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Full text of "Hearings regarding Hanns Eisler. Hearings"

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/HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 



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,1 HEARINGS 



BEFORE THE 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMEEICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

EIGHTIETH CONGRESS 

FIRST SESSION 



Public Law 601 

(Section 121, Subsection Q (2)) 



SEPTEMBER 24, 25, AND 26, 1947 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 




UNITED STATES 
UOVEKNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
WmTu WASHINGTON : 1947 



U. S. SUPERim'ENDENT OF DOCUMENTS 

NOV 6 1947 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

J. PARNELL THOMAS, New Jersey, Chairman 

KARL E. MUNDT, South Dakota JOHN S. WOOD, Georgia 

JOHN MCDOWELL, Pennsylvania JOHN E. RANKIN, Mississippi 

RICHARD M. NIXON, California J. HARDIN PETERSON, Florida 

RICHARD B. VAIL, Illinois HERBERT C. BONNER, North Carolina 

Robert E. Stripling, Chief Investigator 
Benjamin Mandel, Director of Research 

II 



CONTENTS 



September 24, 1947: 

Testimony of — *^*^* 

Hanns Eisler 1 

Joseph Savoretti 50 

Sumner WeUes 62 

Hanns Eisler (resumed) 54 

September 25, 1947: 
Testimony of — 

Joseph Savoretti (accompanied bv Clarence R. Porter) 75 

Donald T. Appell 78 

George S. Messersmith 91 

September 26, 1947: 
Testimony of — 

P. Cr Button 151 

Joseph Savoretti (resumed) 168 

Clarence R . Porter (resumed) 180 

Appendix: 

Exhibits 1-122 189 

Translation of Die Massnahme 193 

III 



HEARINGS EEdAEDING HANNS EISLER 



wednesday, september 24, 1947 

House of Representatives, 
C031MITTEE ON Un-American Activities, 

Washington^ D. G. 

The committee met at 10 : 30 a. m., Hon. J. Parnell Thomas (chair- 
man) JO residing. 

The Chairman. The committee will come to order. 

Will the record show that a subcommittee is sitting, consisting of 
Mr. ^McDowell, Mr. Wood, ^Iv. Rankin, and Mr. Thomas. 

Start' members present are Mr. Robert E. Stripling, chief investiga- 
tor, and Mr. Louis J. Russell and Mr. Donald T. Appell, investigators. 

Mr. Stripling, will you ascertain as to whether all the witnesses are 
here, please ? 

Mr. Stripling. Yes, ]\Ir. Chairman. 

Is Mr. Sumner Welles here ? 

(Mr. Welles rises.) 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Messersmith ? 

(Mr. Messersmith rises.) 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Savoretti? 

(Mr. Savoretti rises.) 

]\Ir. Stripling. Mr. Porter ? 

(Mr. Porter rises.) 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Hutton ? 

(No response.) 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. P. C. Hutton? 

(No response.) 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Eisler ? 

Mr. Eisler. Yes. 

Mr. Stripling. ]\Ir. Chairman, all witnesses appear to be here except 
Mr. Hutton. I suppose that he will be here shortly. He is in town. 

I request that all witnesses be asked to remain and hear the testimony 
of the other witnesses as they will be questioned during the process of 
the liearing. 

The Chairman. The Chair would like to say to the witnesses : Will 
you please stay here during the testimony of all witnesses, because 
matters will come up at different times that it is important you hear? 

Mr. Stripling, will you bring the first witness ? 

Mr. Stripling. The first witness is Hanns Eisler. Mr. Eisler. 

The Chairman. Mr. Eisler, will you stand, please, raise your right 
hand, and be sworn ? 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give is 
the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Eisler. I do. 

The Chairman. Sit down. 

1 



2 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

TESTIMONY OF HANNS EISLER 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Eisler, are you accompanied by counsel? 

Mr. Eisler. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Stripling. You desire counsel? 

Mr. Eisler. I desire counsel. 

Mr. Stripling. Would you identify your counsel ? 

Mr. Eisler. Yes. Mr. Greenberg and Mr. Forer. 

Mr. Stripling. Will you give your full name for the record, please, 
and your address ? 

Mr. Greenberg. Herman A. Greenberg — G-r-e-e-n-b-e-r-g — and 
Joseph Forer — F-o-r-e-r — both of 1105 K Street NW., Washington. 

Mr. Stripling. You are Mr. Forer ? 

Mr. Forer. That is right. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Greenberg? 

Mr. Greenberg. That is right, Mr. Stripling. 

Mr. Chairman 

The Chairman. Just a minute. 

Mr. Greenberg. I beg your pardon, sir. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Eisler. 

Mr. Eisler. Yes. 

Mr. Stripling. Do you have any requests which you would like to 
make to the committee ? 

Mr. Eisler. Yes. I would desire that my counsel make it. 

Mr. Stripltn(;. You desire to make them through counsel? 

Mr. Eisler. Yes. 

Mr. Rankin. Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Just a minute, Mr. Rankin. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Chairman, yesterday when Mr. Eisler appeared 
in response to a subpena which had been served upon him on July 12, 
I believe it was, he made certain requests to the subcommittee, which 
received it. He asks now that his counsel be permitted to make these 
requests to the committee. 

The Chairman. Well, first of all, is there any objection on the part 
of any member of the committee that Mr. Eisler be permitted counsel ? 

Mr. Rankin. Mr. Chairman, I think the investigation should be 
conducted by the investigators, without outside interference. 

The Chair^ian. The investigation will be conducted by the investi- 
gators, and there will be no outside interference, I can assure you of 
that. 

Is there any objection that Mr. Eisler be permitted counsel? 

(No response.) 

The Chairman. Then, Mr. Eisler, you will be permitted counsel. 

Now, for the record, will you identify both of these counsel? You 
have identified one, but have not identified the other. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Greenberg gave the name. 

Mr. Eisler. Mr. Herman Greenberg and ^Ir. Forer. 

Mr. Stripling. Will you state your name, please ? 

Mr. Forer. Mr. Jose23h Forer. 

Mr. Stripling. Joseph Forer. 

Mr. Forer. F-o-r-e-r; that is right; 1105 K Street, Washington. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Eisler, you are here before the committee in 
response to a subpena served ui)on you on July 12 at your home — no; 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 3 

1 believe the siibpeiia was served at 5488 Kodeo Road, in Los Angeles; 
is that correct? 

Mr. EisLER. Yes. 

IVIr. Striplixcx. You ai)peared yesterday in response to that sub- 
pena ? 

Mr. EiSLER. Yes — the new subpena. 

Mr. Stripling. At which time j'ou were served with a new sub- 
pena ? 

Mr. EiSLER. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Striplixg. Calling for your appearance today at 10: ;50? 

Mr. EisLER. Yes. 

Mr. Striplixg. And you are liere in response to that subpena? 

Mv. EisLER. Yes. 

Mr. Chairman, may I ask permission for my counsel to make a 
remark ? 

Mr. Raxktx. Mr. Cliairman. on that I am going to object. If he 
wants to ask his counsel for advice, that is all right, but we don't want 
any counsel testifying who has not been sworn. 

The Chairmax^. Mr. Eisler, it has been the custom of this commit- 
tee to permit witnesses to have counsel, but the counsel can only advise 
the Avitness as to his constitutional rights. 

Mr. EisLER. Yes. 

The CiiAiRMAX'. And on no other question. Therefore, I want to 
say to the counsel that you will be permitted to stay there and advise 
the witness on his constitutional rights. You cannot, however, go 
beyond that. And if you do go beyond it, then the Chair will have to 
ask you to leave the witness table. 

Mr. Greex^ijerg. We understand that, sir. These are merely on pro- 
cedural points. And I would like the opportunity to repeat the re- 
quests that were made to the subcommittee yesterday. They are 
not 

The CiiAiRMAX'. ]Mr. Eisler will be given the opi^ortunity to make 
that request. 

]SIr. Greenberg. In other words, counsel is denied the privilege here 
of making the request? 

The Chairmax^. Counsel is not denied any privilege here. But the 
counsel can only advise the witness as to his constitutional rights. Be- 
yond that, the counsel can say nothing. 

Now, Mr. Eisler, if you have anything you want to say 

Mr. Greenberg. I take it, sir 

The Chairman". That is enough for you. 

Mr. Greenberg. Thank you. 

]\Ir. Eisler. I wish to repeat the requests made by my counsel yes- 
terday as to several procedural matters. 

First, I ask that my hearing be adjourned until the same date as 
the hearing of the other witnesses of the motion-picture industry. The 
committee has stated that it would adjourn the hearings for the indus- 
try because it was necessary to have a full committee. There is no 
reason to separate me from the rest of the industry. I should be 
given the same treatment and privileges which you will give to other 
witnesses you call from Hollywood. 

Second, I request the right for my counsel to cross-examine any wit- 
nesses who may testify about me. For a long time now this committee 



4 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

lias smeared me and done eveiything possible to prevent me from earn- 
ing a living. I think I am now entitled to the elementary protection of 
the cross-examirvation of witnesses. Shonld the committee deny me 
this basic privilege I reqnest permission to submit questions to the 
chairman to put to the witnesses. This privilege was recently granted 
to Mr.' Howard Hughes, and the late Mr. Wendell Willkie pro- 
pounded questions to the chairman of this committtee for interroga- 
tion of witnesses. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Chairman, on the first point which Mr. Eisler 
raises, I submit that this hearing is on an entirely different subject 
matter than the Hollywood hearing. This hearing has to do entirely 
with the activity of Mr. Eisler. 

As to the question of the cross-examination, it has never been the 
policy of this committee, and in very few cases any committee in the 
history of the Congress, to permit cross-examination. 

The Chairman. Anything more you care to say ? 

Mr. Stripling. Does the Chair wish to rule on those two points? 

The Chairman. Yes. It is the unanimous consent of the committee 
that the answer is "No" on both 1 and 2. 

Mr. Stripling. The third point, Mr. Chairman, was whether or not 
he can submit questions to the committee to be asked other witnesses, 
questions which would serve as a cross-examination? 

The Chairman. The answer is "No" on No. 3. 

Mr. Eisler. Then, Mr. Chairman, may I ask the permission to read 
a statement? 

The Chairman. Let me see your statement, please. 

Mr. Eisler. Will you be so kind. 

(Statement handed to the chairman.) 

The Chairman. Mr. Eisler, we have read this statement. The Chair 
is going to rule exactly the same in your case as it did in the case of 
your brother. We are taking this statement under advisement. 

Mr. Eisler. Pardon me? 

The Chairman. We are taking the statement under advisement. 
The statement will not be read at this time. 

Mr. Stripling, proceed with the questions. 

Mr. Eisler. May I ask you, Mr. Greenberg 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Forer 

Mr. Greenberg. Just a moment. 

Mr. Eisler. May I ask my counsel a question? 

Mr. Stripling. Yes. 

Mr. Eisler. Excuse me [conferring with counsel]. Can I do any- 
thing about the fact I have not the right to read my statement? 

(Counsel responds inaudibly.) 

Mr. Eisler. I object to not being allowed to read my statement, 
after all that I went through in the last year 

The Chairman. The objection is overruled. 

Go ahead and proceed with your questions, Mr. Stripling. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Eisler. will you please state your full name? 

Mr. Eisler. Johannes Eisler — J-o-h-a-n-n-e-s E-i-s-1-e-r. I call my- 
self Hanns — H-a-n-n-s — abbreviation of Johannes. 

Mr. Stripling. When and where were you born ? 

Mr. Eisler. 6 Julv; Leipzig, Germany. 

Mr. Stripling. What year? 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 5 

Mr. EiSLEK. 1898. 

Mr. STRiPr.iX(;. AVliat is your present address? 

Mr. EisLEii. My present address is 188 Malihu, ISIalibu, Pacific Pali- 
sades, 

Mr. Stripling. You are a citizen of what country at the present 
time? 

Mr. EiSLEH. I am in possession of first citizenship papers of the 
United States. 

Mr. Rankin. What is that answer, Mr. Chairman? I couldn't 
hear it. 

Mr. EiSLER. I possess first citizenship papers of the United States. I 
am not a citizen yet. 

^Ir. McDowell. Mr. Chairman, that doesn't answer the question. 

The Ciiair:man. I would like to sugjz^^st to the committee members 
that as far as possible we defer asking all questions until the chief in- 
vestigator has proceeded further with his question. 

]SIr. Stripling. Mr. Eisler, of what country were you a citizen be- 
fore you filed for citizenship papers of the United States? 

Mr. Eisler. Austria. 

Mr. Stripling. Austria? 

Mr. Eisler. Yes. 

Mr. Stripling. Do you have any relatives in the United States? 

Mr. Eisler. Yes. 

]Mr. Stripling. Will you name tliem for the committee? 

Mr. Eisler. Gerhart Eisler; Miss Ruth Fischer. 

Mr. Stripling. What is your occupation? 

Mr. Eisler. I am a composer. 

Mr. Stripling, INIusical composer? 

Mr. Eisler. Musical composer — may I add, of international repu- 
tation. 

Mr. Stripling. Of international reputation? 

Mr. Eisler. Yes. 

Mr. Stripling. In what institutions did you receive your musical 
education ? 

Mr. Eisler. In Vienna, at the academy. I am the pupil of the 
famous composer, Arnold Schoenberg, one of the greatest living mas- 
ters of modern music. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Chairman, the loud-speaker equipment doesn't 
seem to be working, and I am sure everybody is having a good bit of 
difficulty in hearing. Could I ask for a slight recess to see if it is 
possible to get the equipment working? 

The Chairman. All right : we will recess until the call of the Chair. 

(Thereupon, a short recess was taken.) 

The Chairman. All right; the meeting w'ill come to order. Mr, 
Stripling. 

Mr. Stripling. ]Mr. Chairman. I would like for the record to show 
that Mr, P. C. Hutton. of the State Department, has arrived and is 
in the hearing room. All witnesses are here. 

Mr. Eisler, when did you leave Austria? And will you talk into 
the microphone, please, and address the connnittee. 

Mr. Eisler, Yes. I left Austria, I think, in '24, and went to 
Berlin. 

Mr. Stripling. How long did von remain in Berlin? 



6 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

Mr. EiSDER. Till 1933. February, when I have to flee Germany, after 
Hitler made Reichstag fire. 

Mr. Stripling. You left Germany in '33 ? 

Mr. EiSLER. Yes. 

Mr. Stripling. And where did you go? 

Mr. EisLER. I went to Paris. 

Mr. Stripling. How long did you remain in Paris? 

Mr. EiSLER. I was there at least from March, I think, until July. 

Mr. Stripling. Of '33? 

Mr. EiSLER. Yes. 

Mr. Stripling. What other European countries have you resided in? 

Mr. EiSLER. I lived for quite a time in London. 

Mr. Stripling. During what period? 

Mr. EiSLER. I lived in London, February, I think — no; the fall of 
'34 until around February or March, so far as I remember — and went 
back to London — let me see — '36, February, and stayed the whole year 
in London. 

;Mr. Stripling. Were you ever in Denmark ? 

Mr. EiSLER. Sure. I was quite often in Copenhagen. I spent my 
summer on a small island — Funen — in a little fishing village, to com- 
pose there. 

Mr. Stripling. Were you ever in the Soviet Union, Mr. Eisler? 

]Mr. Eisler. Yes. I was also in the Soviet Union for short trips. 

Mr. Stripling. How many times have you been in the Soviet Union ? 

Mr. Eisler. The last time I remember was '35 ; I must have been 
there at least in '32, '31. 

Mr. Stripling. '31, '32, and '35? 

Mr. Eisler. Possibly I was there once more, but I really cannot 
remember, you know. 

Mr. Stripling. You remember three times? 

Mr. Eisler. Three times; yes. It could have been '29 or so; I can- 
not recall that. 

Mr. Stripling. Why did you go to the Soviet Union, Mr. Eisler? 

Mr. Eisler. I made moving pictures there. "Youth Takes the 
Floor" is the title of the moving picture. That made two trips neces- 
sary. 

Mr. Striplin(^t. What j^ears? 

Mr. Eisler. That was '31 and '32, or '33 ; '35 they had some concerts 
there, some lectures there. The state publishing house prints a sym- 
phony of mine. I also had talks with this publishing house. I stayed 
5 01' weeks, I would say. 

Mr. Stripling. Were you ever employed by the Soviet Union in 
any capacity? 

Mr. Eisler. No. I was. like many, many artists, a guest. 

Mr. Stripling. Did you ever receive any money from the Soviet 
Government ? 

Mr. Eisler. No; naturally, I got my fee from the publishing house, 
as every author gets from every publishing house in the world. 

Mr. Stripling. Did you ever receive any money from any individ- 
uals other than the publishing house you referred to? 

Mr. Eisi^r. No. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Eisler, when did you first come to the United 
States ? 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 7 

Mr. EisLER. I came first in the United States, to be exact, in '35, it 
must be April, the 2d of April, or the end of February, if I am not 
mistaken. 

Mr. Stripling. How long did you remain ? 

Mr. EisLER. I made a lecture and concert trip. It must be 21/^ or 
3 months. I was travelinof under the auspices of the Lord Morley 
conunittee. Lord Morley is a member of the House of Lords. He 
had a kind of committee to help the children of refugees which were 
living in great hardship, even in camps, in France. He asked several 
artists. The late Scholer — he is dead now — a famous German writer, 
was here, too. 

The CiiairjMax. I think you have answered the question. 

Mr. EisLER. Yes. 

Mr. Stripling. Now, Mr. Eisler, do you remember your arrivals and 
departures in the United States? Could you give them to the com- 
mittee ? 

Mr, EisLER. I do my best. I arrived, I think so, the end of Febru- 
ary or the beginning of April. 

Mr. Stripijng. I suggest this, Mr. Eisler 

]\Ir. Eisler. Yes. 

]\Ir. Stripling. Let me read your arrivals and departures. 

Mr. Eisler. It would be wonderful. 

ISIr. Stripling. And if they are incorrect according to your recol- 
lection, you tell me. 

Mr. Eisler. It is the best thing to do. 

]VIr. Stripling. According to the information before us, Mr. Chair- 
man, which came from the official files of the Government, Mr. Eisler 
was first admitted to the United States as a temporary visitor in Feb- 
ruary of 1935. He arrived on the steamship Berengaria and was ad- 
mitted for 3 months. 

Is that correct? 

Mr. Eisler. Con-ect, sir. 

Mr, Stripling. Next, he arrived in the United States on October 4, 
1935. on the steamship Lafayette, and was admitted as a visitor for 6 
months, 

Mr. Eisler, Correct, 

]\Ir. Stripling. Now, Mr. Eisler, you arrived in February of 1935 
on the Berengaria. The next arrival was on October 4, 1935. Where 
were you during the interim ? 

IVIr, Eisler. In Paris — no ; I guess I went on vacation to Denmark, 
if I remember. 

^Ir. Stripling. You weren't in Moscow, were you ? 

Mr. Eisler. Oh, yes ; I was at Moscow, too ; sure ; yes. 

Mr. Stripling. How long were you in Moscow ? 

