
was a confused and uncomfortable sensation in the head. 
The doctor soon laid aside these remedies, and recovered 
without them, on the mildest food. 

For several years past, the hypothesis has obtained that 
alcohol, as containing a consideo^ble proportion of carbon. 



ALCOHOL. 59 

must be a Talaable agent in sustaining the rital tempera- 
ture, by being bomt in the lungs; this hypothesis, too> 
chimipg so well with social customs and individual appe- 
tites in almost every class, has widely prevailed. Plausible, 
however, as this view may be, there is good reason to 
believe that it is not true. 

If alcohol combine with the atmospheric oxygen admit- 
ted to the lungs in respiration, it is natural to ask, why is 
there not, at the same time, an increased exhalation of 
carbonic acid ? But so far from this being the fact, it has 
been clearly proved that the amount of carbonic acid dis- 
charged from the lungs while alcohol is in the circulation 
is decidedly diminished. 

From the experiments of Bernard, it is inferable that 
no cambustiofiy as it is called, takes place in the capillaries 
of the lungs; that oxygen is simply taken in, and carbonic 
acid given out ; that the combination occurs in the capil- 
laries of the body, and that there heat is evolved ; and 
that it takes place by means of the oxygen which enters 
by the lungs.* 

Robin and Verdeil, in their Physiological Chemistry, 
take substantially the same view. They regard heat as 
the result of nutritive changes of all kinds, but not the 
object of theiti.* 

Carbonic acid gas exists in the lungs, the blood, the 
alimentary canal, and the urine. The amount dissolved 
in the blood would be sufficient in its gaseous state to 
occupy from one fifth to one third of the space filled by 
the blood. There is more in arterial than in venous blood, 
(one hundred and twenty-three to one hundred,) as is the 
case with oxygen and nitrogen also. It is dissolved in 

1 Dr. Walter Atlee's Notes of K. Bernard's Lectures on the Blood. 
SBeview of Bobin and Verdeil, p. 119, Am. Med. Monthly. 



60 ALCOHOL. 

both the seram of the blood and the corpuscles ; while 
oxygen is dissolved principally, if not wholly, in the 
corpuscles. 

Bernard found the blood in the right side of the heart 
to be warmer than that in the lefl, and the blood in the 
ascending cava, just coming from the liver, a little wanner 
than that from the descending cava. 

The function of the lungs, then, so far as at present 
understood, is to take atmospheric oxygen, and other 
gaseous or volatile substances, into the blood, to exhale 
a certain proportion of its carbonic acid, and other effete 
or foreign matters, and to cast off or absorb water in 
proportion to its excess or deficiency in the circulation. 

Alcohol, undecomposed, is capable of existing for a 
length of time in the blood, and passes out by the kid- 
neys, skin, and lungs. Dr. Percy found it in the urine ; 
it is often observed in the perspiration ; and who has not 
a thousand times smelt it as it is poured from the lungs 
at every breath ? ^ 

From the experiments of Dr. Prout, it is plain that 
alcohol so interferes with, or prevents, the healthy vital 
processes, as to cause the blood to retain an undue pro- 
portion of carbonic acid ; for the doctor found that after 
the alcoholic influence of the wine taken with his dinner 
had passed ofl^ the exhalation of this acid recurred, and 
in a degree somewhat above the ordinary standard ; 
doubtless to relieve the blood of the undue accumulation 



^ The very iogenions and satisfactory experiments of the French chemists, 
Lallemand, Ferrin, and Duroj, lead decisively to the conclusion that alcohol 
is never decomposed in the bloody bat that it goes out as it goes in, the same agent, 
hostile to the healthy, vital movements, whatever may have been the materials 
frith which it was mixed ; and that it is cast out by the skin, the kidneys, and 
the lungs. 



Ali'>'«3"L. 61 

of worn-oat materia vli-.-b wo'.l i Live been cast oat 
without the jJcohoL % 

It is stated that tlje air in a diving-bell is sooner 
exhaosted when the diver Las tJken distilled or fer* 
mented liqaor, tL:>n wLen Lis drink has been water 
oolj. This being the csfe, it sLoold seem that the 
alcohoL in some manner, ste^ aw:kT the oxrsen of the 
blood to no nsefnl f'STyiose, but to its detriment, as it 
interferes with the escaj*e of its efVte materials. 

The Tery interesting and Ta]ual*ie ex|feriments of oar 
countryman. Prof X. S. Davis, have gone a step further. 
They exhibit a maniie&t diminolion of the vital tempera- 
ture under the influence of alcohoL 

" In the year 18.>0,'' savs Dr. Davis, " I devised a series 
of experiAients designed to test more fallv the effects of 
alcohol on the functions of re5[»iration, circulation, and 
animal heat. These experiments, commenced in the win- 
ter of 1850, have been continued from time to time since. 
The apparatus for performing the experiments consisted 
of a glass tube, graduated so as to indicate the firactions 
of a cubic inch, a very delicately graduated thermometer, 
a mercury bath, and a solution of caustic potash. With 
these arrangements, and an intelligeut assistant, in a room 
of equable temperature, about three hours after any food 
had been taken, from three to four ounces of the best 
brandy that could be procured was administered. But 
previous to administering the brandy, the temperature of 
the body was carefully noted by inserting the bulb of the 
thermometer under the tongue, with the mouth closed 
around it for several minutes. A certain number of cubic 
inches of expired air was also collected in the graduated 
tube, over mercury, and transferred from this to the bath 
of caustic potash, by which the amount of carbonic acid 

6 



62 ALCOHOL. 

was rapidly absorbed, and its quantity indicated. Having 
ascertained and noted the temperature of the body, the 
proportion of carbonic acid in the expired air, and the 
frequency of the pulse before the brandy was taken, these 
same observations were made in precisely the same man- 
ner every thirty minutes after, until three or four hours 
had elapsed. In some of the experiments, brandy was 
used as a representative of the stronger distilled liquors, 
and in others, port wine was used, in quantities of eight 
ounces at a dose, to represent the fermented liquors. . The 
result of all my observations may be summed up as 
follows, viz. : 

" First. The most direct and obvious effect of alcohol 
on the human system is to excite or exhilarate the 
functions of the brain, and increase the rapidity of the 
heart's action. This effect begins to be manifest within 
thirty minutes after the liquor is taken, and if the dose 
is not repeated, perceptibly declines in from one and a 
half to two hours. It is the exhilarating influence of the 
alcohol on the brain and nerves that gives it its fascinating 
power over the human appetite and passions, and has 
induced in th^ popular mind the general idea that it is 
actually tonic, or supporting to the functions of life. The 
stimulant effect on the vascular system is much less than 
on the nervous ; the pulse being increased, in my experi- 
ments, not more than from six to ten beats per minute, 
while its fulness and force both remained unaltered. 

" Second. It directly diminishes the amount of carbonic 
acid gas thrown out from the lungs in the expired air. 
This diminution begins to be apparent in less than one 
hour after a single dose of alcoholic liquor, and becomes 
more and more so until the end of two hours, when tiie 



ALCOUOL. 63 

proportion of carbonic acid begins again to increase, and 
at the end of three hours comes fully up to the natural 
proportion. The amount of diminution of carbonic acid 
varied in different experiments, but was well marked in 
all. In some instances it was diminished, for a short time, 
more than fifty per cent, below the propoition when the 
experiment began. 

*' Third. In all my experiments, the temperature of the 
system began perceptibly to diminish at the end of one 
hour, and continued to do so during the two succeeding 
hoars, the mercury generally standing three quarters of 
a degree lower at the end of three hours than when the 
experiment began ; and at no period of time, while the 
effects of the alcoholic beverage remained perceptible, was 
there any increase of temperature indicated by the ther- 
mometer." 

These results aid us in explainhig a truth well known 
to men of observation, that in cold climates the human 
frame has less power of resisting cold under alcoholic 
influence than when free from it. The apparently dis- 
crepant fact, that it blunts or destroys the feeling of cold, 
is fully compatible with an absolute diminution of tem- 
perature. Alcohol is a temporary excitant of the nerves, 
causing, like friction or other mechanical irritation, or 
some aromatic oils, a sensation of warmth or glow. 

Whatever relations alcohol may sustain to the blood 
and to the vital movements of the capillaiy- vessels, it is 
plain that it diminishes their ability to withstand cold, 
causes a detention of the proportion of carbonic acid 
thrown off by the lungs in health, and so perverts the 
sensibility of the nerves as to render them incapable of 
correctly reporting external impressions. A man in liquor 



64 ALCOHOL. 

may freeze to death without any strong or painful percep- 
tion of cold.^ 

Sir John Ross's voyage, from 1829 to 1833, was remark- 
able in its exposures and hardships, and in the fact that 
of a crew of twenty-three persons only three died. This 
exemption the commander attributes to unusual precau- 
tions, and especially to abstinence from intoxicating drinks. 
He says : — 

"It is difficult to persuade men, even though they 
should not be habitual drinkers of spirits, that the use 
of these liquors is debilitating, instead of the reverse. 
The immediate stimulus gives a temporary courage, and 
its effect is mistaken for an infusion of new strength ; 
but the slightest attention will show how exactly the 
reverse is the result. It is sufficient to give men under 
hard and steady labor a draught of the usual gi'og, or a 
dram, to perceive that often iri a few minutes they become 
languid and, as they term it, faint ; losing their strength 
in reality, while they attribute it to the continuance of 
their fatiguing exertions. He who will make correspond- 
ing experiments on two equal boats' crews, rowing in a 
heavy sea, will soon be convinced that the water-drinkers 
will far outdo the others. 

" It is not that I am declaring myself an advocate for 
temperance societies, whatever may be their advantage, 
nor that I am desirous of copying a practice lately intro- 
duced into some ships, under whatever motives ; but were 
it in my power, in commanding a vessel, I would exclude 
the use of grog on the mere grounds of its debilitating 

^ From December 19, 1851, to March 9, 1852, seventeen loen were admitted into 
the surgical ward of the Commercial Hospital at Cincinnati, for frost-bite of the 
feet or hands, or both, under the influence of intoxication. A majority of them 
required amputation of pafts of the frozen members. 



ALCOHOL. 65 

effects, and independently of any ulterior injury it may 
do ; reserving it for those cases alone in which its use may 
be deemed medicinal, or for any special reason useful." 

This opinion and testimony may be considered as 
reliable, inasmuch as it comes from no sympathy with 
the temperance refoim. Sir John Ross also speaks of 
^grog^ as causing inflammation of the eyes, and as 
aggravating snow-blindness; and of abstinence from its 
use as a preventive of scurvy. 

Mr. Edward Dusseault, of Somerville, Mass., crossed 
the African Deseit in 1860. In a letter to his friend, 
G. L. F., of Boston, dated at Timbuctoo, June 10, 1860, 
he makes the following statement: "The next day (the 
seventh after leaving Algiers), our water had become 
so bad that I could scarcely endure the wetting my lips 
with it, much less to drink it. The whole of our com- 
pany, excepting about fifteen, then used wine and other 
liquors, and endeavored to prevail on me to do the same ; 
but, much to their astonishment, I steadily refused, not- 
withstanding the formidable summing up of all its won- 
derful propeii/ies as a preventive against African diseases. * 
The sequel shows how little the workings of secret 
agencies are sometimes known; for the result was, that 
oZ? who used wine died soon after reaching Timbuctoo. 
Out of the eighty-two who left Algiers, there are ordy 
sixteen left I So much for the beneficial effects of ' mod- 
erate drinking P I am free to say that I consider it due, 
in a very great measure, to my being a teetotaler, that I 
have escaped the maladies to which I have been exposed 
since leaving home. We finally reached Timbuctoo, 
having consumed fifteen days in crossing the entire 
desert." 

Alcoholic drinks diminish muscular power. The well- 
ed 



66 ALCOHOL. 

known case of our countryman, Dr. Franklin, is in point. 
He could carry heavier weights, and had a greater power 
of endurance of labor, on his beverage of simple water, 
than his beer-drinking companions in a London printing- 
office. 

The Turkish porters at Constantinople and Smyrna 
are celebrated for strength. " The boatmen and water- 
carriers of Constantinople are decidedly, in my opinion," 
says Mr. W. Fairbairn, an eminent machinist at Manches- 
ter, "the finest men in Europe, as regards their physical 
development, and they are all water-drinkers." 

My friend Captain S. Rea, who, thirty years ago, 
frequently visited Smyrna, assures me that he never wit- 
nessed such feats of strength as are exhibited by the 
porters there. In unlading vessels freighted with Havana 
sugar, each porter carries a box of sugar upon his back 
from the vessel to the store-house; and this is done all 
day without complaint. The weight is over four hundred 
pounds ; as their pay is in proportion to the weight of 
their burdens, Capt. R. has frequently seen them call for 
a bag of coffee to be placed upon the box of sugar, and 
in one instance two bags, the weight being about seven 
hundred and fifty pounds. And what is still more extraor- 
dinary, from the office of Mr. Offleyi the American agent 
there, a porter was seen carrying a load of boards so large 
that the individuals present had the curiosity to detain 
him, and to have it weighed. Capt. R. saw it weighed, 
and paid his proportion for the gratification. The weight 
was nine hundred and five pounds. The drink of these 
porters was nothing but water, and bread the staple 
article of food. 

The Hon. Mr. Buckingham assured me that he had 
frequently seen, at Calcutta, those Himmalaya moun- 



ALCOHOL. 67 

iaineers, who are trained to athletic exercises, pitted 
against English Grenadiers in running, leaping, csuTying 
of weights, and throwing of missiles ; and that one of 
them was very nearly equal in strength to three of 
the English. Their sole drink was water, and their 
food rice. 

In 1786, Jaques Balmat, that enterprising guide at 
Chamoani, who had long entertained the project of being 
the first to reach the summit of Mont Blanc, made the 
attempt, provided with food and a small bottle of brandy. 
He gave out long before completing the ascent, and 
returned. He next carried a bottle of wine with his 
food ; this attempt failed also. A third time he took 
water only, with a little syrup to flavor it, for his drink, 
and succeeded in planting the fii*st human foot upon the 
summit of that far-famed mountain. 

Dr. Carpenter gives us the following statement of a 
coal-whipper : " It 's food only that can give real strength 
to the frame.' I have done more work since I have been 
a teetotaler, in my eight years, than I did in ten or twelve 
years before. I have felt stronger. I don't say that I do 
my work better, but this I will say, without fear of suc- 
cessful contradiction, that I do my work with more ease 
to myself and with more satisfaction to my employer, 
since I have given over intoxicating drinks. I scarcely 
know what thirst is ; before I took the pledge ' I was 
always dry, and the mere shadow of the pot-boy was 
quite sufficient to convince me that I wanted something. 
I certainly have not felt weaker since I have left off malt 
liquor. I have eaten more and drank less. I live as well 
now as any of the publicans do, and who has a better 
right to do so than the man who works? I have backed 
as many as sixty tons in a day since I took the pledge, 



68 ALCOHOL. 

and have done it without any intoxicating drink, with 
perfect ease to myself, and walked five miles to a tem- 
perance meeting afterwards. But before I became a tee- 
totaler, after the same amount of work I should scarcely 
haVe been able to crawl home ; I should have been certain 
to have lost the next day's work, at least ; but now I can 
back that quantity of coals week after week, without 
losing a day. I've got a family of six children under 
twelve years of age. My wife's a teetotaler, and has 
suckled four children upon the principle of total absti- 
nence. Teetotalism has made my home quite happy, 
and what I get goes twice as far. Where I work now, 
four of us, out of five, are teetotalers. I am quite satis- 
fied that the heaviest kind of work a man can possibly 
do may be done without a drop of fermented liquor ; I 
say so from my own experience. All kinds of intoxicating 
drink is quite a delusion. We teetotalers can do the work 
better — that is, with more ease to ourselves — than the 
drinkers can. Many teetotalers have backed coals out 
of the hold, and I have heard them say, over and over 
again, that they did their work with more comfort and 
ease than they did when they drank intoxicating drink. 
Coal-backing from the ship's hold is the hardest work 
that it is possible for a man to do. Going up a ladder 
sixteen feet high, with two hundred and thirty-eight 
pounds' weight upon a man's back, is sufficient to kill 
any one ; indeed, it does kill the men in a few years ; 
they're soon old men at that work." 

The effects of alcohol, in its habitual use, are strikingly 
illustrated in the cases collected by Dr. Ogston. These 
are post-mortem examinations of seventy-three intem- 
perate persons who came to sudden deaths; "forty-two 
by drowning, five by hanging, and one by suffocation ; 



ALCOHOL. 69 

twenty of them were instances of violent death, either 
by syncope or by direct coma, speedily fatal, without 
vital re-action. The remaining five were cases of rapidly 
fatal coma, from narcotic poisons. Of the whole, twenty- 
five were known to be cases of suicide, thiitccn of hom- 
icide, and eighteen of accidental death ; leaving seventeen 
who must have died either from accident or suicide. 

" Abnormal appearances within the cranium in 65 cases, 
or 79 per cent, of the whole ; brain indurated in 26 cases. 

'^ Abnormal appearances in the respiratory organs in 41 
cases, or 56.16 per cent, of the whole. 

^Abnormal appearances in the pericardium, heart, or 
aorta in 30 cases, or 41 per cent, of the whole. 

^Abnormal appearances in the stomach in 20 cases, or 
27.3 per cent, of the whole. 

"Of the intestines, 10 cases, or 13.5 per cent, of the 
whole. 

" In the liver, 30 cases, or 41 per cent, of the whole. 

" In the spleen, 14 cases ; pancreas, 1. 

"In the kidneys, 33 cases, or 34.5 per cent, of the 
whole. 

^^ In the abdomen, 54 cases, or 73.9 per cent. 

" An entire absence of morbid appearances in the body, 
in one case." 

Time would fail to trace, with any degree of minute- 
ness, the effects of alcoholic beverages upon the intellect 
and the moral sense. 

A certain dose of wine or spirit increases the propensity 
for conversation ; a little more causes garrulity ; a further 
addition makes a vociferous exhibition of the thoughts, 
which run out without order or regularity. You will see 
two friends, after sitting an hour at a dining-table well 
supplied with wine, talking into each other's face with 



70 ALCOHOL. 

great vehemence, neither seeming to pay the least regard 
to what the other is saying ; this I have seen in Italy, 
from the influence of the native wine of that country. 
Among the uneducated, but by no means in that class 
alone, alcohol begets in a company a remarkable freedom 
of demeanor, exhibited by one tweaking his neighbor's 
nose, or giving him a black eye, or some other form of 
unceremonious salutation. 

The finer moral sentiments are superseded at the wine- 
table by indelicate and impure associations, which flow out 
in ribaldry and Bacchanal song. Lord Byron made the 
following note of a party at which Sheridan was present, 
where the wine was, sTs usual, freely circulated : " First 
silent, then talky, then argumentative, then disputatious, 
then unintelligible, then altogethery, then inarticulate, 
and then — drunk." 

A man's estimate of his own intellectual powers is 
often raised many degrees by a few glasses of wine. He 
gives his opinions, weak and puerile though they may be, 
with an oracular emphasis. If a doubt of their correct- 
ness be suggested, he' kindles with resentment, demands 
satisfaction, and the matter ends, perhaps, in a duel or a 
murder. 

Has not niany a war, in which thrones have been over- 
turned and countries desolated, had its origin in the mis- 
apprehensions and resentments caused by intoxicating 
drinks ? 

Its influence upon the mind is not that of perversion 
only, but of ultimate prostration. Many a vigorous and 
educated intellect has been reduced to imbecility or idiocy 
by distilled and fermented liquor. Dr. Howe, in his 
Report on Idiocy to the Legislature of Massachusetts, 
makes the following striking statement: — 



ALCOHOL. 71 

" The habits of the parents of three hundred of the 
idiots were learned; and one hundred and forty-five, or 
nearly o^ie hcdf^ are repoited as known to be habitual 
drunkards. Such parents, it is affirmed, give a weak and 
lax constitution to their children, who are consequently 
deficient in bodily and vital energy, and predisposed, by 
their very organization, to have cravings for alcoholic 
stimulants ; many of these children are feeble, and live 
irregularly. Having a lower vitality, they feel the want 
of some stimulation. If they pui*sue the course of their 
fathers, which they have more temptation to follow and 
less power to avoid than the children of the temperate, 
they add to their hereditary weakness, and increase the 
tendency to idiocy in their constitution ; and this they 
leave to their children after them. The parents of num- 
ber sixty-two were drunkards, and had seven idiotic 
children." 

What a wreck of intellect is exhibited in delirium tre- 
mens I The miserable victim^ is puraued by imaginary 
enemies, — serpents, wild beasts, and devils. 

A man who had been a respectable merchant in one of 
our Eastern cities, was, on one occasion, seen flying in 
terror from the pursuit of a shark which he supposed 
was in his hat, which he kept in close grasp under his arm. 
A significant instance of the horrible grotesque which 
characterizes this disease. 

Professor Huss, in July, 1852, read to the Scandinavian 
Scientific Society at Stockholm a paper on the Endemic 
Diseases of Sweden, in an abstract fi-om which it is 
observed : " The author devotes a long article to the 
abuse of whiskey as one cause of the endemic diseases of 
Sweden, In the fact that cholorosis has become endemic 
in Sweden, first, during the last twenty to twenty-five 



72 ALCOHOL. 

years; and in the other fact, that the number of recruits 
disapproved of as below the regulation standard of height 
has increased 2.22 per cent, in ten years Professor Huss 
finds proofs of increasing debility of constitution in both 
sexes, of which he considers the abuse of whiskey and 
coffee main causes, enfeebling both parents and children. 
To the same causes Huss attributes a large proportion of 
the very common disorders of digestion." 

Dr. S. H. Smith stated to me the remarkable fact, that 
while he was physician to a hospital in Stockholm, of 
three hundred beds, no less than sixty persons died there 
in one year of delirium tremens. It is not difficult to 
comprehend this, when it is understood that for many 
years more than a hunderd and eighty thousand distil- 
leries were in operation in Sweden to supply a population 
of three and a half millions with potato whiskey. 

As a prophylactic, or preventive of disease, alcohol has 
but slender claims to public confidence. If ever useful, 
during the pi'fevalence of epidemics, it has been by allay- 
ing the panic, which is one of the strongest predisposing 
causes of attack; at the same time, it is notorious that 
during the prevalence of cholera, for example, those who 
are in the habitual use of alcoholic drinks are especially 
liable to become victims of the disease. 

In carbuncle, phlegmonoid erysipelas, and moist gan- 
grene, wine or spirits given rather freely often appear to 
be efficacious in sustaining the vascular action for a lim- 
ited period, until more enduring tonics and suitable food 
can be borne.^ 

In low or adynamic fevers, some distinguished physi- 

1 Mr. Higginbottom, a distinguished English surgeon, informs me that, for 
the last twenty-five years, he has not used alcoholic drinks in any form of 
disease whatever. 



ALCOHOL. 73 

cians have regarded alcohol as a valuable stimulus in the 
stages of deep prostratiou. When the first sound of the 
heart becomes weak, resembling the second sound, it has 
been regarded as a good rule to give alcohol and other 
stimulants; and when under this use the first sound of 
the heart becomes distinguishable, recovery is to be looked 
for. These fevers prevail in those countries where strong 
drink is freely used, and the masses are ill-fed, as in Ire- 
land and Sweden ; the intemperance of those countries 
probably creating the chief necessity for this sort of . 
medication in th^ir fevers. 

In the treatment of tubercular consumption there are 
members of our profession who place a high value upon 
brandy. Cases have been adduced in which all the symp- 
toms were greatly relieved, the patient improved in flesh 
and strength, and life was apparently prolonged, even 
when an entire cure had not been wrought. These cases, 
however, were generally, at the same time, treated with 
much exercise in the open air. 

At the thirteenth annual meeting of the American 
Medical Association in June, 1860, Dr. N. S. Davis, Pro- 
fessor of Medicine at Chicago, presented a paper " On the 
Influence of Alcoholic Drinks on the Development and 
Progress of Pulmonary Tuberculosis." 

He had 'made records of cases, both in hospital and 
private practice, until his list contained 210 cases. Of 
these, 140 were males and 70 females; 85 were natives 
of Ireland, 60 of the United States, 26 of Norway and 
Sweden, 20 of Germany, and 15 of England, Scotland, 
and Wales. 

" The leading object in recording all these cases was 
to ascertain just how far the subjects of them had been 
under the influence of alcoholic drinks, for a period of 

7 



74 ALCOHOL. 

not less thaa a year, previous to any active or notice- 
able symptoms of the tuberculous disease. To show the 
results in reference to this point I have been obliged to 
divide the whole number into three classes. The first 
class embraces such as had used some form of alcoholic 
beverage almost daily from one to twelve years previous 
to the active signs of tuberculosis; the second, such as 
used these drinks occasionally; and the third, such as 
had wholly abstained from their use. Of the 210 cases, 
68 belonged to the first class, 91 to the second, and 51 to 
the third. Although so large a proportion as 68 out of 
the 210 cases were habitual drinkers of alcoholic liquors, 
only 15 of the number were such as are usually called 
drunkards; 5 of these were admitted into the hospital 
while affected with delirium tremens^ and also in the 
advanced stage of phthisis. Among the 53 cases occur- 
ring among those habitually using alcoholic drinks, yet 
not to the extent of producing drunkenness, there were 
many presenting circumstances as favorable for determin- 
ing this question, whether these drinks are capable of pre- 
venting pulmonary tuberculosis, as though they had been 
selected purposely for an experiment lasting through a 
series of years. Every one of the 210 cases was carefully 
and separately examined by auscultation and percussion, 
and none are included but such as presented unmistakable 

« 

evidence of pulmonary tuberculosis, and the history of 
which could be obtained in a reliable manner. 

^' In the first class, numbering 68 cases, the disease uni- 
formly commenced, and regularly progressed through the 
first and second stages, while the subjects of it were at 
the time, and had been from one to twelve years previ- 
ously, regularly and habitually using alcoholic drinks, 
either fermented or distilled. In 33 of these cases the 



ALCOHOL. 75 

disease was developed between the ages of 16 and 30 
years; in 18, between 30 and 40 years; in 7, between 
40 and 50 years; and in 10, between 50 and 60 years. 
The average duration of disease in those who remained 
under observation until a fatal result was reached was 19 
months, dating from the time when the patient began to 
be troubled with cough. 

^ In the second class, numbering 91 cases, were included 
many who had used alcoholic drinks, and sometimes in 
excess, but not as a daily habit; while others in this group 
drank but very sparingly, and only on some social occa- 
sions. In 50 of these the disease was developed between 
the ages of 16 and 30 years; in 28, between the ages of 
30 and 40 years ; in 6, between 40 and 50 years ; and in 7» 
between 50 and 60 years. The average duration of the 
disease, in those who remained under observation until 
the fatal result was reached, was 23 months. 

"The third class, numbering 51, includes a larger rela- 
tive proportion of females than either of the other classes. 
In 21 the disease commenced between the ages of 16 and 
30 years ; in 17, between 30 and 40 years ; in 9, between 
40 and 50 years; in 4, between 50 and 60 years. The 
average duration of the disease in those who have died 
was 25 months. 

" From the foregoing collection of facts, it will be ob- 
served that in one third of the whole number of cases, 
the tubercular disease commenced and progressed through 
all its stages while the subjects of it were at the time, 
and had been from one to twelve years previously, habit- 
ually using either fermented or distilled spirits. In but 
little less than one half of the whole number the disease 
was developed while the subjects of it were only occasion- 
ally using these drinks; while in less than one quarter 



76 ALCOHOL. 

of the whole number the disease was developed in sub- 
jects who had for years totally abstained from all such 
drinks. It is thus clearly demonstrated that the use of all 
alcoholic beverages, however uniform their administration, 
and however long continued, neither prevents the devel- 
opment of tubercular phthisis, nor retards the rapidity of 
its progress. 

" If we turn from the narrow circle of personal observa- 
tion to more general inquiries, we shall be forced to the 
same conclusion. Thus, by the sickness and mortality 
reports of the English and American armies, it is made 
apparent that soldiers who use regular rations of alcoholic 
liquors furnish a higher ratio of mortality from tubercular 
(Jisease than any equal number of men who do not uso 
such liquors. So true is this that many army surgeons 
have regarded the free use of alcoholic drinks as one of 
the prominent causes of consamption. 

"Again, the statistics compiled by Dr. Bell of New 
York, in his prize essay on this subject, led him to the 
conclusion, not only that alcoholic drinks did not prevent 
the development of tubercular disease, but that they 
actually favored it. 

" The foregoing results of my own clinical observations, 
corroborated as they are by all the reliable statistics to be 
found in the literature of the profession, are also in strict 
accordance with the rational inferences to be drawn from 
the known effects of alcohol upon the various functions of 
the human system. 

"By a series of experiments commenced in 1849, and* 
continued at intervals until the present time, I have 
fully satisfied myself that the presence of alcohol in the 
human system positively dimijiishes the great functions 
of respiration, capillary circulation, calorificationj and meta- 



ALCOHOL. 77 

morphosis of tissue; and, as a necessary consequence, 
leads to diminished excretion, and to the accumulation of 
effete matter, both in the blood and the tissues. This is 
corroborated by the experiments of Dr. Boker, showing 
that the presence of alcohol in the system diminishes the 
sum total of all the excretions and eliminations ; and by 
the almost uniform tendency to fatty degeneration in the 
muscles, the liver, the kidneys, etc., in those who have 
been long accustomed to the use of alcoholic liquors. If 
the presence of alcohol thus diminishes the exchange of 
oxygen and carbonic acid in the lungs, lessens the sum 
total of all the excretions, retards both capillary circula- 
tion and calorification, it is easy to see how its habitual 
use would lead to deficient oxydation and metamorphosis 
of the tissues, and, consequently, to accumulations of 
adipose matter, degenerations, and morbid deposits; but 
extremely difficult to conceive how it should act as a tonic 
or invigorating agent. 

" Although the object of this paper is simply to give 
the results of clinical observations on the use of alcoholic 
drinks as prophylactics against tuberculosis, it may not 
be amiss to allude to their influence or value as remedial 
agents after the disease is already fully developed. For it 
by no means follows, that if these beverages are shown 
to be useless as prophylactics in preventing the develop- 
ment of tubercles, they are therefore equally useless as 
remedies. 

** Since the popularity of cod-liver oil has begun to wane, 
it is probable that no remedies have been more generally 
used in the treatment of all stages of phthisis than the 
alcoholic stimulants, and, when taken freely, their anaes- 
thetic effect upon the nerves of respiration, diminishing 
the cpugh ; their exhilaration of the brain, relieving the 

7* 



78 ALCOHOL. 

mental despondency; and their diminution of organic 
change, or metamorphosis of tissue, by which the progres- 
sive emaciation is retarded and the fatty matter retained, 
• — all contribute to give them an apparent beneficial effect, 
at least temporarily, that has increased their popularity 
both in and out of the profession. In endeavoring to 
trace the effects of alcohol on the development and prog- 
ress of tuberculosis through a series of years, I have met 
with many cases of disease in the second and third stages 
of its advancement, in which any form of alcoholic drink 
so directly and manifestly deranged either the stomach or 
the brain, that after a few trials the patient would volun- 
tarily refuse to take any more. I have met with many 
more who would take this class of stimulants for a few 
weeks with apparent amelioration of symptoms, when 
they would begin to create* acid eructations, burning in 
the stomach, and sometimes vomiting, wuth almost entire 
loss of appetite. I have met also with a smaller class 
of patients who would take these stimulants freely, for 
any length of time, without either deranging the stomach 
or the brain, and with a decided amelioration of all the 
pulmonary symptoms, and an arrest of the emaciation. 
Some of these have actually increased in embonpoint, 
and from three to six months were highly elated with 
the hope that they were recovering. But truth com- 
pels me to say that I have never seen a case in which 
this apparent improvement under the use of alcoholic 
drinks was permanent. On the contrary, even in those 
cases in which emaciation seems at first arrested and the 
general symptoms ameliorated, the physical signs do not 
undergo a corresponding improvement; and, after a few 
months, the digestive function becomes impaired, the 
emaciation begins to increase more rapidly than ever, and 



ALCOHOL. 79 

in a few weeks arrives at a fatal degree of prosfr'^tion. 
A few cases pursue still another course, under the free use 
of alcoholic stimulants. The digestion remains tolerably 
good, the cough is much lessened, and a good degree of 
flesh is retained. Notwithstanding this, however, the 
shortness of breath on taking exercise, and some expec- 
toration, continue; the lips, gums, and tongue become 
more and more bloodless or pallid ; and afler three or 
four months the feet and ankles begin to be anasarcous, 
while the urine becomes small in quantity and pale. If 
the urine is tested, it is found to contain a large propor- 
tion of albumen. When these symptoms have once begun, 
they generally increase with considerable rapidity, until 
the serous effusions invade all the internal serous cavities, 
and the patient is destroyed. I have met with three cases 
of this kind within the last eight months. 

" From all the facts, experiments, and clinical observa- 
tions that have come under my notice, I am led to the 
following conclusions, and to these I invite the critical 
attention of the section on Practical Medicine : — 

" 1. That the development of tubercular disease is facili- 
tated by all those agents and influences, whether climatic 
or hygienic, which directly or indirectly impair or retard 
the metamorphosis of the organized structures and the 
efficiency of the excretory functions. 

^ 2. That observations and carefully devised experiments 
both show that the presence of alcohol in the human 
system, notwithstanding its temporary exhilaration of the 
cerebral functions, positively retards both metamorphosis 
and elimination. 

"3. That neither the action of alcoholic stimulants on 
the functions of the human body, nor the actual results 
of experience, furnish any evidence that these stimulants 



80 ALCOHOL. 

are capable of either preventing or retarding the devel- 
opment of tubercular phthisis." 

In dyspepsia, alcohol has been used in various forms ; 
but, apart from the danger of its producing, an artificial 
appetite for the medicine and causing intemperance, it 
may be confidently asserted that the judicious employ- 
ment of a suitable diet, bathing, exercise in the open air, 
freedom from care, with the aid sometimes of mineral 
waters, are greatly to be preferred. 

Fortunately the spirituous infusions of medicinal sub- 
stances are now almost superseded by the dry and fluid 
chemical vegetable extracts, which may be preserved for 
an indefinite length of time without the aid of alcohol, 
which, in the tinctures, often renders them ill-suited and 
offensive to delicate stomachs. 

A disposition to disclose certain reserved truths, or 
to tell one's secrets, has been attributed to the influence 
of wine. In vino Veritas is an old maxim. Upon this, 
Dr. Samuel Johnson remarked, in reply to Mr. Boswell, 
" That may be an argument for drinking, if you suppose 
men in general to be liars. But, sir, I would not keep 
company with a fellow who lies as long as he is sober, 
and whom you must make drunk before you can get a 
word of truth out of him." 

Tacitus^ describes the same effects from beer : — 

"The hours of rest of the Germans are protracted to 
broad daylight. As soon as they rise, the first thing they 
do is to bathe, and generally, on account of the intense 
severity of the climate, in warm water. They then betake 
themselves to their meal, each on a separate seat, and at 
his own table. Having finished their repast, they proceed, 

1 De Moribus Germanorum, H 22, 28. 



ALCOHOL. 81 

completely armed, to the dispatch of basiness, and fre- 
quently to a convivial meeting. To devote both day and 
night to deep drinking is a disgrace to no man. Dispxites, 
as will be the case with people in liquor, frequently arise, 
and are seldom confined to opprobrious language. The 
quarrel generally ends in a scene of blood. Important 
subjects, such as the reconciliation of enemies, the forming 
of family alliances, the election of chiefs, and even peace 
and war, are generally canvassed in their carousing festi- 
vals. The convivial moment, according to their notion, 
is the true season for business, when the mind opens itself 
in plain simplicity, or grows warm with bold and noble 
ideas. Strangers to artifice, and knowing no refinement, 
they tell their sentiments without disguise; the pleasure 
of the table expands their hearts and calls forth every 
secret. On the following day the subject of debate is 
again taken into consideration, and thus two different 
periods of time have their distinct uses : when warm they 
debate, when cool they decide. 

** Their beverage is a liquor drawn from barley or from 
wheat, and, like the juice of the grape, fermented to a 
spirit. The settlers on the banks of the Rhine provide 
themselves with wine ; their food is of the simplest kind : 
wild apples, the flesh of an animal recently killed, or 
coagulated milk. Without skill in cookery, or without 
seasoning to stimulate the palate, they eat to satisfy 
nature. But they do not drink merely to quench their 
thirst. Indulge their love of liquor to the excess which 
they require, and you need not employ the terror of arms ; 
their own vices will subdue them." 

Vivacity and wit are far from being dependent on wine 
or strong drink. Waller has been described as one of the 
most celebrated wits of his day. This was no easy repu- 



82 ALCOHOL. 

tation, as his biographer observes, for a man of seventy 
to sustain in such society as that of the licentious court 
of Charles I. "The vivacity of his conversation was 
unflagging; and while Buckingham and others indulged 
freely in wine, he, confining himself to water, was equal 
to the highest pitch of their festivity."^ 

Dr. James Johnson, an eminent English physician, in 
his Troi^ical Hygiene, mentions his having met a gentle-^ 
man in a large company at Prince of Wales Island, who 
was remarkable for his flow of spirits. He attributed bis 
animation and hilarity to the wine which he supposed 
him to have taken, and expected to see them flag, as is 
usual, when the firet efiects of the stimulus had passed 
off. Dr. J., however, was surprised to find them maintain 
a uniform level after many younger heroes had bowed 
to the rosy god. He now contrived to get near him, and 
entered into conversation, in which the gentleman dis- 
closed the secret, by assuring him that he had drank 
nothing but water for many years in India; as a con- 
sequence, his health was excellent, his spirits free, and his 
faculties unclouded, although far advanced on Time's list ; 
in short, he could conscientiously recommend this ante- 
diluvian beverage, as he called it, to every one that 
sojourned in a tropical climate. 

Sidney Smith, far-famed for sprightliness and wit, writes, 
in 18^8, to his daughter. Lady Holland : " Many thanks 
for your kind anxiety respecting my health. I not only 
was never better, but never half so well ; itideed, I find 
that I have been very ill all my life without knowing it. 
Let me state some of the goods arising from abstaining 
from all fermented liquors. First, sweet sleep. Having 
never known what sweet sleep was, I sleep like a baby 

1 Dr. Grindrod. 



ALCOHOL. 83 

or a plough-boy. If I wake, no needless terrors, no black 
visions of life ; but pleasing hopes and pleasing recollec- 
tions ; Holland House, past and to come I If I dream, it 
is not of lions and tigers, but of Easter dues and tithes. 
Secondly, I can take longer walks and make greater 
exertions without fatigue. My understanding is improved, 
and I comprehend political economy. I can see better 
without wine and spectacles than when I used both. 
Only one evil ensues from it. I am in such extravagant 
spirits that I must lose blood, or look out for some one 
who will bore or depress me. Pray leave off wine ; the 
stomach is quite at rest; no heartburn, no pain, no 
distraction." 

The power of poetic fancy is never created by alcohol, 
nor dependent upon it for its loftiest flights or its bright- 
est visions. 

Lord Byron writes to his friend Moore, Oct. 6, 1821, 
" How do you manage ? I think you told me at Venice 
that your spirits did not keep up without a little claret. 
I can drink and bear a good deal of wine (as you may 
recollect in England), but it don't exhilarate, — it makes 
me savage and suspicious, and even qnarrelsome. Lauda- 
num has a similar effect; but I can take much of it 
without any effect at all. The thing that gives me the 
highest spirits (it seems absurd, but true) is a dose of 
salts. I mean in the afternoon, after their effect. But 
we can't take them like champagne." 

Dryden's experience was not unlike. "When I have 
a grand design," says he, ''I ever take physic and let 
blood ; for when you would have pure swiftness of thought, 
and fiery flights of fancy, you must have a care of the 
pensive part ; in fine, you must purge the belly." 

Such witnesses as these can hardly fail to be credited. 



84 ALCOHOL. 

Anacreon, for his lyrics on wine, had his reward from 
posterity in a most appropriate statue at the Acropolis, 
which represented him as singing in a fit of delirious 
intoxication. 

The common saying that wine is the milk of old age, 
would be as near the truth by reversing the proposition, — 
milk is the wine of old age. If, in age, the processes of 
digestion and assimilation can be carried on without the 
diffusible stimulants, then such stimulants should be with- 
drawn, as under their use the small store of nervous 
power remaining must be sooner exhausted, and life 
shortened ; but there is plenty of evidence to show that 
life can be prolonged to advanced age with a constant 
use of milk, and without alcohol. I have known more 
than one old man whose stomach could digest milk. Mr. 
Dix, a farmer in Middlesex county, Mass., now ninety-five 
years old (Nov. 1861), who is as erect in person as a young 
man, and who labors daily upon his farm, assures me that 
for the last sixty years he has drank no distilled or fer- 
mented liquor, and that milk constitutes a considerable 
part of his food. On his birthday, at ninety-five, he 
walked nine miles. As all extra excitants exhaust nervous 
power, it is unphilosophical, if not reckless, to resort to 
them while the machinery goes on at a healthy rate of 
movement. 

Ephraim Pratt, who died at Shutesbury, Mass., in 1804, 
at the age of one hundred and seventeen, ate no animal 
food, drank no alcoholic drink, and for the last forty years 
of his life lived mostly on bread and milk. 

As alcohol is never formed by a single process of animal 
or vegetable life, but comes only from the death and 
decomposition of organized matter, so when mixed with 
the blood, it is never deposited as an essential or nutrient 



ALCOHOU 86 

part of the living organism, but is cast out as an alien, 
by organs, an important part of whose function it is to 
rid the blood of useless, impure, or poisonous matters. 
These organs are the lungs, the skin, and kidneys. Accom- 
panying the detention in the blood of a part of its impure 
or worn-out matters, while alcohol lingers in it, there has 
been observed a diminution of appetite for food ; and as 
those who daily take alcoholic drinks eat less than those 
who do not, it has been inferred that these drinks supply 
the place of food, and may be regarded as economical ! 
This reasoning goes on the assumption that alcohol brings 
no harm to the living organism ; but this is merely 
assumed, without the shadow of proof. Upon this view. 
Prof. Peaselee remarks as follows^ : — 

" We use coffee, tea, and alcohol, not to prevent waste, 
and therefore save the expense of food to supply it ; but 
simply because they are atimulanta^ and produce a certain 
well-known physiological effect; because they excite the 
nervous and muscular systems especially to a higher 
degree of activity for the time being ; though the waste 
is here, as always, proportioned to that activity. It is 
the waste consequent on action that exhausts a tissue or 
organ ; and if alcohol, coffee, and tea could enable us to 
think and feel and move without waste of the cerebral 
substance and of the muscular system, habitual drinkers 
would be the most intellectual of men, and their brain, 
never feeling the effects of exhaustion, would be superior 
to the necessity of sleep or repose. I am not here speak- 
ing in derogation of these substances properly used and 
administered. I am only objecting to the chemical expla- 
nation of their action, as totally at variance with all 

1 Annual Address before the N. Y. Acad. Med., 1868, p. 09. 
8 



86 ALCOHOL. 

physiology, though it is unhesitatingly accepted by some 
J)hysiologists," 

There may be occasions when alcoholic stimulation is 
of value by impelling the nerves to an activity beyond 
the ordinary rate, bringing into operation a portion of the 
vital energy which is stored up for special exigencies. A 
horse in a mud-pit may not extricate himself till roused 
to the full extent of his energies by the persevering- appli- 
cation of the whip. 

Alcoholic drink, in amount short of causing deep intoxi- 
cation, if taken daily for years, may bring early death by 
delirium tremens. In small quantity, it may be taken for 
a long time without an unfavorable influence being sus- 
pected. Does it thence follow that there is no such 
influence ? There are other poisons which may be taken 
daily, in portions too small to admit of their influence 
being appreciated by any powers of investigation we 
possess. We have seen the solution of arsenic given for 
weeks, without the least obvious impression, till at length 
a swelling of the face, or a diarrhoea, indicated the peculiar 
operation of this poison. So with lead. This metal may 
be taken in minute quantities for months, before symp- 
toms of lead-poisoning make their appearance. 

The appetite of the intemperate man for liquor has 
been fitly compared to that of the tiger for blood. This 
animal, it is said, may be tamed and made docile, so long 
as he is kept from the smell and taste of blood ; but the 
moment blood touches his tongue his ferocity returns 
with all its terrors. So the appetite of the drunkard 
merges everything connected with social position or 
moral responsibility. In the statistics -of intemperance, 
gathered some years since in the State of New York, we 
are informed that two thousand five hundred reformed 



ALCOHOL. 87 

drankards were brought back to confirmed intemperance 
by tasting fermented liquors. The very fact that strong 
diink produces such an indomitable appetite shows it 
to be a poison of no ordinary stamp, — a poison which 
diminishes the powers of bodily exertion, impairs health, 
shortens life, converts men into fools and maniacs, dis- 
solves the ties and endearments of the family circle and 
of social life, and draws a dark and impenetrable veil 
over the light of futurity. 

History is full of overwhelming evidence of the disas- 
trous effects of alcoholic drinks to individuals, tribes, and 
nations. As far back almost as the flood, drunkenness 
and revelry exhibited the same features that exist in our 
own time. Drunkenness was no disgrace at the public 
feasts among the Greeks ; indeed, it was a maxim that he 
who was not drunk at the vintage feast of Bacchus did 
not render true worship and honor to this god. Alexander, 
the Macedonian conqueror, killed his best friend in one 
drunken fit, and died in another. In one night, when a 
king and his nobles were revelling in wine, an old and 
mighty dominion passed into the hands of a Medo-Persian 
chieftain, whose army, according to Xenophon, had been 
disciplined to water-drinking, Carthage fell, it has been 
said, less by the arms of Scipio, than by the wines of 
Capua. 

Pliny mentions fifty kinds of generous wine; thirty- 
eight varieties of foreign wine ; seven kinds of salted 
wine ; eighteen varieties of sweet wine ; sixty-six varie- 
ties of artificial wine. The drunkenness of Imperial Rome 
was never outdone ; indeed, it seems impossible that it 
should be, with the aids even of the distillation and drug- 
ging of modern times. Emperors and men of renown 
regarded their drinking powers as giving them an exalted 



88 ALCOHOL. 

rank. The more distinguished bibbers took various arti- 
cles to excite thirat, in order to drink more wine; some 
came reeking from their hot baths, and, without waiting 
for an article of clothing, gulped down almost incredible 
quantities, to be immediately vomited up by the aid of an 
emetic, or some other means of inverting the action of the 
stomach, in order to make room for another draught, and 
this was sometimes repeated in a third dose. This drunk- 
enness, which pervaded all ranks, went hand in hand with 
the most hideous and loathsome licentiousness, and under 
these vices the warlike arm of Rome became enfeebled, 
and at length yielded to the hale power of the North. 

How different from all the intoxicating drinks is the 
simple a-nd safe beverage prepared for man by the benev- 
olent Creator ! The appetite for water, in a healthy indi- 
vidual, is regulated by the wants of the organs. When 
that fluid is deficient in the blood, there is thirst ; when 
the supply is given, thirst ceases ; and a pint of water 
drunk to-day, creates no appetite for the drinking of more 
than a pint to-morrow. This topic has been most ably 
discussed by my excellent friend and colleague, the late 
Dr. Daniel Oliver, Professor of Medicine, etc.: — 

" The waste of the fluid parts of our bodies requires the 
use of drink to repair it, and we derive a sensible gratifi- 
cation from quenching our thirst. What use do we make 
of this fact? Why, to try if we cannot find something 
that we shall take pleasure in drinking, whether we are 
thirsty or not; and in this search mankind have been 
remarkably successful. To such a degree, indeed, have 
we succeeded in varying and increasing a pleasure which 
was designed by Nature merely as an incentive to quench 
our thirst, that to quench thirst is become one of the last 
things that people drink for. It is seldom, indeed, that 



ALCOHOL. 89 

people in health have any natural thirst, except perhaps 
after exercise or labor in a hot day. Under all other 
circumstances we anticipate the sensation by drinking 
before it comes on, so as but seldom to enjoy the natural 
and healthful gratification of drinking because we are 
thirsty. Who has not observed the extreme satisfaction 
which children derive from quenching their thirst with 
pure water ; and who that has perverted his appetite for 
drink, by stimulating his palate with bitter beer, sour 
cider, rum-and-water, and other beverages of human in- 
vention, but would be a gainer, even on the score of mere 
animal gratification, without any reference to health, if he 
could bring back his vitiated taste to the simple relish 
of nature ? Children drink because they are dry. Grown 
people drink whether dry or not, because they have dis- 
covered a way of making drinking pleasant. Children 
drink water because this is a beverage of Nature's own 
brewing, which she has made for the purpose of quench- 
ing a natural thirst. Grown people drink anything but 
water, because this fluid is intended to quench only a » 
natural thirst, and natural thirst is a thing which they 
seldom feel. 

" One of the evils, though not the only or the greatest 
one, of perverting the natural appetite of thirst, is that it 
leaves us without a guide to direct us when we need drink 
and when we do not. There is no danger, it is true, that 
this want will mislead us into drinking too little ; the dan- 
ger is, that we shall be betrayed into drinking too much, 
i. e. when nature does not require it ; and such, no doubt, 
is fi-equently the case. If a man is fond of some particu- 
lar drink (and most people, I believe, have their favorite 
liquor), he will be tempted to take it when he does not 
really need it. This consideration points out the wisdom 

8* 



90 ALCOHOL. 

of Nature in providing for us a beverage which has noth- 
ing to tempt us to drink, except when we are really thirsty. 
At all other times, water is either perfectly indifferent, or 
It is disagreeable to us; but when we labor under thirst, 
i. e. when nature requires drink, nothing is so delicious 
to a pure, unadulterated taste. While we adhere to this 
simple beverage we shall be sure to have an unerring 
prompter to remind us when we really require drink ; and 
we shall be in no danger of being tempted to drink when 
nature requires it not. But the moment we depart from 
pure water, we lose this inestimable guide, and are left, 
not to the real instincts of nature, but to an artificial taste, 
in deciding on actions intimately connected with health 
and long life. What is more common than for a man to 
take a glass of beer, or cider, or wine, or rum-and-water, 
not because he is thirsty, and really needs drink, but be- 
cause opportunity makes it convenient, and he thinks it 
will taste well. And this is true not only of fermented 
or distilted liquors, which are directly injunous in other 
modes, but, in a less degree, of any addition made to pure 
water to render it more palatable. Let me not be mis- 
understood. I am far from insinuating that lemonade, 
soda-water, and milk-and-water, are hurtful drinks. Far 
from it. But I say, that in using even these mild and 
healthful beverages we lose one important advantage we 
should derive from the use of pure water alone. If they 
are more palatable to us than water (and otherwise we 
should have no motive to use them) we shall be tempted 
to use them oftener, and in greater quantities, than is re- 
quu*ed by nature, and may thus unconsciously do ourselves 
an injury. It is rare for a person to drink a glass of water 
when he is not thirsty, merely for the pleasure of drink- 
ing ; and as thirst is the natural guide, if he drinks when 



ALCOHOL. 91 

not thirsty, he takes more fluid than natare points out as 
proper, and so far violates one of her obvious laws.*' 

What class of men is so well acquainted, both by scien- 
tific research and by observation, with the mischievous 
influence of alcohol as the members of the medical pro- 
fession ? Do not we, who claim to be a band of philan- 
thropists, owe a high duty to our race in regard to this 
thing ; and has not the sober and virtuous part of the 
community a right to look to us for united and untiring 
exertion in every way toward confining this poison, along 
with its congeners, arsenic^ strychnia^ morphia^ and prua- 
sic acid^ to the shelves of the apothecary ? 

There is but one remedy for intemperance, namely, 
total abstinence from aU that can intoxicate. This is 
simple, safe, and certain. How remarkable, that under 
all the light coming from observation, from science, and 
the faithful chronicles of human history, the culture of 
the grape, and its manufacture into alcoholic wine, — a 
liquor which kept the world drunk for centuries upon 
centuries before distillation was known — which cast down 
thrones and dominions, patriarchs and priests, philoso- 
phers and prophets, — should be seriously recommended 
as a cure for the world's intemperance ! 

When alcoholic drinks are employed in cases of pros- 
tration or disease, let them be taken under the direction 
of an intelligent and conscientious physician, who will 
watch their effects as he would watch those of arsenic or 
strychnia. 

The physician who prescribes alcoholic drink for a dys- 
peptic, to be taken daily for weeks or months, knowing as 
he does its tendency to generate an uncontrollable appe- 
tite for it, takes upon himself a deep responsibility ; and 
if, thereby, his patient becomes a confirmed inebriate, he 



92 ALCOHOL. 

incurs the reflection that he has caused an evil, the 
amount of which cannot be estimated by any known 
method of numerical computation. 

If there be a single professed lover of the human family, 
who can take intoxicating drink without fear of injury, 
or of kindling in himself an appetite which may result 
in intemperance, let him consider well whether an apostle 
fixed the standard of Christian duty too high, or over- 
estimated the power of example in emboldening the weak 
and wavering to violate conscience, when he declared, 
" It is good neither to eat .flesh, nor to drink wine, nor 
an)i;hing whereby my brother stumbleth, or is offended, 
or is made weak." 

If I take wine occasionally, as a beverage, and thereby 
a single individual is influenced to lay aside his scruples, 
till he is in the habit of daily intemperate diinking, I am 
holden in the guilt of having made a drunkard. " Where- 
fore, if wine make my brother to offend, I will drink no 
more wine while the world standeth, lest I make my 
brother to offend." 

The foregoing has reference to fermented or alcoholic 
or drugged wine. A method of preventing fermentation 
in grape-juice has been tried with perfect success by James 
Reynolds, Esq., of Ripley, Brown Co., Ohio. From the 
last two vintages, viz. 1860 and 1861, he has made about 
fourteen hundred gallons of a rich and delicious liquor, 
retaining the natural fragrance of the Catawba grape, 
which yields not a trace of alcohol on a rigid analysis, 
and which can be kept unchanged for a long time, proba- 
bly for years. Will not this figure in the world's history 
a hundred years hence? 



CHAPTER IV. 

TOBACCO — DTPLUENCB ITPOK LIFE AND HEALTH. 

S I. USE OF TOBACCO UNNATURAL. 

In the great kingdom of living nature man is the only 
animal that seeks to poison or destroy his own instincts, 
to turn topsy-turvy the laws of his being, and to make 
himself as unlike as possible that which he was obviously 
designed to be. 

No satisfactory solution of this extraordinary propensity 
has been given, shoit of a reference to that 

" First disobedience, and the fruit 
Of that forbidden tree, whose mortal taste 
Brought death into the world and all our woe, 
With loss of Eden." 

While the myriads of sentient beings spread over the 
earth adhere with unyielding fidelity to the laws of their 
several existences, man exerts his superior intellect in 
attempting to outwit Nature, and to show that she has 
made an important mistake in his own case. Not satisfied 
with the symmetry and elegance of form given him by 
his Creator, he transforms himself into a hideous monster, 
or copies upon his own person the proportions of some 
disgusting creature far down in the scale of animal being. 
Not content with loving one thing and loathing another, 
he perseveres in his attempts to make bitter sweet and 



94 TOBACCO. 

sweet bitter, till nothing but the shadow is left of his 
primitive relishes and aversions. This is strikingly exem- 
plified in the habitual use of the narcotic or poisonous 
vegetables. 

§ II. EFFECTS OF TOBACCO ON ANIMAL LIFE. 

Dr. Franklin ascertained that the oily material which 
floats upon the surface of water, upon a stream of tobacco- 
smoke being passed into it, is capable, when applied to the 
tongue of a cat, of destroying life in a few minutes. 

Mr. Brodie applied one drop of the empyreumatic oil of 
tobacco to the tongue of a cat : it occasioned immediate 
convulsion and an accelerated breathing. Five minutes 
afler, the animal lay down on the side, and presented, 
from time to time, slight convulsive movements. A quar- 
ter of an hour after, it appeared recovered. The same 
quantity of the oil was applied again, and the animal died 
in two minutes. 

In December, 1833, aided by several gentlemen of the 
medical class, and occasionally in the presence of other 
iudividu^s, I made a number of experiments upon cats 
and other animals with the empyreumatic oil of tobacco. 

First Experiment. A small drop of the oil was rubbed 
on the tongue of a large cat. Immediately the animal 
uttered piteous cries and began to froth at the mouth. In 
one minute the pupils of the eyes were dilated and the 
respiration was laborious; in two and a half minutes, 
vomiting and staggering; in four minutes, evacuations, 
the cries continued, the voice hoarse and unnatural; in 
five minutes, repeated attempts at vomiting; in seven 
minutes, respiration somewhat improved. At this time a 
large drop was rubbed upon the tongue. In an instant 



d 



TOBACCO. 95 

the eyes were closed, the ones were stopped, and the 
bi'eathing was suffocative and convulsed. In one minute 
the ears were in rapid convulsive motion, and presently 
tremors and violent convulsions extended over the body 
and limbs. In three and a half minutes the animal fell 
upon the side senseless and breathless, and the heart had 
? ceased to beat. 

Slight tremors of the voluntary muscles, particularly of 
the limbs, continued, more or less, for nineteen minutes 
after the animal was dead. The right side was observed 
to be more and longer affected than the left. 

Half an hour after death the body was opened, and the 
stomach and intestines were found to be contracted and 
firm^ as from a violent and permanent spasm of the muscu- 
lar coat. The lungs were empty and collapsed. The left 
side of the heart, the aorta and its great branches, were 
loaded with black blood. The right side of the heart and 
the two cavaB contained some blood, but were not dis- 
tended. The pulmonary artery contained only a small 
quantity of blood. The blood was everywhere fluid. 

Second Experiment, A cat was the subject of this ex- 
periment. The general effects were very much like those 
in the last, excepting, perhaps, that the oil operated with 
a little less energy. This cat was said to have lived for 
several years in a room almost perpetually fumigated with 
tobacco-smoke. The history of the animal employed in 
the first experiment was unknown. 

Third Mxperiment, Three drops of the oil of tobacco 
were rubbed upon the tongue of a full-sized but young 
cat. In an instant the pupils were dilated and the breath- 
ing convulsed ; the animal leaped about as if distracted, 
and presently took two or three rapid turns in a small 
circle, then dropped upon the floor in frightful convul- 



96 TOBACCO. 

bIods, and was dead in two minutes and forty-five seconds 
from the moment that the oil was pat upon the tongue. 

Fourth Mxperiment. To the tongue of a young and 
rather less than half-grown cat, a drop of the oil of 
tobacco was applied. In fifteen seconds, the ears were 
thrown into rapid and convulsive motions ; in thirty sec- 
onds, fruitless attempts to vomit ; in one minute, convul- 
sive respiration, the animal falling upon the side ; in four 
minutes and twenty seconds, violent convulsions ; in five 
minutes the breathing and the heart's motion had ceased. 

Fifth Experiment. In the tip of the nose of a 
mouse a small puncture was made with a surgeon's needle, 
bedewed with the oil of tobacco. The little animal, from 
the insertion of this small quantity of the poison, fell 
into a violent agitation, and was dead in six minutes. 

Sixth Experiment. Two drops of the oil were rubbed 
upon the tongue of a red squirrel. This animal, so athletic 
as to render it difficult to secure him sufficiently long for 
the application, was in a moment seized with a violent 
agitation of the whole body and limbs, and was perfectly 
dead and motionless in one minute. 

From the foregoing, and from additional experiments 
which it is not necessary to give in detail, it appeared 
that when applied to a wound made in the most sensitive 
parts of the integuments, the oil of tobacco, though it 
caused a good deal of pain, had a far less general effiict 
than when applied to the tongue. Rats were less affected 
than cats. Two and sometimes three drops rubbed upon 
the tongue of a rat did not kill it in half an hour. 

Three large drops rubbed upon the tongue of a full- 
sized cat usually caused death in from three to ten min- 
utes, and in one instance, already stated, in two minutes 
and forty-five seconds. One drop passed into the large 



TOBACCO. 97 

jugular vein of a large dog occasioned an immediate cry, 
followed in a few moments by staggering, convulsive 
twitchings of the voluntary muscles, and vomiting. 

In those cases in which full vomiting occurred, evident 
relief followed. Young animals suffered much more than 
those which had come to their full growth and vigor. In 
those animals whose lives were sudderi!y destroyed by the 
tobacco, no coagulation of the blood took place. The 
bodies of several cats were examined the next day after 
death, and only in a single instance was a slight coagulum 
observed ; and this was in a cat whose constitution pos- 
sessed strong powers of resistance, and whose death was 
comparatively lingering. 

It is not improbable that the charge of inhumanity may 
be made against experiments prosecuted upon defenceless 
animals, with a poison so painful and destructive in its 
operation as tobacco. The justice of this charge is freely 
admitted, if such experiments be made merely 'for the 
gratification of curiosity and not with the object and rea- 
sonable hope of making them useful to mankind and of 
influencing at least some few individuals to abandon the 
practice — humane can it be called? — of administering 
this poison to themselves and their children, till it occa- 
sions disease and death. Indeed, there are but few who 
would willingly witness more than a single experiment of 
this kind, with no prospect of benefit to result from it. 

When applied to sensitive surfaces of considerable 
extent, even in a form somewhat dilute, tobacco often 
produces the most serious effects. The tea of tobacco 
has been known to destroy the life of a horse, when forced 
into his stomach to relieve indisposition. When used as 
a wash, to destroy vermin upon certain domestic animals, 
tobacco tea has been known to kill the animals, them- 

9 



98 TOBACCO. 

selves. A farmer not long since assured me that he had 
destroyed a calf in this manner. 

" A woman applied to the heads of three children, for a 
disease of the scalp, an ointment prepared with the pow- 
der of tobacco and butter. Soon after they experienced 
dizziness, violent vomitings and faintings, accompanied 
with profuse sweats."^ 

The celebrated French poet Santeuil came to his death 
through horrible pains and convulsions from having taken 
a glass of wine with which some snuff had been mixed. 

