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Full text of "Hearings"

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^' 'Id sST} COMMITTEE PRINT 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

PRESIDENT'S COMMISSION 

ON 

IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 




SEPTEMBER 30, OCTOBER 1, 2, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 
11, 14, 15, 17, 27, 28, 29, 1952 



Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary 
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 



82d Congress"! COMMITTEE PRINT 

2d Session J 



HEARINGS 



BEFORE THE 



US PRESIDENT'S COMMISSION 

V 



ON 



IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 




SEPTEMBER 30, OCTOBER 1, 2, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 
11, 14, 15, 17, 27, 28, 29, 1952 



Pi'inted for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary 

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 



UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
25356 "WASHINGTON : 1952 



P : I r-i r i r 



}J- 



/ 



.Sui' 



PRESIDENT'S COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

Philip B. Peblman, Chairman 

Eael G. Haerison, Vice Chairman 

Msgr. John O'Gkady 

Rev. Thaddeus F. Gtillixson 

Claeence E. Pickett 

Adrian S. Fisher 

Thomas C. Finucane 

Harry N. Rosenfield, Executive Director 



^^^y^. isAI^'i 



REQUEST FOR TRANSMITTAL 



House of Eepresentatives, 

Committee on the Judiciary, 
Washi7igton, D. C, October 23, 1952. 

Hon. Phiup B. Perlman, 

Chairman^ President'' s C ommission on 
Immigration and Naturalization^ 

Executive Oiflce, Washington, D. C. 
Dear Mr. Perlman : I am informed that tlie President's Commis- 
sion on Immigration and Naturalization has held hearings in a 
number of cities and has collected a great deal of information con- 
cerning the problems of immigration and naturalization. 

Since the subject qI immigration and naturalization requires con- 
tinuous congressiQHTiil study, it would be very helpful if this commit- 
tee could have^e transcript of your hearings available for its study 
and use, and-'for distribution to the Members of Congress. 

If this p^cord is available, will you please transmit it to me so that 
I may^Jare able to take the necessary steps in order to have it printed 
for the use of the committee and Congress. 
Sincerely yours, 

Emanuel Celler, Chairman. 



REPLY TO REQUEST 

President's Commission on 
Immigration and Naturalization, 

ExEcuTi\"E Office, 
Washington, October £7, 1952. 

Hon. Emanuel Celler, 

House of Representatives, 

Washington, D. G. 

Dear Congressman Celler : Pursuant to the request in your letter 
of October 23, 1952, we shall be happy to make available to you a 
copy of the transcript of the hearings held by this Commission. We 
shall transmit the record to you as soon as the notes are transcribed. 

The Commission held 30 sessions of hearings in 11 cities scattered 
across the entire country. These hearings were scheduled as a means 
of obtaining some appraisal of representative and responsible views 
on this subject. The Commission was amazed, and pleased, at the 
enormous and active interest of the American people in the subject of 
immigration and naturalization policy. 

Every effort was made to obtain the opinions of all people who 
might have something to contribute to the Commission's considera- 
tion. All shades of opinion and points of views were sought and heard. 
The response was very heavy, and the record will include the testimony 
and statements of some 600 persons and organizations. 

This record, we believe, includes some very valuable information, a 
goodly proportion of which has not hitherto been available in dis- 
cussions of immigration and naturalization. It is of great help to 
the Commission in performing its duties. We hope that this material 
will be useful to your committee, to the Congress, and to the country. 
Sincerely yours, 

Philip B. Perlman, Chairman. 



CONTENTS 



Sessions: 

New York, N. Y.: 

First: Septeniber 30, 1952, morning session. 
Second: Septeniber 30, 1952, evening session. 
Third: October 1, 1952, morning session. 
Fourth: October 1, 1952, evening session. 
Boston, Mass.: 

Fifth: October 2, 1952, morning session. 
Sixtli: October 2, 1952, evening session. 
Cleveland, OJiio: 

Seventli: October 6, 1952, morning session. 
Eiglith- October 6, 1952, evening session. 
Detroit, Mich.: 

Ninth: October 7, 1952, morning session. 
Tenth: October 7, 1952, evening session. 
Chicago, HI.: 

Eleventh: October 8, 1952, morning session. 
Tvielfth: October 8, 1952, evening session. 
Thirteenth: October 9, 1952, morning session. 
Fourteenth: October 9, 1952, evening session. 
St. Paul, Minn.: 

Fifteenth: October 10, 1952, morning session. 
Sixteenth: October 10, 1952, evening session.' 
St. Louis, Mo.: 

Seventeenth: October 11, 1952, morning session. 
Eighteenth: October 11, 1952, evening session, 
ban Francisco, Cahf.: 

Nineteenth: October 14, 1952, morning session. 
Twentieth: October 14, 1952, evening session 
Los Angeles, Calif.: 

Twenty-first: October 15, 1952, morning session. 
Twenty-second: October 15, 1952, evening session. 
Atlanta, Ga.: 

Twenty-third: October 17, 1952, morning session 
Twenty-fourth: October 17, 1952, evening session. 
Washington, D. C: 

Twenty-fifth: October 27, 1952, morning session 
Twenty-sixth: October 27, 1952, evening session. 
Twenty-seventh: October 28, 1952, morning session 
Twenty-eighth: October 28, 1952, evening session. 
Thenty-ninth: October 29, 1952, mornings session. 
Thirtieth: October 29, 1952, evening session. 
Appendix: Special studies. 
Indexes: 

Persons heard or who submitted statements by session and order of aijpearance 
Organizations represented by persons heard or by submitted statements 
i'ersons heard or who submitted statements by alphabetical arrangement 

of names. "^ 

Subject matter. 

(Page numbers may be obtained from indexes) 



APPENDIX: SPECIAL STUDIES 



MEMORANDUM BY OSCAR HANDLIN, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF HIS- 
TORY. HARVARD UNIVERSITY, CONCP^RNINC THE BACKGROUND OF 
THE NATIONAL-ORIGIN QUOTA SYSTEM 

I. BASIC ASSUMPTIONS OF NATION Al.-OIllCilXS QUOTA 

This nu'inoraiKlniii deals with one of the I'undameiitnl assumiitions that hiy 
b.^hliid the iiiuiiij'ratioii legislation of 1921-24, and that animates the McCarran- 
\\ alter Act of this year. That assumiition, embodied in the national-origins 
quota, is that the national origins of immigrants is a reliable indication of their 
capacity for Americanization. Generally, tliis assumption takes the form of 
<'in a.«:.sertion tliat .some people l»y their racial or national constitution are more 
capable of becoming Americanized than others. This is usually coupled with 
the assertion that the immigrants wh« came to the United States before ISSO. 
the old immigrants, were drawn from the superior stocks of Northern and 
Western Europe, while those who came after that date were drawn from the 
inferior breeds of Southern and Eastern Euroi)e. 

There is a demonstrable connection between the diffusion of this assumption 
and the cour.se of immigration legislation in the first quarter of the century. 
Those who argued in favor of a restrictionist policy did so not merely, perhaps 
not primarily, because they wished to reduce the total volume of immigration. 
but more important, because they wished to eliminate the new, while perpetu- 
ating the old immigration. This was the logic of the literacy test. Writing 
in the midst of the battle for its enactment, one of its leading proponents, 
Prescott F. Hall, pointed out: 

"The theory of the educational test is that it furni.«;bes an indirect method 
of excluding those who are undesirable, not merely because of their illiteracy, 
but for other reasons. * * * 'j-'j^g hereditary tendencies of the peoples 
illiterate abroad * * * cannot be overcome in a generation or two." * 

And, looking back at the accomplished fact, the Commissioner General of 
Immigration pointed out in 1923 : 

"The so-called literacy test for aliens was the favorite weapon of the re- 
strictionists, and its widespread popularity appears to have been based quite 
largely upon a belief * f * that it would reduce the stream of new immi- 
gration * * * without seriously interfering with the coming of the older 
type." ' 

The literacy law, passed over President Wilson's veto in 1917, did not, however, 
accomplish what had been expected of it. The end of the war brought a resump- 
tion of immigration and with it a "demand that the objective of Iteeping out 
the new while admitting the old immigrants be attained through the national 
•origins device. The result was the passage of the .Johnson Act of 1921. The 
intent of the act was clear. On the question of whethei- the base year should 
be 1910 or 1920, for instance. Representative P.ox pointed out : "A study of the 
immigration proldem has disclosed the fact that during the last 20 or l^0 years the 
older and steadier type of our immigration has been relatively small. The 
number of the older arid better iinmignuits coming has been relatively nnicb 
smaller during the last 10 years, and the number from Sontbern Europe, Italy, 
and Russia much greater, which will be refltH-ted in the 1920 census. The mak- 
ing of the 1910 census the basis will give us more of the l)etter and less desirable 
immigration than if it were based on the census of 1920." ' 



1 Proscott F. Hall, Immisiration and Its Effect.^ Upon tlio United Statps (N. Y., 1908, 
2d odition). pp. 27S-275. 

' Annual Kounrt of tlio Cominissionor Gonornl of ImniiLrration. 1023. 

' April 21. 1921. Consrossional Rocord. LXI, p. .5.58. Spo also iho rpniarlcs to fho same 
effect of Contrrpssmon .Tolinson and Ward, Congressional Reeord, LXI, pp. .518, 5.55. 

1839 



1840 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

The act of 1924 which pushed the base quota year back to 1890 and consoli- 
dated the theory of national origins, was motivated by similar convictions as 
to the inferiority of the new immigrants. Congressman Vestal, arguing in favor 
of the measure, put the idea clearly. The southern and eastern immigrants 
of Europe, he said, "have not been of the kind that are readily assimilated or 
absorbed by our American life." ^ 

In judging the continued validity of the national origins quota system, it 
therefore becomes a matter of considerable importance to ascertain how the con- 
ception originated and gained currency that the new immigrants were different 
from the old, that the peoples of Southern and Eastern Europe were Inferior 
to those of Northern and Western Europe. 

II. ORIGINS OF THE NEW-OLD IMMIGRATION DISTINCTION 

The conception of a new immigration inferior to the old began to take form 
in the writings of some sociologists and social thinkers in the 1890's. At root, 
this conception rested on racist notions that the peoples of the Mediterranean 
region were biologically different from those of Northern and Western Europe. 
This difference, it was stated, sprang from the inferiority of blood and could 
visibly be observed in social characteristics. The whole argument was given 
veiy forceful expression by the distinguished anthropologist of the American 
Museum of Natural History in an enormously popular book : 

"These new immigrants were no longer exclusively members of the Nordic 
race as were the earlier ones * * * The new immigration * * * con- 
tained a large and increasing number of tbe weak, the l)r<)ken. and the mentally 
crippled of all races drawn from the lowest stratum of the Mediterranean basin 
and the Balkans, together with hordes of the wretched, submerged populations 
of the Polish ghettos. Our jails, insane asylums, and almshouses are filled with 
this human flotsam and the whole tone of American life, social, moral, and 
political has been lowered and vulgarized by them." ° 

These theories were bitterly isnd inconclusively debated through the early 
years of this century. The decisive turn in tlie argument came when they 
seemed to receive validation from the reports of two governmental investigations. 
The first was the detailed study of the Immigration Commission under the 
chairmanship of Senator Dillingham. The second was a report by Dr. Harry 
H. Laughlin of the Carnegie Institution, expert eugenics agent of the House 
Committee on Immigration and Naturalization. 

These reports had a direct impact upon subsequent legislation, for they 
supplied what had formerly been theoretical opinions privately held with a 
validation that was official and presumably scientific. The Immigration Com- 
mission, appointed in 1907, presented its conclusions in 1910 in an impressive 
42 volume report.* Widely quoted, it figured prominently in the deliberations 
which produced the Johnson Act of 1921. Congressman Box, in the speech 
referred to above, clearly established the connection : 

"The reasons presented by the great Immigration Commission, which some 
years ago spent hundreds of thousands of dollars in inve tigation and study of 
this great question, present conclusive reasons wh.v we should encourage the 
coming in of the class which has been extolled so highly as an element which 
has contributed so much to our life and why it should discourage that which 
comes from Russia and Southern Europe." ' 

In the same way, the Laughlin report presented in 1922 and printed in 1923, 
laid the groundwork for the legislation of 1924.* The report was widely quoted 
in quasi-scientific articles and entered prominently into the debate as a result 
of which the act of 1924 was enacted." It therefore becomes a matter of prime 
importance to investigate the nature of tliose reports and the soundness of their 
conclusions. 



* Coneressional Record, LXV, p. 5439. 

^Madison Gr.int, The Passing of the Great Race (1916) (N. T., Charles Scribner's Sons, 
1920). PI). 86-92. 

« Report of the Immiprration Commission (42 vols., Washington, 1911). 
' Consressional Record, LXI, 558. 

* 73d Cong., .Sd sess., Hearinsrs Before the Committee on Immigration and Naturaliza- 
tion. House of Representatives, November 21, 1922. Serial 7-C. 

" See. for example, the articles of Robert De C. Ward. Scientific Monthly, October, Decem- 
ber 1922 ; and the use made of them by Congressman Vestal (Congressional Record, LXV, 
p. 5439). 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1841 

ni. TUIi IM.MICKATIoN COMMISSION (THE 1007 COMMISSION) 

Tlie Dillingham Iininisration ('(•ininission was the ontirrowth of a roncwed 
attempt to enact a literacy test in r.MMi. The opponents r)f that measure hoped 
to block it, or at least to i)ostpone immediate action, hy callinj? for a commission 
to study the whole pi'ol)lem. Congressman Bartholdt who proposed the crea- 
tion of sach a body niidonhtediy had in mind a Congressional committee such as 
those which had already conducted similar investigations in 1891 and 1892. 
This was also the expectation of Speaker Cannon who was opposed to any 
airing o;' the immigration question on the groimds that it was an issue likely 
to divide the Repuhllcan I'arty politically. 

Although the (puv^^tion was diie prim;irily for Congressional action, it also 
concerned I'l-esidcnt Tliei^lore Ronsevclt deeply. In part, he was moved by 
such considerations as influenced Speaki^r Cannon. In jiart. he was also con- 
cerned l)ecause he was even then engaged in the delicate diplomatic negotiations 
with the Japanese tliat would ultimately lead to the controversial gentlemen's 
agrtH^ment to limit Japane-^ie immigration by the voluntary action of the Tokyo 
government. Roosevelt feared that agitation of the general question of immi- 
gration mi;jht upset these negotiatiims. l^'inally the President had great faith 
in the officacy of fact-linding agencies as devices to evade the necessity for 
clear-cut political decisions. 

Although the President accepted and supported the idea of such a commission. 
he subtly moditied the conception of what it should be and do. Instead of a 
Congressional investigating committee, he proposed a study by a number of 
experts, appoiuted by the President; and confidentially requested Commissioner 
of Labor Neill, while the quesli<m was still being debated in Congress, to proceed 
at once to "'as full an investigation of the whole subject of immigration as the 
facilities at hand will permit.'"" As enacted (Feb. 2(1, 1907), the law however 
provided for- an investigating commission of nine, three to be chosen by the 
President of the Senate, three by the Speaker of the House and three experts by 
the President. In this form the proposal secured tlie acquiescence of all parties to 
the debate and also attracted the support of a great number of social workers 
and social theorists attracted by the idea of an impartial, scientific investiga- 
tion as an instrument of social engineering of which there was then much talk. 
At this stage then there was the expectation that out of the deliberations of the 
Connni.s;sion there would come a body of verified and undisputable facts that 
would supply the groundwork for future action. President Roosevelt scummed 
up these expectations in a message to Speaker Cannon when he expressed the 
hope that from the work of the Commission would come the information that 
he could then use "to jiut before the Congress a plan which wovdd amount to a 
definite solution of this immigration business."" 

The circumstances of its establishment account for tlie great hopes that were 
held out f<ir the report of the Commission and the prestige that ultimately 
attached to its findings. That prestige was certainly added to when the Com- 
mission took more than 3 years to investigate, spent a million dollars, employed 
a staff of about 3(X), and published its results in 42 impressive volumes. 

A view of the actual circumstances of the compilation and of the natui'e of 
the methods used will show however that the Commission's report was neither 
impartial nor scientific, and that confidence in it was not altogether justified. 
No public hearings were held, no witnesses cross-examined by the members of 
the Commi.ssion. Largely the study was conducted by experts who each compiled 
their voluminous reports which were not printed until after the Commission 
had reached its conclusions. It is doubtful whether the Senators and Congress- 
men on the Commission ever had the time to examine the voluminous reports in 
manuscript. It is most likely they were compelled to rest their judgment upon 
the two-volume summary prepared for it by its body of experts. The final 
report was "adopted within a half hour of the time when, under the law, it 
must be filed." ^ The identity of the experts must therefore become of some 
significance. 

The key person was the economist J. W. Jenks. Jenks was chosen because he 
had served for a decade in a similar capacity in other fact-finding investigations 
on trusts and other questions. He had already expressed himself on the subject 



>» Theodore Roospvolt Tapprs, XXV. pp. 86-89. 

" Thpoflorc Rooscvolt Pnpers. XXXIX, pp. 497-498. 

'^ Immigration Coiiiniissioii, Rpport, I, 49, 



1842 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

of immigration.^^ The other public members were Commissioner of Labor Neill, 
and William R. Wheeler, active in Kepulilican politics in San Francisco which 
was then beiuij shaken by the Japanese question. The key secretary, appointed 
on the recommendation of Senator Lodge, an ou*^spoken restrictionist, was Morton 
E. Crane, described by the Senator as "absolutely safe and loyal"' on the question. 
Roosevelt was perhaps less concerned with impartiality than with the likelihood 
of producing a tactically safe report. 'In any case he warned Jenks, "Don't put 
in too many professors." " 

Despite its scientific pretensions therefore the i-eport began by taking for 
granted the conclusions it aimed to prove — that the new immigration was essen- 
tially different from the old and less capable of being Americanized. This 
assumption is clearly stated at the very start : 

"The old and the new immigration differs in many essentials. The former 
was * * * largely a movement of settlers * * * from the most progres- 
sive sections of Europe. * * * They enteied practically every li'ne of ac- 
tivity. * * * Many of them « * * became landowners * * * They 
mingled freely with the native Americans and were quickly as.similated. On the 
other hand, the new immigration has been largely a movement of unskilled labor- 
ing men who have come * * * from the less progressive countries of 
Europe. * * * They have * * * congregated together in sections apart 
from native Americans and the older immigrants to such an extent that assimi- 
lation has been slow." 

This assumption with which the Commission started conditioned the prepara- 
tion of the whole report and made it certain that the conclusions would confirm 
the prejudgment. To quote the Commission's own words : 

"Consequently the Commission paid but little attention to the foreign-born 
element of the old immigrant class and directed its efforts almost entirely to 
* * * the newer immigrants." ^^ 

These assumptions were directly reflected in the techniques through which the 
Commission operated. There was no effort to give a time dimension to its data ; 
there was some talk of including a history of immigration, but the study was 
never prepared. There was therefore no opportunity to trace the development 
of various problems or to make comparisons between earlier and later conditions. 
For the same reason, the Commission made no use of any information except that 
gathered by its own staff at the moment. The enormous store of data in the 
successive State and Federal censuses were hardly touched. For 50 years State 
bureaus of labor statistics had been gathering materials on the conditions of 
indixstrial labor ; the Commission disregarded those entirely. Instead it planned, 
but never finished, a mammoth census of all industrial workers." It overlooked 
similarly the wealth of information contained in almost a century of investiga- 
tions by other Government and private bodies. 

Finally, the Commission consistently omitted from its calculations and judg- 
ments the whole question of duration of settlement. Time and again it assiuned 
that a group v\'hich had lived in the United States for 5 years could be treated 
on the same footing as one that had lived here for Sfi. In a few cases, thei'e 
is enough information to make out the distortions that follow upon that assump- 
tion.'' In most cases, however the- Commission did not even possess the data 
on which a reasoned judgment could be based. 

The comments on the Commission's findings that follow will document these 
general criticisms. Taking for granted the difference between old and new 
immigrants, the Commission found it unnecessary to prove that the difference 
existed. In most cases, the individual reports — on industry, trime, nationality 



" Note on J. W. Jenks' views on immigration restriction before 1907 : As a teacher, 
.Tcnks had Ions? argued the necessity of restrictina: immigration alonsr the lines the Com- 
mission wou'd later recommend. The syllabus of his course on Practical Economic 
Questions dStarch ?A. 1900, pp. 16-17) indicated a consistent restrictionist bias. The 
editor of the Utica Observer who supported the literacy test later wrote. "This was due 
to you. I had one or two courses under you at Cornell, where I got the right start on the 
subject." (E. A. Spears to .Tenks, February 19, 191.5.) At the very time the investitra- 
tion was being considered, .Tenks opposed a study, as did Congressman Gardner and other 
restrictionists, arguing that it would involve "the danger of delaying pending legislation 
that Congress has already recommended" (the literacy bill). See facts About Immigra- 
tion, Report of the Proceedinirs of Conferences on Immigration * * * New York, 
September 24 and December 12, 1906. p. 64. 

1* See Roosevelt to .Tenks. Roosevelt Papers. XLT, 3.38 (March 14. 1907) : and Tx>dge to 
Roosevelt. Tulv 26, 1908, Selections From the Correspondence of Theodore Roosevelt and 
Henrv Cabot Lodge. 1884-1918. (N. Y., 1925) II, p. 307. 

IE Report, I. pp. 1.3-15. 

"Report, XIX, pp. 11-12. 

^" See, for example, the accounts of the ability to learn English, below. 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1843 

and the like — do not contain the materials for a proper comparison of old and 
new. Hut in the suniiliary, the Conuuission followed the procedure of presentinjc 
the introJluctioii and conclusion of each individual report, tof,'ether with its own 
interpretive connnents tiiat supply the .jud^nuent of the inferiority of the new 
inunij^M-ants. Those comments spring from its own a priori assumption, not from 
its evidence — whatever that was wortii ; sometimes indeed tliey run altogether 
against its evidence.'* 

IV. ANALYSIS OF THE IMMItiRATION COMMISSION BI.POKT 

The suhstaiice of the report falls into a number of general categories. Volumes 
I and II are sunnnary volumes. Volume III, a statistical survey of inunigrutiou 
18H>-1!)10. and volume XXXIX, an analysis of legal provisions, are noncoutro- 
versial. Vt)lume XL, a study of innnigration in otlier countries, is not considered 
in this memorandum. 

The critical material in the other volumes falls into inne general categories: 
1. A dictionary of races. Volume V sunnnarized in I, 20S) ft". 
L'. Immigration conditions in Europe (Causes for lOmigralion). Volume IV, 

sununarized in volume I, lG5ff. 
li. Economic Effects of Inmiigratinn (industry, agriculture, cities). Volumes 
VI-XXVIII, summarized in volume I, 285 ff. 

4. Education and Illiteracy. Volumes XXIX-XXXIII, summarized in volume 

III, 1 fC. 

5. Charity and Immigration. Volumes XXXIV-XXXV, summarized in volume 

II, 87 ff. 

6. Immigration and Crime. Volume XXXVI, summarized in volume II, ino ff. 

7. Imnngration and Vice. Volume XXXVII, summarized in volume II, 323 fl\ 

8. Immigration and Insanity. Volume II, 223 ff. Complete report. 

9. Immigration and Bodily Form. Volume XXXVIII, summarized in Volume 

III, 501 ff. 

Each of these categories maj' most profitably be discussed individually. 

1. The dictionary of races 

In considering the monumental dictionary of races compiled by the Conuni.ssion 
it is necessary to take account of the views of race held by its expei't, J. W. 
Jeuks, and by the anthropologist Daniel Folkmar, who was charged with the 
responsibility of preparing that section of the report. Neither man consciously 
accepted the notion that tlie races of men were divided b.v purely biological 
distinctions ; such a notion could not have I)een applied to differentiate among 
the masses of immigrants." But both agreed that there was innate, ineradicable 
race distinctions that separated groups of men from one another and they 
agreed as to the general necessity of classifying these races to know which were 
fittest, most worthy of survival. The imujediate problem was to ascertain 
"whether there may not be certain races that are inferior to other races * * * 
to discover some test to show whether some may be better fitted for American 
citizenship than others." "° 

The inti'oduction to the Dictionary of Races explained that while mankind 
may he divided into five divisions "upon physical or somatogical groiuuls" the 
subdivisions of tliese into particular races is made "largely upon a linguistic 
basis." According to the dictionary, this linguistic basis of classification was 
not only practical, in the sense thai immigi-ant inspectors coidd readily deter- 
mine the language spoken, but it also had "the sanction of law in Immigration 
statistics and in the census of foreign countries." " 

Yet, in practice, the dictionary concerned itself with nuich more than a 
classification by language. Through it runs a persistent, though not a con- 
sistent, tendency to determine race by physical types, to diffei'entiate the old 
from the new immigrants racially, and to indicate the superiority of the former 
to the latter. 



" Spp, for example, tlie rtistnission of oriiiiinalit.v below; and on niiioiii/ation, below. 

^' "While it is well to find a classification b.v physical characteristics insisted upon in 
the able works of Rijiley, Deniker. and others, it is manifestly impracticable to use such 
a classification in immigration work." Report, I, ]). 211. 

2" See J. W. .Tenks, The Racial Prol)lem in Immigration, National Conference of Cliarities 
and Correction. ProceedinKs. XXXVI (1009), 217: .7. W. .Tenks, Principles of I'oliiics 
(N. Y., 1909), 31; Daniel Folkmar, Lecons d'anthropolo.;;ie philosophi(|ue (Paris, 1900). 
pp. 140 fP. 

21 Report, I, p. 211. 



1844 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

(a) The hioloywal soiirtes of race. — Althim-xh the dictionary presniuably rests 
upon a linsrnistic basis, it often considers liio'.ojiical inheritance the critical ele- 
ment in determining racial affiliation. The following exami>les will ill'^strate. 

Thus the Finns, it is stated, linguisticall.v belong to the Finno-Tartaric race, 
along with the Hungarians. Turks, and Japanese. But tlie western Finns who 
actually came to the United States, though they speak tlie same langiuiice. are 
descended from "the blondest of Teutons, Swedes * * *." 

The Armenians linguistically "are more nearly related to the Aryans of 
Fnrope than to their Asiatic neighbors." but "are related pliysically to the 
Tni'ks, although they exceed these * * * jj^ fj^p remarkable shortness and 
heii^ht of their heads. The flattening of the back of the head * * * cjin only 
be compared to the flattened occiput of the Malay." 

Although "English has been the medium of interco\n-se for genei'ati<>ns." Mie 
<lictionary defines as Irish those descended fi'oni peojile whf>se "ancestral lan- 
guage was Irish." 

Among the Japanese who all speak the same language, "the 'fine' type of 
the aristocracy, the Japanese ideal, as distinct from the 'coarse' type reccgn'^ed 
by students of the Japanese today" is due to "an undoultted white strain." 
The "fine" type are the descendants of "the Ainos. the earliest inhabitants of 
Japan * * * one of the most truly Caucasian-like people in appearance.^- 

(h) Tlie (liffcrc)iti(ifion of old and voir i)innipr(n)t.<!. — All these racial identi- 
fications are confused by the evident desire to demonstrate that the old immigra- 
tion was different in racial type from the new. Thus Jewish immigrants, though 
in language and physical characteristics akin to the (Vrmans, are reckoned 
among the Slavs or eastern J^uropeans. In the same way it is suggested that a 
large part of the Irish are "English or Scotch in blood, Teutonic ('Nord'c') in 
t.vpe rather than 'Celtic'." The Dutch are the "Englishmen of the mainland." *' 

(c) The inferiority of the new ininiif/rnvtf^.- — Throughout the dicticmary and 
its summarv are reflections in scattered phrases and sentences upon the lesser 
capacity of the new immigrants to be Americanized. The English and the Irish 
crmie to the United States "imbued with sympathy for our ideals and our 
democratic institutions." The "Norse" make "ideal farmers and are often said 
lo Americanize more rapidly than do the other peoples who have a new language 
to learn." "There is no need to speak of peculiarities in customs and the many 
important elements which determine the place of the German race in modern 
civilization." For "the German is too well known in America to necessitate 
further discussion." By contrast, the Serbo-Croatians have "savage manners," 
the South Italians "have not attained distinguished success as farmers" and are 
given to brigandry and poverty: and although "the PoU's verge toward the 
•northern' race of Europe," being lighter in color than the Russians, "they are 
more high strung." in this respect resembling the Hungarians. "All these i>eo- 
ples of eastern and southern Europe, including the Greeks and the- Italians 
* * * give character to the immigration of today, as contrasted with the 
northern Teutonic and Celtic stocks that characterized it up to the eighties. 
All are different in temperament and civilization from ourselves."' "* 

It need hardly be said there is no evidence in the report to support these 
characterizations. If the material in the dictionary proves anything, it proves 
that the people of Europe are so thoroughly intermixed, both physically and 
linguistically, that they cannot be separated into distinct races. Nevertheless, 
the dictionary significantly establishes a pseudo-scientific basis for the designa- 
tion of various races. In the balance of the report, the reservations and con- 
ditional statements in the dictionary drop away, and the various immigrant 
groups are treated as fixed races, with well-defined characteristics. Further- 
more, throughout, the Commission proceeds on the assumption that these races 
can be combined into two clear-cut categories, the old and new." 

2. Emigration conditions in Europe 

The Commission studied the background of immigration by an extensive tour 
of Europe and through the examination of some of the relevant documents. 
It was interested in the causes of emigration, the surrounding conditions, the 
selective factors that operated in it, and the means by which the movement was 
effected. 



" Report, II, pp. 217, 236, 248, 253. 

^ Report, II, pp. 232. 246. 249. 

" Report. I, pp. 242, V, 47, 54. 66, 79, 82, 83, 104, 120. 130. 

"■^ See also, below, for a note on more recent race theory. 



COM\nSSIOX ON IMMIGRATIOX AND NATURALIZATION 1845 



111 this sectiou of its work, too, the Comiiiissiou tU'prived itself of the means 
t»f in;ikinj( appropriate comparisons between the old and the new immigrants; 
and then proceeded to make snch comparisons to the disadvantaf?e of the new 
imniijrrants, witliout the necessary evidence. 

In approaching tlie subject, the romniission ''was not unmindful of the fact 
that tlie widespread api)rehension in the United States relative to immigration 
is chiefly due" to the shift in the source of immigraticm from the nortinvestern 
regions to the southeastern regions of Europe. It therefore "paid i)articular 
attention" to the latter group.'" Almost 3(X) pages of the report deal with the 
situation in Italy, Russia, Austria-IIiui^ary, Greece. These discussions are, 
on the whole, fair and factm\l. But they are preceded by a gcr\eral survey of 
some 130 pages which draws less-fair inferential comparisons between the 
emigration from these places and that from Western Europe. The extensive 
accomit of the difficulties of life in the countries of the new immigration and 
the omission of any such account for the countries of old emigration leaves the 
impression that the circum.'^tances which caused tlio one differed from tho.se 
which caused the other."' 

In the general survey, the old and the new immigration are said to differ on 
four main points — permanence of settlement, sex distribution, occupation, and the 
causes of emigration. In the summary (volume 1) these differences are stated 
even more strongly than in more extended report in volume IV. It will l)e 
worth examining each of these differences in turn. 

(a) I'crmanoit or transient emigration. — The matter of permanent «r tran- 
sient emigration is important because it is presumed that those immigrants who 
come with the intention of staying make better citizens than the "birds of pa.s- 
sage" who come merely with the intention of worliing for a few years, then to 
depart. The Commission states flatly : "In the matter of stability or permanence 
of residence in the United States there is a very wide difference between Euro- 
pean immigrants of the old and new cla.sses." This conclusion is proved by 
comparing the number of arrivals in 1907 with tlie number of departures in 1908 
as follows : 





IminlLTants admittod, 
1907 


Aliens departiiip:, 1908 


Old immieration (percont'' 

New immigration (pprdp.nr) . 


22,7 

77. :i 


8.9 
91.1 






Total 


iro. c 


100.0 







If, however, the data is taken for particular groups and presented in terms of 
the relationship of the number of departures to the number of arrivals, the 
case is by no means so clear. Such groups as the south Italians and the 
Croatians would still show a high rate of deitartures ; but, on the other hand, 
such old groups as the English, the Germans, and the Scandinavians would 
show higher rates of departure than such new groups as the Armenians, the 
Dalmatians, the Hebrews, and the Portuguese.''* 

Taken even at its face value, this data would not justify a correlation 
between old immigration and permanence of settlement and between new inmii- 
gration and transience of settlement. Indeed the Commission had available 
other kinds of data which pointed to the completely conti-ary conclusion."" Most 
important of .'ill, the discussion did not take account here of various conditioning 
factors such as recency of migration. As an agent of the committee pointed out, 
in another place : 

"It is true, no doubt, that most of the recent immigrants hope at first to return 
some day to their native land, but * * * with the passing years and the 
growth of inevitable ties, whether domestic, financial, or political, binding the 
immigrant to his new abode, these hopes decline and finally disappear." ^° 

(/>) S!rx (Uatrihviion of immigrants. — The identical criticism applies to the 
Commission's opinion that the new immigration contains a higher proportion 

=" Report, IV, pp. 12, 19. 

" For recf-nt accoinits of the causes of the old emifrratiou, see below. 
. ^ The relevant data may he found, Report, I, pp. 179 ff., IV, pp. 39 ff. 
»» Report, VTTT. pp. 1.^2-1,^4. 
« Report, VIII, p. 657. 



1846 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

of single men than the old. Again, that ju linnent is superficially supported by 
throwing all the old and all the new immigrants together into two distinct groups ; 
that is the basis of the Commission's table ; 

Percent of males mnonri uitmigrants, 1S99-1909 

Old immigration 1 58. &• 

New immigration 73. O 

But taking the groups individually we find no such clear-cut demarcation 
among those with the lowest proportions of males in their total immigration. 

Percent of nudes among immigrants, 1899-1909 



Scotch n:\. fi 

Welsh 64. 8- 

Dutch 65. 5 

Finnish 65. 8 

Syrian ()8. 2 

Polish 69. 2 

Slovak__- 70. 0' 



Irish 47. 2 

Hebrew 56. 7 

Bohemian 56. 9 

French 58. 6 

Portuguese 59. 

German 59. 4 

Scandinavian 61. 3 

English 61. 7 

Here, too, the recency of the immigration movement would affect the utility of 
the data.''^ 

(c) Occupations. — The Commission attempted here to show that tlie new immi- 
gration brought to the United States a significantly larger percentage of unskilled 
laborers than did the old. Its data did not show this. 

For the purposes of this discussion only, therefore, the Hebrews were defined 
out of the new immigration. That still, however, did not account for the large 
proportion of servants among the old immigrants. Furthermore, examining the 
specific groups once more, we discover that the Germans and Scandinavians 
among the old immigrants boast fewer skilled la1)orers than such new groups 
as the Armenians, Bohemians, Hebrews, and Spanish : and the Irish are lower 
in the list than the south Italians. There is no basis liere certainly for the 
distinction between old and new.^" 

(d) The causes of emigration. — By confining the discussion of economic pres- 
sures on emigration to the countries of Southern and Eastern Europe, the in- 
ference is made that the new immigTation was more conditioned by such factors 
than the old. Thus, it is said : 

"A large proportion of the emigration from Southern and Eastern Europe 
may be traced directly to the inability of the peasantry to gain an adequate 
livelihood in agricultural pursuits.'" " 

The statement could as well be applied to the north and west of Europe. 
Similarly the summary asserts : 

"The fragmentary nature of available data relative to wages in many European 
countries makes a satisfactory comparison with wages in the United States 
impossible. It is well known, however, that even in England, Germany, France, 
and other countries of Western Europe wages are below the United States stand- 
ard, while in Southern and Eastern Europe the difference is very great." ** 

Actually, the original report makes clear, the only evidence the Commis- 
sion had was on the disparity between wages in the United States and tliose in 
France, Germany, and Great Britain. It admitted that there was no data on 
Southern and Eastern Europe. Yet by assuming that wages in the latter places 
were necessarily lower than in the former, the data on the old immigration 
served to prove the inferiority of the new.'° 

5. Economic effects of immigration 

This section of the subject absorbed the major portion of the Commission's 
attention. Fully 20 (VI-XXV) of the 42 volumes are devoted to it. The Com- 
mission's aides accumulated an enormous store of data in all parts of the coun- 
try; they examined 21 industries intensively, and 16 others only slightly less so. 
Much of the material so gathered is useful. P>ut the conclusions drawn from it 



« Report, I. p. 171. IV. pp. 23 ft. 
32 Rpport, I, pp. 172 ff., IV, pp. 26 ff. 
53 Report, I. p. 180, IV, p. 54. 
*• Report, I. p. 186. 
^Report IV, pp. 54-55. 



COMMISSION' OX LMMIORAIIOX AND NATURALIZATION 1847 

•by the (Vnuniissioii .•ire often misouiid Miid misleading, almost invariably so when 
it caine to coniiiarisons botwcon tlic old and t\u'. new linmijirants. 

TLe Commission boiran -with a dnbions assertion that: "The older immigrant 
labor supply was composed princ'ii)ally of persons who had had training? and 
<'xi)erienc'e iibroad in the industries which they entered after their arrival in 
the United States. * * *. in the oas;> of the nioi'e recent immigrations from 
Southern and Eastern Europe this condition of affairs has been reversed. Be- 
fore coming to the United States the gi'^'ater proportion were engaged in farming 
or unskilled labor and had no experience or training in mauulactnring or 
mining.'" 

Hy the Conunission's own figures, this statement is untrue, less than 20 per- 
<'ent'of the old innnigrants (1S!);}-1!>()!)) were skilled laborers, and the percentage 
in earlier periods was probably smaller still." The weakness of the claim that 
there was a correlation between the old immigration and skilled labor and be- 
tween the new and unskilled has already been shown above (p. 18). Starting 
with this misapprehension the committee proceeds to draw from its material 
far-reaching conclusions as to the effect of the new immigration upon: (a) Na- 
tive and old immigration labor, (b) unionization, (e) industrial methods, id) 
new industries, and (e) luiemployment and depressions. 

(o) Effects of the new immigration upon native and old immigrant labor. — • 
The Commission wished to demonstrate the adverse effects of the new immigra- 
ti(m up(m the existing labor supply. x\t one point it actually suggested that the 
new inunigration diminished the volume of the old and reduced the native birth 
rate. But it did not push that suggestion far. 

Instead it argued that in many industries the new immigrants pushed out the 
old labor force. It could not, however, explain this racial displacement by the 
mere willingness of newcomers t(t work at lower wages, for the Comiuission 
<liscovered that "it has not appeared in the case of the industries covered by the 
present investigation that it was usual for employers to engage recent immi- 
grants at wages actually lower than those prevailing at the time of their em- 
ployment." '^ 

The line of argument took another course, therefore. The presence of the 
newcomers, it was said, produced tinsafe working conditions and lowered the 
conditions of labor to a dgree that "the Americans and older immigrants have 
considered unsatisfactory." ^° To have proved that would have called for a his- 
torical investigation of the industries concerned from which evidence might be 
drawn for the presumed deterioration of conditions. There was no such study 
and no such evidence. Indeed, this section seems to have been inserted into the 
summary arbitrarily, for it seems not to correspond with any section of the 
extended report itself." 

On the other hand the report does contain material, not used by the Com- 
mission, that throws a different light upon the process of displacement. 

"The chief reason for the employment of immigrants has been the impos- 
sibility of securing other labor to supply the demand caused by the expansion 
of the industry. Withcmt the inunigrant labor supply, the develoimient of 
the cotton-goods industry to its present status in New England and other 
North Atlantic States could not have taken place." 

All these changes were part of the complex development of the American 
economy. The rapid industrial expansion of the half century before the 
investigation had been accompanied by swift technological change" which mech- 
anized many a.spects of production and thereby eliminated the skill of the old 
craftsmen. That accounts for the displacement. But the Commission also 
found that those displaced, in large measure, moved upward to better-paying 
jobs available in the rapid expansion of the economy. To the extent that immi- 
grants contributed to that expansion they actually helped to lift the condition 
of the laborers they found already there. 

In any case, no connection was established between the specific qualities of 
the new immigrants, and the whole i)rocess of displacement. Indeed the report 
itself pointed out that the shifts in the labor force went back to early in the 
nineteenth century and had once involved such old groups as the Irish. That 

»» Keport I, p. 404. 

■" Report I, p. 174. 

^ Uoport I, p. 494. 

»» Report I. p. 561. 

** Compare with Report, XIX. 

« Report X, p. 126. 



1848 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

might have suggested to the Commission, but uufortunately did not, that what 
was involved was not some peculiarity of the immigrants from Southern and 
Eastern Europe, but rather a general factor characteristic of all inunigrants, and 
varying with the recency of the group. 

(?>) Unionisation. — The Commission makes the blanket accusation that, ''The 
extensive employment of Southern and Eastern European immigrants in manu- 
facturing and mining has in many places resulted in the weakening of labor 
organizations or in their complete disruption." *^ This statement is made with- 
out a shred of evidence. The Commission did not include in its report any data 
on union membership, either for the country as a whole or for specific industries 
or for specitic unions. It had no way of knowing what the trend of union mem- 
bership was, or of wdiat the relationship of inuiiigration was to that trend. 

The accusation quoted above derives not from the evidence but from the Com- 
mission's assumption as to the nature of the new immigration : "The members 
of the larger luimber of races of recent entrance to the mines, mills, and factories 
as a rule have been tractable and easily managed. This (piality seems to be 
a temperamental one acquired through present or past conditions of life in their 
native lands." '^ 

The lengths to which the Commission was willing to go to maintain views of 
the effects of immigration on unions in accord with its prejudices may be seen, 
by comparing the account of the labor organizations in the cotton industry as 
it appears in the extended report with the same account summarized in the- 
summar.v. 

Speaking of the cotton-goods industry the original report points out that unions 
are confined to the skilled branches of the trade while the innnigrants are largely 
unskilled. The latter occupations "are not orgainzed. and the coming of the 
foreigner there does Tiot concern the textile unions." Since the organized l)ranches 
of the trade are "pi'otected, by the long time required to attain proficiency, from 
any sudden or immediate competition of unoi'ganized foreigners, these unions 
ai"e not strongly opposed to the immigrants gradually working into their trades." 
But "they manifest little interest in tlie innnigrant employees until they have- 
advanced to the occupations controlled by the labor organizations." Though 
the mass of laborers thus remain outside the union, the report continues, "all 
the operatives are strongly union in their sympathies and in the case of lal)or 
troubles have stood with the luiion people." ** 

How does the summary summarize this report? Only an extended quotatiou 
will show the extent of the distortion : 

"The more recent in)migrant employees from Southern and Eastern Europe 
and Asia, however, have been a constant menace to the labor organizations and 
have been directly and indirectly instrumental in weakening the unions and 
threaternng their disruption. * * * -pj^g recent innnigrants have also been 
reluctant to identify themselves with the unions."'''' 

This dictum inserted into the summar.v in direct conti'adiction to the evidence, 
while the conclusions of the oriMina! report are omitted, is evidence of the total 
tuireliability of the Commission's findings on the (piestion of luiionization and 
imnugration. 

(c) fiiijiixfrinl methoda. — The Commission found that among the effects of 
employing the new immigrants in industr.v was an increase in the number of 
accidents.^" This question has already been treated al)ove (p. 20). In addition 
reference should be made to the careful exannnation of the Commission's ccm- 
clusions on the subject by Dr. I. A. Hourwich.^' Dr. Hourwich showed that the 
Commission merely accepted the mine-operators' point of view, which was to 
ascrilje all accidents to employee negligence rather than to deficiencies in e(iuip- 
ment. Reconstructing the history of mine accidents. Dr. Hourwich showed that 
tlu'ir incidence varied with the output of industry rather than with the character 
of the labor force: and a comparison of mtnes in Oklahoma, Tennessee, and 
Alabama, which employed very few innnigrants, with those of Pennsylvania 
where the bulk of the miners were immigrants exposed clearly the falsity of the 
Commission's views. The Commission, eager to reach its own conclusions, con- 
sidered none of these types of evidence. 



« Report I, p. 530. 

« Report I, p. 500. 

« Report X, pp. 123, 124. 

•"> Report I, p. 537. 

« Report I, pp. 538 ff., VI, pp. 209 ff. 

■•'Isaac A. Hourwich, Immigration and Labor (2d edition. New York, 1922) pp. 458 ff. 



COMMISSION ON IMMI(iH.\'!10N AND NATURALIZATION 1849 

The conclusions of the Commission also loiiliiin nuiiicrou-s misccllaui'ons stal(!- 
ments as to the deterioration of tlie conditions of labor and of wa.ws as the 
results of immigration. In this connection, it is only necessary to emphasize 
again the fact that the Commission had no evidence whatsoever to support these 
contentifuis. Such evidence could only have come by a comparative historical 
study which would actvially trace the development of labor conditions over a 
substantial period. The Counnission made no such study. The hyiJothetical 
and speculative nature of its conclusions may be seen in the followini; example. 
Acknowledging that tbere was no evidence that immigrants actually woiked at 
lower wages, the Commission went on to say : 

"It is hardly opeu to doubt, however, that tlie availability of the large supply 
of recent immigrant labor prevented the incr(>ase in wages which otherwise 
would have resulted during recent years from the increased demand for labor." ^^ 

{(1) Neic imlKsfricx. — The Commission drew an unfavorable comparison be- 
tween the old and the new innnigration. The conung of the latter "has not 
resulted in the establishment of new industries of any iiiij)ortance." But, "by- 
way of contrast, it will be recalled that a large proportiim of the earlier immi- 
grant laborers were originally induced to come to this country to contribute their 
skill and experience toward the establishment ol new industries, such as mining 
and textile, glass, and iron and steel manufacturing." ■"" This assertion springs 
from the unreal fantasy to which the Counnission clung, that the old immigra- 
tion was largely made up of skilled artisans. (See above, p. IS.) It disregards 
also the ol)vious difference between the industrial conditions in the United States 
in 1840 and 1900. It was indeed easier to create new industries at the earlier 
date ; but that retiected the luideveloped economy of the country rather than the 
quality of the immigration.^" 

(e) UnemiHoynient avd depressions. — The ccjnclusions of the report also con- 
tain a number of statements implying a relationship between the new immigra- 
tion and unemployment and depressions." These are nowhere proven. In any 
case, as elsewhere, the Commission found it unnecessary to show that the old 
immigration had stood in a diiferent relationship ; it took that for granted. 

(/) Agriculture. — It was the same with the report on the conditions of immi- 
grants in agriculture. The body of that report consisted of a fairly sympathetic 
survey of many communities of recent immigrants. But the summary of the 
report was preceded by an introduction, not particularly related to the report 
itself, which drew an invidious distinction between the old and new immi- 
grants with regard to the likelihood of their entry into agriculture.'^ The 
comments there made disregarded two critical factors. First, the number of 
farmers increased with the duration of a group's life in the United States ; this 
was revealed quite clearly in the Commission's data wliich showed that for all 
groups there was a greater percentage of farmers among the second than among 
the first generation." Furthermore, the context of the American economy had 
changed after 1890. With industrialization there came a general growth of 
urban at the expense of rural population; even the sons of native farmers were 
being drawn to the city. Whatever difference existed between the old and the 
new immigrants, was not the product of their inherent characteristics but of 
the conditions they found and the length of time they had lived in the United 
States. 

Jf. Education and literacy. 

The current agitation of the literacy test gave particular importance to the 
Commission's discussion of the problems of literacy and education, and to its 
attempt to establish a difference, in this regard, between the old and the new 
immigration. 

The background was established in the account of emigration conditions in 
Europe, which clearly indicated a substantial difference in the rate of illiteracy 
between the newcomers to the United States from the countries of old innni- 
gration. The original report examined the various reasons for the high rate 
of illiteracy in Southern and Eastern Europe and concluded, "But probalily the 
most apparent cause of illiteracy in Europe, as elsewhere, is poverty. The 
economic status of a people has a very decided effect upon the literacy rate." 



« Report I, p. 540. 

*■' Report I, p. 541. 

™ For tlio later cnntrnnitlons of new immigrants, see below. 

" Report I, p. 39. 

^2 Report I, p. 547 flf. 

«» Report I. p. 709 ff. 



1850 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

It went on to predict a steady improvement in this regard.^* The summary 
omitted tliis discussion and suggested strongly that the high rate of illiteracy 
among the new immigrants was due to "inherent racial tendencies." '"'^ 

The Commission also found it possible to demonstrate that the n?w immi- , 
grants in the United States were less literate than the old. This data is nowhere 
l)ronght systematically together, hut is scattered through the reports on industries 
and agriculture. It is therefore difficult to analyze in detail. In general, how- 
ever, it may be said, that the factor of duration of settlement is almost every- 
where disregarded in arriving at the conclusion that "a much higher degree of 
illiteracy prevails among the immigrants of recent years form Southern and 
Eastern Europe than among those of old immigration from Great Britain and 
Northern Europe.^" The importance of the factor of duration of settlement may 
be gathered from the data on the literacy of employees in clothing manufacture, 
which do take account of it: 

Percentage of forcii/n-horn emploiiees who speak English by years 

in the United States 

Years in the United States : Percent 

Under 5 38. 8 

5 to 9 1 66.5 

10 or over '83.0 

1 Report XI, p. 363. 

The failure of the Commission to reckon with this factor invalidates its whole 
comparison. 

Its difficnlties with the more general problems of education were even more 
impressive. The Commission had apparently thought it would be possible to 
measure the capacity of the old and new immigrants to be schooled. Di.scussing 
the question Jenks had pointed out : 

"Any one who has observed, even in a small way, the different classes of 
people that come into this country, knows that some are very much inclined 
toward making the best possible use of our schools, while others make no 
attempt whatever to get in touch with our educational system." " 

The Commission planned to make such measurements through an elaborate 
investigation of more than 2.000,000 school children to discover which races 
were most likely to be retarded. 

Although four volumes of tables came forth from this investigation, it proved 
nothing. To begin with, the data was defective for it was based upon 
questionnaires sent to teachers who did not understand them. 

"In a considerable proportion of cases the teachers have assigned a cause 
of retardation for pupils who are the normal age or even younger than the 
noi mal age for the grade." ^ 

The Commission nevertheless u.sed the bulk of material gatliered, in its elabor- 
ate tables on retardation, the very concept which the teachers did not understand. 

The volumes of data thus reflect not the care and accuracy of the survey, 
but rather, the fact that the Commission was not able to shape its material to 
the conclusions it wished. 

There is no basis in the data for dividing the old from the new immigrants on 
the performance of their children in schools. But the information in the tables 
does show a wide variation from place to place in the achievements of children 
within any given group. Thus 55 percent of the German children in St. Louis 
are retarded, but only 21.2 percent in Scranton ; similarly the English show 56.2 
I3<^>rcent in St. Louis, 19.1 percent in Scranton, and 13.9 percent in Worcester.^" 

That might suggest that the quality of schools and the social environment was 
a more significant variable than parentage. But not to the Commission. 

So too, through the tables there runs a good deal of material that would em- 
phasize the importance of recency of settlement, so much so, that the original 
report pointed out : 

"Length of residence in the United States has an important liearing ou prog- 
ress of pupils. It can hardly be expected that children of immigrants who have 
been in the United States only a few months or even years can make the same 



"Report IV, pp. 34, 35. 

" Report I, p. 176. 

5" Report I, p. 443. 

" Jenks, The Racial Problem in Immigration, loc. cit., p. 219. 

"8 Report II. p. 43. 

•^Report XXXIII, pp. 218, 386, 564. 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1851 

progress as children of those who have boon here long enough to he<'ome more or 
less adjusted to their new surroundings.*" 

This comment seemed not worthy of inclusion in the summary." 

5. Charity and immigration 

The data on paujterism, dependence, and admissions to institutions do not 
supply the basis for any generalizaticms as to meaningfid differences between 
the old and new immigration, except insofar as the old were more subject to alco- 
holism than the new." 

6. Immitiration and crime 

Among the Commission's conclusions were some striking comments on the rela- 
tionship of criminality to immigration. "Statistics show," it said, "that the 
proportion of convictions for crimes according to the popoulation is greater 
among the foreign-l)orn than among the native-liorn." Furthermore, the con- 
clusions asserted, "The proportion of the more sei'ious crimes of homicide, lilack- 
mail. and robliery, as well as the least serious offenses is greater among the 
foreign-born." "'' These statements followed smoothly from the conceptions of 
racial propensities included in the Dictionary of Races. To support tliem with 
statistical evidence was more difficult, however. 

What did statistics showV When the Commission turned to the only existing 
body of infornuition. the Census Report on Prisoners, it discovered a disconcerting 
situation. Tiiese data, gathered by a body which did not liave to prove any 
conclusions, showed that "immigration has not increased the volume of crime 
to a distingni-shable extent, if at all," that the percentage of immigrants among 
prisoners had actually fallen between 1890 and 1904, and that native Americans 
"exhibited in general a tendency to commit more serious crimes than did the 
immigrant." " 

Obviously, .such statistics would not do. The Commission proceeded to gather 
its own. For its study, the Commission accumulated a very large number of 
cases, fully 1. 179.077. were extracted from court records over a period of 7 years. 

These were derived from relatively few sources. Of them, some 1,130,000 were 
drawn from New York and Chicago, the two cities with the largest number of 
foreign born in the United States, and ."^0.000 more came from Massachusetts, 
also a State of high immigrant density. (The remainder were tlie 12,000 aliens 
in Federal institutions.) Apparently it was iinneeessary to examine the experi- 
ence of such places as Memphis, San Francisco, and Atlanta.'^ 

It must be pointed out, however, that no inferences drawn from such data 
could possibly support the sweeping generalizations of the conclusions. For 
such a sample would hardly be illuminating for the country as a whole or for the 
place of tlie immigrant in the national crime prolilem. At most it could throw 
light on the peculiar prol)lems of the two i)laces from which the bulk of the cases 
were taken. 

The Commission does not however use the material in that way; if it had, its 
conclusions could not stand. It does not, for instance, examine the frequency of 
crime relative to the number of the foreign-born and native groups. To attempt 
such a correlation it felt would not be feasible. Instead data were organized to 
show'how immigration changed the cliaracter of crime in the United States. Its 
evidence, the Commission ima:rined. showed that immigration had increa.sed — - 

"The commission of offenses of personal violence (such as abduction and kid- 
naping, assault, honucide, and rape) and of that large class of violations of the 
law known as offenses against public policy (which include disorderly conduct, 
drunkenness, vagrancy, the violation of corporate ordinances, and many oft'enses 
incident to city life) * * * (as well as) offenses against chastity, especially 
those connected with prostitution." " 

It must be emphasized again that even if the Commission had shown that, 
it would still not have supported its general conclusions that the imnugrants 
had a higher proportion of crimes according to population than did the natives. 

But in any case, the Commission did not show such a result followed upon 



™ Report XXIX, p. 91. 

«' Koi)(>rt II. i>. 41. 

•= Report I. i)p. .•',4. .SS. 

« Report I. T>. ^-'i. 

^ Report XXXVI, I, pp. 

" Report XXXVI. p. 10. 

•" Report II, p. ir.4. 

25.3.56—52 117 



1852 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

immigration. It liad indeed no basis at all for comparison with earlier 
periods. What it did was quite different. For each group of inunigrants and 
for the native Americans it worked out a pattern of the distribution of various 
types of crimes. Within each group it compared the incidence of each specific 
type of crime with the total number of crimes in that group. When therefore 
it said that the foreign-born were more prone than the natives to crimes of 
personal violence, it did not mean that the foreign-born committed more such 
crimes than the natives either absolutely or relative to their percentage in the 
total population. It meant only that such crimes accounted for a larger part 
of the total criminality of the group. 

One illustration will suffice to show the meaning of this difference. The New 
York County and Supreme courts, 1907 and 1908, showed the following cases of 
assault, by nativity: 



Country of birth : Numier 
Ireland 38 

Canada 15 

Poland 14 

England ^8 



Country of birth: Number 

United States 630 

Italy 342 

Russia 73 

Austria-Hungary 62 

Germany 47 

1 Report XXXVI, pp. 348-351. 

This data is presented by the Commission in a table headed "Relative fre- 
quency" of such offenses, as follows : 

Percent 
Country of birth : of total 

Italy 28. 9 

Austria-Hungary 15. 

Poland 14. 6 

Ireland 13. 7 

Canada 12. 1 

Russia 11. 3 

Germany 9. 1 

United States 8. 7 

England ' 5. 

1 Report II, p. 197. 

The table last cited can be understood only when one remembers that "percent 
of total" means percent of crimes of this category of the total number of crimes 
by the nativity group concerned. In almost all such cases the low position of 
natives of the United States seems due to the fact that the total number of 
crimes of violence they commit is much larger than for other groups. As the 
Commission presented these data, they were never very meaningful, often 
misleading, and they in no case supported its general contentions."* 

7. Immigration and vice 

The Commission's report on the "white slave traffic" is moderate in tone and 
factual in content."" It is on the whole free of the conjectural elements that 
mar so much of the rest of the report. Perhaps the only objection to it is the 
failure adequately to place the problem in its proper context. Dealing ex- 
clusively with the immigrants, it gives the impression, unintentionally, that 
prostitution was largely a product of the foreign born, although fragmentary 
data in the report indicate they played only a minor role in the American 
problem.™ 

8. Immigration and insanity 

The Commission did not make a tirst-hand investigation of this subject. Its 
data is drawn from the census and otlier sources. While the available informa- 
tion seemed to indicate that the foreign-born supplied more than their share 
of the insane, it also indicated that it was the old, rather than the new, immi- 
.eration that was chiefly responsible. The Irish, the Germans, and the Scan- 
dinavians showed the greatest relative responsibility, or, as the I'eport put it : 

"It appears that insanity is relatively more prevalent among the foreign-born 
than among the native-born, and relatively more prevalent among certain 
immigrant races and nationalities than among others. In general the nation- 



«' The details can be adequately traced only in the full Report XXXVI. 
«=» Report XXXVII. 
'"Report II, p. 251. 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGR/TION AND NATURALIZATION 1853 

alities furthest advanced in civilization show, in the United States, a higher 
Iiroportion of insane than do the more hackward races." " 

.9. Vhnnyes in bodily form aitiong the dcscotdanis of innmgrants 

The Connuission considered within the scope of its inquiry the whole problem 
of the physical ciiaracteristics of the immigrants. To the Dictionary of Races, 
which r«'sted uiM)n information gathered from other sources, it wished to join 
its own findings on the physical chai'acteristics of immigrants and their descend- 
ants. This was an important question because it was theretofoi-e assumed that 
such characteristics of a race as bodily form were fixed and permanent. It was 
not imagined that they would change in the course of immigration ; and if they 
did not, that might conspicuously affect the assimilation of the immigrants. 

I'rof. Fran/, lioas, of Columbia University, the distinguished anthropologist 
charged with resi)onsibility for the study, discovered surprising results however. 
It apix'aied that : 

"The head form, which has always been considered one of the most stable 
and permanent characteristics of human races, undergoes far-reaching changes 
due to the transfer of the people from European to American soil * * * 
This fact shows * * * that not even those characteristics of a race which 
have proved to be most permanent in their old home remain the same under 
the new suri-oundings ; and we are compelled to conclude that when these fea- 
tures of the l)ody change, the whole bodily and mental make-up of the immi- 
grants may change * * * All the evidence is now in favor of a great plas- 
ticity of human types." '" 

10. Summary Evaluation of the Coinniisfiion's Findings. 

The Commission was certainly surprised with these results. It perforce 
quoted them — but cautiously, and with the reservation that a good deal more 
study was needed before they could be accepted. " The Commission certainly 
did not allow these findings to influence the materials in the Dictionary of Races 
or to stand in the way of its allusion to the fixed nature of the temperaments of 
the races it discussed through the body of the report. 

In summary, it may be said, the Commission did not use the opportunity 
afforded it, to make the open oVijective study of the problem it might have. It 
began with preconceived ideas as to the difference between the old and the 
new immigration. It did not have the evidence to substantiate that assumption. 
But it devotes nuicli of its efforts to bending what evidence it could find to that 
end. Its conclusions are largely invalidated by those distortions and offered 
an un.sound basis for the legislation that followed. 

v. THE LAUGHLIN REPORT 

Dr. Harry Laughlin's Analysis of America's Modern Melting Pot was designed 
to correct the inability of the Dillingham Commi!ssi(m i-eport to demonstrate 
conclusively the .social inferiority of the "new " immigrants. Laughlin's report 
originates in a hearing of the House Immigration Committee (Api-il 16, 17, 
192()) which asked him to study the relations of biology to immigration par- 
ticularly as they bore on the problems of social degeneracy. '* 

Laughlin's rei)oi-t was i)resente(l to the comndttee in November 1922. The 
Honorable Albert .loluison. chaiiinan of the committee, examined the reiwrt and 
certified: "1 have exanfined Dr. Laughlin's data and charts and find that they 
are both l)iologicaIly and statistically thorough, and apparently sound."'* 
Whatever the chairman's conq)(>tence to pass upon these matters, he was satis- 
fied that tiie investigation had proved the infei-iority of the new immigrants. 
Tlie opinions that were liefore long to be reflected in legislation were summarized 
by Dr. Laughlin : 

•"The outstanding conclu.sion is that, making all logical allowances for environ- 
mental conditions, which may be unfavorable to the innnigrant, the recent 
immigrants as a whole, present a higher percentage of inborn socially inadequate 
qualities than do the older stocks." 

T 'is conclusion v.as accompanied by the assurance that it was based upon "data 
and conditions" not "sentiment or previous attitude"'" 



" Report II, p. 251. 

" Report II, pp. 505, 506. 

" Rejtort I, J). 44. 

"' Lair_'hlin Ri>i)oit, p. 731. 

'-' I^auKlilin Report, p. 7.S1. 

■' lyiuiglilin Report, p. 755. 



1854 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

Before advancing to an examination of tliose data, it will however, be worth 
making note of Dr. Laughlin's own sentiments as he explicitly stated them to 
the committee : 

"We in this country have been so imbued with the idea of democracy, or the 
equality of all men, that we have left out of consideration the matter of blood 
or natural inborn hereditary mental and moral differences. No man who breeds 
pedigreed plants and animals can afford to neglect this thing." " 

Dr. Laughlin thus purported to be studying the "natural inborn hereditary" 
tendencies of the new immigrants to the significant social disorders. His method 
was to examine the distribution of various national stocks in 445 State and 
Federal institutions in 1921. 

Certain criticisms of this procedure immediately suggest themselves. Most 
important is the fact that commitments to public institutions do not measure 
the hereditary tendencies Dr. Laughlin presumes to be measuring. In the case 
of insanity, for instance, this is a most inadequate standard, since the avail- 
ability of facilities in various sections varies greatly, as does the willingness 
of certain social, economic, and ethnic groups to make use of those facilities 
in preference to private institutions or to home care. All the generalization 
based on such data must be dubious. 

Furthermore Laughlin's sample was faulty and he treated his material crudely, 
failing to make corrections for occupational, age or sex distribution. His 
critical statistical device, "the quota fulfillment plan of analysis" was based 
tipon a comparison of committal records of 1921 with the distribution of popula- 
tion in 1910, although the census data of 1920 was available to him. By this 
means he certainly magnified the relative number of the immigrants among the 
socially inadequate. 

Bi;t all these methodological faults, grave as they are, shrink in importance 
as compares with a more basic criticism. The data, faulty as they are, simply 
do not say what Laughlin says they say. His conclusions can find support, of a 
sort, only by throwing together all forms of inadequacy in a few gross, and 
arbitrary divisions as follows : 

Percent of 
quota fulfillment 

Native white, native parentage 84. 33 

Native white, foreign parentage 109.40 

Native white, mixed parentage 116. 65 

Northwestern Europe immigrants 1,30.42 

Southeastern Europe immigrants ^ 143. 24 

1 Laughlin Report, p. 753. 

But Laughlin's own materials do not support his conclusions if the various 
national groups are treated separately, whether for inadequacy as a whole, or 
for particular types of inadequacy. In the chart which follows the various 
nationalities are ranked according to their order in Laughlin's rating of quota 
fulfillment for each category and for the total. The ranking is in the order of 
descending desirability, that is, those at the top are most desirable, those at the 
bottom least. 

FEEBLEMINDEDNESS 

1. Ireland 11. Italy 

2. Switzerland 12. Great Britain 

3. All Asia 13. Turkey 

4. Greece 14. Russia and Poland 

5. France 35. Bulgaria 

6. Germany 16. United States, native parents 

7. Scandinavia 17. United States, foreign parents 

8. Austria-Hungary 18. United States, mixed parents 

9. Canada 19. Australia 
10. Rumania 20. Serbia 



" Laughlin Report, p. 738. 



COMMISSION OX IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1855 



8. 

9. 

10. 



Japan 

Switzerland 

T'niterl States, native parents 

Rumania 

United States, mixed parents 

United States, foreign parents 

Canada 

All Asia 

Austria-Hungary 

Great Britain 



11. Italy 

12. France 

13. Grece 

14. Germany 

15. Scandinavia 
IG. Turkey 

17. Russia and Poland 
IS. Bulgaria 

19. Ireland 

20. Serbia 



1. Switzerland 

2. Ireland 
o. Germany 

4. Scandinavia 

5. Great Britain 

6. Canada 

7. Austria-Hungary 

8. United States, native parents 

9. United Stales, forei.uu parents 
10. United States, mixed parents 



11. France 

12. Russia-Poland 

13. Rumania 

14. Japan 

15. Italy 

16. Turkey 

17. All Asia 

18. Greece 
39. Bulgaria 
20. Serbia 



1. Scandinavia 

2. France 

3. Switzerland 

4. All Asia 

5. Greece 
(3. Austria-Hungary 

7. Germany 

8. Canada 

9. Italy 

1. Switzerland 

2. Germany 

3. Austria-Hungary 

4. Great Britain 

5. United States, native parents 

6. Canada 

7. United States, mixed parents 



4. 
5. 
6. 
7. 
8. 
9. 
10. 



10. United States, native parents 

11. Turkey (European) 

12. Ireland 

13. Russia-Poland 

14. Rumania 

15. Great Britain 

16. United States, foreign parents 

17. United States, mixed parents 



TUBERCVLOSIS 



8. United States, foreign parents 

9. Italy 

10. Ireland 

11. All Asia 

12. Russia-Poland 

13. Scandinavia 

14. Greece 



DEPENDENCY 



1. Austria-Hungary 

2. Italy 

3. All Asia 

4. Russia-Poland 

5. Scandinavia 

6. United States, mixed parents 

7. United States, foreign parents 

8. United States, native parents 



9. Switzerland 

10. Germany 

11. Gi-eece 

12. Canada 

13. Great Britain 

14. France 

15. Turkey 

16. Ireland 



ALL TYPES OF SOCIAL INADEQUACY 



Switzerland 

Japan 

United States, native parents 

Austria-Hungary 

Canada 

Rumania 

Germany 

United States, foreign parents 

Great Britain 

United States, mixed parents 



11. Scandinavia 

12. France 

13. All Asia 

14. Italy 

15. Russia-Poland 
10. Greece 

17. Turkey 

18. Ireland 

19. Bulgaria 

20. Serbia'' 



'8 Not all Laiighlin's entries are included, and Negroes are exclinied so 
refers to native white. 



I hat "Native' 



1856 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

A candid examination of these rankings will reveal that, whatever their 
intrinsic value, they do not show any consistent order of superiority or in- 
feriority among the various nations. Furthermore they certainly do not show 
that the new nationalities can, in any sense conceivably be said to rank below 
the old nationalities. All the inferences of the Lauglilin report must therefore 
be categorically rejected. 

VI. SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF AMERICAN ETHNIC GROUPS 

The studies that have here been examined have a historical interest insofar 
as they contributed to the adoption of tiie national-origins quota system which 
is stili a part of American immigration legislation. By giving governmental 
and quasi-scientific validation to existing prejudices against the new immi- 
grants, they helped to justify the discriminations against them in the laws 
of 1921 and 1924. 

But these studies no longer have the slightest scientific value. In the last 
quarter century new investigations by scientists, detached from the pressure of 
the immediate problems of immigration, have uncovered a good deal of infoi-ma- 
tion relevant to the matters touched on in the Dillingham and the Lauglilin 
reports. They have dealt more adequately with the problems of race, with 
the course of immigration through American history, with the nature of the 
economic and social adjustments of immigrants, and with the extent to which 
intelligence, education, crime, insanity, and other social disorders vary among 
diverse groups of our population. Large areas of this subject, of course, still 
remain open for investigation ; and at some places the evidence is inconclusive. 
But enough data is available to give a fresh orientation to the ideas within 
which the future of immigration will be considered, lieexamination of American 
immigration policy should involve not only an understanding of the fallacies 
upon which the old laws rest, but also a comprehension of the new view upon 
which forward-looking legislation might he based. In the following account 
a very brief summary will be given of the generally accepted conclusions bearing 
upon the place of immigrants in American life. 

1. The nature of race 

A useful summary of the points upon which there is a general consensus of 
opinion was prepared for UNESCO in a statement on race by a group of dis- 
tinguished biologists, psychologists, and social scientists in 1950. Its main 
points furnish a strategic beginning for this discussion. These follow.™ 

Mankind is essentially one, descended from the same common stock. The 
species is divided into a number of populations or races which differ among 
each other in the frequency of one or more genes, which determine the heredi- 
tary concentration of physical traits. Those traits are not fixed, but may 
appear, fluctuate, and disappear in the course of time. It is presently possible 
to distinguish three such races, the Mongoloid, the Negroid and the Caucasoid, 
but no subgroups within them can be meaningfully described in physical terms. 
National, religious, geographic, linguistic, and cultural groups ao noc coincide 
with race ancl the cultural and social traits of such groups have no genetic 
connection with racial traits. There is no evidence of any inborn differences 
of temperament, personality, character, or intelligence among races.*" 

If this statement be accepted, then the only meaningful terms In which one 
can compare the social and cultural traits of groups is in terms of the ethnic 
group, which preserves its continuity to the extent that its culture passes from 
generation to generation through a common social environment. The inheri- 
tance of an ethnic group consists not of its biological traits but of its culture." 

2. Immigration and the ethnic groups in American life 

Ethnic groups have played a particularly important role in American history. 
In the United States, the Government has always left large areas of social 
action free for tbe activities of voluntary organizations. Without any compul- 
sion toward uniformity, individuals have been free to associate with one another 



'"A convenient version is in Ashley Montagu, Statement on Race (New York, [1951]). 

*" Tlie following works contain useful discussions of these jioints : Anthony Barnett, 
The Human Species (New York, 1950) ; William C. Bovd, Genetics and the Races of Man 
(Boston, 1950) C. S. Coon, S. M. Gam, and J. B. Birdsell, Races (Springfield, 1950). 

^ The Boas report on bodily forms whicli made this point (above), has not been 
significantly criticized since and has been supported by other more recent data. See Franz 
Boas, Race, Language, and Culture (New York, 1940), pp. 28 ff., fiO ff. M. S. Goldstein, 
Demographic and Bodily Changes in Descendants of Mexican Immigrants (Austin, 1943), 
p. 16. 



COMMISSION OX IMMIGRAIIOX AND NATURALIZATION 1857 

in roliuaous, social, pliilaiitliroiiic. cultural, and econouiic organizations through 
which they ol'ten prt'servc ihc distiiicl ive (litfcri'nccs that si'parate thoui from 
other Americans. Those differences may originate in any one of a number of 
factors: religion, for instance, is the basis of identification among such groups 
as the Mormons or Q lakers. P.ut one of tlie most important means tlirough 
which these differences appear is througli inunigration which brings to this 
country men of diverse cultural antecedents. 

Immiijfration has therefore always played a central role in the formation of 
American culture. From the first settlements to our own times, this process 
has been involved with the shaping of the distinctive institutions under which 
we live. 

The most important contributions to the understanding of this process in 
recent years have been those which emphasized its continuity, demonstrating 
that the kinds of iieoph' who arrived in the seventeenth centui-y were not sub- 
stantially different from tlu).se who came in the eighteenth or in the nineteenth 
or in the twentieth. Althoxigh each of the ethnic groups which came to the 
New World had its distinctive cultural and social life, the process that brought 
them all Mas the same. Their social origins and their motives were always very 
much alike. 

In the face of these contributions it is no longer possible to .speak of meaning- 
ful distinctions between settlers and immigrants or between old and new 
immigrants. Englishmen, Germans, Italians, and Poles all spoke different lan- 
guages, had different customs, and were accustomed to different forms of be- 
havior. But the kinds of Englishmen who came to the United States in the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries were very much the same as the kinds of 
Irish, Germans, and Scandinavians who came in the middle of the nineteenth, 
and these in turn were very much like the Italians, Jews, and Poles who came 
later.*' 

Very largely all these immigrants were people di.splaced b.v economic changes 
in the structure of modern agriculture and industry. With the growth of popu- 
lation and with the mechanization of industry and agriculture, large numbers 
of artisans found their handicrafts useless and even larger numbers of peasants 
found no place for themselves on the land. These were the people to whom op- 
portunity beconed in the New World. The generating economic changes began 
in England and spread to the east ; that accounts for the difference in the era 
at which various peoples began to migrate. But the process was one and 
continuous." 

In di.scu.s.sing the process of adjustment to life in the United States, it is 
therefore necessary to take account of both similarities and differences among 
the groups involved. To some extent, the qualities of the cultural heritage seem 
to influence the course of that adjustment. But more important seem to be the 
nature of the opportunities open to the immigrant and the length of time his 
adjustment has taken. In no case does the line between old and new seem 
significant. 

3. The economic adjustment 

Properly or not, discu-sion of the problems of immigration has often focused 
on the nature of the effects uijon the economy. The Immigration Commission 
devoted the bulk of its labors to this subject : and for some Americans this has 
been the decisive aspect of the questipn. Scholarly studies have thi'own con- 
sideralile light upon the effects of immigration on depressions, on wages, on 
occupati(»nal stratificati(m and mobility, and on economic innovations. 

(a) Imm if/rat ion mul depressions. — It was once feared that immigration 
which added new hands to the labor supply might contribute to the severity of 
depressions. The evidence of the depression that followed upon the panic of 
1920, points in the other diiection. In the early lO.'JO's the volume of unemploy- 
ment remained high and the d(>pression intense despite the complete curtailment 
of immigration. These phenomena depended upon the more general fluctuations 
of the business cycle rather than upon a single factor, immigration. 

Furthermore studies of the period of free migration down to 1!)24 have indi- 
cated the likelihood that inunigration may actually have eased the effects of 
depression. Tlie volume of immigration then seemed to rise sharply during 
periods of prosperity and to sink rapidly in Jieriods of depression. This lent 
fluidity to the labor supply, enabling it to expand when more hands were needed 



*= Sep the followinff works: Abbot E. Smith. Colonists in Bondage (Chapel Hill, 1947) ; 
M. li. Hansen. Atlantic Migration (Cambridge, 1941). 
^ See also Oscar Handlin, The Uprooted (Boston, 1951). 



1858 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

and to contract when they were not.^ The conclusion is clear that immigration 
is not liliely in this respect to be a danger in the future. 

(b) Immigratmi and wages. — Through much of tlie period of free immigra- 
tion tliere was fear its effects would be to drive wages down. There were some 
grounds for this fear. As a theoretical proposition it seems likely that the 
effect of adding to the supply of labor would be to drive down its cost. Further- 
more, through much of the period of free immigration, the average real wages 
of labor, particularly of unskilled labor, fell or were stationary.'" 

If the question is examined more closely, however, the relationship of immi- 
gration to labor will assume another appearance. To use an over-all average of 
labor, particularly of unskilled labor will not tell us much about the effects of 
immigration on the earlier labor force, because the immigrants themselves 
constituted a large part of the sample. Eliminating the unskilled labor of the 
immigrants themselves, it seems the more skilled labor of the natives was not 
adversely affected. Furthermore, the coming of the immigrants by broadening 
the range of opportunities at the top of the occupational ladder seems actually 
to have lifted the older labor force to higher job levels and thus to have increased 
their income. As long as the whole economy was expansive, therefore immigra- 
tion probably raised rather than lowered the wage level of the existing labor 
force.'" 

In the more recent past, with wages largely determined by collective bargain- 
ing, the decisive element in the determination of wage rates seems to have been 
the state of labor organization in any given industry. When the opportunity 
has ben afforded them, immigrants have shown their readiness to join unions 
in defense of their interests as workers." Given the continued capacity of our 
economy to expend in the future, a moderate amount of immigration seems no 
threat either to wage rates or to the unions. 

(c) Immigration and occupational stratification. — Although economic oppor- 
tunities in American society are oi>en to all, some groups are more likely than 
others to take advantage of them. The determining factors are complex and 
will only be treated here in their relationship to immigration. 

Most immigrants entered the American economy at the lowest levels, primarily 
as unskilled laborers. This was the logical outcome of the situation of peasants 
coming without capital to an industrial society. The lack of skill and the initial 
role as laborers was characteristic of the old immigrants as of the new, of 
the Irish and Germans, as of the Italians and Poles, although the proportions 
differed somewhat.*' There were occasional exceptions, of course, as among the 
British immigrants of the last quarter of the nineteenth century and among the 
Jews a little later.'" 

It seems clear that the occupational level of all such groups rises with the 
passage of time, although no general study has as yet examined with suffi- 
cient care the means through which that rise occurs or the factors which affect 
its rate. The various groups vary in their experience ; and those variations no 
doubt reflect differences in cultural background as well as in the availability of 
opportunities and the length of settlement. 

That the factor last named may be crucial is shown by the findings in a survey 
of Newburyport, Mass. Using indices of their own contriving, the authors of 



*^ Harry Jerome, Migration and Business Cycles (New York, 1926) ; Hourwich, Immi- 
gration and Labor, pp. 114 S. 

*^ See on these points, Julius Isaac, Economics of Migration (New York, 1947), pp. 197 
fif. : also G. A. Kleene. Profits and Wages (New York, 1916), 119 ff. 

^ See, above ; Hourwich, Immigration and Labor, pp. 13 fif. ; Isaac, Economics of 
Migration, p. 2.30. 

s' Herman Feldmnn. Racial Factors in American Industry (New York, 1931), pp. 219 ff. 

s' See Oscar Handlin, Boston's Immigrants (Cambridge, 1941), pp. 59 ff. ; Robert Ernst, 
Immigrant Life in New York City (New York, 1949), pp. 61, 219. 

■''• See E. E. Colien, "Economic Status and Occupational Structure," American Jewish 
Yearbook, (Long Island. 1050), pp. 53 ff. R. T. BerthofC, British Immigrants in Industrial 
America (dissertation in Harvard Archives, 1952). 



COMMISSION OX IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1859 



that study traced tlu' occupational status of eight ethnic groups over nine 
decades as follows : '■'" 



Group 


1850 


1864 


1873 


1883 


1893 


1903 


1913 


1923 


1933 


Irish -- 


1.62 


1.76' 


1.74 


1.76 


1.84 
1.95 


1.94 
2.10 


2.14 
2.14 
3.10 
2.32 
2.46 


2.31 
2.23 
3.22 
2.29 
2.51 
2.53 
1.88 


2.52 




2.24 












3.32 


Italians 














2.28 


Armenians . . . 














2.56 
















2.34 


Poles 
















1.97 


















1.95 























'« W. L. Warnor and Leo Srole, Social Systems of American Ethnic Groups (New Haven, 1945), p. 60. 

The Striking features of these findings are : the extent to which almost all 
groups seem to raise their status in time, the fact that relative iDOSitiou tends to 
vary with duration of settlement, and tlie fact that some new immigrants 
(Armenians, Jews) do hetter than the old Irish. Scattered data on home 
ownership and savings accounts would seem in general to bear out the same 
conclusions. 

((?) Iniinrations and immigration. — Finally the possibility must not be over- 
looked that among any group of immigrants or their children there may be the 
occasional individual who by his gilts as an outsider may become one of the 
long list of innovators, inventors, or entrepreneurs, who have helped to stimulate 
American industry in the past. No test will reveal which particular group will 
in the future bring along a Michael Pupin, a Conrad Huber, an Ottmar Mergen- 
thaler, or a Giuseepe Bellanca." 
a long list of such names. 

To sum up, the possible adverse economic effects of immigration seem slight, 
the possible gains both for Americans and newcomers seem considerable. All 
the groups which have hitherto Immigrated have had some economic difficulties 
in the sense that they have had to begin with the poorest .lobs but all have 
shown some capacity to thrive from the opportunities of American life. 

4. Intelli(jcnc€ and adjustme^it 

Among the indices that have conventionally been used to judge the capacity 
of various ethnic groups for Americanization was their intelligence and educa- 
tion. This was long the ostensible justification for the literacy test since, it 
was argued, only the fittest groups ought to be permitted to assume the responsi- 
bilities of American citizenship. 

The difficulty was to find a reliable basis for comparing the intelligence of 
diverse groups. The Army intelligence tests 1917-18 were inconclusive since 
it was difficult to eliminate the effect of differences of environment on the re- 
sults. All that can reliably be deduced from these tests is that duration of 
residence was a significant factor. Beyond that, there is no sound basis for 
establishing valid differences in intelligence among various ethnic groups."^ 

There is a good deal of evidence of difference in educational attainment. 
Local data indicates some groups are more proficient in their schooling and 
advance to higher grades than others.. Ethnic values and background may be a 
conditioning factor here. On the other hand, there is also evidence that the 
social environment is the critical factor. Negro children who migrate from the 
South to the North thus show a marked rise in intelligence quotient."' Further- 
more, a general .study of American education, has shown that the most significant 
varial)le in the ability of children to profit from their schooling is the character 
of the social environment and the class from which they come.*" In all this 



** W. S. Bernard, Ani<>rican Immigration Policy (New York, 1950), p. 61 ff., contains 
a long list of such name.s. 

"= A good discussion of the whole question is in Anne Anastasi and .Tohn P. Folev, .Tr., 
Differential Psychology (New Yorlf, 1949), pp. 689-8.^6. See also, F. L. Marcuse and 
M. E. Ritterman. Notes on the Results of Armv Intelligence Testing in World War I, 
Science, CIV (194(5). p. l.':;i : Otto Kliueborir. Race l^ifferences (Now York. 19.3.")). p. 1,52 ff. : 
C. C. P.righam. A Study of American Intellig<>nce (Princeton, 1923) ; Clifford Kirkpatrick, 
Intelligence and Immigration (Baltimore, 192(5) ; F. Osborne, Preface to Eugenics (New 
York. 1940). p. 77. 

"=" Otto KIinel)erg. Negro Intelligence and Selective Misration (New I'ork, 19.'?.'5), p. .59 ff. 

»» W. L. Warner. R. .1. Ilavighurst, and M. B. Loeb, Who Shall Be Educated? (New 
York, 1944), pp. 45 ff., 58 ff. 



1860 COMMISSION ox IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

material, there is little to suggest that any group is inately incapable of being 
Americanized by reason of deficiencies in its intelligence."" 

5. Criminality and adjustment 

Very similar conclusions emerge from the studies of criminality in the past 25 
years.' As to total inclination to crime, the (Wickersham) National Commission 
on Law Observance and Enforcement found that the foreign-born committed 
fewer crimes than the native in proportion to their respective numbers in the 
total population."" This result is plausible enough, although there must always 
be a good deal of difficulty in compensating for differences due to the social 
distribution of the groups concerned. 

The Commission also felt that among the foreign-born there seemed to be 
variations, from group to group, in the proneness to commit certain types of 
crime. But its evidence, it feared, was not adequate to sustain any firm 
generalization. 

A more recent study tended to confirm the predilection of various ethnic 
groups to certain types of crime. Professor Hooton found that crime was not 
due to race or ethnic affiliations. But given a criminal individual, the type of 
crime committed was likely to be determined by the character of the group 
from which he sprang."' Certainly this factor seems, in general, minor in com- 
parison with the other social, psychological, and biological factors affecting the 
rate of criminality in the United States."* 

Juvenile delinquency now also seems less a concommitant of immigration 
than formerly. Intensive investigations have not found conclusive evidence 
that the children of immigrants are more likely to be delinquent than the children 
of natives ; and given equality of social environment, there is even an indication 
they may be less so.''" 

Furthermore there is now a soimd basis for believing that the ciiltural conflict 
deriving from ethnic affiliations is of only slight importance in the incidence 
of juvenile delinquency, and that the more critical factors spring from the 
social and family environment and the personality of the individual child.^ 

The total trend of these investigations is to minimize the possible influence 
upon criminality of future immigration. Certainly they supply no grounds for 
the fear that the new immigrants are likely to be more dangerous than the 
old. 

6". Alcoholism and adjustment 

Statistical measurement of the incidence of alcoholism offers the same difl3- 
culties as that of other disorders. The data is at best partial and must be 
adjusted against deviations with care. Thus arrests for drunkenness are not 
very useful. since these vary enormously from place to place and are likely to 
affect almost exclusively the lowest social groups. 

A somewhat more reliable index, though hardly a thoroughly dependable 
one, is the rate of commitment for alcoholic psychoses in State institutions. This 
offers the advantage of a relatively constant criterion and one that can be fairly 
well standardized. A study of New York State institutions uses this index 
with good results. That study found the foreign-born had a rate of 7.4 per 100,000 
population while the native rate was only 3.2. But standardized to remove the 
influence of different age distributions, the disparity disappeared almost entirely, 
with the foreign and native rates being almost equal.^ 

The distribution by specific nativity groups was striking for it showed marked 
variations significant as the equality of the over-all foreign with the native rate. 
The maximum was for the Irish with 30.5, followed liy the Scandinavians with 
7.9, the English with 4.8, the Italians, 4.3, and the Germans, 3.8.' Whether these 



^" For pxplifit coni.parisons of old and new immisrants, see Edmund de S. Brunner, 
Iminisrant Farmers and Their Children (New York, 1929), pp. 62-73. 

^' National Comnii.'iision on Law Observance and Enforcement, Report on Crime and the 
Foreign Born (Washington. 19.31), III. p. 399 ff. See, to the same effect, E. H. Sutherland, 
Principles of Criminology (3d ed., Philadelphia. 19.39), p. 123 ff. 

s"' Earnest A. Hooton, Crime and the Man (Cambridge, 1939), p. 252. 

"* See in general, H. E. Barnes and N. K. Teeters, New Horizons in Criminology (New 
York, 1947), pp, 182 ff. 

°» I. W. Halpern. .1. N. Stanislaus, and Bernard Botein, A Statistical Study of the 
Distribution of Adult and .Juvenile Delinquents in the Boroughs of Manhattan and Brooklyn, 
New York City (New York, 1934), pp. 103 ff. 

' See in general, Sheldon and Eleanor Glueck. Unraveling Juvenile Delinquency (New 
York. 1950) ; and Thorsten Sellin, Culture Conflict and Crime (New York, Social "Science 
Bulletin No. 41, 1938), p. 81. 

= Benjamin Malzberg, Social and Biological Aspects of Mental Disease (Utica, 1940), 
p. Ifi3. 

^ Malzberg, Mental Disease, p. 203. 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1861 

(liffcrenc'es reflect some sort of ethnic piedilection or whether they reflect the 
coiittiljiitins: social environment would be ilitticult to say in the absence of any 
convincini,' theory as to the causes of alcoholism. In terras of future policy, 
perhaps the most' that can be said is that the immigrants as a whole do not add 
to the burden of the problem, althouuh si}«'citic groups among them may. But 
tiiose groups can by no means be correlated with tbe old and new immigrations. 

~. Insanitij 

On the basis of summary i-ates of commitments or of hrst a<lmissions it was 
sometimes maintained that insanity was more frequent among the foreign-born 
than among the native-born. A careful study has shown, however, "that such 
comparisons are spurious, in that they fail to account f(U' the effects of age 
and other disturbing c(mditions. The foreign-born are older than natives, and 
consequently tend to have higher rates of first admissions." 

Furthermore, the foreign-i)orn are more concentrated in cities from which the 
rates of commitment are liigher. "When age and the urban-rural ratio are 
botli held constant." there is practically no significant dilTerence between the 
foreign and the native-born.'' 

The author of this study was disposed to find instead a correlation between 
the incidence of insanity and "general economic conditions." In that case, it 
might be said, immigration wcmld have no effect upon the rate of insanity. 

The problem is more complicated however. For there is here, as in the case 
of alcoholism, a marked disparity in the incidence of disease among the various 
nativity groups, with the Irish far in the lead. Furthermore, if the various 
types of psychoses are distinguished from each other, it appears that the 
Scandinavians are ahead in ailmissioiis for general paresis, while the Germans 
are in the lead in admissions for dementia praecox." 

A study of draft lioard rejections for mental disorders confirms these findings. 
This study has the additional advantage of dealing with ethnic (second genera- 
tion as well as foreign-born) rather than simply with nativity groups. It 
shows convincingly a difference in the susceptibility of various groups to dif- 
fent types of mental disorders." In view of the fact that the total foreign-born 
rate, is not larger than the total native-born, immigration seems to offer no 
threat of increased incidence of insanity in the whole population. And in view 
of the difficulty of estal)lishing a ranking of the various groups that would be 
valid for all types of insanity, it would seem futile to attempt to use this as 
one of the elements of selection of future immigrants. 

From what has been said above, there seems to be the following general 
pattern to what we know about the problems of insanity, alcoholism, crime, 
and intelligence. There is no evidence that the immigrants have been inferior 
to the natives, no evidence that the new inmiigrants have been inferior to the 
old, and no evidence that immigration has produced any social deterioration 
in the United States. 

None of these relationships are based on race. All may be radically altered, 
under the impact of tlie changing environment of life in the United States, and 
all vary to some extent with the duration of residence. 

For each of the topics mentioned there is some evidence of variations among 
different groups of immigrants but no immigrant group, old or new, ranks con- 
sistently high or consistently low in all the categories. These variations, there- 
fore, are not such as to make it possible to rank the groups in the order ol" 
desii-ability. Significantly, there is also no evidence that relative distance from 
American culture is a factor of any importance in determining ultimate adjust- 
ment. That is, people like the Syrians, Armenians, and Turks, relatively more 
alien to native American liabits and ways of life are not significantly retarded 
in adjustments, given the time and opportunity. The evidence suggests rather 
that, like the native ])opuiation, each innnigrant group has its own points of 
strength and weakness at which it yields to, or resists, disorganizing pressures 
that originate in the environment or in personal disturbances. No group has 
tbereby been prevented from playing a constructive part in Amei'ican life. 

S. Citizenship 

There was some disposition early in the century to criticize the new im- 
migrants for their failure to become naturalized; the Immigration Commission, 
for one. has lent its sui)port to such criticism. 

■* Malzbers, Mental Disease, pp. 351, 352. 
^ Malzberc. Mental Disease, pp. 200 ff. 

« Kobert VV. Hvdft and Roderick M. Chisholm, The Relation of Mental Disorders to Race 
and Nationality, "New England Journal of Medicine, CCXXXI (1944), pp. 612 ff. 



1862 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

These attacks had uniformly failed to consider the factor of length of residence 
iu the United States. When acconnt is taken of that factor, the old immi- 
gration makes no better showing than the new. A study of the percentage of 
foreign-born naturalized as of 1940 revealed that the various nativity groups 
could be ranked in an order which corresponded almost exactly with the average 
length of residence in the United States. The only exceptions were the natives 
of England and British Canada who showed unusual reluctance to become Amer- 
ican citizens.' These findings were indirectly supported by an earlier study of 
New Haven which showed a correlation of naturalization with education, occupa- 
tional status, and income — concomitants generally of length of residence." 

Nor is there evidence that the immigrants, or any group of them, have shirked 
the important duties of citizenship. The two world wars in which the United 
States was engaged in the last 40 years found these men ready to serve ; their 
Ijart in the armed services is fully documented and has often been recognized." 

9. Cultural contributions 

It must be pointed out that the scope of this memorandum was such that it 
dealt perforce only with the negative aspects of the effects of inmiigration. 

Nevertheless, it cannot close without at least pointing to the existence of 
significant positive contributions. The part played by immigrants and their 
children in the development of American art, music, literature, science, theater, 
and sports has often been detailed.^" Without these contributions life in the 
United States in the past would have been far poorer than it was. Any recon- 
sideration of immigration policy now ought to confront the question of whether 
we are willing to sacrifice the possibility of profiting similarly in the future. 

In a more subtle sense it might perhaps be said that the most valuable con- 
tributions of the immigrants was always to remind Americans of the motto on the 
great seal, E. Pluribus Unum, from many one. The adjustment of the immi- 
grants involved the achievement of unity, and yet the preservation of diversi- 
ties, in American society. Any reconsideration of immigration policy now 
ought also to confront the question of whether that process is ended or whether 
it can still go on. 

VII. THE LARGER SIGNIFICANCE . 

In the past the image of America had also a meaning for the common people 
of the whole world. It was not only that America was the land of liberty, in her 
form of government and free society, a model for all other people. But in her 
willingness to accept the persecuted and oppressed, she gave concrete evidence 
of her faith in the ability of all men to raise themselves to the same levels of 
freedom, as well as evidence of confidence in her own institutions. 

The men who enacted the quota system had lost that confidence. The same 
legislators had also rejected the League of Nations, and they had the support 
of the public opinion tliat, through tlie 1920's, also favored American with- 
drawal from world politics. All these measures were aspects of a common 
urge, understandable in the light of the disappointments of the war and the 
peace, but unrealistic in terms of our future. That iirge was to withdraw 
from all contacts with the evil world beyond our borders. The immigrants who 
carried that foreign world to our own shores, from this viewpoint, threateneri 
our isolation. 

Certainly, it would be foolhardy to take those old dead dreams as our vision 
of the future. We are totally and inextricabl.v involved with the politics of 
the w^hole world ; and the welfare and opinions of many strange peoples from 
Korea in the west to Turkey in the east are our immediate direct concern. We 
need only look at our foreign-aid budget to know how important to us is the 
prosperity of Greece and Italy. If our immigration policy can. in the least 
measure, assist those countries in dealing with the problems of displacement 



" F. J. Brown and .7. S. Roucek. One America (New York. 1945), p. 657. 

'^ W. S. Bernard, Cultural Determhiants of Naturalization, Amei'ican Sociological Review, 
XLII (1936), pp. 94.3 ff. 

" See Bernard, American Immigration Policy, pp. 148 flf. 

'" Tliese contributions may he traced in the following works: Carl Wittke. We Who 
Built America (New York, 1939) : Brown and Roucek, One America ; Wallace Stegner, One 
JJation (Boston, 1945) ; Louis Adamic, A Nation of Nations (New York. 1945). 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1863 

and recovery, we would he short-sighted in the extreme to allow ancient 
prejudices to stand in our way. 

More imiMirtant. we are ensjaged tlirouiihont the world in a struggle for 
allies against a shrewd and ruthless enemy who does not hesitate to make 
niillenial promises. In this contest for the ccmtrol of opini<ms we enjoy an 
initial advantage derived from the reputation we earned as the mother of re- 
publics, the light of liberty, and the refuge of the oppressed throughout the 
world. We must not waste that advantage. 

The quota system threatens to do so. By ranking the people of the earth 
in an order of national origins it informs them that some are more fit to become 
Americans tlian others. And that raises an uneasy question in their minds: 
Is our belief in democracy coupled with the reservation that it is workable 
only in favored climes and in the hands of favored men or is this a way of life 
open to all? 

The national origins quota system, embedded in our present immigration laws 
rests on totally false assumptions. It was the product of men who had lost 
confidence in the capacity of our society and our economy to continue to expand. 
From their uneasy fears, they sought refuge in a kind of withdrawal from the 
world about them' hoping for security in the purity of their own race. Out of 
the biased reports of the early part of this century, they drew the distorted 
notion of a fundamental difference between the old and the new immigration. 
From that notion there followed the idea that different gi'oups of men enjoyed 
different capacities for becoming American citizens. 

Our own experience and everything we have learned since 1924 refutes that 
idea. We no longer believe race purity a safe refuge : we know it to be a trap 
dividing people arbitrarily and distracting them from solution of their true 
problems. Our economy and our society have continued to grow, and show even 
now the vigor to profit from additional worthy citizens. 

We also see more clearly what the role of the newcomers has been in our 
lives. Although the immigrants have differed among themselves, as have the 
natives, all have displayed] from the very beginning of our history the ability 
to play a creative, constructive role in American society. All have responded 
to the opportimities of America's free institutions. The idea of a national 
selection among those who knock at our gates ought therefore no longer stand 
in the way of a policy attuned to our present needs and our traditional ideals. 



INFORMATION PROVIDED BY THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF 
STATE CONCERNING THE ORGANIZATION AND NUMBER OF FOREIGN 
SERVICE POSTS 

Dkpaetment of State, 
Washington, November 28, 1952. 
Mr. Haery N. Rosenfield, 

Exe<-utlvc Director, President's Commission on 

Immiffrntion and 'Naturalisation, Washington, D. C. 
Mv Dear Mr. Rosenfield: It is a pleasure to give you the following informa- 
tion requested on November 25 by ^Ir. Mann of your office. 

The total number of Foreign Service posts in operation on July 1, 1952, the 
most recent date for which we have statistics, is 26.3. Seventy-seven of these 
are diphmiatic missions, including one POLAD at Trieste. The other 186 are 
consulates or consulates general. These totals are exclusive of the 29 consular 
agencies and the 40 USIB oflices which do not entertain applications for visas. 

Almost all diphnuatic missions contain consular sections which do work of a 
statutory or technical consular nature. Of the 268 posts, whether diplomatic 
missions or consular oflices, there are 48 at which one or more oflicers are assigned 
full time to visa work. These 48 posts issued 56 percent of the visas of all types, 
granted in the fi.scal year 1952. 
Sincerely yours, 

George H. Stetjart, Jr., 
Acting Director, Office of Security and Consular Affairs. 



1864 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

INFORMATION PROVIDED BY THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF 
STATE CONCERNING VISA OFFICERS OF THE AMERICAN FOREIGN 
SERVICE 

October 3, 19.j2 
Mr. Robert J. Ryan, 

Acting Chief, Diri-siov of Foreign Service Personnel, 
Department of State, Washington, D. C. 
My Dear Mb. Ryan: I am transmitting iierewith one (1) copy of the Com- 
mission's questionnaire entitled "Information Concerning Visa Officers of the 
American Foreign Service Requested from the Department of State." It would 
be appreciated very much if your Division vsrould undertake to prepare replies 
to the various questions propounded therein. As you know, Mr. Frederick J. 
Mann, detailed to the Commission staff from the Department, has already in- 
formally discussed the questionnaire with Mr. Woodyear and Mr. Calloway in 
the Division of Foreign Service Personnel. 

We realize that certain of the questions will require rather extensive research 
in order that accurate replies can be made, particularly in the case of such quer- 
ies as Nos. 10 and 11. However, since the Commission has such a limited period 
of time at its disposal, I fear I must request that the attached questionnaire be 
completed and returned here no later than the end of October, and earlier if at 
all possible. 

I should like to propose, as an aid to your handling of the task, that the sam- 
pling technique be employed in preparing replies to such qviestions as Nos. 6, 
7 (a) and (b), 10, and 11, and suggest that the records of 50 consular officers 
engaged in visa work, in both the Foreign Service officer and Foreign Service 
staff-officer categories, be surveyed for the purposes, and that as comprehensive 
a spread as possible be obtained so that a fair, realistic picture will be presented. 
Additional copies of the enclosed questionnaire are being distributed to your 
Division so that a sufficient quantity will be available for working purposes. 
Very truly yours, 

Harry N. Rosenfield, 

Executive Director. 



Department of State, 
Washington, October 10, 1952. 
Mr. Harry N. Rosenfield, 

Executive Director, President's Commission on Immigration 
and Naturalisation, Washington, D. C. 
My Dear Mr. Rosenfield : I have received your letter of October 3, 1952, and 
the questionnaire enclosed therewith, concerning the President's Commission on 
Immigration and Naturalization. 

As you state, the answers to some of the questions will require considerable 
research and I appreciate your suggestion that we may employ the sampling 
technique as a means of lessening the load. 

The Division of P'oreign Service Personnel will make every efft)rt to complete 
the questionnaire as soon as possible, and, unless we run into some unforeseen 
troul)le, I feel sure that you will receive it by the end of October. 
Very truly yours, 

Robert J. Ryan, 
Assistant Chief, Division of Foreign Service Personnel. 



Department of State, 
Washington, October 31, 1592. 
Mr. Harry N. Rosenfield, 

Executive Director, President's Commission on Immigration 
and Naturalization, Washington, D. C. 
My Dear Mb. Rosenfield : Reference is made to the questionnaire enclosed 
with your letter of October 3, 1952, and Mr. Ryan's reply of October 10, 1952, 
concerning the President's Commission on Immigration and Naturalization. 