Mr. Eisler. Five or six weeks. 

Mr. Stripling, Next, you arrived in the United States on January 
21, 1938, 

Mr, Eisler, Correct. 

Mr. Stripling. Admitted as a temporary visitor for a period of 6 
months. 

Mr, Eisler, Correct. 

Mr. Stripling. Do you recall what kind of passport or visa you 
submitted when you arrived in January 1938 ? 



8 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

Mr. EiSLER. I had an Austrian passport. 

Mr. Stripling. Did you have a visa ? 

Mr. EisLER. Yes; I had a visitor visa. 

Mr. Stripling. Issued by what consul ? 

Mr. EiSLER. I think the visitor visa was issued by the consul in 
Prague, Czechoslovakia. 

Mr. Stripling. That is correct, Mr. Eisler, according to the figures 
which we have. 

In June 1938 you requested an extension of your temporary stay for 
3 months ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Eisler. I think so. 

Mr. Stripling. And on August 5, 1938, the Acting Secretary of 
Labor issued an order permitting you and your wife to remain until 
January 21, 1939, before departing from the United States; is that 
correct ? 

Mr. Eisler. I think it is correct. 

Mr. Stripling. Sometime in 1938, the middle of the year 1938, did 
you and your wife apply for a quota visa? 

Mr. Eisler. Yes; or even a nonquota visa — no; a quota visa. 

Mr. Stripling. A quota visa ? 

Mr. Eisler. Yes. 

Mr. Stripling. Where did you make the application ? 

Mr. Eisler. This is hard for me to remember. You must have it on 
file. I tjiink I did the usual thing, which everybody does. Can you 
read it to me? 

Mr. Stripling. You made it to the American consul in Habana, 
Cuba. 

Mr. Eisler. Yes, I think so. 

Mr. Stripling. On January 9, 1939, you filed an application to ex- 
tend the time of your temporary stay for 6 months. 

Mr. Eisler. Yes. 

Mr. Stripling. From January 21, 1939; is that correct? 

Mr. Eisler. Yes. 

Mr. Stripling. On March 2, 1939, the Assistant Secretary of Labor 
ordered your deportation from the United States, as well as that of 
your wife. 

Mr. Eisler. Yes ; I remember this quite well. 

Mr. Stripling. And you were given an extension until April 7, 1939, 
to depart. Do you recall the extension ? 

Mr. Eisler. Yes; I asked for an extension of deportation. Hitler 
was already in Austria, and being deported to Germany would have 
meant my execution. 

Mr. Stripling. And on April 6 you asked for another extension? 

Mr. Eisler. Yes. 

Mr. Stripling. That was granted ? 

Mr. Eisler. Yes. 
Mr. Stripling. Until April 15 ? 
Mr. Eisler. Yes. 

Mr. Stripling. Then, on April 12, 1939, where did you go ? 
Mr. Eisler. I think I went to Mexico City. I sent a telegram to the 
President and asked him for a temporary stay. He was very nice. I 
become visitor professor at the conservatory in Mexico City. 

Mr. Stripling. Now, when you departed from Mexico, did you go 
through Laredo, Tex. ? 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 9 

Mr, KiSLEK. Yes. 

-Mr. SiKiPMNtJ. Then you returned to Laredo on September 11 of 
the same year, li)o9, and entered as a visitor for business and pleasure? 

Mr. EisLKR. Yes. 

]\rr. Stiuplixg. To stay until January 28, 19-10? 

Mr. EisLER. Yes. 

Mr. Stritling. Is that correct? 

Mr. EisLER. Correct. I had to write the music for a Broadway 
show. 

JNIr, Stripling. On January 26, 1940, you made an application to 
exteiul the time of your temporary stay? 

ISIr. EiSLER. Yes. 

Mr. Stripling. Is that correct? 

INIr. EisLER. Correct, 

]Mr. Stripling. On February 21, 1940, the Assistant Secretary of 
Labor denied the application for extension of stay and ordered that 
you be deported forthwith — you and your wife ? 

TIk- Chairman. Is that correct? 

Mr. Eisler. I don't remember it exactly, but I guess it must be 
correct if it is in the files. It is very easy to check it. 

Mi'. Stripling. On ISIay 31, 1940, it was found by the Immigra- 
tion Service tliat neither you nor your wife were making any effort 
to depart. Were you making an effort to depart? 

Mr. EiSLER. Yes. I think we did everything, but sometimes it is 
very diihcult. 

Mr. Stripling. On July 17, 1940, warrants for the arrest of your- 
self and your wife, Louise Eisler, were issued, charging that you had 
remained in the United States for a longer period than permitted. 

Mr. Eisler. 1940? That must be a mistake. 

Mr. Stripling. July 17, 1940. 

Mr. Eisler. This I don't remember. That is a mistake, possibly. 
I remember only one danger of deportation, if I am not mistaken, 
in 19'')9, for the simple reason my passport expired and I wanted to 
get a prolongation. I don't want to go to Germany. I hate the Nazis. 

]Mr. Stripling. Mr. Eisler, you were aware, were you not, that that 
order for deportation of yourself and that of your wife had been 
made by the Department of Labor? 

IVIr. Eisler. I think you must be right. You know this better than I. 
You have the files in front of you. 

Mr, Stripling. Yes. 

Were tliose warrants ever served upon you? 

Mr, Eisler. I don't think so. I don't i-emember, 

]\rr. Stripling. Whei-e did you go? 

Mr. Eisler. Pardon? 

Mr. Stripling. Where did you go? Why weren't they served 
on you? 

Mr. Eisler. Would you be so kind and repeat the date? 

Mr. Stripling. July 17, 1940. 

Mr, Eisler. July 17, 1940? I guess you must be right — I mean 
vou must be right. I don't remember this. 

Ml'. Stripling. The Avarrants were never served upon you, were 
they ( 

Mr. Eisler. Never served. 

Mr. Stripling. They were never served? 



10 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

Mr. EiSLER. No. 

Mr. Stripling. Did you go to Mexico 

Mr. EisLER. Yes, 

Mr. Stripling. Voluntarily? 

Mr. EiSLER. To emigrate. 

Mr. Stripling. Emigrate? 

Mr. EiSLER. Yes. 

Mr. Stripling. But tlie warrants were never served upon you, de- 
porting you? 

Mr. EiSLER. It is possible that the warrants were served to me, but 
I cannot remember this fact. 

Mr. Stripling. You were residing at New York at the time the 
warrants were issued, weren't you? 

Mr, EisiJER. Yes. 

Mr. Stripling. Did you then go to Bucks County, Pa.? 

Mr. EiSLER. I stay with some friend in Bucks County. I was com- 
muting, you know, between New York and Bucks County. I had 
to teach in a school, and the usual 

Mr. Stripling. Then did you go from Bucks County to Los Angeles ? 

Mr. EisLER. Yes. 

Mr. Stripling. And from Los Angeles you went into Mexico ? 

Mr. EiSLER. Yes. 

Mr, Stripling. And you applied 

Mr, EiSLER. For a nonquota visa, 

Mr. Stripling. For a nonquota visa? 

Mr. Eisler. Yes, 

Mr. Stripling. On September 26, 1940, you and your wife appeared 
before a special board of inquiry seeking admission to the United 
States for permanent residence at Calexico, Calif. ; at the time you were 
in possession of a nonquota immigration visa ? 

Mr. Eisler. Yea. 

Mr. Stripling. Who granted that visa to you ? 

Mr. Eisler. The American consul, or vice consul, in Mexicali, they 
call it. 

Mr. Stripling. Mexicali ? 

Mr. Eisler. Yes. 

Mr, Stripling, Now, did the board of special inquiry exclude you 
and your wife at the time you appeared before them? 

Mr. Eisler. Yes. They made a lot of difficulties for us. 

Mr. Stripling. They made a lot of difficulties for you ? 

Mr. Eisler. Yes. 

Mr. Stripling. Did you appeal that decision? 

Mr. Eisler. I had a legal right to appeal to Washington 

Mr. Stripling. I asked ,you : Did you appeal it? 

Mr. Eisler. Absolutely, 

Mr, Stripling, Was your appeal upheld ? 

Mr. Eisler. No. I have to wait 4 or 5, 6 weeks, there. Then there 
came the usual answer I should be admitted. 

Mr. Stripling. Well, now, according to the record, on October 16, 
1940, the Board of Immigration Appeals sustained the appeal of you 
and your wife, and you were admitted as a nonquota immigrant. 

Mr. Eisler. Yes. 

Mr. Stripling. And in accordance with their decision, on October 
22, 1940, you were admitted, you and your wife, into the United States, 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 11 

in accordiiiice with this decision. And on October 30, WO, the war- 
rants of arrest which had previously been issued on July IT, 194:0, were 
ordered canceled by the Board of Immigration Appeals. 

On November 29, 1940, an application for a reentry permit was 
executed by you in New York County, N. Y., indicating your desire to 
go to ]\Iexico in connection with employment with the Pan-American 
Films, Inc. 

Mr. EiSLER. Yes. 

Mr. Stripling. Do you recall executing that request ? 

Mr. EisLER. Yes. 1 wrote the score for the motion picture Forgot- 
ten Village, by John Steinbeck. 

Mr. Stripling. Now, a peimit to reenter was issued on December 5, 
1940; is that correct? 

Mr. EisLER. Yes. 

Mr. Stripling. And on January C, 1941. you were admitted to the 
United States at Brownsville, Tex., by way of air ; is that right? 

Mr. EiSLER. Yes. 

Mr. Stripling. On June 10, 1941, in the United States District 
Court for the Southern District of New York, you filed your declara- 
tion of intention to become a citizen of the United States? 

Mr. EiSLER. Yes. 

Mr. Stripling. Declaration No. 490,021 was issued; is that correct? 

Mr. EiSLER. Yes. 

Mr. Stripling. On June 19, this year, you executed an application 
for a reentry permit in Los Angeles, Calif. ? 

Mr. EiSLER. Yes. 

Mr. Stripling. Was that granted ? 

Mr. EiSLER. Not at all. 

Mr. Stripling. On June 27, 1947, a memorandum was issued to the 
effect that the State Department requested that reentry permit be 
withheld until it should be decided whether exit permit should be 
issued. 

On June 30, 1947, a telegram was sent to all field offices of the Immi- 
gration Service to watch for and prevent the departure of Eisler, unless 
he was in possession of evidence that an exit permit had been approved. 

Mr. EiSLER. I don't 

Mr. Stripling. Now, Mr. Eisler, where were you going? 

Mr. Eisler. I wanted to go to write a score, for Alice in Wonder- 
land, to Paris. In the meantime, I lost this contract and I couldn't go. 

Mr. Stripling. Now Mr. Eisler, with the exception of the brief 
period which vou spent in Mexico, you have been residing in the 
United States since 1940 ? 

Mr. Eisler. Yes. 

Mr. Stripling. During this period have you been employed in 
various capacities? 

Mr. Eisler. Yes. 

]Mr. Stripling. Will you outline those for the committee — your 
employment ? 

Mr. Eisler. I was employed as professor of music at the New School 
for Social Research. And I got a grant from the Rockefeller Foun- 
dation 

Mr. Stripling. Just a moment. The New School for Social Re- 
search in New York City ; is that right ? 



12 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

Mr. EisLER. Yes. I was Avorkino: under a o^rant from the Rocke- 
feller Foundation. I taught and studied, and composed. 

Mr. Stripling. You taught and what? 

Mr. EiSLER. I composed my music. I was a teacher. I did my 
research work for the Rockefeller Foundation. 

Mr. Stripling. Now, besides the New School for Social Research, 
were you ever employed by the Federal Government ? 

Mr. Eisler. Never. 

Mr. Stripling. Didn't you assist in the making of a film for the 
Department of Agriculture? 

Mr. EiSLER. Yes, but wouldn't call it employment. It was a small 
picture. I wanted to do it free. I got, I guess, $100 or $200 for it. 

Mr. Stripling. You were employed by the Department of Agri- 
culture? 

JNIr. Eisler. Would you call this employment? 

Mr. Stripling. Yes, if you received money. 

Mr. Eisler. I don't know. If you think so 

Mr. Stripling. Were you ever emploved by the Federal Theater 
Project? 

Mr. Eisler. Never. 

Mr. Stripling. Have you ever been employed in the motion-picture 
industry ? 

Mr. Eisler. Absolutely. I am a free lancer. Whenever somebod}?^ 
likes something exceptional in modern music he hires me. 

Mr. Stripling. You write background music for motion pictures? 

Mr. Eisler. Yes. That is only one part of my profession. I am a 
composer. I have written many many s^nnphonic — chamber music — 
songs. And once or twice a year I write a motion picture, for different 
reasons. It interests me and I need the money. 

Mr. Stripling. Would you outline for the committee the various 
studios by which you have been employed ? 

Mr. Eisler. Yes. I was one, two, three times hired by Independent 
Producers. I made Hangmen Also Die, for United Artists. It was 
an independent set-up called Arnold Productions. Then I made the 
picture Scandal in Paris, that was made by the same independent 
outfit. Then a picture. Jealousy, which was done, I guess, by Gong 
Productions, a small independent outfit. 

Then I made five — let me see — -None But the Lonely Heart, Deadline 
at Dawn, Spanish ISIain, Woman on the Beach, and So Well Remem- 
bered — five pictures for R-K-0 Studio. But I was only there as a free 
lancer. I was hired from job to job. 

Mr. Stripling. Your latest employment was with R-K-0 — Keith? 

Mr. Eisler. R-K-0; correct, sir. I wrote a score to a picture which 
they did in England — So Well Remembered. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Chairman, Mr. Eisler will be subpenaed, as you 
know, in connection with the investigation of Communist infiltration 
in the motion-picture industry. There are a number of questions 
which the committee has regarding his activities in Hollywood. How- 
ever, I suggest that these questions be deferred until the hearing at 
that time. 

The Chairman. Without objection, so ordered. 

Mr. Stripling. Now, Mr. Eisler, are you now, or have you ever 
been, a Communist? 

Mr. Eisler. I was, as I told you in my first hearing 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 13 

]Srr. Raxkix. jNTi'. Cliiiinnnn, wo can't lionr the niiswors, witli all this 
noise going on behind us. 

The C'liAiKMAX. Will you speak just a little louder? 

Mr. EisLEK. Yes. 

INTr. Stuii'I-ixg. Speak into the uiicro])hone, Mr. Eisler. 

Mr. EisLKH. Yes. 

Mr. Kankin. Will the counsel repeat his question? 

Mr. EisLEK. I will do my best. 

Mr. Srinrr.ixG. Yes. Are you now. or have you ever been, a 
Communist ( 

Mr. EisLKR. I am not now a Communist. And I i-emember I made, 
when I was a young man, in 1D2(), an a])plication for the German Com- 
munist ; but l' found out very quick that I couldn't combine my artistic 
activities with the demand of any political party, so I dropped out. 

Mr. Stripling. You dropped out? 

Mv. EisLER. Dropped out. 

Mr. Stripeix'<;. I thought you said you made applicati(m. 

Mr. Eisler. Yes. 

Mr. Stripling. You wouldn't drop out if you made application. 

Mr. Eisler. Oh, yes, sir. Look! If I join a union and don't pay 
union dues, after a couple of months I will be suspended. 

Mr. Stripling. I understood you made application. 

Mr. Eisler. Yes. 

Mr. Stripling. Well, did you join? 

Mr. EiSLFj?. You know that is the implication, but I didn't take any 
more care of it. I just let it run. 

Mr. Stripling. You did join the Communist Party? 

Mr. Eisler. I made a])plication. 

Mr. Stripling. Did 30U join? 

Mr. Eisler. It is so: You make an application. You get an 
answer 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Chairman, the question is simple. What I 
have asked is. Are you now, or have you ever been, a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Eisler. I say I am not now a member of the Communist Party. 
I tiied to explain to you that I made in 11)26 an application for the 
Communist Party in Germany, but I didn't follow the activities. I 
dropped out. I got an answer, but I was not active in political 
groups 

Tlie Ciiair:max^. Mr. Eisler, let me ask that question a little 
differently. You did make application? 

Mr. Eisler. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. And you did join, did you not? 

Mr. Eisler. I did not really join. I made an application, and I 
got an answer, but I neglected the whole affair. 

The Chairman. Then your answer is you were never a member of 
the Communist Party? 

Mr. Eisler. Yes — this is hard to be correct. I want to be correct. 
You can put it that way — that a man who made an application to 
join w^as. 

The Chairman. Were you a member? 

Mr. Eisler. Not in the real .sense. 

66957—47 2 



14 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

The Chairman. Never mind the real sense. Were you a member 
or were you not a member? 

Mr. EiSLER. I told you, Mr. Chairman — and I repeat — I made an 
application but neglected 

The Chairman. I know. But is your answer "Yes" or "No"? 

Mr. EiSLER. That is my answer, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. No. You will have to be more specific. We want 
to know whether you were a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. EiSLER. In the Communist Party, I would say I never was a 
member. When a man who doesn't follow up 

The Chairman. But you made application to be a member? 

Mr. EiSLER. Yes. 

The Chairman. And was the application accepted ? 

Mr. EisLER. Yes. 

The Chairman. That is all. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Eisler, have you ever participated in any Com- 
munist Party meetings? 

Mr. EisLER. Any party meeting? No. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Eisler, as a matter of fact, you have been the 
foremost figure in the revolutionary movement of the Soviet Union 
in the musical field, have you not? 

Mr. EiSLER. No, sir. The Soviet Union has wonderful composers, 
and I never was in the foreground movement of the Soviet Union at all. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Chairman, I have here a copy of the Daily 
Worker; that is, an excerpt from a copy of the Daily Worker of 
January 15, 1935. I should like to introduce this into the record. 

It states [reading] : 

HANNS EISLER WILL ARRIVE HERE JANUARY 27. 

* * * This famous revolutionary composer, who has been living in exile 
in Paris and London since the advent of Hitler, is vpell known both in Europe 
and America for his brilliant composers, which include K-u-h-1-e W-a-m-p-e — 

Would you pronounce it for us ? 
Mr. Eisler. Would you be so kind? 
Mr. Stripling. K-u-h-1-e W-a-m-p-e?. 

Mr. EiSLER. Kuhle Wampe. This is a motion picture which I did 
in 1932, in Berlin. 

Mr. Stripling (continues reading) : 

Hell on Earth, Comintern, M-a-s-s-n-a-h-m-e — 

Mr. EiSLER. What is that last one, please ? 

Mr. Stripling. M-a-s-s-n-a-h-m-e. 

Mr. EiSLER. M-a-s — would you be so kind, please? 

(Mr. Stripling exhibits clipping.) 

Mr. EiSLER. Massnahme, which is a German word meaning 
"exjjedient." 

Mr. Stripling. And the next one. 

Mr. Eisler, Tempo der Zeit, which means "The Tempo of our 
Times." 

Mr. Stripling. And the next one. 

Mr. EiSLER. Rot Front, which means "Red Front." 

Mr. Stripling. Red Front? 

Mr. Eisler. Yes. 

Mr. Stripling. Did you compose all of those? 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 15 

Mr. EiSLKH. Yes. 

