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Full text of "Hearings"

'Id lliilT} COMMITTEE PRINT 



■7 ~ /-' 

-4 f- — 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

PRESIDENT'S COMMISSION 

ON 

IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 




SEPTEMBER 30, OCTOBER 1, 2, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 
11, 14, 15, 17, 27, 28, 29, 1952 



Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary 
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 



82d Congress^ COMMITTEE PRINT 

2d. Session J 



HEARINGS 



BEFORE THE 



ti5 PRESIDENT'S COMMISSION 

V 



ON 



IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 




SEPTEMBER 30, OCTOBER 1, 2, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 
11, 14, 15, 17, 27, 28, 29, 1952 



Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary 

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 



UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
25356 WASHINGTON : 1952 




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/ 



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PRESIDENT'S COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

Philip B. Perlman, Chairman 

Eabl G. Harrison, Vice Chairman 

Msgr. John O'Gbady 

Rev. Thaddeus F. Guxlixson 

Clarence E. Pickett 

Adrian S. Fisheb 

Thomas C. Finucane 

Harry N. Rosenfield, Executive Director 



^^3v . ]if\\^} 



REQUEST FOR TRANSMITTAL 



House of Representatr^es, 

Committee ox the Judiciary, 
Washington, D. C, Octoher 23, 1952. 

Hon. Philip B. Perlman, 

Chairman, President'^ 8 C ommission on 
Immigration and Naturalization, 

Executive Office, Washington, D. C. 
Dear Mr. Perlman : I am informed that the President's Commis- 
sion on Immigration and Naturalization has held hearings in a 
number of cities and has collected a great deal of information con- 
cerning the problems of immigration and naturalization. 

Since the subject of immigration and naturalization requires con- 
tinuous congressictffal study, it would be very helpful if this commit- 
tee could have^e transcript of your hearings available for its study 
and use, and/ror distribution to the Members of Congress. 

If this i^ord is available, will you please transmit it to me so that 
I may ,M able to take the necessary steps in order to have it printed 
for the use of the committee and Congress. 
Sincerely yours, 

Emanuel Celler, Chmrinan. 



REPLY TO REQUEST 

President's Commission on 
Immigration and Naturalization, 

Executtst: Office, 
Washington, October ^7, 195^. 

Hon. Emanuel Celler, 

House of Representatives, 

'Washington, D. C. 

Dear Congressman Celler : Pursuant to the request in your letter 
of October 23, 1952, we shall be happy to make available to you a 
copy of the transcript of the hearings held by this Commission. We 
shall transmit the record to you as soon as the notes are transcribed. 

The Commission held 30 sessions of hearings in 11 cities scattered 
across the entire country. These hearings were scheduled as a means 
of obtaining some appraisal of representative and responsible views 
on this subject. The Commission was amazed, and pleased, at the 
enormous and active interest of the American people in the subject of 
immigration and naturalization policy. 

Every effort was made to obtain the opinions of all people who 
might have something to contribute to the Commission's considera- 
tion. All shades of opinion and points of views were sought and heard. 
The response was very heavy, and the record will include the testimony 
and statements of some 600 persons and organizations. 

This record, we believe, includes somia very valuable information, a 
goodly proportion of which has not hitherto been available in dis- 
cussions of immigration and naturalization. It is of great help to 
the Commission in performing its duties. We hope that this material 
will be useful to your committee, to the Congress, and to the country. 
Sincerely yours, 

Philip B. Perlman, Chairman. 



CONTENTS 



Sessions: 

New York, N. Y.: 

First: September 30, 1952, morning session. 
Second: September 30, 1952, evening session. 
Third: October 1, 1952, morning session. 
Fourth: October 1, 1952, evening session. 
Boston, Mass.: 

Fifth: October 2, 1952, morning session. 
Sixth: October 2, 1952, evening session. 
Cleveland, Ohio: 

Seventh: October 6, 1952, morning session. 
Eighth: October 6, 1952, evening session. 
Detroit, Mich.: 

Ninth: October 7, 1952, morning session. 
Tenth: October 7, 1952, evening session. 
Chicago, 111.: 

Eleventh: October 8, 1952, morning session. 
Twelfth: October 8, 1952, evening session. 
Thirteenth: October 9, 1952, morning session. 
Fourteenth: October 9, 1952, evening session. 
St. Paul, Minn.: 

Fifteenth: October 10, 1952, morning session. 
Sixteenth: October 10, 1952, evening session. 
St. Louis, Mo.: 

Seventeenth: October 11, 1952, morning session. 
Eighteenth: October 11, 1952, evening session. 
San Francisco, Calif.: 

Nineteenth: October 14, 1952, morning session. 
Twentieth: October 14, 1952, evening session. 
Los Angeles, Calif.: 

Twenty-first: October 15, 1952, morning session. 
Twenty-second: October 15, 1952, evening session. 
Atlanta, Ga.: 

Twenty-third: October 17, 1952, morning session 
Twenty-fourth: October 17, 1952, evening session. 
Washington, D. C: 

Twenty-fifth: October 27, 1952, morning session. 
Twenty-sixth: October 27, 1952, evening session. 
Twenty-seventh: October 28, 1952, morning session 
Twenty-eighth: October 28, 1952, evening session. 
Thenty-ninth: October 29, 1952, mornings session. 
Thirtieth: October 29, 1952, evening session. 
Appendix: Special studies. 
Indexes: 

Persons heard or who submitted statements by session and order of appearance 
Organizations represented by persons heard or by submitted statements * 
I'ersons heard or who submitted statements by alphabetical arrangement 

or names. 
Subject matter. 

(Page numbers may be obtained from indexes) 



HEARINGS BEFORE THE 

PRESIDENT'S COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION 

AND NATURALIZATION 



FRIDAY, OCTOBER 17, 1952 

twenty-third session 

Atlanta, Ga. 

The President's Coinniissioii on Immigration and Naturalization 
met at 9 : 30 a. m., pursuant to adjournment, in courtroom 41G, grand- 
jury room, Old Post Office Building, Atlanta, Ga., Hon. Philip B. 
Perlman (chairman) presiding. 

Present : Chairman Philip B. Perlman, and the following Commis- 
sioners : Mr. Thomas G. Finucane, Dr. Clarence E. Pickett, Msgr. John 
O'Grady. 

Also present : Mr. Harry N. Rosenfield, executive director. 

The Chairivian. The Commission will please come to order. 

Perhaps in opening this hearing I should state that this Commission 
appointed hy the President in the early part of September has re- 
cently been engaged in holding hearings throughout the United States. 
We have had hearings in New York, Boston, Cleveland, Detroit, Chi- 
cago, St. Paul, St. Louis, San Francisco, and Los Angeles. 

After this hearing we are going back to Washington and within a 
week or so we are going to have a series of hearings, at least three, 
which will be devoted to hearing testimony from individuals and 
representatives of national organizations. Some of those organiza- 
tions have been represented in the hearings we have had throughout 
the country, but some of them wish to advise the Commission as to 
the viewpoint of their national organizations at their headquarters in 
Washington. 

It ought to be understood and understood emphatically that the 
Commission is not taking any position at these hearings with respect 
to the immigration laws or the laws that affect naturalization or de- 
naturalization. It is not taking any position at any of these hearings. 
It is our purpose only to obtain information, and we are collecting 
that information so that after we finish the hearings we will be enabled 
to examine it and to reach conclusions and make recommendations as 
to what, in our opinion, is for the best interest of the Nation; and 
also, in doing that, we will have an idea as to wliat is tlie sentiment of 
the people of the country as exjiressed by individuals and organiza- 
tions who are interested in the subject matter. So, it sliould be clearlv 
understood that the Commission is just here for the purpose of seelc- 
ing information. 

It is our responsibility and under the President's Executive order we 
are required to make a report to the President by the 1st of January 

1261 



1262 coAEvnssiox ox im:migratiox axd xaturalizatiox 

1953. ^ye are not committed to any viewpoint. We are simply tryino- 
to find out what the people of the country think and what individuals 
and the organizations that are especially interested in the suliject 
matter recommend as the proper policy for the country. 

We have had before us individuals and representatives from a num- 
ber of organizations who are perfectly satisfied with the existing legis- 
lation and who recommend that no changes be made, and that we rec- 
ommend that no changes be made : on the other hand, we have heard 
individuals and representatives from a number of organizations, and 
university professors who advise us that in their opinion there are 
grave mistakes that have existed for many yeai's in our immigration 
laws, and that some of those mistakes were carried over in the recently 
enacted legislation, and that some of them, in their opinion, were 
made somewhat more detrimental than they were in the past. Those^ 
of course, are the opinions of various witnesses we have heard. 

It should be understood that we are here in order to give the people 
of this area an opportunity to tell us, if they will, what they think 
about the present situation as expressed in the existing innnigration 
rules and regulations and laws, and whether in their opinion there 
should be any changes made, and what nature the changes should be 
and, assuming any changes are recommended, in what direction they 
should go. 

Of course, you may understand that this Commission has no legis- 
lative authority: all we can do is to make a report on our conclusions 
after gathering information. That report will go to the President, 
and the President may accept it, reject it, or refuse to adopt it : and^ 
assmning he approves the report, then the only thing the President 
can do, either this President or the succeeding one, is ask Congress to 
make changes if any are recommended, or to continue the legislation 
unchanged, if that is the viewpoint that is submitted. 

In the last analysis it is Avithin the prerogative of the Congress and 
the Congress alone that will determine the cpiestions we shall discuss 
today. 

Xow, the first person we have here on our schedule today is Dr. 
Herman L. Turner. Is Dr. Turner here ? 

STATEMENT OF REV. HERMAN I. TURNER. PASTOR. COVENANT 
PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. ATLANTA. GA. 

Dr. TtTixER. I am Dr. Herman L. Turner, pastor of the Covenant 
Presbyterian Church, Atlanta, Ga. 

With your permission, I should like to read a prepared statement 
and submit for incorporation in the record the Report of the Joint 
Committee on Resettlement of Displaced Persons presented at the 
meeting of the One Hundred and Sixty-fourth General A.ssemb]y of 
the Presbyterian Church in Xew York City this past May. 

The Chairmax. You may do so. 

Dr. TuRXER. The Presbyterian Church, U. S. A., at the meeting of 
its one hundred and ^ixty-fourth general assembly in Xew York City 
in May 19.52, heard a report from the Joint Committee on the Resettle- 
ment of Displaced Persons. The joint committee was organized to 
coordinate the thinking and to spearhead the activity of our church 
(Presbyterian, U. S. A.) in bearing its share of responsibility for the 
millions of displaced persons left stranded by the war, under a pro- 



COJVEVIISSIOX OX IMMIGRATIOX AXD XATURALIZATIOX 1263 

jfiam of inmiigration authorized by the DP Act of 1946. The General 
Assembly of 1949 trave its endorsement to this emergency action. 

The churches of my communion across tlie country have responded 
in an unusual way to this DP program. Dr. Charles T. Leber, chair- 
man, the Joint Committee on the Resettlement of Displaced Persons, 
in his report to the one hundred and sixty-fourth general assembly 
stated : "'We can now repoit that we have resettled more DP's than any 
other denomination (except Lutheran.s. who carried through an 
exceedinirly large program for their own people) * * *. It still 
remains true ( a> reported last year) that over 9(j percent of our DP*s 
liave made most s^itisfactory resettlements and are already making fine 
contributions to the life of their several communities, not only eco- 
nomically but culturally and spiritually." 

Dr. Leber further conmiented in his report : "Also additional legis- 
lation now pending may open the way to "cleaning up' the DP situa- 
tion in Europe and so bring us an allotment of several hundred more 
before the end of 1952. Beyond this, our church can never again be 
unaware of immigrants in our communities. Xor can we again be 
unmindfid of the stateless, homeless, hopeless refugees — 80.(X)0.000 of 
them at present throughout the world. Because of this prospect for 
the future, this conunittee has been regidarized as a committee of the 
general council, and its name has been changed to Committee on Re- 
settlement Service of the Presbyterian Church in the L^nited States 
of America, and has been instructed by the general coimcil to enlarge 
its function to include services to refugees." 

I was a commissioner to tlie one hundred and sixty-fourth general 
assembly, and registered a favorable vote in behalf of the recom- 
mendations submitted by Dr. Leber's conunittee. This one is partic- 
ular : 

1. "That special encouragement and leadership be given to local 
pastors and congregations in taking responsibility for the social and 
spiritual welfare of lesettled families : that, in order to further under- 
standing of the psychological and sociological factors in homelessness, 
migration, and resettlement, the fidlest possible use be made of dis- 
cussion groups, platform, vi.^utd aids, church press, and other media." 

A recent trip to Europe revealed the sameness about people regard- 
less of vrhere they live. They eat. drink, wear clothes, live in houses, 
work and trade, mix and mingle, love and hate. They have their 
churches, schools, and hospitals. They respond to the needs of old 
people and little children. They want security, peace, and happiness. 
Selfishness, greed, suspicion, fear, and lack of understanding which 
hinder progress in America are the same forces that hinder progress 
in Europe and other sections of the world. 

The church of Jesus Christ has a positive responsibility in this 
whole matter of caring for the homeless and destitute millions. It 
is a moral responsibility that camiot be evaded by the church of this 
generation. 

My hasty perusal of papers on United States inmiigration and 
naturalization policy reveals that our quota system should be more 
flexible: we should do something about the devastating effects of 
families being separated for long periods of time without reason or 
process, and also pass legislation looking toward the revision of our 
immigration and naturalization laws that will conform with our demo- 
cratic tradition and with our heritage as a defender of human riirhts. 



1264 COMMISSION ON IMMIGKATION AND XAXrRALIZATION 

(The Report of the Joint Committee on the Resettlement of Dis- 
placed Persons, presented at the one hundred and sixty-fonrth general 
assembly of the Presbyterian Church, is as folloAvs:) 

Minutes 
resettlement of displaced persons 

The Report of the Joint Committee on the Resettlement of Displaced Persons 
was presented through its chairman, Rev. Charles T. Leber, and received. 
Pending the adoption of the recommendations, the general assembly was 
addressed by Rev. Harold H. Henderson, secretary of the conunittee ; Mrs. J. H. 
Mason, of the Fairmount Presbyterian Church, Cleveland Heights, Ohio ; and 
Rev. Alexander Nagy, whose remarks were interpreted by Rev. Joseph B. Balazs. 
The report was approved and its recommendations adopted as follows : 



In 1948 this Joint Committee on Resettlement of Displaced Persons was 
formed by representatives of the three boards, irational. foreign, and Christian 
education, co-opted by the executive secretaries of the respective boards as an 
emergency measure. Representatives of the National Council of Presbyterian 
Men and the National Council of Women's Organizations were added. 



The joint committee was organized to coordinate the thinking and to spear- 
head the activity of our church in bearing its share of responsiliility for the 
millions of displaced persons left stranded hy the war, under a pi'ogram of 
immigration authorized by the DP Act of 1948. 

VALIDATION 

The general assembly of 1949 gave its endorsement to this emergency action 
and in July 1949 the general council authorized the committee to tile a blanket 
assurance for 2,000 DP families. The 19.50 general assembly authorized an 
additional blanket of 1,000 units, making a total of 3,000 units or possibly 7,000 
individual DP's which our church would undertake to resettle. 

ADMINISTRATION 

In May 1949 the committee placed three men in the iield to secure resettlement 
"assurances" ; namely, Rev. Kenneth Campbell of the Pacific coast. Rev. Harold 
Henderson in the Midwest, and Rev. p:dward Williams on the E:istern seaboard. 
In July 1949 the Reverend James H. Nicol was called as executive secretai-y to 
take charge of the New York office. In November 1949 Rev. Verne Fletcher was 
appointed as our representative ovei-seas to select our DP's for us. On Decem- 
ber 1, Mr. Henderson was called to take the place of Dr. Nicol, resigned. Assur- 
ances began to pour into the office so that by May 19.50 the committee had in hand 
assurances for more than 2,000 families ; but at that time less than 100 DP's had 
arrived. Security restrictions, made by Congress, held up the Hungarian Re- 
formed DP's to whom we had given priority. On June 1, 1950, the committee 
called Rev. J. Leon Hooper as executive in charge of the New York office and 
asked Mr. Henderson to take over our office in Munich, Germany, and to make 
the remaining selections and to expedite the processing of our DP's for emigra- 
tion. The Security Act of September 19.50 broke a bottleneck in the processing 
of DP's that was holding up several thousand cases, among them 700 of ours. 
In the great flood of paper work which ensued in the operation overseas, it was 
only necessary to see that our Presbyterian cases got their fair share of atten- 
tion. The flow of our DP's into the United States increased steadily during 
the fall of 1950, and it became necessary to increase the New York office staff. 
Dr. A. G. Fletcher was called in at this time to help with the resettlement phase 
of the work, and he took responsibility for all professionals and single men. 
On the Pacific coast the coming of the Shanghai DP's from Samar, Philippines 
Islands, and other resettlement problems made necessary again a representative 
there, and Rev. Paul Melrose was appointed and served for the calendar year 
of 1951. Overseas a second bottleneck in processing developed because of doubts 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1265 



as to interpretation of the Security Act. Tliese were finally resolved by an 
amendment passed in March 1!)51. During the months preceding the passing by 
Congress of this amendment our church made a notable contribution by lending 
to the World Council of Churches the legal counselor of the foreign board, Mr. 
Howard B. Vail, who spent 3 months in Germany gathering data and several 
weeks of intense work after his return presenting the data to the proper author- 
ities. The coordinated efforts of Mr. Vail and the legal advisers of other agencies 
had a great deal to do with the passage of the amendment of the Security Act. 
On March 1, when the work overseas was well in hand, Dr. Hooper returned to 
his work in the foreign board and Mr. Henderson was called back to New York. 
During the 6 months (November 1951-April 19.52) the arrival rate of our DP's 
has been greater than at any period in the program. 

Resettlement statistics 
Arrivals to date : 

DP's (from Germany, Austria) 2,163 

Volksdeutsche (ethnic German) 220 

Out-of-zone DP's 67 



Total cases 2, 450 

Total individuals (adults, 4,046; children, 1,663) 5,709 



Religious breakdown : 

Reformed 878 

Orthodox ! 1, 025 

Other (mostly Lutheran) 547 



Total 2,450 



Arizona 

Arkansas _ 
Baltimore. 
California. 
Colorado-- 

Florida 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky _ 
Michigan-. 
Mid-South- 
Minnesota. 
Missouri __ 
Montana _. 
Nebraska _ 



2 

2 

26 

153 

31 

1 

9 

120 

55 

61 

32 

14 

91 

12 

29 

26 

18 

20 



New England 62 

New Jersey 269 



New Mexico 

New York 

North Dakota- 
Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania- 
South Dakota- 
Texas 

Utah 

Washington 

West Virginia- 
Wisconsin 

Wyoming 



5 

561 

2 

252 

34 

24 

309 

12 

59 

3 

45 

51 

52 



Total 2,450 



HARD-CORE CASES 

War, flight, life in refugee camps Qver a period of 5 years or more, all com- 
bined to produce their toll of tragic cases. We dared not harden our hearts 
toward the widows, the maimed, the aged. While taking every possible pre- 
caution and making most careful arrangements in resettling these, we have 
brought, as our share of the so-called hard-core cases, the following : 

22 widows with their 42 children 

81 maimed and listed as 40 percent or more disabled 

76 aged (65 or over) 



FINANCIAL REPORT 

Receipts 1949-52 from One Great Hour of Sharing $225,000.00 

Expenditures during the 3 years 184, 912. 60 

Balance on hand 40,087.40 

Cost per DP $32.40. 



1266 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

APPKECIATION 

If credit for what has been accomplished by this committee is to be giveu, tlie 
one man worthy of receiving it is the Reverend Charles T. Leber whose mind 
and spirit has been the guiding factor and pror>elling power in the work of the 
•committee. It is impossible, however, to overemphasize the fact that this pro- 
gram has been successful only because of the fine response the churches the 
country over have made. The program has never lagged because of the lack of 
assurances. The committee has never been embarrassed because of the lack of 
a siK)nsor for a DP and his family. Our church was a bit slow in getting started, 
but the earnest response by Presbyterians everywhere has made our DP program 
outstanding. We can now report that we have resettled more DP's than any 
other denomination (except Lutherans who carried through an exceedingly 
large program for their own people). No DP of the Reformed Church remained 
in Europe for the lack of an assurance. We were able to give a standing invita- 
tion through the Hungarian newspapers and magazines of Germany and Austria 
to all I'rotestant Hungarians. We also gave consideration to all the profes- 
sionally trained and better educated folks at a time when most agencies were 
giving preference to farmers and strong-backed laborers. In doing this we in 
turn i-eceived nnich. Three .scholarly ministers have been installed in Presby- 
terian pastorates. Others are still in training. Sixty-three doctors whom we 
have sponsored are now working as resident doctors and interns, looking forward 
to the not-to-distaut day when they will take State examinations for license. 
The amount that this group spent in Europe on their professional preparation 
alone would total in dollars and cents far more than the entire cost of our pro- 
gram. Aside from these, there are men of tine training and experience from 
every walk of life that have been included in the great host of newcomers. 
It still remains true (as reported last year) that over 90 percent of our DP's 
have made most satisfactory resettlements and are already making fine con- 
tributions to the life of their several communities, not only economically but 
culturally and spiritually Of the remaining 10 percent, all but a very few will 
become adjusted through the continued special attention they are receiving. 

O.V-GOIXG PROGKAM 

Under the pre.sent DP law there still are some people coming to us. There 
will probably be :i dozen families or so each month up through spring of 1^)~A. 
Also additional legislation now pending may open the way to cleaning up the DP 
situation in Europe Miid so bring us an allotment of several hundred more before 
the end of 1952. Beyond this, our church can never again be unaware of immi- 
grants in our communities. Nor can we again be uinnindful of the stateless, 
homeless, hopeless refugees — SO million of them at prtsent throughout the world. 
Because of this prospect for the future this connnittee has l)een regularized as 
a connnittee of the General Council and its name lias been changed to ('ommittee 
on Resettlement Services of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of 
America, and it has been instructed by the general council to "enlarge its func- 
tions to include services to refugees.'" The committee has appointed Miss Mar- 
garet Gillespie as associate executive secretary and has adopted a program that 
is essentially expressed in the following three recommendations: 

KECOMMENDATIOXS 

1. That special enoourageraent and leadership be given to local pastors and 
congregations in taking responsibility for the social and spiritual welfare of 
resettled families, and that, in order to further understanding of the phycholog- 
ical and sociological factors in homelessness, migration, and resettlement, the 
fullest possible use be made of discussion groups, platform programs, visual 
aides, cliurch press, and other media. 

2. That promotion of the respttlement services program be continued with a 
view to procuring such additional assurances as ma.v be needed. 

:^. That the need of niaintainiiiir. nfter 19.")2. the program of resettlement 
service (selection, reception, and placement) he recognized and that the com- 
mittee on resettlement services be instructed to plan for such needs as they become 
evident. 

Commissioner Pickett. Have you oiven any thouirht to the ques- 
tion as to what basis immiorants comino; to this eoinitry ouoht to be 
selected on. if you don't take the present basis? 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATl'RALIZATION 1267 

Dr. Turner. Yes, sir; I think it ought to be without discriniiiiatioii. 

The Chairman. Discrimination based on what? 

Dr. Ti'RNER. Well, discrimination based on race, color, or religion. 
1 think as a democracy we caimot put ourselves in the position of ever 
discriminating; that is. if we are true to the heritage of our fathers. 

The Chairman. If you eliminate the present quota system, what 
"re you going to substitute in its j)Iace? 

Dr. Turner. That, I cannot answer. 

The Chairman. You see, when j^eople testify before us to the elf'ect 
that they do not favor the present quota system we are interested in 
learning what they would propose in its phice. 

Dr. Turner. I see the problem. I referred to the fact that I had 
nnule a hasty perusal of the matter, and I do not speak as one who has 
expert kiu)\vledge on the situation. I am purely reflecting from the 
standpoint of our background and traditions as a democracy. There 
ought to be some way that we would not show discrimination, for the 
sake of good will and our effectiveness for building a world of peace 
and understanding for all mankind to live together as the children of 
God. 

The Chairman. Thank you for appearing. 

Dr. Turner. Mr. Chairman. I would like to leave a letter here of 
the International Club of Young "Women's Christian Association, over 
the signature of Mrs. George T. Douglas, chairman, and it was ad- 
dressed to Kev. Robert B. Griffin, who is executive director of the 
Christian Council of Atlanta. He is out of the city, and his secretary 
sent it to me, and also a letter from a Mrs. H. H. Cliiu Liu, out here at 
Emory University, that I would like to leave with the reporter and 
see that it is inserted in the record. 

The Chairman. Yes; you may leave those letters with the reporter, 
and they will be inserted in the record. 

(The letters follow:) 

Young Women's Christian Association. 
12 Edgeivood Avenue XW., Atlanta, Ga., October 10, 1952. 
Rev. RORERT B. Griffin, 

Christian Council of Atlanta, 

167 Walton Street NW., Atlanta, (Ui. 

Dear Reverend Griffin : Our international group here at the Y WCA took real 
pride in beins asked b.v you to make a contribution toward emphasizing the 
jnnch-needed revision of the McCarran bill. I brought up the problem and found 
a tremendous interest, but it was very difficult to get a really united idea for 
emphasis to represent group thinking. Some of the Americans in the gi'oup felt 
the club was too young to enter into a controversial situation as a club and a 
few of the foreign visitors had a real feeling of fear to express a personal opinion. 

We seemed to be unanimous, however, in wishing there were some way we 
could express the hope that similarities of people and agreements on principles 
and ideals be stressed rather than differences and disagreements — in this wa.y 
lead to a less iMgid quota system based on appreciation of people as individuals. 

Members of the new American group and those foreigners visiting felt that 
each individual here in the United Stales would have a different reason and 
feeling for wi.shing to lessen restrictions on immigration and naturalization. 
There was a natural show of intense feeling from many of "ns." Problems sug- 
gested by individuals to whom I talked privately had to do with deep resentment 
as to the discrimination on the color question, for examine, the small quotas 
from Asia as compared with British quotas. There were questions around the 
devastating effects where families have been separated sometimes seemingly 
without reason. Others were disappointed over ideals being shattered, of the 
United States as a democratic countr.v, and the McCarran bill seemed to intensify 
this disappointment. 



1268 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

The followins club members were suggested as people who would be glad to 
talk to you or Dr. Turner individually. Dr. Hugo Skala, 1515 Markan Drive NE. 
(Atwood 0512), professor of Atlanta University; Mr. Herman Tang, Exchange 
6860, 2817 Beacon Boulevard (you remember he was on your WAGA program), 
and our president, Mr. Wapensky (Evergreen 1609), suggested that a Miss Chew, 
a student at Emory whose name and address are not on our list, would be able 
to give good suggestions as to emphasis. 

We do appreciate your giving us the excellent TV program and the added 
interest of giving us at least an opportunity to try to mold public opinion on a 
matter so vital to our group. 
Cordially, 

Mrs. George T. Douglas, 
Chairman, International Club. 



Emoky U^'IVERSITY, Georgia, October l.'i, 1952. 
Dr. Robert Gbikfin, 

161 Walton Street, Atlanta, Oa. 

Dear Dr. Griffin : It is very thoughtful of you to give me the opportunity 
to express my feelings toward the pi-esent immigration law, especially concerning 
Chinese people. Personally speaking, I have been very fortunate in many ways 
and people treat me nicely wherever I go. Therefore, I have no complaint to 
make whatsoever concerning myself. 

Since I don't know the detail content of the iDresent immigration law, there- 
fore, for the ultimate well-intention toward the United States as well as all 
people over the world, we should check it in the light of the following points : 

1. Justice: Is the restriction of number fair in the present immigration law? 
How is the quota system? What is its basis? Is the ratio according to popu- 
lation of each nation? 

2. Political point of view : If every nation treats aliens in the reciprocal way, 
how would the immigration law of this country work? Would it drive those 
people v.'ho have no political affiliation to the enemies who do not have so much 
red tapes to immigrants? In the long run, would the present immigration law 
really prevent Communists to come in and grant United States good will, pros- 
perity, and leadership in the world? I sincerely hope that the United States 
will not follow the steps of imperialism, but stands firmly for true democracy. 

However, it is very wise of United States Government, that the present immi- 
gration law is in abeyance toward Chinese people, so she holds lots of most well- 
trained and intelligent Chinese scholars from the Communist regime. On the 
other hand, as a Christian, I am real sorry for those Chinese people who have 
no "isms" whatsoever, but they have to lose the service and effort of their sons 
and daughters, maybe forever, and with the whip of communism in return. 

It would be more than a pleasure, if I could be of any service to you. Best 
wishes. 

Sincerely yours, 

Mrs. H. H. Chiu Liu. 

The Chairman. Is Rev. Robert Ayers here ? 

STATEMENT OF REV. ROBERT H. AYERS, CHAPLAIN AND HEAD OF 
THE DEPARTMENT OF RELIGION AT THE UNIVERSITY OF 
GEORGIA 

Reverend Ayers. I am Rev. Robert H. Ayers, chaphiin and head of 
the department of religion at the University of Georgia, Athens, Ga. 

I have a prepared statement, which has been subscribed to by Rabbi 
Josepli Rudavsky ; Rev. Omar R. Fink, Jr. ; Rev. Brunson AVallace ; 
Rev. Dow Kirkpatrick; Father Walter J. Donovan: and Rev. J. Earl 
Gilbreath, all of Athens, I would like to read the statement. 

The Chairman. We will be pleased to hear it. 



COMMISSION OX IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1269 

(The statement read by Kev, Robert H. Ayei-s follows:) 

A Stathjmknt ox Immigration Policy for the Pre.sident's Commission on 
Immigr-vtion and Natukalization 

I aiu si^eakiiig on behalf of a group of seven ministers in Atliens, Ga. — five 
Protestants, one Catholic, and one Jewish. We wish to testify together as 
American citizens, as southerners, nnd as ministers. This country has been 
built by inuniijrants. It has a trudition of being open to these who seek refuge 
here, and we see no reason why this should change. 

As southerners and as citizens of the State of Georgia, we realize that in this 
region iniinigralion is no social and economic problem at all. The State of 
Georgia is not in the direct stream of immigration, and has in the past received 
but a very small proportion of the people that came to the United States. In 
1940 the percent foreign born in Georgia was only 0..'i9 as compared to a national 
average of 8.6. The displaced-person program brought just under 400,OrK) people 
to this country. Of these only 1,200 came to Georgia. Although Georgia has 
about 2.3 percent of the Nation's population, it received only three-tenths of 1 
percent of tlie displaced persons. Of these 1,200, some 700 moved on to the 
other States, and only about 500 remained in the State of Georgia. If this situa- 
tion is typical, then under an assumed actual immigration of, say, 200,000 a year, 
only about 200 a year would settle in Georgia. It would be absurd to claim 
that any social or economic problem can arise from the arrival of so small a 
group. 

The current University of Georgia study of the DP's in Georgia shows that 
these DP's that ultimately settled here have already made an excellent adjust- 
ment. Most of them are craftsmen, skilled and semiskilled workers, small- 
business men, and professionals. Tlieir children are hardly distinguishable 
from American children, even though they have been here only a few years. 
Experiences with foreign students at the University of Georgia point to the 
same conclusion. By the time these students finish, and are ready to return 
to their home land, they have, as a rule, become thoroughly adjusted to the 
American way of life. 

The study also shows that no frictions whatever developed between newcomers 
and native-born Georgians on account of nationality, language, or religion. 
Georgians traditionally accept people on their own merits, and this has been 
the case with these recent immigrants, too. Such difficulties as arose stemmed 
from the worker-employer relationship, and concerned working conditions and 
workers' performance only. 

The absorption of newcomers in this State is greatly aided Ity the fact 
that they seem to disperse well, and do not form national and language 
groups within the State. The economic adjustment of the DP's has also 
been remarkalde. Those who stayed have become self-suporting in a short 
time, and many of them have stated that the opportunities they found in 
Georgia exceeded anything that Europe had to offer them. What actually 
happened is that they came to a rapidly changing and progressing State that 
can right now use all the skills and personal capabilities it can obtain. In 
the past, much of the native southern talent has been drained off to other 
regions. As citizens of Georgia, we are convinced that this State is headed 
for great things, and that our abljity to grasp the opportunities before us 
will in part depend on our ability to keep our best people here, and to make 
others come and settle here, Americans and immigrants alike. 

In fact, we wonder whether our problem in Georgia is not one of too little, 
rather than too nnich. innnigration. Immigration is desirable. In the past, 
the waves of immigration have always been followed by a rise in the standard 
of living, and by greater national productivity. In this State, progress has 
depended on mobility between the regions of the State and mobility within 
the Nation. Let us not forget that the history of the State of Georgia begins 
with General Oglethorpe arriving with shiploads of immigrants, many of them 
DP's from Salzburg, Austria. 

At pre.'^ent, the tremendous increase of industry in the State tends to pull 
indei)endent craftsmen out of the communities where they have small busi- 
nesses of their own. They are attracted by the high wages offered by in- 
dustry. Skilled craftsmen from Europe can and should replace them. 



1270 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

These immigrants like to be iiuleiiendent. and will Imild up small businesses, 
thus becoming a valuable addition to smaller communities where thei-e is a 
need in the field of services. 

From a national point of view, the outstanding: fact to be considered, in 
our opinion, is that tliis country, with its allies, is facing an increasingly 
hostile block that includes some of the largest and fastest growing coun- 
tries in the world. Our population of 150 million is growing much more 
t;lowly than the 200 milliims in Russia, the over 400 millions in China, and 
many more millions in eastern Euroi>e who are now under Russian domina- 
tion. The day will surely come when we will need every man and woman 
who has been brought over and has been integrated with our own population. 
Our astounding economic, tec-hnological, and social advances should not make 
us forget that the root of everything is in the people. 

