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Full text of "Hearings on H.R. 12047, H.R. 14925, H.R. 16175, H.R. 17140, and H.R. 17194, bills to make punishable assistance to enemies of U.S. in time of undeclared war. Investigative [and legislative] hearings, Eighty-ninth Congress, second session"

HEARINGS ON H.R. 12047, H.R. 14925, H.R. 16175, 
H.R. 17140, AND H.R. 17194— BILLS TO MAKE 
PUNISHABLE ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. 
IN TIME OF UNDECLARED WAR 

Part 1 



INVESTIGATIVE HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

COMMITTEE^ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

EIGHTY-NINTH CONGEESS 

SECOND SESSION 



AUGUST 16-19, 1966 
(INCLUDING INDEX) 



Printed for the use of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities 

HARVArtD colLcG: I'.z?.^::: 

DEPOSITED BY THE 
UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT 

OCT 18 1966 




U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
WASHINGTON : 1966 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office 
Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price $1.00 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

United States House of Representatives 
(EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana, Chairman 

WILLIAM M. TUCK, Virginia JOHN M. ASHBROOK, Ohio 

JOB R. POOL, Texas DEL CLAWSON, California 

RICHARD H. ICHORD, Missouri JOHN H. BUCHANAN, Jr., Alabama 

GEORGE F. SENNER, JR., Arizona 
CHARLES L. WELTNER, Georgia 

jFRANCis J. McNamara. Director 

William Hitz, General Counsel 

Alfred M. Nittle, Counsel 



W.viW 



CONTENTS 



August 16, 1966: Testimony of — Pagf 

Phillip Abbott Luce 926 

Afternoon session: 

Phillip Abbott Luce (resumed) 948 

Jeffrey Gordon 965 

August 17, 1966: Testimony of — 

Richard Mark Rhoads 1018 

Philip Algie McCombs 1025 

Afternoon session: 

Philip Algie McCombs (resumed) 1043 

Edwin Meese III 1074 

August 18, 1966: Testimony of — 

Edwin Meese III (resumed) 1088 

Afternoon session: 

Stanley Nadel (statement) 1160 

Anatole Ben Anton (statement) 1163 

Stuart A. McRae 1164 

August 19, 1966: Testimony of— 

Steven Charles Hamilton 1178 

George Hamilton Ewart, Jr 1193 

Steven Cherkoss 1202 

Index i 

lit 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

Tlie legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946] ; 60 Stat. 
812, which provides: 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

RlTLB XI 
POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 

(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) The Gommittee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcom- 
mittee, is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion witliin the United States of subversive and iin- American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and at- 
tacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, 
and (iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any 
necessary remedial legislatiom 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House ( or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such 
investigation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any saich investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 



RlTLE XII 

LEGISLATIVE OVEB8IGHT BY STANDING COMMITTEES 

Sec. 136. To assist the Congress in appraising the administration of the laws 
and in developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem neces- 
sary, each standing committee of the Senate and the House of Representatives 
shall exercise continuous watchfulness of the execution by the administrative 
agencies concerned of any laws, the subject matter of which is within the juris- 
diction of such committee ; and, for that purpose, shall study all pertinent reports 
and data i*ubmitted to the Congress by the agencies in the executive branch of 
the Government. 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 89TH CONGRESS 

House Resolution 8, January 4, 1965 

******* 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Congress, 
******* 

(r) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 
******* 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 



18. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House ( or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 



27. To assist the House in appraising the administration of the laws and in 
developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem necessary, 
each standing committee of the House shall exercise continuous watchfulness 
of the execution by the administrative agencies concerned of any laws, the subject 
matter of which is within the jurisdiction of such committee ; and, for that 
purpose, shall study all pertinent reports and data submitted to the House by 
the agencies in the executive branch of the Government. 

VI 



HEARINGS ON H.R. 12047, H.R. 14925, H.R. 16175, H.R. 
17140, AND H.R. 17194— BILLS TO MAKE PUNISHABLE 

ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN TIME OF UNDE- 
CLARED WAR 

Part 1 



TUESDAY, AUGUST 16, 1968 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington^ B.C. 

PUBLIC HEARINGS 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to call, at 10 :15 a.m., in the Caucus Room, Cannon House 
Office Building, Washington, D.C., Hon. Joe R. Pool (chairman of 
the subcommittee) presiding. 

(Subcommittee members: Representatives Joe R. Pool, of Texas, 
chairman; Richard H. Ichord, of Missouri; George F. Senner, Jr., 
of Arizona; John M. Ashbrook, of Ohio; and John H. Buchanan, Jr., 
of Alabama. Alternate member: Representative Del Clawson, of 
California). 

Subcommittee members present: Representatives Pool, Ichord, 
Ashbrook, and Buchanan, and also Representative Clawson, alternate 
member. 

House members also present : Representatives James G. Fulton, of 
Pennsylvania; Albert W. Watson, of South Carolina; Willard S. 
Curtin, of Pennsylvania ; Chester L. Mize, of Kansas ; James R. Gro- 
ver, Jr., of New York ; Earle Cabell, of Texas ; William L. Hungate, 
of Missouri ; and Elf ord A. Cederberg, of Michigan. 

Staff members present: Francis J. McNamara, director; William 
Hitz, general counsel; Alfred M. Nittle, counsel; Donald T. Appell, 
chief investigator ; and Ray McComion, Jr., Herbert Romerstein, and 
Philip R. Manuel, investigators. 

Mr. Pool. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Some subpenaecl witnesses have received copies of the opening state- 
ment; others have not. Will counsel call the names of those sub- 
penaed witnesses who have not, and ask that they come forward and 
receive copies, so that they will be able to follow it, as it is read, and 
will be fully informed as to the nature and scope of the hearings. 

Just do it in order here. He will call your name out, and you come 
forward and you get copies of the opening statement. 

911 



912 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would Ricliard Mark Rhoads please come forward ? 

Mr. Pool. Repeat his name. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Richard Mark Rhoads. 

Mr. Pool. Let the record show that he didn't respond to the call. 

Mr. NiTTLE. May I call him a third time, Mr. Chaimian? 

Mr. Pool. Call him a third time. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will Richard Mark Rhoads please come forward? 
Would Jeffrey Gordon come forward, please? 

Mr. Pool. Speak a little louder, please. 

Mr. NiTTLE, Would Jeffrey Gordon come forward, please ? Would 
Jeffrey Gordon come forward, please ? 

Would Allen Krebs come forward ? 

Mr. Pool. This is for the purpose of receiving copies of the open- 
ing statement so that you can follow the statement as it is read to 
you. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would Allen Krebs come forward, please ? 

Mr. IvKEBS. Allen Krebs is here. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you Allen Krebs ? 

Mr. Krebs. I am. 

Mr. Pool. Present him with the opening statement there and mark 
the record there, showing that he receiA^ed the opening statement. 

(Document handed to Mr. Krebs.) 

Mr. Pool. Call the next one. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Walter Dorwin Teague III. 

Counsel. He is here. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Walter Dorwin Teague III. 

Mr. Teague. Right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you Walter Dorwin Teague ? 

Mr. Teague. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Let the record show that the witness has received a 
copy of the opening statement. 

(Document handed to Mr. Teague.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would Stanley Nadel come forward, please ? 

Counsel. This is Mr. Nadel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You are Stanley Nadel ? 

Mr. Nadel. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Let the record show that the witness has been handed 
a copy of the chairman's opening statement. 

(Document handed to Mr. Nadel.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Anatole Ben Anton ? 

Mr. DoNNER. He is on his way here. He is trying to park his car. 
I will take the statement for him. I am his counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is your name, sir ? 

Mr. DoNNER. My name is Frank J. Donner. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Make a notation that his counsel received the opening 
statement for the witness. 

(Document handed to counsel.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would Stuart McRae come forward please? 

Mr. DoNNER. He is also on his way, and I am his counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you receive a copy of the opening statment on his 
behalf? 

Mr. DoNNER. Yes, I will 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 913 

(Document handed to counsel.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would Steven C. Hamilton come forward, please ? 

Would Steven C. Hamilton come forward, please? 

Would Steven C. Hamilton come forward, please? 

There is no answer, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Pool. Let the record show there is no answer. Go ahead. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would George Ewart, Jr., come forward, please? 

Would George Ewart, Jr., come forward, please ? 

Mr, Pool. Let the record show no response. 

Mr. KuNSTi>ER. With reference to the last two witnesses, we know 
their counsel is in town and that they are on their way over here. I 
think that because of the court situation, we have had some problems. 

Mr. Pool. All right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state your name for the record, please? 

Mr. KuxsTLER. William M. Kunstler. I am not counsel for them, 
but their counsel is Ira Gollobin, who is on his way over. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you have any knowledge of the whereabouts of, 
expected attendance of Richard Mark Ehoads and Jeffrey Gordon? 

Mr. Kunstler. I think they are in the same group. There should 
be four of them. They were all at the courthouse this morning. 

Mr. Pool. Did we call Windrim Smith a while ago? 

Mr. NiTTLE. No, sir. 

Would Steven Cherkoss come forward, please? 

Mr. Kunstler. Same category, Mr. Chairman, as the other four 
that were not present. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And that is a statement by Mr. Kunstler, for the 
record ? 

Mr. Kunstler. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would John Windrim Smith, Jr., come forward, 
please ? 

Mr. FoRER. He is here, Mr. Nittle. Mr. Smith? He is here. 
I represent him. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you state your name for the record, please? 

Mr. FoRER. Joseph Forer, 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Forer, you are present with your client, John Win- 
drim Smith, Jr. ? 

Mr. Forer. Yes. 

Mr. Nittle. And you have received a copy of the opening statement? 

Mr. Forer. Just received it. 

(Document handed to counsel.) 

Mr. Nittle. Would Jerry Clyde Rubin come forward, please? 

Mrs. AxELROD. I am counsel for Mr. Rubin. I will accept the state- 
ment. 

(Document handed to counsel.) 

Mr. Nittle. Would you state your name for the record, please? 

Mrs. Axelrod. Beverly Axelrod. 

Mr. Nittle. And youhave just received a copy of the statement on 
behalf of your client ? 

Mrs. Axelrod. I have. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Chairman, that concludes the calling of the names 
of witnesses for the purposes of receiving a copy of the opening 
statement. 



914 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Mr. Pool, Call the four witnesses. I believe you have four there 
that didn't receive it. Call their names one more time. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would Richard Mark Rhoads come forward, please? 

Would Jeffrey Gordon come forward, please? 

Would Steven C. Hamilton come forward, please? 

Would George Ewart, Jr., come forward, please? 

Mr. KuNSTLER. Mr. Pool, for the record, again, just to protect those 
witnesses, I am not their counsel, but their counsel is in town and has 
left for this room from the courthouse, and I would respectfully request 
that another call be made as soon as their counsel gets here. 

Mr. Pool. All right, if you see them come into the room, I would 
appreciate your informing the committee. 

Mr. KuNSTLER. I will, Mr. Chairman, 

Mr. NiTTLE. And does that apply as well to Steven Cherkoss ? 

Mr. KuNSTLER. That is all. I think there are five, are there not? 

Mr. NiTTLE. That is right. 

Mr. Pool. Witnesses and attorneys will take their places. Do you 
have a place to sit down ? Counsel ? 

From the Floor: Mr. Chairman, there are no seats provided for 
counsel or witnesses. 

Mr. Pool. All right, I instruct the staff to see that the witnesses 
and counsel have chairs, if you have to go get some. 

[Disturbance and demonstration.] 

Mr. GuTMAN. Mr. Chairman, Mr. Rubin is not being allowed into 
the room for some reason. I hear his counsel calling in protest. 

Mrs. AxELROD. If the committee please, I am counsel for the witness 
and I am not being allowed in. 

Mr. Pool. Will the officer over there at the door allow the witness 
to come into the room. 

[Applause and disturbance.] 

;^Ir. GuTiviAN. Mr. Chairman, the uniformed officers are attempting 
to take out of the hands of counsel for Mr. Rubin certain documents 
which are in her possession as an attorney. 

Mr. Pool. Come up here. 

From the Floor : She is ready to address the committee. 

Mrs. AsELROD. ( Inaudible statement on the floor. ) 

Mr. Pool. The orders of this committee are that no packages will bo 
allowed in here. Now I don't know what you are discussing there. 
If the officer will come forward here with the witness, or the attorney, 
I will talk to them up here at the desk. 

Does that have to do with your case ? 

Mrs. AxELROD. I am sorrj^, sir. I didn't hear you. 

Mr. Pool. What are the papers for ? 

Mrs. AxELROD. These are materials that may be needed in the 
course of my client's testimony, depending upon what the questions 
are. And I don't know whether or not I will need it, but I demand 
the right to keep it, in the event that it is needed. 

Mr. Pool. All right, you keep it. 

Mrs. AxELROD. Thank you, sir. 

Mr. Pool. Now, if the first row will give up their seats for these 
witnesses and the lawyers. The front row. 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 915 

The first row will give up their seats for the lawyers and the wit- 
nesses. And from now on, I want the officers in here to reserve that 
front row for witnesses and attorneys. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I have reason to believe that Richard 
Mark Rhoads, Jeffrey Gordon, Steven C. Hamilton, George Ewart, 
Jr., and Steven Cherkoss have arrived. 

Mr. Pool. All right. Counsel will call the names of those wit> 
nesses who have not received the opening statement. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would Richard Mark Rhoads come forward, please? 

You are Richard Mark Rhoads ? 

Mr. Rhoads. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. We hand you a copy of the chairman's opening 
statement. 

(Document handed to Mr. Rhoads.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would Jeffrey Gordon come forward, please? 

You are Jeffrey Gordon ? 

Mr. Gordon. I was blocked from entering this hearing by the 

Mr. Pool. Come here. 

Mr. Gordon. I was blocked from entering this hearing by a lieu- 
tenant and other officers, who refused to allow me to come into this 
hearing that I was subpenaed for. 

Mr. Pool, You are here now. 

Mr. Gordon. Well, I would like that to be known. Is this a hear- 
ing, you don't let people, witnesses 

Mr. Pool, You are in here now, so get your opening statement. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I hand you a copy of the chairman's opening 
statement. 

( Document handed to Mr. Gordon. ) 

Mr. Gordon. I was subpenaed last week. "\^'Tiy didn't I receive 
this then? 

Mr. AsHBROOK. It is an opening statement for now. 

Mr. Gordon. I am a witness. I would like to read the statement 
before 

Mr. Pool. Has he identified himself, Counsel ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, sir; and he has received a copy of the opening 
statement. 

Mr. Pool. All right, have a seat out there. You have a seat on 
the front row. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would Steven C. Hamilton come forward, please? 

You are Steven C. Hamilton ? 

Mr. Hamilton. That is right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I hand you a copy of the chairman's opening state- 
ment. 

(Document handed to Mr. Hamilton.) 

^Ir. Hamilton. Am I supposed to be familiar with this before t"he 
trial starts? 

Mr. Pool. I am going to read it, and you can follow me in the 
reading. That will make you familiar with it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would George Ewart, Jr., come forward, please? 

George Ewart, Jr., come forward, please? 

You are Georsfe Ewart, Jr. ? 

Mr. Ewart. That is rig-ht. 



916 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Mr. NiTTLE. I hand you a copy of the chairman's opening state- 
ment. 

(Document handed to Mr. Ewart.) 

Mr. Ewart. I Avould like it made clear, I would like to make it 
clear that this statement is supposed to be handed to me 

Mr. Pool, You are out of order. 

Mr. Ewart. — 48 hours before the hearing, that it should have 
been handed to me, it should have been noted on my subpena. 

[Applause and demonstration.] 

Mr. Ewart. I want it known. 

[Demonstration and boos.] 

Mr. Pool. Do you have further witnesses ? 

Mr. Nittle. Would Steven Cherkoss come forward, please ? 

Would Steven Cherkoss come forward, please ? 

Are you Steven Cherkoss ? 

Mr. Cherkoss. Yes, I am. 

Mr. Kittle. I hand you a copy of the chairman's opening state- 
ment. 

(Document handed to Mr. Cherkoss.) 

Mr. Cherkoss. We weren't even allowed to come in this place. The 
cops barred the doors. There is people outside. Let's adjourn this 
meeting to a bigger room. Let all the people in. 

Mr. Pool. Take a seat. 

[Applause and demonstration.] 

Mr. Pool. All right, let's have order. I want to make this state- 
ment, that the opening statement that we have presented these wit- 
nesses is not required under our rules. We are doing that as a 
courtesy to the witnesses. 

[Disturbance and shouts, "That's a lie."] 

Mr. Pool. All right. The meeting will proceed now. I want at 
this time to recognize the following Congressmen, who are in attend- 
ance here this morning, and welcome them to the House Committee 
on Un-American Activities hearing : Albert Watson, South Carolina ; 
James Fulton, of Pennsylvania; Chester Mize, of Kansas; James R. 
Grover, from New York. Bill Hungate, of Missouri; Earle Cabell, 
of Texas, Willard Curtin, of Pennsylvania. 

Glad to have you with us here today. 

At this time, also. Congressman Del Clawson, a member of the 
House Committee on Un-American Activities, is sitting with the 
subcommittee. 

This subcommittee of the House Committee on Un-American Ac- 
tivities is convened today to conduct hearings on the subjects of 
inquiry, and for the legislative purposes set forth in a resolution of 
the full committee adopted on July 14, 1966. That resolution reads 
as follows : 

BE IT RESOLVED, That hearings by the Committee on Un-American Ac- 
tivities, or a subcommittee thereof to be designated by the Chairman, be held 
in Washington, D.C., or at such other place or places and on such date or dates 
as the Chairman may determine, relating to (a) the extent, character, and 
objectives of organizations and groups within the United States which solicit 
money, supplies, and material assistance for delivery to, or in aid of. Communist 
powers or forces engaged in armed conflict with the United States; (b) the 
extent, character, and objectives of organizations and groups within the United 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 917 

States which advocate or employ force, physical impediments, or any unlawful 
means to obstruct the movement of personnel and supplies of the armed forces 
of the United States; (c) the extent, character, and objectives of organizations 
and groups within the United States which engage in activities 

Mr. IcHORD. Mr. Chairman, a point of order. Would the members 
of the press please refrain from getting in front of the chairman 
when he is reading the statement? Would the members please re- 
frain from taking i^ictures while the chairman is reading the state- 
ment ? 

Mr. Pool. All right, the point is well taken. [Continues reading :] 

designed to impair or interfere with the loyalty, morale, or discipline of the 
armed forces of the United States and the recruitment of personnel for such 
forces; (d) Communist propaganda activities in the United States conducted 
in support of the Communist regime in North Vietnam, or for the purpose of 
advancing the policies and objectives of the world Communist movement gen- 
erally; (e) the activities of United States citizens acting on behalf of, or in the 
interest of, foreign Communist principals, and foreign travel undertaken by 
United States citizens in connection with such activities; and (f) all other 
questions in relation thereto, for the following legislative purposes : 

(1) To provide factual information to aid the Congress in the disposition 
of presently x)ending legislation, including but not limited to H.R. 12047, H.R. 
14925, and H.R. 16175, bills to amend the Internal Security Act of 1950, which 
would make punishable the giving of certain assistance to foreign powers en- 
gaging in armed hostilities with the United States and the obstructing of the 
free movement of personnel and supplies of the armed forces of the United States. 
(2) Consideration of the advisability of amending the Internal Security Act of 
1950, with particular reference to section 6 of such Act to regulate travel abroad 
by citizens of the United States, the registration of Communist organizations, 
and making punishable the obtaining of money or property by fraud to benefit 
a foreign government or alien. 

(3) Consideration of the advisability of amending the Subversive Activities 
Control Act of 1950 so as to impose certain disabilities in the manner and form 
therein providetl upon those persons who are "affiliated with" Communist orga- 
nizations, as well as upon persons who are members thereof. 

(4) To provide factual information to aid the Congress in the proposal of any 
necessary remedial legislation in fulfillment of the authority and directions con- 
tained in the mandate to the committee by House Resolution 8 of January 4, 
1965, and Public Law 601 of the 79th Congress. 

A number of witnesses subpenaed to testify in these hearings re- 
quested last week that they be informed of the subject of the hearings 
and the "relevant legislation involved." 

In answer to that request they were sent a copy of the committee 
resolution of July 14, which I have just read, and a copy of one of the 
three identical bills mentioned in paragraph (1) of the resolution. 
It was not deemed necessary to send them copies of the statutes men- 
tioned in paragraphs (2), (3), and (4) of the resolution — the Internal 
Security Act of 1950, title I of which is cited as the Subversive Activi- 
ties Control Act of 1950 — because they are enacted law. The texts 
of House Resolution 8 of January 4, 1965, and Public Law 601 of the 
79th Congress are contained in the committee's Rules of Procedure. 

For the benefit of the witnesses who requested this information and 
all the witnesses subpenaed to testify in these hearings, I wish to make 
this statement : 

This is an investigative hearing. The subjects of this hearing are 
outlined in subsections (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), and (f) of the first 
(unnumbered) paragraph of the committee resolution of July 14. 
While the ultimate end of these hearings is legislative — to provide 
the Congress with information relevant to the bills and laws mentioned 



918 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

in paragraphs (1), (2), (3), and (4) of the resolution — this is not 
a legislative hearing; that is, it is not a hearing to receive views or 
opinions on the statutes within the committee's jurisdiction or the bills 
pending before it which are mentioned in the resolution. 

The Supreme Court lias held that, in the domain of national secu- 
rity, this connnittee has "pervasive authority" to investigate Commu- 
nist activities. When this country is engaged in open hostilities wath 
a foreign Communist power, the sending of aid or assistance to that 
power mvolves the national security; obstructing the movement of 
military personnel or supplies affects our national security; impair- 
ing or interfering with the loyalty, morale, discipline, and recruitment 
of military personnel affects our security, and so do Communist 
propaganda activities carried out in this country in behalf of the 
Commmiist power with which we are engaged in hostilities, and travel 
and any other activities undertaken in behalf of that power and the 
world Communist movement. 

Clearly, the committee has the authority to investigate the extent 
of subversive or Communist influence in such activities. 

The Congress cannot and does not legislate in a vacuum. If it is to 
enact sound laws it must have accurate and thorough knowdedge of the 
conditions pertinent to the legislation under consideration, so that it 
may determine whether particular legislation is desirable and neces- 
sary. The investigative process is one of the means by which it ac- 
quires such information. 

When it is dealing with subversive and conspiratorial activities it 
must rely principally on the investigative process to obtain the knowl- 
edge it needs because of the secrecy with which such activities are 
normally carried out. 

The committee is not sitting as a prosecutor or court. We are not 
here to convict anyone. We do have the duty, ho^vever, to develop 
information which will assist the Congress in performing its consti- 
tutional legislative function. Witnesses subpenaed to testify in these 
hearings have been summoned because committee investigation intli- 
cates they have knowledge of the subject under investigation. 

Communist publications and some of the witnesses subpenaed to 
testify have already claimed that this hearing is an attack on the lii'st 
amendment right of free speech and dissent, that it is an attempt to 
stifle dissent and brand it as treason. Before these hearings are over — 
and after they are — I am sure others will echo this refrain. 

Nothing could be further from the truth. 

This committee recognizes the right of every citizen to disagree wnth 
and criticize both the domestic and foreign policies of the United 
States Government. It does not believe, however, that the Constitu- 
tion gives any citizen, in a time of actual, though undeclared, war, 
the right to assist the enemies of this countr}^ — either by sending aid 
to them in any form or in any way sabotaging the movement or supply 
of its Aimed Forces. 

Aiding an enemy of your country in time of war has always been 
regarded as treason. 

In endeavoring to protect our security we must deal wdth realities. 
The Korean conflict was not a war in the legal or technical sense. It 
was an actual war, however, and was — and is — commonly referred 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 919 

to as "The Korean War," not only in everyday speech but in almanacs 
and other standard reference works. Over 54,000 Americans died in 
that war. Our casualties totaled over 157,000 men. 

Today, we are fighting a similar undeclared, but actual, war in 
Vietnam, Every branch of our Armed Forces is committed. Every 
one of our weapons — except nuclear weapons — ^^is being used. No one 
could convince any one of our 375,000 troops committed to the Vietnam 
conflict that they are not involved in a war. Over 5,600 Americans 
have died as a result of this war. Our overall casualties to date num- 
ber over 31,000. Last week, reports stated that by the end of this 
year, we may have as many men committed in South Vietnam as we 
had in Korea at the peak of that conflict. 

Thus, we are dealing with a war situation today, but under such 
conditions that our wartime treason and certain other statutes are not 
operable. Certain citizens and groups in this country have therefore 
been able to engage in activities and to make declarations and state- 
ments which, if there were a formal state of war, might subject them 
to prosecution. The fact that they cannot be prosecuted under the 
wartime statutes, however, does not mean that Congress cannot inquire 
into their activities or make punishable certain activities which en- 
danger the national security. 

Over and above the fact that we are engaged in a war today, de 
facto^ if not de jure, I would like to point out that the Constitution 
declares that treaties made under the authority of the United States 
"shall be the supreme law of the land." Citizens therefore have a 
duty to observe treaties and to refrain from any activity which would 
impede or obstruct the United States in the execution of its lawful 
treaty commitments. U.S. Forces are committed to Vietnam under 
a supreme law of this land, the Southeast Asia Collective Defense 
Treaty, signed by this country in accordance with constitutional 
process on September 8, 1954. 

Because allegations have been made that this hearing is an attem.pt 
to stifle dissent, I will make this further comment. 

These hearings are concerned largely with overt acts, not mere ex- 
pressions of opinion. Sending aid, or attempting to send aid, to an 
enemy of the United States is an overt act ; it is not mere dissent. Ob- 
structing the movement of Armed Forces personnel and supplies is 
an overt act ; it is by no stretch of the imagination mere dissent. Im- 
pairing the morale, discipline, and recruitment of military personnel 
is not mere dissent. Organized propagandizing for, and acting in 
behalf of, the Communist government of North Vietnam or the Viet 
Cong are not mere dissent. All are overt acts. 

The "dissent" charge is notliing but a "red herring" dragged into 
these proceedings in an attempt to cover the trail of persons and 
groups who have worked to aid forces with which the United States 
is now engaged in large-scale, open hostilities. 

Finally, I would emphasize this point. I and other members of the 
committee have our own views of U.S. foreign policy as it applies to 
Vietnam. This hearing, however, does not concern the foreign policy 
of the United States. This committee has no jurisdiction in that 
area. It is not the Foreign Affairs Committee. Debate or argu- 
mentation on U.S. foreign policy as it applies to Vietnam is not per- 
tinent to this hearing;. 



920 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

I now offer for inclusion in the record the July 28, 1966, order of 
appointment of the subcommittee to conduct these hearings. 

Addressed to Mr. Francis J. McNamara, director of Committee on 
Un-American Activities : 

Pursuant to the provisions of the law and the Rules of this Committee, I 
hereby appoint a subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities, 
consisting of Honorable Joe R. Pool, as Chairman, and Honorable Richard H. 
Ichord, Honorable George F. Senner, Jr., Honorable John M. Ashbrook and 
Honorable John H. Buchanan, Jr., as associate members, to conduct hearings in 
Washington, D.C., commencing on or about Tuesday, August 16, 1966, and/or at 
such other times thereafter and places as said subcommittee shall determine, as 
contemplated by the resolution adopted by the Committee on the 14th day of 
July, 1966, authorizing hearings relating to the extent, character, and objectives 
of organizations and groups within the United States which solicit money, 
supplies, and material assistance for delivery to, or in aid of. Communist powers 
or forces engaged in armed conflict with the United States, and other matters 
recited therein, and other matters under investigation by the Committee. 

I also hereby designate Honorable Del Clawson to serve on this subcommittee 
in place of any subcommittee member who may not be able to attend any hear- 
ing or meeting conducted by the subcommittee. 

Please make this action a matter of Committee record. 

If any member indicates his inability to serve, please notify me. 

Given under my hand this 28th day of July, 1966. 

Signed "Edwin E. Willis, Chairman, Committee on Un-American 
Activities." 

The Chair wishes to welcome to the committee Congressman Curtin 
of Pennsylvania, and Congressman Cederberg of Michigan. We are 
glad to have you with us today. 

Comisel will call the first witness. 

Mr, NiTTLE. Will Phillip Abbott Luce come forward, please? 
[Demonstration.] 

Mr. Pool. Officers, I want you to maintain order in this room. If 
anyone demonstrates any further, now, I want you to escort him 
out of the hearing room. 

Raise your right hand and be sworn. Do you solemnly swear that 
the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Luce. I do. 

Mr. Pemberton. Mr. Chairnifin, I request leave to make a motion. 

Mr. Pool. Come up here, if you are an attorney, and want to ask 
something. Come around here. You are not allowed to make a 
speech, but if you are an attorney, you can act as counsel, as that 
is all the rules provide for. 

Mr. Pemberton". Mr. Chairman, I appear as attorney for six of the 
witnesses subpenaed and I request leave to make a motion, if the com- 
mittee would entertain it at this point. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state your name for the record, please ? 

Mr. Pemberton. ISIy name, sir, is John Pemberton, Jr. 

Mr. Pool. Wliat is this ? 

Mr. Pemberton. My motion 

Mr. Pool. You are here to advise your witness, not make a statement 
or make speeches. 

Mr. Pemberton. I am merely requesting leave to make this motion, 
respectfully, JSIr. Chairman. 

Mr. Pool. It will be in the form of a request, and not a motion. 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 921 

Mr, Pemberton. The motion that I request leave to make is a motion 
that the committee stay its proceedings and adjourn these hearings 
while a case pending in the United States District Court for the Dis- 
trict of Columbia concerning these hearings is still at issue ; or in the 
alternative, while an application for an interlocutory injunction is 
pending. Thank you. 

Mr. Pool. Wliat is the will of the committee on the request ? 

Mr. Pemberton. Mr. Chairman, I would like to inform the com- 
mittee of the status of the proceedings. 

Mr. Pool. Just a minute. You have made your request. If you 
have a further one, state it. 

Mr. Pemberton. Mr. Chairman, this proceeding which is brought 
for a declaration of that portion of Kule XI which constitutes the 
mandate of this committee is unconstitutional, for a permanent injunc- 
tion against the conduct of the business of this committee under that 
mandate and against the enforcement of these subpenas and for an 
interlocutory injunction against the enforcement of these subpenas of 
the element of criminal sanctions against the subpenaed witnesses is 
presently under consideration by a tliree-judge United States District 
Court, convened by Chief Judge Bazelon this morning. 

And that court, I have just been informed, has agreed to meet at 
2:30 tomorrow afternoon, to hear applications for interlocutory re- 
lief on behalf of the subpenaed witnesses. 

My proposition is very simply that the action of the court has been 
premised on the court's finding that a substantial constitutional is- 
sue is raised by these pleadings and by this case, and th^at the orderly 
procedures of the law would best be served by allowing that court, 
with due deliberation, but without any undue delay, to proceed to 
hear the case before it. The case concerns the very proceedings that 
are here today. 

It is my motion, therefore, that the committee stay its proceedings, 
in the alternative, either for the duration of the proceedings before 
this three-judge-court or, at the very least, for the duration of the 
proceedings applying for an interlocutory injunction. 

Mr. Pool. Is that all you have to say ? 

Mr. Pemberton. That is it. 

Mr. Pool. That has covered everything you have to say. 

Mr. Pemberton. That covers 

Mr. Pool. I will poll the committee and see what they think. 

Mr. Pemberton. Thank you. 

Mr. Pool. What do you think ? 

(Discussion off the record. ) 

Mr. Pool. You are unanimously rejected, your request is unani- 
mously rejected. 

Mr. Pemberton. I thank you, sir, for hearing me. 

Mrs. Axelrod. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Pool. I have this further statement to make. Since this has 
been brought up, the Chair wishes to make this statement. I have 
this statement concerning the reasons why the committee is proceeding 
with hearings this morning. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities is an instrumentality of 
the House of Kepresentatives of the United States. In conformity 



67-582— 66— pt. 1- 



922 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

with the Constitution of the United States, it acts under the authority 
of the House of Representatives and no other authority. It is acting 
here today on the grounds of the Capitol of the United States in the 
very buildings provided for the Members and committees of the Con- 
gress who meet in the Capitol to carry out their constitutional duties. 

Because I and the committee believe in the Constitution as it w^as 
conceived by the Founding Fathers of this country and as it has been 
interpreted by the courts for close to 200 years, it is my position and 
the position of the committee that, while we respect the courts, recog- 
nize their constitutional function, and have no desire to be defiant 
of any court, we still cannot recognize the authority of any court to 
interfere with the operations of the House of Representatives or any 
one of its committees when they are carrying out their constitutional 
duties. 

If the House orders us to desist from performing the duties man- 
dated to us by the House, we shall, of course, do so. Otherwise, we 
conceive it our duty to proceed. 

The Constitution clearly provides for three coequal and independent 
branches of the Government. Our legislature is independent of the 
courts just as the courts are independent of the legislature, with the 
exception of such limitations as the Constitution provides. Neither I 
nor the com.mittee will be a party to the erosion by the judiciary of the 
constitutional powers delegated to the United States Congress by the 
Constitution of the United States, 

Mrs. AxELROD. Mr. Chairman. 

jNIr. Pool. It is my view that the United States Supreme Court is in 
agreement with the position that this committee is taking this morn- 
ing that the courts do not have the power to enjoin a legislative func- 
tion of a committee of the Congress. In the recent Yellin decision, in 
an entirely comparable situation, the Chief Justice stated : 

If the Committee ignores his request for an executive session, it is highly im- 
probable that petitioner could obtain an injunction against the Committee that 
would protect him from public exposure. * * * 

All right, Mr. Counsel, go ahead with the witnesses. 

Mrs. AxELROD. Mr. Chairman, I am Beverly Axelrod — — 

Mr. Pool. Come up here. 

Mrs. Axelrod. — representing Jerry Rubin, a witness subpenaed here 
today. On August 4 of this year, an article appeared in the San Fran- 
cisco Examiner with the byline of Ed Montgomery^, announcing that 
among others, Jerry Rubin, Steven Cherkoss, Stephen Smale, George 
Ewart, and Steve Hamilton had been subpenaed by this committee. 
Jerry Rubin and the other witnesses, some of the other witnesses also 
did not receive their subpenas until after this announcement was made 
to the press. 

Rule XVI of this committee's own rules provide that no statement 
shall be released as to the witnesses subpenaed. I request and move 
that this committee declare itself null and void on the basis that it has 
violated its own rules ; that immediate hearing be held about the release 
of this information; subpenas be issued to all members of the commit- 
tee and the staff to determine the matter of the release of this informa- 
tion to the press contraiy to the Rule XVI of the committee. 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 923 

Mr. Pool. All right, you are a lawyer. Where is your evidence that 
anybody on this committee or anybody on the staff revealed that 
information ? 

Mrs. AxELEOD. I ask for a hearing to determine that. Our informa- 
tion is that the committee and its staff released that information. It 
could have come from nowhere else. The witnesses did not even know 
about it at the time the matter was released to the press. 

Mr. Pool. Time after time, the witnesses themselves release this 
thing to the press, and that is where it gets out, and they blame the 
committee for letting it out. 

Mrs. AsELROD. The witnesses did not even know that they were 
going to be subpenaed until after it was in the press. 

Mr. Pool. Your request is denied. Proceed with the witness. 

Mr. DoNXER. I have a motion, Mr. Pool. 

Mr. Pool. If there are any other lawyers that have motions, they 
had better come up here right now, because we are going ahead. 

Mr. DoNXER. ;^Ir. Chairman, my name is Frank Donner, and I 
represent two of the witnesses subpenaed here today, and my motion 
IS directed to the fact that on August 4 the committee moved and sub- 
penaed the lists of six student organizations, the membership lists of 
six student organizations at the University of Michigan and Univer- 
sity of California. And the grounds of my motion is a Supreme Court 
case of NAACP against Button. 

This is an invasion of the right of association, and to me, Mr. Pool, 
it is a scandalous violation of academic freedom. These young people 
joined 

[Demonstration and applause.] 

Mr. Pool. I am instructing the police officers here to remove any 
demonstrator from now on that demonstrates or in any way disturbs 
this meeting. 

Mr. DoNNER. The American university campus is a place where 
relations of trust and confidence are supposed to repose. 

Mr. AsiiBROOK. This is not a speech, Mr. Chairman ? 

Mr. DoNNER. I am making my motion, Mr, Ashbrook. 

Mr. Ashbrook. You are making a speech, Mr. Donner. 

Mr. Pool. Just come up here to talk to us in a quiet manner. You 
don't have to be so loud. This committee gives you a right to come 
up here and make an objection. We don't give you a right to make 
a speech under the rules of this committee. 

Mr. DoxxER. I am not making a speech. 

Mr. Pool. Otherwise, I am going to sit you down and go ahead with 
the witness. 

Mr. DoxxER. I am talking. 

Mr. Pool. Talk like a lawyer should do. 

Mr. DoxxER. I am talking like a lawyer. 

Mr. Pool. Tell us what you want. 

Mr. DoxxER. I move to suppress all of the lists that your committee 
has subpenaed of young people who have joined these organizations 
on the ground that it is a violation of the first amendment, a violation 
of academic freedom, and unreasonable search and seizure. 

Mr. Pool. All right. 

Mr. IciiORD. Mr. Chairman, I believe these subpenas were discussed 
very thoroughly in the committee, not only by the members, but also 



924 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

by the legal advisers of the committee. There is no doubt in my mind 
that these subpenas are valid, that they are not an invasion of con- 
stitutional rights. 

Therefore, I would be constrained to deny the request of the at- 
torney. I vote no. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Ashbrook ? 

Mr. Ashbrook. Same thing. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Buchanan. 

Mr. Buchanan. Same. 

Mr. Pool. I vote no, also, and the request is denied. 

Mr. DoNNER. I except. 

Mr. Pool. Go ahead. Mr. Clawson. 

Mr. Clawson. No. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Clawson votes no also. Your request is denied. Go 
ahead with the witness. 

You want to make a request ? 

Counsel. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state your name for the record, please? 

Mr. GoLLOBiN. Ira Gollobin. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Whom do you represent on the record ? 

Mr. Gollobin. I represent George Ewart on the record. I request 
that the committee assure counsel that their conversations at this pro- 
ceeding will be private and that there are no devices that will in any 
way interfere with the privacy of conferral between counsel and client. 

Mr. IcHORD. Of course, Mr. Chairman, I don't quite understand 
the request that Mr. Gollobin — "Gollobin" — is that the correct pro- 
nounciation ? 

Mr. Gollobin. Yes. 

Mr. IcHORD. Of course, Mr. Gollobin has appeared before this 
committee many times, representing his clients. I think he is familiar 
with the rules of the committee, and that is that you are not sup- 
posed to put words in the mouth of the witness ; that the witness does 
have the right to ask you for any advice as to how he is to answer any 
quest] ons. Is that the context ? 

Mr. Gollobin. No; the context element is, Mr. Ichord, that in Buf- 
falo, and at other times, the issue was raised that privacy did not exist 
between the client and his counsel at these proceedings, that there had 
been listening devices. 

Mr. Ashbrook. Wait a second. Where has this been raised ? 

Mr. Ichord. Just a minute, Mr. Chairman; point of order. Was 
the attorney in Buffalo at that time ? Were you representing a client 
in Buffalo? 

Mr. Gollobin. I was. But there was — this was a news item in the 
press. 

Mr. Ashbrook. That is specious. 

Mr. Ichord. I think, ]\Ir. Chairman, that at one time that point was 
raised ; I happened to be presiding over the Buffalo hearings. And I 
will inform Mr. Gollobin that at no time have there been any listening 
devices, and I would be the first to severely reprimand any member 
of the staff or any member of this committee if any listening devices 
were installed to listen between attorney and his client. 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 925 

I think the gentleman's request — we have always abided in keeping 
confidential the communications between the attorney .and the client. 
I don't see the pertinence of your request, Mr. Gollobin. I think, as 
an individual, that I can assure you that I will do my best to watch 
to see that notliing goes on. And I can assure you that nothing 
will go on, sir. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. Mr. Chairman, I feel that while it is a request made 
on a specious statement or a specious allegation of something that is 
supposed to have happened, from a newspaper clipping, and so forth, 
and there is no basis in fact, that we certainly can, nevertheless, assure 
him of his motion and agree to it, because there is no intention at any 
time for listening devices and I think to base a request on an article 
that might have appeared in the paper is ,a rather questionable thing 
to do. 

Mr. IcHORD. I don't think the request calls for any rulmg. I don't 
think the request calls for any ruling by the Chair. The Chair can 
assure the lawyer that there will be confidence kept between the at- 
torney and the client. That has .always been the practice of this 
committee and that will continue to be the practice of this committee. 
The gentleman from — Mr. Buchanan ? 

Mr. Buchanan. Yes, I would certainly join in this assurance that 
this has been and shall be the case here, and I will join in a vigorous 
effort to do .anything necessary to make certain that is the case. 

May I inquire, was this press report in the Daily Worker, or else- 
where ? 

Mr. Gollobin. It was in the Buffalo press. 

Mr. Buchanan. I see. 

Mr. Gollobin. Buffalo, New York. 

Mr. IcHORD. The gentleman has his assurance, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. He has his assurance. 

Mr. Pool. All right, I want to make this statement. The TV and 
photographers will please desist from taking any further pictures 
during the hearing, and kind of spread out away from the front, here, 
if you can. 

Mr. GurMAN. Mr. Chairman, I have an additional request. My 
name is Jeremiah Gutman. I represent Mr. Nadel. I request the 
members of this committee to file with the records and minutes of 
this committee copies of transcripts of all statements and interviews 
which they have given to the press, .and articles which they have 
written on the subject and released in other forms, on the subject 
matter of the activities and related activities of the witnesses who 
have been subpenaed and the subject matter of this hearing, in order 
that there may be spread on the record, if there be any basis for it, 
substanti.ation, if there be any, for any bias which any one or more 
of you gentlemen may have towards any one of these people or the 
organizations with which they may be associated. 

Mr. Pool. You have got a copy of the opening statement. I think 
that is sufficient to take care of your needs. 

Mr. Gutman. If I may, I respectfully differ with you, Mr. Chair- 
man. I have asked that the statements which you gentlemen as in- 
dividuals, not in the name of the committee, which you have just read 



926 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

now, but during the course of inte^vie^ys which you may have granted 
to the various media, articles which you may have caused to be pub- 
lished in one publication or another, be spread upon and made part 
of this record, so that we may see what basis there is for allegations 
that there is prejudice among some or all of you with respect to the 
activities in each of the subject matters of the inquiries. 

Mr. Pool. Your request is insulting to the committee, and we don't 
appreciate it. It is denied. 

Mr. KuNSTLER. Mr. Chairman, I have one more motion. My name 
is William M. Kunstler. I am one of the attorneys for Dr. Allen 
Krebs and Mr. Walter Teague, and I move now for the disqualifica- 
tion of Mr. Buchanan from sitting on this committee, as being from an 
electorate found by this Congress to have systematically excluded Ne- 
groes from participation in the voting process. I ask this committee 
to disqualify him from sitting, based on your own finding under the 
Voting Rights Act of 1965. 

Mr. Pool. We have had this up before, and that is also insulting to 
the committee, and it is denied. 

Mr. Kunstler. My objection. 

Mr. Pool. All right, go ahead with the witness, now ; that is all the 
lawyers we have up here. 

TESTIMONY OF PHILLIP ABBOTT LUCE 

Mr. Nittle. Would you state your full name for the record, please ? 

Mr. Luce. My name is Phillip Abbott Luce. 

Mr. Nittle. You have been subpenaed to appear here to testify? 

]Mr. Luce. Yes, sir, I have been subpenaed to testify. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You are not appearing with counsel. 

Mr. Luce. No, sir, I am not. 

ISIr, NiTiTJE. Do you desire counsel ? 

Mr. Luce. No, sir. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Luce, would you please state the date and place 
of your birth? 

Mr. Luce. 10-18-36 in Lancaster, Ohio. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you relate the extent of your formal education ? 

Mr. Luce. I have a bachelor's degree from Mississippi State Uni- 
versity. I have a master's degree in political science from Ohio State 
University. I have done some Ph. D. work. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state the period during which you attended 
the various schools, and when you received your degrees? 

Mr. Luce. I graduated from IMississippi State in 1958; I received 
my master's degree in 1960 from Ohio State. 

Mr. Nittle. What is your present occupation ? 

Mr. Luce. I am presently a writer. 

Mr. Nittle. Have you been a member of the Progressive Labor 
Movement or Party ? 

Mr. Luce. Yes, sir, I was a member of the Progressive Labor jMove- 
ment. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you tell us, please, the period during which you 
maintained your membership ? 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 927 

Mr. Luce. It is somewhat difficult to state in specific terms, because 
I was a secret member for a period of time. However, it would bo 
from approximately July of 1964 until January of 1965. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell us, please, what is the Progressive Labor 
Movement ? 

Mr. Luce. The Progressive Labor Movement, now the Progressive 
Labor Party, according to its own definition, is a IMarxist-Leninist 
Communist organization. Progressive Labor was founded in 1961, 
following the expulsions of Mortimer Scheer and Milton Kosen from 
the Commimist Party of the United States for what was considered 
to be left deviationism. They were considered to be the Chinese fac- 
tion, the Albanian faction, of the Communist l*ar(y. They were ex- 
pelled. 

Following their expulsion, they set up another Commmiist party 
in the United States, which they named the Progressive Labor Move- 
ment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you briefly relate the circumstances under which 
you came to be associated with this C/Ommunist organization? 

Mr. Luce. I first became associated with it when I agreed to go on 
a trip to Cuba in the summer of 1963. And following that, my asso- 
ciations continued and increased until at a certain point, as I said be- 
fore, I decided to join Progressive Labor. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, you referred to a trip to Cuba in 1963. Was that 
trip organized by the Progressive Labor Movement ? 

Mr. Luce. Yes, sir, it was. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Could you relate in more detail the circumstances un- 
der which you came to associate with an organization of this type'^ 
What was the background which led you into this ? 

Mr. Luce. I suppose that in part it began while I was in college, 
when I decided to associate myself w^ith various leftwing causes and 
ideologies, to begin a somewhat systematic reading of the material 
available from the left. And at one point, I considered joining the 
Communist Party of the United States, but then decided, as have a 
number of younger people, that it was not, quote, "revolutionary," end 
quote, enough. And following the trips to Cuba and other activities, 
decided that the Progressive Labor Movement, wdiich espouses a line 
similar, at least, to the revolutionary line of the Chinese Communists, 
did have an ideology which I thought I could ascribe to. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Could you tell us the means by which you were brought 
in contact with the left, as you describe it, while at the university ? 

Mr. Luce. Not specifically. There were a number of instances and 
matters which came to my attention, and I became convinced at that 
point — at least, if not convinced, at least interested in discovering 
whether or not what I considered, at least, to be the social problems 
of the country could be solved through a democratic process. 

I decided that they could not. And that, instead, what was needed 
was a socialist revolution in the country. And as I say, through a 
period of reading and associating with people both in the Communist 
Party and in other leftwing organizations, I came to the decision 
that I should indeed align myself with these people and join a Com- 
munist organization. 



928 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you become associated with Communists at the 
university ? 

Mr. Luce. Yes ; some. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And what was the nature of the contacts with the Com- 
munist movement while at the university ? 

Mr. Luce. It was in discussions, in reading, in going to New York 
and talking with various leaders of the Communist Party of the 
United States. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was there any participation by the faculty or student 
groups at the colleges you attended by which you were brought in con- 
tact with the Communist movement ? 

Mr. Luce. Some ; but it was not excessive. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, you have described the Progressive Labor Move- 
ment as a Marxist-Leninist organization. Would you elaborate upon 
that point for the record ? 

Mr. Luce. Yes, sir; Progressive Labor is a Communist organiza- 
tion. It considers itself to be a Communist party. In many respects, 
it considers itself to be the only true Communist party in the United 
States. Its literature, its periodicals, its members admit to being 
Communists. They have published a number of statements calling 
for a revolution in the United States. They have called for a — or 
have stated publicly that we need a Marxist-Leninist form of govern- 
ment in this country. They have never denied the fact that they are 
Communists or that they do advocate a revolutionary situation in this 
country. 

As further proof, I would give to the committee a pamphlet pub- 
lished by the Progressive Labor Movement in November of 1964, called 
Road to Revolution, and within this publication, it gives a number 
of the programs and policies of the Progressive Labor Movement then, 
now Party, and as its title would indicate, calls for a road leading to 
a revolution in the United States in which Marxism-Leninism would 
be the objective. 

(Document marked "Luce Exhibit No. 1" and retained in committee 
files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. When you talk about revolution, do you mean a forc- 
ible overthrow of the Government of the United States ? 

Mr. Luce. I would be amiss if I would say that the Progressive 
Labor Part}^ intended or hoped to take power in this country through 
any other means except an overthrow of the Government. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now quite obviously, under existing circumstances at 
least, it doesn't appear as though any group of this sort could seize 
control by force of the United States Government. How do they 
expect to accomplish this revolution ? 

Mr. Luce. Well, to begin with, I would certainly agree that there is 
in the United States today none of these small ultraleft.wing organiza- 
tions that has the power or the membership to overthrow the Govern- 
ment in Washington, and certainly, at this point, it would be a kami- 
kaze attack. It would be suicidal for them to attempt anything such 
as that. 

Their program is of a more long-range nature, in which you would 
build a cadre of hard-core members, who would indeed intend in some 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNj:)ECLARED WAR 929 

cases to incite riots, to incite uprisings within various parts of the 
country, with the hope and in the hope that if enough anarchy was 
created within the United States, that then perhaps either with assist- 
ance from another foreign power or simply the total state of anarchy 
within this country would bring down the Government. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now you have told about their desire to create a state 
of anarchy, and to create a base for revolution, through that process. 
Could you tell us by what means they expect to instill or to accomplish 
the anarchy or the state of anarchy in this country ? 

Mr. Luce. Through a number of means. In part, through attempt- 
ing to spur and incite, and once they take place, to continue riots 
within various ghettos in the cities; through the formation of radical, 
so-called anti-imperialist student groups, which would attempt to get 
students involved in organizations and attempts to disrupt the local 
governments and to start this state of anarchy. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is the function of propaganda and agitation in 
the overall attempt to create a revolution in the United States ? 

Mr. Luce. The function of propaganda is certainly one of the high- 
est, throughout the history of communism. The Communists have 
always thought, and will continue to believe, which perhaps is correct, 
that while they do not have a majority of the people, that through the 
usage and promulgation of a tremendous amount of propaganda 
within a country, you can begin to sow or to begin the seeds of distrust 
and perhaps anarchy. 

Therefore, Progressive Labor and all Communist organizations op- 
erating within this country and abroad spend a tremendous amount of 
time and money on the creation of a wide variety of propaganda aimed 
at specific groups which they would like to incite. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did the Progressive Labor Party teach or advocate 
any particular action to be taken by the Communist cadre, which they 
were setting up, in the event of war between the United States and any 
Communist power or powers ? 

Mr. Luce. At one point, there was a plan within Progressive Labor 
that if the United States went into a full-scale war with China, that 
the members or various members of Progressive Labor would drop out 
of sight for all intents and purposes and attempt to organize within 
sections of the country an underground operation, which indeed would 
attempt to impede any war effort that we had with China. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Luce, you must have witnessed the demonstration 
in this hearing room at the commencement of this hearing. Would 
you comment upon the use of demonstrations as a technique of the 
Progressive Labor Party ? 

Mr. Luce. Well, it was an obvious technique which they would em- 
ploy here or at most other hearings in an attempt to not only disrupt 
the hearings, but to make speeches, to attempt to cast doubt and asper- 
sion upon the members of the committee. More important than that, 
of course, is, it holds a basic part of the ideologies of many of these 
young groups to simply involve people in action. And how marvelous 
it is if you can get up and scream a phrase, and it is not only good for 
your digestive tract, but it is also a revolutionary form — or forum, 
in this case — ^and so, as they sit there and, in many cases, shout, they 



930 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

do it for two reasons. One is to ti-y to disrupt everything that is 
going on and, secondly, of course, is simply to show that they are 
more revolutionary than thou, and it becomes — it is not only a propa- 
ganda trick, it is not only a tactic that the Communists use, but it is 
also a physchological game which all Communists, especially the 
younger variety, are involved in, in which they want to prove that 
they are indeed not only more revolutionary than their elders, but in 
many cases, more revolutionary than their other members, so I would 
expect this type of action on their part, because it is something that 
is ingrained within the organization. 

Mr. NiTTi.E. What is the function of resistance to law and civil dis- 
obedience in the Communist ideology ? 

Mr. Luce. It varies at some parts from organization to organiza- 
tion, but, in general, the concept w^ould be that there are laws which 
we obey and laws which we won't obey, and w^e will decide what 
laws we are going to obey. And civil disobedience, in their concept, 
serves two functions : one, it disrupts, it creates this partial anarchy ; 
and secondly, and perhaps more importantly, it then involves these 
young people in actions with the police. And the hope is, of course, 
"that if you are in an action with the police, and perhaps the police 
arrest you, or you get in some kind of real fracas with them, and you 
end up in jail, that then your revolutionary fervor will be increased. 

So the civil disobedience plays a very important role, and in many 
cases the Communists would like to have these young people arrested, 
like to have them in jail, in the hopes that' this indeed will just 
create more of a revolutionary consciousness on their part. 

Mr. NiTTL.E. By what means does the Communist Party, "the secret 
core of revolutionaries," as Lenin said, communicate with the mass of 
people? How do they gain contact and access to the ear of the aver- 
age loyal citizen ? 

Mr. Luce. Well, in most cases, of course, they don't. They are ob- 
viously mistaken if they think that coming before a group of elected 
Congressmen and screaming at them and creating a scene is going to 
impress the average citizen in Columbus, Ohio, or Birmingham, Ala- 
bama. As a matter of fact, most American citizens are immediately 
repulsed by these antics : but their hope, of course, is not to get to the 
mass at this point. The point is to get other young people who may 
be struggling against authority and angry with the Congress over a 
variety of issues, or just simply young alienated people in this country, 
to say, "Well, look, these kids have got it right, because they are here 
and they are going to fight the cops and they are going to fight all 
authority," and so forth and so on; so they are not really after the 
great majority of Americans. Instead, they are trying to impress 
other students and other young people that they think might follow 
their cause. 

INIr. NiTTLE. Did the Progressive Labor Party utilize the technique 
of creating fronts ? 

Mr. Luce. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Nittle. In order to establish contact w^ith the public? 

Mr. Luce. Yes, it has. 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 931 

Mr. Kittle. What is the purpose of the utilization of a front? 

Mr. Luce. Well, within the Communist ideology, it is advisable in 
many cases to create what is known as a front, which is an organiza- 
tion that operates under the control of Communists, but has other 
people, either in a purported leadership position, or at least in a mem- 
bership position, so that it will give the impression of not being con- 
trolled by the Communists. 

The point in this is to try to influence other people into contact with 
communism, who perhaps after a period of time will actually join a 
Communist organization. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did the Progressive Labor Movement establish a num- 
ber of fronts! 

Mr. Luce. Yes, sir ; it did. A number of them. It has not been in 
existence long enough to have the record of the Communist Party of 
the United States, but it has created fronts. Among those fronts 
would be the May 2nd Movement, the Student Committee for Travel 
to Cuba, the Harlem Defense Committee,^ and an organization ci-ypti- 
cally known as Cerge, C-e-r-g-e, which somehow stands for the Com- 
mittee to Defend Resistance to Ghetto Life. 

And since the time that I have left Progressive Labor, they have 
formed other fronts, but these are some of them. 

Mr. NiTTLE, Now would you tell us, please, about the May 2nd 
Movement front ! 

Mr. Luce. Yes, sir. The May 2nd Movement was an organization 
which had its beginnings at a conference called at Yale University on 
March the 14th, 1964, and this Yale LTniversity conference was called 
the Yale Socialist Union Conference, and it was, I believe, a 3-day 
meeting of young leftists from the West Coast, representing almost 
all brands of what has come to be known as the New Left ideology. 

Mr. IcHORD. Mr. Counsel, if you will excuse me, there, I would like 
to ask the witness, were you a member of the May 2nd Movement ? 

Mr. Luce. Yes, sir; I was. 

Mr. IcHORD. Did you participate as a member in the demonstra- 
tions — I believe they were out in Berkelev, or San Francisco, in August 
of 1965? 

Mr. Luce. No, sir ; I did not. 

Mr. IcnoRD. There was a May the 2d demonstration or an attempt 
to interfere with the movement of troop trains in Berkeley, was there 
not, in August '65 ? Are you familiar with that activity. 

Mr. Luce. I am familiar with the fact that there was a demonstra- 
tion, but I am not familiar with the auspices of it. 

Mr. IcHORD. Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Pool. Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you continue to relate your experience in the 
May 2d movement ? 

Mr. Luce. Yes, sir; at this Yale Socialist Union Conference, there 
were a number of people there interested in the war in Vietnam. 



1 Correct name "Harlem Defense Council." 



932 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Mr. NiTTLE. May I suggest that you advise us how this conference 
took phice? Who' called it, what was the occasion for it, and your 
purpose in being there ? 

Mr. Luce. The conference was called, as I said earlier, by the Yale 
Socialist Union, and it was called in order to hear a number of speakers 
representing the left. 

Mr, NiTTLE. Was that an organization at Yale ? 

Mr. Luce. Yes, sir, I believe it was. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It was in existence prior to the calling of this meeting ? 

Mr. Luce. I believe so, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And did you attend it ? 

Mr. Luce. Yes, sir, I did. I attended it as a representative of the 
Student Committee for Travel to Cuba. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Who issued the invitation for your attendance, or the 
attendance of your group there ? 

Mr. Luce. I don't know, sir. As I say, a number of people there 
were interested in the war in Vietnam and attempting to find some 
focal point with which to create objections to the war. 

At that point, I had personally just drafted a declaration calling on 
young Americans to refuse to fight in the war in Vietnam, which I took 
to the Yale Socialist Union and passed out there. On Saturday after- 
noon, which I assume was March the 15th, 1964, although I am not 
certain of the date, Milton Rosen, the head of the Progressive Labor 
Movement at that point, who is now, I imderstand, president of the 
Progressive Labor Party, made a speech to the young people who were 
gathered at Yale. And he called on the people there to form them- 
selves into some type of an ad hoc organizaition, to call a protest, some 
place on the East Coast, to oppose the war in Vietnam. 

And as a result of his speech, it was decided to set up the May 2nd 
Committee, and the May 2nd Committ.ee came about, as I say, as a 
result of that, and the letter was sent out on May 2nd Committee 
stationary almost immediately following that conference, which out- 
lined as its purposes — and if I may, I would read a paragraph of it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. 

Mr. Luce. Quote : 

The May 2nd Cktmmittee is a group of young people who oppose the use of 
American troops in Vietnam. Our group was organized on March 14, 1964, in 
New Haven, Ckvnnectlcut, as an ad hoc committee to plan and execute a demon- 
stration in New York City on May 2, 1964, to demand the withdrawal of Ameri- 
can troops from South Vietnam. The committee was formed by young people 
participating in the Yale Socialist Union's conference "Socialism in America." 
The conference agreed unanimously to support some demonstration on Viet- 
nam. * * * 

The demonstration that was held was held on May the 2d, 1964, in 
New York City. 

(Document marked "Luce Exhibit No. 2" follows :) 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 933 
Luce Exhibit No. 2 

STOP 

McNAMARA 'S WAR in VIETNAM! 




«^ 



.f % 







ALLY: 
SATURDAY: MAY % 

110th St. and 8th Ave. 1:00p.m. 



HEAR: Helen Lamb Lament, Russ Nixon, Conrad Lynn, Bill Scott, 
Bill Epton, Benjamin Ortiz, Levi Laub and others. 



SPONSORED BY The May 2nd Committee 



934 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 
Luce Exhibit No. 2 — Continued 

THE MAY 2nd COMMITTEE 

ai5 Founders Hall Haverford College Haverford, Pa. 
New York Office--- 140 West 69th Street - Room 39 B 



Chairman 
Russell Stetler 

Coordinators 
Levi Laub 
Peter Camejo 

Edith Black 

Smith College 
Harvey Blume 

Columbia U. 
Charles Buchanan 

North Bergen, N.J. 
Edward Campbell 

Bridgeport, Conn. 
Ira Feder 

Sarah Lawrence College 
Ellen Goldberg 

Goucher College 
Marc Graham 

Wesleyan U. 
Gus Horowitz 

Boston, Mass. 
Douglas Ireland 

New York, N.Y. 
Peter Irons 

Washington, D.C. 
Joseph Knowles 

Harvard U. 
Victor Lippit 

Yale U. 
Phillip Luce 

New York, N.Y, 
Robin Maisel 

U. of Pennsylvania 
Marjorie Mazel 

Smith College 
Janet Oldt 

Antioch College 
Catherine Prensky • 

New Rocheile, N.Y. 
David Raboy 

Clark U. 
Richard Rhoads 

New York, N.Y. 
Jeffrey Roven 

New York U. 
Gail Sanger 

Bryn Mawr College 
Joan Sekler 

Citj' CoUege,N.Y. 
Mark Stahl 

Yale U. 



The May 2nd Committee is a group of young people who 
oppose the use of American troops in Vietnam. Our 
group was organized on March 14, 1964, in New Haven, 
Connecticut, as an ad hoc committee to plan and ex- 
ecute a demonstration in New York City on May 2, 
1964, to demand the withdrawl of American troops from 
South Vietnam. The committee was formed by young 
people participating in the Yale Socialist Union's con- 
ference "Socialism in America." The conference agreed 
unanimously to support some demonstration on Vietnam. 
Many diverse and often opposed Socialist groups joined 
together on the Committee. Other groups whose mem- 
bers are represented include SPU and SDS. We have 
campus representatives on some 20 campuses. 

Many groups have spoken out against U.S. intervention 
in South Vietnam. Still, more people are expressing 
concern over the possible extension of the war to North 
Vietnam and perhaps creating a nuclear war. Ihe May 
2nd Committee takes Senator Wayne Morse's stand - 
for complete withdrawl of U.S. troops from South Viet- 
nam - as our demand. I'he May 2nd demonstration 
offers an opportunity to all those who have spoken out 
on Vietnam to translate their protest into concrete 
action. We invite everyone to join vath us in our 
opposition to McNamara's War in South Vietnam. 

If the May 2nd demonstration is to be a success we 
need the support of all Americans who are opposed to 
the useless and senseless killing of American troops 
in the jungles of Vietnam.. The May 2nd Committee 
was formed initially for demonstrations on May 2nd 
but as the civil war in Vietnam increases in intensity 
and more and more Americans are murdered there 
we may reorganize ourselves into a permanent commit- 
tee to make Vietnam a political issue in this the year 
of national political conventions. The war in Vietnam 
must be stopped and stopped now. This is a major 
question for American youth and we pledge ourselves 
to doing everything possible to stop American in- 
volvement in Vietnam, 



(Schools listed for identification only) 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 935 

Mr. NiTTLE. Before you tell us about that, did you say that this 
statement had been prepared for presentation at the Yale Socialist 
Union Conference? 

Mr. Luce. No, sir; it was prepared immediately following the Yale 
Socialist Union Conference. 

Mr. Nfttle. And following the speech of Milton Rosen, advocating 
protest action against United States involvement in Vietnam ? 

Mr. Luce. Yes, sir. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. Mr. Counsel, may I ask two questions ? 

First, over whose signature did this letter go out, which you read? 
Do you recall ? 

Mr. Luce. I think I wrote it. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. Did you participate in the demonstration in New 
York City? 

Mr. Luce. Yes, sir. 

Mr. NrrTLE. At the time you appeared at the Yale Socialist Union, 
you were not a member of the Progressive Labor Movement? 

Mr. Luce. No, sir ; I was a fellow traveler. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you invited to attend by Milton Rosen, the 
head of the Progressive Labor Movement ? 

Mr. Luce. No, sir, I believe that another member of Progressive 
Labor just simply said, "Let's go up to the conference, and we may 
have a chance to speak about Cuba up there," and so he and myself 
went up, with some other members of Progressive Labor. 

Mr. Nittle. Now, at the time you were merely involved in the Stu- 
dent Committee for Travel to Cuba ? 

Mr. Luce. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Nittle. And was that a Progressive Labor activity ? 

Mr. Luce. Yes, sir, it was. It was composed of the people that went 
to Cuba in 1963. It was a closed club. You had to have gone to Cuba 
in 1963 to be a member. However, there was an executive committee 
of the Student Committee for Travel to Cuba, of which I was a part. 

Mr. Nittle. And was the Student Committee for Travel to Cuba 
a front of the Progressive Labor Movement? 

Mr. Luce. Yes, sir, it was. 

Mr. Nrm^E. Now, would you tell us what happened with regard to 
the anti-Vietnam letter? 

Mr. Luce. The May 2nd Committee initially had as chairman of it, 
according to their letterhead on our stationery at the time, Russell 
Stetler from Haverf ord College ; and two coordinators were appointed 
at the Yale Socialist Union meeting : Levi Laub, of Progressive Labor, 
and Peter Camejo, who at that time was an official of the Young So- 
cialist Alliance, a Trotskyist organization. 

Following the Yale Socialist Union Conference, however, upon our 
return to New York, the basis for the May 2nd demonstration and, in 
fact, the control of the May 2nd Committee became completely domi- 
nated by people within Progressive Labor. Progressive Labor did all 
of the printing, all of the writing of material, the distribution of mate- 
rial, the actual organization of the meeting was carried on almost ex- 
clusively by Progressive Labor people. The day of the May 2nd 
Committee demonstration, I met and had lunch with two officials of 
the Progressive Labor Movement, and we discussed at that point a 



936 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

draft program which had been drawn ujd by Fred Jerome, who at that 
point vv as editor of the Progressive Labor newspaper, called Challenge^ 
and Mr. Jerome, at that point, showed us, as I say, this prospectus or 
this outline, this draft, that he had prepared, which he had hoped we 
would introduce the night of the May 2nd demonstration, which would 
call for a continuing group, an organization to be called the May 2nd 
Movement. And following the May 2nd demonstration, Mr. Laub 
presented to the people that had gathered that evening, many of whom 
demonstrated that day, this proposal and this program, and it was 
accepted; and from that point on, the May 2nd Committee became 
permanent and became known as the May 2nd Movement. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did they establish a national executive cormnittee for 
the conduct of the operation of this Progressive Labor front? 

Mr. Luce. Yes, sir. Later, in the fall of 1964, or the late summer 
of 1964 — I think it was the fall, however, 1964 — they did create a na- 
tional executive committee of the May 2nd Movement ; and on this na- 
tional executive committee, from then until the time I left, it is com- 
posed of 12 people, and of the 12 people, the vast majority, if not — and, 
in fact, I think, I believe, I think there are 9 of the 12 members from 
Progressive Labor, so that it was controlled at all points by Progres- 
sive Labor. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you tell us the names of the persons who composed 
the national executive committee of the May 2nd Movement^ 

Mr. Luce. The members of the national executive committee of the 
May 2nd Movement that were members of Progressive Labor were Levi 
Laub, Roger Taus, Marc Schleifer, Rick Rhoads, Jeff Gordon, Mike 
Brown, Albert Maher, Judith Warden, and myself. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And at that time who were the three members who were 
not likewise members of the Progressive Labor Movement, to your 
knowledge ? 

Mr. Luce. I don't recall the names at the moment, sir. May I just 
add to that, that within the national executive conunittee of the May 
2nd Movement, that I said was composed of 12 people, there was a Pro- 
gressive Labor Club. And the nine of us met almost weekly to decide 
on what policies we would present at the next national executive com- 
mittee meeting of the May 2nd Movement, and, of course, these poli- 
cies were always carried, since we had the majority vote. At least 
two of the other members of the national executive committee of the 
May 2nd Movement did not Iviiow that some of the members of the na- 
tional executive committee were members of PL and had no idea that 
a club existed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. So that the Progressive Labor members within llie 
May 2nd Movement met separately, caucused, decided policy, and then 
appeared to go through a meeting with the entire executive commit- 
tee, the nonmembers of PLM, and establish policy ? 

Mr. Luce. Yes, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, you mentioned Russell Stetler as being chairman 
of the M2M group. Did you know him then as a non-PLM member? 

Mr. Luce. Yes, sir, I knew him as a non-PLM member. 

Mr. NiTTLE. At that time, was Rick Manderfeld a member of the 
May 2nd Movement National Executive Committee? 

Mr. Luce. I think he became a member at approximately the time 
I was leavinof. 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 937 

Mr. XiTixE, Was Frances Kissling at any time a member of the May 
2nd Movement National Executive Committee '^ 

Mr. Luce. She was a member of May 2nd, but not of Progressive 
Labor. 

Mr. NiTTLE. At thase meetings, what were the principal policies 
established for the conduct of the work of the May 2nd Movement? 

Mr. Luce. At that time, it was hoped that the May 2nd Movement 
could form organizations on a number of American college campuses 
with the specific purpose of advocating mimediate withdrawal of 
American troops from Vietnam and of attempting to instill some type 
of a genuine and serious propaganda effort on these campuses, to sim- 
ply create the illusion that most American students were opposed to 
the war in Vietnam. 

Mr. Xittle. So that there was then an agreement and a policy 
that May 2nd Movement chapters in effect would be formed on various 
college campuses. Is that right? 

Mr. Luce, Yes, sir, is was. 

Mr. Xittle. Was there discussed the means of accomplishing the 
organization of May 2nd Movement chapters at various colleges ? 

Mr. Luce. This would be carried on in a number of ways. At that 
time, we had a film from the so-called National Liberation Front of 
Vietnam, the Viet Cong, that the May 2nd people showed on the 
campuses, and it was hoped that through this film it might be possible 
to organize young people. 

Mr. Nittle. Was that a Viet Cong film sometimes titled and shown 
as "Heroic Vietnam, 1963"'? 

Mr. Luce. I believe so; yes, sir. 

Mr. Nittle. Where was that film obtained? 

Mr. Luce. That film was obtained by us in Cuba, brought into the 
United States in a diplomatic pouch through the Cuban mission, and 
picked up at the Cuban mission to the United Nations by a representa- 
tive of Progressive Labor. 

Mr. Nittle. Who were the persons appointed to the task of display- 
ing this film on various college campuses and seeking at the same time 
to organize May 2nd chapters at various campuses ? 

Mr, Luce. Almost all of the members of the national executive com- 
mittee ; at one point or another, each person was assigned to a campus 
or a series of campuses which he or she was supposed to visit and sup- 
posed to speak against the war in Vietnam, about Cuba, about some 
type of "'anti-imperialist" policies. 

May I just acid, also, regarding the organization on the campuses, 
that the May 2nd Movement also attempted to get young people to 
sign a declaration similar to mine, although not the same as the one 
1 initiated, calling on young Americans to refuse to fight in Vietnam, 
And the May 2nd Movement, according to its own propaganda litera- 
ture, stated — and if I may quote : 

Some chapters of May 2 plan campaigns to donate blood and other medical aid 
to the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam, to concretely show our sup- 
port for national liberation struggles. Receiving blood from U.S. college stu- 
dents will be a terrific morale boost to the Vietnamese people. Collecting pledges 
for blood on campus can also show where the administration stands * * *. (See 
Gordon Exhibit No. 2, p. — . ) 

From the Floor : Let's stop this fink testimony. You get out of hera. 
[Disturbance, applause, and demonstration.] 

67-852 — 66 — pt. 1 3 



938 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Mr. Pool. Remove that man. 

We will have order in here. 

Mr. Luce. Mr. Counsel, if I might comment on that, it is a typical 
example of what I had said earlier. You see, the young man who 
jumped up and made his — not statement, he does not want to carry 
on any kind of democratic dialogue. He wants to shout slogans. 

[Demonstration.] 

Mr. Pool. Wait a minute. 

From the Floor : That's democratic dialogue ? 

[Disturbance and demonstration.] 

Mr. Pool. Go ahead. I want to make this statement to the 
audience. 

This is a legislative hearing, and we are going to have order in here. 

Go ahead. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Luce, I believe you were testifying, before the in- 
terruption, about a statement that was circulated on various college 
campuses. 

Mr. Luce. Yes, sir; and if I may continue that, I have spoken about 
blood and the institution of the policy in some May 2nd chapters to 
attempt to collect blood. And again, quoting from documents of the 
May 2nd Movement, it gives an idea of exactly the type and approach, 
the program that we were attempting to institute on these campuses, 
and again I quote two paragraphs, basically : 

Out of this understanding of imperialism as responsible for the poverty of our 
lives, and out of the void of inaction of the existing peace and left groups on 
the campuses, the May 2nd Movement was formed. M2M is campus based, 
attempting to organize students to fight the system and not docilely (or gripingly) 
accept it. 

They then go on to say that most people realize that the U.S. is not 

fighting for freedom 

Mr. Pool. Just a minute. Let us have order is here now. 

Go ahead. 

Mr. Luce. I will skip down: 

We say to those who are being forced to kill and die for the interests of imper- 
ialism — DON'T GO. The May 2nd Movement is launching an anti-induction 
campaign on the campuses. This campaign will organize existing resistance to 
the draft, based on the refusal to fight against the people of Vietnam. Each 
campus and each community should say, "No one from this college (or com- 
munity) should be drafted". Declarations and literature will be circulated, 
forums and meetings held, demonstrations organized and acts of disobedience 
engaged in. The theme will be "WE WON'T GO." ( See Gordon Exhibit No. 2, 
p. 1002.) 

Mr. AsHBROOK. On that point, Mr. Luce, what acts of disobedience 
were contemplated? Do you have anything you could give the com- 
mittee on that subject? 

Mr. Luce. Well, in part, simple refusal to allow yourself to be in- 
ducted into the Army. It was contemplated at one point, possible 
attempt to have actual sitdowns or demonstrations within induction 
centers, to pass out literature in front of induction centers, to get young 
people to sign these declarations, refusing to go into the war in 
Vietnam. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In connection with the antidraft activities, was there 
a petition circulated amongst the students at the various universities 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 939 

where your May 2nd Movement people appeared, to declare the refusal 
to fight and to oppose being drafted? 

I believe a statement of that sort, appeared in an advertisement in 
the National Guardian on April 25, 1964, a pro-Communist journal, 
and in the New York Herald Tribune on May 28, 1964. I have copies 
of those advertisements. Would you comment upon that? 

(Documents handed to witness.) 

Mr. Luce. Yes, sir. Neither of these advertisements were run by 
the May 2nd Movement. Both advertisements were run by myself. 
They were both — the one that was run in the Herald Tribune is a copy 
of the one in the National Guardian^ with the inclusion of a number of 
more names. The May 2nd Movement, however, at a certain point, 
decided to take over the campaign to get young people to sign a declara- 
tion refusing to fight in Vietnam, and at that point, I turned over my 
lists of names to them, and they brought out a different declaration, 
one which was much shorter, and one v/hich took out 

Mr. NiTTLE. Well, now, would you please read the declaration that 
you had prepared for the initial ad hoc committee and then tell us, 
please, in what way the statement differed that was circulated later 
by the May 2nd Movement? 

Mr. Luce. Yes, sir, my declaration 

Mr. NiTTLE. And why the change was made. 

Mr. Luce. My declaration read as follows, and I quote : 

WE THE UNDERSIGNED, 

ARE YOUNG AMERICANS OF DRAFT AGE. We uuderstand our obligations 
to defend our country and to serve in the armed forces but we object to being 
asked to support the war in South Vietnam. 

Believing that United States participation in that war is for the suppression 
of the Vietnamese struggle for national independence, we see no justification for 
our involvement. We agree with Senator Wayne Morse, who said on the floor of 
the Senate on March 4, 1964, regarding South Vietnam, that "We should never 
have gone in. We should never have stayed in. We should get out." 

BELIEVING THAT WE SHOULD NOT BE ASKED TO FIGHT AGAINST 
THE PEOPLE OF VIETNAM, WE HEREWITH STATE OUR REFUSAL TO 
DO SO. 

(Documents marked "Luce Exhibits Nos. 3-A and 3-B," respec- 
tively, and retained in files.) 

The declaration was modified by the May 2nd Movement, and there 
were a number of various changes that came out at different^ times, but 
the final draft that I have ever seen of it read as follows : 

"WE WON'T GO. The war on Vietnam is not a war for freedom 
or democracy. It is a war against the people of Vietnam. 

"The government has no right to draft any citizen to participate in 
such a war. 

"We, the students of the United States, refuse to be drafted. We do 
not recognize the right of the government to draft our fellow students. 
We refuse to be turned into killers and corpses for a war that is not 
ours." 

The changes that were brought about, although they are numerous, 
and there is really no relationship between the first and second, were 
brought about in part because a number of the Communists within the 
organization objected strenuously to the section of my statement which 
said, in part, and I quote — "We understand our obligations to defend 



940 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

our country and to serve in the armed forces * * *," Their conten- 
tion being that being anti-imperialist meant that you would refuse to 
serve in any war of imperialism or any action or any army created by 
the United States Government. 

(Document marked "Luce Exhibit No. 4" follows:) 

Luce Exhibit No. 4 

WB RON'T 00 

Tfio var oh VlAtaam is nnt a TC»r for f7«9daa nr AaoocT^of, It. is- 
o 79r against the p»opl9 of Vi«tDAss« 

Tha eovemmeat Has no right to draft an/ eitizon to partioipate In 
suoh a war. 

We, th9 studants of ths Unltdd States, refU8» to be drafted. 
We do not reoognlao the right of the goremmsat to draft our fellow 
students. We refuse to be turned into killers and corpses for a var 
that is not ours. 

Name Address School 



We authorlxa the publication of eur names with the above deolaratlon. 



JOIN The MAY 2nd MOVEMENT 



National jsemberahip cards cost $2 per year. Members receive 
a n'«thly report of Ma y 2nd activities and plans, (let us Jaiow your 
rnaillng addr»«s ohanses.) 

Uembere who «u^ wor}^g togsther oo. a oampafl er olsewhere 
organise in a Uay 2nd chapter. Often the national of floe is able to 
provide new members with the names of other members in the same area, 
GO thot a chapter may be formed. Chapters elect representatives to the 
Itetional Coordinating Committee, which also includes national staff 
workers. The NOG meets regularly to deoide national polloy. 



LJAY . 2rd MOVEMENT, MO Broadway, .room 307, New York 10012 N.Y. 

Ttel: (212) 982 5550 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 941 

Mr. Pool. I want to ask the witness, how widespread was the May 
2nd Movement ? 

Mr. Luce. Before its demise earlier tliis year, it had gained some 
strength on a number of campuses, but it was never what the founders 
hoped for it to be, a mass movement of college students. The actual 
membership of this, I would not know, having left prior to its dissolv- 
ing, but I am confident that it never gained any r.iore certainly than 
a thousand members, if that many. 

Mr. Pool. I understand from the information that I have tliat it was 
formed on 20 university campuses, does that figure sound about riglit ? 

Mr. Luce. I have seen that figure publislied by the May 2nd Alove- 
ment itself; yes, sir; and I believe that it is possible that that is true. 

Mr. Pool. Go ahead. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In setting up May 2nd ISIovement chapters at various 
campuses, did the Progressive Labor ]\Iovement also utilize Progres- 
sive Labor Club cells that they had previously organized at some of 
these universities ? 

Mr. Luce. To the best of my knowledge, some of these universities, 
the direct contact between May 2nd and — the formation of May 2nd 
came about as a result of the impetus of Progressive Labor members. 

Mr. Nittle. Now, you talked about the adoption of a policy by 
the May 2nd Movement to send blood and medical supplies to North 
Vietnam, or the Viet Cong. Was that policy discussed at meetings 
of the May 2nd Movement National Executive Committee? 

Mr. Luce. It was indeed discussed there, on a number of occasions, 
but no actual institution of that policy took place before I had left. 

Mr. Nittle. You testified a moment ago that all members of the 
national executive committee had some responsibility and that it was 
desired they make some effort, to establisli the May 2nd Movement at 
various college campuses. 

From the Floor. This hearing is so 

[Disturbance and demonstration.] 

Mr. Pool. Let us have order. Please remain seated. 

Let us have order here. Please sit down. 

Go ahead. Counsel. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Luce, would you tell us, please, what role Jeff 
Gordon played in the May 2nd ISIovement during the period you were 
in it? 

Mr. Luce. Mr. Gordon was a member of the national executive com- 
mittee of the May 2nd Movement and devoted the major part of his 
free time to attempting to proselytize for the May 2nd Movement. 

Mr. Nittle, Did IMr. Gordon visit various college campuses, to your 
knowledge ? 

Mr. Luce. I recall that he did, but I cannot recall at this moment 
where. 

Mr. Nittle. What role did Richard Ehoads play ? 

Mr. Luce, Richard Rhoads was in part enrolled at City College of 
New York in an attemjjt to form a May 2nd Movement chapter there. 

Mr, Nittle. Was there a Progressive Labor Club or cell formed at 
the City College of New York ? 

Mr. Luce. Yes, sir, there was. 

Mr. Nittle. Was Rhoads a member of that cell ? 



942 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Mr, Luce. No, sir, he was not. He was a secret member of Progres- 
sive Labor during the time that I was associated with it. He was not 
a publicly loiown member. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did he have contact with the club or cell of the 
Progressive Labor Party at CCNY, to your knowledge? 

Mr. Luce. He may have cooperated with them, but to my knowledge 
there was no direct relationship. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Luce, could you tell us whether there were any 
contacts made with or by the May 2nd Movement with the Chinese 
Communists or anyone acting as their agent or representative or on 
their behalf? 

Mr. Luce. I do know that we received communications from Peking 
and, specifically, I recall a letter sent to me from Anna Louise Strong, 
an American Communist who now lives in Peking. And this letter 
was read to the national executive committee of the May 2nd Move- 
ment because it was considered that it gave the correct line on how we 
should begin to propagandize for the VC's. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know her as a delegate to a conference of Com- 
munist countries that was convened in Hanoi in 1964 ? 

Mr. Luce. I know it through reading of the Chinese press; yes, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, I have a copy of that letter from Anna Louise 
Strong, and would you identify it, please? 

(Document handed to witness.) 

Mr. Luce. Yes, sir. This is a letter sent from Anna Louise Strong 
in Peking, China, to myself, on December 7, 1964. 

Mr. IcHORD. Mr. Chairman, I think at this point, it would be ap- 
propriate for me to interrupt the counsel as it is now 12 o'clock, and 
I understand that the Chair will adjourn until 2 o'clock. Before we 
adjourn, Mr. Luce, I have one or two questions I would like to ask 
you now. 

You have stated that you have been a member of the Progressive 
Labor Movement. Over how long a period of time were you a mem- 
ber of the PLM? 

Mr. Luce. A relatively short period of time ; 6 or 7 months. 

Mr. IciiORD. Six or seven months ? 

Mr. Luce. Yes, sir. 

Mr. IcHORD. Now, you defined the organization as a Marxist organi- 
zation and, in your words, as an organization which has an ideology 
similar to the Chinese Communists, By way of preface to my state- 
ment, or to my question, Mr. Luce, I would state to you that last June, 
as a member of the House Committee on Armed Services, I was desig- 
nated as a member of a special subcommittee of the House Committee 
on Armed Services to go to South Vietnam. The committee was 
headed by the Honorable Otis Pike, of New York. 

While in Vietnam, I was advised by intelligence sources and by — 
and in the field, that often, when the anti-south Vietnam demonstra- 
tions were staged here in the United States, and let me hasten to say 
that I realize that many of the anti-involvement of the United States 
in South Vietnam are not headed or staged, in my opinion, by sub- 
versives—many of them, I am sure, are sincere pacifists who are op- 
posed to South Vietnam, but we ascertained that often when these 
demonstrations would occur, that they would be picked up by the Viet 
Cong and publicized in South Vietnam, That is, the Viet Cong would 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 943 

go to their own people and they would say, "Look, here is what is 
going on back in the United States. The American people themselves 
are against American involvement in South Vietnam. If we hold on, 
we will eventually win out, because the American people will get tired 
of South Vietnam." 

And today, I have just had handed to me one of these leaflets which 
purports to have been distributed on the battlefield in South Vietnam. 
It has iDeen mailed to a Member of Congress. I will not reveal his 
name at this time, until I check the authenticity, signed — I will read 
the letter : 

Dear Sir, 

The enclosed leaflet is forwarded in that I thought that it might be of interest 
if you had not previously seen one. It was acquired during participation in 
Operation Hastings near Dong Ho Republic of Vietnam. * * * I am taldng the 
liberty of sending this leaflet to you. 

And the letter is signed "Sincerely, J. A. Frasier 3rd., Capt. of 
Marines." 

And the leaflet is a four-page affair. On the front of the leaflet is 
a picture of an anti-South Vietnam war demonstration. On the back 
side is another photograph showing a wooden cross, with a helmet of a 
soldier draped over the top of the cross, and inside are two statements 
of two very famous Americans opposing American action in South 
Vietnam, and I will not reveal their names, again, until I check the 
authenticity as to whether this leaflet was actually distributed as 
propaganda leaflets by the Viet Cong on the battlefield.^ 

But the question I have for you, sir: Do you have any personal 
knowledge of PLM ever staging any demonstration with the intent or 
design of furnishing propaganda for the Viet Cong or any other hos- 
tile power to the United States ? 

Mr. Luce. Not specifically. I would say that any demonstration 
against, for instance, the war in Vietnam that would be carried on by 
a hard-core Communist organization would have a collateral purpose, 
certainly, of attempting to create this image of the restless multitudes 
of this country being opposed to the war in Vietnam. I don't 
think 

Mr. IcHORD. Was that discussed at any of the meetings, as to the 
propaganda value of any of the demonstrations that might be staged 
to the Viet Cong or the Chinese or some other Communist nation? 

Mr. Luce. Not specifically ; no, sir. 

Mr. IcHORD. Thank you very much. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. What about generally? It is and has generally 
been discussed that they would aid in every way possible, up to and in- 
cluding blood, by some donors. When you say "specifically," do you 
mean 

Mr. Luce. I mean that it was not — to the best of my knowledge, I 
have never sat in on a meeting where somebody said, "Well, let's go 
have a demonstration against the war in Vietnam, because we know 
that Peking will give it an eight-column head tomorrow and its value 



1 Committee Investigation determined that this leaflet had actually been distributed in 
the battle area of South Vietnam. 

The letter of Marine Corps Captain J. A. Frasier III, in which the leaflet was enclosed 
(see reproduction, p. 944) was addressed to Representative Mendel Rivers, chairman of 
the House Armed Services Committee. 



944 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 




Reproduction of outside of leallet introduced by Mir. Ichord. 

Committee investigation determined that the lower picture was taken at 
approximately 11 a.m., Saturday, November 20, 196.5, on Shattuck Avenue, 
Berkeley, during the Vietnam Day Committee march of that day. ( See Edwin 
Meese testimony, p. — . ) 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 945 





f^a^i 




The above picture, published in the San Francisco Chronicle of November 21, 
1965, was also taken during the Vietnam Day Committee march in Berkeley 
and Oakland on Saturday, November 20, 1965. 



946 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

will be that." That indeed — certainly, it is a — you understand that 
Peldng may give it an eight-column head, but that's not the primary 
reason that you are doing it. 

Mr. IcHORD. Well, of course, you understand that as a natural re- 
sult, from the demonstration. 

Mr. Luce. Yes, sir. 

Mr. AsHBRooK. What about the — promoting the idea that we do 
something specifically to aid the Viet Cong, in a sense of distributing 
leaflets, or some have advocated, in a sense of giving blood, supplies, 
anytliing beyond what we might call, from their point of view, morale 
assistance, or support of their goals of this country, anything specific 
in a material sense ? 

Mr. Luce. Well, as I said, it was a question at one point of trying 
to send blood, and I have heard discussions of attempting to send 
money to various international organizations to try to get medical sup- 
plies sent to the Vietnamese. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. To the best of your knowledge, you know of no 
leaflets being produced to be sent there for that purpose? 

Mr. Luce. I don't know of any being produced to be sent there, 
but I do know that having left the Progressive Labor Movement, per- 
haps a year before, I suddenly discovered in the New York papers, last 
December, or December of 1965, suddenly, an article which said that 
leaflets had been distributed in South Vietnam to our troops, which 
carried the original statement that I had written, calling on young 
people to refuse to fight in Vietnam, so that I have personal knowledge 
that it certainly is being done. 

Mr, Pool. Before we adjourn for lunch, I would like to make this 
statement. 

This is from the U.S. Code, and I will just read the provisions : 

Whoever corruptly, or by threats of force, or by any threatening letter or' 
communication, endeavors to influence, intimidate, or impede any witness in any 
proceeding pending before any department or agency of the United States, or in 
connection, with any inquiry or investigation being had by either House, or any 
committee of either House, or any joint committee of the Congress ; or 

Whoever injures any party or witness in his person or property on accoxmt oi! 
his attending or having attended such proceeding, inquiry, or investigation, or( 
on account of his testifying or having testified to any matter pending therein ; ort 

I! 4! He * * * Id 

Whoever corruptly, or by threats or force, or by any threatening letter or 
communication influences, obstructs, or impedes or endeavors to influence, ob- 
struct, or impede the due and proper administration of the law under which such 
proceeding is being had before such department or agency of the United States, 
or the due and proper exercise of the power of inquiry under which such inquiry 
or investigation is being had by either House, or any committee of either House 
or any joint committee of the Congress — 

Shall be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, or 
both. 

I make this statement with the idea that you should be warned of 
the protection that the witness before this committee has. And I 
think that is all I have to say, and if any witness is threatened or 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 947 

injured in any manner, it certainly should be reported to this com- 
mittee, and proper action will be taken by tlie Justice Department. 

Mr. loHORD. Mr. Chairman, Mr. Luce has not been threatened or 
subjected to intimidations in any form in appearing before this com- 
mittee — have you, Mr. Luce? 

Mr. Luce. No, sir. 

Mr. Pool. Well, in case you do, I make this statement, for every- 
one to know. 

With that in mind, the connnittee will adjourn until 2 o'oclock. 

( Subcommittee members present at time of recess : Representatives 
Pool, Ichord, Ashbrook, and Buchanan, and also Representative 
Clawson.) 

(Whereupon, at 12:20 p.m., Tuesday, August 16, 1966, the subcom- 
mittee recessed, to reconvene at 2 p.m., the same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION— TUESDAY, AUGUST 16, 1966 

(The subcommittee reconvened at 2 :05 p.m., Hon. Joe R. Pool, chair- 
man of the subcommittee, presiding. ) 

(Subcommittee members present: Representatives Pool, Ashbrook, 
and Buchanan and also Representative Clawson.) 

Mr. Pool. If the photographers will take their cameras outside — 
and no tape recorders, also, will be allowed in the hearings. 

Mrs. Axelrod. Mr. Chairman 

Mr. Pool. Go ahead. Come on up here. 

Mrs. Axelrod. Mr. Chairman, at this point, I would like to object 
to the method of seating the audience in this room. There are many 
witnesses here who have friends who have come to watch the hear- 
ing, and I believe that it would be proper and dignified for this hearing 
committee to admit people on a first-come, first-served basis. I under- 
stand that not more than 10 or 20 people were admitted who were 
standing in line, and the balance of the audience, virtually all of them, 
were admitted by special cards, received from — I don't know where — 
but I presume the cards were received from the committee. 

Mr. Pool. If you will tell your folks to quit demonstrating in here 
and trying to make fools out of themselves, maybe we will be able to 
work something out. 

[Applause.] 

Mi's. Axelrod. I am not objecting, sir — Sir, I am not objecting to 
the refusal to admit anyone who has caused a disturbance. I am object- 
ing to the refusal to admit peaceable people, who were standing in 
line and who should be admitted the same way as everyone else. 

Mr. Pool. I thought they had in mind out there — who is in charge ? 

(Off the record.) 

Mrs. Axelrod. I would like to inquire as to how anyone gets these 
cards, because virtually all of the audience has received special cards 
to enter the room. 

A Policeman. They are cards of staff members. 



948 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Mr. AsHBROOK. There is always a tendency to admit staff members, 
but I would like to know of anyone else who has a card. I would like 
to see one. 

Mr. Pool. Well, your objection is noted. 

Let us go on with the hearing. 

TESTIMONY OF PHILLIP ABBOTT LUCE— Resumed 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Luce, at the time we recessed, we were discussing the 
question whether the May 2nd Moverment maintained Chinese con- 
tacts, and you were telling us about a communication you had with 
Anna Louise Strong. Would you tell us, please, what is the substance 
and content of that letter ? 

Mr. Luce. This is, as I indicated prior to the recess, a letter addressed 
to me, from Anna Louise Strong, in Peking, China. It is on her own 
personal stationery. And I would like to read just a section of the 
letter, to give you an idea of why we considered it, at the time, an im- 
portant communication from China. 

It is dated December the 7th, 1964 : 

"Dear Mr. Luce," — and the rest is a quote : 

Having just returned from Hanoi I send you this special issue of tlie Vietnam 
Courier on tlie tremendous conference just held. You will want it for your 
files, because it contains, in brief, speeches from all 64 delegations, and espe- 
cially contains in full, on the last four pages, the resolutions on Vietnam and on 
the worldwide anti-imperialist struggle and the Appeal to the American people. 
These are now authoritative formulations as unanimously adopted by a confer- 
ence including all the Socialist nations plus other prominent delegates. 

I call attention of my Western friends to the fact that a slogan we have 
nearly all been using, and that I myself used two weeks ago, namely to call for 
"negotiation", usually in a Geneva-type conference, is NOT the demand of Viet- 
nam. Laos and Cambodia want such a conference and should have it. Vietnam 
does not ask for it. * ♦ * 

«**♦»*• 

After much thought, I decided the Vietnamese are right. It is simpler, better 
to state clear aims than methods that are not clear. "Take the US troops out; 
let us settle our own affairs" is a clear, honest demand. "Negotiate" raises 
questions. The 19.54 Geneva Conference cannot be reconstituted, if only because 
in 19.54 the Vietminh came as victor and now it is not even a participant. The 
US broke the Agreements and split Vietnam, and now it is the South Vietnam 
National Front for Liberation that is victor. * * * Too many alleged friends 
are dreaming up new strait-jackets for South Vietnam ; "Neutralization without 
liberation". The Vietnamese are through with that. They want national sov- 
ereignity * * *. 

So better just say : "The U.S. must respect the Geneva Agreements * * *." 
That means : "Get out." * * * But be clear that no Geneva nations brought it 
about, but the long hard fight of the Vietnamese. 

Think it over. 

And it is signed, "Anna Louise Strong." 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 949 

(Document marked "Luce Exhibit No. 5 follows :) 
tX^ >^, ,21^^ TX^ ^p.^^ ^ i~ Q.n.^.v^ ^i^o^ 

r . J. dOX 8 33 ANNA LOUISE STRONG ■ 

Brooklyn 1, N.Y. 9 tai chi CHA^iG ,.^«-*T~V>Li>5»l^ /r> « ^-- 

PEKING. CHINA y^^^-^t^ /«-. "^L^^^r^A^ 

Dec. 7, 1964 '^.g^ 
Dear I'iT. Luce, '^^-'ZJl^S 

Having just rGturnad from Hanoi I send you the special Issua of the 
Vietnam Courier on tho tremendous conference just held# lou will 
want it for your files, because it contains, in brief, speeches from 
all 64 delegations, and ospacially contains in full, on the last four 
pases, the resolutions on Vietnam and on the worldwide anti-imperialist 
struggle and the Appeal to the American people. These are now autho- 
ritative fonr-ulations as unaniiriously adopted by a conference including 
a ll the Socialist nations plus other prominent delegates. 

I call attention of my Western friends to the fact that a slogan we 
have nearly all been using^ and that I myself used two weeks ago, 
namely to call for "negotiation", usually in a Geneva-type conference, 
ia NC/r the demand of Vietnam, i.aos and Cambodia want such a conferenca 
and should have it. Vietnam does not ask for it. Her demands given 
in full in the Vietnam resolution, and given briefly in the Appeal: 
"1) The 'OS Government must respect tne Geneva Agreements of 1954; 
Z) Must withdraw its troops, weapons and bases from South Vietnam,- 

andilet the Vietnamese people settle their own affairs; 
3) atop its acts of provocation and war against the Ueiiiocratic 
Hepublic of Vietnam." (Worth Vietnam.) 

I askad Vietnamese if they opposed the demand for a reconvened Geneva 
Conference, as: made by their Western friends. They said they did not 
oppose it if their friends found it a useful tulking-point , but they 
thought their own formulation clearer, simpler, more likely to appeal 
to the world's people. Every nation in the world wants independence 
without foreign troops on its soil. Americans also want this; how 
can they then refuse it to the Vietnamese? People everywhere can 
understand that a nation that has fought 20 years for independence 
wants it. To demand "negotiation" raises complexities* With whom? 
For wnat? This can even confuse. 

After much thought, I decide the Vietnamese are right. It is simpler, 
better to state clear aims than methods that are hot clear, "Take • 
the US troops out; let us settle our own affairs" is a clear, honest 
demand, "fuegotiata" raises questions. The 1954 Geneva Conference 
cannot be reconstituted, if only because in 1954 the Vietiainh c^me 
as victor and now it is not even a participant. The US broke the 
A.'^raements and split Vietnam, and now it is the South Vietnam National 
iTront for Liberation that is victor. yVill the US negotiate with the 
NfL? Neither Hanoi nor Peking can speak for the NFL and certainly 
not those two co-chairmen of Geneva who in ten years never could make 
the US behave. Too many alleged friends are dreaming up new strait- 
Jackets for South Vietnam; "Neutralization without Liberation". The 
Vietnamese are through with that. Thoy want national sovereignty, 
not to be wards of any other nation or group of nations. 

So better just says "The US must respect the Geneva Agreements of I954«''i 
That means: "Get out." ^/hen the US is ready to get out, a technical 
method is readily found, Geneva or another. But be clear that no Genevfi- 
nations brought it about, but the long hard fight of the Vietnauase* 
Think it over, 



(A^fi /Uu^iz y^^^^yt^ 



950 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

We considered this an important document, insofar as it was the first 
clear and decisive statement that we had had from either the Viet 
Cong, China, or the Vietnamese concerning their requests of us to 
stop calling for any type of negotiations in Vietnam, instead, making 
it a straight U.S. pull completely out, and this w^as decided — after I 
read this to the executive committee of the May 2nd Movement, it was 
decided that this, indeed, would be our policy : to simply call for an 
immediate withdrawal, to get out, a strong statement, rather than 
attempting to temper it, as many of the peace groups have, with a 
call for negotiations. 

Mr. Nfttle. Can you thinl? of any instance wherein the policies 
advocated by the May 2nd Movement or the Progressive Labor Move- 
ment departed in any way from the policies of the Chinese Communist 
Party or the Government of China ? 

Mr. Luce. That's a difficult question in part, because, well, the 
ideology is similar. It is true that you don't export revolutions, and 
the ideology and even the language used by the Chinese is so dis- 
similar to that used in this country. The general Communist line and 
understanding of creating revolutions of anti-imperialism, of anti- 
Americanism, in fact, as practiced by May 2nd and Progressive Labor 
is very similar to that of the Chinese, but I think I would be remiss 
in trying to relate them too closely, as far as wording goes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wliat I meant to ask you was whether the policies 
adopted by the Progressive Labor Movement and the May 2nd Move- 
ment were an endeavor to give support to the jDosition of the Chinese 
Government. 

Mr. Luce. Well, I think that certainly the ideology as practiced and 
preached by Progressive Labor would give support to the Chinese 
contention and position throughout the world. 

Mr. Pool, Just a minute. The Chair wishes to recognize as being 
with us here today, and we welcome to the committee, Congressman 
Casey, and Congressman Ottinger, of New York. Congressman Casey 
is from Texas. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did your organization have a means of determining the 
position of the Chinese Communists on international issues ? 

Mr. Luce. Progressive Labor received daily reports from London, 
England, mimeographed press statements of the Chinese Government 
to the China news service, which is called Hsin Hua. These were 
mailed, airmail, to Progressive Labor daily, which gave us a fairly 
complete picture of what the Chinese press thought daily. It was also 
true that we did receive a number of communications from China, just 
as our communications were shipped to China. We discussed in Cuba, 
in 1963, the ideological position, certainly, of the Progressive Labor 
and the Chinese with Chinese representatives in Cuba, so that I would 
say that there was a very close understanding of the Chinese position 
within Progressive Labor, and I am also certain that the Chinese, 
through letters which they sent us, were totally in agreement with our 
position. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Had the Progressive Labor Movement maintained 
other contacts abroad similar to that which you have just described 
with China ? 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 951 

Have members of the party been sent abroad to maintain contacts, 
or to communicate, with the leadership of foreign Communist govern- 
ments and parties ? 

Mr. Luce. Certainly members of Progressive Labor have been 
abroad and have communicated with leaders of other foreign Com- 
munist comitries. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Could you give further examples ? 

Mr. Luce. When we were in Cuba in 1963, I had an extended con- 
versation with B. N. Aidit, then head of the Indonesian Communist 
Party, now deceased. I had extended conversations with the repre- 
sentatives of the Viet Cong wliile in Cuba. We had extended con- 
versations with Chinese while in Cuba. 

In 1964, members of the group that went had similar conversations 
with Chinese and the Vietnamese, and a member of Progressive Labor 
attended the tri-continental conference, held in Havana, Cuba, earlier 
this year. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, was there a staff set up within Progressive Labor 
to digest the foreign communications, foreign pronouncements, and 
foreign newsletters, and to communicate them to the membership 
as a whole ? 