Mr. Stiui'ling. The article goes on to state, Mr. Chairman [con- 
tinues reading I : 

His arrival in America marks the further extension of an international tour 
which has so far included lectures and concerts in Leningrad, Moscow, Copen- 
hagen. Brussels, Paris, and London. 

The Ilaniis Kisler Tour Committee, composed of representatives of the 
Workers" Music Leat;ue, John Keed Cluh, League of Workers' Tlieaters, Workers 
Dance League, Anti-Nazi Federation, German Workers Clubs, and other groups 
are preparing for an outstanding reception for this courageous revolutionary 
uaisician and composer for February 8. 

I ask that this be received as an exhibit, Mr. Chairman.^ There will 
be various other documents, Mr. Chairman, introduced in this hear- 
ing which I likewise ask to be accepted as exhibits and made part of 
the record. 

The Chairman. It is so ordered. 

Mr. Rankin. Well, Mr. Chairman, what is that from ? 

Mr. Stripling. It is from the Daily Worker, official organ of the 
Communist Party. 

Mr. Rankin. That is what I wanted to know. 

Mr. Stripling. Now, Mr. Eisler, it is stated here that the Workers 
Music League was a part of the Hanns Eisler Tour. Are you familiar 
with the Workers Music League? 

Mr. Eisler. I remember there was nice young men which were very 
friendly to me and interested in composing music for labor, for which 
I have a lot of sympathy. 

Mr. Stripling. Now, do you conceive the Workers Music League to 
be a Communist organization ? 

Mr. Eisler. No. There must be some Communists in it, but it is a 
music organization which has social tendencies. 

Mr. Stripling. Social tendencies? 

Mr. Eisler. Absolutely. 

Mr. Stripling. I have here, Mr. Chairman, the issue of the Workers 
Music League, dated December 1932, volume 1, No. 1, official organ of 
the Workers Music League, 55 West Nineteenth Street, New York 
City.^ The emblem of the organization I will ask Mr. Eisler to explain 
and identify to the committee, because it has the hammer and sickle 
and some musical notes. 

Mr. Eisler. Yes; sure. 

Mr. Stripling. How would you describe that trade-mark so to 
speak, of the organization — the emblem of the organization? 

Mr. Eisler. Would you be so kind and look at the date? It says 
"19P>2." I was not in this country 

The Chairman. The question is, Mr. Eisler, will you describe the 
emblem on that. 

^Sli". ElisLER. Tlie sickle and liammer is the communistic sign. 

The Chairman. The hammer and sickle? 

Mr. Eisler. Yes. But it is with a violin cleft, so it is not — — 

Air. STRH'LiNi;. You don't consider the Workers Music League to be 
a Comnumist organization, Mr. Eisler? 

Mr. Eisler. No. A communistic organization is one which declares 
itself a communistic organization. 

'See appendix, p. ISO, fur exhibit 1. 
'See appendix, p. ISO. for exhibit 2. 



16 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

Mr, Stripling. Wasn't it the United States affiliate of International 
Music Bureau ? 

Mr. EisLER. I remember darkly some music bureau. 

Mr. Stripling. You are very familiar with the International Music 
Bureau, with headquarters in Moscow? 

Mr. EiSLER. Yes. It was one of my ideas, 

Mr. Stripling. It was your idea? 

Mr. EisLER. Yes. 

Mr, Stripling. You helped organize it, didn't you? 

Mr, EisLER. No. I would 

The Chairman. Did you help organize it? That was the question. 

Mr. EisLER. No. 

Mr. Stripling. You didn't help organize the International Music 
Bureau ? 

Mr, EiSLER, No. It was a voluntary collaboration between artists 
and labor groups. I am not an organizer, I am a composer, I ad- 
vised them. 

Mr. Stripling. That is all right, Mr. Eisler. We will get to the 
International Music Bureau in just a few minutes. 

Mr. Eisler. Yes. 

Mr. Stripling. I am sure you will admit that you were quite instru- 
mental in its organization and in its reorganization? 

Mr. Eisler. I advised, I admit — I gave my best advice when some- 
body asked me, but I am not what you call an organizer, 

Mr. Stripling. Next, Mr. Chairman, I have the Daily Worker of 
February 18, 1935, which contains an article entitled "Noted Composer 
of Comintern Arrives for United States Concert Tour," "Hanns 
Eisler Exiled From Germany and Music Banned." ^ 

This article is by Sergei Radamsky. [Reading:] 

Hanns Eisler, the famous revolutionary German refugee comiX)ser, arrived in 
this country a few days ago. 

I won't read the article in its entirety, Mr, Chairman. But I would 
like to read certain excerpts, [Continues reading:] 

The spreading of revolutionary music among the German workers was not an 
accident, nor was it easily accomplished. The Communist Party in Germany had 
to figlit the old beer-garden atmosphere and nationalist ditties of the middle class 
which had gone their way to the masses. 

In this cultural and musical development the German workers were led by 
Hanns Eisler. The class struggle in Germany, strikes, barricades, first of May 
celebrations, and other demonstrations are bound up with his name. 

^ ***** * 

Eisler, however, was not happy in the surrouiHliiigs of the musical bourgeoisie. 
To be one of a great number of decadent musicians meant a futility stagnating to 
his talents. Only when Eisler came into the struggle of the working ciass did 
he tind his medium, and with it grew his power of composing music which ex- 
pressed not only the life and battles of the German workers but of the working 
class of the entire world. 

The Chairman. What is it you are reading from now? 

Mr. Stripling. From the Daily Worker, Mr. Chairman, concerning 
Mr. Eisler's arrival in the United States in 1935. 

The Chairman, Mr, Stripling, just a minute. 

Mr. Rankin. Is that the Communist Daily Worker — the organ of 
the Communist Party in the United States? 

3 See appendix, p. 189, for exhibit 3. 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 17 

Mr. SrKiri.iNi;. It is the ollicial ()i<>iui of the Coiniuuiiist l^irty. 
Mr. Kankix. That is what 1 wanted the record to show. 
Mr. Stiuplixg (readiiio-) : 

"Those who are ac-qiiainted with his solidarity song from tlie Kullie Wampe, 
The Hallad of Soldiers. On Guard. Rotcr Weddiiis, Coinintorii. Address to a New 
Born Ciiild. know lh(> srirriiiij- niossaffc he tells in his imisic. The worlvers and 
l)f;isanls of the Soviet Union were (inick to appreciato this, and liis On Guard, 
roniintern, and others are tremendously popular. One hears them wherever 
workers gather. 

4c :t: 4: 4: :): 4: ^ 

This Ilanns Eisler lias done with remarkahle success. We, in the United 
Slates, are aequainted with some of his songs, hut not by far, to the degree 
deserved by him or needed by us. lie is one of the leading spirits in music for 
the worker, an outstanding musician, a comrade, and always on the battle line 
with raidv and tile. 

Do you take any disagreement with this article which Sergei Radam- 
sky wrote in the Daily Worker of Febrtiary 18, 1085? 
(The article referred to is as follows :) 

[From the Daily Worl;er, February 18, 1935] 

Noted Composer of Comintern Aukives for United States Concert Tour — 
Hanns Eisler Exiled From Germany and Music Banned — Proceeds of Con- 
certs Aid Victims of Nazi Terror 

(By Sergei Radamsky) 

Hanns Eisler, the famous revolutionary German refugee composer, arrived in 
this country a few days ago. Every etYort has been made by the Hitler govern- 
ment to ferret out all of Eisler's nmsie and to destroy his inlluence with the 
workers. To own one of his records in Germany is punishable by imprisonment. 
To be caught singing one of his songs is punishable by torture. Nevertheless, 
thousands upon thousands of records of Eisler's revolutionary mass songs are still 
played in Nazi Germany and his popularity is as high as ever. 

The spreading of revolutioiuiry nuisic among the German workers was not an 
accident, nor was it easily accomplished. The Communist Party in Germany had 
to tight the old beer-garden atmosphere and nationalistic ditties of the middle class 
which had found their way to the masses. 

In this cultural and musical development, the German workers were led by 
Hanns Eisler. The class struggle in (Germany, strikes, barricades. First of May 
celebratitms, and other demonstrations, are bound up with his name. 

Eisler is a pupil of Schoenberg. He also had earlier musical training in the 
classics and old traditions of music, possessing knowledge ancl technique of the 
first order. His chamber music, piano compositions, and songs were performed at 
many nnisic fei-;tivals in central Europe, which gained him recognition as an 
outstanding figure among the young modern composers of that period. 

Eisler, however, was not hap.py in the surroundings of the nuisical bourgeoisie. 
To be one of a great number of decadent musicians meant a futility stagnating 
to his talent. Only when Eisler came into the struggle of the working class 
did he find his medium and with it grew his power of composing music which 
expressed not only the life and battles of the German workers, but of the work- 
ing class of the entire world. 

He pointed the way to many new composers, among whom were such talents 
as Stefan Volpe, the composer of Rote Soldnten, beloved by the masses in 
Germany, as well as in the United States and many other countries. 

Eisler has taken an active part in the struggle of the working class of 
Germany. That is why his songs find instant response from the masses. Even 
the bourgeois critics have been forced to admit that the music of this revolu- 
tionary composer is "unique," "vital." "brilliant," "powerfnl," "stark in its 
essence" (Deutche Allgemeine Zeitung). The antiradical Leijisige Folks 
Zeituiig also had to admit that Eisler's music was "not just for the connoisseur 
alone- — it appeals to the masses. It is new music from a master, sincere and 
singable." 



18 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

Those who are acquainted with his solidarity song from the Kuhle Wampe, 
The Ballad of Soldiers, On Guard, Roter Wedding, Comintern, Address to a 
New Born Child, know the stirring message he tells in his music. The workers 
and peasants of tlie Soviet Union were quick to appreciate this and his On Guard, 
Comintern, and otliers are tremendously popular. One hears them wherever 
workers gather. 

The revolutionary movement, iinder the leadership of the Communist Party, 
has brought to its ranks many musicians whose activities are of gTeat help in 
the class struggle. In the 8 years, 1925 to 1933, the music of Germany, for 
example saw a period of great activity among the woi'kers. The revolutionary 
musicians were able to turn the old and traditional "gesanferein" into musical 
vanguards of the German proletariat. Music, in one form or another, had its 
place at gatherings, celebrations, and demonstrations. Thousands of choruses 
spread revolutionary songs, helping to stir the masses to action. 

The difficulty has been, and still is, in finding the right idiom to express the 
class struggle in music, so as not to be obliged to follow in the tradition of the 
old bourgeois ditties. At the same time the masses who have not had the 
opportunity of studying and listening to good music, must l^e given simple but 
vigorous songs. It is one thing to discard the idiom of the decadent comiwsei'S, 
but it is more complicated to create a new one. 

This Hanns Eisler has done with remarkable success. We, in the United 
States, are acquainted with some of his songs, but not by far, to the degree 
deserved by him or needed by us. He is one of the leading spirits in music for 
the worker, an outstanding musician, a comrade, and always on the battle line 
with the rank and file. 

Mr. Eisler. I cannot identify all newspaper articles written about 
me, but I think it was well meant, and they want to show that in Ger- 
many I wrote a lot of music, especially in the last years before Hitler 
came to power, and that I did my best as an artist to help with my 
music in this very difficult struggle. 

If you like, I can show you clippings for the same time from the 
Heai'st press which say I am a monarchist and wanted the return of 
Kaiser Wilhelm. 

]Mr. Stripling. Mr. Eisler, I checked the entire New York press for 
the same period and I don't find such clippings. 

Mr. Eisler. I will give you such a clipping. 

Mr. Stripling. Now, 5 days later the New York Daily Worker, the 
official organ of the Communist Party, carried a picture under the 
heading "Eisler greeted in New York." * It has here a picture of 
what appears to be several hundred persons, all giving the Commu- 
nist salute, with the clenched fist. And it says [reading] : 

Part of soprano section of a chorus of 1,000 hails Hanng Eisler, * * * noted 
German revolutionary composer, as he arrives to conduct rehearsals for his 
concerts here. 

Now, in the forefront of this picture, Mr. Eisler, is yourself, also 
giving the Communist salute. 

Mr. Eisler. This is a German salute, which is not 

Mr. Stripling. Would you identify yourself from that picture? 

Mr. Eisler. Yes; absolutely. Here. 

Mr. Stripling. There is no question but that you are giving the 
salute? 

Mr. Eisler. Yes; but • 

Mr. Stripling. Would you demonstrate to the committee the salute 
you gave? 

(Mr. Eisler demonstrates salute.) 

Mr. Eisler. May I add this salute was invented in Germany and 
was not only used by Communists but by our anti-Fascists. It is not 
a party salute. 

* See appendix, p. 189, for exhibit 4. 





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66957-47 (Face p. 18) 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 19 

The Chairman. Mr. Stripling, where was this meeting held? 

Mr. STKirLTNG. In New York City, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Rankin. What paper was that in? 

Mr. Stripling. That is the Daily Worker. 

Mr. Rankin. The Communist Daily Worker? 

Mr. Stripling. Yes. 

Now. on March 1. 1935. Mr. Eisler, there is an article here by Joe 
Foster in the Daily Worker from w^hich I would like to read excerpts.^ 
[Reading:] 

In every city of the worUl. liuiuired^ of thdusaiids of workers pouiul along the 
piivenients, voicing in mass protest, the ontrages and exploitations of their ruling 
classes. They remember their tortured and imprisoned comrades, the untold suf- 
ferings and i)rutality that has been their lot. As they march, thousands of 
voices eagerly catch" up in militant determined song their struggles and their 
light for liberation. In the pulsating, stirring rhythms of these revolutionary 
songs they forge their common challenge, which hurls itself in a volume of sound 
against the very walls of their ruling-class enemies. 

liehind this music stands Hanns Eisler — foremost revolutionary composer. 

Mr. Eisler. You see 

The Chairman. Just a minute. He hasn't finished. 

]\Ir. Eisler. Pardon me. 

Mr. Stripling. That is all I care to read from this particular article, 
Mr. Chairman. I would be glad for it to be included in the record. 

The Chairman. Without objection, then, it is ordered that the 
article be put in the record in its entirety. 

(The article above referred to is as follows:) 

[From the Daily Worker, March 1, 1935] 

Hanns Eisler, Revolutionary Composer 

(By Joe Foster) 

In every city of the world, hundreds of thousands of workers pound along the 
pavements, voicing in mass protest the outrages and exploitations of their ruling 
classes. They remember their tortured and imprisoned comrades, the untold 
sufferings and brutality that has been their lot. As they march, thousands of 
voices eagerly catch up in militant determined song their struggles and their 
fight for liberation. In the pulsating, stirring rhythms of these revolutionary 
songs they forge their common challenge, which hurls itself in a volume of sound 
against the very walls of their ruling-class enemies. 

Behind this music stands Hanns Eisler — foremost revolutionary composer. He 
is the beloved of all the masses of every country. In Prague, Holland, Vienna, 
Saarbrucken, Paris, London, and in other cities, the masses flock by the thousands 
to hear him. And no wonder. For his music reflects with complete under- 
standing the reality of their lives, infuses them with courage, and provides a 
stimulus for further struggle. 

The author of Comintern, Rot Front, Solidarity, and scores of others, was born 
in Leipzig in 1898. As a musician, he was, in his earlier stages, completely self- 
taught. When he realized that all nmsic, all culture, could have a future only 
when identified with working-class interests, he decided to take instruction from 
recognized masters. For in composing for the working class, only the best tradi- 
tions in art were good enough. On this basis a superior, newer revolutionary 
technique could be built up. 

The war interrupted his plans. He was inducted into the Austrian Army 
against his will. But once enrolled, he did his share in fighting the workers' 
cause among the soldiers. Then, when he was mustered out, he immediately 
took up his musical studies once more. He became a student of Arnold Schoen- 
berg, the acknowledged master of modern form, and in very short order became 
his favorite pupil. He won several state prizes for his brilliant compositions and 

' See appendix, p. 189. for exhibit 5. 



20 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

liis technical excellence. He appeared at many of the better-known German state 
festivals, and before long he was regarded by bourgeois critics as the most 
promising of the younger composers. 

But despite these honors, and critical approval, he hated the music tliat he 
wrote. It was terrible, without social content, and was received only by the social 
elite. It was music in a vacuum. 

When he had absorbed all that the Schoenberg school could give him, he ceased 
this type of writing and immediately began to write the music of his own con- 
victions. If his music was excellent before, it was now superb, imbued with 
meaning, with vitality : it was now perfectly integrated with social reality, with 
the struggles in society. 

From that period up to tlie present he has written most of the working-class 
songs that are sung at demonstrations, at wo'rkers' celebrations, at meetings, and 
wherever workers' cultural movements find expression. 

Naturally he was the first to go, when Hitler came into power. His music 
was destroyed, his records broken. Under penalty of severe imprisonment his 
music was banned. Despite tiie fact that the terror against all culture raged 
violently throughout Germany, many workers buried their records, and then 
played them at comparatively safer moments. This so infuriated the Nazi 
inquisitoi's that the mere possession of an Eisler record was cau.se for torture 
and imprisonment. 

Against this brutality and barbarism, Hanns Eisler has fought an unceasing 
battle. Not only has he composed nuisic for workers but he has flung the chal- 
lenge to all aitists. In addressing liis contemporaries throughout Europe he has 
pointed out that all artists are involved. They nuist realize that the common 
struggle introduces considerations wliich face every composer. Whether he be 
bourgeois or radical, for him tlie liberty of expression hangs in the balance and 
as such is the concern of every genuine artist who is interested in artistic free- 
dom. He has also pointed out that the artist is not free from the economic 
crisis. All music is influenced by reality. Music springs from the social order 
and the artist is the instrument of that expression. A new type of artist will be 
he who not only reflects social conditions but also strives to cliange them. This 
is Eisler's definition of progress in art. 

How well these .sentiments have been reflected in his music has long been 
appreciated by workers on the continent. We in America will also realize it 
when we listen to Hanns Eisler direct over 1,000 voices in mass songs from the 
platform of Mecca Temple oji March 2. 

Mr. Stripltxg. JMr. Eisler, I liave here tlie Daily Worker of October 
7, llJoo, ail article by Charles Hatchard, under the headline ''Music 
unifies workers — Eisler describing exjjeriences in Europe." ° This 
article was written after you had returned from Moscow ; is that right? 

Mr. Eisler. I don't remember the article, 

Mr. Striplixg. This is October 1935. 

Mr. Eisler. I don't remember this article. 

Mr. Stripling. It starts out [reading] : 

Hanns Eisler, German exile iind world's leading composer of nuisic and songs 
for workers, returned to America Friday from a tour of France, Czechoslovakia, 
and the Soviet Union as world chairman of the International Music Bureau. A 
pink-cheeked man with s])arkling gray eyes, the composer brought news of 
workers' nnisical achievements in Europe which lie himself had no small part in 
developing. 

Later it says: 

The International INIusic Bureau, which he has headed for 3 months, is having 
marked success in bringing together profe.ssional and amateur musicians and 
contemporary composers. 

