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Full text of "The health and physique of the Negro American : report of a social study made under the direction of Atlanta University : together with the Proceedings of the Eleventh Conference for the Study of the Negro Problems, held at Atlanta university, on May the 29th, 1906"


The 

Health and Physique 

of the 

Negro American 



A Social Study made under the diredlion of 

Atlanta University by the Eleventh 

Atlanta Conference 



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BOOK 325.26.C76 llth c 1 
CONFERENCE FOR STUDY OF NEGRO 
riMpm.'lf'^^ ATLANTA GA # CONFERENCE 



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Health and Physique 



of th( 



Negro American 



The Atlanta University Press 
Atlanta, Georgia 

1906 



H(|C 



30 



Report of a Social Study made under the di- ^i 

recftion of Atlanta University; together with ^;^-^ 

the Proceedings of the Eleventh Conference ^ '^^ 

for the Study of the Negro Problems, held at . '" 

Atlanta University, on May the 29th, 1 906 =» 



Edited by H 

W. E. Burghardt Du Bois . [g 

Corresponding Secretary of the Conference "'0 



■)1 




IT is the cranial and facial forms that lead us to accept 
the consanguinity of the African Hamites, of red- 
brown and black color, with the Mediterranean peoples; 
the same characters reveal the consanguinity of the 
primitive inhabitants of Europe, and of their remains in 
various regions and among various peoples, with the pop- 
ulations of the Mediterranean, and hence also with the 
Hamites of Africa. Sergi. 



<-1l 



r 



Analytical Table of Contents 



Page 



\ I 



Plates 

Numbers A-H, 1-48. 

Typical Negro-Americans. 
Number 49. 

Typical Negro drug store. 

Preface 

\The Atlanta studies. 
A Data on which this study is based. 
V. Future work of Conference. 



S 



^Bibliography of Negro 
^^ Health and Physique 6 

V Bibliography of bibliographies. 
' . >Bibliography. 

■ Nfegro Health and Physique 13 
^1^ Races of Men 

Ripley: The Aryan myth. 
The New Anthropology. 14 

^ European Races. 

The Mediterranean Race. 15 

^ Sergi's Conclusions: 

Greek and Roman types. 
African populations. 

2. The Negro Race 16 

The typical Negro (Ratzel). 

Color (Ripley), (Sergi). 17 

Hair (Ripley). 

The cranlo-facial skeleton. 18 

The size of the head. 

The facial angle (Henniker). 

History of human races. 

First steps in human culture ( Boas). 

The Negro and Iron (Boas). 19 

Egyptian civilization. 

African agriculture (Boas). 

African culture (Boas): 20 

Markets. 

Handicaps. 
Inferiority of the Negro. 21 

Negro development (Ratzel). 
Climate of Africa. 22 

Geography. 
Slave Trade. 

Present inhabitants (Denniker). 23 
Composition of population (Ratzel). 



Pof/e 

3. The Negro Brain 24 

Weight of the brain ( Denniker i. 
Memorandum of M. N. Wobk: 
Brain weights. 
Unwarranted conclusions. 
(Topinard), ( Hunt), (Bean), 25 
( Donaldson). 
Structure of brain. 26 

Convolutions. 27 

Changes in structure. 

4. The Negro American 

The slave trade. 

Sources of slaves 28 

The Negro- American type. 

Bryce on the backward races. 

Race Mixture. 21) 

Census of Mulattoes. 

Degree of mixture. so 

Types of Negro-Americans. 81 

Description of types. 

A. Negro types. 33 

B. Mulatto types. S4 

C. Quadroon types. ;i5 

D. White types with Negro blood. 
Conclusions. 315 
Future of Race Mixture. 37 
Brazil. ;-;8 

5. Physical Measurements 39 

Average height of men (Denniker). 

Cephalic index. 40 

Measurements of army recruits. 41 

Age and height. 42 

Age and weight. 44 

Age and chest measurement. 4(5 

Washington school children. 48 

Kansas city school children. £0 

Conclusions. ,51 

Psycho-physical measurements. 

Dietaries of Negroes. 52 

6. Some Psychological Consid=° 
erations on the Race Problem 53 

(by Dk. Hekbekt A. Miller). 
Psycho-physical comparison. 
Environment. 

Psychology. 54 

Psycho-physics. 

Indians and Negroes. 55 

Weissnian. 



ELEVENTH ATLANTA CONFERENCE 



John Muiiey. 


56 


Inner life of Negroes. 




Psycho-physical tests. 


57 


Quickness of perception. 




Disconnected memory. 




Logical memory. 


58 


Color choice. 




Meaning of results. 


59 


Music. 




Consciousness of kind. 





7. The Increase of the Negro 
American 60 

Increase 17!tl-1900. 
Wilcox's estimates. 
Birth rate. 61 

Comparison of children and wo- 
men of child-bearing age. 
Comparison of children and pop- 
ulation. 62 
Children and child-bearing wo- 
men in cities. 63 
Conclusions. 
Age composition. 
Median age. 

General age comparison 61 

Sex distribution. 



8. The Sick and Defective 

Race and disease (Ripley). 
Consumption. 
Syphilis. 
Alcoholism, 
Army recruits. 
Causes of rejection 
linn -1902. 
1903-1904. 
Racial differences 
Disease in army. 
Specific diseases. 
Venei-eal diseases. 
Malarial diseases. 
Insane. 
Feeble minded. 

Incomplete records. 
The Blind. 

Schooling. 
The Deaf. 

9. Mortality 

General death rate, 1890 and liKK). 

Chief diseases. 

Infant Mortality. 
Death rate by races, registration 

area, city and county. 
Death rates, 1725-1860. 
Mortality of freedmen 1865-1872. 
Tendency of death rates. 
Causes of deaths. 
(Conclusions. 
Deaths by diseases: 

Consumption. 

Pneumonia. 

Heart disease and dropsy. 

Diarrheal diseases. 

Diseases of nervous system. 

Suicide. 

Alcoholism. 



65 



73 



74 



77 



Age and death. 
Infant Mortality. 79 

Improvements in infant mor- 
tality. 
Changes in rates by age periods. 81 
Effect of environment. 
Normal death rates. 
Army statistics, 1890-1900. 
19(X)-1904. 82 

Memorandum by R. R. Wright, Jr.: 
Mortality in cities: 
Death rates North and South. 
Corrected death rates. 83 

Consumption North and South. 84 
Infant mortality. 
Climate. 85 

Season. 86 

Philadelphia. 

Causes of death. 87 

Sickness. 89 

Social condition. 

Imprtjvement. 90 

10. Insurance 91 

Discrimination vs. Negroes. 
Experience of Insurance Compa- 
nies. 92 
True Reformers. 92 

11. Hospitals 93 

Distribution of Negro hospitals. 
Statistics of Negro hospitals. 94 

12. Medical Schools 95 

Negro medical schools: 
Meharry. 
Howard. 
Leonard. 

Flint. 96 

Louisville. 
Knoxville. 

13. Physicians 

Census returns. 

Age. 
Distribution of physicians. 97 

1895. 

1905. 
Schools barring Negroes. 98 

Schools without Negro students. 99 
Graduates of Northern schools. 100 
Reports from Northern schools. 101 
Success of physicians. . 102 

Mob violence. 105 

14. Dentists and Pharmacists 106 

Census returns. 
Graduates in dentistry. 
Graduates in pharmacy. 107 

Drug stores. 

Statistics. 108 

Reports. 

15. The Eleventh Atlanta Con= 

ference 109 

Programme. 

Resolutions. 110 



\ 




i 



^ 



/^ 



f ^ ft 



Preface 



A study of human life today involves a consideration of human 
physique and the conditions of physical life, a study of various social 
organizations, beginning with the liome, and investigations into occu- 
pations, education, religion and morality, crime and political activity. 
The Atlanta Cycle of studies into the Negro problem aims at exhaustive 
and lieriodic studies of all these subjects as far as they relate to the 
Negro American. Thus far we have finished the first decade with a 
study of mortality (1896), of homes (1897), social reform (1898), economic 
organization (1899 and 1902), education (1900 and 1901), religion (1903) 
and crime (1904), ending with a general review of methods and results 
and a bibliography (1905). 

The present publication marks the beginning of a second cycle of 
study and takes up again the subject of the physical condition of 
Negroes, but enlarges the inquiry beyond the mere matter of mortality. 
This study is based on tlie following data: 

Reports of the United States census. 

Reports of the life insurance companies. 

Vital records of various cities and towns. 

Reports of the United States Surgeon General. 

Reports from Negro hospitals and drug stores. 

Reports from medical schools. 

Letters from physicians. 

Measurements of 1,000 Hampton students. 

General literature as shown in tlie accompanying bibliography. 

Atlanta University has been conducting studies similar to this for a 
decade. The results, distributed at a nominal sum, have been widely 
used. Notwithstanding this success, the further prosecution of these 
important studies is greatly hampered by the lack of funds. With 
meagre appropriations for expenses, lack of clerical help and necessary 
apparatus, the Conference cannot cope properly with the vast field of 
work before it. 

Especially is it questionable at present as to how large and important 
a work we shall be able to prosecute during the next ten-year cycle. It 
may be necessary to reduce the number of conferences to one every 
other year. We trust this will not be necessary, and we earnestly 
appeal to those who think it worth while to study this, the greatest 
group of social problems that has ever faced the nation, for substantial 
aid and encouragement in the further i^rosecution of the work of the 
Atlanta Conference. 



Bibliography of Negro Health and Physique 



A large part of the matter here entered is either unscientific or superceded 
by later and more careful work. Even such matter, however, has an historic 
interest. 

Bibliography of Bibliographies 

Catalogue of the Library of the United States Surgeon General's Office. See Negro. 

Bibliography 

Abel, J. J., and Davis, W. S.— On the pigment of the Negro's skin and hair. J. Exper. 

M. New York, 1896. 
Alcock, N. and others.— Negroes; why are they black? Nature, 30:501; 31:6. 
Angerbllche (Die) Inferlorltat der Neger-Rasse. 
Atlanta University Publications.— Mortality among Negroes in Cities. Atlanta, 

1896. 
Social and Physical Condition of Negroes in Cities. Atlanta, 1897. 
Atwater, W. O., and Woods, Chas. D. Dietary studies with reference to the food of 

Negroes In Alabama in 1895-1896. Washington, 1897. (U. S. Dept. Agri.) 
Babcock, J. W.— The colored Insane. New Haven (?) 1895. 
Baldwin, Ebenezer.— Observations on the physical, intellectual, and moral qualities 

of our colored population. New Haven, 1834. 
Ball, M. v.— The mortality of the Negro. Med. News, LXIV, 389. 

Vital statistics of the Negro. Med. News, LXV, 392. 
Balloch, E. A.— The relative frequency of fibroid processes In the dark skinned 

races. Ibid, 29-35. 
Baxter, T.H.— Statistics; Medical and Anthropological, of the provost Marshall Gen- 
eral's Bureau. Washington, 1875. 
Bean, R. B. — On a racial peculiarity in the brain of the Negro. Proc. Ass. Am. Anat. 

Bait. 1904-6. 
The Negro Brain. Century, Vol. 72, pp, 778 and 947. 
Beazley, W. S.— Peculiarities of the Negro. Med. Progress, XV, 4(). 
Black and white ratios for eleven decades. Nation, 73:.391-2. 
Bodington, Alice.— The importance of race and Its bearing on the "Negro question." 

Westminst. Rev., OXXXIV, 415-427. 
Brady, C. M.— The Negro as a patient. N. Orl. M. & S. J., LVI. 431-445. 
Broadnax, B. H.— New born infants of African descent. N. Y. M. Times, 1895. 

Color of infant Negroes. Miss. M. Rec, VII, 174. 
Broca, Dr. Paul.— The phenomena of hybrldity in the genus homo. London, 1864. 
Brown, F. J.— The northward movement of the colored population. A statistical 

study. Baltimore, 1897. 
Browne, Sir T.— Of the blackness of Negroes. In his works, 2:180-197. 
Bryce, Jas.— The relations of the advanced and the backward races of mankind. 

Oxford, 1892. 46 pp. 
Bryce, T. H.— On a pair of Negro Femora. J. Anat. and Physiol., 32:76-82. 

Notes on the myology of a Negro. Ibid, 31 :607-618. 
Buchner, M.— Psychology of Negro. Pop. Scl. Mo., 23:.399. 



NEGRO HEALTH AND PHYSIQl E 7 

Burmelster, H.— The black man; the comparative anatomy and physiology of the 
African Negro. Transl. by Julius Friedlander and Robert Tomes. New York, 
1853. 

Buschan, G.— Zur Pathologle der Neger. Arch, per I'antrop., XXXI, ii57-ii7^. 

Byers, J. W.— Diseases of the Southern Negro. Med. and Surg. Reporter, LVIII, 
734-37. 

Campbell, J.— Negro-mania; Ijeing an e.xamination of the falsely assumed equality 
of the various races of men. Philadelphia, 1851. 

Capacity of Negroes. Spectator, 75:927. 

Cartwright, S. A.— Physical characteristics of Negroes. UeBow's Review, 11:184. 
Diseases of Negroes. DeBow's Review, 11:29, 331, .')04. 

Castellanos, J. J.— The rural and city Negro pathologically and therapeutically con- 
sidered. Proc. Orleans Parish M. Soc, 189.5. ill pp., LXXX-LXXXV. 

Castonnel des Fosses. La race noire dans I'avenir. Assoc, franc, pour I'avance. 
d. sc. 18: pt. 1,377-380. 

Causes of color of the Negro. Portfolio (Deiinie's), 12:6447. 

Chittenden, C. E.— Negroes in the United States. Pop. Sci. Mo., 22:841. 

Clark, G. C— The immunity of the Negro race to certain diseases and the causes 
thereof. Maryland M. J., XXXVIII, 222-4. 

Clarke, R.— Short notes of the prevailing diseases in the colony of Sierra Leone, 
with a return of the sick Africans sent to hospital in eleven years, and classi- 
fied medical returns for the years 185:^-4; also tables showing the number of 
lunatics admitted to hospital in a period of thirteen years and the number 
treated from April, 1842, to March, 1853. J. Statist. Soc, XIV, 0081. 

Coates, B. H.— The effects of secluded and gloomy Imprisonment on individuals of 
the African variety of mankind in the production of disease. Philadelphia, 
184:3. 

Cohn, H.— Die sehleistungen der Dahoma-Neger. Wchnschr. f. Therap. u. Hyg. d. 
Auges, Bresl., 1898. 2:97. 
-Coleman, W. L.— Some observations on consumption, diabetes, melitus and con- 
sumption in the Negro. Alkaloid Clin., Ill, 114-U6. 

The color of newly born Negro children. Lancet, 2:1419. 

The colored race in life assurance. Lancet, II, 902. 

Conradt, Ij., and Virchow, R.— Tabellarlsche Uebersicht der an Negern des Adeli- 
Landes augsefuhrten Auframen. Verhandl. d. Gesellsch. f. Anthrop., 164-18(5. 

Corson, E. R.— The future of the colored race in the United States from an ethnic 
and medical standpoint; a lecture delivered before the Georgia Historical 
Society, June 6, 1887. XV, 19:^226. 
The vital equation of the colored race, and its future in the United States. Wilder 
quart, century book. Ithaca, 189.3. 115-175. 

Cowglll, W. M.— Why the Negro does not suffer from trachoma. J. Am. M. Ass., 
XXXIV, .399. 

Crawford, J.— On the physical and mental characteristics of the Negro. Tr. Ethn. 
Soc. 4:212-239. 

Croly, D. G., and others.— Miscegenation: theory of the blending of the races applied 
to the American white man and the Negro. N. Y., 1864. 

Cunningham, R. McW.— The morbidity and mortality of Negro convicts. Med. 
News, LXIV, 113-117. 
The Negro as a convict. Tr. M. Ass. Alabama, 1893. pp. 315-326. 

Cureau, A.— Essai sur la phychologie des races Negres en I'Afrique tropicale. 
Deuxieme partie: Intellectualite. Rev. gen. d. sc. pures et appliq., 36:6:^-679. 

Daniels, C. W.— Negro fertility and infantile mortality. British Guiana M. Ann., X, 
8-17. 

P. D. A propos de Negres blancs. Rev. med. de Normandie, Rouen, 1905, 441. Les 
Negres blancs. J. de med. de Par., 1906. XVIII, 41. 

De Albertis, O.— Genesi, storia ed anthropologia della razza Negra. Revista, VIII, 
290-308. 

Degallier, Mile. Alice.— Notes psychologiques sur les Negres Pahoulns. Arch, de 
psychol., IV, 362-368. 



8 ELEVENTH ATLANTA CONFERENCE 

DeSaussure, P. G.— Is the colored race increasing or decreasing? Tr. Soutli Carolina 
M. Ass., XLV, 119-121. 
Obstetrical observations on the Negroes of South Carolina. Tr. Pan-Am. M. 
Cong., 189.1, pt. 1, 917-921. 
Diseases of Negroes. So. Quar. Review, 22:49. 

Distinctive peculiarities and diseases of Negroes. De Bow's Review, 20:t)12. 
Dixon, W. A.— The morbid proclivities and retrogressive tendencies In the offspring 

ofmulattoes. Med. News, LXI, 180-182. 
Dr. Cartwright on the Negro. DeBow's Review, 32:.54, 2:i8; 'Sii:(y2. 

DuBois, W. E. B— The conservation of the races. American Negro Academy: Occa- 
sional Papers, No. 2. 
The Philadelphia Negi-o. Publications of the University of Pennsylvania, Nov. 
14, 1890. 
Easton, Hosea.— A treatise on the intellectual character and condition of the col- 
ored people of the United States. Boston, 1837. 
Bdelman, Ij.— The Negro as a criminal and his influence on the white race Med. 

News, LXXXII, 19ti. 
Eijkman, C. The color of Negroes. Janus IV, 390. 
Falson, J. A.— Tuberculosis in the colored race. Med. Rec, LV, 375. 
Fehlinger.— Die Sterblichkeit der europaischen und der Neger-Rasse. Natur. 

Wchnschr., 111,280. 
Fletcher, R. M.. Jr.— Surgical peculiarities of the Negro race. Tr. M. Ass. Ala., 1S9S, 

49-57. 
Frederic— Zur Kenntnis der Hautfarbe der Neger. Ztschr. f. Morphol. u. Anthrop., 

IX, 41-56. 
Freiberg, A. H., and Schroeder, J. H.— A note on the foot of the American Negro. 

Am. F. M. Sc, CXXVI, 10:i;i-10;36. 
Frissell, H. B., and Bevier, Isabel.— Dietary studies of Negroes in eastern Virginia, 

1897-1898. 
Gannett, H. — Are we to become Africanized? Pop. Sci. Mo., 27:145. 
Glacomini, G. Annotazionl sullaanatomia del Negro; 1. memorla. (iior. d. r. Accad. 
di med. dl Torino, XXIV, 454-470. 
Annotazionl sulla anatomia del Negro; 2 memorla. Ibid., XXX, 729-803. 
Annotaziona sulla anatomia del Negro; 3 memoria. Ibid., XXXII, 4(52-500. 
Annotazioni sulla anatomia del Negro; 5 memoria. Ibid., XIj, 17-04. 
Notes sur Tanatomie du Negre; 4 memoire. Arch. ital. de biol., IX, 119-137. 
Gilliam, E. W.— Negroes in the United States. Pop. Sci. Mo., 22:4;e. 
Girard, H.— Notes anthropometriques sur quelquuns Soudanis occidentau.x, Ma- 

linkes, Bambaras, Foulahs, Soninkes, etc. Anthropologie, XIII, 41; 167; 328. 
(Jirtln, T. C. — Negroes, ancient and modern. DeBow's Review, 12:209. 
Gould, B. A. — Investigations in the military and anthropological statistics of Ameri- 
can soldiers. Cambridge, 1869. 
Granville, R. K., and Roth,H. L.— Notes on the Jekris, Sobos and Ijos of the Warri 

district of the Niger Coast Protectorate. J. Anthrop Inst., 1, 101-126. 
Gregoire, H. — Enquiry concerning the intellectual and moral faculties, etc., of Ne- 
groes. Brooklyn, 181(». 
Guenebault, J. H., editor.— Natural history of the Negro race. From the French. 

Charleston, is;^7. 
Hamilton, J. C— The .\frican in Canada. Proc. Am. As.s. Adv. Sc, XXXVIII, SM- 

370. 
Harris, S.— The future of the Negro from the standpoint of the Southern physician. 

Ala. M. J., XIV, .->7-6S. Also: Am. Med., Phila., 1901,11, 373-376. 
Hecht, D. O.— Tabes in the Negro. Am. J. M. Sc, CXXVI, 705-720. 
Herring, N. B. — The morphological and psychophysical Intrlnsicallties of the Negro 

race. 
Herz, M. Der Bau des Negerfusses. Zt.schr. f. orthop. Chir., XI., 168-174. 
Hlggins, R. C— Mortality among Negroes of the South. Nation, 15:105. 
Hodges, J. A.— The effect of freedom upon the physical and psychological develop- 
ment of the Negro. Richmond J. Pract., XIV, 161-171. 



NEGRO HEALTH AND PHYSIQUE 9 

Hoffman, F. L.— Race traits and tendencies of the American Negro. 
Vital statistics of the Negro. Med. News, LXV, 320-324. 
Vital statistics of Negroes. Arena, 5:529. 
Holcombe, W. H.— Capabilities of Negro race. Southern Literary Messenger, a3:40]. 
HoUey, Jas. T.— Vindication of the capaoltj' of the Negro race, etc. New Haven, 

18.57. 
Howard, W. L. — The Negro as a distinct ethnic factor in civilization. Medicine, IX, 

423-42t). 
Hrdlicka, Ales. — Anthropological investigations on one thousand white and colored 

children of both sexes, the Inmates of the New York juvenile asylum, etc. N. 

Y., 189-(?). 
Hrdlicka, Ales.— Physiological difference between white and colored children. 

Amer. Anthrop., 1898, II, pp. 347-50. 
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Oongo. Bull. Soc. d'anthrop. de Brux. XV, 188-194. 
.Jacques, V.— Mensurations anthropometriques de trente-neuf Negres du Congo. 

Ibid., 237-241. 
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.Tohnson, J. T.— On some of the apparent peculiarities of parturition In the Negro 

race, with remarks on race pelvis in general. Am. .I.Obst., VIII, 88-123. 
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from the principal cities, showing his mortality from A. D. 1700 to 1897. 
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women. iVIaryland M. J., XX, 426-429. 
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district, British East Africa. J. Anthrop. Inst., XXXII, 263-272. 
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Further observations of the eye of the Negro. Tr. Pan-Am. M. Cong., Wash., 

1895. Pt. 2, 1482-1484. 
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Deutsch-Toga. Arch. f. Rassen-u. Gesellch. Biol., II, 673-(i88. 
LeHardy, J. C— Mortality among Negroes: the sanitary privileges to which they are 

entitled from the authorities. Sanitarian, XXXVII, 492-49.5. 
f.ehman-Nltsche, R — Die dunklen Haut flecke der Neugeborenen bei Indianern 

und malatten. Globus, LXXXVI, 297-309. 
lilvlni, F.— Contribuzloni alia anatorala del Negi-o. Arch, per I'anthro., XXIX, 203- 

228. 
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Macalister, A.— On the osteology of two Negroes. Proc. Roy. Irish Acad. Science, III, 

347-3-50. 
"Macdonald, A.— Study of 16,473 white and 5,4-57 black children. Report Com. Ed., 1897- 

8. Chapters 21 & 25. 
Colored children; a psycho-physical study. J. Am. M. Ass., XXXII, 1140-1144. 
Macdonald, J. R. L.— East Central Africa customs. J. Anthrop. Inst., XXII, 99-122. 
Notes on the ethnology of tribes met with during progress of the . J uba expedition 

of 1897-9. Ibid., II,226-25(». 
Mapes, C. C— Remarks from the standpoint of sociology. Med. Age, XIV, 713-715. 
-Matas, R.— The surgical peculiarities of the Negro: a statistical inquiry based upon 

the records of the Charity Hospital of New Orleans. Tr. Am. Surg. Ass., XIV, 

483; 610. 
Mays, T. J.— Increase of insanity and consumption among the Negro population of 

the South since the war. Boston M. & S. .1., CXXXV. .537-540. 
McGulre, H., and Lydston, G. F.— Sexual crimes among the Southern Negi-oes; 

scientifically considered. Va. M. Month , XX, 105-125. 
Mcintosh, J.— The future of the Negro race. Tr. South Oar. M. Ass., 1891^ 183-188. 
Mcintosh, T. M.— Enlarged prostrate and spina bifida in the Negro. .Vied. Rec, LIV, 

350. 
McKie, T. J.— A hriet history of in.sanity and tuberculosis in the Southern Negro. ,T. 

Am.M. Ass., XXVIII, 5;W. 



10 ELEVENTH ATLANTA CONFERENCE 

McVey, B.— Negro practice. N. Orl. M. & S. J., XX, 328-a32. 

Miller, J. F.— The effects of emancipation upon the mental and physical qualiflca- 

tions of the Negro of the South. North Car. M. J., XXXVIII, 285-294. 
Miller, Kelly.— A review of Hoffman's "Race traits and tendencies." Washington, 

1897. 
Michel, M.— Two cervical muscle anomalies In the Negro. Med. Rec, XLI, 125. 
Mitchell, Mary V. — Clinical Notes from diseases among colored children. Rep. Proc. 

Alumnae Ass. Woman's M. Coll., Penn., 50-.58. 
Morison. — Notes sur la formation du pigment chez de Negre. Cong, internal, de 

edrmat. et de syph. C.-r., 1889, 130-131. 
Mortality among Negroes in cites. Proceedings of the conference for investigations 

of city problems, held at Atlanta University, May 26-27, 1896. 
De MortlUet, G.— Sur les Negres de I'Algerle et de la Tunlsie. Bull. Soc. d'antrop., de 

Par., 1890. I, 353-359. 
Morton, A. S.— The color of newly born Negro children. Lancet, II, 1605. 
Murrell, T. E.— Peculiarities In the structure and diseases of the ear of the Negro. 

Tr. IX, Internat. M. Cong., Ill, 817-824. 
Muskat, G.— Der Plattfus des Negers. Deutsche med. Wchnschr. XXVIII, 471. 
Musser, J. H. — Note on pernicious anemia and chlorosis in the Negro. Univ. M. 

Mag., V, 770. 
Negro, equality of the races. So. Quar. Review, 21: 15;J. 
Negro Insane. Charities Review, 10:8. 

Negro, The: what is his ethnological status? Cincinnati, 1872. 
Olivier.— Les troupes noires de I'Afrlque orlentale francaise. Rev. d. troupes colon., II, 

97-129. 
- Orr, J. — Some suggestions of Interest to physicians on the scientific aspect of the race 

question, with particular reference to the white and Negro races. Va. M. Semi- 
Month., VIII, 90-95. 
Oson, Jacob. — A search for truth or an inquiry into the origin of the Negro, etc. 

N. Y., 1817. 
Paterson, J. S.— Negroes of the South: increase and movement of the colored popu- 
lation. Popular Science Monthly, 19:655, 784. 
Fatten, G. W.— An essay on the origin and relative status of the white and colored 

races of manliind. Towanda, Pa., 1871. 
Peney, A. — Etudes sur les races du Soudan. Compt. rend. Acad. d. so., XLVIII, 430. 
Perry, M. L.— Insanity and the Negro. Current Literature, 33:467. 

Some practical problems in sociology shown by a study of the Southern Negro. 

Atlanta Jour. Rec. Med., IV, 459-466. 
Petrie, W. M. F. — An Egyptian ebony statuette of a Negress. Man, 1, 129. 
Physical characteristics of the Negro. So. Quar. Review, 22:49. 
Plttard, E.— De la survlvance d'un type Negrolde dans les populations modernes de 

I'Europe. Compt. rend. Acad. d. sc, CXXXVIII, 1533. 
Plehn, A. — Beobachtung in Kamerun, Ueber die Anschauungen und Gehrauche 

einiger Negerstamme. Ztsch. rf. Ethnol., XXXVI, 713-728. 
Ueber die Pathologic Kameruns mit Rvickslcht auf die unter den Kustennegern 

vorkommenden Krankheiten. Arch. f. Path. Anat., CXXXIX, 539-549. 
Zur verglelchenden Pathologie der schwarzen Rasse In Kamerun. Ibid., CXLVI, 

486-508. 
Wnndheilung bel der schwarzen Rasse. Deutsche Med. Wchnschr., XXII, 544- 

546. 
Die acuten Infektlons Krankheiten bel den Negern der aquatorlalen Kusten 

Westafrlkas. Vlrchow's Arch. f. Path. Anat., CLXXIV., Suppl. Hft., 1-103. 
Popovsky, J.— Les muscles de la face chez un Negre Achanti. Anthropologic, I, 413- 

422. 
Powell, T. O. — The increase of Insanity and tuberculosis In the Southern Negro since 

1860, and its alliance and some of the supposed causes. J. Am. M. Aos., XXVII, 

1185-89. 
Pritchett, J. A.— Tuberculosis in the Negro. Ala. M. & S. Age, V, 386-421. 
Ramsay, H. A. — The necrological appearance of southern typhoid fever in the Negro. 

Thomson, Ga., 1^52. 



NEGRO HEALTH AND PHYSIQUE 11 

Katzel, F.— The History of Mankind; tr. from 2nd German edition by A.J. Butler. 
New Yorii; 2 Vol., 1904. 

Ray, J. M.— Observations upon eye disease and blindness In the colored race. New 
York M. J., LXIV, 8(5-88. 

Regnault, F.— Pourquoi les Negres sont-ils noirs? (etude sur les causes de la colora- 
tion de la peau). Med. Mod., VI, (506. 

Relnsch, P. S.— The Negro race and European civilization. Am. J. Soclol., X, 1, 145, 
1(57. 

Report of the committee on the comparative health, mortality, length of sentences, 
etc., of white and colored convicts. Philadelphia, 1849. 

Reyburn, R.— Type of disease among the freed people (mixed Negro races) of the 
United States, based upon the consolidated reports of over 430,4(56 cases of sick 
and wounded free people (mixed African races) and, 22,053 of white refugees 
under treatment from 186.'j to June 30, 1873, by medical officers of the Bureau of 
Refugees, Freedinen and Abandoned Lands. Med. News, LXIII. (523-()27. 

Richardson, C. H.— Observations among the Cameroon tribes of West Central Africa. 
Mem. Internat. Cong. Anthrop., 199-207. 

Riley, H. C— Color of new born Negroes. Med. Brief, XXVIII, 537. 

Ripley, W. Z.— The Races of Europe. New York. 1899. 

Robertson, John.— On the period of puberty in the Negro. Edinburgh, 1848. 

Robertson, T. L.— The color of Negro children when born. Ala. M. & 8. Age, X, 413. 

Rodes, 0. B., Jr.— The thoracic index In the Negro. Zuschr. f. Morphol. u. Anthrop., 
IX, 1(13-117. 

Rogers, J. G.— The effect of freedom upon the physical and psychological develop- 
ment of the Negro. Proc. Am. Med. Psychol. Ass., XVII, 88-98. 

Roscoe, J.— Notes on the manners and customs of the Baganda. J. Anthrop. Inst., 

XXXI, 117-130. 

Further notes on the manners and customs of the Baganda. Ibid., 1902. XXXII, 
25-80. 
Roth, H. L.— Notes on Benin customs. Internat. Arch. f. Ethnog., XI, 235-242. 
Roy, P. S.— A case of chorea in a Negro. Med. Rec, XLII, 21-5. 

Scheppegrell, W.— The comparative pathology of the Negro in diseases of the nose, 
throat, and ear, from an analysis of 11,8.>5 cases. Proc. Orleans Parish. M. Soc, III, 
pp. 85-88. 
Schiller-Tletz.— Die Hautfarbe der neugeborenen Neger kinder. Deutsche Med. 

Wchnschr., XXVII, 615. 
Schurtz, K.— Die geographische Verbreitung der Negertrachten. Ibid., IV, 139-53. 
Schwarzbach, B. B.— The power of sight of natives of South Africa. Brit. M. J., II, 

1731. 
Semeleder, F.— Negroes in the Mexican Republic. Med. Rec, LVIII, 66. 
Sergi, G.— The Mediterranean Race. London, 1901. 

Shaler, N. S.— The transplantation of a race. Pop. Sc. Month., LVI, 513-24. 
The future of the Negro in the Southern States. Ibid., LVII, 147-156. 
The Neighbor: the natural history of human contrasts. (The problem of the 
African). Boston, 1904. 
Sholl, E. H.— The Negro and his death rate. Ala. M. & S. Age, III, 337-341. ■ 
Shufeldt, R. W.— Comparative anatomical characters of the Negro. Med. Brief, 

XXXII, 26-28. 

Simonot.— Considerations sur la coloration de la peau de Negre. Bull. Soc. d' an- 
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Slavery and the diversity of the races. So. Quar. Review. 19:392. 

Smith, Anna T.— A study in race psychology. Pop. Sc. Monthly, L, ;»4-360. 

Soslnsky, T. S.— Medical aspects of Negro. Penn. Monthly, 10:.529. 

Steffens, C— Die Verfelnerung des Negertypus in den Vereinlgten Staaten. Globus, 
LXXIX, 171-74. 

Stetson, G. R.— Memory tests. Psychol. Rev., 1897, IV, 285-9. 

Steuber.— Ueber Krankheiten der Eingeborenen in Deutsch Ostafrlka Arch. f. 
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Stevens, H. V.— Mitthellungen aus dem Frauenleben der OrangBelendas, der Orang 
Djakun und derOrang Laut. Bearbeltet von Max Bartels. Ztschr. f. Ethnol., 

XXXIII, 16:5-202. 



12 ELEVENTH ATLANTA CONFERENCE 

Steward. T. G.— Mortality of Negro. Social Economist 9:204. 

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Verhandl. d. Berl. Gesellsch. f. Anthrop., 1894, 422-424. 
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1895, ti56-67l. 
Subgenatlon: An answer to miscegenation. N. Y., 1864. 
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190.5, I, 389. 
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Boston, (?) 1864. 
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Testut — Contribution a I'anatomle des races Negres; dissection de trols nouveaux 

Negres. Bull; Soc. d'anthrop. de Lyon, IX, .51-68. 
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XXV, 282-285. 
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Thompson, A.— Craniology (Negroid and non-Negroid skulls). Man, V, 101. 
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verglichen. Heidelberg, 1837. 
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549. 
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funzionale dello strato graculoso e sulla dlffuslone del plgmento cutaneo). 
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XXXI, 624-620. 
United States Censuses: 
Number, 1790-1900. 
Sex and age, 1820-1900. 
Defectives, 1830-1900. 
Mulattoes, 1850, 1890 (1900). 
Mortality, 1860-1900. 
Delinquents, 1880-1900. 
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No. 1: Distribution. 
No. 4: Increase. 

No. 8: Negroes in the United States, by W. F. Wilcox and W. E. B. DuBoIs. 
No. 13: Ages. , 
No. 14: Sexes. 
No. 15: Mortality. 
No. 22: Birth rate. 
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sclent, internat. d. catholiques. Sect. 8, 132-154. 
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VIII, 191-194. 
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microscopiques sur les naevi pigmentalres d'un mulatre. Bull. Soc. d'anthrop. 
de Par., XII, 463. 
Verneau, R.— Les migrations des Ethiopiens. Anthropolozie, X, 641-662. 
Vlrchow, R.— Kopfmaasse von 40 Wei- und 19 Kru-Negern. Verhandl. cJ. Berl. Ge- 
sellsch. f. Anthrop , 1889, 85-93. 
Zwei junge Bursche von Kamerun und Togo. Ibid., .541-545. 
Vital statistics of Negroes of the South. DeBow's Review, 21 :405. 
Waltz, T. — Die Negervolker und ihre Verwandten. Leipzig, 1860. 

Waldeyer, W.— Ueber einlge Gehlrne von Ost-Afrlkanern. Mitth. d. anthrop. Ge- 
sellsch. In Wlen., XIV, 141-144. 



NEGRO HEALTH AND PHYSIQUE 13 

Walker, F. A.— Statistics of the colored race In the United States. Pub. Am. Statist. 
Ass. II, 91-100. 

Walton,.!. T. — The coniparativo mortality of the white and colored races in the 
South. Charlotte M. ,]., X, 291-294. 
The comparative mortality of the white and colored races in the South. Char- 
lotte (N. C.) M. J., X, No. 3, 291-294. 

Weisbach, A.— Einige Schadel aus Ostafrika. Wien, I8S9. 

Whitaker, U. R.— Natural history of Negro. Southern Literary Journal, 3:1.')1; 4:87. 

Why is the Negro black? Scientific American, 49:20125. 

Widenmann.— Her Plattfuss des Negers. Deutsche Med. Wchnschr., XXVIII, ^m. 

Williams, Daniel H. — Ovarian cysts In colored women. Reprint from "Chicago 
Medical Record." 12pp. 

Wilser, L. — Urgeschichtliche Neger in Europa. Globus, LXXXVII, 45. 

Wolbarst, A. Ij., Provence D. M., and March, O. J. — The color of Negro babies. Med. 
News, LXXIII, 844. 

Wolff, B. — Deficient vulvar development in Negresses. Med. Age, XVI, 137. 

Wortman,,!. L. — The Negro's anthropological position. Wash., 1891. 

Wyman, J.— Observations on the skeleton of a Hottentot. Boston, 1863. 

Willcox, Walter F.— The probable Increase of the Negro race in the Urited States. 
Quarterly Journal of Economics, August, 1905. 

Addendum 

Denniker, J.— The Races of Man. New York, 19o4. 



Negro Health and Physique 

1. Races of Men 

It is doubtful if many of the per.sons in the United States who are 
eagerly and often bitterly discussing race prolilems have followed very, 
carefully the advances which anthropological science has made in the 
last decade. Certainly the new knowledge has not yet reached the 
common schools in the usual school histories and geographies. Ag 
Ripley says : 

It may smack of heresj^ to a.ssert, in face of the teaching of ail our text^ 
books on geography and history, that there is no single European or white 
race of men; and yet that is the plain truth of tlie matter. Science has ad- 
vanced since Linneeus' single type of Homo Europceus albiis was made one of 
the four great races of mankind. No continental group of htiman beings with 
greater diversities or extremes of physical type exists. Tliat fact accounts in 
itself for much of our advance in culture.* 

In our school days most of us were brought up to regard Asia as the mother 
of European peoples. We were told that an ideal race of men swarmed forfh 
from the Himalayan highlands, disseminating culture right and left as they 
spread through the barbarous west. The primitive language, parent to all of 
the varieties of speech — Romance, Teutonic, Slavic, Persian, or Hindustanee^. 
spoken by the so-called Caucasian or white race, was called Aryan. By in- 
ference this name was shifted to the shoulders of the people themselves, who. 
were known as the Aryan race. In the days when such symmetrical generali- 
zations held sway there was no science of physical anthropology; prehistoric 
archaeology was not yet. Shem, Ham, and Japliet were still the patriarchal 

♦Ripley, p. 103. 