Mr. Luce. It was not so much a staff as there were a few people 
who — I edited for a period of time the monthly publication of Progres- 
sive Labor entitled Progressive Labor. And at that point, Khrushchev 
was replaced, and we did an extended editorial relating very specifically 
to the Chinese line on Khrushchev, and Progressive Labor does use, in 
its weekly or every 2- week publication, semimonthly publication, Clial- 
Jenge^ the pen name of Lisa Armand, who deals extensively in relating 
news from China and news from Southeast Asia, based almost ex- 
clusively on press releases from the Chinese. 

(At this point, Mr. Ichord entered the hearing room.) 

Mrs. Luce. Lisa Armand is in reality Sue Warren, who is a mem- 
ber of Progressive Labor. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you express a view upon the position of Pro- 
gressive Labor and the jNIay 2nd Movement in this respect? Did you 
ever find either group departing from, or taking a position that would 
be contrary to, the interests or policies of the world Communist move- 
ment ? 

Mr. Luce. No, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. While the Progressive Labor Movement was Peking- 
oriented, as you have described, was this position at all inconsistent 
with the general policies and efforts of the Soviet Union ? 

Mr. Luce. I am sorry. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I mean to say by that, did either group ever take a 
position that would be harmful to the position of the Soviet Union in 
international relations so far as the so-called "anti-imperialist" pro- 
gram was concerned ? 

Mr. Luce. Both Progressive Labor and May 2nd did not follow a 
line of so-called peaceful coexistence. Progressive Labor was very 
vehement in its attacks not only on the Soviet Union, but upon the 
Communist Party of the United States. It followed very closely the 
same ideological line as the Chinese did regarding epithets to be thrown 
at the Soviet Union. 



952 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Nittle 



Mr. Nittle, Was a publication set up named Free Student during 
the period of your membership in the Progressive Labor Movement 
and JNlay 2nd Movement ? 

Mr. Luce. Yes, sir, a publication was set up. It was to be entitled 
the Free Student. It is still in existence and until the last issue that 
I saw, at least, still had at the top, I think, ''Published by the May 2nd 
Movement." 

Mr. Nittle. Now, would you tell us what was the origin of the Free 
Student'^ I mean to say, was it a creation of the May 2nd Movement, 
or was it a creation in fact of the Progressive Labor Movement? 

Mr. Luce. It was a creation of the May 2nd Movement in name. In 
reality, it was a creation of the Progressive Labor Movement. 

Mr. Nittle. When was that publication first established ? 

Mr. Luce. I believe the first issue of the Free Student came out in 
either late December or early January 196-i or '65. The exact date, I 
cannot recall. 

Mr. Nittle. Were there discussions within the Progressive Labor 
Movement relating to this paper ? 

Mr. Luce. Yes, sir, there were. It was discussed in Progressive 
Labor that a student newspaper or a paper published for students 
should be brought out and that the best place to bring it out would be 
through the youth front, so to speak, of the Progressive Labor Move- 
ment, which would be the May 2nd Movement, so it was not only dis- 
cussed in the Progressive Labor circles, it was extensively discussed 
in the Progressive Labor Club, within the May 2nd Movement. And 
at a certain point, it was decided that this newspaper should come out, 
should be based on a strong anti-imperialist, anti-American line, should 
attempt to help enlist students into the May 2nd Movement. 

Mr. Nittle. I don't recollect wliether you testified as to your mem- 
bership on the national coordinating committee of the Progressive 
Labor Movement. Were you a member of that body ? 

Mr. Luce. Yes, sir, I was. 

Mr. Nittle. Was the national coordinating committee the top gov- 
erning body of the Progressive Labor Movement ? 

Mr. Luce. Yes, sir, it was. 

Mr. Nittle. Was the plan to create a newspaper known as the 
Free Student a plan of the top leadership ? 

Mr. Luce. I didn't — I did not hear it discussed in a national meet- 
ing, but it was discussed among individual top leaders within New 
York. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you say that the top decisions of the parties 
are made by a few top leaders ? 

Mr. Luce. It was at that time ; yes, sir. 

Mr. NiTi^LE. Who were the top leaders, in your judgment, at that 
time? 

Mr. Luce. At that time, it was JNIilt Kosen, Mort Scheer, Bill 
Epton, Fred Jerome, Jake Rosen. 

Mr. Nittle. What was the purpose and objective of the Free 
Student ? 

Mr. Luce. It was to attempt to get young people interested in a 
radical political position and to try to get them interested in May 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 953 

2nd. A policy satement published in the Free Student states — and I 
quote : 

FREE STUDENT, the national student newspaper of the May 2nd Move- 
ment was designed to reflect and help develop the growing student revolt 
against the mis-education we receive in our universities, as well as reflect and 
develop student protest against the war in Vietnam * * *.' 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, that was one of several publications of the 
Progressive Labor Movement ; is that right ? 

Mr. Luce. This was the — yes, it was one of a number of the Progres- 
sive Labor Movement, but it was the specific publication of the May 
2nd Movement. It was printed, designed, laid out in the print shop 
of Progressive Labor and used Progressive Labor staff and materials 
to be published. 

(Document marked "Luce Exhibit No. 6" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you, in a word or two, describe the pub- 
lications of the Progressive Labor Movement, and what purpose each 
publication was meant to serve ? 

Mr. Luce. There was a weekly newspaper called Challenge^ and 
this newspaper was meant to be used to propagandize and, in some 
cases, inflame various segments of New York City. A West Coast 
newspaper entitled Spark has been used for the same thing. 

There was a monthly — now, I think, it comes out every 2 months — 
publication entitled Progressive Labor. This is a much more the- 
oretical publication. It includes longer articles; it deals in articles 
of Marxism-Leninism, articles on China, on Vietnam. It is more 
theoretically inclined. 

For a period of time, there was a publication entitled Marxist- 
Leninist Quarterly. That was the theoretical publication until it 
was merged with the magazine, Frogressiwe Labor. 

The Free Student would be the other publication. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And that was established on or about January 
1965; is that right? 

Mr. Luce. January; yes, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. During your period of membership in the Pro- 
gressive Labor Movement, did you have occasion to hear discussions 
relating to the founding of a facility known as the Free University ? 

Mr. Luce. While a member of the national executive committee of 
the May 2nd Movement, we had a number of discussions about the 
formation of an institution, which later became Iviiown as the Free 
University of New York. 

Mr. NiTTLE. As a member of the national coordinating com- 
mittee of the Progressive Labor Movement, did you have occasion to 
discuss the formation of the Free University ? 

Mr. Luce. Not within the national coordinating committee of 
Progressive Labor. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you discuss this with the Progressive Labor 
caucus within the May 2nd Movement ? 

Mr. Luce. Yes, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Prior to its formation ? 



■ Free Student^ No. 3 [May 1966]. 
67-852 — 66— pt. 1 4 



954 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Mr. Luce. Yes, sir, I believe so. I know I spoke with a number of 
members of the Progressive Labor about the formation of tlie Free 
University. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you regard the Free University as a creation of 
the Progressive Labor Movement? Would you tell us what you 
know about that situation ? 

Mr. Luce. No, sir, I would not call it a Progressive Labor-formed 
institution. Progressive Labor wanted to form its own school, 
which they intended to designate the John Brown School. This 
school was not formed, and at about the same time discussions came 
from at least two members of Progressive Labor about the founding 
of another school, which they intended hopefully to call the Free 
School of New York or the Free University of New York. The 
concept of this would be much broader than the specific Progressive 
Labor school. 

In other words, a school set up by Progressive Labor, which was, 
as I said, to be called the John Brown School, would teach only 
issues of extreme interest to Progressive Labor members or other 
people closely identified with the Communist cause. 

In other words, they would teach courses in ideology, courses in 
Marxism-Leninism or China or Cuba, or so on. The Free Univer- 
sity was to be broader in its scope and was to appeal to Commu- 
nists and non-Communists and was to offer a variety of courses, 
which hopefully would appeal to young people who thought that 
they could not find this kind of an education in their local colleges 
or universities. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You spoke of two founders of the Free University. 
Who were they ? 

Mr. Luce. I think I said I spoke of the two people in Progressive 
Labor that were interested in the university. One of them was 
Marc Sclileifer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And was he a member of the national coordinating 
committee of the Progressive Labor Movement? 

Mr. Luce. No, sir, he was not. He was a member of the national 
executive committee of the May 2nd Movement and a secret member 
of Progressive Labor. 

Mr. NiTTLE. He was a secret member of Progressive Labor ? 

Mr. Luce. Yes, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You might, in a word or two, tell us what you mean 
by secret member of Progressive Labor. 

Mr. Luce. A secret member of Progressive Labor at that time was 
someone who attended closed, small Progressive Labor meetings, 
thought of himself as a member of Progressive Labor, and followed 
the orders of the leadership of Progressive Labor, but was not known 
to the general public as a member of Progressive Labor. 

The reason for this was — ^there were a number of reasons — one of 
them being that it was assumed that a number of people who were 
secret members couM function better outside of the pale of communism 
than they could being known members of a Communist organization. 

Mr. Pool. At this time, the Chair wishes to recognize Congressman 
Long, of Maryland; Congressman Schweiker, of Pennsylvania; Con- 
gressman Utt, of California; Congressman Lipscomb, of California; 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 955 

Congressman Wlialley, of Pennsylvania ; and Congressman Dickinson, 
of Alabama. We welcome you to the committee and thank you for 
coming in to listen to this testimony. 

Go ahead Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Who was the other person that you described as inter- 
ested in the Fx*ee University ? 

Mr. Luce. Levi Laub, who was a member of the national coordinat- 
ing committee of Progressive Labor and a member of the national 
executive committee of the May 2nd Movement. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And what role did he play in the founding of the Free 
University ? 

Mr. Luce. Again, this was in a discussion period, and his actual 
role in the procedures of forming it, I would not know. I do know 
that he helped to institute the idea at national executive meetings of 
May 2nd, though. 

Mr. Nittle. Now, the actual dire^itor of the Free University is 
Professor Allen Krebs ; is that right ? 

Mr. KuNSTLER. Objection. 

May I state my objection ? 

Mr. Chairman, my name is William M. Kunstler. I am an attor- 
ney — one of the attorneys for Dr. Allen Krebs. This is the first time 
that his name has appeared in these proceedings, and I object to any 
testimony relating to him, unless it is either held in executive session or 
1 am given the right to cross-examine him as I would have in a court 
of law, when such testimony was evoked. 

I would like to have that objection noted and have you rule on it. 

Mr. Pool. Under the rules, you don't have the right to cross-examine. 
This is not a courtroom. This is an investigative hearing of a commit- 
tee of Congress. And what is your other point ? 

Mr. Kunstler. I have stated them both. In all fairness, I think, 
since his name has come out, I should be entitled to cross-examine. 
1 am asking for that right. 

Mr. Pool. You don't have the right to do that in this kind of 
hearing. 

Mr. Kunstler. All right, I would like the record to note my ob- 
jection to this proceeding on that score. 

Mr. Pool. Certainly. 

Let us go oif the record. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. IcHORD. Mr. Chairman, I submit that the rules, rule 26 (m) and 
the other rules of the committee. Rules of the House of Representa- 
tives do not require an executive hearing under these circumstances, 
and I would request that the Chair deny the request of the attorney. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Chairman, before you rule, and with the permission 
of Mr. Ichord, I would like to advise the chairman that the committee 
sent a notice to Dr. Allen Krebs, addressed to 90 Bedford Street, New 
York, New York, on August 12, 1966. He was then notified, pursuant 
to Rule XI, 26 (m) of the House, that the Committee on Un-American 
Activities had received certain evidence or testimony m executive 
session pertaining to Dr. Allen Krebs, and he was advised that he had 
been identified as having attended national executive meetings of the 
May 2nd Movement, at which discussions regarding the Free Uni- 
versity took place. 



956 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Dr. Krebs was advised that if he desired to avail himself of the 
opportunity to appear before the committee prior to these public 
hearings, 1 may add, that he sliould contact the statf director not later 
than 12 noon Monday, August 15. So far as I am aware, Dr. Krebs 
has not either personally or through counsel established contact with 
this committee within that time, and if he had established that contact, 
the notice would have extended him the privilege of appearing in ex- 
ecutive session, prior to being discussed at this hearing today. 

He is also a subpenaed witness, Mr. Chairman, and will be given an 
opportunity to reply to any of the statements that are made here today 
concerning him. 

JMr. Pool. Even though you are late in making jonr request, I will 
poll the committee to see what they want to do on your request. 

Mr. KuNSTLER. Mr. Chairman, I think my request is misunderstood 
by Mr. Nittle. I am referring not to Dr. Krebs' testimony at this point. 
I am referring to the testimony of the witness who is mentioning Dr. 
Krebs. That is a different story than what Mr. Nittle is discussing. 

Secondly, I would like 

Mr. Nittle. At this point, Mr. Chairman, I would like to state 
for the record, and for the benefit of the committee, that the testi- 
mony that Mr. Luce is giving here today regarding Dr. Krebs 
was initially received in executive session and, after this testimony 
was received, we have notified, as I have just stated, Dr. Krebs to give 
him the opportunity to come in in private session, prior to the hear- 
ing toda}^, to state whatever he had to say. 

Mr. Pool. Counsel, in other words, what you are telling us is that 
you have complied with 26 (m) of the rules. 

Mr. Nittle. The committee has complied, in my opinion with House 
EuleXI, 26(m). 

Mr. IciioRD. Mr. Chairman, the client of the attorney has received 
a26(m) letter? 

Mr. Nittle. Yes, sir; and the attorney is here today, and we might 
ask him whether this is not so. 

Mr. IcHORD. May I see the 26 (m) letter ? 

Mr. Nittle. Yes, sir. 

(The letter was handed to Mr, Ichord.) 

Mr. IcTiORD. Well, Mr. Chairman, I renew my request that the 
Chair rule on the request of the attorney, for the reason that his 
client has received a rule 26 (m) letter and, in that 26 (m) letter, 
tlie chairman of the full committee notified Dr. Krebs that he would 
have the opportunity to appear in executive session to deny, refute, 
or explain any of the testimony that might have been given against 
him. 

If the attorney is making a request for an executive hearing, it 
certainly wouldn't be in order, but I understand the attorney is request- 
ing to cross-examine this witness, Mr. Luce. That is the request, 
isn't it? 

Mr. KuNSTLER. That's the second part, Mr. Ichord. 

Mr. IciiORD. That is the second part. The first part is the request 
for the executive testimony? 

Mr. KuNSTLER. For the executive testimony of this witness, not of 
my client. 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 957 

Mr. IcHORD. Well 



Mr. Pool. "We have already had that. 

Mr. IcpiORD. Tlie testimony has already been received in executive 
session. Your client has had the opportunity to present himself in 
executive session to answer, deny, refute any of the testimony given 
before, or coming to the knowledge of, the committee. Therefore, 
jNIr. Chairman, the request of the attorney should be denied. 

Mr. Pool. The point is well taken. Your request is denied. 

Mr. KuNSTLER, I also, then, make a request now for the transcript 
of the executive testimony of Mr. Luce which was taken before this 
committee, so that I may study that testimony prior to my client 

Mr. Pool. That is within the discretion of the full committee, and 
it is impossible to furnish that, because we are sitting in a subcom- 
mittee hearing. 

Mr. KuNSTLER. Is it possible, Mr. Chairman, to assemble the full 
committee before the close of this session to have that request passed 
upon ? 

Mr. Pool. I see no reason at this time to do that. You are just 
delaying the proceedings. 

Mr. Kunstler. All right, I want my objection on the record. 

Then lastly, as the Congressman pointed out, 1 have the further 
request to be able to cross-examine Mr. Luce with relation to any 
testimony pertaining to Dr. Krebs at the conclusion of his direct 
testimony. 

Mr. Pool. Well, for your information, you don't have the right to 
cross-examine in any proceedings of this committee. If you will 
read the rulebook, you will see it spelled out in black and white. 

Mr. Kunstler. Mr. Chairman, I know what the rulebook says. I 
am asking you, in fairness to a client of mine, that I be given this 
right in an American forum to cross-examine Mr. Luce. 

Mr. Pool. He will have his opportunity to testify, and we will be 
glad to let him answer the questions. I hope he does. 

Mr. Kunstler. I am renewing my request. I want the opportunity 
to cross-examine. 

Mr. Pool, Well, your request is denied, and you are here to advise 
him. 

Mr. Kunstler. I object to the ruling. 

Mr. Pool. Go ahead. 

Mr. GuTMAN. Mr. Chairman. 

[Disturbance.] 

Mr. Pool. Let's have order in here now. Everybody sit down so 
I can hear the attorney here. 

Go ahead. 

Mr. GuTMAN. Mr. Chairman, gentlemen of the committee: I move 
at this time that all of the testimony of this witness be stricken, that he 
be asked no further questions at this session, on the ground that Mr. 
Nittle has expressed quite clearly the statement that the testimony of 
this witness has alreacly been taken in full in executive session, so that 
whatever knowledge this witness has which this committee may need 
in order to be able to report to Congress for any legislation which 
may be properly brought before it, you already have it, and the con- 
tinued questioning of this witness in public can perform no function 



958 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

whatsoever, except to harass and embarrass those people who might be 
mentioned in that testimony. 

Mr. Pool, Let's confer a moment. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. Pool. Counsel, the issue you have raised in your objection has 
been considered by the subcommittee prior to this hearing. In regard 
to this issue, you have not raised any new point of consideration in 
your objection. For this reason, your objection is overruled. 

Mr. GuTMAN". As I understand what you said, Mr. Chairman, I 
have not raised a point which is new to this committee, but has already 
in the past considered it, passed upon it, and ruled against the motion, 

Mr. Pool. We are complying with the rules of the House, which 
provide for a public hearing, except when the subcommittee deter- 
mines it should be an executive hearing. 

The subcommittee has considered these matters, and we are now 
holding a public hearing. 

Mr. IcHORD. As a matter of explanation to the attorney, I would 
point out that the subcommittee did contemplate such an objection 
being raised, and we discussed it thoroughly at that time and we have 
further taken it under consideration at this time, and the Chair has 
ruled in accordance with the feeling, the unanimous opinion of the 
committee. 

Mr. GuTMAN. May I express my objection and reserve exceptions to 
that, gentlemen. 

Mr. Pool, Certainly, 

Mr. GuTMAN. And may I request, I realize that you gentlemen are 
not here to answer questions, but I think that in all fairness to the 
people whose names may be mentioned and to all the people who are 
interested in what the function of this committee is, that you may at 
this time wish to make some statement of what function is served when 
a witness who has already testified to everything before you 

Mr. Pool. If you have an objection to make, make it. You don't 
have the right to make a speech. 

Mr. IcHORD. Mr, Chairman, the gentleman is here arguing with the 
committee, but I would point out to the counsel that your client, and 
the clients of the other attorneys in the room today, did have the op- 
portunity, A rule 26 (m) letter was sent to them. They did have the 
opportunity to come in and testify here in executive session, prior to 
this witness' testimony, and deny, answer, refute any of the charges 
that may have been made against them. So, certainly, your objection 
would not be valid. 

Mr, GuTMAN. I respectfully differ. You perhaps misapprehend 
the thrust of my objection. My objection is not at this point the 
objection that Mr. Kunstler previously made, that he hasn't had an 
opportunity to examine the transcript of this witness' testimony, 
but that there is no legislative function served by repeating in public 
what you gentlemen have already heard in private. 

Mr! Pool. You are arguing the ]ooint and you heard my opening 
statement, and that stated the legislative purpose of the hearing. 
Your objection is overruled. 

Let's have order. 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 959 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Luce, I believe the last question related to Dr. Allen 
Krebs as director of the Free University. Do you know Dr. Allen 
Krebs ? 

Mr. Luce. Yes, sir ; I do. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was he a member of the May 2nd Movement ? 

Mr. Luce. I believe he was ; yes, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did he attend any meetings of the May 2nd Move- 
ment at which you were present ? 

Mr. Luce. Yes, sir; he attended some meetings of the national 
executive committee at the May 2nd Movement. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And could you tell us approximately when he attended 
these meetings ? 

Mr. Luce. Approximately, to the best of my recollection, it was in 
December of 1964, although he was not a member of the national 
executive committee of the May 2nd Movement. He did attend some 
meetings, the exact number I clon't recall, where the Free University 
or the discussions concerning the formation of what later became the 
Free University of New York took place. 

Mr. NiTTLE. At the time these discussions took place, was he 
teaching at any school or university ? 

Mr. Luce. To the best of my recollection, he was finishing up a 
term of teaching at Adelphi University, I believe it is, on Long 
Island. He was either finishing up, or he had stopped teaching there. 
I can't recall at this time whether school was over or not, but lie had 
been a teacher at Adelphi. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did he participate in the discussion of the national 
executive committee of the May 2nd Movement with regard to the 
establishment of a Free University in New York City ? 

Mr. Luce. Yes, sir; he did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What was his position with regard to that plan or 
program ^ 

Mr. Luce. He favored it and thought that the concept and the 
ideas of a Free University were valid and should be carried forth. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Had a chapter of the May 2nd Movement been estab- 
lished, as far as you know, at Adelphi College, where he taught ? 

Mr. Luce. I believe that one was being set up. At this time, I 
can't recall whether one was in existence or not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And do you know by whom that was set up there ? 

Mr. Luce. No, sir ; I don't. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Had Dr. Krebs participated in any of the activities 
of the May 2nd Movement 'i 

Mr. Luce. Yes, sir ; he had. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you tell us what they were ? 

Mr. Luce. He participated in a number of open meetings of the 
May 2nd Movement, or was in attendance. He, as I said before, was 
in attendance at some national executive committee meetings of the 
May 2nd Movement. I believe he attended or was on picket lines 
for the May 2nd Movement. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And did he make any contributions to the publica- 
tions of the May 2nd Movement ? 

Mr. Luce. I believe he has written for the Free Student, but I don't 
have it in front of me and I am not certain. 



960 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Luce, would you tell the committee, please, when 
you left the Progressive Labor Movement and why ? 

Mr. Luce. May I look up somethino;, first? I left the Progressive 
Labor Movement in — not at a specific date, but the latter part of Jan- 
uary of 1965. I left for a myriad of reasons. No one specific reason 
could I give. It was a culmination and a combination of a number of 
pressures and concepts in my own mind. It was a decision that took 
time to think through. 

In part, I left because I decided that the freedom that was being 
talked about in Progressive Labor was not the freedom that I en- 
visioned, either for this country or for the people I was involved with. 
I left in part because I decided that through my own role in Progres- 
sive Labor and other Progressive Labor organizations, the Student 
Committee for Travel to Cuba and May 2nd, I had in some way influ- 
enced some young people to join the Communist cause, and I found, 
as I continued within Progressive Labor, that a tremendous amount 
of policy was being decided that they had no concept of and that, in 
fact, I didn't believe that they could countenance, if they did. It 
seemed to me that the democracy practiced within Progressive Labor 
was, in Karl Marx's phrase, the antithesis of real democracy. 

That democratic centralism as practiced there was really totalitar- 
ianism. And I left just because it seemed to me that there is a dif- 
ference between being a rebel and a revolutionary, and Arthur Koest- 
ler once wrote a book called Ar'roio in the Blue, in which he talked 
about this difference: That in part, the rebel flails out against a num- 
ber of things he considers abuses, but a revolutionary has one set goal, 
and that is destruction, that he goes after constantly, and it also 
seemed to me that the majority of the young people that I knew within 
the so-called radical movements, the new radical movements, they 
were almost all — all these organizations are pyramid-shaped, with 
the majority of young people on the bottom who weren't members of 
the organizations, aren't Communists, have very little concept of 
what communism really is, and are simply impelled along because of a 
number of perhaps very valid humanitarian reasons, but on the top of 
each of these organizations, there are indeed a number of younger or 
older people who have had considerable training in communism and 
within the whole concepts of Marxism-Leninism, and that these peo- 
ple on the top of the pyramid really control it. 

And I left in part because I really began to think that not only 
was I involved in revolutionary acts which my own being couldn't 
countenance, but I could no longer involve these other young people 
in activities which might cause them to either go to jail or lose their 
livelihoods, or lose the possibilities of continuing school or end up in 
some kind of irreparable physical damage to them. 

And so at a certain point, I decided I wanted to stop and think, and 
as a number of people have written — which I hadn't read then, but 
have since — it is important for a — well, once the idea of leaving gets 
in your mind, you are lost, first of all, to them. 

It is a truism. But after a period of sitting and thinking and read- 
ing some books, one book in particular, Wolfgang Leonhard's book, 
called Child of the Revolution, which is a story of a young man who is 
in the Russian Communist Party for a period of time and went back 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 961 

to East German}- after the M-ar and served as one of Ulbricht's aides 
and then left. 

I decided that, indeed, I could no longer continue in the movement, 
and so I left. 

And then at that point, came two other decisions : One, that a cer- 
tain point it is not enough to leave and just simply go into hiding and 
sit in the woods and not do anything. But if you really believe that 
not only were you wrong in what you did, but they are wrong in what 
they are doing, that somehow you have got to light back. And at 
that point, I went to the Federal authorities and spoke with them. 
And within the same framework, and that same concept, I have con- 
tinued to try to talk to other young people about Communists and 
about Progressive Labor and about the pitfalls of the whole thing. 

And I suppose at this point, the only thing I could say is that having 
gone through it once, if I could in my way impart anything to any 
young person, it is that you don't really have to learn by going through 
it. It is possible to stand outside of it and see through it, and not have 
to be arrested or be under indictment or fight the police or get so in- 
volved in the Communist movement that it may be impossible, indeed, 
to leave. 

That it is possible to stand outside of it and look at it, and perhaps 
never make the same mistake I did. 

Mr. Pool. Any other questions ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Pool. Do you have a question, Mr. Clawson ? 

Mr. Clawson. Yes, Mr. Chairman, if I may. 

Mr. Luce, earlier in response to a question of Mr. Ashbrook, you 
indicated that there may have been no specihcs about plans for civil 
disobedience and violence. In the May 2nd Movement and in the 
Progressive Labor Movement were there any plans laid or efforts made 
to influence other groups, organizations, or clubs, by joining tliem and 
then attempting through that affiliation to use a larger front for these 
activities than might be possible under these particular organizations 
to which you have testified today ? 

Mr. Luce. First of all, I am not certain that I did testify that there 
were never any plans for any violence, because if I did, I was mistaken, 

Mr. Clawson. I think you said there were no specific 

Mr. Luce. Because both May 2nd and Progressive Labor have not 
only planned violence, but have participated in violence. The May 
2nd Movement is no longer in existence, and when it went out of exist- 
ence, most of — many, according to the documents that I have seen, 
from the May 2nd Movement at the time of its dissolution have been 
told to infiltrate other young peoples' groups and to attempt to radi- 
calize them. 

It was decided that the May 2nd Movement was not growing fast 
enough, large enough, and instead that the members that vfere in it 
should drop out and join other organizations, such as the Students for 
a Democratic Society and SNCC, and attempt to help to radicalize or 
revolutionalize tliose organizations. 

Mr. Clawson. Thank you. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Buchanan. 



962 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Mr. Buchanan. Mr. Luce, I appreciate your very valuable testi- 
mony. I believe you have written a book on this subject of the "New 
Left," have you not, by that title ? 

Mr. Luce. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Buchanan. Mr. Luce, you made a statement just a moment ago 
which I would like you, if you will, to magnify just a bit. You said 
they had not only planned violence, but participated in violence. 

Could you magnify on that just a bit, please, sir ? 

Mr. Luce. Well, briefly I think a classic example^ — — ■ 

Mr. Pool. Officer, I have ordered all cameras kept on the outside. 

Go ahead. 

Mr. Luce. The briefest possible example I think I could give is what 
happened here this morning. 

Mr. Buchanan. Beg pardon ? 

Mr. Luce. I think the briefest possible example I could give is what 
happened here this morning. 

Mr. Buchanan. That's a good answer. 

Mr. Luce, you have testified as to young peoples' participation in 
Progressive Labor and the May 2nd Movement organizations. From 
your experience, and from your experience since you left this move- 
ment, would you say that these young people are broadly representa- 
tive of the young people of our country in their activities and point of 
view ? 

Mr. Luce. Absolutely not. They are a well-organized, verbal, 
audacious minority, but at no time, if you took all of the Communist 
groups in the United States, lumped them together, and put all of 
their membership together, they would probably not equal 5,000. 
They certainly are not representative of tlie young people of the 
country. 

Mr. Buchanan. Now this certainly would seem to be the case, and 
of course while we are not moving here against anyone's point of view 
or philosophy or what they make a speech about or have a rally about, 
but only against overt acts, in the legislation under consideration, we 
are moving just against overt acts to aid a force engaged in hostile 
military actions against American troops, and not peoples' points of 
view, but I think this is important, because, Mr. Chairman, I would 
add to the record at this point that in February it was my privilege 
to spend a week, as Mr. Ichord has, in Vietnam, with our troops 
there. And I found as fine a group of soldiers as this Nation has pro- 
duced and a group of young men whose dedication and courage made 
clear that they believed very deeply in what they are doing there. 

And may I say, among them, I met many Alabamians of two races 
who are fighting with courage and distinction and who are a credit 
to our State and to this country. 

It seems clear to me that these young people are much more broadly 
and clearly representative of the youth of this country, and dissenters 
to the contrary notwithstanding, I would say that from my work with 
young people through the years, this generation is probably as fine as 
this Nation has yet produced. 

I want to thank you for your testimony, Mr. Luce. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Ichord. 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 963 

Mr. IcHORD. Mr. Chairman, before Mr. Luce leaves the stand, I, 
too, want to commend Mr. Luce. He is a very articulate witness, and 
his testimony has been a very valuable contribution to the record. 

I recall back in 1964, when Mr. Luce was a witness before the com- 
mittee, back before he had made the ideological break with the PLM 
that he has courageously testified to here today. He at that time 
was also very articulate, but a little on the recalcitrant side. But as I 
recall, he didn't take the fifth amendment at that time. Is tliat not 
right ? 

Mr. Luce. That is correct. I did not. 

Mr. IcHORD. That is my memory, which you have verified. I also 
believe at that time you intended to testify fully before the committee, 
without availing yourself of the right of the fifth, and you had made 
it a point not to find out anything about the financing of PLM, be- 
cause you did not want to inform upon any of the members of the 
organization at that time. 

Mr. Luce. That dealt with the trips to Cuba ; yes, sir. That is true. 

Mr. IciiORD. Have you learned anything since then about the financ- 
ing of Progressive Labor Movement? I have been very curious as to 
where much of the money is coming from. I know that some of the 
activities require no small sum of money, and certainly there is a lot 
of travel involved. Are you familiar at this time with any of the fi- 
nancing of the Progressive Labor Movement? 

Mr. Luce. No, sir ; I am aware now how the second trip to Cuba was 
financed, but I am not aware of where, and the committee has pretty 
full knowledge on that, I think, anyway. 

Mr. IcHORD. I remember that it was brought out in the hearings of 
the unauthorized travel to Cuba of so-called students, that at least 
$20,000 was traced through a bank in Texas to the Bank of Mexico, 
in Mexico City, and some young lady turned up with $20,000 cold cash 
to buy the tickets for the trip to Cuba. That money, as I stated, was 
traced to the Bank of Mexico, in Mexico City. We only know that it 
came out of the country of Mexico. 

Do you have any further information at this time that would per- 
haps connect that money up with Mr. Castro, who at least supported, 
financially supported, a great part of the trip when they were in Cuba ? 

Mr. Luce. Not about that specific money itself, that was from the 
Mexican banks. I do know, however, that money for a portion of the 
1964 trip to Cuba came directly from the Cuban mission in New York 
City and was picked up by contacts — well, by people within the Stu- 
dent Committee for Travel to Cuba from the Cuban mission, in New 
York City. 

Mr. IcHORD. Do you know what the sum of that money was ? 

Mr. Luce. Not at this moment ; no, sir. 

Mr. IcuoRD. And that was a part of the money that was used to 
purchase the tickets ? 

Mr, Luce. Yes, sir. 

Mr. IcHORD. Do you know the parties involved who received the 
money and the people in the Cuban mission who turned over the 
money ? 

Mr. Luce. I have the names of the people in the Cuban mission 
written down, but I don't have them with me. A portion of the money 



964 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

that was paid to the Student Committee for Travel to Cuba for a 
specific trip of four people that went down in the summer of 1964 
was given to Levi Laub, who brought the money to an office that I was 
working in at that time, in a bag, a paper bag, marked "Alliance for 
Progress." 

They then took the money and counted it out, or gave the money 
to somebody else to buy the airplane tickets with. 

Mr. IcHORD. Thank you very much. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Pool. At this time, the Chair wishes to welcome to the com- 
mitte ihe following Congressmen : Congressman Hagen, of California ; 
Congressman Clancy, of Ohio; Congressman Andrews, of North Da- 
kota; Congressman Hansen, of Idaho; Congressman Skubitz, of 
Kansas; and Congressman McDade, of Pennsylvania; and others who 
have already been introduced. 

We want to welcome you to the committee, and note the interest that 
about 25 or 30 Congressmen have liad in these bills. I introduced one, 
and Mr. Ashbrook and Mr. Buchanan introduced similar bills. It 
is very wonderful that you took the time to come visit us. 

All right, Mr. Ashbrook. 

Mr. Ashbrook. One more point, Mr. Luce. Did you refer to the 
Harlem Defense Committee at one time in your testimony ? 

Mr, Luce. Yes, sir; I did. 

Mr. Ashbrook. Was this the committee which a year or two ago got 
involved in the matter of Sergeant Gilligan and had the posters 
"Wanted for Murder, Gilligan, the Cop" ? 

Mr. Luce. This is part of the committee. It was a combination of 
Progressive Labor-Harlem Defense Council. I am afraid I said com- 
mittee. I think it is "council." 

Mr. Ashbrook. Aren't they also the ones that issued circulars which 
we have in this committee wdiich tell the public how to make a Molotov 
cocktail, and says, "Throw them and watch them run," or something 
like that ? 

Mr. Luce. I am not certain that they did the leaflets. I do know 
that the "Wanted for Murder, Gilligan, the Cop" posters were printed 
by Progressive Labor and distributed by the Harlem Defense Council's 
Progressive Labor within Harlem. 

The Molotov cocktail leaflets, I don't know about. 

Mr. Ashbrook. It certainly would be fair to say that a group of 
that type, which would take such a direct action against the policemen, 
law and order, could be said to help incite tensions which from time to 
time have erupted in riots in Harlem and elsewhere? 

Mr. Luce. Well, it is a basic policy of various Communist organiza- 
tions to attempt to incite people to riot, but if, in fact, they are not 
the key reasons then it would be a gross mistake to simply say that 
the Communists were behind, for instance, the riots in Harlem. 

It is just not true. But the point is that once the frictions reached 
the point where riots began, then the Communists did everything 
within their power to keep them going, to incite further demonstra- 
tions and more and more rioting. 

Mr. Ashbrook. Thank you, and I want to, along with the others, 
add my appreciation to the testimony of this valuable witness, and 
that's all I have, Mr. Chairman. 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 965 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Luce, the Chair wants to join with my colleagues on 
the committee in commending you for appearing before the commit- 
tee and giving us the beneht of your testimony. I particularly want 
to point out that the reasons for the change in your philosophy and 
the changing of heart is a real lesson to the youth of America. I 
think that your testimony is very valuable in that regard, as well as 
being informative to the committee in our legislative purpose. 

I do want to ask you to step down, but not be released from your 
subpena, as we may have reason to call you further. 

Mr. Luce. Thank you. 

Mr. Pool. And also point out to you that you have the protection 
of the statutes against threats or anything like that, and that if you 
should report to the committee of any threats or any intimidation or 
anyhing like that, that causes or puts you in fear — ^and I am saying 
this for the benefit of some of those in the audience who might have 
some bright ideas. 

Thank you. 

[Laughter.] 

(Witness excused, subject to further call.) 

Mr. Pool. Call your next witness. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would Jeffrey Gordon come forward, please? 

Mr. Pool. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about 
to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so 
help you God? 

Mr. Gordon. I affirm. 

Mr. Pool. Do you affirm that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth? 

Mr. Gordon. I affirm that I have come here to give the whole truth. 

Mr. Pool. Proceed, Counsel. 

TESTIMONY OF JEFFREY QORDON, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL. 

lEA GOLLOBIN 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state your full name for the record, please. 

Mr. Gordon. What is the relevance of that question, please? 

Mr. Pool. The Chair rules that it is relevant. Answer the question. 

Mr. Gordon. I would like the reason for that, please. 

Mr. Pool. I have just ruled it is relevant. 

Mr. Gordon. You are not going to allow me to know the reason, 
sir? 

^Ir. Pool. State your reason. 

Mr. XiTTLE. We must identify the witness, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Gordon. I will identify the United States as the aggressor in 
Vietnam. 

Mr. Pool. We want to know if your name is the one that appears on 
the subpena. That's what we are trying to get at. 

Mr. Gordon. My name is Jeffrey Gordon. I identify with the Amer- 
ican Revolution. 

[Applause.] 

Mr. Pool. If the Chair can comment, there was another fellow that 
was identified with the American Revolution. I think his first name 
was Benedict. 



966 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

[Laugliter and applause.] 

Mr. Gordon. Mr. Pool, in that same category is Lyndon Johnson 
and McNaniara and other people. 

Mr. Pool. You are here to answer questions. 

Mr. Gordon. You don't conduct the questioning. 

Mr. Pool. Ask questions. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Gordon. Yes, I am. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would counsel kindly identify himself for the record, 
stating his name and office address ? 

Mr. GoLLOBiN. Ira Gollobin, New York City. 

Mr. NiTTLB. Now Mr. Gordon, where do you live? 

Mr. Gordon. I live in Brooklyn, New York. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is the date and place of your birth ? 

Mr. Gordon. I was born in Brooklyn, New York. And I was bom 
during the war against fascism, a war that was fought by Americans 
against a real enemy. A war that was just. You are not interested 
in hearing about wars against fascism ? 

Mr. Pool. Answer the question. You don't have to go into a long 
rigmarole. Answer the question asked. 

Mr. Gordon. I am telling the date and the circumstances under 
which I was born. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I didn't ask you the circumstances. 

Mr. Gordon. I was born during the war against fascism, a war that 
was for the people of the world and not a war against the people, as 
the war in Vietnam is. The year was 1942. 

Mr. Pool. The date is all we are asking you. 

Mr. Gordon. The exact date was October 30th. 

Mr. Pool. Go ahead. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now would you relate for the record the extent of your 
formal education, giving the dates and places you attended? 

Mr. Pool. Please speak a little louder. Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And any degrees you may have received. 

Mr. Gordon. I would like at this point to make certain objections to 
this hearing. 

Mr. Pool. State your objections. 

Mr. Gordon. Thank you. 

I object to answering any questions of this committee on the ground 
the Public Law 601, Y9th Congress, 60 Statutes 812, Part 2, Rule XI, 
authorizing the Committee on Un-American Activities, quote "to 
make * * * investigations of * * * extent, character, and objects of 
un-American propaganda activities in the United States," violates the 
Constitution in that the statute is ambiguous and vague, the term "un- 
American propaganda activities" being nowhere defined, and being in 
fact incapable of one precise definition, and obscuring the fact that 
there are not one, but two kinds of un-American activities ; first, those 
that the vast majority of the American people deem un-American, 
such as the undemocratic activities, including those of this committee. 

Mr. AsHBRooK. Mr. Chairman, he is making a statement. 

Mr. Gordon. And, secondly, those deemed undemocratic by a small 
minority of wealthy people, who are escalating the war in Vietnam. 

Mr. Pool. Are you taking the fifth amendment ? 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 967 

Mr. Gordon. I am objecting to the committee. 

Mr. AsHBRooK. You are making a statement. 

Mr. Gordon. I am objecting to the whole proceeding of the 
committee. 

Mr. Pool, This committee of Congress, and we are representing 
the Congress, does not have to take that kind of insuh. We ask you to 
make 3' our objection and make it now. Do you take the fifth amend- 
ment on this question ? 

Mr. Gordon. There is no question before me. You allowed me to 
state my objections to this committee; I asked for it and you allowed 
it. May I continue ? 

Mr. Pool. Continue asking. Ask the question, Counsel. 

Mr. Gordon, I may not make objections to this committee ? 

Mr, Pool. Yes ; but you make them in a proper manner. 

Mr, Gordon. Well, may I continue ? 

Mr, Pool. No ; not in that kind of a manner. 

Mr. Gordon, I further object to answering any questions of the 
committee on the ground that the statute on its face, and as applied 
by the House Un-American Activities during the past 20 years and 
especially today in its harassment of those opposing the Vietnam 
war, is repugnant to the freedom of speech, assembly, association, and 
privacy guaranteed by the Bill of Rights and suppresses, inhibits 
dissent, and thus infringes not only the rights of the dissenters, but, 
above all, the right of the American people as a whole, to be informed 
of the oj)inions of dissenters, as a basis of the American people cor- 
rectly making decisions concerning their welfare and their survival. 
And that the results of this suppression is leading this country down 
to an American road of fascism, 

I would also like to associate myself, Mr, Pool and the committee, 
with the court injunction placed by a couple of the other defendants 
that has been in the press the last few days. And that is going to 
be brought before the press — before the court again tomorrow. 

I would also like to make two further objections. One, I did not 
receive the statement that I received at the beginning of this hearing 
prior to the hearing, which did not give me a chance to fully under- 
stand the nature of this hearing. And, secondly, I would like to 
object to what I call this white-card hearing, at which people have 
been admitted who only have white cards, and at which friends and 
the first-come, first-served basis has not been applied, and that this 
in fact is being turned into an executive session, because you are only 
allowing those people in who you wish, now, and you are also not al- 
lowing cameramen in, whom you wish. I don't mind cameramen 
taking my picture or the picture of anything that happens at this 
hearing. It is only you that object to that, because of the brutality 
that was, that you carried out at the beginning of this hearing and 
because you were only allowing certain people in, and that they 
could have taken a picture of that door, of people handing white 
cards to the guard, and no one else being allowed m. 

Those are my objections. 

[Applause.] 

Mr, Pool, Now I want to warn you for the last time, those in the 
audience who see fit to try to disrupt this hearing, that we are not 



968 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

going to put up with demonstrations, and I am going to remove any- 
one who does so. I am going to instruct the officers now to remove 
anyone that you see, and you spot them, if they demonstrate in this 
audience, we are going to remove them from this room. 

Mr. Gordon. Why didn't you say that when they applauded the 
statement against me that you made ? 
Mr. Pool. It applies to all. 

Mr. Gordon. Well, you did not make that statement at that time, 
sir, and they applauded for a much longer time, because you stacked 
the hearing room in your favor. 
[Laughter.] 

Mr. Gordon. There are hundreds of people outside waiting to get 
in. 

Mr. Pool. Have you had a chance to read the opening statement? 
Mr. Gordon. I heard you read it. 
Mr. Pool. Did you understand it ? 

Mr, Gordon. I believe I did. I would like to comment on it. 
Mr. Pool. All right, that's good enough. Your objection is over- 
ruled, about the opening statement. 

Mr. Gordon. Well, could I 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Gordon. But 

Mr. Pool. No; we will ask the questions. 
Mr. Gordon. Sir, if 1 may continue my answer. 
Mr. Pool. You are here to give testimony, not to ask. 
Mr. Gordon. You didn't give me a chance to finish my answer. I 
did not have a chance to really study that. 

Mr. IcHORD. Point of order. The witness is not stating any ob- 
jections. He is merely being argumentative with the committee. 1 
would like the counsel again to state the question to the witness, and 
I hope that he is responsive in the following statements. 
Mr. Pool. State the question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you relate the extent of your formal education, 
please ? 

Mr. Gordon. Surely. I went to Public School 192, in Brooklyn, 
New" York, from 9 — these are approximate dates — 9^8 to 6-54. 
That was during the cold war and the redbaiting of this committee 
started. 

I went to junior high school in Brooklyn, also. It is called Mon- 
tauk Junior High School. I went from 9-54 to 6-56. That was 
when the Korean war began and McCarthyism began. 

I then went to high school in Utrecht, Utrecht High School in 
Brooklyn, from 9-56 to 6-59. That's when you called students a 
silent generation. 

I entered the University of California at Berkeley at 9-59. You 
gentlemen at that point were out in San Francisco, also, a little 
later, and that's when I first became involved with political activity. 
It was called Black Friday, when people were beaten because there 
was a white-card hearing held there in San Francisco. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you just confine yourself to answering the 
question ? 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 969 

Mr. Gordon. I am answering the question. I attended from 9-59 
to 6-60 at University of California. I then returned to Brooklyn 
College, in Brooklyn, New York, which is a free school, because I 
couldn't afford to continue to go to the University of California. 

Mr. NiTTLE. We are not asking for comments, but for you to simply 
identify the places at which you attended school and when. 

Mr. Gordon. I am doing that. I went to Brooklyn College from 
9-60 to 1-62. That was for a year and a half. I then left Brooklyn 
College and got a job with Time magazine. 

[Laughter.] 

Mr. Gordon. After that 

Mr. NiTTLE. In what capacity were you employed ? 

Mr. Gordon. It was really Time, Incorporated, all the magazines. 

[Laughter.] 

Mr. NiTTLE. I say. In what capacity were you employed ? 

Mr. Gordon. Fortune^ I worked in the editorial reference depart- 
ment, where they have very extensive files on everyone. 

[Laughter.] 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long were you employed ? 

Mr. Gordon. All agencies in the Government and friends of tho 
Government have extensive files. That is fascism. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long were you employed there ? 

Mr. Gordon. How long was I employed there ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. 

Mr. Gordon. These are approximate dates, because I jotted these 
down, because I thought you would ask them. It was something like 
March to July, '62, when I then left and spent several months in Mex- 
ico, writing and doing some thinking and reading. After which I re- 
turned to the University of California at Berkeley, 1-63. I was 
majoring in philosophy, the theory of ideas. It was very sterile phil- 
osophy that they teach you there. It wasn't Marxism. I then, as I 
said, I left in 1-64. Then I did — I returned to school again, 1-66, at 
Brooklyn College in New York, and I am attending that school 
presently. 

Mr. IcHORD. Counsel, the witness attended school over a long period 
of time. This member is curious as to what degrees he received, if 
any. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes ; what degrees have you received, if any ? 

Mr. Gordon. Well, I went to school for 3i/2 years before returning 
to Brooklyn College. I didn't have a bachelor's degree. I am going 
for that now, at Brooklyn. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wliat is your present occupation ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Gordon. I am sorry. I didn't hear the question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is your present occupation ? 

Mr. Gordon. I am a student. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you have any gainful employment ? 

Mr, Gordon. I think learning is. I am learning a lot here today 
about the operations of the United States Government. But my full 
occupation is student. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you have a source of income from any part-time 
employment ? 



67-852 — 66— pt. 1- 



970 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Mr. Gordon. I would like to know what the relevance of that ques- 
tion is. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you receive any source of income from the Progres- 
sive Labor Party ? 

Mr. Gordon. Again, I would like to understand the relevance of 
that question. I would like to know why, also, if I may, this commit- 
tee is misusing the money the American people gave it, and the Gov- 
ernment is misusing the money it gets to fight a war against people 
of Vietnam. 

[Demonstration.] 

Mr. Gordon. To pass legislation, that's the money that we should 
talk about, that is being used. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you please answer ? 

Mr. Gordon. That's the subject of this investigation, the war in 
Vietnam, U.S. aggression in Vietnam. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you receive any income from the Progressive Labor 
Party? 

Mr. Gordon. Once again, I would like to know the relevance of that 
question. I believe witnesses are allowed to know the relevance of 
questions, though you just seem to want to rule on them and not tell 
the relevance. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Because we have subpenaed you today to testify with 
regard to matters set forth in the committee resolution. The committee 
is making an inquiry into the extent, character, and objectives of 
organizations and groups within the United States which solicit 
money, supplies, and material assistance for delivery to, or in aid of, 
Communist powers, and those organizations which advocate or em- 
ploy force, physical impediments, or any unlawful means to obstruct 
the movement of personnel and supplies of tlie Armed Forces. 

Mr. Pool. I will rule that that is a sufScient relevance, and I order 
you and direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. Gordon. The subject of this hearing is U.S. aggression in Viet- 
nam, not what you stated. 

Mr. NiTPLE. We believe that you have information that pertains to 
that subject matter. 

Mr. Ashbrook. He did not answer the question. 

Mr. Pool. I want you to answer the question. I am directing you 
and ordering you to answer the question, and that is the last time I am 
going to do this. 

Mr. Gordon. I still don't understand the relevance of that question. 

Mr. Pool. All right, ask the next question. Counsel. 

Mr. Gordon. I am still 

Mr. Pool. Are you going to answer the question ? 

Mr. Gordon. I decline to answer the question on the ground that 
this committee at present is illegally constituted, because members of 
this committee, including the chairman, Mr. Pool, and other people, 
are elected from States that deny the right of a considerable number 
of Negro and poor white citizens of those States to vote, as required 
under section 2 of the 14th amendment of the Constitution of the 
United States, and that this committee as illegally constituted has no 
right to ask any questions. 

Mr. Pool. That is not an objection, and it is overruled. 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 971 

Mr. Gordon. I further object that you have subpenaed us here to 
subject our viewpoints and our persons to a harassment and public 
condemnation, in which, by the way, you will not succeed, and this 
is not a purpose 

Mr. Pool. Overrule the objection. 

Mr. Gordon. I further object that you already have in your files 
what you consider satisfactory answers to all questions you are asking, 
so that 

Mr. Pool. These are no valid objections. If you have a valid ob- 
jection, state it right now. 

Mr. Gordon. I think these are valid objections. I would like a 
ruling on them. 

Mr. Pool. State it. 

Mr. Gordon. I would like a ruling on these objections, as I state 
them. 

Mr. Pool. The objections you have stated are not valid objections 
and, therefore, they are overruled. 

Mr. Gordon. I decline to answer on the grounds that the question 
inquires into my political beliefs and association in a violation of the 
guarantee of freedom of speech and assembly provided by the first 
amendment to the Constitution. This committee can't inquire into 
tliese matters. 

Mr. Pool. I don't think the question has anything to do with that, 
and I overrule the objection. 

Mr. Gordon. Okay. 

[Laughter.]! 

Mr. Gordon. Now, there is such a thing in this country called the 
Constitution, and I object because I think that these questions and 
these liearings are in violation to what is the true meaning of the 
United States Constitution, not the meaning that unpatriotic forces 
that are carrying on the war in Vietnam put it. 

Mr. Pool. That's not a valid objection. I overrule it. 

Mr. Gordon. The Constitution is not a valid objection. 

Mr. Pool. No, the way you interpret it. 

Mr. Gordon. I think it is, the Constitution, the way I interpret it. 

Mr. Pool. Overruled. 

Mr. Gordon. You are overruling the Constitution. That is what 
we have been ss.ying you are doing all along. 

Mr. Pool. I am overruling you, and the way you interpret it. 

Mr. Gordon. Well, let's look at it. 

[Laughter. ]f 

Mr. Gordon. "In all criminal prosecutions" — I am reading an 
amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Pool. You call upon the immunities of the fifth amendment? 

Mr. Gordon. I am reading an amendment to the Constitution, if I 
rnay read it, please: "In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall 
enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of 
the State 

Mr. Pool. That's criminal prosecution. This is not in a court of 
law, and your objection is overruled. 

Mr. Gordon. Will you please let me finish ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 



972 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Mr. Gordon. This can result in criminal prosecution, if not — or 
are you giving me immunity from that ? The ninth amendment to the 
Coiistitution states, "The enumeration in the Constitution of certain 
rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by 
the people." 

Mr. Pool. That does not apply. 

Mr. Gordon. It does not apply? 

Mr. Pool. Not to the question you have before you there. 

Mr. Gordon. So you are overruling the ninth amendment to the 
Constitution ? 

Mr. Pool. I am overruling you. 

Mr. Gordon. "The powers not delegated to the United States by the 
Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved" 

Mr. AsHBRooK. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Gordon. I am reading the 10th amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Asiibrook. Mr. Chairman, there are privileges and immunities 
in the fifth amendment which this witness can take if he so desires. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Asiibrook. He has stated sections of the Constitution which 
have not applied in the past. The courts have been unanimous on that. 
This committee recognizes the fifth amendment, if he wants to apply it. 
I suggest that he is in a state of trying to delay our proceedings, and I 
suggest that he be directed to summon any immunities he may have 
and cease the dilatory tactics that he is following. 

Mr. IcHORD. "Well, Mr. Chairman, the witness might have the cour- 
age of his convictions. He may want to answer the question. 

Mr. Gordon. I think I have a right to state these things, because 
each case is different, and you are not a court, as was proven today. 

Mr. IcHORD. You have stated them, and the courts have held time 
and time again 

Mr. Gordon. Well, each court session is different, and each thing is 
different. 

Mr. IcHORD. They are not valid objections. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. Until they change the rules. 

Mr. IcHORD. You have refused to answer the questions. Mr. Chair- 
man, I ask that you direct the witness to answer the questions. 

Mr. Gordon. Questions that you are asking are an attempt to get me 
to be what I call fink, like Phillip Goose, to talk on other people, and 
that's what that question is leading into. 

Mr. Pool. You are out of order now. And let the record show that 
this man has been out of order and is not responsive to the questions. 

Mr. Gordon. Since you are unwilling — I am stating an objection. 

Mr. Pool. You are not allowed to, right at this second. 

Mr. Gordon. You are not allowing me to state an objection ? 

Mr. Pool. I have asked you to state a valid objection. 

Mr. Gordon. I am stating an objection right now. 

Mr. Pool. How many ob j ections do you have ? 

Mr. Gordon. This is an objection I am stating. 

Mr. Pool. How many do you have left ? ^ 

Mr. Gordon. This is a — if you want to give my objections for me. 
I will give my objections, if you are not willing to hear it. 

Mr. Pool. How many objections are you going to state ? 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 973 

Mr. Gordon. Please let me state my objection. Since you are un- 
willing, going against the Constitution, I am forced by this to protect 
myself against this type of abuse. Therefore, I would like to state 
something : "No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or other- 
wise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand 
Jury" 

Mr. AsHBROOK. Mr. Chairman, again he is stating objections that 
are based on a criminal prosecution. 

Mr. Gordon. I am reading an amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. They are dilatory, and 

Mr. Gordon. Will you please let me finish reading my amendments? 

Mr. AsHBROOK. He is not stating anything responsive to the 
questions. 

Mr. Gordon. — "Except in cases of [sic] land or naval forces, or in 
the militia, * * * nor shall any person be subject" 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Nittle, ask the next question. 

Mr. Gordon. I am reading an amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Pool. I direct you for the last time to answer that question. 

Mr. Gordon. I am reading an amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Pool. All right, let the record show he refused to answer. 

Mr. Gordon. I am answering the question. 

Mr. Pool. Go on to the next question. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Luce has identified you as a member of the Progres- 
sive Labor Movement at the time he was a member of that organization. 
Were you a member of the Progressive Labor Movement? 

Mr. Gordon. In answer to the last question, I would like to state, 
"nor shall [any person] be compelled in any Criminal Case to be a wit- 
ness against himself." 

Mr. Pool. Is this responsive to his last question ? 

Mr. Gordon. You are not letting me answer that last question. 

Mr. Pool. I am asking you. Are you trying to answer that last ques- 
tion or the one before that ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Gordon. Would you please repeat the question ? 

Mr. Pool. Eead the last question. Not the previous one. 

Mr. Nittle. To save the reporter 

Mr. Pool. Let the reporter find it. 

(The record was read by the reporter as follows :) 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Luce has identified you as a member of the Progressive Labor 
Movement at the time he was a member of that organization. Were you a mem- 
ber of the Progressive Labor Movement? 

Mr. Gordon. I received a letter from you, from Mr. Willis, in the 
mail which said a similar identity and said that a person had identi- 
fied me as such in executive hearing. I would like the opportunity 
to have any lawyer and myself cross-examine that person. 

Mr. Nittle. You do not • 

Mr. Pool. That isn't sufficient objection. Overruled. I direct you 
to answer this question. 

Mr. Gordon. Okay. I v, as bom to what is called a working-class 
family. My father has worked all his life, in a factory. 



974 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chainnan 



Mr. Gordon-. I am answering this question in my own way, please. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. NiTTLE, I submit the witness is not responsive to the question. 

Mr. Gordon. I am answering this question in my own way. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The question is specifically 

Mr. Gordon. You are not interested in hearing about workers in 
this countiy ? 

Mr. Pool. Answer the question. 

Mr. Gordon. I am answering his question in my own way. 

Mr. Pool. Let him try to answer the question. 

Mr. Gordon. Please. Thank you. My parents have worked all 
their lives. My mother 

Mr. AsHBROOK. Mr. Chairman, he is not responding to the question. 
His continuing dilatory tactics are 

Mr. Pool. I will let him continue. See what he says. We ought 
to be as fair as we can with him. 

Mr. Gordon. My parents have worked hard all their lives. My 
mother works in an office, my father works in a factory. They are 
about to retire, but yet, their retirement is not secure. Because they 
will not necessarily get enough money from Social Securit}^ 

Mr. Pool. Now you explained all that. Now answer the question. 

Mr. Gordon. It will just take me a few minutes. 

Mr. Pool. It is not going to take a few minutes because I am not 
going to let you take a few minutes. Answer the question. 

Mr. Gordon. I am trying to talk about exploitation in this Nation. 

Mr. Pool. I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. Gordon. You are not interested in hearing about exploitation 
of the poor ? 

Mr. Pool. I direct you for the last time to answer the question. 

Ask the last question, Mr. Nittle. 

Mr. Gordon. I am answering his question. 

Mr. Pool. All right. You answer it, pronto, then, if you want to. 
Don't take an hour. 

Mr, Gordon. The Progressive Labor Party says, talks about this 
exploitation. 

Mr. Pool. We are not here to hear a speech. We want a response 
to this question. 

Mr. Gordon. There is a question which I will answer in my own 
way. 

Mr. Pool. That is the last time I am directing you to answer that 
question. 

Mr. Gordon. I am a member of the Progressive Labor Party. 

Mr. Pool. Thank You. 

Mr. Gordon. I am sorry that you are not interested in hearing 
about exploitation in this country. Maybe that would be better, fit- 
ting questions to ask about. 

Mr. Pool. You are making a very pretty record here. I will say 
that for you. 

Mr. Gordon. You are making a very pretty record in front of the 
American people in Vietnam, and in holding these hearings. 

Mr. Pool. Next question. 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 975 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Gordon, do you hold any office in the Progressive 
Labor Party i 

Mr. Gordon. I am a student organizer of the Progressive Labor 
Party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long have you served in that capacity ? 

Mr. Gordon. What is the purpose of asking dates'^ What does 
that have to do with legislative purpose of this committee, the Pool- 
Jolmson suppression of peace bill ? 

JMr. XiTTLE. Did you serve in that capacity since on or about March 
14, 196-i? 

Mr. Gordon. As I said, I would like to know the relevance of that 
question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The relevance is that the coimnittee has had testimony, 
and has information, that you have been a leader in the May 2nd Move- 
ment and that you are in fact, and were in fact, % member of the na- 
tional executive committee of the May 2nd Movement. We have also 
had testimony that the May 2nd Movement was an organization cre- 
ated, dominated, and controlled by the Progressive Labor Party. 

Mr. Gordon, The purpose of the May 2nd Movement, do you know 
that? Is to get U.S. troops out of Vietnam. That is an American 
purpose. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now will you answer the question, please ? 

How long have you served as the student organizer of the Progres- 
sive Labor Party ? 

Mr. Gordon. Once again, I would like to know the relevance of that 
question. I do not think you have adequately shown that. This whole 
hearing is an attempt to cover up on the war in Vietnam, the murder 
of American people over there. 

Mr. Pool. The relevance is apparent. Answer the question. 

Mr. Gordon. Once again, I think that questions like this are ques- 
tions that are attempting to get me to talk about other people and 
lead into questions that talk about other people. 

Mr. Pool. I have ruled. I have ruled that the question is relevant. 
Now I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. Gordon. I am saying why this, what the aim of this question 
is. 

Mr. Pool. All right, Mr. Nittle, ask the next question. 

Mr. Gordon. I will then state objections to this question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Had you served as a member 

Mr. Gordon. You are not going to let me state my objections ? 

Mr. AsHBROOK. If you will state them 

Mr. Gordon. That's what I have been trying to do all along, but the 
gavel of the chairman is a very strong weapon, which he uses, I think, 
all too frequently. 

[Laughter.] 

Mr. Gordon. It is when an American citizen criticizes his Congress- 
men. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. Mr. Chairman, the question remains unanswered. I 
suggest that it be redirected and that the witness respond. 

Mr. Pool. Answer the question. 

Mr. Gordon. Repeat the question. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 



976 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Mr. AsHBROOK. How long have you been a student organizer? I be- 
lieve is the pending question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. That is correct. How long have you served as the stu- 
dent organizer of the Progressive Labor Party or Movement ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Gordon. The statement made that a student organizer since 
1964 is an incorrect statement. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. Mr. Chairman, could he give us the correct in- 
formation ? 

Mr. Gordon. I don't have the exact date, but it has been, I would say, 
within the last couple of months that I have been student organizer. 

Mr. AsiiBROOK. Thank you. 

Mr. Pool. Next question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now what position did you hold in the May 2nd Move- 
ment? 

Mr. AsHBROoK. Mr. Counsel, before that, I would like to interject 
one question, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Pool. All right. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. In his capacity as student organizer for the past 
several months, has he received any remuneration or any expense 
money or any financial support whatsoever from the Progressive Labor 
Movement ? 

Mr. Gordon. The financial support that Congress gets, as Senator 
Dodd is starting to show, is sometimes a little embarrassing. Shall 
we go into that, to begin with ? 

Mr. Pool. That's not responsive to the question. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. Mr. Chairman, he is evading the question. 

Mr. Pool. I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. Gordon. This question, I believe, is similar to the question asked, 
a couple of questions ago, by the counsel, and my objections to that 
question are the same. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. You did not give valid objections. Is it your state- 
ment you do not want to answer the question ? 

Mr. Gordon. I gave valid objections. 

Mr. Pool. I overruled you. 

Mr. AsiiBRooK. You have given no valid objections; you have not 
brought tlie fifth amendment up or any Constitutional grounds for 
refusing to answer. 

Mr. Gordon. As a matter of fact, I brought up a number of amend- 
ments, in which that was included. 

Mr. Pool. Well, they were overruled. I direct you to answer the 
question. 

Mr. AsHBRooK. Mr. Chairman, let's reiterate that. If he specifically 
brought up the fifth amendment, that is one tiling. Do you bring up 
the fifth amendment as a defense against answering this question at 
this time? 

(Witnass conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Gordon. I am proud to be a student organizer for the Progres- 
sive Labor Party. I, however, do not answer questions about money 
or names, because those are fink questions, and I am not a fink, like 
Phillip Goose, and that amendment that you stated was included 
within 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 977 

]VIr. Pool. I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. Gordon. — was included within my objections. However, Mr. 
Pool, in his energetic gaveling, gaveled it down, as I was reading it, 
the 5th, the 6th, the 9th, the 14th, which is veiy 

Mr. Pool. All right. Take the next question. 

Mr. Gordon. I take ih& amendment to the Constitution that protects 
people from committees such as this. 

Mr. Pool. Including the fifth amendment. So go ahead with the 
next question. 

Let the record show he took the fifth amendment on that. 

Mr. Gordon. Let the record show that I am proud to be m the Pro- 
gressive Labor Party. I w^ould not be proud to sit in this Congress. 

Mr. Pool. Go ahead. 

Mr. Nii^TLE. Wlien did you first join the Progressive Labor Move- 
ment, or Party ? 

Mr. Gordon. Why don't we get down to the war in Vietnam, which 
is what we are here for? 

Mr. Pool. Answer the question. 

Mr. Gordon. I came here to denounce U.S. aggression in Vietnam 
and to demand that the United States get out. I don't see how this 
is relevant to that. 

Mr. Pool. State your question again. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wlien did you first join the Progressive Labor Move- 
ment? 

Mr. Gordon. Again, can you state the relevance of that question? 
The next question is : Who recruited you ? The next question is • 

Mr. Pool. The relevance is apparent, and I will overrule your ob- 
jection. Now answer the question. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Gordon. Well, I object to that question on the following 
grounds: "In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the 
right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State 
and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which dis- 
trict shall have been previously ascertained by law" 

Mr. AsHBROOK. Mr. Chairman, he has not been accused of any crime. 

Mr. Gordon. — and "to be confronted with the witnesses" that are 
being — you have not confronted me with the witnesses. 

Mr. AsHBRooK. You are not accused of a crime. 

Mr. Gordon. Under the sixth amendment. But you are now put- 
ting questions about which, if I understand correctly, you state that 
you have received testimony in executive session. Therefore, in fact, 
you are turning this into a trial. 

Mr. Pool. Objection is overruled. I will direct you to answer the 
question. 

Mr. Gordon. I further decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that this committee as presently instituted is a racist com- 
mittee. It is a committee that contains people who have been elected 
to Congress where the black citizens of this country have not had a 
chance to vote. 

Mr. Pool. If you have a valid objection, state them now; otherwise, 
proceed. 

Mr. Gordon. Racism is not a valid objection to this committee, you 
say. I disagree. 



978 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Mr. Pool. I direct you to answer the question for the last time. 
And if he doesn't, or take the fifth amendment, Counsel, go ahead and 
ask the next question. 

Mr. Gordon. I sense that this committee is only interested in one 
objection. The judiciary and other bodies are interested in more. 

Mr. Pool. Do you take the fifth amendment? 

Mr. Gordon. I am answering this question in my own way. 

Mr. Pool. Well, you have answered promptly, and get it over with, 
because I want to go on to the next question. 

Mr. Gordon. Well, I am still answering this question. One, this 
question is an attempt, once again, to abridge my rights under the 
Constitution and will lead into further questions that will attempt to 
get me to tell, to fink, to give names, to do exactly what this committee 
wants. However, that I will never do before this committee. 

Mr. Pool. Do you take the fifth amendment? 

Mr. Gordon. Therefore, to protect my rights, I say the following: 
You have forced me to sa}^ the following, because you abridged the 
Constitution. And you have abridged the decency that is left in this 
democratic — the democratic decencies that are left, that you are trying 
to impede, and that is, no person shall be held to answer for capital, 
or other infamous crime, unless in the presentment or indictment of 
the Grand Jury, except in cases in the land or naval forces or in the 
militia, or in actual ser\ace in time of war, nor shall any person be 
subject to the same offense to be twice in jeopardy of life or limb; 
nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against 
himself ; nor be deprived of life, liberty 

Mr. Pool. He is taking the fifth amendment. 

Go to the next question. That will be sufficient. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. NiTTLE, Mr. Gordon, do you also serve- 



Mr. Gordon. I am consulting with counsel, please. 

Mr. Pool. Ask the next question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do vou serve on the editorial board of the Free 
Stwlent? 

Mr. Gordon. The Free Student newspaper is a newspaper which 
combines anti-imperialism, anti-imperialist activity with activity to 
expose the stellar role of the university administration on students. 
It talks about how students in this country are being drafted to fight in 
the v.^ar in Vietnam, how students in this country are being forced 
into majors that don't offer them any creative alternative, to offer 
creative form of life. I am stating what the Free Student is. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, the witness is 

Mr. Gordon. The Free Student is a national newspaper. It is a 
newspaper that is attempting to tell the truth about things like the 
war in Vietnam. 

Mr. Pool. You are not responsive to the (juestion. 

Mr. Gordon. About which this committee is not interested. 1 
am very proud to be on the editorial board of the Free Student. 

Mr. Pool. That was not the question. I direct you to answer the 
question. 

Mr. Gordon. I just answered it. 

[Laughter.] 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. EST UNDECLARED WAR 979 

Mr. Gordon. You should listen to what I say. 

Mr. Pool. Next question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Luce, a member of the Progressive Labor Move- 
ment from July 1964 until about January 1965 and who served as a 
member of the national executive committee of the May 2nd Move- 
ment, testified that the activities of the May 2nd Movement were con- 
trolled by an executive committee composed of 12 members, 9 of whom 
were members of the Progressive Labor Movement. Is that also your 
information ? 

Mr. Gordon. The May 2nd Movement is an independent organiza- 
tion. The only thing that is a front here is this committee, which is 
fronting for Johnson in his aggression in Vietnam. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Luce testified that the nine Progressive Labor 
Movement members of the executive committee of the May 2nd Move- 
ment caucused in separate sessions and made decisions that were then 
adopted as the decisions of the May 2nd Movement. Is this true ? 

Mr. Gordon. The chief caucus in this country is the big business 
caucus that is attempting to force the war down the throats of the peo- 
ple of America. 

Mr. Pool. That is not responsive to the question. Answer the 
question. 

Mr. Gordon. I was talking about caucuses; the real caucuses are 
the dangers to people. 

Mr. Pool. State your question again. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I will restate it in this fashion : Mr. Luce testified in 
essence that the Progressive Labor Movement members set the policy 
for the May 2nd Movement. 

Mr. Gordon. Wliat does that mean ? 

Mr. Pool. Let him finish the question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you agree ? 

Mr. Gordon. What does that mean ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. It means that the May 2nd Movement was under the 
control, domination, and direction of the Progressive Labor Move- 
ment. Do you agree? 

Mr. Gordon. As I said. May 2nd Movement was an independent 
organization that made its own decisions. 

Mr. Pool. It has nothing to do with the Progressive Labor Move- 
ment. Is that what you are trying to say ? 

Mr. Gordon. There are members — and that has always been known 
and always publicly stated — of the May 2nd Movement who were in 
the Progressive Labor Party. That has never been denied and that 
was something that was proudly stated by members of Progressive 
Labor and proudly stated by members of the May 2nd Movement. 

Mr. Pool. All right. Go to the next question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Mr. Gordon, you do not regard the May 2nd 
Movement as a peace movement ; do you ? 

Mr. Gordon. Peace movement ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. 

Mr. Gordon. It is funny to hear those woi*ds out of your mouth 
What do you mean by that ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Well 

Mr. Gordon. It would seem that war movement- 



Mr. NiTTLE. I am surprised that you ask me what I mean by it. 



980 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Mr. Gordon. You are using the terms. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I am going to ask you what you meant by it. I have 
before me a publication of May 2nd Movement, dated October 15, 1965. 

Mr. Gordon. May I see that ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. And it appears 

Mr. Gordon. May I see that document? 

Mr. Pool. Just a moment, please. 

Mr. NiiTLE. Just a moment, please, and it appears under the typed 
signature of JetT Gordon, October 15, 1965, New York City, and 
bears the address evidently of the issuing organization or the organi- 
zation on whose behalf you acted, May 2nd Movement, 640 Broadway, 
Room 307, New York 12, New York. 

I am going to quote from this document, and 

Mr. Gordon. May I see it ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. And I will then hand it to you and ask you to identify 
it, if you wdll. 

There appears on the last page thereof the following statement : 

ON NON-VIOLENCE— 

To ask the people of Vietnam, of Dominicau Republic, of Batista Cuba, of the 
Congo, of Selma, of Watts, of Harlem, of Apalachia [sic] to be nonviolent is not to 
relate to the realities of our world. To ask the peasants of Vietnam not to 
fight back against the U.S. but to rely upon the U.S.'s good offices by non-violently 
not cooperating with them is criminal. We are not pacifists. * * * 

Now what did you mean by that ? 

(Document handed to witness.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. And I hand you that statement, that you may identify 
it. Is that a publication issued 

Mr. Gordon. May I study this? 

Mr. NiTTLE. — by the May 2nd Movement, and was it prepared in 
whole or in part by you ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Mr. Gordon, I think 

Mr. Gordon. I am studying this, please. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I am quite sure you have had sufficient time, at least to 
identify the document, and as to whether or not that was issued under 
your signature or with your knowledge. 

Mr. Gordon. You ask many questions. I would like, you know, 
if you would break up those questions and ask them one by one, and 
then we will be all set. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you participate in the preparation or dissemina- 
tion of that document ? Now you can answer that yes or no. 

Mr. Gordon. I most certainly did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now will you tell us, please, whether or not the May 
2nd Movement was a peace movement ? 

Now, Mr. Chairman, I submit that the witness can respond to that 
question. 

Mr. GoLLOBiN. I object to the counsel's observation. He has the 
right of conferral. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you pass that back to me, that document, please? 

Mr. GoLLOBiN. Gladly. 

Mr. AsiiBEooK. Mr. Chairman, is there an outstanding question? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 981 

Mr. Gordon. In 1776, the United States fought for freedom. The 
Marines' motto is, "Don't tread on me." That is what that document 
says. That is a progressive document, you are reactionaries. That 
is for peace. 

Mr. Pool. That is not responsive to the question. 

Mr. IcHORD. Mr. Chairman, is the counsel Differing the document as 
a part of the record for the committee ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, sir. 

Mr. IcHORD. Then I would request, Mr. Chairman, that the docu- 
ment be included as a part of this hearing record. It will speak for 
itself. We are not mterested in the philosophy of the witness. We 
are interested in his actions. He has chosen not to speak about those, 
most of those actions. 

Mr. Gordon. You read a part of that. 

Mr. IcHORD. Eight. 

Mr. Gordon. You were the one who opened up the questioning. 
You retract when somebody mentions traditions of the United States 
which you are ashamed of. 

Mr. Pool. The questioner will go on and proceed to the next ques- 
tion, and the document is accepted in evidence without objection. 

(Document marked "Gordon Exhibit No. 1." See p. 998.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did the national executive committee of the May 2nd 
Movement, through its circulars, publications, and directives, set the 
policy for May 2nd Movement chapters established in various parts of 
the comitry, and particularly at colleges and universities ? 

Mr. Gordon. The May 2nd Movement was set up in a democratic 
basis. Individual chapters made their own decisions. There were 
national conferences and other gatherings, at which consultations and 
joint statements may or may not have been made. However, we did 
not issue directives, as Johnson issued one for this hearing. We do 
not send troops to Vietnam. We do not have that power that you 
have. We were trying to build, and were successful in building, a 
movement that students against the war, students who made from 
their own minds. What you are attempting to do is to say the American 
people are not smart enough to oppose the war on their own intelli- 
gence. 

Mr. Pool. You have answered the question. 

Go to the next question. 

Mr. Gordon. You are very arrogant to the American people by these 
questions. They are not smart enough to know to resist you. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Gordon, I hand you a copy of the publication 
titled, "What Is May the 2nd Movement ?", a reprint from the national 
newspaper of the May 2nd Movement, the Free Student^ issue Number 
3, May 1965. 

Is that a publication of the May 2nd Movement ? 

Mr. Gordon. It looks like it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you hand it back to me, please ? 

Mr. Pool. Go to the next question. 

Mr. Gordon. A very good publication. You should read it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was this circularized to the various M 2 M chapters? 

Mr. Gordon. I believe some circulation was done of it. I don't 
loiow the exact circulation of it, the numbers, and so forth. But it was 
somewhat widelv circulated. 



982 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Mr. NiTTLE. And do you, in this document, set forth certain policies 
or objectives of the May 2nd Movement that can be followed by the 
members of the May 2nd Movement ? 

Mr. Gordon. Well, since you are holding the document 

( Docmnent handed to the witness. ) 

Mr. Pool. I think that question can be withdrawn. I think the 
document can be offered in evidence. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. 

Mr. Pool. And let it speak for itself. 

Mr. Gordon. All the questions so far can be withdrawn. 

Mr. Pool. We will save time. We offer it in evidence now at this 
time. Counselor. If there is no objection, it is accepted in evidence. 

(Docimient marked "Gordon Exhibit No. 2." See p. 1002.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Mr. Gordon 

Mr. Gordon. Wliy can't I comment on it, if it is going to be put in 
the record ? In the record without comment ? 

Mr. Pool. Just be responsive to the questions. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was it an objective and purpose of the May 2nd Move- 
ment to launch an anti-induction campaign on the campuses of the 
United States? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Gordon. The students on the campuses in the United States, as 
the working people in this country, do not want to fight in Vietnam. 
Someone here, one of the Congressmen said he had been to Vietnam 
and spoken to G.I.'s there. I have gotten many letters and seen many 
letters from G.I.'s that don't want to be there, and I don't see masses 
of people 

Mr. Pool. You are not responsive to the question. 

Mr. Gordon. I don't see masses of people being recruited to go to 
Vietnam. You have to induct them. You have to force them into it. 
That is not a draft, that is a slavery. 

Mr. Pool. State your question again, Counsel. 

Mr. Gordon. That is indentured service, forced labor, to fight these 
people. 

Mr. Pool. Wait until the question is asked. I am asking you to 
reread the question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Let me restate the question in this form, Mr. Chairman : 
The document which you have just identified states on pa^e 2, "The 
May 2nd Movement is launching an anti-induction campaign on the 
campuses." Would you tell us, please, whether the May 2nd Move- 
ment launched such a campaign ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Pool. At this time, the Chair wishes to welcome to the com- 
mittee room Congressman Rumsfeld, Illinois ; Dole, of Kansas ; Fuqua, 
of Florida ; and Downing, of Virginia. We appreciate you all being 
here. Thank you. 

Mr. Gordon. Could you please repeat that question ? 

By the way, why are you only reading selected parts of this docu- 
ment ? Why don't you read the whole document ? 

Mr. AsHBROoK. Mr. Chairman, this witness 

Mr. Gordon. You called me here. 

Mr. Pool. State your question. 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 983 

Mr. NiTTLE. I am seeking to inquire of you as a national leader, a 
member of the national executive committee of the May 2nd. Movement, 
whether it was a policy and whether, in fact, the May 2nd Movement 
launched an anti-induction campaign in the United States, on college 
campuses. 

Mr, Gordon. The May 2nd Movement was produced on campuses 
as part of what we considered our duty to what we consider the real 
America — not the America you represent, but the real America — to 
talk to students and all people who would listen about what our views 
on the war in Vietnam are, and to talk to them about whether Ameri- 
cans, whether America should be fighting in Vietnam. We did this 
continuously and we continue to do this. 

Mr. Pool. That's not responsive to the question. 

Mr. Gordon. The people in May 2nd continued to do this, or who 
used to be 

Mr. Pool. That is not responsive to the question, and I direct you 
to answer the question. 

Mr. Gordon. The May 2nd Movement, as part of its program, and 
it has always been stated as part of its program, on the campus, car- 
ried out certain activities against the present draft system, against, 
which is unequal, and mainly because the present draft system is for 
the war in Vietnam and the wars in Dominican Republic, wars that 
we don't like, we consider unjust and against the interests of the 
American people, we were very happy and very proud, and we 
thought it our duty, to cany out these campaigns. 

Mr. Pool. All right. Ask the next question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. 

Mr. Gordon. The American people aren't going to stand idly by for 
this. 

Mr. Pool. Wait until the question is asked. I have already asked 
the counsel to ask the next question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I also have before me the October 30, 1965, May 2nd 
Movement repoi-t. The report is identified as being prepared by, or 
forwarded under tlie authority of, J. G., May 2nd Movement, 64-0 
Broadway, Room 307, New York 12, New York. 

1 ask you to review that document and tell us whether that was 
either prepared or disseminated by you on behalf of the national 
executive committee of the May 2nd Movement. 

(Document handed to witness.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. I think you have had an opportunity to examine that. 

Mr. Gordon. Just one moment, please. 

This is a photostatic copy, so I have a right to study it. 

Here is your document back. What was the question again ? 

Mr. NiT'LLE. Do you identify this exhibit 

Mr. Gordon. It is an exhibit, yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. - — as a publication of the May 2nd Movement and hav- 
ing been prepared or disseminated under your signature? 

Mr. Gordon. Yes, to both questions. 

Have you read it carefully ? 

(Document marked "Gordon Exhibit No. 3." See p. lOOY.) 

Mr. AsHBRooK. Mr. Chairman, I wish you would instruct the wit- 
ness that he is here pursuant to subpena. He is to respond to ques- 



984 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

tions as they are proffered to him. The impudence he has shown with 
the retorts, with the unnecessaiy statements, should be discouraged. 
And I would hope that he could conduct himself properly as a witness 
before a properly constituted authority. 

Mr. Gordon. This is not a properly constituted authority. 

Mr. Pool. I agree with you and the record itself will show the im- 
pudence and the 

Mr. Gordon. Even the court is beginning 

Mr. Pool. — the impudence shown, and the American people, 
through the press assembled here, will get your answers and the way 
you handle them. And you are directed to be responsive to the ques- 
tions so we can get on with this hearing. 

Go ahead. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I want to read in part from page 1 of this document, 
under a heading "ANTI-DRAFT UNIONS." 

I quote : 

The October 24th meeting, announced and discussed in Report #1, was at- 
tended by about 30 M2Mers— all from New York and New Jersey. The en- 
closed press release dated October 26 outlines the decisions made at the meet- 
ing and the general context within which it was decided it was best to discuss 
the draft. The essential decisions were that anti-draft activity should be 
carried out through the formation of independent Anti-Draft Unions, though 
some chapters may decide that the situation on their campus calls for the work 
to be done directly by M2M, and that a booklet should be written that discusses 
the nature of Imperialist wars and why people don't want to fight in them. — ■ — 

Mr. Gordon. You are right that people don't want to fight in them. 
Mr. NiTTLE. [Continues reading:] 

The booklet would also discuss militarism and the various alternatives around 
the draft issue and the legal situation on them. * * * 

Mr. Pool. What is your question now. Counsel ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you not, in that publication, communicate decisions 
to M2M chapters, scattered on various college campuses? 

Mr. Gordon. Wliat was the question ? 

Mr. Pool. Restate the question, Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would the reporter read that question back to the 
witness ? 

Mr. Pool. All right. 

(The question was read by the reporter.) 

Mr. Gordon. Is the counsel now ready to hear my answer? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. 

Mr. Gordon. That publication which you have not stated what it is, 
but in any event, the part that you read seemed very obvious left deci- 
sions to chapters to analyze the situations on their own campus, as 
they see fit, and it disproves your prior insinuations of undemocracy 
and orders from above. I am surprised you didn't bring it up earlier. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Mr. Gordon, was it also a policy of the national 
leadership of the May 2nd Movement to stimulate interest on college 
campuses, through the various organizations of the M2M that had 
been set up, for the solicitation or collection of medical aid to the 
National Liberation Front of South Vietnam ? 

Mr. Gordon. The blood of American G.I.'s is on the liands of John- 
son and on the hands of all those abetting and aiding him. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It isn't on the hands of President Johnson. The respon- 
sibility, you w^ell know, rests in Peking and in Moscow. 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 985 

Mr. Gordon. Oh, that's — where is the Peking troops in South Viet- 
nam? It is American troops that have gone in, forced to go there. 
Why are you covering this up? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now will you tell us, please 

Mr. Gordon. You talk about blood, you talk about aid. What 
about, if your aid in Vietnam is American bombs ? They are killing 
the people there. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you tell us, please 

Mr. Pool. Let's have order. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you tell us, please, what the May 2nd Movement 
is doing ? 

Mr. Gordon. The May 2nd Movement it was stated before does not 
exist. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What it is doing or was doing, and vrhat the Progres- 
sive Labor Party is doing and was doing ? 

Mr. Gordon. That's a big question now. Why don't you break 
it up? 

Mr. Pool. Let the record show that the witness keeps interrupting 
the counsel who tries to state his questions, repeatedly, throughout 
this interrogation. Go ahead and state your question. 

Mr. Gordon. Please try to break it up, though, if you want it an- 
swered; maybe you don't. 

Mr. NiTTLE. We will now return to the question. And perhaps you 
will see fit to answer it. 

Was it a policy of the May 2nd Movement to urge the ]\I2M chapters 
established on various campuses to engage in a campaign to donate 
blood and other 

Mr. Gordon. Are you reading from that document ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, I am reading from ■ 

Mr. Gordon. Will you please quote it, if you want 

Mr. NiTTLE. I am reading from the document you have identified 
as a publication of the May 2nd Movement [Gordon Exhibit No. 2] . 
And let me, then, put it in the words of the document. 

Mr. Gordon. Please do. 

Mr. NiTTLE. [Reading :] 

Some chapters of May 2nd plan campaigns to donate blood and other medical 
aid to the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam, to concretely show our 
support for national liberation struggles. Receiving blood from U.S. college 
students will be a terrific morale boost to the Vietnamese people. Collecting 
pledges for blood on campus can also show where the administration stands as 
collecting for civil rights did at Berkeley. 

Now will you tell us, please, whether it was a policy of the national 
executive committee of the May 2nd JVIovement to urge M2M chapters 
to engage in a campaign on the respective college campuses, to donate 
blood and other medical aid to the National Liberation Front of South 
Vietnam ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Gordon. The best humanitarian traditions of this country is 
to aid people who are being invaded. That is, we believe what some 
chapters may have done in that case. First of all, you contradict 
yourself. You say — — 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, just a minute. 

Mr. Pool. You say that some of the chapters may have done that. 

67-852— 66— pt. 1 6 



986 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Mr. Gordon. I am trying to answer the contradiction in his ques- 
tion, which was, one, a statement that some chapters may, and then a 
statement that this was a directive, which is a constant misrepresenta- 
tion. 

Mr. Pool. Give the committee the benefit of what knowledge you 
have about the matter. 

Mr. Gordon. I would be happy to. 

Mr. Pool. All right. 

Mr. Gordon. We believe that as American citizens, as citizens of 
the world, as people who believe that aggression is wrong- 



Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Mr. Chairman, I don't think we should 

Mr. Pool. Let him go ahead. I want to hear this. 

Mr. Gordon. C'est la guerre. To pick up where I left off, or was 
internipted, that the traditions that we believe, the traditions of the 
CIO, the traditions that built in this comitiy 1898, there was an Anti- 
Imi>erialist League that included Mark Twain, that included ex- 
Presidents of the United States, that included Andrew Carnegie, who 
had to leave it when the Morgan Bank bought him out. 

Mr. Pool. Can you tiy to shorten it a little bit ? 

Mr. Gordon. Yes, I am just trying to get a little American history. 

Mr. Pool. I think I know a little bit about it. 

Mr. Gordon. A different part of it, maybe. From a different as- 
pect. A different angle. I was inside the Northlands (?) That we 
believed that part of our humanity is that wlien a country is being 
bombed, genocidally, as the United States is bombing North Vietnam, 
when unbelievable amounts of bombs and napalm are dropped on 
children — we see this in the press everyday — when that happens, 
that our giving blood to those people is patriotism, that our demand- 
ing that our soldiers not be forced to fight that war, not be forced to die 
in that M'ar, as they are being now, that that is patriotism. 

Mr. Pool. In other words, you believe that you ought to help the 
Viet Cong, the Nortli Vietnamese, so they can go back into battle and 
kill our boys. Is that what you are trying to tell me ? 

Mr. Gordon. What I said 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Gordon. — my interest in this country is tliat no more Ameri- 
cans die in Vietnam. Your interest is to send them to Vietnam to 
die. You are sending them there, Johnson is sendhig them there, the 
corporation of profiteers of war are sending them to die 

Mr. Pool. Let's be responsive to the question. 

Mr. Gordon. I am, in the interest of the American soldiers. That's 
what your question was. You are sending them there to die. And 
Johnson is sending them there to die, and they all, all this Government 
and the big business are sending tliem there to die and bleed, and then 
you try to assume that I am against them ? Well, that is not true. 
You are against them. But the American people, and let us say this, 
and why don't you subpena some of their letters? Say this. The 
American people do not want to bleed in Vietnam, and you are sending 
them to bleed in Vietnam. You are sending them to die in Vietnam. 
I am not, so don't try to cast aspersion on me, when it is on you and 
on Johnson. That's where it belongs. 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 987 

Mr. Pool. But the fact is that you are m favor of sending aid, 
blood plasma, and things like that, money, to the Viet Cong, and to 
the North A^ietnamese. Is that correct ? 

Mr. Gordon, I believe that it is a humanitarian tradition to send 
blood to people who are being murdered by murderers. 

Mr. Pool. You say the American soldiers in Vietnam are murderers. 
Is that what you are saying ? 

Mr. Gordon. No; Johnson is a murderer, and he is forcing people 
to go to Vietnam and forcing them. You go down to the draft center, 
and you w^ill see how many people have smiles on their faces. I have 
heard people tell me the difference- — I am not old enough to know, but 
I have heard people tell me the difference of the way people joined up 
to fight the Second World War and the way people are not joining up 
to fight this war. 

Mr. Pool. Do you think if the Communists took over the whole 
world that everything would be peaceful and there would not be any 
slavery ? 

Mr. Gordon. Who are the people who are stopping the peace in the 
world? Wliere are the aggressors? Where are the Communist ag- 
gressors? It is the United States who is the aggressor. We went into 
the Dominican Republic. We have 4,000 military bases overseas, and 
you call somebody else an aggressor ? Wow ! 

[Applause and demonstration.] 

Mr. Pool. Your testimony bears out the witness Luce's testimony 
previously, and we appreciate you being so helpful. 

Mr. Gordon. I am very honest to you. 

Mr. Pool. Tliat is right. 

Mr. Gordon. Because I am proud of my views. 

Mr. Pool. I am not. 

Mr. Gordon. Well, I am not proud of yours. 

Mr. Pool. Go ahead. 

Mr, NiTTLE. Now, were you aware that several groups had been 
established at various colleges by members of the May 2nd Movement 
for the purpose of collecting medical supplies for the National Libera- 
tion Front? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Gordon. Would you repeat the question very slowly, because I 
think it is wrong. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Let me withdraw that question, and ask you whether 
you participated in any efforts to establish campus groups for the 
collection of blood or medical supplies or money for delivery to the 
National Liberation front of South Vietnam or to the North Viet- 
namese Government ? 

Mr. Gordon. I will relate to you an experience. It has to do with 
the trip I made to Stanford University, in Palo Alto, California — 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Gordon. I don't remember the date of the trip — at which time 
I spoke to a number of people, who I will not identify for you, about 
the possibilities of setting up some form of organization to collect, or 
to try to send through tlie International Red Cross, blood to the victims 
of U.S. aggression in Vietnam. That, by the way, was a public meet- 
ing on the university campus, a university room. That meeting dis- 
cussed many things, but the major thing it discussed was twofold : One, 



988 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

that the United States is systematically killin^*^ people in Vietnam and 
attemptino; to move us towards a war with China, a world war ; that 
the onus of the United State's action in Vietnam is not just for Vietnam, 
but is to engulf the world in a world war. We opposed this. You 
gentlemen 

Mr. NiTTLE. Let me ask you the question. 

Mr. Gordon. You gentlemen probably don't oppose it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Let me ask you the question whether you oppose it 
because it is a purpose and program of the Progressive Labor 
Movement 

Mr. Gordon. To see that a third world war does not start. 

Mr. NiTTLE. — to aid and assist the world Communist movement, 
and that this program of opposition to the American effort is intended 
in aid of the Communist movement. 

Mr. Gordon. Our opposition to the American Government's efforts 
in Vietnam — "efforts" is a very placid term for murder — the U.S. Gov- 
ernment's effort in Vietnam, is to aid the American people and, also, 
to aid people in other countries. You gentlemen, you know, pretty 
much forget about that, but we consider that important. We also 
consider it very important to aid the people in this country. 

Mr. NiiTTLE. Well, now, Mr. Gordon, we want to know what you 
did in the effort to raise medical supplies for the North Vietnamese 
and for the Viet Cong. 

Mr. Gordon. "Wliat do you mean, what did I do? I related to you 
an experience. That is something of what I did. Beyond that, I 
did not do anything more at Stanford, because I don't go to Stanford. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you aware of the committee set up by Russell 
Stetler, Jr., at Haverford College ? 

Mr. Gordon. You have to expand upon that question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I say. Were you aware of the effort made by Russell 
Stetler? 

Mr. Gordon. I have read about it in the paper. I think it was a 
fine effort. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Well, you probably also heard it from him personally ; 
didn't you ? Was not he a member, with you, of the national executive 
committee of the May 2nd Movement ? 

Mr. Gordon. You are not going to get me to talk about somebody 
else. 

Mr. Pool. I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. Gordon. I am not a fink. You got your fmks. 

Mr. Pool. Do you want to take the fifth amendment ? 

Mr. Gordon. I am not going to talk. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Pool. That's the last time I direct you to answer the question, 
or state a valid objection. 

Mr. Gordon. As I said 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you aware of ther- 



Mr. Pool. No, let's let him answer that question. 

Mr. Gordon. Repeat the question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Let me put it this way : Were you aware of the existence 
of a group of the May 2nd Movement at Haverford, established by 
Russell Stetler, Jr., for the collection of money for medical aid to the 
National Liberation Front of South Vietnam ? 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 989 

Mr, Gordon. That's not a good question. I mean, even from your 
standpoint, because 

Mr. Pool. Wei], ask the original question, and ask him if he knew 
Stetler. 

Mr. Gordon. Because May 2nd never collected medical aid as far as 
I know at Plaverf ord College. 

Mr. Pool. Withdraw the question, and ask him if he knew Stetler. 
That's all you have to do. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did Russell Stetler, Jr., serve with you as a member 
of the national executive committee of the ]\Iay 2nd Movement ? 

Mr. Gordon. You are not going to get me to be a stool pigeon. 

Mr. Pool. I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. Gordon. This is the great American tradition that you repre- 
sent, stool pigeonism. 

Mr. Pool. I direct you for the last time to answer the question. 

Mr. Gordon. Well, I will object to answering that question, on the 
following grounds : First ground, the major ground is that I am not a 
fink. But since this committee seems to be set up in such a way as to 
legally prosecute people who refuse to be finks, you force them, 
then 

Mr. Pool. Just a moment. 

The committee will stand in recess for 10 minutes. 

(Whereupon, at 4 :35 p.m. a brief recess was taken.) 

Mr. Pool. Let's have order. 

Everyone take a seat. Go ahead. Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Gordon, were you aware of the existence of a Med- 
ical Aid Committee for Vietnam established on the campus at Stanford 
University on or about October 1965 ? 

Mr. Gordon. As I stated before, I was aware of that. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And 

Mr. Gordon. By the way, I would like to ask one question : Is this 
table bugged ? 

Mr. Pool. Ask the next question. 

Mr. Gordon. Is this table bugged ? 

Mr. Pool. No, the table is not bugged. 

Mr. Gordon. Well, I had conferences with my attorney and I want 
to make sure that they are not being overheard, as they were in 1957, 
which is an invasion 

Mr. Pool. And I assured you the table is not bugged. 

Mr. Gordon. Is there any way that this table can be searched to tell 
that? 

Mr. Pool. Go ahead, Counsel. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. And did you, as a national officer of the May 2nd Move- 
ment, have any communication with the May 2nd Movement chapter 
at Stanford University ? 

Mr. Gordon. Communication ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. 

Mr. Gordon. What type do you mean ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. With regard to the existence or creation of a medical 
aid group there, under the name "Medical Aid Committee for Viet- 
nam" ? 



990 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. EST UNDECLARED WAR 

Mr. Gordon. Well, as I stated before, I was present at a discussion 
about formation at Stanford of the Medical Aid for the Victims of 
U.S. Aggression in Vietnam Committee. Beyond that, you would 
have to be more specific. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you have discussions with Mr. Anatole Ben Anton 
regarding the Stanford group ? 

Mr. Gordon. As I stated before, I am not going to talk about other 
people. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Well, you asked for that information. I thought you 
would respond to the inquiry, having got it. 

Mr. Gordon. Well, that type of information that your response de- 
sired from me is the type of information that my conscience does not 
allow me to give to such a group as this. 

Mr. Pool. State your question, Mr. Nittle. 

Mr. Nittle. Now did you, as national coordinator of the May 2nd 
Movement, have any contact with a group at the University of Cali- 
fornia at Berkeley, known as the Medical Aid Committee for Viet- 
nam, Box 1128, Berkeley, California? 

(Witness conferred with comisel.) 

Mr. Gordon. You seem to have that down very specifically. I 
would like to see the paper you are reading from. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you answer the question, please ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Gordon. I didn't memorize the box number, so I mean, I don't 
know — you know, that question was asked in such a specific way. 

Mr. Pool. Restate the question. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. Forgetting the box number. 

Mr. Gordon. If you would state the question in a more general way, 
or perhaps in another way, I could answer it. 

Mr. Pool. All right. 

Mr. Nittle. It is the organization founded by Steve Cherkoss, who 
was the West Coast organizer for the Progressive Labor Party and 
May 2nd Movement. 

Mr. Gordon. Names again. 

Mr. Nittle. Does that identify the organization sufficiently for you? 

Mr. Gordon. No. Wliat was the name of the organization again? 

Mr. NiiTLE. I identified it as the Medical Aid for Vietnam Com- 
mittee. 

Mr. Gordon. I am familiar with that organization. 

Mr. Nittle. And that is at Box 1128. 

Mr. Gordon. I don't know the box number, but I am familiar with 
an organization of that name, or a very similar name, existmg in • 

Mr. Pool. All right, ask the question. 

Go ahead. 

Mr. Nittle. Now were you aware that the solicitation and delivery 
of medical supplies, money, or blood to the North Vietnamese or to the 
Viet Cong was prohibited by the Treasury Department regulations? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Gordon. I am not a lawyer. 

Mr. Pool. I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. GoLLOBiN. The witness has answered the question, Mr. Chair- 
man. 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 991 

Mr. Pool. I don't get your answer. Say it again. 

Mr. Gordon. I am not a lawyer, but I disclaim any patriotism in- 
compatible with justice. John Quincy Adams said that — former 
President of the United States. 

Mr. Pool. Mr, Nittle, ask the next question. 

Mr. Nittle. ]Mr. Gordon 

Mr. Gordon. American history. 

Mr. Nittle. I have before me a copy of a letter dated August 10, 
1966, from the Office of the General Counsel of the Treasury Depart- 
ment in Washington. We are advised that — and I quote — 

on October 29, 196.5, representatives of the Oflfice of Foreign Assets Con- 
trol called at the office of the May Second Movement, Rooms 306 and 307, 640 
Broadway, New York, New York. The Treasury representatives found Mr. Law- 
rence Hecht on the premises, who indicated he was in charge of the office. He was 
advised that the Treasury's Foreign Assets Control Regulations prohibit any 
remittance of funds directly or indirectly to North Viet-Nam or nationals thereof, 
including the Viet Cong, in the absence of a license from the Treasury Department. 
He was further advised that these Regulations also prohibit the unlicensed send- 
ing of any commodities whatever to North Viet-Nam or nationals thereof includ- 
ing the Viet Cong. It was specifically stated that the prohibition extended to the 
unlicensed sending of blood or medical supplies. During this conversation, Mr. 
Jeffrey Gordon entered the office of the May Second Movement and gave that as 
his address. He was likewise advised as to the applicability of the Regulations to 
possible transactions with North Viet-Nam and the Viet Cong. Both persons were 
requested to convey this information to all branches and members of the May 
Second Movement. 

Is that which is related by the General Counsel for the Treasury De- 
partment a factual statement ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Gordon. Could I see the document, first ? 

(Letter and enclosures marked "Gordon Exhibits Nos. 4-A through 
4-D," respectively. See pp. 1010-1014.) 

Mr. Nittle. Would you advise us whether 

Mr. Pool. Let him see the document. 

Mr. Nittle — the facts as therein set forth are true? 

(Tlie document was handed to witness.) 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Nittle. Now are you prepared to answer the question ? 

Mr. GoLLOBiN. At this time we are not. We are conferrmg. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Chairman, I think the witness has had abundant 
opportunity to examine the Treasury Department letter and to state 
whether or not the letter correctly states what transpired in the office 
of the May 2nd Movement with regard to this witness. 

Mr. GoLLOBiN. In terms of the question, I submit that counsel knows 
very well that the witness has a definite right at this time to adequate 
conferral, and we are therefore continuing. 

(Witness conferred further with counsel.) 

Mr. Pool. All right, is the witness ready to answer the question? 

Mr. Gordon. The question is what is known as a clink question. 

Mr. Nittle. I can imagine 

Mr. Gordon. It is an entrapment question. 

Mr. Pool. Let him go ahead. 

Mr. Gordon. It is an entrapment question. The whole series of 
questions up to this have been aimed at not getting information for leg- 



992 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

islative purposes, but to attempt to entrap the witness into statements 
that may possibly lead to criminal prosecution; at the same time he 
does not have the rights of cross-examination and other rights set up 
for a person under criminal contempt. 

Mr. Pool. What you are saying is that you 

Mr. Gordon. xA-nd without adequate 

Mr. Pool. — made a statement a while ago in which you told this 
committee that you were not advised of these regulations, and now this 
letter conies up, proving that you were advised. Is that what you 
are trying to say ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Gordon. I have not had adequate ability to reflect and consider. 
I am not a lawyer. This question 

Mr. NiTTLE. This is not a question of law. It is a question of fact. 
Were you or were you not advised ? 

Mr. Gordon. I am just answering the question of what I had said 
before, that I am not a lawyer. I do not know all the legalities of 
many things. That is not my profession. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is that your answer to the question ? 

My question was. Does the Treasury letter correctly relate the 

Mr. Pool. Just a moment. Counsel. Would you like to change your 
previous answer to the question? Then if you think it was 

Mr. Gordon. Which question and which answer are you talking 
about ? 

Mr. Pool. Previously, you made a statement and told this com- 
mittee that you had not been advised as to the regulations regarding 
these possible transaction with North Vietnam ? 

Mr. Gordon. Would you read me that, out of the record, please? 

Mr. Pool. It is back in the record there. 

Mr. Gordon. Could you please read it out of the record then ? 

Mr. Pool. I am just asking: Do you want to change any statement 
that you made to this committee, then? I would like to have that 
statement read from the record. 

Mr. Gordon. I would like to have that statement read from the 
record. 

^Ir. Pool. All right, go back and read the report. Miss Reporter, 
question and the answer, if you can find it. 