And it also states : 

A large edition of his compositions- 
referring to your compositions — 

is being published this year by the State Publisliing House of the Soviet Union. 
Eisler is also at work on the score for a Soviet movie directed by Ivens 

"See appendix, p. 1S9, for e.xhibit G. 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 21 

jSIr. KisLEK. Yes; directed by Ivens. 

Mr. Stripling. We will get to Mr. Ivens later. The ai'ticle con- 
cludes [reading] : 

In the heat of the October revolution, Eisler reniiiids all musicians', prole- 
tarian love of nuisii' was powerfully promoted and developed by the Soviet. The 
fciurtli nieniher of Pravda after the seizure of power featured a long article 
callinji' upon all workers and Red Army men to learn songs and nnisic. 

"For music identities and unilies the workers," Eisler remarks with a warm 
smile. "The songs of the workers will rise in this present conllict from the 
trenches on either side of every no man's land. In that unity of voices and of 
action lies our hope for the world's future." 

Do 3'ou have any disagreement with wdiat Mr. Hatchard has said? 

Mr. Eisler. I couldn't speak about a German when I was there, but 
naturally this article tries to reflect my position in Germariy. Natur- 
ally, being artists, we did our best to help in fighting against Hitler, 
and we knew in 1933 and 1932 that Hitler really meant war. This 
writer has the right to write what he likes. I can only speak for myself. 
1 am not responsible for every article Written about me. 

Mr. Stripling. ISIr. Eisler, in referring to the Daily Worker of 
October 2, 1935, it says — by L. E. Swift "^ [reading] : 

The Retturn of Hanns Eisler 

The arrival in New York on the Sd of October of Hanns Eisler, world-famous 
German revolutionary composer, is an event of special significance to all those 
workers as well as professional nuisicians who have been actively engaged in the 
development of proletarian music in this country. * * * 

While in Moscow, the German musician was chosen head of the newly reorgan- 
ized International Music Bureau, whose activities he brings with him now to New 
York. This in itself is of vast significance for the development of American pro- 
letarian nnisic, inasmuch as it will mark the beginnings of far closer relations 
between the comparatively young American workers" music movement and those 
of the European countries. 

Mr. Chairman, I ask that this article in the Daily Worker also be 
included in the record in its entirety. 

The Chairman. Without objection, it is so ordered. 
(The article above referred to is as follows :) 

The Return of Hanns Eisler 

(By L. E. Swift) 

The arrival in New York on the .3d of October of Hanns Eisler, world-famous 
German revolutionary composer, is an event of special significance to all those 
workers as well as professional musicians who have been actively engaged in the 
development of proletarian music in this country. Eisler, whose first visit to the 
United States last spring was on a concert tour for the purpose of raising funds 
for the relief of the child victims of Hitler's fascism, returns now for an extended 
stay after a wide European tour. 

While in Moscow, the German nnisician was chosen head of the newly reorgan- 
ized International Music Bureau, whose activities he brings with him now to New 
York. This in itself is of vast significance for the development of American 
proletarian music, inasmuch as it will mark the beginnings of far closer relations 
between the comparatively young American workers' music movement and those 
of the European countries. 

In the spring, Eisler's activity was of immense value, not only in the creative 
and concert fields, but also in bringing the guidance of a mind long trained in 
music-organizational matters to the various newly forming workers music groups 
all over the country. In this country music has been perhaps the last of the arts 
to break away from the 100 percent reactionary art-for-art ideology. Only since 
the depression, which has thnnvn tens of thousands of musicians out of work, 

' See appendix, p. 189, for exhibit 7. 



22 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

closed down opera houses and concert halls, and seriously restricted the pos- 
sibilities of performance of new works by American composers, lias the great rank 
and file of musicians and music lovers begun to feel that something is wrong 
somewhere. 

Vet. on the whole, a clear Marxist critique of the whole function of music in, 
and its intimate dependence on, the successive developments of bourgeois society 
has not yet been worked out by or popularized among American musicians. This 
is certainly one of the reasons that accounts for the comparative backwardness 
of proletarian music in tliis country as compared with the corresponding develop- 
ment of proletarian literature, theater, dance, art. 

Hanns Eisler's many years of experience in the highly developed German work- 
ers' music movement, which before its suppression by the Nazis numbered upward 
of 275.000 amateur and professional participants, will be of great assistance to 
those active in tlie workers' music movement in this country. In order to bring 
Ills experience home more concretely to the latter. Eisler will give two courses 
this fall at the New School for Social Re.search : Musical Composition, and the 
Crisis in Modern Music. In the former, the German composer will give concrete 
instruction in choral writiiig as well as in the mass song. Students of composi- 
tion and compo.sers who are interested in writing for workers' groups will have 
here an unusual opportunity to learn the special techniques involved from the 
author of compositions which are shng by millions in every land. 

The second course given by Eisler at the New Svhool will he open not only to 
students of composition, but to all interested in modei'n music. In this course, 
Eisler will present a detailed and thoroughgoing analysis of the position of music 
in the present-day world taking into account the latest economic and sociological 
developments. Among the points to be covered in tliis course are : Material 
basis of the crisis of modern music ; the contradiction between modern music 
and modern life : sociological criticism of works of Schoenberg, Stravinsky, Hinde- 
mith, and others. 

All interested in seeing music in its proper setting in contemporary society 
and of having a deeper understanding of the forces at work in modern music 
today are urged to attend either or both of these courses. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Eisler, the committee has quite a bit of evidence 
here^ 

Mr. Etsler. I see. 

Mr. Stripling. Concerning the International Music BureaiL 

Mr. Eisler. Yes. 

Mr. Stripling. AVhich you organized and which you reorganized. 

Now, wotdd you give the committee a complete statement of your 
activities in that connection? 

Mr. Eisler. Yes ; I Avould be delighted. 

It was my idea to group together anti-Fascist artists, composers, and 
try to make some kind of a music bureau. I spoke with several friends, 
in France and in Berlin and we decided to do such a thing. Unfortu- 
nately, it never materialized. We were all too busy. I guess this 
article was well meant, but it really never existed. There may have 
been some talk about it. 

Since I had written some songs for moving pictures and the theater 
which became quite popular in the labor movement, it was natural that 
my colleagues in London and Paris said that I should try to make this 
thing go. We would exchange cultural experiences. Don't forget this 
is music, and nothing else. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Eisler, on that point, you say it is music and 
nothing else ; haven't you on a number of occasions said, in effect, that 
music is one of the most powerful weapons for the bringing about of 
the revolution ? 

Mr. Eisler. Sure. Napoleon the First said — 

The Chairman. Never mind Napoleon. You tell what you said. 

Mr. Eisler. I consider myself, in this matter, a pupil of Napoleon. 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 23 

1 think in nnisic I can enli<»-liten and help people in distress in their 
li^ht for their rights. In Gernuiny Ave didn't do so well. They are 
"friendly words, from this man in the Daily Worker, but the truth is 
songs cannot destroy fascism, but they are necessary. It is a matter 
of musical taste as to whether you like them. I am a composer, not a 
lyric writer. If you don't like them, I am sorry — you can listen to 
Open the Door, Richard. 

Mr. Stripling. You have written a lot of songs, Mr. Eisler, have 
you not ? 

Mr. EiSLER. I have written not only songs, but I have written every- 
thing in my profession. Here [indicating] is a book printed by a sub- 
versive organization, the Oxford University Press, but I couldn't say 
that I am a member of the Oxford University Press. This came out 

2 weeks ago. 

I would ask you, Mr. Stripling, to study this book. I did work 
for the Rockefeller Foundation. 

Mr, Striplixg. Mr. Eisler, when we get through with the Inter- 
national Music Bureau we will take up your work with the Rocke- 
feller Foundation — for which you received $20,000. 

Mr. EiSLER. M}' salary was exactly $65 a week. 

Mr. Stripling. We will go into the exact amount which you re- 
ceived. 

Mr. EisLER. Yes. 

Mr. Stripling. The International Music Bureau was organized 
in Moscow, was it not ? 

Mr. Eisler. I spoke with some of the German refugees in Moscow. 

The Chairman. Was it organized in Moscow ? 

Mr. EiSLER. No. If it ever came to having an office, we wanted it 
in Paris, London, or Prague. I was not in Moscow. How could there 
be an office in Moscow — if I am the head? It was my idea to organize 
such a thing. 

The Chairman. Just a minute. The question was. Was the Inter- 
national Music Bureau organized in Moscow? 

Mr. Eisler. No. 

The Chairman. You can answer that in one word. 

Mr. Eisler. No. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Chairman, in connection with that, I should 
like to introduce a translation of an article which api)eared in Soviet 
-Music, No. 2, the March and April 19?>3 issue, pages 126 and 127, en- 
titled "For a Solid Front of all Proletariat and Revolutionary 
Musicians," by P. Weis * — L. C. translation, Veis. [Reading:] 

In Novembe^r of 1932 was held the First International Musical Conference in 
which pnrticipated representatives of the following countries: United States of 
America, .Japan, France, Hungary, Austria, Holland, Belgium, ^Mexico, and 
Lithuania. The first International Music Bureau was elected, the object of which 
was to prepare the ground for creating an international union of revolutionary 
musicians because the need for this was apparent 

Mr. Eisler. I was not present 

The Chairman. Just a minute. 
Mr. Stripling (continuing) : 

Treating a revolutionary single front in the musical movement can be accom- 
plished only by politicalization. We should not verge one single iota from a 

' See appendix, p. 189, for exhibit 8. 



24 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

program of progressive class struggle. We can be successful in our efforts only 
if we know how to transplant our political slogans to the sphere of music. It 
isn't sufHcient just to expose the treachery of reform leaders; we should also 
be able to show how the socialist faseistic ideology displays itself in special 
forms of musical movements and musical creations. It is not sufficient only to 
point out to the crisis of capitalization in general; we should also show con- 
cretely the decadence of all bourgeois culture and particularly musical culture. 
We should prove that the only right road for artistic creations, which include 
also that of musicians, is in service to the objectives of proletariat revolution. 

Finally, it isn't sufficient to preach that the proletariat should use music as its 
weapon in the class struggle. This is the basic tmitb of Marxism-Leninism. 
They call us just mere braggards if we cannot create music which will actually 
awaken and strengthen the class consciousness of the vast laboring masses. 
Therefore, the basic point upon which our attention should be extended is the 
creation of revolutionary music. * * * 

Our music should be impregnated with i-evolutionary energy and consciousness 
of the proletariat. 

Tlie proletariat music must be the music of the masses and should become a 
powerful factor in the liberating struggle of the working classes. * * * 

When we say that revolutionary music should be mass music, we mean by this 
that it should awake the wide masses of workers, inspire them, and lead them 
to struggle. * * * Revolutionary and proletarian musicians of all countries, 
join the Red single front of the workers. 

Tliat appeared in Soviet Music, a Soviet publication. 
(The article referred to is as follows:) 

[From Soviet Music, No. 2, March-Aiiril 1933, pp. 126. 127] 

For a Solid Front of All Proletariat and Revolutionary Musicians 

(By P. Weis (L. C. translation, Veis) ) 

In November of 1932 was held in Moscow the First International Musical Con- 
ference, in which participated representatives of the following countries : United 
States of America, Japan, France, Hungary, Austria, Holland, Belgium, Mexico, 
and Lithuania. The first International Musical Bureau was elected, the object of 
which was to prepare the ground for creating an international union of revolu- 
tionary musicians, because the need for this was apparent. For instance, in 
various countries there already exist proletariat revolutionary musicians' organi- 
zations who are experienced and who have laid a foundation for revolutionary 
musical creations in other countries where organizations have just been formed. 

What are the principal problems of the revolutionary musical movement in 
individual countries? 

Organizations which already have been strengthened in prolonged and success- 
ful struggle — organizations of labor musicians in Germany, the Labor Musical 
League of the United States, and the Union of Proletariat Musicians of Japan — 
should make it their oliject to become real mass organizations. They should not 
only get control of the majority of labor musical circles, they should not only 
endeavor to organize new revolutionary labor choruses and instrumental circles, 
but they should also try and attract into their ranks the large masses of the 
laboring musical intelligentsia. Because of the blows of the economic crisis which 
accompanies the fall of culture in capitalistic countries, and because of the vic- 
torious development of socialistic economy and culture in the Soviet Union, the 
better representatives of the bourgeois intelligentsia, which include the first-class 
nuisicians, are joining themselves with the proletariat. In Germany, France, 
Czechoslovakia and the United States, etc., one could name a number of outstand- 
ing composers who are on their way to us. We should beware of sectarian limita- 
tions in regard to these I'adical musical intelligentsia. On the contrary, we should 
rectify the mistakes which have been made in the past and do everything possible 
to attract them to us and show the large masses of the laboring intelligentsia the 
way to the revolutionary single front. 

One requirement of tliis work is to expose the chauvinistic demogogs of fascism 
and the struggle with the bourgeois nmsical organizations which are under the 
influence of this ideology, such as the Youth Musical Movement in Germany and 
the New Symijhony in Japan. 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 25 

One should not forgot that in such ori^iuiizations there are many nuisirians who 
have fallen into the emhrace of tills fascist ic ideology. 

From the above, we see clearly the political directives for the newly created 
organizations and those which are being created at the present moment. Prac- 
tically, they can learn with success from existing organizations of the revolu- 
tionary art, and especially from such allied organizations as, for instance, the 
left front in Czechoslovakia. A joint effort of various revolutionary artistic and 
cultural organizations is needed everywhere. 

Creating a revolutionary single front in the musical movement can be accom- 
plished only by politicalization. We shoidd not diverge one single iota from a 
program of progessive class struggle. We can be successful in our efforts only if 
we know how to transplant our political slogans to the sphere of nuisic. It isn't 
sufficient just to expose the treachery of reform leaders ; we should also be able 
to show how the socialistic fascistic ideology displays itself in special forms of 
musical movements and musical creations. It is not sufficient only to point out 
to the crisis of capitalism in general ; we should also show concretely the decadence 
of all bourgeois culture and particularly nuisical culture. We should prove that 
the only right road for artistic creations, which include also that of nmsicians, is 
in service to the objectives of proletariat revolution. 

Finally, it isn't sufficient to preach that the prt)letariat should use music as its 
weapon in class struggle. This is the basic truth of Marxism-Leninism. They 
will call us just mere braggarts if we cannot create music which will actually 
awaken and strengthen the class consciousness of the vast laboring masses. 
Therefore, the basic point upon which our attention should be centered is the 
creation of revolutionary music. 

What is revolutionary music? This question should be answered practically, 
but this does not mean that theoretical directives cannot be given. On the con- 
trary, for productive, creative work theoretical clearness is essential. That is 
why we should always be occupied with these questions. It is absolutely neces- 
sary that these questions should be discussed widely in individual countries. 

Today we shall try to establish the following issue : We need nmsic which should 
expose unmerciful class inconsistencies in the period in which capitalism is dying. 
For this purpose vocal music would serve best, but it would be a mistake to think 
that we could apply any music to a text of a political and artistic value. Our 
problem is therefore to find such melodies, rhythms, and harmonies. In other 
words, such methods and nuisical expressions which in turn would ti'ansmit their 
political, artistic contents and would raise it to a higher level. Our music should 
be impregnated with revolutionary energy and consciousness of victory of the 
proletariat. 

We base ourselves on the whole culture which has been created by humanity so 
far. We should utilize everything of value that it contains, but we can do this 
only if we will critically examine it and adapt it to our objectives. We need it 
to utilize its valuable elements and create in-oletariat socialistic mrsic culture. 

The ])r()letariat mtisie should be the music of the masses and should become a 
powerful factor In the liberating struggle of the working classes. One of our 
main problmes is the creation of mass songs and music for workers and musical 
circles. We should not limit ourselves to this only. We should utilize for our 
purjxises the great variety of professional musicians. When we sny that revolu- 
tionary music should he mass music, we mean by this that it should awake the wide 
masses of workers, inspire them, and lead them to struggle. Only undei" the.se 
conditions will it actually become revolutionary music. R wolutionary and prole- 
tarian musicians of all countries. Join the Red single front of the workers. 

IVIr. STRTPTJXr,. Yon said that yon wei'e the inspiration for the 
International Mnsic Bnrt^an. Tliey state the origin and o:enesis of it. 

Mr. Eisi.ER. I was not in this conntry, Mr. Chairman. IVTay I object 
to the readinfr of articles of this kind, old articles from a different time, 
becanse it can only create a kind of hysteria aofainst me. If yon want 
to do somethiii<r for me please ask me about these things. 

The CiiAiRMAX. Mr. Stripling, what is the purpose of your reading 
these excer[)ts ? 

Mr. Stripltxo. The purpose is to show that Mr. Eisler is the Karl 
Marx of comnninism in the musical field and he is well aware of it. 

Mr. Eisler. I would be flattered. 



26 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

Mr. Stripling. In California he indicated that the only thing he 
ever did was to file an application to join the Communist Party — he 
had no knowledge of communism. When he was asked by the board 
of special inquiry, when he entered this country, if he was familiar 
with communism, he said, "No." When he was asked if he had ever 
cooperated with the Soviet Union, his answer was "No." 

Mr. EiSLER. But did I deny I was in Moscow ? Did I deny any of 
the works which I have written ? Was not I questioned about every 
song which I wrote and I gave answers? What do you mean, Mr. 
Stripling? 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Chairman, I intend to show that the Interna- 
tional Music Bureau, as a section of the Communist International, was 
a major program of the Soviet Union in their effort to bring about a 
world revolution and establish a proletarian dictatorship. This In- 
ternational Music Bureau which Mr. Eisler conceived and reorganized 
in 1935, after he had been in the United States, carried on extensive 
activities, which I shall be glad to introduce into the record. Now, 
I W'Ould like to question Mr. Eisler about the origin of it. 

You have admitted that it was your idea? 

Mr. Eisler. It was my idea and the idea of my friends. I assure 
you it was the idea of my friends. 

The Chairman. You have ansAvered the question. 

Mr. Eisler. Yes. I take all responsibility for such a thing, but I 
assure you 

The Chairman. You have already answered the question, Mr. 
Eisler. 

Ask another question. 

Mr. Eisler. Could I finish my sentence, Mr. Chairman? 

The Chairman. You have answered. 

Please go ahead and ask the next question. 

Mr. Stripling. The Soviet Music issue of January and February 
of 1933, No. 1, page 142, entitled "International Bureau of Revolu- 
tionary Music," has the following to say '^ [reading] : 

In February of 1932 there was laid down a firm beginning for tbe Interna- 
tional Union of Revolutionary Musicians. At the initiative of the secretariat of 
the International Union of Revolutionary Theatres, there has been established 
within this organization a musical section. 

During a comparatively short period, the musical section of MORT has done 
considerable work in strengthening the international musical bonds. 