I am pleased to return herewith the completed questionnaire and additional 
data which, it is believed, will assist the Commission in making its survey 
relating to immigration and naturalization matters. 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1865 

Please feel free to cnll uiioii the 1 >ei)artinent if additional iiiCorumtion Is 
necessary. 

Sincerely yours, 

ROBKUT F. Woodward, 
Chief, Dici-sion of Foreign Service Personnel. 

Enclosures: Questionnaire of President's Commission on Immigration and 
Naturalization, with attachments as stated thereon. 

President's Commission on Immigration and Naturalization Questionnaire 

(Information concerning visa officers of the American Foreign Service requested 
from the Department of State) 

Note. — The information requested below is desired by the Commission for 
use in carrying out the objectives assigned it under Executive Order 10392. 

By the term "visa officers" the Commission has reference only to those 
American consular officeis who are currently engaged exclusively or primarily 
in visa worlc, iniiuigrant and nonimmigrant. 

QUESTIONS 

1. How many visa officers were there on duty abroad as of (please give latest 
possible date) : October 15, 1952, Number: 36G. 

2. Please state the number of such visa officers on duty as of that date in each 
of the five geographical area subdivisions, as indicated : 

EUR : BNA, 82 ; EE, 20 ; WE, 70. 

GER: 45. 

FE : CA, 4 ; NA, 11 ; PSA, 13. 

NEA : GII, 12 ; SOA, 7 ; NE, 22 ; AF, 16. 

ARA : MID, 45 ; OSA, 19. 

3. Do the totals given in (2) constitute the full authorized totals under current 
applicable appropriations? Yes . No. X. If "no," please give the 
authorized totals : EUR has one visa-officer vacancy ; GER has four ; ARA 
has one ; FE and NEA are up to complement 

4. Please list here the standard or basic qualifications established for visa 
officers (include basic job description) : (Answer attached.) 

5. What rewards or other incentives exist for consular officers in the middle and 
lower grades, and for beginners, in the Foreign Service, to become visa 
officers? (Answer attached.) 

(). What is the average number of years of service of a visa officer? 5 years 2 

months. Of other consular officers? Estimated 10 years 6 months. 
7 (a). What is the average beginning age of a visa officer? 30 years 1 month, 
(b). What is the average ending or retirement age of a visa officer? (Answer 
attached.) 
8. Please list the principal legal and administrative causes for reprimand, 

suspension, transfer, or removal of visa officers: (Answer attached.) 
0. Please explain bi-ietly the main difficulties and problems confronting visa 
officers above, with which they must contend in the regular course of their 
duties: (An.swer attached.) 

10. What percentage of visa officei-s possess: (Sampling of .50 FSO and .50 FSS, 
total cases 100). 

(rt) Baccalaureate degrees? Sixty-six percent. 

ib) Law degrees? Three ])ercent. 

(f) Graduate degi-ees in intei'national law or relations? One percent. 

('I) Other graduate degrees? Eigliteen percent. 

11. What pei-centa.ge of visa officers, l)efore api)<)intment to the Foreign Service 
were : ( S;unpling of 50 FSO and 50 FSS, total cases 100) . 

(d) Practicing attorneys? One percent. 
(I)) High school teachers? Five percent. 

(c) College instructors? Five percent. 

(d) Businessmen? Seventy-tlii'ee percent. 

12. Please give below any additional information, or attach to this (iu(>stion- 
naire any printed or other material which, in your opinion, will assist the 
Commissifm (attach extra sheets, if necessary) : 

.XTTACHKn 

(d) Visa Handbook including manual and regulations. 

(h) Example of advisory opinion from Department to a field iiost. 



1866 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

(c) Information sheets. 

(r/) Report of visa training course. 

(f) Hypothetical cases used in training. 

(/) Analysis of exclusion clause. 

([/) OMV correcting error in correspondence. 

(/(.) Visa Circular No. 18, March 8, 1949, methods and standards in appraising 
visa work. 

(i) Performance-rating record card. 
13. What are the percentages of visa officers who are : 

(a) FSO's: 109, 30- percent. 

(b) FSS: 257, 70 percent. 

(Signed) Robert F. Woodwaed. 

(Signature ; type name.) 
Submitted by : Robert F. Woodward, Chief. 

Division of Foreign Service Personnel. 
(Title.) 
Date of submittal to Commission : Octol)er 81, 1952. 



Ansirer to question .'/ of Questionnaire of President's Coinniission on Immigration 

and Naturalisation 

QUALIFICATIONS 

Personal 

1. Must possess attitudes and personal characteristics which create good pub- 
lic relations with both successiul and unsuccessful visa applicants ; 

2. Ability to exercise good .iudgment, impartiality, and flexibility in inter- 
iUffeting^and applying immigration laws ; 

3. Moral standards and personal integrity which preclude risk of decisions 
which are influenced by pressures or offers of bribes ; 

4. Must be a representative American who will create a favorable impression 
of the United States Government with visa applicants and the public ; 

5. Must possess insight and understanding, and exercise patience and courtesy 
in dealings with visa applicants and the pul)lic ; 

6. Must have a sincere desire to protect the interests of the United States. 

Education, experience, training, and abilities 

1. Visa officers must have training or experience of varying periods in the 
Department or at field posts suflJicient to provide a grounding in pertinent laws, 
regulations, and practices and to prove temperamental aptitude for visa responsi- 
bilities. All beginning Foreign Service officers are given specialized training 
by the Visa Division ; 

2. Must be an American citizen ; 

3. Must be bonded ; 

4. IMust have a consular commission. 

5. Must have A. B. degree or its eduivalent, or demonstrated ability and ex- 
perience in handling visa responsibilities. 

6. Must possess knowledge and understanding of basic theory behind United 
States immigration laws, and ability to analyze legislation and apply regulations. 

7. Must liave knowledge of United States citizenship laws. 

8. IMust have understanding of relationship between the State Department and 
Immigration and Naturalization Service in connection with visas. 

9. Must have basic understanding of international laws and practices regard- 
ing the movement of peoples across country boundaries. 

10. Must have ability to draft nonroutine correspondence and to write clear 
and concise opinions. 

Enclosure to question 4 of Que.<itionnaire of President's Commission on 
Immigration and Naturalization 

XISA SERVICE SERIES 

This series includes all groups of positions the duties of which are to interview 
applicants for immigration and nonimmigrant visas to the United States, com- 
plete the requisite forms, examine the supporting documeTits for adequacy and 
completeness, assemble the completed visa dossiers, determine applicants' eli- 
gibility for visas with which to apply for admission into the United States, ap- 
prove or refuse the application, and incidentally prepare correspondence, memo- 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1867 

randa, rciwrts, maintain lilos and records, and colloct and record fees for services 
ren(ien»d. This series includes administrative and supervisory positions as well 
as those involvin.Lr actual work performance. 

January 1. 104!i 

VISA OFI'U'Ki; (iliOlP () FSO-l ; I'Sli- 4 : iss-4 

Xattirc (I ml vdiUtji of irork 

1. As cliicf of the visa otfice of a lar,u;e consular section reports and is directly 
responsible to the chief of tiu» section for all mattei's concerning visas in con- 
mn-tion witli the entry of aliens into the United Stati-s. 

1'. lieviews tindinjis in (luestionahle cases and in complaints; interviews aliens 
in special cases; reviews all visa refusals; and signs or I'efuses diplomatic visas 
when authorized. 

8. Acts as exp>'rt consultant to subordinate otlicers on matters pertaining to 
visas and the entry of aliens into the United States. 

4. Drafts correspondence and telegrams involving matters of policy and special 
cases, also note.s to the Foreign Office and lettei's to Members of Congress for 
approval and signature of the supervisor; drafts and signs, or reviews and 
signs, correspciudence such as airgi-ams. despatches, letters, and memoranda 
1o the Department, other consular agencies, and individuals in regard to status 
of visa cases, or to furnish or request information of various types in regard to 
day-to-day visa matters. 

5. Assigns duties to officers and eniiiloyees, reassigns subordinates in accord- 
ance with changes in woi'kloads, supervises training of new employees, instructs 
all employees in changes in laws and regulations affecting the issuance of visas; 
devises from letters and memoranda on visa subjects or approves drafts of such 
prepared by subordinate officers. 

(i. Rei)lies to telephonic and written impiiries from officers in subordinate 
consulates concerning action to be taken in sp. clfic cases and cmcerning inter- 
pretation of laws, regulations, and instiau'tions. Prepares for his superior 
drafts of instructions relating to visa problems for distribution to .subordinate 
offices. 

7. Receives distinguished callers referred by And)assador's office and other 
offices of the mission. 

8. As instructed by the Department or the Ambassador particiiiates in con- 
versations with officials of the Foreign Office to initiate or revise visa agreements. 

Supervisorn assistance 

1. Automatically i-eceives, without instructions, all cases involving visa mattei's. 

2. Problems involving broad general policy or interpretation of law are dis- 
cussed with the supervisor, or taken up with the Depaitment, prior to taking 
action. 

'A. Visa refiisals involving prominent per.sons and officials are generally I'e- 
ferred to superior for review and appi'oval. 

4. I'pon requ.est. receivc-s te(hnical guidance from the Department or the 
immigration autliorities in the lorm of advisory opinions on su( h matters as 
interpretation of laws and their applicability or jiolitical questions concerning 
applicants. 

(liiulc line control 

1. Foreign Service Regulations 
Foreign Service Serials 
Departmental insti'uctions (individual) 
Immigration and naturaliz:ilion la\\s of the United S'ates 
Federal Register 

Bureau of Naturalization and Immigration Decisions 

Decisions of other executive departments affecting immigration 

Treaties and agreements 

Local nationality laws 

I'l-cccdent 

Experience. 

2. These guides embody laws, regulations, procedure, ininciph^s. and techniques 
governing the issuance of visas. 

Mental demands 

1. Appli(>s a knowledge of the entire field of law pertaining to all catcrories 
of visa work, knowledge of court decisions and executive department instructions, 
25C5C— 52 118 



1868 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

and precedent and past experience in the final determination of the section of 
the law aiJiJlicahle to a given case. 

2. Evaluates applicant's education, training, experience, personality, oppor- 
tunity for employment in the United States, and political background, and evalu- 
ates information contained in security reports as to its applicability and accuracy 
in the final determination of the admissibility of a visa applicant to the United 
States. 

3. Uses at least one foreign language in the work. 

Person a I rcla tion sh ips 

1. With oflicers in the mission who maintain records on political, economic, 
and subversive activities of jiliens regarding any derogatory information about 
visa applicants. 

2. With high-ranking visitors to expedite issuance of official visas, or explain 
procedures and regulations. 

8. With various officials in the Foreign Office to negotiate visa agreements. 

Significance of judgmetits and decisions 

1. Determines the sufficiency or insufficiency of evidence on which to base 
decision in a visa case ; confirms or overrules such determinations made by sub- 
ordinate officers ; determines whether the entry of a particular visa applicant 
is or is not to be considered as pre.iudicial to the interests of the United States; 
decides whether a given situation warrants consultation with the Department 
of Sate or other Government agencies for views or information. 

2. Decides whether and when certain documentary evidence may be waived, 
within limitations prescribed by the Foreign Service Regulations, and when an 
emergency situation warrants a request for waiver of regulations from the 
Department and the immigration authorities. 

3. The final effect of his judgments and decisions is to approve or refuse per- 
mission to present himself for lawful admission into the United States to individ- 
uals desiring to immigrate to or visit this country. 

Management responsihility 

1. Assigns duties to subordinate officers and approves assignments for clerks; 
reviews the work of officers in other than routine cases. Informs subordinate 
officers of changes in regulations and interprets instructions from the Department 
when the need arises. Supervises training of officers and employees. Has 
complete responsibility for the over-all operations of the office. 

January 1, 1949 

VISA OFFICEK GROUP 9 — FSO-5 ; FSR-5 ; FSS-7 

Nature and variety of work 

Positions of this level may exist at a post where a full-time visa officer with 
clerical assistants administers all visa services under supervision of the chief 
of the consular section or the principal officer. They may also exist in a larger 
post where one or more visa officers administer immigration visa services and 
one or more administer nonimmigrant visa services under supervision of the 
chief visa officer or the chief of the consular section. 

1. Conducts final interview of an applicant for an immigrntion or a nonimmigra- 
tion visa to the United States to verify data on the application form and support- 
ing documents and to determine by an examination and appraisal of the appli- 
cant's qualifications, political beliefs, and evidences of financial support while in 
the United States whether or not he is admissible for entry into the United States. 
This interview may result in — 

(a) Finding applicant inadmissible and refusing the visa; 
(ft) Finding further documentation necessary; 

(c) Finding applicant admissible and approving the issuance of a visa after 
administering the oath to the applicant. 

2. Interviews callers who ask to see him or who are referred to him by sub- 
ordinates in order to elucidate United States visa laws, to explain procedure, 
and to explain the application of the laws to specific cases. 

3. In immigration visa cases, determines whether the applicant should be placed 
in a quota or nonquota category, preferences to which he may be entitled, and 
the quota to which he should be assigned; verifies and initials all entries in the 
quota waiting-list book. 

4. Prepares memoranda on disapproved visa applications giving reasons for 
negative action. In those cases in which verification of the facts must be made 
in the United States or additional information obtained from there, prepares a 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1869 

report to the Depiirtnient presenting the facts of the case and requesting an 
advisory opinion. Drafts correspondence, memoranda, despatches, and tele- 
grams, to the Department, other consuhir offices, missions. Members of Congress, 
local government agencies, and individuals on matters relating to visas. Reads 
outgoing correspondence to check for accuracy and completeness of contents; 
signs local correspondence and refers remainder to superior for review and 
signature. 

0. Supervises subordinate employees engaged in the interview of visa appli- 
cants, preimration of visa applications, maintenance of quota-control records, and 
related procedures: assigns and reviews work; instructs new employees in work 
procedures and in innnigration laws and visa regulations when such interpreta- 
tion if necessary; advises as to action to be taken in specific cases. Supervises 
the compilation of periodic reports on visas issued and refused. Is responsible 
for the collection and delivery of fees for services rendered and for accounting 
for the fee stamps issued. 

Supervisory assistance 

1. Automatically receives, without instructions, all visa cases for which he is 
responsible. 

2. Refers to supervisor for advice on cases that involve interpretation of the 
law, tliat have no precedent, or in which information available as to political 
beliefs and activities of the applicant may render him inadmissible. Consults 
supervisor before refusing formal applications for visas. 

3. Receives technical guidance from the Department or the immigration 
authorities upon request, in the form of advisory opinions on such matters as 
interpretation of laws and their applicability or political questions concerning 
applicants. 

•Guide line control 

1. Foreign Service Regulations 
Foreign Service Serials 
Foreign Service Instructions 
Departmental instructions 
Treaties and agreements 
Precedence file 

Immigration and naturalization laws 

Decisions of the Attorney General, the Bureau of Immigration and Naturali- 
zation, and other executive departments. 

Mental demands 

1. Selects the proper law and regulation applicable to the case on hand, taking 
into consideration individual decisions of the Department of State, the Bureau 
•of Immigration and Naturalization, and the courts in arriving tit a decision as to 
the governing law. 

2. Applies a specialized knowledge of the laws as they pertain to quota and 
nonquota immigrants, to nonimmigrants or to the different nationalities as they 
are affected l)y the different laws, in determining admissibility of applicants ; 
applies the standards for issuing each of several types of nonimmigration visas, 
the documentary evidence required in each c-ase, and the basis for refusal in each 
case. 

?>. Applies the laws, obtains all the facts of the case from the individual in 
view of language differences, of objection to replying to personal questions, and 
of frequent expectation of special treatment. Evaluates the evidence as to 
Avork l)ackground. adaptability to various economic areas in the United States, 
financial support, whether or not the applicant is a bona fide nonimmigrant, and 
similar factors, including consideration of conditions in the United States. 

4. In meeting the public, applies interviewing techniques, and uses at least one 
major foreign language. 

Personal rclationsh ips 

1. With applicants to make final determination as to their admissibility into 
the United States. 

2. With other post employees and officers to obtain information regarding 
qualifications and activities of visa applicants. 

3. With local authorities to ascertain antecedents of applicants in questionable 
cases and to supply informntion regarding American visa laws. 

4. With American business offices regarding procedures for their foreign oflBcers 
or employees who are going to the United States. 



1870 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

tSi(/nificfince of judgments and decisions 

1. Visa api>lieations are not usually reviewed unless signed by chief of section; 
refusal of an application is reviewed according to regulation by at least one other 
ofiicer. Inasmuch as an individual may be refused admission at the port of entry 
liy the immigration officers, it is extremely important that each case be thoroughly 
investigated and the facts carefully evaluated in order to prevent, as far as 
l^ossible, such a refusal. 

2. The basic effect of the incumbent's decision is to grant a permit to an indi- 
vidual to apply for admission into the United States and thus to influence the 
nature of the United States population through permanent or temporary residence 
in the United States. 

3. All except local correspondence is reviewed and signed by a superior officer. 

Man agemen t responsihility 

1. Advises and instructs subordinates in work procedures, laws and regula- 
tions pertaining to the work ; assigns and reviews work for accuracy and com- 
pleteness ; has full responsibility for daily work operations. 

2. Confers with supervisor on matters of personnel utilization and on action 
to be taken in major disciplinary cases. 

.Tainiary 1, 1949 

VISA SCKEENING OFFICER GROUP 10 — FSO-5 ; FSR-5 ; FSS-8 

Nature and variety of work 

Supervises and directs the activities of a small group (3-6) of subordinates 
engaged in the investigation of applicants for entry into the United States under 
existing immigration laws and regulations. 

Furnishes on-the-jol) instruction in investigative methods, techniques, and 
practices to subordinate agents ; schedules assignments of cases, plans methods 
of investigation, resolves unusual problems, reviews and approves reports of 
investigations. 

Supervisory assistance 

Receives assignments in the normal flow of work without instruction as to 
procedure, accompanied by information as to leads previously uncovered through 
preliminary interviews and results of examination of documents submitted; 
assignments are concerned with results rather than methods. 

Supervisor, usually the consular officer in charge of immigration visa opera- 
tions at a Foreign Service establishment in an American zone of occupation in 
Europe, furnishes advice regarding policies, lends prestige in establishing con- 
tacts and introduce incumbent to previously established contacts, passes along 
and interprets instructions from the Department, and acts as expert consultant 
on visa or nationality laws and regulations which affect the work. 

Guide-line control 

Same as visa-screening officer group 12. 
Mental demands 

Applies investigative techniques and a knowledge of applicable laws, regula- 
tions, policies, and procedures to particular cases, including those which have 
created particular problems for subordinates ; advises and instructs subordinates 
in particular cases as well as over all aspects of the work ; adapts techniques and 
procedures to local conditions ; determines appropriate sources of information 
and selects i)rocedures, methods, and techniques to be employed. 

Determines manner of presenting material, adequacy and validity of report 
content ; selects pertinent information to be included in reports and decides 
whether further investigation is necessary; plans and implements methods and 
sources for verifying conflicting data. 

Plans and organizes work schedules, methods, procedures, and sources to be 
used by subordinates. 

Correlates, organizes, analyzes, and evaluates data collected by subordinates 
and prepares composite reports. 

Uses fluent speaking and reading knowledge of local and possibly other 
languages. 



COMMISSION OX IMMIGRATIOX AND NATURALIZATION 1871 

PersoHdl relationsliiiis 

Same as visa-screen inj; offit'er ;:;roup 12. 
Significance of judgments and decisions 

Decides whether subordinates have made complete investijiafion in individual 
cases: also, whetlier conclusions drawn l>y subordinates apjiear to lie valid; 
thorouffhness of investigation may be the deciding factor affecting entry of an 
alien iuto the United States; validity of part of the evidence collected is not 
susceptible to supervisory review. 

Managemen t responsibility 

Organizes and plans work of investigative group in a manner designed to 
attain maxinuim efficiency and most satisfactory results; assigns cases for inves- 
tigation, discusses objectives, methods of oi)eration. data to be secui-ed, and 
sources to be contacted; interprets changes in regulations or policy instructions; 
gives advice when unusual situations are encountered; reviews and approves 
reports of investigations. 

January 1. 1049 

VISA OFFICER GROUP 12 — FSO-6 ; FSR-6 ;FSS-10 

Nature and varietif of work 

Performs duties which involve the application of United States immigration 
laws, regulations, and procedures in connection with the granting of visas in 
order to seek permission to enter the United States for immigration or as a tem- 
porary visitor ; approves and signs visa applications which conform to established 
patterns of procedure and precedent, subject to later review by the supervisor. 

Conducts interviews in English and one or more foreign languages with persons 
of various levels of education and culture who apply for visas granting permis- 
sion to seek entry into the United States ; interviews applicants for purposes of 
establishing identity, explaining legal and documentary requirements for visas. 
and determining eligibility or noneligibility for the visa requested; attempts to 
detect fraud in oral or written statenjeiits of applicants or in documents sub- 
mitted to support visa applications. 

Examines and evaluates evidence submitted to ascertain that all requirements 
and provisions of laws and regulations are met by applicants ; uses own initiative 
to draft cori-espondence to or personall.v contacts local authorities or individuals 
to verify or refute statements or evidence submitted by applicants ; assembles 
and reviews all documents in individual cases ; formulates opinion covering 
such matters as applicant's identity, quota status, possible dual nationality 
status, activities inimical to United States interests, the existence of ties within 
the United States or other countries, evidence or suspicion of fraudulent state- 
ments or documents, and results of investigations; approves clear cut cases or 
submits dossier to supervisor for decision. 

Drafts correspondence and opinions which follow established policy as to pat- 
tern and extent of information to be given out, but which involve considerable 
variation in phraseology and type of data presented ; compiles data and drafts 
or reviews periodic reports such as statistics of services performed or quota 
registration reports. 

Interprets regulations, assists and advises subordinate or less experienced per- 
sonnel as to requirements of laws and regulations and procedures to be followed 
in nonroutine cases. 

Supervises clerical employees engaged in related activities such as answering 
routine pt>rsonal ami telephonic inquiries, maintaining tiles and records, tilling 
in data on applications and other consular forms, collecting and recording 
prescribed consular fees. 

Supervisor)/ asaistan<;e 

Receives incoming correspondence, changes in regulations, and instructions 
from the Department with written memoranda or oral instructions from super- 
visor when such material involves clianges in policy or procedure or unusual 
cases ; discus.ses with supervisor or submits for approval drafts of correspondence 
of other than established pattern ; interviews applicants for visas without super- 
vision ; select the proper forms to be completed and determines independentlj' if 



1872 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

the responses from applicant, completed forms, and supporting documents are 
adequate. (The mechanical process of tilling in standard data on forms is 
usually performed by a subordinate clerk or the applicant.) Refers complex 
cases for which no precedents exist to the supervisor for decision as to pro- 
cedural course to be followed ; consults supervisor in questions of workload dis- 
tribution and assignments to subordinates. 

Guide-line control 

Same as visa officer group 9. 

Mental demands 

1. Applies knowledge of United States and local immigration, nationality, and 
visa laws and regulations to supply information to applicants, to explain re- 
quirements, and to determine if they are eligible for the service desired. 

2. Conducts interviews and phrases questions in a manner designed to elicit 
maximum information from applicants, especially when there is a suspicion of 
fraud or that the reason given l»y the applicant for the service requested is iised 
as a pretext. As an example, a person may request a visitor's or student's visa 
in order to enter the United States, when the real reason may be for permanent 
residence or subversive purposes. 

Personal relationships 

Conducts personal interviews with persons of various levels of etlucation and 
culture who apply for visa services, many of whom expect special treatment or 
are reluctant to supply information that may affect their application adversely, 
explains to unqualified applicants the reasons for nonapproval ; regularly con- 
tacts minor officials in the local government, consulates of other countries, edu- 
cational institutions, and similar organization in order to explain regulations 
and requirements and to obtain or verify factual or documentary data concern- 
ing applicants or information concerning local laws and regulations. 

Significance of judgments and decisions 

1. Decisions as to eligibility of applicant or sufficiency of evidence in clear-cut 
cases of recurring type are usually not subjected to review other than spot checks 
for accuracy of decision or adequacy of evidence. 

2. For each caller, incumbent decides the service to be rendered, the form to 
be completed, and whether evidence submitted meets the requix'ements of estab- 
lished policy and the Foreign Service regulations. 

3. Gathers evidence in interviews and through investigation which may in- 
fluence the supervisor's decision and result in approval or disapproval of a visa 
application. 

4. INIay determine eligibility or ineligibility of applicants through judgment 
applied to such matters as interpretation of regulations, selection of local officials 
to be contacted in making investigations, or analysis of variations in spelling of 
foreign names. 

.'"). Delay in the handling of a case or detention of a person by the immigration 
authorities might result from erroneous judgment. 

Management responsibilifji 

Assigns work to clerical employees : reviews completed woi-k for accuracy and 
adequacy ; gives instructions to and interprets regulations for lesser trained 
employees ; assists supervisor in management of the unit by overseeing the per- 
formance of established procedures and suggesting new procedures when called 
for by changes in workload or character of duties. 

Ans^rcr to Question 5 of Questionnaire of Prcxideut's Commission on 
Ini migration and Naturalisation 

Tlie following in'-entives or rewards are offered to all employees who wish to 
specialize in meticulous, painstaking visa work, which is governed entirely by 
detailed laws and regulations : 

1. The demand for good visa officers constantly increa.'ies with the growing 
complexity and volume of the M'ork. While rewards in the form of promotion 
are probably not commensurate with the grueling nature of the duties, countless 
visa officers have exjiressed a preference for it because of its human appeal. 
The strong attraction is to those officers who have a natural liking for people 
and derive psychic income from ministering to the needs of their fellow men; 
this is the same motivation that is felt by dedicated members of the clergy and 
the medical, legal, and teaching [irofessions. 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1873 

2. Promotion resulting from hifxli-callber performance. 

3. Preparation lor taking charge of larger consular sections or smaller con- 
sular offices for middle and lower grades, and taking charge of visa sections for 
beginners. 

4. Development of political and other intelligence from applicants and sources 
connected with them. 

5. To attain commissioned status as consul, by congressional action for staff 
visa consuls in middle and lower grades, and as vice consuls for beginners. 

G. Ilcmor awards for performance beyond the norm. 

7. Satisfaction in performing a function of the Foreign Service in a superior 
wnvkin.inlike fashion. 

Answer to Question 7 (6) of Questionnaire of President's Commission on 
Iminiffrdtion and Naturaiizution 

No special retirement provisions for visa officers distinguish them from the 
rest of the Foreign Service. The general retirement provisions are as follows : 

FSO's : Voluntary retirement at age 50 with 20 years of service. Involuntary 
retirement at 60, except for career ministers at age 65. 

FSS's : Voluntary retirement on reduced annuity at 55 with 30 years of service ; 
on full annuity at 60 years with .30 years ; on full annuity at 62 years with 15 
years. Involuntary retirement at 70 \vith 15 years. 

Ansicer to question S of questionnaire of President's Coniniission on Immigration 

and Naturalisation 

Tlie Visa Division has had very few occasions to i-epriniaud visa officers in 
the field. The reason is to be found largely in tlie close supervision exercised 
by the Division by means of lOO-percent review of oversea correspondence on 
visa cases from consular officers to residents of the United States, and by means 
of the advisoiy opinion procedure and inspections. Constant corrective action 
keeps the standard of performance high and errors of sufficient gravity to call 
for disciplinary action are correspondingly rare. 

Although the following is an imposing list of causes for transfer, suspension, 
or removal of visa officers, there have been relatively few cases when any action 
has been necessary in connection with item 3 througli item 11, inclusive. 

1. Change from visa work to some other activity in the Consular Branch or 
to a new field of endeavor in the Foreign Service. 

2. Completion by young Foreign Service officers of their period of visa training. 

3. Decline in effectiveness as a visa officer. 

4. Repeated disregard of laws, regulations, and instructions concerning the 
issuance of visas. 

5. Habitual discourtesy to visa applicants. 

6. Continued association with questionable characters or disreputable visa 
firms and lawyers. 

7. Accepting gifts from visa applicants. 

8. Strong convictions which point to corruption but with little or no actual 
proof to prosecute. 

9. Irregularities concerning the issuance of visas. 

10. Having a part in or being connected with a visa scandal. 

11. Malfeasance in office. 

Answer to question 9 of questionnaire of President's Coiiiniissio7i on Imi)ngration 

and 'Naturalization 

Visa work is characterized by extraordinary demands on the officer who is 
called upon to translate a great body of complex laws and regulations into terms 
of success or failure in the lives of the persons who stand before him. The chief 
elements in the task may be described thus : 

1. Responsibilitu 

The officer is obliged to administer laws which, if applied unwisely or unskill- 
fully could result in detriment to his country, or in human tragedy. The 
decisions he must make are sometimes exceedingly difficult, and the weight 
of argument pro and con delicately balanced. To arrive ;it the cori-ect decision 
he nuist be genuinely sympathetic to the alien applicant, hut at the same time he 
must be alert to attempted fraud on the part of the person he is trying to help. 
He must face this situation repeatedly without becoming cynical or insensitive. 



1874 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

2. Pressure 

Frequently the visa officer is subjected to entreaty, threats, cajolery, subor- 
nation, or at least the continual wear of repeated importunities. Many appli- 
cants do not understand ; persons refused on security si'ounds almost always 
pretend they do not imderstand, and demands for unlawful preferential treat- 
ment are commonplace. The visa ofticer miist stand firmly on the law, resisting 
improper pressure and still remaining open to new evidence. This calls for 
firmness of character and monumental patience. 

3. Complexity 

Not the least of the visa officer's worries is the technical job of learning laws and 
regulations and keeping abreast of the changes in them, especially in the field 
of internal security and the public interest. 

(NOTE) : Constant studies are being carried on for the improvement of 
techniques, for the removal of backlogs, and for giving increased service to the 
public applying for visas. In the EUR posts, for example, there has been an 
increase of 26 percent in workload from FY 1951 to FY 1952 in the face of 
severe budgetary cuts. 

Answer to question J2 of questionnaire of President's Commission on Immigra- 
tion and Naturalisation 

(a) Visa handbook including manual and regulations (one copy only). 

(p) Example of advisory opinion from Department to a field post. 

(c) Information sheets. 

(d) Report of visa training course. 

(p) Hypothetical cases used in training. 
(/) Analysis of exclusion clauses (single copy). 
({/) OMV correcting error in coiTCspondence. 

(/() Visa Circular No. 18, March 8, 1949, methods and standards in appraising 
Tisa work. 

(0 Performance rating record card. 



INFORMATION PROVIDED BY THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF 
STATE CONCERNING GROUNDS FOR REFUSAL OF IMMIGRATION 
VISAS 

October 8, 1952. 
Mr. S. D. BoYKiN, 

Director, Office of Security and Consular Affairs, 
Department of State, Washington 25, D. C. 

My Dear Mr. Boykin : This Commission desires to obtain such data as may 
be obtained without too great difficulty by the end of the current month regard- 
ing various grounds of refusals, both formal and informal, of innnigration visas 
during the fiscal years 1948 through 1952. I am informed that the Department's 
Visa Division has been requested also to supply to the Commission whatever 
data of that type it has on hand. We have been informed that it will undertake 
to do whatever it can in that respect but that Division has indicated that its 
own records do not, in all probability, contain svifficient information. 

Consequently, it would be very much appreciated if the larger visa-issuing posts 
in our Foreign Service could be requested promptly by circular telegram, charge- 
able to the account of this Commission, to supply the following information for 
the fiscal years mentioned : Selecting at random 50 refusal cases in each of the 
years in question, what number of immigration visas were refused upon such 
grounds as medical reasons, security reasons, likelihood of becoming a public 
charge, alien contract labor, fraud, criminal activities, and so forth? 

It is suggested that such posts as London, Paris, Naples, ^lunich, Ilabana, 
Mexico City, Hong Kong, Tokyo, and such others as may come to mind as 
affording a fair cross section of the visa function in large-scale operation, be 
cii'cularized as indicated. 

Mr. M:iim informs me that he has recently discussed with Mr. Merlin E. 
Smith of your office a tentative draft of sucli a telegram to be sulimitted for 
your approval and clearances by such other areas in the Department of State 
41 s are deemed appropriate. 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1875 

The Commission is very desirous of ohtaiiiing the following additional infor- 
mation relating to refusal of immigration visas upon the basis of information 
received by consular oflicers and would be grateful to have whatever data 
thereon can be supplied : 

(1) How many ap])li(aiits finally refused visas have been — 

(a) Returning alien residents; 
(h) Spouses of Amt>rican citizens? 

(2) In what proportion or percentage of cases have such refusals been based 
upon derogatory information? 

(3) Omitted. 

(4) What proportion, or percentage, of visas have been refused because of — 

(a) Direct participation in espionage, sabotage, or other activities 
directly related to the internal security, military operations, or 
external affairs of the United States; 

(6) Membership in the American ('oinmunist Party; 

(c) Membership in any foreign Cominunist Party: 

( d) Membership in any other prosci'ibed organization; 

(e) Other factors? 

(5) Have visas been refused finally on the basis of past membership in any 
of the above organizations? If so, what proportion of cases involve such 
past membership? 

(6) What standards are applied in refusing visas without advisory opinions 
first being sought? 

(7) Do visa oflScers rely on confidential information of past or present asso- 
ciations because direct evidence is unavailable? To what extent do visa 
officers attempt to determine whether alleged memltership was voluntai-y? 
How is it determined that a named organization other than the Commu- 
nist Party is proscribed under the act of October 16. 1918, as amended by 
the Internal Security Act of 1952? 

(8) What notice is given to the affected applicant concerning the nature 
and basis of tlie charges against him? What opportunity has the applicant 
to refute such charges by presenting evidence in his own behalf? What op- 
portunity is given for representation by counsel and presentation of written or 
oral arguments to the refusing ofiicer? What notice is given to the applicant 
concerned concerning an adverse decision and the basis on which it was 
rendered ? 

In conclusion, I desire to extend to you the Commission's very sincere ap- 
preciation for the fine cooperation and assistance given it by you and the Office 
of Security and Consular Affairs. 
Very truly y(nirs, 

Harry N. Rosenfield, 

Executive Director. 



Department of State, 
Washington, November 5, 1952. 
Mr. Harry N. Rosenfield, 

Executive Director, President's Commission on Immifjration and Naturali- 
zation, Washinoton, D. C. 

My Dear Mr. Rosenfield : In a<;cordance with the requests contained in 
your letter of October S, 1952, the Office of Security and Consular Affairs in 
collaboration with the regicmal bureaus of the Department has endeavored to 
obtain the information desired concerning refusals of immigration visas during 
the fiscal years 194S through 1952. 

As suggested, the Foreign Service establishments engaged most heavily in 
visa issuance have been requested by telegraph to submit data relative to the 
numbers of their refusals for various reasons. The posts queried were Habana, 
London, Mexico. Paris, Naples, Fi-ankfurt, Zurich, Athens, Hong Kong, Toliyo, 
and Caracas. Of these, replies from only six ( London, Mexico, Naples, Frankfiut, 
Zurich, and Hong Kong) have reached the Department thus far, presumably 
because of tlie shortness of time and the magnitude of the task of identifying 
refusal cases which are not normally segregated from the body of visa files. The 
data set forth hereunder are therefore not as comprehensive or as accurate a 
sampling as it was hoped they would be. When all replies are received, I 
shall be pleased to furnish revised figures.* 



'See p. 1880 for finjil revised statistics. 



1876 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 



Refusals of inuHirjration visas 



Reasons 


Fiscal 
year 
1948 


Fiscal 
year 
1949 


Fiscal 
year 
1950 


Fiscal 
year 
1951 


Fiscal 
year 
1952 


Total 


Medical 

Security 

Likely public charge and paupers 


63 
26 
23 
59 
9 
18 
1 
6 

11 
50 


69 
20 
35 

27 
8 

24 
1 
6 


12 

52 


61 
43 
42 
22 

2 
42 

5 

17 
50 


53 

97 

33 

20 



57 

3 

9 



13 

55 


61 

83 

38 

22 

19 

48 

1 

7 



16 

45 


307 
269 
171 


Alien contract labor 


150 


Fraud . . 


38 


Criminal ... ._ 


189 


Moral 

Deportees and removees 

Racial L_ _.. 

Illiteracy 


11 
34 

1 
69 


Other 


252 


Total 


266 


254 


291 


340 


340 


1,491 



1 1, e., ineligible to citizenship because of birth as non-Caucasian native of "Asiatic 
barred zone." 

Note. — See p. 1880 for final revised statistics. 

1. Applicants refused visas who were — 
(a) Returning alien residents: 33. 
(6) Spouses of United States citizens: 122. 
• 2. Percentage of cases refused on basis of derogatory information : 28.8 percent.^ 

3. Omitted. 

4. Pei'centage of visas refused because of — 

(a) Direct participation in espionage, sabotage, or other activities di- 
rectly related to the intei'nal security, military operations, or ex- 
ternal affairs of the United States; 0.2 percent. 

(&) IMembership in the American Communist Party: 0. 

(c) Membership in any foreign Communist Party: 1.5 percent. 

id) Membership in other prescribed organizations: 0.3 percent. 

(e) Other factors : 2.9 percent. 

5. Visas refused because of past membership in any of the above 
organizations: 175. 

It will be noted that the totals of refusals for the several years are not in 
round figures. This is because some posts reported more, some fewer, than 50 
cases per year. 

Your subparagraph (6) asks what standards are applied in refusing visas 
without advisory opinions first being sought. If the responsible consular oflScer 
has information of such a nature as to warrant a reasonable conclusion that an 
alien is inadmissible into the United States, he may refuse a visa without request- 
ing" an advisory opinion. If the officer is in doubt whether the applicant is in- 
admissible, he may request such an opinion. 

In response to your subparagraph (7), you are informed that consular officers 
do rely upon confidential information of past or present associations where direct 
evidence is unavailable. Every practicable effort is made to weigh the accuracy 
of all information available, both classified and unclassified. Any applicant 
who claims that his membership or affiliation with a proscribed organization was 
involuntary is given every opportunity to establish that it was. Membership or 
affiliation is considered prima facie to be or to have been voluntary, and the burden 
is on the alien to prove by clear and convincing evidence tbat it was involuntary. 
The diplomatic mission (usually an embassy or legation) in the country where 
the political party, organization, or affiliation was organized or where it appears 
to have its headquarters, determines whether it is pi-oscribed. The principal 
proscribed parties are named in the Department's circular airgram of March 30, 
1951. 2 : 15, a copy of which is enclosed as of possible convenience. 

The answer to your subparagraph (8) is that in refusing a visa application, 
the adverse information upon which the refusal is predicated is divulged to the 
alien if .'<uch information is not confidential. If such information is confiden- 
tial, the alien is informed of the provision of law imder which he has been found 
to be ineligible to receive a visa. The legal citation is usually sufficient indication 



- Since the derosatory information supplied relates to certain categories of refusals only, 
and not to all of thoni/the figures do not aggregate 100 percent. 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1877 

of llie reason for refusal to enable tlie applicant to know why he was refused 
and to permit him to submit any available information pertinent to a reconsidera- 
tion of his case. The applicant is given every opportunity to submit evidence 
in his own behalf to refute the "charges against him." Naturally, if tiie "basis 
of the cliarge.s" is of a conlidential nature, be may not always know what the 
"charges" consist of. Every reasonable opportunity is given for representation 
by counsel and for the i)resentation of written or oral arguments to the refusing 
officer or office. A written notice of an adverse decision is given to the applicant 
with the basis for the refusal stated, except as indicated above. 

The Office of Security and Consular Affairs stands ready to furnish you, fully 
and promptly, any further information within its power to give. 

Sincerely, Gp^ouge H. Steuakt, Jr., 

Acting Director, Office of .Security and Consular Affairs. 

Enclosure : Department's circular airgram of March ;>(), 1951. 

Unclassified — Control 47<t4 



Circular Airgram 



March 30. 1951, 2 : 15 p. m. 



1 all American Diplomatic and Consular Officers: 

1. The President approved on IMarch 28, 1951. an act of Congress (I'ul)lic 
Law 14, S2d Cong.) which requires a change in the interpretation of the pro- 
visions of the act of October 16, 1918, as amended by the Internal Security Act 
of 1950. 

2. Section 1 of the act of March 28, 1951, reads : 

"That the Attorney General is hereby authorized and directed to provide by 
regulations that the terms 'members of and 'affiliated with' where used in the 
Act of October 16, 1918, as amended, shall include only membership or affiliation 
which is or was voluntary, and shall not include membership or affiliation which 
is or was solely (a) when under sixteen years of age, (b) by operation of law, 
or (c) for purposes of obtaining employment, food rations, or other essentials 
of living, and where necessary for such purposes." 

3. The committee report in connection with the legislation contains the follow- 
ing statements : 

"The i-eason most frequently given for the denial of visas or the denial of 
admission appears to be the applicant's past membership of, or affiliation with, 
certain totalitarian youth, national labor, or professional, student, or similar 
organizations, or the alien's service in the German or Italian armies, or his. 
involuntary membership in totalitarian parties or their affiliates and auxiliaries. 
including tiioso cases where it was shown that such membership or affiliation 
occurred by operation of law or ediqt, or for purposes of obtaining or preserving 
employment, food rations, or other essentials of living. 

"The bill makes clear the intent of Congress that aliens who are, or were, 
voluntary members of the Nazi, Fascist, or other totalitarian parties or organi- 
zations are to be excluded, but aliens wlio were involuntary members of Nazi, 
Fascist, or other * * * totalitarian youth, national labor, student, or similar 
organizations, are not to be considered ipso facto as members of, or affiliated 
with, the Nazi, Fascist, or other *■ * * totalitarian parties or (U'ganiza- 
tioiis within the meaning of the act of October 1(), 1918, as amended. Furtlier- 
more, aliens who served in the German, Italian or other * * * armed forces 
are not to be considered ipso facto as members of, or affiliated with, the Nazi, 
Fascist, or other * * * totalitarian parties or subsidiary organizations." 

4. All cases of visa applicants in which adverse action was taken under the 
act of October 16, 1918. as amended by the Internal Security Act of 1950, sliould 

. be reviewed in the light of the act of IMarch 2S, 1951. Visas may now be issued 
in such cases if they were previously witliheld solely on one or more of the 
grounds which no longer exist, as provided in the act of IMarch 28, 1951. 

5. Visas may now be granted in all bona fide nonimmigrant cases now pending 
before the Department, or the Department of Justice, for ninth proviso action 
which was deemed to be necessary under the Attorney General's construction of 
the law, but which now clearly do not fall within the intent of Congress as stated 
in the act of March 28, 1951, and in all such cases arising henceforth. The 



1878 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

Department should be promptly informed of any pending cases wliicli are still 
considered to require ninth proviso action. 

(i. Immigration visas may be issued to aliens whose cases hail been suspended 
solely upon the basis of former involuntary membership in the Nazi, Fascist, 
Falangist, or Communist l*arty or an athliate, subsidiary, section, branch, or sub- 
division of those parties, and in all such cases arising henceforth. 

7. The admission of aliens who are, or were, Nazis or Fascists at heart, or 
who advocate the Falangist system for the United States, is to be considered 
prejudicial to the interests of the United States within the meaning of the war- 
time visa regulations contained in supplement D to the Foreign Service regula- 
tions (22CFRr>P>. 1-53.41). 

8. Aliens who are, or were, voluntary members of. or voluntarily affiliated with, 
the parties or organizations proscribed by the act of October 16, 1918, as amended, 
are still excludable. 

9. The principal parties proscribed by the act of October 16, 1918. as amended 
by the Internal Security Act of 1950, are : 

(a) Ever.v Communist party in the world, wliich includes every party that 
has ever been a part of the world Commi;nist movement directed from the 
U. S. S. R., regardless of tlie name bv whicli it may be. or have been, known; 
the Nazi Party (N. S. D. A. P.) of Germany: the Fascist Party (P. N. F.) of 
Italy; and the Falange (F. E. T.) of Spain. The proscription of the statute also 
applies to any other party which is or was a totalitarian dictatorship as defined 
in section 3 (15) of the Internal Security Act of 1950. No party otl'.er than those 
specifically designated has been so designated up to the present time. 

(6) Every section, subsidiary, branch, oi' subdivision (which are to be re- 
garded as synonymous terms) of such parties is also within the statutory pro- 
scription. Every direct predecessor or successor party oi- organization, having 
the same general ideological objectives or purposes, of such parties is also within 
the statutory proscription. 

(c) Every affiliate (affiliated organization) of such parties is also within the 
statutory proscription. The term "affiliate'' as here used means an orgau'zation 
substantiall.v directed, dominated, or controlled by one of the parties within the 
statutory proscription, which is or was used or operated by such party piimarily 
ro heti) maintain its totalitarian control over the country, or to help disseminate 
its totalitarian economic and governmental doctrines or ideology. 

(d) Considering the Nazi Party of Germany as an exami)le. the (SS) Schutz- 
staffeln (Protective Squad-Elite Guard), the (SA) SturmabteiUmg (Storm De- 
tachment), the (NSKK) NS Kraftfahrerkorps (Motor Corps), the (NSFK) NS 
FPegerkorps (Flying Corps), tlie (H.l) Hitler .Trgend (Hitler Youth), and the 
(BDM) Bund Deutscher Maedchen (League of German Girls) may l)e regarded as 
sections, subsidiaries, liranches, or subdivisions of the Party. The (DAF) 
Deutsche Arbeitsfront (German Labor Front), the (NSV) NS Volkswohlfhart 
(Peoples Welfare Service), and the (RAD) Reichsarl>eitsdienst (Compulsory 
National Labor Service) were affiliates of the Party. 

(e) Where used in this circular airgram. the term "proscribed party or organi- 
zation" means all of the afore-mentioned Communist and other totalitarian par- 
ties, their sections, subsidiaries, branches, and subdivisions, their direct prede- 
cessor and successor parties or organ'Zitions, and their affiliates. Where affili- 
ates are separately treated it is intended to cover only affiliated organizations 
which are or were not sections, subsidiaries, branches, or subdivisions of such 
proscribed parties. 

10. (fl) Service, whether voluntary or not. in the armed forces of any coimtry 
shall not be regarded, of itself, as membership in, or affiliation with, any pro- 
scribed party or organization, and shall not, of itself, constitute a ground for 
exclusion. This, however, in no way affects the pi'ohibition contained in section 
13 of the Displaced Persons Act of 1948, as amended, against the issuance of a 
visa under that act to any person who has voluntarily borne arms against the 
United States on the western front during World War II except that the con- 
struction of the word "voluntary" as used in this circular airgram shall be 
applied to the construction of the word "voluntarily" appearing in section 13 of 
the Displaced Persons Act of 1948, as amended, in relation to bearing arms, but 
only other than German nationals. 

(&) Voluntary service in a political capacity (such as a political commissar) 
with the armed forces of any country shall constitute affiliation with a proscribed 
party or organization. 

11. Membership or affilation, whether voluntary or not. which ended liefore an 
alien reached his sixteenth birthday shall not constitute a ground for exclusion. 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATXHIALIZATION 1879 

If ail alien coiitiiiues or continiuMl lils nicniborship or affiliation beyond his six- 
teenth birthday, the question whelher his membership or afliliation after his 
sixteenth birthday is or was voluntary shall be determined as in the case of any 
other alien. In that eonnection, the faets I'elatins to his activities only after his 
sixteenth birtbilay may be considered in determining whether the continuation 
of his membershii» or affiliation is or was voluntary. 

12. -Alemhership or affiliation solely by operation of law sliall not constitute 
a ground for exclusion. 'Phis (iperation-of-law excei)tion includes any case 
wherein the alien automatically becomes or became a member of or affiliate of 
a proscribetl party or organization by official act, proclamation, order, or decree. 

18. The term "voluntary"" when used in relation to membership in, or affiliation 
with, a proscribed party or orgaiuzation shall be construed to mean membership 
or affiliation which is or was Iviiowingly created by the alien's act of Joininu or 
affiliating, upon his own volition, with such proscribed party or organization. It 
does not include: 

(«) Membership or affiliation which is or was solely the result of duress or 
coercion ; 

(b) Membership or affiliation which is or was solely, and necessary, for the 
purpose of obtaining or keeping employment, food rations, housing, or other es- 
sentials of living, such as general education ; 

(c) Membership or affiliation in a nonproscribed party or organization, which 
membership or affiliation continues or continued after such party or organization 
becomes or became proscribed, or comes or came under the domination or con- 
trol of a proscribed party or organization, pi'ovided that the alien establishes 
that he cannot or could not have terminated his membership or affiliation with- 
out suffering lo.ss of employment, housing, food rations, or other essentials of 
living, such as general education. However, a person who tei'minates or ter- 
minated Ills membership or affiliation in a party or organization prior to the date 
it becomes or became proscribed, or comes or came under the domination or con- 
trol of a proscribed party or organization, shall not be considered to be or to have 
been a member, or affiliate of a proscribed party or organization ; 

(d) Membership in or affiliation with an affiliate, where the alien established 
that at the time he voluntarily joined the affiliate, it professed a purpose neither 
Communist nor totalitarian in character, provided the alien establishes that at 
the time of joining he did not know, and did not have reasonable means of ascer- 
taining, that the affiliate had any purpose Communist or totalitarian in character, 
iind that he continues or continued to have no knowledge of, and no reasonable 
means of ascertaining, the proscribed purpose of. the affiliate, up until tlie time 
his membership or affiliation ceases or ceased, or that after he ascertains or 
ascertained the proscribed purpose of the affiliate, he is or was not able to ter- 
minate his membership or affiliation w'ithout suffering loss of employment, hous- 
ing, food rations, or other essentials of living, such as general education. 

14. In all cases under paragraphs 12 and 13 above, the responsible consular 
officer must be satisfied that the alien did not, in whole or in part, join or remain 
a member or affiliate because of ideological conviction or belief in the doctrines 
of communism or other form of totalitarianism, and that he has never inten- 
tionally bee I active in the promotion of such doctrines. 

15. (a) Member-ship in, or direct (i. e., not through any intermediary affiliate) 
affiliation with, any Communist Party, the Nazi Party, the Fascist Party, the 
Spanish Falange, or other totalitarian party, or any section, subsidiary, branch, 
or subdivision thereof, including the youth groups under any Communist Party 
(where the membership or affiliation is or was after the alien's sixteenth birth- 
day) as distinguished from an affiliate or youth group comprehended within 
(h) below — shall be considered jjriiua facie to be or to have been voluntary, and 
the burden shall be on the alien to prove b.y clear and convincing evidence, which 
shall be made a matter of record in the case, that such memebrship or direct 
affiliation is or was involuntary. 

(&) Membership in, or affiliation with, an affiliate of any Communist Party, 
the Nazi Party, the Fascist Party, the Siianish Falange, or other totalitarian 
party, or membership in, or afhllation with, the youth sections of the Nazi 
Party, the Fascist Party, the Spanish Falange, or other totalitarian party wliere 
the member.ship or affiliation is or was after the alien's sixteenth birthday), ex- 
■cept youth groups under any Communist party, shall be regarded as raising an 
inference that such membership or affiliation is or was voluntary, but this infer- 
ence may be overcome by the alien's sworn statement that his membership or 
affiliation is or was involuntary, provided that, after appropriate security clear- 
ances, there is no evidence or reliable information to the contrary. If any such 
evidence or information to the contrary is obtained, the burden shall continue to 



1880 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

be on such alien to establish by clear and convincing evidence, which sliall be 
made a matter of record in the case, that his membership or affiliation is or was 
involuntary. Officers of the affiliates and youth sections referred to in this sub- 
section shall be considered under (a) above. 

16. Doubtful cases of immigrants and nonimmigrants should be submitted to 
the Department for advisory opinions. All cases of members or former members 
of the Communist Party or any of its sections, brandies, subdivisions, or sub- 
sidiaries as dlstingnished from nonofficer members of an affiliate thereof, shall 
be considered to be doubtful for this purpose. 

ACHESON. 



Department of State, 
Washinyton, November 19, J 952. 
Mr. Haury N. Rosenfield, 

Executive Director, President's Commission on Immigration and Natural- 
ization, Washington, D. C. 
My Dear iNlR. Rosenfield : I refer to my letter of Novemb;>r 5, 1052, and have 
pleasure in furnishing final revised figures for refusals of immigration visas 
during the last five fiscal .\ears. Reports have been received from the balance 
of the posts queried, except Caracas, which replied that its present excessive 
workload did not pei-mit the undertaking of such a task. A reconiiiilation of the 
information received from Habana, Lon'on. Mexico. Paris, Naples, Frankfort, 
Athens, Zurich, Hong Kong, and Tokyo (including Yokohama) yields the follow- 
ing results : 

Refusals of immigration visas 



Reasons 


Fiscal 
year 1948 


Fiscal 
year 1949 


Fiscal 
year 1950 


Fiscal 
year 1951 


Fiscal 
year 1952 


Total 


Medical 

Security 

Likely public charges and paupers 

Alien contract labor ._. . . 


100 
60 
29 
59 
15 
31 
2 
6 

1.3 
91 


100 
55 
40 
27 
11 
31 
3 
6 

13 
132 


69 

66 

43 

23 

5 

59 

8 

7 

1 

17 

69 


67 

239 

42 

23 

1 

72 

13 

9 



13 

69 


111 
182 

'^ 
19 
69 

6 
11 


18 
85 


447 
602 
231 
190 


Fraud . . _ . 


51 


Criminal '. 

Moral 

Deportees and removees 

Racial ' 

Illiteracy - 


262 

32 

39 

1 

74 


Other 


446 






Total ' 


406 


418 


367 


548 


636 


2,375 



I. e., ineligible to citizenship because of birth as non-Caucasian native of "Asiatic barred zone." 

Applicants refused visas who were : 

(a) Returning alien residents: 60. 

(6) Spouses of United States citizens: 103. 
Percentage of visas refused on basis of derogatory information : 30.8 iiercent.^ 
Omitted. 
Percentage of visas refused because of : ^ 

(a) Direct participation in espion;ige, sabotage, or other activities directly 
related to the internal security, military operations, or external 
affairs of the United States : 1.6 percent. 

(6) Membership in the United States Communist Party: 0. 

(c) Membership in any foreign Communist Party: 12.2 percent. 

(d) M mbership in other proscribed organizations: 1.8 percent. 

(e) Other factors: 8.0 percent. 

Visas refused because of past membership in any of the above organizations: 
207. 
Sincerely, 

George H. Steuart, Jr. 

Acting Director, 
Office of Security and Co7isular Affairs. 



^ Since tlie dei'Ofjatory information furnished relates to only certain categories of causes 
for refusal and not to all of them, the figures do not aggregate 100 percent. 

- As in footnote 1 above, the causes for refusal are not all-inclusive and therefore the 
percentages do not aggregate 100. 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1881 

N. B. : An error in copying was noted subsequent to transmittal of the letter 
of November 5, 1052, from the Acting Director, Office of Security and Consular 
AlTairs, Department of State (v. supra), viz. tlie total percentage of refusals based 
upon derogatory information should be 20.7 percent, and not 28.8 percent. 



INFORMATION PROVIDED BY THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF 
STATE CONCERNING PAST PROPOSALS TO ORGANIZE THE PASSPORT 
AND VISA FUNCTIONS 

OcTonEK 23, 1952. 
Mr. S. D. BoYKiN, 

Director, Office of Scciiritij and ConauUir Affairs, 
Department of l!>tatc, Washivgton, D. C. 
Dkaii Mr. Bovkix. This will serve to confirm the recent conversations held 
with you and iNIr. Edward W. Harding of your office and IMr. Mann, regarding 
the Commission's desire to obtain whatever information it can regarding the 
f oUowing^ : 

1. Proposals to create and establish an independent agency for supervising the 
issuance of American passports and visas. 

2. I'roposals to remove the visa-control function from the Department of State 
to the Department of Justice, or possibly some other department or agency. 

Specifically, tlie Commission is desirous of obtaining information concerning 
the nature of the proposals made and the arguments offered in favor and in 
opposition, including whatever data bearing on the official positions of the de- 
partments or agencies interested is available. 

As I i-ecall, legislation was proposed in the Congress some time ago calling for 
the establishment of a separate agency to be known as the Bureau of Passports 
and Visas. Any information which can be supplied regarding debates on this 
measure, discussions in committee, the reasons advanced for and against the 
adoption of such legislation, would be very useful indeed. 

In view of the time limit involved, it would be greatly appreciated if the 
information requested could be prepared and forwarded here by no later than 
November 5. 

Vei"j' truly yours, 

Harry N. Rosenfield, Executive Director. 



Department of State, 
Washington, October 31, 1952. 
Mr. Harry N. Rosenfield, 

Executive Director, Presidenfs Commission on Immigration and Naturali- 
zation, Washington, D. C. 
Dear Mr. Rosenfield : This is in response to your letter of October 23 to Mr. 
Boykin asking that we furnish information on past proposals to organize the 
pas.sport and visa functions. 

In order to meet your requirements as soon as possible we have developed 
the attached historical summary of information from material immediately 
known and available to us in our files-. 

I trust that it is adequate to your needs, but if it fails in any respect, please let 
me know. 

Sincerely yours, 

George H. Steuart, Jr., 
Acting Director, Office of Security and Conmlar Affairs. 

A Historical Summary of Previous Efforts To Reorganize Passport and Visa 
Functions — October 28, 1952 

purpose 

This i)aper has been prepared ajt the request of the President's Commission on 
Immigration and Naturalization. It is limited to proposals concerning the 
organizational location of passport and visa functions in the Ignited States Gov- 
ernment. These proposals are from the 1949 reports of tlie Commission on the 
Organization of the Executive Branch of tlie Government (Hoover Commission) 
and from various hills inti'oduced in the Coimress. 



1882 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 
PART I THE HOOVER COMMISSION REPORT 

Recmnmendations of the Commission 

The report of the Commission made two recommendatious which are pertinent 
to this summary statement : 

1. "The State Department as a general rnle should not be given responsibility 
for the operation of specific programs whether overseas or at home" (p. 32, 
Report of the Commission on Foreign Affairs). 

2. "* * * The function of visa control * * * should be transferred 
from the State Department to the Justice Department" (p. 34, ibid.). 

Statement of the Foreign Affairs Task Force 

The Hoover Commission Task Force Report on Foreign Affairs elaborated in 
two statements : 

1. "All visa responsibility, therefore, except with respect to diplomatic visas, 
should be placed in the Justice Department. Visa work presently performed by 
the Foreign Service abroad should be continued but in accordance with policies 
established by the Justice Department in consultation with the State Depart- 
ment" (p. 18). 

2. "The logical solution to the visa problem lies in the transfer of the Visa 
Division functions to the Department of Justice. Diplomatic visas, however, 
should remain under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of State" (p. 104). 

State Department' s position (March 1949) 

Following publication of the Hoover report the Department of State organized 
several committees to study the various recommendations. One of these com- 
mittees was the Visa Task Force which presented its findings in a report (March 
31, 1949) in answer to the Hoover Commission recommendations on location of 
the visa functions. The following paragraphs are excerpts from the conclu- 
sions and recommendations of this report (p. 25 to 27) : 

Conclusions 

"(a) Supervisory responsibility over personnel should remain in the agency 
responsible for tJie results. — Since the Secretary of State is responsible for the 
Foreign Service, it is believed that greater efficiency would result if the Depart- 
ment of State should continue to have full supervisory responsibility over con- 
suls in the discharge of their statutory duties relating to the issuance of visas. 

"(c) The immigration laws place (lefivite responsibilities on the Secretary of 
State. — As the law places definite responsibilities upon the Secretary of State 
under the act of 1924 ( issuance of regulations relating to the administration of the 
act by consular officers) and the act of June 20, 1941 (relating to action in the 
cases refused by consular officers on public safety grounds) these responsibilities 
could not be transferred except by act of Congress. 

"(d) Impact on foreign relations. — As regards foreign relations, there would 
be greater facility of action if the functions of the Visa Division were retained 
in the Department of State. If the decision is made to effect a transfer to the 
Department of Justice, provision would have to be made for close liaison between 
the Departments of State and Justice to ensure the full consideration of political 
factors which might be involved in a given case. 

"(/) No change shonld be made until Congress completes its study of the immi- 
gration system. — Congress, which has particular interest in determining immi- 
gration policy, should have an opportunity to complete its study of the whole 
immigration system and to conclude and recommend what change, if any, should 
be made in the present system. 

"(g) Double-check system, would be impaired by transfer. — The double check 
established by Congress would be impaired by a transfer of the functions of the 
Visa Division to the Department of Justice." 

Recommendations 

"(a) In view of the relationship between the issuance of visas and the conduct 
of foreign relations the administrative, political, and the personnel problems 
which would be involved in a transfer, it is recommended that the functions of 
the Visa Division remain in the Department of State. 

"(d) Finally, it is recommended that in any event no transfer of functions of 
the Visa Division to another agency of the Government be made until the Con- 



COMMISSION OX IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1883 

giess shall have completed its study of the hasic immigration laws and procedures, 
the first comprehensive study since 1924, currently being made by the Subcom- 
mitteo To Investigate Immigration and Naturalization of the Committee on the 
Judiciary." 

PART II CONGRESSIONAL PUOPOSAI,S 

Since 1!)40 there have been several diifereut congressional proposals on the 
organizational location of immigration and nationality functions. These pro- 
posals are contained in several bills introduced at various times in the Congress, 
The Senate versions are S. 30(j!> (February 20, 1950), S. 3455 (April 20, 1950), 
S. 4037 (August 10, 1950), S. 71G (January 29, 1951), S. 2055 (August 27, 1951), 
and S. 2550 (January 29, 1952). 

These various bills provided for a bureau, within the Department of State, 
to concern itself with the passport and visa functions of the United States Gov- 
ernment. The specific organizational proposals were largely the same as to pur- 
pose, (litfering only in the speciflt- as concerning autonomy in budgetary provision, 
qualifications of tiie Administrator and heads of the Passport and Visa Offices, 
provision for a General Counsel of the Visa Office, etc. 

During the floor debate on S. 3069 several Senators commented on the organ- 
izational proposals. Unfortunately, in the time allotted, there has not been 
sufficient staff or time available to do the extensive research required to identify, 
find and analyze references in the Congressional Record. 

However, \\lien S. 4037 was introduced by Mr. McCari:an, Mr. Kilgore, of 
the same committee, submitted minority views in opposition to the bill, in behalf 
of himself and the Messrs. Graham and Langer. Reference is hereby made 
to these minority views ; Calendar No. 2372, Eighty-first Congress, second session, 
August 28 (legislative day, July 20), 1950. 

S. 4037 eventually became law as the Internal Security Act of 1950, but without 
the provision for a Bureau of Passports and Visas. 

The last bill to have been considered for this summary was S. 2550, which 
proposed that : 

"There is hereby established in the Department. of State a Bureau of Security 
and Consular Affairs, to be headed by an Administrator. * * *" 

This wording was kept in the bill and became part of Public Law 414, the 
Immigration and Nationality Act, enacted in June of 1952, taking effect 180 
days after enactment, December 24, 1952. 

Both the Senate and House of Representatives reports of the committee (Sen- 
ate, 1137 ; House, 1365 ; S2d Cong., 2d sess.) referred to provision for the Bui^au. 
The Senate report, which is identical to the House report, has the following 
reference to organizational matters : 

"Section 104 creates a new organizational set-up within the Department of 
State to administer the issuance of passports and visas. There will be a respon- 
sible authority in the Department of State of rank and power corresponding 
to the Commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization and to the Directors 
of the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Central Intelligence Agency, all 
of whom are to collaborate in the interests of national security. 

"In the original draft of section 104, as it appeared in S. 3455 (81st Cong.), 
subsection (e), provided that 'the Director shall perform his duties under the 
general direction of the Secretary of State.' In subsection (f) of the corre- 
sponding section of the instant bill, it is provided that 'the Bureau shall be 
under the immediate jurisdiction of the Deputy Under Secretary of State for 
Administration.' This change of language is intended to provide for appro- 
priate administrative flexibility in the authority of the Secretary of State to 
control the organization of tlie Department of State in the intere.st of effective- 
ness and efficiency. Subsection (f) of section 104 is to be read in conjunction 
with subsections (c), (d), and (e). The language in these subsections does 
not tie the hands of the Secretary of State in constituting tlie functions of the 
Bureau of Security and Consular Affairs, or in delegating authority to the Bureau 
or the Depaitment, or in authorizing redelegation of authority within the Bureau 
or the Department in the interest of efficiency and effectiveness." 



25356—52 119 



1884 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

INFORMATION PROVIDED BY THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF 
STATE CONCERNING WORLD-WIDE QUOTA-CONTROL ADMINISTRA- 
TION 

Department of State, 
Washington, D. C, November 21, 1952. 
Mr. Hakry N. Rosenfield, 

Executive Director, President's Commission on 
Immigration and Naturalisation, 

Washington 25. D. G. 
My Dear Mr. Rosenfield : Reference is made to your request through Mr. 
Frederick Mann for detailed information on the operations and procedures of 
the world-wide quota control system administered in the Department of State. 
In reply to this request, I am transmitting a memorandum prepared by the 
quota-control officer of the Visa Division on world-wide quota-control administra- 
tion. This memorandum may be used verbatim in the Commission's report if 
you so wish. 

Sincerely yours, 

Edward S. Maney, 
Chief, Yisa Division. 
Enclosure : Memorandum. 

World-Wide Quota-Control Administration 

Present quota-control procedure is as follows : 

Under quotas not oversubscribed, quota numbers may be requested as required. 
Where monthly issuance under an undersubscribed quota is heavy, as in the case 
of the British quota in the native country and in Canada, blocks of quota numbers 
are assigned to consulates prior to the beginning of the quota year, with a monthly 
limitation attached thereto in order that total monthly issuance by all offices 
will not exceed numerical limitation prescribed by law. Waiting lists are not 
maintained under these quotas except at offices where applications are so heavy 
that immediate issuance is impossible, in which case a waiting list is maintained 
for the purpose of chronological consideration of cases. 

Although a quota may be heavily oversubscribed for nonpreference applicants, 
numbers may be immediately available upon request for applicants entitled to 
statutory preference. In such instances consulates request preference numbers 
as required. 

Nonpreference applicants chargeable to oversubscribed quotas are required to 
complete an application form, which upon receipt at the consulate is date stamped 
(and in some instances, time stamped), which date represents applicant's date 
of registration. This procedure also applies to applicants under the present 
second preference category, where second preference is oversubscribed. 

Quota waiting lists in order of registration date are maintained under each 
quota nationality, this being determined by country of birth. In instances where 
the first preference portion is oversubscribed it is necessary to maintain a first 
preference waiting list in order of petition date; if second preference is over- 
subscribed, a second preference waiting list is maintained, and under all over- 
subscribed quotas a nonpreference waiting list is maintained. 

The Department, in its quarterly status report of quotas, indicates registration 
dates through which cases should be considered. In this manner, consulates are 
prevented from considering cases of applicants whose documents may expire 
before their turns are reached for quota numbers. 

On dates specified by the Department quarterly reports are submitted by 
consulates showing the registration dates of all preliminarily (or documentarily) 
qualified applicants, as well as any who may be expected will qualify within the 
next 60 days. This is embodied in one list, and is known as the provisionally 
qualified registered demand. 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1885 

It should be explained here that the operation of tahulatinj; resistered demands 
frona ail consulates throughout the world, and prepariug the allotment of quota 
niuubers for the succeeding quarter requires a niininiuni of 4 to 5 weeks and 
another 2 weeks may elapse before allotments are in the hands of all consulates. 
This is the reason for including those who may be expected to qualify. 

It should he stated here, that since the law requires that quota numbers be 
issued strictly in order of registration date, consulates may well be issuing quota 
numbers to applicants, wlio although not qualified at the time the registered 
demand was prepared, have qualified before receipt of quota numbers and there- 
fore would receive a quota number ahead of an applicant who although his 
registration was on the registered demand, has a later registration date. The 
method above described insures the receipt of a sufficient number of quota num- 
bers within priority date then in effect. 

It is also required that consulates indicate on quarterly registered demand 
reports the total unqualified registration under each oversubscribed quota. 
This figure is invaluable for use in determining personnel requirements at 
consulates for use of Committees on Immigration, etc. 

ALLOTMENT OF QUOTA NUMBKBS 

The present law provides that monthly issuance under quotas of more than 
300 annually, shall not exceed 10 percent per month. 

Provided first and second preferences are current, which is the case under 
the majority of oversubscribed quotas, a reserve must be maintained within the 
10-percent monthly limitation to provide preference numbers upon request. This 
reserve cannot be presumed to be the same under all quotas — but varies accord- 
ing to the habits of peoples of a country, and is affected by the trend of world 
conditions, e. g., GI marriages to aliens, who later wish to bring their parents 
to the United States or who may have minor children following to join them. 

After this reserve is arrived at under each quota, allotments are prepared for 
nonpreference applicants upon the basis of the tabulation of world-wide regis- 
trations, so that all applicants registered within a certain date, regardless of 
location, receive quota numbers during the same month. 

It should be borne in mind that section 3 (c) of the Displaced Persons Act, 
as amended, provides for the allotment of 50 percent of the nonpreference portion 
of the quota for issuance under that act. The nonpreference portion is an un- 
known quantity since preference demands fluctuate from time to time. It there- 
fore requires careful policing of quotas to maintain this balance, which may 
be in complete accord one day, and the nest day be totally disrupted by the return 
of quota numbers from offices. 

The return of quota numbers presents not only a problem insofar as section 
3 (c) is concerned, but administratively otherwise. 

Under the present law, it is just as essential that as much of the 10-percent 
monthly limitation be utilized each month as that this limitation not be exceeded, 
in order that all quota numbers are utilized. "While the new Immigration and 
Nationality Act permits issuance during the eleventh and twelfth months in excess 
of the 10-percent monthly limitation, it is nbt felt advisable to have any appro- 
ciable number of quota numbers on hand under oversubscribed quotas for June 
issuance. Failure of applicants to pass medical examinations, or to secure exit 
permits by raid-.June would result in the return of quota numbers too late for 
utilization elsewhere. It is therefore considered administratively advisable to 
exhaust quotas by the end of the tenth month, issuing any left-overs during 
the eleventh month. 

Adjustments, i. e., visas issued under wrong quota, reductions by section 19 (c), 
and special-act cases, are made against the total anniaal quota and may effect 
monthly limitations, where such reductions are heavy enough to absorb 50 per- 
cent of the quota which is not unusual. 

It should also be remembered that many quotas are now mortgaged beyond: 
the year 2000 by reason of the Displaced Persons Act. 



1886 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

Administration under a unified quota would l)e similar to tlie above, except 
that all nationalities of course would be merged. It may be pointed out that 
those now ineligible to citizenship could absorb large numbers of quota numbers 
now unused under presently undersubscribed quotas. Were any statutory pref- 
erences provided for under the unified quota, heavy demands could cause over- 
subscripti(m thereunder, which would require a waiting list under each category 
or preference oversubscribed, in addition to the nonpreference waiting list. 



INFORMATION PROVIDED BY THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF 
STATE CONCERNING THE REVIEW AND APPEAL PROCEDURES USED 
IN THE PASSPORT DIVISION 

Department of State, 
Washington, October 23, 1952. 
Mr. Harry N. Rosenfield, 
Executive Director, 

President's Commission on Immigration and Naturalization, 
Washington, D. C. 

My Dear Mr. Rosenfield : The Department has received your letter of October 
14, 1952, requesting information relative to the review and appeal procedures 
used in Ihe Passport Division. 

There is enclosed a copy of the departmental order dated October 31, 1941, 
under which there was established in the Passport Division a board of review. 
In a memorandum dated March 12, 1941, the following reasons were given in 
support of the establishment of a board of review : 

"In view of the increasing importance to the persons involved of decisions 
rendered pertaining to nationality ; in view of the provisions relating to the loss 
of nationality contained in section 401 of the nationality law of 1940 ; in view 
of the presumption relating to the loss of nationality which will arise under 
the provisions of section 402 of the Nationality Act of 1940 ; in view of the loss 
of nationality which will result through foreign residence under the provisions 
of section 404 in the cases of persons who acquired American nationality through 
naturalization ; in view of the requirement that reports of expatriation be sub- 
mitted ; in view of the provisions of section 501 of the Nationality Act of 1940 
whereunder reports of expatriation which are submitted by consular officers 
must be reviewed by the Department of State before transmitting one copy 
thereof to the Department of Justice and one copy to the person expatriated ;". 

The board has adopted no formal rules of procedure. The persons concerned 
may appeal to the board either directly or through an attorney. They may 
have their cases considered upon the basis of existing record, upon the basis 
of the record plus any additional evidence they may desire to submit, or they 
may request a formal hearing at which witnesses may appear and the interested 
person may be represented by an attorney. The board has taken the attitude 
that it is its duty to see that the provisions of law involved are fully understood 
by the person appearing before it or his attorney, that the facts in the Depart- 
ment's possession are disclosed and that the person involved is given every 
opportunity to present his case in detail. It is not unusual for the board to 
advise an attorney representing a client of certain provisions in the nationality 
law which may be beneficial to the client. On the other hand, the board has 
no discretion under the law which would enable it to disregard any specific pro- 
vision of law or to waive the operation of the law. Cases coming before the 
board are decided solely upon the evidence before the board and the law appli- 
cable to the particular case. If the board feels that a substantial doubt exists 
and the doubt cannot be cleared up, the doubt is resolved in favor of the person 
concerned. This office has been gratified by expressions of appreciation from 
attorneys relative to help and advice given such attorneys by the board, and no 
instance has come to the attention of this Division in which an attorney has 
complained that the board has been unfair or arbitrary. 

This board deals entirely with cases in which the question involved is legal, 
usually the question of whether a person has performed an act which resulted 
in the loss of the nationality of the United States. It should not be confused 
with the board recently created by the Secretary of State to consider the cases 
of persons who have been refused passports of the United States for reasons 
of jiolicy. 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1887 

Tlu've is enclosed a leaflet coiUainiiig a sui>iilement to tiie Passport Regulations 
wbich explains the scope of the board recently created to consider the cases of 
persons who have been refused passports for reasons of policy or national security. 
This leaflet is self-explanatory. 

The i>rocedure relative to suits for declaratory judgment and the issue of 
certiflcates of identity in connection with such suits is set forth in title 22-CFR 
nO.lS lo ri().2!>, inclusive. When an American consular otflcei' refuses a certificate 
of identity and an api)eal is taken to the Secretary of State, the case is carefully 
reviewed in its entirety by at least three oflicers of this Divisi(»n. It has been 
the view of the oflicers of this Division that the certificates should not he refused 
unless the case shows beyond reasonable doubt that the suit was not brought 
in good faith or does not have a substantial basis. Very few certiflcates are 
refused in cases where the suit involves a legal question. In the main, certifl- 
cates have only lieen i-efused in cases in which the Department felt that the 
pex'son bringing the suit had failed to establish by any reasonable evidence that 
he was in fact the person he claimed to be. Some certificates have been refused 
in cases where the evidence indicated that the suit was not brought in good faith 
but was brctught mtM-ely as a subterfuge to obtain a document under which the 
person involved could obtain entry into the United States. 
Sincerely yours, 

Willis H. Young, 
Acting Chief, Passijort Division. 

Dkpaktmextal Order 994 

There is hereby created in the Passport Division, as of November 1, 1941, a 
board of review consisting of three persons, two of whom shall he senior attorneys 
having exiierience in citizenship and related matters. The third shall lie a foreign 
service officer, whenever one Is available for such assignment; otherwise, an 
officer similarly qualified in citizenship work. The Assistant Chief of the Passport 
Division is designated as adviser to the board. 

The board will review all cases involving the loss of nationality under the 
nationality laws of the United States and will conduct, in appropi-iate instances, 
formal or informal hearings. It will also handle such other matters as may be 
as.signed to it by the Chief of the Passport Division. 

The findings of the board of review will be subject to the approval of the 
Technical Adviser and Assistant Chief of the Passport Division, Mr. John J. 
Scania n. 

The board will provide a forum for hearings and discussions in order to 
obviate as far as may be practicable hardships and inequities in the application 
of the new Nationality Act of 1940, and will make in every case reviewed by it 
a formal record for the files of the Department with respect' to the pertinent facts 
and laws involving the possible lo.ss of nationality or other matter assigned to 
the board. 

The Chief of the Passport Division is hereby authorized to make such regula- 
tions as may be necessary to carry out the purpose of the establishment of the 
board of review. 

CORDELL Hull. 
Dkp.vktment of State, Octohcr 31, Ifl.'/L 

supplemext to passport regulations 

Title 22 — Foreign Relations 

Chapter I — Department of State 

Part 51 — Passports 

Subpart B — Regulations of the Secretary of State 

Pursuant to the authority vested in nie by paragraph 120 of Executive Order 
No. 7.s."(i. issued (.n March :>A. VX'.S Ci F. R. (iSl ; 22 C. F. R. 'A.ll), under authority 
of section 1 of the Act of Congress approved July ;'., 192(> (44 Stat. SS7 ; 22 U. S. C. 
211 (a)), the regulations issued on March 81, V.VAS (Departmental Order 749) 
as amended (22 C. F. R. r,l.l()l to ni.l.'M) are hereby further amended by the 
addition of new sections rti.V.i') to 51.148 as follows : 



1888 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

'""§ 51.135 Limitation on Issuance of Passports to Persons Supporting Commu- 
nist Movement. In order to promote the national interest by assuring that persons 
who support the world Communist movement of which the Communist Party 
is an integral unit may not, through use of United States passports, further the 
purposes of that movement, no passport, except one limited for direct and 
immediate return to the United States, shall be issued to : 

"(a) Persons who are members of the Communist Party or who have recently 
terminated such membership luider such circumstances as to warrant the con- 
clusion — not otherwise rebutted by the evidence — that they continue to act in 
furtherance of the interests and under the discipline of the Communist Party ; 

"(b) Persons, regardless of the formal state of their affiliation with the 
Communist Party, who engage in activities which support the Communist move- 
ment under such circumstances as to warrant the conclusion — not otherwise 
rebutted by the evidence — that they have engaged in such activities as a result 
of direction, domination, or control exercised over them by the Commimist 
movement. 

"(c) Persons, regardless of the formal state of their affiliation with the 
Communist Party, as to whom there is reason to believe, on the balance of all 
the evidence, that they are going abroad to engage in activities which will advance 
the Communist movement for the purpose, knowingly and willfully of advancing 
that movement. 

"§ 51.1.36 Limitations on Issuance of Passports to Persons Likely to Violate 
Lans of the United States. In order to promote the national interest by assuring 
that the conduct of foreign relations shall be free from unlawful interference, 
no passport, except one limited for direct and immediate return to the United 
States, shall be issued to persons as to whom there is reason to believe, on the 
balance of all the evidence, that they are going abroad to engage in activities 
while abroad which would violate the laws of the United States, or which if 
carried on in the United States would violate such laws designed to protect the 
security of the United States. 

"§ 51.1.37 Notification to Person Whose Passport Application Is Tentatively 
Disapproved. A person whose passport application is tentatively disapproved 
under the provisions of § 51.1.35 or § 51.1.36 will be notified in writing of the 
tentative refusal, and of the reasons on which it is based, as specifically as in 
the .iudgment of the Department of State security considerations permit. He 
shall be entitled, upon request, and before such refusal becomes final, to present 
his case and all relevant information informally to the Passport Division. He 
shall be entitled to appear in person before a hearing officer of the Passport 
Division, and to be represented by counsel. He will, iipon request, confirm his 
oral statements in an affidavit for the record. After the applicant has presented 
his case, the Passport Division will review the record, and after consultation 
with other interested offices, advise the applicant of the decision. If the decision 
is adverse, such advice will be in writing and shall state the reasons on which 
the decision is based as specifically as within the .iudgment of the Department 
of State security limitations permit. Such advice shall also inform the applicant 
of his riirht to appeal under § 51.138. 

"§ 51.138 Appeal hy Passport Applicant. In the event of a decision adverse 
to the applicant, he shall be entitled to appeal his case to the Board of Passport 
Appeals provided for in § 51.139. 

"§ 51.1.39 Creation and Functions of Board of Passport Appeals. There is 
hereby established within the Department of State a Board of Passport Apneals, 
hereinafter referred to as the Board, composed of not less than three officers 
of the Department to be designated by the Secretary of State. The Board shall 
act on all appeals under § 51.138. The Board shall adopt and make public its 
own rules of procedures, to be approved by the Secretary, which shall provide 
that its duties in any case may be performed by a panel of not less than three 
members acting by majority determination. The rules shall accord applicant the 
right to a hearing and to be represented by counsel, and shall accord applicant 
and each witness the right to inspect the transcript of his own testimony. 

"§ 51.140 Duty of Board to Advise Secretary of State on Action for Disposition 
of Appealed Cases. It shall be the duty of the Board, on all the evidence, to 
advise the Secretary of the action it finds necessary and proper to the disposition 
of cases appealed to it, and to this end the Board may first call for clarification 
of the record, further investigation, or other action consistent with its duties. 



COJMMISSIOX ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1889 

"§ 51.141 />V/.sr.s for Findinf/s of Fact hi) Board, (a) In making or reviowiiig 
fiiuliii.irs of fact, the I'.oard, and all others with responsibility for .so doing under 
§§ 51.1o.vr)l.l-i:{, shall he convinced by a preponderance of the evidence, as would 
a trial court in a civil case. 

"(b) Consistent and prolonged adherence to the Communist Party line on a 
variety of issues and through shifts and changes of that line will suffice, prima 
facie, to support a finding under § 51. 135 (h). 

"§51.142 Oath or Aflinnation hu ApiJlicant aft to l\IcmhcrKhip in Communist 
Partij. At any stage of the proceedings in the Passport Division or before tlie 
Board, if it is deemed tiecessary, the applicant may be required, as a part of his 
application, to subscribe, under oath or affirmation, to a statement with respect 
to present or past membership in the Communist I»arty. If applicant states that 
he is a Comuumist, refusal of a passport in his case will be without further 
proceedings. 

"§51.143 AppUcahUitu of Sections 51.135-51.1 'fS. When the standards set 
out in § 51.135 or § 51.1.3G are made relevant by the facts of a particular ease to 
the exercise of the discretion of the Secretary under § 51.75, the standards in 
§§ 51.135 and 51.13(5 shall be applied and the procedural safeguards of §§51.137- 
51.142 shall be followed in any case where the person affected talves issue with the 
action of the De[iartnient in granting, refusing, restricting, withdrawing, cancel- 
ling, revoking, extending, renewing, or in any other fashion or degree affecting 
the ability of a person to use a passport through action taken in a particular case." 
P^or the Secretary of State. 

W. K. Scott, 
Acting Deputy Under Seci-etary. 

INFORMATION PROVIDED BY THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF 
STATE CONCERNING REVIEW PROCEDURES WITH REGARD TO THE 
ISSUANCE OR REFUSAL OF VISAS 

Mr. Harry N. Rosenfield, 

Executive Director, President's Commission on Immigration and Naturali- 
zation, Washington 25, D. C. 

My Dear Mr. Rosenfield : Reference is made to your letter of October 7, 
1952. requesting (1) a comprehensive statement giving a factual description 
of the various types of review procedures in effect with regard to the issuance 
or refusal of visas, (2) procedures and policies relating to the review or re- 
con.sideration of visa cases "in which Members of the Congress, other officials of 
the Government, attorneys, and other individuals having an interest therein 
intervene in the alien's behalf," and (3) "an enumeration of those categories of 
cases which the Department has directed must be submitted for advisory 
opinions before final action is taken." 

The review of the issuance of an immigration or nonimmigrant visa is com- 
pletely informal and not a matter of established procedure. Actually no review 
(in the sense of a reconsideration of an action taken) is made of the issuance 
of a visa unless there is additional information made available on the basis 
of which it is believed that a visa may have been obtained by fraud or mis- 
representation or grounds for inadmissibility is established by a review of the 
case, the visa may be canceled or revoked. In such instances the review may take 
place by one or more officers, and the procedure for refusal, which is explained 
before, is followed. 

Procedures for the review of refiisals are set forth in Title 22 of the Code of 
Federal Regulations in section 42.348 for immigration visas. This provision 
Is as follows : "Whenever there is more than one consular officer at a consular 
office, a refusal should be reviewed carefully by a second officer and both should 
sign the memorandum of refusal provided for in section 42.350. In every case 
the officer having supervision over visa work should sign the memorandum of 
refusal." The memorandum of refusal provision is as follows : "Every re- 
fusal of an immigration visa must be explained in a niemorandnm of refusal 
prepared on Form 290 and placed in the file of visa refusals. The memorandum 
should contain sufficient information to form the basis of an adequate report 
to the Department or to an interested person if such report should be requested 
at some later date." In actual practice, this review procedure is extended to 
refusals of all types of visas. 



1890 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

In addition, of course, wlienever tliere is sufficient donbt in the minds of con- 
sular officers, a case may be reviewed in tlie Visa Division tlirougla a request for 
an advisory opinion. Tills type of review is done prior to refusal, but in actual 
practice the consular officer may request an advisory opinion because he wants 
to be certain of his grounds for refusal, which he and his colleagues have al- 
read.v decided. 

As indicated in your letter, in actual practice the authority of the consular 
officer to issue or refuse is placed under an automatic review prior to issviance 
or refusal for certain types of cases. This kind of review is carried out under 
the advisory opinion procedure, which is dealt with in a subsequent para- 
graph. 

There is no established procedure for the review or reconsideration of cases 
in which Members of the Congress, other individuals having attorneys and 
other individuals having an interest intervenes in the alien's behalf. Such 
reviews or reconsiderations have to be made according to the nature of the case. 
In terms of policy, if the circumstances justify a true review or reconsidera- 
tion, it will be done. Grounds for a full-fledged review or reconsideration are 
based on such things as (1) submission of additional or changed material facts, 
(2) evidence or allegations of fraud or misrepresentation, (3) evidence or alle- 
gations of arbitrary or unfounded action taken, and (4) evidence or allegations 
of error or improper application of the law and regulations. In addition, review 
or reconsideration may be occasionally granted primarily because of undue ad- 
ministrative delays or for humanitarian or undue hardship reasons. The pro- 
cedure under which the review or reconsideration is carried out varies because 
the circumstances under which the review or reconsideration is granted may 
require the reviewing consular officer to take such steps as ( 1 ) verifying informa- 
tion or conducting further investigations, (2) submitting a request for ad- 
visory opinion, or (3) automatically reviewing a number of similar cases. 
If the review consideration is initiated by the Visa Division or considei-ed under 
a request by the consular officer, the reviewing officer may have to take such 
steps as to (1) obtain a full report from the consulate at which the visa was 
issued or refused, (2) verify information, (3) initiate further investigations, 
(4) initiate entirely new investigations of allegations of fraud or error or ad- 
ministrative arbitrariness, or (5) automatically review and reconsider a 
number of related or similar cases. 
Sincerely yours, 

EinvARD S. Maney. 
Chief, Visa Division. 



INFORMATION PROVIDED BY THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OP 
STATE CONCERNING REASONS FOR THE UNDERISSUANCE OF IM- 
MIGRATION VISAS FOR A NUMBER OF IMMIGRATION QUOTAS AFTER 
THE PASSAGE OF THE IMMIGRATION ACT OF 1024 

Department of State, 
Washington, October 23, 1952. 
Mr. Harry N. Rosenfield, 

1740 G Street NW., Washinf/ton, D. C. 
My Dear Mr. Rosenfield : I refer to your letter of October 7, 1952, requesting 
information regarding the reasons for the underissuance of immigration visas 
under a number of immigration quotas after the passage of the Immigration Act 
of 1924. 

From the statistical tables which I understand have been furnished to you 
relating to the issuance of visas under the various quotas for the fiscal years 
1925 to 1945. inclusive, you have detailed information regarding each specific 
quota. I will therefore not repeat the figures but may make the following 
observations bearing on this subject. 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1891 

Yoii will note tliat during the fiscal years 1925-29, that is, before the depression, 
there was i)rac'tieall.v a complete issuance of the quotas for Northern and West- 
ern Europe and for Southern and Eastern F]urope and the Near East. 

During tile depression i)eriod in wliich there was widespread unemployment 
in tile United States the Department informed consular otfices that particular 
attention sliould be given to the (piestion whether an ali(>n visa applicant was 
inadmissihle into the United States as a person likely to become a public charge, 
and that unless a visa applicant could establish l)y satisfactory evidence that 
he was not lilcely to l)ecome a public charge a visa would under the law have 
to be withheld. This action was taken in the light of information furnished 
by the White House and the Att<uney General indicating that the economic con- 
diti(m of tlie country should be considered in connection with the issuance of 
visas. On the other lumd, if a visa applicant could establish that he was not 
likely to become a public charge, as. for exami)le, liecause of adequate personal 
funds or assurances of support from linancially qualitied sponsors he would 
not need to depend upon tinding employment soon after his arrival, a visa could 
be granted to him. This public-charge consideration resulted in the under- 
issuance of immigration visas under most of the quotas referred to during the 
period of the depression. 

Other factors which entered into the picture wei'e restrictions in various 
countries which tended to limit the number of persons who are able to emigrate. 
During the period 1939—45 conditions resulting from World War II, made it 
difficult for ijersons to emigrate. I>ifficulty in finding transportation was one 
of their factors. Under some quotas, as that for (Ireat Britain, Ireland, and 
many countries for which there has always been little immigration, there was 
insufficient demand for visas on the part of persons desiring to immigrate. 

It is regretted that it is not iwssible to attriliute to each of the various factors 
referred to their relative effect on the underissuance of the quotas. 
Sincerely yours, 

Edw^abd S. Maney, 
Chief, Visa Division. 

INFORMATION PROVIDED BY THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF 
STATE CONCERNING THE NUMBER OF NONQUOTA VISAS ISSUED 
AND PORTIONS OF IMMIGRATIONS QUOTAS UNUSED FOR THE FISCAL 
YEARS 1925-.52 

Depaktafent of State, 
Washington, October 23, 1952. 
Mr. Hahry N. Rosenfield, 

E.rccntirr Director, President's Commission on Imini<ir(ition and Natural- 
ization, Executive Office, Washinfjton 25, D. C. 
Dear ^Ir. Rosenfield : I have your letter of October 9. 19.")2. retiuesting certain 
data relating to the number of nonquota immigration visas issued and the various 
grounds for refusals, formal and informal, of immigration vi!<as. 

There is enclo.sed hei'ewith a statement showing the number of nonipiota visas 
issued by categories for fiscal year 1925 through 1952. 

With regard to statistics on refusals,, the Visa Division does not maintain any 
records of tlie various grcmnds for the refusal of immigration visas and it is not 
possilde to furnish any comprehensive data on this subject matter. 

There is also enclosed a tabulation of "Portions of immigration quotas unused 
for the fiscal years 194(5 tlirough 1952" requested informally by Mr. Mann. 

If there is any other information you may desire in connection with the fore- 
going, I shall be pleased to hear from you. 
Sincerely yours, 

Edward S. Maney, 
Chief, Visa Division. 



1892 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 
Nonquota visas issued, fiscal years 1925 through 1952 



Fiscal year 


4(a) 


4(b) 


4(c) 


4(d) 


4(e) 


4(f) 


Philip- 
pine 
Trade 
Act of 
1946 


Sec. 
317 (c) 


DP or- 
phans 


Total 


1925 1. . .. -. 


7,255 

10, 727 

18,910 

24, 626 

30, 475 

30, 830 

16, 787 

9,292 

6,650 

8,148 

9,275 

8,957 

9,704 

10, 320 

7,012 

5,638 

2,256 

1,217 

896 

1,684 

5, 131 

6,969 

12, 856 

14, 512 

14, 530 

14, 632 

12, 048 

21, 798 


41,790 

16, 128 

15,215 

14, 299 

12, 575 

10, 963 

6,925 

3,481 

3,118 

3,553 

2,202 

1,743 

1,795 

1,347 

1,170 

933 

10, 736 

2,939 

1,302 

1,304 

1, 243 

2,313 

3,047 

3,609 

3,730 

3,058 

3,762 

3,585 


2,069 

139, 962 

150, 610 

119,521 

98, 987 

62, 441 

19,815 

9,392 

7,523 

8,126 

7,481 

8,158 

12, 193 

14, 348 

12, 235 

11,972 

12, 796 
12,416 

13, 572 
17, 835 
23, 333 
30, 923 
37, 041 
39, 580 
38, 048 
34, 080 
35, 938 
50, 636 


1,236 

1,215 

1,610 

1,219 

1,245 

1,279 

885 

621 

354 

478 

490 

517 

543 

604 

1,160 

1,060 

679 

199 

149 

167 

233 

665 

2,276 

2,708 

2,131 

1,525 

1,310 

975 


760 
1,370 
1,501 
1,590 
1,434 
1,896 
1,455 
1,172 
841 
1,106 
1,330 
1,525 
1,828 
2,470 
2,150 
2,046 
1,882 
1,297 
1,055 
1,889 
3,131 
6.370 
11,466 
12, 053 
10, 840 
9,707 
7,140 
8,069 










2 53, 228 


1926 










3 169, 402 


1927 










* 187, 846 


1928 










161, 255 


1929 


«69 

60 

132 

82 

71 

126 

77 

118 

118 

128 

86 

109 

68 

86 

55 

42 

32 

87 

154 

143 

135 

94 

39 

29 








144, 785 


1930 








107, 469 


1931 . 








45, 999 


1932 








24, 040 


1933 








18, 557 


1934 








21, 537 


1935 - 








20, 855 


1936 








21,018 


1937 








26, 181 


1938 , 








29, 217 


1939 








23, 813 


1940 








21, 758 


1941 








28, 417 


1942 








18, 154 


1943 








17, 029 


1944 








22, 921 


1945 








33, 103 


1946 








« 47, 327 


1947 


4 

22 
62 
21 
9 
1 






' 66, 844 


1948 


9 242 
285 
223 
190 
174 


"'i'i'"335' 

200 

699 

3,010 


8 72, 869 


1949 


70,096 


1950 


11 63, 541 


1951 


12 61, 137 


195213 


» 88, 286 







1 No reports from nonquota countries. 

2 Includes 118 nonquota visas not subdivided. 

3 Does not include 210 visas issued to alien veterans and families. 

* Does not include 6,630 visas Lssued to alien veterans and families. 

» Nonquota status under sec. 4 (f) of the Immigration Act of 1924 provided by the joint resolution of May 
29, 1928, in the case of certain women who were American citizens but who lost their citizenship through 
marriage. 

8 Does not include 45,557 nonquota immigrants admitted under the War Brides Act of Dec. 28, 1945, 
which provided for the admission to the United States of alien spouses and alien children of citizen members 
of the Armed Forces of the United States by waiving documentary requirements and the excluding pro- 
visions concerning mental and physical defectives. 

' Does not include 27,212 nonquota immigrants admitted under the War Brides Act of Dec. 28, 1945. 

3 Does not include 23,016 nonquota immigrants admitted under the War Brides Act of Dec. 28, 1945. 

« Nationality Act of 1940. Dual nationals who have been expatriated through entering or serving in 
armed forces of foreign states. 

1" Pursuant to sees. 2 (e) and 2 (f) of the Displaced Persons Act of 1948, as amended. 

1' Includes 1 nonquota visa issued pursuant to a private law, 81st Cong. 

12 Includes 2 nonquota visas issued pursuant to private laws, 81st Cong. 

'3 Figures for fiscal year 1952 may not be complete. Based on consular reports received in the Department 
of State through Sept. 30, 1952. 

" Includes 9 nonquota visas issued pursuant to private laws, 82d Cong. 

Source: Visa Division, Department of State. 

EXPLANATION OF SYMBOLS 

The symbols "4 (a)," "4 (b)," etc., heading some of the columns on p. 1 refer to certain subsections of the 
Immigration Act of 1924 in which the various categories of nonquota immigrants are defined, as follows: 

1. Section 4 (a): Unmarried children, wives and husbands of American citizens. (Note.' husbands mar- 
ried to American citizens on and after January 1, 1948, are entitled to claim only first preference, not non- 
quoa, status.) 

2. Section 4 (b): Immigrants previously lawfully admitted to the United States and returning from a 
temporary visit abroad. 

3. Section 4 (e): Immigrants bom in Canada, Mexico, Cuba, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, the Canal 
Zone, or in an independent country of Central or South America, their wives and unmarried children under 
18. 

4. Section 4 (d) : Ministers of religion who have been such for at least 2 years prior to application for admis- 
sion and who are entering solely to carry on that vocation, their wives and children under 18 if unmarried; 
and professors of colleges, universities, seminaries, or academies who have been such for at least 2 years 
prior to application for admission and who are entering solely to carry on that vocation, their wives and 
unmarried children under 18. 

5. Section 4 (e) : Bona fide students at least 15 years of age coming solely to study at an educational institu- 
tion approved by the Attorney General. 

6. Section 4 (f)": Women formerly American citizens who lost their American citizenship through marriage 
to aliens, or by virtue of their husband's loss of such citizenship, or by marriage to an alien and residence in 
a foreign country. 

THE PHILIPPINE TRADE ACT OF 1946 

Section 231 of this act (60 Stat. 141) grants nonquota immigrant status to citizens of the Philippines who 
resided for a continuous period of 3 vears in the United States during the period of 42 months ending Nov. 
30, 1941, if they entered the United States during the period from July 4 1946, through July 3, 1951, for the 
purpose of resuming residence in the United States. Wives and unman ied children under 18 of such per- 
sons also are entitled to such nonquota status if accompanying or following to join such aliens. 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1893 












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1898 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 



Pm-tions of immigration quotas unused for the fiscal years WJfG through 1952 



Quota country 



Afghanistan 

Albania 

Andorra 

Arabian Peninsula 

Australia 

Austria 

Belgium 

B hutan 

Bulgaria 

Cameroons: 

British mandate 

French mandate 

China 

Chinese racial 

Czechoslovakia 

Danzig, Free City of 

Denmark 

Egypt 

Estonia 

Ethiopia 

Finland 

France 

German ethnic 

Germany 

Great Bitain and Northern Ireland 

Greece . 

Hungary . 

Iceland 

India 

Iran 

Iraq 

Ireland (Eire) 

Israel 

Italy 

Japan ._. 

Jordan 

Latvia. 

• Lebanon 

Liberia 

Liechtenstein 

Lithuania , _. 

Luxemburg 

Monaco 

Morocco . 

Muscat 

Nauru 

Nepal 

Netherlands 

New Guinea 

New Zealand 

Norway 

Palestine 

Philippines ___ 

Poland 

Portugal 

Ruandi and Urondi 

Rumania _ 

Samoa, Western 

San Marino 

Saudi Arabia 

South-West Africa 

Spain. 

Sweden . 

Switzerland 

Syria 

Syria and Lebanon 

Tanganyika Territory 

Thailand (biam) 

Togoland: 

British mandate 

French mandate 

Trieste, Free Territory of 

Turkey 

Union of South Africa 

U. S. S. R 



Annual 
quota 



100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
1 1,413 
1,304 
100 
100 

100 

100 

100 

105 

2,874 

100 

1,181 

100 

116 

100 

569 

3,086 

0) 

1 25. 957 

65, 721 

2 307 

869 

100 

100 

100 

100 

17.853 

* 5, 802 
100 

(3) 

236 

(■n 

100 
100 
386 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 

3, 1.53 
100 
100 

2,377 
100 
6 50 

6,524 
440 
100 
6 377 
100 
100 
100 
100 
252 

3,314 

1.707 

(') 

8 123 
100 
100 

100 
100 
(») 
226 
100 
10 2, 712 



75 
100 

91 



453 

917 

100 

55 

100 

100 

22 

1 

1,371 

30 

762 





100 

328 

1,188 



20, 213 

53,741 

1 

209 
24 
3 


17, 139 



2,981 



90 

100 

111 

85 

98 

55 

100 

100 

100 

2,521 

100 

5 

1,806 

1 



1,211 



100 



99 

100 

9i> 

100 



2.900 

1,353 



100 
100 



1 

8 

1,317 



99 



100 

88 







100 



100 
99 




15 


99 





9, 066 

42, 804 





18 







14,885 



1948 



97 



100 

87 







100 



100 
100 







97 





8,284 

3h, 797 





39 







10, 086 





28 

98 

27 

100 

100 

100 

45 

99 



52 









100 



96 

59 

100 

100 



,974 

740 



100 
100 



92 

96 



10 

92 

38 

100 

100 

100 



100 













100 



99 



b9 

100 



1,121 

357 



100 
100 




100 
92 



100 


100 

100 















94 





6, 340 

2,594 

42, 514 





24 







6,83b 



91 

93 



5 

95 

,18 

100 

100 

100 



99 













100 





100 


761 
114 



1950 



100 
100 



95 


100 

87 





437 

100 

















(I 

98 





3,942 



48, 566 





18 







11,878 





63 

77 





87 

96 



23 

89 

35 

100 

100 

100 



100 













100 



99 



100 

98 



1,387 







95 



100 
100 



96 



100 

71 



11 

220 

100 

16 

100 

100 

3 



297 

6 







92 







7,395 

49, 421 



16 









14, 105 



644 

46 

46 





91 

99 



34 

92 



100 

100 

100 



100 









465 



100 



94 



88 

93 



1,918 

208 





100 

100 

6-1 





372 



iSee footnotes at end of table. 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1899 



Portions (if initiii(/r<itio)i (/iiotan unused for the flsenl yeant lO'/G 

1 !l52^Vontinuii(.\ 



through 



Quota country 


Annual 
quota 


1946 


1947 


1948 


1949 


1950 


1951 


1952 


Yap and other Pacific islands 

Yugoslavia 


100 
"845 


100 
176 


100 



100 



100 



100 



100 
46 


97 







Total - ... 