Moreover, Russia's advances in Europe have profoundly changed our own 
immigration picture. No longer can the masses of Eastern Europeans who have 
in the past sought to come to this country leave their homeland. The iron curtain 
has come down, one of the greatest sources of innuigrants has been cut off. 
This leaves us with immigration of Western Ei;ropeans. people closest to us ia 
origin, culture, and way of life, an immigration that will culturally enrich us in 
the future as it has enriched us in the past. In the future we are going to get 
the best-trained, the best-qualifled, the most easily absorbed immigrants we have 
had in a long time. To erect new barriers to immigration at this point does not 
make sense. Stalin started the process of restricting postwar immigration by 
cutting off all of Eastern Europe. The McCarran Act completes this process by 
letting down another iron curtain at our own border. 

Over and above all these considerati(ms, imiwrtant as they are, we must, how- 
ever, stress the fact that immigration is a human and religious problem. There 
is a divine imperative to give succor to the dispossessed. According to the report 
of the National DP Commission in the spring of 1952, there were still 340,000 
refugees living in mass camps in Germany. There are ls,(M)0 to 20.000 German 
refugees fleeing into Westei'n Germany every month. The problem of overpopu- 
lation, aggravated by large concentrations of refugees, exists in AVestern Ger- 
many, Greece, Italy, Trieste, and in the Netherlands. 

The Bible tells us that we should love our neighbors, and, in the parable of 
the Good Samaritan, it defines neighbor as anyone in trouble and need. These 
thousands of suffering and homeless people are our neighbors when we should 
help to build new lives and to find new homes. To ignore them, to refuse them 
the opportunities afforded by this great land of ours is to violate the will of <iod 
who created them as well as us. 

May I (piote to you a statement by an American theologian of a generation ago, 
Walter Rauschenl)usch. It is to be found in the June 4 issue of the periodical. 
The Christian Century. It concerns what happened to Pilate's washbowl. 

"On the eve of the day of the Crucifixion, the washbowl disappeared fr^»m the 
palace. Nobody knows who took it. Some accused Judas Iscariot of selling it ; 
but this is plainly a libel, because Judas was honest enough to go and hang him- 
self. At any rate, ever since that time the washbowl is abroad in the land, car- 
ried by infernal bands wherever it is needed, and men are constantly joining 
the invisible choir which performs its imperceptible abluti(Uis therein. The 
statesman who suppresses principles because the.v nright endanger the success of 
his party; the good citizen who will have nothing to do with politics; the editor 
who sees a righteous cause mispresented and sa.vs nothing because it might injure 
circulation ; the deacon who sees a clique undermining a pastor's position and 
dares not create a disturliance; the preacher who sees Dives exploiting Lazarus 
and dares not tell him to quit, because Dives contributes to his salary ; all those 
are using Pilate's washbowl. Listen ; Do you hear the .splash of water near to 
you? The Devil is pouring it." 

We do not have to strain our ears today to hear the dripping water of people 
washing their hands in Pilate's bowl. These who say let the P^uropeans solve 
their own problem, let them take care of the DP's. ;ire washing in it. The Mc- 
Carran act is America's way of using Pilate's washbowl. We must not let it 
stand, but must assiuiie our responsibility to love our neighbors as ourselves. 

Mr. RosEXFiELD. Reverend Ayers, your statement seems to indi- 
cate that ri<2:ht now Georgia can use all the skills and personal capa- 
bilities it can obtain. Would you care to enlighten the Commission as 
to that situation a little further? Is there a shortage of people in the 
State of Georgia to perform the necessary labor in the State? 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1271 

Reverend Ayers. I ciin speak from my own personal experience; 
for example, if you have tried to <>et a broken-down furnace fixed, that 
needs repair, and have wailed several weeks to secure someone to fix it, 
and the same thing with plumbing and other household appliances 
that go wrong and you need some help for it and you must wait for 
weeks to get a craftsman to come in and do the job, the natural assump- 
tion is that there is a shortage. 

The large plants that have come in, the plant at Marietta, these 
industries have drained off from our medium-sized communities and 
our small communities persons who would normally stay there and 
conduct their own businesses. 

Mr. RosEXFiELi). Then would you say that the people of Georgia 
are finding it diflicult to obtain, from what you say, essential workers 
for their industrial and agi'icultural activities? 

Reverend Ayers. That is my impression. 

Commissioner Pickett. I notice in your prepared statement that 
you refer to a study that was made by the University of Georgia. I 
wonder if it gives any statistical data on that question, shortage of 
labor or surplus of labor, whichever it may be, and what can be done 
about that? 

Reverend Ayers. Dr. Sebba is here, and he conducted that study. 
Could 3^ou answer that question ? 

Dr. Sebba. Yes. 

STATEMENT OF GREGUR SEBBA. PROFESSOR, UNIVERSITY OF 

GEORGIA 

Dr. Sebba. I am Dr. Gregur Sebba, a professor at the University 
of Georgia. We are conducting the study for the Displaced Persons 
Connnission in the State. It is authorized by the Governor, and our 
only purpose is to find out how the displaced persons' problem has 
been handled in the State and how the displaced persons have adjusted 
themselves to it. 

In the course of our study we have of course taken cognizance of the 
fact that there are shortages in — there is not a general shortage of 
labor in (ieorgia, but there are shortages in specific fields. One of the 
most important ones is of course the need for farm labor, which by the 
way has not been filled by the disj^laced persons, and another one which 
is ({uite evident is the shortage of people in these small businesses that 
are independent businesses, and a great many DP's have moved into 
that kind of business, but we do not have the statistics. They would 
have to come from the State Department of Labor. 

Mr. RosENFiELD. Ill these small businesses, could you identify some 
of them for the Commission, where are the shoitages that you feel 
]ieed to be filled ? 

Dr. Sebba. Well. I can only say perhaps by the businesses the DP's 
have started. There are such things as watch rei)air, especially where 
there are shortages; ])eople who uudve watches are in industry. They 
shift rapidly. Oui- experience has never been that there is a watch- 
maker there longei- than about '2 years. There is a DP who has been 
there -Ji/' yeai's, on 1 1 acres of land and a two-room house; there is no 
intention to leave, he feels at home and intends to stay. There are 
IH'ople who have become locksmiths, cabinet makei's and so on. In the 
iirliiiii areas, some ol' tlic-c [x-oplc are also being drawn into industry; 



1272 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATrRALIZATION 

but in the small communities they typically stay where they are and 
form their own businesses and become a member of the community. 

JSIr. BosENFiELD. Is that study completed ? 

Dr. Sebba. No, sir ; it will be completed this December and will be 
submitted to the Govei'nor. 

Mr. liosENFiELD. If it is a public report, would you be good enough 
to supply copies of that report to the Commission i 

Dr. Sebba. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Thank you. 

Is Miss Calhoun here? 

STATEMENT OF EMILY CALHOUN, EEOORDING CLERK OF THE 
RELIGIOUS SOCIETY OF FRIENDS, ATLANTA 

Miss Calhoun. I am Emily Calhoun, recording clerk of the Reli- 
gious Society of Friends, 1798 Monroe Drive NE., Atlanta. 

The Society of Friends has not taken any ofhcial stand on this Mc- 
Carran Act, but I would like to ask that we be permitted to file a state- 
ment at a later date, just as soon as we can have a meeting and take a 
stand on it. That was all. 

The Chairman. That permission will be granted. Could you give 
us some idea as to when the statement could be filed ? 

Miss Calhoun. We will meet Sunday night and should be able to 
get the statement drawn up within the next week. 

The Chairman. P^ine. You will send it to Washington ? 

Miss Calhoun. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Thank you. 

(The submitted statement follows:) 

Statement of Atlanta Monthly Meeting, Religious Society of Friends 

This memoraudum is prepared by a committee appointed by the Athinta 
monthly meeting of the Religious Society of Friends to express the feelings of 
the meeting regarding the immigration and naturalization policies of hte United 
States. 

The Religious Society of Friends has, from its very beginning, placed major 
emphasis upon the interdependence of individuals and peoples, their equality 
in the sight of God, the responsibility of the strong toward the weak. The recent 
McCarran Act passed by Congress cuts directly across much that we hold sacred. 
We condemn it on ethical grounds and as a matter of mere expediency. We feel 
that this law will have a nsost detrimental effect on world-wide opinion of our 
country's policies. The law seems to have been designed to keep immigration 
at a minimum and to peri^etuate to a large extent a racial discrimination which 
is at direct variance with our basic democratic belief that all men are created 
equal. 

We shall discuss the act under four main headings : 

1. Racial (liscrimination 

The vast majority of the world's people are those whom we call colored. For 
the most part we enjoy their good will today. But our strength tomorrow de- 
pends on our behavior today, and good will is much harder to reclaim than it is to 
retain. Let us therefore eliminate discrimination against there peoples from 
our immigration policies. 

To this end, v,e feel, that lO.jO census figures, including those for American 
Negroes, should be used in calculating quotas and that quotas should be set im- 
partially, on the same basis for all nationalities and races. 

Furthermore, the provision of the McCarran act whereby nationals of any 
country, if they can trace as much as half of their ancestry back to the Asia- 
Pacific area, can be admitted only under the quotas of that area should be 
removed from the law. The same should be done with the provision setting 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1273 

individual limits for each of the British colonies in the Caribbean area, and 
for all other such devices for periietuating race discrimination. 

2. Standards for ad)nission and deportation 

Firstly, we do not believe the I'resident should have unlimited power to 
reduce or stop imniijjration at his discretion at any time. 

Secondly, we find the subjectivity of standards, the too great dependence on 
the opinion of individual immigration officials highly undesirable. The grounds 
for exclusion and deportation should be based to as great an extent as possible 
on factual evidence. 

In the matter of selecting individuals for adnussion to this country we feel 
that, given reasonable health of mind and body, the character of the applicant 
is the most important consideration. We therefore very strongly urge that 
selection be done by men and women liighly trained and discerning, and not 
left to consuls who are usually not eciuipped for this task. So important is this 
task of selection that money should be appropriated so that the work caa be 
wisely done before embarkation. 

Finally, we believe that to assure a more standard policy a board or boards 
of appeals sbould be set up which would have final authority in cases of ad- 
mission and deportation where there is now no appeal beyond the oonsular 
level. 

3. Quotas 

The millions of displaced persons have put a temporary strain on the kind- 
ness of free nations. We have been carrying no more than our share of the 
burden, and this is no time to restrict our generous-mindedness. A cancellation 
of the mortgages x-aised against future quotas to admit these persons and the 
admission of a few thousands more, over and above our annual quotas, would not 
strain our ability to absorb and would do much for our self-respect. 

W'e recognize the desire to control the amount of competition offered by 
imniigrant workers to our own citizens but believe that many more skilled and 
semiskilled immigrants could profitably be employed in this country, .particularly 
in the South. Testimony at the public hearing in Atlanta Octol)er 17 pointed 
out the successful integration of recent immigrants to this area and the need 
for more such immigrants as the South becomes more industrialized. 

Jf. Deportation 

The retroactive nature of the laws governing deportation seems to us to be 
in the nature of an ex post facto law, and therefore a violation of the spirit, if 
not the letter, of our Constitution. 

Deportation itself is of doubtful worth. For the noncitizen offender, if the 
offense wan-ants, it may be .lustified, but to deport one who has long resided 
among us and has become a citizen cannot be defended on any grounds. It is 
simply the admission of our inability to control through our own laws. There 
should be no different classes of citizenship. All citizens, regardless of origin, 
should be subject to the same law, and if our laws and courts are unequal 
to the ends of justice, it is they that should be strengthened and not the citizen 
deported. 

In conclusion, we urge that a permanent congressional committee be estab- 
lished to make periodic study of our immigration and naturalization policies 
and the administration of them. 

Respectfully sumnjitted. 

Emily Calhoun, Chairman. 
John W. Stanley, 
Fkances Brown. 

Is Father jMcDonoiigh here ? 

STATEMENT OF REV. JOHN J. McDONOUGH, ASSISTANT PASTOR OF 
THE CATHEDRAL OF CHRIST THE KING 

Reveieiid ^McDuxoicJii. 1 am the Reverend John J. McDonough, 
assistant pastor of t]ie Cathedral of Christ the King, 2G99 Peach Tree 
Road NE., Athmta, (ia. 

I am here sim])ly as the son of immigrant parents, since I am a first 
generation American borti. 



1274 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

I am not speaking as a representative of the Catholic Church. I 
don't know if the churcli has made any official pronouncements on the 
McCarran-Walter Nationality Act. 

However, as a citizen of the United States of America, and as I am 
affected by all the laws and enactments of our Congress, I feel that I 
have some interest in this particular bill. I am here this morning 
because I feel very sincerely and very deeply that the United States of 
America is at the crossroads of its permanent niche in history. 

As you all know, as well as I do, America is not a very old country, 
quite the opposite is true. You all know as well as I do that America 
is not a Nation of one pure racial strain. Just the very opposite is 
true. We are a Nation of many races, of many peoples, of great diver- 
sities. It is ni}' honest opinion that the people of the United States of 
America are a great and a strong Nation because we have presented to 
the world at large an ideal of dignity, an ideal of freedom and liberty. 
I feel that here in the United States of America the dignity of men has 
been able to bloom and flower better than any other place in the entire 
world. It is my opinion that we have a great Nation because we have 
accepted the culture of the past. Having accepted the culture of the 
past we have become the tremendous Nation that we are at the present 
time. 

However, I feel that there is some doubt within my mind, some 
honest doubt, as to our position in the future. I feel this doubt about 
our security and about our security in the future precisely because of 
this Immigration and Nationality Act. It seems to me that it presents 
to us a rather narrow and selfish and impractical point of view. It 
seems that we have deviated from the lofty ideals that the Declaration 
of Independence has given to us. There are in this Act several features 
that seem to me to be contrary to the ideals of the United States of 
America and the people of the United States of America. 

We have, as you all know, the Statue of Liberty which fronts the 
grand harbor of New York. Part of the inscription on that is : "Give 
to me your tired, your ])oor, your huddled masses, yearning to breathe 
free." That Statue of Liberty is a symbol for all peoples throughout 
the entire world who have been pressed by the slavery of totalitarian- 
ism. Therefore, it seems to me to be a sort of mockery when we are 
proclaiming that we are above all things par excellence, a Nation that 
loves freedom, a Nation that will do anything to keep people free. A 
Nation that will do anything to help people find its freedom when in 
this particular act we more or less give the lie to the feelings we have. 

There are several features in this particular bill which seem to me 
I cannot agree with. The first is the limitation on the number of immi- 
grants that we are going to take into our country. Needless to say that 
we cannot accept completely and entirely without any limitation the 
lunnber of people who might want to come into our land, but I do feel 
that since statistics seem to prove that we have not been using our 
quotas in the past and that there seems to be a need for more people liv- 
ing and working in our country, if we are going to fulfill our destiny 
Ave need new life and new blood in our country. 

Communism I don't think would be too much of a threat to us if 
it were limited to Russia; but communism is not limited to Russia. 
It has received new blood and new ideas and new inspiration from 
the various peoples throughout the entire world. It has gone out 
and has reached these people. I think that we in our country need 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1275 

to take in ]}eoplo of the other world, the other races and nations, so 
that they can continue to give lis the strength and tlie inspiration that 
they have given ns in the past. 1 also feel that it is more or less of 
an insidt to the American people who believe in freedom to, shall we 
say, more or less make a category as to the type of races that we can 
take into our country. This l)ill, 1 think, limits the type of persons 
that are acceptable to ns. We will accept certain people because they 
seem to be more inclined to our way of thinking, because they seem 
to be a superior tyi)e of person, because they are completely wrong 
and completely a denial of any law of God. We know, of course, 
that all men are created by Almighty God equal; we know that all 
men ])ractically are not equal but all men can be made equal if they 
are given the opportunity to express themselves and to develop them- 
selves. Certainly the discrimination of the national origins is some- 
thing that is olfensive to me as an individual. 

Likewise, I would say that the tone of the entire McCarran bill 
seems to indicate that America, the United States of America, is a 
siq^erior moral person, that we have more or less drawn ourselves up 
to our full heiglit and we are the ones who are determining wdiether 
or not other peoples of other nations are equal to us. 

At the present time, we might say that we are the moral leaders 
of the world ; but the freedom bug has sprung and has disseminated 
into practically every part of the northern world at the present time. 
Today, nations that never before were thinking of freedom and human 
dignity are thinking of it. They are looking to us, the people of 
the United States of America, to give them an example of what we 
mean by freedom, to show them that when we talk about freedom 
we are not onlv talking about freedom but rather that we are believing 
it. "^ 

I think it is common knowledge that during the past 2 or 3 years 
there has been a good bit of difficulty in attaining the quota that is 
necessary for the draft. We know that w^e are faced with the im- 
minent fight with communism ; whether that devolves into an all-out 
war is not known. We pray and hope that it will not be, but we do 
know that in our country we do have a large number of young men 
who are not capable of taking up arms in defense of ourselves. If 
our Nation is going to remain strong, if our Nation is going to be 
able to present to the forces of Russia a strong and vital force that 
will eventually win them into the fold of Christianity, we must present 
to them a Nation that is strong and can defeat them. 

Therefore, it is my personal opinion that this McCarran-Walter 
Act is offensive to me as a citizen of the United States of America. 
It is my hope that in the new Congress this bill will be amended so 
we will take in more of the people of Europe from whom we have 
• drawn so much in the past, and also Asia and from whom we can 
gain so much in the future. 

The CuAiRivrAx. In view of your criticism of the act, what w^ould 
you substitute in place of the present quota system? 

Reverend McDonougii. You mean, to what extent are we going to 
raise the quota? 

The CiiAiKMAX. I am assuming for the pur])ose of the question 
that the over-all limitation remains the same; under what method 
would you assign the quotas if you are opposed to the present system? 

2535fi — 52— SI 



1276 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

Reverend McDonough. I think it would depend to a laroje extent 
upon the need that we have from the individual nations. However, 
I do think that it would be wrong, shall we say, to take 10,000 people 
from Ireland and to limit it to, shall we say, 1,000 people from Indo- 
china. There are certain problems that would arise, I should imagine, 
in the amalgamation of those people into our own country; it would 
be much easier for the Irish to be amalgamated into the United States 
of America at the present time than it would be for people coming 
from Indochina, because of the few people that we have that are from 
there at the present time. 

Therefore, it would certainly not be feasible to take in 10,000 people 
from Indochina when they were going to create a rather serious prob- 
lem in our own countr3^ In other words, it would depend upon how 
we would be able to handle the people that were coming in. Such a 
thing would have to be determined, of course, according to the cir- 
cumstances of the type of person who is coming into our country and 
the means that we have for taking care of them. 

However, the fact that we have no means at the present time to 
take care of, shall we say, any of the Asiatics that might be coming 
into our country, should not at the same time lead us to write a bill 
that would be discriminatory against them. It is up to us to make 
sure that there are certain means available to them when they come 
in so they will not be the object of fear and oppression. 

The Chairman. Of course, I am assuming all the time that the 
Congress and none of us want to take in anybody or admit anybody 
unless it is decided in advance that those admissions are for the best 
interests of the United States. 

Reverend McDonough. That is right. Not only that, but also for 
the best interests of the world at large. 

If the unused quotas could be used, then I can see no reason why 
you just simply can't reassign different quotas from the other nations. 

The Chairman. But how are you going to reassign them ? How are 
you going to distribute the unused quotas? 

Reverend McDonough. Well, I cannot say what the problem 
would be. 

The Chairman. Well, all risht. Thank you, sir. 

Reverend Ayers. I would like to suggest the Humphrey-Lehman 
bill. It seems to me to have a fairly good answer, to pool unused 
quotas on a preferential basis to relatives of United States residents 
and to immigrants whose services are greatly needed, or to persons 
who are persecuted because of race, religion, or what not. 

The Chairman. Well, we know what is in the Humphrey-Lehmau 
bill, of course, and we are trying to find out what the people's views 
are around the country. 

Reverend Ayers. That is my answer to it. Also using the 10.50 
census instead of the 1920 census. 

The Chairman. Thank you. 

Is Father Donovan here? 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1277 

STATEMENT OF REV. WALTER J. DONOVAN, DIRECTOR OF" 
RESETTLEMENT, CATHOLIC DIOCESE OF SAVANNAH-ATLANTA 

Reverend Donovan. I am Rev. Walter J. Donovan, director of re- 
settlement, Diocese of Savannah- Atlanta, 134 Price Avenue, xYtheuK,. 
Ga. I have a prepared statement I ^^ ould like to read. 

The CiiAiKMAN. We will be glad to hear it. 

Reverend Donovan. For the past 4 years I have served as the di- 
rector of resettlement of displaced persons in the Diocese of Savannah- 
Atlanta. From this experience I have reached the following conclu- 
sions concerning immigration to the United States. 

1. Immigration is necessary for the continued economic develop- 
ment of our country and particularly for the development of this. 
region. It is my conviction that one of the greatest obstacles to prog- 
ress in our section of the country is the shortage of manpower which 
prevents the full use of the resources Avith which God has blessed us. 

2. We must take the immigrants that are available. Tlie McCar- 
ran-Walter Act is rigged to provide for the entrance of immigrants 
from northern and western Europe at the expense of prospective immi- 
grants from eastern and southern Europe. This policy is, of course^ 
unfair, un-American, and un-Christian. It is also unrealistic. The 
immigration experience of the past two decades establishes the fact 
that the northern and western European countries are no longer able 
to send immigi-ants to our country in large enough numbers to meet 
our needs. Therefore, we should make provision to see that a welcome 
is given to immigrants from those countries which have a surplus 
population. 

3. In the course of directing the Catholic DP program in Georgia, 
1 helped to resettle immigrants in Georgia from Ukrania, Lithuania,. 
Poland, Germany, Hungary, and Italy. Without exception, I found 
them adaptable to life in America. The men were talented and in- 
dustrious — the women were home-loving and frugal — the children 
were intelligent and zealous students. All of them are now, and were 
in a matter of days after their arrival, real assets to our country. To- 
impede the flow of such people into this land of plenty would be a 
shameful act of selfishness which would eventually result in stulti- 
fying our own progress. 

4. I realize that there are millions of peo])le in Euroi)e who need a. 
haven where they can enjoy the freedom to provide for themselves. 
And I think that we need these people. To be able to live hoi-e would 
l)e a boon for them, but we must also remember that having them here 
would also be a blessing for us. 

It is my earnest hope, therefore, that the immigration policy of our- 
Government will be altered so that as many people as possible will be 
able to enjoy the freedom and prosperity that is ours in the United 
States. 

Commissioner PicKf:i'r. Which would you think was more impor- 
tant if you had to choose between them, a revision of the ])resent legis- 
lation or special legislation as was i)rovided in the Displaced Persons; 
Act? 



1278 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

Reverend Donovan. I think tliat both are necessary. First of 
all, a revision of the legislation becanse I think that the countries 
from which we have been getting our immigration in the past are no 
longer m a position to supply it; and therefore we might as well 
recognize the facts as they are and begin to take people from those 
regions of the world that can supply the people. 

I know that right at this particular moment there is exceptional 
this manpower and they are a group of people in whom naturally we 
could have special legislation to help relieve that particular interna- 
tional problem. 

I think too, in cooperation with many of the other governments of 
the world, particularly in our own hemisphere, that we could work 
'Out a cooperative effort to resettle the crowded peoples of the world. 
The Chairman. In your statement you are assuming that, or you 
'believe that, because of your own experience that there is room for 
ijldditional numbers of immigrants here, and that the country needs 
them. The question has been asked as to whether in coming to con- 
clusions of that kind you take into account the fact that we have a 
number of boys in the military services, the Army, Navy, the Marines, 
and other branches of the armed services, if you take into account the 
fact that before long we hope they will be home again and they will 
need places too ? 

Reverend Donovan. But I think that there is plenty of places for 
everybody, as a matter of fact, and while I too would hope the boys 
would be home next week, realistically, even though the boys who are 
now overseas might be home, I don't think anybody can doubt the 
fact that for some time to come we are going to have a good many boys 
in the armed services. I hope that we won't have to have them in 
foreign countries, but at least we are going to have to maintain our 
own military strength and we are going to have to maintain enough 
military strength. 

The Chairman. But are you allowing for the fact that we do have 
this manpower and they are a group of people in whom naturally we 
would be more interested first, before any other people that are not 
citizens of this country? 

Rsverend Donovan. But I think the addition of immigrant people 
in this country would assist those boys who are to come back, because 
immigrants provide not only producers but consumers too; and at 
least most of the immigrants I have seen had more producers than 
consumers. They have had fathers, mothers, and three, four, or five 
children. While the father is adding to the production system in 
the country, the mother and the children are adding to the consuming 
part. So I think they could help to provide an expansion of our econ- 
omy that would make things better for the boys who return from the 
service. 

The Chairman. Thank you. 
Is Mrs. Sterije here ? 

STATEMENT OF MES. I. F. STERNE, PRESIDENT, ATLANTA 
FEDERATION FOR JEWISH SOCIAL SERVICE 

Mrs. Sterne. I am Mrs. I. F. Sterne, president of the Atlanta Fed- 
eration for Jewish Social Service, 1086 Briarcliff Road, Atlanta. 

I have a prepared statement I would like to read in behalf of our 
organization. 






COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1279 

The Chairman. "We shall be pleased to hear it. 

Mrs. Sterne. The whole problem of immigration, helping new- 
comers to become good American citizens is not new to the Federation 
for Jewish Social Service, As early as 1890, the work of the Monte- 
fiore Relief Association, in cooperation with the then Federation of 
Jewish Charities, dealt with immigrants and their problems of adjust- 
ment. 

The majority of those immigrants came from Eastern European 
countries. They have all been integrated into the civic and cultural 
life of our community. Numbered among them are outstanding civic 
leaders in service clubs, community chest, philanthropies, and business. 

Thej' have established businesses, both large and small, giving em- 
ployment to countless numbers of native Americans. 

In more recent years there was the immigration of refugees who 
came in during 1938—41. These people came with social and cultural 
backgrounds of Western Europe — mainly Germany and Austria. 
They arrived stripped of most of their earthly possessions — but with 
the urge to start a new life. 

They, too, made excellent adjustments. Their first aim was to be- 
come American citizens — and they spread into all types of occupa- 
tions — among them were scientists, a doctor, and businessmen. 

They became substantial citizens, they own their homes, and see 
that their children are well educated. 

They are vitally interested in the democratic processes. All have 
become citizens and exercise their privilege of the franchise at the 
polls. 

To cite one instance, Mrs. A received training as a registered nurse 
and at great personal sacrifice worked at the hospital all through the 
war years because she felt it was her obligation to continue to serve 
due to the great shortage of nurses. 

All of their boys served in the armed services and went overseas. 
Many of them were extremely valuable, because of their knowledge 
of languages and made outstanding contributions toward the war 
effort in the intelligence department — and many remained for several 
years in the Army of Occupation in West Germany. 

Along about the same time that this group came to Atlanta, a group 
of young men were brought to Georgia — to study farming and agricul- 
tural pursuits. These were brought in cooperation with the National 
Youth Administration and were placed in various schools — many in 
the University of Georgia Agricultural College. A number of them 
have made agriculture their life work and from our latest reports 
some are operating modern farms in New Jersey and. Connecticut. 
All were in the armed services. 

A great many of these new Americans were regular contributors 
to the Red Cross blood bank, etc. They deemed it a privilege. Prac- 
tically all have remained in Atlanta, and are a real part of the com- 
munity and are helping magnificently in the work with the latest 
newcomers. 
^ The most recent immigration, the displaced persons wdio have come 
since 1945, is the most unusual — unusual because of the remarkable 
adjustment they have made despite the terrific handicaps. When 
we stop to consider their terrifying experiences, their lives in con- 
centration camps, seeing their entire families exterminated before 
their eyes, children torn from their mothers' arms, unspeakable hor- 



1280 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

rors, it is only their toughness that enabled them to survive. Yet, 
they carry within them the effect of these experiences. These people, 
too, are learning fast and are becoming part of our community. 

Two hundred and eighty-eight of them have come into this com- 
munity. They have received the assistance and guidance of the local 
federation, which is the voluntary social-service agency working with 
them. Volunteers from the local section of the Council of Jewish 
Women have, in close cooperation with the staff of the Federation 
for Jewish Social Service, assisted in the organization of English 
classes, home economics, and in shopping tours, teaching the DP's our 
American ways of life. 

There has been some retraining along related lines in the field of 
the man's original work. Mr. B, who was a barber by trade but 
because of an arm wound was not able to continue this work, was 
trained in American methods of beauty-parlor operation. He worked 
successfully in several established beauty parlors and now has his own 
shop, giving employment to a number of native-born. 

Those who came to the United States under the Federal DP pro- 
gram have not had the educational and cultural advantages of their 
predecessors. But they do have manual skills. But, no matter what 
the background or how terrible their experiences, they have shielded 
their children and kept them free from the imprint of these hardships. 

Their children are in our public schools doing outstanding work. 
In fact, the week after Junior arrives you will find him outdoors 
playing tag and other American games with the neighborhood children. 

A small and very interesting group of refugees came to us from 
the Greek-Italian area. At first they posed a problem because of 
the language difficulties — but it was not long before a group of At- 
lantans who could speak their language came to our assistance. They 
served as interpreters and took the newcomers into their own groups. 
They are now learning English well, have become adjusted and have 
jobs. 

I want to stress the fact that in all of the job placement no new- 
comer supplanted a native citizen. In making out our assurances 
we chose the job classifications in which we knew there were local 
needs for additional workers, and the 146 individuals who are the 
breadwinners are spread in the following occupations : 

Retail sales and services (proprietors) 24 

Food stores 19 

Used clothing 2 

Locksmith 1 

Beauty salon 1 

Gift store 1 

Jobber (importer) 1 

Garment-trade workers 25 

Seamstresses 11 

Tailorsi 5 

Machine operators 3 

Fnrriers 2 

Semiskilled 4 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1281 

rsuildiiiir-trades workers 10 

Tainters 4 

Carpenters 3 

Electricians 2 

Hricklayers 1 

Food indnstry workers 13 

Clerks and countermen 11 

Cooks 2 

Service trades 6 

Barbers and hairdressers 4 

Shoe workers 2 

Clerical and sales 21 

Department-store clerks 10 

Office clerks 7 

Salesman 4 

Professional, semiprofessional, and technical 17 

I'hysician 1 

College professor 1 

Relig-ious functionary 1 

Laboratory technicians 2 

Chemists 2 

Practical nurses 3 

Printers 5 

Sign painters 2 

Semiskilled (furniture workers) 4 

Machinists and mechanics 8 

Laborers 4 

Miscellaneous 3 

Students and unemployed 10 

Total 146 

The employers show satisfaction with their new workers. One em- 
ployer reports that the six men who work in his factory are all good 
workers doing splendid jobs, and would serve as good patterns for his 
employees to follow. 

Good office help is difficult to obtain right now. We placed several 
women in this field, and our reports on them are all excellent. 

Though most of the group have not had much in the way of educa- 
tional advantages, there are a few exceptions, such as two who are 
profes.sors, one is in the Georgia University system. Mr. X has pub- 
lished scientific monographs in the field of his specialty. Mr. Y is a 
research assistant in the department of bacteriology in one of our 
colleges and making outstanding contributions in his special field. 

About the same time as these DP's were coming in, we received a 
group of orphaned teen-agers who came through the assistance of the 
European Children's Aid, Inc., and were placed under the supervision 
and care of the Jewish Children's Service in Atlanta. There were 
27 girls and boys. All completed their education, most went through 
high school and a few to college. All who were physically fit have 



1282 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

been or are in the service of the Armed Forces. They have made 
excellent adjustments. All are self -supporting, except one yonng man 
who is still a student in college. 

On the whole, I would state that most of our newcomers are happy 
and have a high morale. However, it is only fair to say that the 
McCarran-Walter Act has had some effect npon them. Those who 
understand it have a feeling of anxiety because of it ; they do not feel 
as secure in their new life as they felt prior to its enactment. 

In all of our experiences, going back to the earliest records of our 
refugees and carrying through with the present DP's, we have found 
not one situation where the individual'.s loyalty to the United States 
could be questioned. They are all devoted to the democratic prin- 
ciples. To them United States citizenship is prized much more highly 
than by the native American. They know what it means to be de- 
prived of this privilege, and they guard their new-found freedom 
zealously. 

I have gone into all of this detail to give you Atlanta's experience, 
separated as it is into three groups in order to show you why we arrive 
at the following conclusion. These groups came from distinctly dif- 
ferent parts of the world. 

All of them have adjusted well. Therefore, we feel that it is not 
the country of origin that counts but the individual himself, plus 
the opportunities given him by his iVmerican environment, plus the 
needs of the community. 

We feel that any immigration law based upon quotas from countries 
of origin is not sound. It should reflect the needs and opportunities 
available in our American communities and be in keeping with our 
American traditions. 

Our naturalized Americans and the aliens legally in our midst 
should not be regarded with suspicion and in some place with con- 
tempt. They are Americans all and help make our country gi-eat 
and glorious as a Nation. Those of us who work with immigrants 
and know intimately their lives sympathize with their aspirations 
and ideals and ambitions for themselves and their children to be 
accepted and integrated into our American ways of life. Our con- 
viction is that our immigration and naturalization laws should help 
speed this process. To the immigrant America is still the great dream 
and hope of the world. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Mrs. Sterne. 

Reverend Sisson, please. 

STATEMENT OF REV. REMBERT SISSON, DISTRICT SUPERINTEND- 
ENT OF THE METHODIST CHURCH OF THE ATLANTA DISTRICT 

Reverend Sisson. I am Rev. Rembert Sisson, district superintend- 
ent of the Methodist Church of the Atlanta district, 1630 North Deca- 
tur Road, Atlanta. 

I have no prepared statement. I will be glad to try to answer 
any questions that anybody might like to ask. 

The Chairman. Would you like to make an oral statement? 