In November 1932, the first international music conference of great historical 
significance took place in Moscow, which was organized through the efforts of 
the musical section of the MORT and Union of Soviet Composers. * * * 

It was decided to create in place of the musical section of the MORT an 
International Music Bureau, which was to have the functions of organizing 
committees for establishment of an International Union of Revolutionary Music. 
The following members were elected to this bureau : Comrade Eisler (Germany), 
Shafer (London), Adoraian, Keller (United States of America) — 

I won't list the other members of the bureau, Mr. Chairman. I 
want to point out that Mr. Eisler was the first one selected as a 
member of the bureau. « 

It continues [reading] : 

For directing the work of the bureau, a secretariat was formed, which in- 
cluded the following members— 

' See appendix, p. 189, for exhibit 9. 





rii'tni'i' of Ilaiins EisliM- in Moscow listfiiintr to Iiis revolutionary sonus poi foninMl on the Russian 
Ganiisohka (accorilion ). Eisler is currently a composer in Hollywood. (From John A. Clements 
Associates, 250 West Fifty-seventh Street, New York. N. Y. 




Picture (if H; 

liy .Moscow 



nns Kislcr conducting the singing of his iiimi<-Ii, ComintcTn ( ( '(iniinunisl Interna l i(jnal i , 
children in Moscow, IJussia. This picture of Kisler in Moscow was taken 9 years after 

he claimed he hail dropped out of the Cominunist I'arty. (From John A. Clements Associates, 

25(1 West Fifty-seventh Street. New York. N. Y. I 



66957 47 (Face p. 26) 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 27 

It lists the members, and there is the name of Mr. Eisler. [Continues 
reading:] 

The principal tasks of the 1MB are to unite all of the revolutionary musical 
forces in all countries, to exchanjie musical experience and nmsical material 
among ditTerent countries, to attract into the ranks of the revolutionary musical 
front the better representatives of the workers' intelligensia, to create sections 
in the cai)italistic countries, and to call a world congress for the organization of 
the International I'nion of Revolutionary Music. The American Workers Musical 
League, the CJernian Union for the Advancement of Revolutioiuiry Music, and the 
Japanese Union of Proletariat ^Musicians have already become national sections 
of IMH. 

(The complete article for the record is as follows :) 

[From Soviet Music, .Tamiary and February 1933, No. 1, p. 142] 
International Bx'Reau of Revolutionary Music 

The world economic crisis and the crisis of the whole capitalistic system has 
resulted in an unheard-of unemployment and pauperization of the broad laboring 
masses. In connection with this, notwithstanding the treacherous and counter- 
revolutionary activity of the Social Fascists, the national liberation movement in 
the west is nevertheless progressing. 

In this movement, the revolutionary music plays an important part. In several 
countries (Germany. United States. Japan, and others) the revolutionary musical 
movement has reached considerable scope and already has established a firm 
fighting tradition. The choral song of the German proletariat composer Hanns 
Eisler, Comintern, is well known among us and enjoys popularity among the 
revolutionary workers in the capitalistic countries. The Workers Musical League 
of America, which unites numerous national groups, has given several musical 
presentations at the revolutionary festivals, meetings, and preelection campaigns. 
The Union of the Proletariat Musicians of Japan, which is comparatively young, 
has already developed into a mass organization which unites many of the lower- 
rank factory, village, and street musical circles. 

In February of 1932, there was laid down a firm beginning for the International 
Union of Revolutionary Musicians. At the initiative of the secretariat of the 
International Union of Revolutionary Theatres (MORT) there has been estab- 
lished within this organization a musical section. 

During a comparatively short i)eriod, the musical section of MORT has done 
considerable work in strengthening the international musical bonds. 

In November 1932, the first international music conference of great historical 
significance took place in Moscow, which was organized through the efforts of 
the musical section of the MORT and Union of the Soviet Composers. 

This conference discussed the extent of the report by Comrade Gorodin.skii— 
"Musical Front of the U. S. S. R." — a report on the organization questions was 
presented by Comrade Shargo-rodskii, and also reports of the following repre- 
sentatives of the revolutionary music of other countries: Comrades Shafer 
(United States of America). Yone (Japan), Matter (Austria), Klamamius 
(France), Menazhe-Shalle (Holland), and also a representative of the Baltic 
countries. 

At this conference there was a wide discussion on the questions of musical 
creation, utilization of the musical heritage, the question of jazz music, and 
Soviet musical criticism of the national musical culture, etc. It was decidetl that 
the exchange of musical experience would become the basis for its further 
accomplishment. 

It was decided to create in place of the musical section of the MORT an Inter- 
national Musical Bureau, which was to have the functions of organizing commit- 
tees for establishment of an International Union of Revolutionary Music. The 
following members were elected to this bureau: Comrades Eisler (Germany), 
Shafer, Lan Adomian, Keller (United States of America), Yone, Taro-Hara 
(Japan), Klamamius (France), Morton (England), Salio (Hungary), Matler 
(Au.stria), Menazhe-Shalle (Holland), liertini (Lithuania), and Gorodinskii 
Belyi Feinberg, Gedike, Shishov, Aleksandrov, Chemberdzhi, Shneerson, Asaf'ev, 
lokhel'son, Shargorodskii, and Veis (U. S. S. R.). Besides this, for Germany and 
Austria, where the revolutionary musical movement has developed extensively 
and where it has to fight a strong movement of Social Fascists, there are vacan- 
cies for these places in the bureau. 



28 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

For directing the work of the bureau a secretariat was formed which included 
the following members : Comrades Gorodinskii, Belyi, Saho, Eisler, Aleksandrov, 
Veis, Sharsorodskii, and Shneerson. Comrade Gorodinskii was elected chairman 
of the 1MB and Comrade Shneerson was confirmed as the organizing secretary. 

The principal tasks of the 1MB (MMB) are to unite all the revolutionary 
musical forces in all countries, to exchange musical experience and musical mate- 
rial among different countries, to attract into the ranks of the revolutionary 
musical front the better representative of the workers' intelligentsia, to create 
sections in the capitalistic countries, and to call a world congress for the organi- 
zation of the International Union of Revolutionary Music. The American 
Workers Musical League, the German Union for the Advancement of Revolu- 
tionary Music, and the Japanese Union of Proletariat Musicians have already 
become national sections of the 1MB. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Eisler, when I introduced exhibit 2 and asked 
you to identify the emblem of the Workers Music League, you said that 
it was not affiliated with the international union. 

Mr. EiSLEK. I don't really know. This was a copy from 1932. I 
don't know how that affiliation was. I was here as a composer. If 
somebody asked me about music, I would talk about it. I would make 
speeches about Beethoven for amateur orchestras, and so on. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Eisler, who composed the Internationale? 

Mr. Eisler. A man called Pierre Degeyter. It was written around 
1888. 

Mr. Stripling. Did you ever belong to an organization known as 
the Pierre Degeyter Music Club ? 

Mr. Eisler. I had a lecture there once. 

Mr. Stripling. In the United States. 

Mr. Eisler. Yes. In the Pierre Degeyter Club. 

Mr. Stripling. Do you consider it to be a Communist organization? 

Mr. Eisler. Mr. Stripling, I don't ask anybody is he a Communist 
or not when I go to a club and speak. I was in many clubs and in 
many concerts. I don't check up on them. 

Mr. Stripling. Well, now do you know whether or not it is a Com- 
munist organization? 

Mr. Eisler. I don't know. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Eisler, did you ever lecture at the Communist 
Party headquarters ? 

Mr. Eisler. No. 

Mr. Stripling. You did not? 

Mr. Eisler. No. 

Mr. Stripling. In November of 1935 didn't you appear at the Com- 
munist Party headquarters with your brother, Gerhart Eisler? 

Mr. Eisler. My best recollection is I do not remember. 

Mr. Stripling. You lectured on the cultural movement in the United 
States. 

Mr. Eisler, I was never elected to anything by the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Stripling. Your answer is that you did not? 

Mr. Eisler. To my best memory and recollection, this is not true. 

The Chairman. Your memory is better today than it was in Los 
Angeles, isn't it? 

Mr. Eisler. Yes. 

The Chairman. So you can recall whether you attended such a 
meeting with your brother Gerhart. 

Mr. Eisler. I really cannot recall. I am not a coward. I really do 
not recall. 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 29 

The Chairman. Is your answer "yes" or "no" ? 

I\Ir. Eisi.KK. iVIy answer is that I don't remember it. 

Mr. Stiui'lixg. AVere you a member ol: the Pierre Degeyter Club? 

Mr. EisLER. Never. 

Mr. Striplixg. You were not ? 

Mr. EiSLER. T was a ouost. At this time T was exactly 10 days in 
Xew York. AVhen I came back it was already dissolved. How could 
I be a member? Mavbe thev made nice remarks about me, but I don't 
know. 

Ml-. Striplixg. Mr. Chairman, we liave here the record of the Pierre 
De<reyter Club. Here is the membership roll of the Pierre Degeyter 
Club.^'' Under the "E's" is listed as, I assume, member No. 12, as 
Eisler. 147 Abbey Road. London. I think it is in your handwriting. 

Mr. EiSLER. It is very nice for this young man to elect me, but I lived 
in London, didn't know anything about it. 

Mr. Striplix'g. Is this your handwriting ? 

^Ir. EisLER. No. 

Mr. Striplixg. Was that your address at that time? 

]Mr. EiSEER. In London ; yes. 

Mr. Striplixg. This slates, Mr. Chairman: "Membership roll." 

Now, is this your handwriting [indicating] ? ^^ 

Mr. Eisler. Absolutely; it is. 

Mr. Striplixg. It is written in German, and I wonder if you would 
translate it for the committee. 

Mr. Eisler. The heartiest greetings and wishes — revolutionary 
greetings and wishes to the Pierre Degeyter Club. 

Mr. Striplixg. Would this be it: "The heartiest revolutionary 
greetings and wishes to the Pierre Degeyter Club"? 

Mr. Eisler. Yes. 

Mr. Striplix'G. Signed "Hanns Eisler"? 

Mr. Eisler. Yes. 

Mr. Striplixg. Is that right ? 

Mr. Eisler. Yes. 

INIr. Striplix'G. You wrote that ? 

yir. Eisler. Yes. 

Mr. Striplix^g. Now, Mr. Chairman, among the records which the 
committee has on the Pierre Degeyter Club is one which states, "Pierre 
Dege3^ter Club, predecessor of the American Music League." ^- 

Pierre Degeyter Club was changed to the American Music League. 
Here are tlie minutes of the American Music League for the meeting 
June 15, 1936 " [reading] : 

The minutes of meeting of .Tune S, 19.36, were read and accepted. 

Communications were read : 

1. Ix'tter from district 2 of the Conuuunist Party asking us to adopt a reso- 
lution of protest against the action of the Supreme Court in voiding the minimum- 
wage law and against the power of the Supreme Court. A motion was made to 
send telegi'ams to our congressional representative and to President Roosevelt 
protesting recent Supreme Court decisions and requesting that action be taken to 
curb their power. The motion was amended to send letters instead of telegrams, 
and the amended motion was carried. * * * 



'" See appendix, p. 189. for exhihit 10. 
" See appendix, p. 189, for exhiltit 11. 
^ See appendix, p. 189, for exhibit 12. 
" See appendix, p. 189, for exhibit 13. 

f6957— 47 3 



30 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

4 Letter from the Soviet Union on the subject of the exuberance of musical 
culture of the peoples of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. A motion was 
made and carried that this rather lengthy letter be read at next Monday's open 
meeting and to be part of the program. * * * 

I offer these/* Mr. Chairman, to indicate the complexion, so to speak, 
of the organization. The Pierre Degejter Music Chib published a 
number of songs, some of which were Mr. Eisler's, but its activities 
were not as extensive as those of the International Music Bureau, 
which I would like to return to. 

I have here, INIr. Chairman, what is entitled "International Collec- 
tion of Eevolutionary Songs." ^^ On the front is the hammer and 
sickle. Inside, under the date of 1933, it has the hammer and sickle. 
It siiys "International Music Bureau of lURT, International Collec- 
tion of Revolntionary Songs." 

On page 24 there appears a song entitled "The Comintern March," 
by Hanns Eisler. 

Now, Mr. Eisler, did you compose the music for the Comintern 
March ? 

Mr. Eisler. I composed a march for a theater play in 1926 or 1927, 
which was later popular and got a different title. I am the author of 
the song. 

Mr. Stripling. Of the Comintern March? 

Mr. Eisler. Yes. 

Mr. Stripling. Will you explain to the committee what the Comin- 
tern is ? 

Mr. Eisler. The Comintern was an international organization of 
labor. 

The Chairman. I didn't hear you. 

Mr. Eisler. An international organization of labor. There was 
the First, Second, and Third International. They come together to 
try to unify. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Chairman, this appeared in three different lan- 
guages. In the foreword they have gone to great lengths to point 
out what a great weapon music is in the class struggle. It says 
[reading] : 

We know of some very important historical examples when the song served 
as a mighty weapon for revolutionary agitation, sucli as the period of the 
Russian Revolution in 1917. 

Its extreme importance was again demonstrated by the fact that about three- 
fourths of an editorial article in one of the first issues of Pravda in 1917 (issue 
No. 5) was devoted to the question of song. We read the following — 

The quote from Pravda goes on to say that the workers sang the 
Internationale while behind barricades, and it was an inspiration, and 
so forth. 

Here is another edition published in 1935 in the Soviet Union by 
the International Music Bureau, with the title in four languages, and 
it says "Workers of the World Unite." ^^ 

" See appendix, p. 189, for exhibits 14-19. 

" See appendix, p. 189, for exhibit 20. 

" See appendix, p. 190, for exhibits 21 and 22. 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 31 

[From Soviet Music, January 1934, No. 1, p. 112] 

International Collection of Revolutionary Songs 

(l'ul)lishecl by International Musical Bureau with MORT under the editorship 

of V. Ranim, Moscow Muzglz, 1!>33) 

The collection includes 13 revolutionary songs of the international proletariat 
translated into English, German, and Russian. Each song besides this is being 
published in its national language. Songs which have been arranged by the 
Soviet composers excluding those numbered 3, 4, and 11 were collected by the 
International Musical Bureau at MORT. Part of them have been copied by 
comrades of the revolutionary workers unions in the east and the west. 

Isn't that the slogan of the Communist Party ? 

Mr, EiSLEK. That was the slogan for a hundred years of the Inbor 
movement. 

The Chairman. Mr. Eisler, was your answer that it was not the 
slogan of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Eisler. Oh, yes. 

The Chairman. It is? 

Mr. Eisler. Yes. Also the slogan of many political groups. Not 
exclusively the Communist Party. 

Mr. Striplixg. The slogan is well known, Mr. Chairman, as ap- 
pears on many publications, and so forth. 

In this particular edition, published in four languages, in Moscow, 
there appears another song by Hanns Eisler, entitled "Fifty Thou- 
sand Strong." 

Did you compose tJiat, Mr. Eisler? 

Mr. Eisler. Yes ; I composed it in Berlin in 1930. 

Mr. Stripling. Would you refer to it as revolutionary music? 

Mr. Eisler. Absolutely. Kevolutionary music is a little high hat 
for it. I would call it a song for labor. 

Mr. Stripling. Would it aid in the class struggle ? 

Mr. Eisler. Pardon me? 

Mr. Stripling. Would your song aid in the class struggle? 

Mr. Eisler. I hope it was. 

Mr. Stripling. You hope that it was ? 

Mr. Eisler. I hope it was. 

Mr. Stripling. You have also entertained that hope since you have 
been in the United States? 

Mr. Eisler. My songs are completely forgotten. This is really, 
I would say, a past affair. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Eisler, well, let's see whether it is forgotten. 

I have here a song book, entitled "Red Song Book." This was 
published, prepared by the Workers Music League, witli the hammer 
and sickle on the front, which you said was not a Communist organi- 
zation, and they feature on the back your song, Comintern, by Hanns 
Eisler.^' 

I will read to the committee the words of the song. 

Mr. Eisler. A pleasure. 

Mr. Stripling. Would you like to read them? 



" See appendix, p. 190, for exhibit 23. 



32 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

Mr. EisLER. You have a better pronunciation than I. 
Mr. Stripling (reading) : 

Oh, you who are missing, 

Oh, comrades in dungeons, 
You're with us, you're with us, 

This day of our vengeance. 
No Fascists can daunt us. 

No terror can lialt ; 
All lauds will take flame 

With the fire of revolt, 
All lands. 

The Comintern calls you. 

Raise high Soviet banner, 
In steeled ranks to battle. 

Raise sickle and hammer 
Our answer : Red Legions 

We raise in our might ; 
Our answer: Red Storm Troops. 

Wo lunge to the fight. 
Our answer Red Storm Troops. 

From Russia victorious 

The workers October 
Comes stormiug reactions 

Regime the world over 
Were coming with Lenin 

For Bolshevik work 
From London, Havana 

Berlin and New York 
From London. 

Rise up fields and workshops 

Come out workers, farmers ; 
To battle march onward, 

March on world stormers. 
Eyes sharp on your guns. 

Red banners unfurled, 
Advance Proletarians 

To conquer the world. 
Advance Proletarians. 

Is this one of your little ditties that someone adopted? 

Mr. EiSLER. This song ^vas written in 1926. This is a translation. 
When was the song printed here ? 

Mr. Stripling. Beg pardon ? 

Mr. E'iSLER. When was it printed here? 

Mr. Stripling. This was published in 1932 in New York. 

Mr, EiSLER. In 1932 I was in Berlin. I am not responsible for 
literary translations. My song was written in Germany for a theater 
performance on the anniversary of the German revolution in 1918. 

Mr. McDowell. Who wrote the words, Mr. Stripling ? 

Mr. Stripling. By Victor Jerome. 

Mr. EiSLER. In 1932. 

INIr. Stripling. Other songs which appear in this issue are the Inter- 
nationale, the Barricades, the Builders, Comrades, the Bugles Are 
Sounding, Solidarity, the Workers Funeral March, and others. 

Mr. EiSLER. Very beautiful melody there. 

Mr. Stripling. I have another one here, ISIr. Eisler, entitled 
"America Sings." ^^ 

Mr. Eisler. Yes. 

^^ See appendix, p. 190, for exhibit 24. 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 33 

Mr. Stkii'mng. That was published by the Workers Book Shop, 50 
East Thirteenth Street, New York, N. Y., which is the ollicial ])ub- 
lishiii<>; house of the Connnunist Party. It has a foreword by Earl 
Kobiuson. Aniono; the son<2:s which are contained in America Sings 
are the Comintern, on jiage 11, Conn-ades, the Bugles Are Sounding, 
Internationale, Red Air Elect, Red Elag, Rounds, Salute to Life, 
Scuttsboro Boys, Solidarit}' Eorever, and for some unknown reason 
the Star Spangled Banner, on page 5. 

I have here, Mr. Chairman, an article entitled "The Revolutionary 
Musical Eront,'" by G. Schneerson, which appeared in the Soviet Music 
No. ;> of ]May and June of 1933.^'' It says : 
Tlic League — 

Referring to the Workers League — 

has publishetl several mass songs * * * songs by Eisler and by Soviet com- 
posers which have been translated into the English language. * * * The Amer- 
ican comrades have succeeded in getting into the movement a number of outstand- 
ing musicians and theorists. At tlie head of various organizations are the qualify- 
ing leaders and directors. 