153, 879 


113,523 


72, 049 


59, 028 


61, 505 


68, 667 


77,554 


62, 096 






Total animal 'Uiota 




153, 879 


153, 929 


153, 929 


153, 929 


164,203 


154, 2851 


54,277 









' For fiscal years 1949 and 1950, 50 percent of the German and Austrian quotas were made available exclu- 
sively to persons of German ethnic origin puisuant to see. 12 of the Displaced Persons Act of 1948, as 
amended. 

' Annual quota adjusted from M7 to 310 pursuant to Proclamation 2840, July 27, 1949. For fiscal year 
1950 only, readjusted to 309 for administrative pur[)oses. 

' .A.nnual (luota of 100 cstulilishcd pursuant to Proclamation 2846, .July 27, 1949. 

* Annual quota atljtistcd from fj.Sd'i to .'J,7!t9 pursuaiii to Proclamation 2846, July 27, 1949. Proclamation 
2911, Oct. 31. 1950, adjusted annual (luota from 5,799 to 5,077. For fiscal year 1951 only, readjusted to 5,717 
for adminisnative purposes. 

* Annual quota of .■)(! allotted by an act approved Mar. 24, 1934, effective May 1, 1934. Proclamation 2696 
of .Tuly 4. I94(;, established the Philippine quota of 100. 

1 .Annual quota adjusted from 377 to 291 pursuant to Proclamation 2846, July 27, 1949. For fiscal year 
1950 onlv. readjusted to 298 for administrative purposes. 
' Aniiiial quota of 100 cstalilished i)ursuantto Proclamation 2846, July 27, 1949. 

* Separate (luotas t'stablished for Syria and Lebanon pursuant to Proclamation 2846, July 27, 1949. 
9 Amiual (luota of KiO estalilislied pursuant to Proclamation 2911, Oct. 31, 1950. 

1° Annual quota adjuste<i from 2,712 to 2,79S |)ursuant to Proclamation 2846, July 27, 1949. For fiscal year 

1950 only, readjusted to 2.789 for administrative purposes. 

>' .Annual quota adjusted from 84.^ to 938 pursuant to Proclamation 2911, October 31, 1950. For fiscal year 

1951 only, readjustedJoi90G for administrative purposes. 

Source: Visa Division, Department of State. 



ADDITIONAL INFORMATION PROVIDED BY THE UNITED STATES 
DEPARTMENT OF STATE CONCERNING QUOTA VISA AND GENERAL 
QUOTA STATISTICS 

Quota visa statistics 



Fiscal year 



1925 
1926 
1927 
1928 
1929 
1930 
1931 
1932 
1933 
1934 
1935 
1936 
1937 
1938 
1939 
1940 
1941 
1942 
1943 
1944 
1945. 
1946 
1947. 
1948 
1949. 
1950 
1951 
1952 



Annual 

quota 



> 164, 
164, 
164, 
164, 
164, 

3 153" 
153, 
153, 
153, 
153, 
153, 
153, 
153. 
153, 
153, 
153, 
153, 
153, 
153, 
153, 
153, 
153, 
153, 
153, 
153, 
154. 
154, 
154, 



Preference 



Number 
used 



28,604 

20,061 

24, 1)35 

25,888 

« 49. 107 

47, 892 

31, 695 

7,825 

4 222 

5, 2.35 

6, 002 

6,074 

6, 971 

8,114 

8,615 

8, 388 

3, 361 

598 

711 

673 

558 

3,128 

13, 929 

17, 368 

15, 182 

12, .339 

10, 252 

10, 347 



Per- 
cent 



17.37 

12.18 

15.14 

15.72 

29.82 

31. 16 

14. 11 

5.08 

2.74 

3.40 

3.94 

3.95 

4.53 

5.28 

5.60 

5.15 

2.19 

.39 

.46 

.44 

.36 

2.03 

9.05 

11.28 

9. 86 

8.00 

6.64 

6.71 



iSonpreference 



Number 
used 



132, 012 

141,796 
137, 461 
136, .541 
106, 805 
102, 987 
26, 833 
4,872 
3, 732 
8.665 
11, 229 
14, 110 
23, 927 
37, 598 
50,238 
49. 188 
39, 925 
10, 049 

8, 743 

9, 162 
18,041 
37, 228 
67, 951 
77, 533 
77,242 
73, 197 
66, 479 
81,834 



Per- 
cent 



80.17 

86.11 

83. 48 

82.92 

64. 86 

67.00 

17.46 

3.17 

2.43 

5.64 

7.30 

9. 18 

15. 56 

24.45 

32.67 

31.99 

25.96 

6. 53 

5. 69 

5. 95 

11.74 

24.20 

44.14 

50.37 

50. 18 

47.47 

43.09 

53. 04 



Total 



Number 
used 



160, 616 
161,857 
162, .396 
162, 429 
155, 912 
150, 879 
48, 528 

12, 697 
7, 954 

13. 900 

17, 291 
20,184 
30, 898 
45, 712 
58, 853 
57, 573 
43, 286 
10, 647 

9.454 
9,835 

18, .';99 
40, 356 
81, 880 
94, 901 
92, 424 
85, .536 
76, 731 
92, 181 



Per- 
cent 



97.54 

98.29 

98. 62 

98.64 

94.68 

98. 16 

31. 57 

8.25 

5.17 

9.04 

11.24 

13.13 

20.09 

29.73 

38.27 

37.44 

28. 15 

6.92 

6.15 

6. 3« 

12.09 

26. 2;i 

,V3. 19 

61.65 

60. 04 

55 47 

49. 73 

59. 75 



Total 



Number 
unused 



4,051 

2,810 

2,271 

2, 238 

8, 755 

2, 835 

105, 186 

141,134 

145, 877 

139, 874 

136, 4&3 

133. 590 

122, 876 

108, 062 

94, 921 

96,201 

110,488 

143, 127 

144, 320 

144. 044 

135. 280 

113, 52.3 

72, 049 

59. 028 

61. .505 

08, 607 

77, 554 

62, 096 



Per- 
cent 



2.46 

1.71 

1.38 

1.36 

5.32 

1.84 

68.43 

91.75 

94.83 

90.96 

88.76 

86.87 

79. yl 

70.27 

61. 73 

62.56 

71.85 

93. 08 

93. 85 

93. 61 

87.91 

73.77 

46. 81 

38. 35 

39. 96 
44.57 
50.27 
40.25 



1 Quotas based on census of 1890 in accordance with sec. 11 (a) of the Immigration Act of 1924. 
2 . econd preference-quota status I'rovided by joint resolution of May 29, 192S. 

3 Quotas determined on "national origins" basis in accordance with sec. 11 (t>) of the Immiuration Act of 
1924. 

Note. — These figures indicate the chargeahility against quotas during the respective years shown and do 
not necessarily rer resent the number of quota visas issued during tlie fiscal year. 



25356—52- 



-120 



1900 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

Following is a list of oversubscribed quotas and the total registration there- 
under as reported by consular offices on August 1, 1952. There is also listed 
the year through which quotas were mortgaged under the Displaced Persons Act, 
as amended. Considering these mortgages, and based upon the total registra- 
tion shown, an estimate has been made of the number of years an applicant now 
registering may have to wait before a quota number becomes available for his 
use. This figure is strictly theoretical, and cannot under any circumstances 
be considered accurate since applicants who may not qualify, those abandoning 
intention to emigrate, failure to obtain exit i>ei-mits, and other conditions could 
at any time reduce the waiting period for applicants who are able to qualify. 

Examples are the German and Norwegian quotas under whicli applicants 
registered prior to July 1, 1952, and June 1, 1952, respectively, are now receiving 
visas. 

Oversubscribed quotas 



Country 


Present 
annual 
quota 


Total regis- 
tration 


Quotas 

mortgaged 


Estimated 
years wait 
for recent 
nonprefer- 
ence regis- 
trants 


Albania.- .--...-- . . . 


100 
100 

1,413 
100 
100 
105 

2,874 
100 

1,181 
100 
116 
569 

3,086 

25, 957 

310 

869 

100 


2.265 
2,836 

27, 163 
1,665 
1,421 
2,495 

34, 515 
4,842 
3,755 
3,400 
3.908 
3.119 
4,716 
262, 598 

24, 227 

20, 697 


1956 


25 


Australia - - 


30 


Austria . ... .. 


1955 
1964 
1964 
1964 
1958 
1961 


18 


Bulgaria. .... ... ... .. 


22 


China (White) 


16 


Chinese racial ..... 


30 




16 


Danzig 


50 




3 


Egypt 




34 


Estonia .... 


2146 


65 


Finland _ ..... . 


5 






1 


Germany . . 




10 


Greece . . . . 


2014 
1989 


78 


Hungary . .. 


40 


India 




In India ....... .. 


6,320 

1,501 

4,730 

7,008 

4,050 

32, 107 

9,104 

2, 895 

11, 946 

42, 265 

710 

16, 381 

4,394 

4,217 

166, 244 

14, 871 

23, 807 

6,208 

2.113 

623 

8.874 

697 

46. 292 

56, 068 




84 




ioo' 

100 
100 

5,677 
236 
100 
386 

3,153 
100 

2,377 
100 
100 

6,524 
440 
291 
252 
100 
100 
226 
100 

2,798 
938 




60 


Iran. _. ._ _ _. . . 


1956 


49 


Iraq . ...... 


70 


Israel . .......... .... 


1954 


41 


Italy 


6 


Latvia .. ...... 


2274 


80 


Lebanon . . ............ ........ 


29 


Lithuania .. ... 


2090 


60 


Netherlands . .... . . 


13 


New Zealand . . 




7 


Norway.. .. ... . . 




6 


Palestine ....... 




44 


Philippines ..... ........ ... 


1954 
2000 


42 


Poland.. 


48 


Portugal . ......... 


34 


Rumania . ........... ...... 


2019 
1956 


108 


Spain 

Syria ...... 


26 
22 


Trieste 


1958 
1964 


8 


Turkey 

Union of South Africa ... ..... 


45 

7 


U. S. S. R 


1980 
2014 


30 




90 






Total 




877, 047 















COMiVnSSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1901 
Reduction of quotas by sec. 19 (c) , Iimnigratlon Act of 1917 



Country 


Present 
annual 
quota 


11946 


1947 


1948 


1949 


1950 


1951 


1952 


1953 


Numbers 

charged 

to future 

years 


Afghanistan 


100 
100 
100 
100 

1,413 

1,304 
100 
100 
105 

2,874 
100 

1.181 
100 
116 
569 

3,086 

25, 957 

65, 721 

310 

869 

100 

100 

100 

100 

17,853 

100 

5,677 
100 
236 
100 
100 
386 
100 
100 

3, 153 
100 

2,377 
100 
100 

6,524 
440 
291 
100 
100 
252 

3,314 

1,707 
100 
100 
100 
226 
100 

2,798 
938 


1 
2 

4 

"56" 

23 

1 

4 

1 

55 

29 

44 

-----f 

46 
35 
535 
364 
12 
52 


"2 
16 

50 

20 

2 

3 

37 

30 

10 

78 

3 

26 

36 

53 

253 

295 

240 

29 


1 
1 

3 
3 

27 

21 

12 

1 

4 

17 

46 

8 

288 

311 

143 

29 


2 

25 

19 

8 

1 

11 

52 

6 

8 

22 

2 

10 

19 

21 

96 

163 

153 

10 

1 

14 

2 

2 

11 






2 

6 

2 

42 

56 

21 

7 

6 

52 

47 

4 

32 

'"'13 

54 

46 

136 

206 

78 

25 

3 

30 

10 

"21' 

4 

123 

50 

18 

2 

11 
2 
2 

84 
1 

78 
5 

29 
132 

78 

67 






Albania - - 


2 

1 

22 

1 

7 

'1 
37 

''26" 
4 

31 
25 
23 
173 
65 


...... 

43 

58 
14 

1 
22 
52 
21 

4 
251 

4 

7 

17 

38 

176 

209 

108 

24 


4 




Arabian Peninsula 




Austr.ilia 


21 

42 

8 

8 

16 

49 

28 

3 

3 

10 

13 

13 

35 

74 

83 

78 

64 




Austria - 




Belgium 






1 


China 


13 




503 


Czechoslovakia - - 


22 


Danzig 




Denmark 




Egypt 






21 


Finland.. 




France. -.. 




Germany - 




Great Britain 




Greece -- 


549 




36 


Iceland 




India... - 


_..--. 


5 


12 


15 

""""9 

3 

169 

2 


20 
1 
3 

13 

1 

237 

21 

14 
6 
1 
3 
1 

"""23" 

6 

39 

8 

45 

65 

46 

24 

1 


14 
3 

7 

8 

2 

292 

50 
1 

11 






5 


Iraq - 




1 
21 




Ireland 


42 


41 




Israel - 




Italy. 


1,311 


500 


212 
4 
14 


294 

1 
7 






89 


Latvia 


31 


23 


13 


Lebanon. 




Liberia. 


3 

22 


1 

19 


"17" 


2 
6 


1 






S 


7 


Luxemb urg 














1 
42 

1 
36 

3 
36 

"""17" 






Netherlands.. - 


47 

'"92" 
2 

""194" 

1 

33 


92 

2 

154 

10 

3 

171 

112 

83 


2 
2 
31 
127 
10 
39 


30 
1 
51 
2 
50 
69 
25 
45 


10 
5 
14 
6 
38 
70 
38 
29 




New Zealand . - . 




Norway .. 


"* 


Palestine 




Philippines 


66 


Poland 


150 


Portugal 




Rumania .. .. . . 


67 


Samoa 




Saudi Arabia 












1 
42 
21 

7 
16 






Spain 


20 
46 
16 


209 
30 
10 
22 


66 

24 

9 

8 


40 

20 

1 

4 


28 
14 
4 
4 


37 
11 
6 
6 
1 
1 
9 
3 
12 
18 


46 
2 


76 


Sweden 




Switzerland - 




Syria 


3 




Thailand 




Trieste 












6 
28 

5 

52 
10 


3 
67 

1 
31 
49 




Turkey ...^ 


7 

""98" 
42 


140 
13 

122 
36 


43 

1 

15 

50 


40 

"""23" 
22 


j- 
35 


88 


Union of South Africa 




U. S. S. R 


24 


Yugoslavia . 


51 






Total 


152, 377 


3,273 


2,981 


1,652 


1,392 


833 


1,506 


1,780 


1,360 


1,781 





• No reductions previous to 1946. 

Note.— Public Law 863, 80th Congress, approved July 1, 1948, limits sec. 19 (c) reductions to 50 percent 
of annual quota. 



1902 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 
Reduction of quotas by special acts 



Country 


Present 
annual 
quota 


1947 


1948 


1949 


1950 


1951 


1952 


1953 


Numbers 
charged 
to future 

years 


Australia - 


100 

1,413 
100 
100 
105 

2,874 

1,181 
100 
116 
569 

3,086 

25, 957 

65, 721 

310 

869 

100 

100 

100 

100 

17, 853 

100 

5,677 
100 
100 
236 
100 
386 
100 

3,153 
100 

2,377 
100 
100 

6, 524 
440 
291 
252 

3,314 

1,707 
100 
226 
100 

2,798 
938 






1 


....„ 


1 
4 
1 
3 
5 

12 
2 
1 
1 
3 
5 
4 
3 

15 
9 


2 
5 


3 
2 




Austria . _- 




1 


1 


Bulgaria - _ 




China - _ 






2 
11 

8 


1 

7 
11 


6 
2 
3 
5 
1 
2 
2 

3- 

2 
9 
3 


2 
3 
3 
3 

7 


1 




1 
1 


1 
3 


31 


Czechoslovakia... . 




Denmark 




Egypt .-- 








1 

...... 

2 

1 
...... 

3 
1 
1 




Estonia .. _ . . 






1 

2 

...... 

3 
1 
2 




Finland-- ..- 






2 
1 
11 




France .. 


1 
4 
7 


3 
1 
5 




Germany 




Great Britain 




Greece .. 


9 
4 


4 


Hungary . . 








Iceland ... _. 








India 








1 
2 
3 
2 
1 
71 
2 


3 
1 


2 

1 




Iran .._ 










Iraq 












Ireland . 
















Israel _. .-. 










'"34" 

8 


1 
44 


1 


Italy. _._ 


4 


8 


1 
1 


12 

4 

1 
1 




Japan 




Jordan . .- . 










Latvia 






i 


2 
2 

1 








Lebanon . 






2 


2 




Lithuania ... 






1 


1 
1 

1 




Luxemburg 












Netherlands . 


2 




1 


8 
1 
1 


4 
1 
2 
4 
4 
4 


2 




New Zealand... 




Norway . ... .., 


.. 


1 


5 


1 






Palestine 






Philippines . . . 




4 
10 


11 

8 


8 

U 

8 

8 

66 


12 
12 


6 


Poland ... 


4 


1 




Portugal 




Rumania.. . 






4 
17 


3 

44 


4 
63 


1 
82 


2 


Spain 




2 
1 


43 


Sweden . . 




Switzerland ... . . 






2 
1 
5 
1 
10 
3 


1 






Syria 














Turkey. 


1 






1 


5 


10 


3 


Union of South Africa . 








U. S. S. R - . . 






2 


5 

1 


7 


9 
5 




Yugoslavia 


1 






I 






Total 


150, 173 


26 


27 


83 


133 


289 


192 


233 


92 







COJVIMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1903 
Reduction of quotas by sec. 4, Displaced Persons Act, as amended 



Country 


Present 
annual 
quota 


1952 


1953 


Numbers 

charged 

to future 

years 




100 

1,413 

100 

100 

105 

2,874 

100 

116 

569 

25, 957 

310 

869 

100 

100 

236 

386 

100 

3,153 

100 

6,524 

291 

3,314 

2,798 

938 






2 








3 


Bulgaria 






6 


China ..- --. 






19 


Chinese -... ... ...... 






43 








281 


Egypt 




1 




Estonia ...... 


32 




1 







Germany 


3 




Greece .. .. . ... . .. 


1 


Hungary 






230 


Iraq 




7 
5 




Israel. . . . . . . . - . 


8 




6 


Lithuania 






8 


Monaco .. . . ....... . .. 


1 
1 












Palestine 


12 




Poland . - . 


659 


Rumania 






88 






1 




U. S. S. R . 


24 


Yugoslavia . 






33 










Total 


50, 653 


3 


29 


1,443 







INFORMATION PROVIDP^D BY THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF 
STATE CONCERNING IMMIGRATION LAWS AND POLICIES OF AUS- 
TRALIA, CANADA, NEW ZEALAND, SOUTH AFRICA, THE UNITED 
KINGDOM, KENYA AND TANGANYIKA, NORTHERN RHODESIA, SOUTH- 
ERN RHODESIA, PERU, AND CHILE 

Department of State; 
Wa)i]iiu(/ton, Octoher 2S, 1952. 
Mr. Harry N. Rosenfield, 

E.vecutire Director, President's Commission on 
Immigration and Naturalization, Wa.^hington. 
r)EAR IMr. Rosexfield : I refer to your letter of October 3 to Mr. Herniaii 
Pollack, Bureau of European Affairs, and to my several telephone conversations 
with Mr. Frederick J. Mann, in connection with tlie desire of the Commission 
to obtain certain information concerning the immigration laws and policies of 
of the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the Union of 
South Africa. 

I enclose memorandums prepared by officers of this office concerning Australian, 
Canadian, New Zeahmd, and South African inimigrati(m laws and policies. The 
memorandum on Canada has attached to it a copy of the Canadian Immigration 
Act and Regulations. The memorandum on Australia encloses a copy of a dis- 
patch from the American Embassy at Canberra as well as a copy of a statistical 
bulletin issued in January Vd~)2 by the Australian Department of Immigration at 
Canberra. 

Tlie British Embassy did not have Ihe desired information on hand and conse- 
quently, as I have informed Mr. Mann, the Department of State has telegrai)hed 
to the American Embassy in London to recpiest it to ol)tain and send the infor- 
mation as quickly as iiossii)le. As soon as it is received here, we shall see that 
it is transmitted promptly to the Commission. 

I trust that the enclosed memorandums and the attachments will meet the needs 
of the Commission. If you find any deficiencies, please let me know and we 
shall be glad to try to remedy them. 
Sincerely yours, 

Andrew B. Foster, 

Deputy Director, 
Office of British Commoitir( altfi and Northern European Affairs. 



1904 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

Australian Immigration Policy 

immigration legislation 

There have been 16 successive Australian immigration acts, the last con- 
solidated reprint being that issued after the 1940 amendment entitled "Austral- 
ian Immigration Act 1001-40." This comprises the basic act and the first 13 
amendments, and is the legislation now in force. Two minor amendments (1948 
and 1949) have been passed since that time. 

From the point of view of comparative legislation, the most significant part 
is section III, concerning prohibited immigrants. The excluded categories in- 
clude : 

Persons not possessed of a certificate of health ; 
Idiots, imbeciles, and feeble-minded : 

Persons infected with tuberculosis or other communicaVile diseases: 
Persons likely to become a public charge ; 

Persons advocating the forcible overthrow of the Commonwealth Gov- 
ernment, "or any other civilized government" or belonging to organizations 
advocating the same (1920 amendment) : 
Persons who fail the dictation test (see below) ; 

Any person declared by the Minister to be, in his opinion, and on the basis 
of information received from another government through official channels, 
to be undesirable as a resident or visitor ; 

Persons convicted of a crime involving moral turpitude or a sentence of a 
year or more in prison (including prostitutes and procurers). 
The so-called white Australia policy is not embodied in statutory form but 
is an aspect of administrative policy. Asiatics or other colored persons are 
not granted landing i>ermits (or immigration visas, which now replace the former 
landing permit). Under special agreements with certain Asiatic governments, 
Asiatics can be admitted on a temporary basis as students, bona fide merchants, 
or tourists. 

The necessary statutory authority for the exclusion of Asiatics is found in 
the so-called dictation test, under which an immigration inspector can require 
the immigrant to write a 50-word statement in any language. Basque or Al- 
banian, for instance, can be counted on to stinnp even the most erudite oriental. 
There have been suggestions from time to time for the inauguration of a 
quota system as being less offensive to oriental susceptibilities, but nothing has 
come of it. The Australian Government has endeavored — with .«;ome success — 
to placate resentment in India and Indonesia by explaining that their exclusion 
policy is based on economic grounds, rather than racial pre.iudice. 

Further details as to immigration legislation and procedure may be found 
in the Australian Official Yearbook, available at the Library of Congress. I am 
endeavoring to find in the Department a copy of the consolidated Immigration 
Act through 1940, which could be supplied to the President's commission. 

ASSISTED IMMIGRATION SCHEME 

Since the negotiation of the free and assisted-pas.sage agreement with the 
United Kingdom in March 1945, Australian Governments have been engaged in a 
vigorous effort to build up their population through attracting immigrants. 
The National Government expanded the scheme after it came into office in 
December 1949, and aimed at an annual intake of 200,000, including both assisted 
and fare-paying migrants. This target was never i-eached, but the avei'age 
intake over the past 3 years has been over 150,000. which, combined with 
natural increase, brought a 3^4 -percent annual rate of growth in the population. 
This proved too great a strain on the economy, and last year the program 
was reduced to a target of 150,000. In July of this year there was a further 
reduction to an annual rate of 80,000. The Government announced that the cut 
would be a temporary one, and it has been investigating the possibility of inter- 
national loan financing for immigrant-absorbing development pro.iects in order 
that an expanded immigration program can be resumed. 

A description of Australia's immigration policy and of the assisted immigra- 
tion scheme is to be found on pages 576-585 of the latest (1951) edition of the 
Official Yearbook. The attached Statistical Bulletin of the Department of Immi- 
gration, Canberra, gives a full break-down of immigrants according to nationality, 
occupation, and geographic distribution in Australia. Two despatches from 
Canberra, 58 of July 28, 1952. and 95 of August 18, 1952, give further information 
on the immigration scheme, including the reasons for the recent cuts and official 



COMMISSION ON IMIVIIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1905 

statements by the Minister of Immigration. Despatch 95, moreover, includes 
the latest available statistical information on Australian inuuigration. These 
copies may be retained by the Commission. 



Foreign Service Dispatch 58 

JULT 28, 1952. 
From : Amembassy, Canberra. 
To : The Department of State, Washington. 
Reference: Cerp: Department's instruction of May 21, 1952: Section D — 3 (h), 

developments affecting immigration program. 
Subject : Australian intake of immigrants to be halved in 1953. 

The Minister for Immigration, Mr. H. E. Holt, announced on July 24. that the 
Federal Government had decided to restrict the number of inmiigrants in cal- 
endar year 1953 to 80,000 — about one-half the average intake during each of the 
past 4 years. This is a decision made by the Federal Cabinet, based on its find- 
ings in a review of the financial and economic situation during budget talks 
earlier in the week. Copy of Mr. Holt's announcement is attached. 

The Sydney Morning Herald comments that the Commonwealth's decision to 
cut the immigration program is a "notable defeat" for the Minister of Immigra- 
tion. Mr. Holt has consistently opposed any major reduction in the program, but 
is said not to have been greatly surprised when the Cabinet failed to support him. 
The Federal Budget, to be presented to Parliament on August 6, is expected to 
be subtantially reduced with regard to allocations for immigration in 1952-53, 
resulting in some curtailment of intake in the remaining months of 1952. 

Mr. Holt left for Europe on July 24, where he reportedly will confer with the 
Italian Government on desired adjustments in the Australian-Italian immigration 
agreement. He will also have talks with representatives of the West German 
Republic on the proposed German immigration agreement which will now be 
drastically cut or held in abeyance for a year or so. In Austria, he is expected to 
be faced with appeals to take large numbers of refugees from iron-curtain coun- 
tries, the press says. 

In his fight to retain a larger program, Mr. Holt is reported to have suggested 
to cabinet that the present policy of bringing in single, imskilled immigrants 
would be revised, and skilled men with families would be brought in instead. He 
argued that this would increase demand for products from local industries and 
at the same time not flood the labor market. But the Ministers are said to have 
been strongly influenced by the pi'esent situation at Bonegilla camp (New South 
Wales), where there are 2,300 unskilled Italian immigrants whose placement in 
either industry or agriculture has been delayed. (These Italians recently gained 
public attention through a threat of demonstration against the Government's 
failure to place them in self-supporting jobs; a nearby army post was alerted.) 
Rather than having unskilled immigrants compete with Australians for jobs, and 
also as a means of cutting federal expenditure, the Ministers agreed to reduce the 
intake of new settlers during the next IS months. The budget allocation for 
immigration in 1951-52 was fA20,295,000. This included both departmental 
expenditure and capital works required for the immigration program. 

Richard W. Byrd, 
Counselor of Emhassi/, 
(For the Ambassador). 

Intake of New Settlers — Restriction 
Statement by the Minister for Immigration, Hon. H. E. Holt, M. P. 

The Government has decided to restrict the intake of new settlers in 1953 to 
a total of 80,000. This will be approximately half the average annual intake 
of the last 4 years. We have made this decision arising out of the general 
review of our financial and economic situation which Cabinet has been making 
in connection with the budget. 

This decision might be regarded as a "breather" to enable us to digest the 
more comfortably the very substantial intake of the postwar years. The reduc- 
tion will operate while we are forming a clearer picture of the shape the economy 
is likely to take after we have passed through the present difficult stage. Our 
national requirements of security and development, which have dictated a 
program of large-scale migration, remain. 



1906 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

We believe, however, that the time has arrived for us to absorb our gains. 
Our intake of migrants in recent years, particularly since a big defense program 
became necessary, has been a good deal larger than v^-e would have arranged 
had we been able to assure ourselves that favorable opportunities and conditions 
would continue indehnitely. We felt, however, that we had to seize the advan- 
tageous conditions existing for migration from the United Kingdom and Europe 
which might not be soon repeated. 

What the United States was able to do for herself by way of population build- 
ing over a long span of years in the more leisurely nineteenth century, we 
have felt compelled by the threats apparent in this twentieth century to do 
more quickly. 

The stresses of modern immigration are not always fully realized. Today, 
it is expected of governments by the new settlers, and indeed by the citizens 
of the country to which they come, that standards of accommodation, employ- 
ment, wage rates, and living conditions generally shall be kept high. This is 
in marked contrast with the demands made by migration on other countries 
in earlier periods. It is remarkable that we in Australia, with our limited 
resources and remotene.s-s from the counti'ies whence our migrants come, should 
have managed so well. 

The fact is that by the end of this year something approaching 700,000 new 
settlers will have been absorbed. This result is a tribute both to a very 
efficient body of public officers, who have devoted themselves enthusiastically 
to their job of nation building, and it is a tribute also to the good sense and 
warm friendliness shown by the Australian people to the new settlers, irrespective 
of their country of origin. 

A revision of the program has become necessary both in the interests of the 
economy and of the migrants already here. It would not be fair to our own 
citizens" or to potential migrants to encourage them to come immediately to 
Australia unless employment is assured and they have good prospects of satis- 
factory settlement here. 

In addition to a reduced program for 195.3, there will be some curtailment of 
intake for the remaining months of this year. While this is subject to existing 
commitments, action has already been taken to reduce the arrival of certain 
types of workers. The new program will be so drawn as to insure a balanced 
intake from different countries. 

It is with real regret that we have felt obliged to curtail temporarily our flow. 
Our immigration achievements for the last 4 years have been such as to give 
Australia justifiable pride. Not only have we opened up a happier and better 
life for some hundreds of thousands of people, but the new settlers we have 
brought to this country have helped greatly with essential production during a 
period when the community's demands greatly exceeded supply. 

They have provided a labor force flexible as to composition, location, and indus- 
try. They have given us the needed workers where shortages in basic industries 
and services were restricting prospects of expansion. Today we have coal, steel, 
timber, and building materials in good supply. Our railways and other essential 
utilities have been staffed for efficient operation. Our construction projects have 
been supplied with the labor to meet their requirements. Immigration has pro- 
vided the workers, otherwise not available, for such defense projects as the 
Woomera long-range weapon sciieme, the construction of service establishments, 
and other works of defense signiflcance. It enabled us during the years of man- 
power shortage to give the seasonal rural industries the work force needed for 
their harvests and siabsequent processing. 

The fact that we now reduce our pace to consolidate our gains Implies no lack 
of enthusiasm for continued migration, nor any slackening of our recognition of 
the national value from population building in terms of security, production, and 
cultural progress. While we can fairly claim this job has been well done, it is by 
no means flnished. We must retain the good will of the countries with which we 
already have migration agreements, and we should maintain the interest of pros- 
pective migrants. They should not be made to feel that our doors are being 
permanently shut to them. 

While in Europe and tlie United Kingrom over the next few weeks, I propose 
to explain to the governments concerned the reasons behind our latest decision. 
I shall discuss with them adjustments affecting them which the decision will 
have made necessary. 

Canberra, July 24, 1952. 



COALMIiSSlOX ON IMMIGKATIOX AND NATURALIZATION 1907 

OCTORER 20, 19r)2. 
("ANADI.W 1m MlCUAlId.N LAWS AKU I'OLICIES 

Lc(/i.sl(iti<>)i mid inhniiii.strdtion. — Iininigration to Canada is controllod by the 
terms of the Inimii-ration Act and by the reguhitions and orders made under au- 
thority of th(> provisions of that act. The act is iJurposely tiexibh' and does mit 
define tlie classes or categories of persons achnissible to Canada as immigrants. 
Such definitions aiv given in regulations made niuh^r the act l)y Order in (Council. 
Tlie act does, liowever. detin(> certain prohibited classes, including persons suffer- 
ing from some forms of mental or physical ailment, criminals, advocates of tlie 
use of force or violence against organized government, spies, illiterates, and 
others. I'ersons within these prohibited classes cannot be admitted to Canada as 
immigrants except by act of Parliament. 

Under the Inmiigration Act and regulations, the categories of persons admis- 
sible to Canada as immigrants may be readily summarized. The first and most- 
favored grotip includes I'.ritish sul)jects from the United Kingdom of Great 
Britain and Northei'u Ireland, New Zealand, Australia, and Soutli Africa; citi- 
zens of Ireland; and native-born citizens of tlie United States and France enter- 
ing Canada directly from those countries. Such persons are admissible if they 
can satisfy the inmiigration officers at the port of entry that they are in good 
physical and mental health; they are of good character; and they are not liljely 
to become a public c-harge. 

The second general category of adnTissible persons consists of persons who 
satisfy the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration that they are suitable immi- 
grants having regard to the climatic, social, educational, industi'ial, labor, or 
other conditions or requirements of Canada ; and are not undesirable owing to 
their peculiar customs, habits, modes of life, metliods of holding property, or 
because of their probable inability to become readily adapted and integrated 
into the life of a Canadian community and to assume the duties of Canadian 
citizenship within a reasonable time after their entry. 

Also admissible are persons who, having entered Canada as nonimmigi-ants, 
enlisted in tlie Canadian Armed Forces and, liaving served in sucli forces, have 
been honorably discharged. 

With the exception of a limited number from India, Pakistan, and Ceylon, the 
only persons of Asiatic racial origin who are admissible to Canada are the wives 
and the unmarried children under 18 years of age of Canadian citizens. B!y 
agreements of I'Xtl with India and Pakistan, 100 persons of each country are now 
eligible annually f()r entry as immigrants. P.y agreement of 1952, 50 immigrants 
from Ceylon are eligible annually. 

The responsibility for all immigration matters under the provisions of the 
Immigration Act rests upon tlie Minister of Citizenship and Immigration. The 
Immigration Branch, (me of tlie four branches comprising the Department of 
Citizenship and Immigration, administers this act. Headquarters of the Immi- 
gration Branch is at Ottawa. 

A primary olxlective of administration is to assist immigrants to become 
quickly and satisfactorily settled in tlie (^anadian community. In the case of 
group movements the Canadian Government, and international organizations 
such as IKO and PICMME assist in preparing the immigrant tor his new life 
prior to arrival in Canada. Upon arrival these immigi'ants are taken to the 
localities in wliicli employment or settlement has been arranged for them, and 
from this point they, and of course all other immigrants who come in on tlieir 
ow^n, become primarily the responsibility of the provincial rather than the Fed- 
eral authorities. However, through tlie work of the Settlement Service, Immi- 
gration Branch, and the Canadian Citizenship Branch of the Department of 
CitiziMisliip and Immigration and the National Employment Service of the De- 
partment of Labor, the Federal (Jovernmenl continues its interest in them. 
Liaison is maintained lietwei'ii the Federal Government and the provincial author- 
ities and private (jrganizat ions by the Citizeiisliii) Branch with a view to coor- 
dinating the efforts in this field, filling gaps and eliminating duplication. 

To ensure efficient administration and effective .supervision, the Canadian 
Field Service stalTs in Canada and overseas operate under the direction of the 
Commissioner of Immigration. The Canadian Field Service is made up of five 
districts — Atlantic, Eastern, Central, Western, and Pacific — each under the super- 
visi(m of a superintendent. Tliere are 2!>.'i ports of entry along tlie Camidian- 
United States liorder. and on tlie Atlantit' and Pacific sealmards. and tli(> adniis- 



1908 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

sibility of evei'y person who enters Canada is established by an immigration 
officer at one of these ports. The Canadian Field Service also inclndes inland 
offices located at strategic points thronghont the country whose staffs investigate 
applications for the admission of immigrants and conduct deportation proceedings. 

The Overseas Service functions very much along the same lines as its coun- 
terpart (the Canadian Field Service) in Canada. The offices abroad come under 
a superintendent located at London, England, who reports to the Commissioner 
of Immigration at Ottawa, Ontario. Immigration offices in the United Kingdom 
are located at London, Liverpool, Glasgow, and Belfast. To facilitate compli- 
ance with immigration medical requirements, a roster of some 500 approved 
British medical practitioners makes it possible for British immigrants to undergo 
medical examination within a short distance of their ijlace of residence. An 
immigraton office is also located at Dublin, Ireland. 

For the past 2.5 years, a system of preliminary examination of immigrants 
from continental Europe has been in eifect. This examination is intended to 
establish, before they embark, the admissibility of persons wishing to settle in 
Canada in order to avoid the hardship that would ensue from rejection at the 
Canadian port of entry and subsequent deportation. At present, immigration 
offices are in operation at Paris, Brussels, The Hague, Stockholm, Berne, Rome, 
and Athens. In other cities on the continent diplomatic representatives of 
Canada deal with immigration matters. 

The immigration problem in occupied territory, namely, Germany and Austria, 
is a particularly difficult one. Most of^the prospective immigrants to be ex- 
amined are displaced persons and refugees, a large number of whom are in 
camps scattered all over the occupied territories and unable to proceed to 
examination points. Canadian Government immigration missions are located 
at Karlsruhe, Germany, and Salzburg, Austria. Itinerant immigration teams 
have been operating from these missions since March 1947. 

Policy. — In the early part of the twentieth century the Canadian policy was to 
increase the population rapidly through immigration. In the period 1903-14 
over 100,000 immigrants entered annually. In 1911-13 over 1,100,000 immigrants 
were landed and settled. This large increase took place at a period when the 
total population was but 7,200,000 (1911). 

In 1931 the applicability of the Immigration Act of 1910, as revised in 1927, 
was greatly limited. Immigration fell off sharply during the depression years 
with all general immigration prohibited. During the period 1932-35, the average 
number of immigrants per year was about 13,000. 

In the war years, 1939-45, immigration remained prohibited except for special 
cases. In 1946, a new policy was adopted. That policy was one of greatly en- 
larged selective immigration whose goal was to enlarge Canada's population 
and to increase its economic capabilities. In 1947 Prime Minister Mackenzie 
King stated : "The government will seek by legislation, regulation, and vigorous 
administration to insure the careful selection and permanent settlement of such 
numbers of immigrants as can advantageously be absorbed in our national 
economy." 

The Government policy since that date has been to stimulate immigration. 
In addition to sending immigration teams abroad, the Canadian Government 
has contributed toward passage money, extended repayable passage loans, and 
taken energetic steps to settle inmiigrants. In this endeavor it has been aided 
by the Provinces, notably Ontario which has secured jobs for immigrants and 
assisted them in obtaining passage. 

Canadian immigration policy has continued to be selective. The Canadian 
Government, as stated in a Department of Citizenship and Immigration pub- 
lication, "prefers the readily assimilable type — identified by race or language 
with one or another of the two races in Canada." 

The policy has been to encourage immigration from the United Kingdom and 
the United States. After this group come preferred immigrants from Scan- 
danavia, the Netherlands, and Germany as the Canadians believe that it is this 
group which most readily learns English. Settlers from southern and eastern 
Europe "while desirable from a purely economic point of view are less readily 
assimilated." states the publication. 

Immigration each year is given a target goal. In accordance with the policy 
of advantageous absorbtion, the goal varies from year to year in response to 
economic conditions. 

In 1951 Canada took in 194,000 immigrants, the highest total in 38 years. 
In the first 8 months of 1952, 126,023 immigrants have entered. A total of 
150.000 to 160,000 for the year is exi^ected. In both 1951 and 1952 the immigra- 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1909 

tion target has been 150,000. No precise target for 1953 has been projected 
as yet. It is expected that the same selective process will be contiuiied. 

In addition to seeliiug immigrants from .selected countries, Canada seeks 
specialized immigrants. Notal)le in this policy has been tlie large numbers of 
Dutcli farmers which have entered Caiuida since April l'J47 through tiie coopera- 
tion of the Canadian and Netherlands (lovernments. Experiments with the 
large-scale immigration of Italian farm workers have not proved successful and 
have been dropped. 

In 1951, 114,780 of the 194,391 immigrants were workers. This number 
amounted to 2 percent of the Canadian labor force. Included were 33,682 
skilled craftsmen, 31,407 semiskilled and unskilled woi-kers, 25.9S0 farm workers, 
and G,5.")l domestics. I'resent estimates indicate a comparal)le trend in 1952. 

The Canadian policy of selective immigration has on the whole been success- 
ful. Careful attempts have been made to assimilate the immigrants and to 
prevent tiie creation of unassimilable groups such as the Doukhobors of British 
Columbia. Criticism arose in 1951 of the large numbers of immigrants admitted 
during the winter months at the peak of the seasonal unemployment period. 
This year the government intends to cut immigration during the winter months 
to prevent a repetition of both the criticism and the difficulty of placing im- 
migrants during winter months. 



Immigration, selected years 



1910 286. 839 

1915 36. 665 

1920 138, 824 

1925 84, 907 

1930 104, 806 

1935 11, 476 

1940 11, 324 

1945 ^ 22, 722 



1946 71, 719 

1947 64, 127 

1948 125, 414 

1949 95, 217 

1950 73, 912 

1951 194, 391 

1952 (8 months) 126,023 





Immigration by area 


Year 


British 
Isles 


United 

States 


Northern 
Europe 


Other 


Total 


1946 


51, 408 
38, 747 
46, 057 
22, 201 
13, 427 
31,370 
27,795 


11.469- 
9,440 
7,3S1 
7,744 
7,799 
7,732 


5,633 

5, 482 
16.951 
17, 439 
17,060 
71,782 
45, 431 


3, 209 
10. 458 
55,019 
47. 833 
35, 626 
92, 507 


71 719 


1947 . 


64. 127 


1948 - 


125.414 


1949 . 


95, 217 


19S0.... 

1951 

1952 (7 months) 


73.912 

1 194. .391 

114 744 











• Largest number admitted in 38 years, 114,786 were workers, including the following: 

Skilled workers 

Semiskilled and unskilled workers 

Farm workers - 

Domestics. 

Total . 

' Including from United States. 



33, 682 

31,407 

25, 980 

6,531 

97,600 



Summary Notes on Immioratiox Laws and Policies of New Zealand 

The statutes and regulations relating to the restriction of immigration into 
New Zealand are the following: 

Immigration Restriction Act, 1908. 

Immigration Restriction Amendment Act, 1910. 

Immigration Restriction Amendment Act, 1920. 

Immigration Restriction AmcMidnient Act, 1923. 

Finance Act (No. 3), 1944, part II. 

Undesirable Immigrants Exclusion Act, 1919. 

Immigration Restriction Regulations 19.'>0, and amendments Nos. 1-3. 
The Customs Department is charged witli the administration of all matters 
coming within the .scope of the inunigration restriction legislation. Ii-respective 
of nationality or race, the following classes of persons are prohibited from land- 
ing in New Zealand : 



1910 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

(a) Any idiot ov insane person. 

(&) Any ijerson suffering from a contagious disease wliieli is loathsome or 
dangerous. 

{(■) Any person arriving in New Zealand within '1 years after termination of a 
period of imprisonment in respect of any offense which, if committed in New 
Zealand, would be punishable by death or imprisonment for 2 years or upward. 

(d) Any person who is considered by the Attorney General to be disaffected 
or disloyal or of such a character that his presence in New Zealand would be 
injurious to the peace, order, and good government of New Zealand. 

(c) Every person of the age of 15 years or over who, on arrival, refuses or 
neglects to make the I'equired declaration and who, in the case of an alien, re- 
fuses or neglects to take an oath (or make an affirmation) of obedience. 

(/) Every person who is required to obtain a permit to enter New Zealand and 
who is not at the time of arrival in possession of a permit. 

Traditionally, it lias been the policy in New Zealand to encourage to a maxi- 
mum the flow of British migrants whenever the need to expand the population of 
the country has arisen. Under the immigration restriction acts, persons of 
British birth and parentage, who are of good health, are permitted to settle in 
New Zealand without restriction. All other persons must first obtain a permit 
which may be issued or withheld at his discretion by the IMinister of Immigration. 
In practice, no permits are granted to persons who are not of the Caucasian race. 
After the war it was generally felt that the country needed a larger population, 
and it became Government policy to stimulate the llow of immigrants. 

The first step in 1!)4(> was the decision to embark on a selective policy of assisted 
immigration from the United Kingdom, the policy to be developed in accordance 
with the needs of New Zealand. This scheme, the free and assisted passage 
scheme, was commenced in July 1947. It was confined initially to single British 
migrants between the ages of 20 and 3") years. Ex-service personnel received 
free fares, while civilians initially were required to contribute flO toward the 
cost of their fares conditional upon an undertaking being given to remain in 
approved employment for a period of at least 2 years. -In the first place only a 
limited range of most urgently essential occupations were provided for. but this 
.scheme has been steadily widened initil, for single selectees, almost any type of 
productive and servicing work is now covered. 

For a few occupatioTis the age level for acceptance was later reduced to IS years 
of age (e. g., trainees for hospitals). 

In April 1948 provision was made under the nomination scheme whereby any 
relative, friend, or employer could nominate for a free or assisted passage any 
applicant otherwise suitable and eligible for selection under the main scheme. 
The essential requirement is that the nominator in New Zealand must be able 
to guarantee that he can arrange accommodation for the nominee on arrival in 
New Zealand. 

In May 1950, the requirement of a contribution of £10 was abolished, the 
position now being that free fares are granted to all selectees under this scheme. 
At the same time the upper age limit for eligibility was lifted from 35 to 45 years 
of age: thirdly, provision was made for extending free passages to certain 
categories of married British migrants with iip to two children ; these categories 
included mainl.v building and construction workers and other allied tradesmen, 
and, in addition, othei- essential productive and servicing workers nominated by 
friends, relatives, or employers in New Zealand who can arrange accommo(lation 
on arrival. 

From its inception in 1947 to Jiuie 30. 1951. 9.049 persons have arrived in New 
Zealand under the free (and assisted) passage scheme for British migrants. 
These comprise 5,214 males and 3.287 females and. in addition, as dependents, 
239 wives and 309 children. 

In addition to the assisted passage scheme, the New Zealand Government 
has allocated berths from the available immigration quota on iiassenger ships 
from the United Kingdom to a number of selected British migrants who pay 
their own passages to New Zealand. All adults (other than wives) in such 
cases have engaged in skilled essential work and are required to have accom- 
modation assured to them before embarkation. 

Up to June 30, 1951, 5,580 men and women and children arrived in New Zea- 
land under such sponsored passages. 

Child migration scheme 

Under this scheme, British children between the ages of 5 and 17 years whose 
parents or guardians wish them to have the opportunities which New Zealand 
can offer, are eligible for free passages. The children are placed with foster 
parents approved by the Superintendent of Child Welfare in New Zealand. 



COMxMlSSlON ON IMMlUHA'llON AND NATURALIZATION 1911 

The first jji-oiip aniviMl in Xi'w Zcalaiul in June 104!). To June 30, 1951, 281 
such fhiklreii had arrived. 

European settlers from displacetl-iwrsoii.'i eaiuijs in Europe 

A further aspect of New Zeahiud's inunijiration policy was its agreement 
after the war to take a numher of European settlers from disphiced-persons 
camps in Europe. The first draft of 041 settlers arrived in .lune 1940, the second, 
nunibeiiuff 9."1, in October 1950, the third, of 890, in ^lay 1951, a fourth draft, 
comprising 012 .settlers arrived during August 1951, and a final draft of 500 
toward the end of 1951. Apart from the above, persons in New Zealand may 
nominate friends and relatives remaining in displaced-persons cami)S for pas- 
sages to New Zealand ; the persons nominating in New Zealand are, in fact, in 
many cases former displaced persons who have become new settlers. Several 
small drafts have alretidy arrived in New Zealand under tliis latter scheme. 

The Dutch migration scheme 

A migration agreement between the Netherlands and New Zealand Govern- 
ments was concluded in October 1050. In terms of this agi-oement, up to 2,000 
per.sons will l)e accepted as new settlers in any 1 year — 1,200 male and 800 female 
workers. To be eligible, applicants must be unmarried persons who liave attained 
the age of IS years, but not i-eac^hed 30 years of age at the time of application. 

Target goals for assisted immigration 

The target set for assisted immigration was 7,500 persons per annum for 1951 
and 1952 with the intention that it should thereafter be raised to 10,000 persons 
per annum. The 7,500 rate was computed on the following expectation of yield: 

(i) 2,000 single persons from the United Kingdom. 

(ii) 1,000 families from the United Kingdom, totaling .3,500 persons. 

(iii) 2,000 non-British persons from friendly western countries, principally 
Holland. 

It was announced last month, however, that New Zealand is to reduce her 
quota of English and Dutch immigrants nest year, as a result of shipping diffi- 
culties and inadequate housing. The number of assisted British settlers will be 
reduced from 7.500 to 5,000, and the number of assisted Dutch immigrants will 
be cut down to 1.500. Prefex-ence will be given to skilled workers. 

Tlie Minister of Immigration, Mr. Sullivan, said the reduction in the Dutch 
immigration program has been made necessary largely because too high. a pro- 
portion of Dutch settlers have been in the unskilled group, for whom there are 
fewer opportunities at present. Mr. Sullivan said it is proposed, therefore, to 
restrict the selection of Dutch settlers under the assisted-passage scheme to 
single men who are fully experienced farm workers, or skilled building or 
engineering tradesmen, and to single women and a small number of unskilled 
workers. Entry permits will be granted to the same number of unassisted Dutch 
Immigrants, who come into the same occupational groups. 

Welfare 

The welfare of all immigrants, whether British or European, is believed to 
receive every consideration by tlie Government. The Department of Labor and 
Employment, which is concerned with all administration arising fi-om immigra- 
tion matters, has 25 district offices throughout the Dominion. Its oflicers are 
available at all times to advise new settlers on any problems which may arise. 

Immigration welfare committees 

These have been set up in all of the above 25 centers, the function of the com- 
mittees being the coordination of welfare activities in respect of all new settlers. 
The committees are nongovernmental, while various organizations aflBliated to 
the National Council of Women are represented on them. These committees 
take an active interest in welfare matters. 

Protection of interests 

The interests of all immigrants are protected in that they are allowed the 
same rights, privileges, wage rates, etc. (sub.1ect to certain residential qualifica- 
tions), as are full citizens. 

Figures for permanent arrivals and permanent departures in each of the past 
10 years are given in the annex. The present population of New Zealand was 
reported a few weeks ago to have passed the figure of 2,000,000. 

Sources: Official New Zealand Yearbook and other oflicial publications. 



1912 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 



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COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1913 

Notes on South African Immigration Laws and Policies 

By the Immiirrants Regulation Act, No. 22 of IDIS, as amended, the Immigration 
Department of tlie I'nion is empowered to regulate the entry of innnigrants, and 
certain classes of persons denominated prohibited may he excluded or even ex- 
truded from the country ; or their residence may he circumscribed as to time and 
in other respects. Among such classes are i)ersons who have been convicted of 
serious crime : persons of ill fame ; persons who are insane ; diseased, including 
those suffering from tuberculosis, or are otherwise physically afflicted; persons 
likely to beiome a public charge, and in some cases illiterate persons. The Min- 
ister of Interior is empowered also to deem as prohibited immigrants persons, or 
classes of persons, whose presence for economic or certain other reasons is con- 
sidered undesirable. Under this authority, Asiatics, with the exception of wives 
and children of domiciled relatives, are prohil)ited from entering the Union. 

I'nder the Aliens Act, No. 1 of 1037, no alien may enter the Union unless he is in 
possession of a permit to enter for either permanent or temporary residence. By 
alien is meant a person who is not a natural-horn British subject or a Union 
national. 

Applications for permanent residence must have attached photographs, medical 
and police reports, and documentary evidence of good character, employment 
during the past 5 years, and financial circumstances. 

An Inunigrants Selection Board examines each application and authorizes or 
refuses the issue of a pei-mit for permanent residence. The act lays down that 
the Board sliall not authorize the issue of a permit unless the applicant is of 
good character, likely to become readily assimiliated with the European inhabi- 
tants within a reasonable time of his entry, is not likely to be harmful to the 
welfare of the Union, and does not, or is not likely to pursue an occupation which, 
in the Board's opinion, is already overcrowded. Tlie Board may also authorize 
the issue of permits to the wife, and any minor children, or the aged or destitute 
parents or grandparents of an alien permanently or lawfully resident. 

An alien who desires to be admitted temporarily must furnish full reasons for 
the visit, produce such credentials as he possesses to support his request, hold a 
valid passport or other recognized travel document, the validity of which will not 
expire during the period of temporary residence, and, if necessary, provide a 
recent photograph. A temporary permit is issued gratis, but the immigration 
officer may, in his discretion, demand a deposit up to £100 as security for com- 
pliance with the terms of the permit. 

The ^Minister has discretion to waive the requirements of the act in regard to 
distinguished aliens desiring to visit the Union, providing they do not enter for 
permanent residence. 

From information received from the South African Embassy, it appears that 
the laws and policies are effective in carrying out the purposes desired. 

Immigration into the Union of South Africa {permanent residence) 





Total 


British 


Nether- 
lands 


Germany 






White 


Non-Euro- 
pean 


Other 


1945 _ 

1946 


2,329 
11,256 
28,841 
35, 631 
14, 780 
12, 803 
15,243 


620 
774 
988 
1,003 
796 
860 
610 


2,071 
9,917 

24,783 

25, 500 
9,655 

(') 

(') 


8 

279 

972 

2,753 

1,320 

(■) 

0) 


11 

57 

216 

12 

14 

(■) 
(') 


239 
1,003 


1947 

1948 

1949 

1950. 

1951 


2,870 
7,276 
3,791 

(•) 
(') 







> Not available. 



1914 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

Department of State, 

Novemher 3, 1952. 
Mr. Harry N. Rosenfield. 

Execuiivc Director, President's Coin))iission on 
Immigration cnid Naturalization, Washington. 
Dear Mr. Rosenfield : I refer to my letter of October 23 concerning; the 
information desired l).v Ihe Commission with respect to tlie immigration laws 
and policies of the United Kingdom, Kenya, and Tanganyika, Northern Rhodesia, 
Sonthern Rhodesia, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the Union of South 
Africa. The information concerning Australia, Canada. New Zealand, and the 
Union of South Africa was transmitted with my earlier letter. 

The Department has now received from the American Embassy at London the 
infoi'mation concerning the United Kingdom, Kenya and Tanganyika, Nortliern 
Rhodesia, and Southern Rhodesia, and I take pleasure in transmitting it to you 
herewith. The Information is contained in despatch No. 1999 of October 28 
from the Embassy, together with enclosures. 
Sincerely yours, 

Andrew B. Foster, 
Deputy Director, Office of British Commonu-ealth and Northern European 
Affairs. 

United Kingdom 

(Note. — Immigration to the LTnited Kingdom is controlled by laws which al- 
low wide areas of discretion to the Secretary of State for the Home Department 
and the officials within his Department. Consequently, immigration is to a large 
extent controlled by administration rather than detailed legislation.) 

I. IMMIGRATION LAWS AND FEATURES OF BASIC POLICIES 

1. Legislation 

Immigration to the United Kingdom is regulated in accordance with the Aliens 
Order, 1920, as amended and by restriction orders and directions as ordered 
by the Secretary of State for the Home Department and by rules of summary 
jurisdiction. The Aliens Order, 1920, contains the basic law regulating the 
entry of aliens into Great Britain and their conditions of sta.v. The restriction 
orders and directions supplement the aliens order and permit special excep- 
tions such as that referring to the I'olish resettlement forces. The rules of 
summary .iurisdiction concern deportation proceeding against paupered or con- 
victed aliens. 

The bulk of immigration proceedings is carried on under administrative rules 
and regulations set up b.v' the Home Office in accordance with the aliens order. 

British subjects. Commonwealth citizens and British protected persons are 
not subject to the aliens order. 

2. Visa procedures 

British subjects and subjects of certain countries witli which reciprocal ar- 
rangements have been made do not require a visa on tlieir passport for entry 
into the United Kingdom. Other persons acquire visas from a British consul 
or passport-control officer in British missions abroad. Issuance of visas is con- 
trolled through the passport control office, a section of the Foreign Office. The 
Passport Control Office actually serves as an agent of the Home Office and the 
regulations governing the issuance of visas are in conformity with immigration 
regulations, the latter being definitive as far as entry into the United Kingdom 
is concerned. 

3. Provisions of the Aliens Order, 1920 {summarized) 

Aliens coming to the LTnited Kingdom shall not land, unless seamen, with- 
out the leave of an immigration officer nor at other than an approved port. 
Leave to land in the United Kingdom is not granted an alien unless — 
(a) He can support himself and his dependents. 

(6) If proposing to enter employment, he has permission from the Minister 
of Labor. 

(c) He is not of unsound mind or a mental defective. 



COMIVnSSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1915 

(d) He is not certitied by a medical inspector as undesirable on medical 
grounds. 

(e) He has not been sentenced abroad for an extraditable crime. 
(/) He is not the suhjt'ct of a deportation order or expulsion order, 
(fir) He has not l)een prohil)itod from landins by the Home Secretary. 
(h) He fultills other requirements prescribed by general or special instruc- 
tions of the Home Secretary. 

An inimiiiTation otticer may attach such conditions as he may thinlc tit to 
the L'rant of leave to land. The Home Secretary may vary such conditions in 
such manner as he thiiUvS lit. 

An alien lamliii.u; in contravention to the order shall be removed from the 
United Kingdom by the master of the ship in which he arrived or by the owners 
or agents of tliat ship or on any shii) lielonging to the same owners to the 
country of which he is a national or from which he embarked. 

Every alien must register with the registration officer in the district in which 
he resides. 

The Home Secretary may exempt any person or class of persons conditionally 
or luiconditionally from all or any provisions of this order. 

Nothing in the order applies to the accredited head of a foreign diplomatic 
mi.'^sion. ;iny memlt(>r of his household or of his ofiiciul staff. 
A court may recommend a deportation order for — 

(</) Any offense where the court has power to impose imprisonment 
without option of a fine, 

{h) Offenses under particular provisions of the IMetropolitan Police Act 
or the Town Police Glauses Act (such as common prostitute, night walker, 
solicitor, etc.). • 

4. I mm iff rat ion Procedure^ 

As is indicated in the summary of the aliens order given above, the Immi- 
gration Office, acting under the direction of the Home Secretary, has very 
wide power and discretion. No person can enter the United Kingdom without 
the i)ermission of an immigration officer. British subjects (and Commonwealth 
citizens) need, however, only satisfy the immigration officer that they are 
British. 

An alien, before landing in the United Kingdom, fills in a landing card 
which lists the port of embarkation, alien's name, occupation, birth date, birth- 
place, sex. nationality, birth nationality, number of passport, and date and 
place of issue and proposed address of the alien in the United Kingdom. On 
the back of the card, the inunigration officer indicates the category of the alien 
(visitor, business visitor, student, employee, etc.), the date of landing and any 
other pertinent information. The landing card is filed in the traffic index of 
the Aliens r)ei>artment of the Home Office. (When an alien departs from the 
United Kingdom, he must fill out an embarkation card containing the same 
information which is then returned to the traffic index to be matched up with 
the landing card. Thus the traffic index contains a record of all aliens in 
the country.) 

The immigration officer deals generally with individuals rather than categories. 
The ordinary visitor (business or pleasure) must have a passport and a visa, 
if necessiiry, nnist comply with the requirements of the aliens order and must 
be qualified under any administrative rules and regulations imposed by the Home 
Seci-efary. A visitor usually receives permission to land for 3 months, but the 
duration of stay can be increased where warranted. A person in transit would 
normally be treated as an ordinary visitor, but might be admitted only on condi- 
tion of transit. A person coming to the United Kingdom to take up employment 
nnist have a po.sitioii, which would depend upon the issuance of a work permit 
from th(> Minister of T^abor. Such an employee would usually be granted leave 
to land for a period of 12 months, but extension can be granted by' the Home 
< »flice. In certain cases, permission to land may be limited to a period of 1 
month during which time the case would be referred to the Home Office. 

Certain categories of people are permitted to land with the waiving of normal 
conditions in accordance with orders of the Home ( iffie<\ Such categories include 
dejiendeids and disti'essed relatives of British subjects, EVWs (European Vol- 
untary Workers), distressed people from Austria and Germany (under the 2.000 
Scheme). Italian nuners (imder the plan to recruit foreign labor for the coal 
mines), brick makers, tin plate workers, etc. 

' Sourpo of inform.Ttion larRply Mr. S. .T. Coombes, H. M. senior iiiinii;.'r.Ttion ofBccr, 
Aliens Dcpartmont, Hom<> Office, London. 

25356—52 121 



1916 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

Seamen are generally excepted from the provisions of the aliens order except 
that the master of a ship must deliver to the nearest immigration office within 
12 hours of arrival a crew list which will he cleared hy the immigration officer 
after he has determined that the list contains no one whom he would not wish 
to land. The form for the crew list shows the name, rating, hirth date, national- 
ity, date and place of first signing on of crew members and pertinent data con- 
cerning the ship. When the crew list is cleared by the immigration officer, the 
crew is automatically entitled to shore leave. If a seaman should apply for dis- 
charge, then his seaman's book would be demanded and used as a passport. The 
Immigration Service controlled in 1951 about 1 million seamen of whom about 
800,000 were aliens. 

After an alien has legally entered the United Kingdom, he ceases to be a con- 
cern of the Immigration Department and becomes the concern of the Aliens De- 
partment. If a visitor or businessman wishes to extend the period of time he 
may stay in the country beyond the limitations imposed by the immigration 
officer, he can apply to the Aliens Department for an extension. Likewise, an 
employee can apply for an extension, providing he has a work permit from the 
Ministry of Labor. After an alien has been in the country for 5 years, the Home 
Office as a rule cancels on application any conditions attached to the alien's 
being here and he becomes a legal resident. 

An alien is qualified for naturalization if he — 

(a) Has resided in the United Kingdom or been in the service of the 
Crown for 12 months immediately prior to his application ; and 

(b) Has during the 7 years prior to his application, resided in the United 
Kingdom or been in the service of the Crown for at least 4 years ; and 

(c) Has a good character; and 

id) Has a sufficient knowledge of English : and 

(e) Intends to reside in the United Kingdom or its dominions or to con- 
tinue in the service of the Crown. 
The Home Secretary has, however, absolute discretion in granting naturaliza- 
tion and need give no reason for his refusal. 

II. EFFECTIVENESS OF LAWS AND POLICIES 

The laws and procedures indicate such a wide degree of power and discretion 
left in the hands of the immigration officers and the Home Secretary that the 
effectiveness of the policies is a measure more of the quality of the administra- 
tion than of the quality of the legislation. ITnder section 1 (1) (a) of the , Miens 
Order, 1920, "an alien * * * gjifi]] not land in the United Kingdom without 
the leave of an immigration officer * * *." Lender section 14 of the act, "The 
Home Secretary may direct that any person or class of persons shall be exempt 
either unconditionally or subject to such conditions as the Home Secretary may 
impose from all or any of the provisions of this order." Thus discretion as to 
entry within the T'nited Kingdom can be utilized to implement swiftly any new 
policies decided upon by the Government. 

Immigration officers feel that the law is effective and that able administration 
has resulted in adequate control of immigration. When special classes of immi- 
grants are needed in Great Britain (such as miners, tin-plate workers, etc.), 
relaxation of disqualifying provisions of the aliens order can easily be achieved 
by executive action of the home secretary. Not only speed but also flexibility 
in amending policy is thereby achieved. 

The provision requiring a permit from the Ministry of Labor for alien em- 
ployees enables simple control of competition from foreign labor on the British 
labor market. 

III. STATISTICAL DATA 

The British Government ceased the publication of statistics concerning immi- 
gration during the war as a security measure. However, statistical data since 
the war is now being assembled and will shortly be published as a command 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1917 

paper. The following statistics are unofficial and taken fioiii tallies prepared 
for a recent conference of inmiijiration officers : 





Whole traffic for the 


year ending Scptciiibc 


• ii>r)2 








British passengers 


Alien passengers 




Landed 


Embarked 


Landed 


Embarked 


By air - 


1,654,134 
1,226,904 


429, 926 
1, 306, 444 


262, 226 
548, 880 


260.897 


By sea . 


545, 599 








Total 


2, 881, 038 


1, 736, 370 


811,106 


806, 496 







For the year ending September 1952 — 

Immigrants (people accepted for period over 12 months with probability of 
settling) : 

Male 3,015 

Female ^'^^l 

Children ^^ ^, 259 

Total 20,585. 



Holders of Ministry of Labor permits good for 12 months or more (a propor- 
tion may settle in the country) : 

Male 4, 467 

Fvmale , 13,070 

Children 86 



Total 17, 623 



Grand total 38, 208 

Kenya and Tanganyika 

(Note. — Immigration laws and policies for all of the East African territories, 
which include Kenya and Tanganyika, are similar or identical so that the follow- 
ing remarks do not differentiate between colonies although the information is 
based on Kenya.) 



I. immigration laws and features of basic policies 

1. Legislation 

"Since the war the * * * Kenya and Tanganyika * * * Legislative 
Councils have passed immigration (control) ordinances under which immigrants 
are classified according to the nature of their employment or the pnipose for 
which they wish to enter the country. Before being given permission to enter 
any territory, immigrants must apply to an appropriate authority appointed by 
tlie (jovernment and must obtain a certificate of eligiliility. The principle on 
which the control is Iiased is that the entry of the immigrant in question is in the 
general interests of the teiTitory. Provision is of course made for temporary 
permits for visitors." ' 

Tlie immigration (control) ordinances for East Africa were passed by the 
Legislative Councils and i)ut into effect on August 1, l!)4iS. The ordinances do 
not apply to indigenous Al'i'icans, that is, members of native tribes, who are free 
to travel at their will in the territories. Native Africans who come from the 
adjacent territories of Portuguese East Africa, Nortliern Rhodesia, Nyasaland 
and Kiianda-ri-andi do not reipiire passes to enter the territories. 

'llie immigi-atiiin (control) ordinances make no distinction as to the nationality 
of immigrants with the exception of ex-enemy aliens (such as Germans) who 
are subject to special restrictions. There are no quotas or statutory limits to 
the number of immigrants who may enter in one year. 



^ The British Territories in Kast 
Conniiand Paper No. 79S7, p. 125. 



and Central Africa, 1945-50, House of Commons, 



1918 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

Entry to the territories requires, as a prerequisite to compliance with the 
immigration (control) ordinances, presentation of a passport properly visaed 
(see par. I 4j below). British subjects and subjects of certain countries with 
whom reciprocal arrangements are in effect require no visas. Subjects of other 
countries require a visa which is issued by a British consul or a passport control 
officer. Visa issuing officers are under the control of the Passport Control Office 
of the Foreign Office. This office maintains liaison with the Home Office, author- 
izes its officers to issue visas and follows policies laid down by the Home Office. 
The regulations governing the issuance of a visa are in conformity with immigra- 
tion regulations, the latter being the definitive factor in entry to the territories. 

2. Operation of the ordinances 

The issuance of any pass is within the discretion of the Immigration Depart- 
ment, which is, of course, responsible to the governor of the territory. Applica- 
tions for permanent immigration are presented before the Immigration Board' 
which meets monthly. This board has about 10 members, government officials, 
members of the Legislative Council and local business and professional men. 

3. Qualiflcations for immigration 

Legal entry into the territories is effected by four kinds of certification : 
lie-entry pass, visitor's pass, temporary employment pass, and entry permit. 

(cf) Re-entry pass. — A re-entry pass is automatically issued upon application 
to any legal resident. A legal resident is any resident who has maintained legal 
residency during a period of 5 years. 

(&) Visitor's pass. — A visitor's pass is issued to any person who possesses a 
valid passport or travel document properly visaed and who — 

(1) Promises not to take up employment in East Africa without permission 
of the principal immigration officer 

(2) Has made satisfactory arrangements for travel out of the territory 
(transportation tickets, etc.) or 

(3) Can satisfy the issuing authority that sufficient funds ai'e possessed 
( £100 per person and £50 for children under 12) 

(4) Would not, by his entry, act to the prejudice of the inhabitants of the 
colony generally 

(5) Does not come within the classes of persons generally excluded by the 
ordinance. 

Visitors' passes are valid for 6 months and may be renewed for two periods 
of the same duration. 

(o) Temporary employment pass. — A temporary employment pass is applied 
for by the prospective employer who states the nature of employment offered, 
gives guaranties as to support of the employee, describes the qualiflcations of 
the employee and the emoluments offered. The employee is subject to the general 
provisions of the ordinance. 

The application for a temporary employment pass is made to the Immigration 
Office which then consults with the Department of Labor to determine that the 
interests of the local population generally would not be prejudiced by issuance 
of the pass, that the prospective employee is in fact qualified, and that there 
is not already unemployment in the trade, skill, or calling involved. 

The employer undertakes that the employee will be engaged in the employment 
unless or until the principal officer gives permission for the employee to leave 
or to work for another employer. 

A temporary employment pass is valid for 4 years. (The 4-year period is to 
enable the immigration authorities to send the employee out of the territory in 
case unemployment in the pertinent trade occurs. If the employee could remain 
5 years, he would then become a legal resident and the authorities would not 
have power so to regulate the labor market.) 

A temporary employment pass can include dependents (wife and children 
under 18) if the employee can show means of supporting them and that adequate 
housing is available. 

(d) Entry permit. — 

(Note. — Usual practice for prospective immigrants is to obtain a visitor's pass, 
enter the territory and then apply in the territory for the entry permit which 
enables permanent immigrant status.) 

Entry permits are issued by the principal immigration officer after being as- 
sured that the applicant comes within the purview of the ordinance and after 
receiving a certificate of acceptance from the Immigration Control Board (See 
par. I (2)). 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1919 

Entry pormits are issued to the following classes with the (iualifications noted : ' 
Class A — 

(1) A permanent resident. 

(2) A resident of one of the other East African territories or the child 
of such (residency being at the time of the coming into operation of this 
ordinance.) 

(3) A person in the service of the Colonial Government, East Africa High 
Commission or the Kenya and Uganda Kail ways and Harbours Adminis- 
tration. 

Class B — Agriculturalist or animal husbandryman who has certified that he 
has — 

(1) acqniied or can acquire land of suitable area for his business. 

(2) at his disposal sum of £2,000 or lesser amount as determined by 
prescribed authority. 

Class C — Prospector or miner who has certified that he has — 

(1) prospecting rights to enable mining. 

(2) at his disposal sum of £2,000 or lesser amount as determined by 
prescribed authority. 

Class D — Tradesman or businessman who has certified that he has — 

(1) the license required for carrying on his trade or business. 

(2) £2,000 at his disposal or lesser amount as determined by prescribed 
authority. 

Class E — Manufacturer who has certified that he has — 

(1) the license required for carrying on such manufacturing. 

(2) at his disposal sum of £5,000 or lesser amount as determined by 
prescribed authority. 

Class F — Member of prescribed profession who — 

(1) possesses prescribed qualifications (comparable to British standards). 

(2) has sufficient capital or income to initiate practice. 

Class G — A person who has been offered and accepted employment not of tem- 
porary nature and has prescribed certificate. 

Class H — A person who has an assured income of prescribed amount. (This 
is u.sually fixed at £500 per annum.) 

(Note. — Capital sums listed are maximums. The Immigration Board reduces 
the requirements as the particulars of each case may permit.) 

All of the above classes are subject to the qualification that the activity fol- 
lowed by the inmiigrant "will not be to the prejudice of the inhabitants generally 
of the colony." Additionally there is provision that all of the immigrants in 
the above classes (except permanent residents, residents in 1948 of other East 
African territories and residents with assured incomes) may be ordered to leave 
the colony within 4 years if they fail to fulfill the qualifications on their original 
entry permits. There is also provision for appeal against decisions of the immi- 
gi'ation authorities to a prescribed tribunal or to the Supreme Court. Entry 
permits may include the dependents of the applicant (wife and children under IS). 

Jf. General provisions of the immigration (control) ordinance 

In addition to the qualifications as noted in the preceding paragraphs, there 

is prohibition applied to the immigration of any one of the following: 
(a) Destitute persons. 
(6) Mental defectives. 

(c) Persons suffering from a contagious or infectious disease. 

(d) Persons, not i)ardoned, convicted of murder or sentenced to prison for 
any term, if the Governor deems the circumstances to indicate that the appli- 
cant is an undesirable immigrant. Exception is made for offenses of a political 
character. 

(c) Prostitutes or pimps. 

(/) Persons deemed by the principal immigration officer, on the basis of reli- 
able information received, to be undesirable immigrants. 

io) Persons under order of deportation. 

(h) Persons whose entry into the colony was or is illegal. 

(i) Children, if under 18, of prohibited immigrants. 

O") I'ersons not possessing a valid passport or travel document properly en- 
dorsed and visaed. 

Additionally, holders of entry permits may be required to make a deposit of 
up to £150 at their entry at the discretion of the immigration officer. 



* As excerpted from sec. 7 of the Immigration (control) ordinance, 1948, Kenya. 



1920 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

The following persons are generally exempt from the immigration rules and 
regTilations : 

(a) Serving members of Her Majesty's forces, their wives and children. 

(&) Accredited representatives of any government within the British Em- 
pire, their wives and children and staff. 

(c) Accredited members of diplomatic or consular corps of recognized coun- 
tries, their wives, children, and staff. 

(d) Permanent residents holding valid reentry permits. 

(e) Persons in the service of the government of the Colony or the Kenya and 
Uganda Railways and Harbors Administration. 

There is no mention made in the Immigration (Control) Oi-dinauce of mer- 
chant seamen. They are subject to other regulations (visaing of crew lists, 
regulations comparable to United Kingdom rules). The B. S. I. C. (British sea- 
man's identification card) is accepted as a passport. Passengers on through 
ships and aircraft do not require passes, and the same rule applies to crews. 

II. EFFECTIV'ENESS OF LAWS AND POLICIES ' 

The regulations as summarized indicate that no appreciable attempt is made 
to control the immigration into the East African territories of indigenous, native 
people. Control of non-African immigration is aimed at (1) the importation of 
development capital, (2) the importation of skilled labor in specified fields, (3) 
the importation of agricultural skill and capital, (4) the importation of profes- 
sional talent, (5) the importation of manufacturing skill and capital, (6) the 
development of mining resources, etc. 

The Immigration (Control) Ordinance, while it does in fact specify particular 
categories, grants such vtdde and extensive authority to the principal immigi'a- 
tion officer and the Immigration Control Board that immigration is actually more 
regulated by administration than by law. 

This method of regulating immigration by administration is in general con- 
formity with the practice in the United Kingdom. Since the restrictive clause 
"not to tlie prejudice of the inhabitants generally of the Colony" applies to all 
classes of immlcrants, the Immigration Board, immigration officers, or the Gov- 
ernor may, in effect, ban any immigrant. Conversely, when it has been decided 
that the economic or social welfare of the Colony will be benefited thereby, re- 
quirements can be administratively relaxed for desired immigrants. 

It is apparent that recent policy tends toward greater restriction of immigra- 
tion since the maximum capital requirements for farmers, miners, and busi- 
nessmen have been raised since 1948 from £800 to £2,000, and for manufacturers 
from £2,500 to £5,000. 

As to the effectiveness of the laws in achieving the policy ends envisioned, the 
authtorities consulted indicate satisfaction with the laws while pointing out 
that the general scope of the law is such as to allow fast and effective changes 
in administration which can readily accommodate changes in i)olicy. 

III. STATISTICAL DATA 

(Note. — Accurate and complete statistical data does not seem to exist. It was 
emphasized that the nature of the Colonies is such that borders cannot be care- 
fully sealed and that the statistics probably indicate less than actual amounts. 
More complete and detailed statistics could be obtained from the Central African 
Office of Statistics in Nairobi. Except for Kenya, statistical data before 1949 
is not available.) 





Table 1. — 'Normative {non-African) population^ 




Year 


Kenya 


Tanganyika 


1948.... 


157, 528 
Not available 


70,160 
95,494 


1952 





« Source of tables 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5: East African Economic and Statistical Bulletin, No. 16, June 1952, East 
Africa High Commission. 



^ Information largely based on discussion with East African Immigration Officer Drake, 
London, formerly Immigration Service, Kenya. 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1921 

Tahle 2. — Migration: East African territories, year of 1952 



Category 



Kenya 



Tanganyika 



Total immigration (includes visitors) 

Total eniipration (includos visitors) 

Xcw poriiKiiu'iit iiiiinifrrLinls (oxdudes visitors and transits) 
rormunont emigrants (excludes visitors and transits) 

(a) Visitors on business or holiday .-. 

(6) Persons in transit - 

(c) Other visitors 

Total (a), (6), and (c) 



44, 887 

29, 607 

7,690 

1,182 



15,534 
) 
7,108 



5,929 

16, 584 

1,542 



2,486 

1,131 

100 



24,055 



3,717 



• Not available. 

Note.— The fact that the number of visitors added to the number of immigrants does not equal total 
immigration is due to returning residents who are not indicated in the first two groups. 

Tables. — Migration: Kenya 



Year 


Total reported 
immigration ' 


Total reported 
emigration ' 


Permanent 
immigration 


1951 


58, 976 
44,887 
44, 116 
48, 660 
46, 420 
35,078 
27, 455 
21,312 


42,586 
29, 603 
30, 452 
25, 608 
23, 854 
21, 632 
19, 914 
14,371 


8,000 


1950 


7,690 


1949 -. 


11, 956 


1948 


12, 328 


1947 - 


9,832 


1946 .. - 


6,549 


1945 . 




1944 ". 









' Includes all who entered and left the territory — visitors, transits, etc. 

Note.— "Permanent immigration" plus "Total reported emigration" do not add to "Total reported im- 
migration" since the latter includes retumine residents. 



Table 4. — Migration: Tanganyika 



Year 


Total immi- 
gration 


Visitors and 
transits 


New perma- 
nent immi- 
gration 


1951 


16, 346 
15, 534 
20,415 


5,115 
3,717 
8,155 


5,532 
7,108 
7,756 


1950 '. 


1949 - - - 





Note. — Earlier figures not available. 

Table 5. — Total population {estimated), 1952^ 

Kenya ^^' 5, 000, 000 

Tanganyika 7, 500, 000 

' Estimate by Mr. Drake based on corrected 1948 figures. 

Northern Rhodesia 

(Note. — Northern Rhodesia is a large land in area with a small non-African 
population of al)out 4(),0(X). Border control is difficult, so that migration sta- 
tistics are approximate. The administration of the law reflects the small- 
community nature of the land ; immigration is handled largely on an individual 
basis.) 



1922 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

I. IMMIGRATION LAWS AND FEATURES OF BASIC POLICIES 

1. Legislation 

The Immigration Orrlinance^ as supplemented by the orders of the governor 
in council contains the basic law concerning immigration. The following are 
prohibited immigrants : 

(fl) Those whom the governor, on economic grounds or because of standards 
or habits of life, deems to be undesirable ; 

(b) Those unable to read any European language, including Yiddish; 

(c) Those likely to become a public charge because of infirmity of body or 
reason or those unable to show possession of sufficient means of support ; 

(d) Those deemed by the governor to be undesirable on the basis of informa- 
tion received from any government, British or foreign, through official or diplo- 
matic channels ; 

(e) Prostitutes and procurers ; 

(/) Those convicted of serious crimes ; 

ig) Idiots, epileptics, insane or mentally deficient people, those deaf and 
dumb or deaf and blind or blind and dumb, etc. ; 

(h) Lepers or those afflicted with a contagious or loathsome disease. 

Anyone over 16 must have a passport or valid travel document and fulfill 
other special requirements prescribed by general or special instructions of the 
governor. With the exception of nationals from Denmark, Iceland, Italy, Luxem- 
burg, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, the Netherlands, San Marino, and Liechten- 
stein, aliens (those not British subjects) are required to obtain a visa from 
a British consul or passport authority before beginning their journey to Northern 
Rhodesia.^ 

The Governor of the Colony has the power to exempt any person or classes 
of persons from provisions of the law. If an immigration officer refuses entry 
into Northern Rhodesia to any person, he must present the groimds for the re- 
fusal in writing to that person, and the person has the right to appeal the de- 
cision in the appropriate court. 

The following persons are not prohibited immigrants under the ordinance : 

(a) Members of Her Majesty's forces; 

(6) Duly accredited British or foreign officials, their wives, children, staff, 
or servants ; 

(c) Persons entitled to legal entry; 

id) Children of residents of the Colony; 

(e) Legal residents; 

(/) Persons of European descent who are skilled agricultural workers or 
domestic servants, skilled artisans, mechanics, workmen, or miners, and whom 
the Governor shall deem desirable to admit under approved conditions, provid- 
ing each has a certificate of employment. 

2. Immigration procedure 

Immigration is controlled by the chief immigration officer and his staff under 
the direction of the Governor in accordance with the ordinance. No entry per- 
mit as such is required, but the immigrant must have passport, visa if required, 
and such evidence, documentary or otherwise, as will satisfy the immigration 
officer that the intended immigration conforms to the laws and regulations. 
There are three main categories of entrants : temporary visitors, employees, 
and settlers. 

Temporary visitors are required to produce evidence that they have i)ermanent 
residence or employment outside the territory, that they have sufficient means 
to maintain themselves during the visit, and that they intend to return to their 
permanent residence. 

Employees must produce evidence that bona fide employment awaits them in 
the territory with an employer of repute, at an adequate salary, for a i)eriod 
of not less than 6 months. They must produce at the time of entry a letter or 
contract as evidence of the work and pay. It is customary for the employer 
to make the initial contact with the immigration officer in Rhodesia, to furnish 
details of the employment and of the prospective employee, and to obtain tenta- 
tive approval of the immigration involved. (Actually the copper mines, the 
major industry, recruit employees in London and make most of the arrange- 
ments for immigration on behalf of the employee with the Rhodesian authori- 
ties.) 



iCh. .^.^ of thp laws (Northern Rhodesia), 1948 edition, Lusaka. 
" See par. 1.2 of report on the United Kingdom. 



COIVOnSSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1923 



Settlers, those seeking permanent immigrant status, intending to set up in busi- 
ness or agriculture, etc., with tlieir own capital, communicate directly with 
the chief immigration officer and give full information about tliem-selves, their 
qualifications such as financial resources, skills and experiences, etc. Such 
applications are considered individually on the basis of whether the prospective 
inunigration will benefit the Colony generally. (A single man possessing the 
requisite general qualifications would probably be required to hold a capital sum 
of £150 at the time of his entry. Tliis would give him £")() to live on for a month 
or so and enough money to pay his return fare if he found no satisfactory po- 
sition.) 

The usual medical qualifications are required of all immigrants, freedom from 
tuberculosis, inoculation against smallpox and yellow fever, etc. 

Immigration rules and procedures ajiply only to nonnatives. There is no 
control of the native migration. There are no quotas nor any restrictions con- 
c*eruing nationality of potential immigrants other than such bars to entry as 
might be administratively imposed. 

Domicile in Northern Rhodesia is acquired after 3 years' residence and 
naturalization, in accord with the British Nationality Act of 1948, can be 
achieved by aliens if they have, during the previous 12 months resided in Northern 
Rhodesia or been in Crown service and, during the previous 7 years resided in 
Northern Rhodesia during an aggregate of 4 years or been in Crown service for 
that period. The other qualifications of the Nationality Act,' of course, apply. 

II. EFFECTIVENESS OF LAWS AND POLICIES * 

Since the laws of Northern Rhodesia give wide powers to the governor and he, 
in turn, allows wide discretion to his immigration oflicers, the effectiveness of 
policy is determined by administration rather than legislation. In 6 years, the 
non-African population has increased from about 18,000 to about 38,000 and 
permanent immigrants have recently been entering at the rate of about 600 per 
month. The large majority of these are employees recruited by and for the 
copper mines. The white population in 1918 was about 3,000. 

While recent population growth has been relatively very large, the country 
is physically well capable of absorption of skilled workers and settlers, so that 
generally little control (except over personal qualifications such as health, 
character, etc.) is exercised. Such control as is exercised cannot be completely 
effective due to the length of the borders, the wilderness of the territory, etc. 

Officials feel that the laws are effective in keeping out of the territory un- 
desirable immigrants while the scope allowed by the laws for administrative 
control permits effective implementation of policy laid down by the governor 
in council. 

III. STATISTICAL DATA 



(Note. — Statistics are probably not completely accurate, 
emigration are available.) 



No statistics on 



Table 1.'— 


Immigrants by sex 






Year 


Male 


Female 


Children 
under 16 


Total 


1944 


634 
1,169 
1,821 
2,183 
2, 560 
3,120 


501 
769 
1,270 
1,407 
1,721 
1,917 


419 

606 

906 

1,028 

1, 235 

1,496 


1.644 


1945 


2,544 


1946 


3,997 


1947 


4. 618 


1948 


5,516 


1949 . . . 


6,533 







1 The Northern Rhodesia Handbook, 1951, Government Printer, Lusaka, pp. 43 and 44. 



3 See par. 1.4 of report on the United Kingdom. 
* Source largely the Deputy Commissioner for 
London. 



Northern Rhodesia, Col. J. Kiggell, 



1924 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 
Table 2/ — Immigrants by origin 



Year 


Union of 
South Africa 


United 
Kingdom 


All other 


Total 


1944 


1,109 
1,719 
2,221 
2,361 
2,392 
3,146 


248 

269 

974 

1,446 

1,990 

2,197 


287 
556 
802 
811 
1, 134 
1,190 


1,644 


1945 


2,544 


1946 


3,997 


1947 


4,618 


1948 


5,516 


1949 


6,533 







' The Northern Rhodesia Handbook, 1951, Government Printer, Lusaka, pp. 43 and 44. 

Southern Rhodesia 

(Note. — Southern Rhodesia is a self-governing Colony, the European population 
of which has doubled since the last war. Consequently the Government has 
introduced quota restrictions to govern immigration, details of which are em- 
bodied in administrative memoranda, not in legislation.) 

I. immigration laws and features of basic policies 

1. Legislation 

The Immigrants Regulations Act, chapter 60, lists as prohibited immigrants : 

(a) Any person declared undesirable by the Governor on economic grounds or 
on account of standard of habits of life ; 

(&) Any person unable to read and write a European language including 
Yiddish ; 

(c) Any person likely to become a public charge because of infirmity of mind 
or body or insufficient means of support ; 

(rf) Any person deemed by the Governor as undesirable from information re- 
ceived from any government, British or foreign, through official or diplomatic 
channels ; 

(e) Prostitutes and procurers ; 

(/) Persons convicted of serious crimes ; 

(g) Idiots, epileptics, etc. ; 

(h) Lepers or persons afflicted with contagious or loathsome diseases; 

(i) Anj^ person deported from the Colony not possessing valid authority to 
return. 

Persons over 16 entering the Colony must possess a passport or valid travel 
documents. 

2. Immigration procedure 

Immigration procedure is largely governed by the regulations issued by the 
Governor in accordance with power granted him by the basic legislation. 

Visitors and transits are required to produce evidence that they intend to return 
to their country of domicile or last residence and that they have i)ermission to 
reenter that country. The period of visit is restricted to 6 months but may be 
extended by the chief immigration officer to 12 months. A visitor must show 
that he has sufficient means to maintain himself and his dependents during the 
period of his visit. He may not take up employment in the Colony unless he 
has been granted a residence permit. A visitor who wishes to remain perma- 
nently in the Colony must leave the country and apply for a residence permit 
from without its borders. 

Permanent immigrants (employees and settlers) must obtain a residence 
permit which is is.sued by a Selection Board. Tliere are three Selection Boards, 
the British Immigrants Selection Board in Salislniry, Rhodesia (for British 
immigrants from the African area), the British Immigrants Selection Board in 
London, England (for British immigrants from the area of Great Britain), and 
the Alien Immigi-ants Selection Board in Salisbury (for all aliens, wherever 
resident). 

(Note. — Information in the following paragraph is unofficial. Details are 
probably changed from time to time by administrative regulation.) 

The number of immigrants permitted to enter the colony for i>erinanent resi- 
dence is now governed by a quota. The British quota is now 2.200 persons each 
quarter of the year ; 1,100 permits may be issued each 3 months by the London 
Board and a similar number by the British Board in Salisbury. The quota 
for alien immigrants is 8 percent of the total quota; 92 percent of the total 



COMMISSION ON IMMKiRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1925 

quota must be British. Goncrally, the London Board re(iuir(>s an ai>i)licant 
for a rt'sidencf pcrniit to ('stal)lish lliat he has either bona tide eniiib).vnient 
in Southern lihodesia. or tliat be will bring capital with lain in the amount of 
£1,500. The size of the family of an immigrant is generally restricted to two 
children. 

It is a condition of the issue of a residence permit that the holder will not 
engage in any occupation other than that listed on the permit without the 
permission of the Salisbury Selection I'.oard. After domicile lias been acquired 
(8 years' residence), such conditions do not apply. 

There is a serious housing shortage in Southern Rhodesia so the Selection 
Board will not issue a residence permit unless the applicant has assured 
accommoilatiou. 

II. EFFECTIVENESS OF LAWS AND POLICIES 

As in the case of other British territories, the basic legislation allows the 
Governor wide power to regulate immigration by administration. Thus policies 
are made effective by administrative action. Quotas can be varied and quali- 
fications can be changed in accordance with change in the economic or social 
character of the Colony. Officials feel tliat the present system of control of 
immigration is entirely effective.' 

III. STATISTICAL DATA 

Table 1.' — Number of immigrants (other than Africans) entering Southern 

Rhodesia 





Year 


Total number 


Number of RAF 
(included in total) 


1944 


623 
1,759 
9,195 
13, 595 
17, 037 
14, 155 

16, 245 

17, 561 
9,644 


(2) 


1945... 


(2) 

271 


1946 


1947 


637 


1948 


2,444 


1949 


1,733 
li729 


195 


19513 . 


(-) 


1952 (first 7 months)' 


(-) 







I Official yearbook of Southern Rhodesia, No. 4, 1952. 
5Not available. 
» Source: Office of High Commissioner for Rhodesia, Records Departments. 

During the period between 1930 and 1950, 95.3 percent of the Immigrants were British 
subjects. 

During the month of July 1952, capital imports declared by immigrants totalled 
£270,U52. 

Table 2/ — Net balance of migration of Europeans 



Span of years 


Immigration 


Emigration 


Net balance of 
migration 


1921-26 


9,400 
20, 106 

9,090 
12,850 

8,250 
64,634 


6,676 
12, 695 
7,058 
7,157 
0,192 
17,447 


2,724 
7,421 
2,032 


1926-31-... 


1931-36. 


1936-41 


5,693 

2,058 

47, 187 


1941^6 


1946-51 







1 Official Yearbook of Southern Rhodesia, No. 4, 1952. 



1 Source : Mr. Richardson, Rhodesia House, London (Immigration Information Office), 
Mr. W. V. Bond, secretary, British Immigrants Selection Board (London). 



1926 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

Peru 

November 12, 1952. 
Foreign Service Despatch 360. 
From : American Embassy, Lima. 
To : Tlie Department of State, Wasliington. 
Reference: Department's OM, dated October 6, 1952; deptel 111, dated October 

23, 1952 ; and Department's OM, dated November 7, 1952. 
Subject : Report on Peruvian immigration laws and policies. 

There is transmitted a report on Peruvian immigration laws and policies, 
covering the basic features of such laws and policies; the success achieved; 
available statistics indicating the number of immigrants received on an annual 
basis in Peru since 1915 ; and the type of immigrant desirable. 

It has been considered pertinent, as well, to include a brief resume of the 
historical development of present immigration policy. 

Translations of pertinent provisions of laws and statements of policy are near- 
ing completion and will be forwarded to the Department as promptly as possible. 
For the Ambassador : 

Bernard F. Heiler, 

American Consul, 

Since the first immigration law effected on November 21, 1832, until 1930, 
the Peruvian Government has passed a series of laws designed to increase im- 
migration to Peru. Confronted with a light population density of six persons per 
square kilometer and a great need for agricultural workers and of colonists to 
settle the montana, or jungle region, Peruvian legislators for one century have 
tried various devices to attract immigrants to Peru. The period 1830-1930 has 
been characterized as the "liberal" epoch of Peruvian immigration legislation, 
during which successive governments offered free land, free transportation to 
Peru, tax exemptions, military service exemptions, etc., to entice prospective 
immigrants. Premiums were offered to Peruvian agents who were successful in 
bringing immigrants to Peruvian shores. 

This liberal policy has been described as a failure. Numbers of immigrants 
have not flocked to Peru. Of those who came, the majority were orientals. 
Most of the immigrants did not remain as agricultural workers on the haciendas, 
as originally planned ; and the montana of northeastern Peru x-emains a vast, 
rich, unsettled area. 

The last important national influx of immigrants to Peru was that of the 
Japanese, from 1897 to 19.30. The social unrest caused by the coming of the 
Japanese resulted in the passage of the supreme decree of June 26, 1936. This 
decree was aimed at halting oriental immigration in general and Japanese in 
particular. The thinking at the time of the passing of this decree is reflected 
in the book, "Derecho Internacional Publico," by Alberto ULLOA, Foreign 
Minister at that time, who wrote alluding to the decree : "The increase of 
Japanese immigration and the activities developed by these immigrants have 
created social unrest during recent years in Peru because their conditions and 
methods of working have produced pernicious competition for the Peruvian 
workers and businessmen. These activities are marked by strong Japanese 
nationalistic characteristics. The social imrest is principally reflected among 
the popular classes because of the tendency of the Japanese immigrant to 
monopolize small industries and the occupations of workers and artisans." 

The decree of 1936 was implemented by the supreme decree to regulate im- 
migration, dated May 15, 1937. This latter decree is the basic document, with 
slight modifications, which governs immigration to Peru today. 

I. SUPREME DECREE OP MAY 15, 1937 

The change from a liberal to a restrictive policy of immigration was high- 
lighted by the passage of the supreme decree of May 15, 1937. For the first 
time in Peruvian immigration legislation a quota system was established : The 
number of immigrants that may enter Peru may not exceed 0.002 percent of 
the total population ; and in any case may not exceed 16,000 persons of each 
nationality. In actuality, the quota system is operative only with regard to 
Chinese, Japanese, and any other oriental immigration applicants. Oriental 
immigi-ation has been effectively stopped ; quota restrictions for other na- 
tionalities have not been adhered to. 

Peruvian employees and laborers must comprise at least 80 percent of the total 
work force of any commercial, industrial, or agricultural enterprise. The num- 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1927 

bov of foreign ooinnicrcial and imlustriiil enterprises may not exceed 20 percent 
of the total of such enterprises. 

The following classes of persons are not admissible to Peru : unaccompanied 
children under 10 years of age ; the penniless ; vagabonds and gypsies ; those who 
suffer from insanity; alcoholics, epileptics, tuberculars. syphilities. lepers, and 
those with contagious diseases; paralytics, the blind and deaf, unaccompanied; 
drug addicts; those who deal in white slavery; those who traffic in pornographic 
and obscene material ; Communists, anarchists, and nihilists, and those who pro- 
fess doctrines or belong to parties or sects advocating the destruction of organ- 
ized social and political order : and criminals. 

Persons who wish to come as immigrants must first deposit 2,000 soles (1 sol 
equaled U. S. $0.25 in 1937) per family member as guaranty of return passage 
in the event that employment is not obtained within DO days. (This provision 
was rescinded bv the supreme decree of July 10, 1946.) 

A National Council for Immigration was established as a consultative body 
regarding immigration problems. This organization met irregularly and accom- 
plished little. 

II. POSTWAR lAlMIGRATlON POLICY 

Shortly after World War II the Peruvian Government made several efforts to 
ihcreaseimmigration to Peru while retaining the decree of 1937. The National 
Council for Immigration was reconstituted to study the problem seriously. A 
commission was sent to Europe to encourage immigration to Peru. Attempts 
were made to discover statistically what kind, how many, and which nationalities 
of specialists and technicians were needed and desired by Peruvian industry. 

By the supreme decree of December 12, 1947, the Peruvian Government rei'erted 
to special concessions for attracting immigrants in national groups. This decree 
contracted to give 1.5.000 hectares of montafia to the Societa por Azioni "Italo 
Peruviana Agricola Industriales," known as "S. A. I. P. A. I." Special provisions 
as to import duties for the new colonists were allowed. The Peruvian Govern- 
ment promised to pay 10,000 soles (1 sol equaled U. S. .$0.07, 1952) to each family 
consisting of four persons. S. A. I. P. A. I. was to bring groups of Italian immi- 
grants to the concession. The declared motive for the decree is noteworthy : "The 
essential bases for effective colonization depend upon the selection of the immi- 
grant, his adaptability, race, and religion; cession of land; donation of habita- 
tion, animals, and tools: accessibility of the land," etc. 

To date, only some 35 Italian families have arrived, and the experiment does 
not appear to be successful. 

III. IMMIGRATION STATISTICS 

Peruvian statistics are for the most part incomplete. Recently published 
statistics show that there are now approximately 60,000 foreigners residing per- 
manently in Peru, of which I2.72S are Japanese and 9,546 are Chinese. 

Statistics obtained from the Peruvian Foreign Office regarding the number of 
immigrants who have come to Peru between 1945 and July 1952 indicate a total 
of 15,235. There is no annual breakdown available. Of the total of 15,235 immi- 
grants, 1,927 arrived during the period February 24, 1948, to March 28, 1949, 
under the auspices of IRO. By subtracting the number of displaced persons set- 
tled in Peru by IRO from the total number of immigrants, the total number of 
normal immigrants is 13,308. This last total divided by 7V> years, the period 
under consideration, results in an average annual immigration of 1.764 persons. 

It is possible to estimate the actual number of immigrants who came to Peru 
for each of the years 1945-49. The total number of persons entering Peru for 
each of these years was as follows : 

1945 : 62,841 

1946 75,353 

1947 121,193 

1948 179,756 

1949 200,311 

By using the coefficient of 1 percent, estimated by the Peruvian Ministry of 
Finance to be the percentage reflecting the number of persons who are immi- 



1928 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

grants among the total number of arrivals, normal immigration on an annual 

basis would be : 

Number of 

Year : immigran ts 

1945 628 

1946 753 

1947 1,211 

1948 ' 1, 788 

1949 2,003 

1 From tlie total arrivals in 1948 the 1,927 immigrants settled by IRO were subtracted. 

IV. PRESENT OUTLOOK REGARDING IMMIGRATION TO PERU 

Present Peruvian attitude toward general immigration to Peru is negative. 
The office within tlie Foreign Ministry which was charged with immigration 
policy has been disbanded. The Peruvian ofticial in Italy who was studying the 
possibilities of Italian immigration to Peru is being recalled. 

On the other hand, Peru remains interested in settling the vast montaiia region. 
Rich forests, plentiful land which must first be cleared of its luxuriant jungle 
growth, and a bearable climate are the attractions of the montaiia. The type of 
immigrant that Peru would most like to receive is a European peasant and his 
family, of the Catholic religion, imbued with the pioneer spirit. However, until 
roads or a railroad is put through to the region so that markets are available to 
the producers in the montana and until housing and a standard of living that the 
average European immigrant would consider minimum can be assured, immigra- 
tion to Peru in large numbers is unlikely. 

Chile 

November 24, 1952. 
Foreign Service Despatch No. 543. 
From : American Embassy, Santiago, Chile. 
To : The Department of State, AVashington (for ARA). 
Reference : Department's OM, October 6, 1952. 

Subject: Administration — ARA: Report on Chilean Immigration Laws and 
policies. 

The Chileiui (jovernment's early efforts, after gaining independence, to foster 
a 'system of planned immigration, which would supplement a small annual volun- 
tary immigration, met with limited success. It was hoped to induce experienced 
European farmers to settle in the southern part of Chile by offering them free 
grants of land but it soon became apparent that a large portion of the desirable 
areas had been snatched up by opportunists who secretly negotiated with the 
Indians in the hope of making huge profits in the resale of the land. Also, a 
relatively few families owned and tenaciously held on to huge estates in the 
central and most desirable sections of the country. These lands came into their 
possession as a result of royal grants made during the colonial period. This 
state of affairs tended to discourage immigrant farmers and, to this day, this 
condition has not permitted the development of medium-sized farms, while small 
holdings are being continuously subdivided. 

The Government made repeated efforts to encourage experienced agriculturists 
to immigrate to Chile. In 1845, as a result of a law passed to facilitate coloni- 
zation in the south, a group of German inunigrants, attracted by offers of land, 
were brought to Chile and successfully established at Osorno. The President 
of Chile was voted increased powers in 1851 to grant state-owned lands to immi- 
grant-settlers. 