14 ELEVENTH ATLANTA CONFERENCE 

founciers of the great racial varieties of the genus Homo. A new science of 
philology dazzled the intelligent world by its brilliant discoveries, and its 
words were law. Since 18(50 these early inductions have completely bi'oken 
down in the light of modern research ; and even today greater uncertainty 
prevails in many phases of the question that would have been admitted possi- 
ble twenty years ago.* 

So, too, a leading Italian anthropologist says: 

Whenever there has been any attempt to explaifl the origin of civilization 
and of the races called Arjan, whether in the Mediterranean or in Central 
lOurope, all arch;eologists, linguists, and anthropologists have until recent 
years been dominated by the conviction that both civilization and peoples 
Hiust have their unquestionable cradle in Asia.f 

As illustrating tlie former tendency, Sergi adds: 

A celebrated anthropologist, when measuring the heads of the mummies of 
the Pharaohs preserved in the Pyramids, wrote that the Egyptians belonged 
to the white race. His statement meant nothing ; we could construct a sjilo- 
gism showing that the Egyptians are Germans, since the latter also are fair. 
De Quatrefages classitied the Abyssinians among the white races, but if they 
are black, how can they be white?]: 

The new anthropology, wliile taking into account all the older race 
insignia, like color, hair, form of features, etc., has added to these exact 
measurements of the underlying bony skeleton and other carefully col- 
lected data. Of these new measurements the form of the head is being 
most emphasized today. 

The form of the head is for all racial purposes best measured by what is 
technically known as the cephalic index. This is simply the breadth of the 
head above the ears expressed iii percentage of its length from forehead to 
back. Assuming that this length is 100, the width is expressed in a fraction 
of it. As the head becomes proportionately broader — that is, more fully 
rounded, viewed from top down — this cephalic index increases. When it 
rises above 80, the head is called brachycephalic, when it falls below 75, term 
dolichocephalic is applied to it. Indexes between 75 and 80 are characterized 
as mesocephalic. § 

-Based on the new measurements and discoveries, the chief conclu- 
sions of anthropologists today as to European races are as follows: 

1. The European races, as a whole, show signs of a secondary or derived 
origin; certain characteristics, especially the texture of the hair, lead us to 
class them as intermediate between the extreme primary tj^pes of the Asiatic 
and the Negro races respectively. 

2. The earliest and lowest strata of population in Europe were extremely 
long-headed ; probability points to the living Mediterranean race as most 
nearly representative of it today. 

' 3; It is highly probable that the Teutonic race of northern Europe is' 
merely a variety of this primitive long-headed type of the stone age ; both its 
distinctive blondness and its remarkable stature having been acquired in the 
relative isolation of Scandinavia through the modifying influences of envir- 
onment and of artificial selection. 

4 It is certain that, after the partial occujiation of western Europe by a 
dolichocephalic Africanoid type in the stone age, an invasion by a broad- 

• Ripley, pp. 452-3. t Sergl, p. 1. J Sergl, p. 35. $ Ripley, p. m. 



NEGRO HEALTH AND PHYSIQUE 15 

headed race of decidedly Asiatic affinities took place. This intrusive element 
is represented today by the Alpine type of Central Europe.* 

What was now this Mediterranean race whence the p]uropeans were 
primarily derived? Sergi adds: 

In opposition to the theory of a migration from the north of Europe to the 
west and then to Africa, I am, on the contrary, convinced that a migration of 
the African racial element took place in primitive times from the south 
towards the north. The types of Cro-Magnon, L'Homme-Mort, and other 
French and Belgian localities, bear witness to the presence of an African 
stock in the same region in which we find the dolmens and other cnegalithic 
monuments erroneously attributed to the Celts, t 

He adds: 

We have no I'eason to suppose that the movement of emigration in the east 
of Africa stopped at the Nile valley ; we may suppose that it extended towards 
the east of Egypt, into Syria and the regions around Syria, and thence into 
Asia Minor. It is possible that in Syria this immigration encountered the 
primitive inhabitants, or a population coming from northern Arabia, and 
mingled with them or subjugated them. J 

Sergi's conclusions are: 

1. That the primitive populations of Europe originated in Africa. 

2. The basin of the Mediterranean was the chief center of the movement 
whence the African migration reached central and northern Europe. 

3. From this great Eurafrican stock came — . 

(a) The present inhabitants of northern xVfrica. 

(b) The Mediterranean race. 

(c) The Nordic or Teutonic race. 

4. These three varieties of one stock were not "Aryan," nor of Asiatic origin. 

5. The primitive civilization of Europe is Afro-Mediterranean, becoming 
eventually Afro-European. 

6. Greek and Roman civilization were not Aryan but Mediterranean. § 

This primitive race was a colored race : 

If, therefore, as all consistent students of natural history hold today, the 
human races have evolved in the past from some common root type, this pre- 
dominant dark color must be regarded as the more primitive. It is not per- 
missible for an instant to supiJose that 99 per cent of the human species has 
varied from a blond ancestry, while the flaxen-haired Teutonic type aloue has 
I'emained true to its primitive characteristics. || 

The types of Greek and Roman statuary: 

Do not in the slightest degree recall the features of a northern race; in the 
delicacy of the cranial and facial forms, in smoothness of surface, in the ab- 
sence of exaggerated frontal bosses and supra-orbital arches, in the harmony 
of the curves, in the facial oval, in the rather low foreheads, they recall the 
beautiful and harmonious heads of the brown Mediterranean race. If 

Of the part of this great stock which remained in North Africa, 
Sergi says : 

The area of geographical distribution of these African populations is im- 
mense, for it reaches from the Red Sea to the Atlantic, from the equator, and 

♦ Ripley, p. 457-470. f Sergi, p. 70. J Sergi, p. 144. $ Sergi, pp. V-VII, 

II Ripley, p. 465, TT Sergi, p. 20. 



16 ELEVENTH ATLANTA CONFERENCE 

even beyond the equator to the Mediterranean. In this vast area we tind, 
when we exclude racial mixtures, that the physical characters of the skele- 
ton, as regards head and face are uniform, but that the phj'sical characters of 
the skin and intermediate parts, that is to say, the development and form of 
the soft parts, vary. This uniformity of the cranio-facial skeletal characters, 
which I consider the guiding thread in anthropological research, lias led me 
to regard as a single human stock all the varieties distributed in the area 
already mentioned. In the varj'ing cutaneous coloration I see an effect of 
temperature, of climate, of alimentation, and of the manner of life.* 



2. The Negro Race 

It !ias usually been assumed that of all race.s the Negro race is, by 
reason of its pronounced physical chMracteristics, easiest to distinguish. 
Exacter studies and measurements prove this untrue. The human 
species so shade and mingle with each other that not only indeed is it 
impossible to draw a coh)r line between black and other races, but In 
all piiysical characteristics the Negro race cannot be set olf by itself as 
absolutely different. This w^as formerly assumed to be the case even 
by scientists and led to the queer reductio ad adsurdum that very few 
real pure Negroes existed even in Africa. As Ratzel points out: 

The name "Negro" originally embraces one of the most unmistakable con' 
ceptions of ethnology— the African with dark skin, so-called "woolly" hair, 
thick lips and nose; and it is one of the prodigious, nay amazing achieve- 
ments of critical erudition to have latterly conhned this (and that even in 
Africa, the genuine old Negro country) to a small district. For if with Waitz 
we assume that Gallas, Nubians, Hottentots, Kaffirs, the Congo races, and the 
Malagasies are none of them genuine Negri>es, and if with Schweinforth we 
further exclude Shillooks and Bongos, we find that the continent of Africa is 
peopled throughout almost its whole circuit by races other than the genuine 
Negro, while in its interior, from the southern extremity to far beyond the 
equator it contains only light-colored South Africans, and the Bantu or Kaffir 
peoples. 

Nothing then remains for the Negroes in the pure sense of the word save, 
as Waitz says, "a tract of country extending over not more than 10 or 12 de- 
crees of latitude, which may be traced from the mouth of the Senegal river to 
Timbuctoo, and thence extended to the regions about Sennaar." lilven in this 
the race reduced to these dimensions is permeated hj a number of people 
belonging to other stocks. According to Latham, indeed, the real Negro 
country extends only from the Senegal to the Niger If we ask what Justifies 
so narrow a limitation, we find that the hideous Negro type, which the fancy 
of observers once saw all over Africa, but which, as Livingstone says, is really 
to be seen only as a sign in front of tobacco-shops, has on closer inspection 
evaporated from almost all parts of Africa, to settle no one knows how in just 
this region. If we understand that an extreme case may have been taken for 
the genuine and pure form, even so we do not comprehend the ground of its 
geographical limitation and location ; for wherever dark woolly-haired men 
dwell, this ugly type also crops up. We are here in presence of a refinement 
of science which to an unprejudiced eye will hardly hold water. t 

• Sergi, pp. 248-9. f Ratzel, II, p. 313. 



NEGRO HEALTH AND PHYSIQUE 17 

Three things have been especially emphasized as characteristic of 
Negroes: their color, hair and features. As to color in human beings, 
Ripley says: 

One point alone seems to have been definitely proved: however marked the 
contrasts in color between the several varieties of human species may be,there 
is no corresponding difference iu anatomical structure discoverable. 

Pi§fmentation arises from the deposition of coloring matter in a special 
series of cells, which lie just between the translucent outer skin or epidermis 
and the inner or true skin known as the cutis. It was long supposed that 
these pigmentcells were peculiar to the dark-skinned races; but investigation 
has shown that the structure in all types is identical. The differences in 
color are due, not to presence or absence of the cells themselves, but to varia- 
tions in the amount of pigment therein deposited. In this respect, therefore, 
the Negro differs physiologically, rather than anatomically, from the Euro- 
pean or the Asiatic* 

The cause of this physiological difference is climate, the rays of the 
sun, humidity, and such natural forces: 

The best working hypothesis is ... . that this coloration is due to the 
combined influences of a great number of factors of environment working 
through phj'siological processes, none of which can be isolated from the 
others. One point is certain, whatever the cause may be — that this character- 
istic has been very slowly acquired, and has today become exceedingly per- 
sistent in several races, t 

Sergi says of the Mediterranean race: 

We may therefore conclude that as residence under the equator has pro- 
duced the red-brown and black coloration of the stock, and residence in the 
Meditei'raneau the brown colour, so northern Europe has given origin to the 
white skin, blond hair, and blue or grey eyes. I believe we may consider this 
a beautiful example of the formation and variation of external characters 
among a section of the human race which from time imnremorial has been 
diffused by migrations between the equator and the arctic circle, and has 
formed its external characters according to the variations of latitude and the 
concomitant external conditions.^ 

As to hair, we are told that — 

The two extremes of hair texture in the human species are the crisp, curly 
variety so familiar to us in the African Negro; and the stiff wiry straight 
hair of the Asiatic and the American aborigines. These traits are exceedingly 
persistent; they persevere oftentimes through generations of ethnic inter- 
mixture. It has been shown by Pruner Bey and others that this outward con- 
trast in texture is due to, or at all events coincident with, real morphological 
differences in structure. The curly hair is almost always of a flattened, rib- 
bon-like form in cross section, as examined miscroscopically ; while, cut 
squarely across, the straight hair more often inclines to a fully rounded or 
cylindrical shape. Moreover, this peculiarity in cross section may often be 
detected in any crossing of these extreme types. The result of such inter- 
mixture is to imijart a more or less wavy appearance to the hair, and to pro- 
duce a cross section intermediate between a flattened oval and a circle. 
Roughly speaking, the more pronounced the flatness the greater is the tend- 
ency toward waviness or curling, and the reverse.^ 

• Ripley, p. .58. + Ripley, p. 62. J Sergi, p. 254. $ Ripley, p. 457. 



18 ELEVENTH ATLANTA CONFERENCE 

Anthropologists today are putting less stress on the development of 
the soft parts of the human frame — the skin, nose, cheeks and lips, but 
have come to regard the cranio-faeial skeletal characteristics as ''the 
guiding thread on anthropological research."* Even here the matter 
of absolute size and weight is of minor importance: 

Equally unimportant to the anthropologist is the absolute size of the head. 
It is grievous to coutemplate the waste of energy when, during our civil war, 
over one million soldiers had their heads measured in respect of this absolute 
size; in view of the fact that today anthropologists deny any considerable 
signitieance attaching this characteristic. Poijularly, a large head with beet- 
ling eyebrows suffices to establish a man's intellectual credit; but like all 
other credit, it is entirely dependent upon what lies on deposit elsewhere. 
Neither size nor weight of the brain seems to be of importance. The long, 
narrow heads, as a rule, have a sinaller capacity than those in which the 
breadth is considerable, but exceptions are so common that they disprove the 
rule. Among the earliest men whose remains have been found in Europe, 
there was no appreciable difference from the present living populations. In 
many cases these prehistoric men even surjiassed the present population in 
the size of the head. The peasant and the philosopher can not be distin- 
guished in this respect. For the same reason the striking difference betweeti 
the sexes, the head of the man being considerably larger than the head of the 
woman, means nothing more than avoirdupois, or rather it seems merelv to 
be correlated with the taller stature and more massive frame of the human 
male.t 

Great stress used to be put on the facial angle, but we are told now 
that— 

Prognathism, that is to say the degree of projection of the maxillary portion 
of the face, is a characteristic trait of certain skulls ; however, it does not seem 
to play so important a part in the classification of races as antliropologists 
had thought twenty or thirty years ago. It presents too many individual va- 
rieties to be taken as a distinctive character of race, l 

We have, then, in the so-called Negro races to do with a great variety 
of human types and mixtures of blood representing at bottom a human 
variation which separated from the primitive human stock some ages 
after the yellow race and before the Mediterranean race, and which has 
since intermingled witli these races in all degrees of admixture so that 
today no absolute separating line can be' drawn. 

The real history of human races is unknown. A probable theory 
would be that the first great division of men took place at the roof of 
the world, the Asiatic Himalaya mountains; that here the primitive 
brown stock of men divided — those to southward gradually through 
ages becoming long-headed and tall, and those to northward broad- 
headed and shorter. From the southern long-headed variety developed 
in ages the closely allied Negro and Mediterranean races and from the 
Mediterranean race and the invading Asiatics came modern Europeans. 

The first great step in civilization which mankind took after the 
Stone Age was the discovery and use of iron. 

"The achievements of races are not only what they have done during 

• Sergl, p. 2'I9. +Ripley, p. 43. tDenniker, p. 63. 



NEGRO HEALTH AND PHYSIQUE 19 

the short span of 2,000 years, when with rapidly increasing nuinbers 
the total amount of mental work accumulated at an ever increasing- 
rate. In this the European, the Chinaman, the East Indian, have far 
outstripped other races. But back of this period lies the time when 
mankind struggled with the elements, when every small advance that 
seems to us now insignificant was an achievement of the highest order, 
as great as the discovery of steam power or of electricity, if not greater. 
It may well be, that these early inventions were made hardly con- 
sciously, certainly not by deliberate effort, yet every one of thein rep- 
resents a giant's stride forward in the development of human culture. 
To these early advances the Negro race has contributed its liberal, 
share. While much of the history of early invention is shrouded in 
darkness, it seems likely that at a time when the European was still 
satisfied with rude stone tools, the African had invented or adopted the 
art of smelting iron. 

"Consider for a moment what this invention has meant for the ad- 
vance of the human race. As long as the hammer, knife, saw, drill, 
the spade and the hoe had to be chipped outof stone, or had to be made 
of shell or hard wood, effective industrial work was not impossible, 
but difficult. A great progress was made when copper found in large 
imggets was hammered out into tools and later on shaped by melting, 
and when bronze was introduced; but the true advancement of indus- 
trial life did not begin until the hard iron was discovered. It seems 
not unlikely that the people that made the marvelous discovery of re- 
ducing iron ores by smelting were the African Negroes. Neither 
ancient Europe, nor ancient western Asia, nor ancient China knew the 
iron, and everything points to its introduction from Africa. At the 
time of the great African discoveries towards the end of the past cen- 
tury, the trade of the blacksmith was found all over Africa, from north 
to south and from east to west. With his simple bellows and a charcoal 
Are he reduced the ore that is found in many part of the continent and 
forged implements of great usefulness and beauty."* 

Egyptian civilization was the result of Negroid Mediterranean cul- 
ture, while to the south arose the ancient Negro civilization of Ethio- 
pia, and still further south we find ruins of ancient Bantu culture. 

The primitive culture of the mass of uncivilized Africans long ago 
reached a high grade. There was "extended early African agriculture, 
each village being surrounded by its garden patches and fields in which 
millet is grown. Domesticated animals were also kept; in the agri- 
cultural regions chickens and pigs, while in the arid parts of the coun- 
try where agriculture is not possible, large herds of cattle were raised. 
It is also important to note that the cattle were milked, an art which in 
early times was confined to Africa, Europe and northern Asia, while 
even now it has not been acquired by the Chinese. 

"The occurrence of all these arts of life points to an early and energetic 
development of African culture. 

* Boas: Commencement Address at Atlanta ITnlverslty. 



20 ELEVENTH ATLANTA CONFERENCE 

"Even if we refrain from speculating on the earliest times, conceding 
that it is difficult to prove the exact locality where so important an 
invention was made as that of smelting iron, or where the African mil- 
let was first cultivated, or where chickens and cattle were domestica- 
ted, the evidence of African ethnology is such that it should inspire 
you with the hope of leading your race from achievement to achieve- 
ment. Shall I remind you of the power of military organization ex- 
hibited by the Zulu, whose kings and whose armies swept southeastern 
Africa? Shall I remind you of the local chiefs, who by dint of diplo- 
macy, bravery and wisdom, united the scattered tribes of the wide 
areas into flourishing kingdoms, of the intricate form of government 
necessary for holding together the heterogeneous tribes? 

"If you wish to understand the possibilities of the African under the 
stimulus of a foreign culture, you may look towards the Soudan, the 
region south of the Sahara. When we first learn about these countries 
by the reports of the great Arab traveller, Iben Batuta, who lived in 
the fourteenth century, we hear that the old Negro kingdoms were 
early conquered by the Mohammedans. Under the guidance of the 
Arabs, but later on by their own initiative, the Negro tribes of these 
countries organized kingdoms which lived for many centuries. They 
founded flourishing towns in which at annual fairs thousands and 
thousands of people assembled. Mosques and other public buildings 
were erected and the execution of the laws was entrusted to judges. 
The history of the kingdom was recorded by officers and kept in 
archives. So well organized were these states that about 1850, when 
they were for the first time visited by a white man, the remains of these 
archives were still found in existence, notwithstanding all the political 
upheavals of a millenium and notwithstanding the ravages of the slave 
trade. 

"I might also speak to you of the great markets that are found 
throughout Afi'ica, at which commodities were exchanged or sold for 
native money. I may perhaps remind you of the system of judicial 
procedure, of prosecution and defense, which had early developed in 
Africa, and whose formal development was a great achievement not- 
withstanding its gruesome application in the prosecution of witchcraft. 
Nothing, perhaps, is more encouraging than a glimpse of the artistic 
industry of native Africa. I regret that we have no place in this coun- 
try where the beauty and daintiness of African woi'k can be shown ; but 
a walk through the African museums of Paris, London and Berlin is a 
revelation. I wish you could see the scepters of African kings, carved 
of hard wood and I'epresenting artistic forms; or the dainty basketry 
made by the people of the Kongo river and of the region near the great 
lakes of the Nile, or the grass mats with their beautiful patterns. 
Even more worthy of our admiration is the work of the blacksmith, 
who manufactures symmetrical lance heads almost a yard long, or axes 
inlaid with copper and decorated witJi filigree. Let me also mention 
in passing the bronze castings of Benin on the west coast of Africa, 
which, although perhaps due to Portuguese influences, have so far ex- 



NEGRO HEALTH AND PHYSIQUE 21 

celled in technique any European work, that they are even now almost 
inimitable. In short, wherever you look, you find a thrifty people, 
full of energy, capable of forming large states. You find men of great 
energj'^ and ambition who hold swaj' over their fellows by the weight of 
their personality. That this culture has, at the same time, the insta- 
bility and other signs of weakness of primitive culture, goes without 
saying. 

"To you, however, this picture of native Africa will inspire strength, 
for all the alleged faults of your race that you have to conquer here are 
certainly not prominent there. In place of indolence you find thrift 
and ingenuity, and application to occupations that require not only in- 
dustry, but also inventiveness and a high degree of technical skill, and 
the surplus energy of the people does not spend itself in emotional ex- 
cesses only. 

"If, therefore, it is claimed that your race is doomed to economic infe- 
riority, you may confidently look to the home of your ancestors and 
say, that you have set out to recover for the colored people the strength 
that was their own before they set foot on the shores of this continent. 
You may say that you go to work with bright liopes, and that you will 
not be discouraged by the slowness of your progress; for you have to 
recover not only what has been lost in transplanting the Negro race 
from its native soil to this continent, but you must reach higher levels 
than your ancestors had ever attained. 

"To those who stoutly maintain a material inferiority of the Negro 
race and who would dampen your ardor by their claims, you may con- 
fidently reply that the burden of proof rests with them, that the past 
history of your race does not sustain their statement, but rather gives 
you encouragement. The physical inferiority of the Negro race, if it 
exists at all, is insignificant, when compared to the wide range of indi- 
vidual variability in each race. There is no anatomical evidence avails 
able that would sustain the view that the bulk of the Negro race could 
not become as useful citizens as the members of any other race. That 
there may be slightly different hereditary traits seems plausible, but it 
is entirely arbitrary to assume that those of the Negro, because perhaps 
slightly different, must be of an inferior type."* 

Other investigators emphasize these facts. Ratzel says: 

In this connection the point to be most weigh tily emphasized is that the Ne- 
gro has now passed wholly out of the stage which we are wont to denote by 
the "Stone Age." All their more important implements and weapons which 
might be of stone are now of iron.t 

In alliance with stimulus from without, the interior of Africa has had a de- 
velopment of its own, variable no doubt, but wherever it has been undis- 
turbed, copious. The striking point about African ethnography is that as we 
go towards the interior, the level of culture, so far as measured by the abund- 
ance and variety of its stock of possessions, by persistency in the conditions^ 
by the prosperity and density of the population, is greater than in the outer 
districts. ... In connection with the question of the African capacity for de- 

* Boas, Commencemeiit Address at Atlanta University. + Ratzel, 2:387. 



22 ELEVENTH ATLANTA CONFEEENCE 

velopment, and the possible points at which higher culture may take hold, we 
will give a closer glance at the points where a notable superiority to the 
standard of inner Africa is observable. No injustice is done to the "antoch- 
thonous civilizations" of the Monbuttus, the Waganda, the Bangala, and others, 
if we look for their superiority primarily in the material ingredients of cul- 
ture. Therein they do but maintain the inmost essence of African culture; 
for it is just the contrast between the high development of the material side 
and the backward condition of the spiritual that* gives African culture as a 
whole its peculiar character. In that industrious pursuit of agriculture and 
cattle-breeding beside so limited a development of political and religious in- 
stitutions there seems to be something heavy, depressing, stationary. Hence, 
too, the astonishing regularity of its distribution. This condition of things 
bears, in the first place, the mark of an inland life, but has also a deep root in 

the Negro disposition, of which the chief strength lies not in but in 

perseverance.* 

That African culture did not go far higher than this is due to (a) cli- 
mate, (b) geography', and (c) the slave-ti'ade. 

We must bear Africa in our eye if we would understand the Africans. The 
destinies of races are in truth dependent on the soil upon which men travel 
and whence they draw their food, according as it limits them or lets them 
spread; on the sky which determines the amount of warmth and moisture 
that they shall have ; on the dower of plants and animals, and we maj"^ add 
minerals, from which they get the means of feeding, clothing and beautifying 
themselves, and of providing themselves with friends, helpers, and allies, but 
which may also raise up enemies. Africa is the most westerly portion of the 
mass of land which covers over a third of the Eastern Hemisphere in a vast 
connected system, and it extends nearly as far to the south of Australia. The 
southern border of the Old World encloses a great basin, whose western edge 
is skirted by Africa, its eastern by Australia— the Indian Ocean. In it lie the 
largest African and Asiatic islands, Madagascar, Borneo, Sumatra, Java, as 
well as the peninsulas of Somaliland, Arabia, Hither and Further India. P^ar 
beyond it, to the eastward, extend lands a)id islands, so far that one may well 
ask whether the unoccupied space between Easter Island and South America 
formed a permanent bar to the extension of races which had already covered 
a space three times as wide. When one has to speak of the ethnography of 
the African races one always remembers this great half-enclosed bight, which 
might be called the Indo- African Mediterranean. . . . When ^ye are consid- 
ering the possibility of navigation between the remoter coasts of Africa and 
other quarters of the earth, our thoughts turn spontaneously upon its shape. 
We miss features favorable to navigation, gulfs and bays, peninsulas and 
islands. Owing to the absence from this continent of arms and inlets of the 
sea, the tribes of the interior have always been cut off from intercourse with 
Europeans; while the ruling principle of the coast tribes was to hold the po- 
sition of middlemen between them and Europeans. The length of the coast- 
line of Africa, compared with that of Eurojie, is little more than one-fifth. 
Only the northeast and the north, so far as they are bordered by the Red Sea 
and the Mediterranean, show a little more variety. But this is just where 
climatic conditions encourage the desert-formation to extend at many points 
as far as the coast Madagascar, the onlj^ large island of this quarter of the 
earth, has led a separate life of its own. 

Other forces have also had a checking effect on the development of African 

♦Ratzel, 2:254. 



NEGRO HEALTH AND PHYSIQUE 23 

culture. What a great portion of the earth may lose in the way of accessibility 
through defective conformation in some measure be compensated for by 
rivers. In Africa, however, the physical geography does not allow this com- 
pensation to operate in an adequate degree; the interior, a highland region 
surrounded with mountains, causes the rivers to descend to the lowland, 
itself of no great dimensions, in cataracts. Along their more distant course in 
the interior, some rivers, in conjunction with the great lakes, are important 
aids to intercourse so far as native requirements go; but the road to the sea is 
cut off.* 

The chief present inhabitants of Africa are classed by Denniker as 
follows : 

Putting on one side the Madagascar islanders and the European and other 
colonists, the thousands of peoples and tribes of the "dark continent" may be 
grouped, going from north to south, into six great geographical, linguistic, 
and, in part, anthropological units : 1st, the Arabo-Berbers or Semito-Hamites ; 
2nd, the Ethiopians or Kushito-Hamites; 3rd, the Fulah-Zandeh ; 4th, the 
Negrilloes or Pygmies; 5th, the Nigritians or Sudanese-Guinea Negroes; 6th, 
the Bantus; 7th, the Hottentot-Bushmen.t 

It must not be thought, however, that hard and fast lines between 
these groups can be drawn. On the contrary, we must — 

Premise the unity of by far the greatest part of the races of this quarter of 
the earth, and starting from this, regard the differences as varying shades. J 

The nucleus of the populations of Africa in respect to both geographical 
position and of mass, is Ethiopian; dark brown skin, woolly hair, thick — or 
rather everted — lips, and a tendency to strong development of the facial and 
maxillary parts. To such races Africa, south of the Great Desert, has belonged 
from the earliest historical period, and the Desert itself probably once did 
belong. In the extreme south, in a compact group, and in small groups also 
in the interior, a light brown variety, of low stature. The north beyond the 
desert, however, is inhabited by men in general of light color, whether red- 
dish like the Egj^ptians, or yellowish like the Arabs, showing curly rather 
than woolly hair, and a less conspicuous facial and maxillary development. 
The Berbers of the Atlas are\even like southern Europeans. But the charac- 
teristics of the mass are not sharply opposed to the Ethiopian, deviating rather 
by way of mixture and attenuation. 

This is more than an idle assumption as is shown by the history of the 
African races. From the earliest times of whicli Me have any knowledge 
dark men have continually filtered thi'ough, chiefly by way of the slave-trade, 
to the lighter north. For this reason we may say with Fritsch that a general 
consideration of African ethnology shows the Soudan to have been the start- 
ing-point. It forms the middle member between dark and light Africa, appa- 
rently divided parts, out of which its mobile races have tended to make one 
whole. Negroes crossed the Alps with Hannibal, and fell at Worth beside 
MacMahon. Whatever their original nature may have been, all this popula- 
tion must have been alloyed with a strong Ethiopian element, as our cut of 
Fezzan man shows. The entire Semitic and Hamitic population of Africa has, 
in other words, a mulatto character which extends to the Semites outside 
Africa.§ 



• Ratzel, II, pp. 237-41. + Denniker, 431. t Ratzel, 2:244. $ Ratzel, 2:245-47. 



24 ELEVENTH ATLANTA CONFERENCE 

3. The Negro Brain 

It is usually assumed that there are great differences between the 
European and African brain and that here the inevitable inferiority of 
the Africans shows itself. Denniker, however, says: 

The weight of the encephalon varies enormously according to Individuals. 
Topinard in a series of 519 Europeans, men of the lower and middle classes, 
found that variations in weight extended from 1025'grams to 1675 grams. The 
average weight of the brain among adult Europeans (20 to 60 years) has been 
fixed by Topinard, from an examination of 11,000 specimens weighed, at 1361 
grams for man, 1290 grams for Avoman. It has been asserted that the other 
races have a lighter brain, but the fact has not been established by a sufficient 
number of examples. In reality all that can be put against the 11,000 brain- 
weighings mentioned above concerning the cerebral weights of non-European 
races, amounts to nothing, or almost nothing. The fullest series that Topinard 
has succeeded in making, that of Negroes, comprises only 190 brains, that of 
Annamese, which comes immediately after, contains only 18 brains. And 
what do the figures of these series teach us? 

The first series dealing with Negroes, gives a mean weight not much differ- 
ent from that of Europeans— 1316 grams for adult males of from 20 to 60 years; 
and the second dealing with the Annamese, a mean weight of 1341 grams, 
almost identical with that of Europeans. For other populations we have onlj' 
the weight of isolated brains, or of series of three, four, or at most eleven 
specimens, absolutely insuflacient for any conclusions whatever to be 
drawn, seeing that individual variations are as great in exotic races as among 
Europeans, to judge by Negroes (1013 to 1587 grams) and by Annameses (from 
1145 to 1450 grams).* 

On this subject Mr. Monroe N. Work, A. M., of the Savannah State 
College, contributes the following memorandum: 

Most writers hold that the Negro brain is smaller than the Cau- 
casian. t The first objection to this conclusion is that there has not 
been a sufficient number of Negro brains examined upon which to base 
a generalization. The total number of Negro brains which have been 
examined in America with reference to size is about 500. The number 
reported by European investigators is a little more than 200, making a 
total of about 700. This number is absolutely too small to base gener- 
alizations concerning the twenty or more million persons of Negro de- 
scent in the western hemisphere and the hundreds of millions in Africa, 
among whom are found variations as great and of the same kind as 
those found among white races. 

But granting that the data are sufficient, another objection is that in 
giving the weight of Negro brains it appears that almost no account 
has been taken of age, stature, social class, occupation, nutrition, and 
cause of death; each of which separately or all together affect both the 
weight and structure of the brain. The following table shows brain 
weight in connection with age and stature, t 

* Denniker, p. 97. 

f See Bean, "The Negro Brain," The Century Magazine, Sept. 1906. 
t From Marshall's tables based on Boyd's records; Donaldson, the Growth of thi^ 
Brain, p. 97. 



NEGRO HEALTH AND PHYSIQUE 



25 





MALES 


FEMALES 




AGE 


WEIGHT OF KNCEPHALON 


WEIGHT OF ENCEPHALON 


AGE 




Stature 164 cm. and under 


Stature 152 cm. and under 




•20-40 

41-70 

71-90 


1331 grams 
1297 " 
1251 " 


1199 grams 
1205 " 
1122 " 


20-40 
41-70 
71-90 




Stature 167-172 cm. 


Stature 155-160 cm. 




20-40 

41-70 

71-90 


1360 grams 
i;«5 " 

1305 " 


1218 grams 
1212 " 
1121 " 


20-40 
41-70 
71-90 




Stature 175 cm. and upwards 


Stature 163 cm. and upwards 




20-40 


1409 grams 
1363 " 
1330 " 


1265 grams 
1209 " 
1166 " 


20-40 


41-70 

71-90 


41-70 
71-90 



Tlie third objection is that the ditferences in the average weight of 
Negro and white brains are not sufficiently great to warrant the con- 
clusion that if an equally large number of Negro brains were taken 
with reference to age, stature, etc., there would be any marked differ- 
ences in weight. Topinard found the average weight of 11,000 European 
brains to be 1,361 grams for men and 1290 for women. He found the 
average for 190 male Negroes to be 1316 grams. Peacock found an aver- 
age of 1388 grams for English from a series of 28 brains; while Boyd, 
from a series of 425, found an average of 1354. Hunt found an average 
of 1327 grams for a series of 381 United States Negro soldiers. 

The following table shows what wide variations may occur among 
races of the same I'egion and of fairly similar culture: 

Table showing the weight of the encephalon in several transcaiccasian tribes. 
Weight taken with pia and without drainage. (Gilchenko) : * 



No. of 

Oases RACE SEX 

10 Ossetes Males. 

15 Ingouehes " 

2 Teerkesses " 

3 Daghestan " 

12 Armenian " 

13 Georgian. . . . 



Age Mean 

Years Stature 

.21-34 Mm. 

.18-30 1704 " . 

1695 " . 

1650 " . 

.,16-60 1634 " . 

..19-65 1669 " . 



Females 25-28. 



1590 



Mean weight 
Encephalon 
1470 grams 
14,53 " 
1532 " 
1340 " 
1369 " 
1350 " 
1207 " 



Broca found the mean weight of the pia to be for males 55.8 grams and 
for females 48.7 grams. The variation for males ranged from 38 to 130 
grams. 

In the most recent investigation of Negro brains, those whom the 
investigator classes as one-half and one-fourth white have almost as 
great or a greater brain weight, 1340 and 1347 grams, than those who 
are classed as white, 1341; and they have a greater average brain weight 
than the English, I and II, 1335, 1328, and the French, 1325 grams, of the 
European series which he presents. He found the average weight of 
the Negro females, 1108, to be greater than that of the white females, 
1103. + 

It is to be noted just here that no especial importance is to be attached 
to the classification by observation of Negroes as pure blacks, one- 
eighth, one-fourth, one-half white, etc. For popular purposes it is suffi- 



* Donaldson, loc. ciL, p. 114. 
iSee Bean, Op. Cit. 



Encephalon 


Encephalon 


9('0 gramsi 


ItiOO grams+ 


978 " . . 


1729 " 


1013 


1587 " 


964 " . . 


1813 " 


12()7 " 


mn) " 


118:^ 


IfiSO " 


1282 


1M5 " 


130() " 


1541 " 



26 ELEVENTH ATLANTA CONFERENCE 

cient to merely note the color of the skin, texture of the hair, etc. ; but 
for scientific purposes it is necessary that the ancestry be investigated. 
The writer is acquainted with many persons who by inspection would 
be classed as one-fourth white, when in reality they are three-fourths 
and others who would be classed as three-eij?hths or more, when as a 
matter of fact they are only one-eighth white. And even if an accurate 
classification of American Negroes was made according to blood it 
would still be necessary to classify them according to age, stature, 
social class, etc., before any conclusion would be warranted respecting 
the relative brain weights of pure Negroes and those of mixed blood. 

Still another objection to the conclusion that the Negro brain is 
smaller than the Caucasian is that tlie variability in the brain weight 
of the two races fails within almost the same limits. The following 
table illustrates this: 

No. of Minimum wt. Maximum wt. 

Cases RACE SEX 

79 Negroes (Bean) • 

381 Negro soldiers iHunt) Males. 

190 Negroes ( Toplnard i " 

278 "White (.Clondenning) and otliers.. . " .. 

45 " Eminent men " 

13 " (ieorgian " .. 

12 " Armenian " .. 

10 " Ossetes " .. 

It is further asserted that there is much difference in tlie structure of 
white and Negro brains. The investigator mentioned above l)as at- 
tempted to show that the size and shape of the front end of the cerebrum 
is different in tlie two races. In proof of this, views of the frontal lobes 
and of the mesial surfaces of the hemispheres of a white and Negi'o 
brain and two tables of brain measurements, are presented. The weak- 
ness of this proof is that generalizations are made from too few ex- 
amples; it appears to be inferred that all white brains have exactly or 
almost exactly the same detailed shape. The table of brain measure- 
ments, which is presented with averages, indicates that what is stated 
as being characteristic of Negro brains is not true of all the small num- 
ber of Negro brains which he examined. t 

• Sex is not distinguished in connection with Ijraiii variability. See Bean, Op. Clt.. 
p. 780. Chart of brain weight. 

+ "About 900" and "about KiOO" grams. 

JTliere are several discrepancies in this article of Dr. Bean's, e. g., he says: "The 
brains I liave studied were accurately weiglied and tlie weights are classified as fol- 
lows," giving the number. There is a lack of agreement iietween the numlaer of 
brains wliich he says he compared— 103 Negro and 49 white— and the number he 
presents, 79 Negro and 00 white, in the table of brain weights, and (i.5 and 87 
Negro and 1.5 and 51 white. In the table of brain measurements. In one table the 
average weight of 51 Negro male brains is given as 1292 grams. From the next table 
given, showing the average brain weight according to white blood, it appears that 
the general average of these same 51 brains is 12.54 grams. The length of the section 
of the frontal lobe of tlie white brain sliown is, lie says, between 2 and 2.5 centimeters, 
for lobe of Negro brain between 1.5 and 2 centimeters. The table of l)riuiis of Negro 
soldiers has many errors, e. g., the table he presents is as follows: 



NEGRO HEALTH AND PHYSIQUE 27 

It is also stated that the white brains have more elaborate convolu- 
tions and deeper fissuration than Negro brains. It is apparently not 
taken into account that fissuration and convolution depend upon sev- 
eral variables. As for example, a brain possessed of an extensive cor- 
tex with the elements incompletely associated can be a much folded 
brain, because in order to apply it to the surface of the cerebrum it 
must be thrown into many gyri. On the other hand, the associating 
fibers may be so developed as to increase the central mass, thereby 
giving a larger surface to which the cortex may be applied and thus 
tend to increase the cortical folds. These facts, with those from com- 
parative anatomy respecting the fissui'ation and convolution of the 
brains of beiists and birds, seem to indicate that there is no certain 
relation between brain convolution and inttslligence. 

The best evidence seems to indicate that the organization and, there- 
fore, the details of the structure of the central nervous system are con- 
tinually being modified through life. That is, changes are constantly 
occuring. These changes, which are many and varied, are caused by 
age, occupation, nutrition, disease, etc. This fact of constant change 
makes it very doubtful whether any uniformity in the finer details of 
structure will be found in white brains, particularly if they are brains 
of different sizes from persons of different ages, statures, etc., and the 
cause of death not being the same. These facts, in connection with the 
well established fact that those characters which are said to be dis- 
tinctive of particular races are found with more or less frequency in 
other races, seem to indicate that what has been described as being 
peculiar in the size, shape, and anatomy of the Negro brain is not true 
of all Negro brains. These same peculiarities can no doubt be found in 
many white brains and probably have no special connection with the 
mental capacity of either race. 



4. The Negro=American 

The transplantation of the Negro race to America was one of the 
most tremendous experiments in race migration the world has ever 
seen. 