The tea of twenty or thirty grains of tobacco, intro- 
duced into the human body for the purpose of relieving 
spasms, has been known repeatedly to destroy life. 

The same tea, applied to parts affected with itch, has 
been followed by vomiting and convulsions. The same 
article, applied to the skin on the pit of the stomach, occa- 
sions faintness, vomiting, and cold sweats. 

I knew a young man who, only from inhaling the vapor 
arising from the leaves of tobacco immersed in boiling 
water, was made alarmingly sick. 

A medical friend assured me that he was once thrown 
into a state of great prostration and nausea from having 
a part of his hand moistened, for a few minutes, in a strong 
infusion of tobacco. 

Col. G says, that during the war of 1812, under 

hard service on the Canadian fi'ontier, the soldiers not 
unfrequently disabled themselves for duty by applying a 
moistened leaf of tobacco to the armpit. It caused great 
prostration and vomiting. Many were suddenly and 
violently seized soon after eating. On investigation a 
tobacco leaf was found in the armpit. 

Dr. M. Long, of Warner, N. H., writes me, ui^der the 

1 Orflla. 



TOBACCO. 99 

date of April 26th, 1834, that on the 6th of May, 1825, he 
was consulted by Mrs. F. on account of her little daugh- 
ter L. F., then ^ve years old, who had a small ringworm, 
scarcely three fourths of an inch in diameter, situated 
upon the root of the nose. Her object was to ascertain 
the doctor's opinion as to the propriety of making a local 
application of tobacco in the case. He objected to it as 
an exceedingly hazardous measure; and to impress his 
opinion more fully, related a case, a record of which he 
had seen, in which a father destroyed the life of his little 
son by the use of tobacco-spittle upon an eruption or 
humor of the head. 

Immediately after the doctor left the house, the mother 
besmeared the tip of her finger with a little of the 
"strong juice" from the grandmother's tobacco-pipe, and 
proceeded to apply it to the ringworm, remarking that " if 
it should strike to the stomach it must go through the 
nose." The instant the mother's finger touched the part 
affected, the eyes of the little patient were rolled up in 
their sockets, she sallied back, and in the act of falling 
was caught by the alarmed mother. The part was imme- 
diately washed with cold water with a view to dislodge 
the poison. But this was to no purpose, for the jaws 
were already firmly locked together, and the patient was 
in a senseless and apparently dying state. The doctor, 
who had stopped three fourths of a mile distant, to see 
a patient, was presently recalled. The symptoms were 
" coldness of the extremities, no perceptible pulse at the 
wrists, the jaws set together, deep insensibility, the coun- 
tenance deathly." He succeeded in opening the jaws, so 
as to admit of the administration of the spirits of ammo- 
nia and lavender; frictions were employed, and every- 
thing done which at the time was thought likely to pro- 



100 TOBACCO. 

mote reBuscitation, but ^ it was an hour or an hour and a 
half before the little patient was so far recovered as to 
be able to speak." 

" Till this time," says Dr. Long, " the child had been 
robust and healthy, never having had but one illness that 
required medical advice ; but since the tobacco experi- 
ment she has been continually feeble and sickly. The 
first four or ^ve yeare after this terrible operation she was 
subject to fainting fits every three or four weeks, some- 
times lasting from twelve to twenty-four hours; and many 
times, in those attacks, her life appeared to be in imminent 
danger. Within the last three or four years those turns 
have been less severe." 

The foregoing facts serve to show that tobacco is a 
most active and deadly poison. It acts directly upon the 
nervous power, enfeebling, deranging, or extinguishing 
the actions of life. Is it possible that the habitical use of 
an article of so actively poisonous properties can promote 
health, or indeed fail to exert an injurious influence upon 
health ? It will be readily admitted that the daily use of 
any article which causes an exhaustion of the nervous 
power beyond what is necessarily occasioned by the ordi- 
nary physical agents, as heat, cold, light, together with 
mental and corporeal exertion, is not only useless, but 
hurtful, tending directly to produce disease and pre- 
mature decay. Such is tobacco. Ample evidence of this 
is furnished by a departure, more or less obvious, from 
healthy action in the organic, vital movements of a large 
majority of tobacco-consumers. 

From the hahittial use of tobacco, in either of its forms 
of snufl^ cud, or cigar, the following symptoms may arise : 
a sense of weakness, sinking, or pain at the pit of the 
stomach ; dizziness, or pain in the head ; occasional dim- 



TOBACCO. 101 

ness or temporary loss of sight ; paleness and sallowness 
of the countenance, and sometimes swelling of the feet ; 
an enfeebled stat^ of the voluntary muscles, manifesting 
itself sometimes by tremors of the hands, sometimes by 
weakness, tremulousness, squeaking or hoarseness of the 
voice, rarely a loss of the voice ; disturbed sleep, starting 
from the early slumbers with a sense of suffocation, or the 
feeling of alarm, incubus, or nightmare ; epileptic or con- 
vulsion fits; confusion or weakness of the mental facul- 
ties ; peevishness and irritability of temper ; instability of 
purpose ; seasons of great depression of the spirits ; long 
fits of unbroken melancholy and despondency, and in 
some cases, entire and permanent mental derangement.^ 

The animal machine, by regular and persevering reitera- 
tion or habit, is capable of accommodating itself to im- 
pressions made by poisonous substances, so far as not to 
show signs of injury under a superficial observation, pro- 
vided they are slight at first, and gradually increased ; 
but it does not hence follow that such impressions are not 
hurtful. It is a great mistake, into which thousands are 
led, to suppose that every unfavorable effect or influence 
of an article of food or drink or luxury must be felt im- 
mediately after it is taken. Physicians often have the 
opportunity of witnessing this among their patients. 

The confirmed dyspeptic consults his physician for pain 
or wind in the stomach, accompanied with headache or 
dizziness, occasional pains of the limbs, or numbness or 
tremors in the hands and feet, and sometimes with difficult 
breathing, disturbed sleep, and a dry cough and huskiness 
of the voice in the morning. The physician suggests the 
propriety of a light diet for a time ; but the patient ob- 

1 I have seen two cases; one caused by the excessive use of snuff, the 
other bj the chewing of tobacco and swallowing the saliva. 

9* 



102 TOBACCO. 

jects, alleging that he never feels so well as when he has 
swallowed a good dinner. He is then advised to avoid 
spirit, wine, cider, beer, etc. The reply is, " It is impossi- 
ble that the little I take can do rae hurt ; so far from that, 
it always does me good ; I always feel the better for it. I 
do not need any one to tell me about that." He is asked 
if he uses tobacco. " Yes; I smoke a little, chew a little, 
and snuff a little." "You had better leave it off alto- 
gether, sir." "Leave it off? I assure you, doctor, you 
know but little about it. If I were to leave off smoking, 
I should throw up half my dinner." " That might do you 
no harm, sir." "I see you do not understand my case, 
doctor ; I have taken all these good things for many years, 
and have enjoyed good health. They never injured me. 
How could they have done so without my perceiving it ? 
Do you suppose I have lived so long in the world without 
knowing what does me good and what does not?" "It 
would appear so, sir; and you are in a fair way to die 
without acquiring this important knowledge." 

The poor man goes away, in a struggle between the 
convictions of truth and the overwhelming force of con- 
firmed habit. Under the sustaining power of a good 
constitution, and in the activity of business, he never 
dreamed of injury from the moderate indulgence, as he 
regarded it, in the use of stimulants, as spirit, wine, to- 
bacco, till the work was done. His is the case of hun- 
dreds of thousands. 

The vital principle in the human body can so far resist 
the influences of a variety of poisons, slowly introduced 
into it,' that their effects shall be unobsei*ved till, under 
the operation of an exciting or disturbing cause, their 
accumulated force breaks out in the form of some fearful 
or incurable disease. The poison which comes from vege- 



TOBACCO. 103 

table decompositions, on extensive marshes and the bor- 
ders of lakes, after being received into the body remain^ 
apparently harmless, in some instances, a whole year, 
before it kindles up a wasting intermittent or a destruc- 
tive bilious remittent feven 

Facts of this nature show that pernicious influences may 
be exerted upon the secret springs of life while we are 
wholly unconscious of their operation. Such is the effect 
of the habitual use of tobacco and other narcotics, and of 
all stimulants which, like them, make an impression upon 
the whole nervous system, without affording the materials 
of supply or nutrition. 

It is an alleged fact that, previously to the age of forty 
years, a larger mortality exits in Spanish America than in 
Europe. The very general habit of smoking tobacco, 
existing among children and youth as well as adults, it 
has been supposed, and not without reason, might explain 
this great mortality. Like ardent spirits, tobacco must be 
peculiarly pernicious in childhood, when all the nervous 
energy is required to aid in accomplishing the full and 
perfect development of the different organs of the body, 
and in ushering in the period of manhood. I once knew 
a boy, eight years of age, whose father had taught him the 
free use of the tobacco cud four years before. He was a 
pale, thin, sickly child, and often vomited up his dinner. 

To individuals of sedentary habits and literary pursuits, 
tobacco is peculiarly injurious, inasmuch as these classes 
of persons are in a measure deprived of the partially coun- 
teracting influence of air and exercise. I have prescribed 
for scores of young men, pursuing either college or pro- 
fessional studies, who had been more or less injured by 
the habitual use of this plant. 

In the practice of smoking there is no small danger. It 



104 TOBACCO. 

tends to produce a hnskiness of the month, which calls for 
• •some liquid. Water is too insipid, as the nerves of taste 
are in a balf-palsied state, from the influence of tobacco- 
smoke ; hence, in order to be tasted, an article of a pun- 
gent or stimulating character is resorted* to, and hence 
the kindred habits of smoking and drinking. A writer in 
one of the American periodicals, speaking of the effect of 
tobacco in his own case, says that smoking and chewing 
" produced a continual thirst for stimulating drinks ; and 
this tormenting thirst led me into the habit of drinking 
ale, porter, brandy, and other kinds of spirit, even to the 
extent at times of partial intoxication." The same writer 
adds, that " after he had subdued his appetite for tobacco, 
he lost all desire for stimulating drinks." The taker of 
snuff necessarily swallows a part of it, especially when 
asleep ; by which means its enfeebling effects must be 
increased. 

The opinion that tobacco is necessary to promote diges- 
tion is altogether erroneous. If it be capable of soothing 
the uneasiness of the nerves of the stomach occumng 
after a meal, that very uneasiness has been caused by some 
error of diet or regimen, and may be removed by other 
means. If tobacco facilitates digestion, how comes it that, 
after laying aside the habitual use of it, most individuals 
experience an increase of appetite and of digestive en- 
ergy, and an accumulation of flesh? 

It is sometimes urged, that men occasionally live to an 
advanced age who are habitual consumers of this article : 
true, and so do some men who habitually drink rum, and 
who occasionally get drunk ; and does it thence follow 
that rum is harmless, or promotes long life? All that 
either fact proves is, that the poisonous influence is longer 
or more effectually resisted by some constitutions than by 



TOBACCO. 105 

others. The man who can live long under the use of 
tobacco and rum, can live longer without them. 

An opinion has prevailed in some communities that the 
use of tobacco operates as a preservative against infectious 
and epidemic diseases. This must be a mistake. What- 
ever tends to weaken or depress the powers of the nervous 
system, predisposes it to be operated upon by the causes 
of these diseases. If tobacco affords protection in such 
cases, why does it not secure those who use it against 
cholera? In no communities, perhaps, has that disease 
committed more frightful ravages than where all classes 
of persons are addicted to the free use of this article. 
In Havana, in 1833, containing a stationary population 
of about one hundred and twenty thousand, cholera 
carried ofl^ in a few weeks, if we may credit the public 
journals, sixteen thousand ; and in Matanzas, containing 
a population of about twelve thousand, it was announced 
that fifteen hundred perished. This makes one eighth of 
the population in both places; and if, as in most other 
cities, the number of deaths as published in the journals 
falls short of the truth, and a considerable deduction be 
made from the whole population on account of the great 
numbers who fled on the appearance of the disease, the 
mortality will be still greater. In Havana, after the an- 
nouncement of the foregoing mortality, and after a sub- 
sidence of the epidemic for some weeks, it returned, and 
destroyed such numbers as to bring back the public alarm. 
The degree in which the practice of smoking prevails may 
be judged of by a fact stated by Dr. Abbot in his letters 
from Cuba, namely, that in 1828 it was the common esti- 
mate, that in Havana there was an average consumption 
of ten thousand dollars' worth of cigars in a day. 

Dr. Moore, who resides in the province of Yucatan in 



106 TOBACCO. 

Mexico, assures me that the city of Campeachy, containing 
a population of twenty thousand, lost by cholera in about 
thirty days, commencing early in July, four thousand 
three hundred and a fraction of its inhabitants. This is 
a little short of one fourth of the population ; although 
Dr. Moore says that the people of Campeachy made it as 
a common remark, "We have lost one in four of our 
number." "With reference to the habits of the people in 
that part of Mexico, Dr. Moore says : " Everybody smokes 
cigara; I never saw an exception among the natives. It 
is a common thing to see a child of two years old learning 
to smoke." 

The opinion that the use of tobacco preserves the teeth, 
is supported neither by physiology nor observation. Con- 
stantly applied to the interior of the mouth, whether in 
the form of cud or of smoke, this narcotic must tend to 
enfeeble the gums, and the membrane covering the necks 
and roots of the teeth, and in this way must rather accele- 
rate than retard their decay. We accordingly find that 
tobacco-consumers are not favored with better teeth than 
others ; and on the average, they exhibit these organs in a 
less perfect state of preservation. Sailors make a free use 
of tobacco, and they have bad teeth. 

The grinding surfaces of the teeth are, on the average, 
more rapidly worn down or absorbed from the chewing or 
smoking of tobacco for a series of years, being observed 
in some instances to project but a little way beyond the 
gums. This fact I have observed in the mouths of some 
scores of individuals in our own communities ; and I have 
also observed the same thing in the teeth of several men 
belonging to the Seneca and St. Francois tribes of Indians, 
who, like most of the North American tribes, are much 
addicted to the use of this narcotic. In several instances, 



TOBACCO, 107 

when the front teeth of the two jaws have been shut close, 
' the surfaces of the grinders in the upper and lower jaw, 
especially where the cud had been kept, did not touch 
each other, but exhibited a space between them of one 
tenth to one sixth of an inch, showing distinctly the 
effects of the tobacco, more particularly striking upon 
those parts to which it had been applied in its most 
concentrated state. 

Dr. Habershon remarks: "It is, I believe, universally 
acknowledged that the long-continued habit of taking 
snuff irritates the fauces and epiglottis, producing cough, 
etc. Nor i^ dyspepsia the extent of its ill effects; the 
irritating particles extend through the whole length of 
the alimentary canal. Several inveterate snuff-takers have 
intimated to me the irritable state of the bowels ; in whom 
it appeared that the mucous membrane was unnaturally 
stimulated and irritable. The oft-repeated stimulus leads 
to an enfeebled condition of the mucous membrane, a loss 
of contractile power, of healthy secretion, and of nervous 
stimulus : as regards the stomach, dyspepsia is the result ; 
in the intestine, diarrhoea or constipation ; in some cases, 
the rectum is principally affected, and it either retains the 
faBces, so as to form an impacted mass, which it is unable 
to propel, or, if fluid, the same feebleness allows the con- 
tents to pass rapidly to the sphincter, itself sometimes so 
enfeebled as to be unable to restrain an involuntary dis- 
charge. Snuff may actually be seen among these dis- 
charges.^ 

"It is more than twenty years (now 1859) since I was 
requested by a medical friend. Dr. S., to visit Mrs. O., a 
lady over sixty years of age, who for several months had 

1 Diseases of the Alimentary Canal, pp. 245| 216. 



108 TOBACCO. 

been affected, during her waking hours, with an involun- 
tary and incessant opening and shutting of the mouth. 
The lower jaw was drawn down to the full extent of the 
power of the appropriate muscles, then brought up till 
the lips touched, then the same motions were repeated ; 
but she had not lost the use of the tongue. She could 
converse, and did so v^ry intelligently; but her appear- 
ance in conversation, with the accompaniment of a regular 
rhythmic motion of the jaw, was quite unique. On inquiry, 
I learned that she was in the habit of taking Scotch snuff 
freely and drinking largely of green tea. I was of opinion 
that the combined influence of these articles had caused 
her singular complaint, and advised her to quit them. 
Being a conscientious, good woman, she promised to try 
to leave them off. Six months afterward I requested Dr. 
S., by letter, to inform me of the state of Mrs. O.'s health. 
He replied that she was ' trying to leave off her snuff and 
tea, — that is, taking a little less one day, and a little more 
the next, — and her jaw was still going.' After the lapse 
of twenty years I learned from a member of her family that 
she ultimately succeeded in very greatly diminishing the 
narcotics, and that she survived a number of years, with 
the muscles of the jaw so far paralyzed as nearly to de- 
stroy the power of mastication." 

The tobacco appetite, though often difficult to acquire, 
is still harder to subdue. A distinguished officer in one 
of the colleges of our country informed me that when a 
student he was six months in teaching himself to smoke, 
and that after he became a college officer he was two 
years in teaching himself not to smoke. 

The late Dr. John C. Warren, Professor of Surgery in 
the Boston Medical School, used to remark to his classes, 
that he had but very rarely met with a case of cancer of 



TOBACCO. 109 

the lip in a person who did not use tobacco. The tobacco 
poison, mixed with the saliva, when applied to a naked or 
raw surface, is liable to kindle a diseased condition which 
is named epithelial cancer. The under lip is exposed to 
abrasion and poisoning, where the stem of the pipe in 
smoking is in contact with it; and cancer inside the 
cheek, or on the tongue, may come from abrasion of the 
lining membrane. As I have not kept a record of my 
operations on the lip, nor the number I have seen, my own 
observation may be regarded as not sufficiently delSnite ; 
but in thirty-five years of surgical practice I have seen 
many cases, and as I have seldom if ever failed to ascer- 
tain the patient's habit in regard to tobacco, I have met 
with but two men with decided lip cancer who assured 
me that they had never used tobacco in any form. 

In the present year, 1859, M. Bouisson, a surgeon .of 
Montpelier, gained high praise from the Academy at Paris 
by his statistics and remarks upon the influence of tobacco- 
smoking in the production of lip cancer. He says that it 
is now one of the most dreaded diseases in their hospitals. 
In the short period of time from 1845 to 1859 he has him- 
self performed sixty-eight operations for cancer of the 
lips, in the Hospital of St. Eloi. He says that the disease 
rarely appears before the age of forty. According to Mr. 
Lizars, impotence is sometimes caused by excessive smok- 
ing. The intensity of the poison of the chemical extract 
of tobacco induced the Count de Bocarm^, in Belgium, in 
1851, to select it for the poisoning of his brother-in-law.^ 

In Rankin's Half-yearly Abstract of the Medical Sci- 
ences for 1854, an interesting case is quoted from Dr. Cor- 
son, of New York. " The subject was a highly intelligent 

1 An aeconnt of his trial and execution is contained in Wbarton and StUes^s 
Medical Jurisprudence. 

10 



•110 TOBACCO. 

man, aged sixty-five, stout, ruddy, early mamed, managing 
a large business." After premising that he commenced 
chewing tobacco at seventeen, swallowing the juice, as is 
sometimes customary, to prevent injuring his lungs by 
constant spitting; and that years afterward he suffered 
from a gnawing, capricious appetite, nausea, vomiting of 
meals, emaciation, nervousness, and palpitation of the hearty 
he dictated to Dr. Corson, recently, the following: — 

" Seven years thus miserably passed; when one day, after 
dinner, I was suddenly seized with intense pain in the 
cliest, gasping for breath, and a sensation as if a crowbar 
were pressed tightly from, the right breast to the left^ tiU it 
came and twisted in, a knot round the hearty which now 
stopped deathly still for a minute^ and then leaped like a 
dozen frogs, Afler two hours of deathly suffering the 
attack ceased ; and I found that ever after my heait 
missed every fourth beat. My physician said that I had 
organic disease of the heart, must die suddenly, and need 
only take a little brandy for the painful paroxysms, and I 
soon found it the only thing that gave them any relief. 
For tlie next twenty-seven years I continued to suffer 
milder attacks like the above, lasting from one to several 
minutes, sometimes as often as two or three times a day 
or night ;, and came to be sickly-looking, thin, and pale as 
a ghost. 

" Simply from revolting at the idea of being a slave to 
one vile habit alone, and without dreaming of the suffering 
it had cost me, after thirty-three years' use I one day 
threw away tobacco forever. 

" Words cannot describe my suffering and desire for a 
time. I was reminded of the Indian who, next to all the 
rum in the world, wanted all the tobacco. But my firm 
will conquered. In a month ray paroxysms nearly ceased, 



TOBACCO. Ill 

and soon after left entirely. I was directly a new man, 
and grew strong and hale as you see. With the excep- 
tion of a little asthmatic breathing in close rooms and the 
like, for nearly twenty years I have enjoyed excellent 
health." Dr. C. found the pulse still intermitting at every 
fourth beat. 

The consumers of tobacco are always benefited by quit' 
ting it altogether, I have conversed with a great many 
who have laid it aside, and have never met with one who 
had left it off for a year who did not admit that he was 
better since the omission of it. Occasionally we meet 
with a man who, not disposed to pitch battle with his in- 
veterate relish for the poison, attempts to deceive himself 
or others with the notion that a little of it is necessary for 
Atm, to make food sit easy on his stomach ; that while it 
is a good general rule to quit tobacco, there is something 
very peculiar in his individual case, that calls for a little. 
Such is the reasoning of vitiated appetite : " A little 
poison is necessary to my health^ These men remind us 
of that Syrian officer, who, when he was cleansed of his 
leprosy, acknowledged the truth, declaring to the prophet, 
" Behold, now I know that there is no God in all the earth 
but in Israel ; ^ but at the same time there was one 
particular occasion when he thought he must be allowed 
to practise idolatry. 

Sir Isaac Newton, when solicited to use snuff or tobacco, 
declined, replying that " he would make no necessities for 
himsdfT * 

*' Very recently the French Emperor made an estimate 
of the effects of smoking in their schools and academies 
and colleges. They took the young men attending, classi- 

1 Life of Sir leaao Newton, by Sir David Brewster, Vol. il. p. 410, Edinb. 
and Lond. 1866. 



112 TOBACCO. 

fied them into those who smoked habitually and those 
who did not, and estimated their physical and intellectual 
standing, perhaps their moral standing, too ; but that he 
could not say. The result was, that they found that those 
who did not smoke were the stronger lads and better 
scholars, were altogether more respectable, and more useful 
members of society, than those who habitually used the 
drug. Louis l^apoleon instantly issued an edict that no 
smoking should be permitted in any college, school, or 
academy. In one day he put out about thirty thousand 
pipes in Paris alone."* 

The ex!pen9wene68 of the habit of using tobacco is 
no small objection to it. Let the smoker estimate the 
expense of thirty years' use of cigars, on the principle 
of annual interest, which is the proper method, and he 
might be startled at the amount. Six cents a day, accord- 
ing to the Rev. Mr. Fowler's calculation, would amount 
to $3,529.30; a sum which would be very useful to the 
family of many a tobacco-consumer when his faculties of 
providing for them have failed. 

The statement of Rev. Dr. Abbot, in his letters from 
Cuba, in 1828, already alluded to, is, that the consumption 
of tobacco in that island is immense. The Rev. Mr. Inger- 
sol], who passed the winter of 1832-3 in Havana, expresses 
his belief that this is not an overstatement. He says : 
^ Call the population one hundred and twenty thousand ; 
say half are smokers ; this, at a bit a day," that is, twelve 
and a half cents, '' would make between seven and eight 
thousand dollars. But this is too low an estimate, since 
not men only, but women and children, smoke, and many 
at a large expense." He says that "the free negro of 
Cuba appropriates a bit from his daily wages to increase 

1 March, 1861. 



TOBACCO. 113 

the cloud of smoke that rises from the city and country.*' 
This, in thirty years, would amount to $7,058.72, — a 
respectable estate for a negro, or even for a white man. 

The " Scientific American " states that there are (1859) 
in the city of New York about 200,000 smokers, each 
using two cigars daily, making 400,000 cigars every day. 
These, at an average of four cents each, make the enor- 
mous sum of $16,000. daily consumed in smoke in New 
York alone. There are some 900,000,000 cigars manu- 
factured in that city annually, which, at the same price, 
amount to $36,000,000. 

Dr. Trail remarks : " As long ago as 1839, Great Britain 
derived a revenue of $18,000,000 from the duty on tobacco. 
The actual loss to the nation was, of course, treble or 
quadruple that enormous sura, — an amount sufficient to 
have fed, clothed, and educated every one of the starving 
millions under the government of Queen Victoria; and 
even sufficient to have extinguished, at no distant day, 
the immense national debt of the country." 

A late writer in Blackwood's Magazine says : "Leaving 
the question of its origin, the reader will not be surprised, 
when he considers how widely the practice of smoking 
prevails, that the total product of tobacco grown on the 
face of the globe has been calculated by Mr. Crawford 
to amount to the enormous quantity of two millions of 
tons. The comparative magnitude of this quantity will 
strike the reader more forcibly, when we state that the 
whole of the wheat consumed by the inhabitants of Great 
Britain — estimating it at a quarter a head, or, in round 
numbers, at twenty millions of quarters — weighs only 
four and one third millions of tons ; so that the tobacco 
raised yearly for the gratification of this one form of 
the narcotic appetite weighs as much as the wheat con- 

10* 



114 TOBACCO. 

samed bj ten miIliox\s of Englishmen. And reckoning 
it at only double the market value of wheat, or two pence 
and a fraction per pound, it is worth in money as much as 
all the wheat eaten in Great Britain." 

The following estimate of the annual produce and value 
of tobacco is from " Chemistry of Common Life," by Prof. 
J. F. W. Johnston, F. R. S., etc. 

" Produce per acre, 800 lbs. ; acres employed, 5,600,000 ; 
total produce in pounds, 4,480,000,000; value per pound, 
2d. ; total value in pounds sterling, £37,000,000, or about 
$185,000,000. And it may be estimated," says Prof. John- 
ston, " that tobacco is used among 800,000,000 of men." 
Must it then be said of so many of our race, ^ They are 
all gone out of the way ? " 

The habit of using tobacco is uncleanly and impolite. 
It is uncleanly from the foul odor, the muddy nostril and 
darkly smeared lip it confers, and from the encouragement 
it gives to the habit of spitting, which, in our country, 
would be sufficiently common and sufficiently loathsome 
without it. 

" True politeness," said a distinguished English scholar, 
" is kindness kindly expressed." The using of tobacco, 
especially by smoking, is anything but kindness or the 
kindly expression of it, when it creates an atmosphere 
which, whether it comes directly from the pipe, the cigar, 
the deeply imbued clothing, or the worse than alligator 
breath, is absolutely insupportable to many who do not 
use it, causing depression of strength, dizziness, headache, 
sickness at the stomach, and sometimes vomiting. By 
what rule of politeness, nay, on what principle of common 
justice, may I poison the atmosphere my neighbor is com- 
pelled to breathe, or so load it with an unhealthy and 
loathsome material as to make him uncomfortable or 



TOBACCO. 115 

wretched so loDg as I am in his company ? What would 
be said of the physician who, having acquired a strong 
liking for assafoetida, should allow himself in the constant 
habit of chewing it, to the great annoyance, from his foul 
breath, of many of his patients, as well as more or less of 
the healthy individuals of the families who employ him ? 
Or how would a gentleman traveller be regarded who 
should not only keep his breath constantly imbued with 
this assafoBtida, but also insist upon spurting successive 
mouthfuls of the tincture of it upon the floor of a stage- 
coach, or of a railroad car, or of the cabin of a steam- 
boat? Would he be commended either for his cleanliness, 
politeness, or kindness? Nay, would he be tolerated in 
such a violation of the principles of good breeding? I 
have seen numbers who have been made sick, dizzy, and 
pale by the breath of a smoker ; and I have seen a person 
vomit out of a stage-coach, from the influence of that 
indescribable breath which results from alcoholic liquor 
and tobacco-smoke. 

How painful to see young men in our scientific and 
literary institutions —^ men who are soon to lead in our 
national councils, to shape the morals and the manners of 
the circles of society in which they will move — making 
themselves downright sick, day after day and week after 
week, in order to form a habit of taking a disgusting 
poison, steeping their nerves and their intellects in its 
narcotic influence, the direct tendencies of which are to 
impair their health, to enfeeble their minds, and to dis- 
qualify them for a place in cleanly and polite society. 

The use of tobacco, like that of alcoholic liquor, should 
be abandoned totally and forever. The plan of taking 
less and less daily is seld6m successful. This is what 
is called <* trying to leftve ofll" If a little less be taken 



116 TOBACCO. 

■ 

one day, generally a little more is taken the next. It 
does not answer to treat with the least deference an 
appetite so unnatural and imperative as that created by a' 
powerful narcotic; it must be denied abruptly, totally, 
and perse veringly. 

In several of our penitentiaries tobacco is not allowed 
to the inmates, almost all of whom were consumers of it. 
The testimony of the agents of these institutions is, that 
none are injured by quitting this narcotic, but that in a 
few days, seldom over twentyj their uneasiness and agita- 
tion subside, their appetite is increased, and their appear- 
ance is manifestly improved. A distinguished physician 
has assured me, that he never knew a person sustain the 
least permanent injury from the disuse of tobacco, but, on 
the contrary, every one had received decided benefit. My 
own observation is in perfect accordance with this remark. 
I have known a large number of this description, and can 
say that I have never conversed with an individual who, 
after having been freed from the habit a year, did not 
confess that an advantage, greater or less, had resulted 
from his self-denial. 

Cases illustrative of its Effects. — A gentleman of dis- 
tinction in the profession of law, in New Hampshire, 
wrote me under date of Dec. 10, 1833, as follows : — 

"At the age of twelve years, misled by some boyish 
fancy, I commenced the use of tobacco, and continued it 
with little restraint for about nineteen years. Generally 
I was in the habit of chewing tobacco, but sometimes 
for two, three, or four months together, I exchanged 
chewing for smoking. I have always led a sedentary life. 
After attaining to manhood, my ordinary weight was 
about one hundred and thirty pounds ; once or twice only 
rising to one hundred and thirty-five, and falling not 



TOBACCO. 117 

nnfrequently to one hundred and twenty-five, and some- 
times to one hundred and seventeen. My appetite was 
poor and unsteady, the nervous system much disordered, 
and my life was greatly embittered by excessive and inor- 
dinate fear of death. My spirits were much depressed. 
I became exceedingly irresolute, so that it required a great 
efibit to accomplish what I now do even without thinking 
of it. My sleep was disturbed ; faintings and lassitude 
were my constant attendants. 

** I had made two or three attempts to redeem myself 
from a habit which I knew was at best useless and foolish, 
if not prejudicial. But they were feeble and inefficient. 
Once, indeed, I thought I was sure that the giving up 
the use of tobacco injured my health, and I finally gave 
np all hopes of ever ridding myself of this habit. 

" In the summer of 1830, my attention was called to 
the subject by some friends whom I visited, and, by the 
advice and example of a friend who had renounced the 
practice with the most decided advantage, I thought 
seriously upon the subject, and felt, what had scarce 
occurred to me before, how degrading it was to be 
enslaved by a habit so ignoble. I threw away my tobacco 
at once and entirely, and have not since used the article 
in any form. Yet this was not done without a great 
effort, and it was some months before I ceased to hanker 
for the pernicious weed. Since then my health has de- 
* cidedly improved. I now usually weigh one hundred and 
forty-five pounds, and have risen to one hundred and 
fifty-two; rarely below one hundred and forty-five. My 
spirits are better. There is nothing of the faintness, lassi- 
tude, and fearful apprehensions before described. My 
appetite is good and ray sleep sound. I have no resolution 
to boast of, yet considerably more than I formerly had. 



118 TOBACCO. 

« 

^ In fine, I cannot tell what fi'enzy may seize me ; yet, 
with my present feelings, I know not the wealth that 
would induce me to resume the unrestrained use of 
tobacco, and continue it through life." 

To Dr. A. Hobbs I am indebted for the following case, 
which occurred in his own family connection : — 

" Mr. J. H began to chew tobacco at an early age, 

and used it freely. When about fifty-five years old he 
lost his voice, and was unable to speak above the whisper 
for three years. During the four or ^ve years which 
preceded the loss of his voice he used a quarter of a 
pound of tobacco in a week. He was subject to fits of 
extreme melancholy ; for whole days he would not speak 
to any one, was exceedingly dyspeptic, and was subject 
to nightmare. When about fifty-eight years old, that is, 
about thirteen yeara ago, he abandoned his tobacco. His 
voice gradually returned, and in one year was pretty 
good ; his flesh and strength were greatly increased, and 
he now has a younger look than when he laid aside his 
narcotic." ^ 

The case of Mr. L. B , a shoemaker, now about 

^fty-two years of age, exhibits strikingly the injurious 
effects of tobacco. About fourteen years ago he con- 
sulted me on account of dyspepsia, obstinate costiveness, 
and palpitation of the heart, which symptoms had existed 
for several years. The palpitation he had observed about 
seven years before. In a small degree it occurred almost 
daily. For years a slight fluttering was generally felt in 
the morning, for a short time after breakfast, which com- 
pelled him to sit still, avoiding mental as well as muscular 
exertion. After an hour or more he was better. He 
was, besides, subject to severe paroxysms of palpitation, 

1 April, 1834. 



TOBACCO. 119 

occurring at irregular periods. Six or seven of these took 
place in a year. These turns were excited under stomach 
irritations or oppression from indigestible food. They 
came on instantaneously, and often left in a moment ; 
" the pulse was nothing but a flutter." So great was the 
prostration, that during the paroxysm he was obliged •to 
lie still upon the bed. The length of the paroxysm was 
various ; sometimes an hour, sometimes several hours. 

He was in the habit of using tobacco in all its forms of 
cud, cigar, and snuff; he drank tea and coffee freely, and 
spirit and cider moderately. I advised the entire disuse 
of tobacco, tea, coffee, and all other drinks, save water, 
and to live on plain and unstimulating food. He fol- 
lowed the advice in regard to drinks in so far as to con- 
fine himself to water, and threw away the cud and cigar, 
but continued to take snuff. Under this change his health 
was improved, and the turns of palpitation were less fre- 
quent, and generally less severe. In this way he continued 
for about eight years, his general health being considera^ 
bly improved ; he was subject, however, to an occasional 
attack of palpitation. At length he had a paroxysm 
which was so terribly severe and protracted as to keep 
him nine hours and a half motionless upon his back, un- 
der the incessant apprehension of immediate dissolution. 
In the course of this nine and a half hours he made up his 
mind to take no more snuff. He has kept his resolution, 
and has not had an attack since, now about six years. He 
says he has sometimes felt a slight agitation or tremor, but 
this has been rare. Once his fingers were tremulous, now 
they are perfectly steady ; and his memory, which was 
alarmingly impaired, is much improved. 

A physician, with whom I was intimately acquainted 
during the greater part of his medical pupilage, which 



120 TOBACCO. 

included the latter part of his tobacco experience, has 
given the following account of his own case. He has a 
preference for withholding his name from the public, and 
has described himself as ^the patient." The circumstances 
of the case as related may be relied on. I was present 
each time when he threw away his tobacco. 

" The patient," says he, " at the early age of fourteen, 
under the impression that it was a manly habit, com- 
menced chewing tobacco ; and a long and painful course 
of training was required, before the stomach could be 
brought to retain it. At length the natural aversion of 
this organ to the poison was so overcome, that an exceed- 
ingly large quantity might be taken without producing 
nausea. For several years the patient continued its unin- 
terrupted use, swallowing all the secretions of the mouth 
saturated with this baneful narcotic, without experiencing 
much dbturban.ce of health. At length he began to be 
harassed with heartburn, attended with copious eructa- 
tions of an intensely acid fluid, together with other indi- 
cations of dyspepsia. A watery stomach was suspected, 
and smoking was at once recommended in addition to 
chewing, to alleviate the accumulation of water in the 
stomach and to assist digestion. Smoking was accordingly 
practised after every meal, with little alleviation of the 
difliculty. The patient, however, being determined to 
be benefited by its use, resorted to it more frequently, 
smoking not only after eaUng, but several times between 
meals. Yet, to his great surprise, his troublesome symp- 
toms were gradually augmented, notwithstanding his 
strenuous adherence to the practice. 

" To the heartburn and acid eructations soon succeeded 
nausea, loss of appetite, a gnawing sensation in the stom- 
acl^ when empty, a sense of constriction in the throat, 



TOBACCO. 121 

dryness in the mouth and fauces, thickening or huskiness 
of the voice, costiveness, paleness of the countenance, lan- 
guor, emaciation, aversion to exercise, lowness of spirits, 
palpitations, disturbed sleep; in short, all the symptoms 
which characterize dyspepsia of the worst stamp. He 
was well-nigh unfitted for any kind of business, and his 
very existence began to be miserably burdensome. 

^ At last, being advised to abandon the use of tobacco 
in all its forms, and being fully persuaded that he either 
must relinquish it voluntarily, or that death would soon 
compel him to do it, he summoned all his resolution for 
the fearful exigency, and, after a long and desperate 
struggle, obtained the victory. All the inconvenience he 
experienced was a few sleepless nights, and an incessant 
hankering after the accustomed fascinating influence of 
the cigar and cud. 

"In a few days a manifest improvement in health was 
apparent, his appetite and strength returned, his sleep be- 
came more sound and refreshing, and he directly found 
himself in the enjoyment of better health than he had 
possessed at any time during ten years of vile submission 
to a depraved and unnatural appetite. 

" After abstaining from it about two months, he again, 
by way of experiment, returned to the cud, cigar, and 
pipe ; and but a few days were requisite to recall all his 
former dyspeptic symptoms. He again relinquished the 
habit, under the full conviction that tobacco was the sole 
cause of his illness, and he firmly resolved never to make 
further use of it." 

After recovering a second time from the effects of his 
poison, this gentleman assured me that at times his feel- 
ings had bordered on those of mental derangement ; he 
thought everybody hated him, and he in^tum hated every- 

11 



122 TOBACCO. 

body. He had often, after lying awake for several boars 
in the night under the most distressing forebodings, arisen, 
and smoked his pipe to procure a temporary alleviation 
of his sufferings in fitful and half-delirious slumbers. He 
even thought of suidde, but was deterred by the dread of 
a hereafter. In a few weeks after relinquishing the indul- 
gence, all these feelings were gone ; and when I last saw 
him, about two years, I believe, after quitting his tobacco, 
he was in fine health and spirits. 

The following letter from Di\ Moore describes his own 
case: — 

Wells, Maine, April 10, 1833. 

Deab Sir — It was not ontil this late hoar that I received yoar letter 
of the 4th inst. With pleasure I hasten to answer yoar inquiries with 
regard to my experience in the use of tobacco. 

In the autumn of 1817, I commenced, I know not why, the use of 
tobacco. It was not until the spring of 1825, that I experienced any ill 
effects from it, except now and then heartburn, acid eructations, and 
occasional fits of melancholy. At that time I became dyspeptic. My 
food gave me much uneasiness; I had a sinking sensation at the pit 
of the stomach, wandering pains about the limbs, especially by night, 
disturbed sleep, loss of appetite, great difficulty of breathing from slight 
exercise, debility, emaciation, depression of spirits. Such have been my 
symptoms and feelings the last seven years; and in that time I have had 
two attacks of haemoptysis (spitting of blood), which I attribute solely 
to the relaxing effects of this narcotic. 

The various remedies for dyspepsia were all tried in my case without 
the least benefit. About the first of December last, I gave up the use of 
tobacco, and, to my astonishment, within the first twenty-four hours my 
appetite returned; food gave no uneasiness, and strength returned. I 
have been generally gaining flesh, so that now my weight is greater than 
it ever was, except once. 

I never was in the habit of using more than half an ounce of tobacco a 
day. This would be but a moderate allowance for most persons who use 
the cud. I never was a smoker; my use of it was wholly confined to 
chewing. 

A gentleman called a few weeks ago to consult me. His countenance 
was pallid and ghastly. He said that he had no appetite, was extremely 
debilitated, had palpitation of the heart and copious perspiration on slig}it 



TOBACCO. 123 

exercise, wakefulness by night, and was gloomy. " Sir," said I, " do you 
use tobacco?" "I do." "How much on an average daily?" "One 
fig." I told him he must renounce its use, which he promised to do. 
He took no medicine. I saw him again in ten days. He said he was 
wcH, and was fully satisfied that his complaints were owing to the use 
of tobacco. 

A friend of mine in this town, who has made a constant use of tobacco 
by chewing for more than thirty years of his life, was prevailed upon a few 
months ago to lay it aside, in consequence of having constant vertigo 
(dizziness) ; he is now well, and all who knew him are astonished to wit- 
ness the increase of his flesh since he desisted from its use. 

I can now count ten persons who were in a feeble state of health, and 
who have renounced tobacco by my advice, most of whom were troubled 
with nervous diseases and dyspepsia. They have all acquired better health. 

You are at liberty to make what use of these remarks you please, and 

I will vouch for the truth of them. 

Tour obedient servant, E. G. MOORE. 

Pbof. Musset. 

Dr. Moore's case is peculiarly interesting, inasmuch as 
for some years he was regarded by many of his friends 
as near a fatal consumption. In the February preceding 
the date of his letter, I met him in a stage-coach, and was 
struck with his healthful appearance, and interested with 
the account of his restoration. The following letter from 
the same gentleman confirms the views contained in his 
first communication : — 

Wells, May 7, 1836. 

Deah Sir — Yours of the 3d inst. has just been received, and in an- 
swer to your inquiry I have to say, that my health is better than when 
I last saw you in 1833, although, since that time, I have been afflicted with 
all my former unpleasant symptoms, namely, loss of appetite, debility, 
tremors, dizziness, palpitations of the heart, anxiety of mind, melan- 
choly, etc. 

You may ask what could be the cause of rfll these unpleasant sensa- 
tions. I will tell you. It was returning to the gratification of a depraved 
appetite in the use of tobacco; and I have no hesitancy in declaring it as 
my opinion, that could the causes of the many acts of suicide committed 
in the United States be investigated, it would be found that many instan- 
ces were owing to the effects of tobacco upon the nervous system. 



124 ' TOBACCO. 

It is now nearly two years since I have had anyttiing to do witli this 
enemy of the human race, and my health has never been better. I have 
a good appetite for food. My dyspeptic affection troubles me so little, 
that I hardly think of it. I never weighed so much before by several 
pounds. 

One of the persons of whom I wrote before is still in this vicinity, and 

uses no tobabco ; he enjoys uninterrupted health. The others do not now 

reside in this place. 

Yours, E. G. MOORE. 

It is presumed that henceforward Dr. Moore will retain 
so little doubt as to the effects of tobacco, as to avoid 
making further experiments with it upon his own consti- 
tution. 

Jonathan Curamings, Esq., an intelligent farmer of 
Plymouth, N. H., in a letter to Dr. Chadboume, about 
three years ago (1833), says that he was accustomed to 
manual labor from childhood, and enjoyed almost uninter- 
rupted health till he was twenty-five years old, about 
which time he commenced chewing and smoking tobacco, 
having for some time taken snuff for weakness of his eyes. 
Ilis stomach soon became affected, he had faintings and 
tremblings, and was unable to perform the labor he was 
accustomed to do. "I went on in this way," says he, 
"for thirty years; tobacco seemed to be my only com- 
fort ; I thought I could not live without it. 

" Two years ago, finding my strength still more rapidly 
declining, I determined to be a slave to my appetites no 
longer, and I discontinued the use of tobacco in every 
form. The trial was a severe one, but the immediate 
improvement in my general health richly paid me for all 
I suffered. My appetite has returned, my food nourishes 
me, and after thirty successive years of debility I have 
become strons:. 

"My weight, during the time I used tobacco, varied 
from one hundred and thirty to one hundred and forty 



TOBACCO. 125 

pounds, but never exceeded one hundred and fifty ; I now 
weigh over one hundred and eighty, and am a vigorous 
old man. I am in a great measure free from those stom- 
ach and liver complaints which followed me for thirty 
years. I do more work than I did fifteen years ago, and 
use none of what you doctors call artificial stimulants ; 
for I have more recently reformed as to tea, which I had 
drank at least twice a day for forty-five years. It is use- 
less, therefore, for folks to tell me that it won't do to break 
off old habits ; I know, for I have tried it." 

In an estimate of the expenses incurred by what he calls 
his bad habits, he puts his tobjicco only at two dollars a 
year (which he says is much below its actual cost), his snuff 
at one dollar, and his tea at four dollars. At annual inter- 
est he computes that the amount would hie $615 ; " not 
reckoning loss of time, and now and then a doctor's bill, 
anything." " A pretty little sum," says he, " for one in my 
circumstances, having always been pressed for money." 

In a letter I received from him about a year ago, he 
remarks, that among the symptoms of ill-health, while he 
used tobacco, were " a hollow,' faint feeling at the stomach, 
want of appetite, and sometimes severe spasms at the 
stomach. All the time I used tobacco my complaint was 
supposed to be liver complaint, and I took medicine for it. 
I was troubled with my food lying in my stomach for 
hours after eating ; frequently I took rhubarb and salera- 
tus, to help digestion ; when the weight passed off, it left 
my stomach debilitated and full of pain, and I then took 
my pipe to relieve it." There were frequent seasons when 
he was obliged to quit labor, although this was his whole 
dependence for a living. 

Some additional particulars I obtained in April, 1836, 
in a personal conversation with Mr. Cummings. He 

11* 



128 TOBACCO. 

with the most excruciating pains in my right side and 
breast. It did not occur to me or to my physicians that 
the disorder had any connection with the use of tobacco, 
till in the last attack I had it occurred to me that it might 
be worth the trial to see what effect the abandonment of 
tobacco might have. This was in July, 1830. Since that 
time, I have had nothing to do with tobacco in any shape, 
I have not even taken a pinch of snuff, and during all the 
time I have thus abstained I have not felt the slightest 
symptom of my old complaints, but have enjoyed better 
health than I have had before for many years. I am satis- 
fied that the use of tobacco, combined with my sedentary 
habits and great mental exertion, was the source of all my 
suffering ; and my firm resolve is, never to have anything 
to do with it in any shape hereafter." 

The influence of tobacco upon the nerved of volition is 
very distinct in some constitutions. D. C, Esq., of New 
Hampshire, at the age of seventy-nine, gave up tobacco, 
which he had chewed for many years. The muscles of 
his arms and hands had become habitually tremulous. 
When he was eighty-four years old, he assured me that 
his nerves were steady, and that he could now shoot a 
squirrel from the highest tree as unemngly as he could at 
fifty. He made this remark, 'that it did not satisfy him to 
be told that old folks could not give up bad habits ; " I 
know," said he, " for I have tried it." 

My friend Dr. Shaler, of Kentucky, recently remarked 
to me, that he considered the use of tobacco a stepping- 
stone to drunkenness ; that it produced a feeling of sink- 
ing and depression at the stomach, which was relieved by 
alcoholic liquors. For this purpose, he usually took his 
brandy at least four times a day. He has done without 
tobacco for the last four years, and has no craving for 
brandy or other strong drink, and takes none. 



TOBACCO. 129 

The following statement from the late Dr. Chapman, 
professor of theory and practice of physic in Philadelphia, 
shows the influence of this article upon the functions of 
the alimentive organs, as well as of the brain : — 

"Numerous are the instances of constipation which I 
have met with from this article. The primary effect of it, 
in whatever mode consumed, is rather aperient ; and the 
persistent or inordinate use, directly the contrary." Also 
in an article on dyspepsia, the same author uses the follow- 
ing emphatic language : " The most common of the causes 
of the disease, in certain parts of our country, is the enor- 
mous consumption of tobacco in the several forms. Certain 
I am, at least, that a large proportion of the cases of it which 
come to me are thus produced. It is usually very obsti- 
nate, and sometimes of a truly melancholy character." 
Then follows the description of several striking cases ; 
one " a member of Congress from the West, in the meri- 
dian of life, and of a very stout frame, who told me that 
he labored under the greatest physical and moral infirmity, 
which he was utterly unable to explain ; and that from 
having been one of the most healthy and fearless men, he 
had become, to use his own phrase, ^ sick all over, and timid 
as a girl.' He could not present even a petition to Con- 
gress, much less say a word concerning it, though he had 
long been a practising lawyer, and served much in legisla- 
tive bodies. On inquiry, I found that his consumption of 
tobacco was almost incredible, by chewing, snuffing, and 
smoking. Being satisfied that all his misery arose from 
this poisonous weed, its use was discontinued, and in a 
few weeks he entirely recovered." 

I was acquainted with a gentleman in Vermont who 
conscientiously abstained from all intoxicating drinks, yet 
died of delirium tremens from the excessive use of tobacco. 



130 TOBACCO. 

The reasonings employed in defence of the use of 
tobacco -are sometimes not a little entertaining. A cler- 
gyman in Hamilton county, Ohio, chews tobacco, as he 
alleges, " to prevent his getting fat ; " another clergyman 
in the same county, very lean of flesh, smokes cigars " to 
make him fat." 

Several years ago, a man applied to me for advice, and 
commenced a narrative of his symptoms, in which I soon 
interrupted him by saying, " Sir, you use tobacco." " Yes," 
he replied, "I chew a little." " Well, sir, do you think it 
does you any good?'' "No," said he, "I think not. I 
believe, on the whole, it hurts me." " Very well, then, 
why don't you stop it ? " " Because a man naturally wants 
a little something, you know, to sweeten his mouth after 
dinner." " Pray, sir, what do you eat for dinner, if that 
nauseous thing will sweeten your mouth ? " 

A respectable lady consulted me for weakness in one 
eye (fistula lachrymalis), with which she had been afflicted 
for a number of years. I asked her if she had done any- 
thing for it. She said she had taken snuff for it. " How 
long have you taken snuff?" "Eleven years," was the 
reply. "Indeed, madam, you must have great faith in 
medicine, to take it perseveringly for eleven years, with- 
out a cure, or any essential improvement." " Yes," she 
replied, " but I suppose I am a great deal better than I 
should have been if I had not taken it." 

A man consulted me for sore eyes and dimness of vision, 
which had lasted for a long time. I asked him whether 
he drank strong dnnk. " Yes," said he, " I drink a little 
every day." " Do you make use of tobacco ? " " Yes, I'm 
very fond of it, and take it pretty freely." " Well, sir, 
before your eyes can be cured, you must quit entirely the 
use of liquor and tobacco." " As for the liquor," said he, 



TOBACCO. ICl 

"I suppose I could stop that off, but the quitting of 
tobacco is out of the question." " What makes you think 
so, sir ? " " Why," said he, " I don't believe I should have 
had a sign of an eye in my head by this time, if I hadn't 
used tobacco." 

There are those who are ready to admit the habit of 
using tobacco to be filthy, disgusting, and pernicious, gener- 
ally ; but their own cases are peculiar, and to be regarded 
as exceptions. One has a tickling in his nose, calling for 
snuff; another a rising in his stomach, if he don't smoke ; 
another, a dryness in his throat, if he don't chew. 

How can a temperance man use tobacco ? With what 
consistency can he ask his neighbor to abstain from alco- 
hol, on the ground of its being injurious to body and mind, 
while he indulges himself in the habitual gratification of 
an appetite unnatural and pernicious, and holding in some 
respects a strong alliance with that produced by an alco- 
holic beverage? How long shall the widow's mite, con- 
secrated, under many personal privations, to the great 
object of doing good to mankind, be perverted to sustain 
a disgustful and hurtful habit in the beneficiary of an 
education society? 

What Christian can indulge himself in the habit of using 
tobacco — a habit which benumbs the moral sense as well 
as pollutes the body, that temple which is designed for 
the indwelling of the " Spirit of truth ? " How long are 
the sacred altare of God to be polluted with this unhal- 
lowed offering, and the garments of the priesthood to 
remain uncleansed from its defilements ? How long shall 
transgressors be called upon to listen, with a spirit of con- 
viction and repentance, to sermons on the great duties of 
Christian self-denial^ prepared and pronounced under the 
inspiration of this poison ? 



CHAPTER V. 

TEA AND COFFEB. 
§ I. TEA. 

In the first volume of the Dublin Hospital Reports, Dr. 
Percival gives the following case : — 

^ A gentleman intending to walk some distance along 
the coast of Devonshire, set out in the morning of a hot 
summer's day, having previously breakfasted on strong 
green tea, a beverage 4;o which he was not unaccustomed. 
Having walked twelve miles, he refreshed himself with a 
repetition of the same meal. Resuming his journey, he 
walked nine miles farther without hurry or fatigue. The 
heat of the day indisposed him to dine, as usual, upon ani- 
mal food ; and he therefore called a third time for green 
tea, and drank copiously of a strong infusion, eating at the 
same time only of bread or biscuit. He retired early to 
bed, resolving to use a similar diet on the following day. 

" Soon after he lay down he began to feel some unusual 
distressing sensations about the praecordia (region of the 
heart), as if he were continually on the verge of fainting. 
But being much disposed to sleep, these sensations were 
for a while disregarded, and he passed two hours in a kind 
of troubled slumber, waking at short intervals. His res- 
piration became irregular and oppressed, and his heart 
sometimes palpitated, and at other times seemed motion- 



TEA. 133 

less. At length he awoke suddenly and entirely, as from 
a struggle of incubus. He now experienced acute pain, 
as from spasm, in the region of his heart ; and in spite of 
all his efforts, he felt as if he were continually falling into 
deliquium. His pulse was feeble, irregular and intermit- 
ting, in an extraordinary degree ; and slight fits of appa- 
rent breathlessness occurred every five or six minutes. 

"He had with difficulty roused his servant in the inn 
where he lay, and procured from an invalid companion of 
his journey two opium pills, consisting of one grain each, 
and a small quantity of cold brandy-and -water. Deriving 
some temporary relief from these remedies, he again com- 
posed himself to sleep ; but afler an hour's slumber, almost 
as distressing as that which he had before endured, he 
awoke in great agitatiou, gasping for breath, and bedewed 
with a chilly moisture. Another pill of opium was pro- 
cured, and a glass of brandy-and-wat^r of greater strength 
than the former. From these he soon derived the wished- 
for relief, and at length fell into a sound and natural sleep, 
firom which he awoke in the morning in perfect health. 

"It deserves remark, that although perfectly unaccus- 
tomed to the use of opium and brandy, in any degree of 
dilution, yet he experienced neither thirst, headache, nor 
any other uneasy symptom from the remedies he had used 
in the preceding night. The bane and the antidote seemed 
mutually to cancel each other's noxious qualities. This 
gentleman has frequently used green tea, even strongly 
infused, since this occurrence, though never in the excess 
above described ; and as he derives refreshment only, with- 
out inconvenience, from the beverage, it is reasonable to 
conclude, that no peculiarity or idiosyncrasy in his consti- 
tution occasioned the symptoms above detailed. 

"A case analogous to this," continues Dr. Percival, "has 

12 



184 TEA. 

been obligingly farnisbed me by Dr. Harvey, whose com- 
munication I beg leave to subjoin. * Upwards of thirty 

years ago, Dr. called upon me in the middle of the 

day, in the summer season. I happened to answer the 
door myself, as all the domestics were out looking at some 
public spectacle. He appeared to me to be actuated by 
great terror, and upon my asking him what was the mat- 
ter, he said, " I have called upon you to request you would 
let me in, and allow me to die in your house." When he 
sat down, I examined his pulse, which was irregular, and 
scarcely discernible. He said he had called at the house 
of Dr. Hutcheson, and afterward at Dr. PurcelPs, but find- 
ing neither at home, he came to mine, where he entreated 
I would allow him to expire -^ which event he was sure 
was inevitable. 

" ' I cannot say, at this distance of time, what circum- 
stance it was which* made me ask him if he had been 
drinking strong green tea. He immediately replied that 
he had drank a great deal of strong green tea during the 
whole of the preceding night, as he sat up with an uncle 
of his, who was to set off extremely early in a stage-coach. 
I gave him a large glassful of cherry brandy, and put him 
to bed. He slept for a couple of hours, and awoke quite 
relieved from all his disagreeable feelings. 

" ' I intended to have sent to the next apothecary's for a 
glass of ether and laudanum, believing that tea, coffee, and 
opium have antagonist powers. But from the circum- 
stance, already mentioned, of there being nobody in the 
house, I waited to see the effects of the ardent spirit which 
had been administered.' " ^ 

W. Newnham, Esq., an English surgeon, reports* the 

1 Dublin Hospital Reports, Vol. 1. pp. 219-223. Published 1817. 
> A pamphlet published in 1827. 



TBA. 135 

following experimentB, made by himself and his pupils, Mr. 
Carter and Mr. Nichols, upon tea: — 

"An ounce of the very best gunpowder tea was infused 
in a pint of boiling water for twenty minutes, and divided 
into three portions, of which each took one. 

" My pulse, which before taking the tea was perfectly 
regular at eighty strokes in the minute, was first quick- 
ened and rendered fuller, but in fifteen minutes it had 
again fallen to eighty, and had become very irregular and 
intermitting ; in half an hour it had fallen to seventy-six, 
and continued exceedingly irregular. A feeling of anxiety 
had oppressed the heart, and a general tremor had come 
on, and continued for some hours, and indeed, to a certain 
extent, for the remainder of the day. 

"The same experiment, repeated ten days afterwards, 
was attended with precisely similar results." 

The effects upon the two pupils of this gentleman were 
very similar. One of them, Mr. Garter, described his first 
sensations to be those of temporary exaltation. " He felt 
a greater degree of * confidence in himself' which, how- 
ever, quickly gave way to oppression and anxiety about 
the heart, palpitation, a slight degree of nausea, general 
tremor, and a feeling of debility, as if his knees refused 
to do their ol^e in supporting the body." 

There are some physicians who believe that the free use 
of tea has a tendency to induce disease of the kidneys. 
I have met with one case of diseased kidneys of which 
the patient, a literary gentleman, died ; who for several 
years drank largely of tea, and once a day, at least, with- 
out food. Both tea and coffee have been observed to 
diminish the appetite for food, at the same time that the 
metamorphosis of the tissues is less active and the effete 



186 TEA. 

or ezcrementitions parts of the blood are cast off in 
diminished quantity. 

- In reply to a letter of inquiry, dated Dec. 4th, 1859,. Dr. 
Peter Parker, who for many years had charge of a hospital 
in Canton, expresses the belief that ^ the Chinese as a race 
do consume more tea than any other. Coffee is little 
known in China. The use of tea is universal ; all classes 
drink it, and many several times a day. They drink it 
warm, tepid, and cold ; I think they seldom take it hoty as 
Europeans do." 

By the earlier Jesuits tea was recommended as a protec- 
tion against calculous disorders. Dr. P. says : " I am of 
opinion that tea is not antilithic. That its free use is inju- 
rious to the kidneys has never occurred to me. Yet it is 
a fact that renal affections are very common in China, and 
foreigners residing there are not exempt from them. A 
large number have been under my care." 

Dr. P. is of opinion that " stone is common throughout 
the Chinese Empire." One patient, a boy of ten years, 
bom in Pekin, was brought to him. Dr. P. says : " I know 
the disease to be prevalent in the south of China ; and it 
is as prevalent in the towns and country villages as in the 
densely populated cities." The doctor has a collection of 
thirty-eight calculi, which he took by the^ateral opera- 
tion in eleven years ending in 1855. 

The animal food eaten by the poorer classes consists 
principally of dogs, cats, and rats. " Pork is very abun- 
dant and excellent, and consumed by all classes, and freely. 
I should judge that nine tenths of it is eaten ^r^sA." 

It is quite remarkable that Dr. Scudder, an intelligent 
missionary physician at Ceylon, who for seventeen years 
was in the habit of prescribing for all who called on him 



TEA. 137 

from a population of two hundred thousand, never, as he 
declared to me, met with a single case of stone in the 
bladder among all his patients. 

Tea- Tasting. — A New York correspondent gives the 
following particulars of the effects of " tea-tasting " and 
sampling upon the constitutions of those engaged in the 
business : — 

" The death of a famous tea-broker in this city, lately, 
calls to mind the curious nature of his business. I won- 
der if any of your readers at the West know that their 
fastidiousness in the choice of the herb which cheers, but 
not inebriates, is the cause of the establishment of a pro- 
fession, called 'Hea-tasting," which is as certain death to a 
man as the continued practice of opium-eating. The suc- 
cess of the tea-broker, or taster, depends upon the trained 
accuracy of his nose and palate, bis experience in the wants 
of the American market, and his business tact. If be 
has these qualities in high cultivation, he may make from 
$20,000 to $40,000 per annum while he lives, and die of 
ulceration of the lungs. He overhauls a cargo of tea, clas- 
sifies it, and determines the value of each sort. In doing 
this, he first looks at the color of the leaf, and the general 
cleanliness of it. He next takes a quantity of the herb in 
his hand, and breathing his warm breath upon it, he snufi^ 
up the fragrance. In doing this he draws into his lungs a 
quantity of irritating and stimulating dust, which is by no 
means wholesome. Then, sitting down at the table in his 
office, on which is a long row of little porcelain cups and 
a pot of hot water, he " draws " the tea, and tastes the 
infusion. In this way he classifies the different sorts, to 
the minutest shade, marks the different prices, and is then 
ready to compare his work with the.invoice. The skill of 
these tasters is truly marvellous, but the effect of the busi- 

12* 



138 COFF£E. 

ness on tbeir health is, as* I have said, ruinous: they grow 
lean, nervous, and consumptive. At the end of a hard 
day's work 'they feel and act as fidgety and cross as a 
hysteric old maid." 

^ n. COFFEE. 

Coffee, like tea, on persons of a certain temperament, 
accustomed to its habitual and free use, has a damaging 
effect, producing a severe headache, which makes its 
attack at irregular intervals, generally in the morning, 
without premonition, and continues through the day. 