Reverend Sissox. Well, I have these convictions or feelings about 
the present situation : that there should not be any substantial changes 
in our present immigration laws, due to the present conditions in our 
world. The world is so unsettled, actually in war, and I think per- 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRA HON AND NATURALIZATION 1283 

haps it would be miicli better to wait until we can have a more stable 
situation in our own country and in our world before we make any 
substantial changes in our immigration laws. There is a struggle 
on in our Avorld between our way of life and communism ; and until 
we are able to win this fight, determine exactly who is on our side 
and why, I think we had better keep the people we have and admit 
very few others. 

Commissioner Pickett. One of the questions we are concerned with 
is the effect on our foreign policies of our immigration policy and 
practice. Do you have any ouservations on that? Does it affect our 
relations with other countries? 

Reverend Sisson. Well, I don't know what the attitudes of other 
countries would be toward losing their populations. I think most 
countries would like to keep their populations, and perhaps they might 
appreciate some restriction in such countries as ours as to who should 
be admitted, and the innnbers that should be admitted. 

However, the individual persons in those foreign countries, most of 
them, would like to become American citizens, I think, as quickly as 
possible. I was in Europe a couple of years ago, and most of the 
young people there that I met had one question to ask : "How can I 
become an American citizen ; how can I get to America and become an 
American citizen?" And I know they want to come, but the govern- 
ments of those countries might take a different attitude. The indi- 
vidual persons find out likely restrictions, but I think the Government 
has taken an over-all and a longer view than the individual, perhaps ; 
1 don't think it would hurt our foreign policy to have these restrictions. 

The Chairman. Then do I understand that you favor that the law 
be retained as it is ? 

Reverend Sisson. I think the present quota system is fair. Per- 
haps it should be adjusted at points, at least enough to take care of 
situations like where an American soldier might marry some girl 
overseas, and want to bring his wife or his family home at the end of 
his service, but I think — ^I haven't heard of our present quota system 
creating any ill will. 

The Chairman. Do you think that the quota system should continue 
to be based on the 1920 census of our population, or do you think it 
should be revised on the basis of a later census ? 

Reverend Sisson. Well, well, I would be willing for that to happen ; 
but sooner or later, I think w'e are going to have to decide wdiat sort of 
a nation we are going to be. And whether we are going to be half 
Asiatics, or whether we are going to be half southern European, or 
predominantly northern European — I think we are going to have to 
make those choices, and I think it ought to be made on the basis of 
the present predominant group in American society. 

The Chairman. Would you take the 1950 census, say, instead of 
1920 census figure? 

Reverend Sisson. I am not familiar with the difference in those two 
census views. 

Mr. RosENFiELD. Dr. Sisson, one of the problems that has been 
presented to the Commission particularly by members of the various 
Protestant clergy is the need for doing something to help the persons of 
German ethnic origin in Germany and Austria because or the dif- 
ficulty they have been confronted with in their fight against com- 



1284 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

munism ; do yon have any views on that, that you would like to express 
to the Commission^ 

Reverend Sisson. No, I'm not familiar enouojh with that situation 
to have an intelligent statement about it. May I ask a question: 
what is the difference now, what is the point here — the difference be- 
tween the 1920 census and the 1952 census, what is the important dif- 
ference there? 

The Chairman. Well the different nationalities who might be af- 
fected by the quota had an entirely different percentage of population 
in 1950 than they had in 1920. 

Commissioner Finucane. Have you any personal observation or 
opinion to express on the question sometimes raised as to whether 
immigrants from northern Europe integrate more readily into this 
country than those from southern Europe? 

Reverend Sisson. No; no definite comment. I think that perhaps 
southern Europeans are not as easily integrated as northern Europeans. 
We seem to have more in common, certainly, in our section of the coun- 
try, with northern Europeans than we do with southern Europeans. 
In our section of the country we are predominantly Protestant ; they 
are predominantly Roman Catholic, and their ideas about democracy, 
and so forth, are in many cases different from ours; and I think the 
northern European adapts himself more readily than the southern 
European, ordinarily. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Dr. Sisson. 

Is Mr. Weisiger here ? 

STATEMENT OF KENDALL WEISIGEH 

Mr. Weisiger. I am Kendall Weisiger, 206 Seventeenth Street, 
NE., Atlanta. 

Mr. Chairman, when I thought of 154,000 new persons to come 
into this country in 1 year, I sort of couldn't help from laughing, 
because I tried to think of a city in Georgia that had 154,000 people. 
I multiplied your 154,000 by 100 years and you would get 15,100,000 
people. I understand it has been estimated by reliable persons that 
our terrain in the United States could accommodate a population of 
at least 350,000,000 people, and as you ride about Georgia, as I do 
a great deal, and see the idle fields and the forests and you could 
think of how many good people could live on this land and make it 
a better land, it sort of makes your heart sick. 

I haven't thought much about this question of immigration per se, 
except when my independent indignation arises as I read in the paper 
or when I talk to my sister in Richmond, who belongs to a national 
patriotic organization, and I ask her, "Well, what have you all got 
to do with immigration anyhow; what do you know about it; what 
is your feeling for it ? " I am a telephone man, but I have tried to 
be and have become, I think, in part, a human, because I classified 
the soldiers in the Army, I have interviewed over 40,000 men, I have 
brought to the campuses of Georgia in the past 6 years, 166 students 
from 41 countries and I have come to look on men as men, whether 
they are from Africa or Japan or Germany or Austria or Iceland. 
I think we are living in a very rapidly evolving time. When you 
think of the past 30 years only, such a short span, half of a span of 
a man's life, when you think of the great depression around the world. 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1285 

and what it did to our economy and our people, when you think of 
the fine men tliat were lost in the First and Second World Wars, 
are now being lost in Korea, when you think of the history of Eng- 
land and you read a book called the First One Hundred Thousand, 
where the' tlower of the English youth went overboard, so to speak, 
on the parapets of Normandy in no time at all. "V^^ien you think of 
the trouble that our old mother country — mother to many of us in 
this room — has had since that day, it gives you cause to wonder. 
"VAHien you think of the i-esults of these two wars, plus the one now, 
and think about America and about our culture and its rapid rate of 
deterioration, you begin to think a little differently about things 
like that. 

It makes me sad to think of the limitations we put on human 
beings, and if I leave one thought with you I would like to leave 
this one : Assuming that a man is a man for all that, and intelligence 
as the U. N. Nations Committee has shown us so clearly and I have 
come in my personal observation to know, that there isn't any copy- 
right on intelligence, it goes around the world. My black man from 
Africa is just as intelligent as any white man in this room, so that 
boundaries and climate do not change intelligence. 

When I think of the quotas — every time I have ever thought of 
them I have felt sad about it, because it seems to be a completely 
arbitrary and inhuman thing, if you please. When you think of 
our needs for new blood, and America is America because of a diver- 
sity of blood. Wlien Anglo-Saxons down in this country pride our- 
selves so much on our heritage and stick out our chests about being 
Anglo-Saxons, we have little knowledge of the population of the 
United States, how many Spaniards there are, and how many this, that 
and the other, if you named them all down the list. 

But America is America because it is a composite people, and I 
thought of that the other day when I read that marvelous article 
in Life and I felt so sad after I had read about the population of 
Australia, and when I thought of a pure Anglo-Saxon settlement 
of that great country, and then I thought how they had self-contained 
themselves and they wanted no immigrants, they were afraid to death 
of the Japanese, they cut the immigrant quotas now; then when I 
thought of the constraint on production in a short workweek of 33 
hours and a lot of other things that the writer told about then, and 
yet I had estimated them to be a great people, and still do, I felt a 
little concerned as to whether or n6t if our settlement in America had 
been confined to the Anglo-Saxon people, particularly from the British 
Isles, whether we would have today the great America that we have. 
I don't think we would have. 

I think America is what it is, and if I may brag I think it is great, 
and I don't believe in bragging mucli, and I have to refrain from 
bragging to these students because there are so many ineptitudes in 
America that I hope they won't discover that I don't like to call atten- 
tion to them ; but we are great because Ave are diverse people. 

The first awareness of that, I tliink, that America had, was a book 
by the Russell Sage Foundation on immigrant contributions to Ameri- 
can life, if you go back and see that; and then we waited a long time 
for Louis Adamic to come back from his native Yugoslavia to make 
America conscious of the part that the immigrants had played, and 
then I thought about my experience at camp in the First World War 



1286 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

when we were sent 33,000 rejects from the camps in the East because 
they were not thouoht to be good men, because they could not speak 
the Language and this, that, and the other. 

I had charge of interviewing tliose men, and I remember I took a 
team of 42 interpreters to give you an idea of the racial strains of 
those men, and I well remember that morning when the sergeant said 
to a company of 250 men — that was the size in those days — "all men 
who understand this command step three paces to the right and form 
a line on the right." I looked up and saw 73 men who didn't under- 
stand that command and stood in the rear. I remember. It was called 
the All- American Division, but I think that was a bad name, it ought 
to have been called All- World or something of that sort. So that, we 
do get a great deal in America, and if we could just utilize even in 
part the skills and abilities and talents that these people bring to us, 
Ave could still have an Age of Pericles in America. So I don't see 
much use in talking about this matter of immigration, about com- 
munism, I wouldn't mention that at all. I don't think that's got any- 
thing to do with it. I think we must think of ourselves as a young 
Nation, still in an evolutionary stage, and that we ought, if prac- 
ticable — and yet the law makes it cliflicult, it is too bad that the law 
should control many intimate things like this — that the thing should 
be flexible enough in some way that the law might establish a com- 
mission of good and intelligent men who could have the authority to, 
from time to time, make changes within the boundaries set, so that 
the situation as it changes could be met. We haven't seen any changes 
in the situation yet. We will live to see them, and we ought to be 
getting ready for them. 

I would hope that we could adjust ourselves. When you think of 
the displaced })eople, wdien you think of the stories that these students 
tell me from the first to the latest one from Pakistan, it turns out that 
his Avhole family was moved and all his possessions left behind and 
how sorrowful that makes you. When I think of the stories the girls 
from the Russian sector of Austria tell me when they come here to 
school, we have got to be more humanistic about tliis tiling, gentle- 
men, more compassionate if you please about human beings. They 
are not statistics; they are flesh and blood. 

Now if 3^ou want some sort of a scheme for shifting your quotas, 
which is the most arbitrary thing I have heard of to begin with, I 
believe that some people would have sense enough to work that out; I 
would recommend that you appoint a new commission of the biggest 
people you can find in America in spite of this present law, and let it 
go on and do whatever damage it is going to do, but that w^e ought to 
think ahead for the future, for the next 30 years or 50, and that maybe 
we could work out a plan of immigration which we might ideally call 
a sociological plan of immigration. Now if we are going to be selfish 
about the thing, if we want to keep out Communists or if we don't 
w\ant any more South Italians, or if we want more Scandinavians or if 
we want to ask Holland to send here some of the people that they are 
paying to send out of Holland to come to Canada b?cause there are 
immigrants every month that come on that basis, I thought how sad 
that was for a great country like Holland with all its fine people and 
what it has contributed to the world. Think of those people paying 
fine families to pull up roots and go across the sea; isn't that sad? 
There are countries that need outlets for their people. There is this 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1287 

^reat question of whether we are to be the haven for the orientals — 
those questions ouoht not to be just a matter of simple debt ; they ouo-ht 
to have the best brains in America behind it, and in the world for 
that matter, and I hope you can evolve something like that. 

I think Ave ought to open our doors to more good people. And I 
remember after the war how pleased I was when I heard that they 
were going to send a crew, sort of like our crew that interviewed the 
Army, because I helped to intervieAv hundreds of thousands of them, 
to find their occupational skills and to fit them into the Army where 
they could produce so that they could win the war, that the Immigra- 
tion Department is going to send abroad a crew who could interview 
the people. 

I think you ought to have something like that-. If you can spend 
the money as we do here to interview every applicant for the Federal 
Government — and I have something to do with that myself, in other 
words, to keep out subversives — if we can spend that money we might 
spend money to put some outposts in use abroad. I would put that 
in skill, Ibecause a man ought to bring some skill and we can always 
use it. I would put it on moral character and I would put it on pur- 
pose and I would not dismember families. We dismembered when 
we brought the Negroes in, that was one of the worst. So that con- 
sideration ought to be given to the family in particular, 

I don't believe we ought to pay so much attention to the prospect 
of tuberculosis in the lungs of these people, or in the old father of this 
sad f amil3^ We can cure that lung up here ; we have done it. I cured 
boy from Korea that came here to Emory University and got him 
cured. He is now in our Navy. So I wouldn't pay so much attention 
to those things and have those restrictions unflexible and unchange- 
able boundaries, which you put a human being in a pair of calipers 
before he can become a citizen of America. 

I didn't mean to make all that speech, Mr. Chairman. It may be a 
little bit out of place. But I thought while I had you here I had 
better tell you what I thought about it. May I say that I am a pure 
amateur in this field. I thought about it last night after I was called, 
early this morning while I was eating breakfast, and these contacts 
that I have had, as I have related to you, to give you a little back- 
ground, have put me in a position to see human beings as human 
beings, and I am often tired of all these mechanical constrictions and 
limitations that we put on people, and I do think America can still 
take a great number of people, and I have had to do a lot with the 
Latvians, they were persons mentioned here, and they are wonderful 
people. If I were the King I would go to Sweden and rescue every 
displaced Estonian there was and bring them to America. I hope to 
bring 100 of them at least. They are fine people, fine stock, and if wc^ 
are going to be selfish we could discriminate a little bit on the kind 
of people we want to open our doors to. 

Now, that would bring up a lot of thought. But still we couhl iUh 
that. If we are going to make arbitrary quotas on geographical bound- 
aries we could by the same token make arbitrary limitations on tlie 
kind of people we are going to bring, and I don't see why we shouldn't 
just go on and admit tliat we are selfish about this. It is our country 
that our forefathei's developed; we are responsible for it; we want to 
see it grow and develop and we do need new blood, therefore, there 
are no two ways about that. 



1288 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

If there is anybody who has got any idea because you cross up 
human beings and create new blood streams that you are making a 
sorry people, that just ain't so. The biologists to the contrary not- 
withstanding, and America is America because it is; I am a hybrid 
and I am darn proud of it; and I know many other hybrids, and I 
know the good qualities that come into a family from good blood 
streams. 

Thank you very much. 

The Chairman, Thank you very mucli for giving us the benefit 
of your views. 

I understand that you are trustee and secretary of the Rotary 
Educational Foundation. 

Mr. Weisiger. Yes ; founder of it. 

The Chairman. And is that for the country or for the State ? 

Mr. Weisiger. It was originally formulated in order to keep good 
men who were dropping out of college for lack of money, and we 
have in the 30 years — we just closed last month — been the means of 
keeping 1,405 men in college who otherwise might have dropped out; 
and out of the interest on the loan — we charge interest because it is 
a business transaction — we have used that money to bring to Georgia 
colleges as many as 83 students from these 41 countries of the world, 
and the rest of the rotaries have clone the same thing in Georgia, so 
that we have set this pattern of bringing students from abroad to 
the campuses of Georgia, and when you have contact with people like 
that you come to see human beings through different eyes. 

The Chairman. Do I understand correctly that you would make 
no distinction between one part of Europe and another, or as between 
Europe and Asia as any other part of the world ? 

Mr. Weisiger. My clear brother, the extraction of prejudices from 
the human breast and out of the blood stream or wherever they are, 
I have found is one of the most tedious jobs I have ever attempted, 
and I have devoted myself for many years to the Commission on 
Interracial Cooperation as between whites and Negroes in Atlanta. 

I am trustee of three Negro colleges. I do for a Negro the same 
as I do for a white man. I have done for Christian and Jews, and 
by the same token have worn out shoe leather begging for them. I 
have tried to remove prejudice, and I hope all of you will, but it is 
a tedious job. If I could get my brothers of the cloth to spend more 
time in extracting prejudices, then I think you could do it, but if 
you call on me, you give me a chance to make anotlier speech. 

I think if you develop in your breast the human compassion that 
I have been writing about recently and speaking on, that you will 
drive out your prejudices and be like a new leaf on a tree pushing 
out the old leaf. Now, I don't believe I would approach that on the 
basis of prejudice. I believe if you really wanted to approach that 
scientifically, you might take that idea of immigrant contribution to 
American life and follow that out to the end and see which countries 
have made the most contributions, see ? 

I have interviewed hundreds of short-bodied Italian-Sicilian ex- 
tract workers from the New York Central Railroad, and out of the 
steel plants, and they fought a mighty good fight in the Eighty-second 
Division, where they belonged in the Ammunition Corps and Engi- 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1289 

neering Corps. I think we have gotten off the track, many of us 
who have been to school, reading the great— I will think of the name 
in a minute, the fellow who wrote all the books about anthropology 
and put the Anglo Saxon man No. 1 in the list, that is the man around 
the Baltic Sea. Breasted is what his name was, and he has got great 
books on it. Breasted said the men from the British Isles, from Scan- 
dinavia, from the Baltic countries, were the No. 1 men in the world. 

Why i Because they have l)eon conditioned for that by moisture, by 
climate, by cyclonic changes in temperature, by eking out a living out 
of a rugged soil — and we have got New England to duplicate that as 
an illustration for us — they made the No. 1 man. But that doesn't 
mean that the No. 2 men aren't pretty good, and maybe the No. 10 
men, for that matter. 

The Chairman. Are you saying that, in your personal opinion, 
a human being, no matter Avhere he comes from, if given the oppor- 
tunity, will make the same contribution? 

Mr. Weisiger. I didn't quite say that. 

The Chairman. I am trying to find out what you did mean. 

Mr. Weisiger. That isn't my idea. My idea is that a man is a man 
and men are in stratas intellectually and skillfully, and from the stand- 
point of honor, which are the three important things — we can stratify 
men, we have got too many of the dishonorable class in this country, 
we ought to try to get more honorable people. But I would have 
some feeling about that, 3'es. The Italian people are not a homo- 
geneous people. The Lombards are very fine people and have made 
very fine contributions and are skilled mechanics, Italians, remember, 
and are great artists and things of that sort. 

I would wonder whether you could split a country in two with a 
parallel like we did in Korea and say "these don't and these do," 
and that's where you have got a tedious job. But I believe if you set 
up a new sort of a gage, if it were practicable to do such a thing, and 
you gaged men by not only health — which is important, but slight 
deficiencies in health can be overcome, we know so much more now 
than we did before, and we can do so much better by an ailing man than 
we could 30 years ago, and then we can measure that in the Army with 
the trade tests, that is very simple and a man's record will give you 
his skill. I shouldn't see why we shouldn't have a case record in 
complete detail on every prospective immigrant. And if you want 
to be selfish and be choosy, to sort those fellow^s out by a composite 
of their past record of lionorable dealings and living and family 
life, and responsibility, and participation in the community life and 
in the Government of the country. That would be a nice job to do. 
I would like to live long enough to get into that. But I believe it 
would be justified with 154,000 people. There are 33,000 men in one 
Army division here. You take four of them and you have nearly got 
your whole crowd. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much. 

Mr. Weisiger. I'm sorry to take so much time. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much. We appreciate your com- 
ing down here. 

Professor McKay, please. 



1290 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

STATEMENT OF EOBEET B. McKAY, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOE OF LAW, 
EMOEY TJNIVEESITY 

Professor McIvay. I am Eobert B. McKay, associate professor of 
law at Emory University Law School. 

I have a prepared statement which I will read, if you wish. 

The Chairman. We shall be pleased to hear it. 

Professor McKay. The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 
is the latest in a series of congressional enactments dealing with the 
most acute policy problem of our day — the reconciliation of the con- 
flict of American interests between national security and what might 
be called the spirit of liberty. By the latter I mean something more 
than the narrow legalistic interpretation of the phrases of the Consti- 
tution on which our free society is based. Rather I have in mind the 
motivating concept of democracy which embraces freedom of s]:)eech 
and thought and due process for all persons within the United States, 
My concern is whether we have not perhaps turned the balance too far 
in favor of internal security at the expense of our precious spirit of 
liberty. Alan Barth, in his book, The Loyalty of Free Men, has ex- 
pressed his similar concern strongly, but effectively: "Nothing that 
the agents of communism have done or can do in this country is so 
dangerous to the United States as what they have induced us * * ■" 
to do to ourselves." 

Since the problems are difficult, reasonable men will of course dif- 
fer in their proposed solutions. Accordingly, the carefully objective 
study which this Commission is giving the question is a salutary sign 
of the continuing vitality of our democratic framework. I am pleased 
to have an opportunity to participate. 

The Immigration and Nationality Act was designed "to enact a 
completely revised immigration and nationality code" (Conference 
Report No. 2096, 82d Cong., 2d sess., p. 1). As such, it is necessarily 
a long and complex piece of legislation. I intend to comment on only 
a few sections, particularly in view of judicial construction of tliB 
parallel predecessor sections of previous acts. I shall confine myself 
to provisions which I find disturbing in connection with exclusion and 
deportation of aliens and denaturalization of certain classes of citiz(;np>. 

First, let me state what I conceive to be the proper frame of rel'er- 
ence in which to consider these problems, particularly in connection 
with aliens. The admission, restriction on activities, and expulsion of 
aliens has always been considered a fundamental attribute of sover- 
eignty. Equally, however, it has long been recognized that aliens are 
entitled to procedural due process once they have been admitted to the 
country. Yet there has been, I believe, in recent years a subtle but 
nonetheless discernible judicial movement toward increased deference 
to congressional determination of necessity. 

Congress has acted, and acted appropriately, I believe, on the as- 
sumption that the threat of Communist power outside the Ignited 
States and of Communist conspiracy within is neither fantasy nor 
pretense {Ilarisiades v. Shaughnessy, 342 U. S. 580, 590 (1952) ) . The 
courts have concurred in this judgment and, accepting the legislative 
finding of extreme peril, have almost unifonnly a])))roved the legis- 
lative schemes to cope with the Comnnmist threat. Thus, Mr. Justice 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1291 

Jackson, in Harisiades v. Shaughnessy (342 U. S. 580, 591 ( 1952) ), put 
it this way : 

We think that, in the present state of the world, it would be rash and irrespon- 
sible to reinterpret our fundamental law to deny or (pialify the (Jovernnieiit's 
power of deportation. However desirable world-wide amelioration of the lot of 
aliens, we think it is peculiarly a subject for international diplomacy. It should 
not be initiated by judicial decision which can only deprive our own Government 
of a power of defense and reprisal without obtaining for American citizens abroad 
any reciprocal privileges or immunities. Reform in this field must be entrusted 
to the branches of the Government in control of our international relations and 
treaty-making powers. 

Refusing- to express his own vieAvs on the legislation, Mr. Justice Jack- 
son also stated : 

* * * we have an act of one Congress which, for a decade, subsequent Con- 
gresses have never repealed, but have strengthened and extended. We, in our 
private opinions, need not concur in Congress' policies to hold its enactments 
constitutional. Judicially we must tolerate what personally we may regard as 
a legislative mistake (Id. 590). 

Judge Learned Hand, dissenting in United States v. Shaughnessy 
(195 F. 2d 964, 971 (2d Cir. 1952), cert, granted, October 13, 1952), 
spoke of the problem thus : 

Think what one may of a statute based uiwn such fears, when passed by a 
society which professes to put its faith in the free interchange of ideas, a court 
has no warrant for refusing to enforce it. If that society chooses to flinch when 
its principles are put to the test, courts are not set up to give it derring-do. 

It is accordingly perfecth^ evident that, in the face of the current 
state of crisis in world affairs, courts are willing to rely very substan- 
tially on the congressional estimate of the steps which must be taken 
to protect American security. Under this prevailing judicial concept 
the courts have gone far to ratify the increasingly unenviable position 
in which Congress has placed aliens. Consider, for example, the fol- 
lowing legislative-judicial pronouncements: 

(1) The United States may constitutionally deport a legally resi- 
dent alien because of his membership in the Communist Party, al- 
though that membership was terminated before the enactment of the 
Alien Registration Act of 1940, in this case, before it was even enacted. 
The deportation was held not to be in conflict with the first or fifth 
amendments of the Constitution, nor within the ban of the ex post 
facto prohibition {Harisiades v. Shemghnessy^ 342 U. S. 580 (1952) ). 

(2) The United States may exclude without hearing the alien wife 
of a citizen who serA'ed honorably in the United States Armed Forces 
during World War II, the exclusion being based solely upon a finding 
bv '(h^^ Attornev General, with no requirement that he disclose his 
reasons {Knaufi v. Shaughnessy, 338 U. S. 537 (1950) ). 

(3) The Attorney General, with no important control over his ex- 
ercise of discretion, may detain without bail aliens held for deporta- 
tion hearings on the charge of membership in a proscribed group 
( Carlson v. Landon, 342 U. S". 524 ( 1952 )) . 

(4) Deportation proceedings are no longer subject to the require- 
ments of the Administrative Procedure Act. See, for discussion of 
Supplemental Appropriations Act of 1951 which so provides {Barher 
V. Yamsh, 190 F. 2d 53 (9th Cir. 1952), cert, denied, October 13, 1952). 

25.356—52 S2 



1292 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

The only important decision out of line with the foregoing trend of 
rulings is United States ex rel. Mazei v. Shaughnessy (195 F. 2d 964 
(2d Cir. 1952) , cert, granted, October 13, 1952) . In that case an alien 
who had resided in the United States for 25 years was held excludable 
upon return from a visit abroad. The exclusion order was unreview- 
able, the alien having been found a bad security risk by the Attorney 
General. But no other country was found which would accept the 
alien, and the Attorney General was thereupon willing to hold him in- 
definitely insofar as he was excluded from this country and could not 
be accepted by any other country. On petition for habeas corpus 
Judge Clark of the second circuit ruled that the Attorney General 
could not hold him indefinitely, and that to do so would be a violation 
of the fifth amendment not required by the relevant provisions of the 
Internal Security Act of 1950. Judge Learned Hand dissented, and 
the Supreme Court has granted the Government a review. Keversal of 
this single decision questioning the power of Congress seems at least 
very possible. 

Indeed, Congress has been quick to seize on these decisions and carry 
them to the outermost limits of their logic — perhaps even a little be- 
yond, with the result that the Immigration and Naturalization Act 
cf 1952 is even more restrictive in a number of respects than previous 
legislation. Congress declares there is a legislative need for such re- 
strictions on aliens or other citizens. The courts affirm it. 

In view, then, of the judicial determination that these results are 
required by the present situation, it appears that, to the extent that 
corrective action is necessary, it must come from Congress rather than 
from the courts. It is accordingly a time for high statesmanship 
because these are difficult problems, and it is hard to say we shouldn't 
plunge ourselves on the side of certain security, that rather we should 
protect our traditions and our spirit of liberty for responsible law- 
making; and I am accordingly glad that this Commission is making 
this advisory study. 

AVithout suggesting the details of legislative recommendations, let 
me call attention briefly to those areas in which I believe legislative 
reform is needed. 

(1) Section 212 (a) (28). The prohibitions on admission to this 
country of aliens who have ever been members of Communist or other 
totalitarian groups seems too far-reaching, even discounting the 
limited exceptions provided in subparagraph (I). 

(2) Section 241. Because deportation proceedings are said not to 
be criminal in nature, the ex post facto provisions of the Constitution 
are inapplicable here ; despite the fact that Mr. Justice Brandeis said 
that deportation of an alien from the country in which he has taken up 
residence, made his home for many years, takes away from him the 
things that makes life worth living, so Congi'ess has made the most of 
this opportunity to provide for deportation of aliens for membership 
or affiliation with subversive groups that occurred before the ban was 
imposed, and for activity long discontinued. 

(3) Section 242 (a) . This confirms and strengthens the discretion- 
ary authority of the Attorney General to hold aliens without bail when 
a deportation hearing is pending. 

(4) Sections 350, 352. Without further specific comment I should 
like to mention that even certain classes of citizens are made more 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1293 

likely to lose their American citizenship withont power to prevent 
such loss. I refer of course to dual citizens and naturalized citizens. 

In conclusion, then, it appears that the cycle of ever-tightening 
congressional restrictions followed by judicial approval, in turn fol- 
lowed by further legislative strictures, and so forth, deserves exam- 
ination to determine wliether, as former. Attorney General Biddle 
feared, "our institutions do not have the sturdiness which our words 
to the rest of the world announce, and will falter under the greater 
impact of the alien dogma." 

The Chairman. Thank you very much. 

Is Mr. Burgess here? 

STATEMENT OF DAVID BURGESS, SECRETARY OF THE GEORGIA 

CIO COUNCIL 

Mr. Bukgp:ss. I am David Burgess, 95 Merritt Avenue NE., Atlanta. 
I represent the Georgia CIO Council, of which I am the secretary. 

Mr. Chairman, I come here today as an amateur, but one who is, 
I believe, concerned about this problem since I grew up in a foreign 
land in China, and I think I have a slightly dilferent point of view 
than some people on this question ; second, my testimony bears largely 
on the labor situation in the South and the relationship to this law, 
or the revision thereof. 

I think you gentlemen understand that the South up to very re- 
cently, and almost at the present time is not a part of the counti'y in 
which we have had many immigrants, with the exception of those 
forcibly brought here on the slave ships, and therefore we have had 
up to the time of the War Between the States a white group, which 
was in predominance, and a slave group. One out of every five per- 
sons of white skin owned a Negro ; four did not. It was an agricul- 
tural economy, and therefore up to rather recently has had no use 
in some ways for the skills and the abilities that some of our, say, 
south Europeans have brought to the other parts of this country. 

The War Between the States left the South desolate, and in 1880 
we were more or less pulled out of our condition by the introduction 
of industry, largely locally owned. The labor was brought from the 
farms, native Anglo Saxon white labor, and it was docile, and we 
have had the economic conditions in the South partly as a result of 
this situation. 

This situation has created a type of in-breeding, a type of bigotry 
which we in Georgia are now facing in this current election. I have 
an example of it right in front of me in which not only the Negro is 
villified, but every person with a Jewish name, a non-Anglo Saxon 
name, or any other name is held mider suspicion ; and, therefore, our 
bigots can play on this situation more easily than they could in other 
countries where, though you are prejudiced youi^self, you cannot 
make a public aj^peal to prejudice and serve in a public office. 

Now in recent years, there has been a new industrial situation in 
the South; more and more industries are coming down here not only 
to escape good wage conditions in the North, but because the future 
market, the raw materials are closer, and the potentiality of economic 
growth is ever more challenging. Therefore, we need in the South 
today more than ever before new skills; I mean, speaking purely of 
technical skills in industry, that many Europeans have and can share 



1294 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

with US. I think that Dr. Pickett knows that when the American 
Friends Service Committee during World War II brought people 
over, Jewish refugees and others from Europe, that every one of them 
contributed not only his own skills but brought new skills and new 
ideas which, in turn, brought more employment to more people. 

We in the South need nnore skills, particularly in industry, and 
more purchasing power; you need more art, more literature, more 
writers, more services, and a greater economy in the broad sense of 
the word. 

Now, the effect of immigration into the South from foreign coun- 
tries would be good ; it would give us more variety, more underetand- 
ing, and I think more of an open heart. 

Now this is not only a southern problem, but every act of Congress 
is now a world problem. The promise on the Statue of Liberty, with 
the coming of the McCarran Act and with the recent interpretations, 
of the Supreme Court, have flaunted the very ideal that we in iimerica 
believe in. 

Now having grown up in the Orient, I know that the passage of the' 
Oriental Exclusion Act in the early twenties, for which labor was 
partly responsible, the AFL in those days, was the chief club used 
on us and is still used on us all over the Orient, first in the war with 
Japan and their colonial policy, and now in the race of Nazism in 
Indonesia and other places. An act of Congress is not only national 
and regional, it is a world act and, as such, has to be recognized as 
that; and when it is written into the law that any race, color, creed^ 
nationality, is discriminated against, that thought carries to other 
people. 

I think the conscience of the American people is rather dependent 
on one point and, that is, if we can figure out the number of just who 
are cremated, who are not able to get out, who were caught or seized 
or dependent on entry into other countries, who did not come to 
America when they hoped to come to America and, therefore, fell 
into the hands of the Gestapo, I think we are in a way responsible for 
their deaths and we have to atone for them. 

Now, what are the general principles for wdiich the organized labor 
movement in America stands in relation to the general principles of 
writing a law ? First, if there has to be a quota system, some restric- 
tion, the restriction ought to be on a total number rather than the 
place of origin, because as has already been explained here, the north- 
ern Europeans are not in great need of the desire to come to America 
and settle in this country. Sweden, Norway, England, Scotland, Ire- 
land, generally those people do not use up their quotas, therefore, why 
should other people be held out because they are not, through no action 
of their own, born in those northern countries ? 

Second, I agree with our lawyer friend who just testified. There 
has to be some check on subversion. Now and then an alien has 
slipped in and done things, but when j^ou consider the lack of sabotage 
in World War II and subsequently, I think the whole question of 
subversion is brought into its correct light, it is not really a problem 
in relationship to folks from abroad. 

Third, I think there has to be important distinctions between tem- 
porary aliens who are brought in for labor purposes and people who 
w^sh to make their homes here. There is a very important distinction. 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1295 

Back in 1942 when I was with the Congregational church I served 
in the soiitliern part of Florida among migrant workers, and I can 
testify there that most of the folks were from Georgia, at least the 
first few months of my stay, in this migrant FSA camp. 

'i'lien we were forcibly ejected from the camp for a shipment or 
group of Puerto Ricans and Bahamians to take our places in the fields 
at a reduced rate. 

Now I know you gentlemen are not concerned with that, but, I think 
there has to be a distinction between the two types of residences in this 
country. The wetback situation in California that you gentleman are 
acquainted witli is another problem, and labor objects to sponsoring 
residency to people who are undermining the labor standards in this 
■country. However, that is not the same as a laborer or skilled person 
or anybody else from foreign countries who wishes to make his home 
here. That is completely different, because they have pulled np stakes, 
they are not coming because someone has brought them to undermine 
somebody else. They have come from the freedom of their own desire, 
because we are not recruiting labor like in the old days from Europe. 
They want to make their homes here, and we should allow them to 
come here. 