(The record was read by the reporter as follows :) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now were you aware that the solicitation and delivery of medi- 
cal supplies, money, or blood to the North Vietnamese or to the Viet Cong was 
prohibited by the Treasury Department regulations? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Gordon. I am not a lawyer. 

Mr. Pool. I direct you to answer the quef^tion. 

Mr. GoLLOBiN. The witness has answered the question, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Pool. I don't get your answer. Say it again. 

Mr. Gordon. I am not a lawyer, but I disclaim any patriotism incompatible 
with justice. John Quincy Adams said that — former President of the United 
States. 

Mr, Pool. Pie didn't answer the question, then. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. What was the question again, Mr. Chairman? 

I thought he said, "I am not aware." 

Mr. Gordon. No, "I am not a lawyer," I said. 

Mr. Pool. You said what? 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 993 

Mr. Gordon. I said I was not a lawyer. 

Mr. AspiBROOK. I thought he said, "I am not aware." 

Mr. Pool. All right, let the record show what he said, then. I 
couldn't hear him myself. 

Mr. AsiiBROOK. Would you resubmit the question, Mr. Chairman? 

Mr. Pool. Were you aware of these regulations regarding possible 
transaction with North Vietnam and the Viet Cong? 

Mr. Gordon. I decline to answer that question because that question 
inquires into my political beliefs and associations in violation of the 
guarantees of freedom of speech, assembly, as provided for by the 
first amendment to the Constitution of the United States of America. 

Mr, AsHBROOK. Mr. Chairman, he has not responded. 

Mr. Pool. That is not responsive to the question. 

( Witness conferred with counsel. ) 

Mr. Gordon. I think this one is the sixth amendment. "In all crim- 
inal prosecutions,'' and this is an entrapment question. 

Mr. Ashbrook. This is not a criminal prosecution. 

Mr. Gordon. An entrapment-tyi:)e question — "the accused shall en- 
joy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial"^ — impartial, 
impartial — "jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall 
have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascer- 
tained by law, and to be informed of the nature 

Mr. Ashbrook. Mr. Chairman, this is dilatory tactics. 

Mr. Gordon. — "of the nature and [the] cause of the accusation; 
to be confronted with the witness against him" — where I was not — "to 
be confronted 

Mr. Pool. That's not a sufficient objection, so- 



Mr. Gordon. The sixth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Pool. I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. Gordon. The sixth amendment is not sufficient ? 

Mr. Ashbrook. You are not charged with a crime. 

Mr. Pool. I direct you to answer the question. Go ahead to the 
next question, Counsel. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Gordon. I did not decline to answer the question. You inter- 
rupted my answer. 

Mr. Pool. All right, answer the question, then. I direct you for 
the last time to answer the question. 

Mr. Gordon. Well, then, allow me to answer it. 

If you gentlemen are so against the Constitution, then you force 
me to protect myself mider certain rights which are guaranteed to 
me. 

Mr. Ashbrook. He has not 

Mr. Pool. Just a minute. 

Mr. Gordon. "No person shall be held" — this is going to take about 
a minute to read, so please don't interrupt me again: 

No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or other infamous crime, 
unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising 
in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time 
of war or public danger ; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense 
to be twice [put] in jeopardy of life and limb ; nor shall be compelled in any 
criminal case to be a witness against himself * * *. 



994 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Mr. Pool. All right, next question. He has taken the fifth amend- 
ment. That is sufficient. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Pool. He takes the fifth amendment. 

Go ahead with the next question. 

Mr. Gordon. This is to protect me against false accusations, false. 
It is to protect me. 

Mr. Pool. I will recognize the fifth amendment as a valid objection. 
Now go ahead with the next question. 

Mr. Gordon. You distort. 

Mr. Pool. Just be quiet and. Counsel, will you ask the next question. 

Mr. Gordon. He is not asking. 

Mr. Pool. You won't let him. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr, Gordon, I have before me a copy of the Vietnam 
Courier^ published in Hanoi, dated May 19, 1966. At page 6, in an 
article entitled "American Youth Do Not Want To Die in Vietnam," 
they report 

Mr. Ashbrook. Mr. Nittle, I can't hear you now. 

Mr. Nittle. [Continues reading:] "The U.S. weekly Challenge^ on 
April 19, published the following anti-war letter handed out by an 
American youth, Brooklyn College student Jeff Gordon, at the White 
Hall Army Induction Center, New York." And then they purport to 
quote from a letter, purportedly written by you and published in 
Challenge. 

I will just read a paragraph from the letter, to see whether it will 
refresh your recollection. 

Mr. GrORDON. Why don't you read the whole thing ? 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Nittle. 

Mr. Nittle. Let me hand the article to you, without 

Mr. Pool. Can you ask a question about this without having to read 
it all? 

Mr. Nittle. Are you correctly reported in that article ? 

Mr. AsHBROOK. Mr. Chairman, while he is conferring, I would like 
to have a moment. 

Mr. Pool. Without objection, so ordered. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Pool. All right, the witness is ready to answer? 

State your answer. Witness. 

Mr. Gordon. In this article which quotes President Eisenhower as 
saying that if Ho Chi Minh and that if elections had been held in 
Vietnam, Ho Chi Minh would have gotten at least 80 percent of the 
vote, that is President Eisenhower in his Mandate for Change, his 
memoirs, this article, which lists the violation of the Geneva agreement 
that the United States has committed- — — 

Mr. Nittle. That's not the question. 

Mr. Gordon. I am identifying the article. 

Mr. Nittle. Are you accurately quoted ? 

Mr. Gordon. I am identifying the article. This was given out at 
the Whitehall Army Induction Center. 

(Document marked "Gordon Exhibit No. 5." See p. 1015.) 

Mr. Nittle. All right, no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 995 

Mr. AsHBRooK. That was not the answer. He said the article w^as 
given out. 

Mr. Gordon. At 

Mr. GoLLOBiN. Just one moment, please. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Gordon. "At" means ''nearby." They say "at" here. The thing 
should have been nearby. 

Mr. AsHBRooK. But the question pertained to whether or not it was 
your letter which appears in a Hanoi newspaper or not, which you 
have avoided. 

Mr. Gordon. I said, please be more specific. I didn't send that to 
the Hanoi newspaper. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. The original question of Mr. Nittle was whether 
or not the letter, which is contained in a Hanoi newspaper and pur- 
ports to be a letter given out by you, is, in fact, a letter which you 
prepared. And you liave avoided that question. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Gordon. Yes; I prepared that letter, and it was given out to 
the general public. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. Thank you. 

Mr. Pool. All right. 

Mr. Nittle, May I ask one more question, Mr. Chairman ? 

Mr. Pool. All right. 

Mr. Nittle. You say here, "We are being drafted into the army." 
Were you then being drafted, in the course of your appearance at the 
Whitehall 

Mr. Gordon. "\Yliat date ? 

Mr. Niitle. — Army Induction Center ? 

Mr. GoLLOBiN. ^Vliat date, Mr. Nittle ? 

Mr. Nittle. April 19, the date here quoted. 

Mr. Gordon. I am not sure if April 19 is the correct date, but — I 
am not positive, it might be — but around that time, I did go to the in- 
duction center for induction. 

Mr. Nittle. At Whitehall, New York ? 

Mr. Gordon. Yes. And by the way, the people I spoke to there did 
not want to go into the Army to fight in Vietnam. 

Mr, Pool. At this time, the Chair wishes to recognize Congressman 
Nelsen and Congressman Keith, who have come here to visit with us, 
and we appreciate their being here. 

At this time, the Chair recognizes Congressman Ichord. 

Mr. IcHORD. Mr. Chairman, there has been some variance between 
the testimony of this witness and the preceding witness, Mr. Luce. 
Mr. Luce testified that the Progressive Labor Movement was a Marxist 
or Communist organization and that it controlled the May 2nd Move- 
ment as a front organization. 

Now Mr. Gordon has testified that the May 2nd Movement was in- 
dependent in essence, is independent movement of the Progres- 
sive Labor Movement, but that some of the members — and it was well 
known — of the May 2nd Movement were members of the Progressive 
Labor Movement. 

I would like to ask the witness one question. He stated that he was 
a member of the executive committee of the May 2nd Movement. 



996 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Do you know how many members of the national executive commit- 
tee of the May 2nd. Movement were members of the Progressive Labor 
Movement ? 

Mr. Gordon. ISIr. Nittle, I believe — the counsel brought up in some 
of those documents, he read statements which I think prove the inde- 
pendence of the May 2nd Movement, statements which ask chapters to 
develop their own programs, based upon their own needs on campus 
and the activities on campus. 

Mr. IciioRD. Mr. Chairman, that is not responsive to the question. I 
asked the witness a very simple question. Does he know, and he was 
a member of the national executive committee of the May 2nd Move- 
ment, how many members of the national committee of the May 2nd 
Movement were members of Progressive Labor Movement, and I ask 
that he be direct-ed to answer the question. 

Mr. Gordon. Mr. Ichord, this once again is preparatory 

Mr. Pool. I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. Gordon. — is a preparatoiy question to getting me to name 
names, something which I have stated my ground for not going to do. 

Mr. Ichord, I state to the witness that I am not asking you, in your 
own language, to be a "fink," as you say. 

Mr. Gordon. I got a letter from this committee asking me to be a 
"fink." 

Mr. Ichord. I am not asking you to identify the members of the 
executive committee. I am asking you, Is it in your knowledge as to 
how many of the members of the executive committee of the May 2nd 
Movement were members of the Progressive Labor Movement ? I ask 
once again, Mr. Chainnan, that the witness be instructed to answer. 

Mr. Pool. I direct you to answer. 

Mr. Ichord. That can be answered "yes" or "no." 

Mr. Gordon. Once again, I say this a preparatory question, that is 
preparing me to have to answer questions which I said I would not 
answer before this committee, on the grounds stated. 

Mr. Ichord. '^n what grounds stated ? 

Mr. Gordon. Do you want me to repeat the grounds ? There were a 
nmnber of grounds. 

Mr. Pool. Does that include the fifth amendment? 

Mr. Gordon. I will repeat the grounds, if the Chair wishes. 

Mr. Pool. Does it include the fifth amendment ? 

Mr. Gordon. You can check in tlie record of the grounds that I 
gave in previously answering these questions. 

Mr. Ichord. Mr. Chairman, let the record stand as made. That's 
the only question I have. 

Mr. Pool. Any other questions on this side ? 

Do you have questions ? Mr. Buchanan ? 

Mr. Buchanan. May I ask him just one question, Mr. Chairman? 

Mr. Pool. All right. 

Mr. Buchanan. Mr. Gordon, you referred to those responsible for 
the effort in Vietnam, the American effort, as murderers, I believe, 
and stated when asked if this included the troops, "No, because they 
were f orcetl to fight there." 

Now a certain num.ber of the men fighting there are volunteers. Are 
these men murderers ? 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 997 

Mr. Gordon. Are you from Alabama, sir ? 

Mr. Buchanan. Would you answer the question ? 

Yes, we are very proud to have men from Alabama fighting in this 
effort, some of whom are volunteers. 

Mv. Gordon. In Alabama do the black people have equal rights to 
vote ? 

Mr. Buchanan, Well 

Mr. Gordon. Are the unions organized in Alabama, of the working 
people ? 

Mr. Pool. Let's have order. 

Mr. Buchanan. Would you respond to the question, please? 

Mr. Pool. Answer the question. 

Mr. Buchanan. I wnll say, if they don't by now, it would be a mira- 
cle, but will you answ^er my question ? 

Mr. Gordon. It means you say they are, they do have the right to 
vote. 

Mr. Pool. Answer the question. 

Mr. Buchanan. Answer my question, please. 

Mr. Gordon. Would you repeat the question ? 

Mr, Buchanan. I said, in Vietnam a certain number of the men who 
are fighting there are volunteers. You have stated those responsible 
for this action are murderers, but that those fighting there were not 
because they are forced to do so. 

Are the volunteers, the men, for example, from Alabama, some of 
whom are Negro citizens, who are volunteers, are these men murderers ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Gordon. If these men knew the truth, they would not go there. 
Black people join the Army many times because that's the best chance 
they have in this society. That's a sad fact, but to have a roof over 
your head and a little food in the stomach and maybe the $50 or $90 a 
month the Army gives is more than they can get in other parts of 
this society. 

And to use it in this way, it just repulses me 

Mr. Pool. That is not responsive to the question. 

Mr. Gordon. That was not a yes-or-no question. It was a response. 

Mr. Ashbrook. That's a yes-or-no question. 

Mr. Buchanan. I wanted an answer to my question, but that's all 
right, Mr. Chairman, we will pass it. 

You have stated also, I believe, that you represented real Americans, 
that you represent the majority of the people, and that the Congress 
represents a minority of the people? Is this your testimony? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Gordon, Carl Schurz said: "Our country, right or wrong. 
When right, to be kept right; when wrong, to be put right," 

Mr. Buchanan. Well, I would say your rhetoric is impressive, but 
may I suggest 

Mr. Gordon. That was the rhetoric of an American 50 years ago, part 
of the American tradition. 

Mr. Buchanan. — that you brush up on your arithmetic, since the 
Congress represents all the people of this country, and may I state 
that from what we have seen 

Mr. Gordon. That is a misrepresentation. 

Mr. Buchanan. You represent a tiny minority. 



998 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Mr. GoRDOK. Oh, WOW ! That's too much, coming from Ahibama 
and saying that. 

Mr. P<ioL. Any other questions? 

The witness is excused. 

Mr. GouDON. Get out of Vietnam ! 

[Applause.] 

Mr. AsHBROOK. Mr. Chairman, I would move that all the documents 
oil'ered in evidence by the committee be made a permament part of 
the record. 

Mr. Pool. No objection, so ordered. 

(Gordon Exhibits ISTos. 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 follow:) 

Gordon Exhibit No. 1 

MAY SECOND MOVEMENT REPORT NO. 1 (NEW STYLE) 

TO WORKLIST 

Oct. 15, 1965. 
****** 

Last Spring we sent out 5 Bi-weekly reports to M2M chapters. These reports 
came out about every third week. These reports averaged about 2 pages and 
mainly discussed National Coordinating Conuuittee. There is now general 
agreement that NCC meetings should be held less frequently, perhaps every 
two months. There is also a need for greater internal communication, coordina- 
tion, and discussion. Therefore this is the tirst of the NEW REPORT, which 
will discuss a wide range of activity and thought of importance within M2M. 
People should send in comments and notices for publication in the report. 
The NEW REPORT will come out at least every two weeks, and is being sent 
to an expanded worklist, which includes people on the left outside of M2M, in 
addition to all chapters. 



FREE STUDENT NO. 5 

When FS first came out around the beginning of 1965 almost everyone outside 
of I\t2M said that they liked the paper but that it would never see a second issue. 
They argued that everyone has put out a paper or magazine at one time or 
another, and that almost all fail. Further they said a newspai>er is the hardest 
to publish, especially with the gradious circulation schemes we had. 

The press run for FS #5 is 25,000 — 5.000 higher than the last regular run ! 
We hope to come out with FS #6 in five weeks. It's going to mean a great deal 
of work to sell 25,000 newsjiapers, but we know that it's worth it. FS has 
helped make thousands of students who are connected with the student movement 
in no other way aware of what's happening. FS has given new activists a feeling 
of national movement, a feeling of belonging to a grov.-ing force for justice and 
freedom. And FS has provided all with a forum for new ideas and thoughts 
relating to student activity. What is needi'd is an all-out-selling push for this 
issue of FS in the next weeks ! ! They should be hawked every day these next 
two M-eeks, on the literature table, and in all bookstores. 

Two other points on FS : 1) There is a form enclosed to help people formu- 
late their criticism of FS — this is vital for the improvement of the paper. Please 
fill it out and send it in. 2) For FS No. 6 we need reports on chapter activity, 
on events around October 15-16, we need analysis of college campuses similar 
to FS No. 3's one on Columbia University, and we need letters to the editor to 
publish (so far they've all been too good and we see no c(mstructive purpose being 
filled by publishing them). 

NOVEMBER IITH M2M ANTI-DRAFT RALLY 

This mornings papers tell of the increased call (by 10,000!) by Selective Serv- 
ice of young men to beef up the army, navy, and marines based on their fight- 
ing in Vietnam. As more Americans are drafted, the issue of the Vietnam 
war becomes more immediate to them and their families and friends. On No- 
vember 11th — Veteran's Day, Thursday — M2M will hold a major GET OUT 
OF VIETNAM— ANTI-DRAFT RALLY at or near Columbia University. On 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 999 

this day of phony patriotism, speakers, all of whom are political activists or- 
ganizing opposition to the war in Vietnam, will put forth concrete programs 
for anti-draft and anti-war activity — where we go from here, hased on the fact 
that as our numbers grow so does the war in Vietnam and the invasion of 
Dominica. 

The initial leaflet advertising the rally has been run off — 100,000 copies. 
Five committees have been set up to work on the rally : Publicity, Rally Organ- 
ization, Art, Political, and Funds. Those interested in working on the rally 
(members of M2M and any one else who feels the importance of this event) 
shall call Steve Newman at M2M HDQ (212-YU 2-5550) and come to the next 
rally meeting: Thursday, October 21 at 7:30 PM at M2M HDQ (640 Broad- 
way, Room 307, New York — that's Broadway at Bleecker). We need every- 
one's help! 

ANTI-DRAFT MEETING 

A meeting at M2M HDQ for October 24 (Sunday) from 11 AM till probably 
late in the evening has been called by M2M to work out an anti-draft pro- 
gram. 

Originally we set up a program using WE WON'T GO as the major slogan. 
The slogan sounded militant (which it is) and w^e are militantly against Im- 
perialist wars. So we were satisfied that we had a good thing going. We 
also liked very much the idea of people applying for CO forms based on political 
and Nuremburg ohjection to Vietnam war and all wars of aggi-ession. In 
fact we liked the whole program so much that the 40 people at the Eastern 
Regional Organizers' Conference we held at the beginning of September did 
not do enough deep, hard thinking of what it meant. This meeting on October 
24th should correct that. 

Briefly the arguments on both sides of the issue (though there are in-be- 
tween positions) so that we can all think about them even before the 24th. 

we won't go : We must have a clear and consistent position about the war 
in Vietnam and Imperialist wars in general. It is the height of inconsistency 
and the ultimate contradiction to be out protesting the war in Vietnam one day 
and fighting it on the U.S. side the next. Even private cop-outs (phony medi- 
cal excuses, ad infinitum) are not good, because essentially they are playing 
their game, they are working within the whole context of the system and of 
the war. By taking a WE WON'T GO position we will be playing our role 
as the vanguard, and not taking an opportunist and tail-gating position. We 
will win the respect of even those who go into the army, and by our militancy 
and refusal to back down we will strike a blow at the whole war machine. 

multi approach : What we are interested is to defeat Imperialism. That is 
the first consideration and not to make a moral stand simply for its own sake. 
Our approach should be based on fighting Imperialism on all fronts. There are 
three possibilities : 1 ) If drafted don't go and be willing to face jail for up to five 
years (the lengths of the trails will probably be shorter as time goes on and ap- 
peals denied based on previous appeals being defeated). 2) If drafted cop out by 
taking off (being done in increasing numbers) or get out on one of the many 
phony gimmicks known to potential draftees, 3) If drafted GO IN and organize 
within the army (being cool about it) against the war (it is better, this position 
says, to be in the army talking to people for two years then to be in jail for that 
period). We recognize all three of these positions as opposition to fighting in 
Vietnam and as patriotic. The second one is individualistic and, besides being 
able to give some information, unorganizable. The first and the third we shall 
try to organize. Let us organize a broad based anti-draft union made up of all 
those opposed to fighting in Vietnam. Let us focus on the Universities coopera- 
tion with the draft board. Let us raise the demands that the University cease 
all cooperation with the draft boards and that, where it exi.sts, ROTC be thrown 
off the campus. And we should think of the possibility of a strike next term 
based on these demands. (We can issue petitions on these demands note, with 
the ending that we will consider a strike if they are not met ! ! ) 

THBEE DIFFERENT CAMPUS REPORTS 

Stanford M2M : Twenty people at a Stanford M2M meeting have formed 
themselves into a Medical Aid for the Victims of U. S. Bombings in Vietnam 
Committee. They plan to collect blood (hopefully through the Stanford Univ. 
hospital) and what other Medical Aid a group of U. S. doctors decides is needed 
by the people. They have written letters to the International Red Cross and the 
Red Cross' of Britain, the U. S., and North Vietnam asking for assistance in the 



1000 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

shipment and distribution of the supplies. Stanford's response to the project 
should be very interesting, given its Hoover Institute and all. 

CCNY M2M : They plan three anti-draft forums prior to and leading up to 
the November 11th Rally. One forum discussing the pascifist and the M2M posi- 
tion had to be delayed one day because the President of CCNY, along with 
Mayorality candidates Beams and smiling John Lindsay are going to lead an 
all-U rally against tuition (which evil Rockefeller wants). Last such rally the 
school called saw phony-liberal Gallagher (you can't even hold a silent-vigil on 
campus) sing WE SHALL OVERCOME. The M2M chapter is going to leaflet 
the rally (illegal) saying that while they too are aginst [sic] tuition, the reason 
the school calls such rallies is to co-opt student protest into safe channels and 
away from things like Vietnam and campus tyranny. 

Harvard M2M : Has leafleted a phony class saying what the teacher says and 
why we disagree. The school got very upset saying that telling what a teacher 
says in class is a violation of academic freedom. These jokers running Harvard 
have weird ideas of what freedom is. Harvard M2M had to risk expulsion last 
year by holding rallies in Harvard Yard (illegal, but after M2M did it, they 
didn't do anything). 

FREE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK 

The second semester has begun and enrollment is up, nearing 300 students. 
Like the FREE STUDENT, people said that FUNY wouldn't make it past 
semester one — in fact, people didn't even think FUNY would get by its first 
registration day. It now offers around 40 courses and is vital and living. It is 
run completely by students and faculty. All meetings are open to students and 
faculty. Its forum series is reaching large numbers of people and has been on 
national TV. People in other areas of the country should look to the example 
of FUNY and learn by its experience in the setting up of other Free U's. 

MONEY 

We do need money and lots of it. Our printing bill (outstanding) alone is 
over $2,000 and we are putting out more literature, papers, going more places 
and in all ways spending more money. We have figured out all the short cuts 
we can. We get printing at very reasonable prices, we get films made at half 
price. But things still cost money. The Novemeber [sic] 11th rally will cost 
extra too. Here are some suggestions on ways to raise money : 

1) Have regular parties (perhaps showing a Vietnam film at it) . 

2) Have commercial fihn showings on campus and charge admission. 

3) Sell subs to FS for $4, $8 or special $25 rate. Some people will give for a 
sub easier than just give to the movement. 

4) Blood for M2M. Blood banks pay for healthy blood (between $10 and $20) . 
Organize groups of people to give blood and give the money in for the FREE 
STUDENT. 20 people is between $200 and $400. 

Contact Sue Jewel at M2M HDQ for more information about fund raising. 

REGIONAL MEETINGS 

A full report on the September Eastern Regional Organizers' Conference is in 
preparation and long overdue. It will be out soon. The conference was very 
successful and we plan to hold more such three day meetings in various areas. 
New England, Philadelphia and West Coast and mid-wesit areas should consider 
this too. 

CUBA TRIALS 

The trials are proceeding. The next section will meet on Tuesday, Oct. 19, at 
10 AM in Brooklyn Federal Court (subway stop: Boro Hall). So far the gov- 
ernment has been putting student finks on the stand. These are paid informers 
for the FBI who pose as students and report to the FBI all that is happening, 
even though it is open (like the discussion on a draft program in this document). 
These worthless creatures even take the stand to send our fellow workers to 
jail for 20 years. On [sic] of these idiots Dick Reimann was paid by the FBI (be- 
wteen [sic] 1800 and 2000 dollars in all — they sell out cheap!) while he was a 
student at SF State. Another called Obniosky (a graduate of plush Andover 
Academy) is still a student at Columbia. M2M chapters at both these schools will 
make these facts known to the schools, demanding Obniosky's expulsion as a paid 
inormer [sic] on his teachers and on the students. The pamplet [sic] "Twenty 
Yearsi in Jail for Traveling to Cuba !" is excellent and informative — we should 
circulate it widely. Order additional copies from M2M HDQ. 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1001 

WE NEED 

The National Office needs the following equipement [sic] desperately : two type- 
writers (especially desk models), two desks, a couch, and shelves. These are 
needed because of the increased number of people working out of the national 
office. We need these badly and can't afford to buy them right now. Also, a 
hand mimeograph machine. If anyone knows of a cheap or free offset machine 
let us know — especially something on the order of a Multilith 1250 or 1250W. 

STUDY GROUPS 

Enclosed is a sample outline for a M2M study group. They are an invaluable 
activity. They educate members and help in the recruiting of new members (in 
the best manner by convincing them that we are right). If study groups can 
come out with papers on what they have learned it would be very helpful. Con- 
tact • at M2M HDQ for additional information and help In 

starting a study program. 

POLITICAL DISCUSSION FOB INTERNAL DEBATE 

(people should comment on this — comments will be printed in the next M2M 
REPORT) 

On the need for ideology — 

There are four reasons why ideology — conscious, well thought out idoelogy 
[sic] — is vital to us. 1) The dominant ideology in the U.S. right now is liberal- 
ism. We get it in school, on the TV, in the papers — everywhere almost without 
exception. This ideology is strong and to defeat it and the Imperialist system 
that it apologizes for, we have to build an idoelogy [sic] that is stronger. This 
means that we can't defeat liberalism uncousiously [sic] by just saying what 
we think existentially and hoping people will understand the depth and honesty 
of our commitment. 2) It is impossible in this .society to be active and not be 
working based on some ideology. This is because of what was mentioned in point 
1 about the strength of the ruling ideology — liberalism. If we do not ourselves 
consciously change our ideology, the strength of one ruling ideology will make us 
uncousciously [sic] work for it. This is better known as having all sorts of 
bourgeious [sic] hangups. We start thinking that the state isn't really that bad 
and that maybe if we have good lawyers we will get off. This means that we 
haven't consciously built up a system of beliefs that tells us that in important 
casses [sic] it doesn't matter how good our arguments are, we'll still be found 
guilty on political grounds. 3) If we have a system of worked out beliefs (not 
on everything, not rigid, but a contxt [sic] of generalizationts [sic] people can 
more easily see where we stand and decide if they can agree. Basically this is 
honesty. 4) We need an ideology so that we can make strategic and tactical 
de-scions [sic] about what to do and how to do it. The student movement must 
now analyze what to do about Vietnam, campus reform, community work work- 
ing with workers, electorial [sic] work. It can eithor [sic] do it on instinct and 
good will or based on an analysis of the situation in the world, in the U.S., and 
in the student movement and on drawing from its own experience. The latter 
means developing an ideology, not being "non-ideological." 

Ideology means to me a systematic analysis of the situation the way it 
actually is and has been and drawing generalizations from it. To have an 
ideology means that we have certain beliefs (not dogmas) based on a studied 
understanding and analysis of the world situation. It means that we put these 
beliefs foward for debate and for testing and if they are proven, and only if 
they remain proven, we will base our actions upon them and we not be groping 
in the dark on instinct alone (as with so-called non-ideological radicalism). 
May 2nd has been developing an ideology since it began over a year ago. We 
call ourselves an anti-Imperialist student movement. The editorials and .some 
of the articles in past issues of FS have been aimed at furthering our ideology. 
ON NON-VIOLENCE— 

To ask the people of Vietnam, of Dominican Republic, of Batista Cuba of the 
Congo, of Selma, of Watts, of Harlem, of Apalachia [sic] to be nonviolent is not 
to relate to the realities of our world. To ask the peasants of Vietnam not to fight 
back against the U. S. but to rely upon the U. S.'s good offices by non-violently 
not cooperating with them is criminal. We are not pacifists. We do not advo- 

67-852 — 66^ — pt. 1 7 



1002 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

cate violence, but we supix)rt the right of, in fact, the necessity for self-defense 
by individuals and peoples. No major social change has occured through non- 
violence. India, where more people practised non-violence than anywhere else 
is now an aggressor nation, with a starving population. 

The U. S. civil rights movement used non-violence very creatively. But even 
here, we hear it said that Harlem and the threat of Malcolm X had more to do 
with whatever bills (no matter how phony they may prove to the poor people) 
being passed. 

Let us not make some idealistic, unreal world of non-violent revolution as 
many are now talking about. This outlook can only lead to defeat — i.e. non- 
violence is NOT going to stop Imperialism. And, even worse, the making of sit- 
downs (where you ask to be arrested, thereby turning off people's sysmpathy 
[sic]. At least the civil rights sit-ins had a right to be sitting where they were.) 
a major tactic gives our movement a purest, individaul [sic] satisfying his own 
needs outlook. Let us talk about the real world — not a world of the few but of 
the many — a world where people by the thousands are starving to death or being 
shot to death every day. In that world humanitarianism calls for the quickest 
defeat of Imperialism. Non-violence will never do it. 

Jeff Gordon 

october 15, 19c5 

new york city 

May 2nd Movement 
6 40 broadway, room 307 
new york 12, new york 

(212) YU-2-5550 

Gordon Exhibit No. 2 

What Is The May 2nd Movement? 



We^ as students in the richest but most brutally confused country in QiH 
vorld, cannot understand tliat world and our part in it with the a-his- 
orical education we receive in our universities. In order to make ourselves 
nto effective social beings, and in order to discover, sharpen, and use the 
jvower of our knowledge, we sho'dd organize ourselves in the broadest 
possible way to tombat that lack of e«lucation. For it is a lack, a vacuum, 
.lat leads to political degeneration imd default The May 2nd Movement 
•fSLH formed to fight against a politics of defaiult, specifically by organizing 
tudent protest and revolt against oux government's savage war on the 
■^eople of Vietnam. 

May 2, 19G4, saw the first major student demonstrations against the 
..'ar in Vietnam. In New York City, 1000 stvidents mardied thi-ough Times 
^uare to the United Nations to protest what was then C£illed "U.S. 
attrvention" on behalf of the legitimate government of soutli Vietncma, 
AoT^.' than 700 students and young people marched through San 
^rai>cisoo In Boston; Madison, Wisconsin; Seattle; there were slmul- 
anx>u& bmailei demonstrations. A start, but nowhere near enough. 
"^Jowhcr^^ nesr eiiough because very few students even knew about the 
var, or U they tl'u, knew what it means, or what they coulddo about it 

-Froa tne national nowap^jT of the May 2nd ^toiWBb^t, ygEl 3TtJDWT* T«»us oij»b«» 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1003 

Gordon Exhibit No. 2 — Continued 

No« thwuMiiW B09 th» sftturd of tba var ia flrteaa aid Its eorollry 
d«oelt la th» pross oad Sa ou? uai');Q«^tlM, «iid it* oopxiarBltant r«pr»sMa 
•t haa», TbA Mhjr 2to^ tto'9»£d^ o«ll« 'Oat «atr and tlw raaultlag lias about 
it at hoM tha psro^uots of aa lepariaHat&o ajpvtca. 

Tbo ohlaf iisperialjlptid fomr £a tl» vcrSd today ia tbs United Ststaa, 
ohieh bas a bualaaia empire ttet pawwatu tt» aofr^aoelaliet oorld, ez- 
traotiog tb» aup&s>ixH>fiia oada poaalbla by aoiMrpol^ oosrtrol. U.S. eoonoaio 
straagtOation of atiwr oouctriaa «ausa« borrlblo Xlvlse oondltioos, iniollurting 
mass starvation, to paravsil. TUm fiaoplc «bo live la thssa oountries have 
tried evopy "lagsl", aon>vlol$ct raooopaa to hrsak eut of their misery, 
only to be violently supfjresKsd or grantad pfeooy iadapesdanae, t7ithout 
politioal freedco or eooaosio loproveiDent. Ibay are driven to revolution 
as the only lasana of liberation fron Imi^rlallatio dcoloetioD. To keep 
them dona the U.S. business eapire requirvs the largsst military empire la 
vorld history. Basidee 3600 bases abroad, the O.S, military empire in« 
olutes the'^oatlve troops," the U.S. tralaad, equipped and paid armies of 
the puppet military dictators | Ky, Tsbonba, Braeoo). Ruling their oouo-tries 
for tha benefit of foreign buslaess, getting personal oealtb end pocer as 
their out, theaa traitors sorva to o«ioeal the foreigo nature of their 
oountry*8 oppression . 

The Uay 2ad yov«n»nt opposes this 1965 versioa of Imperialiao^- 
ths ecrporations that ezaot superprofits, the military machine that ea- 
foroes tha system by violence, and the cultural efitabUshotent that 
maintains the system, abroad and at hoae, by racism, igaoranoe, lies 
and the suppraaslon of tha soolally creative forees aithln man himself. 



National liberation movements ar« emerging in country after 
oountry around the oorld. Some have already been victorious: Cuba, 
north Vietnam, lodooesla, China. Otbars are oarrying on pitched 
artaed struggle asalnst imperialism or are building tosard it: Doolni- 
oan Republic, VeneBuala, Panause, Puerto Rico, British Ouiana, Colombia, 
Guatemala, Brazil, Con^, South Africa, Rhodesia, Angola, Uosam bi que, 
Iran, Vietnam, laos, Thailand, Fhllllplaes. This is the aamy-f rented 
third vapid v&r. The Uay 2nd yovecient, recognising that there oan be 
no peaoe without freedom, supports and Joins the etriigglss for natiooal 
liberation. VJe defect politioally from the corruption of culture, 
oind and body that is the pric*^ the privileged oust pay in our country 
for a share In the booty of exploitation. 



The university offers no ezplamtion of «hat*8 orong, of that's 
happening in e world principally marked by revolution. Instead, it 
srooma us for places as teohnioiana, managers and olerks clthln the 
Clant oorporations, or to be professional apologists for the status quo 
within tho eiant amltiversitias, or to fit soma other cog-apaoe that 
needs the special "aensitivity" tl»t only the polish of factory edu- 
cation oan bring. University oourses on Chins js^t forward the same for- 
Qiula as the vqt comic books— a ooomuniSt oonspiraoy resulting in a 
blue-ant hill. Usually there is no ocurae at all on revolutlcoary Cuba, 
one of tho ma^or developmento of our lifetime, only 90 miles aoay. 
PhUxieophy La not IxrtAx-^flte^ 5j) hov '#« vaaAar^kmni^ I li&t-aAone ohacge) 



1004 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Gordon Exhibit No. 2 — Continued 

tbo QorU, obljT In hoo to «vmd0 It. Utsrator* is ocoMnwd ulth form a3o2W. 
Students JuQp frco mjor to najor ia ssajroh of relsvaiwy, tbon, findlne 
it nouhesv, rithsr qolt or settle for bAoality. Ths unlvvralty Is doiag 
Its Job, supplying the system with los»J, w©H-trained, Inteincent ser- 
vants— uho are aioral, oultural and sooial OMras. Lest this Job prove 
too ouoh of « burden f^ overstrained ooU«fi adodnistrations , it is 
shared with other Institutions, from 1Si» bovIm to the Peaoe Corps. 

Out of this uoderstaading of Ims^'S^Xism as reepensible for the 
poverty of our lives, and out of tlw void of laaotion of the existing peaoe 
and left groups cm the oonpuses, the Uay SDd Usvsaent oas formed, liaj 
la oanpus based, atteoptlns to orfanise etuAants to fii^t the system and 
not dooilely (or ©ciplntflyy aoeept It. 



The amjor iss\ie faolng U.S. studeAts at this time is the uar against 
the paople of Vietnam. This ver is also against the interests of the sti> 
dents and almost' the* entire population of the Oaited States. Nine biUion 
dollars has already been out from tba ever^deereaslng "peaoe" portion of 
the federal budget. The war has been ueed aeninst steel corkers, who 
were told that they nere not penaltted to strUce beoause of the "national 
eraercenoy. " Hie Administration will deoand that blaok Amerioans stop 
protesting in an attempt to oover aagry faoes with a mask of "national 
unity", 

liost people realize that the U.S. is not fighting for freedom and 
deoooraoy In Vietnam, that the Vietnamese people eant nothing more than 
the U.S. get out, no say to those who are being forosd to kill and die 
for the Interests of imperialism— DON'T GO, The l&y 2nd Movement is 
launohlng an anti^induotion campaign on the campuses. This oampal(7i 
will orcanlze ezlatlng resiateaoe to the draft, based on ths refusal 
to fight against the people of Vietnam, Elaoh campus and eeeh eoaiminity 
should say, "No one fran this college ( or ooommlty) should be drafted". 
Doolflratlona and literature will be oiroulated, fonans and meetings held, 
demonstrations organized and acts of disobedience engaged in. The theme 
will be "le 17CN'T GO." 

i7e are beginning a program of approaching workers at the factory 
gate to talk to them about the war in Vietnam 4Bid why it is agaiast the 
interests of workers. This project comes out of the uiiderstanding that 
whilo students make up an Important section of the population, industrial 
workers taake, load and transport the goods, and are therefore the key for 
stopplriij the vrar In Vietnam-- for stopping the whole system. JThile- 
workers' qilltanoy has become more apparent in recent years, we realize 
that orGanlzlng a radical workers' movement in this eountry is a long 
range goal, and one that essentially must be done by workers. All the 
more roason to bfgla projects now to Involve workers in the peace move- 
memt and as aUlas of the student movement. 

Some chapters of Say 2 plan campaigns to donate blood and other 
medical old to the National Liberation FStont of South Vietnam, to oon- 
orotoly ohow our support for national liberation struggles. Receiving 
blood from U.S. college students will be a terrifio morale boost to the 
Vlotriacsoso people. Collootlng pledges for blocd on oampus oan also show 

whore thn A<Imlni.ntratlea st«n<lR, aq ool1*otlD({ for- elvll right* did at 

Borkoley. 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1005 

Gordon Exhibit No. 2— Continued 

Vietnam Is not the mly slap in ^ha ftt09 Adinl&lAtored t« students 
by U.S. foralgn poli&y. 5k>ring th» ■gasners ©f 1963 and 1964, 150 U.S. 
students travell«d to Cuba to so* th» tt»«ai3S of a R»volutlon. Thay 
went In splt« of a state department '^n" on tr«v«l to Cul». Evan worae, 
they oame baok and tald saudents thrca^out the oovtotry, with their ex- 
periences and with slides, that Cub* vae buUding a Just society. The 
organizers of the trips ( including oeabers of U2U) faoo between five and 
twenty years In Jail, We are now orgsinsiag defense for them on the cam- 
puses. Wo must fight for our right to ty«vel anywhere and see for otirsel^s 
what is happening — we dont find out in our o3Asaes and newspapers. The 
ban on travel to Cuba (and China. North Korea, NorthVietnam, liberated 
parts of south Vietnam , Albania; Is not an isolated Civil LlbiBrties issue. 
It is part of the US goverEmont's policy of suppressing. people around 
the w»rld, yighting against thsban is pert of our struggle for liberation. 

This struggle is also being waged in the universities. Whatever 
the immediate cause — libraries open 24 hours a day, free tuition, reali 
teaching and learning — it oomes down to this; In whos« interest is the . 
university run? Theirs or Ours? May 2nd chapters put forward the idea i^ik 
that students must fight for control of their schools, and that by working 
together we oan "jin fundamental changes in our day-to-<toy life, 

A creative response to university mls-eduoation is the Rree Univer- 
sity of New York. May 2nd supports the Free University and Mag 2nd members 
in and around New York City participate in it as students and teachers. 
We will work toward spreading the idea of P.U.N.Y, And h«lp in the initia- 
tion of Free Universities in other areas. 

Those aotlvitioo are the focus of our dally work of educating 
and organizing; Talking to each person on oAmpus, going door to door, 
literature tables- street rallies, speaking up in class about pertinent 
issues. 

Two special vehicles of education and agitation are the Free 
Student and U2M study groups. Four issues of FS have already been pub- 
lished so far and have sold over 70,000 aopies. It has become an impor- 
tant voice of the student movement on many campuses, reaching hot only 
activists, but thousands of students not in oontaot with thd movemnt in 
any other way, FS has reported and analyzed the major student events: 
Eerkoley, the ifaroh on Wastiington, "It has included long features on 
Vietnam, C«ngo, Malays la -Indonesia, Columbia University (including a 
coB-.iilote njndown on who the trustees are) and the right of travel to 
Cuba, A regular feature has been the International Student column. The 
editorials have analyzed tb student movement, the university, the war on 
VlBtnam, the need &r a long term outlook in building a movement, and have 
helped develop a oonsoiousnesa within the student movement^ FREE STUDENT 
la sold by all U2M chapters and members, in addition to many friends and 
o-lhor givAipe^ It 1b used In. -or^anizlng^^suppor^ ^nd r^orultdng new members. 



1006 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Gordon Exhibit No. 2— Continued 

Study aroupe, suoh &a an VlatEam, are ussaot for ledrning ohat la 
vltftl but not tau^t uithia ths eehool. ?boy aro unlllte most olassoa, 
^hero alleced exports provide descriptions cf thiagn for us to foed book 
in tests. The menbers cf a study group ooss togetfcar to h»lp ©ooh other 
Incroeso their understand Sng of areas tbey f«el aeossaary in order to be 
bettor able to fight for sooiol change. The study growp develops an analysis 
of events uhioh is not right or arong beoauea a professor says so, but is 
Judged by ohother it aids in projeoting tJse a-^&tegy and tactics of political 
struggle. 

Our ideas Ijave to correspond to raality if ve are to orgoniss. largo 
nunbors of pooplo to fight against a brutal system, Oe ore in the process 
of doveloping an-".ftdeology baaod on anti-Imperialism end support for the 
atruRglos of national liberation. To have an Ideology moans that no have 
bollofs besod on studied understanding and analyeis of the uorld situatloi, 
IVe p&t these beliefs foroard for dob&te and for tastliig, and if thoy ore 
proven, oo base our actions upon them. Owr ideology enstlaa us to see 
through events that oonfuso end mislead. I3sny people uho are against the 
for in Vietnam, but uho ^ro "non-ideolcgical", are deceived by Johns oifs 
peace offensive. They believe, beouaso ft would be nice If it uoro true, 
that the administration's oalls for negotiations represent a real desire 
to end the car. This, in spite of the tno years of pretense at negotiations 
the U,S. enoagod in during the hardest fighting of the Korasn oar, and the 
hypocrisy of calling for a rot\irn to the Geneva agreemeots, ohioh the U.S. 
has— literally— violated in every possible oay, 

ne reboot non-idoologpioal redioaliem, Thero is no such thing as 
ncn-ldeology. Those uho have "no-ideology" cannot counter the prevailing 
ideology — decaying liberalism. Only if the eembers of an orcanlzation 
shore a consoious understanding of thdlr task, oaa they oork together 
over a long period of tliae olthcut suspicion, distraoticn and oBnipulatlai, 
Of oouras, organizations \3ith differing ideologlos can oork together for 
oocmon goals. 

rJhen the student protest movement refers to "the establish- 

aent", ve are ant kidding. That which we are out te change— be it a 
wol-roral+.j or- «. goy^rnaent— Is built on a tremendously powerful struc- 
ture of rcaterlel and organization. The mcney and resources available 
to it art iiLmonse. We will change nothing unless we organize oursalvfis , 
forg»» ourselves Into a united"" and disciplined force and iratoh the strength 
1 ki'^ "ctabllshmont in confrontations.' We can, do so because cur strength 
In based on people, not cash. U2M Is building an orgenlzatifin of students 
tnat roTCPT.izes, and wrrks t« satisfy, our needs as students and as m<i\ 
and wrmiin. Those needs are inseparable from the worldwide struggle for 
liberatlrn. One can choose to oppose this struggle, or to Join it. 
To oppiipe it is to be a murderer. To Join together and fight to change 
this itur-lorous society is the only way for any of us to live with de- 
noricy and dignity. We will succeed when large numbers cf students haw 
the Insight, the dedication and the will to organize theasolves, to J«in 
th* str-if.^^iH wi+h otliar n^ot.lomu of th«». populAtlon, «nd to see it through. 

September 1965 

Moy TT.d Movement 640 Broadway New York City 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1007 

Gordon Exhibit No. 3 

May 2nd Movement Report #2 (New Style) 

november 13tii rally 

Oct. 30, 1965. 

On October 16th 100,000 people marched (2.5,000 in New York; 15,000 in 
Berlveley-Oakland) demanding an end to the Vietnam war NOW! This was a 
great success for the anti-war movement. Following this the government and 
the press, personally led by President Johnson, attack the movement, first SDS 
then M2M. Because of this New York M2M decided to open the November 11th 
rally to broader sponsorship and to change the date to Nov. 13, a Saturday, to 
allow for a rally of several thousands of people. This has worked very well, as 
the enclosed leaflet attests to, and the rally is now being entirely run by the broad 
group of sponsorship. 

Tills rally will be different from other rallies. Speakers will be part of a whole 
presentation aimed at "programs for the further grov\i;h and organization of the 
Vietnam war opposition, and to respond with unity to the attacks." A printed 
leaflet, with a press run of 100,000 is planned in the next few days. People from 
the New I'ork area and nearby cities interested in working on this important 
rally should contact M2M at 212-982-5582 or SDS at 212-889-5793. Help is 
needed especially on the publicity committee. People are needed for the defense 
committee and for fund raising. LET'S KEEP GOING ! ! 

ANTI-DRAFT UNIONS 

The October 24th meeting, announced and discussed in Report #1, was at- 
tended by about 30 M2Mers — ^all from New York and New Jersey. The enclosed 
press release dated October 26 outlines the decisions made at the meeting and 
the general context within which it was decided it was best to discuss the draft. 
The essential decisions were that anti-draft activity should be carried out 
through the formation of independent Anti-Draft Unions, though some chap- 
ters may decide that the situation on their campus calls for the work to be 
done directly by M2M, and that a booklet should be written that discusses the 
nature of Imperialist wars and why people don't want to fight in them. The 
booklet would also discuss militarism and the various alternatives around the 
draft issue and the legal situation on them. It would not advocate illegal acts 
nor discuss the various ways of how "to cool the draft board." 

"These Unions," the press release states, "will be independent and will decide 
on their own programs. Ideas for such program include : demonstrations at 
draft boards when a member of the Union is being forced to go into the army ; 
.similar demonstrations in support of members who refuse to go into the army ; 
demands on campus that the University cease all cooperation with the draft 
board — that they hand over no grades or other information to the draft board 
and that professors refuse to give in grades for this purpose — and that ROTO 
Get Off the Campus ; if these campus demands are not met the Unions might 
consider the organization of student strikes to support the demands ; that the 
Unions approach High School students and tell them about the war in Vietnam 
and about the different alternatives open to them on the draft." These should 
not be conceived to mean that students should have special exemptions over any 
other section of the population, but that all sections have to oppose the draft both 
seperately [sic] and united. 

It was thought that the basic thing is that anti-draft activity always be ex- 
plained by our oi>position to the U.S. aggression in Vietnam, and that the main 
issue is U.S. Get Out of Vietnam Now. "These Unions," the release continues, 
"will not be able to get large numbers of young people out of the army. The 
only way this will occur is when the whole system of U.S. economic and political 
exploration, upon which the war in Vietnam is founded, is defeated." 

WHY THE ATTACK? 

The reason and timing of the attack is clear. Senator Stennis, Chairman of 
the Armed Services Committee, has stated that the war in Vietnam will last 10 
to 15 years. On October 15-16 the anti-war movement in this country showed 
itself to be growing. Putting these two facts together the government, it would 
seem, felt that it could no longer afford the democratic luxurary [sic] of a rela- 
tively unhampered anti-war movement. This movement could be expected to 
grow as the American people became increasingly weary of the Vietnam war in 
the months and years to come. So the government acted. 



1008 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

THE PRESS AND M2M 

On Tuesday, October 26 the New York World-Telegram and Sun came out with 
an 8 column banner headline — "Leflist [sic] Group Here Ships Supplies to Viet 
Cong." The article by Jeremy Heymsfeld began : "A group of extreme left-wing 
youths called the May Second Movement today is quietly shipping supplies to the 
Communist Viet Cong. These remarkably ordinary looking young men and 
women have become so alienate [sic] from the main stream of American and 
Western life that they have turned to the hard-line communism of Peking for 
their ideological inspiration. For them, anti-draft demonstrations or protests 
against American policy in Vietnam are only means to an end. The end is violent 
revolution and the recasting of American society in the image of Mao Tse-tung. 
This is what I found during a week's service as a volunteer worker in the May 
Second Movement headquarters here." 

Tlie article went on to say that we are selling blood and sending the profits to 
the Viet Cong, that we are training guerillas in Michigan and that we like the 
C.P.U.S.A. because they keep the F.B.I, busy. 

The truth is: as was reported in Report #1 the Stanford M2M chapter has 
helped in the initiation of a Medical Aid for the Victims of U.S. Bombing in 
Vietnam Committee, which has contacted the American, British and North Viet- 
namese Red Crosses and the International Red Cross (which has given them the 
go ahead). That no aid has been shipped of as yet and that it is not being 
collected by M2M. The medical aid was to show the Vietnamese people that 
not all Americans want to kill them, and to show our opposition to the U.S. gov- 
ernment's war on Vietnam. Report #1 suggested that M2Mers might want to 
sell their blood and send in the money for M2M for our outstanding printing bill ; 
the original story in the New York Daily News on the training camp in Michigan 
had it that it was run by SDS with M2M and Progressive Labor people 
as advisors ; we support all groups, including the C.P.U.S.A. in the face of gov- 
ernment attack — the U.S. government is the main enemy of peace in the world 
and the F.B.I, is a police state organization. 

The guy who wrote the story came into the office for two days (about an hour 
and a half in all) .saying that he was against the war in Vietnam and wanted 
to work with us. Most of the material — in fact all of the material — he used 
were from public documents (the Stanford group had sent out a Press Prelease 
[sic] when it began the project) . 

Since that time we have been in the press and on either radio or TV every day 
in the major metropolitan centers. At first they were mainly interested in Medi- 
cal Aid, but now they are also interested in our total program. This is very 
important — in speaking to the press we have tried to relate all our projects — 
anti-draft, etc. — to why we are against the U.S. aggression in Vietnam. We 
have attempted to turn all questions into our expousing our beliefs on the war 
and on what Americans should do in opposing it. Support has been coming in 
from other groups and from many people and our chapters are more active now 
than they have ever been. More people are interested in M2M than ever, and 
we have as much work for as many people as can work. Speaking engagements 
have tripled (at least) . 

Five reporters descended on Brian Keleher of the MSU chapter wanting to 
know where the training camp was. The fuses in the national office were blown 
and battery floodlights had to be used by the TV cameras that were here on 
the 26th. 

HOWARD U. M2M 

As soon as the papers hit the stand Howard University temporarily suspended 
the M2M chapter for "investigation." The chapter was reinstated the same day 
after Prof. Bernard Fall and five other Howard profs protested to the Adminis- 
tration. Viva Howard M2M. 

MUHLENBERG COLLEGE, ALLENTOWN, PENNA. 

This past week Russ Stetler showed an NLF film and spoke for an hour and a 
half. Muhlenberg has a student body of 1,400. Russ spoke to 1,200 ! 

FREE STUDENT 

No one has yet sent in the evaluation of FS (except Haverford). They are 
badly needed to improve the paper for i.ssue #6. It is exceedingly important 
that FS #5 be sold at all times. This is the main educational publication of 
M2M and the more people it reaches the more we are heard ! 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1009 

Articles are needed for issue #6, including campus chapter activity and evalu- 
ations of different Universities as was done with Columbia. 

A special four-page issue of FS with statements by various student groups — 
and paid for by the various groups — as an answer to the government attacks 
and a declaration of opposition to the government war in Vietnam is being 
considered. 

FUNDS 

We are in a desi>erate situation ! We owe over 2,000 dollars and have to come 
up with it or we can't continue to publish FS or any offset work ! What is needed 
now is : 

1) Hold a party this week and send in some of the money for FS (as 
well as the 5^ from sale 

2) Ask people who are sympthetic to M2M to donate money either in a 
lump sum or a set amount every week or month so that we can continue op- 
posing the war in Vietnam even in the face of government attack. 

3) If possible donate some money yourself either in a lump sum or even 
better a set amount every week or month. 

CUBA TRIPS TRIAL 

The trial is over. Briefs are now being presented. Then there will be a reply 
to the briefs and in the beginning of December oral arguments vi-ill be made. 
The judge will decide and give his opinion probably by the beginning of January. 
A special kit is being made up on the Trips and the Trials and Cuba and will be 
sent out to the worklist this week under seperate [sic] cover. 

NCCEWVN CONVENTION 

The National Coordinating Committee to End the War in Vietnam, 341 West 
Miflin, Madison, Wisconsin. The NCC will hold a convention in Washington on 
November 25-28 and all campus and community groups can send two delegates 
and as many observers as they want. An agenda will be sent out to the worklist 
shortly. 

All chapters that have not yet joined the NCC chould do so by writing to the 
above address. For housing in AVashington — try to find your own (and if you 
can find more space then needed contact : Wash. Comm to End War in VN, P.O. 
Box 1924!), Washington, D.C., 20036. If you can't find housing also contact the 
Washington Comm 

WE NEED 

Two desks and one typewriter were the answer to our call of what the National 
Office needs. We still need at least one, preferably, two typewriters badly. If 
you have a spare typewriter or know someone who does please contact Larry 
Hecht in New York. 

New Phone Number 

The Nat. Office has a new phone number— (212) YU 2-55S2. 



The enclosed WE WON'T GO button is still available at 25fi each or 150 each 
in quantity. A new U.S. GET OUT OF VIETNAM button is being prepared. 
Send orders in now. 

SANE RALLY 

The National Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy has called for a rally in 
Washington, D.C. on November 27, during the NCC Convention. Many people 
have expressed doubts as how to relate to this call. On the one hand they feel 
that now more than ever is the time for unity on the left and in the anti-war 
movement. They feel that v^^e must have all our rallies and demonstrations turn 
out the most people possible. That split rallies and small turnouts will only 
strengthen the hand of the government in its attacks on us and in its expansion of 
the war. On the other hand they realize that it is SANE through its statement 
that Communists would not be welcome at the rally that is splitting the move- 
ment. Also they feel that the essence of SANE'S call is a misrepresentation of 
the facts of the war — that the U.S. is not clearly labeled the only aggressor in 
Vietnam and that negotiations are not labeled a part of Johnson phony "peace 
offensive" that is a smokescreen fo?* his expansion of the war. 



1010 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

A solution to this dilemma would be for us to go to the rally and the whole 
NOG meeting in Washington under the slogans of November 13th— U.S. GET 
OUT OF VIETNAM NOW, RESIST GOVERNMENT ATTACK ON PEACE 
MOVEMENT, RESIST RED-BAITING, ORGANIZE AGAINST THE DRAFT. 
In this way we do not split the movement by not attending and we make the 
points that it is vital to make, that we put the blame for the war right where it 
belongs, in the U.S.'s lap. 

J.G. 

May 2nd Movemnt [sic] 
640 broadway, room 307 
new york 12, new york 

(212) YU 2-5582 

No defense committees ! Let us continue the offensive against U.S. gov't's wars 
of aggression. Right now the gov't attacks only expose their hypocracy — we 
will grow on account of them (both in numbers and in understanding). 

Gordon Exhibit No. 4-A 




D«ar Mr. Chairman: 

Thla la In reply to your letters of August I and August 2, 1966. 

Your letter of August 1 requested copies of correepondenee with 
the Medical Aid Cossnlttee and with the Comnlttee to Aid the Vlet- 
Maiaese. The following letters are enclosed: 

Letter dated December 23, 1965 from the Office of 
foreign Assets Control to the Medical Aid CooKclttee, 
Box 1128, Berkeley, California. 

Letter dated Novemb&r 22, 196S from the Office of 
Foreign Assets Control to Mr. Stanley Kedel, Chalr- 
Bian, Cosamittee to Aid the Viet-Hamese, afz 
University of Michigan, Ann Arbox, Michigan. 

In addition, on October 29, 1965, raprasentatlvea of the Office 
of foreign Assets Control called at the office of the May Second 
Movement, Rooraa 305 and 307, &A0 Broadway, Hew York, New York. The 
treasury representatives found Mr. Lawrence Hscht on the premises, 
who indicated he was in charge of the office. He was advised that 
the Treasury's Foreign Assets Control aagulatlona prohibit any remit- 
tance of funde directly or indirectly to Horth Viat-Nam or nationals 
thereof, Including the Viet Cong, in the absence of a license from 
the Treasury Department. He wee further advised that these Regulations 
also prohibit the ualicenaed sending of any eommodltlea whatever to 
North Vlet-Nam or natioaelo thereof Including the Viet Cong. It was 
specifically stated that the prohibition extended to the unlicensed 
sending of blood or laedical supplies. During this conversation, 
Mr. Jeffrey Gordon entered the office of the May Second Movement and 
gave that as his address. He was likewise advised as to the appli- 
cability of the Regulations to possible transactions with Morth Vtet- 
Nam and the Viet Cong. Both persons were requested to convey this 
Information to all branches and members of the May Second Movement. 

You also ask for copies of correspondence with banks in the 
Vnlted States concerning the blocking of $1,500 in the U. S. accounts 
of the Ceskovslovenska Obehodni Bank. There are enclosed copies of 
letters from the Treasury dated June 14, June 17 and June 23, 1966 
to a West Coaat Sank and copies of their repliea dated June 16, 
June 20, another letter dated June 20, and letters dated June 21 and 
July 1, 1966. 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1011 

Gordon Exhibit No. 4-A — Continued 

Finally, you ask vhaChor the provisloQa of ch« Foreign Aaoeta 
Control Ragulatlona apply to all financial and coasMrcial t^anaac- 
tions between Indivlduala or groups in the United Stataa and the 
International Red Croaa and/or the Aaerican Red Croat. The Foreign 
Aasets Control Regulations do not apply to any transaction with 
those agencies unless there is or has been a direct or indirect 
Interest in the transaction of CoDBunlat China, North Korea, Rorth 
Viet-Nam, or nationala thereof, on or since December 17, 1950 in the 
case of Coomunist China and North Korea, aa^d on or since May 5, 196A 
in the case of North Viet-Nam. The Regulations do prohibit persons 
subject to the jurisdiction of the United Statea froa the unlicensed 
sending of funds or supplies to either the An^rlcsn Red Cross or the 
International Coaaittee of the Red Cross If th« funds or supplies are 
ultimately destined to North Viet-Naia or nationals thereof. Including 
the Viet Cong. 

The Department's report on H. R. 12047 is being sent under sepa- 
rate cover, and will no doubt reach you before the Coanittee's hear- 
ings on the bill take place. Secretary Fowler has asked na to 
represent the Treasury in this matter, and if you will notify me of 
the dace you wish bm to appear and testify, I shall be happy to do so. 

I trust this is the information you desire. If we. can be of 
further assistance, please feel free to call on us* 

Sincerely, 



Fred B. Sisiith 
General Counsel 



Honorable Kdwin E. Willis 
Chairman, Comnittec on 

Un-American Activities 
House of Representatives 
Washington, D. C, 20515 

Enclosures 



1012 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAB 
GoEDON Exhibit No. 4-B 



NO. 53830 
jRcslfetered Mail 
Betum Receipt Requeat^d 



DEC 15 )3t5 



Medical Aid Coanltte* 
P.O. Box 1128 
Berkelay, California 

Doar |Sl7«> 

The Americs^ National Bed Cross has 'brought to our attention 
your letter to than of November 23^ 19<35> signed by Vtr, Stephen Fox 
as oo-chaliman. iour letter relates to the direct or IMirsct 
sending of supplies nnd/or funds for the jwrohaae of eupplies 
ultimately deotlned for delivery to North Vlet-Ilea or the so-called 
National lAberation Fro^it of Smith Vlet-Mam. 

Your attention is directed to the provisions of tha Treaeisry 
Department's Poreien Aseeta Control Regulations, a copy of -whica 
Is enclosed. Thesa Regulations prohi'bit 2>arson8 subject to the 
Jurisdiction cf the United States fi-'jm engaging in any unlicensed 
transaction directly or indirectly vith North Viet-Nnm> its people, 
or its agents, vheravor located. This would include transcettcns 
with the 80"callad National Libaretion Front. Theee Resulatlona, 
which are Issued under the authority of the Trodlna with the Eneay 
Act, have the effect of prohibiting Americans from the unlicensed 
sending of any inoaay or supplies directly or indirectly to Eorth 
Vldt-Nem or to tba Viet Cong. 

5?h6 penalties for vlllful vlolatlcna of these Reguletlons include 
us> to ten years Isprlaoiscent end/or ;^10,000 fine for each offense. 

Vary truly yours. 



(Mr«.) Margaret V, Schvartz 
Director 



£aclo8ur9 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1013 
Gordon Exhibit No. ^C 
fteeX&tav^ J'Sall 

{^. 8t&nl«ry Badalj Chalraea 
Cc^E£itt69 to Aid the Vl«t gaaMMk 
c/o Uaireralty of HicMsaik 

tear &lri 

Sh«r« has eosa to i^e Bttmtloa of iltls offica ft raeent naetspeper 
eriield vltlj ea ccoac^paaylfls 3E»I»tc^rr8s>lj aS ycsara^lT iiaaic&tlns that ym ara 
lo poeseseloo cf ti t^usatlty of |«at9,'se BUapg (!lAacrli(e4 tut Vict Cosja «t«Bpa» 
It is cur ^aAitvsiwT^ixi^ tb&t oo-eaUc^ Vict Cocq. ete::pa ear** in f«ct» otecps 
Isi^iM by aorta Vlet-i'a-a bc«jK>rla<5 tho Vle^ Coi^. #'« ;?om tsay kQOv# there hatr» 
blisa beea ?eciMit »t&t6?^7tta in tb« ttcv^pspt^s tttat ytfu. iitnr* ea4« or propoea 
to Bt&b» BORdtery eoatri-butieos to tba Viot Coag* 

&• trwuwry Bepartsisat*© tos^-ir-A Assets CoaU«l tt«galEtteaa, a. copy of 
vhleh 1« «aclc3sat prchiblt persjoaa raUJfiot to tba ^arlsdlctloa of tUo Uolted 
Statoe froB ea^^ina In Kvy uftliceascd trpnsactloa filrostly or inaircctly 
vlth tiarth Vlet-iJas, Ita p«c?jilo» or il» pc*?et?«» v^revw lo«»tca, T^ils umilA 
iiiftluda tranfiactlojw vlt!j tDe eK>»eall^i JJfttloa-\l lifcoratlea J-'ront. Ybsso 
Beauliitioaa, vhlch ere ioittj^ undor tSa taitharity of titS Tr&Hnjt vlth tim 
TBoBoy &c%t itwt& tlio effsct of prolilbitiag /■jssrlQoaa fnxt tb» uolietftriei^ 
eoodltis OS any corny or 6U|ipiUes directly or ios^tractly to Sortb Ti«t»aK 
or to tbo ?iet Cas^t 

TtMt Per«lgQ Aaseto Control f^alctlon* slflo i-rcMblt jwrfioas eu&^eet tft 
tSj9 Jvuriadictioa of tiio UaltM Stetes frca RaHi?3e ualicsased jurciMneao ftlnro«4 
or iEportatioas Iftto tUo United Btntea of Skoy Kerchtw^ioa cf ll^'th Vtot«lfea«e» 
crlijln, lacludlAS p03tec« 6t«tj!8» toreavcr, porocws Miso iRjiy or e«ll ta tJ» 
tJttltod £tste» St«E!p» of Korth Viet-Efmass cfi^s sjaj- wail t«cQ»e tn«>l«d la 
violatlontj of tho J!3ii\ilit1,oos or tlua reli>Yuat Custosas law« tarou^Ji tbair 
ftcrtUlEitioa or mf^ of ainreiasaaii^a vlilcii Jieo tjC'SJi Jag^Mted lato tio yait^ 
Statoo contrtsiry to ^v^* { 

Vaa jp-ssaltled for vlUful vlol&tloos of tt^so Ite^alAtlonA loolvtis «9 to 
i^A^irs i^i:isoaaan% ea&/&r ilD,<XQ tias for each offorioe. 

V«ry truly yosurt^ 

t!argarp{V/.Sca>y3rt» 

(yirs*} i^iHi&ret V. Sclwarts 
IDiroctor 
Sitoloatr^ 



1014 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Gordon Exhibit No. 4-D 
No. 5389Q 
Reslnterad Itoil 1fBC'Jl$ l<^tS 

KetuTO "Rooalpt Requested *^ 

Steaford Coraaittfte for Kedioal 

Aid to Vlatnem 
c/o Stanford Unlveroitjr 
Palo Alto, California 

l>esn' Bin 

There hoe cotne to ths attention of this offioa a recent rsporb 
that ths StEuiford Coraiaitteo for liadicai Aid to Vietnaa propoees 1» 
Bend money or blood eupplies to llorth Viet-Hara or tha Viet Cong, 

.The Treasiiry DdportEient^s Foreign Ass^ats Contsrol BegulCvtiOna, a 
copy Of irtiich is enclooed, prohibit poraor.s sutject to tha Juriadiction 
of the United States frai eiieagina in ejiy \mUcenced tranoExotion directly 
or indirectly vith I/orth Vlet-riam, its people, or its acentSj vherever 
located. This would includo transactlomi vd.th the sjO"called HationEl 
Liberation Front. These Resulatioos, vliich are issvied under ths 
authority of tho Trading with the Uneasy Act, have the effect of pro- 
hibiting /juericans frrai tha vmlicensed eendin^ of aiiy money or exippllea 
dis-cctly or indirectly to IJorth Viot-IIaas or to the Viet Cong. 

The peioaltiea for villfal violations of these ReiTulatlono induda 
up to ten years linprieonment ead/'or $10,000 fliso for each offense. 

Veary truly yours, 



(lira.) Margaret W. Sclwartz 
Director 



Enclosure 



/ 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1015 

Gordon Exhibit No. 5 
[Vietnam Courier, May 19, 1966, No. 59] 



Do N 



To 



VIefi 



THE U.S. weekly Challenge 
on April iq published 
the. following anti-war letter 
handed out by an American 
youth. Brooklyn College 
student Jeff Gordon, at the 
White Hall Army Induction 
Center, New York : 



WE are being drafted into the 
army. Many of us are to 
fight in the jungles of Vietnam. 
This war is very unpopular in 
the United States and around the 
world. Many people think it's 
an unjust war, not like World 
War II, when we were fighting 
the nazis. Let's look at the 
facts ! 

The Geneva Agreements of 
T954, which the United States 
agreed not to violate, calls for 
two main things : 

I. Free elections throughout 
Vietnam by 1956 and, 

1. No foreign troops, planes, 
or bases to be introduced into 
Vietnam after 1954. 

What's happened to these two 
points ? 

On point one — no free elec- 
tions were held in 1956. The 
South Vietnam govermnent... 
refused to hold the elections. 
President Eisenhower said in 
his memoirs... that if the elec- 
tions had been held he thought 
and all his advisors thought 
that the North Vietnam leader 
Ho Chi Minh... would have 
gotten at least 80 per cent of the 
the vote. 



On point two — there are over 
200,000 U.S. troops * illegally 
stationed in Vietnam today .Even 
the State Department says there 
are no Chinese or Russian combat 
troops in Vietnam. Our troops 
are in Vieinatn in violation of 
international law. Few of our 
allies art willing to support us. 
We^^are being sent 9,000 miles 
away to fight for a '"govern- 
ment " (whichever one it is 
now) that you can see from, 
the nevjspapers and TV hardly 
has any support from the 
Vietnamese people — religious 
leaders, peasants, or unionists. 
GI's that come back from Viet- 
nam tell us that we are fighJing 
against the people of .Vietnam. 
To say that we are fighting to 
support a free an^ popular, 
government in Vietnam has 
become a tragic joke. 

And as we fight, kill, and 
die in Vietnam, the big owners 
of major defense industries in 
the United States make more 
and more money — for each 
helicopter shot down, they build 
another one. Secretary of Defense 
McNamara , one of the big 
pushers of this war, recently 
was pTf-sident of Ford Motors, 
which has tens of millions of 
dollars in government defense 
contracts. 

Recently, when there was talk 
of peace in Vietnam, the stocck 
market went down ! Peace 
means less profits, war means 
more. That is why they send 
us over to destroy and be 
destroyed. 



(*) At present 250,000 troops 



1016 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Mr. Pool. The subpenaed witnesses will be here, report to the com- 
mittee tomorrow morning at 10 o'clock. The meeting is adjourned 
until 10 o'clock tomorrow morning. 

(Whereupon, at 5 :30 p.m., Tuesday, August 16, 1966, the subcom- 
mittee recessed to reconvene at 10 a.m., Wednesday, August 17, 1966.) 



HEARINGS ON H.R. 12047, H.R. 14925, H.R. 16175, H.R. 
17140, AND H.R. 17194— BILLS TO MAKE PUNISHABLE 
ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN TIME OF UNDE- 
CLARED WAR 

Part 1 



WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 17, 1966 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington, D.G. 
PUBLIC hearings 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
met, pursuant to recess, at 10 a.m., in the Caucus Room, Cannon House 
Office Building, Washington, D.C., Hon. Joe R. Pool (chairman of 
the subcommittee) presiding. 

(Subcommittee members: Representatives Joe R. Pool, of Texas, 
chairman ; Richard H. Ichord, of Missouri ; George F. Senner, Jr., of 
Arizona ; John M. Ashbrook, of Ohio ; and John H. Buchanan, Jr., of 
Alabama. Alternate member: Representative Del Clawson, of 
California.) 

Subcommittee members present: Representatives Pool, Ashbrook, 
and Buchanan, and also Representative Clawson, alternate member. 

House Members also present: Representatives Wayne L. Hays, of 
Ohio; Robert C. McEwen, of New York; Seymour Halpem, of New 
York; Fred B. Rooney, of Pennsylvania; Paul J. Krebs, of New 
Jersey ; Horace R. Koniegay, of North Carolina ; Delbert L. Latta, of 
Ohio ; Jolin C. Culver, of Iowa ; John W. Wydler, of New York ; and 
Elf ord A. Cederberg, of Michigan. 

Staff members present: Francis J. McNamara, director; William 
Hitz, general comisel; Alfred M. Nittle, counsel; Donald T. Appell, 
chief investigator ; and Ray McComion, Jr., Herbert Romerstein, and 
Philip R. Manuel, investigators. 

Mr. Pool. The meeting is called to order. 

The cameramen will please take their equipment outside and the tape 
recorder also. I want to first instiiict the officers that if there is any 
defacing of Government property on the outside of this hearing room 
or inside, especially out in the halls, that I have talked to the Speaker 
of the House and he agrees with me that these people who deface the 
walls in any manner should be arrested and charged with defacing 
public property. I expect you to make arrests when you see that 
going on even though it is not inside the hearing room. 

Call the first witness, Comisel. 

1017 

67-852—66 — pt. 1 8 



1018 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Mr. NriTLE. Would Richard Mark Rhoads please come forward? 

Mr. Pool. The Chair wishes to welcome Congressmen Wayne Hays, 
Robert McEwen, Sy Halpern, Fred Rooney, and Paul Krebs. We are 
glad to have you here with us this morning. 

The witness will stand and be sworn. 

Raise your right hand. Do you solemaily swear that the testimony 
you are about to give wdll be the truth, the w^hole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. RiioADS. I came to the committee to tell as much of the truth 
as I can before being interrupted by this committee. 

Mr. Pool. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about 
to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so • 

Mr. RiiOADS. I so affirm. 

Mr. Pool. Do you affirm that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the trutli, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth ? 

Mr. RiiOADS. I affirm. 

Mr. Pool. Proceed. 

TESTIMONY OF RICHAED MARK RHOADS, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, IRA GOLLOBIN 

Mr. NiTixE. Mr. Rhoads, would you state your full name for the 
purposes of the record: 

Mr. Rhoads. Before answering the first question, I would like to 
register some objections to this entire proceeding. May I do so at 
this time? 

Mr. NiTTLE. You will address your request to the chairman, please. 

Mr. Pool. Go ahead. 

Mr. Rhoads. Mr. Chairman, may I make some objections to the 
entire proceedings? 

]Mr. Pool. Identify yourself. 

Mr. Rhoads. Will I then be allowed to object to the proceeding? 

I^Ir. Pool. Yes. 

Mr. Rhoads. My name is Richard M. Rhoads. 

Mr. NiTixE. Are you represented by coimsel ? 

Mr. Rhoads. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would counsel identify himself for the record? 

Mr. GoLLOBiN. Ira Gollobin from New York City. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Where do you live, Mr. Rhoads ? 

Mr. Rhoads. I live at 307 Eastern Parkw^ay, Brooklyn, New York. 

Mr. Pool. All right, you can state 5' our objections now. 

Mr. Rhoads. Opposition in our country to the Johnson adminis- 
tration war of genocide in Vietnam is enormous and still growing 
in Vietnam. 

Mr. N1TT1.E. Now, Mr. Chairman, I must object. 

Mr. Pool. I don't mind you making objections, but I don't want 
you making speeches. Just state your objections, and we will con- 
sider them. 

Mr. Rhoads. I am stating my objection. I will continue. 

In the face of militant opposition at home and revolutionary action 
in Vietnam, Johnson resorts to escalation 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Mr. Chairman, I must object again. 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1019 

Mr. Pool. You are not responding. I told you to state your ob- 
jection. 

Mr. Rhoads. I am stating my objection. 

Mr. Pool. You are making a speech. 

Mr. Rhoads. I am stating my objection. 

In our country 

Mr. NiTTLE. These are not legal objections, Mr. Rhoads. 

Mr. Pool. Ask the next question, Mr. Nittle. 

Mr. Rhoads. I am stating my objection. 

Mr. Nittle. Stat-e the time and place of your birth. 

Mr. Rhoads. I msist on the right to state my objection. 

Mr. Pool. What is the question, Mr. Nittle ? 

Mr. NriTLE. State the time and place of your birth. 

Mr. Rhoads. If the coimnittee will not allow me to state the politi- 
cal basis for my objections, I will go on to the legal ones. 

Mr. Nittle. State the time and place of your birth, please. 

Mr. Rhoads. I am continuing my objection. 

Mr. Pool. I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. Rhoads. I am perfectly willing to answer this question, but I 
want to make my legal objections to this hearing. 

Mr. Pool. Go ahead. If you will make your objections in a short 
form, I will listen to them ; I am not going to listen to a speech. 

Mr. Rhoads. I object to answering any questions of this committee 
on the ground that Public Law 601, 79th Congress, 60 Statutes 812, 
Rule XI, authorizing the Committee on Un-American Activities "to 
make * * * investigations of the extent, character, and objects of mi- 
American propaganda activities in the United States" violates the 
Constitution in that the statute is ambiguous and vague, the term "un- 
American propaganda activities" being nowhere defined and being in 
fact incapable of precise definition and obscuring the fact that there 
are not one, but two kinds of mi-American activities : first, those that 
the vast majority of the American people deem un-American, such as 
midemocratic 

Mr. Pool. State your objection. 

Go on and state your objections and answer the question. 

Mr. Rhoads. - — and, secondly, those deemed un-American by a small 
minority of the wealthy privileged, who condone escalating the Viet- 
nam war 

Mr. Pool. This is argumentative also. State your objection. 

Mr. Rhoads. — by their political position and that of the Johnson 
admmistration and members of this committee. 

I further object to answering any questions of this committee on 
the ground that the statute on its face, and as applied by the House 
Un-American Activities Committee during the past 20 years, and 
especially today its harassment of those opposing the Vietnam 
war 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Chairman, this is not a legal argument; it is a 
diatribe. 

Mr. Pool. State your objections. 

Mr. Rhoads. If I continue, it will be very clear that it is a legal 
argument. 

Mr. Pool. Do you take the fifth amendment? 



1020 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Mr. Rhoads. I am not answering a question; I am making an 
objection. 

Mr. PooT-.. I am going to direct yon for the last time. 

Mr. EiiOADS. There is no question on the floor, 

Mr. Pool. He just asked you a question. 

Mr. GoLLOBiN. Mr. Chairman, you did give him permission to make 
a legal objection. 

Mr. AsiiBROOK. He is not doing it. 

Mr. GoLLOBiN. In terms of the amendments. 

Mr. Pool. All right, you can make your objection. 

Mr. Rhoads. Its harassment of Vietnam is repugnant to freedom 
of speech. 

Mr. AsHBRooK. Mr. Chairman— — 

Mr. Pool. If you have objections, this is the last time I am going to 
give you a chance to make them, and the record will show this. Now 
make your objection right now and if you have a fifth amendment 
objection, state it right now, because I am going on to the next question. 

Mr. RiiOADS. Is repugnant to the freedom of speech, assembly, 
association. 

Mr. AsHBRooK, Mr. Chairman 

Mr. Rhoads. I am quoting from the Bill of Rights ; this is part of 
my legal objection. Am I not entitled to do so ? 

Mr. Pool. Make your objection. 

Mr. RpiOADS. Guaranteed to the people by the Bill of Rights and 

Mr. AsHBROOK. Mr. Chairman, this witness is here subject to 

Mr. Pool. For the last time, I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. I submit this witness is recalcitrant and we dismiss 
him and call him back when he wants to contain himself. 

Mr. Pool. I am giving him an opportunity to answer the question 
for the last time. 

Mr. Ajshbrook. He is not quoting from any amendment that is 
applicable. 

Mr. Rhoads. I have further grounds for objection. 

Mr. Pool. It better come forth pretty quick. 

Mr. Rhoads. I decline to answer on the ground that this committee 
is at present illegally constituted and that at least one of its members, 
the Congressman from Alabama 

Mr. Pool. That has been ruled on before, time and again, and it is 
invalid, so go on to the next objection. 

Mr. Rhoads. I have further objection to this committee's entire 
hearing and answering any questions before this committee. I object 
to the fact that the statement of purpose that this committee handed 
to me yesterday morning, the fact that thej'' handed it to me only 
yesterday morning; that this is not a serious legislative committee, 
but a circus intended to harass 

Mr. Pool. All right. Now, Mr. Nittle, ask the next question. I 
have given him plenty of chance. 

Mr. Rhoads. I have further grounds. 

Mr. NiTTi.E. Would you relate the extent of your formal education? 

Mr. Rhoads. Will you repeat the question ? 

Mr. NrrTLE. Would you relate the extent of your formal education ? 

Mr. Pool. I want to direct to the witness' attention that failure to 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1021 

answer questions of this committee could possibly, in my opinion, 
properly subject you to contempt. 

[Laughter.] 

Mr, Rhoads. Is that a threat? 

Mr. Pool. No ; I am just pohiting it out to you. 

Mr. Rhoads, I see, 

Mr. Pool. Go ahead, Mr. Nittle, ask the question again, 

Mr. Nittle. What schools did you attend and when and what 
degrees have you received, if any ? 

Mr. RiioADS, My greatest education has been provided 

Mr, Nittle, I asked you what schools you attended; I didn't ask 
you for a speech. 

Mr. RiiOADs. I am going to tell you. 

In the last few years I have been attending what you might call a 

school of life known as the (?) in the United States, For 

instance, in Times Square in New York City 

Mr. Nittle, If the chairman pleases, I think the witness is being 
in contempt here, 

Mr, Pool. Answer the question, 

I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. RiiOADS. I am answering the question in my own way and 

Mr. AsHBROOK. The question was formal education, Mr. Chairman. 
I believe you would know that means an institution of higher leaiTiing 
or a secondary school. 

Mr. RiioADS. I am presently a full-time student at City College in 
New York. At City College last June the students of the whole 
school were miable to 

Mr, Pool. Answer the question. You are not entitled to make a 
speech. Just answer the questions. 

Mr. Nittle. Wliat is your present occupation ? 

Mr. RiioADs. I am a student. 

[Laughter.] 

Mr. Pool. Next question. 

Mr. Nittle. Do you have any other occupation ? 

Mr. Rhoads. I have answered that question. 

Mr. NiTi'LE. Mr. Rhoads, do you receive a source of income from 
any employment or source? 

Mr. Rhoads. ^Yhy dicbi't you ask that question of the fink that 
testified yesterday, what was his source of mcome ? 

[Applause.] 

Mr. Pool. Answer the question. 

Officers, if there are any more demonstrations, remove the people 
who are demonstrating and they will not be allowed back in the room. 
If necessary, we will clear the whole room if we can't have orderly 
proceedings in this hearing, 

Mr, NnTLE, Mr. Rhoads, in a passport application filed by you on 
April 21, 1965, for travel to Algeria, you set forth your occupation as 
that of editor. Do you still have that occupation either part or full 
time ? 

Mr, Rhoads. May we see the document, please ? 

(Document handed to witness and counsel.) 

Mr. NiTTivE. Ai'e you the 



1022 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Mr. RiiOADS. I am still conferring with my attorney. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I suggest that the witness has had ade- 
quate time to confer with his counsel. 

Mr. Pool. Is the witness ready ? 

Mr. RiioADS. Would you repeat the question, please ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. I stated that in a passport application filed by you with 
the Department of State on April 21, 1965, by which you sought a 
passport for travel to Algeria, you set forth your occupation as that 
of editor. 

Mr. Rhoads. Wliat is the question ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you presently the editor of any publication of the 
Progressive Labor Party ? 

Mr. RiioADS. No. 

(Document marked "Rhoads Exhibit No. 1" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. NiTTL-E. Are you presently the editor of Free Student^. 

Mr. Rhoads. Free Student is an anti-imperialist newspaper. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I say are you presently— — ■ 

Mr. Rhoads. Of which I am on the editorial board. 

]Mr. NiTTLE. You are. Do you receive any remuneration for your 
services to the Free Student ? 

Mr. Rhoads. You are getting back onto this dangerous area of 

Mr. Pool. I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. Rhoads. Unlike some people who are paid agents of various 
Government agencies and would only do it for the fact they get paid, 
I am a vohmteer worker for the Free Student. 

Mr. Pool. Ask the next question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Luce testified yesterday that during his period of 
membership in the Progressive Labor Movement and the May 2nd 
Movement, that you were then both a member of the Progressive 
Labor Movement and a member of the national executive committee 
of the May 2nd Movement. Was his testimony truthful ? 

Mr. Rhoads. It seems to me there are several questions in that ques- 
tion. Could you break it down to one question at a time? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you a member of the Progressive Labor Move- 
ment between the period July 1961 and January 1965? 

Mr. Rhoads. I am very proud to state that right now as I sit here 
before this committee I am a member of the Progressive Labor Party. 

Mr. Pool. Next question. That is sufficient. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you a member 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Nittle, what is the objective of the Progressive Labor 
Party? 

I am addressing that to the witness. 

Mr. NiTrLE. Mr. Rhoads, the chaimian is addressing a question to 
you. 

Mr. Rhoads. Oh, is that to me? What is the objective of the Pro- 
gressive Labor Party ? 

Mr. Pool. That is right. 

Mr. Rhoads. Let me read to you from the preamble of the constitu- 
tion of the Progressive Labor Party in an attempt to answer that 
question from a document of our party : 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1023 

The great American dream of "life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness" 
has been turned by a ruthless regime into a nightmare of death, destruction 
and the pursuit of dollars. On behalf of the tens of millions of our fellow citizens 
who have seen their dream betrayed — 

This is from our founding convention. 

In the midst of the corruption and terror of the past — and the present — we 
have come together to plant the flag of the future. 

Even as we meet, the rulers of our nation are sending off more planes, bombs, 
guns and gases in a desperate effort to paralyze the progress of history, to 
terrorize and destroy those around the world who hold freedom more dear 
even than life when life means slavery. At home, these same rulers enforce a 
society of fear with police dogs, cattle prods and prisons. 

The most hated government in the world today is the government of our 
country. In the remotest corner of the earth, the initials U.S.A., which once 
stood for hoije, have replaced the crooked cross of nazi Germany as the symbol 
of tyranny and death. 

Yet there is another U.S.A. : the U.S.A. which once declared to the world "that 
whenever any form of government becomes destructive ... it is the right of 
the people to alter or to abolish it, and to institute a new government laying 
its foundations on such principles, and organizing its powers in such forms, as 
to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and happiness." (Declara- 
tion of Independence) ; the U.S.A. of the men and women who sweat in factories 
to produce goods, of the housewives who struggle to keep the homes and raise 
the children, of the students, artists and honest intellectuals who want desper- 
ately to create new beauty for life and not bombs and billboards for death. 

It is for this U.S.A., often fooled, sometimes silenced, but still seeking a better 
life, that we meet today. This U.S.A., in the ghetto streets and tenements will 
not go along with the gas chamber plans of this country's ruling class. This 
U.S.A., beaten down time and again, deceived and denied, is still ready to organ- 
ize and to resist. And it is to build that organization and that resistance that 
we launch our Party today. 

******* 

With the birth of our new Party, we dedicate ourselves to end those fears 
and those troubles. We resolve to build a revolutionary movement with the 
participation and support of millions of working men and women as well as 
those students, artists, and intellectuals who will join with the working class 
to end the profit system which breeds those fears and those troubles. With 
such a movement, we will build a socialist U.S.A., with all power in the hands 
of the working people and their allies. 

We recognize that the fight wil be long and hard. The kings, queens and 
bishops of modern finance capital and their political pawns have made it clear 
they will use every form of force and violence in their desperation to hold onto 
their stolen billions. We will be prepared to continue the struggle on whatever 
level and with whatever forms are necessary. Surrender is a word we will 
not know. 

To win, we will have to work closely together, disciplined by the urgency 
of the goal before us ; we will have to study and learn to utilize our communist 
principles and the science of Marxism-Leninism to evaluate honestly our own 
sti-engths and weaknesses and those of the enemy at each new stage of the 
campaign. 

Regardless of personal sacrifice, we resolve to demonstrate through constant 
organized action that the struggle can be carried — and won — to defeat the pres- 
ent system of war and oppression ; that the working class can — and will — control 
its own destiny. 

We know full well that with this resolve we fix our fates in a future of fire. 

Yet we know, too, that from the very flames of our fight — the fight of all honest 
working people, students, housewives and intellectuals of our country and the 
world — a new society shall be built — in which our children, our children's chil- 
dren, and the billion, billion children to come will never be forced to hunger for 
food or shelter or love — a new society without exploitation of man by man, a 
society, a nation, a world of revolutionary socialism. 

To this end, we here resolve to give our every energy, our resources, and 
our lives. 



1024 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

[Applause.] 

Mr. Pool. Then it is the objective of the Progressive Labor Party 
to bring a Communist government to the United States; is that 
correct ? 

Mr. Rhoads. We intend to figlit by every democratic means possible 
that the allegedly and correctly called democratic government of this 
country will allow us to fight to make this a socialist country, because 
that is what the people of the United States need. In a socialist 
United States there will be no need to pursue wars of aggression like 
the present genocide against the peoj^le of Vietnam and the American 
people. 

Mr. AsHBROoK. He did not respond to the question, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Pool. I know, but he did not deny the purpose of the party 
was to bring a Communist government to the United States. 

Mr. EiioADs. The objective of the Progressive Labor Party is to 
fight in the best interests of the people of the United States. 

Mr. AsHBRooK. Mr. Chairm.an, in his own words he referred to "our 
Communist philosophy" or something of that sort. It was "our Com- 
munist." Is that what you meant to say, or are you denying it now? 

Mr. RiTOADS. Are you trying to ask me whether I am a Communist 
or not ? 

Mr. AsHBROOK. You are asking the question. Answer mine. 

Mr. Pool. You can answer that if you want to. 

Mr. Rhoads. I certainly am. 

Mr. Pool. I don't have to ask you the next question, then. 

[Laughter.] 

Mr. Pool. Do you advocate the overtlirow of the United States Gov- 
ernment by force and violence ? 

Mr. Rhoads. You gentlemen have some nerve to use "violence" when 
you are talking about wdiat we advocate, because the United States 
Government is the prime user of violence against the people of the 
United States. 

Mr. Pool. You are not responsive to my question. 

Mr. Rhoads. I am completely responsive to your question. 

Mr. Pool. Do you advocate the overthrow of tlie LTnited States Gov- 
ernment by use of force and violence ? 

Mr. Rhoads. We believe in the American people taking power in 
their own country by the use of every democratic means possible. 
You gentlemen and the much more powerful gentlemen that you repre- 
sent are the ones that consistently stand in the way of tliat, and always 
have in the liistory of our country, that violate the Constitution every- 
day of the week, that show your true beliefs about violence by using 
the most hideous genocidal violence against the people of Vietnam and 
by sacrificing the blood of the American people to carry that out and by 
using hideous violence against Negro people in Washington, D.C., 
and all over the United States. 

Mr. AsiiBRooK. Mr. Chairman, I wonder if the witness would re- 
spond to two questions without making a speech. If he is against 
overthrow by force and violence, what would be his position on the. 
ruthless manner in which the Russians overcame the Hungarian re- 
bellion ? It appears that force and violence seems to 

Mr. Rhoads. We are employed by force and violence and we are 
fighting to keep a society that will never again see force and violence. 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1025 

However, when the forces of mjustice and racism and coming fascism 
use force and violence against the American people and we 

Mr. AsuBRooK. We are talking about Hungary. 

Mr. RiioADS. We are undivided in North even though the North 
found it necessary to use force and violence against slavery. 

Mr. Pool. I think that the American people are sufficiently informed 
now as to the forces behind these movements, and your testimony is 
very helpful in letting the American people know how serious this 
movement is to our security. The witness is now excused permanently. 

Mr. Rhoads. Get out of Vietnam now. 

[Applause.] 

Mr. Pool. Call the next witness. 

The committee will take a 5 -minute recess. 

(A^liereupon, a brief recess was taken.) 

Mr. Pool. The committee will come to order. 

The Chair wishes to acknowledge the presence of, and welcome to 
the committee room, Congressmen Kornegay, Latta, Culver, Wydler, 
and Cederberg. We appreciate your being here and laiow that you 
are enjoying the proceedings. 

Counsel, call the next witness. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would Mr. Philip McCombs come forward ? 

Would Philip A. McCombs come forward ? 

Mr. Pool. Stand and be sworn. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give will 
be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mr. McCoMBS. Yes. 

Mr. Pool. Go ahead, counsel. 

TESTIMONY OF PHILIP ALGIE McCOMBS 

Mr. Nittle. Would you state your full name for the record, please ? 

Mr. McCombs. Philip Algie McCombs. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you state the date and place of your birth ? 

3.1r. McCombs. The place was Ogdensburg, New York, July 20, 
1944. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you relate the extent of your formal education? 

Mr. McCombs. I just graduated from Yale 'University. Next year 
I will be a student at the Johns Hopkins School of Advanced Interna- 
tional Studies in Washington. 

Mr. NiTPLE. What is your occupation in addition to your attendance 
at that school ? 

Mr. McCoMBS. I am a journalist employed by National Review 
magazine. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you have occasion to attend what was known as 
the Assembly of Unrepresented People in Washington in August of 
1965 ? 

Mr. McCoMBS. Yes, sir. I covered that at the assignment of the 
editors of the magazine and wrote an article about it. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you briefly state what that assembly was ? 

Mr. McCombs. The Assembly of Unrepresented People was a gath- 
ering of leftists in Washington to protest United States involvement 



1026 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

in Vietnam. They were here on the aimiversary of Hiroshima and 
demonstrated in front of the White House, in front of the Pentagon, 
and ai'oimd the Washington Monument. 

Mr. NrrrLE. Did they come liere with the further purpose to issue a 
so-called Declaration of Conscience i 

Mr. McCoMBS. Yes, sir, they did. 

Mr. NiTrLEi. Do you recall in substance what the Declaration of 
Conscience urged or provide for ''i 

Mr. McCoMBS. I believe the Declaration of Conscience urged that 
young men of draft age refuse to serve in the armed services. I may 
be incorrect in some of the fine points, but I think that was the main 
tlirust. 

Mr- NiTTLE. Did you attend any of the meetings, rallies, or seminars 
conducted by the assembly ^ 

Mr. McCoMBS. Yes; 1 attended tlie seminars that took place over 
the weekend and participated in the rallies, and so forth. I became, 
for the purposes of learning the psychology and activities of these 
groups, a member of the groups, thinking that was the only way that 
I could come to a true understanding of what they were about. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How many days did this assembly take place '^ 

Mr. McCoMBS. I believe from August 6 to 9 ; that would be 3 or 
4 days. 

Mr. NiiT^xE. Now, did you attend the assembly during that })eriod ? 

Mr. McCoMBS. Yes, sir ; for the entire period. 

Mr. NirrLE, Now, in the course of your attendance, did you come 
in contact with a person named Walter Dorwin Teague III? 

Mr. McCoMBs. Yes, sir, I believe I did. 

Mr. KiNoy. I object, Mr. Chairman. As one of tlie attorneys for 
Walter Teague, wdio is present in the hearing room, I object to any 
testimony about him in open session. I also object if I am not given 
the American right to cross-examine this witness in reference to any 
statement about Mr. Teague, and I ask for a ruling on both of my 
requests. 

Mr. Pool. I believe you made the same objection yesterday; is that 
correct ? 

Mr. KiNOY. I made the same objection with reference to Mr. Krebs 
yesterday and Stanley Nadel. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. Mr. Chairman, I move that the objection be over- 
ruled. 

Mr. KuNSTLER. My name is William M. Kunstler. 

Mr. KiNOY. Mr. Chairman, I would like to be heard on that motion, 
and I also am an attorney for Mr. Teague. Do I understand that it 
is the ruling of this committee that the fimdamental right of cross- 
examination is not to be afforded to witnesses who are called before 
this committee when the conmrittee is attempting to defame? 

Mr. Pool. You are arguing the question. 

Mr. KiNOY. Of course ; lawyers always argue questions, Mr. Chair- 
man. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. You didn't argue the question; you made a mis- 
interpretation of fact when you said we are endeavoring to defame 
something. 

He is totally out of order, Mr. Chairman. Such is not the case. 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1027 

Mr. KiNOY. Mr. Chairman, that question will be settled in Federal 
court, whether you are attempting to defame witnesses. 

Mr. AsHBRooK. You made it as a statement of fact and, as a lawyer, 
you know you are absolutely wrong. You are out of place. 

Mr. Pool. The objection is overruled. 

Mr. KiNOY. May the record show we take a strenuous objection to 
your ruling. 

Mr. Pool. Now sit down. Go over there and sit down. You have 
made your objection. You are not going to disiaipt this hearing any 
further, 

Mr. KuNSTLER. Mr. Chairman, you don't have to deal discourteously 
to an attorney in front of you. That is wholly im-Aanerican. 

Mr, Pool. I will deal any way I want under the rules in this liear- 
ing, I have just told him to be quiet and I ask you to sit down now. 

Mr. KiNOY. ^Ir. Chairman, let the record show — don't touch a 
lawyer. Mr. Chairman — — 

Mr. Pool. Remove the lawyer. 

Mr. KiNOY. Mr. Chairman, I will not be taken from this courtroom. 
I am an attorney at law and I have the right to be heard. 

Mr. KuNsn:.ER. Now it is time we heard this. Throw out all the 
attorneys you want. 

My name is Kunstler. 

Mrs. AxELROD. I am Beverly Axelrod. 

Mr. Ctutman. I am an attorney, and my name is Jeremiah Gutman. 
I take Mr. Kinoy's place, associated with Mr, Kunstler. 

Mr. Pool. State your objections. 

Mr, Gtjtivian, I join in the objections on which you have already 
ruled. Furthermore, I wish the record to show that Mr. Kinoy was 
removed for obviously no reason whatsoever because if there was any 
discourtesy it was certainly not on the part of Mr. Kinoy ; he was re- 
moved with brutal force ; his arm was twisted. I wish the record to 
show 

Mr. Pool. State your objection. 

Mr. GuTMAN. I am objecting, sir, to the violence which was per- 
petrated upon my colleague; he was being choked and he was being 
removed from this room. 

Mr. Pool, The lawyer was not following my instructions to sit 
down. And after continuing to argue with the Cliair, I instructed 
him to sit down and then I had him removed. That is the record. 

Mr. GuTMAN. I have an objection, sir. 

Mr. Pool. State it. 

Mr. GuTMAN. I wish to state on the record at this point that I move 
that this witness be dismissed, that no further testimony be taken 
from him. This court — this committee has gone on record before 
and it has proved itself again and again to have two types of witnesses, 
a friendly witness and an unfriendly witness. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. What is new about that ? 

Mr. Gutman, It has established rules and procedures by which it 
treats — I beg your pardon, sir ; courts don't call witnesses, 

Mr. Pool, State your objection, 

Mr, Gtjtman. I am stating my objection as to the presence of this 
witness before this committee in open session. Tliis witness has ob- 
viously testified to you gentlemen before ; you know eveiy thing he has 



1028 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

to say. If this were a legislative hearing in order to determine facts 
for legislators to make rulings and recommendations upon legisla- 
tion, you don't need to expose whatever this man has to say. 

Mr. Pool. You are argumentative now. Do you have any further 
objections? 

Mr. GuTMAN. I certainly do. 

Mr. Pool. All right. 

Mr. GuTMAN. The testimony you have already heard, in order for 
you to bring it forth now in public, whether it is defamatory of any 
individual or not, we do not know, because we have not had an oppor- 
tunity to inspect the minutes of the previous testimony of this wit- 
ness, and I now move that we be granted the opportunity right now 
to examine that testimony and that this hearing be adjourned until 
we have had such opportunity. Will you rule upon that motion, 
sir? 

Mr. AsHBROOK. Mr. Chairman, it is very obvious that the attorney, 
while being very zealous of his client, does not understand the rules 
of Congress. In legislating, we clearly have the right to delve into 
all aspects of the matters before us, whether they be friendly wit- 
nesses or unfriendly witnesses. 

I respect the zeal that he has for his client, but he should be over- 
ruled. He should be reminded once more that the role of the attorney 
before a legislative committee is not to make tirades, not to make 
speeches, but to advise his client, and for that purpose only. For 
that purpose I suggest that he be overruled. 

Mr. Pool. Further comment ? 

You are overruled. 

Mr. KuNSTLER. Mr. Chairman, I ha^^e a motion at this time. I 
want the chairman to order my colleague, Mr. Kinoy, returned to 
this committee room. He is an attorney for a w^itness, two witnesses, 
before this committee. By your action, you have deprived those wit- 
nesses of an essential member of their defense team. I think it is in 
order for you to order the marshals to return him to this room. 

Mr. Kinoy and I would suggest that it is in order for you to 
apologize to Mr. Kinoy, a member of the bar of the United States 
Supreme Court and a member of the bar of the State of New York 
and a professor of law at Rutgers University. 

I ask that you do both things that I have requested; if not, the 
record will indicate that a witness is without counsel before this com- 
mittee, and that violates your own rules. 

Mr. Pool. I will tell you this. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. What witness ? 

Mr. Pool. Let me answer this. I am not g;oing to have any lawyer, 
witness, or anyone else disrupt the proceedmgs in this room, and if 
they see fit to do so, they are going to be removed from the room, and 
that is exactly what happened a few minutes ago. 

Mr. KuNSTi>ER. He was talking with Mr. Ashbrook, and he was 
courteous and Mr. Kinoy was courteous. 

Mr. Pool. He disobeyed my instructions to sit down, and I had 
him thrown out of the room. 

You are overruled. 

Mr. Ashbrook. Mr. Chairman, the attorney does make one point 
that is not correct and that is that there is a witness before the com- 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1029 

mittee at the preseait time that needs a lawyer, so he was not correct 
in saying that. 

Mr. Pool. That is right. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. There is a witness in this room without an attorney. 

Mr. Pool. If the attorneys have no further objection, please sit 
down. 

Mrs. AxELROD. I have an objection. 

Mr. GuTMAN. Mr. Teague is without a counsel of his choice. 

Mr. Pool. We have heard that. Please sit down. 

Mr. GuTMAN. I have another objection. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. I think the attorney should be readmitted to the 
room if he behaves in a courteous and noncontemptuous manner. 

Mr. Pool. I have no objection to that if he is going to maintam 
order and decency in the hearing and act like a lawyer should. 

Mr. GuTMAN. I think it is an insult to the bar to require a state- 
ment that he will be a good boy. Of course he has been and will be. 

Mr. Pool. I think he has already done a pretty good job of dis- 
crediting the bar in the way he acted in here. 

Mr. GuTiviAN. Our opinions differ, sir. 

Mr. Pool. All right. 

Mr. GuTMAN. Mr. Chairman, may I be heard ? 

Mr. Pool. Let's take one at a time. Do you have any further ob- 
jection ? 

Mr. KuNSTLER. I don't know what you are going to say about my 
client. 

Mr. GuTMAN. Mr. Ashbrook indicated I was imfamiliar with the 
rules of this committee and the rules of a legislative hearing. I dis- 
agree entirely. Whatever rules you may pass, sir, whatever rules 
you may have and enforce, each of them is subject to the provisions 
of the Constitution of the United States. It is perfectly obvious 

Mr. Pool. Why don't you argue that in court ? We are not going 
to argue it before the committee. We are operating under the rules 
of the House. 

Mr. Ashbrook. I merely say when you referred to what you feel is 
a general right of cross-examination, you certainly know this does 
not pertain to legislative hearings. 

Mr. GuTMAN. I beg your pardon, sir ; I was not referring to cross- 
examination at that point. I was referring to the obvious fact that 
this witness is here not to give information to this committee, but to 
make statements of exposure for the sake of exposure, an instance of 
unconstitutional procedure beyond the power of this committee. 

Mr. Pool. I think the American people are going to be interested 
in what this witness has to say, especially in view of what the pre- 
vious witness admitted. I think that the American people and the 
people in this room and the Congress are very interested in what he 
is going to say, and we are going to hear what he is going to say. 

Mr. Ahsbrook. If it is clearly related to the legislative matter be- 
for the committee, it will be developed. 
Mr. Pool. Are you through ? 
Mr. GunviAN. For the moment. 
Mr. Pool. Will you please remove yourself ? 
Mr. Kunstler. You have not ruled. 