" The Coffee Headache is an intolerable and frequently 
burning pain, attended with great sensitiveness of the 
scalp, so that the slightest touch is painful. The body and 
mind appear unpleasantly sensitive. The patient, appar- 
ently deprived of strength, seeks a solitary and dark spot, 
to avoid the light of day. He closes his eyes and passes 
his time (generally .reclining on his back, with the head 
elevated) in a kind of wakeful slumber. Every kind of 
motion or noise increases his sufferings. He dislikes to 
speak, and avoids the conversation of others. The coffee 
headache appears early in the morning, soon after waking, 
and gradually increases, and seldom disappears before 
evening. The body is chilly, the feet and hands often 
cold. This headache recurs at irregular periods, from 
fourteen days to three or four weeks, and often takes 
place without premonition. Often, the night before the 
attack, the patient has no warning of the coming parox- 
ysm the next morning."^ 

Dr, Hatch! 8 Case, Dr. Hatch (over forty years of age) 
for the last year ha^ drank cold water instead of coffee 

1 Hahnemann's Essay on Coffee. 



COFFEE. 139 

and tea as formerly, and takes 'but a very small quantity 
of meat. The effect has been to exempt him from sick 
headache, which, for many yeai*s, he had once a fort- 
night, often once a week, so severely as to confine him to 
his bed for half a day, sometimes a whole day. lie was 
generally obliged to take to his bed when attacked with 
it. He remarked to me to-day,^ that for the last year he 
had not felt enough headache to detain him a moment 
from his professional practice, which is so great as to keep 
him almost constantly employed. 

A young lady, a school teacher, consulted me for sick 
headache. She had had it for some years, and at the time 
she applied to me it recurred once in from two to four 
weeks. It came on in the morning, as she awoke from 
sleep, after an unusual degree of exhilaration of spirits the 
evening before. It always occupied a whole day, during 
which she required seclusion from light and noise. I pre- 
scribed an entire change of diet : unbolted flour-bread, 
with other vegetable aliment, and water for the only drink. 
She had been very much addicted to coffee-drinking. Iler 
comment upon my prescriptions was this : " Oh," said she, 
" how the idea of that cold water in my stomach makes 
me shudder!" She pursued the course, however, reso- 
lutely and perseveringly ; and months afterwards, when I 
saw her, she was well, and had not experienced a single 
return of the complaint. 

Dr. C, of Essex County, Massachusetts, had a patient, a 
man of forty to forty-five years of age, with naturally a 
good constitution, who had been subject to violent palpi- 
tation of the heart for many years. He first laid aside the 
use of spirit, then of tobacco, both of which he had used 

^ Hanover, May 28, 1836. 



M 



\ 



140 COFFEE. 

temperately, and was rmich benefited, though far from 
being cured by the change. He still continued to ^ink 
strong coffee and tea, which he had taken for some years. 
Coffee was the main drink. He often took it twice, and 
occasionally three times, a day. 

In about one year after leaving his tobacco he quitted 
coffee and tea, and used cold water as his only drink. He 
was immediately relieved, and in a short time entirely 
well, and has remained so ever since — a period of more 
than two years. He is also much less troubled with colds 
than formerly. 

The same physician was in several instances consulted 
by another patient, a young man about thirty years of 
age, on account of a severe palpitation of the heart, with 
which he had been afflicted for more than two years. He 
had taken strong coffee twice or three times a day, for 
several years. The doctor gave him various medicines at 
different times, with no lasting benefit. He at length, two 
years ago, prescribed the disuse of coffee. The patient 
was immediately better, and has been well since, and has 
not had a single attack of the complaint except after 
taking a cup of coffee, as he has occasionally done when 
away from home. In every such instance the coffee has 
brought on an attack of his palpitation. 

Dr. C. himself was often troubled with throwing off his 
food soon after eating. This complaint' lasted six or eight 
years. After quitting his tea and coffee, and resorting to 
water as his only drink, the affection immediately disap- 
peared, and he has since had nothing of it. 

We have no means of measuring the permanent influ- 
ence upon health of coffee and tea as they are ordinarily 
taken in the farming districts of our country. Some indi- 
viduals attain a high age under the use of one or both 



COFFEE. 141 

of tbem, at a moderate strengtii. But it is not rare to 
meet with those who suffer disorder of the heart, the 
stomach, or the head, which is removed by their disuse. 

Early in my professional life I drank for a few years two 
large cups of rather strong coffee every morning, except 
when I was from home, and conld not get it. Ultimately 
I felt, within an hour after breakfast, a nausea which ended 
in vomiting a great part of what I had eaten. For some 
time I was at a loss to account for this new state of stom- 
ach. At length I suspected that my coffee had something 
to do with it. I laid it aside, and was almost immediately 
well of the complaint. Since that time I have not taken 
it at all, except perhaps in half a dozen instances, by way 
of experiment. It has operated upon the bowels like a 
saline cathartic. 



CHAPTER VI. 



CASPAB HAUSER. 



Thb case of Caspar Hauser is introduced here on 
account of his remarkable nervous system, scarcely less 
sensitive than that of a new-bom infant. 

His history was most extraordinary. At the age of 
sixteen or seventeen, he was discovered (May 26, 1828) 
in the streets of Nuremberg, an entire stranger to every- 
body, and unacquainted with language, except a few 
phrases, which he repeated over and over. He was kept 
in the tower of the prison at Nuremberg till the 18th of 
the following July, when he was transferred to the family 
of Professor Daumer, who undertook his education. Oct. 
17, 1829, while at Prof Daumer's house, an attempt was 
made upon his life, by an assassin. In Dec. 1831, he went 
to reside at Anspach. In 1832, a publication of his mys- 
terious history was made by Anselm Von Feuerbach, an 
eminent jurist, including notes by Prof. Daumer. Dec. 14, 
1833, he was murdered. 

From his earliest recollection, until he was carried to 
Nuremberg, — probably in an artificial sleep, and from 
what distance no one can tell, — he had been kept in a 
narrow dungeon, and had lived exclusively upon bread 
and water. He was left wandering in the streets, with 
no other guide than a letter addressed to a captain of cav- 



CASPAR HAUSER. . 143 

airy; and from his subsequent history we gather some 
peculiar facts. Yon Feuerbach says : " Of his astonishing 
memory, which is as quick as it is tenacious, he gave us 
the most striking proofs. In noticing any of the numer- 
ous things, whether small or great, which were in his pos- 
session, he was able to mention the name and the title of 
the person who had given it to him ; and if several per- 
sons were to be mentioned, whose surnames were alike, 
he distinguished them accurately, by their Christian names 
or by other marks of distinction. About an' hour after we 
had seen him, we met him again in the street, it being 
about the time when he was conducted to the burgo- 
master's. We addressed him ; and when we asked him 
whether he could recollect our names, *he mentioned, 
without the least hesitation, the full name of every one 
of the company, together with all our titles, which must 
nevertheless have appeared to him as unintelligible non- 
sense. His physician. Dr. Osterhausen, observed, on a 
different occasion, that when a nosegay had been given 
him, and he had been told the names of all the different 
flowers of which it was composed, he recognized, sev- 
eral days afterwards, every one of these flowers ; and 
he was able to tell the name of each of them. But the 
strength of his memory decreased afterwards, precisely in 
proportion as it was enriched, and as the labor of his 
understanding was increased." " TTncleanliness, or what- 
ever he considered as such, whether in his own person or 
others, was an abomination to him. He observed almost 
eveiy grain of dust upon our clothes ; and when he once 
saw a few grains of snuff upon my frill, he showed them 
to me, briskly indicating that he wished me to wipe those 
nasty things away. « 

^ One of the most difficult undertakings was to accus- 



144 CASPAR HAUSER. 

torn him to the use of ordinary food, and this could be 
accomplished only by slow degrees, with much trouble 
and great caution. The first that he was willing to take, 
was water gruel, which he learned to relish daily more 
and more, and on this account he imagined that it was 
every day made better and better ; so that he would ask 
what was the reason that it had not been made so good at 
first. Also all kinds of food prepared from meal, flour, 
and pulse, and whatever else bore a resemblance to bread, 
began soon to agree with him. At length he was gradu- 
ally accustomed to eat meat^ by mixing at firat only a 
few drops of gravy with his gruel, and a few threads of 
the muscular fibres of which the juices had been well 
boiled out, with his bread, and by gi*adually increasing 

the quantity." 
In the notes respecting Caspar Hauser which Professor 

Daumer has collected, he has made the following observa- 
tions: "After he had learned regularly to eat meat, his 
mental activity was diminished ; his eyes lost their bril- 
liancy and expression ; his vivid propensity to constant 
activity was diminished ; the intense application of his 
mind gave way to absence and indifierence, and the quick- 
ness of his apprehension was also considerably diminished. 
Whether this was really the effect of his feeding on meat^ 
or whether this bluntness was not rather the consequence 
of the painful excess of excitement which preceded it, may 
justly be questioned. We may, however, conclude with 
much greater certainty, that the change of his diet, which 
was made by accustoming him to warm nourishment and 
to some animal food, must have had a very perceptible* 
effect upon his growth. In Professor Daumer's house, he 
increased more than two inches in height, in a very few 
weeks. The inflammation of his eyes, and the constant 



CASPAR HAUSER. 145 

headache with which every application of his eye-sight 
was attended, made it impossible for him to read, to write, 
or to draw. 

" Of the beauties of nature he had no perception. Nor 
did nature seem to interest him otherwise than by exciting 
his curiosity, and by suggesting the question, who made 
such a thing ? When, for the first time, he saw a rain- 
bow, its view appeared for a few moments to give him 
pleasure. But he soon turned away from it; and he 
seemed to be much more interested in the question, who 
made it ? than in the beauty of its apparition. Yet there 
was one view which made a remarkable exception from 
this observation, and which must be regarded as a great 
and never-to-be-forgotten incident in the gradual devel- 
opment of his mental life. It was in the month of August, 
1829, when, on a fine summer evening, his instructor 
showed him, for the first time, the starry heavens. His 
astonishment and transport surpassed all description. He 
could not be satiated with its sight, and was ever return- 
ing to gaze upon it ; at the same time fixing accurately 
with his eye the different groups that were pointed out to 
him, remarking the stara most distinguished for their 
brightness, and observing the differences of their respec- 
tive color. ' That,' he exclaimed, ' is indeed the most beau- 
tiful sight that I have yet seen in the world. But who has 
placed all these numerous, beautiful candles there ? Who 
lights them ? Who puts them out ? ' When he was told 
that, like the sun, with which he was already acquainted, 
they always continue to give light, he asked again, ' Who 
placed them there above, that they may always continue 
to give light?' At length, standing motionless, with his 
head bowed down, and his eyes staring, he fell into a train 
of deep and serious meditation. When he again recov- 

13 



146 CASPAR HAUSER. 

ered his recollection, his transport had been succeeded by 
deep sadness. He sank trembling upon a chair, and asked 
why that wicked man had kept him always locked up, and 
had never shown him any of these beautiful things." 

Of the almost preternatural acuteness of his senses, 
his biographer says: "As to his sight, there existed in 
respect to him no twilight, no night, no darkness. This 
was first noticed by remarking that at night he stepped 
everywhere with the greatest confidence ; and that, in 
dark places, he always refused a light when it was offered 
to him. He often looked with astonishment or laughed at 
persons who, in dark places, for instance, when entering 
a house, or walking on a staircase by night, sought safety 
in groping their way, or in laying hold on adjacent objects. 
In twilight he even saw much better than in broad day- 
light. Thus, after sunset, he once read the number of a 
house at the distance of one hundred and eighty paces, 
which in daylight he would not have been able to distin- 
guish so far off. Towards the close of twilight, he once 
pointed but to his instructor a gnat that was hanging in a 
very distant spider's web. At a distance of certainly not 
less than sixty paces, he could distinguish the single ber- 
ries in a cluster of elder-berries from each other, and these 
berries from black currants. It has been proved by ex- 
periments carefully made, that in a perfectly dark night 
he could distinguish different dark colors, such as green 
and blue, from each other. His sight was as sharp in dis- 
tinguishing objects near by as it was penetrating in dis- 
cerning them at a distance. In anatomizing plants, he 
noticed subtile distinctions and delicate particles, which 
had entirely escaped the observation of others. 

" Scarcely less sharp and penetrating than his sight was 
his hearing. When taking a walk in the fields he once 



CASPAR HAUSER. 147 

heard, at a distance comparatively very great, the footsteps 
of several persons, and he could distinguish these persons 
from each other by their walk. He had once an opportu- 
nity of comparing the acuteness of his hearing with the 
still greater acuteness of hearing evinced by a blind man, 
who could distinguish even the most gentle step of a man 
walking barefooted. On this occsision he observed that 
his hearing had been formerly much more acute, but that 
its acuteness had been considerably diminished since he 
had begun to eat meat ; so that he could no longer distin- 
guish sounds with so great a nicety as that blind man. 

^' Of all his senses, that which was the most troublesome 
to him, which occasioned him the most painful sensations, 
and which made his life in the world more disagreeable to 
him than any other, was the sense of smelling. What to 
us is entirely scentless, was not so to him. The most del- 
icate and delightful odors of flowers, for instance the rose, 
were perceived by him as insupportable stenches, which 
painfully aflfected his nerves. What announces itself by 
its smell to others only when very near, was scented by 
him at a very considerable distance, excepting the smell of 
bread, of fennel, of anise, and of caraway, to which ho 
says he had already become accustomed ih his prison, 
for his bread was seasoned with these condiments. All 
kinds of smells were more or less disagreeable to him. 
When he was once asked which of all other smells was 
most agreeable to him, he answered, "None at all." His 
walks and rides were often rendered very unpleasant by 
leading him near to flower gardens, tobacco fields, nut- 
trees, and other plants which aflfected his olfactory nerves ; 
and he paid dearly for his recreations in the free air, by 
suficring afterwards from headaches, cold sweats, and 
attacks of fever. 



148 CASPAK HAUSEE. 

"He smelt tobacco, when in blossom in the fields, at the 
distance of fifty paces, and at more than a hundred paces 
when it was hung up in bundles to dry, as is commonly 
the case about the houses in the villages near Nuremberg. 
He could distinguish apple, pear, and plum trees from each 
other, at a considerable distance, by the smell of their 
leaves. The different coloring nyiterials used in the paint- 
ing of the walls and furniture, and in the dyeing of cloths, 
etc., the pigments with which he colored his pictures, the 
ink or pencil with which he wrote, all things about him, 
wafted odors to his nostrils which were unpleasant or 
painful to him. If a chimney-sweeper walked the streets, 
though at the distance of several paces from him, he 
turaed his face shuddering from his smell. The smell of 
an old cheese made him feel unwell, and affected him with 
vomiting. The smell of strong vinegar, though fully a 
yard distant from him, operated so powerfully upon the 
nerves of his sight and smell, as to bring the water into 
his eyes. When a glass of wine was filled at table, at a 
considerable distance from him, he complained of its dis- 
agreeable smell, and of a sensation of heat in his head. 
The opening of a bottle of champagne was sure to drive 
him from the table or make him sick. What we call 
unpleasant smells were perceived by him with much less 
aversion than many of our perfumes. The smell of fresh 
meat was to him the most horrible of all smells. When 
Professor Daumer, in the autumn of 1828, walked with 
Caspar near to St. John's church-yard, in the vicinity of 
Nuremberg, the smell of the dead bodies, of which the 
Professor had not the slightest perception, affected him so 
powerfully that he was immediately seized with an ague, 
and began to shudder. The ague was soon succeeded by 
jv feverish heat, which at length broke out into a violent 



CASPAR nAUSER. 149 

perspiration, by which his linen was thoroughly wet He 
afterwards said that he had never before experienced so 
great a heat. When on his return he came near to the 
city gate, he said that he felt better ; yet he complained 
that his sight had been obscured thereby. Similar effects 
were once experienced by him when he had been for a con- 
siderable time walking by the side of a vtobacco-field." 

Prof. Daumer found him peculiarly sensitive to the 
presence of metals, and these results are given of experi- 
ments with the magnet, etc. " When Professor D. held 
the north pole towards him, Caspar put his hand to the pit 
of his stomach, and, drawing his waistcoat in an outward 
direction, said that it drew him thus; and that a current 
of air seemed to proceed from him. The south pole 
affected him less powerfully, and he said that it blew upon 
him. Professor Daumer and Professor Hermann made 
afterwards several other experiments similar to these, and 
calculated to deceive him ; but his feelings always told 
him very correctly, and even though the magnet was held 
at a considerable distance from him, whether the north 
pole or the south pole was held towards him. Such 
experiments could not be continued long, because the 
perspiration soon appeared on his forehead, and he began 
to feel unwell. 

" In autumn, 1828, he once accidentally entered a store 
filled with hardware, and particularly with brass wares. 
He had scarcely entered before he hurried out again, being 
affected with violent shuddering, and saying that he felt 
a drawing in his whole body, in all directions. A stranger 
who visited him once slipped a piece of gold of the size 
of a kreutzer into his hand without Caspar's being able 
to see it ; he said immediately that he felt gold in his hand. 
At a time when Caspar was absent, Professor Daumer 

13* 



160 CASPAR HAUSER. 

placed a gold ring, a steel and brass compass, and a silver 
drawring-pen under some paper, so that it was impossible 
for him to see what was concealed under it. Daumer 
directed him to move his fingers over the paper without 
touching it ; he did so, and by the difference of the sensa- 
tion and strength of the attraction which these different 
metals caused him to feel at the points of his fingers, he 
accurately distinguished them all from each other, accord- 
ing to their respective matter and form. Once, when the 
physician, Dr. Osterhausen, and the royal crownfiscal Brun- 
ner, from Munchen, happened to be present, Mr. Daumer 
led Caspar, in order to try him, to a table covered with an 
oilcloth, upon which lay a sheet of paper, and desired him 
to say whether there was any metal under it; he moved his 
finger over it, and then said, ' There it draws.' 'But this 
time,' said Daumer, 'you are mistaken, for' (withdrawing 
the paper) ' nothing lies under it. Caspar seemed at first 
to be somewhat embarrassed, but he put his finger again 
to the place where he thought he had felt the drawing, 
and assured him repeatedly that he there felt a drawing. 
The oilcloth was then removed, a stricter search was 
made, and a needle was actually found there. He des- 
cribed the feeling which minerals occasioned him as a kind 
of drawing sensation, which passed over him, accompanied 
with a chill, which ascended, accordingly as the objects 
were different, more or less up the arm ; which was also 
attended with other distinctive sensations. At the same 
time the veins of the hand which had been exposed to the 
metallic excitative were visibly swollen." 

In 1859 Professor Daumer himself published a further 
account of this extraordinary person, from which the fol- 
lowing statements are extracted : — 

" The uncommon faculties which Hauser manifested in 



CASPAR HAVSBR. 151 

the early period, as well as the very peculiar fineness and 
delicacy of his whole being which distinguished him at 
that time, were in evident connection with his pure and 
innocent diet. These peculiar qualities continued in him 
even when he no longer, as in the beginning, lived upon 
mere bread and water, but upon water soups, chocolate, 
and preparations of milk. He lost them, however, as soon 
as he became accustomed to meat, which food had a par- 
ticularly dulling and enfeebling effect, although he was 
brought into it very gradually, and with extreme caution. 
He lost the unexampled sensitiveness to animal and min- 
eral infiuences, which were so trying and tormenting to 
him. This was counted upon, and the expectation was 
fully verified ; but something else showed itself which had 
not been intended. The astonishing fineness and keen- 
ness of his senses also diminished, especially his far-reach- 
ing eye and ear ; and unfortunately also his great power 
of comprehension and memory disappeared. He did not 
become stupid and dull, neither was he, nor did he ever 
become, lazy ; but he comprehended and learned no longer 
with his former facility, and showed in his whole being 
and development no more extraordinary powers and tal- 
ents, and appeared in almost every respect as a common 
person. 

" I find in my annotations the following remark : ' Hau- 
ser developed with the greatest rapidity in the first period 
until he became sick in the tower. Then came a period in 
which he indeed could apprehend very well, and on the 
whole made great progress, but on account of over-ini- 
tated nerves was very little fit for definite work or exer- 
tion ; just as it happens that a morbidly irritable eye can 
see, to be sure, but not without pain and evil conse- 
quences. With the habit of eating meat came another 



1 



152 CASPAR HAUSER. 

condition of things. His mental activity was impaired; 
his eyes lost their lustre and expression; his desire 
for work was gone; the intensity of his being passed 
over into indifference and a seeking after diversion ; his 
power of apprehension was diminished. His condition 
was not so much that of over-irritation and pain, but it 
was that of dulness. This is not to be understood as if 
there were no traces left of spirit and talent. It is rather 
to explain the first violent effect of that diet.' 

" I have mentioned already in my communications that 
he had also afterwards moments of clearer and more spir- 
itually-exalted condition ; times when the spiritual quali- 
ties, formerly so much «idmired in him, showed themselves 
at least for a while. At intervals he would even have 
flashes of poetical talent and speculative philosophical 
power, which could excite the highest admiration.. In 
March, 1829, he showed again a more active psychical 
life, and more energetic thinking. His eye beamed as 
formerly, and his countenance regained its former expres- 
sion of spirituality. His brain worked incessantly, and he 
formed, especially on religious subjects, many opinions 
with great clearness and distinctness. Very remarkable 
also was his spiritual condition after he was wounded in 
my house, October 17, 1829. This wound had the effect 
to put him back into the same condition in which he was 
before he began to eat meat, namely, with his mental gifts 
and exaltation returned ; for instance, his sensitiveness to 
metal, glass, and animal influences. 

"I hereby bear testimony that Hauser's appetite was 
strictly and exclusively for bread and water only; that 
during the period of this diet he never wanted anything 
else, liked anything else, bore anything else, nor took any- 
thing else of his own accord. Especially everything ani- 



CASPAR HAUSBSR. 158 

mal was terrible to him ; flesh a real disgust, physically ; 
and the idea of eating anything that was killed, a horror 
for his heart and his imagination. After he had been 
living for some time on water gruel, milk porridge, and 
chocolate, he became at last, and only with great difliculty 
and after long preparation, accustomed to our common 
food. Even a single drop of meat soup mingled with his 
water gruel was perceived by him. All spicy, spirituous, 
and exciting things, such as wine, beer, coffee, and ten, 
were absolutely intolerable to him. Only the few spices 
which he formerly had eaten with his bread made an 
exception. 

"Burgomaster Binder speaks of the sensitiveness of his 
olfactories and nerves of taste to the simplest things ; as, 
for instance, flowers, strawberries, milk. In my commu- 
nication I have reported : * From meat he becomes fever- 
ish ; vegetable acids cause painful irritation ; sweets are 
disagreeable to him ; everything spicy and spirituous pro- 
duces symptoms of an alarming character. Indulgence in 
grapes, or in fresh grape-juice, brought on a state of eleva- 
tioUj excitement, and drunkenness in such a degree that 
he was obliged to sleep off the intoxication.' 

"Feuerbach writes in a letter, dated Sept. 20, 1828: 
*He could eat only bread and water; every other drink, 
even milk, and the smallest morsel of meat, caused not 
only nausea and shuddering, but even fever in him- Even 
now he eats neither meat, nor vegetables, nor fruit.' Of 
Hauser's later manner of living in Anspach, Feuerbach 
reports : ' His present diet is almost the same as that of 
other people ; he eats, with the exception of pork, all 
kinds of food, without any heating spices. His favorites 
continue — caraway seed, fennel and coriander. His drink 
is water, only in the morning he takes a cup of homoeo- 



154 CASPAR HATTSER. 

patblc chocolate. All fermented liquids, beer, wine, and 
also tea and coffee, continue to be a horror to him, and 
would make him infallibly sick if even a drop were forced 
upon him.' 

"In my communications I have said that snuff, tobacco, 
and spirits were forced upon him, to whom the very smell 
of such things was horrible ; and he was thereby thrown 
into a condition which made even those barbarians tremble 
who did it, or allowed it to be done. 

"From the smell of whiskey, which was placed near 
him, he had the headache for days. From cheese, which 
he was forced to eat, pressure of the stomach, also lasting. 

" Hauser, in his former unknown prison, has not eaten 
common, coarse, black bread, but a finer, strongly spiced 
kind, such as is baked in the country on festival occasions 
and for the better classes. The bread which he ate in 
Nuremberg was by no means what he desired. He ate it, 
but only for want of the better, which he with diflS^culty 
dispensed with, and had a constant longing for. ^ When 
he once accidentally caught sight of this* bread he cried 
for joy. The spices of this bread were the only dietetic 
excitements which he loved and could bear; an exception 
founded upon habit. These spices were caraway, anise- 
seed, coriander, and fennel seed; and it is remarkable 
how he, in spite of his otherwise unexampled debility 
and irritability, could bear the strongest fennel-seed sugar 
from the druggists, also caraway tea, which answered with 
him medicinal purposes. 

" No one will undertake to assert that it was possible 
for Hauser to produce, by the mere exercise of will, and 
for the purpose of deception, such symptoms, when it is 
considered that besides being thrown into convulsions 
by the influences as described, he also changed color in 



CASPAR HAUSEB. 155 

the face, became yellow over his whole body, sudden 
perspiration appeared on his forehead, his eyes filled with 
tears and gave evidence of inflammation, the veins and 
limbs swelled, the fingera exposed to the e^ect became 
cold, dry cold, while the rest of the hand perspired. 
Bleeding from^ the nose, vomiting, rapid emaciation 
ensued, etc. etc."^ 

After his death, the popular feeling was somewhat 
allayed by the appearance of a pamphlet which proposed 
to make Caspar an impostor ; another opinion diligently 
propagated was, that he was an idiot. The authors of 
these attempts, it is natural to conjecture, felt an interest 
in having Caspar put out of the way. Feuerbach had 
investigated the case before his publication in 1832, and 
seems to have leaned to the opinion that Hauser was 
the legitimate heir to the Grand Duchy of Baden. 

1 Professor Banmer's publication, 1868. 



CHAPTER VII. 



OBGANIC SYMPATHIES. 



The human body is made up of numerous organs or 
parts, each designed for a specific oflS^ce or function, yet so 
associated that a morbid impression upon one may be 
extended to one or all of the others. Organs the most 
essential to the maintenance of life exhibit the liveliest 
sympathies. The alimentary canal, the lungs, and the 
skin, are so many inlets to foreign articles, which are 
required for the nutrition and activity of the body, at the 
same time that they give exit to worn-out materials, 
"which become poisonous unless they are cast off. In this 
last work they are joined by the kidneys. * 

The stomach is a wonderful organ. Doomed, as it is, 
with all its delicacy of structure, to take into itself and try 
its powers upon the thousand products of the animal and 
vegetable kingdoms, and that too at all temperatures, from 
boiling hot to icy cold, it is no marvel that the head, the 
heart, the lungs, the skin, the bowels, and the voluntary 
muscles, should give the alarm, or take part in efforts for 
relief. 

The whole system sympathizes with the stomach in the 
digestion of food, by furnishing nervous influence in 
greater amount than it requires when empty, causing a 
general languor and inactivity. But when the quantity of 



ORGANIC SYMPATHIES. 157 

food is in excess, or the quality objectionable, the torpor is 
more deep and prolonged. In some instances there is an 
annopng sense of fulness, or oppression at the pit of the 
stomach, amounting sometimes to pain, spasm, and con- 
vulsion. 

There is at the outlet of the stomach a valvular or 
sphincter-like arrangement of muscular fibres, called the 
pyloruSy the object of which is to keep the passage into 
the intestines shut against the contents of the stomach 
while undigested. Here the pylorus, like a faithful senti- 
nel, stands to guard the intestines against the incursion 
of an enemy so hostile to their healthy operations. As if 
endowed with intelligence, it seems to say, "No; you 
can't come out here : if you cannot be changed into chyme 
where you are, then go back the way you came, through 
the gullet and the mouth. If you were to be let through 
here, you might put in jeopardy our whole commonwealth 
of alimentary organs." 

A student, pursuing a college education, ate, late al 
evening, a liberal meal of beef-steak, when probably little 
or no food was necessary. What he drank with it was 
not mentioned. That night he scarcely slept. A physi- 
cian was called in the morning ; the patient had a sense 
of weight or load, and at intervals violent pain in the 
stomach, with an oppressed pulse. Not inclined to an 
emetic, he took, with some relief, the volatile alkali and 
the bicarbonate of soda. He passed the day and the fol- 
lowing night uncomfortably, with occasional cat-naps and 
paroxysms of suffering. The following morning, nausea 
and vomiting came on, in which the beef-steak was 
thrown ofl^ with scarcely a trace of digestion having been 
J)egun. In three days he was able to resume his literary 
pursuits. 

14 



158 ORGANIC SYMPATHIES. 

Early in my professional life I visited a child of a year 
and a half, in convulsions, about an hour after the family 
had dined. On learning that the child had taken freely of 
baked mutton, I gave it an emetic ; lumps of the mutton, 
of course unmasticated, were in succession thrown off, to 
the amount, as it then seemed to me, of rather more than 
a gill. The little patient then became conscious, though 
languid, and was well the next day. In these cases, the 
voluntary muscles sympathize with the oppressed organ. 

It is now fifty years since a case belonging to the same 
category came to my knowledge. A lady of my acquaint- 
ance, about forty-five years of age, after eating freely of 
animal food, and the ordinary accompaniments at that 
time of a genteel dinner, was attacked at evening with 
frightful stomach spasms. A physician, eminent in that 
region, was called. He began by giving an opium pill of 
^ve grains, and repeated it at short intervals until relief 
was given. The doctor afterwards related the case to me, 
and seemed to derive great satisfaction from the consider- 
ation that he gave nothing but opium, and that he had 
the sagacity to follow it up till his patient had taken two 
drams of excellent opium^ as he expressed it. The good 
lady was prostrate and helpless for several days, but hav- 
ing a good constitution, she ultimately recovered. An 
emetic would have been the appropriate and safer 
remedy. 

Undigested articles of food which have passed the pylo- 
rus into the intestines, sometimes excite frightful convul- 
sions before they are discharged ; while other articles, less 
irritating, lodged in some part of the intestinal tube, 
occasion chronic indisposition, which may last for days, or 
even weeks. Dr. Watson says months. When a studenj^ 
in medicine, I frequently visited with my preceptor a lady 



ORGANIC BTMPATHIBS. 159 

of forty years by estimation, who for three or four weeks 
had been an invalid, with occasional nausea, pains in the 
bowels, and an irregular diarrhoea, great prostration of 
strength, and a sallow skin. The doctor, a distinguished 
physician, was at a loss as to the nature of the case, and 
varied his treatment without apparent benefit, until, under 
the use of mild laxatives with subtonics, his patient was 
greatly relieved by a discharge from the Bowels of a 
considerable quantity of greens, whiclf I think were the 
leaves of the dandelion, and which had been eaten no 
less than six weeks before. From this time she rapidly 
recovered. 

In certain irritations of the stomach, where the quality 
of food, rather than the quantity, is at fault, spasm or 
cramp in one or more of the voluntary muscles, commonly 
in the lower limbs, may rouse from his slumbers a person 
who considers himself to be in good health. For several 
years in succession I could not eat at midday or after a 
piece of sponge-cake, or even of common gingerbread, 
without being awaked the following night by a cramp 
in the right leg or foot, either in one of the fibular 
muscles at the middle of the leg, or in the short extensor 
of the toes. I always found immediate relief from drink- 
ing half a glass of water, or the solution of twelve or 
fifteen grains of the bicarbonate of soda. 

On one occasion I slept in the same chamber with an 
excellent medical friend. His voice, under the pain of 
cramp, awoke me. I got up and handed him a glass of 
water, which he drank, and in a few moments was easy. 
He presently remarked that he had not known that water 
was a remedy for cramp in the legs. I replied that I 
supposed it operated by diluting the acid or irritating 
materials in the stomach, thus weakening the impression 



1 



160 ORGANIC SYMPATHIES. 

with which the muscles sympathize. I had ohserved him 
the day before topping off his dinner with a piece of hot 
mince pie. An eminent physician in Massachusetts, who 
attained a high age, was very subject to cramp of the 
legs in the night. He kept under his pillow a bottle of 
dilute solution of ammonia, of which a small portion, 
when he was roused by his cramp, gave prompt relief 

"Dr. Wollaston had eaten some ice-cream after dinner, 
one day, and his silbmach did not seem capable of digest- 
ing it. Some time afterw;ards, when he had left the 
dinner-table for the drawing-room, he found himself ren- 
dered lame by a violent pain in the ankle. Suddenly 
he became sick, the ice-cream was vomited, and instanta- 
neous relief from the pain followed its ejection from the 
stomach." 

"A gentleman," says Sir Benjamin Brodie, "awoke 
in the middle of the night, laboring under a severe pain 
in one foot. At the same time certain other sensations, 
to which he was not unaccustomed, indicated the exist- 
ence of an unusual quantity of acid in the stomach. To 
relieve the latter, he swallowed a large dose of alkaline 
medicine. Immediately on the acid of the stomach being 
thus neutralized the pain in the foot left him." ^ 

Sympathetic pains in particular nerves are often severe, 
and sometimes seemingly capricious. A few days after 
arriving in Paris, in the month of May, with a good 
appetite, after a protracted sea-sickness, I had an attack 
in the forenoon, at a distance from my lodgings, of 
exquisite pain in the right fibular nei*ve at the middle 
of the leg. I could walk only a few steps, in the greatest 
agony. Luckily a carriage was near, in which I reached 

' Watson, Lecture 89. 



ORGA^C SYMPATHIES. ICl 

my lodgings. The painfal spot was too sensitive to bear 
the least pressure. Immediately I took ten grains of the 
salphate of quinine, which I was led to do under the 
suspicion of a malarious element in the source of the 
pain, from lake exposure the preceding autumn. In half 
an hour there was no more pmn nor tenderness ; the part 
which had b^n so sensitive would bear any amount of 
pressure as well as the corresponding nerve in the other 
leg. There was no return of the pain afterward. 

I have known s^eral instances of protracted pain in 
the heel and sole of the foot, which I attributed to a 
sympathetic relation of these parts with the stomach, or 
possibly with some other part of the alimentary canal. 
A few years since, away from home, about two hours 
after breakfasting upon such food as I had been accus- 
tomed to, but very differently cooked, I was seized with 
an acute pmn in the lower surface of the great toe, as 
if the spine of a thistle had been suddenly thrust into 
the part, or the sting of a bee had penetrated to the 
most sensitive point. This lasted fifteen or twenty min- 
utes, and after having entirely subsided for half an hour, 
returned, to stay but ten or twelve minutes. I attributed 
this to some peculiar impression in the stomach. This 
fine nerve has twinged for a few moments at a time only 
twice since. 

Stomach irritation under difiBlcult digestion is some- 
times attended with a copious flow of tears, mixed with 
more or less mucus from the lining membrane of the 
eyelids. This sympathetic relation between the stomach 
and the appendages of the organ of vision is more com- 
monly exhibited in advanced life, but it is not confined to 
it. I have seen a man of middle age assiduously wiping 
his eyes in the forenoon, and complaining of a great flow 

14* 



162 ORGANIC SYMPATHIES. 

of tears, which, although a' physician of distinction, he 
was unable to ^xplain; notwithstanding that in the pre- 
ceding night he had been almost without sleep, and 
instead of it had been loading his stomach with poultry, 
cake, fruits, and wine. 

In rare instances entire blindness in one or both eyes 
has its origin probably in the stomach.^ Major K., a 
farmer in New Hampshire, seventy years old, generally 
healthy, though occasionally troubled, as he said, with 
rheumatism, found himself on rising from bed one morn- 
ing blind in one eye. There was no inflammation visible 
upon the coats of the eye, nor did his general health 
seem materially to suffer, and he kept about his ordinary 
occupations as before. 

After three and a half months of uninterrupted blind- 
ness, in which he could only distinguish daylight from 
total darkness, he commenced taking, by the advice of 
his son, Dr. T. K., a physician, the volatile tincture of 
guaiacum in the dose of a table spoonful in a glass of milk 
three times a day. In one week he found his vision re- 
turning, and in two weeks more it was entirely restored. 
He lived to the age of ninety-two, and occupied much of 
his time in reading. The blindness never returned, and 
there were no more attacks of rheumatism. I have sup- 
posed that the defect of vision in this case was sympa- 
thetic of a morbid impression, either in the stomach or 
some other part of the alimentary canal, which was ulti- 
mately modified or removed by the medicament. 

Partial paralysis of the retina sometimes occurs in con- 
nection with irritation or oppression of the stomach from 
some undigested material or an excess of acidity. The 
patient, looking at his friend, sees perhaps but one eye and 
no nose upon his face ; at the same time sharp, angular 



ORGANIC SYMPATHIES. 163 

lines of prismatic colors are in motion before his eyes, but 
not directly in the axis of vbion. These symptoms soon 
pass off spontaneously, or are quickly removed by a draught 
of water holding in solution a few grains of carbonate of 
ammonia or bicarbonate of soda. 

Nausea and vomiting from a blow upon the head evince 
the sympathy between the stomach and the brain. Dizzi- 
ness is commonly owing to materials in the stomach diffi- 
cult of digestion, the brain sympathizing. 

The Stomach and the Heart, — Almost every variety of 
pulse may arise from a stomach over-distended with food 
or with gas ; the brain too takes a share in the derange- 
ment, in frightful dreams and spectres as in nightmare. 
There is reason to believe that many of those who die 
unexpectedly in their beds have the heart's motion sud- 
denly stopped by an oppressed stomach. An intermitting 
pulse after a full meal is no uncommon thing with dyspep- 
tics or with persons advanced in life, even when there is 
no evidence of structural disease of the heart. A gentle- 
man of standing in New England several yeara since 
visited Europe to learn more about his intermittent pulse, 
impressed with the belief that he had organic disease of 
the heart, and came home with his impression fully con- 
firmed. He was in the habit of eating at evening a warm 
supper, — roast chicken and duck were his favorite dishes. 
He died short of old age ; and a post mortem inspection 
of his heart found it free from organic disease. 

For this intermission of the pulse some physicians have 
prescribed alcoholic drinks, as brandy, Bourbon whiskey, 
Schiedam schnapps- or Dutch gin ! I have known vege- 
table tonics, as sulphate of quinine, to correct the inter- 
mission. Dr. Headland refers to a case by Darwin, in 
which the suspension of the pulse occurred every third 



1G4 ORGANIO SYMPATHIES. 

or fourth beat, successfully treated by giving three times 
a day four drops of a saturated solution of arsenious acid. 
In a girl of sixteen I knew a remarkable irregularity of 
pulse, which had lasted several weeks, to pass off entirely 
under medication of the digestive organs. 

The Stomach and Lungs, — When the stomach is stim- 
ulated by the introduction of food, as at ordinary meals, 
there is commonly an extra secretion of mucus or phlegm 
in the bronchial tubes ; with some individuals the quantity 
of this bronchial mucus is very large, and is dislodged by 
expectoration. In common colds or catarrhs this secre- 
tion from the bronchial membrane bears a direct relation 
to the state of the stomach. In asthma, the inlSuence of a 
guarded diet in moderating the severity of the paroxysms, 
or in suspending them for a long period, is another in- 
stance indicative of this relation between the stomach 
and the lungs. Oppressed breathing, with cough, in con- 
nection with a stomach overloaded or irritated with food, 
is speedily relieved by an emetic. 

The Stomach and Kidneys show their relation to each 
other in the speedy removal by the urine of various aro- 
matic and irritating articles, as juniper berries, balsam of 
copaiva, and spirits of turpentine. 

The Intestines^ having an organization analogous to 
that of the stomach, show sympathies very like those 
which belong to that primary receptacle of aliment. 
When the peristaltic action of the intestines for a length 
of time is arrested, as in volvulus or strangulated hernia, 
there is great prostration of power in the voluntary mus- 
cles. From irritations in the intestines, cramps and con- 
vulsions in the voluntary muscles sometimes take place. 
In rare instances of irritation from retained faeces in con- 
stipation, there is a convulsive movement of a single 
voluntary muscle. 



ORGANIC SYMPATHIES. 165 

Mrs. J y a lady of forty-five, who for many years 

was subject to constipation and piles, and had taken 
at irregular intervals various kinds of aperient medicine^ 
and by whom my advice for a modification of her diet, 
to promote regularity of the bowels, had been irregu- 
larly followed, was attacked with a convulsive twitching 
of the outer portion of the right lower eyelid. This 
convulsive action, always aggravated by mental emotion, 
was relieved at times by the operation of a cathartic, but 
rarely if ever a day passed for five years without it. In 
the spring and summer of 1858, she took every morning 
before breakfast a glass of the aitificial Kissingen water, 
which always operated as an aperient. This affection of 
the lid, when I saw her in October of 1858, had been 
wholly suspended for the last five months. During the 
winter of 1858-9 she omitted the mineral water, and in 
May, 1859, the inactivity of the bowels had in a degree 
returaed, and with it an attack of the involuntary motion 
of the eyelid. 

This is one of those cases which, under a suitable diet 
and regimen, might admit of an entire cure without med- 
icine ; but there is, probably, not one case in a hundred in 
which the patient can be induced to adhere with sufficient 
perseverance to the requisite course. 

In constipation it sometimes, though seldom, occurs, 
that the lungs manifest their sympathy by casting off 
in the breath a fetid exhalation which from the smell 
seemed to belong to the larger intestines.^ Several years 
ago I was acquainted with a man who was a complaining 
invalid, whose breath was always intolerable from its 

> Dentists complain that they are sometimes compelled to encounter the dis- 
gusting breath of their patients, who confess to a state of habitual constipation 
when questioned upon the subject. 



166 ORGANIC SYMPATHIES. 

stercoraceous odor. He died short of old age. Consti- 
pation is often attended with headache and duhiess in 
intellectaal operations. 

The Skin, — Largely endowed with sentient nerves, the 
skin sustains a sympathy with all the internal organs. Its 
quick response to impressions upon the stomach, from 
swallowing certain nauseous drugs, in a sense of coldness 
upon the surface of "the body, with shuddering, has been 
often experienced ; a free perspiration of the skin, too, is 
connected with some aromatic or subnauseating medica- 
ment received by the stomach. An active state of the 
skin is necessary to a healthy condition of the liver. Cold 
feet and dulness or pain of the head are often attendant 
upon each other. A warm poultice, a local vapor-bath, an 
anodyne or stimulant wash, from the relief they afford to 
an internal pain or inflammation, exhibit a sympathy 
between patches of skin and parts lying directly under 
them, however circuitous may be the nervous communi- 
cation between the one and the other. When the integ- 
ument of the chest is not sufficiently protected against 
atmospheric changes by clothing, the lungs are liable to 
suffer from bronchial irritation, cough, increased secretion 
of mucus, and sometimes inflammation. 

The Skin and Kidneys show a mutual sympathy and 
interchange of function. Few persons have failed to 
recognize this under changes of atmospheric temperature. 
When the cutaneous transpiration is large, as in hot 
weather, the secretion of the kidneys is small, and vice 
versa. 

The Liver, — The liver is a quiet, unobtrusive organ, 
having only a moderate supply of sentient nerves, and 
presenting comparatively few marks of diseased structure 
during life, yet, from the agency it must be believed to 



ORGANIC SYMPATUIES, 167 

exert upon the large tide of blood flowing through it, the 
presumption is natural that it must hold impoilant rela- 
tions with other parts pf the vital machinery. Overfeed- 
ing, indigestion, and exposure to vicissitudes of temper- 
ature, are capable of inducing functional and organic 
derangements in this large gland. Redundance and 
deficiency of bile are observable in different forms of 
dyspepsia; and the exciting cause of inflammation and 
abscess, especially in hot climates, is the aiTcst of ])erspi- 
ration, from exposure of the body without the necessary 
clothing during sleep to the night air, sometimes to a 
sea-breeze. 

Says Mr. Mcllwidn, "Where the liver has been once 
diseased, or when it retains any chronic form of disorder, 
no persons know better how soon it is excited into active 
disorder than those who labor under the malady.'* He 
recollects the case of severe jaundice in a woman who was 
doing exceedingly well, but who, without any apparent 
cause, had on two occasions a sudden relapse of her symp- 
toms. She had been forbidden to e:^ animal food; and 
on the second relapse she inquired whether it was possi- 
ble that a small piece of ham, actually not more than a 
moderate mouthful, could have caused the recurrence of 
her symptoms ? On her being told, somewhat doubtingly, 
that very small portions of offensive matter did sometimes 
produce considerable disturbance in deranged conditions 
of the stomach, she said, " I think it must be so ; for 6n 
the first occasion I had eaten precisely the same thing." * 

By keeping in view the sympathetic relations of dif- 
ferent parts, we may often find valuable suggestions in 
regard to the treatment of disease. The following inter- 
esting case from Mr. Mcllwain is in point : — 

> Med. and Snrg. one Indactive Science. London, 1838. Mcllwain. 



168 ORGANIC SYMPATHIES. 

" Sarah Jones, aged forty-two, 13 Water Court, Isling- 
ton, a patient in the Finsbury Dispensary, applied for 
relief on account of the following symptoms : She has lost 
her voice, not being able to speak otherwise than in a 
whisper. She attributed the loss of her voice to getting wet 
in the feet almost five months since, her bowels being at 
that time costive, which is her general habit. Her catame- 
nia have ceased rather more than two months ; her bowels 
are costive ; her tongue yellowish-white ; her gums are 
much elevated, and highly vascular ; her urine scanty, but 
clear. Her skin acts every night in an unusual manner; 
she describes herself as being bathed in a most profuse 
perspiration. Mr. Leigh and myself agreed to try first 
what stimulating the kidney would do, since, she being 
able to go about her business with such important func- 
tions imperfectly executed or actually suspended, it seemed 
probable that the profuse action of the skin was the source 
of immunity from more serious ailments. Taking, there- 
fore, the hint thus afforded, we proposed to make the 
kidney participate more than it appeared to do in the 
excreting function. In order to keep the reasoning as 
close as we could, we simply gave her a diuretic — the 
nitrate of potash. 

"In three days, she came and surprised us not a little, in 
the first place, by speaking in her natural voice. She said 
that the medicine had produced more water, and natural 
in appearance ; but that her bowels had also acted very 
freely ; and, on the occasion of the second action, the 
catamenia had returned. The profuse night perspira- 
tions, she said, she had ' quite lost.' We kept her under 
our care about a week longer, during which time she 
remained quite well." 



CHAPTER VIII. 

MAN BY NATX7BB ▲ TB6ETABLB-BATBB — YEGETABIANISM. 
4 I. HAN BY NATITRE A YEGETABLE-EATEB. 

Among the lai^er animals, the organs which are em- 
ployed in preparing the food for nutrition show a distinct 
relation to those articles designed hj nature for them to 
feed upon. Animals are herbivorous, carnivorous, and 
omnivorous, or vegetable-eatei*s, flesh-eaters, and eaters 
both of flesh and vegetables. 

Of vegetable-eaters there are two varieties : fruit-eaters 
and grass-eaters. The first feed upon pulpy fruits, escu- 
lent roots, nuts, and seeds ; while the othera derive a great 
part of their nourishment from the grasses, leaves, and 
twigs of vegetables. The teeth of the fruit-eaters are 
formed upon a particular model. The lip teeth or incisor 
teeth are chisel-shaped. Behind these are the cuspid or 
canine teeth, each terminating in a single point, generally 
obtuse. Next in order are the bicuspid or premolars, each 
terminating in two blunt points or cusps or tubercles. 
The remaining teeth, sometimes called cheek teeth, molars, 
or lar^ grinders, are four-sided, with rounded angles — 
their broad terminal surfaces presenting four or five cusps 
or tubercles. On each side of the median line, in each jaw, 
there are two incisors, — the upper central ones broader 
than the lateral, — eight in all ; one cuspid or canine, four 

15 



170 HAN BT NATDBB A TBOBTABLB-BAIEB. 

in all ; two bicnspids or premolars, eight ; three cheek 
teeth, or molars, twelve — thirty-two. All are covered 
vith CDamel. 
These differently shaped teeth are arranged id broad 
arches in the jaws. The lip teeth in 
the upper jaw shnt down anterior to 
those in the lower; while the pre- 
molars and the molars, or email and 
lat^ grinders, meet and close npon 
each other when the mouth is shut. 
If we refer to the highest order of 
I apes, as the orang-outang, the chim- 
panzee, and the gorilla, — all of which 
HUHAH SKDLi. ov *M j„ tj,g natural state are fragivorous, 
— we find their teetlf answering to 
the foregoing description. The chisel-shaped lip teeth 
are well fitted for dividing into convenient morsels the 
materials naturally fed upon ; the canine teeth, espe- 
cially in the male, projecting somewhat 
beyond the level of the others, are obvi- ^S- *^- 

ODsly weapons of defence — having prob- 
ably nothing to do with the food, unless, 
perhaps, in some instances, to :ud in 
removing the rind or shell from cert^n 
nutrient articles ; the long and sharp 
canine teeth of the ^bbon, or long- 
armed ape, make him a respectable oBAHa-ouTAHa.' 
enemy under an attack, notwithstanding 
the compai-ative want of sti-ength in his arms ; the pre- 
molars and molars are evidently made for crushing and 
grinding the food — this process being greatly facihtated by 



HAN BT NATUXB X VBQBIABLE-BATEB. 171 

the motion of the mider jaw, which is so articulated with 
the Bkall as to admit of motion from side to side, and to 
some extent, also, ia the antero-posterior direction. 

The grass^aters have teeth adapted to the comminn- 
tion of their food ; the griDders in the ^^ ^ 

lower jaw shutting against those in 
the upper, while the lateral or side 
motion of the lower jaw exists, as with 
the fruit^aters. 

The large carnivorous qnadmpeds 
have teeth of a very different type. 
Their lip teeth, or incisors, are six in bkc 
each jaw ; those in the upper and lower °^'' 
exactly meet each other when the mouth b shut. In the 
cat family, — as the cat, lion, tiger, leopard, — they are 
arranged nearly in a Btrught line from one canine to the 
other. In the dog family, — as the dog, wolf, fox, — they 
are somewhat arched, with an anterior convexity. These 
would seem to bo designed for gnawing off small frag- 
ments of flesh adherent to bones too hard and strong to be 
crushed down by the larger teeth. 

Next are the canines, one in each side of each jaw, 
strongly implanted, long and pointed, and employed in 
sei^ng and lacerating the animals they feed upon. Back 
of these are the premolars, different in shape and number 
in the different flesh-oaters. Next are the trenchant or 
cutting teeth, generally two in each side of each jaw. 
From a thick base, where they emerge fi^^m the jaw, they 
are scarfed on the inner and outer side to a blunt edge, 
which is deeply notched. These teeth in the lower jaw 
shut within those of the upper, forming a kind of shears, 
adapted to cutting off successive pieces of flesh; the 
notches in the trenchant edges prevent the bit of fleeh 



172 MAN BT NATUBS A VEGETABLG-EATEIt. 

from gliding out of the shear-blades before it ia cat offi 
These teeth have nothing of the grinding operation, and 
none of the Hide motion of the under jaw which belongs 
to the vegetable-enters. When tfie bit of flesh engaged 
in the shears is cut oS, it is immediately swallowed. It is 
interesting to observe a dog's mode of carving a piece of 
partially dried flesh. He thrusts two opposing tusks into 
the mass, and tears out a piece still 'hanging by one end ; 
he then applies his shears to cut off a bit; if the mns- 
clea of that side become 
*' * fatigued before the morsel 

is cut oll^ he turns the 
fresh shears of the other 
side upon it to finish the 
operation. The tabercu- 
lated teeth, behind all the 
others in some of the flesh- 
. eaters, may assist in com- 

minuting the spongy parts 
of bones which these animals are capable of eating. 

Ought not man to be placed at the head of the fruit- 
eaters when estimated by the form, number, and arrange- 
ment of his teeth? The highest orders of apes, aa we 
hare already stated, so far as is known, are, in their 
natural state, exclusive vegetable- eaters. M. Du Chaillu, 
that successful hunter who passed four years in Africa, 
and who has recently brought to this country a number 
of skeletons and stuffed skins of the gorilla, assures us 
that he has opened the stomachs of numbers of them 
when recently killed, and has never discovered anything 
in them but vegetable materials. In man and these apes 
the milk teeth are twenty in number, and the permanent 

' The incisor teetli lud been loet vlien th« photosnph wu Ukeil. 



MAS Br NAItJBB A VEOEIABLB-fiATKS. 173 

tblrtf-two of the same form in both, with the exceptioa 
that the canines in the apes project beyood the level of 
the others. In mao the teeth are arranged in regular 
parabolic arches, nnintermpted by open spaces, and all 
projecting from the jaw to the same level. 

"The most marked distinction," says Pro£ Owen,'**in 
the dentition of man and the highest qnadrnmanes, Is the 
absence in the former of the interval between the upper 
lateral incisor and canine, and the comparatively small 
size of the latter teeth."' Man has no impediment from 
projecting canines to a free lateral motion, or an antero- 
posterior motion of the lower jaw ; this arrangement plac- 
ing him fairly at the head of the fruit-eaters. 

The omnivorous quadrupeds — as the boar, the h(^, tlie 
raccoon, the opossum — have cheek teeth with tnbercnlated 
or cnsped surfacea, which meet each other when the month 
is closed ; bnt the lip yi ^ 

teeth and the premolars 
are of a different type 
from those of the fruit- 
eaters, and, like the flesh- 
eaters, they are destitute 
of the lateral motion of 
the lower jaw. Among 
all the rodents, many ^f 

which are more or less omnivorous, there are none that Z 
am aware of whose premolars agree in number and type 
with those of the fruit-eaters. They too, like the exclu- 
sive Sesh-eaters, are destitute of the lateral motion of the 
lower jaw, nnder which deficiency mastication can be 
but imperfectly performed. 

A large number of flesh-eating animals, as the serpent 



15 



■ Odoulognphy, p. ISi. 



174 MAN BY NATURE A VBGETABLK-EATBR. 

and most of the fish tribes, employ their teeth in no other 
manner than as aids in catching and swallowing their 
prey, depending on the stomach to do the work of soft- 
ening and digesting the mass. 

When naturalists style man an omnivorous animal, it is 
to 4>e presumed they take him as they find him, omnivo- 
rous self-made, not as he was primitively made. If marked 
by nature as a vegetable-eater, it is natural to conclude 
that those articles of food indicated by his organism must 
on the whole be best for his health. 

Most of the quadrumana, or some of the higher orders 
even, as the orang and the chimpanzee, in a state of cap- 
tivity can be taught to eat flesh ; and if pressed by extreme 
hunger it is not unlikely that in their native state they 
might even seize upon some kind of flesh for food. The 
grass-eating cow and horse have been known to relish 
fish and oysters. Now and then a dog may be seen eat- 
ing apples. I knew a dog that was kept for his work in a 
small treadmill machine and was fed exclusively for sev- 
eral months upon corn-meal mush, as it was cheaper than 
a flesh diet; but he lost flesh and became feeble under 
this regimen. His owner, fearful that he might lose him, 
inquired how he could be restored. He was advised to 
give him raw flesh from the butcher's. By this means the 
invalid was cured in a short time. It was announced of 
the apes kept at London in the Tower some years since, 
that they were not as healthy on a mixed diet as on fruits. 
A young orang-outang, brought from Borneo by my friend 
Dr. Arms, was sickly, and showed a relish for cooked 
meats, but was never entirely cured, and at last sunk and 
died. The gibbon brought to Boston several years ago 
was fed on a mixed diet aboard ship, and was taught to 
drink wine. All this disagreed with his health, and the 



MAN BT NATURE A V£GETABLE-£ATER. 175 

poor animal died with an abscess nnder the lower jaw, 
just before entering Boston harbor. 

The whole alimentary apparatus in man and the orangs 
is strikingly alike : the stomach and intestines are like in 
form, having about the same relative capacity, each with a 
saculated colon and a vermiform appendage to the csBcum. 
If in one animal this organization is indicative of particu- 
lar ailicles of food as best suited to health, is it not a 
reasonable inference that the same intention is denoted 
in the other? If a mixed diet induces disease and shortens 
life in the quadrumana, should we not look for a similar 
effect from it in man ? What was an orang, a chimpanzee, 
or. a gorilla made for? In reply it may be asked, for what 
more probably than to present to man a standing attesta- 
tion to the truth and the value of the dietetic lesson given 
him in Paradise; to demonstrate to him that an animal 
with an organization like his own in relation to food may 
subsist exclusively on the eatables granted to himself in 
Eden, and yet enjoy enduring health and an adequate 
amount of activity and strength ? 

In the mechanism of the alimentary canal there is a 
relation to the kinds of food adapted to the various tribes. 
In those which feed on the grasses, or the herbaceous and 
woody parts of vegetables, this canal is long and capa- 
cious, and possesses various contrivances for retarding the 
progress of the alimentary matter — conditions necessary to 
accomplish the difficult digestion df these substances, and 
to extract the nutriment from them. And as a consider- 
able proportion of them is innutritious, the terminal part 
of the intestine, or what is commonly called the large 
intestine, is capacious, and serves as a reservoir until the 
nutritious parts are duly extracted. 

In the carnivorous animals the alimentary tube is of a 



176 MAN BY NATUKE A VEGBTABLE-EATEB. 

more simple structure, generally much shorter and less 
capacious. This structure is adaptod to the nature of 
their food, which is chiefly nutritious ; the residual or in- 
nutritious part requires, as it is in such small quantity, a 
smaller reservoir for its accommodation. 

The alimentary canal of fruit-eating animals is in length 
and size intermediate to those of the grass-eating and 
flesh-eating trihes. It has less complexity of structure, 
and is less capacious than that of the former, more so 
than that of the latter. No flesh-eating animal has the 
large int^tine so much developed as the fruit-eating fami- 
lies ; and it is remarkable that we And an alimentary tube 
similar to man's only in the apes and monkeys. 

Cuvier says that ^^apes are the only quadrumana in 
which the hyoid bone, the liver, and the caecum exactly 
resemble those parts in man." In another place he says : 
" Fruits, roots, and the succulent parts of vegetables, 
appear to be the natural food of man ; his hands aflford 
him a facility in gathering them, and his short and com- 
paratively weak jaws — his canine teeth not projecting 
beyond the common level of the others — would not 
permit him tp feed either on herbage or to devour flesh, 
unless these aliments were previously prepared by the 
culinary process." 

" The form of the stomach and caBCum, and the structure 
of the whole canal," says Mr. Lawrence, " are very much 
alike in man and the nonkey kind. The orangs have the 
appendix vermiforrais, which the others want. Man pos- 
sesses a tolerably large caecum and cellular colon, which, I 
believe, are not found in any carnivorous animal. Thus we 
find that, whether we consider the teeth and jaws, or the 
immediate instruments of digestion, the human structure 
closely resembles that of the simiae, all of which in their nat- 
ural state are completely herbivorous" [i. e. frugivorous]. 



VEGETARIANISM. 177 

A cnrious fact was discovered by Professor Meyer, viz. 
that in all the vegetable-eating tribes the anterior tuber- 
cula quadrigemina are larger than the posterior, while in 
the flesh-eaters the posterior are uniformly larger than the 
anterior ; and this, so far as this point has been investi- 
gated^ is found to be the case without exception. In 
man the anterior, as is well known, are larger than the 
posterior. 

\ 11. VEGETARIANISM. 

On the subject of the natural food of man we have 
two revelations, both from the same source, and in strict 
accordance with each other : — one, in the account given 
of man in the book of Genesis ; the other, in the form and 
adaptation of the organs employed in preparing the food 
for digestion and nutrition. 

When man was placed in Paradise, he was told what 
he might eat. " And God said, Behold, I have given you 
every herb bearing seed which is upon the face of all 
the earth ; and every tree in the which is the fruit of a 
tree yielding seed, to you it shall be for meat." No inti- 
mation was given that animal flesh should form any part 
of his food. It was not until after the flood that permis- 
sion was given to eat flesh. We are assured that man 
was made upright, but that he had sought out many 
inventions. Some of these are by no means adapted to 
the presei-vation of health or the prolonging of life. The 
wickedness of man drew down the judgment of heaven 
in the form of a flood. " God saw the wickedness of man 
was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the 
thoughts of his heart was only evil continually." " The 
earth was corrupt before God, and the earth was flUed 



178 VEGETARIANISM. 

with violence." The bulk of the human fiiniily had 
arrived at the highest pitch of depravity and corruption, 
and it became necessary that they should be swept from 
the earth. Now it will be readily admitted that no com- 
munity of men can become so savage, ferocious, and 
wicked, under the influence of a well-chosen vegetable 
diet, with water for the only drink, as under flesh-eating 
and the use of intoxicating drinks. If they made them- 
selves vile and wicked bv all the means which human 
ingenuity could invent, it is natural to infer that fer- 
mented liquors, narcotics, and flesh-eating, with all their 
exciting and maddening influences, were in general use. 
If the eating of flesh were in all respects as safe and 
healthful as vegetable food, and would multiply man's 
pleasures, no satisfactory reason can be offered why it 
was not given him in Paradise, while he was innocent, 
and while the Divine complacency towards him was per- 
fect. The grant to eat flesh, after the flood, is as follows : 
"Every moving thing that liveth shall be meat for you; 
even as the green herb have I given you all things. But 
flesh, with the life tliereof, which is the blood thereof 
shall ye not eat." Now why was this permission given, 
if it was not fitting that it should have been granted in 
Paradise ? We know of no reason, except that assigned 
by our Saviour in reference to the Mosaic permission 
for men to put away their wives : it was " because of 
the hardness of their hearts." 