Finally, I think we in America who believe that onr strength rests 
fundamentally in freedom of thought and freedom of expression and 
that no man shall control a person's beliefs, just his actions, that we 
cannot follow in the way of Russia, that is punishing people for past 
errors for which they have asked forgiveness for their s.ins. We can- 
not develop an iron curtain instituted by Congress to keep out south 
Europeans, to keep out Jews, to keep out orientals, to keep out Negroes 
who wish to make their homes here. 

I think this is the basic fundamental principle which distinguishes 
us at least in tlieory so far, from those against whom we struggle in 
this great world-wide struggle of today. 

Commissioner Pickett. Would it be a fair question to ask you how 
far you speak for the CIO ? And how far you speak only for yourself ? 

Mr. Burgess. I am the official spokesman for the CIO in Georgia. 
I am their representative on legislative matters. I won't say I speak 
for people of any other State but I made sure my testimony is in con- 
formance with the national CIO policy on their regulations in annual 
conventions, and I can speak for myself and the Georgia CIO Council 
and for no other. 

The CiiAiRMA^r. How long were you in Georgia ? 

Mr. Burgess. In Georgia for a year and in the South for 10 years. 

The Chairman. Where were you before ? 

Mr. Burgess. North and South Carolina and Florida, 

The Chairman. And represented CIO for 10 years? 

Mr. Burgess. Since 1937. 

The Chairman. You said you were raised in China ? 

Mr. Burgess. That is right. 

The Chairman. How old were you when you came to this country? 

Mr. Burgess. Only 11, but my father was back since then and we 
have kept our contacts since that time with the Chinese. He was a 
missionarj^ He also served in UNNRA during the war for training 
people for service in China. 

Tlie Chairman. Where were you born? 



1296 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

Mr. Burgess. Born here but went out there when I was about 2 
months old. 

The Chairman. They took you ? 
Mr. Burgess. Yes, sir. 
The Chairman. Thank you very much. 
Is Monsignor Castel here ? 

STATEMENT OF RT. REV. MSGR. WILLIAM J. CASTEL, DIRECTOR, 
ARCHDIOCESAN RESETTLEMENT, BUREAU OF THE CATHOLIC 
ARCHDIOCESE OF NEW ORLEANS; MEMBER OF THE STATE COM- 
MITTEE OF DISPLACED PERSONS; NEW ORLEANS RESETTLE- 
MENT COMMITTEE; APPEARING ALSO IN BEHALF OF OTHER 
PERSONS AND ORGANIZATIONS IN NEW ORLEANS 

The Chatr3ian. Monsignor, will you give the reporter your full 
title and address, and name, please ? 

Monsignor Castel. The Right Reverend Monsignor William Castel, 
director, archdiocesan resettlement, Bureau of the Archdiocese of New 
Orleans, La. ; member of the State committee of displaced persons and 
the New Orleans Resettlement Committee, which is a composite of 
various religious groups and civic organizations in the State of 
Louisiana. 

I am here representing the New Orleans Committee for Displaced 
Persons. We are in charge of the receiving and sending forward 
out of the city the displaced persons who came through the port of 
New Orleans. 

On behalf of Rev. Albert D'Orlando, minister o'f the First Uni- 
tarian Church, New Orleans; Rev. Dana Dawson, Jr., chairman, de- 
partment of civil affairs. New Orleans Council of Churches ; Rev. W. 
D. Langtry, president. New Orleans Ministerial Union; Mrs. Moise 
W. Dennery, president, New Orleans section. National Council of 
Jewish Women; Clarence M. East, Jr., representing Catholic Com- 
mittee of the South ; and myself, I wish to read a prepared statement, 
to' which we have all subscribed. 

The Chairman. We will be pleased to hear it. 

Monsignor Castel. We as representatives of broad segments of 
religious and social life in metropolian New Orleans desire to go on 
record in agreement with the following positions in regard to the 
present immigration policj^ of the United States. 

In general we reaffirm and restate our belief that the national great- 
ness of our country rests upon its unique facility in providing a climate 
for living in which those of other lands, although varying widely in 
religious, economic, and cultural background, can find common accept- 
ance. We likewise believe that the progress and expansion of our 
Nation has been directly dependent on immigration as a vital source 
of its manpower. We renounce that outmoded philosophy of racism 
which seeks to discriminate between ethnic and religious groups on the 
basis of supposed inherent inferiorities. More particularly we fear 
any implication that our Nation accepts any part of that philosophy, 
particularly at this crucial point in history when the United States is 
faced with the responsibility of providing world-wide moral leader- 
ship for those nations and peoples whose eyes look hopefully toward us. 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1297 

Specifically Ave oppose the following policies among others in 
existing immigration statutes : 

(1) Discrimination against orientals in the standards for deter- 
mining nationality. 

(2) Discrimination j^racticed against those comitries hardest hit 
by war in charging displaced persons previously sent to this country 
against the quotas for those countries. 

(3) Lack of any provision for reallocating unused quotas so as to 
permit full utilization of the over-all quota. 

(4) Denial of judicial review as incompatible with American prin- 
ciples of justice. 

In the interest of brevity we have stated only those features which 
seem to us most injurious in the present law. There are other objec- 
tionable features about which we might express ourselves, if the Com- 
mission desires a fuller statement in the future. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much. 

Monsignor Castel. I also wish to tender to this Commission a state- 
ment from the National Council of Jewish Women, New Orleans 
section, who asked me to present this statement, wherein they amplify 
their own position in regard to the McCarran- Walter bill. 

The Chairman, That will be inserted in the record. 

(There follows the statement submitted by the National Council of 
Jewish Women, New Orleans section :) 

Statement of Natioxal Council of Jewish Women, New Orleans Section, 

New Orleans, La. 

(Mrs. Moise W. Dennery, president, 3132 Nashville Avenue) 
(Mrs. Lonise Convart, corresponding secretary, 2512 Jefferson Avenue)' 
Mr. Phillip B. Perlman, 

Chairman, President's Commission on Immigration and Naturalisation, 
Atlanta, Ga. 

Mr. Chairman : The New Orleans section of the National Council of Jewish 
Women is pleased to have this opportunity to express its views on the immigra- 
tion and naturalization policies of tlie United States. We are particularly con- 
cerned with section (c) of the President's order establishing a Commission on 
Immigration and Naturalization. 

The new Immigration and Naturalization Act, which will become effective 
on December 24, 1952, retains the tlieory of "national origins" introduced into 
immigration iKjlicy in the quota law of 1921. It reflects distrust of the stranger 
and the fear that aliens are potential subversive elements. It is difficult to 
reconcile this attitude with the American tradition of offering refuge to the 
oppressed and the United State's position in world leadership today. 

The Immigration Act of 1952 still retains the racist and restrictive philosophy 
of the national-origin system with its limitation on movement of persons born in 
southern and eastern Europe and weighing in favor of immigrants born in 
Great Britain and Ireland. It is still based on the 1920 census even though 
1940 and and 1950 censuses are available. 

This restriction on the movement of persons born in eastern .and southern 
Europe is particularly difficult to accept in 1952 when the immigrants who are 
most desirous of coming to America and who need the opportunity for immigra- 
tion the most are persons born in limited-quota areas, sucli as escapees from iron- 
curtain coiuitries. Certainly some recognition and some additioiuil pi'ovisions 
should be made to relieve tlie distress of the many unfortunate victims of jiolitical 
oppression not only for liumanitarian reasons but also to demonstrate effectively 
the moral right of tlie United States to assume world leadership. 

Provisions were embodied in some of the other bills on immigration and 
naturalization to allow for the itooling of unused quotas. This concept 
would have enabled the use of unused lumibers each year and would have made 
possible the entry of hundreds of victims of persecution each year without in- 



1298 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

creasing the total uuml)er of allowable immigrants. As the law now stands, the 
large quotas made available to Great Britain are seldom filled, while the numbers 
allocated to western Europe are piteously inadequate. 

In the 1952 act, the President is given the right to curtail immigrations of all 
aliens or of a class of aliens if he finds that their admission would be detrimental 
to the interest of the United States. No authority is given, however, either to 
the President or to an immigration commission to provide for emergency assist- 
ance to people in critically overpopulated areas of western Europe or to provide 
a haven for refugees and displaced persons, homeless as the result of political 
upheaval. 

The New Orleans Section of the National Council of Jewish Women feels that 
provisions should be made for (1) a thorough revaluation of our basis for estab- 
lishing quotas, (2) for the pooling of unused quotas, and (3) for authority to 
render emergency assistance to victims of oppression. 

The Chairman. Was there any oral statement you ^Yanted to make 
yourself ? 

Monsignor Castel. I %you1cI only like to say this, perhaps : that, in 
our relationship with these immigrants who came through our port, 
I must say that all faiths worked together hand in glove in the city of 
New Orleans to implement the receiving and sending forward the dis- 
placed persons who were sent through our port. I have had some 
members of the Catholic committee working at times at the Jewish 
desks, and we have had Methodist and Baptist women working on 
Catholic desks in the receiving of these people, and in the processing of 
them through the line. Not in all the time we were receiving the 
displaced persons were there any discriminations as far as I could 
observe or as far as our committee as a whole observed or reported. 

I don't think ever did I hear one complaint where anyone was dis- 
criminated against. We had a volunteer motor corps made up of, I 
would say, the finest ladies of the city of New Orleans, drawn from 
all faiths and no faiths; and these ladies drove their cars up on the 
docks and received the immigrants, the displaced persons, just as they 
came through the processing lines, whether through the Jewish group 
or through the Catholic group or through Church World Service, just 
as they came, regardless of religious belief. 

The Jewish group, I must say, always gave us a larger number of 
motor corps, but the reason was that they took them to their own 
center, which was far beyond the other end of the city, and so the going 
was a little bit tough. It consumed a lot of time, and nevertheless the 
•Jewish ladies volunteered to increase their numbers when the boats 
were arriving. 

Eegardless of that, all worked to the same end of trying to welcome 
and trying to help these people along their way to their final desti- 
nation. 

Commissioner Pickett. How many came in under that act? 

Monsignor Castel. Offhand, I think we speak of 18,000 to 20,000. 
I don't recall exactly. I am not sure. 

The Chairman. Throughout the State of Louisiana? 

Monsignor Castel. That is right. Not the State of Louisiana for 
the reception of these people. Many of them went to New York 
through our port, but principally they were going through the South 
and through the West from the i)ort of New Orleans. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, ]Monsignor. 

We will take a recess now until 1 : 30 o'clock this afternoon, when we 
will reconvene in courtroom 318. 

(Whereupon, at 12 : 30 p. m., the Commission recessed until 1 : 30 
p. m. of the same day.) 



HEARINGS BEFORE THE 

PRESIDENT'S COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION 

AND NATURALIZATION 



FRIDAY, OCTOBER 17, 1952 

Atlanta, Ga. 
twenty-fourth session 

The President's Commission on Immigration and Naturalization 
met at 1:30 p. m., pursuant to recess, in courtroom 318, Old Post 
Office Building, xVtlanta, Ga., Hon. Philip B. Perlman (chairman) 
presiding. 

Present: Chairman Philip B. Perlman and the following Commis- 
sioners: Mr. Thomas G. Finucane, Dr. Clarence E. Pickett, Msgr. 
John O'Grady. 

Also present : Mr. Harry N. Rosenfield, executive director. 

The Chairman. The Commission will come to order. 

The tirst witness on our schedule this afternoon is J. C. Holton. 

STATEMENT OF J. C. HOLTON, ASSISTANT TO THE COMMISSIONER, 
GEORGIA STATE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND SECRE- 
TARY OF THE GEORGIA DISPLACED PERSONS COMMITTEE 

Mr. HoLTON. I am J. C. Holton, assistant to the commissioner, 
Georgia State Department of Agriculture. I am also secretary of the 
Georgia Displaced Persons Committee which was appointed by the 
Governor. 

I have a prepared statement I would like to read. 

The Chairman. We will be pleased to hear it. 

Mr. HoLTON. In response to letter dated September 24, 1952, re- 
ceived from Hon. Harry N. Rosenfield, executive director. President's 
Commission on Immigration and Naturalization, outlining procedure 
to be followed at the hearing to be held in room 416, Old Post Office 
Building, Atlanta, October 17, 1952, Hon. Tom Linder, commissioner 
of agriculture and immigration, and chairman, Georgia Displaced 
Persons Committee, invited the following to participate in a prehear- 
ing conference October 10, in order to develop a general policy repre- 
senting the opinion of the various groups in Georgia : 

Hon. Hon Fortson, secretary of state 

Hon. Sid Truitt, county ajient, Fulton County 

Hon. Zack D. Cravey, comptroller general 

Hon. Clark.Gaines, secretary, department of commerce 

Hon. Walter S. Brown, associate director, extension service 

Hon. Ben T. Huiet, commissioner of labor 

Rt. Rev. Msgr. T. James McNamara 

1299 



1300 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

T)r. Gresor Sebba, College of Business Administration, University of Georgia 

Dr. C. C. Murray, clean and director. College of Agriculture 

Dr. T. F. Sellers, director, department of health 

Mr. W. H. Holsenbeck, Georgia Association of Soil-Conservation Supervisors 

Judge Alan Kemper, director, department of welfare 

Mr. D. W. Brooks, director. Cotton Producers Association 

Dean Gates, College of Business Administration, University of Georgia 

This conference seemed appropriate, as the announced purpose of 
the hearing is to study and evakiate the immigi'ation and naturaliza- 
tion policies of the United States, the quota system, and the McCar- 
ran- Walter innnigration law recently enacted by Congress and passed 
over the President's veto. Special attention will also be devoted to 
the administration of our immigration laws, admission of immigrants, 
and the effect refugee and other immigrants may have on the economic 
status of our country. 

The presiding officer, Commissioner Linder, presented the following 
liistorical background and observations : 

No immigrants should be allowed to enter this country at least for a period 
of years sufficient to permit better distribution and taking of stock of our over- 
all economy to insure the safety of this country in the future. 

The imbalance of population to which large numbers of immigrants have con- 
tributed a major part is the great weakness of the Nation. 

During the years of our great strength as a Nation, farm population, urban 
population and production, both agriculturally and industrially, were in much 
better balance than they are today. 

A century ago, using approximate round figures, 85 percent of the population 
lived on the land and 15 percent in towns and cities. Over the years there was 
gradual and steady emigration from the farms to the towns and cities. However, 
the relatively high birth rate in rural areas and the relatively low birth rate in 
towns and cities tended to keep a strong rural population well distributed, 
especially in the main agricultural areas. 

The erection of tariff walls created great demand for American industrial prod- 
ucts. As a result, industrial centers sprang up in the Nation, and industrial and 
business populations continued a gradual increase. 

EUROPEAN IMMIGRATION IN UNLIMITED NUMBERS 

In 1903, in order to defeat the labor movement which was then beginning to 
become a strong factor, Congress enacted immigration laws to permit the importa- 
tion of surplus labor into the United States to create a cheap labor market. 

The great industrialists of that day, not satisfied with Federal legislation alone, 
went into the several States and secured passage of legislation setting up immi- 
gration authorities. As an illustration, in the State of Georgia the legislature 
passed an act making the commissioner of agriculture ex officio commissioner of 
immigration. 

Under the open-door policy of the 1903 legislation, some 11,000,000 immigrants, 
mostly from Italy and Germany, came into this country. Many of them, of 
course, were followed in a few years by their families. These people were accus- 
tomed to hard labor and low living standards. 

It was during those years that the slums and tenement sections of our larger 
cities had their greatest increase. It was also during that period that political 
machines in our Inrger cities began to rise to dominant places of power in State 
and national politics. 

World War I, which created unprecedented demands for industrial and agri- 
cultural products, cause the enlargement of industrial enterprises, transporta- 
tion facilities, and business of every kind. As a result, wages in town took a 
rapid rise and all surplus labor was drawn away from the farmers. This ac- 
centuated the imbalance between rural and urban populations. 

At the end of World War I there was a great let-down. The presidential 
election come on in 1920. Cotton was selling around 40 cents a pound when the 
farmers began to harvest their 1920 crop. But the market broke and cotton went 
to 8 cents. Other agricultural crops suffered similar losses. As a result of this, 
other millions left the farms and went to town, still further increasing the urban 
population and decreasing the rural population. 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1301 
IMPORTING POVERTY 

From the presidential election of 1920 to the presidential election of 1928, under 
guiye of collectin;;- war debts, we imported 43 billion dollars of foreia^n goods. 
Out of this the Goulds, the Rothschilds, the Morgans, and other international 
bankers were paid the billions of dollars they had loaneil England, France, Italy, 
and Holland during the first 2 years of World War I. This was not the debt of 
the American people ; it was the debt of Europeans. l>ut the international 
bankers could not possibly collect from a bankrupt Europe ; so they collected out 
of the American people by selling us goods which we should have produced for 
ourselves. 

As a result of the importation of this 43 billion dollars of goods of all kinds, 
milli<ms of Americans were thrown out of jobs ; they walked the streets ; they 
depended on soup kitchens and free lunches ; they sold apples ; and they resorted 
to every device to maintain a bare existence. People on the farms were in like 
distress. Many farmers lost their land ; share croppers and tenants, not having 
a soup kitchen on the farm, went to town. This still further accentuated the 
imbalance of population. 

After World War I many Europeans and Asiatics were brought into this 
country. Very few of these new immigrants were able to be absorbed into our 
economy, and most of those who did not join the soup-kitchen gang joined up 
with other gangs like Al Capone in Chicago and similar gangs in other cities. 
In Chicago, New York, and other large cities, whole sections became foreign in 
thought, in speech, and in loyalty. America had taken to her bosom millions 
that had no love for American ways. Their only desire apparently was to turn 
the United States into another Europe or Asia. 

AMERICA DECLINES 

After World War II the foreign elements, un-American in their thinking, had 
become so numerous and vocal they demanded that the doors of America be 
thrown open to derelicts from many countries. Apparently great secrecy has 
superadded to the handling of immigrants, and the American people will probably 
never know how many millions have been brought in this country during the last 
7 years that are not naturalized. Irrefutably the fact is, according to the 
United States Bureau of Census, that approximately 85 percent of our total 
population now live in towns and cities and only 1.5 percent are rural citizens. 
Of this 15 i>ercent many commute daily to some town or city government project 
or otlier public work. 

According to the Bureau of Census, in August 1951 only 7,700,000 people were 
actually employed in agriculture. Eight months later in April 1952, 800,000 of 
these had left the farm and gone to join the other millions in urban jo))s, leaving 
only 6,900.000 actually employed in agriculture. 

SCIENCE AND INVENTION 

Because of scientific developments in agriculture and mechanical inventions, 
it has become possible for 6,900,000 people to produce food and fiber for 156,000,000 
people. Equal improvements have been made scientifically and mechanically as 
to industry, transportation, etc. Even a, great volume of the labor in offices and 
accounting houses is now done by machines which take the place of numbers of 
workers. 

Not only have the men of the farms gone to town and got a job, but the women 
also. 

If 6.900,000 people under modern conditions can produce agricultural products 
for 1.~>().(K)0.000, it is also true that the many millions engaged in industry can 
produce industrial products sufficient for several times our population. The only 
thing that now limits our production of consumer goods is our production of war 
material and equipment of all kinds. 

EXPLOITATION OF RESOURCES 

In order to get raw materials to keep approximately 55,000,000 people in jobs 
other than agriculture, it has been necessary to exploit and squander our natural 
resources of all kinds. Petroleum, coal, iron, copper, zinc, timber, and all other 
natural resources have l>een drained at a rate never dreamed of before. As a 
result, we are rapidly becoming dependent on foreign countries to supply us with 
materials and facilities of all kinds. 



1302 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 
GIVING AWAY A NECESSARY PART OF OUR PRESENT ECONOMY 

Having shifted our population to towns and cities and having created jobs for 
producing enormous amounts of goods, it is necessary to give away a large part 
of these goods in order to keep the wheels of industry turning. Whether we carry 
on this give-away program under a pretext of making friends in foreign countries, 
whether we carry on a pretext of ]\Iarshall plans to build up the economy of other 
nations, or whether we carry it on in the guise of preparing for another world 
war, the economy all adds up to the same thing. We are rapidly reaching the 
point where our economy is comparable to that of Great Britain. We are rapidly 
reaching the point wlien our economy must fall of its own weight. 

If we do not make a radical change in our economy, Europeans coming to 
America will find that they have simply jumped out of the frying pan into the 
fire. Like cause produces like effect. We cannot survive as a strong nation with 
a one-sided economy any more than Great Britain or Germany could survive 
with a one-sided economy. It was the one-sided overdevelopment of industry 
in Germany and England and the resultant competition for foreign trade that 
brought on World War I and all the ills that followed in its wake. It was the 
industrial rebirth of Germany that brought on World War II. Germany was 
destroyed a second time by the armies of the world, but Great Britain has been 
as effectively destroyed economically and politically by the unbalance of its 
national economy. We now find ourselves in substantially the same economic 
category that Great Britain occupied in 1914 when World War I began. 

NO MORE IMMIGRANTS NOW 

Any immigrants brought into this country at this time can only add to our 
problem. Additional immigrants are bound, in a large measure, to come to rest 
in our urban centers. Socialistic and communistic ideas are already rampant 
in those centers. 

The last Congress passed an act to prevent any further large number of immi- 
grants coming into this country at the present. Certainly it seems to me that 
the policy of that legislation should be carried out for a reasonable time until 
proper adjustments can be made not only of our citizens who are newcomers 
but of our over-all population and economic problems. 

When we have made these adjustments, if we can, there will still be plenty 
of people who will want to come to America. 

At the meeting of leaders in the field of agriculture, labor, health, 
welfare, and education, called by Commissioner Linder, the problem 
of United States immigration policy was thoroughly discussed. The 
following statement presents the points revealed in the discussion. 

1. Immigration is a national rather than a State problem and should 
be considered under this aspect. The State of Georgia is not in the 
main stream of immigration, and even under a very liberal immigra- 
tion act it would receive only a small number of immigrants. (Recent 
experience has shown that most of the newcomers to the State have 
been effectively absorbed. The experiences with the recent displaced- 
persons program wdth regard to community acceptance of the new- 
comers are good examples.) 

2. Apart from the humanitarian and other considerations, an ob- 
jective appraisal of the economic development and future welfare of 
the Nation must be the basis of our national immigration policy. The 
group felt that a return to the type of mass immigration that pre- 
vailed up to the First World War is neither feasible nor desirable and 
can only aggravate our domestic problem. 

3. We recognize that our present position of world leadership im- 
poses upon the United States an obligation toward other nations with 
regard to immigration which we cannot shirk altogether without 
creating doubt in our right to exert moral as well as military, political, 
and economic leadership. 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1303 

■i. AVitli regard to the amount of desirable immigration, the opinion 
of tlie group varied. Some thought it advisable to have a temporary 
luih in immigration to give the country time to adjust itself to the 
great increase in labor productivity. There was a minority who be- 
lieved that the American economy will continue to grow at the same 
rate as before and that there will be not only a place for them but also 
n need for more immigration than is provided for in the current legis- 
lation. The inflow of new people is needed to assure that new ideas 
and new skills will be available in the future as they have been in the 
past. The group generally agreed that at present a limited amount 
of immigration is not harmful and that it can be beneficial provided 
the type of immigrants to be admitted is geared to the economic and 
social needs of the Nation. 

5. We consider it essential that the immigrants should come into 
typical American environment and accept American concepts of gov- 
ernment, and should not form new clusters of foreign-born people. 
The older agglomerations of foreign-born people have rapidly become 
Americanized as second and third generations replace tlie original im- 
migrants. In providing for more liberal innnigration legislation, this 
]H'oblem of proper resettlement shoidd be kept in mind. The group, 
however, was unanimous in that proper screening should be applied in 
order to select only those of particular profession or skill when needed 
to keep out subversive elements without impairing the flow of bona 
tide innnigration. 

(^. In view of the rapid and almost revolutionary decline in the farm 
population and the movement of large numbers of farm workers to 
industrial centers, there seems to be no sense in admitting immigrant 
farm workers who will soon drift into the cities the same way as 
native-born farm workers, but there appears to be room for qualified 
European immigrants when properly screened who want to become 
independent farmers of the type and caliber of the Pennsylvania Dutch 
and similar groups who have made an outstanding record in the 
Soutlieast as well as in other parts of the country. There is also room 
for workers with skills that are in rare supply, for independent crafts- 
men, and for professional people with goocl training, in short, for 
cjuality immigration. 

7. With regard to the long-range effects of immigration, group 
opinion was divided. Some felt that we are presently producing more 
than we can consume and that we shall find it increasingly hard to 
give jobs to all the people who need them, so that any large-scale ad- 
mission of immigrants would in the long run result in the displace- 
ment of the native-born workers. There were those who believe that 
in the future as in the past, every wave of immigrants will result in a 
further rapid rise of the standard of living, since the newcomers will 
contribute to the development of new types of economic activity and 
thereby help increase the number of available jobs. These members 
feel that we have nothing to fear in the future other than an attitude 
of resignation that would make it hard for us to make full use of the 
<)])portunities which the future offers to native-born and newcomers 
alike. 

It was the consensus of opinion that an "open door ])olicy" or even 
the laxity that has ])een practiced in I'ecent years would not only !)e 
inadvisable, but very likely detrimental to the future welfare of the 



1304 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

Nation. Our lorefatliers builded a o^reat Nation, carved it from the 
wilderness with the aid of unlimited natural resources, suffered un- 
told hardships with hostile enemy at home and abroad. Our inde- 
pendence was won, and in order to survive we were forced to do battle 
on the high seas and more recently on foreign soil. We, the sons, 
would not be true to the tradition of our forefathers should we fail 
to protect and safeguard the future of the Nation. Our Nation may 
be standing at the crossroads as the world seems to be on the march 
with so little stability except by force and fear; therefore, it is our 
firm conviction that we should proceed with caution. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Mr. Holton. 

Mr. RosENFiELD. Mr. Holton, if I understand this correctly, this 
statement which you have read includes three aspects; it includes 
commissioner of agi'iculture Mr. Linder's statement, a general point 
of view of those present at the meeting, and then your own consensus ?' 

Mr. Holton. That last paragraph was my own conclusion. 

Mr. RosENEiFXD. A conclusion of the consensus ? 

Mr. Holton. I tried to base it on the general opinion of those who 
were there. 

Mr. RosENFiELD. You have had a good deal of experience as a respon- 
sible officer in connection with the Georgia Displaced Persons Com- 
mission. I wonder if your judgment, and that of Mr. Linder, agrees 
with this general observation contained in point 1 of the statement 
from which you read, and which was presented at the meeting called 
by Mr. Linder, which I quote : "Recent experience has shown that 
most of the newcomers to the State have been effectively absorbed. 
The experience with the recent Displaced Persons Programs with 
regard to community acceptance of the newcomers are good examples" ; 
does that to your experience ? 

Mr. HoLTON. I cannot speak for Mr. Linder, but I can speak for 
myself as secretary of the Georgia Displaced Persons Connnittee. My 
experience has been that they were absorbed but not on the farm 
Avhere many of them were originally sent, because we have innumerable 
cases. Incidentally, Commissioner Linder in a little publication that 
we issued called the Georgia Market Bulletin, put a little notice in last 
week about this hearing, and wanted to know the opinion of the people 
in general who had had some experience with these displaced persons. 
Up until this morning — there are some 40 letters in this batch. We 
received some 25 of them this morning. That publication was mailed 
only last Wednesday. And most of these — I glanced through them 
rather hurriedly — are telling the sad experience that they had on the 
farm, and as far as I know at the present time, not a single farmer 
that I know of has been different. Now there may be some here in 
Georgia, as Dr. Sebba announced this morning, as the Director of the 
survey of the displaced persons program of Georgia, which he is con- 
ducting. But as far as I knoAv at the present time, I do not know a 
single farmer that has stayed on the original farm. Now we have 
moved a few of them and at the present time they are still sticking with 
the second man. But I do not know of a single one, but there may be 
some. 

Does that answer your question ? 

Mr. RosENFiELD. In part. Then are they following the general pat- 
tern that you have spoken of, of people moving from the farms 
elsewhere ? 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1305 

Mr. HoLTON. That is right. 

Mr. IvOSEXFiELD. Ill other words, is it not that they are unique but 
they are following the pattern of Georgia and the South in general, 
of moving out of the farms to the cities ? 

Mr. HoLTON. Except a little bit more rapid about it. 

Mr. RosKNFiELD. They are more rapid ? 

Mr. HoLTox. Yes. 

Mr. RosENFiELD. I woukl like to refer to another conclusion, con- 
tained in point 4 of the prepared statement you read, where the 
group whose names you have furnished the Commission said the 
following : ''The inflow of new people is needed to assure that new 
ideas and new skills will be available in the future as they have been 
in the past. The group generally agreed that at present a limited 
amount of immigration is not harmful and that it can be beneficial 
l)rovided the type of immigrants to be admitted is geared to the 
economic and social needs of the nation." 

As a distinguished public official of this State, would you be able 
to give the Commission your judgment on that general statement? 

Mr. HoLTON. No, I don't think so. Let me refer to there where it 
says ''The group generally agreed" — that particular question, Mr. 
Chairman, was not put to a vote; but there were several there that 
spoke favorablj^ on that point. 

Mr, KosENFiELD. Aiid do you find any difficulty with that as some- 
thing this Commission ought to bear in mind? 

ISIr, HoLTON, I don't think so. I think though if you will pardon 
me, that it is more a reference to industrial labor than agricultural — 
the D. P.'s in general. 

Mr. RosExFiELD. Well, that was the second point, another point 
about which I wished to ask you. Later on in point 6 of the prepared 
statement they refer to exactly the point you have referred to, stating : 
"There appears to be room for qualified European immigrants when 
properly screened who want to become independent farmers. * * *" 

Mr. HoLTOX'. I think we can agree on that. 

Mr. RosEXFiELD. Is there a shortage of farm labor in the State of 
(leorgia? 

Mr. HoLTox. In a general sense, no. Of course we do bring in some 
surplus labor during the harvest season. We brought in a few I under- 
stand, 40!) or 500 Mexicans this year, to one county down here, to help 
j)ick cotton, but that is temporary. Of course, you can't Just go and 
get farm labor like you could a few years ago. But I think in most 
sections there is an available supply of labor. That is due largely 
to the fact that Georgia, together with most of the Southern States, 
is glad to and is gradually going from a row crop system to a broad 
agricultural program which involves livestock, more pastures, and 
other ci-()])S like i)astiiros and hay. 

Mr. KosEXFiELD. As this movement from the one croj) economy be- 
comes more widespread, will you need iiKire people then? 

Mr. Hoi-Tox. No, we will need less j^eople. 

Mr. RosENFiELD. Less ])eople — -would that be true ? 

Mr. Hoi/rox. Yes, that seems to be true. This statement tliat you 
have refei-red to here — "We do feel, still, that with the amount of 
land that we have in Georgia" — now you will notice that is pretty 
well safeguarded there. It states the type of citizen that came in 



1306 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

during that time, those are the people that are interested in agri- 
culture. 

Mr. RosENFiELD. You mean you "svant real farmers ? 

Mr. HoLTON. We had in mind the type of people that helped settle 
the Northwest, particularly Minnesota and the Dakotas, that type of 
farmer who is really a farmer. We probably have room in Georgia 
for good dairymen, and probably some other farm people of that type 
who are interested in farmers, who are farmers because of their train- 
ing and background and experience, but not people wiio just have 
come over here and classify themselves as farmers, and within 6 
months they have gone to New Jersey or somewhere. 

Mr. RosENFiELD. Supposing you do get farmers of the kind you 
want, w-here do you think there would be need for them; you say in 
the dairy farms, where else, if any, do you need them ? 

Mr. HoLTON. The livestock people probably could use more — we 
probably could use more in our livestock department. Now we have 
here today one of our best farmers in the State who probably could 
answer that question much better than I. 

Mr. RoSENFiELD. In the room ? 

Mr, HoLTON. Yes, sir, he is in the room. 

The Chairman. Who is that? 

Mr. HoLTON. Mr. T. R. Breedlove back there is one of our best 
farmers. 

Mr. RosENFiELD. Perhaps he would be willing to testify before the 
Commission ? 

Mr. Breedlove (from audience). I might. Yes. 

Mr. RosENFiELD. May I ask one question further of Mr. Holton 
before Mr. Breedlove testifies? I take it from what you read under 
point 6 of your prepared statement, which was that there is also room 
for workers with skills that are in rare supply, for independent crafts- 
men, and for professional people w4th good training, in short, for 
quality immigration that there is no difficulty about that conclusion. 

Mr. HoLTON. Of course that statement there was prepared largely 
by Dr. Sebba, and Father Donovan, and I think it was read probably 
by Dean Gates of the University of Georgia, but that was their opinion 
and of course we did not take issue with them, because we simply did 
not have the facts. 

Commissioner O'Gradt. This morning we heard some testimony 
about the lack of skilled workers in the smaller towns like tailors, 
plumbers, and barbers and a number of such other skills. Are you 
familiar with that situation? 

Mr. HoLTON, Now on some of this, frankly I do not know, because 
my field is agriculture and I do not know about those things. I am 
not in a position to know. 

The Chairman. Mr. Holton, I wanted to ask you this : Did you 
find that some of these DP's who claimed to be farmers weren't really 
farmers at all ? 

Mr. HoLTON. Yes, we have considerable evidence to that effect. 

The Chairman. Then are you suggesting here that, if there is any 
more immigration, that the screening should be more careful and more 
adequate and more effective than it was before ^ 

Mr. HoLTON. Absolutely, Mr. Chairman. Let me say this, too : 
that along some year and a half ago, the United States Displaced 
Persons Commission asked the United States Department of Agricul- 



COMAIISSIOX OX IMMIGRATIOX AXD XATIRALIZATIOX 1307 

tine to loan them about five or six county agents, and we feel in oiu" 
own mind that the quality of so-called farmers that we got after 
these county agents went oyer to Europe and began to screen these 
people was much higher, men more in accordance with what they 
represented themselyes to be, than probably before. So we would 
highly recommend that these people be highly screened. I am speak- 
ing largely now from an agricultural standard, because that's my held. 

