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Full text of "Hearings on attempts at Subversion and Espionage by Diplomatic Personnel : hearings before the Committee on Un-American Activities, House of Representatives, Eighty-fourth Congress, second session. May 10 and 11, 1956"

HARVARD COLLEGE 
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GIFT OF THE 

GOVERNMENT 
OF THE UNITED STATES 



f 

HEARINGS ON ATTEMPTS AT SUBVERSION AND 
ESPIONAGE BY DIPLOMATIC PERSONNEL 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

EIGHTY-FOURTH CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 



MAY 10 AND 11, 1956 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
(INCLUDING INDEX) 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
84944 WASHINGTON : 1956 



HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY 

DEPOSITED BY THE 
UNITED STATES GOVERNMENf 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

United States House of Representatives 
FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania, Chairman 
MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri HAROLD H. VELDE, Illinois 

CLYDE DOYLE, California BERNARD W. KEARNEY, New York 

JAMES B. FRAZIER, Jr., Tennessee DONALD L. JACKSON, California 

EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio 

Richard Arbns, Director 
II 



CONTENTS 



Executive hearings * 

May 10, 1956: Testimony of — Page 

Sidney Hatkin 5817 

Coui'tuey E. Owens 5842 

Sidney Hatkin, resumed 5843 

Afternoon session : 

Richard S. Cutter 5852 

May 11, 1956 : Testimony of— 

Robert W. Davis 5S63 

Index i 



1 Released by the committee and ordered to be printed. 

rn 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress (1946), chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides : 

Be it enacted bij the Semite and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 
******* 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
******* 

(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American Activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a wliole or by sut)commit- 
tee, is authorized to make from time to time, investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks 
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 
(iii) all other questions in relation thereto tliat would aid Congress in any neces- 
sary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessai-y. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 84TH CONGRESS 

House Resolution 5, January 5, 1955 

• * * * * * * 

Rtjle X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Con- 
gress : 

******* 

(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 

******* 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 



17. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time, investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary, Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by such chairman, and may be served by any person desig- 
nated by any such chairman or member. 



HEARINGS ON ATTEMPTS AT SUBVERSION AND 
ESPIONAGE BY DIPLOMATIC PERSONNEL 



THUBSDAY, MAY 10, 1956 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
CoMMiTi'EE on Un-American Activities, 

Washington, D. G, 

EXECUTIVE session ^ 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met 
at 10 a. m., pursuant to call, in room 2'26, Old House Office Building, 
Hon. Francis E. Walter (chairman) presiding. 

Committee member present : Representative Francis E. Walter, of 
Pennsylvania. 

Staff members present: Richard Arens, director; Courtney E, 
Owens, investigator ; and Richard S. Weil. 

Mr. Walter. Mr. Hatkin, will you raise your right hand, please? 

Do you swear that the testimony you will give will be the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Hatkin. I do. 

(Representative Francis E. Walter left the hearing room at this 
point.) 

TESTIMONY OF SIDNEY HATKIN, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
JOSEPH H. FREEHILL 

Mr. Arens. Will you kindly identify yourself by name and resi- 
dence ? 

Mr. Hatkin. Sidney Hatkin, 2823 28th Street NW., Washington, 
D. C. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Hatkin, are you appearing today in response to a 
subpena which was served upon you by the House Committee on 
Un-American Activities ? 

Mr. Hatkin. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Hatkin. Yes; I am. 

Mr, Arens. Will counsel kindly identify himself? 

Mr. Freehill. My name is Joseph H. Freehill. I am an attorney 
at law, practicing in the District of Columbia with offices at 1701 
K Street NW. 

I would like to say, Mr. Arens, that the issuing of the subpena, 
insofar as Mr. Hatkin is concerned, was not necessary. A phone call 
from you would have brought him up here voluntarily. 



* Released bj"^ the committee and ordered to be printed. 

5817 



5818 SUBVERSION AND ESPIONAGE BY DIPLOMATIC PERSONNEL 

Mr. Arens. I would make this observation for the record, Mr. 
Freehill, that it is our practice to issue subpenas in this type of pro- 
ceeding, and among other reasons tliat practice is for the protection 
of the witness himself. 

Mr. Freehill. Thank you. 

Mr. Arens. Off the record. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Hatkin, I should like to have you give us, first 
of all, a brief sketch of the chronology of your life, where and when 
you were born, a word about your early education, and places of 
residence prior to the completion of your formal education. 

Mr. Hatkin. My date of birth was September 21, 1915. I was born 
in New York. I attended the public-school system of New York, and 
through the City College of New York, from which I graduated in 
1937. Pardon me, Mr. Arens, did you want my residence in New 
York? 

Mr. Arens. No ; not within the city. Just the general area, so we 
have an idea of your background and some of the places where you 
may have lived. When did you graduate from the City College of 
New York? 

Mr. Hatkin. 1937. 

Mr. Arens. What degree did you receive ? 

Mr. Hatkin. I received a bachelor of science degree. 

Mr. Arens. Did that complete your formal education ? 

Mr. Hatkin, No. After coming to Washington, I attended night 
school at American University from time to time and accumulated 
sufficient credits to earn a master's degree. 

Mr. Arens. In what subject? 

Mr. Hatkin. I earned a master's degree in 1948 in labor economics. 

Mr. Arens. What subject did you specialize in to receive your 
bachelor of science degree in 1937 ? 

Mr. Hatkin. My major at City College was in sociology. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any other formal education ? 

Mr. Hatkin. No. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly give us the principal employments 
you have had in your lifetime? Of course, by principal employment, 
eliminate part-time positions while going to school, or anything of 
that character. 

Mr. Hatkin. My principal employment started with the United 
States Government as an employee when I came to work with the 
Census Bureau in January of 1940. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity did you serve in the Census Bureau? 

Mr. Hatkin. I served as a clerk. 

Mr. Arens. And where was that located ? 

Mr. Hatkin. That was located in Washington, D. C, specifically 
in the Department of Commerce Building is where I was assigned. 

Mr. Arens. How long were you engaged in that employment? 

Mr. Hatkin. Tliat was for 3 months, at which time in April of 1940 
I transfeiTed to the Government Printing Office. I was there until 
the end of December 1941 and from there transferred 

Mr. Arens. What did you do at the Government Printing Office ? 

Mr. Hatkin. I had the title of skilled laborer. For most of the 
period I was employed there I assisted on the printing presses. Toward 
a later date I was given other assignments in different departments. 



SUBVERSION AND ESPIONAGE BY DIPLOMATIC PERSONNEL 5819 

Mr. Arens. "Was your clisassociation from the Census Bureau and 
your new employment at the GPO wholly voluntary ? 

Mr. Hatkin. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. It was, in your eyes, a better opportunity economically ; 
is that correct ? 

Mr. Hatkin. The opportunity was one of getting civil-service 
status. 

The appointment at the Census Bureau was a temporary appoint- 
ment for the duration of the census. The GPO appointment conferred 
upon me civil-service status. 

Mr. Arens. Tell me, sir, what precipitated your disassociation from 
the GPO and your affiliation with your next employment? 

Mr. Hatkin. The next job I had was in the Department of Agri- 
culture. The work at the GPO was not in keeping with the back- 
ground that I had. As a result of my schooling I wanted to get more 
work in keeping with what I thought were my abilities. 

Mr. Arens. Was your disassociation at the GPO wholly voluntary 
on your part ? 

Mr. Hatkin. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. When did you commence your employment at the De- 
partment of Agriculture ? 

Mr. Hatkin. Right after that. 

Mr. Arens, Do you recall the year and month ? 

Mr. Hatkin. I believe it was January 1942, either the end of De- 
cember 1941 or January 1942 I took a clerk-typist job in one of the 
agencies. 

Mr. Arens. What agency was that ? 

Mr. Hatkin. It w^as in the Commodity Credit Corporation. 

Mr. Arens. In the Department of Agriculture ? 

Mr. Hatkin. In the Department of Agriculture; yes. I took a job 
at the Department of Agriculture with the idea of trying to switch 
over to a particular office in tlie Department of Agriculture. I thought 
if I was in the Department it would be easier to switch into that par- 
ticular office. 

Mr. Arens. In what office of the Department of Agriculture did you 
actually desire to be ? 

Mr. Hatkin. That was in the Bureau of Agricultural Economics, 
Division of Program Surveys. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly, Mr. Hatkin, continue with your em- 
ployments, the duration and the particular agency in the Federal Gov- 
ernment? 

Mr. Hatkin. I did switch over to the Division of Program Surveys 
in about February 1942 and was at that agency until December 1942. 

Mr. Arens. Was that switchover occasioned exclusively by your 
desire to better yourself economically, or from the standpoint of a 
better job? 

Mr. Hatkin. Yes. It was to better myself economically and also 
to better utilize my abilities. 

Mr. Arens. Was your switchover wholly voluntary on your part? 

Mr. Hatkin. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Not occasioned by any other factor ? 

Mr. Hatkin. No, sir ; wholly voluntary. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly proceed? 

84944 — 56 2 



5820 SUBVERSION AND ESPIONAGE BY DIPLOMATIC PERSONNEL 

Mr. Hatkin. Toward tlie end of 1942 this Division of Program 
Surveys received a budget cut, and the people were advised to start 
looking for jobs elsewhere. 

Toward the end of 1942 the Division of Program Surveys had its 
funds reduced and the employees were advised to look elsewhere for 
employment. At that time a large number of employees did leave, 
including myself, upon this advice. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you go at that time ? 

Mr. Hatkin. I went to the Federal Public Housing Authority. 

Mr. Arens. What month was it that you actually commenced with 
the Public Housing Authority? 

Mr. Hatkin. December of 1942. 

Mr. Arens, And in what capacity ? 

Mr. Hatkin. I think the title was economic analyst. 

Mr. Arens. Where were j'^ou located ? 

Mr. Hatkin. Located in the Longfellow Building in Washington. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you serve in that capacity ? 

Mr. Hatkin. I served there until September of 1943. My job there 
was abolished as a result of a reorganization of the particular office 
I was in, and I went to work for the National War Labor Board in 
September of 1943. 

Mr. Arens. Was that in Washington? 

Mr. PIatkin. Yes ; the National War Labor Board in Washington. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity were you employed ? 

Mr. Hatkin. I was an economist. 

Mr. Arens. In what division within the War Labor Board were you 
employed ? 

Mr. Hatkin. I don't recall. The unit names changed very fre- 
quently. And just what the exact hierarchy was I don't recall. It 
was in the Work Stabilization Division, but the breakdown beyond 
that I don't recall exactly what they were. 

Mr. Arens. How long were you employed there ? 

Mr. Hatkin. The National War Labor Board and its successor 
agency, the National Wage Stabilization Board, until December of 

1946. . . , -,. . . , 

Mr. Arens. Tell us what precipitated your disassociation there. 

Mr, Hatkin. At the end of 1946 — well, all during 1946 the agency 
was being reduced in size because its wartime functions were being 
diminished, and at the end of 1946 I received a reduction-in-f orce no- 
tice and found employment in the Bureau of the Census, which I 
started in January of 1947. 

Mr, Arens, And in what capacity did you serve in the Bureau of 
the Census ? 

Mr. Hatkin. I was a statistician. 

Mr. Arens. Was that located out at Suitland ? 

Mr. Hatkin. Yes ; that is where I was located. 

Mr. Arens. In the Washington area ? 

Mt.Hatkin. Yes, in the Washington area ; Suitland. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly continue, Mr. Hatkin, with your employment. 

Mr, Hatkin. I was with the Census Bureau until March 1951 at 
which time I voluntarily transferred to the National Production 
Authority, to a higher paying job. 



SUBVERSION AND ESPIONAGE BY DIPLOMATIC PERSONNEL 5821 

Mr. Arens. Was that disassociation from your job at the Census 
Bureau and the acquisition of your new job wholly and exclusively 
voluntary on your part? 

Mr. Hatkin. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Would you please tell us just a word about your new 
job? • 

Mr. Hatkix. That job had to do primarily with what was called 
the list of essential activities and critical occupations. 

Mr. Arens. Just a word about that particular function. 

Mr. Hatkix. The function of that list was to act as guidance to 
draft boards in granting deferments to particular individuals who 
had been called up for the draft. In other words, by consulting this 
particular list of occupations and industries, if any individual worked 
in a particular occupation or industry, that matter was given consid- 
eration in granting him deferment. And my work was to do statistical 
studies and economic analyses of particular industries in connection 
with that list. 

During the latter part of my employment in the National Produc- 
tion Authority, as part of the reorganization I was transferred to 
another job witliin the National Production Authority in the Office 
of Labor. 

Mr. Arens. Was that a temporary transfer? 

Mr. Hatkin. No, it was a permanent transfer, as far as I knew, 
for the duration of the agency, 

Mr. Arens. Can j'ou give me the approximate date of that ? 

Mr. Hatkin. That was in October 1942. 

Mr. O^VENS. You said 1942? 

Mr. Hatkin. Did I say 1942? I meant 1952. 

Mr. Arens. May I ask you in passing, since you mentioned that you 
had something to do with draft questions and problems, what was 
your draft status during this period when the United States was in 
war? 

Mr. Hatkin. You mean World War II ? 

jMr Arens Yes 

Mr! Hatkin. In World War II I was IV-F. 

Mr. Arens. Could you tell us what lY-F is ? 

Mr. Hatkin. IV-F is deferred for physical disability. 

Mr. Arens. I take it tliat the physical disability must have been 
your eyes ? You are wearing glasses. 

Mr. Hatkin. No, it was internal. 

Mr. Arens. How long were you engaged in the last employment 
we are now discussing? 

Mr. Hatkin. You mean starting in October 1952 ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. Hatkin. I was with that particular office until that whole office 
was eliminated in toto. It was in April 1953. 

Mr. Arens. And what was that office ? 

Mr. Hatkin. That was the Office of Labor within the National Pro- 
duction Authority, which was eliminated in toto in one fell swoop in 
April of 1953. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat was your next employment ? 

Mr. Hatkin. I went back to the Census Bureau in May of 1953 on re- 
employment rights which I had with that agency. But as soon as 



5822 SUBVERSION AND ESPIONAGE BY DIPLOMATIC PERSONNEL 

I got back there I was aware that reduction-in-f orce proceedings were 
pending. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity did you resume your employment, 
when you became associated for the third time with the Bureau of 
Census in 1953? 

Mr. Hatkin. I went back as a statistician. 

Mr. Arens. Was that the same job you had when you left there ? 

Mr. Hatkin. The same title. I wasn't doing the same work, ac- 
tually, but I had the same title and I went back at the same grade. 

Mr. Arens. How long, so we may keep this chronology on the record 
as clearly as possible, were you in the Bureau of Census when you 
resumed your employment in May of 1953 ? 

Mr. Hatkin. I was there 2 months, from May until July, the end of 
July. 

Mr. Arens. And you were a statistician ? 

Mr. Hatkin. Yes. I was out of the Government for the month of 
August. 

Mr. Arens. Of 1953? 

Mr. Hatkin. Of 1953. Then I went to work for the Department of 
the Air Force in the beginning of September 1953, which is the last 
Government job I had. 

Mr. Arens. Was your disassociation from the Bureau of the Census 
this last time, 1953, occasioned exclusively by voluntary factors ? Were 
you in any sense let out or discharged or forced out or asked to resign 
or anything of that character ? 

Mr. Hatkin. It was involuntary on my part. I was given a re- 
duction-in-force. 

Mr. Arens. At the Census Bureau in July 1953 ? 

Mr. Hatkin. July 1953. I was given a reduction-in- force as part 
of a large-scale dismissal because of budget cuts. 

Mr. Freehill. You may recall this was the period of the freeze and 
the war agencies were being dismantled. The people in the war agen- 
cies came under regulations that gave them reemployment rights. But 
when they returned to their old agencies, because of the freeze that 
was on and the thrust of the present administration to reduce the 
budget, the size of the organization, many of these people had reem- 
ployment rights in form only because they were almost immediately 
r. i. I'd. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Hatkin, the point I am trying to develop here is, 
was your disassociation in July of 1953 from the Bureau of Census 
occasioned solely and exclusively, so far as you know, by a reduction in 
force because of the reduction in the appropriation for that agency ? 
Is that correct ? 

Mr. Hatkin. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. No other element or factor, so far as you know, entered 
into your disassociation ? 

Mr. Hatkin. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. How did you secure your job in the Department of the 
Air Force ? 

Mr. Hatkin. I had been canvassing many prospective Government 
agencies, and what I had done in order to get this job was get a tele- 
phone directory of the Department of Defense and I was calling statis- 
tical offices within the Department of Defense. And I spoke to this 
one person — I am talking about the steps immediately preceding my 



SUBVERSIOX AND ESPIONAGE BY DIPLOMATIC PERSONNEL 5823 

getting this job — this Major Whalley, I believe that is correct. I am 
just repeating it from memoiT. But it is pronounced Major Whalley. 
And he referred me to an administrative officer who took care of his 
particular office. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know anyone in the United States Air Force 
prior to the time that you acquired your job there in September of 
1953 ^ 

]Mr. Hatkin. No, I did not. It was just this telephone canvass 
which led me to Major Wlialley, and he referred me to a ]Mrs. Bloom- 
quist. As a matter of fact, he transferred the telephone call to Mrs. 
Bloomquist. 

Mr. Arens. Prior to the time you started this solicitation that you 
have just been describing, did you know that there was any vacancy in 
the United States Air Force which might be available to you ? 

Mr. Hatkin. No, I didn't. I was just canvassing. 

Mr. Arexs. You went out and polled, solicited and canvassed for a 
job? 

Mr. Hatkin. Yes. I checked in the most likely places where I could 
find a job. 

Mr. Arens. Did you file the appropriate forms as a civil-service 
employee in the process of procuring your employment? 

Mr. Hatkin. Yes. I filed a Form 57. 

Mr. Arens. I take it in passing that you filed those forms in each of 
these numerous jobs which we have been discussing or commenting 
on in your career in the Government, is that correct ? 

Mr. Hatkin. I assume so. 

Mr. Arens. You have a recollection of filing a number of these 
forms ? 

Mr. Hatkin. That is the normal procedure. Although, in some of 
these procedures where I went back I don't know if I filed a formal 
form. 

For example, when I went from the National Production Authority 
back to the Census Bureau I don't know if I specifically filed a form 
at that time. 

Mr. Arens What was the title of your job with the United States 
Air Force beginning in September of 1953 ? 

Mr. Hatkin. Analytical statistician. 

Mr. Arens. Could you tell us a few things about that? First of 
all, what classification did you have in the civil service? 

Mr. Hatkin. My grade you mean? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. Hatkin. At this particular job the grade was GS-9, although 
I had civil-service ratings in higher grades than that. 

Mr. Arens. This was a GS-9 job as an analytical statistician with 
the United States Air Force ? 

Mr. Hatkin. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. You were to be stationed at the Pentagon, is that cor- 
rect? 

Mr. Hatkin. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Can you tell us, in a word, the nature of your duties? 

Mr. Hatkin. The nature of the duties was to prepare statistical 
material in the forms of graphs and brief analyses on aircraft pro- 
duction as compared with the aircraft program. 



5824 SUBVERSION AND ESPIONAGE BY DIPLOMATIC PERSONNEL 

Mr. Arens. Did you, in the course of this job, at any time have 
access to confidential or restricted information ? 