The Divine Lawgiver, in legislating for communities 
which have become perverse and have perseveringly re- 
sisted the strongest motives to obedience, adopts the 
course which under the circumstances makes the nearest 
approach to the end in view. So the children of Israel 
were prevented from eating animals that had died of 



VEGETARIANISM. 179 

themselyes, which otherwise they would have done, by 
being allowed to sell them to "aliens." A benevolent 
and solicitous father, afler having long tried in vain to 
reclaim a perverse son, at length gives him up to learn by 
experience what he refused to learn by precept and ex- 
amplC;; and says, " Well, take your own course ; you may 
sometime find out that my way is the best." To Noah, 
the representative of the human family, God said, " Every 
moving thing that liveth shall be meat for you ; — even as 
the green herb have I given you all things." As if he had 
said, " I gave you in Eden the green herb or the vegetable 
kingdom for your food. You were not satisfied with it, but 
insisted on eating flesh. Now eat flesh, — eat anything you 
choose, — eveiy moving thing that liveth. You may pos- 
sibly find out some thousands of years hence that my way 
is the best to secure health, to prolong life, and to preserve 
the moral sense. But you shall not eat it with the blood* 
This must be got out of it by bleeding the animal, and by 
cooking, which modifies the bad effects of flesh." 

From this condition being annexed to the grant of flesh- 
eating, it can hardly be doubted that, before the flood, the 
habit of eating flesh with the blood in it, and even taking 
it raw, had prevailed. In modern times, an African tribe, 
who eat flesh raw and full of blood, being just cut from 
the living animal, are represented as ferocious and cruel. 
After the flood the life of man was shortened, not sud- 
denly as by miracle, but gradually, as if under physical 
influences that operated slowly from generation to genera- 
tion through a long period of time. What influences 
would be more likely to abridge the period of life than 
flesh-eating with strong drink and narcotics ? Diet has a 
stronger influence upon health and life than climate. In 
both very hot and very cold climates we find striking 



180 VEGETARIANISM. 

examples of longevity, especially among those whose diet 
is simple and unstimulating. It occupied several centuries 
to reduce the life of man to a hundred years. The great 
age of eight hundred years and upwards belonged to 
those who were in a direct line from Adam, through his 
son Seth, to Noah ; and as those who observed the primi- 
tive institutions were called the sons of God, in distinction 
from the children of Cain, called the sons of men, it is not 
unreasonable to suppose that while the masses of mankind 
were shortening their days by every kind of iniquity and 
excess, those in the direct line lived in obedience to God's 
commands, as did Enoch and Noah. As an objection to 
the vegetarian system, it has been urged that our Saviour 
wrought a miracle to supply fish as well as bread; and 
that he himself ate fish with his disciples after the resur- 
rection. This is freely admitted. All this is consistent 
with the declaration made before he left our world : " I 
have yet many things to say to you, but ye cannot bear 
them now." While on earth he conformed in his living to 
the temperate usages of society at that period. The time 
had not come for all the improvements which should be 
introduced by the operation of the principles he had laid 
down. Wine-drinking and flesh-eating were to remain 
for future developments. The benevolent Creator, having 
stamped upon the organization of man a reference to his 
most natural food in characters unmistakable and inef- 
faceable, having given him specific directions in Paradise, 
and having afterwards legislated upon it, allowing him, on 
account of his perverseness, to eat what was not the best 
suited to his health, saw fit to leave the remedy to grow 
out of the results of observation and experience, aided 
by science and those gospel principles which call for an 
elevated standard of Christian piety and self-denial. 



CHAPTER IX. 

DISSASES OF THE TEETH AND OF WILD AXIMAIS. 

« 

^ I. DISEASED TEETH. 

• 

Htjman teeth are subject to no inconsiderable variety of 
disease, as neuralgia, inflammation of the periosteum of the 
root, inflammation and abscess in the pulp, or in the bony 
substance of the body or root, or in the wall of the socket; 
necrosis of the root, caries or rot in the bony tissue of the 
body ; deposit of tartar upon the necks of the teeth, caus- 
ing ad absorption of the gum or socket, until the teeth 
become loose and fall out of the jaw. 

The suggestion cannot for a moment be entertained, 
that the benevolent Author of our being could have sent 
out from his creative hand man, his crowning work in our 
world, with a set of teeth so imperfectly organized as to 
be far less durable than those of the beasts of the forest. 
A diseased tooth is one of the rarest things to be found, 
if found at all, in the skull of a wild animal. I have 
examined the skeletons of some hundreds of wild animals, 
without observing an unquestionable specimen of caries 
in the teeth. In the spring of 1857, 1 addressed a note 
to Dr. Leidy, Professor of Anatomy in the University of 
Pennsylvania, whose acquirements in comparative anat- 
omy are very extensive, asking if he had seen caries of 
the teeth in animals which died in the state of nature. 

16 



182 DISEASES OF THE TEETH. 

His reply was, " I do not recollect to have ever noticed 
true caries in the teeth of wild animals." Prof. Jeffries 
Wyman, that eminent naturalist in Harvard University, 
possesses the skull of a gorilla in which two or three of the 
teeth seem to have been worn into the pulp cavity, rather 
than affected by caries. The skeleton was found in Africa, 
dry, in the woods. The animal must have been a very old 
one, as would appear from the grinders being so remark- 
ably worn. He had lost the middle grinder of the right 
lower jaw, as if it had been wrenched out by violence, the 
space occupied by its roots being filled up and smoothed 
over with new bone. Our domestic animals, particularly 
the horse and the cow, badly fed, and kept in a vitiated 
atmosphere, occasionally have caries in the teeth, and 
deposits of tartar upon the necks of them. Cows, fed 
upon the slops from distilleries for a few months, have 
their front teeth corroded down to a level with their gums. 
Caries, or rot, is said by dentists to destroy more teeth 
than all other diseases. When the saliva becomes vitiated 
it is liable to act upon the teeth. Dr. Westcott found that 
"human teeth,. immersed in vegetable as well as diluted 
mineral acid, at the temperature of ninety-eight degrees, 
had their surface so much softened in forty-eight hours, 
that much of the enamel might be soraped off with the 
finger-nsdl. Acetous, citric, and malic acids acted upon 
the teeth, and cream of tartar destroyed the enamel very 
rapidly." " Raisins so coiToded the enamel in twenty-four 
hours, that its surface presented the appearance and was 
of the consistence of chalk." " Sugar had no effect till 
after acetous acid was formed; then the effect was the 
same as when this acid was directly applied."^ 

> Diflsertation on Caries of the Teeth, by A. Westcott, H. D., read before the 



DISEASES OF THE TEETH. 188 

According to Tiedemann and Gmelin, the saliva and 
the mucus of the oesophagus are alkaline in all cases, 
not only in man, but in every other animal which they 
had examined. 

M. Donn^, led by his experiments, assumes it as a posi- 
tion beyond all doubt, that the natural state of the saliva 
is alkaline. He found it to be alkaline before and during 
the taking of the food, and also during digestion, provi- 
ded the stomach is in a healthy condition. He regards 
acidity in the saliva as evidence of disease of the stomach, 
and says he has never met with the saliva being acid 
when the Unctions of the stomach were healthily per- 
formed. At the Hospital La Charity he examined the 
saliva of patients in bronchitis, pneumonia, continued 
fever, gastro-enterite, and found it acid. After the res- 
toration of health, the saliva gave an alkaline reaction. In 
the case of a young woman with gastro-enterite, with ten- 
derness of the epigastrium, thirst, tongue red and parched, 
and the saliva acid, under treatment convalescence took 
place, and the saliva became alkaline. This patient had 
two relapses, and on both occasions the saliva was acid 
at first, and became neutral, and then alkaline, as the 
symptoms disappeared.^ For many years I have ob- 
served that young children who are largely fed upon 
cake, confectionery, and sweetmeats, usually have bad 
teeth. The stomach becomes deranged, and the fluids 
of the mouth vitiated. 

The teeth of wild animals wear out, but do not, like 
man's, rot out in early life. Dr. Livingstone represents the 



Fourth Annnal Meeting of the Am. Soc. Dental Surgeons, Vol. iii. Am. Jour. 
Dent. Science, pp. 88-43. 

1 Lond. Med. Chir. Beview, by James Johnson, M.D., Vol. i. for 1886, from 
the Archives G^nerales. 



184 DISEASES OF THE TEETH. 

old lions in South Africa as becoming unable to master 
their accustomed prey, from their teeth being much worn. 
*'When a lion becomes too old to catch game, he fre- 
quently takes to killing goats in the village ; a woman or 
a child, happening to go out at night, falls a prey too." "A 
man-eater is invariably an old lion ; and when he over- 
comes the fear of man so far as to come into villages for 
goats, the people remark, *His teeth are worn; he will 
soon kill men.' They at once acknowledge the necessity 
of instant action, and turn out to kill him." 

It is not necessary to go into a description of all the 
diseases which have been observed in teeth. They may 
be found in books of dentistry. 

Family peculiarities are often exhibited in the teeth. 
The first tooth of a set, invaded with decay in a parent, be 
it incisor, cuspid, bicuspid, or grinder, has been the first 
with the child on the corresponding side of the face, and 
even of the grandchild, when arrived at the time of life 
which marked the decay in the ancestor, showing that 
defective organization is transmitted. 

Certain articles of food seem particularly to promote 
decay of the teeth. It is the opinion of some dentists and 
physicians, that salseratus and bicarbonate of soda, so 
largely used in our country in the making of bread, is 
injurious to the teeth. This is probably correct. The 
habitual use of alkalies seems to promote dyspepsia, and ^ 
whatever does this, perpetuates the predominance of 
acidity. The permanent influence of an article of diet is 
to be learned from observation rather than from its chem- 
ical relations out of the body. Vital chemistry, or rather 
physiology, is a far different matter from the chemistry of 
the laboratory. 

In the formation in man of the masticating surfaces of 



DISEASES OP THE TEETH. 185 

the grinders, or cheek teeth, the enamel is first applied in 
the form of a thin cap upon the point of each of the ele- 
vations or tubercles. These caps thicken and coalesce or 
are fused at their edges so as to form a covering to the 
bony substance beneath. The caps of enamel, however, 
instead of always coalescing or uniting as by fusion, seem 
to have their edges shut against each other, leaving a 
minute crack or fissure, through which, by capillary attrac- 
tion, a fluid might find its way to the bony surface beneath. 
An acid, though very weak, thus brought in contact with 
bone, might be expected to act upon it. Accordingly, ca- 
ries is often found to have commenced in this position, and 
to have made considerable progress before the enamel cov- 
ering it has crumbled away. 

Caries also is often observed upon the sides of the bodies 
of contiguous teeth. Some article of food which does not 
readily dissolve is crowded between the teeth, and remains, 
like a bit of sponge, to keep the saliva applied after each 
meal, for a length of time, to a particulai* spot. Thus ca- 
ries on the side of the body of a tooth is often observed 
to be attended with caries upon the surface opposed to it 
of the tooth adjoining. 

Caries occurring upon the side of a tooth looking toward 
the cheek, or toward the tongue, is observed to commence 
at or near the neck, where the enamel terminates, and 
where the fluids of the mouth are more likely to be de- 
tained in the groove between the edge of the gum and 
the tooth than upon the smooth surface, which is kept 
clear by the motions of the cheek or tongue gliding 
upon it. 

An eminent dentist, Dr. N. C. Keep, of Boston, tells 

me that he has often observed a slip of litmus paper to 

indicate acidity by being reddened when pushed into the 

16* 



186 DISEASES OF WILD ANIMALS. 

cavity of a carious tooth ; he mentions also having occa- 
sionally observed the incisors nearly destitute of enamel 
upon their lip surfaces, as if the se<?retions from the lip con- 
tained an acid which had dissolved it. A carious tooth 
is sometimes preserved for twenty years, when the cavity 
has been skilfully filled with goldleaf 

Wild animals, who never swallow hot food or liquids, 
seem not to be more liable to inflammation and abscess of 
the sockets, or of the dentine, or of the pulp-chambers of 
their teeth, than they are to caries, nor are they troubled 
with deposits of tartar. 



f IL DISEASES OF WILD ANIMALS. 

From the soundness of the teeth of animals which 
have never been brought into an artificial state, it has 
been hastily inferred that such animals are not liable to 
any form of- disease whatever. This view does not fully 
correspond with observed facts. The lower tribes, even 
in a state of nature, are exposed to several forms of 
disease. In the Anatomical Museum of the Boston So- 
ciety for Medical Improvement, the following specimens 
are found : — On page 13, Descriptive Catalogue, 

No. 91. Exostosis, as large as the fist, from the horn of 
a deer ; picked up in the woods in the south of Illinois. 

No. 92. Exostosis, or tumor, about the lower jaw of a 
cod-fish, about the size of a small orange. 

No. 79. Cranium of a mink, showing caries of the ante- 
rior portion of the lower jaw. — From Dr. Winslow Lewis. 

No. 80. Cranium of a skunk, showing the same as 
above. — Dr. Winslow Lewis. 

No. 81. Several bones of a skunk; lower jaw carious; 



DISEASES OF WILD ANIMALS. 187 

two of the caudal vertebrse, and one of the tibiae at the 
lower extremity, have new bone thrown out on their 
surface, and two of the metatarsal bones are firmly anchy- 
losed. A carious femur from another skunk is also shown. 
— Prof. Jeffries Wyman. 

No. 123. Lateral curvature of the spine of a pickerel. 
The seventh vertebra from the head is completely ab- 
sorbed on the right side, but not at all on the left, causing 
a curvature at an angle of about forty-five degrees. There 
was no appearance externally of former injury. — Prof. 
JefiTries Wyman. ♦ 

1^0. 170. Humeri of a partridge, much enlarged, uneven 
on the surface, heavy and very dense ; one of them, sawn 
longitudinally, shows the whole to be solid bone, the 
cavity being entirely obliterated. — Dr. Samuel Cabot. 

No. 175. Scapula and humerus of §l muskrat, showing 
an entire destruction of the shoulder joint, the bones 
being otherwise healthy. — Prof. JefiQries Wyman. 

No. 635. ^ Several calculi taken from the bladder of a 
spermaceti whale. Of thirteen specimens which were sent 
to the Society by Dr. Eastham in the year 1841, the 
largest measured two inches and a hal^ and the smallest 
one inch in diameter; otherwise they were remarkably 
uniform in their character, being perfectly white, of a fine, 
compact structure, very distinctly laminated, and generally 
of a tetrahedral form, with well-marked facettes. One of 
them, analyzed by Dr. Charles T. Jackson, was found to 
consist of phosphate of magnesia and ammonia, with some 
phosphate of lime. Three large boxes of these calculi 
were sent home to New Bedford, from the South Sea, 
by Capt. Paul Chase, of the ship Nassau; the whale was 
a very large old male, and so much emaciated as to fur- 
nish very little oil. In the Museum at Nantucket, which 



188 DISEASES OP WILD ANIMALS. 

was destroyed by the extensive fire in that place, there 
was a calculus from the same subject, and which perfectly 
resembled those already described, except that it was 
about as large as the double fist; upon this specimen 
was a label, which stated that the weight of the calculi 
which were removed amounted altogether to eighty-six 
pounds." 

In the London "Lancet" for August, 1856, it is stated 
that at a meeting of the Pathological Society of London, 
Mr. Gibb exhibited a calculus, of the weight of three 
grains, found in the bladder of a field mouse. He ob- 
served that in the rodentia, very commonly in the rat, 
and sometimes in the hare, it was met with, but he had 
not heard of its having before been observed in the field 
mouse. 

Dr. Livingstone informs us that in South Africa, be- 
tween 20** and 27** south, a disease called horse-sickness ^ 
(peri-pneumonia), or infiamraation of the lungs, prevails 
between December and April, winter commencing in the 
latter month. This disease is so destructive to horses 
that without stabling and great care a clean sweep would 
sometimes be made of fifty in a troop. Cattle and sheep 
are subject to it, but it is less severe than with horses. 

"This disease attacks wild animals too. During our 
residence at Chonuan great numbera of tolos or koodoos 
were attracted to the gardens of the Bakwains, aban- 
doned at the usual period of harvest, because there was 
no prospect of the com (holcus sorghum) bearing that 
year. The koodoo is remarkably fond^ of the stalks of 
this kind of millet. Free feeding produced that state 
of fatness favorable for the development of this disease, 

' Besearches in South Africa, pp. 115, 116. 



DISEASES OF WILD ANIMALS. 189 

and no fewer than twenty-five died on the hill opposite 
our house. Great numbers of gnus and zebras died from 

the same cause." "I have seen the kokong or 

gnu, kama or hartebeest, the tress^be, kukama, and the 
giraffe so mangy as to be uneatable even by the natives." 
This diseased state was probably owing to epizoa or mi- 
nute animals preying upon the skin. 

"I once found a buffalo, blind from ophthalmy, 

standing by the fountain Otse; when he attempted to 
run, he lifted up his feet in the manner peculiar to blind 

animals." "All the wild animals are subject to 

intestinal worms besides. I have observed bunches of a 
tape-like thread, and short woms of large siz^s, in the 
rhinoceros. The zebra and elephants are seldom without 
them, and a thread- worm may often be seen under the 'peri- 
toneum of these animals. Short red larvaB, which convey 
a stinging sensation to the hand, are seen clustering round 
the origin of the windpipe of thi^ animal at the back of 
the throat ; others are seen in the frontal sinus of ante- 
lopes ; and curious flat, leech-like worms with black eyes 
are found in the stomachs of leeches." 

The facts recorded by Dr. Livingstone show that the 
instincts of wild animals as to quantity of food are not to 
be relied on, especially when they have access to articles 
they are particularly fond o^ and they are liable to make 
themselves plethoric, and die of acute inflammatory dis- 
ease. What a fearful mortality among mankind might be 
laid to the account of over-feeding, as well as of preying 
upon materials they would do better to avoid. 

Prof. Wyman brought from Labrador two vertebrae of 
the whale, firmly anchylosed upon each other. The same 
indefatigable naturalist, a few weeks since (now April, 
1860), returned from an exploring excursion to Florida. 



190 DISEASES OF WILD ANIMALS. 

He brought home a turtle, with a large stone in his blad- 
der. He found a specimen of a globular tumor,'about an 
inch in diameter, imbedded in the interior of a muscle in 
a black-fish. 

He discovered numerous smlll worms beneath the dura 
mater covering the cerebellum of the snake-bird, so called 
from its long neck. He examined the brains of eigM 
of these birds, and found these parasites in seven of 
them. 

He was assured by the inhabitants that during the win- 
ter just passed there had been great destruction, from 
disease, of the wild deer in that region. Numbers had 
been found dead, with the tongue swollen and protruded 
from the mouth. Prof. Wyman also brought home two 
ulcerated vertebras of the alligator. 

But disease among wild animals does not belong exclu- 
sively to the present period of the world. Prof. Jeffries 
Wyman has directed n^y attention to a German journal, 
from which it appears that fossil bones of extinct varieties 
of quadrupeds have been found, which exhibit evidence 
of caries, uecrosis, exostosis, and« anchylosis. The soft 
parts must, of course^ have been diseased, in connection 
with the morbid changes in the bones. 

The law of death, then, either by violence, catastrophe, 
disease, or decay, seems to have been stamped upon animal 
existence prior to the advent of man ; and upon his tak- 
ing his place as lord of the terrestrial creations, a specific 
injunction was given, guarded by a penalty for its viola- 
tion : " In the day thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely 
die," But having taken upon himself the fearful respon- 
sibility of casting off the authority of his rightful Sover- 
eign, he came to disregard all wholesome laws, whether 
outspoken from the cloud upon Sinai, or written upon 



DISEASES OF WILD ANIMALS. 191 

the organism of his physical nature; hence the insane 
perversions in physiology and psychology, including the 
poisoning of the senses of taste and smell, those faithful 
guardians of life and health and beauty; and hence the 
thousand forms of disease that flesh is now ^ heir to." 



CHAPTER X. 

MAN OMNIVOEOTJS BY PRACTICE— GLUTTONY, SICKNESS, AND 

CORPULENCY DR. BEAUMONT AND ALEXIS ST. MARTIN 

— REMEDIAL AGENCY FOR THE CURE OF DISEASE. 

§ L MAN OMNIVOROUS BY PRACTICE. 

The authority of Plato is referred to for the statement 
that *' the first ages of men abstained wholly from flesh, 
from an opinion that it was unlawful to eat, or to pollute 
the altars of the gods with the blood of living creatures. 
Swine were used for food first of all animals, being wholly 
unserviceable for all other purposes, and having, in the 
language of Cicero, animampro sale ne putrescanty — lives 
only instead of salt, to keep them fi'om putrefying." ^ 

Probably not a single species of animal was ever found 
that has not been tried for the food of man. Beasts, clean 
and unclean, serpents, lizards, toads, grubs, and spiders 
have all contributed to make out the variety, regarded as 
a necessity of the human appetite. Humboldt, in South 
America, saw the centipedes, or "thousand legs," as we 
should call them, some of them a foot and a half long, 
dragged from their holes and craunched alive by the chil- 
dren. The white ants of Africa are put alive into a dry 
kettle or frying-pan, and, when duly roasted over a slow' 
fire, are eaten by handfuls, as we eat parched com. Labil- 
lardiere informs us that the inhabitants of New Caledonia 

* Potter's Grecian Antiquities, p. 672. 



MAN OMNIVOROUS BY PRACTICE. 193 

roast and devour great quantities of a large spider, nearly 
an inch long. Lalande, a famous French astronomer, ate 
the spider as a delicious morsel. At the celebrated inn at 
Terracina, in Italy, serpents and eels for the accommoda- 
tion of travellers were some years ago furnished by the 
marshy country around it. The host of that establish- 
ment was represented as politely inquiring of his guests 
whether they preferred " the eel of the ditch or the eel of 
the hedge.'' Rattlesnake soup is said to furnish a rich 
and savory repast for Western American hunters. 
Modern cookery rivals the Stygian broth in Macbeth : 

" Fillet of a fenny snake. 
In the cauldron boll and bake; 
Eye of newt and toe of frog. 
Wool of bat and tongue of dog. 
Adder's fork and blind-worm's sting. 
Lizard's leg and owlet's wing, 
For a charm of powerful trouble. 
Like a hell-broth boil and bubble." 

The gastronomy of the Romans at the time of the Em- 
perors was remarkable for some of the articles employed 
as food. The teats of a sow three days after farrowing, 
and served up in hot milk, were regarded as indescribably 
delicious. Parts of the same animal, still more revolting 
and abominable, which must here be nameless, were placed 
at the pinnacle of savory meats, rivaling the ambrosia, or 
food of the gods. 

Wild animals, by gluttonous eating after exhaustion 
from hunger, or compelled by long fasting to devour such 
food as is not the most natural to them, may become sickly 
and short-lived. The chati {Leopardus mitis), a flesh- 
eating animal, "when he is fed upon cat's flesh, becomes 
mangy and soon dies, while the flesh of snakes, vipers, and 
toads causes a continual vomiting, under which he loses 

17 



194 GLUTTONY, SICKNESS, AND CORPULENCY. 

flesh and dies. The hen-roost affords him a favorite and 
wholesome article of diet." ^ 

If an animal, hy nature a flesh-eater, can be made to 
sicken and die from being fed upon some kinds of flesh- 
meat, can it be believed that the same kinds of flesh, as 
of cats, toads, and serpents, could be made wholesome 
either for vegetable or flesh eaters, by cookery ? The skill 
of a Grecian ' cook, such a one as was said to have been 
employed by Trimalchus, who of the flesh of a pig could 
make "fish and wood-pigeons," if it could conceal the 
native flavor of those meats, would not extract the mate- 
rial which poisons the blood of the eater. 



§ n. GLUTTONY, SICKNESS, AND CORPULENCY. 

Large feeding and idleness are liable to be followed by 
disease. "At Freemantle, in Australia," says an English 
writer, "the convicts, during the time that our soldiers 
were dying from want of food in the Crimea, suffered 
from what was significantly called the gluttony plague. 
Excessive over-feeding and under-working were, it ap- 
pears, the mle in the convict establishment, and in conse- 
quence no less than five hundred and fifty-four patients 
were under medical treatment in less than six months, 
with diseases of the digestive organs, inflammatory affec- 
tions of the eyes, and cutaneous eruptions. The physic 
of short allowance and plenty of work soon set things to 
rights." 

Large feeding joined with moderate exercise results 
with some individuals in corpulency or extensive deposits 
of fat. This condition may be regarded as a form of dis- 

> Bey. J. G. Wood, Illnstrated Nataral History, p. 190. 



GLUTTONY, SICKNESS, AND CORPULENCY. 195 

ease. As the eating of much fatty food tends to corpu- 
lency, it may aid in explaining the Divine injunction to 
the Israelites: "It shall be a perpetual statute for your 
generations throughout all your dwellings that you eat 
neither fat nor blood." 

We have in our country a sufficient number of large 
eaters, but we have not. produced a Daniel Lambert nor a 
Krocher, the fat butcher of Berlin, whose weight was 
four hundred and fifty pounds ; nor a Dr. Cheyne, whose 
weight was upwards of four hundred and forty-eight 
pounds. Krocher, after the age of thirty, acquired a vora- 
cious appetite, and on one occasion ate on a wager a whole 
calf in twenty-four hours. Ultimately he became too fat 
to walk or stand alone. Under the treatment of the em- 
inent physician Graefe, by numerous blood-lettings, the 
daily use of carthartics, which operated from thirty to 
sixty times in twenty-four hours, and iodine as an ema- 
ciating agent, at the same time being confined to a strictly 
vegetable diet, his weight from December, 1825, to April, 
1826, was reduced one hal^ so that he could move about 
and attend to business.^ 

Dr. George Cheyne, an eminent London physician, by 
free living in the early part of his life, became so corpu- 
lent that his weight exceeded four hundred and forty-eight 
pounds. He abandoned distilled and fermented liquors, 
and lived upon vegetables, milk, and water. This course 
reduced his weight to one hundred and forty pounds. 
After a few years he relapsed into free living, and became 
corpulent as before. Again he reduced himself by vege- 
tables, milk, and water, did a large professional practice, 
wrote a number of books, and lived to the age of seventy- 
two years. 

i Am. Med. and Snrg. Jour. VoL y. p. 458. 



196 OLUTTONT, SICKNESS, AND CORPULENCY. 

The Romans in their gluttony had a method of avoiding 
such extravagant growths from excessive eating. They 
took care first to clear themselves out by an emetic, or to 
leave the dining table once or twice for an emetic to dis- 
gorge what they had swallowed, and then to return and 
fall to again. Claudius Cassius and Yitellius, two em- 
perors, indulged themselves in this habit. Cicero in his 
52d letter, Book III., to Atticus, describing a dinner he 
gave to Julius Caesar, not long before his assassination, 
says that this emperor, in preparing himself for the dinner, 
took a warm bath and anointed himself; that he ate 
heartily and drank freely ; " you must know," continues he, 
"that he had taken an emetic as one of the preparatives." 

Epicures sometimes cram the esculent birds, to load 
them with fat and enlarge their livers. Othei's, to make 
a large liver, in the goose for instance, nail its feet to the 
floor to prevent exercise, keep it in a dark place, or stitch 
its eyelids together to exclude the light, and give it noth- 
ing to eat and drink. This causes an immediate fever, 
under which there is a rapid emaciation of the fleshy 
parts, while the liver, greatly diseased, is swollen far be- 
yond its healthy dimensions, and fit for the mouth of him 
who can pay an extravagant price for it. 

In the northern section of our country, the annual feasts 
of Thanksgiving and Christmas, it may be presumed, sel- 
dom or never pass without making extra work for the 
physician, if not for the undertaker. During my profes- 
sional life I scarcely ever lived through one of these occa- 
sions without being consulted for ailments caused by 
improper eating. I was once called to prescribe for an 
adult, the day following one of these festivals, who, I was 
credibly informed, ate, among other things, roast turkey 
with the stuffing, plum pudding, and mince pie ; the sequel 



DR. BEAUMONT AND ST. MARTIN. 197 

was a most fearful and distressing neuralgia in one of the 
lower limbs, which interfered with locomotion for several 
days. It would seem as if multitudes regarded themselves 
as furnished with a gluttony license at least once a year, 
and thought the most appropriate way of expressing their 
gratitude for the bounties of Divine Providence was to 
prepare as great a variety of good things for eating as 
their condition or convenience would allow, and then 
to eat of all sorts as much as could be crowded into their 
stomachs. I have known young children, crying with 
distention of their organs, called up to the supper table, 
three or four hours after a Thanksgiving dinner, because 
it would be very unfeeling to send them to bed without 
their supper. 

§ in. DR. BEAUMONT AND. ALEXIS ST. MARTIN. 

It is generally known that our countryman. Dr. Beau- 
mont, some years ago had a young man, Alexis St. Martin, 
a Canadian, under his charge, who had received a wound 
in his side, which healed in such a way as to leave a large 
opening into his stomach. Through this opening the doc- 
tor was able to introduce food and medicine, to extract 
gastric juice, and to watch the changes which occurred 
upon the lining membrane of the organ. He noticed 
diseased appearances upon this membrane, which some- 
times continued for days without very sensibly deranging 
the general health, or causing a coat upon the tongue. 
Dr. B. observes as follows: — 

" In febrile diathesis or predisposition, from whatever 
cause, obstructed perspiration, undue excitement by stim- 
ulating liquors, overloading the stomach with food, fear, 
anger, or whatever depresses or disturbs the nervous 

17* 



198 DR. BEAUMONT AND ST. MARTIN. 

system, — the villous coat becomes sometimes red and 
dry, at other times pale and moist, and loses its smooth 
and healthy appearance; the secretions become vitiated, 
greatly diminished or entirely suppressed; the mucous 
coat scarcely perceptible ; the follicles flat and flaccid, with 
secretions insufficient to protect the vascular and mucous 
papillae from irritation. 

"There are sometimes found, on the internal coat of 
the stomach, eruptions or deep red pimples, not numerous, 
but distributed here and there upon the membrane, rising 
above the suiiace of the mucous coat. These are, at first, 
sharp-pointed and red, but frequently become filled with 
white purulent matter. At other times, iiTegular, circum- 
scribed, red patches, varying in size or extent, from half an 
inch to an inch and a half in circumference, are found 
on the internal coat. These appear to be the effect of 
congestion in the minute blood-vessels of the stomach. 
There are also seen at times small aphthous crusts in 
connection with these red patches. Abrasions of the lin- 
ing membrane, like the rolling up of the mucous membrane 
into small shreds or strings, leaving the papillae bare, for 
an indefinite space, are not an uncommon appearance. 

" These diseased appearances, when very slight, do not 
always affect essentially the gastric apparatus. When 
considerable, and particularly when there are correspond- 
ing symptoms of disease, as dryness of the mouth, thirst, 
accelerated pulse, no gastric juice can be extracted, not 
even on the application of alimentary stimulants. Drinks 
received are immediately absorbed or otherwise disposed 
of^ none remaining in the stomach ten minutes after it 
is swallowed. Food taken* in this condition of the stom- 
ach remains undigested for twenty-four or forty-eight 
hours, or more, increasing the derangement of the whole 



DR. BEAUMONT AND ST. MARTIN. 199 

alimentary canal, and aggravating the general symptoms 
of disease. 

"After excessive eating or drinking, chymification is 
retarded, and the appetite is not always impaired at first ; 
the fluids become acrid and sharp, excoriating the edges 
of the aperture, and almost invariably produce aphthous 
patches and other indications of a diseased state of the 
internal membrane mentioned above. Vitiated bile is also 
found in the stomach under these circumstances, and floc- 
uli of mucus are much more abundant than in health. 

"Whenever this morbid condition of the stomach occurs, 
with the usual accompanying symptoms of disease, there 
is generally a corresponding appearance of the tongue. 
When a healthy state of the stomach is restored, the 
tongue invariably becomes clear." ^ 

Dr. B. instances the effect of medicine upon the follow- 
ing symptoms in the case of St. Martin. " The distress 
of the stomach and pain of the head continuing, accompa- 
nied with costiveness, a depressed pulse, dry skin, coated 
tongue, and numerous white spots or particles, resembling 
coagulated lymph, spread over the inner surface of the 
stomach, I thought it advisable to give medicine. I 
accordingly dropped into the stomach through the aper- 
ture half a dozen calomel pills, four or five grains each, 
which, in about three hours, had a thorough cathartic 
effect, and removed all the foregoing symptoms, and the 
diseased appearance of the inner coat of the stomach. 
The effect of the medicine was the same as when adminis- 
tered in the usual way, by the mouth and (esophagus, 
except the nausea commonly occasioned by swallowing 
pills." 2 

The observations of Dr. Beaumont sufficiently attest the 

^ Dr. Beaumont on Digestion, pp. 107-109. ' lb. 126. 



200 DB. BEAUMONT AND ST, MARTIN. 

fact that the "lining membrane of the stomach may be 
extensively diseased, the gastric juice vitiated or its secre- 
tion arrested under wrong feeding, while the general health 
is not entirely prostrate. Ulcerations, too, have been 
observed in post-mortems, which involved all the coats, 
exposing the peritoneal cavity to the fluid contents of the 
organ. In other instances, the ulcers had left the perito- 
neal, perhaps the muscular coat, still entire ; while the 
puckered gatherings at different points marked the sites 
of ulcers long since healed." 

Chronic disease of the stomach may exist for a long 
time in a form utterly incurable. I have known cancer of 
this organ in which the thickening of the coats, for most 
of its extent, was three fourths of an inch, presenting an 
ulcerated surface upon the inferior and posterior part of 
this sac, of not less, by estimation, than eighteen or twenty 
square inches. I have reason to believe, from the extreme 
dyspepsia and tenderness at the pit of the stomach which 
the patient, a man of fifty, had, that the ulceration had 
Q^isted more than two years. 

But cancer of the stomach, in many instances, causes no 
distinctive symptoms whatever. I have in mind a medi- 
cal friend in whose stomach a post-mortem revealed a 
cancerous growth of the lesser curvature, not ulcerated, 
the existence of which neither he nor any of his pro- 
fessional advisers suspected. Among my professional 
fi'iends, several instances of cancer of the stomach, which 
had not been detected during life, were disclosed under 
post-mortem inspections. Dr. Watson refers to several 
cases of this sort that fell under his own observation. 

Dr. Beaumont came to the conclusion that the stomach 
furnishes no more gastric juice at each meal than is, 
requisite to dissolve, or convert into chyme, all the food 



REMEDIAL AGENCIES FOR DISEASE. 201 

which the system needs for due natrition* This would 
seem to be a valuable adaptation of the functions of dif- 
ferent parts of the machinery to each other. When the 
stomach is the principal organ cultivated, it may, with 
some individuals, absorb so large a portion of nerve power 
as to cause the digestion, imperfect though it be, of a 
lai'ger amount of aliment than is disposed of in its health- 
iest condition under natural feeding, as in the case of the 
Prussian butcher Krocher. When the quality of the food 
is bad, the gastric juice secreted is liable to be vitiated, 
acrid, sometimes bloody, the quantity diminished, and to be 
capable of acting but very imperfectly as a solvent of the 
food ; or when the lining membrane is beset with pimples 
and pustules, and crythemathous and aphthous patches, 
the secretion of the gastric juice is wholly arrested. 
When the' food is not objectionable in quality, but taken 
in greater quantity than needful, the organs are un- 
duly tasked to get rid of the excess, and- the nutrition is 
diminished. Instances illustrative of this are not wanting, 
^d would be much more numerous if accurate observa- 
tions were made. 



§ IV. REMEDIAL AGENCIES FOR THE RELIEF AND CURE OF 

DISEASE. 

There are those who place their chief reliance on medi- 
cinal agents for the relief and cure of diseases. To this 
class belong most of the uneducated, whose minds have 
never been enlightened on the subject of bodily ailments 
or of the action of medicines, and who know next to noth- 
ing of the powers of the constitution to grapple with and 
modify or remove disease. Even among the educated in 
other departments of knowledge, so great ignorance pre- 



202 REMEDIAL AGENCIES FOR DISEASE. 

vails in this, that the invalid can easily believe himself to 
have derived important benefit from the prolonged use of 
large doses of evacuant medicine, which in fact have done 
him real and perhaps permanent injury ; the same invalid, 
be he M. D., D. D., or LL. D., released for a few weeks 
from confinement, care, and hard study, and taking the 
benefit of a journey among friends, comes with all his 
heart to the conclusion that he has been cured of his pros- 
tration by a pellet, urged upon him by a " personal friend," 
containing a medicine so attenuated or subdivided by being 
mixed with sugar (according to the directions of the 
inventor) that, in order to get a single grain of it into his 
stomach, he must eat a lump of sugar large enough to fill 
the orbit of Saturn 1 

On the other hand, there are those who, from the mis- 
haps incurred by unscientific or excessive medical dosing, 
have been led to undervalue or discard medication alto- 
gether, professedly relying upon the inherent power of 
the organism for the cure of disease. There are, indeed, 
many chronic ailments which admit of a cure under^ 
suitable diet and regimen, while there are diseases that 
require medicine to save life. Take the graver forms of 
malarious fever; sometimes the attack is so severe that 
if nothing is done for its arrest, the patient dies in the 
first, second, or third paroxysm. The constitutional pow- 
ers, however, can, in some mild forms of malarious fever, 
overcome the disease ; but is it wise to trust to this mode 
of treatment ? In a mild intermittent, who can know in 
advance what time will be required for nature to remove 
the disease ? And when it is understood that protracted 
intermittents often occasion visceral disease, and leave 
some part of the organism permanently injured, is it not 
safer and better to meet the case by medication at once, 



REMEDIAL AGENCIES FOR DISEASE. 203 

under which the disease can ordinarily be subdued in a 
few days, while the constitutional powers are but little if 
at all impaired ? Several years ago, I was consulted by a 
man, between forty and fifty years of age, who had labored 
under an intermittent for two years. He had not passed 
all that time without medicine, but the treatment had been 
inefficient, and although not entirely confined within doors, 
he was feeble, sallow, and sickly-looking. I prescribed 
Fowler's solution, under the use of which the paroxysms 
were permanently extinguished in three weeks. Far pref- 
erable had it been for him, if a judicious medication had 
been promptly resorted to, and his ague been quelled in 
two weeks, instead of running on for two years. Millions 
of lives have doubtless been saved by one medicine, the 
Peruvian bark and its chemical extracts, although it is 
only about two hundred years since its introduction into 
medical practice. 

Gout, it is well known, is susceptible of a cure, in a 
majority of cases, by permanent abstinence from high 
feeding, and from all intoxicating drinks ; and yet^ since 
a medicine has been discovered, the colchicum, which 
relieves the pain in a paroxysm of that terrific visitation, 
is it not safe to give it, trusting for a radical cure- to the 
dietetic arrangements ? 

It is manifest that there are two sources of remedial 
agency for the relief of bodily disease ; the one inherent 
in the organism, the other wholly independent of it. By 
the first, numerous disorders, under the salutary aid of a 
suitable diet and regimen, are corrected, and health is 
restored; and mechanical injuries also are, to a certain 
extent, repaired. By the second, many diseases of vari- 
ous degrees of intensity are met and often relieved or 
removed. Individual organs, as the stomach, intestines. 



204 REMEDIAL AGENCIES FOR DISEASE. 

skin, kidneys, lungs, and nerves, are provided with medi- 
caments appropriate to each in their respective derange- 
ments. This gift of a materia medica, with special adap- 
tations to the variety of ailments of organs unlike in 
structure and function, is indicative no less of the skill 
than of the benevolence of the Giver. As disorders of 
the alimentary canal are especially common, materials for 
relief are found in plenty, both in the torrid and temperate 
zones ; and the mineral springs distributed over the world, 
and kept flowing for thousands of years, are to be ranked 
among the kind provisions of the Creator for the relief 
of human suffering, often aggravated, if not caused, by a 
violation of the laws of our physical being. 

Mr. Paget closes one of his lectures on surgical pathol- 
ogy with an eloquent paragraph on the law of remedial 
influences in our world : — 

" If I may venture on so high a theme, let me suggest 
that the instances of recovery from disease and injury 
seem to be only examples of a law yet larger than that 
within the terms of which they may be comprised, a law 
wider than the grasp of science ; the law that expresses 
our Creator's wilL for the recovery of all lost perfection. 
To this train of thought we are guided by the remem- 
brance that the healing of the body was ever chosen as 
the fittest emblem of His work whose true mission was to 
raise man's fallen spirit, and repair the injuries it had sus- 
tained ; and that once the healing power was exerted in a 
manner purposely so confined as to advance, like that 
which we can trace by progressive stages to the complete 
cure ; for there was one upon whom, when the light of 
heaven first fell, so imperfect was his vision that he saw 
confusedly * men as trees walking,' and then, by a second 
touch of the Divine hand, was ' restored, and saw every 



REMEDIAL AGENCIES FOB DISEASE. 205 

man clearly.' Thus, guided by the brighter light of reve- 
lation, it may be our privilege, while we study the science 
of our healing art, to gain by the illustrations of analogy 
a clearer insight into the oneness of the plan by which 
things spiritual and corporeal are directed. Even now we 
may trace some analogy between the acts of the body 
and those of man's intellectual and moral nature. As in 
the development of the germ, so in the history of the 
human spirit, we may discern a striving after perfection ; 
after a perfection not viewed in any present model (for 
the human model was marred almost as soon as it was 
formed), but manifested to the enlightened reason jn the 
' express image ' of the Father of Spirits. And so, when- 
ever, through human frailty, amid the violences of the 
world and the remaining 'infection of our nature,' the 
spirit loses aught of the perfection to which it was once 
admitted, still its implanted power is ever urgent to repair 
the loss. The same power, derl^^ed and still renewed from 
the same Parent, working by the same appointed means 
and to the same end, restores the fallen spirit to nearly 
the same perfection that it had before. Then, not un- 
scarred, yet living, — ^fractus sed invictuSy — the spirit yet 
feels its capacity for a higher life, and passes to its immor- 
tal destiny. In that destiny the analogy ends. We may 
watch the body developing into all its marvellous perfec- 
tion and marvellous fitness for the purpose of its existence 
in the world ; but this purpose accomplished, it passes its 
meridian, and then we trace it through the gradual de- 
cays of life and death. But for the human spirit, that 
has passed the ordeal of this world, there is no such end. 
Emerging from its imprisonment in the body, it soars to 
the element of its higher life ; there, in perpetual youth, 
its powers expand as the vision of the Infinite unfolds 

18 



206 REMEDIAL AGENCIES FOR DISEASE. 



f 



before it ; there, in the very presence of its Model, its 
Parent, and the Spring of all its power, it is ' like him, 
for it sees him as he is.'" 

The Rev. Albert Barnes, in his chapter on the probabil- 
ities of an atonement, presents interesting views some- 
what in detail on this topic. 

"All the arrangements in medicine presuppose that 
there will be violations of the laws of health, or that there 
will be evils springing from the loss of health to be reme- 
died. We can conceive of a world where no such arrange- 
ments would exist ; and, indeed, we must suppose that there 
are n9 such arrangements in unfallen worlds, and will be 
none in heaven. We cannot suppose that in an unfallen 
world there can be anything that corresponds in this 
respect with the materia medica of our globe, or with the 
things that seem to have been created only on the suppo- 
sition that there will be fevers and pleurisies and consump- 
tions ; but on earth the preparations of that kind abound 
everywhere. There are numberless things in the mineral 
and vegetable worlds that have the properties of healing 
as an essential part of their nature, numberless things which 
have, in fact, no other use than that which is derived from 
healing, and which seem to have been made for that, with 
as distinct and original a reference as the eye has been for 
light, or food for the nourishment of the body. If it had 
not been supposed in the original creation that there would 
be diseases to be remedied, it is impossible to believe that 
these things would have been made with such properties 
as they now have ; for it remains to be demonstrated that 
any thing was made without -a distinct design ; and as a 
general law, in finding out what purpose anything is fitted 
to accomplish, we at the same time find out the purpose 
for which it was originally designed. 



SBMEDIAL AGENCIES FOR DISEASE. 207 

"The things which constitute the materia medica of the 
world, or which come properly nnder the name of medi- 
ciney are arranged for the purpose of healing. Many of 
these seem to have no other end, and no other use can be 
made of them. Whatever they have in their nature to 
distinguish them from other substances is adapted only to 
the purpose of healing ; and, though it may be true that 
some of them may have a compound adaptedness, and 
may be fitted also to subserve other ends than healing, yet 
it is also true that so far as the medical property in any of 
these is concerned, and in many cases so far as - any dis- 
tinguishing property is concerned, that property pertains 
only to the healing of diseases, and can be applied to no 
other use. Mercury, or quicksilver, Acw, indeed, a com- 
pound adaptedness; for it may be used in the arts as 
well as in medicine ; but this is not true of numberless 
other things used in the healing art. Senna, rhubarb, 
Peruvian bark, and numerous other similar things, have no 
other use than healing, and can be converted to no other 
purpose. They cannot be placed on the same level, or 
made to subserve the same ends, as rice, maize, wheat, len- 
tils ; for they have properties distinct from them, and they 
cannot be made to subserve the ends which those things 
are designed to secure. A druggist would starve to death 
in his shop, though there might be medicines enough there 
to heal all the diseases in the world. A company of men 
on a barren island would soon die if there should be noth- 
ing else sent to them than a cargo of medicines ; they 
would die if their island produced nothing but quicksilver, 
rhubarb, and Peruvian bark. The fair conclusion from 
this fact is, that these things were designed for the purpose 
of healing / that is, that it was contemplated that there 
would be diseases demanding a remedy. 



208 KEMEDIAL AGENCIES FOE DISEASE. 

" These remedies lie outside of the evil to be remedied. 
They differ fi*om the arrangement which will be noticed 
next in order, in the fact that they are no part of the origi- 
nal organization of that which it was contemplated would 
need a remedy. It is an independent arrangement, — a 
separate system, — which could not be itself originated 
by the disease to be cured; for whatever may be said 
about the adaptedness of a broken bone to heal itself, it 
cannot be said that intermittent or bilious fevers have 
any tendency to produce the tree on which the bark that 
is adapted to heal those diseases is found. They con- 
stitute an independent arrangement by themselves, and 
would have an existence, though as far as appears a use- 
less existence, even if there were no fevers to be cured. 

" In a great measure these remedies are effectual. It is 
true that all diseases are not healed, and that there are 
diseases which ultimately baffle the skill of medicine. It 
is true also that there are diseases for which as yet no 
specific remedy has been found. But it is also true that 
it may ultimately be ascertained that there is no form of 
disease to which the human frame is subject for which a 
remedy has not been provided, — a remedy which might 
either weaken the force of the disease or wholly remove 
it. The remedies for disease are sometimes undiscovered 
for ages, and, though existing, they are useless; as the 
tree producing the Peruvian bark continued to grow from 
age to age, wholly useless to the world until a happy dis- 
covery disclosed its value to mankind. In like manner it 
may be possible that arrangements exist for healing all the 
diseases to which the human frame is subject, and that 
happy discoveries may yet so greatly enlarge the knowl- 
edge of these remedies as greatly to alleviate all the 



REMEDIAL AGENCIES FOR DISEASE. 209 

maladies to which the race is subject, and perhaps to re- 
move many of them altogether. 

" This arrangement in regard to physical maladies might 
suggest the possibility, and perhaps the probability, that 
some correspondent arrangement would be made to meet 
the moral evils of the world and to check the progress of 
those evils. It is certainly a very curious fact in itself 
that an an*angement of the kind just referred to should 
be found in the world ; that it should be contemplated 
apparently in the original structure of things that there 
would be disease, and that there should be found a sepa- 
rate and wholly independent arrangement for checking, 
relieving, and removing it. It is an arrangement which 
could not have been anticipated ; for if we should conceive 
it to be possible that we could have been consulted before- 
hand on that point, we should have said that it would be 
wholly impossible that such an arrangement could be 
found. We should have said at once that the presump- 
tion would be that evil would be prevented altogether; 
that disease would not be suffered to come into the sys- 
tem; that it seems to be so clumsy a device, that we 
cannot suppose that a perfectly wise being would have 
adopted it; that no wise man would originate such a 
system; that it is difficult to reconcile the idea of per- 
mitting pleurisies and consumptions to come upon men 
with any proper notions of benevolence, whatever may 
be said of the benevolence of the remedy ; that the whole 
scheme is similar to what would occur in the construction 
of a machine, if the inventor should purposely make it so 
that it would get out of order, with a view to show his 
skill by an independent arrangement in repairing the irreg- 
ularity and in restoring its regular motions. It must be 
conceded that we cannot explain the reason why this 

lo 



210 REMEDIAL AGENCIES FOE DISEASE* 

apparently strange procedure has been suffered to occur; 
and we may admit that as yet we are not able to see that 
it is the most benevolent arrangement that could have 
been adopted. But still the fact remains as a part of a 
great system found everywhere in nature, and whatever 
may have been the reason of it, it is there. Whether the 
explanation is to be found in the fact that the human 
frame could not have been made so as not to be liable 
to decay and disease ; or whether, on the whole, higher 
benevolence is evinced by allowing disease to come in, 
and showing the high skill evinced as an independent 
arrangement in the provision for healing disease; or 
whether the whole arrangement is one that lies beyond 
. our power of comprehension, having some ends to accom- 
plish which we cannot as yet understand, yet the arrange- 
ment exists. It pervades the world. It is a part of the 
system. We see nothing on earth that is exempt from it ; 
and this might lead men to suppose that it would be found 
to be a universal arrangement, and would be as applica- 
ble to moral as to physical maladies ; that there would be 
found somewhere, to be disclosed in its own time, some 
independent arrangement for checking or removing the 
moral maladies, the sins, of the world. An atonement, 
if it answered this end, would obviously fall in with this 
anticipation, and would be in accordance with the general 
system which has allowed disease to come into the world, 
and which by a separate and independent arrangement has 
sought to check and remove it."^ 

1 Barnes on the Atonement* 



CHAPTER XI. 

QUAK^TITY OP POOD — SIMPLICITY OP DIET — ECONOMY 
OP VEGETABLE FOOD OVER-EATING. 

4 I. QUANTITY OF FOOD. 

The digestive power of the stomach may be cultivated 
to some extent. Gormandizers sometimes live for years 
free from dyspepsia, able to dispose of a large dinner daily, 
but there is less power, left for the voluntary muscles, as 
they are comparatively sluggish, and less also for intel- 
lectual operations. For a period, sometimes of several 
years, the stomach bears this exertion, receiving an undue 
share of nervous influence, while the whole system, kept 
in a state of perpetual plethora, is exposed to apoplexy, or 
some form of acute disease, and is wearing out with a 
rapidity proportioned to the excess of stimulation and 
overcharging the organs. In some cases of this sort, dis- 
tant parts may suffer by sympathy, and sometimes give 
way before the stomach. 

A gentleman in one of the learned professions consulted 
me on account of his corpulency, contracted by large eat- 
ing and want of exercise. I prescribed for him a change 
of diet, less food and more exercise daily in the open air, 
at the same time remarking to him that this course would 
benefit his general health. " Health," said he ; " my health 
is very good. I digest my food well and have generally 



212 QUANTITY OF FOOD. 

a fair appetite. I suppose I might alter my diet somewhat, 
but as to the walking you mention, that is altogether out of 
the question." " Why so, sir ? " " Why, for several yeans 
my feet have been so numb and sore and lame that I can- 
not walk more than a quarter of a mile before they give 
out, and I can go no further." "But I understood you 
to say, just now, that your health was good." " So it is," 
was the testy reply; "but it is my/eety Itell you, mj/eet 
that trouble me ; they are numb and sore, and sometimes 
I can walk only a few rods without the most intolerable 
pain ! " 

At the expense then of other organs, the stomach may 
be compelled to do extra labor, but the whole machinery 
is put in jeopardy of violent forms of disease, and is sooner 
exhausted and worn out. In such cases, when this over- 
tasked organ gives way, as it sometimes does suddenly, it 
is seldom capable of being restored to a tolerable rate of 
power. I once prescribed for a lady who labored under a 
very debilitating complaint. She was corpulent, and a large 
eater. " I have reason to be thankful," said she, ** that I 
have a good appetite, and can digest my food. Were 
it not for my appetite, I should have been dead long 
ago I " 

The stomach becomes easily habituated to a certain 
amount of distention at meals, short of which it is 
uneasy. 

Sir E. Home states that the Scotch recruits, accustomed 
to the use of oatmeal porridge, do not find their stomachs 
sufficiently distended by the army rations, and are obliged 
to make up the deficiency with water. 

" The slaves at Surinam," says Dr. Cragin, " stuff a child 
two or three months old with pap, made from the banana, 
to the amount of a quart, and sometimes more ! " The 



QUANTITY OF FOOD. 213' 

child fi*eqaently dies tinder the operation ; and it is said 
that the stomach is so much distended and distorted in 
this manner, that if the child lives he is always hungry. 

A babe accustomed to be nursed at short intervals will 
grow uneasy and restless, after waking from sleep. This 
restlessness is caused partly by the plethora of the system, 
and partly by the want of the customary distention of the 
stomach. It is, of course, temporarily quieted by giving it 
food. 

I have seen a child, a year and a half old, who was fed 
habitually six or seven times a day. When the uneasiness 
of the stomach, under a diminished quantity of food, is 
great, relief may be had from the use of water, to accom- 
plish the ordinary distention. This is the most harmless 
article that can be employed for this purpose ; and it may 
be continued, diminishing the quantity employed, till the 
stomach quietly comes to a proper degree of distention. 
The quantity of food usually taken is considerably greater 
than is necessary to support life and maintain a uniform 
standard of flesh, and the highest possible degree of 
health. 

"The Bedouins," says Ritson,^ "are a most alert and 
military race, and yet it is an undoubted fact that the 
quantity of food usually consumed by the greatest part 
of them does not exceed six ounces a day. Six or seven 
dates soaked in melted butter serve a man a whole day, 
and he esteems himself happy when he can add a small 
quantity of coarse flour or a little ball of rice." 

In contrast to this is a case mentioned by my friend 

Prof. H , who spent a winter in one of the West India 

islands. While dining out, he saw on one table thirty 

^ Bitson on Animal Food, p. 74, quoted firom Yolney's Travels. 



* 214 SIMPLICITY OF DIET. 

dishes of meats and six varieties of wine I At church he 
noticed five men in a row, the smallest of whom must have 
weighed two hundred pounds, and one of them, a man 
about forty years old, weighed two hundred and eighty 
pounds. This last was one of the most religious men in 
the island, and was very punctual in his attendance at 
church in the forenoon I 

Col. Long assured me that once, when his men had noth- 
ing to do, they would eat a full meal of venison every three 
hours, and sleep " between meals." 

One of my patients from Tisxas told me that he had 
frequently sat down with men when they had only buffalo 
meat to eat, and that they had taken each from three to 
five pounds of meat at a meal I 

S II. SIMPLICITY OF DIET. 

No assumption in dietetics is more gratuitous than this, 
viz. that variety of food is essential , to human health. I 
am acquainted with a young gentleman who lived twelve 
weeks on Indian corn bread and water solely, had a high 
state of health, and was in full fiesh at the end of that 
time. The case of Capt. Twitchell, who lived ten years 
on bread and water and a little cheese, is somewhat in 
point. " I once indulged," says Marmontel, " in living for 
six weeks on milk at Campiegne, when in full health. 
Never, was my soul more calm, more peaceful, than dunng 
this regimen. My days flowed along in study with an 
unalterable equality ; my nights were but one gentle sleep. 
Discord might have overturned the world ; it would not 
have shaken me. 

In Scott's Tales of a Grandfather there is mentioned the 
case of an old woman and her daughter who were tried 



SIMPLICITY OF DIET. 215 

as witches and condemned, because, though miserably 
poor, they had contrived to look " fresh and fair " through 
a terrible famine. The king's advocate, not believing so 
thoroughly as some others in satanic influence, managed 
to get their secret from them, and found that they had 
supported themselves on the strange diet of salted snails, 
aoldy. 

Hart, in his "Diet of the Diseased," gives several in- 
stances of individuals who lived for many years wholly 
on cow's milk. 

Caillie states that an African tribe live on milk, some 
making it their sole fare.^ 

Some of the Arabs who range the great desert of Sahara 
are said to live altogether on milk, and to attain a great age. 

Sidi Hamet gave Capt. Riley the following account : — 

" The Arabs who live in the desert subsist wholly on the 
milk of their oamels. It is the milk of an animal that we 
call sacred, and it causes long life. Those who live on 
nothing else have no sickness nor disorders, and are par- 
ticularly favored by Heaven ; but only carry the same 
people off from the desert . and let them live on bread, 
meat, and fruits, they then become subject to every kind 
of pain and sickness when they are young, and only live 
to the age of two zille^ and a half at the most, while a 
great many die very young, and not one tenth part of the 
men or women live to the age of one zille." 

Hamet assured Capt. Riley that it was very common to 
find Arabs, on different parts of the desert, five zille (or 
nearly two hundred yeara) old, retaining all their faculties.* 



1 African Bepository for July, 1833. 

* A zille is forty years of lunar months, twelve months in the year. 
-' To this great age, if Capt. Riley's statement be authentic, the simplicity of 
diet contributes; but this is not all. Their lives are regular; their climate is 



216 SIMPLICITY OF DIET. 

Is it not remarkable that tlie most magnificent dietetic 
experiment ever made upon the hnman family should 
have produced little or no impression upon the minds of 
those who profess to regard variety among eatables as 
essential to high and enduring health ? The children of 
Israel, generally estimated at not less than two and a half 
to three millions, subsisted during forty years upon one 
kind of bread, which, from the description given of it, was 
like what may be made of flour and oil, with a little sugar. 
With this simple food, and nothing but water for drink, 
their health was preserved. If variety of eatables had 
been necessary for their health, would it not have been 
provided for them ? More than once they became clam- 
orous for a change. To meet this, flesh was allowed. 
They were promised flesh to eat, not merely for a day, 
"but for a whole month." But it bred a pestilence among 
them, and " the Lord smote the people with a very great 
plague." At one time the spirit of insubordination and 
revolt became so general that it was proposed to kill two 
of the twelve spies (Caleb and Joshua), who reported 
favorably to an immediate entrance upon Canaan, and to 
appoint a captain who should conduct the multitude back 
to Egypt. At once the glory of the Lord appeared before 
the whole congregation, and it was the earnest entreaty of 
Moses which prevailed to save the whole multitude from 
sweeping destruction. On a later occasion, the multitude 
grew querulous at their simple fare, uttering this comment : 
"Our soul loatheth this light bread." "Whereupon the 
Lord sent fiery serpents among them, and they bit the peo- 



dry ; the air is pure, and they live in it constantly ; they are never subjected to 
very hard labor, though they have sufficient exercise to keep up the activity of 
the circulation and of all the bodily organs, and they never taste alcoholic 
liquors. 



SIMPLICITY OF DIET. 217 

pie, and much people of Israel died." This brought them 
to terms, and as a remedy Moses was directed to elevate 
an artificial serpent upon a pole, that those who were bit- 
ten might look upon it and live. The figure of a serpent 
upon a pole is emblematical of the profession of healing 
unto this day. 

It is natural to conclude that the simple mode of living 
of the Israelites in the wilderness was designed to give 
them a uniform health and vigor, so important for them in 
their contests with the nations whom they were commis- 
sioned to drive out of Canaan.^ Daniel, and his three fel- 
low-captives, ate pulse exclusively for three years, and lost 
nothing of their health. 

Dr. J. R. Farre, in the evidence on intemperance, sub- 
mitted by him to a select committee of the British par- 
liament, in June, 1834, says : "I recollect being consulted 
by a master and commander of a British merchantman, 
who was carried into Algiera before the Al genu es were 
chastised by Lord Exmouth. The Dey of Algiers imme- 
diately stripped him naked and chained him to another 
British prisoner ; he placed him on the public works from 
four in the morning till four in the evening ; he then turned 
him into a cell with his naked companion, till four in the 
morning, and there was placed by his side a pitcher of 
water and a loaf of black bread. I asked him if he could 
eat it? * Oh yes, it was very sweet indeed ! ' * What did 
it consist of? ' * It was made of the black wheat of Africa, 
with the vegetable locust, but it was appetite that gave it 
sweetness.' Now it is remarkable that this man was a 
prisoner nine months, while he was fed upon one pound 
of bread and a pitcher of water a day, and had to perform 



^ Numbers xi. 6; xxxi. 6, 6. 

19 



218 SIMPLICITY OF DIET. 

hard labor, with such a supply of food, and to my question, 
'Did you enjoy health?' he replied, 'Perfect health. I 
had not a day's illness. I was as lean as I could be, but I 
was perfectly well.' When he was set at liberty and 
returned to British fare, then he had to consult me as a 
physician." 

Xenophon, ip his famous " Retreat," says that he found a 
tribe near the Euxine who lived on boiled chestnuts. The 
children, he remarked, were so fat and chubby that they 
were " nearly as thick as they were long." 

In 1840, some of the prisoners in the Glasgow bride- 
well were confined to a strict diet of potatoes ; two 
pounds at breakfast, three pounds at dinner, one pound at 
supper, all boiled, " At the beginning of the experiment, 
eight were in good health, and two in indifferent health ; 
at the end, the eight continued in good health, and the 
two who had been in indifferent health had improved. 
There was on an average a gain of nearly three pounds 
and a half in the weight of the prisoners. All expressed 
themselves quite satisfied with this diet, and regretted the 
change back again to the ordinary diet." 

Many of the ancient Christians, driven by persecution 
from the ordinary dwelling-places of man, to retired cells 
and caverns, are said to have lived on bread and water 
only, and many of them attained a great age, — some of 
them one hundred and twenty years. 

The principle in this matter seems to be, that while sim- 
plicity of diet is consistent with the highest and most unin- 
terrupted health, some variety is not hostile to health, 
provided the proper quantity be taken. The tendency of 
variety is to spur the palate and increase the quantity 
beyond the wants of the organs. Sometimes men eat to 
the amount of a meal of each kind placed before them. 



ECONOMY OF VEGETABLE FOOD. 219 



§ ni. ECONOMY OF VEGETABLE FOOD. 

Nothing can be plainer than that vegetable food is more 
economical than animal food, or the mixed diet which is 
recommended by certain physiologists, in all climates 
where the esculent roots, pulpy fruits, and the grains can 
be cultivated. 