Great assistance in the matter of solving the greatest problem of theoretical 
courses is shown by a musical club called Pierre De Geyter in New York, organized 
by the league. The work in the club is being conducted by snch great musicians 
as Prof. Henry Cowell, Charles Seeger, and others. The league has over 6,000 
active members. A niunber of large choruses and orchestras make the league one 
of the strongest and outstanding factors in the International Musical Revolu- 
tionary front. 

(The complete article is as follows:) 

[From Sovetska-ia Musyka — Soviet Music, No. 3, May- June 1933, pp. 173-175] 

The Revolutio:nary Musical Front 

(By G. Schneerson) 

During the existence of the International Musical Bureau with MORT (to 
November lit32) now known as MRTO, it has received a large number of letters, 
various informative material, musical publications, etc., characterizing the wide 
development of the international revolutionary musical movement. Deeming it 
necessary to devote a number of articles to the review of this material we wish 
to give just a brief review in this issue ; that is, a summary of the letters which 
have been received by the International Musical Bureau from musical organiza- 
tions and collectives and also from individuals. We want the reader to be able 
to picture for himself the part wiiich music plays in everyday political struggle 
of the proletariat abroad and about those ditliculties which the revolutionary 
musical unions experience in the creative and organizing fields. 

* * * Socialistic construction of the Soviet Union and the success of the 
Soviet musical creation had a tremendous influence upon the development and 
growth of the international revolutionary nuisical movement. The Soviet mass 
songs and the old Russian underground revolutionary songs have succeeded in 
penetrjiting into all corners of the globe and have become popular and loved by 
the large ma.sses of the working classes. It is necessary to point out the great 
intere.><t shown by the conn-ades abroad in the Soviet nmsical culture. A great 
ruimber of musical collectives, groups, and individual comrades express in their 
letters their desire to come to Soviet Russia so tliat they can with their own eyes 
see the tremendous success of socialistic construction in the country of all the 
working people, the U. S. S. R., and to get acquainted with Soviet nuisic. 

Most of the letters addressed to the International Musical Bureau are about the 
music;il organizations, the questions of creating revolutionary nuisical unions and 
the growtli and attraction into the movement of tlie largo laboring masses. From 
the letters which we receive from Labor Musical League of America, we learn of 
the conditions under wliich the musical movement in the United States is progress- 

" See appendix, p. 190, for exhibit 25. 



34 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

ing. Despite the difficulties in the matter of consolidation of numerous national 
musical unions (Jewish, Finnish, Polish, Hungarian, Czech, and others) which 
have developed their musical culture but have no social contact among themselves, 
the league has succeeded in uniting more than 15 of these national musical unions. 
For the first time in the history of the American revolutionary movement, at an 
entertainment given in memory of Lenin in New York, on January 22, 1931, a clioir, 
or chorus, of 40 working people of different nationalities and languages sang. 
This had a great inUuence on the success of the league in the matter of uniting 
the separate national unions. At the present time, the choirs and orchestras of 
the leag-ue participate in all revolutionary demonstrations and meetings. The 
directors of the league— Comrades Adomian, Shafer, Atvel, and others— are con- 
stantly working on creating real revolutionary musical works. There have 
already been considerable attainments in this sphere. Comrade Shafer has 
created several large revolutionary pieces for choirs with orchestra. Among 
tJiem are October, and Not One Inch of Foreign Land Do We Want. The presenta- 
tion of lUeBc cantatas in New York in 1932 created a tremendous impression and 
has attracted the interest of the press. 

The league has published several mass songs; one is Stoi Na Strazhe (Be On 
Guard) and Golodnyl Pokhod (The March of the Hungry), both by Comrade 
Adomian ; and songs by Elsier and by Soviet composers which have Ibeen trans- 
lated into the English language. Since December 1932, the league publishes its 
own organ, called Rabocki Muzykant (The Laboring INIusician) , a monthly journal 
containing information concerning the activities of the league. The American 
comrades have succeeded in getting into the movement a number of outstanding 
musicians and theorists. At the head of various organizations ai'e the qualifying 
leaders and directors. 

Great assistance in the matter of solving the creative problem of theoretical 
courses is shown by a musical club called Pierre De Geyter in New York, organ- 
ized by the league. The work in the club is being conducted by such great musi- 
cians as Prof. Henry Cowell, Charles Seeger, and others. The league has over 
6,000 active members. A number of large choruses and orchestras make the 
league one of the strongest and outstanding factors in the international musical 
revolutionary front. 

******* 

Prof. H. Cowell, director of the musical division of the New School in New 
York, together with the Labor Musical League, organized a series of concerts of 
Soviet music in New York. At these concerts were rendered the second quartet 
of Miaskovsky, the first quartet of Mosolov, songs of Gnesin, Koval, and others. 
The rendition of the 12 symphonies of Miaskovsky in Philadelphia has incited 
quite an interest in the American musical public. From Paris they write us about 
the necessity of organizing a series of concerts of Soviet music under the direc- 
tion of one of the best of French directors, Des Ormiers. All these facts indi- 
cate the need for a more secure cultural association with musical organizations 
abroad whose sympathy for the new trends of Soviet art has ripened. 

The First International Musical Conference, which was called by the initiative 
of MORT in November 1932, has helped to show the real state of contemporary 
music in bourgeois countries. On the one side we have the crisis of contempoi'ary 
musical culture in the West, its deterioration, and lack of ideas and creative pow- 
ers of the bourgeois artists who are unable to oppose the destructive process of 
deterioration of capitalism ; on the other side, we have the constant growth of 
workers' musical movements in all countries, which is conducted under the banner 
of class struggle. This is the general conclusion which we can make on the basis 
of the reports made by the delegates at this conference. 

The significance of revolutionary music in the political struggle of the prole- 
tariat abroad, the huge scale of the movement, the great creative problems which 
confront revolutionary musicians in all countries, constantly dictate the need of 
realizing the international circle which would direct and unite the whole move- 
ment. 

The International Musical Bureau, in connection with MORT, which was or- 
ganized at the First International Musical Conference, has for its primary ob- 
jective to create an international union of revolutionary musicians on the basis 
of experience of the existing organizations of MORT and MORP. To create 
actual revoluntionary musical organizations in all countries, to draw into our 
ranks the best representatives of the intelligentsia, to compose our own music, 
the music of class battles, should be our goal. 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 35 

This is tlie orgunization which you autographed revolutionary 
greetings to ? 

Mr. EisLER. Sure. 

Mr. SxKirLixG. I have here, Mr. Chairman, the Soviet publication 
entitled "The International Theatre, No. 1, 1934." ^^ On page 62 under 
the heading "News of the International Music Bureau," it states 
[reading] : 

News of the International Musio Bukeau 

The International Music Bureau has received a number of letters from various 
musical and chorus ensembles of France and Alsace asking to put them in touch 
with the orchestras and clioruses of the largest plants in the U. S. S. 11. 

The Intei-national Music Bureau has worked out, jointly with the cultural 
section of the Central Council of Trade Unions of the U. S. S.. ».,'«" plan for 
organizing such connections on a large scale. 

Erwin Sciuilhof, the author of the musical interpretation of the Communist 
Manifesto, has composed a cycle of songs called Songs of the Revolution of .1917, 
which he proposes to perform during his next visit to the U. S. S. R. 

The International Music Bureau has undertaken to work out musical broad- 
casting programs of international revolutionary subjects. It is to broadcast 
special concerts of revolutionary music four times a month through the 
Conuntern broadcasting station. 

The program will include the works of Eisler, Szabo, Schulhof, Adomian, 
Schaffer, and other composers. 

Mr. Stkiplixg. Here also is a copy of the International Theater, 
No. 2, 1932. On page 11 appears the following article : 

The Revolutionary Musical Movement 

In a number of countries the revolutionary musical movement is assuming 
ever broader forms and drawing ever fresh masses of workers and of the revo- 
lutionary intelligentsia into the ranks of the fighters for a class-directed art. 
This movement is especially strong in Germany, which has already produced 
a number of major revolutionary composers (Eisler, Folmer, Volpe, and others), 
in the United States Schaeffer, Libich, Adohnyan, and others ; and in Japan, 
where many revolutionary songs have been composed, and where, notwith- 
standing the brutal persecution, there exists a union of proletarian musicians 
which carried on great work among the toiling masses of Japan and which has 
already published several books of revolutionary songs). 

The workers' choirs and orchestras in England, France, Czechoslovakia, Swit- 
zerland, Alsace-Lorraine, Holland, and elsewhei'e have considerably developed. 

The revolutionary nmsical movement now includes tens of thousands of workers 
in all capitalistic countries. 

Music in tlie hands of the working class becomes an effective weapon in the 
struggle against the bourgeoisie. Not one big event, not one demonstration, 
meeting, etc., goes by without the singing of revolutionary songs or the appear- 
ance of a -workers' choir or orchestra. 

You never made any objection to their using any of your music, 
Mr. Eisler? 

Mr. Eisi,ER. Not at all. I made no objection if somebody wants 
to ))lay my music. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Eisler, when you were in Moscow in 1935 did 
you give out some interviews or write some articles? 

Mr. Eisler. I think I gave interviews, as usual. Mostly ideas about 
Germany. 

-" See appendix, p. 190, for exhibits 26 and 27. 



36 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

Mr. StriplinCx. I have an article here written by you, which appeared 
in Sovetskoe Iskusstvo, July 29, 1935, page 2, and it has your picture, 
and is printed in Eussia.^^ The title is "The Destruction of Art." 
I won't read it all. If you want it all read, I will be glad to do so. 

You state [reading] : 

Still, I am an optimist with regard to the future because I believe in the inex- 
haustible strength of the organized masses. The darli epoch of fascism makes it 
clear to each honest artist that close cooperation with the worliing masses is the 
only way leading to creative art. Only in a revolutionary struggle will an artist 
find his own individuality. * * * 

Similar developments can be observed in America where the recognized com- 
poser, Aaron Copeland, has composed a mass song The First of May. An active 
role is also played iu the workers musical movement by Henry Cowell, of San 
Francisco-.- • 

All these events, which only 3 years ago could hardly have been foreseen, show 
that for a real artist there is only one way in the Held of art, the road toward 
revolution. It would not be long before there would not be left a single great 
artist on the other side of the barricades. 

Revolutionary music is now more^ powerful than ever. Its political and artistic 
importance is growing daily. 

Mr. Eisler, what do you mean by "on the other side of the barri- 
cades" ? 

Mr. Eisler. Will you repeat the title of this article ? 

Mr. Stripling. The title of it was "The Destruction of Art." 

Mr. Eisler. By whom ? 

Mr. Stripling. By Hanns Eisler. 

Mr, Eisler. No ; I didn't destroy art. You can't criticize me there. 
I spoke on — I guess you can find it — how fascism has destroyed art. 

The Chairman. I don't think that is responsive to the question. 

What was your question, Mr. Stripling? 

Mr. Stripling. I asked him what he meant when he referred to 
"on the other side of the barricades." 

Mr. Eisler. I mean in Germany to fight against Hitler. That was 
my real belief. 

(The entire article is as follows :) 

[From Sovetskoe Iskusstvo, .luly 29, 1935, p. 2] 
THE DESTRUCTION OF ART 

MUSIC IN FASCIST GEKMANY 

(By Hanns Eisler) 

In the field of music, fascism has not created anything original. The obvious 
decline of music in Fascist Germany is due to many reasons. Among the most 
important ones are (1) the expulsion of many great musical talents for political 
or racial reasons, and (2) the liquidation without exception of workers' musical 
organizations which in tlie past enriched musical culture by genuine examples 
of people's art. Finally — and this is of the greatest importance — fascism declared 
war to the finish on all advanced progressive and young movements in German 
music. 

The musical life of the country has, however, not completely stopped. This 
would, incidentally, not have been in the interest of fascism. Although the 
projiaganda value of music is smaller than that of other arts, like, for instance, 
the theater, movies, and literatiire, fascism still tries to exploit it for its own 
interest. 

In order to characterize musical life in Fascist Germany, it suffices to mention 
that great artists no longer appear in concerts, and the young people, isolated 

21 See appendix, p. 190, for exhibit 28. 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 37 

from ino(l(M-ii prosressive movoincnts, are in fact deprived of a chance to study 
seriouslj-. The ti^ht of fascism against genuine mass music has led to a nearly- 
absolute domination of cheapness (Kitsch) which is the essence of the musical 
credo of fascism. Fascist composers are eagerly producing "real (ierman" music 
which can be best characterized by the so-called Kitsch. At the same time, these 
musicians manage to la-ep themselves busy by such honorabk' deeds as the trans- 
formation and "change" of the works created by revolutionary nuisicians. They 
rob shamelessly not oidy musical works of secondary importance but utilize also 
our main works. The Fa.«cists tried in particular to create their own version 
of my Massnahme, but they did not succeed in it because it is not so easy to 
separate the musical form from the deep social content which has defined it. 
Military music of a typical I'rnssian brand is offered in large doses, particularly 
on the air. It seems to the listeners that they are transported to a military 
camp. 

Even if one could refer to some poor efforts toward a Fascist "unification" 
of the opera, it is impossible to note any positive result in this field. There were 
shown lately in Germany a few new operas, but not a single one of them was 
enthusiastcally received, even by the most outspoken Fascist patriots. The new 
opera by Wagner-Regeny, The Favourite, the libretto of which was based on the 
writings of Victor Hugo, is a typical case of imitation, if not of a direct plagiai-- 
ism, of the so-called "neoclassical" music which was cultivated by some groiips 
of musicians prior to Hitler's rise to power. This opera certainly does not con- 
tain anything original. The same can be said, incidentally, about the last opera 
by Richard Strauss, The Silent Woman, which nearly caused a scandal because 
its libretto was written by a "non-Aryan," Stefan Sweig. 

Thus, one can a.ssert that all the trivial, vulgar, and banal elements have 
found their place in Fascist art. 

Even such a great artist as, for instance, Hindeniith, has not escaped the 
degeneration which became the fate of the wliole artistic youth of Germany. 
His latest work, the symphony IMatisse der Maler, shows him as a senile com- 
poser who produces extraordinarily weak works. This fact alone proves beyond 
any doubt that fascism can only degrade music as all the otlier arts. 

The Fascists try hard to discover new musical foi'nis which they could claim 
to be an exclusive part of Fa.scist art. They try to utilize the so-called classical 
heritage of the old Germans to which they add freely the mass works of revo- 
lutionar.v German composers. I have in mind the musical open-air festivals 
("Ting Pliitze'") where the effort is made to re-create tlie old German phiys. 

Unable to create anything original, fascism brutally suppresses all kinds of 
exi)eriments and is moving away from all modern art. Not only we, the revo- 
lutionary musicians, notice it, the best musical specialists of Europe and America 
only shake their heads sadly when people begin speaking about present-day 
German music. 

An American bourgeois journalist, by whom I was Interviewed in Holland, 
asked me whether Hitler was a musician. "Yes," I answered, "he j^iust be an 
artist since he has succeeded in destroying in such a short time the highly devel- 
oped musical culture." 

Remarkable changes have taken, place in Gei'uiany also in the field of musical 
theory. Prior to the Fascist upheaval leading musical theoreticians tried to apply 
the materialist method in their work. This was the result of appreciation of 
and of sympathy for the new ideology, which became the basis for the reshaping 
of one-sixth of the surface of the earth. However, this "low materialism" was 
replaced under Hitler by the most primitive idealism which caused the ol)litei'a- 
tion of the jireviously progressive musical .science of Germany. 

Still, I am an optimist with regard to the future because I believe in the in- 
exhaustible strength of organized masses. The dark epoch of fascism makes it 
clear to each honest artist that close cooperation with the working masses is the 
only way leading to creative art. Only in a revolutionary struggle will an arti.st 
find his own individuality. 

Revolutionary musicians in Fascist Germany are almost completely deprived of 
a chance to work. Rut the revolntionai-y musical movement is expanding and 
becoming stronger all the time. The leading artists of England. France, America, 
and Czechoslovakia are .joining the revolutionary front one after another. One 
can quote many examples. A famous Czech composer is working on an opera, 
the libretto of which is based on the writings of Feodor Gladkov. An old French 
professor. Koechlin, has written an excellent work, a song Lilierate Thiilman. 
An English composer, Alan Bu.sh, is taking part in the workers" musical movement. 

Similar developments can be observed in America where the recognized com- 



38 HEARINGb REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

poser, Aaron Copelancl, has composed a mass song, The First of May. An active 
role is also played in the workers' musical movement by Henry Cowell, of San 
Francisco. 

All these events, which only 3 years ago could hardly have been foreseen, show 
that for a real artist there is only one way in the field of art, the road toward 
revolution.. It would not be long before there would not be left a single great 
artist on the other side of the barricades. 

Revolutionary music is now more powerful than ever. Its political and artistic 
importance is growing daily. 

Mr. Stripling. The next matter, Mr. Chairman, I would like to in- 
troduce, is a translation of an interview with Hanns Eisler, which 
appeared in the Evening Moscow of June 27, 1935. This is quoting 
you, Mr. Eisler : ^~ 

[FFom Evening MOSCOW, June 27, 1935] 

An Interview With Hanns Eisler 

I left Germany after the Reichstag fire. Therefore, I have only second-hand 
information about the latest events in the musical life of Germany. 

It is normal and logical that all efforts to promote the workers' musical move- 
ment are radically suppressed by the Fascist regime. There used to exist in 
Germany quite a large workers' singers union. There was also a community 
of workers' singers. Both were discontinued a long time ago. Not only were 
the workers' unions persecuted by the Fascists but also the leftist elements 
among the bourgeois composers. Even Paul Hindemith who, in view of the 
tragic shortage of people on the musical front, was hurriedly reinstated by the 
Hitlerites, has now lost their confidence. 

Some time must pass before a .voung generation of second-class musicians can 
grow up who will satisfy the political and artistic expectations of Adolf Hitler. 
For the time being the leadership in the musical world of Germany is divided 
between Hans Pfitzner and the vei-y old Richard Strauss. 

Actually very little can be said about Pfitzner. His popularity was never 
very great and was always limited to Germany proper. 

But Strauss was once great. That was very long ago. The scores which he 
is now composing do not add any glorious pages to the history of his creative 
art. Recently the first performance of his new opera based on a libretto by 
Stefan Zweig took place at Dresden. Tlie permission to produce a play by Zweig, 
who is a Jew. in present-day Gei'many reveals the pressing desire (or necessity?) 
to compensate Strauss for his obedience. Alas, this seems to have been the only 
compensation for all the efforts of the composer. His opera had a dubious 
success. 

In Loncron, where I went directly from Germany, I composed a big symphony 
in which I tried to solve a number of purely technical musical problems. There, 
an outstanding French conductor, George Ansermet, conducted the first perform- 
ance of my symphony. I intend to follow up this musical work by a new sym- 
phony dedicated to the victims of the Fascist terror. 