Mr. Hatkin. Yes. 

Mr. Akens. I say this with a smile on my face. It is obvious I am 
not trying to be facetious. I am not asking you now to reveal the con- 
fidential or restricted information, but could you tell us the general 
nature of the confidential or restricted information to which you had 
access ? 

Mr. Hatkin. Well, it would be the aircraft programs. These re- 
ports were prepared using that material. 

Mr. Arens. How would that information be classified ? Would it 
be top secret, secret, restricted, or what would be the classification 
of the information to which you had access in the course of your em- 
ployment as an analytical statistician for the United States Air Force? 

Mr. Hatkin. I think there were several classifications. The high- 
est classification was secret. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. Ha-tkin. I don't recall what particular classification each par- 
ticular type of information had, but the highest was secret. 

Mr. Arens. Is there a classification — and if I am now asking you 
questions which perhaps trespass on the security procedures of this 
Government, you are at liberty to decline to answer — ^but is there a 
classification which is more restrictive than the secret classification 
you have just described ? 

Mr. Hatkin. There is a top secret classification. 

Mr. Arens. But you had access to secret classification? 

Mr. Hatkin. Yes. 

Mr. Owens. Is it not a matter of fact that civil employees with ac- 
cess to classified information are usually cleared up to a certain classi- 
fication? In other words, they are cleared to handle either confi- 
dential, secret, top secret, or all. Is that a fact among employees 
handling classified information ? 

Mr. Hatkin. I wouldn't be in a position to answer that. 

Mr. Freehill. As former Director of the Office of Price Stabiliza- 
tion I can say that you are absolutely right, that no one in an agency — 
all files, of course, are confidential and there is no need for clearance. 
Just the fact that you are an employee, you are not to disclose what 
is in the files without permission, or in your work. 

Beyond that for classified information, restricted, confidential, se- 
cret) — that is the setup — you have to get a clearance in order to han- 
dle it. 

Mr. Owens. That is what I wanted in the record. 

Mr. Arens. What percentage of your work for the United States Air 
Force dealt with information of a confidential or restricted classifica- 
tion, whether it be secret or any of the various degrees of secrecy ? 

Mr. Hatkin. My whole time was devoted to that information. 

Mr. Arens. Your whole time as an employee of the United States 
Air Force Avas devoted within that area of information, or dealing 
with information which was classified or restricted ? 

Mr. Hatkin. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And I take it, it was of a nature that would not be in 
the public interest to have available to an enemy of this countrj^ ? 

Mr. Hatkin. Definitely not. 



SUBVERSION AND ESPIONAGE BY DIPLOMATIC PERSONNEL 5825 

Mr, Arexs. Was it information that would be not only vital to the 
political interests of our Nation but also to the military interests of 
our Nation? 

Mr. Hatkin. I would say primarily the military interests of our 
Nation. 

Mr. Arens. I want to lay it upon your best judgment, now, Mr. 
Hatkin, to tell us as much as you can without violating any restric- 
tions or classifications about the type of information that was available 
to you. 

You have mentioned it in passing here and in response to prior 
questions, but I think that we would like to know as much as you can 
tell us without violating any restrictions about the nature of this 
classified information with which you worked full time. 

Mr. Hatkin. I had access to the aircraft program, as I stated, which 
involved access to types of models, all types of aircraft of the United 
States Air Force, projecting the program several years into the fu- 
ture, by type and model. And I also liad access to information on 
production of aircraft. 

Mr. OwEXS. Figures? 

Mr. Hatkin. Yes, by type and model. And I was able to par- 
ticipate in what they call Telecom conferences or Telecon confer- 
ences to discuss problems in production. 

Mr. Arens. Did you at any time have access to intelligence reports? 

]Mr. Hatkin. I wonder if I could understand you correctly? 

Mr. Arens. Did you have access to information respecting produc- 
tion of aircraft by some other power, which information was re- 
stricted ? 

Mr. Hatkin. No, I didn't have any such information. Informa- 
tion strictly on United States production. 

Mr. Arens. Could you give us a rough appraisal of the percentage 
of people who occupied a comparable area of classification such as 
yours who would have available to them secret or confidential 
information ? 

Mr. Hatkin. It is my impression that everybody in that branch had 
the same clearance and had similar access to material as I did. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you occupy this job of analytical statisti- 
cian with clearance to have access to confidential information? 

Mr. Hatkin. Seven months, 

Mr. Arens. That would be up until about April of 1954, is that 
correct ? 

Mr. Hatkin. Up to the beginning of April 1954. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us in your own words what happened in April of 
1954. 

Mr. Hatkin. In April of 1954 an administrative officer of the direc- 
torate asked me to fill out some forms, and after those forms were 
filled out I was taken off my job and I was told to report to some 
other office. 

Mr. Arens. Were you discharged from the payroll? 

Mr. Hatkin. No; I was kept on tlie payroll. 

Mr. Areks. But you were just removed — is that true — from the v ork 
in which you wei'e engaged in classified material to work in which you 
would not be engaged in classified material; is that correct? 

Mr. Hatkin. Yes. 



5826 SUBVERSION AND ESPIONAGE BY DIPLOMATIC PERSONNEL 

Mr. Akens. Did you have the same pay ? 

Mr. Hatkin. The same pay ; yes. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you occupy this new arrangement or new 
assignment ? 

Mr. Hatkin. Well, new "arrangement" is a better word, because 
there wasn't any one specific assignment. The assignments changed 
frequently. That arrangement existed until February 28, 1955. 

Mr. Arens. And from April of 1954 until February of 1955 you 
were maintained on the payroll as a civilian employee, I take it; is 
that correct ? 

Mr. Hatkin. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have the same title ? 

Mr. Hatkin. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Did you perform substantially the same type of duties 
except that you did not work with confidential or restricted informa- 
tion ? 

Mr. Hatkin. No. The nature of the duties changed completely. 
There were no set duties that I did. I was shifted around from office 
to office and did miscellaneous jobs of one sort or another. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us what happened in February of 1955. 

Mr. Hatkin. On February 28, 1955, 1 w^as called upstairs. I worked 
down in the basement and I was called upstairs and was given a list 
of charges and told I would be suspended effective the next day, 
effective March 1,1955. 

Mr. Arens. What were the charges? Can you summarize those 
for us ? 

Mr. Hatkin. Yes. Membership in the Washington Bookshop As- 
sociation — I am not giving the exact terminology of the charges. 

Mr. Arens. I understand. You are summarizing for the benefit of 
this session here. 

Mr. Hatkin. Participation in a win-the-peace conference; mem- 
bership in the United Federal Workers and United Public Workers ; 
association with Alfred Bernstein, B-e-r-n-s-t-e-i-n ; registration in 
the American Labor Party in 1937 ; registration by my wife in the 
American Labor Party — I don't recall the dates of those. 

Mr.FREEHiLL. 1937 to 1939. 

Mr. Hatkin. 1937 to 1939; registration by my father and step- 
mother in the American Labor Party on certain dates ; and registra- 
tion by several of my in-laws in the American Labor Party on certain 
dates. 

Mr. Arens. That is the essence of the charges which were preferred 
against you ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Hatkin. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And on March 1, 1955, you were actually taken off the 
payroll ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Hatkin. I was put on annual leave. 

Mr. Arens. How about compensation? 

Mr. Hatkin. Yes ; I received compensation until my annual leave 
ran out. 

Mr. Arens. Any employee would be entitled to accrued annual 
leave ? 

Mr. Freehill. That is right. The answer is he was suspended 
without pay. 



SUBVERSION AND ESPIONAGE BY DIPLOMATIC PERSONNEL 5827 

Mr. Arens. Is that correct, Mr. Hatkin ? 

Mr. Hatkin. Yes. 

Mr. Arexs. As of March 1 you were suspended without pay ? 

Mr. Hatkin. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. From April of 1954 until February of 1955 did you 
have consultations with the security officers at the Air Force, or with 
other officials, respecting your status as to why you had been taken 
from classified work? 

Mr. Hatkin. Yes. I went up to the personnel officer to try to 
find out the reason for the change and I was unable to solicit any 
explanation from him. 

Mr. Arens. Were you advised that the matter was being 
investigated ? 

^Ir. Hatkin. No. As a matter of fact, I told the personnel officer 
that investigators were contacting my relatives in New York so I had 
some idea that some sort of an investigation was going on. I asked 
the personnel officer if he knew just what was behind it all. 

]Mr. Arens. We will return to this series of factual matters in a 
few minutes. I would like to ask you to continue with the chronology 
and then we will come back to this stage of affairs, because I have 
a number of questions to ask you. As far as you were concerned 
on March 1, 1955, you were suspended. What happened next^ 

Mr. Hatkin. I had no substantial jobs during any time during 
that period, nothing to speak of. I was unemployed during most 
of that period, and in the beginning of 1956 I applied for 
unemployment compensation and received it. 

^Ir. Freehill. May I interrupt? 

I think jSIr. Arens wanted the chronology from March. Something 
happened after you were suspended. You had the charges in your 
hands. That is what you wanted, I guess, did you not ? 

^Ir. Hatkins. I see. I thought you meant employment. 

iSIr. Abens. I meant the chronology of events. What hapi^ened 
next so far as your relationshi]3 with your job in the Air Force 
was concerned? I thought perhaps you were leading up to it. 

Mr. Hatkin. I see what you mean. 

Mr. Arens. On March 1, 1955, you were suspended. What 
happened next? 

5lr. Hatkin. I secured the services of an attorney, Mr. Freehill. 

Mr. Arens. This gentleman who is with you today? 

]Mr. Hatkin. That is the gentleman who is with me. And we 
prepared an answer to these charges which we submitted March 30, 
1955, and requested a formal hearing. This hearing w^as held April 
28, 29, and 30 of 1955. That was our last official relationship with 
the Air Force. 

Mr. Arens. The hearing, I take it, was in the Pentagon? 

Mr. Hatkin. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Were you interrogated by uniformed officers? 

]\Ir. Hatkin. There was one uniformed officer on the hearing panel. 

Mr. Freehill. That was before the hearing board. 

Mr. Arens. That is wliat I meant. There were officers, and United 
States officials, who interrogated you, is that right? 

^h\ Hatkin. Two civilians and one officer. 



84944 — 56- 



5828 SUBVERSION AND ESPIONAGE BY DIPLOMATIC PERSONNEL 

Mr. Arens. And it was transcribed ? 

Mr. Hatkin. Yes ; a transcript was prepared. 

Mr. Arens. It lasted 3 days? 

Mr. Hatkin. Two and a half days. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us what happened next. 

Mr. Hatkin. As far as the Air Force is concerned ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. Hatkin. On April 24 I received a communication — April 24, 
1956, I received a communication from the Air Force. 

Mr. Arens. 1956? 

Mr. Hatkin. 1956. 

Mr. Arens. About a year later ? 

Mr. Hatkin. About a year later, telling me that a tentative de- 
cision had been reached to separate me from the Department, and 
giving me 15 days to file any additional information. 

Mr. Arens. May I interrupt right there ? 

Mr. Hatkin. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. I want to make an observation here so you can help me. 

If, in April of 1956, they gave you a notice that you were then l3eing 
separated from the Department, were you, from the time that you 
were suspended until April of 1956, actually identified as an employee 
of the Department. 

Mr. Freeiiill. I think 

Mr. Arens. If this is a legal question maybe counsel will help us. 

Mr. Freeiiill. I could answer that. He is technically an employee 
in suspended status. He is in a nonpaid status. But he still has an 
official relationship until a final decision is made in the case dismiss- 
ing him from the Air Force. 

The Air Force has not done that jei. The letter which Mr. Hatkin 
has referred to had tentative conclusions, that said, "We have tenta- 
tively concluded, and we give you 15 days in which to submit any 
other information." 

Mr. Arens. From the time you were suspended in March of 1955 
until the actual termination of your relationship with the Air Force 
in April of 1956, you did not receive any remuneration or compensa- 
tion for services ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Hatkin. From the Air Force; no, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Of course, you rendered no services? 

Mr. Hatkin. Pardon me, there was not a final decision yet in April 
1956. 

Mr. Arens. "W^iat was that letter then? 

Mr. Hatkin. That commmunication informed me that a tentative 
decision had been reached, but it gave me an opportunity to submit 
additional evidence before formal determination would be reached. 

Mr. Arens. Continue with the chronology. Now we are in April 
of 1956 and you have received a letter saying a tentative decision 
has been reached to separate you from the Air Force. But it was 
only tentative. Then what happened next? 

Mr. Hatkin. As of yesterday we filed additional information in 
rebuttal to this April 23 letter of the Air Force, giving reasons why 
I should not be separated from the Air Force. x\nd no final de- 
termination has yet been made to this day. 

Mr. Freeiiill. That we know of. 



SUBVERSION AND ESPIONAGE BY DIPLOMATIC PERSONNEL 5829 

Mr, Arexs. That completes the chronology, does it not ? 

Mr. Hatkin. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, if you would care to advise him here- 



Mr. Freehill. Xo ; that completes it in relation to the Air Force. 

Mr. Arexs. When you say "No," that means yes, it does complete 
the chronology ^ 

]\[r. Freehill. It doesn't complete the chronology, but in relation to 
the Air Force, yes. 

No, except one other thing, Sidney. You are speaking of employ- 
ment. And your relationship with this Russian, that is part of the 
chronology. 

]Mr. Arexs. We are going in to that in a few minutes. I wanted 
first of all to get the chronology of events here, and I am going to re- 
vert now to some other matters and interrogate Mr. Hatkin on 
that. 

Is there anything else you want to mention that intervened with 
respect to the relationship to the Air Force since April of 1956? 

Mr. Hatkin. There is just one other point I would like to add to 
make the record complete. You asked about my consulting with 
any officials during the time I was in this nonclassified work being 
interrogated. * 

I had been interrogated in November of 1954 by someone in the 
Office of Special Investigation of the Air Force while I was on this 
unclassified work. 

Mr. Arexs. While you were on the unclassified work ? 

jMr. Hatkix. I was on the nonclassified work. 

Mr. Arens. That was one thing I was trying to develop a little 
while ago. After you were suspended from the classified work and 
transferred, still on the payroll, to the nonclassified work in the Air 
Force, a representative of the Special Investigations Unit interrogated 
you ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Hatkix. Yes. 

Mr. Arexs. And where was that interrogation ? 

Mr. Hatkix. That was at Boiling Field. 

Mr. Arexs. Is that where you were stationed ? 

Mr. Hatkix. No. I was stationed at the Pentagon. 

Mr. Arexs. You were just asked to go out to Boiling Field? 

Mr. Hatkix. Out to Boiling Field. 

Mr. OwEXS. To the district office of the Office of Special Investiga- 
tions; is that correct? 

Mr. Hatkix. I imagine so. 

Mr. Arexs. May we revert, please, Mr. Hatkin, to these charges 
which were preferred against you? 

Were you ever identified with the United Public Workers? 

Mr. Hatkix. Yes. 

Mr. Arexs. Over what period of time ? 

Mr. Hatkix. From the end of 1943 to the spring of 1948. 

Mr. Freehill. May I interrupt just for the sake of accuracy? 

Mr. Arexs. Yes. 

Mr. FijEEiriLL. 1943 to 1948 he has just given, that is the Ignited 
Federal Workers, and its successor. United Public Workers. You 
understand that. 

Mr. Arexs. I understand that. 



5830 SUBVERSION AND ESPIONAGE BY DIPLOMATIC PERSONNEL 

Do A^oii now know, Mr. Hatkin, that the United Public Workers 
was nnder the leadership of Abram Flaxer ? Do you now know that ? 

Mr. Hatkin. Yes, I know that. 

Mr. Arens. When did you learn that? 

Mr. Hatkin. I knew that at the time I was a member of the union. 
I knew what the name of the president was. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know while you were a member of the United 
Public Workers or its predecessor organization that Abram Flaxer 
was a Communist ? 

Mr. Hatkin. No ; I did not know that. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know it now ? 

Mr. Hatkin. I know it now. 

Mr. Arens. When did you learn it ? 

Mr. Hatkin. I learned it as a part of the expulsion proceedings of 
the United Public Workers from the CIO. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know that the Senate Internal Security Sub- 
committee, some few years ago, had an investigation of the United 
Public Workers in which it was revealed that the United Public 
Workers was controlled — and this is not a quotation of the committee 
report, but is the essence of it— controlled lock, stock, and barrel by 
thS Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hatkin. I was not aware of that. 

Mr. Arens. I mean, do you know it now ? 

Mr. Hatkin. I know it now, yes ; on the basis of more recent infor- 
mation. 

Mr. Arens. You knew it before I mentioned it in this hearing; is 
that correct ? 

Mr. Hatkin. I knew it in connection with the expulsion of the 
United Public Workers from the CIO. I am not familiar with this 
Senate Internal Security report you mentioned. 

Mr. Arens. When was the United Public Workers expelled from 
the CIO? 

Mr. Hatkin. It was in the beginning of 1950. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have any intimation of Communist control or 
domination of the United Public Workers prior to its expulsion in 
1950 by the CIO ? 

Mr. Hatkin. No. I was not aware of its being Communist dom- 
inated. 

Mr. Arens. Did you hold any office or post in the United Public 
Workers or its predecessor organization from 1943 until 1948 ? 

Mr. Hatkin. No. 

Mr. Arens. Who enlisted you to join the United Public Workers ? 

Mr. Hatkin. Do you mean the United Federal Workers, the first 
organization ? 

Mr. Arens. I mean either organization. 

Mr. Hatkin. The person in the office in the War Labor Board 
who was my immediate supervisor suggested I join the organization. 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall his or her name ? 

Mr. Hatkin. Her name was Kay Lutz, K-a-y L-u-t-z. 

Mr. Arens. You did join, then, in 1943 ? 

Mr. Hatkin. Yes. 



SUBVERSION AND ESPIONAGE BY DIPLOMATIC PERSONNEL 5831 

Mv. Arexs. Did you pay dues into the United Public Workers or its 
predecessor organization all the time from 1943 until 1948 ? 

Mr. Hatkin. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Did you attend meetings? 

Mr. Hatkin. Yes ; I attended meetmgs. 

Mr. Arens. Where were the meetings held? 

Mr. Hatkin. The meetings of the local? 

There were meetings within the agency and larger meetings of a 
local. 

Mr. Arens. What meetings did you attend ? 

Mr. Hatkin. I attended the meetings within the building, of people 
who worked in the agency that had meetings, and I attended meetings 
of the local. 

Mr. Arens. Did I ask you a moment ago if you ever held an office 
or post ? 

Mr. Hatkin. Yes ; you did. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever hold an office or post in any local ? 

Mr. Hatkin. No. 

Mr. Arens. Or serve on any committees ? 

Mr. Hatkin. No. 

Mr. Arens. To your knowledge, have any persons with whom you 
were identified in activities in the United Public AVorkers now been 
exposed as members of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hatkin. No. I had no contact with any such people. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever have contact with the national office of the 
United Public Workers ? 

Mr. Hatkin. No ; I didn't. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know that the United Public Workers at one 
time had approximately 35,000 members in State, county, and Federal 
employment ? 

Mr. Hatkin. I don't know what the figures were. I knew they had 
members with State, county, and municipal workers. 

Mr. Arens. Did you at any time in the course of your activities in 
the United Public Workers discuss the affairs of any of the respective 
jobs you held? 