The direct products of the soil will, if man is able to 
live upon vegetables, support a much larger population 
than can subsist on the flesh of animals fed and Mtened 
upon the products of the same amount of land. Even in 
the far north of Europe, the small grains afford a cheaper 
food than the flesh of animals. Thus, the " black bread " 
forms the chief article of diet for the peasantry of Russia. 

In what flesh could the myriads of India and China find 
a substitute for rice, equally cheap and nutritious ? 

In tropical climates, the maize, the yam, the sweet po- 
tato, and the banana, are much cheaper food than any kind 
of flesh meat. 

Mr, Granger, of Canandaigua, N. Y., told me that while 
he resided at Genesiso, some years since, he was in the 
habit of putting up pork for the Montreal market. His 
hogs got their living in fields and woodlands as they 
could in summer, from grass, roots, and nuts, until within 
a few weeks of killing time, when they were driven up 
into a large inclosure and fed exclusively on Indian corn 
and water. They consumed in fattening, on an average, 
fifteen bushels each. When butchered, their average weight 
was two hundred pounds. At three pounds of meat per 
day for a man, it would require sixty-six days for him to 
consume the whole. Whereas, in fattening, the hog con- 
sumed four hundred and eighty quarts of corn, and one 



220 BOONOMY OF VEGETABLE FOOD. 

qnart is regarded as a fair daily allowance for a man. The 
difference is. bet ween seven and eight times in favor of the 
com. Indeed, it can hardly be supposed that three pounds, 
from which some deduction should be made for the bones, 
is a full allowance, when a man will eat six pounds of 
venison a day, and regard himself as but scantily supplied. 

Capt. Wiley Martin's men at the cantonment, in 1818, 
on Cow Island, near the mouth of Kansas river, com- 
plained that they had not enough food, while they were 
eating their six pounds of venison a day. But it is not at 
cantonments or among buffalo hunters merely (page 214) 
that large eaters of flesh are to be met with. Now and 
then a literary gentleman comes in for a place among the 
gourmands. I knew a learned one who, I was assured, ate 
a quarter of lamb clean to the bone at a single meal. 

Messrs. Smith and Colby, medical students of mine, 
lived during the months of March, April, and May, at the 
following expense : — 

3i bushels wheat-meal, at $1.50, $5.25. 

Baking, 2.62. 

9 gallons milk, at 3 and 4 cents per quart, . . . 1.16. 

2 bushels potatoes, at 25 cents, 50. 

1 gallon molasses, 42. 

$9.95. 

This total, divided by the number of weeks, gives sev- 
enty-six cents. The cost to each one, therefore, was about 
thirty-eight cents a week. 

Mr. Read, another medical student of mine, lived for 
eleven and a half cents per week, exclusive of the making 
of his bread. He lived just four weeks on half a bushel 
of Indian com meal, and paid forty-six cents for it. Never 
in his life had he enjoyed finer health. 

Those who have read that summer work of Thoreau's, 
Walden, will not soon forget the table in the chapter on 



ECONOMY OF VEGETABLE FOOD. 221 

** Economy,'' where Thoreau shows how he lived on eight 
dollars and eighty cents for eight months, nor will his 
readers judge that his mental power was lessened by the 
experiment. 

If a simple vegetable diet could prevail in our literary 
institutions, more than twice the present number of young 
men could receive the benefits of a liberal education, and 
much more mental power be brought to bear upon our 
communities. 

It is stated that in England farmers find it pays better 
to use their land for raising vegetables than for fattening 
cattle, and those who are familiar with the large amount 
of land it requires to support " stock " cannot fail to see 
that there is an advantage in raising a crop of sixty bush- 
els of com, at one dollar a bushel, on an acre, than to raise 
grass on the same to feed cattle upon. 

Nor will any one fail to see that if a pound of com is 
as good for a man as a pound of beef, it is for his advan- 
tage to buy the com for two cents, rather than the beef 
at fifteen or twenty cents. 

Of common butchei^s meat, it has been ascertained, 
seventy-five parts out of every one hundred are water; 
and as the " nourishment " comes from the dry matter, the 
difference in favor of the corn must readily appear. 

The banana, which flourishes up to the point where the 
mean temperature is seventy-five degrees Fahrenheit, 
produces more nutritious substance in a less space than 
any other plant. Humboldt estimates that an acre of 
ground, planted with bananas, is sufficient to support 
^fty men, while the same extent of land, in wheat, would 
barely supply the wants of three.^ 



1 Encyolopfedia Britannica, 8th ed., Article " Mexico," Vol. xi7. p. 716. 

19* 



222 OVER-BATING DIMINISHES NUTRITION. 

At Surinam, enough bananas may be bought for two 
or three cents to support a negro for a week. 

K the climate of the valley of ^he Mississippi would 
admit of the cultivation of the banana at the above rate, 
as there is said to be land enough for eight millions of 
farms of one hundred and sixty acres each, one hal^ or 
four millions, would sustain a population of thirty-two 
thousand millions, which is more than thirty times the 
present population of our globe. 

^ rV. POWERS OF NUTRITION DIMINISHED BY OVER-EATING. 

Mr. S. tells me that when he visits Saratoga Springs for 
relaxation, and allows himself to eat more than usual, his 
face has a higher color, and he invariably loses flesh. 
Thus the functions of nutrition and waste lose their 
equilibrium. 

Dr. D. S., of Northampton, gives me the case of a child 
that, from the age of two and a half to three years, was a 
member of his family. Her appetite was never satisfied ; 
she cried for food a great part of the day, and often left 
the breakfast-table crying for more, after eating four good- 
sized potatoes, and a dish of bread and milk. She ate a 
meat dinner, and bread and tailk for supper. She had 
seven alvine evacuations a day, and the cutaneous and pul- 
monary exhalations were so offensive as greatly to annoy 
the whole family, the girl who slept with her making 
especial complaint. 

She was removed from Dr. S.'s to the interior of New 
York in the month of May; was extremely emaciated, 
and the lady who had the care of her says "that in the 
September following she weighed only fifteen pounds ; in 
the meantime she had become encrusted with sores, from 



OVER-BATING DIMINISHES NUnCCION. 223 

the crown of the head to the sole of the foot.*' After 
this she was fed exckisively upon baked apples ; the humor 
subsided, the skin became smooth and fair, and early in 
December she weighed twenty-three pounds. She became 
quiet, good-natured, and intelligent. 



CHAPTER XII. 

VEGETABLB FOOD SUFFICIENT FOR MAN — FAVORABLE TO 

HEALTH MORAL AND INTELLECTUAL EFFECTS OF A 

VEGETABLE DIET THE PROPHET DANIEL. 

§ L VEGETABLE FOOD ADEQUATE TO MAN'S PHYSICAL 

WANTS. 

Vegetable products contain all the materials of nutri- 
tion required by the human constitution. 

Among those whose attention has not been turned to 
the subject of diet, it is a common opinion that animal 
food is essential to the health and strength of man. Such, 
however, is far from being the case; for, as Dr. Lambe 
remarks, " In every period of history it has been known 
that vegetables alone are sufficient for the support of life, 
and that the bulk of mankind live on them to this hour." 

Mr. Lawrence says, "That animal food renders men 
strong and courageous, is fully disproved by the inhabi- 
tants of Northern Europe and Asia, the Laplanders, Sa- 
moides, Tungooses, Buracts, and Kamtschadales, as well 
as by the Esquimaux in the northern and the natives of 
Terra del Fuego in the southern extremity of America, 
who are the smallest, weakest, and least brave people of 
the globe, although they live almost entirely on flesh, and 
that often raw." 

The finely-developed forms, the remarkable symmetry, 
and the great strength and activity of many tribes in the 
islands of the Southern Pacific, have engaged the atten- 



VEGETABLB FOOD SUFFICIENT FOB MAN. 225 

tion of travellers. "The people of the Marquesas and 
Washington Islands," says Langsdorf, "excel in beauty 
and grandeur of form, in regularity of features, and in 

color, all the other South Sea islanders The men are 

almost all tall, robust, and well made. Few were so fat 
and unwieldy as the Otaheitans ; none so lean and mea^ 
gre as the people of Easter Island. We did not see a 
single cripple or deformed person, but such general beauty 
and regularity of forms, that it greatly excited our aston- 
ishment. Many of them might well be placed beside the 
most celebrated chef ctceuvrea of antiquity, and they 
would lose nothing by the comparison.'* 

At Nnkahiwah, one of the Marquesas Islands, this voy- 
ager saw a youth named Mu Fau, twenty years of age, 
whose height was a little over six feet and seven inches 
(English measure), whose strength and activity were as 
great as his stature. "Though he had never till now 
been on board a European ship, he ran up the mainmast 
many times together, of his own accord, and threw him- 
self into the sea, to the great astonishment of the spec- 
tators." 

Pausanias declares that " the earlier athletaa, who con- 
tended in the public games of Greece, ate no animal 
food." 

"The Saracens, under Mohammed and his immediate 
successors, possessed the most vigorous and hardy constitu- 
tions, which enabled them to encounter great fatigue, and ' 
rendered them the teiTor of their enemies. Their chief 
drink was water, and their food consisted, in a great 
measure, of milk, rice, and the fruits of the earth. The 
celebrated Omar, the second caliph from Mohammed, lived 
wholly on vegetable food, and was remarkable for the 
acuteness and energy of his intellect, the hardiness tt' his 



226 VEGETABLE FOOD SUFFICIENT FOR MAN. 

constitution, and the entire control he possessed over his 
bodily appetites," 

"At Jenna," say the Landers, "about fourteen degrees 
east of Cape Mesurado, the inhabitants have an abundance 
of bullocks, pigs, goats, sheep, and poultry, but they pre- 
fer vegetable food to animal. Their diet is, indeed, what 
we should call poor and watery, consisting chiefly of prep- 
arations of the yam and Indian corn ; notwithstanding 
which, a stronger or more athletic race is nowhere to be 
found. Burdens with them, as with most of the natives 
of many parts of the continent, are invariably carried on 
the head, which it is more than likely occasions that dig- 
nified upnghtness of form and stateliness of walk, so often 
spoken of by those acquainted with the pleasing peculiari- 
ties of African women." 

In some districts in' Spain, the peasantry lead a cheerful 
and happy life, living entirely on milk and vegetables. 
Swinburne says that " bread steeped in oil, and occasion- 
ally seasoned with vinegar, is the common food of the 
country people, from Barcelona to Malaga." The Marquis 
of Alcala, a Spaniard by birth, says that " the laborers on 
the fields live in a most extraordinary way in the eyes of 
the English; that is, they eat no animal food." After 
giving an account of a curious vegetable pottage eaten 
by them, he says : " Their breakfast is bread and cheese 
in winter, and bread and fruits in summer ; their drink is 
•water at all seasons ; yet the Spanish peasants work hard, 
and they are undoubtedly the healthiest, liveliest, and best- 
formed peasantry I have ever seen, and I have travelled a 
great deal in Asia, Europe, Africa, and almost the whole 
of the West Indies." 

Thousands of the Irish, at this moment, live upon pota- 
toes and water, with a little salt. And yet the constitu- 



VEGETABLE FOOD SUFFICIENT FOR MAN. 227 

tions of the Irish, reared upon this simple diet, are capable 
of enduring the greatest hardships. Very many of the 
Irish who come to this country die young; but this is 
owing to the use of alcoholic drinks. 

Douglass, in his description of the eastern coast of 
Scotland, more than half a century ago, says that " the 
common food of the country people is oatmeal, milk, and 
vegetables, chiefly red cabbage in the winter season, and 
coleworts for the summer and spring. At ten or twelve 
miles' distance from a town, flesh is never seen in the 
houses of the common farmers, except at a baptism, a 
wedding, or at shrove-tide." The same writer gives a 
farmer's bill of fare for a day,^which does not contain 
a pailicle of animal food : "yet," says he, "they are strong 
and active, sleep sound, and live to a good old age." In 
Scotland, at the present day, many are said to be reared 
froni infancy to manhood chiefly on certain preparations 
of oatmeal ; and what arm has been more dreaded in bat- 
tle than that which wielded a Highland claymore ? 

In 1779, an Englishman describes the Russian grenr- 
diers as follows : " They are the finest body of men I ever 
saw. Not a man is under six feet high. Their allowance 
consists of eight pounds of black bread, four pounds of 
oil, and one pound of salt per man for eight days ; and 
were you to see them you would be convinced that they 
look as well as if they lived on roast-beef and English 
porter." 

In 1854, when these Russians surprised the world by 
standing against the attack of the " Allies," on the bloody 
battle-field of Alma, were found dead Russians with their 
provisions in their knapsacks, and these provisions were 
" black bread crumbs in oil." 

Capt. Town, of Boston^ informed rae that " the laborers 



228 VEGETABLE POOD. SUFFICIENT FOR MAN. 

at Cronstadt (in 1810) ate onions with their bread and 
water, and yet were strong, athletic men." 

The porters at Smyrna are noted for their strength, 
With the aid of the Turkish pack-saddle, they carry on 
their backs loads that to an American or European seem 
almost fabulous. Capt. Samuel Rea informed me that he 
was one of a party who detained one of 4;hese porters, as 
he was passing the office of Mr. Offley, formerly our consul 
at Smyrna, and weighed his load, which was of boards. 
It amounted to nine hundred and five pounds I The usual 
load for these men is a box of sugar, and with this on 
their backs they will trudge all day from the ships to the 
warehouses. And yet their diet is bread, water, figs, and 
other fruits. 

Dr. Hamlin, who has resided more than twenty years in 
Constantinople, tells me that he is quite familiar with the 
habits of the Turkish porters in that city, and that ^they 
eat bread made from flour scarcely bolted, fruits, curdled 
milk, of which they are very fond, rice cooked with some 
other vegetable, and about twice a week a little meat at 
dinner, which they eat soon after sunset. They never 
drink any sort of distilled or fermented liquor. Onions 
and garlic are largely consumed by the Turks. Dr. Ham- 
lin knew a man who travelled extensively, and who lived 
upon the black bread and raw onions. His food cost him 
next to nothing.^ 

The activity and hardiness of the blacks who labor on 
the rice plantations of the South are proverbial. In the 
cold season, that is, from November to March, most of the 
males are employed in clearing the ditches and repairing 
the dykes of the plantations, which must be overflown the 
ensuing season. In these ditches, half-leg deep in mud, 

1 Feb., 1851. 



VEQ^TABLB FOOD SUFFICIBNT FOB MAN. 229 

clad only in a short pair of trowsers, they labor from morn- 
ing till nigtt. Their food all this while consists of only 
one kind of vegetable food, either the sweet potato, boiled 
rice, or corn-meal in the shape of mush or hoe-cake. Yet 
they are healthy and cheerful, and often make long and 
merry evenings at their social visits. Mr. Cohen, of 
Georgetown, S. C, who for twelve years had the charge 
of five rice plantations, and who had carefully studied 
the diseases incident to the climate, declared to me, in the 
summer of 1832, that he had never known a colored man 
who wrought upon the plantations to be afflicted with the 
endemic fever, so destructive to the whites who come 
within reach of the pestilential exhalations from the 
flooded fields of grain. In this atmosphere, however, 
the negroes labor, eat, and sleep in perfect security. 
These same blacks, when removed from these fields and 
employed as house-servants for some time in the uplands, 
if they should return to the rice ground, are as liable to be 
attacked by the fever as the whites. This fact clearly 
shows that the workers on the plantations do not escape 
from any prophylactic power inherent in the African con- 
stitution, but that their immunity from disease is due to 
their mode of living. 

Jason Pattee, of Hanover, N. H., at the age of twenty, 
had both carotid arteries tied for a large bleeding naevas 
upon the top of the head. Shortly after the healing of the 
wounds, he came to live with me, and for seven years con- 
tinued in my family as a hired man. For the last six of 
these seven years he lived by choice on a strictly vegeta- 
rian diet with milk, and abstained wholly from the use of 
fermented and distilled liquors. He was the strongest 
man I ever had with me, and did more labor and received 
higher wages than any man in the neighborhood. 

20 



\ 



230 VBGETABLE DIET FAVORABLE TO HEALTH. 

The Hon. Mr. BuckiDgham assured me that he saw at 
Calcutta men &om the Himalaya Mountains, who made 
exhibitions as athletae, whose strength was nearly equal 
to that of three of the strongest Europeans picked from 
the regiments and ships then there. They could grasp 
a man with one hand on his breast and the other on his 
back, and hold him in the air at ^ arm's-length " so 
tightly that he could not escape. Yet these men never 
had used any drink stronger than yf^Xer^ nor did they 
eat animal food. 



§ II. VEGETABLE FOOD LESS LIABLE THAN ANIMAL TO 

GENERATE DISEASE. 

Sir J. Sinclair says that '*the late Sir Edward Barry 
prevailed on a man to live on partridges without vegeta- 
bles, but after eight days' trial he was obliged to desist, 
on account of strong symptoms of putrefaction." 

It is well known that a diet exclusively animal, on board 
ship for several months in succession, is capable of induc- 
ing scurvy. This is in part attributable to the flesh-meat 
being salted, and coming from domestic animals ; it is less 
wholesome than that which comes from the forest. 

" It is a remarkable fact," says Dr. Lambe, " that at Heim- 
aey, the only one of the Westmann Islands which is 
inhabited, scarcely a single instance has been known, 
during the last twenty years, of a child surviving the 
period of infancy. In consequence, the population, which 
does not exceed two hundred souls, is entirely kept up by 
emigration from the main-land of Iceland. The food of 
this people consists chiefly of sea-birds, fulmara and puff- 
ins. The fulmars they procure in vast abundance, and 
they use the eggs and flesh of the birds, and salt the latter 



VSaETABLE DIET FAVORABLE TO HEALTH. 231 

for their winter food. There are a few cows and sheep on 
the island, but the inhabitants are said to have no vegetar 
ble food." 1 

Col. Long, whose expedition to the Rocky Mountains, 
in 1819, is well known, assured me that among the Indian 
tribes which he met with on his tour, and many of which 
live almost wholly on animal food, he observed but a very 
small proportion of children. The same thing was observed 
by Mr. Arms among the eastern Patagonians ; and he 
had a good opportunity of making observations, as he 
passed upwards of two months in that community. Con- 
trasted with the swarms of children met with in Ireland, 
and other places, where vegetable products are the prin- 
cipal or sole articles of food, this fact, so constantly 
observed in flesh-eating communities, is sufficiently signifi- 
cant. 

These Patagonians are subject to diiArders of the diges- 
tive viscera ; they eat and sleep a great deal, are very licen- 
tious, and do not arrive at a great age. The oldest man 
Mr. Arms saw there he judged to be not above seventy- 
five; no other one over sixty-five, as he should judge. 
The stunted, pusillanimous races of the North have already 
been alluded to, in comparing the bodily strength and 
activity of different tribes. The eastern Patagonians are 
a taller race than the Samoiedes, Ostiacks, and Buracts, 
but they feed exclusively on the flesh of the guanako, a 
wild and wholesome meat, something like venison, which 
must be far superior to fish, blubber, and half-putrid 
walruses. The Patagonians, too, enjoy a better climate. 
Still, with these advantages, theyttre evidently in a state 
of deterioration, if the accounts of former travellers are to 

' Lambe, p. 197. 



282 MORAL AND MENTAL 

be relied on, respecting tbeir uncommon stature. The 
tallest man Dr. Arms found was six feet two inches in 
height. 

^ nL MORAL AND MENTAL EFFECTS OF A VEGETABLE DIET. 

Sir John Sinclair remarks that ^^an entire diet of 
vegetable matter gives to the disposition a gentleness, soft- 
ness, and mildness of feeling, directly the reverse of that 
ferocity of mind and fierceness of character which form 
the leading feature of all carnivorous animals ; it has also 
a particular influence on the powers of the mind, producing 
liveliness of imagination and acuteness of judgment in an 
eminent degree." 

Many persons with whom I have conversed, who have 
made a fair trial of a vegetable and a mixed diet, assert 
that they possess a ^ore perfect control over their feelings 
of resentment to injury, and, indeed, over all their pas- 
sions, upon a vegetable than upon a mixed diet. 

This is what might be expected from a diet sufficiently 
nutritious for all the healthy objects of the animal econ- 
omy, and at the same time the least exciting to the brain, 
nerves, and blood-vessels. Every degree of unnecessary 
excitation of the organic actions must be regarded as a 
departure from the highest health, and the increased irri- 
tability of the nerves dependent on disease will give rise 
to peevishness, despondency, and selfishness. 

The gentler passions, such as pity, love, benevolence, 
etc., are admitted to be more in accordance with the teach- 
ings of the highest wtedom than those of hatred, anger, 
and revenge, and that the former are more developed by a 
vegetable, and the latter by a mixed or a carnivorous diet, 
no man can doubt. And if any one has not made it a 



EFFECTS OF VEQETABLE DIET. 288 

matter of his own especial obseryation, the testimony of 
others is sufficiently clear upon that point. 

Montaigne says that ** it is remarkably obvious that most 
sorts of flesh and fish act upon the body and senses not in 
so innocent, brisk, and lively a manner as herbs, grain, 
fruits, roots, or the various sorts of excellent nutritive food 
made of them." 

There is now before me an account, given by my 
esteemed friend and former colleague In the medical school 
at Fairfield, N. Y., Dr. Westall Willoughby. The account 
is dated 1838. Some forty or fifty years before that time, 
he was acquainted with the family of a Quaker, Mr. Fran- 
cis, of Goshen, Conn., which consisted of the parents and 
seven children. They ate no meat, drank no tea nor cof- 
fee, made their molasses and sugar firom the sap of the 
maple and sweet apples, and were very simple in their 
habits of life. He was acquainted with them for about 
twenty years, and describes them as being " active, intel- 
ligent, and proverbially healthy. He had never heard of 
their employing a physician, or having any sickness, and 
they possessed the milk of human kindness in an eminent 
degree." 

It is well known that nations living wholly or mostly 
upon flesh are cruel, inhospitable, brutal, and degraded. 
Even Epicurus was a strict vegetable-eater, and over the 
gate of his garden, where he taught philosophy, he wrote 
that barley cakes and water would be his fare who should 
enter. 

A remarkable case, illustrative of the effects of vegetable 
and mixed diets, fell under my notice some years ago at 
the Auburn State Prison, New York. One of the prison- 
ers was very violent and dangerous, while living upon a 

mixed diet. He would seize a knife on slight provocation, 

20* 



284 MENTAL EFFECTS OF VEGETABLE DIET. 

and threaten to kill his fellow-workmen and the keeper, 
and, as a consequence, he received a flogging at least once 
a month. He was also troubled with severe headaches, 
and was obliged to go to the hospital, be bled, and take 
medicine. At length his meat was taken from him, and a 
double ration of bread allowed him. He became imme- 
diately peaceable and docUe, his headaches ceased, and 
when I saw him, the superintendent told me that he had 
been in the hospital but once since he quitted animal 
food, and then it was from earache. The flogging was 
discontinued, and the prisoner was manageable and docile. 
His own explanation, of not being flogged for so long a 
time, was, that " the fellows had left off plaguing him." 

The experience of all time shows that for students the 
vegetable diet is the best ; and the fact is what we should 
expect from a knowledge of physiology. The amount of 
nervous power in the constitution is limited, and the larger 
the amount of this given to digestion, the less will there 
be left for the operations of the mind. Now it is notori- 
ous, that a dinner of flesh causes a greater dulness and 
stupidity in digestion than one of vegetable food. And 
the large consumers of meat dinners are not, as a general 
thing, noted for their intellectual activity. 

A majority of the ancient philosophers, it is said, were 
vegetable-eaters ; and when, if ever, was the human intel- 
lect more fully developed than in Plato and Pythagoras ? 
The immortal Newton, while writing the treatise on Op- 
tics, abstained from animal food ; and Des Cartes is said 
to have preferred to load his table with fruits and vegeta- 
bles rather than the carcasses of animals. 

It is related by a visitor to Santa Cruz, that the young 
field-negroes, who live wholly on vegetable food, are easily 
taught, and manifest a great love for learning, while the 



THB PROPHET DANIEL. 235 

lionse-negroes of the same age are dull, and care nothing 
for education. 

Some of the degraded tribes of the North, who live 
wholly on flesh, find ten the summit of their powers of 
arithmetical calculation, and having counted as high as 
that, point to the hair on their head for what lies beyond. 

4 rV. THE PROPHET DANIEL. 

The case of the prophet Daniel and his companions 
illustrates some of the foregoing positions. An experi- 
ment of only ten days' duration proved that vegetable 
food and water promoted both health and beauty : *' Their 
countenances appeared fairer and fatter in flesh than all 
the children who did eat the portion of the king's meat." 

Their intellectual progress, too, was rendered altogether 
more rapid by the simplicity and plainness of their diet. 
At the end of a three years' course of this style of living, 
it was announced that '^ among them all was found none 
like Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah; therefore 
stood they before the king." 

The high-toned moral and religious feeling for which 
these individuals were distinguished, and which carried 
them into the "burning fiery furnace" and "into the den 
of lions," was not attained by luxury and indulgence, but 
in connection with a rigid moral discipline, embracing 
habitual' and protracted self-denial. 

Daniel possessed an unexampled influence at the courts 
of several princes, under the Babylonian and Medo-Persian 
dynasties, during the long period of about seventy years. 
He well knew the benefits of the entire abstraction of 
stimulants from his diet, in reference both to the opera- 
tions of the intellect and of a devotional spirit; and it 



236 THB PBOPHBT DANIEL. 

would seem that, at the age qf almost ninety years, a most 
abstemious diet for ** three full weeks " was one of the ne- 
cessary preparatives for that overwhelming vision which 
he had **by the side of the great river Hiddekel," where 
" the man, clothed in linen, whose loins were girded with 
fine gold of IJphaz, his face as lightning, and his eyes as 
lamps of fire," raised up the prostrate seer, and, pointing 
down the lengthened vista of all coming time, ^ showed 
him what things should be in the latter days." 



._^.. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

OBJECTIONS TO VBGETABIANISM — CHEBOKEE ATHLETE — 
EXPEBIENCE OF SAMUEL CHINN BEAN DIET. 

S I. OBJECTIONS TO VEGETARIANISM. 

The opinion has bad its advocates, that the muscles and 
the intellect of those, who confine themselves to farina- 
ceous food and to a water beverage must lack the vigor 
which would be conferred by the eating of flesh and an 
alcoholic drink. The lover of Scottish scenery and Scot- 
tish history, as he looks out from Stirling Castle upon the 
waving fields of grain on Bannockbum, is reminded of a 
battle on that ground early in the fourteenth century, 
^ planned and fought by water-diinking and oatmeal-eating 
warriors, which gave freedom and renown to the king- 
dom and country of Robert Bruce. 

Speaking of those times. Sir Walter Scott says: "The 
hardy warriors of Douglas and Randolph lived exactly as 
drovers and other Scots of the lower orders do at the 
present day, when bound on long journeys. A bag of 
oatmeal hung at the croup of the saddle, which also bore 
a plate of iron called a griddle, on which the said oat- 
meal was baked into cakes as occasion offered; animal 
food was furnished by plunder in an enemy's country; in 
their own they subsisted well enough without. Salt, liquor 
of any kind (save water), as well as any variety of food, 
they entirely dispensed with." 



238 OBJECTIONS TO VEGETARIANISM. 

General Eliott, afterwards Lord Heatbfield, defended 
the fortress of Gibraltar during the last eight days of a 
terrific siege, upon only four ounces of rice a day for his 
food, and slept only four hours in the twenty-four. His 
vigilance and sagacity saved the rock under the united 
assaults of the French and Spanish forces. 

How are men to live in an Arctic climate without flesh- 
eating? 

Ans. If they are bent on peopling the polar regions, 
where the sun is below the horizon more than one third 
of the year, viz. one hundred and twenty-four days, they 
must eat what they can best find to sustain life. They 
cannot plead the necessity of plunging into a cold so 
intense, while a large portion of the temperate zone re- 
mains uninhabited. Some of the small grains, as oats 
and barley, flourish as far nT^rth as the seventieth degree 
of latitude. 

How is the flesh of cows, sheep, and goats to be dis- 
posed o% under the prevalence of vegetarianism ? 

Ans. In the same way that we dispose of horse-flesh. 

To what sources shall the farmer look for manure, if 
barn-yard manure is diminished by a smaller number of 
animals than is kept at present? 

Ans. Barn-yard manure does not half meet the wants 
of the farmer, as things are at present. A patch of ground 
should lie fallow every year, and a coating of clover or 
cow-pea be ploughed in, as is done in some parts of Vir- 
ginia. This forms a rich and well-flavored manure, not 
objectionable like the bam and hog-pen and night-soil 
manure. This ploughing in of a crop of clover or cow-pea 
for two or three successive seasons, restores the produc- 
tiveness of soils rendered entirely barren by the most 
exhausting of all crops, that of tobacco. 



GHEKOEEE ATHLETJE. 239 

A distinguished physician remarked in a medical jour- 
nal, that milk is animal food; then why ohject to the 
eating of flesh ? To this it may be replied that milk and 
the animal that produces it are very unlike each other. 
If one is a good and wholesome food, it does not follow 
that the other is. An apple is a delicious and wholesome 
food for man ; but the same cannot be said of an apple 
tree. 

h n. CHEROKEE ATHLETE. 

Dr. Evans, who has been a practising physician for some 
years in the Cherokee nation, mentioned to me thtit they 
had an exhibition of a peculiar game at ball, at which the 
young men of the nation displayed their muscular powers. 
This spectacle drew out the whole tribe to witness the 
exhibition. 

The young men selected for the performance were 
divided into two equal parties, placed at a goodly dis- 
tance from each other in a large field. At the commence- 
ment a large ball was tossed up, midway between the 
parties, and all rushed together to seize upon it. When 
any one was successful, and could carry it to his goal, it 
counted one of the game. The one who seized the ball 
was liable to have it wrenched from him in a moment, by 
some one of large numbers who surrounded him. This 
kept up a running and scuffling, which was incessant for 
two hours and more, before the game closed. The doctor 
remarked that this was the most remarkable exhibition of 
muscular effort, continued without the least intennission 
through that long period, that could be conceived of. The 
young Indians were prepared for this by being fed in a 
very exact way. 



240 CHBROKEE ATHLETE. 

]>r. E. had seen an athletic white young man who was 
very desirous to take part among the actors. They reluc- 
tantly admitted him. He went in, rough and tumble, with, 
the rest, and seemed to act his part very well for about 
twenty minutes, when he withdrew, completely exhausted, 
to the great amusement of the red brethren. 

Near Tah-lb-qtjah, Cherokee Nation, 
June 18, 1860. 
Professob R. D. Musset: 

Dear Sir — On returning to my residence last night, from a profes- 
sional ride of sixty miles or more, I had the pleasure of finding your 
letter, and now seat myself to reply. 

I am engaged, as opportunity permits, in writing out a small history 
of the Cherokees, and in regard to your subject of inquiry touching diet, 
will transcribe a few paragraphs from my manuscript. It is written in. 
the past tense, as the Cherokees have greatly changed from their pristine 
state, i. e. fh>m the condition in which Europeans first found them, and, 
in fact, from what they were twenty-five and thirty years ago even. 

" Their diet through the summer months (and with some during the 
greater part of all seasons) consisted principally of hominy, potatoes, 
and bread composed of meal, of Indian com, and beans. Tlie com was 
pulverized in wooden mortars, with pestles of the same material. In 
addition to these farinaceous substances, juicy vegetables and fi'uits were 
freely used when they could be procured. Occasionally an individual was 
found who made a free use of animal food, and who seemed capable of 
exerting, for a short period, more muscular power than those who sub- 
sisted principally or entirely on a vegetable diet ; but the muscular force 
of the latter was deemed to be more enduring, and they were considered 
more active, lithe, and long-winded (which latter quality is nothing more 
than a long endurance of muscular exertion); and so well was this dif- 
ference known and appreciated, that hearty flesh-eaters were excluded 
from the list of hall-players. 

" The BaU Play was a great national game, and to excel in it was, with 
good reason, considered a proof of vigorous manhood, and added vastly 
to a man' s standing in society, — Cherokee society, as it was once consti- 
tuted, — which partook largely of the Spartan element; probably because 
it demonstrated, in a considerable degree, the prowess of the veteran war- 
rior on the battle-field, and foreshadowed that of the more youthful. To 
perform successfully in it required a combination of great muscular force. 



EXPERIENCE OF SAMUEL CHINN. 241 

agility, adroitness, and powers of endurance. In large plays, any person 
laboring under a defect of the muscular system, or any other physical 
defect interfering with power or 'motion, was prohibited from partici- 
pating in its performance. 

" During the period of seven days, the chosen performers were kept 
under the strictest discipline in regard to general conduct and diet. They 
were not permitted to have any kind of intercourse with any persons 
whomsoever, except those who were selected to superintend their training 
and prepare their food; these consisted of seven men, one from each of 
the seven national dans or tribes, and seven chosen women, selected in 
like manner. Positive temperance was enforced. Animal food was 
interdicted, and also all seasoning or condiments, common table-salt not 
even being allowed. The diet was strictly vegetable, mostly (perhaps 
entirely) farinaceous, and consisted principally, at least, of parched com 
meal mixed in water. Every morning they were made to plunge into a 
cold stream of water. Aside fh)m the performance of the baU-phy dance 
every night during their seven days' probation (which was a superstitious 
observance), they refrained from every practice calculated to enervate or 
depress the muscular energies. In case of local pains, or other slight 
illness, an energetic application of their peculiar method of scarification 
— topical blood-letting — was promptly resorted to." 

Most truly and respectfully yours, 

J. P. EVANS. 

Parched Com. — Judge Este informs me^ that he was 
told by a Delaware chief, that when any of the tribe were 
sent on an express which required great and enduring ac- 
tivity, they always fed exclusively upon parched com. 
This food was found to sustain them better than anything 
else under the severe and protracted exercise necessary 
on these occasions. 

§ III. EXPERIENCE OF SAMUEL CHINN. 

The following was received from Dr. Dana, of Essex 
County, Mass., in 1859, in reply to a note by Dr. A. A. 
Hayes : — 

**I have had an interview with the person concerning 

1 Ootober, 184a 

21 






242 BBAN DIET. 

whom you inquired, and from conversing with him have 
gained the following information, which I hope will answer 
Doctor Mussey's purpose. 

"His name is Samuel Chinn. He is forty-seven years 
old, a respectable tradesman, a shoemaker, a bachelor. 
Many years ago, as his health was not good, he fancied to 
try the effect of a vegetable diet, and, from 1834 to 1847, 
he subsisted wholly on such diet, chiefly in the form of 
raw grains of wheat. From January, 1847, to January, 
1855, he accustomed himself to use occasionally a small 
quantity of animal food, but for the last six months has 
returned to his former habit of entire abstinence. He 
usually carries loose grains in his pocket, which he con- 
sumes as is found necessary. He drinks nothing but water. 
He appears to be very healthy and vigorous, and is and 
has been a famous pedestrian. In 1844, he travelled on 
foot to and from Washington, with ease and without 
fatigue, walking on an average thirty miles a day, and the 
last two days ninety miles. He is quite a politician of 
the Jackson and Jefferson school, and has been a member 
of our State Legislature." 

In December, 1861, he was still well, a strict vegetarian. 

§ rV. BEAN DIET. 

Frederick Field, Esq., in a lecture "On the Mineral 
Treasures of the Andes," ^ gives the following statement : 
" It may be well here to speak of the. Chili miner. He is 
capable of undergoing an immense amount of fatigue. 
The ascent and descent of mines, where there are few or 
no appliances of machinery, is never an easy task, but with 

^ Boyal Institntion, Londoo, Feb. 8, 1860. 



BBAN DIBT. 243 

two or three hundred weight of stone or metal it is pecu- 
liarly trying ; and yet the miner, day after day, goes on 
with his employment, digging at his work, and carrying 
up the rock to the surfiice. 

"In the year 1851, 1 begged Senor Ermeneta, the pro- 
prietor of some of the richest mines in Chili, to send some 
specimens for the great exhibition, as samples of Chili 
wealth. He forwarded two large stones, one weighing 
three hundred and fifty-six pounds, the other three hun- 
dred and forty-nine pounds, and told me that perhaps the 
strength of the miner who excavated these masses, and 
brought them from the mine, was as striking as the rich- 
ness of the specimens themselves. Both stones had been 
taken from a depth of more than three hundred feet, and 
had separately been borne on the shoulders of a man, he 
having to ascend, not by ladders or other aid, but by climb- 
ing up the nearly perpendicular slope of the mine ; and 
the food the miner lives upon is an interesting subject for 
physiologists. He seldom takes meat, and when he* has 
that luxury, it is simply served out in long thin strips, 
which have been dried in the sun. His chief diet is the 
haricot beariy^ and without this nutritious vegetable he 
could never get thrftigh the work required of him. The 
beans are boOed until they are quite soft, and are eaten 
with a little bread." 

*■ Kidney bean. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

VEGETABLE DIET — ILLUSTEATIVE CASES. 

Ancient Persian Schools, — Xenopbon, in his Cyrope- 
dia, says that at the public schools the Persian boys are 
taught to be temperate in eating and drinking ; and what 
contributes not a little to this, is the example of those who 
are older, or of an advanced standing, who are never seen 
to go to their meals without permission from their over- 
seers ; and besides, boys are not permitted to take their 
food with their mothers, but with their schoolmaster, at 
such times as are permitted or bidden by their overseers. 
They carry from home with them bread for solid food, 
and cresses for condiment, and a cup to draw their water 
from the river when thirsty. 

They are always taught to shoot 4he arrow and throw 
the javelin. Until the age of sixteen or seventeen years, 
they practise these exercises, and then are initiated into 
the rank of youth. The youth are pennitted to hunt with 
the king, and carry with them the same food, viz. bread 
and cresses. While upon the chase they eat but once 
a day, to inure themselves to hardships. If they take any- 
thing in the chase, they are permitted to use it as a condi- 
ment with their bread ; if not, they must eat their cresses. 

If any one supposes that they do not eat with a good 
relish when they have only their cresses with their bread, 



ILLUSTRATIVE CASES. 245 

let him recollect bow sweet is a coarse cake to a hungry 
man, and how delicious is water to one truly thirsty. 
(From this remark, it may be inferred that the Greeks 
were less simple in their diet). Only half the youth go 
out to the chase at a time ; the others, who remain, prac- 
tise the exercises they learned while boys, as shooting 
the arrow and throwing the javelin. They have public 
contests, and prizes are awarded to the winners. The 
magistrates employ them, when necessary, to guard any- 
thing, or to search out or to detect criminals, or apprehend 
thieves, or for any other feat which requires strength or 
agility. 

From about twenty-five to fifty, they are soldiers. At 
twenty-five they pass from the rank of youth to that of 
"perfect men" (full manhood). 

From the age of sixteen or seventeen, they serve ten 
years, and then enter the rank of "perfect men;" and 
after twenty-five years from entering the list of soldiers, 
that is, at fifty or upwards, they enter the rank of old men. 
After this they remain at home, acting as judges in public 
and private affairs, and they choose all the public officers, 
and appoint the magistrates. 

All classes of the community had access to the public 
schools. Those who could bring up their children without 
labor, sent them; the others did not. No class in the 
community was excluded by law from the road to office 
and honor ; they must rise by the regular gradations. 
None could be admitted to the rank of youth without 
having received a course of instruction under the pub- 
lic schoolmiasters, nor to the rank of perfect men without 
having passed regularly through the grade of youth — 
(and so for the old men). » 

There remain among the Persians to this day eviden- 

21* 



246 VBGBTABLB DIET. 

ces of their moderate diet, and of their working (or toiling) 
off their food ; for it is disgraceful to be seen spitting or 
blowing the nose, or to appear flatulent. 

Wightman the Hermit, — A few years since, a man was 
living in the town of Hancock, Berkshire Co., Mass., known 
by the name of Wightman the Hermit, who had lived 
for thirty years upon apples merely, drinking nothing 
during that time. He was never sick but once during 
that period; then he had a bad cold, and lay for three 
days, eating nothing. At that time he drank water, the 
only exception during the thirty years. This abstinence 
from drink was the dictate of some religious impression, 
and after the thirty years he again allowed himself to 
drink water. He lived to the age of more than eighty 
years. 

Another Case, — "It is unsafe from isolated facts to 
deduce general principles ; still, such facts, when well 
authenticated, are worth recording. For this reason, 
though at the risk, perhaps, of incurring the charge of 
egotism, I shall give our readers my dietetic experience 
for the last six months. Others, whose situation and oc- 
cupation may be similar to mine, may chance to derive 
advantage from it. 

"Last autumn and winter, I was much confined by my 
editorial and other sedentary duties, and I found my health 
beginning to suffer, although my manner of living then 
was what is usually called very plain. I used animal food 
only once a day, and then in small quantity ; used coffee 
and bread only for breakfast, and tea and bread only for 
supper ; drank neither spirits, wines, nor fermented liquors 
of any kind (which indeed I have never used at any period 
of my life). I was considered by my acquaintances as an 
abstemious liver. 



ILLUSTRATIVE CASES. 247 

"Still I found the incipient symptoms of dyspepsia 
coining on, in consequence, probably, of exciting the mind 
too much and the body too little. Had I been able to 
obtain a release from my desk, I doubt not this would 
have disappeared ; for at every period of my life, when I 
could spend half the day in the open air, I have enjoyed 
good health ; but this was now impossible. So I deter- 
mined on this plan : I gave up at once the use of tea and 
coffee and animal food, used bread and butter with milk 
and water for breakfast, the same for supper, ai^ either 
bread and boiled eggs or hard biscuit and boiled rice and 
milk for dinner. 

" To this diet I have adhered for four months, and with- 
out any cessation of sedentary employment. I have com- 
pletely regained my health. I found no diminution of 
strength or spirits from the change, but rather the contrary, 
and even though I might return to my former regimen 
with impunity, I have no desire to do so. I have lost 
all craving for animal food, and can relish my breakfast 
quite as well though it does not come from China or the 
West Indies. 

"My food cost me about ten or twelve cents a day. The 
Roman, who dined on beans, asked the ambassador, who 
was sent to tamper with his patriotism, * whether gold 
and silver were bribes to him who could enjoy such a 
meal and desire no better.'"^ 

The Trappista. — For some years there has been at 
Bardstown, Kentucky, a monastery of Trappists, concern- 
ing whose peculiarities of living I made some inquiries 
of the principal, and received from his secretary the reply 
translated as follows : — 

> Jonmal of Health, Vol. i. p. 881. 



248 VEGETABLE DIET. 

" 1. The food of the Trappists is composed solely of 
vegetables. Their soups are always made of water, with, 
however, the accompaniment of carrots, cabbages, turnips, 
potatoes, onions, etc. ; never butter nor fat. The dish 
which follows the soup is composed of the same vegeta- 
bles ; sometimes peas, maize, or rice, is added. In these 
diJSerent dishes milk is mingled a good part of the year; 
and it happens sometimes, especially in summer, that the 
dish is entirely milk. In summer, the Trappist takes two 
meals, ^e first at eleven and a half o'clock, and the second 
at six o'clock ; in winter, only one meal, at two and a half 
o'clock. His bread is made of wheat, sometimes mingled 
with maize. 

"2. Their beverage is apple-cider, to three fourths 
water; moreover, we have succeeded in making another 
drink from an American fruit, which is called persimmon. 
In addition to these, and indeed principally (as every- 
where else), clear and limpid water from an excellent 
fountain. 

"3. In respect to the bed on which the Trappist re- 
poses, it is framed of three planks, with a straw bed laid 
on them, of four fingers in thickness, with a bolster of the 
same material, and finally a woollen coverlet. The hour 
of repose is seven o'clock in winter, and six o'clock in sum- 
mer ; but at this season of the year, and until the 14:th 
September, he takes an hour's rest at noon. As you read- 
ily perceive, he has time enough to refresh himself; but I 
must add that he lies down in his clothes, just as when he 
is in the choir ; a habit likewise observed at meals. One 
of the most annoying and fatiguing positions is to repose 
in the clothes ; but it is contended that these profuse per- 
spirations are equivalent to numberless bleedings. He is, 
however, satisfied with his lot, because a Trappist can 



ILLUSTRATIVE CASES. 249 

never forget that he is a monastic, penitent for others and 
for himself In winter, he sleeps from seven o'clock till 
two o'clock, and in summer from eight o'clock to the same 
hour; on Sundays, and ordinary festival days, till one 
o'clock ; and fourteen or fifteen times a year, till midnight, 
in order to chant the offices till four o'clock. This exer- 
cise is repeated as many as six times, also, during the 
day, exclusive of the holy mass ; but is, however, much 
shorter. 

" 4. As you see, the day of the Trappist is ordinarily 
of seventeen hours ; it is composed of reading, meditation, 
mass, etc. ; and of labor, Tfhich is regularly of twelve hours' 
duration for those who are not occupied with the holy 
offices, and of from six to seven hours for others, who, for 
the most part, never handled a shovel or spade before 
entering the establishment. 

" The object of the Trappist's labor is particularly the 
cultivation of land, and whatsoever is usually done on 
farms. In the interior of the monastery, moreover, are to 
be found all the trades which are necessary to the support 
of the community ; such as smiths, forgers, locksmiths, car- 
penters, joiners, shoemakers, turners, tinkers, bookbinders, 
etc. 

" That which awakens the admiration of the stranger, 
and creates the prosperity of these religious establishments, 
is the fact that not a step is taken, not a hammer lifted, 
nor a pair of scissors used, without the order of the supe- 
rior ; and that, although the sound of implements may be 
distinguished upon the lands, and in the work-rooms of the 
monastery, no human voice is ever heard, unless it be that 
of the superior. But what is yet more admirable and 
worthy of praise, is the reflection that all this long and 
wearisome toil is executed with the intention of procur- 



250 VEGETABLE DIET. 

ing glory to God and salvation to souls. May Heaven 
grant that you may have a good share thereol^ worthy sir. 

^ I might, it may appear, here close ; for you must have 
already remarked that frugality and exercise form the 
chief rule of the Trappist religion. I will add, what I 
was about to forget, that one of the greatest advantages 
to the Trappist, in a sanitary point of view, and that 
which contributes most efficaciously to support his health, 
and preserves it from the^ thousand miseries which afflict 
our poor human nature, is his clothing, which is made 
entirely of wool. According to our physician, our entire 
medicine is the so-termed * expetytant^^ — this is all I know 
of the matter. It is a scientific term within the realms 
of the faculty, and you will readily comprehend it. 

^ I intended to pause here ; but in order to complete 
this article, to fulfil the intention of my reverend and re- 
spected abbot, and also to show you how much it lies at 
his heart to indemnify you for the involuntary delay occa- 
sioned by his absence, and, finally, to leaving nothing to 
desire on your part for the advantage of your patients or 
that of society, I hasten to accomplish the orders which 
have been given me, in offering you the reflections of a 
distinguished French physician relative to my subject : 
' My experience,' says this distinguished doctor, * an expe- 
rience of twenty-nine years of the practice of medicine, in 
the establishment of La Trappe, among the males as well 
as the females, has taught us that it is necessary to treat 
both in an especial manner, and substantially quite inde- 
pendently of the methods in use in society. The great 
principle of all monastic practice is to prevent diseases, or 
to curtail their development and progress ; at least, as 
much as is possible in a medical and humane point of view. 
Try, then, to strengthen these infants in their cradle, and 



ILLUSTRATIVE CASES. 251 

you will scarcely ever see them grow Tip among the mo- 
nastics, especially if you use few remedies and much sani- 
tary care. We believe that the small number of invalids, 
and the slight mortality among the Trappists, is attribu- 
table, in a great degree, to this prophylactic practice ; for 
it is certain, evident, and satisfactorily demonstrable, that 
persons are less diseased among them and die sensibly 
less than in society, or even in other religious houses. It 
must here be loudly proclaimed, in order that philosophy, 
polity, and medicine may hear and comprehend it. It is 
a fact, a result of observation, which appears to us singu- 
larly remarkable, that the regimen of La Trappe, which 
is generally and very falsely believed to shorten, life, an.d 
to destroy the firmest constitution, is, on the contrary, 
a veiitable means of health and longevity, and a sure 
preservative against the most grievous ills which afflict 
humanity.' 

" The following are facts, sir, which I can corroborate : 
an abbot of Mellemy, France, died at seventy-five years 
of age ; two simple monastics in the same establishment 
died, the one at seventy-nine, the other at eighty-two 
years of age. I know, many others who are still living 
there, one having been in profession thirty-six and 
another thirty-eight years. At the Trappist establish- 
ment of Aiguebelle, France, an abbot died at ninety-six 
years of age, a few years since. I have known many 
members of different Trappist establishments, with health 
broken and stomachs destroyed on their arrival, grow 
strong by degrees, and become able to fill the most fa- 
tiguing posts of the community. I now resume the 
doctor's observations. 

***We do not find among the Trappists the numerous 
class of fevers and fearful maladies which are the inheri- 



252 VEGETABLE DIET. 

tance of people of the world, addicted to high living, 
and immersed in sensaal enjoyments; these serioas dis- 
eases are apoplexy, aneurism of the heart, dropsy, gout, 
gravel, stone, cancer, scurvy, etc. Now, for twenty-nine 
years we can certify that we have not met a single case of 
these various diseases among the Trappists ; not even — 
a thing which will appear incredible to our preconceived 
notions and prejudices — not even, we say, a single instance 
of scurvy, although we have very often observed it on per- 
sons in the world at large. It must be added to this, -that 
the terrible cholera of 1832 invaded no establishment of 
Trappists.' 

"And I, the present writer, will here add, with all truth, 
that there were several cases among our nearest neighbors, 
and that we were exempt from it. Typhus fever raged 
even at Nazareth, Bardstown, and Loretto, but no case 
presented itself at Gethsemane. 

" ' This scourge,' continues the doctor, * made great rav- 
ages in the environs of Grand Trappe, in the neighboring 
parishes, but never crossed the cloister of the monastery. 
Moreover, a virulent epidemic, the diphiherite^ appeared 
several times, fifteen years ago, in the district where La 
Trappe is situated, but expired at the foot of the abbey 
wall, where it never penetrated. It is not long since 
(1849) a malignant dysentery, almost as dangerous as 
Asiatic cholera, desolated the country. This new scourge 
raged especially among the poorer classes, and chose its 
victims among persons the worst or moat frugally fed ; in 
this respect, had not the Trappists apparently everything 
to fear from the deleterious influence of the epidemic, 
especially when they saw an entire family, composed of 
six persons, attacked by it almost at their gates ? In fact, 
a blind beggar was seized by it in the monastery itself. 



ILLUSTRATIVE CASES. 25^ 

The attack, though serious, was promptly overcome. Like 
the others, it stopped there, and broke its force, so to 
speak, against the cloister wall. It seems as though 
these scourges had been told, ' Thus far shall ye go, and 
no farther.' 

"But I must stop, dear Sir; I fear I may weary you by 
a too long repetition ; for the author is never ready to 
close, and this is enough, it would seem, to satisfy all 
your inquiries. You now know what is the life of the 
Trappist, the condition of his health, and that which 
constitutes in his case that genial and unvarying well- 
being which in the world would be gladly purchased by 
gold. This is what gives him contentment amid the 
severest of his privations, and to his exterior, almost bar- 
barous and repulsive, that air of gayety and inexpressible 
satisfaction. He is happy, and feels it ; God is all his joy 
an^ all his riches here below ; and one day, the most 
desired of his life, He will become his eternal recompense. 
Such, perhaps, is the veritable, the unique, the excellent 
regimen of the Trappist ; the sentiment of his present 
happiness, and the firm hope of a happiness without end." 

It is not to be credited that wearing the same clothes, 
day and night, lying on a plank, being called up at two 
o'clock in the morning, when everybody had better sleep 
until three or four, and eating but once a day in winter, 
can be as favorable to long life as other conditions which 
might easily be pointed out. 

Capt. John Matthews^ of Bath, in March, 1796, when 
the Constitution was building in Baltimore, went to Nor- 
folk and found the town full of small-pox. Neither he 
nor his crew, in all six persons on board the schooner, had 
had the disease, except the mate. The crew kept out eve- 
nings, as is common, but Capt. Matthews kept aboard ship 

22 



254 VEGETABLE DIET. 

and dieted, eating nothing but mnsh and rice and molasses. 
He stayed the first night in a house where thejr had had 
the small-pox, and one had died out of the house. None 
of the crew dieted. 

On their arrival at Baltimore, with spars and material 
for the Constitution, about fourteen days after their 
anival at Norfolk, three of the men broke out with the 
disease. Capt. Matthews and the boy, which last had 
not been on shore at Norfolk, were inoculated. In 
eleven days, no small-pox, and he was then inoculated 
again ; in sixteen days was again inoculated ; that did not 
take ; he living all the while on the very simple diet. He 
was then directed by his physician to take two glasses of 
wine a day, and in four or five days a light small-pox 
appeared, and the wine was omitted. He had the disease 
very lightly ; it did not confine him ; he attended to his 
business all the while, and although the doctor left %im 
medicine, he did not take it. One of the men died ; the 
other two had it very severely — both delirious. All lived 
freely during exposure, eating and drinking as usual, with- 
out restraint. 

The boy dieted, and had it lightly, by inoculation, and 
dieted after being inoculated. He continued his cooking 
all the time he had it. 

Capt. M. never used tobacco, and rum he never drank ; 
he very rarely took any kind of spirit. He was thirty- 
one years old, and generally enjoyed very good health; 
sometimes had pain of the chest, the effect of a former 
blow. 

In 1800, Capt. Matthews sailed for Bermuda, with a deck 
load of oxen, cows, horses, and a mule. But very little 
hay was put aboard ; no screened hay ; only loose hay 
on deck. The ninth day they made the island, took a 



ILLUSTRATIVE CASES. 265 

pilot aboard, and that night a gale of wind came on, blow- 
ing them ofl^ and they were out fourteen days longer. 
They had no hay, they soon used up their corn ; had some 
potatoes. They gave the cattle all the straw in their beds. 
Capt. M. then gave the animals the bark and shavings 
from the spars which they had on board. These and the 
potatoes sustained them. The old cow would not eat 
them, Capt. M. thinks from their bad teeth ; they died. 
The young cattle and the mule lived, and were in good 
health, as well as two or three young horses. The other 
horses, which did not eat the shavings, died. 

Capt. Jacob Pearson. — Capt. Pearson sailed for ten or 
twelve years, in the employ of a rich merchant of Salem, 
and often visited some of the sickliest climates in the 
world, without being sick. 

" What did you do to prevent sickness ? " said a gen- 
tleman to him. " I left off doing," was his answer. " I 
ate no flesh-meat, and drank nothing stronger than water." 

Dr. Robert Jackson. — "I have wandered a good deal 
about the world," says this distinguished physician of the 
British army, " and never followed any prescribed rule in 
anything ; my health has been tried in all ways ; and by 
the aid of temperance and hard work I have worn out 
two armies in two wars, and could probably wear out 
another, before my period of old age arrives. I eat no 
animal food, drink no wine or malt liquor, or spirits of any 
kind ; I wear no flannel, and regard neither wind nor rain, 
heat nor cold, when business is in the way." 



CHAPTER XV. 

YEGETASLE DIET — ILLUSTRATIVE CASES. 

Sread and Water Diet. — Capt. Peter Twitchel, of 
Maine, having failed in business some years ago, and find- 
ing himself considerably in debt, betook himself to a bread 
and water diet, in conformity with an opinion he had often 
expressed, that a man ought to live on bread and water, 
if he had no other way to pay his debts. On this diet 
he did a man's work in making rakes. "Before I lived," 
says he, "on bread and water, the cold would benumb 
me ; the blood would leave my fingers, and I could not 
walk after riding a little way in the cold. Since the bread 
and water diet, I have been free from benumbing effects 
of the cold." 

He sleeps seven or eight hours in the night ; sometimes 
an hour in the day, — never in the day till last winter. 

Capt. T., finding his family short of breadstufl^ at a 
penod when all communication was cut off by an impass- 
able depth of snow, betook himself to the eating of milk, 
of which they had only enough to supply each member 
of the family with a pint a day. He found he could 
subsist very comfortably upon that quantity, eating it 
very slowly, sipping it in teaspoonfuls at three meals. 
At the end of a week, relief came in breadstuff. 

Case of Col, Hmket. — Col. Hasket, in his journey in 



ILLUSTRATIVE CASES. 257 

the summer of 1833, in which he walked on foot two 
thousand miles in seventy days, on bread and water, ate 
fifteen, eighteen and twenty ounces of bread, and drank 
from one to two quarts of water a day. The latter 
part of his journey he was very active and strong, and ate 
eighteen ounces of leavened fine flour bread a day. The 
Salem Gazette states that he greatly exceeded the distance 
assigned him, and gained in weight two pounds and a 
quarter. ^ He is in perfect health and in good spirits, and 
presents a living example of temperance.'' 

In Salem, Mass., he addressed a large audience on the 
subject of temperance, and gave an account of his journey. 

Hobert Same, — Mr. R. W. Hume, in 1835, informed me 
that his grandfather, Robert Hume, who was bom in 
Scotland, on the banks of the Tweed, and had come to 
this country when he was fifty years old, was then living 
in Bovina, Delaware county, N. Y., at the age of ninety- 
five. ^ He has never made use of butter or meat ; drank 
no tea nor coffee till quite advanced in life, and then very 
little, and he has no love for either. If he has used ardent 
spirits at all, it was only for a short period. He eats bread 
and water, hasty-pudding and milk, and those vegetables 
which are in common use. His health has been uniformly 
good, so that he has taken but little if any medicine in his 
life. He has never used spectacles, and can yet read during 
nearly the whole day in a book with middling-sized print, 
without apparent inconvenience. Reading is now his 
principal employment. He has never lost any of his teeth, 
and I think they are entirely sound. He is still quite 
lively and cheerful, able to walk about and take care of 
himself. He takes exercise by walking in the fields in 
summer, has been an active farmer, has still a good degree 

22* 



258 YSOETABLE DIET. 

of intelligence, is rather hard of hearing, is not bald, and 
the hair is not entkely white." 

Avarice and Vegetable lowing. — In 1835, a man be- 
tween eighty and ninety years of age, named Joseph S., 
was living in Berkshire Co., Mass. Always miserly in 
his feelings, he kept aloof from matrimony till he was 
between forty and ^^y years of age, when he was married 
to a rich widow, upwards of sixty years old. She had 
always been fed at a rich table, had become gross, had been 
greatly afflicted with gout, and at the time of her marriage 
with S. was much broken down as to the energies of her' 
constitution, which was naturally very good. 

She found her husband perpetual dictator through the 
whole domestic establishment ; and instead of sumptuous 
dishes such as she had been accustomed to, she was com- 
pelled to live chiefly upon potatoes, coarse bread, and 
hasty-pudding. The flesh-meats, together with coffee and 
tea and pastry, were all withdrawn. This course of ab- 
stemious diet was prompted partly by his extreme penuri- 
ousness, and partly, as some of his townsmen supposed, by 
the expectation that such reduced living would promote 
a speedy exit from time of his beloved spouse, who had 
been accustomed to strong diet for a number of years. 
He joined her in the plain diet. 

The effect upon her health was surprising. The gout 
left her, the corpulency gradually subsided, the powers of 
the stomach were recruited, and the vigor and activity 
of days long gone by returned ; and her love for extrava- 
gance was exchanged at length for a disposition as penuri- 
ous as that of her husband. About fifteen years after they 
were married, her husband, finding her healthy and active, 
prevailed on her to take a short ride on horseback, and 
provided her with a young and not altogether manageable 



VBQETABLE DIET. 259 

horse. In this excursion the horse took to flight, threw 
her ofl^ and broke one of her limbs. So healthful were 
all the vital functions in this old lady, that the injury- 
was repaired almost as expeditiously as it would have 
been in youth. She was in good health for a long time, 
and died about fifteen yeans after, having lived with her 
affectionate husband about thirty years. He survived 
her, hugging the property she brought him as the best 
boon of his earthly pilgrimage. 

During S.'s courtship of the widow, his protestations 
of love were so strong that she ventured to express a 
doubt of his sincerity ; to relieve which, he protested in 
reply that " he loved the very ground she walked upon." 
She was a large landholder. 

In addition to the plain diet she was compelled to follow 
after marriage, the exercise she took contributed greatly 
to her health. This she was obliged to take, since her 
husband, a short time after they were united, dismissed 
her domestic help, and she did her work alone. 

This account is from Dr. C, Prof. Theor. and Pract. 
Med., B. Med. Inst. He attended upon Mrs. S. during 
her confinement with the fractured limb. 

Gabowi JRiver, — Mr. Albert Bushnell, from Ohio, mis- 
sionary at the Gaboon station (Africa) for nine years, says 
that the natives at that place live to a greater average age- 
than in our communities. It is not uncommon to see a 
person a hundred years old. Their staple articles of food 
are rice, com, cassada, yams (the best substitute for po- 
tatoes), plantains, and bananas. Their fruits are limes, 
lemons, oranges, pine-apples, guava, and mangoes; their 
drink is water; sometimes they acidulate the water; 
sugar-cane is chewed as a dessert. They use no warm 
drinks. 



260 ILLUSTRATIYB CASES. 

The missionaries cultivate tomatoes and sweet potatoes. 

Flesh woands of the natives heal much more rapidly 
than those of the people of this country. 

Dr. Ford, a good physician (at about 1832-3), had been 
there between two and three years ; has had a considerably 
practice among the natives. His practice was much more 
successful than that of the native medicine-men, or Fetish 
doctors. This is a generally admitted fact. Whenever 
regular physicians have had the opportunity of treating 
difficult cases, they have often succeeded with patients 
who had been given up. The Fetish doctors employ 
incantations, mummeries, and various manipulations and 
antics over the sick; sometimes they give medicines in- 
ternally, and sometimes make external applications, but 
do not make much account of medication. Their move- 
ments inspire faith. 

The natives do not exclude flesh, but eat little of it. 
Their mutton is good ; they have poultry, but river fish 
forms the principal animal substance which they eat. The 
fish are mostly small, something like herring; they are 
sometimes eaten fresh, but are usually preserved by being 
dried in the sun. The fish is very commonly made into a 
soup, with vegetables, or, in other words, is a condiment 
for their other articles of food. 