The Chairman. Of course. We haye heard this in other States, 
loo : that while they had no criticism to make of the type of people, 
and of their ability to assimilate in the Xation, yet they didn't assimi- 
late in the particular field in Mhich they claimed to have experience. 

In other words, some of them got in on the theory that they were 
farmers when actually they were found not to be farmers. I guess 
the experience in that has been the same in Georgia as it has been else- 
where, in that respect. 

Air. HoLTOX. 1 can give you one example that was reported to us 
by a letter a few days ago by two different people ; one was a farmer 
and the other was a merchant in a nearby country town, not over 100 
miles from here, where the DP that came in was supposed to have 
been a farmer, and of course he was sponsored by a farmer; but it 
appeai-s that when he got to this farm he knew practically nothing 
about farming, and it developed within a few months that he was not 
a farmer but a veterinarian, and he finally got over to the University 
of Georgia and took a refresher course for about 3 months and I under- 
stand he is with the Sanitary Board of the State of North Dakota 
at the pre.sent time, but he came in as a farmer, so the sponsor reported 
to us, and he was supposed to have been a farmer. Well, he wasn't 
interested in farming apparently, but he is a veterinarian, of course. 

Mr. RosEXFiELD. It is true, Mr. Holton, that most of these people 
were chosen for the sponsors by the religious agent or religious agencies 
which the sponsors themselves designated to select the DP's. 

Mr. HoLTOX. That's unfortunately true. 

Mr. RosEXFiELD. So most of these people that were selected were 
chosen at first by people designated by the sponsors to do the choosing, 
and it wasn't as you say, until this other technique was instituted that 
there was some device for checking on it. 

Mr. HoLTOX. That's true, absolutel3^ 

Mr. RosEXFiELD. Mr. Chairman, Mr. Breedlove — whom Mr. Holton 
has mentioned — is one of those who was originally invited to appear, 
but we were unable to communicate with him more recently; and he 
has now indicated he will be willing to testify. 

The Chairmax. Mr. Breedlove, you may testify, if you will. 

STATEMENT OF T. R. BREEDLOVE 

Mr. Bheedlo\'e. I am T. R. Breedlove, a farmer, of Alonroe, Ga. 

The Chairmax. ]\Ir. Breedlove, you heard the testimony or the 
statement made by Mr. Holton, and he suggested you might be able 
to advise the Commission as to whether or not there is a need for 
labor on the farms in this State. 

Mr. Breedloat.. First, I would like to make a little explanation of 
just why I am here, and that is on the invitation of Mr. Rosenfield, 
your executive director, and through our assistant secretary of 
agriculture. 

25356 — 52 S3 



1308 COMMISSIOX ox IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

I serve, in addition to being a farmer, I serA'e as chairman of the 
State agricultural and State production and marketing administra- 
tion committee, a committee composed of five farmers appointed by 
the secretary of agriculture. But I would like to just speak as a 
farmer of Walton County. Monroe, Ga. 

With reference to there being a need for a farm laborer, we could 
use some trained or skilled farm labor. We have an ample supply, 
in my honest opinion, of the kind of labor that we have on the fann. 
I would like to emphasize the fact that, as Mr. Holton mentioned to 
you. we are changing our system of farming, in that we are not grow- 
ing the row crops that we formerly grew, but are going more for 
liA^estock, both dairying and hogs and beef cattle. It will take less 
labor but more skill. 

I would like to say, first, that in conn.ection with your legislation, 
which, as I understand the law — your McCarran-Walter bill, which 
is now law — to me, it is an answer to a problem that has grown on 
us in our country over many, many years. Suddenly, we, in agri- 
culture, do not use labor as we had even 10 years ago, but we are 
usino; mechanical equipment to fann with and in producing entirely 
ditTerent crops, and harvesting them in a different way. T^^len we 
tiiink of the population increase in this country today, with the 
population going down and down continuously on the farm, yet with 
the increase in population of more than 2,000,000 ])eople a year of our 
own Nation, I feel we have a vei*y definite responsibility to improve 
the conditions of our own people — to help build the standard of living 
there. And if we are going to have any immigration from other 
countries, ceitainly they should be screened, and screened more care- 
fully than ever before, because I think we have the leadership and 
the know-how in this Nation, so far as agriculture is concerned, and 
I would not attempt to speak for even agriculture, or any other phase 
of our economy; but we have the know-how in our own land to grow 
the food and for not only this countiy of ours but to help those 
friendly to us. And without thinking of opening the doors for im- 
migrants to continue to increase in numbers into our country, I fe^l 
definitely that they should be closed as this bill provides, screened 
more carefully, and that to help our friendly countries throughout 
tJie world that our point 4 program is the way to help them, because 
cei-tainly we can go into their countries and help them better than 
we can attempt to bring a few individuals and farmere and families 
here to rehabilitate them here in our land. 

I certainly hope that this kind of legislation will stand. 

The Chairman. Well, you know that under the new act, Mr. Breed- 
love, there are provisions for the admission of ap])roximately 154,000 
people a year, and the question has been raised with us as we traveled 
around the country, as to whether the quota system set forth in the act 
is the proper way to admit those who can qualify. Have you any 
views on that or not? 

Mr. Breedlove. I would just say this in connection with a quota 
system : I think certainly that is a question of national scope, and 
one in which certainly we should be sure that, whether it be 54,000 
or 154,000 would not matter so much, but it is the quality which we are 
going to get, in whatever number that are allowed to come into our 
country. Certainly, we can, I am sure, use new blood, but certainly 
we want to be sure that it is the right kind, and that it is going to 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1309 

serve in tlie ])lace "vvliich it comes to our country to serve, and cer- 
tainly 1 think your quota sy.steni mio-ht be looked at very, very care- 
fully between countries, between nations, and I would not be compe- 
tent to say hoAv it should be chani^ed. 

But I think definitely you have <io( to have some plan, and, of 
course, I know of no better way than to set some kind of a quota. 

The Chairman. Do you think the quota system should be based on 
a national origins formula, according to the census of 1920? 

Mr. Bre?:dlove. I would say so far as race, color, religion, or creed, 
I would certainly not consider anything other than the qualilications 
to meet the standards of whatever they were broujiht into this country 
for. 

The Chairman. In other w ords, are you saying that you think that 
first you have to ascertain what are the needs of the United States, 
and then you get human beings to fit those qualifications ? 

]\Ir. Breedlovk. Definitely so. 

The Chairman. You Avould have health, security standards, and 
all other essential kinds of standards? 

iNIr. Breedlove. All kinds of standards, on what our needs are, 
and then fit the people to what our needs are. 

The Chairman. Irrespective of others? 

Mr. Breedlove. Irrespective. I have got no feeling tliat we should 
be discriminatory at all in that field. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much. 'Sir. Breedlove. 

?di-. IJifKEDi.oM:. Thank you, s'l-. 

The Chairman. Mr. Holton, I understand you have a summary that 
might be of some help to us in the record. 

Mr. HoLTON. No, Mr. Chairman, I don't have the summary yet. I 
just asked Mr. Shirk if it would be permissible for me to submit a 
summary, a kind of resume. I have quite a file of letters, some bad and 
not so good. 

The Chairman. That's all right. We would like to have whatever 
information you have. 

Mr. HoLTON. Fine; I would be glad to do that. 

The Chairman. You Avill send it on to us in Washington? 

Mr. HoLTON. That's right; just for your information. 

The Chairman. Thank you, sir. The record will be kept open at 
this point for the insertion of that summary wdien it is received. 

(The summary follows:) 

Department of Agriculture, 

State Capitol, 
Atlanta 3, Ga., November 7, 1952. 
Hon. Philip P. Peklman, 

Chairman, President's Commission on Immigration and Naturalization, 
Washinfiton, D. C. 

Dear Mr. Perlman : In accordance with understanding of agreement made at 
the hearing in Atlanta, Ga., October 17, I am submitting a supplementary state- 
ment in regard to the operation of the displaced persons program in Georgia. 
You will find a resume of letters received l)y me during the past few weeks. 

Dr. .James H. Little, .5341 First Street, Tucker, Ga. : Has 60 acres of land, 15 
registered Hereford cattle, hogs and chickens, with five-room concrete block 
cottage with all conveniences, Norge refrigerator, electric range, washing ma- 
chine, which liad rented for $6.5 a month. Received DP Jan Cytrinoqicz, wife 
and two children from Brunswick, Germany. Nationality, Lithuanians. Pur- 
chased $300 milk cow, paid them $100 month cash, half milk and butter and 
eggs produced on farm, to act as caretaker, rent and all conveniences fi'ee. 
Their obsession aVhs to own an automobile. Began immediate correspondence 
witli Lithuanian colony, Cliicago. They made no bones about their dislike for 



1310 COMMLSSIOX ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

America and Americans. Man had an annoying habit of Iteatinu liis wife on 
Snnday. "I interceded and made liim stop beating his wife and nsing profane 
language." The following day he departed for Chicago ^yitllont warning. ITt- 
rerances insulting and seditious. ''As far as the DP problems are concerned, the 
Americans are pure damn fools — not excluding yours truly." 

f^rick Dederscheck, mute No. 1. llillen. Ga. : Arrived T'nited States 1930, 
worlied on farm in Illinois 3 years, moved to Jenkins County, Ga., 1933. Upon 
insistence of sister in Germany, got Mr. Sid Newton, with aid of Congressman 
I'reston. to sponsor In-other-in-law and family. The people of the local Baptist 
<-hurcli and Jenkins County pr(jvi(led all necessities to start them housekeeping. 
3lr. Newton paid the man .$2.1 per we"k rain or shine. Brother-in-law's name 
is Berthohl Beolow. He lived on Polish liorder. He was going to be court- 
inartialed by the German Army for destroying Army property, but the French 
t(K)k him prisoner. Dederscheck says that after he returned, follo\\/.ng his re- 
lease by the French, he stole farmers" potatoes and chickens and anything he 
could find. The DP repaid Mr. Newton for railroad fare from New Orleans. 
Dedeischeck paid $7.") for furniture. $2l> to lawyer on bill of $250. DP bought 
.$200 ice box, paid $70. Dederscheck says, "We want these people sent back to 
Germany. They are no good to lis ; not any DP is good." 

B. L. Helton, Jr., route No. 1. Wortbem, Ga. : Employed DP with wife and 
3-year-old bal)y March 1952, for general farm work. Attitude^at first very good, 
later had to check his work behind him. Neighbors assisted in setting up 
housekeeping. Left for Michigan, August 1952. The DP said they were told 
before leaving Germany they would get $1.25 per hour to begin work with, and 
farming cannot stand that kind of price for unskilled labor. Learned from 
DP that it was prearranged before leaving Germany with friends in United 
States to accept any kind of offer to come to this countr.y. "Personally I feel 
that the Government d(jes not realize what a grave mistake it may be making. 
I>isplaced persons will promise anything to get into this country." Practically 
all that I know. They are moving back to the congested areas in Michigan and 
New York. This is only one of tlie many families that have come into Wash- 
ington County and left for greener pastures. 

F. A. Bailey, 130 King Street, Charleston, S. C. : Have been closely connected 
With this work through Lutheran Council and in position to know what has 
happened to several cases brought in for the past 2 years. "In every instance 
the average person that was sponsored stayed from 1 week to 3 months and 
some the maximum of 1 year." I sponsored an Estonian family — man, wife, 
two children, giving them use of five-room cottage on plantation, completely 
furnished, lights and everything on the farm that was required for food. Farm 
modern with modern equipment. They had practically nothing to buy except 
coffee and sugar. After 1 year, in middle of crop season 1951, he told me that 
he was leaving within 2 weeks if I didn't raise his salary from $S0 to $100 
a month, including everything that I mentioned above that I furnished him 
without cost. He remained on another year and in IVhiy 1952, he issued an lU- 
timatum tliat he was leaving for St. Louis within 2 weeks regardless. He had 
saved better than $1,000, but said he could get $2 an hour in St. Louis as a 
brick mason. I travel through South Carolina. Florida, Louisiana, and Mis- 
sissippi, and find that everybody has had the same experience. Why continue 
to kid ourselves as these people do not add to otir way of life and in every 
instance, 90 percent of them do not become naturalized citizens. I would like 
to complete this letter with the following remark: "Just how stupid can we 
Americans contimte to be?" 

Thomas H. Carter, Johns Island, S. C. : Sponsored a coUege-edticated Latvian, 
wife, and datighter. I'aid railroad fare from New York to Charleston, without 
cost to them. The man was a splendid worker, but his wife was most disa- 
greeable. The daughter had a sunny disposition and made splendid grades at 
school. They remained 11 months and joined a colony in (irand Kapids, Mich. 
The DP idea was good Init they played the Americans badly for a bunch of 
stickers. 

An Admirer, Atlanta. Ga. : No personal experience with DP's, but read about 
several hundred that were brought to Louisiana farms and after several weeks 
of new life in this country they rebelled and said they had rather be returned 
to Poland, as they could not subsist on the food, and the pay they were receiv- 
ing was inadefpiate. Catholic priest sent them North to industrial centers. 
One Jew DP making good in .iewelry business in Macon, Ga. Rich's in Atlanta 
employing Jews. 

Otis A. Chandler. Social Circle, Ga. : German family of six arrived IMay 1952, 
worked on dairy farm at small salary and poor living quarters. DP and sponsor 



CO.VIMISSION OX IM.MI(iir\II()X AND XATIHALIZATIOX 1311 

c-ould not work together satisfactorily. I'aid sponsor in fnll and moved to 
Farrell, I'a.. September l!(r)2. 

C. \V. Hodi-^son, 7()(» Conway Itoad XW.. Atlanta, Ga. : June V.)~>2, .lohann 
Taniassy and wife moved from Oklalioma City to my residence. They were 
from Iliinuai'y and have heen in the Cnited States about 1 year, holding several 
jobs in Oklahoma. Mr. Tamassy spoke no Knglish, little (Jermau. n;itive speech 
Ma.siyar. Her attitude bad. ■'They stated that the only reason that they came 
to America was because they understood they could get old-age pensions and 
other benelits." Xow employed at Shorter Colleges Kcmie, (Ja. "Frankly, our 
experience with these people was most discouraging, and it is a little difficult 
for me to understand why our (Jovernment would pernut people of this class 
to come into this country merely to enjoy the benefits without producing work 
of their own." 

Mrs. J. (). M. Smith. Hout«' 4. Commerce. (Ja., operator of I'edigreed Seed Farm : 
Throu'-'h Southern Uaptist Convention, secured Helena Dietericks, Russian 
woman, age ~u. Feliruary 2H. 1!).")2. Worked as housekeeper and treated as a 
mendier of the fanuly in a home with all modern facilities. "I have to look 
after my farm, or I would never have put in an application for hei-." '"With 
typical Russian cniuiing, she merely iised me as a stepping stone. I think she 
is a humbug and should be deported." Innnediatel.v upon arrival, she began 
to correspond with friends in Xew York, where her present address is 447 New 
Jersey Avenue, Itrooklyn T. X. Y. 

E. J. .Times. 2080 North Side Drive N.W.. Atlanta. Ga. : Met Latvian :\Iinister 
in Atlanta, March 1949. and selected DP from photo, supposedly with farm 
background. Corresijonded with DP. T. Dumpis, several times, explaining in 
detail type of work on my farm, Greene County, Ga. DP wrote me to sponsor 
his €n-year-old mother, brother, and sister. All arrived Thanksgiving Day 1949. 
except brother, who was refused admittance. After a day or two on farm, 
working conditicms were nevei- right with them, either too cold or some other 
reason. He put out report that tliey were not getting enough food, and the 
county agent came to my farm and was shown that they were fed as well as any 
member of my family. Two boys were put in public school. Vocational teacher 
arranged for them to move to another farm. I was finally paid in full for money 
advanced on travel, etc. DP later moved to Lexington, and Dr. Cavanough got 
him in the I'luversity of Georgia for a refresher course. It develoi>ed that he 
was a trained veterinarian and later moved to North Dakota. Other examples 
of unsatisfactoi-y experience were given by Mr. Jones. "I say keep all of them 
out of our country. The good ones don't want to come over, and we don't want 
the soiry ones." 

J. M. Howard, Howard Mercantile Co., Stephens, Ga. : Same DP as above. 
"I helped this man to attend the •■oUege at Athens for one quarter and hoped to 
get him a license to practice in Oglethorpe County; however, be was never able 
to get a permanent license. He was by far the best veterinarian I ever used; 
was very soiry he could not locate in Oglethorpe. At the present time, he is 
working for tlie State Livestock Board of North Dakota. He is a very ln.;h-type 
man. had a splendid family. The entire family would be an addition to any 
comnuuuty. Working with this man. and what I know of tlie displaced people 
wh(» have been brought to this section of Georgia, the first mistake the Government 
is making is bringing the intellect of Europe here and expecting them to become 
common laborers. These people have never done any manual labor, nor do they 
know how to Work." 

T. S. Oliver. Route L Jonesboro. Ga. : Lutheran Evangelicals came to Atlanta 
spring 1949 to find sponsors for DP's. "I went to see liim and he told me if I 
would sponsor a family lu' would assure me the.v would stay with me at least a 
year. They arrived November 1949, two men. two wcmien. and a 2-year-old child. 
I was imme<liate]y advised that they woidd not sign a contract as to length of 
service. Three and one-half months later the young woman joined relatives iu 
Chicago. Her husband, father, and mother remained through the wilder, with 
work that I liad provided. They repaid me money advanced. The husband 
joined his wife in Chicago and the old couple moved to another farm and in less 
than (i montlis they were in Chicago. "Xo disphned i)ers()ns si oidd be allowed 
to enter the I'nited States to work on the farm unless they .sign a contract f(»r 
definite i)eriod." 

Mrs. A. S. Yarn, P. O. P.ox ir,93, Savannah, Ga. : "I know Mr. and Mrs. Ed 
Preetorius, Statesboro, Ga.. had most unsatisfactory dealings with the ones they 
had." "It is one of the most dangerous things the American people can do to 
let these millions of foreigners swamp our country, and so much faster than 
they can be assinulated. thus enal)ling their foreign ideologies to be trans- 



1312 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

planted and rooted in our Nation." They are, of course, an asset to tlie party 
that lets them enter the country, because for this favor they will help keep 
the party in power." 

Ed L. Preetorius, P. O. Box 354, Statesboro, Ga. : Assigned a Polish family 
consisting of father, mother, two grown sons, and .voung daughter. Sponsored 
by local Catholic priest and were supposedly hand-picked for our particular 
needs. "More than 30 families were sent to this neighborhood. All were 
claimed to be farmers. It became obvious immediately that there was not a 
farmer in the lot." They knew nothing of farming methods and were largely 
textile workers. They were provided with a seven-room house furnished com- 
pletely. They did the milking and were furnished 4 gallons of milk daily, wood, 
poultry, garden plot, and electricity free. We leaned over backward to give 
them every opportunity. Two children placed in school and .iobs secured at 
local hospital for older daughter who had preceded them. I^ater joined by young 
man former friend of the family who later married the older daugliter and a 
nice wedding, including reception, inviting all disi)Iace(l families in the country, 
was given them, including refreshments, \\edding cake, dance, etc. "We shared 
our clothes with them, our bed linen ; we showed them how to can vegetaljles, 
raise their own chickens; gave them pigs to raise for themselves and sincerely 
believed they were happy and intended staying." At their request, we entered 
into tenant's contract on the farm. The father and mother "retired" as they 
were too old to work — 40 and 50 years of age. The daughter and husband worked 
outside the farm at a salary. We were advised one morning the entire family 
was moving to Savannah immediately, where they had secured employment 
and living quarters. "My wife kept in touch with them even after they moved 
to Savannah and found that the welfare agencies were taking care of them 
most of the time." It seems the jobs were temporary and when the baby 
arrived welfare agencies had to take care of all expenses. That family moved 
to Holyoke, Mass., and later a letter was received from a "friend of the family" 
which was most insulting. All of the DP's have left Bulloch and Screven 
Counties and joined relatives elsewhere. Our family was the last to go and 
they stayed just long enough to get the sister and her husband here. They 
stayed only 5 days after the sister arrived. 

Mrs. F. M. McCullough, 46 Beverly Road NE., Adaiita, Ga. : "I want to tell 
you about the Latvians I saw in Sledge, Miss., where I spent last winter. I 
suppose they came under the heading of 'displaced persons' or 'uproot^-d persons.' 
They were capable, intelligent, and made very desirable citizens. At Senatobia, 
another town about 20 miles from Sledge. Ihere was such a colony of them; 
they had their own little church and pastor, and are Protestants. At Sledge 
there is a growing furnitin-e factory, operated, I think, entirely by I^atvians. I 
suppose there are many in Georgia of ti'e same type. I just do not liappen to 
know of them and am x^riting this that the idea may he conveyed, some displaced 
persons, and I dare say many will prove assets rather than liabilities to a com- 
munity and I feel sure the women of displaced f.unilies long for homes to keep 
and something to be interested in." 

Mrs. Benjamin A. Pollock, Terrell Mill Road, Route 3, Marietta, Ga. : Spon- 
sored John Renner and family through National Lutheran Couneil. Arrived 
February 10.52. Children attending Marietta schools and can speak English 
fluently. Oldest boy advanced beyond his ago. Oldest girl of 10 works in Pollock 
home and is said to be a fine, intelligent, industrious girl. The sponsor gave 
them a .'*mall home and milk cow. They have equipped this farm with chickens, 
hogs, and other livestock, all paid for and gradually repaying the Lutheran 
Council for money advanced for transportation. Th.ese are fine, industrious, and 
conscientious people and have not aske<l for one thing since arrival, except the 
money they earned for their work. They attend church at Marietta and make 
weekly contributions. "You would think the younger children had lived here all 
their lives, they are so well integrated into the American way of life." I con- 
sider the Renners to be good citizens of this community. As soon as possible 
they will become naturalized. We pay them a salary they can live decently on. 
T. .1. McConnell. Cleveland, Ga. : Sponsored DP family, I'aul Kalynowsky, 
through United Ukranian Relief Organization, man, wife, and two children. 
Arrived October 10. 1949 ; left December 16, 1949. Through correspondence set- 
ting forth our requirements and upon information furnished by DP, this family 
was selected. The DP did not like the country and refused to try to communi- 
cate with sponsor. All communications were with his wife, and instead of being 
44 years old, he was 57. He was supposed to know something about auto-engine 
repair work, but knew absiolutely nothing about gas engines, woodworking, or 
anything of that nature. Finally put him to raking leaves and other odd jobs. 



COMATISSIOX OX LMiMIGKATIOX AND XATIRALIZATION 1313 

Tlirouj:h coriesponuence he liad located 13 other l)l''s who had gatliorcd at the 
insane asylum at Owniiifis Mills, Md. "These lueu had heeii si)onsored by farmers 
jUI over Amei'ica .nist so tl:at they eould get into the country." "Some of them 
were on these farms less than a month. " "They .iust used these farmers as dupes 
as they did me." The r>l' re(iuested funds to go to Maryland, but tlie sponsor 
and the relief organization refused. They conununicated with other DP's and 
received money by return mail. 

"This sh(»wed me that the whole thing had been organized while still in the 
camps in Europe." "He falsihed his statement to enter the country." "On his 
own statement he had been an officer in the Russian Army. Mr. McConnell re- 
ports il i;it lie has not received one penny in repayment for the expense that was 
incurred in bringing this family to his farm and for keeping them during the 
short time they remained with him. The matter has been taken up with the 
Ukrainian Itelief Organization without result. He also states that he lias asked 
C"<mLiressn\an Wood to start necessary proceedings to have this man deported, 
as he has violated his oath of entry, falsified statements, and entered by fraiid. 
The DP's present address is 112 Jackson Place, Baltimore 31, Md. 

G. W. Pirkle, Route 1, Sycamore, Ga. : Sponsored A. A. Janson and family, 
Latvians: arrived October l!)4iJ from a German DP camp. June 1951, they 
moved to South Carolina. They were requested to stay on the farm until crops 
could be harvested, but they stated they were hunting bigger jobs with more 
pay. Janson said v\iien he moved that he didn't care for principle; it was dollars 
and cents that he was after. Mr. Pirkle assisted his brother-in-law, W. C. Comp- 
ton, in sponsoring a German family of five named Hotfman through the South- 
ern Baptist DP Office, New Orleans, La., that remained 6 weeks, arriving in 
May 1952 and leaving in June for California. 

Foster W. Bolin, Shellman, Ga. : Early part of 1949 sponsored DP Adolpe 
Baginsky through Church World Service. Arrived August 1950, and the first 
2 or 3 weeks "exceeding my fondest expectations." In few weeks began to re- 
ceive foreign-language newspaper from Cleveland, Ohio. "It soon became very 
evident that he had intended to use the farm only as a stepping stone to gain 
enrrarice into the United States." "In an effort to encourage him to remain as a 
farm worker, I offered to give him the necessary assistance to purchase a farm 
iu 2 or 3 years. He then told me that he was wasting his time on the farm." 
Colonel Molner, Cuthbert attorney on active duty at Pentagcm Building, Wasli- 
ington, conversed with the DP and suggested that I contact Senator Russell 
and ask that he be deported. I was convinced he was unworthy of America. "I 
could mention other instances, bnt it will suffice to say that in my opinion 
America has not'been helped by the entry into this country of the vast majority 
of these displaced persons." 

A. R. Hicks, president, Soque Club, Inc., route No. 1, box 96, Atlanta, a club of 
Atlanta citizens own considerable acreage in the mountains of north Georgia, 
where they maintain a social club, and for more than a year Mr. Hicks has made 
a despM-ate effort to locate two Dl' families to look after this property. Two 
faniilif-s assigned him, arrived at different times, and after being fully informed 
(if conditions, surroundings, etc., they accepted, but one remained only a few days 
and the other moved within less than a month, both going to other locations in 
Georgia. 

H. G. Walton, 2000 Warlick Place, NE., Atlanta, Ga. Three displaced families 
were placed on farms in Butts County, Ga., at an expenditure of $5,000 "proved 
to be the worst people God ever made. Without any notice left over night for 
Grand Rapids, Mich." 

Mr. J. T. Holloway, 710 Bonaventure Road, Savannah, Ga. A young Bulgarian 
lived in this home for S months. He was in Germany studying pharmacy at the 
outitreak of the war and not allowed to return home and at the close of the war 
unsafe- to return. His sister, who was studying English in an Austrian college 
;it the time of the (lutl)reak of war, married an American officer in 194G. They 
arranged for the young man to come to America. "After working on a farm 
whili- he studied Englisii, he secured a position in a drug store and boarded at 
my home. He was very ambitious and a tine, honest, well educated young man." 
He is now with his sister in Detroit and his bi-other-in-law. The American officer 
holds a degree in agricultural engineering and has a good position with Interna- 
tional Harvester Co. 'I spent 3 months this summer in Texas and Washiiigtou 
States vvhere I came in contact with several displaced persons who were fine 
persons and seemed very grateful for an opportunity to live and work in this 
country."' 

Rev. James R. Smith. i)astor, Graystone Presbyterian Chui-ch, r.loiuit Avctuie, 
Knoxville, Tenn. 



1314 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATrKALIZATION 

The t'hiirch sponsttrert two families, Katcliie Szathmary and wife, and Col. 
Jeno Matefy and wife, parents of Mrs. Szathmary. Although a colonel in the 
Hungarian Army, Mr. Matefy took a janitor's job. After a year and 4 months 
he died and the entire eity mourned his passing. Many people contributed to 
care, preparation, and burial. "These are all wonderful people. Simple, hard 
working, cultural, trustworthy, grateful and gentle people in every way wondei*- 
ful citizens." The younger man, Mr. Szathmary, is an accountant by profession. 

"You will hear, I am sure, of many families that di<l not work out well. I 
know of one here that their farmer sponsor abu.sed until the comnninity took them 
away from him. I know too that at one time only farm folk were being admitted 
and many to get out of Europe before Stalin broke in on them, claimed to be 
farmers and were not and were misfits in this country until they were moved. 
We do not think of these peoples as displaced persons any more, but as delayed 
pilgrims. There must be a proi>er percentage of bad ones, but we have not found 
them anjong those that have come into our care yet. 

"This church has issued a special bulletin giving the life story of these people, 
history of their country, and a short de.><cription of their experiences during the 
war period and afterward." 

107 West Walnut Street. Montpelier, Ohio, (name withheld by request), a 
fai-mer living near Michigan line reported of a neighbor that had brought in three 
DP families. "He sai<l the Government was taking these farmers' boys for the 
Army and bringing in these people, most of them with families of six or eight 
people, and sometimes two or three boys of military age." This man was told 
by neighbors this had to be stopped or they would hanille him accordingly. 
"My husl)and says they are going to kill off all the American hoys and fill up the 
country with misplaced riersons. They bring them in and they can no doubt 
get on relief as soon as they get in the country and then if they woik a month 
or two, or the required time, they can get unemployment compensation. The 
first atomic bomb should be dropi)ed on Fnited Nations. I never have believed in 
having someone else run our country for us. We are scattering our sul)stance to 
the four winds and making a bunch of jiarasites of all the people we are helping. 
I think it is nothing mcn-e than a Comnmnist plot to keep the war going, kill off 
all our men, and fill this country with aliens. And, the dumb clucks down in 
A\'ashington are most of me-too boys. They are a bunch of suckers and grab 
the bait and fall for all this Marshall plan stuff. I think of the blood that has 
been spilled by Americans to make this country free, and how it is going to the 
dogs since the advent of the New Deal. Our own Government is helping to 
demoralize our youth. Hut. of course, that is the way the Connnunist expect 
to take over. Hitler did the same thing with his youth camps and advocated 
free love." 

V. S. Crippen, county agricultural agent. Liberal, Kans. : Erjiest L'^e, Fowler, 
Kans., sponsored E. Kopmanus, Latvians, through the P'riends Church. The man 
was supposed to have been a farmer, but he is a jjrocessor of fruits and as soon 
as his year was up, he secured employment in Wichita. His wife learned to 
run a tractor and returns every summer to the farm of F]rnest Lee. their spon- 
sor, to help during the harvest season. Mr. Lee also sponsored Mrs. Kapmaims' 
parents and found employment for them in a packing house in Wichita. 

J. Herman Salley, Liberal. Kans.. .sponsored Bruno Silzars and family through 
P'riends Church. Bruno's records show that he was a graduate in architecture 
and building inspector for the city of Riga, Latvia. He came over as a car- 
penter and followed that profesion with Mr. Salley until he repaid all expenses 
involved. He now has a good position with the Panhandle Eastern IMpeline 
Co. as a draftsman. He is an artist, winning second and third prizes with ex- 
hibits at the State fair. He recently addressed the American As.sociation of 
University Women telling of his expei'iences in Latvia under the communistic 
regime. He took a course in citizenship at the University of Kansas and will 
become a naturalized citizen. 

Mrs. Chester A. Burge, 1011 Nottingham Drive, Macon, Ga., son and husband 
in Europe 3 months 19."»1, and submitted application through the local Lutheran 
minister for the family of DP's. 

Mr. Burge visited Frankfort, Germany, to interview a DP family personally. 
The.v were told when interviewed they would be given $140 per month salary, 
furnished an apartment that had OPA ceiling at $90 per month, with all utilities 
and if they remained in their employ they would be given $10,000 at the death 
of the last survivor, either INIr. or Mrs. Burge, and a comfortable home com- 
l)arable to their situation in life. Soon after arriving, they were taken to law 
firm of Turpin and Lane and they prepared a contract in accordance with the 
above, which was witnessed by Dr. Oleson of Mercer University. The DP 



COMMISSIOX OX IMMlCPvATIOX AND NATURALIZATION 1315 

fjiiiiily was taken to Atlanta and outfitted with unit'onns in tlie amount of 
i^22.". at Rich's. They were not happy from the day of arrival and from time 
to time had erea'ed confusion and dissention. They complained ahout the 
(limale and other thinus. After heiiifi- there 'A months, they wanted to buy an 
automobile, but had not paid a dime for clothinf;-. etc. that has been purcliased 
for them. Mr. Burge purchased the automobile for them. This family re- 
mained 10 months and upon leaving demanded title to tlie car. When advised 
there was a mortgage on tlie car and uniforms purchased in Atlanta, com- 
plained to the Lutheran minister, who advised they nuist meet their obliga- 
tions and within a short time they submitted a cashier's check for both tlie 
car and other oblig.'itions. The Lutheran minister requested Mr. Burge to 
sp(.)nsor a doctor and his wife. Employment was secured for him in the office 
of Sam Chandler Insurance Co., and the man remained 3 weeks. Both he 
and his wife complained of the heat, bad quarters, and left for Philadelphia, 
Pa. The first family moved to Chelsea, Mass. The salary of $140 was for 
both nuui and wife, she being maid in the liome and he a butler, chauffeur 
condiination. 

XoTK. — All correspondence in connection with this case that was exchanged 
between the spon.sor and the L)P"s during the many months passed between the 
time of the interview and arrival in tliis country was submitted and has been 
examined carefully. 

Helen Courtois, Keep America Committee, P. O. Box 3094, Terminal Annex, 
Los Angeles, Calif. : "We hope you will be on the spot and use most of their 
time to foil the dirty plot of Ti-uman to fail to execute that fine McCarran bill 
that will save us from the influx of hundreds of thousands of the scum of 
Europe and Asia. Most of the highly trained Bolsheviks, the Jews, being now- 
evicted from Russia, it is planned to have here for their take over. We must 
foil that plot. Please do your bit Friday. The McCarran Act will make it 
possible to hold back the tlood if our people are alerted and act fast. 

Robert Stocks, (iarden Plain. Kans., sponsored a DP from Munich, Ger- 
many. The man was a trained agricultural specialist and his wife a doctor. 
They said they hoped sponsor would not meet them as they knew Russian 
friends in New York who would send for them. After week or more they refused 
to work. Friend signed up for another family of five, but the UP's refused his 
propcisition. However, he received wire to send $200 to New^ Orleans. The 
doctor couple said the.v were real farmers. Mr. Stocks took them, sent children 
tti school. They occupied cabin completely furni.shed. Four months 1 day 
Russian friend in New York sent Hrst couple tickets and they escaped to New 
York State. They took property valued at $300.00. We bought children clothes, 
but not even thanked for it. They would not cooperate. The last couple 
moved to Detroit after sponsor gave them $•")(). His total loss was about $450, 
with no returns. 