"The exact proportions of the slave-trade to America can be but ap- 
proximately determined. From 1680 to 1688 the African Company sent 
249 ships to Africa, shipped there 60,783 Negro slaves, and after losing 

No. of brains Grade of color Av. brain wt 

24 White 1478 grams 

25 ?i 1390 " 

47 U 1331 " 

51 k 1315 '• 

95. 1-8 1305 " 

22 1-lfi 1275 " 

141 Black 1328 " 

The true figures reduced from Hunt's report in Journal of Psychological iVIedicinc 
jind Jurisprudence, Vol. I, No. II, October, 1867, p. 182, is as follows: White, 1475; 
fhree-fourths white, 1390; one-half white, 1334; one-fourth white. 1319; one-eighth 
wliite, 13U8; one-sixteenth white, 1280; black, 1331 grams. 



28 ELEVENTH ATLANTA CONFERENCE 

14,387 on the middle passage, delivered 46,396 in America. The trade 
increased early in the eighteenth century, 104 ships clearing for Africa 
in 1701; it then dwindled until the signing of the Assiento, standing 
at 74 clearings in 1724. The final dissolution of the monopoly in 1750 
led— excepting in the years 1754-57, when the closing of Spanish 
marts sensibly affected the trade — to an extraordinary development, 
192 clearings being made in 1771. The Revolutionary war nearly 
stopped the trafHc but by 1786 the clearances had risen again to 146. 

"To these figures must be added the unregistered trade of Americans 
and foreigners. It is probable that about 26,000 slaves were brought to 
America each year between 1698 and 1707. The importation then 
dwindled, but rose after the Assiento to perhaps 30,000. The proportion, 
too, of these slaves carried to the continent now began to increase. Of 
about 20,000 whom the English annually imported from 1733 to 1766, 
South Carolina alone received some 3,000. Before the Revolution, the 
total exportation to America is variously estimated as between 40,000 
and 100,000 each year. Bancroft places the total slave population of the 
continental colonies at 69,000 in 1714, 78,000 in 1727, and 293,000 in 1754. 
The census of 1790 showed 697,897 slaves in the United States."* 

The slaves thus procured came from all parts of Africa— the Soudan, 
Central and South Africa. Distinct traces of Arab and even Malay 
blood could be seen side by side with the tall Bantu, the yellow Hot- 
tentot and the African dwarfs. The shipment of the slaves drawn from 
this wide area centered on the west coast of Africa along the Gulf of 
Guinea, and these west coast Africans were consequently most fre- 
quently represented on the slave ships. 

This Negro population, which began to reach the confines of the 
present United States in 1619, has increased until in 1900 in the conti- 
nental United States it numbered 8,833,994 souls or, today, 1906, not less 
than 9,500,000. 

The first and usual assumption concerning this race is that it repre- 
sents a pure Negro type. This is an error. Outside the question of 
what the pure Negro type is, the Negro- American represents a very 
wide and thorough blending of nearly all African people from north to 
south ; and more than that, it is to a far larger extent than many real- 
ize, a blending of European and African blood. It is to this feature 
especially that this section is devoted. 

In the Romanes lecture of 1902, at Oxford University, Mr. James 
Bryce after coming to many important conclusions concerning the 
darker races of men, and especially their relations to the whites, 
frankly acknowledges at last, that so far as intermingling of blood is 
concerned "one is surprised when one comes to inquire into the matter 
to find how little positive evidence there is bearing un it," and he 
further remarks that the subject "deserves to be fully investigated by 
men of science." 

In America we have, on account of the wide-spread mixture of races 

• UuBois: Suppression of the African Slave Trade, p. 5. 



NEGRO HEALTH AND PHYSIQUE 



29 



of all kinds, one of the most interesting anthropological laboratories 
conceivable. This is true also so far as the mingling of the two most 
diverse races, the black and the white, is concerned as well as in other 
eases. And yet no serious attempt has ever been made to study the 
physical appearance and peculiarities of the transplanted Africans or 
their millions of descendants. ^ 

There is, of course, some reason for this, in that scientific research VrU^ 
seldom flourishes in the midst of social struggle and heated discussion. y^~ 
For this reason, and from long familiarity with the strange types, we— » 
have gradually ceased to let the physical peculiarities and interesting 
physiognomies of these people inspire us to study them carefully. Yet 
this we must soon come to do. We must realize that we have brought, 
to our very threshholds representatives of a great historic race and tliat, 
nevertheless, there is no place in the world where less systematic relia- 
ble knowledge of the Negro race exists than here. Not only is this true, 
but we have had going on beneath our very eyes an experiment in race- 
blending such as the world has nowhere seen before, and we have today 
living representatives of almost every possible degree of admixture of 
Teutonic and Negro blood. 

So little attention has been paid to this blending, save in extreme 
controversial spirit, that we easily forget the very existence of the 
mixed bloods, and foreign students of our race problems appear almost 
totally ignorant of their existence. We ourselves do not know with 
accuracy even the number of mixed-bloods. The figures given by the 
census are as follows: 

1850, mulattoes formed 11.2 per cent of the total Negro population. 
1860, mulattoes formed 18.2 per cent of the total Negro popuhition. 
1870, mulattoes formed 12 per cent of the total Negro population. 
1890, mulattoes formed 15.2 per cent of the total Negro population. 

Or in actual numbers: 

1850, 405,751 mulattoes. 
1860, 588,352 mulattoes. 
1870, 585,601 mulattoes. 
1890, 1,132,060 mulattoes. 

Tliese figures are, however, of doubtful validity. Those of 1850 and 
1860 were probably under-statements, while those of 1890 were officially 
acknowledged to be so far under the truth to be of "little use" and even 
"misleading." Some local studies have been made, but the areas were 
so restricted as to form a very narrow basis of induction. I have per- 



Farmville, Va., (small town^, 1897 

Dougherty county, Ga., (country district), 

Black Belt, 181W 

Albany, Ga., (village) 1899 

Savannah, Ga., (city) 1900 

Atlanta, Ga., (city) 1900 

Mcintosh county, Ga., (country district). 

Black Belt, 1900 

Darlen, Ga., (village), 1900 

Total. .,.: 




(1,123 



;50 ELEVENTH ATLANTA CONFERENCE 

Konally classifled nearly 40,000 colored people. Ten thousand were in 
the Black Belt and in rural districts, and the rest were in cities (Atlanta 
and Savannali), but cities in or near the Black Belt. 

Of these 17,000 were to all appearances of unmixed Ne^j-ro blood ; 6,000 
!iad without doubt more white than Negro blood, while the other 1(5,000 
were classifled as "brown:" in the majority of cases they undoubtedly 
had some white blood — in other cases I was not sure whether their 
i'olor was due to white blood or to the fact that they were descended 
from brown Africans. 

I am inclined to think that in the lightof available dataand the results 
*)f fairly wide observation that at least one-third of the Negroes of the 
(Tnited States have recognizable traces of white blood, leaving about 
(5,000,000 others/* Tliis, of course, is partial guess-work — it is quite 
possible that tlie mulattoes form an even larger percentage than this, 
l>ut I should be greatly surprised to find that they formed a smaller 
proportion. Under such circumstances it would seem that a scientific 
Ktudy of types of American Negroes ought to be undertaken. This 
paper does not pretend to present tl)e results of careful studies, but 
rather to indicate in a general way the interesting matter which is open 
for observation. The main types for separate study would be the full 
blooded Negroes and those with a quarter, half and three-quarters of 
white blood ; in the eighths — the octoroon, the five-eigliths Negro, etc. 
This is the regular series, but it can be and often is further complicated 
\)y the intermarriage of persons of mixed blood. 

E know, for instance, a child of six with the following ancestry : 

M. White— F. Negro" 
M. While— F. Negro F. Muhitto— M. White 

F. Mulatto — M. White F. Negro— ]M. White :Nr. White— F. Quadroon 
F. Quadroon— M. White F. Mulatto— M. Negro F. Octoroon — M. Quadroon 
M. Octoroon— F. Quadroon M. "Colored " — F. " Colored " 



M. "Colored" — F. "Colored" M. Mulatto— F. White 



M. " Colored " — F. Quadroon 



F. " Colored " 
M. — Male. V.= Female. 

The assumption, therefore, that a mulatto has one white parent or 
grandparent is not always true: no full blood white may have appeared 
among his ancestors for four or five generations and yet he himself may 
be half or three-fourths white. 

Amid such infinite variation in the proportion of Negro and wliite 
blood one can find a most fascinating field of inquiry. In the following- 
pages, I have selected out of a school of about 300 youngpeople between 

*This does not mean that these 6,00(),000 have no white blood— many of them have— 
tint there are fow distlnt-t traces" of it. 



NEGRO HEALTH AND PHYSIQUE 31 

the ages of 12 and 20 years, 56 persons who seem to me to be fairly 
typical of the group of young Negroes in general. The types are only 
provisionally indicated here as tiie lines are by no means clear in my 
own mind. Still I think that some approximation of a workable di- 
vision has been made, so far as that is possible without exact scientific 
measurements. Among these 56 young persons, all of whom I have 
known personally for periods varying from one to ten years, I have 
sought roughly to differentiate four sets of American Negro types: 

.4. — Negro Types 

1. Full blooded Negroes, letters A to G, aud numbers 1 to 7. 

2. Brown Negroes, full-blooded or with less than one-fourth of whitt 

blood, numbers 8 to 18, 
B. — Mulatto Types 

3. Blended types, numbers 19 to 21, and letter H. 

4. Negro-colored, number 25. 

5. Negro-haired, numbers 23 to 26. 

6. Negro-featured, number 27. 
C. — Quadroon Types 

7. The Chromatic series, numbers 28 to 32. 

8. Blended types, numbers 33 to 39. 
D. — White Types with Negro Blood 

Latin, numbers 40 and 41. 
Celtic, numbers 42 and 43. 
English, numbers 44 to 4(5. 
Germanic, numbers 47 and 48. 

Description of Types 

For pictures see plates.following p. 4 

A. Dark brown in color ; crisp tightly curled hair ; slight in build ; excellen ■ 
student. 

B. Very dark brown; crisp bushy hair; heavy, thick-set; quiet and serious. 

C. Dark brown; curled crisp black hair; small, plump, vivacious. 

D. Dark brown ; crisp closelj^ curled hair ; tall and well-built; reliable. 

E. Very dark brown; crisp closely curled hair ; well-pi'oportioned and well- 
bred ; slow. 

F. Verj' dark brown ; crisp mass of hair; small and quiet, 

G. Very dark brown ; crisp hair; rather small ; slow but earnest. 

H. Light brown; black hair in small waves; medium height, slim and grace- 
ful ; slow ; a singer. 

1. Very dark brown in color, crisp, tightly curled hair, Jaw slightly prog- 
nathous; short and stocky in build, strong; honest and reliable. 

2. Verj^dark brown, crisp curled hair ; slightly prognathous; tall and loosely 
jointed. 

8. Brown in color, closely curled hair, tall and well built; good character. 

4. Very- dark brown, mass of closely curled hair, medium heigh t and graceful . 

o. Dark brown, tightly curled hair not abundant, very tall and of Amazon- 
ian build and carriage; excellent character. 

<). Brown, mass of less closely curled hair, medium size; good abitity. 

7. Very dark brown, crisp tightly curled hair, well-formed; considerable 
native ability, but has had ])oor school advantages; sweet temj)ered. 



32 ELEVENTH ATLANTA CONP^ERENCE 

«. Very dark brown, crisp tightly curled hair, medium height and slim; 
.slow, but plodding, and perfectly reliable. 

9. Brown, closely curled hair, medium height and looks frail. 

10. Brown, mass of curled hair ; short and plump ; unusual mental ability, 
cheerful and good character. 

11. Brown, mass of more loosely curled hair, medium size, good mental 
ability, mischievous. 

12. Brown, tightly curled hair, slim and awkward ; slow, but droll. 

13. Light brown, closely curled hair not abundant, slim; good mental abil- 
ity and great application ; excellent character. 

14. Brown, loosely curled hair, short and well-formed ; fair mental ability 
and a sweet singer. 

15. Light brown, loosely curled hair, tall and slim ; fair ability ; quiet. 

16. Brown, curled hair, tall and slim. 

17. Brown, loosely" curled hair, tall and lithe; very good mental ability; 
-sweet temjiered. > 

18. Brown, close curled hair, medium size; of unusual mental ability judged 
t)y any standard. 

19. Light brown, curled hair, stocky build ; good ability, erratic application ; 
(juick tempered. Grandson of a leading white southerner. 

20. Yellow, curled and wavy hair, slight and well-formed; good mental 
ability ; quiet. 

21. Yellow, wavy hair, small and graceful ; good ability. 

22. Brown, straight black hair; probably has Indian blood; well built and 
full of fun, but with little application. 

23. Light yellow, curled hair, small in size, bright mentally, and excellent 
in character; young. 

24. Light yellow, curled hair, medium size, slim; good alto singer. 

25. Light yellow, freckled, reddish curled hair, medium size; fair abilitj' and 
pleasant disposition. 

26. Yellow, curled and wavy hair, medium size, good form ; excellent ability 
and application ; serious. 

27. Light yellow, hair glossy and curly, tall and slim ; good ability and close 
application ; quiet. 

28. Smooth brown color, straight, black, slightly curly hair, long limbed and 
slim. 

29. White face, with red freckles, giving a pinkish impression ; reddish brown 
hair, crimped and wavy ; a bashful, good girl, of fair ability. 

80. A study in reds — red gold hair, crimped and fluffy, an old gold face, with 
reddish tinge ; brilliant lightbrown eyes; tall, impetuous, of unusual ability. 

31. Yellow in face and hair; erratic. 
• .'{2. White color, dark wavy hair; sturdily built. 

33. Creamy color, crimped and wavy hair, tall and graceful; well bred. 

.34. Yellow, with wavy long hair, short and plump; good ability and easy, 
good-natured character. 

35. Creamy color, crimped brown hair, tall and slim; languid. 

36. Light yellow, wavy hair, rather small in stature; good mind and char- 
acter ; quiet. 

.37. Light yellow, wavy hair, middle size; of unusual mental ability and ex- 
cellent character ; quiet. 

38. Light yellow ; tall, long wavy hair. 

39. Light yellow, long, nearly straight hair; large and plump; slow, but will- 
ing. 



NEGRO HEALTH AND PHYSIQUE 33 

40. Ci'eam-tirited, with dark wavy hair, tail and well-formed, with very good 
mind and ability in several directions ; musical. 

41. Cream-tinted, with wavy hair, strongly built, with fair mind; rather 
quiet. 

42. White, with freckles and long, red-gold hair ; mischievous and smart. 

43. White, straight brown hair, tall and thin ; slow but conscientious ; quiet 
and sensitive. 

44. White, sandy hair and blue eyes, short and rather small; fair ability 
and good application. 

45. Cream-color, dark hair, tall and slim; somewhat erratic in intellect, but 
conscientious ; droll. 

46. White, sandy hair and blue eyes, middle-size ; fair ability and good char- 
acter. 

47. White, very light golden hair, light blue eyes, tall and statelj^; ordinary 
ability, very reliable, quiet and kind. 

48. White, chestnut hair, blue eyes, plump and well-formed. 

A. Negro Types 

These represent, perhaps, 6,000,000 colored people of this country. 
The 24 pictures devoted to these are inadequate and present but 
a few of numerous types. A really adequate study would lead to an 
investigation of all the African types, most of which are represented in 
America, and subsequently changed by intermingling, and possibly by 
climate and surroundings. We can still catch glimpses of the original 
African — the straight-nosed, dark Nubian, as in No. 8, the tall, massive 
Bantu, in No. 5, the small, sturdy West Coast Negro, in No. 1, and 
others. All these types agree in dark color and crisp hair. The color 
we usually denominate black, although it is in reality a series of browns 
varying between black and yellow as limits. We may, for instance, 
arrange the first eighteen pictures by color. First come the very dark 
browns, 4, 7, 8, and 2, all having a certain brilliancy of coloring, although 
some, like 4, are dull brown. Next come the dark browns, 1, 5, and 3; 
then the browns, 14, 6, 9, 11, 16 and 18, in order; finally the light browns, 
10, 12, 17, 15 and 13. 

It would be exceedingly interesting to have a series of accurate ex- 
aminations and measurements of Negro hair. If we take the first seven 
portraits — tliose which represent probably the full blooded Negro, 
we may distinguish several varieties which can be put in two main 
classes: a crisp liair in minute curls or waves with a dark grayish, 
black appearance, and usually scanty. This is seen in 1, 2, 5, 7 and 8; 
and the less closely curled and abundant hair, dead black and massive 
in appearance, as in 3, 4 and 6. 

In general physical appearance, the first seven divide themselves into 
four types: the short and sturdy (1), the tall, largely built (2, 3 and 5), 
the medium sized, dark and more delicately featured type (8). Prog- 
nathism appears in the facial angles of 1 and 2, and slightly in 3 and 4. 
Numbers 3 and 6 are of good, but not striking ability, 2 and 4 are fair; 
the others are slow. Numbers 1, 5 and 8 are honest and reliable in 
character; 3 and 7 are also of good character; Nos. 4, 6 and 9 are a little 



34 ELEVENTH ATLANTA CONFERENCE 

more uncertain in character: only one member of the group cannot be 
relied upon, although he is still young and may change. 

Numbers 9 to 18 have in all probability a little white blood, although 
this is not certain in evei'y case. Numbers 9, 12 and 13 have the crisp 
hair before mentioned; 16, 17 and 18 have hair of the second variety, 
while 10, 11 and 14 have a still less closely curled variety, longer and 
more pliable. One may roughly separate three types in these persons. 
Nuinbers 9, 10, 11 and 12 are what we may call "blended" types — the 
variation from the stricter Negro type is not especially apparent in 
any one feature or characteristic, but the whole type is slightly and 
uniformly changed in face, hair and color, either by the even blending 
of white blood or by descent from tribes of Negroes different from those 
we have noted before. All are of medium size save No. 10, who is 
short and heavy. In 13 and 14 we have a different group: they show a 
certain delicacy of feature and melancholy cast of countenance often 
noticed in mixed blooded people, and associated with deep sensitive- 
ness in both these girls. Numbei's 15, 16, 17 and 18 are Bantu types — 
tall, long-faced and straight-nosed, with large facial angle; 16 and 17 
are especially graceful in movement, while 18 is the most brilliant 
mentally of the whole series of 48. Numbers 10 and 17 are also of 
unusual ability ; 11 and 19 are good, 14 and 15 fair only, and 12 and 16 
poor. Numbers 10, 13, 14 and 15 are of good character; 11 and 12 are 
more uncertain but pretty good. 

Letters A to H are pictures taken later than the others. They are 
well-known Negro types, although some are not usually so regarded 
by careless observers. 

B. Mulatto Types 

The ten following portraits, numbers 19 to 28, represent the mulatto 
types of American Negroes; they have from three-fourths to one-half 
Negro blood and have, in this country, to hazard aguess, about 2,500,000 
representatives. I have differentiated types here chiefly in the way in 
which the two streams of blood have blended ; the first three are blended 
types, where the white and Negro blood is evenly distributed in color, 
hair and feature, making light brown or yellow persons, with hair in 
small but minute curls or waves, and features rounded or half Euro- 
pean. In the other seven persons, the Negro blood has asserted itself 
in some one or two characteristics and the white blood in others: in 
22, for instance, the white blood (with probably some Indian) has gone 
into the abundant long black hair and left a dark face and full features ; 
in Nos. 23, 24, 25 and 26, the Negro blood has asserted itself particularly 
in the hair, leaving the light color and European features; the hair has 
received a slight red tinge in 25 and the blending is more complete in 
26. In 27 the Negro blood has moulded the features, leaving the light, 
color and hair in ringlets. All this is instructive to the student of 
heredity as showing visibly many things which lie hidden from the eye 
in the blending of races of the same color and features. 

In physique we have the short and sturdy (19), the short and slender 



NEGRO HEALTH AND PHYSIQUE 35 

(21) and (23), the tall and slender (20, 24 and 27), and the medium sized 
persons, usually lar^e boned and well built, as 22, 25 and 26. Numbers 
23 and 26 are excellent in mental ability, 19, 20, 21 and 27 are good; 25 
is fair, while 22 and 24 are poor. Numbers 20, 23, 26 and 27 are good 
and quiet in character; 25 is straightforward; 19, 21 and 24 are more 
uncertain, but are still joung. 

C. Quadroon Types 

The fifteen portraits, from numbers 28 to 39, are of colored people with 
more than one-half and less than seven-eights of their blood white, so 
far as I can ascertain. They represent about 350,000 of the American 
Negroes, if my other estimates are correct. Here again examples of 
race-blending in large variety and with especial brilliancy of coloring. 
Sometimes the coloring is so prominent and assertive that one scarcely 
notices other features. Photographs, of course, fail to give any ade- 
quate idea of this group: the emphatic color may be a velvet brown in 
the face, as in 28, or a brownish red in the hair, as in 29, or a burst of 
red, red-gold and red-brown in face and hair, as in 30. Again, hair and 
features may both be yellow, as in 31, or all brown or dark brown and 
yellow, as in a number of cases, or finally the skin may be strikingly 
white, as in 32. These types, then, from 28 to 32, I have grouped as the 
Chromatic types. 

Again, we may have the harmonious blending mentioned in the case 
of the mulattoes and illustrated in the following portraits — numbers 33 
and 34, and having the most Negro blood, and number 40, having the 
least. The hair of the Quadroons is of almost every conceivable variety 
and color: it may be black and straight, as in 28, or black and waving, 
as in 39, or I'ed-brown and waving, as in 30, or crimped and brownish 
red, as in 29, or curly and fluffy, as in 38, and so on in endless change. 

In physique, 28, 30, 33, 35 and 38 are tall and slim, while 32, 34 and 37 
are shorter and sturdier; 29, 31 and 40 are of slighter build and more 
delicate appearance. Numbers 30 and 37 have excellent minds, and 31, 
,34 and 36 have good ability. The group represents great varieties of 
character: 28 and 35 are languid in manner and work; 29 and 33 are 
sensitive and good; 30 is straightforward, even impetuous; 31 is uncer- 
■ tain, but young; 36, 37 and 39 are honest and quiet; 34 and 39 are a little 
erratic, but good-hearted. 

D. White Types, with Negro Blood 

The Octoroons and those with less than one-eighth of Negro blood 
pass so easily back and forth between the races that it is difficult to 
estimate their real numbers. In a single small city 100 colored families 
were estimated to have been listed as white in the census of 1890, 
because the Octoroon wife went to the door and the census-taker did 
not think or dare to ask her "color." A considerable proportion of 
these persons identify themselves altogether with the whites — probably 
several thousands in all. The census of 1890 reported 69,936 Octoroons- 
there may be as many as 150,000 in all. They are easily classified 



36 ELEVENTH ATLANTA CONFERENCE 

according to the European types they most resemble, either accidentally 
or because of real blood-relationship. Sergi would not need better evi- 
dence for his "Mediterranean race" theory than the distinct Latin type 
of the Octoroons, 40 and 41; they have, in fact, English and Negro 
blood. So, too, white and black blood can make as good an Egyptian 
type today as five thousand years ago. Numbers 42 and 43 resemble 
Celtic types and may have Irish blood; 44, .45 and 46 ai'e English or 
Anglo-American types, and 47 and 48 are Germanic types. 

Such types as these are not necessarily descended from white and 
colored parents, nor are they always illegitimate children as is usually 
assumed. In the cases of 40, 44 and 45, and probably in two other cases 
both parents were colored and legally married. In case of 44, 47 and 
48 one parent was white. In none of these ten cases would the casual 
observer notice the Negro blood. An experienced person would possibly 
see it in 40, 41 and 45, and possibly in 42. In the others all trace is lost. 
In physique, 40, 41 and 48 are well-built and rather heavy; 43 and 45 are 
tall and slender, while 42 and 44 are slender but of medium height. 

Forty is a good scholar, as are 41, 42 and 48. All are of good charac- 
ter, although one may succumb to unfortunate home influences. 

Conclusions 

It is not pretended, I repeat, that this cursory sketch can be made a 
basis for any very definite conclusions. Its object is rather to blaze the 
way and point out a few general truths. Further work must depend 
more largely on exact physical measurement of size, weight and head 
formation, as well as psycho-physical experiment. It must also be re- 
membered that these types come from a limited class at an age before 
character is fully formed; this study has the advantage, however, of 
the author's intimate acquaintance for years with each person studied, 
so that the elements of character and personal peculiarities are pretty 
well known. 

In future study the unmixed types need especial supplement. Com- 
parisons will inevitably arise between the blacks and mixed bloods. 
In regard to the latter much friction and prejudice must be cleared 
away: today one hears, on the one hand, thatmulattoes are practically 
all degenerates, ranking below both the parent races; and, on the 
other, that only the mixed blood Negroes amount to much, and tiiis by 
reason of their white blood. So far as this study is concerned, neither 
of these theories receives any especial support. In physique, the best 
developed persons are 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 16. 17, 19, 22, 32, 34, 39, 40, 41 and 48. 
These include all degrees of mixture and, moreover, there would seem 
to be in nearly all cases personal reasons for the good development 
outside the blood mixture; 1, for instance, is farm-bred, 2 and 5 are 
children of strong laboring men, 40 has been carefully reared, 41 is a 
baseball player, etc. Again, the members of the group who are physi- 
cally weakest are of all colors — 4, 12, 15 and 43. In mental ability the 
evidence is equally contradictory; the exceptional scholars include 
three nearly full-blooded Negroes, three Quadroons and one Octoroon. 



NEGRO HEALTH AND PHYSIQUE 37 

Of these, a boy (number 18), with but a slight admixture of white 
blood, if any, is easily first. 

As to moral stamina, the subjects are, of course, rather young for 
final judgment, and yet at the same time their tendencies are more 
clearly visible. Five of the 53 were born out of lawful wedlock, al- 
though in some cases the union of the parents was the permanent concu- 
binage of slavery days, and thus not mere wantonness. Possibly one or 
two others are also illegitimate, but this is not certain. In tlie case of 
two girls, an octoroon and a mulatto, both now out of school, there is a 
rumor of sexual looseness; in the case of three (a Negro, mulatto and 
quadroon), there is some tendencj' towards habitual lying, which may 
not however become serious; in all the 48 there are four (a Negro boy, 
a mulatto girl, a quadroon boy and an octoroon girl), of whose future 
one may well fear. None of them are as yet hopeless. 

In all these cases of physical and mental development and moral 
stamina, it is naturally very difficult to judge between the relative in- 
fluence of heredity and environment — of the influence of Negro and 
mixed blood, and of the homes and schools and social atmosphere sur- 
rounding tlie colored people. In general, it must be remembered that 
most of the blacks are country-bred and descended from the depressed 
and ignorant fleld-hands, while a majority of the rnulattoes were town- 
bred and descended from the master class and the indulged house-ser- 
vants. The country schools since emancipation have been very poor, 
while the city schools are pretty good, and in general the difference 
in civilization between rural and urban districts is much more marked 
South than North. 

For instance, if numbers 7 and 8 had had the same early training as 
numbers 23 and 40, they might have developed strong minds, so far as 
one can judge. Some of these children come from comfortable, well- 
to-do homes, while some were practically street waifs; some had edu- 
cated — a few, college-bred — parents; others had parents who could 
neither read nor write, and so on. Under such circumstances, liow rash 
it is to hazard wild statements as to the ability and desert of millions 
of people witliout waiting for exact study and careful measurements. 

A word may be added as to race mixture in general and as regards 
white and black stocks in the future. There is, of course, in general no 
argument against the intermingling of the world's races. "All the 
great peoples of the world are the result of a mixture of races."* 

Upon the whole, if we consider (1) that the most mixed and most civilized 
races are those which are soonest acclimatized, (2) that the tendency of races 
to intermingle, and of civilization to develop, goes on increasing everj^ day in 
every part of the world, we may affirm without being accused of exaggeration 
that the cosmopolitanism of mankind, if it does not yet exist today in all races 
(which seems somewliat improbable), will develop as a necessary consequence 
of the facility of acclimatation. For it to become general is only a matter of 
time, t 

•Bryce: Relations, etc. 
i-Denniker, p. 119. 



38 ELEVENTH ATLANTA CONFERENCE 

At the same time there are certain bars to general amalgamation with 
paiticular races: 

Nothing really arrests intermarriage except physical repulsion, and physi- 
cal repulsion exists only where there is a marked difference in physical as- 
pect, and especially in color. Roughly speaking (and subject to certain 
exceptions to be hereafter noted), we may say that while all the races of the 
same, or a similar color intermarry freely, those of one color intermarry very 
little with those of another.* 

So far, then, as the amalgamation of the white and black races is 
concerned this prediction may be hazarded : 

Africa will remain for many ages predominantly black. 

In the West Indes the whites will be absorbed into a mulatto race. 

In South America the whites will absorb the Negro. A recent writer 
in Brazil writes: 

This racial question in Brazil has most instructive aspects. In their pride 
of race some visitors are disposed, to despise the Brazilian people because of 
the manifest admixture of African blood in their make-up. This is simply 
because they cannot easily appreciate that taking effect before their eyes is 
the very jirocess of race building that has been completed for ages past in 
Mediterranean lands. They do not realize that the blending of African with 
Aryan and Semitic elements must have been precisely the same, there and 
here. The swarthiness of the Italians, Spaniards, the Provencal French, 
etc. — these interijenetrating other European stocks — manifestly seems duo to 
the same causes that in Brazil and other sections of Latin xVmerica and in the 
West Indies are producing precisely the same physical aspects . . . But though 
the Negro race was in itself unaffected, it has by no means been uneffective. 
Everywhere it has left its traces behind. All these civilizations — Egyptian, 
Phoenician, Grecian, Roman, Semitic, Moorish — it has in varying degrees 
tinged with its blood and its temperament. Its service seems always to have 
l)een that of an element in a blend. 

There appears to he no saying how far this progress has gone. But there 
are eminent anthropologists who declare that racial characters demonstrate 
that the entire white race has a very high percentage of the African in its 
composition. The racial aspect may have a notable bearing upon the future 
of South America.t 

In the United States the situation is far different: if slavery had pre- 
vailed the Negroes might have been gradually absorbed into the white 
race. Even under the present serfdom, the amalgamation is still going 
on. It is not then caste or race prejudice that stops it — they rather en- 
courage it on its more dangerous side. The Soutliern laws against 
race marriage are in effect laws which make the seduction of colored 
girls easy and without shame or penalty. The real bar to race amalga- 
mation at present in the United States is the spreading and strength- 
ening determination of the rising educated classes of blacks to 
accept no amalgamation except through open legal marriage. This 
means practically no amalgamation in the near future. The avail- 
able statistics of mixed marriages show in Boston, Mass., 600 sucli 

*Bryce: Relations. 
+Outlook, Vol. 84, No. 15. 



NEGRO HEALTH AND PHYSIQUE 



39 



marriages from 1855 to 1887; and 24 in the year 1890. The state of Mas- 
sachnsetts had 52 mixed marriages in 1900, 44 in 1901 and 43 in 1902. 
Michigan had 111 mixed marriages in 20 years (1874-93), and Rhode 
Island 58 in 13 years (1881-93). In the blaclv ward of Philadelphia (the 
seventh) there were, in 1896, 33 mixed families. 

These figures indicate comparatively few such marriages and show 
that the absorption of 10,000,000 Negro Americans in this way is cer- 
taiirly not a problem which we need face for many years. 

At present those who dislike amalgamation can best prevent it by 
helping to raise the Negro to such a plane of intelligence and economic 
independence that he will never stoop to mingle his blood with those 
who despise him. 



5. Physical Measurements 

There are not many reliable physical measurements of Negroes, 
either in Africa or America. The following table from Denniker gives 
the height of the principal Africans, together with that of native 
Americans: 

Average Height of Men 



No. of 
Subjects 



Loiu Statures (under 1.60 m., or 63 inches) 



Height in 
Millimeters 



38 



Akka Negritoes of the country of the Monbuttus 

Kalahari Bushmen of Angra Pequena, etc 

Statures beloio the average (1600-16i9 mm., or 6.1-65 inches) 

Mzabites (Berbers of M'Zab, Algeria) 

Batekes of the Congo 

Statures above the average (1650-1699 m,m., or 65-67 inches) 

Arabs of Algeria 

Mushikoegos of the Congo 

Berbers of Tunis 

Abyssinians 

Dahaklls of Tajara 

Berbers of Biskra (Chania tribe?) 

Kabyles of Great Kabylia 

Berbers of Algeria 

Bashilanges of the Kasai 

Negroes of the United States 

Mulattoes of the United States 

Bechuanas 

Negroes and Mulattoes of the United States (conscripts). 

High Statures (1.70 m., or 67 inches and up) 

Citizens of the United States (white) born in the country 

Mandigans in general 

Bejas (called Nubians) 

Kaffirs ( Ama-Xosa and Ania-Zulu) 

Western Zandehs (Mandjas, Akungs, Awakas, etc.) 

Somalis ( Eyssa, Habis, Hwakas, etc.) 

Tonconleurs or Torodas 

Waloss. Severs and Leybus 

Negroes of Darfur 

Fulahs or Fulbes of French Sudan 



1,378 
1,529 



No. 



H. in Mill. 



1,(520 
1,641 



No. 



H. in Mill. 



32 

28 

1,103 

29 

35 

52 

244 

180 

27 

2,020 

8(i3 

28 

25,828 



1,65(5 
1,658 
1,663 
1,669 
1,(570 
1,673 
1,677 
1,680 
1,680 
1,681 
1,682 
1,(584 
1,693 



No. 



H. in Mill. 



315,620 
31 
25 
72 
56 
56 
30 
62 
25 
35 



1,719 
1,700 
1,708 
1,715 
1,717 
1,723 
1,725 
1,730 
1,730 
1,741 



/^ 



40 ELEVENTH ATLANTA CONFERENCE 

Measurements of cephalic index from Dennil?er and Ripley show these 
results: (Negro tribes are in italics). 

Dolichocephals (73-78). 

Hindus, North Chinese, 

Fulahs, Persians, 

Kaffirs, Japanese, 

Portuguese, Pushmen, 

English, Hansas, 

Danes, South Italians, 

Swedes, Spaniards. 

Mesocephals (79-81). 
Chinese, 

French (d. du Nord), 
Central Italians. 

Brachycephals (82-89). 
Dalmattons, 
Tartars, 
Piedmontese, 
Magyars. 

As Ripley says, ''an important point to be noted in this connection is 
that this shape of the head seems to bear no direct relation to intellec- 
tual power or intelligence. Posterior development of the cranium does 
not imply a corresponding backwardness in culture. The broad-headed 
races of the earth may not as a whole be quite as deficient in civiliza- 
tion as some of the long heads, notably the Australians and the African 
Negroes. On the other hand, the Chinese are conspicuously long- 
headed, surrounded by the barbarian brachycephalic Mongol hordes; 
and the Eskimos in many respects surpass the Indians in cftlture. 
Dozens of similar contrasts might be given. Europe offers the best 
refutation of the statement that the proportions of the head mean any- 
thing intellectually. The English, as our map of Europe will show, are 
distinctly long-headed."* 

For Negro Americans, almost the only measurements on a consider- 
able scale are those taken over a generation ago during the Civil war, 
and often since published and studied. The best availal^le figures to- 
day are those from the reports of the Surgeon-General of the United 
States army; subjoined are tables as to the examination of recruits, 
their height, weight and chest measurements: 

♦Ripley, p. 40. 



NEGRO HEALTH AND PHYSIQUE 

Examination of recruits during the year 1901 * 



41 





Wtiite 


Colored 


Total 




56,894 

623.93 

2.74 
286.66 

.34' 

1.69 

15.86 

98 54 

124.71 

167 16 

166 69 

157.14 

123.02 

82.31 

35.97 

16.76 

6.96 

2.48 

2.27 

2.09 

41 36 

27.54 

.28 

41.09 

13.02 

2.60 


1,888 

647.78 

3 71 

279.13 


58,782 


Of each 1,000 of these— 


624 70 




2.77 




286.42 


Of each 1,000 accepted recruits the heights were as follows In 
Inches): 
Under 61 


.35 


61 to 62 




.33 


62to63 

6;i to 64 


4.09 
17 99 
106.30 
148.81 
165 17 
178 25 
156.17 
96.48 
67.05 
37.61 
15 54 
5 72 
.82 


1.77 
15.93 


64 to 65 


98.80 


65 to 66 


125 51 


66 to 67 


167.10 


67 to 68 


167.07 


68 to 69 


157.10 


69 to 70 


122.14 


70 to 71 


81.81 


71 to 72 


36.03 


72 to 73 


16 72 


73 to 74 


6.92 


74 upward ... 


2.42 


Causes of rejection (exclusive of under height) expressed in 
ratios per 1,000 of examined recruits: 
Physical debilitv 


2.19 




3.19 

24.89 
22.25 


2 13 




40 80 


HeaTt disease 


27 37 


Goiter 


.27 




20.13 
12.18 

5.83 


40.42 


Hernia 


13.00 




2 70 







Examination of recruits during the year I90i + 



Total number of recruits examined 

< )f each l,oat of these— 

Were accepted for service 

Were rejected for under height 

Were rejected for disabilities 

< tf each 1,000 accepted recruits the heights were as follows (in inches): 

Under 61 

61 to 62 

62 to 63 

63 to 64 

64 to 65 ••• 

65 to 66 

66 to 67 

67 to 68 

68 to 69 

69 to 70 

70 to 71 

71 to 72 

72 to 73 

73 to 74 

74 upward 

«"auses of rejection (exclusive of under heightl expressed in ratios 

per 1,000 of examined recruits: 

Physical debility 

Tuberculosis of lungs or other organs 

Imperfect vision 

Heart disease 

Goiter 

Varicose veins, varicocele, hemorrhoids 

Hernia 

Flat feet 



White 


Colored 


42,183 


3,035 


658.80 


786.16 


.95 


.99 


255.29 


171.33 


32 


.84 


.40 


.42 


1.51 


2 93 


11.51 


10.06 


87 69 


99 33 


125.73 


137.89 


162.72 


171.42 


177.08 


189.86 


158.98 


147 11 


123.14 


117.77 


76.11 


70.41 


40.05 


31.85 


22.31 


14.25 


8.89 


3.85 


3 56 


251 


1 23 


.99 


3 15 


.66 


;B3 31 


18.12 


21.34 


11.53 


.40 


.66 


37 03 


11.20 


11.02 


8.24 


3 80 


3.63 



• Report of the United States Surgeon-General, 1902. 
i Ibid., 1903. 



42 ELEVENTH ATLANTA CONFERENCE 

Proportion of each height per thousand of accepted colored recruits' 



Height 


18 yrs. and 
under 


19 yrs. 


20 yrs. 


21 yrs. 


22 yrs. 


23 yrs. 


24 yrs. 


25 yrs. 


5 feet 1 inch and under. . 


















5 feet 2 Inches 


















5 feet 3 inches . 








10.4 

72. y 

83.3 
229.2 
218.7 
125 
114.6 
83.3 
.31.2 
.31.2 


9.9 
108.9 
123.8 
158.4 
198.0 
123.8 
113.9 
84.2 
49.5 
29.7 






7 5 


5 feet 4 inches 








61.2 
132 6 
183.7 
122.4 
163.3 
153.1 
91.8 
51.0 
20.4 
20.4 


64.5 
129.0 
169.4 
145.2 
225.8 
161 3 
72 6 
16 1 
16 1 


37 6 


5 feet 5 inches . . .... 








82 7 


5 feet 6 inches 


1,000.0 






150 4 


5 feet 7 inches .« 






233 1 


5 feet 8 inches 








165 4 


5 feet 9 inches 








135 3 


5 feet 10 inches 








yO 2 


5 feet 11 inches 








45 1 


6 feet •. .. 