Mr. Hatkin. The people I knew in the union knew of what I did, 
and I knew what the other people did. Actually, there was no reason 
to discuss work. 

Mr. Arens. Did you maintain contact Avith any of these folks who)n 
you knew in the United Public Workers after you acquired your 
job with the Air Force, working on restricted information? 

Mr. Hatkin. No. 

Mr. Arens. What caused you to disassociate yourself from the 
United Public Workers in 1948? 

Mr. Hatkin. I just lost interest in the union. I felt it wasn't doing 
anything for me as a union member, and I didn't feel like paying a 
dollar and a half a month. A dollfU' and a half a month was a lot of 
money. I just stopped paying dues. 

Mr. Arens. Did you, on the forms which you filled out for your 
various jobs we have been discussing, list the United Public Work- 
ers from 1943 to 1948 as an organization with which you were affiliated ? 

Mr. Hatkin. Whenever such information was called for I did. 



5832 SUBVERSION AND ESPIONAGE BY DIPLOMATIC PERSONNEL 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever make a misrepresentation on your applica- 
tions for employment ? 

Mr. Hatkin. No. 

Mr. Owens, Before you left the United Public Workers, or during 
your membership in UFWA or UPWA, did you know a Robert 
Sherman ? 

Mr. Hatkin. No. 

Mr. Owens. Eleanor Nelson? 

Mr. Hatkin. I have heard of her. 

Mr. Owens. Did you know her ? 

Mr. Hatkin. No ; I didn't know her. 

Mr. Owens. Henry Rhine? 

Mr. Hatkin. No. 

Mr. Owens. Arthur Stein ? 

Mr. Hatkin. No. 

Mr. Arens. May I ask you whether you were ever identified with 
the National Committee To Win the Peace ? 

Mr. Hatkin. No ; I was not. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever have anything to do with the Win the 
Peace Committee ? 

Mr. Hatkin. No ; I didn't. 

Mr. Arens. Did your wife, to your knowledge, ever have any- 
thing to do with the Win the Peace Committee ? 

Mr. Hatkin. My knowledge on that point is restricted to the testi- 
mony that my wife gave at my hearing last year. 

Mr. Arens. I am not asking you to repeat what her testimony was, 
"but did she have any identification with the Win the Peace Com- 
mittee ? 

Mr. Hatkin. As far as she knows she did not have identification 
with an organization known to her as the Win the Peace Committee. 

Mr. Arens. ^^Iiat activities did sKe have that might have been an 
identification with the Win the Peace Committee ? 

Mr. Hatkin. She explained that she received a telephone call to 
call other people who might be able to procure housing for some 
meeting or convention to be held here. 

Mr. Arens. Was that a Win the Peace conference ? 

Mr. Hatkin. She has absolutely no recollection of it being a Win 
the Peace Convention or a DAR Convention or Republican Convention. 

Mr. Arens. Did she participate in that activity or secure any 
housing ? 

Mr. Hatkin. No; she did not. She did not secure any housing or 
participate. 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall who called her ? 

Mr. Hatkin. I wouldn't have any knowledge of that of my own, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did this telephone conversation, or this incident which 
we are discussing, occur while you were at the Air Force with access 
to confidential information ? 

Mr. Hatkin. No. 

Mr. Arens. When did it occur ? 

Mr. Hatkin. According to the date given me by the Department 
of the Air Force, it occurred in April of 1946. Of course she has no 
recollection of it, but that is the date upon which they said it occurred. 

Mr. Arens. May I, just before I forget about it, allude to one further 
point ? 



SUBVERSION AND ESPIONAGE BY DIPLOMATIC PERSONNEL 5833 

Mr. Fkeehill. Before you do that, so the record is clear, from what 
you luive just said you are tixinji" the (hite of April 104() on assumption 
that what your wife is talking- about and what the Air Force is talking 
about are one and the same thing. 

Mr. PIatkin. Yes. 

Mr. Freehill. But do you liave any evidence that it is one and the 
same thing? 

Mr. Hatkin. No. 

Mr. Akens. May I ask you, Did the letter which you received from 
the Air Force which expressed the termination of your services, say 
that you are being terminated because you were a security risk or any- 
thing of that kind? What were the reasons given in the letter? 

Mr. Hatkin. The reasons were, as I stated before, association with 
the AVashington Book Shop Association, membership in the union 

Mr. Freehill. Which letter is this ? 

Mr. Arens. The letter of April IDaG. 

Mr. Freehill. I can tell you briefly. 

Mr. Arens. Those are all of the charges, the Washington Book 
Shop, and so forth? 

Mr. Hatkin. Yes ; those are the charges. 

Mr. Freehill. I can tell you briefly what the letter says. 

Mr. Arens. I would prefer Mr. Hatkin would, counsel, and you 
understand why. 

Did the letter of April 1956 state that you are being discharged on 
security grounds ? 

Mr. Hatkin. I believe the terminology was untrustworthiness. Is 
that it '. 

Untrustworthiness and imreliability. 

Mr. AniiNS. Then the letter did not — and I am using a characteriza- 
tion — purport to stigmatize you as a Communist or as one who was in 
association w^ith Communists; did it? 

Mr. Hatkin. No; those words were not used. 

Mr. Arens. The letter did not purport to characterize you as a 
security risk ; did it ? 

Mr. Hatkin. I think by implication it did. 

Mr. Freehill. Pardon me, Mr. Arens. I don't know how you can 
avoid that. I mean, the whole proceeding 

Mr. Arens. We are in an area here where we are expressing ap- 
praisals of a letter that I have not even seen. 

Do you have the letter with you ? 

Mr. Freehill. I don't know whether I have it or not. 

What I was going to say is this whole proceeding is in terms of 
whether or not, within the security program, Mr. Hatkin's continued 
employment would be clearly consistent with the national security. 
And the term "security risk" is what is tabbed on someone who is 
suspended, as he was, wdiile proceedings are going on. And if it is 
unfavorable, it is unfavorable on the ground that he is a security risk. 

Mr. Arens. The obvious comes to my mind, as I am sure it does to 
any reasonable mind of an American citizen, that if a man is in a posi- 
tion where he has top secret or highly classified information about the 
military affaii^ of the Government, the Government surely would not 
be required to prove a Communist Party membership, or that the man 
was in the employ of a foreign government or anything that even 



5834 SUBVERSION AND ESPIONAGE BY DIPLOMATIC PERSONNEL 

approached that type of loyalty status. But the Government would 
say, "In the interest of resolving doubt in our favor, we have got to 
be exceedingly cautious, and although not stigmatizing a man, still 
resolve the doubts in favor of the public interest and let the man get 
a job doing something else where there wouldn't even be the possibility 
of a leak." 

I am not now characterizing this gentleman's status because I have 
never seen him before. 

Mr. Freehill, Right. There is no charge, as Mr. Hatkin has out- 
lined for you, that he w^as disloyal to the country or a member of the 
Commimist Party or anything. There is no such charge. 

Mr. Akens. That is precisely what I was trying to develop. AVe are 
all of us talking partially in the dark because we do not have the 
letter. If the letter discharging him did not say we are discharging 
you because you are a loyalty risk or discharging you because you 
are a Communist or discharging you for any other reason of that 
character, that is one thing. 

Mr. Freehill. But may I interrupt there, sir ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Freehill. The other wing of the statement you made was that 
they weren't putting any stigma on him. I submit to you very sin- 
cerely, sir, on the part of Mr. Hatkin ; he came to my ofiice, sent tliere 
by the District Bar Association which has a committee, and I am a 
member of the committee. The committee was set up at the suggestion 
of the general counsel of the Navy some time ago, when the general 
counsel found that in Navy procedures it was not a nonadversary 
proceeding but was very much of an adversary proceeding, and he was 
seeing people that were being let out of jobs where if they had a 
lawyer they wouldn't have been let out, and he asked the Am.erican 
Bar Association and the District Bar Association to set up a committee. 
I serve on that committee and I have seen some of these cases. 

Mr. Arens. I hate to interrupt you, but I do not feel what you are 
talking about it germane to the particular specific case we have in 
mind. 

Mr. Freehill. I was giving you why I think I can speak with some 
authority on this, and to say that this does not put a stigma on a 
person, that they are not trying to put a stigma on a person is just as 
flat wrong as it can be because in this area it is in terms of loyalty 
that we are talking about. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, may I ask you. Do you have the letter that 
was actually transmitted to Mr. Hatkin of April of 1956 ? 

Mr. Freehill. If I haven't got it I certainly can get it. I was 
working on it in the office as of yesterday and I may have pulled it 
out of the file. 

Mr. Arens. May we do this, in the interest of conserving time : will 
you kindly, counsel, supply the committee with a copy of the corre- 
spondence in this case ? 

Mr. Freehill. I would be very happy to. 

Mr. Hatkin. Do you want just that April 23 letter? 

l\tr. Arens. I don't mean all of the briefs and everything else, but 
specifically that letter. I would like to get on, if we may, please, 
gentlemen, to further questions. We have another Avhole area to get 
into, as I think you have contemplated. 

Were you ever identified with the American Labor Party? 



SUBVERSION AND ESPIONAGE BY DIPLOMATIC PERSONNEL 5835 

3Ir. Hatkix. Yes. I did register in the American Labor Party. 

Mr. Arexs. And over what period of time ? 

Mr. Hatkix. In 1937. 

Mr. Arkxs. Just that 1 year? 

Mr. Hatkix. Yes. 

Mr. Arex^s. Did you ever have any other activities or connection 
witli the American Labor Party? 

Mr. Hativix. Xo. 

Mr. Arexs. Did you know that the American Labor Party has been, 
nt least in one area, characterized by congressional investigating 
committees, as controlled by the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hatkix. I know that charges have been made against the 
American Labor Party. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know that congressional committees have 
investigated Communist activities in New York City and have con- 
cluded and have announced to the public, on the basis of careful 
investigation and study, that at least certain segments of the Amer- 
ican Labor Party were controlled, and again to use the phraseology 
I used a moment ago, lock, stock, and barrel by the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hatkix. As of what date did you mean that, Mr. Arens ? 

Mr. Arexs. Do you know that congressional committees have 
made that finding? 

Mr. Hatkix. In connection with my case and background of the 
American Labor Party, I have found that out. 

Mr. Arex'S. Are 3^011 now cognizant of the fact that congressional 
committees and specifically this committee, have made a finding re- 
specting the Communist control of certain segments of the American 
Labor Party? 

Mr. Hatkix. I can't say whether I have read that or not. I just 
have general knowledge. But I can't say specifically whether I 
have read the committee reports as such. 

I just want to be accurate in my statements. 

Mr. Arex^s. Surely. I believe you are being very responsive, and, 
I am sure, trying to help the committee. 

With reference to the Washington Book Shop, what was your iden- 
tification with the Washington Book Shop? 

Mr. Hatkix. My Washington Book Shop identification may be 
said to be in the front door and right back out again. 

Mr. Arexs. Did you actually have a connection with the Washing- 
ton Book Shop ? 

Mr. Hatkix. I did have a teclmir'al former connection with the 
Washington Book Shop by virtue of having paid a dollar member- 
ship and by becoming a member. 

Mr. Arexs. Do you now, as of this instant, know that the Wash- 
ington Book Shop has been found by a congressional committee to 
have been controlled by the Communist Party? 

Mr. Hatkix. Yes, I have read some reports on that. 

Mr. Arexs. Do you know it now ? 

Mr. Hatkix^. Yes. 

Mr. Arex^s. When did you first know it? 

Mr. Hatkix. My first inkling of anything about the Washington 
Book Shop was when charges were preferred against me in 1948 and 
the Washington Book Shop was listed on the Attorney General's list 
as a subversive organization. 

84944^56 4 



5836 SUBVERSION AND ESPIONAGE BY DIPLOMATIC PERSONNEL 

Mr. Arens. What was the date of your brief connection with it ? 

Mr. Hatkin. I joined it in either 1910 or 1941. I don't know the 
year precisely. 

Mr. Arens. Do you now know tliat the Washington Book Shop was 
characterized by the Attorney General of the United States — and this 
is not the exact description — but as an organization controlled by the 
Connnunist conspiracy ? 

Mr. Hatkin. Let me put it this way : I know that the organization 
is on the Attorney General's list^ M'hatever that means. 

Mr. Arens. I take it you did not know it as of the time that you paid 
this dollar and walked in and out of the place; is that correct? 

Mr. Hatkin. That is correct. As a matter of fact, there was no such 
thing as the Attorney General's list as of that time. 

Mr. Arens. Wheii was your last contact with the Washington Book 
Shop? 

Mr. Hatkin. My only contact with the Washington Book Shop was 
during that 1-year term of membership. 

Mr. Arens. You were a member of the Washington Book Shop for 
a year ; is that not correct? 

Mr. Hatkin. Yes. And after that 1-year membership I never had 
any contact with it. 

Mr. Arens. Who is Al Bernstein ? 

Mr. Hatkin. Al Bernstein is a lawyer who represented me during 
the 1948 loyalty hearings at the Department of Commerce. 

Mr. Arens. Over what period of time were you in contact with Al 
Bernstein ? 

Mr. Hatkin. Immediately preceding this 1948 loyalty hearing and 
at the hearing itself. 

Mr. Arens. First let's get the full name of Bernstein. 

Mr. Freehill. Alfred. 

Mr. Arens. Alfred Bernstein. 

Do you know that Alfred Bernstein, wlio was your lawyer, has been 
identified under oath as a member of the Communist conspiracy ? 

Mr. Hatkin. I have had no contact with Alfred Bernstein, and I 
don't know anything about him, sir. 

]Mr. Arens. I was under the impression that he represented you? 

Mr. Hatkin. Yes. At the 1948 hearing he represented me, but I 
have had no contact with him after 1948. 

Mr. Arens. First of all, let's get this record straight. Do you now 
know that Al Bernstein, who represented you back in 1948, has been 
identified as a member of the Communist conspiracy? 

Mr. Hatkin. No ; I do not know that, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Do you now^ know that Al Bernstein has been a subject 
of interrogation by the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee? 

Mr. Hatkin. I w^as not aware of that. 

Mr. Arens. Because of the identification of him under oath as being 
a member of the Communist conspiracy ? 

Mr. Hatkin. I see. I was not aware of that. I was not aware of 
that interrogation. 

Mr. Arens. How did you first meet Al Bernstein ? 

Mr. Hatkin. In 1948, while at the Census Bureau, charges were 
preferred against me under the Truman loyalty program, and I tried 
to secure counsel among various lawyers and felt I couldn't afford the 



SUBVERSION AND ESPIONAGE BY DIPLOMATIC PERSONNEL 5837 

charge. I went up to the union office to see what they might suggest. 
Maybe they 

Mr. xVrexs. What union office? 

Mr. Hatkin. Tliis TTnited Public AVorkers. I wasn't a member any 
more, but 1 thought they were interested in this matter and I thought 
they might suggest someone to see who does these things on a vohmtary 
or h)w-cost basis. Tliey referred me to Al Bernstein, wlio was in the 
same office tliere. 

Mr. Arexs. Wlio referred you? 

Mr. Hatkix. 1 don't know. There Avas a girl sitting at the recep- 
tion desk there and she referred me to him. 

Mr. Akexs. Did you go and see Al Bernstein ? 

]\rr. Hatkix. Yes. I don't recall whether I went in right then after 
seeing this receptionist or came bnck again. 

Mr. Arexs. Where was his office in respect to the United Public 
Workers headquarters where you went ? 

Mr. Hatkix. I think that was somewhere on F Street. 

Mr. Arexs. Was his office close to, or adjacent to, the United Public 
Workers or was it in another building or is it in another part of town ? 

Mr. Hatkix. I am not sure that it might have been the offices of the 
United Public Workers. As a matter of fact it was. That is why I 
went there. I went to the office of the United Public Workers. 

Mr. Arexs. Was his office physically located in the office of the 
United Public Workers in 1948 ? 

Mr. Hatkix. Yes. 

Mr. Arexs. Did the receptionist in the United Public Workers 
physically escort you to his office ? 

Mr. Hatkix. No ; she didn't. She just directed me to him and gave 
me his name and told me to see him. 

Mr. Arexs. You had a conversation with him ? 

Mr. Hatkix. Yes. 

Mr. Arexs. Did you engage him then as your counsel ? 

Mr. Hatkix. Yes. 

Mr. Arexs. And did you have confidential comnumications with 
him as a client does with an attorney? 

Mr. Hatkix. Yes. 

Mr. Arexs. Over what course of time did you have your negotiations 
or dealings or arrangements with Al Bernstein? 

Mr. Hatkix. It was just a few weeks before my formal hearing in 
the Department of Commerce, I imagine. I just fix the time arbi- 
trarily, sometime in October 1948. And I had the hearing in Novem- 
ber 1948. And he represented me at the hearing. 

Mr. Arex^s. Did you give him remuneration for his services ? 

Mr. Hatkix. No. 

Mr. Arens. What was the basis upon which he represented you 
then? 

Mr. Hatkix. He just undertook to represent me. 

Mr. Arexs. Did he tell you why ? 

Mr. Hatkix. No. I was referred to him, and he said he would 
represent me. And it was agreeable to me. I asked him if he was a 
lawyer, and he said he was. 

Mr. Arexs. As of the time he represented you in 1948 in this loyalty 
proceeding, were you actually a dues-paying member of the United 
Public Workers? 



5838 SUBVERSION AND ESPIONAGE BY DIPLOMATIC PERSONNEL 

Mr. Hatkin. No ; I was not. I had dropped out. 

Mr. Arens. To use a phrase of the lawyers, was there any quid 
pro quo ? Did he receive anything for his services ? 

Mr. Hatkin. Not from me. I imagine he was on a sahiry basis 
from the union. That is just my surmise. 

Mr. Arens. Was it your understanding that the union, the United 
Public Workers, was engaged in loyalty proceedings for people who 
were not members of the union or who did not give them compensa- 
tion for their services ? 

Mr. Hatkin. Frankly, I was surprised they took it on. I didn't 
actually go there to get representation by him. I thought they might 
refer me to someone, but they referred me to Bernstein in the union, 
and he took on the case, and I felt I had no reason to object. He was 
taking it without any fee, so it looked like a satisfactory arrange- 
ment to me. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have communication with Bernstein of a con- 
fidential nature which a client ordinarily has with his attorney ? 

Mr. Hatkin. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. When did you last have contact with Bernstein ? 

Mr. Hatkin. The morning of my hearing before the Department 
of Commerce. I never saw him after that. 

Mr. Owens. Give us the date for the record. 

Mr. Hatkin. November of 1948. 

Mr. Arens. I want this record to be absolutely clear. 

Mr. Hatkin. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Do you, as of this instant, know that Bernstein has 
been identified under oath as a member of the Communist conspiracy ? 

Mr. Hatkin. No ; I do not know that. 

Mr. Owens. By at least three witnesses, to my present recollec- 
tion, sir. 

Mr. Hatkin. I have no knowledge of the information. 

Mr. Arens. When was your last contact with the office of Bernstein 
or the office of the United Public Workers ? I understand they were 
all together there ? 

Mr. Hatkin. My last contact with Bernstein was the morning the 
hearing was held. And when the hearing was over I parted from 
him and I never saw him again. 