In 1S72. the National Society for Agriculture, whose membership consisted of 
the coinitry's biggest landholders, was given the title of "General Immigration 
Office" and charged with promoting the immigration of farmers. 

In 18S2, the Government appointed a general agent for European colonization 
and sent him abroad to facilitate the immigration of laborers. The Government 
also created the positi(m of inspector general of colonization and he had the 
responsibility of receiving and settling these immigrants. 

About this time, the Governjnent, becoming increasingly aware of the country's 
mineral wealth and the opportunities for industi'ialization, tried to promote 
the inunigration of Europeans with capital and technical know-how. As early as 
1S24. to those in a position to set up industrial workshops, the Government 
offered grants of land, tax concessions, and exemptions from military service. 

The civil war of 1891 sharply reduced immigration until the year 181)5, when 
the Government once again pursued its program of planned immigration. A 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1929 

law was passt'd rcducinji sfu and rail fares to assist iiniiii«rants lioldiiit: ollicial 
work cMiiitrai'ts. In lUO."). innnigration aj^oncics were estalilislu'd in Geneva and 
Hamburg, and selected inuniRrants were jiranted such additional benefits as free 
transiM)rtati(iM of machinery and eciuipnient and temporary free room and board. 
With such inducements, Chile .succeeded in j;;etting 22,000 useful immigrants 
between l!»(i.". and liHO. 

The First W(uid War and its economic after effects tended to cut down innni- 
gration. I >urini;- the world-wide depression of the thirties, which hit the country 
hard. Chile's policy of unrestricted inunigration changed and became based on 
tlie principle that the country had most to gain from a limited and selective 
inunigration. Thus. Chilean firms were given maximum (piotas of foreign em- 
ployees that could he taken on contract, and the policy of granting free land to 
colonists was restricte<l to native-born and naturalized Chileans. 

A new iihase in Chilean immigration policy began in UK!!) when the Goveriunent 
admitted approximately l.".(K)0 .lewisb refugee inunigrants and some .'{,000 Span- 
ish political exiles who tied Spain after the Franco victory and the fall of the 
Spanish Republic. The admittance of these persons was maiidy an act of human- 
irarianism althonsih they were selected in accordance with the economic con- 
tributions they could make to the country. 

The Chilean Government signed a convention with the International Ilefugee 
Organization in li)4s, wherein it agreed to permit the immigration of 2.000 
European families who had been displaced as a result of "World War II. Up 
to .January \\)~>{) approximately 2,.S00 persons immigrated to Chile under this 
program, and the (government assisted them by provi<ling temporary homes, and 
helping them find employment. 

Enclosures No. 1 and No. 2 give the best rough estimates, on an annual basis, 
of the number of inunigrants who have come to Chile since 1S4!>. They show 
that, with a new emphasis on planned immigration beginiung in 1882, immi- 
gration swelled from yearly averages of mostly less than 100 to a 7-year ( 1882-88) 
average of almost 1,400 a year. In 1889 and 1890, immigrants poiired in at 
the aniuial rate of 10,700. Although the next 15-year period to 1906 showed a 
sharp drop in immigration from this extremely high 2-year figure, a relatively 
high rate of 800 immigrants annually was maintained. In 1907, inunigration 
again rose sharply, and continued high to 1925, interrupted only by World War 
I. After a decade of rising and falling, arrivals of foreigners showed a slight 
ri.se to the beginning of World War II. Few immigrants arrived in the period 
1940—43 but after 1940 a steep rise began and has continued. It is estimated 
that in the period from 1850 to 1950 a little over 200,W)0 settlers came to Chile. 
Enclosure No. 3 is a comparative table showing the numbers of foreigners, by 
nationality, resident in the country in 1895, 1920, and 1949. 

In the past 30 years, the Government has iiermitted a relatively large immigra- 
tion of Arabs and Eastern Europeans. It is officially reported that in 1949 there 
were residing in Chile some 0,300 Arabs and approximately 14.(X)0 Eastern Eu- 
ropeans, many of whom ar;^ refugees. Surprisingly, there were also resident 
.some 1,800 Chinese and over 5<K) Japanese. 

The population of Chile is presently estimated at just under 6 million and a 
little over 2 percent, or 125,0(X), is considered to he foreign resident. The density 
of population for the country as a whole is about eight inhabitants per square 
kilometer but most of the population iS' concentrated in the middle third of the 
country. 

Chile lias never had a basic general immigration law', and there does not even 
exist a legal definition for the term "immigrant." No official statistics are kept 
specifying whether ixnsons arriving in Chile are coming as permanent residents 
or for temporary stays to complete wcu'k contracts, etc. A record is kept only of 
the munber of foreigners who aiuuially enter and depart, and it may only be 
guessed that the difference between the two figures represents immigrants who 
intend to reside permanently in Chile. 

Efforts in recent years to pass a general immigration bill have proven unsuc- 
cessful. A bill presented to Congress in 1945 by the President of Cliile was per- 
mitted to lapse completely. An immigration law. which was drafted by the 
Ministry of Ec(momics and ("ommerce in 1948 and i)rovided for "fre(> inunigra- 
tion"' and "controlled imniigrati<in" was not considered ])ractical and was shelved. 
Oil" of the Ministry's suggestions, though, met with favor, and in the same year, 
1948, there was created the Permanent Immigration Commission, 'i'his commis- 
sion functions today but with very little real authority, sitting mostly as an 
advisory body. 

The decree which establish«'d the Permanent Immigration Commission also 
delined tlie Government's policy on immigration as "a policy that would increase 



1930 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

the procliictive and technical capacity of tlie country, and would maintain and 
insure the homogeneity of the natioa by means of the incorporation of a human 
element capable of adaptation and rapid assimilation, avoiding the entry of un- 
desirable or unadaptal)le individuals." 

The Government's aim is to foster the immigration of trained agricultural and 
especially industrial technicians, their entry limited only to the requirements 
of the country and its economic ability to absorb them. It is preferred that they 
come from countries with cultural and demographic affinities to Chile so that 
they may be rapidly assimilated and not form national minorities or foreign 
political groups amongst the Chilean populace. At present, due to this policy, 
Spaniards form the largest foreign group resident in Chile. 

Some Chilean Government officials and other responsible elements believe that 
the native population is increasing at a satisfactory annual rate, 1.3 percent, 
and are of the opinion that only a selective immigration would prevent social 
unrest springing from a fear of economic competition by impoverished immi- 
grants. It is also felt that by limiting immigration Chile's culture would evolve 
naturally, and there would be no additional fears that national security or sta- 
bility was endangered. 

A policy of mass immigration is not considered in the best Interest of the 
country. The larger cities are overcrowded and there is a serious shortage of 
housing. Only in the extreme south does the Government control sufficient land 
but this area is bleak and uninviting to European immigrants. Due to the exist- 
ing system of land tenure, the Government would have to resort to expropriation 
measures but this would undoubtedly bring on additional social and political 
problems. Furthermore, land grants to immigrants would arouse the ire of the 
native rural population, most of which lives from hand to mouth. Any coloniza- 
tion schemes must, therefore, primarily benefit this impoverished group. 

As Chilean industry develops, it needs and can absorb a limited niimber of 
immigrants with technical know-how but industrial labor is available from 
amongst the native population ; it needs only to be transferred from other non- 
productive areas of the country. 

The Government's early attempts to promote immigration met with difficulties 
and misunderstanding. Chilean entrepreneurs thought that immigrants were a 
good soui-ce of cheap labor, while, on the other hand, the workingman was afraid 
that the new arrivals would further depress his already very low living standard. 
Also, the church and those involved in politics were deeply suspicious of the 
Government's immigration plans. Actually, these high-class immigrants stimu- 
lated economic progress and the fears of the politicos and church have proven to 
be unfounded. 

The Government was convinced that its policy was correct and, during the 
1880"s, intensified its efforts and succeeded in bringing in and settling 25,000 
German, Swiss. French, Italian, and English immigrants. These immigrants, 
together with the small sroups that had immigrated in the past, were most indus- 
trious and they gave the south a new look of activity and progress. A good 
many of these experienced immigrants provided their own capital to set them- 
selves up and cost the Chilean Government nothing toward their settlement. 
Furthermore, they succeeded in blending their various cultures with that of the 
Chilean and have, after naturalization, accepted responsible posts in the Gov- 
ernment service. 

During the periods of the two World Wars, when Chile's dependence on imports 
was felt most acutely, the policy of attracting immigrants who could make solid 
contributions to the economy really paid off for, with their technical experience 
and capital, they started many small industries which supplied es'sential goods 
available only from abroad. 

Although the volume of immigration to Chile has always been small, immi- 
grants have played a role in the countr.v's economic progress out of all proportion 
to their numbers. They are responsible for the establishment in Chile of a 
textile and paper industry, the introduction of the science of metallurgy, the 
brewing of beer, the development of a transport system, the breeding of live- 
stock and wool production. Recent immigrants are manufacturins: chemicals 
and pharmaceuticals, glassware, furniture, .sheet glass, books, ceramics, plastics, 
utensils, canning materials, etc., all of which were formerly imported. New 
immigrants are introducing modern merchandising methods and are distributing 
manufactured goods throughout the country. 

Considering the rate of industrial development, the small amount of invest- 
ment capital, the small market due to the low buying power of the Chilean 
people, and the ready availability of manpower if required, it can be stated that 
experience has shown that the practice of encouraging the immigration from 



COMMISSION OK IMMIHRATION AND NATURALIZATION 



1931 



western Enrojie of a small but coniiiiuiii^ slrcain of trained iinnii;;rants is one 
that is proviii.si lii.uhly sncicssfnl. 

There has been sonu' criticisin w itliin the country over the Government's policy 
on adiiiittinij: the Jewish refu.uces. lUisinessnieti are reportedly opjiosed to fur- 
tlier iniinifiratlon of this class because of the feeling that they have been detri- 
mental to tlie economy of the country due to their liabit of concentrating in the 
hu-ger cities, especially Santiago, and it is widely believed that they engage 
mostly in speculative connneix'ial enterprises. There has been no such criticism 
of the Government's policy in admitting the Spanish refugees from the Franco 
regime as they have spread themselves around the country and do not seem to 
be engaged mainly in commercial activities. 

Statistics were k<>pt in connection with the .joint immigration program of the 
Ghilean Governnient and the International Refugee Organization. They show 
that !)7 percent of the active imnugrants who arrived in 1048 found employment 
quickly in their separate fields, engaging in productive work with great success. 
They liave learned the new language and seem to have successfully fitted into 
their respective social patterns. Enclosures Nos. 4, 5, and 6 give their sex and 
age gT'<mp. nationalities, and religions. 

In recent years, the emphasis has been on encouraging the immigraticm to 
Chile of industrial technicians. Considering the rise in population and the 
abu.se of good farm land, resiilting in food shortages, it seems that more atten- 
tion should be given to bringing in technicians and farmers exiierienced in modern 
agricultural practices. The desire to have trained agriculturists settle in Chile 
has been somewhat defeated by the Government's economic discrimination in 
favor of native and naturalized Chilean colonists who receive benefits not avail- 
able to immigrant farmers. 

To carry out a fully effective innnigration policy requires the passage of a gen- 
eral innnigration law, incorporating the various laws, deci'ees, and regulations 
which have proven practical and the weeding out of dated and contradictory pro- 
visions. A single organization should be responsible for developing and carry- 
ing out policy. At the present time, four Government ministries, a special com- 
nussion, and a special department are all actively interested in immigration 
matters. 

The Government has been tlunking recently of setting up annual immigi-ation 
quotas and is presently making a study of the American quota system. 

There are enclosed three recent newspaper clippings concerning the Dutch 
Government's interest in settling some of its nationals in Chile, the arrival of 
Italian colonists, and a statement by a member of the Permanent Immigration 
Commi.ssion i-egarding new plans to foster selective immigration of agriculturists. 
Also enclosed is a single copy of a Chilean Government imblication dated 1950 
and entitled "Kecopilacion de Disposiciones Legales y Reglamentarias Sobre 
Extranjeria."' translated as a compilation of legal provisions and regulations con- 
cerning foreigners. 

Most of the information and tables submitted in this report was obtained from 
a study made of ImmiL'rati(m in Chile, a report of the United Nations Economic 
and Social Council, published in May 1950. 
For the Ambassador : 

Carlos C. H-\lt„ 
Counselor of Embassy. 

Enclosure No. 1. — Mir/ration: Nstiwafrd vunibcr of immigrants entering Chile, 

18.1,9-1906 



Years 
1849 


Nu 
imn 


mher of 
ngrants 

85 

102 

212 

51 

35 

460 

180 

9 

11 

9:i 

11 

32 


Years 
1863 


Numher of 
immigrants 

12 


Years 
1892 


Numher of 
immigrants 

286 


1851 




1864 


_ _ 155 


1893 

1894 

1896 


405 


1852 


1866 


26 


395 


1853 




1869 

1882 

1885 


"IZZIII 2,466 
1, 837 


1, 114 


1854 

1856 _ . 


1897 

1898 


970 

564 


1857 




1886 


905 


1899 

1900 

1901 


548 


1858 




1887 


808 


93G 


1859 




1888 


805 


1. 449 


1860 




1889 


10, 413 


1902 

1905 

1906 


S64 


1861 

1862 




1890 

1891 


11,001 

318 


293 

1,442 



Source : Politiea, legislariC^n y eontrol de la immigraci/m en Chile y otros Estados Ameri- 
canos (The Policy, Legislation, and Control of Immigration in Chile and other American 
countries), by Eliana Bucclii I'onsa, Santiago. 10."9. 



1932 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 
Enclosure No. 2. — Movements of foreigners in Chile, 1908-.'fS 



Year 


Arrivals 


Depar- 
tures 


Differences 


Year 


Arrivals 


Depar- 
tures 


Differ- 
ences 


1908 


25, 775 
19, 014 
25, 788 

24, 845 
27,645 
35, 393 
47, 147 
17,326 

25, 878 
30, 076 
17, 953 
15,658 
22, 122 
21,926 
19, 528 
21,998 
37,054 
32, 255 
27,060 
23, 683 
22, 395 


12, 750 
15,867 
16,798 
23, 841 
15,482 
28, 248 
21,054 
10,408 
24, 919 
19,009 
19, 438 
15,124 
18,391 
15,072 
15,489 
17, 283 
29, 166 
25, 234 
26, 837 
24, 282 
21,667 


+13,016 

+3,147 

+8, 990 

+1,004 

+12, 163 

+7,145 

+26, 093 

+6,918 

+959 

+11,067 

-1,485 

+534 

+3, 731 

+6, 854 

+4, 039 

+4,715 

+7, 888 

+7, 021 

+223 

-599 

+728 


1929 


37,988 
39, 860 
29, 195 
25, 151 

25, 396 

26, 550 
31. 524 
35, 313 
40, 085 
48,221 
54,486 
46,368 
49,790 
53,649 
72,164 
68, 250 
84, 729 

121,888 
122, 542 
121, 334 


33, 356 
37, 860 
29, 888 

25, 878 
23, 671 

26, 901 
29, 536 
32, 032 
36, 821 

44, 751 
47,960 

45, 576 
52, 511 
55, 796 
73, 276 
66, 909 
84, 425 

116,373 
115,599 
106, 627 


+4, 632 


1909 


1930- 


+1,410 


1910 

1911 - 

1912 


1931 

1932 

1933 


-693 

-728 
+1,725 


1913 


1934.- -.- 

1935 

1936 


-351 


1914..._ --- 

1915 


+1 , 988 
+3. 281 


1916 


.1937.- _-_ 


+3,264 


1917- 


1938 

1939 .- 


+3, 470 


1918 


+6, 526 


1919 


1940 


+792 


1920- 


1941 

1942 . 


-2, 721 


1921 


-2,147 


1922 


1913 


-1,112 


1923 


1944 


+1,341 


1924 

1925 


1915 - . -.- 


+304 


1946 


+5,515 


1926 


1947 


+6, 943 


1927 


1948 


+14, 707 


1928 











Souicp: Direccion General de Estadlstica. 

Enclosure No. 3. — Foreigners resident in Chile 



Nationalities 



Germans 

Arabs 

Argentines 

Austro-Hungarians - 

Belgians 

Bolivians 

Brazilians 

Canadians 

Cubans 

Colombians 

Costa Ricans 

Czechs 

Chinese 

Danes 

E cuadorians 

Slavs 

Spaniards 

North Americans.-. 

French 

Greeks 

Dutch 

Hungarians 

British 

Italians 



Annual census 



1895 1920 1949 



7,560 



7,507 
1,550 

278 



999 
241 
421 



8,494 
745 

8,266 
137 



6,838 
7,797 



8,950 
1,849 
7,362 
1,573 

387 
15, 552 

290 



1,954 
337 
711 

1,354 
25, 962 

1,908 

7,215 
522 
492 



7,220 
12, 358 



20,052 



8,405 
788 
452 

5,606 
568 
194 
358 
988 
155 

1,150 

1,799 
316 

1,096 



26, 757 
4,440 
4,074 
736 
908 
1,560 
4,639 
14, 098 



Nationalities 



Japanese 

Lebanese 

Mexicans .. 

Norwegians. _ _ 

.Palestinians 

Panamanians 

Paraguayans 

Peruvians J 

Poles 

Portuguese 

Rumanians 

Russians 

Serbs 

Syrians -. 

Swedes 

Swiss... 

Turks 

Uruguayans 

Yougosla vs - - . 

Venezuelans 

Other nationalities- 
Total 



Annual census 



1895 1920 1949 



123 
221 



15, 999 
'"'"237' 
""'234' 



211 

1,653 

76 

186 



259 



79, 056 



183 

319 

1,164 



12,991 

181 

403 

144 

1,320 

1,432 

1,204 

242 

1,677 

1,282 

407 



717 



120, 436 



526 

908 

352 

199 

3,855 

263 

149 

4, 060 

2,055 

219 

1,644 

1,823 



1,590 
285 

1,423 
451 
691 

4,666 
565 

1,186 



124, 049 



Note.— No group of less than 100 is specified. 

Source: Direccion General de Estadlstica and Direccion General de Identiflcaeiou y Pasaportes 
(Identification and Passport Office). 



COMMISSION OX IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1933 



KNCi.osruK No. 4. — AiKilii-si.s of iniinif/nition in Chile ii f) to Jdiiudii/ ll)')l) loidcr 
the convention irith the International h'efiit/ec ihyimization: A. Clasnification 
of immii/riints aeeonlinij to se.r, ai/c, nationaliti/, religion, profcssiov, or occu- 
pation; 1. Sex and aye 





Arrivals 


Total 






1948 


1949 


Janu- 
ary 
1950 


Percentages 


Adult men - 


487 
428 
33 
85 
148 


439 
348 


290 
124 


1,216 

900 

33 

313 

260 


44.7 


Adult women 


33.0 




1 


Children of 2 to 15 


177 
94 


51 

18 


\ 22.3 




1 






Total 


1,181 


1,053 


483 


2,722 


100.0 







Source: Direccion General de Trabajo, Servicio Social. 

Enclosube No. 5. — Nationalities 





Arrivals 




Nationalities 


1948 


1949 


January 
1950 


Total 








3 

2 

2 

5 

46 

4 

g- 
115 

8 

43" 

18 

7 

""'"214' 


3 


Germans _ _ 




2 

1 


4 




13 


14 




9 


Bulgarians 




7 

71 

5 

12 

26 

186 
25 
15 

220 
55 
82 
68 

216 


12 


Czechs .- V . .- -.- - 




117 




17 


26 


F.stnriians 


12 


Greeks .. .- ... . .. 


17 


49 


Hungarians 


301 


Letts 


56 

18 
281 

34 
229 

38 
200 

79 
199 


89 


Lithuanians... . . 


33 


Poles 


544 


Rumanians . . .. . . 


107 




318 


Ukrainians... . ... 


106 


Yugoslavs ... 


630 

79 


Stateless persons 


67 


10 


276 






Total 


1,181 


1,058 


483 


2,722 







Source: Direccion General de Trabajo, Servicio Social. 

Enclosure No. 6. — Religions 



Creeds 


Arrivals 


Creeds 


■ Arrivals 


1948 


1949 


1948 


1949 


Christians: 


437 

194 

317 

99 

56 


239 

15 

554 

122 

111 

3 

3 




29 




Orthodox 


Mohammedans ... 


11 






49 






Grand total 




Greek Catholics. .. 


1,181 


1,053 








Lutherans. 




Baptists 












Total 


1,103 


1,047 









Source: Direccion General de Trabajo, Servicio Social. 



1934 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

INFORMATION PROVIDED BY THE UNITED STATES DEPARTIVIENT OF 
STATE CONCERNING THE PRESENT EMIGRATION POLICIES OF 
U. S. S. R., POLAND, CZECHOSLOVAKIA, HUNGARY, RUMANIA, BUL- 
GARIA, AND YUGOSLAVIA 

Department of State, 
WashiiifftoH, October SO, 1952. 
Mr. Harry N. Rosenfield, 

Executive Director, President's Commission on Immigration and 
Naturalis:ation, Executive Office, Washington 25, D. C. 
My Dear RIr. Rosenfield : Reference is made to your letter of October 10, 1952, 
in which you request a statement by this Department on tlie present emigration 
policies of the U. S. S. R., Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Rumania, Bulgaria, 
and Yugoslavia. In accordance with your request, there is summarized below 
such information in this regard as is available to the Department of State at 
this time : 

1. V. 8. 8. R. 

Under Soviet law no person living in the Soviet Union may depart from that 
country without an exit visa issued by the Soviet Government. Over the course 
of the years preceding World War II and innnediately thereafter, a few Soviet 
citizens were allowed to leave the Soviet Union for the purpose of immigrating 
to the United States. It is possible that similar small groups left the Soviet 
Union for other countries. Those immigrating to the United States consisted, 
in practically all cases, of persons who were closely related to American citizens 
or who had claim to American citizenship. No Soviet citizen has been given 
permission to leave the Soviet Union for the purpose of travel to the United States 
for other than official reasons since October 1947. 

At the present time the immigration to the United States of persons chargeable 
to the Soviet quota consists of individuals who were born in the former Russian 
Empire or in the U. S. S. R. but who are now living beyond the borders of the 
Soviet Union. For the most part this group represents persons who fled the 
Soviet Union and who have been living abroad for a number of years. 

There is attached, as of possible further interest, a statement prepared by the 
American Embassy in Moscow in June 1949 which discusses the Soviet exit visa 
policy as it applies to all persons living in territory controlled by the Soviet 
Government. The formalities connected with obtaining a Soviet exit visa are 
described in this memorandum. 

2. Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Rumania, and Bulgaria 

The Soviet-dominated govei*nments of Eastern Europe maintain highly restric- 
tive emigration policies. Citizens of these countries are not permitted to 
emigrate freely and, to depart legally, they must obtain both passports and exit 
permits. In Poland the issuance of passports and exit permits is within the 
jurisdiction of the Ministry of Public Security ; in Czechoslovakia, the Ministry 
of Foreign Affairs ; and in Hungary, Rumania, and Bulgaria, the Ministry of 
Interior. 

In most of the few instances where individual citizens of these countries have 
been permitted to emigrate, they have been persons over 60 years of age who have 
no political past or especial significance, who are regarded as an economic 
burden rather than asset to the state, and whose departure is therefore con- 
sidered hannless to these regimes from a propaganda and other points of view. 
Most of these individuals are close relatives of persons who have previously 
emigrated from Eastern Europe and settled abroad. 

Apart from the occasional individual cases of aged persons, the governments 
of the above-named countries have permitted some Jewish emigration. The 
volume of such emigration has varied considerably from time to time and from 
country to country. The Jewish emigration has taken place under arrange- 
ments negotiated with the Soviet satellite governments by international Jewish 
organizations or the Israeli Government and has usually involved the payment 
of subsidies or other material concessions to the satellite regimes. The desti- 
nation of most of the Jewish emigrants has, of course, been Israel. 

It may be noted further that the Bulgarian Government has permitted about 
one-fourth of the ethnic Turkish minority in Bulgaria to emigrate to Turkey 
and that the Rumanian Government has allowed many members of the ethnic 
Greek population in Rumania to go to Greece. However, the movement of these 
elements, as in the case of Jews, has been more in the nature of group migration 
than of normal emigration by individuals. 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1935 

3. Yugoslavia 

Althoiiij;b Yugoslav emigration policy, in its basic pattei-n, has been similar 
to the iMilicies of the Soviet satellite governments, there is some evi(l(>nce in 
recent practice of the relaxation of Yugoslav restrictions in this field. Several 
hundreds of dual nationals (Yugoslav-American), who have wished to emigrate, 
have been permitted to leave Yugoslavia, and there is reason to believe that the 
Yugoslav Government may take further action in the near future to ameliorate 
its hitherto restrictive emigration policy. 

Immigration to the United States of p(>rsons chargeable to the respective quotas 
of the Soviet satellite countries and to the Yugoslav quota consists almost entirely 
at the present time of nationals of those countries who, thougli born there, fled 
abroad to escape Nazi or Communist persecution and have been residing in 
Western Europe or elsewhere throughout the world. 
Sincerely yours, 

Watavoeth Barrour, 
Director, Office of Eastern European Affairs. 

Im'oumatiox Concikning Soviet Exit Visas 

Under Soviet law no person living in the Soviet Union may depart from the 
country without the permission of the Soviet Government in the form of an exit 
visa. This regulation applies not only to Soviet citizens but to foreigners as well, 
including diplomatic personnel. Except in the case of diplomatic personnel and 
other representatives of foreign governments who receive their visas through 
the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Moscow, applications for such visas must be 
made in the administrative center nearest the applicant's place of residence to 
the appropriate office of the militsiva, or police, which in the Soviet Union is 
an agency of the Central Government, being a branch of the Ministry of Internal 
Affairs or MVD. 

Such visas are issued with comparative readiness to foreigners who recently 
arrived in the Soviet Union with passports properly visaed by Soviet officials 
abroad, though even such persons may frequently experience considerable delays. 
For many years, however, it has been pxtremely difficult, and for the past 2 
years virtually impossible, for all other persons to obtain exit visas. In the case 
of those who may be claimed by any possible interpretation of Soviet law to be 
Soviet citizens, it is safe to say that the present Soviet policy is to issue no exit 
visas for travel to the United States for any reason, however compelling, except 
the official business of the Soviet Government. No Soviet citizen whose request 
for an American visa was not officially sponsored by the Soviet Government 
has received a Soviet exit visa for travel to the United States since October 1947. 

There are now on record with the Embassy the cases of approximately 5,500 
persons who at some time since 1940 (in almost all cases, at least 3 years ago) 
have informed the Embassy of their desire to travel to the United States. The 
great majoi'ity of these persons were neither residents nor citizens of the Soviet 
Union before 1939, but acquired Soviet citizenship automatically as residents 
of territories annexed during or since the recent war. Of this group approxi- 
mately 2,000 have presented claims to American citizenship ; about 3,500 have no 
such claim but are applying for American immigration visas. 

To the Embassy's knowledge, only 76 of these 3,500 non-American citizens 
have succeeded in departing from the U. S. S. R. since 1940, and of these 76 
at least 41 were not Soviet citizens but citizens of other countries or of no 
country at all, 33 of them were given exit visas not for travel to the United 
States but for repatriation to Iceland as Polish citizens under a Soviet-Polish 
agreement. However, even this slow rate of departure has been checked since 
1947. In that year exit visas were issued to Soviet citizens in this group in 
only three cases, all exceptional. Two of these cases involved the American- 
born widows of prominent Soviet citizens and the alien minor child of one ; the 
third, the alien nnnor child of an American-citizen mother who was also the 
widow of a Soviet citizen. Since that year no Soviet citizen in this group has 
received an exit visa, and only one other non-American citizen has been able to 
immigrate to the United States from the Soviet Union. 

Of about 350 Soviet wives of American citizens who have applied for permission 
to depart from the Soviet Union to join their husbands, not one has received 
a visa since August 194G. Ninety-seven of this group are the wives of veterans, 
and the great majority of them were already married when they became Soviet 
citizens in the manner indicated above. In connection with the problem of 
obtaining exit visas for fiancees of American citizens it should be noted that 



1936 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

a decree of the Soviet Government published on February 15, 1947, forbids 
Soviet citizens to marry foreigners. 

Of the approximately 2,000 claimants to American citizenship mentioned 
above, the Embassy and the Department of State have been able to verify 
the claims of about 600. The claims of approximately 250 more are now before 
the Department of State for decision and about 100 others have proved not 
to be American citizens or to have lost their citizenship. The majority of the 
remainder probably have valid claims, but the Embassy has had difficulty in 
collecting sufficient information in many cases to justify decision, usually because 
after receiving an applicant's initial letter the Embassy has been unable to 
communicate with him further. In many such cases the Embassy's letters re- 
main unanswered or are returned undelivered. In a few cases the returned 
letters indicate the applicant's departure from the U. S. S. R. to Poland or some 
other country, perhaps as a Polish citizen under the agreement mentioned above ; 
in other cases, merely that his whereabouts are not known. In still other cases, 
letters from applicants have indicated that they had not received the Embassy's 
letters or that they had written eai-lier letters which did not reach the Embassy. 
In such circumstances the figures given above are necessarily inexact, but there 
are in all probability between 1,800 and 1,900 persons still residing in the Soviet 
Union who have valid or potentially valid claims to American citizenship and 
desire to return to the United States but cannot obtain the permission of the 
Soviet Government to do so. 

The great majority of these persons are dual nationals ; that is, while their 
claims to American citizenship are valid, they are at the same time considered 
by the Soviet Government to be Soviet citizens. The Soviet Government, how- 
ever, does not admit the possibility that one of its citizens can at the .same time 
possess the citizenship of another country, and such persons are considered 
under Soviet law to be Soviet citizens only. Like other Soviet citizens they 
have been seldom in the past and never in recent years permitted to leave the 
country for personal or family reasons. Since 1940 only 17 such persons have 
received exit visas ; since December 1946, none. 

Under a strict interpretation of the appropriate Soviet laws, only i>ersons 
who actually possessed the citizenship of the country whose territory was an- 
nexed became Soviet citizens ; a foreigner living on that territory did not. 
Some of the persons mentioned above were actually citizens of the country in 
question. Many were born in the United States of foreign parents and thus 
acquired the right of their parents' citizenship at birth as well as to that of the 
United States. However, all such persons were not necessarily citizens of those 
countries. Prewar Poland, for example, had a law which forbade such persons 
to claim both citizenships at once ; but it did not insist in most cases that they 
keep their Polish citizenship if they had a right to, and wished to claim, another 
citizenship. Such persons if they came to Poland on American passiwrts were 
considered to be American, and not Polish, citizens, and others who had lived 
as Polish citizens were allowed to leave the country on American passports and 
were then no longer Polish citizens. 

The Soviet authorities themselves at first recognized that many such persons 
were not Soviet citizens and issued them residence permits identifying them as 
foreigners or as persons with no citizenship. Up to 1947 such i)ersons were often 
allowed to leave the country. In 1948. however, only 3 of more than 50 American 
citizens not previously claimed as Soviet citizens were able to leave. None 
have left so far in 1949. Of the rest, many who obtained American passports 
and tried to obtain exit visas have had their residence permits and their pass- 
ports taken away and have been declared Soviet citizens. Since it is a serious 
offense in the Soviet Union to live Avithout proix^r documents, these persons face 
the threat of fine, imprisonment, or worse, if they then insist on their American 
citizenship and refu.se to accept Soviet passports. 

In this way the Soviet Government has claimed as its citizens because of 
alleged former Polish citizenship, per.sons who still had in their possession Polish 
documents identifying them as foreigners, children whose fathers had lost Polish 
citizenship by American naturalization before the children's birth, and women 
who had lost their claim to Polish citizenship by the American naturalization 
of their husbands. Poland is taken only as an example since the Soviet position 
is the .same in connection with the other countries part or all of whose prewar 
territory has been annexed by the Soviet Union. In general, the Soviet Govern- 
ment appears to interpret the laws of these countries to mean that they, like 
the Soviet I^nion. regarded their citizenship as obligatory and compulsory for 
all who had any possible claim to it and emigration to another country as an 
attempt to escape one's duties to the state. 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRVTION AND NATURALIZATION 1937 

It should also be noted in most cnses even those Anierican citizens who are 
also clearly Soviet citizens under Soviet law acquired Soviet citizenship through 
no choice of their own. Soviet agieeuients with Poland and Czechoslovakia by 
which certain people had a choice of citizenship were limited by the ijersons' 
"nationalitv." a term which in the Soviet Union refers not to citizenship but to 
racial or ethnic origin. In the case of Poland, for instance, this right was open 
to persons of Polish or Jewish nationality only. Those of Russian or Ukrainian 
nationalitv were allowed no choice. 

Some persons recognized by the Soviet Government as American citizens have 
been given e:xit visas only to have their wives and children who were Soviet 
citizens refused permission to accompany them or join them later. 

The Soviet Government refuses to admit that the Embassy can have any 
legitimate interest in persons considered to be Soviet citizens. When the Em- 
bassy has requested the issuance of exit visas to such persons, the Soviet Min- 
istry of Foreign Affairs has replied merely that as Soviet citizens they might 
apply for visas under the regulations established for Soviet citizens, in other 
words, that the matter was none of the Embassy's business. Since such requests 
not only do not help the persons involved but may also attract to them the un- 
favorable attention of the Soviet authorities the Embassy has ceased presenting 
direct requests to the Soviet Government in recent months except in the cases of 
persons who, in the Embassy's opinion, cannot legally be regarded as Soviet citi- 
zens. In most cases the best that can be done for all others is to provide them, 
for presentation to the local authorities, with certificates of their status, and of 
the desire and ability of their relatives to care for them in the United States, 
and to inform them of the necessary procedure in applying for exit visas. The 
Soviet authorities still allow such applications, though they are often made 
difficult by requests for numerous documents or other technicalities. A final 
decision however, may take a year or more, and, as indicated above, the appli- 
cants do not get visas. 

Even in the cases of persons who, on the basis of all evidence available to the 
Embassy, cannot legally be considered to be Soviet citizens, the Embassy's 
efforts, as shown above, have had little effect. The facts of the persons citi- 
zenship are frequently incorrectly stated by the Soviet authorities, and even 
when the actual facts are iwinted out, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs has never 
changed a decision that a person was a Soviet citizen, once that decision had been 
communicated to the Embassy. 

In such circumstances the decision as to a person's departure from the Soviet 
Union obviously rests with the Soviet Government and not with the Embassy, 
nor is it noticeably influenced by the Embassy's efforts or by such humanitarian 
factors as tragic family separations. None of the few who have left in recent 
years had received more help from the Embassy than many others who failed to 
obtain exit visas. The two widows of Soviet citizens who obtained exit visas 
in 1947, for example, did so without the Embassy's help. The alien child of an 
American mother who received a visa in the same year, had been the subject 
of strong representations on the Embassy's part, but all the Embassy's efforts in 
another similar case, including a personal approach by the Ambassador to one of 
the Deputy Foreign Ministers, have had no effect. The one non-American 
citizen mentioned above as receiving an exit visa since 1947 was a boy who had 
lost both his parents in a German concenti'ation camp and had no living relatives 
except in the United States. However, many others whose cases are equally- 
appealing, and one whose case is virtually identical, have received as much 
help from the Embassy as this boy and have not received visas. For example, 
in the cases of 18 children with both parents, or the only surviving parent, in 
the United States, the only effect of the Embassy's efforts, including a personal 
appeal by Ambassador Smith to Mr. Vyshinsky, the then Deputy Foreign Min- 
ister, has been that a number of them have been declared to be Soviet citizens. 
The Embassy sympathizes deeply with American citizens separated from 
relatives in the Soviet Union and will continue to do whatever it considers 
possible and advisable to help them. It has, however, no means of comlielling a 
change in Soviet policy and can offer no assurance that any resident of the 
Soviet Union, whatever his citizenship, will be able to secure an exit visa for 
departure to the United States. The Embassy must further continue to refrain 
from taking action in individual cases whenever it seems likely that such action 
would only increase a person's difficulties with local Soviet authorities. 



1938 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

INFORMATION PROVIDED BY THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF 
STATE CONCERNING RESOLUTION VII ADOPTED AT THE CHAPUL- 
TEPEC CONFERENCE AT MEXICO IN 1945 DEALING WITH ELIMINA- 
TION OF CENTERS OF SUBVERSIVE INFLUENCE AND MEANS OF 
PREVENTING THE ADMISSION OF DANGEROUS DEPORTEES AND 
PROPAGANDA AGENTS 

In accordance with your request for information concerning action taken by 
the Chapultepec Conference at Mexico in 1945, concerning the restrictions to be 
imposed on undesirable aliens and propaganda agents, there is attached hereto 
a copy of Resolution VII of this Conference : Elimination of Centers of Subversive 
Influence and Means of Preventing the Admission of Dangerous Deportees and 
Propaganda Agents. 

Resolution VII of the Final Act of the Inter-American Confebence on 
Problems of War and Peace, Mexico City, Mexico, February 21-Mabch 8, 
1945 

VII. elimination of centers of subversive influence and means of preventing 

THE admission OF DANGEROUS DEPORTEES AND PROPAGANDA AGENTS 

Whereas the American Republics have affirmed their adherence to the demo- 
cratic ideal, and it is desirable to safeguard this ideal; the dissemination of 
totalitarian doctrines in this Continent would endanger the American democratic 
ideal ; the Third Meeting of the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the American 
Republics recommended in Resolution XVII the adoption by the Governments of 
the American Republics of a comprehensive series of measures for the prevention 
of subversive activities by the Axis powers and their satellites and provided for 
the creation of the Emergency Advisory Committee for Political Defense to study 
and coordinate the measures recommended. 

In conformity with the objectives of said resolution, the American Republics 
participating in this Conference have sought to erect, individually and collec- 
tively, an effective structure of political defense to counteract the program of 
nonmilitary warfare of the Axis powers and their satellites. 

The Axis powers, although they realize they have lost the war, nevertheless 
hope to win the peace by reconstructing their centers of influence throughout the 
world, by disseminating their destructive ideology and by creating discontent 
and discord among the American Republics. 

The dangers inherent in overconfidence require continued vigilance in carrying 
out and strengthening the measures recommended by the Governments of the 
American Republics in the pertinent resolutions of the Third Meeting of the 
Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the American Republic. 

The Inter-American Conference on Problems of War and Peace resolves to 
reaffirm, in accordance with Resolution XVII of the Third Meeting of the Minis- 
ters of Foreign Affairs of the American Republics, the determination of the 
participating Governments to prevent individuals or groups within their respec- 
tive jurisdictions from engaging in any activities fomented by the Axis powers or 
their satellites for the purpose of endangering the individual or collective security 
and welfare of the American Republics, and accordingly recommends — 

1. That the participating Republics intensify, individually and collectively, 
their efforts to eradicate the remaining centers of Axis subversive influence in 
the Hemisphere, whether such influence be exercised by the Axis powers or by 
their satellites, or by the agents of either. 

2. That the participating Republics, in addition to any other measures that 
they individually consider effective to prevent Axis-inspired elements from secur- 
ing or regaining vantage points from which to disturb or threaten the security 
or welfare of any Republic, adopt to this end the following specific measures : 

(a) Measures to prevent any person whose deportation has been deemed neces- 
sary for reasons of Continental security from further residing in this Hemisphere, 
if such residence would be prejudicial to the future security or welfare of the 
Americas; 

(&) Measures to prevent the admission to this Hemisphere, now and after the 
cessation of hostilities, of agents of the Axis powers or their satellites. 

3. That the Governments of the participating Republics continue to apply 
technical measures for the coordination of police activities and the resolutions 
and recommendations of the Emergency Advisory Committee for Political 
Defense. 



COMMISSION ON IIMMIGR.'.IION AND NATURALIZATION 1939 

4. That the Emergency Advisory Committee for Political Defense prepare and 
submit to the Governments specific recommendations for the effective execution 
of the above recommendations and for the firadual readjustment, in accordance 
with democratic principles, of the political defense structure of the American 
Republics to the new conditions of the period following the cessation of hostilities. 

(Approved at the plenary session of March 6, 1945.) 



INFORMATION PROVIDED BY THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF 
STATE CONCERNING THE POLICIES AND PRACTICES OF THE 
\VESTERN EUROPEAN DEMOCRACIES AND BRITISH COMMON- 
WEALTH NATIONS IN GRANTING ASYLUM TO POLITICAL REFUGEES 

December 1, 1952. 

Asylum for Political Refugees in Western Europe and the British 

Commonwealth 

introduction 

Asylum to political refugees is generally granted by the Western European and 
the Western British Commonwealth nations, and in the cases of West Germany, 
France, and Italy the right to political asylum is set forth in their constitutions. 
While the administrative procedures and specilic laws governing the grant of 
asylum to political refugees vary from country to country, as indicated in this 
report, these practices and laws nevertheless conform with the 1951 Geneva 
Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees. This convention has been signed 
by all of the Western European countries dealt with in this report except France, 
and tlie French Government has declared its intention of adhering to the con- 
vention. Although the British Commonwealth countries other than the United 
Kingdom have not signed the Geneva Convention, which pertains largely to con- 
tinental rather than oversea problems, their legislation and practices do not 
conflict with the convention's intent. 

None of the Western European countries, either by means of legislation or 
general administrative practices, prohibit the entry of specific categories of 
political refugees on the grounds of the refugees' pro-Fascist or pro-Communist 
views or past or present membership in totalitarian political parties and other 
organizations. In the absence of any such blanket restrictions, each case is 
considered on its own merits and in light of the information available on the 
particular refugee concerned. In general, the Western European countries are 
subjecting individuals seeking political asylvun to increasingly intensive security 
checks. 

I. federal republic of GERMANY 

A. Legal proinsions 

1. Allied. — The granting of asylum to refugees * is one of the reserved powers 
of the Allied High Commissioner which, under law No. 23 of March 17, 1950, 
granted refugees certain rights in regard to their civil status in Germany and 
under law No. 10 of October 27, 1949, established the right of the Allied High 
Commission to expel any alien because of conviction by an Allied court or in the 
best interests of the Allied High Conmussion. 

2. German. — The Basic Law of the Federal Republic provides in article 16 that 
"the politically persecuted enjoy the right of asylum." This provision is novel 
in German law and therefore has to be interpreted according to the standards 
of international law. The right of as^ylum can be abrogated in cases where it is 
used for antidemocratic purpo.ses, according to article IS of the basic law.* 
Articles 16 and IS have become operative in regard to displaced persons. 

* RpfuRees are defined here as aliens (exchiding German citizens or persons assimilable 
to the status of German citizen) who are stateless or no longer enjoy tlie protection of 
their country of origin. The displaced persons form the maior group anions; the refiisrees. 

* This is the narrower interpretation and is suRgested by Wernicke art. 18. Kommentar 
zum Bonner Grundegesetz, p. 4. The wider interpretation would permit forfeiture of the 
right of asylum of any alien who abused one or more of the following basic rights : free- 
dom of the press, teaching, assemhly. and association ; the secrecy of the mail, postal 
services, and telecommunications ; and the right of property. 



1940 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

By the law of April 25, 1951, on the legal position of homeless aliens in the 
Federal Republic, displaced persons were given a large number of public and 
private rights usually reserved for German citizens. The law provided in par- 
ticular that a displaced person may be deported only for reasons of public 
security and order ; that he may not be deported to a state which would persecute 
him, and that he may appeal a deportation order to the proper court. This law 
can be extended to other refugees by the Federal Government with consent of the 
Bundesrat. 

The Federal Republic has signed the United Nations Convention on Refugees, 
and a United Nations Commissioner for Refugees is located in Bonn. 

The Federal Republic has also signed the contractual agreement with the 
Allied Powers and, subject to ratification, has undertaken in it (1) to implement 
the above-mentioned law of April 25, 1951 ; (2) to ratify the United Nations Con- 
vention ; (3) to enact appropriate asylum legislation; and (4) to observe the 
above-mentioned Allied High Commission law No. 23 until it is replaced.^ 

B. Practice 

1. Allied. — It has been Allied practice to insure the welfare and protection of 
bona fide refugees in Western Germany, to shield them against an involuntary 
return to their country of origin, and to gradually transfer these functions to 
the Federal Republic. The Allies have insured in particular full maintenance 
of many refugees, have given them a preferred legal status, and have supported 
a large emigration program while protecting, refugees against deportation to a 
totalitarian country. 

2. German. — The Allies have formally transferred the care of the displaced 
persons to the German authorities, and have let the Federal Republic handle all 
but in name the problem of asylum for refugees. The Allied High Commission 
still retains ultimate jurisdiction over such refugees and strives to have the 
I'ederal Republic continue refugee care at the high level'set by Allied postwar 
practices. 

The German attitude toward non-German political refugees is basically un- 
friendly, as most of the persons now seeking asylum come from areas, such as 
Czechoslovakia or Poland, which have been foremost in their expulsion of German 
ethnic groups. The Germans have complied with Allied requests for favorable 
treatment of refugees because they wished (1) to do away with the extrateiTito- 
rial status which refugees in Germany have long enjoyed under Allied protection, 
(2) to make a favorable impression on world opinion, and (8) to insure con- 
tinued Western support in solving the problems created by the presence of mil- 
lions of German refugees within the boundaries of the Federal Republic. 

II. FRANCE 

France has a long tradition of willingness to grant asylum to political refugees. 
So strong is this tradition, in fact, that it has become one of the fundamental 
laws of the Republic and is so stated in the preamble of the constitution. In 
the years 1918-39 Fi-ance was the refuge for some 80,000 Russians, and more 
than a million Central and Eastern Europeans, and 400,000 Spaniards fleeing 
the civil war. They resided in France under the protection of the League of 
Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. During the war years of 1940-44 the 
influx of refugees virtually ceased and those in France were treated with dis- 
crimination according to nationality. The postwar years brought a swelling 
tide of refugees into France. The French Government estimates that there 
are presently between 360,000 and 380,000 refugees in France (about 160,000 
Spaniards, 100,000 Eastern and Central Europeans, and the remainder Russians). 
Reliable unoflJicial estimates, however, place the number at approximately 
1,000,000. 

French policy and practice with regard to political refugees is based on the 
law of July 25, 1952 (Journal Officiel, July 27, 1952, law No. 52-893), which 
provides for the creation of an Office for the Protection of Refugees and Stateless 
Persons. This law was passed to fulfill the accord of February 28, 1950, with 
the IRO, according to which France agreed to take over direct financial assist- 
ance and relief for refugees and assumed the obligation of providing legal and 
administrative protection for the refugees within its borders. 

Any refugee can gain temporary political asylum (entry) in France by merely 
presenting himself as a refugee at any frontier point of entry (decree of May 2, 
1938). His claim for status as a refugee is then investigated. The law of 



3 Ch. VII of the agreement of May 26, 1952. 



COMMISSION OX IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1941 

July. 25, 1952 (art. 2). states that the Ofliee for Protoction of Ilefugeos and 
Stateless Persons (Refugee Office) will recognize as refugees — 

(1) All persons so recognized by the United Nations High Commissioner of 
Refugees, and 

(2) All persons so designated by the "definitions of article 1 of the Geneva 
Convention of July 28, 1U51. relative to the status of refugees." 

In effect these two articles define as a refugee any person who fled his native 
country or country of national residence out of fear of persecution because of 
race, religion, nationality, political opinion, or uiemlxn'shii) in a particular gToup. 

After certification as bona tide refugee, the refugee can tui'n to the llefugee 
Office for such documents as will permit him to live a normal civil life and enjoy 
the protection of domestic legislation and international accords bearing on 
refugee protection. The llefugee Office is empowered to certify his identity, 
signature, family, and civil status. It also helps him secure (from the Minister 
of the Interior, of Labor, etc.) such documents as identity cards, visas, and resi- 
dence and work permits, so that he can reside and work in France, enter his 
children in school, travel, etc. 

Should an alien be refused refugee status, he has a course of appeal. The 
law of July 2.5 provides that a Commission of Appeals examine appeals addressed 
to it by those affected by "measures within the purview of articles 31, 32, and 
33 of the Geneva Convention of July 28, 1951." These articles refer to orders 
Issued by the French Minister of Interior or the prefects of police that refuse 
entry to, exi)el, enforce the removal of, or deny the right of residence to, the 
refugee. The refugee must request a ruling within 1 week of issuance of the 
order affecting him. 

The Refugee Office is not directly concerned with relief and financial assistance 
for the refugee. 

III. SWEDEN, NORWAY, AND DENMARK 

No Scandinavian government encourages the arrival of political refugees in the 
sense that it advertises itself as a haven for the politically persecuted. All of 
them, however, follow the practice of accepting bona fide political refugees. Such 
persons are not returned against their will either to the country of origin or to a 
third country. All of them are permitted to remain in the country, subject to 
certain x'egulations. In Sweden, for example, they are forbidden, for a time at 
least, to engage in political activity or to reside in areas of great housing 
shortage. In Norway and Sweden, and the same is believed to be true in Den- 
mark, they are also permitted to apply for citizenship after the legally prescribed 
number of years required of all applicants. 

A. Sweden. 

Because of its location in the Baltic, Sweden annually receives the largest 
number of political refugees of the three major Scandinavian countries. Many 
thousand Baltic refugees were permitted to remain in Sweden after World 
War II. Each subsequent year additional persons fleeing from various satellite 
coimtries have arrived. In .Tune 1952, for example, 5 Latvian fishermen 
were granted political asylum, as were 27 refugees from Yugoslavia in September 
of the same year. Periodically, Poles and other nationalities from satellite ships 
in Swedish ports refuse to return to their home country and are granted political 
asylum. In addition, the Swedish Government, as a humanitarian gesture, has 
accepted a few incapacitated refugees from displaced-person camps in Germany. 

The practice of the Swedish Government in receiving political refugees is based 
both on the provisions of the laws and Government iwlicy. It is not obligated 
by its laws to return political refugees, and on this point it has the strong support 
of public opinion. Moreover, Sweden's extradition treaties with I'oland and 
the Soviet Union are no longer in effect. 

IJ. Norway 

Norway had more than 1,000 refugees at the end of 1951, most of whom arrived 
as a consequence of World War II. About half of the.se had been brought to the 
country by the Norwegian Government since the end of World War II, largely 
as a humanitarian gesture. Out of the large group of Polish forced laborers 
brought to Norway by the Germans during World War II, a substantial number 
refused to return to their native land and were granted political asylum. Only 
about GO persons have entered Norway illegally in the postwar period, but these 
have been permitted to stay as political refugees, as provided by Norwegian law. 
One Russian and one Pole were granted asylum in December 19.50, for example. 
Apparently because of its location, Norway does not receive annually as many 
political refugee's as Sweden 



1942 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

C. Denmark 

Less specific information is available with respect to Danish policy toward 
political refugees. All of the thousands of German refugees left in Denmark at 
the end of World War II have been repatriated. A small number of refugees of 
other nationalities remain in the country. Denmark apparently receives very 
few ijolitical refugees from the satellite countries of Eastern Europe. It is 
believed that, as in Norway, bona fide political refugees are granted asylum. 
There are no known instances where Denmark has returned such persons against 
their will during the postwar period. Moreover, under Danish law, the Minister 
of Justice is authorized to make arrangements to provide the documents required 
for residence in Denmark to foreigners who are not in a position to secure from 
their country of origin the normal papers issued for travel abroad. It is not 
known, however, how this law is administratively applied. 

IV. ITALY 

Italy's basic law on the subject of admission of political refugees is found in 
the constitution, article 10 of which states, "The foreigner, who in his own 
country, is prevented from effectively exercising the democratic liberties guar- 
anteed by the Italian Constitution, has the right of asylum under conditions 
established by law. Extradition of the foreigner for political offenses is not 
permitted." 

Article 26 also specifies that in no case may extradition be granted for political 
offensos. 

The legal rights of foreigners in general are defined in No. 16 of the Disposizioni 
sulla Lcgge in Generate (attached to the Civil Code) : "The alien is admitted 
to the enjoyment of the civil rights granted to the citizen on the basis of reciprocity 
and excepting the provisions contained in special laws.'' No specific reference 
is made to political refugees as such. 

Prior to the existence of the IRO, refugees in Italy were, in practice, subject 
to the discretionary rulings of the police. During the IRO's period of operations, 
an agreement between the IRO and the Italian Government defined the status 
of refugees and the procedures concerning their sojourn in the country. In 1951 
Italy signed the Geneva Convention on Refugees and, following the dissolution 
of the IRO, an agreement was signed between the United Nations High Commis- 
sioner for Refugees and the Italian Government (April 2, 1952). Under this 
agreement, a joint committee composed of Italian governmental representatives 
and officials of the High Commissioner's office in Rome was given the task of 
determining the eligibility of refugees in Italy. A positive determination of the 
eligibility of a refugee brings him under the constitutional provision in regard 
to political asylum. He is then considered by the Italian authorites as a 
"poltical refugee." When a refugee is declared "eligible," he receives through his 
local questura (police headquarters) a travel document, as well as a sojourn 
permit valid for 4 months, which will be automatically renewed. 

Upon arrival in Italy, a refugee able to identif.v himself I'eceives a temporary 
sojourn permit pending inquiry into bis eligibility status. If he is able to sup- 
port himself, he may go where he wishes ; otherwise, he is sent to a so-called 
"open" camp. If unable to identify liimself, he is sent to the "closed" camp 
(for "undesirables" and those of unknown identity) pending identification and 
detei-mi nation of eligibility. 

The High Commissioner's ofl!ice has ])een tmable to olitain an over-all agreement 
of the Italian Government to give refugees the right to work. The Government's 
attitude is conditioned by the domestic economic conditions of the country, which 
has about 2,000,000 unemployed persons. 

V. NETHERLANDS 

The Government of the Netherlands, whose treatment of political refugees is 
determined by administrative decision rather than specific legislation, contends 
that it cannot accept large numbers of refugees because of its own iwpulation 
problem. In September 1952, a subcommittee of the U. N. Refugee Commission 
agreed that the Netherlands was unable to receive additional refugees. 

Since 1945 nearly 12.000 refugees were admitted to the Netherlands, and approx- 
imately 9,500 have remained, including 2,000 refugees who entered during the 
occupation or immediately thereafter and who were permitted to remain. For- 
mer Polish soldiers and displaced jiersons found in camps in West Germany are 
among the other major groups of these refugees. 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1943 

VI. BKLGIUM 

Belgium has long been noted for its willinuness to grant asylum to iiolitical and 
other refugees. The Belgian Constitution (art. 128) provides that every 
foreigner who finds himself on ISelgiau soil enj(»ys protection in person and prop- 
erty except in cases determincMl by law. lender the law of October 1, 1833, extra- 
dition cannot be granted for offenses of a political nature. 

Trior to its signature in 1!)")! of the (ieneva Convention on refugees, the Belgian 
dovernmiMit, under the terms of the London Agreement of 1J)46, had provided 
refugees with certificates (>stal)lisliing tlieii' identity and status, thus enabling 
them to regularize their position with the local authorities. Also in lOHl Belgium 
pas.sed a new alien law providing for certain guaranties against the expulsion 
of refugees. Among these guaranties are provisions that expulsion cannot be 
pronounced without the prior agreement of a consultative commission ccmiposed 
of an honorary magistrate, a lawyer, and a person chosen at the request of the 
alien threatened with exijulsion from a list drawn up by royal decree. 

Political refugees, like other aliens, are subject to the law of February 12, 1897, 
which pi'ovides that aliens legally domiciled in Belgium which disturb public 
order can be required by the Government to change their place of residence or 
be deported. Aliens which are not legally domiciled in Belgium can be deported 
under the law of January 9, 1932. 

Effective January 1, 1952, the Belgian Government has applied the provisions 
of article 17 of the Geneva Convention relating to wage-earning employment. 
Iiefugees who fulfill one of the requirements of this article — i. e., who have 
completefl 3 years' uninterrupted residence in Belgium or who have a spouse 
or children of Belgian nationality — are entitled to obtain the necessary per- 
mission to work. This provision, which does not give the refugees complete 
freedom of access to the profession or employment of their choice, will, never- 
theless, greatly assist in the integration of those who are now in Belgium. 

There are in Belgium some <W,0()0 refugees, of whom between 40.000 and 
45,000 can, according to the Belgian Government, be considered firndy estab- 
lished ; the remaining refugees, many of whom have not yet found work, require, 
in the opinion of the Belgian Government, individual legal protection from the 
office of the Commission of Refugees in Brussels. The Belgian Government has 
instructed its local authorities to reimburse voluntary agencies the amount 
spent on material assistance to indigent refugees from the time of their arrival 
until sucli time as their situation is regularized and they are able to benefit 
from public assistance. 

Vll. BRITISH COMMONWEALTH 

The United Kingdom and the western Commonwealth countries give political 
refuget>s special treatment on an ad hoc basis by administrative procedure 
rather than by special legislation. The practice in the United Kingdom is 
typical. Under the Aliens Bestriction Act of 1919, an order in council (the 
Aliens Order, 1920) gave the Home Secretary complete power to make all reg- 
ulations necessary for immigration. The order excluded certain categories of 
inunigrants from entry, such as lunatics, but even in such cases the Home Sec- 
retary was given power to exempt any person or class unconditionally. "There 
are no formal rules governing the admission of foreigners," the Home Secre- 
tary told the House of Commons on June 20, 1951, "and applications are dealt 
with on their merits. * * *" With these powers, the Home Secretary has ad- 
mitted large groups of Jews, Czechs, Poles, and others, as well as individuals; 
but the Home Depai'tment in its procedures does not recognize political refu- 
gees as a distinct class. Persons seeking asylum, however, are being subjected 
to intensified security checks. As cases involving political refugees often have 
considerable political content, the Home Secretary usually passes on them him- 
self; and group cases and the more important cases of individuals may be de- 
cided by the Cabinet. There is no appeal other than by further representations 
to the Home Office or through M. P.'s. 

In Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa, departmental miiusters 
have similar wide discretionary powers to admit political refugees along with 
other groups. Political refugees are not distinguished from other groups ex- 
cept by the usual administrative practice of giving them special consideration 
on an ad hoc basis as a matter of compassion. In Canada political refugees 
not admissible under ordinary immigration regulations can be admitted by a 
special order in council. Howe^•er, such refugees are generally admitted by 



1944 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

administrative expediencies such as permitting' their entry as temporary visitors 
and then, after they are in the country, adjusting their status to that of per- 
manent residents. As all tliese countries liave parliamentary governments with 
ministerial and cabinet responsiltility to Parliament, administrative action on 
immigration problems is highly llexible and not usually subject to detailed laws. 



INFORMATION PROVIDED BY THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF 
JUSTICE, IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION SERVICE, CONCERN- 
ING THE EDUCATION, BACKGROUND, AND OTHER QUALIFICATIONS 
OF HEARING OFFICERS OF THE IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZA- 
TION SERVICE 

United States Department of Justice, 
ImmiyratioH and Naturalisation Service, 

Washinytou, D. C, November 3, 1952. 
Mr. Harry N. Rosenfibxd, 

Executive Director, President, Commission on Immiyration and Naturaliza- 
tion, Washington, D. C. 
Dear Mr. Rosenfield : This refers to your letter of October 13, 1952, requesting 
certain information concerning the education, background, and other qualifica- 
tions of hearing officers of the Immigration and Naturalization Service for use 
in connection with the Commission's consideration of tlie administrative processes 
of the Service. 

The attached questionnaire has been completed on the basis of the best infor- 
mation available within the time limit fixed by you for its submission. The 
information contained therein is based on the laws and regulations now in eftect. 
Some changes will take place on December 24, 1052, the effective date of the 
Innnigration and Nationality Act of 1952. At the present time hearings on the 
admissibility of aliens are conducted by itoards of special inquiry while hearings 
on the deportability of aliens are conducted by officers classified as deportation 
examiners. Beginning December 24, 1952, we plan to establish one position, the 
duties of which would include the conducting of both types of hearing, the 
incumbent to be known as a special inquiry officer. 

In accordance with telephone instructions from Mr. Charles Gordon of your 
staff, item 11 (a), (b), (c), and (d) of the questionnaire has been construed 
to call for information regarding types of work performed by hearing officers 
immediately prior to their becoming hearing officers. 
Sincerely, 

Benjamin G. Habberton, 

Act ing Com m issioner. 

President's Commission on Immigration and Naturalization Questionnaire — 
Information Concerning Hearing Officers of the Immigration and Natural- 
ization Service 

Note.— By the term "hearing officers" the Commission has reference only to 
those officers of the Immigration and Naturalization Service who are engaged in 
conducting hearings on the admissibility or deportability of aliens. 

1. How many full-time hearing officers were engaged exclusively on their duties, 
as such, on October 1, 1952 V (If this date is not practicable, please state, and use 
as recent a date as possible.) 

Date, October 1, 1952; number 119. (Deportation examiner, chairman (board 
of special inquiry), and second member (board of special inquiry).) 

(Note. — All percentages requested, unless otherwise indicated, relate to the 
number in answer to No. 1.) 

1 (a). How many hearing officers who work only part time, as such, were en- 
gaged on the date under No. 1? 

(A) Of the 119 given in item 1, above, only 1 officer, a second member (board 
of special inquiry), abso performed other duties (primary inspection). 

(B) One deportation examiner worked part time assisting in Adjudications 
Division on fine adjudications, bond breaches, etc. Several hundred officers were 
assigned part time to assist in conducting hearings on admissibility as chairman 
or second member (board of special inquiry). No accurate figure available as 
assignments made on rotating basis from available officers, usually immigrant 



COMJMISSIOX ON IMMICHAnOX AND NATURALIZATION 1945 

inspiH-tors. Time spent on such Jissi.i;iHnt'nt varies from several lioui-s i)er month 
to 7)0 percent of one otilcer's time. Six districts reported no i)art-time oflicers. 

1(6). Specify what other priiicijjal duties, fmictioiis, or .services were performed 
by the ollicers uiidc^r 1 [a) in addition to their work as heariiij? oflicers. (L'.se 
date under No. 1 as base.) 

Witli but few exceptions, the princii)al duties were tlio.se of imniifrrant inspector, 
other duties were those of investigator, naturalization examiner, otticer in charge, 
ad.iudications, processiiifi' administrative tine cas(>s. 

2. Please state tlie numl)er of hearinji' officers on duty as of the above date 
(under No. 1) in each of the following district offices : 

Number of hearing 
officerH 
District office: (full time) 

New York, N. Y 28 

Boston, Mass 5 

1 )etroit, Mich 6 

Chicago, 111 5 

San Francisco, Calif 11 

Miami, Fla 1 5 

'A. Do the totals given in item 2 constitute the full authorized totals under 
current applicable appropriations? No. (If "No," please give the authorized 
totals, with explanation.) 

Authorizetl total, ()9. (The difference of nine results from vacancies and 
temporary assignments to other duties.) 

4. Please list the standard or basic qualitications established for hearing offi- 
cers (include basic job description). 

At the present time, hearings on the admissibility of aliens are conducted by a 
board of special inquiry consisting of a chairman, a second member, and a secre- 
tary. The duties of the bcjard are shown in the attached position description 
(exhibit 1) headed "Hearing Examiner (BSI Chaii'man)." Hearings on the 
deportability of aliens are conducted by officei's with the classification title "De- 
portation Examiner." Their duties are shown in the enclosed exhibit 2 headed 
"Deportation Examiner." 

The duties of the position of chairman (BSI) have been performed by inuni- 
grant insijectors who were selected on the basis of years of expei'ience and 
demonstrated satisfactory performance. The qualifications required for the 
position of deportation examiner follow closely the requirements of the Civil 
Service Commission for the position of hearing examiner. Please see enclosed 
exhibit 3 for statement of qualification standard. 

The Service is planning to incorporate the duties of these two positions into 
one j)osition to be known l»eginning December 24, 19.j2, as special iiupiiry officer. 
New qualifications standards will be established which are expecteil to be no 
less than those required by the Civil Service Commission for the position of 
hearing examiner. 

5. What range of grades, with corresponding salaries, is there under civil 
service for hearing officers and what are the principal differences in duty be- 
tween those in the lowest grade and those in the middle and highest grades? 

Chairman (board of special inquiry), GS-9, $r),000-$r),81(), per annum; immi- 
grant inspector (acting as board member), GS-7, .$4,2()5-$4,)).'")ri per annum; de- 
])ort;ition examiner. (JS-ll. $."i.!»40^$(j,l)40 per annum. Exhibits 1 and 2. it is 
believed, will show these differences. 

( Please see remarks under question 4, above, relating to incorporation of the 
duties of these positions into one position on December 24, l!»nL». ) 

.") in). What promotion or other opportunities are there within the Immigration 
and Naturalization Service to encourage other employees and officers to become 
hearing officers? 

Vacancies in the position of hearing examiner (RSl chairman) are made after 
careful consideration of the relative qualifications of employees meeting the job 
requirements. Original appointments in vacancies in the positicm of deportation 
examiner are filled on the basis of a noncompetitiv(> Immigi-ation and Naturali- 
zation Service examination. 

5 (h). What opportunities are offered by the Immigration and Naturalization 
Service to persons in other Goveriunent agencies and among the general public 
to apply for the position of hearing officer? 

This service fills hearing-officer vacancies l)y pi-omotion from within the 
Service. Appointm(>nfs to the i)osition of innnigrant inspector are made by 
selection from registers established by the Civil Service ('ommission as a result of 



1946 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

a competitive examination for immigrarrt inspector. This was a Nation-wide 
examination, and appointees from tliis register, wlien they obtain the necessary 
qualifying experience, are eligible to apply for the examination for deportation 
examiner and are considered for promotion to hearing examiner (BSI chairman) 
along with Service employees of many years' experience. 

5 (c). What promotion opportunities are offered in the Immigration and 
Naturalization Service to hearing officers? 

In lining vacancies in higher-graded positions all employees in lower grades 
are considered for promotion. Hearing officers receive the same consideration 
as given to other Service employees who meet the requirements. 

5 (^). What Immigration and Naturalization Service officers exercise admin- 
istrative supervision over hearing officers? (Please give details of the type and 
extent of such supervision. ) 

The Assistant Commissioner, Inspections and Examinations Division, in the 
central office and, under his general direction, the Chief of the In(iuiry Branch of 
that Division exercise administrative supervision over hearing officers throughout 
the Service. In the individual districts, no supervision is exercised over the 
hearing officers in any manner which would interfere with the conduct of the 
hearings, the decisions reached by the hearing officers, or the preparation of their 
decisions. In those matters the hearing officers must use their complete inde- 
pendent judgment. The district directors do, however, supervise the scheduling 
and assignment of cases, determination of workloads, work reports, leave, etc. 

5 (e). What Immigration and Naturalization Service officers are authorized to 
review or revise the determinations of hearing officers? Please explain. 

Under the present regulation a hearing officer's decision in an expulsion case 
is (1) that the alien be deported, or (2) that the proceedings be terminated, or 
(3) that the alien's deportation be suspended, or (4) that the alien be granted 
voluntary departure at his own expense in lieu of deportation with the further 
order that if he fails to depart within the time granted or any extension thereof 
he be deported, or (5) that the alien be permitted to depart voluntarily at his 
own expense in lieu of deportation with the additional privilege of preexamina- 
tion, witli the further oi'der that if he fails to depart within the time granted or 
any extension thereof he be deported, or (6) that such other action be taken in 
the proceedings as may be required for the appropriate determination of the 
same [8 CFR 151.5 (c)]. The hearing officers' decisions descril)ed above be- 
come final under the present regulation except (1) when the alien or his counsel 
or representative takes exception to any specific finding of fact or conclusion of 
law as to the deportability, or (2) when the alien or his counsel or representa- 
tive takes exception to a denial of an application for suspension of deportation, 
or (3) when the alien or his counsel or representative takes exception to a find- 
ing that the alien has failed to establish statutory eligibility for voluntary de- 
parture, or (4) when the alien or his counsel or his representative takes ex- 
ception to a denial of an application for voluntary departure, with or without 
the additional privilege of preexamination, in a case in which the alien had 
been in the United States for a period of 5 years or more at the time the war- 
rant of arrest in deportation proceedings was served on him, or (5) when the 
alien or his counsel or representative takes exception to a denial of an applica- 
tion for the exercise of the discretion contained in the 7th proviso to section 
3 of the Immigration Act of February 5, 1917 [8 CFR 151.5 (e)]. When an 
exception is taken in one or more of the manners provided above, it is regarded 
as an appeal and the case goes directly to the Board of Immigration Appeals. 

Notwithstanding the /oregoing statements, the regulation permits the Com- 
missioner of Immigration and Naturalization, on his own motion, to direct that 
any case or class of cases be submitted to him for review and consideration as 
to certification to the Board of Immigration Appeals for decision by the Board 
[8 CFR 151.5 (g) ]. When such a case reaches the Commissioner, he can do one 
of two things, namely, approve the decision of the hearing officer, or certify the 
case to the Board of "immigration Appeals for decision. Under no circumstances 
can a decision of a hearing officer be revised in the central office of the Immi- 
gration and Naturalization Service. 

The foregoing regulations have been construed to permit a district director to 
submit a report to the Commissioner concerning any decision which appears to 
him to require certification. Such a case is called up for review and consid- 
eration bv the Commissionei", but, as indicated above, he cannot change the 
hearing officer's decision but, if he disagrees with it, must certify it to the Board 
of Immigration Appeals for decision. 



COIVIMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1947 

These comments coucern tlie activities of hearing officers relating; to the con 
dnct of hearings on the deportahility of aliens. Until the rej;ulatIons have heen 
])Ublished with respect to the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952, it is 
not possible to state specitically what Inunigration and Natnralizatlou Service 
officers will be anthoriziHl to review or revise the determinations of the hearing 
officers. 

6. What is the average nnmher of years hearing officers (under No. 1) have 
worked for or been employed by the Inunigration and Naturalization' Service in 
any and all (•ai)acitiesV Average number years, 19. Solely in the capacity of 
hearing officer? Average number years, 7. 

7. What is the average beginning age of a hearing officer? 38 years. 

8. Please list the principal legal and administrative causes for reprimand, 
suspension, transfer, or removal, of hearing officers : 

The principal legal and administrative causes for reprimand, suspension, 
transfer, or removal of hearing officers are the same as those for any other 
civil-.service employee. Title 5, chapter I of the Code of Federal Kegalations 
sets forth some of the Civil Service Commission's requirements on this subject. 
I'art 9 thereof, section 9.101, directs that the empk)ying agency shall remove, 
demote, or reassign to another position any employee in the conii:etitive service 
whose conduct or capacity is .such that his removal, demotion, or reassignment 
will promote the efficiency of the service. It provides that the grounds for dis- 
qualiticaiion of an applicant for examination given in part 2, section 2.104 (a) 
(2) through (S) . shall be included among those constituting sufficient cause for 
removal of an employee. 

Chapter C2 of the Civil Service Commission's Fedei-al Personnel Manual 
(p. C2-27) sets forth certain (ffenses for which, under express provisions of 
law and regnlafion, employees may he punished by removal or even by fine or 
imprisonment. 

In addition to the above, supervisory personnel of the Immigration and 
Naturalization Service are requii'ed to report promptly, through channels, to 
the district director allegations of misconduct or dereliction of duty which are 
believed to warrant formal admonition, suspension, disciplinary action, demotion, 
or dismissal. A list of types of offenses which are required to be reported is con- 
tained in outstanding administrative instructions ( Sl-SS of the Immigration and 
Naturalization Service Supplements to the Federal Personnel Manual). A copy 
of this list is included as exhibit 4. 

9. Please explain briefly the main difficulties and problems confronting hear- 
ing officers, with which they must contend in tlie regular course of their duties : 

P>i'arimr in mind that, without exception, the liearing must be fair and im- 
liartial, a hearing officer may encounter difficulty in limiting testimony to ma- 
terial questions, ruling on objec-tions and motions which in some cases are ob- 
viously for the purpose of confusing the issue and delaying the proceedings un- 
necessarily. Requests for adjournments also present a problem since it is often 
difficult to determine which requests are bona fide and which are frivolous. 

10. How many hearing officers^ — • 

(a) I'ossess baccalaureate degrees? Number, 32; percent, 2G.8. 
(h) Possess law degrees but are not admitted to the bar? Number, .5; per- 
cent, 4.3. 

(c) Are admitted to the bar? Number, 16 ; percent, 13.4. 

11. How many hearing officers — 

(a) Were practicing attorneys before they became hearing officers? None. 
(h) Were engaged in wcirk (other than that of hearing officer) with, or were 
employed by, the Immigration and Naturalization Service before they became 
hearing officers? Number, 119. 

I'lease specify the principal type of iwsitions or work in which these under 
11 (6) were previously engaged : 

Niiiiihcr xo 
Types of work : cngayvd 

Immigrant insi)ector 74 

Investigator 18 

Misc(>llantous positions such as naturalization examiner, patrol inspector, 
officer in charge, etc 27 

(c) Held positions in, or worked for, other (than the Inunigration and Natural- 
ization Service) agencies of the Federal (or State) government? None. 

(d) Held positions or did work not enumerated or included under 11 (a), {b), 
and (c) ? None. 

25356—52 123 



1948 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

12. What was the average percent rate of turn-over anvonn hearing officers in 
the last O-year period ( 1948-r»2 ) "-' Average percent rate ttirn-over, 13.8. 

13. Please give below any additional information, particularly concerning in- 
service training, if any, or comments (and/or .submit any printed or other 
material) which, in your opinion, will assist the Commission in ascertiiining the 
education and background of hen ring officers of your service : 

Hearing officers are furnished with the following instructional material : 

1. Immigration and nationality manuals, which summarize .idministrative 
and .indicial interpretations of the laws and regulations. 

2. Service operations instructions, which instruct officers as to the methods 
of enforcing the laws and regulations. 

3. Copies of the volumes Administrative Decisions Under the Immigration 
and Nationality Laws, nnd of loose-leaf releases Interim Decisions, wliich set 
forth administrative policies in exclusion and deportation cases. 

4. General counsel opinions, which resolve le.gal questions not previously 
clarified by court decisions. 

In addition, those officers have, since 1046, been offered a correspondence train- 
ing program which contains studies on subjects related to their work. The 
salient feature of any such study is its drill on hypothetical situations. The stu- 
dents are given problems containing situations such as they would meet in their 
work, and are required to solve the problems involved. Central office reviewers 
criticize those solutions. 

An intensive 2 weeks' training was given, between April and September 1951, 
to every deportation examiner of the service. All classes were held in the central 
office in Washington. They coincided with the period during which most of our 
present deportation examiners were being appointed. Insofar as possible, an 
employee who had just been appointed as deportation examiner was sent to the 
school before he assumed his new duties. Every effort was made to provide 
deportation examiners with training commensurate with the importance of their 
duties and responsibilities. Classes were held on the following topics : 

1. Hearing procedures. 

2. Specialized instruction on grounds for deportation. 

3. Principles of administrative evidence. 

4. Sources and procuri^nent of documentary evidence. 
."). Discretionary relief from deportation. 

6. Preparation of hearing officer's findings and order. 

7. Administrative review of hearing officer's findings. 

8. Judicial review of administrative findings. 

!). Precedent cases governing administrative policy. 

10. Si>ecial procedures required in subversive cases. 

11. Background drills in procedures of inspections and examinations and in 

grounds for exclusion and deportation. 

12. Regulations governing detention, parole, and expulsion of aliens. 

Additional training is planned in connection with the Immigration and Natu- 
ralization Act of 1!*."')2 and periodically thereafter to the extent pei-mitted by 
funds available for ti'aining purposes. 



E\III1!IT 1 

Hearing ExA^rI^EU (P>SI Chairman), GS-U 

Under general supervision the incumbent acts as chairmnn of a board of .special 
inquiry, a quasi-judicial body created by the immigration and naturalization 
statutes for the purpose of determining the admissibility of aliens who have 
applied for admission to the United States, either as immigrants, or nonimmi- 
grants, and who have failed to establish on primary inspection, their right to 
admission to the I'nited States. The chairman, who is also a member, presides 
over tlie l)oard, which consists of three meml)ers. 

The board considers the evidence l)earing on the application for admission to 
tlie Uniteil States, including formal interrogation of the applicant and his 
witnesses luider oath, and the presentation of Government evidence and ((uestion- 
ing (»f (iov(>rnment witnesses. Incumbent is I'esponsible for verbatim recording 
and transcribing of the hearing by the secretary-member. The majority vote 
of the board for the admission or exclusion of the alien prevails, unless appeal 
is taken to the Attorney General by the applicant or a dissenting member of 
the board. 



COMMISSION ON LMMUIHATION AND NATURALIZATION 1949 

Applicants before the lioard arc fit'quciitly .iccoinpaiiicd liv ;ittiiriieys or other 
roproseiitativos for tlu' i>l('a(liiin- of their case. Iiiciiiiilieiit must ho completely 
familiar with all of the immiirratiou and nationality statutes, regulations, oijera- 
tions instructions, instruction circulars, and the latest decisions of the Federal 
courts, our central otlice. and the Attorney GeneraTs Boaid of Immigration 
Appeals, insofar as they relate to the admissihility of the various classes of aliens 
and the acquisition of United States citizenship and expatriation. Incumbent 
must have working knowledge of the general rules of evidence. 

He interrogates the aliens and witnesses in such a way that the various details 
of the record will he set forth in a uiuform and orderly manner, and that all 
causes for exclusion, if existing, will he covered during the hearing and included 
in the record and irrelevant matters excluded. He is i)residing inspector, rules 
on evidence, and controls inter I'ogation by other members. 

The incumbent is re<iuired to insure the conduct of a hearing which will 
protect the interests of the applicant and the Government, since frequently such 
hearings are reviewed as to fairness and other matters in the Federal courts on 
writs of habeas corpus. 

Dictation and review, after transcription, of related correspondence and records 
of board of special iuijuiry hearings. Prepares tindings of fact, conclusions of 
law. and orders in each case. 

ExHIlilT 2 
DkPOHIAI 10.\ KXAMIXKK <}S-942-ll 

AVith conijjlete latitude for independent action in presi<ling at the hearing 
and in reaching a decision, the incumbent serves as a hearing officer in formal 
hearings in deportation proceedings pursuant to innnigration laws of the United 
States. 

The proceedings at which hearing officers in this grade preside are moderately 
difficult and important. They are characterized largely by («) few complicated 
<ir controverted facts, (li) no or few protestations against proposals made, (c) 
moderately conii)lcx legal and technical matters, (d) simple or normal con- 
tentions and issues, (c) small records, and (/) narrow^ effect of decisions. 

When the case has been processed tlioroughly by investigators, the respondent 
has been taken into custody on a warrant of arrest and has been accorded cer- 
tain preliminary ])rivileges, the case is assigned to the incumbent for a hearing. 
The incumbent is required to administer oaths and affiimations; issue subpenas 
authorized by law; receive relevant evidence: riile uiion ( ffers of pi-oof, motions 
n;ade dui'ing the course of the hearing, and upon all objections to the introduction 
of evidence: take or cause depositions to be taken: dispose of pi-ocedural re- 
((uests, inc-hnling adnjissib:lity of stiijulations : exercise the authority conferred 
by law u.pon the Attorney General to grant the privilege of voluntary departure 
and iireexan-ination ; present all available evidence bearing upon the alien's 
liability to deportation; conduct the interrogation of the alien and of the 
witness on behalf of the (Government and the examination or cross-examination 
of the alien's witnesses; lodge additional charges against the alien in addition 
to those stated in the warrant of arrest, if any exist, and present evidence upon 
such charges in like manner as on the charges contained in the warrant of 
arrest; incjuire thoroughly into the alien's statutory eligibility for discretionary- 
relief if the alien has applied for relief from deportation; consider the fact's 
in the record and arguments and contentions, it any ai-e made; make decisions 
on the basis of reliable, itrobative, and substantial evidence in the i-ecords : and 
take any other action consistent with applicable provisions of law and regula- 
tions. Since the hearing officer must exerci.se the combined functions of a 
hearing officer and an exan.'ining officer, he nuist be able to conduct the hearing: 
in an impartial manner so as to fully and aderpiately safeguard the interests 
of the respondent as well as those of the Gtjveriuiient. 

The incnmhent shall, in order to assure a fair h«>ai'ing, advise the respondent 
of his right to be represented by counsel or another (|ualified i-ein-esentative and. 
if iiecessary, afford the res|ionilcnt an opportunity to arrange therefor. Where 
additional charges are lodged, the incund)ent shall advise the i-esiiondent of hi;^ 
i-ight to have a reasonable period of time within which to meet such additional 
charges, if desired. He must also deternnne solely within his own discretion 
when, within the range of i>ermissihle statutes, he will advise the resix)ndent of 
the hitter's i»rivilege to apjily for relief from deportation. 

The incnml)ent shall not perform any duties inconsistent with the duties and 
resiK)nsibilities of an adjudicating officer and in addition to presiding at formal 
hearings in deportation proceedings, ho shall also serve as hearing offic-er ia 



1950 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

hearings required to be held in carrying out other administrative functions of 
the Service. 

The incumbent may grant such continuances of ttie hearing as he may deem 
reasonable at his own instance or upon the motion of the respondent or his 
counsel or representative. The hearing officer will be required to preside over 
more than one case at the same hearing where two or more cases involving 
common questions of law or fact are ordered consolidated with respect to any 
or all matters in issue in the cases. 

In any case which he deems appropriate, the hearing officer may, at the con- 
clusion of the hearing, state for the record in the presence of the alien or his 
counsel or representative, a brief summary of the evidence, findings of fact, and 
conclusions of law, and his disposition of the case. 

Except in those cases where the incumbent's decision is orally stated for the 
record, the incumbent shall, as soon as practicable after the conclusion of the 
hearing, prepare in writing a decision, signed by him, which shall set forth a 
summary of the evidence adduced and his findings of fact and conclusions of law 
as to deportability. In addition, where the respondent has applied for relief 
from deportation the incumbent's decision shall also contain a separate deter- 
mination as to whether or not the incumbent is satisfied, on the basis of the 
evidence presented, as to the alien's statutory eligibility for the relief requested. 
The decision of the incumbent shall be concluded with a statement of his dis- 
position of the case which shall be (1) that the alien be deported, or (2) that 
the warrant of arrest be canceled, or (3) that the alien be found to have estab- 
lished statutory eligibility for suspension of deportation, or (4) that the alien 
be granted voluntary departure at his own expense in lieu of deportation with 
or without the additional privilege of preexamination, or (5) that such other 
action be taken in the proceedings as may be required for the appropriate deter- 
mination of the same. 

The decisions of the hearing officer in cases involving charges other than those 
based on criminal, subversive, or immoral grounds are final and not subject to 
review unless the alien or his counsel or representative takes exceptions thereto. 

The incumbent shall conduct the hearing in a manner tantamount to a judicial 
trial. 

In properly carrying out the duties specified above, certain other duties and 
responsil>ilities befall the iuciunbent. He must understand and apply the provi- 
sions of ti!e Constitution of the Ignited States. He must possess thorough knowl- 
edge of the pertinent provisions of the basic law and regulations and rules of the 
agency issued thereunder, including past immigration laws and regulations. He 
must possess thorough knowledge of the pertinent Presidential proclamations 
and Executive orders, treaties with and among foreign nations, applicable regu- 
lations and the nationality and citizenship laws of the United States and foreign 
countries. As to these he must know or ascertain judicial and administrative 
precedents. He must also ascertain and apply foreign and domestic laws regard- 
ing marriage, divorce, legitimation of children, domestic relations, adoption, 
residence, domicile, and crimes. He must ascertain and apply local laws con- 
cerning pardon for crime as well as mere restoration of civil rights. The 
incumbent must understand the doctrine of res adjudicata and tlie application 
of domestic and foreign court decisions in the various jurisdictions when those 
decisions interpret or apply statutes whicli become involved in deportation 
proceedings. Tlie application also of State Department regulations is required 
most frequently. He must apply the appropriate laws and United States Public 
Health Service regulations concerning afflictions of aliens, must ascertain and 
apply the meaning of certain medical terms and must understand and apply 
various statutes relative to duty to pay for treatment obtained in public 
institutions. 

In evaluating the evidence that has been presented, he must be able to deter- 
mine wliether there is sufficient to support the charges against the respondent 
and in so doing, he must in appropriate cases determine whether that evidence 
indicates that the crime for which the alien may be deported is one involving 
moral turpitude. 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1951 

The incumbent must uuderstMiid and apply all the applicable laws in such a 
way as to iivoid embarrassineiit in our diplomatic relations wilh foreign countries 
iind consequently must apply scrupulously all the laws and re.milations applical)le 
t(< foreign guv(>ninient officials and aliens admitted to the United States pursuant 
to the International Organizations Innnunities Act. 

The decision of the incumbent must reflect all the matters mentioned above and 
such other matters that may he pertinent in the determination of the case, and 
the decision must be one tantamount in quality to that of a judge sitting in a 
court of law. 

Tiie incumbent must have the ability to conduct hearing in a dignified, orderly, 
and impartial manner; ability to determine credibility of witnesses; ability to 
sift and analyze the evidence, apply agency and court decisions, and prepare 
clear and concise statements of fact and law and orders. The incumbent must 
possess sound judgment, judicial tempei'ament, and poise. 

Exhibit 3 
Qualifications Standard for Deportation Examiner 

Applicants must meet experience requirement established by agreement with 
the Civil S^n-vice Conumssion and set forth in that agency's Examining Circular 
EC-17, issued October 21, 1947. Generally, the Commission requires that all 
applicants must have had progressively responsible experience which has demon- 
strated conclusively their ability to conduct hearings in a dignified, orderly, and 
impartial manner ; determine credibility of witnesses ; analyze evidence ; apply 
agency and court decisions ; prepare clear and concise statements of fact, law, 
and orders ; and exercise sound judgment. The applicants must also show that 
they are persons of judicial temperament and poise. The Commission requires 
6 years' total experience, 3 years of general experience, and 3 years of special 
experience. 

The general experience nuist have been progressively responsible experience 
obtained through legal practice or technical work performed in a field appropriate 
to the field in which hearings are conducted, such as rates, finance, violations, 
licenses, benefits, or regulations. 

The specialized experience must have been obtained in legal proceedings in one 
or more of the categories listed below : 

(a ) Experience as judge, master, or referee of a court of record ; or 

(&) Experience as member, officer, or employee of a governmental regulatory 
hodv. wlio conducted formal hearings; made or recommended decisions on the 
basis of the record of such hearings ; was responsible for the preparation or 
presentation of cases; or had administrative charge and responsibility for the 
successful completion of cases conducted before a court of record or governmental 
regulatory body; or 

(c) Experience which has included responsibility for the preparation or pres- 
entation of cases conducted before a governmental regulatory body or a court of 
record. 

Experience with this Service has been accepted by the Commission as qualify- 
ing is as follows : 

(a) General experience. — (1) Experience as an immigrant inspector; (2) ex- 
perience as a naturalization examiner; (3) experience as an investigator; (4) 
experience gained outside the Service in the general practice of law. 

(6) Specialized experience.— {1) Experience gained conducting warrant hear- 
ings in deportation cases; (2) experience as a hearing examiner (review) ; (3) 
BSI experience ; (4) experience in the general practice of law when coupled with 
at least 1 year of (1), (2), or (3) above, or any combination thereof. 

In addition, the above experience must have included participation in a suffi- 
cient luunber of important cases comparable to those coming before Federal 
regulatory bodies, to demonstrate a familiarity with problems which arise in the 
field of administrative law, and an ability to deal with those problems in a satis- 
factory manner. 



1952 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

Exhibit 4 

Chapter SI — Separation: Removal, Suspension, Disciplinary, Demotion, 
Formal Admonition or Reprimand 

types of offenses to i!e reported ^ 

lloauthorized absence from duty 
Neglect of duty, including : 

Withholding information which should be repoi-ted 

Sleeping on duty 

Neglecting to observe safety precautions 

Loss of or damage to Government property 

Permitting escape of detainee 
Insubordination, including: 

Disobedience to superior officer 

Assault of superior officer 

Disrespect to superior officer 

Inciting others to insubordination 
Fraudulent and deceptive practices, including: 

Falsification in obtaining appointment 

Falsification in connection with leave of absence 

Falsification in connection with claim upon the United States 

Theft of Government property 

Receipt of stolen Government property 

Unauthorized disclosure of confidential information 

Removal, alteration, concealment, destruction, or false creation of Govern- 
ment records 

Misuse or misappropriation of Government property or funds 

Acceptance of gratuities or bribes 
Misconduct relating to duty, including: 

Solicitation for attorney, bonding company, etc. 

Use of "third degree" methods on detainee or others 

Assault of detainee, coworkers, or others 

Immoral indecent conduct or solicit^ntion with detainee or others 

Intoxication on duty 
Conduct unbecoming a Government employee, including: 

Use of official position for personal gain 

Chronic indebtedness 

Intoxication under circumstances prejudicial to best interests of service 

Failure to observe common standards of propriety, decency, or morality to 
extent prejudicial to best interests of service 
Conduct in violation of statutory regulations, including: 

Assist claimant in prosecution of claim against United States 

Engaging in prohibited political activities ; soliciting contributions 

Holding State or local office 

Engaged in subversive activities 

Refusal to testify as required by civil service rule XIV 

Acceptance of dual Fedei'al employment 

Receipt of non-Federal salary for services performed in line of official duty 

Instruction of applicant for civil service examination 



1 This list is not intended to limit kinds of cases in which disciplinary action may be 
necessary. See also Federal Personnel Manual. Table of Miscellaneous Offenses, C2-28, 
and following pages. 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AXU NATURALIZATION 1953 

INI'X)UMATION I'KOVIDKD BY THE UNITKl) STATES DKl'AUTMENT OF 
JUSTICE, IMMIGRATION AND NATUUALIZATION SERVICE, CONCERN- 
ING THE SALARY RATES OF OFFICERS CONDUCTING FORMAL 
HEARINGS IX EXCLUSION AND EXL'ULSIOxX l'R()CEEI)IN(iS 

ITmTKI) SlAllCS DKI'AltTMKXT OF Jl STICK, 

iM.MlCaiATlOX AM) NA ! IU{ALI/,AT1().N SKKVICK, 

W a .shin (/ton 2.'>, 1). C, yoremhcr 7, 195^. 
Mr. Hauuy N^. Ro.senkikli), 

/•!.rcrutirc Director, PrcsidentidI ('onnnission o)i hnniinrution itvd 
y<ituraliz(itio)i, Washington 2o, D. C. 

Dkak Mu. RosKXKiKLi) ; RefVroiK'c is made to a recent telephone conversation 
between Mr. Ciiarles Gordon of your staff and Mr. Frederick L. Cuneo, our 
Director of I'eisonnel. 

Mr. (iordon ie(iuested certain information concerninji: the salary rates of officers 
of this Service en.^ajied in the <-()n(hict of formal hearin,i,"s in exclusion and expul- 
sion proceed in, us. 

Ill .lune l!t4!» the Service estahlished the position of hearing examiner (IJSI 
ciniirman) CAF (GS) S). the incumbents of which served as presiding officers of 
three-man hoards conducting hearings in exclusion proceedings. The salary 
rates of the grade !) lev(>l at the time the position was established were $4,470.(30 to 
$5,232 per annum. Curi-ent salary rates for tills grade are $5,0(50 to $0,185 per 
annum. 

In Marcli 1950 subsequent to the rendering of the Supreme Court decision 
placing the conduct of deportation hearings under the provisions of the Admin- 
istrative Procedure Act we established the position of hearing examiner (deporta- 
ti(»n) (iS-11, the incumbents of which conducted formal hearings in expulsion 
proceedings. In October 1050, due to legislation removing the conduct of de- 
portation hearings from tlie control of certain provisions of the Administrative 
I'rocedure Act, the hearing examiner position was abolished and the Service 
established in its stead the position of deportation examiner GS-11. The salary 
rates of the GS-11 level in June and October 1050 were $5,400 to $6,400 per 
annum. (Current rates are $5,940 to $6,940 per annum. 

Prior to the dates quoted above exclusion and expulsion hearings were in 
general conducted by immigrant inspectors. The salary rates (Reed-Jenlvins 
Act) for this position in June 1949 were $3,100 to $4,328 per annum. In May 
195(K after tlie position had l)een brought under the Classification Act of 1949 
in the (JS-7 level, the salary rates were $3.S25 to $4,575 per annum. Current 
salary rates for innnigrant inspectors GS-7 are $4,205 to $5,330 per annum. 

I trust that tlie iibove information will answer Mr. Gordon's inquiry, and if 
we c;tn furnish you with additional information, please do not hesitate to com- 
municate with us. 
Sincerely, 

Argyle R. Mackry, 

Commissioner. 



INFORMATION PROVIDED BY THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF 
JUSTICE, IMMKJRATION AND NATURALIZATION SERVICE, CONCERN- 
I>:G DETENTION OF ALIENS AND THE EXECUTION OF ORDERS OF 
DErORTATIOX OF THE JUSTICE DEPARTMENT 

October 24, 1952. 
Mr. Harry N. Rosenfield. 

Executive Director, President's Commission on Immigration and Natiirali^ 
zation, Washington, D. C. 
Dear Mr. Rosexfielu : This will refer to your letter of October S, 1952. re- 
questing information for consideration by the Commission on the problems in- 
volved in the detention of aliens and in tlie execution of (u-ders of dcjiortation. 

We have endeavored to furnish the desired information insofar as it was 
available to this office. The data attached follows the numerical sequence of 
your letter. 

With regards to parts 1 and 2, the usual and average periods of detention 
are .shown in the charts. The number of aliens detained by the service for the 
tiscal year ending June 23, 1952. totaled 192,518 for an average of G.2 days' deten- 
tion for each alien. 



1954 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

During the past year the number of Chinese nationals in detention has been 
reduced as a result of an administrative order which permitted the district di- 
rectors to parole Chinese aliens whenever in their discretion such parolees would 
not be prejudicial to the best interests of the United States. Additionally, the 
number of Chinese nationals held for deferred inspection, which incUided investi- 
gations and the taking of testimony concerning relationship issues, will ba prac- 
tically eliminated under the new procedure involving the issuance of unqualilied 
United States passports. 

The charts show detailed data concerning the 4.959 cases in which final orders 
of deportation were outstanding on October 1, 1052. 

The principal causes of inability to procure travel documents are — 

(1) Loss of nationality due to numerous causes, such as changes in terri- 
torial jurisdiction, prescribed absences from country of nativity or national- 
ity, service in armed forces of other countries, etc. 

(2) Arbitrary refusal, notably of the U. S. S. R. and satellites, to permit 
the return of its nationals in deportation i3roceedings. 

(3) Refusal to accept mentally defective aliens recpiiring institutional 
care due to lack of such facilities. 

(4) Isolated instances where nationality was established and the refftsal 
to issue travel documents was based upon an adjudication, by the other 
countries involved, of the grounds upon which our orders of deportation were 
entered. 

(5) Inability to establish claimed nationality of alien. 

As to category 2, above-mentioned, it should lie noted that satellite countries 
have in a number of cases issued travel do.uments to Communists under depor- 
tation proceedings who are not nationals of those countries. For instance, many 
Greek Communists have been permitted to enter Poland from thi>-- country as 
deportees although they have declined to pei'mit the return of Polish nationals. 

You have asked wliether the Service has any suggestions for legislative or 
administrative action to cope witli the problem raised by inability to ex-'cute 
orders of deportation. In that regard, the provisions of the Hobbs bill (H. R. 
10) in tlie Eightieth Congress as modified by section 2?. of the Internal Security 
Act of 1950, and more recentl.v by section 242 of Public Law 414, were apparently 
designedto assist the United States in enforcing the departure of certain classes 
of deportable aliens for whom documents cannot be secured. While they have 
not been as effective as had been hoped, they have been of some assistance in 
ridding the country of deportable aliens, notal)ly a number of Communists whom 
the Service would otherwise have been unable to deport. We therefore can 
think of no helpful legi-slation likely of passage at this time. 

As to administrative action the Sei'vice has. since the passage of the Internal 
Security Act of 1950, held in detention, pending deportation, a greater number 
of aliens than had been the practice to detain theretofore. This action has been 
confined largely to those of the smuggled alien, stowaway, other illegial entrant, 
Communist, and criminal classes. It is believed that this action has been in 
keeping with tlie spirit and purpose of the statutes just mentioned, and the 
Government, with few exceptions, has been upheld by the courts. 

We have long been convinced that effective law enforcement requires that 
deportable aliens who have entered the United States illegally, and who have 
no claim to any kind of discretionary relief under the law other than that of 
the voluntary departure privilege, be apprehended and deported without delay. 
Generally they should not be released under bond, or otherwise, and permitted 
to continue their illegal presence in the United States for months, and even 
years as has happened in far too many cases in the past. The latter method of 
handling illegal entrants was leading to a sei'ious breakdown in inunigration 
law enforcement in that it placed a pi'emium upon the violation of our laws 
and encouraged numerous other aliens to risk the illegal way of entering the 
United States. We are satisfied that word which has gone abroad of the Service's 
removing the advantages of illegal entry by keeping such entrants in custody 
pending their deportation has acted as a strong deterrent to those who would 
come here in violation of our laws. 

Tlierefore, as to suggested administrative action to cope with the problem by 
inability to execute orders of deportation, we believe that the Government should 
avail itself to the fullest extent of the detention provisions of section 23 of the 
Internal Security Act and, when it becomes effective, to section 242 of Pulilic 
Law 414, not only as to those aliens in whose cases the Service cannot procure 
travel documents but in the cases of all aliens who are in the United States 
illegally who are not eligible for any form of discretionary relief, and who 
refuse to depart from the United States, continnnusly. of course, bearing in mind 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGKATIOX AND XATl'RALIZATION 1955 



that there will always ho cases riMiuirinji siucial Mdioii hecausc of hnuianitai'ian 
01' other coiisi<U'ratiiMis. 
Sincerely, 

liEAMAMl.N (i. llAIiia:i!T().\, 

.\cfi)i(/ ('oiitnii-ssioncr. 

PaKTS 1 AND 2 

N^imhcr of pnnons detained under order or (iiithorUii of the Ininiii/ration and 
Naturalization Service during fiaval year JVo2 

(a) In exclusion proceedings, detained in excess of 8 days: 

Under exclusion proceedings 2,607 

Deferred f(u- further inspection 4, 905 



Total (a) 7, 512 

(b) In deportation proceedings: 

Under deportation proceedings 38, 959 

Without formal proceedings, interim detention in aid 
of voluntary departure pending arrangements for 
transportation 124, 554 




tfumher of persons detained under order or authority of the Itnmif/ration and 
Naturalization Service during fiscal year 1952 



A. IN EXCLUSION PROCEEDINGS, 


DETAINED IN EXCESS OF 3 DAYS 




Appli- 
cants 

deferred 
for 

further 

inspec- 
tion 


Period of detention 
(in days) 


Appli- 
cants 
Under 
exclusion 
proceed- 
ings 


Period of detention 
(in days) 




District 


Usual 


Average 


Usual 


Average 


Total 


St. Albans... _ 
















Boston. 

New York 


236 
3,384 


10 
2 


12 
4 


26 

964 

32 

46 

316 


10 
12 
15 
4 
6 


12 
19 

37 
8 
14 


262 

4,348 

32 


Philadelphia 


Baltimore .._ _ 








46 


Miami 








316 


Buffalo 










Detroit. 
















Chicago 
















Kansas City 




^ 












Seattle 








142 
602 
4 
1 
165 
309 


10 

8 


15 
36 
8 
4 
23 
13 


142 


San Francisco- 


1,285 


10 


17 


1 887 


San A n t onio 


4 


El Paso 










1 


Los Angeles 








14 
12 


165 


Honolulu - 








309 












Total 


4,905 






2,607 






7,512 















1956 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

Number of persons detained under order or authority of the Immigration and 
Naturalization Serviee durinf/ fiscal year 1952 — Continued 

B. IN DEPORTATION PROCEEDINGS 



District 


Departed 
without 
formal 
proceed- 
ings 


Period of detention 
(in days) 


Under 
deporta- 
tion pro- 
ceedings 


Period of detention 
(in days) 


Total 




Usual 


Average 


Usual 


Average 




St. Albans, _ _ 








97 
395 

6,566 
505 
206 

3,681 
439 
732 
567 
633 
811 

1, 069 
10, 684 

7,344 

5,187 
43 


18 
10 
25 

5 
4 
5 
5 
21 
8 

12 
5 
4 
2 
3 

35 


20 

12 

39 

23 

8 

8 

15 

28 

9 

8 

15 

7 

5 

3 

4 

52 


97 










395 


New York 








6,566 










505 


Baltimore _ .-. 








206 


Miami. . 








3,681 


Buffalo 








439 


Detroit 

Chicago 

Kansas City . -_ 


141 

2,271 

949 


2 
2 
2 


2 
3 


873 
2,838 
1,582 


Seattle 


811 


San Francisco -.. __ . 