With kindest regards, I am 
Sincerelv yours. 



Enclosure. 



(Signed) Tom Linder, 
Commissioner of Af/riculturc. 



The following is quoted from a letter i-e<-eive(l from Dr. M. D. Collins, State 
superinreiideiit of schools. State department of education, Atlanta, Ga., October 
ir.. l!t,->L': 

' Dkah -Mr. Lixuer : Yes, I agree with your [Oint of view about having a 
<-<»nference relative to this important immigration matter. The Junior Order 
United American Mechanics is taking a definite position on tliis qtiestion an<l 
believes he-artily in restricted immigration. I am enclosing to y(ni a memorandum 
which has been prepared for another meeting by our attorney." 

'Die Chairman. Is Mi'. Miller liere? 

STATEMENT OF ALEXANDER F. MILLER, SOUTHERN DIRECTOR, 
ANTI-DEFAMATION LEAGUE OF B'NAI B'RITH 

Mr. Miller. I am Alexander F. JNIiller, 11 Pryor Street, Atlanta. 
1 am sontliern director of the Anti-Defamation Lea<iiie of ITnai B'rith, 
^vhich covers the region from Vir<>;inia through Texas. 

I liave a prepared statement I would like to read. 



1316 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

The Chairman. You may do so. 

Mr. Miller. E'liai B'rith is America's oldest civic organization of 
American Jews. It represents a membership of 300,000 men and 
women and their families. 

The Anti-Defamation League is the educational area of B'nai B'rith. 

It is a creative organization seeking to build in the lives of all 
Americans those basic attitudes on which good human relations are 
founded. 

It is an action organization acting for the continual expansion of 
democratic horizons. 

I am grateful for this opportunity to express my views with refer- 
ence to our immigration and naturalization laws. We believe it is 
healthy and significant that from time to time we examine objectively 
our procedures, our policies and our laws, to determine whether they 
are consonant with the democratic patterns established so wisely by 
our forefathei's. 

It is our belief that the current immigration and naturalization laws 
are at variance with the democratic process. We believe that our im- 
migration policies are a paradox which not only tend to undermine 
our international and domestic situation, but are also an affront to 
our morality and to our ethics. 

The several reasons for our opposition to the current immigration 
and naturalization policies have been rehearsed before this Com- 
mission many times. It is my intention today to list these reasons 
but briefly in order to give background and perspective for the specific 
testimony I shall attempt to offer with regard to the southern scene. 

The three main features of our present immigration laws are : 

(A) The principle that persons who may be harmful to our country, 
such as criminals, subversives, diseased, are absolutely excluded: 

(B) the principle of limitation of the number of immigrants permitted 
to enter the United States in any year; and (C) the system of racial 
and national exclusion and preferences b}^ which quotas are assigned 
to some lands and denied to others. 

As to tlie first of these principles, the right to exclude undesirables, 
we think that it has the solidest support of American public opinion. 
Americans quite properly insist that immigrants be good human 
material. 

The second of these principles, the idea of a numerical limitation 
upon the total volume of immigration in the United States, was an 
outgrowth of the isolationist thinking of the early twenties. During 
the past quarter of a century that attitude of necessity has been pro- 
foundly modified. Xo only have opinions changed on the whole 
problem of isolationism, but more s])ecifically that part of the Ameri- 
can public that has given serious thought to immigration problems 
has begun to doubt the value of any blanket numerical limitation upon 
immigration. The time is close at hand when reconsideration of the 
principle of total limitations Avill be in order. 

The third principle of our immigration laws, the principle of racial 
and national exclusions and preferences, has been repudiated by every 
decent American. The principle of racial preference came to be 
recognized after 1933 as Hitlerism. It is diametrically opposed to our 
Declaration of Independence, which proclaims that all men are ci'eated 
equal. Even the McCarran-Walter Act, which has been sharply criti- 
cized bj' many groups throughout the country for its restrictive and 



COMMISSION ().\ lMMI(;iiAT10X AXD XATFRALIZATIOX 1317 

})ack\var(l lookin«:- features, <i,ives tirudgiiig acceptance to the public 
wish to rid our innnioratiou })ohcies of racism. Indeed, it was to a 
large extent on the basis of the provisions eliminating the bar against 
the immigration and naturalization of Asiatics that Senator Mc- 
Carran made his appeal for su])port of the bill. 

As Rabbi Abba Hillel Silver, of Cleveland, pointed out recently, 
"There are no superior races. Tliere are no races endowed by nature 
witli superior quaUties of mind and character. The doctrine of racial 
superiority was used by the Nazis and Fascists as a cover for their 
vicious deeds in the last World War. Racial conceits and pretentions 
have frequently been used b}^ the forces of privilege, darkness, and 
reaction. 

To remedy tlie defects in our innnigration policies the Anti-Defama- 
tion League of B'nai B'rith, acting together with the American Jew^- 
ish Connnittee, has outlined a four-point program. 

1. The establishment by law of a National Immigration Policy 
Connuission whose memliers would be partly selected from the Senate 
and the House and partly appointed by the President. This Com- 
mission woidd set the maximum number of immigrants to be admitted 
to this coiuitry each calendar year. In so doing, the Commission would 
be required by law to set a number no lower than 300,000 or 0.2 
pei-cent (two-tenths of 1 percent) of our total population. The cri- 
teria for the numl)er of innnigrants admitted each year sliould be 
determined by : 

( a) The demand for immigration visas in each country by qualified 
bona tide applicants for immigration registered at our consulate in that 
country. 

(b) The extent of our economic and military commitments in the 
various countries. 

{c) The impact of a particular (juota on the implementation of our 
foreign policy. I think this is an extention of the arguments advanced 
by the last two witnesses. 

(d) The relationship of innnigration from a particular country to 
our domestic and economic needs. 

2. The establishment of a Visa Review Board to which persons 
denied visas by an American consul may appeal. We believe that 
it is contrary to the basic principles of democracy to allow any subor- 
dinate official of the United States to have unlimited power over other 
persons, subject to no review. 

3. The revision of deportation laws so that only those situations 
should be declared grounds for deportation where the interest of the 
United States clearly requires deportation. Deportation has long 
been recognized as a drastic punishment which may be tantamount to 
imprisonment or death and which therefore should be used with cir- 
cumspection and with due regard to the interest of all individuals 
involved. If it were not so late I would like to tell the Commission 
the story of a brilliant young man who came to my house night before 
last and told me that after having second-class citizenship under the 
Nazis and the Connnunists he now is a naturalized citizen of this 
country and feels the same sword of Damocles hanging over his head as 
he had under those regimes. 

4. The elimination of all disabilities suffered by naturalized citizens 
because they are not native-born. Naturalized citizens now suffer 
many inequities from which our citizens by birth are free. There 



1318 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

liaA'e actually been established two classes of citizenship. The very 
existence of classes and levels of citizenship is a detriment to 
democracy. 

One as]:)ect of our immioration laws which has I'un counter to the 
jSieneral policy in force since 19-2-t has been the s]iecial le<2;islation which 
has permitted the immio;ration of displaced ]:)ersons durino; the post- 
war era. I believe that an examination of the effect of the influx of 
these displaced persons provides us with a handy test tube in which 
we can examine whether the proposals advanced to liberalize innni- 
gration policy would be fortuitous for this country. 

I am certain that testimony Avith regard to the intefrration into the 
fabric of this country of these refuirees from totalitarianism has been 
advanced to this Commissioi\ The splendid effect of this broad- 
visioned displaced-persons policy upon our forei<i:n relations has been 
documented. 

It is my purpose, today, to examine the displaced-persons ])()licy 
aijainst the background of the southern area to attempt to determine 
whether an enlarged flow of immigrants coming from countries whose 
I'esidents are normally restricted from journeying to these shores has 
])een and will be helpful or hurtful. 

Let us first take a brief look at the South itself, its need, its capacity, 
its desire to absorb new immigration. 

The South is in a period of transition from an agricultural to an 
industrial economy. The South can no longer be classified as it was 
only 15 short years ago as the Xation's Xo. 1 economic problem. The 
South is prosi:)erous and its industry is expanding rapidly. There is 
great need for more industry, more capital, more technicians, more 
skilled workers, both in industry and on the farm, as you heard a few 
minutes ago. The ])resent population cannot fully meet the labor 
demand. Examine, if you will, the want ads of the daily ]xipers 
through the South and you will note the tremendous demand for 
skilled people to man the gears of our expanding economy. No 
better pool of skilled manpower can be found than if properly 
screened among the reservoir of those desiring to enter these shores. 

Popidationwise. as another witness pointed out, the South is far 
from being overinhabited. There are vast areas that need settle- 
ment in oi'der to bring the land to its fullest productivity and fruitful- 
ness. Take an automobile ride in any area of the South and you will 
note how thinly the land is populated. 

A great minister of this city, Eev. Pierce Harris, has on the bulletin 
board of his church, "And the people are friendly." I think the same 
thing can be said generally of our southern folk. They are noted for 
their friendliness and hospitality. The setitlement of innnigrants 
under the DP bill caused, as far as I have been able to discover, and 
my work is in the field of human relations, neither tension nor irrita- 
tion. Southern hospitality for the stranger within our gates has be- 
come with justification a byword in our country's language. 

Unfortunately some of the actions of a few of our irresponsible and 
violent elements have been used with telling effect by the Connnunist 
publicists in their efforts to undermine American prestige through- 
out the world. A cross-burning, a flogging, a Klan parade has been 
grist for the Red propaganda mill in Asia, in Africa, and in Europe. 
Effective efforts by the South to curb the Klan through antimask and 



COMMISSION' ON LMMIGKATION AND NATURALIZATION 1319 

aiiti-cross-bui'ninu' laws and t lir()iii:ii tlu' [)r()secuti()ii of Klau leaders 
have hai-dly been whispered abroad. 

AVhat better way to demonstrate that the Klan and the Klaii men- 
tality re{)resent the deviation rather than the pattern than by takin<»- 
the Klan [)hilosophy out of our inuni^ration laws. The successful 
adjustment of innni<»rants in our South has been, and I know will con- 
tinue to be, a living lie to world-wide Communist propaganda. 

In conclusion, may 1 present to you some figures to illustrate my 
thesis. These figures are based on the adjustment of Jewisli displaced 
persons in the South. 

During the time the dis[)laced persons law was eH'ective, some G,r)(K) 
Jews were settled in the southein area. Of this number, according to 
the United Service for New Americans, the agency which was in 
charge of settling them, not one has been a recipient of public charity. 
The average length of time that these immigrants have received priv- 
ate charity has been only 3 months. This represents a period just long- 
enough for the immigrants to become acclimated and to learn enougli 
of the language to hold a job. Almost uniformly these immigrants — 
these new Americans — have enriched the South through their in- 
dustry, their culture, their scientific and technical knowledge, and, 
above all, through their loyalty and devotion to their newly adopted 
land. Some of these immigrants because of their special talents, have 
started unique industries which have provided employment and income 
for thousands of southerners. 

For e\;imj)le, take the case of Mi'. A, a paint chemist. In [)artner- 
ship with a native southerner, he started a paint factoi-y which otters 
a highly unique and important service to southern industry. This 
paint factory is not in competition with other paint manufacturers. 
As a matter of fact, Mr. A, because of his special knoAvledge is called 
in to help other paint manufacturers to solve some of their knotty 
problems. He has invented formulas which permit the application of 
paint to machines being operated at extreme temperatures. His fac- 
tory now gives employment to a number of native southerners. His 
contribution has supplemented and aided and helped industry in this 
area to expand. 

Other immigrants, trained as doctors, scientists, and pln^sicists have 
also been extremely useful. There is a tremendous demand for doctors 
to serve in our rural areas. A number of the new Americans have 
settled in agricultural communities, where they are performing valued 
and needed services. One of the greatest needs of all in the field of 
medicine is for selfless, devoted doctors to ser\*e in State-operated 
mental institutions. These mental institutions find it difficult for a 
number of reasons to attract sufficient doctors. A number of southern 
mental hospitals now have as residents new immigrants. Xor is there 
any need to detail for this Commission the valued services of the 
physicists and other scientists who have worked at various southern 
atom-bomb projects, nor to outline the histories of several uniquely 
trained scholars who occupy important niches in a number of southern 
colleges and universities. It is important to underline, however, that 
there is still a tremendous need for added services in the South — needs 
which can only be filled b}' the acceleration of a flow of talented im- 
migi-ants to these shores. 



1320 COMMISSION ox lAfMIGRATIOX AND NATURALIZATION 

May I reiterate once more the deep and fervent hope of tlie Anti- 
Defamation League of B'nai B'rith that this Coniniission hearing 
will serve to lead to a Nation-wide discussion of liow our immigration 
and naturalization laws and jjolicies measure up against our demo- 
cratic principles and how these laws and policies can be made to con- 
form more closely to our democratic ideals. Out of this discussion 
w^e hope will come a democratic, humane, intelligent, and far-sighted 
immigration and naturalization polic}^ which will aid in building 
democracy, not only in our country but throughout the world, and 
which will enable our country as a leader of the democratic forces of 
the world to play its proper role in the elimination of want and fear 
everywhere. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Mr. Miller. 

Commissioner O'Grady. Do you know if there is any State in the 
South making the same type of study that is being made by the Uni- 
versity of Georgia about the adjustment of displaced persons and 
the type of work they are doing in which they have made some judg- 
ment ? 

Mr. Miller. No, sir, I don't. 

Mr. RosENFiELD. Monsiguor, ISIr. Holton is still in the room. Maybe 
he can answer that. Do you, Mr. Holton, know of any university in 
the South making a study similar to the one the university is making? 

Mr. Holton. Let me correct that. The university is making that 
study for the Georgia Displaced Persons Committee. The university 
is not making that study. Our committee considered the question 
and unanimously refj[uested the Governor to make available the funds 
to make that study and then the study was made for the Displaced 
Persons Committee. 

The Chairman. Is Mrs. Hall here ? 

Mr. RosENFiELD. She is not, but Mrs. Hinton Blackshear is here in 
Mrs. Hall's place. 

STATEMENT OF MRS. HINTON BLACKSHEAE, CHEROKEE CHAPTER 
REGENT, DAUGHTERS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 

Mrs. Blackshear. I am Mrs. Hinton Blackshear, Cherokee Chap- 
ter regent. Daughters of the American Revolution, and my address is 
1237 Peachtree Battle Avenue NW., Atlanta. 

Mr. Chairman, may I have that corrected. I am not here in Mrs. 
Hall's place. 

The Chairman. I* beg your pardon. 

Mrs. Blackshear. I am here and was here this morning. I didn't 
know anything about this hearing until I read it in the paper. I was 
not notified and I have come absolutely unprepared to make any sort 
of statement at all. 

Mr. Roseneield. You know that the State regent was notified at the 
same time everybody else was ? 

Mrs. Blackshear. Well, the State regent is in Washington at- 
tending a national board meeting of the National Society of the DAR. 
I am glad to know that. 

I have made a few notes of the testimony I heard this morning. We 
heard one of the speakers talk about the great need for more immi- 
grants into this country. Personally, I believe that is a misleading 
statement. One of the reasons was that we can't get our household 



COMMISSION OX IMMIGRATIOX AND NATFRALIZATION 1321 

equipiiibiit repaired because you liave to wait for many days to wait 
until somebody comes to fix it. That seemed to mean that we had 
a shortage of labor. I don't really think we have a shortage of labor. 
I think some of the reasons we have a shortage of labor is that people 
now work shorter hora's, do less work in an houi*, in a week, and in a 
month than they used to do. I can cite you one industry, the build- 
ing industry, where 10 or 12 years ago labor cost was about half of 
what it is now per hour. But that is not the only cost, and the rise in 
cost is that the man who used to hang about eight doors in a clay now 
hangs only about four in a day. That makes the cost per hour go up 
and that is one of the hidden evils we don't see about. 

We are fast losing the rugged individual. I don't believe if we take 
any innnigrants into this country to relieve that shortage that they will 
be the thing we are looking for, because I think after they stay here 
awhile and see how some of us get by with shorter hours and doing 
less work within an hour the}^ will also want to take on the American 
way. 

We need to do something at home with our own natives. We used to 
think about — we of the DAR, to be sure, worked with foreign-born 
people to make sure they became good citizens. Too long we have 
worried about the fellow coming in. Now we nuist be concerned about 
the native-born. I think that is one of our evils today, our native-born. 

We talk about people who are brought over, as Mr, Holton talked 
about, to do special jobs, farming. I believe definitely in more care- 
ful screening. I am not opposed to people coming in, I am opposed 
to subversives coming in. I think they should be screened more care- 
fully than ever before for the good of this country. 

I resent greatly the statement made by Mr. Weisiger this morning 
when he referred to a patriotic group. I am not sure he was referring 
to my group, but since ours is the largest group, and we have taken a 
very active part in all legislation, I imagine that is the group he is 
talking about. We own a whole block in Washington. He seemed to 
think we knew nothing of what we talked. We have a counsel. We 
are there under the eaves of the Capitol, and we do know what we are 
talking about, and we don't go off half-cocked when we oppose some- 
thing, and we are 100 percent for the McCarran Act. We are opposed 
to the Lehman bill. He says he is a retired telephone man, and yet 
he wants more to come in when his own industry cannot furnish 
enough telephones for the people we have here now. I don't know if 
his company wants more people or not. 

He (Mr. Weisiger) also said he would be glad to take whole fami- 
lies from European countries, even if the grandfather or father has 
TB. I say they shouldn't come over here, because we should cure our 
own aged persons first. I am definitely in favor of us curing our own 
people before bringing over diseased ones from these other countries. 
Our own hospital in Kome, Ga., has a long waiting list of native-born. 
Please, for heaven's sake, let's try to cure our own native-born before 
we try to cure all of Europe. 

I believe those are about the only things T have to refer to, I would 
like to see us think about bringing our own men home from the armed 
services to fill some of these professional jobs and some of the voca- 
tions that they say we definitely need some more people to come and 
fill the places, I believe we should have our men back here to fill some 
of these places instead of having them out fighting the United Nations' 



1322 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

war. I believe that even thoiig:li 00 percent of the fighting forces are 
our men they still call it a Ignited Xations war. I believe if a lot of 
them would go to war for the United Nations under their countries' 
flags, they would not need nearly as many of them to leave their 
countries. 

Commissioner Finucanj:. Is that a State institution you spoke of, 
for those who cannot pay, or is it for anybody ? 

Mrs. Blackshear. It is a State institution, and I imagine not to be 
paid. 

Commissioner Finucank. Is it for everybody? 

]Mrs. Blackshear. It is for citizens of Georgia. I am not sure 
whether they pay or not. It is a State institution. 

Commissioner Fixucaxe. You don't know whether there are any 
other institutions in Georgia operated by others than the State? 

Mrs. Blackshear. Oh, there are private ones. We also have a vet- 
erans' hospital, too. 

The CnAiR3iAN. Thank you, Mrs. Blackshear. 

Is Mrs. Burts here ? 

STATEMENT OF MRS. URANSOM BURTS, HONORARY REGENT, 
CHEROKEE CHAPTER, DAUGHTERS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLU- 
TION 

Mrs. Burts. I am Mrs. Uransom Burts, 3190 West Andrews Drive, 
NW., Atlanta. I am honorary regent, Cherokee Chapter, Daughters 
of the American Ke volution. 

I organized the Cherokee chapter. I am a member of the Board 
of Managers of W^esleyan College in Macon, Ga., the oldest wom- 
an's college in the world. I have done civic and patriotic work for 
a number of years for no pay. 

I am not like the gentleman this morning who had an educational 
foundation to lend money. Some of our girls from Wesleyan have 
borrowed from that foundation, incidentally, and paid back a very 
nice interest. My work is not of that type. 

I am interested in this McCarran-Walter bill. I have sat in this 
room and several rooms down the hall for the past 15 or 17 years in 
Americanization courts. I have watched these persons become natu- 
ralized. It has been my business to call upon them at times and also 
to supply them with a manual that the national society puts out, 
which you are familiar with, I am sure : The DAE Manual for Good 
Citizenship. These people who are studying to be good citizens 
of this country take it and study it. It is published in 18 different 
languages. There couldn't be any organization in America any more 
interested in this immigration laAv than the Daughters of the American 
Revolution. 

The only thing we of the DAR are interested in is the people com- 
ing in. We are not against bringing people into this country, but 
we are against bringing people into this country that we know nothing 
about. This morning you spoke of bringing in people from south- 
ern Italy, and in this particular section you allot so many to this coun- 
try and so many to that country. If" this country doesn't take its 
allotment, then let's take these from down there. 

Maybe these clergymen and these people who are so interested in 
this free world, this one world — I wonder if they have ever thought 



COMMISSIOX ON IMMKiHATIOX AND XATURALIZATIOX 1323 

of helping people in their own conntrv. They don't want to come 
to this coiintiT, maybe. Why take the })eoi>le who are dissatisfied in 
this counti'v. AAV don't get those peo})le who are doing well in their 
country. Yet you want to bring all the displeased ones in, o[)en our 
gates and let them walk in with no questions. 

I, of coui'se, am heartily in favor of the ^IcCanan bill, as you see. 
I was most im[)ressed this morning with Father Donovan's thought 
that lie advanced: Open the doors into the world at large rather than 
just into the United States. AVe sometimes get away from our sub- 
ject. This is still the United States, I believe, and we are here be- 
cause our forefathers fought for us. All our ancestors came from 
across the waters. They came over here to be a free peoi)le and they 
fought for what they thought was right, and we too often forget 
that their blood is spread from one ocean to the other ocean for that 
freedom. And if you can tell me how^ you can take testimony from 
somebody who has been here 1 year, and incidentally I noticed this 
morning that he has a wonderful following, and how his opinion could 
be of any value. He doesn't know a thing about what his subject ap- 
parently is supposed to be, other than what somebody has told him to 
come and say. 

So I say to you gentlemen as you tour around — and I wish I had 
a bunch of questions to ask you. I am like Mrs. Blackshear: I read 
in the paper that you were coming. There are other questions people 
would like to ask you. I don't want to leave the impression that we 
are against people coming into this country, because people are too 
prone to pick up anything our organization has to say and bat it 
around, as you gentlemen know. If other organizations had done 
what our organization has done effectively in the last year— purchas- 
ing 48 landing ships in the war — I don't think you can cite me an- 
other organization in this country that has contributed any more 
to the welfare of this country than the Daughters of the American 
Revolution. 

So I just want to go on record as favoring this McCarran-AValter 
bill, and I believe that is all I have to say, unless you want to ask me 
some questions, which I probably can't answer. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much for your statement. 

Is Reverend Kleckley here ? 

STATEMENT OF REV. H. D. KLECKLEY, CHAIRMAN, GEORGIA- 
ALABAMA COMMITTEE, NATIONAL LUTHERAN COUNCIL 

Reverend Kleckley. I am Reverend H. I). Kleckley, 1307 Holt 
Avenue, Macon, Ga., representing the Lutheran resettlement service of 
the National Lutheran Council, division of welfare. 

Mr. Chairnum and members of the President's Commission on 
Immigration and Naturalization: I have i)repared an analysis and 
suggestion for immigration and the naturalization of aliens wdiich I 
would like to read. May I say that I have not mentioned anywhere 
in these few pages that I shall present the particular act that has been 
referred to here so numy times. By implication, of course, certain 
pi'ovisions of it are referred to. 

It is witli pleasure that I take advantage of the op))ortunity given 
to me to ajipear before the commission. Here to present a few con- 

25H5G— 52 84 



1324 COMMISSIOX ox IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

elusions that have been reached out of my experience during the past 
3 years as a pastor in the churcli and as an official representative of 
Lutheran resettlement service of the National Lutheran Council in its 
division of welfare. Representing this agency I have had the privi- 
lege to view the whole question before this Commission from the view 
point of those who are interested in immigration and from the point 
of view of those who think we should have our front and back doors 
closed to all human beings who were born outside the United States. 
There has also been opportunity to view the situation in relation to 
people who have come into the country as D. P.'s and refugees, also in 
relation to people who have come long before (as the need to seek 
interpreters has been frequent) and has reached to many of our 
naturalized citizens. I hope that the conclusions that I have reached 
will be of some help. I shall be brief in stating them, also simple and 
positive. And may I throw in here that one of the policies of our 
agency has been to follow the cases that we bring in, where we believe 
immigration mostly breaks down. 

In the time allowed we shall deal with requirements for admission, 
need (or lack of need) for the admission of more people, and our 
moral obligation to certain peoples in serious need for resettlement. 
Under the heading of these thoughts will be presented certain factors 
directly related to the subject at hand : 

1. REQUIREMENTS FOR ADMISSION 

It would seem that requirements for aliens to enter the United 
States would in some instances be relaxed in relationship to their 
present statement. Wliere there is existent need people should be ad- 
mitted. (For example, the people who were caught in the pipelines of 
processing where the need for them in this country had been estab- 
lished. Or where there is general need for immigrants to fit into 
the economic or social pattern of the State and community. ) Provision 
today should be made for many of the peoples of the world who are 
brave enough to risk life and division of family for the love and de- 
votion to a cause which is the same as the cause on which this country 
was founded and lives. 

I think there is a crying need for some law that will be flexible 
enough in its definiton to make it possible for an impartial agency of 
the Government to admit immigrants based upon the need that we 
have for the services that aliens can fill, and also based on the places 
in the economy and society that can be found for the solution of the 
problems that face so many people of the world. Why should the 
L^nited States of America be free from the absorption of the refugees 
from totalitarian philosophies of governments under which they can- 
not live. 

The limitations that are set should deal in a limited way with num- 
bers, in a positive way with security risk, and with the impact that 
immigration can have on world relations. 

As near as is humanly possible under our free domestic form of 
government the whole question of requirements for immigration and 
naturalization should be divorced from politics. We should recognize 
that immigration is, as it has been through the years, a desirable and 
healthy state of normal life for this great country of ours. Whatever 
policy is to be made permanent in the United States on immigration; 



COMMISSION OX IM.MK.HATIOX AND NATURALIZATION 1325 

if it is to be successful, must not discriminate against any particular 
nation of the worid or any region of our own country. The present 
quot^i system is entirely out of date and should be restated to fit the 
needs of llie homeless and refugee peoples of the world today. 

2. NEED OR LACK OF NEED FOR ADMISSION OF MOKE PEOPLE 

It certainly must be remembered that the whole industrial and 
political and social nud^e-up of the United States will have to pay the 
debt it owes to the opportunities of past years for the immigration of 
peoples from all parts of the world to these States. It certainly is not 
necessary to enumerate any of the heritages which are now cherished 
by the United States and its citizens that have come to us only because 
it was possible for the human brains of other countries to come here 
and be applied to the limitless resources that were, and are, ours. 
Improvements can still come from the labors and brains of people who 
wish to immigrate to the United States. 

In my humble opinion it can no more be said now than it could 100 
years ago that we are at the point where there is not actual need for 
immigration. In the case of those who were permitted to come in 
under the Displaced Persons Act and with whom I have had actual 
experience, I have yet to find one who can be counted as a liability 
to the country, or to the economy therein. In tlie area which I have 
worked (Georgia and Alabama) the real liability in the whole pro- 
gram has been slowness with which the program was permitted to 
function. And the necessity for all the details (for example every 
single detail of employment and housing to be worked out on an indi- 
vidual name basis in this country before processing could begin in 
Europe or some other part of the world). This lessened the interest 
of the United States citizen in the whole program, but did not lessen 
the need for immigrants themselves. 

Since June of this year I have had requests f oi- over 50 persons who 
would fit into specific needs. In one case I know of a dairy having 
been sold completely because there was no prospect of a manager 
being procured from the DP program even though two separate appli- 
cations were made, one more than 18 months before the expiration of 
the act, and in both instances the person assigned was not permitted 
to leave Europe and come to the job. (There may have been good 
reasons but there should have been someone who could have been per- 
mitted to come.) 

There is opportunity in this areajn farming, industry, and domestic 
service. If these opportunities could be filled they would be of lasting 
benefit not only to the economic structure, but to the social structure 
as w^ell. 

Of over 200 DP's who came into the two States mentioned above 
under the agency which I represent, according to best record obtain- 
able, 149 of them are still in the same States, and I have reason to 
believe that more have come into the States than have left. (That is, 
DP's originally settled in other States.) This in spite of the fact 
that ceilain United States citizens have attempted in this area to 
exploit their labor and that natives from their homelands have been 
fewer in this region of the country than in certain other regions. This 
proves to me that there is need for immigrants and that the need 
pictures of itself the opportunity to the immigrant. 



1326 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

On the question of whether or not recent immigrants have been 
worthy of help they have obtained from the United States and from 
its citizens of tlie States, I would cite two things only. " Their sense 
of responsibility to obligation (evidenced by repayment of transpor- 
tation loans and by their payments on retail purchase contracts which 
have been made on such items as automobiles, refrigerators, and other 
essential items of human necessity and comfort) and also their will- 
ingness in many instances to work even on substandard pay for the 
person or persons who were willing to provide them opportunity by 
becoming their sponsor. 

3. MORAL OBLIGATION 

I sincerely believe that we as a nation are today morally obligated 
under the original purposes for which this Nation was founded to 
extend our immigration policy vastly to care for our fair share of the 
peoples of the world who have been rendered stateless in their desire 
to remain free rather than become slaves to totalitarian systems of 
government. And in this light we certainly need to also restudy our 
policy on naturalization. 

It would seem that the one requirement for naturalization should 
be the willingness of the individual to accept citizenship and all of its 
responsibilities. The time element must of necessity be long enough 
for the individual to prove himself worthy of citizenship and for the 
individual to learn the duties that are attached to acceptance of 
citizenship. 

If I am permitted to make recommendations they are these : 

1. That laws should be amended to make it possible for more immi- 
grants to enter the United States and that the time of entrance should 
be governed by both the needs for immigrants in the States and the 
need for resettlement in the nations from which they need to come. 

2. That some provision should be made to better educate our own 
citizens of our Nation to the desirability of having immigrants come 
into the country. 

3. That provision be made at the present time that would permit the 
reunion of families that have been separated by the inadequacies of our 
past and present immigration laws. 

4. That the over-all need for immigrants in our economy be surveyed 
as frequently as seems practical. 

5. That limitations on immigration be made very stringent where 
sincerity of purpose seems questionable or where there is serious 
question of loyalty at stake. 

6. That all aliens admitted to the United States be encouraged to 
become citizens as quickly as possible. 

7. That once an alien is made a citizen he be treated as all other 
citizens and punishment be rendered to him for offenses through our 
courts and prisons rather than using the channel of deportation. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, sir. 

Commissioner O'Grady. Is there a displaced-persons commission 
in Alabama? 

Reverend Kleckley. No. 

Connnissioner O'Grady. I was thinking about this type of study 
that — it is awfully important that we have as much of a critical 
examination as possible of the adjustment of these displaced persons. 



COMlxriSSION ON LMMKIHATIOX AXD XATTRALIZATION 1327 

Tliat. of course, ^\■oIll(l not only sliow how they have iuljusted them- 
selves hnt also the types of occupations they lill, the type of need they 
fill in the life of the Nation and the ])i'oblenis you would have in their 
adjustment. Would you a<>i'ee we need more of that type of study? 

Reverend Klkcki.ky. 1 think, in answer to your (piestion, that we 
do. I would liave ])repared it had I thought that that information 
was beinc sought. On the basis of the invitation that went out, I took 
it that this other thing was the most important thing to this Com- 
mission at this time. 

Iwould like to say in follow-up, if I am permitted to, that we find 
the aliens who come in are definitely at sea, too — to use a slang expres- 
sion — in this area of the country because of the lack of knowledge of 
our language. They need to be taught a speaking and reading 
knowledge of the language very early. It has been one of the tre- 
meiulous problems on the farms. That has been mentioned here 
several times. 

In the placements we have made on the farms, in all but about a 
dozen cases — that is, about a dozen families — where they have moved 
away from where they originally settled, it has been specifically be- 
cause — and I say this unreservedly and would be glad to testify to it 
under oath — there has been an ex})loitation of labor. The cases where 
they ai"e being pro]^erly paid they are very stitisfied and are doing 
very good jobs. They have them as dairymen. AVhy, one told me 
only last week that if necessary he would pay $400 a month to keep the 
man lie had because he could not be replaced. Many of them are 
staying. Over half of them who have gone to the farms have left. 
They have not left the State, but they have left the original farm. 
Some have gone to other fai-ms and some have gone into the cities. 

Another thing that came to my attention recently was that the Retail 
IJakei's Association of Georgia requested 25 professional bakers. They 
said the}' could not be obtained in the area or eA'en in the country. 

Commissioner O'Gkady. Do you think it takes them a long time to 
learn the language ? 

Reverend Kleckley. If they are under 50 they learn enough in 6 
jnonths to carry on an understandable conversation. That has been 
my experience — if they are under 50. 

Connnissioner O'Grauy. Aren't many of them already bilingual^ 

Reverend Kleokley'. Yes. They can probably learn ours quicker 
than we could learn theirs. 

Mr. RosENFiELD. Revereud, you^ recommend that the (\)mmission 
consider, as you said, an increase in the number of persons to be per- 
mitted to innnigrate to the United States. Do you have any observa- 
tions you would caie to give to the Gonnnission on how these people 
should l>e chosen, within whatever ceiling is fixed t 

Revei-end Kleckley. You are talking about numl)ers for the whole 
United States? 

Mr. RosENFiELD. Assvuniug you have chosen a number that is the 
]naximum ceiling number, how would you then decide how many you 
would ])ermit to be allocated against that number? Would you 
fa\-or continuing in effect the national origins-quota system? 