In England I also prepared the music for the popular film Abdul-Hamid (or 
the Fall of a Dictatorship) ; it deals with the struggle of young Turkish revolu- 
tionaries with the feudal lords. In spite of the subject, which was taken from 
a history book, an alert spectator could easily detect a definite similarity be- 
tween the old Turkish dictator and the present Chancelor of the Reich. The 
film was produced by Grunet and had a great success. The main role of Abdul- 
Hamid was brilliantly performed by the famous actor Fritz Kortner. 

Among my works composed in London, I wish to mention further the music to 
the play by Ernst Toller, Tiu'n Off the Lights, dealing with the revolutionary 
uprising of the German sailors in 1917, and al.so a small volume of revolutionary 
songs. I believe that the best pieces in this volume are the Anti-Military Song 
and The Song of the United Front. 

From England I proceeded to America. I have most pleasant recollections 
about this trip. First of all, I succeeded in giving there a great number of 
concerts for the benefit of political prisoners. Secondly, I gave a whole series 

^ See appendix, p. 190, for exhibit 29. 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 39 

of popular lectures on German faseisni. These lectures were always attended by 
very large audiences. For instance, in New York about 5,000 people listened to 
the lectures. In Hollywood and Los Angeles the audience consisted not only of 
workers but of numerous representatives of the progressive intelligentsia. 

The reactionary press of Los An.t;eles started a severe campaign against me 
and demanded my deportation back to Germany. Of course, the authors of the 
articles agreed with my views with regard to the modern German culture. They 
were prepared to protest together with me against the so-called Kitsch in German 
nuisic (sweet and sentimental banality). "These ideas are quite sound," wrote 
the newsi)apers, "They should be used, but the author * * * must be sent 
back to Hitler." 

I am extremely pleased to report a considerable shift to the left among the 
American artistic intelligentsia. I don't think it would be an exaggeration 
to state that the best people in the musical world of America (with very few 
exceptions) share at present extremely progressive ideas. 

Their names? They are Aaron Copland, Henry Cowell, Dr. Riegger (the best 
musical educator), the outstanding musical theoretician Professor Seeger, the 
greatest specialist on modern music, Slouimsky, and finally the brightest star 
on the American musical horizon — the greatest conductor, Leopold Stokowski. 
Recently he even dared to play the Internationale at a philharmonic concert. 
This nearly caused an unheard-of riot which, however, was stopped in time. 

Before my departure from America. I was offered a chair of composition and 
theory at the New York Arts Institute. I gladly accepted this offer because I 
hope to contribute something toward the development of the young American 
nuisical movement. I shall return to New York about September 1. Previously 
I must visit the German writer, Bert Brecht, in Denmark with whom I am 
collaborating on a musical drama on the salability of bourgeois art and scholar- 
ship. 

A telegram from Moscow from the Musical Bureau of the International Union 
of Revolutionary Theaters asked me to attend the festival at Strasbourg. About 
the time I spent at Strasbourg and at Reichenberg, at a Czech international 
festival, I have spoken already to the representative of your paper on the first 
morning of my arrival here. 

Finally. I would like to tell you about my impressions of Moscow where I have 
been invited to come for the reorganization of the Musical Bureau of the Inter- 
national Union of Revolutionary Theaters. 

I have not been here for 3 years. I did not recognize Moscow. To start with, 
I crossed the proletarian capital on a subway. Surely this is the best metro 
in the world. "What exemplary discipline and what shining cleanliness ! 

And on the earth's surface * * * i was most of all impressed by the ex- 
pression of happiness, gay wit. and rather joyful caref reeness on the faces of the 
Soviet citizens. In the capitalist world such an expression has been long ago 
obliterated from the faces of people who are submerged in worries about to- 
morrow. You cannot understand the feelings of a foreigner looking at Soviet 
citizens who have before them such grand possibilities and who are assured 
of such a glorious future. 

I shan't fail to report in America everything I have seen here. The workers 
there and the progressive intelligentisia are watching with great attention and 
full sympathy each new step in the life of your great homeland. This sympathy 
is by "no means passive. I shall never forget the terrific impression made on 
me bv two grandiose meetings in New York organized in protest against the 
fallacious attacks by Hearst on the U. S. S. R. Over S-'i.OOO people attended the 
meetings. The workers, men and women, sacrificed their hard-earned money, 
offered rings and earrings, and shouted "Print newspapers against Hearst." 

At that time I wished very much that some great artist would create a picture 
which would forever tell the story of this act of a strong international solidarity. 

The Chairman. TTill yon come up here a minute, Mr. Stripling, 
please? 

(Pause.) 

Mr. Stripmng. Mr! Eisler, did you write a song entitled "In Praise 
of Learning"? ^^ 

Mr. Eisler. Yes. 



*" See appendix, p. 190, for exhibit 30. 



40 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

Mr. Stripling. I will read the words to this one verse. It says : 

Leai'u now tbe simple truth, 

You, for whom the time has come at last ; 

It is not too late. 

Learn now the A, B, C, 

It is not enough, but learn it still. 

Fear not, be not down hearted, 

Begin, you must learn the lesson 

You must be ready to take over 

You must be ready to take over 

Learn it, men on the dole. 

What do you mean, "You must be ready to take over"? 

Mr. EiSLER. This song appeared in a play which I wrote the music 
for. It was written in 1929 in Berlin. The play was based on the 
famous novel by Maxim Gorki. This theater piece was sung by work- 
ers on the stage. Again, this song became popular to a certain extent. 
It was in this historical play about the struggle of the Russian people 
from 1905 to 1917. 

The Chairman. You didn't mean that you must be ready to take 
over now, did you ? 

Mr. EisLER. Pardon me ? 

The Chairman. I say, You don't mean you must be ready to take 
over now ? 

Mr. Eisler. I can't understand your question. 

The Chairman. You said that it applied to Germany. 

Mr. Eisler. Not only to Germany. It was a show, a musical song in 
a show. It applied to the situation on the stage. 

The Chairman. Would it also apply here to the United States? 

Mr. Stripling. It was shown in the United States. He wrote the 
music for it in the United States. 

Mr. Eisler. No ; I wrote the music in 1929 or 1930 in Berlin. It was 
produced in Copenhagen, in New York — I guess in Paris. It was a 
theater play. 

The Chairman. It doesn't apply only to Germany but applies to 
France and Italy and the United States? 

Mr. Eisler. It is from a quotation by Maxim Gorki, the famous 
writer. The song is based on the idea of Maxim Gorki. This song 
applies to the historical structure of the Russian people from 1905 
until 1917. 

The Chairman. Would you write the same song here now? 

Mr. Eisler. If I had to write a historical play about Russia, I would 
write it — and the poet would let me have the words. 

The Chairman. Would you write the same song here in the United 
States now about "You must take over" here in the United States? 

Mr. Eisler. No. 

The Chairman. You have changed your opinion, then ? 

Mr. Eisler. No; but I am a guest, a stranger here, and the labor 
movement can handle their affairs themselves. That is what I mean. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Eisler, did you ever send greetings to the Soviet 
Union ? 

Mr. Eisler. Sure. I don't remember but there must be some. 

Mr. Stripling. Soviet Music of October 198G, No. 10, page 6, has an 
article Musicians Abroad on the Subject of Stalin's Constitution.^ 

-* See appendix, p. 100, for exhibit 31. 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 41 

You don't hate Stalin, Mr. Eisler? 

Mr. EisLEK. Pardon ? 

Mr. Sthiplixo. Do you hate Stalin? 

]Mr. Eisler. Xo. 

Mr. Striplixg. Why did you tell the immigration authorities that 
you hated Stalin? 

]\Ir. Eisler. T cannot remember tlie fact. If I really made such a 
stuj)id remark I ^vas an idiot. 

Mr. Stripling. You said, "I hate Stalin just as I hate Hitler" when 
3'ou were before the immigration authorities. 

Mr. Eisler. I am surprised. There must be a misunderstanding, 
or it is a completely idiotic, hysteric remark. 

The Chairman. Do you remember? 

Mr. Eisler. I don't remember the remark. I think that Stalin is 
one of the greatest historical personalities of our time. 

Mr. Stripling. This message, Mr. Chairman, refers to Stalin's Con- 
stitution, by Hanns Eisler, and reads : 

Hearty greetings to the constitution of the great socialistic state, based on the 
great principle "From each one according to his abilities — and to each one accord- 
ing to his labor."' It is almost Impossible to encompass with thonght all those 
huge results which your constitution will have for future instruction of the new 
socialistic culture. Each success for the Soviet Union is success for the inter- 
national proletariat. It gives us courage in struggle and binds us to give aU our 
strength in the defense of the Soviet, Union. 

That was written in 1936 after 3^011 had been in this country. 

Mr. Eisler. Did I Avrite this ? 

Mr. Stripling. It says "By Hanns Eisler, hearty greetings." 

Mr. Eisler. I cannot remember. It is quite possible that I did it. 
But where was it written ? 

]Mr. Stripling. It appears in the Soviet Music. 

Mr. Eisler. I see. 

Mr. Stripling. October 193G ; No. 10. 

]Mr. Eisler. Then I wrote it, naturally. 

Mr. Stripling. The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, Mr. Eisler, of 
Moscow, published in Moscow, 1933, volume 63, columns 157-158, gives 
your picture and says : ~^ 

Hanns Eisler — born 1898, composer. Communist, is at the bead of the proletariat 
movement in German music. 

Is that an error on the part of this Great Soviet Encyclopedia to 
refer to you as a Communist ? 

Mr. Eisler. It is an error. They call everybody Communist which 
was active like me. I admitted, gentlemen — I am not afraid about 
anything — I would admit' it. I have no right, especially today, in 
which the German Communists in the last 15 years have sacrificed so 
much, and fought, too — I would be a swindler if I called myself a 
Communist. I liave no right. 

The Communist underground workers in every country have proven 
that they are heroes. I am not a hero. I am a composer. 

(The matter referred to is as follows :) 

[From the Great Soviet Encyclopedia, Moscow, 1933, vol. 63, columns 157-158] 

Hanns Eisler. — Born 1898, composer, Communist, is at the head of the prole- 
tariat movement in German music. He received his musical education in Vienna 

"See aiJiii/iidix. p. 190, for exhibit 32. 



42 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

from 1918 and 1920 to 1925 with A. Schoenberg. He also participated in organ- 
ization of choruses in Austria and Germany. Since 1927 Eisler has talven an ac- 
tive part in the organization and direction of the proletariat musical movement in 
Germany. * * * 

The Chairman. Mr. Eisler, on that point, you said that you made 
application 

Mr. Eisler. Yes. 

The Chairman. To become a member. 

Mr. Eisler. Yes. 

The Chairman. And that application was accepted. 

Mr. Eisler. Yes. 

The Chairman. How long were you a member ? 

Mr. Eisler. I tell you, I remember I made this application around 
January or February in Berlin. I went, it must have been March or 
May, 1926, to Paris, and forgot about the thing; never attended a 
political meeting. I stick to my music. I don't know about politics. 

The Chairman. For how many years were you a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Eisler. I was not really a member, I didn't pay the membership 
dues. I was not active in the political organization of the Communist 
Party. 

The Chairman. You admitted you made an application to become a 
member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Eisler. 1926 ; in Berlin. 

The Chairman. You admitted that you had been accepted. 

Mr. Eisler. Yes. 

The Chairman. I want to know how long you were a member. 

Mr. Eisler. Mr. Chairman, since I went immediately to Paris and 
came back in the fall, to Berlin 

The Chairman. That is all right. How many years ? 

Mr. Eisler. No years. 

The Chairman. How many months were you a member ? 

Mr. Eisler. Technically, maybe for a couple of months. 

The Chairman. Two months ? 

Mr. Eisler. Look, Mr. Chairman, if you join a union and don't pay 
union dues and don't participate in union activities — I am automati- 
cally suspended if I do that. 

The Chairman. You said before that you withdrew as a member. 

Mr. Eisler. I dropped out. 

The Chairman. You dropped out. How long a time was it between 
the time you made application and were accepted and the time you 
dropped out ? 

Mr. Eisler. I made application 

The Chairman. Wait a minute. Was it 2 months? 

Mr. Eisler. I cannot state. I would like to answer it. 

The Chairman. Do you think it was 2 moiiths? 

Mr. Eisler. I cannot say so. 

The Chairman. What is your opinion ? 

Mr. Eisler. My opinion is that when I came back to Berlin again — 
I don't really join up, you know — and I lived my life as an artist. 

The Chairman. You have already admitted that you did 

Mr. Eisler. You have to pay your dues. I don't. 

The Chairman. Would you say 2 months was a fair assumption? 

Mr. Eisler. I wouldn't say so. 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 43 

The Chairman. How long, then? What would you say would be 
a fair time ? 

Mr. EisLER. I couldn't say. 

The Chairman. What? 

Mr. EisLER. I couldn't answer the question. I explained. 

The Chairman. How did you withdraw, by the way? 

Mr. EisLER. The very simple thing that I didn't join, really, a 
political organization of the Communist Party in Germany; I didn't 
pa}' my membership dues, and I was automatically suspended. 

The Chairman. You were suspended? 

Mr. EiSLER. Automatically. 

The Chairman. Automatically. When was that ? 

Mr. EiSLER. That must be in 1926 ; end of 1926. 

The Chairiman. End of 1926 ? 

Mr. EisLER. '26 ; yes. 

The Chairman. You joined when? 

Mr. EiSLER. January 1926. 

The Chairman. That is all. 

Mr. Stripling. INIr. Chairman, I dont think there is any question 
about whether Mr, Eisler is a Communist or not. The point of the 
committee putting all of this material in the record is to show that 
Mr. Eisler was j^ermitted to go in and out of this country time and 
time again when the immigration laws of this country say a Com- 
munist shall not be permitted in this country. 

Mr. Eisler. I told you before that my relations to the Communist 
Party was such a loose thing — loose thing. I will never admit, for 
the German Communists, not only for them but for all the fighting 
people that fought against Hitler, my deepest respect and sympathy. 
It doesn't mean I am a politician — because I don't understand much 
about politics. 

The Chairman. You have already admitted that you were a Com- 
munist for almost a year. 

Go ahead, Mr. Stripling. 

Mr. Stripling. The Soviet Government, the Comintern, wouldn't 
invite a person to come to Moscow to reorganize the International 
Music Bureau if that person wasn't a Communist, do you think, Mr. 
Eisler? 

]Mr. Eisler. We were refugees. We all stick together, regardless 
of our political beliefs — details of our political beliefs. We stick to- 
gether. It was not even possible in 1933 to join the Communist Party. 
This was a very fighting organization. They wouldn't accept a com- 
poser or a fool like me. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Chairman, I have next the issue of Interna- 
tional Literature, published in Moscow in 1933. It is an issue issued 
in January and carries the title "1933-34." ^^ It has an article by 
S. Tretyakov, entitled "Hanns Eisler: Revolutionary Composer — a 
Soviet Writer About a German Musician." 

You are referred to, Mr. Eisler, throughout this article as a com- 
rade. "Comrade Eisler." 

Mr. Eisler. Yes. That is usual in the Soviet Union. You don't 
call a man "mister." 

^ See appendix, p. 190, for exhibit 33. 



44 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

Mr. Stripling. He says [reading] : 

Eisler sits clown to the piano. He pats it witli the palms of his small hands 
like a child pats the water in its tub. He doesn't pedal ; he stamps the pedal 
as if it were a vicious tiling. He breathes loud in rhythm with the march. His 
voice is hoarse and passionate. * * * 

"Eh, hosts, we are your guests. 

Unasked we're here. 
Into our bones you pressed 

Your crutches dear. 
You said : False limbs are best— 

And hand and foot surpass. 
You said : ?Uind folk in the dark 

Push better than the rest. 
No matter. Let the other foot 

Be also torn away, 
But to the bosses' necks 

Our hands will tind the way. 
An army of stumps we are. 
On wooden claws that ply. 
And standing wg bring news — 

The world October's uight." 

That is not like "Open the Door Kichard," Mr. Eisler ? 

Mr. Eisler. Pardon me. I didn't write this. This is a writer that 
writes about me. 

Mr. Stripling. Here is a direct quote 

Mr. Eisler. What book is that? 

Mr. Stripling. International Literature, published in Moscow, in 
1934, a feature article about Hanns Eisler [reading] : 

"These choruses," says Eisler, "are not just musical compositions performed 
for listeners. They are a particular kind of political seminar on problems of 
party strategy and tactics. The members of the chorus work these problems out, 
but they do so in the easily remembered and practiced form of a chorus singing. 
We build this play not for concerts. It is only a method of pedagogic work with 
students of Marxian schools and proletarian assemblies. * * * 

Thus Communist music becomes the heavy artillery of the battle for Commu- 
nism. * * *" 

Mr. Eisler. He has AAritten his interview and he does it in his own 
way. It is not an article by myself. 
(The matter referred to is as follows :) 

[From International Literature No. 5, 193.3-34, pp. 113-118] 
Hanns Eisler : Revolutionary Composer 

(By S. Tretyakov. A Soviet writer, about a German musician) 

(Tliis article was written after a visit to Germany just preceding the Hitler 

regime) 

"Neue Welt," The New World, a large concert hall. The public is going forward 
in a mass. Active natures pusli forward, to progress some thirty steps in a 
quarter hour. Passive natures act as ballbearings to two streams, in and out 
going. The traffic does not demolish the bearings. Elbows are pressed to sides. 
Feet take care of the neighbor's shoe shine. The most ilelicate excuses accompany 
each poke in the ribs. 

That means, this is Germany. 

Men's necks are encompassed by stiff collars, but tlie fingers show labor, many 
nails are broken. The trousers show a pressed crease, but they are old. The 
shoes show wear, are shabby. The faces show an unhealthy skin, are grey, the 
foreheads — prema turily furrowed. 

This is proletarian Germany. 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 45 

In the corridors stand detorniinod lookinji- fignros. Tho collars of their green 
shirts open at tlie neck, the pose — a dare! From hlack hat, sailor types, to 
varnished chin. 

At the gate, the black varnish of Shuppo napes, as Berlin policemen are called. 

At booths in tlie corridor — books: Fadeyev's ]^"i»(teen (the German title of 
Debacle). Ehrenbnrg, Keisner. On a cover, the familiar profile of Ludwig Renu. 
A hand stretches out over heads to take a new issue of Worker's Theatre. A voice 
shouts: "Mdskan Rinxlsi-haii." 

There two friends are saying goodbye to each other with fists raised to their 
shoulders. 

I turn to one : 

"Sugen Sic * * *" 

He pricks his ears siwerely : "Warum sagst du 'Sie'?" 

My companion intercedes: 

In Moscow even communists often address one another so. 

The young fellow turns round Hashing a KIM button. 

This is communist Germany. An entertainment for the benefit of the strik- 
ing iron workers. 

The chairman has on a blue shirt, wears no coat. 

The orchestra is conducted by a man with an accordion. 

The led spokesman — the German Blue Blouse is presenting a number in which 
physical culture movements are interwoven with demonstration shouts. After 
the Blue Blouse — readers, dancers. Then the chairman announces two names. 

Bush and Eisler. 