9,618 
50, 851 

2,018 
58, 706 


2 
2 
2 
2 


2 
2 
2 

2 


10, 687 


San Antonio 


61, 535 


El Paso -- - 


9,362 


Los Angelas ._ _. _ 


63, 893 


Honolulu 


43 












Total 


124, 554 






38, 959 






16.3, 513 















C. FOR PURPOSE OTHER THAN EXCLUSION OR DEPORTATION PROCEEDINGS 



Boston (seamen ordered held on boardi 

New York (seamen ordered held on board) 

Miami (witnesses) 

Seattle (seamen ordered held on board) 

Honolulu (seamen ordered held on board). 

Total 



Number 
of persons 
detained 



4 

103 

3 



Period of detention 



Usual Average 



Days 



Days 



Parts 

Aliens detained in Service facilities at New York City and San Francisco on 
Oct. 1, 1952, who were in detention more than 6 months 

New York (applicants for admission) 20 

San Francisco (applicants for admission) 19 

Total 39 

New York (aliens under deportation proceedings) 11 

San Francisco (aliens under deportation proceedings) 

Total 11 

Attached list gives initials, file number, and reason for detention. 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1957 



Persons detained in Sen-ice facilities at New Yo7-k and San Francisco on 
Oct. 1, 1952, tvho were in detention more than G months 

APPLICANTS FOR ADMISSION 



Name 


File No. 


PrpsoTit status 


Cause for con- 
tinued detention 


At New York: 

A. K 


0300-414802 
0300-292584 

A-4284259 

0300-337489 

0300-337488 
0300-337*89 
030O-395195 

0300-395173 
0300-298576 

0300-404116 

a300-393565 

0300-340314 

0300-412679 

0''00-412678 
0300-412677 
0300-412^39 

0300-382326 

0300-414557 

A-6665545 
0300-4131.38 

1300-117950 
1300-116930 

T-1497175 
T-1497176 
1300-12.3431 
1.300-12.3432 
1300-123433 
1 300-1 2.3H'70 
1.3O0-irO223 
1.300-1 rO' 24 
1300-12.3443 
1300-12.3444 
1300-92727 

1300-125308 


Excluded bv board of special inquiry, Apr. 29, 

1952. 
Excluded bv board of special inquiry, Mar. 20, 

1951. 

Excluded bv board of special inquiry, Dec. 5, 

1950. 
Ex'-luded bv hoard of special inquirv, Feb. 5, 

1952. 
do ....• 


Awaiting transpor- 


A. B 


tation. 
D e p r ta t i n 


T. B 


stayed pending 
outcome private 
bill. 
Writ pending. 


I. B 


Await'ng travel 


Z. F. B 


do''nment. 
Do. 


A. B . 


do 

Excluded by board of special inquiry, June 27, 
19.52. 
do 


Do. 


L. D 


Do. 


V. D 


Do. 


J. E. H 

L. H 


Excluded bv board of special inquiry. May 14, 

1952. 
Excluded bv board of special inquiry, Dec. 19, 

1951. 
Ex'-luded by board of special inquirv, Mar. 5, 

1952. 
Excluded bv board of special inquiry, Mar. 2, 

1951. 
Ex'-luded bv board of special inquiry, July 24, 

19,52. 
do . ---- 


Stay; writ pend- 
ing. 
Do. 


A. K 

E. S 


Writ pending. 
Do. 


A. S 


Awaiting travel 


H. S 


document. 
Do. 


M. 8 


do 


Do. 


I. S 


Excluded bv board of special inquiry, Sept. 15, 

19,52. 
Excluded bv board of special inquiry. May 12, 

1952. 

Excluded by board of special inquiry 

Safekeeping 

Excluded bv board of special inquirv, Mav 16, 
1952. 

Partially lieard by board of special inquiry; de- 
ferrrd for further investigation in Hong Kohr 
followini; prosecution for conspiracy to import 
applicant by fraud. 
" Forwarded on appeal to Board of Immigration, 
Appeals, Sept. 25. 1952. 

Board of special inquiry bearing deferred for in- 
vestigation at Hong Kong into information 
inaicating applicants' claims are fraudulent. 

"lExcludiug decision afTirmed bv Board of Immi- 
/ gi-ation Apiieals. Oct. 10, 19,52. 
Appeal from excluding decision dismissed, Sept. 

25, 1952. 
Appeal from excluding decision sustained, Oct. 
3, 1952; applicant admitted that date. 


Do. 


o.w 

Y. Y.E 

II. C.K 

J. A 


Awaiting travel 
docuncnt; clas- 
sified insane. 

On appeal to Board 
of Immigration 
Appeals. 

Writ. 

Awaiting"" travel 


At San Francisco: 

T.. Y W 

L. Y. L 


document. 


L.S. K. 

L. 8.Y 

L. Y. B 

L. Y. n... 

L. Y. S 

L. Y. Q. 

L. K. S.. 

L. D.II 

O.r.F 




0. C.K 

Y. F 


Now awaiting de- 
portation. 


C. K. F 



UNDER DEPORTATION PROCEEDINGS 



C. H. S.... 



W. H. C. 
W. H. S. 

L.5W. Y. 

F. T 



1300-12.5098 
1300-125099 

1300-127009 
T-1497392 



Excluded by bo,ard of special inquiry Oct. 9. 
1952, after extensive investigations completed 
in New York, Philadelphia, and Hong Kong 
for possible criminal prosecution for perjury 
and fraud. 



[Appeal dismissed Aug. 26, 19,52. 



Pending on appearbefore Board of Immigration 

Appeals since June 25, 19,52. 
Pending on appeal befon^ Board of Immigration 

Appeals since Aug. 26, 1952. 



Now awaiting de- 
portation. 



1958 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

Persons detained in Service facilities at Neiv York and San Francisco on 
Oct. 1, 1952, iuho were in detcmtion more than 6 months — Oontinued 

UNDER DEPORTATION PROCEEDINGS 



Name 


File No. 


Present status 


Cause for con- 
tinued detention 


At New York: 

J. M 


0300-397028 

fA-7828996 
\0300-308201 

0300-332680 

0300-51559 

A-6650939 

0300-400746 

0300-408570 

A-2384993 

0300-399875 

99301-845 

0300-411235 


Seaman; remained longer. Warrant for Depor- 
tation issued Feb. 18, 1952. 

Act of Oct. 16, 1918 (Commimist). Deporta- 
tion ordered June 19, 1951. 

Seaman; remained longer. Warrant for Depor- 
tation issued Apr. 8, 1952. 

No visa. Deportation ordered May 1, 1952 

Crime after entry. Warrant for Deportation is- 
sued Apr. 29, 1952. 

Seaman; remained longer. Warrant for Depor- 
tation issued May 20, 1952. 

Seaman; remained longer. Warrant for Depor- 
tation issued Apr. 25, 1952. 

No visa; entered by fraud. Warrant for Depor- 
tation issued Aug. 12. 1952. 

No visa. Warrant for deportation issued Nov. 
28, 1941. 

Act of Oct. 16, 1918 (Communist). Warrant for 
deportation issued Apr. 22, 1952. 

No visa. Warrant for deportation issued Apr. 
28, 1952. 


Awaiting travel 


^^'. B 


document; de- 
portation immi- 
nent. 

Appeal to Board of 
Immigration Ap- 
peals pending. 

Issuance travel 
document immi- 
nent. 

Pending appeal 


A. E 

r. H - - 


R. M 

G. N 


Board of Immi- 
gration Appeals. 

Issuance travel 
document immil 
nent. 

Writ pending. 


D. P 

J. S. R.... -... 

L. S 


Awaiting travel 

document. 
Awaiting travel 

document. 
Writ pending. 


M. Y 


Awaiting travel 


L. Z 


documents . Re- 
lease detrimental 
to public secu- 
rity. 
Awaiting trave- 
document. 



Note. — No deportation proceedings at San Francisco. 

Part 4 

Aliens detained in deportation proceediyigs as of Oct. 1, 1952, where detention is 
continued without bond pending final determination of deportaMlity 



District 



Total 



Simple 
fact 
cases 



Com- 
munist 



Illegal 
entry or 
stowaway 



Criminal 



No. 1, 
No. 2, 
No. 3, 
No. 4, 
No. 5, 
No. 6, 
No. 7, 
No. 8, 
No. 9, 
No. 11 
No. 12 
No. 13 
No. 14 
No. 15 
No. 16 
No. 17 



St. Albans 

Boston 

New York 

Philadelphia 

Baltimore 

Miami 

Buffalo 

Detroit 

Chicago 

, Kansas City... 

, Seattle 

, San Francisco. 
, San Antonio.- . 
, El Paso 

Los Angeles... 

Honolulu 



2 
4 
121 


1 

2 
4 



1 

4 
2 



Total - 



23 



Total days of detention 6,288 

Average days of detention -. 44. 6 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1959 

Total detained as of Oct. 1, 1962 



Simple fact cases 

Communist 

Illegal entry or stowaways. 
Criminal 



Total. 



N'uinber Percent 



95 


671/^ 


2 


Wi 


23 


1(5).^ 


21 


15 



Aliens detained in deportafton procccdinf/s as of Oct. 1, 1952, where detention, 
is continued without bond pending final dcterntination of deportabiliti/ 



Name 



District No. 1, St. Albans, Vt.: 
CD 



P. R. W. 



District No. 2, Boston, Mass.: 

L. A 

H. C 



J. S. 



E. B 

District No. 3, New York, N. Y.; 
A - _._ 



A. A. K. 
P. B 



K. B.. 
•\V. B. 



A. C_ 



C. A. C. 
S. M.C. 



M. J. C 

E. C 

J. R 

M. C 

R. C. 

D.D 

M. V. D. A. 



M. C. D.N 

A. D 

G. 1) 



A. L. E.. 



E. A. E. 



C. N. F.„. 
F. F 



D. E. F 

H. H. G 

M. R. Q 

K.H 



A.H. 
R.J 



O. K.. : 

See footnote at end of table. 



Detained 
since— 



Sept. 26, 1952 
Sept. 17, 1952 



Sept. 4,1952 
do 



Sept. 25, 1952 

Sept. 20, 1952 

Oct. 1, 1952 

June 14, 1952 

Sept. 13, 1952 

Sept. 18, 1952 
Oct. 19,1951 

July 11,1952 

Sept. 17,1952 
Sept. 23, 19.52 

Aug. 21,1952 

Oct. 1, 1952 

Aug. 21,1952 

Sept. 22, 1952 

May 22, 1952 

Sept. 15,1952 

Sept. 9,1952 

Sept. 25, 1952 
Sept. 2,1952 
Sept. 10, 1952 

Aug. .5, 1952 
Aug. 27, 1952 



May 
Sept. 

Sept. 
Sept. 
Aug. 



19, 1952 
29, 1952 

8, 1952 

24, 1952 

7. 1952 



Charges 



Aug. 27, 1952 



May 
June 



9, 1952 
3, 1952 



Sept. 8, 1952 



Remained longer; sea- 
man. 

No visa; crime prior 
to entry. 



No visa. 
...do- 



Remained longer; vis- 
itor. 
...do : 



Remained longer; sea- 
man. 

Remained longer; vis- 
itor. 

Remained longer; sea- 
man. 

No visa; stowaway 

Failure to maintain 
status. 

Remained longer; sea- 
man. 

No visa 

No visa; remained 
longer; visitor. 

Stowaway; without 
inspection. 

Remained longer; 
seaman. 

Stowaway; without 
inspection. 

Remained longer; 
seaman. 

Remained longer; 
visitor. 

Remained longer; 
seaman. 

Stowaway; without 
inspection. 

No visa 

do 

Remained longer; 
visitor. 

Remained longer; 
seaman . 

No visa; false state- 
ments. 

No visa 

Remained longer; 
seaman. 

do 



.do. 



No visa; stowaway 
without inspection. 

Remained longer; sea- 
seaman, 
do. 



Remained longer; vis- 
itor. 
Narcotic. 



Reason for detention 



Criminal. 



0). 



Wanted by British 

authorities.' 
Violation of parole. 

('). 
('). 
('). 

Communist. 

('). 
Stowaway. 

Stowaway. 

('). 

Stowaway. 

«. 

Adulterous; detri- 
mental to public 
welfare. 

Prosecution. 

Criminal. 

('). 
Stowaway. 

('). 

Detrimental to publie 
welfare. 



1960 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 



Aliens detained in deportation proceedings as of Oct. 1, 1952, tvhere detention is 
continued without bond pending final determination of deportahility — Con. 



Name 



Detained 
since — 



Charges 



Reason for detention 



District No. 3, New York, N. Y.— Con. 
C. K 



J. K-. 
F. K- 
O.K., 
R. K. 

A. L- 



B. L. L. 



F. L 

L. P. M.. 

S. M 

K. L. M_- 

A. M 

M. M. M. 
R.N 



A.N. 
R. O. 



H. O. N.. 
A. A. P-. 



C. P- 



G. P 

A. M. P. 



A. P- 



L. P 

J. A. R-.- 
I. R. 



A. S 

M. A. S. 



C. s.... 

A.S._.- 
C. H. S- 

A. S.... 



A. S. 

A. S. 



L. O. S- 
A. S. L. 



B. S. S.... 
R. S 



N. J. T 

A. T 

K. A. B. T.... 



Q. T 

A. B. U 

I. E. V 

R. T. V 

V. Z.. 

E. Z 

J. A. O 

L.N. H.... 



Sept. 11, 1952 
June 6, 1952 
July 14,1962 
Sept. 12, 1952 
Aug. 27,1952 

do 



Sept. 24, 1952 



Aug. 2 
Sept. 25 
Sept. 22 
Sept. 13, 
Sept. 30, 
Sept. 2, 
Aug. 20, 

June 18 
Sept. 11 

Aug. 21 
Sept. 24 

Sept. 19, 

Sept. 18 
Oct. 1 



Aug. 

Aug. 
Sept. 
Aug. 

Sept. 

Sept. 

Sept. 
July 
Aug. 

Oct. 1 

Sept. 12, 

Aug. 30, 

Sept. 15, 
Aug. 4 

Oct. 
Aug. 

Sept. 8, 
Aug. 4 
Oct. 1 



Sept. 30 
Aug. 29 
Oct. 1 
Sept. 25, 
May 1 
June 13, 
July 
June 11 



1952 
1952 
1952 
1952 
1952 
1952 
1952 

1952 
1952 

1952 
1952 

1952 

1952 
1952 



1952 
1952 
1952 

1952 

1952 

1952 
1952 
1952 



1952 
1952 



1952 
1952 



1952 
1952 
1952 
1952 
1952 
1952 
1952 
1952 



Remained longer; sea- 
man. 
do 

Crime after entry 

Remained longer; sea- 

mau. 
No visa 



Crime prior to entry; 
previous deport: re- 
mained longer; sea- 
man. 
Remained longer; sea- 
man. 

do 

do - 

do 

....do 

do 

do- 



No visa; witiiout in- 
spection. 

Stowaway 

Remained longer; sea- 
man. 

do 

No visa 



Remained longer; sea- 
man. 

do,_ __._ 

Remained longer; vis- 
itor. 

Remained longer ;sea- 
man. 

do 

No visa 

Remained longer; stu- 
dent. 

No visa; without in- 
spection. 

Remained longer; sea- 
man. 

do 

No visa 

Remained longer; sea- 
man. 

Remained longer; vis- 
itor. 

Remained longer; sea- 
man. 

More than one crime 
after entry. 

No visa 

Remained longer; sea- 
man. 

No visa 

Remained longer; sea- 
man, 
do 

No visa 

Remained longer; sea- 
man. 

No visa 
-do- 
do, 
do. 

...-do 
do. 

do 

Remained longer; vis- 
itor. 



Previous absconder; 

likely to abscond. 
Criminal; detrimental 

to public safety. 

Likely to abscond; sep- 
arated from wife; 
possibly dangerous to 
wife. 

Criminal. 



(1). 

('). 
0). 
(I). 
('). 
('). 

(0. 
(0. 

(0. 

stowaway; entered 
without inspection . 

('). 

(0. 
0). 

('). 

('). 
('). 

Illegal entry. 

('). 
0). 

Criminal. 

('). 
('). 

0). 

('). 
0). 
0). 

(>). 
(>). 



See footnote at end of table. 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1961 

Aliens detained in deportation proevedinriH as of Oct. 1, 1.952, where detention is 
continued without bond pendimj final determination of deportahility — Con. 



Name 



District No. 3, New York, N. Y.— Con. 
■ S. B . — 



A. H.. 
J. R.. 
M.S.. 
A. J _ 
H. M 



\. Y. L 




A. 11. A 




-M. A. A 




J. A 




L. V. B 




N. B ... 





A. B. 
G. B 



E. A. E. 



M. F. 



A. G. 
F. H. 
J. H. 
F. H. 



D. K.I. 
S.J 

E. P.... 



M. P- 



H. A. S. 
A. F. B_ 



J. A. C. 
O. C._- 



P. C 

C. V. B 



M.S. 



F. M 

P.N 

V. K. T.... 



L. W.... 
M. CD. 
A. L 



B. L 

A. B. U. 
I. E. v.. 
J.M. W. 

S. A 

P. B 



D. D. A.. 

District No. 6, Miami, Fla.: O. Q. V.... 

District No. 8, Detroit, Mich.: 

T. A 



H. C. S 

District No. 9, Chicago, 111.: 
E. F. McA 



Detained 
since — 



Oct. 1, 1952 

Oct. 1,1952 
Oct. 1, 1952 
Oct. 1, 1952 
.Inly 28,1952 
Sept. 12, 1952 



June 17,1952 

May 9, 1952 

Sept. ;iO. 1952 

May 7,1952 
Sept. 9,1952 

July 17,1952 

May 14,1952 
Sept. 18, 1952 

Aug. 27,1952 

Sept. 2,1952 
July 30.1952 
Feb. 12,1952 
May 15,1952 
Apr. 12,1952 

Aug. 5, 1952 

Aug. 14,1952 

Oct. 1, 1952 

Sept. 23, 1952 

Sept. 18, 1952 
Aug. 25,1952 

July 16,1952 
June 13,1952 

Sept. 18,1952 
May 20, 1952 

June 2, 1952 

Oct. 1, 1952 
Aug. 29,1952 
Mar. 18, 1952 

Sept. 28, 1952 
Aug. 19, 1952 
Aug. 27,1952 

Sept. 23, 1952 
Aug. 29,1952 
Oct. 1,1952 
Sept. 17, 1952 
Sept. II, 1952 
Sept. 13,1952 

Apr. 11,1952 
July 18,1952 



Mar. 5, 1952 
Aug. 16,1952 
Sept. 16, 1952 



A. E. P do. 

R.J. F I do 

K. K.. I Sept. 4,1952 

See footnote at end of table. 



Charges 



Remained longer; sea- 
man. 

do. 

do... 

do 

do 

No visa.- 



Remained longer; sea- 
man. 

Failure to maintain 
status as visitor. 

Remained longer; sea- 
man. 

No visa 

....do 



No visa; without in- 
spection. 

No visa 

Remamed longer; sea- 
man. 
No vLsa; false state- 
ments. 

No visa 

do 

do 

do 



No visa: no passport; 
without inspection. 

No visa; false state- 
ments. 

Remained longer; sea- 
man. 

Remained longer; 
visitor. 

Remained longer; sea- 
man. ' 
do 

Remained longer; vis- 
itor. 

No visa 

Entered without in- 
spection. 

No visa 

do 



Remained longer; sea- 
man. 
do.._- 

No visa 

do 



Crime after entry 

ActofOct. 16, 1918.... 
No visa; without in- 
spection. 

No visa 

do 

do ._ 

do 

do. 



Remained longer; sea- 
man. 
No visa 

No visa; without in- 
spection. 



Crime after entry. 
No visa..- 



No visa; without in- 
spection. 

do 

do 

.....do.... 



Reason for detention 



('). 

Entered without in- 
spection; likely to 
abscond. 

(') 

(0 . 
(') 

(0. 

Adulterous; detri- 
mental to public 
welfare. 

('). 

(0. 

Criminal. 

Criminal. 

<'). 
('). 
('). 

(■). 

Criminal. 

Criminal record. Pre- 
viously deported. 

Criminal. 

Bigamist; detrimental 
to public welfare. 

('). 

Subversive; detrimen- 
tal to public security. 
Criminal. 
Communist. 
Criminal. 

('). 
('). 

0). 
Criminal. 

Criminal; wanted in 
Cuba for murder. 

Criminal; detrimental 
to public welfare. 

('). 
('). 



1962 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 



Aliens detained in deportation proceedings as of Oct. 1, 1952, ichere detention is 
continued without bond pending final determination of deportahility — Con. 



Name 


Detained 
since— 


Charges 


Reason for detention 


District No. 14, San Antorn'o, Tex.: P. S. 


Aug. ,31, 1952 

May 1, 1952 

Aug. 14,1952 

Aug. 14.1952 
Sept. 1.5, 1952 

Aug. 18,1952 
June 26,1952 


No visa . 




District No. 16, Los Angeles, Calif.: 

A. S 

R.K .- 

E. P. A 

R. G 

District No. 17, Honolulu, T. H.; 

D. C 

F. E 


Practicing prostitu- 
tion after entry. 
No visa; without in- 

snection. 
Crime prior to entry- - 
do 

No visa 

do 


Italy. 
Prostitute. 

Criminal. 
Do. 

0). 
(1) 







1 These are simple fact cases, arrived recently, are heard very promptly, concede deportahility, and 
there are no other factors to be adjudicated. No question of eligibility for administrative relief, and may 
be deported promptly upon the entry of an order of deportation. 

Part 5 

Final orders of deportation outstanding in excess of 6 months, Oct. 1, 1952 







Grouii' 


Is for deportation 




Reason for delay in execution 


Subver- 
sive 


Criminal, 
narcotic, 

and 
inmioral 


Illegal 
entrant 


Other 


Total 


District: 

1. St. Albans * 




03 


4 


11 


78 








Unable obtain travel documents,-- 




30 


1 


5 


36 


Private bill pending. ,_- 






Administrative stay- --. -_. 












Serving sentence or in institution.- . .. 




33 


2 

1 


6 


41 


Pending documents and/or transporta- 
tion arrangements. - -.. 




1 












2. Boston - - - - . 


8 


159 


74 


102 


343 






Unable obtain travel documents 

Pi ivate bill pending . -.- - 


7 


110 
2 

7 
20 

20 


33 

9 
11 

8 

13 


60 
12 
14 
4 

12 


210 
23 


Administrative stay 




32 


Serving .sentence or in institution... . - 




32 


Pending doeuments and/oi transporta- 
tion arrangements . - 


1 


46 






3. New York --- 


19 


214 


41 


1,024 


1,298 






Unable obtain travel documents 

Private bill pending . .-_ . 


1 


13 

4 
2 
5 

190 


5 

1 
3 

25 


87 
101 
99 
34 

703 


106 
112 


Administrative stay 


1 


103 


Serving sentence or in institution 


42 


Pending documents and/or transporta- 
tion arrangements -- - 


17 


935 






4. Philadelphia . .-- 


9 


106 


8 


100 


223 






Unable obtain travel documents 

Private bill pending - 


1 
1 


46 
1 
3 

14 

42 


1 
1 
1 


21 
10 
6 
13 

50 


69 
13 


Administrative stay -. 


10 


Serving sentence or in institution-. 




27 


Pending documents and/or transporta- 
tion arrangements 


7 


5 


104 






6. Baltimore 


3 


18 


29 


45 


95 






Unable obtain travel documents -- 


2 


12 


6 
4 

8 

1 

10 


8 
13 
14 

5 

5 


28 


Private bill pending - _- 


17 


Administrative stay 




5 

1 


27 


Serving sentence or in institution 

Pending documents and/or transporta- 
tion arrangements-- -- 


1 


8 
15 











COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1963 
Final orders of deportation outstanding in excess of 6 months, Oct. 1, 1952 — Con. 





Keasoii for lU'lay in cxpcutioii 


Grounds for deportation 




Subver- 
sive 


Criminal, 
narcotic, 

and 
immoral 


Illegal 
entrant 


Other 


Total 


District— Continued 

6 Miami _ 


2 


72 


16 


49 


139 




Unable obtain travel documents 






2 


17 
1 


4 
2 
2 
5 

3 


8 
3 


31 
6 








2 








48 
6 


14 
24 


67 




Peniiiiig (locuinonts and/or transporta- 




33 




Buffalo 






7 


6 


158 




71 


235 




Unable obtain travel documents 






4 

1 
1 


73 




22 
5 
2 


99 






6 






5 
51 

29 




8 








51 




Pending documents and/oi' Iran.sporta- 






42 


71 




Detroit 








8. 


16 


343 


14 


132 


505 




Unable obtain travel documents 






5 


150 


1 


77 
13 


233 






13 








3 

95 

95 




3 




Serving sentence or in institution 

Pending documents and/or transporta- 
tion arrangements -- . 


1 
10 




41 
1 


137 




13 


119 




Chicago 




9. 


18 


236 


43 


96 


393 




Unable obtain travel documents ._- 






17 


150 
2 
10 

7 

67 


21 
3 

8 
6 

5 


48 
3 
3 
6 

36 


236 






8 




Administrative Slav - 


1 


22 




Serving sentence or in institution 


19 




Pending documents and/or transporta- 
tion arrangements -. 




108 




Kansas City 






11. 


3 


128 


24 


22 


177 




Unable obtain travel documents 






2 


44 


7 

1 


8 
2 
3 
9 


61 






3 








1 

28 

55 


4 




.'^ervins .si'ntence or in institution 




4 
12 


41 




Pending documents and/or transjjorta- 
tion arrangements 


1 


68 




Seattle 






12. 


10 


128 


23 


83 


244 




Unable obtain travel documents 






5 


81 
3 
2 

27 

15 


5 

"7' 

11 


49 
15 
11 
6 

2 


140 




Private bill pending 


18 




Administrative .stav 




13 




Serving sentence or in institution _-^ 

Pending documents and/or transporta- 
tion arrangements 




40 




5 


33 




San Francisco 




13. 


20 


328 


85 


172 


605 










18 


105 
1 
3 

203 

16 


29 


64 

7 

37 

32 

32 


216 




Private bill pending 


8 








20 
5 

31 


60 




Serving .sentence or in institution 

Pending documents and/or transporta- 
tion arrangements 


1 
1 


241 
80 




San Antonio. 




14 


2 


89 


51 


55 


197 




Unable obtain travel documents 






2 


9 


2 


11 


24 




Private bill pending 






Adir- inist rat i ve slay _ . . 








1 
2 

41 


1 




Serving sentence or in institution... 








2 




I'eiiding documents and/or transporta- 
tion arrangements. 




80 


49 


170 























25356—52- 



-124 



1964 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

Pinal orders of deportation outstanding in excess of 6 tnonths, Oct. 1, 1952 — Con. 





Grounds for deportation 


Reason for delay in execution 


Subver- 
sive 


Criminal, 
narcotic, 

ard 
immoral 


Illegal 
entrant 


Other 


Total 


D istrict — Continued 

15 El Paso -- 




40 


93 


20 


153 








Unable obtain travel doeoments-,. . _ 




5 


17 


8 


30 


Private bill pendius;_._ __ 






Administrative stay - _ . 




1 
25 

9 






1 


Serving seatence or in institution ... 




56 
20 




81 


Pending documents and/or transporra- 




12 


41 








16. Los Angeles . ... 


9 


39 


183 


38 


269 






Unable obtain travel doc iments 

Private bill pending. 


9 


30 

1 
1 
5 

2 


76 

40 

25 

2 

40 


7 

18 

1 

12 


122 
41 






44 


Servine sentence or in institution. . 




8 


Pending documents and/or transporta- 




54 








17. Honolulu . .. 


2 


3 






5 








Unable obtain travel documents 












Private bill jjending ... 
























Serving sentence or in institution 












Pending documents and/or transporta- 


2 


3 






5 










Grand total ... 


127 


2,124 


688 


2,020 


4,959 






Unable obtain travel documents. ._. 

Private hill pending 


75 
2 
3 
3 

44 


875 
15 
43 

562 

629 


208 
67 
76 
99 

238 


4a3 

184 
208 
173 

972 


1,641 
268 
330 


Serving sentence or in institution 

Pending documents and/or transporta- 


837 
1,883 







INFORMATION PROVIDED BY UNITED STATES DEPAKTMENT OF 
JUSTICE, IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION SERVICE, CON- 
CERNING EXCLUSION OF ALIENS WITHOUT A HEARING ON THE 
BASIS OF CONFIDENTIAL INFORMATION 

United States Department of .TtrsTicE, 
Immigration and Naturalization Service, 

Office of the Commissioner, 
Washington, D. C, October 23, 1952. 
Mr. Harry N. Rosen field, 

Executive Director, President's Commission on Immigration and 
Naturalization, Washington, D. C. 
Dear Mr. RosiiNFiELO : This is in response to your letter of October 3, 1952, 
requesting information from this Service concerning the practice of excluding 
aliens without a hearing on the basis of confidential information. Each question 
propounded by you will be set out by number for clarity, followed by the Service 
answer. It is desired to jpoint out that the statistical and proportional figures 
requested by you are, in most instances, approximate since they do not fall within 
the normal pattern of statistics maintained by this Service. 

1. When was the practice of ordering exclusion without a hearing inaugurated? 
Describe the instructions or regulations which initiated this practice. 

Your attention is invited to the act of May 22, 1918, as amended by the act of 
June 21, 1941 (40 Stat. 559; 55 Stat. 252; 22 U. S. C. 223-'>-2C), conferring upon 
the President the power to impose additional restrictions on aliens desiring to 
enter the United State-s when the United States was at war or during the existence 



\ 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1965 

of a national emergency. Pursuant to such authority, on November 14, 1041, 
Presidential Proclamation No. 2523 (0 F. II. 5821) authorized the promuliiation 
of the necessary re.uuUitious by the Secretary of State and the Attorney General 
jointly. These regulations authorized the Attorney (leneral, after consultaticm 
with the Secretary of State, where he determined that an alien came within 
one of the categories set forth in the regulation, to oriler exclusion of the alien 
without a hearing before a board of special imiuiry on the basis of conlidential 
information, the disclosure of which would be iirejudit-ial to the public interest.' 
The Attorney General still retains that authority ; the regulation is found in 
8 Code of Federal Regulations 175.r»7 (10 F. K. 8!)95, .July 21, 1945). President 
Truman, on August 17, 1949, by proclamation No. 2,sr>0 (14 V. li. r>17;i, August 19, 
1949) eliminated the necessity for the Attorney (ieneral to consult w-ith tlie 
Secretary of State before excluding an alien. The constitutionality of thus 
excluding an alien without hearing was upheld by the United States Supreme 
Court in United States ex rel. Knauff v. Shaughnestm (338 U. S. 537, January 16, 
1950), when the Court found no legal defect in the manner of Mrs. Knauff's 
exclusion. 

The change effected by proclamation No. 2850 was incorporated in section 5 
of the act of October l(j,'l91S. as amended by the Internal Security Act of 1950. 
As the result, the need for consultation with the Secretary of State no longer 
exists. Pursuant to such legislative enactment, regulations were issued to 
implement the act (S C. F. K. 174.4; 15 F. R. 8110, November 28, 1950). 

2. In how many cases was this procedure utilized prior to 1946? How many 

aliens (other than .seamen) were excluded from the United States without 
a hearing prior to 1946V 

For the reasons stated in the opening paragraph of this letter, the Service 
is unable to furnish any statistical breakdown of the number of cases falling 
within this procedtire prior to 1940. The number, in any event, would be 
negligible because of the restricted travel during the war years and other pro- 
cedures which were utilized during the war emergency to prevent the entry into 
the United States of those applicants whose entry might be deemed to be 
prejudicial to the United States, such as the use of the Inter-Departmental Com- 
mittee procedure and the so-called panel system. I shall not attempt to describe 
these procedures in detail since I am sure that you or your staff are familiar 
with them. Generally, they were screening groups including members of various 
Government agencies. 

3. In how many cases during the fiscal years 1948 through 1952 have aliens 

been temporarily excluded without a hearing under the provisions of 
8 Code of Federal Regulations 175.57 or section 5 of the act of October 16, 
1918, as amended? 

It has been possible to determine that from December 1948 to July 1, 1952, 
approximately 2,000 aliens, other than seamen, were temporarily excluded under 
the provisions of 8 Code of Federal Regulations 175.57 or section 5 of the 1918 
act, as amended. 

4. In how many of such cases has exclusion been finally ordered without a 

hearing? Indicate what proportion of these have been at seaports and 
w'hat proportion at land ports of entry. 

Of the above number of persons temporarily excluded, approximately 500 were 
ordered excluded and deported without a hearing. Xinety-two percent of these 
occurred at land ports of entry while 8 percent occurred at seaports of entry. 

5. How many of those finally excluded without a hearing have been: (a) sea- 

men: {h) aliens returning to residences in the Ignited States, including a 
specification of any in possession of I'eentry iiermits who were so excludeil ; 
(c) spouses of American citizens; and {d) residents of Canada or Mexico? 

Again, in the light of my opening statement concerning statistics, I regret to 
inform you that I do not have a statistical breakdown of the number of seamen 
and spouses of American citizens who were tinally excluded wit bout a hearing. 
I can state, however, that of the approximate 500 finally excluded. 403 were resi- 
dents of Canada or Mexico. Further, 12 persons finally excluded alleged that 



18 C. F. R. 17.'.. 50 (h) (G F. R. 5916, offoctive Decembor 1, 1941). 



1966 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

they were ret urn in .a residents of which 5 were in possession of resident alien 
border-c-rossini; cards, 1 was in possession of a reentry permit, 1 was in posses- 
sion of a visa "issued pursuant to section 4 (b) of the Ininiitiration Act of 1924, 
and 5 were returning resident seamen who were not required to have visas under 
the waiver provided by the regulations. 

6. Ill what proportion of cases involvin.'j; denials of hearing on the basis of con- 

!-dential security information have such denials been based on informa- 
ti(m supplied by: ('/) official intelligence agencies of the United States; 
(h) official intelligence agencies of foreign governments; (c) private 
individuals? 

It is necessary to again refer to my opening statement concerning statistics. 
The information called for liy this question does not fall within the normal pat- 
tern (tf statistics maintained by this service, and, therefore, it is not possible to 
furnish the inforniatidii sou.Liht. Experietice has shown, however, that the per- 
centage based on information from private individuals is quite small. 

7. ^Vhat steps do you take to verify or evaluate the information supplied l)y for- 

eign agencies or by private individuals before an order of exclusion on the 
basis of such information is entered V What steps do you take to verify 
or evaluate such information when supplied by official intelligence agen- 
cies of the United States? 

Information supplied by foreign agencies, private individuals, or official intel- 
ligence agencies of the United States which is used as the basis for orders of 
exclusi(m is evaluated in the light of all of the facts in the case and any other 
information which the Service may have in a particular case as a result of 
investigatious conducted by it. 

Specifically, before information supplied by a private individual is relied upon, 
it must be established that the informant is of known reliability. This is accom- 
plished by obtaining corroborating infcn-mation from other sources and, as the 
occasion arises, obtaining reports from the field offices of this Service or some 
other Mgr-ncy of the United States as to the competency and reliability of the 
informant and as to other facts or circumstances that might support or discredit 
the information furnished. I think it is well to emphasize that information 
emanating from private sources is closely scrutinized and given its proper weight 
and consiileration in relation to other information of record in the case. 

Likewise, information furnished by foreign agencies must be of proven reli- 
ability before it will be accepted. In many cases, other agencies of this Govern- 
ment are requested to furnish opinions as to the reliability of the information 
furnished by the foreign agency. 

Information furnished by oflScial intelligence agencies of the United States 
is generally evaluated by the agency at the time the information is submitted 
and generally the agency evaluation is accepted. On occasion, further investi- 
gation is retpiested of the agency submitting the reiwrt so that information 
contained in the reitort may be clarified and properly evaluated. In some cases, 
attempts are made to have the informants mentioned in the report interviewed 
by a representative of this Service, where possible, but only after clearance l)y 
the agency furnishing the report. Information supplied by one source is fre- 
quently corroborated by another. 

8. What proportion of exclusions without hearing have been ordered on the ba.sis 

of evidence showing (a) direct participation in espiimage, sabotage, or 
other activities iuiinediately related to the internal security, military 
operations, or external affairs of the United States; (/)) membership in 
the Communist Party of the United States; (c) membership in the Com- 
munist Party of any foreign country ; (d) membership in any otlier organi- 
zation in the United States; (e) membership in any other organization in 
any foreign country ; (/) other factors? 

The approximate proportion of exclusions without hearing ordered on the 

basis of particular evidence adduced is as follows: 

Pcrce7it 

Membarship in the Communist Party of the United States 1 

Membership in the Communist Party of any foreign country 37 

.M'^iiil)ership in any other organization in any foreign country 48 

Other factors — __' 14 

Again, in the light of my opening statement concerning statistics, I regret that 
I do not have the statistical breakdown to show the proportion of exclusions 
without hearing which have been ordered on the basis of evidence showing direct 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATl'RALIZATION 1967 

participation in t^sijioiiafic, sabotajic, or otlu'V activities iniiucdiately related to 
the internal security, niiiitai'y operations, or external affairs of tlie United St;ites, 
and niembersliip in any otiier organizations in the United States. Any such cases, 
tlierefore, are inclnded in the 14 percent representinj? other factors. 

It is desiied to eniiihasize that tiie use of this pi'ocess has not been automatic 
but is resorted to only in those ca.ses where the establishment of membership was 
ba.sed uimiu reliable and trustworthy information from sources which could not 
be disclosed without jeoiiardizinj;- the effectiveness of inteliifrence ajiencies and 
fources so imporlant to remain concealed in the interest of national security. 

V. Has exclusion without hearing finally been ordered on the basis of past mem- 
bership in any of the organizations describi-d in paragraph SV If so, specify 
what proportion of cases involve such past memt)ership. 

Since jiast membership in a proscribed organization automatically brings a 
I)erson within the inhibitions of section "> of the act of October 10, 1918, as 
amended, we do know from exjK'rience that final exclusion orders have b;'en 
entered on the basis of past membership in the organizitions mentioned in para- 
graph s above. However, the exact proportion cannot be specifie<l since, as indi- 
cated above, the information doe.s not fall within the normal pattern of statistics 
maintained by this Service. 

The comment made under paragrajih S above with respect to the limited use of 
this process applies equally to cases involving past membership. 
10. What standards do you use in determining that exclusion w^ithout hearing 
is warranted? Do you feel that exclusion without hearing is justified on 
the basis of strong suspicion of improper associp.tions or activities or is it 
your view that the confidential information upon which you rely should 
be equally as persuasive as similar evidence produced at a hearing? Do 
you rely on confidential information of jiast or present associations because 
direct evidence is unavailable? To what extent do you attempt to deter- 
mine whether the allegefl membership was vohmtary? How do you deter- 
mine in such cases whether a named organization other than the Com- 
munist Party is proscribed under the act of October 16, 1918, as amended? 

The standards used in determining that exclusion without a hearing is jus- 
tified are found in the regulations and the statute." They are : 

1. That it lie determined that an applicant is excludable under one of the cate- 
gories set forth in 8 CFR 175.53 or section 1 of the act of October 16, 1918, 
as amendetl ; 

2. That the derogatory information justifying exclusion is of a confidential 
nature ; and 

3. That the disclosure of that information would be prejudicial to the public 
interest, safety, or security. (The words "safety or security" appear only in 
section 5 of the 1918 act, as amended.) 

Mere suspicion of improper associations or activities, although strong, is not 
used as the basis for exclusion without a hearing. The information relied upon 
niust be such that, except for its confidential nature, it would support a ground 
for tiie exclusion of the alien if produced at a hearing before a Board of Special 
Inquiry. 

Confidential information is relied upon only when admissible evidence is not 
available. If there is information, the disclosure of which would not be prejudi- 
cial to the public interest, safety, or security, the alien's admissibility to the 
United States is determined at a hearing before a Board of Special Inquiry. 

All of the circumstances which can lie a.scertained surrounding an alien's 
membership in a proscribed organization are considered, together with condi- 
tions, both political and economic, which i)revailed at the time and in the country 
where the alien joined the organization. If such membership is admitted by the 
individual concerned, any exi)lanntion he desires to offer to show that such mem- 
bership in an organization was invohmtary is considered. In addition, the 
Service recognizes that mend)tM'ship in proscribiHl organi'/ations was involuntary 
in some cases, as, for instance, the rank and tile menib'rship of the Fascist Party. 
Furthermore, it is the position of the Service that Public Law 14, Eighty-second 
Congress, approved March 2S, 1951. which sui)plemented the act of October 16, 
1918, as amended, was intended to exculpate any supixised membership in a 
prohibited organization which was not entered into voluntarily. 

In view of the definitive provisions of section 3 (15) and section 3 (19) of 
the Internal Security Act of 19.50, the Nazi Party of Germanv and the Fascist 



= 8 C. F. R. 17.5. .57: see. .5. act of Octohor 10, 1018. as .•inionded, as 8 C. F. R. 174 4 (b). 



1968 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

Party of Italy, in addition to the Cdmmiinist Party, have been held to be pro- 
scribed. As to other totalitarian parties or governments, resort, of course, is 
had to the legislative pattern and, in addition, other agencies of the Government 
are asked to furnish any information tliey may jKissess as to the character of the 
party or organization in a foreign country. 

With respect to any other organization, a determination that it is proscribed 
under the 1918 act, as amended, is made only after full and complete investiga- 
tion. The investigation, of course, includes checks with the various intelligence 
and other agencies of the United States. All the evidence and information 
obtained during the investigation is carefully considered and evaluated by the 
Service and a determination reached as to whether the organization in question 
falls within the proscription of the 1918 act, as amended : 

11. What notice is given to the affected alien concerning the nature and basis 

of the charges against him? What opportunity does he have to refute 
such charges by presenting evidence in his own behalf? What opportunity 
is given for representation by counsel and for presenting written or oral 
arguments to the official charged with the responsibility for decisions? 
What notice is given to the affected alien concerning the decision against 
him and the basis on which it has been rendered? 
When an alien has been temporarily excluded from admission to the United 
States, a brief sworn question and answer statement covering the relevant facts 
is taken from him. if possible. Also, he is served personally or by registered 
mail with a written notice that he was temporarily excluded because he appears 
to be excludable under the act of October 16, 1918, as amended, and that his ap- 
plication for admission is being forwarded for consideration to the Commissioner 
of this Service in Washington, D. C. 

The alien is at liberty to present, in his behalf, whatever documents or other 
evidence he desires. Such documents or other evidence is forwarded to the 
Commissioner for use in consideration of the case. 

The alien, following his temporary exclusion, is at liberty to engage counsel 
who may appear at any subsequent interrogation and submit whatever evidence 
and present wliatever written arguments he desires. Requests for oral argu- 
ments have been few and oral argument have been made in the past on but a few 
occasions. 

If the alien is ordered excluded and deiiorted without a heai'ing, he is served, 
personally or by registered mail, with written notice to that effect. Since such 
an order must be based on confidential information, the disclosure of which 
would be prejudicial to the public interest, safety, or security, the alien cannot, 
of course, be apprised of the facts upon which the excluding order was based. 

12. Under present procedures what officers of the Department of Justice are 

empowered to order final exclusion without hearing? If more than one 
officer has authority, specify the proportion of cases in which each officer 
has functioned. What opportunities are afforded for review of such deter- 
minations oi'dering final exclusion without hearing? 
The Commission of Immigration and Naturalization is empowered to order 
an alien excluded and deported without a hearing. This authority, of course, 
is coextensive with that of the Attorney General. 

Between January 1 and July 1, 1952, approximately 85 orders directing aliens 
excluded and deported without a hearing were entered by the Commissioner of 
Immigration and Naturalization. Prior to that time the Attorney General entered 
all such orders. Again, the figure must be approximate since I do not have a 
statistical breakdown of the orders in question. 

There is no specific provision for review of orders directing aliens to be ex- 
cluded and deported without hearing. However, in the event the alien or his 
counsel presents evidence that would seem to indicate an injustice has been 
done, the Service, on its own motion, has reopened cases for further hearing. 
Also, the alien may reapply for admission to the United States and thus have 
his admissibility to the United States again detennined. At that time, of course, 
any additional information either for or against the alien would be considered 
and the entire record reviewed. 
Sincerely, 

Benjamin G. Habberton, 

Acting Commissioner. 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1969 



INFORMATION PKOVIDKD BY THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF 
JUSTICE, I.MMKHIATION AND NATURALIZATION SERVICE, (X)NCERN- 
ING PRIVATE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY BILLS INTRODUCED 
IN THE EIGHTY-FIRST AND EKJHTY-SECOND CONGRESSES 

Unttki) Statks Di:rAHTjrENT ok Ji'stice, 
Im.migratiox ain^d Natukai.izatiox Service, 

Washinoton 2.5, I). C, Ortohcr 16, 1952. 
Harry N. Rosexfield, 
JJxccnfirc Director, 

]'rc,<<if1cnt's Com mission on Inuniyrution and Ndiiirtiliztition, 
Etecutivc Office, Wd.shinf/tov 2J, D. C. 
Dear Mr. Rosenfiei.d : Reference is iiuide to your letter of Septeinher 17, 1952. 
re(iiiesting informntioii eoneeriiiiij' iirivate iimiiiuratioii and nationality bills 
introduced in tlie Eislity-lirst and Ei.iihty-second Congresses. 

Prrsuant to your re(|uest, I am subnilttinj; an analysis wiilch sets forth (1) the 
number of private imiuiui-ation and nationality hills inti'oduced in each Congress, 
(2) the various categories into which they liave been divided for the purpose 
of this report, (3) the number of persons affected hy such bills, (4) the number 
of hills enacted by each Congress, (5) the various categories into which they 
fall, (6) the number of persons affected by the bills so enacted, and (7) the 
number of bills which have been vetoe<l by the President. 

In any case where a bill has been introduced b<ttli in the Senate and the House 
of Representatives for the relief of the same person, only one bill has been 
included in our computation. According to the records of the Service. 2,465 
private i»ills were introduced in the Eighty-tirst C<»ngress for the relief of 4,145 
jiersons. Of these bills, 505 were enacted for the benefit of S85 persons. Five 
bills were vetoed, three of which were subsequently reintroduced and enacted. 
In the Figlity-second ('ongress .■'>.3(t2 bills wei'e introduced for the relief of 
5,784 persons of which 732 bills were enacted affecting 1,364 persons. Two bills 
which were vetoed were reintroduced and enacted. 



IMMIGRATION BILLS 

1. Orantinfi riplit of pcrriirtnent residence in United States, to aliens 

who have entered without ininiisriition visas 

2. GrantinfT nonquota status to adojitert children and stepchildren of 

United State,'; citizens (sees. 4 (a) and 9 of 1924 act) 

3. Orantins; nonquota status tojrether with exemption from racial bar 

to ado' ted children and steichildren of United States citizens 
(sees. 4 (a), 9, and 13 (c) of 1924 act) 

4. Deeminfr alien to be under age of 21 years so as to confer nonquota 

stat's... __ .__ 

5. Deerniric alien to be returning from temporary visit abroad .so as to 

confer nonquota status . .. 

6. Deernine alien to be nonquota immigrant or born in country whicli 

has open quota. ._ ___ 

7. Authorizing alien fiancfee of veteran to enter as visitor and to adjust 

status 

8. Auth'irizing alien fianc6e of veteran to enter as visitor and to adjust 

stiitus, together with ex(>niution from raci;vl bar 

9. Granting nonquota statu.s to Chinese jjersons notwithstanding sec 2 

of act of December 17, 1943 

10. Granting e.xemi)tion from sec 13 (c) of the immigration Actof 1924to 

I erniit entry of aliens racially ine!i?ible to citizenshin 

11. Granting exenii tion from those irovisionsof .sec3, Immi?nition Act 

of 1917, which exclude aliens afflicted with diseaseor mental <lefects. 

12. Granting exemt'tion from thos(> provisions of sec 3, Immigration Act 

of 1917, which exclude illiterate aliens 

y.i. Grantir-g exemption from those iirovisions of sec 3, Immigration Act 
of 1917, which exclude aliens on criminal grounds 

14. Canceling de ortation proceedings _ 

15. Other immigration bills ]_. 

NATIONALITY BILLS 

1. Waiving residence period required for naturalization 

2. Authorizing expeditious naturalization of former citizens 

3. J're.serving citizenship notwithstanding i)rotracted foreign residence 

or voting in foreign countries. 

4 . Other nationality bills 

Total 



81st Cong. 



Intro- 
duced 



1.596 
100 



24 
19 

115 
24 

221 

17 

4 

62 
47 
.53 



2,465 



En- 
acted 



ia3 
44 

11 

3 

5 

9 

11 

53 

13 

99 

4 

2 

29 
6 
12 



82d Cons 



Intro- 
duced 



2,107 
243 

192 
4 

23 
34 
47 
a3 
40 

134 

33 

6 

119 
13 
74 



En- 
acted 



2&4 
110 

110 

2 

8 

8 

14 

18 

21 

.50 

14 

1 

43 

4 



505 3, 302 



732 



1970 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

The Service caiinot undertake to advise your Comissioii as to the policies 
followed by Congress in dealing with private relief legislation. So far as I am 
aware, no congressional committee has ever issued a statement setting fortli the 
criteria by which it would be governed in passing upon private immigration 
and nationality bills. However, tlie House Subcommittee on Innnigrati(»n and 
Naturalization lias indicated to this Service that it does not look with favor 
upcm ju-ivate bills tor the relief of deserting seamen or stowaways. 

In its recommendations to the Department, the Service has talien the position 
tliat the enactment of private bills should be limited to cases involving unsual 
and compelling circumstances siich as extreme hardship and services rendered 
or to be rendered to the United States. Tlie Service consistently has opposed 
the enactment of private bills wliich tend to encourage a disregard for the general 
laws at the expense of aliens who comply with these laws. 

■ As a I'ule, bills in the first inmiigration category i)rovide for the deduction of 
one number from the applicable quota as to each alien beneficiary. Under the 
existing practice, the aliens who violate our immlgi'ation laws are frequently 
rewai'ded and those who respect our l;iws by leniaining abroad until their 
numbers are reached nnist experience furfher delay because so many quota 
ntimbers are allocated to alie'.is unlawfully i-esiding in the United States. 

From time to time retpiests have been made by the Senate and House Commit- 
tees on the Judiciary tliat the Service defer deportation pending consideration 
of private relief legislation. In that connection, there is attached for your infor- 
mation a copy of -a letter which was written on August 21, l!>r)2, by the Attorney 
General to the chairman of the House Subcommittee on Immigration and Nat- 
uralization. That letter sets forth the policy by which the Service is guid(Hl in 
the matter of staying deportation pending consideration of private l»ills. 

In pai'agraphs r» and G of your letter yoii request a statement as to the probable 
effect of Public Law 414, Eighty-second Congress, upon the number of private 
bills which may be expected in the future. That act eliminates the racial bar 
altogether and thereby obviates the necessity for the introduction of private 
bills referred to in innnigration category No. 10 of the above analysis. The 
Immigration and Nationality Act grants nonquota status to the alien Chinese 
children and husbands of American citizens. (See sees. 202 (a) (5) and 101 (a) 
(27) (A).) For that reason, there will be no need for private bills under immi- 
gration category No. 9. 

Section 101 (a) (27) (A) of the Tmmigi-ation and Nationality Act confers 
nonquota status upon an immigrant who is the "spouse" of an American citizen. 
Under existing law (sec. 4 (a) of the Immigration Act of 1924), alien husbands 
of American citizens do not have nonquota status b.v reason of the relationship 
unless the marriage occurred prior to January 1, 1948. This change in the law 
may I'educe the number of liills described in immigration category No. H. 

Section 101 (b) (1) of the Immigration and Nationality Act defines the term 
"child" so as to include "a stepchild, provided the child had not reached the age 
of 18 years at the time the marriage creating the status of stepchild occurred." 
Thus, a stepchild will enjoy nonquota status under section 101 (a) (27) if the 
stepfather or stepmother is a citizen of the United States. This extension of the 
class of "child" will undoubtedly operate to reduce the number of private bills 
referred to in immigi-ation category No. 2. 

Immigration category No. 1 will probably be affected by section 245 of the 
Immigration and Nationality Act, which authorizes the adjustment of status to 
permanent residence in certain cases, and by section 203 (a) (1), which grants 
quota preferences to persons of high education or specialized experience. 

In paragraph 6 of ycmr letter you request a statement as to the types of cases 
in which the Service anticipates an increase in the volume of private bills result- 
ing from the provisions of the Immigration and Nationality Act. Some avenues 
which heretofore provided administrative relief to aliens seeking the adjustment 
of their immigration status will be closed as you have indicated. There is, how- 
ever, no way to ascertan what proportion of the persons affected will seek relief 
through private legislation. While this expedient has been resorted to with 
increasing frequency during the last decade, it is not possible to determine what 
effect Public Law 414 will have upon the attitude of the Eighty-third Congress. 
Consequently, any statement by the Service as to the probability of an increase 
in the number of private bills, or the extent of any possible increase, would be 
entirely coniectural. 
Sincerely, 

Benj. G. Habberton, 
Acting Commissioner. 



I 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1971 

(The following letter from Attorney (Jeneral McGranery was enclosed:) 

AtJcrsT 21, 1952. 
Hon. Fkancis E. Walter, 

Cliairiiian, Sithconiiiiitfcr on Jmniif/ration and NdtvrnUsdtion, 
Committer on the Judiciary, House of RcpreHnitatixcs, 
Washington, D. C. 

My Dear Mr. Congressman : This is in response to your letter of July 8, 1952, 
reiiuesting that deportation be held in abeyance until March 1, 1953, in the cases 
of aliens for whom private bills were pending in Congress at the time of its 
adjournment. 

During the Eiglit.v-second Congress, 3,669 private relief bills dealing with 
immigration and nationality problems were introduced, which compares with 
a total of 2,811 for the Eighty-first Congress, 1,141 for the Eightieth Congress, 
429 for the Seventy-ninth Congi-ess, and 16.S for the Seventy-eighth Congress. 

This vast increase in th*' introduction of private relief bills in recent years, 
reaching its peak in the Eigiity-second Congress, has naturally resulted in a 
comparable increase in the calls upon the Immigration and Naturalization Service 
for investigations and reports, a situation wliich, without a conunensurate in- 
crease in personnel, has placed a considerable burden on facilities already heavily 
Inirdened with many other pressing assignments. However, as you know, this 
department is always desirous of furnishing every possible assistance to the 
Congress and continuing the splendid mutual cooperation which has always 
existed between your committee and the department. 

I know that the flood ot private bills has also added to the burdens of your 
committee, and that many such bills were under active consideration by your 
committee and by the Congress at the time of its adjournment. While I am 
reluctant to continue indefinitely the deferment of deportation in the cases of 
aliens whose expulsion is connnanded by statute, at the same time I wish to 
afford to the Congress the opportunity to consider ameliorative action in those 
matters where the appropriate congressional committees have stated that such 
action is under active consideration. 

In the past this Department has generally withheld the deportation of those 
aliens in whose behalf private bills were pending, when such postponement has 
been requested by the Senate and House Judiciary Committees. Such deferments 
represent an administrative courtesy which the Attorney General is glad to 
extend to Congress. As you know, however, the law reposes in this office the duty 
to dejtort aliens who are illegally in the United States, and this Department 
must reserve the right to determine whether a stay of deportation in any 
individual case is consistent, in its judgment, with good administration and with 
the welfare and safety of the United States, a policy with which I am sure that 
you are in full accord. Such determination, however, will be made only after 
consultation with the interested committees of the Congress. 

In conformity with this policy and in compliance with your request, this 
department will continue to extend to Congress the full measure of courtesy 
and comity that has guided our actions in the past. With the above reservation, 
deportation will lu^ stayed until March 1, 1953, in those cases in which a private 
relief Idll was pending in Congress at4;he time of its adjournment, in which the 
appropriate committee in either House of Congress has not taken adverse action, 
and in which your committee has specifically asked that deportation be stayed or 
has requested a report. 
Sincerely, 

James P. McGranery. 

Attorney General. 



1972 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

INFORMATION PROVIDED BY THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF 
LABOR CONCERNING CERTIFICATIONS AS TO UNAVAILABILITY OP 
DOMESTIC LABOR DURING 1946-52 

Office Memorandum 

October 31, 1952. 

To : Mr. Boris Stephen Yaiie, President's Commission on Immigration and 
Naturalization. 

From : E. L. Keenan, Deputy Director, Bureau of Employment Security. 

Subject : Operational data concerning certirtcatiuns us to unavailaliility of domes- 
tic labor during 1946-52. 

The data contained herein represent those instances in which the United 
States Employment Service furnished to the Attorney General of the United 
States a certification as to the unavailability of like domestic lal)or in connection 
with applications filed by employers requesting waiver of the labor-contract law. 
The data does not reflect whether the emijloyer requests were for temporary 
(nonimmigrant) or permanent (immigrant), nor does it indicate that workers 
actually entered this country in the numbers indicated. It is further limited 
in that it applies only to requests from nonagricultural employers, exclusive of 
users of Canadians on a temporary basis by the woods industry in Maine, New 
Hampshire, Vermont, and New York. The Canadian woods workers are admitted 
under the waiver provisions of the law implemented by arrangements between 
the United States and Canadian Governments. 

The attached tables show information by broad occupational groupings : 

Table I. — This table indicates the number of openings for which certification 
as to the unavailal)ility of workers was made by calendar year. You will note 
that substantially large numbers of workers were primarily in the skilled 
occupations, and relatively small numbers in the professional. With respect to 
the professional groups, the sm;ill number of openings for which certifications 
were made may be due largely to the fact that the labor-contract law excludes 
mental workers from its provisions. Thus, in those instances in which the 
Immigration and Naturalization Service determined that the employer's appli- 
cation was for an alien to iierform mental work, certitication was not requested 
by the United States p]mployment Service. There appears to be a relationship 
between the annual total nvimber of openings for which certification was made 
and the general labor-market conditions in this country during those years. 

Table II. — Table II is prepared to show the number of different occupations for 
which certifications were made each year. The figures in the total 7-year-period 
column indicate the total number of different occupations for which certification 
was made during the entire period. For example, construction bricklayers 
(skilled group) may have been certiiied for in each of the T years. However, in 
the total colunm, it woidd appear as only one occupation. While 4.ss different 
occupations would appear a sizable number, it is less significant in terms of the 
thirty-odd-thousand identifiable occupations utilized in the Ihiited States, each of 
which requires different skills or a different skill level. 

Table III. — The information contained herein is presented to show that, gen- 
erally si)eaking, small numbers of openings are involved for each application 
filed by an employer. For instance, in the professional and managerial group 
for 1946, certification was made for 43 openings (see table I) representing 18 
different occupations (see table II), but involved 39 employer j-equests (see 
table III). Thus, the number of openings ijer request averaged 1.1 per request 
and 2.3 number of openings per each occupation in the professional and mana- 
gerial group for the year 1946. 

These data are not a sample but constitute total activity for the years re- 
ported, exclusive of the use of Canadians in the New York and New England 
woods industry. Interpretations and conclusions are relatively difficult due to 
the problems of determining the interrelationship among such factors as — 

1. Varying economic conditions ; 

2. Total size of labor force ; 

3. Total number of openings certified ; 

4. Small numbers of openings usually involved per request ; 

5. Wide range of occupations ; 

6. Quota problems which may have been a deterrent to employer application: 

7. Inability of worker to independently apply for admission for employment ; 

8. Repetition of appearance in successive years of same needs, either due to 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1973 

seasonal demaiul or inability to etVtrt entrance of worker within authorized 
period ; and 

9. Inability to determine from Employment Service records the proportion 
approved by Imniij;ration and Naturalization Service for permanent or temporary 
admission. Detailed sampling, however, indicates that a substantial proportion 
involved workers who were granted temjxtrary iidmission. 

J)iitit on uotiiif/riculturnl ccrtificntions, other thnn Cfniailinn icoodsirorkers. 
coiitpilcd from- individual employer folders 

TABLE I. NUMBER OF OPENINGS 



Occupations 


1946 


1947 


1948 


1949 


1950 


1951 


1952' 


Total for 
7- year 
period 


Professional and managerial _ 

Cleriral and sales 


43 
3 

88 
2 

240 
221 

97 
156 

183 
268 


23 

27 
2 

232 
300 

166 
63 

1,031 
22 


34 

49 

36 

5 

195 
506 

32 

1 

1.003 

88 


25 
2 

11 
2 

53 
111 

25 
6 

75 
144 


27 
2 
2 


94 
3 
13 


87 
1 

13 
2 

412 
267 

420 

51 
242 


333 

67 


Service . . . 


190 


Fisherv, forestry, and kindred 


13 


Skilled: 

Miinufacturing-. 


39 
381 

4 
13 

144" 


1,2.30 
1,224 

15 
380 

84 
230 


2,401 
3 010 


Nonmanufacturing-. - . 


Semiskilled: 


410 


Nonmanufacturing. 


1,039 

2,427 
1.138 


fn.sk illed: 

Manufacturing . 


Nonmanufacturing 


Total . . 


1,301 


1,873 


1,949 


454 


612 


3,273 


1, 566 


11 028 







TABLE II. NUMBER OF OCCUPATIONS 



Professional and managerial 

Clerical and sales 

Service. 

Fisherv, forestry, and kindred- 
Skilled: 

Manufacturing 

Nonmanufacturing 

Semiskilled: 

Manufacturing 

Nonmanufacturing 

T'nskilled: 

Manufacturing 

Nonmanufacturing 



Total. 



18 


12 


12 


2 


3 


6 


9 


11 


7 


2 


2 


3 


40 


38 


39 


39 


24 


24 


17 


11 


9 


7 


8 


1 


7 


4 


4 


5 


3 


3 


146 


116 


108 



69 



15 


25 


3 


1 


6 


8 




1 
43 


35 


35 


37 


8 


7 


11 


/ 


3 


2 


5 


4 


121 


135 



67 
13 
28 
10 

112 
113 

46 
31 

13 

15 



TABLE III. NUMBER OF INDIVIDUAL ORDERS 



Professional and managerial 

Clerical and sales 

Service _ 

Fishery, forestry, and kindred. 
Skilled: 

Manufacturing 

Nonmanufacturing. 

Semiskilled: 

Manufacturing _ . 

Nonmanufacturing 

Unskilled: 

Manufacturing _ . 

Nonmanufacturing. 



Total. 



39 


14 


19 


8 


5 


19 


36 


3 


3 


6 


1 


1 


3 


1 


13 


16 


9 


6 


2 


7 


9 


2 

87 


2 
.54 


3 

66 


2 
33 






1 
65 


28 


55 


55 


44 


45 


27 


45 


67 


48 


17 


15 


9 


5 


1 


8 


7 


11 


9 


1 


4 


4 


33 


46 


7 


5 


4 


1 




3 


2 


7 


3 


3 


1 


1 


16 


21 


241 


165 


165 


88 


87 


211 


233 



140 
18 
62 
10 

388 
331 

62 
108 

22 
52 



1,193 



1 Through Oct. 17. 



1974 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

INFORMATION PROVIDED BY THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF 
LABOR CONCERNING MANPOWER ASPECTS OF IMMIGRATION POL- 
ICY ; IMMIGRATION QUOTAS IN RELATION TO SIZE OF UNITED 
STATES POPULATION; AND I'OPULATION GROWTH AND CAPITAL 
INVESTMENT IN THE UNITED STATES, 1919-60 

United States Depart mext of Labor, 

Bureau of Labor Statistics, 

Office of the Commissioner, 
Washifiiiton, D. C, November 4, 1952. 
Mr. Harry N. Rosenfield, 

Executive Director, President's Commissiofi on Immigrdtion and Nnturali- 
zation, Washiniiton, D. C. 
Dear Mr. Rosenfield : In accordanfe with our understanding with Mr. Boris S. 
Yane, I am happy to send you the folh)wing materials, prepared by the Bureau 
of Labor Statistics for tiie assistance of the President's Commission on Immi- 
gration and aliens in the United States. 

1. Manpower aspects of immigration policy. 

2. Immigration quotas in relation to size of United States population. 

3. Population growth and capital investment in the United States, 1919-60. 
The above materials may be considered as supplements to the statement which 

I presented at the public hearings of the Commission in Washington on October 
27, 1952. 

We have previously sent you : (1) Summaries of the economic situation for se- 
lected periods from 1907 to 1951; and (2) a selected list of references on immi- 
gration and aliens in the United States. 

The opportunity to be of service to the Commission has been appreciated. 
Very truly yours, 

EwAN Clague, 
Commissioner of Labor Statistics. 

Manpower Aspects of Immigration Policy 

Immigration policy has often been considered in relation to the manpower re- 
quirements of the American economy. There are two basic considerations con- 
cerning the role of immigrants in meeting the manpower requirements of the 
United States which should be taken into account in formulating that policy. 
Both make it quite impossible to give any objective quantification of this rela- 
tionship. 

1. The manpower requirements of the United States in i*elation to immigration 
obviously vary with employment and over-all economic conditions in this coun- 
try. Obviously enough, to take one extreme, during a period of depression, we 
do' not even have the capacity to absorb the labor force resulting fi-om our own 
population increase. lender these circumstances, a case can be made for cessa- 
tion of all immigration. Under conditions of an expanding economy, with 
high levels of employment, it is just as obvious that immigration can play a 
part in meeting manpower requirements in this country. The amount of immi- 
gration that could be absorbed under these conditions becomes a theoretical 
problem related to the ultimate capacity of this country to al)sorb additional 
persons. For examiile, the figures will vary substantially depending on assump- 
tions concerning technological advances on the farm, in terms of increasing the 
amount of food that con be produced per acre; similar technological advances 
in factories ; etc. 

2. A similar situation holds in terms of the relationship of immigration to 
manpower requirements in specific occupations. The difficulty in making this 
i'elationshii> and quantifying it stems from two factors ; 

(a) In terms of manpower requirements of the United States in such highly 
skilled or professional occupations as physicians, engineer, etc., there are im- 
portant harriers and restrictions in terms of education, training, and licensure. 

(b) One must also consider the manpower requirements of our allies and their 
needs for these professional and skilled personnel. Historically, we have made 
our gains by having immigi-ants to the United States join the stream of education 
and training in this country and in this way taking their place in various occupa- 
tions, side by side with the native-born, in meeting occupational needs in this 
country. 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1975 

When all is said and done, then, the relationship between manpo\A'er require- 
ments of tlie United States and innnigration becomes not a matter of quantity 
l)ut a matter of outlook or philosophy concerning future economic conditions in 
the United States. 

Tluis, if one assumes a United States economy expandimr in the future toward 
higher national product, national Income, standard of living, one can easily find 
the proper place for immigrants. Contrariwise, in tlie setting of a stagnant 
economy, it is difficult to support, from a manpower point of view, any significant 
number of immigrants to the United States. 

Immigration Quotas in Relation to Size of United States Popui-ation 

A fixed volume of immigration each year means a constantly declining ratio 
of immigrants to the total population because of the natural increase in the 
population. The immigration quota of 1(!5,000 in 1924 represented 145 persons 
per 100,000 in the population at that date. The same number of inim-grauts in 
1952 would have i-esulted in a ratio of 105 per 100,000 population. By 19ti0, the 
proportion would be further reduced to 97 per 100,000 pr-rsons in the population 
(assuming the same level of immigration after July 1952). 

On the other hand, if it is assumed that the inmiigration quota is related as 
a fixed percentage to the population, then the amount of immigration would 
increase proportionately with the growth of the total population. For examp'e, 
the 1924 innniaration quota of 165,000 is the equivalent, on this basis, to 228,000 
in 1952, and to 248,000 in 1960. 

PopuiATioN Growth and Capital Investment in the United States, 1919-60 

The gains in productivity which underlie both the rising standard of living of 
the United States and the increased leisure time available to American workers 
have been founded in large part upon a long-term growth in our stock of capital 
relative to population. Therefore, it is certainly pertinent to inquire whether 
immigration would increase our population so rapidly as to strain our produc- 
tive resources and endanger the outlook for a continuation of this rising pro- 
ductivity. Although the following calculation is extremely rough and takes 
account only of the relationship between population and capital accumulation, 
it does suggest that rising productivity and rapidly increasing population are 
consistent. 

Our national wealth, both public and private, has risen considerably faster 
than the population in the recent past. In the period 1019-51 our national stock 
of productive capital doubled, as compared with an increase in the total popida- 
tion of 46 percent. This growth has not been at a constant rate during the 
period and the most rapid increases in productive capital jier person have not 
been associated with a slowly rising population. Conversely, when our stock 
of capital has declined relative to the population, it has not been an abnormally 
rapid rise in population which has l)een at fault. The depression period of the 
19;30's is a graphic example of this. The percenta'^e increase in the population 
in the decade of the thirties was the smallest for any decade in our history, 
yet the per capita wealth of the Nation declined markedly, the result of little 
new investment in a period of business despondenc.v. 

In contrast, in the post-World War II period of high levels of employment 
and economic activity, capital investment has outrun by a considerable margin 
even our extr.-iordinnry rate of population growtli. From 1946 to 1951 our stock 
of invested capital increased by an estimated 15 percent, as compared with an 
increase of population of 9 percent. 

It seems clear that changes in the capital stock per person in the lecent past 
have been primarily the result of factors other than population growth. I'ast 
experience indicates that we have the ability to increas<» our stock of productive 
wealth nnich more rapidl.v than tlie long-term rate of increase. 

Project ifins of the iioimlation assuming medium trends of fertility and mor- 
tality and a net inimigr.-ition of 400,000 aninially have placed the i)opulation at 
17."'. million in 1960. an increase of 12 percent over 1951. On the basis of the 
long-term increase in per cai)ita wealth, this would rcipiire a gain of 19 percent 
in net investment. At the pistwar rate of net capital !U'cunnil:ition, we would 
reach a level sufficient to maintain the long-term growth in per capita productive 
v.-ealth iit the end of the seventh year of the 9-year period. 



1976 COMMISSION ON IMAIIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

Technical Note — Calci'lation of Net Changes in Invested Weat.th, 1919-51 

The bench mark for this calcnhition of the productive wealth of the United 
States was Estimated National Wealth for 1922 of the Bureau of the Census. 
The estimate of total national wealth was reduced to exclude personal property, 
including personal motor vehicles. Annual net changes in the stock were com- 
puted in the following maimer : 

The Department Of Commerce annual estimate of gross private domestic 
investment was reduced by estimated depreciation and accidental damage to 
fixed capital. N(>t foreign investment was then added to give annual chanires in 
net private investment. 

For the pnlilic sector, annual purchases by government (Federal and State 
and local) from business were reduced by 25 percent (estimated nondurables 
purchases) and the total depreciated at an annual rate of 10 percent, except 
in the war years, 1942-45, when an annual depreciation rate of 25 percent was 
used. Government construction was then added, and depreciated at a 2-i)ercent 
annual rate. This provided estimates of net annual changes in capital formation 
for the period 1929-51. 

Very little data on capital accumulation are available for the years previous 
to 1929. For the government sector. Kuznets" estimates of net changes in govern- 
ment construction were used.' All other government expenditures, availal)le 
also from Kuznets but only as a single all-inclusive figure, were reduced by 
roughly 60 percent, the proportion assumed, from available data for subsequent 
years, to be the proportion expended on services and nondurables. The depi'ecia- 
tiou rates of 2 percent for construction and 10 percent for all other government 
also applied for these years. 

Kuznets provides an estimate for gross private investment for the years 1919-29, 
but no estimates of depreciation. An examination of 1929 and subsequent years 
indicated that depreciation was a relatively stalde quantity, depending as it does 
upon the stock of goods, ratlier than year-to-year changes. The 1929 level of 
depreciation and accidental damage as a constant for each year back to 1919 was 
therefore assumed. 

Based upon an inspection of trends from 1929 to 1951, Department of Com- 
merce price deflators for gross private domestic investment, 1919-51, were 
assumed to apply to government capital accumulation as well. 



INFORMATION PROVIDED BY THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF 
LABOR CONCERNING METHOD USED BY THE BUREAU OF LABOR 
STATISTICS FOR ESTIMATINCi ADDITIONS TO THE LABOR FORCE 
IN 1955 A^D 1960 RESULTING FROM ASSUMED LEVELS OF NET 
IMMIGRATION 

Office Memokandum 

NOVEXtKER 7, 1952. 
To: Mr. Boris S. Yane, President's Commission on Inuiiigration and Naturaliza- 
tion. 
From: Charles D. Stewart. 

Subject: Method used li.v the I>ureau of Labor Statistics for estimating additions 
to the labor force in 1955 and 19()0 resulting from assumed levels of net 
imnugration. 
Following is the brief explanation which you requested for the use of the 
Executive Director of the Commission. We suggest that it be considered a tech- 
nical note on table 1 accompanying the statement made by the Conunissiouer of 
I^abor Statistics before the Commission on October 27, 1952. 

Method used hi/ Bureau of Lahor 8tnti.sties for estimating additions to the labor 
force in 19.i.'> and IdHO resultiiirj from assumed levels of net ininiigration 
The net additions to the labor force resulting from assumed levels of net immi- 
gration were computed in two basic steps : 



1 Kuznets. Simon, National Product Since 1869. National Bureau of Economic Research, 
New York, 1946. ^ . 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1977 

1. The number of iiniiii^iaiiis uinltT each assumption \v;i.s distributed into 
r»-year age groups of men and women. This was done on the l)asis of the age-sex 
distribution of innuigrants used by flie United States r>urean of tlie Census in 
mailing tlie jiopubition projections published in P-2r», No. 4',], Illustrative Projec- 
tions of the Population of the United States. V.)~A\ to IIMJO. Tlie matter of aging 
and mortality was partially talcen into account by apj)lying .l-year death rates 
to the innuigrants in li).").". to estimate ilie number surviving to be 5 years older in 
JIX'.O. For simplicity in computation, it was assinned that there were no deatlis 
within the period V.)7>l\-~C> among those admitted during that period and no deaths 
ill the period IDo.VtiO to pei'sons admitted during those years. Tliis procedure 
does not materially affect tiie results, as can he seen from the fact that only 20,000 
dearbs would (itciir in the o yi'ais between i:).") and l!)(i() among the tjO0,O0') 
immigrants aihiiitted by I!).") under the assumption of 200,000 ijer year. 

2. Projected labor force participation rates for lOo.") and lOiiO, by age group, 
for men and womm over 14 years were apitlied to the immigrant jiopulation in 
lliese age grouiis and the resulting labor force in each age was summed to obtain 
the total for immigrants 14 years and ovtn'. This step assumes that the rates 
of labor force participation for immigrants is tiic same in each ag(^ as for the 
United States population as a whole. 

I.ditor frnc( ixiificii'dtioii rate fur iiimiif/rdiits in /.''.;.7 diid UKU) 

1 !»".."»: 

Based on population 14 years and over 59.4 

Base<l on population of all agfs 53.9 

19U0: 

Based on jxipulatioii 14 years and over 60.3 

Basrd on jiopulation of all ages 55.2 



LIST OF CRITICAL OCCUPATIONS, SUI'PLIICD BY THE UNITED STATES 
DEPARTMENT OF LABOR, EFFECTIVE MAY 7, 1951, AND REVISED TO 
AUGUST 26, 1952 

Note. — Each occupation included has been determined on the basis of th«> 
following criteria : 

(a) Under the foreseeable mobilization program an over-all shortage of 
workers in the occupation exists or is developing which will significantly inter- 
fere with effective functioning of essential industries and activities. 

( &) A minimum accelerated training time of 2 years (or the equivalent in work 
experience) is necessary to the satisfactory performance of all the major tasks 
found in the occupation. 

(c) The occupation is indispensable to the functioning of the industries or 
activities in which it occurs. 

OCCUPATIONAL TITLES 

Agronomist Engineer, professional (all liranches) 

Aircraft and engine mechanics (air Entomologist 

transportiition and manufacturing) I<'arm opcnitors and assistants 

Airplane navigator, commercial Foreman (critical operations only) 

Airplane pilot, commercial I'ourdrinier wire weaver 

Airways operations specialist (Jenlogist 

Apprentice (critical (»ccupations onl.v) < Ji"oi)liysicist 

I'.lackshiitlis and hammersmiths Class lijower, laboratory apparatus 

Boilermaker Heat trtater, all around 

Ca!)!e splicer, power Instrument repairman 

Chenust Licensed mates 

Clinical iisychologist Lineman, power 

Dentist L»ftsman 

Die setter .Machinist 

Driller, jietroleuin .Maintenance nuM-hanic. industrial 

Electrici.'in. air])iane Masters and pilots 

Electronic technician .Alathi-inat ician 

Engineer draftsman, design Met.al miner, nnderm-ound, all arourul 

Engineers, marine, chiefs and as- .Metal spinner 

sistanfs .Microbiologist (includes bacteriologist) 



1978 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 



OCCXJPATIONAL TITLES COUtillUed 



Millwright 
Model makei" 
Molder and coremaker 
Nurse, professional 
Oil well servicing technician 
Orthopedic appliance and limb tech- 
nician 
Osteopath 

Parasitologist (plant or animal) 
Patternmaker 
Pharmacologist 
Physician and surgeon 
Physicist 



Physiologist (plant or animal) 

Plant pathologist 

Precision lens grinders and polishers 

Roller, iron and steel 

Sawsmith ___ 

Shipfitter 

Stilhnan 

Teacher, college and vocational 

(critical occupations only) 
Tool and die designer 
Tool and die maker 
Veterinarian 



INFORMATION PROVIDED BY THE UNITED STATES ATOMIC ENERGY 
COMMISSION CONCERNING REFERENCES ON CONTRIBUTIONS OF 
FOREIGN-BORN SCIENTISTS TO THE UNITED STATES ATOMIC 
ENERGY PROGRAM 

Atomic Energy Cojimission, 
Washington, D. C, October 13, 1952. 
Mr. Harry Rosenfield, 
Executive Director, 

Pr'esidcnfs Commission on Ittitnigration and Naturalization, 
Washington, D. C. 
Dear Mr. Rosenfield : As you requested, our Library people have done a search 
for references on contributions of foreign-born scientists to the United States 
atomic-energy program. The results are attached. You will find a good many 
duplications owing to the fact that we categorized the statements in two ways — 
alphabetically by the person making the statement quoted, alphabetically by the 
foreign-born scientist whose name was mentioned in the statement. 
Sincerely yours, 

Morse Salisbury, 
Director, Division of Information. Services. 



General statements by — 

Hutchins, R. M. 

Ickes, H. L. 

Joint Committee on Atomic Energy 

Lilienthal. D. E. 

Oppenhe'mer, J. R. 

Smyth, H. D. 

Strauss. L. L. 

Waymack, W. W. 
Scientists of foreign birth : 

Allibone, T. E. 

P.axter, J. W. 

Bethe, H. A. 

Bohr, N. 

Breit, G. 

Bi-etscher, E. x 

Chadwick, Sir J. 

Debye, P. 

Einstein, A. 

Emelsus, K. G- 

Failla, G. 

Fermi, E. 

Fowler, R. H. 

Gamow, G. 

Giauque, W. F. 

Grosse, A. von 

Henne, A. L. 



Kingdon, K. H. 
Kistiakowsky, G. B. 
Lattes, C. M. G. 
Lauritsen, C. C. 
Ijauritesen, T. 
Massey, H. S. W. 
Neumann, J. von 
Oliphant, M. L. E. 
Peierls, R. 
Penny, W. C. 
Rabi, I. I. 
Rossi, B. 
Segre, E. 

Skinner, H. W. B. 
Slotin, L. B. 
Smith, C. S. 
Szilard. L. 
Taylor, G. 
Taylor, H. S. 
Teller, E. 
Thornton, R. L. 
Weisskopf, V. F. 
Westendorp, W. F. 
Wigner, E. P. 
Wilkinson, V. J. R. 
Yukawa, H. 
Zinn, W. H. 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1979 

"I^t's look at tlu> intfM-national situation with rognrd to the coiistruftion of 
the atomic Ixmih. Fermi was in Italy. Ilahii was in Germany. Niels Bohr was 
in Deiuiiark. Five or six of the most imixniant men on the Manhattan project 
are IIun,:,'arians who had worked in llunjiary in this field. The basic work of 
Cliadwick in Euiiland was fnndamiMital to the development." 

"Now, we j;ral)Iied them all- not the men, hut we j:rahbed some of the men, 
as many as Hitler and Mussolini lioiiored us by sendinji; here, hut we grabbed 
their ideas, and we made the bomb. I think it can be shown that there is some 
Japanese scientilic influence behind the bomb as well." — Statement by Dr. Robert 
.M. Ilutchins, chancelor of the I'niversity of Chicago. January 25, 194(5 (hearings 
before the Special Committee ou Atomic Energy, U. S. Senate, T'Jth Cong., 2d 
sess., on S. 1717, pt. 2, p. 120). 

"From the days when the refugee (hi Pouts first settled here, at the invitation 
of Thomas .Jefferson, to the arrival of those great refugee scientists who i)layed 
so i>i'eeminent a role in the coiupiest of tlie atom, Einstein and Fernii aiul their 
many distinguish(>d collaborators, we have been not only safeguarding liberty 
but en.ioying its rich fruits. I hope that day will never come when the thinking 
of scientists is so hedged about with petty i-estrictions that, as happened in Ger- 
n'.any and Italy, foreign scientists will not want to come here and our own 
scientists will not want to stay."— Statement of Hon. Harold L. Ickes, Secretary 
of the Interior, January 2^5, 1946 (liearings before the Special Committee on 
Atomic Energy, U. S. Senate, 79th Cong., 2d sess., on S. 1717, pt. I, p. 01). 

"Sucli towering scientific figures as Niels Bohr of Denmark and Sir James 
Chadwick of (Treat I'.ritain, together with dozens of associates from almost all 
countries except Ilussia, came to the Ignited States during the war, participated 
intimately in the Maidiattan District project, rendered priceless service, and 
returned to their native lands when hostilities ended. E(]ually notable figures from 
abroad — Enrico Fermi of Italy, and Hungarian-born Leo Szilard, for example — 
shared in our atonnc effort, and established permanent American residence fol- 
lowing the war." — Joint Comnuttee on Atomic Energy, Investigation Into the 
Fnited States Atomic Energy Commission, Eighty-tirst Congress, first session, 
Senate Report No. 11(19. October 1?., 1949, page S. 

"The development of the atomic bomb itself was the result of the working 
together of men of science and technology in Great Britain, Canada, the United 
States." — Remarks by David E. Lilienthal, Chairman, United States Atomic 
Energy Commission, at preview supper for opening of the atomic-energy exhibit 
at the Golden Jubilee lOxposition, New York City, August 21, 194S. 

"Mr. Johnson. Dr. Oppenlieimer, this work has been done by a great many 
noted scientists? 

"Dr. Oppenheimer. Yes, sir. 

"Mr. Johnson. I think you ought to put into the record, if you know, who the 
men are who received the Nobel prize, who worked on this project. 

"The Cn.\iRMAN. Dr. Oppenheimer is one of them. 

"Dr. Oppenheimer. No, I am not, but there are many of my friends who are. 
There is the great Danish scientist. Bore [Sic]. He contributed enormously. Sir 
James Chadwick, an English scientist: Dr. Compton, Dr. Lawrence, Dr. Anderson 
of the Institute of Technology. I am forgetting many important names. There 
are many." — Dr. J. R. Oppenheimer. (Hearings before the Committee on Mili- 
tary Affairs, House of Representatives, 79th Cong., 1st sess. on H. R. 4280, p. 120.) 

"Professor Oliphant and his team from Birmingham LTniversity were moved to 
Berkeley to work with Pi-ofessor Lawrence's group engaged in research on the 
electromagnetic isotope .separation i)roject. They were joined by other physi- 
cists from Britain including Professor Massey of University College, London, Dr. 
H. W. Skinner of Bi'istol University, Dr. Allibcme and Dr. Wilkins(m who worked 
partly at Berkeley and partly at the electro-magn<>tic separati(Ui plant itself. 
Dr. Emeleus of Imperial College, London, Dr. J. P. Baxter and others were trans- 
ferred to the electro-magnetic plant." 

"Dr. Frisch from the Liverpool nuclear physics groui) and Dr. Bretscher from 
the corresponding Cambridge section, together with some members of their teams, 
were moved into the great American T. A. Research establishment at Los 
Alamos * * *" 

''They were joined, at that time or later, b.v a number of other British scien- 
tists including Professor Peierls and Dr. Penny, of Imiierial College. London 
I'nivei-sity. Prof. Sir Geoffi-ey Taylor paid several visits to the establishment." — 
Smyth. H. D., x\tomic Energy for ^Military Purposes. Princeton, N. J., Princeton 
Univer.sity Press, 1945, page 286. 
25.".r.6— 52 125 



1980 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

"The announcement of the hypothesis of fission and its experimental confirma- 
tion took place in January 1939. There was immediate interest in the possible 
military use of the lar.s^e amounts of energy release in fission. The early efforts 
both at restricting publication and at getting Government support were stimu- 
lated largely by a small group of foreign-born physicists centering on L. Szilard 
and including E. Wigner, E. Teller. V. F. Weisskopf and E. Fermi." — Smyth, 
H. D., Atomic Energy for Military Purposes. Princeton, N. J., Princeton Uni- 
versity Press, 1945, page 45. 

"The new tools at Brekeley, the Argonne, Oak Ridge, Brookhaven, and in 
many university laboratories will soon be serving men like Lawrence, Fermi, 
Seaborg, Compton, Rabi, Oppenheimer, Speddlng, Sinn [sic], Alvarez, and their 
brilliant associates, and new discoveries as dazzling as those which have been 
made will be forthcoming." — Remarks of Lewis. L. Strauss, member. United 
States Atomic Energy Commission, before the University of New Hampshire, 
October 9, 1948. 

"For it was only in 1896 that Becquerel discovered the phenomenon of radio- 
activity, and the subsequent work of Einstein, Rutherford, Bohr, Millikan, Fermi, 
Compton, Lawrence, and many others in the galaxy of lirilliant men and women, 
has exposed the atom and its nucleus to our intellectual contemplation." — Re- 
marks by Lewis L. Strauss, member United States Atomic Energy Commission, 
before the New York Academy of Medicine, October 30, 1947. 

"Civilian scientists of many nations, pressing zealously for new knowledge in 
the normal way of scientists, step by step had come to the discovery of nuclear 
fission (splitting the atom) just before the outbreak of World War n * * * 
The war put an urgency into it that greatly increased the pace. The research 
and experiments were under wartime wraps. The work came to be concentrated 
in the United States. Anti-Fascist scientists who had fled Europe played a 
tremendous role." — Remarks of W. W. Waymack, member. United States Atomic 
Energv Commission, before the Illinois AVelfare Association, Chicago, November 
20, 1947. 

"Even a casual look at the background must make clear as crystal to anyone 
the fact that the release of atomic energy, and all that comes with it, is the 
result of a world-wide search for knowledge which liegan farther back than 
we can probe and which in later stages, was thoroughly international. Any look 
at the record that is more tlian casual will reveal that many more of the 
major contributions to the basic knowledge required were made by scientists 
of other nations. American contributions were fine ; there is no need to de- 
precate them. But to miss the point that more of the basic discoveries came 
from abroad would be dangerously unrealistic — "dangerously" because it would 
obscure the fact that up to now America has depended heavily on the rest of the 
world in basic scientific research. It would obsure the fact that we are today 
dependent for further advance upon a comparative few."^ — Remarks of Com- 
missioner W. W. Waymack, T'^nited States Atomic Energy Commission, before the 
Council on World Affairs. Cleveland, Ohio, April 2, 1948. 

"Anti-Nazi scientists, some of them in America, stimulating and cooperating 
with American scientists, educated President Roosevelt as to tlie bomb possi- 
ilnlity * * * On December 2, 1942, right here in the IMiddle West, in a room 
under the stands of Stagg Field at the L^niversity of Chicago, with the partici- 
pation of an international band of scientists and of American scientists from 
many sections * * * the first nuclear chain reaction in history was dem- 
onstrated." — Remarks of Commissioner W. W. Waymack, United, States Atomic 
Energy Commiasion, the State University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, June 11, 
1948. 

AlUbone, T. E. (England) 

"Professor Oliphant and liis team from Birmingham University were moved 
to Berkeley to work with Professor La^vrence's group engaged in research on 
the electromagnetic isotope separation project. They were joined by other 
physicists from Britain including Professor Massey of University College, Lon- 
don, Dr. H. W. Skinner of Bristol Universitjr, Dr. Allibone and Dr. Wilkinson 
who worked partly at Berkeley and partly at the electromagnetic separation 
plant itself. Dr. Emeleus of Imperial College, London, Dr. J. F. Baxter and 
others were transferred to the electromagnetic plant." 

"Dr. Frisch from the Liverpool nuclear physics group and Dr. Bretscher from 
the corresponding Cambridge section, together with some members of their 
teams, were moved into the great American T. A. Research Estal)lishment at 
Los Alamos * * *" 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1981 

"They were joined, at that time or later, by a number of other British scien- 
tists iiK'ludiutf Professor Peierls aiul Dr. Penny, of Imperial College, London 
University. Prof. Sir Geoffrey Taylor paid several visits to the establishment." 
— Smyth, H. D., Atomic Energy f<J>' Military Purposes, Princeton, N. J., Princeton 
University Press 1945, page 28G. 

Baxter, J. W. {Great Britain) 

"Professor Oliphaut and his team from Birmingham University were moved 
to Berkeley to work with Professor Lawrence's group engaged in research on 
the electromagnetic isotoim separation project. They were joined by other 
phvsicists from Britain including Professor Massey, of University College, Lon- 
don, Dr. H. W. Skinner, of Bristol University, Dr. Allibone and Dr. Wilkinson 
who worked partly at Berkeley and partly at the electromagnetic separation 
plant itself. Dr. Enieleus, of Imperial College, London, Dr. J. W. Baxter and 
others were transferred to the electromagnetic plant."— Smyth, H. D., Atomio 
Enemy for Military rurposes. Princeton, N. J., Princeton University Press 1945, 
page 286. 
Bethe, Hans A. (Germany, 1906) 

"There were two considerations that gave unusual importance to the work 
of the Theoretical Physics Division under H. Bethe. The first of these was the 
necessity for effecting simultaneous development of everything from the funda- 
mental materials to the method of putting them to use — all despite the virtual 
unavailability of the principal materials (U-2;)5 and plutonium) and the complete 
novelty of the processes The second consideration was the impossibility of 
producing (as for experimental purposes) a 'small-scale' atomic explosion by 
making use of only a small amount of fissionable material. (No explosion occurs 
at all unless the mass of the fissionable material exceeds the critical mass.) 
Thus it was necessary to proceed from data obtained in experiments on infini- 
tesimal quantities of materials and to combine it with the available theories as 
accurately as possible in order to make estimates as to what would happen in 
the bomb. Only in this way was it possible to make sensible plans for other 
parts of the project, and to make decisions on design and construction without 
waiting for elaborate experiments on large quantities of material. * * * 
The determination of the critical size of the bomb was one of the main problems 
of the Theoretical Physics Division." — Smyth, H. D., Atomic Energy for Militai'y 
Purposes, Princeton, N. J., Princeton University Press, 1945, page 214. 

"For example, Dr. Bethe and Dr. Teller in the area of fundamental and 
analytical nuclear considerations. The fact that men of their caliber were 
willing to give their time and found it worth while to give their time * * *." — 
Dr. Mervin J. Kelly, executive vice president. Bell Laboratories, Inc. (Investi- 
gation into the United States Atomic Energy Project. Hearings before the Joint 
CJonnuittee on Atomic Energy, Congress of the United States, Slst Cong., 1st sess., 
pt. 20, p. 812.) 

Bohr, Niels {Denmark) 

•'For it was only in 1896 that Becquerel discovered the phenomenon of radio- 
activity, and the subsequent work of Einstein, Rutherford, Bohr, Millikan, Fermi, 
Compton, Lawrence, and many others in the galaxy of brilliant men and women, 
has exposed the atom and its nucleus to our intellectual contemplation." — 
Remarks of Lewis L. Strauss, member of the United States Atomic Energy Cora- 
mission, before the New York Academy of Medicine. October 30, 1947. 

"The participants included a large number of the pioneer explorers of the 
nucleus of the atom who later played a major part in the development of the 
atomic bomb. Among them wei'e Drs. Bohr, Fermi, I. I. Rabi * * *." — 
Lawrence, W. L., Dawn Over Zero, New York, Knopf, 1947, page 44. 

"* * * Lise Meitner, was forced to fiee Berlin for her life. She had been 
engaged with two colleagues in an experiment at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute 
anrl had to leave before it was completed. * * * Subsequently, safe in Copen- 
hagen, she was able to complete her computations and made a report of them. 
The i-esult of the experiment showed that the nucleus of the atom of uranium 
had been split. Miss Meitner concluded that huge amounts of energy nuist have 
been released in such a fission and she computed it to be 200 million electron volts. 

"This was the report which the Nobel Laureate, Niels Bohr, brought to his 
friends in America in January 19;'>9. From that message grew our atomic 
energy enterprise * * *. "-^Remarks of Commissioner Lewis L. Strauss, 
United States Atomic Energy Commission, at the California Institute of Tech- 
nology associates dinner, Los Angeles, Calif., November 8, 1949. 



1982 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

"Mr. Johnson. Dr. Oppenheimer, this work has been done by a great many 
noted scientists? 

"Dr. Oppenheimer. Yes, sir. 

"Mr. Johnson. I think you ought to put in the record, if you know, who the men 
are who received the Nobel prize, who worlced on this project. 

"The Chairman. Dr. Oppenheimer is one of them. 

"Dr. Oppenheimer. No, I am not, but tliere are many of my friends who are. 
There is the great Danish scientist. Bore [sic]. He contributed enormously. 
Sir James Chadwick, an English scientist ; Dr. Coiupton, Dr. Lawrence, Dr. Ander- 
son, of the Institute of Technology. I am forgetting many important names. 
There are many." — Dr. J. R. Oppenheimer (hearings before the Committee on 
Military Affairs, House of Representatives. H. R. 4280, An Act for the Develop- 
ment and Control of Atomic Energy, October 9, 18, 1945, 79th Cong., 1st sess., 
p. 129.) 

"In the winter of 1938-39, Bohr was working with Einstein at the Institute 
for Advanced Study, in Princeton, N. J., and it was through his presence there 
that he was able to help set the Allies on the path to the manufacture of the atomic 
bomb."- — Current Biography, 1945. New York, H. W. Wilson Co. 

"Such towering scientific figures as Niels Bohr, of Denmark, and Sir James 
Chadwick, of Great Britain, together with dozens of associates from almost all 
countries except Russia, came to the United States during the war, participated 
intimately in the Manhattan District project, rendered priceless service, and 
returned to their native lands when hostilities ended. Equally notable figures 
from abroad — Enrico Fermi, of Italy, and Hungarian-born Leo Szilard, for 
example — shared in our atomic effort and established permanent American 
residence following the war." — Joint Committee on Atomic Energy, Investigation 
Into the United States Atomic Energy Commission, Senate Report No. 1169, 
October 13, 1949, Eighty-first Congress, first session, page 8. 

Breit, Gregory (Russia) 

"The theory of the absorption of neutrons at, and in the vicinity of, the 
resonance peaks was worked out by G. Bi-eit and E. P. Wigner in the United 
States in 1936, and the resulting Breit-Wigner formula, as it is called, has formed 
the basis of the interpretation of neutron cross sections." — Glasstone, S. Source- 
book on Atomic Energy, New York, D. Van Nostrand, 1950, page 313. 

"The third initial objective of the metallurgical project was to obtain theo- 
retical and experimental data on a 'fast neutron' reaction, such as would be 
required in an atomic bomb. This aspect of the work was initially planned and 
coordinted by G. Breit, of the University of Wisconsin, and later continued by 
J. R. Oppenheimer, of the University of California." — Smyth, H. D., Atomic 
Energy for Military Purposes, Princeton, N. J., I'rincetou University Press, 1945, 
page 103. 

Bretscher, E. {Switzerland) 

"Dr. Frisch, from the Liverpool nuclear-physics group, and Dr. Bretscher, from 
the corresponding Cambridge section, together with some members of their teams, 
were moved into the great American T. A. research establishment at Los Alamos 
* * *." — Smyth, H. D. Atomic Enei'gy for Military Purposes. Princeton, 
N. J., Princeton University Press. 1945, page 286. 

Chad^cick, 8ir James (Great Britain) 

"Such towering scientific figures as Niels Bohr, of Denmark, and Sir James 
Chadwick, of Gi-eat Britain, together with dozens of associates from almost all 
countries except Russia, came to the United States during the war, participated 
intimately in the Manhattan District project, rendered priceless service, and 
returned to their native lands when hostilities ended. Equally notable figures 
from abroad — Enrico Fermi, of Italy, and Hungarian-born Leo Szilard, for exam- 
ple — shared our atomic effort and established permanent American residence 
following the war." — Joint Committee on Atomic Energy. Investigation into the 
United States Atomic Energy Commission. Senate Report No. 1169, October 13, 
1949. Eighty-first Congress, first session, page 8. 

"Mr. Johnson. Dr. Oppenheimer, this work has been done by a great many 
noted scientists? 

Dr. Oppenheimer. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Johnson. I think you ought to put into the record, if you know, who the 
men are who received the Nobel Prize, who worked on this project. 

The Chairman. Dr. Oppenheimer is one of them. 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1983 

Dr. Oppenheimer. No, I am not, but there are many of my friends who are. 
There is the great Danish scientist, Bore (sic) He contributed enormously. 
Sir James Chadwick, an Knglisli scientist ; Dr. Compton, Dr. Lawrence, Dr. Ander- 
son, of the Institute of Technology. I am forgetting many important names. 
There are many." — Dr. J. R. Oppenlieimer (hearings before tlie Committee on 
Military Affairs, House of Representatives. H. R. 4280, an act for tlie Develop- 
ment and Control of Atomic Energy, October 9, IS, 1945. Seventy-ninth Congress, 
first sesson, p. 129.) 

"Chadwick was the head of a British delegation which contributed materially 
to the success of the laboratory [Los Alamos]." — Smyth, H. D. Atomic Energy 
for Military Purposes. Princeton, N. J., Princeton University Press. 1945. Page 
214. 
Dehyc, Pet a- {Ncthcrlatids) 

"Chancellor Arthur H. Compton of Washington University, who was one of 
the oustanding contributors to work on the atomic bomb, received the Nobel 
Prize in physics in 1927 because of his- explanation of the inelastic scattering 
of light quanta by free electrons. Simultaneously, Peter Debye, now chairman 
of the Department of Chemistry at Cornell but then a Dutch citizen and pro- 
fessor at the University of Utrecht, was announcing the same conclusions based 
on parallel researches. American physicists speak understandingly of 'the 
Compton effect': their colleagues in the Netherlands mean precisely the same 
thing when they speak of 'the Debye effect.' " — Gellhorn. W. Security, Loyalty, 
and Science. Ithaca, N. Y., Cornell University Press, 1950, page 14. 

Einstein, A. (Germany) 

"It bears repeating that the men who stimulated this country's interest in 
attempting to use the Hahn-Strassman discovery of the tissionability of uranium 
were Enrico Fermi, who won the Nobel Prize in physics when he was a pro- 
fessor in his native Italy, and Albert Einstein, Leo Szilard, and Eugene P. 
Wigner, all of whom were mature scientists before they were American citi- 
zens." — Gellhorn, W. Security, Loyalty, and Science. Ithaca, N. Y., Cornell 
University Press, 1950, page 13. 

"From the days when the refugee du Ponts first settled here, at the invita- 
tion of Thomas Jefferson, to the arrival of those great refugee scientists who 
played so preeminent a role in the conquest of the atom, Einstein and Fermi 
and their many distinguished collaborators, we have been not only safeguarding 
liberty but enjoying its rich fruits. I hope that day will never come when the 
thinking of scientists is so hedged about with petty restrictions that, as hap- 
pened in Germany and Italy, foreign scientists will not want to come here and 
our own scientists will not want to stay." — Statement of Hon. Harold L. Ickes, 
Secretary of the Interior, January 23, 1946 (hearings before the Special Com- 
mittee on Atomic Energy, United States Senate on S. 1717, a bill for the develop- 
ment and control of Atomic Energy, pt. I, 79th Cong., 2d sess., p. 91). 

"For it was only in ISOO that Becquerel discovered the phenomenon of radio- 
activity, and the siibsequent work of Einstein, Rutherford, Bohr, Millikan, Fermi, 
Compton, Lawrence, and many others in the galaxy of brilliant men and women, 
has exposed the atom and its nucleus" to our intellectual contemplation." — Re- 
marks of Lewis L. Strauss, member of the United States' Atomic Energy Com- 
mission, before the New York Academy of INIedicine, October 30, 1947. 