22 6 


6 feet 1 inch 








7 5 


6 feet 2 inches and over . 












22 6 




















Total 


1,000.0 






1,000.0 


1,000 


1,000.0 


1,000 


1,000.0 









Height 


26 yrs. 


27 yrs. 


28 yrs. 


29 yrs. 


30 yrs. 


31 yrs. 


32 yrs. 


33 yrs. 


5 feet 1 inch and under. . 


















5 feet 2 Inches 


















5 feet 3 inches 


9.8 
107.8 
186.3 
137.3 
196.1 
156 9 
58 8 
68.6 
58.8 
19.6 






20.0 
120.0 
160.0 
100.0 
140.0 
220.0 

60.0 
UO.O 

40 










5 feet 4 inches 


85.7 
114.3 
l.'i2.4 
219.1 
133 3 
133.3 
57.1 
47.6 
28.6 
19.0 
9.5 


69 4 
83.3 
138.9 

208.3 
236 1 
125.0 
8;!. 3 
41 7 
13 9 


128.2 
51.3 
128.2 
1.53.8 
2.56.4 
153.8 

5L3 


211.4 
103.4 
172 4 
172.4 
187.9 
103 4 

34.5 

34 5 


35.7 
178.6 
178.6 
178.6 
107 1 
107.1 
107.1 

71.4 


47 fi 


5 feet 5 inches 




5 feet »i inches 


142.9 
,3.3;^ 3 


5 feet 8 inches 

5 feet 9 inches 


142.9 
142 9 


5 feet 10 Inches 


95 2 


5 feet 11 inches 

6 feet. 


47.6 


6 feet 1 inch 




51.3 
25 6 


:i5 7 




6 feet 2 Inches and over 








47 6 












Total 


1,0(X).0 


1,000.0 


1,000.0 


1,000.0 


1,0(10.0 


1,000.0 


1,000.0 


1,000.0 



Height 


34 yrs. 


35 yrs. 


36 yrs. 


37 yrs. 


,38 yrs. 


39 yrs. 


40 yrs. and 
over 


Total 


5 feet 1 inch and under 


















5 feet 2 inches 
















5 feet 3 Inches ... 












83.3 

"'256'0 
166.7 
83 3 
166.7 
166.7 


24.1 

60.2 

144.6 

108.4 

216.9 

216.9 

84.3 

96.4 

24.1 

12 

12.0 


7 1 


5 feet 4 inches 




47.6 
142.9 
238 1 
238.1 
1H0.5 






76.9 
153.8 

230.8 

'"307.7 
230.8 


73.0 


5 feet 5 inches 




272.6 
272.6 
363.7 


200.0 

"lOO.'o 
600 


123.2 


5 feet 6 Inches 


166.7 
250.0 
333 3 
125 
41.7 
S3 3 


157.8 


5 feet 7 inches 

5 feet 8 inches 


192.3 
175.8 


5 feet 9 inches 


117 7 


5 feet 10 inches 


47.6 


90.9 


100.0 


79.2 


5 feet 11 inches. 






38 5 


6 feet 


95.2 








83.3 


22.8 


6 feet 1 inch 










7.1 


6 feet 2 inches and over 














5 5 


















Total 


1,000 


1,(X)0.0 


1,000.0 


1,000.0 


1,000 


1,000.0 


1,000.0 


1,0000 



•Ibid., 190.5. 



NEGRO HEALTH AND PHYSIQUE 

Proportion of each height per thousand of accepted while recruits 



48 



Height 


18 years 
and under 


19 yrs. 


20 yrs. 


21 yrs. 


22 yrs. 


23 yrs. 


24 yrs. 


25 yrs. 


5 feet 1 inch and under . 
5 feet 2 Inches 




38.5 
76. i. 




2 

.2 

4.2 

69.5 

129.1 

162.4 

18;5.8 

168.8 

133.1 

82.2 

88.0 

17 1 

8 4 

2.8 


2 

.6 

5.9 

73.1 

104.5 

160.1 

176.4 

166 6 

138.2 

94.5 

41.7 

24.8 

10.1 

3.8 


6 

.3 

4.2 

68.9 
117.9 
138 7 
167 3 
182.6 
143 6 
90.5 
40.8 
39.6 
8.8 
6.4 


10 
6 

7.9 
70.1 
110 3 
146 
169 9 
169.9 
136 6 
92,7 
46.5 
28.5 
13.1 
6.9 


0.4 

8 


5 feet 3 inches 




8 5 


5 feet 4 inches 


50.0 
200.0 
200.0 
250.0 
100 
50.0 
50.0 
1(X) 


230 8 
230.8 
76.9 
153.8 

;«.5 

38 5 
38 5 


66.7 
1(X).0 
200.0 
166.7 
266.7 
100.0 
66.7 
33.3 


69.3 

106 7 


5 feet 6 inches 

5 feet 7 inches. 


144 8 

178 4 




164 1 




138.9 


5 feet 10 inches 

5 feet 11 inches 

6 feet 


101.2 
41.1 
29 5 


6 feet 1 inch 








11 6 






76.9 




5 








Total 


1,000.0 


1,000.0 


1,000 


1,TO0.0 


i,ax> 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000.0 



Height 


26 yrs. 


27 yrs. 


28 yrs. 


29 yrs. 


30 yrs. 


31 yrs. 


32 yrs. 


33 yrs. 


5 feet 1 inch and under 


1.0 

.5 

11 4 

78.3 

96 4 

154 5 

164.3 

1700 

133.8 

96 9 

42.5 

34 7 

9 3 

6 2 


0.6 

1.7 

9 4 

74 4 

128.3 

149.4 

158.8 

169 9 

122.8 

101 1 

41.1 

26 1 

9,4 

7.2 


3.9 

2.0 

11 1 

72.6 

122.2 

141.2 

174.5 

147.7 

124.2 

104.6 

50.3 

25.5 

12.4 

7.8 


9 

12.6 
64.8 
114 3 
140,4 
161 7 
159.3 
144.9 
■94.5 
41 4 
36 9 
17.1 
8.1 


1 .' I 
3.3 

70 1 
113 5 
153 5 
181 3 
153.5 
134 6 
85.6 
50.1 
35.6 
10.0 
7.8 






1.8 




" 8.8 
75 1 
123 7 
166,4 
170,8 
173,8 
95 7 
94.3 
48.6 
30 9 
8.8 
2.9 


4.4 

4.4 

91 3 

131 1 

137 

163.5 

166 4 

1.31.1 

82.5 

45.7 

22.1 

14.7 

5.9 


1 8 


5 feet 3 inches 

5 feet 4 inches 


6.3 
63 5 


5 feet 5 inches 


119 9 


5 feet 6 inches 


158 7 


5 feet 7 inches 


179 9 


5 feet 8 inches 

5 feet 9 inches 


179 9 
121 7 


5 feet 10 inches 

5 feet 11 inches 

6 feet 


74.1 
52.9 
30 


6 feet 1 inch 


7 1 


6 feet 2 Inches and over 


3 5 


Total 


1,000 


1,000,0 


1,000.0 


i,oa).o 


1,000.0 


1,000.0 


1,000 


1,(XX).0 





Hl?IGHT 


34 yrs. 


35 yrs. 


36 yrs. 


37 yrs. 


38 yrs. 


.39 yrs. 


40 years 
and over 


Total 


5 feet 1 inch and under 














9 

2.8 

10 3 

.87 3 

l:i5 2 

166 2 

170.0 

170.0 

119 2 

78.9 

:!3 8 

19 7 

2.8 

2,8 


6 


5 feet 2 inches 


19 
7.5 
79,1 

145 
162,0 

146 9 
160.1 
148 8 

79.1 
:t7,7 
22,6 
5 6 
3,« 


2.5 
4 9 
8:^.» 
160 5 
177.8 
165.4 
128 4 
HI 1 
101.2 
39 5 
12 3 

2-5 










i) 


5 feet 3 inches 

5 feet 4 inches 

5 feet 5 inches 

5'feet 6 inches 

5 feet 7 inches 

5 feet 8 inches 

5 feet 9 inches 

5 feet 10 inches 

5 feet 11 inches 

6 feet 

6 feet 1 inch 


4.3 

ro.'.^ 

134 . 2 

155,« 
160,2 
155,8 
121,2 
!;5,2 
43 3 
26 () 
8 7 
4 3 


12 2 

57.1 
171.4 
146 i! 
175.5 
18:^.7 
130.6 
73 5 
28.6 
16 3 
4-1 


9 3 
88.4 
134 9 
186.0 
214.0 
13 » 5 
98.0 
69 8 
23.3 
23.3 
9.3 
I) 3 


5.9 

82.8 

124.3 

201 2 

142 

207.1 

106.5 

47.3 

.53.3 

17 s 

11 s 


7 1 
72, S 
117 1 
153.2 
172 7 
167 4 
133 8 
91.6 
42 1 
26,1 
10 1 
5 














Total. 


1,0(X) 


1,0(K)(1 


1,000.0 


1,000.0 


1,000.0 


1,(KI0 


1.0(X) 


1,(K)0 







44 



ELEVENTH ATLANTA CONFERENCE 

Proportion of each weight per thousand of accepted colored recruits. 



Weight 


18 yrs. 

and 

under 


19 yrs. 


20 yrs. 


21 yrs. 


22 yrs. 


23 yrs. 


24 yrs. 


25 yrs. 




















100 to 109 pounds 


















110 to 119 pounds 










9.9 
113.9 
257.4 
287.1 
183.2 
89.1 
34.7 
19.8 


10.2 

40.8 

214 3 

336 7 

255.1 

102 

20.4 

20.4 


8.1 

48.4 

233 9 

298,4 

241.9 

121 

40.3 

8.1 


7 5 


120 to 129 pounds 


1,000.0 






14,'> 8 
333.3 

281.2 
156.3 
62.5 
20.8 


67.7 


130 to 139 pounds 






172.9 


140 to 1-18 pounds 








845 s 










188 II 


160 to 169 pounds 








82,7 


170 to 179 pounds 








60.1 


180 to 189 pounds. 








60.1 












15.0 












6 
























Total 


1,000.0 






1,(XX).0 


1,000 


1,000,0 


1,000.0 


1,000.(1 













Weight 



26 yrs 



27 yrs. 



28 yrs. 



29 yrs. 



30 yrs. 



32 yrs. 



38 yrs. 



99 pounds and under. 

100 to 109 pounds 

110 to 119 pounds 

120 to 129 pounds 

130 to 139 pounds 

140 to 149 pounds 

150 to 159 pounds 

160 to 169 pounds 

170 to 179 pounds 

180 to 189 pounds 

190 to 199 pounds 

200 pounds and over. . . 



Total. 



117 6 
274.5 
225.5 
205.9 
137 3 
19.6 
19.6 



1,000.0 



85.7 

142.9 

361.9 

190.5 

114.3 

38.1 

57.1 

9.5 



83 3 
1.52 8 
277 8 
;i47.2 
83 3 
27,8 
27.8 



60.0 
240 
240.0 
160,0 
160 
lOf) 

40.0 



1,000.0 



1,000.0 



1,(K)0.0 



25 6 
256 4 
128.2 
256 4 
205.1 
76 9 
51.3 



^4.5 
172.4 
275.9 
275 9 

34.5 
137,9 

69 



71,4 
71,4 
250.0 
250.0 
178.6 
71.4 



71 4 
85.7 



1,0(X).0 1,000.0 



1,000.0 



47.6 

95.2 

238.1 

285.7 

288.1 

47.6 

47 6 



1,000.0 



Weight 



34 yrs. 



35 yrs. 



36 yrs. , 37 yrs. 



40 yrs. 
and 
over 



Total 



99 pounds and under. 

100 to 109 pounds 

110 to 119 pounds 

120 to 129 pounds 

1.30 to 139 pouuds 

140 to 149 pounds 

150 to 1-59 pounds 

160 to 169 pounds 

170 to 179 pounds 

180 to 189 pounds 

190 to 199 pounds 

2(X) pounds and over. . . 



Total. 



125.0 
250,0 
375.0 
83.8 
41.7 
41.7 
41.7 
41.7 



47.6 
47.6 
288.1 
142 9 
2.38.1 
47.6 
95.2 



80.9 

90.9 

454.6 



181.8 
181.8 



200.0 
KKj.O 
400.0 
100.0 



100.0 



142.9 



100.0 



153.8 
76.9 
230.9 
384.6 
15:3 8 



88.3 
416.7 

8;^ 3 

83 3 
166 7 

8;J 3 



60.2 

180.7 
228:9 
156.6 
132.5 
120.5 
30.1 



83 3 



84.8 



4.7 
79.3 
211.9 
283.4 
215.1 
109.1 
50.2 
29.8 
7.1 
9.4 



1,000.0 



1,000.0 



1,000.0 



1,000,0' 1,000 



1,(X)0,0 



1,000,0 



1,(X)0 () 



NEGRO HEALTH AND PHYSIQUE 

Proportion of each weight per thousand of accepted ic?iite recruits • 



46 



Weight 



18 yrs. 

and 

under 



20 yrs. 



21 yrs. 



22 yrs. 



23 yrs. 



24 yrs. 25 vrs. 



'.»!» pounds and under. 

UK) to Km pounds 

110 to 119 pounds 

12(t to 129 pounds 

1«0 to 139 pounds 

I-IO to 149 pounds 

160 to 159 pounds 

160 to 169 pounds 

170 to 179 pounds , 

180 to 189 pounds 

190 to 199 pounds 

2(Xi pounds and over. . . 



Total . 



1.50.01 
300.0 
850.0 
15t).0 
50.0 



192.3 

230.8 
807.6 
153.8 
38 5 
38.5 
38.5 



66.7 
106 7 
866 
200.0 
166.7 

33.8 



25.1 

177.7 

328.4 

256.6 

141.8 

50.5 

13.8 

4.9 



1,000.0 1,000.0 1,0(X) 



1,000 



22.1 
153. 6 

2S7 7 

282. Of 

152.8 

72.8 

20.4 

6 9 

1.2 

5 



1.0(X).0 



16.5 

111.2 

280 6 

279.7 

180.7 

93 2 

25.9 

9.1 

2.4 

.6 



15 

129 
252 
274. 
179 
95. 
37 
10 
4. 



1,000 1.0(X).0 



19 (I 

109 4 

259 9 

273 I 

193 2 

91 9 

34 9 

11 6 

5 4 

■ 1 6 



Weight 



\M yrs. 



27 yrs. 



28 yrs. 



29 yrs. 



3() yrs. 



31 yrs. 



82 yrs. 8;^ yrs 



99 pounds and under 

1(X) to 109 pounds 

110 to 119 pounds 

120 to 129 pounds . 

130 to 139 pounds 

140 to 149 pounds 

150 to 159 pounds 

1(50 to 16;) pounds 

170 to 179 pounds 

180 to I8;i pounds 

190 to 199 pounds 

200 pounds and over. . . 



Total 



19.2 

117.2 

232.8 

280.4 

195.4 

93.3 

37.8 

17.6 

4 1 

2.1 



22 2 

116.6 

254.9 

255.4 

189.9 

98.8 

38 3 

14.4 

7.2 

2.8 



15 
118.8 
22S.1 
260.8 
178.4 
128-8 
36.6 
22 9 
8.5 
2.6 



17.1 

103 5 

224 1 

262.8 

184.5 

119 

51 8 

21 6 

9.9 

5 4 



24.5 

108.4 

231.4 

244 7 

190.2 

120.1 

46 7 

30 

5 6 

3 8 



11.8 
107.5 
237 1 
256 3 
1S2.5 
100 1 

58.9 

26.5 
7 4 

11.8 



17.7 

98 7 

207 7 

268.1 

201.8 

109.0 

48 6 

28.0 

11.8 

8.8 



1,000.0 1,01X).0 



1,(XK).0 



l.tXK) 



1,000.0 



7.1 

97 

231 

262 8 

194 (I 

100 5 

58 2 

26 5 

19 4 

3 5 



Weight 



34 yrs., 85 yrs. 



36 yrs. 



37 yrs. 



88 yrs. 89 yrs. 



40 yrs. 
and 
over 



Total 



99 pounds and undei 

100 to 109 pounds 

110 to 119 pounds 

120 to 129 pounds. . 

130 to 189 pounds 

140 to 149 pounds 

150 to 159 pounds 

160 to 16:t pounds 

170 to 179 pounds 

180 to 189 pounds 

190 to 19.1 pounds 

200 pounds and over. 

Total 



16.9 

82.9 

252.4 

241. ll 

184.6 

120.5 

45.2 

30.1 

11 8 

15 1 



14.8 

98.8 
207.4 
237.0 
175.3 
128.4 
74.1 
32.1 
14 8 
17.3 



8.7 
121.2 

l'.:0.5 

264,0 

181 

121 
56.8 
26 
17.3 
13.0 



24 

77 
2.53 
188 
216. 

93. 

69. 

44. 

24. 

12. 



32 fi 

98 
176 
227.9 
176.7 
li53.5 

65 1 

82 6 

27 

14 



1,(XK).0 l,(MXl(l 



1,(XX).0 



1,(KV).() 



17 8 
76 9 
21S.9 
189.4 
159.8 
159.8 
76.9 
35.6 
41.4 
28.7 



27.2 
99 5 
166 
205.6 
149.3 
130.5 
93 9 
56.3 
:56.6 
34.7 



20 1 

129 1 

26:^.6 

265 6 

172 

90 6 

34 4 

14 9 

6 1 

8 6 



1,(HH1.0 1,(K)0.0 1,000 



Ibid. 



46 P]LEVENrH ATLANTA CONFERENCE 

Proportion o/ rticJi measurement per thousand of accepted colored recruits' 



Chest Measckkmknt 


18 yrs. 

and 

under 


19. yrs. 


20 yrs. 


21 yrs. 


22 yrs. 


23 yrs. 


24 yrs. 


25 yrs. 


30 Inches and under 


1,000.0 






10.4 

52.1 

291.7 

.354.2 

177.1 

72.9 

31.2 

10.4 


14.9 
84.2 
188.1 
350.4 
203.0 
118.8 
19.8 
14.9 


10.2 
51.0 
142.9 
377.5 
244.9 
91.8 
71.4 

10.2 


8.1 
80.6 
145.2 
266.1 
282.3 
129.0 
.56.-5 
24.2 
8.1 


15.0 

52.6 

165.4 

:W8.2 

203.0 

10.5.3 

75.2 

4.5.1 

22.6 

7 5 


31 Inches 






32 inches 








:i3 Inches 








34 inches 








.{5 Inches 








:«) inches 








;J7 inches 








:« inches 








39 inches and over 






























Total 


1,000.(1 






1,(KKM) 


1,000.0 


1,000.0 


1,0(H1.0 


1,000.0 



Chest Measikement 


26 yrs. 


27 yrs. 


28 yrs. 


29 yrs. 


Wyrs. .31 yrs. 32 yrs. 


33 yrs. 


3" inches and under 


9.8 

58.8 


9.5 


' 41^7 

152.8 
263.9 
263.9 
138.9 

as.3 

41.7 


40.0 

80.0 

60.0 

240.0 

300.0 

hiO.O 

80.0 


102 6 
256.4 
282 1 
12,S.2 
153.8 
. 76.9 


69.0 
172 4 
172.4 
206.9 
241.4 
137.9 


35.7 

"107 J 
142.9 
178.6 
285.7 

71.4 
IW.l 

71.4 


47.6 
47.6 
95.2 
238.1 
238.1 
142.9 
142.9 


31 inches 


32 inches 


264.7' 123.8 

2.54.9 276.2 

205.9 238.1 

117.6 114.8 

39.2 85.7 

39.2 38.1 

!7.6 


:►{ inches . . 


34 inches 

35 inches 

36 inches 

■17 inches 


;i8 inches 


47.6 


;«) inches and over 


9 8 


13.9 


40.0 










; 










Total 


1,000 1 'I'Ki fi 


1,000.0 


1,000.0 


1,000.(1 


1,000.0 


1,000.0 


1,000.0 









Chest Measukement 


34 yrs. 


35 yrs. 36 yrs 


37 yrs. 


38 yrs. 


40 yrs. 
39 yrs. and 
over 


Total 


;{(> inches and under 


41.7 

41.7 
16(i.7 
291.7 
166.7 
S3.3 
83.3 
83.3 
41.7 


47.6 

142.9 
285.7 
is:0.5 
95.2 
95 2 
142.9 




1 






13.3 


31 inches 
:!2 inches 
:C$ irches 
34 inches 
;{5 inches 
3() inches 
37 inches 


90.9 
1818 
272.7 
1818 

90.9 
181.8 


■ 76.9 

200.0! 1.53.8 

! 153.8 

400.01 538.5 
100.0 76.9 
200.0 


166.7 
.33;^.3 
1667 
2.50.0 


12.0 
120.5 
204.8 
144.6 
144.6 
192.8 
60.2 
48.2 
72.3 


54.9 
163.3 
283.4 
228.4 
124.0 
75.3 
31 4 


881nches 




1 




14 9 


39 Inches and over 






KKl.O 




88.3 


11 












Total 


1,000.0 


l.OUO.O 




1,0(J0.0 


1,000.0 


1,000.0 




' 


' 





Ibid. 



NEGRO HEALTH AND PHYSIQUE 



47 



Proportion of each measurement per thoiisaml uf accepted white recruits — Continued 



Chest Measurement 


18 yrs. 

and 

under 


19 yrs. 


2<i yrs. 


21 yrs. 


22 yrs. 


2:5 yrs. 


24 yrs. 


25 yrs. 


30 inches and under 

31 inches 

32 Inches 


400.0 
KW.O 
2(X).0 
150 
150.0 


346.1 
115.4 
192 3 
192.3 
115.4 
38.5 


66.7 
166 7 
2»i 3 
200.0 
233.3 
66.7 
33.3 


33.1 

98.8 

277.2 

2.13.3 

172.0 

80.7 

30.7 

10.6 

2.6 

.9 


28.4 

88.8 

249 8 

193.3 

280.3 

100.9 

38.7 

14.5 

3.9 

1.4 


20.7 

68.6 

209.9 

291.3 

201.7 

127 7 

5:^.9 

19.2 

4.9 

2.1 


23.2 

.57 6 

194.8 

261.3 

218.1 

140 5 

68.4 

23.9 

9.2 

2.9 


14 4 
56.2 
206 


33 inches 


248.6 
214 5 




143 1 






71 








30 6 


;5S Inches . . . 








12 8 










2 7 












Total 


1,(KX).0 


1,(V)0 


1,(«10 


1,000.0 


1,000.0 


1,0(K).() 


1,(K)0.0 


1,000 (1 







Chest Measurement 


26 yrs. 


27 yrs. 


28 yrs. 


29 yrs. 


30 yrs. 


31 yrs. 


82 yrs. 


33yr's. 


;J0 inches and under 


14.0 
56.0 
189.2 
247.3 
215.6 
143.1 
84.5 
32.7 
11.9 
5.7 


15.0 

51.1 

178.2 

258.2 

211.5 

144.4 

80.0 

40.0 

15.0 

6.7 


15.0 
38.6 
185.0 
239.9 
218.3 
154.9 
84.3 
34.0 
21.6 
8.5 


9.f 

54.0 
155 7 
244 8 
209.7 
142.2 
S.7.2 
45.9 

me 

9.9 


17.8 
36.7 
155.7 
223.6 
20O.2 
173.5 
116.8 
41.2 
23.4 
11.1 


13 3 

47,1 
159.0 
210.li 
201.8 
170.K 
88.4 
48 6 
32.4 
28.0 


8.8 
38.3 
154.6 
213.6 
194.4 
182.6 
109.0 
48.6 
30.9 
19.1 


12.3 


31 inches 


31.7 


:i2 inches 

;33 inches 


139.3 
'>11.6 


34 Inches 


201.1 


3-5 inches . . 


169 3 




121.7 


37 inches 

;i8 inches * 

39 inches and over 


51.1 
44.1 
17 6 






Total 


1,000.0 


1,000.0 


1,000.0 


1,0(X).0 


1,000.0 


1.0(H).O 


1,000.0 


1,0(K1.(I 





Chest Measurement 


34 yrs. 


35 yrs. 


.36 yrs. 


37 yrs. 


38 yrs. 


89 yrs. 


40 yrs. 
and 
over 


Total 


») Inches and under 

31 inches 

32 inches . 

33 inches . . . 


16.9 
49.0 
56.5 
297.6 
192.1 
148.8 
114.9 
62.2 
32.0 
30.1 


19.8 
51.9 
123.5 
162.9 
237.0 
140.7 
123.5 
74.1 
29.6 
37.0 


8.7' 
39.01 
103.9: 
251.1: 
255.4 
121.2 
95.2 
64.9i 
39. Oi 
21.6 


12.2 
65.3 

89.8 
175.5 
187.8 
187.8 
98.0 
89.8 
53.0 
40.8 


27.9 
37.2 
111.6 
144.2 
209.3 
120.9 
186.1 
74.4 
37.2 
51.2 


29.6 
41.4 
71.0 
165.7 
147.9 
153.8 
177.5 
118.3 
35.5 
59.2 


.5.6 
33.8 
91.1 
157.7 
170.O 
135.2 
120.2 
102.3 
74.2 
109.9 


21.6 

66.3 

203.6 

240.5 


34 inches 


218.1 


35 inches 


127.2 


36 inches 

37 inches 


67.N 
'MA 


38 inches 


14.5 


39 inches and over 


10.0 






Total 


1,000.0 


1,000.0 


l,tHlOl) 


1,(KI0.0 


1,000.0 


1,000.0 


1,000.0 


1,000.0 







48 



ELEVENTH ATLANTA CONFERENCE 



The following- figures aro taken from McDonald's study of school 
children in the District of Columbia wliich included over 16,000 pupils, 
of whom 5,000 or more were colored. A Kansas city study is also in- 
cluded: * 

ALL GIRLS 











ti M 


^ 


^ 


_^ 


a> 










aj-; 


A 


-i'^ 


a 


S.S'c 


Limits of 


Differ- 


■2 » 




•^ M 


bo 




ENT Ages 




O 


0) 

t 
> 




bC" 
03 

•< 




FROM— 


to 


- 


'3 


Yrn 


Mos. 


l'r«. 


Mos. 




Inches 


Inches 


Lbs. 


Inches 


5 


1 


6 


6 


94 


44.23 


24.25 


43.;i3 


19.23 


5 


5 


(5 


11 


37 


43.97 


23.87 


42.!,0 


20.20 


<) 


5 


7 


6 


375 


45.09 


24.6.. 


45.74 


19.94 


6 


7 


7 


(J 


133 


45.40 


24.77 


44.97 


19.92 


7 


7 


8 


6 


754 


47.44 


25.46 


49.44 


20.14 


H 


7 


9 


6 


88;:5 


49.13 


26.23 


53 67 


20.29 


1) 


7 


10 


6 


939 


51.20 


26.98 


58.55 


20.43 


1(1 


7 


11 


(i 


931 


fii.U 


27.82 


64.19 


20.54 


11 


7 


12 


(i 


876 


.55.78 


29.05 


73.20 


20.78 


12 


7 


13 


« 


96(5 


57.91 


30.13 


81.85 


2o.!:5 


18 


7 


14 


6 


833 


60.24 


81.44 


93.02 


21.18 


14 


7 


15 


« 


655 


61.66 


32.26 


HiO.38 


21.28 


15 


7 


1(5 


(5 


450 


62.40 


32.SI 


I0.").19 


21.38 


Iti 


7 


17 


6 


323 


62.99 


33 01 


110.01 


21. .55 


17 


7 


18 


(5 


151 


63.15 


;«.17 


111. .50 


21.60 


17 


7 


2;5 


6 


41 


62.91 


32.86 


111.14 


21.60 


18 


7 


li» 


9 


13 


64..33 


33.70 


112.96 


21.98 


18 


7 


20 


8 


06 


63.01 


33 24 


110.72 


21.98 










8,620 











ALL COLORED GIRLS 



Limits of Differ- 
ent Ages 



Yrs. 

5 
6 



Mos. 
10 

7 
7 

7 

7 
7 
7 



S ft 
Co 

"3 



Yrs. Mos. 



113 

248 
218 
209 
250 
266 
279 
270 
243 
167 
129 
83 
54 
20 
9 



2,558 



Inches 
43.81 
4().61 
47.91 
49.02 
50.85 
52.94 
54.46 
57.42 
59. 56 
60.06 
61.47 
62.25 
62.27 
62.73 
60.44 



4I bc 



Inches 
23.72 
24 70 
25.21 
25.74 
26.55 
27.35 
27.92 
29.09 
30.24 
30.74 
31.-57 
31.91 
.32.27 
;K.21 
31.47 



Lbs. 
42.61 
48.(53 
53.02 
.56.89 
62.89 
68.89 
77..55 
88.40 
98..52 
10:3.10 
106.97 
112.96 
115.12 
117.75 
109.33 



<i3o 



Inches 
19.92 
20.50 
20.51 
20 72 
20.84 
20.87 
20.95 
21.14 
21.48 
21.51 
21.50 
21.74 
21.86 
2178 
22.14 



' Report of United States Commissioner of Education, 1897-98, Vol. I, page 989, fT. 
' Report of the United States Commissioner of Education, 1897-98, Vol. I, page loss. 



NEGRO HEALTH AND PHYSIQUE 

ALL BOYS 



49 





m 


^ 


^ 


0) 




^ 


43 


S3 


o 


Limits of Differ- 
ent Ages 


!t 




SB 
DPS 


<u a 




03 


M 


bO 


>Bt 








c3 






s 


? 


4> 


<go 


FROM — 


TO— 


3 


> 


> 


u 






Z 


< 


< 


o 


Yi-s. Mos. 


y?-s. iifos. 




Inches 


Lbx. 


Inches 


5 3 


6 6 


103 


44.69 


45.24 


20.22 


6 


6 6 


44 


44.75 


45.31 


20.28 


6 7 


7 6 


5:^3 


45.97 


47.70 


20.45 


7 7 


8 6 


787 


47.83 


51.47 


20.51 


8 7 


9 6 


878 


49.74 


56.16 


20.61 


9 7 


10 6 


930 


51.70 


61.54 


20.78 


10 7 


11 6 


8(>2 


.^3.19 


66.26 


20.82 


11 7 


12 6 


986 


55.14 


72.73 


20.94 


12 7 


13 6 


926 


56.76 


79.38 


21.01 


13 7 


14 6 


784 


59.14 


88.27 


21.21 


14 7 


15 6 


528 


61.79 


100.95 


21.45 


15 7 


16 6 


345 


64.32 


113.71 


21.67 


16 7 


17 6 


120 


65.97 


121.18 


21.87 


16 7 


18 6 


32 


66.45 


124.21 


22.13 


16 7 


18 10 


22 


67.03 


123.10 


22.12 


17 7 


18 6 


38 


67.06 


131.99 


21.91 


18 7 


19 6 


7 


68.73 


132.25 


22.48 


19 7 


21 7 


28 


67.66 


135.56 


22.34 






7,953 









ALL COLORED BOYS 





u "' 


^ 


^ 


*^ 


« 






a 


, A 


Si 


« 


Limits of Differ- 


jD a 


bO 


^ bC 


bC 


bfiD-a 


ent Ages 


^^ 


0) 


m oj 






do 


M 


bo so 


bC 


* gj 
















d 




<h 


FROM — 


TO — 


o 




> 




u 






H 


<j 


< 


ol 


o 


Yrs. Mos. 


P^rs. Mos. 




Inches 


Inches 


Lbs. 


Inches 


5 


6 6 


73 


44.17 


24.04 


43.44 


20.24 


6 7 


7 6 


246 


46.08 


24.73 


50.10 


20.28 


7 7 


8 6 


288 


47.74 


25.34 


53.S.9 


20.51 


8 7 


9 6 


303 


49.26 


26.14 


59.04 


20.67 


9 7 


10 6 


335 


51.14 


26.51 


65.17 


20.81 


10 7 


11 6 


271 


52.10 


26.90 


69.44 


20.95 


11 7 


12 6 


286 


53.94 


27.99 


75.97 


20.87 


12 7 


13 6 


321 


56.08 


28.46 


83.50 


21.07 


13 7 


14 6 


282 


57.98 


29.3(i 


90.90 


21.31 


14 7 


15 6 


220 


60.09 


30 37 


99.42 


21.41 


15 7 


16 6 


124 


63 13 


31.25 


113.45 


21.45 


16 7 


18 6 


131 


65.37 


32.82 


125.42 


21.95 


18 7 


22 11 


19 


66.16 


29.42 


131.75 


22.16 




2,899 





















50 ELEVENTH ATLANTA CONFERENCE 

Race in Relation to Cephalic Inbex, Sensibility, Etc.* 





a 

o 

to 

S 
p. 

O 

d 


< 

M 

03 
u 

> 
< 


o 

"3 

S3 

, a 
o <» 
^" 
o 


Q 


o 

"3 

si 
a 
a> 

o 



-O) 

(V 


o 

s: 
a 

^'^ 

o 
c3 

« 


Least sen- 
sibility to 
locality 


Strength of 
grasp 


Least sen- 
sibility to 
heat 




RighV 
wrist 


Left 
ivrist 


Right 
hand 


Left 
hand 


Right 
waist 


Left 
waist 


All Boys: 
White 


526 
33 

548 

58 


Yr. Mo. 

12 9 

13 3 

13 1 
13 1 


% 

11 
32 

12 

27 


45 
53 

48 
52 


44 
15 

40 
21 


Mm. 

16.4 
14 3 

14.9 
15.3 


Mm. 

15 5 
13.9 

13.9 
14.2 


Kilos 

20.9 
19.7 

16 8 
17.3 


Kilos 

19.6 
18.4 

15.8 
16.3 


°R. 

4.17 

2.1)7 

4.43 
2.64 


°R. 

3.89 




1.77 


All Gikls: 
White 


4.06 


Colored 


2.47 



Kansas City, Mo., School Children (1890)-h 
While Children 



BOYS 


GIRLS 


No. 


Age 


Average 
height 


Average 

weight 


No. 


Age 


Average 
height 


Average 
weight 




Years 


In ches 


Pounds 




Years 


Inches 


Rounds 


849 


10 


52 


67.5 


400 


10 


51.68 


65.92 


395 


11 


53 


70.i;6 


411 


11 


52.7 


66.2 


408 


12 


5() 


78.28 


469 


12 


54.015 


80.64 


293 


13 


56.6 


87.45 


311 


13 


57.43 


91.72 


347 


14 


58.6 


93.45 


366 


14 


60.31 


100. 1 


133 


15 


62.4 


111.27 


313 


15 


62.04 


109.36 


129 


16 


63.93 


119. 


186 


16 


65.52 


111.16 


77 


17 


64.8 


126 6 


87 


17 


62.9 


117.11 


24 


18 


66.66 


136.83 


52 


18 


63.29 


118.92 










24 


19 


64.2 


120.25 



Colored Children 



BOYS 


GIRLS 


No. 


Age 


Average 
height 


Average 
weight 


No, 


Age 


Average 
height 


Average 
weight 




Years 


Inches 


Pounds 




Years 


Inches 


Pounds 


28 


10 


51 


72.7 


30 


10 


49.8 


74.56 


86 


11 


53.36 


78.25 


52 


11 


52.8 


79.85 


44 


12 


53.73 


83 


61 


12 


54 


82.83 


51 


13 


66 


89 


62 


13 


56.85 


97.145 


29 


14 


58.88 


93.55 


44 


14 


58.75 


108.83 


33 


15 


61 


112.8 


46 


15 


61.54 


110.13 


9 


16 


■ 64.44 


121.1 


32 


16 


62.8 


117 


5 


17 


65 


180 


12 


17 


66 


128 



♦ Report of the United States Commissioner of Education, 1897-98, Vol. I, page 1010. 
+ Report of the United States Commissioner of Education, 1897-98, Vol. I, page 1108. 



NEGRO HEALTH AND PHYSIQUE 



51 



The general conclusions from these studies were: 

White children have much longer bodies than colored children, and are 
taller, but the colored children are heavier. 

The white boj's are taller than the colored boys. In sitting height the differ- 
ence is very striking, and it would seem to indicate that white boys have 
cemparatively a greater length of trunk than length of legs as compared with 
colored boys. The colored boys are heavier from age 6 to 15. From 15 to 16 
the white boys are heavier. 

The colored boys are taller than the colored girls at ages 6, 9, 10, 15 and on. 
xVt other ages the girls are taller. In sitting height the boys are taller until 10 
and at 12. In weight colored boys are heavier, except from 11 to 16, when the 
difference between boys and girls is somewhat similar to that in white chil- 
dren, except that this pubertal period begins about a year later and ends a 
year later than in white children. 

The percentage of long-lieadedness among the colored boys is more than 
double that of the white boys. This is doubtless due to racial influence. 

In colored children the circumference of head in the boj^s is superior to that 
of the girls at ages 6 and 11, but inferior at other ages; that is, in general the 
girls excel the boys in head circumference. 

The white boys of American parentage have a larger head circumference 
than the colored boys from ages 6 to 8; again at about 12, and from 15 to 17; at 
other ages the colored boys excel. As the numbers compared are large this 
can hardly be accidental, yet we know of no reason for this alternate increase 
and decrease between the boys of two races, for in the case of the girls there 
is no such alternation. 

Comparing white girls of American parentage and colored girls as to cir- 
cumference of head, the colored girls show quite a marked increase from about 
<) to 10 and from 14 to 15. It may be noted here that these periods of marked 
increase correspond to the periods of increase of colored boys over white boys ; 
that is, from about 7 to 11 and 13 to 15. The colored girls excel the white girls 
in circumference of head at all ages. Comparing colored girls with all white 
girls, the colored girls have a larger circumference of head at all ages except 

ate. 

As circumference of head increases mental ability increases. (A note adds, 
"among those of the same race.") 

Colored children are much more sensitive to heat than white children. This 
probably means that their power of discrimination is much better and not 
that they suffer more from heat. 

McDonald's studies referred to above give a few psycho-physical 
measurements: 



All boys 

All girls 

All colored boys 
All colored girls 



Beight 



Total 



2,899 
3,'2Hti 
1,257 
1,751 



Per 

Cent 



38.72 
38.70 
43.36 
68.45 



Dull 



Total 



1,214 
917 
486 
673 



Per 

Cent 



16.22 
10 77 
16 76 
26.31 



Average 



Total 



Per 
Cent 



3,373 45 06 

4,;»4 50.53 

1,156 39.88 

134 5.24 



52 



ELEVENTH ATLANTA CONFERENCE 



















■CXI 


tr 










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tS 




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ft 


>j 


c * 

1, M 

bcC 

3 
bO 

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Divisions 






Si 




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I, 





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o3 


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c 


CS 




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< 


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^ 


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cc 






% 


% 


% 


'Tr 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


* 


Boys f American pa- 
rentage 


(Bright.... 

\ Dull 

r Average.. 


bl 
14 
3S 


m 
lit 

45 


44 

18 
38 


;^4 

22 
44 


30 
18 

52 


44 
15 
41 


38 
19 
43 


29 
21 

50 


50 
16 
34 


24 
29 
47 


28 
27 
45 


43 

21 
36 


44 
12 
44 


33 
24 




43 




I Bright... 


45 


49 


37 


35 


■M 


41 


46 


40 


34 


40 


40 


51 


45 


4S 


Girls of American pa- 


Dull 


9 


n 


19 


17 


12 


15 


10 


9 


20 


10 


13 


11 


15 


14 




( Average. . 