Mr. Arens. In the course of your conversations with Bernstein — 
and counsel, you are entitled to interpose any objection you want to — 
did you have a discussion with him of any incidents in connection with 
the United Public Workers, the Win the Peace Committee, or any 
connection or any voting in the Labor Party or the Washington Book 
Shop? 

Mr. Hatkin. No. My discussions with him were restricted solely 
to the loyalty charges preferred against me. 

Mr. Freeiiill. I might say for your information, sir, that in the 
loyalty proceedings under the Truman program which we are now 
discussing, there were three charges : ( 1 ) that Mr. Hatkin was a mem- 
ber of the bookshop ; (2) , that he participated or had some connection 
with the Win the Peace Conference, not the National Committee To 
Win the Peace, or whatever it was; and (3), that he associated with 
a person 

Mr. Arens. Associated with people who were Communists? 



SUBVERSION AND ESPIONAGE BY DIPLOMATIC PERSONNEL 5839 

Mr. Freehill. That is right. And the specification of that was the 
name mentioned by Mr. Owens, Robert Sherman. Those were the 
issues. There were no issues concerning the union. The union is 
new matter in tlie 1955 charges. The ALP, the American Labor 
Party was new matter in 1955. 

Mr. Arens. As of the time of his loyalty hearing under the Truman 
program, the United Public "Workers had not been characterized as 
a Communist-controlled entity, had it ? 

Mr. Freehill. That I don't know. 

Mr. Owens. No. This was 191:8 ; was it not ? 

Mr. Hatkin. Yes ; that is what we are talking about. 

Mr. OwExs. No; it had not been characterized nor had it been 
expelled. 

Mr. Arexs. It had not been expelled from the CIO as a Communist- 
controlled organization. 

Mr. Freehill. That is right. 

And in the agencies in which Mv. Hatkin was employed and other 
agencies in town, both the United Federal Workers and the United 
Public Workers, in the period at least which we are discussing, they 
recognized the union and there were grievance matters brought before 
them. 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. Hatkin, we may want you to return after w^e have 
considered the matters we have been discussing and interrogate you 
further either in this session, or if it is convenient with you, sometime 
soon, because as you know this is the first contact we have had with 
you, as we have told you here informally. And speaking for myself 
I did not even know there Avas such a person until I noticed the item 
in the paper the other day. 

Mr. Hatkin. I guess nobod}^ should know about such a person. 

Mr. Arens. I should like at this time to mark a photograph as "Hat- 
kin Exhibit No. 1" for identification purposes. I lay that photo- 
graph before you and ask if you can tell us if you recognize the person 
Avhose picture that is. 

Here is a duplicate of it, counsel. 

(The photograph referred to was marked "Hatkin Exhibit No. 1" 
and filed for the information of the committee.) 

Mr. Hatkin. Yes; this is the man I had brief contact with whom 
I knew as Mr. Machoff, M-a-c-li-o-f-f, to the best of my knowledge. 

Mr. Owens. Is that phonetic spelling, Mr. Hatkin ? 

Mr. Hatkin. Yes. It may not be the true spelling. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Hatkin, please tell us everything you know about 
this man, what transpired, m your own words, which caused you to 
observe this man's features and know about him ? 

Mr. Hatkin. As part of my search for employment, in February 
1956, 1 inserted an ad in the Washington newspaper offering my serv- 
ices. The date of that particular ad was February 5, 1956. 

Mr. Arens. Just in passing, what paper was it in ? 

Mr. Hatkin. In the AYashington Post. 

Approximately a week later 

Mr. Arens. Excuse me just a moment ? 

What was the essence of the ad ? 

Mr. Hatkin. The essence of the ad was that I described myself as 
an economist capable of large-scale surveys, research work,' had a 



5840 bUB VERSION AND ESPIONAGE BY DIPLOMATIC PERSONNEL 

master of arts degree, was 40 years old, and was looking for either 
temporary or permanent work. 

Mr. Arens. We can, of course, procure a copy of the ad ourselves, 
but did you identify yourself by name ? 

Mr. Hatkin. No. I had my phone number, 

Mr. Arens. Did you identify yourself in that ad as a person who 
had been engaged in the service of the United States Air Force ? 
Mr. Hatkin. No ; I did not. 
Mr. Arens. Proceed, if you please, sir. 

INIr. Hatkin. A person called me about a week later, February 13, 
to be exact, and said he was calling me about the ad and would like 
to talk to me. 

Mr. Arens. Where were you when tliis conversation took place ? 
Mr. Hatkin. I was at home. He called Ine on the phone. 
Mr. Arens. What time of day ? 

Mr. Hatkin. It was in the morning. I don't recall the time. 
Mr. Arens. What was the dialect or accent of the individual ? Was 
it distinctive in any respect ? 

Mr. Hatkin. It was a definite foreign accent. I didn't charac- 
terize it specifically at the time. But it might have been — it sounded 
mostly like a Russian accent or it might have been a combination of 
Russian and German accent. 

Mr. Arens. Did this person identify himself to you in the course 
of the conversation that you had at home on the telephone? 

Mr. Hatkin. I elicited a name out of him which I couldn't catch. 
He did mention a name but I didn't grasp the name over the phone. 
I tried to find out from him where his place of business was or where 
I could meet, and he requested that we meet at my home the next day. 
Mr. Owens. Did you ever ascertain where he called from? 
Mr. Hatkin. No ; I don't know where he called from. 
Mr. Arens. Tell us everything you can, first of all, what transpired 
in this telephone conversation? 

Mr. Hatkin. Well, I have given you the gist of it rather than the 
literal conversation. 

Mr. Arens. That is your best recollection as of now? 
Mr. Hatkin. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Now tell us what happened next. 

Mr. Hatkin. The next morning, as agreed in the previous day's tele- 
phone conversation, he came to my house. 
Mr. Arens. What time did he arrive there? 
Mr. Hatkin. It was 9 : 30 Tuesday morning. 

Mr. Arens. What mode of conveyance, to your knowledge, did he 
have when he arrived at your house? 

Mr. Hatkin. I don't know. He just walked up the front. As a 
matter of fact, I was seeing my wife to the door and he just came up 
the front ^va\k of the house. I don't know how he arrived there. 
Mr. Arens. In what type of house do you live ? 
Mr. Hatkin. It is a row house. My wife was just leaving the 
house and when he came in — I wanted to introduce him to my wife 
since she met him almost face to face in the doorway. I told him, "I 
am sorry, I didn't catch your name over the phone yesterday. Would 
3^011 mind repeating your name?" 

He said, "Well, that is all right." He hemmed and hawed. 



SUBVERSION AND ESPIONAGE BY DIPLOMATIC PERSONNEL 5841 

Mr. Arens. He was reluctant to identify himself by name specifi- 
cally, is that correct? 

Mr. Hatkix. Yes ; very reluctant to identify himself. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Ilatkin, give us as detailed a description of his 
physical appearance as you can, as you saw him there. 

Mr. PIattvin. He was about 5-6, 5-7, rather stocky built. His 
hair was thinning out on top. It was combed backed and thinning out 
on top. Medium complexion, not too dark and not too light. 

Mr. Arexs. What would be a good estimate on his weight? 

Mr. Hatkix. He was stocky. I guess about 160, 170. 

Mr. Arexs. Were there any distinctive characteristics? 

Mr. Hatkix. He had a rather square face. 

Mr. Arexs. I beg your pardon? 

Mr, Hatkix. He had a ratlier square face. 

Mr. Arexs. How was he dressed? 

Mr. Hatkix. He had a topcoat on. 

Mr. Arexs. A hat? 

Mr. PIatkix. No; he didn't have a hat. 

And watching him walk toward the door on one occasion, he seemed 
to have a slight limp. 

Mr. Arexs. Now would you proceed, take us back now in the chro- 
nology of events on this date that he came to your house. Let's be 
as specific as we can about that date. 

Mr. Hatkix. The date he came to my house was February 14. 

Mr. xVrexs. What day was that, do you recall ? 

Mr. Hatkix. It was a Tuesday. 

Mr. Arexs. Do you recall what time it was? 

Mr. Hatkix. It was 9 : 30 in the morning. 

Mr. Arexs. Tell us in as much detail as you can what transpired. 

Mr. Hatkix. I took him into the house, and meantime my wife had 
left. I was left with him alone. And he asked me to tell him about 
myself. I told him I had worked for the Government, but I am doing 
free-lance economic research work now. And I asked him if he would 
like to see a resume of myself which would tell him about my back- 
ground. He said he would like to see a resume of me. 

Mr. Arexs. Did you tell him of your experience in the Air Force ? 

Mr. Hatkix. No; I did not. 

Mr. Arexs. Did you tell liim of your prior employment in the Air 
Force ? 

Mr. Hatkix. Not at that moment. But it is on the resume which 
I handed to him. He said he would like to see the resume when I 
asked him if he woidd like to have one. He looked at it and that gave 
my complete employment with the Department of the Air Force as 
the most recent employment. He asked if he could take that with 
him and I said he could. 

And he told me that if he would have need of my services he would 
contact me later in the week. 

In tlie meantime I kept trying to find out a little more about him, 
wlio he is, where he lives, and who he represents, what his purpose in 
contacting me was, but all my questions were turned down. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ask him for whom he was appearing there, 
what agency or organization or corporation or company he was repre- 
senting? 



5842 SUBVERSION AND ESPIONAGE BY DIPLOMATIC PERSONNEL 

Mr. PIatkin. Yes. I asked him who he was representing or whether 
he was just representing himself, and what the purpose of all this was 
and what he had in mind. But he didn't give me any information 
about the purpose of his visit. 

Mr. Arens. What did he say when you would ask him about that? 

Mr. Hatkin. He would just brush it aside. He didn't speak much. 
I asked him questions and he didn't speak much. 

"All right. Never mind." Something like that. Just brushed it 
aside. 

Mr. Arens. Did he give you a card of any kind? 

Mr. Hatkin. No. 

Mr. Arens. Did you get a phone number where you could reach 
him ? 

Mr. Hatkin. No. He just told me that if he wants me he will con- 
tact me later in the week. And I gave him this resume. 

This first interview lasted 5 minutes. He left at 9 : 35. 

Mr, Arens. Was he seated in your home or did he stand up? 

Mr. Hatkin. He was seated. I invited him to sit down. 

Mr. Arens. Did anyone else overhear the conversation ? 

Mr. Hatkin. No; I was alone. 

Mr. Arens. May I ask you in passing, do you have an}- children? 

Mr. Hatkin. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And what are their ages ? 

Mr. Hatkin. They are 9 and 6. 

Mr. Arens. Were they in the room ? 
, Mr. Hatkin. No ; both were in school. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have a domestic in your home ? 

Mr. Hatkin. No ; no one else was there. 

Mr. Arens. No one else who could possibly have overheard the 
conversation ? 

Mr. Hatkin. No. 

Mr. Arens. Did this person whose photograph you have identified 
show you any credentials? 

Mr. Hatkin. No. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us the next incident that occurred. 

Mr. Hatkin. Let me go back a moment. 

When he was standing at the door when my wife Avas about to leave 
and I pressed him for his name and w^anted to introduce him to my 
wife, at that point he finally mentioned the name that sounded like 
Machoff. 

Mr. Arens. Just phonetically it sounded like that? 

Mr. Hatkin. Phonetically ; yes. 

Mr. Arens. Could it have been Mikheev? 

Mr. Hatkin. Possibly. Machoff is the closest it sounded to me. 

Two days after he came to my house — that would be on the 16th, 
on Thursday — he called me. 

Mr. Arens. I think it might be well at this point, gentlemen, if 
you would let me interrogate Mr. Owens of our staff for the purpose 
of a better identification of the person in this photograph. 

TESTIMONY OF COURTNEY E. OWENS 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Owens, you have been sworn to tell the truth in 
all proceedings before this committee in which you are called as a 
witness; is that correct? 



SUBVERSION AND ESPIONAGE BY DIPLOMATIC PERSONNEL 5843 

Mr. Owens. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. You are an investigator of the House Committee on Un- 
American Activities? 

Mr. Owens. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you, Mr. Owens, Hatkin Exhibit No. 1 
and ask you if you can identify that photograph ? 

Mr. Owens. Yes. This is a photograph taken from the diplomatic 
identification papers of this individual. The photograph has been en- 
larged from the photograph a])pearing on his diplomatic identification 
papers. 

Mr. Arens. You procured that photograph yesterday, did you not, 
from the Department of Stated 

Mr. Owens. Physical pickup was this morning at 9 o'clock. 

Mr. Arens. You procured it ? 

Mr. Owens. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And whose photograph is that as identified to you by 
the Security Unit of the Department of State? 

Mr. Owens. This is the photograph of Vladimir P. Mikheev, 
M-i-k-h-e-e-v, who is a clerk in the office of the military attache at 
the Soviet Embassy at Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Arens. Was the person whose photograph appears as Hatkin 
Exhibit No. 1 in this proceeding, identified to you by the Security Unit 
of the State Department as a person who was born April 11, 1928, in 
Russia ? 

Mr. Owens. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Is it a person who was identified to you as one who was 
a student at the language school at Moscow, Russia, from 1945 until 
1950? 

Mr. Owens. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Is it a person who was identified to you as one who, from 
1950 to 1954, was a civil employee of the Soviet Government? 

Mr. Owens. In Russia ; yes. 

Mr. Arens. Is he one who was identified to you as a person who, on 
July 6, 1954, arrived in Washington with the assignment as clerk in 
the office of the military attache of the Russian Embassy ? 

Mr. Owens. He was so identified ; yes. 

Mr. Arens. Thank you. 

TESTIMONY OF SIDNEY HATKIN— Resumed 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Hatkin, would you proceed to tell us the next in- 
cident which transpired after this person who was identified in Hatkin 
exhibit No. 1 left your home about 9 : 35 on the morning of February 
14,1956? 

Mr. Hatkin. I heard from him again 2 days later. 

Mr, Arens. How ? 

Mr. Hatkin. On Thursday, February 16, via the telephone. 

Mr. Arens. What time of day ? 

Mr. Hatkin. I don't have the exact recollection, whether it was in 
the morning or in the evening. I just don't recall that. 

Mr. Arens. And what did he say? 

Mr. Hatkin. He said he would like to speak to me further and 
suggested a meeting place. 

84944—56 5 



5844 SUBVERSION AND ESPIONAGE BY DIPLOMATIC PERSONNEL 

Mr. Abens. Now, may I ask you, did he identify himself in that 
conversation, the telephone conversation? 

Mr. Hatkin. Yes. 

Mr. Akens. What did he say ? 

Mr. Hatkin. As far as I can recall he said, "This is Mr. Machoff." 
Of course I didn't have to have his name mentioned to me. As soon 
as I heard his voice I knew who he was. His voice was perfectly 
familiar to me by that time. 

He said he would like to meet with me the next evening, that is, 
Friday evening, and he fixed a time and place for that meeting. 

Mr. Arens. What was the time and what was the place that was 
fixed ? 

Mr. Hatkin. The place was the Roma Restaurant on Connecticut 
Avenue in Washington, and the time was at 8 o'clock. 

Mr. Arens. And did that meeting take place? 

Mr. Hatkin. Yes ; that meeting took place. 

Mr. Arens. Were you in the company of anyone when you went to 
see him? 

Mr. Hatkin. Yes. My wife was along with me. 

Mr. Arens. Was that by prearrangement with Mr. Machoff, who 
has been identified here as Mr. Mikheev ? 

Mr. Hatkin. No; it was not. As far as he knew, I was coming 
alone. I took my wife on advice of counsel. 

Mr. Arens. Had you in the interim contacted counsel ? 

Mr. Hatkin. Yes; I had. 

Mr. Arens. When did you contact counsel ? 

Mr. Hatkin. In the afternoon of that Friday, the iTth. 

Mr. Arens. That was the afternoon of the day on which the 
appointment to meet at the restaurant was made; is that correct? 

Mr. Hatkin. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And was the counsel then the gentleman who is with you 
today ? 

Mr. Hatkin. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Joseph H. Freehill? 

Mr. Hatkin. Yes, 

Mr. Arens. Kindly proceed to tell us what transpired in as great 
detail as you can. 

Mr. Hatkin. My wife and I went into the restaurant and looked 
around for Mr. Machoff and found him sitting in one of the booths 
having his dinner. 

Mr. Arens. "Wliat time of day was that ? 

Mr. Hatkin. It was about 8 o'clock in the evening at the arranged, 
agreed upon time. 

Mr. Arens. How did you get to the place ? 

Mr. Hatkin. We walked over. 

Mr. Arens. That is close to where you live? 

Mr. Hatkin. It is within walking distance. 

Mr. Arens. Had you been to that place before? 

Mr. Hatkin. Yes, we had eaten there ourselves, my wife and I. 

Mr. Arens. The place was familiar to you ? 

Mr. Hatkin. Yes. I knew where the place was. 

Mr. Arens. Did he suggest the place or did you suggest the place? 

Mr. Hatkin. He suggested it. He suggested the time and the 
place. 



SUBVERSION AND ESPIONAGE BY DIPLOMATIC PERSONNEL 5845 

Mr. Arexs. Did you at any time up until tlie time you walked into 
that restaurant contact any security agency of the Government ? 

Mr. Hatkin. No. 

Mr. Arexs. Do you know whether or not your counsel did ? 

Mr. Hatkix. I don't know whether he did. 

Mr. Arexs. AVas your conversation with counsel by telephone or 
did you see him at his office ? 

Mr. Hatkix. By telephone. We walked into the restaurant and 
found Mr. Machofi* sitting iu one of the booths having his dinner and 
1 introduced my wife to him. He knew her already, but he greeted 
both of us and invited us to sit down. He insisted very strongly we 
have a drink with him which Ave refused. I urged him to keep on with 
his dinner, and he more or less stopped eating and we engaged in con- 
versation. 

He referred to this resume which I liad [)revi()usly given to him and 
he said, *'! notice from the resume that you worked in, or are familiar 
w^ith, a number of dilferent industries. And I see you are familiar 
with the aircraft industry. Suppose we start with the aircraft indus- 
try. I notice that was your last job." 

All this I am telling you takes only a few minutes to tell, but it 
took much longer in talking with him. 

Mr. Arexs. Surely. It was a conversation back and forth. 

Mr. Hatkix. Yes. And all during this time I tried to get informa- 
tion out of him. I still didn't know who he was or what the purpose 
of his employment of me was. 

He told me he wanted me to write up some material on the aircraft 
industry. I again asked him why he wanted this material. I tried to 
use a sensible approach with him. I told him if I knew what his pur- 
pose is, I can use more commonsense and judgment in preparing the 
material for him. 

He told me, "Never mind." 

He gave me three things he wanted me to find out about the aircraft 
industry. 

Mr. Arexs. When you say he gave you, did he wa-ite it out on a piece 
of paper? 

Mr. Hatkix. No, he spoke them and I wrote them down. 

Mr. Arexs. "What were the three things he wanted to find out? 

Mr. Hatkin. I wrote them down right then and there. If I can 
consult my notes 

Mr. Arexs. Are those notes at which you are now^ looking the notes 
that you made at that conversation ? 

Mr. Hatkix. Yes. 

Mr. Arexs. In the restaurant? 

Mr. Hatkix. Yes. I jotted these down when he gave them to me. 

One, tendency of the industry. 

Mr. Arexs. What is that ? 

Mr. Hatkix. Tendency. 

Mr. Arens. Tendency? 