Emelens, K. G. {Great Britain) 

"Professor Oliphant and his team from Birmingham University were moved 
to Berkeley to work with Professor Lawrence's group in research on the elec- 
tromagnetic isotope separation project. They were joined by other physicists 
from Britain including Professor Massey of University College, London, Dr. H. W. 
Skinner of Bristol University, Dr. Allibone, and Dr. Wilkinson who worked 
partly at Berkeley and partly at the electromagnetic separation plant itself. 
Dr. Emeleus of Imperial College, London, Dr. J. P. Baxter, and others were trans- 
ferred to the Electromagnetic plant."— Smyth, H. D. Atomic Energy for Mili- 
tary Purposes. Princeton, N. J., Princeton University Press, 1945, page 2S6, 

Failla, Gioacehino (Italy) 

Member, Advisory Committee on Biology and Medicine, USAEC. 

Fermi, E. (Italy) 

"The new tools at Berkeley, the Argonne, Oak Ridge, Brookhaven, and in 
many university laboratories will soon be serving men like Lawrence, Fermi, 
Seaborg, Compton, Rabi, Oppenheimer, Spedding, Sinn [sicj, Alvarez, and their 



1984 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

brilliant associates ; and new discoveries as dazzling as those which have been 
made will be forthcoming." — Remarks of Lewis L. Strauss, member, United 
States Atomic Energy Commission before the University of New Hampshire, 
October 9, 1948. 

"It bears repeating that the men who stimulated this coimtry's interest in 
attempting to use the Hahn-Strassman discovery of the fissionability of uranium 
were Enrico Fermi, who had won the Nabel Prize in ph.vsics when he was a 
professor in his native Italy, and Albert Einstein, Leo Szilard, and Eugene P. 
Wigner, all of whom were mature scientists before they were American citi- 
zens." — Gellhorn, W. Security, Loyalty, and Science. Ithaca, N. Y., Cornell 
University Press, 1950, page 13. 

"The participants included a large number of the pioneer explorers of the 
nucleus of the atom who later played a ma.ior part in the development of the 
atomic bomb. Among them were Drs. Bohr, Fermi, I. I. Rabi. * * *" — 
Lawrence, W. L. Dawn Over Zero. New York, Knopf, 1947, page 44. 

"Such towering scientitic figures as Niels Bohr of Denmark and Sir James 
Chadwick of Great Britain, together with dozens of associates from almost all 
countries except Russia, came to the United States during the war, participated 
intimately in the JNIanhattan District pro.iect, rendered priceless service, and 
returned to their native lands when hostilities ended. Equally notable figures 
from abroad — Enrico Fermi of Italy and Hungarian-born Leo Szilard, for 
example — shared in our atomic effort and established permanent American resi- 
dence following the war." — Joint Committee on Atomic Energj\ Investigation 
into the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Senate Report No. 1169, 
October 13, 1949. Eighty-first Congress, first session, page 8. 

"For it was only in 1896 that Becquerel discovered the phenomenon of radio- 
activity, and the subsequent work of Einstein, Rutherford. Bohr, Millikan, 
Fermi, Compton, Lawrence, and many others in the galaxy of brilliant men and 
women, lias exposed the atom and its nucleus to our intellectual contempla- 
tion." — Remarks of Lewis L. Strauss, member. United States Atomic Energy 
Commission, before the New York Academy of Medicine, October 30, 1947. 

"The announcement of the hypothesis of fission and its experimental confirma- 
tion took place in January 1939. There was immediate interest in the possible 
military use of the large amounts of energy released in fission. The early 
efforts both at restricting publication and at getting Government support were 
stimulated largely by a small group of foreign-liorn physicists centering on L. 
Szilard and including E. Wigner, E. Teller. V. F. Weisskopf, and E. Fermi. — 
Smyth, H. D., Atomic Energy for Military Purpose. Princeton, N. J., Princeton 
University Press, 1945, page 45. 

"From the days when the refugee du Ponts first settled here, at the invitation 
of Thomas Jefferson, to the arrival of those great refugee scientists who played 
so preeminent a role in the conquest of the atom, Einstein and Fermi and their 
many distinguished collaboratoi'S, we have been not only safeguarding liberty 
but enjoying its rich fruits. I hope that day will never come when the thinking 
of scientists is so hedged about with petty restrictions that, as happened in 
Germany and Italy, foreign scientists will not want to come here and our own 
scientists will not want to stay."- — Statement of Hon. Harold L. Ickes, S'^cre- 
tary of the Interior, January 23, 1946 (hearing before the Special Committee 
on Atomic Energy, United States Senate on S. 1717, a bill for the development 
and control of atomic energy, p. I, 79th Cong., 2d sess, page 91). 

"In May of this year [1945], 2 months before the test in New Mexico showed 
conclusively that the atomic bomb would work. Secretary Stimson, with the 
approval of the President, appointed an interim committee to recommend legis- 
lation that would insure that this discovery would be controlled and developed 
in the best interests of the people of this country * * *." 

"The members w^re also aided by the advice and experience of eminent 
scientists who had rendered invaluable service in the atomic bomb project. — 
Dr. J. R. Oppenheimer, Dr. E. O. Lawrence, Dr. Enrico Fermi, and Dr. Arthur 
H. Compton."— Statement of the Honorable Robert P. Patterson, Secretary of 
War, October 9, 19-15 (hearings before the Pommittee on Military Affairs, House of 
Representatives. 79th Cong., 1st sess., on H. R. 4280, pages 4-5). 

"Dr. GuNN. On March 17, 1939, there was a discussion at Navy Department, 
with both Navy and Army officers present, and scientists of the Naval Research 
Laboratory, of which I was one. A meeting was held, at which Professor Fermi 
and Professor Pegram, of Columbia University, were present. Fermi was known 
to me as a highly comnetent phvsicist, unexcitahle, conservative. 

"The Chairman (Senator MeMahon). You had great confidence in Fermi? 

"Dr. GuNN. We think very highly of Fermi. He was an experimenter in 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1985 

nuclear physics, and an oufstaiuling exponent at that time." — Hearings before 
the Sijecial Committee on Atomic Energy. United States Senate. Senate Reso- 
hition 171), a resolution creating a Si)ecial Committee To Investigate Problems Re- 
lating to the Development, Use, and Control of Atomic Energy, part '6, page 3G6, 
Seventy-ninth Congress, first session (Dr. Ross Unnn, technical adviser to the 
Naval Administraticm of the Naval Iteseareh Laboratory). 

' These men have long been associated with research on, and the development 
of, the atomic bomb. Dr. Oppenheimer was in charge of the work in New 
Mexico on the perfection of the bomb itself. Dr. Fermi, who received the Nobel 
Prize for physics in IJWS for bis work on the neutron and other nuclear ]ihe- 
uomena, has work closely closely with Dr. Oppenheimer throughout the proj- 
ect. * * * Because of the importance of their work on the bomb project, 
it occurred to me that you and your committee would surely be interested in 
having the views of these * * * scientists." — ^llobert P. Patterson, Secre- 
tary of War, in a letter to Andrew J. May, Chairman, Military Affairs Commit- 
tee, House of Representatives, dated October 12, 1945 (hearings before the 
Committee on Military Affairs, House of Representatives H. R. 4280, an act 
for the Development and Control of Atomic Energy, October 9, 18, 1945. 79th 
Cong., 1st sess., pp. 100-107). 

"Self-exiled Italian physicist, consultant to the Argonne National Laboratory 
and i)rofessor of physics at the University of Chicago, received the Nobel Prize 
in 1038. He was cited by the War Department as the first man to achieve nuclear 
chain reaction. During the war he was associate director of the Los Alamos 
Laboratory. Fermi was born in Rome and was professor of theoretical physics 
at the University of Rome from 1927 to 1938, when he left the country because 
of opposition to fascism. He was the first to systematize the science of physics 
in Italy. Mr. Fermi studied at the University of Pisa, Italy, from 1918 to 1922, 
and has honorary dt^grees from the Universities of Utrecht and Heidelberg. 
Before cominir to Cliicago with the Metallurgical Laboratory, Fermi woi-ked at 
Columbia University." — Robinson. G. O. The Oak Ridge Story. Kingsport, 
Tenn., Soutliern Publishers, Inc., 1950, page 177. 

Fowler, R. H. {Great Britain) 

"He arrived in Ottawa in late July 1940. He had just been in the TTnited 
States as a member of the Tizard mission sent out from the United Kingdom 
to enlist Americnn collaboration in radar development and other war research. 
Fowler reported that experiments with uranium and carbon, similar in purpose 
to the work in Ottawa, although somewhat different in methods were already 
well advanced in the United States. A visit to Dr. L. J. Briggs at the Bureau 
of Standards in Washington and to Professor Peagram's laboratory in Columbia 
led to an exchange of technical information related to the Ottawa experiments 
during the following year before the United States entered the war. 

"* * * development of methods for the production of plutonium, in an 
atomic-energy reactor containimr natural uranium * * *, -p^^^ \(\ea had 
been considered in the United Kinadom for some time and had been mentioned 
by Professor Fowler during a visit to the United States as early as January 
1941.''^ — Laurence, George C. Canada's^Participation in Atomic Energy Develop- 
ment. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 3, 326 (November 1947). 

Gnmnu\ Grorfjc ( Riis.tia) 

"The fi'-st experiments on nuclear transmutation were naturally carried out 
with swift alpha particles because of their availability, but the wave-mechanical 
calculations made by G. Gamow in 1928 suggested that other charged pai'ticles 
might be more effective. He showed that not only was the energy barrier lower, 
but the probability of penetrating it and reaching an atomic nucleus also in- 
creased, as the charire and mass of the incident particle decreased" (p. 218). 

"* * * an atomic nucleus has been compared in its behavior to a drop of 
liquid. This analogy appears to have been suggested by G. Gamow in 19.'',0. and 
it has been employed by nuclear physicists from time to time" (p. 3."8). — Glas- 
stone, S. Sourcebook on Atomic Energy. New York, D. Van Nostrand, 1950. 

"George Gamow. nuclear physicist, is known for his scientific studies as well 
as for his books for the general public. He has made studies in the field of 
theoretical physics, particularly in the anplication of nuclear reactions to the 
evolution of stars: and he has (as of 19.~1) written and illustrated eight books, 
the popular style of which has attracted laymen readers. In 1934, after lectur- 
ing at European and .\merican iniiversities, he joined the faculty of the George 
Washington University as professor of theoretical physics" (p. 10). 



1986 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

"During and after World War II Gamow, who was giv^en American citizenship 
in 1940, served as consultant to several Navy and Air Force boards, to the Los 
Alamos Scientific Laboratory, to Johns Hopkins University on Army and Navy 
contract work, and to the Rand Corp. on Air Force contract work" (p. 12). — 
Current Biography. New York, H. W. Wilson Co., October 1951. 

Gianque, William F. (Canada) 

"The 1949 Nobel prize for chemistry was awarded to Dr. William F. Giauque 
'for his contribution to chemical thermodynamics, especially for his investiga- 
tions of the properties of substances at extremely low temperatures.' Giauque 
has been associated with the University of California for more than 30 years, as 
student, instructor, and professor of chemistry." — Current Biography. New 
York. H. W. Wilson Co., 1950. 

"The discovery * * * [1929] by F. W. Giauque and H. L. Johnston, in 
the United States, that atmospheric oxygen is a mixture of three isotopes, showed 
that (physical) atomic weights obtained by the mass spectrograph could not be 
identified with the chemical values, as explained above." — Glasstone, S. Source- 
book on Atomic Energy. New York, D. Van Nostrand Co., 1950, page 19G. 

Von Grosse, A. (Russia) 

"Urey and A. Von Grosse had already been considering the concentration of 
heavy water by means of a catalytic exchange reaction between hydrogen gas 
and liquid water."— Smyth, H. D. Atomic Energy for Military Purposes. Prince- 
ton. N. J., Princeton University Press, 1945, page 69. 

"The most effective catalyst of this type [for the production of heavy water] 
was discovered by H. S. Taylor at Princeton University, while a second, less 
active catalyst was discovered by A. von Grosse." — Smyth. H. D. Atomic Energy 
for Military Purposes. Princeton, N. J., Princeton University Press, 1945, 
page 169. 

Henne, A. L. (Bclf/ium) 

"As in the plutonium problem, so here also, there were many questions of cor- 
rosion, etc., to be investigated. New coolants and lubricants were developed by 
A. L. Henne and his associates, by G. H. Cady, by W. T. Miller and his coworkers, 
by E. T. McBee and his associates, and by scientists of various corporations 
including Hooker Electrochemical Co., the du I'ont Co., and the Harshaw Chemi- 
cal Co." — Smyth, II. D. Atomic Energy for INIilitary Purposes. Princeton, N. J., 
Princeton University Press, 1945, pages 182-183. 

Kingdon, K. H. (Jamaica, British West Indies) 

"By using the electromagnetic technique, A. O. Nier at the University of Minne- 
sota, and K. H. Kingdon and H. C. Pollock, at the General Electric Laboratories, 
Schenectady, N. Y., were able in 1940 to obtain sufficient ui'anium 235 to provide 
the answer- to a vital problem in connection with the utilization of nuclear 
energy." — Glasstone. S. Soui-cebook on Atonuc Energv. New York, D. Van 
Nostrand, 1950, pages 204-205. 

Kistiakotvsky, George B. (Russia, 1900) 

"For administrative purposes the scientific staff at Los Alamos was arranged 
in seven divisions, which have been rearranged at various times. During the 
spring of 1945 the divisions were: * * * Explosives Division under G. B. 
Kistiakowsky * * *" (p. 213). 

"In and around the shelter were some twenty-odd people concerned with last- 
minute arrangements. Included were Dr. Oppenheimer. the Director who had 
borne the great scientific burden of developing the weapon from the raw materials 
made in Tennessee and Washington, and a dozen of his key assistants, Dr. Kistia- 
kowsky * * *"(p. 2.52). — Smyth. H. D. Atonuc Energy for Military Purposes. 
Princeton, N. J., Princeton University Press, 1945. 

"The last men to inspect the tower with its cosmic bomb (at Alamogordo) were 
Dr. Bainbridge, Dr. Kistiakowsky, and Lt. Howard C. Bush * * *" — Law- 
rence, W. L. Dawn Over Zero. New York. Knoi)f, 1947, page 191. Member, 
Advisory Committee on Chemistry, U. S. A. E. C. 

Lattes, Cesare M. G. (Brazil) 

"The Brazilian ph.ysicist C. M. G. Lattes, working in collaboration with scien- 
tist Eugene Gardner of the University of California, succeeded in 1948, in a 
sense, in producing matter from pure energy * * * 

"On February 12, 1948, * * * Lattes" arrived in Berkeley, Calif. ; he had 
been granted a Rockefeller Foundation national research fellowship as consultant 



coiMMissiox OX nr:MinR\Tiox axd naturalization 1987 

at the T'nivorsity of California Radiation Laboratory. Thore the Brazilian 
began work with Dr. Eusene Gardner * * * Workin'j; on an Atomic Energy 
Commission contract, Lattes and Gardner combined their techniques * * * 

"When announced by University of California laboratory director E. O. 
Lawrence on March i'>, 194S. the discovery [production of mesons] was hailed as 
a 'momentous achievement'; the AEC research (lir(>ctor, Dr. James B. Fisk, 
called it 'of overwhelmin.i: importance for the handle it provides in workin,;; to 
understand fundamental forces.' The producticm of mesous, it was pointed out, 
might be regarded as developing matter from energy." — Curi'ent Biography. 
New York. H. W. Wilson Co., 1940. 

"Prof. Henry DeW. Smyth of Princeton, now a member of the Atomic Energy 
Commission, tells an illuminating anecdote involving a brilliant young Brazilian, 
C. M. G. Lattes, who, still in his twenties, has been appointed to a professorship 
at the University of Sao Paulo. Dr. Lattes studied at Sao Paulo and subse- 
quently at the University of Bristol. Then he went to Berkeley to visit the 
lladiation Laboratory of the University of California. r>y applying work he had 
previously done in connection with the tracks of mesons produced by cosmic 
rays, the Brazilian scientist quickly discovered that mesons, the forces which 
hold the particles of the atomic nucleus together, were being produced arti- 
ficially by the big cyclotron at Berkeley. Until that time the California physicists 
had been unaware that the cyclotron had been manufacturing mesons for months, 
though this has subsequently been described as one of the most Important events 
in physics since the war." — Gellhorn, W. Security. Loyalty, and Science. 
Ithaca, N. Y., Cornell University Press, 1950, pages 13-14. 

Lanrifscn, Charles C. (Denmark, 1892) 

"A more rugged form of electroscope was devised by C. C. Lauritsen * * * 
They are the standard field instrument for testing the level of gamma radiation, 
particularly as a safeguard against dangerous exposure." — Smyth, H. D. Atomic 
Energy for Military Purposes. Princeton, X. J., Princeton Univer.sitv Press, 
194n, page 229. 

"I am reassured, however. In noting that not one, but both Lauritsens are listed 
along with Dr. Fowler as principal investigators on one of the research projects 
which the Atomic Energy Commission is helping to support here at Cal Tech." — 
Remarks of Commissioner Lewis L. Strauss, United States Atomic Energy Com- 
mission, at the California Institute of Technology Associates Dinner, Los An- 
geles, Calif., November 8, 1949. 

"One of the siHiplest and generally useful devices of the electrostatic type of 
ionization chamber is the quartz-fiber electroscope invented by C. C. Lauritsen 
and T. Lauritsen in the United States in 1937." — Glasstone, S. Sourcebook on 
Atomic Energy. New York, D. Van Nostrand Co., 1950, page 134. 

Lauritsen, Thomas (Denmark, 1915) 

''I am reassured, however, in noting that not one, but both Lauritsens are listed 
along with Dr. Fowler as the principal investigators on one of the research 
pro.lects which the Atomic Energy Commission is helping to support here at Cal 
Tech." — Remarks of Commissioner Lewis L. Strauss, United States Atomic 
Energy Commission, at the California Institute of Technology Associates Dinner, 
Los Angeles, Calif., November 8, 1949. 

"One of the simplest and generally useful devices of the electrostatic type of 
ionization chamber is the quartz-fiber electroscope invented by C. C. Lauritsen and 
T. Lauritsen in the United States in 1937" (p. 134). 

"An analysis of the i-ate of the neutron intensity b.v the American physicists 
E. T. Booth, .7. R. I)unning, and F. (J. Slack in 19.39, and later in the same year by 
K. J. Brostr0m. J. Koch, and T. Lauritsen, in Denmark, revealed the presence of 
four decay periods." P. 356. — Glasstone, S. Sourcebook on Atomic Energy. New 
York, D. Van Nostrand Co., 19.50. 

Massey, 77. S. W. (Great Britain) 

•'Professor Oliphant and his team from Birmingham University were moved 
to Berkeley to work with Professor Lawrence's group engaged in research on the 
electromagnetic isotope separation project. They were joined bv other phv.sieists 
from Britain including Professor Massey of University College, London. Dr. II. W. 
Skinner of Bristol University, Dr. Allibone and Dr. Wilinson who worked partly 
at Berkeley and partly at the electromagnetic separation plant itself Dr 
Emeleus of Imperial College, London, Dr. J. P. Baxter and others were trans- 
ferred to the electromagnetic plant."— Smyth, H. D. Atomic Energy for Military 
Purposes. Princeton, X. .7., Princeton University Press, 1945, page 286. 



1988 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION . 

'Neumann, John von {Hungary) 

Member, General Advisory Committee, USAEC. 
OUphant, Marcus L. E. {Australia, 1901) 

"A leading member of the team of British scientists who assisted in the de- 
velopment of the atomic bomb is Prof. Marcus L. Oliphant, now director of the 
School of Research in Physical Sciences at the Australian National University. 
One of his mnjor contributions in the field of nuclear physics has been his design 
of heavy higli-voltage apparatus. Oliphant has often been a spokesman for the 
group of British scientists who have opposed attempts to keep a monopoly on the 
manufacture of the atom bomb, and he has repeatedly urged intensive develop- 
ment of industrial use of atomic energy and outlawing the use of the bomb." — 
Current Biography 12, 46 (December 1951). 

"Oliphant and his team from Birmingliam University were moved to Berkeley 
to work witli Professor Lawrence's group engaged in the research on the elec- 
tromagnetic isotope separation project." — Smyth, H. D. Atomic Energy for Mili- 
tary Purposes. Princeton, N. J., Princeton University Press, 1945, page 286. 

Peierls, R. {Great Britain) 

"Dr. Frisch from the Liverpool nuclear physics group and Dr. Bretscher from 
the corresponding Camliridge section, together with some members of their 
teams, were moved into the great American T. A. research establishment at Los 
Alamos * * *" 

"They were joined, at that time or later, by a number of other British scientists 
inclurling Professor Peierls and Dr. Penny, of Imperial College, London Uni- 
versity. Professor Sir Geoffrey Taylor paid several visits to the establishment." — 
Smyth, H. E., Atomic Energy for Military Purposes. Princeton, N. J., Prince- 
ton University Press. 1945, page 286. 

Penny, W. G. {Great Britain) 

"Dr. Frisch from the Liverpool nuclear physics group and Dr. Brescher from 
the corresponding Camliridge section, together with some members of their 
teams, were moved into the great American T. A. research establishment at Los 
Alamos * * *" 

"They were joined, at that time or later, by a number of other British 
scientists including Professor Peierls and Dr. Penny, of Imperial College. Lon- 
don T'niversity." — Smyth, H. D., Atomic Energy for Military Purposes. Prince- 
ton, N. J., Princeton University Press. 1945, page 286. 

"The other is Dr. Penny, professor of applied mathematics at London Uni- 
versity, one of the group of eminent British scientists at Los Alamas." — ■ 
Laurence, W. L., Dawn Over Zero. New York, Knopf, 1947, page 2.31. 

Rabi, Isidor I. {Austria, 1898) 

"The participants included a large number of the pioneer explorers of the 
nucleus of the atom who later played a major part in the development of the 
atomic bomli. Among them were Drs. Bohr, Fermi, I. I. Rabi * * *" — 
Laurence, W. L., Dawn Over Zero, New York, Knopf, 1947, page 44. 

"Nobel prize for Physics, in 1944. Also has received other honors for his 
research on the magnetic property of atoms. The physicist assisted in the 
development of radar and the atomic bomb. Head of the physics department of 
Columbia University, Rabi directs part of the atomic research of the Brook- 
haven National Laboratory." — Current Biography. New York, H. W. Wilson 
Co., 1948. 

"The new tools at Berkeley, the Argonne, Oak Ridge. Brookhaven. and in many 
university laboratories will soon be serving men like Lawrence, Fermi, Seaborg. 
Compton, Ralii, 0:ipenheimer, Spedding, Sinn [sic], Alvarez, and their brilliant 
associates, and new discoveries as dazzling as those which have been made will 
be forthcoming." — Remarks of Lewis L. Strauss, member. United States Atomic 
Energy Commission, before the University of New Hampshire, October 9, 1948. 

Member, General Advisory Committee, United States Atomic Energy Commis- 
sion. 

"The most important developments in the field of nuclear moments are due 
mainly to the work of I. I. Rabi and his collaborators, performed in the United 
States since 19.33." — Glasstone, S., Sourcebook on Atomic Energy. New York, 
D. Van Nostrand, 1950, page 341, 



COMAHSSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1989 

Rossi, Bruno (Italy) 

"Those tests were in tliemselves marvels of inpremuty and inventiveness. One 
of tliem, devised by Dr. Oppenlieinier and Dr. Robert Serbor, and carried out 
with special apparatus designed by Prof. Bruno Rossi, of Cornell, made it pos- 
sible to get an approximation of the forces that would develop inside an atomic 
bomb at th^ instant of exjilosion, without the use of any U-23.J or plutonium." — 
Laurence, W. L. Dawn Over Zero. New York, Knopf, 1947, page 185. 

Seore, E. {Italy) 

"On March 1, 1041, Drs. Seaborg, Segre. Kennedy, and Lawrence proceeded to 
bombard about 1 kilouram of uranium with neutrons." — Laurence, W. L. Dawn 
Over Zero. New York, Knopf, 1947, page 153. 

"An Italian by birth and a former colleague of Dr. Fermi, Segre came to 
Berkele.v in 19:58 from the University of Palermo, where he directed the physics 
laboratory. With the cooperation of the Radiation Laboratory, he discovered 
element 4."'. and, with Dale Corson and Kenneth MacKenzie. created element 85." — 
Young Men of the Atom. Newsweek 27 : 62-63 (February 25, 1946). 

Skinner, H. W. B. (Ch-eat Britain) 

"Professor OMphant and his team from Birmingham University were moved to 
Berkeley to work with Professor Lawrence's group engaged in research on the 
electromagnetic isotope separation pro.ieet. They were .joined by other physicists 
from Britain including Professor Massey, of University College, London; Dr. 
H. W. Skinner, of Bristol University ; Dr. Allibone and Dr. Wilkinson who worked 
partly at Berkeley and partly at the electromagnetic separation plant itself. 
Dr. Emeleus. of Imperial College, London ; Dr. J. P. Baxter, and others were 
transferred to the eletcromagnetic plant." — Smyth, H. D. Atomic Energy for 
Military Purposes. Princeton, N. J., Princeton University Press, 1945, page 286. 

Slot in, Louis B. (Canada) 

" * * * Research associate in biochemistry, to help construct the cyclotron 
at the University of Chicago. This served as an introduction to the iield of 
nuclear physics. He contributed to a number of papers in radio1)iology before 
joining the atomic-energy pro.ieet when it was centralized in Chicago in 1942. 
* * * Slotin went to Oak Ridge to help with pile development there. When 
the problems of plutonium production were solved, Slotin moved to Los Alamos 
to as ist in the final problem of constructing an atomic bomb. 

"It was Slotin who assembled and delivered the first atomic bomb for the 
Alamogordo test. The receipt which he received when he turned this, the first 
atomic bomb, over to the Army was one of his most prized possessions. It rep- 
resented the culmination of the whole effort of the Manhattan district." 

He died May 30, 1946. from the effects of radiation produced in an accident 
involving fissionable materials. — Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 1 : 16 (June 
1946). 

Smith, Cyril S. (Great Britain) 

"In the preparation and the shaping of the active metal employed in the first 
three atomic bombs which were used in the New Mexico test in 1945, the super- 
visor of the operations was Cyril S. Smith. His work on this project, as well as 
his activities in the general field of metallurgical research, led to his appoint- 
ment, by President Truman in 194G, as a member of one of the key advisory 
groups for atomic control in the United States, the General Advisory Commit- 
tee to the Atomic Energy Commission. * * * 

"In 1943 he was given the post of associate division leader in charge of met- 
allurgy at the Los Alamos, N. Mex., atom-bomb laboratories. During the 3 
years he worked there on atomic researcli. Smith was in charge of the activi- 
ties in the metallurgy of uranium, plutonium, and other materials used in atomic 
production and research. * * * In a pul)lished appreciation by a former 
associate, it is said of Smith that at Los Alamos 'he had few assistants and 
almost no equipment. 15ut after a very short period he assembled a group which 
was able to solve the problems and meet the necessary deadlines. The fact that 
he was able to think like, talk to, and understand tlie problems of, the physicists, 
translate their requirements into things that could be done, and get these things 
done, explains the high regard in which he was held by his associates on the 
project.' " — Current Biography, New York, H. W. Wilson Co., 1948. 



1990 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZAHON 

Szilard, Leo (Hungary) 

"Such towering scientific figures as Niels Bohr of Denmark and Sir James 
Chadwick of Great Britain, together with dozens of associates from almost all 
countries except Russia, came to the United States during the war, participated 
intimately in the Manhattan District project, rendered priceless service, and 
returned to their native lands when hostilities ended. Equally notable figures 
from abroad^ — Enrico Fermi of Italy and Hugarian-born Leo Szilard, for ex- 
ample — shared in our atomic effort and established permanent American resi- 
dence following the war." — Joint Committee on Atomic Energy, Investigation 
Into the United States Atomic Energy Commission, Eighty-first Cong., 1st sess., 
S. Kept. No. 1169, October 13, 1949, page 8. 

"It bears repeating tliat the men who stimulated this country's interest in 
attempting to use the Hahn-Strassmau discovery of the fissionability of unanium 
were Enrico Fermi, who had won the Nobel prize in physics when he was a pro- 
fessor in his native Italy, and Albert Einstein, Leo Szilard, and Eugene P. 
Wigner, all of whom were mature scientists before they were American citi- 
zens." — Gellborn, W., Security, Loyalty, and Science, Ithaca, N. Y., Cornell 
University Press, 1950, page 13. 

"E. Fermi and Szilard who proposed the use of graphite as a moderator for 
a chain reaction. The general scheme of using a moderator mixed with the 
uranium was pretty obvious. A specific manner of using a moderator was first 
suggested in this country, so far as we can discover, by Fermi and Szilard" (p. 
S4). 

"The announcement of the hypothesis of fission and its experimental confirma- 
tion took place in January 1939. * * * There was immediate interest in the 
possible military use of the large amounts of energy released in fission. * * * 
The early efforts both at restricting publication and at getting Government sup- 
port were stimulated largely by a small group of forein-born physicists cen- 
tering on L. Szilard and including E. Wigner, E. Teller, V. F. Weisskopf, and E. 
Fermi." (p. 45). — Smyth, H. D., Atomic Energy for Military Purposes, Princeton, 
N. J., Princeton University Press, 1945. 

"In 1939 at Columbia University his experiments became fundamental to the 
uranium project, and his foresight was largely responsible for governmental 
support of the proiect." — Masters, D., and Way, K., editors. One World or None, 
New York, N. Y., McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1946, page 61. 

"Leo Szilard, internationally known physicist, who was instrumental in get- 
ting President Franklin D. Roosevelt interested in the atomic-energy field, is 
professor of biophysics and professor of social sciences at the University of 
Chicago. He began his work in the field of nuclear physics in 1934 in London 
and later continued his work at the University of London. Szilard worked with 
Enrico Fermi, Nobel-prize physicist, on the early phases of work on chain reac- 
tion at Columbia University and at the metallurgical laboratory at the Univer- 
sity of Chicago. He was born in Budapest, Hungary, in 1898. Szilard received 
his doctor of pholosophy from the University of Berlin in 1922 and served on 
the university's faculty there from 1925 to 1933. He became an American citi- 
zen in 1943." — Robinson. G. O., the Oak Ridge Story, Kinsport, Tenn., Southern 
Publishers, 1950, page 178. 

Taylor, Geoffrey (Great Britain) 

"Dr. Frisch, from the Liverpool nuclear-physics group, and Dr. Bretscher, 
from the corresponding Cambridge section, together with some members of their 
teams, were moved into the great American T. A. research establishment at 
Lios Alamos. * * * 

"They were joined at that time or later by a number of other British scientists, 
Including Professor Peierls and Dr. Penny, of Imperial College, London Univer- 
sity. Professor Sir Geoffrey Taylor paid several visits to the establishment." — 
Smyth, H. D., Atomic Energy for Military Purposes, Princeton, N. J., Princeton 
University Press, 1945, page 286. 

Taylor, Huyh S. (Great Britain) 

"The most effective catalyst of this type [for the production of heavy water] 
was discovered by H. S. Taylor at Princeton University'' (p. 169). 

"The type of barrier selected for use in the plant was perfected under the 
supervision of H. S. Taylor" (p. 181).— Smyth, H. D., Atomic Energy for Mili- 
tary Purposes, Princeton, N. J., Princeton University Press, 1945. 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1991 

Teller, E. {Hungani) 

"For example, Dr. I'.etlie and Dr. Teller in the area of fundamental and ana- 
lytical nuclear considerations. The fact that men of their caliher were willing 
to Kive their time and found it worth while to give their time * * *."— Dr. 
Mervin J. Kellev, executive vice president, Bell Laboratories, Inc. (Investigation 
into the United States atomic energy project. Hearings before the Joint Com- 
mittee on Atomic Energy, Congress of the United States, 81st Cong., 1st sess.. 
pt. 20, p. 812). 

"The announcement of the hypothesis of fission and its experimental confirma- 
tion took place in January m'Jt). * * * There was immediate interest in the 
possible military use of the lar.w amounts of ener.2;y released in fission. * * * 
The early efforts both at restricting publication and at getting Government sup- 
port were stimulated largely by a small group of foreign-born physicists center- 
ing on L. Szilard and including E. Wigner, E. Teller, V. F. Weisskopf, and E. 
Fermi."— Smyth. H. D., Atomic Energy for Military Purposes, Princeton, N. J., 
Princeton University Press, 1945, page 45. 

Chairman, Reactor Safeguard Committee, U. S. A. E. C. 

Thornton, Robert L. (Great Britain) 

"Thornton, Robert L. 37: The British-born physicist helped to build the 
University of INIichigan cyclotron and directed the construction of the cyclotron 
at Washington University, St. Louis, where most of the plutonium for the 
Chicago atomic-bomb project was made. Thornton also carried the load in. 
desigiiins; the Berkeley calutron, and the subsequent construction at Oak Ridge^ 
Term. Now head physicist in charge of the ISl-inch cyclotron at Berkeley, 
Thornton will also use his skill in designing new atomic-re:;earch equipment." — 
"Young Men of the Atom." Newsweek 27: 62-63. (Feb. 25, 1946.) 

Member, Committee of Senior Responsible Reviewers, U. S. Atomic Energy 
Commission. 

WeissJcoj)f, V. F. (Austria) 

"The announcement of the hypothesis of fission and its experimental ceu- 
firmaticm took place in January 1939 * * *_ There was immediate interest- 
in the possible military use of the large amounts of energy released' in fis- 
sion * * *. Tlie early efforts l)oth at restricting publication and at gettln.i^ 
Government support were stimulated largely by a small group of foreign-boru 
physicists centering on L. Szilard and including E. Wigner, E. Teller, V. F 
Weisskopf, and E. Fermi." — Smyth, H. D. Atomic Energy for Military Purposes, 
Princeton. X. J., Princeton T'niversity Press, 1945, page 45. 

Westendorp, W. F. (Netherlands) 

'•Shorrly thereafter, in 1947, H. C. Pollock and W. F. Westendorp of the 
General Electric Co. designed and built a machine combining the action of 
botli betatron and synchrotron. It produced electrons of 70 Mev energy, although. 
the magnet weighed only 8 tons, as compared with 135 tons of the 100-Mev 
betatron." — Glasstone, S. Sourcebook on Atomic Energy. New York, N. Y., 
D. Van Nostrand ('o.. Inc., ]!>50, itage 32cS. 

Wiffner, E. P. (Hinif/arin 

"It l)ears repeating that the men who stimulated this country's interest iru 
attempting to use the llahn-Strassman dist-overy of the lissionability of uranium 
were Enrico Fermi, who had won the Nobel prize in physics when he was a 
professm- in his native Italy, and Albert Einstein, Leo Szilard, and Eugene P. 
Wigner, all of whom were mature scientists before they were American citi- 
zens." — (Jellhorn. W. Seeurity, Lo\alty. and Science. Ithaca, N. V., Cornell l"ni- 
versity Press. 1950. page 13. 

"The announcement of the hypothesis ot fission and its exju'iMmental confirma- 
tion took i)lace in .lanuary li)37 * * * Tlioi-e was immediate interest in the 
possible military use of the large amounts of enertiy releascMl in fission * * *. 
Tlie early efforts l)oth at restricting iiublication and at getting (Jovernment sup- 
port were stinndated largely by a small group of foreign-born ])hysicists centerinar 
on L. Szilard and including E. Wigner. E. Teller, V. F. Weisskopf, and E. 
P'enni."— Smyth, II. D. Atondc Energy for Military Purposes. Princeton, N. J.,. 
Princeton University Press, 1945, page 45. 

"The theory of the absorption of neutons at. and m the vicinity of, the reson- 
ance i)eaks was worked out by G. IJreit and E. P. Wigner in tlu> United States; 
in 193(!, and the resulting Bi-eit -Wigner formula, as it is called, has formed the 
basis of the interpretation of neutron cross sections." — Glasstone, S. Sourcebook 
on Atomic Energy. New York. D. A'an Nostrand Co., Inc., 1950, page 313. 



1992 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

Wilkinson, V. J. R. {Great Britain) 

"Professor Oliphant and his team from Birmingham University were moved 
to Berkeley to work with Professor Lawrence's group engaged in research on 
the electromagnetic isotope separation project. They were joined by other 
physicists from Britain including Professor Massey of University College, Lon- 
don, Dr. H. W. Skinner of Bristol University, Dr. Allibone and Dr. V. J. R. Wil- 
kinson who worked partly at Berkeley and partly at the Electro-Magnetic Sepa- 
ration Plant itself. Dr. Emeleus of Imperial College, London, Dr. J. P. Baxter, 
and others were transferred to the electro magnetic plant." — Smyth H. D. Atomic 
Energy for Military Purposes. Princeton, N. J., Princeton University Press. 
1945, page 286. 

Yukawa, Hideki {Japan) 

"On November ?>, 1949, the Royal Swedish Academy of Science announced 
that the 1949 Nobel prize for physics had been awarded to Dr. Hideki Yukawa, 
Japanese physicist who in 1950 is at Columbia University on leave from his 
teaching post at Kyoto University of Japan. Yukawa first came to the attention 
of the world of physics in 1935 when, after a year of investigation, he published 
a series of equations forecasting the existence of a fourth basic particle of 
subatomic matter, the meson (in addition to the proton, the electi-on, and the 
neutron). In October 1948, Dr. J. Robert Oppenheimer, director of the Insti- 
tute for Advanced Studies at Princeton, N. J., invited Yukawa to the United 
States for a period of work with the group of nuclear physicists at the insti- 
tute * * * 

"Upon Yukawa's departure from Princeton, Dr. Oppenheimer said : 'Dr. Yu- 
kawa's anticipation of the meson is one of the few really fructifying ideas in the 
last decades * * * jje was deeply loved by all his colleagues in his year 
here, both as a scientist and a man.' * * * 

"Accoi'ding to the official citation of the Royal Swedish Academy of Science 
on November 3. 1949, the Japanese physicist was given the Nobel Prize 'for his 
prediction of the existence of the meson (an elusive mass, heavier than the 
electron, which theoretically glues the atomic nucleus together), based upon 
his theory of nuclear forces.' " — Current Biography. New York, H. W. Wilson 
Co., 1950. 

Zinn, W. H. (Canada) 

"The new tools at Berkeley, the Argonne, Oak Ridge, Brookhaven, and in 
many university laboratories will soon be serving men like Lawrence, Fermi, 
Seaborg, Compton, Rabi, Oppenheimer, Sinn [sic], Alvarez, and their bril- 
liant associates, and new discoveries as dazzling as those which have been 
made will be forthcoming." — Remarks of Lewis L. Strauss, member. United 
State Atomic Energy Commission before the University of New Hampshire, 
October 9, 1948. 

"The Argonne director is Dr. Walter H. Zinn, the Nation's leading expert 
in this fl:'ld; and he personally has been the principal proponent of the fast 
reactor — often called the Zinn reactor on that account." — Joint Committee 
on Atomic Energy. Investigation into the United States Atomic Energy Com- 
mission. Eighty-first Congress, first session. Senate Report No. 1169, October 
13, 1949, page 32. 

"The Chairman (Senator McMahon). Gentlemen, we have with us this morn- 
ing Dr. W. H. Zinn, who is Director of 'the Argonne National Laboratory. Dr. 
Zinn is the gentleman who was in charge of the building of the first reactor pile 
in this country, and, of course, that was the first in the world ; and Dr. Zinn as 
I have said, is now in charge of the Argonne National Laboratory." — Senator 
Brien McMahon. (Hearing before the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy, 81st 
Cong., 1st sess. On investigation into the United States Atomic Energy project, 
pt. 9, p. 360.) 

"Director of the Argonne National Laboratory, was one of the original members 
of the Fermi group to work on chain reactors. Zinn was born in Kitchener, 
Ontario, Canada, in 1906. He received his bachelor's and master's degrees from 
Columbia University, New York, N. Y. He taught at Columbia, and City College, 
New York, before coming to Chicago with the Metallurgical Laboratory. With 
Leo Szilard he performed early experiments showing that neutrons are emitted 
in the fission process ; this work became fundamental in studies on atomic energy. 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1993 

Zinn was in charge of a group wliich constructed the first chain reacting pile and 
hiter supervised tlie design and construction of the first i)ile using lieavy water 
as the moderator." — Rubinsou, G. O. The Oiik Kidge Story. Kingsport, Tenn., 
Southern Publishers, 1950, page 178. 



INFORMATION PROVIDED BY UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF 
AGRICULTURE CONCERNING AGRICULTURE: YESTERDAY, TODAY, 

AND TOMORROW 

United States Department of Agrictji.ture, 

Washington 25, D. C, December 1, 1952. 
Mr. Harrt N. Rosenfield, 

Executive Director, President's Commission on 
Immigration and Natiinilization, 

Washington 25, D. C. 
Deiar IMr. Rosenfii-:tj) : The special study, Agriculture : Yesterday, Today, and 
Tomorrow, prepared by Mr. Clarence Herdt of the Department, who is now on 
loan to the Commission, has been reviewed by several of our people, as you re- 
quested. We consider the study appropriate for inclusion among the special 
studies provided the Commission by various Federal agencies. 
Sincerely yours, 

Herbert J. Waters, 
Assistant to the Under Secretary of Agriculture. 

Agricxjlture Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow 

Since any study of immigration involves factors of increasing population, it 
is quite proper that consideration be given to the ability of the receiving country 
to produce commodities required by its gross population which will result from 
the population increase plus persons added as a result of immigration. 

An examination of the capacity of American agriculture to produce and keep 
producing the food and fiber required by our growing population as well as our 
expanding industrial plant should provide informaticm which is useful in deter- 
mining whether we possess the production potential to supply the long-range 
requirements that likely will be needed. 

In Older to place the situation with respect to agriculture in the United States 
in its proper perspective, it seems desirable to give some attention to where 
we now are and where we came from. By projecting the ascertainable trends 
of the past, we can on the basis of certain assumptions arrive at a reasonable 
prediction of our future position. Several studies, covering this sub.iect, liave 
recently been made. The land-grant colleges cooperating with the United States 
Department of Agriculture produced a report published as Agriculture Informa- 
tion Bulletin No. 88 by the Bureau of Agricultural Economics dated June 19;")2. 
The United States Department of Agriculture during November 1952 released a 
report on United States production prepared in response to a resolution passed 
at the sixth session of the conference of the FAO of the United Nations seeking 
information on the productive capacit.y of member nations. The I'resident's 
Materials Policy Commission in its 1952 report, Resources for Freedom, contains 
several chapters on agriculture. The Subcommittee on Labor and Labor-Manage- 
ment R:'lations of the Conunittee on Labor and Pulilic Welfare, United States 
Senate, Eighty-second Congress, issued a staff report title "Manpower, Chemistry, 
and Agriculture" also contains considerable material dealing with attainable 
teclinological advancement. 

We have drawn freely upon these Government studies as well as information 
presented to the Commissioners in the hearings which they held. 

The assurance of an adecjuate food supply to insure a well-fed nation has for 
the last 20 .vears been recognized as a iiroper concern of public policy. The 
Government as a result of the great depression and two world wars has played 
a more active role in the development of agricultural programs. As expressed 
by the USDA in its report to the FAO. 

"The current objectives of agricultural policy include ])rovisions for: 

"1. Adequate supplies of food and liber to provide our domestic population 
with the kinds and amounts needed for progressively inqirovcd levels of nutrition 
and better living standards and to meet the prol)able industrial and export 
demand including provisions for commitments entered into in defense of the 
free world. 



1994 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

"2. Prices and returns to producers at levels comparable to those in other 
fields of endeavor who make a commensurate contribution to the general welfare. 

"3. Progressive improvement in efficiency of both production and distribution 
for the benetit of producers and consumers. 

"4. Maintenance and improvement of our physical resources on a sustained 
and gradually increasing yield basis. 

"5. Parity of facilities and services between farm and nonfarm groups." 

To implement these policies, the United States Department of Agriculture 
develops each year production guides for the immediate year ahead. These 
goals are arrived at after an appraisal of domestic requirements including de- 
sirable levels of reserves, and export demand and of production possibilities 
within the United States. Through the County and State committees of the 
Production and Marketing Administration of the United States Department of 
Agriculture, the Nation's farmers are apprised of these goals and efforts are 
directed toward their realization. 

Generally farm output is geared to the individual decisions and actions of 
the Nation's five-million-odd farmers. 

The niiinr.er in which they use the farm land, the rate at which they 
accept and put into practice the finding of research and technological iniprove- 
nient, the increased use of mechanical power, machines, fertilizer, pesticides, 
and improved seed will have considerable bearing on the total output achieved. 

At this point it f-eems desirable to examine the plant available for agricultural 
production in the United States as well as the material and manpower resources 
which are utilized in the production of the output from our farms. We shall 
look back several decades, state our position in 1950 and set forth the conclusions 
reached in the studies previously mentioned as they relate to the prol)able food 
requirement and achievable output by 1975. 

The essential base for agricultural production is land. In the United States, 
our total land area is 1.905 million acres of which 1,1,59 million acres were in 
farms during 1950. The major iises of this land base by farmers since 1910 as 
estimated by the Bureau of Agricultural Economics from United States Bureau 
of the Census and otlier data are as follows : 



Total land in farms (million acres) 

Cropland - --- -- 

Plowable pasture 

Pasture not plowable 

Pastured forest and woodland 

Forest and woodland, not pastured -- 

Farmstead^, roads, wasteland, and ether nonprodue 

tive land 

Pasture and grazing land not in farms. 



1910 


1920 


1930 


1940 


1945 


879 


gsT 


987 


1,031 


1,142 


347 


402 


413 


399 


403 


■)5 


105 


109 


111 


109 


189 


223 


270 


350 


420 


68 


77 


85 


100 


95 


93 


91 


65 


57 


71 


57 


58 


45 


44 


44 


600 


502 


437 


382 


292 



1950 



1,159 
409 

485 

135 

85 

45 
280 



The trend in land utilization is also indicated graphically on the attached 
cliart of the Bureau of Agricultural Economics. In addition, this chart con- 
tains a projection of the possible situation by 1975. This projection according 
to BAE is based on data in the President's Water Resources Commission Report 
of 1950 (vol. 1, pp. 159-1G6). The net projected increase in cropland is 25 
million acres above the 1949-50 figures. In addition, it is estimated that 25 
million acres of permanent pasture will be transfered to rotation from pasture 
and that the establishment of 50 million acres of new improved pasture is 
possible. They go on further to state, "The above estimates of possible develop- 
ment over the next 20 to 25 years do not represent the total potential development 
that is possible if economic and other conditions were compelling enough to war- 
rant sucli development. Estimates Itased on soil and land use capability surveys 
indicate, for example, that 85 million acres of presently undeveloped lands are 
suitable for use as cropland if improved by drainage, irrigation, clearing, and flood 
protection. Additional pasture improvement on some 100 million acres of present 
pasture land also would be desirable and could he done if conditions warranted." 

That tliere is considerable cushion in quantity of land which could be shifted 
to cropland under the pressure of need is indicated by the discussion of land use 
contained in vol. 5, pages 70-72 of the President's Materials Policy Commission. 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1995^ 



TREND IN LAND UTILIZATION 

1909-49, and Projections to 1975 
MIL. ACRES 




; 1919 ; 1939 ; 
909 1929 1949 



I 



/^N^Graiing land 
not in farms 



Special use and — 
-^ other areas 

^Forest not grazed 



^Farm pasture 



—Cropland 



1975 



S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 



NEC. 48769-XX BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL ECOF«OMICS 



"On the other hand, there are ahout 285 million acres now in grass and wood- 
land that could be planted to crops. Most of these 285 million acres of grass 
and woodland would indeed be planted, to crops if they wei-e in Western Europe." 
Tliey go on to point out, however, that this estimate is tlie full potential based 
upon the physical capability of the land and that the Soil Conservation Service 
does not reconuiiend that all of the land physically suitable for cultivation should 
be used for cultivated crops since a balanced enteri)rise on most existing farms 
requires use of some of the lands referred to above for pasture and woodland. 
They further qualify this estimate by pointing out that approximately 75 million 
acres of the 285 million should l)e cultivated only occasionally and its conversion 
to crophind is not recommended by the Soil Conservation Service. They conclude 
that very little of this conversion to more intensive use will occur by 1975. 

The T'nited States Department of Agriculture in the report to the Food and 
Agricultui-e Organization jioints out the two significant things to note about the 
changes in land use since lilO!) are the rather steady shift in the pasture area from 
grazing land not in farms to farm pasture and the relative consistency in the total 
acreage in crojiland. Approximately .'iH5 to .'5S5 million acres of the total cropland 
area were planted and fallowed annually from lillO to 1050. The acreage culti- 
vated each year thus ranged from 92 to !)5 percent of the ai-ea readily available for 
cultivation * * * th^i remainder being in soil-improvement crops and in land 
temporarily idle. They suggest further that the extension of the trend of the 
past few years in the increase of croivhuid area to 1975 would mean an increase 
of oidy slightly over 6 percetit above the jiresent acreage cropped and con- 
sequently any substantial recjuired addition in production must come primarily 
from an increase in yield and improvement in efficiency with which labor and 
other factors of production ar«^ used. What are the possibilities for increasing 
croj) yields, for imi)roving the effic-iency of livestock jiroduction, and for increas- 
ing the efficiency with which labor is used? Over-all crop yields per acre were 
relatively constant from 1910 through 1930 except for the years 1984 and 1936. 
Expres.sed as a iM'rcentage of the 1935-39 avei-age to which the Department of 
Agriculture has assigned an index of 100 the yearly index fluctuated within 
a 10-point range from about 90 to 100. Beginning with 1937, the index shows a 
steady rise reaching a high of 137 attained in 19-18 with a subsequent sul)si(l(nce 
to 128 in 1950. Tills movement is plotted on the attached chart prepared by the 
BAE and is al.so projected to 1975 at which time it indicates an index of about 161. 

25356—52 126 



1996 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 



TOTAL CROPLAND 

1910-51, and Projection to 1975* 



MIL. 

Ann 


ACRES' 












■ 


300 

200 

100 
n , 


; — ^ 


— .— 




'"^"^^ 


_ 




■ 


■ 












■ 


■ 












- 




1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 










• 



1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 

*TOTAL CROPLANO IS THE SUM OF THE ACREAGE OF LAND FROM WHICH ONE OR MORE CR0P5 ARE HARVESTED 
PLUS ACREAGES OF CROP FAILURE AHD SUMMER FALLOW. I»7S PROJECTIOH IS 2S MILLION ACRES ABOVE );S0. 



U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 



NEG. 48755-XX BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS 





CROP PRODUCTION PER ACRE 
OF CROPLAND 

1910-51, and Projection to 1975 




7o0 


F IV35-: 


\9 














150 














-'-' 










/^ 


!• ' ' 


.-•'''' 


100 

50 


AA:^-i 


ii„-.#-^V 


fC^ 


^ 













V"'^ 

,,,,!,,,, 


1 , , 1 1 1 , , , 


,1 1 1 1 , , , , 


1 1 1 . 1 1 1 t , 


. 1 1 J 1 1 1 1 J 






19 


10 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 




U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NEG. 4B758-XX BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1997 

In oommcntinK on this eliiirt, tho USDA in its FAO roi)ort statos "With average 
weathor and continued stronj: demand for farm products an upward trend in 
the production of crops per acre is likely to continue. If the trend in produc- 
tion of crops per acre under way during the past 15 years were projected into 
the future, it would mean an increase in crop yields of approximately 2.1 percent 
over the next 25 years. The possibility of attaining such an increase over this 
period is supported by the results of a recent study of productive capacity of 
agriculture in the United States. Productive Capacity Committees set up in each 
State estimated that, under the stated assumptions of the study, fiirmers could 
adopt improved practices which would raise crop yields by 17 percent between 
1050 and li)o5. High-level economic activity and favorable cost-price relation- 
ships in agriculture were assumed, and only presently known improved practices 
were considered in making these estimates of attainable yields." They then 
point out that these increased yields will not occur automatically. "However, to 
achieve the increase projected in the chart or any other increase that market 
denuind may dictate, will require considerable effort. It will be noted, for 
example, that it was only during the last 15 of the 40 years shown on the chart 
that yields have .shown an upward trend. Prior to that time they were prac- 
tically stationary. It should also be observed that the upward trend took place 
during a period of favorable weather and with demand and prices at relatively 
profitable levels. Even if these relatively favorable conditions were to continue, 
it will take considerable effort just to maintain the high yields shown, to say 
nothing of increasing them still more. To attain the large increase in yields 
over the past 15 years. United States farmers 'cashed in' on results of funda- 
mental research that had been accumulating over a long period. To assume a 
continuation of this upward trend, it is imperative that further emphasis be given 
to such research since it is so basic to the development of new techniques for 
bringing about expansion of production. It also must be recognized that 
research usually bears fruit quite slowly, sometimes over a period as long as 10, 
15, or 25 years. This emphasizes the importance of adding continuously to our 
reservoir of technological knowledge which can be drawn upon in years ahead. 
It also emphasizes the importance of continued and even increased emphasis 
upon education and extension programs to get such research results into 
farm use." 

The President's Materials Policy Commission also addressed itself to this 
problem of projecting increased yield i>er acre to 1975 and in considering the 
theoretically possible as distinct from the probable achievable, came up with 
the striking conclusion that production from present acreage might be increased 
200 percent by 1975 if every farmer used fertilizer up to the economic limit and 
em[)loyrd every other known good farming practice (p. 4(5, vol. 1). They also 
observe "The gains from fertilizer use are so striking, however, and call for so 
litt'e additional labor, that fertilizer may well play a larger role in attaining 
highfT yields in the future than in the past. If the rate of use were to increase 
10 percent each year to 1975. as it has in more recent years, fertilizer alone would 
boost yields by 75 percent, and this by no means is the limit. But such sustained 
increa.ses in rates of application are not to, be expected although a few of the 
more progressive farmers may go well beyond a doubling of current use" (p. 72, 
A'ol. 5). In addition to the increases which are being achieved in croj) yields, 
farmers in the United States are getting myre and more production per miit of 
livestock. Greater milk production per cow and more eggs per hen have been 
important factors in the long-time increase in output of dairy and poultry 
products. Productivity of other farm animals also has increased. Livestock 
production per breeding unit has risen more than 50 jiercent since 1920. An 
increase of nearlv one-fourth has occurred since 19.3.5-39. 

Heavier feeding of better balanced rations, improved strains of livestock 
increased sanitation and disease control, reduced death losses, better care, and 
other improved practices have contributed to the upward trends in production 
l>er bi-eedinu- unit. I'.AE indicates this upward trend, which by 1975 will be 
about 17 ix^-ceiit above 1950 and 40 percent above the 19.3.5-.39 average is 
expected to continue if the demand for livestock production continues strong. 

Farm labor input has shown a steady decline since after the First World 
War. Millions of man-hours used anually have decreased from the average of 
23.278 in the years 1925-29 to 17.354 in 19.50. A corres|)onding reduction in the' 
nunib<'r of persons who worked on farms has occurred. BAE figures on aimual 



1998 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

avei'age employment show a decline of almost 2 million workers in the 40 years- 
from 1910 to 1950. A further decline of about l^/i million workers can be 
expected by 1975. 

What this decline in number of workers means in relation to the total, 
population w'hich must be fed is strikingly summarized in a publication, "To 
Keep Your Plate Full," released by the Production and Marketing Administration 
during September 1952. "In the 1910-14 period, 1 farm worker supplied food 
and fiber for 8 persons, including himself. Now he supplies 15 persons. By 
1975 each worker on farms must supply 21 persons including himself. This 
decline in number of workers on farms is not an alax-ming trend — so long as 
the farmer is in a cash position to replace lost farm manpower with labor from 
a chemical plant, a machine factory, a petroleum lield, a research laboratory, 
electric power, and so on." 

Coincident with the decline in number of farm workers is a rapid rise in farm 
output per man-hour. Using an index of 100 for the 1935-39 period BAE statis- 
tics indicate an index of 74 for 1910, SI for 1920, 87 for 19.30, 112 for 1940, and 
164 for 1950. Their projection of this trend shows a rise to approximately 250 
in the index by 1975. This trend is illustrated on the attached chart. In com- 
menting upon the situation, they state, "Progress in mechanization and higher 



FARM LABOR INPUT AND 
PRODUCTIVITY 

1910-51, and Projections to 1975 
% OF 1935-39 

Output per 
man-hour 




1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 



U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 



<EG. 48759-XX BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS 



yields of crops and livestock have been the chief factors responsible for the 
advance in man-hour productivity. These forces are expected to continue to 
push up farm output per man-hour during the next 25 years. The projected nuui- 
hour inputs in agriculture for 1975 would be 25 percent less than in 193.5-.39 and 
10 percent under the 19.50 man-hour requirements. This, together with a pi"0- 
jected ri.se of about 35 percent in output between 19.50 and 1975, would mean 
about a 50-percent increase in man hour productivity. The pi'ojected output per 
man-hour for 1975 would be nearly 2'/{> times as great as the average for 1935-39." 
In adding up and summarizing the results of the projections to 1975 for land, 
land use, increased crop yields, increased livestock production per breeding unit, 
and increased farm labor efficiency, XJSDA in its report for FAO reduced all of 
these factors to reflect total volume of farm output. This output was plotted 
on a chart which is attached. In their comments on total output they have this 
to say : 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1999 

"The long-time upward trend in farm output in the United States was inter- 
rupted seriously by the droughts and depression of the 103()'s, but was greatly 
accelerated during and fnUowirig World War II when demand for farm prod- 
ucts reached record levels. It is indicated that al)out half of tlie increase in 
output between the two World Wars resulted diri'ctly from progress in farm 
mechanization. Nearly 00 million acres of cropland were released from pro- 
duction of feed for horses and mules to production of othef crops as mechanical 
power rapidly replaced animal power on farms. An additional 20 million acres 
was releasied from 1040 to 1950. In the latter period, however, an increase in 
crop iiroduction per acre was tlie chief factor in the sharp rise in farm output. 



FARM OUTPUT 


1910-51, and Projection to 1975 




% OF 1935-; 

1 


J9 
















- 














150 










_, ^ 














.J^ 


.-" 

f 






100 




-^ 


<f^ 










AAr^ 


^r^ 


V 










50 


1 1 1 1 ll M 1 


M 1 1 h 1 1 1 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 M 


1 1 II 1 1 1 1 1 


1 1 1 1 1 1 11 1 


Ill 


11 1 1 




19 


10 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 




U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NEG. 48757-XX BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS 



"Future additions to the volume oL" farm output are likely to come primarily 
from increases in crop yields. Further decrease in numbers of horses and mules 
will likely release not more than 10 to 15 million acres of cropland. And, as 
indicated previously, total acreage of land used for crops is not expected to 
increase more than 5 or G percent in the next quarter century. 

"The 1975 projections for cropland and crop production per acre, if attained, 
would make ix)Ssible a continuation of the long-time trend in volume of farm 
output. I'roduction of feed crops and pasture quite likely would rise sufficiently 
to support an output of food livestock one-third greater than in 1950. This 
projected level of livestock production would result from a 17-percent increase 
in production per breeiling unit and a 14-percent step-up in number of breeding 
units. The number of animal units of breeding livestock in 1975 would be about 
the same as the record luinilier on farms in 194:} and 1944. 

"The projected output index of around 180 for 1975 would be about 35 percent 
above the 1947-49 average. 

"Thus, it seems reasonable to conclude that over the next quarter century farm 
production in the United States can be substantially increased. This assumes, 
of course, that the econonuc incentives to farmers to adopt improved production 
practices will exist. r>ut economic incentive alone will not insure meeting the 
needs for food and fiber. As noted previously, intensive research and educa- 
tional efforts will l>e required. Special efforts also will need to be devoted to 
maintenance of soil resources so that higher crop yields can be sustained." Ade- 



2000 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

quate credit, fertilizer, and other chemicals essential to production as well as 
increasing supplies of machinery, equipment, and electric power will also need 
to be available to farmers. 

The President's Materials Policy Commission prepared two estimates of prob- 
able over-all output of United States agriculture by 1975. One, which they call 
their A estimate, results in a projected total increase of 86 percent over 1950, 
and the other, their B estimate, indicates a 33-percent increase for the same 
period. The A projection is based upon the assumption "that all commercial 
agriculture is oi'ganized and managed so as to make full use of all available tech- 
nology where such use would add more to farm receipts than to expenses." In 
defining their use of the term "available technology," they state, "It means tech- 
nology which is now fully available, or which, it is predicted with some assur- 
ance, will be available to farmers for ready api)licatiou to their farms in 1975. 
Most of the technological practices taken into account in these projections of 
yields are already well beyond the experimental stage. These practices include 
a much greater use of fertilizers with closer and better spacing of plants, breed- 
ing for larger yields and faster growth in both plants and animals * * * and 
accompanying these, a large amount of pasture and other land improvement. 
These projections do not take into account the more revolutionary types of 
technological change that are discussed often these days." 

"Although agriculture output could be increased by the amounts indicated in 
the A estimate, no one expects adoption of technology at these rates. In any 
production field, there is always the natural reluctance to put time and money 
into practices which have been tried out only under controlled conditions. 
Finally,^ full adoption assumes that the necessary materials, equipment, and 
capital are available to all farmers. This is seldom if ever the case. Thus, the 
B estimate is based on a projection of yield likely to come from such application 
of available techniques as can reasonably be expected on the basis of past experi- 
ence." 

Thus we have several estimates of probable increases in agricultural 
output over the next 2i4 decades as well as some indications of agriculture's 
capacity to produce over a shorter period of 5 years from 1950. The land grant 
coUege-BAE study of possible developments in the period 1950-55 indicates the 
attainment of output 20 percent greater than 1950 by 1955, if necessary. USDA's 
report to FAO indicates a projected output about 35 percent over the 1947-49 
averag-e while the President's Materials Policy Commission predicts an attain- 
able 33 percent increase over 1950 with a technically possible increase of 85 
percent. 

With the exception of the technically possible increase of 85 percent, all the 
above projections were made, based upon the assumption that only presently 
know and proved practices would be adopted by farmers and the rate of accept- 
ance of these practices would not vary greatly from the rate which has occurred 
in the past 10 or 15 years. None of the predictions gives consideration to the 
further developments in the more revolutionary types of technical and scientific 
discoveries which may become economically feasible within the next few decades. 
These, to mention a few, are artificially induced rain — the distillation of potable 
water from the sea — the continued discovery of chemicals to control weed growth 
and insects. In discussing this aspect of tremendous strides which can conceiva- 
bly occur. Dr. Francis Weiss in the report "Manpower, Chemistry, and Agricul- 
ture," which he prepared for the Subcommittee on Labor and Labor Management 
Relations, Eighty-second Congress, first session, has this to say : 

"One such development might well be hydroponics or soilless agriculture, a 
method of growing plants in water to which chemicals are added, rather than in 
soil. This growing of crops without soil with the aid of proper plant-nutrient 
formulas will in some cases increase the yield and improve the quality of crops 
and in all instances keep away soil-borne diseases. Tomatoes, beans, cucumbers, 
any many other plants have been grown already with success on a commercial 
basis, and it is only a question of time when large 'food factories' will be 
economically feasible." 

"Another important development by which man could make himself partially 
independent from the vagaries of nature in food production will be the commercial 
production of proteins, fats, and vitamins by methods of industrial fermentation. 
Food and fooder yeast are already produced on a large scale for the increase of 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 2001 

our protein and vitamin supply, and fat will be soon available through the fer- 
mentation of the fungus Oidium laetis. To what extent these harnessing of 
microbiological processes for food production will change agricultural employ- 
ment cannot be predicted at this moment, though it is fair to say that the 
industrial manufacture of fat and prx)tein from carbohydrates will tend to decrease 
the labor x-e(piired for farm work."' 

"And yet we are but at the threshold of another discovery of tremendous 
importance which may well be able to change not only agricultural practices but 
the entii'e way of life. This discovery is the solution of the enigma of photo- 
synthesis by which the green plants built their vegetable matter, the basis of all 
vegetable and plant life on this planet, from water and carbon dioxide. This 
synthesis is done with the help of the plant pigment chlorophyll, which has been 
already isolated and the chemical composition of wiiich has been determined. 
We also know by now to a certain degree how chlorophyll acts, but have not yet 
been able to reproduce its action outside the plant cell. Here again it is only 
a matter of time till we will be capable to imitate the most basic physiological 
process, producing organic substances in factories just as plants do it in their 
cells." 

What does all this mean in terms of numbers of persons who could be fed and 
supplied with nonfood agricultural products at the several output levels projected 
to 1975. 

The answer to this question depends upon the assumptions which are made 
concerning the disposable income available to the future population and a 
prediction of their probable consumption habits. That different conclusions are 
possible is indicated by those reached in the studies previously mentioned. 

USDA in the report to FAO states that the 35 percent projected increase in 
output over the 1947—49 average would be sufficient to take care of the demands of 
a 1975 population of 190 million. Stated another way, the results of their pro- 
jections of piist trends to 1975 indicate a population increase of 2S.S percent over 
the 1947-49 average of 147.5 million persons, which population will consume agri- 
cultural products at a rate somewhat in excess of 6 percent over their consump- 
tion babits during the 1947-49 period. The President's Materials Policy Com- 



GROWTH IN POPULATION AND 
TOTAL FOOD CONSUMPTION 

1910-51, and Projections to 1975 
% OF I947-A9 




Consumption of food 



1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 



♦ BUREAU OF THE CENSUS ESTIMATES ADJUSTED FOR UNDEREMUMEII ATION OF CHILDREN 
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NEC. 48754-XX BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS 



2002 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

mission on the otber hand, using 1950 as their base period and a someWhat 
different estimate of per capita disposable income as well as total expected popu- 
lation in 1975, concludes that a 2S-percent increase in population over 1950 or 
193.4 million persons will consume at a per capita rate 10.8 percent over the 1950 
rate of consumption. Thus, their projected total consumption by 1975 is some- 
what in excess of their B estimate of 33-percent increase in production. 

The growth in population, total food consnmption, and changes in our eating 

habits have been charted by BAE for the years from 1910 to 1950 and projected 

to 1975. These charts are attached. In addition, the BAE has prepared the 

following tabulation of the approximate retail weight equivalent of food consumed 

per capita from 1909 through 1951. 



TRENDS IN OUR EATING HABITS* 

191 1-50, and Projections to 1975 
% OF I909-I3 



150 
125 
100 

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1910 



1920 1930 



1940 



1950 1960 



1970 



5rfAR MOVING MtDAGl CfNrEHED 
' P£» CAPUA CIVIIIAN CONSUMPTION, UNITED STATES 



U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 



NEG 47745A-XX BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 2003 



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A study of this table indicates the retail weight equivalent per capita food 
■consumption during this 42-,vear period has varied from a low of l,4()r) pounds 
during 1921 to a high of 1704 pounds during 1940. On the basis of an ind(>x 
constructed at 100 ior the years 1935-39 the index figures for the two extremes 
cited al)Ove are 97 and 112 resjiectively. Thus, the widest fluctuation during 
this period is within a 15.4 percent range. 

Further exauiiiiation of this tai)le leads one to conclude that while there is 
marked change in the kinds of food consumed, the total annual per capita food 
consumption fluctuates very narrowly while per capita income fluctuates con- 
siderably more. 

During the period 190J)-49 the food energy available for consumption per capita, 
per day varied between a low of 3,200 calories in 1935 and a high of 3,510 cal- 
ories in 1928 with the 1949 figure standing at 3,250. While our eating habits 
have changed and we consume less grain products and potatoes, we are as a 
group eating more dairy products, eggs, fruits, and vegetables with slightly 
more meat. Our average level of consumption per capita is well above minimum 
food retiuirements by any accepted dietary standard. 

A conservative view leads us to conclude that agricultural output will not be 
outstripped I)y our growing i)opulation and our diet will continue to be adequate 
both as to food energy and variety. 



INDEXES 



PERSONS HEARD OR WHO SUBMITTED STATEMENTS 

(In the following list, parentheses are used to indicate that the person did not 
represent before the Commission the organizations so designated) 

E^ST Session 

<J : 40 A. M., TUESDAY, SEPTEMBEK 30, 1952, AT NEW YOKK, N. Y. 

Page 

p]dgar H. S. Chandler, director of field operations for the Refugee Service 

for the World Council of Churches 4 

Edward J. Ennis. on behalf of the American Civil Liberties Union 9 

Philip Edward Moseley (professor in the Department of Public Law and 
Government at Columbia University, member of Russian Institute of 
Columbia University, and president of the East European Fund, Inc.) — 18 

Russel AV. Davenport (writer, former editor of Fortune magazine) 20 

Mrs. Mildred McAfee Horton (former president of Wellesley College, mem- 
ber of the General Board of the National Council of Churches of Christ 
in the United States of America) 29 

Wlad.vslaw Sznl, chairman of the Polish Ex-Servicemen's Association for 

Emigration to the United States of America — in Great Britain 37 

Mary G. Reagan, representing the Coca-Cola Export Corp. in New York__ — 38 

Bishop Homer A. Tomlinson, general overseer of the Church of God, rep- 
resenting also the Pentecostal and Holiness Movement 41 

Walter White, secretary of the National Association for the Advancement 

of Colored People 43 

Hon. Juvenal Marchisio, national chairman of the American Committee on 
Italian Migration (justice of the Domestic Relations Court of the City 
of New York) 47 

Mrs. Muriel Webb, representing the National Council, Protestant Episcopal 
Church 52 

Arthur T. Brown, representing the International General Electric Co 56 

Second Session 

1 : 45 p. m., tuesday, septembek 30, 1952, at new york, n. y. 

Hon. Herbert H. Lehman, Senator in the United States Senate from the 

State of New York 59 

Margaret Mead (as.sociate curator at .the American Museum of Natural 

History) 70 

William Bernard (secretary of the Institute for International Govern- 
ment) 75 

Ck)rdelia Oox, resettlement executive of the Resettlement Service of the 

National Lutheran Council 79 

Rt. Rev. Msgr. James J. Lynch, Catholic Charities director. Catholic Arch- 
diocese of New York 86 

Read Lewis (executive director of the Common Council for American 

Unity) 87 

Rabbi Simon G. Kramer, president of the Synagogue Council of America, 
and president of the National Community Relations Advisory Council, 
accompanied by Will Maslow 94 

Lester Gutterman, representing the American Jewish Committee and the 

Anti-Defamation League of U'lr.n P>'rith 108 

Paul C. Empie, executive director. National Lutheran Council 120 

Rev. Bernard Ambrozic, executive secretary. League of Catholic Slovenian 

Americans 124 

Peter C. Giambalvo, national chairman of the Public Relations Committee 

of the Independent Order Sons of Italy 129 

2007 



2008 INDEX 

Page 
Peter Minkunas, executive director, United Lithuanian Relief Fund of 

America, Inc 134; 

Dominic J. Piscitneeti 136 

Isabel Allen 137 

George S. Counts, vice chairman of the Liberal Party of New York State 

(professor at Teachers College, Columbia University) 138 

Third Session 
9 :30 a. m., wednesday, october 1, 1952, at new york, n. y. 

Hon. Emanuel Celler, a Representative in Congress from the State of New 

York and chairman of the House Judiciary Committee 149 

Dudley Tate Easby, Jr., secretary of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, 
Nevr York City 154 

Henry Allen Moe, secretary-general of the Guggenheim Foundation 158 

Sterling D. Spero, member of board of directors of the International Rescue 

Committee 160 

Leo Cherne, member of board of directors of the International Rescue 

Committee 161 

Louis I. Dublin (second vice president and the statistician of the Metro- 
politan Life Insurance Co., New York) 168 

Hon. Edward Corsi, industrial commissioner of the State of New York, 
chairman of the New York State Displaced Persons Commission, and 
president of the American Federation of International Institutes 172 

Rev. William F. Kelly, director of the Social Action Department, Catholic 

Diocese of Brooklyn, N. Y 182 

John J. Rafferty, executive secretary, New Jersey State Legislative Council 

of the- Catholic Archdiocese of Newark 185 

James L. Wilmeth, representing the Junior Order United American Me- 
chanics of Philadelphia 190 

Fourth Session 
1 : 30 p. m., wednesday, october 1, 1952, at new i'obk, n. y. 

George N. Shuster (president, Hunter College, New York, and former land 

connuissioner for Bavaria, Gei'inany) 197 

Frank W. Notestein (director of the Office of Population Research and 

professor of demography, Princeton University) 200 

Christopher Emmet, executive vice chairman. Aid Refugee Chinese Intel- 
lectuals, Inc 208 

Walter Gallan, executive director. United Ukrainian American Relief 

Committee 214 

Merwin K. Hart, president. National Economic Council, Inc 214 

Corliss Lamont 214 

John Lenow, vice president, Latvian Relief, Inc 215 

George A. Polos, representing the Order of American Hellenic Educational 

Progi-essive Association 216 

Amerigo D'Agostino, representing Fortune Pope, editor and publisher of II 

Progress© Italo-Americano 219 

Metropolitan Anastassy, president of the Bishops' Synod of the Russian 

Orthodox Church Outside Russia, Inc 234 

Archpriest George Grabbe, chancelor to the Private and Bishops' Synod 

of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia, Inc 234 

Hon. Jacob K. Javits, a Representative in Congress from the State of 

New York 238 

Anna Lord Straus (past national president, League of Women's Voters) __ 242 
Mrs. J. Freilerick Roe, New York State Organization, National Society 

of the Daughters of the American Revolution 245 

Mrs. Herbert G. Nash, New York State Organization, National Society of 

the Daughters of the American Revolution 245 

Rev. Ethelred Brown, secretary of the Jamaica Progressive League 

(minister, Harlem Unitarian Church, New York) 246 

Rev. William J. Gibbons, S. J. information officer and member of the 

Executive Committee, National Catholic Rural Life Conference 253 



INDEX 2009 

Page 
Solomon Dingol. Andrew Viihiclu'k, and Edsar L. Trier, representing the 

CcMuniittee of Editors of American Foreign Language Newspapers 261 

J. Rice (Jihbs, representing American Evfense Society, Inc 263 

Rt. Rev. Msgr. Feliks (Felix) F. Burant, President of the Polish Immigra- 
tion Committee, American Commission for Relief of Polish Immigrants, 

Inc 264 

Edward Hong, accompanied by Gilbert B. Moy, representing the Chinese 

Consolidated Benevolent Association of New York 270 

Walter Brumberg, vice president and acting president of the Estonian 

Aid. Inc 272 

Rev. Rudolf Kiviranua, president, Estonian Relief Committee, Inc 276 

Mrs. Harriet Barron, representing the American Committee for Protection 

of Foreign Born 277 

STATEMENTS SUBMITTED BY OTHER PERSONS AND ORGANIZATIONS 
IN THE NEW YORK AREA 

Charles H. Turnlmll 282 

Rev. John H. Dudde, pastor, St. Paul's Lutheran Church, Liverpool, N. Y 282 

S. Willv Hart - 283 

Helen E. Burke 283 

Vito Magli 284 

Nicholas J. Cassavetes 285 

Mr. and Mrs. Harold Feltz 286 

Serge Belosselsky, representative in eastern United States of the Federa- 
tion of Russian Charitable Organizations of the United States 286 

L. M. Fruchtbaum, director, political affairs, and I. M. Steinberg, secretary 

general, Freelaud League for Jewish Territorial Colonization 287 

L. Agh. chairman in the United States of America, Collegiae Society of 

Hungarian Veterans in the United States 288 

Rev. Payson Miller, secretary, International Relations Committee, Con- 
necticut Council of Churches «. 289 

George B. Murphy, Jr., cochairman, American Committee for Protection 

of Foreign Born (statement signed by SO other persons) 290 

Edith Wynner 292 

Stephen J. Kovrak in behalf of Polish American Congress, Inc., Eastern 
Division; American Relief for Poland, Philadelphia Division; Polish 

American Citizens' League of Pennsylvania 293 

Otto A. Ilai-bach, president, American Society of Composers, Av;thors, 

and Publishers 294 

C. James Todaro 296 

Will Maslow, director, American Jewish Congress, Commission on Law 

and Social Action 296 

Edna C. Curtis 311 

Mrs. Florence J. Casanova 311 

Eva Bacon , 311 

Janet R. Rhodes 311 

Mrs. Edna C. Harris 311 

Florence I. Luderman 311 

Katliryn E. Haskins 311 

(ienevieve Cumner 311 

Viola A. Wortman 311 

Mrs. Elaine Heme 311 

Mrs. Maude Rawlins 311 

Mrs. Betsy Buell Bradish 312 

Mrs. Cliarles N. Lane 312 

Lucy H. Guardenier 312 

Fifth Session 
9 : 30 a. m., thuusday, octoiier 2, \<.)r>2, at boston, mass. 

Rev. Daniel MeColgan, representing His Excellency, the Most Reverend 

Richard J. Gushing, Archbishop of the Catholic Archdiocese of Boston 313 

Alice W. O'Connor, secretary, Massachusetts Displaced Persons Commis- 
sion 314 



2010 INDEX 

Page 

Hon. John F. Kennedy, a Representative in Congress from the State of 

Massachusetts 320 

Hon. Henry Cabot Lodge, a Senator in the United States Senate from the 

State of Massachusetts 324 

Oscar Handlin (associate professor of history at Harvard University) — 327 

Rev. Samuel Tyler, Jr., Episcopal Trinity Church, Boston, Mass 333 

Hon. Christian A. Herter, a Representative in Congress from the State 

of Massachusetts 333 

Rabbi Judah Nadich, representing the Jevpish Community Council of 
Metropolitan Boston : the Boston Chapter of the American Jewish Com- 
mittee ; Nevp England Region, American Jewish Congress ; New England 
Region, Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith ; Hebrew Immigrant 
Aid Society; Boston Section, Jewish Labor Committee; Department of 
Massachusetts, Jewish War Veterans ; Bridgeport, Conn., Jewish Com- 
munity Council ; Connecticut Jewish Community Relations Council ; 
Hartford, Conn., Jewish Federation ; and the New Haven, Conn., Jewish 
Community Council 334 

Mrs. Alice Cope, vice chairman of the Massachusetts Displaced Persons 

Commission (president of the Window Shop) 341 

Albert G. Clifton, legislative agent, Massachusetts State CIO Industrial 

Union Council 344 

Stephen E. McCloskey, representing Earl McMann, president of the Boston 
Central Labor Union, American Federation of Labor 348 

Peter G. Geuras, representing Costa Meliotis, president of the Greek 
Orthodox Cathedral of Boston and the Displaced Persons Committee of 
the Athens Chapter of the Order of American Hellenic Educational 
Progressive Association 348 

Sixth Session 

1 : 30 p. m., tiiuksday, october 2, 1952, at boston, mass. 

Hon. Dennis J. Roberts, Governor of the State of Rhode Island 351 

Rev. Theodore S. Ledbetter, representing the New Haven Jewish Com- 
munity ('ouncil ; the New Haven Council of Protestant Churches ; the 
Italifin Newspaper, New Haven : IMedillo-Faugno Post of the Italian- 
American AVar Veterans; and the New Haven Branch of the National 
Association for the Advancement of Colored People 352 

Mrs. Alfred N. Williams, Massachusetts State regent of the Daughters of 

the American Revolution 353 

Dutton Peterson, representing the New York State Council of Churches and 
the Methodist Committee for Overseas Relief, Church World Service 353 

Mrs. Pauline Gardescu, representing the International Institute of Boston 

and the Boston Chapter of the American Association of Social Workers — 356 

Mrs. Adolph J. Namasky, chairman of Chapter 17 of the Lithuanian Re- 
lief Fund 361 

Lui'-'i Scala, grand venerable of the Gi-an<l Lodge of Rhode Island, Order 
Sons of Italy in America (president, Columbus National Bank of Provi- 
dence, R. I.) 362 

Hon. Luigi DePasquale, representing the Rhode Island Resettlement Coun- 
cil for Italian Immigrants, also representing Rev. Joseph J. Lamb, di- 
rector of the Diocesan Bureau of Social Service, Inc., of the Catholic 
Diocese of Providence 364 

Walter H. Bieringer, chairman of the Massachusetts Displaced Persons 

Commission, and national president. United Service for New Americans- 866 

G. N. Longarini, publisher of the Italian Daily Newspaper of Boston 372 

Samuel Abranis, president of the Hebrew Innnigrant Aid Society of 

Boston 37S 

Hon. Paul A. Dever, Governor of the State of Massachusetts, represented 
by Orville S. Poland 377 

John Collins, assistant regional director, Boston, Congress of Industrial 
Organizations 378 

Andrew Torrielli, representing the editor of the Sons of Italy Magazine— 379 

Eugene H. Clapp, president, Penobscot Chemical Fibre Co 383 

Hon. John O. Pastore, a Senator in Congress from the State of Rhode 

Island 385 



INDEX 201 1 

Page 
Charles Du Bois Coryell, secretary of the Federation of American 

Scientists -l^^-l 

James E. Fitzgerald, representing the Chinese Consolidated Benevolent 
Association of New England; the Chinese Merchants Association; the 
Chinese Order of Freemasons: the Chinatown Post, No. '\2S, American 
Legion ; the Gee How Oak Tin Association of Boston ; the Wong Wun Snn 
Association of Boston ; the Yee Moo Kai Association of Boston ; the Lee 

Lung Sai Association of Boston 416 

Paul Chalmers (professor and adviser to foreign students at Massachu- 
setts Institute of Technology and past president. National Association 

of Foreign Student Advisers) 428 

Frederick F. Cohen 430 

George K. Deniopulos, representing the Order of the American Hellenic 

Educati(mal Progressive Association 4?.! 

Harvard Law School chapter. National Lawyers Guild 433 

Prakos P. Kutruhes 436 

Mrs. Florence H. Luscomb, State chairman of the Progressive Party of 

Massachusetts 436 

Loui.«:e I'ettilione Smith, representing the Amei'ican Committee for Protec- 
tion of Foreign Born, Massachusetts chapter 437 

Carl Friedrich (professor of government. Harvard University) 439 

Mrs. Vera B. Hanson 446 

STATEMENTS SUBMITTED BY OTHER PERSONS AND ORGANIZATIONS 

IN THE BOSTON AREA 

Hon. Foster Furcolo, a Representative in the United States Congress from 
the State of Massachusetts 448 

John N. M. Howells, chairman of the Liberal Citizens of Massachusetts — 449 

B. L. Smykowski, M. D., Bridgeport, Conn 449 

Myron W. Fowell (secretary, Massachusetts Congregational Conference 

and Missionary Society, Boston, Mass.) 451 

Adam F. Stefanski, president, and Raymond Z. Sobocinski, secretary, 
Polish-American Citizens Club. Salem. Mass. ; Mrs. Stasia Zmyewska. 
president, and Mrs. Sophie Quellette, receiving secretary. Women's 
Polish-American Citizens Club. Salem, Mass 451 

K. S. La ton ret te (professor of missions and oriental history, Yale 

Universit.v ) 452 

Rev. Frederick J. Buckley (professor of social ethics, St. John's Seminary, 

Brighton. Mass. ) 452 

Judith Bregman, secretary of the committee on visa problems of the Fed- 
eration of American Scientists 452 

Maurice R. Davie (professor of sociology, Yale University) 453 

Seventh Session 
9:30 a. m., monday, october 6, 1952, at cleveland, ohio 

Carl Frederick Wittke (dean of the graduate school, Western Reserve 

University ) 455 

Eugene H. Freedheim (cochairman of the Legislative Committee of the 

Welfare Federation of Cleveland) 459 

Donald S. Steinfirst (chairman of the Joint Committee on Service to New 

Americans of Allegheny County) 463 

Msgr. Michael J. Doyle, Catholic Diocese of Toledo, Catholic Charities 
director 4(58 

M.sgr. Frederick G. Mohan, representing the Catholic Diocese of Cleveland, 

Catholic Resettlement Council 470 

Rabbi Abba Hillel Silver, representing the Jewish Community Federation 
of Cleveland and Organized Jewish Communities of Pittsburgh, Buffalo, 
Akron, Toledo, and Cincinnati . 472 

Theodore Andrica, nationalities editor, the Cleveland Press 476 

Charles P. Lucas, executive secretary, Cleveland Branch, National Associa- 
tion foi- the Advancement of Colored People 479 

Bela Nii^n-adi. editor, representing Zolten Gombos, publisher of Szabadzag, 

a Hungarian daily 4S0 

25356—52 127 



2012 INDEX 

Page 
Albert Ziminer, representing the American Banater Relief, affiliated with 

the American Aid Societies 4^2 

Father Gabor Takacs, chief editor of the Hungarian Catholic Sunday, ac- 
companied by Mrs. Theresa A. Stibran, interpreter 483 

Mrs. Theresa A. Stibran, representing the American-Hungarian Catholic 



newspaper 



485 



Zygmunt B. Dybowski, president, Polish American Congress, Department 
of Ohio ; former State adjutant, Polish Legion of American Veterans ; 
editor of the Polish Daily News 489 

Charles Posner, representing the Council of Churches of Greater Cincin- 
nati, the Catholic Charities of the Archdiocese of Cincinnati, the Citizen- 
ship Council of Cincinnati, and Jewish Community Relations Council of 
Cincinnati 491 

Eighth Session 

1 :30 p. m., monday, october 6, 19r>2, at cleveland, ohio 

Sam Sponseller, regional director of the Congress of Industrial Organiza- 
tions for the Cleveland area 495 

Albert O. Davey, Jr., vice president, Cleveland Federation of Labor, Ameri- 
can Federation of Labor, and editor of the Cleveland Citizen 499 

Oliver Schroeder (assistant professor. Western Reserve University) repre- 
senting the Federation of Protestant Churches of Cleveland and the 
Cleveland Church Federation 501 

W. Terry Osborne, associate general secretary, Cleveland YMCA, represent- 
ing the Cleveland Church Federation and the Federation of Protestant 
Churches of Cleveland 505 

Rev. George Kuechle, pastor, St. Mark's Missouri Lutlieran Church, repre- 
senting the Cleveland Church Federation and the Federation of Prot- 
estant Churches of Cleveland 506 

Rev. Oliver C. Grotefend, pastor, Hope Lutheran Church, president of the 
Lutheran Resettlement Commission, Ohio, representing also the Cleve- 
land Church Federation and the Federation of Protestant Churches of 
Cleveland 508 

Mrs. M. F. Bixler, coehairman of the Department of Christian World 
Relations, Cleveland Council of Church Women, representing also the 
Cleveland Church Federation and the Federation of Protestant Churches 
of Cleveland 511 

Mrs. Alice F. Loweth, coehairman of the Department of Christian World 
Relations, Cleveland Council of Church Women, representing the Cleve- 
land Church Federation and the Federation of Protestant Churches of 
Cleveland 512 

Robert A. Pollock, representing the Junior Order of United American 

Mechanics , 513 

Rev. Edward A. Brown (pastor, Westlake Methodist Church) executive 

director of the American Civil Liberties Union, Cleveland branch 515 

Madeline L. Greco, administrntive assistant, American Service Institute 
<'f Allchenv County. Pittsburgh, Pa., representing also the American- 
Bulgarian League, Catholic Slovak Brotherhood, Council of Jewi.sh 
W ^»i. Cioiti.-in Fraternal Union, Federation of Jewish Philanthropies 
and United Jewish Fund, Greater Beneficial Union of Pittsburgh. Jewish 
F'l iiy and CliildreTis Service, Lutheran Service Societ.v, Serb National 
Federation, "Verhovay Association, and Jewish Community Relations 
Council 519 

Rev. I{;iwin A. Miller, executive director, Lutheran Service Societies of 

Western Pennsylvania 523 

Jlrs. E izabetb G. Ponofidine, representing the International Institute of 
lUiffalo; P.oard of Community Relations of the City of Buffalo; Council 
oc S icinl Agencies; Diocesan Resettlement Committee of Catholic Char- 
ities ; Labor Committee To Combat Intolerance ; Anti-Defamation 
League ; Council of Churches ; Jewish Federation for Social Service, 
Buffalo, N. Y 525 

Charles S. Tricarichi, representing the American Committee on Italian 

Migration of Cleveland 528 

Margaret Fergusson, director of the International Institute of Cleveland-- 530 



INDEX 2013 

Page 

Rev. Danila Pasou 532 

George Greou, director of the Citizens' Bureau of Cleveland 534 

V. S. riatek. president of the National Slovak Society of the United States 

of America 536 

J^nies C. Mylonas, representative of the Supreme Lodge, Order of Ameri- 
can Hellenic Educational Progressive Association 536 

STATEMENTS SUBMITTED BY OTHER PERSONS AND 
ORGANIZATIONS IN THE CLEVELAND AREA 

Mrs. T. Challgren and family, Buffalo, N. Y 538 

Edith Grant, Buffalo, N. Y 538 

Arthur Waldmau, executive director. United Vocational and Employment 
Service, Pittsburgh, I'a., and Marcel Kovarsky, executive director, 
Jewish Family and Children's Service, Pittsburgh, Pa 538 

Ninth Session 

9 : 30 a. m., tuesday, october 7, 1952, at detroit, mich. 

Boris M. Joffe, chairman pro tempore, Michigan Committee on Immigra- 
tion - 541 

Hon. Blair Moody, a Senator in Congress from the State of Michigan 547 

David I. Rosin, representing the Michigan Committee on Immigration 548 

Rev. G. Paul Musselman (executive director. Department of Christian 

Social Relations of the Protestant Episcopal Diocese of Michigan) 556 

Hon. Eugene I. Van Antwerp (former mayor of Detroit, Mich., past com- 
mander in chief of the Veterans of Foreign Wars, member of the Sons 
of the Revolution) 557 

Frank X. Martel, ]iresident of the Detroit and Wayne County Federation 

of Ixibor, American Federation of Labor 560 

Rev. Arthur H. Krawczak, director, Detroit Catholic Archdiocesan Resettle- 
ment Committee for Displaced Persons 562 

Rev. Werner Kuntz, director, Lutheran Service to Refugees of Detroit, 

Mich 565 

Rabbi Morris Adler, vice president of the Jewish Community Council of 
Detroit 572 

Samuel J. Rhodes, presenting statement of Nicholas J. Wasener, past na- 
tional commander, Catholic War Veterans of the United States of Amer- 
ica, Department of Michigan ; of Alvin Keller, commander. Department 
of Michigan, American Veterans of World War II (AMVETS) ; and of 
Bernard L. Hoffman, commander. Department of Michigan, Jewish War 
Veterans of the United States of America 577 

Louis A. Levan, senior vice chairman of the Wayne County Council, Vet- 
erans (if Foreign Wars of the United States 579 

Edward J. Church, executive secretary, Wayne County Council, Veterans 

of Foreign Wars of the United States! 580 

Oran T. Moore, president of the board of directors of the International 

Institute of Metropolitan Detroit 580 

Pre 1 P.ar.er, secretary, American Aid Society, Inc 585 

John Panchuk, chairman, Michigan Commission on Displaced Persons, rep- 
resenting also the United Ukrainian American Relief, Inc., and the 
Ukrainian Federation of Michigan 586 

Adolph Dulin. chairman of the Relief Association for Germans of Prewar 

Poland, of Detroit, Mich 589 

Mrs. Estelle Gadowski, president; Mrs. Kntherine Wo.isowski, chairman, 
immigration committee; and Mrs. Estelle Sanocki, cochairman, immi- 
gration committee, of the Polish Aid Society, Detroit, Mich 590 

Eloise M. Tanner, executive secretary. International Institute of Flint, 

Mich 591 

Mrs. Marie Trilevsky, State of Michigan representative, Tolstoy Founda- 
tion 591 



2014 INDEX 

Tenth Session 

1 : 30 p. M., TUESDAY, OCTOBER 7, 1952, AT DETROIT, MICH. 

Pag« 

Rev. Sheldon Rahn, director of the social service department, Detroit Coun- 
cil of Churches 593 

Reid Coffey, representinji the United Automobile, Aircraft, and Agricul- 
tural Implement Workers of America, affiliated with the Congress of 
Industrial Organizations 595 

Edgar L. Johnston (professor of education, Wayne University) represent- 
ing the National Consumers League 595 

Father Joseph C. Walen, director of charities, Catholic Diocese of Grand 

Rapids, and editor of the Westein Michigan Catholic 600 

Amos Hawley (professor of sociology, University of Michigan) 602 

Harold Silver, executive director of the Resettlement Service of Detroit 605 

Rev. Harry Wolf, representing the Lutheran Charities and Lutheran Re- 
settlement Committee of Michigan 608 

Mrs. Anne Kurth, chairman, social action committee, Detroit Archdiocesan 

Council of Catholic Women 610 

Mi-s. Alice L. Sickels, executive director, International Institute of Metro- 
politan Detroit 611 

Nicola Gigante, director, Michigan Chapter, American Committee on Italian 

Migration 612 

Mrs. Carolyn Sinelli Burns 614 

Joseph W. Skutecki, president, Polish American Congress, Inc., Division of 
Michigan 615 

Benjamin C. Stanczyk, president. Central Citizens Committee of Detroit, 
Mich 616 

Charles N. Diamond, representing the Order of American Hellenic Educa- 
tional Progressive Association in Michigan 620 

Constantino A. Tsangadas, past national president of the American Hellenic 

Educational Progressive Association 622 

Rev. Paul Nagy, pastor of the Free Hungarian Reformed Church in Detroit- 624 

Joseph P. Uvick, secretary of the American Council of Nationalities 626 

Lee A. White, director of Cranbrook Institutions, chairman of the Nation- 
ality Department of the LTnited Conununlty Services, member of the 
Michigan Commission on Displaced Persons, member of board of direc- 
tors of the International Institute of Metropolitan Detroit 628 

Florence G. Cassidy, secretary of the Michigan Displaced Persons Com- 
mission and secretary of the Nationality Department of United Com- 
munity Services 6.30 

Willard C. Wichers. midwestern director. Netherlands Information Serv- 
ice ; secretary, Netherlands I'ioneer and Historical Foundation ; director, 
Netherlands Museum, Holland, Mich 634 

Mrs. Zaio Woodford Schroeder, representing the General Federation of 

Women's Clubs, International Affairs Depai'tment 638 

M.sgr. Jo.seph Ciarrocchi, pastor, Italian Chiu-ch of Santa Maria in Detroit, 

and editoi- of the American-Italian weekly, La Voce del Popolo 639 

A. L. Zwerdling, chairman, Detroit Chapter of Americans for Democratic 

Action 640 

P. G. Nicholson 640 

Mrs. B. A. Seymour, member, Michigan Commission on Displaced Persons. 641 

Saul Grossman, secretary, Michigan Committee for Protection of Foreign 

Born 643 

Eleventh Session 
9 : 30 a. m., wednesday, october 8, 1952, at chicago, ill. 

Eduard D. Gallen, vice president, Latvian Relief, Inc 649 

Palmer Di Giulio, representing the Immigration and Naturalization Com- 
mittee of the Supreme Lodge, Order of Sons of Italy 652 

Daniel D. Carmell, representing the Illinois State Federation of Labor and 
the Chicago Federation of Labor affiliated with the American Federation 
of Labor 663 

Edward A. Shils (professor of Social Sciences, University of Chicago) 664 



INDEX 2015 

Page 

Peter lUikowski (president, Cosmopolitan National Bank of Chicago, and 

former Deputy Administrator. Reconstruction Finance Corporation) 669 

Samuel Levin, representing the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of 
America 673 

Henry Ileineman, representing the Chicago Division of the American Civil 

Liberties Union and the American Jewish Committee 675 

Lea 1). Taylor, head resident, Chicago Commons Association (past presi- 
dent. National Federation of Settlements) 677 

Charles A. O'Neill, executive secretary, Society of St. Vincent De Paul, 

acting Catholic Archdiocesan resettlement director of Milwaukee 6S2 

Mrs. Alfred T. Abeles (chairman, Chicago Area Congregational DP Re- 
settlement Committee) 684 

Twelfth Session 

1 : 30 p. m., wednesday, october 8, 1952, at chicago, ill. 

Rev. Alpar Forro (pastor, St. Emeric's Catholic Church, Milwaukee, Wis.)- 687 
Horatio Tocco, representing the American Conunittee on Italian Migration, 

Chicago, and the Civic League of Italian Americans 688 

Rev. Raymond Rosier (editor, Indiana Catholic and Record) representing 

the Indianapolis Community Relations Council 690 

Nicholas Pesch, president, American Aid Societies 693 

Archie A. Skemp, M. D 694 

Charles V. Falkenberg, representing the Cook County Council of the Amer- 
ican Legion, Department of Illinois 698 

Dimitri Parry, representing the Order of American Hellenic Educational 

Progressive Association, of Chicago 703 

Louis M. Peyovich, secretary, Serbian National Defense Council of 

America 705 

Rev. Edward W. O'Rourke, representing the Displaced Persons Resettle- 
ment, Catholic Diocese of Peoria, 111 707 

Mrs. Charles R. Curtiss, Illinois State regent. Daughters of the Ameri- 
can Revolution 712 

Rev. Edgar F. Witte, executive director. Lutheran Charities of Chicago, 

and director of the Lutheran Resettlement Service of Illinois 712 

Elizabeth N. Wilson, executive secretary, International Institute of Gary, 

Ind 715 

Frank Werk, National Council of the Steuben Society 723 

Saul Alinsky, representing the Back of the Yards Council 730 

I^on Yonik, editor, Lithuanian Daily Vilnis 7.33 

Mrs. Helen A. Lewis, president, Chicago Council of Emma Lazarus Clubs__ 734 

Thirteenth Session 

9 : 30 a. m., thursday, october 9, 19.j2, at chicago, ill. 

Samuel K. Allison (professor of physics, University of Chicago, and di- 
rector of the Institute for Nuclear Studies) 737 

Cyril Stanley Smitli (professor of metallurgy and director of the Institute 

for the Study of Metals, University of Chicago) 745 

H. William Ihrig, former president of the Steuben Society in Milwaukee-- 746 

Rev. James E. Doyle, executive director of the Catholic Resettlement 

Committee of the Catliolic Archdiocese of Chicago 749 

Max Swiren, representing the following organizations of Chicago : Chicago 
Rabbinical Association, Chicago Rabbinical Council, Rabbinical Assem- 
bly, American Jewish Congress, Anti-Dpfamation League of B'nai B'rith, . 
Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society. Jewi.sh Labor Conunittee, Jewish War 
Veterans. I)ecah)gue Society of Lnwyers. Farband Labor Zionist Order, 
Federntion of Jewish Trade Unions. Hadassah, Hapoel Ilamizraclii, 
Hebrew Tlieological College. L'ibor Zionist Oi-gaiiizatioii. Mizrachi. .Miz- 
rachi Women's Organization, National Council of .Jewish Women, I'ioneer 
Women, Union of American Hebrew (Congregations, United Synagogue, 
Workmen's Circle, Zionist Organization 760 

Herman Busli, representing the American Federation of Polish Jews, 

Chicago District 772 



2016 INDEX 

I»ag« 
Max Rheinstein (professor of law, University of Chicago, and member of 

board of directors of tbe Immigrants Protective League) 772 

Rev. Philip G. Van Zandt, pastor of the Logan Square Baptist Church of 

Chicago, representing also the Chicago Church World Service Committee 

for the Baptist Denomination 776 

Mrs. Kenneth F. Rich, director, Immigrants Protective League 778 

Sharon L. Hatch, executive secretary. International Institute of Milwaukee 

County, Inc 783 

Fourteenth Session 
1 : 30 p. m. thursday, octouer 9, 19 52, at chicago, ill. 