46 


40 


44 


48 


52 


44 


44 


51 


46 


50 


47 


35 


40 


38 






I Bright.... 


4f) 


61 


f4 


47 


45 


51 


42 




44 


36 


45 


49 


25 


41 


Oolored boys 


Dull 

f Average. . 


2a 

31 


8 
81 


20 
26 


17 
36 


13 

42 


11 

38 


17 
41 




31 

25 


19 
45 


17 


22 

29 


43 
32 


23 




36 




( Bright.... 


m 


65 


60 


40 


6-> 


(U 


63 






49 


54 


17 


31 


59 




] Dull 

{ Average. . 


28 
3 


19 
16 


29 
11 


25 
35 


25 
13 


22 
14 


22 
15 






14 

37 


19 
27 


21 

62 


11 

58 


23 








18 











One manifest cause of physical differences between white and colored 
people in the United States is difference in physical nourishment. The 
studies of the United States Department of Agriculture,* although few 
in number, indicate the following results: 

Dietaries of Negroes and Others 



Average of 19 Negro families in Virginia 

Average of 20 Negro families in Alabama 

Average of 4 Mexican families in New Mexico 

Average of 14 mechanics' families 

Average of 10 farmers' families 

Average of 14 professional men's families 

Tentative standard for man at moderate work 



Cost 



11 cts, 
8 " 
8 " 

19 " 



28 cts. 



Protein 



109 gms 

62 " 

64 " 

103 " 
97 " 

104 " 
125 " 



Fat 



159gms 
132 " 
71 " 

leo " 
i:» " 
125 " 



Carbo 
hydrates 



444 gms, 
436 " 
610 " 
402 " 
467 " 
423 " 



Fuel 
Value 



3.745 
3.270 
3.550 
3.465 
3.515 
3.325 
3..500 



With regard especially to the Alabama diets, which represent the diet 
of the Black Belt, the report says: 

Comparing these Negro dietaries with other dietary standards it will be seen 
that — 

(1) The quantities of protein are very small; roughly speaking, the food of 
these Negroes furnished one-third to three-fourths as much protein as are 
called for in the current physiological standards and as are actually found in 
the dietaries of well-fed whites in the United States and well-fed people in 
Europe. They were indeed, no larger than have been found in the dietaries of 
the very poor factory operatives and laborers in Germany and the laborers 
and beggars in Italy. 

(2) In fuel value the Negro dietaries compare quite favorably with those of 
well-to-do people of the laboring classes in Europe and the United States. 

(3) The marked peculiarity of the Negro dietaries, namely, their lack of 
protein, is shown in the nutritive ratios. While the proportion of protein to 
fuel ingredients in the dietary standards and in the food of well-fed wage- 
workers ranges from 1 :5 to 1 :7 or 8, and is about 1 :5.5 • or 1 :6 in the dietarj- 



• United States Department of Agriculture, Dietary Studies, etc., in Alabama, 1897; 
do., in Virginia, 1899. 



NEGRO HEALTH AND PHYSIQUE 5H 

standards, the nutritive ratio of the Negro dietaries range from 1 :7 to 1 :16. 
Leaving out two quite exceptional cases, the lowest was 1 :10 and the average 
1:11.8. 



6. Some Psychological Considerations on the Race Problem* 

By Dr. Herbert A. Miller 

Race problems are pressing hard upon most of the nations of the 
world. They are part of the general social question, which is growing 
more and more important. The first difficulty in understanding these 
problems is to find a clear definition of racial lines. External compari- 
son is not enough to create a boundary between different peoples when 
they happen to have the same spiritual interests, i. e., the ultimate 
difTerences are psychical rather than physical. At any rate the psycho- 
physical comparison of races is offering facts to scientific investigation 
in a field as yet almost untouched. Wherever there is a heterogeneous 
people there is need for exact knowledge of the capacities and possi- 
bilities of its constituents. 

The cause of the backwardness of the so-called lower races is various- 
ly attributed to the influence of environment of all sorts, and to natural 
incapacity. These points of view differ so absolutely in kind that it is 
necessary to make aii earnest effort to analyze the relation between the 
two, in order tiiat energy may not be wasted in an effort to reach com- 
mon conclusions from absolutely different premises. At present both 
opinions are chiefly based on assumptions. Each may accord with 
actual conditions, but each involves a very different attitude towards 
the course of human development: the one assuming that, in general, 
equal results follow equal conditions, and that the apparent differences 
are due to unequal home training, economic conditions, and social 
ideals; the other, that, whatever the conditions, the possibilities are 
not the same. Between these two extremes the discussion of the Negro, 
and to some extent of the Indian in the United States, has been hope- 
lessly mangled, and upon them practical educational theories have 
been based. Most of the sympathizers with industrial education for 
the Negro believe that such education is fitted to his capacity even 
more than to his needs. 

A knowledge of the influence of environment is necessary for the 
understanding of a race, but it is not fundamental in drawing race lines, 
since environment must act upon something, and any conclusion as to 
its influence involves a consideration of that upon which it acts. Other 
facts are brought in through anthropology, in which anatomical coitit 
parisons have been supplemented with general psychological observa- 
tions which have been made, unfortunately, by men of no special psy- 
chological training, and therefore have questionable value. By a 
purely psychological method alone can exact scientific data be obtained 
on what is really a psychological problem. 

* Reprinted by permission from Bibliotheca Sacra, April, IDdO. 



54 ELEVENTH ATLANTA CONFERENCE 

Psychology has a comprehensive and a restricted field. In the for- 
mer, it includes the total complex activity of mental life; in the latter, 
it describes only the isolated elements of the complex. The complex 
activity is the reaction of the psychic organism to the meaning of life. 
This is the popular meaning of the term "psychology." Any fact of 
the mind, whether intellectual, moral, or spiritual, is referred to this 
category. It cannot be scientific, for it does not lend itself to analysis. 
It is an attitude of the mind which is the result of many psychic ele- 
ments working together, plus the practical theory of the universe which 
the individual happens to hold. This varying combination of influences 
which shape every attitude makes classification impossible, and to call 
it psychology takes one but little nearer scientific explanation. The 
uncertainty of complexity makes it desirable to seek relatively isolated 
elements. These will be component parts of the whole, but will have a 
meaning limited to tlieir own functioning: e. g., the memory of legal 
terms to the lawyer varies with the importance of their bearing upon 
his cases. But memory of nonsense syllables has an interest limited 
solely to their interest as a memory exercise. In other words, the 
quality of memory may be different in different individuals, but no 
adequate test can be made where the interest and attention differ. 
Unrelated figures and letters having a minimum of interest offer an ap- 
proximate condition of equality for the comparison of the memory of 
different individuals. The simplest element of mind that can be tested 
is, to be sure, more or less complex, being made up of, as yet, unanalyz- 
able elements, but the variation of the relatively simple states is much 
less than that between the complex totalities. Two brothers may differ 
but slightly in capacity, but responsibility falling upon one will develop 
entirely different activity. In the simple states can be found regular 
and predictable variation ;. but in the complex, developed by the busi- 
ness of life, it is accidental and incalculable. 

Psychophysics aims to describe these relatively simple states without 
relating them to their value in life. The results are meagre, but they 
are the only ones that can have any scientific value, because of their 
comparative invariability, while the larger reactions are made up of 
constantly changing meanings of ideals. The spirit or purpose behind 
the act is what determines its quality; in other words, it is the person- 
ality interpreting the value of tlie act to the organism as a whole. The 
performance of the act, on the other hand, depends on the fundamental 
capacity of the organ which perforins it. Thus desire for studJ^ and 
capacity for accomplishment, are quite different things. Again and 
more obviously, it is this interpretation of the value of life that makes 
one man moral and the other immoral, though both may have equal 
psychophysical capacity. To conclude, from the manifestations of 
immorality among the Negroes, or from their failure to recognize cer- 
tain social conventions, that the Negro is incapable of morality or of 
adaptation to the social demand, is a conclusion based upon inadequate 
evidence. Morality and social adaptation are the result of the inter- 
pretation of the value of a situation, and not a necessary development 



NEGRO HEALTH AND PHYSIQUE 55 

of inherent capacity. Therefore, not until different races have had ex- 
actly the same history can any valid conclusion be drawn as to their 
relative psychophysical capacity if mere observation is used. This does 
not mean that there is no such a thing as race characteristics, but that 
there are elements in interpretation that are independent of race. This, 
however, is a philosophical question. My point is that there is some 
thing that cannot be put to empirical test in all practical activity. 

Space fails me to give any account of the many psychological obser- 
vations that have been made concerning primitive people. Suffice it to 
say that there have been many things said; and there are great differ- 
ences of opinion, — from those vvho see the savage little removed from 
the possibilities of a brute, to those who think the difference between 
the highest and lowest man is very slight. It may be the uncivilized 
instead of the uncivilizable mind that is described. The fact that some 
observers find that the ideas are sensuous instead of abstract may arise 
out of the demands of the environment. It may not call for anything 
except sensuous ideas. Again, Indians and Negroes are said to lack 
the power of attention, and hence the door of learning is closed to them. 
Some travelers say that in Africa a few sentences will weary a native, 
and therefore conversation cannot be held with him. But attention is 
not merely a natural possession. In our schools the habit has to be 
cultivated by all sorts of subterfuges from the guardhouse to the elec- 
tive system. According to the doctrine of "interest," on whicii the 
elective system is based, we find the savage giving perfect attention to 
his hunt. He has been under no necessity of developing the power of 
abstraction. Many of the arguments concerning primitive psychology 
arise from the logic of post hoc, ergo j^ropter hoc. Africans are said to 
think it foolish to have manufactured articles when it would have been 
quite easy to get along without them, but what they think is no crite- 
rion of what they would think if they knew more. We can parallel that 
indifference in the pure Anglo-Saxons who ai*e known as Highlanders, 
who find it very difficult to see the sense of the attempt to bring them 
back into the fold of civilization. A family in the Tennessee Mountains 
had but one pan, which was used for cooking, serving food, and as a 
family wash-basin. A new pan was presented, but was hung unused 
on the wall. When remonstrated with for not using it, the woman said, 
"Aintweuns got one pan?" The idea of progress is not inherent in any 
man, but is the social heritage derived from a long study of the mean- 
ing of the world. 

I do not wish to be understood as claiming that race characteristics 
are not definite and important, but anthropologists have based their 
conclusion as to the difference in race levels upon the degree to which 
they suppose the race to have evolved. Their teachings have been 
eagerly grasped by the general public as a scientific support of their 
belief that the Negro is inferior to the whites. 

I cannot go into the bearings of the doctrine of evolution upon the 
question, but, accepting the doctrine of Weissmann, would add, in the 
words of a writer on evolution : "Civilization and education are exter- 



'J 



56 ELEVENTH AJLANTA CONFERENCE 

ual and not internal, extrinsic and not intrinsic forces. . . . Civiliza- 
tion has changed his surroundings, but has it changed the man?* This 
js an important question, but progress is not evolution in the strict sense 
of the word. It depends on subjective influences. As John Morley 
Hays: "The world grows better in the moderate degree that it does 
grow better because people wish that it should, and take the right 
steps to make it better. Evolution is not a force but a process, not a 
cause but a law. It explains the source and marks the immovable limi- 
tations of social energy. But social energy can never be superseded by 
evolution or anything else." Psychology as I use it has the narrower 
meaning, which makes it parallel with evolution as used by Mr. Morley. 
[t can aim to study the ''immovable limitations," but it is utterly im- 
possible for it to give a standard for measuring the social energy which 
is the force that makes most of the visible results. We can study the 
perceptions, but we can do very little with the conceptions, for they 
form the unanalyzed elements. In conception we get an ethical envir- 
onment which throws light on every situation, and thus distinguishes 
man from animal; we deal with every practical situation at something 
more than its face value in pleasure and pain. 

We find this influence as applied to the Negro summed up excellently 
by one of the race speaking of his people: ''They must perpetually 
discuss the Negro problem, must live, move and have their being in it, 
and interpret all else in its light or darkness. From the double life that 
every American Negro must live as a Negro and American, as swept 
on by the current of the nineteenth century while struggling in the 
eddies of tlie fifteenth — from this must arise a powerful self-conscious- 
ness and a moral hesitancy which is almost fatal to self-confidence. 
Today the young Negro of the South who would succeed cannot be 
frank and outspoken, but rather is daily tempted to be silent and wary, 
politic and sly. His real thouglits, his real aspirations, must be guarded 
in whispers; he must not criticize, he must not complain. Patience 
and adroitness must in these growing black youth, replace impulse, 
manliness, and courage. . . . At the same time, through books and 
periodicals, discussions and lectures he is intellectually awakened. In 
the conflict some sink, some rise." t This description of the conditions 
of real life indicates the impossibility of drawing psychological conclu- 
sions from practical reactions. We cannot fairly compare a black and 
a white artisan when the latter has pride in his work and the other an 
indifference due, in part at least, to the consciousness of his social posi- 
tion. Still there may be differences due solely to race. I would like to 
tell how I think this difference in attitude complicates any estimate of 
moral and cultural possibilities, but I must hasten on to indicate briefly 
my method of direct experimentation, which, though utterly incom- 
plete, yet seems to me to be the direction in which this subject must 
be pursued if we wish to get the truth unhampered by the prejudice of 

• H. W. Conn : Method of Evolution, p. 212. 
tDuBols: Souls of Black Folk. 



NEGRO HEALTH AND PHYSIQUE 57 

one's geographical position. In a word I aimed to make tests of the 
simplest sort upon people of as nearly the same condition as possible. 
The subjects were pupils in schools of comparable grades, and num- 
bered 2,488 Negroes, 520 Indians, and 1,493 whites, including 596 High- 
landers in the Tennessee and Kentucky mountains. All the tests were 
given by myself under as nearly as possible the same conditions and 
without variation. I can only name the tests, and say that they were 
devised for the purpose of giving them to groups, and that all my sub- 
jects came in groups which would average about forty in number. A 
careful lecord of age and sex and grade was kept, and the comparison 
considered those facts. My word for the reliability of the work must 
be accepted, and I hope before very long to publish a full description 
of the details. The tests were: (1) quickness and accuracy of percep- 
tion ; (2) disconnected memory, both auditory and visual, as tested by 
figures and letters exposed and read ; (3) logical memory, tested by re- 
producing a story; (4) rational instinct, as shown in the immediate 
detection of fallacies; (5) suggestibility, as shown by the judgment of 
the size of equal circles on which there were numbers of different de- 
nominations; and, finally, (6) color preference. 

I can give at present only some representative averages, which are 
interesting, and on the whole fairly indicative of the results obtained 
by a more complete interpretation of the figures. With the exception 
of the first table, which gives the actual number, all the results are in 
percentages. The graphic representation of the figures shows some 
things that cannot appear from the mere averages. Averages for the 
quickness of perception : 

Male Female 

No. Av. No. Av. 

Whites ... 3r,5 31.17 236 33.61 

Indians ... 160 31.81 120 34.77 

Negroes... 377 32.35 412 34.68 

The average is misleading, as the plot shows that the larger number 
of Indians are quicker than the larger number of either of the other 
races, but both aspects of the figures are consistent in showing that 
there is but slight difference in races in the same sex, but that there is a 
consistent difference in the quickness of the sexes, the females being 
the quicker. In disconnected memory I had five tests, and two facts 
are striking: the superiority of visual over auditory memory, and the 
consistent but slight superiority of the females, but the race differences 
are small. It did not seem to be unfair to combine all the persons of 
the same race for all the five tests in one average, and thus make it 
possible to multiplj^ the number of cases by five. I do this because of 
the alleged superiority of the Negroes for so-called rote memory. 

Male and Female Auditory and Visual Memory 

No. Whiites 2,060 A v. 55 Av. deviation 19 

" Indians 1,362 '• 53.3 " " 17.5 

" Negroes 4,098 " 56.8 " " 19 

The conclusion seems to me to be that the differences are very slight. 
The variation shows that a large part of each group overlaps the others. 



58 ELEVENTH ATLANTA CONFERENCE 

At the same time the similarity of the deviations shows that the aver- 
ages are fairly representative. 
Let me give the results of the tests for logical memory: 

No. Males Av. % No. Females Av. % 

Whites 3J3 40-27 22) 3H.9 

Indians 101 37 7 . 8.S 35.17 

Negroes 3.(4 40.45 427 37.49 

Here the diflerenee between the sexes is the reverse of that appearing 
in disconnected memory. There is almost no difference between the 
Whites and the Negroes; the Indians are not strictly comparable, for 
reasons that I cannot enter upon at this time. 

Finally I would like to give you some idea of the results of the color 
choice test. I gave this to a larger number than any of the others. I 
performed these tests in two different years, and all in the same man- 
ner, except that in the second year I clianged from Milton Bradlej' 
colors to Prang colors, with very interesting results. Out of the Milton 
Bradley colors I had 13 against 12 of the Prang. With the Milton 
Bradley colors 42.1 per cent of the white girls chose red and 19 per cent 
blue; and 42.01 per cent of the white boys preferred blue and 17.6 red. 
The number of persons was 380 and 112. Of the Negroes, numbering 
201 girls and 267 boys, 3.6 per cent of the girls and 3.4 per cent of the 
boys chose red, and 57.1 per cent of the girls and 52.1 per cent of the 
boys chose blue. These facts are interesting, but quite different from 
those with the Prang colors. Putting red and red-violet together, we 
have the following table: 

Bed and Red- Violet Blu9 

W. M 11.4% 50.4% 

W. F 27 41.4 

I. M 20 6 35.5 

I. F 49.4 18.5 

N. M 7.3 30 

N. F 17.1 41.6 

Two things appear from this. That there is a I'acial difference in 
color preference, and that it makes a good deal of difference what col- 
ors are used. Preference for red does not mean for any red, and if the 
one presented is not quite right another color will be chosen. For the 
other colors than red and blue the figures are nearly parallel. It is a 
surprise to most people that the Negro does not take the red, but he 
consistently avoids it. The colors that we see in life are not so much 
the result of psychophysical as of social reaction. The one fact that 
stands out clearly in this investigation is the smallness of the differ- 
ences between the Negroes and whites within the range of these exper- 
iments. In general we find the Indians somewhat lower in their aver- 
ages than the other two races. I do not suggest the possible inferiority 
of the Indians; but there is not an lota of evidence to show that they 
are superior to Negroes. This is contrary to the genei'al assumption. 

We must not conclude from these tests that there are no psychophys- 
ical differences between the races; in fact, we do find some tendencies 
of divergence, and admit the possibility of many more. The complex 
of all these tendencies gives the temperamental tone, which obviously 



NEGRO HEALTH AND PHYSIQUE 59 

does characterize sexes and races. The differences, however, are of de- 
gree rather than of kind. It is not sufficient to make a sharp line of de- 
markation. In the curves which represent the figures we find that the 
large mass of the persons of all the races are included within the com- 
mon space. So far as the original endowment of the Negro is concerned, 
I would conclude that there is nothing in kind to differentiate him par- 
ticularly as a different psychic being from the Caucasian. I have not en- 
tered upon the prevailing difference of opinion that exists upon thispoint. 

In estimating the psychological development of a person or race, no 
one should be spurned for the peculiarities that he possesses. Some 
racial tendencies have undoubtedly been developed by natural selec- 
tion, but we are accustomed to make an assessment in contemporary 
psychic values, and consider primitive those that do not fit the present 
social order. In the process of tlie universe a race may have a contri- 
bution to make tlirough its very peculiarities; and it may at least find 
in these peculiarities a means of working out its own salvation. Thus 
the vivid imagination which I found in the Negro, and the unquestioned 
musical genius of the Negro, are to be given a value that we cannot es- 
timate. The transition from the morning school song of the Negroes to 
thatof equally untrained whites is like goingfrom a symphony to a hand- 
organ. No one will question this gift of music in the Negro ; and may we 
not expect from it, and other gilts which do not stand out so o])viously, 
some social contribution from this and every race? We no longer hear 
mucli about the mental inferiority of women ; but we are accepting the 
fact that the two sexes have different natural aptitudes, and are adapt- 
ing the educational possibilities to meet those aptitudes. This should be 
the case with different races. But let us not jump to conclusions as to 
what these aptitudes are ; for we are likely to judge from present rather 
than future social valuations. Perhaps from some such method as I have 
undertaken we can learn more of the differences between individuals. 

Finally, class and race as well as sex problems arise from lack of 
spiritual affinity between the groups or individuals concerned. They 
lack "consciousness of kind." This phrase resolves itself into con- 
sciousness of the same kind of ideals or purposes. A social relation 
exists as soon as there are common purposes. If the ideals or purposes 
differ there will be antagonism. The first cause of this difference is due 
to some superficial accidental condition, such as the customs of the 
tribe or the color of the skin, which stand as symbols of the sameness 
of kind. That these external symbols are only accidental is proved by 
the ease with which they are laid aside when some deeper principle 
draws men together, bridging chasms that had seemed impassable. 
Mere propinquity will often do it. This accidental element in the race 
problem makes it no less real, but the purpose of science and philosophy 
is not to get the temporal and the accidental, but rather the universal 
and essential. The purpose of education and social progress is to make 
the accidental give way to the essential, and to let each individual 
stand for his true worth to. society; then the problems as they now 
confront us will cease to exist. 



60 



ELEVENTH ATLANTA CONFERENCE 



7. The Increase of the Negro=American 

The Negro element in the United States, classing all mulattoes as 
Negroes (except those who pass as white), hais increased as follows:* 

Negro population 1790 to 1900 



CENSUS 



Negro 
popula- 
tion 



Increase of Negro Popu- 
TioN During— 



Preceding 
10 years 



No. 



Per 
cent 



Preceding 
i20 years 



No. 



Per 
cent 



Per cent of In- 
crease of the 
white popu- 
hition dur- 
ing— 



Pre- 
ceding 
lOyrs. 



Pre- 
ceding 
20 yrs. 



Continental United States 

1900 

ISiOf 

1890 X 

1880 

1870 

1860 

1850 

1840 

1830 

1820 

1810 

1800 

1790 



8,833. 
7,488. 
7,470. 
6,581). 
4,880. 
4,441, 
3,638, 
2,873, 
2,328, 
1.771 
1,377, 
1,002, 
757 



1,345,318 



18.0 



1,700. 

4;«. 

803. 
765. 
545. 
656. 
393 
375, 
244 



13.5 
34.9 
9 9 
22.1 
26.6 
23.4 
31.4 
28,6 
37.5 
82.3 



2,253,201 



34.2 



2,138,963 


48.2 


1,568,182 


54.6 


1,101,9S,2 


62.2 


76.>,619 


76.8 







21.2 



53.9 



26.7 
29.2 
24.8 
37.7 
37,7 
34.7 
33.9 

34 2 
36.1 

35 8 



6i:2 


"89!7' 


'"86!5' 


"'82> 



Wilcox gives a simpler table derived from this, together with a cor- 
rection of the erroneous censuses of 1870 and 1890, and a prophecy as to 
the future increase of Negroes: § 





Number: 
Unit, 

10,000 


Increase In— 


Per cent of Increase 


DATE 


10 years 


20 years 


10 years 


20 years 


17i,0 


76 

100 

138 

177 

2*^ 

287 

364 

444 

541 

658 

770 

883 

111,150 

1,451 

1,773 

2,0;,6 

2,3!!4 










1800 


24 
38 
39 
56 
54 
77 
80 
97 
117 
112 
113 




32 3 
37.5 
28,6 
31.4 
23.4 
20,6 
22.1 
21 7 
21.7 
17.0 
14 7 




1810 






1820 

1830 


77 


76.8 


1840 

1850 


110 


62.2 


1860 

1870 


157 


54.6 


1880 

1890 

1900 

1920 


214 
225' ' ' 


48 2 


34.2 
30.2 


1940 








26.2 


1960 








22.2 


19S0 








18,2 


2000 








14.2 













•Twelfth Census, Bulletin 8, p. 29. 

+ Includes population of Indian Territory and Indian reservations. 

t Excludes population of Indian Territory and Indian reservations. 

§ Quarterly Journal of Economics, August, 1905. , 

II These and the following figures estimated on Wilcox's percentages. 



NEGRO HEALTH AND PHYSIQUE 



61 



Wilcox thus thinks that there will be less than 25,000,000 Negroes in the 
United States at the beginning of the third millenium. Other estimates 
place this number as high as 60,000,000, while a conservative mean 
would be perhaps 35,000,000. The data upon which guesses are based 
are the birth and death rates. No reliable birth statistics exist. Assum- 
ing the substantial correctness of the death rate, the Twelfth Census 
estimates the excess of births as follows: 

Increase in native poindation, 1830-1900, and excess of births j^er 1,000 of popu- 

lation, by classes * 





Native White 






Native 
Parents 


Foreign 
Parents 


COLOBED 


United States 


19 5 
3.8 
20.0 
24.1 
25.9 


36.5 
39.6 
86.0 
27.4 
40.3 


17.8 
10.1 


Central and Northern Divisions 
Southern Division 


10.2 
19.1 




0.2 







A more accurate method is a comparison of the number of children 
with the number of women of child-bearing age. For the whites these 
figures go back to 1830: 

Number of white children under 5 years of age to 1,000 white females 15 to 49 
years of age, by states and territories: 1830-1900 1 





Number of luhite children under 5 years of age to 1,000 white 
females 15-/,9 years of age 




1900 


1890 


1880 


1870 


1860 


1850 


18U0 


18S0 


Continental United States . 


465 


473 


537 


562 


627 


613 


744 


781 



For colored children the data only go back to 1850: 

Number of children under 5 years of age to 1,000 females 15 to ^ years of age 
for the Continental United. States % 





Total 


White 


\iColored 


Excess of 
colored 


1900 

1890 .... 


474 

485 
559 
572 

mi 

626 


465 
47;} 
.537 
562 
627 
613 


543 
574 
706 
641 
675 
694 


78 
101 


1880 

1870 

1860 

1850 


169 

79 
48 
81 







• Twelfth Census, Vol. Ill, page 51. 
f Twelfth Census, Bulletin No. 22. 
X Ibid. 
$Negro, Indian and Mongolian. 



62 ELEVENTH ATLANTA CONFERENCE 

A more detailed presentation follows: 

Number and per cent of children tinder 10 and 5 years of age, respectively, in 
the Negro, Indian and Mongolian population, a^id decrease in per cent dur- 
ing the preceding 10 years, 1830-1900 * 





Per cent of 
Negro, Indian 
and Mongol- 
ian popula- 
tion. 


Decrease in Pee Cent 


CENSUS 


Under 10 years of 
age during— 


Under 5 years of 
age daring— 




Under 
10 yrs. 
of age 


Under 
5 years 
of age 


Preceding 
10 years 


Preceding 
20 years 


Preceding 
10 years 


Preceding 
SO years 


Oontlnental United States. 
IgOO 


27.1 
28.2 
31. t) 
24.4 
30.3 
31 3 
33.2 
34.2 


13.6 
13.8 
16.5 
13.3 
16.0 
16.5 


1.1 
3.7 
+7.5 
5 9 
1.0 
1.9 
1.0 


4.8 
+3.8 
+1.6 
6.9 
2.9 
2.9 


0.2 
2.7 
+3.2 
2 7 
0.5 


2.9 


1890 


+0 5 


1880 


+0 5 


1870 


2.2 


I860 




1850 




1840 






1830 












1 


1 



Number and per cent of children under 10 and 5 years of age, respectively, in 
the white population, and decrease in per cent during 10 years: 1800 to 1900* 





Per cent of 
white popu- 


Decrease in Per Cent 




lation 


Under 10 years of 
age during— 


Under 5 years of 


CENSUS 


Under 
10 yrs. 
of age 


Under 

5 yrs. 
of age 






Preceding 
10 years 


Preceding 
20 years 


Preceding 
10 years 


Preceding 
20 years 


Continental United States. 
liiOO 


23.3 
23 7 
25.9 
26.4 
28.4 
28.6 
31.6 
32.5 
33.4 
34.4 
34.4 


11.9 
12.0 
13.4 
14.1 
15.3 
14.8 
17.4 
18.0 


0.4 

2 2 
5 
2.0 
0.2 

3 
0.9 
0.9 
1.0 


2.6 
2.7 

2 5 
2.2 

3 2 
3.9 
1.8 
1.9 
1.0 


0.1 
1.4 
07 
1.2 
0.5 
2.6 
0.6 


1.5 


18.0 


2 1 


1880 . 


1.9 


1870 


0.7 


I860 


2.1 


1850 


3.2 


1840 




1830 




1820 






1810 






1800 

























For city and country the figures are: 



•Twelfth Census, Bulletin No. 22. 
+ Increase. 



NEGRO HEALTH AND PHYSIQUE 



63 



Number of children under 5 years of age to 1,000 females 15 to U years of age in 
cities having at least 25,000 inhabitants and in smaller cities or country dis- 
tricts by main geographic divisions, and the ratio of those numbers to the 
number for tjie whole division taken as 100: 1900* 





Number of children 

under 5 years of age 

to J, (XX) females 15-44 

years of age : li.OO 


Ratio to No. 
in whole di- 
vision taken 
as 100, of No.— 




DIVISION OR RACE 


2 


In cities hav- 
ing at least 
25,000 inhab- 
itants 


In smaller 
cities or 
country dis- 
tricts 


In cities hav- 
ing at least 
25,000 Inhab- 
itants 


In smaller 
cities or 
country dis- 
tricts 


Differ 
ence in 
ratio 


Total population: 

Continental United States 

White population: 

Continental United States 

Negi-o, Indian and Mongolian popu- 
lations: 

Continental United States 


518 
508 

585 


390 
399 

260 


572 
559 

651 


75 3 

78.5 

44.4 


110.4 
110.0 

111.8 


35.1 
31 5 

66.fi 







The conclusions from these figures are: 

1 The Negro birth rate exceeds and has always exceeded the white 
birth rate. 

2. The Negro birth rate decreased slightly from 1850 to 1870, then in- 
creased to 1880, and has since rapidly decreased. 

It may be added that of the native stocks of America the Negro is by 
far the most prolific, tlio only exception being the Southern whites 
during the last decade, wheie increasing economic prosperity has in- 
creased marriages and children to an unusual degree, while storm and 
stress has harried the Negroes. 



YEAR 


Children under 5 and 
women 15-44 


Southern 
whites 


Southern 
Negroes 


1850 

18(» 

1870 


695 
6S2 
601 
656 
580 
581 


705 
688 
6iil 


1880 


737 


1890 

1900 


f.01 
577 



Turning now to the age composition of the Negro-Americans: 

The simplest and probably the most significant single expression of the age 
constitution of the population is the median age. This is the age with refer- 
ence to which the population can be divided into halves — that is, half of the 
population are younger and half are older than the median age. + 



• Twelfth Census, Bulletin No. 22. 
fTwelfth Census, Bulletin 13, page 21. 



64 



ELEVENTH ATLANTA CONFERENCE 



Median age of the population classified by sex, general nativity and race, for 
persons of known age in Continental United States: 1900* 



CLASS OF POPULATION 



Aggregate 

Native born 

Foreign born 

Total white 

Native white 

Native white— native parents . 
Native white— foreign parents 

Foreign white 

Total colored , 

Negro 



Both 
Sexes 



22.85 

20.10 
38.42 
23.36 
20.22 
21 10 
18 05 
;«.43 
19.70 
19.45 



Males 



20.20 
38.71 
23.82 
20 33 
21.27 
17.99 
38.71 
19.97 
19.45 



Females 



20.02 
38 03 
22.91 
20.12 
20.93 
18.11 
38.04 
19.46 
19.44 



The median age of Negroes has increased as follows: 

Median age of the colored i population, classified. Continental United States: 

1790 to 1900 X 



1!;00 19.70 

1810 17.83 

1880 18.01 



1870 18.49 1 1840 17.27 

1860 17,65 1830 16.10 

1850. .'.... 17.33 1820 17.75 



The general age composition is as follows by percentages: § 



YEAR 


Native Whites 


COLOKED 




Under 15 


15-59 


60 and over 


Under 15 


15-59 


60 and over 


18S0 


42 6 
40 
39.0 


52.9 

54.8 
55.8 


4.9 
5 2 
5.2 


44 2 
42 1 
39.5 


51 2 
53 3 
55 6 


4.6 


1890 


4.6 


1900 


4.9 







A most interesting matter is a comparison of the sex distribution of 
whites and blacks in America: 

Proportion of males and females in every 10,000 \\ 
SEX 



DATE 


Negroes 


Whites 




3Iale 


Female 


Male 


Female 


1820 

1830 

1840 

1850 

1860 

1870 

1880 

i8v:o 

1900 


5,082 
5,074 
5,014 
4,1.78 
4,9SI0 
4,i:03 
4,942 
4,986 
4,969 


4,918 
4,926 
4.186 
5,022 
5,010 
5,095 
5,057 
5,014 
5,030 


5,080 
5,077 
5,090 
5,104 
5,116 
5,056 
5,088 
5,121 
5,108 


4,920 
4,1.23 
4,910 
4,896 
4,844 
4,944 
4,912 
4,879 
4,892 



The influence of the slave-trade, slavery and serfdom, is here easily 
traced. The excess of colored women in cities is noticeable because of 
their greater economic opportunity there. 



• Twelfth Census, Bulletin 13, page 21. + Includes Indians and Mongolians. 

t Twelfth Census, Bulletin 13, page 22. $ Ibid., p. 26. 1| Twelfth Census, Bulletin 14. 



NEGRO HEALTH AND PHYSIQUE «r, 

8. The Sick and Defective 

There is much uncertainty as to the purely racinl dilferences in hu- 
man liability to disease. Ripley sums up our general knowledge, toda-j- 
as follows: * 

Three diseases are peculiar to the white race and to civilization — namely, 
(•oiisuniption, syphilis, and alcoholism, there being marked differences in the 
predisposition of each of the barbarous races for them, which often vary in- 
versely with the degree of civilization they have attained : 

Tlie European races in tlieir liability to consumption stand midway between 
the Mongol and the Negro, climatic conditions being equal. 

The pure Mongolian stock seems to be almost exempt from its ravages. 

The Negro even in the tropics is especially subject to all affections of the 
lungs. The black races have iu general less fully developed chests and less 
respiratory power than the European race. 

They are consequently exceedinglj' sensitive to atmospheric changes, and 
are severely handicapped in any migration for this reason. Buchner distin- 
guishes between "ectogenous" and "endogenous" diseases: the former due to 
environment, as malaria; the latter from within, as in tuberculosis. He avers 
that the white races more easily fall a prey to the first, the Negroes to the 
second, ("ertain facts, notably the relative iiumunity of the African aborig 
iiies from septicaemia, seem to give probability to this. 

Almost invariably, where the European succumbs to bilious or intestinal 
disorders, the Negro falls a victim to diseases of the lungs even in the tropics. 

The predisposition of the Negro for elephantiasis and tetanus, his sole lia- 
bility to the sleeping sickness, so severe that In some localities the ijlack is 
utterly useless as a soldier, his immunity from cancer and his liability to 
skin diseases in general, together with his immunity from yellow fever and 
l)ilious disorders, are well-recognized facts in anthropology. 

[As to syphilis] probablj' brought by Europeans to America and to New 
(iuinea and by them disseminated in Polj'nesia, this disease seems to be 
uuknown in Central Africa to any extent. In fact, it dies out naturally in the 
interior of that continent even when introduced, while it kills the American 
aborigines at sight. The American Negroes, however, are seemingly very 
prone to it. 

For the Negro-Auierican the best creditable figures are those of tlie 
United States army, as follows: 

Rdtio per IfiOOof applicants for enlistment in the United States army rejected 
after physical examination 



1901 
1102 
lfi03 
IvlOl 



White . 
Colored 
White. 
(Colored 
White . 
Colored 
White. 
Colored 



Accepted, 



(524 
648 
659 
786 
620 
686 
658 
665 



Rejected 



289 
283 
256 
172 
290 
304 
257 
275 



Declined 



87 
69 
85 
42 
90 
60 
84 
59 



The Negro candidates for admission seem to be in be<^ter piiysical 
condition than the whites. 



• Ripley, p. .'i64. 



66 ELEVENTH ATLANTA CONFERENCE 

Those rejected show the following racial differences: 

f^aufics of rejection among candidates for United States ari/it/: ratio per i,(KMt 

examined 
1901 



Number examined. 




Colored, 

1,888 



Causes of Rejection 



Ratio 
per 1,000 



Ratio 
per l,0(Hi 



Venereal diseases 

Other infectious diseases 

Diseases of nutrition, general 

Diseases of the nervous system 

Diseases of the digestive system 

Diseases of the circulatory system 

Diseases of the respiratory organs 

Diseases of the genito-urihary systeni 

Diseases of the lymphatic system and ductless glands 

Diseases of the muscles, bones, and joints 

Diseases of the integument and subcutaneous connective tissue 

Diseases of the eye 

Diseases of the ear 

Diseases of the nose 

Hernia 

()ther injuries 

Overhelght ; 

Underheight 

Overweight and obesity 

Underweight 

Imperfect physique 

Mental Insufflclency 



19.65 
3.50 

2.27 
2.88 

20.0!t 

3St.0i» 
2 8(5 

28.95 
1.27 
4.:W 
5.11 

11 t)7 

4.15 

M) 

13 02 

2.50 

.02 

2.74 

.46 

14.40 

47.84 
47 



53.50 

4.77 



.53 


15 89 


28 07 


1 59 


15.36 


3.71 


2.12 


5.30 


24.89 


2.65 


12.18 


1.06 


3.71 


7.42 


33.37 



1902 



Number examined . 



\ White, 
\ 42,183 



Colored, 
3,035 



Cafses of Rejection 



Ratio 
per 1,000 



Ratio 
per 1,000 



Venereal diseases 

Other infectious diseases 

Diseases of nutrition, general 

Diseases of the nervous system 

Diseases of the digestive system 

Diseases of the circulatory system 

Diseases of the respiratory organs 

Diseases of the genito-urinary system 

Diseases of the lymphatic system and ductless glands 

Diseases of the muscles, bones, and joints 

Diseases of the Integument and subcutaneous connective tissue 

Diseases of the eye 

Diseases of the ear 

Diseases of the nose 

Hernia 



Other injuries 

Overhelght 

Underheight 

Overweight and obesity 

Underweight 

Imperfect physique 

Mental insufficiency. . , 



21.57 
3.08 
1.23 

1 83 
19.10 
31.15 

3.15 

24.04 

1.49 

2 92 
5.41 

;i3.52 

3 44 
.47 

11.02 

2.01 

.05 

.95 

.38 

11.50 

;58.40 

.72 



34.00 
1.98 

.99 

.99 
8.57 
15.82 

.66 
9.55 
3.29 

.99 
4.28 
18 12 
2 30 

.66 
8 24 
1.32 



.99 

.66 

2.96 

19.11 



NEGRO HEALTH AND PHYSIQUE 



67 



Number examined 



1903 



Causes of Rejection 




Special causes 

Physical debility 

Tuberculosis of lungs and other organs 

Imperfect vision 

Heart disease 

(ioiter 

Varicose veins, varicocele, and hemorrhoids 

Hernia 

Flat feet 

General causes 
[Excluding those above.] 