Mr. Hatix. Tendency, t-e-n-d-e-n-c-y. 

Mr. Arexs. What do you mean by tendency of the industry? 

Mr. Hatkix. That is what I asked him. I said, "What do you 
mean by that?" 

As a matter of fact, every time I asked him a question I had to sup- 
ply an explanation to see if he wanted wdiat I thought he wanted. 



5846 SUBVERSION AND ESPIONAGE BY DIPLOMATIC PERSONNEL 

So I said, "Do you mean by that the growth of the industry over 
a period of time?" And he shook his head. I assume that is what 
he meant. 

Mr. Arens. He shook his head "Yes?" 

Mr. Hatkin. Yes. 

During all this time he was extremely noncommunicative. Every 
time I asked a question I had to answer it more or less myself and see 
if that is what he had in mind. 

The second point was major companies and industrial capacity. 
And the third point was aircraft production. 

Mr. Arens. Did he, in the conversation, elaborate on the details 
that he wanted in his report ? 

Mr. Hatkin. No. I tried to draw him out on that. 

Mr. Arens. I am a little lost here. Did he say that that is what he 
wanted you to do right away, or th^at is what he wanted you to do in 
the course of many months' time ? 

Mr. Hatkin. Let me try to explain that. 

He asked me to prepare an outline based upon these three points. 
These three points would serve as a basis for further elaboration for 
several chapters which he said he was writing for a book. 

Mr. AiiENS. What was tlie nature of the book he was writing? 

Mr. Hatkin. I had no idea. I couldn't find that out. 

Mr. Arens. Did he suggest compensation to you at all? 

Mr. Hatkin. Yes. He said, "I suppose you want something for 
this." 

I said, "Well, I will spend a day on this in preparing some sort of 
outline and see if that is what you have in mind." 

He suggested, "Well, I guess you want something for it in advance." 

I said, "I do." 

And he asked me how much I wanted. And I said, "Well, $25 will 
be satisfactory for a day's work," which I expected to spend on it. 

During the conversation I told him, "You can save yourself a lot of 
money by doing some of this thinking about it yourself and tell me 
exactly what you want so I don't have to do all this planning and 
thinking for you and it might not be the right thing and we'd have to 
do it over again, if you can tell me just what you want." 

That was by way of trying to draw him out. 

Mr. Arens. Did you at any time during the course of your conversa- 
tion with him give him any intimation or suggestion that you had 
at one time had access to security or confidential information or that 
you had been suspended from the Air Force? 

Mr. Hatkin. I did not tell him that ; no, sir. 

But by way of parenthetical remark I might add that I understand 
it is just the policy of the Air Force to tell any prospective employer 
what my status was. 

Mr. Arens. He could have procured that information that you 
did have access to security information and that you were discharged ? 

Mr. Hatkin. I don't know about the first part of your statement 
that he knew I had access to material, but he could have been in a 
position to find out I had been suspended. 

Mr. Arens. At the time you were negotiating with him in the 
restaurant, were you actually contemplating the preparation of this 
material he was soliciting from you ? 



SUBVERSION AND ESPIONAGE BY DIPLOMATIC PERSONNEL 5847 

Mr. Hatkin. No. I had no idea of going through with this deal. 
The thing looked fishy right from the start. 

Mr. Arens. Did you in your own mind suspect his motives? 

Mr. Hatkix. I did. But Mr. Freehill suggested to keep this meet- 
ing with him just to make sure that it is or is not a bona tide ofter of 
employment. 

Mr. Arexs. AVas there anyone who overheard this conversation, to 
your knowledge, other than your wife, who was present? 

Mr. Hatkix. Xo one else to my knowledge. 

Mr. Arexs. "Were you isolated from the other patrons of the 
restaurant ( 

Mr. Hatkix'. Only the partitions of the booth. 

^Ir. Arexs. Were there others in the restaurant who might have 
overheard ( 

Mr. Hatkix'. Yes. It was a busy time of the evening. It was a din- 
ner hour. 

Mr. Ahexs. Was the conversation in a hushed vein or, as we are 
engaging noAv,- normal conversation? 

Mr. Hatkix'. Normal conversation or voice. 

Mr. Arexs. Tell us of anj^thing else that transpired at the restau- 
rant. 

Mr. Hatkix'. I pressed him strongly as to where he lived. I said, 
"You must live with friends or relatives or in a hotel or have an 
apartment. There must be some place where I could get hold of 
you. Suppose I want to know, or want to ask you about something?" 

Incidentally, when he asked me to prepare this outline he said he 
would contact me in a week. 

I said, 'T may want to ask you something about it." I said, "You 
don't live ou a park bench. There must be some place I could get 
hold of you." 

And he just said, "Never mind, I will contact you." 

I was unable to elicit any information as to any of his connec- 
tions. 

At one point, in trying to find out why he wanted this material 
pre])ared, I asked him if he were a student, and he said, "Yes." 
And I asked him, "Are you going for a Ph. D. ?" And he more or less 
acknowledged that. I asked him, "AVhat school are you going to?" 

He said, "University of Maryland." 

Mr. Arexs. Did he in efi'ect lead you to believe that he was here 
as a foreign exchange student? 

Mr. Hatkix^ Nothing was said about foreign exchange, being a 
foreign exchange student, but he led me to believe he was a student at 
Maryland University. 

Mr. Arexs. Did he say he was a student ? 

Mr. Hatkix. Yes, he said he was a student. 

Mr. Arex's. Quote him to the best of your recollection on that 
subject. 

Mr. Hatkix'. I asked him if he was a student. He said, "Yes." 

I asked him, "Are you studying for a Ph. D. ?" 

And lie indicated his assent to that. 

I asked him what school he was going to and he said, "University 
of Maryland." 

Nothing was said about being a foreign exchange. 



5848 SUBVERSION AND ESPIONAGE BY DIPLOMATIC PERSONNEL 

Mr. Arens. Was there anything else that transpired at that con- 
versation, to the best of your recollection ? 

Mr. Hatkin. He said he would contact me again in a week. 

Mr. Arens. How long did the conversation last ? 

Mr. Hatkin. We were there about a half hour. 

Mr. Arens. Incidentally, did you have dinner there with him? 

Mr. Hatkin. No, we didn't have dinner. We didn't have drinks. 

Mr. Arens. Had you had your dinner ? 

Mr. Hatkin. Yes, we had. 

Mr. Arens. It was not contemplated, then, that you were to have 
dinner with him ? 

Mr. Hatkin. I certainly didn't contemplate that. 

Mr. Arens. I mean in the telephone conversation when he set up this 
engagement, apparently he did not ask you to have dinner with him, 
he just asked you to meet him there ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Hatkin. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And you and your wife left him ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Hatkin. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Did you walk away from him or did he walk away 
from you ? 

Mr! Hatkin. We left the restaurant and walked away and left him 
sitting at the table. 

Mr. Arens. He was still eating ? 

Mr. Ha'ikin. Yes. And we walked home. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us the next incident that transpired. 

Mr. Hatkin. Monday morning I called the University of Maryland 
to find out if they have or had a student by — oh, yes, I forgot to men- 
tion during this, as I stood up to leave on this Friday evening at the 
restaurant, I asked Mr. Macholf. I said, '"Do you spell your name 
M-a-c-h-o-f-f ?'' Just to draw him out to verify his identity, if I 
could find out anything else about him. 

And he said, "0-v." 

I assume he was correcting the o-f-f. That was the only part that 
sounded as if it might be changed. And then we left the restaurant 
and went home. 

Monday morning I called the University of Maryland to find out if 
they have or had a student by this name. They told me they had no 
such student. 

On tlie following day, on Tuesday, I contacted Mr. Freehill again. 

Mr. Arens. Your counsel ? 

Mr. Hatkin. Yes. And recounted the incident. 

Mr. Arens. Was this a telephone conversation ? 

Mr. Hatkin. No ; I went to his office and saw him in person. 

And I suggested to Mr. Freehill perhaps Ave ought to contact the 
FBI ; maybe we might be of assistance to them and maybe not. Any- 
way, we thought they should be notified of the incident. 

The FBI was contacted, and that same afternoon an investigative 
agent came to Mr. Freehill 's office. I recounted the series of events 
to the investigative agent. He said he would like to have me look at 
some photographs to see if I could identify this individual. 

On the following Thursday the agent came to my house with a batch 
of photographs, and I identified one of the photographs as the person 
with whom I met at the restaurant and had this contact. I put the 



SUBVERSION AND ESPIONAGE BY DIPLOMATIC PERSONNEL 5849 

photograi)h back in the batch and called my wife over, who was not 
nearnie when 1 identified tlie photo^ra})li, and she independently iden- 
tified the photograph of this individual. 

And at that point the investigative agent told us who this person 
in the photograph was. 

Mr. Arens. Was that the same person, this Vladimir P. Mikheev, 
M-i-k-h-e-e-v, whose identitication has been revealed liere today? 

]Mr. Hatkix. Yes. The agent gave me the name and spelled it, and 
I tried to repeat it and kind of stumbled over the spelling. xVnd the 
agent said, "Don't bother about it." 

I didn't write the name down at the time. But upon recollection, 
iind connnitting this whole incident to paper, to the best of my recol- 
lection it sounded like Methiov, and I just spelled it out phonetically, 
and I spelled it M-e-t-h-i-o-v. 

Mr. Arens. What is the next incident ? 

Mr. Hatkix. Later that same evening this Machoff-Methiov called 
me again as he had jn-omised to see how my work was coming along. 
And he said he would like to see me the following day, on Friday, and 
at the Roma Restaurant again. 

JNIr. Arexs. Did he, at the restauraiit on this prior occasion, give 
jou money ? 

Mr. Hatkix^. Yes ; he did. 

Mr. Arens. How much did he give you ? 

]Mr. Hatkix'. He gave me $25. 

Mr. Arexs. In American currency ? 

Mr. Hatkix'. In American currency ; yes. 

Mr. Arexs. Did he display, or did you notice that he had a con- 
siderable amount of money with him ? 

Mr. Hatkix^. I had no idea. He just pulled the money out of his 
pocket, didn't take it out of a wallet. 

Mr. Arex\s. What was the nature of the currency ? 

Mr. Hatkix. Two tens and a five. And I showed this currency to 
the investigatiA'e agent. I held it aside. I knew I was just going to 
return it. 

Mr. Arex^s. Let's go on to the next conversation now when he 
called you. 

Mr. Hatkix'. Lie called me and asked me to meet him at the Roma 
Restaurant again. 

Mr. Arexs. When? 

Mr. Hatkix. The following day, which would have been a Friday. 
I told liim I didn't care to meet him there. My conversation with him 
would be very brief this time and would he please come to my house. I 
didn't want to have the inconvenience of meeting him at tlie restaurant. 

I would just like to correct my testimony. I am not sure whether 
he called me that Thursday preceding, or Friday early m tlie evening 
to meet me. I a)n not that certain. 

Mr. Arens. In any event, after -your meeting with him in the res- 
taurant and your conversation with the agent of the Bureau, you then 
received another telej)hone conversation with him soliciting you again 
to meet him at the restaurant, and you declined to do so ? 

Mr. Hatkix'. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Then what happened? 

Mr. LEatkix'. I asked him to come to my home. He Oigreed to do 
that. 



5850 SUBVERSION AND ESPIONAGE BY DIPLOMATIC PERSONNEL 

He came Friday evening again, approximately 8 o'clock or so. I 
told him I didn't want to have anything further to do with him. 

Mr. Arens. May I interject a moment, please, sir? 

How did he arrive for the call ? What mode of transportation ? 

Mr. Hatkin. I don't know. It was a foggy evening, as I recall. 
I didn't know just when he would come. And he just rang the front 
doorbell and I admitted him to the house. 

Mr. Arens. Was anyone else available to overhear the conversa- 
tion that you had with him at the house ? 

Mr. Hatkin. My wife was in the kitchen. I think she was clearing 
away the supper dishes. 

Mr. Arens. Did you notify the Bureau that the man was going to 
come to your house ? 

Mr. Hatkin. I told the agent that I was going to be contacted 
again. 

Mr. Arens. Did you tell the agent that the man was coming to 
the house? 

Mr. Hatkin. No. I didn't know where I was going to meet him. 

Mr. Arens. After you learned he was going to come to your house? 

Mr. Hatkin. No, 1 didn't. 

Mr. Arens. Did you tell your counsel? 

Mr, Hatkin. No, I didn't tell counsel. 

Mr. Arens. What transpired in the second conversation in your 
home, this one you are starting on ? 

Mr. Hatkin. I told this man that I didn't want to have anything 
further to do with him. I wanted to deal with people candidly and 
I would like to give him back his $25, which I then did. 

Mr. Arens. How long was this conversation? 

Mr. Hatkin. This was very brief. Two minutes, maj^be. 

Mr. Arens. Did he sit down ? 

Mr. Hatkin, I believe he did sit down, yes. 

Mr. Arens, Did you say your wife overheard that conversation? 

Mr, Hatkin, I am not so sure. She was in the kitchen clearing 
away the dishes. 

Mr, Arens, What did he say ? 

Mr, Hatkin, He just said, "All right," 

As a matter of fact, I asked the investigative agent, "Do you think 
this man is going to make a fuss and is he going to create a scene ?"^ 

And the agent said, "No, he will just leave; he won't do anything.'^ 

And that is just the way he turned out. He just took the money 
back and stuffed it in his pocket and left, 

Mr, Arens. Did he shake hands with you as he left ? 

Mr. Hatkin. No ; I didn't shake hands with him. He left and went 
out the door and disappeared into tlie night. 

Mr, Arens, Did any other incidents transpire in connection with 
this man ? 

Mr. Hatkin. That was the last I sn w of him. 

The following Monday morning I contacted the FBI — I think he 
called me. 

Mr. Arens. Who, the agent ? 

Mr, Hatkin, The agent, yes. 

I was waiting for o'clock, for his office to open to call him. He 
called at fiv§ of nine. I told him that I had several connections with 



SUBVERSION AND ESPIONAGE BY DIPLOMATIC PERSONNEL 5851 

this man and oave him back the $25 and wouldn't have anything fur- 
ther to do with him, 

I called my counsel and told my counsel I had done that. 

Mr. Arens. At any time in the conversation which you had either 
on the telephone or the personal conversations with Mr. Mikheev, did 
he reveal to you any connection that he had with the Soviet Embassy ? 

Mr. Hatkin. No ; he did not. 

Mv. Arexs. Did you or he have any conversation at all respecting 
access which you may have and did have to confidential or restricted 
information ? 

Mr. Hatkin. No. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have any conversation with him respecting 
the disassociation of yourself from the Air Force? 

Mr. Hatkin. No. I just mentioned the first meeting with him that 
I had w^orked for the Government and I was doing free-lance economic 
research w^ork. 

Mr. Arens. You gave him a form 57 some place along the line ? 

Mr. Hatkin. No, it was not a form 57. It was a typewritten 
summary. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have a copy of that ? 

Mr. Hatkin. No, I don't. I gave it to the investigating agent. 

Mr. Arens. Did that typewritten summary tell about your duties 
and responsibilities and privileges at the Air Force when you were 
there ? 

Mr. Hatkin. Yes, it did. 

Mr. Arens. Did it tell about your discharge from the Air Force? 

Mr. Hatkin. No, it did not. 

This typewritten summary gave my duties at each of the different 
jobs I had held. In other w^ords, he knew what I had done in the past. 

Mr. Owens. Let me ask one question. 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. Owens. Is it your impression that at the time of his first con- 
tact with you he had any conceivable idea of the specific knowledge 
that you may have possessed which might have been of assistance 
to him ? 

Mr. Hatkin. In that first telephone conversation ? 

Mr. Owens. In the first interview. 

Mr. Hatkin. I had no way of knowing. 

Mr. Owens. Did you ever obtain the impression that he knew what 
was available if he could get it from you on the first time he contacted 
you? 

Mr. Hatkin. Only from the job description he might have sur- 
mised that. 

Mr. Oavens. Before that ? 

Mr. Hatkin. No. Before that I don't see how he could. 

Mr. Owens. You never received the impression that he knew the 
capabilities of your knowledge ? 

Mr. Hatkin. That is correct. 

Mr. Owens. And you believed tliat he obtained the capabilities of 
your knoAvledge as a result of the resume you showed him ? 

Mr. Hatkin. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Is there any other item that comes to your mind now 
that you would like to call to our attention ? 



5852 SUBVERSION AND ESPIONAGE BY DIPLOMATIC PERSONNEL 

Mr. Hatkin. Just the overall contact with him, and mj^ nonavail- 
ability of getting anything. 

Mr. Arens. Was there anything else, any other incident of that 
character that comes to yonr mind ? 

Mr. Hatkin. No. 

Mr. Frekhiix. I would like to say, Mr. Arens, that after this, ^Mr. 
Hatkin reduced to w^riting in the form of an affidavit the facts that 
he has related to you and transmitted those to the Air Force to apprise 
them up to the minute as to what had transpired. I w^ould be very 
happy to furnish you with a copy of that affidavit if you wish. 

Mr. Arens. We would be obliged to you if you would be good enough 
tQ do that. 

And also you are going to supply us with that letter. 

Mr. Freehill. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Yes. And if there are other letters you want to trans- 
mit to us bearing on this whole scope of inquiry we have had today^ 
we would be obliged to you. Off the record for a moment. 

(Discussion off the record. ) 

Mr. Akens. We thank you very much, Mr. Hatkin and Counselor. 

Mr. Weil. There was one question I did have. 

At that loyalty hearing the Air Force conducted was there a board 
of two civilians and an officer ? 

Mr. Hatkin. That is called a security hearing. 

Mr. Weil. Whatever it was, the loyalty board, that Avas under 
oath, wasn't it ? 

Mr. Hatkin. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, and Mr. Hatkin. we thank you for being here 
today. 

Mr. Hatkin, you will be released from your subi^ena. Just as a 
matter of personal information, you expect to be around town in case 
the committee wants to communicate with you again? 

Mr. Hatk:x. Yes; I will be. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, if you will be good enough to tell Mr. Owens 
here, leave one of your cards so we will be able to contact you further 
if we deem it necessary. 

Thank you very much. 

(Whereupon, at 12 o'clock noon the executive session was recessed to 
be reconvened at 1 o'clock p. m., this same day. May 10, 1956.) 

afternoon session 

(The subcommittee was reconvened at 1 p. m., there being present 
Representative Francis E. Walter.) 

Chairman Walter. Will you raise your right hand, please ? 

Do you swear the testimony you are about to give will be the 
truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth so help you God? 

Mr. Cutter. Yes. 

Chairman Walter. Be seated. 

TESTIMONY OF RICHARD S. CUTTER 

Chairman Walter. Mr. Cutter, I want you to understand that at 
no time has anybody connected wdth this committee had any question 
as to your loyalty. 

Mr. Cutter. I understand. 



SUBVERSION AND ESPIONAGE BY DIPLOMATIC PERSONNEL 5853 

Chainimii Walter. And we are not concerned with endeavoring to 
connect you witli anything; improper. What we are trying to do, of 
course, is to find out the extent of Mikheev's operations. But Ave 
certainly are not suspicious of you in any way. 

Mr. Cutter. That is all right. 

Mr. Arens. Will you kindly, on this record, identify yourself by 
name, residence, and occupation? 

Mr. Cutter. Richard S. Cutter, 4626 15th Street North, Arlington, 
Va., librarian. 