1030 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Mr. Pool. Overruled. If he will come in here and make a state- 
ment 

Mr. GuTMAN. Why don't you ask him and present it to him ? 
Mr. KuNSTLER. You are not going to humble my colleague, Mr. 
Pool. I want him in the hearing room. 

Mr. Pool. We will bring him back in the hearing room but he knows 
what is going to happen if he creates another disturbance. 

Mr. KuNSTLER. Have the marshals bring him back, and I will sit 
down. 

Mr. AsHBKOOK. I know this is not a courtroom. 

Mr. KuNSTLER. Perfectly clear. 

Mr. FoRER. My request is relevant to what you are saying now, I 
do not represent the client that Mr. Kinoy represents ; I represent an 
entirely different client, but I have been an attorney before the com- 
mittee for many years. I want to point out to the committee that the 
treatment of Mr. Kinoy raises more than the question of depriving a 
witness of his attorney; it also has, in my opinion, an intimidatory 
effect upon lawyers for other witnesses, and I don't think that that 
would be removed by calling him in and saying if you promise to do 
such .and such 

Mr. AsiiBROOK. Nobody is saying any such thing as that. 

Mr. Pool. As an attorney he should know how to act, and I will 
take a chance on that. I want to warn all of you that I am going to 
maintain decoiiim in this room. 

Mr. FoRER. Mr. Chairman, I need no warnings, I assure you. 

Mr. Pool. Bring the gentleman back in. 

Mrs. AxELROD. I am one of the counsel in tlie Krebs case scheduled 
for the court this afternoon. I would demand that tliere be a recess 
for the purpose of preparing an immediate transcript of the testi- 
mony of this committee, from the time this witness took the stand 
until the present time. I believe it is essential for the proper con- 
duct of the case this afternoon and I hereby demand that the court 
order a recess in order that the stenographer prepare the transcript 
for that purpose. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. Again I remind Mrs. Axelrod that this is not a 
court. 

Mr. GuTMAisr. This is before the court, as we will all be this after- 
noon. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. When you say "we," I will not be there. I don't 
know about you. 

Mrs. Axelrod. Contrary to statements made here, Mr. Kinoy was 
choked and violently choked, his face was red and bloated, there was 
a marshal's arm around his neck, he could hardly talk. I want the 
record to show the violence with which he was removed was unneces- 
sary to remove a man under any circumstances. 

Mr. GuTMAN. I think the record should show Mr. Kinoy is 5 feet 
2 inches tall. 

Mr. Pool. You had your say here. 

Mrs. Axelrod. I have not had a ruling, sir, on my motion for a 
recess for the purpose of preparing a transcript. 

Mr. Pool. You are overruled. 

Mr. DoNNER. I have practiced before this committee almost for a 
generation and I have never seen the brutal treatment afforded the 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1031 

counsel or any physical interference of counsel that has occurred here ; 
and, frankly, Mr. Pool, I am frightened. I regard this hearing as a 
sort of an armed camp. I never saw anything like this before. 

Mr. Pool. I think the American people don't really know what is 
going on and they are finding out in this hearing. I think it is a won- 
derful thing that these things are coming out. I am glad some of these 
witnesses are talking like they are and admitting some of these things. 
I think it is wonderful that these things are coming out. I am fright- 
ened from another reason than you are. I am trying to be as fair as I 
can. I am going to conduct this hearing, and you are not going to 
interrupt and no other lawyer is. 

Mr. DoNNER. Let me conclude. 

Number two, I saw Mr, Kinoy choked, strangled. Now, that was 
not necessary. 

Mr. Pool. Well, Mr. Kinoy was resisting an officer and he should 
not have done that. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I state for the record, Mr. Chairman, it did not appear 
to me that the counsel was being strangled by any police officer at all. 

Mr. GuTMAN. Perhaps you didn't see it ; I saw it. 

Mr. Pool. The officer was leading him out. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. Inasmuch as there is no pending motion before the 
committee, we will proceed. 

Mr. GuTMAN, I move the chairman apologize to the entire bar of 
the United States of America. 

Mr. Pool. You sit down or you will be removed from the room. 

Mr. GuTMAN. I request permission to staj^ here, sir. 

Mr. Pool. We are going ahead with the questions now. 

Mrs. AxELROD. Has Mr. Kinoy been brought back? 

Mr. GuTMAN. I want to stay here until my colleague is here and in 
good health. 

Mrs. AxELROD. Mr. Kinoy cannot properly represent his client unless 
he hears this testimony. 

Mr. Pemberton. I have not been heard. I ask permission to observe 
that I do not yet see Mr. Kinoy return as per the committee's order 
and I do solemnly ask the committee to recess until Mr. Kinoy is here 
and until whatever the outcome of the argTiment is. 

Mr. Pool. The committee cannot be responsible for the whereabouts 
of Mr. Kinoy. 

Mr. GuTMAN. You certainly can. That man was obviously in phj^si- 
cal distress and he was an ill man and if he requires medical attention, 
this committee had better get it to him fast. 

Mr. Pemberton. I have not completed my motion. 

Mr. Pool. You will ask your colleague not to interrupt you. 

Mr. Pemberton. I think the chairman interrupted me, sir. 

The motion is that the recess continue until Mr. Kinoy is here, until 
we are able to observe that he is able to represent his client during 
the time testimony concerning his client is taken, and that there be no 
further proceedings until we are sure that that is the case. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. The chairman can determine if Mr. Kinoy is out- 
side the door. 

Mr, GunviAN. Would they do it, please ? 

Mrs. AxELROD. I request that the marshal report to the Chair as 
to where he took him. 



1032 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Mr. Pool. Officer at the door, is Mr, Kinoy outside the door? 

The committee will recess for 5 minutes. 

Mr. KuxSTLER. We have heard the man is under arrest. 

Mr. GuTMAN. Where is he '? Tliis committee cannot recess in these 
circumstances. 

Mr. Pool. The committee is in recess. 

Mr. GuTMAN. The committee cannot be in recess, sir. 

Mr. Pool. We are in recess. 

(Whereupon, a brief recess was taken.) 

Mr. Pool. Everyone take his seat. I have a statement to make. 

Mr. KuNSTi.ER. We will take our seats 

Mr. Pool. Take your seats. I want you to take your seats. 

Mr. KuNSiT.ER. We will return after your statement. 

Mr. Pool. I have a statement to make to correct allegations which 
now stand on the record. 

First, that counsel who was removed for disrupting the hearings, 
he was not merely stating objections but w^as disorderly. I had 
warned him to desist, and he refused repeatedly. I have every rea- 
son to believe that he is familiar with the rules of the committee 
as they apply to counsel. I will now read that rule at this time : 

Rule VIII — Conduct of Counsel : Counsel for a witness shall conduct him- 
self in a professional, ethical, and proper manner. His failure to do so shall, 
upon a finding to that effect by a majority of the Committee or Subcommittee 
before which the witness is appearing, subject such counsel to disciplinary 
action which may include warning, censure, removal of counsel from the 
hearing room, or a recommendation of contempt proceedings. 

In case of such removal of counsel, the witness shall have a reasonable 
time to o!)tain other counsel, said time to be determined by the Committee 
or Subcommittee. Should the witness deliberately or capriciously fail or re- 
fuse to obtain the services of other counsel within such reasonable time, the 
hearing shall continue and the testimony of such witness shall be heard with- 
out benefit of counsel. 

I want to point out the witness before the committee today is not 
represented by the lawyer who was thrown out of the hearing room. 
I also wish to state that lawyers are not privileged people; they, as 
lawyers, have a greater responsibility to conduct themselves in an 
orderly and decorous man.ner than others do, and I would ask that 
the lawyers do so who are here today. 

I want to further state that wdien you have objections to make that 
you come one at a time up to the chairman and I will listen to your 
objections, but don't come up here and parade around because I can 
handle only one lawyer's objections at a time. 

All right. Do any of the lawyers have any objections? 

One at a time. 

Mr. KuNSTLER. Mr. Chairman, my name is William M. Kunstler. 
I am representing, with Mr. Kinoy and others, Mr. Teague and Mr. 
Krebs. Mr. Kinoy is both my partner in life and my partner in this 
case. I feel that Mr. Krebs and Mr. Teague cannot be adequately rep- 
resented here before you without the physical presence and guidance 
of Mr, Kinoy. Mr. Kinoy is not in the room, as I look around and 
see. It is my understanding he was taken to the first precinct, that 
he is under arrest, that he is charged with disorderly conduct. 

I am asking that there be no further proceedings of this commit- 
tee when a witness is before the committee who is without counsel. I 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1033 

submit to you, Mr. Chairman, that the fact that his client is not on 
the stand is completely immaterial. This ^Yitness has mentioned one 
of our clients and, in mentioning one of our clients, he brings our 
client in front of this committee and in front of the American public. 

I feel, and I say for myself, that I cannot adequately represent Mr. 
Teague or Mr. Krebs without my cocounsel, that we have prepared this 
matter together, and that the clients are entitled to the benefit of our 
mutual guidance as they have had throughout. 

I also would like to just address myself to your remarks, Mr. Pool. 
Mr. Kinoy was not obstreperous. He was pressing vigorously a point 
with Mr. Ashbrook which did not even involve you at the moment. I 
thought, as I said before, tliat Mr. Ashbrook treated him courteously 
and that Mr. Kinoy was arguing vigorously just as he did in Federal 
court, just as he does here. 

I don't think lawyers are to be condemned, vilified, or physically at- 
tacked because they are vigorous. This committee surely does not 
expect all lawyers to be molly coddlers in front of it. 

Therefore, I request, and I think I am speaking for all the attorneys 
representing witnesses before this committee, and state that we can- 
not proceed until Mr. Kinoy is in this room. Unless he is here, I 
am personally going to recommend to my clients that they walk out 
of the hearing room, they are not represented by counsel. 

Mr. Ashbrook. Mr. Kunstler 

Mr. Kunstler. Pardon me, Mr. Ashbrook. Could I just finish and 
then I will be through. 

I think that in all decency, Mr. Chairman, you should order imme- 
diately Mr. Kinoy returned to the room and that you personally 
should see to it that all criminal charges are dropped against him. 
They are only brought against him because of your actions in order- 
ing the marshals to remove him from the room for making a legal 
objection. If there was a difference of opinion between you and him 
as to whether it was argumentative or an objection, that is for gentle- 
men to settle between themselves. 

I don't know if you are a lawyer, but I know there are lawyers on 
this platform. 

I personally might say for the record that I have never anywhere 
in my some 18 years' experience at the bar before committee hearings 
ever seen a lawyer treated this way. The fact that he is my close friend 
and partner and has been with me for many years in many similar 
struggles in civil rights makes me feel doubly apprehensive as to what 
this committee is all about. 

I think, in all decency, you should order him returned to this room 
and that you personally should apologize to him and every lawyer 
in the room for the treatment afforded to a member of the bar. 

Now, I would make that statement for my clients and I am going 
to recommend that they leave this committee room unless they are 
represented by counsel. Your rules provide that they could be repre- 
sented by counsel, and you cannot deprive them of that counsel by 
reaching some conclusion in your own mind, without even consulting 
the committee or the subcommittee, that a lawyer is what you said, I 
think, "obstreperous." You cannot do that. That puts all the power 
in you to deprive witnesses of counsel, which you have now done. 

67-852— 616 — pt. 1 9 



1034 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Therefore, I make the recommendations to my client. 

Now, Mr. Ashbrook, I am through. I would like a rulmg and I 
think in all fairness there ought to be a hearing before this committee 
right now as to what Mr. Kinoy's actions were and what the situation 
was concerning him. There are newspaper reporters outside this room 
prepared to testify as to how Mr. Kinoy was treated, and I think you 
ought to have a hearing, at the very least, of the reason for the charges 
against Mr. Kinoy, what happened, what he said. 

We have this stenographer here. She can read her notes back, and 
we can see exactly what happened so that Mr. Kinoy's name can be 
vindicated and his clients can have what they are entitled to in every 
American forum, the right to have counsel of their choice present, un- 
intimidated, and unassaulted. 

Mr. Ashbrook. Mr. Chairman, I suggest we confer on the motion. 

Mr. Pool. All right. 

(The committee conferred.) 

Mr. Pool. The subcommittee will be in recess for 5 minutes. 

(T\n;iereupon, a brief recess was taken.) 

Mr. Pool. Everyone take your seat. Let us have order. 

The committee has met and overruled your objection. 

Mr. KuNSTLER. Then, Mr. Chairman, I just want to announce to the 
committee and 

Mr. Pool. If you have any objection, state your objection. 

Mr. KuNSTLER. I have an objection. My clients, Mr. Teague and Mr. 
Krebs, stand here at this moment unrepresented by counsel of their 
choice. 

Mr. Pool. This is not your witness in the chair. 

Mr. KuNSTLER. Let me finish my statement. You asked me for an 
objection. I am going to give you one. I have consulted my own con- 
science in this matter and I feel that I can no longer participate in this 
proceeding as their attorney without the advice and guidance of my 
partner and cocounsel, Mr. Kinoy. 

I am not going to put the onus on my clients to walk out of this 
hearing. That is not going to be my recommendation to them. I am 
making no recommendation to them. I have spoken to the other 
attorneys representing the other witnesses before this committee, and 
they all will ask to address the court in a moment. 

I am now withdrawing from this proceeding as an attorney until my 
partner, Mr. Kinoy, is before this committee under the terms which I 
have specified prior to the recess. 

Mr. Ashbrook. Mr. Chairman 

Mr. KuNSTLER. Just let me finish, and I will be very courteous. 

I am not instructing my clients, I told you. I am going to walk out 
of this hearing room. They are not represented by coimsel under the 
committee's ruling. The other attorneys, I understand, are prepared 
to make similar statements and will do so individually. I speak only 
now for myself, vis-a-vis Mr. Krebs and Mr. Teague. 

Mr. Ashbrook. 

Mr. Ashbrook. Mr. Kunstler, not to be argumentative, but as a point 
of information and not questioning your assessment of the necessity of 
representing your client or what is needed, it is my recollection that you 
made the motions without the benefit of Mr. Kinoy yesterday, and I am 
wondering if he was in the room yesterday. 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1035 

Mr. KuNSTLER, Mr. Kinoy was in and out of the room yesterday be- 
cause of the exigencies of the Federal court proceeding. But Mr. Ash- 
brook, as you well know, Mr. Kinoy does not have to be here every 
minute of the time for the benefit of his counsel, and I feel that my 
clients are unrepresented at this moment. 

Mr. Kinoy, I understand, is in the precinct house in a cell. I don't 
know. He is not in this building, I understand. He was ordered 
arrested, and that is what has happened to one attorney in this case. 

I am now going to stand over there and wait for other counsel who 
may wish to address the court, or, pardon me, Mr. Ashbrook, address 
the hearing, and then we will, as I understand, all leave this committee 
hearing. 

We feel that if we do so, you are without jurisdiction to proceed with 
any clients who, according to your own rules, are entitled to repre- 
sentation by counsel, which they no longer have. 

I will now step down and wait for my other colleagues to make their 
presentations. 

Mr. Pool. State your objection. 

Mrs. AxELROD. Beverly Axelrod, State bar of California. 

I am at this proceeding representing Jerry Rubin of Berkeley, 
California. 

I have an objection on two grounds: First of all, I feel that my 
client's representation is intimately connected with the representation 
of every other witness called before this committee and I feel that I 
cannot properly represent him as long as the other witnesses who are 
represented by Mr. Kinoy have no proper representation. 

My second objection is based on the fact I feel I cannot properly 
represent my client as long as I am under fear of personal violence 
upon myself. I listened, and because I feel that my client's proper 
representation depends to a great extent on the representation of some 
of the other witnesses here, I was paying particular attention and 
listening very carefully to the entire dialogue that took place when 
Mr. Kinoy was before you. 

There was not anything that he said that was anything other than 
a proper representation of his client and a zealous attempt to do what 
he thought was legally correct. There was no kind of contemptuous 
attitude, nothing at all that warranted anything near the kind of 
treatment that he received. He should not even have been ordered 
out of this room. 

Because of that, I feel that I have no way of knowing what I can 
or cannot do to protect my client and that should I for some reason 
incur the unreasonable wrath of any member of this committee, that 
I might be assaulted violently. 

I do not wish to risk that kind of assault. I am not prepared to 
take physical violence. Therefore, I cannot represent my client prop- 
erly until there can be assurance that no attorney will be treated 
that way by any member of this committee. Therefore, I am also 
leaving. 

Mr. Pool. Your objections are overruled. 

Mr. Pemberton. Mr. Chairman, I am John Pemberton of the 
American Civil Liberties Union and a member of the bars of Minne- 
sota and North Carolina. I will be very brief. 



1036 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

I rise simply to associate myself with the statements that have been 
made to the committee, to protest as vigorously as I can the treatment 
that the committee has afforded Mr. Kinoy, and to remind the com- 
mittee that Mr. Kinoy has not merely been one of the counsel repre- 
senting witnesses, his participation has been as chief counsel in argu- 
ing motions in court on behalf of these witnesses and it is not possible 
for them to have the same representation in his absence as with his 
presence. 

I can see no justification for the treatment that the committee has 
afforded him, still less for proceeding to hear a witness whose testi- 
mony will be damaging to the clients we represent in the absence of 
Mr. Kinoy. 

I withdraw from the representation of those witnesses. 

Mr. Pool. Your objections are overruled. 

Mr. FoRER. Mr. Chairman, my name is Joseph Forer, F-o-r-e-r, and 
I represent Mr. John Windrim Smith, who has been subpenaed as a 
witness before the committee. 

I wish to inform the committee that I feel obliged at this time to 
withdraw as counsel for Mr. Smith, at this time, because I do not feel 
that I can adequately represent him because I feel intimidated by the 
treatment that has been given to Mr. Kinoy. I most regret having 
to do this. I have never withdrawn my appearance on behalf of a 
client in the middle of a proceeding when he needs me, as a client. 

I may say that I have practiced before this committee longer than 
any of your people have been on the committee. I think Mr. Nittle 
can attest to that, since 1947. 

Frankly, this has been an experience which has shaken me a great 
deal and which I simply cannot condone. So I wish to inform the 
committee now that I am withdrawing as counsel for Mr. Smith and 
I wish also to inform the committee that Mr. Smith has no other counsel 
since I was the only attorney representing him. 

Thank you, very much. 

Mr. DoNNER. May I be heard ? 

My name is Frank J. Donner. I am a member of the bar of the 
United States Supreme Court, of the State of New York, and half a 
dozen Federal circuit court bars over the country. 

I represent Mr. Anatole Anton and Stuart McRae, two witnesses 
that have been subpenaed from California. I have no desire to frus- 
trate or obstruct these hearings but, speaking as a lawyer, I cannot 
continue to participate in the hearings because the committee, in my 
view, has destroyed the right of counsel by the treatment of Mr. Kinoy. 

I have notified my clients that I am withdrawing and I, too, want to 
tell you that they are now without counsel. 

Mr, GuTMAisr. May I be heard, Mr. Chairman? 

My name is Jeremiah S. Gutman. I appear on behalf of subpenaed 
v>^itness, Stanley Nadel, as you know. I join in all the statements just 
made by previous counsel. It seems perfectly clear to me that it is 
absolutely essential for the proper representation of a witness sub- 
penaed before this committee that he be represented by counsel not only 
at the time that he is on the stand, but during the entire course of the 
proceedings here, so that he can be advised and may receive the benefit 
of consultation upon all questions which may arise at the time when 
he is being questioned by this committee. 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1037 

I am a member of the bar of the United States Supreme Court, 
several circuit courts of appeals, numerous other courts, including the 
highest court in the State of New York. I have been in practice for 
15, 16, 17 years and I must say that I have appeared before numerous 
courts, administrative bodies, deliberative bodies of many kinds. 

Never have I ever seen such an exhibition of impropriety in the 
administration of a proceeding as this committee demonstrated today. 
I feel that what you have done, in effect, is an effective deprivation of 
the right of counsel. No attorney, no matter how courageous he may 
feel himself to be, can ever evaluate himself so objectively as to be able 
to say to his client, "No matter what, I will stand up there and speak 
for your rights'' when that attorney is aware that if one of the state- 
ments he makes in defending those rights, because it is based upon the 
Bill of Rights of the Constitution of the United States, offends some 
member of this committee, the lawyer may find himself physically as- 
saulted and ejected from the courtroom. 

Now, before I make my formal statement of withdrawal, I wish 
to make one other motion and that is this : The United States assistant 
chief deputy marshal, immediately after you purportedly adjourned 
this hearing, came to me and asked me to accompany him down the 
hall to get Mr. Kinoy. I did so. 

He asked me to wait at the designated place. I did so. He told me 
that Mr. Kinoy would be back in a moment. Mr. Kinoy has not come 
back. I have eyewitness reports that Mr. Kinoy was taken brutally, 
put into a vehicle, and driven to the first precinct station house, 300 
Indiana. He was last seen going into that building. 

He was obviously in physical distress at the time. He has not been 
seen since. 

The jMetropolitan Police have advised me that he is in their cus- 
tody. The United States chief deputy marshal has advised me that 
he is returning him forthwith. I heard you, Mr. Chairman, direct the 
officers, all of whom, regardless of their organizations, are subject to 
your command in everything they do, and you, sir, are responsible for 
what they do. 

I heard you direct them to return Mr. Kinoy to this room. 

I make several motions now. Number one, and most important 

Mr. Pool. If you remember, I asked if he was outside the door and, 
if he was, to return him to the room. But evidently they took him 
on down and booked him for disturbing tlie peace. " I cannot be re- 
sponsible for what he did to the officer. That would be up to them 
to make whatever charge they want. 

Mr. GuTMAN. You, sir, may not be responsible for anyone else who 
is not subject to your orders, but ^^ou, sir, are responsil)le your own 
acts. 

Mr. Pool. That is right, and I am responsible for maintaining order 
in this hearing room and I am ready to do so and I am taking all the 
abuse possible. Your clients are not before this hearing at this moment. 
This man is not represented by any of you lawyers. I will stand here 
and conduct a fair and square hearing,' if you will allow me to. I am 
not going to stand here and let a bunch of "lawyers take over this hear- 
ing, which you are trying to do. 

Mr. GuTMAN. No, sir; we are trying to withdraw in an orderly 
fashion. 



1038 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Mr. Pool. I cannot be responsible for what that lawyer did. If he 
committed a disturbance of the peace and didn't follow my instruc- 
tions to sit down and the marshals had to take him out of here, I can't 
help that. That is all I have to say to you. 

Mr. GuTMAN. May I make several motions ? 

Mr. Pool. You made your objection. I overruled it. Do you have 
any other objection before you withdraw? 

Mr. GuTMAN. I do, sir. I move that the Chair consult the record 
as to what orders he gave the marshals and if any other marshals or 
peace officers are in contempt of your orders that appropriate action 
be taken. I also move that the Chair report to the people assembled 
in this room now where Mr. Kinoy is, how he is. 

(At this point, Representative Ichord entered the hearing room.) 

Mr. Pool. I am not concerned with Mr. Kinoy. I am concerned 
with trying to protect the American people. And that is what we are 
trying to do in this hearing, enter into this legislative phase and try- 
ing to find out the facts involved. 

I overruled your objections. Do you have any further objections? 

Mr. GuTMAN. I have one more thing to say. 

Mr. Pool. All right. 

Mr. GuTMAN. In view of your express lack of concern for the physi- 
cal safety of the lawyers appearing before the committee, I have no 
choice but to advise my client, Mr. Nadel, that he is now without an 
attorney before this hearing, and I withdraw. 

Mr. Pool. All right. 

Mr. GoLLOBiN. May I be heard, Mr. Chairman ? 

Mr. Pool. All right. 

Mr. GoLLOBiN. I represent several other clients; Steve Hamilton, 
George Ewart, and Steven Cherkoss. 

I am sorry. My name is Ira Gollobin and I am a member of the 
bar of the State of New York. 

I think, Mr. Chairman, that I must in all respect to the Congress 
and people of this country, as well as my client, and in respect to the 
canons of the American Bar Association, as well as legal traditions, 
which go back as far as James Otis, Abraham Lincoln, and many 
other notable members of the bar who, when they were confronted 
with what they considered an assertion of absolute power by an agency 
of the Government, had to take an action appropriate to such circum- 
stances and they took it not simply as individuals, but as persons con- 
cerned with their country and its institutions. 

In that spirit, Mr. Chairman, I at this time am withdrawing from 
representing my clients, because if I were now to continue to repre- 
sent them under these circumstances, I think I would do them an in- 
justice as well, in the last analysis, the American people. 

Mr. Pool. All right. 

Now, go ahead with your questions. 

Mr. Krebs. Mr. Chairman, I am a witness, sir, and I request per- 
mission to speak because I want to leave these hearings. 

Mr. Pool. You will be heard at the proper time. Your name has 
not been called yet. 

Mr. Krebs. I ask nonetheless that you take a statement from me, 
sir. 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1039 

Mr. AsHBROOK. He has not been called, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Krebs. I am representing myself. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state your name for the record, please? 

Mr. Krebs. My name is Allen, A-1-l-e-n, Krebs, K-r-e-b-s. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And you have been subpenaed to appear here today. 

Mr. Krebs. I have been subpenaed to appear before this committee. 

May I make that statement now, sir ? 

Mr. Pool. Come forward. 

Mr. Krebs. I had observed in the course of testimony yesterday the 
general nature of this proceeding 

Mr. Pool. Do you have an objection to state ? 

Mr. Krebs. I just want to state why I must leave at this time. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. Mr. Chairman, if lie wants to leave, our duty is to 
rule upon his absence from the room when he is called subject to 
subpena. He may leave the room, if he desires. It is his choice to 
make. If he does not have an attorney, if he appears subject to the 
subpena, gives his name, gives his address, and does not have an at- 
torney, we always allow them to obtain an attorney in sufficient time. 

He is making a statement which I think has no bearing whatsoever 
on his subpena before this committee. 

Mr. Pool. Are you trying to tell the committee why you won't be 
here at a certain time ? 

Mr. Krebs. No, I want to tell the committee why I won't be here 
at all. 

Mr. Pool. Your name will be called at the proper time, and you 
have been subpenaed. 

Voice. Mr. Pool, as a witness that is now 

Mr. NiTTLE. Just a moment. Will you state your name ? 

Mr. Pool. You are interrui)ting the proceedings. 

Go aliead with the questions. 

Mr. Krebs. I am leaving the hearing. 

Voice. I am a witness. May I make a motion ? 

Mr. Ashbrook. You have not been called. 

Mr. Pool. Your name has not been called. 

Voice. Sir, I am now acting as my own counsel. 

Mr. Pool. Will you be in order ? 

Voice. I am being in order, sir, as my own counsel. 

Mr. Ashbrook. He is out of order. 

Voice. I want to make a legal motion. 

Mr. Pool. Your name will be called at the proper time. Sit down. 

Voice. I am leaving at this time. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you, Mr. McCombs, resume your testimony, 
please ? We were discussing your attendance at the Assembly of Un- 
represented People in Washington in the month of August 1965. You 
had last been asked to state whether you had, at that assembly, met 
Walter Dorwin Teague III. 

Now, would you please relate the time and place and circumstances 
of meeting him, if you did ? 

Mr. McCoMBS. I believe I did meet Mr. Teague, sir. I went up to 
one of the tables that was distributing 

Mr. NiTTLE. Let me put it this way. When you say you believe 
you did, what do you mean by that? 



1040 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Mr. McCoMBs. I meant that I addressed him as Walter and he 
acted as if that was his name. He was standing 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you later determine whether that was 

[Demonstration on the floor.] 

Mr. Pool. Let us have order. 

Voice. Stop this farce. 

Voice. Stop the war in Vietnam. 

Voice. End the war in Vietnam. 

Mr. Pool. Let's have order. 

Do not allow any of those that left the room to reenter the room 
durmg these hearings. 

Let the record show that there was a disturbance and the people 
were removed from the room by the officers. 

Mr. Nittle. Now, Mr. McCombs, would you proceed to relate the 
circumstances under which you met Walter Dorwin Teague III ? 

Mr. McCoMBs. Yes, sir. 

I went up to one of the tables by the Washington Monument where 
the literature was being distributed. There was a Viet Cong flag in 
front of the table. It was designated as the table of the U.b. Com- 
mittee to Aid the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam. 

Walter Teague was standing behind the table and I talked to him. 
I am sure it was Teague because I met him again this year and it is 
the same guy. 

We talked for a few minutes. He handed me some literature. I 
bought some literature from him. At that table it was possible to 
make a monetary contribution to aid the Viet Cong. I don't know 
what the money was used for, but that is the way it was put. I think 
there w^as a tin can there or something. 

Secondly, in my role as a journalist, I asked Mr. Teague if I wanted 
to fight personally in the ranks of the Viet Cong against the United 
States soldiers in Vietnam, could he help me out. Mr. Teague said 
that he would put me in contact with underground agents who would 
arrange for me to do that. I also met several other people and did 
several other things at the Assembly of Unrepresented People, but that 
was my contact with Walter Teague at that time. It lasted about 5 or 
10 minutes. 

Mr. Nittle. May I ask whether there was a PLM or Progressive 
Labor Movement or Party representation at the assembly ? 

Mr. McCoiviBS. Yes, sir. The Progressive Labor Party was repre- 
sented at the assembly. Their newspaper, ChuUenge^ called the revo- 
lutionary newspaper, was distributed. And there were members there, 
I read in subsequent newspapers although I don't remember meeting 
any of them myself. 

Mr. NiTTT.E. Was the Progressive Labor Party table identified in 
any way as that of the Progi-essive Labor Party ? 

Mr. McCoMBS. I don't remember exactly. There v^ere many dif- 
ferent groups and I suppose they could have had a table. 

Mr. Nittle. Was there a group of the May 2nd Movement there? 

Mr. McCoMBS. Yes. May 2nd Movement is the youth group of 
the Progressive Labor Party. There were many members there. 
They were distributing their newspaper, the Free Sfitdent. Also rep- 
resented at the assembly were International Workers of the World, 
Youth Against War and Fascism, members of the Spartacist Move- 
ment, members of the Communist Party, the W. E. B. Du Bois Club, 
and other organizations. 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1041 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Mr. McCombs, did you have occasion later to meet 
Walter Dorwin Teague and, if so, where and under what circum- 
stances ? 

Mr. McCoMBS. I met Mr, Teague again this summer. Again I was 
assigned by the editors of National Revieio to write a story on the 
psychology and actions of the leftist movement in New York City. 

1 went over to Walter Teague's on the afternoon of July 29, 1966, at 
46 West 22d Street, in New York City. The place was called the 
Artist Eesearch Group. I had been told that that was the place to go 
to obtain North Vietnamese literature for a class that I was attending 
at the Free University of New York. 

I met Mr. Teague there, 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr, McCombs, before you proceed, was there any indi- 
cation on tlie premises as to who was the owner, operator, or interested 
party of this Artist Research Group ? 

Mr. McCoMBS. No, sir. But as I said, I had indications that it was 
Teague's operation. 

I met liim there. I perused the literature on their shelves. There 
were probably 100 different publications, pamphlets, books, and so 
forth, printed in Hanoi and Peking for sale, I bought several of 
them. 

There was also some literature there. The literature was for many 
different things. One of the things that the literature asked was for 
"Betsy Rosses" to sew Viet Cong flags for the August 6 demonstration 
in New York City. I believe those flags were indeed sewed and I 
believe some of them appeared in the demonstration, 

Mr. NiTTLE. What were the colors of that flag, if you recall, and 
can you describe it ? 

Mr. McCoMBS. Red, yellow, and blue. I may be mistaken. White, 
maybe ; I don't remember exactly. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. But it was not an American flag, is that right ? 

Mr. McCoMBS. No, it was not an American flag. 

One of the pieces of literature here, I will see if I can find it. Oh, 
yas. Here it is. 

Mr. AsHBKOOK. Does the witness happen to know whether it was the 
national flag of another country ? 

Mr. McCoMBS. Here we go. It was the National Liberation Front 
of South Vietnam's flag. 

Mr. AsHBRooK. South Vietnam or North Vietnam ? 

Mr. McCoMBS. South Vietnam. 

Mr. AsHBRooK. Would that be what is popularly known as the Viet 
Cong flag? 

Mr. McCoMBS. Yes, sir. 

Well, I cannot find it at this moment, but there was a piece of litera- 
ture distributed that I picked up there that described in detail the 
flag of the National Liberation Front, the tradition behind it, the 
colors, and so on and so forth. 

I think it had a. yellow star in the middle, a red splotch along the 
top, and a light blue splotch along the bottom. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I hand you a paper facsimile of the Viet Cong flag. 
Can you identify this as similar to what you saw on the premises? 

(Flag marked ''McCombs Exhibit No. 1" and retained in the com- 
mittee files.) 



1042 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Mr. McCoMBS, Yes, sir; except that these flags were much more 
elaborate. I will tell you what I saw there, I didn't see the flag. I 
saw the material from which these flags were to be made, cloth of those 
V' arious colors that you have there, yellow and orange. 

Now, at the meeting at the place there, there was a woman who was 
talking with Mr. Teague and to whom he was handing these materials, 
presumably to sew some of these flags. We had a talk about various 
activities that she was engaged in, and I took it that she was just one 
of many people who have helped Mr. Teague to prepare these flags. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you observe any other equipment on the premises, 
or clothing or material ? 

Mr. McCoMBS. Yes, sir ; hanging along a long bookshelf there were 
probably 100 T-shirts. They were painted with black paint and done 
up to look something like American military uniforms. These subse- 
quently appeared, according to press reports, in the August 6 demon- 
stration in New York City. 

Mr. NiTTLE. That was the Hiroshima Day demonstration this year. 

Mr. McCoMBS. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Nittle, at this time, the Chair recognizes the gentle- 
man from Missouri, and he has a statement to make here. 

Mr. IcHORD. Mr. Chairman, I was necessarily absent earlier during 
the liearing this morning due to the fact that as a member of another 
committee I was required to chair a hearing of that committee and I 
arrived in the room when the attorneys for some of the witnesses in- 
volved were withdrawing as attorneys for their clients. 

I observed that immediately after Dr. Krebs left the room a few 
minutes ago — I will point out that Dr. Krebs was identified by Mr. 
Luce yesterday as one of those who sat in on the meetings of the May 
2nd Movement — immediately after he left the room, a statement was 
handed to me which purports to be a statement by Dr. Allen M. Krebs 
and in the last paragraph he states : 

As I leave this room, to my brothers who stand here after me today, this week, 
next month — ^and there are signs that the Inquisition of the Sixties has now 
begun — you have my respect and my compassion. 

Mr. Krebs' attorney had just withdrawn from the case, but obviously 
Mr. Krebs decided to withdraw from the case earlier or he does have 
some very, very rapid mimeographic service available to him. 

That is all I have to say, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Pool. Thank you. 

The committee will stand adjourned until 2:30 this afternoon. 

(Subcommittee members present at time of recess: Representatives 
Pool, Ichord, Ashbrook, and Buchanan and also Representative Claw- 
son, alternate member.) 

(Whereupon, at 12:20 p.m., Wednesday, August 17, 1966, the sub- 
committee recessed, to reconvene at 2:30 p.m., the same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION— WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 17, 1966 

(The subcommittee reconvened at 3 p.m., Hon. Joe R. Pool, chair- 
man of the subcommittee, presiding. 

(Subcommittee members present: Representatives Pool, Ashbrook, 
and Ichord. ) 

Mr. Pool. The chair wishes to make this statement before we start. 

The committee is called to order. 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1043 

It has been brought to my attention that questions have been raised 
as to whether the marshals and police are using more force than is 
necessary to eject demonstrators. 

It is my considered view that they are not doing so. If these 
deliberate troublemakers would walk out of the room as soon as I 
have indicated that they should leave or be evicted, it would not be 
necessary for marshals or the police to do more than guide them by 
the arm. Wlien they resist, as they do, however, using physical force, 
it is my belief that the men who feel that force are in a better position 
than some onlooker to judge just how much counterforce they must 
use to evict the demonstrators from the hearing room. 

There are members of the Capitol Police Force who still bear scars, 
and they are permanent scars and large ones, from the violence in- 
flicted on them 2 or 3 years ago by demonstrators who represented 
the same groups today's demonstrators are representing. 

The cry of "police brutality" is an old Communist cry. When 
there is no evidence to substantiate it, as is so often the case, I am 
not at all impressed by it. I have far more faith in the judgment and 
the word of United States marshals and the police than I have in 
those of professional agitators. 

Go ahead with the questioning. 

TESTIMONY OF PHILIP ALGIE McCOMBS— .Resumed 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. McCombs, at the time of recess, you were telling 
us of your visit to Artist Research Group, where you met with 
Walter Dorwin Teague III on July 29, 1966. Would you proceed? 

Mr. McCoMBS. Yes, sir. I don't know that I have too much more 
to say about it. As I say, I met there a woman who was sewing, 
receiving materials to sew Viet Cong flags and talked with her and 
with Mr. Teague. Teague described to me the preparations for the 
August 6th demonstration in New York City, among other things, 
the flags. He was gathering flag poles that would be made out of 
paper or cardboard, so that if there was violence, people would not 
get hurt. But he noted that these things could easily stun someone if 
they were attacked. 

He said that in the march in New York City the flag carriers would 
be accompanied by "guards" — in quotes. He said the guards would 
not hurt, anyone, but would fend off attacks. 

He and I got along fairly well, laughed a bit, and talked things 
over, and that was about it. Besides what I said before, 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you visit with Teague at any other place or time ? 

(At this point, Mr. Buchanan entered the hearing room.) 

Mr. McCoMBS. No, these two times that I met him here in Wash- 
ington and in New York were the only two times that I met him. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, you have testified that you were referred to the 
Artist Research Group by someone at the Free University. Did you 
attend the Free University and, if so, when ? 

Mr. McCoMBS. Yes, sir; I attended the Free University this sum- 
mer, again on assignment by the editors of National Review, to write 
a story on the psychology and techniques and activities of these people. 
I took two courses there, one taught by Calvin Hicks. The name of 
that course was "Community Organization, Who, What, and Why." 



1044 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

The second course I took was taught by Charlotte Polin, and it was 
called "Vietnam National Liberation Fronts." 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you briefly relate what was the substance 
•of the course which you took with Calvin Hicks on Community 
Organization ? 

Mr. McCoMBS. We discussed in this course, which consisted of about 
12 to 15 participants, the methods that could be used to organize in 
the Negro ghetto areas or the Negro communities. Hicks himself — 
there were many discussions that went on, some of them centered 
around violence and the extent to which violence was justified. This 
was one of our main topics of discussion. 

Also, Hicks himself stated that he would be interested in instilling 
in us his ideology, which I took to be Marxist ideology, and in orga- 
nizing in the ghetto people not only to improve the quality of their 
lives, with which I think most of us are in agreement, but also to 
bring about socialist and Communist revolution, economic, political, 
and social, in the United States, so that this went beyond the bounds of 
ordinary concern. 

That was the substance of those two courses. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you describe the couree offered by Charlotte 
Polin? 

Mr. McCoMBS. Charlotte Polin's course dealt with the National 
Liberation Front in iSouth Vietnam and with the Democratic Republic 
of Vietnam, as she called it, or North Vietnam. The course was 
taught in such a way as to contradict everything that one reads in our 
newspapers 'and everything that — and to contradict American policy. 
Miss Polin was thoroughly and wholeheartedly beliind the cause of the 
North Vietnamese and the Viet Cong. She showed to me and to the 
class, there were not too many m that class, three or four or five, 
showed to me documents that had been sent to her from Ho Chi Minh, 
congratulating her for her efforts in his behalf. She was — at one point, 
came out in favor of military methods that would kill more American 
troops in Vietnam and, just in general, was entirely in favor of the 
North Vietnamese. She had read all the North Vietnamese literature 
that I have ever seen and was quite knowledgeable from their stand- 
point. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you describe the location of the Free University 
and the premises ? 

Mr. McCoMBS. The Free LTniversity of New York is located in the 
second floor loft at 20 East 14th Street in New York. It consists of 
about five rooms, I think, something like that. Not too cle'an. Walls 
are covered with posters and newspaper clippings. There are pictures 
in the classrooms where I attended classes of Che Guevara and Castro, 
Marx, maps of the Soviet Union, and this sort of thing. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You saw no pictures of Lincoln or Washington, I take 
it? 

Mr. McCoMBS. No, sir. 

Now, that describes the premises. I might describe to you a little bit 
more al30ut the Free University, if you are interested. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. 

Mr. McCoMBS. The Free University is — I think the general idea 
is — it is not much more than a group of professors who are loosely 
organized and who teach weekly seminars. Tliese seminars are all 
left-oriented, extremely left-orient^, to my knowledge. The one re- 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1045 

quirement, for example, of attending the Free University is you could 
not be a Fascist. That is why I sort of suppressed my beliefs [laugh- 
ter] since I am sure they would be considered Fascist by the people 
there, and I would be thrown out, you see. 

The Free University also serves ■ 

Mr. NiTTLE. Of course, you are saying that with a sense of humor. 

Mr. McCoMBS. I am saying it facetiously. 

The Free University was also used as an organizational center for 
leftwing activities. For example, a lot of the organization of the 
August 6 demonstration was done there. Meetings were held there, 
and so forth and so on. For example, I received a letter from the Free 
University, a mimeographed sheet, urging me to attend these HUAC 
meetings ; and so, you see, it serves as a general organizational center. 

Now, at the Free University, as I observed, as I did last 

Mr. AsHBRooK. Mr. McCombs, could I interject at this point? 

Mr. McCoMBs. Yes. 

Mr. AsHBRooK. We keep referring to this as a Free University. It 
is my understanding under the New York law, this cannot be deemed 
a university and cannot legally use the word "university" in its title. 

Mr. McCoMBS. Yes, sir, that is true. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. But just so the record shows that the Free Univer- 
sity is not the Free University and that it illegally uses the word 
"university" under New York law. 

Mr. McCoMBS. 1 think they now use the words "Free School," sir. 

Mr. AsHBRooK. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes; they have changed the name because of their 
legal problems. 

Mr. McCoMBS. But in their private communications, it is known 
as the Free U, among themselves. 

I observed there, as I did last summer, at the Assembly of Unrepre- 
sented People, two elements, two distinct elements, the operation of 
the old left, and the operation of what is known as the New Left. 
Members of the New Left are idealistic, romantic, and existentialist 
in their orientation and are activists and tend toward violence, rather 
than nonviolence, although I suppose they vacillate betw^een the two. 
They don't think ideologically in terms of a revolution several years 
in the future. 

The old left, on the other hand, are the hard-core Communists, who 
are focused in on that idea of revolution with pretty much a 20-20 
vision. 

Now, what I see down at the Free University are a lot of New 
Leftists and a lot of innocent and well-meaning and idealistic people, 
mostly young people, students, workers in various Government agen- 
cies, and so forth, who in my opinion are being subverted by the hard- 
core members of the old left, and very successfully so. I found that 
while there is talk of Communist infiltration of the civil rights and 
peace movements, which implies deceit, there is no deceit in this, be- 
cause I observed Communists openly welcomed by the non-Commu- 
nists of the movement, simply because they professed to be idealistic, 
and so forth, and are willing to associate with these people knowingly. 
Mr. NiTTLE. Who was the director of the Free University ? 
Mr. McCoMBS Mr. Allen Krebs, I believe. 
Mr. NiTTLE. Did you have occasion to meet with him there? 
Mr. McCoMBS. Yes, sir. Mr. Krebs taught a class called Marxism 
and American Decadence, and while I did not take that course, I met 

67-852 O— 66— pt. 1 10 



1046 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

with him a couple of times and discussed it, and so on. He described 
to me the contents, 

Mr. IcHORD. Mr. Counsel, could I interrupt at that point? 

Go ahead with the finishing of your answer there. 

Mr. McCoMBs. Well, I will just say he described to me very briefly 
the contents of his course, and that was all the association I had with 
him. 

Mr. IcHORD. Did you meet Dr. Allen Krebs at the so-called Free 
University ? 

Mr, McCoMBS. Yes, sir. 

Mr. IcHORD. Did you have an opportunity to observe the gentleman. 
Dr. Allen Krebs, who left the room this morning? Was that the 
same Dr. Allen Krebs? 

Mr, McCoMBS. Yes ; these two people are the same. 

Mr, IcHORD, Thank you, Counsel, 

Mr. AsHBROOK. Counsel, could I interrupt at that point ? 

Mr, NiTTLE, Certainly. 

Mr, AsHBROOK, I have had occasion to study the prospectus of the 
Free School of New York and I noticed under the course that you 
mention, it contains a general examination, to use their words, "A 
general examination of American society and its decadence from 
a Marxist perspective." And then it goes on, evidently, to say there 
is a Marxist perspective on the following subjects, "American im- 
perialism, militarism, alienation, isolation, homosexuality, drug cults, 
and intellectual emasculation." 

Did you have occasion to sit in on any of the course in this particular 
subject? 

(At this point, Mr. Clawson entered the hearing room.) 

Mr. McCoMBS, No, I did not, sir, I was attending other courses. 

Mr, AsHBRooK, That is too bad. It would certainly be interesting 
to know what the Marxist perspective is on some of those subjects. 

Mr. McCoMBS. Yes, I think it would. 

Mr, Pool, Go ahead, Counsel, 

Mr, NiTTLE, Were you aware of the type of employment held by 
some of the persons who attended the Free University ? 

Mr, McCoMBS, Yes, sir. Many of them were students who were 
doing various jobs during the summer. Some of them were house- 
wives; some of them were, it seemed to me, didn't have anything to do. 
You know, they were professional agitators, spent their days planning 
these affairs. But most of them, and then some of them worked in 
welfare, city welfare departments, and things like that. They were 
spread around, though, in odd locations. 

Mr, NiiTLE, Was there a great deal of literature, imported literature, 
available on the premises at the Free University ? 

Mr. McCoMBS, Yes, sir; there was also a table there that contained 
a great deal of very interesting literature, most of it pro- Communist, 

Mr, NiTTLE, Do you happen to have with you some of the items that 
were disseminated on the premises ? 

Mr. McCoMBS. Sure, 

Mr, NiTTLE, Would you describe them to the committee, and then 
we will offer them in evidence. 

Mr, McCoMBS, Well, I have here a price list for Vietnamese litera- 
ture, for example, put out by the U.S, Committee to Aid the National 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1047 

Liberation Front [of South Vietnam]. Several pages of literature 
printed in Nortli Vietnam. 

Mr. NiTTLE. That organization you first mentioned there, is that 

Mr. McCoMBS. Walter Teague's organization. Let me just go 
through. 

Here is a YAWF [Youth Against War & Fascism] newsletter that 
I picked up at Free University. That is the newsletter of the Youth 
Against War & Fascism — fairly interesting. 

Here is a letter that Charlotte Polin gave me, a copy of Uncle Ho's 
letter to her. She always referred to him affectionately as Uncle Ho. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And how did LTncle Ho address her? [Laughter.] 

Mr. McCoMBS. He addressed her as "My dear niece." 

Here is a pamphlet called Why North Viet-Nam Is Being Bombed, 
rabidly against United States policy in Vietnam, by Charlotte Polin. 

Here is some other literature of the Committee to Aid the National 
Liberation Front. These are a few of the examples. There were many 
other things. 

(Documents marked "McCombs Exhibits Nos. 2-A thru 2-E" re- 
spectively. Exhibit No. 2-B retained in committee files. See pp. 
1049-1063 for 2-A, C, D, and E.) 

Mr. NiTTiE. Mr. McCombs, I have here two exhibits I would ask 
you to identify. The first bears the caption "Coming Events at 
FUNY.'' 

(Document handed to witness.) 

Mr. McCombs. Yes; this was also distributed at the Free Uni- 
versity. Every week they have a different list of these things. Some 
of the items on this list of coming events are, for example, a film on 
Vietnam, made by the National Liberation Front, followed by a dis- 
cussion. It notes here that it was free to university members, but $1 
to outsiders. 

It notes also here a chapter meeting of the Free University chapter 
of the American Liberation League. Another very interesting orga- 
nization. These things were distributed every week. 

(Document marked "McCombs Exhibit No. 3" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. NiTTi.E. Now, let me ask you about the Free University chapter 
of the American Liberation League. Do you know what that is? 

Mr. McCombs. Yes, I think. The American Liberation League 
exactly replaces the old May 2nd Movement, which was dissolved by 
Progressive Labor. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Who heads the American Liberation League chapter 
at the Free Uni vereity ? 

Mr. McCombs. I heard his name several times, and could not 
guarantee that it is exactly correct, but I can give it to you, if you 
would like. 

Mr. NiTTLE. When you say there was a Free University chapter of 
the American Liberation League, what do you mean by that ? 

Mr. McCombs. Well, there w^ere several people attending Free 
University that got together a chapter of this organization. In addi- 
tion to this, there was a New York City chapter, w^hich was supposedly 
a little larger. Now, this organization participated heavily in the 
planning, for example, of the August 6th demonstrations. They 
gathered together — I attended only one meeting at the Free University 



1048 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

of this group, and the meeting dissolved with everybody angry at 
everyone else and nothing getting accomplished. 

The second meeting I attended was of the New York chapter. Some 
of the people, several of the people who were at the Free University 
chapter meeting were at the larger meeting, and at that meeting, sev- 
eral things were discussed. Let me consult my notes here. 

It was decided at this meeting that the group would conduct ideo- 
logical discussions, and this was debated somewhat. The idea was to 
eliminate "bourgeois failings." The group was identified by one of 
the members as Marxist, and it was decided that we would read the 
works of Marx and Lenin and try to wipe out some of these bourgeois 
failings. I was very interested in that. 

Another decision was made to conduct what are called self-criticism 
sessions. This struck me particularly, because you see, self-criticism 
sessions are something that have been used by the Chinese Communists, 
both in their thought- reform programs in China and in the treatment 
of their prisoners of war, as described in Robert J. Lifton's book, for 
example. Thought Reform, and the Psychology of Totalism. But the 
point about this is that these are particularly Maoist kind of sessions, 
not related with the Soviet brand of communism, so that these people 
are more to be identified with the Chinese brand. 

Now we also discussed in this meeting the banners that would be 
made for the demonstration and the slogans that would be used. Some 
of the ones that were decided upon were as follows : "Victory For The 
National Liberation Front," "Support People's Wars," which happens 
to be Lin Piao's phrase, I think, and other such slogans. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Mr. McCombs, I hand you another exhibit and 
ask whether you would identify it and describe it for the record, 
please. 

Mr. McCoMBS. This is "^^Hiere to write to NLF and DRV repre- 
sentatives." It was given to me by Charlotte Polin in my class at 
Free University and contains a description of several places to write 
the North Vietnamese. Czechoslovakia — it gives a name here, Pham 
Van Chuong; Algeria, it gives a couple of other addresses here. 

It says that "any money you can send to those addresses will also be 
much appreciated, as the NLF and DRV request money for medical 
supplies, of which they are in very short supply. Their need for medi- 
cal supplies, food and clothing is DESPERATE." And it advises 
that we send letters registered airmail, with airmail return receipt, "if 
you can afford it, as you'll be sure your letter gets through." 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I ask that the document to which the 
witness has referred and which he has identified be received in evidence. 

Mr. Pool. If there is no objection, it is so ordered. 

(Document marked "McCombs Exhibit No. 4" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. I have no further questions of this witness, Mr. Chair- 
man. 

Mr. Pool. The Chair recognizes Mr. Ichord at this time. 

Mr. Ichord. Mr. Chairman, I have no questions of the witness at this 
time. 

However, I do want to thank the witness for appearing before the 
committee this morning and giving the committee his very valuable 
testimony. Thank you very much, sir. 

(McCombs Exhibits Nos. 2-A, 2-C, 2-D, and 2-E follow:) 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1049 



McCoMBs Exhibit No. 2-A 



^CE /q 




7u8ER«|OH -^ 



U.S. COMMITTEE TO AID THE 
NATIONAL LIBERATION FRONT 

OF SOUTH VIETNAM 
103 Macdougal St NY 10012 
Room 5 Tel 212 YU 2-7162 



PRICE LIST FOR VIETNAMESE LITERATUR-E 



NO. 



TITLE 



AUTHOR or NOTE 



NO. IN BIBLIO. PRICE 



1. A HEROIC PEOPLE (Memoirs from the revolution) 81.75 

2. ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE VIETNAMESE PEOPLE'S WAR OF RESISTANCE 50 

3. AGAINST U.S. AGGRESSION (Main documents of DRV Nat. Assembly) .. .50 

4. AMERICAN IMPERIALISM'S INTERVENTION IN VIETNAf^ (59) .25 

5. AN ANECDOTE OF THE LIFE OF PRESIDENT HO CHI MINH 

## by Tran Dan Tien (Esperanto only) 1.00 

6. AS HE WAS by Mrs. Nguyen Van Troi 1.00 

7. AUGUST REVOLUTION, THE (2nd Edition) by Troung Chinh (17) .75 

8. BEACON BANNER, THE (Short stories) (22) 1.00 

9. BREAKING OUR CHAINS (Documents of Viet. Rev. of Aug. '45)... (35) .75 

10. BUFFALO BOYS OF VIETNAM by Rewi Alley 1.25 

11, BUILDING AN INDEP. NAT. ECONOMY IN THE DRV by Truyen & Vinh 1.00 

.i;2. CANTON CHIEF BA LOSES HIS SLIPPERS by Nguyen Cong Hoan 1.25 

Xi. CASH AND VIOLENCE IN LAOS AND VIETNAM by Anna Louise Strong .... 2.00 

i<l, CATHOLICS IN THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM, THE ., 75 

i;- CHI PHEO AND OTHER STORIES by Nam Cao 1. 25 

li).. COME TO THE FIELDS, BUFFALO (Vietnamese Folk Songs) 75 

17. . COMMUNIQUE ON THE 9TH PLENARY SESSION OF THE CENTRAL COMMITTEE 

OF THE VIETNAMESE WORKERS' PARTY, THE (French) 25 

V- . 'CONSTITUTION OF THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM ( 34 ) .50 

iV COUP AFTER COUP IN SAIGON by Hai Thu & Binh Thanh ( 3) .75 

:;••:. COUPLE. 01' AFU AND OTHER STORIES, THE by To Hoai (Esperanto) 1.25 

;;'.. DAUGHTEI-ro OF VIETNAM (Stories and Poems) by Mona Brand (55) 1.25 

2;; . DAYS WITH' HO CHI MINH ( 51 ) 1.75 

2;'', DAYS OF BOYHOOD AND OTHER STORIES, THE by Nguyen Hong (French).. 1^00 

24. DEATH OF A YANKEE, THE (Stories of SV) by Van Ngoc (French) 75 

:-.■■;. 'A'CLARATION OF THE 1ST CONGRESS OF SV NFL ( 2) .25 

/O. D2M. REP. OF VIETNAM, 1945-1960 (Impressions of foreigners) (37) .75 

2''\ DEM. REP. OF VIETNAM, THE (A Handbook) (Esperanto) 1.50 

20. DEM. REP. OF VIETNAM ON THE ROAD OF SOC. INDUSTRIALIZATION .(29) 1.00 

29 . DIARY OF A CRICKET by To Hoai 1.00 

30. DIEN BIEN PHU by Vo Nguyen Giap 2.00 

31. ECONOMY IN THE DRV by Vo Nham Tri (In preparation ) 

32. ERADICATION OF THE TRACHOMA IN THE DRV (In preparation ) 

33 . ESCALATION WAR AND SONGS ABOUT PEACE ( 7 ) 

34 . FACING THE SKYHAV;KS by Nguyen Nghe ( 58 ) 

35. FASCIST TERROR IN SOUTH VIETNAM, LAW 10-59 (50) 

36. 15TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE DRV, 1945-1960 (33) 

37 . FIGHT AGAINST TUBERCULOSIS IN THE DRV 

38. 1ST DOCUMENTS ON THE PHO LOI MASS MURDER IN SOUTH VIETNAM ..(49) 

39 . FIRST MOSQUITO AND OTHER STORIES, THE ( 56 ) 

40. FOCUS ON INDO-CHINA by Malcolm Salmon (History of Indo-China)(9) 
ii-'A£ BAG - Major Battles in S. Vietnam 1963-64 



1.00 

1.00 

,50 

.50 

.75 

.75 

1.00 

.50 

1.25 

2.00 

, .75 



1050 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 



McCoMBS Exhibit No. 2- A — Continued 

41.. FRIENDLY VIETNAM by Len Fox ( 20 ) 1.25 

42. FROM MAINLAND HELL TO ISLAND HELL by Nguyen Xuan Tram 1.00 

43. FRONT'S POLICY, THE 1.75 

44. GREAT EVENTS IN SV SINCE THE 1954 GENEVA AGREEMENTS 1.00 

45. SREAT WAVE (Emulation movement among the workers) by Song Ky . . . 1.50 

46o GROWING OPPRESSION, GROWING STRUGGLE by Quang Loi 1. 75 

47 „ ^GEMONY OF THE WORKING CLASS IN LEADING THE VIETNAMESE 

REVOLUTION by Nguyen Kanh Toan (In Preparation ) 1.75 

4a;^ JiEROES & HEROINES OF SOUTH VIETNAM (Drawings and Paintings) 1.50 

49. HO CHI MINH, SELECTED WORKS, Volume I (23) 2.00 

5(U " " " II (24) 2.00 

61^:' " " " III (25) 2.00 

52. " " " rv (26) 2.00 

5§^ HOLD HIGH THE REV. BANNER, ETC. (Included in No. 72) (15) 

54. ilUSBAND EXPECTING HILL (Folk Stories) (Esperanto only) 75 

55*' IMPASSE by Nguyen Cong Hoan (A Novel) 1.50 

fSfc' IN THE ENEMY'S NET (memoirs from the revolution) (32) 1.00 

l^JNDOMITABLE SOUTH VIETNAM (With photographs) (57) .50 
■^QfeJTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE FOR SOLIDARITY WITH THE PEOPLE OF 

VIETNAM AGAINST US IMPERIALIST AGGRESSION AND FOR PEACE 1.50 

)INT STATEMENT OF CHMN. LUI SHAO-CHI AND PRES. HO CHI MINH (38) .50 

iMENT OF A SOLDIER'S WIFE by Dang Tran Con & Doan Thi Diem (31) .50 

TasT stronghold, the (Novel of Dien Bien Phu) by Huu Mai 2.00 

' lETTER FROM SOUTH VIETNAM 75 

i^ ' lETTERS FROM SOUTH VIETNAM, Volume I (11) .75 

ll"^ " " " II (12) .75 

Rs' MARCH AI-IEAD UNDER THE PARTY'S BANNER ( 19 ) .75 

Rfi iffiETING OF THE INTERNATIONAL TRADE UNION COMICLTTEE OF SOLIDARITY 

WITH THE WORKERS AND PEOPLE OF SV (Oct. 20-30, 1963) 1.25 

-7' lEMOIRS FROM THE REVOLUTION OF OFFICERS IN THE V. PEOPLES ARMY 1.00 

Ro" toOIRS OF DIEN BIEN PHU FIGHTERS 1.00 

fq^'mY VISIT TO THE LIBERATED ZONES OF S.V. by W. Burchett ( 8) 1.95 

7n" OFFENSIVE AGAINST POVERTY & BACKWARDNESS (On Agriculture) 1.25 

71 ON ACCOUNT OF AN OX (Stories of Viet. Resist. War) (Esperanto) .. 2.00 

7^ CSJ SOME PRESENT INTERNAT'L. PROBLEMS (Inc. Nos. 53 & 95 ) . . . ( 14 ) .75 

?^*' flN THE PROBLEMS OF WAR AND PEACE ( 13 ) .75 

4r^ALERT) ON THE SEVENTEENTH PARALLEL by Huu Thai 50 

ir An THE SOCIALIST REVOLUTION IN VIETNAM, Vol. I by Le Duan ..(63) 1.00 

'^^-'^-"^ n " " II " (64) 1.25 

T7* nNE EYED ELEPHANT AND THE ELEPHANT GENIE, THE ( 39 ) 1 ! 25 

^♦ORDERS, SPEECHES AND CORRES. by Vo Nguyen Giap (Vietnamese) 1.75 

v^q'^-PEACE or VIOLENCE" reprinted from Hoc Tat, Sept. 1963 25 

in PEASANT. THE BUFFALO, AND THE TIGER, THE by Hoa Mai 50 

fll '_PE0PLE OF VIETNAM WILL TRIUMPH, U.S. AGGRESSORS WILL BE 

DEFEATED, THE (Photographs with captions) 50 

Ro TTEOPLE'S WAR, PEOPLE'S ARMY (36) .75 

fto^ pIG FOLLOWS DOG by Lorraine Salmon 1.25 

p^ POEMS by To Huu (French and Esperanto - 72^) (54) .75 

0^" PRACTICE OF HEPATIC RESECTION (French only) 1.00 

«K PRESIDENT HO CHI MINH by Pham Van Dong & Others ( 21 ) .75 

flT PRISON DIARY by Ho Chi Minh .■ 1.00 

CO PROBLEMS FACING THE DRV IN 1961, THE by Nguyen Trinh & Pham Dong .50 

fto^'^TURN TO DIEN BIEN PHU AND OTHER STORIES 1.00 

on "SsiSTANCE WILL WIN, THE by Troung Chinh (18) 1.00 

oi ^AD TO HAPPINESS AND PROSPERITY, THE 1.50 

^t^Te YEARS DEVEL. OF NAT. EDUCATION IN THE DRV by Nguyen Van Huyen .50 

|r^LEMN PLEDGE OF THE THIRTY MILLION VIETNAMESE PEOPLE ( 5) .25 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1051 



McCoMBS Exhibit No. 2-A — Continued 

94. SOME DOCUMENTS OF THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY OF THE DEMOCRATIC 

REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM, JUNE-JULY 1964 (42) .75 

95. SOME QUESTIONS CONCERNING THE INTERNATIONAL TASKS OF OUR 

PARTY (Included in No. 72) (16) .25 

95. SONG ON BOTH SIDES OF THE RIVER, THE (Poems) (10) 1.50 

97. SOUTH OF THE 17th PARALLEL by Quang Loi 1.00 

r.^ SOUTH VIETNAM LIBERATION FRONT, THE by Le Van Chat 1.25 

■'■\ SOUTH VIETNAMESE PEOPLE WILL WIN, THE by Vo Nguyen Giap (6) .75 

iC-'. SPECIAL WAR - AN OUTGROWTH OF NEO-COLONIALISM ( 4) .25 

ICi. SPRING IN THE MOUNTAIN by Nguyen Ngoc And Others (French only).. 1.25 

102. STORIES OF DIEN BIEN PHU (2nd Edition) by Tran Do (52) .75 

103 . STORIES OF THE NORTH-WEST by To Hoai 1.00 

lfi4. STORK AND THE SHRIMP, THE by Do Vang Lu 1. 25 

105 . STRONG WI.'.'D by Mai Hang Quan And Others 1.25 

106. STRONGER V/lilLE FIGHTING (Photo Album) (In Preparation) 

107. STRUGGLE AGAINST ILLITERACY IN VIETNAM 75 

108. SUPPORT THE PEOPLE OF VIETNAM, DEFEAT U.S. AGGRESSORS 

(Volumes I, II, III, IV) (Each Volume) .25 

irg. TEN YEARS OF FIGHTING AND BUILDING OF THE VIETNAMESE 

PEOPLE 'S ARMY ( 61 ) .25 

110. THIRD NATIONAL CONGRESS OF THE VIETNAM WORKER'S PARTY (Vol. ID 1.50 

(Vol. I, III each) 2.00 

IJ 1. THIRTY YEARS STRUGGLE OF THE PARTY, Vol. I (30 ) .75 

1.12. UNDECLARED WAR IN SOUTH VIETNAM, THE by Le Van Chat (46) 1.50 

1J3. U.S. MILITARY /.VENTURE IN SOUTH VIETNAM 50 

114. VIETNAM (Flag, Anthem and Emblem of the DRV) 75 

115. VIETNM (A Sketch) (53) .50 

J.-G. VIETNAM (Seven Vietnamese Songs) 75 

117. VIETNAM FATHERLA1!D FRONT AND STRUGGLE FOR NATIONAL UNITY 75 

118. VIETNAM FOLK SONGS 75 

119. VIETNAM: INSIDE STORY OF THE GUERILLA WAR by W. Burchett ...(65) 4.95 

JiO. VIETNAM IS A PEOPLE'S DEMOCRACY by Pham Van Dong 2b 

l;;l. VIETNAM MEDICAL (1963) (French with summaries) 7.00 

1:^2. " (1964) (Fr., English, Russian)(In Preparation) 

1 23 . VIETNAM - MY NATIVE LAND (62) .75 

124 . VIETNAM TODAY 95 

125. VIETNAI^IESE FOLK TALES (Chinese & French) (In Preparation) 1.00 

125 . VIETNAMESE HANDICRAFTS 75 

127. VIETNAMESE LITERATURE by Nguyen Vinh Thi 25 

128. VIETNAMESE SONGS (Vietnamese & French) 75 

129. VIETNAMESE THEATRE, THE by Song Ban (47) .75 

130. VILLAGE THAT WOULDN'T DIE, THE by Nguyen Ngoc (40) 1.50 

ira. VOICE OF justice, the (NLF Documents) ( 1) 1.25 

l"-2. WALLS ARE DOWN, THE by Dick Diamond 1-50 

133. WAR AND ATROCITY IN VIETNAM by R. Stetler & B. Russell (66) .7S 

■34. WE WILL WIN (Statements and Appeals of the DRV, 1965) 50 

..35. WHITE BUFFALO, THE (Short Stories) l.SC 

.1. i'o . YOUNG WOMAN OF SAO BEACH, THE by Bui Due Ai ( 48 ) 1.25 

PERIODICALS 

1. SOLIDARITY WITH VIETNAM 25 

2. VIETNAM 5C 

3 . VIETNAM COURIER 25 

4. VIETNAM PICTORIAL (Pres. Ho Chi Minh's Friendly Visits) 7f 

5 . VIETNAM YOTITH 5C 

6. VIETNAMESE STUDIES- (See March 1965 issue - contribution to 

Dien Bien Phu) .9C 



1052 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 



McCoMBS Exhibit No. 2-A — Continued 

COMMITTEE TO AID THE NATIONAL LI3ERATI0H FRONT OF SOUIH VIETNAM 
LITERATURE PACKET* 

SELECTED INTRODUCTION TO VIETNAM (Ideal for yoiir study group) Contains selections 
of Vietnamese literature as well as reprints from U, S. sources. Excellent for study 
groups, teach-ins and seminars, Itetns can be purchased separately at the listed price, 
or the packet for $6.00 complete. Postage is included. 

* NOTE: Because of the difficulty in obtaining the literature below, we reserve the 
right to make substitutions \iien necessai-y 

1. AGAKSTU. S. AGGRESSION, Documents of the D. R. V. S .50 $6.00 ® 

2. "Agreanent on the Cessation of hostilities in Vietnam IC/U2/Rev,2, 

20th July 19Sli" (GEIffiVA ACCORDS) ... MIMORITY OF Oi.F. .50 

3. "BRING PEACE TO VIETl^iAM, Support the National Liberation Front" 

button in red, white and blue (Illustrated on the cover.) .25 

h. HANDBOOK FOR CONSCIENTIOUS OBJECTORS by Central Coran, for C. 0, - .50 

5. "HOW THE UNITED STATES GOT INVOLVED IN VIETNAI^I" by Robert Scheer- .75 

6. Literature Index — contains a bibliography and price list 1.00 

7. m VISIT TO THE LIBERATED ZONES OF S. VIETNAM bj^ V/iiri'ed Burdi ett 1.95 

8. POLICY STATEMENT CF THE U. S. COMI'IITTEE TO AID THE NLF OF SV. — " 

9. ROAD TO RUBI a reprint from the MONTHLY REVIEW .15 

10. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AGAINST DAVID HENRY MITCHEL, 3rd Dof. — .75 

1 1 . THE VOICE OF JUSTICE (Contains documents of the IffiJ, their appeal, 

manifesto, programme and statement.) — 1.25 

12. WE WILL WIN (Contains statements and appeals of 1965 DRV & NLF — .50 

13. **)H» OTHER DOCUMENTS AS AVAILABLE 1 .00 

TOTAL IF PURCHASED SEFARATELY= ^ 9.10' 



HOW TO ORDER: Please address you order to the U. S. Committee to Aid the National 
Liberation Front df South Vietnam, Room S, 103 Macdougal Street, 
New York, N. Y. 10012. 

Make out your check or money order to V/. Teague care of the above. 

Include 250 for each itan if the bill is under §20.00 for postage. 

Allow three weeks fear deliveiy. i 

Because of problems of supply, please incLude several alternates for 
each itan if possible. If you want us to back-order items irtien 
necessary please let us loiow in your order, othenrise we will substitute. 

We can also give advise on special needs etc. V/rite to the above conmitLee. 

•'/■-S NEW ITEMS BECOffi AVAILABLE WE WILL ADD TO THIS LIST V/ITH ADDITIONAL PAGES.) 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1053 



McCoMBS Exhibit No. 2-C 




Hajaoi, November ■<;': , J965 



My dear uiece, 

I have received yo'.^x letter. I sincerely thank you 
for year thor.5htful words with rogard to the Vietnainese 
people who oxe fighting ;"or afi.tiorial freedom end 
xxidependence. You end ou- Aiur-vic-^^n progressiva people, 
specially the youth feel iuciignaiit at the hflxbaxous crimes 
[ ; rpetrated in Viet Nam ^y the U.S. . imy <jialists who have 
thus ■besoeexed the hon&ij^- of the American people and the 
noble traditions of tne taited States, These arw aincore 
feelings of all honest Americans when they see the 
U.S. aggressors daily sowing ruins and death in a, country 
soiie ten thousand miles away from the United States, and 
v/hich hajs no other desire than to live in independence, 
freedom, p3a.ce, and friendship with the American people. 

I BLi glad to leer.n 'hat you and nany o"cher young 
Americans axe actively enciavouxdng under varied forma to 
help push forwexd the movement against the wax of aggression 
in Viet Nem end in support of the Vietnajnese people. 
I highly appreciate these efforts of yours and of the 
American youth, students and other friends who axe, valiantly 
fighting for freedom, Jus^iice and for friendship between our 
two peoples. 

The U.S. imperialist a^ggressors will cextainly be 
defeated. 

The Vietnamese people will be victorious. ; 

I wish you good heelth and good success. 

With sffectj.nna.te greetings 
■ ^ /• 

/ ^ • Uncle Ko 



1054 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 



McCoMBS Exhibit No. 2-D 




WHY NORTH VIET-NAM IS BEING BOIffiED 



by 

Charlotte Polin 



IT IS ELEVEN YEARS SINCE THE GENEVA AGREEMENTS WERE SIGNED 
GUARANTEEING RS-UNIPICATION ELECTIONS AND THE INDEPENDENCE, UNITY, 
SOVEREIGNTY AND TERRITORIAL INTEGRITY OP THE WHOLE OF VIET-NAM. IT 
IS ELEVEN YEARS SINCE THE BLOODY VIOLATION OP THESE AGREEMENTS BY 
THE U.S. GOVERNMENT BEGAN. FOR THE PEOPLE OP VIET-NAM AND FOR US, 
THIS IS THE ELEVENTH HOUR. 

On February 7, 19^5 the U.S. began its systematic air massacre 
of the Democratic Republic of Viet-Nam (North Viet-Nam) . Now the 
U.S. government is planning shortly to order the bombing of HAIPHONG, 
an industrial city of half a million people, which is Hanoi's seaport, 
and of HANOI itself — a beautiful capital with a population of over 
a million, with its precious industries, and cultural treasures dating 
back cdnturles. The U.S. also plans to bomb the system of dikes in 
the Democratic Republic of Viet-Nam (DRV) which keeps the North Viet- 
Namese from drowning and starving. 

IN THE NAIffi OF HUI.IANITY, LET US ACT BEFORE IT IS TOO LATE I 

SAVE HAIPHONG I 

SAVE HANOI I 

PREVENT THE BOIffiING OP THE DIKES AND DAMS WHICH WOULD KILL 

THREE MILLION NORTH VIET-NAMESE THROUGH DROWNING AND STARVATIONl 

WHY IS THE U.S. BOI/IBING NORTH VIET-NAM? 

Because, for a small and poor Asian country (population l8 
million), the Democratic Republic of V^et-Nam has achieved economic 
miracles; During over eighty years of French colonialism, the 
Viet^-Namese lived like serfs, working 12 to 17 hour a day, seven 
days 'b. week, rummaging in gar'gage heaps for food, never knowing 
what it was like to have either national Independence or Industry, 
In 19l^^ as a result of the anti-fascist victory and of the Vjet-Namese 
people's August Revolution, led by the Viet-Mlnh the Viet-Namese 
forced out the French and Japanese oppressors and established the 
Democratic Republic of Viet-Nam. On January 6, 19\\h, nation-wide 
elections were held. In both the North and the South, which democrat- 
ically elected the Ho Chi Mlnh government. That the elections were 
entirely free and fair was attested to by American observers, and 
many foreign experts on Viet-Nam such as the French historians 
Philippe Devillers and Jean Chesneaux. 

!I^e government of the Democratic Republic of Viet-^am was 
recognized internationally even by the French, but in March 19l).6 the 
latter decided to re-conquer their former prize colony, and the 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1055 



McCoMBS Exhibit No. 2-D — Continued 

Vlet-Namese were forced to fight the First Resistance War rrhich 
ended only with the signing of the Geneva Accords in July of 1951j-o 
They are now fighting the Second Resistance War — against the U.S. 
aggressors who come from eight thousand miles away to bomb, blast 
and burn them. 

North Viet-Nam is being bombed because it is the only industrial- 
ized economy in all of Southeast Asia. The economic miracles achieved 
by the. Democratic Republic of Viet-Nam, the first former colonial 
country to take the Socialist path, were a most inspiring example 
to the peoples of South-East Asia (TnclTidins South Viet-Nam, where 
the U.S. had never built any industry and where at least 80 per cent 
of U.S. aid money at all times went for openly-avowed military purposes) 
to all of Asia ( particularly India) and to Africa and Latin America 
as well.. 

UJider Socialism, North Vjet-Nam solved every problem that its 
giant neighbor, India, had been unable to solve under Capitalism. 
In North Viet-Nam, famine and draught were omnipresent, and in l^kS 
two million North Vjet-Naraese starved to death. Though the Red River 
Delta of Ngrth Viet-Nam is the most densely-populated region in the 
world, and though the DRV has a per capita land-holding of only a 
fifth of an acre (one third that of an Indian peasant) the DRV not 
only solved the famine problem but even began exporting rice I 

Two other problems that plague India, housin g and Illiteracy, 
long ago were solved by the DRV. under the French, tens of thousands 
of Vlet-Namese slept in the streets, as in Calcutta and Bombay now. 
Over 95 per cent of the people of the DRV are literate, l^ereas 
when Viet-Nam was ruled by the French there were only 500 university 
students for the whole of Indo-Chlna (i.e. North & South Viet-Nam, 
Laos & Cambodia) today Hanoi gradtiates over 27,000 a yearl 

Just as the U.S. is attempting to drown in blood the Liberation 
struggle of the South Vlet-Namese people because it is the model for 
liberation struggles everywhere, so North Viet-Nam is being bombed 
to bits because it shows all colonial and former colonial countries. 
It shows the so-called Third World of Asia, Africa and Latin i'merica 
by living example that Socialism can solve their problems. According 
to the October ll|., I965 "Viet-Nam News Agency Bulletin" (Issued dally 
in Rangoon, Burma) between February and October 19^5 the U.S. bombed 
no less than 121^. educational establishments in the DRV, killing a 
large number of teachers and students. This is done not only to 
terrorize the 1,'orth Viet-Namese people, but also because the U.S. 
did and does not want Socialist North Viet-Nam' 3 Impressive educational 
system to remain an example to the poor folk of the world. 

In the medical field, the Democratic Republic of Viet-Nam 
Is the only nation in Southeast Asia to have completely wiped out 
cholera, plague, and small -pox. Between February 1965 and July 11, 
1965 alone, the U.S. bombed no less than fifteen hospitals and 
medical establishments, some of them, like the Quynh Lap Leper 
Sanatorium (where U.S. pilots killed I80 patients in ll\. bombing 
raids) and the Tuberculosis Hospital No. 71 (over lj.0 patients and 
five doctors killed) the finest treatment centers of their kind in 
all of Asia. 



built 



The Democratic Republic of Viet-Nam is being bombed because it 

t "an independent national econorr.y" with economic and technical aid 



1056 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 



McCoMBS Exhibit No. 2-D — Continued 

from the Socialist Camp, but largely by its own labor — and hand 
labor at thatl On the ruins of a debilitating nar, and \jith bare 
and bleeding hands, the North Viet-Hamese built an impressive infant 
Industry that became the Showplace for Socialism in Southeast Asia. 
North Viet-Nara has been called "the Ruhr of Southeast Asia." Experts 
on South-East Asia have highly praised the DRV's accomplishments, such 
as Alex Josey, South-east Asian correspondent for "Reynolds Kevrs" and 
a member of the British Labor Party for over twenty-five years. Josey 
says that North Viet-Nam is the most advanced country In south-East 
Asia and has already solved many of the problems that remain unsolved 
in the rest of this area. "N orth Vjet-Nam is making material pr og ress 
unequalled by any country in Soutfi^asT; Asia," h e also v7rote. "WhlTs 
living standards in Malaya, Ihailand, Geyion and elsev/here in the 
region remain static or get worse. North Viet-Nam is marching fortrard," 
By bombing the DRV, the U.S. seeks to dissuade ell countries from 
taking the Socialist path by showing that through Its preponderant 
military power It can negate every benefit a Socialist State can bring 
to its people. One of the main appeals that Socialism has for the 
masses of the world is its promise of security, and the U.S. power 
structure seeks to make a mockery of Socialism by subjecting the 
North Viet-^amese to Insecurity — fear of the bombings, which would 
cause inseciority on the job; insecurity over food, due to the bombings 
hampering transportation and supply; fear of illness, injury and death, 
and of their dwelling places being destroyed. Thus, by bombing the 
DRV, the U.S. seeks to prove that even though a country may adopt 
Socialism, it will not be able to give its people the benefits of 
Socialism: economic, political, social and psychological security. 
For always, over it will hang the sword of Damocles— destruction by 
the U.S. 

This Is the "message" the U.S. is transmitting to all of Asia, 
Africa, and Latin America: Even though Socialism brings about much 
more rapid industrialization than capitalism, better stick with 
Capitalism. Because if you adopt Socialism, your economic develop- 
ment will still be set back decades — by bombings I This is the real 
reason for the clamor in Washington, led by General Curtis LeMay, 
to "bomb North Viet-Nam back into the Stone Age" I 

FOR THE SAKE OP THE MARTYRED AND SUFFERING PEOPLE OF THE DRV, 
WHO TILL THE WINNING OF INDEPENDENCE FROM THE FRENCH NEVER HAD A 
GOOD DAY IN THEIH LIVES, AND FOR THE SAKE OF ALL OPPRESSED PEOPLES 
EVERYWHERE WHO HAVE STRUGGLED AGAINST POVERTY, OR WHO WOULD LIKE TO, 
LET US VOCIFEROUSLY CONDEI.OT GENERAL CURTIS LEJJliys SUBHUMAN SLOGAN 
"BOMB NORTH VIST-NAM BACK INTO THE STOKE AGE" I DEMAND THAT THE U.S. 
GOVERNMENT CEASE TO IMPLEMENT THIS BARBARIC POLICY. DEMAND AN END 
TO ALL BOMBINGS OF NORTH VIET-NAMl 

According to the "Nev/ York Times" of December 3, 1965, the 
bombing of North Viet-Nam is "so v/idespread that Hanoi and its 
port, Haiphong — the major population and industrial centers — are 
left as mere '"islands.'" The industrial center of Nam Dinh, third 
largest city in the DRVVjhas already been bombed, and its textile 
factories destroyed or badly damaged. According to "Newsweek" magazine 
of October 11, 1965 (p. 44) and Bernard Fall writing In the December 
issue of "Ramparts," the U.S. has almost completely 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1057 



McCoMBS Exhibit No. 2-D — Continued 

leveled the new and important industrial city of Vioh, capital of 
til's ProviiaoQ of Nghe An, svirrouiided by glorious tradition, uhere 
President H© Chi Minh was born. 

Senator Stenis, Cj^alrjian of the Armed Service Preparedness 
Sub-Coramlttee, Richard Nixon, Mendel Hivers, Sen. Richard Russell 
and others making speeches calling for the'boabing of Haiphong and 
Hanoi are ordered by the Vihite House to put out these "trial balloons" 
to test American public opinion regarding the bombing of Haiphong 
and Hanoi. WE MUST PmiCTUfiE THESE TRIAL BALLOONS BY LETTING LYNDON 
JOHNSON AND THE STATS DEPARTMENT KNOW THAT WE ARE VEHE!«IENTLY OPPOSED 
TO THE BOMBING OF HAIPHONGl Before it is too late, we must do all 
we can to prevent further escalation in the air war of destruction 
against North Viet- Nam. 

Haiphong Is not only Hanoi's seaport, but the life-line of the 
whole DRV. The DRV cannot live -without foreign tradel It buys 
its industrial base (I. el. purchase of heavy industrial equipment) 
through the exporting of its agricultural surplus I If Haiphong 
Harbor is dynamited and its port facilities destroyed, it will cause 
severe food and material shortages, and tjreck the economy of the 
DRV. Now, the Republican Party has passed a Resolution calling for 
the blocading of North Viet-Nam. By imposing a complete "Cordon 
Sanitaire" and "Cordon Militaire," the U.S. hopes to completely 
strangle the DRV, 

The precious Industries and factories in the Hanoi -Haiphong 
area mean the world to the North Viet-Namese, who since the winning 
of national independence lovingly and laboriously built them up. 
The hypocritical Lyndon Johnson defended the bombing of North 
Viet-Nam at one of his press conferences by saying, "There is no 
blood in a steel bridge," V/e must let him know that we know very 
well that there is blood in every bridge, road, highway, dam, power 
plant, etc. that the U.S. is destroying — the blood, sweat and tears 
of the North Viet-Namese who sacrificed everything to work day in, 
day out, to build them. Haiphong is a city of strong working-ciass 
tradition, proud of the industries it has built. That city has led 
the whole country in emulation drives I And attacks on Haiphong and 
Hanoi would massacre the civilians of these densely-populated 
metropolitan cities I 

Not only are the U.S. aggressors planning to bomb Haiphong and 
Hanoi, and the whole economic-industrial complex of the DRV. Splashed 
all over the U.S. and world press are their monstrous plans to bomb 
North Viet-Nam's system of dikes and dams I This genocidal act would 
drown and starve three million North-Viet-Namese--at least one million 
of them would die outright, and the other several millions from 
starvation and disease — including horrible plagues — over a period 
of a year. "U.S. News & World Report" in its December 6, I965 issue 
contains a horrifying admission: " U.S . bonbe rs have already crippled 
part of the irrigation system in N prtH" Viei^^^a ST In the months ahe a d , 
the U.S. may strike at the high dikes protecting the Red River Delta — 
North Viet-Nam' 3 "rice bowl" — from flooding. Breaching the dikes 
would knock out agricultural production for at least a year." 

The French press has demanded that the U.S. government openly 
renounce any intention to bomb the dikes. Of course, the U.S. refusedo 



1058 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 



McCoMBS Exhibit No. 2-D — Continued 

I BUT IT IS OUR DUTY AS CITIZENS OP THE NATION WHICH IS CARRYING OUT 
AND PLANNING THESE DIABOLICAL ACTS, TO DO ALL IN OUR POWER TO MAKE 
LYNDON JOHNSON REVERSE HIS POLICY, AND PUBLICLY DECLARE THAT HE TOLL 
NOT BOMB THE DIKES. We must make it clear that, negotiations or 
no negotiations, we demand that the U.S. stop all bombings against 
North Viet-Nam because it is a Hitlerian crime against humanity to 
bomb and destroy the precious accomplishments and economic livelihood 
of a poor, helpless little co\intry which has nothing to fight back 
with and is defenceless under U.S. air attack. 

Right now, the bombing of ^aiphong has first priority on the 
Pentagon's list. In addition, the Washington strategists have other 
"projects" high on the priority list which vrould strike at the life 
and welfare of millions of civilians in North Vlet-Nam. As "U.S. 
News & World Report" puts it in its December 6, I965 issue: 

"There are other important targets in North Viet-Nam that have 
not been touched by American bombs. Public utilities are one. Also 
on the list are cement and fertilizer factories, and tvra Chlnese- 
bullt blast furnaces." 

On December l5 and again on December 21, the U.S. did indeed 
attack the DRV's public utilities — by destroying the Uong Bi Thermal 
Power Plantl That power station was one of the Viet-^^amese people's 
brightest and most beloved achievements, ^t supplied most of the 
electricity to the Hanoi -Haiphong area, and by knocking it out, the 
U.S. caused a massive power blackout, and brought industry to a 
virtual standstill. 550 workers were employed at Uong Bi. The U.S. 
dropped 3,000-pound bombs--th6 biggest used in any war — to destroy 
then and their economic achievements. Nearby coal mines, textile 
factories and other economic establishments v/ere also heavily bombed, 
£3 well as heavily-populated civilian areas in the suburbs of 
Haiphongt 

LET US EXERT OUR ENERGIES TO PREVENT A REPETITION OP SUCH 
HEARTLESS AND HORRENDOUS ACTS OP AGGRESSION I LET US MOVE HEAVEN 
AND EARTH TO PREVENT THE BOI^BING OP HAIPHONG'. LET US MAKE A 
HERCULEAN EFFORT, WHILE THERE IS STILL TIME, TO PREVENT THE BOMBING 
OF HANOI, AND THE DIKES, AND THE WHOLE ECONOMIC -INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 
OF THE DRVl 

LET US DEMAND AN END TO THE MASSACRE AND MUTILATION OF A POOR 
D EFENCELESS LITTLE NATIQHI A NATION WHOSE ONLY "CRIME" IS THAT IT 
7TBi:Rl6kES ITS NATIONAL INDEPENDENCE AND ITS OV/N FORM OF GOVERNJ.ISNT . 
LET US DEMAND AND ACT NOW FOR AN END TO THE BOIiBING OP THE DEMOCRATIC 
REPUBLIC OP VIET-NAM I 

This panphlet has been endorsed by» among others: 

T 40 V. -.5 Robert A. Hollis. Post #15 „„, , t5„^„„v„ 

Jacqui Broucharde American Legion CoEnander ^^^J S^^fS 

Joe Ben-David r^ Jaffe ^^^^ Shapiro • 

Joanna S -s-isenberg lonriv Trnvmpn Austin Straus 

Roland Hirsch Wu OV^ Armand Storace 

Robert Hirschfield John Phelps • Trudith Storace 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1059 



McGoMBs Exhibit No. 2-E 

U,S. COMMITTEE TO AID THE 
NATIONAL LIBEI^ATI ON FRONT 
Of SOUTH VIETNAM 

103 flacdoueal St iloom $ NY 10012 Itel W 2-7l62 




You, 



■ the Anerlcan Cltlzon, have the ebllnatdon t{|,try to repair the 
danage being done to the Vletnameac people by your government. 

WE THEREFORE urge you to send medical equipment or money for medical aid, not to 

the military puppet regime In Saigon, but directly to the National Liberation Front 

of South Vietnam, Ihls is the only government which truly represents the people and 

can see that your aid gets to those vho really need it. 

t 

SETO medical supplies (list of suggested items supplied on request) tot 

THE LIBEBAnON RED CROSS, C/O MR. TROK XUAN PHO, CO^DERCIAL ATTACHE, 

ROOM 608, 2A DES VOEUX ROAD, CEWEtAL, HONO KOWG. 

MAIL contributions by International Banlc Draft via Rerristercd Hail to: 

THE NAnONAL LIBERATION FRONT OF SOUTH VI3INAI: MISSION, 100-60972, 

CESKOSLOVENSKA OBCHODNI BAl.'KA, A.S., PRAGUE, CZSCHOSLOVAKU. 

tr to the National Liberation Front Mission In Paris, Algiers, or Moscow. 

CABLE money to: "VINACOR", HONO KONO. 

(Receipts for medical purchases will be forwarded on request.) 

DO NOT send money for medical aid to our committee - we will gladly accept separate 
contributions to help us to further publicize the need for medical aid in Vietn*». 
In addition to our button (pictured above, in red and blue & 2$t each), we have for 
sale a large selection of Vietnamese literature. Send ^^1.00 to cover costs for a 
bibliography and price list. Speakers on the National Liberation Front available. 



SUPPORT THE COHHITTSE TO AID THE NATIONAL LIBEiUl'iaJ FRONT 

1. I would like to« WORK WITH US-CA>iLF Be on mailing list 

Cone to a meeting for more informatio n 

2. Skills (typing, lettering, spealting, etc.)» 



3. Resources I Car Office oouiproent Spaea Ohher_ 
If Languages! Viet Kandarj n ^ ^ ^ Cantones e Othe r 



Nam e Ag e Phone_ 
AddreBB(e8) _ School 



1060 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 



McGoMBS Exhibit No. 2-E— Continued 



STAIl!;^ENT m POLICY 
20 November 1965 



THE U.S. COMMITTEE TO AID- THE IIATIONAL LIBERATION raONT OF SOUTH VIETNAM (CAiO) 
supports tho aims •€ the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (I'fLF) for 
"Independence,, Democracy, Peace, and Neutrality," We support tho right of the peopla 
of Vietnam for self-determination - without tho presence of U.S. troops - and we • 
agree with the important iJLF statement of March 22, 1965; 

"1, The U.S. is the sgcrcssor and has violated the Geneva Agreements, 
2, The NLF ie determined to achieve an Independent, Democratic, Peaceful 
ard Neutral Sruth Vietnam, witn a view to national reunification, 
■ 3. The KI.F will liberate South Vietnam and defend North Vietnam, 

4. The NLF is ready to receive all assistance, including weapons, 

5, Tl^ie whole United People will defeat the U.S, aggressors and the 
Vietnamese traitors," ;_ 

Tho CANLF. supports tho NLF position on negotiations as contained in Article 2 of 
their March 22 statement, and as further explained in their September 25, 1965 
statement - that in wder for negotiations to begin, the U.S. must agree to tho 
following principles: 1) Withdrawal of all U.S. troops, 2) A return to the 195^1 
Geneva Agreements, 3) Respect for the right.T of the K.f es ''tho only genvdne repro- 
sentative of the lA million South Vietnamese people," which must hcvo itP decisive • 
voice In-the f jpnnation of or^ now governaent ii) Soutl^'ViietJiani, 



The CANLF calls for an immediate ceasefire and an end to the bombinga of both North • 
and South Vietnam, and tho immediate withdrawal of all U.S, troops from Vietnam, 

It is the purpose of the CANLF to bring to the U.3, public an uuareneEB of the Just 
and moral alms of the Vietnamese people in their resietarce to efforts by the U.S. 
government to "pacify" 'their- cwintry. In doing this, we hope to arouse public indig- 
nation at the unjust nature of the U.S. posi+.ian and actions, an^ thus bring about 
a call for peace - a peace which will allow the Viotnemene to (ietnrmlne thoir own 
affairs, , 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1061 

McCoMBS Exhibit No. 2-E — Continued 
The resistance of tho people of South Vietnom ia an indigenous movement of political- 
ly and religiously diverse Groups (and individuals) vhich was organized in response 
to years of oppression and illegal action try the U.S. government and its various 
"puppet" regimes in Saigon* In order to counteract the U.S. government's propaganda 
•• >Aiich falsely teaches the publio that the "enemy" is an outside, "communist" ag- 
gressor - we will continue to make use of various educatiaial means* Ihese ares To 
riake available to the U.S. public literature from North and South Vietnam; to dis- 
seminate analyses and reprints of the structure and politio.il nature of the NU and 
the IRV (Democratic Republic of Vietnam - North Vietnam); to provide expert speakers 
on the^ history of the ND? and iHV for formjl discussions, street meetings, teach- 
ins, etc,; and to work with all groups for recognition of the legitimacy of the NLF 
in its struggle for victory and liberation, 3h addition. Wo urge all people to send 
medicines or monoy for medical supplies to the JltF through their foreign missiwis. 

The U.S. government is trying to stiflo, at tremendous cost and risk, a liberation 
struggle which is setting the example for all oppressed people. Those in this coun- 
try who are for "Peace", but refuse to concern themselves with >ftio the people "on 
the other side" are, what is motivati^ig them to figl^it, and why the U.S. is really 
involved in Vietnam, are by default supporting the policies and efforts of the U.S. 
government to stop the liberation struggles of people everywhere, 

THEREFCRE it is not enough to be for peace - a "peace" tliat would keep the Vietna- 
mese from completing their struggle for liberation, Ratlier, if this war is to be 
stopped, if escalation is to be prevented, if the "brutAlization" of our own countiT- 
is to be reversed, if, the rights of the Vietnamese, the Americans, and all peoples 
are tf> be protected, it is the position of CANLF that THE PEOPLE CF fflE UNITED 
STATES MUST SUPPCRT THE NATIONAL LIHERATIOII FROOT OF SCUm VIETOAM AND ITS VICTCRY. 

The U,S. Committee to aid the national Liberation Front of South Vietnam 
la «n aH hoo orgaiii?,Atdon -vith 4f^ Iieadquai'ters at 1Q3 Maodougal Street, 
New York, N,Y, 10012, Room $, Telephone (212) YU 2-7162, 



67^852 O— 66— pt. 1^ 11 



1062 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 



ot^^^ ^0 



McCoMBS Exhibit No. 2-E— Continued 



-IL-S^-Cfl gUTOTSS TO AI D_rHE 
' ^''thcL ^ JWJIQMLJ.ICEaAIIQiO:B0WT 

'^hmmM. ^ ^ ''03 Macdougal St /^-rnTTDOTg" 
/LiaCflftno«"^r Koom J Tel, 212 iU 2^62 — 
FRONT ' 



6 Januar y 1 966 



Dear Friend, 



Because \ie have received- so many requests for information on the structure 
of tlie National Liberation Front of South Vietnam, its history and literatir e,, 
we are informing our friends of a course to be given at the Free University 
this coming semester. Tliis course titled; Lite r ature of thg Victn-^' ii Liberation 
Fro nts — 1936-66 , will bo conducted by Miss, Charlotte Polin and vj.ix cover 
much more tlian the course title indicates. It will include, for example, the 
fonnation of the NLF And also "tJie mutual influence and relation of North Vietnart 
and tlie NLF and the development of the United Front in North and South Vietnam 
as a model for iinderdeveloped and developed worlds,,," It will provide an 
malysis of the basic political assumptions of the NIF — as well as a review 
of Vietnamese literature, ' 

lilf^s. Polin has recently completed a book on the DRV and is currently 
wriivlng one on the NLF, She has for the past four years, made an exaustive 
study of Vietnamese literature and has contributed both her time and loiowledge 
ncj a research staffer for this committee. We believe her to bo one of tie few 
gcr.uinely qualified speaJcers on the NLF and consider her course to be an 
jnvaiaable aid for effective wcrk with this commit ee and certainly an aid to 
any thorough understanding of the present circumstances in Vietnam, 

Jn addition to Miss, Polin 's course, v;e recommend a second one dealing 
specifically with the "Ideological Question in Vietnam" * ich will be presented 
by Leonard Liggio and Rus-^el Stetler, Jr. and is scheduled so as not to confliCjL 
with the first course, 

( POLIN MON, 8t30 PM ) 

( LIGGIO + SIETLE R \IZ 6. 8:00 PIl ') 

Ihe necessary books and pamphlets for Iliss.\J2llio's classes will be provided 
at a discount by our^ommittee. Course schedules and other infoimation is 
available from th<)?Tree University, 20 east lUth Stre^t^ New Yorkj I'fY 10003, 
TEL: OR $ - 7U2U,'^ 

We hope to see you soon and you may feel free to call us anytijna we nay be 
of service. 



Your s for 1^ eration , 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1063 



McCoMBS Exhibit No. 2-E — Continued 



C0i''ii-IITI£i3 TO AID THE NATIOKAL Lii3uiiA'i'xUtt^l?'UUWT-or bULTifi vir,ir<iin 

A public' IONSTRATION DiZ/iiUrDING THAT THE SOVIET 
UNION PZ^OTiiST THi; SLAUGHTSi 0/ THE L£.kDinS OF THE 
'• NATIONAL LIBERATION FRONT OF SOUTH VliiTNA/i 




; rr^r— : /// 

*>!<>!<* THE SOVIET UNION HAS' A MOluAL OBLIGATION AS CO -CHAIR^^IAI^I OF 

// i t I I I I I II I ( 1/ I / / ' I I / 
THE GEIvIEVA AG.JiEi''lENTS AIjD -AS A SOCIALIST BliOTHE.C OF THE NATIONAL 

// ' I J / I / I I I \l i / I / / J // f / / 
LIBE^'UiTION F.tONT OF SOUTH VIETNAin ToADiiMAND THaT THE UNITED 

// J-^-d-U. f ' 4-^-c^-'\l-ir=:^ I J J- '—^ '-/ 

STATES i;rJRAlN F.-lOM ITS CONTINUxiiD'yiLLi^Gia/'AlND li^MOKAL ATTEi^IPTS 

// y "^^ zsr / 

TO KILL THiJ LEADriRS OF THE DE FACWi(GO,VE:ilMi^JJT OF SOUTH VliiTNAM. 



//^ 



/ 



*♦'!'* WE, -AS AME^ilCAK CITIZiii-iS ASHAMED OF THi, CRIi£NAL ACTIONS 
OF THEIR GOVERkSBnI , ' D El"tAI-iD THATTH E SOVIiiT UNION FINALLY DRAW 
THE LINE. WITH TH^IR BEST i-IEN DESTROYED, TKiJ SOUTH Vli-TNAiiESji; 
PEOPLE WOULD HA\B NO HOPE OF GENUINE PEACE. WE DEi-iaND TI-AT 

THE SOVIET UNION BREAK ITS SILiJviCE, SEND AK ULTIMATUM, DRAW 

// 

THE LINE NOWl U 



^ 



ft'** TELL OUR GOVEIJJMEMT TO STOP THE VJAIi OF AGG...-SSION, TO STOP 
THE SLAUGHTER OF CIVILIALS, TO STOP THE BOiiBING OF- HOSPITALS 
Al^D SCHOOLS, TO ABOVE ALL TO STOP TRYING TO WIPE OUT THiJ 
POPULAR AIvD IRREPLACEABLE LEADERSHIP OF THE NATIONAL LIBERATION 
FRONT, THE GOViTJSii'iENT SUPPORTED BY 80^1. OF THE PEOPLE. 

****LET US HEAi; THE USSR SPEAK I **** ■„, 

JOIN US AT THE SOVIiiT MISSION OK SAT. 2 OCT. 1 36 '^. (ilth St. 
TO PICKET FOR ACTION FROM THE USSR AT 12;00 NOON 
CANLF-SV;;: APT. 5,^103 i>iACDOUGAL . ST . , NY NY TiiL: YU 2-7162 



1064 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Mr. IcHORD. And, Mr. Chairman, I have at this time a privileged 
motion to make. I do have communications which I deem to be con- 
fidential that I think should be taken up in executive session. There- 
fore, I respectfully make the privileged motion that the committee go 
into executive session. And because of the number of peoj)le in the 
hearing room today, I would suggest that the committee retire to 
another room for the holding of this executive session. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. Mr. Chairman, before that motion is made^ — would 
you withhold that a moment ? 

I would like to state for the record that after the attorneys left the 
hearing room this morning, two of them, Mr. Joseph Forer and Mr. 
Ira Gollobin, reentered the hearing room a few minutes later. I am 
not saying this with the idea in mind of any imputation of motives or 
questioning their right to do so, but merely the fact that the record 
should reflect this, so if any eventual case or contest should come out 
of it, it would be known that they reentered. 

I would also like to note for the record that another of the attorneys 
who reentered the room shortly after 3 o'clock was Mr. Pemberton, 
who is now here, and also Mr. Kinoy, the attorney who was ejected this 
morning. Again with no reflection — just merely to show for the rec- 
ord that they have reentered the room. 

Mr. Pemberton. Mr. Chairaian 

Mr. Pool. The witness is excused temporarily. He is still under 
subpena and, also, he has the protection of the statute I mentioned 
before. 

Mr. Pemberton. Mr. Chairman 

Mr. Pool. And with that in mind, the committee will stand in recess. 

Mr. Pemberton. Mr. Chairman, before you rule, I request the com- 
mittee to hear me for a brief special statement concerning the present 
status. 

Mr. Pool. We have a motion before the Chair right now 

Mr. Pemberton. I know, sir. 

Mr. Pool. And that is for recess. I understood that you had with- 
drawn from the case. 

Mr. Pemberton. That is correct. 

Mr. Pool. You can come back and talk to us. We are going in 
recess right now, because a member of the committee has made a 
privileged motion. 

The Chair is going at this time to take a vote on it. 

All in favor, say "aye." Opposed, "no." 

We are in recess now for 1 hour. 

(Whereupon, at 3 :30 p.m., the subcommittee recessed.) 

(The subcommittee reconvened at 4:30 p.m., Hon. Joe R. Pool, 
chairman of the subcommittee, presiding.) 

(Subcommittee members present: Representatives Pool, Ichord, 
Ashbrook, and Buchanan, and also Representative Clawson, alternate 
member.) 

Mr. Pool. The committee will come to order. 

Mr. Pemberton. 

Mr. Pemberton. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Pool. Yes. 