KiJidemic diseases 

Venereal diseases 

Other general diseases 

Diseases of the nervous system 

Diseases of the eye , 

Diseases of the ear 

Diseases of the circulatory system 

Diseases of the respiratory system 

Diseases of the digestive system 

Diseases of the ^enito-urinarj' system 

Diseases of the skin and cellular tissue 

Diseases of tlie organs of locomotion 

Injuries (external causes ) 

Overheight 

TTnderhelght 

Ovt'rwt'ight and obesity 

Underweight 

Imperfect physique 

Mental insufficiency 



White, Colored, 

30,«:54 I 1,271 



0.21 

4.67 

29.83 

30.00 

.20 

40.fi6 

12.40 

4 34 



.03 

26 11 

55 

.65 

2.42 

4.67 

.76 

5.19 

16.29 

4.77 

8 00 

12.04 

3.46 

.as 

3 07 

.65 

12.93 

17.23 

1.40 



7.08 
11.80 
14.95 



14 16 
3 93 

79 





51.14 




2 36 


3.15 


.79 


8.65 


8 C5 


3 9;^ 


. 7.87 


8.65 




3.15 


8 65 


8.65 


3.93 



1904 

Causes of Rejection 



Venereal diseases 

Heart disease 

I )ef ects of vision 

Varicocele 

Hernia 

Varicose veins 

Diseases of digestive system, except hernia 

Underweight 

Hemorrhoids 

Chest development, insufficient 

Diseases of organs of locomotion, except spinal curv- 
ature 

Skin diseases 

Physical debility 

Curvature of spine 

Diseases of genito-urinary system (non-venereaO . 

Defects of development, except as shown in detail ... 

Injuries 

l)lseases of respiratory system, except tuberculosis. 

Underheight 

Defects of hearing 

Tuberculosis 

Flat feet 

Diseases of the eye, except defects of vision 

Diseases of the circulatory system, except as shown 
in detail 

(leneral diseases, except epidemic 

Diseases of the nervous system, except weakness of 
mind 

Weakness of mind 

Epidemic diseases . . 

Overweight and obesity 

Diseases of the ear, except defects of hearing 

Overheight (cavalry and Held artillery^ 



White 



Ratio 

per 1,000 



100.46 
94 85 
92.37 
71 54 
55.92 
40 22 
:^.85 
36.37 
36. 13 
29.08 

29.00 
27.40 
22.67 
19 31 
18 59 
17.94 
15.70 
15.30 
12 12 
11.86 
11.38 
10.89 
5;85 

5 77 
3 28 

•2 88 
2 hi 
1.84 
1.60 
1 52 
.16 



Colored 



Ratio 

per 1,000 



170 78 
68 31 
49. 3;^ 
55 03 
64 51 
13.28 
7.59 
20 87 
22 77 
37.95 

32.26 
20.87 

9 49 
20.87 
18.98 
15.18 
13.28 
22.77 
11.39 

3.80 
15.18 
18.98 

3.80 

28.47 



1.90 
1.90 



3.80 



ELEVENTH ATLANTA CONFERENCE 



There is among Negroes a constant excess of venereal disease among 
unsuccessful applicants, an excess of tuberculosis and poor eliest de- 
velopment and a slight deficiency in stature. The whites exceed par- 
ticularly in diseases of digestion, the nervo,us system, diseases of the 
genito-urinary system, deficiencies of sight, underweight, imperfect 
phy.sique, heart disease, varicose veins, etc. 

The general prevalence of sickness is illustrated by the following 
tables : 

Effect of disease and injury on the army during 1901, as compared with the for- 
responding data for 1900 arid for the decade 1S90-1899 





United States Army 




White 


Colored 


Mean strength, year 1901 


85,357 


7,134 


Total admissions to sick report 

Per 1,000 of mean strength 

Per 1,000 for 1. 00 

Per 1,000 for decade 18;.0-18B9 


152,537 
1,787.06 
2,352 60 
1,505.25 

136,244 
1,-596.18 
2,157 97 
1,278.01 
16,293 

i90.as 

194.63 
227 24 
1,747 
20 47 
23.09 
16.71 
1,364 
15 S8 
18.08 
13.15 
383 
4.49 
5.01 
3.56 


13,16J 

1,845.95 
1,841.67 
1,504.20 
11,726 
1,643.67 
1,626.57 
1,239.33 
1,443 
202.27 


Per 1,000 of mean strength 


Per 1,000 for preceding decade 

Admissions for injury 

Per 1,000 of mean strength 




215.10 


Per 1,000 for preceding decade 

Discliarges for disability, all causes 

Per 1,000 of mean strength 

Per 1,0(10 for previous year 


264.87 
98 

13.74 
16.17 


Per 1,000 for preceding decade 

Discharges for disease 

Per l.OiiO of mean strength 

Per 1,000 for previous year 


15.79 
74 

10.37 
13.47 


Per 1,000 for preceding decade 

Discharges for injury 


12.42 
24 
3.86 




3.49 


Per 1,000 for preceding decade 


3.38 



1901-1902 



White 
troops 



Colored 
troops 



Filipino 
troops 



U.S. Army 
decade 

1891-1900 ■ 



Mean strength, 1902 

Total admissions to sick report, 1902 

Per 1,000 of mean strength 

Per 1,000 for I'.Ol 

Admissions for disease, li;02 

Per 1,000 of mean strength 

Per 1,000 for 1901 

Admissions for injury, 1!02 

Per 1,000 of mean strength 

Per l,0(.iOfor 1901 

Discharges for disability, all causes 

Per 1,000 of mean strength 

Per 1,000 for 1901 

I )lscharges for disease 

Per 1,(100 of mean strength 

Per 1,000 for 1901 

Discharges for injury 

Per 1,000 of mean strength 

Per. 1,000 for lyoi 



71,679 



4,273 



4,826 



40,446 



122,308 
1,706.33 
1,787.06 
107,174 
1,459.19 
1,5..6 18 
15,131 
211.14 
190.88 
1,757 
24.51 
20.47 
1,482 
20.68 
15.98 
275 
3.83 
4.49 



8,109 
1,8.7.74 
1,815.95 
7,279 
1,703.49 
1,643.67 
8:30 
194.25 
202.27 
114 
26.68 
13.74 
107 
25.04 
10.37 
7 

1.64 
3.36 



8,239 
1,707.21 



7,86,S 
1,6;«.34 



371 

76.87 



13 

2.69 



4 
0.83 



691,794 
1,710.43 



602,417 
1,489 ♦♦ 



89,877 
220.98 



7,133 
17.63 



5,574 
13 78 



1,559 
3 85 



NEGRO HEALTH AND PHYSIQUE 



69 



In the decade 1890-99 the sickness of Negi'o troops on account of dis- 
ease was less than that of whites, since then, in 1901 and 1902, it was 
more and in 1903-4 markedly less, althougli probably foreig^n service 
may spoil tiie comparison : 

1903-1904 
Proportion per thousand of mean strength 



ENLISTED MEN 



White troops J jy^g 

Colored troops | jjio;-} 

\ U1C4 
Porto Ru'aii troops lOOg 

c..,. ■ ^ \iy04! 

Filipino troops ) jyQg 



Mean 
strength 



55,(il9 

55,518 

3,121 

3,183 

540 

578 

4,610 

4,789 



Admitted 



Total 



l,3(i4.<»2 
1,534.31 
1,176 22 
1,025.76 
1,420.37 
1,484.43 
l,137.0i) 
1,372.32 



1,127 32 
1,291 111 
86« 3.» 
770.34 
1,253.70 
1,275.08 
1,023 21 
1,285.03 



Injury 



237.60 
243.12 
309 83 
255.42 
166 67 
2<i9 34 
113.88 

87 2y 



ENLISTED MEN 



Discharged— sur- 
geon's certificate 
of disability. 



Total Disease Injury 



Con- 
stantly 
non-^ 
effective 



Days Ti'eatert 



Each 
Soldier 



Each 
case 



White troops j jjo;^ 

... , . \lio'4. 

fJolored troops ) l^Og 

Porto Rican troops j no;; 

b ilipino troops j UOg 



23 17 


20.66 


26.63 


24 59 


18.07 


17 45 


12 57 


11.00 


12. i6 


7.41 


25 ii5 


24.22 


5 86 


5.64 


10 23 


10 02 



2 51 
2 04 

.62 

1 57 

5.55 

1 73 

22 

.21 



50.60 



18 52 



35.62 
6l!84 
32.05 



13.03 

22; 63 
li.73 



13.57 
11 08 
15 93 
10 :a 



Note.— Days for the year 1103 not suitably consolidated for use In this table. 

For particular diseases the following tables are added, showing a 
smaller sick list for Negroes in nearly everything except lung troubles. 
Even in venereal disease the foreign service of white troops has lead 
to their excess — a curious commentary on imperialism : 

1904 

The relative prevalence of certain special diseases among white aiui 
colored troops, with the admission rates per thousand for each race, are 
shown in the following tables: 



DISEASE 


White 


Colored 


Typhoid fever 

Measles 


6.00 

19 04 

51.30 

29 60 

26 43 

8.82 

108 61 

1.71 

1.30 

.29 

.17 

5.12 

4.41 


0.64 
4 17 


Malaria ^ 

Syphilis 


21.14 

13 78 


Alcoholism 

Dysentry 


12.18 
4.17 


Gonorrhea 


86 83 


Insanity 


1 60 


Frostbite 


9.61 


Smallpox 


64 


Sunstroke 


32 


Pneumonia 


8 65 


Tuberculosis 


6.41 



70 



ELEVENTH ATLANTA CONFERENCE 



Venereal Diseases 

Tlif> follow iiiji' table shows the prevalence of tlie venereal diseases as 
compared with last year and the quinquennial period since tlie Spanish- 
American war: 

Ratios per 1,000 of mean strength 





Admitted 




White 


Colored 


Total 


Gonorrhea: 
Year 1904 . . . 


108.60 
85.31 


86.83 
69.12 


107 05 


Year 190;^ 

Years 18'.t9-1903 


84.09 
98.84 


Ohancrolds: 

Year 1904 

Year 1903 

Years 1899-1903 . 
Hvphllls: 

Year 1904 


27.73 

27.74 

29.59 
24.46 


30.12 
32.67 

13.78 
13 51 


27 9(1 
2S 11 
27.90 

28.47 


Yeai- 1903 

Years 1899-1903 


23 61 
20 56 











Total venereal: 

Year 1904 

Year 1903 

Years 1899-1903 


165.93 
137 51 


130 73 

115 30 


163 43 
135 84 
147 3f» 




1 





Malarial Diseases 

Ratios per 1,000 of mean strength 





Admitted 




While 


Colored 


Total 


Malarial Intermit- 
tent fever: 

Year 1904 

Year 1903 

Years 1899-1903 


45 37 
52.33 


18 58 
30 !(■> 


43 47 
50.66 
121 00 


Malarial remittent 
or continued fe- 
ver: 

Year 1904 

Year 1903 


4 (»7 
7 96 


2*24 
5.5(7 


8.94 

7.81 
16 09 


Years 1899-1903 . . 
Pernicious mala- 
rial fever: 
Year 1904 


.02 

.08 




.02 


Year 1903 ... 




.07 


Years 1899-1903 




18 


Malaria) cachexia: 
Year 1904 


1.84 
2.38 


.32 
1.26 


173 


Year 1903 

Years 1899-1903 


2.30 
6.63 










Total malarial 

diseases: 

Year 1904 

Year 1903 


51.30 
62 75 


21.15 
37.39 


49 16 

60.83 


Years 1899-1903 


143 SIO 











Statistics as to insane and defective are very imperfect and relate 
onlv to tliose in institutions. The census flpures for 1903 are as follows: 



NEGRO HEALTH AND PHYSIQUE 



71 



Negro Insane in Hospitals December 31, 1903 



Contineiitiil United States .. 9,452 

Men 4,805 

Women 4,647 

South Atlantic States 4,i;i5 

South Central States 2,779 



North Atlantic States 
North t!entral States. 
Western States 



I,;i2() 

1,104 

108 

■2MX 



South 



6,914 



By age these figures are given : 

Negro Insane in Hospitals December 31, 1903 



All ages 
Under 15 

15-19 

20-24. . . . 

25-29 

:»-34 



9,452 

78 
662 

1,477 

1,377 

1,195 

:{5-;i9 1,096 



40-44 . 
45-49. 
50-54. 
55-59. 
6(>-64. 
65-69. 
•70-74. 



807 


75-79 


27 


637 


80-«4 


28 


445 


85-89 


- - ( 


261 


iiO-94 


... 1 


214 


95-99 


.... 


1V8 


100 and over 


1 


96 


Unknown 


. . 914 



To the above may be added 172 feeble minded. Tiie census report says : 

The largest representation of colored insane is found in the South Atlantic 
and South Central States, and in each of those states, except Delaware, West 
Virginia and Kentucliy, the percentages which the colored constitute of the 
insane in hospitals are much smaller tlian the percentages which Negroes 
form of the general population. In Delaware 22.1 per cent of the insane in 
hospitals on December 31, 1903, were colored, yet the Negroes constituted but 
15.6 per cent of the total population at the last census. In Kentucky, with 13.3 
per cent Negroes in the poiiidation, 1,5.6 per cent of the insane in hospitals 
were colored. On the other hand, in Alabama and Mississippi, for instance, 
with resiJectively 4.').3 and 58.7 per cent colored in their population in 1900, the 
l)ercentages of colored among the insane in hospitals in 1903 were only 27.9 for 
Alabama and 37.4 for Mississippi. It is unthinkable that the actual ratio of 
insane to population among the colored of Delaware or Kentucky shoidd so 
greatly exceed that of Alabama or Mississippi, or that it should be relatively 
mixch higher than in any of the other Southern states. In fact, the available 
.statistics do not show the relative frequency with which insanity occurs 
among the Negroes, but merely the extent to which they are cared for in hos- 
pitals. The returns from Delaware, West Virginia, Kentucky aiul a number 
of Northern states would seem, however, to point to a ratio of insane to popu- 
lation among Negroes which equals if it does not surpass that among the 
whites. 

The figures for the blind in 1900 are: 

The Blind, by Degree of Blindness and Color 



COLOR 


Blind 


Totally 
Blind 


Partially 
Bli7id 


Number: 
White 


56,585 

8,228 

100.0 
100.0 

84.6 
89.0. 


;»,3.59 
5,286 

53.7 
61.2 

45.4 
.57.6 


26,172 


Colored 

Per cent distribution by degree of blindness: 

White 

Colored 

Number per 100,000 population of same color: 

White 

Colored 


2,942 

46 3 
35 8 

39.2 
:J2.0 



United States Census: Special Report on Insane, etc., 1904. 



72 



ELEVENTH ATLANTA CONFERENCE 
The Blind 



Colored, totally blind . 

Attended school 

Special 

Other 

Both 

Not specified 

Did not attend school. 
Not stated 



Colored, partially blind. 

Attended school 

Special 

Other 

Both 

Not specified 

Did not attend school. 
Not stated 



Total 



5,286 
1,034 

sas 

370 
3 

278 

3,7S0 

■172 

2,942 
815 
1E7 
415 



243 
1,831 

2t:6 



Childhood 
^ under 20 ) 



1,516 

571 

347 

154 

3 

67 

870 

75 

$)13 

3S.'8 
142 
205 



51 

461 

54 



Adult life 
(Wand over) 



3,4!i7 

436 

24 

212 



200 

2,727 

334 

1,861 

381 

12 

195 



174 

1,278 
202 



Unknown 



273 

27 
12 
4 



11 
183 
68 

168 

36 

3 

15 

18' 
!I2 
40 



T.liere were nearly 5,000 deaf colored people reported in 1900: 

Number of Deaf 



Total 

Period of life when deafness occurred 

Childhood (under 20) 

Adult life (20 and over) 

Unknown 

Degree of deafness: 

Totally deaf 

Partially deaf 

Ability to speak well 

Imperfectly 

Not at all 

Sex: 

Male 

Female 



Total 


White 


Colored 


89,287 


84,361 


),'..2(! 


,'50,2! 6 

35,924 

3,067 


46,807 

34,6S5 

2,899 


3,489 

1,269 

1(>8 


37,426 
51,861 
55,501 
9.417 
21,31)9 


34,510 
49,771 
53,449 
8,902 
22,010 


2,836 
2.090 
2,052 
515 
2,359 


46,915 
42,372 


44,'?23 
40,138 


2,692 
2,234 



9. Mortality* 

The death rate for coloredi- (Negroes, Indians, etc., ) and white, for 
the country is: 

Death Rate Per Thousand Living, United States 

Registration area 

1890 1900 

Colored 29.9 29 6 

White 19.1 17.3 

Registration stales 

Colored 27.4 25.3 

White 19.5 17.3 

Cities in registration states 

Colored 31.5 27.6 

White 22.1 18.6 

Country districts in registration states 

Colored 18.1 19.0 

White 15.3 15.4 

• All figures In this section are from United States Census reports unless otherwise 
noted, 
i- There are no separate figures for Negroes In 1890. 



NEGEO HEALTH AND PHYSIQUE 78 

While the colored death rate greatly exceeds the white, the improve- 
ment is manifest in both races. The greatest enemy of the black race 
is consumption. The following figures illustrate the chief diseases: 

Deaths per 100,000 living Negroes 1890 1900 

Consumption 546 485 

Pneumonia 27t< 355 

Nervous disorders 333 308 

Malaria 72 63 

The decrease for consumption is very gratifying, but the higli mor- 
tality is still a menace. The increase for pneumonia is partially 
accounted for by the general increase in the countiy. * 

In i-egard to children, these figures tell of the slaughter of tlie inno- 
cents: 

To every 1,000 living colored children, there are each year the following number 
who die: 

Children under 1 year of age 1890 1900 

Registration states 458 844 

Cities 580 3Si7 

Country 204 219 

Children under 5 years of age 1890 1900 

Registration states 119 112 

Cities 151 182 

Country 55 67 

More detailed tables follow : 

Color and Race in Relation to Deaths 

Population, deaths and death rates, by race + 



AREAS 

Registration record : 

Population 

Deaths 

Death rate 

Registration cities: 

Population 

Deaths 

Death rate 

Registration states: 

Population T. 

Deaths 

Death rate 

Cities in registration states: 

Population 

Deaths 

Death rate 

Rural part of registration states: 

Population 

Deaths 

Death rate 

Registration cities In other states: 

Population 

Deaths 

Death rate 



White 



Negro 



Indian 



Chinese 



Japanese 



27,555,800 

475,640 

17.3 



20,503,666 

367,430 

17. y 



17,086,319 

292,618 

17.1 



10,034,185 

184,408 
18.4 



7,052,1;M 

108,210 

15.3 



10,469,481 

183,022 

17.5 



1,180,546 
a5,71( 

m.-2 



1,100,501 

34,178 

31.1 



330,693 
8,650 
26.2 



250,648 
7,118 

28.4 



80,045 
1,532 
19 1 



849,853 

27,060 

31 8 



14,010 
319 

22 8 



1,198 

60 

50.1 



1:^,296 

270 

20.3 



484 

11 

22.7 



12,812 

259 

20 2 



714 

49 

68.6 



48,565 
914 

1H.8 



46,996 
912 
19 



13,461 
129 
9 6 



11,892 

127 

10 7 



1,569 

2 

I 3 



:i5,104 
785 
22.4 



8,348 

8(i 

10.3 



8,270 

86 

10.4 



511 

3 

5 9 



43S 

3 

6 9 



78 



7,837 

83 

10 6 



The following table gives some figures for the past: 



•For whites: 1890,182.2; 1900,184.8. 
+ Twelfth Census, Vol. Ill, page Ixlx. 



74 



ELEVENTH ATLANTA CONFERENCE 



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NEGRO HEALTH AND PHYSIQUE 



75 



The general tendency of Negro death rates is well illustrated in the 
case of tlie follawing cities: 





JVe 


qro death 


rates per 1,000 




YEAR 


Wa shine; - 
ton,D. C. 


Baltimore, 
Md. 


Boston, 
Mass. 


New Yor/c, 

N. y. 


Chicago, 
III. 


1875 


40.74 
37.39 
37.63 
36.98 
35 71 
31.27 
34.54 
30.69 
31.61 
35 99 
32.80 
31.25 
31.59 
32.97 
34.20 
32.68 
31.93 
32.55 
31.47 
31.47 
•28.18 

28 54 
28.05 
28.44 
28.98 
2:1.00 

29 36 
27.97 
27.17 
27.92 










1876 










1877 










1878 










1879 










1880 










1881 










1882 










1883 










1884 










1885 










1886 










1887 










1888 










1889 










1890 


33.57 
31.48 
29.86 
30.76 
31 60 
32.06 
30.76 
28.88 

31 62 
30.60 

32 80 
32,30 
30.76 
29.45 
31.44 
31 12 


32.04 




25.79 


1891.. 


25.09 
24.36 
25.80 
23 90 
26.61 
27.35 
27.05 
26 27 
25.13 
29.06 
2;). 47 
29.74 
23.42 


24 70 


1892 

1893 

1894.... ... 

1895 

18t6 

18H7 

1898 

1899 . 


32.89 
31.68 
32.34 
31.14 
32.74 
28.36 
24.76 
27.66 
25.19 
26 76 
26.51 
22.97 
21.03 


28 30 
26 85 
32.75 
25.30 
23.41 
20.44 
21.80 
21 25 


UtOO 

1901 

1902 

1903 

1904 


22.85 
21.68 
24 51 
26 56 
24 85 


1905 


28.02 


23 57 









Death rates of Negroes per 


1,000 




1890 


1900 


Atlanta, Ga 

Baltimore, Md 

Charleston, S. 

Ijoui-sville, Ky 

Meniphi.s, Tenn 


83.57 
36 41 
53.94 
31.98 
29.97 
43.75 
23 92 
36 61 
34.55 
23.24 
41.47 
40.80 


31 8 
31.2 

46.7 
28 7 
28.6 


Mobile, Ala 

Nashville, Tenn 

New Orleans, La 

St. Louis, Mo 

San Antonio, Tex 

Savannah, Ga 

Richmond, Va. 


;».8 

32.8 
42.4 
32.2 
22.4 
43 3 



The following figures are for the various causes of deatli 



Before 1896, by fiscal years; by calendar years, beginning with 1S96. 



76 



ELEVENTH ATLANTA CONFERENCE 



United States: death rate per 100,000: 1900' 



Measles 

Scarlet fever 

Diphtheria and croup 

Whooping cough 

Malarial fever 

Influenza 

Typhoid fever 

Diarrheal diseases 

Consumption 

Cancer and tumor 

Heart disease and dropsy 

Pneumonia 

Diseases of the liver 

Diseases of the nervous system 
Diseases of the urinary organs 
Old age 



White] Negro Indian Chinese Japanese 



13.1 

12 

45.9 

12.1 

6 5 

23 6 

32.4 

129.5 

173.5 

66.7 

137.4 

184.8 

22.8 

213.7 

99.8 

53.5 



15.2 

2.6 

32.0 

28.6 

63.2 

32.0 

67.5 

214.0 

485.4 

48.0 

221.1 

355.8 

20.9 

308 

157.3 

66.7 



64 2 
7.1 
7.1 



50.0 
28.6 

171.3 

506.8 
28 6 
92.8 

228.4 
7.1 

135.6 
78.5 
50. 



6.2 
6.2 
2.1 



22.7 
43.2 

656 8 
49.4 

175 

282 1 
51,5 
57 6 

142.1 
16.5 



12.0 



107.8 
47. 9 

239 6 
24.0 
;i5.9 
59.9 
12.0 
47.9 
35.9 



The following conclusions may be drawn : 

The death rate of only one-eighth of the Negro population was re- 
corded in 1900, and far fewer previously. 

Nine-tenths of the recorded Negro death rates in 1900 refer to the city 
Negro population, while four-fifths of the Negroes live in the country. 

Of the 7,000,000 Negroes living in the country the recorded death rates 
cover only districts where 80,000 live. If the death rate of these dis- 
tricts is true for the whole rural Negro population then the true deatii 
rate for the Negro-Ametican is less than 22 per 1,000. In any case the 
death rate of 30 per 1,000 is an exaggeration and unfair for purposes of 
comparison with tiie whites. 

The Negro death rate is, however, undoubtedly considerably higher 
than the white. It has decreased notably since ante-bellum times. 

The excess is due principally to mortality from consumption, pneu- 
monia, heart disease and dropsy, diseases of the nervous system, mala- 
ria and diarrheal diseases. 

Negroes have a smaller death rate than the whites in scarlet fever, 
diphtheria, cancer and tumor, and diseases of the liver. 

The figures for consumption follow and show a gratifying decrease, 
but a still large mortality: 

Death Rates by Color and Nativity 



CONSUMPTION 


Years 


Aggre- 
gate 


White 
Total 


Colored 
Total 


Registration area. ! 
Boston 


1900 

1890 

1884-90 

1900 

1890 

liiOO 

1890 

1900 

1884-90 

1900 

1884-90 


187.3 
245.4 


173.6 
230.0 
378.9 


490.6 
546.1 
762.8 
741.6 








591.8 


Dist. of Columbia. 






514.0 








524.6 


Baltimore 






447.7 


New York j 




318.14 


774.21 






Philadelphia 




287.06 


557.36 



Figures for the other four of the chief scourges show a large increase 
for pneumonia with a small increase for whites, an increase for heart 
disease among both races and a notable decrease in diarrheal and jier- 
vous diseases: 



• Twelfth Census, Vol. Ill, page Ixx. 



NEGRO HEALTH AND PHYSIQUE 



77 



Pneumonia 
Registration area 

Heart Disease and Dropsy 

Registration area 

Diarrheal Diseases 

Registra tion area 

Diseases of the Nervous Systein 

Registration area 



Year 



1<!00 
1890 



I'.OO 
1890 



1900 
18'j0 



liOO 
181)0 



Aggregate 



192.0 
186.9 



140.9 
132.1 



132.8 
183.7 



217.2 
247.4 



White 



184.8 
182.2 



137.4 
128.4 



129.5 
180.1 



213.7 
243.0 



Colored 



319.0 
279.0 



216.6 
204.0 



205.8 
253.8 



294.6 
332.9 



Figures from four cities follow, in which must be noted the severe 
climate of Boston and the contrast in the social condition of the two 
races in Washington: 

New York— Death rate per 100,000 : 1884-1890 



Diarrheal diseases 

Consumption 

Pneumonia 

Heart disease and dropsy. . , 
Diseases of nervous system 



White 



318.14 
385.05 
287.25 
137.37 
241.y9 



Colored 



243.72 
774.21 
324 27 
188.17 
240.26 



Boston— Death rate per 100,000: 1884-1890 




White 


Colored 


Diarrheal diseases 


214.15 
378.90 
219.06 
148.85 
243.61 


220.80 
762.78 




337.23 


Heart disease and dropsy 

Diseases of nervous system 


224.82 
248.91 



Baltimore— Death rate per 100,000: 1890 



Diarrheal diseases and cholera infantum 

Consumption 

Diseases of the nervous system 

Heart disease and dropsy 

Pneumonia 



Colored 



402.70 
524. .55 
3:^5.83 
187.23 
350.69 



District of Columbia — Death rate per 100,000: 1890 





White 


Negro 


Diarrheal diseases 


and 


cholera 






infantum. . . 








.18!I0 




360.65 


Diseases of the 


nervous system 


.1890 




358.0J 


Heart disease and di 


•opsy 




.1890 




162.49 


Pneumonia. . . 








.1890 
1895 
1900 
1904 


128.5 
92.6 
10().5 


352.72 
244.4 
238.5 
337.2 


Consumption. 








18110 




591.8;i 










1895 


197.1 


468.2 










19(K) 


183.3 


492.3 










1904 


164.4 


492.6 



78 



ELEVENTH ATLANTA CONFERENCE 



Philadelphia : 1881,-90 

Diarrheal diseases 

Oonsuinptlon 

Pneumonia 

Heart disease and dropsy 

Diseases of the nervous system 



I55.3() 
287.06 
158.77 
.14-2.10 
315.86 



175.40 
557.36 
293.62 
246.25 
3it0.07 



The figures for suicide for the last thirty years show an increase: 

1880: In every 2,000 colored deaths, one was from suicide. 

1890: Death rate for suicide per 100,(XX) colored persons living 4.4 

1900: Death rate for suicide per lOO.OOD colored persons living 5.8 

( 15-44 8.6 

1900: Death rate for suicide per 100,000 for years ] 45-61 4.1 

( 65 and over 5.9 

The white rate increases in each of the above age periods from 13 to 
26.1 to 30.6; the colored rate indicates the peculiar stress of the young. 
Tile rate for all accidents and injuries is: 

1890: per l(Kt,0(l0 12:^.3 

1900: per 100,000 I:i7.4 

Tiie deaths from alcoholism are not only less than those for whites, 
but show a decrease for the last decade: 

Tolal j)opulation 
1890: per 100,000, colored ... 6.9 8.1 

1900: per 100,000 " ... 5.0 7.2 

The colored death rate is the smallest of any group except tliat of 
children of native American women : 

Arcoholism 



OoLOB AND Birthplaces of 

MOTHKB.S 


15 to 44 


45 and 
over 


White 


8.2 

3 7 

2 9 
18.8 
6.2 
8.4 

4 4 
6.0 


15.6 


Colored ... . . . . . 


10 4 


Mothers born in United States 

Ireland 


4.9 
27 9 


Germany 


12.1 


England and Wales 


14.6 


Canada 


8 


Scandinavia 


18 1 







The greatest single physical fact affecting the death rate is age, as is 
shown by this table for tlie registration area: 

Death rates at certain ages, per 1,000 of jmpulation 



1900 


Under 1 


Under 5 


5 ton 


15 to U 


25 to Si 


35 to 44 


i5 to 64 


65 and over 


White 

Males 

Females. . . 

Colored 

Males 

Females... 


158.0 
175.9 
139.8 

371.5 
403.9 
339.7 


49.7 
54.2 
45.2 

118.5 
127.2 
110.2 


4.1 

4.2 
4.0 

9.8 
9.2 
10.2 


5.9 
6.2 
5.6 

15.6 
17.2 
14.4 


8.6 
9.0 
8.1 

16.9 
18.2 
15.6 


ll.l 
12 
10.1 

21.0 
21.5 
20.4 


21.5 
23.5 
19.5 

36.7 
88.6 
34.6 


86.0 
90.4 

82.1 

108.6 
119.8 
100.3 



The death rate of Negroes is due in no small degree to the neglect and 
mal-nutrition of children : 



NEGRO HEALTH AND PHYSIQUE 

Deaths tinder 1 year of age, per 1,000 of poptilation 



79 





Registration Record 








Total 


Cities 


States 


Cities 

in 
other 
states 


White 


lf-8.0 
371.5 


J71.1 
387.0 


Total 
156.0 
343.8 


Cities 

180.4 
3W.2 


Sural 
116.0 

218.9 


161.4 


Colored 


3S3.8 



Infant Mortality 1900 



Under 1 Year of Aye 


Oolored 


Males 


Females 




21,405 
5,365 

26,770 
7,951 
21.7.0 
371.5 


10,.')i5 
2,<31 

13,526 
4,279 
316.4 
403.0 


10,810 
2,434 






13,244 
3,672 

277.3 


Deaths 


Deatlis under I per 1,000 births 


Death rate per 1,000 of population 


:j;i9.7 


Under 5 Years of Age 


102,408 

12,140 

118.5 

327.9 


50,418 

6,413 

127 2 

. 331.8 


51,990 


Deaths 


5,727 


Death rate per 1,000 of population 

Deaths under 5 per 1 ,000 deaths at all ages 


1 10.2 
323.5 



Oil account of tlip small lunnber of children, comparison of them with 
Negroes is not valid, althou<4h the Negro city population also to a less 
degree lack.s cliildren. The following rates for cities are nevertheless 
instructive; they refer to 1890 and previous: 

Boston {1884-90) — Death rate per 1,000, including still birthK 



Color and Birthplaces of 
Mothers 



AVhite 

(Colored 

United States (white) . . 
England and Wales 

Ireland 

Hungary 

Bohemia 

Italy 

Other foreign countries 



All 



23.71 
31.92 

21.30 
17.75 
27.27 
21.41 
22.!6 
20.65 
10.69 



Under 
15 Yrs. 



15 pears 
and over 



38 71 
77.67 

37.76 
30.36 
39.03 
42.79 
45.66 
44.53 
33.14 



18.68 
20.95 

14.79 
13 62 

24.12 
10.42 
9.49 
8.23 
8.76 



Philadelphia for the 6 years endiii,g 1884-1890 — Death rates per 1,000 





Philadelphia 


Color anb Birthplaces of 
Persons 


All 
ages 


Under 
15 Yrs. 


15 years 
and over 


White 

Colored 


22.69 
31.25 
25.17 
9.78 
19.10 


36. 6S 

66.88 

38.83 

3.35 

5.62 


17. -/i 
20.94 


United States (white) 


17.57 


England and Wales 

Ireland 


10.(>5 
19.43 



80 ELEVENTH ATLANTA CONFERENCE 

New York and Brooklyn (1884-1890) — Death rates per 1,000, including still births 



New York 



Color and Birthplaces of 
Mothers 



All 


Under 


ages 


15 Yrs 


29 86 


53.28 


33.27 


75.71 


32.43 


54.01 


27.117 


50.53 


32.51 


50.87 


26.60 


43 71 


23 28 


47(11 


24 27 


46.97 


14.85 


2867 


26.57 


52.06 


23.47 


57.33 


22.43 


47.21 


43.57 


82 57 


35.2.) 


76.41 


21.24 


40.68 



15 years 
and over 



Brooklyn 



All 
ages 



Under 
15 Yrs. 



15 years 
and over 



M^hite 

(Colored 

White mothers born in — 

United States 

England and Wales 

Ireland 

.Scotland 

France 

Germany 

Russia and Poland 

Canada 

Scandinavia 

Hungary 

lioheniia 

Italy 

Other foreign countries 



20.36 
23.57 



15.91 
20.78 
28.01 
21.91 
17.86 
17 04 

6.21 
16.71 
13.43 

8.45 
20.31 
12.27 
13.00 



25.SK) 
30.54 



27.49 
20.51 
27.14 
19.62 
17.22 
23.18 
13.93 
20.04 
19.46 
11.27 
52.08 
24 II 
27.58 



44.71 
63.75 



45.76 
32.42 
43.84 
29 86 
27.81 

44 ..31 
27.03 
3:i.44 

45 .50 
21.16 
<K\1>1 
.53 62 
56.11 



17. 6;^ 
20.00 



13.89 
16.95 
22.68 
16.41 
14.43 
15.46 

5.85 
14.33 

9.13 

5 20 
3175 

7.89 
18.96 



There has been ^reat improvement in Negro infant mortality daring 
tlie last decade and possibly during the last two decades; the defective 
counting- of children, however, in 1880 makes these figures for the Dis^ 
trict of Columbia and Baltimore doubtful: 



Infantile Mortality 



CHARACTER OF RATES 


Color 




Baltimore 


Di.strict of 
Columbia 




1890 


1S80 


1890 


1880 


Number of deaths of children under ) 
1 year of age, per 1,000 of corre- [ 


White ... 
Colored . . 

White.... 
Colored . . 

White... 
Colored . . 


Total. 
Total. 

Total 
Total. 

Total. 
Total. 


258-60 
542.63 

225.70 
400.96 

274 36 
338.75 


208 86 
440.19 

177 54 
305.79 

251 44 
353.85 


207.83 
491.80 

186 44 
376.99 

210.58 
;J02.80 


194 75 

407.20 


Number of deaths during the census ) 
year, per 1,(X)0 children born within \ 
the year ) 


173 30 
321.52 


Number of deaths under 1 j'ear of j 
age, per 1,000 deaths at all ages \ 


262.68 
349.67 



The following comparison for registration states and their cities shows 
the improvement in infant mortality from 1890 to 1900: 

Death rate of children under 1 year of age 





Registration Record 


COLOR 


Total 


Regis- 
tra- 
tion 
cities 


Registration States 


Registra- 
tion cities 




Total 


Cities 


Rural 


in other 
states 


White... jl*«;; 
Colored .ij«^:; 


249.38 
158.0 
494.27 
371.5 


278.19 
171.1 
525.13 
;i87.0 


241.40 
1.56.0 
457.83 
■ 343.8 


297.22 
180.4 
579.77 
397.2 


137.63 
116.0 
204.49 
218.9 


2C)0.67 
161.4 
509.61 
:383.8 



NEGRO HEALTH AND PHYSIQUE 



81 



Death rates per 1,000 of population at certain ages, by color and sex: 1890-1900 





Registration States 


Cities in Registration States 




e3 


0) Qj 




CO 


3 - 


CO 5 

s s 


C 

o 
c 


CO 

S3 


0; Oi 


—1 dJ 






u 
1 ^ 


IS 



c 






■a >-i 




>. 


?- 


ii. 








^ r^. 




QJ'C 


.!< 




"^ 


Cl 




■*-* 


■*-i <^t 




C 


■_; 






•^ 


■*^ 


^- G 


C 




< 


t> 


lO 


2 


lO 


'■6 ~ 


ti 


< 


t! 


lO 


lfi> 


lO 


8^ 


P 


White: 






























1890 


19.3 


63.3 


5.2 


9.3 


212 


76 5 


35 


21.9 


78.8 


6.1 


10.7 


26.1 


88.4 


21.8 


1900 


17.1 


48.9 


37 


7.8 


20.1 


82.7 


25.8 


18.4 


58.3 


4.2 


8.6 


24.1 


90.6 


16.5 


Oolored: 






























18: 


27.4 


118.5 


10.2 


144 


28.6 


84.9 


16.4 


31.5 


151.4 


12.0 


IC.l 


33 5 


98.1 


6.4 


1900 


25.3 


112.0 


87 


12.7 


29.4 


93.4 


15.5 


27.() 


181.6 


9.9 


13,9 


32.3 


105.4 


7.5 



How much is the Negro death rate affected by environment? One 
has only to compare the wretched Negro quarters of Charleston and 
New Orleans, with a death rate of over 40 per 1,000, with the far better, 
althongli not ideal, conditions in Atlanta and Louisville, with a death 
rate of rO per 1,000. It is further illustrated in Baltimore and Washing- 
ton by these tables, giving the death rate for Negroes per 100,000 for six 
years (1884-yO) according to the simple matter of altitude above sea 
level (still born excluded) : 





Washington 


Baltimore 


DISTRICTS 


Total 


Under 
5 years 


Total 


Under 

5 years 


Under 25 feet above 

25-50 


37.48 
37.06 
31.87 
32 55 
3123 


107.69 
155.21 
159 .57 
157.89 
136.11 


44.65 
36.51 
34.;i4 
28 03 
28 21 


203..S0 
11:4.03 


60-75 

75-100 

100 and over 


1.55.68 
148.39 
145.53 



When wo remember that the highest death rate among occupations is 
for laborers and servants (20.2 per 1,000), we see here another contribut- 
ing cause of high Negro mortality. Perliaps the army furnislies the 
t)est test of the normal Negro death rate with all disturbing factors 
eliminated save physical and to some extent social heredity. War and 
foreign service vitiate comparisons to some extent: 

■Effect of disease and injury on the army during Will, as compared with the 
corresponding data for 1900 and for the decade 1890-1S99 





United States Army 




White 


Colored 


Mean strength, ltd 

Per 1,000 for 1900 

Per 1,0(10 decade 18'.:0-1899 

Deaths from all causes 

Per 1,(1{X) of mean strength 

Per 1,000 for liKX) 

Per 1,000 for decade 1890-18;)9. ; . . 