]Mr. Arens. iMr. Cutter, you are appearing today in response to a 
sub]:)ena wliich was served upon you. 

j\Ir. Citter. That is right. 

Mr, Arens. And as the chairman has just stated, the fact that you 
were served with this subpena and are here today in this little session 
with us does not directly or indirectly suggest that this committee is 
impugning or questioning your loyalty or your patriotism. 

Mr. Cutter. I understand. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Cutter, kindly tell us, if you will, please, sir, a 
word about your own personal history, where you were born, when, 
and your education. 

Mr. (\'TTER. I was born in Omaha, Nebr., July 26, 1910. I went 
to grade school, Saunders School, in Omaha. My family, my father 
and mother — I have no brothers and sisters — my father and mother 
moved to Evanston, 111., in July of 1925. In September of that year 
I enrolled at Evanston Township High School. I was there until 
graduated in June of 1929. 

In September of 1929 I enrolled at Dartmouth College, Hanover, 
N. H. I left there on account of severe illness in December. As a 
matter of fact, I went home for Christmas vacation and got ill at 
home. I did not return. 

I enrolled at Northw^estern University in February of 1930, pick- 
ing up, or attempting to pick up my schooling. I graduated from 
Northwestern University in January of 1934. I was staggered. I was 
set back one semester on account of that illness. 

I was in Europe 

Mr. Arens. Excuse me just a moment, please, sir. What was the 
degree received from Northwestern ? 

Mr. Cutter. It was a B. S. 

Mr. Arens. What was your specialty or major? 

Mr. Cutter. My major was sociology. 

Mr. Arens. Did that complete your formal education? 

Mr. Cutter. That completed my undergraduate formal education. 

Mr. Arens. All right, just give us a word, if you ])lease, about any 
additional education or training that you have had. 

Mr. Cutter. Columbia University from September 1939 to June 
1941, and I got a master's, an M. A., degree there. It was c^alled a 
master of arts in higher education, from Columbia University. In, 
let's see, October 1945, on discharge from the Army at Fort Logan, 
Colo., I enrolled at the University of Denver, School of Librarian- 
ship. I graduated in June 1946 with a degree of B. S. and L. S., it 
is called. That is bachelor of science and library science. 

Mr. Arens. Did that degree equip you to be a librarian in public 
institutions? 



5854 SUBVERSION AND ESPIONAGE BY DIPLOMATIC PERSONNEL 

Mr. Cutter. It is the sine qua iion of librarians. It helps a lot if 
you have it. It is the recognition or certification that is required of 
most librarians. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly proceed from 1946 on and "ive us a 
very brief thumbnail sketch ? 

Mr. Cutter. Yes. In September I went to Berkeley. Calif., and 
was employed by the University of California in the general library 
at Berkeley, the university library of the University of California. 
And I was there until October of 1918. I came to Washington and 
started to Avork November 1, 1948, for the Army Medical Ijibrarv, as 
it was then known. 

Mr. Arens. And have you continuously served in that employment 
since ? 

Mr. Cutter. That is right, I have been employed since. 

Mr. Arens. Can you give us just a word, please, sir, of the nature 
of your employment in the Army Medical Library ? 

Mr. Cutter. It was in the Eeference Division at all times. First, 
for about a year, I was in the Reference Section of the Reference Divi- 
sion, and after about a year, perhaps a year and a half, I don't recall 
exactly, I went upstairs into the Document Section where they have 
technical reports. Government publications from all countries, and I 
was up there until about November of 1955. 

]Mr. Arens. Is there material of a restricted or classified nature in 
the Army Medical Library which you handled ? 

Mr. Cutter. Yes, there is. 

Mr. Arens. Can you, without telling us that which is restricted or 
classified, give us a general characterization of the material? 

Mr. Cutter. It is medical in nature. We don't attempt to collect 
anything that is not pretty closely related to medical. It might be 
studies of altitudes, studies at Randolph Field School of Aviation 
Medicine and Pensacola and that type of thing. 

Mr. Arens. Do you, in the course of your official duties, have access 
to this restricted or confidential information ? 

Mr. Cutter. Yes, I do. 

Mr. Arens. I take it that you have been cleared for secret or 
restricted material ? 

Mr. Cutter. Yes ; up through secret, not top secret. 

Mr. Arens. You have been cleared by security agencies for access 
to material up to secret ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Cutter. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. May I ask you. What is your title at the library ? 

Mr. Cutter. I have no administrative duties. It is simply librarian, 
I believe, civil service calls it. That is, technically librarian, but no 
chief librarian, no division, no section head of any kind. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Cutter, I lay before you an exhibit marked for this 
record as "Exhibit No. 1," which we have used this morning in another 
session. I ask you if you can identify the person whose photograph 
appears in exhibit No. 1. 

Mr. Cutter. Yes, yes ; I am pretty sure of that. I am pretty sure. 
The chin isn't right but I hold my hand over the chin and the rest jibes 
with my memory. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Cutter, I inform you that in the record this morn- 
ing the person whose photograph appears tliere on exhibit No. 1 has 
been identified as Vladimir, V-1-a-d-i-m-i-r. P. as in Peter, for a middle 



SUBVERSION AND ESPIONAGE BY DIPLOMATIC PERSONNEL 5855 

initial, Mikheev, ■\I-i-k-li-e-c-v, Avho is, or until just a few days ago, 
was employed as a clerk in the office of the military attache in the 
Russian Embassy. 

I ask you to tell us in your own words and in your own way when 
you last saw such a person, and any associations, acquaintanceships or 
incidents which transpired in your life with reference to that person. 

Mr. Cutter. When I last saw him was on December 27, 1955. 

Mr. Arexs. Perhaps I should ask you when you first saw him. 

Mr. Cutter. That was also when I first saw him. 

Mr. Arexs. All right, tell us in your own way just what transpired. 

Mr. Cutter. It was about 7 o'clock in the evening; a knock at the 
door. Actually, my wife Avent to the door. I was in the kitchen. She 
called me and said, "Someone to see you." 

Mr. xVrexs. Excuse me just a moment. Let us have this date again, 
please. 

Mr. Cutter. December 27, 1955. 

Mr. Arens. And this knock on the door came at your home? 

Mr. Cutter. That is right. 

Mr. Arexs. That was out in Arlington, Va.? 

]Mr. Cutter. That is right. 

Mr. Arexs. Tell us in your own words what transpired. 

Mr. Cutter. I had the porch light on because the only Christmas 
decomtion we had was a wreath on the door and we wanted to light 
up the Avreath. So he was in full view at all times.^ 

^Nlr. AiiENS. By "he,"' you mean the person whose photograph I have 
just laid before 5-ou? 

Mr. Cutter. That is right. 

He asked for me by name, last name only, a military librarian. And 
I thought, well, that doesn't rule me out. He seems to have the name 
fairly correct. 

So^ I asked him where he got my name. And he said in a big, 
thick book at the public library. 

Mr. Arexs, Did this conversation take place within your living 
room ? 

Mr. Cutter. No. He was outside and I was standing just inside 
the door. He was on the outside. He made no attempt to come in, 

Mr. Arexs. Did he identify himself ? 

^Ir. Cutter. Not at that time ; no. 

Mr. Arexs. Do you know by what mode of transportation he ar- 
rived? 

Mr. Cutter. I do not. 

Mr. Arexs, Could you give us, before we undertake to recount the 
details of the conversation, as full a description of his physical ap- 
pearance as you can recollect? 

Mr, Cutter. About my height. Five nine and a half, I think. 
Eather husky, not fat, round faced, dark hair, smooth shave. He 
had his hat on. I couldn't tell whether he had a full head of hair or 
not. No glasses. 

Chairman Walter. Did he speak with an accent. 

Mr. Cutter. A very heavy accent, an accent that I couldn't identify. 
But that doesn't mean much because I don't think I — I think I could 
have identified German and French. 

Mr. Arexs. What would be your estimate of his approximate 
weight? A heavy-, light-, or medium-weight man? 



5856 SUBVERSION AND ESPIONAGE BY DIPLOMATIC PERSONNEL 

Mr. Cutter. I would say extremely well built, probably heavier 
than he looked. That is just my impression. I couldn't see his legs 
or much of his arms. 

Mr. Arens. Have you any idea as to how he arrived, by what mode 
of transportation ? 

Mr. Cutter. No ; I don't. 

Mr. Arens. Will you proceed from there, Mr. Cutter ; with the man 
standing on the outside of your house and you are at the door. Give 
us all the details you can recall. 

Mr. Cutter. He called me by name, and as soon as he did that I 
was sure I had never seen him before and naturally I wanted to know 
how he got my name. 

He asked was I a military librarian. 

I said, hesitatingly, yes, I was, because I am not strictly a military 
librarian. That is, 1 do not have anything to do with military litera- 
ture. It is medical literature. 

So he said he was writing a dissertation and wanted help. He said 
the subject was the American military history from the Civil War to 
the present time. He said that he had the sources, he implied he had 
the sources, but he needed help in extracting them. I presume he 
meant abstracting. 

His English w\as good from the standpoint of diction and choice 
of words and sentence construction. His accent was not good. It 
was quite difficult for me at times to understand him and I had to ask 
liim to repeat some words. 

I thought that he had probably been referred to me by some friends 
in foreign countries or something like that. So inasmuch as he had 
not identified himself as being a Russian at all, I invited him in. It 
was cold. 

Mr. Arens. Thus far all of this transpired — the conversation taking 
place out on the patio or tlie porch ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Cutter. That is correct. My name, military librarian, what 
he wanted. 

Mr. Arens. Did he display to you any credentials? 

Mr. Cutter. No. 

Mr. Arens. He did not identify himself ? 

Mr. Cutter. I didn't ask him for any credentials. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly proceed. 

Mr. Cutter. He said, "I will pay you for it." He didn't say how 
much. But he said, "I will pay you for it." 

Now, that is not unusual because librarians are frequently ap- 
proached to do translating after hours. After they have worked 
for their employer and with their employer's permission they do trans- 
lating for money. But, of course, the catch came when he identified 
himself as a Russian national. However, he didn't do that while he 
was out on the front porch. 

Then I invited him in. At that point I invited him in because I 
wanted to find out what it was all about. I still thought I should be 
courteous because he had been referred by a friend. 

I said, "I am not qualified in the field of military history as such. 
My interest is military medical history." 

And at that point he seemed quite — I am sure that he would have 
heen content to go off, to leave me alone. Still on the front porch, 



STJBVERSIOX AND ESPIONAGE BY DIPLOMATIC PERSONNEL 5857 

liowever, I did invite him in. P"or one tiling, I was curious. I in- 
vited him in beciiuse I wanted to find out more about him. I had given 
him the referral so he Avoidd liave been content to go, I am sure. 

He came in and stood in the middle of the living room with his 
hat on. That is the tirst unusual thing I noticed about him. He did 
not remove his hat as most Americans and Europeans would have 
•done, I believe. After some hesitation he let me take his coat and hat 
and sat down. He was perfectly comfortable at all times. He never 
seemed to be ill at ease. He never seemed to try to cover up anything. 

I asked him, I remember — he was still standing in the middle of the 
room — what nationality he was. And he smiled very pleasantly and 
said ''Don't you know- ?" As if I should know or should have guessed. 
Now, on reflection, I think he was simply building me up for a sur- 
prise. In other words, he Avas dramatizing a little bit. 

And I said, '"No ; I don't know." 

And he said, "I am Russian." 

Still the thought flashed through my mind, sure, he's a refugee. So, 
I thought his story will be interesting if I can get it. 

So he apparently was rather surprised that I wasn't surprised. And 
I asked him to sit down because I still thought he was a refugee. So 
he sat down. We attempted to, my wife and I attempted to, carry on 
a somewhat forced conversation, because he was a complete stranger 
and we didn't know what to talk about. We got on the subject of tea. 
I happen to have a number of different varieties of tea. We offered 
him some tea. I know Russians drink tea. 

No ; he wouldn't have any. 

Why wouldn't he have any ? 

Well, he said, "It wouldn't be proper." He said, "The third time 
I have met you I would probably have tea w'ith you," or something 
like that. 

I thought, well, this is some old stuffy Russian custom I am not 
familiar with. I mean, I don't know, it is apparently some custom. 
I don't know what it was at all. I don't have the faintest idea. He 
wouldn't have any tea and I didn't have anything else in the house 
to otfer him. 

So we hadn't had our dinner yet. We just happened to have a sort of 
a late dinner that night. But he stayed about 25 minutes, I would say 
f om 7 o'clock until 7 : 25. 

I gave hhn the name of a friend of mine whom I knew to be qualified 
in American military history. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat is his name, please, sir ? 

Mr. Cutter. His name is Robert W., I think it is, Davis, D-a-v-i-s. 

Mr. Arens. Do you happen to know his address offhand ? 

Mr. Cutter. It is on M Street in Georgetown, because I remember 
I looked up his address. I forgot to mention that I had given his 
name before I even knew he was a Russian. Otherwise, I don't think 
Davis would have thanked me for it. But I gave Davis' name when 
he was still on the front porch. And my wife went to the phone book 
and looked it up. It is on M Street in Georgetown, I am pretty sure. 

Mr. Arens. "^^Hiere is Davis an employee ? Do you know ? 

Mr. Cutter. Davis is employed by the Armed Forces Institute of 
Pathology, the medical museum section. 

Mr. Arens. That is located where ? 



5858 SUBVERSION AND ESPIONAGE BY DIPLOMATIC PERSONNEL 

Mr. Cutter. I believe the main pcart is — the museum is down on 
Independence, across the street from us, and Davis is in our building 
a great deal of the time. 

Mr. Arens. Let's get back, please, sir, to the conversation. 

Mr. Cutter. After I had given him, as I say, Davis' name, I had 
written down his home address and name, that was when he came in. 
He came in the house. That was done before I even knew what the 
nationality was. That was just as if he had come to the office and 
said, "Can you tell me somebody who can help me with American 
military history ?" I would have given him Davis' name under those 
circumstances. 

Mr. Arens. Did he ever contact Davis ? Do you know ? 

Mr. Cutter. I don't know. I asked Davis, but we sort of kid each 
other, and I couldn't get any sense out of him as to whether he did 
or not. 

And, besides, I figured, well, it is probably none of my business. 
He's probably been quiet, like I have, and so forth. 

However, then we attempted to carry on — I am having a little 
trouble picking this up here — just a completely innocuous conversa- 
tion. We talked about any generality my wife and I could think of. 

When he said he was a Russian, then it started working in the back 
of my head, probably this fellow isn't a refugee after all. I asked 
in as casual a voice as I could get, "Are you with the Embassy?" 

And he said, "Yes." 

And I was really surprised then. Then I knew he was a hot Rus- 
sian. And, of course, I still wanted to keep him there as long as I 
could and talk about anything I could think of that was harmless. 
So we talked about his family. And my dog was in the living room 
and the dog has a chair. I have no children. And, of course, my 
wife said the dog is a little bit like a child, something like that. And 
he thought that was rather amusing. 

And he had one child. He said, "I have a child, born in Wash- 
ington." And his Avife was here, and he said his wife was here and 
he wanted to go 

I said, "Would you like to go back to Russia?" 

And he said, "Oh, yes." He was very anxious to go back to Moscow, 
He was from Moscow. He said that his grandfather on his mother's 
side was a Persian. That is where he got his darkness. That is why 
he was so dark because his father was a blond. He said, "My father 
is very blond." 

Now, those were personal items that, if they are true, it seemed to 
me were certainly gratuitous and unnecessary, I would think, unless, 
of course, he intended to do exactly what he did, sort of get friendly 
and disarming. 

He didn't attempt at any time to steer the conversation back to what 
he had started out with. Apparently he was perfectly satisfied. He 
had gotten refei-red to a man Avho I said I was sure could help him, 
and was qualified to help him. And he acted to me as if he had just 
simply gotten what he came for. 

And I think he was, I mean I got the impression at that time that 
he was just indulging in the amenities in being polite and carrying 
on a conversation to a point, and then he got up, calmly got up and 
said he guessed he'd better be getting back, and left. 



SUBVERSION AND ESPIONAGE BY DIPLOMATIC PERSONNEL 5859 

In fact, I said, "Come again if you want to." Because I wanted 
to hang onto him. I didn't want to let him to go. I didn't know he 
^Yas a character. I didn't want him to go off and disappear. 

And I thought if he is of any usefuhiess at all, just for contact, I 
thought he would probably get in touch with Davis. That will prob- 
ably be the contact. 

He has made no attempt, as far as I know, at any time I have been 
home or answering the telephone. No mysterious voices have called 
up at home. No mysterious voices have called at the oitfice. Nobody 
has tried to get in touch with me that I couldn't identify. As far as 
I can find out he made no effort to contact me after that one time. 

Mr. Arens. Did you report this incident to the Bureau ? 

Mr. Cutter. No ; I reported it to our security officer the very next 
day. As a matter of fact, he was on sick leave and I called him at his 
home. 

As I thought about it the next day I got that much concerned 
about it. 

And that is routine. I mean, in other words, I had to do with 
classified information, and I reported this incident, this contact with 
a foreign national. It was in that sense, contact with a foreign national, 
especially an Iron Curtain nation. 

Mr. Arens. Did your visitor at any time identify himself to you 
by name? 

Mr. Cutter. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. What did he say his name was ? 

Mr. Cutter, He said his name was Mikheev. 

We said, "How do you spell it ?" 

And he said, "M-i-k" — he didn't seem to want to write it down. 
And I took out a piece of paper and spelled it, and he spelled it 
for me. 

Mr. Arens. Did he at any time display to you any credentials? 

Mr. Cutter. No ; at no time. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know by what mode of transportation he left 
your home? 

Mr. Cutter. I have no idea. I wish I knew. 

Mr. Arens. Did you pursue your conversation with questions as to 
hoAY he happened to get in touch with you ? 

Mr. Cutter. Yes; but the big, thick book seemed to settle it. And 
he didn't seem to want to talk any more about it. I could see that he 
was just politely through with that particular subject. 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall the name of the book ? 

Mr. Cutter. He wouldn't tell me. He couldn't tell me. He seemed 
to think I would know. 

I think I do knoAv. I did not, unfortunately, realize at that time 
that the Arlington County-City Directory, which as is usual in most 
cities in the country, had been published. I think it had been out 
about 2 months at that time. And it was the first one since the be- 
ginning of World War II, so I just wasn't thinking in terms of city 
directories. 

But in tlie next couple of days I looked it up, and there I am, "Rich- 
ard S. Cutter,'' and my wife's name, which he didn't use, "librarian, 
Department of Defense." 

80, theoretically, at least, that is tlie way, if he wanted to go to a 
lot of clerical work — and believe me it is boring to go through that 



5860 SUBVERSION AND ESPIONAGE BY DIPLOMATIC PERSONNEL 

directory from A ; I am C. I begin with C, so chances are I am the 
first one he came to in the Arlington directoi-y, the first librarian with 
the Defense Department. That is just speculation. I don't know 
but that is my guess. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you known Robert W. Davis? 

Mr. Cutter. I think about a year. I couldn't be certain of that. 

Mr. Arens. You knew him about a year prior to the time that Mr.. 
Mikheev came to see you ? 

Mr. Cutter. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know whether or not INIr. Davis is in town now ? 

Mr. Cutter. Yes. I saw him this morning over there, over at the 
library. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have any conversation with him this morning 
about your appearance here today ? 