Mr. Pemberton. I request of the committee an opportunity to be 
heard for a special statement concerning the present status of the 
subpenaed witnesses. It is a very brief statement. 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1065 

Mr. AsHBROOK. Just a second. These witnesses that you repre- 
sent ? I thought you had removed yourself as an attorney. 

Mr. Pemberton. This is for the status of the unrepresented wit- 
nesses. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. That wasn't my question, Mr. Pemberton. Are 
you representing any witnesses? Your last statement was you had 
removed yourself as an attorney for all witnesses before this hearing. 
Is that not correct ? 

Mr. Pemberton. Your statement is correct, and that is why I refer 
to them as unrepresented witnesses. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. But now your status : Are you representing them ? 

Mr. Pemberton. I am not representing them, or they would be 
represented. 

Mr. IcHORD. Mr. Chairman 

Mr. Ashbrook. Then I would make the point that — all right. Go 
ahead. 

Mr. IcHORD. Mr. Chairman, of course Mr. Pemberton can have no 
standing to make any statement before this committee at this time, but 
I am rather curious as to what Mr. Pemberton has to say and I would 
suggest that we relax the rules of the committee and let us hear Mr. 
Pemberton, even though he is not entitled to any standing before the 
committee. 

Mr. Ashbrook. Mr. Pemberton's statements have always been or- 
derly and to the point, and I think we can relax the rules. 

Mr. Pool. Go ahead. 

Mr. Pemberton. Mr. Chairman, I thank you for the opportunity to 
make the statement. Because counsel for all of these witnesses have 
been forced to withdraw for the reasons stated by each of them this 
morning and because of the utter disregard by this committee of these 
witnesses' right to counsel, they are presently unrepresented before it. 

I want to state the opinion of all of these attorneys who have signed 
this statement with me as to the present rights of these witnesses. 

First, although we have been able to bail Mr. Kinoy out of jail, and 
he stood beside me an hour ago, the brutal treatment offered him has 
all but destroyed any chance we may ever have to represent our clients 
adequately. Attorneys cannot function in an atmosphere of terror and 
intimidation. The fundamental constitutional right to be represented 
by counsel means counsel free from brutalization and terrorization. 

Second, the rights of these witnesses have been utterly disregarded 
by the committee in these proceedings, as the rights of other witnesses 
have been similarly disregarded in the past. Now, as before, the rules 
of this committee prohibiting the disclosure of the identity of sub- 
penaed witnesses before a scheduled hearing have been violated by the 
public release of the names. Moreover 

Mr. Pool. Are you accusing this committee of publicly releasing the 
names? 

Mr. Pemberton. I am stating that the names have been publicly re- 
leased. 

Mr. Pool. Are you saying the committee did it ? Or the committee 
staff did it? 

Mr. Pemberton. I am saying that the rules have been violated. 

Mr. IcHORD. Do you have any evidence of that, Mr. Pemberton ? 



1066 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Mr. Pemberton. I think the evidence was offered in Mrs. Axelrod's 
motion. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. Mrs. Axelrod did not answer the question. 

Mr. IcHORD. That was merely a motion. 

Mr. Pemberton. Mrs. Axelrod offered the statement of the reporter, 
Ed Montgomery. 

Mr. Pool. All right, you are making a statement. Do you have 
proof of that? 

Mr. Pemberton. Mrs. Axelrod was here with the proof of it at the 
time. 

Mr. Pool. You do not have proof of that. 

Mr. Pemberton. I do not have it here with me. 

Mr. Pool. I just wanted to point out, you are not offering any 
proof. 

Mr. Pemberton. The proof was offered yesterday, and I don't have 
any with me. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. Purported proof. 

Mr. IcHORD. I think the record will show that there was no proof. 

Mr. Pool. I can assure you that that has not happened from the 
committee or the staff. 

Mr. Nittle. And, Mr. Chairman, may I suggest that it does not 
seem proper for this counselor to make unfounded accusations against 
this committee. 

Mr. Pool. The record will show that. Go ahead. 

Mr. Pemberton. Moreover, the denial to witnesses of an opportunity 
to confront and cross-examine witnesses who presented defamatory 
evidence against them reflects a disregard of the most elementary 
principles of fair procedure. 

Under these circumstances, we believe that whatever command the 
subpenas may have had for these witnesses to respond when called to 
testify is necessarily destroyed. 

Finally, our clients themselves have been adversely affected by the 
unrelenting efforts of the committee to intimidate their attorneys, as 
well as by the unnecessary force continually applied to other persons 
summarily ejected from the hearing room. They are now, in fact and 
in law, unrepresented and unable to be represented by lawyers of their 
choice. 

The statement is signed by John J. Pemberton, Arthur Kinoy, Wil- 
liam M. Kunstler, Jeremiah S. Gutman, Frank Donner, Joseph Forer, 
Ira Gollobin, and Beverly Axelrod. 

Mr. Pool. And all of these lawyers have disassociated themselves 
with representing witnesses before this committee. Is that correct? 

Mr. Pemberton. I speak for myself and I think the statement speaks 
for itself. I have disassociated myself and I think the committee 
heard the other lawyers. 

Mr. Pool. Are you saying the other lawyers have disassociated them- 
selves from the witnesses that are appearing before this committee ? 

Mr. Pemberton. I am saying that I have done so and that I believe 
this statement speaks for itself. 

Mr. Pool. But you are not speaking for the other lawyers in that 
regard ? 

Mr. Pemberton. I am speaking for the other lawyers only in the 
words that I read. 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1067 

Mr. Pool. All right, I just wanted to get it right. 

Mr. IcHORD. Mr. Chairman, I have no desire to argue the point with 
Mr. Pemberton. The Chair has given him an opportunity to make his 
statement. I think the Chair has been lenient in that regard. I would 
point out to Mr. Pemberton, and he is an attorney — president of 
ACLU is my understanding — I am sure that Mr. Pemberton, as an 
attorney, is familiar with the rules of this committee. I am sure that 
he consulted those rules before he undertook to represent his client. 
I am certain that he is familiar with rule VII of the committee, which 
reads : 

A — At every hearing, public or executive, every witness shall be accorded the 
privilege of having counsel of his own choosing. 

"B" — and this is the important part : 

B — The participation of counsel during the course of any hearing and while 
the witness is testifying shall be limited to advising said witness as to his legal 
rights. Counsel shall not be permitted to engage in oral argument with the Com- 
mittee, but shall confine his activity to the area of legal advice to his client. 

Now that is the rule of the House Committee on Un-American Ac- 
tivities, and there is a similar rule which exists, having application to 
all of the committees of Congress. 

Mr. Chairman, I personally was not present when the incident oc- 
curred this morning, but it is my understanding, and I am sure that 
the record will show, that the attorney who was ejected from the hear- 
ing was not representing any client at that time. His client was not 
called, but he was engaging in oral argument with the committee. 
And I would further point out, as I pointed out when I did return to 
the committee, as the counsel were objecting, that this whole matter of 
counsel withdrawing is put in serious question by the statement hand !cl 
out by Dr. Allen M. Krebs. 

The committee will recall that the attorneys withdrew, one by one, 
and then the order of procedure was that the attorney of Mr. Krebs, 
Dr. Allen M. Krebs, withdrew. And immediately, thereafter, Dr. 
Allen M. Krebs stood up in the audience and announced that he wished 
to make a statement, and the Chair advised him that he would be per- 
mitted to, that he would be called at a later time. He then announced 
that he was leaving the room, and as he left the room, he handed out a 
mimeographed statement, which reads, and I again read the last para- 
graph : 

As I leave this room, to my brothers who stand here after me today, this week, 
next month — and there are signs that the Inquisition of the Sixties has now be- 
gun — you have my respect and my compassion. 

Now at least, Mr. Chairman, this is conclusive evidence, conclusive 
evidence that Dr. Krebs did not intend to testify here today. And in 
view of the action that was taken, the order or procedure, and in view 
of the fact that he is a part of it, I think it is pertinent evidence that 
this whole matter was preconceived by the attorneys and that they 
withdrew, one by one, in order to harass and embarrass this committee. 

That, Mr. Chairman, of course, was handed out by Dr. Krebs, and 
I do not believe that his statement has been made a part of the record, 
and I would ask that this be made a part of the record now. 

Mr. AsHBROoK. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Pool. Without objection, so ordered. 



1068 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

(Dr. Krebs' statement follows :) 

Dr. Allen M. Krebs Statement to HUAC, WEn>NESDAY, August 17, 1966 

Gentlemen : I have spent my life as a student, a scholar, a teacher and an 
observer of world social and political history. 

If there is a word to describe the events in this Congressional Hearing Room 
that word is grotesque. It is grotesque that the twelve individuals subpoenaed 
here should be accused of plots, conspiracies and of possessing Peking gold. It 
is grotesque that they should be barked at, gavelled at and carried bodily from 
the room. It is grotesque that their inquisitors should be a group of politicians 
whose mentalities seem to be locked in another time — an America of the small 
town a hundred years ago. And this is happening in midsummer 1966 in the most 
powerful industrial nation in history : a troubled nation, true — a white-domi- 
nated island, a country threatened by the revolutionary storms in Asia, Africa 
and Latin America, and increasing racial ferment at home. But still, after all. a 
nation based upon the thoughts and traditions of the West. 

I submit that it is necessary, imperatively necessary for us to understand what 
this sort of grotesque circus means in the history of peoples. In our culture of 
business deals and Batman, Metreeal and TV and with the highest standard of 
living in the world, this is admittedly a steep expectation. Better to explain 
reverses in Vietnam as treason in America — not Vietnamese courage. Better to 
explain social concern and a sense of history as "alien Marxism-Leninism" — 
not a desire to understand our collective life in this society, our collective 
humanity. 

That we exist, those who are witnesses in this room, and that there are thou- 
sands of others outside — this is really the only source of hope. The alternative 
lies available for inspection still in most college libraries — check Auschwitz or 
Goeb,bels or Goering or Roehm or Streicher or SS or Zyklon B. 

It is impossible for me, knowing what I know, having been exposed to the 
books I have read, to the things that I have seen, to participate in or contribute 
to forces which would hasten our descent into a racist, super-chauvinist America. 

The only position I can now take is one of resolute opposition to the work 
of this committee. Its built-in assumption of guilt termed un-American activi- 
ties, its rules, its procedures, its use of witnesses— can be characterized in 
2 words — a cruel farce. Insofar as there are courts that can be appealed to I 
shall appeal to them. I have asked the federal courts to strike down this com- 
mittee as unconstitutional. The reasons I have for believing this are contained 
in the documents of that case. Insofar as a Constitution still exi.sts. I shall 
request what protection it affords. There is the risk of fine, of imprisonment, 
but it is a risk I must in good conscience accept. 

As I leave this room, to my brothers who stand here after me today, this 
week, next month — and there are signs that the Inquisition of the Sixties has 
now begun — you have my respect and my compassion. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. Mr. Chairman, I was present when the unfortunate 
incident happened. I was sitting beside the chairman. I did hear 
the colloquy, and Mr. Pemberton has used the words "utterly disre- 
garded" in connection with the committee conduct, "utterly dis- 
regarded" certain rights, and so fortli. 

Nothing could be any further from the case. 

Orderly procedure is the heart of the judicial system. It certainly 
is the heart of sound legislative procedure. It is the chairman's duty, 
it is his obligation, it certainly is his right, to maintain order. I know 
of no court in the land where six attorneys could besiege the chairman, 
three or four of them endeavoring to speak at the same time, not 
responding to the order of the chairman wlien lie told them to sit 
down or when he told them to be silent, when he endeavored to operate 
in orderly procedure. As much as I, as a member of the bar, a mem- 
ber of this committee, would regret the action that was taken, I would 
certainly say to my chairman that I completely ratify the action that 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1069 

was taken, that we are going to maintain orderly procedure, and that 
I congratulate you for endeavoring to do it. 

Although the conduct, or although the action you took might seem, 
to some, to be arbitrary, we can't possibly allow mob rule. This com- 
mittee gets it both ways. If we allowed you to besiege this Chair, 
to speak out of order, to have disorderly procedure, we would be 
accused then of iimning a circus. 

When we have orderly procedure, when we make you cease and 
desist these actions, then we are accused of being dictatorial. Well, 
this happens on everything. We get the same arguments, on execu- 
tive hearings, on open hearings. Aiid I, for one, am glad the chair- 
man did require the attorneys, who, after all, are officers of the court, 
and while this isn't a court, they certainly should constrain themselves 
to a type of conduct which would be conducive to proper proceding on 
legislative business which is pertinent and which we have a right to 
investigate. 

So I, as one who was present, would certauily ratify the action of 
the chairman, although I would be the first to admit that I have some 
regrets that it w^as necessary to have it. But it was foisted upon the 
chairman, with four, five, and six, Mr. Donner, Mr. Kinoy, Mr. Pem- 
berton, Mr. Kunstler, Mr. Gutman and Mrs. Axelrod, all at the same 
time, besieging the Chair. We can't possibly tolerate this, and I think 
the chairman's action is correct. 

Mr. Pemberton. Mr. Chairman, I accept Congressman Ichord's 
suggestion that this is not the place for an argmnent as to what 
occurred. I shall not engage in any such argument. 

As to the inference that the attorneys planned something in ad- 
vance, I can only speak from my personal experience. I have never, 
in many years of the practice of law, in which I was engaged before 
I became executive director of the American Civil Liberties Union, 
felt the personal shock that I felt at the experience that occurred this 
morning. My statement came from the heart. The action that I took 
occurred because of what I saw in this committee's presence. I am 
grateful to the committee for hearing my statement. 

Mr. GoLLOBiN. Mr. Chairman, may I be heard on just one point? 
I know I withdrew, but there is something that occurred. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. Can Mr. Gollobin please approach, Mr. Chairman ? 

Mr. Pool. Proceed. 

Mr. Gollobin. I wish to explain the absence of one of my clients as 
it occurred while the proceedings were in recess. He has been coming 
here several days, but in accordance with the discussion with the Chair, 
as the Chair will recall, they were not present earlier today. 

Since I withdrew, I instructed my clients to be here for the after- 
noon session. In endeavoring to enter the room, he was wearing a 
button which he had worn all throughout these proceedings, in ap- 
proaching the Chair before and in entering the room repeatedly. 

Now it happens he has a crippled arm; and when he was told to 
remove this, which he can't do with that arm, where it was in his 
lapel, the police thereafter arrested him, construing his action as 
resistance ; and for this reason, he is not present here today. His name 
is George Ewart. 

Mr. Pool. Thank you. 



1070 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Mr. IcHORD. Mr. Chairman, I don't intend to belabor this point, but 
I would like to have the indulgence of the committee to make one more 
suggestion to the committee as to how to proceed from here on. 

I personally have heard enough from this investigative hearing to 
come to the conclusion that the bills which are now pending before the 
committee are very desirable pieces of legislation, and I speak of H.R. 
12047, H.R. 14925, and the bill also introduced by Congressman Ash- 
brook. 

I submit that the testimony of Mr. Luce, the testimony of Mr. 
McCombs, and the testimony of Mr. Gordon does indicate that there 
is enough going on in this country that the Congress needs to pass 
H.R. 12047, and I would suggest to the Chair — and the Chair will 
remember that when he asked me if I would support such legislation, 
I did state that I would support it if he could frame such a bill to 
satisfy constitutional objections, that I personally had — I will state 
that I believe that the Chair has done a very commendable job in 
drafting this bill. 

It is very narrow of purpose, but it does establish criminal punish- 
ment, criminal penalties for assistance to hostile forces and, also, 
punishment for obstructing military personnel or transportation. And 
I would suggest, Mr. Chairman, that you proceed as quickly as you 
can to conclude this part of the investigative hearing, and I would 
suggest this to the counsel, too — let's get as quickly as we can to the 
legislative hearings, hear the pros and cons on these bills and report 
them to the House in proper form, and I predict that the House will 
take immediate and very decisive action on such legislation. * 

Enough has been shown to me already that there is a need, a very 
serious need, for such legislation. 

Mr. Pool. Well, thank you, Mr. Ichord. I think that your point is 
well taken. 

Any other comment ? 

Mr. Buchanan? 

Mr. Buchanan. I would certainly associate myself with Mr. 
Ichord's remarks, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Pool. Counsel, call the next witness. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would Allen Krebs come forward, please ? 

Mr. Pool. Call his name again. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would Allen Krebs come forward, please ? 

Mr. Pool. Call his name a third time, and let the record show that 
his name was called three times. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would Allen Krebs come forward, please ? 

Mr. Pool. Call the next witness. 

Mr. NiTTLB. I note for the record there is no response, Mr. Chair- 
man. 

Mr. Pool. Let the record show that Allen Krebs failed to respond 
when his name was called three times — a subpenaed witness. 

Now call the next witness. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would Walter Dorwin Teague III come forward, 
please ? 

Would Walter Dorwin Teague III come forward, please? 

Mr. Pool. Call his name again. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would Walter Dorwin Teague III come forward, 
please? 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1071 

Mr. Pool. Call it one more time. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would Walter Dorwin Teague III come forward, 
please ? 

Mr. Pool. Let the record show that Walter Teague III failed to 
respond when his name was called. 

Call the next witness. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would Stanley Nadel come forward, please? 

Would Stanley Nadel come forward, please ? 

Mr. Pool. Wait just a minute. 

Do you have an attorney present to represent you ? 

Identify yourself. 

Mr. Nadel. My name is Stanley Nadel. 

Mr. Pool, Do you have an attorney present to represent you ? 

Mr. Nadel. My attorney has been forced by this committee to with- 
draw. 

Mr. Pool. Do you desire other counsel ? 

Mr. Nadel. I would desire counsel of my attorney. It is impossible, 
under the rules of this committee, apparently. No attorney can be 
expected to submit to threats of violence when he objects to the proce- 
dures of this committee. 

Mr. Ichord. Mr. Chairman, would the witness be in order for just a 
minute ? 

This is one of the witnesses whose attorney has withdrawn from the 
case, and I would suggest, Mr. Chairman, that the witness be given 
the opportunity, mitil tomorrow at noon, to obtain an attorney, and 
if it is not possible for him, if he thinks it is not possible for him to 
obtain an attorney, I would suggest that the staff confer with him, in 
order that he might obtain an attorney, one that can be furnished to 
him, because he does have the right to be represented by counsel for 
the purpose of giving him advice. Of course, many of the attorneys 
who practice before this committee do not confine themselves to that, 
so I would suggest, Mr. Chairman, that he be excused, with that 
understanding. 

Mr. Pool. You have heard the statement of a member of the com- 
mittee, and I agree with it. If there is no objection, I so instruct you, 
that you will have until noon tomorrow to either employ an attorney 
of your choice or if you can't do that, then you can confer with the 
staff, and they will discuss it with the lawyers downtown and see if 
legal counsel can be furnished to you, if you wish that. 

Mr. AsHBRooK. Incidentally, we might point out the attorneys come 
from the bar association or the American Civil Liberties Union, they 
are not our attorneys, so don't feel that bad about it. 

Mr. Pool. So you are passed until tomorrow at noon and you will 
have that time to do that. 

Mr. Nadel. I would like to 

Mr. Pool. Oh, you are still speaking. 

Mr. Nadel. I would like to state at this time that I would not be 
inclined to trust any attorney who would be willing to appear under 
the conditions that we witnessed with Mr. Kinoy. 

Mr. Pool. Well, you will have your chance tomorrow. 

We will call your name again tomorrow at noon. 

Mr. Nadel. As you wish. 

Mr. Pool. And see what you wish to do. 



1072 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

All right, now, Mr. Nittle, do you have a next witness ? Call your 
next witness. 

Mr. Nittle. Would Anatole Ben Anton come forward, please? 

Would Anatole Ben Anton come forward ? 

You are Anatole Ben Anton ? 

Mr. Anton. Yes. 

Mr. Pool. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Anton. No ; I was deprived of counsel. 

Mr. Pool. Do you desire a counsel ? 

Mr. Anton. I certainly do. 

Mr. Pool. I will give you the same instructions that I gave the wit- 
ness a moment ago, and that is, you will have until tomorrow at noon to 
either employ counsel of your choice or, if you can't find counsel, dis- 
cuss it with the staff, and they will attempt to get counsel for you down- 
town. 

Mr. Anton. I would just like to repeat, Joe, that, as Mr. Nadel said, 
I would never trust an attorney that would 

Mr. Pool. You will have until tomorrow, and you can make your 
statement then. 

Mr. Anton. Thank you. 

Mr, Pool. Next witness. 

Mr. Nittle. Would Stuart McRae come forward, please ? 

You are Stuart McRae ? 

Mr.McRAE. Yes, I am. 

Mr. Pool. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. McRae. Not at present. 

Mr. Pool. Do you desire counsel ? 

Mr. MoRae. Yes, I do. 

Mr. Pool. You will have until noon tomorrow to employ counsel 
of your choice. If you do not avail yourself of that, you can discuss 
it with the staff. If they can help you in any way, we will be glad 
to help you out. 

Next witness. 

Mr. Nittle. Would Steven C. Hamilton come forward, please? 

You are Steven C. Hamilton ? 

Mr. Hamilton. That is right. 

Mr. Pool. Do you have counsel ? 

Mr. Hamilton. I would like to make a word of explanation about 
that, and that's that the question of force and violence has been brought 
up before this committee, and you know who initiates force and vio- 
lence, and I think the Fascist manner in which this lawyer was carried 
forcefully from the courtroom today, the way this lawyer was carried 
out of this courtroom 

Mr. AsHBROOK. Mr. Chairman, the witness can't have it both ways. 
If he wants to testify without the benefit of attorney, he should respond 
to questions. We are not going to let him have it both ways. 

Mr. Pool. Do you have a counsel ? 

Mr. Hamilton. I wouldn't ask a counsel to represent me here and 
be subject to the same kind of procedures. 

Mr. Pool. Well, I will give you that instruction, then, and let the 
record show that I have instructed the witness to be here tomorrow 
with counsel of his choice. If he can't obtain counsel, that the staff will 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1073 

try to attempt to get him counsel downtown. They will confer with 
you. 

Next witness. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would Steven Cherkoss come forward, please? 

You are Steven Cherkoss ? 

Mr. Cherkoss. That is right. 

Mr. Pool. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Cherkoss. No, this racist, reactionary committee prevented me 
from obtaining counsel, by expelling the counsel from this room. 

[Demonstration.] 

Mr. Pool. I will give you the same instruction. You have until 
noon tomorrow to get counsel of your choice. If you want to confer 
with the staff, you can. 

[Demonstration.] 

Mr. Cherkoss. The blood of the American soldiers is on your 
hands ! 

[Disturbance and demonstration.] 

Mr. Pool. Let's have order. 

Counsel, call the next w^itness. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would John Windrim Smith, Jr., come forward, 
please ? 

You are John Windrim Smith, Jr. ? 

Mr. Smith. That is correct. 

Mr. Pool. Do you have counsel ? 

Mr. Smith. No, I do not. 

Mr. Pool. Do you desire counsel ? 

Mr. Smith. Yes, I do. My counsel was forced to withdraw because 
of the actions of this committee. 

Mr. Pool. You will have until noon tomorrow to get counsel of your 
choice, or you can confer with the staff, as I have instructed the others. 
You are passed until tomorrow at noon. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would Jerry Clyde Kubin come forward, please? 

You are Jerry Clyde Rubin ? 

Mr. Rubin. My name is Jerry Clyde Rubin, and I am wearing this 
uniform of the American Revolution of 1776 

Mr. Pool. Let me ask you a question : Are your represented by 
counsel ? 

Mr. Rubin. — because I want to make the point 

Mr. Pool. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Rubin. I want to be represented by counsel of my choice, but I 
was deprived of that right this morning, by the way you treated my 
attorney here, 

Mr. Pool. You will have until noon tomorrow. 

Mr. Ashbrook. Mr. Chairman, he is out of order. 

Mr. Rubin. I would rather be my own attorney than to accept a law- 
yer you would offer. 

Mr. Pool. Please be silent. The reporter can't get all this down. 
You are out of order. You will have until noon tomorrow. You may 
get counsel, or confer with the staff. 

Next witness. 



1074 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I believe the witness, George Ewart, 
is unavailable at this time, but perhaps there should be a statement of 
record by his counsel, who I believe is present. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. Is that Mr. Gollobin ? 

Mr. Pool. Call his name. 

Mr. NiTTLE. George Ewart, Jr. 

You are George Ewart, Jr. ? 

Mr. Ewart. No. I am George Hamilton Ewart, Jr. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You have been subpenaed to appear to testify before 
this committee ? 

Mr. Ewart. That is right. 

Mr. Pool. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Ewart. The committee has shown no guarantee of respect and 
securitv for counsel. 

Mr. Pool. I asked you a question and I expect a civil answer. 

Mr, Ewart. I was answering the question. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. It can be answered "yes" or "no," Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Ewart. It is not the kind of question that I would like to an- 
swer "yes" or "no." This committee has shown no guarantee for re- 
spect and for the security of any counsel. 

Mr. AsHBRooK. Mr. Chairman, the witness is out of order. 

Mr. Ewart. That's on the record. 

Mr. Pool. Do you desire counsel ? 

Mr. Ewart. Yes, I do. 

Mr. Pool. You will have until noon tomorrow to obtain counsel 
and, if you can't obtain counsel that way, come to the staff, and they 
will try to help you get somebody to act for you as counsel. 

Next witness. 

Mr. NiiTLE. Would Edwin Meese come forward, please ? 

Mr. Pool. The committee will stand in recess for 5 minutes. 

(Whereupon a short recess was taken.) 

(The subcommittee reconvened at 5 :10 p.m. with the following 
members present : Representatives Pool, Ichord, Ashbrook, Buchanan, 
andClawson.) 

Mr. Pool. The hearing will come to order. 

Gall your next witness. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would Edwin Meese come forward, please ? 

Mr. Pool. Do you solemnly swear that thd testimony you are about 
to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God ? 

Mr. Meese. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF EDWIN MEESE HI 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you please state your name and business address? 

Mr. Meese. Edwin Meese III, business address is 900 Courthouse, 
Oakland, California. 

Mr. NiTTLB. What is your occupation ? 

Mr. Meese. I am a deputy district attorney in the office of J. Frank 
Coakley, the district attomev of Alameda Comity. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you testifying here in response to a subpena served 
upon you by this committee ? 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1075 

Mr. Meese. Yes, I am. I was assigned by Mr. Coakley upon 
receipt of the subpena, and I might add, if I may, that Mr. Coakley 
wishes me to mention to the committee that he was sorry he could not 
personally attend, but he is in Denver with the National Association 
of District Attorneys this week. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Has the district attorney examined into the activities 
of an organization known as the Vietnam Day Committee? 

Mr. Meese. Yes, it has. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you personally participated in such investi- 
gations ? 

Mr. Meese. Yes, the office of the district attorney became involved 
with the Vietnam Day Committee for three basic reasons: first, 
the committee's activities in Alameda County involved a number of 
illegal actions, which resulted in the arrest, prosecution, and ultimate 
conviction of various members and, therefore, the district attorney's 
office was involved in this. 

Secondly, at the request of the Alameda County grand jury, the 
district attorney's office conducted an investigation of some of the 
Vietnam Day Committee's operations in regard to the cost to the tax- 
payers for increased law enforcement effort that was made necessary 
by their actions. And also, the district attorney's office gives policy 
and legal guidance to the law enforcement agencies of Alameda 
County, and there have been a number of situations in which large 
groups of police officers were made necessary to control the Vietnam 
Day Committee's activities. 

So in all of these areas, the district attorney's office was involved. 

My particular involvement, as a legal adviser to the grand jury and 
also as a participant in the coordination and handling of special in- 
vestigations, was to become involved both in personal observation of 
these activities and also in the analysis of the various documents and 
records accumulated by law enforcement agencies in the county. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Mr. Meese, would you tell us, please, when and 
why your office became interested in the activities of the Vietnam Day 
Committee ? 

Mr. Meese. One of the distinctive features of Alameda County is 
that Berkeley, California, is in our county, and located at that partic- 
ular site is the University of California and also the headquarters 
of the Vietnam Day Committee. We, therefore, became acquainted 
with them because they are in our county and much of their operations 
take place there, and this first began in the summer of 1965, partic- 
ularly when the troop train incidents, about which I am prepared to 
testify, took place in our county. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wliat has been the basic policy of the Alameda County 
law enforcement in relation to the Vietnam Day Committee ? 

Mr. Meese. All of the police departments of the county and the 
sheriff's office, upon advice from our office as legal adviser to these 
people, have been very careful not to interfere with any lawful protest 
activity of the Vietnam Day Committee. However, there have been a 
number of situations in which they have had to take police action, 
either because of outright criminal offenses committed, or because the 
actions of the Vietnam Day Committee were dangerous to the public 
safety and to the lives and property of themselves and of other people. 



1076 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Mr. NiTTLE. When did the Vietnam D^y Committee begin, and how 
was it initially established ? 

Mr. Meese. The Vietnam Day Committee as an entity really began 
shortly after the 20th and 21st of May 1965. Prior to that time, there 
were a number of anti-Vietnam war efforts in the Bay area, princi- 
pally organized by the Committee for Nonviolent Action — West and 
other groups, many o^ which do not have a formal organization. 

On the 20th and 21st of May 1965, a group of people organized a 
massive teach-in at the University of California. The cochairman of 
this and the leaders of this then subsequently organized what they 
called the Vietnam Day Committee, taking the name for their commit- 
tee from this teach-in on the 21st of May. 

I might state that the organization of the Vietnam Day Committee 
then progressed from that point on. 

Among the documents that I have is a notice that they put out. 
"The Vietnam Day Committee is holding an important organizational 
kick-off Meeting ! Tuesday night, July 6." This would be the 6th of 
July 1965. And this was among the first organizational announce- 
ments of this organization when it formally became this type of 
activity. 

I would like to offer this, if you wish, for the record, and it also has 
on the back a description of what they call "Wliere Is The Peace Move- 
ment In The Bay Area Headed?" which gives some of their plans and 
some of their objectives. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would the reporter mark that as Exhibit 1, please? 

Mr. AsHBROOK. Mr. Chairman, I make the motion that all exhibits 
offered be accepted into the permanent record, henceforth offered by 
the witness. 

Mr. IcHORD. I would object to that, Mr. Chairman. I would like 
to know what the witness is going to submit for the record. I w^ould 
hesitate to have the committee accept them before they are ever 
offered. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. I will withdraw that. I will make the motion this 
document be accepted into evidence. 

Mr. Pool. All right. No objection, it is so ordered. 

(Document marked "Meese Exhibit No. 1.-' See p. 1110.) 

Mr. Meese. I miglit state, Mr. Chairman and members of the com- 
mittee, that the initial people who were involved in the Vietnam Day 
Committee, or the VDC, as we often refer to it, and as they refer to it 
themselves, were not exactly strangers to the district attorney's office, 
many of them having previously participated in the Sproul Hall sit- 
in at the University of California and having been prosecuted by the 
district attorney's office following that event. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Following this organization, was the committee active 
in the San Francisco-Okland area ? 

Mr. Meese. Yes, they were active and they engaged, as I mentioned, 
in the troop train demonstrations. They engaged in some marches 
headed towards, but not reaching, the Oakland Army Terminal and 
a number of other activities, which I can testify to in detail. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you describe the general characteristics of overt 
acts engaged in by the Vietnam Day Committee? 

Mr. Meese. Yes. During the period from their troop train demon- 
strations in August of 1965 up through the present, as late as the recent 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1077 

weeks, there were certain characteristics which were common to al- 
most all of the Vietnam Day Committee activities. 

First of all, they were characterized by detailed and careful or- 
ganization and extremely detailed planning. The Vietnam Day Com- 
mittee was not a sporadic or hit-and-miss organization; it was a 
continuous operation. They had at various times paid persomiel; 
many of their leaders received pay for their living expenses. They 
had a permanent headquarters for a long period of time at 2407 Fulton 
Street, in Berkeley, and they had, as their leadership, steering com- 
mittees which, while the membership changed from time to time, there 
was generally a permanent cadre which carried on their activities on 
a day-to-day basis. 

Another characteristic was the logistical support and the detailed 
preparations of logistical support for their activities. For example, 
when they would have a demonstration, they would have an elaborate 
communications system, often with wallrie-talkie radios to direct 
various portions of the demonstration. They had citizen band radios 
which were tuned in to monitor police frequencies, so they could tell 
what the police were doing. They had vehicles available for their 
demonstrations, trucks, sound trucks that were used, both during the 
demonstration and prior to demonstrations, to drum up the crowds. 

They had elaborate signs, and perhaps the most common feature is 
the elaborate and large number of publications that they put out, 
leaflets which were distributed on college campuses, sometimes on 
high school campuses, and even, on occasion, on a door-to-door basis 
in the community. 

Another characteristic of the activities was the fact that they utilized 
criminal violations, criminal law violations, which they characterized 
by the euphemistic term "civil disobedience," as a tactic in their ac- 
tivities. They had many discussions, for example, of whether civil 
disobedience, as they called it, would be a good tactic or a bad tactic. 
And if they concluded that in a particular event or incident, it would 
be a good tactic, then they engaged in this knowingly. 

They did this for a couple of reasons : because they felt that whatever 
happened after some criminal law violation, they would stand to gain 
by it. If they were not arrested, then they would gloat over this fact, 
and if there had been a confrontation with police present, then they 
would make it a point, in their subsequent rallies and publications to 
say, "We were there and the police did not do anything to us." If there 
was no — if there were arrests, then they would carry on their protests 
when they were arrested in the jail 

Mr. Pool. Would you go just a little more slowly ? 

Mr.MEESE. All right. 

In the jails, they would make a big point of making bail, getting peo- 
ple to raise bail, getting a defense fund. They would try and arouse 
sympathy from jail. 

In the courts, if they were arrested, they would attempt to use this 
as a means of propaganda. This, by the way, these tactics, had previ- 
ously been used to considerable extent in the so-called Free Speech 
Movement. If they were sentenced, then they would make the point 
of this and, on the day of sentencing, often would try and rally sup- 
port by having many members of the Vietnam Day Committee in 
the courtroom. 

67-852 — 66 — pt. 1 12 



1078 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

In other words, whether they got arrested or whether they did not 
get arrested, if they had these confrontations with the police follow- 
ing law violations, they would then use this as a part of their overall 
scheme to attain their objectives. 

Now, there was a subtle change, however, in their tactics from the 
troop train incidents on. Originally, they would announce in advance, 
and as we talk about some of their marches, you will see this technique 
used. They would announce in advance that there would b© civil dis- 
obedience. When this brought considerable protest from some of the 
faculty members and others on the campus, then they changed, and 
at their rallies they would not annomice civil disobedience, but they 
would more or less leave the implication that there might be civil 
disobedience, because the suspense of the possibility of arrest, clash 
with police, was utilized by them as a tactic to draw a crowd. 

I think one other and final characteristic is the amount of legal as- 
sistance and legal advice that they had for all their operations. They 
had some attorneys who were with them and advising them in almost 
every aspect of their activities. And in their marches, they had a 
large group of attorneys, which included such people as Robert Treu- 
haft, who had previously been arrested in the Sproul Hall deal with 
the FSM, and other attorneys who took part in their marches and 
were sort of, they called themselves "attorney observers," so there was 
a great deal of legal support among certain elements of the bar in the 
county for their activities. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Meese, would you describe the incident or incidents 
concerning the troop trains ? 

Mr. Meese. The troop train demonstrations, which is probably the 
best known of the activities, took place on the 5th of August 1965, 
the 6th of August 1965, and the 12th of August. On the 5th of 
August, the demonstrations were led by Stephen Smale, who is one of 
the witnesses that I believe the committee is familiar with. I believe 
he was to be subpenaed as a witness, but was not able to be served, if 
I understand correctly. 

And a man by the name of Paul Ivory. Stephen Smale is a mem- 
ber of the faculty in mathematics at the University of California, and 
Paul Ivory, who is an assistant professor, Jerry Rubin 

Mr. Rubin. I object. I would like to make a statement. I am 
without counsel because of the way my lawyer was treated. I want 
to represent myself. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I ask that this witness be seated until the end of the 
presentation of this witness. 

Mr. Rubin. I want to make a statement. I want to represent 
myself. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I ask that this man be removed. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. Mr. Chairman, he cannot be removed. 

Mr. Rubin. My name is Jerry Rubin. It has just been introduced 
in the record without any notice, and I want to make a statement 
about it. I am now representing myself, apparently. 

Mr. IcHORD. Mr. Chairman, I would suggest that the gentleman be 
seated. He will be called tomorrow and have the opportunity to 
deny 

Mr. Rubin. I am representing myself. 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1079 

Mr. IcHORD. — to refute in any way any allegations made against 
him. 

Mr. KuBiN. I am sorry. My name was just introduced into the 
record. I have the right of cross-examination. 

Mr. Pool. Now, come here. 

Mr. KuBiN. Thank you. I mean, my name was just introduced by 
this gentleman into the record without my knowing about it, and I 
would like to make a statement. 

Mr. Pool. What do you want to say ? 

Mr. Rubin. First, I want to introduce myself. My name is Jerry 
Rubin. I would like to make an explanation as to why I am wearing 
the miif orm of the American Revolution of 1776. 

Mr. Pool. I don't care to hear that. 

Mr. Rubin. I am wearing it because America is degrading its 1776 
ideals. 

Mr. Pool. I am giving you the opportunity to make an objection 
and I am trying to be fair with you, so state your objection. 

Mr. Rubin. I am making this objection. 

Mr. Pool. What is your objection ? 

Mr. Rubin. I am making it right now. 

Mr. Pool. What is your objection ? 

Mr. Rubin. Would you wait one second and let me say it ? 

Mr. Pool. Real fast. 

Mr. Rubin. I want to do it 

Mr. Pool. Your way. 

Mr. Rubin. This gentleman has just mentioned my name and intro- 
duced it into evidence. 

Mr. Pool. What is your objection ? 

Mr. Rubin. And I have not been informed previously that he was 
going to make statements about myself that may defame my character ; 
previously, so far, what he said about the Vietnam Day Committee has 
been, I think, complimentary, but he may be going to make statements, 
and has not yet, and I have not been informed that my name was to 
be introduced. Tliat's my first objection. 

My second objection is that I do not — that I want the right to cross- 
examine Mr. District Attorney Meese. 

Mr. Pool. You have been named in the newspapers on many occa- 
sions, and I don't think you are being surprised by this statement. 

Mr. Rubin. This is a little different than a newspaper. 

Mr. Pool. And your second objection 

Mr. Rubin. I want the right to cross-examine. 

Mr. Pool. — that you want the right to cross-examination ; that is 
overruled also. 

Mr. Rubin. This gentleman is making statements about me. 
Mr. Pool. I will overrule both objections. You have no others, so 
just be seated. 

Mr. Rubin. This is quite a courtroom. 
Mr. Pool. Go ahead, Mr. Counsel, 

Mr. Meese. For the record, Mr. Chairman 

Mr. Pool. Let me ask you this : Wliile we have got a moment there, 

did the Vietnam Day Committee use police brutality slogans out there? 

Mr. Meese. Yes, sir, they did; on a number of occasions. As a 

matter of fact, they did immediately following the troop train episode 



1080 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

on the 12th of August of 1965 in the Berkeley Gazette of the city of 
Berkeley and the San Francisco Examiner. Mr. Rubin and Mr. 
Smale were quoted as having charged the police with biiitality and 
threatened further demonstrations after the police officers, many of 
them, had risked their lives to remove people from the tracks in front 
of the oncoming train. 

Mr. Pool. All right, go ahead. 

Mr. Meese. As far as what happened in the troop train demonstra- 
tions, on the 5th of August, approximately 100 pickets and about a 
hundred more observers watched and picketed at the train station, the 
Santa Fe station on University Avenue in Berkeley. There were some 
pickets who jumped in front of the train as it was coming and then 
jumped away when it became obvious that the train would not halt. 

While no one was hurt, there were some narrow escapes. And at 
that time, Stephen Smale announced that future demonstrations would 
be planned in an effort to get the trains to stop, and no arrests were 
made on this particular date. 

The following day, I might add, that a setup, a network of observers 
had been set up by the VDC, along the tracks of the Santa Fe system 
in southern California and in Northern California ; and they had tele- 
phone communications so that they could advise each other w^hen the 
trains were coming, because as you know, troop train movements are 
unscheduled. And so they had this spotter system set up, so that they 
would be able to advise their colleagues in Berkeley. They knew the 
approximate date, and then they would advise them as to the exact 
time and gather the people there, in the vicinity of the Santa Fe 
station. 

The 6th of August, they picketed twice and demonstrated twice, 
once at the Emeryville station of the Santa Fe and once at the Berkeley 
station, and were stopped from massing themselves in front of the 
track only by flying wedges of police officers and sheriff's deputies, 
who removed the demonstrators from the tracks. 

In each case, they had signs ; many of them threw leaflets at the train 
and utilized their sign as the troop trains were passing. 

Perhaps the most massive demonstration against the troop trains 
was planned for and took place on the 12th of August. On that day 
and prior to that day, they distributed leaflets which said, "STOP the 
Troop Train !" and then gave some more information about the com- 
mittee and about the Vietnam Day Committee's efforts to stop the troop 
trains. And on the back of this leaflet, it says, "Troop Train Picket 
No. 4— this Thursday, 8 :45 a.m. WHAT WILL HAPPEN THIS 
TIME?" and then a picture which had been taken on the previous 
troop train demonstrations of some demonstrators running in front 
of the oncoming train. 

I would offer this, if you wish, as an exhibit. 

Mr. Pool. Without objection, the document is accepted. 

(Document marked "Meese Exhibit No. 2." See p. 1112.) 

Mr. Meese. Along with this particular leaflet was passed out a 
leaflet at about the same time. It was prepared to be passed out on 
the troop train, if they could get it to stop, and that was a leaflet that 
was titled "Mississippi Negroes Say : 'Don't Fight in Vietnam' " and 
was a reprint by the Vietnam Day Committee of a leaflet that had 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1081 

been posted in McComb, Mississippi, in July of 1965 and has informa- 
tion addressed to soldiers as to why there should not be participation 
in the fighting. 
Mr. Pool. With no objection, the document is accepted into evidence. 
(Document marked "Meese Exhibit No. 3." See p. 1114.) 
Mr. Meese. Prior to this particular day, the Vietnam Day Com- 
mittee sent a telegram to the Santa Fe Railroad superintendent, which 
stated as follows : 

The Viet Nam Day Committee is a group of students, faculty members, and other 
members of the Bay area community outraged by the use of Berkeley railways 
for the pursuit of the immoral war in Viet Nam. We will not remain silent. 
We will not close our eyes while the war machine rolls on. The brutality of the 
war in Viet Nam was extended to home last week when railroad trains moving 
without regard to human life nearly crushed to death a number of young 
protestors. Let this not happen again. 

And it goes on with more of the same advice to the Santa Fe Railroad, 
and was signed by Stephen Smale, Paul Ivory, Jerry Rubin, and Larry 
Laughlin. 

In return, the railroad sent a telegram to the Vietnam Day Commit- 
tee which said in part : 

These trains carrying Armed Forces of the United States Government are 
moving under military orders and no stop at Berkeley or Emeryville is scheduled 
or will be made. Your illegal demand that these troop trains stop in Berkeley 
so that you may hand out literature to the soldiers and also talk with them in 
an effort to dissuade them from obeying the lawful orders of their commanding 
officers and of the United States Government is flatly rejected. You and your 
followers are warned not to obstruct these trains in any manner. Stay off the 
tracks, right-of-way, and other Santa Fe property * * *. 

And then the railroad quotes certain legal matters which they felt 
the committee ought to know. 

I would offer this, if the committee wishes it, the copy of the two 
telegrams. 

Mr. Pool. With no objection, the document is accepted into evi- 
dence. 

(Document marked "Meese Exhibit No. 4." See p. 1115.) 

Mr. Meese. On this particular occasion, approximately 300 demon- 
strators gathered at the Santa Fe station on University Avenue in 
Berkeley, and then again this was coordinated by the use of walkie- 
talkies. They all had their picket signs, and so on. 

And they, on signal from their leaders, suddenly, because there were 
a number of police officers tliere who were prepared to prevent them 
from stopping the train at that location, on a given signal from their 
leaders, they suddenly broke, and walked and ran up the tracks, 
approximately a mile or a mile and a half, towards where the train 
was coming in, so that they would be spread out, and would be harder 
to stop by the police. 

And so you had over 300 people spread out along the tracks for a 
mile, many of them lying down on the tracks, sitting on the tracks. 
And again, it was only by the good sense of some of them and the 
efforts of police officers in other cases that there were not some lives 
lost as the train went through. 

However, the train did get through without stopping, or with stop- 
ping only briefly. While the train did stop, a number of the demon- 



1082 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

strators leaped on to the train, on top of the train, into the cars, and 
attempted — one person attempted to move or use the braking mecha- 
nism of the train to stop the train itself. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. If the gentleman would yield, it is very interesting 
at this point to note their tactics and, also, the fact that they still, with 
all of this, want to blame the railroads for the plight in which they 
put themselves. The telegram reads in part : 

The brutality of the war in Viet Nam was extended to home last week when 
railroad trains moving without regard to human life nearly crushed to death 
a nuijaber of young protesters. 

They placed themselves in front of a moving train, w^hich takes an 
awfully lot of brains, and then they are saying that the railroad train 
was moving without regard to human life. It is a typical example of 
the way this group operates, and I think it is a very fine piece of 
evidence you bring before this committee. 

Mr. Meese. This was then played up a great deal in their press con- 
ferences and in their subsequent activities, and at this time, then, they 
attempted to go to the Federal court and get a Federal court injunction 
to stop the troop trains from moving through the city of Berkeley. 

The Santa Fe Railroad was never served with this petition for an 
injunction, and the Federal judge ultimately dismissed the case with- 
out any order. 

I would say that this basically summarizes the activities of the 
Vietnam Day Committee in relation to the troop trains. However, it 
might be of note — or of interest to the committee to note that it was 
about this time that the elaborate arrangements and organization ^f 
the committee were actually de^'eloped, and they obtained a head- 
quarters building. They had typing committees, they had publicity 
committees, and they really got into full operation. They described 
this in one of their letters, in which they say : 

In order to carry on the opposition to the war, the Committee has a paid staff 
of eight persons and many volunteers who work day and night. They are work- 
ing to organize community meetings, neighborhood groups, students, and peace 
demonstrations. * * * 

And then they go on to describe some of their other activities that 
they plan. I would offer this to the committee. 

Mr. Pool. Without objection, it is accepted as evidence. 

(Document marked "Meese Exhibit No. 5." See p. 1119.) 

Mr. IcHORD. Mr. Chairman, I have no objection to the introduction 
of the exhibit into the record. I am wondering if the gentleman is 
familiar with the reaction of the troops who were on the train of which 
he spoke. 

Mr. Meese. The reaction of the troops as observed by the people 
there — I happened to be present at the demonstration on the 12th of 
August — many of the troops were laughing at the demonstrators. 
Many of them were disturbed, to some extent, by these people, in the 
sense that they were on their way to Vietnam and were fighting and 
possibly were going to be killed in Vietnam, and here these people at 
home, many of them looking like they would never make the Army if 
they had the opportunity, were putting up signs, attempting to dis- 
suade them from doing their duty. This was the apparent reaction, 
learned both from observing the troops at the time and also from 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1083 

conversations with personnel, military personnel at the Oakland 
Army Terminal subsequently. 

I don't have as much direct information on this, because this didn't 
specifically fall within the purview of the work of the district at- 
torney's office. 

Mr. Clawson. Would the gentleman yield ? 

Mr. Rubin. Mr. Chairman, I would like to correct the statement. 

Mr. Pool. You are out of order. 

Mr. Clawson. Do you find any sympathetic feeling from the boys 
on the train to these people ? 

Mr. Meese. Not having talked to them, I could not gauge that, sir. 

Mr. Clawson. You didn't see any evidence ? 

Mr. Meese. No. As I say, there was laughing, there appeared to be 
some consternation among the troops, particularly among their leaders, 
the officers and the noncommissioned officers. I think, on occasion, 
there were a number that might be described as obscene gestures from 
the troops to the demonstrators. 

Mr. Nittle. What was the next major activity which brought the 
Vietnam Day Committee to the attention of law enforcement? 

Mr. Meese. This was the announcement that there would be a march 
on the 15th of October, the 15th and 16th of October, the so-called 
International Days of Protest, which were proclaimed by the Vietnam 
Day Committee. And it was on the 10th of September that a press con- 
ference was called by the Vietnam Day Committee to announce that 
there would be a protest march to Oakland. Rather, there were state- 
ments made on the 10th. Actually, it was even earlier than that. 
They had called this press conference and they announced at that 
time, as quoted in the San Francisco Chronicle of the 10th of Septem- 
ber, that : 

A protest march of 10,000 persons to culminate in civil disobedience at the 
Oakland Army Terminal on October 16 was promised by the Vietnam Day Com- 
mittee yesterday. 

So the press conference was actually on the 9th. This announce- 
ment was made by Stephen Smale, a University of California mathe- 
matics professor, along with other representatives of the Vietnam 
Day Committee. 

He said the protest march would begin towards the terminal, one 
of the major shipping points of military supplies, and would be the 
biggest peace march the Bay area has seen. He stated that some of 
the marchers would take part in acts of civil disobedience, but the 
exact types of law breaking had not been decided upon. These, he 
continued, could include dropping peace leaflets on the base from 
the air and an amphibious landing by small boats, a march into the 
terminal, or simply blocking the entrances to the terminal. 

I have a copy of that article in the newspaper, which I offer as 
an exhibit. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. Mr. Meese, this was distinguished from the other 
project, which was the labor teach-in directed at longshoremen; is 
that not correct ? 

Mr. Meese Yes; this was a specific project, althougli there was 
some talk about attempting to get longshoremen not to load ships. 

Mr. Pool. No objection. The document is accepted into evidence. 



1084 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

(Document marked "Meese Exhibit No. 6." See p. 1121.) 

Mr. IcHORD. Mr. Chairman, it mi^ht be of interest to Mr. Meese 
to romid out liis investigation that it is the information of the com- 
mittee that Professor Smale is on his way to Moscow to accept a 
mathematics award there now. 

Mr. Meese. This is what was announced when your subpena was 
received in the Bay area. This was announced in the press there at 
that time. 

Mr. Clawson. Mr. Chairman, may I ask just one quick question? 

Mr. Pool. Yes. 

Mr. Clawson. Did the movement have any success among the 
members of the Lono;shoremen ? 

Mr. Mebse. I don't know myself, because this was an activity—I 
don't know even to what extent this activity was actually carried 
on. There was talk of it. It didn't involve any illegal conduct per 
se, and so I have no knowledge of that. 

Mr. Clawson. Thank you. 

Mr. Meese. The planning for the march of the 15th and 16th of 
October involved such things at one of the meetings of the Vietnam 
Day Committee membership as a proposal to block all the entrances 
and exits to the Oakland Army Terminal with human bodies of 
the demonstrators, and thus close down all the terminal operations. 
This was one of the plans that was submitted. 

The committee issued the Vietnam Day Committee Neios, volume 1, 
number 2, July and August edition, and in that, in discussing what was 
going to happen on the 15th and 16th of October, they state this : 

Highly-coordinated, highly-publicized action will make people feel that they are 
not alone in speaking out. An active minority of 1,000,000 people marching on 
Washington or 100,000 in coordinated civil disobedience would likely be suflScient 
to stop that war. 

I offer this as an exhibit. 

Mr. Pool. No objection. It is so ordered. 

(Document marked "Meese Exhibit No. 7" and retained in committee 
files.) 

Mr. Meese. And if I may, I have a series of three documents which 
I would offer as a group exhibit, which were put out during the period 
of time prior to the 1st of October. One says : "FUTURE COM- 
MUNITY PROTEST i^IEETING AND MASSIVE CIVIL DIS- 
OBEDIENCE PLANNED BY THE VIETNAM DAY COMMIT- 
TEE," relating to this march, and "THE VIETNAM DAY COM- 
MITTEE announces the formation of the VDC DEFENDANTS 
COMMITTEE," and the first paragraph of this reads: 

In preparation for our civil disobedience of October 15 and 16, we, who expect to 
be arrested, are now organizing into a group whose basic purpose is the commit- 
ment to a political defense. 

And a statement concerning the VDC Defendant^ Committee carry- 
ing the same general information, but with a note on the bottom, 
"meetings every Sunday, 8 pm, 2407 Fulton Street," which is the head- 
quarters building — "to plan civil disobedience," was appended. I 
would offer these three documents as a group exhibit. 

Mr. Pool. No objection, and it is so ordered. 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1085 

(Documents marked "Meese Exhibits Nos. 8- A, B, and C," re- 
spectively, Exhibit 8-B retained in Committee files. See pp. 1122- 
1 128 for Exhibits 8-A and C. ) 

Mr. Meese. At the meeting of the committee — this was the defend- 
ants' committee, the VDC Defendants Committee, referred to in those 
exhibits — on the 19th of September, a committee spokesman outlined 
the types of things in which they might engage at the Army terminal 
on the 15th and 16th. 

One plan was the demonstrators would climb over the fence at the 
Oakland Army Terminal, trespass, and sit and hang on the tanks and 
trucks at the base until they were dragged off. 

Another plan, less drastic, was that there would be numerous loud- 
speakers and sound trucks, which would be taken to the Oakland Army 
Terminal entrance, and if refused entrance — which, as one spokesman 
said, which surely they would be — they would set up the equipment 
outside the gate and fences and hold the teach-in there. 

Mr. Pool. Wait just a minute, please. 

We have an important vote on the floor of the House. The committee 
will stand adjourned until 10 o'clock tomorrow morning. 

(Whereupon, at 5:50 p.m., Wednesday, Augiist 17, 1966, the sub- 
committee recessed, to reconvene at 10 a.m., Thursday, August 18, 
1966. 



HEARINGS ON H.R. 12047, H.R. 14925, H.R. 16175, H.R. 
17140, AND H.R. 17194— BILLS TO MAKE PUNISHABLE 
ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN TIME OF UN- 
DECLARED WAR 

Part 1 



THURSDAY, AUGUST 18, 1966 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington^ D.G. 
puBuc hearings 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to recess, at 10 :20 a.m., in the Caucus Room, Cannon House 
Office Building, Washington, D.C., Hon. Richard H. Ichord, presiding. 

(Subcommittee members: Representatives Joe R. Pool, of Texas, 
chairman ; Richard H. Ichord, of Missouri ; George F, Senner, Jr., of 
Arizona ; John M. Ashbrook, of Ohio ; and John H. Buchanan, Jr., of 
Alabama. Alternate member: Representative Del Clawson, of 
California.) 

Subcommittee members present : Representatives Ichord, Ashbrook, 
and Buchanan. 

Committee member also present : Representative Edwin E. Willis, 
of Louisiana, chairman of the full committee. 

Staff members present: Francis J. McNamara, director; William 
Hitz, general counsel; Alfred M. Nittle, counsel; Donald T. Appell, 
chief investigator ; and Ray McConnon, Jr., Herbert Romerstein, and 
Philip R. Manuel, investigators. 

Mr. Ichord. The committee will come to order, a quorum being 
present. 

The chairman of this subcommittee. Congressman Pool, has been 
necessarily delayed this morning; and as ranking majority member of 
this subcommittee, it is my responsibility to perform the duties of the 
Chair until Mr. Pool returns. 

(At this point Representative Clawson entered the hearing room.) 

Mr. Ichord. The chairman, at this time, is very happy to welcome 
back to Washington the chairman of the full committee, the Honorable 
Ed Willis of the State of Louisiana. It is nice to have you back 
with us, Ed. 

The Chairman. Glad to be back. 

1087 



1088 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Mr. IcHORD. At the conclusion of the hearings yesterday when the 
committee adjourned, the witness in the chair was Mr. Meese. Counsel 
will continue questioning of Mr. Meese at the point he left off. 

Mr. Meese, you have been sworn. You may be seated. 

The Chair will admonish the members of the audience, and of course, 
I am not admonishing all of you. I will appeal to your sense of pro- 
priety, your sense of decorum, to maintain order in this hearing room. 
This committee is an arm of Congress. We are charged with the 
business of Congress. The business of Congress is the people's busi- 
ness. We are very happy to have you here with us today, but the 
Chair does insist that order be maintained and the Chair will take 
steps to maintain that order. 

With that admonition, Mr. Counsel, you will resume your question- 
ing of Mr. Meese. 

TESTIMONY OF EDWIN MEESE HI— Resumed 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Meese, at the time of recess, yesterday, I believe 
you were discussing the October 1965 demonstrations of the Vietnam 
Day Committee? 

Mr. Meese. Yes, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you continue, Mr. Meese ? 

Mr. Meese. All right, Mr, Nittle. I believe I had just described the 
preparations for the October 15th and 16th march to the Oakland 
Army Terminal, and we had just introduced into the record certain 
documents w^hich pertain to the planned civil disobedience which had 
been distributed by the Vietnam Day Committee prior to the end of 
September. 

At the end of September, the committee held another press confer- 
ence and announced that this time, that they had changed the plans 
and that they did not plan to engage in wdiat they called civil disobedi- 
ence. And this was the public announcement at that time, although 
it is noted that the meetings of the Vietnam Day Committee did not 
indicate that they w^ould necessarily go through with this change of 
plans, but the possibility of different plans of civil disobedience still 
existed, even after the public announcement. 

For example. Professor Smale, one of the cochairmen of the VDC 
at that time, took the position that they should not decide in advance 
that they will be arrested, but they should let the issues on the 15th 
and 16th of Octo'ber decide. 

And at a meeting on the 26th of September, it was decided that 
anticipation of arrest would not be announced in advance and more 
concentration would be put on organizing the masses, but that they 
would state that the possibility of arrest still exists. 

Likewise, at what they described as an emergency meeting of the 
VDC to discuss whether to break the McCarran Espionage Act of 
1917, there was a discussion as to whether or not they should engage 
in civil disobedience, and that possibility was still left open. 

The Chairman. Pardon me. What is the time of this occurrence ? 

Mr. Meese. Yes, sir, the emergency meeting of the Vietnam Day 
was on October 4, which was some approximately 6 days after they 
had claimed that there would be no disobedience. And at that time. 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1089 

they discussed in their meeting the fact that "we must urge American 
soldiers to demand access to the truth about Vietnam and finally to 
take individual and joint action to refuse to fight in Vietnam." 

This was the objective of their march. And they also discussed the 
issue of whether "we will violate the 1917 Espionage Act, in order to 
tell soldiers the Government would not dare a political trial." 

There was further discussion at that meeting by a person who later 
became a candidate, unsuccessfully, for this Congress, who stated at 
the meeting, "It is time to risk treason. We must totally disassociate 
ourselves with the United States Government." 

So this was the tenor of the discussions at that particular meeing, 
which belied the public announcements that there would be no civil 
disobedience; and, in fact, this was an example of the tactic, whereby 
the way for civil disobedience is still left open, but that the organiza- 
tion officially does not come out, saying we will commit criminal viola- 
tions, so that they can then take the position, if people do get arrested 
later on, that while they did not officially sanction the civil dis- 
obedience, individual members just got carried away. 

The Chairman. And the discussions about civil disobedience even 
centered around an espionage act of Congress ? 

Mr. Meese, This is what took place at the meeting; yes, sir. 

Also at this particular meeting, or rather at a membership meeting 
of the VDC the next evening, on the 5th of October, there was a con- 
siderable discussion about the writing of and distribution of what they 
called the soldier leaflet. 

The soldier leaflet ["Attention All Military Personnel." See Meese 
Exhibit No. 16, p. 1138.] was a leaflet draw^n up by a committee of the 
Vietnam Day Committee called the Strategic Research Committee, 
and this was adopted by the Steering Committee — I have a copy which 
will be available to introduce later — but at this time, they are just 
discussing the content of this leaflet, and it had to do with various at- 
tempts to influence soldiers of the United States Army, including such 
statements as you may have to fight, but don't fight too hard, and if 
you should refuse to obey orders, you should know that there are 
plenty of people who will back you up. 

Later on, this leaflet was, in fact, printed, and I will at a later point 
in testimony descrioe how this leaflet was used if the committee wishes 
me to, Mr. Nittle. 

Mr. Nittle. Yes, please. 

Mr. Meese. Now at the time of this meeting on the 5th of October, 
the discussion at the Vietnam Day Committee general membership 
meeting, which is generally open to the public so that anyone may 
attend, it said, "it is believed by members of both the Strategic Re- 
search Committee and the Steering Committee" — and this was the sub- 
stance of the discussion — that the soldier leaflet, as well as the VDC 
declaration against the war in Vietnam, will be a direct confronta- 
tion with Federal authorities, and it was their feeling, and the Vietnam 
Committee discussed this, that it was in violation of section 2387 of 
the U.S. Federal Code, and there was considerable discussion on their 
part as to the fact that this was a violation of the law. 

Mr. NittivE. Would you state in substance what provisions of law 
are contained in the section of the code to which you referred? 



1090 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Mr. Meese, Section 2387, and these and the following sections are 
generally the Sedition Act, which provide that it is a Federal offense 
for anyone to pereuade or dissuade soldiers or military personnel of 
the United States from doing their duty. 

The Chairman. Well, let me say that the legistlation we are consid- 
ering has nothing to do — although there has been made a general 
statement that this committee is engaged in legislating against protest 
rights which are given to any individual under the Constitution — that 
this legislation we are considering has nothing to do with expressions 
of protest in the type of meetings that you have described. 

What this bill has to do with is making unlawful overt acts against 
our Government and giving aid and comfort to the enemy during war. 

For instance, specifically, making it a crime to interfere with the 
transport of soldiers to the field of battle and trying to stop shipping 
arms and ammunition to fighting soldiers on our battlefield. 

That is what this bill has to do with, and it is time to be perfectly 
frank on what this bill is all about. We all have opinions, it is agreed, 
but in my humble opinion, people who would do those things that I 
have just mentioned fall short of loyalty to this Government. 

Let's call them what they should be called. They are yellow-bellied 
cowards, in my opinion. 

Mr. IcHORD. The Chair thanks the chairman of the full committee 
for his contribution, and the Chair would point out to the chairman of 
the full committee that Mr. Meese, who is deputy district attorney in 
Alameda County, at the beginning of his testimony yesterday stated 
that, in making his investigation, it was necessary to distinguish from 
lawful assembly and assemblies which were not lawful. I pointed 
out, Mr. Chairman, that at the beginning of these hearings, Mr. Pool 
asked me to support his bill. 

I was concerned that he might not be able to draft the legislation in 
order to protect freedom of assembly, because freedom of assembly 
is one of the firet amendment rights, but certainly freedom of as- 
sembly does not extend a guarantee to interference with the movement 
of troop trains, nor does freedom of speech extend to the soliciting 
of aid to a hostile force such as the Viet Cong. 

Mr. Pool has limited his legislation to overt acts. I personally 
have no doubt about the constitutionality, and as the chairman indi- 
cates, that is also his considered opinion. 

Mr. Counsel, you will proceed with the questioning. 

Mr. Meese. I wonder if I might respond to only one question or 
comment of Mr. Willis', and that is that I believe that the Vietnam Day 
Committee march of the 15th and 16th of October is particularly rele- 
vant to the dangers that you posed, agaiinst which this bill is designed 
to provide criminal sanction, and that is that the ultimate objective of 
the Vietnam Day Committee's march on the 15th and 16th of October 
was to get to the Oakland Army Terminal, which is the major ship- 
ping point for the Vietnam war on the West Coast. And as I dis- 
cussed yesterday in answering questions, when you were not present, 
Mr. Willis, some of the things they were discussmg was blocking with 
a row of human bodies all the exits and entrances to that particular 
Army tenninal, so that they could cut off its operations for as long as 
they wanted to and, in effect, have the Oakland Army Base under their 
control, rather than the control of the Federal Government. 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1091 

This was the reason — that is why the marches and the fact that they 
left open the possibility of ci^dl disobedience in their own discussions, 
even though publicly saying they would not, that their whole conduct 
prior to the 15th and 16th of October was particularly important; and 
also important, I think, was the extensive logistical arrangements 
which had been made, so that they could stay in the area of the Oak- 
land Army Tei-minal as long as they wanted to. 

Tliey set up committees, for example, with detailed planning for 
lighting, for flood lights, for food to be brought down to the demon- 
strators who were there. They even made plans to rent 10 flat bed 
trucks, which they were going to wire with sound equipment, which 
would be used both for their demonstrators and also to project this 
sound into the Oakland Army Terminal, against the soldiers. And, 
also, they made such detailed arrangements as planning to rent 40 port- 
able bathrooms, or latrines, to take care of other comforts of the dem- 
onstrators, which indicated a long-term occupation, you might say, 
of the area at or near the Army terminal. 

As discussed yesterday, the banners, the propaganda leaflets, and 
this sort of thing, were all discussed and preparations were made, as 
were the walkie-talkie communications for controlling the demon- 
strators. 

They also had such plans as to drop balloons. 

The Chairman. Well, let me ask you this question : Taking all of 
your testimony as a whole, wouldn't you say that some of the acts 
that they committed and the policies that they advocated went beyond 
overt acts against the Federal Government, and included aid and com- 
fort to the enemy ? 

Mr. Meese. I would say that the objectives of the committee cer- 
tainly would afford aid and comfort to the enemy. What we have dis- 
cussed up until this time, of course, is the fact that these were what 
they were planning. 

Now what happened actually was that the committee, which at- 
tempted and wished to get to the Oakland Army Terminal, was denied 
a parade permit by the city of Oakland and the city of Berkeley. In 
Berkeley, however, they did leave the campus on the evening of the 15th 
of October and were able to walk through the streets of Berkeley. 

Berkeley has a smaller police department and it would have been vir- 
tually impossible for them to stop this group of some, well, in excess 
of 3,000 people, who were marching from the University of California 
campus, after a half-day teach-in on the 15th of October. 

This was a Friday. However, the Oakland jwlice, at the direction 
of the city council and following the denial of the parade permit, were 
concerned with two things : Number one, that they should not be al- 
lowed to reach the Oakland Army Terminal, because the chance of do- 
ing the things which I have described were very real and it had been 
requested by General Conroy, the commanding officer of the Oakland 
Army Terminal, that tliey not be allowed to reach the Oakland Army 
Terminal. 

There were a number of conferences during this period between the 
military, the local police, the district attorney's offices. Mr. Coakley, 
the district attorney of Alameda County, at the personal request of 
Governor Brown, served to coordinate the law enforcement personnel 



1092 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

in cooperation with Sheriff Madigan and the chiefs of police of Oak- 
land and Berkeley, and so the other danger to the community, which is 
not particularly related to the bill, but nevertheless was a very great 
danger, was that the march would have gone through one of the most 
inflammable population areas of the city, and the chance of a com- 
munity disorder, particularly when this was advertised as a torchlight 
parade, which would have extended, actually cutting the city of Oak- 
land in two, because it would have stopped traffic from crossing the city, 
right through the middle of town ; this was also a concern of the law en- 
forcement agencies. 

In any event, the Oakland police on Telegraph Avenue, at the cit^; 
line, the border of Oakland and Berkeley, formed a line of ofRcei-s two 
or three deep, with additional sqiiads of motorcycle officers available to 
cut off, if the march should try and proceed down any other streets, 
and they were stopped at that point. 

They then — the committee then turned around, turned down a side 
street there in Berkeley and marched to the Berkeley Civic Center, 
where they camped out overnight in one of the parks there. 

The next day, the 16th of October, the committee made another at- 
tempt to reach the Oakland Army Terminal, marching down the 
streets of Berkeley, and again, they were stopped at the Oakland line 
by the Oakland Police Department, reinforced by deputy sheriffs from 
the Alameda County Sheriff's Office. 

It was at this point, I might mention parentheically, that the fears 
of possible community disorder were realized and at this point, when 
they reached the Oakland line, the Vietnam Day Committee marchers 
sat down and held the teach-in in the streets of Berkeley. And it was 
while they reached this point, or after they had reached this point, 
that some members of a motorcycle gang crashed through the line 
of Berkeley police officers and attacked the marchers, and there was a 
battle at that point, in which one Berkeley police officer was felled and 
suffered a broken leg. 

As a matter of fact, had it not been for the quick action of the Oak- 
land police in moving forward and restoring order, you might have 
had a full-scale disorder at that point. 

Mr. IcHORD. Mr. Chairman, Mr. Meese intends to appear before the 
committee later to testify on the legislative aspects of the hearing. 
The acting chairman has expressed the desire to expedite the investiga- 
tive aspects of the hearing, in order that we can get promj)tly to the 
legislative hearings. 

Mr. Meese will testify on the bill. I have several questions which I 
intend to ask Mr. Meese, as to the legislative effect of the legislation 
pending in the committee. 

Mr. Meeese, is Port Chicago, California, within the jurisdiction of 
Alameda, California? 

Mr. Meese. No, sir, it is not. This is one demonstration that our 
county law enforcement agency has been spared, somehow, but I am 
prepared to discuss that, masmuch as this grew out of activities on 
the 6th and 7th of August, in which the Vietnam Day Committee was 
one of the 

Mr. IcHORD. Port Chicago is in the general area, though? 

Mr. Meese. Yes, it is Concord, north of us, in Contra Costa County. 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1093 

Mr. IcHORD. Well, apparently there are some organizers in opera- 
tion while you are out here testifying in Washington. Someone yes- 
terday handed to me the ticker tape of a Port Cliicago incident, and 
I think it would be appropriate to read that into the record at this 
time : 

U.S. Marines dragged, pulled, and shoved demonstrators off a county road in 
front of a Concord Naval Weapons Station today, when the pickets tried to 
prevent trucks loaded with napalm from entering the base. Marines threw 
one of the demonstrators, a girl, into a water filled ditch adjacent to the 
roadway, after she squatted in the road as a napalm loaded truck approached the 
main gate to the base from which munitions are sent to Vietnam. 

Marines arrested nine persons, seven men, the girl and a juvenile, for allegedly 
trepassing on Government property. The adults were turned over to the United 
States Marshal's office. Contra Costa County Sheriff's Deputies were on hand 
during the melee, but they made no arrests. Two American Broadcasting Com- 
pany newsmen, from K GO-TV in San Francisco were roughed up during the 
wild demonstration. They said Marines shoved them from the gate, when they 
attempted to take pictures, and they said one of their cameras was broken and 
a microphone cord cut in two. 

An estimated 200 demonstrators were at the scene when the melee broke out 
about two dozen hecklers also were on hand, throwing rocks and bottles at the 
pickets. None of the hecklers was arrested. Each time a truck approached the 
gate, one of the demonstrators ran to the roadway and lay down. The Marines 
then dragged or shoved the demonstrator off the roadway to let the truck pass. 
The weapons station is the primary munitions shipping point for the war in Viet- 
nam. The picketing started on August 6th and has continued since then on a 
24 hour basis. Several organizations have been involved in the picketing, 
including members of the Vietnam Day Committee, a militant anti-war group. 

Now does the witness have personal knowledge of the organization 
of this demonstration ? 

Mr. Meese. Yes, Mr, Chairman. This demonstration was organized, 
as the clipping states, on the 6th and 7th of August, And was to 
be another international day of protest, the 6th of August being 
the anniversary of the Hiroshima atom blast. And so these demon- 
strations liave existed there on a 24-hour basis continuously since that 
date, with varying numbers of people being present at any one time. 

The Vietnam Day Committee distributed a leaflet prior to the 6th 
of August, in which it advertised the August 6th protest. And on 
the back of this leaflet, among the actions that are listed, one of the 
actions having been a mass march on Market Street in San Francisco, 
they indicate other actions siipported by this group, and they have 
here a list of all the organizations which were supporting these various 
demonstrations, which include the Berkeley VDC, Berkeley Friends 
of SNCC, Communist Party, U,S,A., Community for New Politics, 
and a number of other organizations which are listed here, they indi- 
cate here "other actions" quote : 

"Port Chicago .supplies over 90% of all munitions & explosives for the War in 
VietNam." 

Rally — 1 p.m. Sunday, Aug. 7, Concord City Plaza. * * * 

Walk — 2 p.m. to dock gate at Port Chicago. * * * 

Action — 5 p.m. Individuals will stop munitions trucks. * * * 

So this is what has been happening on that date, and since that time, 
and I would offer this pamphlet for the record. 

Mr. IcHORD, There being no objection, the Chair wnll accept the 
pamphlet to be incorporated in the record. 

(Document marked "Meese Exhibit No, 9," See p. 1124,) 

Mr, AsHBROOK, Mr. Chairman, 

67-852 O— 66— pt. 1 13 



1094 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Mr. IcHORD. The gentleman from Ohio, 

Mr. AsHBRooK. I think the witness has pointed out in this case, in 
this same circumstance, as yesterday, when there was an effort to block 
a troop train, g^onps such as this not only have the purpose of trying 
to impede the flow of troops or the orderly conduct of the Military 
Establishment, but they are always endeavoring to create incidents, so 
they can charge police brutality or, in this case, Marine brutality or, in 
some cases, military police brutality. 

I note from the PeojjWs World, Saturday, August 13, the People's 
World, of course, being one of the Communist organs on the West 
Coast, the following quotation : "Six women jumped across the road to 
stop it." 

It, of course, being one of the troop trucks you referred to. Note that 
"jumped across the road to stop it." Think of the plight of the soldiers, 
the military men, who must contend with groups such as this who are 
actually endeavoring to cause incidents. 

I don't doubt a bit but what some of them would like to have some 
bodily injury inflicted so they could hold themselves up at future 
rallies as an example of what happened as a part of our war effort, and 
so forth. And I think it more than ever indicates the necessity for 
legislation of this type. 

There is continually an effort to cause incidents, so you then can 
protest police or military force brutality, and this, of course, is a side- 
light that the gentleman has very properly brought out. 

Mr. IcHORD. Thank you, the gentleman from Ohio. 

The witness may proceed. 

Mr. Meese. I would offer for the record, as sort of a conclusion to 
the information about this march of October 15 and 16, a list of elected 
members of the VDC Steering Committee for that particular march, 
which include the names, among others, of Windy Smith, who I believe 
has been subpenaed as a witness by this committee, Steve Cherkoss, 
Jerry Eubin, and Steve Smale. I offer this list, and would offer these 
other documents as a group exhibit, being the documents prepared by 
the Vietnam Day Committee and announcing their plans for the 
October 15th and 16th march. 

A series of four documents, headed "Proposed Strategy for October 
15-16," "The following plan for October 15-16 has been proposed by 
the Strategic Research Organization," "Calendar of Scheduled Plans," 
and "International Days of Protest against the War in Vietnam." 

Mr. IcHORD. Now, Mr. Meese in regard to this document which 
purports to be a list of the elected members of the VDC's Steering 
Committee of the October 15th and 16th demonstration, what is the 
derivation of this list ? 

Mr. Meese. The election of these persons was held at an open gen- 
eral membership meeting of the VDC and that is a list that was pre- 
pared by a person who was actually in attendance ,at that meeting. 

Mr. IcHORD, A member of your staff ? 

Mr. Meese. He was a member of a police department in the county, 

Mr. IcHORD. Is there any objection to the admission of these docu- 
ments into the record? If not, the documents will be admitted. 

(Membership list marked "Meese Exhibit No. 10"; other docu- 
ments marked "Meese Exhibits Nos. 11-A through 11-D." Exhibit 
11-C retained in committee files. For other exhibits see pp. 1126- 
1132.) 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1095 

Mr. Meese. I might mention, Mr. Ichord, that inasmuch as these 
general membership meetings were open to the public, it is not un- 
usual for occasionally a young looking police officer to attend. 

Mr. IcHORD. Counsel will proceed with the questioning, 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Meese, I believe you have touched on the subject, 
but would you more fully describe the preparatory planning for these 
marches ? 

Mr. Meese. The detailed planning involved all of the matters that 
I indicated. Particularly distinctive, I think, was the logistical plan- 
ning and the fact that they went to all these elaborate plans, in effect, 
to camp out and stay there in the area around the Army base, plus the 
widespread use of loudspeakers and floodlights and this sort of thing, 
so that they could carry this thing on day and night. 

Mr. Nittle. During the period prior to the march, did the Vietnam 
Day Committee engage in any other activities ? 

Mr. Meese. Yes, there was another activity that was directly re- 
lated to the .activities of military operations, and that was, at this 
time, the Vietnam Day Committee found out that the Army was train- 
ing war dogs in Til den Regional Park, which is an area near Berkeley, 
and in the Daily Calif omian^ the campus newspaper, on the 21st of 
September 1965, John Windrim Smith, along with other members of 
the VDC, announced that there would be personal harassment of the 
Army at that location if the dogs were not removed from Tilden Park. 

On the same day there was a noon rally — on the 20th of September, 
there was a noon rally on the steps of Sproul Hall, the administration 
building of the campus, and during the first 15 minutes of this rally, 
there was a discussion of the weekend activities by VDC at Tilden 
Park. 

They took pictures of Army guards who were at the park. Due 
to the possibility of the VDC holding a demonstration there, it was 
necessary for the Army to provide additional guards for this dog- 
training site because of the possibility of a demonstration, similar in 
nature to what we discussed might have happened at the Oakland 
Army Terminal, and also the VDC members, as a part of their con- 
tinuing harassment, were posting signs all over the park that read, 
"Beware of Army War Dogs in the Area. Don't leave any raw meat 
uncovered or children playing. If dog attacks, wait until handler 
arrives." 

The objective of this kind of thing was to arouse the public generally 
against the Army training program there, at that site. Ajid as a 
matter of fact, within a short time after that, for reasons which may 
or may not have been connected with this activity, the war dog-train- 
ing site was removed by the Army from that location. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wliat happened after the marches of the 15th and 
] 6th of October 1965 ? 

Mr. Meese. Well, after being blocked by the Oakland police and 
kept from getting to the Oakland Army Terminal, the committee 
scheduled another march for the 20th of November 1965, during which 
march they again, prior to the march, announced that they wanted 
to go to the Oakland Army Terminal. 

They were prevented from this, however, by an order of the Fed- 
eral court. The city of Oakland again denied them a parade permit 
because of their objective to get to the Oakland Army Terminal. 



1096 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

The city did offer them another park, which was closer to the city 
line and which would not have entailed the traffic problems that a 
long march all the way through the city would have caused. 

The VDC applied for a Federal court injunction to force the city 
of Oakland to allow them to proceed through the city. The Federal 
court after consultaiton with a number of parties, both the VDC on 
the one hand and the city of Oakland on the other, and having asked 
the district attorney of Alameda County to appear as a friend of the 
court, after a series of discussions, the court finally ruled that they 
could proceed to a park in Oakland, called DeFremery Park, but 
that they could not proceed to the Oakland Army Terminal, so they 
were prevented from reaching the Oakland Army Terminal by the 
Federal court order, which the Oakland police were prepared to 
enforce. 

Again, this situation on the 20th of November posed a great threat 
to the community itself, inasmuch as in meetings with the Vietnam 
Day Committee during the end of October, there was an attempt to 
enlist support from some of the dissident elements in the Oakland com- 
munity, and at one time, one of the leaders of the dissident elements 
there said that his group would support the VDC march, if the VDC 
would agree to charge the Oakland police line and combat the police 
officers, providing that they were stopped, and would attempt to mix 
it up or have a confrontation, a physical confrontation, with the 
police. 

This the VDC declined to do, and the march itself, under the court 
order, was orderly, although because of the jjotential community dis- 
order, it required literally hmidreds of police officers to be present at 
or near tlie scene. 

Mr. NiTFLE. Was the November 20th march directed at the Oakland 
Army Terminal ? 

Mr. Meese. That was the initial objective of the VDC, which would 
have been attained, had it not been for the Federal court order. 

Mr. NiTTLE. During the fall of 1965, was there any activity by the 
Vietnam Day Committee in relationship to the draft ? 

Mr. Meese. Yes ; the activities of the Vietnam Day Committee then 
centered upon the draft itself. As a matter of fact, Jerry Rubin was 
quoted in the San Francisco Chronicle on the 24th of November 1965, in 
which he held a press conference, at which John Windrim Smith was 
also present, that the next goal of the VDC was the embarking upon 
a serious and intensive campaign against the draft. 

And this was done through a variety of things, but mostly, picket- 
ing and demonstrations at the Armed Forces Induction C/enter in Oak- 
land, at 15th and Clay, as well as demonstrations and handing out of 
leaflets at the high schools and junior high schools in the Berkeley 
area. 

At this time, the committee handed out, among other things, a 
pamphlet, here, which was headed "BRIEF NOTES ON THE 
WAYS AND MEANS OF 'BEATING' AND DEFEATING THE 
DRAFT." And this was authored by a member of the VDC and was 
distributed by them. 

The subtitle on the bottom is "HOW TO BEAT THE DRAFT," 
and it has a variety of methods, which are all listed here. "Be a CO. 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1097 

[conscientious objector]." "Have a 'demonstration' during your pre- 
induction physical," "Refuse to sign the loyalty oath." "Be an 
epileptic." "Arrive drunk." One is particularly interesting: "Be an 
undesirable. Go for a couple of weeks without a shower. Really look 
dirty. Stink. Long hair helps. Go in barefoot with your sandals 
tied around your neck. Give a wino a bottle for his clothes and wear 
them," and so on. [Laughter.] If all else fails, the panel advises 
finally that bed-wetting will probably do the trick. I would offer this 
as an exhibit. 

From the Floor. Mr. Chairman, that was a 

Mr. IcHORD. There being no objection — let there be order in the 
hearing room. The Chair will again admonish members of the audience 
that you are guests of the committee. Let there be order in this hear- 
ing room. 

If there be no objection the document submitted by the gentleman 
will be incorporated into the record. 

(Document marked "Meese Exhibit No. 12." See p. 1133.) 

From the Floor, I have an objection. 

Mr, IcHORD, Your objection is definit^ily out of order. You will be 
given the opportunity to be heard at a proper time, if you are a witness. 
The plan of the committee is to call the witnesses at 12 o'clock. You 
will be given the opportunity to testify, and if you are a witness, sir, 
I hope that you will testify. 

From the Floor. The system is 

Mr. IcHORD. Let there be order. Let there be order in the hearing 
room. I admonish the gentleman again. The Chair has indeed been 
very patient with you. I ask, I appeal to your sense of decorum and 
propriety. You will be ^ven the opportunity to testify. 

Proceed with the hearing, Mr, Counsel. 

Mr. Nittle. What other activities took place in relation to the draft 
board ? 

Mr. Meese. The picketing of the Oakland Army Induction Center 
continued for a considerable period of time. Steven Cherkoss, in a 
newspaper reference in the OaldaTid Tribune on the 25th of October 
1965, was quoted as saying that the May 2nd Movement would send 
someone to the center, the Army Induction Center, every day to pass 
out the leaflets, in conjunction with these activities which various 
movements were joining with the VDC, in these operations; and sim- 
ilar activities took place, as I mentioned, at some of the schools in the 
area, among people who would subsequently become of draft age. 

Likewise, on the steps of Sproul Hall, a rally by the Anti-Draft 
Committee of the VDC was held, at which time Mr, Cherkoss told the 
crowd that they should stop giving information to the Selective Serv- 
ice Board and that ROTC should be kicked off the campus, 

A description of the activities of the Anti-Draft Committee is con- 
tained in a pamphlet headed "ANTI-DRAFT COMMITTEE" which 
was distributed by the VDC during this period, and I would offer this 
piece of paper for the record. 

One other activity 

Mr. IcHORD. Just a minute, Mr, Witness, Is there an objection on 
the part of the members of the committee, to admission of this docu- 
ment into the record ? If not, the document will be admitted. 



1098 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

(Document marked "Meese Exhibit No. 13." See p. 1185.) 

Mr. Meese. Well one other activity in relation to the Armed Forces 
Induction Center, and specifically the draft., was the Women's March 
Against the War, held on February 23, 1966. 

And at this time leaflets were passed out which said, "WOMEN : 
March Against the War." "March with us to the Oakland Induction 
Center where we will present our demands and voic« our opposition 
to the war." 

And they actually did march through Berkeley and through Oak- 
land to the induction center. But, unfortunately, the timing was not 
too good, and by the time they arrived there, the induction center was 
closed for the day, so they had a demonstration outside for a period of 
about an hour, in which they sang and had speeches. 

The leaflet that was used in this particular event is described here, 
and I would offer this for the record. 

Also during the 

Mr. IcHORD. There being no objection, the document w^ill be ad- 
mitted. 

(Document marked "Meese Exhibit No. 14." See p. 1136.) 

Mr. Meese. Also during this period of time, there was still dis- 
cussion about possible civil disobedience at these various demonstra- 
tions, such as the draft board; and the VDC published a document 
entitled "ADVICE TO DEMONSTRATORS" in which they state, 
"Any participant and in fact, any observer of this or any demonstration 
in Oakland is subject to some risk," and it gives them advice on how 
the committee will go ahead to raise bail money as quickly as pos- 
sible, where to send bail donations, "Do not waive any of your con- 
stitutional rights." "A defendant's meeting will be called at the first 
convenience to discuss legal strategy," and so on. And this was done 
particularly in relation to activities that took place during the earl}' 
part of 1966, in relationship to the picketing of a Congressman in the 
Oakland-Berkeley area, at which time they passed out various pam- 
phlets, and actually some of them had a sit-in in the Congressman's 
office, until a point where they had to be arrested and, ultimately, 
prosecuted and convicted. 

But this advice to demonstrators indicates what we were discussing 
during the hearings yesterday and what Mr. Ashbrook has brought out 
this morning about the antipolice activity, which seemed to go along 
with all of the demonstrations. And I would offer this particular 
document for the record, also. 

Mr. IcHORD. There being no objection, the document marked Ex- 
liibit 15 will be admitted into the record. 

(Document marked "Meese Exhibit No. 15.'" See p. 1137.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was an attempt made by the Vietnam Day Commit- 
tee to distribute literature in military installations on the West Coast? 

Mr. Meese. Yes ; this was one of the activities that went on. John 
Windrim Smith was quoted in the San Francisco Examiner of the 27th 
of October 1965 as saying that in addition to, or rather that a leaflet 
which was headed "ATTENTION ALL MILITARY PERSON- 
NEL" that this leaflet was described by the lawyers for the VDC to be 
seditious, but Smith led the majority of the VDC in a vote at a gen- 
eral membership meeting that the VDC would continue printing and 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1099 

handing out the leaflets ; and the particular leaflet involved was this 
one here. 

It is headed "ATTENTION ALL MILITAKY PERSONNEL," 
and it is printed in a format very similar to official Army documents. 
For instance it has in small print up in the corner, "Approved For 
Posting." Down at the bottom it has, as a Department of Defense 
or Army form number, in the same style of type, it has "VDC Form 
2017-J, 16 Oct. 1965" and the notation, "All previous Editions Ob- 
solete." 

[Laughter.] 

Mr. IcHORD. Let there be order. 

Mr. Meese. It is addressed to military personnel, and it says, "You 
may soon be sent to Vietnam," and then has a description of why we 
are fighting in Vietnam, who is the enemy, and so on, and winds 
up w^ith this suggestion : 

OPPOSE THE WAR 

We hope that you too find yourself, as a hiunan being, unable to tolerate this 
nightmare war, and we hope that you will oppose it. We don't know what kind 
of risks we are taking in giving you this leaflet ; you won't know what risk you 
will be taking in opposing the war. A growing number of GIs have already 
refused to fight in Vietnam and have been court-martialed. They have shown 
great courage. We believe that they, together with other courageous men who 
will join them, will have influence far out of proportion to their numbers. 

And then they go on to say : 

You may feel the war is wrong, and still decide not to face a court-martial. 
You may then find yourself in Vietnam under orders. You might be forced to 
do some fighting — but don't do any more than you have to. Good luck. Vietnam 
Day Conunmittee. 

I would offer this for the record. 

Mr. IcHORD, Mr. Meese, do you have any information as to whether 
or not this particular document ended up in Vietnam ? 

Mr. Meese. There were newspaj>er reports that it wound up in 
Vietnam. The VDC itself denied that they had mailed them to Viet- 
nam. As a matter of fact, John Windrim Smith was quoted in the 
San Francisco Examiner, the student newspaper at the University of 
California, and the San Francisco Chronicle on the 29th of November 
1965, in which he acknowledged that the VDC had printed the pam- 
phlet which has just been received into the record and which he 
described, at that time, as being a leaflet that was sent to Vietnam, 
but he denied that the VDC mailed the leaflets. 

He said that the VDC had sent these leaflets to "peace" organiza- 
tions and various individuals in the United States, but not to service- 
men. He stated that the 30,000 copies of the leaflet were printed, but 
most were distributed on or near the UCLA campus. 

However, in a meeting of the VDC wiiich was held on the 20th of 
October, there was a discussion about this particular pamphlet, and 
at that time it was discussed that the majority of the VDC recom- 
mends that they approve and distribute this soldier leaflet, which 
was the one described here, but mainly to U.S. soldiers who are pre- 
paring to go to Vietnam. And at that time, it was stated in the 
meeting that the leaflet had already been widely distributed and 
reprinted by many groups; 6,000 were taken into Fort Ord and dis- 
tributed; about 200 at another military installation; and many at the 



1100 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Army Intellig-ence School in Monterey. It was stated that they had 
distributed all but about 5,0<)0 of the 30,000 leaflets which had been 
printed. These leaflets were also distributed at Travis Air Force 
Base and Hamilton Field, which are military installations in the vicin- 
ity of the Bay area there. 

Mr. IcHORD. There being no objection, Exhibit 16 will be admitted 
in the record. 

(Document marked "Meese Exhibit No. 16." See p. 1138.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have there been any recent activities on this subject ? 

Mr. Meese. The recent activities, primarily, have been those which 
took place at the Naval Weapons Station at Port Chicago, which have 
already been described in relation to the committee. I think that this 
has been the primary incident of very recent date. 

However, during the period of time after the women's march and 
after the marches in the end of 1965, the YT>C turned to other ways 
of gaining publicity for their activities, including the draft board 
activity and the distribution of the leaflet which has just been received. 

One of the incidents that happened in the Bay area was the bomb- 
ing, so to speak, by a light aircraft, of certain military installations in 
the city of Oakland, distributing a leaflet. 

Now this activity was not specifically traceable to the VDC and may 
have been handled by other anti-Vietnam war organizations. The 
leaflet which was distributed, however, was similar to leaflets which 
were also distributed by some members of the Vietnam Day Com- 
mittee, but there is — the persons who were actually arrested for flying 
over Oakland and the Alameda Naval Air Station and other installa- 
tions and dropping these leaflets from the plane, the ones arrested were 
not members of the Vietnam Day Committee. 

The leaflet that was dropped from the light plane — and this hap- 
pened coincidentally during about a week period in southern Cali- 
fornia over several military installations, and also in northern Cali- 
fornia, in the Oakland area, the area of the Oakland Naval Supply 
Depot and the Alameda Naval Air Station — the leaflet that was 
dropped is this one that I have in my hand, which shows a picture of 
two burned bodies on one side and some writing material on the 
other, and I would offer this leaflet into the record at this time. 

The Chairman. May I see that ? 

Mr, NiTTLE. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Meese. I might state parenthetically to the committee, Mr. 
Ichord, that there seems to be some necessity, which you may, or some 
other committee of Congress may, wish to consider at some other time, 
for more strenuous control of dropping things from planes. 

Ultimately, the people who dropped these things were convicted 
under State law, but the only offense that they were able to be con- 
victed for was littering the streets, inasmuch as some of their leaflets 
were dropped on the streets of Oakland. 

From the Floor. How about dropping 

Mr. Ichord. I^et there be order in the hearing room. 

The Chair will advise the witness that when we go into legislative 
aspects of the hearing, this member does desire to question you at 
length on the effectiveness of existing laws, whether they be State 
or Federal, to control this type of activity, and I hope — I know that 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1101 

the gentleman has done some research in that regard, and your testi- 
mony will be very beneficial to the committee. 

If there be no objection, the document will be admitted as a part of 
the record. 

(Document marked "Meese Exhibit No. 17" and retained in commit- 
tee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. What has been the etTect of these activities on law en- 
forcement in Alameda County ? 

Mr. Meese. Well, the entire sequence of events which I have de- 
scribed here, has, of course, had a number of effects on law enforce- 
ment. At one time, most of the activity of the police agencies and the 
district attorney's office has been directed at the more conventional 
type of crime. 

In the last several years, an increasing amount of our time and man- 
power and resources has had to be put into the type of activities that 
have been conducted 'by the Vietnam Day Committee. 

Because any time you have a demonstration, it takes a tremendous 
number of police officers just to control the traffic situation and to be 
available in the case of disorder or possibility of extensive civil diffi- 
culties — civil disobedience or criminal violations, which are also very 
possible at these demonstrations. 

(At this point Representative Pool entered the hearing room.) 

Mr. Meese. There has been a great cost to the county of Alameda, 
which is described in the report of the grand jury of Alameda County, 
which deals with in part the Vietnam Day Committee. 

I have a copy of that grand jury report, which I would offer to you 
for the record at this time. 

Mr. Pool. (Presiding) If there is no objection, the document is 
admitted in evidence. 

(Document marked "Meese Exhibit No. 18." See p. 1140.) 

Mr. IcHORD. Mr. Chairman, at this point, I have a question which I 
would like to direct to the witness. 

Mr. Meese, I have always been very curious as to how the fines are 
raised to support the type of activities which you have been testifying 
about. Do you have any evidence to give to the committee concerning 
the cost of the activity you have been testifying about and, also, as to 
the way or ways the money is raised ? 

Mr. Meese. Now by this, Mr. Ichord, you are referring to the ex- 
penses on behalf of the Vietnam Day Committee ? 

Mr. IciroRD. Of the Vietnam Day Committee and the activities which 
you have been talking about. 

Mr. Meese. I don't have any absolute figures on the total cost of 
their operations, other than to say that the total operation during the 
period of time from May of 1963 to the present has been costly, inas- 
much as during this time, they were renting a permanent headquarters ; 
at the demonstrations, there was the rental involved of walkie-talkies, 
and there was the providing of loudspeaker equipment. 

Mr. Ichord. Do you know what the rental on the headquarters was ? 

Mr. Meese. No, I do not. The printing of the leaflets, just the 
printing costs, and what has been introduced into the record here of the 
leaflets is just a small sampling, actually, of the total number of leaflets 
that were printed and distributed during this period of time. 



1102 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

So the only thing I can tell you, inasmuch as the costs were not 
directly related to any of the criminal violations that our office had 
cognizance of, is 

The Chairman. You say some of these leaflets were distributed by 
plane ? 

Mr. Meese. Yes. 

Tlie Chairman. That is costly. 

Mr. Meese. So that I have no concrete evidence, other than to say 
that there was considerable cost. Now as to how the money was raised, 
among the sources were solicitations, a continuous solicitation of 
funds at tables set up on the campus of the University of California 
and also in various other locations in the county where they solicited 
funds. And at rallies and demonstrations, of course, there would be 
an appeal for funds, so this was at least one source of income. 

Beyond that, I have no immediate information. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Chairman and Mr. Ichord, may I state that the 
committee, that is, this committee, will produce evidence of the sums 
of money that have passed through tlie accounts of the Vietnam Day 
Committee, and I would say it appears that in excess of $80,000 has 
been received, according to bank statements. 

Mr. IcHORD. Do you have a witness that you will produce in that 
regard, Mr. Counsel? 

Mr. NiTixE. We have subpenaed, Mr. Ichord, the ledger sheets of 
a Berkeley bank at which funds of the Vietnam Day Committee 
were deposited.^ 

Mr. IcHORD. T thank the counsel for that contribution. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Meese, 1ms there been any effect on the military 
installations involved ? 

Mr. Meese. Yes; there was a definite effect, particularly of the 
marches on the 15th and 16th of October and the 20th of November, 
inasmuch as, particularly in October, the objectives of the Vietnam 
Day Committer were in effect to go to the Oakland Army Tenninal 
and to demonstrate there. It was necessary, since the Army could not 
afford to have their operations at the base stopped, it was necessary 
for them to mass large numbers of the military's own Armed Forces 
police and to have in readiness other people to support the police, in 
the event that the disorders got out of hand or that actual criminal of- 
fenses were perpetrated against the Army terminal, in the manner that 
I described had been discussed in Vietnam Day Committee circles. 

I mentioned that in my testimony yesterday. 

In addition, because of the possible civil disorder within the city of 
Oakland which would be generated by the activity, the march, the 
torchlight parade, the Governor of California felt it necessary to have 
the National Guard, a great number of National Guardsmen, on duty 
on stand by duty and available in the event that there was a riot or 
other disorder within the city, so the effect on military personnel and 
military operations was felt in these two demonstrations. 

Mr. IcHORD. Well, Mr. Chairman, the gentleman has testified re- 
peatedly that the police, the National Guard, have been directed to 
control these activities continuously. 



1 The ledger sheets of the Bank of America, University Branch, Berkeley, California, 
for the account of the Vietnam Day Committee for the period May 7, IftS'S, to July 19. 
1966, indicate deposits to that account in the sum of $37,.77i5.5lO. However, it is to be 
noted that the amounts deposited to this account would not necessarily reflect all sums 
collected or received by the Vietnam Day Committee or its agents. 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1103 

I wonder if lie has any statement of the cost to law enforcement 
officials in the State of California in regard to this type of activity ? 

Mr. Meese. Well, the cost it is very hard to estimate, because the 
costs were not only involved in the overtime pay that was involved 
on these particular days, and I might add that during these days, it 
was necessary to put the police department of all the cities, the sheriff's 
department in the city of Berkeley, city of Oakland, city of Emery- 
ville, on a 12-hour shift. 

The officers, so you could have the officers, instead of having three 
platoons working 8 hours a piece, all the officers were called back 
from duty, and the police department worked 12-hour shifts, so that 
you could have half the department carrying on the normal police 
functions of patrolling the street, and the other half were made 
necessary to be at these demonstrations. 

Now one estimate of the cost of the 20th of November parade was 
that it cost at least $10,000 an hour to protect the Vietnam Day Com- 
mitte on Saturday the 20th of November. 

And they described the situation as being — the California Highway 
Patrol, w^hich were brought in, had 400 officers and 40 sergeants. The 
entire police department of the city of Oakland was on duty during 
that day. 

The Alameda County Sheriff's Department had their entire patrol 
force on duty and likewise the city of Berkeley, and so these were 
just the immediate costs of the thing. 

I would have no w^ay, other than adding up the cost of this parade, 
and the cost of a similar parade. We don't have the figures on the 
National Guard, but I am sure you could say that, during the fall of 
1965, in excess of a hundred thousand dollars of public money, and 
possibly much more than that, went into handling, on a law enforce- 
ment basis, the activities of the Vietnam Day Committee. 

Mr. IcHORD. I would say, Mr. Meese, that democracy is indeed very 
generous to go to this expense in providing any protection at all for 
Vietnam Day marchers. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Has there been any recent direct activity by this ele- 
ment in regard to soldier morale ? 

Mr. Meese. Yes; the Vietnam Day Committee fairly recently, dur- 
ing the summer, was prepared to support the three soldiers who were 
formerly stationed at Fort Hood, Texas, in their activities of opposing 
the war and refusing to fight in Vietnam, and as the committee, i 
am sure, knows, these soldiers were en route for the Oakland Army 
Terminal, for shipment overseas, and it was the plan of the Vietnam 
Day Committee to demonstrate at or near the Oakland Army Terminal 
in support of these soldiers. 

They passed out leaflets describing the situation and describing theii' 
demonstration, which would have been set for Friday the 15th of 
July, and I offer these two exhibits, the leaflets that they passed out. 

However, their demonstrations actually did not take place in the 
vicinity of the Oakland Army Teraninal, and what was ultimately 
planned did not happen, inasmuch as the soldiers themselves were 
shifted by the Army to another location, and so they did not arrive 
at the Oakland Army Terminal. 

The picketing, the demonstrations were planned for the Armed 
Forces Induction Center and, undoubtedly, would have continued at 
t he Oakland Army Terminal, had the soldiers arrived there. 



1104 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

This is one of the concerns which the military personnel at Oak- 
land Army Terminal were very coo;nizant of. 

Mr. Pool. Without objection these are admitted into evidence. 

(Documents marked "Meese Exhibits Nos. 19-A and 19-B," respec- 
tively. See pp. 1149-1150.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Meese, would you please tell us how the Vietnam 
Day Committee was led, and who were its principal officers ? 

Mr. Meese. The leadership of the Vietnam Day Committee was 
usually by way of a steering committee, and the committee composition 
changed from time to time. However, it was interesting the way they 
functioned. Very often, they would have different people who would 
lead particular events, such as they would have parade chairmen and 
Ihey would have other people who would apply for the parade 
permits. 

Other people would apply for the facilities where they held their 
meetings on the campus of the University of California. 

This was done, in part, as a way of evading individual responsibility 
for many of the activities, if there was some disorder or some other 
misconduct. However, generally there was a steering committee, and 
there were also, during the early stages of the Vietnam Day Commit- 
tee, they had a chairman or a cochairman. 

The slieet of paper previously introduced into the record lists the 
Steering Committee for the march on the 15th and 16th of October. 

I have documents here which give the names of some of the lead- 
ers. One of the early leaflets had to do with picketing President 
Johnson when he appeared at the commemoration of the 20th an- 
niversary of the United Nations, and on here, it lists "If you wish 
to help or want further information, phone Jerry Rubin" at a phone 
number which is listed, and send contributions in care of Professor 
S. Smale. So these were some of the early names that came out. 