Heaths from disease 

Per 1,000 of mean strength 

Per l,(KM)f()r isioo 

Per 1,000 for decade 1890-1899 


85,.S.57 
2,352.60 
1,505.25 
1,174 
33.75 
22.79 
11.89 
7U2 
9.28 
16.86 
8.64 
382 
4.48 
6.93 
3.a5 


7,134 

1,841.67 
1,504.20 
115 
16.12 
22.21 
11.71 
94 

13.18 
14.'..7 
7.77 


Deaths from injury . 

Per 1,000 of mean strength 

Per 1,000 for 1900 

Per 1,000 for decade 1890-1899 


21 
2.m 
7.24 
3.94 



82 



ELEVENTH ATLANTA CONFERENCE 
1902 





White 
troops 


Colored 
troops 


Filipino 
troops 


U.S. Army 
decade 

1891-1900 


Mean strength 


71,(579 


4,273 


4,826 


10,446 




Deaths from all causes 


1,032 
14.40 
13.75 
83« 
11.68 
9 28 
19(5 
2.74 
4.48 


103 
24 11 
1612 
87 

20 36 
13.18 
16 
3.75 
2.94 


116 
24.04 


5 ' 60 


Per 1,(KK) of mean strength 


14.73 


Per 1/100 for 1101 


Deaths from diseases 


109 
22.59 


4,228 
10.45 


Per 1,0(H) of mean strength 

Per 1,0(M) for liioi 


Deaths from injury 


7 
1.45 


1,732 
4.2H 


Per 1,000 of mean strength 

Per 1,0(10 for ISiOl 









1903-1904 

Proportion per 1,000 of mean strength 



ENLISTED MEN 



White troops j l^^j 

Colored troops ! ,;q(j 

1 ir)04 
Porto Rlcan troops ', jiQg 

Kilipino troops | ^^.j 



Mean 
strength 



.55,619 
5.5,518 
3,121 
3,18;i 
.540 
,578 
4,610 
4,7S9 



Died 



6.6.( 
8.18 
7.79 
11 31 
3.70 



22.34 
21.51 



Disease 



3.72 
6 18 
6.54 
9.42 
3.70 



7..59 
18.17 



Injury 



2.97 
2.30 
1.25 
1.89 



1475 
3.34 



Mr. R. R. Wright, A. M., felhjw of the University of Penni^ylvania, 
furnishes the following memorandum on the death rates of Negroes in 
Northern cities: 

The Negro population of tiie North is chiefly an urban population ; 70 
per cent of the Negroes live in cities, and a large proportion of these in 
cities of 100,000 and over. 

The general opinion is that the death rate of Negroes is higher in the 
North than in the South. This is untrue. The crude death rates of the 
Negroes in the Northern cities are lower than those in the Southern 
cities: 

Crtide death rates, based on cens^is 1900 



NORTHERN (UTI.ES 



Death rate per 
one thousand 
population 



New York 

(Chicago 

Philadelphiii 

Boston 

Indianapolis 
Columbus, () 
Cleveland . 
Cincinnati 
Pittsburg . 
Newark 
New Haven 
Buffalo 



21 3 
21.6 
24.3 
25.5 
23.8 
21.2 
18.0 
29.5 
25.9 
29.7 
31. H 
25 5 



Total 

20.6 
16.2 
21.2 
20 1 

r6.7 

15 8 
17.1 
18 6 
20 
19.8 
17.2 
14.8 



SOUTHERN CITIES 



Death rate per 
one thousand 
population 



Washington, D. C 

Baltimore, Md 

New Orleans, La. . 
Memphis, Tenn 

fjouisville, Ky 

St. Ijouis, Mo 

Atlanta, Ga 

Hichmond, Va 

Nashville Tenn 

Savannah, Ga 

Charleston, S. C... 
Norfolk, Va 



Colored 


Total 


31.0 


22.8 


31.2 


21 


42.4 


28 9 


28 6 


25.1 


28.7 


20 


32 2 


17 9 


31.8 


26 6 


38 1 


29 7 


32.8 


25 3 


43 3 


34 3 


46 7 


37 5 


33.8 


25.2 



NEGRO HEALTH AND PHYSIQUE 83 

The foregoing table shows that of the large cities, the eight highest 
death rates are Southern cities — Charleston, Savannah, New Orleans, 
Richmond, Norfolk, Va., Nashville, St. Louis and Atlanta. Thirty 
deaths per 1,000 seems to be the dividing line between the Northern 
cities and the Southein, mostof the Southern cities having a rate above 
80, while most of the Northern cities have a rate below 30. 

Chicago, with about the same population of Negroes as Charleston 
and Nashville, has Ihss than one-half as many deaths per 1,000 as the 
former and two-thirds as the latter. New York, with about the same 
population as New Orleans, has about two-thirds as many deaths per 
1,000; Norfolk has twice the rate of Indianapolis. 

An analysis of the Negro population in these cities, however, gives 
the North a decided advantage, in that the number of children is less 
in the North than in the South and since the first five years of life have 
a very high mortality, that section having a smaller proportion of chil- 
dren all other things being equal, ought to show the lowest general 
crude death rate. The United States census has a way of correcting 
the returns by a system of weighting which takes into consideration the 
varying proportions of different ages, and corrects accordingly. 

Unfortunately, however, we are unable to secure extensive figures on 
this subject for Negro deaths but such as we have lead to confirm 
rather than vitiate the above conclusion that Negro death rates are 
higher South than North: 

^ J , Corrected 
Crude rate ^^^^g 

South: 

Washington, D.C 310 37.2 

New Orleans 42.4 46.6 

Nashville 32.8 38.5 

Charleston 46.7 54. (» 

North: 

Boston 25.5 30.2 

Cincinnati 29.5 35.0 

Cleveland 18.0 24.7 

Columbus, 21.2 25.4 

Indianapolis 23.8 28.3 

Newark 29.7 36.2 

New York 29.3 40.0 

Pittsburg 25.9 31 7 



Carrying the argument further, there are two matters of evidence 
which can not be controverted. (1) In the diseases peculiar to man- 
hood, the North has no advantage but a real disadvantage since a 
larger proportion of the Negro inhabitants in the Northern cities is be- 
tween the ages of 15 and 50, than is the case in the Southern cities. (2) 
Tuberculosis is a disease of adult life, attacking those cliiefly past 15 
years of age and is most prevalent between 20 and 30. 

According to a bulletin published by the Illinois state board of liealtli 
rriie Cause and Prevention of Consumption, 1905), 26.22 per cent of the 
deaths from All causes for persons between 20 and 50 in 1902-1908. were 



84 



ELEVENTH ATLANTA CONFERENCE 



from consumption and nine-tenths of the deaths from consumption 
were of persons between these ages: 



Death rates of Negroes in Northern and Southern cities from, consumption. 

Census 1900 



KonTHEKN Cities: 

New York 

Philadelphia 

Chicago 

Boston 

Indianapolis 

Cleveland 

Cinclntatl 

Pittsliurg 

Newarli 

New Haven 



Rate per 

300,000 



533.4 
458.4 
537.6 
742.4 
474.5 
303.2 
627.7 
38:^.8 
416.5 
368.0 



Southern Cities 

Washington 

{Baltimore 

New Orleans 

Memphis 

Louisville, Ky. . . 

St. Louis 

Atlanta 

Richmond, Va. 

Nashville 

Savannah 

Norfolk 



Rate per 

100,000 



51.3.8 
447.7 
62.».5 
378.5 
406.2 
594.1 
505.8 
474.4 
638.5 
ii29.6 
.546.6 



Here we see that the highest rate, to be sure, is in Boston, one of the 
most northernly cities, while the second, third and fourth are Southern 
cities. Of the 24 cities, four in the North: New Yorli, Boston, Chicago 
arid Cincinnati, have a rate above 1,500 per 100,000, while eight of the 
Southern cities, Washington, New Orleans, St. .Louis, Atlanta, Nash- 
ville, Savannah, Charleston and Norfolk, Va., have a rate about this 
number. Only one of the Southern cities falls below the rate of 400 per 
100,000. while three of the Northern cities do. 

As is true of manliood it is also true of infancy, that the North has 
no advantage which is purely statistical, i. e. relating to age distribu- 
tion. Here again the Southern cities are in excess of the Northern 
cities. 

I have shown in the following table not the relative number of infant 
deaths to the total population ; for that would be unfair to the South for 
the reason above stated — that infants form a greater percentage of the 
total population; but the relative number of deaths of infants under 1 
year of age to the number of births in one year. 

The highest mortality is represented by Savannah, Ga. , with 409.8 
deaths to every 1,000 births — an extreme and alarmingly high figure. 
The other cities come in the following order after Savannah : Charles- 
ton, Newark, N. J., Washington, D. C, Mobile, Richmond, Va., Balti- 
more, New York, Atlanta, Norfolk, St. Louis, Nashville, New Orleans, 
Memphis, Louisville, Philadelphia, Pittsburg, Indianapolis, Cincin- 
nati, Chicago, Boston. This list is significant for being led by the 
South and ended by the Northern cities. Of the highest 10, 8 are South- 
ern cities, of the highest 15, 13 are Southern: 



NEGRO HEALTH AND PHYSIQUE 85 

Infantile Mortality 

Death rates of colored and white under 1 year of age, per 1,000 births: ' 

Census 1900 • 



Northern Cities 


Infantile Mor- 
tality 


Southern Cities 


Infantile Mor- 
tality 




White 


Colored 


White 


Colored . 




208.3 
241.0 
246.5 
251.7 
255.1 
347 6 
374.3 
169.6 


172.4 

133 
151.3 
144 3 
157 9 
167.0 
158.1 


Memphis 

Louisville 

New Orleans 

Nashville 


275.0 
264 9 
298.6 
299.1 
316.5 
316 9 
323.9 
35t5.4 
360.4 
363.6 
366.0 
379.5 
409.3 


162.1 • 


Chicago 

Cincinnati 


134.7 
164.4 
148.6 ' 


Pittsburg 


St. Louis 

Norfolk 

Atlanta 


138 7 
167.7 




21 8.? 


Philadelphia 


Baltimore 


177.6 






Richmond 


175 3 ■ 




Mobile 

District of Columbia . . 
Charleston 


183.7 ■ 
15S 8 "• 
220.3 




Savannah 


299.7 * 











All of the foregoing argument shows that death rate in this country 
does not altogether depend upon climate; that it is a factor which cat» 
be easily overcome, and the Negroes of this generation are rapidly 
overcoming it. That there is something more important than climatel 
may be gained from the observation that almost uniformly the North- 
ern white death rate, like the Northern Negro death rate, is lower thafi 
tliat of the South. Indeed the Negro Northern death rate in many 
places is lower than that of the whites in many Southern cities. The 
wl'.ite death rates of Charleston and Savannah are higher than the Ne- 
gro rate of Philadelphia, Indianapolis and Chicago. Charleston's whitfe 
rate is higher than Boston's Negroes. The whites of New Orleans^ 
Richmond, Charleston, Savannah, Atlanta, Mobile and Memphis are 
all higher than the Negroes of Chicago. And the infantile mortality 
among the Negroes of Pittsburg, Indianapolis, Cincinnati, Chicago and 
Boston, is lower than that of Savannah, Ga., among the whites; Boston'^ 
Negro mortality is lower than Atlanta's, Charleston's and Savannah 'fj 
white infant mortality. 

Again, we are accustomed to connect with the cold climate deaths 
from consumption and pneumonia and grippe (bronchitis). We need not 
lay much stress on consumption as that has already been discussed. 

For pneumonia, Baltimore, a Southern city, leads the list, then fol- 
low New York, Pittsburg, Memphis, Richmond, Nashville, Philadel- 
phia, New Haven, St. Louis, Savannah, New Orleans, Louisville, Cin- 
cinnati, Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Norfolk, Newark, Washington, 
Indianapolis, Charleston, Mobile and Cleveland. 

A Southern city leads; 3 out of the highest are Southern ; 6 out of 10; 
9 out of 15; 11 out of 20. Boston is lower than Atlanta or Savannah or 
New Orleans. The coldest cities — Chicago, Boston and Cleveland — 
stand 15th, 16th and 22nd in the list. 

For influenza, Charleston, the highest Southern city, is three times 
as high as the highest Northern city. The order is Charleston, Norfolk, 



m ELEVENTH ATLANTA CONFERENCE 

Nashville, Richmond, Atlanta, Washington, Pittsburg, Newark, Indian- 
apolis, New Haven, Boston. Savannah, Baltimore, Louisville, New 
York. Chicago comes last, except Cleveland and Cincinnati, which do 
not report any cases at all. 

A study of deaths by months in Philadelphia also tends to discredit 
the theory that Negroes are at a special disadvantage in the cold cli- 
mate. The highest monthly average of death.s fioin all causes for five 
^ears for Negroes was in April, though January for whites. The second 
was May for Negroes and March for whites. The third was July for 
both Negroes and whites. The lowest, September for Negroes and 
October for whites, while December was next lowest for Negroes. 

For the past five years — 1901 to 1905, inclusive, — there were 1,589 
deaths among Negroes from consumption, an average of 26.5 per month. 
Strange to say the highest average for any month during these five 
years was April, the next July and May, and the next October — every 
one of the winter months was below the average. For the five years the 
average deaths of consumption among Negroes for the month of Octo- 
ber was less than April, December less than June, January less than 
July, February slightly above August, March below September. 

For pneumonia, inflammation of the lungs, we have the opposite: 
For the years 1901, 1902, 1903 there were 698 deaths of 19.4 per month. 
Above this average were January, February, the highest point, March, 
April, November and December, while below it were the summer 
months. May, June, July, August, September and October. 

The point is that the season does not have any very materially differ- 
ent effect upon the Negroes than upon the whites, save that the total 
death rate from this disease is greater among Negroes all of the year 
round, but that there is not the greater difference in the winter months 
which might be expected. 

Let us now come to the subject of the Northern Negroes' general phy- 
sical condition. For this purpose let us take a special city. That city 
is Philadelphia, and for many reasons. It is the largest, the oldest and 
most conservative city and is quite representative of the Negroes' pro- 
gress in the North, but comparisons with other cities will be made as 
are deemed necessary to the better understanding of the Philadelphia 
situation. 

The first thing which strikes us is the difference between the white 
and Negro death rates, which are given in the following table: 

Year Total rate Colored rate 

1895 20.44 22.3 

18i»6 20.17 20.5 

1897 18.72 21.0 

1898 19.18 21.4 

1899 18.75 21.6 

1900 19.38 26.6 

1901 18.26 25.2 

1902 17.67 24.3 

1903 18 82 19.9 

1904 16.65 19.7 

1906 17.51 20.0 

Total 87.15 22.02 

Average 18.72 22.02 per 1,(KX) 



NEGRO HEALTH AND PHYSIQUE 



87 



The averag^e death rate for Philadelphia for ten years from 1896-1905, 
inclusive, was 18.72 per 1,000, while the average for colored was 22.02 per 
1,000 — a difference of B.30 per thousand against the colored persons. 

What is shown for Philadelphia here over a course of years also holds 
good for every Northern city. 

The colored population in 1900 comprised 4.9 per cent of the total popu 
lation of Philadelphia (Negro 4.7). 

In 1906, colored population w as about 6.6 per cent of the entire popula- 
tion and composed daring the entire six years 1900-1906, inclusive, an 
average of about 5.2 per cent. During these years there were 149,786 
deaths, of which 9,514 or 6.3 per cent were of colored persons, 1.1 per 
cent or 166 moie deaths than there normally should have been if the 
colored persons keep their average. What is true of Philadelphia is 
true of New York, Boston, Indianapolis, Chicago and all Northern 
cities. 

Examining the table of deaths, we find out of just what diseases 
Negroes die to a larger extent than they comprise of the total popula- 
tion. This gives some idea of the diseases to which Negroes are espe- 
cially susceptible : 



Table showing number of Negroes dying in Philadelphia from, specific causes, 
the percentage of such deaths to the total number of deaths from each cavse, 
and the percentage of such deaths to the total number of Negro deaths, 1900 



DISEASE 


s 


Per c>ent 
of total 

deaths 

from 

specific 

causes 


Percent 

of total 

Negro 

deaths 


Syphilis 


8 

101 

14 

287 

250 

51 

.3 

35 

3 

52 

87 

42 

51 

4 

99 

22 

3 

4 

36 

25 

3 

19 

3 

22 

4 

3 

4 

2 





361 

1,665 


20 5 
11.5 
11.2 
10.7 
8.9 
8.4 
8.4 
8.1 
7.S 
7 3 
7.1 
7.0 
6.8 
6.7 
6 3 
5.9 
5.9 
4.8 
4.8 
4.0 
3.3 
2.9 
2.8 
2.7 
2.7 
2.5 
2 4 
2.3 
1.2 


.5 




6.1 


Whooping cough 


.8 


Consu mption 


17.2 


Inanition 

Inflammation of lungs 

Inflammation of brain 

Child birth 


. 4.0 
15.0 
3.1 

.2 


Typhoid fever 

Epilepsy 


2.1 

.2 




3.1 


Still born 


5.2 


Premature births 


3 5 


Inflammatlop of kidneys — 

Dysentry 


3.1 

0.2 




6.0 


Bright's disease 


1.3 


Anemia Chlorosis 


2 • 


Erysipelas 

I'iphtheria 


.2 
2.2 


Cancer 


1.5 . 


Alcoholism 


.2 


Old age 


1.1 


Diabetes 


.2 
1.3 


Sunstroke 


.2 


Fatty degeneration of heart. 

Softening of brain 

Scarlet fever . . 


.2 
.2 
1 






Fatty degeneration of liver . 
Other diseases 






4.1 

7.2 


21 7 


Total 


100.00 



88 ELEVENTH ATLANTA CONFERENCE 

. The colored population was in 1900,4.9 percent of the Philadelphia 
population.* 

The causes of death of which Negroes form more than their part are 
in the following order: Syphilis leads with- 20 5 per cent of the total 
deaths; t then come marasmus, whooping cough, consumption, inani- 
tion, pneumonia, inflammation of the brain, child birth, typhoid fever, 
epilepsy, cholera infantum, still births, premature births, inflammation 
of the kidneys, dysentery, heart disease and Bright's disease. 
. The diseases below the line, i. e., of which the Negro population die 
to a less proportion than they form of the entire population are anemia, 
erysipelas, diphtheria, cancer, alcoholism, old age, diabetes, apoplexy, 
sunstroke, fatty degeneration of the heart, fatty degeneration of the 
liver, softening of the brain, scarlet fever, scrofula; that is, in the 
deaths from 17 out of about 50 diseases the Negroes form more than the 
percentage they form of the total population. For most of these diseases 
the same is general in all the Northern cities of which I have informa- 
tion. 

But this method of comparison does not give anything as to the 
prevalence of diseases; therefore, we make another comparison from 
the point of view of prevalence, and we find that of all the deaths for 
the period named 17.2 per cent are of consumption, 15 per cent of 
pneumonia, while marasmus, heart disease, inanition, cholera infantum 
follow in order. 

The diseases of consumption and pneumonia, infantile marasmus, 
cholera infantum, inanition, heart disease are the diseases which take 
the Negroes away. From these diseases during the years of 1900, 1901, 
1902, 1903, 3,284 persons died, or 51.1 per cent of the total deaths for 
these four years (6,424). Each year they constituted over half of tiie 
deaths. 

If deaths from these causes had been at the same rate as the whites, 
the Negro general death rate would have been much less than the rate 
for the city. 

Consumption is the chief cause of excessive death rate. One out of 
every six Negro persons who die in Philadelphia, dies of tliis disease, 
and probably five out of every seven who die between 18 and 28 die of 
this disease. It attacks the young men and women just as they are 
entering a life of economic benefit and takes them away. This disease 
is probably the greatest drawback to the Negro race in this country. 

In 1900 there were 1,467 babies born in Philadelphia and 25 per cent 
died before they were one year old. Of every five persons who die in a 
year two are children under five years of age. The diseases of cholera 
infantum, inanition and marasmus, which are simply the doctor's way 
of saying lack of nourishment and lack of care, cause many unnecessary 
deaths of children. 



•The 1900 deaths may show a little to the disadvantage of the colored population 
because of the exceptionally high rate for that year. 

tThe comparison is not valid here as few physicians of better class patients 
would report syphilis as a cause of death. Hence the small white rate in part. 



NEGRO HEALTH AND PHYSIQUE 89 

Not only is the death rate hio-hpr but from all available resources it 
seems that the sickness rate is higher. In the public hospitals of Phila- 
delphia there are an excess of Negroes to amount to as high as 125 per 
cent over white. From all available sources at least 20,000 Negroes 
were sick in the city last year; 5,000 of these in the hospitals of the 
city, where the average confinement, if the records of the University of 
Pennsylvania and Douglass hospitals are fair samples, was about three 
weeks, involving an economic loss of about one-quarter of a million 
dollars. This sickness is heaviest among the poor and is one of the 
chief causes and effects of poverty. 

Mr. Warner, in his American Charities, makes sickness tiie chief 
cause of poverty among colored persons in New York, Boston, New 
Haven and Baltimore. The percentage was twice or more as high as 
that of Germans, Irish and white Americans. The same is approxi- 
mately true in Philadelphia. 

The undeniable fact is, then, that in certain diseases the Negroes have 
a much higher rate than the whites, and especially in consumption, 
pneumonia and infantile diseases. 

The question is: Is this racial? Mr. Hoffman would lead us to say 
yes, and to infer that it means that Negroes are inherently inferior in 
physique to whites. 

But the difference in Philadelphia can be explained on other grounds 
than upon race. The high death rate of Philadelphia Negroes is yet 
lower than the whites of Savannah, Charleston, New Orleans and 
Atlanta. 

If the population were divided as to social and economic condition 
the matter of race would be almost entirely eliminated.* Poverty's 
death rate in Russia shows a much greater divergence from the rate 
among the well-to-do than the difference between Negroes and whites 
of America. In England, according to Mulhall, the poor have a rate 
twice as high as the rich, and the well-to-do are between the two. The 
same is true in Sweden, Germany and other countries. In Chicago the 
death rate among whites of the stock yards district is higher than the 
Negroes of that city and further away from the death rate of the Hyde 
Park district of that city than the Negroes are from the whites in 
Philadelphia. 

Even in consumption all the evidence goes to show that it is not a 
racial disease but a social disease. The rate in certain sections among 
whites in New York and Chicago is higher than the Negroes of some 
cities. But as yet no careful study of consumption has been made in 
order to see whether or not the race factor can be eliminated, and if 
not, what part it plays. 

The high infantile mortality of Philadelphia today is not a Negro 
affair, but an index of a social condition. Today the white infants fur- 
nish two-thirds as many deaths as the Negroes, but as late as twenty 



♦ See paper on " Housing and Sanitation : " Report Hampton Institute Conference, 
11M)6, and So. Workman, September, lii06. 



90 ELEVENTH ATLANTA CONFERENCE 

years ago the white rate was constantly higher than the Negro rate of 
today — and only in the past sixteen years has it been lower than the 
Negro death rate of today. The matter of sickness is an indication 
of social and economic position: Professor Du Bois, in his most valua- 
ble study of the Philadelphia Negro, gives a number of family budgets. 
One or the most striking things in these budgets is that the amount paid 
for sickness is highest among the poorer classes and lowest among the 
better-to-do. It seems that the sickness bill increases inversely as the 
wages. Benefit insurance men of Philadelphia assure me also that the 
time people lose at work is also approximately in inverse ratio to the 
wages they receive. 

We might continue this argument almost indefinitely going to one 
conclusion, that the Negro death rate and sickness are largely matters 
of condition and not due co racial traits and tendencies. This condition 
so far as Philadelphia is concerned is caused by — 

1. Lack of proper training. 

2. Bad water. 

3. Unskilled labor of men, which is hard and long and tends to ex- 
posure. 

4. Work of women — 66 per cent of Philadelphia Negro women work. 
This means: 

5. Neglect of their children, often to care for others' children. 

6. LTnwholesome and imi^roper feeding, which plays an extremely 
great part. 

7. Ignorance. 

8. Improper education. The children get a great deal of so-called 
mental and a little moral, and often a smattering of industrial, but the 
fundamentals of physical education in order to develop the bodies of 
the children, is criminally neglected at least among Philadelphia's 
poorest Negroes. 

In concluding, the situation is not hopeless, but is on the contrary 
becoming better in nearly every city in the North. Ten years ago the 
death rate was twice the birth rate in New York ; today they are about 
the same, with the death rate steadily decreasing and the birth rate 
increasing. Ten years ago the birth rate of Philadelphia was less than 
the death rate: today it is six per thousand higher. What Mr. Hoffman 
wrote of the Northern Negro ten years ago is not true today. 

In Philadelphia the Negroes composed 4.5 per cent of the population 
in 1900; they now compose about 5.5 per cent. For the six years from 
1900-1905, inclusive, they probably comprised an average of 5 per cent of 
the population. During these years there has been a total of 149,786 
deaths, of which 9,514 or 6.3 per cent were Negroes. There have been 
183,479 births, of which 10,266 were Negroes or 5.6 per cent, and 60,678 
marriages, of which 3,708 or 6.1 per cent were Negroes. Thus it is seen 
that in deaths, marriages and births the Negroes have a little more 
than their pi'oportion. 

With the improved sanitary condition, improved education and bet- 
ter economic opportunities, the mortality of the race may and probably 
will steadily decrease until it becomes normal. 



NEGRO HEALTH AND PHYSIQUE 91 

10. Insurance 

We now come to the remedial measures to alleviate tlie burdens of 
sickness and death and to reduce the rate. First, there is the distribu- 
tion of the economic burden by insurance. An attempt has been made 
to reduce this benefit by discriminting against Negro risks. In 1884 
the Massachusetts legislature passed a law prohibiting discrimination 
by life insurance companies against Negroes. This was followed by simi- 
lar laws in Connecticut (1887), Ohio (1889), NewYork (1892), Michigan 
(1893), New Jersey (1894) and Minnesota (1895). A few other states 
have laws which courts have evaded or emasculated. The argument 
against these laws is thus put in the leading insurance journal.* After 
giving some of the vital statistics for 1900, the article says: 

The general conclusions deduced from these two tables would be that the 
most recent investigation into the subject confirms earlier investigation tend- 
ing to prove couclusively that the mortality of the Negro race, especially in 
Northern states and cities, very largely exceeds the mortality of the white 
race living in the same sections of the country, and that for life insurance 
purposes it would be a reckless disregard of the policyholders' interest to ac- 
cept the two races at the same rates of premiums or to solicit on any consid- 
erable scale this particular class of business. 

It may not be out of place to conclude these brief observations on the Negro 
as an industrial insurance risk with two extracts from the letter of Dr. Leslie 
U. Ward, to the editor of llie Indicator, published under date of September 5, 
1894: 

But the high mortality amongst colored persons is not the only objec- 
tionable feature to the writing of life insurance policies on their lives. We 
find from our oftice statistics, that policies on colored lives lapse in far greater 
ratios than policies on white persons, and that the highest percentage of lapse 
comes within a very few weeks of the issuance of the policy. In fact, the 
greater portion of the colored business issued by the Prudential is not con- 
tinued on the books of the company long enough to recoup the company for 
the initial expenses of getting the business. In many cases those who con- 
tinue their policies do not seem to value them or lay much stress upou their 
possession. Numerous instances are found upon our books where policies on 
colored people have been lapsed and revised a dozen or more times. 

The argument here adduced would be stronger if similar discrimina- 
tions were proposed in the case of Americans born in Germany or Ire- 
land, or in the case of certain social classes or localities. Indeed car- 
ried to its utmost logical conclusion it would contradict the very idea 
of insurance, viz., tlie distribution of the economic burden of the 
unfortunate or old on the shoulders of so many of their luckier fellows 
that the cost will be negligible. A study of the actual experience of life 
insurance companies results as follows: 



■ The Spectator, September 11 and 18, 1902. 



92 



ELEVENTH ATLANTA CONFERENCE 

Summation — Actual and expected deaths* 
Insurance Years 1-30 



AGES 
AT ENTRY 


Americans born 
in Germany 


Americans born 
in Ireland 


Americans born 

in Sweden or 

Norway 


Negro- Ameri- 
cans 




Deaths 


Expected 


Deaths 


Expected 


Deaths 


Expected 


Deaths 


Expected 


15-28 

29-42 

48-56 

57-70 


1,418 
8,823 
8,776 
1,495 

i:o,512 


1,746 6 

8,721.1 
7,557 7 
1,288.7 

19,314.1 


486 
2,950 
3,084 

784 

7,804 


459.4 
2,485.4 
2,379.4 

580.9 

5,855.1 


273 
636 
237 

28 

1,174 


286.2 
6.5.8 
228.5 
27.9 

1,238.4 


29 

137 

70 

6 

242 


29.2 

120.8 

63.9 

9.8 


15-70 


223.7 



Summation — Actual and table deaths} 
Insurance Years 6-30 



• 


Americans Born in— 


. AGES 
AT ENTRY 


Germany 


Ireland 


Sweden or Nor- 
way 


Negro-Ameri- 
cans 




Deaths 


Table 


Deaths 


Table 


Deaths 


Table 


Deaths 


Table 


15-28 


1K^ 

5,857 

6,003 

902 

13,545 


i'88.8 
5,716 6 
5,243.4 

790 

12,7:^.8 


245 

l,8(i8 

1,93;^ 

412 

4,458 


256. 1 
1,585.8 
1,571.6 

841.5 

3,755 


103 

275 

120 

16 

514 


127 

322.4 

122 9 

15.5 

587.8 


8 
53 
80 

4 

95 


12.7 


29-42 


54.6 


48-56 

57-70 


31.2 

4.7 


15-70 


103.2 



The reports of the thirty-four leading companies conclude: "It has 
been supposed in the past that colored people have less vitality than 
whites, l)ut the somevvliat scanty facts here available do not prove it." 
In fact the Negro makes a better showing than the Irish, nearly as 
good as the Germans, and better than the economic class of lal)orers in 
general. To be sure these Negroes were carefully selected, but this fact 
only emphasizes the injustice which would have been done them had 
they been discriminated against merely on account of color, as the 
insurance companies so often do. 

One result of this discrimination, particularly in industrial insurance, 
has been the rise of a number of Negro companies which are today 
doing millions of dollars worth of business among black folk. 

One of these insurance societies is so important that a government 
report was made on it in 1902, which deserves printing in part, as the 
society has been called "the most remarkable Negro organization in 
the country." X 

The association was organized in January, 1881, by Rev. William Washiug- 
ton Browne, an ex-slave of Habersham county, Ga., as a fraternal beneficiary 
institution, composed of male and female members with a capital of $150. On 
April 4, 188.3, or over two years later, the circuit court of the city of Richmond, 
Va., granted a regular charter of incorporation as a joint stock company to 
Browne and his associates under the name of "The Grand Fountain of the 

* Experience of thirty-four Life Companies, page 472. 
+ Experience of thirty-four Life Companies, page 476. 
I United States Bulletin of Labor, No. 41, pp. 807-14. 



NEGRO HEALTH AND PHYSIQUE 93 

United Order of True Reformers." The chief purpose of incorporation was 
"to provide what is to be known as an endowment or mutual benefit fund;" 
the capital stock was "to be not less than one hundred dollars nor more than 
ten thousand dollars, to be divided into shares of the value of five dollars 
each ; " the company was to hold real estate "not to exceed in value the sum 
of twenty-fiv.e thousand dollars;" the principal office was "to be kept in the 
city of Richmond," and the officers named in the charter for the first year 
were Rev. William W. Browne, Richmond, Va., grand worthy master; Eliza 
Allen, Petersburg, Va., grand worthy mistress; R. T. Quarles, Ashland, Va., 
grand worthy vice-master; S. W. Sutton, Richmond, Va., grand worthy 
chaplain ; Peter H. Woolfolk, Richmond, Va., grand worthy secretary ; Robert 
I. Clarke, Centralia, Va., grand worthy treasurer. These, with six others, com- 
posed the board of directors for the first year. Thus the True Reformers 
started on their way as a full-fledged joint stock coi'poration whose chief aim 
was to provide a form of what is known as mutual beneficial insurance for its 
members. In 1898 the charter was amended so that a part of section 2 should 
read as follows ; " The said corporation shall issue certificates of membership 
to its members and shall pay death benefits to the heirs, assigns, personal or 
legal representatives of the deceased members;" and section 4 as follows: 
"The real estate to be held shall not exceed in value the sum of five hundred 
thousand ($500,000) dollars." 

Up to December, 1901, the last report of the organization shows that it had 
paid in death claims $60(3,000 and in sick dues $1,500,000 and that the membership 
was over 50,000, having increased 18,000 in the preceding year. The increase in 
twenty years from a membershiii of 100 and a capital of $150 to a membership 
of over 50,000 with payments to members aggregating over $2,000,000, and with 
real estate aggregating $223,500 in value, constitutes an excellent showing. 

But it is not the growth nor even the existence of the Grand Fountain of the 
True Reformers as a mutual insurance association, with its small army of 
employees, that causes it to be considered here ; it is the affiliated by-products, 
to use an industrial expression, that are of interest and that may prove to be of 
great economic value to the Negro race. 

Among- these are a savings bank, a real estate department, a news- 
paper, old folk's homes, co-operative grocery stores and a hotel. 

11. Hospitals 

Hospitals and careful nursing are sorely needed by Negroes. As a 
little North Carolina hospital reports: The hospital there has "had a 
wonderful effect on the death rate among our people during the last 
decade. The deaths used to be three to one when compared with the 
whites, while the colored population was only about one-half as large 
as the white population. But since we have had the trained nurse, 
there is a marked change." 

In the North, Negroes are admitted to the general hospitals; in the 
South they have separate wards or distinct institutions; outside the 
public hospitals which receive colored patients there are the following 
private hospitals of which- this Conference has knowledge: 

Alabama. — Harris Sanitorium, Mobile; Colored Infirmary, Eufaula; Hos: 
pital, Birmingham ; Hospital, Tuskegee. 
Arkansas. — Colored Sanatorium, Little Rock. 



94 



ELEVENTH ATLANTA CONFERENCE 



District of Columbia. — Freedman's Hospital, Washington. 

Florida. — Bruster Hospital, Faxville. 

Georgia. — Georgia Infirmai-y, Savannah; Charity Hospital, Savannah; 
McVickar, Spelraan SemiuaryJ Atlanta; Lamar Hospital, Augusta; Burrus 
Sanitoriumi Augusta. 

Indiana. — Colored Hospital, care of Dr. Dupee, Evansville. 

Illinois. — Provident Hospital, Chicago. 

Kansas.— Douglass Hospital, Kansas City; Mitchell Hospital, Leavenworth. 

Kentucky. — Red Cross Hospital, Covington ; Citizens' National Hospital, 
Jiouisville; Louisville National Medical College. 

Missouri. — Provident Hospital, St. Louis. 

Maryland. — Provident Hospital, Baltimore. 

Mississippi. — Tougaloo University Hospital, Tougaloo. 

North Carolina. — Pineharst Intirmary, Pinehurst; Lincoln Hospital, 
Durham; St. Agnes Hospital, Raleigh; State's Hospital, Winston; Good Sa- 
maritan Hospital, Charlotte; Shaw University, Raleigh. 

New York. — Colored Home and Hospital, New York. 

Ohio. — Colored Hospital, Cincinnati; CoUey's Hospital, Cincinnati. 

Pennsylvania. — Douglass Hospital, Philadelphia; Mercy Hospital, Phila- 
delphia. 

South Carolina. — Nurse Training School, Charleston. 

Tennessee. — Hairston Intirmarj% Memphis; Mercy Hospital, Nashville; 
Dr. J. T. Wilson's Infirmary, Nashville ; The Clinic, Memphis. 

Texas.— Colored Hospital, Dallas. 

Virginia. — Richmond Hospital, Richmond; Woman's Central League Hos- 
pital, Richmond. 



NAME 


PLACE 


■a 
c 


2^ 

a 0/ 

.2 ■'• 


a; 
SO 


0) OJ b£ 

III 


REMARKS 


fjlncoln 


New York, N.Y 

Washington, D. C. ... 
Chicago, 111 


1889 

1862 
18!»1 

1896 

18!'6 
1897 

lyol 


3,i:04 

2,918 
• 1,216 

137 

242 


$115,115 
25,234 

12,000 


47 

144 

74 

27 

15 
18 


Old and important 

charity work. 
A great war legacy. 


Freedman's 

Provident 


St. Agnes 

Douglass 

Hospitals, etc.... 


Raleigh, N. C 

Philadelphia, Pa 

Charleston, S. O 

Augusta, (ia 

Wlnston-Salem, N. 0. 
Atlanta, Ga 


024.51. 
Part of St. Augus- 
tine's school. 


Burrus 


232 
71 

328 




Private. 


Slater 








McVickar 






Part of Spelman Sem. 


Louisville 


Louisville, Kv 






11 

■12 
83 


Part of Nat. Med. Col. 


Good Samaritan 

Provident 

Dixie 


Charlotte, N."0 

St. Louis, Mo 

Hampton, Va 


1891 

lSi;5 
1891 


1.53 
200 
249 


2,389 
3,083 
11,151 


Affiliated with the 






Hampton Inst. 



Many of these hospitals have interesting histories: The Colored 
Hospital and Home of New York was founded by a relative of John Jay 
and went through the draft riots. The Freedman's Hospital grew out 
of the war. The Provident Hospital is one of the best organized and 
most efficient in the country. It has easily solved the color question, 
admitting both white and colored patients and employing white and 
colored physicians. Other institutions have been less successful. The 
Colored Hospital and Home of New York will not allow Negro physi- 
cians to practice in it, nor will the McVickar Hospital of Atlanta allow 



• Also 4,953 patients treated In dispensary. 



NEGRO HEALTH AND PHYSIQUE 95 

them to operate, although it is part of a great missionary school for 
Negroes. 

12. Medical Schools 

Tliere are at present five medical schools for the especial training of 
Negro physicians.- In order of size and importance these institutions 
are: 

Walden University. — Meharry Medical College. Founded 1876 at Nash- 
ville, Tenn. Endowed, and under care of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

Four buildings: The main building is constructed of brick, is 40 feet wide 
and (iO feet in length and four stories in height including the basement. The 
ground floor is used as laboratories for practical work in chemistry ; the second 
floor for office, museum and dwelling apartments; the third floor contains a 
lecture room of sufficient size to accommodate 100 students, recitation room 
and cabinet of materia medica; the fourth story is fltted for lecture room. 

The Dental and Pharmaceutical Hall, with new laboratory annex, contains 
adental operatory, two dental laboratories and a reading room ; three rooms 
for pharmaceutical work, laboratory for analytical chemistry; historical and 
pathological laboratory ; clinical amphitheatre, with waiting rooms for pa- 
tients; recitation room'and museum. 

The new Meharry Auditorium is located on a lot north of Meharry College 
and fronting on Maple street. It has an extreme width of 62 feet, with a length 
of 91 feet. The foundation rests on solid rock. The walls of the basement are 
built of stone and are 10 feet in height. 

Mercy Hospital, which is located at 811 South Cherry street, is a two-story 
structure of 12 rooms and contains 23 beds, most of which are of the lates't 
hospital pattern. 

Courses of study : Kinds Months j)er year Years 

Medical 7 4 

Dental ...; 6 4 

Pharmaceutical. 6 3 ' 

Nurse training. . 9 2 
Number of teachers, lfO5-10C6, 34. 