Mr. Cutter. Just chatting. 

Mr. Arens. Did he give any indication to you that Mikheev had 
actually approached him? 

Mr. Cutter. No. 

Mr. Arens. Or he had been approached? 

Mr. Cutter. No ; he didn't. 

Mr. Arens. Could w^e reach him by phone now, do you suppose ? 

Mr. Cutter. Yes. I am quite sure you could. He would be either 
at the museum — well, you had probably better try the museum because 
they would probably know where he was. He might be over in the 
library. He might be in the stacks, in which it would be a couple 
of hours before you could get hold of him. 

Mr. Arens. Off the record. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Cutter, is there any other incident, any other ele- 
ments of the conversation, which you would like to recount to us? 
You have undoubtedly had some time to think this over. 

Mr. Cutter. I asked him where I could reach him, where he lived, 
and if I could call him at home. And he said, "Well, no." He said 
he was very rarely at home. 

I said, "Could I call you at the office?" 

This was before I knew where he worked. And he said, "Well,, 
no ; that wouldn't be good either." 

And, of course, 1 got the idea at that point that he Avas just a flunky 
in some office and they didn't like personal calls, calls not directly 
related to the business of the day, which is the case in our place. We 
don't like personal calls either. So I didn't press the point. 

The thing that amazed me a couple of days later when I finally 
had sense enough to look in the telephone book, there was his name 
and the address of his home in the telephone book. I couldn't figure, 
and can't to this day figure out why he was so coy about where he 
lived and his home address and so forth if he was right there in the 
telephone book. 

Mr. Arens. Is there any other element in this whole transaction 
that you would like to recount? 

Mr. Cutter. No ; I can't think of any. 

There were lots of Christmas cards over on the table. This was 2 
days after Christmas. There were lots of Christmas cards on the 
coffee table and we discussed, my wife and I, talked about Christmas. 



SUBVERSION AND ESPIONAGE BY DIPLOMATIC PERSONNEL 5861 

And ^Ye said, ''Do you have Christmas? Do you wixnt to see the 
Christmas cards?'' 

And he said, in a very matter-of-fact, very pleasant tone, ''No; 
we don't have Christmas. It is like that. We don't have Christmas." 

Mr. Owens. You said he advanced the allegation that he was writ- 
ing a dissertation. Did he allege that he was attending a school or 
university ? 

Mr. Cu'riT.R. No ; he did not. He did not at any time. 

There again I was jumping to a series of conclusions as the con- 
versation progressed. 1 just assumed that he was over in this country 
taking graduate work, maybe, at one of the universities around here. 
There are a number of foreign students at Catholic University or 
Georgetown. 

Mr. Owens. Did he volunteer that he w\as a student ? 

Mr. Cutter. No, he never identified himself as a student or con- 
nected with any university. He was writing a dissertation. I as- 
sumed as soon as he got back where he was going to his OAvn country 
lie would probably write it up and fulfill his residence require- 
ments. Those things carry over a period of 10 years sometimes. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been approached by a person under 
similar circumstances in the course of your work? 

Mr. Cutter. No, no; I haven't. 

We do get foreign people in the library, but I have never been 
asked to do work on the side or anything like that. 

Mr. Arens. I understood you to say a few moments ago, in ])ass- 
in.g, that you thought it might be a friend from overseas. 

Do you have overseas connections or have you traveled overseas? 

Mr. Cutter. No. But I have a friend whom I met in Denver who 
is a Uruguayan. And he looked a little bit like him. That is how 
1 got the idea maybe he was a South American. This Uruguayan is a 
librarian, too. 

Mr. Arens. Were you overseas at any time in military service? 

Mr. Cutter. No ; I wasn't but I was overseas in 1934. It was so long 
ago. 

Mr. Arens. If there are no other elements in this incidence that 
you would like to recount, we want to again thank you sincerely for 
coming here today. And the fact that you were brought in under 
subpena was only a matter of protecting you and a matter of the 
policies of the committee. 

If there is any other incident in connection with this that does 
come to your mind in the future, I would suggest and appreciate it if 
you would get in touch with us by telephone and recount the incidents 
to us. 

Mr. Cutter. All right. 

Mr. Arens. Or maybe we might want to visit with you again. 

You are released from the subpena and we thank you very much for 
coming here today. 

Mr. Cutter. I might say that he was a j^erfect gentleman at all 
times and very polite. The only impolite thing he did was he didn't 
take his hat off when lie first came in the house. He just stood in 
the middle of the floor with his hat on. 



5862 SUBVERSION AND ESPIONAGE BY DIPLOMATIC PERSONNEL 

But he didn't attempt to steer the conversation that I could detect 
at all. And he apparently, in the early stages of the conversation, 
even before he came in the house, would have been content to go his 
way, I'm sure. 

Mr. Arens. Off the record. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

(Representative Francis E. Walter was present at the time of taking 
the recess.) 

(Whereupon, at 1 : 40 p. m., the subcommittee was recessed subject to 
the call of the Chair.) 



HEARINGS ON ATTE3IPTS AT SUBVERSION AND 
ESPIONAGE BY DIPLOMATIC PERSONNEL 



FRIDAY, MAY 11, 1956 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington^ D. G. 

EXECUTIVE SESSION ^ 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met 
at 10 a. m., pursuant to call, in room 226, Old House Office Building, 
Hon. Francis E. Walter (chairman) presiding. 

Committee member present : Representative Francis E. Walter, of 
Pennsylvania. 

St-art" members present: Richard Arens, director; George C. Wil- 
liams, investigator; and Richard S. Weil. 

Chairman Walter. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly stand so the chairman can admin- 
ister an oath to you ? 

Chairman Walter. Do you swear the testimony you are about to 
give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so 
help you God ? 

Mr, Davis. That is correct. 

TESTIMONY OF ROBERT W. DAVIS 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly identify yourself, sir, by name, resi- 
dence and occupation? 

Mr. Davis. My name is Robert W. Davis. I live at 1653 35th Street 
NW., and I am a historian for the Medical Museum of the Armed 
Forces Institute of Pathology. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly give us information of the functions 
of this museum ? 

Mr. Davis. The museum, as the title would indicate, emphasizes 
military medicine. And this is not to mean that it doesn't also exhibit 
general medical items of interest, and particularly in the develop- 
ment of the field of medical history. But emphasis is on military 
medicine, and the exhibits are changed quite often, more often than 
they used to be in the old days. The medical museum will cele- 
brate its 100th anniversary in 1962. My job is now to write a history 
of the museum. 



1 Released by the committee and ordered to be printed. 

5863 



5864 SUBVERSION AND ESPIONAGE BY DIPLOMATIC PERSONNEL 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Davis, how long have you been so engaged in the 
museum ? 

Mr. Davis. I have been at the museum 2 years last January, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Would you give us a very concise background of your- 
self prior to your present employment? 

Mr. Davis. Before I went to the museum I worked for the Ofiice 
of Chief of Military History for 2 years. And before I worked for 
that outfit, I worked for G-2 in the Document Section. 

Mr. Arejsts. In the course of your employment in the museum do 
you have access to any restricted or confidential information ? 

Mr. Davis. There is nothing of that type whatsoever in the museum. 

Mr. Arens. Do you, as an employee of the United States Govern- 
ment, have access to restricted or confidential information? 

Mr. Davis. Wlien I was in the Office of Military History, I was 
cleared for top secret. 

Mr. Arens. Did you, in the course of your employment there, have 
access to restricted or confidential information ? 

Mr. DxWis. In the Office of Military History, I did. 

Mr. Arens. Over what period were you there ? 

Mr. Davis. I also had access to restricted classified material in G-2. 

I was at G-2 from 1950 to 1952, and Military History from 1952 to 
1954. And I have been in the museum from 1954 to 1956. 

Mr. Arens. It is clear, Mr. Davis, that you have within the confines 
of your own knowledge at the present time, and have had for some- 
time, confidential or restricted information which you cannot divulge 
because of security limitations ? 

Mr. Davis. It has been put in front of me from time to time in the 
past. 

Mr. Arens. And you possess that knowledge or information now ? 

Mr. Davis. In my head, you mean ? 

Mr. Arens. That is what I mean. If you were disposed to violate 
your confidence and your oath as an employee of this Government and 
disposed to be unpatriotic — and we are sure you are patriotic — you 
could reveal information of a confidential or restricted nature, could ' 
you not ? 

Mr. Davis. If I wanted to be disloyal I would probably have a hell 
of a time remembering the stuff after 2 years. It is probably quite 
hazy. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Davis, I lay before you now a photograph marked 
"Exhibit No. 1" which has been identified in the record of a day or so 
ago in similar proceedings before this committee staff. I ask you if 
you can identify the individual whose picture appears in that exhibit. 

Mr. Davis, Yes ; that is the individual who told me his name was 
Vladimir Mikheev. It is not a good picture. I don't think it shows 
a mole on the left side of his face, a pronounced mole. 

Mr. Arens. Would you, at your own pace, take us through the 
chronology of events when you first had any contact or association or 
knowledge of the existence of this person, Vladimir P. Mikheev ? 

Mr. Davis. Last Christmas I went to Ohio to see my mother and 
my sister. My wife stayed back in Washington. And during that 
time I was in telephone conversation with my wife and we also wrote 
to each other every day. And I got a letter from her — I think it was 
pretty close to the end of the year — saying that she had hud a phone 



SUBVERSION AND ESPIONAGE BY DIPLOMATIC PERSONNEL 5865 

call from a Mr. Cutter of the Armed Forces Medical Library. And 
Mr. Cutter told her that a man whom he thought to be a Russian 
would contact uie some time when I returned to Washington. Pie 
said the Eussian wanted some help in military history. 

I returned to Washington on January 3. And after about 2 weeks 
had passed I thought that perliaps this fellow wouldn't shoAv up. In 
the meanwhile I had talked to Mr. Cutter and he explained in full 
detail the visit, and he regTetted very much that he had submitted 
my name because at the time he submitted my name he didn't know 
the true connections of this fellow, and he was very apologetic and 
hoped I would forgive him for any trouble that would ensue. So I 
did. 

He said he had reported it to the security officer immediately. 

Some time during the week of the 10th of January, probably in the 
middle of the week, I was out in the kitchen and we had just finished 
eating dinner. It was about 9 o'clock. There was a knock at the 
door. 

Mr. Arens. Excuse me, please, sir; where do you live? 

Mr. Davis. At that time I lived at 3233 M Street, M as in Mary, 
Northwest. 

Mr. Arens. That was on January 16, 1956, the evening you heard 
this knock ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Davis. I liave only been at this present address a week. 

Mr. Arexs. I see. 

Mr. Davis. As I was a good husband, I was washing, dishes. So 
my wife answered the door, as she regretted doing, because she was 
confronted with this character who, among other things, is very crude 
and boorish in his social habits. He stood there with his hat on and 
he said, 'Ts Mr. Davis there ?" 

And she said, "Yes." 

And at that time I came into the room. I said, "Won't you step in ?" 

So he stepped into the middle of the room and still kept his hat 
and coat on. He identified himself as Vladimir Mikheev. 

And I said, "Yes, I have heard about you from Mr. Cutter. Won't 
you take off your hat and coat ? 

And he said, "Yes." 

And I hung them up. 

We offered him a drink and he said he didn't drink. He recanted 
that later on. 

Anyway, I said, "What can I do for you ?" 

He said, "Well, now, I am working on a paper and it has to do with 
American military history. ^^Hiat I want to do is start with the 
Revolutionary War and go up to now and show how America each 
time fights a bigger war than she fights the last time." 

I said, "Well, that is a very interesting subject. How can I help 
you?" 

He said, "Well, I want you to sort of prepare a list of books— vou 
recommend books that I could use." 

I said, "Well, I could do that, but why don't you go to the Army 
Library in the Pentagon?" Witli my tongue iii cheek, "Why don't 
you go to the War College Library ?" 

He said, "Oh, I cannot go there. As I told Mr. Cutter and I told 
you, I work for the Russian Embassy. I am just a clerk there, but 
since I am a Russian I could not jro there." 



5866 SUBVERSION AND ESPIONAGE BY DIPLOMATIC PERSONNEL 

I said, "Well, if you tried hard enough and got clearance from the 
State Department you might be able to get books from the Army 
Library." 

He said, "Yes, I know, but that is so much trouble." 

And then I sort of changed the conversation to generalities. And 
I asked him about himself and his background and how he met his 
wife and how he liked it over here and where did he live and stuff 
like that. And he was sitting with his back to my books. He made 
no effort to look at them whatsoever. And after about 20 minutes he 
got up and left. But before he left he said, "I want to see you and 
your wife very soon. You have dinner with me somewhere." He 
said, "When is it good for you to go ?" 

I said, "Oh, a week end is all right, Friday night or Saturday 
night." 

He said, "I call you. We will make a date." 

I said, "Fine." 

And then immediately the next morning I contacted my security 
officer, who is Captain Grodnick of the Armed Forces Institute of 
Pathology. 

Mr. Arens. Would you pause a minute, please? Are you now 
arriving at the point where you have concluded what you want to tell 
us about that first conversation ? 

Mr. Davts. Yes, unless you want more specific details as to exactly 
what we talked about, 

Mr. Arens. I would like a few specifics, if you have concluded what 
you wanted to say about that conversation. 

Mr. Davis. Fine. 

Mr. Arens. First of all, did you, prior to the time that Mr. Mik- 
heev arrived at your home on January 16, 1956, have a conversation 
with the security officer ? 

Mr. Davis. I had not had any conversation whatsoever. 

Mr. Arens. There was no prearrangement on your part as of Jan- 
uary 16, 1956, as to what you would say or how you would try to 
elicit information from him, is that correct? 

Mr, Davis. Except in my own head, the way I would handle this 
guy, 

Mr. Arens. Could you give us just a word about his physical ap- 
pearance in addition to your identification of this photograph? 

Mr. Davis. I would say he was a man of about 5 feet 7, he was 
rather stocky, probably was about 160. He Imd dark hair, rather 
sallow complexion, and he claims he is still in his twenties. I asked 
him did he serve in World War II and he said he was too young. 

Mr. Arens. Did he, in that conversation with you on January 16, 
1956, offer you any money ? 

Mr. Davis. He made me no offer of money at all. 

Mr. Arens. Did he make any reference to any reward or remunera- 
tion which you would receive for assisting him ? 

Mr. Davis. As I remember, he said that "You give me list of books 
and then I show you how grateful I am. I take you to dinner." 
But he did not mention any cash. 

Mr. Arens. Not at that conversation? 

Mr. Davis. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. How long was that conversation? It began appar- 
ently some time after dinner. 



SUBVERSION AND ESPIONAGE BY DIPLOMATIC PERSONNEL 5867 

Mr. Davis. Yes. It lasted about 20 minutes, because we ate din- 
ner late that night about 8. So we had just finished at 9 when he 
came in. 

Mr. Arens. Did you observe the mode of conveyance he used to 
come to your house? 

Mr. Davis. It was an apartment so I didn't get to know how he 
came. 

Mr. Arens. Wlien was the next time you had any contact what- 
soever with Mr. Mikheev ? 

Mr. Davis. The next time was on the night of Saturday, the 28th 
of January 1956. 

Mr, Arens. "Were there any telephone conversations intervening? 

Mr. Davis. There were. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us the first time you had any contact even by 
telephone with Mr. Mikheev after January 16. 

Mr. DA^^:s. The first time was in the middle of the next week, 
which was — which would be probably, let's see, the 16th — probably 
the week of the 23d of January. He called at the same time, 9 
o'clock. 

Mr. Arens. In the evening? 

Mr. Davis. Yes. 

He called and said, "Mr. Davis, will you and your wife come to 
eat dinner with me and my wife this weekend ?" 

I said, "As far as I know we haven't anything on, Mr. Mikheev." 

He said, "T^Hiat night?" _ 

I said, "Saturday is all right." 

He said, "That is good. Now I want you to tell me where maybe 
is a good place to eat." 

And I said, "Oh, any place is all right with us. You are the host. 
You have to choose it. We might go down to the wharves and have 
some seafood or eat in Georgetown. If you feel like splurging we will 
go down to O'Donnell's or the Occidental." 

Nothing registered. 

But he says, "There's a good place on Wisconsin Avenue." 

I think I have the address here. He says, "Have you been to Old 
Europe restaurant?" 

I said, "Yes, I have been there and they have pretty good food." 

He said, "I have been there, too. And how would you like to go to 
Old Europe restaurant?" 

I said, "That is fine. That is close to home." 

And the address of that is 2434 Wisconsin Avenue. 

So he said, "I come for vou at 7 o'clock. Is that all right?" 

I said, "That's fine." 

Saturday night, then, the 28th — we postponed it until a week from 
that Saturday. I think I had a previous engagement on the following. 

Mr. Arens. Just to clear this record, shortly after Mr. Mikheev 
left your house on January 16, you contacted the security officer of your 
agency ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Davis. The next morning. 

Mr. Arens. The next morning? 

Mr. Davis. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Then you apparently had with him a prearranged 
concept of what your strategy should be; is that correct? 

Mr. Davis. Yes. 



5868 SUBVERSION AND ESPIONAGE BY DIPLOMATIC PERSONNEL 

Mr. Aeens. Did you contact any other intelligence agency? 

Mr. Davis. He contacted the FBI. I didn't. 

Mr. Arens. Was all of your contact in the series of events you are 
going to continue to relate, pursuant to a concerted plan as far as you 
were concerned that was evolved by you and the security officer ? 

Mr. Davis. No. All the security officer said was naturally not to 
give him any information. And so I decided that I wouldn't give 
him any information but I would play along with him socially to try 
to find out just what method he was using, how he worked, for my own 
satisfaction. 

Mr. Arens. Now we move up to January 23 when you had the tele- 
phone conversation. 

Mr. Davis. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And the agreement that you had that you would have 
dinner on the following Saturday evening; is that correct? 

Mr. Davis. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. What was the date of the following Saturday evening? 

Mr. Davis. It was the week from the following Saturday. Let me 
see now — no, it would be that same week, 23d and 28th. That follow- 
ing Saturday. 

I don't keep a diary so this has to be kept in my memory. 

Mr. Arens. Please move into January 28 and tell us what transpired 
in the course of events. 

Mr. Davis. Promptly at 7 o'clock, Mikheev and his wife showed up. 

Three minutes before they knocked on the door, my wife received 
a long-distance phone call from her sister in Fort Pierce, Fla. The 
subject of the conversation was a very serious illness of my wife's 
father. He had just gone to the Naval Hospital in Philadelphia and 
wasn't expected to live much longer. So while she was having this 
conversation with her sister the Kussians knocked on the door and I 
asked them in and asked them if they wanted a martini before we went 
on up. He said he would have one, the man who said he didn't drink 
previously, said he would have one. His wife said "No," she didn't 
drink. 

So my wife's sister had a rather extended conversation. In fact 
my wife was still on the phone 5 minutes after these people arrived. 
And I noticed that Mikheev was getting very impatient, kept looking 
at his watch. Apparently he was on a strict timetable. He had to 
be at Old Europe at a certain time or else. 

My wife finished her conversation and then we went out immedi- 
ately. And his car was parked almost in front of the apartment 
building where we live. 

Mr. Arens. May I interpose a few minutes ? You have concluded 
the incidents within the apartment on January 28 ? 