. Dr. Scudder, — Dr. Scudder was a missionary physician 
at Madras for more than seventeen years, and during that 
period, although physician to a population of more than 
two hundred thousand, he never saw among the natives 
a single case of consumption, of apoplexy, of palsy, or 
of stone in the bladder ; and but one case of enlarged 
liver, and that patient was in the habit of drinking a quart 
of arrack a day. The natives have fevers, bowel com- 



ILLUSTRATIVE CASES. 261 

plaints, malarious diseases. The surgical diseases are 
tumors, diseases of the eye, etc. 

Dr. S. had travelled considerably in palanquins ; being 
usually carried thirty miles a day, in one instance forty- 
seven miles. Twelve bearers are employed, besides one to 
carry a torch and one to cany cooking materials. Four 
at a time carry the palanquin, containing one man, or a 
woman and child. One cent per mile is the charge for 
each cooley, viz., fourteen cents. 

Mr, Benjamin Howland. — In May, 1834, I received a 
letter from Mr. Benjamin Howland, aged eighty-two, of 
the society of Friends at East Greenwich, Rhode Island, 
in reply to some inquiries I had made. He says : " It is 
forty-two years since I abstained from eating any kind of 
animal food, not even soup made of chicken. I left off 
eating flesh on account of my being often afflicted with 
sick headache. Previously to that time, I had fed freely 
on meats. Since that time, my food in the morning is 
generally barley coffee. My dinner I make of peas and 
beans, or other vegetables. Generally I make my dinner 
from sweetened water, or the above-mentioned coffee, with 
biscuit or brown bread crumbed into it. My supper is 
generally tea with bread or biscuit, but little or no butter. 
I rarely eat oftener than three times a day. I go to bed 
generally about nine, p. m., and rise at sunrise the next 
morning." He further states that he has enjoyed, under 
this regimen, a great degree of health and activity. He 
has strength for any kind of labor upon his farm. He 
takes the lead of his mowers in haying time, and can bear 
cold as well as most men. 

Case of Mr. D , of Ohio. — This gentleman from 

the country, aged seventy-seven, weight two hundred and 
twelve pounds, called on me for a prescription for a pain 



262 VBGETABLE DIET. 

and sense of fulness at the stomach, with shortness of 
breath on taking exercise, relieved only by throwing off 
large quantities of air from the stomach. This complaint 
he attributed to his having eaten two or three small slices 
of musk-melon a year and a half before, which at the time 
gave him some uneasiness, and which was thrown up 
twenty-seven hours after it was taken I 

On inquiry, it appeared that he had been in the habit, 
for years, of drinking strong coffee in the morning, and 
tea at evening ; of eating flesh three times a day, and 
taking his bitters in the morning and before each meal, 
besides an occasional sip in the interim. Remarking upon 
the articles indulged in, as flesh-meat, butter, liquors, 
coffee, tea and tobacco, he says : '^ Yes, thanks to Ood, we 
have all these good things I " 

He informed me that his mother and a brother had died 
of apoplexy, and, said he, " There is a little bit of that 
working in me, too, for I have had two small fits of it ; 
but Dr. M. says I am too old to die of it." I advised a 
cathartic, no spirits, less tobacco, lean flesh, only once a 
day, weak coffee and tea, no melted butter, fresh bread, 
pie, nor cake, but little acid and sweet. All this could only 
delay a little the finishing up of the case ; the great work 
upon his constitution had been done. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

INJUDICIOUS DIET AND DISEASE ILLUSTRATIVE CASES. 

Headache. — Mr. N"., aged twenty-eight, says that for 
many years he has been subject to severe headaches, some- 
times once a week, sometimes oftener; not nnfrequently 
amounting to sick-headache. A year ago he abandoned 
the use of tea, coffee, and flesh-meat, and after three weeks 
he had no headache for six months ; that is, so long as he 
avoided those articles of food, with the exception of a sin- 
gle attack of headache, on receiving a bad jar by being 
thrown from a carriage. 

After six months' disuse of meat and coffee and tea, he 
returned to the moderate use of meat, and since that time 
his headaches have returned, though not as frequently, nor 
have they been as severe as before, when he used coffee 
and tea. His living in other respects, before and after 
abandoning these articles, was the same. He never used 
tobacco. 

This case of Mr. N". shows very distinctly how much 
indisposition was chargeable to the eatables and drinkables 
taken separately and in conjunction. 

Error in Diet, — A lady, a vegetable-eater, exerted her- 
self for two or three days beyond her strength ; then ate a 
boiled e^^ and salt flsh with melted butter for dinner, and 
at evening of the same day ate a piece of gingerbread, 



264 INJUDICIOUS DIET AND DISBASB. 

some preserved raspberries, and drank a enp of tea, having 
drank nothing but cold water for a long time previous. 
The sequel of this was, sick-headache, and vomiting 
throughout the next day. The day after the sickness 
she was feeble ; took only bread and water ; the two en- 
suing days she was much better, living wholly on simple 
farinaceous food and water. The fourth day she walked 
out, attended somewhat to domestic concerns, had a good 
appetite, and made her supper of dipped toast, in which 
was a small quantity of butter. The ensuing morning she 
was not as well. 

How unfortunate that the stomach, when enfeebled and 
least able to digest stimulant food to which it had been 
for some time unaccustomed, should be compelled to grap- 
ple with egg^ fish, melted butter, preserves, gingerbread, 
and tea. What delicate stomach would not resent such 
treatment, and call upon the head to sympathize? The 
lady remarked, in explanation of her headache, that she 
had taken cold two or three days before. This, if it was 
the fact, was surely an additional reason why stimulant 
food should have been avoided. 

Jfrs, W,^s Case. — " My age is forty-seven. Until I was 
thirty-five I was troubled with sick-headache, varying 
from once a fortnight to once in four or five weeks, gen- 
erally commencing in the morning, continuing until noon, 
when, after vomiting freely four or five hours, it would 
pass off with sleep. At thirty-five, I commenced taking 
snuff. The sick-headache was succeeded by the ' nervous- 
. headache,' which was more frequent and more severe, and 
for the last few years I have seldom been free from it. 
During this time I was in the habit of eating meat or fish 
twice a day (when able to eat at all), together with tea, 
coffee, hot bread, pies, cakes, butter, cheese, etc. Could 



ILLUSTRATIVE GASSS. 265 

not take wine, or any fermented liqnors, without produc- 
ing unpleasant sensations, and seldom used any; was 
always troubled with constipation. 

"Between the ages of twenty-six and thirty-seven, I 
had five children ; their constitution feeble. 

"For the last ten years I have been troubled with 
severe pain in the left side; also liver complaint. 

" About one year since I commenced a course of diet, 
which has been as follows : coarse bread, made of wheat- 
meal, baked potatoes, with salt and cream ; sometimes 
gingerbread, and pies made without butter; fruit, vege- 
tables of almost all kinds, and cold water for drink. I 
left off snu£ 

" I have not had one severe attack of the headache since 
I commenced dieting. Once in three or four weeks I gen- 
erally have some headache, which lasts about two days. 

" Pain in the side and liver complaint both much better." 

Probably Mrs. W. takes more food than needful for the 
best health, and has no very definite notion of her " liver 
complaint." 

A sick Students Dinner. — A student, who for a few 
days had been a vegetable-eater, being too sick to leave 
his room, had some food sent to him at noon to sustain 
him. Of this he partook as follows, viz. : two large slices 
of bread and butter, a piece of mince pie, another of 
pumpkin pie, a piece of pound cake well charged with 
currants, and several cups of tea. At evening he said that 
he did not feel as well, and should presently need to take 
a little nourishment of some kind ! 

Nettle-Mash, — A lady called with her child, sixteen 
months old, covered with nettle-rash. 

" Madam, what do you give this child for food ? " "I 
nurse it altogether." *'Do you give it nothing else but 

23 



266 INJUDICIOUS DIET AND DISEASB. 

your own milk ? " " No ; nothing." " Now, madam, I am 
confident there must be some mistake. What else has 
the child taken within the last two days?" "Why, I 
gave her a little bread and butter yesterday." "Very 
well ; do you think of anything else ? " ** Why, yes, Mi-s. 
M. gave her a tomato. I did not think she would eat any 
of it, but she ate it all up, so I thought I would try her 
with another, and she ate that up too." 

I prescribed four grains of calomel, and requested the 
mother to inform me, in forty-eight hours, if the com- 
plaint should not then be subdued. I have not heard from, 
her since, and conclude that she got better immediately. 

Case of Mrs, Sh little Girly four years old. — Mrs. B. 
says she has been feeble for three weeks. " Has she eaten 
mince pie during Thanksgiving?" "No; she has been 
quite ill ; I have kept her very light ; her food has been 
as simple as possible. I gave her only the breast of a 
chicken, some apple pie, and a little cake." " What does 
she drink," " She drinks tea only ; no coffee. She loves 
tea dearly, and I can scarcely make it hot enough for her. 
I do not think coffee is good for her ; I have taken care 
that she should have nothing but what is good for her." 
"Do you give her any medicine, madam?" "I give her 
elixir pro., rhubarb, and such little simple things." 

The child has now pain of the stomach, is restless at 
night, is sickly-looking, sweats easily, and has an irregular 
appetite. 

Cake for Breakfast, — I called one morning to see a 
little girl who had been some days under my care, for dis- 
ordered stomach and bowels. The account I received was 
that she had a good deal of fever through the night, and 
could take no food in the morning. I asked if I should 
see her. The reply was, that she had gone to the confec- 



ILLUSTRATIVB CASES. 267 

tioner's to buy some cake for her breakfast, inasmuch as 
she could eat nothing else. 

A Dyspeptic and CMorotic. — My friend Dr. Carr had 

attended Miss at intei*vals, since she was twelve years 

old. She was dyspeptic (chlorotic) ; had inherited a del- 
icate constitution, had her periodical illness only about once 
in three months since the age of seventeen years, except 
for a short time after its first appearance. At nineteen 
years old her health was entirely restored, by plain food, 
cold bath every morning, riding daily on horseback, aver- 
aging fifteen miles a day, without medicine, except artifi- 
cial mineral water, composed of about five grains carb. 
ferri with ten grains rochelle salt, taken in a glass of soda 
water every morning for two months. 

The periodical illness was regular for about four months, 

but after Miss spent six months at Albany, her health 

was impaired and irregular as before. Dr. C. had tried 
in vain to induce perseverance in the course of diet and 
exercise, her strong objection being the full flesh and rosy 
face it gave her. After her return from Albany, Dr. C. 
was again applied to, and prescribing the same regimen 
which built her up before, was met by the same refusal, 
the patient alleging that she would rather be as she then 
was than be troubled by the flesh and color she had 
before. Both she and her mother wished the doctor to 
give her some medicine which would cure her, leaving her 
still pale, delicate, and thin. This Dr. C. declined, telling 
her she needed no medicine. 

Upon this another physician was called, who found her 
^very 8%ck^^ gave an emetic, — cal. vol. tinct. guaiac elix. 
vitriol, muriated tinct. iron, aloetic pills, etc. She con- 
tinued under this kind of treatment for about two 
months, when her mother became alarmed ; the young 



268 INJUDICIOUS DIET AND DISEASE. 

lady was feverish, weak, tremulous, and emaciated. /The 
mother wished Dr. C. again to visit her daughter, but he 
declined, advising the mother to satisfy herself fully as to 
the course she was pursuing, and until she would consent 
to follow undeviatingly his directions. 

She at length consented. Dr. C. found her with a slight 
paroxysm of fever in the afternoon, parched lips, dry 
tongue, slight yellowness of the eye. 

The first prescription was the nit. muriatic acid, bath in 
the morning, and three grains blue pill every other night, 
continued about eight days. 

She was then ordered a strict regimen, — put upon rice 
and milk, porridge and gruel, with cool shower bath every 
morning, followed by dry friction, — ordered exercise by 
carriage riding. This was continued a fortnight, when she 
was able to resume the horseback exercise. In the couree 
of two months she recovered so as to be mortified again 
by her face being so full and fresh, so much like a country 
girl's. Periodical illness returned, and she was perfectly 
well, and all without the aid of medicine. 

Asthma. — A gentleman writes me as follows: — "I am 
happy to add my testimony in favor of your prescriptions 
for the asthma. When you saw Mrs. Buswell in January, 
she was recovering from the seventh attack during the six 
months preceding. Twelve times per year has been about 
the average for the last ten or fifteen years. Soon after 
you left us, we commenced living as you directed, and 
Mrs. B. using the sponge bath, etc. ; and we were aston- 
ished at the result ; for six months have elapsed and noth- 
ing like the asthma has appeared, and her general health 
has very much improved. She has not been able to do as 
much work for ten years past, in the same length of time ; 



ILLUSTRATIVB CASES. 269 

and we all enjoy better health ; have not had occasion to 
call a physician during the time." 

From a subsequent letter, it appears that Mrs. B., in 
fifteen months after she commenced the new method of 
living, had had but one attack of asthma. 

DyspepsiOj ChoUcy etc. — April 16, 1835. Miss M. T., 
aged seventeen, has been dyspeptic for three years; worse 
in the winter season ; pain in the stomach, obstinate cos- 
tiveness, great irregularity in the periodical illness, medi- 
cines from different physicians without benefit. Prescrip- 
tion : Morning ablution, coarse wheat unleavened bread, 
gill of milk at a meal, three meals a day. 

June 25. Just ten weeks since she began the course, 
and is now perfectly well ; has had two periodicals, has an 
alvine motion daily, is in bed eight hours at night, and 
sleeps soundly. For the last four weeks has taken a little 
over a gill of milk, and three ounces of bread only, at a 
meal. Before she took the milk, she ate from twelve to 
fourteen ounces of bread a day. Has gained much flesh 
and strength. Years afterwards she had good health. 

Itev. Mr, 2>., Missionary. — "It is nearly two years 
since I relinquished entirely the use of animal jQ;>od. For 
several months previous to my giving it up altogether, I 
used it only occasionally, and was better in health and 
more vigorous in mind. On my voyage from America, 
which was six months in length, I adhered strictly to the 
plan, although there was little on board that was consid- 
ered eatable, except animal food. Some of the time I had 
nothing but bread and water, and those, of course, not of 
the best quality. Still my health was better than that of 
most on board, whether passengers or sailors, and as good 
as that of those who had the best health. 

" Since my arrival in a tropical climate my health has 
23* 



270 INJUDICIOUS DIET AND DISEASE. 

been as good, to say the least, as it was in America. I 
have no doubt that the person who avoids animal food is 
leas liable to fevers, which are so much dreaded in this 
climate. 

^ My food has been rice, bread, plantains, sweet pota- 
toes, yams, milk, sagar, and eggs. You may get some idea 
of the proportion I have used of the several kinds of food, 
from the order in which they are mentioned, rice standing 
at the head. Butter, vegetable oil, and cheese, though 
they fall within my limits, I have not eaten. From ardent 
spirits, opium, tobacco, wine, beer, and all kinds of fer- 
mented liquors, I have abstained entirely. Tea and coffee 
I have taken only occasionally." 



CHAPTER XYII. 

YEGETABLB DIET IN CERTAIN CASES A REMEDY FOR 
DISEASE > ILLUSTRATIVE CASES. 

Dyspepsia^ etc, — Mr. E. Levassor, merchant, a most 
interesting and worthy gentleman, aged forty-eight, had 
been subject for some years to dyspepsia, connected with 
occasional attacks of severe pain in the abdomen, which 
generally lasted from two to six days. These occurred 
more frequently than before in the six months previous to 
the time he consulted me. He had usually been treated 
with large doses of cathartic medicine and opiates ; and 
after getting relieved from pain, and being much reduced 
in strength, was built up on beef-steak, brandy, and Bor- 
deaux wine. I prescribed a diet of unbolted flour bread, 
rice, potatoes, and water. To this he adhered most scru- 
pulously, gained flesh and strength, was able to attend to 
his business regularly, and I believe now (1855), after the 
lapse of fifteen y^ars, lives on a vegetable diet, though, 
with a greater variety than at first, water for his only 
drink. I think he has not had a severe attack of the 
same kind since the commencement of his dietetic course, 
and that he is now in the enjoyment of good health. 

Difficulty of Breathing and Swallowing. — Major W., 
aged thirty-six, found that he could not swallow his 
food well. He had a spasmodic action of the oesophagus, 



272 VBGKTABLB DIET A REMEDY FOR DISEASE. 

which felt like air meeting his food. He had to give up 
his meal for the time. He found that his meat, which was 
generally beef or bacon, was more difficult to swallow 
than other kinds of meat, or than bread and potatoes. 
For five or six years he could seldom swallow any kind 
of baked meat, nor could he swallow pudding. He found 
it difficult also to swallow warm bread or nut-cakes. 

One day, at the dinner-table (had hashed meat), he was 
choked, could not swallow, and left the table. At tea-time, 
a piece of bread and nut-cake caused choking ; could not 
eat ; sent for the doctor. Took some medicine, which pro- 
duced some effect, and gave him a little relief; still had 
more or less every day of spasmodic difiiculty of swallow- 
ing and breathing. These symptoms continued for ten 
days. A consulting physician was called ; he made vari- 
ous prescriptions. About this time, by advice, he gave 
up tobacco-chewing ; has used it several times since, but 
it invariably brings on the spasms ; has smoked a little 
since, but if the smoke remains in the mouth long it has 
the same effect as the chewing. He says it is a great 
aggravation to have the tobacco taste so good without 
being able to keep it in the mouth ; has chewed tobacco 
ten years; thinks he has used half a pound a week; has 
smoked twelve years, usually three large pipes of fig 
tobacco a day. 

His breakfast for years has been quite strong coffee, 
meat, potatoes, dipped toast, and nut-cakes ; dinner, meat, 
vegetables, pie, a great deal of cheese, bread, and butter; 
supper, tea, pretty strong, bread and butter, pie, nut- 
cakes, and, very commonly, custards. Has eaten a great 
deal of salt codfish and mackerel. For years has been in 
the habit of taking a cold cut of meat or fish just before 
going to bed. In summer, he made his largest meal of 



njiUSTRATIVE CASES. 273 

flesh at night. For years could not take milk without 
pain in the bowels; could seldom eat an apple without 
pain, and never one after dinner ; very seldom took food 
between meals; drank spirit and wine moderately, till 
seven years ago ; since then, neither spirit nor wine, nor a 
gallon of cider a year. June 29, 1835, 1 visited him. 

Prescription : Abandon tobacco, — never take it again, 
— and all kinds of flesh. Occasionally five grains of blue 
pill over night. 

Food ; Bread of unbolted wheat flour (unleavened 
the best), baked potatoes, hominy, mush, boiled rice, 
roasted or baked apples when they agree, various kinds 
of berries, always as a part of the regular meal. Eat 
slowly. Take three meals at regular times; nothing be- 
tween meals ; drink water only. Take three hours* exer- 
cise daily in the open air. Retire at a uniform hour ; sleep 
on a mattress or some other hard bed ; sleep seven hours 
in the twenty-four. Sponge bath in the morning, in warm 
or cold water. 

After seven and a half weeks. Major W. called on me, 
was quite well, has followed the prescription rigidly; sleeps 
seven hours in the night ; does n't want niore, and is not 
sleepy in the day. Takes several hours' exercise daily ; 
can walk several miles without fatigue; whereas before, 
walking from his house to his store, not more than twenty 
rods, often fatigued him. Seldom has a vestige of the 
spasm. Thinks he probably eats too much, his appetite 
being very good. Says he can think more now in one 
day than he could in three days before changing his 
diet ; says he has now no hankering for tobacco, but 
thinks he should have if he had not given np tea and 
coffee ; seldom drinks now between meals ; used to drink 
several pints of water a day between meals. Says he 



^ 



274 VEGBTABLB DIBT A BEMEBT FOR DISEASE. 

could never be insolted without resenting it verbally, er 
in some other way equally distinct, but he can now com- 
mand his temper so as to conceal his feelings when in- 
sulted. His weighty a little before his sickness, was two 
hundred and twelve pounds ; he is now at one handred 
and eighty. When twenty-two years old he weighed one 
hundred and ten, and began to grow fat soon afler. 

In a letter afterwards, he gives a fine account of bis 
health and vigor, and of his perseverance in the course 
above pointed out. He says: — 

" In no period of my life have I enjoyed so good health 
as I have for the last four months. I have had no sick 
turns, as formerly, no colds, except a very slight one twice, 
whereas formerly I had one full half the time. I have, for 
the last four months, been able to do more business than 
I could have done in eight months before I adopted my 
present mode of living. 

" My style of living is as follows : for breakfast, baked 
potatoes and salt, unbolted wheat bread, preserved fruit 
of some kind, and sometimes boiled onions or turnips; 
for dinner the same, with the addition of more vegeta- 
bles, such as cabbage, and sometimes stewed beans; for 
supper, bread and water, for at least half the time ; the 
other half not differing from the other meals, except more 
light food. My drink has been cold water. I have taken 
no tobacco since I quitted it, and I am quite certain I 
never shall use it again. My time of going to bed has 
been nine, p. m. ; my hour of rising, four, a. m. Since the 
first of December, I have not risen until five. I have not 
&iled to bathe myself with cold water every morning, and 
am confident that I receive great benefit from it." 

Skin Disease cured by Vegetable Diet, — Prof. D. Crosby 
mentions the case of a girl of red hair and florid complex- 



ILLUSTRATIVE CASES. 275 

ion, living in New Hampshire, who had a scabby eruption 
upon the face which had existed ^ve years. It has been 
cured by vegetable diet. She has followed it for two 
years, and has been well ever since. 

Ulcerated Face. — Dr. Stratton, of Massachusetts, gave 
me the following case : The patient was a farmer about 
fifty-eight years old, and had enjoyed good health till his 
face had become covered with a pustular eruption, which 
had lasted about ten years. He had been a free liver, and 
drank ardent spirits and cider. The ulcers were from one 
fourth to one half an inch broad, and one fourth of an 
inch deep, and numerous, covering his whole face. They 
discharged a vitiated pus« These ulcers had shown no 
disposition to heal under the diversity of treatment to 
which he had been subjected, the particulars of which 
treatment I could not obtain. I prescribed bread and 
milk for food, water for drink, and nothing else. He 
adhered undeviatingly to the course, and in four months 
the ulcers were completely healed. I saw him ten months 
after he began this course of living. He had adhered 
strictly to his diet and was still perfectly well. 

Another case of Ulcer, — Alecta M ^ a girl of 

eleven years, had a fetid ulcer of a year's standing on the 
scalp, of the size of a dollar, with an elevated margin 
half an inch thick. It came about a month after conva- 
lescence from scarlet fever. The discharge was so offen- 
sive as greatly to annoy those about her. For some 
months she had taken but little flesh, but took butter 
ireely. I prescribed unbolted flour bread, half a pint of 
milk for breakfast and dinner, and bread with a little 
molasses, and water to drink, for supper, and the washing 
of the ulcer with soap and water twice a day. It rapidly 
improved, in two months was entirely healed, and at the 



276 VBGETABLE DIET A REMEDY FOR DISEASE. 

end of thirteen months she was entirely well, without the 
use of medicine, and the site of the ulcer was thinly cov- 
ered with hair. I saw Miss M. twenty years later, in good 
health, an intelligent, well-educated lady; the place of 
the ulcer was still covered with hair of the natural 
color. 

Neuralgia, — My friend Dr. Shedd, of Vermont, writes 
that his brother, aged fifty, was attacked three years ago 
with neuralgia of the face, extending from the ramus and 
angle of the lower jaw over the right side of the face. It 
came in paroxysms, which were very severe. Mastication, 
or a slight motion of the jaw, even speaking a word or 
two, would sometimes bring on a paroxysm. The com- 
plaint was worse in winter than in summer. Various 
plans of treatment, as cathartics, carbonate of iron, blister- 
ing, proved ineffectual. Previously to the appearance of 
this complaint he had lived rather freely as to his meats, 
cofiee, tea, etc., and had been troubled with habitual 
costiveness. Dr. S. prescribed a dietetic course, to be 
pursued at least one year. He was to take oatmeal mush 
with a little molasses or milk. His drink was water. 
This produced a regular state of the bowels, and relieved 
him entirely of the pain. He lost no strength nor flesh 
by this change of diet. He continued this course a year, 
after which he returned gradually to his former diet, and 
up to the present time, four months, there has been no 
return of the disease. It is proper, however, to say, that 
when exposed to severe cold he feels twinges in the part 
formerly affected. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

OPHTHALMIA DEATHS PROM EATING DISTILLEBY-FED 

PORK NEW ZEALANDERS INTEMPERANCE IN EAT- 
ING AND DRINKING. 

§ I. OPHTHALMIA 

Chronic Ophthcdmia. — Dr. S. B. Miller was cured of 
chronic ophthalmia and weakness of vision by a ^rinace- 
ous and water diet. Two years after I prescribed for him, 
he wrote me that his eyes had been improving during the 
whole period. The disease was of many years' standing, 
and was subject to various treatment, without effect, till 
the diet was changed. 

jScrqfulous Ophthalmia. — H. L. H., a boy of two years, 
has scrofulous ophthalmia ; eyelids, cheeks, and upper lip 
swollen ; has turns of painful vision for half a day or a 
day at a time. *'Has bread and milk for breakfast and 
supper, when he will eat it ; sometimes refuses it ; drinks 
tea and coffee; *is a gi'eat friend to tea;' 'loves cider;' 
eats fried cakes; 'is very fond of gingerbread and con- 
fectionery,' says his father. ' He is a great hand to sit up 
evenings,' says his mother. ' Loves raisins,' says his father ; 
'but they almost always come through him whole;' 'he 
sits up sometimes till ten in the evening, and because his 
eyes are weak, he lies late in the morning, sometimes till 
eight o'clock.' His food, as an apple for instance, often 

comes through him undigested. ' He cries a good deal ; ' 

24 



278 OPHTHALMIA. 

Moves spirit.' *Iii what way does he prefer it?' *He 
likes it very well any way ; does not care much which ; 
Bometimes takes it with sugar, or molasses and water, or 
he will drink it raw as well as any other way.' ' Often 
takes a pinch of snuff; our women folks use it ; and he 
likes a pinch now and then.' • *He naturally never ap- 
peared to sleep so well as other children ; often cries in 
the night; often has five or six discharges from the bowels 
in twenty-four hours.' *Goes to sleep once in the day, 
towards night, and sleeps from one to two hours.' * He 
was near a ye.ar old before he had a tooth.' * Was a year 
and a half old when he was weaned.' ' While nursing did 
not care about eating anything.' 'I always try my child- 
ren early with such things as I eat myself because I think 
it is better for them. I begin at three or four months.' 
* Had two other children ; both died ; one at a week, the 
other twenty months old.' 'Anything of what we eat or 
drink ourselves, that suits his appetite best, we allow him 
to have.' 

" We have blistered this child's arms, and given him 
sulphur and cream of tartar." 

"Had weak eyes when a fortnight old." His mother 
(about thirty years old) is in the habit of eating without 
restraint anything she craves while nursing. 

Could any course of physical training of a child indicate 
greater ignorance than the parents exhibited? I pre- 
scribed a course of plain feeding, which I had very little 
expectation would be followed. They lived at a consider- 
able distance. No report has come to me of the sequel. 
I have almost invariably found that a milk and vegetable 
diet was sufficient for the ci^re of the scrofulous ophthalmia 
of children. 



DEATHS FROM EATING. 279 



k II. DEATHS FROM EATING. 

A child was attended through scarlet fever by Dr. B. 
He was particular as to its diet; but as it continued 
feeble for a long time, Dr. S. was consulted in the case, 
and directed that the child should eat anything it wished 
for. Soon after, it expressed a desire for baked beans, was 
indulged in them, fell into a fit, and died in that fit. , 

My friend Dr. J. had a patient, a little girl, who was 
quite sick with scarlet fever, but became so far convales- 
cent as to leave him at liberty to discontinue his visits, 
leaving strict injunctions as to its diet. Four or five days 
after, he was called to the house, and found his patient in 
profound apoplexy. On inquiry, he found that everything 
proceeded favorably, and that on. that day, about five 
o'clock in the morning, she asked for food, and a portion 
of cooked beef was given her. In an hour and a half she 
asked again for food, and received a slice of sweet cake, 
which she ate also. About nine, a. m., she asked again for 
food, and ate a large apple which was given her. About 
half-past ten, a. m., she complained of headache and giddi- 
ness, fell back upon the pillow, and the doctor found her 
as described. She died the same day. 

A student of an academy in New Hampshire died from 
eating fifteen poached eggs in an evening, three evenings 
in succession. They caused a permanent obstruction in 

# 

the bowels. He died in a few days. Two other students 
ate with him, but could not eat as many as he. Both were 
sick. 

" In the winter of 1824-5, four students in one of the 
colleges in New England," says Mr. M., " became sick in 
consequence of eating a supper of oysters. One of them 



280 DISHLLE&T-FED HOGS. 

test his senses, and continued to be violently deranged for 
several weeks. Another was seized with a fever which 
reduced him very low. For a day or two, serious fears 
were entertained that he might not recover. A third fell 
down the next day, in a fit, while standing at his desk, and 
in consequence was obliged to leave college for several 
months, and when he returned, to enter the class next 
below. A fourth was extremely unwell, but by applying 
for medical advice in season, was probably saved from a 
long illness. They ate," says Mr. M., "a very large quan- 
tity of oysters." 



S ni. DISTILLERY-FED HOGS. 

I not long since visited the whiskey manufactory of 
Mr. R., who was kind enough to show me the establish- 
ment. There is the large apartment for containing the 
com in the ear. Into this a farmer was depositing his 
wagon-load of com. There is the shelling machine, the 
grinding mill, the mash tubs, the yeast-making tubs, 
the still and refrigerator, or condensing tub of one hun- 
dred hogsheads, and the river of death running from a 
large copper tube. Eight hundred bushels of corn are 
consumed daily, and eighteen hundred gallons of whiskey 
made from it to poison men. There is a flouring mill in 
the same building; the bran and shorts from which the 
wheat flour is bolted are worked into the mash tub to aid 
in the production of whiskey. 

The hog establishment contains about five hundred 
hogs, when the material for making whiskey is duly sup- 
plied. There are two long hog houses set on piles upon 
the margin of the Little Miami, with plank floors raised 



DISTILLERY-FED HOGS. 281 

above high-water mark ; each contains two ranges of hog- 
pens, with an alley of three feet in width between them, 
running the whole length of the building. Each hog-pen 
is about twelve feet square, and contains eighteen or 
twenty hogs. All the filth from these animals is scraped 
off into the river, and descends to mix and become some- 
what diluted with the waters of the Ohio, before it is 
pumped up into the city reservoir to be drank by the 
citizens of Cincinnati. 

The animals are fed exclusively upon the mash, which 
is kept in large vats of perhaps six or seven hundred 
hogsheads each, which is set flowing into their eating 
troughs when they become hungry. Most of the animals 
were lying huddled together, probably not having finished 
the digestion of their breakfast. They were large-bellied, 
owing doubtless to their having no exercise, and eating 
their thin food to gluttony, in order to obtain sufficient 
nourishment from it. 

Mr. R. says that when one of them gets sickly, a cir- 
cumstance which not un frequently happens, on account 
of their food becoming acid from fermentation, he is 
turned out into the long alley, called the hospital, to re- 
cruit, where he gets the benefit of a slightly improved 
ventilation. If not thus turned out soon after the appear- 
ance of symptoms of indisposition, his comrades in the 
pen fall to and kill him, as if under the instinctive impres- 
sion that they had stench and foul air enough without 
the additional exhalation from a sick hog. 

These hogs, thus kept and fed from pighood up to the 
age of twelve or eighteen months, are sent from time to 
time to the Cincinnati market, as the butchers need them. 
The fat is made into lard and lard oil ; the hams and 
shoulders are smoked and dried, and the "sides" are 

24* 



282 NEW ZEALAKJDEBS. 

worked np into sausages, to supply the daily markets of 
the city with that savory article. 

Mr. Loveland says that in Clermont county, Ohio, there 
are five hundred and fifty thousand bushels of corn dis- 
tilled in one year into whiskey. This would sustain fifty- 
five thousand persons for a year. In the London Tee- 
total Times it is stated that there are sixty-four millions 
of bushels of barley brewed in Great Britain in a year, 
besides the raw grains that are distilled into gin, whiskey, 
etc This would sustain six million four hundred thou- 
sand, or about one third of the whole population — nearly 
all the Irish population. 

Mr. Granger, of Canandaigua, for four years resided at 
Geneseo, and put up from fifty to a hundred hogs a year. 
He does not recollect to have killed one, during the four 
years, without a tuberculated liver. 

The mortality among the hogs in Ohio, Indiana, and 
Kentucky, was very great a few years since. Dr. Sutton, 
a highly intelligent physician of Aurora, Indiana, who 
made numerous post- mortem examinations of hogs dead 
of the epidemic, came to the conclusion that this disease 
is not communicable by inoculation to the human consti- 
tution, inasmuch as he repeatedly wounded his fingers in 
those explorations. Can it be inferred fi*om this that 
the flesh of those sickly animals may be eaten with safety 
by man, when it kills dogs that eat of it ? 



S TV. NEW ZEALANDERS. 

Mr. Sturgeon, an English miniature-painter, who passed 
six months in New Zealand, gives a striking account of the 
voracity he witnessed in a company of natives of that 



NEW ZEALANDERS. 283 

island. They killed a pig by striking him on the head ; 
then, without bleeding him, they put him, bristles on, into 
a hole in the earth, made warm by hot stones. Before he 
was half cooked through they withdrew him, cut him 
open with clam-shells, and fell on him, tooth and nail. 
He counted eleven persons on their hands and knees, feed- 
ing upon the different parts of the animal, all of which 
they most greedily devoured, and left no part remaining 
but the bristles and the bones! Mr. Sturgeon says that 
they do not often kill a hog, but when they do they make 
thorough work with him. He further says : " From chil- 
dren to the age of fifteen or sixteen, they do not partake 
of animal food, i. e. the animal man. Their diet, until that 
age, is chiefly potatoes, yams, and Indian com ; sometimes 
fish dried in the sun. They never use salt with any arti- 
cle of food, or in any way ; they have a great dislike to 
salt. I have asked them which they prefer, the flesh of a 
white man, or that of their own tribes. The answer was, 
'White man's flesh too salt; not good.' T?iey use no 
bread. From children to the age named, they exhibit 
few or no symptoms of their savage nature ; but after 
joining their tribes in war, and partaking of the flesh of 
their enemies slain in battle, they almost immediately show 
their natural character, and they are, without exception, 
the most wild and savage of the whole colored race." 

** They are remarkably clear-skinned, even after 

partaking of human flesh ; but the color of their eyes alters, 
i. e., the white of the eye, or what was white previous 
to their cannibal practice, changes to red, which gives 
them a frightful appearance." 



284 INTEMPERANCE IN EATING AND DRINKING. 



S V. INTEMPERANCE IN EATING AND DRINKING. 

I visited Mr, ^ a lawyer, aged sixty-two. For the 

last six months he has been in a state of deep hypochon- 
drism, or mental alienation, attended with the most 
obstinate constipation. His face, once fat, is now lean, 
and the skin hangs in wrinkles and pouches. The whole 
skin is dry, and covered with small scales; the limbs 
lank, and the abdomen, once exhibiting the ne plus 
ultra of the embonpoifU^ now loose and bagging. The 
expression of the countenance is fixed; not a ray of 
its former good cheer, nor even of hope. He had a 
blister between his shoulders two months ago; he says 
that it poisoned him through and through ; by scratching 
it and other parts, he inoculated himself with its poi- 
son. Spiders have followed upon the scent of it, and they 
descend upon him in the night, fill the hair of the head, 
crawl into his mouth and stomach, and crawl over and 
through his whole skin. Cats and rats scratch at his door 
in the night and find the way into his room, and fill his 
mouth. Indeed, he has been obliged to swallow a great 
many live rats ; and they and the spiders, filling up his 
stomach, prevent him from digesting food, or taking it, 
except in very small quantities. Agreeably to this impres- 
sion, he cannot be prevailed on to take much food. On 
its being suggested that sponging his body and limbs two 
or three times a week in weak warm soap-suds, and fol- 
lowing it with dry friction with warm cloths, would ren- 
der the skin less attractive to the vermin and animals, he 
showed symptoms of great alarm, and said that this would 
extinguish life immediately ; that he could not bear a drop 
of cold water without its striking a chill through him, and 



INTOXICATION. 285 

that warm water would do the sam6. He is equally afraid 
of a breath of fresh air, and is in constant terror at the 
thought of death\ Wretched man ! He has eaten fi'eely, 
and for many yeara drank stimulant drinks freely, though 
it is said he did not use tobacco. 

He was educated at one of the New England colleges, 
was regularly bred to the law, was for many years in full 
business as a lawyer, was respectable for talents, accumu- 
lated considerable property, and by foolish speculations 
lost most of it ; has been proverbially irritable in his tem- 
per, and oilen fell into disputes and wranglings. 

"Now ihe sequel. He has lived for many years in the 
gross violation of the laws of his constitution, and now he 
eats imaginary spiders and rats, — the fruit of his own 
doings. 

Intoxication. — A fit of downright drunkenness, in 
which the sufferer lies for hours in a state of apoplectic 
insensibility, everybody believes to be injurious to the 
constitution. There are few, however, who are not of the 
opinion that daily dram-drinking, even though the imme- 
diate effects are not marked by distinct intoxication, is 
altogether more pernicious to the constitution than a 
thoroughgoing drunken fit once in six months or a year. 

Now, does not every one see that each dose taken by 
the dram-drinker contributes its share to the irreparable 
mischief done to his constitution ? Yet how small, and 
how entirely imperceptible, the amount of injury belong- 
ing to each individual dram. Drinkers of spirit pursuing 
each of these methods have been known, and the different 
effects have been repeatedly observed. 



CHAPTER XIX. 

SEVEBB FORMS OP NEBVOUS DISEASE — APOPLEXY 

PALSY — EPILEPSY. 

The valae of a rigid and persevering vegetable diet, in 
promoting a cure of some of the severe forms of nervous 
disease, may be inferred from the following cases, as well 
as from others scattered in the records of the profession. 



§ I. APOPLEXY. 

Dr. Watson, in his thirtieth lecture, says of apoplexy : 
" Among the premonitory symptoms, headache is of fre- 
quent occurrence ; but the same symptom is abundantly 
common in persons who are in no danger of apoplexy ; it 
derives its minatory character from the concurrent circum- 
stances. Headaches awaken our fears when they begin 
to be troublesome in advanced life. They are then still 
more formidable if they are accompanied by vertigo, or, 
without any other evidence of gastric derangement, by 
nausea and retching. Sometimes severe headache ushers 
in, and almost forms a part of, the apoplectic attack. 

" Vertigo itself, even without headache, is a very com- 
mon precursor or warning of an approaching seizure. It 
is sometimes slight and transient; sometimes almost 



APOPLEXY. 287 

habitual. Although vertigo may depend upon other causes 
than mischief within the head, we cannot regard it with- 
out apprehension when it often occurs in old persons. It 
should teach us to obviate, as entirely as we can, all the 
known exciting causes of apoplexy. 

" Transient deafness or transient blindness, blindness or 
deafness for a few seconds or minutes, is another of these 
warning symptoms. The late Dr. Gregory, of Edinburgh, 
used always to mention in his lectures the case of Dr. 
Adam Ferguson, the celebrated historian, as affording one 
of the strongest illustrations he ever met with of the 
benefit that may be derived from timely attention to the 
avoidance of those circumstances which tend to produce 
plethora and apoplexy. It is, perhaps, the most striking 
case of the kind on record. Dr. Ferguson experienced 
several attacks of temporary blindness, some time before 
he had a stroke of palsy ; and he did not take these hints 
so readily as he should have done. He observed that 
while he was delivering a lecture, his class, and the papers 
before him, would disappear, vanish from his sight, and 
reappear again in a few seconds. He was a man of full 
habit; at one time corpulent, and very ruddy; and though 
by no means intemperate, he lived freely. He did not 
attend to these admonitions ; and at length, in the sixtieth 
year of his age, he suffered a decided shock of paralysis. 
He recovered, however, and from that period, under the 
advice of his friend Dr. Black, became a strict Pythago- 
rean in his diet, eating nothing but vegetables, and dnnk- 
ing only water or milk. He got rid of every paralytic 
symptom, became even robust and muscular for a man of 
his time of life, and died in full possession of his mental 
faculties, at the advanced age of ninety-three — upwards 
of thirty years after his first attack. 



288 PALSY. 

** Sir Walter Scott describes him as having been, * long 
after his eightieth year, one of the most striking old men 
it was possible to look at. His firm step and ruddy cheek 
contrasted agreeably and unexpectedly with his silver 
locks, and the dress which he usually wore, much resem- 
bling that of the Flemish peasant, gave an air of peculi- 
arity to his whole figure. In his conversation, the mixture 
of original thinking with high moral feeling and extensive 
learning, his love of country, contempt of luxury, and 
especially the strong subjection of his passions and feel- 
ings to the dominion of his reason, made him perhaps 
the most striking example of the stoic philosopher which 
could be seen in giodem days. 



> n 



§ n. PALSY. 

In April, 1845, Dr. A. L. Pierson, a highly intelligent and 
distinguished physician, at the age of fifty-one had a para- 
lytic attack upon the muscles of the right side. His friend, 
that eminent physician. Dr. James Jackson, of Boston, was 
consulted, and advised a diet exclusively vegetable, and 
water for his drink. He was soon so much improved as to 
be able to visit the sick professionally. In a few months 
he relapsed into his former habit of living, viz. on a 
mixed diet. In a little less than a year from the com- 
mencement of his illness, viz. in March, 1846, he had a 
second paralytic seizure. This was upon his left side. He 
was induced to return to the vegetable diet, which he 
strictly followed through the remainder of his life. He 
was soon able to resume professional labor. 

The following is from his son, Dr. Edward B. Pierson, 
imder date of March 18, 1861 : " At the time of his death 
six years later, all trace of his former malady had disap- 



EPILEPSY. 289 

peared, and he seemed as well and was as well able to 
labor as ever he had been. In fact, so good did he con- 
sider his chance of continued life, that he gave up a policy 
of life insurance, on which he had paid several premiums, 
only a few months before the fatal accident." 

It is still a matter of painful recollection, that on the 
morning of the 6th of May, 1853, a passenger train run- 
ning east from New York, lost, in Connecticut, a part of 
the cars, which fell through a draw-bridge into deep 
water, drowning or otherwise causing the death of num- 
bers, among whom were several physicians "on their way 
homeward from an annual meeting of the American Med- 
ical Association ; one of which was our much valued 
friend Dr. Pierson. 

§ m. EPILEPSY. 

Professor Robinson, then of the Theological Seminary 
at Andover, Mass., one of the most distinguished scholars 
in our country, after a residence of four years in Germany, 
entered with zeal upon his college labors in October, 1830, 
apparently in as fine health as he had ever enjoyed. He 
took regular exercise daily by walking or sawing wood, 
ate flesh once a day, and took French coflee with milk in 
the morning, and black tea at evening. He continued 
well, as he supposed, until February 1, 1831, when he had 
symptoms of disordered stomach. Besides the regular ^ 
morning evacuation, he had diarrhoea after dinner, but, as 
he had often had the same experience, he thought no more 
of it. 

At the age of thirty-seven, on the 5th of February, 1831, 
as he was sitting reading a newspaper, about an hour after 
dinner, he was attacked, without premonition, by an epi- 

25 



290 EPILEPSY. 

leptic shock of considerable violence. It lasted an hour 
or .more, ere consciousness returned. His physician bled 
him and gave an emetic, and had but just left when the 
shock was renewed, and continued about as long as the 
first. The emetic disclosed a foul stomach, with much 
bile. In two or three days he was abput again, but at- 
tended to no business. He thinks he resumed his labors 
too soon. In about ten days the shock was repeated, 
although much slighter. It occurred about one o'oclock 
in the morning, during sleep. A consultation of physi- 
cians recommended abstinence from all occupation for a 
time, and low diet. This continued for three months, 
when Professor R. regarded himself as well ; and during 
the whole summer (1831) he was able to pursue his studies 
much as usual, though they were of a different kind, and 
required a less sedentary life. 

The next attack occurred in October, 1831, after an 
interval of eight months. Professor R.'s wife was ill, and 
as her nurse was incompetent, he spent nine nights in her 
room, lying down in his clothes, and having otherwise but 
little rest. The fit occurred about midnight, during sleep. 
His doctor came and gave an emetic and a strong cathar- 
tic. The first operated slightly, the latter freely, and 
brought away several yards of tape-worm^ the first intima- 
tion of his being troubled in that way. This attack in 
other respects was light, and he was soon able to resume 
his usual duties. 

On the 21st of December, a very cold day, he visited 
Boston, made several calls, and got chilled, and went to 
the house" of a friend to dine. He was not comfortably 
warm until he had remained some time by a coal fire, 
in a very warm room. He dined heartily on roast 
goose, ate afterwards a piece of mince pie, and sat*for two 



EPILEPSY. 291 

hours more in the same warm room. He then went to 
the Missionary Rooms, and while there had a violent epi- 
leptic attack. The usual remedies were employed, and 
he was able to return home on the second day after. 

It was now the advice of the physicians to make an at- 
tack on the tape-worm ; at least, to see if any part of it 
remained. Accordingly, under the direction of Dr, Jack- 
son of Boston, he took spirits of turpentine, which brought 
away the neck and apparently the head of the worm. 
The dose was afterwards repeated, without any further 
appearance of a worm ; nor has there been any such ap- 
}>earance since. During the month of February, 1832, 
there wag, as is supposed, a very slight shock one night ; 
though the physician was induced to attribute it rather to 
incubus, as Prof. R. felt no further ill effects from it. 

There was nothing further till June 21, 1832, when the 
bowels became constipated, after a severe cold, and he 
had taken a Rochelle powder to relieve them. But before 
this operated, while taking a nap after dinner, he had 
another attack, not very violent. This, also, left no great 
debility behind it. " I should say, perhaps, here," contin- 
ues Prof R., " that, by the advice of the physicians, I was 
now pursuing a diet simple and moderate, but not abste- 
mious ; though probably I could not always estimate 
exactly the proper limits of moderation. 

" I continued well and in improved health during the 
summer and autumn ; indeed, I do not know when I have 
been better than during the months of October and No- 
vember. In December I felt less well, but apprehended 
no special evil. On the 18th of December, at evening, 
some friends took tea with us, and I ate a preserved peach, 
as I had done at various times before without injury. 
About two o'clock in the night I was attacked again dur- 



292 EPILEPSY. 

ing sleep, more violently than ever before. There are said 
to have been three saccessive shocks, with slight intervals 
of partial consciousness between ; but it was more than 
twelve hours before consciousness was fully restored. 
The physician states that the chief thing that produced 
immediate relief was a very copious bleeding. The emetic 
brought away the peaeh undigested, together with much 
bile." 

This history of Prof. R.'s case, very slightly abridged 
from his own phraseology, is thus presented in order that 
an estimate may be made of the influences which led to 
so fearful an epileptic seizure. The question may arise, 
whether the tape-worm had anything to do in causing it- 
In a letter from Prof. R., dated September 18, 1855, he 
writes : " My present belief is, that the tape-worm existed 
as eirly as before 1820. Something occurred about that 
time, of which I then thought nothing, and which I re- 
ferred to another species of worm ; but I presume it was 
tcenia. There were no later symptoms of it ; " that is, 
until October, 1831, as before stated. It will be recol- 
lected that the worm was brought away in December, 
1831, and that in February, 1832, there was a slight fit, 
and the following June another ; and after the middle of 
December, 1832, viz., a year after the removal of the worm, 
he had by far the most severe and terrific attack of all, 
which lasted twelve hours. All the attacks seemed to 
have been occasioned by undigested or oppressive articles 
of food ; the last three when there was no worm either in 
the stomach or bowels. 

In December, 1832, a few days after his protracted fit, 
by which he was much enfeebled, I was requested to pre- 
scribe for Prof R. The course I advised him to pursue, 
was to take farinaceous food, plainly cooked, such as Hce, 



EPmEPSY. 293 

rye-mush^ unleavened bread of unbolted wheat Jlour, with 
water for his only drink. In aboat six weeks he wrote 
me as follows : " My breakfast has usually been rye-mush, 
with a little molasses, and a common half-pint tumbler of 
cold water. Dinner of boiled rice, and at first cold water 
with it. Of late I have substituted a little scalded milk, 
mixed with water, so that the whdte does not exceed half 
a pint. Supper, for several weeks, rye-mush, but latterly 
I have substituted two dyspepsia crackers (made of un- 
leavened, unbolted wheat meal), which I relish much, and 
which seem to produce a good effect, together with two 
small baked apples. The effect is, thus far, decidedly 
good. Instead of heaviness after dinner, I am as clear 
and bright as in any part of the day. My bowels have 
become entirely regular." 

In a letter of February 18, 1833 : " I have now followed 
very strictly your prescriptions as to diet for two months, 
and have the highest reason to be convinced that it is, in 
every respect, the best regimen for me, with one excep- 
tion ; this is, that my strength does not yet return. I 
cannot say that I am any stronger than I was four weeks 
ago." 

Some time after this, through the influence of friends, 
two distinguished physicians in one of our Southern cities 
were consulted, the foregoing statement of the case being 
forwarded to them. Their joint opinion was, that the 
Professor ought to take carbonate of iron, and for dinner 
eat boiled mutton, fowls, or roast beef if not fat. ** Mut- 
ton," they say, ** is better than any other meat ;" and they 
add : " If under this course he should experience a sense 
of fulness or confusion in his head, it must be met by 
blood-letting." Before making any change. Prof. R. wrote 
me, expressing his unwillingness to alter his course with- 

25* 



294 EPILOIfiY. 

out my concurrence. I concurred in the use of the iron, 
but not in the flesh dinners, as I could see no good reason 
for his incurring a liability to the confusion of the head 
or to be bled. He used the carbonate of iron, continu- 
ing his former diet, took a long journey, and regained his 
strength. 

In a letter dated September 27, 1833, he writes in fine 
spirits, giving a good account of his health. In another 
letter, Oct. 9, 1834, almost two years from the commence- 
ment of the course, he says : " I follow in the same track 
as for the last twenty months, and feel no disposition to 
change. My health and strength continue very equable, 
not in high tone, but with fewer sinkings than formerly. 
I have spent the whole summer in the city (Boston), and 
feel as well prepared for the coming winter as I did for 
the last, perhaps better. The only suspicious symptom 
which I have felt was in April last, — a rushing of blood to 
the head on rising from bed, so as to produce dizziness and 
nausea.^ A good dose of physic and a thorough cleaning 
out removed the evil, and I have not felt it since." It 
does not appear that during the whole period, or since, 
there has been a return of the fits. 

In a communication dated Sept. 18, 1855, he says that 
he never had anything like epilepsy before the attack at 
the age of thirty-seven, already described, that none of the 
family to which he belonged had suffered from it, except 
that a sister nine years younger than himself had three or 
four fits while a child, but never afterward, "now more 
than twenty years." 

Prof. R. continued to abstain from flesh-eating "until 
the autumn of 1838, nearly six years, and that too," he 

' £Yidentl7 fh>m irritation in the alimentive organs. 



EPILEPST. 295 

says, "during my first journey in Palestine. But I was 
compelled to use soups, from the difficulty of obtaining 
a merely vegetable diet in journeying in Europe and 
Asia." On his return, in Sept., 1838, he had at Vienna 
a violent attack of malarious fever, "caught among the 
marshes of the Danube." ** I have since used meat mod- 
erately." Since his recovery from that fever up to the 
date of his letter in 1855, his health has been good. 

March 11, 1861. To-day I have received a letter from 
Prof R., dated March 9, 1861, in which he states that in 
the autumn of 1855 he had "gastric fever, by which, 
though it was soon subdued, he lost much in health and 
vigor." He was feeble' during the summer of 1856, and 
late in the autumn of that year he was again seized with 
gastric fever, which, like the attack in 1855, disabled him 
for the duties of his professorship for two months. He 
remained in a degree prostrate through 1857 and '58, and 
he says "it was only in May, 1859, that I began to re- 
cover my working power. Since then I have labored 
moderately, say generally from nine to twelve a. m. At 
present my general health is tolerable for a person sixty- 
seven years of age." 

Prof. R. has done a large amount of mental labor for 
many years ; and yet it is natural to ask whether he might 
not have done even more, and worked longer, if, like Prof. 
Ferguson, he had maintained uninterruptedly his course 
of vegetable living. He repeats the assurance that there 
has been no indication of any kind of worm since the 
operation of the spirits of turpentine in Dec. 1831, and 
no epileptic seizure since Dec. 1832. 

Upon his present condition this excellent man further 
remarks as follows : " My knees and feet trouble me most ; 
the former are weak and the latter tender. No physician 



296 EPILEPSY. 

has yet been able to aflford me any relief; can you ? It 
must, however, be taken into account, perhaps, that I now 
have to carry about a weight of forty pounds more than 
when you knew me. I then weighed one hundred and 
sixty, now two hundred pounds." 

In reply I remarked that I could never see the necessity 
or the use of a man's carrying about with him fifty or one 
hundred pounds of fat packed between the skin and the 
muscles. I referred him to Dr. Cheyne's case (see page 
195), and suggested " that it was probably too late in the 
day for such an experiment, and that his profession was 
too sedentary to give him the auxiliary and important 
benefit of daily exercise in the open air." 



CHAPTER XX. 



XPILEPSY — DYSPEPSIA* 



i I. EPILEPSY. 



Mb. Chables Robbins, formerly of Plymouth, New 
Hampshire, had epilepsy, which commenced when about 
the age of sixteen, excited by great exertion at a fire, 
in a very cold winter's night. The fits lasted fourteen 
years. 

He took a great variety of medicaments ; among these 
was arsenic, which he took in progressively increasing 
doses, until the dose was seven-eighths of a grain four times 
a day. This dose was continued for six weeks ; it was 
taken for three months in all, viz., six weeks until the full 
dose was arrived at, and six weeks after. 

It made no sensible impression on the fits. A garlicky 
atmosphere constantly attended him, so as to be very of- 
fensive; his shirts were colored yellow, and new shirts, 
after being worn a short time, fell to pieces. 

When at the worst, the fits returned once in about 
two weeks; sometimes two or three fits were had at a 
time. Among all his fits he had three in which he was 
conscious through the whole of the convulsion. 

He was very subject to cold feet and legs, relieved by 
the mustard bath. The first medicament that appeared to 
make an impression on the fits was the kalipurum (or 



298 EPILEPSY. 

canstic vegetable alkali), with elixir proprietatis three 
times a day, i. e. before eating. 

Under a diet of milk and Boston crackers (biscuit), his 
fits were milder and ultimately subdued ; water the only 
drink. The habits were at last regular, viz. as to the 
times of eating, going to bed, and rising. When the 
bowels were a little sluggish, a table-spoonful of the white 
mustard seed, three times a day, answered the purpose 
exceedingly well. 

Mr. R. says that he has seen forty cases of epilepsy ; of 
that number, six have been cured, ten have died idiots, 
three by accident ; the rest have not been followed out. 

Mi-8. Adams, a young married woman from Morristown, 
New Jersey, was one of the six cured. She lived on sim- 
ple food, drank water, took compound tincture of valerian, 
the kali purum, with elixir pro.; the flesh-brush and mus- 
tard tea were applied externally, and she was required to 
dispense with the reading of novels and romances. The 
whole six (Robbins being one) were treated in the same 
way. 

Mr. Robbins was son of a country physician, possessed 
good talents, was fond of books, and read every medical 
book he could lay his hands upon. The arsenic and sev- 
eral other medicaments were his own prescriptions. He 
urgently besought me to tie his carotid arteries. This I 
promptly and perseveringly declined doing. He was at 
length cured under a diet which excluded flesh. 

Dr. George Cheyne records the following case : " Dr. 
Taylor, of Croydon, cured himself entirely and absolutely 
of the most violent, constant and habitual epilepsy that 
perhaps was ever known, after having in vain tried all the 
methods and medicines advised by the most eminent phy- 
sicians of his time, by a total diet of milJc^ without bread 



EPILEPSY. 299 

or aoy other vegetable, or anytbing, besides a spoonful of 
compound peony water sometimes, to prevent its curdling, 
confining himself to a pint in the morning, a qiuzrt at 
noon, and a pint at night, of the milk of grass-fed cows in 
the summer, and of those fed with hay in the winter ; the 
milk of cows fed with grains always inflating him and 
lying uneasy on his stomach. He had continued in perfect 
health and vigor (having had seven children) se^nteen 
years, when I saw him and received this account from 
him, insomuch that he could have i)layed four or five hours 
at cricket on Banstead Downs without uneasiness or pro- 
fuse sweating, and probably might have continued much 
longer in perfect health (as he did seven or eight years 
more), had he not entered upon a diflferent regimen of 
diet, — as I am informed since I first wrote this history in 
my treatise on the gout, by a person of gi*eat credit, — 
and come to eat animal food, by which in a short time 
he was destroyed." ^ 

Dr. McKeen says that a boy of two years, by the name 
of Upham, nephew of Professor Upham, was brought to 
him for epilepsy, which he had had for a year, as oilen as, 
and sometimes oflener than once a week. He had been 
fed upon confectionery and cake, and everything he craved. 

Dr. McK. prescribed coarse wheat bread, i. e. finely 
grained and passed through a very coarse sieve, made up 
with water, and fermented with sweet yeast ; water as the 
only drink. The child has not had a fit since. 

Dr. A. Twitchell, one of the most sagacious and distin- 
guished physicians ever reared in New Hampshire, early 
lost confidence in the treatment of epilepsy by medicinie. 
Several years before his death, he assured me that he relied 

^English Malady, 5th edition, London, 1735, p. 253. 



800 DYSPEPSIA. 

on bread and water as the best articles he had ever tried. 
He allowed his adult patients from twelve to fifteen ounces 
each of bread, not more, in a day, and water as much as 
they pleased. He said that he had seen "about twelve ** 
cases cured in this way. It is exceedingly difficult to 
secure a &ithful and prolonged perseverance in a course 
of diet so rigid. Large eating may be reckoned as one of 
the predisposing causes of epilepsy ; and the prostration 
of the nervous system either by incontinence or the solitary 
vice is an important source of this malady. There is 
much evidence on this subject. 

\ n. DYSPEPSIA. 

The elements of nutrition are contained, though in un- 
equal propoitions, in each of the small grains, as wheat, 
rye, barley, oats,, maize* or Indian com, and rice. One dys- 
peptic, perhaps, finds his irritable stomach best appeased 
by wheat, another by rye, a third by Indian cora, a fourth 
by oatmeal, and so on. There is something, too, in the 
mode of preparing the food ; it may be in the form of 
gruel, or thin mush, or of thin dry cake, like that of the 
Highlands, from the kiln-dried oatmeal, or the Indian hoe- 
cake of Kentucky, made thin, like the Jews' passover- 
bread, requiring a good deal of mastication. Some invalids 
will recruit upon rice soft boiled, dusted over with sugar, 
or moistened with milk. The quantity of the forenamed 
articles is of prime importance. It may be so great as 
to frustrate the object altogether. Some invalids appear 
to thrive best by eating twice only in twenty-four hours ; 
others do better upon three times ; and some few, when 
the stomach is peculiarly irritable, do best upon a still 
more fiequent taking of food. Wheat, raw, boiled, 



DYSPEPSIA. ^ 801 

cracked, suit some stomachs. It is probable that some 
kind of unleavened bread will ultimately prevail. The 
fermenting material disagrees with many stomachs ; and 
in a large proportion of leavened bread the fermentation 
is carried so far as to generate an unpleasant acidity. A 
spongy or vesicular bread, lately introduced into London, 
made by wetting up flour into a dough with water, 
strongly charged with carbonic acid gas, and baked im- 
mediately, seems at present to promise better than any of 
the leavened forms hitherto employed. In some instances 
milk alone has had the effect of repairing the exhausted 
powers of the stomach. 

In ' his sixty-eighth lecture, Dr. Watson has given in 
detail a very interesting case from Dr. William Hunter. 
The patient, a boy eight or nine years of age, " had great 
pain of his stomach, frequent and violent vomitings, great 
weakness, and wasting of flesh." All sorts of food and 
medicine, soon after being swallowed, were thrown off by 
vomiting. "He was stripped and examined in various 
postures, but no fulness, hardness, or tumor whatever, 
could be discovered ; on the contrary, he appeared every- 
where like a skeleton, covered with a mere skin, and the 
abdomen was as flat, or rather as much drawn inwards, as 
if it had not contained half the usual quantity of bowels." 
No satisfactory explanation could be gained of the cause 
and the precise nature of the complaint, so entirely unap- 
peasable had it proved under every variety of treatment, 
by several physicians. 

After much reflection upon the case. Dr. H. says to the 
father, " Take your son home, and as soon as he has rested 
a little, give him one spoonful of milk. If he keeps it 
some time without sickness or vomiting, repeat the meal, 
and so on. If he vomits it, after a little rest, try him with 

26 



802 DYSPEPSIA. 

a smaller quantity, viz. with a dessert or even a teaspoonful. 
If he can but bear the smallest quantity, you will be sure 
of being able to give him nourishment. Let it be the sole 
business of one person to feed him. If you succeed in the 
beginning, persevere with gi'eat caution, and proceed very 
gradually to a greater quantity, and to othefr fluid food, 
especially to what his own fancy may invite him ; such as 
smooth gruel or panada, milk boiled with a little flour Of 
wheat or rice, thin chocolate and milk, any broth without 
fat, or with a little jelly of rice or barley in it, etc. etc. 

" I heard nothing of the case till, I believe, between two 
and three months after. His father came to me with a 
most joyful countenance, and with kind expressions of 
gratitude told me that the plan had been pursued with 
the most scrupulous exactness, and with astonishing suc- 
cess; that his son had never vomited since I had seen 
him ; that he was daily gaining flesh and strength, color 
and spirits, and now grown very importunate to have 
more substantial food. I recommended a change to be 
made by degrees ; he recovered completely ; and many 
years ago he was a healthy and a very strong young 
man." 