Philip M. Hauser (professor of sociology, University of Chicago) 787 

Esther Davis, chairman. Displaced Persons Subcommittee of the Chicago 

Church World Service Committee 792 

Charles F. Boss, Jr., executive secretary of the Board on World Peace of 

the INIethodist Church 802 

Edward R. Lewis 808 

Jan Okal, editor, the Slovak American 812 

Rev. Berto Dragicevic, executive director, Croatian Refugee Committee — 815 
Roman I. Smook, vice president. United Ukranian American Relief Com- 
mittee, and member of League of Americans of Ukranian Descent 817 

Edward E. Plusdrak, representing Polish American Congress, Illinois Divi- 
sion, and American Committee for Resettlement of Polish DP's 819 

Mrs. Adele Lagodzinski, president of the Polish Women's Alliance of Amer- 
ica and secretary, Polish-American War Relief 822 

Charles Rozmarek, president, Polish American Congress; Printers and 
Publishers, Inc., which publishes the Polish Daily Scholar, and Scholar; 

and president of the Polish National Aliens 824 

Armando F. Conto, general manager, Freez-King Corp 827 

Helen B. Jerry, Innuigrants Protective League, Chicago 828 

Midwest Chinese American Civic Council of Chicago 830 

Ira H. Latimer, Chicago Civil Liberties Committee 831 

Samuel A. Goldsmith, representing the Jewish Federation of Chicago and 

the Jewish Welfare Fund of Chicago 831 

George T. Foster, representing Constitutional Americans 833 

STATEMENTS SUBMITTED BY OTHER PERSONS AND ORGANIZATIONS 
IN THE CHICAGO AREA 

T. Otto Nail, editor, the Christian Advocate, Chicago 836 

O. A. Geiseman, pastor, Grace Lutheran Church, River Forest, 111 837 

Jerry Voorhis, executive director, the Cooperative League of the United 

States of America, Chicago 837 

William A. Fuzy, i-epreseuting the American Hungarian Federation 838 

Rev. Martin A. Krizka, chaplain, John W. Voller, president ; Jeannette F. 
Krippner, secretary ; executive board of the National Alliance of Czech 

Catholics 841 

Ryoichi Fujii, editor, the Chicago Shimpo (the Chicago Japanese Ameri- 
can News) 842 

S. I. Hayakawa, editor, ETC. : A Review of General Semantics 843 

Peter N. Montzoros, for the Thirteenth American Hellenic Educational Pro- 
gressive Association District, comprising the States of Illinois, Wisconsin, 
and Missouri 844 

Fifteenth Session 

9: ?.0 a. m., friday, octorer 10, 1952, at st. paul, minn. 

Rev. James E. Boren (university pastor at the University of Minnesota) 
representing the Committees on Social Education and Action of the 
Minnesota Council of Churches and of the Presbytery of Minneapolis, 
Presbyterian Church in the United States of America 847 

Bernhardt J. Kleven (professor of social sciences, Augsburg College, 

Minneapolis, Minn.) 8.50 



INDEX 2017 

Faff* 

Hubert Schon, executive director, United Labor Committee of Miiniesota 

for Human Rights, representing also Rev. Carl A. Storm, Rev. Arthur 

Foote, Kev. Carl Olson, and Rev. Fred A. Russell, of the Unitarian and 

Universa'ist Churches in the Twin Cities of St. Paul and Minneapolis, 

Minn., and the Minnesota State CIO Council 852 

James J. Kaun (dean of Northwestern Lutheran Theological Seminary) 
I'epresenting the Lutheran Resettlement Committee of Minnesota, ac- 
companied by Millicent Roskilly 857 

Mrs. Howard M. Smith, State regent, Minnesota Daughters of the Ameri- 
can Revolution 860 

Rabbi Guntlier Plant, representing the Minnesota Jewish Council 860 

Lowell Eastlund, representing the Department of Minnesota, Veterans 

of Foreign Wars 865 

Douglas Hall, Hennepin County, Minn., CIO Industrial Union Council 866 

F. W. Nichols, acting director of social welfare. State of Minnesota 868 

Leonard H. Heller, representing the Refugee Service Committee of the 

Jewish Family Service of St. Paul, Minn 868 

Rev. William J. Campbell, pastor of the Methodist Church of Austin, 
Minn., representing also the Jewish Community of Austin and Frank 

W. Schultz, of the CIO United Packinghouse Workers of America 874 

Frank W. Schultz, president, local No. 9, United Packinghouse Workers 

of America 874 

Rev. Caspar B. Nervig (pastor. First Lutheran Church of Williston, 

N. Dak.) 876 

Sixteenth Session 
1 : 30 p. m., friday, october 10, 1952, at st. paul, minn. 

Paul G. Eidbo, representing the Lutheran Resettlement Service of North 
Dakota 886 

Chester A. Graham, representing tlie National Farmers Union and the 

North Dakota Farmers Union, Jamestown, N. Dak 889 

Mrs. Martin M. Cohen, representing the Council of Jewish Women, Min- 
neapolis Section, and the Minneapolis Hadassah 896 

Arthur L. Cadieux, representing the Minneapolis Chamber of Commerce 898 

Alexander Granovsky (professor of ethnology. University of Minnesota) 
representing the United Ukranian American Resettlement Committee of 
Minnesota 899 

Rev. Daisuke Kitagawa (adviser to local chapter, Japanese-American 

Citizens League) 901 

Forrest G. Moore (foreign-student adviser. University of Minnesota) 901 

Rev. Andrew Kist, pastor, St. George's Greek Orthodox Ukranian Church 

of Minneapolis 904 

Leni Cahn, representing the International Institute, St. Paul, Minn 905 

Mrs. Alma Foley, representing the Minnesota Committee for Protection of 

Foreign Born ._ 907 

Francis J. Nahurski, representing District No. 10, American Relief for 
Poland 911 

Fred A. Ossana (president. Twin Cities Rapid Transit Co.) representing the 

American Committee for Italian Migration, Hopkins, Minn 91.3 

Rev. Dpnzil A. Carty (clergyman of the Episcopal Church, director of St. 
Phillii)s Church, St. Paul) representing the Minnesota State Conference 
of the National A.ssociation for the Advancement of Colored People 919 

Wilfred C. Leland, Jr., on behalf of the Legislative Committee, INIinnesota 
State Conference of the National Association for the Advancement of 
Colored People 020 

H. D. Bruce 922 

STATEMENTS SUBMITTED BY OTHER PERSONS AND ORGANIZATIONS 
IN THE ST. PAUL AREA 

Kenneth Culp Davis 024 

]Marcia Russell 924 

Itev. William B. Larkin, resettlement director. Catholic Diocese of Duluth- 924 



2018 INDEX 

Seventeenth Session 

9 : 30 a. m., saturday, october 11, 1952, at st. louis, mo. 

Page 
Mrs. Maynor D. Brock, executive director of the Naturalization Council 

of Kansas City, Mo 927 

Clement Simon Mihanovich (director. Department of Sociology, St. Louis 
University) representing also the Very Reverend Paul C. Reinert, presi- 
dent of St. Louis University 931 

Rev. Victor T. Suren, Catholic diocesan director, St. Louis Resettlement 
Committee for Displaced Persons, affiliated with National Catholic Re- 
settlement Council, representing also the Most Reverend Joseph E. 
Ritter, Catholic Archbishop of St. Louis 932 

Walter Wagner, executive director, Metropolitan Church Federation of 

Greater St. Louis 935 

Alfred Fleishman, representing the Jewish Community Relations Council 
of St. Louis, the Jewish Community Relations Bureau of Greater Kansas 
City, the St. Louis and Kansas City sections of the National Council 
of Jewish Women 937 

Rt. Rev. Msgr. L. G. Ligutti, executive director of the National Catholic 
Rural Life Conference 940 

Stuart Moore, representing the International Institute of St. Louis 946 

Rev. Edward D. Auchard, representing Rev. Dr. Ralph H. Jennings, execu- 
tive secretary of Synod of Missouri, Presbyterian Church, LTnited States 
of America 948 

Eighteenth Session 

1 : 30 p. m., saturday, october 11, 1952, at st. louis, mo. 

Marvin Rich, representing the Teamsters and Chauffeurs Local No. 688, 

American Federation of Labor 953 

Mrs. E. V. Cowdry, representing the St. Louis Young Women's Christian 
Association and the Young Women's Christian Association Public Affairs 
Committee of Missouri 955 

Nicholas Potje, representing the American Aid Society of St. Louis 957 

Homer C. Bishop (professor of social work at the George Warren Brown 
School of Social Work of Washington University) representing the St. 
Louis Chapter of the Americarl Association of Social Workers 958 

Paul B. Rava, representing the Italian Club, the Columbian Society, and 

Italian War Veterans of St. Louis 963 

Arthur H. Compton, chancellor, Washington University 966 

Hubert M. Ramel, vice president, Ramsey Corp. ; member, executive board 
of the National Metal Trades, the National Association of Manufac- 
turers, St. Louis Chamber of Commerce, Associated Industries of Mis- 
souri ; and industry member of the Regional Labor Management Commit- 
tee of Kansas City, Mo 967 

John W. Hamilton, representing the Citizens' Protective Association of 

St. Louis 969 

William Sentner, representing the Antonia Sentner Defense Committee of 
District 8, United Electrical, Radio, and Machine Workers of America 973 

Roy A. Dillon, representing the State Personnel Board of Oklahoma, the 
Council of Churches for the State of Oklahoma, and former chairman of 
the Oklahoma Displaced Persons Commission 976 

STATEMENTS SUBMITTED BY OTHER PERSONS AND ORGANIZATIONS 
IN THE ST. LOUIS AREA 

Sandor D. Papp, M. D., Joplin, Mo 985 

Joseph Say, Joplin, Mo 985 

S. G. Widiger, executive secretary, Lutheran Children's Friend Society 

of Kansas 985 

C. T. Pihlblad (professor of sociology. University of Missouri, Columbia, 

Mo.) through C. E. Lively 986 



INDEX 2019 

NiNETEEXTH SkBSION 

9 : 30 A. M., TUESDAY, OCT()BEa{ 14, 11)52, AT SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 

Page 

Lloyd E. McMnrray. Chris Monsalvas, George Valdos, and Vincent Pilien, 
reitre.sentinii the Internal ional Lon.^'.shoremen'.s and Warehousemen's 
Union and tlio National I'nion (if Marint^ Codks and Stewards 9S9 

Charles A. Tiniihani, representini; Kev. Abbott r>o()k. executive director of 

the Northern California, Nevada Council of Churches lOOS 

Mrs. Druzilla Keibler, regional secretary, Lutheran Welfare Council of 

Northern California 1010 

Kev. Kenneth K. Nelson, executive secretary, Department of Christian 

Social Relations, Protestant Episcopal Diocese of California 1014 

Suren JM. Saroyan, vice president, American National Committee To Aid 

Homel<>ss Armenians 1015 

Kev. Ileruard C. Cronin, director. Catholic Resettlement Committee. Arch- 
diocese of San Francisco 1020 

Samuel A. Ladar, representing the Jewish Community Relations Council 
of San Francisco ; Jewish Welfare Federation of Oakland, including the 
( )akland Community Relations Council and the Oakland Welfare Fund ; 
Hebrew Inuui.urant Aid Society, San Francisco Branch; San Francisco 
Committee for Service to Emigres; Jewish Welfare Fund of San Fran- 
cisco ; Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith. regional oflice : San Fran- 
cisco Chapter, American Jewish Committee ; Federation of Jewish Chari- 
ties of San Francisco 1022 

Rabbi Alvin I. Fine, representing the Board of Rabbis of Northern Cali- 
fornia 1027 

Edward II. Heims (former chairman. Committee on Immigration Section, 

Commonwealth Club of California) s 1030 

Walter Zuger, representing E. V. Ellington, director of the Agricultural Ex- 
tension Service, State (^oUege of Washington, and also A. A. Smick, 
chairman, Washington State Displaced Persons Commission 10.33 

Jack Wong Sing, accompanied by Samuel Yee, representing the Chinese 
Consolidated Benevolent Association and the Chinese Chamber of Com- 
merce of San Francisco 1039 

Lim P. Lee, judge advocate, Cathay Post, No. 384, American Legion of Cali- 
fornia 1 1045 

Louis Ferrari, representing the American Committee on Italian Migration, 
California Chapter 1046 

Twentieth Session 
1 : 30 p. m., tuesday, octoijer 14, 1952, at san francisco, calif. 

Harry D. Durkee, representing the Lutheran Resettlement Service in San 
Francisco ; L. W. Meinzen, president of the board, Lutheran Resettlement 
Service in San Francisco; and George C. Guins (professor of political 
science, University of California) , 1049 

Annie Clo Watson, executive director. International Institute of San 

Francisco 1054 

Mrs. Margaret Cruz, representing the Advisory Committee on Employment 

Problems of Latin Americans 1057 

Varden I'uller (associate professor of agricultural economics. University 
of California, and former executive secretary to the President's Com- 
mission on Migratory Labor) 1058 

Donald Vial, representing the California State Federation of Labor, Cali- 
fornia branch of the American Federation of Labor 1066 

R. E. Mayer, president. Pacific American Steamship Association 1074 

Laszio Valko. in behalf of the American Hungarian Fedeiation for the 

State of Washington 1074 

Kathleen R. Doss, representing the Pan-Amerasian Co., Seattle, Wash 1076 

Franklin II. Williams, director for the west coast region of the National 
Association for the Advancement of Colored People 1089 

Ernest Besig, director of the American Civil Liberties Union of Northern 

California 1090 

Joe C. Lewis, in behalf of the California Farm Research and Legislative 

Committee, Santa Clara, Calif 1091 



2020 INDEX 

Page 

Joseph P. Fallon, Jr., in behalf of Fallon & Fallon, attorneys at law, San 

Francisco 1092 

Leon Nicoli, president, Federation of Russian Organizations of the United 
States on behalf of Federation of Russian Charitable Organizations of 
the United States 1096 

P. C. Quock, president, Chinese Chamber of Commerce, San Francisco, 

Calif 1099 

Stephen Thiermann, executive secretary, San Francisco regional ofl3ce of 

the American Friends Service Committee 1099 

Irving Morrissett, chairman of the Friends Committee on Legislation of 

Northern California 1102 

Mrs. Iva R. Henning, State defense chairman of the Daughters of the 
American Revolution, San Francisco, representing the legislative com- 
mittee nm 

Z. B. Jackson and Joseph S. Hertogs, Jackson & Hertogs, attorneys at law_ 1106 

J. D. Zellerbach, president of the Crown-Zellerbach Corp. of San Fran- 
cisco 1112 

Fred W. Ross, executive director of the California Federation for Civic 

Unity lli:^ 

Haruo Ishimaru. representing the Japanese-American Citizens League, 

northern California regional office 1114 

Myroslawa Tomorug, representing the Ukranian Congress Committee of 

America 1116 

Alfred de Grazia (associate professor of political science and executive 
officer of the Committee for Research in Social Science at Stanford Uni- 
versity) 1119 

Wesley Van Sciver, representing the Stanford chapter of the Federation 

of American Scientists 1128 

Frank D. Tripp, representing the Order of American Hellenic Educational 

Progressive Association, west coast recrion 1125 

Hugh De Lacy, national vice president. Progressive Party 1126 

Kamini K. Gupta, attorney 1128 

Mi-s. Grace Partridge, representing the northern California committee 

of the American Committee for Protection of Foreign Born 1130 

STATEMENTS SUBMITTED BY OTHER PERSONS AND ORGANIZATIONS 
IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

Carl Williams, San Francisco, Calif 1133 

Earl N. Ohmer, president, Petersburg Chamber of Commerce, Petersburg, 

Alaska 1133 

J. E. Martz, president, and Hazel L. Smith, secretary, Kodiak Chamber of 

Commerce, Kodiak, Alaska 1134 

Earl Simonet. Manhattan Beach, Calif 1134 

Herbert Blumer, Orinda. Calif 1134 

G. B. Tollett, A. B. C. Roofing & Siding, Inc., Seattle, Wash 1135 

Chester R. Snow, Ketchikan, Alaska 1135 

Twenty-first Session 
9 : 30 a. m., wednesday, october 15, 1952, at los anoeles, calif. 

Rev. Frederick A. Smith, executive secretary, Lvitheran Welfare Council 

of Southern California 1137 

Forest C. Weir, executive director. Church Federation of Los Angeles, and 

general secretary. Southern Council of Protestant Churches 1140 

Rev. V. J. Waldron. minister of the Evangelical Brethren Church 1143 

C. Y. Hong, president. Grand Lodge, Chinese American Citizens Alliance 1145 

Edward H. Gibbons, representing the Los Angeles Conference of Civic 

Organizations - 1148 

Rev. Steven Fritchman, representing the First Unitarian Church of Los 

Angeles 1150 

Robert Ziegler, representing the American Legion 1151 

Rev. Thomas O'Dwyer and Rev. Mathias Lani, representing the Catholic 

Resettlement Committee of the Archdiocese of T^os Angeles — 1152 

Tata Kushida, regional director of the Japanese-American Citizens League- 1155 



INDEX 2021 

Page 
John F. Slieffiold. accompanied by Manuel V. Avila, repi'eseutiug the Con- 
federation of Mexican Chambers Commerce of the United States of 

Anieiica 1156 

Armando G. Tomez, vice president and chairman of the Legislative Com- 
mittee, Confederation of Mexican Chambers of Commerce of the United 

States of America 1157 

John Despol, secretary-treasurer of the California Council, CIO; execu- 
tive secretary of the CIO California Industrial Union Council 1159 

William F. Rogers, Jr.. and S. C. Mathews, representing the San Diego 

County Farm Bureau 1163 

Susan D. Adams, accompanied by Mr. W. J. Basset, secretary of the Los 

Angeles Central Labor Council of the American Federation of Labor 1165 

Ralph L. Beals (professor of anthropology. University of California) 1170 

Mrs. Benjamin Miller, president, Women for Legislative Action 1173 

Mrs. Edward Suchman 1175 

Mrs. Clara McDonald, president of the United Patriotic People of the 

United States of America 1177 

Twenty-second Session 

1 : 30 p. m., wednesday, october 15, 1952, at los angeees, calif. 

Mrs. Otto W^artenweiler, vice president of the board. International Insti- 
tute of Los Angeles, and chairman of the Displaced Persons Committee 

of the Welfare Council of Metropolitan Los Angeles 1179 

Elsie D. Newton, executive secretary. International Institute of Los 

Angeles 1180 

Jacob J. Lieberman, representing the Community Relations Committee 

of the Los Angeles Jewish Community Council 1183 

Mrs. Dan Rugeti, representing the Pacific Southwest Branch, National Wo- 
men's League of the United Synagogue of America 1196 

Rabbi Max Vorspan, president, Southern California Region, Rabbinical As- 
sembly of America HOT 

Rt. Rev. Raymond O'Flaherty, director of Catholic Charities of the Arch- 
diocese of Los Angeles on behalf of the Most Reverend J. Francis A. 

Mclntyre, Archbishop of Los Angeles 1197 

Amerigo Bozzani, representing the American-Italian Democratic Com- 
mittee and the American Committee on Italian Migration, Southern 

California 1199 

Albert A. Hutler, chairman. Coordinating Committee for the Resettlement 

of Displaced Persons in San Diego 1202 

Marguerite Weiss, representing the Southern California Division of the 

American Jewish Congress 1206 

Nicholas Jory, representing the American Hungarian Federation 1207 

Harry F. Kane, representing the Riverside County, Calif., Council of the 

Independent Progressive Party 1209 

Roscoe Ij. Warren 1210 

Mrs. Arthur L. Shellhorn, representing National Defense, California So- 
ciety of the Daughters of the American Revolution 1211 

Mrs. (Jrace Schultz 1213 

Rod Flewelling 1214 

Mrs. Rosiland G. Bates, chairman, Patricia J. Hofstetter, and Delia G. Mar- 

gaine. Southern California Women Lawyers 1215 

Mrs. Pearson Carmin, representincr Miss Eaton 1217 

Rev. Sung Tack Whang, pastor, Korea Gospel Church of Los Angeles 1218 

Donald S. Howard (dean, School of Social Welfare, University of Cali- 
fornia) 1220 

Richard M. Thomas, regional chairman, World Student Service Fund 1222 

Mrs. Margaret Weller Weiss, public relations representative, Small Prop- 
erty Owners League 1229 

Dean E. McIIenry 1282 

Eklward L. Meyer, chairman of the Americanism Committee, Native Sons 

of the Golden West 1232 

Masaryk Alliance of Czechoslovakian Citizens 1235 

Sybil Apgar 1236 

J. W. Miller 1237 



2022 INDEX 

Pag* 

Mrs. Helen Schredder 1237 

Alexander S. and Katherine MacDonald 1237 

Frances M. Bacon 1237 

Sylvia Saraff, on behalf of Beverly Hills Chapter of Hadassah 1238 

Virginia Baskin, vice president, Pioneer Women, Brentwood Chapter 1238 

Anthony Aroney, Jr., past svipreme vice president, Order of American 

Hellenic Educational Progressive Association 1238 

Frank P. Tripp, in behalf of the Order of American Hellenic Educational 

Association of the West Coast 1241 

Boyd H. Reynolds, attorney 1242 

Ella Kube, on behalf of the Los Angeles County Conference on Community 

Relations 1245 

STATEMENTS SUBMITTED BY OTHER PERSONS AND ORGANIZATIONS 
IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA 

Frank Kubac, Los Angeles, Calif 1249 

Elsa Alsberg, executive director, Palo Alto Fair Play Council 1250 

Yankee P. Tsang, editor, the Chinese Weekly 1251 

Yoma Club Pioneer Women 1252 

Constantine Panunzio (professor emeritus of sociology, University of Cali- 
fornia, Los Angeles, Calif.) 1252 

Everette M. Porter, chairman, Legal Redress Committee, Los Angeles 
Branch of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored 

People 1255 

Mrs. Mildred J. Field 1257 

Twenty-third Session 

9 : 30 a. m., friday, october 17, 1952, at atlanta, ga. 

Rev. Herman L. Turner (pastor. Covenant Presbyterian Church, Atlanta, 
Ga.) representing also Mrs. George T. Dotiglas, chairman. International 

Club of the YWCA of Atlanta ; and Mrs. H. H. Chiu Liu 1262 

Rev. Robert H. Ayers (chaplain and head of the Department of Religion 
at the University of Georgia) repre.senting also Rabbi Joseph Rudavsky, 
Rev. Omar R. Fink, Jr., Rev. Brunson Wallace, Rev. Dow Kirkpatrick, 

Father Walter J. Donovan, and Rev. J. Earl Gilbreath, all of Athens 1268 

Gregur Sebba (professor at the University of Georgia) 1271 

Emily Calhoun, recording clerk of the Religious Society of Friends, Atlanta. 1272 
Rev. John J. McDonough (assistant pastor of the Cathedral of Christ the 

King) 1273 

Rev. Walter J. Donovan, director of I'esettlement, Catholic Diocese of 

Savannah-Atlanta 1277 

Mrs. I. F. Sterne, president, Atlanta Federation for Jewish Social Service 1278 

Rev. Rembert Sisson, district superintendent of the Methodist Church of 

the Atlanta district 1282 

Kendall Weisiger (trustee and secretary, Rotai-y Educational Founda- 
tion) 1284 

Robert B. McKay, associate professor of law, Emory University 1290 

David Burgess, secretary of the Georgia CIO Coimcil 1293 

Rt. Rev. Msgr. William J. Castel, director, Archdiocesan Resettlement 
Bureau of the Catholic Archdiocese of New Orleans ; member of the State 
Committee of Displaced Persons and the New Orleans Resettlement 
Committee; on behalf also of Rev. Albert D'Orlando, minister of the 
First LTnitarian Church, New Orleans : Rev. Dana Dawson. .Jr., chairman, 
Depai'tment of Civil Affairs, New Orleans Council of Churches : Rev, 
W. D. Langtry, president. New Orleans Ministerial Union ; Mrs. Moise 
W. Dennery, president. New Orleans Section, National Council of Jewi.sh 
Women ; Clarence M. East, Jr., representing Catholic Committee of the 
South 1296 



INDEX ' 2023 

Twenty-fourth Session 

1 : 30 p. m., friday, october 17. 1952, at atlanta, ga. 

Page 

J. C. Holton, assistant to the commissioner, Georgia State Department of 

Agriculture, and secretary, Georgia Displaced Persons Committee 1299 

T. K. Breedlove 1307 

Hon. Tom Liiuler, commissioner of Department of Agriculture, State of 

(Jc.rgia l-'«39 

Alexander F. Miller, southern director, Anti-Defamation League of B'nai 

irrith 1315 

Mrs. Hint(»n Blackshear, Cherokee chapter regent, Daughters of the Amer- 
ican Kevolution 1320 

Mrs. Urausoni Hurts, honorary regent, Cherokee chapter. Daughters of the 

American Kevolution 1322 

Rev. H. D. Kleckley, chairman, Georgia-Alabama Committee, National 

liUtheran ('ouncil 1323 

Mrs. Walter Feldman 1328 

Mrs. Norman H. Cain 1329 

Mrs. E. E. Twiggs 1329 

O. I.ee White, member of the Georgia Fraternal Congress 1329 

Irwin S. Stanton 1331 

Mrs. liner Spann Miller 1332 

Mrs. Morris Cohen 1333 

STATEMENTS SUBMITTED BY OTHER PERSONS AND 
ORGANIZATIONS IN THE ATLANTA AREA 

Guy J. D'Antonio (former chairman of the Louisiana State Displaced 

I'ersons Commission) 1334 

Samuel Williamson, attorney 1334 

Rudolf Herberle, professor of sociology. Louisiana State University 1335 

Norfolk (Va.) Jewish Community Council 1346 

J. L. Nairn 1347 

Mrs. Straiton Hard, national defense chairman, Atlanta chapter. Daugh- 
ters of the American Revolution 1.348 

Twenty-fifth Session 
830 a. m., monday, october 27, 1952, at washington, d. c. 

Hon. James P. McGranery, Attorney General of the United States 1350 

Hon. Robert L. Stern, Acting Solicitor General of the United States 1353 

Hon. Knox T. Hutchinson, Assistant Secretary of Agriculture, repreeent- 
ing Hon. Charles F. Brannan, Secretary of Agriculture of the United 
States •_ 1354 

O. B. Wells, Chief of the Bureau of Agricultural Economics, United States 

Department of Agriculture 13G5 

Louis H. Bean, economist, Office of the Secretary, United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture 1368 

Hon. Maurice J. Tobin, Secretary of Labor of the United States, repre- 
sented by Robert C. Goodwin, Director, Bureau of Employment Se- 
curity, United States Department of Labor 1380 

Ewan Ciague, Commissioner of Labor Statistics, United States Depart- 
ment of Labor 1389 

Hon. Charles A. Coolidge, Assistant Secretary of Defense 1304 

Col. Joel D. Griffiug, chief planning officer of the Selective Service System, 

re{)resenting Maj. Gen. Lewis B. Hershey. Director of Selective Service. 1395 

Henry S. Shryock, Jr., Assistant Chief, Population and Housing Division, 

United States Bureau of the Census 1397 



2024 INDEX 

Twenty-sixth Session 
1:30 p. m., monday, october 27, 1952, at washington, d. c. 

Col. Benjamin G. Habberton, Deputy Commissioner of Immigration and 
Naturalization, appearing as Acting Commissioner in the absence of 
the Honorable Argyle R. Mackey, U. S. Commissioner of Immigration 
and Naturalization 1405 

Hon. Dean Acheson, Secretary of State of the United States 1412 

A. Wetmore, secretary, Smithsonian Institute 1415 

Jack Masur, M. D., Assistant Surgeon General, Chief, Bureau of Medical 
Services, United States Public Health Service, Federal Security' 
Agency 1416 

Arnold C. Harberger (professor of economics, Johns Hopkins University, 

and former staff member, President's Materials Policy Commis.sion) 1420 

Hon. James P. Davis, Director of the Office of Territories, United States 

Department of the Interior 1426 

Hon. Edward M. O'Connor (consultant to the Psychological Strategy Board, 
and former Commissioner, United States Displaced Persons Commis- 
sion) 1 435 

Hon. Ugo Carusi, United States Representative of the Office of the United 
Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (former Chairman, United 
States Displaced Per«ons Commission; former United States Commis- 
sioner of Immigration) 1449 

Hon. Hugh Gibson, Director, Intergovernmental Committee for European 

Migration 1457 

Sidney Painter (professor of history, Johns Hopkins University), officer 
and director of the American Council of Learned Societies; accompanied 
by Edward Dumbauld, secretary of the American Society of Industrial 
Law "- 1464 

Howard A. Meyerhoff, administrative secretary, American Association 

for the Advancement t)f Science 1 466 

Alan T. Waterman, Director, National Science Foundation 1472 

Hon. W. Averell Harriman, Director, Mutual Security Agency, repre- 
sented by D. A. Fitzgerald, Associate Deputy Director of the MSA 1484 

Hon. William H. Draper, United States special representative in Europe, 

Mutual Security Agency 1488 

Mary Lee Council, secretary to and representing Hon. E. L. Bartlett, 

Delegate in Congress from Alaska 1490 

Hon. E. L. Bartlett, Delegate from Alaska in the Congress of the United 

States 1492 

Warren C. Christiansen, secretary, Sitka Chamber of Commerce, Sitka, 

Alaska - 1492 

Twenty-seventh Session 
9:30 a. m., tuesday, october 28, 1952, at washington, d. c. 

Roland Elliott, director of immigration services, Department of Church 

World Service, National Council of Churches of Christ 1495 

Rev. Walter W. Van Kirk, executive director. Department of International 
Good Will, National Council of Churches of Christ, in behalf of the gen- 
eral board of the National Council of Churches of Christ 1496 

Rev. Wynn C. Fairfield, executive director. Department of Church World 

Service, National Council of Churches of Christ 1500 

Rev. Earl F. Adams, director, Washington office, National Council 

of Churches of Christ 1506 

Rev. Joseph M. Dawson, representing the Baptist World Alliance. 1508 

Rev. Fred E. Reissig, executive secretary, Washington Federation of 

Churches - 1510 

Rev. Harold H. Henderson, executive secretary. Committee on Displaced 

Pensons, Presbyterian Church 1512 

Rev. Benjamin Bushong, director. Department of Mutual Aid, Brethren 

Service Connnission, Church of the Brethren 1512 

Milan Obradovich, Displaced Persons Committee, Serbian-American 

Orthodox Church 1513 

The Very Reverend Francis B. Sayre, Jr., dean, Washington Cathedral. _ 1514 

Rev. Robert E. Van Deusen, representing the National Lutheran Council. 1515 



INDEX 2025 

Page 
Michael F. Markel, legal adviser, Resettlement Service, National Lutheran 

Council 1517 

Rev. Donald F. Bautz, executive director, Lutheran Inner Mission Society; 

cliairnian, Washington Area Lutheran Resettlement Committee 1520 

Lewis M. Hoskins, in behalf of the American Friends Service Committee, 

Inc L522 

Rt. Rev. Msgr. Edward K. Swanstrom, executive director, War Relief 
Services, National Catholic Welfare Conference, accompanied by Rev. 

Aloysius Wycislo and James. J. Norris 1527 

TvOuis E. Levinthal, representing the Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant 
Aid Society, the I'nited Service for New Americans, and the National 
Council of Jewish Women, accompanied by William Males, administra- 
tive assistant, HIAS; Ann S. Petluck, assistant executive director of 

L'SNA; and Abraham Rockmore, counsel for HIAS 1531 

Irving M. Engel, representing the American Jewish Committee and the 
Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith, accompanied by Sidney 

Liskofsky 1547 

Sidney Liskofsky, in behalf of the American Jewish Committee 1556 

Mrs. Harrison S. Elliott, in behalf of Young Women's Christian Asso- 

ciat ion ^ 1560 

William T. Snyder, in behalf of the Mennonite Central Committee 1561 

J. Winfield Fretz, in behalf of the Mennonite Central Committee 1562 

Mrs. Joseph Willen, in behalf of the National Council of Jewish Women, _ 1563 

Twenty-eighth Session 

1:30 p. m., tuesday, october 28, 1952, at washington, d. c. 

John W. Cragun, chairman, administrative law section, American Bar 

Association 1 565 

Louis L. JaflFee (professor of administrative law. Harvard Law School) 
chairman of the committee on immigration of the administrative law 
section of the American Bar Association, and also on behalf of Henry M. 
Hart, Jr. (professor of law. Harvard University) 1566 

Filindo B. Alasino, president of the Association of Immigration and Na- 
tionality Lawyers 1587 

Amerigo D'Agostino, chairman, committee on congressional trends. Asso- 
ciation of Immigration and Nationality Lawyers 1592 

Jack Wasserman, legislative representative. Association of Immigration and 

Nat ionality Lawyers 1597 

Allen ¥,. Throop, chairman of the committee on administrative law, the 

Association of the Bar of the City of New York 1605 

Boris Shiskin, representing the American Federation of Labor 1607 

Walter Reuther, president, United Automobile Workers, Congress of In- 
dustrial Organizations, represented by Donald Montgomery 1620 

Philip Murray, president, Congress of Industrial Organizations, repre- 
sented by Allan S. Haywood, executive vice president 1622 

Lewis K. Gough, national commander, the American Legion 1628 

A. B. Kline, president, American Farm Bureau Federation 1630 

H. L. Mitchell, president, National Agricultural Workers Union, American 

Federal ion of Labor 1 630 

Lloyd C. Halvorson, representing the National Grange 1632 

Francis D. Skelley, national first vice commander and director of the na- 
tional Americanism program of the Catholic War Veterans of the United 
States, accompanied by Thomas Walsh 1633 

Mrs. Bruce D. Reynolds, chairmaTi of the national defense committee of the 

National Society, Daughters of the American Revolution 1635 

Mrs. J. Frederick Roe, representing the New York State oj-ganization, 
National Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution, and the 
New ^'ork City colony. National Societ}' of New England Women 1636 

A. E. Zuker (professor of foreign languages, head of the Foreign Language 

Department, University of Maryland) 1640 

George Washington Williams, representing the Society of the War of 1812 

of \laryland and the General Society of the War of 1812 1644 

Louis E. Spiegler, representing the Jewish War Veterans of the United 

States 1649 



2026 INDEX 

Page 

Mrs. Margaret Hopkins Worrell, national president, the Wheel of Progress, 
and national legislative chairman, Ladies of the Grand Army of the 
Republic 1652 

Mrs. W. D. Leetch, chairman of legislation, National Society of New Eng- 
land Women, also on behalf of the National Society, Women Descend- 
ants of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company, and the Women's 
Patriotic Conference on National Defense 1654 

Charles H. Slayman, Jr., executive director, American Veterans Com- 
mittee (AMVETS) 1655 

Mrs. Ruth Z. Murphy, executive vice president, National Council on 

Naturalization and Citizenship - — 1658 

Emily Parker Simon, chairman, policy committee. Women's International 

League for Peace and Freedom, United States Section 1662 

Sallv Butler, director, legislative research. General Federation of Women's 

Clubs-.,' 1663 

War Resisters' League 1664 

Alexander T. Wells, past international president. International Lions 1664 

Twenty-ninth Session 
9:30 a. m., wednesday, october 29, 1952, at washington, d. c. 

Vannevar Bush, president of the Carnegie Institution of Washington (for- 
mer Director of the Office of Scientific Research and Development) 1667 

Hon. John W. Gibson (former Chairman, United States Displaced Persons 

Commission, former Assistant Secretary of Labor) 1673 

Gerald D. Finney, assistant general solicitor. Association of American 

Railroads 1681 

Alfred U. Krebs, counsel for the National Federation of American Shipping, 

Inc., and also representing the American Merchant Marine Institute 1685 

Frank L. Noakes, director of research and representing the Brotherhood of 
Maintenance of Way Employees and the Railway Labor Executives 
Association 1693 

Helen M. Harris, executive director, United Neighborhood Houses of 
New York, and member of the board of directors, National Federation 
of Settlements and Neighborhood Centers 1698 

Alexander M. Burgess, M. D., national chairman. National Committee 
for Resettlement of Foreign Physicians (former chairman of the Dis- 
placed Persons Commission of Rhode Island) 1704 

Stuart G. Tipton, general counsel. Air Transport Association of America 1710 

William S. Swingle, president, National Foreign Trade Council, Inc 1717 

Thirtieth Session 
1:30 p. m., wednesday, october 29, 1952, at washington, d. c. 

Leonard H. Pasqualicchio, national deputy, supreme lodge, representing 

the Order of Sons of Italy in America 1719 

Albert J. Persichetti, Samuel B. Regalbuto, and Andrew N. Farnese, on 
behalf of the Italian-American Committee for Better Government of 
Philadelphia 1727 

Robert F. Holoch, chairman. National Committee on Public Affairs, 

Steuben Society of America 1 729 

Richard Akagi, associate legislative director, Anti-Discrimination Com- 
mittee, Japanese-American Citizens League 1729 

Bruce ^I. Mohler, director of the Bureau of Immigration, National Catholic 

Welfare Conference 1737 

James Finucane, associate secretary of the National Council for the Pre- 
vention of War 1 742 

Stanislaw Mikolajczyk, president of the International Peasant's Union — 1750 

G. M. Dimitrov, secretary-general, International Peasant's Union 1757 

William J. Cahill, counsel for United Friends of Needy and Displaced 

People of Yugoslovia, Inc 1758 

Gardner Osborn, president, American Coalition 1762 

Bogumil Vosnjak 1 763 

Adolph Klimek, chairman of the Social Aid Committee of the Council of 

Free Czechoslovakia 1764 

Jury Sobolewski, delegate. Central Council of the Byelorussian Democratic 

Republic 1767 



INDEX 2027 

Page 

Mrs. J. Frederick Roe, corresponding secretary, New York Colony, Na- 
tional Society of New f'ngland Women 176S 

James C Mylonas, oti Ix-half of the Supreme Lodge of Order American 

Hellenic Educational Progressive Association 1769 

Meyer L. Brown, president, and Louis Segal, general-secretary, Farband 

Labor Zionist Order 1771 

William Van Royen (professor of geography, University of Maryland) __ 1772 

STATEMENTS SUBMITTED BY OTHER PERSONS AND 
OIKJANIZATIONS 

Floyd Ming, national commander. Disabled American Veterans 1775 

Victor F. Weisskopf, vice chairman, Federation of American Scientists 1775 

Mrs. Louise S. CJlockle, Anchorage, Alaska ■ 1777 

Norman Acton, assistant secretar)' general. International Society for the 

Welfare of Cripples " 1779 

Austin Williamson, vice president and general manager, the Peninsular 

Occidental Steamship Co 1779 

Mrs. William H. Dalton, president, National Council of Catholic Women__ 1780 

Elmer E. Rogers, Washington, D. C 1780 

Ben Touster, president, Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society 1783 

D. Aitchison, M. D., D. D., D. C. L. (minister and medical missionary), 

Takonia Park, Md '._ 1791 

Welburn Maycock, representing the American President Lines, Ltd 1792 

Rufus H. Wilson, national legislative director, AMVETS__ 1798 

Rt. Rev. T'elix (Feliks) F. Burant, president, Polish Immigration Com- 
mittee, American Commission for Relief of Polish Immigrants, Inc 1798 

Anthony V. Polito, HoUis, N. Y 1799 

Konrad Sieniewicz, secretary general. Christian Democratic Union of 

Central Europe 1 800 

Hans Zeisel, (Columbia University), New York, N. Y 1803 

Conrad M. Arensberg (professor of anthropology, Columbia University), 

New York, N. Y . 1804 

John T. Edsall, chairman, Committee on International Relations, Ameri- 
can Academy of Arts and Sciences ^ 1807 

Kathleen Hulchig, secretary. League of Americans of Ukranian Descent, 
Inc.; Chicago branch of United Ukrainian American Relief Committee, 

Inc.; and of the Ukrainian Congress Committee of America 1809 

O. Nicholas Werner, New- York 1810 

Fred J. Moscone, Boston, Mass 1811 

Frances E. Skinner, executive director. International Institute of Duluth, 

Minn 1812 

Edward Hong, general counsel, and Gilbert B. Moy, executive secretary, 

the Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association of New York 1813 

S. I. Hayakawa, editor of ETC, A Review of General Semantics 1816 

Mrs. C. A. Lee, regent, Wadsworth Tiail Chapter, Daughters of the Ameri- 
can Revolution, Morris, Minn ^ 1S17 

Rabbi Edward T. Sandrow, president, South Shore Jewish Community 

Council, Cedarhurst, N. Y 1817 

Anna Marie Curtin, information secretary, the Ameiicanization League ot 

Syracuse and (Jnonflaga County, Inc 1818 

John H. P>rguson, Cleveland, Ohio 1819 

Mrs. Inez E. Moore, Valdez, Alaska 1820 

Stanley L. Johnson, secretary-treasurer and Daniel D. Carmell, general 
counsel, Illinois State Federation of Labor of the American Federation 

of Labor 1 820 

Rev. Danila Pascu, pastor of the Romanian Baptist Church, Cleveland, 

Ohio 1822 

H. William Ihrig, Milwaukee, Wis 1824 

Mrs. W. II. Andrews, Garden City, N. Y 1826 

Mrs. Fred A. lirown, Wrightsville, Pa 1826 

Fred A. Brown, Wrightsville, Pa 1826 

Mrs. John King, Fairfax, Va 1826 

Mrs. M. Theresa Guardenier, East Springfield, N. Y 1826 

Mrs. Sherman F. Worster, Brooklyn, N. Y 1826 

Blanche O. Guardenier, Brooklyn, N. Y 1826 

Mrs. George A. Wilson, La Canada, Calif 1827 

25356^-52^ 128 



2028 INDEX 

Page 

Ruth H. Newbold, Clinton, Conn 1827 

Mrs. Walter S. Newton, Brooklyn, N. Y 1827 

Iva Lake Brennan, Brooklyn, N. Y 1828 

Bessie Bloom Wessel (professor of social anthropology, Connecticut Col- 
lege) T 1828 

Mrs. Rudy Schmeickel, secretary. Dr. Samuel Presco II Chapter, National 

Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution 1829 

Palmer Di Giulio, member, Immigration and Naturalization Committee. 

Supreme Lodge, Order Sons of Italv in America 1829 

Mrs. Charles Jocelyn, East Si>ringfield, N. Y 1830 

Florence Murphy, Cooperstown, N. Y 1831 

Frances and Cleo J. Kennedy, Minneapolis, Minn 1831 

Mrs. C. W. Spaulding, in behalf of the Owatonna Chapter, Minnesota 

Daushters of the American Revolution 1831 

Grace Brush, Brooklvn, N. Y 1831 

Mrs. Arthur C. Erickson, Eveleth, Minn 1832 

Mrs. W. B. Newhall, Minneapolis, Minn 1832 

Ruth Michels, Virginia, Minn 1832 

Mildred E. VonderWeyer, president, and Martha A. Steinwitz, executive 
secretary of the board of directors, International Institute, St. Paul, 

Minn. A 1832 

Pauline Gardescu, executive director, International Institute of Boston. _ 1833 
Henry Heineman, in behalf of the Chicago Division of the American Civil 

Liberties Union and the American Jewish Committee 1834 

Arthur H. Compton, chancelor, Washington University, St. Louis, Mo__ 1837 

APPENDIX: SPECIAL STUDIES 

Memorandum by Oscar Handlin, associate professor of history, Harvard 
University, concerning the background of the national-origin quota 
system 1 839 

Information provided by the United States Department of State concern- 
ing the — 

Organization and number of Foreign Service posts 1863 

Visa officers of the American Foreign Service 1864 

Grounds for refusal of immigration visas 1874 

Past proposals to organize the passport and visa functions 1881 

World-wide quota-control administration 1884 

Review and appeal procedures used in the Passport Division 1886 

Review procedures with regard to the issuance or refusal of visas 1889 

Reasons for the underissuance of immigration visas for a number of 
immigration quotas after the passage of the Immigration Act of 

1924 1890 

Number of nonquota visas issued, and portions of immigration quotas 

unused for the fiscal years 1925-52 1891 

Quota visa and general quota statistics 1899 

(1) Quota visa statistics 

(2) Oversubscribed quotas, total registration thereunder, year 

through which quotas were mortgaged vmder the Displaced 
Persons Act, theoretical period of waiting for an applicant's 
quota number to be reached 

(3) Reduction of quotas by section 19 (c) of the Immigration 

Act of 1917 

(4) Reduction of quotas by special acts 

(5) Reduction of quotas by section 4 of the Displaced Persons 

Act as amended 

Immigration laws and policies of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, 
South Africa, the United Kingdom, Kenya and Tanganyika, North- 
ern Rhodesia, Southern Rhodesia, Peru, and Chile 1903 

Present emigration policies of U. S. S. R., Poland, Czechoslovakia, 

Hungary, Rumania, Bulgaria, and Yugoslavia 1934 

Resolution VII adopted at the Chapultepec Conference at Mexico in 
1945 dealing with the elimination of centers of subversive influence 
and means of preventing the admission of dangerous deportees and 
propaganda agents 1938 

Policies and practices of the Western European democracies and 
British Commonwealth nations in granting asylum to political 
refugees 1 939 



INDEX 2029 

Page 
Iiiforination provided l)y the United States Department of Justice, Ininii- 
gration and Naturalization Service, concerning the — 

Edncation, background, and other (jualifications of hearing oflRcers of 

the Immigration and NaturaHzation Service 1944 

Salary rates of officers conducting formal hearings in exclusion and 

expulsion i)roceedings 1953 

Detention of aliens and the execution of orders of deportation of the 

Justice Department 1953 

Exclusion of aliens without a hearing on the basis of confidential infor- 
mation 1964 

Private inmiigration and nationality bills introduced in the Eighty- 
first and Eighty-second Congresses 1969 

Information provided by the United States Department of Labor con- 
cerning the— 

Certifications as to unavailability of domestic labor during 1946-52. . 1972 
Manpower aspects of immigration policy, immigration quotas in rela- 
tion to siz(> of the United States population, and population growth 

and capital investment in the United States, 1919-60 1974 

Method used by tlie Bureau of Labor Statistics for estimating additions 
to the labor force in 1955 and 1960 resulting from assumed levels of 

net immigrat ion 1976 

List of critical occupations in the United States, effective May 7, 1952, 

and revised to August 26, 1952 1977 

Information provided by the United States Atomic Energy Commission 
concerning references on contributions of foreign-born scientists to the 

United States atomic energy program 1978 

Information provided by the United States Department of Agriculture con- 
cerning Agriculture: Yesterdaj', Toda}', and Tomorrow 1993 



ORGANIZATIONS EEPRESENTED BY PERSONS HEARD 
OR BY SUBMITTED STATEMENTS 



A 

Page 

A. B. C. Roofing and Siding, Inc 1135 

Advisory Committee on Employment Problems of Latin Arnericans 1057 

Aid Refugee Chinese Intellectuals, Inc 208 

AFL. {See American Federation of Labor.) 

AHEPA. (See American Hellenic Educational Progressive Association.) 

Air Transport Association of America 1710 

Alliance Printers & Publishers, Inc 824 

Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America 673 

American Academy of Arts and Sciences 1807 

American Aid Society 585,603 

American Banater Relief 482 

Detroit 542 

St. Louis 957 

American Association for the Advancement of Science 1466 

American Association of Social Workers : 

Boston Chapter 356 

St. Louis Chapter 058 

American Association of University Women, Los Angeles 1216 

American Bar Association, Administrative Law Section, Committee on 

Immigration 1565, 1566 

American Bulgarian League 519 

American Coalition 1762 

American Civil Liberties Union 9 

Chicago division 675, 1834 

Cleveland branch 515 

Northern California 1090 

American Committee for Protection of Foreign Born 277, 290, 487 

Massachusetts Chapter 437 

Michigan 643 

Minnesota 907 

Northern California Committee 1130 

American Committee for Resettlement of Polish DP's 819 

American Committee on Italian Migration 47 

California Chapter 1046 

Chicago 688 

Cleveland 528 

Detroit 542 

Hopkins, Minn 913 

Los Angeles 1199 

Michigan Chapter 612 

American Commission for Relief of Polish Immigrants, Inc., Polish Immi- 
gration Committee 264, 1798 

American Council of Learned Societies 1464 

American Council on Human Rights, Los Angeles 1245 

American Council of Nationalities 626 

ADA. (See Americans for Democratic Action.) 

American Defense Society, Inc 263 

American Farm Bureau Federation 1630 

2030 



INDEX 2031 

P:iKe 

American Fodei-ation of Labor 1607 

Boston Central Labor Union 348 

California Stnte Federation of Labor 1066 

Cliicajro Federation of Lai)or 66.3 

Cleveland Federation of Labor 499 

Detroit an(i Wayne County Federation of Labor n(iO 

Illinois State Federation of Labor 663, 1820 

Los AnueU's 1245 

Los AnLreles Central Lal)or Council 1165 

Nationnl Agricnltural Workers Union 1630 

Railway ihnployees Department 1693 

Teamsters and CbaulTeurs, local 688 953 

American Federation of Polisli Jews, Chicaso District 772 

Americans for Democratic Action, Detroit Chapter 640 

American Foreign Laniruage Newspapers, Committee of Editors of 201 

American Friends Service Committee, Inc 1522, 1''58 

Los Angeles 1216 

San Francisco regional oflSce 1099 

American Hellenic Educational Progressive Association, Order of 216, 

431, 536, 622, 1238, 1769 

Athens Chapter, Displaced Persons Committee 348 

Chicago 703 

Detroit 542 

Michigan 620 

Thirteenth District comprising the States of Illinois, Wisconsin, 

and Missouri 844 

West coast region 1125, 1241 

American-Hungarian Catholic Newspaper 485 

American Hungarian Federation 838, 1207 

Washington State 1074 

Associated Industries of Missouri 967 

American-Italian Democratic Committee .1199 

American Jewish Committee 108, 1547, 1556, 1658 

Boston Chapter 334 

Chicago 675, 1834 

Los Angeles, Calif 1245 

San Francisco Chapter 1022 

American Jewish Congress 94 

Commission on Law and Social Action 296 

Chicago 760, 771 

New England region 334 

St. Louis Council 937 

Southern California division 1206 

American Legion 1628 

Cathay Post 384 1045 

Chinatown Post 328 , 416 

Department of Illinois, Cook County Council 698 

Los Angeles, Calif 1151 

American Merchant ^larine Institute 1685 

American National Committee To Aid Homeless Armenians 1015 

American President Lines, Ltd 1792 

American Pelief for Poland: 

District No. 10 911 

Philadelphia Division 293 

American Service Institute of Allegheny County 519 

American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers 294 

American Society of Industrial Law 1464 

American Train Dispatchers' Association 1693 

American Veterans of World War II. (See AMVETS.) 

AMVETS 1655, 179S 

D;'partment of Michigan 577 

Association of Immigration and Nationality Lawyers 1587 

Committee on Congressional Trends 1592 

Legislative representative 1597 

Los Angeles Chapter 1591 



2032 INDEX 

Page 

Association of American Railroads 1681 

Association of the Bar of the City of New York, Committee on Adminis- 
trative Law 1605 

B 

Back of the Yards Council in Chicago 730' 

Baptist World Alliance 1508 

B'nai B'rith : 

Antidefamation League of 108, 1547 

Buffalo 525 

Chicago 760 

Los Angeles 1245 

New England Region 334 

St. Louis 937 

San Francisco regional oflBce 1022 

Southern region 1315 

Women, Southern California Conference 1245 

Young Adults, Los Angeles 1245 

Youth Organization, Los Angeles 1245 

Board of Community Relations of the City of Buffalo 525 

Board of Rabbis of Northern California 1027 

Brotherhood Maintenance of Way Employees 1693 

Brotherhood of Railroad Singalmen of America 1693 

Brotherhood Railway Carmen of America 1693 

Brotherhood of Railway and Steamship Clerks, Freight Handlers, Express 

and Station Employees 1693 

Brotherhood of Sleeping-Car Porters 1693 

Byelerussian Democratic Republic, Central Council of 1767 

C 

California Farm Research and Legislative Committee 1091 

California Federation for Civic Unity 1113 

California Cooperative League, Southern Division 1245 

Carnegie Institution of Washington 1667 

Catholic Archdiocese of — 

Boston 313 

Chicago, resettlement director 749 

Cincinnati, Catholic charities 491 

Detroit : 

Council of Catholic Women 610 

Resettlement director 542, 562 

Los Angeles : 1197 

Catholic charities director 1197 

Resettlement director 1152 

Milwaukee, resettlement director 682 

Newark, New Jersey State legislative council l'^5 

New Orleans, resettlement director : 1296 

New York, Catholic charities director 86 

St. Louis, Resettlement director 932 

San Francisco, resettlement director 1020 

Catholic Committee of the South 1296 

Catholic Diocese of— 

Brooklyn, social-action department 182 

Buffalo, Catholic charities director 525 

Cleveland, Catholic charities director 470 

Duluth, resettlement director 924 

Grand Rapids, resettlement director 600 

Peoria, resettlement director 707 

Providence, Diocesan Bureau of Social Service, Inc 3(>4 

Savannah-Atlanta, resettlement director 1277 

Toledo, Catholic charities director 1 468 

Catholic Slovak Brotherhood 519 

Catholic War Veterans of the United States : 

Department of Michigan 577 

National Americanism program director 1633 



iNDLx 203a 

Page 

O^ntral Citizens Coinniittco of I>tMroit, Mich 616 

Central Confereuoe of Aniciican lial)l)is 94 

Chamber (s) of Commerce: 

Confederation of Mexican 1156 

Kodiak. Alaslca 1134 

Minneapolis 898 

Peters! mrs, Alaska 1133 

St. Louis 967 

San Francisco, Chinese 1039,1099 

Sit ka. Ahiska 1492 

Chicaw Church World Service Committee for the Baptist Denomination.- 776 

Displace!! I*ersons, Subcommittee of the . 792 

Chicago Civil Liberties Committee 831 

ChicajL^o Commons Association 675 

Chicago Shimpo 842 

Christian Advix-ate 836 

Chinese American Citizens Alliance 1145 

Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association 270 

New England 416 

New York 1813 

San Francisco 1039 

Chinese Merchants Association, Boston 416 

Chinese Order of Free Masons 416 

Christian Democratic Union of Central Euroiie 1800 

Church Federation : 

Cleveland 501, 505, 506, 508, 511, 512 

Greater St. Louis, Metropolitan 935 

Church of God 41 

Church of the Brethren, Department of Mutual Aid of the Brethren Service 

Commission 1512 

Church of the Redeemer (Universalist), Minneapolis 853 

CIO. (iScp; Congress of Industrial Organizations. ) 

Citizens' Bureau of Cleveland ~ 534 

CitizMiship Council of Cincinnati 491 

Citizens Protective Association of St. Louis 969 

Civic League of Italian Americans 688 

Claremont Intercultural Council 1245 

Cleveland Citizen 499 

Cleveland Council of Church Women 511, 512 

Cleveland Press 476 

Coca-Cola Export Corp. in New York 88 

Collegial Society of Hungarian Veterans in U. S. A 288 

Columbian Federation of Michigan 542 

Columbian Society of St. Louis 963 

Common Council for American Unity 1658 

Community Relations Council, Indianapolis 690 

Congregational Conference Southern California and the Southwest, social 

action department 1245 

Congress of Industrial Organizations 1622 

Boston region 378 

California Council 1159 

California Industrial Union Council ■. ll.'')9 

Cleveland area 495 

Georgia CIO Council 1293 

Greater Los Angeles CIO Coxincil 1245 

Hennepin County (Minn.) Industrial Union Council 866 

Massachusetts State Industrial Union Council r*>44 

Minnesota State Council 854 

Packinghouse Workers of America 874, 876 

United Automobile, Aircraft and Agricultural Implement Workers of 

America 595, 580, 1620 

Los Angeles 1245 

Constitutional Americans 833 

Coordinating Committee for Resettlement of Displaced Persons in San 

Diego 1202 

Cotton Producers Association 1299 



2034 INDEX 

Page 

Council of Churches of : 
Christ in the U. S. A. : 

Department of Church World Service 1495, 1500, 1658 

Methodist Committee for Overseas Relief 353 

Department of International Good Will 1496 

Washington Office 1506 

Buffalo 525 

Connecticut International Relations Committee 289 

Detroit 542 

Social Service Department 593 

Greater Cincinnati 491 

Minnesota, Committee on Social Education and Action 847 

New Haven 352 

New Orleans. Department of Civil Affairs 1296 

New York State 353 

Northern California, Nevada 1008 

Oklahoma, State of 976 

Southern California 1140 

Council of Free Czechoslovakia 1763 

Council of Social Agencies, Buffalo 525 

Covenant Presbyterian Church, Atlanta 1262 

Croatian Fraternal Union 519 

Croatian Refugee Committee 815 

Crown-Zellerbach Corp 1112 

D 

Daughters of the American Revolution 1635 

Atlanta Chapter 1348 

California Society : 

Legislative committee 1105 

National defense 1211 

Cherokee Chapter 1320, 1322 

Dr. Samuel Fresco II Chapter 1829 

Illinois State organization 712 

Massachusetts State organization 353 

Minnesota State organization 860 

Owatonna Chapter 1831 

AVadsworth Trail Chapter 1817 

New York State Organization 245, 1636 

Decalogue Society of Lawyers 760 

Disabled American Veterans 1775 

Duarte Citizens' League 1245 

E 

Eagle Rock Council for Civic Unity 1245 

Emma Lazarus Clubs, Chicago Council of 734 

Emory University Law School 1290 

Epirotic Society 542 

Episcopal League for Social Action, Los Angeles 1245 

Episcopal Trinity Church of Boston, Mass 333 

Estonian Aid, Inc 272 

Estonian Relief Committee, Inc 276 

ETC : A Review of General Semantics 843, 1816 

Evangelical Brethren Church, Los Angeles 1143 

F 

Fallon & Fallon, Attorneys at Law 1092 

Farband Labor Zionist Order 1771 

Chicago 760 

Farm Bureau, San Diego County 1163 

Farmers Union, National 889 

North Dakota 889 

Federated Community Service Organizations, Los Angeles 1245 



INDEX 2035 

Page 

Federation of American Scientists 404, 1775 

Committee on Visa Problems 452 

Stanford Chapter 1123 

Federation of Jewisli Charities, San Francisco 1022 

Federation of Jewisli IMulantliropies, Pittsburgh 519 

Federation of .Jewish Tiade I'nions, Ciiica,i;o 760 

Federation of Russian Ciiaritable Organizations of the United States 1096 

Eastern representative 286 

l^rst Baptist Church of Los Angeles Social Progress Commission 1245 

First Unitarian Church, Los Angeles 1150 

First Unitarian Church, New Orleans 129tJ 

First I^nitarian Society of Minneapolis 853 

Free Hungarian Reformed Church 624 

Freeland League for Jewish Territorial Colonization 287 

Free/.-King Corp 827 

Friends Committee on Legislation of Northern California 1102 

G 

Gee How Oak Tin Asso<'iation of Boston 416 

General Federation of Women's Clubs: 

International Affairs Department 038 

Legislative Research Director 1663 

Georgia Association of Soil-Conservation Supervisors 1299 

Georgia Fraternal Congress 1329 

Georgia, State of : 

Comptroller General 1299 

Department of Agriculture 1299, 1309 

Department of Commerce 1299 

Department of Health 1299 

Department of Labor 1299 

Department of State 1299 

Department of Welfare 1299 

Displaced Persons Committee 1299 

Georgia, University of 1271 

Colleges of Agriculture and Business' Administration 1299 

Grace T>utheran Cluirch, River Forest, 111 837 

Greater Beneficial Union of Pittsburgh 519 

Greek Orthodox Cathedral of Boston 348 

Guggenheim Memorial Foundation 158 

H 
Hadassah : 

Beverly Hills Chapter 1238 

Chicago 760 

Minneapolis , 896 

Hebrew Immigration Aid Society 1531, 1658. 1783 

I'.oston 334,373 

Cliicago 760 

San Francisco 1022 

Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society. (See Hebrew Immigrant 
Aid Society.) 

Hebrew Theological College — 76Q 

HIAS. (See Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society.) 

Hollywood Congregational Cliurch, Church World Mission Committee 1245 

Hope Lutheran Church of Cleveland 508 

n()I>oel Iloniizruchi. Chicago 760 

Hotel and Resfaur:uit Kinployees and Bartenders International Union 1693 

Hungarian Catholic Sunday 483 

I 

II Progresso Italo American 219 

Immigration Committee of Detroit, Mich 590 

Iniinigrnnts Protective League, Chicago 778, 828 

Independent Order of Sons of Italy in America. (See Sons of Italy.) 



2036 INDEX 

I"age 

Independent Proffressive Party. Riverside County (Calif.) Council 1209 

Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration 1457 

International Association of Macliini-sts 1693 

International Brotherhood of Blacksmiths. Drop Forcers, and Helpers 1693 

International Brotherhood of Boilermakers, Iron Ship Builders, and 

Helpers of America 1693 

International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers 1693 

International Brotherhood of Trainmen and Oilers 1693 

International General Electric Co 56 

International Institute (s) : 

American Federation of 172, 1658 

Boston 356, 18-33 

Buffalo 525 

Cleveland 530 

Duluth, Minn 1812 

Flint 591 

Gary 715 

Los Angeles 1179, 1180, 1216 

Metropolitan Detroit 542, 580, 611, 628 

Milwaukee County , 783 

St. Louis 946 

St. Paul, Minn 905, 1832 

San Francisco '. 1054 

International Ladies Garment Workers Union : 

Los Angeles Cloak .Joint Board 1245 

Los Angeles Dress .Toint Board 1245 

Los Angeles Sportswear Joint Council 1245 

Pacific Coa.st Office 1245 

International Lions 1664 

International Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union 989 

International Longshoremen's Association 1693 

International Peasant's Union 17.50, 1751 

International Rescue Committee 100, 161, 16.58 

International Social Service 1658 

International Society for the Welfare of Cripples 1779 

International Women's Club 1216 

Italian-American Committee for Better Government of Philadelphia 1727 

Italian-American War Veterans : 

Mendillo-Faugno Post 352 

St. Louis, Mo 963 

Italian Church of Santa Maria, Detroit 639 

Italian Club of St. Louis 963 

Italian Daily Newspaper of Boston 372 

Italian Welfare Committee ; 1658 

J 

Jackson & Hertogs, attorneys at law 1106 

Jamaica Progressive League 246 

Japanese-American Citizens' Leagiie 1658 

Anti-Dis^crimination Committee 1729 

Los Angeles Region 1155,1245 

Minneapolis-St. Paul Chapter 901 

Northern California Regional Office 1114 

Jewish Community Council : 

Bridgeport, Conn 334 

Detroit 542, 572 

Los Angeles Community Relations Committee 1183, 1245 

INIetropolitan Boston 3.34 

Minnesota 860 

New Haven 334. .3.52 

Norfolk, Va 1346 

South Shore Council, Cedarhur.st. N. Y 1817 

Jewish Community Relations Bureau of Greater Kansas City 937 



INDEX 2037 

Page 
Jewish Conimunity Relations Council : 

Cincinnati 491 

Connocticut 334 

Oakland 1022 

Pittsburgh 519 

St. Louis 937 

San Francisco 1022 

Jewish Conimunity Federation of Cleveland 472 

Jewish Family and Children's Service of Pittsburgh 519, 538 

Jewish Family Service, St. Paul Refugee Service Committee 868 

Jewish Federation : 

Chicago 831 

Hartford, Conn 334 

St. Louis 037 

Jewish Federation for Social Service, Buffalo 525 

Jewish Labor Committee 94 

Boston 334 

Chicago 760 

Detroit 542 

Los Angeles 1245 

St. Louis 937 

Jewish Personnel Relations Bureau, Los Angeles 1245 

Jewish Social Service, Atlanta Federation for 1278 

Jewish Social Service Bureau, Detroit .542 

Jewish War Veterans of the U. S. A 94, 1649 

Department of Chicago 760 

Department of Massachusetts 334 

Department of Michigan 577 

Department of Missouri 937 

Jewish Welfare Federation, Oakland 1022 

Jewish Welfare Fund : 

Chicago 831 

Oakland ; 1022 

San Francisco : 1022 

Joint Distribution Committee 1658 

Junior Order of United American Mechanics 513 

Philadelphia 190 

K 

Korea Gospel Church of Los Angeles 1218 

L 

Labor Committee To Combat Intolerance 525 

Labor-Management Committee of Kansas City, Mo 967 

Labor Zionist Organization of Chicago_" 760 

Ladies of the Grand Army of the Republic 1652 

Latvian Association in Detroit 542 

Latvian Relief, Inc 215,649 

Detroit 542 

La Voce del Popola 039 

Leairue of Americans of Ukrainian Descent 817, 1S09 

Leajrne of (";itholic Slovenian Americans 124 

Lee Lung Sai Associaticm of Boston 416 

Legiil Aid liureau, Detroit 542 

Liberal Citizens of Massachusetts 449 

Liberal Party of New Yoi-k State 338 

Lithuanian Daily Vilnis 733 

Lithuanian Relief Fund lioston. Chapter 17 361 

Logan Sqiiare Baptist Church of Chicago 776 

Los Angeles Conference of Civic Organizations 1148 

Los Anireles County (.'ommittee on Human Relations 1245 

Los Angeles County (Conference on Community Relations 1245 

Los Angeles Welfare Council 1216 



2038 INDEX 

Page 

Louii^iana, State of. Committee of Displaced Persons 1290 

Louisiana State University 1335 

Lutheran charities : 

Chicago T^l'^ 

Michigan 608 

Lutheran Children's Friend Society of Kansas 985 

Lutheran Council, National. (See National Lutheran Council.) 

Lutheran Inner Mission Society 1520 

Lutheran Resettlement Committee. {See National Lutheran Council, Re- 
settlement Service. ) 
Lutheran Service Society (ties) of — 

Pittsburgh 519' 

Western Pennsylvania 523 

Lutheran Service to Refugees, Detroit, Mich 565' 

Lutheran Welfare Council of Northern California 1010 

M 

Masaryk Alliance of Czechoslovakian Citizens 1235 

Massachusetts, State of 377 

Displaced Persons Commission 314, 341, 366 

Mennonite Central Committee 1561, 1562 

Methodist Church : 

Board of World Peace of the 802 

Atlanta District 1282 

Austin, Minn 874 

Metropolitan Museum of Art, New Yorlv City 154 

Michigan Committee on Immigration 541, 548 

Michigan State of; Commission on Displaced Persons 586, 628, 630, 641 

Midwest Chinese American Civic Council of Chicago 830 

Minnesota, State of; Department of Social Welfare 868 

Minnesota, University of. Foreign Student Service 901 

Mizrachi of Chicago, Women's Organization 760 

N 

National Alliance of Czech Catholics 841 

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People 43 

Cleveland branch 479 

Los Angeles branch 1245 

Legal Redress Committee 1255 

Minnesota State Conference 919^ 

Legislative Committee 920 

New Haven branch 352 

West coast region 1089 

National Association of Manufacturers 967 

National Catholic Rural Life Conference 1658 

Executive Committee of 253 

Des Moines, Iowa 940^ 

National Catholic Welfare Conference: 

Bureau of Immigration 1737 

War Relief Services 1527 

National Committee for Resettlement of Foreign Physicians 1704 

National Community Relations Advisory Council 94 

National Conference of Christians and Jews, Los Angeles, Calif 1245 

National Congress of American Indians, Los Angeles, Calif 1245 

National Consumers League 595 

National Council for the Prevention of War 1742 

National Council of Catholic Women _ 1780 

National Council of Churches of Christ. (See Council of Churches.) 

National Council of Jewish Women 1531, 1563, 1658 

Chicago section 760 

Kansas City section 937 

Minneapolis section 896 

New Orleans section 1296 

Pittsburgh section 519, 522 

St. Louis section 937 



INDEX 2039 

Page 

National Coiincil Nogro Woukmi, Los Angeles section 1245 

National Council on Naturalization and Citizenship 1658 

National Kcononiic Council, Inc 214 

National l''o(l(>ration of American Sliipiiinj;, Inc 1()85 

National Federation of Settlements and Neighborhood Centers 677, 16!)8 

National Foreign Trade Council 1717 

National Grange 16;i2 

National I>awyers Guild. Harvard Law School Chapter 48o 

National Lutheran Council 120, 1515, 1658 

Lutheran Resettlement Service 79, 1517 

Georgia- Alabama 1328 

Illinois 712 

Michigan .60S 

Minnesota 857 

Ohio 508 

North Dakota 88ft 

San Francisco • 1049 

Washington. D. C 1.520 

National Marine Engineers' Beneficial Association 1693 

National INIetal Trades 967 

National Organization Masters, Mates and Pilots of America 1693 

National Slovak Society of tlie U. S. A 536 

National Society of New England Women 1654 

New York City Colony 1636, 1768 

National Steuben Society. <SVc Steuben Society. 

National I'nion of Marine Cooks and Stewards 989 

Native Sons of the (Jolden West. Americani.sm Committee 1232 

Naturalization Council of Kansas City, Mo 927 

Netherlands Information Servi<-p, Midwestern Region 634 

Netherlands ^luseum of Iltdland, Michigan 6.34 

Netherlands I'ioneer and Historical Foundation of Holland, Mich 634 

New Haven (Italian newspaper) 352 

New Orleans Committee for Displaced Persons 1296 

New Orleans Ministerial T'nion . 1296 

New Orleans Resettlement Committee 1296 

New York. State of : 

Department of Labor 172 

Displaced Persons Commission 172 



Oklahoma, State of : 

Displaced Persons Commission . ^ 976 

State Personnel Board 976 

Order of American Hellenic Educational Pi'ogressive Association. See 
.\merican Hellenic Educational I'rogressive Association. 

Order of Railroad Telegraphers 1693 

Our Author's Study Club 1245 

P 

Pacilic American Steam.ship Association 1074 

Palo Alto Fair Play Council 1245 

Pan-Amerasian Co 1076 

I'an-Macfdonian Aid Association 542 

Parents for Better Schools, Los Angeles, Calif 1245 

I'asafh'ua Connnissiou on Group Relations 1245 

I'eninsular and Occidental Steamship Co 1779 

Penobscot Chemical Filire Co 383 

Pentecostal and Holiness Movement 41 

Pioneer Women : 

Brentwood, ( 'alif 1238 

Chicago 760 

Yoraa Club 1252 



2040 INDEX 

Page 
Presbyterian Church of the U. S. A. : 

Committee on Displaced Persons 1512 

Presbytery of Minneapolis 847 

Synod of Missouri 948 

Progressive Party 112(5 

Massachusetts State organization 436 

Protestant Church Federation : 

Cleveland ' 501, 505, 506, 508, 511, 512 

Los Angeles 1140 

Protestant Episcopal Church, National Council of 52 

Protestant Episcopal Diocese : 

California, Christian Social Relations Department 1014 

Los Angeles, Christian Social Relations 1245 

Polish Activities League 542 

Polish Aid Society : 

Detroit, Mich 590 

Harper Community House 542 

Polish-American Citizens Club, Salem, Mass 451 

Polish-American Citizens Club, Women's, Salem, Mass 451 

Polish-American Citizens League of Pennsylvania 293 

Polish-American Congress 824 

Detroit 542 

Eastern Division 293 

Illinois Division ^ 819 

Michigan Division 615 

Ohio Department 489 

Polish-American War Relief 822 

Polish Army Veterans Association (Detroit) 616 

Polish Daily Scholar 824 

Polish Dai\v News 489 

Polish Ex-Servicemen's Association for Emigration to the U. S. A. — in 

Great Britain 37 

Polish Legion of American Veterans 489 

Michigan State Department 616 

Polish National Aliens 824 

Polish National Alliance (Detroit) , 616 

Polish Roman Catholic Union (Detroit) 616 

Polish Women's Alliance of America 822 

R 

Rabbinical Assembly of : 

America 94 

Chicago 760 

Southern California Region 1197 

Rabbinical Association : 

Chicago 760 

St. Louis 937 

Rabbinical Council of : 

America 94 

Chicago 760 

Railroad Yardmasters of America 1693 

Railway Labor Executives Association 1693 

Ramsey Corp 067 

Refugee Aid Association of Northern Greece 542 

Religions Society of Friends. Atlanta 1272 

Resettlement Service of Detroit 542, 605 

Rhode Island Resettlement Council for Italian Immigrants 361 

Rhode Island, State of 851 

Romanian Baptist Church in Cleveland, Ohio 1822 

Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia, Inc 234 

S 

St. George's Greek Orthodox Ukrainian Church of Minneapolis 904 

St. Louis University 031 

St. Mark's Missouri Lutheran Church of Cleveland 506 



INDEX 2041 

Page 

St. Paul's Lutheran Church, Liverpool, N. Y 282 

San Francisco Committee for Service to Emigres 1022 

Scholar 824 

Sorb National Fe<loration Oil) 

Serbian-Ainericaii Orthodox Church, Displaced Persons Committee 1513 

Serbian N-ational Ucfcuso Council of America 705 

Sheet Metal Workers' International Association 1003 

Small lMopert.\ Owners of Los Angeles 1229 

Society for the Relief of Germans from Prewar Poland 542 

Detroit. Mich 589 

Society of St. Vincent De Paul, Milwaukee 682 

Society of the War of 1812, General 1644 

Maryland 1644 

Sons «if Italy in America, Independent Order of 129,1719 

Immigration and Naturalization Committee 652, 1829 

Grand Lodge of Rhode Island 362 

Sons of Italy Magazine 379 

Southern California Society for Mental Hygiene 1245 

Soutliern California Women Lawyers 1215 

Steuben Society 723, 1729 

Switchmen's I'nion of North America 1693 

Synagogue Council of America 94 

Szabadzag, Hungarian Daily 480 

T 

The Americanization League of Syracuse and Onodaga County, Inc 1818 

The Chinese Weekly 1251 

The Christines 1245 

The Slovak American 812 

Tolstoy Foundation: State of Michigan Representative 591 

U 

Ukrainian Congress Committee of America ^ 1116 

Chicago 1809 

Detroit 542 

rkraiuian Federation of Michigan 586 

United Friends of Needy and Displaced Persons of Yugoslavia, Inc 175S 

Union of American Hebrew Congregations «)4 

Chicago 760 

Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations 94 

Unitarian Churches in the Twin Cities of St. Paul and Minneapolis 853 

United Ccnnniunity Services, Nationality Department 628,630 

United Electrical, Radio, and Machine Workers of America, Antonia Sent- 

ner Defense Committee of District 8 973 

United Nations, High Commissioner for Refugees, United States Repre- 
sentative 1449 

United Neigliborhfiod Houses of New York 1698 

United .Jewish Fund of Piftslmrgh 519 

United Labor Committee of .Minnesota for Human Rights 852 

United Lithuanian Relief Fund of America, Inc 134 

Detroit 542 

United Patriotic People of the United States of America 1177 

United Service for New Americans 366, 1531 

United States Government : 

Atomic Energy Commission 1481 

Division (tf Information Services 1978 

Department of Agriculture 1354,1368,1482,1093 

Bureau of Agricultural Economics 1365 

Extension Service of (4e<trgia 1299 

Fulton County, Ga., agent 1299 

Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census 1397 

Department of Defense 1394, 1480 

Research and Development Board 1480 

Department of the Interior, Office of Territories 1426 



2042 INDEX 

Paije 
United States Government — Contiuued 

Department of Justice 1350 

Immigration and Naturalization Service 1405, 1944, 1953, 1964, 1969 

Solicitor General 1353 

Department of Labor 1380 

lUireau of Employment Security 1972" 

Bureau of Labor Statistics 1389, 1974, 1976 

Department of State 1412 

Division of Foreign Service Personnel 1864 

Office of British Commonwealth and Northern European Affairs 1903 

Office of Eastern European Affairs 1934 

Office of Security and Consular Affairs 1863, 1874, 1881 

Passport Division , 1886 

Visa Division 1884, 1889, 1890, 1S91 

Federal Security Agency, Public Health Service 1416 

Mutual Security Agency 1484 

United States special representative in Europe 1488 

National Science Foundation ^ 1472 

Selective Service System 1395 

Smithsonian Institution 1415 

United Synagogue of — 

America 94 

Chicago 760 

National Women's League, Pacific Southwest Branch 1196 

United Ukrainian American Relief Committee Inc 214, 586. 817 

Chicago 1809 

Detroit 542 

United Ukrainian American Resettlement Committee, Minnesota 899 

United Vocational and Employment Service, Pittsburgh, Pa 538 

Unity Church (Unitarian), St. Paul 853 

Universalist Churches in the Twin Cities of St. Paul and Minneapolis 853 

Urban League, Los Angeles 1245 

USNA. (See United Service for New Americans.) 

V 

Veterans of Foreign Wars of the United States : 

Department of Minnesota 865 

Wayne County Council 579,580 

Vaad Hoeir of St. Louis 937 

Verhovay Association 519 

W 

War Registers' League ^ 1664 

Washington Cathedral 1514 

Washington Federation of Churches 1510 

Washington, State College of. Agricultural Extension Service 1033 

Wa.shington University 966, 1837 

Welfare Council : 

Metropolitan Los Angeles, Displaced Persons Committee 1179 

Pasadena and Altadena, Community Relations Committee 1245 

AVheel of Progress 1652 

\\'()men Descendents of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company, 

National Society 1654 

Women for Legislative Action 1173 

AVomen's International Club, Los Angeles, Calif 1245 

Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, United States 

Section 1662 

Women's Patriotic Conference on National Defense 1654 

Wong Wun Sun Association of Boston 416 

Workman's Circle of Chicago 760 

World Council of Churches, Refugee Sei-vice for the 4 

WRS-NCWC. (Sec National Catholic Welfare Conference, War Relief 

Services of.) 



INDEX 2043 

XVZ rage 

Yee Moo Kai Association of Hostoii 416 

Younj^ Men's Christian Association, Cleveland 505 

Yonni; Women's Christian Association 1500, 1658 

A.tianta, International Cluh 1267 

Los Anf;eles 1216, 1245 

Missouri, I'ublic Affairs Committee 955 

Pasadena 1245 

St. Louis 955 

Santa Monica 1245 

YWCA. (iSVr Youns Women's Cliristian Association.) 
Zionist Or.iiariization : 

Chicago 760 

St. Louis 937 



25306-52 129 



PERSONS HEARD OR WHO SUBMITTED STATEMENTS, 
BY ALPHABETICAL ARRANGEMENT OF NAMES 



A Page 

Abeles, Mrs. Alfred T 684 

Abrams, Samuel 373 

Acheson, Hon. Dean 1412 

Acton, Norman 1T79 

Adams, Rev. Earl F 1506 

Adams, Susan D 1165 

Adler, Adam 38 

Adler, Rabbi Morris '■ 572 

Agb, L 288 

AitcMson, D., M. D., D. D., D. C. L 1791 

Akagi, Richard 1729 

Alinsky, Saul 730 

Allen, Isabel 137 

Allison, Samuel K 7.'>7 

Alper, Rabbi Michael 290 

Alsberg, Elsa 12.50 

Ambrozic, Rev. Bernard 124 

Anastassv, Metropolitan 234 

Andrews, Mrs. W. H 1826 

Andrica, Theodore 476 

Apgar, Sybil 1236 

Arensberg, Conrad M 1804 

Aroney, Anthony, Jr 1238 

Auchard, Rev. Edward D 948 

Avila, Manuel V 1156 

Ayers, Rev. Robert H 1268 

B 

Bacon, Eva 311 

Bacon, Frances M 1237 

Barron, Mrs. Harriet 277 

Bartlett, Hon. E. L 1490,1492 

Baskin, Virginia 1238 

Basset, W. J 1165 

Bates, Mrs. Rosiland G 1215 

Bauer, Fred 585 

Bautz. Rev. Donald F 1520 

Beals. Ralph L 1170 

Bean, Louis H 1368 

Becker, Russell 290 

Relosselsky, Serge 286 

Benson, Elmer A 290 

Bernard, William 75 

Besig, Ernest 1090 

Bleringer. AValter H 366 

Bishop, Homer C 958 

Bixler, Mrs. M. F 511 

Blackshear, Mrs. Hinton 1320 

Blunier, Herbert 1134 

Bodde, Derk 290 

Book, Rev. Abbott 1008 

Boren, James E 847 

2044 



INDEX 2045 

Page 

Bosler, Rev. Raymond 690 

Boss, Charles F., Jr 802 

Boyer, M. W 14S1 

Bozzani, Amerigo 1199 

Bradish, Mrs. Betsy Buell :''l^ 

Branch, G. Murray ^9l» 

Brantian. Hon. ("harles F l-^-")-! 

r.i-eakstone, Irving 698 

r.reiMllove, T. R 1307 

r.regniau, Judith 452 

lUennan, Iva Lalte 1828 

Brewster, Dorothy 290 

Briggs, Father Evatt F 1216 

Broclv, Mrs. Mavnor D 927 

Brooks, U. W 1299 

Brown. Arthur T _^56 

r.rown. Rev. Edward A 515 

Brown. Emily C 290 

r.rown. Rev. Ethelred 246 

lirown, Frances 1272^ 

Brown, Fred A 1826: 

P.i-own, Mrs. Fred A 1826: 

Brown. Meyer L . — 1771 

r.rown. Walter S 1299 

Bruce, H. D 922 

Bruniherg, Walter 272 

Brush. Grace 1831 

Buckley, Rev. Frederick J 452 

Bukowski, Peter 669 

Burant, Rt. Rev. Msgr. Feliks (Felix) F 264, 1798 

Burgess, Alexander M., M. D 1704 

Burgess, David 1293 

Burke, Helen E : , 283 

Burns, Mrs. Carolyn Sinelli 614 

Burts, Mrs. Uransom 1322 

Bush, Herman 772 

Busli, Vannevar 1667 

Bushong, Rev. Benjamin 1512 

Butler, Sally 1663 

C 

Cadieux, Arthur L 898 

Cahill, William J 1758 

Cahn, Leni 905 

Cain, Mr.s. Norman H ^ 1320 

Calhoun, Emily 1272 

Calkins. Rev. Rnyniond 290 

Camphell, Rev. Frank D 290 

Camiibell, Rev. William J 874 

Carey, Rev. Howard R 290 

Carlson, A. J 290 

Carmell, Daniel D 663, 1820 

Carniin, Mrs. Pearson 1217 

Carty, Rev. Denzil A 919 

Carusi, Hon. Ugo 1449 

Casanova, .Mrs. Florence J 311 

Cassavetes, Nicholas J 285 

Cassidy, P'lorence G 630 

Castel, Rt. Rev. Msgr. William J 1296 

Celebree.se, Judge Frank 528 

Celler, Hon. Emanuel 149 

Challgren, Mrs. T. and family 538 

Chalmars, Paul 428 

Chandler, Edgar H. S 4 

Cherne, Leo 161 



2046 INDEX 

Page 

Christiansou, Warren C .- 1492 

Church, Edward J 580 

Ciarrocohi, Msgr. Joseph 639 

Clasue, Ewan 1389 

Clapp, Eugene H 383 

Clifton, Albert G 344 

Coffey, Reid 595 

Cohen, Frederick F 430 

Cohen, Mrs. Martin M 896 

Cohen, Mrs. Morris 1333 

Cole, G. Stewart 1216 

Collins. John 378 

Oompton, Arthur H 966, 1837 

Conto, Armando F 827 

Converse, Florence 290 

Coolidge, Hon. Charles A 1394 

Cope. Mrs. Alice 341 

Corsi, Hon. Edward 172 

Coryell, Charles Du Bois 404 

Council, Mary Lee 1490 

Counts, George S 138 

Cowdry, Mrs. E. V 955 

Cox, Cordelia 79 

Cox, Philip W. L 290 

Cragun, John W 1565 

Cravey, Hon. Zack D 1299 

Cronbach, Abraham 290 

Cronin, Rev. Bernard C 1020 

Cross, Ephraim 290 

Cruz, Mrs. Margaret 1057 

Cumner, Genevieve 311 

Curtin, Anna Marie 1818 

Curtis, Edna C 311 

Curtiss, Mrs. Charles R 712 

Gushing, Archbishop Richard J 313 

D 

D'Agostino, Amerigo 219 1592 

D'Antonio, Guy J 1334 

Dalton, Mr.s. William H 1780 

Darr, Rev. John W 290 

Davenport, Russell W 20 

Davey, Albert O 499 

Davie, iVIaurice li 453 

Davis. Esther 792 

Davis, Hon. James P 1426 

Davis, Kenneth Gulp 924 

Dawson, Rev. Dana, Jr 1296 

Dawson, Rev. Joseph M 1508 

Day, The Very Reverend John W 290 

De Grazia, Alfred 1119 

De Lacy, Hugh 1126 

Demopulos, George K 431 

Dennery, Mrs. Moise W 1296 

Denton, William Wells 290 

DePasquale, Hon. Luigi 364 

Despol. .lohn 1159 

Dever, Hon. I'aul A 377 

Diamond, Charles N 620 

Di Giulio, Palmer 652, 1829 

Dillon, Roy A 976 

Dimitrov, G. M 1757 

Dinuol. Solomon 261 

Dodd, Katherine 290 

Donovan. Rev. Walter J 1268, 1277 



INDEX 2047 

Paw 

D'Orhuulo, Kev. Albert 1296 

Doss, Kathleen H 1076 

Doii.i;las, Mrs. George T :. 1267 

Doyle, Uev. James E 749 

Doyle, Msgr. Michael J 468 

Dragicevic, Kev. IJerto 815 

Drai)er, Hon. William H 1488 

Dresden, Arnold 290 

Duhllii, Louis I 168 

Dudde, Rev. John H 2S2 

] >ulin. Adolph 589 

I )umhaiild, Edward 1464 

Durkee, Harry D 1049 

Dybowski, Zygmunt B 489 

P^asby, Dudley Tate 154 

East, Clarence M., Jr 1296 

Eastlund, Lowell 865 

Eaton, Miss 1217 

Ed.sall, John T 1807 

Eldbo, Paul G 886 

Ellington, E. V 1033 

Elliott, Mrs. Harrison S 1560 

Elliott, Roland 1495 

Emmet, Christopher 208 

Empie, Paul C 120 

Engel, Irving M 1547 

p]nnis. Edward J 9 

Erb, Mrs. Harold E 245 

Erickson, Mrs. Arthur C 1832 

F 

Fairfield, Rev. Wynn C 1500 

Falkenberg, Charles V 698 

Fallon, Jo.ve]ili 1'., Jr 1092 

Farnese, Andrew N 1727 

Feldman, Mrs. Walter 1328 

P^eltz, Mr. and Mrs. Harold 286 

Ferguson, John H 1819 

Fergusson, Margaret 530 

Ferrando, Guido 290 

Ferrari, Louis 1046 

Field, Mrs. Mildred J 1257 

Fine, Rabbi Alvin I 1027 

Fink, Rev. Omar R., Jr 126S 

Finney, Gerald D 1681 

Finucane, James 1742 

Fisher, Rev. George A 290 

Fitzgerald, D. A 1484 

Fitzgerald, James E 416 

P^leishman, Alfred 937 

Flewelling, Rod 1214 

Foley, Mrs. Alma 907 

Foote, Rev. Arthur 853 

Forbes, Rev. Kenneth Ripley 290 

Forro, Rev. Alpar 687 

Fortson, Hon. Ben 1299 

Foster, George T 833 

Fowell, Myron W 451 

France, Clemens J 290 

Frame, Royal W 290 

Freedheim, Eugene H 459 

Fret/,, J. Winfield l.-)02 

Friedrich, Carl 439 



2048 INDEX 

Page 

Fritchman, Rev. Steven 1150 

Frnchtbaum, L. M 287 

Fujii, Ivyoichi 842 

Fuller, Varden 1058 

P'urcolo, Hon. Foster 448 

Fuzy, William A 838 

G 

Gadowski, Mrs. Estelle 590 

Gaines, Hon. Clark 1299 

Gallan, Walter 214 

Gallen, Eduard D 649 

Gardescu, Mrs. Pauline 356, 1833 

Gates, Dean 1299 

Geiseman, O. A 837 

Geuras, Peter G f 348 

Giambalvo, Peter C 129 

Gibbons, Edward H 1148 

Gibbons, Rev. William J., S. J 253 

Gibbs, J. Rice 263 

Gibson, Hon. Hugh 1457 

Gibson, Hon. John W 1673 

Gigante, Nicola 612 

Gilbreath, Rev. J. Earl 1268 

Glockle, Mrs. Louise S 1777 

Gojack, John T 290 

Gold, Ben 290 

Goldburg, Rabbi Robert E 290 

Goldman, Marcus I 290 

Goldsmith, Samuel A 831 

Gombos, Zolten 480 

Goodwin, Robert 1380 

Gough, Lewis K 1628 

Grabbe, Archpriest Gewrge 234 

Graham, Chester A 889 

Granovsky, Alexander 899 

Grant, Edith 538 

Gi'eco, Madeline L 519 

Green, George 534 

Griffing, Col. Joel D 1395 

Gross, Rev. L. A 290 

Grossman, Saul 643 

Grotefend, Rev. Oliver C 508 

Guardenier, Blanche O 1826 

Guardenier, Lucy H 312 

Guardenier, Mrs. M. Theresa 1826 

Guins, George C 1049 

Gundlach, Ralph H 290 

Gupta, Kamini K 1128 

(iutterman, Lester 108 

Gwathmey, Robert 290 

H 

Habberton, Col. Benjamin G 1405 

Hall, Douglas 866 

Hallington, Rev. Albert J 290 

Halvorson, Lloyd C 1632 

Hamilton, John W 969 

Hammett, Dashiell 290 

Handlin, Oscar 327, 1839 

Hanson, ]\Irs. Vera B 446 

Harbach, Otto A 294 

Harberger, Arnold C 1420 

Hard, Mrs. Straiton 1,348 

Harriman, Hon. W. Averell 1484 

Harris, Mrs. Edna C 311 



INDEX 2049 

Page 

Harris, Helen M 3G98 

Harrison, William 290 

Hurt, Henry M.. Jr 1566 

Hart, Merwin K 214 

Hart, S. AVilly 283 

Ilaskins. Kathryn E 311 

Hatch, Sharon L 783 

Hauser. Philip M 787 

Havishnrst. Rohert J 290 

Hawh'v. Amos 602 

Havakawa, S. I 843, 1816 

Havden, A. Eustace 290 

Haywood, Allan S 1622 

Helms, Edward H 1030 

Heineman, Henrv 675, 1834 

Heller, Leonard H 868 

Henderson, Rev. Harold H 1512 

Henning. Mrs. Iva R 1105 

Herberle, Rudolf 1335 

Heme, Mrs. Elaine 311 

Hershey, Maj. Gen. Lewis B 1395 

Herter, Hon. Christian A 333 

Hertogs, Joseph S 1106 

Hill. Rev. Charles A 290 

Hodgson, Rev. Chester E_.. 290 

Hoffman, Bernard L 577 

Hofstetter, Patricia J 1215 

Holoch, Robert P 1729 

Hol.senbeck, W. H 1299 

Holton, J. C 1299 

Hong, C. T 1145 

Hong, Edward 270, 1813 

Horton, Mrs. Mildred McAfee 29 

Ho.skins, Lewis M 1522 

Howard, Donald S 1220 

Howells, John N. M 449 

Huiet, Hon. Ben T 1299 

Hulchig, Kathleen 1809 

Hutchinson, Hon. Knox T 1354,1482 

Hutler, Albert A 1202 

I 

Ihara, Mrs. Suzy 1216 

Ihrig, H. William 746, 1824 

Ishimaru, Haruo 1114 

J 

Jackson, Z. B 1106 

Jacobs, Rabbi Sidney J 771 

Jacobson, R. C S54 

Jaffee, Louis L 15G6 

James, Rev. Fleming, Sr 290 

Javits, Hon. Jacob K 238 

Jennings, Rev. Dr. Ralph H 948 

Jerry, Helen B 828 

Jocelyn, Mrs. Charles 1830 

JofCe, Boris M 541 

Johnson, Stanley L 1820 

.Johnston, Edgar L 595 

Jory, Nicholas 1207 

K 

Kalin, Mrs. Lilly 1216 

Kane, Francis I'isher 290 

Kane, Harry F 1209 



2050 INDEX 

Piige 

Keibler, Mrs. Druzilla 1010 

Keller, Alvin 577 

Kelly, Rev. William F 182 

Kemper, Alan 129& 

Kennedy, Cleo J 1831 

Kennedy, Frances 1831 

Kennedy, Hon. John F 320 

Kennev, Robert W 290 

Kidder, Marshall E 1591 

King, Mrs. John 182G 

Kinssbury, John A . 290 

Kirkpatrick, Rev. Dow 1268 

Kirkpatrick, Paul 290 

Kist, Rev. Andrew 904 

Kitagawa, Rev. Daisuke 901 

Kiviranna, Rev. Rudolf 276 

Kleckley, Rev. H. D 1323 

Kleven, Bernhardt J 850 

Klimek, Adolph - 1764 

Kline, A. B 1630 

Kolthoff, I. M 290 

Kovarsky, Marcel 538 

Kovrak, Stephen J 293 

Kramer, Msgr. August J 491 

Kramer, Rabbi Simon G 94 

Krawczak, Rev. Arthur H 562 

Krebs, Alfred U 1685 

Krippner, Jeannette F 841 

Krizka, Rev. Martin A 841 

Krolik, Mrs. Julian H 605 

Kubac, Frank 1249 

Kube, Ella 1245 

Kuechle, Rev. George .506 

Kuntz, Rev. Werner .565 

Kurth, Mrs. Anne 610 

Kushida, Tata 1155 

Kutrubes, Prakos P 436 

L 

Ladar, Samuel A 1022 

Lagodzinski, Mrs. Adele 822 

Lamb.'Rev. Joseph J 364 

Lamont, Corliss - 215 

Landauer, Walter 290 

Landes, Rev. Carl J 290 

Lane, Mrs. Charles N 312 

Langtry, Rev. W. D 1206 

Lani, Rev. Mathias 1152 

Larkin, Rev. William B 924 

Latimer, Ira H 831 

Latourette, K. S 452 

Lavietes, Paul H 290 

Lawitz, Freda 1238 

Ledbetter, Rev. Theodore S - 352 

Lee, Mrs. C. A 1817 

Lee, Lim P 1045 

Leetch, Mrs. W. D 1654 

Lehman, Hon. Herbert H - 59 

Leland, Wilfred C, Jr 920 

Lenow, John 215 

Levan, Louis A 579 

Levin, Samuel 673 

Levinthal, Lewis E 1531 

Lewis, Edward R 808 

Lewis, Mrs. Helen A 734 



INDEX 2051 

I'age 

Lewis, Joe C 1091 

Lewis, liead 87 

Lieberinan, Jacob J 1183 

Ligiitti, Kt. Rev. Msgr. L. G 940 

Linder, Hon. Tom 1309 

Lindsav, Samuel M 290 

Lislvofsliv, Sidney 1547, 1556 

Liu, Mv». IL H. Cliui 1268 

Lively, C. E 986 

Lodge, Hon. Henry Cabot 324 

Longarini, G. N 372 

Loonier, Rev. Bernard M 290 

Loud, Oliver S 290 

Lovett, Robert A 1480 

Lowetb, Mrs. Alice F 512 

Lucas, Charles P 479 

Luderman, Florence I 311 

Lu.'^comb, Mrs. Florence H 436 

Lynch, Rt. Rev. Msgr. James J 86 

M 

MacDonald, Alexander S 1237 

MacDouald, Katharine 1237 

Mackey, Hon. Argyle R 1405 

MagU, Vito 284 

Males, William 1531 

Marchisio, Hon. J'uvenal 47 

Margaine, Delia G 1215 

Markel, Michael F 1517 

Martel, Frank X 560 

Martz, J. E 1134 

Masino, Filindo B 1587 

Maslow, Will 94, 296 

Masur, Jack, M. D 1416 

Mathews, S. C 1165 

Maxted, Rev. Edward G 290 

Mayer, R. E 1074 

Maynard, Rev. John A 290 

McCloskey, Stephen E 348 

McColgan, Rev. Daniel 313 

McDonald, Mrs. Clara 1177 

McDonough, Rev. John J 1273 

McDowell, Mary S 290 

McGranery, Hon. James P 1350 

McHenry,' Dean E 1232 

Mclntyre, Archbishop J. Francis A ^ 1197 

McKay, Robert B 1290 

McMann, Earl 348 

McMurray, Lloyd E 989 

McNamara, Rt. Rev. Msgr. T. James 1299 

McVinney, Bishop Russell J 364 

Mead, Margaret 70 

Meinzen, L. W 1049 

Melilotis, Costa 348 

Mensalvas. Chris 089 

Meyer, Edward L 1232 

Meyerhoff. Howard A 14(36 

MiciiHs, Ruth 1832 

Milianovifh, Clement Simon 931 

Mikolajczyk. Stan i slaw 1750 

Miller, Alexander F 1315 

Miller, Mrs. Benjamin 1173 

Miller, Rev. Elwin A 523 

Miller, Mrs. liner Spann 1.S32 

Miller, .1. W 1237 



2052 INDEX 

Page 

Miller, Rev. Paysoii 289 

Milstein, Nathan L 60.j 

Ming, Floyd 1775 

Minkuuas. Peter 134 

Mitchell, H. L 1630 

Mitchell, The Rt. Rev. Walter 290 

Moe, Henry Allen 158 

Moffatt, Stanley 290 

Mohan, Mssr. Frederick G 470 

Mohler, Bruce M 1737 

Montgomery, Donald— 580, 1620 

Montzoros, Peter N 844 

Moody, Hon. Blair 547 

Moore, Forrest G 901 

Moore, Mrs. Inez E 1820 

Moore, Oran T 580 

Moore, Stuart 946 

Morrissett, Irving 1102 

Moscone, Fred J = 1811 

Mosley, Phillip Edward 18 

Moulton, Rt. Rev. Arthur W 290 

Moy, Gilbert B 270, 1813 

Murphy, Florence 1831 

Murphy, George B., Jr 290 

Murphy, Mrs. Ruth Z 1658 

Murray, C. C 1299 

Murray, Philip 1622 

Musselman, Rev. Paul G 556 

Mylonas, James C 536,1769 

N 

Nadich, Rabbi Judah 334 

Nagy, Rev. Paul 624 

Nahurski, Fi-ancis J 911 

Nainaan, Rev. Clinton 1216 

Nairn, J. I. 1347 

Nail, T. Otto 836 

Namasky, Mrs. Adolph J 361 

Nash, Mrs. Herbert G 245 

Nearing, Scott 290 

Nelson, Rev. Kenneth E 1014 

Nervlg, Rev. Caspar B 876 

Newbold, Ruth H 1827 

Newhall, Mrs. W. B 1832 

Newton, Elsie D 1180 

Newton, Mrs. Walter S 1827 

Nichols, F. W 868 

Nicholson, P. G 640 

Nicoli, Leon 1096 

Nicotri, Gaspare 290 

Noakes, Frank L 1693 

Nogradi, Bela 480 

Norris, James J 1527 

Notestein, Frank W 200 

O 

Obradovlch, Milan 1518 

O'Connor, Alice W 314 

O'Connor, Hon. Edward M 1435 

O'Dwyer, Rev. Thomas 1152 

O'Flaherty, Rt. Rev. Raymond 1197 

Ohmer, Earl N 1133 

Okal, Jan 812 

Olson, Rev. Carl 853 

O'Neill, Charles A 682 



INDEX 2053 

Page 

O'Rourko, Edward W 707 

Osborn, (Gardner 1762 

Osborne, \V. Terry 505 

Ossana, Fred A 913 

P 

Painter, Sidney 1464 

Pancbuk, Jobn 586 

Panunzio, Constantine 290, 1252 

Papp, Sandor D., M. D 985 

Parad, Howard J 356 

Parry, Dimitri 703 

Partridge, Mrs. Grace 1130 

Pasou, Rev. Danila 532, 1822 

Pasqualicc'bio, Leonard H 1719 

Pastore, Hon. John O 385 

Peet, Rev. Edward L 290 

Persichetti, Albert J 1727 

Pesch, Nicholas 693 

Petliu-k, Ann S 1531 

Peter.son, Dntton 353 

Pevovicb, Lonis M 705 

Piblblad, C. T 986 

Pilien, Vincent 989 

Pingham, Charles A 1008 

Piscitneeti, Dominic J 136 

Platek, V. S 536 

Plant, Rabbi Gnnther 860 

Plusdrak, Edward E 819 

Poland, Orville S 377 

Polito, Anthony V 1799 

Pollock, Robert A 513 

Polos, George A 216 

Ponofidine, Mrs. Elizabeth G 525 

Pope. Fortune 219 

Porter, Everette M 1255 

Posner, Charles 491 

Potje, Nicholas 957 

Putnam, Bertha Haven 290 

Q 

Quellette, Mrs. Sophie 451 

Quock, P. C 1099 

R 

Rafferty, John J 185 

Rahii, Rev. Sheldon 593 

Ramel, Hubert M 967 

Ransom, Willard B 290 

Raun, James J 857 

Rava, Paul B 963 

Rawlins, Mrs. Maude 311 

Reagan, Mary G 38 

Refregier, Anton 290 

Regalbuto, Samuel B 1727 

Reinert, the Very Reverend Paul C 931 

Reissig, Rev. Fred E 1510 

Reuther, Walter 580, 595, 1620 

Reynolds, Bertha C 290 

Reynolds, Boyd H 1242 

Reynolds, Mrs. Bruce D 1635 

Rheinstein, Max 772 

Rhodes, Janet R 1 311 

Rhodes, Samuel J 577 

Rich, Mrs. Kenneth F 778 



2054 INDEX 

Page 

Rich, Marvin 953 

Richert, William D 579 

Ritter, Tlie Most Reverend Joseph E 932 

Roberts, Hon. Dennis J 351 

Robinson, Earl 290 

Rockmore, Abraham 1531 

Roe, Mrs. J. Frederick 245, 1636, 1768 

Rogers, Elmer E 1780 

Rogers, William F., Jr 1163 

Rosenbaum, Robert A 290 

Rosin, David I 548 

Roskilly, Millicent 857 

Ross, Fred W 1113 

Rozmarek, Charles 824 

Riidavsky, Rabbi Joseph 1268 

Rugeti, Mrs. Dan 1196 

Russell, Fred A 853 

Russell, Marcia 924 



Sanders, Edward 1216 

Sandrow, Rabbi Edward T 1817 

Sands, Mrs. Elizabeth 1216 

Sanocki, Mrs. Estelle 590 

SarafE, Sylvia 1238 

Saroyan, Suren M. {See Saroyan, Swen M.) 