Reverend Kleckley. I am ])ersonally opposed to the national 
origins quota system. I think it has no place in the background of our 
counliy. Of course, from the standpoint of the fact that from some 



1328 COMMISSION ox IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

regions of the world, because of ])hilosophy of government and so 
fortli, that wonld have to be inchided entirely, bnt they probably won't 
want to come anywa}'. The Avhole qnestion is too deep or me. thinking 
of the country as a whole, because I am not familiar with the immi- 
gration situation in every region of the country. 

The Chairman, Do you mean this country ? 

Reverend Kleckley. The whole parts of this country. .Vs far as 
the South is concerned, I see no reason even why an oriental cannot be 
properly rehabilitated in this part of the world. 

The Chairman. You say you are opposed to the national origins 
quota system. What, then, would you substitute in place of it? 

Reverend Kleckley. I think I had in my prepared statement here 
that I felt like the authority for that thing should be A^ested in an 
impartial commission or agency of the (xovernment that would have 
all the facts at hand as to the needs in our country and as to the 
existent supply of immigrants from other countries. I think in the 
light of that kind of thing it has to be worked out. Quite frankly, 
I think a national origins system of quotas for immigration is just aa 
gross an evil as any political segregation laws of the South, if you 
please. 

Commissioner O'Grady. Do you think we can have an effective in- 
ternational policy Avithout facing the problem of the homeless and 
uprooted peoples ? 

Reverend Kleckley. Well, un.fortunately, as you men surely know, 
and I believe this is true everywhere, there is a vast difference in the 
opinion of a people as expressed politically-wise, on the one side, and 
humanitarianwise on the other. But generally speaking, I think there 
is an element in both of friendliness toward the new neighbor, as 
they have been called many times, peo])le from many parts of the 
world. I think in many channels of politics that is to be fomul in 
spite of the accusations otherwise many times. 

The Chaii{m \y. Thank you. 

Is Mrs. Heniy W. Moore here? I understand slie is the vice presi- 
dent of the Georgia Federation of Women's Clubs. 

Mr. RosENFiELD. Mr. Chaii-man, Mrs. Moore asked me to say. if 
she was not able to get back, that she would like to have permission, 
on behalf of Mrs. Martin, who I take it is the president of the Georgia 
Federation of Women's Clubs, to submit a statement to the Com- 
mission. 

The Chairman. That permission is granted. 

Mr. RosENFiELD. Mr. Chairman. I have been asked by several peo- 
ple to have included in the record of the Commission their state- 
ments: Mrs. Walter Feldman, 1395 Euclid Avenue, Atlanta, Ga. : 
Mrs. Norman H. Cain. 2045 Ponce de Leon. NE.. AtUmta. Ga. : and 
ISfrs. E. E. Twiggs, 640 Ponce de Leon. Decatur, Ga. 

The CiiAiKMAN. They may be inserted in the record at thi~ inont. 

(The statements follow:) 

Statemext Strmitted by Mrs. Walter F>:LDi[AN 

Haviim ponfideiice in Senator McCarran and the Congress of the L^nited .States, 
I want this law to remain intact. (Mrs. Walter Feldman, 1.395 Euclid Avenue, 
Atlanta, Ga. ) 



COMMISSION' OX IM.MKiHATlOX AND XATIRALIZATIOX 1329 

STAIKMKNI Sl'HM ITTI'.ll HY MliS. XoKMAN H. CAIN 

My Uiinie is Mrs. Xoriuan II. Cain. My le.sidt'iice is 204.") Ponce de Leon NK., 
Atlanta. Ga. I represent no one l)ut myself, the mother of three sons who de- 
fended this country in Woild War II. Having read the 14 volumes of the Me- 
Carran connnitlee on the Institute of Pacilic Relations. I am (t)nvinced this 
Nati(m is so seriously threatened from within and without, that our only i)ro- 
teetion is in such a hill until <(inditi(ins are more stal)le. 1 listened carefully to 
the statements this morning and found no app.-irent concern with politic-al affilia- 
tion except to ohject to tlie present restrictions. Therefore am in complete 
agreement with the provisions of this bill — stringent though they are. The times 
demand it. (Mrs. Xornian H. Cain. 2045 Ponce de Leon NE.. Atlanta, (la.) 

StATKMKXT SUlt.MITTKI) HY Ml!S. K. E. TWICUS 

During the depression I did social worlv among all nationalities in Detroit, 
Mich. There was no discriminating' as to creed or color. 

I feel that our Congress is aide to confirm such laws as we need, since they 
are chos(>n liy the people of all States, not l)y a disgruntled group, such as seenas 
to be the ones hcdding this meeting. (Mrs. E. E. Twiggs, 640 Pcmce de Leon, 
Decatur, Ga.) 

Tlte Chairmax. Is there anybody else? 

]Mr. RosEXFiECD. Xo other person asked nie to testify, Mr. Cliairman. 

The Chairman'. Is there anybody liere who ^Yants to make a state- 
ment ? 

Mr. White (from the floor). Mr. Chairman, I woidd like to express 
my personal views about the matter althoiioli I didn't come down here 
to" talk. 

STATEMENT OF 0. LEE WHITE, MEMBER, GEOEGIA FRATERNAL 

CONGRESS 

Mr. "White. I am O. Lee White, attorney, Healy Building, Atlanta, 
(xa.. and member of the Georgia Fraternal Congress. 

I am not speaking for the Georgia Fraternal Congress, but of the 
opinions of people I have lieard who make up that organization. The 
Georgia Fraternal Congress is made up of all the fraternal insiirance 
societies doing business in Georgia. They represent approximately 
()00,000 fraternal businesses in this State. 

Some of those organizations believe in restricting immigration. 
1 know you are familiar with the fact that the Junior Order. United 
American Meclianics, an affiliated organization, and the DAR have 
been opposed to letting down the bars of immigration for many years. 

Tlie Chairman. They have appeared before us in other cities. 

Mr. White. As I say, I am not speaking officially for the organiza- 
tion. At their last meeting in liochester, ISIinn. — I didn't attend their 
last (quarterly meeting. We do have an annual meeting tomorroAv, and 
it was my idea to come here and get s(mie idea of what the testimony 
Avas like" this afternoon so I could talk to them about it tomorrow. 
That prompted me to come here. 

Personally 1 am op]iosed to letting down the bars of immigration. 
Personally, I am opposed to letting foreigners come over here and take 
Americans' jobs. Personally, I am opposed to Americans having 
their standards of living depreciated by foreigners. I get that opin- 
ion, that thought and that feeling from my association with members 
of the fraternal organizations. I have been practicing law for 25 



1330 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

years. I beloii"' to |)raetioally all the fraternal ()r<j;aiiizations that 
there are of a Protestant nature. 

As an American I have seen Americans oo without food. A man 
came today to me who was going in bankruptcy. He can't make a 
liA'ing for his wife and child because foreigners took his job. 

Mr. RosEXFiELD. Would you indicate how they took his job? 

Mr. White. Depreciated income. Not that any particular person 
took it. That is the situation, not any ])articular person. We have 
seen cotton-mill hands have their labor depreciated. AVe have seen 
their jobs go down to -*> days a week. Those things are not just worries 
and thoughts and fears, but we have seen it hajjpen. I have put many 
men in bankruptcy because they couldn't pay their expenses, the ex- 
penses of their families and themselves. 1 attrib.ite that, from the 
information I have gotten, from peoplie coming in here and taking the 
Americans' jobs. 

I stand for America first, last, and always, and I think the American 
citizen ought to be protected. 

As I say, those are my ])ersonal opinions. 

The Chairmax. That is all right, sir. We are glad to have them. 

Commissioner Picket. 1 would like to ask one question. Statistics 
of national income per famih^ in various States — and I had not known 
this before, but the statistics are to the effect that States which have 
the largest proportion of foreign-born in them have the highest income 
per family, and the States with lowest proportion of foreign-born 
have the lowest income per family. I do not know that it is proven 
that that one is the cause and the other is the eii'ect, but I thought that 
would be interesting to you in view of the observations you have made 
concerning the standard of living being depreciated by the admission 
of foreigners. For instance, statistics show that New York State has 
the highest per capita income of any State in the Union and it has the 
highest percentage of foreigners also. Have you any conmient you 
would like to make on that ? 

Mr. AViiiTE. You know, I have been over this country a numl)er of 
times and I have gone through that territory you speak of, out through 
the Middle West and the breadbasket States of this country through 
Minnesota and Wisconsin and up in that neck of the woods. I know 
those States up there have a high income per ca])ita. I know that 
and 1 know they have a lai-ge number of immigrants. I have no fight 
on those people, of course, but, as I say, they have specialized agi'icul- 
tural interest. 

As you ride up Route 41 or as you go up the Northwestern line and 
ride the 400 out West you can see those beautiful farms and homes 
out there. You see the farm house with its big barn, and the barn is 
bigger than the house many times. You see where they have to have 
herds brought in at night and through the winter, and they protect 
those herds just better than they possibly do their families. If you will 
probably notice, the ground floors of those big barns are made of stone 
and the upper ones of wood. Aery few of those farm houses are actu- 
ally wood. Those })eople have a specialized line. As you know, milk 
trains come by daily and pick up the cans and bring them on down, all 
through Milwaukee territory. I grant you that you are right about 
that. I grant you the income per capita in Georgia is low, but we cer- 
tainlv don't want it anv lower. 



COMMISSION- OX IMMICRATTOX AND XATrRALIZATION 1331 

Tliiit is the i)()siti()ii 1 take and evorv time you hi-in^" ]()0,()()() people 
ill any (•(nintiy yon I'cduce |)ro|)ortionately the amount of money 
tlieiT to <::o around on a man's job taken as a whole. I may be com- 
pletely wi-ono- oi- pii'judiced on the matter, but that is the opinion I 
have been bi-ouiiht up as a kid to actually see and believe. 

'I'he CiiAiini AX. Is Mi". Stanton here^ 

STATEMENT OF IRWIN S. STANTON 

Mr. Staxtox. 1 am Irwin S. Stanton, (JloH South University Ave- 
nue, (^hica<2:o, formerly ()Sr» Arofonne Avemie XH. Atlanta, Ga. 

I am one of the so-called second-class citizens; that is, under the 
]McCarran Act. 

I would like to say a few words on liehalf of the esca))e(^s. those 
people \Aithout a c(Mnitry. 

Air. li (SEXFiELi). Excuse me. Mi". Stanton. V>\ your first remark I 
take it you mean for the Commission to understand that you are a 
naturalized citizen? 

Mr. Staxtox. Rioht. 

The Chairmax. And you want to talk about escapees? 

Mr. Staxtox. Yes. in their favor, and just a few remarks. 

The (^HAiRMAX. Are you referring- to people who have escaped from 
behind the iron curtain? 

Mr. Staxtox. People who have tried to esca])e from behind the iron 
curtain to find here and in other countries somethinji to cherish more 
than any native-born, a freedom of thouo-ht, reliii'ion. s])eech. and so 
o'n. 

The CiiAirorAX. Where do you come from? 

Mr. Staxi-ox. I was born in Vienna, Austria, and I came over in 

The Chairmax. You were born in Austria? 

Mr. Staxtox. Vienna. 

Commissioner O'Grady. What do you do here (' 

Mr. Staxtox. I am a sales re]jresentative for a New York house ami 
have been since 1941. I cover in my travels approximately 80 States 
about twice to three times a year: so, I see a little bit more of the 
country than the average citizen. 

I contact ])eo))le of all classes and hear all kinds of reli/iious aiul 
])olitical o])inions. 

Commissioner O'Grady. What kind of business ai'e you in ^ 

Mr. Staxtox. I represent a canned-goods house, wholesale canned 
goo-ds. 

Connnissioner O'Grady. You cover how numy States^ 

Mr. Staxtox. I cover approximately 30 States. 

The Chairmax. Thirty? 

Mr. Staxtox. Yes. I spend about 11 months on the road. 

The Chairmax. You travel from State to State ( 

Mr. Staxtox. So to say. I cover the territ(yrv fi'om New York as 
far west as El Paso and as far south as Miami and the entire Gulf. 

The whole sentence I want to say is that the escapees are ])eople 
without a country, and in the Southeast and in the Southwest we have 
a country without jjeople. The country is hungry for peo])le to be 
settled there, and the}' don't have to be farmers. S"ew cities are to be 



1332 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NAITRALIZATION 

built, too. besides a new farming country to be developed. If we 
could open the barriers for those people more liberally, the wealth 
of the States, the opportunity of jobs to make money, to make an 
honest livino- would be increased. 

They Avould be just as much of an asset as all of the refugees who 
came over here before and who were praised so highly before this 
Commission. 

The Chairman. Thank you. 

Is there anyone else who wishes to make a statement ? 

STATEMENT OF MES. ILNES SPANN MILLER 

Mrs. Miller. I am Mrs. liner Spann ]Mi]]i'i-. 1100 West Penchtree, 
Atlanta, Ga. 

I do not represent anybody but myself, though the Atlanta Council 
of Chuichwomen has a great many women in it who agree with my 
position, which is : We are opposed to people being brought in here as 
to origin, race, and color. In other words, we feel that that ought 
not to be the reason. The reason should be one of skills and of needs. 
That's the first point I would like to make. 

The second point is that I think America has a defiuite responsibil- 
ity to take a quota of these people whom the world is having to take, 
and I think we, with the amount of territory and the amount of un- 
farmed land we have, certainly have a place for a pro]:>ortionate 
number of foreigners who need homes and need places to live. 

The Chairman. Are you saying that you think that people ought 
to be admitted first on the basis of needs in this country \ 

Mrs. Miller. First on the basis of needs. 

The Chairman. And, secondly, if I understand you correctly, on 
the basis of needs of the individual people who are displaced or who 
are expellees, from the humanitarian angle? 

Mrs. IMiLLER. To fill the iieeds we have here for tliem. 

The Chairman. And would you do so Avithout regard to country 
of origin and race I 

Mrs. Miller. That's right. 

The Chairman. Do you have any definite ideas as to the total num- 
ber of people you think should be admitted ? 

Mrs. ^Miller. No; I couldn't, Mr. Chairman. That is something 
that requires expert knowledge, but I don't think it requires expert 
knowledge to realize that there is a very definite relationship between 
good feelings with other countries and our immigration laws and good 
relationships — now. I just won't even say "good feelings,'' but between 
other countries and immigration laws 

The Chairman. In other words, are you saying it has a definite 
effect on our foreign policy and on our foreign relations I 

Mrs. Miller. It does have a definite effect on our foreign policies. 

Now, I couldn't say I would be against the McCarran bill without 
really having known more about it, but I certainly would be against 
those discriminatory features of it that I have heard about today. 

Thank you. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much. 

Mrs. Morris Cohen, did vou wish to testify? 



COMMISSIOX OX lAIMIGRATIOX AXD XATUKALIZATIOX 1333 

STATEMENT OF MRS. MORRIS COHEN 

Mis. roHKX. 1 am -Mrs. Morris CoIumi, iTlS Pelham Road NE., At- 
lanta. Ga. 

I am inakin«r this statement for myself, but I would like to say that 
I ivpi-esent Hadassah and many women in the <ironp who also feel as 
I do. but 1 am 8i)eakin<>: for myself. 

I woidd like to uo on record as beino- opposed to the discriminatory 
measures of this McCarran bill. I would like to say that we in Amer- 
ica nuist realize that we have an oblijiation to all of tliese ]ie()]^le who 
are trvin«x to llee the iron curtain, and we certainly cannot fiirht com- 
munism with money and military means without opening our doors 
as a haAen to those jieople that we try to encourage to escape. I am 
very opposed to the racial issues aiul ihe other discriminatory features 
of this bill. 

The CiiAiRMAX. Thank you yery mucli. 

Does anyone else wish to testify? 

Mr. RosEXFiELD. There is no one else, Mr. Chairman. 

May I request that the Atlanta record remain open at this point 
for the insertion of statements submitted by persons unable to appear 
as indiyiduals or as representatives of organizations or who could not 
be scheduled due to insufficient time. 

The Chairman. That may be done. 

This ((mcludes the hearings in Atlanta, Ga. The Commission is 
now adjourned until it reconvenes in Washinoton. D. C. at 9 : 30 a. m. 
October 27, 105-2. 

(Wliereupon. at 4 : ■■)(^ p. m., the Commission was adjourned to re- 
convene at 9: 30 a. in. Monday, October 27. 19.52. at Washington.) 



STATEMENTS SUBMITTED BY OTHER PERSONS AND 
ORGANIZATIONS IN THE ATLANTA AREA 

( Subuiitted statements are as follow:) 

STATEMENT SUBMITTED BY GUY J. DANTONIO, ATTORNEY AT LAW 
AND FORMER CHAIRMAN OF THE LOUISIANA STATE DISPLACED 
PERSONS COMMISSION, NEW ORLEANS, LA. 

403 Marine Building. 
Nciv Orleans, La., October JO, lii'>2. 
Mr. Harry N. Rosexfield, 

Executive Director, President's Commission on Immigration, 

and Xatiiralization, Executive Office. Washinyton, D. r. 
Dear ]\Ir. Rosenfield : Thank you very much for your letter of September 24 
inviting me to present my views to the Commission at the hearing in Atlanta, 
Ga., on October 17. ll)r)2. 

As former chairman of the Displaced Persons Commission for the State of 
Louisiana, and as one interested in immigration, I liave come in contact with 
many persons who feel that the national-origin quota system should be revised 
and that the immigration and naturalization laws should be liberalized within 
reasonable limitations, and geared to our own needs and capacity for alisorbing 
immigrants into our national economy, but with provisions for thorough screen- 
ing of i^ersons coming to the United States. This would relieve the economic 
stress of some of the European countries to which the I'nited States has given 
aid. A great many of these countries are overpopulated, and Imrsting at the 
seams. Our aid is only temporary, and does not get to the basis of the pr()l)lem. 
It is felt that if more persons are permitted to enter the United States it would 
relieve the economic problem whence they came, as well as infuse new blood into 
this country. 

I regret very much that it will be impossil)le for me to appear personaliy at 
the meeting, and \. ill ask that you present this statement to the Connnission. 
With kindest peisonal regards, I am, 
Y'ours sincerely, 

(Signed) Guy J. D'Antomo. 



STATEMENT SUBMITTED BY SAMUEL WILLIAMSON, ATTORNEY AT 

LAW, HOUSTON, TEX. 

Houston, Tex., October J-J, I'.toi. 

President's Commission ox Immigration and Naturalization, 

Execntii'e Offices, Washiiu/ton. I). C. 
Gentlemen : It is respectfully suggested that there be considered by the Com- 
mission a procedure wherel)y an alien, newly naturalized, and with name changed 
as part of naturalization, be permitted to obtain a certificate attesting t<.i such 
change of name. 

Inasmuch as no provision is made for the issuance of certified copies of the 
certifl:-ate of naturalization nor for certilicates attesting to the change of name, 
it has been necessary f(U' me to go through the process of changing name in a 
State court in order to ol)tain necessary certificates. This places an unnecessary 
burden and expense upon a new citizen whose business recpiires him to present 
proof of change of name in connection with real-property ownership, st<n'k trans- 
fers, matters respecting in.surance policies, and the like. 

If the report of the Commission should finally be published, and the pul>li<"itiou 
be made generally available to the public, I would like to be advised. 
Thank you for your courtesy and cooperation. 
Your very truly, 

Samuel William.son. 
1334 



COMMISSION" ON IMMIGKATIOX AXD XATIRALIZATION 1335 

STATEMENT SUBMITTED BY RUDOLF HEBERLE, PROFESSOR OF 
SOCIOLOGY. LOUISIANA SPATE UNIVERSITY, BATON ROUGE, LA. 

Louisiana State University, 
College oe Akts and Sciences, 
Baton Rouge, La., October 17, 1952. 
The President's CoAntissioN on Immigration and Naturalization, 
17-',^ G. Street \W.. Wa.sliin()to)i, I). V. 

Gentlemen : In compliiuice with our telephone conversation of October IG, I 
am sending yon nnder .separate cover a copy of my paper on Displaced Persons 
in the Dee]) South. Recent iufpiiries in one of the communities where DP's were 
interviewed in the sprinji of T.KIO confirmed our conclusion that after some time 
of shifting' about a coiLsiderable proportion of the DP's who were directed toward 
this rejiion iiave settled down and are liecoming integrated into the local com- 
numities. In some cases, Dl*'s who left Louisiana in pursuit of better opportu- 
nities in the North have returned to their sponsors in this State. In view of 
the progress of mechanization and diversification in southern agriculture and 
also in view of industrialization in this section, it seems safe to assume that the 
opportiuiities for DP's will inci-ease rather than decrease. 

Concerning immigration policy in general, I am of the opinion that the quota 
system has become quite unrealistic. It is based upon false and antiquated 
beliefs about ethnic or racial differences in adaptability to American culture, 
and it prevents the immigration to this country from areas of greatest popula- 
tion pressure. 

Recent legislation which aims at the protection of this country against infil- 
Tration of subversive elements has created obstacles to the immigration of indi- 
viduals who would be highly desirable additions to our "human resources" and 
it has also created hardships for persons who have found in this country a refuge 
from political persecution. I know of cases of non-Communist refugees from 
satellite countries in eastern Europe who have been faced with the possibility 
of deportation merely l)ecause of some technicality concerning their immigration 
.Stat U.S. 

This legislation should be revised under careful consideration of experiences 
with its actual operation. 

The procedure of naturalization could be simplified; it should also be adapted 
to present-day conditions of life. For example, present requirements concern- 
ing residence as well as those concerning witnes.ses result in great and unneces- 
sary dilficulties for applicants whose occupation compels them to do a great deal 
of traveling. That persons who want to change their immigration status from 
a temporary to a permanent status should have to spend time and money in 
Canada or Cuba seems to me a perfectly ridiculous and probably iniwanted result 
of deficient legislation. 

I regret that I could not appear at the Atlanta hearings, but I hope these 
statements will be of some use to the Commission. 
Very sincerely yours, 

Rudolf Heberle, 
Professor of Sociology. 

(Dr. Heberle's study of displaced persons in the South is as follows:) 

Displaced Persons in the Deep South ' 

(By Rudolf Heberle)' 

I. introduction 

The DP program I'epreseuts a new phase in immigration to the United States. 
For the first time we have a policy of regulated immigration. We select from 

' Presented at the Annual Meeting of the I'oi>iilation A.ssociation of America, Ma.v 1051. 
= Louisiana State University. 

ABSTRACT 



1336 COMMISSION ox IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

the DFs in Europe those who appear to be the most useful to this country, and we 
attempt to direct tlie selected immigrants to localities Avhere jobs are waiting 
lor them. 

For the South, the DP program created quite new problems. The great bulk 
of the DP's who came to the United States are natives of eastern Europe.* 
Previous immigration from that area of Europe to the South had been almost 
negligible, even in Louisiana. In 1940 the two States of Louisiana and Missis- 
sippi contained less than 1,000 natives of the three main countries of origin of 
displaced persons ; in both States together were about 6,700 persons whose mother 
tongue was or ):a!l been an eastern European language. Very likely a large pro- 
portion of these were Jewish people ; but there lived along the Gulf coast several 
hundred Slovenian fishermen and citrus growers from what is now the Adriatic 
coast of Yugoslavia, and a large group of Hungarians in the strawberry area north 
of Lake Pontchartrain (tables 2 and 2a) . 

The DP program was to bring, for the first time, large numbers of Latvians, 
Lithuanians, Poles, and Ukrainians to the Deep South. The question arose : 
how would these eastern Europeans be received by the local people, and how 
would they adjust themselves in a region where they had scarcely any kin and 
countrymen. 

Moreover, it was announced that the new immigrants would be resettled on 
cotton plantations in Mississiijpi and north Louisiana and on sugar plantations in 
south Louisiana ; and, in fact, the majority of DP's arriving in these States were 
resettled in the plantation areas. Anybody familiar with the social and cultural 
background of the DP's could foresee that their adjustment to the plantation 
society of the lower Mississippi Valley would not be a painless process. 

Estonia and Latvia had undergone an agrarian revolution in the years after 
World War I. The large estates owned by a German ruling class were expro- 
priated and divided among the Latvian and Estonian peasants ; the same process 
occurred in Lithuania where the Polish landowners were expropriated and a 
broad class of Lithuanian family-farmers came into existence. 

Although there was no radical land reform in Poland, it could be assumed 
that many of the Polish DP's would come from family farms. This proved to be 
true, especially in the case of the Ukrainians from .southeastern Poland. 

How would these people adjust themselves to the plantation economy and to 
the biracial society of a subtropical country? Even those among the Poles who 
had been working as wage laborers on large estates in Poland or Germany were 
certainly not accustomed to the share-cropper system nor to the housing standards 
of colored plantation workers. How would they react to the "furnish" .system, 
to working in gangs, eventually side by side with Negroes ; how would they adjust 
to the climate, to the food, to the relative isolation of plantation life? These 
considerations led the author of this paper to undertake a study of the DP's iu 
the two States, which was carried out largely by Mr. Dudley S. Hall as a thesis 
for the Master of Arts degree under the auspices of the Institute of Population 
Research in the Department of Sociology at Louisiana State University. 

Tlie plans for this study had scarcely been laid when a great deal of un- 
favorable publicity was given in the press to the conditions under which 
the new immigrants were living and working. Some clergymen criticized 
the conditions severely, representatives of Polish and Lithuanian organizations 
descended upon the plantations and in some cases induced entire colonies of 
DP's to leave. For a while it looked as if the program were doomed to com- 
plete failure in this region. 

In reading the newspaper reports of that time one cannot escape the con- 
clusion that many mistakes had been made during the first months of the 
program's ojperation. The screening had not always been effective so that people 
with little or no experience in farm work came along with bona fide agricultural 
workers. The sense of responsibility was not too strongly developed among 
the first arrivals, many of whom had no intention to stay in the South and 
joined their countrymen in the East and Middlewest at the first opixirtunity. 
Some of the planters and managers of large plantations, on the other hand, 
seem to have believed they could offer the newcomers the same conditions of 
housing and employment which they were accustomed to give their Negro 
workers. Possibly this belief arose from the fact that German prisoners of war 



^The term "displaced persons" (DP) is used throughout this study, because the immi- 
grants to tlie States of Louisiana and Mississippi under the Displaced Persons Act at the 
time of the study were practically all displaced persons in the technical sense ; it is pos- 
sible that among the more recent arrivals have been some eTpeUe<^s of fiernnu ethnic 
orighi. 



COMMISSIOX OX IMMIGRATION AND XATURALIZATIOX 1337 

h.'Kl been housod in rather primitive fashinn on i)lantations and yet proved to be 
jrood and willinjr workers. 

In some cases theie may have been intentional and malevolent exploitation, 
altlion.irh it seems more likely that ignorance of the DP's cnltnral and social 
backgronnd was the most frequent reason for inadecpiate treatment. 

In any case, all the parties involved learned their lesson quickly : The screening 
improved, the voluntary agencies issued instructions to individual sponsors, 
and the latter tiiemstdves saw soon that Poles and Latvians could not be treated 
like native labor, and the DP's arriving later had perhaps a more realistic mental 
image of their new home than the eai'ly arrivals. 

From the outset it was clear that the study would have to be restricted to 
tlu' objective factors which might affect and inihience adju.stment and to the 
objective conditions of life and work among the DP's. 

A study of the psychological adjustment processes, of attitudes and of 
changes in values and norms of conduct could not be undertaken at this time 
and with the lesources at our disposal. 

II. DEMOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS 

1. Mvtliodoloffical difficulties 

The first question to be investigated was : Whetlier the incoming groups of new 
immigrants would show any demographic characteristics which might affect their 
adjustment in the new social and cultural environment. Theoretically, the as- 
.■-imilation of immigrants is most easy for the very young and most difficult for 
the very old ; however, an immigrant group consisting only of children — orphans, 
for example — would obviously present serious difficulties of adjustments ; an 
inmiigrant group consisting mainly of single men, as we know from past experi- 
ences, will be faced with special adjustment problems, and so forth. 

All demographic characteristics which might have bearing on cultural differ- 
ences and social distance between immigranis and natives were regarded as 
relevant. Data on these characteristics were obtained from the nominal rolls 
which the United States Displaced Persons Commission was kind enough to 
provide. From these lists were taken the names of persons whose destination, 
as given in the rolls, was in Louisiana or Mississippi. We expected to inter- 
view as many of these individuals as possible; we thought, however, that at 
least 6 months should have passed since their arrival before they could be 
approached with prospect of satisfactory results. As we planned to begin inter- 
viewing in the spring of 1950, we stopped taking cases from the rolls by the 
end of September 1049. By this time we had covered about 2,000 cases, fairly 
evenly divided between Lousiana and Mississippi. When the interviews began, 
we discovered that many of the individuals covered by our data were no longer 
in the region, or had never arrived. This, we feared at first, would invalidate 
the entire demographic analysis. Fortunately we were able to obtain from the 
Louisiana Displaced Persons Commission data covering confirmed arrivals 
through March 1950. The demographic structure of this universe proved to 
be similar enougli to the nominal roll cases to Justify the use of the latter— 
as far as proportions or percentages are concerned. More recently we obtained 
from the same .source data on all scheduled arrivals from 1949 through March 
1951, which will he used to some extent in this paper. 

It should be stated that we have no exact information about the number of 
DP's actually living in the two States at the present time.* On the basis of a 
very rough estimate it is possible that two-thirds of the scheduled DP's actually 
stayed in the two States ; a more conservative estimate would be about 60 percent. 

2. Demographic characteristics 

By the end of September 1949. about 2.000 DP's had been directed for re- 
settlement to the States of Louisiana and INIississippi. They came from 13 
countries in Europe; however, nine-tenths came frrmi the .3 countries of Poland, 
Latvia, and Lithuania (tables 1 and la). In evaluating these data which 
refer to citizenship, it should be recalled that each Eastern European state had 
its national minorities. These were Russians and Lithuanians in Latvia. Lat- 
vians in Lithuania, Lithuanians in Poland, Poles in Lithuania, and so forth; 
German minorities existed in all countries of Eastern Europe. From sc^rutiniz- 
Ing the family names on the nominal rolls we gained the impression that the 
majority of the DP's in the two States belong to the predominating ethnic 



•• No clipck-np on the DP's could be carriert out. partl.v because the administrative 
machinery was lacking and partly because all atrencies concerned felt that the DP's should 
be left alone in order not to disturb their adjustment. 



1338 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

groups in their country of origin so that citizenshi]> and nationality are in most 
cases identical : the major exceptions are the Ukrainians from Galicia who 
appear in our statistics as Poles. This is sociologically significant because of 
the difference in languages and because of the animosity between the two 
nationalities. 



Table 1. — Displaced persons in Louisiana and Mississippi hij citizenship, 

September 1949 





Total 


Louisiana 


Mississippi 




Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


Total - 


2, 039 


100. 00 


1.078 


100. 00 


961 


100. 00 








893 
733 
197 
216 


43.80 

35.90 

9.70 

10.60 


751 
42 
127 
158 


69.66 
11.78 
3.89 
14.65 


142 

691 

70 

58 


14.77 




71.90 




7.28 


Other - - 


6.03 







Table 1 (a). — Displaced persons in Louisiana by citisenship, 1949 and 1951 





1949 


1951 




Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


Total . -- 


1,078 


100. 00 


> 2, 843 


100.00 






Polish - - 


751 
127 
42 
158 


69. 66 
11.78 
3.89 
14.65 

• 


1,951 
233 
164 
495 


68.62 




8.19 




5.76 


Other nationalities and stateless 


17.44 







I 278 persons of unknown nationality not included. 

The second important characteristic is religion. In eastern Europe, religious 
and ethnic differentiations coincide to a large extent, but not without consid- 
erable overlapping. Tluis the majority of Poles and Uithuanians are Roman 
Catholics, although there were Protestants and Greek Oithodox in both coun- 
tries ; the Latvians are predominantly Lutherans, although Greek Orthodox and 
Roman Catholics existed in Latvia ; finally in all eastern European countries 
there lived a numerous and sociologically important Jewish population. Since 
persons of Jewish faith were very rare among the DP's destined for resettle- 
ment in Louisiana and Mississippi — only 30 out of 2,039 — during the i^eriod 
covered, they are not considered separately in tliis study. 

Since the sociocultural distance between immigrants and natives can be 
considerably reduced if both groups belong to the same church, it is fortunate 
that the three nationality groups were so distributed in the two States that 
Catholic South Louisiana (French Louisiana) received mainly Catholic Poles 
and Ukrainians while Protestant Mississippi received mainly Lutheran Latvians 
(table 3). 

Table 2. — Foreign born white in Louisiana and Mississippi bu region of origin, 

1940 





Total 


Louisiana 


Mississippi 




Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


Total 


33, 260 


100. 00 


27, 272 


100. 00 


5,988 


100. 00 








976 

797 

125 

54 

3,033 

1,602 

27, 649 


2.93 

2.39 

.37 

.16 

9.11 

4.81 

83.12 


673 

581 

68 

24 

2, 243 

1, 190 

23, 166 


2.46 

2.13 

.24 

.08 

8.22 

4. .36 

84.94 


303 
216 
57 
30 
790 
412 
4.483 


5.06 


Poland 


3.60 




.95 




.50 


Other Eastern European countries 


13.19 
6.88 




74.86 







COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1339 
Table 2 (a). — White population hy mother tongue, 19.^0 





Total 


Louisiana 


Mississippi 




Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


Total 


2, 617, 580 


100.0 


1,512,940 


100.0 


1,104,640 


100.0 






Xon-English . 


433, 320 
840 
620 
160 
980 
880 
1,240 


16.6 


387,740 
660 
540 
100 
880 
640 
900 


25.6 


45,580 
180 
80 
60 
100 
240 
340 


4 1 


Polish 




Czech 








Slovak -.- 
















Slovenian- 






Russian . . 






Ukrainian ... 










160 

1,820 

426, 620 

2, 184, 260 


. 


120 

1,280 

382, 620 

1, 125, 200 


25."3' 
74.4 


40 

540 

44,000 

1,059,060 




Yiddish 




Other .... 