The remarks of Dr. Watson in his seventieth lecture, 
on chronic vomiting, are well worthy the attention of the 
student in medicine. 

Mr. Abernethy says : " I could relate many instances of 
persons who were much emaciated, some of whom were 
of considerable stature, becoming muscular and fat upon 
four ounces of the most nourishing and easily-digestible 
food, taken three times a day. A patient lately gave me 
the following account of his own proceedings with respect 
to diet. He said : ' When you told me to weigh my food, 
I did not tell you that I was in the habit of weighing 



DYSPEPSIA. 803 

myselfj and that I had lost fourteen pounds weight per 
month for many months before I saw you. By following 
your advice I have got rid of what you considered a very 
formidable local malady ; and upon your allowance of 
food I have regained my flesh, and feel as competent to 
exertion as formerly, though I am not indeed so fat as I 
used to be. I own to you that, as I got better, I thought 
your allowance was very scanty, and being strongly 
tempted to take more food, I did so ; but I continued 
in the practice of weighing myself, and found that I regu- 
larly lost weight upon an increased quantity of food, 
wherefore I returned to that which was prescribed to 
me.' " ^ 

Mr. Abernethy very judiciously advised his patients to 
allow the stomach full time for digestion ; six or eight 
hours between meals, five hours for digestion, the remain- 
ing time for the stomach to rest. 

In a short time after a person adopts a spare diet, al- 
though the quantity of food is less than half the amount 
he had been accustomed to, the sensation of hunger is as 
fully allayed at each meal as it had been before the change. 
This would seem to be due to the secretion of the gastric 
juice being conformed to the quantity of food taken. 
After a surgical operation in the case of a woman aged 
fifty, I kept her eleven days upon a little less than four 
ounces a day of fine flour biscuit (crackers), on account 
of the necessity of preventing motion of the bowels. 
The appetite was satisfied with this quantity of food. In 
another case, the patient, aged twenty-eight, was kept 
eighteen dags upon less than Jive ounces a day of the same 
kind of bread, after an operation for recto, vag. fistul. 

^ Abernethy '8 Works, Vol. i. p. 49. Amer. edit. Hartford, 1825. 



804 DYSPEPSIA. 

In no part of that time did the appetite call for more. In 
both cases the drink was water. The sleep was quiet and 
refreshing, without anodynes. 

Dr. James Jackson, for many years Prof, of Medicine 
in the Boston School of Medicine, and one of the physi- 
cians of the Mass. General Hospital, assure^^ me that a 
female patient of his, in convalescence from lung fever, 
gained flesh upon two crackers a day. He did not 
mention the weight of them, probably not more than 
one ounce to one and a half each. 

It should seem that the powers of, the stomach may, 
to some extent, be cultivated as to quantity of food. 
In gluttonous feeding there is probably, at the expense 
of nei-vous power drawn from the necessities of other 
organs, more gastric juice furnished than is requisite for 
the healthy wants of the whole economy, although the 
digestion is too imperfect to make a healthy blood. In 
some constitutions a part of the excess is turned off into 
fat, to be deposited beneath the skin and among the 
muscles ; and in rare instances, some part of the excess 
is disposed of by a perpetual diarrhoea. In a case I knew 
of this sort, much of the food went to fat, besides the 
diarrhoea, on account of which last physicians were always 
importuned for a remedy. 

The symptoms of dyspepsia are so elaborately detailed 
in medical books, it is hardly necessary to repeat them 
here ; it is sufficient to remark that chronic disorder of 
the stomach is usually accompanied by functional derange- 
ment of other parts of the alimentary canal, especially of 
the large intestines, as costiveness, sometimes piles, stric- 
ture and fissure of the anus, etc.; and not unfrequently 
the liver participates in the morbid condition. 

Not one person in a hundred seems to appreciate the 



DYSPEPSIA. 305 

hazard of compelling the stomach to receive ever so gi-eat 
a variety of eatables at a siogle meal, if by the arts of 
cookery they can be made savory or agreeable to the 
palate ; and the physician who has the skill and the hon- 
esty to prescribe the best course for a dyspeptic, regardless 
of the edicts of wealth and fashion, the chief end of which 
is to prolong the pleasure of eating, is liable to be aban- 
doned for some pill-monger, whose promises meet all the 
demands of the invalid. Dietetic prescriptions are among 
the most important for chronic diseases of the stomach 
and bowels. Sometimes a case occurs in which some little 
medication may act as an auxiliary ; but in a large pro- 
portion of instances, a suitable diet, with the aid of other 
sanitary measures, will accomplish the end in view. " I 
commend," says Lord Bacon, "rather some diet for 
certain seasons, than frequent use of physic, except it be 
grown into a custom ; for these diets alter the body more, 
and trouble it less." 

Dr. James Johnson, an eminent London physician, who 
wrote many valuable medical works, having had ample 
personal experience of dyspepsia, says, "I have known 
dyspeptic patients to gain flesh and strength on half a 
pint of good gruel thrice in twenty-four hours." 

One of the most interesting cases recorded of aggra- 
vated dyspepsia successfully treated by a farinaceous and 
water diet, is given by Dr. William A. Alcott, in his post- 
humous work, entitled, " Forty Years in the Wilderness 
of Pills and Powders." ^ The patient was Jervis Robin- 
son, ship-builder, of Nantucket. He was bom in 1800, 
and at the age of thirty-two was a wretched dyspeptic. 
Among the methods of treatment, he tried beef-steak 



1 Boston, J. p. Jewett & Co., 1868. 
26* 



806 DYSPEPSIA. 

three times a day, without improvement In 1836, a friend 
advised him to try bread from the unbolted wheat flour, 
with water as the only drink. His allowance for each day 
was three ounces of the bread after it had been cut in thin 
slices and dried, and a gill of water. He took his meals 
at six, twelve, and six, an ounce at each meal ; spent half 
an hour in eating it, and just two hours after eating drank 
one third of his gill of water. He took a cold shower- 
bath on rising in the morning, and walked a mile before 
breakfast. On this course he lost flesh and strength ; 
at the end of two months, he had lost twenty pounds' 
weight. In three weeks from the commencement of the 
course, the bowels, which had rarely moved, became reg- 
ular, both as to time and qtuintity. 

At the end of two months he ceased to lose flesh, 
remained about stationary four weeks, and then began to 
gain, at first slowly, soon more rapidly, and in two months 
he had gained in flesh nearly what he had lost. A part of 
this time the gain was half a pound a day, " nearly three 
times as much," says he, " as the weight of my food, and 
more than the whole weight of my food and drink to- 
gether." A part of the time he ate the brown wheat, or 
"Graham crackers," from Boston. Of these he often 
" omitted half a cracker at evening. The water also, one 
third of a gill, was generally omitted at evening." 

His appetite was always good, and always satisfied with 
his meals when finished, nor does he remember having 
desired to eat between meals. 

This case of Mr. Robinson comes so well attested that it 
seems to be fully reliable ; and the physiological inferences 
involved, as to the functions of absorption from the atmos- 
phere, and of intestinal and renal secretions, which last 
two were proved to exceed in weight^the amount of food 



DYSPEPSIA. 807 

and driuk taken by the mouth, are very striking. Those 
who feel an interest in dietetic medicine will do well to 
consult Dr. Alcott's book, particularly the details of this 
case of Mr. Robinson, pp. 335-39. 

The sympathetic relation existing between different 
parts of the alimentary canal has already been alluded 
to ; but in the large intestine, viz. in the •aecum and colon, 
the physiology of which is not fully understood, a function 
exists in which the formation of fecal matter is carried on 
as a secretion, probably to relieve the blood of some of 
its impurity. The foregoing case of Jervis Robinson 
sustains this view. In dyspepsia this function of secre- 
tion is often diminished. Costiveness is a common 
complaint with those who eat too much or take too 
great variety of food, and resort to little or no exercise. 
A majority of patients who apply for aid in dyspepsia and 
constipation seem to think it the duty of medical men to 
cure their ailments, and at the same time allow them to 
pursue the course of living which caused their disorder. 
This the intelligent and honest physician professes himself 
unable to do; hence the resort of thousands to quacks, 
who always promise a cure. I knew a quack-physician 
in the interior of New England who, in dealing out doses 
from his saddle-bags to an enfeebled woman, spinning at 
her foot-wheel, remarked to her that he understood the 
machinery of the human body as perfectly as she under- 
stood that of her foot-wheel. This statement, which she 
could not gainsay, gave her unbounded confidence in his 
sknL 

Dr. Cheyne quotes the following passage from Dr. 
Barwick in the Life of his brother, who had for many 
years been confined in a low room in the Tower during 
the usurpation : that at the time of his going in he was 



308 DYSPEPSIA. 

under a phthisis, atrophy, and dyscrasy, and lived on bread 
and water only for several years there, and yet came out, 
at the restoration, " sleek, plump, and gay." " Many such 
instances,'' says Dr.Cheyne, "I could produce, but it would 
be lost labor." ^ 

* Cheyne's Natural Method of Caring the Diseases of the Body and the Dis- 
orders of the Mind. London, 1753. Fifth ed., pp. 210, 21L 



CHAPTER XXI. 



CONSTIPATION — COLDS. 



§ I. CONSTIPATION. 



It need not excite surprise that the masses of men who 
are ignorant of the part taken by the vital economy in 
the amelioration or cure of certain diseases (and in this 
number must be included many whose minds are highly 
cultivated on other subjects), should place their whole 
reliance on drugs, especially when they come put up in 
parcels prepared for easy swallowing, with printed direc- 
tions and the most positive assurances of lasting benefit, 
and when, having tried them, they have had their faith 
confirmed by a temporary relief of derangements, as head- 
ache, giddiness, dimness of vision, dulness of thought, etc. 
The invalid takes no account of the wear and tear of the 
delicate machinery upon which the medicine has acted, 
but repeats the dose again and again, upon the return 
of the symptoms. 

Pill-drugging, in our country, was carried to a great 
extent twenty-five to fifty years ago. A young man from 
Vermont consulted me on account of debility which he 
had a long time labored under. He said that he had taken 
six hundred of SrandretKs pills within a few weeks. 
I asked him if he thought he had derived benefit from 
them. He replied that he thought not, on the whole, but 



». 



810 CONSTIPATION. 

suspected he had been injured, as he had lost much 
strength. " Why then do you continue to take them ? " 
" Because," said he, " my way is to give everything a fair 
tiial." I stopped his pills and tried to enlighten him into 
a safer way of treating himself. Another case fell under 
my observation, between twenty and thirty years since. 
While at the Medical College of the State of Maine, I 
received a call from a man under thirty years of age, pale, 
sallow, emaciated, and so feeble that it was an extra effort 
for him to ride two miles in a carriage, as he had done that 
day in order to consult me. There was no difficulty in 
accounting for his prostration and pains, when he informed 
me that he had taken thirteen hundred of Morrison^ s pills 
within the last six months, I gave him the best advice 
ray experience had taught me, but, as I left that part of 
the country in a short time, I never heard from him after- 
wards. 

A melancholy feature of the human mind is its liability 
to oscillate from one extreme to its opposite, in defiance of 
reason and common sense, and under no other impulse 
than the bare assertion of some unknown individual. A 
man comes forward and boldly asserts that medicines 
increase in potency in proportion as they are attenuated ; 
in other words, the more they are diluted, or the farther 
their particles are separated from each other, the stronger 
they are as medicines; and when subdivided above the thir- 
tieth degree of attenuation, their p^wer becomes fearful. 
A single sniff at a vial said to contain the medicine, al- 
though wholly invisible, is liable to prove fatal ! Multitudes 
of educated minds embrace this as a glorious truth. The 
same medical authority is hostile to cathartic medicines. 
It is not many years since I was requested by a widow at 
Cincinnati to visit her daughter, who was *' suffering with 



CONSTIPATION, 811 

Bore eyes," A moment's inspection was sufficient. The 
cornea in each eye had sloughed, and the contents of the 
eyes were falling out. Both eyes were lost. As they re- 
ported the case, it was between two and three weeks since 
the eyes became sore, apparently from exposure to cold. 
The dispenser of the new medicine came ; used no evac- 
uant means, gave little pellets dissolved in water, and 
kept the bowels wholly unmoved for the last two weeks. 
All this at the cost of both eyes. 

The habit, if undeviatingly followed, of giving the 
bowels an opportunity for an evacuation soon after the 
morning meal, is important, and with some persons is an 
adequate preventive of constipation. Ordinary cases of 
dyspepsia, indeed most forms of chronic disease, as dis- 
tinguished from those accompanied with inflammation or 
fever, may be favorably treated with little or no medi- 
cation, if suitable dietetic and other hygienic measures 
are followed and faithfully persevered in ; but the grace 
of persevering self-denial for a remote object is so spar- 
ingly cultivated as to leave a large majority of invalids 
of this class to adopt some other course for relief. I have 
heard a dyspeptic patient remark, " I could never relish 
slop diet; rye or oatmeal mush lies like lead in my 
stomach; wheat-meal mush and cracked wheat I do not 
relish, and the dry Scotch cakes and Indian bannock are 
not savory enough for my palate." Well, eat fruits ; such 
as baked apples, sweet, pleasant, or sour ; cherries, goose- 
berries, currants, grapes, stewed prunes, dates, figs, the 
footstalk of the leaf of the pie-plant, or rhubarb-plant. The 
root of this vegetable is laxative ; I have found it to pos- 
sess something less than half the strength of the Turkey 
rhubarb. The fruits just named should be ripe, and for 
their laxative effect should be eaten before anything else. 



812 CONSTIPATION. 

at the breakfast and dinner. In this way constipation 
may with many individuals be obviated, especially when 
the quantity of other articles at the meal is within reason- 
able limits. 

The eating of fruit at the commencement of a meal, 
while it presents a bland or congenial material to the deli- 
cate lining membrane of the alimentary organs, forming 
a welcome precursor to the more substantial articles, many 
of which require protracted energy for their elaboration 
into nutriment, at the same time is to some extent a safe- 
guard against the overfeeding which comes from reserving 
the fruits till the stomach is already loaded with enough, 
perhaps too much, of other food. The same remark is 
applicable to the time of eating pudding, pies, and cake, 
if they must be eaten at all. But this procedure would 
interfere with the chief end of a custom established for 
the purpose of protracting the pleasures of the palate, 
without regard to the convenience, the health, or the 
safety of the stomach and intestines. The third meal, if 
a third be taken, should be very light, and eaten some 
hours before bed-time. A large class of valetudinarians, 
those especially who lead a sedentary and inactive lile, 
find themselves laboring under a sluggishness of the bow- 
els, which the fruits they can command do not obviate, 
and pills or powders, or decoctions or mineral waters, are 
summoned to their aid. A professional friend was in the 
habit for many years of resorting to the following pills 
when costive, viz. compound extract of colocynth, two 
grains^ blue mass and extract of henbane of each o^ie 
grain^ — mix into a pill to be taken at bed-time. He re- 
marked to me that it had not failed to answer his purpose 
for ten years. A pill which a gentleman approaching the 
age of seventy valued above everything else he had ever 



CONSTIPATION. 313 

tried, was made of the watery extract of aloes, two drachms ; 
soap, one (Jrachm ; extract of hyosciamus, eighteen grains ; 
make thirty-six pills. One or two to be taken at bed-time. 
The impression was so mild npon the organs as not to pre- 
vent quiet sleep. It moved in the morning after breakl&st. 
Dr. James Jackson, of Boston, when he wishes to quicken 
the action of the muscular coat of the caBcum and colon, 
gives a pill of two or three grains of compound extract 
of colocynth, one grain of quinine, and half a gi*ain of the 
alcoholic extract of nux vomica. Half a grain to a 
grain of extract of henbane might well be added for 
those patients who are subject to much pain under cathar* 
tic operations. A pill of two grains of the compound 
extract of colocynth with one grain of powdered nux 
vomica with some patients has a decided cathartic elfect. 
Mr. Abemethy recommended to many of his constipated 
patients to take five grains of powdered rhubarb just be- 
fore dinner. Decoction or infusion of senna, with the 
addition of orange peel or Peruvian or cascarilla bark, 
is suited to those cases where there is general debility. 
The fluid extract of senna of the shops^ is a valuable aperi- 
ent medicine ; two to four teaspoonfuls an ordinary dose. 
The old-fashioned lenitive electuary, or electuary of senna, 
is not a bad aperient, less eligible however than the fluid 
extract. It should not be forgotten that vegetable or 
mineral tonics are often valuable, combined with laxatives. 
Mineral waters are among the providential arrangements 
for the relief of man's self-made aberrations. The Con- 
gress-water of Saratoga contains several saline aperients 
besides iron and iodine, which, although in small propor- 
tions, are no doubt combined for an important end. The 
artificial Bjssingen water is a useful aperient. 

When the impediment to a movement of the bowels 

27 



814 CONSTIPATION. 

lies chiefly within a few inches of the outlet, an injection 
of a gill of cold water soon after breakfast is sAficient for 
some persons. 

Dr. John Ware, formerly Professor of Medicine in Har- 
vard University, and one of the most sagacious physicians 
of our country, says : " No method I have ever employed 
for the use of persons so persistently costive as to be 
obliged to depend upon medicine for its relief has been 
80 satisfactory as the combination of a large number of 
cathartic substances in small quantities in a single pre- 
scription," as follows : " 5 : Aloes, a scruple ; jalap, rhu- 
barb, scammony, of each sixteen grains; gamboge, five 
grains ; tartrite of antimony, one grain ; croton oil, one 
drop. Mix in sixty-four pills. Of these pills, one taken 
during or directly after a meal, once, twice, or three times 
a day, will rarely operate medicinally, and will usually pro- 
duce a natural fecal discharge. This combination I have 
now used for nearly forty years, and in a very large num- 
ber of cases, and have rarely found occasion to be dissatis- 
fied with its effect." ^ 

Dr. Ware makes a remark well fitted for the considera- 
tion of those who object to the taking of any kind of 
medicine, and at the same time are not very particular as 
to the quality or quantity of their food. " When we con- 
sider the constant errors of diet, as to quantity and qual- 
ity, of which most persons are daily guilty, and also their 
constant offences against the laws of health in other 
respects, it is not too much to say, that very few of us pass 
a day of our lives without some indulgence which is far 
more injurious than taking into the stomach a small quan- 
tity of medicine. I believe that the daily eating of newly- 

1 In defence of the composite character of his pill, Dr. W. cites the complex 
solutions in medicinal springs. 



CONSTIPATION. 315 

baked bread and batter, hot buttered toast, pastry and 
confectionery, short cakes, rich soups and gravies, and 
puddings, might, with very many individuals, be advan- 
tageously exchanged ^r a few grains of aloes or rhu- 
barb/'^ 

The caecum and colon may become sparing in their 
secretion of fecal matter, or their contents may so accu- 
mulate from deficient activity of the muscular coat as to 
give evidence of morbid condition, in which other organs, 
especially the kidneys, are liable to participate. In these 
cases an active cathartic is one of the most appropriate and 
effectual resorts. The hypochondriac is sometimes seen 
to emerge from gloom and solitude into mental sunshine 
and society from the effect of a single cathartic, which 
augments the secretions of the large intestines, carrying 
out from the blood some of the poison which makes a 
lowering brain and a spirit overcome with premonitions 
of insanity. 

Sir Henry Holland, one of the ablest thinkers in the 
medical profession of our time, in a chapter " On some 
points in the Pathology of the Colon," says : " We may 
always expediently begin the treatment of apparent disor- 
der of the kidneys by full evacuation of the larger intes- 
tines ; secure that, we shall obtain alleviation in this 
way, if not entire relief. Few of the means especially 
directed to the urinary organs are so effectual as those 
which operate upon them through this part of the intes- 
tinal canal." In the sixty-first volume of the Boston Med- 
ical and Surgical Journal, number seven, for September, 
1859, Professor Walter Channing, of Boston, records a 
very interesting case of incontinence of urine, accompanied 

* Lectures ob General Therap^tics. Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, 
Sept. 1861, p. 161. 



816 CONSTIPATION. 

with ** costiveness in the extremest degree." The patient, 

Miss J a seamstress, who for a long time was occupied 

in an establishment destitute of the necessary accommo- 
dations, lost entirely the voluntary control of the bladder, 
and was compelled to keep her bed, in a most pitiable 
condition. Professor Channing was consulted, and gave 
twice or thrice a week 3ij. sulphat. magnes. with 5ss of 
m agues, calcinat. in a cup of gruel in the morning, with 
benefit in restraining the purulent and bloody discharges 
of considerable standing, but without abatement of the 
incontinence. On consulting Dr. Morland's excellent 
work on the urinary organs, and finding active cathar- 
tics there recommended by an English physician, he deter- 
mined on the trial of them. He mixed ten grains of jalap 
with ten of calomel, into pills, with gum acacia, all to be 
taken at once, and to be followed in four hours, if no purg- 
ing occurred in that time, with half an ounce of castor oil 
and the same quantity of lemon juice. The fourth hour 
was not quite finished, when the cathartics commenced 
operating. " Seven dejections rapidly followed each other. 
These were of black indurated balls, sharply scraping a« 
they came ; then a short repose ; and lastly, two most 

copious, sofl-solid, and liquid stools She was a new 

creature. The bladder gradually came into correspon- 
dence with and obedience to the will. She went into 
the country to recruit, and returned to her old work," 
in an establishment with accommodations necessary for 
health. This case, by Professor Channing,- is one of great 
significance, strongly illustrating a relation between the 
large intestine and the urinary organs. 

Sir H. Holland further remarks upon the irritation and 
distention of the large intestine : " Many pains in the 
back and loins, which pass vaguely under the names of 



CONSTIPATION. 317 

lumbago and rheumatism, are distinctly referable to the 
same cause. The effect of treatment here is usually the 
most certain proof; purgatives and injections relieving 
these symptoms speedily and effectually in many cases, 

while failing in others Cramps, and other spasmodic 

and painful affections of the lower limbs, are a frequent 
effect of the mechanical distention of this bowel ; perhaps, 
also, of disordered and acrid secretions lodged within, or 
passing through it. Of the latter, we obtain proof in the 
very common concurrence of these symptoms with dysen- 
tery, or common diarrhoea. The acid, also, which, accord- 
ing to recent observations, is for the most part predomi- 
nant in the larger bowels, may be in such excess as to 
produce various disturbance by sympathetic irritation. 
The caecum, for obvious reasons, is the part most liable to 
distention ; often fi'om solid matters accumulated there 
in extraordinary quantity. Its effects when thus loaded, 
even upon distant organs, are so various and considerable 
as to require discrimination in practice. I have seen more 
than one case where pains were produced in the right leg 
severe and constant enough to suggest the idea of more 
permanent disease in the joint or limb." 

The eminent Dr. James Jackson assures me that he has 
met with cases corroborative of the views here presented, 
and I have myself seen instances where pain fixed in the 
right thigh, and rendering walking difficult or impractica- 
ble for days or weeks, yielded to purgatives. I have seen 
a child of three or four years, in whom a pain in the right 
thigh, immovable for a number of days, had been mis- 
taken for an attack of inflammation, although unaccompa- 
nied by extra heat or swelling. Complete and permanent 
relief followed the free operation of a mercurial cathartic. 

This chapter of Sir H. Holland, and the one following 

27* 



318 CONSTIPATION. 

it, " On the Abuse of Purgative Medicines," cannot be too 
carefully studied by the beginner in the medical profession. 

Many persons are impressed with the belief that every 
adult, in order to preserve health, should have at least one 
evacuation of the bowels daily, and in default of this, 
resort is too often had to the taking of some kind of pur- 
gative medicine. Observation, however, shows that this 
belief is not quite correct. While two motions a day are 
almost constant with some persons, three a week seem to 
be enough for others. I am acquainted with a man now 
(June, 1 861) in the middle of his ninety-fifth year, already 
referred to (p. 84) as a teetotaler for the last sixty years, 
who informs me that for many years .he has had no more 
than two or three motions in a week. When this slug- 
gishness is attended with much constipation, the use of 
fruit, as already pointed out, or water injections, should not 
be neglected. 

It is not saying too much to affirm that a large propor- 
tion of grievous, painful, and often fatal disorders of the 
intestines, as pouches, invaginations, strangulations, accu- 
mulations of indurated material, contraction of the rectum 
and anus, stricture, fissure and fistula of the anus, hemor- 
rhoidal tumora, as also cancer of the rectum, the csecum 
and the sigmoid flexure of the colon, might be avoided by 
most persons under a possible dietetic training from 
infancy to old age. For the symptoms and treatment of 
these, reference may be made to the books on these sub- 
jects. When a cathartic operation is sought for by medi- 
cine, the delicate structure of the organs concerned should 
be treated with consideration by the use of bland nnirri- 
tating nutriment for a day or two, as gruel, mush, tapioca, 
syrup of gum. I knew an invalid who took a cathartic in 
the morning, and worked it off* at noon upon roast veal and 



COLDS. 319 

horse-radish 1 For the itching of the anus and perinseura, 
iiLSome instances most distressingly annoying, I will men- 
tion an application from which I have observed more 
speedy relief than from any other local remedy. It is the 
nngnentum hydrarg nitrat. fort. After each evacuatioh 
from the bowels, the parts should be washed clean with 
simple water, mopped dry with a clean bit of linen or mus- 
lin, and then besmeared with the ointment, also passed 
into the anus as far as the itching extends. 

Glycerine with sugar-of-lead water, in these irritations 
and those in the neighborhood, have been highly recom- 
mended. 

§ n. COLDS. 

Who in our climate has not bad a cold ? Sometimes 
we hear the opinion expressed that colds never need be 
had by those who have the means of comfortable living. 
This is putting the case too strongly. Extreme and some- 
times unavoidable exposures to cold and wet are liable to 
result in some sort of derangement of health, in the form 
of cold, or inflammation, or spasm. But colds may be 
lessened, Both in frequency and force, under the best diet 
as to quantity and quality of food and drinks, and due 
attention to clothing, with an edequate amount of sleep, 
and a pure air for respiration night and day. 

It should never be forgotten that an inflammation, at 
first limited to the lining membrane of the nostrils, is lia- 
ble to extend into the throat, the organ of voice, the air 
tubes and cells of the lungs ; passing under the different 
names of cold in the head, sore throat, quinsy, croup, diph- 
theria, bronchitis, pneumonia or lung fever. 

It is an old maxim among the common people, " Feed a 



320 COLDS. 

cold and starve a fever ; " it would have been nearer the 
truth in this form : "Feed a cold and have a fever." In 
the treatment of a cold, instead of exposure to wind and 
weather, instead of high feeding and the use of stimulat- 
ing drinks, the patient should be kept in a mild temper- 
ature, live on " slop diet," as gruel, mush, etc, ; the bowels, 
if costive, should be opened by injections or a purgative ; 
and if the stomach has been in any degree disordered, an 
emetic of mustard, or ipecac, or tartrite of antimony, given 
early. Many persons say that they have repeatedly recov- 
ered from a cold without taking medicine, or altering their 
course in any way. This may be true, but it does not fol- 
low that this procedure is in all cases the safest and best 
for the whole living machinery, especially after its powera 
of resistance to morbid impressions have been enfeebled 
by mental depression or by advance in years. 

The case of General Washington is impressive. " On 
the 12th of December, 1799, he was abroad on his farms 
on horseback from ten o'clock, a. m., to three, p. m., and 
soon after he went out, the weather became very bad ; 
rain, hail, and snow falling alternately, with a cold wind." 
To the watchful eyes of his family there were no appear- 
ances of disease (though they looked for them) until the 
next day. He then complained of a sore throat, and it 
became evident that he had taken cold ; " he had a hoarse- 
ness, which increased in the evening, but he made light of 
it." So far from feeling anything like serious illness on 
this 13th of December, he seems to have been kept from 
" riding out as usual " only by a severe storm. In tho 
afternoon, he went out of the house to look after sotne 
work, which was not of an urgent character. He passed 
his evening as usual, and did not seem to be aware that 
his cold was uncommonly severe. When Colonel Lear 



GOLDS. 821 

proposed at bed-time that he should take something to 
remove his cold, he answered, "No, you know I never 
take anything for a cold ; let it go as it came.'' It was in 
this night that the sickness became more marked. He was 
taken with an ague, and between two and three o'clock on 
Saturday moniing, the 14th, he awoke Mrs. "Washington, 
and told her that he was very unwell. He then had great 
difficulty in breathing^ speaking^ and sioallowing. These 
symptoms are the essential characteristics of his disease, 
viz. acute laryngitis, or inflammation of the larynx. They 
continued till death, which took place between ten and 
eleven o'clock the following night. * 

Had he the first evening restricted himself to mild, 
warm, diluent drinks, confined himself to a warm room 
for two or three days, possibly he might have ^leeded 
nothing more ; or if his stomach or bowels were in any 
measure disordered, or his system was plethoric, an emetic 
or cathartic, joined perhaps with blood-letting, might have 
saved life. But the golden moments had run out; pro- 
fessiotial aid was called too late, and the nation must be 
clad in mouniing. 

When observation teaches that one fourth of all the 
deaths from disease in our climate are brought about by 
disease of the respiratory organs, and that inflammation 
commencing in any part of the air-passages may extend 
to the finer air-tubes or air-cells, how strong is the caution 
to give it early attention. In a large proportion of cases 
of acute catarrh, or what is called cold in the head, a suit- 
able diet and avoidance of exposure will be followed by 
recovery, without medication ; but in sore throat, with a 
hoarse or croupy cough, in addition to a mild temperature 

^ Dr. James Jackson's second Letter to a Young Physician : Boston, 1861 
(From Sparks's Life of Washington.) 



822 COLDS. 

and farinaceous diet, an antimonial emetic, often combined 
with or followed by enough calomel to cause three or four 
motions of the bowels, especially i^ as is often the case, 
the patient is plethoric, may be resorted to with the effect 
of arresting the progress of inflammation, and promoting 
speedy convalescence. 

More than half a century ago. Dr. Wilson, of Kelso, in 
Scotland, in his letters on morbid sympathies, recom, 
mended in croup the early use of emetico-cathartics ; and 
fi'om what I have witnessed, I have confidence in their 
efficiency, joined with warm stimulant or emollient appli- 
cations, a warm room and a bland diet. The same gen- 
tleman, in severe attacks of pain in the side, like incip- 
ient pleurisy, or of oppressed respiration like a threat- 
ened pneumonia, often saw all the symptoms arrested 
by thoroughly clearing the first passages. An early emetic 
of sulphate of zinc in diphtheria has been much relied 
on by some physicians. 

The foregoing has reference to simple colds. Influenza 
and hay cold, or hay asthma, are dependent on pi^culiar 
atmospheric conditions, probably not fully understood.^ 

The eruptive fevers, as measles, scarlet fever, and small- 
pox, which ordinarily exhibit their phenomena in a succes- 
sion of changes, both as to sequence and duration, have 
been denominated by the philosophic Dr. Jacob Bigelow 
" self-limited diseases," viz. not influenced in their course 
or duration by medicine ; and if the severity of these 
forms of disease has been diminished by treatment, their 
several stages of eruption, subsidence, and scabbing or 
scaling, are perseveringly exhibited in defiance of medi- 
cation. How a single development of these diseases con- 

» Sir H. Holland, and Dr. Watson's Lectures. 



GOLDS. 323 

fers, in -most cases, an immunity against a future attack, 
has not been explained. 

Typhoid fever is by some regarded as a self-liiftited dis- 
ease, and has some features analogous to those of the 
eruptive group. It is sometimes communicated by con- 
tagion ; there is an eruption upon the abdomen ; although 
the periods of its appearance and persistence are less defi- 
nite, and the individual who has once had it has seldom 
a second attack ; as seldom, probably, as with measles or 
small-pox. 

Dr. James Jackson is of opinion that this fever may have 
its period somewhat shortened by the early use of anti- 
monial emetics ; and he has given the results of a long 
series of careful observations in the Massachusetts General 
Hospital, in confirmation of this view, in his Letters to a 
Young Physician, page 327. 

In accordance with this opinion is the practice of Dr. 
Thomas K. Chambers, physician to St. Mary's Hospital, 
London. He gives an emetic early, with the effect, as he 
declares, of diminishing the force of the fever, and evi- 
dently shortening its duration ; and in some instances of 
extinguishing it altogether, and establishing convalescence 
at once.^ 

> Dr. T. K. Chambers^s Lecture, Med. Times and Gazette, Not. 23, 1861. 



CHAPTER XXII. 

BLOOD-y:BSSBLS AND BLOOD-POISONINa — PARASITES, 
i I. BLOOD-VESSELS AND BLOOD-POISONING. 

In the relation between the blood-vess^ and their con- 
tained fluid, several forms of disease originate. There 
may be general plethora, or too mach blood for the strength 
of the vessels and the complete and healthy action of the 
nerves; hence the liability to rupture of vessels in one 
.part or another, and to bleeding, which, if internal, may 
prove fatal. This may occur from overfeeding, joined 
with too small an amount of exercise. 

Local plethora arises fcom an unequal distribution of 
blood in different parts. It is called active congestion 
when the arteries bring into a part an undue proportion 
of blood, and passive congestion when the veins, from in- 
activity or compression, fail to carry off the blood as fast 
as it accumulates. Active congestion may give rise to 
preternatural growths, or to inflammation. In passive 
congestion, the serosity of the blood may be strained 
through the walls of the minute vessels, causing dropsy, 
or if the venous obstruction be very great, the ves- 
sels may be burst through, causing local bleeding or 
hemorrhage. 

The blood itself, that mysterious fluid, which no skill 
nor power short of creative can imitate, gifted with life, 



( 



BLOOD-VESSELS AND BLOOD-POISONING. 825 

and destined for perpetual motion and the nutrition of- 
tbe solid organs, is capable of being deteriorated and 
poisoned in a thousand ways. Its elements may vary 
in their proportions. The red corpuscles and other mate- 
lials, from their abundance or deficiency, may give rise to 
diseased states of widely different aspect. When the 
waste materials, after deposits of nutriment fi^om the 
blood, instead of being cast out by the appropriate or- 
gans, are allowed to float in the circulation, the blood 
becomes speedily narcotized or poisoned. Carbonic acid 
is one of the refuse products of the vital changes going 
on in the organs, and unless it is promptly thrown out by 
the lungs and skin, is speedily fatal. Another refuse pro- 
duct is urea, which, if the kidneys are incapable of dis- 
lodging it, accumulates in the blood, and narcotizes the 
brain, causing coma and death. 

Impurities of animal, vegetable, or telluric origin, im- 
bibed in respiration or transferred by being brought in 
contact with the living fibre, pass into the blood, generat- 
ing a host of prostrating, painful, loathsome, and destruc- 
tive diseases ; as intermittent, remittent or congestive 
fever, yellow fever, typhoid and typhus fever, and scar- 
let fever, diphtheria, measles, plague, small-pox, syphilis, 
glanders, canine madness, influenza, and cholera. 

There is the legion of shin diseases^ some of which seem 
to originate in sympathetic irritations in internal organs ; 
some of them come from invasions of animal and vegeta- 
ble parasites, or minute animals and plants, as scabies, por- 
rigo, and favus,mentagra. The salt rheum and leprosy of 
our climate seem to come from blood-poisoning; so also 
that intractable leprosy of Syria and Palestine, transmitted 
from parent to offspring. 

Of the materials which corrupt the human blood, prob- 

28 



326 BLOOD-VESSELS AND BLOOD-POISONING. 

ably none is more tenacious than the poison of syphilis- 
When once entered into the system, and its primary form 
sabdued, it is liable to crop oat in the large scabby cones 
of rupia, or in some other loathsome form of skin disease, 
or in bony prominences called nodes, accompanied by ex- 
cruciating pain. This poison sometimes lies as if inactive 
during twenty or thirty years. Ricord, who has probably 
seen more of this disease than any other man, mentions 
having seen it spring up in the tertiary form after having 
lain dormant for thirty years. I had a patient, whose 
veracity I could fully rely upon, in whom the tertiary 
form of the disease appeared after the lapse of twenty 
years. 

Ricord believes that this poison may be so modified as 
to give origin to scrofula in succeeding generations. Dr. 
Erasmus Wilson, who has long been conversant with the 
worst forms of skin disease, expresses himself as follows : 
" The tenacity of the syphilitic poison to the human or- 
ganism cannot but lead to the conclusion that, once admit- 
ted into the blood and tissues of the body, it remains there 
for life. It may not manifest its presence by any outward 
sign, but this cannot be received as an argument against 
its existence ; for at the most distant period it may 
suddenly become developed as a cutaneous eruption, an 
intense pain in a nerve, the inflammation of a bone of the 
periosteum, of a gland, or, indeed, of any one of the organs 
of the body. Should the individual escape, his children 
may suffer sooner or later ; and I am firmly of opinion, 
that the power of the poison may be manifested after 
several generations."^ 

Some poisons act by giving instant pain, and embarrass 

1 Erasmus Wilson on Syphilis, Preface, p. 9. 



BLOOD-VESSELS ANB BLOOD-POISONING. 327 

ment to the capillary circulation, as the stings and the 
bites of venomous insects and seqients; the prossic acid, 
the aconitine, the nicotine, and the strychnine, extingoish 
life with scarcely less promptness than a stroke of light- 
ning. Some of the narcotics 'in their ordinary use, as 
opiam, Indian hemp, tobacco, intoxicating drinks, though 
slower in their operation, do not fail to encroach upon 
health and life. The poison of a mad dog lies apparently 
harmless for weeks or months, although when it takes 
effect it causes symptoms hitherto uncontrollable. 

Inflammations exist in no small variety, resulting in 
adhesions of parts naturally distinct from each other, 
or in suppuration and abscess ; sometimes in the mixture 
of pus with the blood in the veins, causing a prostrating 
and fatal form of fever; sometimes followed by gangrene 
or mortification with its loathsome accompaniments, re- 
pulsive deformities, and fi^quent £ital termination. Scrof- 
ula, an enemy of stealthy approach, scatters quietly the 
seeds of decay in organs essential to life, till the victim 
is handed over to the destroyer. 

A sombre group of ailments is presented in what are 
called nervoics diseases, as neuralgia, spasm, convulsion, 
tetanus or locked jaw, chorea or St. Vitus's dance, paraly- 
sis, apoplexy, paralysis agitans or shaking palsy, hardening 
and tumors in the brain and spinal cord ; softening of these 
organs, sometimes with inflammation and abscess, some- 
times without; and, as if this were not enough, there is the 
dethronement of reason, with wild and hideous mental 
aberrations and delusions, prolific of the filthy and pro- 
fane jargon and gibberish of the madhouse. 
. In the large cities of our country from one third to one 
hal^ and in New York more than one half the deaths are 
among children under Qve yeare of age. 



828 BLOOD-VESSELS AND BLOOD-POISONING. 

Is there any mystery in this ? Bad nursing, improper 
foody irregular supply of food, deficiency in clothing 
a^d cleanliness, dark underground dens to dwell in, a viti- 
ated and corrupt atmosphere for respiration, and an 
early development of inherited forms of disease, give the 
explanation. 

The following extracts show the efiects of the violation 
of physical and moral laws upon life and health. 

** Polygamy in the harem form is peculiarly unfavorable 
to the healthy development of its progeny. 'Achmed 
Pacha Tahir, one of the governors i)f Cairo under Mehe- 
met Ali, had two hundred and eighty children ; only six 
survived him. Mehemet Ali himself had eighty-seven ; 
only ten were living at his death.' The children are kept 
within doors, badly supplied with light and air, while the 
children of the poor, constantly abroad in the open fields, 
with the benefit of exercise, exposed to wind and weather, 
are active and healthy. But this cannot be all. Elements 
farther back may be taken into the account for the expla- 
nation. The harem children have a set of idle, weak, 
sensitive, peevish mothers, and it might not be unsafe to 
add, an enfeebled paternity."^ 

The following extract from a sanitary report of assistant- 
surgeon Bartholow, attached to the ^army corps which 
passed the winter of 1857-58 in Utah, represents the Mor- 
mon harem in a light not much more favorable. Brigham 
Young has at least forty wives. "A large number of chil- 
dren have been born to him, a majority of whom died in 
infancy, leaving twenty-four, according to the most relia- 
ble accounts. These forty women, in monogamous society, 
manied, would have, probably, one hundred and sixty 

* N. Brit. Rev. of Bacon's E^ys, Aug. 1857. 



PARASITES. ' 329 

children, two thirds of whom, under hygienic circumstan- 
ces equally favorable, would have been reared. In Brig- 
ham Young and his wives, we have presented the most 
favorable conditions for successful polygamy possible in 
Mormon society. Yet in this instance the violation of 
a natural law has been speedily evinced. One of the most 
deplorable effects of polygamy is shown in the general 
weakness of the boys and young men, the progeny of the 
peculiar institution 

"There is an expression of countenance and style of fea- 
ture which may be styled the Mormon expression and style; 
an expression compounded of sensuality, cunning, suspicion, 
and a smirking self-conceit. The yellow, sunken, cadaver- 
ous visage, the greenish-colored eyes, the thick protuber- 
ant lips, the low forehead, the light yellowish hair, and the 
lank, angular person, constitute an appearance so charac- 
teristic of the new race, the production of polygamy, as 
to distinguish them at a glance. The older men and 
women present all the physical peculiarities of the nation- 
alities to which they belong ; but these peculiarities are 
not propagated or continued in the new race ; they are 
lost in the prevailing Mormon type." 

In whose veins flows a blood entirely unpoisoned ? If, 
in small cities and villages, one half or two thirds of those 
bom escape infantile mortality, there is still, apart from 
casualties, a lessening of their numbers through the several 
periods of childhood, youth, manhood, and decline, only a 
limited proportion arriving at what is denominated old age. 

4 n. PARASITES. 

Animals and vegetables, many of them too minute for 
inspection by the naked eye, perform a part by no means 

28* 



330 PARASITES. 

insignificant in onginating disease. This is true with 
reference both to man and the lower animals. Those small 
animals which prey upon the skin are denominated, from 
their superficial situation, Epizoa ; and those which inhabit 
internal cavities and organs are named Entozoa. The 
minute vegetable growths upon the skins of animals are 
named Epiphytes^ and those internally situated, Entophytes. 

A vegetable parasite is considered to be concerned in the 
production oi acodd-head^ mentagrOf or the barber^s itch^ and 
ring-worm. Dr. Anderson regards these three forms as 
essentially the same disease, and tei*ms them ring-worm of 
the Bcalp^ ring-worm of tlie heard^ and ring-worm, of the 
body} 

The otdium albicans is thought to be one of the most 
important vegetable parasites in man. ^'It forms the 
white pasty patches on the tongue of infants. It is some- 
times seated in the nose, windpipe, stomach,and intestines. 
It occurs in old people as well as children. It often occurs 
in the last stage of many prostrating diseases, and never 
fails to show itself in diphtheria. It is regarded as con- 
tagious, spreading rapidly in foundling establishments." 

Nearly allied to this o'idium, is the tonda cerevisuB, or 
yeast plant, " found occasionally in all the fluid excretions 
of the body." Another plant is the merismopcedia or 
(sarcina) ventriculi. It has been found also in the urine, 
in the intestinal canal, and in the lungs. Vegetable para- 
sites are found upon some birds in their respiratory organs, 
upon the bodies of some kinds of fish, upon the gills of 
others, in large quantities, and varieties of insects are 
loaded with them. 



* Parasitic Affections of the Skin, by S. McCall Anderson, M. D., London, 
1861, p. 46. Bemedial means : ExtractiOD of the hairs from their follicles, and 
applying a wash of corros. subl. 2grs. to the oz. 



PARASITES. 831 

The disease called muscardine^ so terribly destractive 
to the silk-worm, is produced by the botritis baasiana, 

Epizoa and entozoa^ or animal parasites, in great vari- 
ety and abundance, practise their depredations upon man 
and other animal tribes. The pediculus hominiSj man- 
louse, has received different epithets, according to the part 
he inhabits, as head-louse, body-louse, etc. Remedies: 
Short hair, a fine-tooth comb, cleanliness, blue ointment. 
For the fiea, an active thumb and finger to catch him and 
rub him to pieces. For the musquito,^ camphorated oil, 
a mosquito net. For the bed-bug, the solution of cori'o- 
sive sublimate. 

The natural history of the acarus scdbiei^ or itch in- 
sect, is now prdtty well understood. It burrows under the 
scarf-skin, depositing eggs in its progress. In some few 
instances the itch has proved fatal under a form of the 
disease aggravated by great filthiness and neglect on the 
part of the patient. 

The pimple mite, or demordex foUiddorum^ inhabits 
the hair-follicles of the human nose, particularly of thick- 
skinned or fat individuals; called, by the common people, 
nose-worm. Its mechanism and economy are not fully 
understood. 

Among the domestic animals the disease called manges 
and the scrcUcJiea in horses, are due to different parasitic 
mites. The ixodes, or ticksy are a great annoyance to 
grazing cattle. They bore into the skin, and cause bad 
' sores. In the sheep they are sometimes treated with 
Scotch snuff dusted upon them. Birds are much infested 
with varieties of lice. The large and small gad-fly of 
shady places is a great torment to the horse and homed 

^ To repel the miisqnitOf the Chinese Aimigate their rooms with the smoke 
ih>m the dried Artemisia, a species of wormwood. 



332 PARASITES. 

cattle. The bot-fly, another species of gadfly, alarms the 
horse in his approaches, not to bite, but to glue bis eggs 
upon the knees of that- animal, as the first step toward a 
brood of hots for the next season. In a particular district 
in Africa, Dr. Livingstone encountered a small fly, the 
UeJUe^ not much larger than the common house-fly, whose 
bite is certain death to the ox, the horse, and the dog. '^A 
remarkable feature in the bite of the Uetse^ is its perfect 
harmlessness in man and wild animals, and even calves, so 
long as they continue to suck the cows." 

An entozoon, the trichina apiraliSj a very minute 
worm, is sometimes found in countless multitudes coiled 
up in the muscles of man. Mr. Turner, senior demonstra- 
tor of anatomy, Edinburgh, says that ^ he has found from, 
one to two per cent, of the subjects he has dissected within 
the last five years had their muscles filled with the trich- 
ina spiralisy^ 

One species of worm, the atrongU^ " selects the heart 
for its domicil, another the arteries, a thii'd the kidney .** 
The tceniay or tape-worm, the ascaris lunibricadeSj or 
round-worm, the ascaris vermicularis^ or pin-worm, and 
the tricocephalus dispar^ or thread-worm, all reside in the 
alimentary canal. The tape-worm in man is found in two 
forms, — the narrow, or German tape-worm, and the.broad, 
or Swiss tape-worm. In either of these forms it is gene- 
rally solitary, but in some instances two or more have been 
met with in the same person. Its greatest length has 
been estimated at one hundred and fifty to three hundred 
feet; either number is probably a great exaggeration. 
Specimens are preserved of twenty feet or more. This 
worm, in a well-authenticated case, extended from the 

^ Sept. No. Edin Med. Jour. 1860. 



PAKASITBS. 883 

pylorus to within seven inches of the anus, adherent to 
the intestine all the way. 

Remedies for toenia: Kousso ; two ounces spirits tur- 
pentine. I gave this dose to a lady patient. It intoxi- 
cated her, and killed thd worm. Half a pint of the hulled 
** meats " of pumpkin seeds ; I have known it bring away 
the entire worm from a middle-aged woman. Large doses 
of grain tin, — 5i or more, three or four times a day. 
Another, the bark of the pomegranate root. Another, the 
root of the male shield fern. 

The round-worm measures from four or ^ye to twelve 
inches in length, and in number sometimes amounts to 
hundreds. "A girl eight years old voided upwards of 
two hundred in the course of one week. An instance is 
recorded of a soldier who passed three hundred and sixty- 
seven in six days. Another patient got rid of four hun- 
dred and sixty in a fortnight."^ 

The pin-worm inhabits the rectum ; has been called the 
spring-worm by the Germans, from its activity when dis- 
charged ; is half an inch long, exists sometimes in vast 
numbers. The long thread-worm, tricophalus dispar^ 
from an inch and a half to two inches in length, inhabits 
the large intestine ; the caecum is its favorite seat. 

A small white sac {cysticercus) is sometimes met with 
in great numbers, scattered through the flesh of the hog, 
constituting what is called measly pork. This sac is now 
understood to be the larva of tape-worm ; for, when trans- 
feiTcd to the alimentary canal, it is developed into a tape- 
worm. The experiments of Kuchenmeister satisfactorily 
demonstrated this change. " A cysticercus has been met 
with in the human eye, the brain, in the heart, and some 

* Watson, Lect. 73. 



334 PABASITES. 

Other muscular parts." Dr. E. Williams, a highly edu- 
cated oculist, showed me a specimen in the eye of a 
patient of his, a man under middle age. The cyst was 
white, gourd-shaped, ahout three or three and a half lines 
long, and two lines thick at its broadest part ; and it lay in 
the vitreous humor, so near the axis of vision as materi- 
ally to obstruct the sight. It showed considerable motion, 
which seemed to be independent of that of the globe of 
the eye. The oculist expressed his purpose to remove 
it by eztractiop through the cornea. 

It is said that more than twelve varieties of tape-worm 
have been discovered; the tcenia solium belongs to the 
hog and man; while the dog, cat, fox, and the rumi- 
nant animals, are infested by other varieties. Pro£ 
Siebold fed a number of lambs, with the joints full of 
ripe ova, from the tape-worm of a dog; in a fortnight 
these lambs and no others were affected witfi the " stag- 
gers," and when they were killed, cystworms 4n various 
stages of growth were found in their brains and other 
parts of their bodies. 

" Our red grouse," says Dr. Watson, ** a bird peculiar, 
I believe, to the British Islands, are very subject to tape- 
worm. In some years, thousands of them die of this 
distemper." Hydatids, or acephalocysts or sacs, are found 
in clusters of various sizes, each distended with their fluid 
containing small, round, seedlike bodies, called echinococci 
(hedgehog mites). These large sacs or hydatids, called 
by Prof.' Owen echinococco-cysts, are found in the liver 
and various other parts of the body. The small grains 
they contain are regarded as the spawn of some parasite ; 
Dr. Watson thinks some variety of tcenia. Of the two 
species of echinococcus which infest the human subject, 
the solicipariens has been traced by Von Siebold and 



PARASITES. 835 

Kiichermeister to a taenia that inhabits the intestines of 
the dog. "' The echinococcus in Iceland constitutes a dan- 
gerous endemic disease. Schleipner estimates that it 
formed one eighth of the total cases of disease. Thor* 
stensen calculated that it affected one seventh of the 
whole, population. 

" The tenacity of life in some minute animals is wonder- 
ful. Spallanzani kept certain infusorial animalcules four 
yeare in a state of complete desiccation and apparent 
death; but they presently recovered life and motion on 
being moistened. He dried and moistened alternately the 
same animalcules twelve times, with similar results; except 
that the number of the revivers was each time less and less, 
and after the sixteenth moistening there was no resurrec- 
tion. The vibrio tritid (a minute worm, which is a para- 
site of wheat), having been dried by Mr. Bauer, resumed 
its activity when remoistened, after the lapse of from four 
to seven yeara. Another small parasitic worm has been 
seen to exhibit strong contortions, evident vital move- 
ments, after having been subjected for above an hour, 
together with the codfish which it inhabited, to the tem- 
perature of boiling water. On the other hand, it is stated 
by Rudolfi that entozoa which infest the herrings annually 
sent to Berlin, hard frozen and packed in ice, do, when 
thawed, manifest unequivocal signs of renewed vitality."^ 

I have a medical fiiend, a close observer and careful 
student in natural history, who assures me that he has. 
observed small animals alive and active upon fresh halibut, 
just boiled and brought upon the dinner-table. In Sep- 
tember, 1849, when cholera was fearfully mortal in the city 
of Cincinnati, I collected a quantity of animalcules from 

^ Dr. Watson, from Pj-of. Owen. 



386 PAKASITES. 

the atmosphere of cholera patients, for inspection with the 
microscope. I filled a glass jar, of the capacity of three 
to four quarts, with ice, set it in a large, clean, dry por- 
celain bowl, and placed it near the head of the bed of a 
patient sick with cholera. In the first trial, the quantity 
of vapor condensed upon the Jar and caught in the bowl 
was about half an ounce. A great number of animalcules 
were immediately discovered in this fluid by a very good 
microscope obtained from Powell, London. This fluid, 
occasionally inspected during the autumnal months, was 
kept in a vial stoppered with a common cork, and placed 
in a closet of a chamber of the office through the winter. 
The water was frozen, and when thawed in the spring 
exhibited the animalcules as numerous and active as ever. 
Whether these little animals had any agency in the propa- 
gation of cholera, I do not pretend to determine ; they 
were -evidently hardy, like the parasites of herring sent 
in ice to Berlin. 

I have found monads in plenty, one thirty-thousandth 
of an inch in diameter, in water from melted ice, cut from 
Lake Erie the winter before. Sir Henry Holland, in the 
last chapter of his "Notes and Reflections," has presented 
a very able, candid, and logical view on the question of 
'-animalcule life as a cause of disease," and shows, I think 
satisfactorily, that the affirmative view better comports 
with the anomalous and capricious movements of cholera 
than any other. If thus occupied, they expose the impo- 
tence of man in resisting their high commission among 
the nations. 

^ An Entozoon of importance is the distomahepaHcum^ 
or liver fluke. It inhabits the gall bladder, the portal 
vein, the liver, the duodenum. In sheep it causes the 
disease called rot. 



PARASITES. 887 

'^Reference has already been made to parasites upon 
fish. Attached to large fishes they are sometimes found 
in great numbers, six or eight inches long. They occa- 
sionally excite even the largest swordfish or sunfish to 
such desperation, by the torments they inflict, that they 
dash themselves upon the beach * 

*' The cyamus has sometimes been found in such num- 
bers upon the whales of the Southern Ocean, as to entirely 
strip them of their epidermis, and to produce a white color 
recognized at a considerable distance."^ 

1 New Amsr. Cydoiwd., artiole E^pizoa and Rntoioa. 
29 



m 

CHAPTER XXIII. 

MY OWN BXPEBIBNCB. 

As cariosity among some of my friends may prompt the 
inquiry respecting my own experience in dietetics, I am 
induced to make a brief statement. I was bom the 23d 
of June, 1780, in Rockingham county, New Hampshire. 
From my father, a country physician of respectable stand- 
ing for his time, I inherited a dyspeptic stomach. He had 
a small farm, and the family were trained upon a mixed 
diet, such as was common among the cultivators of the 
soil in that neighborhood. Our bread was made chiefly 
of a mixture of rye flourand Indian corn meal, and fer- 
mented. Wheaten bread was a rare article with us, as 
the soil of our region was less adapted to the culture of 
wheat than the other grains. When milk was scarce, we 
often had bean porridge for breakfast and supper, and 
sometimes the rare treat of chocolate for breakfast. All 
along in my boyhood, I was subject to headache, with a 
sensation of buiiiing at the pit of the stomach. The head- 
ache and burning were aggravated after meals. When I 
was in college, and afterward, during my course of profes- 
sional study, being provided at the boarding-houses with 
wheaten bread (and coffee and tea not strong enough to 
do much harm), I found my stomach and head were less 



MY OWN EXPERIENCE. 339 

troubleson^ although by no means exempt from the occa* 
sional recurrence of the symptoms mentioned. 

When I commenced the practice of physic, my patrons 
were very hospitable, many of them seeming to think me 
unfit to prescribe for a patient before taking some sort 
of strong drink. The article presented waa usually rum 
or brandy, with sugar and water to temper it. In three 
weeks I found my stomach all out of gear, and I abandoned 
the liquor-tasting altogether. 

Within four years, I removed to a more populous lo- 
cality, where it was an established custom to offer cake 
and wine at eleven o'clock in the forenoon. It was not 
long before I found that this was a poor preparative of 
the stomach for dinner, and I laid the practice entirely 
aside. 

On taking the place of teacher in a country medical 
school, I provided myself with a fifteen-gallon cask of 
strong beer, recommended to me by friends whom I then 
regarded as quite judicious : their opinion was that I should 
need something extra to confer strength for the labor 
of preparing lectures, and of a professional practice in a 
sparse population. I tried half a pint a day, and on the 
third day my stomach was so acid that it was several days 
in regaining its tone. I made another trial of it with a 
similar result ; after which I had the cask brought out of 
the cellar and emptied upon the ground. 

At this time, although hostile to distilled liquor, I con- 
sidered wine, from the combination of its elements, a very 
different thing, a healthful beverage. Sherry and madeira 
I kept bottled in my cellar, and occasionally took a glass 
when a friend dined with me ; and at length my relish for 
wine was such that, had I thought myself able to meet 
the expense of its daily use, there is great reason to fear 



840 MT OWN EXPERIENCE. 

that I might have had an appetite confirmed ^ich would 
have proved my rain. 

For several years after I commenced lecturing to med- 
ical classes, I drank strong coffee and tea. My nerves 
became unsteady, and I laid aside tea. In three months, 
finding the state of my nerves but little improved, and the 
habit of frequently throwing up the liquid part of my 
breakfast, which had existed for some time, not abating, I 
abandoned coffee, and instead of it took a cup of hot milk 
and water sweetened. The ejection of the breakfast sub- 
sided at once. 

In the year 1830 I passed a number of months in Paris. 
While there, I ate but twice a day. Warm milk or choco- 
late, with bread and butter, was my breakfast, and some 
kind of animal food, with bread and vegetables, and one 
third of a bottle of claret wine, constituted my dinner. 

Very soon after my return from Europe I ^abandoned 
totally the use of wine as a beverage, both as injurious and 
unsafe, and inconsistent with the spirit of the temperance 
reform, in which I then felt a deep interest. About this 
time, my attention was turned to the subject of food ; and 
having been convinced by the remarks of Cuvier, and 
those of Mr. Lawrence, that man is marked by nature a 
vegetable-eater, I was induced to prescribe abstinence "from 
fiesh to many of my invalid patients. The result was such, 
in many cases, as to satisfy me of the value and importance 
of this procedure. 

In 1832, 1 deemed it necessary to prescribe for myself 
on account of increasing excitability of my nerves, which 
was no small annoyance when commencing an important 
surgical operation, especially in the presence of profes- 
sional strangers. I gave up the eating of flesh as an 
experiment, without determining how long I would con- 



MY OWN EXPERIENCE!. 841 

tinne it. I was then actively engaged in professional labor, 
and was unable at any subsequent period to decide that I 
had lost anything either in strength or activity. The state 
of my nerves was in a few weeks so much unproved, that 
I determined to persevere. I soon lost my relish for the 
flesh of land animals, but never wholly for fresh fish, 
although I tasted it but once for sixteen years. 

At different periods I have somewhat varied my course. 
I have all along eaten more or less milk, with the exce^)- 
tion of two years. During that period I abstained from 
milk, and its products, butter and cheese, and confined 
myself to farinaceous preparations, fruits, and esculent 
vegetables. Although my health was uniform, it was my 
opinion that I had not quite the amount of strength I had 
under the use of milk. Sometimes I have eaten butter 
for a considerable period, then abstained from it for 
months. Cheese I have not eaten, unless occasionally 
and in small quantity, with the exception of what is 
called cottage cheese^ made from sour milk, and eaten 
soon after the whey is pressed out. 

Early in the autumn of 1848, 1 had an attack of bilious 
remittent fever, caught, as I suppose, by sleeping upon 
the border of Lake £ne, in a malarious district. In my 
convalescence, at the solicitation of friends, I ate, in addi- 
tion to other food, the shavings of cold corned bee^ now 
and then a quail, or a mutton chop, which were easily 
digested, and evidently aided in nutrition. This was my 
first return to the flesh of land animals for food after I 
commenced entire abstinence from it in 1832; and my 
experience with it lasted not many days, perhaps two 
weeks ; since which time I have abstained wholly, as be- 
fore. During my convalescence I was advised to take 
brandy. I did so, beginning with eigJU dropSy diluted 

29* 



342 MY OWN EXPERIENCE. 

with water. It made a distinct impression upon the stom^ 
ach. The dose was slowly increased to a teaspoonful, not 
over, and was taken three or four times a day, and con- 
tinued about two weeks. In 1850, and after, I occasion- 
ally ate fresh fish, when it came in my way, among friends 
upon the sea-board or lake-shores, until July, 1859, when, 
under the impression that it sometimes disagreed with my 
stomach, I abstained from it, and have not once tasted fish, 
cither fresh or salt, since (now May, 1862). 

At no period of my vegetarian experience have I prac- 
tised the eating of compound soups, made from flesh and 
vegetables, and I have very rarely tasted oysters or oyster 
soup ; and I believe I am safe in saying that I have not 
tasted lobster more than twice since the year 1832. 

In 1846, being then at the age of sixty-six, I visited 
Paris, most of the Italian cities, a part of Switzerland, 
several cities in Germany, London, Manchester, Liverpool, 
Edinbui-gh, Glasgow, and the Scottish Lakes ; was absent 
from home between seven and eight months, and duiing 
that whole time I ate no kind of animal food, and drank 
neither wine nor strong drink; in fact, I took no drink 
besides milk and water. The water of Naples I was cau- 
tioned against drinking, as derived from the leachings of 
Mount Ves^ivius, and particularly unwholesome. Although 
I did not much relish it, I suffered no inconvenience from 
it. During the entire period of my absence from home, 
I had, besides sea-sickness, only about one hour's indispo- 
sition; that was a neuralgia of the fibular nerve, men- 
tioned on page 160. 

Of coffee I have taken a small cup after dinner, in not 
more than three instances, since finst quitting it, — I had al- 
most lost my relish for it; and as for tea, I have never 
taken so much as half a cup, except in a single instance, 



MY OWN EXPERIENCE. 843 

at the solicitation of friends, in convalescence from remit- 
tent fever : it was nauseous and disgusting. 