A document entitled "Press Release from the Vietnam Day Com- 
mittee, For Release 10 a.m., June 10," and which describes the picket- 
ing of President Johnson, is — has the names at the bottom. Morris 
Hirsch, professor of mathematics. University of California Steering 
Committee, VDC; Paul E. Ivory, acting assistant professor of eco- 
nomics, UCLA, acting cochairman, VDC ; and Jerry Rubin, cochair- 
man, VDC; and then a document which was distributed in June of 
1965, entitled, "Reply to Professor Scalapino," having to do w^ith dif- 
fering opinions over the conduct of the war in Vietnam, or of the 
conduct of the Vietnam Day Committee in opposition to the war in 
Vietnam, and this is signed by Professor Morris Hirsch, Professor 
Stephen Smale, and Jerry Rubin. 

I would offer these documents, which are from the VDC into the 
record, and would also be prepared if the committee wished, to go into 
the activities of specific leaders. 

Mr. Pool. If there is no objection, the documents are admitted into 
evidence. 

(Documents marked "Meese Exhibits Nos. 20-A, B, and C," respec- 
tively. See pp. 1152-1154.) 

(At this point Mr. Buchanan left from the hearing room.) 

Mr. Meese. I would be prepared to go into the activities of specific 
leaders who have been subpenaed here before the committee, if this 
is what is wished, Mr. Nittle. 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1105 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, we would be pleased. Do so. 

Mr. Meese. Mr. Rubin has already been described as a leader of the 
VDC. He M-as an organizer and one of the cochairmen of the teach- 
in on May the 21st, which was really the founding of the VDC as a 
formal organization. 

He was a leader of the troop train activities in Berkeley, in August. 
He stated in a quote in the Examiner on the 23rd of August 1965, in 
reply to questions about the general setup of the VDC, he said that all 
national VDC groups took the lead from the Berkeley VDC. 

Mr. Rubin, along with others, was arrested on the 24th of August 
1965, at the Fairmont Hotel, for trespassing and interfering with a 
})olice officer in the performance of his duty, while picketing General 
Maxwell Taylor, who w^as staying there. 

He pleaded in court nolo contendere, which is a form of — which is 
equivalent, legally, to a plea of guilty, and was convicted and sen- 
tenced in December of 1965. 

He was present at the noon rally. 

Mr. AsHBRooK. Now on that point, what was the sentence? 

Mr. Meese. He was sentenced to 30 days in jail, and 18 months pro- 
bation. Mr. Rubin was a speaker at a noon rally at the University 
of California, at which the discussion about war dogs was discussed, 
among other subjects, and he was one of those who annoimced the new 
plan for the October 15-16 demonstration, in which statement he stated 
that there would be no civil disobedience. 

He was quoted in opposition to statements of Attorney General 
Lynch of California, in October of 1965, prior to the 15th and 16th of 
October. 

The attorney general of California had indicated that if there were 
any criminal violations by the VDC in their march, that it would be 
necessary for State and local officials to take criminal action against 
them. 

Mr. Rubin was quoted in the paper as stating what the purpose of 
the march was and also stating that the VDC would march anyway, 
whether or not the cities involved granted a parade permit. 

And he was quoted in the daily Tribune^ the Oakland Tribune of 
the 14th of October, after being questioned about Oakland's denial of 
the parade permit for the march, he said that the parade would start as 
scheduled. 

He also, in the article, encouraged arrests and predicted a civil 
rights fight w^ould result from the VDC activities if anyone attempted 
to stop the march. 

(At this point Mr. Buchanan returned to the hearing room.) 

Mr. Meese. Mr. Rubin was quoted in the San Jose News, or the 
Mercury-Neivs of the l7th of October, as on the 16th of October, 
Saturday, announcing the plans for the second attempt at getting to 
the Oakland Army Terminal. 

And he said in that statement that instead of a fight at the line if 
they were stopped, the marcher would sit down and participate in a 
teach-in on the street. He also vowed that there would be another 
attempt, too, in November, if the march should be stopped at the 
Oakland City line. 



1106 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Mr, NiTTLE. Would you hold a moment, Mr. Meese ? 

Would you kindly proceed, Mr. Meese ? 

Mr. Meese. In relation to Mr. Rubin, there is one other note and that 
is a quote in the Daily Calif ornian^ the student newspaper at the 
University of California, on the 20th of October 1965, in which they 
quote Mr. Rubin, in speaking about the pamphlet which you have in 
evidence here, "BRIEF NOTES ON THE WAYS OF 'BEATING' 
AND DEFEATING THE DRAFT." Mr. Rubin stated at that time 
that the VDC as an organization did not writ-e the article, or the pam- 
phlet, but an individual member of the VDC did write it, and he said, 
"We don't take credit for something we did not do, but we support its 
position." 

In summary, Mr. Chairman and members of the committee, during 
the period from May of 1965 through 1966, Mr. Rubin was one of the 
leaders and principal spokesmen for the VDC. 

I believe his other activities have already been related for the record 
in regard to these individual specific instances. 

Mr. John Windrim Smith, Jr., was a spokesman on several occa- 
sions for the Vietnam Day Committee. He was quoted in relation 
to the Tilden Park war dog episode, as I mentioned. 

He was quoted in the Tribune on the 14th of October 1965, after the 
city manager had refused to issue a parade permit, in saying that "We 
will march anyway." As discussed earlier, he was active in being a 
spokesman for the distribution, and advocating the distribution, of the 
"Attentional All Military Personnel" leaflet, and which is here in 
evidence, and was quoted in the Exam'mer on the 30th of October 1965, 
in relation to the antidraft campaign, in which he said that the goal 
was to reach high school students, and described the pamphlets that 
were being printed. 

He also took part in rallies for medical aid for the Viet Cong, and 
continued in various other picketing and demonstration activities of 
the Vietnam Day Committee. On the 5th of January 1966, in the 
Daily Calif ornian^ Mr. Smith was quoted as announcing the future 
plans of the VDC. 

He stated that the VDC did not plan to march to the Oakland Army 
Terminal any more, unless there was a major escalation of the war in 
Vietnam. He said that at that time their policy Avas that they had 
used up the effectiveness of mass demonstrations, and that they would 
engage in other types of activities, some of which I have described for 
you. 

Mr. Steven Cherkoss was among the persons who picketed the Oak- 
land Army Induction Center. He is listed, as is Mr. Smith, as mem- 
bers of the Steering Committee, with members of the 15th and 16th of 
October march. 

Mr. Cherkoss was one of the leaders of the picketing and demon- 
strations at the Oakland Army Induction Center, and the antidraft 
campaign. He spoke at a rally of Sproul Hall, on the antidraft cam- 
paign, as I previously testified, and set up a table near the Garfield 
Junior High School, in Berkeley, to pass out VDC leaflets there. 

He was described in articles in the Berkeley Gazette as the VDC high 
school coordinator, and also was active in the campaign to gain medical 
supplies and money for the Viet Cong. 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1107 

Mr. Cherkoss was arrested, or had a prior arrest for non-VDC dem- 
onstrations activity, in the city of Oakland. He was arrested in De- 
cember of 1964 for resisting and interfering with the police officer in 
the performance of his duty, disturbing the peace, failure to leave the 
scene of an unlawful disturbance, and public nuisance, and ultimately 
received a sentence to the county jail, some 35 days in the county jail, 
for that offense. 

I believe those are the leaders, the principal spokesmen who were 
subpenaed here before the committee. The other leader. Professor 
Smale, I have already described him, many of his activities in relation 
to the incidents that were mentioned. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were there any efforts made to encourage Americ^xn 
citizens to aid the Viet Cong ? 

Mr. Meese. Yes; on the 10th of November 1965, the /San Francisco 
fhronwle had a story that on the 9th of November of that year, Mr. 
Smith, John Smith, had spoken at a rally on the University of Cali- 
fornia campus, at which blood and money were being solicited for the 
Viet Cong. 

The group was called the Medical Aid Committee. He said that 43 
]:)ersons had volunteered to donate one pint of blood to victims of what 
he called United States aggression in Vietnam. Likewise, Mr. Cher- 
koss announced on the 27th of October 1965, in articles in — that were 
carried by tlie San Francisco Chronicle., the Oakland Trihime, and 
other papers, announced that the May 2nd Movement would solicit and 
send medical supplies to the Viet Cong, and he hoped that the VDC 
would join the movement. 

He also led, was present at the rally and spoke at the rally held on 
the 9th of November, which I described in relation to Mr. Smith. 

The Medical Aid Committee, as they called themselves, published a 
brochure, describing provision purchases and soliciting donations of 
money to a post office box in Berkeley, and I have here photostatic 
copies of that brochure, headed "Medical Aid Committee." 

Mr. Pool. Do you offer that in evidence at this time ? 

Mr. Meese. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Pool. With no objections, it is so ordered. 

(Document marked "Meese Exhibit No. 21.'' See. p. 1155.) 

Mr. Nittle. Have you completed your testimony on that point, Mr. 
Meese ? 

What other activities did Mr. Smith engage in on behalf of the 
Vietnam Day Committee? 

Mr. Meese. I think the principal activities were those that I have 
already outlined in relation to the pamphlet distribution in which he 
was very active. 

Mr. Nittle. Were there any other organizations which participated 
in the work of and supported the Vietnam Day Committee ? 

Mr. Meese. Yes ; there were a number of other organizations. Cer- 
tainly the marches brought out every description of person who be- 
longed to a variety of organizations, many of which the police de- 
partments and law enforcement agencies of our area had had prior 
concern about. 

Perhaps the best list of the other types of organizations which sup- 
ported and participated with the Vietnam Day Committee are those 



1108 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

contained in the leaflet you already have in evidence, in suj^ijort of 
the August 6 demonstrations in San Francisco, and particularly then 
at Port Chicago Naval Weapons Station. That is one of the most 
complete lists of organizations supporting this movement. 

Other leaflets that I have here give other types of organizations. 
One is the picketing of President — or rather the picketing and demon- 
strations in San Francisco and a rally in Union Square on the 7th of 
August of 1965, which contains a list of the sponsors, among them the 
Stanford Committee for Peace [in Vietnam], the San Francisco and 
Berkeley DuBois Clubs, Students for a Democratic Society [SDS], 
West Oakland Project, and others. 

This leaflet, I would offer into evidence, with a list of the groups 
supporting it there. 

Mr. Pool. With no objection, the exhibit is admitted into evidence. 

(Document marked "Meese Exhibit No. 22" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Meese. Another pamphlet which I have here indicates the close 
correlation between the students who are involved in the Sproul Hall 
sit-in in the winter of 1964 and the Vietnam Day Committee, during the 
course of the trial of the sitters-in. 

The day came for sentencing on Thursday, July 29, and at that 
time, there was distributed a leaflet advertising a rally at noon of that 
day on the Sproul Hall steps, a march to the court, a rally, and a sit-in, 
in the courtroom. 

They say a sit-in in the courtroom. Not a sit-in in the classical 
sense, "Sit in the courtroom & hear sentencing — 2 P.M." And this 
is in support of the students who had been arrested and at that time 
convicted, and they list the sponsors of this rally, Vietnam Day Com- 
mitteej Free Student Union, SLATE, Campus CORE, Independent 
Socialist Club, Richmond CORE, [SDS] Students for a Democratic 
Society, Campus SNCC, Berkeley DuBois Club, Young Socialist Al- 
liance, and Berkeley CORE. 

Mr. Pool. With no objection, the document is admitted into evi- 
dence. 

(Document marked "Meese Exhibit No. 23" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Meese. And then as a group exhibit I have a variety of other 
documents, pamphlets which indicate other organizations, some of 
which have already been mentioned, which support the Vietnam Day 
Committee, and particularly the activities of the Vietnam Day Com- 
mittee. 

Various DuBois Clubs, the Students for a Democratic Society, and 
an article from the Progressive Labor Party magazine, authored by 
Steven Cherkoss, about the war in Vietnam. 

I would offer these into evidence. 

Mr. Pool. With no objection the documents are admitted into evi- 
dence. 

(Documents marked "Meese Exhibits Nos. 2-1-A, B, C, and D," re- 
spectively. Exhibits 24-A, B, and D retained in committee files. See 
p. 1159 for Exhibit 24^C.) 

Mr. Meese. I believe that is a fairly complete rundown of the infor- 
mation we have available, Mr. Counsel, concerning the organizations 
supporting the Vietnam Day Committee. 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1109 

Mr. NiTTLE. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. Mr. Chairman ? 

Mr. Pool. Yes. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. I would merely like to state for the record I have 
liad occasion for the best part of 6 years now to hear witnesses before 
\arious committees, and I don't believe I have ever heard a witness who 
knew his subject any better and was able to make any greater con- 
tribution to the legishitive elfort before a committee than Mr. Meese, 
and I certainly would like to go on record as saying we thank you. 

We thank your office, we thank your boss, we thank all of you who 
have made this contribution. It certainly has been most enlightening, 
and I, for one, have received a great amount of information from it. 

I thank you. 

Mr. Meese. Thank you very much. 

Mr. Pool. Mr, Ichord. 

Mr. IcHORD. Mr. Chairman, I join in the commendation of Mr. 
Meese. He obviously had made a very thorough investigation, and he 
is also extremely articulate in presenting the results of that investiga- 
tion. 

Your testimony, sir, is a very valuable contribution to this committee 
and the Congress, and will be a very vaulable, very valuable testimony 
in support of any legislation that we might present to the Congress. 

Mr. Meese. Thank you, Mr. Ichord. 

Mr. Clawson. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Pool. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Clawson. May I compliment Mr. Meese? As a fellow Cali- 
fornian, one from down at the other end of the State, it is nice to feel 
a fresh breeze from Berkeley. 

Mr. Meese. Thank you. 

Mr. Buchanan. Mr. Chairman, I would like to join the general 
chorus and thank Mr. Meese for his outstanding contribution to these 
hearings. 

Mr. Meese. Thank you. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Chairman, we are certainly glad to have you here. 
Would you care to make any comnient to this witness ? 

The Chairman. Well, I join in all that has been said and I stress 
that, in my opinion, you have made out a case for the passage of the 
Pool bill. 

Mr. Pool. Thank you, and the Chair wishes to also join with his 
colleagues in complimenting you on a job well done. At the same time, 
I want to make mention of the good work of Inspector Don Lynn, 
who is here with you and has worked closely with you, and I think 
that his work should be complimented, too. 

It is a real privilege, and we salute you as a great American for 
coming here and giving us the benefit of this testimony. 

Thank you. 

Mr. Meese. Thank you, sir. 

Mr. Pool. The witness is excused. 

(All Meese exhibits referred to in the testimony and not marked 
"retained in committee files" follow :) 



67^852 O— 66 — pt. 1 14 



1110 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Meese Exhibit No. 1 
' Are You Interested In Working Fof 

Withdrawal Of USA Troops From Vietnam? 



THE ViETNAM DAY COMMITT 



oruamzQ fioinal kick -o: 



Ti eFi 




/J¥ 




[7?^^ 



p.m. 



LD PEACE! 



We are planning activities in education- research, 
direct action, and community work. We need you 
to help plan and carry out these activities. If you 
have any questions call 845-6637. 

SEE OTHER SIDE FOR DETAILS. 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1111 
Meese Exhibit No. 1 — Continued 

Where Is The Peace Movement In The Bay Area Headed? 



The goal is a nationwide peace movement which can coordinate nationwide protest 
demonstrations. 

The goal is mobilization and organization of grassroots anxieties about the war into 
vigorous opposition, and to work toward participatory democracy. 

The goal is to spread the truth about the war--by nneans of speakers, newspapers, 
pamphlets, research projects, classes and connmunity nneetings--to offset the con- 
trol of the mass media and the universities by the liberal Establishment's cold war 
ideology. 

In order to build such a three-phased movement of direct action, connmunity organ- 
ization and education-research we must begin. The Vietnam Day Committee, which 
organized the Teach-in on campus in May and the picket against Johnson, has under- 
taken this task. We need you to join us. 

Conne this Tuesday night to our kickoff summer meeting where we will organize some 
of the following projects: 

* A mass drive throughout Berkeley and Oakland on Saturday, July 10 for signatures 
on a petition asking the President to with draw the troops from Vietnam immediately. 

* Door-to-door canvassing of Oakland to discuss the war. 

* A "peace vote" in Oakland at the end of the summer. 

* Setting up a speakers' bureau to send speakers to PTA's, labor unions, churches, 
fraternities and sororities 

* A labor teach-in at the Oakland Army Terminal, ei.couraging the longshoremen who 
load the munitions there to take off fronn work to hear the facts about our role in the 
war in Vietnam, then to be followed by mass picketing of the base. 

■*■ A teach-in during the lunch hour for the employees of IBM. 

* Mass leafleting of the soldiers at Fort Ord, The Presidio, and other installations. 

* A second "Vietnam Day" to be followed by civil disobedience, on Oct. 15 and 16. 

* A Congress of Unrepresented Peoples on Sunday August 8 to pass resolutions den^and- 
ing that the USA withdraw from Vietnam, and then a march to the office of Congress - 
nnan Jeffrey Cohelan presenting the resolutions to him and asking him questions 
about his stand on the war. 

* A bi-weekly newspaper. 

* A research project on the involvement of the University of California in the war in 
Vietnam. 

Theses ideas scratch only the surface of the possibilities of work to end the war in 
Vietnam. We will organize as many projects as there are people to work. Please come 
Tuesday night to help make the above projects successfxil, or to add new ones. 

THE VIETNAM DAY COMMITTEE (Campus Chapter) 



1112 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED 



WAR 



Meese Exhibit No. 2 




■ill II 1 J 





f] 


, 


w 






9 a > 



Another troop train is coming through Berkeley taking American 
boys to Vietnam to kill and be killed in a country where the U.S. does 
not belong. 

We must demonstrate against the war machine; we must stop the 
train and give our anti-war literature tothe soldiers. To oppose the 
immoral war in Vietnam and to block the war machine is C^moral; to 
take orders from an immoral state is immoral. The police will be on 
hand to try to help the war machine go through- -without a second's stop. 
We will be there too. 

We are not demonstrating against the soldiers. We consider the 
soldiers to be our brothers- -brothers who have been conscripted against 
their will and forced to kill by a government which has forgotten how to tell 
the truth. We want to stop the war machine and tell the soldiers what is 
really going on in Vietnam'. 



thursday, august 1 2 

SANTA FE STATION, BERKELEY 1300 University Ave: 

TENTATIVE TIME! 8:45a.m. 



For the exact arrival time call the Vietnam Day Committee Wednesday night, 
or come over to the office for further infornaation. 

2407 Fulton St., Berkeley 549-0811 or 845-6637 

o/yJ/^^ Car pools will be leaving for the Santa Fe Station at 

approximately 8 a.m. from the corner of Bancroft and Dana. 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1113 



Meese Exhibit No. 2 — Continued 

TroopTrain Picket No.4 - thisThursday, 8:45a,in. 

WHIT fill HAPPEI THIS TIME 2 



-; ' ■!<, ' g i ' V' T -" ^ ^*-iJ/.'ycrPWw. ' wy i , < ljA ' ^J.w.-y-" i "« ; '■'','. ■ 



"^ 













•i*.^:-*.-^ii^!^^Si^i^^ZL ife ii /'Tf^ 






1114 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 



Meese Exhibit No. 3 





T If TIE 




(This leaflet was passed out and posted in McCombk Mississippi in July 1965. 
It was written by a group of Negroes in the community who met together 
after learning a classmate of theirs, John D. Shaw, had been killed in action 
in Vietnam. Shaw, who was 23 years old, has participated in the 1961 dem- 
onstrations in McComb.) 

Here are five reasons why Negroes should not be in any War fighting for 
America: 

1. No Mississippi Negroes should be fighting in Vietnam for the White 
mans freedom, until all the Negro People are free in Mississippi. 

2. Negro boys should not honor the draft here in Mississippi Mothers 
should encourage their sons not to go. 

3. We will gain respect and dignity as a race only by forcing the United 

States Government and the Missippi, Government to come with guns, 
dogs and trucks to take our sons away to fight and be killed protecting 
Miss. Ala, Ga, and La. 

4. No one has a right to ask us to risk our lives and kill other Colored 
People in Santo Domingo and Vietnam, so that the White American 
can get richer. We wUl be looked upon as traitors by all the Colored 
People of the World if the Negro people continue to fight and die with- 
out a cause. 



Last week a white soldier from New Jersey was discharged from the 
Army because he refused to fight in Vietnam he went on a hunger 
strike. Negro boys can do the same thing. We can write and ask our 
sons if they know what they are fighting for. If he answers Freedom, 
tell him thats what we are fighting for here in Mississippi. And if he 

says Democracy tell him the truth we don't know anything about Conrx- 

munism. Socialism, and all that, but we do know that Negroes have 
caught hell here under this American Democracy. 



This was reprinted by the: 
Vj<>tnam Hay C ommittee 
2407 Fulton 
Berkeley, California 
Phone: 549-0811 or 845-6637 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1115 



Meese Exhibit No. 4 



^c... 


.Of 


V 

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Th..- Ii 


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unlc. 


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tcJ Hy rhe 


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WESTERN UNION 

c,:.:.."orrr.„ TELEGRAM " r..r.r 

df ■ ■. . . 



I domestic tekgrims b LOCAL TIME ■ 




136A POT AUG 12 65 0A027 
SFC305 LLZ7 LLZ7 NL PD TDSR PWS SAN FRANCISCO CALIF 11 
J FRANK COAKLEY, DISTRICT ATTORNEY 

COl)NTY OF AUNEDA 1225 FALLON ST OAKUND CALIF 
SANTA FE SUPERINTENDENT GROUNDWATER TODAY SENT THE FOLLOWING 
TELEGRAM IN , RESPONSE TO ONE RECEIVED 

BY LEADERS OF DEMONSTRATION AGAINST MOVEMENT OF TROOP TRAINS 
BY SANTA FE THROUGH BERKELEYI QUOTE WE HAVE JUST RECEIVED A 
TELEGRAM FROM YOU READING AS FOLLOWS* QUOTE. THE VIET NAM DAY 
COMMITTEE IS A GROUP OF STUDENTS, FACULTY MEMBERS, AND OTHER 
MEMBERS OF THE BAY AREA COMMUNITY OUTRAGED BY THE USE OF BERKELEY 
RAILWAYS FOR THE PURSUIT OF THE IMMORAL WAR IN VIET NAM. WE 
WILL NOT REMAIN SILENT. WE WILL NOT CLOSE OUR EYES WHILE THE 
WAR MACHINE ROLLS ON. THE BRUTALITY OF THE WAR IN VIET NAM 
WAS EXTENDED TO HOME UST WEEK WHEN RAILROAD TRAINS MOVING 
WIT HOUT REGARD T O HUMAN LIFE NEARLY CRUSHED TO DEATH A NUMBER 
OF YOUNG PROTESTORS. LET THIS NOT HAPPEN AGAIN. WE DEMAND 
THAT THE TRAIN STOP IN BERKELEY SO THAT THOSE OF US WHO OPPOSE 
AMERICAN INTERVENTION IN VIET NAM CAN HAVE .THE OPPORTUNITY 
TO HAND OUT LITERATURE TO THE SOLDIERS, TELLING THEM THE REASON 
THEY ARE BEING MADE TO KILL AND DIE. THIS IS OUR DEMAND. STOP 
TOE TRAIN AND LET US TALK WITH THE SOLDIERS. THEY HAVE A RIGHT' 
TO KNOV WHAT THEY ARE FIGHTING FOR. AND WE AS CITIZENS HAVE 
A MORAL RESPONSIBILITY TO TELL THEM. WE WILL BE AWAITING YOUR 
REPLY. SIGNED STEPHEN SMALE, PAUL IVORY, GERRY RUBIN, LARRY 
UUGHLIN. END QUOTE. 

THESE TRAINS CARRYING ARMED FORCES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT 
ARE MOVING UNDER MILITARY ORDERS AND NO STOP AT BERKELEY OR 
EMERYVILLE IS SCHEDULED OR WILL BE MADE. YOUR ILLEGAL PEMAND 
THAT THESE TROOP TRAINS STOH IN BERKELEY SO THAT YOU HAY HAND 



X 



1116 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 



Class op Sfbvice 



Meese Exhibit No. 4— Continued 

liblliKN UNION 

zz:ti. telegram "-.r^r 



; line on domtiiic tcks'tms il LOCAL TIME « poinl of origin. Time ofi. 



! LOCAL TIME • 



c 



c 



c 



^ 



c 



c 



c 



c 



OUT LITERATURE TO THE SOLDIERS AND ALSO TALK WITH THEM 

IN AN EFFORT TO DISSUADE THEM FROM OBEYING THE LAWFUL ORDERS 

OF THEIR COMMANDING OFFICERS AND OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT 

IS FLATLY REJECTED. YOU AND YOUR FOLLOWERS ARE WARNED NOT TO 

OBSTRUCT THESE TRAINS IN ANY MANNER. STAY OFF THE TRACKS, RIGHT-OF-WAY 

, AND OTHER SANTA FE PROPERTY, YOUR THREE PAST ATTEMPTS TO 

OBSTRUCT THESE TRAINS AND THE THREAT NOW CONTAINED IN YOUR 

TELEGRAM SERIOUSLY ENDANGER THE PERSONAL SAFETY OF THE SOLDIERS, 

OTHER CITI2ENS, THE TRAIN CREWS, POLICE, YOURSELVES, AND YOUR 

FOLLOWERS, AND INVOKE, AMONG OTHERS, THE FOLLOWING FEDERAL 

AND STATE CRIMINAL UWS AND REUTED CONSPIRACY STATUTES: 

SECTION 2387 OF THE UNITED STATES CRIMINAL CODE, A FEDERAL 

LAW, DECLARES IT TO BE A CRIMINAL ACT FOR ANYONE WITH THE INTENT 

TO INTERFERE WITH, IMPAIR OR INFL UENCE THE LOYALTY, MORALE, 

OR DISCIPLINE OF THE MILITARY OR NAVAL FORCES OF THE UNITED 
STATES, TO DISTRIBUTE OR ATTEMPT TO DISTRIBUTE ANY WRITTEN 
OR PRINTED MATTER WHICH ADMISES, COUNSELS, OR URGES INSUBORDINATION, 
DISLOYALTY, MUTINY, OR REFUSAL OF DUTY BY ANY MEMBER OF THE 
MILITARY OR NAVAL FORCES OF THE UNITED STATES, OR WHO ADVISES, 
COUNSELS, URGES, OR IN ANY MANNER CAUSES OR ATTEMPTS TO CAUSE 
INSUBORDINATION, DISLOYALTY, MUTINY, OR REFUSAL OF DUTY BY 
ANY MEMBER OF THE MILITARY OR NAVAL FORCES OF THE UNITED STATES. 
ANYONE VIOLATING THIS STATUTE SHALL BE FINED UP TO $10,000 
OR IMPRISONED UP TO TEN YEARS OR BOTH AND SHALL BE INELIGIBLE 
FOR EMPLOYMENT BY THE UNITED STATES OR ANY DEPARTMENT OR AGENCY 
. THEREOF FOR THE FIVE YEARS FOLLOWING SAID CONVICTION. 
SECTION 398 OF THE CALIFORNIA MILITARY AND VETERANS CODE DECLARES 
IT TO BE A CRIMINAL ACT FOR ANY PERSON WHO IN ANY WAY OR MANNER 

SF120UR2-C:.) ■ , ' . ,. ' • 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1117 



/ V 

Class or Scnvur 


Th., i> . f..i mc.^Bt 


unit,, (t, JclerrtJ ch^r- 
nc<*r i* loJlcnfcJ hy the 



Meese Exhibit No. 4 — Continued 

WESTERN UNION 

c.,:.:.:or.rr.„ telegram " r.„r.r^ 



The filinR lime shown in ihc daic line on domestic telegrimi is LOCAL TIME at point of ongm. Time of r< 





SY 


^noLS 


"V 


OL 


-D. 


Y Letitt 




NL 


-N.jht Lt.itr 




LT 


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irTcl^'r 


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< LOCAL TIME it point of dot 



INTERRUPTS OR MOLESTS THE ORDERLY DISCHARGE OF MILITARY 

DUTY OR WHO DISTURBS OR PREVENTS THE PASSAGE OF TROOPS GOING 

TO OR RETURNING FROM ANY DUTY. SAID PERSON OR PERSONS IS GUILTY 

OF A MISDEMEANOR CRIME AND IS SUBJECT TO ARREST AND PUNISHMENT. 

SECTION 587 OF THE CALIFORNIA PENAL CODE DECLARES IT TO BE 

A FELONY CRIME FOR ANY PERSON TO MALICIOUSLY OBSTRUCT THE RAILS 

OR TRACK OF ANY RAILROAD. A VIOLATION OF THIS CRIMINAL STATUTE 

IS PUNISHABLE BY IMPRISONMENT IN THE STATE PRISON UP TO FIVE 

YEARS, 

SECTION 407 OF THE CALIFORNIA PENAL CODE DECLARES IT TO BE 

UNLAWFUL FOR ANY PERSONS TO ASSEMBLE TOGETHER TO DO AN UNLAWFUL 

ACT AND PROHIBITS UNLAWFUL ASSEMBLY. ANYONE VIOLATING THIS 

STATUTE IS GUILTY OF A MISDEMEANOR AND SUBJECT TO A FINE AND 

IMPRISONMENT UP TO SIX MONTHS. 

SECTION 602 J OF THE CALIFORNIA PENAL CODE DECLARES IT 

TO BE A MISDEMEANOR CRIME PUNISHABLE BY FINE OR IMPRISONMENT 

TO ENTER UPON ANY PROPERTY WITH THE INTENTION OF INTERFERING 

WITH OR OBSTRUCTING ANY LAWFUL BUSINESS OR OCCUPATION CONDUCTED 

THEREON. 

SECTION 1992 OF THE UNITED STATES CRIMINAL CODE MAKES IT A 

FEDERAL CRIME TO DERAIL, DISABLE, OR WRECK ANY TRAIN OR ATTEMPT 

TO DO SO AND MAKES SUCH OFFENSE PUNISHABLE BY A FINE OF NOT 

MORE THAN $10,000 OR IMPRISONMENT OF NOT MORE THAN TWENTY YEARS 

OR BOTH, AND IF SUCH CR ME RESULTS IN THE DEATH OF ANY PERSON 

EXPOSES THE OFFENDER TO THE DEATH PENALTY OR IMPRISONMENT FOR 

LIFE. 

SECTIONS 218 AND 229 OF THE CALIFORNIA PENAL CODE DECLARE IT 

TO BE A FELONY CRIME FOR ANYONE TO OBSTRUCT ANY RAILROAD TRAIN 



1118 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 




Meese Exhibit No. 4 — Continued 

WESTERN UNION 

c.:.:.r"r.tL TELEGRAM " r.„r.r 



NL-NI|hl LeIK 



'-^"Lt.'trT.'lwi 



hown in the Jite line on domciiic lelei 



1 LOC/L TIME 11 poim of oii«in. Time of receipt ij LOCAL TIME at point of del 



BY ANY MEANS ULTH 

THE INTENTION OF DERAILING IT AND PROVIDES FOR PUNISHMENT 
INCLUDING LIFE IMPRISONMENT WITHOUT PAROLE AND THE DEATH PENALTY 
WHERE ANY PERSON SUFFERS BODILY HARM BECAUSE OF SUCH ATTEMPTED 
DERAILMENT. 

A COPY OF YOUR WIRE AND THIS REPLY ARE BEING SENT TO THE APPROPRIATE 
UW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES. SIGNED J. T. GROUNDWATER, SUPERINTENDENT 
- SANTA FE RAILWAY COMPANY. UNQUOTE. 

R W WALKER VICE PRESIDENT AND EXECUTIVE REPRESENTATIVE SANTA 
FE RAILWAY COMPANY 

2387 $10,000 398 587 407 602 J 1992 $10,000 218 219 



3 SF120I(R2-6S) 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1119 



Meese Exhibit No. 5 

2407 Fulton Street 

Berkeley, California 94704 

Telephone: 549-0811 



Dear Friend, 

The Friends of the Vietnam Day Committee are writing to you about 
the activities of the Vietnam Day Committee. We are asking your support 
for the Committee's functions. 

The Vietnam Day Committee began by organizing the May 21-22 teach- 
in at the Berkeley campus of the University of California. Since then, the 
Committee has acted with great success to protest against the war in Viet- 
nam. These actions captured the headlines of national newspapers, thereby 
bringing the fact of opposition to the Gtovernment's war policy to the attention 
of every American. In the Bay Area, the Committee obtained two and one- 
half hours prime radio time on KCBS, and there has been extensive radio, 
TV, and newspaper coverage of its protest demonstrations. 

This publicity is a reaction to the Committee's bold confrontations with 
the Government's war machine. The Committee (and other groups) have 
found that the news media will not carry "peace news" without dramatic acts 
involving the risk of arrest; and, without risk, there has been no drama ai;d 
no confrontation. The Committee's boldness in action has enabled it to grow 
very rapidly and to be in the forefront of the peace movement. For example, 
the Vietnam Day Committee proclaimed October 15-16 as International Days of 
Protest, and this call has been answered by peace groups all over the United 
States, Japan, Argentina, France, and other countries. The call for Days of 
Protest will result in significant international protest against the war on Octo- 
ber 15-16. 

In order to carry on the opposition to the war, the Committee has a paid 
staff of eight persons and many volunteers who work day and night. They are 
working to organize community meetings, neighborhood groups, students, and 
peace demonstrations. They have produced a film; they are publishing a book; 
they are in daily contact with peace groups all over the world by maU and tele- 
phone; and they plan projects to carry the peace message to the public. The 
present and future activites (e.g. , Oct. 15-16) of the Committee require a great 
deal of money to keep them going and to bring them about. 

Every day you may read in your daily newspaper that the Government is 
expanding the war in Vietnam. ^ the same token, the Vietnam Day Committee 
urgently needs to expand its efforts and the peace movement. Progress has 
been made with a small budget, but the Committee's effectiveness wiU be in- 
creased more than proportionately with an increasing budget. An annual bud- 
get of, say, $100,000 could pay for an intensive peace campaign in the Bay Area 



1120 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 



Meese Exhibit No. 5 — Continued 

and such a campaign could have national effects. The Friends of the Vietnam 
Day Committee are those persons engaged in raising the money to meet such 
a budget and who contribute to this cause in a special way. 

If each of 1,000 persons in the Bay Area (approx. pop. 3,000,000) gave 
$100 or more to the Vietnam Day Committee annually, the $100,000 budget 
would be a reality; and there are surely 1,000 Bay Area citizens who can sup- 
port the peace movement to this extent. In order to reach those people, the 
Friends of the Vietnam Day Committee are creating a fund of $10, 000 for a 
publicity campaign designed to bring the Vietnam Day Committee to the at- 
tention of aU those who can contribute to it. 

Since it is the conviction of the Friends that far more than 1,000 people 
will support the Vietnam Day Committee with $100 or more, the Friends make 
this guarantee: if the first $10,000 is not raised by October 31, 1965, each 
person who contributes to the Friend's $10,000 fund will be refunded his con- 
tribution. If the first $10,000 is raised by October 31, the proceeds will be 
forwarded to the Vietnam Day Committee for the purposes we have indicated. 
If you can support the Vietnam Day Committee through the Friends, please 
send your check for $100 or more to the Friends of the Vietnam Day Commit- 
tee, 2407 Fulton Street, Berkeley, California, 94704. 

Checks should be made payable to the "Friends of the Vietnam Day Com- 
mittee, " Please indicate in your return whether you do not wish your name to 
be used in connection with this project. 

Thank you for support, 

WiUiam L. Beach /Zx An^^^ZZ^-/ 

Morris W. Hirsch ' INNti A^ AV- | vKx^vyty. 

Walter L. Battaglia Ulllw / 

THE TRUSTEES OF THE FRIENDS OF THE VIETNAM DAY COMMITTEE 





ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1121 



Meese Exhibit No. 6 
[San Francisco Chronicle, September 10, 1965] 



,[San Francisco Chronicle, September 10, I965J 




s,,., LARRY LOUGHLIN, SUZANNE POLLARD, STEPHEN SMALE 

Committee leaders pledge civil disobedience 



Big Peace Msrch 
!n the East Bay 



A protest march of 10,- 
000 persons to culminate 
in civil disobedience at 
the Oakland Anny Termi- 
nal on October 16 
promised by th e Vig trtam 
Day Committee 



Stephen Smal^a Hniversi- 
ty of California mathematics 
professor, told a press con- 
ference that this would be the 
principal local conU'ibution of 
an international protest 
against the war. 

H e said that plans are 
being made to hold a campus 
protest meeting at UC on Oc- 
tober 15, and a second meet- 
ing on the following morning. 

Then at noon on that day, 
he said, the protest march 
would begin towards the ter- 
minal, one of the major ship- 
ping points of military sup- 
plies. 

He said it will be "by far 
the biggest peace march the 
Bay Area has seen." 

Some of the marchers 
would take part in acts of 
civil disobedience, he contin- 
ued, but the exact types of 
law breaking ' had not been 
decided upon. 

These, Professor Smale 
continued, could include 
dropping peace leaflets on 
the base from the air, an ap»^ 
phibious landing by small 
boats, a march into^ifte ter- 
minal, or simply hkicking the 
entrances to tha,«rmlnal. 

Suzanne Pollard, a gradu- 
ate student in romance lan- 
guages at the university, said 



the group had been communi- 
cating with peace groups in 
many lands. 

A number of favorable re- 
sponses had come in with 
agreement to participate in 
the "International Days of 
Protest" on October 15-16. 

She said groups in Latin 
America, England, Jsjian 
and Canada have prom)«^d to 
stage demonstratimjg'of their 
own, i<<\ 

Larry Lougnlin, a staff 
member of the Berkeley Viet- 
n a m Day Committee said 
that 50 to 60 groups in this 
country will stage protest 
meetings. 

Their activities are being 
co-ordinated out of head- 
quarters in Madison, Wiscon- 
sin, he added. 



1122 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 



Meese Exhibit No. 8-A 

FUTURE COMMUNITY PROTEST MEETING AND 
MASSIVE CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE PLANNED BY 
THE VIETNAM DAY COMMITTEE 



The Vietnam Days of May 21 and 22 on the Berkeley campus were very 
successful in bringing vast numbers of people in the Bay Area into involve* 
ment with protest over Johnson's foreign policy. We estimate th&t peak 
crowds at the campus protest meeting reached 10,000 to 15,000, while the 
total number of people who came was at least 50,000. Besides this, we 
estimate that the peak radio audience of KPFA was one quarter of a 
million, with at least half a million listening to part of the program broad- 
cast from the campus. 

Inspired by this success, the Vietnam Day Committee has decided to 
hold on October 15 another community protest meeting against American 
military interventioji and to follow this on October 16 with massive civil 
disobedience. Already speakers are being invited, and this program is 
being developed with the aid of the large number of workers who made 
Vietnam Day such a success. 

Now the Vietnam Day Committee is beginning to coordinate its activi- 
ties more and more with local and national political groups. Thus, it is 
expected that October 15 and 16 wiil have a heavy impact on the American 
political scene. "We hope that in ^he process of development of these 
events, the uniting of the activist peace and other political groups will 
lead to a new force in America, cind that this force will effect the end of 
Johnson's interventionist policies. 




Jerry Rubin^ 
Steve Sr 
Co-chairmen of 
Vietnam Day Committee 



If you want to help on this and other projects, call: Jerry Rubin 848-3158 



Enclosed is my contribution to help further the work of the Vietnam Day Committee 

Nanne ____^ $ 

Address 



Make checks payable to: Vietnam Day Committee. Send to Prof. Smale, 
Box 2201, Berkeley, Ceilifornia 



,:^^^-f^ 



^p.jy^^ 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1123 



Meese Exhibit No. 8-C 



^7^ 



'^^' 




In preparation for our civil disobedience ol October 16 and lb, we, who expect to be 
arrested, are now organizing into a group whose basic purpose is the commitment to 
a political defense. 

On the 16th of October, civil disobedience will occur against United States intervention 
in Vietnam. We, the defendants of October 16, are now organizing ourselves for 
political defense, which will begin now and continue through and after the trial. 

The aim of our defense is to put Johnson on trial. To do this, we must be prepared 
to refuse bail and remain in jail, discipline ourselves while in prison, reject the 
domination of lawyers, and continue as. a political unit with political leadership through- 
out. We, the Defendants Committee, must discuss this strategy from now until October 
16th. 

We have just witnessed the court's attempt to suppress the student movement by exorbi- 
tant bail and unreasonable terms of probation, after a successful civil disobedience 
action in December. The mistake nnade by the student movement here was that politics 
ended with the arrest. I^egal considerations then dominated. We must learn fronr\ 
these mistakes, and from those made in San Francisco a year earlier. Let the battle 
not end with the arrest. Let us who plan to be arrested on October 16 now begin our 
defense -- collective political action. 

Yesterday Johnson doubled the draft. The day before the United States bombed a Soviet 
missile site in North Vietnam. Tomorrow it may be Hanoi, or even China. The 
American people must not rennain silent. We must mobilize, and mobilize dramatically, 
to oppose this madness. Let us not be like those Germans who did not oppose Hitler 
in the thirties. 

Civil disobedience in October will not end this war. However, if done effectively, it 
can raise opposition to the Administration's policies to a new level. Large-scale political 
civil disobedience will cause debate and discussion where there was none, and commit- 
ment where there was only opposition. 

We ask all those who agree with us to join us as members of the VDC Defendants Com- 
mittee. Discussions of tactics and their political implications for the Defendants, and 
others who are interested, will be held every Sunday at 3 p.m. at the Vietnam Day 
Committee office, 2407 Fulton Street, Berkeley. This, series of discussions will continue 
weekly and culminate on October 2nd, "The Anniversary of the Police Car, " with a full 
day of workshops sponsored by the VDC on the subject of October 15 and 16. 

On the 15th and 16th of October, actions will occur throughout the world to make these 
dates International Days of Protest Against American Military Intervention. Students 
for a Democratic Society is cooperating with the Vietnam Day Committee in organizing 
nationwide demonstrations. The VDC is also engaging in intensive community work in 
Oakland, among many other activities. Please come by the office -- 2407 Fulton Street 
(at Channing Way), Berkeley -- or telephone 549-0811. 

eeVmgs every sunday^Spm 

407 Fulfon Street ^^ 
on civil disobedience 



1124 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 



Meese Exhibit No. 9 



'En 



JOIN MORE THAN 40 GROUPS TO PROTEST THE WAR IN VIETNAM 

Every year on August 6th concerned people around the world com- 
memorate and mourn the devastation of Hiroshima. Today, 21 years 
later, as the bombs continue to drop on Asia, the New York 5th Ave. 
Peace Parade Committee has called on Americans to join people 
throughout the world in protesting the Vietnam war. Deeply disturbed 
by our government's actions in Vietnam, hundreds of thousands have 
responded to this call. We are not in favor of this war, and we shall 
raise our voices and march through our streets to show President 
Johnson and the world how we feel. WHEN SILENCE MEANS CON- 
SENT, NO ONE CAN AFFORD TO BE SILENT I 

MASS MARCH ON MARKET ST. 

lla.m. 

THE MARCH WILL BEGIN AT DRUMM AND MARKET STS. , S. F. 
BRING YOUR OWN SIGNS 



RALLY AT CIVIC CENTER 

1 p.m. 

SET UP YOUR OWN TABLE 



SPEAKERS 



'^'- 



MRS. ANN SAMAS/(Mother of a soldier 

who recently r^ftfsed><J fight in VietNam) 
ROBERT SCHEER^j/^ 
VINCENT HAJ^i^AN 
PETE CAMEJO,^^^^ 
SIDNEY ROGEir 



SPECIAL EVENTS 



PUPPET PLAY - Knives in the Drawers 

ANTI-WAR PAGEANT 

THE COMMITTEE 

PUBLIC DISCUSSIONS 

SNAKE DANCING 

MUSIC - The Five Year Plan 



NO MORE HIROSHIMAS ! 
GET OUT OF VIETNAM! 



OVER - 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1125 



Meese Exhibit No. 9 — Continued 



THE FOLLOWING IS A PARTIAL LIST 
AUGUST 6th MARCH: 



OF GROUPS SUPPORTING THE 



Jay Area Peace Coordinating Comm, 
Berkeley Friends of SNCC 
^^erkeley VDC 

i^Bring the Troops Home Now 
Newsletter 

''bullets in the Bay Comm, 

^Citizens for Kennedy-Fulbright 
(Berkeley) 

/College of San Mateo Liberal Caucus 

/Committee for Independent Political 
Action 

Communist Party USA 

/Community for New Politics (Scheer 
^^ampaign) 

^/Concerned Citizens of Palo Alto 

Contra Costa Citizens Against the 
War in VietNam 

■■^ureka-Noe Valley Concerned 
Citizens 

Godzilla Comm. to End the War in 
VietNam Before it Ends Everything 
Else 

/Condor Committee 

'Haight Ashbury VietNam Comm. 

/High School Si udents- Against the War 
in VietNam(San Francisco) 

-^dependent Socialist Club 

'Independent Truth Center 



'^Iranian Students Association 

^Moslem Student Association 

^^North Br.ich VietNam Committee 

/Northern California Guardian 
Committees 

/Potrero Hill Peace Committee 

'^J'rogressive Labor Party 

^^an Francisco Peace Center 

^San Francisco State VDC 

^^an Jose State College VDC 

/Socialist Workers Party 

/Spartacist 

/Stanford Committee for Peace 
in VietNam 

'Students for a Democratic 
Society 

/Jnited World Federalists(student 
division) 

'United Youth for Peace(Berkeley) 

"Vets for Peace(Berkeley) 

'Villagers Opposed to the War in 
Vie tNam( Albany) 

^-Women for Peace(Berkeley) 

^-Women's International League for 
Peace and Freedom(San Francisco) 

,^^oung Socialist Alliance 



OTHER ACTIONS 

Anti-Napalm Vigil, UTC, Redwood City "Port Chicago supplies over 90% of all 

(Bayshore East to Harbor Blvd. exit), munitions & explosives for the War in 

Mondays-Fridays, IZnoon to Ip. nn. and VietNam." 

7p. m, to 8p. m. RALLY- -Ip. m. Sunday, Aug. 7, Concord 

August 6- 9th. Friends{Quakers).Con- "^"V Plaza. Willow Pass & Grant STs. 

tinuing Vigil at Oakland Army Terminal. WALK- -2p. m. . o dock gate at Port Chi- 

For info: TH3-7557. "^^g"- 

A, ,„.,„» -7 atu c t J /~ iiru-.. ACTION- -5p. m. Information: 

August 7-9th. Stanford Campus, White 

Plaza, 3 Day Vigil. For info: 325-3405. .r-TTr^M . r j -j i n ^ 

' ° ACTION--!-]), m. individuals will stop 

August 5-13th. Peace Boothat San Mateo munitions ti ucks. For info: 934-3323 or 

County Fair. 10a.m. to lOp. m. 841-891V. 

Dance on 2400 Telegraph Av^ lierk. , 

Fri, Aug. 5th, 9 to lip. m. B'l -ley & 

San Francisco State VDC. (!• ilative). 



ssSki- 



67-852 O— 66— pt. 1- 



-15 



1126 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Meese Exhibit No. 10 
The clGcted members of tlic VDC Steering Committee for 
the October 15 and 16 demonstration are: 



. / 

1. Jack Weinberg/, 
. — -2. V;indy Smith 
— 3. Steve Cherkoss 

U, L.irry Laughlin 

5. Jerry Emmerick 

/ 

6. Paul Montabk 

7. Mike G'Haml'^i 

8 . Joann Peyt<m 

9. Bart Abbott , 

10. Suzanne Pollard 

11. Marilyn Hilligdn 



12. Hov;ard Jeter 

"13, Jerry Rubi-n 

m. Steve Wcissinan 

15. John Sclt/ 



■16. Steve Smale 

17. Phil Whiter 

18. Phil Suga 
19.- Walter Batta^l 

20. Anya Allist 

21. Pete Cohe 

22. Manya Co 

23. Mike Dela<io'ur 

24. Jon Read 



25. Annalesia Zat 

26. Frank Smitha 

27. Marion Stcijikfjller 

28. Janet Puff^ 



29. Barton Stofie 

30. Sid Staple-ton 



///V^^ 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1127 



Meese Exhibit No. 1 1-A 



«" I 

HtLTOSUJ SlAkXm^ FOR OCTOBEH 15-16 (Heport of the SRO and Defendants Conanitte-i) 9/26 

The SRO and ths Dofendante Coimlttea aet Jointly Sunday afternoon to dascusa 
plana for October 15-16. The strategy passed by last Tuesday's membership meeting 
■was elaborated, and some decisions were mads about the "tone" of the demonstration, 
ind hou we should respond to various contlngeacies (particularly the threat of 
arrest, or the possibility of a police oordon stopping our maroh). The following 
elen<ents of the strategy were agreed upon by conaensust 

Our planned program will include a Teach-in on campus bojlnnins I^iday morn- 
ing (Oct. 15) and ending at some time between 5poi and 'iya. Friday ovenih^* AH 
participants in the Teaob-ln will be urged to join a march through Borl-oloy and 
Oakland to the Oakland irmy Terminal. The March shall begin as the campus Teach- 
in ends, and shall be turned into a "Teach-Out" at the 04T. io^unia^ r,> police 
interference, the Teach-Out shall be held at one of several uau^ri cl. r'-" ''^ - ',;''. of^.t 
areas on the army base, near the troop barracks. We will remain all p;lcht,Frlclny, 
and most of eZ5» C? «« Saturday. In addition to the Teach-Out spasdna, tharo 
may be workshops and other activities. Sign-ups will be taken for foturtt Aatl->/>^'n«<n 
war work. 

The Teach-Out will have several themes, most strikingly tho fact t^'■'. .'ri. eaopus- . 
based movement against th* war in Vietnam intends to carry out largo-ocalcf |>olltical 
activities, such as the"prolonged-maBs-informational-rally" in vital areas off tha 
campus, k theme most appropriate to the military setting will be the ooncept of 
individual responsibility for war-crimes, as defined in the London Treaty and at 
the Nurenbofg Trials. Finally, we will emphasize that soldier.^ hfivs both tha right 
and the obligation to engage in^pqlitical opposition to the war. Saoh opposition 
can take many forms, from sigfi£Sg'jajelaSlons,to refusing to fight, t36 Oar right to 
address the soldiers and their rignt to listen to ^usy^KtSS^-^-teSa 



"A^^ 



;i:3> the political and 



C3 legal Justifioatioisfor thet/Teaob-Out. 

We shall emphasize in all our literature and press statements prior to the Ma^b 
that we do not regard our plaonod actions as "civil disobedience", and that vo do 
not intend to engage in road-blocking or fence-climbing. The V.D.C, shall J3«bjicjj; 
oppose individual acts of civil disobedience performed during o'lr llaroh an(2 Toach- 
Out. Because of all our past announcements about civil diaobadianoe, vo oust be 
absolutely unambiguous in aonoanoing our change of plans. On the other hand, we 
must make it clear that we regard the planned Teach-Out on the Oakland Army Terminal 
as a lawful and reasonable activity, and ue will not back down even if tfJ ftre threat- 
ened with mass arrests. There was some dispute in the SfiO as to the "tone" of the 
Teach-Out. The final consensus' was that we should not aot in a "belligerent" manner, 
or through our prior publicity make it appear that we are tryioc' to provoke arrest, 
or that we intend to "take over" the army base. 



If the police interfere with our program, they will force us to make crucial 
on-the-spot decisions. These contingencies must be planned in advance. Some of 
the "branch-points"^ and the decisions recommended by the SRO are illustrated in the 
following chart. The considerations ^«.f i went into these decisions are dlsoussed 
briefly-and-ln-part in the paragraphs which follow. 

«»« An<c<Ts| 



•n r»»tt 







.,it OAT. 
AntrtS 



SY 



(^<u<l. sUrrti <t 
Cotokw* »i OAT 



i] 







or "taUt-irttiTS 






<2£»aT ofrtcir Sftacket 



Tt«cg-o.r »,.«.l«1tjj 



w% 



1128 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Meese Exhibit No. 1 1-A — Continued 

(2) 

Before we begin our analysis of the decision points, let us consider two 
possibilities. 4 judge nay issue an injunction prohioitins our torch or Te^ch- 
Out. The SRO recommends that such an injunction be ignored. Ignoring a court 
injunction would probably lead to mass arrests at some point of the I'larch, thus 
placing us at one of the branch points described below, inother unpleasant pos- 

oility is that there may be no soldiers at our Teach-Out, either because of 
. j"f loial orders or because of fear of reprisal. In order to avoid the appearance 
that the Teach-Out was a flop because no soldiers were there, we must be careful, 
in our publicity, to stress the symbolic algniflcaaoe of the location, rather than 
tho physical preseaoe of troops. In fact, there are relatively few soldiers at 
the O^T, and these ere not usually destined for Vietnam. 

The numbered branch points on the chart indioate decisions that will be made 
by the police or by the V.D.C. Ue aatlclpate no serious problems while on campus. 

1) Polloo officials may decide to atop the March onroute to the OiT, probably 
sosoiibsre ia Oakland, £:2 s;^ i±^. Since we will not respond to injunctions, they 
will have to cordon off the marchers. At this point, the SRO reconmends that we 
elt down oa tbo spot end bo^in the leach-Qut. Ue will ir^ra attempt to conduct the 
Toacb-Out <—— -^"'7 as originally planned. If we aro ordered to disperse, we will 
refusa to do so, and will urgo all marchers (except minors, aliens, etc.) to stay. 
Thus, there will be either mass arrests, or • Teach-Out on the city street, this 
decision (2} boiu^ la the hands of the police. 

5) X^ tha Iloroh is allowed to roaob the road leading Into the Oakland Irmy Ter- 
i^i^-1, tut is stopped at this road, the SRO recommonds that we proceed as at branch 
polat (1). Thus wa will force police to make decision (J*), either mass arrests or 
a 2aaoh-0ntiintJih« street. City officials will probably be reluctant to mass large 
au:uber3 ot police or national foardsmen at the edfo of the West Oakland ghetto on 

a Erlday night. 

$) For etrate£io reasons of their own, the authorities may dedide to cordon off 
the Msirch j^ust after it enters the federally-owned property of the OiT. Clearly, 
thay would not do this if they intended to allow any Teaoh-Out at the OiT, so we 
would bo given the choice of dispersing or being arrested. Again, the SRO re«- 
eo2Biiends that V3 submit to arrest rather than disperse. 

6) TbiS police nay prefer to allow the March to reach the Tea'cli-Cat area, and then 
order lii to cliaporsa. If they intend to make arrests, this would be the best time, 
for covoral reasons. The arrests would occur In a relatively private area, with 
fow opootatora, oiud no one ooold claim In court that he was arrested "by mistake". 
Any one of several oharses oould be used, ranging from petty offenses to treason. 

Attornoyo have advised the V.D.C. Legal Committee that wo would have a fairly 
good chance of beinj found "not-guilty", at least on appeal. Of course, this must 
bo balanced acainat the high probability of severe harassneht (high ball, compulsoty 
court attendcncQ, «tc.) and conviction during the original trial, because of its 
. political nature, We^vould, however, have a fZJJ^ better case than that "of the FSM, 
or most civil-rights eit-lns. ■ •crr-~i^,rrr;;,^. rr::^:;^22izr:'^^r^T^:^r^^^^^:^sss^ 

Bocausa we do not intend to actually conmilt civil disobedience, the authorities 
mcy decide not to arrest us. They may use harassing tactics, such as arresting a 
few leafloters or tabla-oitters. Or they may arrest some of the speakers at the 
Teaoh-Out for violation of various "treason acts" involving "lowering the morale of 
soldiers". In these events (7)5^(8), we must prepare a "political defense". 

9) Finally, there is the possibility that they may just leave ua alone. Then, ue 
will have held a very significant antl-Vletnaa war demonstration without paying the 
very high price of mass civil dlsobedienoe. - - - ^ ^ 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1129 



Meese Exhibit No. 1 1-B 

The following plan for Octobar 15-16 has been proposed by the Strategic 
Research Orgard7.atiori; 

1. Teach-in on canipus Friday, break for night 

2. Teach-in on campus Saturday, 9-11 a . ir. . 

3. a) Continue teach-in on n.arch to Oakland Army Terminal. Talks should 

be ainied at bystanders as v/ell as marchers. 2v. usic v/ould also be appropriate 
(e.g. "Eva of Destruction", ). 

b) V e can expect 10-15,000 to start out frorr the campus. Thft coluriiH should 
stretch out for over 1 mile ;ind should not break at intersections. To rua^f.e th« 
talks audible we will need 1 transmitter and 4-6 receivers liiiked to amplifiers. 
Son-je busses could be chartered for older people and kidds but should be part 
of the n.arch. 

i) a) If there is no prior police interference, the march should end at the 
intersection of J- aritir/.e St, and the two other entrances to the base. 10,000 
people in thfei area would effectively immobilize the base without any overt 
attempt to block the gates, etc. 

b) The teach-in should continue on Maritime St. and be ainied et soldiers 
and civilian base employees. 

c) Other actions are possible at this point: a draft-card boniBre, a call on 
soldiers to refuse to fight in Vietnan ; an attempt to enter tns harbour area; etc. 

If the march is stopped before getting close to the base tbeve are two options: 

a) Sit there and clock 1 mile of a main thoroughfare incluaing intersec- 
tions (Seln:a scene); 

b) Break the column and have back three-quarters detour and continue 
toward the base. 

6, If the march is stopped at the 7th St. entrance half the coluirn should 
remain there and the other half should piodeed to the Y ake Ave. entrance 
where it will presumably be stopped. Thus 2 of the 3 entrances would be 
blocked. A third group roii.ing in off the Bay Bridge by car could easily block 
the last entrance. 

The point of all this is to stage a drarr.atic action whi::h will rr.obilize 
people against the war in Victnarri and begin to take decision -inaking about 
this war out of the hands of irresponsible elites. Arrests are not necessary 
but the risk of arrest can hardly be "avoided. This risk can be miniinized 
for most people who participate, they can choose to obey pblice orders to stop, 
disperse, shut up, or whatever. 

The Oakland Army Base is a particularly good place at which to stage a 
protest because itis the main West Coast supplier to the American forces 
in Vietnami. 



1130 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 



Meese Exhibit No. 11-B — Continued 



University Ave 



i= ,R O P O S E D OCT. 16 By- A R C H 
iv arch begins at Sathar Gate, proceeds ..iii-ough 
campus to University Ave.; goes down University 
then left on Shattuck; n south on Shattuck; at Adeline 
veers right; down Adeline to 7th where it turns 
ri^ht; straight down 7th to the Terminal. 

Code : 

Arrviy Ternunal boundary : 

Naval Supply Center boundary : — .-,. 
Gate area : /\ 







/ 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1131 
Meese Exhibit No. \l-D 

a-' ' 

OCTOBER 15-16 

International Days of Protest against the War in Vietnam 

On October 15-16 people in Europe, Asia, Latin America, Africa, and 80 
cities in the United States will be denaonstrating against American intervention 
in Vietnani. In New York 30 groups are organizing a niarch of 15, 000 people down 
Fifth Avenue; demonstrations are also planned in Atlanta, Boston, Ann Arbor, 
Chicago, Milwaukee, Portland, and Detroit. In London there will be a vigil 
outside the American Embassy; in Argentina students and professors have pledged 
to protest in the streets; peace groups in Scotland will nrxarch through town; and 
people in Paris, Mexico City, Senegal, British Cdumbia, and Uruguay will 
dennonstrate in some way against United States policy. 

The initiating body for these International Days of Protest is the Vietnam 
Day Committee, a student-faculty-comnmnity group in Berkeley, California, 
which has become known internationally for its anti-war activities, particularly 
the attempts to stop trains carrying troops bound for Vietnam. The Berkeley- 
San Francisco Bay Area aspect of the international protest will center around 
the "pacification" of the Oakland Army Terminal. 

Friday evening at 7:30 we will leave the campus, taking the teach-in into the 
community in a seven-mile torchlight peace march through the heart of Oakland 
to the army terminal. The route of the march is: Telegraph to Broadway, to 
14th Street, to Peralta, to 7th Street and then to Maritime. Maritime Street, our 
destination, is a street which runs through the army terminal. On one side of this 
street are the ships taking munitions to Vietnam; on the other are the army 
barracks. We intend to continue our teach-in in an empty lot opposite the barracks 
and to beam it at the soldiers, asking them to consider seriously the implications 
of their participating in an immoral war. 

We will tell soldiers that under the 1945 London Treaty and The Nuremburg 
Codes they bear individual responsibility for commiting war crimes, even if they are 
following orders from a superior or obeying national law. We will ask them to 
refuse to fight in Vietnam. 

This will be the nation's first teach-in in the midst of an army terminal. We 
will stay there throughout the night and Saturday with sleep-out, teach-in and 
workshop discussions on the future of the peace movement. 

If the police try to interfere with the march or try to disperse the teach-in, 
we will be arrested rather than submit to this infringement on our civil liberties. 
We have decided on these plans rather than on "massive civil disobedience, " such 
as blocking roads, to make visible our sense of the horrendous war which our 
government is waging in Vietnam. This way, if there should be arrests, we would 
be in a good position to raise the issue of the Vietnam war in the courts and even 
have some chance of acquittal. Of course even in this case there will be an oppor- 
tunity to avoid arrest for those who wish to. 

Vietnam Day Committee 
2407 Fulton Street 
Berkeley, California 
Telephone: 549-0811 



1132 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 



Meese Exhibit No. 1 1-D — Continued 

}/iofnsm Patf Committee 

tentative program for OCTOBER 15th & l6th 

ifif^riisfionai Pays o/ Profesf 

at Berkeley Campus & Oakland Army Terminal 



Activities 

FRIDAY - OCT. 15th 

BERKELEY CAMPUS 

9-12 am : Folksingers in upper Sproul 
Plaza. Discussion with speakers. 

12-3 pm : Paul Goodman and others. 

3-6 pm: Discussions on Vietnam and 
other workshop activities with speakers. 
Movies, folksinging, picnic supper. 

6 - 7:30 pm: Pre-march Rally 

7:30 - 11 pm: 

Torchlight Peace March 

with Loud-Speakers - Music - Banners I 
11-12 pm: Rally at Army Base. 

SATURDAY - OCT. 1 6th 
OAKLAND ARMY TERMINAL 

1 2:30 - 9 am : Army Base Sleep-out. 
Movies all night, folksingers, campfires, 
discussions and more discussions. 

9-12 am ; Workshops on: 
After Oct 15 & 16 - next steps - 
Should VDC and other groups oppose 

Cohelan with a candidate? 
Another International Day of Protest? 
WHAT IF HANOI IS BOMBED? 

12-5 pm : Final Speakers. 

: ART & PHOTOGRAPH SHOW : 

; Hiroshima Mon Amour 

• movies I Live in Fear 

; include Night and Fog 

; Hitler's Executioners 



Speakers 



INCLUDE 



Fanny Lou Hamer - Mississippi Freedom 
Democratic Party 

Paul Krassner - Editor of The Realist 

Allen Ginsberg 

Dave Dellinger - Editor of Liberation ; 

Co-chairman of NYC Oct. 16 march 

Paul Goodman - Author of Growing Up 
Absurd, The Empire City , etc. 

Staughton Lynd 

Marcus Raskin - Ex-aide to J. F. K. 

"The Committee" - S. F. satirical group 

Robert Scheer - Associate editor of 

Ramparts ; just back from Saigon 

Mike Myerson - Just back from Hanoi 

A. .T. Muste - C. N. V. A. 

Hugh Hester - Brig. General, retired 

Lawrence Ferlinghetti 

Franz Schurmann - Faculty Peace Comm. 

Donna Allen - Women for Peace 

Bill Stanton - State Assemblyman 

M. S. Arnoni - Editor of Minority of One 

Stanley Sheinbuam - Ex- advisor to Diem 

Paul Jacobs - Labor leader 

Prof. Robert Browne - Ex-State Dept. 
official; just back from Saigon 

Prof. Marshall Windmiller 



y' Mark Spoelstra 
• ■' Fugs - Joe McDonald '•._ 
FOLKSINGERS 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1133 

Meese Exhibit No. 12 

BRXET NOTEo CM THE WAYS AIID MMl'S 01 ■'BE/.TC:0" Ai\T OEFE/.TOIG THE DRIFT 

\f Pe : C.'j. Vftritc your local draft board rsquosting the special con- 
scientTons "o^i'ectcr forrc sss 150» Now if you don't have religious or phil^ 
Qpoohicr.l reasons that cause yoii to be agair.at viar "in any fornix" don^'t let 
it bother you. Maj'k j'-cc or fnat qwostion anyv.'ay, or nark cut t;ie "in any 
fuTu''' if you wanb to bo more howeso abcat it. It's fairly certain that 
yeur local board v.dll turn you ao'vn. However, you can then appeal their 
iccioion^ be investigated. aup3f,]. again and so on^ The vhole proceijs takes 
abcat a ye^r, &jnd b:'- that tine we'll ha.'n stopped the vcar ^ji Viet,nam {vg 
hcpc;. I'^or further infomation on the C^O. procecs, i-rritc: Central Ccn- 
mittce for Conscientious Objectors, 2G06 Walnut So. » Philacielphia, Fa-* 
19103. or. War Poi>istora Lea.gue, 5 Beekman St., New York 38, N,Y. Havo' 
fun, 

2/ H r."e r- 'domor mtration^ during yo-.-.r pre-iaduction physical. This is a- 
vjcy for polificsr objector's to get a L-F and cause the irilitary b let of 
ti-ouble. Arrive at the oxamiriing center wearing signs: END THE DR^^ MOT.t 
or GliT OUT OF VIET»^;>M or the like^ Wear bittons- Leaa.et your fellon 
prcspectiv3 indactcosj Tell tliem what amy life r.nd the uar in Vietnam ire 
really all about, P e detemined and the officers ^-dll bo only too glad to 
be j"id of you- 

J> RoTuseto 3i;r,ri the loyal tv oath and don't m^l■k the RED list. If you 
dc, iTfoy •■.'ilL a^rcjt you, They'll investigate you and if you've b'len iaiily 
active in an/ o^ the 'subversive' ca:.Tpuj novoments, they jon't .lant yjn» 

hi B c ^V-''"/' • riay the homo-sexual bit. Mark 'yesf or don't mark the "H o- 
rr.osexunl Tc'n^cncics'' line on forms^ Ps^'^chiatrist may give you the lun- 
'iroiind but stic]: vrLth it. If you're really game, be obviously one of the 
'.gay'boys., Bosidos flicking your vnrist, nove your body like chlckj do -- 
'ncld cigarette delicately, talk nelodically, act embcresscd in front of the 
othc- f;..ys i.-hi.n ;>ou undress. Ask >cur girl-friend to give you lessons or 
".rat.'^h the Fricco Worth Eeach crovid r.ny 'Jeck-end niglit, 'Gay' birs 'nxri al- 
30 ■roiJi::ia do";ii in i>he Tenderloin — T\irk Street area» 

^/ i-fii' Isll '^S^ySl*. ■'•■'• y^ ^'^"""^ ^ 'friendly' family doctor or can buy 
one, you'Vi. Jind hcT's extremely hcndy. Got a signed note from hin attcsc- 
'.;,{-; to Cii •, ll-^r,;^-, ■•. trj.ck knee or clbov; or shoulaer or back trouble, or 
apth^a Don't foi'^cit to nark .-'.ppropriate nlar:es on induction forms and 
/'.a'vc t'o'; io r.:.de. Without a Di-. 's note, you'll have to do a pretty good 
job of iorjn^' these tirinj^s, Certain cheir.j.crls vd.ll temporarily incuco ai.- 
Icrgicj — i:cv ycur chcmxDt. 

6/ Be an. £^'i''-''T't;-C^ Borrov; the standard epilepti.c medal from a fri'^nd 
?.nd ;.'0.".r ii., --'ark the form properly^ tell the Dr. aid you're in good 
shap'?, ir you "jrnt to ha^'o rone fun, verd about and fake a ceizurj. If? 
Tun c-r-d 7''V. ''/I -v-ally .rivn thc"'- a hoad-i.chi-.- 

''/ .fail :\:i"ord, Kost of ns aren't larky enough to have a felony record, 
'rjt ir'yrr-'f" jp^ ore — use it. I.^.ey :'.ns?" st on it: you'll see sijni; all 
:ver 'he place trllir.g you -.rhat a cri"o y ou'll'bo committing if you don'+. 
I'Oll "'.'.c';. Ii?. 3^^ lOLiors - • if you'vo ^ot enough of them — are a good dorlo 
-ufiT. -■ ic-.\ c." l-ui 'I'.ry >• : i ^bbci-^' or nuracr T.re also nice bets<. 



1134 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 



e 



N 



M 



H 



r 



r\ 



Meese Exhibit No. 12 — Ckjntinued 



once— tsr all ttbtea ts^kit'ifC '«n '-ti|CTi^^*^ »g4»*!w w» . m» 'and a iHaIa: 
bit of acting -irith thl» idlX go a Icnig m^'^ CMir tout fingernails* 

Talk about the Viet Ccnf t|f»i?ig (Jttt to g«t ywt. Tell them you're a 

secret ageqt for QocJ Johnsbft^' Or J» sijsciti iitf tbU the Br » how 
much you enjoy iralldng on^th© ^l4ph Oatfr^tyidfee.H'se^yoTa" ln»- 

giaatlon,have a ball, and ytjitt'll blow thsit^'feims "liithoot. liavii^ 

yours bloim up. 

9/ Ar rive drunk. Being late here realily helps. They may send you 
away to come back aiiother day, but it'll look good to have it on your 
record. If you do this bit enough times, they'll probably run you back 
to the headshilnkar to find out -^y. Then pl^ it cool(the booze iilll 

help) and you've got it made.. 



1&/ Arilve hi/^h . IHey'll smell it, and you won't have to ax±iiit it. If 

you want to go about the addiction scene in a really big way, use a 
^ comon pin oa your ate for a few weoke in advaqpe. Check tath your 

■friends rrtio •shoot' to see if the marks lo<A good; then you'll have 

no trouble convincing the Drs. 

13./Be sn undesirable . Go for a couple of weeks without a ^ower. 

IfeaTly lock dirty. Stink. Long hair helps. Go in bareljoot with your 
~P sandals tied around your neck. Give a wino a bottle for his clothee 

' and Mmar them. For extra kicks, talk far-out (some pot will help 

here)- One doctor is probably all you'll have to see, and he'll be 

only too happy to get you out of the place. 

^ 12/ Be 3'fucque-upl Don' t do iNTTWIKO right. Forget Instmctions, 

^ don't follow orders, and generally do just about eveiything wrong. 

Apologize profusely for your mistakes, and they'll probably tell 

Dyou how sorry they are for having to give you a U-F. 
13/ Ee a trouble-maker. RBfuse to follow orders. (You don't have to, 
you ' re not in the amy) . Let them know exactiy what y-ou think of 
^ them. Rs antogonisticj smoke where the signs s^ NO SMOKING. Pick a 

fight with a fellow inductee, or better y9t*-one of the officers 
cr doctors c 



llj/ Bed-wett ingoTell them you wet the bed when you're awiy from hone. 
If they dor'~t dofer you, prove it when you're inducted. 

Extra Special Service for those tAio really care. Join the anny cr a^y 
of the other military branches and really screw up the works. Tell 
your buddies the truth about the scene in Vietnan. They'll listen^ 
youj you're one of them. Use the base bulletin boards for posting 
official^ looking leaflets about the whole military mess. Pleaso be 

r.zrv.fu\\ If ^e-ou T^nt to be effective at this, you can't be caug.it. 

i For the nm. 'Tibh real guts. (Petailed pamfAaet on thi'- i3 currently 

j in p^epar^tion.) 



<* > A:)iic V** 't-it ' 



/ 

' "i. deluxe booklet onntaining rll the raary waj'S and menns and whys of 

'beating' ^id defeating thtdraft is nearir-g thn^letioii and will soon 
be i,j&-aed at noriinal oost. If you have an,v su^estions or personal 
aro,' otes on a rait evasion and amy infiltration, please forward then 

/I to: Lr.p-;,, 20x7- J. 2L07 Fulton 3troet, Borkaley, Calif onxia, Attsn: 
• fcidr.iy. A?.po cortact aboTie rt ?lj?~08?J.. f or 4|^i -cotuVMllng atti 
additional infoniation. • , / 



o 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1135 



Meese Exhibit No. 13 

'^>J TT- DRAF T C QUIA ITT UK 

An Anti-Draft 'Committee h£.8 been formed by members of the Vietna.m Day 
Com mittee, Stmlents f or a Democratic Society, and other interested irxdividuals. 
Vve are a bro?.dly-baseri group with various points of view, and encourpge 
everyone who opposes the draft for any reason to join ue. 

The Anti-Driift Committee has several major perspectives: 

1. Applying for "conscientious objection" on political and moral grounds. 

2. Total non- cooperation with Se)ective Service. 

3. Pubiiriz'ng the many methods of beating the draft. 

4. Attenipting to clog up the machinery of the draft system. 

5. Undermining the war effort frorri 'vithin the army. 

Activities wc are planning include: 

1. Campus-- noon rallies, wide distribution of anti-draft literature, and 
informal discussions. 

2. High Schools-- encouraging and assisting area high school students to 
vca-^anize anti-draft activities within their schools. 

3. Induction Centers-- leafletting and talking to draftee.s about the war in 
Vietnam. 

4. Community --petitions and community meetings in support of cur activities. 



The Anti-Draft Comnnittee has planned two workshops during the VDC protest^ 
on the 15th and l6th. The first workshop will be held following Dave Delnnger's 
speech on Friday Jiiternoon around 3:00 Ph' . The exact time and place will be 
announced from the podium. The workshop will discuss the various perspectives 
for anti-draft activity. On Saturday at the Oakland Army Terminal wc will 
sponsor an action workshop, where we will form several committees to inake 
specific plans for future activities. 

A meeting to make final plans for the workshops will be held on Tue pday 
at 6:00 PV in 145 Dwindle Hall. For further information about the 
Anti-Draft Committee contact Mark Stahl or Steve Cherkose at Vietnam 
Day headquarters, 2407 Fulton, 54^-0811. 



1136 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 



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ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1137 



Meese Exhibit No. 15 

ADVICE TO DEMONSTRATORS 

The Oakland Police are irrational and unpredictable. Any participant and 
in fact, any observer of this or any denicistration in Oakland is subject to snrre 
riok. Prouont pla.ip CiiU for a lonj^tl)'/ ait-in wliich niight ".veil result In arroct.o and 
convictions. Because of the issue, sontencea coiild l>e utiffer than any wa have 
experienced. For those who are not prepared to risk arrest we will hold a support- 
ing picket line outside the sit-in. Those who paiticipE-te in the sit-in should be 
prepared for the possible consequences and should follow the instructions of the 
monitors. We urge the follow* ing procedures if you are atrested: 

1) We will try to raise bail money as quickly es possible. Unless you have 
a specific hardship, wc urge you to stay in jail until enough .Tioncy is raised to 

bail out cvory one. If money come.s in at the r^^.io wc expect, v/e hope to have every- 
one ovit within froni 24 hours to over a week. There ij a srr.all possibility of eventu 
ial bail reduction and even release on OR (Own Recogniscense). We urge coopera- 
tion in filling OR Forms, etc. 

2) Insist on your right to a phone call, and either call 845-4123 or have the 
person you call phone that number, (write the number on your hand). We will need 
to get a list of the names of those arrested. 

3) Anyone who wishes general information about the arrests or the people 
arrested should call Th8-4754. 

4) Bail donation checks should bo made out to CFJ Anti-war Bail Fund. 
Phone 549-0690 for bail information. If you know someone who wishes to but up 
your bail, urge tliem to put the money in the fund ear -marked for you. 

5) Th e VDC ha s secured the Council For Justice (CFJ) to co-ordinate 
legal defense. Any lawyer who wishes to involve himself in this case should first 
call Peter Franck, legal co-ordinator for the CFJ at 845-4123. 

6) Do not waive any of your constitutional rights. 

7) A defendant's jnccting will be called at the first convenience to discuss 
log.-il Blrafogy. 

8) We urge minora (unH<?r 18) -ind aUana to avoid arrest. 

9) Good hick. 



1138 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 



NfeESE Exhibit No. 16 



Approved For (H»llng 



ATTENTION ALL AA5LITARY PERSONNEL 



You may soon be sent to Vietnam. You have heard about the war in the news; 
your officers will give you pep talk$ about it. But you probably feel as cimfused and 
uncertain as most Americans do. Many people will tell you to Just follow orders 
and leave the thinking to others. But you have the right to know as much about this 
war as anyone. After all, it's you — not your congressman — who might gel 'cilled. 



WHY ARE WE FIGHTING IN VIETNAM ? 

We are supposed to be fighting to protect 
democracy in Vietnam, and yet our own gov- 
ernment admits that South Vietnam is run by 
a dictatorship. General Ky, the latest mili- 
tary dictator, is as bad as they come. In a 
recent interview he said: "People ask me 
who my heroes are. I have only one — Hit- 
ler. I admire Hitler because he pulled his 
country together when it was in a terrible 
state." (London Sunday Mirror, July 4, 1965). 

General Ky doesn't mean much to us; we're 
not even sure how to pronounce his name, but 
the South Vietnamese have lived under men 
like him for years. As far as the Vietnamese 
are concerned, we are fighting on the side of 
Hltlerism; and they hope we lose. 



WHO IS THE ENEMY? 

U. S. military spokesmen have often said 
that their greatest problem is finding llif- ene- 
my. The enemy, they say, is eveiywhere. 
The old woman feeding her chickens may have 
a stock of hand grenades in her hut. The lit- 
tle boy who trails after the American sol- 
diers during the day slips out to give informa- 
tion to the guerillas at night. The washer- 
woman at the American air base brings a bomb 
to work one day. It is Impossible, say the 
military, to tell which are the Viet Cong and 
which are the civilians. 

And so, because the whole Vietnamese peo- 
ple seem to be the enemy, the military is 
taking no chances. They use tear gas -- a 
weapon designed for use against civilians. 
They order American troops to fire at women 
and children — because women and children, 
after all, are firing at American troops. Am- 
erican fighter planes destroy civilian villages 
with napalm; American B-52's are flattening 
whole regions. That is why the war in Viet- 
nam is so often caUed a "dirty war. " 

Whenthe South Vietnamese people see you 
in your foreign uniform, they will think of 



you as their enemy. You ar,e the ones bomb- 
ing their towns. They doh't know whether 
you're a draftee or a volunteer, whether 
you're for the war or against it; but they're 
not taking any chances either. 



FREE ELECTIONS 

The Vietnamese would like to vote the for- 
eigners out of their country, but they have 
been denied the chance. According to the 
Geneva Agreement of 1954, there were sup- 
posed to be elections throughout Vietnam in 
1956. But the U. S, government was certain 
that our man in Vietnam, Premier Diem, 
would lose. So we decided not to allow any 
election until we were sure we could win. 
Diem set up a political police force and put 
all political opposition — Communist and 
anti- Communist -- in jail. By 1959, it was 
clear there weren't going to be any elections, 
and the guerillas known as the Viet Cong be- 
gan to fight back. By 1963 oiu- government 
wasfedup with Diem, but' still wasn't willing 
to risk elections. Our CIA helped a group of 
Vietnamese generals to overthrow Diem and 
kill him. Since then there have been a series 
of "better" military dictators. General Ky — 
the man who admires Hitler — is the latest 



FIGHTING FOR DEMOCRACY 

Your job as a soldier is supposed to be "to 
win the people of South Vietnam. " Win them 
to what — democracy? No, we keep military 
dictators in power. What then? The Ameri- 
can way of life ? But why should they care 
any more about our way of life than we care 
about theirs? We can't speak their language 
or even pronounce their names. We don't 
know anything about their religion or even 
what it is. We never even heard of Vietnam 
until Washington decided to run it. 

You are supposed to be fighting "to save 
the Vietnamese people from Communism." 
Certainly Communist influence is very strong 



Ui. 



,2m 



EN'CLOSURC( ( ) 



All PrvTloos E 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1139 



Meese Exhibit No. 16 — Continued 



in the National Liberation Front, the rebel 
government. Yet most of the people support 
theNLF. Why? Many of the same people who 
now lead the NLF led the Vietnamese inde- 
pendence movement against the Japanese dur- 
ing World War n, and then went on to fight 
against French colonial rule. Most Vietnam- 
ese think of the NLF leaders as their coun- 
try's outstanding patriots. In fact, many anti- 
Communists have joined the guerrilla forces 
in the belief that the most important thing is 
to get rid of foreign domination and military 
dictators. On the other hand, very few Viet- 
namese support the official government of 
General Ky. His army has low morale and a 
high desertion rate. 



THE GUERRILLAS 

The newspapers and television have told 
us again and again what a tough fighter the 
Vietnamese guerrilla is. Short of ammuni- 
tion and without any air cover, he can beat 
forces that outnumber him five or ten to one. 
Why do they have such high morale ? They 
are not draftees; no draftees ever fight like 
that. They are not high-paid, professional 
soldiers . Most of them are peasants who work 
their fields; they can't even spare the ammu- 
nition for target practice. 

Their secret is that they know why they 
are fighting. They didn't hear about Vietnam 
in the newspapers; they've livedthereall their 
lives. While we were in high school, they 
were living under the Diem regime and hating 
it. Now American planes are bombing their 
towns and strafing their fields; American 
troops have occupied their country; and if 
they complain out loud, an American- sup- 
ported dictator sentences them to jail or the 
firing squad. Is it any wonder that they fight 
so fiercely ? 



CRUSHING THE RESISTANCE 

The war in Vietnam is not being fought ac- 
cording to the rules. Prisoners are tortured. 
Our planes drop incendiary bombs on civilian 
villages. Our soldiers shoot at women and 
children. Your officers will tell you that it is 
all necessary, that we couldn't win the war 
any other way. And they are right . Ameri- 
cans are no more cruel than any other peo- 
ple; American soldiers don't enjoy this kind 
of war. But if you are going to wage war 
against an entire people, you have to become 
cruel. 

The ordinary German soldier in occupied 
Europe wasn't especially cruel, either. But 
as the resistance movements grew, he be - 
came cruel. He shot at women and children 
because they were shooting at him; he never 



asked himself why they were shooting at him. 
When a certain town became a center of re- 
sistance activity, he followed his orders and 
destroyed the whole town. He knew that SS 
menwere torturing captured resistance fight- 
ers, but it wasn't his business to interfere. 

FOLLOWING ORDERS 

As a soldier you have been trained to obey 
orders, Lut as a lium.in being you mual. lake 
responsibility for your own acts. Interna- 
tional and American law recognize that an in- 
dividual soldier, even if acting under orders, 
must bear final legal and moral responsibility 
for what he does. This principle became a 
part of law after World War n, when the Al- 
lied nations, meeting in London, decided that 
German war criminals must be punished even 
if they committed war crimes under orders. 
This principle was the basis of the Nurem- 
berg trials. We believe that the entire war 
in Vietnam is criminal and immoral. We be- 
lieve that the atrocities which are necessary 
to wage this war against the people of Vietnam 
are inexcusable. 



OPPOSE THE WAR 

We hope that you too find yourself, as a 
human being, unable to tolerate this night- 
mare war, and we hope that you will oppose 
it. We don't know what kind of risks we are 
taking in giving you this leaflet; you won't 
know what risk you will be taking in opposing 
the war. A growing number of GIs have al- 
ready refused to fight in Vietnam and have 
been court-martialed. They have shown great 
courage. We beUeve that they, together with 
other courageous men who will join them, will 
have influence far out of proportion to their 
numbers. 

There may be many other things you can 
do; since you are in the service, you know 
better than civilians what sorts of opposition 
are possible. But whatever you do, keep your 
eyes open. Draw your own conclusions from 
the things you see, read and hear. At orien- 
tation sessions, don't be afraid to ask ques- 
tions, and if you're not satisfied with the 
answers, keep asking. Take every chance 
you get to talk to your fellow soldiers about 
the war. 

You may feel the war is wrong, and still 
decide not to face a court-martial. You may 
then find yourself in Vietnam under orders. 
You might be forced to do some fighting — 
but don't do any more than you have to. Good 
luck. 



1140 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 



Meese Exhibit No. 18 



GRAND JURY 
COUNTY OF ALAMEDA 

Court House, Oakland 7, California 

January 27, 1966 



TO THE HONORABLE, TH5 SUPERIOR COURT 

OF THE STATE OP CALIFORNIA 

IN AND FOR THE COUNTY OF ALAMEDA 



Under the applicable aections of the California Penal Code 
and under the instructions given by the Presiding Judge of 
the Superior Court, it is the duty of the Grand Jury to in- 
quire into and report on the needs and operations of County 
government, and to submit such recommendations as it may 
deem appropriate. 

During the term of this Grand Ju/'y, there have been a large 
number of criminal prosecutions, a series of arrests, and 
many demonstrations requiring police supervision, which have 
been directly related to activities on the Berkeley Campus 
of the University of California and which have had a pro- 
found impact upon Alameda County government. This Impact 
has been reflected in added court costs and congestion, ex- 
tensive costs to County and local police agencies, and numerous 
police operations whlc h have resulted in the dilution of the 
services otherwise available for local community protection. 
Because of this burden upon local government, the 196^' Grand 
Jury feels an obligation, in fully carrying out its responsi- 
bility to the Superior Court and to the community, to 
objectively analyze this situation and to offer constructive 
conclusions and suggestions. 

The Berkeley Campus has increasingly become the primary base 
for activities throughout the Bay Area which have involved 
law violations and disorder. This fact, coupled with the 
central University function of educating young people, 
points up the obligation of the University to share with 
the community its responsibility for keeping this burden 
within reason and within the rule of law. 

The Grand Jury is concerned with the fact that facilities of 
the Berkeley Campus of the University of California have been 
made available to organizations such as the "Vietnam Day 
Committee", whose leaders and membership are composed largely 
of persons who are not students or otherwise associated 
with the University. The "Vietnam Day Committee" has its 
headquarters off the Campus and its objectives and activities 
are unrelated to the educational purposes of the University. 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1141 



Meese Exhibit No. 18 — Continued 

Yet it has been able to use Campus facilities on numerous 
occasions during the past several months to organize and 
implement actions which have detrimentally affected the 
surrounding community (see Appendix "A"). Particularly 
serious is the use by this group of the Berkeley Campus 
as a staging area for unlawful off -campus activities, such 
as the attempts to Interfere with the passage of troop 
trains through Berkeley and Emeryville in August 19^5 , and 
the open advocacy and planning of "civil disobedience", 
which in reality involves the deliberate violation of 
criminal laws. 

These and other incidents, occurring on the Berkeley Campus 
or resulting from activities which took place there, have 
created an extraordinary burden on governmental services, 
which has been borne by the County of Alameda and the cities 
surrounding the Campus. When law and order broke down on 
the Campus, such as during the so-called "Free Speech Move- 
ment" demonstrations of October and December 196^, the 
agencies of local government were required to step in and 
regain control of the situation. Likewise, where Campus 
activity was directed at creating incidents in the community- 
at-large, such as the marches and troop train demonstrations 
of the "Vietnam D^y Committee", local authorities were re- 
quired to enforce the law and preserve order. Hundreds of 
police officers, months of court time, and the services of 
numerous other public officials and agencies have been 
necessary to handle the problems emanating from the Berkeley 
Campus. The total cost of these services has amounted to 
thousands of dollars over the past two years (see Appendix 
"B"). In addition, the Berkeley situation has repeatedly 
required the diversion of manpower and resources, and has 
involved difficulties in operation, which has deprived the 
citizens of our community of essential governmental services 
which could otherwise be made available for their benefit. 

It is naturally more costly when the full machinery of our 
law enforcement and legal system must be invoked to handle 
Campus situations, which could be better, more easily, and 
less expensively controlled by the disciplinary powers available 
to the Regents and Administration of the University. Never- 
theless, when this disciplinary authority is not fully 
utilized, or when Campus officials are unwilling or unable 
to handle the situation, local government has a responsibility 
to preserve order. It is for this reason that the University 
must fully carry out its responsibilities, so that the extra- 
ordinary burden on local government and the taxpayers, which 
has been experienced by this County during the past two years, 
can be eliminated. 

Recommendations 



1. The University Administration should consistently and 



'67-852 O— &6— pt. 1 16 



1142 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 



Meese Exhibit No. 18 — Ckintinued 

firmly enforce all University regulations, should 
take appropriate disciplinary measures whenever rules 
are violated, and should fully carry out its respon- 
sibility for the maintenance of law and order on the 
Campus, 

2. The University Administration should promulgate and 
enforce clear directives forbidding the use of Univer- 
sity facilities for unlawful off -campus action. 

3. The University Administration should diligently enforce 
its own regulations which limit the use of Campus 
facilities to students, faculty and staff for purposes 
which are related to the educational function of the 
University. 

4. The University should extend full cooperation to local 
authorities in the investigation and/or prosecution of 
criminal cases which originate on the Campus. 

5. The State Legislature and the Regents of the University 
should provide for the reimbursement of county and city 
government when conditions on or related to the Univer- 
sity Campus require extraordinary law enforcement or 
other local governmental services. 

6. The State Legislature, with the cooperation of the Regents, 
should enact new legislation to improve University control 
over outsiders coming on and/or using University property 
and facilities for purposes unrelated to the educational 
goals and functions of the University. 

In order that the taxpayers of Alameda County may be pro- 
tected, that the facilities of the University may be preser- 
ved for the fulfillment of its educational objectives, and 
that these recommendations may be evaluated for implementation, 
copies of this doctiment are being forwarded to the Governor 
of California; the President, the Chancellor at Berkeley, and 
the members of the Board of Regents of the University of 
California; the Board of Supervisors of Alameda County; and 
the members of the Alameda County delegation to the California 
State Legislature. 

Respectfully submitted, 

1965 GRAND JURY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY 

Henry A. Bruno, Foreman 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1143 

Meese Exhibit No. 18 — Continued 

APPENDIX "A'* 

UNIVERSITY FACILITIES GRANTED TO VIETNAM DAY COMMITTEE 

Permission was granted to the "Vietnam Day Committee" to use 
the following facilities of the Berkeley Campus of the Univer- 
sity of California during the months of September, October, 
and November, I965. 



Date 



Sept. 


. 15 


Sept. 


, 16 


Sept. 


, 18 


Sept. 


, 20 


Sept . 


, 21 


Sept. 


, 22 


Sept . 


. 23 


Sept, 


, 28 


Sept. 


. 29 


Sept, 


. 30 


Oct. 


2 


Oct. 


3 


Oct. 


5 


Oct. 


6 


Oct. 


7 


Oct. 


8 


Oct. 


9 


Oct. 


11 



Time 
12-1 p.m. 
7: 30 p.m. on 
7-10 p.m. 
12-1 p.m. 
4-6 p.m. 

7:30-10:30 p.m. 

7:30 p.m. on 

7:30-10 p.m. 

12-1 p.m. 
9:30-10 p.m. 
7:30-10:30 p.m. 

7:30 p.m. on 
4-12 p.m. 

12-4 p.m. 
7:30-10:30 p.m. 

7 p.m. on 

7:30-10:30 p.m. 

7: 30 p.m. on 

4-6 p.m. 

12-3 p.m. 

4-6 p.m. 



Facilities 

Sproul Steps 

30 Wheeler 

155 Dwindle 

Sproul Steps 

2000 Life Sciences Eldg, 
(LSB) 

4093 LSB 

30 Wheeler 

204 Engineering 

Sproul Steps 
15 Dwindle 
4093 LSB 

30 Wheeler 
Wheeler Auditorium 

Wheeler Auditorium 

155 Dwinelle 
145 Dwinelle 

204 Engineering 

4093 LSB 

30 Wheeler 

155 Dwinelle 

11 Wheeler 

2000 LSB 



1144 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Meese Exhibit No. 18 — Continued 

Date Time Facilities 

Oct, 12 k-6 p.m. 2000 LSB 

7-11 p.m. 204 Engineering 

Oct. 13 12-1 p.m. Sproul Steps 

3-6 p.m. Wheeler Auditorium 

3:15-5 p.m. 2003 LSB 

4-6 p.m. 2000 LSB 

7:30-10:30 p.m. 4093 LSB 

7:30-11:00 p.m. 204 Engineering 

Oct. 14 4-6 p.m. 2000 LSB 

7-10 p.m. 11 Wheeler 

7:30 p.m. on 30 Wheeler 

Oct. 15 8 a.m. to 8 p.m. Lower Student Union 

Plaza 
2-8 p.m. Wheeler Auditorium 

2-8 p.m. 145 Dwindle 

5-7 p.m. Sproul Steps 

6-7 p.m. 126 Barrows 

110 Wheeler 
104 Cal Hall 
106 Cal Hall 
4093 LSB 
4505 LSB 
308 LeConte 

Oct. 16 11-3 p.m. Wheeler, Rooms 

30, 100, 110, 120, 
200, 210 

Oct. 20 No time listed Sproul Steps 

Oct. 21 7:30 p.m. on 30 Wheeler 

Oct. 19 7-10 p.m. 204 Engineering 

Oct. 26 3-5:30 p.m. IO6 Calif. Hall 

Nov. 4 2:30-5 p.m. 120 Wheeler 

7:30-10 p.m. 101 Wheeler 

Nov. 11 2:30-5 p.m. 120 Wheeler 

7:30-10 p.m. 101 Wheeler 

Nov. 16 12-1 p.m. Sproul Steps 

Nov. 18 2:30-5 p.m. 120 Wheeler 

7:30-10 p.m. 101 Wheeler 

Nov. 19 6 p.m. -12 145 Dwlnelle 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1145 



Date 



Nov. 20 



Meese Exhibit No. 18 — Continued 

Time Facilities 



9-10 a.m. 



Sproul Steps 



NOTE: In addition to the above facilities, the Vietnam Day- 
Committee was granted the use of the following facilities on 
November 21, all day from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. for the "West 
Coast Regional Conference of the Committees Against the War 
in Vietnam": Wheeler Auditorium, Rooms 20, 24, 102, 103, 
104, 121, 122, and 123 Wheeler Hall. 



1146 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 



Meese Exhibit No. 18 — Continued 

APPENDIX " B" 

COST TO LOCAL GOVERNMENT 



The following reports from governmental agencies in Alameda County 
reflect a partial summai?y of the extraordinary expenses which have 
been required of city and County government as a result of activi- 
ties related to the Berkeley Campus of the University of 
California. 

Alameda County Sheriff's Department 

The followdng are the man hours and cost for the Sheriff's Depart- 
ment in connection with the "Free Speech Movement" (FSM) and the 
Vietnam Day Committee (VDC) demonstrations: 

October, 1964 (FSM) 9l4 hours $ 3, 623.60 

December, 1964 (FSM) 3673 14, 405.31 

October 15-16, 1965 (VDC) 3675 16,235.17 

November 20, I965 (VDC) 2126 3,905.12 

$ 43,m.i^0 
The above figures do not include two groups of fifty men each, 
which were dispatched during August I965 to support and assist 
the police departments of Berkeley and Emeryville during VDC 
demonstrations against troop trains. In addition to the costs 
set forth above, numerous key personnel of the Sheriff's 
Department were forced to devote their working time to matters 
related to the above events before and after the actual incidents, 
and a great number of personnel were Involved for over two months 
In the court trials of the FSM defendants. During the Incidents 
enumerated herein, the entire Sheriff's Department was placed on 
a twelve-hour shift basis in order to handle the regular crime- 
suppression, patrol and custodial functions, as well as to police 
the emergency Incidents discussed above. 

Berkeley 1-ollce Department 

During the period October 1964-January I965, expenses involved 
in the handling of "Free Speech Movement" demonstrations on the 
Berkeley Campus amounted to $9,722.54. This includes only 
direct costs and does not cover the expense of officers appear- 
ing in court as witnesses, trial preparation, or other miscel- 
laneous or indirect costs incurred by the City of Berkeley. 

During the period from May to December I965, protest activities 
of the VDC required the mobilization of off duty police officers 
on thirteen separate occasions at considerable overtime cost to 
the City, as the chart shown below Indicates: 

Hrs. of Misc. 

Date Incident Overtime Cost Cost 



May 21,22 


Vietnam Protest Teach- 
in and March 


202 


$ 950.00 


August 


Troop Train Demon- 
strations 


596 


2,755.00 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1147 



Meese Exhibit No. 18 — Ckjntinued 



Berkeley Police Department (Cont'd) 



Date 



Oct. 15,16 



Kov. 20 



Incident 

Vietnam Protest 

Marches (2) 

Vietnam Protest March 



Hrs. of 
Overtim e 

1035 

719 



Cost 



Mlsc, 
Cost 



$ 5,093.00 $452.00 



-^EUT 



3,441.00 
$12,239.00 



997.00 
$1449.00 



Total cost of policing VDC activities: $13,6od.OO. 
This does not include the loss incurred because of the injury and 
5-month period of recuperation of a Sergeant injured during the 
October I6 demonstration. 



Oaiclancl police department 

The follov;ing salary costs are reported by the Oakland Police 
Department. These figures do not include logistical or miscellan- 
eous expenses. 

Man Salary 
Date Location Hours Cost 



2 Oct 64 

3 Dec 64 
12 Aug 65 

15 Oct 65 

16 Oct 65 
20 Nov 65 



University of California (FSM) 
University of California (FSM) 
34th t Wood (Troop Tralns-VDC) 
Oakland Army Eiase, etc. (VDC J 
Oakland Army Base, etc. (VDC) 
DeFremery Park, etc. (VDC) 



1125 $ 4927.50 
1999 ^755. 26 
90 406.49 
5104 23,325.00 
4d51 22,04o.94 
4779i 2l,24.J.50 
$ dO,711.B7 

NOTE: The City of Oakland was partially reimbursed by the Univer- 
sity of California, in the amount of $4580. 7B, for expenses 
incurred on 2 Oct 64. 



Municipal Court 

The Municipal Court for the Berkeley-Albany Judicial District 
reports that extraordinary costs directly chargeable to the trial 
of FSM defendants amounted to $28,096.75 for the twelve-month 
period ending December, I965 . This does not include the salaries 
of regular personnel of the Court, including the Judge, whose 
efforts were redirected to the handling of this case, nor does 
it include overtime for regular employees or the cost of utilizing 
an additional court room, additional cost for marshals, or other 
expenses which were provided out of the regular Court budget or 
the budfjets of other County departments. 



Other Expenses 

The expense summaries set forth above do not Include a number of 
additional costs to County government. Personnel and miscellaneous 
costs incurred by the District Attorney's Office and the Alameda 
County Probation Department, as well as the costs of other Courts 
in the County, are not reflected above. 



1148 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 



Meese Exhibit No. 18 — Continued 

Other Expenses (Cont'd) 

Considerable expense was also Incurred by the State of California 
and the Federal Government because of the mobilization of large 
numbers of California Highway Patrolmen, National Guardsmen, and 
military personnel required by various incidents described in this 
report . 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1149 




T 



y. 



Meese Exhibit No. 19- A 

ri3 




y 






" r' ^. !* . ' !*', ! !! ! .. HJ i ^ult i ^ Pi J|l li " ' ■ ■ "! I ' Mim i mwJ 



'% 







The three soldiers who refused to fight in Vietnam were jailed 
and held incommunicado, on their way to speak at an anti-war dem- 
onstration. The three privates , Mora, Samas, and Johnson re- 
fused to fight in Vietnam on the grounds that it is illegal, immoral, 
and unjust. They hope that their action, as well as the suit that 
they have instituted against McNannara will free others who feel 
the san-ie way about the war from being forced to commit murder 
in Vietnam, 

Stokely Carmichel for S NCC, Floyd McKissick for CORE, A. J. 
Muste, Staughton Lynd and Dave Bellinger of the Fifth Avenue Com- 
mittee, have pledged their support. Pledge your support to these 
brave soldiers who may be the first of many to take a stand against 
the war. 

[g)[ifi^@Ki§'0'K/?\iri 

OAKLAND INDUCTION CENTER 

S^\ Ellp^ yViSVl^ Clayptflstl^*' ' 





WE NEED YOUR HELP 

To continue our efforts against the 
war in Vietnam and to aid th^-^ree soldiers 
in their couragouS struggj^ we need your 
financial support. Plg<fse *send contribu- 
tions to Steve Meisenbach, c/o August 6- 
9 Committee, 2001 Milvia, Berkeley, Cal- 
fornia. Thank you. 



AUG.6-9 COMM.MEETING 

A general meeting of the August 6-9th 
Committee for the International Days of 
Protest will take place at 8:00 PM on 
Thursday July 14 at LeConte School Audi- 
torium,, Ellsworth and Russell. Commit- 
tee meetings will start at 7:00 PM. All 
are welcome. Further info, at 845-9159. 



1/D^ lS'j<iO'^^ jlflrL AUGUs'TT^9rh^OMMITTEE: 



1150 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 



Meese Exhibit No. 19-B 

G.l.'s ARRESTED 

o FOR OPPOSING THE WAR 

Three G.I. 's, formerly stationed at Fort Hood, Texas, and on leave in New York City 
were arrested July 7 just one half hour before they were to speak tQ a public meeting to 
explain legal proceedings which they have instituted against the Vietnam war, which they 
consider "illegal, immoral and unjust". They were taken, two of them in handcuffs, to 
Fort Dix, New Jersey, whero they are being held under tight restriction!. 

The three arc PFC James Johnson, 20, Pvt. Dennis Mora, 25, and Pvt. David Samas, 20. 
They were drafted into the Army last December, took basic training at Fort Hood and 
signal training at Fort Gordon, Georgia, They became friends in training and found that 
they all felt the war in Vietnam was wrong. 

ORDERED TO VIETNAM 

They completed the signal school and were assigned to the 142nd Signal Battalion, 2nd 
Armored Division, Fort Hood, Texas. There they found they were under orders to go to 
Vietnam. 