Mr. Davis. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Could you give us just a brief description of the woman 
who accompanied Mr. Mikheev and whom he introduced to you as his 
wife? 

Mr. Davis. She is a woman, I would say, probably still in her twen- 
ties — but late twenties. I wouldn't consider her at all an attractive 
woman. She was very plainly dressed. But she did have on a rather 
expensive looking fur coat — I don't know what kind it was — and a 
shawl around her head. 



SUBVERSION AjS^D ESPIONAGE BY DIPLOMATIC PERSONTSTEL 5869 

Mr. Arexs. "VVliat complexion ? 

Mr. Davis. Sallow like his. 

Mr. Arexs. Washerliair dark or light? 

Mr. Davis. Her hair was sort of — shall we call it, mousey brown? 

Mr. Arexs. Did she speak with an accent ? 

Mr. Davis. She did. She doesn't speak English as well as he does. 

Mr. Arexs. He spoke with an accent ? 

Mr. Davis. Definitely. 

Mr. Arexs. But he speaks fluently ? 

Mr. Davis. That is right. And she speaks with an accent and non- 
fluentlj'. 

Mr. Arexs. You left the apartment about what time ? 

Mr. Davis. We left there, it was no later than 7:15. 

Mr. Arexs. Could you tell us what type of car he was driving ? 

Mr. Davis. According to my wife, who knows more about automo- 
biles than I do, it was a Wil]ys,"l946. 

Mr. Arexs. Did it have a diplomatic license ? 

Mr. Davis. No, it didn't. V^e noticed that particularly. A D. C. 
license. 

Mr. xVrexs. Was there any identification on it that would connect 
it with the Kussian Embassy ? 

Mr. Davis. Notliing whatsoever. 

Mr. Arexs. I take it you and your wife and he and his wife got into 
the car and went to the restaurant ? 

Mr. Davis. That is right. 

Mr. Arexs. Did anything of significance at all transpire en route ? 

Mr. Davis. Xo ; just general coiiA^ersation about how we would get 
there. He had a general idea where it was, and I guided him to the 
exact street to go up. 

There is a parking lot near the restaurant. He parked his car there, 
and he claimed he had a table reserved. That is why he was in such a 
huri\y to get there. But when we entered the restaurant every table in 
the place was taken. So he went up to the headwaiter. And I did not 
get the conversation he had with the headwaiter. But it seems to me 
he gave another name than Mikheev that the table was presumably 
reserved for. 

And some people got up shortly after we arrived, and w^e got that 
table. 

Mr. Arexs. Was that table in a secluded spot in the restaurant ? 

Mr. Davis. No. Eight in the center of the room ; right by the piano. 
It was noisy. 

Mr. Arexs. Name the establishment again ? 

Mr. Davis. The Old Europe Restaurant. 

Mr. Arexs. E-u-r-o-p-e? 

Mr. Davis. That is right; yes, sir. They specialize in German-type 
food. They do a very good trade. 

Then he suggested we have vodka martinis. And his wife didn't 
have any. She did not drink. 

So we had a round of vodka martinis. Then he suggested we order 
dinner. He also suggested let's have another round. He began to feel 
very good. 

We finally got around to ordering dinner. I had swordfish, and he 
had Koenigsberg meatballs. He got a big kick out of that, because 



5870 SUBVERSION AND ESPIONAGE BY DIPLOMATIC PERSONNEL 

Koenigsberg was formerly in East Prussia and now is part of East 
Poland or liussia, and so it has a new name. The name "Stalin" is in 
it. So he was gloating over that fact. 

I think he ordered a bottle of Rhine wine to eat with the meal. And 
at the conclusion of the dinner, as far as I remember, no one had des- 
sert. We had some coffee, and then he ordered some beer for every- 
body. His wife did, I think, finally take a glass of port wine, because 
she liked sweet drinks. 

He had the pianist play some old Eussian songs. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat about the conversation ? 

Mr. Davis. The conversation was entirely social. I mean, he did not 
ask me any questions about borrowing any books on American military 
history. 

And he talked about Russia ; how he and his wife met on a streetcar ; 
how they have one child who was born in this country. And he said, 
"You know, she's born in this country. She's American citizen." 

I said, "Well, that's interesting." 

Apparently they have another child back in Russia. 

Mr. Arens. I would have to interpose this comment as one who 
knows a little about the immigration laws. He is in error. 

Mr. Davis. That is what I thought. 

Mr. Arens. If he was in diplomatic status, his child is exempt from 
acquiring citizenship. 

Mr. Davis. May I interrupt slightly. Does that happen to our 
diplomats abroad? Do their children lose citizenship? Isn't there 
something if you are born abroad, you can't be President of the United 
States? 

Mr. Arens. The children born abroad of American parents in serv- 
ice of the Government are American citizens. 

Mr. Davis. He was bragging about Russian medicine, how superior 
it was to American medicine. He mentioned specifically the case of 
the Mexican painter, Diego Rivera, who had cancer and went to 
Russia recently. 

According to Mikheev, Russian doctors cured him of cancer, which 
American doctors couldn't do. A triumph of Russian medicine. 

He also said the Russians have invented a machine that will trans- 
late. You throw a book in this machine that is in Russian and it 
comes out and the book is in English. 

I said that must have been a remarkable machine. We don't have 
anything like that in this country. We may have someday. 

I tried to get him interested in Russian military history. He 
seemed to be — not have too much knowledge about it. I said, "What 
do you think of Napoleon? Napoleon captured Moscow and Hitler 
couldn't do it." 

He said, "Oh, Napoleon no good." 

And I said, "Do you think Stalin is a great military genius?" 

This was shortly before Stalin got taken down. So whether this 
guy had had previous instructions or not to praise Stalin or to curse 
him, he just changed the subject. He didn't want to talk about 
Stalin at all. So I guess he was playing cozy. 

And I asked him, "Well, from what I know, Mr. Mikheev, the 
Russian Army is getting now to be just like the old Czarist army, very 
class conscious. The officers wear fancy uniforms and there is a lot 
of saluting and heel clicking." 



SUBVERSION AND ESPIONAGE BY DIPLOMATIC PERSONNEL 5871 

I said, "That is not a very democratic army, is it?" 

He said, "Oh, it is democratic, as everybody is peasant in the army. 
Generals peasant, privates peasant, all workers." 

And I said, "Well, if you are — " I believe he told me he was 29 — 
"if you were 29 years old, you should have been old enough to have 
fought in World War II." 

He said, "No, I still in school. Still in school. I did not fight." 

And his wife, I tried to talk to his wife. I more or less had to lead 
the conversation because he just sat there, not saying anything unless 
I suggested a topic, and then he would talk. He said he had to get 
a television set for his little girl. 

And I said, "Wliere do you live ?" 

He said, "Oh, I have a house on Adams Mill Road." 

I said, "Is that near where you work ? " 

He said, "No, no." 

I said, "Where do you work ? " 

He said, "I can't tell you the office but I work for the Embassy." 

And I said, "Well, what do you do '? Do you pack a lunch when you 
go to work or do you eat at some restaurant near your office ?" 

He said, "No, I go home for lunch. I go home about 12 o'clock 
and stay home a couple of hours and come back to work in the office 
until late at night. But I have to rest in the middle of the day." 

(Representative Francis E. Walter left the hearing room at this 
point.) 

Mr. Davis. Then he finally called for the check. And he had a nice 
crisp brandnew $20 bill. I got just a slight look at the tab. I think 
it was in the vicinity of $16. So the change came back, and believe it 
or not, he left a 10-cent tip for the waitress. 

I excused myself and said I was going back to the men's room. I 
contacted the waitress and said I wanted to apologize for my friend. 
He wasn't familiar with the American standards of tipping. He was a 
foreigner. And I gave her a dollar. 

Then we went back to the apartment. This was probably after 
10 o'clock by that time. We asked him to come up. He didn't. 

"No, it is getting late. I must get home to the little girl. We have 
a babysitter." 

So that was it for that night. 

Mr. Arens. In the course of that conversation which you have been 
recounting that took place in the restaurant, was the subject broached 
about you performing any services for him ? 

Mr. Davis. No. I kept that clear and he didn't bring it up. 

Mr. Arens. It was entirely a series of pleasantries ? 

Mr. Davis. It was. 

Mr. Arens. Social conversation? 

Mr. Davis. A very boring evening for us. 

One thing I did forget. That night I was saying, "Well, you know, 
it will soon be Valentine's Day. Do Russians celebrate Valentine's 
Day?" 

"No, no. Wliatisthat?" 

I said, "Oh, that is when everybody sends someone a card with a 
heart on it." 

"Oh, yes, yes, yes. Ha, ha, ha." 



5872 SUBVERSION AND ESPIONAGE BY DIPLOMATIC PERSONNEL 

And then he said, "You kno\Y, Mr. Davis, you, me, Valentine's Day, 
we come here to Old Europe. We leave wives at home. We come 
here and have a good time." 

I said, "Fine. Let's do it." 

And I think, apparently, from what happened later on, he thought 
I was really going to take him up on it. 

Mr. Arens. The Old Europe Restaurant? 

Mr. Davis. Yes ; Old Europe. Just have a boys' night out. That 
is what he wanted. Apparently he thought that would be the time, 
get me alone, get me in my cups, and then he ask the big question. I 
never saw him again, so he never got the opportunity. I saw him 
twice. I did talk to him over the phone 3 or 4 more times. 

Mr. Arens. Please recount those conversations, when they took 
place, and what transpired in the conversations. 

Mr. Davis. After this Old Europe episode that was on January 28, 
he called up the following Saturday night, which would be around the 
5th of February, I guess, and said, "Mr. Davis, we go out Valen- 
tine's Day?" 

Well, here's what happened. The following Saturday — no; he 
couldn't have called me the following Saturday, because I wasn't here. 
It was 2 weeks from then. On the following Saturday morning, which 
was the morning of February 4, my wife and I went up to Philadelphia. 
My father-in-law died that afternoon, and we did not get back from 
Philadelphia until the following Thursday. 

So when he called up the following Saturday, suggesting this date, 
in all seriousness I said, "Due to the death of my father-in-law, Ameri- 
can social custom is to have at least a month of mourning and not 
have any social events whatsoever. You don't entertain and you are 
not entertained for a period of a month's mourning in respect for the 
dead. So I cannot see you, Mr. Mikheev, as planned on Valentine's 
Day evening. I regret this very much, but you will have to give me 
a raincheck." He didn't know what a raincheck was. 

He said, "Oh, I call you again sometime. Goodby." 

Let's see. In fact, we had another thing that transpired at the 
restaurant. We had promised to reciprocate and have them to our 
place for dinner. And they said, "Well, if we come for dinner, can 
we bring our little girl ? We can't always get a babysitter." 

"Oh, yes ; bring her along," We had visions of her running all over 
the place and the parents running after, taking a good quick look 
around, using her as an excuse. 

Then, let's see. He called me about 2 weeks after that, which was — 
well, it was almost the beginning of Lent he called me. And he said 
he wanted to take us to dinner again. 

I said, "Mr. Mikheev, because this is Lent we never have any social 
activities during Lent whatsoever. Lent won't be over until approxi- 
mately the 1st of April, which is Easter Sunday, and so that is 6 
weeks, really, of mourning. We can't drink, we can't eat, can't smoke, 
can't do anything. 

"You see, this is a Christian country, Mr. Mikheev, and we have 
these Christian customs which you don't have over there. I just want 
you to understand what we do that is different from what you do." 

"Yes, yes, I know. It is very different." 

And so he called up just about Easter Monday, April 2. In the 
meanwhile, we had negotiated — since we were in a cooperative apart- 



SUBVERSION AND ESPIONAGE BY DIPLOMATIC PERSONNEL 5873 

ment and the co-op, unfortunately, went bankrupt, we had to look 
for another place to live. And we put a downpayment on a house in 
Alexandria. And we told him we were g^oing to move as soon as the 
GI loan went throuo;h. 

I c^ave him the address of that house in Alexandria, which was 614 
South Payne Street. I said, "We can't see you until after we have 
moved because everything is torn up. Everything is in a turmoil. 
After we move, then come over and see us in our new house." 

He said, "Mr. Davis, don't you want to see me ?" 

He was beginning, I guess, to get discouraged. Each time I had 
some excuse, which was all legitimate. I said, "Of course I want to 
see you. But the combination of circumstances has prevented us 
from getting together. Just be patient. You will probably get tired 
of seeing me when all of this is over." 

He said, "All right." 

Then a week later he called and said, "Mr. Davis, one of our people is 
here. He is giving a concert tonight on Saturday night." 

I said "That is fine. "VVliere is he giving the concert?" 

"I don't know, but I jfind out." 

""VMiat kind of instrument does he play ?" 

"Oh, I don't know what you call it in English." He says, "A big 
thing that sits on the floor." 

I said, "Oh, it must be a bull fiddle." 

"Yes; a bull fiddle. That is it." 

And so we did have a previous social engagement that Saturday 
night and had to decline, I regret. I like to get free tickets to con- 
certs. A Russian cellist was playing in the auditorium that Saturday 
night. So he Avas absolutely correct. In fact, the previous Friday 
he had played at the Embassy in a full dress affair, apparently, for 
the diplomatic corps. 

Mr. Arexs, You knew about that from newspaper accounts, I 
take it? 

Mr. Da^ts. Yes, 

And then the final conversation — ^no, that was the final one. That 
was the final one. I never heard from him after that. That was about 
the middle of April, the last time I heard from him. 

And since then we decided not to take the house in Alexandria. It 
was too far out. And we are renting a house in Georgetown, which 
he never heard about that. He never got that address. Whether he 
ever went around to 614 South Payne Street, Alexandria, I don't 
know. 

Mr. Arexs. That was the last time you had any conversation with 
him at all ? 

Mr. Daats. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Is there any other item of information with respect to 
Mr. Mikheev that we may not have touched upon that you would like 
to call to our attention ? 

Mr. Davis. He had a very bland, kowtowing manner, except when 
somebody asked him a question he didn't like. Then he became very 
hard suddenly. His eyes were no longer smiling. He became a wild 
animal. Then he would snap out of it and say, "Gee, I can't look like a 
wild animal in front of these people," and then smile again. There 
would be a temporary slip, and he would change to a presumably pre- 



5874 SUBVERSION AND ESPIONAGE BY DIPLOMATIC PERSONNEL 

sentable human being as much as he could, and then back to a wild 
beast. 

Mr, Arens. Did his conversation give you any indication of the 
internal operations of his office in the Russian Embassy? 

Mr. Davis. No. He told me that he was just a clerk there. And 
I said, "Wliat do you do ?" 

He said, "Oh, I keep records. I run errands." He said, "I am just 
a little man. I am not important." 

He wanted to emphasize the fact that "You can tell me all right. I 
am small fry. There is no danger." 

Mr. Arens. Did he tell you who was his boss ? 

Mr. Daves. He did not. He admitted he was in the Soviet military 
mission. He did admit that. He was just a clerk. He didn't actually 
say he was a translator, as I read in the papers, but he said he was very 
fluent in languages. He could read or write 4 or 5 different languages. 

Mr. Arens. Did he tell you about his background or training ? 

Mr. Davis. He said he had gone to the university in Moscow, what- 
ever the name of that is. He had gone to the university and he had 
been trained for the diplomatic service. 

Mr. Arens. Did he give you any indication of any other posts he 
may have occupied ? 

Mr. Daves. I asked him specifically, "Have you been all over the 
world?" 

He said, "No, this is the first one." He said, "I don't like it here in 
Washington. No ; I want to go back." 

Well, he will get his wish, I hope. 

But he said the place he really wanted to go was Paris. He said, 
"Ah, I am trying to get that for my next assignment." 

Mr. Arens. Is there any other item of information you can recall 
that you think would be of interest to us ? 

Mr. Daves. I did question him. The only conversation we had that 
was of a business nature was that first visit. And I repeat, what he 
wantc'd to do was for me to draw up a bibliography of writings on 
American military history and then, any of those books that were 
available, he would like to borrow them from me. We never got to that 
stage. There was no bibliography written and no books borrowed. 

Mr. Arens. We want the record to reflect clearly that the fact that 
you are before the committee does not by the greatest stretch of the 
imagination impugn your integrity or patriotism. 

Mr. Davis. That is fine. If I ever go for another job, I would want 
that. 

Mr. Arens. Or your loyalty. We appreciate very much your coop- 
eration with the committee, and we hope we have not inconvenienced 
you too greatly in requesting you to come here. 

Mr. Daves. Oh, no. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing here today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you ; are you not ? 

Mr. Davis. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. May I say the reason for that is to protect you as a 
witness. 

Is there any other item you would like to recount ? 

Mr. Daves. No. I just wish you would ask me some questions 
because I probably have forgotten a lot of details. 



SUBVERSION AND ESPIONAGE BY DIPLOMATIC PERSONNEL 5875 

Mr. Arens. Let's go off the record. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. Arens. We thank you very much, Mr. Davis, for your coop- 
eration with the staff of the committee. 

Mr. Davis. All right. 

If I can give you any more information, please call on me. 

Mr. Arens. Thank you. You will be excused from your subpena. 

(Whereupon, at 10 : 45 a. m., Friday, May 11, 1956, the subcommittee 
was recessed, subject to the call of the Chair.) 



INDEX 



iNDIVIDt^ALS 

Page 

Bernstein, Alfred 5826, 5836-5838 

Bloomquist, Mrs 5823 

Cutter, Richard S 5852-5862 (testimony) ; 5865 

Davis, Robert W 5857-5860, 5863-5875 (testimony) 

Flaxer, Abram 5830 

Freehill, Joseph G 5817, 5827, 5844, 5847. 5848 

Grodniclf, Captain 5866 

Hatkin, Sidney 5817-5842 (testimony), 5843-5852 (testimony) 

Lutz, Kay 5830 

Mikheev, Vladimir P 5839, 5842, 5844, 

5845, 5849, 5851, 5854, 5855, 5859, 5860, 5864-5868, 5870, 5872, 5873 

Nelson, Eleanor 5S32 

Owens, Courtney E 5842-5843 (testimony) 

Rhine, Henrv 5832 

Sherman, Robert 5832, 5839 

Stein, Arthur 5832 

Whaley, Major ^ 5823 

Organizations 

American Labor Party 5826, 5835 

Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. (See U. S. Government, Defense, 

Department of, Armed Forces Medical Museum.) 
Army Medical Library. (See U. S. Government, Defense, Department of.) 

Federal Workers of America, United 5S26, 5829 

Medical Museum of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. (Sec U. S. 
Government, Defense, Department of. Armed Forces Medical Museum.) 

National Committee to Win the Peace 5832, 5838 

Win the Peace Conference 5838 

Public W^orkers of America, United 5826, 5829-5831, 5837-5839 

United States Government : 

Agriculture, Department of 5819 

Air Force, Department of the 5822-5824, 5827, 5828 

Commerce, Department of — 

Bureau of the Census 5818, 5820-5822 

National Production Authority 5820, 5821 

Defense, Department of — 

Armed Forces Medical Museum 5857, 5863 

Army Medical Library 5854 

Federal Public Housing Authority 5820 

Government Printing Office 5818 

Wage Stabilization Board, National 5820 

War Labor Board, National 5820 

Washington Bookshop Association 5826. 5835, 5836 

Win the Peace Conference. (See National Committee To Win the Peace.) 

i 

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