A glass of cold water in hot ^weather, a cup of warm 
water, or of cocoa or chocolate, with sugar and milk, 
serves me morning and evening ; a glass of water always 
with dinner; I eat all manner of fruits (except the paw- 
paw), all the small grains under simple forms of cookery, 
the esculent vegetables and roots. I am especially partial 
to the potato, and to beans and peas stewed sofl in sim- 
ple water, and seasoned with salt only. Most of my food 
is taken at breakfast and dinner. At evening, a cup of 
sweetened milk and water, with a small cracker (biscuit), 
suffices. I very oflen take no eatable thing after dinner, 
and drink nothing but a sip of water before going to bed ; 
the break&.st and dinner furnishing all the nutriment the 
organs require. Eggs, pies, unless it be apple pie with a 
crust of bread-dough, puddings, cake, I rarely eat. Pud- 
dings I generally decline, because I have usually eaten 
enough of other things before they are brought upon the 
table. Gingerbread and pound cake I do not altogether 
exclude, although I take them but i^rely. I eat cucum- 
bers, if young, tender, and recently picked from the vines, 
seasoned with salt, rarely with vinegar ; pickles, never ; 
mustard, horse-radish, cayenne and black pepper, almost 
never ; rarely, a weak solution of vinegar in water ; spirit, 
beer of all kinds, and cider, never ; a glass of soda-water, 
almost never. 

The headaches of boyhood — I mean the headaches con- 
nected with oppression or irritation of the stomach or 
bowels — have scarcely ever troubled me since I became a 
vegetarian. For the last forty years I have rarely omitted 
the morning ablution in cold water. I hav^ never had 
rheumatism, and but rarely a stitch of neuralgia. 



344 HY OWN EXPERIENCE. 

I am certainly far from presamiDg that my dietetic course 
has been in all respects the best possible of its kind ; owing 
ifk part to my being frequently so situated as not to com- 
mand the articles I should have chosen, and in part 
to ignorance of the combination of articles best suited 
to my constitutional peculiarities (and there is much to 
be learned from experience on this topic), and in part 
also to taking too much in quantity; for it is not always 
easy to stop eating at the point of useful supply, especially 
under exhaustion from exercise or unusual abstinence. 
Tet, with all these impediments, I cannot help believing 
that my health has been benefited, and my life somewhat 
prolonged. 

A rule for eating I had from a very intelligent landlady 
at a country hotel. To my question "how she could 
accomplish so much more in her establishment than others 
of my acquaintance,'' she replied, "I never eat when 
weary or fatigued ; I lie down and take a nap or rest 
myself first." This course a physiologist knows how to 
explain. Few persons, however, are so situated as to 
practise it undeviatingly. 

Physicians are aware that, in advanced life, a scab upon 
some part of the face is an occasional preliminary to epi- 
thelial cancer, which, though generally slow in its progress, 
is liable to run on to a fatal termination. I felt some 
interest in this matter, apprehending that I might possibly 
inherit a tendency to this form of disease, as my father 
died of cancer of the lower lip. During my absence in 
Europe, while the affection, as I suppose, was susceptible 
of a cure by a surgical operation, my father yielded to the 
urgent representations of a quack, who promised a cure 
from the application of caustic. This caused much pain 
and an eating sore, which, on my return home, had be* 



MY OWN BXPEBIENCB. 845 

come too extensive to promise benefit from the use of the 
knife. 

Abont 1853 or '54, I perceived upon my face, a little 
above the aia of the nostril, a scab^ not far from the sixth 
of an inch in diameter, which clung to the skin with great 
tenacity. It was neither sore nor painful, and once in 
three or four weeks it could be separated from the skin 
by slowly insinuating the finger-nail under its edge. The 
surface thus uncovered was never a natural skin, but was 
thin and purplish, and below the surface of the natural 
skin, but never bled. Several applications were made, 
without apparently affecting its progress, and its diameter 
was slowly increased. In July, 1859, or more than five 
years after it was first observed, and months after I had 
ceased making applications to it, I was indifced to abstain 
entirely fi-om the eating of fish, from the apprehension 
that it was less congenial with the easy action of the 
stomach than other food. In thus abstaining, I had no 
reference to the scab whatever, not even dreaming that 
the one could influence the other. In about three weeks, to 
my surprise, the scab dropped off of itself, leaving a smooth 
and natural skin in its place; and fcom that moment to 
the present, now almost three years, there has not been 
the least indication of its return. Kow I am far from 
confident that in these changes there was the relation of 
cause and effect; and yet I lean so much towards the 
afiirmative that I have not tasted fish since, and I have 
ventured to make this statement for the consideration of 
my readers. If the affirmative should be admitted, would 
it be more extraordinary than the cure of some other 
forms of skin disease we are acquainted with, under a 
change of diet ? 

I have been repeatedly asked whether I would advise 



846 MT OWN EXPERIENCE. 

every persoa who eats flesh to abandon it> and to live 
wholly on the products of the vegetable kingdom. My 
answer has been that I would not. Generally, those far 
advanced in life do not well bear so great a change in theip 
living. There is, however, now and then an exception to 
this remark. A medical friend, Dr. C, aged seventy, had 
been an active and distinguished physician, plethoric and 
fat, weighing two hundred pounds. At this age he aban- 
doned flesh, coflee, and tea, and all diinks but water; 
avoided bu4ter, and ate but little cheese. He now lives 
chiefly on bread, fruits, and simply cooked vegetables; 
eats potatoes moistened with milk twice a day, and thinks 
he does not take more than a gill and a half of milk daily. 
He has lost twenty-five to thirty pounds of flesh, is clearer- 
headed than before he made this change in his diet, has 
no hankering for meat or butter, feels as well in every 
respect as he did before, and has suflered nothing from the 
change, as he assured me. This statement was made to me 
in the year 1835, He died in the following year from a 
rupture of the common bile-duct, from an impacted gall- 
stone formed probably long before. He was induced to 
adopt a purely vegetable diet with the hope of being 
relieved from his plethora and dulness. I have pre- 
scribed animal food, as beef- tea, venison, mutton-chop, 
beefsteak, cold corned beef, and quails for adults, laboring 
under scrofula; with" children, however, in scrofulous 
ophthalmia, milk, gruel, mush, rice, with a sparing supply 
of fruits, has been generally quite successful. 

In convalescence from fever, on the return of appetite 
we may do well to treat with consideration the preferences 
of the patient, but not always to be guided by them. In 
the eai'ly part of his practice, a physician of my acquaint- 
ance had a patient, somewhat advanced in life, who had 



MY OWN EXPERIENCE. 847 

been some days sick with lung fever. On abatement of 
the symptoms, an appetite was expressed for boiled salt 
pork and greens. The doctor gave his consent to the trial 
of it. This food, perhaps the worst that could have been 
thought o^ might have turned the scale against recovery. 
The complaint was speedily aggravated, and the patient 
sunk in two or three days. 

From suggestions already presented, it will be under- 
stood that in certain forms of chronic disease, as dyspepsia, 
constipation, and in some cases of local pains, a due atten- 
tion to diet, air, exercise, and other hygienic influences, 
with little or no medication, are all that will be required ; 
but when there is an attack of fever or inflammation, even 
if it be not severe, my opinion is, that without delay a 
physician should be consulted; a physician skilled in all 
the known methods of investigating disease, one who can 
estimate the influence of mental and physical tempera- 
ment, and adopt the proper mode of arresting and dis- 
persing an acute form of disease before it has fully seated 
itself in its most dangerous location. 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

MILK Ain> YE6BTABLB FEEDING FOR SUBGICAL 

OPERATIONS. 

It is hoped that observation and experience will be 
admitted in explanation of a decided partiality I entertain 
for a diet of farinaceous preparations, with milk and jfruits, 
in connection with grave operations in surgery. I have 
already mentioned the case of Jason Pattee, upon whom 
the operation of tying both carotids, for a large bleed- 
ing naevus upon the vertex of the head, was performed in 
1827.^ His food was milk and bread and mush, etc., both 
before and for a length of time subsequent to the operation. 

Another case occurred in 1852. Early in November of 
.that year, Luther B. Gordon, aged nineteen, came to Cin- 
cinnati from Indiana, with a large bloody compress bound 
upon his left ear, and was admitted into St. John's Hospi- 
tal. The irregular cavities of the ear, and the space 
between the angle of the jaw and the mastoid process, 
were occupied by elastic and pulsating tumors. The 
enlargement was noticed about eight years before; the 
progress was slow, and nothing was done. A month before 
his arrival, one of the tumors burst, with an alarming flow 
of arterial blood. The removal of the compress, drawing 

* Amer. Joar. Med. Science, Yol. v., p. 816. 



FEEDING FOR SURGICAL OPERATIONS. 849 

along with it the crust covering the opening, was followed 
by a fresh jet of blood. From the time of the first bleed- 
ing he had been kept chiefly on farinaceous food. On the 
18th of November, I tied the left carotid. The pulsation 
ceased, and the tumor very slowly diminished. In four 
weeks I tied the right carotid. The patient was uncon- 
scious in both operations, from the inhalation of two parts 
of ether to one of chloroform. One ligature came away 
in sixteen days, the other in twenty. On the 28th of Jan- 
uary, seven weeks after the last operation, Mr. Gordon left 
for home. The last of April his physician wrote me that 
there were no remains of the swellirig, and that he re- 
garded the difficulty as perfectly cured. From that time 
till this year, 1861, I heard nothing from him. A letter 
of inquiry, which I wrote in the spring, followed him 
through several post-offices, and having found him, drew 
from him a reply, dated July 18th, 1861. I had always 
entertained fears that the aneurismal enlargement might 
some day return. He writes : " Previous to the past year 
I think there has been very little change since I left Cin- 
cinnati. Within the past year there has been a slight 
enlargement of the aneurism, perhaps partially in conse- 
quence of arduous labor. During last winter I walked 
two and a half miles each day, and had the charge of a 

large school The hemorrhages have been slight, and « 

not frequent." 

In addition to a bland diet in moderating the force of 
the circulation after the ligation of large arteries, it has 
seemed to me that the horizontal position of the patient 
ought to be persevered in until the reparation of the 
lesion is considerably advanced, inasmuch >as the heart is 
not called upon, in this position, to give the blood so great 
an impetus as is required when the body is erect. This 

30 



350 MILK AND VEGETABLE FEEDING 

patient, Mr. Gk>rdon, was kept in the horizontal positicm 
twelve days after the tying of each carotid artery. 

A case of tumor, probably malignant, within the right 
angle of the lower jaw, and extending to the root of the 
tongue, occurred in our city hospital. As a preliminary 
to its removal, I tied the carotid. The patient, a young 
man under twenty-five yeara, was not scrupulous in observ- 
ing directions. From the third day after the operation, 
he was up and walking about the surgical ward. On the 
fifth day I was summoned in haste on account of alarm- 
ing hemorrhage at the wound. The bleeding was arrested 
by ice, compression, and a persevering horizontal position. 
The wound at length healed, and the patient, a foreigner, 
left for New York, with a view to return to his European 
friends. I did not hear from him afterwards. 

Miss Sarah Jane Lenhart, an uncommonly beautiful 
young lady of seventeen, ftom Brown county, Ohio, was 
brought to Cincinnati with an osteo-sarcoma of the left 
side of the lower jaw, extending into the ramus. This was 
in the summer of 1845, before ether and chloroform were 
employed as ansesthetics. 

Miss Lenhart remained four weeks for the operation, fed 
with milk and farinaceous preparations, submitting to the 
manipulations of the boastful mesmerists of the city, each 
of whom promised her an entire insensibility for the ope- 
ration. They all failed, however, to put her into a state 
that bore even the semblance of sleep. 

Particularly desirous to save her fi-om that dpfprmity of 
the mouth which follows the division of the facial nerve, 
I determined to tie the carotid and dissect out the diseased 
bone. All this was done. Half the entire jaw, with th^ 
condyle and coronoid, was removed, without wounding the 
facial nerve or the duct of Retno. Miss L. remarked, after 



FOR SURGICAL OPERATIONS. 351 

the operation, that "it did not hurt her much." The 
wounds healed readily, and there was no return of the 
disease afterwards. The deformity was very slight. Four 
years afterwards, this beautiful and amiable young lady 
met with her death by being thrown from a carnage. 

Wilson M. Stark, aged thirty-three, came to Cincinnati 
from Lower Sandusky, Ohio, on the 10th of July, 1845, 
with a large bony tumor on the upper part of the right 
arm and shoulder. The swelling commenced in the upper 
half of the arm bone, four years before, and now involved 
most of the shoulder-blade and a part of the collar-bone. 
The last two years it had greatly increased, and was very 
painful. As^the weather was excessively hot, I declined 
operating, and waited for a change. In seventeen days a 
copious rain fell, followed by a cool northwest wind. The 
next day, the 28th of July, I proceeded to the operation, 
and removed the arm with the entire shoulder-blade, and 
the outer half of the collar bone. The wound healed 
kindly, and in three weeks he left for home, by canal boat, 
in which he passed two hundred miles, and completed his 
journey, thirty miles more, in a stage-coach. The wound 
was entirely healed in three weeks after he had reached 
his home. There has been no indication of a return of 
the disease (osteo-sarcoma) since. 

A letter from Mr. Stark, dated October 15, 1861, informs 
me that his general health has been good until within the 
past year, in which he has been troubled with dyspepsia. 
As I requested him to give a particular statement of his 
diet while at Cincinnati, if his recollection would enable 
him to do it, he replies, under date of December 9, 1861 : 
" My memory is distinct as to the matter. After I arrived 
in Cincinnati, and before the operation, I lived on baked 
potatoes with a little salt, and a little milk toast for each 



362 ^ MILK AND VEGETABLE FEEDING 

meaL The first day after the operation, I lived on a pint 
of water gruel ; the second and third, on a quart ; the 
fourth day on one haked potato, and one small tomato, 
with a little vinegar on it. And after that I lived on 
vegetahles entirely, avoiding any grease, as long as I 
remained in Cincinnati." 

The case of Horace Wheeler, of East Randolph, Ver- 
mont, is familiar to some of my professional friends, 
through the medium of the Philadelphia Journal of the 
Medical and Physical Sciences.^ His arm was amputated 
at the shoulder-joint, for osteo-sarcoma ; and six yearo 
afterwards, viz. in the autumn of 1837, the shoulder-blade 
and collar-bone were removed, for the same disease.* He 
was prepared for the operation by living four weeks upon 
bread and milk, and after the operation had the same liv- 
ing, until the wound was healed. The flaps of integu- 
ment, seven or eight inches in length, were healed entirely 
by the process of adhesion, literally without the formation 
of a teaspoonful of pus; there were a few drops only 
around the ligatures which were applied to the blood- 
vessels. In less than three weeks all was healed, and Mr. 
Wheeler rode home, thirty-six miles, in a stage-coach. 

In a letter from him, dated November 28. 1861, he says: 
"The last two years my general health has been better 
than the two or three years previous. I have not expe- 
rienced any return of the disease which caused the loss of 
my arm and the subsequent operation September 28, 1837, 
unless two fleshy tutnors, which were removed by Prof 
Crosby, were of the same character. One of them was 

» Vol. xxi. p. 390. 

' In the operation which removed the shoulder-blade and collar-bone, while 
the Btump of the subclavian vein was raised for the purpose of securing it by 
ligature, a slight hissing was heard, from air passing into the circulation, whlcli 
caused a swoon that lasted, by estimation, eight or ten minutes. 



FOR SURGICAL OPERATIONS. 353 

on my right breast, the other on the under part of my left 
leg, near the body. It is about twenty years since the last 
one on the leg was taken out. 

He acknowledges his indebtedness to a kind Providence 
for allowing him to enter his seventy-first year, and giving 
him peace of mind. 

The rice-fed Hindoo devotee, who is suspended from 
the end of a long horizontal pole by a metallic hook thrust 
through the thick muscles of his back, and is swung round 
and round for two hours, recovers ; while the porter of 
London, fed on beef and beer, is liable to die of erysipelas 
or gangrene from a scratch upon his leg. 

Is it not better to feed patients after operations in the 
manner above stated, than to dose them with alcoholic 
drinks, and thus expose them to the danger of contracting 
the habit of intemperance, if they recover from their 
wounds ? I could name a young man who was operated 
upon six or seven years ago, in a large hospital, for a de- 
formity of the thigh-bone, the result of a badly united 
fracture. He remained in the hospital about eleven 
months. In nine months after his discharge from that 
institution, he was carried into the house of cori-ection in 
a fit of delirium tremens^ On recovering his reason, being 
asked where he had learned to drink liquor so freely, he 
replied, "At the hospital." It is gratifying to reflect that 
under the watchful care of benevolent individuals, this 
young man was saved from destruction, and is now, and 
has been for the last five years, a sober and industrious 
man, a total abstainer from all intoxicating drinks. 

30* 



CHAPTER XXV. 



LENGTH OF LIFE. 



Vabious estimates have been made of the average 
length of human life. It requires but little attention, 
however, to establish the position that this period varies 
greatly in different climates, and indeed in different com- 
munities in the same climate. If the '^ threescore years 
and ten,'' mentioned in the ninetieth Psalm, were intended 
as a measure of life in a Hebrew community, at the time 
of Moses, the reputed author of the Psalm, it is plain that 
there has been a remarkable falling off from this standard. 
Some years since, when the average length of life in Great 
Britain was estimated at thirty-three years, that of a Qua- 
ker community in that country was forty-seven years, 
making a difference of fourteen years in every life, due to 
their temperate and regular habits of living. 

The Laplanders, who live in a climate of intense frost, 
and a third part of the year without sunshine, and who 
feed on fish and seals and walruses, are far from attaining 
a high age. 

Temperate and hot climates, where the inhabitants live 
on a mixed diet, or on one exclusively vegetable, furnish 
older men. Says Malte Brun,^ "It was in the Punjaub 

1 Geog. Vol. iii., p. 26. 



LENGTH OF LIFE. 855 

and other elevated districts that the ancients collected 
numerous examples of Indian longevity. The Cymi^ and 
the subjects of Prince Musicauus, often lived to the age 
of one hundred and thirty or two hundred years." " The 
Portuguese historian, Faria, states that an inhabitant of 
Diu attained the age of three hundred years ; and he adds 
that, according to the accounts of the natives, several indi- 
viduals of two hundred years were to be found in Guze- 
rat." "Captain Riley, in the 'Journal of his Shipwreck,' 
mentions that he was told by Sidi Hamet of an Arab in 
the great African desert who was nearly three hundred 
years old ; and he adds, * I am fully of opinion that, a great 
many Arabs on this great expanse of desert actually live 
to the age of two hundred years or more.' " 

Mr. Keesbury, bom of English parents, and for several 
years a resident in India, remarked to me that in the 
interior, back from the large commercial towns, it was a 
common thing to find a native one hundred years old and 
upwards. 

"According to Pliny, in the year -76 of the Christian 
era, from a taxing by Vespasian, it was estimated that 
between the Apennines and the Po there were living 
one hundred and twenty-four peraons one hundred years 
old or upwards ; viz. fifty-four of one hundred yeai^s ; fifty- 
seven of one hundred and ten ; t\^o of one hundred and 
twenty-five ; four of one hundred and thirty ; four 9f 
one hundred and thirty-five ; and three of one hundred 
and forty. 

" Besides these, Parma had five, whereof three had ful- 
filled one hundred and twenty, and two one hundred 
and thirty; Brussels had one of one hundred and twenty- 
five ; Placentia one of one hundred and thirty-one ; 
Faventia one woman of one hundred and thirty-two ; a 



866 LENGTH OF LIFE. 

certain town then called Yellciacium, situate in the hills 
about Placentia, afforded ten, whereof six fulfilled one 
hundred and ten years of age, four one hundred and 
twenty; lastly, Rimino, one of one hundred and fifty 
years, whose name was Marcus Apponius. Clodia, the 
wife of Ophilius, who lived to the age of one hundred 
and sixteen years, is mentioned by Pliny as the oldest 
female who had died in ancient Rome." 

In 1825, our distinguished lexicographer, J. E. Wor- 
cester, LL. D., presented to the American Academy of 
Sciences a highly interesting paper on longevity, which 
was published in the first volume of their Memoirs, new 
series. He gives a list of ninety-eight persons in New 
Hampshire, with the date of their deaths, which occurred 
within the period of ninety-three years, ending in 1824, 
all of whom were one hundred or more years old, be- 
sides six others, the dates of whose death were unknown, 
the eldest of whom was one hundred and twenty. 

"There were known to have been living in New Hamp- 
shire, in 1823, at least twelve persons at the age of eighty 
years or upwards." 

Dr. W. gives a table, beginning 1808, ending 1821, 
exhibiting a list of one hundred and thirty-two persons 
in the United States who had attained the age of one 
hundred and ten years or upwards. Flora Thompson, a 
negress of Pennsylvania, heads the list, at the age of one 
hundred and fifty years. There were one at one hundred 
and forty-three; one at one hundred and forty-two; one 
at one hundred and thirty-seven; two at one hundred 
and thirty-six ; one at one hundred and thirty-five ; three 
at one hundred and thirty-four ; and three at one hundred 
and thirty. 

At the present time (1862) it is not uncommon in New 



LENQTH OF LIFE. 857 

England to find a person one hundred years old or above. 
In the beginning of the year 1858, there were in the New 
England States four clergymen, all educated at Dartmouth 
College, each of whom was one hundred years old. They 
all died within the year. 

John Gilley, born in the County of Cork, Ireland, in 
1690, died at Augusta, Me^ July, 1813, aged one hundred 
and twenty-four. I saw him after sunset of a cold even- 
ing in December at the age of about one hundred and 
eighteen. At that time he took the whole care of the 
cattle at his barn, and cut all the wood for the fire in his 
house. He lived on a mixed diet, and had seven teeth 
left in his mouth. He told me that he had never had a 
fit of sickness; was once confined for a short time with 
a broken leg. He lived a bachelor till he was between 
seventy and eighty, when he was married to a girl of 
eighteen. They had eight children, who had gone out 
into the world "to seek their fortune," leaving the old 
folks to take care of the homestead. 

Henry Francisco, born in France, died near Whitehall, 
N. Y., in October, 1824, in his one hundred and thirty- 
fifth year. "He abstained almost wholly from animal 
food, his favorite articles being tea, bread and butter, and 
baked apples." 

" William Scoby, a native of Ireland, died at London- 
derry, N. H., at the age of one hundred and ten years. 
It is recorded of him, that when one hundred years of 
age he travelled on foot from Londonderry to Portsmouth, 
more than thirty-five miles, in one day ; an exploit which 
many would find difficult at any period of life. The age 
of William Scoby is stated in the first edition of Dr. 
Belknap's History of New Hampshire at only one hun- 
dred and four, but one hundred and ten in the second 



358 LENGTH OF UPE. 

edition, as it is also in the New Hampshire Gazetteer, the 
Massachusetts Historical Collections, and likewise by a 
con*espondent of the writer at Londonderry. 

•* Robert Metlin (called by Dr. Belknap, Robert Macklin), 
who died at Wakefield in 1787, at the age of one hundred 
and fifteen, was a native of Scotland. He lived for some 
time at Portsmouth, and followed the occupation of a 
baker. The following anecdote respecting him is related 
by Mr. Adams, in his * Annals of Portsmouth,' under the 
year 1787, the year of Mr. Metlin's death. 

"He was a great pedestrian. He usually bought his 
flour in Boston, and always travelled thither on foot. He 
performed the journey in a day, the distance being then 
about sixty-six miles, made his purchases, put his flour on 
board a coaster, and returned home the next day. He was 
eighty years of age the last time he performed this jour- 
ney. At that time this was thought an extraordinary 
day's journey for a horse. The stage coaches required 
the greater part of two days. Col. Atkinson, with a strong 
horse and a very light sulky, once accomplished it in a 
day. He set out early in the morning, and before he 
reached Greenland, overtook Metlin, and inquired where 
he was bound. Metlin answered, to Boston. Atkinson 
asked if he ever expected to reach there, and drove on. 
Atkinson stopped at Greenland, and Metlin passed him; 

r 

they alternately passed each other at every stage on the 
road, and crossed Charlestown ferry in the same boat be- 
fore sunset."^ 

The Hon. Mrs. Watkins, of Glamorganshire, visited 
London at the age of one hundred and ten, the last year 
of her life, to witness the performance of>Mrs. Siddons. 

1 J. E. Worcester on Longeyity. 



LENGTH OF LIFE. 359 

While in London, she ascended those many flights gf steps 
which lead to the whispering dome of St. Paul's, a labor 
which few who have tried it can easily forget. The last 
forty years of her life, Mrs, W., it is said, lived exclusively 
on potatoes. 

Thomas Parr, of Shropshire (England), died in 1636, aged 
one hundred and flfly-two yeara and nine months; ate no 
animal food. Twice married ; the first time at eighty, the 
second at one hundred and twenty years; had offspring 
by each marriage. In 1635, he was carried to London, 
and exhibited at the Court of Charles L ; died in a few 
months. Dr. Harvey, in a post-mortem, found his organs 
supple, and said he might have lived longer if he had not 
changed his diet and air. 

Henry Jenkins, Yorkshire, lived to the age of one hun- 
dred and sixty-nine years; diet said to be cold and watery. 

Peter Zarten, near Temesvar, in Hungary, died Jan- 
uary 5, 1724, at the age of one hundred and eighty-five. 
His hair and beard of a greenish white ; his food said to 
be pulse, milk and bread, with a little brandy. 

John Rovin and his wife, natives of Temesvar, Hungary, 
died in 1741, he in his one hundred and seventy-second 
year, she in her one hundred and sixty-fourth, having lived 
together, man and wife, one hundred and forty-seven years. 

The New York Herald of Januiary 1, 1861, contains a 
list of persons of one hundred years of age and upwards, 
who died in the United States in the year 1860. The 
whole number is fifty. Of these, thirteen died at one hun- 
dred; of the higher numbers, two were at one hundred 
and twenty, one at one hundred and twenty-five, one at 
one hundred and twenty-seven, one at one hundred and 
thirty-five, one at one hundred and forty. 

By the United States census of 1850, the oldest person 



860 LENGTH OF UFB. 

was one hundred and forty, an Indian woman in North 
Carolina. In the same State was an Indian aged one 
hundred and twenty-five, a negress one hundred and 
twelve, two hlack females one hundred and ten each, one 
mulatto male one hundred and twenty, and several white 
males and females aged from one hundred and six to one 
hundred and fourteen. In the parish of Lafayette, Louis- 
iana, was a female black aged one hundred and twenty. In 
several of the States there were found persons, white or 
black, aged from one hundred and ten to one hundred and 
fifteen. There were in the United States, in 1850, two 
thousand ^ve hundred and fifty-five persons of over one 
hundred years. This shows that about one person in 
nine thousand will be likely to live to that age. 

We have not the means of determining to what extent 
human life might be carried under the most favorable cir- 
cumstances. After making due allowance for inaccuracy 
of record, there is reason for believing that in modern 
times some few individuals may have attained the age of 
nearly if not quite two hundred years. •It will be recol- 
lected that several hundred years were occupied in abridg- 
ing life — from the time of the flood to the time of Moses, 
who mentions seventy years as the ordinary period ; and 
if, during this long term, the mischievous influences were 
gradually deepening their hold upon life, until its mini- 
mum, in a particular climate and community, had been 
arrived at, might not, on the other hand, most valuable 
results be looked for under the operation of hygienic agen- 
cies which are within the reach of human ingenuity and 
effort, protracted through a series of generations ? Among 
these agencies, are, an atmosphere of the highest attaina- 
ble approach to purity in dwelling-houses and public insti- 
tutions; the life-quickening power of direct sunshine; much 



LENGTH OF LIFE. 861 

exercise abroad in the open air; clothing adapted to the 
changes of weather; food natritious, at the same time bland 
and nnirritating ; a drink made in Paradise, made right at 
first, neither requiring nor admitting of narcotic or alco- 
holic admixtures, and a medication to extinguish disease, 
or abate its force, or prevent its attack. We already pos- 
sess vaccination, which can rid the world of one of the 
most terrific and destructive epidemics which have inva- 
ded the human fiimily ; we have the Peruvian bark and its 
extracts, which operate not only to extinguish marsh and 
lake fevers, but, when taken at suitable intervals in a mala- 
rious atmosphere, neutralize the poison, and are a complete 
prophylactic or preventive of an attack of the fever ;^ 
we have mercury and iodide of potassium to meet the 
poison and allay the tortures of constitutional syphilis ; 
colchicnm for the merciless attacks of gout and rheuma- 
tism ; and carbonate of iron and arsenic and strychnia for 
some refractory forms of neuralgia. We have already 
remedies for many parasitic animals and plants that nestle 
in our internal organs, or burrow or take root in the skin ; 
and as the researches of pathologists are now pushed with 
enthusiasm in this department, we may anticipate for man 
a nearer approach to immunity firom their attacks upon 
comfort and life than can ever be realized by the larger 
animals of the lower tribes which have no means of des- 
troying these invaders, while in self-made diseases, we 
outnumber them a hundred to one. 

The remedial means we already possess of abating the 
force of sweeping diseases, or of extinguishing them alto- 
gether, reasonably inspire the hope that cholei*a, yellow 
fever, scarlatina, typhoid and typhus, and tubercle, if not 



1 Jour. Med. and Phys. Science for Jan. 18G1, Pbila. 

31 



862 LEHaTH OF LIFE. 

starved out by hygienic inflaences, will have their reme- 
ilies or antidotes, and will be met with the same confidence 
as we now meet small -pox or lake fever. And if the time 
shall ever come — and who does not look for a moral and 
pht/siccU regeneration of our race, for surely one cannot 
come without the other — when the food best suited to 
a prolonged and uniform health shall be adopted, — the 
appetite not left to become gluttonous like that of the 
beasts, but kept under the conscientious control of reason 
and science, — and the only drink that of Paradise, then 
there will be a progressive improvement in health, and life 
will be lengthened as certainly as it has been shortened 
by the sottish inventions of man ; the human face no 
longer blotched and scarred from an empoisoned blood, 
but fresh and fair, and lit up by an eye sparkling in its 
hundredth year. On this subject, we are not left without 
a cheering note from the harp of prophecy : " There shall 
be no more thence an infant of days, nor an old man that 
hath not filled his days ; for the child shall die an hundred 

years old ; and they shall build houses and inhabit 

them ; and they shall plant vineyards, and eat the fruit 
of them. They shall not build and another inhabit ; they 
shall not plant and another eat ; fob as the days of a 
TREE ABE THE DAYS OF MY PEOPLE, and mine elect shall 
long enjoy the work of their hands.**^ 

1 Isa. IxT. 20, 21, 22. 



IN'IDEX 



A. 

PAOB 

Alcohol, 68 

Never decompofled In the blood, 00 
Dr. Davis^s experiments, ... 61 
No protection against cold, . . 64 
Sir John Boss's experience, . 64 

Invites disease, 66,72 

I>imini8he8 muscular power, . . 66 
Debilitates the mind and de- 
grades man, 70 

Use of, in Sweden, 72 

In cases of great prostration, 78, 91 
In consumptive cases, .... 78 

*Un vino verit<u» 80 

Extract from Tacitus, .... 80 
Testitnony of Sidney Smith, . . 82 
Testimony of Lord Byron, . . 83 
Testimony of Dryden, .... 83 
Not the '' milk of old age,*' . . 84 

Pliny cited, 87 

A poison, 91 

Alcott, Dr. Wm. A., interesting 

case from, 806,806 

Alimbktabt canal, . . . 176, 176 
Animal food unnatural to man, . 177 
Animalcules, tenacity of life in, 386 
Animals, wild, diseases of, . . 186-191 
Appktitb, voracious, case of, . . 222 

Apoplexy, 286-288 

Arabs, food of, 216 

AscARiDES, 832,833 

Asthma, 268 

Athlete, Cherokee, . . . 289-241 

Greek, 226 

AuTHO&'s own experience, . . 888-347 



B. 

PAOB 

Banana, the, 221,222 

Barnes, Rev. Albert, extract from, 206 

Bathimo, 64 

Sponge and plunge baths, . 66, 66 

Shower-bath, 66 

Boman baths, 67 

As a remedial agent, . . . 268, 2G9 
Practised by the author, . . . 843 

Beans as food, 242,243 

Beaumont, Dr., and St. Martin, 197-200 
Bedouins, the, small eaters, . . 213 
Bell, Dr. John, on bathing, . . 67 
BioELow, Dr. Jacob, on self-lim- 
ited diseases, 822 

Black BREAD of Algiers, ... 217 

Of Russia, 219-228 

BuNDNEBS from deranged stom- 
ach, 162 

Blood-yessels and blood-poison- 
ing, 824-829 

Boors AND SHOES, 84 

Tight, eflfects of, 86,40 

Brandreth'b and Morrison's pills, 

309,810 
Bread, desirable qualities of, . . 301 

New, ii^urious, 815 

Bread and water diet, 266, 267, 307, 308 



C. 

Cancer caused by tobacco. 
Of the stomach, . . . , 



109 
200 



864 



INDEX. 



PAOB 

Cabpab Havbkb, .... 142-166 
Wonderful powers of| . . 148,146 
Eflbcto of animal food upon, . . 144 
Uow affected by odon, . . 147,148 
luflnenoe of metals on, . . 148,150 
A vegetabto-eater, .... 162, 168 

Ckbes, 24 

CHAHirairo, Dr. Walter, case of 

constipation cited from, . . 816 

Cbsap Liyiiia,in8tance80f, 220,221,247 

Thoreau^s experiment, .... 220 

ChBBOKKB ATHI.BT.B, . . . 280-241 

Ball play, 240 

CHVSTNim as Ibod, 218 

Ch£tnb, Dr. George, 106 

Cbildrkn, mortality of, . . 827, 828 
Cbimpanzxb, teeth of; . . 170, 171 

CHiNXSXfbot, 86 

Slippers, . 86 

Clothisg, 82 

For aged persons, ..... 83 
COAL-WHIPPSB, strength of, . . 67 

COFFKE, 188 

Effects of, 188-141 

Coffee headachx, . . . 188, 189 
Cold, extreme, efitets of on old 

and young, 84 

Colds, 818-828 

CoiroBSTioir, 824 

ConsTiPATxoir, 809,810 

Produced by tobacco, .... 129 

Eflfectsof; 166,166 

How relieved, 166 

Fruits a remedy for, . . . 811,812 
Medical remedies, .... 812-814 
Induces other diseases, . . 817,818 
Case fl*om Dr. Cbanning, . . . 816 
CoNSUMPTioH treated with alco- 
hol, 78 

CoNVULSiOKS occasioned by eat- 
ing, 168 

Corpulency, cause of, .... 194 
Bemarkable cases of; .... 196 

How reduced, 196 

CoRir, parched, 241 

CoBirs AND BinnoiiB 86 

Corset, the, 18 

Effects of, 20-27 

Moral aspect of, ...... 28 

CouBT dress of 1796, 29 



PAGB 



Cbaxp occasioned by derange- 
ment of the stomach, . . 159, 160 

How relieved, 169,160 

C&AMPfl caused by constipation, . 817 



D. 



DAiaxL a vegetable-eater, . 217, 286 
Dayib, Dr. N. S., his experiments 

with alcohol, 61, 78 

Db Quimoey, the ** Opium-Eater," 62 

Diet, simplicity of, 214 

Spare, in certain cases snl&cient, 

803,804,806 
Spare, in surgical cases, . . . 908 
DzFFiouLTT of breathing and 

swallowing, cases of, . . 271, 282 
DnriTEB, sick student^ .... 866 

DlPBTBEBIA, . . 822 

DisxASB firom iujudicious diet, . 263 
Diseases of the throat, . . 821,822 

Of the teeth, 181-186 

Provision in nature for the cure 
of, 204 

DlSTILLEBT-FED POBK, .... 280 

Db. Beaumobt and Alexis St 

Martin, 197-200 

Db. Kanb'b Arctic exi>erienoe, . 46 
Db. JoBiTBOir and Boswell, . . 80 
Db. S. G. Howe*b report on idi- 
ocy, 70 

Dbesb, various fkshions of, . . 18-80 

In Elizabeth's reign, 18 

In the reign of George III., . • 18 

Hooped skirts, 81 

Dbuitkehsebs among the an- 
cients, 87 

Du Chaillu, Paul B., cited, . . 172 
Dtspepsla., . . 80, 269, 271, 800, 804 

Cured by diet, 805 

Induced by tobacco, 101 



E. 



EATisa, deaths and disease finom, 

278, 274 
EcovoMY of vegetable fbod, 219^222 
EMAOiATioir, cases of extreme, 801, 302 
Epioubus a vegetable-eater, • . 233 



INDEX 



365 



PAOS 

Epilbpst 289-800 

£XK£CI8E, 63,258,259 

EzpERiBNOB, the author's own, 83S-d47 

" Exquisite," the, 40 

Eye, aggravated twitching of, . . 166 
Eyes afieoted by deranged stom- 
ach, 161,162 

Loss of from ilneffldent treat- 
ment, 810,811 

F. 

Farb, Dr. J. B., extract from, . 217 
Fashiok, extravagances of in 

dress, 18-80 

Extravagances of in shoes, . 87-89 

Feet, treatment of, 85-40 

Fever, typhoid, 828 

Food of the Romans, 193 

Injudicious, and disease, . . 268-270 

Quantity of, 211-214 

Simplicity of, 214-218 

Variety of, not essential, . . 214, 217 
Of the Israelites in the desert, 216 

Potatoes as, 218 

Of ancient Christians, .... 218 

Vegetable, economy of, . 219-220 

Sufficient for man, . . .224-230 

Favorable to health, .... 280 

For a prisoner, 282 

For students, 284 

Of South Sea Islanders, . . 225 
Spanish peasantry, .... 226 

The Irish, 226 

The Scotch, 227 

Turkish porters, 228 

Injudicious, and disease, ... 268 
Of slaves in rice-fields, . . 228, 284 

Foot, structure of, 88 

Treatment of, 89, 40 

Fruits a remedy for constipation, 

811,812 

G. 

Gabook river, natives of, • . 269 

Gluttony, its effects, 194 

Prevalence of, 196, 197 

Gout, 203 

Grain, consumption of for whis- 
key, 280,282 

Grecian athletjb, food of, . . 226 



H. 

PAOB 

Basket, Col., ease of, .... 256 

Head-dress of 1782, 80 

Heart, its sympathy with the 

stomach, 168 

Hebe, 26 

Hon (eofathio practice, . . 202, 810 
Holland, Sir Henry, on consti- 
pation and disease of the kid- 
neys, 816, 816 

Howb, Dr. S. G., report on idiocy, 70 
HowLAND, Benj., case of, . . . 261 
Hume, Robert, experience of, . . 257 
Hypochondriasis, relief for, . 816 



I. 



Injudicious diet and disease, 268-270 
Israelites, their food in the des- 

err, ....•*.... aIo 
Intehfbrancb in eating and 

drinking, 284,286 



J. 



Jackson, Dr. James, cited, 

304,813,817,823 
On the fatal disease of Wash- 
ington, 820,821 

Jackson, Dr. Robert, experience 
of, 266 



K. 



Kane, Dr., arctic experience of^ 46 

Keep, Dr. N. C, cited, .... 186 
Krocher, the fkt butcher of Ber- 

Un, 196 



L. 



Lahbert, Daniel, 195 

Length or LIFE, .... 864-862 
Dr. J. E. Worcester on, . 856,858 
Interesting cases of, . 857-859 
May not the period be ex- 
tended ? 860-^62 

Light, 45 

Influence of, on health, ... 46 
Influence of, in disease, . . 46-48 



866 



INDEX. 



PAOS 

LioH, skuU of, 172 

LiYKR, the, 106, 167 

Diseased, of birdi, 196 

Livino, cheap, oaaea of, . 220, 221, 247 
Lord Bacov dted on diet, ... 806 

Lord Byron dted, 88 

Luesof voice, oaae of, 168 

Louis N a polron hanlihet tohacco 
fh>iii the French schools, . . Ill 

L17N08, their office, 18, 60 

8tructareof, 15 

Sympathise with the stomaeh, . 164 

H. 

Hak by nature a Yegetab le c a te r, 

16^-180 
Omnirorons by practice, . 198-194 
Hatthrws, Capt. John, experi- 
ence o^ 266, 266 

Mrat Ain> ORAnr, oomparative 

coat of, 219 

Mrdioatior as a remedial agency 

in disease, 201, 202 

Mrrtal RrncoTS of a regetable 

diet, 282-286 

MiLKaslbod, 214,215 

In a case of great emaciation, . 801 
Milk and regetable iSwding in ear* 

gical operations, .... 848-858 
HiBBR of Berkshire connty, Mass., 268 
MORX oiasM, degrading results of, 829 
Moral nnrLURNOB of regetable 

diet, 282-236 

MORTALITT of children, . . 827,828 
Mr. Faokt on remedial agencies 

ibr disease, 204 

N. 

Nbmesib, 26 

Nkttlx-rabh, 266 

Nburaloia, severe case of, . . 276 
Nbw Zkalaitdrrs, the, . . 282,288 
NuTRinov, powers of, diminished 
by oyer^feeding, 222 

O. 

Ohio pork, how raised in some 
oases, 280,281 



PAOK 

OPXRATioirs, surgical, . . . 848-862 
Opium an antidote for green tea, . 133 
Ophthalmia, 277 

OROAHIO 8TXPATHIR8, .... 156 

ORAiro-ouTAHG, teeth of, ... 170 

Food of, 174 

OvRBrVRBDnvo, elTectof, 211-214,222,228 



P. 



PAiirs in particular nerves, . 160,161 

Palbt, 288,289 

Parabites, 829-387 

Parched corn, 241 

Pataoonians, the, 231 

PXARBoir, Captain Jacob, experi- 
ence of, 256 

PXR8IAV SCHOOLS, 244 

Pills, Brandreth's and Morrison's, 

809,810 
For constipation, .... 812, 818 
PiLL-DRUOonra twenty-five years 

ago, 809,810 

Plato dted, 192 

PoLYaAHT, results of, .... 828 
Porters of Constantinople, . . 228 

Potatoes as food, 218 

Ptlorub, the, 157 

B. 

Bexedial AaENciES for the cure 

of disease, 201-210 

Mr. Paget on, 204 

BxsPiRATORT ORGANS, diseases 

of, ... 821, 822 

RHEUXATisif, lumbago, etc. some- 
times caused by constipation, . 817 
BiCHARDSON, Chief Justice, on 

tobacco, 127 

BiLET, Capt., cited, 215 

BiNOWORM treated with tobacco, 99 
Bobbins, Charles, case of, . 297, 296 
BoBiNBON, Prof., his case in detail, 

289-296 

BOMAN BATHS, 57 

Bom ANS, gastronomy of, . . . . 198 

Gluttony of, 196 

Boss, Sir John, cited on alcohol, . 64 

BussxLL, Sir William, .... 80 



INDEX. 



867 



s. 

PAOB 

8AXI7BL CHnm , exi>erienoe of, . 241 
BA&ACXirs, the, food of, .... 225 

Schools, Feraiaii, 214 

SooTT, Sir Walter, oiled, ... 214 

SoBOFiTLA, 826, 827, 840 

SouDDBB, Doctor, the nUasioiuuy 

phygioiaii, 260 

Skats for sohool-girls, 28 

SKLV-LIXITBD DISBA8B8, Dr. Ja- 

cob Bigelow on, 822 

Shakspbabib, extract from, . . 193 

Sbowbr bath, £6 

SiDMBT Smith cited, 88 

Sight, loss of, under inefficient 

treatment, 810, 811 

SncpuoiTT of diet, 214 

Skin, the, 166 

Diseases of, 274,825 

SKULLofman, 170 

Orang-outang, 170 

Chimpanzee, 171 

Lion, 171 

Bear, 173 

Slkbf, 49 

In the French army, .... 49 
Wesley's experience, .... 50 
De Qnincey's experience, . . 62 
SXALL-Pox, how guarded against, 

263,254 

Snails as food, 215 

Shakes and spiders as food, . . 198 
Spasms occasioned by over-eating, 158 
Spanish PBASAHTBT, .... 226 

Spurs, curvature of, 28 

Sponos and plunge baths, . . 55, 56 
St. Habtin, Alexis, case of, 197-200 

Stomach, the, 166 

Abuse of, 157 

Singular ef^ts of derangement 

of, 169-168 

Sympathies with the heart, . . 168 
Sympathies with other organs, 

164-166 
Of Alexis St. Martin, . . 197-200 

Diseases of, 200 

Cancer of, 200 

Deranged, . . 80, 269, 270, 800, 804 

SuBOiCAL OPKBATioiiS, diet in, 848-853 

Operations, interesting cases, 348-352 



PAOS 

Stfhilis, 826 

A cause of scroflila, 826 

Foison 0^ transmitted to chil- 
dren, 826 

T. 

Tacitus cited, 80 

Tapx-wobm, the, .... 832,834 

Tba, 132 

Green, effects of, ... . 132-135 

Antidote for, 183 

Experiments with, . . 184,485 
Use of, by tlie Cliinese, ... 136 

TBA-TAsniro, 137 

Tbbth of man and other animals, 

ie»-178, 181-186 

Diseases of, 181-186 

TiENAOiTT of lift in animalcules, 835 
Thobbav's experiment in cheap ' 

living, 220 

THBOAT DISBABBS, .... 821,822 
Tight dbbssibo, ei&cts of, . . 20-27 

Tobacco 98 

Use of, unnatural, 93 

Effects of, on animal lift, . . 94 

On man, 100,101 

A poison, 100 

Apologies for its use, . . . 104-106 
Its relation to cholera, .... 106 

Cancer, 109 

Other forms of disease, . 107-111 

In French schools, Ill 

Expense of, 112 

Crop, and amount consumed, 112-214 

Use of; indecent, 214 

Inconsistent with Christianity, 131 
Cases illustrative of its effects, 116-131 

Tbappists, the, 247 

Exempt from disease, .... 252 
TwrrcHBL, Capt. Peter, case of, 256 
TwiTCHiHO of the eye, aggravated 
case of, 165 

U. 
Ulcbbs treated, 275 

V. 

VElfTILATldB, 41 

Necessary to health, .... 41, 42 
As a remedial agent, .... 42 



8C8 



INDEX. 



FAOS 

ImportAnt for Infkuits, .... 44 
Ykoktabiahibic, ieD-180 

Objections to, 287-289 

YKOitTABLX DiST, fllofltntlTe oues, 

24^263 

Mental influenoe of, 286 

Vufus DB Mkdioi, 14-16 

ToicB, looa of, 168 

VoMiTiHO, ohroDie, . . . 801,802 

W. 

WABBjDr. Jobii,onooii8tipation, 814 



PAOS 

Wabhivotov, George, cause of 

death of, S20 

Watboh, Dr., cited, 44 

Wb8t IivDiAKB, the, large eaters, 214 
WiOHTMAir the Hermit, .... 246 
Wild animals, diseases of, . 186-191 

Wnrx, eflfects of; 69, 70 

Not the " milk of old age," . . 84 
Without alcohol, 92 

X. 

XxNOPHOV on Fenian schools, . 244 



S^e t>ni* 



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L MsTAPHTSiOAL LxoTUBBs (fiow ready). Boyal ootavo, cloth. $8.00 

n. Logical Lkctusbb. S3.00. 



O. ft L., by a special an«ngement with the fkmily of the late Sir William Hamilton, ai« 
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APHTSics AKD Looic, and they are permitted to print the same ftom advance sheets fUmlshed 
them by the English publishers. 

MEIITAIi FHIIiOSOFHT; Including the InteUect, the BenBlbiUties, and tha 
WilL By JosKPH Havkn, Prof, of LiteUectual and Moral Philosophy, Amherst Ck>Uege. 
Royal VbaOf cloth, embossed, $1.60. 

It is believed this work will be found pre-eminently distinguished. 

1. The COMFLSTEKBSS With wliich it preseuti the whole sulgect. Text-books generally treat 
of only one cIom of faculties $ this work includes the tohole, 2. It is strictly and thoroughly ScN 
siTTiric. 3. It presents a careful analysis of the mind, as a whole. 4. The history and literaturs 
of each topic. 5. The latest results of the science, d. Tlie chaste, yet attractive style. 7. The 
zemarkable condensation of thought. 

Prof. Park, of Andover, says : ** It is distiitouishkd for Its clearness of style, perspicuity of 
method, candor of spirit, acumen and comprehensiveness of thought." 

The work, though so recently published, has met with most remarkable suocess ; having beea 
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THSSAUBIJS OF ENGIiISH "WOBBS ANJ} PHRASES, so dassU 
fled and arranged as to facilitate the expression of ideas, and assist in literary composi- 
tion. New and Lnproved Edition. By Pbteb Mark Bogbt, late Secretary of the Royal 
Society, London, &c. Revised and edited, with a List of Foreign Words defined In Eng. 
lish, and other additions, by Barmas Ssars, D. D., President of Brown University. A 
Nkw Ambbigam Edition, with Additions kto. Royal 12mo, cloth, $1.60. 

This edition is based on the London edition, recently issued. The first American Edition hav« 
Ing been prepared by Dr. Sears for strictiy educational pvrpoK»t those words and phrases properly 
termed " vulgar," incorporated in the original work, were omitted. These expuigated portions have, 
in the present edition, been restored^ but by such an arrangement of the matter as not to inter* 
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perfect them the avahor*s edition. The work has already become one of standard authority, both 
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PAIiEY'S ITATUBAL THEOLOGY. HlnBtrated by forty Plates, with 
Selections from the Notes of Dr. Paxton, and Additional Notes, Original and Selected, 
with a Vocabulary of Scientific Terms. Edited by John Ware, M. D. Lnproved edition, 
with elegant newly engraved plates. 12mo, cloth, embossed, $1.26. 

This work is very generally introduced into our best Schools and Colleges throaghout the conn- 
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(38) 



VALUABLE TEXT-BOOKS. 

PBItfOIFIiBS OV ZOOIiOGT; ToDddng tbe Stractnre, Derelopment, Dis. 
UibatioQ, and Natural Anrangement, of the Backs or Animaus, living and extinct^ 
with nameroQi UloBtiations. for the use of Schools and Colleges. Part I. Com. 
PAMATiTB PuTBiOLooT. By Locs AoASSB aod AuGUSTDB A. QovLD. Bevised edi* 
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**ItlsiiotaaMrabook,biitsirork— arealwoiklallieftffmofabook. Zoology Is «n intereatfng 
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** This work pUces us In possession of inibrmation half a century in advanoe of all our elementary 
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3?BnrOIFIiB8 OV ZOdLOQT, FABT II. Bystematio Zoology. In 
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** Admirably adapted for use as a text-book in eommon schools and academies.**— Cba^r^iKilfoi*- 
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JCIiEMENTS OF MOBAIi SOTESNOB. By Pkamois Watlako, D. P., late 
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Xhe sasM, Chxap School Bdition, boards, 26 cts. 

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JCIiEMEirTS OF FOIjITICA][i ECONOMY*. By Prahcu Watlahs, 
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FOIiinC All ECOSrOMT ABBIDGED, and adapted to the use of Sohooto 
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**It desenres to be introdueed into ereiy prlTate ftmily, and to be studied by every man who 
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fomily library i not there to be shut up unread, but to afford rich material fw thoue^t and dlseus* 
don in the femily circle." — Puritan Recorder. 

All the above Works by Dr. Wayland are used as text-books In most of the colleges and higher 
schools throughout the Union, and are highly approved. 



{£7 O. Sr L. keepy in addition to workg published by thenuelvety an extensive aaeort- 
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VALUABLE WORKS. 

THE PtXBITANS ; or the Court, Church, and Parliament of England, during the 
reigns of Edward YI. and Elizabeth. By Samuel Hopkins, author of " Lessons at the 
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It will be fbund the most interesting and reliable History of the Puritans yet published, numting 
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TiTTVrTTS OF BBIiIGIOUS THOUGHT EXAMIMIBD, in Eight Leo^ 
tures delivered in the Oxford University Pulpit, in the year 1868, on the ** Bampton 
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This volume is destined to create a profounder sensation in this country than any philosophical 
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THE H ISTO BIOAIi EVIDEBTCBS OP THE TBtTTH OP THE 
SCBTPTUBE BECOBDS, STATED AIQ'EW, with Special Reference 
to the Doubts and Discoveries of Modern Times. In Eight Lectures, delivered in the 
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Editor of the Histories of Herodotus. With the Copious Notes translated for the 
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SIB "WIIiIiIAM HAMTTiTOlf'S LECTUBES ON LOGIC. With 
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John Ykitch, M. A., Edinburgh. Royal octavo, cloth, $3.00. 

MOBAIj PHTTiOSOPHY, including Theoretical and Practical Ethics. By Jo- 
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POPITLAB GEOIiOGY ; With Descriptive Sketches firom a Oeologist's Portfolio 
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HUGH MIIiIiEB'S "WOBKS. Seven volumes, uniform style, in an elegant 
box, embossed cloth, $8.25 ; library sheep, $10.00 •, half calf, $14.00 ; antique, $14.00. 

MANSEL'S MISCE LIi ANTES ; including "Prolegomina Logica," "Meta- 
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(In press.) (38) 



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aXTBAOTS VBOH THB DIABT AITD OOBBSSFOKDSKCB 
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X MBMOIB OF THE UFIB AITD TIMES OF ISAAC BACKUS. 
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UFE OF JAMES MOI9rTGK>MEBT. Sy Mn. H. C. Knight, author of 
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TUs Is an origtnal btogn^hy, prepared flrom the abundant bat ill-dlgesled materials contained 
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The subject of this Memoir was, fat a quarter of a century, at the head of one of the roost cele- 
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VALUABLE WORKS 

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NSW ENGIjAITD THEOCBACIT. Prom the German of Uhden>8 History of 
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GOD BBVBATiTBP IN ITATUBIS AND IN CHBI8T ; indiidiag a 
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PHIIiOSOFHT OF THS FIiAN OF SAIiVATION; aBookforths 
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CovTKiTTS. — "nieorellcd Atibelim. — Fnctical Athelim. — The Moral Character of Man.*- 
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THN GB1BAT DAT OF ATONEMENT ; or, Meditations and Prayers on 
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THE EXTENT OF THE ATONEMENT IN ITS KEIiATION 
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IMPORTANT WORKS. 

UPE AND COBBEBFONDENCE OS" BEV. DANIEIj TVHk 

bUN, U. D., late Bishop of Calcutta. By Bev. Josiah Batbman, M. ▲., Kector of 
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THE IiEADEBS OF THE BEFOBMATION. Luthbb, Calyir, Lati- 
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IiESSOlSrS AT THE CBOSS; or, Spfaritual Truths Famillariy Exhibited in theii 
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DR. JOHN HARRIS' WORKS. 

THE GBBAT TB AOSBIH ; or, Ghancteriatics <^ our Lord's Ministzy. By Jomr 
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** De. Hakrib it one of the best wxiten of the afe i and tUa Tolnme will not in the leaat detract 
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THE GBXSAT OOMMI8SION ; or, the Christian Church constituted and 
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* Thi« roliime wltl ailbrd the reader aa intellectual and ipiritual banquet of the highest order." — 
PkOaddplkia Ck. Otmrver, 

THB FBIB-ADAMITB EABTH. Contributions to Theological Science. By 
Jobs Haeub, D. D. New and revised edition. 12mo, cloth, $1.00. 

MAH* FBHOBVAIi ; or, the Constitution and Primitive Condition of the Human 
Being. With a finely engraved Portrait of the Author. 12mo, cloth, $1.26. 

FATBIAHOHT; or, the Family, its Constitution and Probation. 12mo, cloth, $1.25. 
This is the last of Dr. Hanis' series entitled ** Contributions to Theological Sdenoe." 

BBBMONS, CHABQES, ADDHESSES, Ao,, deUvered by Dr. Habbis in 
various parts of the country, during the height of his reputation as a preacher. Two ele- 
gant vohunes, octavo, doth, each, $1.00. 

Th* immense sale of all this author's Works attesta their intiinsie worth and great popularity. 



IiECTUBES ON THE LOBD'S FBATEB. By Wiluah B. Willxams, 
D. D. Third edition. 12mo, cloth, 86 cts. 

<* We are constantlv reminded, in reeding his eloquent pages, of the old English writers, whose 
vigorous thought, and gorgeous imagery, and varied learning, have made their writings an inex" 
haustible mine for the scholars of the present day." — CA. Obaerver. 

BEIalGIOUS FBOGBESS; Discourses on the Development of the Christian 
Character. By William B. Williams, D. D. Third edition. 12mo, doth, 86 cts. 

** His power of apt and forcible Illustration is without a parallel among modem writers. The mute 
pages spring Into ttfo beneath the ma^e of liis radiant imagination. But tlus is never at the 
expense of solidity of thought, or strength of argument. It is seldom, indeed, that a mind of so 
much poetical invention yields such a willing homage to the logical element" — Marpar's McmMif 
MiacettmiV' 

JilSCEIiIiANIES. By Wiluam B. Williams, D. D. New and improved edition. 
Price Reduced. 12mo, cloth, $1.26. 

09* ** Dr. Williams Is a profound scholar and a brilliant writer." — IT. T. EvcmgeUst. 

THE FBEACHEB AND THE KING; or, Bourdaloue hi the Court of Louis 
XIY. *, being an Account of the Pulpit Eloquence of that distinguished era. Translated 
trom the French of L. F. Bunoknkb, Paris. Introduction by the Bev. Gborgr Potts, 
D. D. A netOf improved edition, with a fine IJKaNuss and a BiooaAPmcAL Sketch or 
THS Author. 12mo, cloth, $1.26. 

THB FBIEST AND THE HUGUENOT ; or, Persecution in the Age of 
Louis XV Translated firom the French of L. F. Bungener. Two vols. 12mo, cloth, $2.26. 

n^- This is not only a work of thriUing interest,— no fiction could exceed it, — but, as a Protea* 
taut work, It Li a masterly production. (15) 



WORKS FOR BIBLE STUDENTS. 

KITTO'S POPTJIiAR OYCLOP-ffilDIA OP BIBIiIOAIj IiITEBA- 
TCJfl£i. Condensed from the larger work. By the Author, John Kitto, D. D. As- 
sisted by Jambs Taylor, D. D., of Glasgow. With over five hundred lUustrations. One 
volume, octavo, 812 pp. Cloth, $3.00 -, sheep, $3.60 •, cloth, gilt, $4.00 ; half calf, $4.00. 

A DiCTiOKART ow THB BiBLB. Serving, alao, as a CoKMBirTABT, embodying the products of 
the best and most recent researches in biblical literature in which the scholars of Europe and 
America have been engaged. The work, the result of immense labor and research, and enriched 
by the contributions of writers of distinguished eminence in the various departments of sacred liter* 
atare, has been, by universal consent, pronounced the best work of its class extant, and the one best 
suited to the advanced knowledge of the present day in all the studies connected with theological 
science. It is not only intended for ministers and theological students, but it is also particularly 
adapted to parents, Sabbath-«chool teachers, and the great body of the religious public. 

THE HISTOBY OF FAIiESTINE, from the Patriarchal Age to the Present 
Time ) with Chapters on the Geography and Natural History of the Country, the Cus- 
toms and Institutions of the Hebrews. By John Kitto, D. D. With upwards of two 
hundred Illustrations. 12mo, cloth, $1.25. 

S^ A vrotk admirably adapted to the Family, the Sabbath, and the week-day School Libraiy. 

AlTAIiYTIOAIi CONCOBDANOB TO THE HOLY SOBIP- 
TUBES ; or, the Bible presented under Distinct and Classified Heads or Topics. By 
John Eadib, D. D., LL. D., Author of " Biblical Cyclopsadia," " Ecclesiastical Cyclopae- 
dia," ''* Dictionary of the Bible," etc. One volume, octavo, 840 pp. Cloth, $3.00 ; sheep, 
$3.50 •> cloth, gilt, $4.00 ; half Turkey morocco, $4.00. 

The otgect of this Conoordance is to present the Scriptubss bbttibb, under certain classified 
and exhaustive heads. It diflbrs firom an ordinary Concordance , in that its arrangement depends 
not on WORDS, but on subjbcts, and the verses care printed in full. Its plan does not bring it at 
all into competition with such limited works as those of Gaston and Warden ; for they select doc- 
triaud topics principally, and do not profess to comprehend as this thb eittirb Biblb. The work 
also contains a Synoptical Table of Contents of the whole work, presenting in brief a system of 
biblical antiquities and theology, with a very copious and accurate index. 

The value of this work to ministers and Sabbath-school teachers can hardly be oveiHfstimated \ 
and it needs only to be examined, to secure the approval and patronage of every Bible student. 

CBITDEN'S COirDENSED CONCOBDANGE. A Complete Concord, 
ance to the Holy Scriptures. By Alexander Cruden. Revised and Re-edited by the 
Ber. Datio Eimo, LL. P. Octavo, doth, $1.00,* sheep, $1.25. 

The condensation of the qvotations of Scripture, arranged under the most obvious heads, while 
it dimimahe$ the bulk of the work, greatly facaitates the finding of any required passage. 

" We have in this edition of Cruden the beat made better. That is, the present is better adapted 
to the purposes of a Concordance, by the erasure of superfluous references, the omission of unne. 
cessary explanations, and the contraction of quotations, ftc. It is better as a manual, and is better 
adapted by its price to the means of many who need and ought to possess such a work, than the 
former huge and expensive edition."— PuHlan Recorder. 

A. OOMMEM-TABY ON THE OBIGINAL TEXT OP THE ACTS 
OF THE i^FOSTIiES. By Hobatio B. Hackbtt, D. D., Prof, of Biblical Liter- 
ature and Interpretotion, hi the Newton Theol. Inst. Bzr A new, revised, and enhirged 
edition. Royal octavo, cloth, $2.25. 



This most important and very popular work has been thoroughly revised ; lai^ge portions 
entirely re-written, with the addition of more than one hundred pagea of new matter; the result of 
the author's oontinued, laborious investigations and travels, since the publication of the first edition. 

(22) 



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