Number of students. Medical Dental Pharmaceutical Nurse training 

1UI5-15)(6 3-iO 88 3.5 (3 

Number graduates.. 733 74 8.5 15 

Howard University. — Howard University Medical Department. Founded 
1867 at Washington, D. C. Supported by the United States government. 
Buildings : The Medical College and Freedman's Hospital. 

Courses of study : Kinds Months per year Years 

Medical 8 4 

Dental 8 3 

Pharmaceutical. 8 3 

Nurse training.. 9 2 
Number of teachers, H. . 

Number of students. Medical Dental Pharmaceutical Nurse training 

Ii0.5-19(i6 147 31 26 

Graduates, 1900 •. 542 OT 108 

Shaw University. — Leonard Medical School. Founded 1882 at Raleigh, 
N. C. Supported by the Northern Baptists. 

Buildings: The Leonard Medical building is on the site donated by the 
North Carolina legislature. This building contains the lecture rooms, amphi- 
theatre, laboratory, dissecting rooms, etc., and has been fitted up at some 
expense. 

The Medical Dormitory contains rooms to accommodate 60 students. 

A hospital building containing three wards affords the students clinical 
instruction. 

A dispensary has been completed and is in operation. It has two rooms, one 
in which to receive students, the other in which to make necessary examina- 
tions. 



96 ELEVENTH ATLANTA CONFERENCE 

Courses of study : Kinds Months per year Years 

Medical 7 4 

Pharmaceutical. 7 3 

Number of teachers, 1905-15)06, 12. 

Number of students, Medical Pharmaceutical 

lSi05-1906 147 ai 

Number of graduates 236 64 

New Orleans University, Flint Medical College. Founded 1889 at New 
Orleans, La. Supported by Methodist Episcopal Church. 

Buildings : The building has a front of 22 feet and a depth of 114 feet; it is 
a large three story brick structure. The lot on which the building stands, 114x 
64 feet, affording room for an addition to the building. The value of the entire 
property is .$110,000. 

Courses of study : Kinds Months per year Years 

Medical 7 4 

Pharmaceutical. 7 3 

Nurse training. . 12 2 
Number teachers, 11. 

Medical Pharmaceutical Nurse training 
Number students ... 55 13 . 23 

Number graduates.. 73 8 26 

Louisville National Medical College.— Founded 1887 at Louisville, Ky. 
Buildings : The college building is equipped with laboratories and modern 
appliances. 

Alumni Hall is a two story brick building in the rear of the college, which 
will be devoted to laboratory work in bacteriology, histology and pathology. 
The first floor will be devoted to chemistry and pharmacy. 

The hospital is well equipped. 

Courses of study : Kinds Months per year Years 

Medical 7 4 

Pharmaceutical. 7 3 

Nurse training.. 3 

Number teachers, 1905-1906, 23. 

Number of students, Medical Pharmaceutical Nurse training 

1905-1906 47 3 

Number graduates.. 83 1 11 

There was a medical department at Knoxville College, Tennessee, 
opened in 1895, but it was soon discontinued. It liad two graduates. 



13. Physicians 

The census reports the following Negro physicians: 



Their ages were : 



1890— 909; male 794, female 115. 
1900—1,734; male 1,574, female 160. 
Increase per cent — 90.7 per cent. 



1890 1900 

16-24 years 96 95 

25-34 " 264 607 

35-44 " 187 532 

45-54 " 135 257 

55-64 " Ill 122 

65 and over 104 105 

Unknown 12 16 

Total 909 1,734 



From the Negro medical schools there were the following living grad- 
uates at two periods, 1895 and 1905: 



NEGRO HP:ALTH AND PHYSIQUE 



Negro Physicians, 1895 





















03 
C 










03 






















^^ 


z^ 








2 














































^ 


s 


Q, 






^ 


* 






bO 






a 


oS 


d 


c3 




S 




3 


o 


oj 
O 


1) 




a 

'bu 


^ 






03 


cS 


•r 




^ 


K 




O 


J3 


J3 


« 


02 




"3 




s 











D 


m 




'-' 


f3 


C 


^ 










< 


< 


s 




w 





S 


S 


!5 









> 


^ 


o 


Meharry Medical College . 
Howard University 


'^ 


17 


7 


10 


16 


s 


8 


17 


9 


5 


■il 


55 






910 


H 




1 


9 


9 


2 




2 


2 


11 


1 


2 


12 




54 




1 


2 


•> 












19 


9 






9 


9 


51 














13 












fi 






19 












90 




1 








9 


1 






94 


Other Colleges* 

Total 


4 


a 


1 


4 


8 


'^ 








1 


1 


1 


9 




-^ 


13 


22 


11 


39 


53 


25 


9 


19 


23 


26 


55 


05 


23 


2 


385 







Negro Physicians, 1905 



STATES 



Howard Meharry Leonard Louisville 



Flint 



Alabama 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Dakota 

Delaware 

District of Columbia 

Florida 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indian Territory 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentuckj' 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Nebraska 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina 

Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont " 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia 

South America 

Central America 

British West India Islands. 

South Africa 

West Africa 

Nova Scotia 

Spanish Honduras 

Unknown 



3 

lit; 

5 
18 
5 
1 
6 
1 
5 
10 



Known to be dead 



344 
? 



10 



11 
111 
71 



48 



579 

72 



1H4 
15 



34 



1 
3 

122 

40 

83 

25 

18 

23 

3 

19 

113 

50 

2 

13 

8 

4 

3 

34 

50 

2 

14 

1 

19 

53 

24 

8 

24 

4 

41 

116 

86 

1 

68 

2 

22 
2 
3 
11 
2 
2 
1 
1 



1252 



•Northern schools. 



98 ELEVENTH ATLANTA CONFERENCE 

In addition to these there are, 1906, at least 213 Negro graduates of 
the Northern medical schools of the country. 

A circular was sent to all the medical schools in the country, asking 
if they had Negro students or graduates and their character, etc. The 
Southern schools, except those for Negroes, do not receive colored stu- 
dents, and most of them simply stated this fact. Others replied as 
follows : 

We have never had a Negro pupil in the Baltimore Medical College. One 
such pupil would, I am sure, be a great injury to our class on entering. 
Baltimore, Md. Baltimore Medical College. 

If you are looking for " niggers " go to Boston or other " nigger " loving com- 
munities. 
None, thank God ! ! 

None, by God, sir ! And what's more, there neVer will be any here. 
St. Louis, Mo. (L. C. M. McElwee, Dean.) 

The College of Physicians and Surgeons of Baltimore does not, never has, 
and never will admit Negroes to its lecture halls and work. 

College ok Physicians and Surgeons. 

There are no niggers in this school and there never have been and there 
never will be as long as one stone of its building remains upon another. 

Medical Department University of Georgia. 

The Hospital College of Medicine never matriculated a "coon" in all its 
history and never will so long as I am Dean. 
Hospital College of Medicine, Medical Department of Central 

University. 

Louisville, Ky. 



The practice of some of the border states varies. The following do not 
receive Negroes : 

University of Louisville, Louisville, Ky. 

Southwestern Homeopathic Medical College, Louisville, Ky. 

Baltimore University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Md. 

Universitj' of Nashville, Nashville, Tenn. 

Barnes Medical College, St. Louis, Mo. 

Woman's Medical College, Baltimore, Md. 

University Medical College, Columbia, Mo. 

Hospital Medical College, Memphis, Tenn. 

A, M. Medical College, St. Louis, Mo. 

St. Louis University, Medical Department, St. Louis, Mo. 

St. Louis (!ollege of Physicians and Surgeons, St. Louis, Mo. 

University of Tennessee, Department of Medicine, Nashville, Tenn. 

University of Iowa, Department of Medicine, Keokuk, la. 



NEGRO HEALTH AND PHYSIQUE 



Medical College of Virginia, Richmond, Va. 
Louisville Medical College, Louisville, Ky. 



The following schools have never had Negro students; although some 
would admit them if thej' applied, others would not: 

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 
Medical Department, Willamette University, Ore. 
The Detroit Homeopathic College, Detroit, Mich. 
Saginaw Valley Medical College, Saginaw, Mich. 
Medical College, Cincinnati, O. 
Miami Medical College, Cincinnati, O. 
The Medical Chirurgical College, Kansas City, Kans. 

College of Homeopathic Medicine and Surgery, University of Minnesota, St. 
Paul, Minn. 
Sioux City College of Medicine, Sioux City, la- 
Wisconsin College of Physicians and Surgeons, Milwaukee, Wis. 
The George Washington Universitj^, Washington, D. C. 
Medical Department Washington University, St. Louis, Mo. 
Medical Department of Oregon, Portland, Ore. 
Georgetown University, W^ashington, D. C. 
The American College of Medicine and Surgery, Chicago, 111. 
Hahnemann Medical College, Kansas City, Mo. 
Milwaukee Medical College, Milwaukee, Wis. 
Maryland Medical College, Baltimore, Md. 
Army Medical School, Washington, D. C. 
Eclectic Medical University, Kansas City, Mo. 
Homeopathic Medical College, Baltimore, Md. 



These schools have had Negro students, but no graduates; 
Starling Medical College, Columbus, Ohio. 
University of Kansas, Kansas City, Kans. 
Medical College, Los Angeles, Cal. 
Colorado School of Medicine, Boulder, Colo. 



The following schools reporte.d students and graduates as follows; 



100 



ELEVENTH ATLANTA CONFERENCE 



NAME OF SCHOOL 



Dartmouth Medical School 

Colorado School of Medicine. . 

Medical College, Los Angeles. , 

Cleveland Homeop. Med. Col. 

Medical Dep. of Univ. of Pa 

University of Kansas 

Starling Med. Col.,Columbus,0 

Harvard Univ. Medical School 

Woman's Medical Col. of Pa. 

University of Michigan 

Eclectic Med. Inst., Cincinnati 

Eclectic Med. Col., N. Y. City . 

Denver Gross Medical College 

Medico- Chirurglcal College, 
Philadelphia, Pa 

Hahneman Medical College, 
Philadelphia, Pa 

Drake University College of 
Medicine, Des Moines, la. . . . 

Cooper Med. Col., San Francisco 

Medical Department of Colum 
bia University, New York. . . 

College of Medicine and Surge 
ry, University of Minnesota. 

Hahnemann Med. Col., Chicago 
"College of Physicians and Sur 
geons, San Francisco 

Physio-Medical College of In 
diana 

Hering College, Chicago 

Cornell Univ. Med. Col., N. Y. 

Col. f)f Physicians and Surgeons 
of Hamlin Univ., Minneapolis 

Western Reserve University, 
Cleveland, O 

Toledo Med. Col., Toledo, O.. . . 

College of Medicine, Syracuse 
University, New York 

Denver Homeopathic College. 

Long Island College Hospital 

Medical Department, Universi 
ty of Buffalo, New York 

Ohio Med. Univ., Columbus, O 

Rush Medical College, Univer- 
sity of Chicago 

Medical Department, Western 
Reserve University 

Ka n sas Medical Co liege ,Topeka 

Boston University School of 
Medicine 

Ft. Wayne College of Medicine, 
Ft.Wayne, Ind 

Detroit College of Medicine 

Homeopathic Med. Col., N. Y. . 

Medical Department of Yale 
University, New Haven, Ct. 

Creighton Medical College, 
Omaha, Nel) 

Northwestern University Med- 
ical School, Chicago 

Homeopathic Department Un- 
iversity, Michigan 

Albany Medical College, N. Y. , 

Bennett Col. of Eclectic Medi- 
cine and Surgery, Chicago 



Known to be dead 



Negko 



Students 



In At 
past present 



5 or 6 
Several 



Several 
2 or 3 



20 



Several 



Graduates 



5 


12 

26 since 1882 





6 

12 

S 
4 
1 



1 
1 

1 

1 





2 
2 


(?l 

10 
1 



1 

12(7) 



5 

8(?) 



1 

30 

6 

9 

1 

10 

1 
2 or 3 

? 



Rank of such Students 



In 
Character 



Well 



Well 



Well 
Well 



High 



Good 



Excellent 
Honorable 



Fairly 
High 



Average 



In Alnlitv 



Fair 

Not so well 

Well 

Variable 

Variable 

Fair 
Well 
Variable 
Well 

Below average 

Considerable 

Well 

Moderate 

Variable 

Variable 
Well 

Average 

Average 

A good average 

Excellent 



Fair 

Well 

Variable 
Excellent 
Very well 

Average 
Average 

Very well 

Fairly well 
Well 

Fair 

Equal footing 

Fair 

Well 

Well 

Below average 

Fair average 

Fair 

Average 



^^EGRO HEALTH AND PHYSIQUE 101 

A few extracts from letters received from the college officials follow : 

University op Pennsylvania : 

The ability of these [26] graduates has been quite variable. 
Harvard: 

I am unable to state how they rank in character, but in ability, I should say 
fair. 
Yale: 

One of these eight graduates I should rank as being exceptionally good, and 
the others as about the average of our pass men. 

If the colored men had sufficient means to pay their way without being 
obliged to do work and drudgery for a living through college, their chances 
would be much better. 

Cornell: 

Since the opening of the college in 1898 we have had one Negro student, who 
came from the West Indies. He was an excellent student but after complet- 
ing three years died of tuberculosis. 

LoN« Island College Hospital: 

These students (probably a dozen) have ranked very well in character and 
ability; occasionally on the honor rolls. 

Ohio Medical University: 

During the past thirteen years we have graduated on an average of one or 
two each year. I can freely say that these young men have shown themselves 
to be average students in both character and ability, and we have had some 
exceptions in both directions. 

I personally recall two men as exceptionally good students and their work 
in the general tield since graduating has been satisfactory evidence of excel- 
lence as men and representatives of their profession. 

College of Physicians and Surgeons (Medical Department of Colombia 

University): 

The student who is at present in tjae college has a very good record, but the 
[one] graduate turned out verj' badly after leaving the college and was for a 
time confined in jjrison. 

Northwestern University: 

The tAvo who will graduate next June, the only colored men in the senior 

class, are above the average of the class: in fact, Mr. ranks about fourth 

in the class. 

The University of Minnesota: 

I believe there is but oneiiolored graduateof this medical school and he was 
one of the best. 

Perhaps, half dozen more have made the attempt and all have failed, being 
mediocre or w orse. This is not of record, but my recollection. 

Woman's Medical College of Pennsylvania: 

The number [12] is so small compared with the total number of alunmje that 
it is not possible to make intelligent comparisons. 

University op Michigan {Homeopathic Department): 

The only colored graduate in the last ten years was of the pure-looking 
African type ; was in his classes one of the best students we have ever had. 
Never got a condition, always had his lessons and seemed to have ample 
scientific grasp. 



102 ELEVENTH ATLANTA CONFERENCE 

Kansas Medical College: 

The answers to your questions regarding Negro graduates may be summed 
in tlie description of one student who is now in our graduating class. This 
student ranks well in his classes and in character. He has been one of our 
best football players, and is generally liked in school. 

Rush Medical College {University o' Chicarjo): 

During my connection with the college, seventeen years, the colored stu- 
dents thatwe had have ranked very well in character and ability. I am bound 
to say, however, that I think, as a rule, that those persons in which there is a 
mixture of the Caucasian blood have ranked higher than those of purely 
Negro descent, in that they have had better opportunities for preparation. 
Kven in the last two or three years some of our colored students have been 
obliged to drop out because they felt themselves unable to keep up with the 
classes. This has been due, in part, to the fact that they were handicapped in 
being obliged to do a great deal of outside work to earn a living, and not 
because they were not as capable. 

Jefferson Medical College (Philadelphia, Pa.): 

We have five students at present of Negro descent. 

The character and abilitj^ of these students has been good. 

As the color is not mentioned in our alumni list, I have no means of identi- 
fying them. 

Western Pennsylvania Medical College : 

We have two students and four graduates. They have ranked very good in' 
character and ability. 

BowDOiN College (Maine): 
Have only two graduates. Fairly good in ability and of good character. 

In the replies from three schools the name of the school was not 
given : 

A New York city medical school has a graduate who ranked "• equal " 
to his fellows. 

A Chicago school has eight students and six graduates. They show 
fair ability. 

Another Chicago school has one student, and he is "first-class." 

We have, therefore, by this compilation 1,252 living physicians from 
Negro schools and 213 from white schools, or 1,465 in all. The census 
figures recorded 1,734 colored physicians in 1900. 

There is not space in a report like this to say much of the success of 
colored physicians ; a few specimen cases from letters of college officials 
and others are added : 

Dr. , of Newport, R. I., is the leading X-ray specialist of New England, 

and has been called in consultation by the best practitioners. 

It may interest you to know that Dr. , who entered Rush as a graduate 

from the University of Wisconsin, and who is now practicing in Maryland, 
stood at the head of the list when he took the examination for licensure 
before the Maryland State Board of Medical Examiners. He was in competi- 
tion with a number of graduates from the Johns Hopkins University Medical 
School. 



NEGRO HEALTH AND PHYSIQUE 103 

Dr. — received letter from examiner in surgery (State Board of Penn- 
sylvania), complimentine: him on that branch as being the best examination 
passed before the board in surgery and anatomy up to that time; ijractieed in 
Philadelphia for three years; then entered University of Bishop's College 
(McGill) Montreal, Canada; graduated spring, 19()1. 

Went to University of London, England, and was attached to London Hos- 
pital for two years; passed the examination of the Royal College of Surgery 
of London and is now a M. R. C. S. (of England) and L. R. C. P. (of London). 
To the best of my knowlege it's the only instance of these degrees held by a 
Negro in this country, and I don't suppose more than a dozen whites. Was 
assistant at the Royal South London Ophthalmic Hospital (London, England,) 
and also a registered qualified druggist (Ph. G.) in Jamaica; now practicing in 
Philadelphia. 

Drs. and , of Barbados, are practicing there and are the leading- 
homeopathic physicians there. 

Dr. had a long and honorable career. He was the first to reach the 

prostrate form of President Gartield and alleviated his suffering when the 
president was shot in the depot at Washington. He is given due credit by the 
biographers, but not -as a Negro. 

The first colored graduate of the Eclectic Medical Institute (Cincinnati) was 
a man named Tate. He graduated in 1880 or 1881 and went to Memphis, Tenn., 
where he volunteered during the yellow fever epidemic. Made a record for 
himself such as to receive a medal from the city government and a handsome 
purse, but succumbed to the disease and died. 

One of the most prominent surgeons of the West is a Chicago Negro. 
He was — 

Born in Pennsylvania in 1858, is attending surgeon to the Cook County and 
Provident liospitals in Chicago, and was formerly at the head of the Freed- 

man's Hospital in Washington. In 1893 Dr. operated upon a stab wound 

of the heart which had pierced the iiericardium ; the operation was successful, 
and the patient was known to be alive three years afterward. "Otticial records 
do not give a single title descriptive of suture of the pericardium or heart in 
the human subject. This being the fact, this case is the first successful or 
unsuccessful case of suture ever recorded." So said the Medical Record, of 
March 27, 1897. The case attracted the attention of the medical world, as have 

several other cases of Dr. . It was only last svimmer that the Charlotte 

Medical Journal, of North Carolina, published a violent article against Negro 
physicians, stating that the formation of the Negro head was such that they 
could never hope to gain etficiency in such a profession. About the same time 
the editors. Doctors Register and Montgomery, were writing the following 
letter to Dr. in blissful ignorance of his race : 

"We have just read a paper of yours entitled 'A Report of Two Cases of Ces- 
arean section under Positive Indications with Termination in Recovei-y' 
that was recently published in Obstetrics. You are an attractive writer. Is it 
possible for us to get you to do a little editorial writing for us?"* 

Dr. was four years chief medical inspector in the Health Department 

of the city of DenvA', and was special state inspector in contagious diseases 
1899. 

* Booklover's Magazine, July, 1'j03. 



104 ELEVENTH ATLANTA CONFERENCE 

Dr. is pathologist at Wesboro Insane Hospital, and one of the best men 

in his line of worlv in the state of Massachusetts. 

Curiously enough the first women physicians in the South were col- 
ored. Some examples follow: 

The press in general spoke highly of the brilliant state examination wliieh 
passed and the fact that she was the first woman to practice in Alabama : 



later the local press commented favorably on her ability as a physician. 

I am informed by the legal authorities that I was the first and at present 
the only woman pliysiciau i^racticing in Savannah. 

She graduated at the Woman's College of PhiladeliDhia and established her- 
self at Columbia, S. C, and was the first woman iJhysician in the state. 

When she first settled in Columbia there was no hospital there. Seeing 
dire need of one she opened her own house as one for a time — then she rented 
a building where she now accommodates thirty patients (but that is crowded). 
This was the only emergency hospital in Columbia. The four railroads have 
contracts with the hospital to care for their employees when injured. She had 
500 surgical operations there in two yeai's. All of the city physicians — white — 
affiliate with the management and place their patients there, and hold every 
important consultation with her. 

Some persons object to being classed as ''Negroes" simply because 
they are of Negro descent: 

was a colored physician, who recently died at . He married a 

white lady: two children survive. He passed as for white; went into white 

society, was an eminent practitioner and on visiting staff at Hospital, 

and did not associate with colored people. 

If you wish to give correct statistics on the subject j'ou can not include the 
name of one who by 93 percent belongs to another race. 

The path of the Negro physician is not, however, always smooth. As 
a student he may be rebuffed even at the larger colleges as this letter 
illustrates. It was in answer to a simple inquiry as to terms of admis- 
sion from a colored boy : 

University or Pennsylvania, 
Departvfient of Medicine. 

Philadelphia, February 10, 1906. 



Office of the Dean, 

Charles H. Frazier, M. D. 



Mr. William J. Harvey, .Jr., 

Atlanta Baptist College. 
Dear Sir: 

Replj'ing to your letter of the 5th instant, I am afraid that your being col- 
ored would handicap you very seriously in this institution, inasmuch as in all 
our clinical work the students are brought in close contact with the patients, 
and ver J' many patients object to being examined by, or being exhibited before 
colored students. Yours very truly, 

Chakles H. Frazier, Dean. 



NEGRO HEALTH AND PHYSIQUE 105 

The colored physician, if successful, is in danger of tli^e mob in certain 
sections, as this communication, dated December 1,1906, shows: 

We were out that evening at a tent sfl'ow. The city marshal, who has known 
me from babyhood, appointed me deputy marshal for the night. The big show 
had tiuished when I walked up the aisle separating the two races and asked a 
young lady whom I accompanied there if she desired to remain to concert. 
She decided to remain. I turned to pass out, when a white man, who carries 
the reputation of being mean to Negroes, ordered me to sit down. I told him 
that I was not ready to be seated. He then drew back his stick and struck me. 
I had a stick and went for him with that. At my getting the best with stick, 
he drew his revolver and fired at me, the ball taking effect in the muscular 
part of right arm. I attacked this white man and when I jumped upon him 
about forty other whites pounced upon me with guus, knives and clubs. 
Through the aid of some of the whites, I was freed from the howling mob and 
rushed to the jail. I received some ugly bruises about the face and head. I 
asked a doctor whom I knew to come up and look after me. He came and 
before he could dress even one wound the sheriff was notified of a raging mob 
of lawless white citizens. I asked the sheriff to let me out of jail that I might 
have an opportunity to shuu the mob since I felt sure he could not protect me. 
He granted my request and guarded me to a dark street, I had committed no 
offense, neither had I violated any law. It was a matter of prejudice on the 
part of inefficient doctors and poor worthless whites. When I got vut of the 
jail I decided once to go to my home and get .$500.00 that I placed under my 
safe in my office that afternoon, but hearing the mob whoop down about there 
I continued out of the city. I am told that the poor scoundrels broke into my 
house and office and robbed them of their valuables, then weut into the parlor 
and made up fire and completely destroj^ed my household affairs, office and 
office fixtures, including cabinet with instruments worth at least $1,000.00 and 
library of books worth about $1,200.00. 

Mv house was worth about $ I,2(I(>.(M) 

Household eftects 1,1(K».00 

Office library and fixtures 1,800.00 

Instruments and cabinet 1,000.00 

Cash and valuables destroyed 1,5(X).00 

Total amount $(),l(i(i.00 

Amount of insurance 1,.5(K).00 

Total loss $4,800.00 

My realty and personal property I shall have to sell at a great sacrifice. 
What trotibles me most of all is that there is no remedy for such troubles to 
Negroes in this section of the country. Other Negroes here are even afraid to 
express themselves. If they express themselves as being against such, they 
endanger their lives. 

I must say just here, if you see any part of this letter you would like to pub- 
lish, do not furnish it as coming directly from me, because it might give me 
more trouble. 



106 



ELEVENTH ATLANTA CONFERENCE 



' 14. Dentists and Pharmacists 

The census gives the foUowino- details as to dentists: 

1890 120 

1900 212 

Increase 76.5 per cent. 

Age: Years 1890 1900 

15-24 a2 45 

25-34 36 i)3 

35-44 25 43 

45-54 13 17 

55-64 10 10 

65 and over 1 4 

Under 3 

120 212 



There are no separate figures as to pharmacists in 1900. In 1890 there 
were 139 retail " dealers in drugs and medicines" recorded. This num- 
ber was probably near 300 in 1900. From the colored medical schools 
mentioned above dentists and pharmacists have been graduated and 
are located as follows : 



Colored Graduates in Dentistry 



NAME OF STATE 



Number of Gi'aduates 



Hoicard Meharry 



Total 



Alabama 

Arkansas 

District of Columbia 

Florida 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indian Territory 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina 

Ohio 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Virginia 

"Wisconsin 

South America 

West Indies 

Total 



68 



NEGRO HEALTH AND PHYSIQUE 

Colored Graduates in Pharmacy. 



107 



NAME OF STATE 




Number of 


Graduates 


Howard 


Meharry 


Flint 


Leonard 


Louisville 


Total 




1 

1 
2 
1 
50 
2 
7 
1 
1 
1 


12 
8 


" l" 


3 




16 






5 


California 






2 




3 








4 


District of Oolumbla 








50 


Florida 


7 
6 








9 


Georgia 




3 




16 




1 


Illinois 


(i 




2 




9 




1 




1 

7 
3 








1 


Kentucky 


I 


""2"' 


1 


1 


10 




5 


Maryland 


2 
1 

2 
2 
1 

2 

1 
1 
3 
1 
2 
1 
2 
5 
I 
3 
2 

I 






2 


Michigan 










1 


4 
3 


2 






8 








5 










1 




- 








9 


North Carolina . . ... 






23 




24 










1 












3 












1 




2 

7 
1<5 
2 


""1" 


4 

2 
2 

7 




8 






11 


Tennessee 




20 


Virginia 




14 






1 








2 




5 










2 


West Indies 










3 












2 














Total 


105 


82 


6 


4<t 


1 


243 







A colored dentist has been prominent in the National Dental Asso- 
ciation and was appointed at the head of the international dental clinics 
at the St. Louis fair. Southern men, however, learned that he was col- 
ored and made it so unpleasant that he resigned. The incident event- 
ually led to tlie formation of a Southern Dental Association. 

The pharmacists go mostly into colored drug stores, of which there 
are some 200. We have record of the following by states: 



Alabama 10 

Arkansas 8 

Colorado 4 

District of Columbia . . 14 

Florida 16 

Georgia 21 

Illinois 6 

Indiana 1 

lovya 2 

Indian Territory 4 Ohio 3 



DRUG STORES 

Kansas 5 

Kentucky 7 

Louisiana 1 

Mississippi 2 

Missouri 8 

Maryland 2 

Massachusetts 4 

North Carolina 10 

Ne\y York 5 



Pennsylvania 2 

Rhode Island 1 

South Carolina 4 

Tennessee 8 

Texas 2 

Virginia 11 

Total 160 



Statistics of forty-three of these stores follow 



108 



ELEVENTH ATLANTA CONFERENCE 



PLAC E 



Year es- 
tablished 



Capital 



Persons Devotlng- 



A II time Part time 



Little Rock, Ark 

Newport, Ark 

Portsmouth, Va 

Pine Bluff, Ark 

Helena, Ark 

Anniston,Ala 

Key West, Fla 

Augusta, Ga 

Atlanta, Ga 

Sparta, Ga 

Albany, Ga 

Columbus, C4a 

Washington, D. O 

Washington, I). C 

Washington, D. C 

Washington, D. C 

M^ashlngton, 1). C 

Washlngtt)n, D. C 

Norfolk, Va 

Richmond, Va 

Staunton, Va 

Roanoke, Va 

Charleston, S. C 

Henderson, N. O 

Raleigh, N. C 

Jacksonville, Fla 

Pensacola, Fla 

Mobile, Ala 

Mobile, Ala 

Charleston, S.C 

Charleston, S. 

Brunswick, Ga 

Savannah, Ga 

Boley, Indian Territory 

Muskogee, Indian Territory 

Topeka, Kans 

Chicago, 111 

New Bedford, Mass 

Baltimore, Md 

Cincinnati, Ohio 

St. Louis, Mo 

Opellka, Ala 

Mobile, Ala 

Total 



1893 
I'.ioe 
1896 
lil04 
1904 
1892 
1904 
1892 
1904 
1905 
1902 
1894 
1903 
1894 
1905 
1894 
1905 
1902 
1905 
1886 
1902 
1894 
1899 
1906 
1904 
1902 
18!:6 
1902 
1905 
18'.!3 
1905 
1903 
1905 

nm 

1905 
1898 
l'.!05 
181.7 
1902 
1904 
1904 
1902 
1902 



f 3,600 
1,843 
5,000 
5,(X)0 
2,5(X) 
10,00(J 
6,OoO 
2,0(K) 
700 
2,500 
1,360 
3,(XK) 

i,;M) 

5,000 
3,000 
3,000 
3,000 
3,000 
1,500 
4,200 
8,{KX) 
3,(XI0 
2,000 
l,aK) 
5,000 
3,000 

8(10 
1,650 

850 
2,000 
5,000 
5.000 
1,000 
2.500 
2,.500 
2,5(K) 
4,0(K) 
3,500 
1.8(10 
3,000 
3,500 
4,500 
6,280 



$139,883 



The Negro drug .stores of the land represent probably an investment 
of nearly $500,000 and employ about 800 persons. 
Some comments follow : 

Charleston. — This community ha.s a Negro population of about 35,0(X3 aud 
an adjacent Negro population coming here for medical treatment of about 
100,000. 

Four Negro druggists including myself. 

I fill about .3,000 prescriptions a year, not including repeats. General drug 
business good and increasing. Bulk of my patronage from the poorer class. 

Muskogee, I. T. — We are doing a nice drug business, average sales about 
one thousand (,$1,000) dollars a month. 

Cincinnati, O. — This store was opened April, 1904. The owner was forced to 
the wall October of the same year. A white druggist on the opposite corner 
bought him out. I offered him ,$50 more than he gave for the store. H e refused. 
I went up town and had a Jew to buy him out for less money. 



NEGRO HEALTH AND PHYSIQUE 109 

Washington, D. C. — Having started with ten dollars without fixtures, etc., 
since have purchased fixtures, soda fountain, etc., with stock on hand assessed 
at $1,300. Store now in debt |.50. 

Washington, D. C. — This drug store is on one of the most popular business 
thoroughfares in the town, and is well patronized by the members of both 
races. 

Portsmouth, Va. — I started business with only .$16 and I went in debt to get 
my stock. I leased the place where I did business, paying $10 per month. 
Now I've purchased a corner lot, paid $1,400 for same. I built on this lot a two 
story brick building at a cost of $2,500, all paid for. 

Albany, Ga. — Present stock paid in full $7,000. Amount of dividends paid 
since beginning business $3,400. 

Little Rock, Ark. — First five years, discouraging, disgusting. vSecond five 
years an increase of confidence as the public saw that it was a permanent fix- 
ture and so many of our people had opened business on six months trial and 
quit. Last three years are record breakers. 

Newport, Ark — The company is composed of twenty-six men and women. 
The colored people give the store hearty support, and many of the best white 
citizens are fast flocking in. 

Anniston, Ala. — Wholesale and retail business. 



15. The Eleventh Atlanta Conference 

The Eleventh Atlanta Conference convened at Ware chapel, Atlanta 
University, Tuesday, May 29, 1906, and carried out the following pro- 
gramme : 

First Session, 10 A. M. 
President Horace Bumstead, presiding. 
Subject: "Health of Students." 
Mortality in Cities — Mr. R. R. Wright, Jr., of the University of Pennsylvania, 

Philadelphia. 
Tuberculosis— Dr. W. F. Penn, of Atlanta. 

Special Session, 11:30 A. M. (Room 15) 
A Talk to Boys — Dr. W. E. B. Du Bois, of Atlanta University. ( Open to Senior 
Preparatory boys and College men). 

Second Session, 3 P. M. 

Ninth Annual Mothers' Meeting. 

In charge of the Gate City Free Kindergarten Association, Mrs. John Hope 
presiding. 

Subject: "The Training of Children and Preventive Medicine." 
Exhibit of Work and Exercises : 

Kindergarten No. 1 — Mrs. J. P. Williamson. 

Kindergarten No. 2 — Miss Ola Perry. 
Child Training— Mrs. P. J. Bryant. 
Preventive Medicine — Dr. A. G. Copeland. 



110 ELEVEXTH A^'LANTA CONFERENCE 

Third Session, 8 P. M. 

President Horace Bumstead, presiding. 

Remarks — President Bumstead. 

Snbject : " Physique, Health, etc." 

Tuberculosis — Dr. S. P. Lloyd, of Savannah. 

Negro Physique — Dr. Franz Boas, of Columbia University, New York. 

Seeing and Hearing — Dr. C. Y. Roman, of Meharrj^ Medical College, Nashville. 

The final work of the Conference was the adoption of the following 
resolutions. The cominittee consisted of R. R.Wright, Jr., fellow of 
the University of Pennsylvania; Franz Boas, professor of Anthropology, 
of Columbia University ; and W. E. B. DuBois, secretary of the Con- 
ference. 

RESOLUTIONS 

The Eleventh Atlanta Conference has made a study of the physique, 
health and mortality of the Negro American, reviewing the work of the 
first conference held ten years ago and gathered some of the availalile 
data at hand today. 

The Conference notes first an undoubted betterment in the health of 
Negroes: the general death rate is lower, the infant mortality has 
markedly decreased, and the number of deaths from consumption is 
lessening. 

The present death rate is still, however, far too high and the Confer- 
ence recommends the formation of local health leagues among colored 
people for the dissemination of better knowledge of sanitation and pre- 
ventive medicine. The general organizations throughout the country 
for bettering healtii ought to make special effort to reach the colored 
people. The health of the whole country depends in no little degree 
upon the health of Negroes. 

Especial effort is needed to stamp out consumption. The Conference 
calls for concerted action to this end. 

The Ctniference does not find any adequate scientific warrant for the 
assumption that the Negro race is inferior to other races in physical 
build or vitality. The present differences in mortality seem to be suffi- 
ciently explained by conditions of life; and physical measurements 
prove the Negro a normal human being capable of average human 
accomplishments. 

The Conference is glad to learn of the forty (40) Negro hospitals, the 
two hundred (200) drug stores, and the fifteen hundred (1500) physi- 
cians, but points out that with all this advance the race is in dire need 
of better hospital facilities and more medical advice and attention. 

The Conference above all reiterates its well known attitude toward 
this and all other social problems: the way to make conditions better 
is to study the conditions. And we urge again the systematic study of 
the Negro problems and ask all aid and sympathy for the work of this 
Conference in such studj'. 



NEGRO HEALTH AND PHYSIQUE 111 



COMMENTS OF THE PRESS, 1896-1906 



Boston Transcript, July 8, 1896: 

Atlanta University, Atlanta, Ga., has undertaken a new and most important 
work for the benefit of the colored people living in cities. 

U. S. Bulletin of Labor, May, 1897: 
Great credit is due to the investigators for their work in the investigation. 

Outlook, Jan. 28, 1898: 

The report of the third annual Conference is now before us and is a valuable 
sociological publication. 

London Spectator, March 31, 1900: 

The future of the Negro population of the United States is a problem 
charged with such serious possibilities that any light which can be shed upon 
it by an examination of present conditions and tendencies deserves a most 
cordial welcome. This work is being done with much intelligence, discrimi- 
nation and assiduity at the instance and under the inspiration of the Atlanta 
University. 

Manchester Guardian, April 26, 1901: 
Careful studies of the life of Negroes in the United States. 

London Speaker, June 22, 1901: 
As important and interesting as the reports that have preceded it. 

Biblical World, July 1, 1901: 

For anyone who wishes to understand this important subject this pamphlet 
gives a vast amount of information gathered at first-hand. 

Hartford Con rant, April 5, 1901: 
Based upon painstaking investigation of the facts. 

Publications of the Southern History Association, Sept., 1901; July, Sept., 1902; 

Nov., 1904: 

Most admirable investigations into this vast ethnic problem. 

A most capital piece of work on that mighty race question. ... It goes 
without saying that we have a most competent study based on careful histori- 
cal research. 

The best scientific work on the Negro question of the last two or three 
years. 

The work done under the direction of the Atlanta Conference is en- 
titled to the respectful and thoughtful consideration of every man interested 
in any aspect of the life of the American Negro. 



112 ELEVENTH ATLANTA CONFERENCE 

Dial, May 16, 1902: 

These studies of the N^gro problem which are being made with so niuch 
intelligence by Atlanta University are of great sociological and educational 
value, and deserve to be widely examined. 

School Beview, June, 1902: 
The work of this conference is constructive and merits hearty support. 

New Bedford Standard, May 10, 1902: 

An exceptionally valuable study of one of the most important of all the 
problems connected with the presence of the Negro race in America. 

Outlook, July 12, 1902: 

Every year since their organization in 1S9(J the Atlanta Conferences have 
published an invaluable report upon present conditions among the Negroes. 

American Journal of Sociology, May, 1903: 

The most exhaustive study thus far made of the economic aspects of the 
problem. 

Boston Herald, Feb. 24, 1903: 

It is not easy to estimate too highly the series of yearly reports that are 
coming from Atlanta University relative to the condition of the Negro popu- 
lation of the country. They are social studies that ti'eat of matters about 
which there is to be found nowhere else so carefully gathered and trustworthy 
information. 

Outlook, Mar. 7, 1903: 

No student of the race problem, no person who would either think or speak 
upon it intelligently, can afford to be ignorant of the facts brought out in the 
Atlanta series of sociological studies of the conditions and the progress of the 
Negro.' 

Philadelphia Press, Mar. S, 1903: 

The most important study which has been made ... in which the in- 
dustrial condition of the Negro is presented with an accuracy and minute- 
ness which has marked all the issues which have succeeded the annual con- 
ferences held in connection with the [Atlanta] university.. 

South A tlantic Quarterly, Oct., 1904: 

They constitute, so far as the reviewer can learn, the most important body 
of direct evidence ever published as to moral and religious conditions of our 
colored people. 

N. Y. Evening Post, July 3, 1905: 

The only scientific studies of the Negro question being made today are 
those carried on by Atlanta University. 

N. Y. Observer Jan. 24, 190?: 

It is therefore with pleasure that we welcome a thoughtful "Social Study" 
of Negro crime (particularly in Georgia) prepared under the auspices of Atlan- 
ta University, which has already done such good work for society in connec- 
tion with its nine "Atlanta Conferences" for the study of pressing social prob- 
lems. 



DrACO 

^MPHLET BINDFD