16.3 
83.4 


3 9 


English 


95.9 







Source: Sixteenth Census of the United States, population, nativity and parentage, mother tongue, 
table 21. 

Table 3. — Displaced persons in Loui,^iana and Mississippi by religion and 

citizenship, 1949 





Catholic and 
Orthodox 


Protestant and 
others 




Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


Louisiana 


1,006 


93.3 


72 


6.7 






Polish- 


718 
40 
122 
126 


95.6 
95.2 
96.0 
79.7 


33 
2 
5 

32 


4.4 


Latvian .. .... 


4.8 


Lithuanian ...-_. ... 


4.0 


Others 


20.3 






Mississippi 


308 


32.0 


653 


• 68.0 






Polish .. ... 


125 

■ 88 

65 

30 


88.0 
12.7 
92.9 
51.7 


17 

603 

5 

28 


12.0 


Latvian . _ . . . 


87.3 




7.1 


Others 


48.3 







T.\BLE 4. — Location of displaced versons in Louisiana 



Scheduled arrivals 

through 

September 1949 



Number Percent 



Confirmed arrivals 

through 

March 1950 



Number Percent 



Total. 



1,078 



1,045 



100.0 



Six urban parishes 

Rural parislies in French Louisiana. 
Other rural parishes 



283 
657 
138 



26.2 
01.1 
12.7 



277 
604 
164 



26.5 
58.0 
15.5 



Contrary to the distribution in tlie two States of tlie older immigration from 
ea.sterii European countries, the majority of the displaced persons were re.settled 
in rural areas (table 4). Tliis is the result of the preference given to agricul- 
tural workers, a fact which will be discussed later. However, their distribution 
by residence was not typical for the entire mass of DP's admitted to the United 
States of America during the first 9 months. By the end of 1!)4!) about 122,000 
UP's had been resettled, ^'i percent of them in cities of 100,000 or over, 24 percent 
in other urban areas, and only '2'A jjercent in rural areas. 

Within the two States tlie larg<'st concentrations of DP's are found in the 
plantation areas of the MississiiJpi and Red liiver Valleys. In Louisiana the 
25356—52 85 



1340 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATUR.U.IZATION 



majority are settled in tlie sugarcane area, in Mississippi in tlie cotton area of the 
Yazoo-Mississippi Delta nortli of Viclisburg. In Louisiana, a considerable num- 
ber of DP's bave been placed in the rice and mixed farming areas west of the 
Mississippi. Much smaller numbers have been resettled in the upland areas of 
the two States wliere family farmers predominate. This may be regarded as 
unfortunate, but is easy to understand. Planters most likely were more willing 
to experiment with DP's and the voluntary agencies probably found it simpler to 
get job assurances from a few planters than from a large number of small 
farmers. Besides, there had been considerable migration of Negroes from planta- 
tion areas. 

More recent data for Louisiana indicate no significant changes in this pattern 
of geographical distribution (table 4). 

The factors next in importance for the immigrants' adjustment chances are the 
sex and age distribution. It is a well-known fact that in unregulated interna- 
tional migration the younger adult age groups predominate and that as a rule 
there is an excess of men among immigrants. This was not the case among 
the DP's. In both States, males and females were evenly balanced, the sex ratio 
being almost exactly 100.0. This was not the typical sex ratio for all DP's ad- 
mitted to the United States : Among those admitted through December, 1950, it 
was 117.5. 

However, there was a slight shortage of men in the age groups 15 to 35 and 
an excess of men in the age groups 40 to 59 (table 5). More recent data for 
Louisiana covering all arrivals through March 1951 indicate only slight changes 
in the age distribution (table 6). 



Table 5. 



-Age distrihiition of DP's in Louisiana and Mississippi icith age-specific 
sex ratios, 1949 



Age 


Total 


Male 


Female 


Sex 


Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


ratio 


Total -- 


2,039 


100. 00 


1,024 


100. 00 


1,015 


100. 00 


100.9 






0to4 


240 

170 

177 

159 

165 

232 

133 

204 

189 

184 

100 

37 

20 

29 


11.77 
8.33 
8.68 
7.79 
8.09 

11.37 
6. .52 

10.00 
9.26 
9.02 
4.90 
1.81 
.98 
1.42 


113 

91 

88 

89 

72 

96 

77 

98 

105 

100 

57 

23 

10 

5 


11.03 
8.88 
8.59 
8.69 
7.03 
9.37 
7.51 
9.57 

10.25 

9.76 

5.56 

2.24 

.97 

.48 


129 
79 
89 
70 
93 

136 
56 

106 
84 
84 
43 
14 
10 
24 


12. 52 
7.79 
8.77 
6.90 
9.17 

13.41 
5.52 

10.45 
8.28 
8.28 
4.24 
1.38 
.98 
2.36 


88.9 


Sto9 


115.2 


10 to 14 


98.9 


15tol9 


127.1 


20to24 . 


77.4 


25 to 29 - 


70.6 


30to34 - - 


137.5 


35to39 


92.5 


40 to 44 


125. 


45 to 49 - - 


119.0 


50 to 54 - 


132.6 


55 to 59 


164.2 


60 to 64 


100.0 


65 and above 


21.0 







Table 6.- 


—Age distribution 


of DP's in Louisiana, 19^9, 1950, 1951 




Scheduled 
arrivals 
through 

September 
1949 


Confirmed 

arrivals 

through 

March 

1950 


All scheduled 

arrivals 

through 

March 

1951 


Below 18 


Percent 
32.6 
40.0 
27.4 


Percent 
37.9 
39.1 
23.0 


Percent 
JB7.33 


18 to 39 


1 40.38 




; 1 : 22.28 







DP's in contrast to previous immigrant groups comprise a larger proportion 
of dependent children and also of older persons who are near the end of their 
occupational productivity. On the other hand, compared with the native white 
population in the two States, the DP's comprise a larger proportion of persons 
in the economically productive age groups of 25 to 54 years of age ; only the 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1341 

age groups 15 to 25 and 55 and over arn snialk'r; tlit^ former duo to the effects 
of war and forced labor, tlie latter due to screening. The fertility ratio — 
children below 5 years of aire per l.()0() women 15 to 44 years of afre — was 440, 
or slightly above that for native whites in Louisiana and Mississippi in 1940 
which was 385. 

Economically, the present age composition of the DP's in the two States is 
less favorable than that of previous immigrants, but more favorable than that 
of the native white population, insofar as the DP population contains a higher 
proportion of persons in the productive-age classes. 

Sociologically significant is that about one-fourth of the new immigrants 
were 40 years or over; these will have comparatively poor chances of assimila- 
tion, thought they may accommodate themselves quite well, particularly if 
living in family groups. 

The most striking fact, again by way of contrast to earlier immigrants. Is 
that more than 7 out of every 10 DP's 15 years of age or over were married 
(table 7). The proportion of married persons is high also in comparison witli 
the native white population. 

Table 7. — Marital status of DP's in Louisiana and Mississippi htj age, 19.'/9 



Age 


Single 


Married 


Widowed or 
divorced 




Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent; 


15 to 19. 


158 
80 
33 
18 
11 
15 
13 
4 
3 


99.4 

48.5 
14.2 
13.5 
5.4 
7.9 
7.1 
4.0 
8.1 


1 
84 
198 
113 
189 
164 
156 
80 
28 
17 
7 


0.6 
50.9 
85.3 
84.9 
92.6 
86.8 
84.8 
80.0 
75.7 
85.0 
24.1 






20 to 24 - - - 


1 

1 

2 

4 

10 

15 

16 

6 

3 

22 


6.6 

.4 

1.6 

2.0 

5.3 

8.1 

16.0 

16.2 

15.0 

75.9 


25 to 29 : . 


30to34 - 


35 to 39 


40to44 - - 


45to49 --- 


50 to 54 


55 to 59 


60 to 64 


65 and above -.- 












Total 


335 


23.1 


1,037 


71.4 


80 


. 5.5 





Table 8. — Family composition of displaced persons in Louisiana and Mississippi 

19J,9 



Number persons 
in family 


Number of 
amilies 


Percent 


Number of 
persons 


Percent 


Children 


Adult fam- 


Age to 13 
years 


Age 14 to 
20 years 


ily mem- 
bers 


2 


154 
171 
132 


28.7 
31.8 
24. 6 


308 
513 
528 
210 
162 
49 
24 


17.1 
28.4 
29.3 
11.6 
9.0 
2.7 
1.3 


12 
129 
197 
83 
70 
29 
14 


13 
34 
66 
43 
34 
10 
4 


283 

350 

265 

84 

58 

10 

6 


3 


4 


5 


42 7.8 
27 .')- 


6 


7 


7 
3 


1.3 

.5 


8 


9 


10 


1 


.2 


in 


.6 


6 


2 


2 






Total 


537 


100.0 


1,804 


100.0 


540 


206 


1,058 



Furthermore, we found that nine-tenths of the DP's scheduled to arrive by the 
end of September 1949 were travelling as members of families. The composi- 
tion and size of these families is given in table S. Again, these findings are in 
agreement with recent data obtained from the Louisiana Commission, both 
regarding size of families and proportion of persons being members of family 
groups (91.34 percent) (table 9). It is likely that most of the DP families have 
not yet reached their full size. 



1342 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 



Table 9. — DP families by size in Louisiana, 1951 

[1 person families not included] 



Number of persons 
in family 


Number of 
families 


Percent 


Number of persons 
in family 


Number of 
families 


Percent 


Total 


815 


100. 00 


6 

7 

8 


4S 
16 
11 
3 
4 


5 88 




1.96 
1.34 


2 


225 
246 
188 
74 


27.60 
30.18 
23. 06 
9.07 


3 


9 


.36 


4 


10 


49 


5 .... 











Table 10. — Occupational distribution of gainfully occupied DP's, 19^9, compared 
^vith Louisiana and Mississippi whites in the labor force, 1940 



Occupational category 



Displaced persons 
1949 



Number Percent 



Louisiana and Mis- 
sissippi whites 1940 



Number Percent 



Total.. 

Tarmers and farm workers.. 
Nonfarm and salary workers 
Professionals and proprietors 



822 



100.0 



810, 767 



484 

277 

61 



58.9 

33.7 

7.4 



266, 382 
307, 246 
101, 278 



32.9 
50.0 
17.1 



The sociological significance of the marital status structure of the DP group is 
difficult to appraise. While the shock-eft'ect of transplantation to a strange social 
environment is most likely reduced for those coming with their own family, 
the assimilation into American culture may be retarded if the DP's can satisfy 
their need for association at least partly within the family circle. 

The information on occupations of DP's in our two states which was obtained 
from the nominal rolls is summarily presented in table 10 and compared with 
the occupational distribution of the white population of the two states. These 
data have to be treated with a great deal of caution. They do not represent 
the occupations which the DP's had after their resettlement in this region. 
Presumably they refer to the usual occupation or the occupation previous to re- 
moval from the home country. Some of the DP's may have reported new occupa- 
tions acquired during their service in Germany, and the younger ones have 
learned whatever skills they have during their stay in the camps. Most im- 
portant, however, is that under the DP Act, priority was given to agricultural 
workers or farmers and to other categories of manual workers. The DP Act of 
1948 stipulated that not less than 30 percent of all visas should be issued to 
farmers and farm workers. This provision worked as an incentive to the DP's 
in camps to misstate their occupations. Also, many DP's had done agricultural 
work during their involuntary sojourn in Germany or in occupied territory. In 
this case they were actually qualified for preferred resettlement, although farm 
work was not their preferred occupation, and they expected to return to their 
usual occupation at the first opportunity after arrival in the United States. 

In view of these circumstances the very large proportion of farmers and 
farm workers in our group of DP's should probably be somewhat reduced ; it is 
twice as large as the proportion of farmers and farm laborers among the entire 
number of DP's admitted to the United States by August 31, 1950. . 

Misstatement of occupation had a great deal to do with the high rate of shift- 
ing among the DP's during the first year of operation of the program. Employers 
stated that many of those DP's who had left their first job "assurance" on farms 
or plantations were not really qualified agricultural workers. 

However, among those who had actually misstated their occupation were quite 
a large number who adjusted themselves very well to plantation life and work. 
There was the case of a Latvian woman of over 40 who had been an office worker 
in a factory in Riga. She was living in a sharecropper cottage on a very large 
plantation, working as a common field hand, and stated emphatically that she 
did not mind the work, at least as a first step. When asked how she could have 
qualified as a farmer — she was listed as such in the nominal rolls — she an- 
swered gaily : ''Yes, I was a farmer in Latvia ; I owned a farm near Riga," and 
showed us photographs of the place. 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1343 

The DP's tlius present the curious spectacle of a group of migrants who do 
not have the tendency to upgrade themselves occupationally. A survey of the 
occupational distrihution of DP's after resettlement would give lower figiu-es 
for agricultural workers, professional i)ersons, and proprietors and a higher pro- 
portion of nonagricultural wage-and-sahiry workers, because it is the latter 
category into which many DP's shifted during the first months of their stay 
in the United States. 

According to the nominal rolls only a very email number of the women gave 
an occupation ; most of them were classified as housewives. After arrival in 
the South, a considerable proportion of the latter became gainfully employed ; 
.some in agriculture, some in domestic service, others in many other occupations. 
Thereby the burden of dependents resting on the married men was somewhat 
reduced. It should be noted, liowever, that employment opix)rtunities for white 
women in Louisiana, and probably also in Mississippi are restricted since the 
field of domestic service is traditionally preemptecl by Negroes and since the 
ma.1or manufacturing industries in the two States do not employ women.^ 

Immediately after arrival of the first shiploads of DP's at their destinations 
in the two States, there began a great deal of secondary migration. 'Statistical 
information about the.se movements is not available. We do not know how many 
left the region to join larger and established groups of eastern Europeans in 
the Great Lakes region or in the Atlantic States. "Friends and relatives in 
the North is a freciuent disease among the DP's," said a representative of one 
of the sponsoring agencies. 

However, there is much evidence that a large proportion of those who did not 
stay at their first job found more suitable employment within the region. This 
shifting was to be exiiected ; it is a very common thing in all long-distance 
migration. Had the DP's come on their own initiative and responsibility, it 
would probably have gone almost unnoticed. But the employers or ".sponsors" 
as they are called had in many cases incurred considerable exx)ense in preparing 
jobs and homes for the DP's. Some probably regarded their cooi>eration with 
the program as a kind of charity. In a few cases DP's disappeared without 
notice and left impaid debts beliind. In any case tlie sponsors were incon- 
venienced. The DP's, on the other hand, who were disappointed with the quality 
of housing, with low wages, and other working conditions, were inclined to put 
the blame on the voluntary agencies, on the United States Commission, or on 
the IRO. Since no field work was done during the first months of the program's 
operation we cannot judge to what extent the complaints may have been 
justified. 

In the next .section we shall discuss the situation as it appeared during the 
spring and summer of 1950 wlien DP's. sponsors, and other competent inform- 
ants in various parts of the region were interviewed. 

III. ADJUSTMENT 

Methodoloffical remarks 

By that time a year or more had passed since the first DP's arrived in the 
region. The individuals who were interviewed had been in the United States 
for 6 months or more ; they represented the more stable elements as distinct 
from those who had migrated to greener pastures at the first opportunity. In 
this sense, then, they were a selected group. 

The interviews were held mainly with persons employed on plantations and 
farms. No serious language barriers were encountered since in each family 
there was at least one person who could speak either English or German. Most 
of the men and all of the children had a fair command of these two languages. 
Certain restrictions on the extent and intensity of the interviews were neces- 
sary, partly for reasons of economy and partly out of consideration for the 
new immigrants ; it was felt that no questions about past experiences should be 
asked which could stir up recollections of si^fferings and misery: it was also 
felt that questions should be avoided which might interfere with the subjective 
adjustment to the new environment. However, some of the DP's talked freely 
about their experiences in Germany and many expressed opinions about their 
present condition and future prospects. In establishing contact it was found 
best to state in simple terms that the junior author wanted some information 
for his thesis and that the senior author was going to act as interpreter if neces- 
sary. In this way the DP's as well as their employers were implicitly ad- 
vised that we were not authorized by any ofl5cial agency to hear complaints 



^ Compare R. Heberle, The Lalior Force in Louisiana. Baton Rouge, 1948. 



1344 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

or to investigate cases of mistreatment. If possible, interviews were held in 
the home and in most cases in the absence of the employer. The technique was 
informal, no schedules were taken, but the substance of the interview was put 
in writing immediately afterward and prepared schedules were used to record 
objective data. Attention was focused on the present working and living con- 
ditions and on participation in the life of the community. Employers were also 
interviewed and additional information was obtained from various other in- 
formants. Some interviews, especially in Mississippi, were held by the junior 
author alone with the aid of local interpreters. 

The interviews covered approximately 265 persons in 70 families, or more than 
10 percent of the total number of DP's presumably resettled through September 
1949 in the two States. However, the interviewed families do not constitute 
a statistically correct sample. For various reasons, but mainly because of the 
high degree of seccmdary migration among the DP's find their wide dispersion, 
it became obvious at the very beginning of the field work that no scientific 
sampling could be attempted; we could be glad if we obtained a sufficiently 
large number of interviews. For this reason no statistical analysis of the 
interviewed cases was attempted. Instead, the findings were presented in a 
series of locality group descriptions. 

Conditions of life and rvork 

In evaluating the success of the resettlement program one should keep in mind 
the conditions in which the DP's have been living before coming to this country; 
furthermore, one should regard their condition at the time of the interview not as 
static but rather as the first phase in a process of adjustment. 

This becomes immediately apparent when a survey is made of the jobs held by 
DP's in the spring and summer of 1950. While in the beginning the great 
majority of tho.se who were resettled on plantations had been employed as com- 
mon field hands, there was now noticeable a definite tendency to employ them in 
better paid jobs as tractor drivers, repair meclianics. carpenters, bricklayers, 
or in various other skilled and semiskilled jobs. This shift had two advan- 
tages — higher wages and a greater stability of work. The latter point is impor- 
tant — a major problem encountered on plantations is the irregularity of earnings 
due to changing weather conditions and to the .seasonal variations in demand for 
strictly agricultural labor. The local workers are accustomed to these periods 
of involuntary idleness, but the new immigrants who want to get ahead finan- 
cially as quickly as possible complained strongly about the many days during the 
past year on which they had not earned anything. On smaller plantations this 
problem is not so serious since there is always some work to be done by the 
resident labor force, but on large plantations where jobs are more specialized, 
it is difficult to solve. The managers of one very large cotton plantation stated 
that this was one reason why they intended to expand their livestock operations 
since the Latvians and Poles preferred to work with livestock anyway. In 
another case a planter, observing that the DP's were skillful carpenters, started 
a small furniture factory on his place. We are here faced with a phenomenon 
which has occurred again and again in the history of migration, namely, that 
immigrants possessing particular skills provide a stimulus to the development 
of new industries or new types of agricultural production. It seems very likely 
that in the near future the great majority of the DP's will have advanced into 
jobs more in line with their skills and abilities. 

Housing presented another problem. Although most of the DP's had been 
living in camps under .subnormal conditions, they were not willing to accept the 
simpler kind of plantation workers' quarters as i)ermanent abodes. In their 
native culture rural housing standards were higher than those of plantation 
workers in the deep South. By spring 1950 most of the employers had made 
efforts to improve the DP's' dwellings. Rooms had been wallpapered, windows 
and porches screened, and leaky roofs repaired. Some planters were replacing 
the old wooden cabins by concrete block houses, equipped with bathrooms and 
gas stoves. Usually the DP's did most of the work and were paid for it. 

As a rule, the DP families were assigned garden plots large enough to produce 
vegetables for home consumption. Incidentally most of the families visited 
had also planted flowers and shrubs around their houses, an indication of their 
intention to stay and to make a permanent home. 

In many cases tlie employer, often with the aid of other people in the com- 
munity, had provided furniture and other household implements. In other cases 
they had facilitated the purchase of such equipment on credit. In this connection 
it mu.st be noted that the DP's sometimes refused to buy consumer goods on 
credit for fear of becoming financially dependent. Apparently the notion of 



COMMISSIOX OX IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1345 

peonage had heen conveyed to them and the intentions of the employer were, in 
some cases, misinterpreted. S'gns of financial progress such as possession of 
radios, second-hand cars, and refrigerators were note<l in many households, even 
in tl'e cotton areas, althongh the cotton crop of 1S>4!» had heen very poi)r. 

Generally speaking, the economic situation of the families visited in the spring 
and summer of 1950, although far from ideal according to American standards, 
was at least hopeful. In any case it was a vast improvement compared with 
tlieir situation in Europe. The level of living of the majtirity of DP's was also 
higher than that of most of the native plantation workers. They were paid 
the prevailing Avage rates, hut they tended to he in the better paid jobs. They 
kept chickens, pigs, siinietimes a cow. and they were adept at developing addi- 
tional income from the sale of honey and similar sources. Aliout one-half of 
the families interviewed in Mississippi had one or the other kind of additional 
income. 

The experiment of transplanting Eastern European farmers into the plantation 
econcmiy, or to speak in more general terras, into the one-crop areas of the deep 
South, could very easily have resulted in complete failure. Fortunately, the 
new inunigrants came into this region at a time of important changes in the 
agricultural system : the trend toward diversification 1ms been reenforc«l during 
the war and postwar years ; cattle grazing and dairy farming are on the increase. 
At the same time, mechanization is progressing. In this situation, the DP's 
with their tradition of diversified farming and their mechanical skills fit excel- 
lently the changing labor demands. It is quite possible that the availability of 
this new type of workers will speed up the tempo of change in the region's agri- 
culture. 

Furthermore, there are the general effects of industrialization and urbaniza- 
tion in combination with a considerable increase in wealth. The deep South 
today is very different from what it was 15 years ago. The DP's are thus 
coming into a highly dynamic economic situation and it is to be expected that 
they will not only benefit by it but also contribute on their part to the further 
increase in prosperity in the region. 

We shall now briefly discuss the social adjustment of the new immigi-ants in 
noneconomic respects. 

It should be understood that except for a very few extremely large planta- 
tions where more than 20 families were located, the DP's were not resettled in 
large clusters. Two, three, or five families on one plantation was rather the 
rule. Thus, there arose the problem of neighborhood relations and of participa- 
tion in the life of the larger community. 

In the Catholic area of French Louisiana, the employers, under instructions 
from the priests who represented the sponsoring voluntary agency, made every 
effort to aid tlie DP's in beconnng socially integrated into the local community. 
They took the DP's to church, to the movies, to the community dances and similar 
affairs. The children were enrolled in the local schools, and in some cases, 
special instruction in I^nglish had been provided for them. By the summer of 
1950 this seemed scarcely necessary any longer. In one French community, 
the first marriage between a young Pole and a local girl had taken place. 

The situation in Mississippi was diffei'ent insofar as the Latvians are Luther- 
ans and had, therefore, to establish their own church organization. 

There are in Mississippi a few areas in which large numbers of DP's are 
located. For example, within a 20-mile radius from Senatobia, Miss., about 
400 Latvians were resettled by sunnner, 1950. Here a real conmiunity has devel- 
oped whose institutional center is the Lutheran congregation which was organized 
in the fall of 1949. With the aid of the United Lutheran Council, a Latvian dis- 
placed pastor was appointed and a church building acquired ; cooperating in the 
renovation of the building the Latvians developed a high degree of group solidar- 
ity. The church has since become the center of the Latvians' group life. There 
are in Mississippi at least two smaller groups which have developed into little 
communities, not in a sjiatial but in a sociological sense, having their social center 
in the Lutherjin church. In Louisiana such local group integration was less 
noticeable. Here the Catholic Church constitutes a strong bond between the 
native people and the newcomers; the latter are more easily integrated into the 
larger native community. 

A few cases were observed of a single DP family placed on a small farm in 
relative isolation from neighbors; it seems that as a rule these placements were 
not successful. Too much dcFiends in such cases on personal relations between 
the DP and his employer, and the lack of fellowship with members of their own 
nationality is likely to ])ut the DP's into a state of tension which can easily lead 



1346 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

to a deterioration of relations with the employer. Some of these emi^loyers 
thought of themselves as benefactors and expected small services from the DP 
or his wife without remuneration. The DP's who most likely had been exploited 
a great deal during their sojourn in Germany defined the situation differently, 
and out of such misunderstandings arose friction and conflict. In some of these 
cases the sponsoring agency had to intervene and find another place for the DP. 

In interpreting cases of this kind one should realize that many planters and 
white farmers in the region are accustomed to dealing with persons belonging 
to the class of agricultural workers in a quasi-paternalistic way ; they are quite 
willing to extend favors to their workers, but they expect some unpaid-for 
services in return. The DP's, on the other hand, who had been exposed to much 
abuse and exploitation, would of course be very much on their guard against 
any real or imagined unfairness on the employer's side. 

The employers on their part generally regarded the DP's as highly competent, 
reliable workers. They stated that the new immigrants, once they had under- 
stood their task, needed much less supervision than native Negro workers ; they 
took better cai*e of machines and implements. In fact, one employer remarked, 
"They are such darned perfectionists." 

In summary one might say that after a period of 12 to 15 months of operation, 
the resettlement program had proved more successful than we expected. The 
anticipated difficulties had arisen but had been solved, to a large extent, by 
adaptation. 

New homes, a new start in life had been provided for several thousand people 
who but a few months before were stranded in a hopeless situation among an 
impoverished and often hostile population in Germany. For the first time in 
many years they were free to move about as they pleased ; for the first time 
they enjoyed the privacy of a family home ; they were treated as new members 
of, and, in most cases, as welcome additions to, the community." 



STATEMENT SUBMITTED BY THE NORFOLK JEWISH COMINIUNITY 
COUNCIL, NORFOLK, VA. 

The Norfolk Jewish Community Council represents 37 Jewish organizations, 
comprising all of the adult Jewish fraternal, philanthropic, and religious or- 
ganizations in this city. 

For some years our council has been concerned with the problem of immigra- 
tion because we are convinced that the greatness that is America has come about 
because of an immigration policy over the years and centuries which has per- 
mitted the talents and strength of people everywhere to help develop our country. 
These immigrant peoples coming here of their own free choice were in a position 
to compare and contrast tlie freedom and opportunity which this country affords 
with the limitation and rigidity which so often marked the social and economic 
structure of the country of their birth. Names of America's greats are in large 
part the names of those of foreign birth. If America is to preserve its position 
of world leadership, this same opportunity must continue to pi*evail. 

We have also been concerned with our immigration policy for very natural 
and understandable personal reasons. Many of our closest kinfolk perished in 
the kaleidoscope of Hitler's Europe and some few of the remainder found refuge 
in America due to a hospitable American immigration policy. We have watched 
and guided these newcomers to our shores and have found them to be of the 
same spirit, with the same values, and with the same potential of service which 
marked the earlier immigrant stream. 

A few years now have passed since most of our recent newcomers have landed 
on our shores. It is true that our experience in Norfolk is a small part of the 
whole, and yet our findings with respect to the economic and social adjustment 
of these people may be of interest to this Commission of inquiry, for in many 
respects a small community such as Norfolk is a faithful reflection of the experi- 
ence of the larger whole. 

Of the 20 or 30 newcomer families who to our personal knowledge made Norfolk 
their home following their nightmare European experience, all are now contribut- 
ing to America. Whereas for the first months our private welfare organization 
assumed full responsibility for their economic needs, now they are self-supporting. 
They themselves are fully integrated into the social life of our community. Their 



* For more detail see : Rudolph Heberle and Dudley S. Hall, New Americans, published 
by Displaced Persons Commission, Baton Rouge. La., 1951. 



COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1347 

children attend our public schools and. if you will, already speak with a southern 
accent. None represent economic success stores, yet all are making their way. 
Some are skilled workmen: a painter, an electrician, a tailor, each taking; his 
place in the ranks. Several serve in the Armed Forces of our country. Some are 
small-business men; others are salesmen, bookkeepers, and down the line of occu- 
pational oitjiortunities. Were they not here, Norfolk's already tiuht labor market 
would be that much more acute, ami the woi-k of the great Noi-folk Naval Base 
uixni whicii Norfolk's economy rests would be to that degree retarded. These 
newcom<M's are good people; tliey have no record of contlict with the law. They 
attend niuht school and look to the day of their citizenship as the briiihtest 
moment of their lives. Norfolk and America should be proud that they are now 
part of us. And this record of achievement is duplicated in the case histories 
of Norfolk newcomer families of all religious faiths and beliefs. 

All of this colors our thinking with respect to immigi'ation policies in general, 
and the McCarran-Walter Act in particular. The major limitations and weak- 
nesses of this law have been recited to your Commission on numerous occasions 
over th(> past weeks. We concur with these indictments in toto. In particular, 
we wish to underscore the theme that at this critical stage of world history 
America is .si^eking by every jxissible means to maintain and win friends for the 
democratic way of life. It api>ears to be incredible foolhardiness to establish 
a national Immigration policy which legalizes a racist theory that one nationality 
group is better than another — that one group will make better American citizens 
than another — that Germans, citizens of a country which spawned two world 
wars, are considered more desirable ix)tential American citizens than the nationals 
of scores of other countries. 

We recognize and accept, although regretfully, that it is necessary for us to 
impose immigration barriers. The formula for fixing these barriers is not for 
us to determine, but we do strongly hold that an immigration law can be arrived 
at which will be consistent with America's internal need and external respon- 
sibilities. 

We have been pleased to note that the inconsistencies, li-relevancies, and pre- 
judicial a.spects of the McCarran-Walter Act have been condemned in recent 
months and weeks, not only by both major political parties, but by both major 
candidacies for the Presidency. This leads us to believe that our position is 
shared by Americans everywhere — Americans of every geographic locality, relig- 
ious persuasion, and social position. 

We, therefore, respectfully urge that this Commission on Immigration and 
Naturalization bend every effort to see that the McCarran-Walter bill is replaced 
by a fair and equitable immigration law consistent with the best in the American 
tradition and the American need of today. 



STATEMENT SUBMITTED BY J. L. NAIRN, McALLEN, TEX. 

Box 167, 
McAllen, Tex., October 21, 1952. 
The President's Commission on Immigration and Naturalization, 
1742 G Street NW., Washington, D. C. 

Gentlemen ; Since the signing of the International Executive Agreement with 
Mexico in August 1949 I have been greatly interested in the problem concerning 
Mexican nationals who had entered this country prior to that time and have 
continued to live here since then. My interest in this is both as an individual 
citizen and also because I served for some time as a member of the Advisory 
Subcommittee on Mexican Farm Workers, appointed by the Bureau of Employ- 
ment Security, United States Department of Labor. 

I believe that the case of these people deserves separate consideration from 
that of transient wetbacks who cross and recross the river. They are in all re- 
sp(K-ts settlers except that they have no legal rights. 

While the Immigration Act of 1917, section 19 (c) (2) (b) provided for 
suspension of depoi'tation in such ca.ses, under certain conditions, such relief 
is very seldom granted despite the eligibility of many of these ca.ses. 

The conference report on S. 984 (H. Rept. No. GGS) recognized the need for 
some action "in essential justice to the many Mexicans who. because of the 
closeness of Mexico and the United States and the traditional freedom of move- 
ment across the border, may have entered the United States without complying 
with immigration formalities, but who have been for many years continuous and 
useful residents in the United States." 



1348 COMMISSION ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

The relief intended in that report did not become operative. 

The Special Farm Labor Committee, United States Department of Labor, made 
a formal recommendation, on November 29, 1951 : 

"That the immigration laws be amended to provide that a Mexican national 
who has entered this conntry prior to August 1. 1949. and has lived here since 
that time even though his original enti'y had not complied with immigration 
formalities, be given an opportunity to have his status as an immigrant legalized. 
These nationals shall not be disqualilied by reason of voluntary departures to 
Mexico for short periods. In cases where they are unable to obtain certificates 
of birth or baptism the requirement for such shall be waived." 

As far as I know, no action lias resulted from that recommendation. 

The plight of these unfortunate people is indeed serious. Some are single men 
but many have wives and children who may be either Mexican or United States 
nationals, or a combination of both. They have long since severed their ties with 
Mexico and look on this country as their home. 

In many instances they are the key year-round workers of farmers in border 
areas, for which work they are constitutionally adapted. Those who employ 
them are ineligible to contract workers on a short-time basis under the Bracero 
agreement which has a serious adverse effect upon the working of that agreement. 

The suppo.sition that these Mexicans can return to Mexico and obtain pass- 
ports and visas to reenter this country is not practical. Some who have tried 
this course have had to spend comparatively large sums of money to obtain the 
necessary papers. This, combined with the loss of work days involved, makes 
such a course quite impractical in most of these cases. 

I may say that I have personally discussed tliis problem from time to time 
with high-level officials in Washington who are concerned in the matter. I be- 
lieve that, to some extent at least, they are in accord with my thinking. The 
thought that the subject would be an appropriate one for consideration by your 
Commission originates with a suggestion made to me by Mr. Michael J. Galvin, 
Under Secretary of Labor. 

I shall greatly appreciate hearing from you with regard to this. If you would 
care to have me discuss it more fully I shall, of course, be glad to do so. 
Yours very truly, 

J. L. Nairn. 



STATEMENT SUBMITTED BY MRS. STRAITON HARD, NATIONAL 
DEFENSE CHAIRMAN, ATLANTA CHAPTER, DAUGHTERS OF THE 
AMERICAN REVOLUTION, ATLANTA, GA. 

Atlanta Chapter, 
Daughters of the American Revolution, 

174 Peachtree Battle Avenue NW., 

Atlanta, Ga., November 10, 1952. 
ExECUTi\'E Director, 

President's Commission on Immigration and Naturalization, 

Washington 25, D. G. 
Dear Sir : As first vice regent and national defense chairman of the Atlanta 
chapter. Daughters of the American Revolution, we wish to be recorded as defi- 
nitely being in favor of the McCarran-Walter bill. 

We kindly ask you to leave the bill alone, as we know the economy of our 
country is strained and we are having a hard time absorbing them now. 
Sincerely yours, 

Mrs. Straiton Hard, 
National Defense Chairman. 



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