"Now all we had discussed and thought about was real. It was time for us to quit talking and 
decide. Go to Vietnam and ignore the truth or stand and fight for what we know is right," 

They were given 30-day leaves before reporting to Oakland Army Terminal in California 
for shipment to Vietnam. They decided not to go to Vietnam and to nnake a legal case of it. 
They went to New York and contacted an Attorney to seek an injunction in Federal Court 
based on the illegality of the war. They contacted the Fifth Avenue Vietnam Peace Parade 
Committee and asked for help. 

On June 30 they held a news conference and announced that they were filing the injunction, 
that they would report to the Oakland Army Terminal as ordered when their leave was up 
July 13, but that they would not go to Vietnam, 

THEY SAID: 

"We have been told that many times. we may face a Vietnamese woman or child and that we 
will have to kill them. We will never go there --to do that- -for Ky!... We have made our 
decision. We will not be a part of this unjust, immoral and illegal war. We want no part of 
a war of extermination. We oppose the criminal waste of American lives and resources. We 
refuse to go to Vietnam!" 

WIDESPREAD SUPPORT 

They have been supported in their stand by leaders of the civil rights groups and by the 
entire anti-war movement. Stokely Carmichael, Chairman of the Student Nonviolent Co- 
ordinating Committee (SNCC) and Lincoln Lynch, associate national director of Congress 
on Racial Equality (CORE) appeared with them at the press conference to give the support 
of their organizations. 

Master Sergeant Don Duncan, who spent 18 months in the Special Forces in Vietnam, 
then refused a commission and quit the army because he had become convinced the war was 
wrong, sent a messafje of support saying: "Your actions, if properly motivated, take a 
strength greater than that required to go to Vietnam. To perservere will be an act of 
personal bravery far buyond the capabilities of most of us, certainly far beyond anything 
I have ever done. ' , / 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1151 



Meese Exhibit No. 19-B — Continued 

- Page 2- 

A committee to aid the three soldiers in their case was formed called the Fort Hood 
Three Defense Committee, with prominent people across the country as sponsors. 

After their announcement, though they were still on leave, attempts were made to in- 
timidate them and even to bribe them to drop the case. Pvt. Samas's parents were con- 
tacted by police and told that if their son would drop the case, he would be given an Army 
discharge. Then, only 30 minutes before they were to speak on their case before a public 
meeting they were arrested, 

Floyd B, McKissick, national director of CORE, declared that the arrests "were made 
explicitly to prevent these young men from exercising their First Amendment right to 
freedom of speech and were reminiscent of 'police state tactics. ' Recently in Baltimore 
at its National Convention, CORE went on record as being opposed to the Vietnam war 
and pledged to aid and support those who would not serve in Vietnam, " 

TELEGRAM 

The Fifth Avenue Vietnam Peace Parade Committee sent a telegram to the U. S. At- 
torney General and the Secretary of Defense saying: "The peace movement will continue 
to aid in every possible lawful way anyone, civilian, soldier, sailor or Marine, who op- 
poses this illegal, immoral war. The young men in the armed services are entitled to 
know the truth about the war and to engage in discussions about it. Citizens are likewise 
entitled to communicate the truth about the war which they consider immoral and unjust. 

The anti-war movement, with hundreds of thousands of active participants across the 
country is backing the three soldiers now being held at Fort Dix. We defend their right 
to free speech, their right to their day in court, and their right not to participate in a 
war which they consider immoral and unjust. 

THE THREE SOLDIERS INVOLVED ARE: 

PFC James Johnson, 20, Born in East Harlem. Graduated from Rice Parochial High 
school. Attended Bronx Community College for a year before being drafted. He is Negro. 

Pvt. Dennis Mora, 25. Born in Spanish Harlem. Attended Bronx High School of Science. 
Graduated from CCNY with a B, A. in History. A case worker for the New York City 
Department of Welfare until being drafted. He is Puerto Rican. 

Pvt. David Samas, 20. Born in Chicago. Was attending Modesto Junior College in 
California when drafted. Married this June. Of Italian, Lithuanian background. 



For further information contact The August 6-9 Committee, 2001 Milvia, Berkeley 

telephone 845-9159 

Send contributions, with checks payable to A. J. Muste, to Soldiers Defense Fund, 
the above address. 



1152 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 



Meese Exhibit No. 20-A 




President Johnson is coming to San Francisco on 
June 25 and 26 to speak at a commemoration of the 20th 
anniversary of the United Nations. Yet our government's 
actions in Vietnam and the Donninican Republic have 
served to undermine the United Nations. 

The mandate for peace that President Johnson 
received from the American people has been betrayed. 
He is following Goldwater's policies of escalation, 
brinksmanship and gunboat diplomacy. 

WE DEMAND : 



END THE WAR IN VIET 



THE VIETNAM DAY COMMITTEE IS ORGANIZING 
DEMONSTRATIONS TO TAKE PLACE ON JUNE 2 5 and 26: 



* Come at 7:00 p. m. Friday, June 25th to picket Johnson Directly in front of 

the Fairmont Hotel, San Francisco. 

* Come at 8:00 a. m. Saturday, June 26th to picket Johnson at the S. F. War 
Memorial Opera House on Van Ness between Grove and McAllister, S.F. 

* At 1:00 p.m. we will hold our own commenno ration of the United Nations 
in the Civic Center across the street from City Hall. We are inviting 
representatives from various countries to address our meeting. 



If you wish to help or want further information, phone 
Jerry Rubin at 845-6637. 

Send contributions to: Vietnam Day Con-innittee 

c/o Proi. 5. Swale ' 

Box 2201 

Berkeley, California 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1153 



Meese Exhibit No. 20-B 

For Release 10 a.m. June 10 
PRESS RELEASE FROM THE VI ETNAM DAY COMIT TEE 

The Vietnam Day Committee, which sponsored the recent 36-hour pro- 
test teach-in on the University of California campus, a meeting which 
drew upwards of 35,000 people, is sponsoring protest demonstrations 
against the appearance of Pres. Lyndon Johnson at the 20th commemor- 
ation of the UN in San Francisco June 26. 

The Committee believes that it is sheer hypocrisy for Johnson to 
commemorate the UN when his administration is doing so much to des- 
troy that organization in Vietnam and the landing of U.S. troops in 
the Dominican Republic — acts of aggression in violation of the UN 
charter. In Vietnam the Johnson administration acta in violation 
of the Geneva treaty. In addition to all this, it is the US which 
is largely responsible for keeping China out of the UN in spite of 
the fact that many of the outstanding political problems of the world 
require the participation of China in a settlement. In view of all 
these actions, how can Lyndon Baines Johnson commemorate the UN? 

We urge the people of the Bay Area to protest hypocrisy and ag- 
fression. We urge Lyndon Johnson to refrain from coming to San Fran- 
cisco for the 20th commemoration of the U.N. 

If Johnson comes, let the American people who protest war and big- 
bullyism turn out to demonstrate that LBJ does not represent us. Let 
the world's press see how deeply we protest Johnson's war policies. 
We knew that the city of San Francisco is investing a lot of money 
and effort in this 20th commemoration and that city officials hope 
that the meeting will be held v;ithout any disruption from dissenters. 
But the Vietnam Day Committee believes that LBJ's appearance in the 
U.N. on the commemoration meeting is an insult to those of us who 
believe in the U.N. as a force for peace. 

The Vietnam Day Committee has written to Chief of Police Thomas 
Cahill informing him that we plan to picket LBJ Friday night, June 25 
at the Fairmont Hotel and Sat. morning, June 26, at the War Memorial 
Opera House. In view of the growing opposition to the war in Viet- 
nam, we expect 3000 to 5000 people marching on our lines. We expect 
to be able to exercise our rights as citizens and to peacefully pick- 
et the President. We plan to picket directly in front of the Fair- 
mont Hotel on Friday night and directly in front of the Opera House 
on Sat. morning. We will probably be meeting with Chief Cahill soon. 

In addition, after LBJ- speaks on Sat. we will hold our own commem- 
oration of the UN in the Civic Center directly opposite City Hall. 
We have invited representatives from more that 1+5 countries, ranging 
from France to Tanzania. .. in addition to other noted speakers. From 
Johnson we can expect homilies and pieties. Perhaps his advisiers 
will caution him against repeating his schoolboy's orations about his 
country's flag in foreign soil. Our meeting will truly commemorate 
the U.N.. We hope that representatives in the U.N, will take advan- 
tage of this opportunity to speak directly to the American people. 

On the question of civil disobedience, the Vietnam Day Comm. an- 
nounces that it has no plans at this time for civil disobedience but- 
that it is considering all forms of nonviolent action. 

The peace movement is growing in the U.S. as more and more people 
become disenchanted with the fact that while they msy have voted for 
Johnson, the policy they receive is Goldwater's. The Vietnam Day 
Committee is receiving support from many groups for its June 25-26 
demonstrations. We invite the citizens of the Bay Area to attend 
our commemoration of the U.y. at noon on June 26 in Civic Center. 
Lyndon Baines Johnson has fojjfeitod any right to speak or act for 
us; nor can he reppjsentuiSat the U.N. On Jui.e 25 and 26 we will 
demonstrate how^Ara^fep-i^ 

Morris HirscJ>'Tru>i^'ssore of 'lathematics UC Steering Corrm. VDC 
Paul E Ivorv^-Amng Assnt Prof, of Economis UC Acting Go-Chairm an VDC 
Jerry Rubin Co-Chairman, VDC 



1154 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Meese Exhibit No. 20-C 

RSPLY TO PROFESSOR SCALaPIiTO 

Professor Scalapino, in slandering the organizers and speakers of Vietnam Day, 
to be held Friday and Saturday on the Berkeley Campus, has confused the purpose of 
the meeting to such an extent that one must consider it deliberate. 

The purpose of Vietnam Day is to present to the Bay Area Community alternatives to 
current U. S. policy. The information and ideas thrt will be related on these days 
cannot be found in the mass media, the State Department white paper, or even in 
university classrooms. ^Ve are contributing to democratic dialogue by expressing the 
views which, although widespread in Asia and Europe, are rarely presented to American 
people. Professor Scalapino calls such objective "propaganda". 

Professor Scalapino has implied that the only people' who are qualified to disouss 
Vietnam In public are academic or Stat*? Department experts on Vietnam, l.e do have 
such technical experts on the program; Professor Stanley Sheinbaum, who designed the 
strategic hamlet program for the Government, but now regrets it, is one exanple. 
But to restrict public discussion to "exp«?rts" leads to a dangerous elitism because 
in the end decisions on foreirjn policy are based on value j.udjpnents, not on just simple 
recording of facts. The issues in Vietnajn are too important to be settled by cold 
v/ar gamesmansliip or academic hairsplitting. One of the purposes of Vietnam Day is to 
transfer the discussion from the Rand Corporation to the streets. 

But more important than this, the- problem, of 'Vietnam is-the problem of the soul of 
America. What the State Department is. doing in our name in Vietnam is tied directly 
to Alabama, the Dominican- Republic, the state of freedom of the press of America,, and 
the scope -of our literature, .le think that people like Bob Parris of the Student 
Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, Norman Mailer and Dr. Benjamin Spook have much 
to say that is relevant to Vietnam. 

Professor Scalapino makes much of the fact that v/e have included entertainers in 
the program. Had he bothered, h^? vrould have counted less than thrr-e hours of entertain- 
ment scattered throughout the main proj^ram. He conveniently juxtaposes speakers and 
entertainrtrs and calls them all "performers". ..hich o.^ our speakers does Professor 
Scalapino consider entertainers or performers? Senator Gruening? Isaac Deutacher, 
world-renowned writer on the Soviet Union? Bertrand Russell? Ruben Brache, the 
representative of the Dominican rebels in the United States? Professor iiarvin. Chair- 
man of the International Relations Department, San Francisco State College? Bui Van 
Anh, Counselor of the Vietnamese Jilnbassy in /ashin(^ton? 

';e offered Professor Scalapiiio and Professor 3ur<lick, rho attacked us yesterday, 
as much time as they wanted at any hour. If they fear the public will be misinformed, 
they do the public a great disservice by a'tackinfr the meeting instead of participating 
in it as others vrho support the State Department are doing. 

They refuse to take part because they fear four aspects of the meeting: 

1. Vietnam Day is giving a platform to intellectuals who are not favored by the 
State Department as Professor Scalapino is, but v/ho, nevertheless, have much 
to say about Vietnam: people like Robert Scheer, Professor Staughton i^rnd, 
Dave Dellinger, K. S. Arnoni, Edward Keating, and Felix Greene. 

2. The meeting goes beyond the narrow definition of academic expert and challenges 
the authority of Professors Scalapino and Burdick. 

3. The meeting will spread some dangerous ideas to masses of people. 

h. The protest movement against the war is successful and is spreading. 

One week the State Department, well aware of the nature of the program, prOTiises ^^ 
to send speakers. The next week they back out, giving as an excuse, "lack of balance , 
thereby helpinp to create the very imbalance they say they oppose. 'Jhy are 
Professors Scalapino and Burdick and the State Department afraid to take the best 
time in our program and face an audience which has just heard fresh and unconventional 
ideas on Vietnam? Are they afraid that in this atmosphere their cliches, apologies, 
and academic excuses for injustice will be exposed? y 

. I y Professor Niorpis Hir^ph^""^ 

/ lull L Professor i^^hen Smale 

0>\n\^-i> Jerry RuAl^ 



5^^ (^— -^^ ^ 

^5-^r^ 




ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1155 



Meese Exhibit No. 21 




1 Mid tmimlt 




Everyday the people of 
their homes devastated 
sive attacks using ste 
toxic chemicals 
sprayed from the ai r 
have been used, of- 
ten indiscriminately 
on the c i v i I ian pop- 
ulation. While this 
unjust, cruel war 
continues, it is the 
peop I e of Vietnam 
who suffer most. 
Si nee 1957, wel I ov- 
er 300,000 have been 
ki I led and 400,000 
i njured or tortured . 
It is these i nnocent 
peop I e living in the 
villages who need 
you r help. 



Vietnam are being killed, wounded, 
by the weapons of modern war. Inten- 
el fragmentation bombs, napalm and 




- Jj!*fflW^^^f?^' 









. x. .■■■ ?</. :■•■ ■&■'* *-. 



''^^ ,^^. 










,:; n!-^.> ,rVi>dAk!\ 



1156 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 



Meese Exhibit No. 21— Continued 



On November 6, the San Francisco Chronicle reported that 
Pope Paul donated $50,000 to the victims of the war in both 
North and South Vietnam. He made an appeal for others to 
fol low sui t. 



'There is a desperate need to send medical supplies which 
will help to save lives. Medical equipment and drugs of all 
kinds are needed, especially antibiotics and antiseptics. 
Even the simplest equipment for first aid posts such as for- 
ceps, scissors, needles and sutures are desperately needed 
in addition to amputation saws and blood plasma. Money can 
buy these supplies. The people of Vietnam need your help! 

The Med I cal Aid Commi ttee wi I I send all contr ibutions to the 
International Red Cross in Geneva, Switzerland, which has 
already agreed to d^ei-ia ^r the a i. d to victims of the war in 
North Vietnam and q li vi I i an control \e^ areas of South Vietnam. 
This guarantees the greatest possiBJe efficiency. 



t/M^ C^n^ . 




In North Vietnam our help takes the form of 
medical supplies handed over to North Vietnamese 
Red Cross in Hanoi. 

The National Liberation Front of South Vietnam 
is supplied with medical and surgical supplies 
through its representatives. 

Money handed over to us will be used for the 
purchase of relief goods and medical supplies 
according to the wishes of tlie donors. 

This is an excerpt from a letter received by the Medical Aid 
Committee from the International Red Cross in Geneva, dated Oct- 
ober 15, 1965. 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1157 



Meese Exhibit No. 21 — Continued 




This is the "enemy." 



By contributing to the Committee the American people will be 
able to render immediate relief to those who are innocently 
suffering as a consequence of the U..S . Government interven- 
tion and military actions. 

Medical aid being collected and sent to the victims of our 
government's foreign policy is a dramatic protest that has a 
concrete effect ... they need the bandages and blood! 



Need it be added that when men, women and children lie hurt 
and bleeding, the political views of the victims are as 
irrelevant as those of the Good Samaritan. 



67-852 O — 66' — pt. 1- 



-17 



1158 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 



Meese Exhibit No. 21 — Continued 



-Senator Robert F. Kennedy 
S.F. Chronicle, Nov. 6. 





"If it's a blanket question, yes, I would give my blood to 
North Vietnam. I think that would be in the oldest tradition 
of thi s country. " 



I am end os i ng 

Vi etnam . 



as a donation for the Medical Aid Committee for 



NAME 



ADDRESS 



Medical Aid Committee }/ O^ 

P.O. Box 1128 ■" 

Berkel ey Cal i forn ia 



If you wish to be on our mailing list, please enclose this form. 






ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 



1159 



Meese Exhibit No. 24-C 












f>i [£.-irii (yj 




— TO MAICE THE DECISIONS V/HICH AFFECT YOUR OVm LIFE 

— TO DESIRE THAT DECISIONS ABOUT LIFE AND DEATH 
BE MADE DEMOCRATICALLY 

— TO REFUSE TO SUPPORT A GOVERNMENT VJHICH ORGANIZES 
ITSELF FOR THE PURSUIT OF VJAR 

— TO REFUSE TO COOPERATE WITH THE DRAFT 

Tho majority of pooplo in thio coxmtry nolthor 
QCtivoiy oupport nor undorstond tho v/or in Viotncua, 
yot tho vjar gooa on. Mon servo in tho armod forcoa 
bocauae thoy feol thoy cannot avoid oorvins. Tho 
pov7or of tho United Statoo Government to carry on 
-ijar rosta on coercion from abovo rather than 
patriotiom from below, on acquioaenco rather than 
cooperation. V/ar io carried on by govornmontfls 
not by pooplo. Pooplo muat no loncei* t>o treated 
QQ tho objocta of tliia or any govornmonto ddairo . 
•■iCor power <> 

Pooplo ore nov; comming tocothor, in Dorkoloy and 
acroaa tho nation, to formulate programa of action 
againot tho draft. Some uiah to rogistor Consciontioua 
Objoctora, to clog up the machinery of conacriptiono 
Othera v;iah to in no v/ay cooperato v;ith a Governnont 
whoro docisiona ore raado vxithout tho consent of tho 
governed. Somo'propoao alternativeo to cooperation 
with tho draft, 

Somo propoood actlvitioa include, 

opoalcing to high school studenta vrho oro atrout 
to regiator, proposing aD.ternativoo 
organizing community meetinga to talk about 
tho v:ar, the draft, democracy 
organizing inductees and their familieo to 
creatively distrupt tho draft centers 
urging soldiers not to fight 

COMB, HELP PLAN THE FIRST ACTIVITIES FOR THE BAY AREA 

J 

atudenta for a democrutio socoity 



V/EDNESDAY, OCTOBFJt 6 
109 Dv/inollo Hall, 
7:00 PM 



/ePjd^l^^ 



1160 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Mr. Pool. The committee will stand in recess until 2 o'clock. 

(Members present at time of recess: Representative Willis, chair- 
man of the full committee; Representatives Pool, Ichord, Ashbrook, 
and Buchanan, of the subcommittee; and Representative Clawson, 
alternate subcommittee member.) 

(Whereupon, at 11:4:5 a.m., Thursday, August 18, 1966, the 
subcommittee recessed, to reconvene at 2 p.m., the same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION— THURSDAY, AUGUST 18, 1966 

(The subcommittee reconvened at 2 p.m. Hon. Joe R. Pool, chair- 
man of the subcommittee, presiding.) 

(Subcommittee members present : Representatives Pool, Ichord, and 
Buchanan.) 

Mr. Pool. The committee is called to order. 

The House has called for a record vote, so the committee will now 
stand in recess for 15 minutes so the members can go to the floor and 
vote. 

(Whereupon, at 2:11 p.m. the subcommittee recessed and recom- 
vened at 2 :45 p.m. with the following members present : Representa- 
tives Pool, Ichord, Ashbrook, and Buchanan.) 

Mr. Pool. The committee will come to order. 

Counsel, call the next witness. 

Mr. NiTTLB. Would Allen Krebs come forward, please? 

Mr. Pool. Call his name again. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would Allen Krebs come forward, please ? 

Mr. Pool. The third time. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would Allen Krebs come forward, please? 

Mr. Pool. Let the record note that the witness failed to respond 
after the third call of his name. 

Call the next witness. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would Walter Dorwin Teague III come forward, 
please ? 

Would Walter Dorwin Teague III come forward, please ? 

Would Walter Dorwin Teague III come forward, please ? 

Mr. Pool. Let the record show that the witness failed to respond 
after his name was called three times. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would Stanley Nadel please come forward ? 

STATEMENT OF STANLEY NADEL 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you appearing as a witness to testify ? 

Mr. Nadel. I have a subpena to testify. 

Mr. Pool. Ask his name. 

Mr, NiTTLE. Would you state your name for the record, please ? 

Mr. Nadel. Stanley Nadel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And your residence ? 

Mr. Nadel. I - - 

Mr. Pool. That is not necessary. 

Mr. Nadel. I will not give my address. My house was bombed 
once. I do not intend to have that happen again. 
Mr. NiTTLE. Would you be sworn to testify ? 
Mr. Nadel. Do I have a choice ? 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1161 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Nadel. I wish to have counsel. You forced the counsel of my 
choice to withdraw from this case by your actions yesterday. It is 
clearly unsafe for him to vigorously represent me. 

Mr. IcHORD. Mr. Chairman, let me ask the witness a few questions. 

Do you wish, sir, to testify before this committee without the 
benefit of counsel ? 

Mr. Nadel. I do not wish to do so. I will do so if I am compelled 
to by the committee. 

Mr. IcHORD. Then, Mr. Chairman, the witness does not wish to 
testify. It is my understanding that the counsel for this witness with- 
drew from the case. He does not wish to testify. I think perhaps this 
witness should be continued over under subpena and given additional 
time to obtain an attorney. 

I would make that suggestion to the Chair. 

Mr. Nadel. If I may 

Mr. IcHORD. If he wishes to testify, if he wishes to be sworn as a 
witness and testify without the benefit of an attorney, that wish will 
be granted him. 

Mr. Nadel. If I may, I do wish to have counsel. However, I could 
not trust any counsel to appear with me under the conditions of this 
hearing. 

Mr. IcHORD. That will suffice, Mr. Nadel. 

Then, Mr. Chairman, I renew my suggestion, and I will put that in 
the form of a motion. I move that the subpena of this witness be con- 
tinued over and he be given additional time, to November 15, to ap- 
pear before this committee at that time. 

Mr. Pool. Are there any objections ? 

The Chair hears no objections. The witness is excused until Nov- 
ember 15, at which time he would have had plenty of time to obtain 
counsel of his choice. 

Mr. Nadel. I state again that I could not trust any counsel 

Mr. IcHORD. The witness is out of order. Would you please be 
seated, sir? 

Mr. Nadel. As you wish. 

Mr. Pool. Call the next witness. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would Anatole Ben Anton come forward, please ? 

Mr. Nadel. Could I reconsider? 

Mr. Pool. Yes. 

Mr. Nadel. This is expensive and tli^t could be finals' time at school, 
so I will under protest testify without counsel. 

Mr. Pool. You have not yet reconsidered. 

Mr. IcHORD. Let him be seated. Call the next witness. 

Mr, Nadel. I will testify. I am willing to testify. 

Mr. Pool. The way you have put it to the committee, we are going 
to be fair with you and give you a chance to get a lawyer. 

Mr. Nadel. I am telling you now I cannot get a lawyer under these 
conditions. Therefore, I am willing to testify without one. 

Mr. Pool. Does the committee wish to reconsider ? 

Mr. AsTiBROOK. He, in effect, is saying that he can't. 

Mr. IcHORD. Let me ask the witness a question again. 



1162 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Do you at this time, Mr, Nadel, wish to voluntarily testify before 
this committee without the benefit of counsel ? 

If you desire, the committee will grant you that wish because we do 
feel you have evidence that you could present if you desired to testify, 
if you will be sworn, testimony that will be of benefit to this com- 
mittee. 

With that understanding, sir, have you reconsidered and do you 
desire to testify before this committee voluntarily without the benefit 
of counsel ? 

Mr. Nadel. I am not sure of the meaning of the term 

Mr. IcHORD. Then, Mr. Chairman 

Mr. Nadel. Wait. I am not arguing. I am not sure what you 
mean by "'voluntarily.'' I mean I am testifying willingly, but with 
the understanding that then it is willingly under the conditions of 
the subpena. If I were not subpenaed, I would not be here. 

Mr. IcHORD. We are willing to continue the subpena and give you 
time to obtain counsel. 

Mr. Nadex. I am saying I am willing to testify under subpena 
without counsel. 

Mr. IcHORD. Do you wish to testify at this time without the benefit 
of counsel ? 

Mr. Nadel. Yes. 

Mr. IcHORD. You do. 

Then I would suggest, Mr. Chairman, I withdraw my motion, or 
I move to reconsider the motion that I made. I would suggest to 
the Chair that if that motion carries that the witness be sworn, put 
under oath, for his testimony. 

Mr. AsTiBROOK. Mr. Chairman, there is no question in my mind 
but what this witness will leave this room and say he was literally 
forced to testify under duress, under the supposed threat of future 
testimony, that it was a financial aggravation to himself, and so 
forth. He has already indicated this. Under the circumstances, I 
think it would be wrong to reconsider that motion at this time. 

Mr. IcHORD. I would point out to the witness that you will not 
come back after you have had the opportunity to obtain counsel, you 
will not come back at your own expense. That will be at the ex- 
pense of the Government, as you have been subpenaed here today. 

But I want to make it clearly understood that you wish to be heard 
by this committee without the benefit of counsel. 

Mr. Nadel. I have said that I would rather do this now than do it 
in November, seeing as it will be under the same conditions. 

Mr. AsHBRooK. But you did say it would be under protest. Do you 
still feel that you are doina: this under protest, or are you willingly 
doing it and voluntarily doing it at this time ? 

Mr. Nadel. I feel the counsel of my choice has been forced to 
withdraw. I would like to have him here, but he has been forced 
to withdraw. 

Mr. AsHBRooK. Under these conditions, I do not thinlc he should 
be permitted to testify. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Ichord, from what he said, I would ask you to with- 
draw your motion. 

Mr. IcHORD. I agree with the chairman. I think the witness should 
be seated. Call the next witness. 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1163 

Mr. Pool. You have your instructions. Have a seat. Call the next 
witness. 
Mr. NiTTLE. Anatole Ben Anton. 

STATEMENT OF ANATOLE BEN ANTON 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you state your name for the purposes of the 
record, please ? 

Mr. Anton. I would rather do that after I have been sworn in, if 
you don't mind. 

Mr. Pool. Counsel asked you to state your name. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state your name? 

Mr. Anton. Since I am not under oath, I can say '"James Bond." 

Mr. Pool. All right, Counsel. 

Mr. NirrLE. Are you represented by counsel, Mr. Anton? 

Mr. Anton. Well, the fact is — what is your name? I forget it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It does not matter. Proceed. 

Mr. Anton. The fact is, Lackie 

Mr. NiTTLE. Address your remarks to the Chair, please. You are 
not addressing me. 

Mr. Anton. The fact is, Mr. Lackie, that no self-respecting law- 
yer, members of this committee not withstanding, would come into this 
courtroom now. So under those conditions, I am without counsel. 

I have to face you people. 

Mr. Pool. Do you desire counsel? Do you desire counsel? 

Mr. Anton. Of course I desire counsel. 

Mr. Pool. Have you tried to obtain counsel ? 

Mr. Anton. The fact is that every counsel that has an intelligent 
position vis-a-vis this committee certainly would not violate the agree- 
ment of the lawyers to withdraw from this committee and certainly 
would not come in. 

Mr. IcHORD. Do you wish, sir, to testify before this committee today 
without the benefit of counsel ? 

Mr. Anton. Is that Mr. Willis ? 

Mr. IcHORD. I would remind the gentleman that the gentleman was 
in the committee earlier yesterday and that I thought this committee 
liad some very important business to proceed with and that was the 
consideration of the Pool bill that would establish a criminal penalty 
for such actions that this witness, it has been testified, has been com- 
mitting in certain areas in the United States. Such testimony is cer- 
tainly within the jurisdiction of this committee. 

The gentleman's counsel has withdrawn from the case. I do think 
that, in all fairness to this witness, he should be given an opportunity 
to obtain additional counsel. 

But I do feel, sir, since you have been making so many statements, 
that the business that is pending before this committee is so impor- 
1 ant that we do not have time to listen to a bunch of clowns. 

(At this point Mr. Clawson entered the hearing room.) 

Mr. Anton. I am not the clown, I will have you know. But listen, 
Ritchie, really 

Mr. Pool. Let's have order. Wait just a minute. 



1164 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Mr. IcHORD. Mr, Chairman, I would move that this witness be con- 
tinued over until November 15 under his subpena, to give him ample 
opportunity to obtain counsel. 

Mr. Anton, No, that could not be. No lawyer would come into 
this — — 

Mr. Pool, Let's have order in the hearing room. Just be quiet until 
Vv-e ask you to say something, 

Mr, Anton, Joe, if you don't mind, I would like to state for the 
record that I would testify— Joe, I mean — I have busy things. I am 
a busy man myself. 

Mr. Pool. You look as if you are pretty busy. 

The motion has been made that this man's subpena be continued 
until November 15. All in favor say "aye," all opposed, "no." 

The ayes have it. 

Your subpena is continued until November 15. 

You can now be seated. 

Call the next witness, 

Mr. NiTTLE, Would Stuart McKae come forward, please? 

TESTIMONY OF STUART ALLAN McRAE 

Mr, NiTTLE, Your name is Stuart McRae ? 

Mr, McRae, Yes, 

Mr, NiTTLE, Do you appear with counsel ? 

Mr, McRae. No, I do not. The actions of the committee deprive me 
of the counsel of my choice. I will testify without counsel. I feel no 
need of legal help in proceedings with such little respect for me. 

Mr. Pool, Is it your statement that you do not desire counsel ? 

Mr. McRae. I do not desire counsel that will enter this room under 
these conditions, there being no counsel that I can trust, I will proceed 
alone, 

Mr, Pool, Mr, Ichord, would you like to make a motion ? 

Mr. McRae. I wish to testify. 

Mr. IcHORD. Do you wish to testify at this time ? 

Mr. McRae. Yes, I do. 

Mr, IcHORD, Then I would suggest, Mr, Chairman, that the witness 
be sworn. 

Mr. Pool, Is that the desire of the witness to testify at this tim.e 
without counsel ? 

Mr. McRae. Yes, willingly under protest. 

Mr. Pool. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony — let's have 
order — you do solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God? 

Mr. McRae. I so affirm. 

Mr, Pool, Do you affirm that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth ? 

Mr, McRae, I so affirm. 

Before proceeding, I have a statement I would like to read, 

Mr, Pool, Counsel wants you to identify yourself first. 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1165 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state your full name for the purposes of the 
record ? 

Mr. McRae. My name is Stuart Allan McRafe. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Where do you live ? 

Mr. McRae. I am in a transit condition at the moment. My room 
right now is Room 306 Congressional Hotel. 

Mr. NiiTLE. What was your residence prior to coming here ? 

Mr. McRae. 573 Center Drive [Palo Alto, California] . 

Mr. NrrTLE. What was the date and place of your birth ? 

Mr. McRae. January 29, 1944. 

Mr. Pool. Counsel, he wishes to make a statement. 

Mr. McRae. Yes, I wish to make a statement. It is not a long 
statement. 

My name is Stuart McRae. I am a student at Stanford University 
and I make this statement in protest against my appearance before 
the House Committee on Un-American Activities. 

Frankly I am incredulous at having been subpenaed by this com- 
mittee. I have broken no law. By what right does this committee, 
whose entire history has been plagued by bigotry, racism, and pa- 
triotic bigotry 

Mr. Pool. Just a moment. You can make a statement in objection 
to the proceedings, but limit it to objections. 

Mr. McRae. These are objections, vigorous objections. Let me say 
at the outset that I, like millions of other Americans, am convinced 
that the committee is unconstitutional, and is un-American as 

Mr. Nittle. May I confer with the chairman a moment? 

Mr. Pool. Yes. 

You may proceed. 

Mr. McRae. Showing my support, I wish to indicate my support of 
the injunction against the committee on the basis it is unconstitutional 
according to the first amendment. But if this were one of the com- 
mittee's garden-variety witch hunts, I would refuse to cooperate in this 
unconstitutional circus. This hearing has an enormous importance 
for the ever growing army of Americans, both adults and students, 
who are determined to resist Johnson's undeclared war in Vietnam. 

I have a responsibility to stand up to this committee and to speak 
out against its transparent effort to intimidate resistance to the war, 
and I do not wish to permit a sinister crowd of the committee to 
shadow and besmirch me. 

I have done nothing of which I am of the slightest ashamed and 
surely nothing which requires criminal sanctions. I am here on trial 
for sending money to the International Red Cross, for relief which is 
administered by the National Liberation Front in South Vietnam, to 
alleviate the suffering of victims of brutal American bombing. 

Am I to be harassed in believing in the ideals of the American Red 
Cross? 

Senator Robert F. Kennedy has asserted that such aid to the suffer- 
ing, whoever they are, is in the oldest American tradition. For act- 
ing on my convictions as an American, as a man, I have been dragged 
across the entire country to participate in the low comedy of this con- 
gressional sideshow. 



1 166 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

But unfortunately we must take these hearings and the Pool bill 
seriously, for in addition to the general suppression of dissent, the 
subpenaing of young people to these hearings represents a negative 
attempt by an agency of the Government to intimidate and suppress 
the peace movement. 

It is clear to me that this hearing represents an attempt to smear 
the peace movement as red or subversive. More than this, it repre- 
sents an attempt to stifle the peace actions which go beyond the 
politely spoken dissent that the administration tries to ignore. 

This will not stop me from my views to end aggression of the 
United States in Vietnam, in responding to the call of conscience to 
help the wounded and suffering, and in cooperating with all of those, 
regardless of their politics, who 'believe as I do about the war. 

It is my hope that that sector of the American public will find 
some solidarity encouraged to bring a possible end to this brutal 
carnage. That is the end of my statement. 

Mr. Pool. All right, Counsel, go ahead with your questions. 

If you have stated any objections there, they are overruled. 

Mr. McRae. I would expect nothing other than that. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you relate the extent of your formal education ? 

Mr. McRae. It is a normal education. I have attended 6 years of 
grade school, elementary school, 3 years of junior high. school, 3 years 
of high school, and 3 years at Stanford University. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell us the years of attendance at Stanford? 

Mr. McRae. I attended Stanford from September 1962 through 
June 1964, and aarain from September 1965 to June 1966. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Prior thereto, were you a graduate of the Highland 
High School at Albuquerque, New Mexico? 

Mr. McRae. Yes, I was. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you serve as cochairman of the Stanford Medical 
Aid Committee? 

Mr. McRae. I am very proud to say that I did this activity. 

Mr. NiTTLE. When was that committee formed ? 

Mr. McRae. There was no formal date of formation in that it was 
quite a fluidly organized committee. I believe it was in the month 
of October 1965. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you at that time file in the Office of the Dean of 
Students at Stanford a constitution for, or charter of, the Medical Aid 
Committee for Vietnam ? 

Mr. McRae. May I ask you if that was turned over to you by the 
university authorities ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. I asked you a question : Did you file a charter for the 
Medical Aid Committee for Vietnam with the Office of the Dean of 
Students at Stanford on or about October 28, 1965 ? 

Mr. McRae. Yes, I did. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. Mr. Chairman, although the witness is here without 
counsel, I would like to make completely sure he understands his full 
rights, that he may invoke the fifth amendment to any question asked. 

I would like to make sure that he understands this because I think 
it is our duty, even though he is not represented by counsel, that he has 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1167 

waived that right, to inform him here, where he feels that a question 
might tend to incriminate him, he does have this right which is recog- 
nized totally by this committee. 

Mr. IcHORD. To make that more explicit, Mr. Chairman, if the wit- 
ness feels that the answers to any question might tend to incriminate 
him, that it would subject him to criminal proceedings — and this, of 
course, is not a trial, but merely an investigative hearing — the witness 
does have the right to rely upon the self-incrimination clause and de- 
cline to answer the question upon those grounds. 

Mr. Pool. The witness is now so instructed in accordance with what 
Mr. Ashbrook and Mr. Ichord have just stated. 

That is for your information, for your guidance. 

Go ahead. 

Mr. NiTTLE. By whom were you invited to join in the formation 
of this group ? 

Mr. McRae. I was originally invited by the numerous pictures in 
various newspapers of the country, of various atrocities and burnings 
of people that the United States has carried on. 

This was my recruitment. 

Mr. NiTFLE. Were you invited to form this Medical Aid Committee 
for Vietnam with Anatole Ben Anton ? 

Mr. McRae. No one invited me to form this committee. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you discuss it with Anatole Ben Anton prior to 
the filing of the charter with Stanford ? 

Mr. McRae. This line of questioning disgusts me fully. I will not 
say anything about anybody else on the grounds that this violates the 
trust of free association guaranteed by the first amendment. I will 
not answer questions referring to anyone else. This is disgusting; I 
am not going to come to that level. 

Mr. Pool. That is not responsive and not a sufficient reason for you 
not to answer the question. Do you have any further objections, any 
other ground or objections, to answering the question ? 

Mr. McRae. I would like to know the relevance of the question and 
I challenge the question as a violation of the first amendment. 

Mr. Pool. State the relevancy of the question. Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It is the committee's information, Mr. Chairman, that 
this organization, the Medical Aid Committee for Vietnam, was formed 
by Anatole Ben Anton, a member of the May 2nd Movement, 
together with Stuart McRae. 

Mr. Ichord. Furthermore, Mr. Chairman, one of the bills pending 
before this committee is H.R. 12047. Section 402 of the bill prescribes 
a criminal penalty for anyone who solicits, collects, receives, or gives to 
another, any money, property, or thing for delivery to any hostile for- 
eign power, agency, or nationals thereof. 

So it would definitely be within the purview of the resolution estab- 
lishing this investigative hearing. 

Mr. Pool. Without objection from any members, I rule that the 
question is relevant. 

Go ahead and answer the question. 



1 168 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Mr. McRae. Since you have subpenaed Mr. Anton, I think it only 
decent that you ask him about his own activities and don't try to impli- 
cate me. 

Mr. Pool. I direct the witness to answer the question or state a valid 
legal objection. We have informed you of the fifth amendment. Do 
you w\ant to take the fifth amendment? 

Mr. McRae. Are you qualified to speak for the gallery ? 

Mr. Pool. We have informed you of the defense you might have if 
you want to answer the question. If you want to avail yourself of 
that, you now have the opportunity to do so. 

Mr. McRae. I w^ll not answer that question. You subpenaed Mr. 
Anton. You can ask him this question. You are trying to put me in 
the position of being of the same low character as the witnesses, the first 
witnesses. 

Mr. Pool. I direct you to answ^er the question. 

Mr. McRae. You can tear the tongue from my mouth before I an- 
swer the question. 

Mr. Pool. Take the next question, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, may I speak to the Chair ? 

Mr. Pool. I w-ould suggest. Counsel, before you go to the next 
question, that you inform the witness, if he fails to respond to the 
question or give a valid reason for not answering the question, of the 
penalties that he could incur under the contempt proceedings. 

Mr. IcHORD. Mr. Chairman, could I be recognized for a moment? 

Mr, Pool. Yes. 

Mr. IcHORD. Mr. Chairman, since the witness is not represented by 
counsel, I think he should be fully informed. 

I will state to the witness that this member is a member of the Mis- 
souri Bar and also of the bar of the United States Supreme Court. 

The witness testifying before this committee cannot be compelled 
to testify if he feels that the answer to that question would incriminate 
him. 

The Supreme Court in numerous cases has held time and time again 
that the rights guaranteed an American citizen under the Constitu- 
tion, such as freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, freedom of the 
press, freedom of religion, are not sufficient grounds to refuse to testify 
before a congressional committee. 

The courts have also held the same time and time again in regard to 
amendment number 4, amendment number 6, amendment number Y, 
amendment number 8, amendment number 9, and amendment number 
10, which I believe one of the witnesses yesterday sought to invoke. 

The amendment that is a sufficient grounds, provided that he feels 
the answer would incriminate himself, is the self-incrimination clause 
of the fifth amendment. 

You have the right, if you feel that it would incriminate you, to re- 
fuse to answ^er on those grounds. Otherwise, the cases do hold that 
you should be compelled to answer. 

Mr. MgRae. The only w^ay answering this question would incrimi- 
nate me is to make me stoop to the level of an animal. I am not going 
to that level. 

Mr. Pool. With that instruction that Mr. Ichord has just given you 
and the information he has given you for your benefit, I direct you 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1169 

for the last time to answer the question, the previous question, the last 
question asked. 

Mr. McRae. I will answer any questions about myself. If you want 
to know about other people, you can ask them. You have the power to 
subpena anyone you wish. I am not going to be reduced to this level. 
Direct me again. 

Do you wish to go for six on this ? 

Mr. Pool. I can't hear you. 

Mr. McRae. I said do you wish to go for six on this ? The Supreme 
Court has slapped down the last five contempt decisions. 

Mr. IcHORD. I will state to the witness that the sixth amendment 
covers trials, and this definitely is not a trial. The witness is not under 
trial before this hearing. There is a possibility that the witness could 
be in contempt of this committee, but I would further explain that al- 
though the Congress does have the power to exercise contempt itself — 
it has been done in the history of the United States Congress, but it is 
not doing it at the present time as the procedure is to go through the 
courts. 

Always, the Congress votes a contempt citation which is only simi- 
lar to a complaint. Any witness that would be cited for contempt 
would still have a right to go before a grand jury. 

A grand jury would have to return an indictment and then, of 
course, he would be entitled to a trial. I think that is the best I can 
explain it for the witness in layman's terms. I think he is sufficiently 
informed at the present time. 

Mr, Pool. I direct the witness to answer the last question asked him. 

Mr. McRae. I will not answer this question on the grounds that it 
nauseates me and I am liable to vomit all over this table. 

Mr. Pool. Next question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wliat was the major effort at Stanford in the way of 
raising funds for this committee which you served as chairman? 

Mr. McRae. The effort of my committee for aid to the victims of 
U.S. aggression was to collect money to be sent to the International 
Red Cross to be used by the Red Cross of North Vietnam and the Na- 
tional Liberation Front of the people of South Vietnam then for use 
in alleviating the suffering of- the people who are bombed and mur- 
dered by the indiscriminate bombing of the United States. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you hold a rally on November 2, 1965, at White 
Plaza, for the purpose of making collections for this purpose? 

Mr. McRae. Yes, we did. The rally was quite successful, I might 
add. 

Mr. Nittle. The reports are that you received 40 pledges of blood 
and a certain amount of financial support. Did you receive 40 
pledges for blood donations ? 

Mr. McRae. Yes. That was a little less than we hoped for, but 
we got a few a little later on. I think 40 is approximately right. 

Mr. Nittle. How much money did you collect for this purpose 
at that rally ? 

Mr. McRae. I don't remember how much at that rally. I know 
how much we eventually sent to the International Red Cross. We col- 
lected money over a period of time. 



1170 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is your committee for medical aid still in existence? 

Mr. McRae. No; as a matter of fact, it was dissolved. Each year 
the student organizations of Stanford University, to maintain their 
status, must reapply. So far this has not been done. 

Mr. NiTTLE. When was this organization dissolved, then? 

Mr. McRae. I don't know the date. I don't know when it becomes 
effective. 

Mr. IcHORD. Mr. McRae, could you pull the microphone a little 
closer to you ? The acoustics are poor in this room. It is particularly 
difficult to hear you up here. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What was the total collection that you made for this 
organization during the time you had been associated with it? 

Mr. McRae. This was approximately somewhere over $300, 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you communicate with the American Red Cross 
with regard to the propriety of the collecting of this blood and money ? 

Mr. McRae. Yes, we did. We informed the American Red Cross of 
what our planned activity was and received a letter commending our 
humanitarian attitude from some official of the American Red Cross. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you receive further information from the Ameri- 
can Red Cross with regard to your plans ? 

Mr. MoRae. Later under the pressure of the furor caused by the 
initial statement by the American Red Cross, then it showed its true 
colors and came around and showed up its humanitarianism, so called, 
and declined to help us in our activity, though I must say in the first 
letter they directed us it was very good that we were dealing with the 
International Red Cross and that is what we should do. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. McRae, I hand you a copy of a check or a draft 
drawn on Wells Fargo Bank at San Francisco, California, dated De- 
cember 7, 1965, and made payable to the order of the International 
Committee of Red Cross, the purchaser being the Stanford Committee 
for Medical Aid, Box 7672, Stanford, California. 

(Document handed to witness.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you purchase that draft at the Wells Fargo Bank 
on December 7, 1965 ? 

Mr. McRae. Yes, I did purchase this draft in the name of the 
committee. 

Mr. NiTTLE, And at the time you purchased that draft, did you 
appear there with representatives of another medical aid group known 
as the Medical Aid Committee, Post Office Box 1128, Berkeley, Cali- 
fornia ? 

Mr. McRae. Yes, I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And were you aware that they likewise were purchasing 
a draft from the Wells Fargo Bank for the delivery oi a similar 
amount to the International Committee of the Red Cross? 

Mr. McRae. Yes. We thought $500 was a nice, round, conceivable 
number, that it would be very appropriate for the two groups to send 
each a check for $250 to the Internaltional Red Cross, 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Nittle, are you offering that in evidence ? 

Mr. Nittle. Yes. 

Mr. Pool. If there is no objection, it is so ordered. 
(Check marked "McRae Exhibit No. 1" follows:) 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1171 




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1172 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

(At this point Mr. Ashbrook left the hearing room.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you aware that the Medical Aid Committee of 
Berkeley, California, was also a group of the May 2nd Movement? 

Mr. McRae. I was aware that May 2nd was involved, not the sole 
membership of the Medical Aid Committee. Because it — the May 
2nd agrees with some activity I undertake. I am not going to run 
and hide. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you, following December 7, 1965, make any other 
payments to the International Red Cross ? 

Mr. McRae. I relayed a check for $50 to the International Red 
Cross that was made out directly to them. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wlien was that ? 

Mr. McRae. I don't know the date. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Approximately how long after December 7, 1965 ? 

Mr. McRae. A week or two. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. McRae, are you a member of the Young Socialist 
Alliance ? 

Mr. McRae. No, I am not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you ever been a member of the Young Socialist 
Alliance ? 

Mr. McRae. No, I have not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I have before me, Mr. McRae, the Constitution of the 
Stanford Young Socialist Alliance as filed with the Office of the Dean 
of Students on December 15, 1965. Attached thereto is a membership 
list of the group. 

Mr. McRae. Excuse me. This is not to be construed as a member- 
ship list. The conditions under which I signed this were to enable 
some friends of mine to register as a group on campus so that they 
could present materials and speeches. 

This was in the interests of free speech. I am not aligned to this 
group. I am not opposed to this group. But I am not a member. 

(At this point Mr. Ashbrook returned to the hearing room.) 

Mr. Pool. Would you identify this document? 

Mr. NiTTLE. I hand you this document and direct your attention 
to the last page of it, which is captioned "Stanford YSA members." 
It appears to be a continuation of the prior page on that subject : your 
name, "Stuart McRae," appears thereon. 

Mr. McRae. In view of the fact that the YSA has a rather rigorous 
membership procedure, they keep records nationally, I am not on those 
records. I signed this — see it is written in pencil "members." I was 
not aware even at the time that this meant membership. I am not a 
member of this group. I don't care whether you wish to call me that 
or not. 

Mr. Pool. But you are identifying that signature ? 

Mr. McRae. Tliis is my signature. 

Mr. Pool. We understand your explanation. I just wanted to 
identify it. 

Are you offering that in evidence ? 

His statements are in the record, of course. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, sir. 

(Document marked "McRae Exhibit No. 2" follows:) 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1173 
McRae Exhibit No. 2 



CONSTITUTION OF TIIE STANFORD YOUNG SOCIAl.lST ALLIANCE 



° * A, SfANfORo 



ARTICLE 1 1 NAf.IE 

The name of this organizfition shall be the Young Socialist Alliance. 

ARTICLE lis PURTOSE 

The Young Socialist Alliance is formed in response to the need for 
a youth organization capable of bringing revolutionary socialist ideas 
to a new generation. Socialism means that for the first time in history 
man will control his own creation — society — rather than be controlled 
by it. The dynamic of socialism is a continual expansion of human freedom 
in all spheres I in politics, economics, culture, and every aspect of 
human life. 

ARTIClOi; Hit MniBERSHIP 

1. Members of the Stanford community are eligible for membership 
in the Young Socialist Alliance. 

2. Membership in the Young Socialist Alliance does not in any way 
imply membership in or affiliation with any other group, local, national, 
or international, whatsoever. 

3. Membership in the Young Socialist Alliance may be obtained upon 
application to the organization by a vote of the majority of the membership. 

ARTICLE IV s OFFICERS 

1. There shall be elected aji Organizar by majority vote, who shall 
represent the Young Socialist Alliance to the public. 

2. The Organizer shall appoint a Finance Chairman, who shall collect 
and disburse all funds and shall keep an accurate financial record at 

all times and shall fulfill all requirements of that oTfice set forth 
under Stanford and ASSU regulations. The Organizer may appoint himself 
or herself. 

ARTICLE Vs MEETINGS 

1. The Young Socialist Alliance shall meet at least once each quarter. 
Special meetings may be called by the Organizer or by a majority of the 
members of the Young Socialist Alliance. 

2. Meetings other than special meetings shall be called by the Organizer. 

ARTICLE VI » ELECTIONS 

Elections for all elective offices shall be held in Spring Quarter of 
each year. Newly elected officers shall take office immediately and serve 
until the election of their successors the following Spring Quarter. Officers 
irill be elected by a majority of members present at a meeting called for the 
purpose at least one week in advance. 

ARTICLE VII: FINANCES 

All funds of this organization shall be deposited with the Students' 
Organization Fund and shall be handled by the Finance Chairman in the 
manner prescribed by the rules and regulations of the Fund and of the ASSU. 

ARTICLE VII J PARLIAMENTARY AUTHORITY 

There shall be no second required for motions to be placed in coBsdderation. 
A Quorum shall consist of the Organizer and a majority of the membership. All 
decisions shall be taken by simple majority vote except when otherwise specified 
in this constitution. The chainnan of all meetings and committees has a right 
to voice and vote. The nay *ote shall be taken first in calling the question. 
Roberts' Rules of Order (Revised) shall govern proceedings except where in 



67-852 O — 66 — pt. !• 18 



1174 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

McRae Exhibit No. 2 — Continued 

-2- 

conflict ■with this constitution. 

ARTICLE IX: BY-LAWS 

By-laws may be adopted supplemental to and not in conflict with 
this constitution I'y a two-thirds vote at a meeting cal led for the 
purpose at least one week in advance. 



ASSOC. DEAN Of STUDENTS 

DEC 1 5 1965 

O & A, STANFORD 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1175 
McRae Exhibit No. 2 — Continued 
UEUBERSIIIP LI iT —STANFORD YCUNG SOCIALIST ALLIANCE 






Officers 



Orpanizer - -^y^^f 
Finance Chairman 

Faculty Advisor - 



- 't^JZi 




i4^ 



ASSOC BUN O, STU CENTS 

DEC 15 1965 

O & A, STANFORD 



1176 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 
McRae Exhibit No. 2— Continued 



ASSOC. DEAN OP STUDENTS 

DEC ] 5 1965 

O & A, STANFORD 



Mr. McR AE, May I ask how you orot tliese re<;ords ? 

Mr. Pool. We don't answer questions like tliat. 

Mr. McRae. I tliink there is a basic question of freedom involved 
and I want to know whether these records were subpenaed or whether 
the Stanford administration turned these records over. 

Mr. Pool. The witness is excused. 

Mr. McRae. Thank you. 

I mipht add this has been a very educational experience. 

Mr. Pool. The witness is excused permanently. 

We will have to vacate this room at 3 :30 and it is now 3:30. The 
committee is recessed until 9:30 tomorrow morning^. 

(Subcommittee members present at time of recess: Representatives 
Pool, Ichord, Ashbrook, and Buchanan ; also Representative Clawson, 
alternate member.) 

(Whereupon, at 3:30 p.m., Thursday, August 18, 1966, the subcom- 
mittee recessed, to reconvene at 9 :30 a.m., Friday, August 19, 1966.) 



HEARINGS ON H.R. 12047, H.R. 14925, H.R. 16175, H.R. 
17140, AND H.R. 17194— BILLS TO MAKE PUNISHABLE 
ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN TIME OF UN- 
DECLARED WAR 



Part 1 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 19, 1966 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington, D.G. 

PUBLIC HEARINGS 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
met, pursuant to recess, at 9:30 a.m., in the Caucus Room, Cannon 
House Office Building, Washington D.C., Hon. Joe R. Pool (Chair- 
man of the subcommittee) presiding. 

(Subcommittee members: Representatives Joe R. Pool, of Texas, 
chairman ; Richard H. Ichord, of Missouri ; George F. Senner, Jr., of 
Arizona ; John M. Ashbrook, of Ohio ; and John H. Buchanan, Jr., of 
Alabama. Alternate member: Representative Del Clawson, of Cali- 
fornia.) 

Subcommittee members present : Representatives Pool, Ichord, and 
Buchanan. 

House Member also present : Representative James B. Utt, of Cali- 
fornia. 

Staff members present: Francis J. McNamara, director; William 
Hitz, general counsel : Alfred M. Nittle, counsel ; Donald T. Appell, 
chief investigator; and Ray McConnon, Jr., Herbert Romerstein, and 
Philip R. Manuel, investigators. 

Mr. Pool. The hearing will come to order. 

Believing that the investigative phase of the hearings would have 
been completed yesterday, the committee contemplated starting the 
legislative hearings on the bills before us this morning. As is known, 
we still have a few more subpenaed witnesses to hear. They will be 
called shortly. 

The first witness this morning will be Brig. Gen. James D. Hittle 
(Ret.), U.S. Marine Corps, who is director of national security and 
foreign affairs of the Veterans of Foreign Wars. 

The VFW convention starts today in New York City, and General 
Hittle must catch a plane at 11 :30. Because the VFW is anxious to 
express its views on H.R. 12047 through General Hittle, we have de- 

1177 



1178 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

cided to hear his testimony first so that there will be no problem in 
his making his scheduled plane connection. 
Go ahead with General Hittle, 

* 4c * * 4: 4: 1 

Mr. Pool. Call the next witness. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would Steven C. Hamilton please come forward. 

TESTIMONY OF STEVEN CHARLES HAMILTON 

Mr. Hamilton. Will you wait until the press comes back again ? 

Mr. NnTLE. Mr. Hamilton, did you take the opportunity afforded 
you to obtain counsel ? 

Mr. Hamilton. I want to make it clear in the beginning that I wish 
to testify today. However, for the purposes of the record I would 
like to make a very brief statement about the question of having a 
lawyer. I want to make a statement about having a lawyer. 

You have deprived me of the lawyer of my choice, and I do not wish 
to be represented by any other lawyer. I do not have confidence in any 
lawyer who would appear at this time. I must, therefore, proceed 
alone before this committee of yellow-bellied racists, cowards, war 
criminals, and traitors. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you wish to testify ? 

Mr. Hamilton. Yes. I said I did. 

Mr. IcHORD. Has he testified ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. No, sir, he has not testified, Mr. Ichord. 

Mr. IcHORD. Do you wish to testify at this time without the bene- 
fit of counsel ? 

Mr. Hamilton. I said that twice. I wish to testify. 

Mr. Ichord. Do you, or do you not ? 

Mr. Hamilton. For the fourth time I wish to testify today. 

Mr. Ichord. I would suggest, Mr. Chairman, that you swear the 
witness if he wishes to testify. 

Mr. Pool. Raise your hand. 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give will be 
the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mr. Hamilton. I intend to tell the truth before this committee, 
Tex, unlike the committee. 

Mr. Pool. Do you solemnly swear 

Mr. Hamilton. I intend to tell the truth before this committee. 

Mr. Pool. Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to 
give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so 
help you God ? 

Mr. Hamilton. I solemly swear, affirm, and promise to tell the truth 
before this committee. 

Mr. Pool. Have a seat. 



1 General Hittle's testimony appears in part 2, the legislative phase of the hearings. 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1179 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Hamilton, is your residence 2701 Benvenue Ave- 
nue, Berkeley 

Mr. Pool. Hold up that question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Hamilton, do you live at 2701 Benvenue Avenue, 
Berkeley, California? 

Mr. Hamilton. No, I live at 2721 Haste, Berkeley, California. 

Mr. Pool. Get his name first, (^omisel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state you full name for the record, please? 

Mr. Hamilton. Steven Charles Hamilton. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Hamilton, you are aware of the privilege to invoke 
the fifth amendment if you believe any inquiry may incriminate you? 

Mr. Hamilton. That's right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state the date and place of your birth? 

Mr. Hamilton. I would like to make certain — 1 want to make cer- 
tain objections to this committee. I would like to make a statement 
of my objections. 

Mr. Pool. Limit your objections. 

Go ahead. 

Mr. Hamilton. All right. I object to answering any questions of 
this committee on the ground that Public Law 601, 79th Congress, 60 
Statutes 812, Part 2, Rule XI, authorizing the Committee on Un- 
American Activities to make investigations of the extent, character, 
and objects of LTn-American propaganda activities in the U.S., violates 
the constitution in that the statute is ambiguous and vague, the term 
"Un-American propaganda activities'' being nowhere defined, and 
being in fact incapable of precise definition, and obscuring the fact 
that there are not one, but two kinds of I^n- American activities ; first, 
those that the vast majority of the American people deem un-American, 
such as the undemocratic activities of this committee; secondly, those 
deemed un-American by a small minority of the wealthy and privi- 
leged that are now escalating the Vietnam war and by the political 
spokesmen, such as members of this committee. 

I further object to answering any questions of this committee on 
the ground that the statute on its face, and as applied by the House 
LTn-American Activities Committee during the past 20 years, and 
especially today in its harassment of those appearing opposing the 
Vietnam war, is repugnant to freedom of speech, assembly, associa- 
tion, and the privacy guaranteed to the people by the Bill of Rights 
and suppresses and inhibits dissent and infringes not only the rights 
of dissenters, but, above all, the right of the American people as a 
whole, to be informed of the opinions of dissenters, as a basis for the 
American people correctly making dec'sions concerning their welfare 
and very survival. And this results in the further establishment of 
Fascist methods of suppression, further resulting in discarding demo- 
cratic processes and exposes the Government as master and not 
the servant of the American people, a Government not of the people, 
but over the people, in the interest of the very wealthy few. 

I further object on the grounds that this committee is at present 
illegally constituted and that certain of its members, Watson of South 
Carolina, Pool of Texas, Buchanan of Alabama, and Willis of Louisi- 
ana, have denied the right to vote to a considerable number of Negro 
and poor white citizens of those States, but whose representation has 



1180 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

not been proportionately reduced as required by section 2 of the 14th 
amendment of the Constitution of the United States. 

I further object to these hearings for the Fascist and illegal methods, 
like the ejection of Mr. Kinoy from this hearing room, which the com- 
mittee uses when it is no longer able to achieve the aims under the cloak 
of constitutional legality. The people who live in the ghettos in thig 
country are daily subjected to this side of American so-called democ- 
racy and so are the people in Vietnam. 

I further object to a closed hearings. We would be willing to bring 
debate over the war in Vietnam before the American people. Obvi- 
ously the committee doesn't want to bring the debate over the war 
before the American people by keeping out TV and press cameras and 
refusing to allow any ordinary citizen to attend these hearings through 
the white-card process. 

I also want to identify with the injunction pending before the courts 
filed against this committee. 

Thank you. 

Mr. Pool. The objections are all overruled. Do you have any 
further objections ? 

All right, I direct you to answer the question. Did you ask a ques- 
tion ,Mr. Nittle ? Maybe I am premature on that. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you state the date and place of your birth, 
please ? 

Mr. Hamilton. I was born April 21, 1944, in a ghetto which last year 
became a showcase of poverty and racial oppression, which are basic 
elements 

Mr. Pool. You have answered that. Ask the next question. 

Mr. Nittle. Were you born in Los Angeles on April 21, 1944? 

Mr. Hamilton. I am describing the place I was born, a glietto 
which 

Mr. Nittle. You can answer that "yes" or "no." 

Mr. Hamilton. A ghetto that saw a reign of terror last summer 
when 39 of its people were murdered by police and hundreds were 
wounded and arrested, and of those arrested some have not yet been 
released and charged. 

Mr. Pool. You have answered the question. 

Mr. Hamilton. I was born in Watts. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you attend Wheaton College for the period from 
1962 to 1963 and thereafter enter the University of California in Sep- 
tember of 1963 ? Did you or did you not ? 

Mr. Hamilton. I am answering that. 

Mr. Nittle. You can answer that "yes" or "no." 

Mr. Hamilton. Yes; I attended Wheaton College from September 
1962 to June 1963. I entered the University of California in Septem- 
ber 1963. I was there in the fall of 1963, when the university regents' 
straw corporation bosses, together with the Oakland power structure 
and the University administration, decided to put an end to civil rights 
action 

Mr. Nittle. And were you there in the year 1965 ? 

Mr. Hamilton. And I am telling you about my first- 



Mr. Nittle. I say will you answer that question. Were you at the 
University of California from 1963 until May of 1966, at which time 
you were suspended ? 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1181 

Mr. Hamilton. I am really surprised that this committee isn't con- 
cerned with the kind of education that Americans 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you answer the question, please ? 

Mr. Pool. Answer the question. 

Mr. Hamilton. As I was saying, my education began- 



Mr. NiTTLE. As we were saying, were you in attendance at the Uni- 
versity of California for the period from September 1963 until May of 
1966? 

Mr. Hamilton. I was there at the University of California, as I 
was explaining, during the time- 

Mr. NiTTLE. You have answered the question. 

Mr. Hamilton. Well, I haven't. I haven't answered the question 
because, you see, I was kicked out of the University of California, dis- 
missed on April 1, 1966, for opposing or fighting for first amendment 
rights for antiwar political organizations on the university campus. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And at the time you were fighting for such rights were 
you chairman of the campus Progressive Labor Party Club at the 
University of California? 

Mr. Hamilton. Yes, 

Mr. NiTTLE. And were you, also, at that time president of the May 
2nd Movement chapter at the University of California? 

Mr. Hamilton. Yes. If you would like to know something about 
me 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you in November 1965 help form a student organi- 
zation at the University of California known as the Medical Aid for 
Vietnam Committee? 

Mr. Hamilton. I am not sure that the committee understands what 
these organizations are. I would like to read some of a statement from 
the May 2nd Movement : 

We, as students in the richest but most brutally confused country in the 
world, cannot understand that world and our part in it with the a-historical 
education we receive in our universities. In order to make ourselves into effec- 
tive social beings, and in order to discover, sharpen, and use the power of 
our knowledge, we should organize oxirselves in the broadest possible way 
to combat that lack of education. For it is a lack, a vacuum, that leads to 
political degeneration and default. ' The May 2nd Movement was formed to 
fight against a politics of default, specifically by organizing student protest 
and revolt against our government's savage war on the people of Vietnam. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I don't know whether you responded to the question 
whether you helped form a student organization at the University 
of California known as the Medical Aid for Vietnam Committee. 

Mr. Hamilton. There were several people at the University of 
California interested in forming an organization to aid victims of 
United States aggression in Vietnam. We felt that this was the least 
that we could do in terms of making a protest against what our Gov- 
ernment was doing to the people of Vietnam and in order to show the 
American people and people across the world that all Americans do 
not, that the American people do not back this Government's vicious, 
criminal war in Vietnam. 

Mr. NiTTi.E. Did you on November 1965 register this organization 
with the Office of the Dean of Students at the University, giving the 
mailing address of the organization as 2732 Hast« Street, Berkeley ? 

Mr. Hamilton. Could I ask what relevance this question has to the 
legislative purpose of this committee, the stated legislative purpose, 
which is passing of the Johnson-Pool suppression of peace bill? 



1182 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Mr. Pool. Answer the question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The address 2732 Haste Street given by Mr. Hamilton 
as the mailing address of the organization which he formed is the 
address and rooming house of Steven Cherkoss, the West Coast 
organizer of the Progressive Labor Movement. 

Mr. Hamilton. Could I ask the counsel if this is going to be an 
amendment to the Pool bill, that Steven Cherkoss lives at 2732 Haste? 
Is that the point ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, the witness was engaged in the forma- 
tion of the medical committee. 

Mr. Pool. The Chair rules the question is relevant. 

Answer the question. 

Mr. Hamilton. I haven't been told how that question is relevant. 
I simply want, you know, the question repeated. 

Mr. Pool. I suppose that you were stating that in the form of an 
objection, so I overrule your objection. 

He stated the relevancy of it, and I am satisfied it is relevant and 
I instruct you to answer the question. 

Mr. Hamilton. I deline to answer on the ground that the question 
violates the constitutional division of powers provided by articles 
1, 2, 3 of the Constitution in that the question inquires into matters 
within the sphere of the executive and judicial branches of Govern- 
ment and is unrelated to legislative power, competence, and therefore 
not pertinent to assisting Congress to legislate. 

I decline to answer on the ground that the question inquires into 
my political beliefs and associations, in violation of the guarantee of 
freedom of speech and assembly provided by the first amendment to the 
Constitution. 

This committee cannot inquire as to matters on which Congress 
cannot legislate. Is that sufficient ground for not refusing to answer ? 

Mr. Pool. I overrule your objections and direct you to answer the 
question. 

Mr. Hamilton. In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy 
the right of a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the 
State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, 
which districts shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to 
be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be con- 
fronted with the witnesses against him, to have compulsory process 
for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of 
counsel for his defense, sixth amendment. 

And the ninth amendment to the Constitution I think is also rele- 
vant. Its enumeration of the Constitution is that certain rights shall 
not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. 

I quote to you the tenth amendment to the Constitution: "The 
powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor 
prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, 
or to the people." 

Mr. Pool. The courts have taken these grounds up at various times 
and have said that these are not suificient grounds for your refusal 
to answer, and I overrule your objections and direct you to answer 
the question. 

Mr. Hamilton. The fifth amendment to the Constitution states 
that: "No person shall be held to answer for a capital or other in- 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1183 

famous crime unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand 
Jury * * * ; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a wit- 
ness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, 
without due process of law * * *." 

Mr. Pool. You take the fifth amendment. 

Go ahead and ask the next question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did the organization also use a mailing address at 
Post Office Box 1128, Berkeley, California ? 

Mr. Hamilton. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
that it is completely irrelevant to the legislative purpose of this hear- 
ing and I decline on all the other previously stated grounds. 

Mr. Pool. Your objections are overruled. 

You take the fifth amendment on this ? 

Mr. Hamilton. I said I refuse on the grounds that I previously 
stated to the last question. 

Mr. Pool. Take the fifth amendment. Go ahead to the next ques- 
tion. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was a bank account opened for the Medical Aid for 
Vietnam Committee at the Wells Fargo Bank ? 

Mr. Hamilton. ' I refuse on the same grounds. 

Mr. Counsel, let me say — I think this will save time — that, you know, 
I am proud to say before this committee that myself and others par- 
ticipated in collecting funds to provide medical supplies for the peo- 
ple in Vietnam who were the victims of the United States aggressive 
war in that country against those people and, you know, I am proud 
to say that we were able to convey those funds for medical supplies 
to the International Red Cross, the North Vietnam and the Interna- 
tional Red Cross, to the National Liberation Front areas. 

Beyond that, you know, I don't 

Mr. NiTTLE. Let us ask you this question. 

Did you open a bank account at the Wells Fargo Bank on Novem- 
ber23,1965? • 

Mr. Hamilton. See, what I was just starting to say, I think this will 
save time if you will pay attention. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Pay attention to what I am starting to say. Will you 
answer the question please ? 

Mr. Hamilton. "Wliat I was just beginning to say is that any ques- 
tion beyond that, beyond the fact that yes, we did supply, we did pro- 
vide, carry out a campaign to provide, medical supplies for the people 
of Vietnam, beyond that I don't consider that these questions, ques- 
tions as to funds, as to other people involved in this organization, as 
to the details of how the money was sent, as to who was involved, I do 
not consider these questions in any way relevant to the legislative pur- 
pose of this committee. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you say that because the group was organized at 
the University of California by you as a member of the Progressive 
Labor Party pursuant to the orders and instructions of an off-campus 
student organizer for the Progressive Labor Movement? 

Mr. Hamilton. You know, the (juestion you shot back with is com- 
pletely irrelevant to what I just said. 

Mr. Pool. Let me ask you a question. We might save a lot of time. 

Are you a member of the Communist Party ? 



1184 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Mr. Hamilton. No. 

Mr. Pool. Are you a member of the Progressive Labor Party ? 

Mr. Hamilton. As I was starting to say before, because of my ex- 
periences with the regents of the University of California and with 
the local Oakland-Berkeley power structure and the universitv admin- 
istration and their attempt to stop civil rights activity in the Berkeley 
area, Berkeley students, and because, you know, of my experience 
with the war, with looking at the war in Vietnam and seeing that 
this is not a war which is in any sense in the interests of the American 
people, you know, I tried to figure out whose interest this war is ; and 
it became very clear to me that it was in the interests of the corpo- 
ration bosses who make the profits from this war. 

Because of those experiences and my experiences in Los Angeles, 
seeing the daily police terror which the people of the ghetto of Watts 
and the people in the ghettos across this country are familiar with 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I must object to this witness departing 
from the matters that are relevant and material to this inquiry and 
I ask leave to proceed with the questioning. 

Mr. Hamilton. Okay, I will proceed to answer the question. So 
you see 

Mr. NiTFLE. I have before me, Mr. Chairman 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Nittle 

Mr. Hamilton, I wish to answer that question. I will do it while 
you are conferring with the Texan. 

Mr. Pool, Just a minute. Counsel wants to confer, and I want to 
confer with him. 

Mr. Hamilton. The people in the room are probably intereste(J in 
the answer to the question. The thing is, that having realized that 
the basic changes in this society could not be made 

Mr, Nittle. Mr. Chairman 

Mr. Hamilton. — within the terms of the people who have the 
power in this society, that the people themself would have to take 
power, I joined with other people who are fighting for a just and 
socialist society and I became a member of the Progressive Labor 
Party and became a Marxist-Leninist. 

Mr. Pool. That is fine. That is what I wanted to find out, what 
your situation was. 

Mr. Nittle, to save time here, why don't you go ahead now. 

Mr. Nittle. Yes. Mr. Chairman, I have certain documentary evi- 
dence I would like to offer for the record. The first document is a 
copy of the signature card filed with the Wells Fargo Bank under 
the signature of Steven Hamilton. 

Mr. Pool. You offer that in evidence? 

Mr. Nittle. I will offer this as a group, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Pool. All right. 

Mr. Nittle. The first exhibit to which I refer is a signature card 
of the opening of the account of the Medical Aid Committee. The 
second exhibit is a statement of account with the Wells Fargo Bank 
by the Medical Aid Committee, P.O. Box 1128, Berkeley, Cali- 
fornia 

Mr. Hamiufon. Perhaps the fat Congressman from Texas will re- 
fresh your memory, Mr, Counsel 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1185 

Mr. Pool. You are interrupting counsel. You haven't been asked a 
question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. — by the witness and another. The account reveals 
that it was opened on November 23, 1965, with an initial deposit of $40. 
The bank statement further shows that for the period from November 
23, 1965, to May 23, 1966, a total amount of $3,322.50 was received into 
this account. 

The records further indicate that there was drawn upon this account 
three drafts purchased from the Wells Fargo Bank, the first dated 
December 7, 1965, payable to the International Committee of the Red 
Cross in the sum of $250. The drawee bank is named as the Union 
Bank of Switzerland, Geneva, Switzerland. 

A second draft, dated January 24, 1966, purchased from the Wells 
Fargo Bank, is made payable to the Liberation Red Cross in the sum 
of $500. This draft is drawn upon the Ceskoslovenska Obchodni 
Banka at Prague, Czechoslovakia. 

A third draft dated February 24, 1966, made payable to the 
Liberation Red Cross, ])urchased from the Wells Fargo Bank, and 
drawn upon the Ceskoslovenska Obchodni Banka at Prague, 
Czechslovakia 

Mr. Hamilton. Mr. Counsel, this is very boring. 

Mr. NiTTLE. — in the amount of $1,000. 

Mr. Hamilton. Mr. Counsel, can I make a procedural suggestion? 

Mr. Pool. Stop. We will ask you a question in a minute, and then 
you can answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I ask you whether I have correctly stated those facts 
with regard to the opening of the account at the Wells Fargo Bank 
by you, the filing of the signature card, and the 

Mr. Pool. Hand him the exhibits and see if he recognizes them. 

Mr. NiTTLE. — and the statements and drafts referred to. 

(Documents handed to witness.) 

Mr. Hamilton. You know, as I started to say before you had gone 
through all that, I wish that the 

Mr. NiTTLE. I say. Have I correctly stated the facts? 

Mr. Hamilton. I am answering the question. I am answering it 
in a way that applies to more than this question. You know, I re- 
quested before you began that the racist from Texas would inform you 
that, you know, I refuse to answer any questions as to funds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you answer that question, please ? 

Mr. Hamilton. I refuse to answer this question and any question 
regarding to funds, regarding to other people involved in the orga- 
nization 

Mr. NiTTLE. I have not asked you a question about other people. I 
have asked you about your own activity in this organization. 

Mr. Hamilton. And I have told you further that we did, yes, we 
did send funds to provide medical supplies to the people of Vietnam. 

Mr. Pool. All right. You are offering this as an exhibit now ? 

Mr. Nittle. I offer the exhibits, Mr. Chairman, in evidence. 

Mr. Pool. If there is no objection, it is so ordered. 
(Documents marked "Hamilton Exhibits Nos. 1 and 2-A through 
2-G," respectively. Exhibit 2-G retained in committee files. Exhibits 
1 and 2-A through 2-F follow :) 



1186 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 



Hamilton Exhibit No. 1 

resolution authorizing signing and endorsing 
checks and other instruments 

RESOLVED, that WELLS FARGO BANK be, and it is hereby selecteo as a Depositary of the funds of this Organization, 
and that_CjtMM«^M4 »n. CC) ' CAK^S'^HW^ .. ,,,^ Organization 

TITLE TITLE 

be and they are authorized to establish such account, and that checks or drafts withdrawing said funds may be signed 
by any ' V^* v.y of the following: 

(INDICATE NUMBER REQUIRED) 

■ NAME TITLE 
PRINT ■'■ '-' ■ 7 



AND 
TITLES 



FURTHER RESOLVED, that WELLS FARGO BANK is authorized to honor and pay any and, all checks and drafts 
of this Organization signed as provided herein, whether or not payable to the person or persons signing then:i; and that 
checks, drafts, hills of exchange, and other evidences of indebtedness may be endorsed for deposit to the account of this 
Organization by any of the foregoing or by any other employee or agent of this Organization, and may be endorsed in 
writing or by stamp and with or without the designation of the person so endorsing. 

FURTHER RESOLVED, that the authority hereby conferred shall remain in force until written notice of the revocation 
thereof by the Board of this Organization shall have been received by said depositary at the office at which the account 
is kept; and that the certification of the secretary or an assistant secretary as to the continuing authority of this reBolution 
and the persons authorized to sign and their signatures, shall be binding upon this Organization. 

I HEREBY certify that the foregoing is a true and correct copy of a resolution adopted by the governing Board of this 

organization at a meeting of said Board regularly held on the -'' ,* day of V^tQ Vj tl-vA\\2>C(c— . 19 LP •— * 

and that said resolution is still in full force and effect. 

I FURTHER certify that the signatures appearing on the reverse side of this card are the signatures of the persons 
authorized to sign for and on behalf of this organization. 

WITNESS my hand and the seal of this organization thii f^ ' Hav of 1 ^OO <! ^ tvJb^y^— . 19 V^O 

"^ » «■! <— SECRETARY C 



i-AvcAc A\^ Q^H^i'^^^^V^:^'^ • 



NAME OF ORGANIZATION 



(FOR LODGE OR ASSOCIATION ONLY) 
VE CERTIFY TO THE CORRECTNESS OF THE FOREGOING INFORMATION. 



RETIRING OFFICER TITLE RETIRING OFFICER 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1187 



Hamilton Exhibit No. 2-A 



^I 




KI>IKtLCY« 6ALIW0RNIA J^^Vf^p*? :'"'"■'""'■ ■ om* 



•VNT^EIiliS FARGO BANK No.ll8996 



utT c«M^Mrr 



UNIVtaSITY 138 DLCEMBIR 7*1965 

.,„ ••INTLRUT'lOf»Af cavflTTtt OF RCO CR OSS>**«U.S. $250. 00 

ji.lTtP STATiS QQtt/lR R Tm ^liiJO ^un PIFTY AM. f^in/1fY)>#»«v 

U.loi. 3A.SK f 3/SITZtajAND 
(aLf*LVA. S-VlTZiintAND 4 ;rf i. 




1188 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 



Hamilton Exhibit No. 2-B 

:-^-miO I. MD Cffil OTTTiiS r.tF.S. ,900.00 

P 3~:' 1128 COMMISSION 1»00: Vi 

i>orkclo--, ChltiTonia airmail tl5_ I 

' ,501.15 



"WT'ELIjS FAFIGO B^NK: No.llSllS 



FFICE: 



u-aysiiuiT? J-C130 J/ja'A;-? 2t+, i96; 



PAYEE * »i.i£i2 -ATiv:?; ;?ei;) cfics.>d* *<*<.=!-♦•■» * nu ..ycc-.oo 

;'i^'-^^ /■:■■■ ii-'.,A;i.> FTVK uiyn:- .) -"^j -■l/^go * * «■ ' ^ < -< '^ •• - 

DRAWEE 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1189 



Hamilton Exhibit No. 2-C 
PURCHASER gys-T*'''? rCX "'^^ '■''^ '1,000.00 "' ^j^f;^\ 

» 1,002.75 

^WELLS FARGO BANK No.ll9172 

UniVS airi 0133 fotruary2>»,1966 

OFFICE! 

„.,„ • * •Li-:ajU-rios s:;d c;i:'Ui« •»•-»■•♦ * Gi,i ^oco.og 



■fTgn ':'rt;--;. •> »r.A'>^ ■ g^-: "'- ''.• ^ ■ "^^> ^ /irvr* 



*,(.«««* 






^. _ 




k:^^ 



b"/-85'^ 00 ^7 



67-852 O— 66— pt. 1^ 19 



1190 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Hamilton Exhibit No. 2-D 

June 20, 1965 



Cesl:oslov2n3l;a obchodnl banVa 

Czechbsicvakia 

CsatlcTxia: 

This refers tc tha following drafts drawn oxx you 
by our Ualvorsltv Office, in favor of Liberation Red Crossi 

Kg. d\ts AHOu^r^ 

H9119 Jan. 24, 1966 $ 500.00 

119172 Feb. 24, 1966 1000.00 

If paynsut of these drafts hss not bean aide, we 
will w^pprcci/Tts your recording, a stop pr^^nr^at thereon and 
nrraagiag v^Ith the Union B^ink of Svitzeriand, Zurich, to 
vhoa ve rsaittcd settlcrnsat, to refund the amounts to us. 

Should payncnt ha\^» been rmde, please endeavor to 
recover the pa^/nants from th.^s payee at^d advlso us of the 
results of your efforts. 

Ve look fon^ard to your report. 

Sincerely, 

(Geo. W. Schmitz) 
C".;S :sk 







ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1191 
Hamilton Exhibit No. 2-E 



Via air a&^l 

/mAM, June 29, 19667 

Vi.'lls .-"'argo Bank . 

Jnri ?rar,r-l3co, Cal. 94120 



Gentlemen: 

Draft No. 119119 of January 24/66 for H 5CC.00 
Draft No. 119172 " February 24/66 " if.OoL.OO 

drawn on us by your University Office in favour of 
Liberation Red Cross. 

>«e acknowledge receipt of your letter lated June 20 
conc.3rning the above mentioned drafts, and wish t ) inform you 
that they were already cashed at our counters: dr*ift 119119 
on ?\ibruary IC and draft No. 119172 on March 17, 1-66. 

H3 to your request that we endeavour t j rec^jver the 
payments from the payees we inform you that we hav < contacted 
the latter transmitting your request to them. 

.< e remain, 

Very truly ycura, 

CJSKGjLOVi^NolOl OB;.H'X;>ii raiNiCA 
A.o. 



1192 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 



Hamilton Exhibit No. 2-F 



^J4^^ #«A»A. July +, .966 



02/DP3Pf-zd/Nfc 



, r 



By airmai,! 
.Vell8 Fsrgo Bank 

^an Francisco, C91.9420 

U..3.A. 



Gentlemen: 

Draft No. 11911 9 of Jan. 2 4/66 for % 500.- 
Draft No. 1191 72 of Feb. 24/66 for i^lOOO.- 
drawn on ua by your University Ottic* in 
faYOur of Liberation Red Croas. 

v;e wiah to refer to our letter of the 29th ult. 
inf -nuing you that the above drefta were cashed at our counters 
in :- rbruary and March, resp., 1S66, and that your request to 
refund the funds concerned has been transnitted to the payees. 

After having contacted the latter, we ret^ret to 
inforr you that they have declined to repay the amo Jits in 
question. 



Very truly yours, 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1193 

Mr. NiTTLE. I have one final question, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Hamilton. Mr. Counsel, before you go ahead 

Mr. Pool. Just a minute. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I have one final question of the witness. There re- 
mains a question 

Mr. Hamilton. Mr. Counsel, before you ask the last question ■ 

Mr. Pool. Just a, minute. 

Mr. Hamilton. Before you ask the last question it seems to me that 
the 

Mr. Pool. The witness will be silent and listen to the question. 

Mr. Hamilton. It seems to me the questions you are certainly as- 
suming that we should go into in this hearing — you know, the point 
I am raising, bringing up, is for the purpose of clarity, for the people 
in this hearmg room 

Mr. Pool. Just a minute. 

Mr. Hamilton. To present medical- 



Mr. Pool. You are not recognized to make a statement at this time. 
Would you please be quiet, and Mr. Nittle will ask a question. 

Mr. Hamilton. All I want to talk about, and I think it is very 
relevant to this committee — it shows interest in this war in Vietnam. 
I have some exhibits to offer to the committee. I could offer People's 
Exhibit A. 1964 to 1965 

Mr. Nittle. I have no question. 

Mr. Hamilton. — corporation profits increased 30 percent from $60 
billion, Exhibit A. 

Mr. Pool. You are excused. 

I am going to order you for the last time to desist your diatribe and 
be quiet, 

Mr. Hamilton. I have further evidence on food crises. 

Mr. Pool. If you keep on talking, I am going to have you removed 
from the room. You are excused. 

Step down. 

Mr, Hamilton. Mr. Chairman, there is one other thing I would like 
to say. I would like to quote, 

Mr. Pool, Remove the witness from the witness chair. Lead him 
to the door. Just lead him to the door. If there are any furt.her dem- 
onstrations, the demonstrators will be removed by the officers in this 
room. 

Let us have order. 

Counsel, call the next witness, 

Mr, Nittle. Would George Ewart, Jr., oome forward please, 

Mr. Pool. Call his name. . 

Mr. Nittle, Would George Ewart, Jr,, come forward please? 

TESTIMONY OF (JEORGE HAMILTON EWART, JR. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you take the opportunity afforded you by this com- 
mittee to obtain counsel ? 

Mr, Ewart. I wish t-o testify today, but seeing that you have de- 
prived me of a lawyer, by not guaranteeing the security in this room 
you have deprived me of a lawyer of my choice, and I do not wish to be 
represented by any other lawyer. I could not have confidence in any 



1194 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

lawyer who would appear at this time under the circumstances you 
have created. 

I must, therefore, proceed alone and I am willing to confront this 
kangaroo court with the crimes of the U.S. Government against the 
American people. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you desist please. 

Do you wish to testify without the benefit of counsel ? 

Mr. EwART. I so stated in the record. 

Mr. NiTTLE. If you desire counsel the committee will offer to obtain 
one for you. 

Mr. EwART. I wish my testimony to show that I do not desire coun- 
sel because of the conditions created by this committee in this room. 

Mr. IcHORD, Mr. Chairman, I suggest then that you swear the wit- 
ness and proceed with questions. 

Mr. Pool. Will you rise and be sworn ? 

Raise your right hand. Do you solemnly swear the testimony you 
are about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but 
the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. EwART. I so affirm. 

Mr. Pool. So you affirm that the testimony you fire about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 

Mr. EwART. It will be truth to confront this committee, yes, and 
this Government of the United States for aggressive war in Vietnam. 
I so affirm. 

Mr. Pool. Sit down. 

All right. Go ahead, Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you state your full name for the record, please ? 

Mr. EwART. Just a minute please. 

My name is George Hamilton Ewart, Jr., and I was named George 
because it is a tradition in my family and St. George was the one who 
stood up to the dragon. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you tell us please whether you reside at 2508 
Ridge Road, No. 5, Berkeley, California ? 

Mr. EwART. At present I do not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Where do you presently reside ? 

Mr. Ewart. I presently reside in Room 522 of the Congressional 
Hotel. 

Mr. Pool. Go ahead. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you born on September 14, 1943, at Oakland, 
California ? 

Mr. Ewart. That's right. That was in the 10th year of Hitler's 
war of fascism in Europe. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you attend Merritt Junior College in Oakland for 
a period until 1964 and thereafter attend the University of California 
as an extension student ? 

Mr. Ewart. You left out a couple schools. I attended Oakland 
City College in the spring of 1963. I attended Oakland City College 
in the spring of 1964. I attended San Francisco State College as a 
student in "Social Change in Latin America'' in the summer of 1964 
in which I learned the actual workings of T^.S. imperialism. 

That's the economic and political domination of foreign countries 
by a foreign power. I mean the United States a foreign power. 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1195 

Mr. NiTTLE. You mean by Communist agents; isn't that right? 

Mr. EwART. No; that is the first contact I ever had in being ex- 
posed to the actual workings of the United States, internationally, 
{IS dominating the economic and political interests of other people. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Don't you rather mean that you were first exposed to 
the paid agents of the Progressive Labor Movement? 

Mr. EwART. No; that is not where I w^as first exposed to the so- 
called paid agents of the Progressive Labor Movement, because I don't 
believe I have ever met a so-called agent. The only paid agent I know 
of is Phillip Abbott Luce. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you a member of the 

Mr. EwART. And those who work for the FBI as agents who in- 
filtrate movements. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you a member of the Progressive Labor Party? 

Mr. EwART. What's the matter with being a member of any partyl 
I mean there are members of the Democrat and Republic Parties. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I say, are you a member of the Progressive Labor 
Party? 

Mr. EwART. Because of my understandings of the workings of the 
U.S. imperialism internationally and because of the workings of the 
United States Government and because of the workings right here 
in this courtroom, in this committee hearing room of the so-called 
Representatives of the United States people, yes, I am a Communist 
and I am proud to say that I am a member of the Progressive Labor 
Movement. 

Mr. Pool. Next question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you not a little more than that ? 

Are you not the West Coast coordinator for that organization ? 

Mr. EwART. No. I don't think we ever got finished with my edu- 
cation. Please, I would like to finish that. I would like to make it 
clear where I have been educated. 

You have been brought evidence that I was educated a certain time 
and that isn't complete. I want to complete the record. Obviously 
your paid agents haven't gotten all the information. I wish to com- 
plete it. 

Mr. Pool. Let him state his further education. 

Mr. EwART. Thank you very much, Mr. Pool. 

I attended San Francisco State College in the summer of 1964. 
Then I went to San Francisco Art Institute in the spring of 1965, 
where I was expelled for showing films of the National Liberation 
Front to other students at that school. 

I attended San Francisco State College in the summer of 1965 and 
then I attended Merritt College, which w^as formerly Oakland City 
College, but under I believe it was the November ballot in the last elec- 
tion it was consolidated into a three-county school district and it was 
renamed Merritt College. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Just state the places you attended. 

Mr. EwART. It was during the sprmg of 1966 in which I took courses 
in American history and Negro history in America in which I better 
understand the actual racism that has dominated this culture since 
its inception. 

And I am presently enrolled as a student at Merritt College. 



1196 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you the West Coast coordinator for the May 2nd 
Movement ? 

Mr. EwART. Is there a time when I was a West Coast 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell us, please, the period during which you 
served as the West Coast coordinator of the May 2nd Movement ? Per- 
haps it will help you refresh your recollection if I offer you a copy 
of the masthead of the M2M publication Free Student, in its issue No. 
4 

Mr. EwART. I am looking at- 



Mr. NiTTLE. — which was published in 1965. 

Mr. EwART. Wliat was the date you said it was published ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. In 1965. 

Mr. EwART. I believe it was in July of 1965 that I started as the 
West Coast coordinator for the May 2nd Movement. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you also assist in organizing the Medical Aid to 
Vietnam Committee at the University of California at Berkeley? 

Mr. EwART. Well, how do you mean "assist" ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. If you ask me what I mean, I really meant this. It is 
the committee's information that Steven Cherkoss, the West Coast 
student organizer of the Progessive Labor Party, has appointed you 
as the West Coast coordinator for the PLM's front group, the May 
2nd Movement, and that in accordance with the instruction of Steve 
Cherkoss you approached and met with Steven C. Hamilton, the prior 
witness, to form an on-campus group at the University of California 
at Berkeley known as the Medical Aid for Vietnam Committee. 

Mr. EwART. See, I object to this line of questioning, 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is it true ? 

Mr. EwART. No; it is a flagrant lie. It is a flagrant lie because I 
v»^as never appointed to any committee. 

Unlike this House of Representatives, which has appointed com- 
mittees, I work for the position of West Coast coordinator of the May 
2 group. 

Mr. Pool. You have answered the question. 

Go ahead. 

Mr. EwART. And I was never appointed by any of the individuals 
which you so named. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Ewart, I hand you a copy of the IT.S. Post Office 
application filed by Steve Cherkoss on November 4, 1965. In this 
application for a postal box for the Medical Aid to Vietnam Com- 
mittee, he lists in the application the names of persons that will be 
entitled to receive mail at the box for which application is made. 

He names Steve Cherkoss, Steve Hamilton, Steve Fox, and George 
Ewart. Did Mr. Cherkoss ask your consent for the use of your name? 

(Document handed to witness.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Note for the record that the postal application has 
been exhibited to the witness. 

Mr. Ewart. May I state my objections now to answering this line 
of questions ? 

Mr. Pool. Yes, go ahead. 

Mr. Ewart. First of all, I would like to object to these hearings 
which I forgot to do in the beginning of my inquisition. 

I object to these hearings on the grounds that the purposes of this 
hearing were not made known to me until the morning of August 16, 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1197 

1966, and therefore this hearing is in violation of the due process of 
law, and I object to the hearing on that ground. 

However, in the mimeographed three-page statement given to me by 
the House Un-American Activities Committee or the Un-American 
Committee of the House of Representatives of the U.S. Government, 
the chairman's opening statement says on page 3 that "In endeavoring 
to protect our security we must deal with the realities. The Korean 
conflict was not a war in the legal or technical sense." 

And also in paragraph No. 3 of section 401 of the Pool bill, or maybe 
that is the cesspool bill : 

The conduct of wars by such powers, groups and organizations has taken un- 
conventional forms, in that armed hostilities are undertaken and initiated by 
them without prior declaration of such formalities as are recognized in inter- 
national law as constituting a legal or political status of war. 

It seems to me that Mr. Pool is rather a fool in this matter, in that 
he has taken the facts 

Mr. NiTTLE. We have similar language spewed forth from the Chi- 
nese Communists and from the Soviet Union. Are you repeating that 
Communist 



Mr. EwART. When did you talk to 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you spouting 

Mr. EwART. I don't know Chinese Communists. I don't think there 
are any Chinese Communists in this Nation. 

Mr. Pool. You have to state your objections. 

Mr. EwART. Listen, I am trying to complete my objections. 

Mr. Hittle or Biddle or Sittle, or whatever his name was, the general 
who testified before me, wasn't even asked a question and he was al- 
lowed to testify. 

Now, he talked about the Pool bill. Now I would like to talk about 
the Pool bill and I think that it is my right to talk about the Pool bill, 
unless Mr. Pool feels that his bill cannot withstand the exposing, you 
know, of the actual findings of fact which are in his bill, are incorrect 
because he has stood truth on its head and turned it into its opposite. 
Because, actually, the only people who have undertaken undeclared 
wars, who have initiated, you know, without prior declaration or con- 
sulting anyone, is the United States Government, which is true not only 
of the Korean war, but of the Vietnamese war, in which the United 
States has consistently violated not only the 1954 Geneva agreements, 
which ended the war against the French, but they also violate interna- 
tional law, the U.N. Charter, and indeed the Constitution of the United 
States, which says that only the Congress can declare war. And so far 
nobody has declared war and yet, as you blackguards have said, there 
is an actual war going on there that has never been declared, so who is 
the actual aggressor now ? 

Who has over 750,000 troops involved in holding actions in Viet- 
nam on the coasts and in one main city ? Wlio has over 40 new bases 
in Thailand and who has over 4,000 bases 

Mr. NiTTLE. We well know that this is a great source of annoy- 
ance to the Communists, who wish to dominate the world. 

Mr. EwART. It has been source of Communist annoyance ever since 
1917 when the United States invaded Siberia to put down the Rus- 
sian revolution for socialism. 



1198 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Mr. Pool. All right. 

Mr. IcHORD. Let him proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Pool. Go ahead. Get it all out of your system. 

Mr. EwART. You have systematically packed the audience, there- 
by violating the principles of democracy and fair play by allowing 
two lines to form instead of one, one for staff members and one for the 
general public. 

I object to this in that this hearing is no longer a public hearing of 
the Un-American Activities of this House Committee. I decline to 
answer all questions — well, is there an objection to that one ? I didn't 
hear an objection. I can stop it there. 

Mr. Pool. I overrule your objection if that is what you are making. 

Mr. EwART. I am not making an objection. Yes, I am making an 
objection to this Un-American Committee. Excuse me. You have 
me a little nervous, 

Mr. Pool. Go ahead. 

Mr. EwART. First time I have ever been summoned before the 
United States Government and now I realize that they are not as 
formidable as I formerlv thought. 

I decline to answer all questions on the grounds that there is a suit 
proceeding in the Federal court in Washington, D.C., to stay all pro- 
ceedings in this matter, and I fully associate myself with this in- 
junction which is proceeding. 

Mr. Pool. Objections are overruled. 

Mr. EwART. I object to answering any question of this committee 
on the ground tliat Public Law 601 of the t9th Congress, 60 Statutes 
812, Part 2, and Rule XI, authorizing the Committee on ITn-American 
Activities to make investigations into the extent, character, and ob- 
jects of I"n-American propaganda activities in the U.S., violates the 
Constitution in that the statute is ambiguous and vague, the term "Un- 
American propaganda activities" nowhere being defined, and being 
in fact incapable of a precise definition, and obscuring the fact that 
it is this committee which conducts Un-American propaganda activi- 
ties within and without these United States of America; that there 
are ac<:ually two kinds of L^n- American activities, those that have the 
vast majority, rather those which the vast majority of American people 
deem un-American, such as the undemocratic propaganda activities 
which this committee helps in ; and, secondly, those deemed un-Ameri- 
can by a small minority of the wealthy and privileged who are now 
escalating and profiting from the war in Vietnam, and by their polit- 
ical spokesmen, such as Jolmson, McNamara, Bundy, and members 
of this committee, the Democratic and Republican Parties, and what 
Dwight D. Eisenhower called military and industrial complex. 

Mr. Pool. The objection is overruled. 

Mr. EwART. I further object to answering any questions of this 
f'ommittee on the grounds that the statute on its face, and as applied 
by the House Un-American Committee during the past 20 years, and 
especially today in its harassment of those opposing the Vietnam 
war, is repugnant to the freedom of speech, assembly, and association, 
and of privacy guaranteed to the people by the Bill of Rights and 
suppresses and inhibits dissent. It thus infringes not only on the 
rights of <^e dissenters, but, above all, on the right of the American 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1199 

geople as a whole, to be informed of the opinions of dissenters, as a 
asis for the American people correctly making decisions concerning 
their welfare and very survival. And this Results in undermining 
and subverting the character of the U.S. Government as based on the 
consent of the governed and further results in discarding the demo- 
cratic processes, openly unmasking the Government as the master and 
not the servant of the American people, a Government not of the peo- 
ple, but over the people, and in the interest of a wealthy few. 

Mr. Pool. Your objection is overruled. 

Mr. EwART. I further decline to state on the grounds that this com- 
mittee at present is illegally constituted in that several of its mem- 
bers, who I believe are not present at this time, were elected in 
States 

Mr. Pool. There is a quorum present. 

Mr. E WART. What was that? 

Mr. Pool. There is a quorum of the subcommittee present. 

Mr. EwART. Yes, great — that several of the members of this com- 
mittee were elected in States which deny the right of vote to a con- 
siderable number of Negro and poor w^hite citizens in these States, 
but whose representation is not being proportionately reduced as is 
required by section 2 of the 14th amendment of the Constitution of 
the United States of America. 

Mr. Pool. Your objection is overruled. Are you through with 
your objections? 

Mr. EwART. I am through with my objections to this question. 

Mr. Pool. What was the question, Mr. Nittle ? 

Mr. Nittle. I asked whether Steve Cherkoss had asked Mr. Ewart 
for his permission to use his name in the postal application filed on 
November 4, 1965, the application being exhibited to Mr. Ewart. 

Mr. Pool. I direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mr. EwART. Well, I will object to that question on the grounds that 
1 refuse to testify, to be an informant or a fink on my fellow Ameri- 
cans, and that this committee does not have the power to inquire into 
my associations or personal relationships with other people. 

Mr. Pool. Your objection is' overruled, and I direct you to answer 
the question. 

Mr. Ewart. I decline to answer on the ground that the question vio- 
lates the constitutional division of powers provided by articles 1, 2, 
and 3 of the Constitution in that the question inquires into matters 
within the sphere of the executive and judicial brsinches of the Gov- 
ernment and is unrelated to legislative power and competence and 
therefore absolutely not pertinent to assisting Congress to legislate. 

Mr. Pool. I overrule your objection. Answer the question. 

Mr. Ewart. I decline to answer on the ground that the question in- 
quires into my political beliefs and associations, in violation of the 
guarantee of freedom of speech and assembly provided by the first 
amendment to the Constitution. 

This committee cannot inquire as to matters on which Congress can- 
not legislate. I think that one is very valid. Maybe you don't agree. 

Mr. Pool. Your obje<ition is overruled, and I direct you to answer 
the question. 

Mr. Ewart. I would like to stand on the first amendment there and 
take my right as an American citizen. 



1200 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Mr. Pool. Your objection is overruled. I will direct you to answer 
the question. 

Mr. EwART. I object on the grounds that in all criminal prosecutions, 
the accused — ^that means me — shall enjoy the right to a speedy and 
public trial by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the 
crime shall have been committee. 

See, I have not committed any crime. 

Mr. Pool. Your objection is overruled. 

Mr. EwART. And this is not an impartial jury and you are accusers, 
and I don't have the right to cross-examine any of you, any of the 
witnesses. 

Mr. Pool. I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. EwART. Anyway, that in all criminal prosecutions, the accusetl 
shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury 
of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, 
which districts shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to 
be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation ; to he confronted 
with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for ob- 
taining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel 
for his defense. 

Now, see, this also goes back to the beginning when I was not given 
a statement. I was handed a subpena with nothing on it as to the 
reasons for testifying before this committee, which I think is a vio- 
lation of due process, as I stated before. 

Mr. Pool. You are at an investigative hearing, and your objection 
is overruled. 

Mr. EwART. I want to state my views — and to discredit the activities 
of the antiwar movement in the United States of America not only in 
the eyes of the American people, but also — it's more discredit in the 
eyes of the Government. 

It seems as though we don't have too much control over them be- 
cause they are not by the consent of the governed any longer, but it 
also attempts to discredit the antiwar movement in the eyes of the 
American people and also in the eyes of the international people of the 
world. 

Mr. Pool. Your objections is overruled. Answer the question. 

Mr. EwART. I also refuse to answer that question on the grounds of 
the ninth amendment that enumerates in the Constitution of certain 
rights which shall not be construed to deny or disparage others re- 
tained by the people, that is, that it guarantees certain privileges to 
the United States Government, to the executive branch and to the 
Congress, and that all other rights are reserved either to the States 
or the rest of them going to the people, and this is my right. 

Mr. Pool. Your objection is overruled. 

Now Mr. Nittle, I am going to instruct the witness to answer the 
question one more time. Your dilatory tactics 

Mr. EwART. I am stating objections. 

Mr. Pool. I know it. If you have any valid objections, I would 
advise you to state them now. 

Mr. EwART. I think these are all very valid objections. It seems 
most of them are contained in the Constitution of the United States 
of America. I am stating objections. You ask me to answer a question 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1201 

after every time I state an objection. You have to overrule my objec- 
tion before I can go on to my next objection. 

Mr. Pool. You take the fifth amendment, self-incrimination part of 
the fifth amendment ? 

Mr. EwART. I don't believe that the amendment covers self-incrimi- 
nation, but it protects against false accusation by this committee. 
Mr. Pool. Are you taking that objection also ? 

Mr. EwART. I am getting to it, if you wish to hear my other objec- 
tions to this committee which I think, I consider, unconstitutional. 

Mr. Pool. You go ahead and state your objections if you are going 
to object. 

Mr. EwART. You guys are paying for it. I am staying here, I wish 
to state my objections for the record. 