Saroyan, Swen M 1015 

Saxton, Alexander 290 

Say, Joseph 985 

Sayre, The Very Reverand Francis B 1514 

Scala, Lulgi 362 

Scheuk, Philip L 290 

Scherer, Paul 290 

Schmeickel, Mrs. Rudy 1829 

Schon, Hubert 852 

Schrader, Mrs. Frederic 1216 

Schredder, Mrs. Helen 1237 

Schroeder, Oliver 501 

Schroeder, Mrs. Zaio Woodford 638 

Schultz, Frank W 874, 876 

Schultz, Mrs. Grace 1213 

Scudder, Vida D 290 

Sebba, Gregur 1271, 1299 

Segal, Louis' 1771 

Sellers, T. F., M. D 1299 

Sentner, William 973 

Seymour, Mrs. B. A 641 

Sheffield, John F 1156 

Shellhorn, Mrs. Arthur L 1211 

Shils, Edward A 664 

Shiskin, Boris 1607 

Shryock, Henry S., Jr 1397 

Shuster, George N 197 

Sickels, Mrs. Alice L 610 

Sieniewicz, Konrad 1800 

Silver, Rabbi Abba Hillel 472 

Silver, Harold 605 

Simon, Emily Parker 1662 

Simonet, Earl 1134 

Sing, Jack Wong 1039 

Sisson, Rev. Rembert 1282 

Skelley, Francis D 1633 

Skemp, Archie A., M. D 694 

Skinner, Frances E 1812 

Skinner, Laila 290 



IISTDEX 2055 • 

Page 

Skutecki, Joseph \V 615 

Slaymaii. Charles H., Jr 1655 

Smeltzer, Ualph A '''92 

Smick, A. A 1<^^^ 

Smith, Cyri\ Stanley '^^ 

Smith, Uev. Frederick A 113"^ 

Smith, Hazel L 1134 

Smith, Mrs. Howard M -"^"0 

Smith, Louise I'ettibone 290,437 

Smook, Roman I 81"^ 

Smykowski, B. L 449 

Snow, Chester R 113-J 

Snyder, William T 1561 

Sobocinski, Raymond Z 451 

Sobolewski, Jury 1767 

Solof, Mrs. Harold H 522 

Spaulding. IMr.s. C. W 1831 

Spaulding, Mrs. Sumner ■=---: — 121(>. 

Sperber, Bertha 1238 

Spero, Sterling D 160' 

Spirgler, Lnuis E 1649' 

Sponseller, Sam 495 

Stanczyk, Benjamin C 616- 

Stanley, John AV -^-^- 1272 

Stanton. Irwin S 1331 

Stefanski. Adam F 451 

Steinberg, I. N 2,S7 

Steinfirst, Donald S 46:i 

Steinwitz, Martha A 1S32 

Stern, Hon. Robert L 1353 

Sterne, Mrs. I. F 1278 

Stibran, Mrs. Theresa A 483, 485 

Storm, Rev. Carl A 853 

Straus, Anna Lord 242 

Suchman, Mrs. Edward 1175 

Suren, Rev. Victor T 932 

Swanstrom, Rt. Rev. Msgr. Edward E . 1527 

Swingle, William S 1717 

Swiren, Max 760 

Szul, Wladyslaw 37 

T 

Takacs, Father Gabor 483 

Talbot, Ellen B 290 

Tangen, Eddie 290 

Tanner, Eloise M :i 591 

Taylor, Alva N 290 

Tavlor, Lea D 077 

Thieriiianri, Stephen 1099 

Tipton, Stuart O 1710 

Thomas, Ceorge L 1245 

Thomas, Richard M 1222 

Throop, Allen E 1005 

Tobin, Hon. Maurice J 13S0- 

Tocco, Horatio 688 

Todaro. C. James 29{5- 

Tol'ett, G. B 1135- 

Tomez, Armando G 1157 

Tcmlinson, B shop Homer A 41 

Tomon;g, Myroslawa 1116. 

Toriielli, Andrew . 379 

Toust-r, Ben 1783- 

Tricarichi, Charles S r>28 

Trier, E Igar L 261 

Tri:e\sky, Mrs. Marie ."')91 



2056 INDEX 

Page 

Tripp, Frank P. (D) 1125 1241 

Truitt, Sid 1299 

Tsang', Yankee P 1251 

Tsangadas, Constantine A 622 

Turnbull, Charles H . 282 

Turner, Rev. Herman L 1262 

Twiggs, Mrs. E. E 1329 

Tyler, Rev. Samuel, Jr 333 

U 

Uvick, Joseph P 626 

V 

Valdes, George ^ 989 

Valko, Laszlo 1074 

Valuchek, Andrew 261 

A'^an Antwerp, Hon. Eugene I 557 

Van Deusen, Rev. Robert E 151& 

Van Kirk, Rev. Walter W 1496 

Van Royen, William 1772 

Van Sciver, Wesley 1123 

Van Zandt, Rev. Philip G 776 

Vial, Donald 1066 

Voller, John W 841 

VonderWeyer, Mildred E 1832 

Voorhis, Jerry 837 

Vorspan, Rabbi Max 1197 

Vosnjak, Bogumil 1763 

W 

Wagener, Nicholas J 577 

Wagner, Walter 935 

Waldman, Arthur 538 

Waldron, Rev. V. J 1143 

Walen, Father Joseph C 600 

Wallace, Rev. Brunson 1268 

Walsh, Thomas 1638 

Warren. Roscoe L 1210 

Wartenweiler, Mrs. Otto . 1179 

Wasserman, Jack 1597 

Waterman, Alan T 1472 

Waterman, Leroy 290 

Watson, Annie Clo 1054 

Webb, Mrs. Muriel 52 

Weir, Forest C 1140 

Weisiger, Kendall 1284 

Weiss, Mrs. Margaret Weller 1229 

Weiss, Marguerite 1206 

Weisskopf, Victor F 1775 

Welburn. Maycock 1792 

Wells, Alexander T 1664 

Wells, O. B 1365 

Werk, Frank 723 

Werner, O. Nicholas 1810 

Wessel. Bessie Bloom 1828 

Wetmore, A 1415 

Weymouth, F. W 290 

Whang, Rev. Sung Tack 1218 

White, Lee A 628 

White, O. Lee 1329 

White. Walter 43 

Whitman, Walter G 1480 

Whittemore. B. Bruce 492 

Wichers, Willard C 634 

Widlger, S. G 985 



INDEX 2057 

Page 

Willen, Mrs. Joseph inC)^ 

Williams, Mrs. Alfred N 853 

^\■illiaIlly. Carl lV.V.i 

Williams, Franklin H 1089 

Williams, George Washington 1G44 

Williamson. Austin 1779 

Williamson, Samuel 1334 

Wilmoth. James L 190 

Wilson, Elizabeth N 71."> 

Wilson, Mrs. Uecu-ge A 1S27 

AVilson. Kufus H 1798 

Witte, Rev. Edgar F 712 

Wittke, Carl Frederick 455 

Wojsowski, ^frs. Katherine 590 

AVolf. Rev. Harry 608 

Wolfe. Rollaud Emerson 290 

Worrell, Mr.s. Margaret Hopkins 1652 

Worster, Mrs. Sherman F 1826 

Wortman, Viola A 311 

Wright, Rev. Sam 290 

Wycislo. Rev. Aloysius 1.527 

Wyniier, Edith 292 

XYZ 

Yee, Samuel 1039 

Yonik, Leon 733 

Zei.sel, Hans 1S03 

Zellerbaeh, J. Dl 1112 

Zeigler, Robert 1151 

dimmer, Albert ^ 482 

Zmyewska, Mrs. Stasia 451 

Zuger, Walter 1033 

Zuker. A. E 1640 

Zwerdling, A. L 640 



SUBJECT MATTER 



A 

Administrative procedures : Page 

Adjustment of status 677, 829, 1613 

Administrative Procedure Act 17, 

435, 518, 545, 763, 767, 820, 822, 844, 995, 996, 1130, 1146, 1516, 1565-1566, 
1567, 1580, 1585, 1613, 1637, 1657, 1789, 1837. 
Statement by : 

American Bar Association, Section of Administrative Law 1565 

Association of Immigration and Nationality Lawyers 1587, 

1590, 1592, 1597 

Prof. Henry M. Hart, Jr., Harvard Law Scliool 1575 

Prof. Louis L. Jaffe, Harvard Law Scliool 1566 

Admission of aliens. Sec as main entry. 

Appointment of hearing officers 435 

Board of Immigration Appeals (nonstatutory) 107, 277, 940 

Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization. See as main entrp. 

Declaration of intention 782 

Denaturalization of aliens. Sec Denaturalization. 
Deportation of aliens. See as main entry. 

Discretion larged in hardship cases 177, 1131, 1568 

Exclusion of aliens. See as main entry. 

Flexible-quota machinery needed 67, 

104, 954, 1221, 1286, 1414, 1450, 1486, 1507, 1508, 1588 

Miscellaneous comments 12, 

14, 16, 597, 610, 023, 677, 751, 757, 777, 781, 806, 909, 1022, 1130, 
1169, 1221. 1386, 1408, 1410, 1420, 1453, 1455, 1456, 1472, 1478, 1505, 
1516, 1534, 1542, 1566, 1571, 1576, 1606, 1667, 1670-1673, 1712, 1724, 
1786. 
Naturalization of aliens. See Naturalization. 

No change advocated 191, 688 

Passport and visa functions, past proposals to organize — Spfx'ial 

STUDY by Department of State 1881 

Congressional proposals 1883 

Hoover Commission Report 1882 

Recommendations of the Commission 1882 

Statement by the Foreign Affairs Tasli Force 1882 

State Department's position 1882 

Conclusions : 1882 

Recommendations 1882 

Passport denials, review of 12, 16 

Special study by Department of State 1886 

Order creating board of review 1887 

Supplement to passport regulations : 

Appeal by passport applicant 1888 

Applicability of these sections 1889 

Board of Passport Appeals, creation and functions 1888 

Disposition of appealed cases, duty of Board to advise 

Secretary of State 1888 

Findings of fact by Board, bases for 1889 

Limitations on issuance of passports to persons likely to 

violate the laws of United States 18S8 

Limitations on issuance of passports to persons support- 
ing Communist movement 1S8S 

Notification to person whose passport application is 

tentatively disapproved 1888 

Oath or affirmation by applicant as to membership in 

Communist party 1889 

2058 



INDEX 2059 

Page 

Adiniiiistiative procedures — Coutiimod 

Proforences-system quota machinery needed.- 68,1803,1308,1309,1332,1408 
Trivate bills 1^89 

Quota-control adniiiiistriition — Special study by Department of State : 

Allotment of quota numbers 1885 

World-wide application 1SS4 

Review of consular decisions lackinti. See Hearings and appeals. 

Simplification urged 1780 

Statement by Attorney General MtGranery 1350 

Statement entitled •'What Should Be the Functions of Government and 
Private Agencies in the Operation of a Refugee Immigration 

Program?" 796 

Visa procedures. See as main entry. 
Administrative Procedure Act. See Administrative procedures. 
Admiss'on of aliens : 

Adjustment of status - 1005, 1110, 1503, 1534, 1556 

Adopted children 318, 656, 1216, 1219, 1429, 1432 

Alien seamen. See Seamen. 

Anti-Communists 4S1, 616, 1476, 1621, 1676, 1810 

At discretion of Attornev General 378, 

406, n<)3, 1124, 1154, 1383, 1385-1386, 1394, 1568, 1574, 1576, 1621 

Review of decisions urged 1124, 1154, 1532, 1573 

Canadian woodsmen 384, 1383, 1410 

Chinese - 1143, 1813 

Detention expenses 1792, 1793 

Executive Order 10392 - 3 

Fascists allegedlv admitted 1126 

Former Communists 162, 518, 974, 1149, 1478, 1550 

From : 

Contiguous territories :. 1777 

Iron-Curtain countries 398, 815, 1034, 1486, 1564, 1800, 1802 

United States Territories and possessions 1426, 1431, 1432 

Statement bv : 

E. L. Bartlett, Delegate from Alaska 1492 

Mary Lee Council - 1490 

James P. Davis, Department of the Interior ., 1426 

Hearings and appeals. See aft main entry. 

Invitees, conferees, to scientific, cultural, etc., meetings 154, 

155, 408, 745, 1124, 1465, 1670, 1775, 1808 
Statement by : 

Professor Samuel K. Allison, physicist-— 737 

Catholic War Veterans 1633 

Federation of American Scientists 404 

Howard A. Meyerhoff. scientist 1466 

Professor Edward A. Shils, sociologist 664 

Richard M. Thomas, World Student Service Fund 1222 

Alan T. Waterman, National Science Foundation 1472 

Literacy test 298, 315, 658, 600, 692, 1018, 1031-1032' 

On a conditional basis 702 

Political test for - 20 

Presidential authority to admit aliens. See as main entry. 

Re-entry 17, 57, 1131, 1190, 1568, 1779 

Scientists 404, 407, 453, 987, 1465, 1466-1484, 1667, 1808 

Statement by Vannevar Bush, president, Carnegie Institute 1667 

Screening 1426-1427, 1466-1478, 1490 

Statement by President Truman 2 

Students 159, 210-213, 1079, 1138, 1191, 1288, 1465, 1808 

Statement by Paul Chalmars, adviser to foreign students 428 

Visitors 773, 1473, 1470, 1570, 1582, 1671 

Advisory Citizens Committee 807 

Africa 260, 1783- 

Agricultural considerations. See Economic well-being. 



25356—52 130 



2060 INDETv 

Page 

Opposition to McCarran-Walter bill 1134, 1135, 1492, 1776, 1777-1779 

Statement bv : 

E. L. Bartlett, Delegate from Alaska 1492 

Mary Lee Council 1490 

James P. Davis, Department of the Interior 1426 

Subversives in 1133 

Welfare of aliens in 1133 

Aliens: Admission of; Civil rights of; Naturalization of; etc. See ap- 
propriate term. 
Anthropologic and ethnic considerations : 

Assimilability of ethnic groups 102, 

145, 303, 331, 445, 457, 539, 605, 615. 678, 681, 682, 705, 713, 718, 814, 
939, 947, 963, 1076, 1081, 1138, 1173, 1284, 1289, 1307, 1416, 1448, 
1517, 1521, 1530, 1551, 1552, 1629, 1643, 1702, 1782, 1783, 1803, 1807 

Criminal element 1792 

Part played by foreign-language press 459, 962 

Historical background 77, 1123, 1558 

Miscellaneous comments 440, 942, 960, 971, 972, 1079, 1082, 1119, 

1120, 1173, 1414, 1517, 1521, 1528, 1552, 1555, 1557, 1702, 1803, 1805 

Racism 44, 

60, 70, 77, 96, 101, 102, 109, 115, 139, 143, 152, 173, 284, 315, 328, 
346, 460. 732, 874, 876, 919, 938, 954, 956, 969, 1022, 1100, 1146, 1161, 
1175, 1170, 1498, 1532, 1540, 1551, 1555, 1556, 1557, 1771, 1803, 1804, 
1805, 1807. 

Statement by American Jevrish Congress 296 

Report of Henry H. Laughlin in 1922 1785 

Report of Immigration Commission in 1910 331 

Statement by : 

American Association of Social Workers 958 

American Jewish Congress 297 

Professor Ralph L. Beals, anthropologist 1170 

Professor Oscar Handlin, historian 327, 331 

Jewish organizations 115, 1531, 1556 

Rabbi Simon G. Kramer 100 

Margaret Mead, anthropologist 70 

Heih-y S. Shryock, Population and Housing Division, Bureau of 

tlie Cen.sus 1397 

Appeals. See Hearings and appeals. 
Arab refugees. See Refugees. 

Argentina, ethnic composition of 1084 

"Asia-Pacific triangle". See Asiatics. 
Asiatics {see also names of Asiatic countries) : 

Ancestry test 114, 346, 1272, 1813 

"Asia-Pacific triangle" 142, 

336, 453, 524, 620, 640, 716, 804, 806, 850, 855, 874, 1044, 1055, 
1057, 1100, 1101, 1130, 1175, 1272, 1413, 1497, 1587, 1636, 1657, 
1782, 1812, 1813, 1814, 1822. 

Immigration of, to United States 90, 810, 1497, 1510, 1814, 1829 

McCarran-Walter bill discriminates against 63, 

109, 215, 954, 1100, 1487, 1497, 1812, 1822 

Miscellaneous comments 256, 

336, 930, 970, 1130, 1151, 1155, 1413, 1487, 1498, 1528, 1829 

Naturalization of 93. 1055, 1114, 1497 

Oriental Exclusion Act 215, 504, 732, 970, 1130, 1147, 1294, 1730 

Statement l)y former President Franklin D. Roosevelt 1147 

Quotas 192, 262, 336, 346, 681, 1055, 1120, 1402, 1497, 1784, 1812 

Statement by National Association for the Advancement of Colored 

People 1255 

Assimilability of ethnic groups. See Anthropologic and ethnic considera- 
tions. 



INDEX • 2061 

Page 
Asylum for political refugees— 165, 266, 267, 502, 526, 1443, 1675, 17r)3-1754, 1S02 

Special study by Department of State 1939 

Belgium 1943 

France 1940 

Germany, Federal Republic of 1939 

Italy 1942 

Netherlands 1942 

Sweden, Norway, Denmarli 1941 

United Kingdom 1943 

Atomic-energy program. See Scientific advancement. 
Australia : 

Immigration policies and laws of 1789, 1904 

Outlet for refugees 1783 

Austria : 

I>i.spbici"d jteri^ons 11.52, 1544 

Innnigration to United States from 69, 1279 

Refugees from 1800 

Surplus population of 1485, 1489 

B 

Bail and bond. /SVe DeiJortation of aliens. 

Baits. >S'c'e Refugees ; ahso names of JiaJtic coinitricx. 

Belgium : 

Asylum for political refugees 1943 

Immigration to United States from 43 

Birth rate. See Demogi'aphic aspects of immigration. 

Board of Immigration Appeals. See Hearings and appeals. 

Brazil, ethnic composition of 1083 

Bulgaria, emigration policies of 1934 

Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization (Department of Justice) 191, 

751, 757, 1826 

C 

Canada : 

Canadian woodmen, admission of. See Admission of aliens. 

Immigration policies and laws of 1907 

Ceiling on immigration. See Quotas. 
Celler bill: 

Analysis of 798, 799, 1506 

Miscellaneous comments 48, 

87, 153, 639, 705, 965, 1011, 1485, 1506, 1608, 1609, 1617 

Stiitement by National Protestant Episcopal Church 54 

Supiiorted 1116, 1739 

By Department of Agriculture 1355 

By Dejiartment of Labor 1,384 

By Order Sons of Italy in America 1720 

Voluntary agencies urge more governmental participation than pro- 

viilefl Ijy ^^H 

Oylon, surplus population 202 

Charles Cliaplin case 17, 11,50 

Chen Fivff Zee v. Shaughnessy 163 

Chile, immigration policies and laws of - 1928 

China (see also Asiatics) : 

Communism in 1268 

Displaced persons 1098 

Immigration to United States from 104, 209, 417, 1052, 1268, 1813 

Statements by Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association 270, 

416, 1813 

Quota 213, 492, 1109, 1146 

Refugees from 208, 1710 

Resettlement of 209 

Statement by Aid Refugee Chinese Intellectuals, Inc 208 

Statement by : 

AuK'rican Legion (Department of California, Cathay Post 384) ___ 1045 

Chinese American organizations 830, 10.39, 1145 

Surplus population of 210 



2062 INDEX 

Pag« 
Chinese Exclusion Act. See Asiatics : Oriental Exclusion Act. 
Citizenship. See Naturalization. 

Second-class. See Civil rights. 
Civil rights : 

Arrests and interrogations 519, 644, 647, 997, 1131, 1784 

Attorney General : 

Bail at discretion of 735, 12091 

Holds "tremendous discretionary power" 516, 

517, 522, 652, 990, 998, 1090, 1150, 1292, 1453-1455, 1568 

Mandated to conduct "home investigations" 466, 608, 830 

Right to exclude aliens without hearings 676 

Change of address, failure to report 718, 721, 1788 

Distinction between native-born and naturalized citizens. See Second- 
class citizens helow. 
Exclusion on basis of confidential information (denunciation). See 

Exclusion of aliens. 
Hearings and appeals. See as main entry. 

Miscellaneous comments 140, 144, 145, 1175. 1520, 1526, 1542, 1732, 1784 

Natural right to migrate 183, 288 

Neighborhood investigations 522 

Pacifists 292 

Refusal of visa not invasion of 11, 15 

Registration of aliens 607, 645, 719, 722, 829 

Second-class citizens 63, 

83, 93, 97, 105, 106, 119, 131, 133, 140, 173, 217, 233, 262, 266, 280, 
290, 347, 368, 371, 374, 440, 474, 503, 520, 526, 543, 558, 606, 619, 621, 
625, 654, 692, 733, 734, 763, 822, 845, 939, 1023, 1034, 1074, 1103, 1130, 
1138, 1174, 1331, 1519, 1526, 1543, 1569, 1600, 1768, 1770, 1771, 1784, 
1789-1790, 1791. 

Statements by Danila Pascu 532, 1822, 182S 

Supreme Court rulings 675, 764 

Social-security records of aliens not confidential 607 

Statement by : 

American Civil Liberties Union 9, 14, 515, 675 

American Jewish Congress 675 

Jewish organizations 108, 1547 

Statute of limitations eliminated 519, 522, 544, 

606, 007, 632, 644, 692, 748, 781, 1409, 1551, 1555, 1600, 1622 

Commission on Immigration (proposed) __52, 60, 65, 79, 104, 116, 191, 340, 374, 376, 

475, 795, 820, 822, 836, 952, 1221, 1317, 1328, 1542, 1554, 1724, 1791 

S. J. Res. 169 65 

Commission on Immigration and Naturalization. See President's Commission 

on Immigration and Naturalization. 
Communism. See Security asi>ects of immigration ; also names of specific coun- 
tries. 
Consular officers : 

Cancellation of citizenship certificates 661 

Foreign Service posts 1863 

Irregularities alleged on the part of 1016,1534,1835 

Miscellaneous comments 64, 

549, 757, 934, 1273, 1497, 1541, 1544, 1716, 1775, 1810, 1834 
Review of consular decisions. See Hearings and appeals. 

Sole authority to issue visas 10. 15, 07, 107, 110,339, 

549, 654, 767, 804, 838, 1110, 1156, 1534, 1541, 1786, 1835, 1836, 1837 
Visa ofiicers (of the American Foreign Service) — Special studt by 

Department of State 1864 

Beginning age, average 1865 

Difficultie.s and problems confronting 1873 

Complexity 1874 

Pressure 1874 

Responsibility ' 1873 

Incentives or rewards 1872 



INDEX 2063 

FaBC 
Consular officers — CoutiiuitMl 
Visa officers — Continued 

Number on duty abroad 1865 

On basis of {geographical areas 1865 

Vacancies 1865 

Qualifications : 

Kducation, oxperlenre, (raining, abilities 1865, 18G(» 

Statistical analysis of present visa officers 1865 

Personal 1866 

Reprimand, suspension, transfer, or removal 1873 

Iletirement provisions 1873 

Average retirement, age- 1865 

Visa service series 1866 

Visa offi er group 6 18(>7 

Guide line control 1867 

Management responsibility 1868 

Mental demands 1867 

Nature and variety of work 1867 

Personal relationships . 1868 

Significance of judgments and decisions 1868 

Supervisory assistance 1867 

Visa officer group 9 1868 

Guide line control 1869 

Management responsibility 1870 

Mental demands 1869 

Nature and variety of work 1869 

Personal relationships 1869 

Signifieance of judgments and decisions 1870 

Supervisory assistance 1869 

Visa officer group 10 1870 

Guide line control 1870 

Management responsibility 1871 

Mental demands 1870 

Nature and variety of work 1870 

Personal relationships 1871 

Significance of judgments and decisions 1871 

Supervisory assistance 1870 

* Visa officer group 12 1871 

Guide line control 1872 

Management responsibility 1872 

Mental demands 1872 

Nature and variety of work 1871 

Personal relationships 1872 

Significance of judgments and decisions 1872 

Supervisory assistance 1871 

Years of service, average , 1865 

Criminals. See Deportation of aliens; Social aspects of immigration. 
Croats. Sec Yugoslavia. 
Cultural aspects of immigration : 

Contribution to American culture by (see also names of specific coun- 
tries) : 

Alien musicians 295, 1785 

Displaced persons settled in New York State 174, 1263 

European immigrants— 70, .SO, 113, 295, 352, 440, 444, 761, 764, 1145, 1785 

Slavic peoples 401 

Cultural assimilation. See Anthropologic and ethnic considerations. 
InviteK.>s, conferees, to scientific, cultural, etc., meetings. See Admis- 
sion of aliens. 

Miscellaneous comments 170, 174 

477, 670, 858, 859, 1119, 1523, 1782-1783, 1808 
Statement by : 

Cranbrook institutions 629 

Guggenheim Memorial Foundation 15S 



2064 INDEX 

Page 

Czechoslovakia : 

Communism in 1767 

Emigration policies of 1934 

Immigration to United States from 114, 1540 

Quota: 841 

Kefugees from 1249 

Statement by : 

Council of Free Czechoslovakia 1765 

Masaryk Alliance 1235 

D 

Defense. See Military-manpower needs. 

Demographic aspects of immigration (see aho Historical background; 
Surplus populations) : 

Birth rates 330, 1138, 1390 

Decline in farm population 1356, 1368 

Graph and statistical data 1360 

Increase in United States population 203, 

206, 653, 657, 696, 931, 933, 1160, 1278, 1392, 1394, 1402-1403, 1610 

Graph and statistical data 1359 

Miscellaneous comments 113, 

126, 173, 789, 931, 933, 941, 1337, 1343, 1514, 1515, 1517, 1828 
Relative growth patterns of United States and Iron-Curtain coun- 
tries 206, 662, 1145, 1514 

Statement by : 

Louis H. Bean, economist, Department of Agriculture 1368 

Ewan Clague, Commissioner of Labor Statistics, Department of 

Labor 1389 

Frank W. Notestein, demographer 200 

Denaturalization (see also Naturalization) : 

Executive Order 10392 3 

Revocation of citizenship : 

For holding jobs abroad 1790 

For joining organization deemed subversive by Attorney 

General 734, 764, 768 

For misrepresentation 6Q8, 844 

P^or refusing to testify before Congressional committee 63, 

281, 608, 763, 768 

For residence abroad 107, 661. 940. 1789, 1790 

Obtained by fraud 375, 519, 645, 844, 1129, 1139, 1543 

Of American citizens voting abroad 233,1790 

On a retroactive basis 449, 616, 647, 844 

Upon adjustment of status 519 

Statement by President Truman 2 

Denmark : 

Asylum for iwlitical refugees 1942 

Immigration to United States from 186 

Deportation of aliens : 

"Amply covered" by McCarran-Walter bill 192,264 

Appeals and review procedures. See Hearings and appeals. 

At discretion of Attorney General 144, 516-518, 975, 996, 1023, 1788, 1822 

Back to totalitarian countries 161,163,213,831,1810 

Bail and bond 434, 867, 908-910, 974, 975, 987, 996, 1209, 1292, 1788 

Burden of proof on alien 780 

Claim of physical persecution 163, 165, 908, 1131 

Congressional resolution to cancel 659 

Detention expenses 1792, 1793 

Detention of aliens and execution of orders of deportation — Special 

STUDY by Department of Justice 1953 

Administrative relief, suggestions for 1954 

Aliens detained in deportation proceedings as of Oct. 1, 1952, 
where detention is continued without bond pending final deter- 
mination of deportability 1958, 1959 



I 



INDEX 2065 

Pase 
Deportation of aliens — Conlimied 
Detention of aliens — ('ontinued 

Aliens detained in Service facilities at New York City and San 
Francisco on Oct. 1, 1952, who were in detention more than 
G mouths : 

Applicants for admission 1957 

Under deportation proceedings 1958 

Chinese nationals in detention during past year 1954 

ilnal orders of deportation outstanding in excess of 6 months, 

O-t. 1, 1952 1962 

Legislative relief, suggestions for 1954 

Numher of persons detained during fiscal year 1952 : 

Deportation proceedings 1956 

Exclusion proceedings 1955 

For other purposes 1956 

Period of detention, average 1953 

Travel documents, causes of inability to procure 1954 

Executive Order 10392 3 

Pear of, engendered 359,939,975,1023,1056,1121,1131,1156 

For continenient in correctional institution 608 

For failure to fulfill marital agreement 464 

For felonies or ci'imes involving moral turpitude 658, 768, 1408 

For fraudulent entry 143, 286, 373, 374, 816, 939, 1023, 1074, 1409, 1542 

Judicial review. See Judicial procedures. 

Luciano case 1535 

Miscellaneous eotnments 631, 

646, 654, 658. 718, 734, 940, 987, 1023, 1053, 1127, 1129, 1133, 1187, 
1273, 1353, 1407, 1456, 1535, 1542, 1543, 1549, 1615, 1663, 1782, 1789, 
1791, 1810 

Of contiguous-territory aliens 1056, 1057, 1113, 1788 

Of former Communists 437, 608, 643, 646, 907, 974, 975, 1131, 1292, 1788 

Of public charges 708, 1788 

Of subversives 91, 143, 278, 368 

On a retroactive basis 63, 

92, lis, 144, 145, 338, 437, 442, 443, 462, 464, 606, 616, 1273, 1788 

Orderly procedure extant 12 

Private bills 1969 

Refusal of alien's country to accept him 442, 1787 

Should be limited only to : 

Criminals 97, 1535 

Fraudulent entry 105, 367, 371, 692, 1542, 1543, 1789, 1791 

Narcotics 97,1543 

Subversives 9X. 97, 1550 

Statement by : 

General Eisenhower 165 

Judge Louis E. Levinthal 1535 

President Truman J 2, 165, 662 

Suspension of, adjustment of status 1094, 1111, 1789, 1810 

Undeportable aliens 831 

Used as a penalty 105, 

110, 117, 264, 337, 360, 367, 371, 432, 442, 606, 763, 768, 939, 1295, 
1317, 1784, 1787, 1788 
Discrimination against {see also Anthropologic and ethnic considerations; 
Civil Rights) : 

Color 30, 

31, 36, 60, 03, 109, 140, 215, 692, 919, 930, 936, 943. 970, 1100, 1120, 
1122, 1155, 1171, 1175, 1267, 1272, 1293, 1294, 1295, 1297, 1507, 
1508, 1564, 1782, 1784, 1803. 
Statement by : 

Commission on Interracial Cooperation 1288 

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People- 43 

Miscellaneous comments 454, 4(>0, 750. 794. 804, 806, 920. 933, 943, 952, 

1034, 1152, 1174, 1414, 1497, 1507, 1543, 1663, 1731, 1735, 1780, 1785 



2066 INDEX 

Page 
Discrimination against — Continued 

National origin 30, 31, 

60, 346, 472, 726, 1154, 1156, 1176, 1412, 1497, 1784, 1785, 1810, 1821 

Native-born citizens 808 

Naturalized citizens. See Civil rights. 

Race {see also Anthropologic and ethnic considerations: Racism) 30, 

31, 36, 60, 77, 95, 100, 101, 108, 111, 152, 175, 247, 284, 304, 346, 472, 
479, 519, 544, 556, 731, 735, 848, 857, 875, 876, 919, 936, 938, 1008, 
1095, 1153, 1171, 1175, 1267, 1272-1273, 1298, 1297, 1507, 1510, 1513, 
1532, 1551, 1564, 1730, 1735, 1784, 1785, 1789, 1814. > 

Statement by American Jewish Congress . 297 

Religion 152, 731, 835, 943, 971, 1022, 1175, 1267, 1501, 1513, 1551, 1789 

Pacifists 292 

Sex 30~, 31, 314, 460, 468, 720, 848, 936, 1008, 1507, 1789 

J)isplaced jtersons (see also Refugees; and also name of specific country) : 
Adjustment of, to American way of life. See Social aspects of immi- 
gration. 

America has her own 264,1269,1517 

Case histories 938, 1279-1281, 1309 

Demographic considerations. See Demographic aspects of immigra- 
tion. 
Displaced Persons Commission. See as main entry. 

Divided-families problems 277, 322, 460, 1233, 1533, 1546, 1554, 1702, 1800 

Doctors, need for. See Refugees. 

Joint Committee on Resettlement of Displaced Persons, report of 1264 

Legislation to assist. See Legislation. 

Miscellaneous comments 282, 563, 566, 587, 026, 641, 

650, 687, 688, 700, 705, 858, 878, 904, 928, 977, 1009, 1011, 1024, 
1139, 1144, 1151, 1154, 1271-1272, 1280-1281, 1496, 1499, 1502, 
1508, 1510, 1511, 1513, 1515, 1527, 1544, 1545, 1674^1678, 1810 

Registration at each change of residence urged 712 

Resettlement of. See Refugees. 
Service to, by : See Refugees. 
Settled in : 

Georgia 1280 

Massachusetts 319 

Michigan 632 

New York (State) 174,179 

North Dakota 887 

Oklahoma , 977 

Pennsylvania 465, 1513 

Washington (State) 1075 

Statement by : 

"Baptist World Alliance 1508,1509 

Council of Churches of Oklahoma 976 

Professor Rudolf Heberle, sociologist 1335 

Hungarian-American Newspapers 483 

International Institute of Milwaukee County (Wis.), Inc 783 

Lutheran Resettlement Service of North Dakota 886 

National Committee for Resettlement of Foreign Physicians 1704 

National Council of Clmrches of Christ 1495, 1498, 1499, 1502 

Stanislaw Mikolajczyk, president, International Peasant's Union 1750 

Reverend Casper B. Xervig 876 

George N. Sinister 197 

President Truman 1 

Dr. Robert Ziegler 1151 

"The DP Story" 611, 683, 1538 

Who served in foreign legions 1 483 

Displaced Persons Act of 1948 273, 726, 785, 833, 1139, 1144 

Lodge amendment — admitting Polish ex-servicemen 38 

Displaced Persons Commission 693, 784, 785, 1076 

Dual citizens. See Naturalization. 



INDEX 2067 

E 

Page 

Economic Cooponition Administration 23,28 

Economic well-beinj? : 

Aging of our population 169, 171, 868, 1270, 13G7, 1423 

Agriculture (sec also Labor: Migratory hcloic) : 

Agricultural rehabilitation 619, 696, 1377 

Availability of land 945, 1377 

Decline in farm population 1356, 1360 

Farmers, need for 174, 

ITS. 513, 700. 016. 046, 976. 978. 9S1. 1010. 1021, 1027, 1047, 1050, 
1054. 1163. 1271. 1356. 1357. 1632. 1760. 
Statement by O. B. Wells, Chief, Bureau of Agricultural 

Economics 1365 

Food jiroduction and consumption 1363 

Spec'Iai. STiDY by Department of Afiriculture — Agriculture yester- 
day, today, and tomorrow 1993 

Per-capita food consumption 2003 

Statement by : 

Assistant Secretary of Agriculture Hutchinson 1354 

Dr. Bogurail Vosnjak 1763 

Canadian woodsmen needed in lumber and pulp mills 384 

Colonial exploitation of non-Caucasian peoples 45 

Effect of increased immigration upon our economy- 941, 1104, 1105, 1505, 1610 

Assets brought by immigrants 169, 

916, 964, 979, 986, 1021, 1035, 1124, 1163, 1277, 1279, 1502, 1553, 1705, 
1743, 1785. 

Money value of immigrants as producers and consumers 169, 

456, 465, 477, 539, 650, 697, 818, 1092 
Statement by : 

Louis H. Bean, economist. Department of Agriculture 1368 

Ewan Clague, Commissioner of Labor Statistics, Department 

of Labor 1389 

Executive Order 10392 3 

Free trade ^ 23 

Group colonization, benefits of 287, 979 

Housing problems— 112, 127, 650, 682, 699, 701, 710, 715, 733, 895, 945, 978, 1611 

Alaska 1133 

For farm laborers 1366 

Labor : 

Contract . 1383 

Displacement of American workers 1380 

Labor-union attitudes on increased immigration 344, 

378, 495, 499, 770, 1125, 1126, 1131, 1175, 1620, 1622, 1631 

Historical background 1126 

Migratory 394, 397, 499, 595, 599, 896, 1051, 1131, 1357, 1830 

Puerto Kicans j; 1063, 1611 

Statement by: 

National Consumers League 595 

Varden Fuller, professor of agricultural economics 1058 

Sugar-beet workers in Michigan 599, 1367 

Wetbacks 394, 397, 500, 

597, 967, 1059, 1130, 116;^, 1294, 1347, 1611, 1631, 1657, 1693 

Statement by California State Federation of Labor 1067 

Miscellaneous comDicnts 112, 

127, 153, 173, 178, 179, 181, 189, 192, 217, 320, 322, 330, 378, 396, 495' 
611, a33, 682. 699, 710. 715, 733, 751, 868, 941, 955, 968, 1270, 1276, 
1278, 1498, 1612, 1785-1786. 

Shortage of labor 868 

882, 888, 894, 968, 981, 982, 1009, 1021, 1026, 1034, 1050, 1060, 1135* 
1275, 1277, 1425, 1780, 1786. 

Skilled 48, 

137, 367, 496, 525, 618. 619. 640, 674, 683, 689, 828, 981, 1269, 1270-^ 
1271, 1273, 1294, 1318, 1423-1424, 1497, 1554, 1706, 1749, 1760. 
Unskilled 367, 498, 674, 683, 982, 1166 



2068 INDEX 

rage 
Economic well-being — Continued 
Labor — r'ontinned 
Statement by : 

American Federation of Labor 499, 1607 

Ewan Clagiie, Commissioner of Labor Statistics, Department 

of Labor 1389 

Congress of Industrial Organizations 495, 1293, 1295, 1620, 1622 

National Association of Manufacturers 967 

Secretary of Labor Tobin 1380 

Unavailability of domestic labor 1946-52, certification as to — 

Special study by Department of Labor 1972 

Miscellaneous comments 103, 

456, 928, 934, 964, 967, 1025, 1166, 1421, 1422, 1486, 1783 
Population increase, effect upon. See Demographic aspects of immigra- 

gration. 
Special studies by Department of Labor on : 

Immigration quotas in relation to size of United States population- 1975 

List of critical occupations 1977 

Manpower aspects of immigration policy 1974 

Method used by the Bureau of Labor Statistics for estimating 
additions to the labor force in 1955 and 1960 resulting from 

assumed levels of net immigration 1976 

Net changes in invested wealth, 1919-51, calculation of 1976 

Population growth and capital investment in the United States, 

1919-60 1975 

Statement by : 

p]dward Corsi. Industrial Commissioner of New York State 172 

Russell V. Davenport 21 

Arnold C. Harberger, economist, Johns Hopkins University 1420 

President Truman 2 

.Walter Zuger, agriculturist 1035 

Educational problems due to immigration 146, 358, 513, 596, 599 

Ellen Knauff case. See Exclusirm of aliens. 

Emigration policies of U. S. S. R., Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Ru- 
mania, Bulgaria, and Yugoslavia — Special study by Department of 

State 1934 

Employment. See Economic well-being. 

Enforcement of immigration laws. See Immigration laws. 

Escapees. See Refugees. 

Estonia {see also Baits) : 

Displaced persons from, in Great Britain, Sweden, etc^ 277 

Immigration to United States from 55, 69, 114, 186, 1530 

Statement by Estonian Aid, Inc 273 

Quota 780 

Refugees from 273 

Resettlement of 273 

Service to by Estonian Relief Committee, Inc 276 

Ethnic considerations. See Anthropologic and ethnic considerations. 
Evidence. See Hearings and appeals. 
Exclusion of aliens : 

Appeals and review procedure. See Hearings and appeals. 
Chinese Exclusion Act. See Asiatics : Oriental Exclusion Act. 

Communists and other subversives 167, 177, 198, 668, 1090, 1150, 1292 

Detention expenses 1792, 1793 

Ellen Knauff case 16,518 

Executive Order 10392 3 

Japanese Exclusion Act. See Japan. 

Miscellaneous comments 1273, 1290, 1535, 1776, 1779, 1786, 1792, 1834 

On basis of : 

Confidential information, undisclosed (denunciation) 13, 16, 999, 1150 

Special study by Department of Justice: 

Evaluation of confidential information 1967 

Inauguration of practice 1964 

Number and classification of aliens excluded without 

hearing 1965 

Number of aliens excluded on basis of subversive 

activities 1966 



INDEX 2069 

Page 
Exclusion of aliens — Continued 
On basis of — Continurd 

Confidential in format ion — Continued 

SPEt;iAL sTiDY by Department of Justice — Continued 

Number of aliens temporarily excluded fiscal years 1948- 
52 under 8 Code of Fed. Iteg. 175.57 or sec. 5, 1918 act, 

as amended 1965 

Number of times practice used prior to 1946 1965 

Officers of Department of Justice empowered to exclude 

aliens witbout hearings 1968 

Opportunity of alien to refute charges 1968 

Past membership in a proscribed organization 1967 

Sources of confidential information 1966 

Crimes involving moral turpitude 851, 1351 

Health 719, 722 

Resolution VII, Chapultepec Conference, dealing with restrictions to be 

imposed on undesirable aliens and propaganda agents 1938 

Statement by : 

Cook County Council of the American Legion (Department of 

Illinois) : 698 

General Eisenhower 165 

President Truman 2, 165 

Expatriation. Sec Denaturalization. 

Expellees. See Refugees ; also name of specific country. 

Expenditures of Commission 3 



Farmers, need for. See Economic well-being : Agriculture. 
Foreign policy : 

Colonial exploitation of non-Caucasian peoples 45 

Delays and denials in visa procedures, adverse effect upon invitees, 

conferees, etc. See Admission of aliens. 
Effect of immigration policies upon : 

MisccUfincous comments - 260, 

262, 323, 331, 363, 364, 372, 394, 409, 440, 526, 631, 790, 942, 954, 

956, 987, 992, 998, 1023, 1047, 1056, 1112, 1121, 1123, 1134, 11.35, 

1207. 1268, 1272, 1283, 1332, 1412, 1413, 1415, 1443, 1446, 1476, 
1484-1488, 1601, 1761, 1785, 1790. 
Statement by : 

De<iu Acheson, Secretary of State 1412 

Russell V. Davenport 21 

William H. Draiier, Mutual Security representative in 

Europe 1488 

General Federation of Women's Clubs 638 

Mutual Security Director Harriman 1484 

Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr 326 

Margaret Mead, anthropologist 70 

Clement S. Mihanovich, sociologist 931 

National Catholic Rural Life Conference 253 

National Council of Churches of Christ 30 

Protestant church groups (Cleveland) 504 

Max Rheinstein, professor of law 772 

Effect of national origin system upon : 

Executive Order 10392 3 

Miscellaneous commcmts 31, 114, 473, 1412, 1487, 1776 

Propaganda nuiterial for Iron-Curtain countries 478, 731, 790, 828, 

942, 955, 1020, 1034. 1047, 1318, 1414, 1485, 1487, 1601, 1705, 1791 
Statement by : 

Secretary of State Acheson 1412 

American Committee on Italian Migration 1047 

Independent Order, Sons of Italy 129 

Jewi.sh organizations 111 

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. 4 

President Truman 2 

Letters from citizms of foreign extraction to their lands of birth 478, 689 



2070 INDEX 

Page 

Foreign Service posts 1863 

Formosa, surplus population of _ 202 

France : 

Asylum for political refugees 1940 

Immigration to United States from 101, 1776 

Fraudulent entry. See Deportation of aliens. 

Free trade. See Economic well-being. 

G 

Germany : 

Asylum for political refugees 1939 

Bavaria 199,680 

Contribution to American culture 977, 1640-1643 

Displaced persons 366, 713, 1144, 1152 

Economic conditions 603, 680, 1749 

Ethnic composition of 1083, 1521 

Expellees 260, 370, 585, 680, 694, 725, 795, 834, 1502, 1675, 1743, 1758 

Illegitimate children 1747 

Immigration to United States from 43, 48, 95, 101, 

103, 114, 128, 151, 200, 938, 1521, 1640, 1821 

1947-51 372 

Quota 694, 1174, 1534, 1544, 1744 

Refugees from 693, 1443, 1800 

Surplus population 128, 199, 1144, 1270, 1485. 1749 

Unassimilated German ethnics abroad. See Expellees above. 
Great Britain. See United Kingdom. 
Greece : 

Communism in 218, 624, 641, 1675 

Contribution to American culture L'36, 703 

Displaced persons 218 

Expellees 370, 1502 

Immigration to United States from 7, 48, 69, 95, 

103, 114, 154, 176, 320, 349, 396, 621, 938, 980 

Statement by Nicholas J. Cassavetes 285 

Quota 451, 530, 621, 640, 703, 780, 845 

Statement by: 

American Hellenic Educational Progressive Association 

(Ahepa) 216, 536, 703, 1238, 1241, 1769 

Surplus population 128, 151, 153, 

371, 623, 632, 705, -1270, 1485, 1675 
Group colonization. See Economic well-being. 

H 

Harboring aliens 1351 

"Hard core" refugees. See Refugees. 

Hawaii 1077, 1111 

Hearings, public, by Commission 3 

Hearings and appeals : 

Admission of aliens 1124, 1516, 1534, 1545 

Board of Immigration Appeals (nonstatutory) 107, 277, 655, 

677, 771, 1273, 1545, 1657, 1787, 1834 

Statement by Jewish organizations of Chicago 771 

Deportation of aliens 33, 62, 67, 98, 

232, 279, 338, 373, 434, 503, 794, 845, 848, 952, 1788 

Hearing officer has unlimited power 267, 974, 1534, 1822, 1834, 1836 

Evidence 430 

Exclusion of aliens 62, 232, 676, 845, 1786 

Logislati(m establishing. Sec Legislation. 

Miscellaneous comments 56, 371, 374, 430, 543, 794, 804, 806, 

928, 995, 1017, 1190, 1408, 1454-1455, 1496, 1516, 1545, 1790, 1834 



INDEX 2071 

Page 
Heariims and appeals — Continued 
Ri'vit'w of coiisiilar decitsions : 

Mixcclluncou-s (o))iiiicnts 62, 

318, n22, 543, 771, 114r,, 1147, 1541, 1834, 1835, 183G 

No appeal extant l 232, 677, 804, 820, 940, 1534 

Passport denials • 12, 16, 232 

Spec'I.u, STiTDY l.y the Department of State 1886 

Visas, issuance or refusal of: • 

Appeal procedure urged 11, 15, 62, 851, 

!),S7, 11!)(), 1410, 1471, 1496, 1497, 1541, 1569, 1S33, 1834, 1836 

MiHvrWinroHH com m cuts 33, 848, 952,1516, 1834 

Spkcial sri :i>y by the Department of State 1889 

Quota visa statistics 1892 

Visa Keview l>oar(l (proposed) 107, 

117. 594, 940, 1023, 1124, 1317, 1534, 1541, 1545, 1657, 1834 
Hendrickson hill ( S. 3109). See Celler bill. 
Historical backi?round : 

MisccUiiucoux comments 513, 963, 1020, 1021, 1125. 1120, 1513, 1(516, 1793 

National origins .<:y.steni 75, 101, 297, 299, 327, 752, 1125 

' Special study by Professor Oscar Handlin 1839 

Statement by Profe.ssor Oscar Handlin 327 

Numbers of immigrants 80, 84, 1369, 1793 

Before and after restrictions {graph) 1369 

Statement by : 

William Bernard 75 

Catholic Bishops of the United States 752 

Dr. Bushong, Church of the Brethren 1513 

Sidney Painter, historian 1464 

Carl Frederick Wittke, historian 455 

H. J. Res. 411 799 

Housing. See Economic well-being. 
H. R. 5678. See McCarran-Walter bill. 
H. R. 7376. See Celler bill. 
Humphrey-Lehman bill : 

Endorsed 353, 365, 391, 460, 789, 857, 919, 921, 1046, 1206, 1657, 1723 

Opposed 486, 1212, 1321, 1817, 1831, 1832 

Pooling of unfilled quotas 110 

Visa Review Board 12,16,1835 

Hungary : 

Contribution to American culture 839 

Displaced persons 282, 624 

Emigration policies of 1934 

Immigration to United States from ^ 114 

Statement by Collegial Society of Hungarian Veterans 289 

Quota 838 

Refugees from ^^ 1540 

Statement by : 

Free Hungarian Reformed Church 624 

Hungarian-American newspapers 483, 485 

I 

Illegitimate children 1746 

Immigration Act of 1924 15,890,1821 

Immigration and Nationality Act See McCarran-Walter bill. 
Immigration and Naturalization Service (Department of Justice) : 
As independent agency : 

Favored 1126, 1534, 1542 

Opposed 181, 191 

Discretionary power for, urged 530, 631 

Fascists allegedly admitted by 1126 

Hearing officers — Speoiai. study by Department of Justice 1944 

Administrative supervision over 1946 

Beginning age, average = I947 



2072 INDEX 

Page 
Immigration and Naturalization Service — Continued 
Hearing officers — Continued 
Deportation examiner : 

Duties of - 1949 

Qualifications for -" 1951 

Difficulties &nd problems of 1947 

District ofljce, number at each 1945 

Educational qualifications and background of present 1947 

Exclusion and expulsion cases examiners, salary rates of 1953 

'Full time, number of 1944 

Grades of 1945 

Hearing examiner, duties of 1 1948 

Insti'uctional provisions and materials for 1948 

Opportunities to become 1945 

Other duties 1945 

Part time, number of 1944 

Promotional opportunities 1945 

Qualifications and duties 1945 

Reprimand, suspension, transfer, removal of, etc 1947, 1952 

Review of decisions of 1946 

Turn-over of 1948 

Years of service, average 1947 

Joint congressional committee to investigate 232 

Master index of aliens 1351 

Miscellaneous comments ___ 165, 166, 168, 432, 990, 995, 1016. 1125-1127, 1140. 
1145, 1384, 1406, 1410, 1515, 1534, 1539, 1541, 1542, 1545, 1554, 1680 

Permeated by "fear" of foreign-born 176, 956 

Transfer ur*''ed to * 

Department of Labor 179, 181, 1383, 1534. 1679 

Department of State 179, 181, 1534 

Immigration laws (see also McCarran-Walter bill) : 

Difficulties in enforcement and administration 548, 

550, 552, 556, 1066, 1071, 1556 

Statement by Attorney General McGranery 1350 

Wetback problems 1072 

Emergency situations not provided for 266, 1221, 1450 

Objections to present 804, 1556, 1784, 1788, 1789 

Of foreign countries — See specific country. 

Statement by Russell V. Davenport 27 

Immigration policies : 

Citizens' immigration committee (proposed) 481, 1544 

Comments upon, by Iron-Curtain countries 244, 953, 955, 956 

Declaration of Independence should be keystone of our 611, 1022, 1537 

Demographic considerations. See Demographic aspects of immi- 
gration. 
General amnesty by President to immigration4aw offenders 

urged L 747, 1824, 1825 

Group colonization propo.sed 288, 1176 

History of. See Historical background. 

Humanitarian considerations . ^ 2, 30, 

125, 153, 162. 187, 524, 565, 624, 626, 630, 707, 710, 759, 837, 866, 902, 
956, 960, 963, 1028, 1052, 1103, 1118, 1138, 1198, 1208, 1263, 1270, 
1274, 12S6-12S9, 1297, 1486, 1501, 1504, 1506, 1522, 1539, 1541, 1542, 
1.564, 1602, 1611, 1627, 1783, 1784, 1789, 1791. 

Have no place 193, 1502, 1533 

Miscellaneous coiiimcnts 242. 

594, 700, 7G2, 766, 785, 792, 857, 867, 897, 902, 914, 933-934, 937, 939, 
954, 961, 1015, 1028, 1030. 1120, 1129, 1138, 1140, 1181, 1212, 1269, 
1272, 1277, 1285, 1286, 1317, 1324, 1325, 1326, 1380, 1409, 1501, 1522, 
1528, 1532, 1.539, 1545, 1560, 1611, 1649, 1679, 1720, 1724, 1743, 1785, 
1786. 

Moral and spiritual considerations 41, 87, 99, 121, 182, 395, 542, 556, 

609, 684, 793, 800, 857, 949, 1119, 1145, 1208, 1522, 1780 
Of foreign countries. See specific countries. 
Political party platforms 112, 542, 1120 



INDEX ' 2073 

rage 

Iimnii;rati(»n pdlicies — Continued 

Pressure of alien-bloe activities 811 

Kesponsibilitv jointly in Departments of State and Labi)r urj^ed 176, 

1148, 1505, 1534, 1542 
Statement by : 

American Jewish Congress 297 

Representative Emanuel Celler 149 

Central Citizens Committee (Detroit) 616 

Chicago World Service Committee 793, 800 

Chinese-American Citizens Alliance 1145 

Church Federation of Los Angeles and Southern California Coun- 
cil of Protestant Churches 1140 

Conunittee of Editors of American Foreign-Language News- 
papers 201 

Edward Corsi, Industrial Commissioner of New York 172 

Council of Free Czechoslovakia 1765 

('ordelia Cox 79 

Russell V. Davenport 21 

Governor Paul Dever of Massachusetts 377 

John W. Gibson, former chairman, Displaced Persons Commis- 
sion 1673 

B. G. Habberton, Deputy Commissioner of Immigration 1405 

Mutual Security Administrator Harriman 1484 

Edward H. Helms (Commonwealth Club of California) 1030 

International Institute and Displaced Persons Committee of Los 

Angeles 1179 

Jewish Community Relations Council, etc 1022 

Junior Order United American Mechanics 195 

Senator Herbert H. Lehman 63 

Judge Louis E. Levintlial 1536 

Los Angeles Jewish Community Council 1183 

Michigan Committee on Immigration 541 

National Agricultural Union 1631 

National Catholic Welfare Conference 1737 

National Council of Churches— 951 

National Council for Prevention of War 1742 

National Farmers Union 889 

Edward M. O'Connor, Psychological Strategy Board 1435 

Order Sons of Italy in America 1720 

Secretary of Labor Tobin 1385 

President Truman 1 

Comments upon 725 

Immigration to United States from. See name of specific country. 
India : 

Displaced iiersons 804 

Immigration to United States from 208 

Refugees from ' 1710 

Internal Security Act of 1950 163, 1525 

International Labor Office 1387 

International Refugee Organization 237, 370, 784, 785 

Ireland : 

Immigration to United States from 101, 103, 114, 151, 390, 1821 

1947-51 872 

Quota 530, 618, 1174 

Iron-Curtain countries 114 

Escajx^es and refugees from. See Refugees. 

Iron-Curtain Refugee Fund 168 

Italy: 

Asylum for iiolitical refugees 1942 

Conimiiiiism in 614, 6:^2, 639, 1414, 1674 

Contribution to American culture 51, 130, 400, 914, 963 

Denaturalization of American citizens voting in 233, 1409 

Displaced persons 225, 227 

PJconomic problems 221, 603, 614, 964, 1152, 141.5, 1812 

Emigration from 228, 639 

Expellees 370. 



2074 INDEX 

Page 

Italy — Continued 

Immigration to United States from 7, 42, 47, 69, 

95, 103, 128, 129, 154, 186, 192, 219, 301, 320, 321, 363, 396, 400, 619, 
93S 

Quota 324, 363, 451, 639, 915, 1799 

Refugees from 220, 1502 

Abroad 226 

Africa (Italian colonies) 225, 1502, 1812 

Assistance to 227 

Dodecanese Islands 226 

Venezia Giulia and Dalmatia 226, 1812 

Statement by : 

American Committee on Italian Migration 688, 913 

Civic League of Italian-Americans 688 

II Progresso Italo-Americ-ano 219 

Italian-American organizations 963, 1830 

Sons of Italy Magazine . 379 

Surplus population of 128, 151, 153, 192, 

202, 219, 222, 321, 365, 371, 396, 603, 614, 689, 965, 1270, 1485, 1674 

Trieste 7, 1270, 1485, 1489 

Unemployment in 229, 965 

J 

Japan : 

Immigration to United States from 104,192,208,901 

Japanese Exclusion Act of 1924 1730 

Quota 213,492 

Statement by Japanese- American Citizens League 1155, 1729 

Surplus population of 192, 202 

Jews : 

Cultural contributions by 1174, 1176, 1177 

Displaced persons 1113 

Expellees 370 

Miscellaneous eonunents^ 100, 108, 111, 334, 735, 761, 834, 938, 1195, 1547, 1552 

Statement by Jewish organizations of Chicago 831 

Joint congressional committee on immigration : 

Composition and responsibilities 927 

Continuous consideration of quota formula urged 524, 930 

Miscellaneous comments 232, 376, 523, 535, 1273, 1286 

Safeguard for quota system 930 

Judicial procedures : 

Claim of physical persecution 163. 165 

Disclosure of secret evidence 13, 16 

Judicial review : 

In deportation procedures 820, 1566 

In visa procedures 12, 16, 855, 1569 

Legislative relief. See Legislation. 

Miscellaneous comments 12, 

16. 17. 142. 145, 150, 173, 419. 435. 522. 545, 616, 655, 663, 692, 763, 
768, 820, 1297, 1555, 1570, 1581, 1621, 1753. 

Opposition by Immigration Service 166, 168, 435 

Statement by : 

American Bar Association 1565 

Jackson & Hertogs, attorneys 1106 

Acting Solicitor General Stern 1353 

Right to judicial determination of citizenship. See Naturalization. 
Judicial review. Sec Judicial procedures. 

K 

Kenya. See United Kingdom. 

Knniier v. United States 119 

Korea : 

Immigration to United States from 104, 1498 

Korean police action. See Security aspects of immigration. 

Statement by Rev. Sung Tack Whr.ng 1218 

KuHH-k Jan Fat v. White 1040 



INDEX 2075 

L 

Page 

Labor considerations. See Economic well-being. 
Lansua.ire barrier. See Social a.spects of inunitrration. 
Latin America : 

Deportations laws 1789 

Inimiiiration from 137 

Outlet for refugees 1783 

Latva case 431, 1788 

Latvia (see al.so Kef ufiees : Baits) : 

Contribution to American culture 1521 

Displaced persons from 215,282 

Inuniiii-ation to United States from 55, C9, 114, 186 

Quota - 780 

Refugees from 215 

Legislation (see also names of specific bills, nets, laivs) : 

rUsplaced Persons Act urged as model 235, 349, 1024, 1027 

Emergency : 

Easiest to obtain from next Congress 797 

Escapees from Iron-Curtain countries 161, 502, 567, 591, 616, 

619, 706, 714, 776, 841, 936, 1298, 1447, 1450, 1486, 1497, 1742, 1760 

Miscelhnieous co»nncnls 1355, 1676 

Not necessary or desirable 193. 545, 939 

Pooling of unfilled quotas 92, 239, 1297, 1725, 1726, 1741 

Statement by American Committee on Italian migration 48 

To admit : 

Expellees 726, 823, 936, 1497, 1676, 1760 

Refugees wbo served in foreign legions 483 

Surplus-population immigrants 48, 

53, 184, 589, 703, 841, 936, 1298, 1384 

Up to 300,000 refugees during 1953-55 795, 1554 

To complete displaced persons program 29, 

32, 53, 120, 128. 161, 216. 219, 274, 275, 320, 333, 396, 462, 470, 483, 
492, 502, 610. 625. 642. 650. 684, 692, 693. 706, 713, 721, 776, 786, 794, 
819, 823, 848. 928, 934-936, 951, 1075, 1263, 1277, 1279, 1497, 1504, 
1505, 1511, 1517, 1676, 1753. 

To permit i-esident refugees to remain 275 

To unite families. See ielow. 

Judicial review of deportation orders 1353 

Long-range : 

Pooling of unfilled quotas 29, 939 

Statement by National Council of Churches of Christ 32, 1508 

To admit Iron-Curtain-countries refugees 1780 

To admit surplus-population immigrants 122, 795, 1023, 1278, 1487 

To complete displaced persons program 105, 349, 1496, 1504, 1753, 1780 

Miscellaneous eomuioits 1180, 1198, 

1205, 1324-1326, 1334, 1335, 1348, 1410, 1450-1452, 14.56, 1471-1472, 
1489, 1499, 1504, 1506, 1.508. I5ll, 1515, 1533, 1534, 1538, 1545, 1637, 
1725. 1753, 1771, 1791, 1832, 1833. 

On hearings and appeals 232 

Present. See Immigration laws. 

Private immigi-ation and nationality bills in the 81st and 82d Con- 
gresses — Special study by the Department of Justice 1909 

Remedial, how to effect 797, 

1420. 1427-1434, 1445, 1478, 1481, 1483, 1485-1489, 1511, 1583, 1592, 
1.597-1606, 1657, 1663, 1717-1718, 1791. 

Security 627, 1478 

Should be geared to U. N. programs 53, 836, 1791 

Statement by : 

American Veterans Committee . 1655 

Association of Immigration and Nationality Lawvers 1587, 

1590, 1592, 1597 

P.oard of Rabbis of Northern California 1028 

Mutual Security Administrator Ilarriman 1484 

Hungarian-American newspapers 487 

Rev. H. D. Kleckley 1,323 

Liberal Party of New York 145 

2.53.^6—52 131 



2076 INDEX 

Pi.ge 
Legislation — Continued 

To admit Chinese escapees ^ 213 

To control illegal immigration 600 

To unite families^— 277, 289, 531, 624, 641, 651, 779, 822, 1146, 1263, 1554, 1702 
Literacy test. See Admission of aliens. 
Lithuania {see also Refugees: Baits) : 

Immigration to United States from 55, 69, 114, 186, S61 

Quota ,^______ 780, 818 

Refugees from ^ 135 

Statement by : 

American Council of Nationalities 626 

United Lithuanian Relief Fund of America , ^_ 134, £61 

Luciano case. See Deportation. 

M 

McCarran-Walter bill {sec also National origins system) : 

Amendment urged relative to entry of aliens in service of American 

companies --_ :_ 56, 1779 

American Indians not counted in population figure 390 

Commended : 

Deportation of aliens amply covered ^. ^_ 192, 264 

Miscellaneous comments 214, 

286, 311, 314. 353, 446, 460, 468, 486, 517, 531. 538, 661, 779, 828, 861, 
928, 929, 930, 971, 972, 1055, 1058, 1100, 1103, 1137, 1174, 1176, 1214, 
1231, 1233, 1237, 1510. 1514, 1517, 1518, 1652-1655, 1T29, 1780, 1783, 
1826, 1827, 1828, 1829, 1832. 

Protection against unscrupulous aliens 1134 

Statement by : 

American Coalition 1762 

American Defense Society, Inc _^ 263 

American Legion 1151 

Citizens' Protective Association (St. Louis) ^, 96!) 

Constitutional Americans 833 

Daughters of the American Revolution 1635-1636 

Mrs. Mildred J. Field 1257 

J. C. Holton, agriculturist 1299 

Japanese American Citizens League ^^ 1729 

Junior Order United American Mechanics 191, 513 

Ladies of the Crand Army of the Repul)lic 1652 

National Society of New England Women_- 1653, 17'oS 

National Society of Women Descendants of the Ancient and 

Honoral)le Artillery Company 1653-1654 

Native Sons of the Golden West 1233 

Steuben Society of America ^^ 1729 

Twenty-fifth Women's Patriotic Conference on National 

Defense 1654 

Criticized : 

"Alien and Sedition Act of 1952" . 278, 345, 1788 

Cross-references too complex ,__ ^' 1350 

Miscellaneous com in 01 ts 261, 

284, 287, 290, 313, 315, 3.33, 444, 449, 451, 453, 475, 480, 517, 548, 562, 
573, 595, 602, 607, 614, 640, 689, 733, 734, 799, 842, 853, 857, 861, 927- 
928. 934, 938, 1023, 1089, 1092, 1103, 1106, 1122. 1124, 1127, 1130. 
1131, 1133-1134, 1142, 1173, 1194, 1196, 1242, 1270, 1272, 1274, 1277, 
1294, 1297, 1508, 1514, 1520, 1543, 1551, 1552, 1556, 1597, 1727, 1733. 
1766, 1771, 1776, 1777, 1779, 1783, 1785, 1788, 1790, 1791, 1807, 1809. 
1820, 1821, 1823, 1832. 

Moral defects in law 1119,1508,1539 

No provision for adopted orphans 318, 1216, 1219 

"Plays directly into hands of Communist propagandists"- 263, 1188, 1705 

President's veto. See below. 

Section 274 (smuggling in or harboring aliens) cited as vague 1350 



INDEX 2077 

Pago 

McCarran-Walter hill— ("out iiiiu'd 
Criticized — Continued 
Statement by : 

American Civil Liberties I^nion 515 

American Committee for Resettlement of Polish DP's 821 

American Friends Service Committee 1522 

American Hellenic Educational Progressive Association 

( Ahepa ) 1769 

Baptist World Alliance 1^>09 

Catholic War Veterans of the United States 1633 

Representative Emanuel Celler 151 

Arthur II. Compton, chancellor, Washington University 

(St. Louis) 1837 

Edward Corsi, Industrial Commissioner, New York State 172 

Phigene H. Freedheim 460 

Congressman Foster Furcolo 448 

Professor Henry M. Hart, Harvard Law School 1575 

Philip M. Hauser, sociologist 787 

Representative Christian A. Herter 333 

Illinois State Federation of Labor (A. F. of L.) 1822 

II Progi-esso Italo-Americano 231 

Professor Louis L. Jaffe, Harvard Law School 1575 

Jamaica Progressive League 249 

Representative Jacob K. Javits 239 

Jewish organizations 100, 1531, 1539, 1551, 1562,, 1553 

Jewish War Veterans of the United States 1649 

Representative John F. Kennedy 320 

Reverend Werner Kuntz, Director, Lutheran Service to 

Refugees 565 

Senator Herbert H. Lehman 63,403 

Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr 324 

Michigan Committee on Immigration .544 

Minority members of Committee on the Judiciary — 402 

Senator Blair Moody 547 

Rabbi Judah Nadich 334 

National Catholic Welfare Conference 1739 

National Council of Churches of Christ 1496 

National Lutheran Council 1516 

National Protestant Episcopal Church 52, 556 

New Jersey State Legislative Council 185 

Order Sons of Italy in America 652, 1722 

Polish American Congress 821 

Senator John O. Pastore 386 

Presbyterian Church. Synod of Missouri 950 

Synagogue Council of America 100 

Unintelligible 774 

i'eportation amply covered by 192 

Former Communists 162, 1150, 1550 

Master index ot aliens 1351 

Miscellaneous cotuDicnts 1189, 

1208, 1250, 1251, 1255, 1407, 1497, 1510, 1518, 1519, 1550, 1553, 1556, 
1659-1 66L 1682, 1780, 1808, 1829. 1833. 
National origin quota system. See National origins system. 

Naturalization amply covered by 192 

Presidential veto and ovei-riding of same 1, 

131, IS.-., IIK), 232. 251, 323, 325. 335, 527, .535, 055, 711, 747, 971, 
1127. 1174. 1.-.19, 15.53, 1785, 1821, 1830, 1831. 

Rule-making provisions 535, 1682 

Statement by : 

Alice W. O'Connor, Massachusetts Displaced Persons Commission- 314 

Immigrants' Protective League 778 

International General Electric Company 56 

Liberal Party of New York 141 

Totalitarians, provisi(tn on 162 



2078 INDEX 

Page 

Membership of Commission 2 

Mesopotamia!! area, immigration from 300 

Mexico : 

Immigration to United States from 290, 394, 896, 968, 1156 

Statement by : 

Confederation of Mexican Chambers of Commerce of the United 

States 1156 

National Agricultural Workers Union 1631 

Sugar-beet workers In Michigan. See Economic well-being : Labor : 

Migratory. 
Wetbacks. See Economic well-being : Labor : Migratory. 
Migratory labor. See Economic well-being: Labor. 
Military-manpower needs : 

Contribution by naturalized Americans 650 

Miscellaneous comments 174, 178, 205, 622, 1358, 1391 

Befugees serving in foreign legions wish to join United States Army 484 

Statement by Maj. Gen. Lewis B. Hershey, Director of Selective 

Service 1395 

Mortgaged quotas. See Quotas. 

N 
Narcotics. See Deportation of aliens. 
Nationality Act of 1924 49 

National origins system {see also Quotas) : 

Anthropologic and ethnic consideration. See Anthropologic and ethnic 

considerations. 
Commended : 

Miscellaneous comments 810, 930, 1283, 1532, 1781, 1782 

Statement by: 

American Legion 1629 

Junior Order United American Mechanics 190 

Criticized : 

Miscellaneous comments 262, 294, 327, 334, 458, 469, 543, 

548, 605, 611, 692, 71G, 818, 854, 912, 936, 938, 954, 987, 1008, 1021, 
1022, 1109, 1120, 1146, 1171, 1198, 1267, 1275, 1282, 1286, 1297, 
1328, 1381, 1416, 1450, 1485, 1507, 1523, 1531, 1538, 1539, 1540, 
1621, 1699, 1720, 1722, 1733, 1734, 1738, 1783, 1791, 1792, 1801, 
1809. 1829, 1832. 
Statement by : 

American Friends Seiwice Committee 1.522 

American Jewish Committee and Anti-Defamation League of 

B'nai B'rith 1547, 1552 

American Jewish Congress 297 

Catholic Resettlement Committee 749, 1020 

Representative Emanuel Celler 152 

Edward Corsi, Industrial Commissioner, New York State 172 

Estonian Aid, Inc 275 

Mildred McAfee Horton 31 

International Institute of Gary, Ind 720 

Representative Jacob K. Javits 239 

Jewish organizations of Chicago 761 

Jewish War Veterans of the United States 1649 

Representative John F. Kennedy 321 

Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr 324 

Rabbi Judah Nadich 334 

National Catholic Welfare Conference 1737 

National Council of Cliurches of Christ 1497 

St. Louis Resettlement Committee 933 

President Truman 2 

Distribution on yearly basis urged 259, 981, 1683 

Effect upon foreign relations. See Foreign policy. 

Executive Order 10392 3 

History of. See Historical background. 

IMilitary casualties, national-origins percentages of, proposed as basis- 942 

Miscellaneous comments 1744 

1910 basis urged 482, 1540 



INDEX 2079 

Pase 

National ori.uiiis system — Coiitiinu'd 

IDL'O basis, evaluation of 1398 

l!t3() basis urged 131,133,490,1540 

1950 basis urged 184, 

186, ISS, 352, 365, 389, 402, 453, 480, 622, 631, 653, 656, 657, 662, 692, 
727, 777, 804, 810, 850, 1272, 1270, 1633, 1657. 

Original ratio objective not attained 255 

Promoted continuously by Junior Order United American Mecbanics— 190 

Racial discrimination deliberately planned 95,101,177,789,038 

Racist origins of 297, 307, 1147, 1507, 1547, 1805, 1806 

Should be preserved 194, 1532, 1533, 1792 

Special study by Oscar Handlin, professor of history. Harvard Uni- 
versity 1S39 

Immigration Commission of 1907 (see also Report of helotv) 1841 

Laughlin Report 1853 

Crime 1855 

Feeblemindedness 1854 

Dependency 1855 

Epilepsy 1855 

Insanity 1855 

Social inadequacy, all types of 1855 

Tuberculosis 1855 

National origins quota, basic assumptions of 1839 

New-old immigration distinction, origins of 1840 

Report of Immigration Commission of 1907 (Dillingham), 
analysis of : 

Charity and immigration 1851 

Dictionary of races 1843 

Biological sources of race 1844 

Differentiation of old and new immigrants 1844 

Inferiority of new immigrants 1844 

Economic effects of immigration 1846 

Agriculture 1849 

Effects of the new immigration upon native and old im- 
migrant labor 1847 

Industrial methods 1848 

New industries 1849 

Unemployment and depressions 1849 

Unionization i 1848 

Education and literary 1849 

Emigration conditions in Europe 1844 

Causes of emigration 1846 

Occupations 1S46 

Permanent or transient emigration 1845 

Sex distribution of immigrants 1845 

Immigration and bodily form 1853 

Immigration and crime 1851 

Immigration and insanity 1852 

Immigration and vice 1852 

Summary evaluation of Commission findings 1853 

Social characteristics of American ethnic groups 1856 

Alcoholism and adjustment 1860 

Citizenship _' 1861 

Criminality and adjustment 1860 

Cultural contributions 18(!2 

Economic adjustment 1857 

Immigration and depressions 1857 

Immigration and wages 1858 

Immigration and occupational stratification 1858 

Innovations and immigration 1859 

Immigration and the ethnic groups in American life 1856 

Insanity 1861 

Intelligence and adjustment 1859 

Race, nature of 1856 

The larger significance 1862 



2080 INDEX 

Page 
National origins system — Continued 

.Statement by Henry S. Shryock, Jr., Population and Housing Division, 

Bureau of tlie Census 1397 

Determination of national origins of the white population of 1920- 1398 

Effects of shifting the quota base population to 1950 1401 

Estimated distribution of the white population, by country of 
origin, for United States : 

1940 1403 

1940 and 1920 1404 

Evaluation of the 1920 estimate 1399 

Immigration and future trends in population 1402 

Inclusion of nonwhire races in the quota population 1402 

Statement by Dr. A. Wetmore, Secretary, Smithsonian Institution 1415 

Naturalization (see also Denaturalization) : 

Aliens abroad in service of American companies 39 

Aliens born in United States 657 

Aliens serving in Armed Forces 1753 

"Amply covered" by McCarran-Walter bill 192 

Citizenship, encouragement to obtain 929, 1741, 1798 

Declaration of : 

Intention 947 

Nationality 519 

Dual citizens 660, 663, 1292-1293, 1600 

Executive Order 10392 3 

Identification in citizenship cases 423 

Lawful admission for permanent residence 1094 

Literacy test 397, 462, 720, 723, 781, 816 

Alien parents of Armed Forces members 362 

Miscellaneous comments . 283, 

358, 660, 816, 829, 900, 905, 960, 1007, 1182, 1543, 1800 

Not granted during 60 days before elections 432 

Persons of Chinese origin 93, 1055 

Persons of Japanese origin 1115, 1730, 1814 

Persons who served 3 years in Armed Forces 1108 

Procedure for persons of Chinese origin who claim American citizen- 
ship for first time 422,1814 

Kenaturalization of native-born citizens 316 

Repatriation of American citizens who served in Italian Army 352 

Resident aliens who neglect citizenship 439, 929 

Right to judicial determination 1092, 1107 

Second-class citizens. See Civil rights. 
Statement by : 

National Council on Naturalization and Citizenship 1658 

President Truman 1, 2 

Status of persons born May 24, 1934-December 24, 19.36 1093 

Negroes (see also West Indies) 63, 109, 215. 247, 692, 954, 1100, 1402, 1805 

Netherlands : 

Asylum for political refugees 1942 

Contribution to American culture 634 

Economic problems 635 

Emigration from 635, 680, 1676 

Farmers 1772 

Immigration to United States from 43, 48. 396, 635 

Quota ■- 1635, 1772 

Statement by : 

Netherlands-American groups 634 

Prof. William Van Royen, Universitv of Maryland 1772 

Surplus population of 1.53, 203, 371, 634, 679, 1270, 1485, 1675 

New Zealand, immigration laws and policies of 1909 

Nff Fiinci Ho V. White 1040 

Northern Rhodesia. See United Kingdom. 



INDEX 2081 

Page 

Norway : 

Asylum for political refngpes 1941 

Iminijiration to United States from 186 

O 
Oriental Exclusion Act. See Asiatics. 
Orientals. See Asiatics. 
Oshiirn v. Jiank 118 

Overpopulation. See Surplus populations. 

P 
Pacifists 292 

Passport denials, i-eview of. See Hearings and appeals. 

Passport Division (Department of State) 419,422 

Persecutees 370 

Peru, immijiiation policies and laws of 1926 

Philippine Islands : 

Immigration to United States from 336, 992, 1131 

Quota 992, 1055, 1076 

Statement by Pan-Amerasian Co 1076 

Poland : 

Admission of Polish ex-servicemen 38,491 

Contribution to American culture 450,490,617 

I )isplaced persons 825 

Emigration policies of 1934 

Immigration to United States from 114,1.54,294,821 

Undesirability cited 299, 301 

Poles 4 percent of population, 17 percent of Armed Forces 616 

Quota 477, 616, 762, 780, 821, 823, 826, 911 

Refugees from 37 

In Germany 450, 490, 823, 824 

In Great Britain 37, 265, 491 

Statement by : 

Polish American Congress, Inc 489, 615, 821, 824 

Polish Immigration Committee 264 

Political refugees, asylum for. See Asylum for political refugees. 

Political test. See Admissiim of aliens. 

Pooling of unfilled quotas. See Quotas. 

Population. See Demographic aspects of immigration. 

Portugal, surplus population of 202 

Presidential authority to : 

Admit aliens 1273, 1787 

Suspend all immigration 375, 940, 1053, 1787 

President's Commission on Immigration and Naturalization : 
Commission's report : 

Effectiveness of _^ 88, 1236 

Suggested recommendations 89, 98, 241, 481, 747, 798 

Composition 3, 1174 

Executive Order 10392 3 

Expenditures 3 

Mend)ership 2 

Public hearings authorized 3 

Scope of activities 2, 1261 

Statement by the President 1 

President's Review P>oard 12, 16 

I'rivate immigration and nationality liills introduced in the 81st and 82d 

Congresses — Special study by the Department of .Justice 1969 

Provisional Intergovernmental Committee for the Movement of Migrants 

from Europe 32, 151, 256, 1144 

Public health. See Social aspects of immigration. 

Public Law 414. See McCarran-Walter bill. 

Puerto Ricans 1063 



2082 INDEX 

Q 

Page 
Quotas {see also names of specific countries) : 

Ancestry test for OrientalSi 359, 4G8, 492 

"Asia-Pacific triangle." See Asiatics. 

Ceiling on immigration (see also National origins system) : 

Demand for immigration within a country should be factor 89, 

451, 524, 564, 619, 1663 

DiA-ide according to ratio of individual populations 89, 

255, 296, 603, 656, 902, 1101, 1104 

Double 767, 931 

Flexibility urged 55, 

67, 79, 90, 96, 217, 386, 502, 545, 619, 751, 762, 794, 820, 848, 939, 
952, 954, 981, 1014, 1232, 1263, 1381, 1445, 1447, 1496, 1506, 1512, 
1528, 1532, 1725. 

Increase temporarily to 200,000 or more 594. 612, 1562, 1785 

Miscellaneous coiuinenfs 254, 393, 619, 807, 

934, 981, 982, 1194, 1276, 1507, 1512, 1744, 1753, 1772, 1781, 1801 

Ratio of 1 to every 500 citizens 367, 371, 1533, 1540 

Should be based on occupational needs 55, 

613, 615. 631, 1275, 1332, 1382, 1546 
Statement by : 

Theodore Andrica, nationalities editor 476 

Brookings Institute 931 

Church of God 41 

Professor Philip M. Hauser, sociologist 787 

National Council for Prevention of War 1744 

2.50.000 from Europe 259, 1144 

300,000 to 750,000 a year 627, 769, 803, 1031, 1144, 1.393, 1533, 1785 

Descent basis urged 1019, 1809 

Distinction between Asiatics and Europeans 369, 

444, 524, 775, 1102, 1172, 1507, 1784, 1792 

Distribute according to economic need 259, 

623, 932, 1022, 1027, 1332, 1445, 1533 

Enmneration of present quotas 114,1445,1512,1554,1562,1801 

First-come-first-served basis 96, 

104, 110, 116, 2.59, 369, 371, 560, 855, 8.56, 1540, 1554, 1791 
Joint congressional committee to continuously consider quota 

formula 524,1450-1451 

Latest census figures urged as basis 134, 

135, 779, 1120, 1298, 1519, 1765, 1770, 1822, 1833 

Legislative history 299, 1519 

Limited to 10% a month 392 

Minimum quota proposed to be raised from 100 to 1,000 1095 

Miscellaneous cotnwents 623, 809. 8.59, 899. 9.54, 1016, 1019, 

1053, 1125, 1126, 1174, 1183, 1185, 1212, 1297, 1298, 1413, 1445, 1507, 
1508, 1532, 1533, 1540, 1546, 1720, 1726, 1772, 1781, 1792, 1780, 1781 

Mortgaged 176, 186, 189, 215, 262, 269, 

273, 321, 391, 524, 525, 547, 585, 590, 616, 622. 651, 762, 766, 776, 
780, 789, 893, 950, 1021, 1273, 1512, 1538, 1634, 1676, 1739, 1812 
National origin quota system. See National origins system. 
Nonquota status for : 

Adopted children 1216, 1211> 

Alien close relatives of United States citizens ' 362, 

436, 474, 531, 783, 828, 1095, 1109, 1146, 1554, 1800, 1811 

Basque sheepherders 317, 548 

Clergymen, educators, scientists, etc 274, 

337, 398, 406, 4.33, 449. 692, 716, 931, 1124, 1382, 1.540, 1775, 1811 

Statement by Reverend Paul C. Reinert 931 

Colonials in Latin America 461 

Plar'p-of-l.irth basis in assigning, urged 821, 1101, 1800, 1801, 1809 



INDEX 2083 

Page 
Quotas — Contiinied 

Pooling of unfilkMl (luotas (.see o/.vo Ilaiiiplirey-Lehnmn bill) 29, 32, 

;{(;, m. ;)2, no, iw, 124, iiis, 1:^,5, i4r», 1.14, is4, i80, 216, 254, 2G6, 

2<i7. 274. 27;"., 821, 3(i2, 372, 389, 402, 44."), 4G1, 502, 510, 594, 610, 
(!10, (524, («1. 653. 655. 657, 681. 689, 716, 71 S, 766, 777. 779, 794, 
933, 9:5!». 950, 952. 956, 1021. 1023. 1050. 1203. 1206, 1274, 1276, 
1294. 1298, 1446. 1634, 1657, 1739, 1765, 1780, 1782. 

Statement b.v Representative Emanuel Celler 662 

Preference systems 68, 78, 

475. 619, 620, 822, 1381, 1408, 1533, 1540, 1546, 1791, 1800 

DP's already cleared under Displaced Persons Act 1050 

Persecuted peoples 369, 476, 762, 767, 775, 794, 822, 1791 

Political refugees , 1765 

Relatives of resident aliens' 653, 

762, 767, 775, 794, 1021, 1056, 1533, 1554, 1745, 1800 
Selection on basis of : 

Individual merit 104, 

179, 371, 493, 526, 613, 631, 681, 762, 852, 1309, 1411, 1791 

Skills 241, 

316, 340, 347, 355, 446, 461, 4.66, 469, 529, 602, 716, 762, 767, 794, 
822, 852, 928, 934, 1032, 1056, 1382, 1533, 1540, 1546, 1745. 
Statement by Edward H. Helms (Commonwealth Club of Cali- 
fornia ) 1030 

Selective Service Act of 1952 (admission of additional 100,000 per 

year) 240 

Statementrby : 

Professor Amos Hawley, sociologist 602 

Dean Dnnald S. Howard. soeiolo,2:ist 1220 

Senator Herbert H. Lehman 60,64 

President Truman 662 

Statifiticdl ithiitritct — Special study by Department of State: 

General quota statistics , 1899 

Mortgaged quotas 1900 

Oversubscribed quotas and registration thereunder 1900 

Reduction of quotas by : 

Displaced Persons Act. as amended (sec. 4) 1903 

Immigration Act of 1917 (.sec. 19c) 1901 

Special acts 1902 

Unfilled quotas : 

1925-45 1893 

1946-52 1898 

Western Hemisphere : 718 

R 

Racism. See Anthropologic and ethnic considerations. 

Re-entry of ali(!iis. »S'ee Admission of aliens. 

Eefug(>es (sec also Displaced persons; and names of specific countries) : 

Agriculturists 1760 

Arab ^ 370 

Baits 54, 274, 713 

Case histories 1279-1281 

Defined 5, 725, 1801, 1802 

Doctors 1704 

Economic need for. See Economic well-being. 

Escapees from Iron-Curtain countries 5, 18, 124, 

137. 150. 153, 260, 267, 276, 288, 370, 481, 631, 684, 706, 795, 855, 
1009. 1116, 122(). 1331, 1415. 1443. 1444. 1509, 1540, 1674, 1745, 1751, 
1755, 1765, 1782, 1800, 1801, 1802, 1822, 1823. 
Statement by : 

General Eisenhower 162 

Irwin S. Stanton 1831 

Stanislaw Mikolajczyk, International Peasants' Union 1750 



2084 INDEX 

Pago 

Hefiigees — Continued 

Executive Order 10392 ^ 

Exm41ees_ 370, 510, 585, 958, 1743, 1746, 1750, 1758, 1760 

Defined" : ~ J25 1761 

Financial assistance to '> l-JlO, loio 

From, t^ee name of specific conntnj. 

"Hard core" - 7, 19, 356, 887, 1222, 1486, 1531, 1765 

International Refugee Organization 369, 370, 1144 

Jewish. See Jews. 

Legislation to assist. See Legislation. 

Miscellaneous cmnmcnts 509, 

563, 566, 587, 858, 957, 1144, 1499, 1502, 1508, 1515, 1833 

Orphans 624, 653, 1216, 1219 

Outlets for (see also Surplus populations) 4, 

370, 529, 613, 936, 944, 958, 1085, 1503, 1508 

Pipeline {see also H. J. Res. 411) 712, 7S0, 984, 1050, 1508, 1680, 1751, 1760 

Political, asylum for. -S'ee Asylum for political refugees. 

Heque.sts for 81, 85, 491, 1050, 1054 

Resettlement of {sec also name of specific country of origin) 8, 

9, 79, 1499, 1501, 1502, 1503^ 1512, 1517, 1698 

Group colonization urged 287 

Miscellaneous cotnmejits 354,356,469,491,682, 

684, 707, 784, 803, 904, 986, 1141, 1499, 1500, 1501, 1512, 1537, 1763 
Statement by : 

Mrs. Alice Cope, Massachusetts Displaced Persons Commis- 
sion , 341 

Helen M. Harris, National Federation of Settlements 1698 

Resettlement Service of Detroit 606 

Responsibility for, should be assumed by United Nations 936, 1144, 1499 

Service to, by : 

American Friends Service Committee 1522 

Baptist World Alliance 1508 

Brethren Service Commission, Church of Brethren 1512 

Catholic Charities 600 

Catholic Diocese of Savannah-Atlanta (Ga.) 1277 

Catholic Resettlement Council (Cleveland) 470 

Committee on Resettlement Service of Presbyterian Church — 1262, 1263 

Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society 1536 

Jewish Children's Service (Atlanta) 1281 

Lutheran Resettlement Service 712 

National Catholic Welfare Conference 1527 

National Council of Churches of Christ 1496, 1498, 1500, 1502 

National Council of Jewish Women 1298, 1531, 1536, 1537, 1564 

National Lutheran Council 79, 1515 

National Protestant Episcopal Church 52 

National Youth Administration 1279 

Resettlement Committee (St. Louis) 933 

Resettlement Service (Detroit) 606 

United Friends of Needy and Displaced People of Yugoslavia, Inc 1785 

United Nations. See U. N. High Commissioner for Refugees. 

United Service for New Americans 1536 

World Council of Churches 4, 7 

Statement by : 

Ugo Carusi, representing High Commissioner for Refugees 

(U. N.) 1449 

Hugh Gibson, Intergovernmental Committee for European Migra- 
tion 1457 

National Conunittee for Resettlement of Foreign Physicians 1704 

President Truman 2 

Travel documents 1766 

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. See as main item. 
Renaturali/.ation. See Naturalization. 
Repatriation. See Naturalization. 
Resettlement of refugees. See Refugees. 



INDEX 2085 

I'age 

^Retroactive basis : 

Denaturalization on. See Denaturalization. 
Deportation on. ^V?e Deportation of aliens. 
lieview board liea rings. See Hearings and appeals. 
Review of consular decisions. Sec Hearings and appeals. 
Revocation of citizenship. See Denaturalization. 
Kight to judicial determination. See Naturalization. 
Rumania : 

Emigration policies of . 1934 

Immigration to United States from 114 

Undesirability cited 300 

Quota -, 477,780 

Statement by Danila Pascu 532 

Russia : 

Contribution to American culture 1175, 1553 

Emigration policies of 1934 

Ethnic composition of 1082 

Exit vi.sas 1935 

Immigration to United States from 192, 235 

Rus.sian Caucasus 300. 1139 

Ukraine 214, 1553, 1809 

Undesirability cited 300 

Refugees from 234, 1009, 1800 

Resettlement of 236 

Statement by Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia, Inc 234 

Statement by Federation of Russian Charitable Organizations 1096 

Surplus population of 192, 202 

S 
S. 716. See McCarran- Walter bill. 
S. 3109 (Hendrickson bill). See Celler bill. 
Scientific advancement : 

Jeopardized by present immigration policies — : 73, 

668, 740, 843, 987, 1124, 1553, 1668 
Scientists, conferees, etc., invited to United States. See Admission of 

aliens. 
Scientists, foreign-born, contributions to atomic-enei'gy program — 
Special study by the Atomic Energy Commission : 
Scientists of foreign birth : 

Allibone. T. E 1980 

Baxter, J. W 1981 

Bethe, H. A 1981 

Bohr, N 1981 

Breit, G 1982 

Bretscher, E : 1982 

Chadwiek, Sir J 1982 

Debye, P 1983 

Einstein, A 1983 

Emelsus, K. G 1983 

Failla, G 1983 

Fermi, E 1983 

Fowler, R. H 1985 

Gamow, G 1985 

Gianque, W. F 1986 

Gros.se, A. von 1986 

Henne, A. L 1986 

Kingdom, K. H 1986 

Kistiakowsky, G. B 1986 

Latte.s, C. M. G 1986 

Lauritesen, T . 19S7 

Lauritsen, C. C 1987 

Massey, H. S. W 1987 

Neumann, J. von 1988 

Oliphant, M. L. E 1988 

Peierls, R 1988 



2086 INDEX 

Pai?e 
Scientific advancement — Continued 

Scientists, foreign-born — Continued 

Scientists of foreign birth — Continued 

Penny. W. C 1988 

Rabi. I. I 1988 

Rossi, B 1989 

Segre. E 1989 

Skinner. H. W. B _' 1989 

Slotin, L. B 1989 

Smith. C. S 1989 

Szilard. L 1990 

Tavlor, G 1990 

Taylor, H. S 1990 

Teller. E 1991 

Thornton, R. L 1991 

Weisskopf, V. F 1991 

Westendorp, W. F ^ 1991 

Wlgner. E. P 1991 

Wiildnson. Y. J. R 1992 

Yukawa. H 1992 

Ziun, W. H 1992 

Statement by Yannevar Bush, president, Carnegie Institute of Wash- 
ington 1667 

Seamen, alien : 

Chinese 271, 1814, 1815 

Detention of 1779 

Miscellaneous comments 1111, 1685-1693. 1814 

Polish 38, 265, 616, 618 

Statement by National Union of Marine Cooks and Stewards 993, 1003 

Second-class citizens. See Civil rights. 

Secretary of State, responsibility for immigration functions urged 806, 1504 

Secret denunciations, exclusion on. See Exclusion of aliens. 
Security aspects of immigration (see also Exclusion of aliens: Com- 
munists and other subversives) : 

Admission of anti-Communists urged 481, 1443, 1579, 1801 

American world leadership in resisting Communism 125, 1296, 1485 

Communi.sm 1753, 1763, 1768 

Abroad. See name of specific country. 

Ex-DPs can give first-hand information concerning 688, 1117 

In Alaska 1133 

In United States 1149, 1550, 1668 

Deportation of subversives. See Deportation of aliens. 

Dual loyalties of immigrants 1084 

Economic security. See Economic well-being. 
Exclusion of subversives. See Exclusion of aliens. 

Fascists allegedly admitted 1126 

Invitees, conferees, to scientific, cultural, etc. meetings. See Admis- 
sion of aliens ; Scientific advancement. 

Korean police action 141 

McCarrau-Walter bill denounces Communists but '"pardons" Nazis, 

Fascists, etc 162 

Military-manpower needs. See as main item. 

Miscellaneous comments 236, 

626. 838. 969, 1020, 1217, 1282, 1292, 1394, 1414. 1471. 1525, 1541, 
1550, 1616, 1741, 1757, 1767. 
Resolution YII, Chapultepec Conference, concerning restrictions to be 

imposed on undesirable aliens and propaganda agents 1938 

Restriction on travel abroad 724 

Statement by : 

Professor Edward A. Shils, sociologist 664 

President Truman 1 

Senate Judiciary Special Subcommittee To Investigate Immigration and 

Naturalization 15 

Serbs. See Yugoslavia. 

Settlement of immigrants. See Refugees : Resettlement of ; Social aspects 
of immigration. 



INDEX 2087 

Page 
S. J. Res. IGJ) 155 

Slovenes, t^cc Yugoslavia. 

Snuiggliuir ill aliens 1351 

Social aspects of iinniigratioii (see also Anthropologic and ethnic consid- 
erations; Cultural aspects of immigration) : 

Adjustment of displaced jjersons to American way of life : 

Assimilation. See Anthropologic and ethnic considerations. 

Language harrier 685, 687, 1166 

Miseelhineous comments 1279, 1280, 1282, 1514, 155:1 

Settlen'ent of immigrants (see also Refugees: Resettlement of) 715, 

046, 980, 1513 

Statement b.v Chicago Commons Association 677 

Executive Order 10392 3 

MisceUaueous eoinments 1126, 1513, 1702, 1776 

Socially inadequate immigrants : 

Criminals 302, 467, 543, 617, 851, 972, 1513 

In institutions 302 

Public-charges 714, 1418 

Provisions of McCarran-Walter bill 521,1636 

Screening abroad to prevent 928,1636 

Statement by Public Health Service, Federal Security Agency 1416 

Statement by : 

American Service Institute 521 

Professor Oscar Handlin, historian 327 

President Truman 2 

South Africa, immigration policies and laws of 1903 

Southern Rhodesia. See United Kingdom. 
Soviet Russia. See Russia. 

Spain, surplus population of 202 

Special Migration Act of 1^25 133 

Sponsoring of immigrants ^ 717 

Statement by the President 1 

Statute of limitations. See Civil rights. 
Student aliens, admission of. See Admission of aliens. 
Subversives. See Deportation of aliens ; Exclusion of aliens. 
Surplus populations (see also Demographic aspects of immigration; and 
names of specific countries) : 

Asia 192 

Executive Order 10392 3 

Financial assistance to 1388 

Miscellaneous eommeuts 36, 122, 12S, 150. 340, 509, 529, 613. 759, 760, 784, 

933, 934, 936, 983, 1277, 1384, 1457-1462. 1485, 1499, 1635, 1723, 1780 - 
Movement of. See Provisional Intergovernmental Committee for Move- 
ment of Migrants from Europe. 

Outlets for (see also Refugees) 4, 9, 152, 706, 983, 1297, 1503, 1783 

Statement by : 

I'rofessor Amos Hawley, sociologist 604 

Department of Labor 1386 

I'resident Truman 2 

Sweden, asylum for ixilitical refugees 1941 

T 

Tanganyika. See United Kingdom. 

Turkey : 

Immigration to United States from 95, 103, 176, 938, 1017 

Undesirability cited 301 

Quota 451, 1017, 1018 

Rufugees from 1710 

U 

Union of South Africa, immigration policies and laws 1913 

United Nations Educational, Scientitlc. and Cultural Organization 964 

United Nations High Commissioner of Uefugees___ 150, 256, 1449, 1498, 1539, 1784 

United Nations Relief and Hehainlitation x\.dministratiou 237, 

693, 784, 1387, 1498 



2088 INDEX 

Page 
United Kingdom : 

Asylum for political refugees 1943: 

Immigration policies and laws of : 
Kenya and Tanganyika : 

Effectiveness of laws and policies 1920 

Immigration laws and basic policies : 

Immigration (control) ordinance 1919 

Legislation 1917 

Operation of the ordinances 1918 

Qualifications for immigration 1918 

Statistical data 1920^ 

Northern Rhodesia : 

Effectiveness of laws and policies 1923 

Immigration laws and basic policies : 

Immigration procedure 1922 

Legislation 1922 

Statistical data 1923 

Southern Rhodesia : 

Effectiveness of laws and policies 1925 

Immigration laws and basic policies : 

Immigration procedure 1924 

Legislation 1924 

Statistical data 1925 

United Kingdom : 

Effectiveness of laws and policies 1916 

Immigration laws and basic policies : 

Immigration procedi;re 1915 

Legislation 1914 

Provisions of the Aliens Order, 1920 1914 

Visa procedures 1914 

Statistical data 1916 

Immigration to ComnioinTealth rather than United States 258, 706, 1503 

Immigration to United States from 43, 

69, 101, 104, 114, 151, 253, 321, 390, 399, 938, 1539 

1947-52 372 

Qiota 618,1174 

U. S. S. R. See Russia. 

"Uranium curtain" : 409 



Visa Division (Department of State) 11,15,44 

Visa procedures {see also Administrative procedures; Admission of aliens ; 
Hearings and appeals) : 
Admission of: 

Chinese 419,1147 

Students 159, ISIO 

Consular officers. See as main entry. 

Delays in, unwarranted 420, 536, 1408, 1509, 1588, 1713-1715 

Grounds for refu.sal of immigration visas — Special study by the De- 
partment of State 1874 

Confidential information, reliance upon 1876 

Divulgence of information to alien 1876 

Memorandum to diplomatic and consular officers on interpre- 
tation of Internal Security Act of 19-50 1877 

Standards applied without advisory opinions first being sought 1876 

Statistical data 1880 

Hearings and appeals. See Hearings and appeals. 
Invitees, conferees, to scientific, cultural, etc., meetings. See Admis- 
sion of aliens. 
Judicial review. See Judicial procedures. 

Miscelkineous comments 10, 14 

15, 33, 98, 232, 549. 621, 657, 898, 1052, 1091, 1141, 1451-1452, 1480, 
1497, 1512, 1.532, 1534, 1555, 1570, 1582, 1683, 1714, 1776, 1807, 1836 
Nonquota visas issued for fiscal years 1925-1952 — Special stvdy by 

Dep-artment of State "_ 1891 



INDEX 2089 

Page 

Visa prcK-cdurcs — ("out iiuird 

Political tests 4ia 

Kestriction on travel abroad 724, 729, 1713 

lleview iirocedure urged. iS'ce Hearings and ajipeals. 
Statement by : 

Federation of American Scientists 407 

Jewisli oruaiiizations of Cliicago 761 

Underissuauce of immigration visas for a number of immigration 
quotas after passage of the Immigration Act of 1924 — Special study 

by Department of State 1890 

Visa Iteview Board (proposed). Sec Hearings and appeals. 
Volksdeutscher. /S'rc Germany : Expellees. 
Voluntary agencies : 

Financial problems of 7,122,684,1545 

MiscellatjcoK.-i co»i)iic)its 79, 

120, 342, 651, 777, 798, 1497, 1501, 1503, 1.536. 1538, 1545, 178S 
Urge more governmental participation than provided by Celler bill — 53- 

W 

AVest Indies : 

Contribution to American culture 45,250,480' 

lnuiiigrati<m to United States from 45, 

63. 104, 109, 335, 360, 692, 939, 1174, 1785 

MisfcJlaneous comments 1735 

Quota 472, 516, 1113, 1174, 1273, 1785 

Statement by : 

Jamaica Progressive League 246 

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People 

(Cleveland branch) 479 

Wetbacks. See Economic well-being : Labor : Migratory. 

Y 

"Yellow peril" 44 

Yugoslavia : 

Communists in 816 

Contribution to American culture 814, 1521 

Croats 129 

Disjilaced persons 705, 1513 

Emigration policies of 1935 

Immigration to United States from 125, 129, 176, 1513, 1514, 1758 

Quota 780 

Refugees from 1758 

Serbs 54, 129, 477, 705, 1513, 1514 

Sh)venes 129,477 

Statement by Slovak American (newspaper) 812 



BOSTON PUBUC UBRAflY 

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