Mr. Pool. You have stated them pretty well. I have ruled on all 
of them. 

Mr. EwART. I am not finished. 
Mr. Pool. Well, do you take the fifth amendment ? 
Mr. EwART, I don't wish to take the fifth amendment at this time. 
I am stating my objections and I wish to go through all my objections. 
Mr. Pool. State yoiir objections. I will rule on them. I will stay 
here a little while if you insist. I am trying to be fair with you. 

Mr. EwART. Thank you very much, Mr. Pool. I wish to decline to 
answer that question on the grounds of the tenth amendment, which 
says that powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitu- 
tion, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the Sates re- 
spectively, or to the people. 

Mr. Pool. Objection is overruled. 

Mr. EwART. And I further wish to invoke all the privileges of the 
amendment, so called, which says that: "No person shall be held to 
answer for a capital or other infamous crime unless on a presentment 
or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or 
naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service, in time of war 
or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense 
to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb ; nor shall be compelled in 
any criminal case," whicli this isn't, "to be a witness against himself, 
nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of 
law; nor shall private property be taken for public use without just 
compensation." 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Counsel, I understand him to take the fifth amend- 
ment. State what part. 

Mr. EwART. I take the fifth amendment on the ground of false 
accusation. 

Mr. Pool. Do you have questions ? 

Mr. IcHORD. Yes, Mr. Chairman, I have one question to ask 

Mr. Pool. All right. 

Mr. IcHORD. — Mr. Hamilton? 

Mr. Pool. Ewart. 

Mr. EwART. Get the name straight. 

Mr. IcHORD. I would not ask the Chair to direct an answer to this 

question, Mr. Hamilton, because I am really not interested 

Mr. EwART. Who are you talking about ? 
Mr. loHORD. Mr. Ewart. 



1202 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Mr. EwART. Mr. Ichord, what did you say ? Could you please re- 
state, repeat the statement, because I don't know whether you are 
directing the Chair to direct me to answer the question or whether I 
am not directed to answer the question, or what. 

Mr. Pool. The Chair recognizes Mr. Ichord and he is going to ask 
you a question. 

Mr. Ichord. I am really not interested in your philosophy. You 
have given a lot of your philosophy, and for that reason I would not 
ask the Chair to direct you to answer this question, but I am rather 
curious as to how you arrive at your frame of mind. 

You have expressed your utter contempt for this Government and 
for your country, but yet you have enumerated the very sacred rights 
that are guaranteed you as an American citizen by that Government, 
and they are sacred rights, the rights under the 1st, the 4th. the 5th, the 
6th, 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, all of the amendments to the Constitution. 

How do you harmonize your views ? 

Mr. EwART. You see, I believe in the Constitution of the United 
States, but I believe that it is ineffective because of certain ruling 
circles in this United States. 

Mr. Ichord. You stated you are a Communist, Do you believe that 
those rights would be given to you if you were a citizen of a Com- 
munist nation ? 

Mr. EwART. If given the destruction of the United States Govern- 
ment as presently constituted, I think it would remove many obstacles 
to freedom of the American people. 

Now, you see, I believe that this committee are actually the trai- 
tors, that this Government is actually the traitors to the interest of 
the Constitution and to the people of the United States Government 
and I wish to change that. And I think that it has been clearly stated 
by Abraham Lincoln, by the Declaration of Independence of 1776, 
that the people of the United States have that right to alter, or in 
any way change, the Government as it is constituted when it outlives 
its day, and I think that this Government has outlived its day, its 
usefulness, in that it is no longer carrying on the interest of the 
American people, but only a small corporate elite of the U.S. busi- 
nessmen, of the military industrial complex, as Dwight Eisenhower 
called it. 

Mr. Ichord. Mr. Ewart, I would suggest by your answer that the 
question and your answer might give you some food for thought. 

Thank you very much. 

Mr. EwART. Well, you guys don't seem to be thinking too much 
either. 

Mr. Pool. The witness is excused. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would Steven Cherkoss come forward? 

TESTIMONY OF STEVEN CHERKOSS 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you take the opportunity afforded to you to obtain 
counsel ? 

Mr. Cherkoss. Let us face it. This system has got to go. 

Now I will answer the question. I want to make a statement about 
not having counsel. You have deprived me of the lawyer of my 
choice, and I do not wish to be represented by any other lawyer. 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1203 

I could not have confidence in any lawyer who would appear at this 
time under the circumstances which you as Representatives of a Gov- 
ernment that is committing war crimes have created in this kangaroo 
court. 

Therefore, I will proceed alone to confront and take on this racist 
committee of cowardly, yellow-bellied reactionaries as Representatives 
of the U.S. Government, not of the people, that is conducting a geno- 
cidal war in Vietnam that is against the best interests of the American 
and Vietnamese people. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you desire to testify 

Mr. Cherkoss. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. — in the absence of counsel ? 

Mr. Cherkoss. Yes. I am not going to let you guys get off the hook. 

Mr. Pool. Raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear the testunony you are about to give will be 
the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Cherkoss. I am here to tell the truth, but I know the American 
people would rise up and demolish this committee when they learn the 
truth about this committee and the U.S. Government that is conduct- 
ing a war and acting against their interests. 

Mr, Pool. Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to 
give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so 
help you God ? 

Mr. Cherkoss. I am, as I have told you, yes, but this committee 
isn't interested in hearing the truth. 

Mr. Pool. Go ahead. 

Mr. Cherkoss. I want to make a statement, state objections. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state your name for the record please ? 

Mr. Cherkoss. You fellows know my name. You have been in- 
vestigating me long enough. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is your name Steven Cherkoss and do you reside at 
2732 Haste Street, Berkeley, California ? 

Mr. Cherkoss. I identify myself as an American Revolutionary in 
the tradition of others who have fought against and defeated the 
British imperialists in a Revolutionary War of Independence in 1776, 
with those who fought against slavery, with those who organized the 
CIO, with the working men and women who built this country, and 
with the millions of Americans from East to West who are fighting 
today for civil rights, black liberation, and to get the U.S. out of 
Vietnam now. 

Yes, I am Steve Cherkoss. I don't reside at 2732. I reside at 2929 
16th Street. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Today. 

Mr. Cherkoss. And I have a statement to make, state objections 
to this committee's proceeding. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you resided at 2732 Haste Street, Berkeley, 
California? 

Mr. Cherkoss. I would like to make my objections. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Before you answer that question ? 

Mr. Cherkoss. That's right. 

Mr. Pool. Let him answer the question. 



1204 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Mr. Cherkoss. Opposition in America to the Johnson administra- 
tion's war of genocide in Vietnam is enormous and still growing. In 
Vietnam the people parochially continue that fight for self-determina- 
tion and revolution in the face of militant opposition at home and 
revolutionary action in Vietnam . 

Johnson resorts to escalation in Vietnam. His method is kill all, 
burn all. In our country it is increased political repression. The 
Johnson administration has called on a discredited, racist HUAC, a 
circus committee, of coward yellow bellies to launch the first official 
attack on the antiwar movement. HUAC in a blaze of redbaiting has 
attempted to divide and silence militants and revolutionaries. 

HUAC and Johnson hope this witch hunt will frighten the massive 
antiwar movement into pacificity or convert it into a loyal opposition. 
This inquisition also has been used to help ram through Congress the 
Joe Fool bill, the suppression of peace bill, H.K. 12047, and to amend 
the Internal Security Act, title IV, section 401-3. 

The essence of the legislation, of this Fascist legislation, is to stop 
the anti-Vietnam war activity. Millions of Americans are learning 
that the U.S. war of aggression in Vietnam is opposed to their interests. 

Because of the war and a war budget, wages and working conditions 
are declining. Prices of food, rent, clothes, and homes are rising. 
Local taxes are rising because present taxes are used for war. 

Federal taxes will be increased to meet the $21 billion-a-year war 
cost in Vietnam. Ghetto conditions are worsening daily, and the only 
jobs for black youth today are in the Army. Black youth and young 
white workers are being used as cannon fodder to kill and be killed 
in Vietnam. 

Students and intellectuals recognize the university system as a mar- 
ketplace to buy and sell minds and that the universities are merely 
a training ground, service centers, for big business or their Govern- 
ment in Washington. Students and intellectuals — solid, honest intel- 
lectuals, that is — realize that their abilities are not used for' social 
creativity, but are used to apologize, to be technicians for this ruthless, 
the degenerate, U.S. Government, or to produce for it. 

Our people also see huge profiteering made from this war. Many 
realize that the U.S. is not in Vietnam to free the people, but that it 
is there to prevent the revolution from triumphing. They see the 
U.S. needs of Vietnam for its natural resources as a political and 
military base to dominate Southeast Asia and to attack China. 

The U.S. has billions invested in Asia. It makes millions in prof- 
its from these investments. If the people of Southeast Asia win 
their freedom, the U.S. will lose its ability to exploit them. The 
future of U.S. political aspirations for world domination, for world 
homogeneity, depends on controlling Asia. 

The U.S. is not in Vietnam because of any accident. It is there 
to secure its profit and power situation. Because of these evils of U.S. 
imperialism, and as it stands today, its end justifies the means. 

In its own words the U.S. ruling class and the Johnson group do 
not care about how many die in pursuing their profit drive. 

They will murder and kill as much as they can to hold and enlarge 
its base in Asia. It is the Johnson gang that is disloyal and subversive 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1205 

to the American people, and by all means this committee. They are 
the enemies of the people of the world. They are the most hated and 
isolated force in tile history of international politics. 

They must be defeated. They will be stopped. The American 
people is the Achilles of the U.S. Government and the American peo- 
ple will raise up and liberate themself in this country. They will 
stop the U.S. Government and its criminal actions throughout the 
world. 

Because of the deteriorating conditions as a result of the war, 
Americans are fighting back. Strikes increase. And this commit- 
tee knows full well about strikes, because this committee has been 
used time and time again to break the back of militant strikes froi^ 
the ILWU to many other organizations. 

They defy the bosses, Government, and union stooges. Rebellion 
increases in ghettos ; black people organize for political power, black 
power. They know the fight is here and now, right here at home, not 
in Vietnam. 

Black people and Vietnam people have the same enemy — U.S. rulers. 
The antiwar movement snowballs in the U.S. as young Americans 
and Vietnamese die while profits soar. PLP members have been 
dragged to Washington, and I am a PLP member and proud to say 
that, proud to say I am a Marxist-Leninist, a revolutionary Com- 
munist, because that has the full aspirations of the American people, 
and that is expressing the full aspirations of the American people. 
We have been dragged here to Washington in this repressive act to 
stifle the antiwar movement. 

We believe that counterrevolutionary wars like that the U.S. Gov- 
ernment is fighting in Vietnam is a product of the system called U.S. 
imperialism and will only end with defeat of the imperialism. 

The U.S. Government today is following the pattern of Adolf 
Hitler. To follow this path or not to resist is unpatriotic. We 
identify with the real America, and Mark Twain very ably said there 
are two Americas and that one America represents the U.S. rulers 
and one the people of this country. 

We identify with the real America, the people's America, the 
America which has always fought for social progress at home and 
abroad. We believe it is necessary to have socialism in our country 
to achieve the flowering of real America, to end war, oppression, in- 
security, and the cultural and moral decay that is choking our people. 

We are Communists and we are proud of it. We act in accordance 
with the aspirations of the overwhelming majority of our people, the 
American people. 

Mr. Pool. Just a moment. 

Mr, Cherkoss. We believe that the working people, aided by stu- 
dents ; honest, solid intellectuals ; and others, must hold political power. 

Mr. Pool. May I interrupt you just there ? 

Mr. Cherkoss. By all means. 

Mr. Pool. Are you a Communist ? 

Mr. Cherkoss. I am going to finish this statement, one more par- 
agraph, and then I will answer the questions, 

Mr. Pool. All right. 



67-85a O — 66^pt. 1 20 



1206 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Mr. Cherkoss. We seek this goal, political power by the working 
people of this country created by students and solid intellectuals. 

HUAC, Johnson, and their ilk are opposed to the interests of most 
Americans. Their attack on PLP and the antiwar movement will 
serve, and has served, to unite forces of progress more than ever. 
Those called to the hearings like ourselves have fought back and will 
continue to fight back. We have nothing to hide. We will use this 
forum, and have used this forum, to expose the reactionary nature 
of the administration. 

We have pointed out their ruthlessness because of their basic stage 
in Vietnam. And we are using this to show that the U.S. imperialism 
is there prepared for a long fight and pressed for a desperate win 
in Vietnam. 

We must be prepared, too, for a long and hard effort if we want to 
win. Despite this attack, the antiwar movement will grow and gain 
more solidity. Our people can defeat the war machine. We hail the 
efforts of the Vietnamese people. They are winning. We welcome 
their triumph. We say to U.S. rulers, "Get out of Vietnam now." 
The Vietnamese people are fighting for liberation in the interest of 
the American people, the people of this country that we identify with. 

I have some other ob j ections. I am not finished. 

Mr. Pool. Your objection is overruled, if you made one there. 

Mr. Cherkoss. That was an objection to this committee and its 
hearings. 

Mr. Pool. All right. 

Mr. Cherkoss. I associate myself with the suit against HUAC, 
declaring HUAC illegal, that is now pending in the Washington 
courts. I fully associate with that suit. I object to answering any 
questions of this committee on the ground that Public Law 601, 79th 
Congress, 60 Statutes 812, Part 2, Rule XI, authorizing the com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities, and Un-American Committees, 
to investigate certain activities, to make investigations of the extent, 
character, and objects of Un-American propaganda activities in the 
U.S., violates the U.S. Constitution in that the statute is ambiguous 
and vague, the term "un-American propaganda activities" being no- 
where defined, and being m fact incapable of one precise definition, and 
obscuring the fact that there is not one, but two kinds of un-American 
activities, as Mr. Ewart and Mr. Hamilton ably pointed out this 
morning; first, those that the vast majority of American people deem 
un-American, such as the undemocratic activities, including those 
of this committee; and, secondly, those deemed un-American by a 
small minority of the wealthy, privileged, the ruling class, who are 
now escalating the Vietnam war, and by their political spokesmen, 
such as members of this committee and the U.S. power machine. 

I further object to answering any questions of this committee on 
the grounds that the statute on its face, as applied by the House Un- 
American Activities Committee during the past 20 years, for more than 
20 years, and especially today in its harassment of those opposing the 
Vietnam war, is repugnant to freedom of speech, assembly, associa- 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1207 

tion, and privacy guaranteed to the people by the Bill of Rights and 
suppresses and inhibits dissent, and thus infringes not only the rights 
of dissenters, but, above all, the rights of the American people as 
a whole, to be informed of the opinion of the dissenters, as a basis for 
the American people correctly to make decisions concerning their wel- 
fare and very survival, and results of this committee further us along 
the American road to fascism, and further results in discarding demo- 
cratic processes, openly making the Government the master over the 
people and not the servant of the people, a Government not of the 
people, but against the people, that rules in the interest of the elite 
ruling class. 

Mr. Pool. Your objection is overruled. 

Mr. Cherkoss. I am not finished yet. Okay, I have plenty of time 
here. You guys are paying the bill. You are defrauding the Ameri- 
can people on that. 

I decline to answer on the grounds that this committee is at present 
illegally constituted in that four or more — I am not too sure — four 
or more of its members. Congressman Watson of South Carolina, 
and Joe Pool of Texas, and Willis of Louisiana, who were elected in 
States which have denied the right to vote to a considerable number 
of Negro and poor white citizens of the State, but whose representa- 
tion has not been proportionately reduced as required by section 2 
of the 14th amendment to the Constitution of the U.S., and, finally, 
you have subpenaed us in an attempt to scare, intimidate, and thus 
split the growing American sentiment and movement against the 
war and the U.S. Government that bears sole responsibility for that 
war. 

We have come here with clean hands, and you cannot say the same. 
It is you, not us, that are acting against the interests of the American 
people. And let us face it, gentlemen, your Government days are 
numbered. 

Mr. Pool. Are you finished ? 

Mr. Cherokoss. Weil, just as my opener. Gentlemen, I am finished 
with the opener. 

Mr. Pool. Your objection is overruled. 

Would you want to answer the question whether or not you are a 
Communist ? I think I asked you that a while ago. 

Mr. Cherkoss. As I stated in the opening statement, the U.S. Gov- 
ernment is acting against the needs, the real needs, and aspirations 
of the American people not only in Vietnam, but in Dominican — 
Angola, in Asia, Africa, Latin America, and in this country. 

Black people are systematically murdered on the streets of this 
coimtry every day. And this country and this Government that does 
not represent the interests of the American people or the country and 
cannot be reformed, and we have seen that it cannot be reformed. 
But the Government must be destroyed by the people, in the interest 
of the people, and this committee will be demolished like the U.S. Gov- 
ernment by the American people, but the American working people, 
solid intellectuals, and solid students. And, yes, I am proud to say I 



1208 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

am a Communist, a Marxist-Leninist, a revolutionary, and acting in 
accordance with the full aspirations of the American and world 
peoples. 

Mr. Pool. Does that include using violence to overthrow the Gov- 
ernment if necessary ? 

Mr. Cherkoss. That sounds like a loaded question. Let us face it. 
The violence that was used here to get out the lawyers was all too 
apparent to the people here in this room. The violence that the U.S. 
Government uses to suppress peoples throughout the world is all too 
apparent to all of us. Let us face it. The violence is on the hands of 
the ruling class, and that has been historically true. 

So you are the guys that are committing the violence throughout the 
world, who are dehumanizing, and brutally dehumanizing, and de- 
pressing people throughout this country and throughout the world. 
You are the fellows that use violence. 

Mr. Pool, If necessary, would you use violence to overthrow this 
Government? 

Mr. Cherkoss. The American working people, as I said before, 
along with their allied forces, are going to take power, and how they 
do that, they'll do that any way they deem necessary at that time. 

Mr. Pool. Including violence if necessary ? 

Mr. Cherkoss. Well, my friend, that has been shown. You know 
we can look at history and say no ruling class has ever surrendered 
power voluntarily. That is a fact in history. 

Mr. Pool. And that might be a fact in the future? Is that what 
you are saying ? 

Mr. Cherkoss. Well, not in the future, but today this Government 
brutally suppresses the peoples of the world and the people of this 
comitry. They use force and violence every single day. 

Black people throughout this country know all about the force and 
violence that the U.S. Government and their lackeys use against them. 

Mr. Pool. So you refuse to say that you would use violence if neces- 
sary ? Is that what you mean ? 

Mr. Cherkoss. Will you repeat the question ? I can't understand 
this fellow's accent. Is there someone speaking that isn't a racist that 
speaks with a more American accent? 

Mr. Pool. I think the American people understand what I am say- 
ing regardless of my accent. 

Mr. Cherkoss. Now, Joe. 

Mr. Pool. I ask you, one more time, if you want to answer. You 
have been very cooperative and maybe you want to answer this. 

Would you use violence, if necessary, to overthrow this Government 
if you disagreed with it ? 

Mr. Cherkoss. I told you the people of this country will take power 
as they deem necessary at this time and the force and violence 

Mr. Pool. Is always initiated by the ruling class ? 

Mr. Cherkoss. That is my answer. 

Mr. Pool. All right. All right, Mr. Nittle. 

Wait just a second. I haven't ruled on the — what was the previous 
question ? 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1209 

Mr. NiTTLE. The question, Mr. Pool, the outstanding question, is 
whether or not this witness has resided at 2732 Haste Street. 

Mr. Cherkoss. Oh, yes, that's right. That's the question. 

Mr. Pool. Do you care to answer the question, or do you want me to 
listen to some more objections on that ? 

Mr. Cherkoss. State the relevancy of that question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, I shall. 

Mr. Cherkoss, it is the committee's information that you are a "West 
Coast student organizer for the Progressive Labor Party and that you 
also served as a West Coast spokesman of its front organization, the 
May 2nd Movement 

Mr. Cherkoss. The only front I know of here is the front of the CIA 
for U.S. imperialism. Let us talk about fronts. Let us talk about 
what kind of fronts this Government has set up internationally to 
suppress the people throughout the world. 

Mr. Pool. Just a minute. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And that pursuant to the program of the Progressive 
Labor Party you caused to be formed a Medical Aid to Vietnam Com- 
mittee, later established on the Stanford University campus and at the 
University of California in Berkeley. 

I have before me a copy of a postal application dated November 4, 
1965, for Post OiRce Box 1128 for the Medical Aid to Vietnam Com- 
mittee, filed under the signature of Steve Cherkoss, indicating a busi- 
ness address for the organization at 3382 18th Street, San Francisco, 
an address which was then, according to the information of the com- 
mittee, in published documents 

Mr. Cherkoss. "Wliere does the committee get its information ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. — the headquarters olthe Progressive Labor Party ; and 
that in addition to the business address of the Progressive Labor Party, 
you gave your home address as 2732 Haste Street. 

I hand you a copy of that postal application as a portion of my state- 
ment of the relevancy of the question. 

(Document handed to witness.) 

Mr. Cherkoss. Look, you have subpenaed us, forced us to be sub- 
jected to a harassment and public condemnation and calling us 3,000 
miles from Berkeley, and you will not succeed in that condeimiation. 
You have already in your fist considerable satisfactory answers to all 
the essential questions you are asking. 

Yes, sir, that was my address, 2732 Haste. I resided at that address 
in this past year and I gave my business address at — what is it ? Let 
us see. What did you say ? 3382 18th Street, 'San Francisco. Very 
good. Yes, correct, essentially correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Your business address? 

Mr. Cherkoss. I state this is in the files ; yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And that is your signature on the application ? 

Mr. Cherkoss. Yes, by all means. 

Mr. Pool. Do you offer that in evidence now ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. I offer that in evidence, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Pool. Without objection it is so ordered. 

(Document marked "Cherkoss Exhibit No. 1" follows:) 



1210 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 



Cherkoss Exhibit No. 1 



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APPLICATION FOR POST OFFICE lOX 

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ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1211 

Mr. Pool. Counsel, I think w© have liad sufficient testimony from 
this witness, and at this time the witness is excused. 

Mr. Cherkoss. I have a few statements to make 

Mr. Pool. You are excused. 

Step down. 

Mr. Cherkoss. — about the illegality of this Government. In the 
words of John Quincy Adams 

Mr. Pool. The witness will step down. He has been excused. I 
am going to direct you to step down for the last time. You are not a 
witness here now. You are excused. 

Will you step down quietly ? Will you go to the door or sit down in 
the room, either one. 

Mr. Cherkoss. I have j ust a few statements to make. 

Mr. Pool. You will not make any statements. You have been 
excused. 

Mr. Cherkoss. The blood of Americans 

Mr. Pool. Tlie officer will escort him to the door. Take the papers 
and give them back to him when you get outside. 

The committee will take a 5 -minute recess. 

(Whereupon, a brief recess was taken. Subcommittee members 
present at time of recess and when hearings resumed : Representatives 
Pool, Ichord, and Buchanan. ) 

Mr. Pool. The committee will come to order. 

* :j! * * * * * 1 

Mr. Ichord. Mr. Chairman, at this point I think it would be appro- 
priate to offer for inclusion in the record a telegram received by the 
chairman of the full committee, Chairman Willis, and I read the 
telegram : 

Chairman E. E. Willis, House Committee on Un-American Activities, Washing- 
ton, D.C. We, the students and teachers of the Free University of New York 
(20 East 14th St.) condemn the action of President Johnson's House Committee 
on Un-American Activities in subpoenaing our president, Dr. Allen Krebs, and 
other important activists in the movement resisting America's brutal war against 
the people of Vietnam. This is clearly an effort to stifle protest in our country. 

We hereby summons [sic] and subpoena Chairman Willis to appear before us 
at a Free University general meeting to explain the actions of his committee. 

The committee will remember that Dr. Allen Krebs is the witness 
who left about 5 minutes after his attorney had withdrawn from the 
case, ostensibly on the ground because he had no attorney, and at the 
same time left a mimeographed statement in which he said that he was 
leaving the room at that time. 

The committee will remember that I commented upon the fast mim- 
eographing service that Dr. Krebs had access to. I think it should 
also be noted at this time that this telegram is signed by 97 students 
and teachers of the Free University. 



1 Congressman Olin E. Teague's s.tatement can be found in part 2, the legislative phase 
of the hearings. 



1212 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 



[The signers to the telegram are : 



Rochelle Altstein 
Penny Rosenberg 
W. A. McGirt, Jr. 
Daniel Shafarman 
Susan Hoegland 
Susan Sherman 
G.Long 
G. Long 

Michele Ann FaUk 
Toby Mussman 
Will Inman 
Marilyn Dworkin 
Howard Kheel 
Maureen Stoehr 
Paul S. Blutter 
Hilla Shakovitzky 
Sharon L. Krebs 
Paul Krassner 
Marcia Steinbrecker 
Richard M. Bayer 
Kathryn Mulligan 
Paul Buhle 
James Weinstein 
Bernard Greenberg 
Aaron Frlshberg 
A. Douglas Weller, 3d 
Leonard Ragozin 
Manny Frishberg 
Emmett L. Dupont 
Conrad Lynn 
Frederick West 
Helen Howard 
Robertoh Faber 

The Free University is the one of which we have had evidence in the 
record. We have the summer catalog showing that it is teaching such 
courses as "Mao for Beginners," "Marxism and American Decadence." 
"The Russian Revolution in Literature," "History of the Left in the 
United States," "Perspectives for Revolutionary Change," "Psycho- 
analysis and Marxism," "Introduction to Marxism," "Elementary 
Course in Marxist Economics." And then they get into the more 
sophisticated subjects such as "Vietnam National Liberation Fronts" 
and "Theatre against the War in Vietnam." 

I would ask that this catalog, Mr. Chairman, be inserted in the 
record because I think it does support the testimony of Mr. McCombs, 
who attended the Free University and said that there was considerable 
teaching of Marxism and organized activity against this Government 
occurring at that so-called university. 

Mr. Pool. If there is no objection it is so ordered. This will be 
included in the record. 

(Catalog marked "Committee Exhibit No. 1." See p. 1217.) 

Mr. Pool. The subcommittee has held 3% days of hearings. Those 
hearings have fully revealed the nature and affiliations of the indi- 
viduals and groups which have played leading roles in organizing the 
activities which would be encompassed by the bills before us. 



Ronald Myles 
Paul Gruyell 
Salim E. Tamari 
Eva Conrad 
James P. OBrien 
Jane A. Dunn 
Hal Cronkite 
Levi Laub 
Martin Glass 
Basil D. Vuyandovich 
Judy Weinstein 
Larry Rothfeder 
William J.Therway 
Marta Kusic 
Marie Kelbert 
Carolyn W. Lieber 
Edward Stanley 
Shian Maclean 
Robert Lynn, Jr. 
Jerry Woloz 
Truman Nelson 
Leonard Rubenstein 
Vera James 
Betty Butler 
Francine Derman 
Paul Travis 
Roseanne Leto 
Robert Greenstein 
Martin Timins 
Wendy Hortenstine 
R. Nelson Beardon 
Gordon Switzer 



Pamela E'. Boslet 
Vikki Power 
Sotere Torregian 
Maureen Tuoky 
Susan Rubenstein 
Samuel H. Gross 
Dick Guindon 
Gerald Cohen 
Roberta Plitt 
Roy G. Kidwell 
Allan Stupp 
Anton Chaitkin 
Janice Chaitkin 
Robert Dillon 
Lyn Marcus 
Joe Cerini 
Sandra Ferdinand 
Allan Whiteman 
Emily Kessler 
Robert Rohr 
Marvin Slotoroff 
Allan A. Shapiro 
Ricky Blake 
David Groitp 
Barbara Goodridge 
John Cerve 
Lynn Hesselbart 
George Knowles 
Jon Shaughnessy 
Elaine La Ron 
Phillis Dillon 
David Kieurbe] 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1213 

It is clear that the key leadership of these groups is made up of 
hard-core, revolutionary Communists who are acting in behalf of 
foreign interests. 

We have the infonnation we set out to obtain. The need for the 
enactment of the bill is clear. We see no need to continue the investi- 
gative phase of this hearing. 

All witnesses against whom subpenas are still outstanding are hereby 
excused from their subpenas. 

Mr. Rubin. I object. 

Mr. Pool. Let us have order. 

Mr. Rubin. I object. 

Mr. Pool. Let us have order. 

Mr. Rubin. I want to 

Mr. Pool, You are not recognized. You are excused from the 
hearing. 

Mr. Rubin. I object. I want to discuss the war in Vietnam. 

Mr. Pool. Escort the man from the room. 

Mr. Rubin. I object. 

Mr. Pool. Let us have order. Let him take the papers and start 
him to the door. 

Mr. Rubin. I would like 

Mr. Pool. All right. The Chair recognizes Mr. Ichord. 

Mr. IcHORD. Mr. Chairman, as I miderstand, you are dismissing 
all of the witnesses that have been subpenaed by this committee from 
their subpenas. Is that correct ? 

Mr. Pool. That is correct. 

Mr. IcHORD. I would concur in the decision of the Chair and I 
would like to make this statement, Mr. Chairman. 

I would not condemn any sincere pacifist for demonstrating against 
war in any form. Our Nation is a peace-loving nation. We have the 
traditions of a peace-loving nation, and I think we have shown that 
by our actions throughout our history. I know of no Government 
official in Washington who is in favor of war. But what has been 
shown during the course of these hearings poses quite a dilemma for 
genuine pacifists. 

Many of these witnesses have freely admitted that they are Com- 
munists — they have nothing but utter contempt for their country — 
that they are in sympathy with the Viet Cong, the North Vietnamese 
and the aims and objectives of the Communist world. 

They have freely admitted, Mr. Chairman, that they are raising 
medical supplies and other supplies for the Viet Cong, trying to 
interfere with troop efforts, movements, agitating and inspiring 
demonstration after demonstration. 

This, Mr. Chairman, is not legitimate dissent. This indeed makes 
legitimate dissent difficult, and I do not condemn legitimate dissent 
in any form. Legitimate dissent is particularly difficult in view of 
the fact that propaganda in the war in Vietnam plays a very important 
part. I would like to state, Mr. Chairman, that I do not feel that 
this group, as such, constitutes any serious threat to the United States 
of Ajnerica. 



1214 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

I do feel, however, that these witnesses, and particularly the testi- 
mony of Mr. Meese, show the highly and well-organized operation 
this group is conducting, the large resources involved, the great ex- 
pense to national, state and local governments. 

Mr. Meese estimated that the activity of the Vietnam Day Commit- 
tee alone had cost the county of Alameda in excess of $100,000 for 
merely providing police protection for them. 

I believe, Mr. Chairman, that these hearings have shown that there 
is an immediate need for the passage of legislation such as you have 
introduced and I concur in the decision of the Chair. 

We should proceed immediately with the legislative'aspects of the 
hearing and work out a ^ood bill and report the same to the House. 
And I predict that this bill is going to move through both the House 
and the Senate very quickly. 

Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Pool. Thank you, Mr. Ichord. 

Mr. Buchanan, do you care to make a statement? 

Mr. Buchanan. Mr. Chairman, before we close the investigative 
phase of this hearing, I think one aspect of the anti-Vietnam or pro- 
Viet Cong activity which ought to be a part of this record and that 
has not been touched upon yet is the hate calls and letters which have 
been received by various families whose loved sons or husbands have 
been killed in Vietnam. 

This is without precedent in American history and has been widely 
reported in the press and is, I think, perhaps the most ugly and vicious 
aspect of the pro- Viet Cong activity. I cite one case history, that 
of Second Lieutenant Felix King, Jr., of my district. 

Shortly after his graduation from Florence State College in Janu- 
ary of 1965 as a 4-year ROTC graduate, he entered the service in 
February, completed his officer training, volunteered for ranger train- 
ing, volunteered for airborne paratroopers, and 10 days later was 
sent to Vietnam on August 20, 1966. 

He was the father of two boys, ages 1 year and 3 years. He and 
his wife believed very deeply in the rightness of what he was doing and 
in a letter home to his wife he stated he hated being separated from 
his family but they both knew what he was fighting for. 

On November 9, 1965, Lt. Felix King was killed in action in South 
Vietnam. He was awarded the Silver Star by our Government and 
received an award from the Vietnamese Government also. Shortly 
after his funeral in November his parents received an anonymous 
letter. 

The letter began: "Now how does it feel, now that the tide has 
turned and you are the one being persecuted?" The letter went on 
to say, "If your boy had been where he was supposed to be, he wouldn't 
have been killed," and to state that the soldiers in Vietnam like their 
son were murderers, to state that "You are getting what you deserve," 
and to close with the observation that "The Viet Cong will destroy 
you." 

I have seen this letter. It is one case of a number of similar cases 
and one very ugly aspect of pro- Viet Cong activity which I think 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1215 

ought to be a part of this record and many other cases have been 
reported in the press. 

Mr. Chairman, before we began these investigative hearings, I al- 
ready supported this legislation ; indeed, had joined you much earlier 
in introducing this legislation. I feel that it fills a gap in the law 
and is needed legislation, and yet these hearings have doubly con- 
vinced me that not only do we need this bill for the sake of our fighting 
men in Vietnam and for their families, but also perhaps for another 
group of people. 

As one of our witnesses, Phillip Luce, has ably pointed out, the New- 
Left structure, and particularly the Progressive Labor Party struc- 
ture, is as a pyramid. And I think we have established that there are 
hard-core, revolutionary Marxist-Leninists at the top of this struc- 
ture; that at the base, however, there are many young people, some 
of whom are simply pacifists and some idealists who are not Com- 
munists of any kind, but who are nevertheless in sympathy with this 
basic position and who are participating in these actions. 

Now, it seems to me that by circumscribing these activities and 
establishing what is in fact unlawful, in distinguishing between the 
right to speak and hold a rally and freely assemble and the right of 
aiding and abetting a force which is engaged in armed conflict with 
our own troops and which is killing our own soldiers, in establishing 
this distinction and in circumscribing such aid to the enemy in a war 
like the undeclared war in Vietnam, it seems to me we are not only 
doing a needed service and a necessary service to the servicemen and 
to their families, but perhaps to a group of young people who some 
day will have homes in the suburbs and be raising their children in 
1 he greatest and best and freest Republic this world has even seen and 
who may, some day, change their minds and come to feel that these 
activities in which they may now participate or which they may en- 
courage or approve are in fact wrong, and they may live to deeply 
regret them. 

It seems to me, therefore, that we do a service not only to the country 
and to our military men, but perhiaps the young people who at this 
moment are participating in this and may some day come to see that 
it was a very wrong-headed way of conduct and one that they deeply 
regret. 

So, Mr. Chairman, I concur in the decision that we should end these 
investigative hearings and proceed wnth the necessary legislative hear- 
ings to pass this bill at the earliest possible time. 

Mr. Pool. Thank you, Mr. Buchanan. I think Mr. Ichord had one 
other thing. 

Mr. IcHORD. Mr. Chairman, I have two items here which I believe 
should be inserted in the record, particularly in view of the fact that 
Mr. Pemberton, an executive of ACLU, and some of the other attorneys 
objected to these hearings on the grounds that the committee or mem- 
bers of the staff of the committee released the names of witnesses prior 
to the time that they were served. This, of course, is an objection 
that is often made. 



1216 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

I would point out that the chairman of the full committee has given 
the members of the staff strict orders that the names of these wit- 
nesses are not to be released and I am certain — and I have asked 
questions of the staff members myself — that no staff member has re- 
leased any of the names of these witnesses prior to the time that they 
were subpenaed. 

We find, however, that the witnesses which we do subpena often 
run to the press themselves with the names of the witnesses that have 
been subpenaed and release them themselves and then accuse the mem- 
bers of the staff of the committee of releasing the names. And I have 
one document here, which is a transcript of the tape of interview 
with Steve Cherkoss, Steve Hamilton, and George Ewart, Jr., on the 
campus of the University of California, by a representative of station 
KEWB in California on August 5, 1966, and this is very important, 
Mr. Chairman, because Steve Cherkoss was not served with his sub- 
pena until August 5, 1966. It does show that the witnesses released 
the names themselves. 

And also a pamphlet headed, "HUAC Attacks Peace Movement," 
in which it states that the witnesses have been subpenaed, and this was 
distributed on the Berkeley campus on August the 5th 1966. 

I would ask unanimous consent that these two documents be in- 
cluded in the record of the hearings. 

Mr. Pool. If there is no objection, these documents are included in 
the record of the hearings. 

(Documents marked "Committee Exhibits Nos. 2 and 3," respec- 
tively. Committee Exhibits 1, 2, and 3 follow :) 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1217 

Committee Exhibit No. 1 

me Unhehify 
of New Yotk 



SUMMER CATALOG 1966 

20 east /4 street : new york, ii.y, 10003 
onS-7^2^ 



" state law forbids use of term "univer- 
sity" without proof of $500, 000 in assets. 



The Free University of New York has been forged in re- 
sponse to the intellectual bankruptcy and spiritual emptiness 
of the American educational establishment. It seeks to develop 
the concepts necessary to comprehend the events of this cen- 
tury and the meaning of one's own life within it, to examine 
artistic expression beyond the scope of the usual academy and 
to promote the social integrity and commitment from which 
scholars usually stand aloof 

Passionate involvement, intellectual confrontation and clash 
of ideas are particularly encouraged because we believe a de- 

continued inside front cover 



1218 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Committee Exhibit No. 1 — Continued 

coptinued from front cover 

tached search for ideas and a dispassionate, objective position 

do not and never have existed. 

The Free University consists of its intellectual participants. 
Students and teachers meet on common ground to discuss the 
direction of the schoolandto develop curricula, course content, 
symposia, forums, etc. 

The Free University of New York is necessary because, in 
our conception, American universities have been reduced to 
institutions of intellectual servitude. Students have been sys- 
tematically dehumanized, deemed incompetent to regulate their 
own lives, sexually, politically and academically. They are 
treated like raw material to be processed for the university's 
clients— business, government and military bureaucracies. 
Teachers, underpaid and constantly subject to investigation 
and purge, have been relegated to the position of servant-in- 
tellectuals, required, for regular promotion, to propagate points 
of view in harmony with the military and industrial leadership 
of our society. 

The American university has been emasculated Its intellec- 
tual vigor, exuberance and excitement have been destroyed 
What remains is a dispassionate and studied dullness, a facade 
of scholarly activity concealing an internal emptiness and cyn- 
icism, a dusty-dry search for permissible truth which pleases 
none but the administrator and the ambitious. 

In the very face of these circumstances and in recognition 
of the events of the last decade, protest has once again emerged 
on the college campuses of America. We welcome the protest: 
we feel the foundation of the Free University is part of it 

a ooo oo ooooooooooo o ooooooo o ooo o oooooo o oooooooooooooo 

REGISTRATION 

Since free trial attendance at classes of the Free University is not 
possible, students are advised to take advantage of the week of con- 
sultation and registration. During the week of June 27-July 1, faculty 
members will each be available at the Free University one evening 
from 7:30 to 9:30. For classes scheduled to meet on Mondays, the 
instructor will be present for consultation on Monday, June 27. For 
classes scheduled for Tuesdays, Tuesday, June 28, and so forth. 
Consultation for classes scheduled for Sundays will take place on Fri- 
day, July 1. 

The Free University gives no credits and grants no degrees. There 
are no admission requirements nor restrictions on age. 

CALENDAR 

Monday, June 2 7- Friday, July 1 Registration 

Tuesday, July 5 First Class Meets 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1219 

Committee Exhibit No. 1 — Continued 

3 

FEES 

In order to avoid reliance upon any trust fund, foundation or pri- 
vate benefactor, the Free University seeks to sustain itself by means 
of low student fees, low expenses and minimal administrative costs. 
The first nine -week course in which a student enrolls in a single quar- 
ter will cost $24. Each additional course will cost $8. Hence, two 
courses will cost $32, three $40, etc. Five-week courses are half- 
price. Refunds will not normally be available, but students may usu- 
ally transfer to other courses. Welfare recipients and other special 
cases will be enrolled free of charge. Registered students are admit- 
ted without charge to Free University Forums and Cinema. 

Students are encouraged to bring their criticism and evaluation of 
courses to the Coordinating Committee which meets every Sunday 
evening at 8:00. 

The annual membership meeting^ at which time the Coordinating 
Committee is elected, will be held on Sunday, July 31 at 8:00. 

COURSE OFFERINGS FOR THE SUMMER QUARTER 

The following courses have been selected in consultation, dialogue 
and discussion between the students and the faculty of the Free Uni- 
versity. Classes will normally meet one evening each week for a 
2 1/2 hour period, for nine weeks. The duration of the course and 
the length of class meetings may be altered by a decision taken joint- 
ly by the students and the instructor. 

Courses are listed by instructor's surname — alphabetically. 

THE COLD WAR IN TRANSITION— FROM EUROPE TO ASIA 

The course includes analysis of the genesis and purposes of the 
Cold war; a review of its history through various international con- 
flicts; the Soviet-American detente; the Sino-Soviet split; the Sino- 
Indian conflict; the Vietnam War; quo vadis America. 
Mondays at 6:00 M. S. Arnoni 

PERSPECTIVES FOR AMERICAN RADICALS 

Problems of social change in advanced industrial society will be 
examined in the light of the theories of Marx, Mills, Marcuse and 
the American pluralists. Strategies and techniques for building po- 
litical radical movements will be delineated. Students will be ex- 
pected to read extensively in the field. Limited to 15 students . 
Tuesdays at 8:30 Stanley Aronowitz 



1220 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 
Committee Exhibit No. 1 — Continued 



STUDIO WORKSHOP IN ART 

Instruction in painting, drawing and collage. Life drawing. Indi- 
vidual and group criticism. Discussion of current trends in modern 
painting. A study of the revolutionary implications of 20th century 
art. Radical vision and contemporary perception. 
Mondays at 6:00 Nancy Colin 

ADVANCED CINEMA DIRECTORS WORKSHOP 

The purpose of this advanced workshop is to continue providing 
the student with an esthetic and philosophic foimdation as well as a 
technical and professional basis toward the production of films that 
will fulfill a redeeming function in the society of men: "not merely 
to render , but originally to create , through a living metaphor , the 
essence of contemporary reality, and project it into the future." 
The workshop will accordingly combine theoretical and practical 
training in the following disciplines: script -writing; directing; 
screen-acting; camera; sound and editing. Craftsmanship will be 
emphasized, so as to ensure that content seeks justice in form, 
which alone can raise experimentation to a truly creative act. The 
integrated training will be directed toward actual location work and 
the production of a 35 mm. film. Limited enr ol lment upon consul- 
tation. Extra lab fee $10. 
Tuesdays at 6:00 Yves de Laurot 

ALTERNATIVE MAN 

The purpose of this course will be to begin sketching an image of 
the potential post-Revolutionary man, an image drawn from impli- 
cations in the western tradition and based on the possibilities inher- 
ent in advanced industrial society. The method will be to conduct a 
preliminary examination of significant negations and affirmations of 
man in European history, in theory and practice, from the early 
myths and the Greek and Judeo -Christian roots of our culture to 20th 
century bourgeois systems and revolutionary perspectives. The ba- 
sic assumptions are: 1. Marxism and Revolution propose the creation 
of a new society and a new Man; 2. the potential for concrete realiza- 
tion of a new Man is contained in the present stage of technological 
development in America; 3. the conception of this new Man, as an al- 
ternative to prevailing conceptions and realities, should provide an 
important critical notion with which we can confront the existing cap- 
italist system, clarify our ideas about the goal of Revolution and 
sharpen our theories of social change. 
Mondays at 8:30. Martin Glass 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1221 
Committee Exhibit No. 1 — Continued 

5 

ACTING CLASS WORKSHOP 

Exercises in the basic work of the actor: improvisation, sensory 
observation and scene study; the Stanislavsky technique. This course 
will be offered again in the fall. Class is limited to 12 maximum . 
It will meet for five weeks, beginning August 14. 
Sundays 11:00 a.m. Harold Herbstman 

COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION, WHO, WHAT AND WHY? 

This course will cover the relationship between theory, day-to- 
day problems, power structure and various elements within it such 
as public media, schools, religion and "culture." The course will 
try to deal with how one utilizes and overcomes these elements in 
order to promote viable community organization, particularly a- 
mong minority peoples. A portion of the course will be spent ac- 
tually working in the Negro and Puerto Rican ghettoes , and will be 
of especial interest to Negro and Puerto Rican organizers. 
Mondays at 6:00 Calvin Hicks 

A QUEST FOR SELF 

A search for integrity without dogma in a time of relative values, 
exploring the turns of one individual's life toward building a synthe- 
sis between spiritual awareness and revolutionary social vision, with 
Walt Whitman's writings as counterpoint; Martin Buber, Jung, Fromm, 
Merton, Tagore — as background reading. No answers promised; 
painful questions guaranteed. 
Fridays at 9:00 Will Inman 

MAO FOR BEGINNERS 

A dialogue on the many facets of Mao Tse-tung : military thinker, 
politician, Marxist theorist and poet. Reading materials will be 
from The Selected Works of Mao Tse-tung and non-Chinese com- 
mentaries on Mao and the Chinese Revolution. 
Mondays at 8:30 Charles Johnson 

MODERN DANCE TECHNIQUES 

Basic experiences in movement; understanding the mechanics 
and motivation of movement, movement as a means of communica- 
tion, movement as an art form. Modern Dance in the modern world. 
Modern dance for street pageants. 
Basic - Sundays at 7:30 
Intermediate - Sundays at 6:00 Stefanie Kaplan 



6.7-852 O— 60— pt. l 



21 



1222 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 
Committee Exhibit No. 1 — Continued 



FROM MICKEY MOUSE TO THE GREEN BERETS: PAUL KRASS- 
NER AND DICK GUINDON VIEW THE PRESS 

A seminar on the satirical and propagandistic implications of 
text and cartoons in the mass and minor media. 
Wednesdays at 8:30 Paul Krassner and Dick Guindon 

MARXISM AND AMERICAN DECADENCE 

A general examination of American society and its decadence 
from a Marxist perspective. Topics to be covered include Marx 
and Marxism, American imperialism, militarism, alienation, iso- 
lation, homosexuality, drug cults, and intellectual emasculation. 
Wednesdays at 8:30 Allen Krebs 

THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION IN LITERATURE 

At the beginning of the nineteenth century, Russian writers ex- 
ploded onto the world's literary stage ej^ressing the most radical 
ideas of their time. This course will cover the growth of Russian 
realism from Fhishkin and Gogol through Turgenev, Dostoevsky 
and Tolstoy and ending with the revolutionary writings of Gorky, 
Blok and Mayakovsky. 
Wednesdays at 8:30 Sharon Krebs 

HISTORY OF THE LEFT IN THE UNITED STATES 

The history of the socialist, communist, anarchist and Trotsky - 
ist political movements in the United States. The relation of their 
social theories to practice, and their significance for the New Left. 
Thursdays at 6:00 George Kruger 

PERSPECTIVES FOR REVOLUTIONARY CHANGE 

This course will attempt to define a political orientation for 
Revolutionary Socialism. It will cover, among other things, the 
question of state power- -its present character under imperialism 
and socialism, the need for and what is a revolutionary party, an 
analysis of and outlook for labor, Black liberation, student and 
peace movements. 
Thursdays at 8:30 Levi Laub 

WESTERN EXPANSIONISM: HISTORY AND THEORY 

The origins of modern imperialism: mercantilism, monopoly 
and expansionism. The impasse of liberalism and the role of the 
West in Asia, Africa and Latin America. United States neo-colon- 
ialism under the rhetoric of the liberal establishment. The final 
phase: Wars of Liberation and the international crisis. 
Thursdays at 8:30 Leonard Liggio 



ASSISTANCE TO EXEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1223 

Committee Exhibit No. 1 — Continued 

7 
CURRENT PERSPECTIVES 

Discussion of major events with visiting experts and Free Univ- 
ersity teachers. This course will be o pe n to students already re- 
gistered for other courses at the Free University . There is no 
charge . 
Thursdays at 6:30 Leonard Liggio and others 

PSYCHOANALYSIS AND MARXISM 

Post-Freudian psychoanaljrtic theory (Reich, Fromm, Horney, 
etc.) will be discussed and criticized from a Marxist perspective. 
Emphasis will be placed on the role such socio -psychology plays 
in contemporary America: its premises and consequences. Al- 
ternative approaches to "personal" problems will be discussed. 
Readings here will include Frantz Fanon, Doris Lessing and Wil- 
liam Pomeroy. 
Thursdays at 8:30 Constance Long 

INTRODUCTION TO MARXISM 

A thorough discussion of the fundamental concepts of Marxist 
philosophy: dialectical and historical materialism. Extensive 
readings in the theoretical and historical works of Marx and 
Engels, such as German Ideology, Anti-D'uhring , 18th Brumaire , 
etc. The final class will be an exercise in using these intellec- 
tual tools in understanding our contemporary reality. 
Thursdays at 8:30 Gerald Long 

THE GHETTO: LAW AND SOCIAL CHANGE 

The ghetto: origin and development in contemporary America. 
The control of the ghetto by traditional internal disciplines and 
and the increasing role of external force. The growth of indigen- 
ous social, economic and political factors. Revolutionary poten- 
tial. 
Wednesdays at 6:00 Conrad Lynn 

FILMAKING 

The course will review the complete technical process of mak- 
ing films from script to final print. So as to acquire practical 
knowledge of camera, sound, and editing processes, the class 
will make a short film (5-lOmin. ). No experience necessary. 
Limited enrollment upon consultation. Extra lab fee $15 ^ cov- 
ering film, printing and cutting-room costs . 
Thursdays at 8:30 Bob Machover 



1224 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Committee Exhibit No. 1 — Continued 

8 

ELEMENTARY "COURSE IN MARXIST ECONOMICS 

This course is designed to equip the beginner, with or without 
previous economic training, with working mastery of the basic 
method, concepts and practical applications of Marxist economics. 
The latter part of the course includes a research project by the 
student on the main features of U. S. economic history, with 
treatment of the interrelationship between economics and politics 
in recent U. S, history, including "Negro Question" and "New Left. 
Tuesdays at 8:30 L. Marcus 

CIVIL LIBERTIES IN THE U. S. TODAY 

The relationship of Constitutional guarantees of freedom of ex- 
pression to current political struggles in the U. S. Among the 
topics will be the McCarthyist heritage, the F. B. I., Congress- 
ional investigations, the Smith and McCarran Acts, loyalty oaths, 
academic freedom, the courts and free speech, and issues of free 
expression raised by the civil -rights and anti-war movements. 
There will be several guest appearances by people involved in re- 
cent civil liberties battles. 
Tuesdays at 8:30 James O'Brien 

VIETNAM NATIONAL LIBERATION FRONTS 

From the Democratic Front of 1936 to the National Liberation 
Front of today, the Vietnamese have been the geniuses of the U- 
nited Front. The U. S. is waging war in Vietnam to prevent all 
peoples from learning the revolutionary tactics and strategies the 
Vietnamese have perfected, and with which this course will deal. 
The transcendent contributions made by the NLF and the Demo- 
cratic Republic of Vietnam to the practice of democracy, Social- 
ism and to the most advanced form of government will be covered. 
The student will also learn about the traditions and remarkable 
humanism of the NLF and DRV. The life of Ho Chi Minh and the 
brilliant writings of Ho and eminent DRV statesmen Le Duan, Vo 
Nguyen Giap and Truong Chinh will be studied. The current course 
of the war, with emphasis on the bombings of the DRV will also be 
analyzed. 
Mondays at 8:30 Charlotte Polin 

CREATIVE MATERIALISM 

Real men in the real world- -these are the concern of the signif- 
icant artists and social activists of our time. The foundations of 
this materialist outlook are secured by the Marxist classics, but 
creative materialism must build beyond these foundations , must 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1225 
Committee Exhibit No. 1 — Continued 

9 

accept modern man in all his complexity, economic and emotional. 
What if one is asked, as a materialist: What is Love ? Beauty ? 
Liberty ? Truth ? Life ? Heroism ? Pacifism ? Religion ? The 
Psyche ? The Universe ? The course will explore these often over- 
looked areas of Marxism. Studies in a I>ving Culture , by Christo- 
pher Caudwell, brilliant young Englishman who began to view mod- 
ern man through a challenging and creative Marxist perspective 
shortly before his death as a volunteer in Spain, will be the chief 
text. 
Wednesdays at 6:00 Len Ragozin 

BLACK AFRICA 

The revolutionary developments in contemporary Sub-Saharan 
Africa in the light of centuries of imperialist oppression and the 
newly emerging forces of the world. This course will meet for 
five weeks beg inni ng July 10 on a provisional basis depending- unon 
international events and consultation between teacher and students . 
Sundays at 6:00 A representative of the Revolutionary 

Government of Tanzania 

DOCUMENTARY FILM: ART AND SOCIETY 

An attempt to examine specific documentaries as art and as 
social expression, and to perhaps get at the nature and limitations 
of the documentary film. Films will be selected from the works of 
the British documentrists of the 30 's, the National Film Board of 
Canada, the British Free Cinema of the 50 's and directors such as 
Eisenstein, Flaherty, Lorentz, Bunuel and Resnais. 
Tuesdays at 6:00 Mike Robinson 

THEATRE AGAINST THE WAR IN VIETNAM 

A drama workshop of the theatre of protest. This workshop will 
construct an actual demonstration based on war issues current in 
the press using life puppets, masks and home-made sound. 
Sundays at 6:00 Peter Schumann 

WRITING WORKSHOP 

A workshop for the writing of poetry, plays and short fiction; 
discussion of students' work as well as a study of relevant con- 
temporary literature from Beckett to the New York Underground. 
Emphasis on writing as expression and communication. The rev- 
olution in language. The role of the artist in contemporary society. 
Thursdays at 6:00 Susan Sherman 



1226 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 
Committee Exhibit No. 1 — Continued 

10 

POETRY AND REVOLUTION 

A never-eAding continuum: poetry as a universal criterion of 
truth. The poet as leader in the revolution of life -consciousness, 
forays which parallel world revolutionary liberation movements. 
The Poet, Anti-war: poetry as seen by the poet , reformer of con- 
sciousness, liberated from Academy's forensic taxidermy, and 
expose of the dreams inflicted during the adolescent sleep of 1941- 
60 's malcontents. The poets of Now read their work: Ted Berrigan; 
Allen Ginsberg; the Poem Machine; Quetzlcoatl; Africa; others. 
Requirements: world -pain (undefinable) , some knowledge of poet- 
ical achievements, America (1950-1966), France (Rimbaud, etc.). 
Wednesdays at 6:30 Sotere Torregian 

THE AMERICAN RADICAL TRADITION: 1900 TO PRESENT 

The course will examine and evaluate the Socialist movement 
in the United States from 1900 to the present. Topics will in- 
clude: The Socialist Party of Debs, 1900-1919. The First World 
War and its impact on the Third International. The fracturing of 
American Socialism and the rise of the farmer-labor parties, 
1919-1924. The collapse of the old Socialist tradition in 1924. 
The revival of American Socialism during the Great Depression. 
The concept of the united front in Europe and America. Socialist 
attitudes towards the Second World War. American Socialism and 
the Cold War. 
Tuesdays at 8:30 James Weinstein 

FREE UNIVERSITY FORUM AND FREE UNIVERSITY CIMEMA 

The Free University holds Saturday night forums and screen- 
ings on subjects of social relevance and artistic merit. Forum 
themes have included thermonuclear war, Marxism and existen- 
tialism, the draft, the New Left and contemporary poetry. Speak- 
ers have included Christopher Koch, Herman Kahn, Eugene Gen- 
ovese and others in addition to Free University teachers. Films 
have included Triumph of the Will , Night and Fog , Ten Days that 
Shook the World , Joyless Street , and films by the New Left, all 
followed by discussion. Subjects are announced in the National 
Guardian and the last page of the Village Voice . 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1227 
Committee Exhibit No. 1 — Continued 

11 
FACULTY 

M. S. ARNONI* 

Editor of Minorify of On p. . Political scientist and author. 

STANLEY ARONOWITZ* 

Trade Unionist and an editor of Studies on the Left. 

LEE BAXANDALL 

An editor of Studies on the Left and Chalk Circle . To have two 

plays performed in New York this year. 

JOSEPH BERKE, M. D. 
Psychotherapist and poet. 

NANCY COLIN* 

Painter, graduate Cooper Union, BJEA,San Francisco Art Institute. 

YVES DE LAUROT* 

Film director, script writer, co-founder of Cinema Engage'. 

MORRIS FORKOSCH, JS.D., Ph.D. 

Professor of law, Chairman, Department of Public Law, Brooklyn 

Law School, author of books and articles on legal subjects. 

PAUL GERSHOWITZ 

Artist, instructor at Community Cultural Center in Brooklyn. 

MARTIN GLASS* 

Instructor of literature, Yeshiva University. 

DICK GUINDON* 

Free-lance cartoonist, on the staff of the Realist. 

HAROLD HERBSTMAN* 

Actor, director; recently produced and directed "A Play for the 

General" off -off Broadway. 

CALVIN HICKS* 

Community organizer — Independent Action Committee. 

WILL INMAN* 

Editor: KAURI, poetry-newsletter. 

CHARLES JOHNSON* 

Economics student, Black Marxist-Leninist, visited Cuba, 1964. 

STEFANIE KAPLAN* 

B. A. in Modern Dance, Brookljm College, now teaching modern 

dance at Educational Alliance. 



1228 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 
Committee Exhibit No. 1 — Continued 

12 

PAUL KRASSNER* 

Editor of the Realist . 

ALLEN KREBS, Ph.D. * 

Director of the Free University of New York; ex-assistant Pro- 
fessor of Sociology, Adelphi University, fired after traveling to 
Cuba, summer, 1964. 

SHARON KREBS* 

M.A. in Russian literature, University of Michigan, translator. 

GEORGE KRUGER* 

Editor of the publication, The Internationalist. 

TULI KUPFERBERG 

Author of Sex & War , Grace & Beauty of the Human Form , Christine 

Keeler Coloring Book , Fug. 

LEVI LAUB* 

Organizer for Progressive Labor Party. 

LEONARD LIGGIO* 

Research historian and former college instructor. 

CONSTANCE LONG* 

B.A. in psychology, researcher trade union mental health project. 

GERALD LONG* 

Coordinator of American Liberation League; Editor: Liberation USA . 

CONRAD LYNN* 

New York civil rights attorney. 

BOB MACHOVER* 

Free lance film editor. Currently working on feature length documentary 

on SDS-inspired Newark Community Union Project. 

SHANE MAGE, Ph.D. 

Assistant Professor of Economics, Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn. 

L. MARCUS* 

Professional economist and Marxist. 

JOHN McDERMOTT 

Instructor of philosophy , Long Island University; Associate Editor: 

Viet-Report. 

JAMES MELLEN 

Ex-instructor of Political Science, Drew University, fired after public 

statements on Vietnam. 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1229 
Committee Exhibit No. 1 — Continued 

13 
TRUMAN NELSON 

Author of Passion at the Brook , the Sin of the Prophet , The Surveyor , 
The Torture of Mothers and The Documents of Upheaval . 
JAMES O'BRIEN* 

M.A, in American history, University of Wisconsin. 
CHARLOTTE POLIN* 

Researcher, U. S. Committee to Aid the National Liberation Front 
of South Vietnam, author of books and articles on Vietnam. 

LEN RAGOZIN* 

B.S. Harvard, member of Progressive Labor Party philosophy group. 

Free University Coordinating Committee member. 

REPRESENTATIVE OF THE REVOLUTIONARY GOVERNMENT 

OF TANZANIA* 

MIKE ROBINSON* 

New York film maker. 

ED SANDERS 

Poet, editor and Fug. 

PETER SCHUMANN* 

Director of the Bread and Puppet Theatre. 
SUSAN SHERMAN* 

Poet, playwright. Published in Poetry Magazine, The Nation , El 
Corno Emplumado , Village Voice . Plays produced off-off Broadway. 

A. B. SPELLMAN 

Poet, ex-commentator, WBAI. 

RUSSELL STETLER, Jr. 

An originator of campus protest against the Vietnam War, co-author 

(with Bertrand Russell) War and Atrocity in Vietnam , coordinator of 

American Liberation League. 

ROGER TAUS 

Poet and editor of Weapon and Free Student . 

SOTERE TORREGIAN* 

Poet. 

JAMES WEINSTEIN* 

Historian and an editor of Studies on the Left . 

* indicates summer quarter faculty. 



1230 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 
Committee Exhibit No. 1 — Continued 

Please use t hi s form if you wish to register by mail: 



NAME 






ADDRESS 


CITY 
TELEPHONE NUMBER 




ZIP 


COURSES 1) 


2) 


^) 




4) 


5) 




I am enclosing $ 







Make checks payable to the Free School of New York, Inc. 



ASSISTANCE TO EXEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1231 
Committee Exhibit No. 2 



Transcript of Tape of an interview with Steve Cherkoss, Steve Hamilton and 
George Ewart, Jr., on the campus of the University of California by a representative 
of Station KEWB in California, on August 5, 1966. 

COMMENTATOR: The subpoena process is continuing in Berkeley where six members of the 
Vietnam Day Committee have been directed to appear before the House Un- 
American Activities Committee. Mike Forrest, KEWB News, was in front 
of Sproul Hall today and asked Steve Cherkoss if he thought he might be 
subpoenaed. 

Cherkoss: Yes, to my knowledge they have tried to find me and serve me with a 
subpoena, but as of yet they haven't been capable or able to do so. 

Forrest: Are you hiding from them? 

Cherkoss: No, of course not, we're standing out here on Sproul Hall steps with 
200 people, 300 people right in front of u8--lf they consider that 
hiding, well then I guess I am, you know, it may be. 

Forrest: Why are they looking for you? 

Cherkoss: X don't know exactly why, probably harassing tactics because I was one 
of the leaders of VDC and the Medical Aid Committee and West Coast 
Student Organizer for the Progressive Labor Party. 

COMMENTATOR: Just as this conversation ended a plainclothes officer walked up to 
Cherkoss and handed him a subpoena. Then he asked: 

Officer: What is your home address Please, Just in case we have to get In touch 
with you for plane fare and stuff? 

Cherkoss: I don't care to make a statement about my home address at this time 

Forrest: Yes sir, what did you serve him with? 

Officer: A subpoena. 

Forrest: Constituting what? 

Officer: That he was to appear before the House Un-American Activities Committee 
in Washington. 

Cherkoss: I got a subpoena which states, you know, the information that I have to 
appear on August 16, in Washington, D. C, before the House Un-American 
Activities Comnlttee. 

Forrest: Will you? 

Cherkoss: The organization that I belong to. Progressive Labor, Is purely opposed 
to a committee such as HUAC, however if we're summoned, and it seems we 
are, we'll be there. 

COMMENTATOR: Our Mike Forrest then asked another of the Vietnam Day Committee 
members why he thinks he and the rest were summoned to Washington. 

Answer: They try to get us because we are Conmunlsts, we work as Communists in 
the Peace Movement, we have played a leading role in organizing High 
Schools and Junior High Schools in this area and they are trying to 
intimidate the Peace Movement by saying there are Commies in the Peace 
Movement, everybody else get out, you know. And we aren't going to 
fall for it. 

COMMENTATOR: The House Committee has also subpoenaed some University records per- 
taining to registration of student organizations on the Berkeley 
campus . 



1232 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

Committee Exhibit No. 3 

HUAC ATTACKS 
PEACE AAOVEMENT 



America is retooling Its war machine. Wage ceilings have been 
fixed; anti-strike policies have been adopted; credit-ratings 
have been cut. And most important, the government attempts 
to 'pllt and destroy political protest at home. 

THE BERKELEY PEACE MOVEMENT HAS BEEN ATTACKED. 

Using HUAC as their weapon, the government is seeking to 
intimidate and suppress an anti-war movement which has been 
unique in its ability to articulate and mobilize dissent. 

The following were subpoened and must be in WashlngtonOC. 

on August 16. 

Anatole Anton, Stanford anti-war movement, Cuba Trip'63 

Steve Cherkoss, VDC Anti-draft Committee; PLP Organizer 

George Ewart, VDC, and PLP Student Club 

Steve Hamilto n, VDC, PLP, PROC expelled student 

Stewart McRae , Stanford Anti-war Movement 

Jerry Rubin, VDC Leader, Cuba '64, Scheer Campaign 

Steven Smale, Cal Math Professor, VDC Leader 

Windy Smith, VDC Steering Committee, DuBols Club 

HELP RETURN THE ATTACK 



Come to a PUBUC MEETING, SUN. NIGHT. Aug. 7 . 7;00, 

WHEELER AiroiTC«IUM 
Discuss plans and strategy for DEFENSE of our friends. 



ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 1233 

Mr. Pool. The Chair wishes to make this statement. 

It is my understanding that in the preparation for this hearing, 
the statf has collected documents which state the position of world 
communism generally on the subject of U.S. policy and action in Viet- 
nam. These documents include official statements of the Progressive 
Labor Party, the Communist Party, and the Socialist Workers Party 
in the United States. It also contains statements in official publica- 
tions of Red China and of Moscow — magazines such as the Peking 
Review^ the World Marxist Review and International Affairs. Also 
included are official declarations of the 23d Congress of the Commu- 
nist Party of the Soviet Union and of the 18th National Convention 
of the U.S. Communist Party. 

If there are no objections, I direct that pertinent excerpts from 
these documents be made a part of this hearing record. 

Are there objections? 

There are none, and it is so ordered. 

(See Appendix No. I, part 2, pp. 1355-1380.) ^ 

Mr. Pool. I wish to make another short and sweet comment, and 
then we will adjourn for lunch, I think that the best thing I can 
say sitting up here as chairman — and most of you here in the audience 
have been here and have seen the things that went on and you realize 
the dilatory tactics and provocations that this committee had to con- 
tend with — that it is a pretty tough job to sit through one of these 
hearings. Some people have asked me why we put up with it. Well, 
the main reason for it is we try to be as fair as we can and ivy to 
observe the rights given to the American citizens by their Constitution, 
so we have put up with a lot of things that possibly wouldn't get to 
first base in a courtroom, but this is a little different. 

However, the most pertinent thing about this is that these hearings 
themselves have shown and substantiated the arguments and the deci- 
sions of the courts throughout the years for the Congress to have the 
investigative power to look into the facts surrounding legislation, and 
I think that this hearing has been very revealing to the American 
public. 

I have taken a lot of personal abuse. Members of the committee 
have taken a lot of personal abuse. But I will do that and keep my 
sense of good humor as much as I can, because I feel that I have done 
a job and conducted myself in a responsible manner as a Member of 
the House of Representatives. 

I want to at this time thank the staff for doing a tremendous job in 
this investigative hearing. That includes investigators, as well as 
the counsel and the other members of the staff. The members of the 
committee, of course, you have all seen perform, and I don't have to 
make a lot of remarks about them They have done a tremendous job. 
I am real proud to be an American and I am real proud to be a Mem- 
ber of the House of Representatives. I am real proud to have been 
a member of this subcommittee and done my little part to try to expose 
what is going on and try to pass these bills, which I think the House 
and the Senate will pass speedily as soon as we can get them out. 



1 Subsequent to the hearings, the subcommittee voted that additional documentation con- 
taining a statement of FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover be made a part of the record. 
This material may be found in Appendix II, part 2, p. 1381. 



1234 ASSISTANCE TO ENEMIES OF U.S. IN UNDECLARED WAR 

We are going to try to get these bills out next week, out of the com- 
mittee. 

I want to at this time thank the Capitol Police, the Metro- 
politan Police, and the U.S. marshals. They have done a tremendous 
job in keeping order in this hearing room, and I will say this about 
them: That they, in my opinion, from what I could see, used only 
that force that was necessary to carry out their orders, and I want to 
compliment them. They have done a tremendous job. I have been 
on these hearings in many cities in the United States. We have had 
some rough ones. But they have done a tremendous job here in 
Washington this week. 

Those are all the remarks I have. We will meet again at 2 o'clock 
to go into the legislative phase on these bills. 

The meeting is adjourned. 

(Subcommittee members present at time of recess: Representatives 
Pool, Ichord, and Buchanan.) 

(Whereupon, at 12:10 p.m. Friday, August 19, 1966, the subcom- 
mittee recessed, to reconvene at 2 p.m., the same day.)^ 



1 The record of the afternoon session appears In part 2,, the legislative phase of the 
hearings. 



INDEX 



Individuals 

A Page 

Abbott, Bart 1126 

Aidit, B. N 951 

Allen, Donna 1132 

Alley, Rewi 1049 

Allister, Anya 1126 

Altstein, Rochelle 1212 

Anton, Anatole Ben 912, 

990, 1036, 1072, 1161, 1163-1164 (statement), 1167, 1168, 1232 
Armand, Lisa (See Warren, Sue) 

Arnoni, M. S . 1132, 1154, 1219, 1227 

Aronowitz, Stanley 1219, 1227 

Arthur 1190 

Axelrod, Beverly 913, 922, 923, 947, 1027, 1029-1031, 1035, 1066, 1069 

B 

Batista, Zaldivar y 980 

Battaglia, Walter L 1120, 1126 

Baxandall, Lee 1227 

Bayer, Richard M 1212 

Bazelon (David L.) 921 

Beach, William L 1120 

Beardon, R. Nelson 1212 

Ben-David, Joe 1058 

Berke, Joseph 1227 

Berrigan, Ted 1226 

Binh Thanh 1049 

Black, Edith 934 

Blake, Ricky 1212 

Blume, Harvev 934 

Blutter, Paul S 1212 

Boslet, Pamela E 1212 

Brache, Ruben 1154 

Branco, Humberto Castello (See Castello Branco, Humberto). 

Brand, Mona 1049 

Broucharde, Jacqui 1058 

Brown, Edmund G. (Pat) 1091 

Brown, Mike 936 

Browne, Robert 1132 

Bruno, Henry A 1 142 

Buchanan, Charles 934 

Buhle, Paul 1212 

Bui Due Ai 1051 

Bui Van Anh 1154 

Burchett, Wilfred 1050-1052 

Burdick, Professor 1154 

Butler, Betty 1212 

C 

Cahill, Thomas 1153 

Camejo, Peter (Pete) 934,935,1124 

Campbell, Edward 934 

Carmichael, Stokely 1149, 1150 

Castello Branco, Humberto -i 1003 

i 



ii INDEX 

Page 

Castro (Fidel) 963, 1044 

Caudwell, Christopher 1225 

Cerini, Joe ^_ 1212 

Cerve, John 1212 

Chaitkin, Anton 1212 

Chaitkin, Janice 1212 

Cherkoss, Steven (Steve) 913-916, 

922, 990, 1038, 1073, 1094, 1097, 1106-1108, 1126, 1135, 
1182, 1196, 1199, 1202-1211 (testimony), 1216, 1231, 1232 

Chesneaux, Jean 1 054 

Coakley, J. Frank 1074, 1091, 1115 

Cohelan, Jeffrey 1111 

Cohen, Gerald 1212 

Cohen, Pete , 1126 

Colin, Nancy 1220, 1227 

Conrad, Eva 1212 

Corn, Nanya 1 126 

Cronkite, Hal 1212 

D 

Dang Tran Con 1050 

Delacour, Mike 1 126 

de Laurot, Yves (See Laurot, Yves de). 

Dellinger, Dave 1132, 1135, 1149, 1154 

Derman, Francine 1212 

Deutscher, Isaac 1154 

Devillers, Philippe 1054 

Diamond, Dick 105 1 

Dillon, Phillis 1212 

Dillon, Robert 1212 

Doan Thi Diem _ 1050 

Donner, Frank J .- 912 , 923 , 1030, 1031 , 1036 , 1066 , 1069 

Do Vang Lu 1051 

Duncan, Don 1150 

Dunn, Jane A 1212 

Dupont, Emmett L 1212 

Dworkin, Marilyn 1212 

E 

Eisenberg, Joanna S _. 1058 

Eisenhower, Dwight D 994,1015 

Emmerick, Jerry ^ 1126 

Engels, Friedrich (Frederick) 1223 

Epton, Bill (William) 933 , 952 

Estrin, Dianne 1 186 

Ewart, George Hamilton Jr 913-916,922,924, 1038, 

1069, 1074, 1193-1202 (testimony), 1206, 1210, 1216, 1231, 1232 

F 

Faber, Robertoh 1212 

Falik, Michele Ann 1212 

Fall, Bernard 1 008 , 1 056 

Fanon, Frantz 1 223 

Feder, Ira 934 

Ferdinand, Sandra 1212 

Ferlinghetti, Lawrence 1132 

Forer, Joseph 913, 1030, 1036, 1064, 1066 

Forkosch, Morris 1227 

Forrest, Mike 1 23 1 

Fox, Len 1050 

Fox, Stephen (Steve) 1012, 1186, 1189, 1196, 1210 

Frasier, J. A., Ill 943 

Frishberg, Aaron 1212 

Frishberg, Manny 1212 



INDEX iii 

G Page 

Gallagher (Buell G.) 1000 

Genovese, Eugene 1226 

Gershowitz, Paul 1227 

Gilligan, Thomas R 964 

Ginsberg, Allen 1132, 1226 

Glass, Martin 1212, 1220, 1227 

Goldberg, Ellen 934 

Gollobin, Ira 913, 924, 925, 965, 1018, 1038, 1064, 1066, 1069 

Goodman, Paul . 1132 

Goodridge, Barbara 1212 

Gordon, Jeffrey (Jeff) 912-915, 936, 941, 965-1016 (testimony), 1070 

Graham, Marc 934 

Greenbferg, Bernard 1212 

Greene, Felix 1154 

Greenstein, Robert 1212 

Gross, Samuel H 1212 

Groundwater, J. T 1115,1118 

Group, David 1212 

Gruening, Ernest 1154 

Gruyell, Paul 1212 

Guindon, Dick 1212, 1222, 1227 

Guevara, Che 1044 

Gutman, Jeremiah S 925, 957, 958, 1027-1032, 1036, 1038, 1066, 1069 

H 

Hai Thu 1049 

Hallinan, Vincent 1124 

Hamer, Fanny Lou 1132 

Hamilton, Steven Charles (Steve) 913-915,922,1038,1072, 

1178-1193 (testimony), 1186, 1196, 1206, 1210, 1216, 1231, 1232 

Hecht, Lawrence 991 , 1010 

Herbstman, Harold 1221 , 1227 

Hesselbart, Lynn 1212 

Hester, Hugh 1 132 

Heymsfeld, Jeremy 1008 

Hicks, Calvin 1043 , 1044 , 1221 , 1227 

Hirsch, Morris W 1104,1120,1153,1154 

Hirsch, Roland _ 1058 

Hirschfield, Robert 1058 

Hitler, Adolf 1 138 , 1205 

Hittle, James D 1177 

Hoa Mai 1050 

Ho Chi Minh 994, 1015, 1044, 1047, 1050, 1053, 1057, 1224 

Hoegland, Susan 1212 

HoUis, Robert A 1058 

Horowitz, Gus 934 

Hortenstine, Wendy 1212 

Howard, Helen 1212 

Huu Mai 1050 

Huu Thai 1050 

I 

Inman, Will 1212, 1221, 1227 

Ireland, Douglas 934 

Irons, Peter 934 

Ivory, Paul E 1078, 1104, 1115, 1153 

J 

Jacobs, Paul 1 132 

Jaffe, Jane 1058 

James, Vera 1212 

Jerome, Fred 936, 952 

Jeter, Howard 1126 

Jewel, Sue 1000 

Johnson, Charles 1221, 1227 

Johnson, James 1 149-1 15 1 

Johnson, Lyndon B 984, 1007, 1057, 1058, 1123, 1124, 1152, 1153, 1206 

Josey, Alex 1056 

67-852 O— &6^pt. 1 22 



iV INDEX 

K Page 

Kahn, Herman 1226 

Kaplan, Stefanie 1221, 1227 

Kaymen, Sandy 1058 

Keating, Edward 1154 

Kelbert, Marie 1212 

Keleher, Brian • 1008 

Kennedy, Robert F 1158, 1165 

Kessler, Emily 1212 

Kheel, Howard 1212 

Khrushchev, Nikita S 951 

Kidwell, Roy G 1212 

Kieurbe, David 1212 

King, Felix Jr 1214 

Kinoy, Arthur 1026-1028, 1030-1038, 1064-1066, 1069, 107 1 

Kissling, Frances 937 

Knowles, George 1212 

Knowles, Joseph 934 

Koch, Christopher 1226 

Koestler, Arthur 960 

Krassner, Paul 1132, 1212, 1222, 1228 

Krebs, Allen M 912, 

926, 955-957, 959, 1026, 1030, 1032-1034, 1038, 1039, 1042, 
1045, 1046, 1067, 1068 (statement), 1070, 1160, 1211, 1222, 1228 

Krebs, Sharon L. (Mrs. Allen Krebs) 1212, 1222, 1228 

Kruger, George 1222, 1228 

Kunstler, William M__ 913, 926, 955-958, 1026-1028, 1030, 1032-1035, 1066, 1069 

Kupferberg, Tuli 1228 

Kusic, Marta 1212 

L 
Lamb, Helen {See Lamont, Helen Lamb). 

Lamont, Helen Lamb (Mrs. Corlis Lamont) 933 

LaRon, Elaine 1212 

Laub, Levi-_-- 933-936,955,964, 1212, 1222, 1228 

Laughlin, Larry 1081, 1115, 1121 \ 1126 

Laurot, Yves de 1220, 1227 

Le Duan 1050, 1224 

LeMay, Curtis 1056 

Lemon, Richard (see aiso Lenon, Richard) 1175 

Lenin, V. I 930 

Lenon, Richard (see also Lemon, Richard) 1175 

Leonhard, Wolfgang 960 

Lessing, Doris 1223 

Leto, Roseanne 1212 

Le Van Chat 1051 

Lieber, Carolyn W 1212 

Lif ton, Robert J 1048 

Liggio, Leonard 1062, 1222, 1223, 1228 

Lin Piao 1048 

Lippit, Victor 934 

Long, C 1212 

Long, Constance 1223, 1228 

Long, G 1212 

Long, Gerald 1223, 1228 

Luce, Phillip Abbott.. 920, 926-965 (testimony), 973, 979, 995, 1070, 1195, 1215 

Lui Shao-chi 1050 

Lynch, Lincoln 1 150 

Lynch, Thomas C 1105 

Lynd, Staughton 1132, 1149, 1154 

Lynn, Conrad 933, 1212, 1223, 1228 

Lynn, Donald 1 109 

Lynn, Robert, Jr 1212 



' Appears as Loughlin. 



INDEX V 

M Pag© 

Machover, Bob 1223, 1228 

Maclean, Shian 1212 

Madigan, Frank 1092 

Mage, Shane 1228 

Maher, Albert 936 

Mai Hang Quan 1051 

Mailer, Norman 1 154 

Maisel, Robin 934 

Malcolm X 1002 

Manderfeld, Rick 936 

Mao Tse-tung 1008, 1221 

Marcus, L 1224, 1228 

Marcus, Lyn 1212 

Marvin, Professor 1154 

:\Iarx, Karl 1044, 1223 

Mazel, Marj orie 934 

McCombs, Philip Algie 1025-1063 (testimony), 1070, 1212 

McDermott, John 1228 

McDonald, Joe 1132 

McGirt, W. A. Jr 1212 

McKissick, Floyd B 1149, 1151 

McNamara, Robert S 1015 

Mc Rao, Stuart Allan 912, 1036, 1072, 1164-1176 (testimony), 1232 i 

Meese, Edwin III __ 944, 1074-1085 (testimony), 1088-1159 (testimony), 1214 

Meisenbach, Steve 1149 

MeUen, James 1228 

Milligan, Marilyn 1126 

Mills, Kenneth I. (Ken) 1175 

Montauk, Paul 1120 

Montgomery, Ed 922, 1066 

Mora, Dennis 1 149-1 151 

Morse, Wayne 934, 939 

Mulligan, Kathryn 1212 

Mussman, Toby 1212 

Muste, A. J 1132, 1149, 1151 

Myerson, Mike 1 132 

Myles, Ronald 1212 

N 

Nadel, Stanley.. 912, 1010, 1013, 1026, 1036, 1038, 1071, 1160-1163 (statement) 

Nam Cao 1 049 

Nelson, Truman 1212, 1229 

Newman, Steve 999 

Nguyen Cao Ky 1003, 1138 

Nguyen Cong Hoan 1049, 1050 

Nguyen Hong 1 049 

Nguyen Kanh Toan 1050 

N guyen Nghe 1 049 

Nguyen Ngoc 1051 

Nguyen Trinh 1050 

Nguyen Van Huyen 1050 

Nguyen Van Troi, Mrs 1049 

Nguyen Vinh Thi 1051 

Nguyen Xuan Tram 1050 

Nixon, Richard 1 057 

Nixon, Russ 933 

O 

Obinosky 1 000 

O'Brien, James P 1212, 1224, 1229 

O'Hamlin, Mike 1126 

Okada, Kazu 1058 

Oldt, Janet 934 

Oritz, Benjamin 933 



1 Appears as Stewart. 



vi INDEX 

P Page 

Parris, Bob 1 154 

Pemberton, John J., Jr 920, 1031, 1035, 1064-1067, 1069, 1215 

Peyton, Joann 1 126 

Pham Dong 1050 

Pham Van Chuong 1048 

Pham Van Dong 1050, 1051 

Phelps, John 1058 

Pike, Otis G 942 

Pincus, Mike 1 175 

Phtt, Roberta 1212 

Polin, Charlotte 1044, 1047, 1048, 1053, 1054, 1062, 1224, 1229 

Pollard, Suzanne 1121, 1126 

Pomeroy, William 1223 

Pope Paul VI 1156 

Power, Vikki 1212 

Prensky, Catherine 934 

Prensky, Paul 1058 

Pugh, Janet 1 126 

Q 

Quang Loi i050, 1051 

R 

Raboy, David 934 

Ragozin, Leonard (Len) 1212, 1225, 1229 

Raskin, Marcus 1 132 

Read, Jon 1126 

Reimann, Dick 1000 

Rhoads, Richard Mark (Rick) 912-915, 

934, 936, 941, 942, 1018-1025 (testimony) 

Rivers, Mendel 943, 1057 

Robinson, Mike 1225, 1229 

Roger, Sidney 1124 

Rohr, Robert 1212 

Rosen, Jake 952 

Rosen, Milton 927, 932, 935, 952 

Rosenberg, Penny 1212 

Rothfeder, Larry 1212 

Roven, Jeffrey 934 

Rubenstein, Leonard 1212 

Rubenstein, Susan 1212 

Rubin, Jerry Clyde 913, 914, 922, 1035, 1073, 1078-1081, 1083, 

1094, 1096, 1104-1106, 1115,^ 1122, 1126, 1152-1154, 1232 

Russell, Bertrand 1051, 1154, 1229 

Russell, Richard 1057 

S 

Safier, Fred 1175 

Salmon, Lorraine - 1050 

Salmon, Malcolm 1049 

Samas, Ann 1124 

Samas, David 1 149-1 151 

Sanders, Ed 1229 

Sanger, Gail 934 

Scalapino, Robert 1104. 1154 

Scheer, Mortimer 927, 952 

Scheer, Robert 1052, 1124, 1132, 1154, 1232 

Schleif er, Marc 936, 954 

Schmitz, George W 1190 

Schumann, Peter 1225, 1229 

Schurmann, Franz 1 132 

Schwartz, Margaret W 1012-1014 

Scott, Bill . 933 

Sekler, Joan 934 

Seltz, John 1 126 



Appears as Gerry. 



INDEX vii 

Page 

Shaf arman, Daniel 1212 

Shakovitzky, Hilla 1212 

Shapiro, Alan 1058 

Shapiro, Allan A 1212 

Shaughnessy, Jon 1212 

Shaw, John D 1114 

Sheinbaum, Stanley 1132,i 1152 

Sherman, Susan 1212, 1225, 1229 

Slotoroff, Marvin 1212 

Smale, Stephen (Steve) 922, 

1078, 1080, 1081, 1083, 1084, 1088, 1094, 1104, 1107, 1115, 1121, 

1122, 1126, 1152, 1154, 1232 2 

Smith, Fred Burton 1011 

Smith, John Windrim Jr. (Windy) 913, 

1036, 1073, 1094-1096, 1098, 1099, 1106, 1107, 1126, 1232 
Smith, Windy (See Smith, John Windrim, Jr.) 

Smitha, Frank 1126 

Song Ban 1051 

Song Ky :.- 1050 

Spellman, A. B 1229 

Spock, Benjamin 1154 

Spoelstra, Mark 1132 

Stahl, Mark 934, 1135 

Stanley, Edward 1212 

Stanton, Bill 1132 

Stapleton, Sid 1126 

Steinbrecker, Marcia 1212 

Steinkeller, Marion 1 126 

Stennis, John 1007, 1057 

Stetler, Russell, Jr. (Russ) 934-936, 988, 989, 1008, 1051, 1062, 1229 

Stoehr, Maureen 1212 

Stone, Barton 1 126 

Storace, Armand 1058 

Storace, Trudith 1058 

Straus, Austin 1058 

Strong, Anna Louise 942, 948, 949, 1049 

Stupp, Allan 1212 

Sugar, Phil 1126 

Switzer, Gordon 1212 

T 

Tamari, Salim E 1 1212 

Taus, Roger 936, 1229 

Teague, Olin E •_ 1211 

Teague, Walter Dorwin, III 912,926, 1026, 

1029, 1032-1034, 1039-1043, 1047, 1052, 1062, 1070, 1071, 1160 

Therway, William J 1212 

Timins, Martin 1212 

To Hoai 1049, 1051 

Torregian, Sotere 1212, 1226, 1229 

Tran Dan Tien 1949 

Tran Do 1051 

Travis, Paul 1212 

Treuhaft, Robert E 1078 

Trom XuanPho 1059 

Troung Chinh 1049, 1050 

Truong Chinh 1224 

Tshombe, Moise 1003 

Tuoky, Maureen 1212 

V 

Van Ngoc 1049 

Vo Nguyen Giap 1049, 1051, 1224 

Vo Nham Tri 1049 

Vuyandovich, Basil D 1212 



' Appears as Sheinbuam. 
2 Appears as Steven. 



viii INDEX 

W Page 

Walker, R. W 1118 

Warden, Judith 936 

Warren, Sue (alias Lisa Armand) 951 

Weinberg, Jack 1126 

Weinstein, James 1212, 1226, 1229 

Weinstein, Judy 1212 

Weissman, Steve 1126 

Weller, A. Doulgas, III 1212 

West, Frederick 1212 

White, Phil 1126 

Whiteman, Allan 1212 

Windmiller, Marshall 11 32 

Woloz, Jerry 1212 

Z 

Zach, Annalesia 1126 

Zerzan, John 1175 

Organizations 



Adelphi University (Garden City, N.Y.) 959, 1228 

American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) 1035, 1067, 1069, 1071, 1215 

American Legion, Post No. 15 1058 

American Liberation League 1047, 1228, 1229 

American Red Cross 1008, 1011, 1165, 1170 

Anti-Draft Committee. (See entry vinder Vietnam Day Committee.) 
Anti-War Bail Fund. {See entry under Council for Justice.) 

Artist Research Group 1041, 1043 

Assembly of Unrepresented People, August 6-9, 1965, Washington, DC 1025, 

1039, 1045 
August 6-9th Committee for the International Days of Protest 1151 

B 

Bay Area Peace Coordinating Committee 1125 

Berkeley Friends of SNCC 1093,1125 

Berkeley VDC. {See entry under Vietnam Day Committee.) 

Bread and Puppet Theatre 1229 

British Red Cross 1008 

Brooklyn College, (Brooklyn, N.Y.) 969,994,1015 

Brooklyn Law School 1227 

Bullets in the Bay Committee 1125 



CERGE. {See Committee to Defend Resistance to Ghetto Life.) 
California, State of 

County of Alameda: 

Grand July— Jan. 27, 1965 1140-1141 

Central Committee for Conscientious Objectors 1133 

Ceskoslovenska Obchodni Banka, Prague, Czechoslovakia. 1010, 1185, 1188-1192 

Cinema Engage 1227 

Citizens for Kennedy-Fulbright (Berkeley) 1125 

City College of the City of New York (CCNY) 941,942,1000,1021 

College of San Mateo Liberal Caucus 1125 

Columbia University (New York City) 998,1005 

Committee for Independent Political Action 1125 

Committee for Medical Aid for Vietnam. (See Medical Aid Committee for 

Vietnam (Berkeley).) 
Committee for Medical Aid to \'ictims of U.S. Bombing. (See Medical Aid 
Committee (Stanford).) 

Committee for Nonviolent Action 1076 

Committee to Aid the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam. (See 
U.S. Committee to Aid the National Liberation Front of South Viet- 
nam.) 



INDEX ix 

Page 

Committee to Aid the Vietnamese 1010, 1013 

Committee to Defend Resistance to Ghetto Life (CERGE) 931 

Communist Party Indonesia (PKI) 951 

Communist Party of the United States of America.. _ 927, 1040, 1093, 1125, 1233 

18th National Convention, June 22-26, 1966, N. Y.C 1233 

Communist Party, Soviet Union 
ConffrGssGs * 

23d Congress, March 29- April 8, 1966, Moscow 1233 

Community Cultural Center (Brooklyn, N. Y.) 1227 

Community for New Politics 1093, 1125 

Concerned Citizens of Palo Alto 1125 

Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) 1150, 1151 

. Berkeley CORE 1108 

Campus CORE 1108 

Richmond CORE 1108 

Contra Costa Citizens Against the War in Vietnam 1125 

Council For Justice (CFJ) 1137 

Anti-war Bail Fund 1137 

D 

Drew University (Madison, N.J.) 1228 

DuBois Clubs (See W.E.B. DuBois Clubs of America) 

E 
Educational Alliance 1227 

Eureka-Noe Valley Concerned Citizens 1125 



FUNY (See Free University of New York) 

Fifth Avenue Vietnam Peace Parade Committee (also known as Fifth 

Avenue Committee; Fifth Avenue Peace Parade Committee). 1124, 1150, 1151 

Fort Hood Three Defense Committee '. 1103, 1150, 1151 

Free School of New York (See Free University of New York) 

Free Speech Movement 1077, 1078, 1141, 1146, 1147 

Free Student Union 1108 

Free University of New York (FUNY) (New York City)... 953-955, 959, 1000, 
1005, 1041, 1043-1048, 1053, 1054, 1062, 1211, 1212, 1217-1230 
Friends of the Vietnam Day Committee (see also Vietnam Day Commit- 
tee) 1119, 1120 

G 

Godzilla Committee to End the War in Vietnam Before it Ends Everything 

Else 1125 

Gondor Committee 1125 

Grand Jury of Alameda County, Calif. (See California, State of, County 
of Alameda, Grand Jury, Jan. 27, 1965.) 

H 

Haight Ashbury Vietnam Committee 1125 

Harlem Defense Council 931, 964 

Harvard University (Cambridge^ Mass.) 1 000 

Haverford College (Haverford, Pa.) 934, 935, 988, 989, 1008 

High School Students Against the War in Vietnam (San Francisco) 1125 

Howard University (Washington, D.C.) 1008 

Hsinhua. (See New China News Agency.) 

I 

Independent Action Committee 1227 

Independent Socialist Club 1108, 1125 

Independent Truth Center 1125 

International Committee of the Red Cross (see also International Red 

Cross) 1011,1170,1171,1185,1187 

International Days of Protest (Oct. 15-16, 1965) 1083, 1094, 1131, 1132 

International Red Cross (see also International Committee of the Red 

Cross) 987, 999, 1008, 1156, 1165, 1169, 1172, 1183 



X INDEX 

Page 

International Workers of the World (I WW) 1040 

Iranian Students Association 1125 

K 
KEWB (Radio Station— California) 1216, 1231 

L 

Liberation Red Cross 1059, 1185, 1188, 1189-1192 

Long Island University (Brooklyn, N.Y.) 1228 

M 

May 2d Movement (or Committee) 931-942, 

950-953, 955, 959-962, 975, 976, 979-985, 987-991, 995, 996, 
998-1010, 1022, 1040, 1047, 1097, 1107, 1167, 1172, 1181, 1196, 
1209. 

City College of New York (CCN Y chapter) 1000 

Columbia University chapter 1000 

Harvard University chapter 1000 

Howard University chapter 1008 

Michigan State University chapter 1008 

National Executive Committee 975, 979, 983 

Progressive Labor Club 936, 952 

San Francisco State chapter 1000 

Stanford University chapter 999, 1000, 1008 

Study groups 1001, 1006 

University of California chapter 1181 

Medical Aid Committee (Stanford) (also known as Stanford Committee 
for Medical Aid to Vietnam; Medical Aid for the Victims of U.S. Bombing 
in Vietnam; Committee for Medical Aid to Victims of U.S. Bombing.) 

(see also Medical Aid Committee for Vietnam (Berkeley) .) 989, 

990, 999, 1008, 1014, 1166-1171, 1209 
Medical Aid Committee for Vietnam (Berkeley), (also known as Medical 
Aid Committee, Medical Aid for Vietnam Committee.) (<See also Medical 

Aid Committee.) 990, 1010, 1012, 1107, 

1156-1158, 1170, 1172, 1181, 1183-1188, 1196, 1209, 1210, 1231 
Medical Aid for the Victims of U.S. Aggression in Vietnam. (See Medical 

Aid Committee (Stanford).) 
Medical Aid for the Victims of U.S. Bombing in Vietnam Committee. {See 

Medical Aid Committee (Stanford).) 
Medical Aid for Vietnam Committee. (See Medical Aid Committee for 

Vietnam (Berkeley).) 
Merritt College (Oakland, Calif.) (Formerly Oakland City College.). 1194, 1195 

Moslem Student Association 1125 

Muhlenberg College (AUentown, Pa.) 1008 

N 

National Committee for a Sane Nuclear PoHcy (SANE) 1009 

National Coordinating Committee to End the War in Vietnam {see also 

Washington Committee to End the War in Vietnam) 1009 

National Front of Liberation of South Vietnam (NFLSV) (also known 

as Viet Cong; National Liberation Front of Vietnam); South Vietnam 

National Front for Liberation 937, 

948, 949, 984-988, 990-992, 1010, 1012-1014, 1041, 1044, 1048, 
1059, 1139, 1156, 1165, 1169, 1195. 
National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (NLF) {See National Front 

of Liberation of South Vietnam (NFLSV). 
National Liberation Front of South Vietnam Red Cross {See Liberation 

Red Cross). 

Newark Community Union Project 1228 

New China News Agency (Hsinhua) 950 

North Beach Vietnam Committee 1125 

North Vietnamese Red Cross {See Red Cross of North Vietnam). 

Northern California Guardian Committees 1125 



INDEX xi 

O Page 

Oakland Army Terminal 1076, 

1083-1085, 1090-1092, 1095, 1096, 1103, 1105, 1127-1132, 1135 
Oakland City College (Oakland, Calif.) (See Merritt College) . 

P 

Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn 1128 

Potrero Hill Peace Committee 1125 

Progressive Labor Movement (or Party) ^ 926- 

932, 935-937, 941-943, 946, 949-954, 960-964, 970, 973-977, 
979, 988, 990, 995, 996, 1008, 1022-1024, 1040, 1047, 1108, 1125, 
1181-1184, 1195, 1196, 1205, 1206, 1209, 1215, 1228, 1229, 
1231-1233. 

CCNY club 941,942 

University of California Club 1181 

R 

Red Cross. {See entries under International Committee of the Red Cross; 

International Red Cross; American Red Cross; Red Cross of North 

Vietnam; Liberation Red Cross; British Red Cross.) 

Red Cross of North Vietnam 1008, 1156, 1169 

Rutgers University (New Brunswick, N.J.) 1028 

S 

SANE. (See National Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy.) 
SNCC. (See Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee.) 

San Francisco Art Institute (San Francisco, Calif.) 1 195 

San Francisco Peace Center 1125 

San Francisco State College (Calif.) 1000,1154,1195 

San Francisco State VDC. {See entry under Vietnam Day Committee.) 
San Jose State College VDC. (See entry under Vietnam Day Committee.) 

Sante Fe Railroad Co 1080-1082,1115-1118 

SLATE 1108 

Socialist Workers Party 1 125 , 1233 

Soldiers Defense Fund 1151 

Spartacist Movement 1040 , 1 125 

Stanford Committee for Medical Aid to Vietnam. (See Medical Aid Com- 
mittee (Stanford).) 

Stanford Committee for Peace in Vietnam 1108, 1125 

Stanford University 987- 

990,999, 1000, 1008, 1014, 1165, 1166, 1169-1176, 1209, 1232 
Stanford Young Socialist Alliance. (See entry under Young Socialist Al- 
liance.) 

Student Committee for Travel to Cuba 931,932,935,960,963,964,1005 

Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) (see also Berkeley 

Friends of SNCC) 961,1149,1150,1154 

Campus SNCC 1 108 

Student Peace Union (SPU) 934 

Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) 934, 

961,1007,1008,1108,1123,1125,1135,1159,1228 

T 
Tanzania, ' ' Revolutionary Government of" 1225,1229 

U 

Union Bank of Switzerland, Geneva Switzerland 1185,1187,1190 

United Nations 

Cuban Mission 937, 963 

U.S. Committee to Aid the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam 

(CANLF) (CANLF-SV) 1040, 1046, 1047, 1049-1052, 1059-1063, 1229 



I At its national convention held in New York City, April 15-18, 1965, the Progressive Labor Movement 
changed its name to Progressive Labor Party. 



xii INDEX 

U.S. Government Page 

Central Intelligence Agency 113'5 

House of Representatives 

Armed Services Committee 942, 943 

Supreme Court 918 

Treasury, Department of 990-992, 1010, 1012-1014 

United World Federalists (student division) 1125 

United Youth for Peace (Berkeley) 1125 

University of California 923 

Berkeley campus 968, 

969, 990, 1075, 1076, 1083, 1091, 1102, 1104-1108, 1132, 1140-1148, 
1153, 1154, 1180, 1181, 1196, 1209, 1216, 1231, 1232. 

Los Angeles campus 1099 

University of Michigan (Ann Arbor, Mich.) 923, 1010, 0112 

V 

Veterans of Foreign Wars 1177 

Vets for Peace (Berkeley) 1125 

Viet Cong (See National Front of Liberation of South Vietnam.) 
Vietnam Day Committee (see also Friends of the Vietnam Day Committee). 944, 
945, 1075-1085, 1088-1108, 1110-1115, 1119-1123, 1127-1132, 
1135, 1137-1150, 1152-1154, 1214, 1231. 

Anti-Draft Committee 1097, 1135, 1232 

Berkeley VDC 1093, 1125 

Defendants Committee 1084, 1085, 1123, 1127 

Legal Committee 1128 

San Francisco State College VDC 1125 

San Jose State College VDC 1125 

Steering Committee 1089, 1094, 1104, 1106, 1126, 1232 

Strategic Research Committee on Organization (SRO) 1089, 

1094, 1127, 1129 

Vietnam, Democratic Republic of (DRV) 987, 

990-992, 1010, 1012-1014, 1044, 1048 
Vietnam, North (Government of) (See Vietnam, Democratic Republic of 

(DRV)). 
Villagers Opposed to the War in Vietnam (Albany) 1125 

W 

WBAI (radio station. New York City) 1229 

Washington Committee to End the War in Vietnam (see also National 

Coordinating Committee to End the War in Vietnam) 1009 

War Resisters League 1133 

W.E.B. DuBois Clubs of America 1040 

Berkeley, Calif 1108, 1232 

San Francisco, Calif 1108 

Wells Fargo Bank, San Francisco, Calif 1170, 1171, 1183-1189, 1191, 1192 

West Coast Regional Conference of the Committees Against the War in 

Vietnam, Nov. 21, 1965, Berkeley, Calif 1145 

West Oakland Project 1108 

Wheaton College 1 180 

Women for Peace (Berkeley) 1125 

Women's International League for Peace and Freedom (San Francisco) __ 1125 
Women's March Committee 1098, 1136 

Y 

Yale University (New Haven, Conn.) 931,932 

Yale Socialist Union 931, 932 

Conference on "Socialism in America" March 14, 1964 931, 

932, 934, 935 

Yeshiva University 1227 

Young Socialist Alliance 935, 1108, 1125, 1172 

Stanford YSA 1172-1176 

Youth Against War and Fascism 1040, 1047 



INDEX xiii 

Publications 

A Page 

Arrow in the Blue (Koestler) 960 

Attention All Military Personnel (leaflet) 1089, 1098, 1099, 1138 

B 
Bring the Troops Home Now Newsletter 1125 

C 

Chalk Circle 1227 

Challenge 936,951,953, 1040 

Child of the Revolution (Leonhard) 960 

F 
Fortune 969 

Free Student 952, 953, 978, 998, 1005, 1022, 1040, 1229 

H 
"Heroic Vietnam, 1963" (Vietcong film) 937 

I 

Inside Story of Guerilla War (Burchett) 1051 

Internationalist, the 1228 

K 
Kauri (poetry-newsletter) 1227 

L 
Liberation USA 1228 

M 

Marxist-Leninist Quarterly 953 

Minority of One 1227 

Monthly Review 1052 

N 

National Review 1025 , 1043 

Newsweek 1056 

New York Times 1056 

New York World-Telegram and Sun 1008 

P 
Progressive Labor (magazine) 951, 953 

R 

Ramparts 1056 

Realist 1227,1228 

S 

Spark 953 

Spartacist 1125 

Studies on the Left 1227,1229 

T 

"The Committee" 1132 

Thought Reform and the Psychology of Totalism (Lifton) 1048 

Time 969 

U 
U.S. News& World Report 1057,1058 



xiv INDEX 

V 

Page 

Vietnam Courier (Hanoi, North Vietnam) 948 , 949 , 994 

Vietnam Day Committee News 1084 

Vict- Report 1228 

W 
Weapon 1229 

O 



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