The names are met by the thunder of hands gone mad. A noise of applause 
as if elephants had stampeded in brushwood. The newsboys are silent. The 
vendors from the booths stretch their necks. Leaning on the backs of those 
before them, colunms bend forward to have at least a view of the stage. 

The singer Bush. Again coatless. Hands in pockets. An air of independ- 
ence. That's how young German workers like to stand and 'look laughingly at 
the gentleman in a top hat, a little hard of breath, who tries, somewhat alarmed, 
to hurry past them in order to ring at the front entrance of his house where an 
enameled plate reads : "Entrance for ladies and gentlemen only. Servants and 
messengers use the back door." 

Nothing about Bush recalls the full dress of the singer, the starched shirt, or 
the roll of notes in hand. 

At the piano a little gnome, with a big head dazzlingly bald, and trousers that 
fall in accordion folds to his feet. 

Hans Eisler, the composer of the songs Bush will sing. 

I have never heard such diction and phrasing as Bush gives. Not a word is 
muffled by the melody. It is hardly clear at first whether it is a song or just an 
intimate talk, an ironic tale making fun of the enemy. 

For instance, a song about: the naive Negro Jim who wants to know why there 
are two compartments in a car : one for whites — another for blacks. Or another 
one with the melody tender as a sentimental romance, with all the naivete of a 
little Gretchen with tightly plaited hair — and the audience sputtering with laugh- 
ter, because the song is about a June radish, red on the outside and white through- 
out, and only the la.st couplet reveals that the radish — is the Social Democrat. 

There Is a song of the English striking miners. A threatening song. At once 
a march and a warning around the words of a genuine miners song. 

The song of an unemployed. Exhausted, worked <iut. sucked out of life blood 
and disillusioned to the limit, shouting ready for a last explosion when he will 
tear out cobhle.'-tones from the pavement with his fingers. And in the midst of 
this cry, a parody on a sentimental school song. 

The irony is not only in the words — it is in the music. There is a f^ong about 
Christmas, where the church choral is turned into a brazen, self-satisfied howl, 
recalling the caricatni-es of Gro.sz where the average resi^ectable German is shown 
as the limit of meanness. 

A song of philanthropists with the chorus : "Yes, this is the pfenning, hut what 
han happened to the mark?'' 

And the threateiung. final shout: "Fight!" 

Bush and Eisler come out to bow, go away and come again to bow. Until 
tired of going tliey render another song. 

The workers ask for their favorite songs. The call for Seife (Soap) is heard 
oftenest. 

66957—47 4 



46 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

Before the 1927 elections, the Social Democrats distributed cakes of soap with 
the words "Vote for S-D" stamped on tliem. Comrade Eisler wrote the little song 
then with the ironic chorus of Social Democrats singing : 

We work up suds, 
And soaping well 
We wash our hands of everything. 

To soap well, in a figurative sense, means to deceive cleverly in German. 
Eisler is famous in two ways : Bush-Esler, as a workers' vaudeville pair ; 
Brecht-Eisler-Dudov, as a dramatic group consisting of the dramatist Brecht, the 
composer Eisler, and the producer Dudov. 

Going to visit Eisler with Dudov, I already knew that he is terribly 
Bohemian — will promise anything and promptly forget, will lose his manu- 
scripts, but there is a man in Vienna, called Ratz, who carefully collects every 
line written by Eisler, systematizes, stores, and publishes. 

I found out that Eisler's march Red Wedding had a circulation, in phonograph 
records alone, of 40,000 and that the march has become the militant song of 
those going to demonstrations and on barricades not only in Germany but also 
in Austria, Denmark, Czecho-Slovakia, Holland, Switzerland. 

From wide clean avenues, we turned off into narrow crooked alleys of old 
Berlin. We found our way through yards and gates in stone fences on which in 
sharp competition Rot Front and Heil Hitler, the five pointed star and the 
swastiska, shouted at each other — traces of the recent election campaign. 

The entrance to Eisler's rooms was closed. Although we had called him on 
the telephone before, he had evidently forgotten. We started to whistle the tune 
of Red Wedding loudly to call his attention on the fourth floor, to the fact that 
we had arrived. 

It was cold autumn already. Through the closed window we could hear, in 
answer to our whistle, a Bach fugue. 

If Hans has immersed himself in the piano you can be sure he will not hear 
a steam siren blown in his very ears. 

We listened to Bach for a long while and continued to whistle until we hit 
some kind of pause. 

Eisler looked at the music tenderly and extolled Bach. He was trying to find 
in him an ally in his struggle for a chorus in which the entire audience joins, 
instead of the contemporary practice of the stage performance and passively listen- 
ing audience, a chorus of a high cultural order which welds people together, 
unites them in a common rhythm and one emotion — this Eisler was seeking 
in those days when the church was cultivating the chorus and drew the genius 
of the time to its aid. 

The concert as musical amusement was obnoxious to Eisler from the start. 
From the beginning he used the stage to ridicule and sarcastically mock the me- 
lodic trance of the public, their philistine love of the sentimental and pathetic, 
known in German as kitch. 

"You want to know what kitch is?" asked Eisler. 
"I'll explain. Here is your Russian kitch." 

And in a funny shaking voice he sings the melody of the Volga Boatman, and 
then another song, and to demonstrate more effectively its quality of kitch he 
sat down at the table, rested his head on a fist and with the other hand grabbed 
an imaginary glass of whiskey. 

In l'J25 he already put to music a series of newspaper clippings : A Marriage 
Ad. A Children's Song of a Little Girl who Lost Her Nose. Ad of Dogs for 
Sale. There were performers, as is customary at bourgeois concerts, in full 
dress and decollete, and then there was a scandal because in the perfumed concert 
hall the stench of the decaying scums of the capitalist city spread from these 
newspaper channels. 

Eisler's journalism appears not only in the text. His music is not merely an 
accompaniment. It is a sounding blow to bourgeois canons of sentimental song, 
naive tune, pompous march, because life has turned ugly and has hidden its mean 
mug ill its tail. 

Eisler's music is not illustrative. Quite the reverse, it is often opposed to its 
text producing a sarcastic effect. 

There are protests all over Germany against the infamous 218th paragraph 
prohibiting abortions. Forty thousand female corpses, the victims of illegal 
abortions, is the yearly score. 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 47 

Eisler writes to the words of Rrecht a dialogue song of a working woman 
begging a physician, who stands strictly by the law, to pei-form an abortion : 

You will an excellent mother make 
For our industry's sake. 
That's what your womb is for. 
Rut then you should be — hep — 
^lust watch your step. 
Enough — the law's the law. 

Bear — and fool around no more. 

• 

This chorus is in the rhythm of a careless dance and the staid figure of the 
Herr Doctor in soup and fish steps out in the shameless steps. 

Eisler sits down to the piano. He pats 't with the palms of his small hands 
like a child pats the water in its tub. He doesn't pedal, he stamps the pedal as if 
it were a vicious snake. He breathes loud in rhythm with the march. His 
voice is hoarse and passionate : 

Eh, hosts, we are your guests. 

Unasked we're here. 

Into our bones you pressed 

Your crutches dear. 

You said : false limbs are best — 

And hand and foot surpass — 

You said — blind folk in the dark 

Push better than the rest. 

In the neighboring room a clock ticks and the neat housewife, accustomed to 
the musical bedlam of her boarder (up to 11:30 when her husband goes to 
bed), brings in three cups of coffee which she serves on a low table. The surface 
of the coffee trembles as Eisler marches on with his cripples. 

No matter. Let the other foot 
Be also torn away — 
But to the bosses' necks 
Our hands will find the way. 
An army of stumps we are 
On wooden claws that ply. 
And stamping we bring news — 
The world October's nigh. 

Eisler rises from the piano. He feels good. Like after a bath. His bald 
head shines. He tells how hard it is to work In one of the most backward 
branches of the cultural movement of the German proletariat — in the chorus 
circles. And he. Eisler, is the leader of the musical opposition. 

Social Democracy has for forty years drilled the German worker in choral 
song which was to have occupied his leisure and raised hiui out of his grey and 
monotonous life. In 1927 workers' choruses performed Beethoven's solemn mass 
and the Social Democrats were triumphant and the Christian Socialists, Catholic 
and Lutheran priests hugging themselves : Let it be Beethoven — ^but it is a mass 
just the same, church singing, whose esthetic charm is after all very close to 
a religious hypnosis. 

The first communist songs broke into the Social Democratic concerts. Their 
programs were sentimental, sweetly ribald and on rare occasions vaguely revo- 
lutionary. 

Forward, forward, toiling masses. 

The communists, Eisler and his group, brought new, burning subjects to these 
concert stages. The songs became concrete and the nuisical quality of the new 
programs so high that after the very first communist concert in 1929 there came 
a stream of petty bourgeois fellow-travelers. 

But the sealed cans of the concert hall were capable of muffling even com- 
munist song. Is it not strange that Eisler's song beginning with the words: 
Sivff on streets should be sung indoors systematically? The conuuunist song 
could not stand this long and came out on the streets in demonstrations, strikes, 
and from the very first it was evident that songs which sounded well on the con- 
cert stage were ill suited to the open air. There it was in the sway of the musical 
turn of phrase and the tastes of megalomaniacs. On the streets, it had to be 



48 HEARINGS REGARDIXG HANNS EISLER 

simpler, rougher, easier to learn, in rhythm with the marching step. But com- 
ing out on the street, tlie song went into a "left deviation," declared the hall 
banned — and this played right into the hands of reformist song. 

So, correcting its error, communist song returned to the concert hall keeping- 
its open air rhythm and the concreteness of its militant subjects. Thus the 
didactic play originated, of which the first sample was Highest Mede written by 
Brecht, music by Eisler, produced by Dudov. 

Highest Mede is the staging of a mass trial. It is the choral rendering of 
a trial before the control comnnssion which gives its decision upon the report 
of four underground agitators who were compelled, for the sake of the cause, 
to do away with a fifth one, who, too weak and undisciplined, put the cause of 
the party in danger. 

The chorus not only puts questions to the reporting communists. It also sums 
up its opinion in choruses, one of the best of which is Huil the Party : 

The individual has two eyes. 
The Party has a thousand eyes. 
The individual knows his moment, 
The Party days and years embraces. 
The Party sees the peoples of the Earth 
The individual only his own block. 

"These choruses," says Eisler, "are not just musical compositions performed 
for listeners. They are a particular. kind of political seminar on problems of 
party strategy and tactics. The members of the cliorus work these problems 
out, but they do so in the easily remembered and attractive form of chorus 
singing. We built this play not for concerts. It is only a method of pedagogic 
work with students of Marxian schools and proletarian assemblies.'' 

On a special dais the four agitators appear and demonstrate before the chorus 
in consecutive stages the way things happened. They don half masks, yellow, 
witli Chinese eyeholes, throw a rope over their shoulders and there is a group 
of Chinese coolies singing its barge hauler's songs, while the soft hearted comrade 
forgets all about agitating and runs, instead, to put stones under the slipping 
feet of the liauling crew. 

The agitation comes to naught. The foreman gets the others to quarrel with 
the comrade. The four comrades explain the mistake to him. The chorus sings 
a song — a fugue on a quotation from Lenin : 

Wise is not the one that made no errors. 
Wise the one that knows how to correct one. 

Unlike the street song, the didactic play does not limit itself to primitive 
melody. It draws upon all the mastership of the composer and the entire 
technical armory of the modern concert. Tlie play put anew the question, so 
recently ridiculed, of a broad canvas, only the canvas is not used as a screen 
for throwing on it figures of the imagination, but as a path that leads to 
communism. 

The play intends to transform people. It is a process of revaluating the 
world. Tills is the slogan of the proponents of the didactic play. 

Thus communist music becomes the heavy artillery of the battle for com- 
munism. 

Eisler's songs and melodies, like the first transient flames of a grand con- 
flagration, flare up now in the hall, now cutting in on the gayety of the march 
in tlie streets, now in the classroom. And here men in lacquered helmets are 
already running, trying to put the fire out by means of rubber clubs, put them 
out by means of hooves of police horses. Remember that Red Wedding was 
written to the order of one of the agitprop troupes. These agitprop troupes and 
their entire repertory are strictly forbidden in Germany. 

On a Berlin street I once saw how a big heavy guy in a gi-eein uniform and 
pince-nez tore into a group of small children, scattered tlieni, slapping their 
cheeks. He slaps their cheeks and pulls their ears to put out the flame of an 
Eisler song the children had started to sing. 

Brecht-Eisler-Dudov made a film Coulet-Vampe about the unemployed who 
settled in tents on the outskirts of the city and the great lesson of solidarity 
among the workers. 

Whose street — this street? 
Whose world — this world? 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 49 

the militant song of the film asks, aiul ends: 

— But don't forgot — Solidarity. 

The film was first cut. mutilated, then altogether prohibited. 
Eisler writes choruses about nnrmployed, about Murder of a Peasant Revolu- 
iio)i, but in one of these choruses are tiie words: 

Place the red roosters 
On monastery roofs. 
Hence — Prohibited. 

Eisler makes the music for the film Nobodij'''^ Land. But in the film there is 
a chorus : 

Worker and farmer, arm, grab your guns, 
Keen the proletariat's bayonet * * * 

Hence — Prohibited. 

Eisler visited the U. S. S. R. He went to Magnitogorsk and noted the songs 
of the migrating Cossacks, new songs, in which the word magnitka already fig- 
ured, he saw how young comnnmlsts build their blast furnace, and how a city 
grows up where yesterday blank fields stared. 

He was thus preparing to write the music for Evens' film Magnitostroij. 

I remember an evening at the hotel Novo Moskovskaya. Froui the window 
the frozen Moscow river and the lights of the Kremlin could be seen. Eisler 
was walking about the room steering away from the gilt beutwood chairs. He 
was excited — only a half hour ago he finished a song. The trousers fell in 
accordion folds down to his heels. He sat down to the piano and, unbelievably 
distorting the Russian, sang in this language: 

Urals, Urals ! 

Iron ore watch. 

Urals, Urals! 

Steep is mount Atac, 

By the Party's orders : 

Pig iron must be got, must be got ! 

The sole hammers at the pedal. The hands strike the keys. The voice 
hoarsely catches : 

And the Komsomol has answered : 
The blast furnace is hot. 

In time to feet and hands, he violently shakes his head demanding that we 
join in. And together, in one chorus, to the consternation of the hotel manage- 
ment, we sing the concluding lines : 

The lapse and shady blades 
We fought with brigades, 
Built and now erected stands 
Magnitostroy. 

Mr. Stripling. Did you write the music for a play Die Mass- 
nahme ? ^^ 

]\[r. Eisler. Sure. 

]\Ir. Striplixg. Would you describe it to the committee ? Describe 
to the committee the plot. 

Mr, Eisler. This play goes back to an old Japanese play and was 
written by a German writer. I wrote the music to it. Three or four 
men are involved in organizational struggle. That is the general tone 
of the play. It is really a condensation of an old Japanese play. 
It was written in 1929 in Germany. 

Mr. Rankix. May I ask what time you are going to recess? 

The CifAiRMAX. We will recess in just a few minutes, and will re- 
convene at 2 o'clock, at which time Mr. Sunnier Welles will be the 
first witness. 



-' See appontlix, p. 190. for c.Khibit 34. 



50 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

Mr. Rankin. I have a conference with the Red Cross in regard 
to relief for the stricken areas along the Gulf coast at 1 o'clock, and 
I may not get back by 2, but I will get here just as soon as I can. 

Mr. Stripmng. Mr. Eisler, you 

Mr. Eisler. The play was written after an old classic Japanese 
play. I have forgot the name. It was just brought up to date by 
the writer, and was a symbolic philosophical play and that is all. 

Mr. Stripling. It dealt with party strategy ? 

Mr. Eisler. Yes. 

Mr. Stripling. It had to do with four young Communists, did it 
not? 

Mr. Eisler. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Stripling. And three of the Communists murdered the fourth 
one because they felt he would be a menace to the cause; is that correct? 

Mr. Eisler. Yes. 

Mr. Stripling. That is the theme of it ? 

Mr. Eisler. Yes. 

Mr. Stripling. We won't go into it further. 

When the immigration authorities questioned you about this play 
do you remember what you told them ? 

Mr. Eisler. I think that I wrote the music to the play. 

The Chairman. You said it was just a play? 

Mr. Stripling. When questioned about it Eisler referred to the 
play as an expedient and stated it was not communistic in nature. 
The real title of the play is "Disciplinary Measures"; isn't that right? 

Mr. Eisler. Yes ; it is a poetical philosophical play. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Chairman, I don't think we can finish with 
Mr. Eisler before lunch. We will have to call him back to the stand. 

The Chairman. All right ; we will recess until 2 o'clock. 

Mr. Eisler, you will take the stand at 2 o'clock again. 

Mr. Eisler. Yes. 

The Chairman. Thank you. 

(Whereupon, at 12 :45 p. m., the hearing was recessed until 2 p. m.) 

afternoon session 

The Chairman. The meeting will come to order. 

Mr. Eisler, will you take the stand ? 

Mr. Stripling. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Chairman, I ask that Mr. Joseph Savoretti 
also take the stand. But I want Mr. Eisler to remain on the stand. 

Mr. Savoretti. 

The Chairman. He is going to be the first witness, then ? 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Eisler, will you withdraw, please ? 

Mr. Eisler. With pleasure. 

The Chairman. Mr. Savoretti is going to be the first witness ? 

Mr. Stripling. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Mr. Savoretti, will you raise your right hand, 
please ? 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give is 
the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Savoretti. I do. 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 51 

TESTIMONY OF JOSEPH SAVORETTI 

Mr. STRiPLiNr.. Mr. Snvorptti, will you state your full name, please? 

Mr. Savoretti. Joseph Savoretti. 

Mr. Stripling. Where are you employed? 

Mr. Savorktti. In the ceuti-al office of the Immigration and Nat- 
uralization Service, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mr. Stripling. What position do you hold with the Immigration 
and Naturalization Service? 

Mr. Savoretti. Assistant Commissioner for Adjudications. 

Mr. Stripling. How long have you been employed by the Immigra- 
tion and Naturalization Service? 

Mv. Savoretti. Thirty years this month. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Savoretti, are you here in response to a snbpena 
which was served upon you? 

]SIr. Savoretti. I am. 

IMr. Stripling. This snbpena also called for you to bring with you 
the file of the Immigration and Naturalization Service on Johannes 
Eisler. Do you have that file with you ? 

Mr. Savoretti. I do. 

INIr. Stripling. According to the information which the committee 
has, Mr. Eisler appeared before a board of special inquiry at Calexico, 
Calif., on September 25, 1940. Do you have a transcript of the ques- 
tions and answers on that hearing. 

Mr. Savoretti. I do. 

]\Ir. Stripling. Will you turn to that, please. 

Mr. Savoretti. The heai'ing was conducted before a board of special 
inquiry on September 26, 191:0, at Calexico. The record is quite 
lengthy, 

Mr, Stripling. Yes. Now, will you look through the record and 
tell me whether or not the following question was asked [reading] : 

What are your jwlitical beliefs? 

!Mr. Savoretti. I have that. 

Mr. Stripling. And what was the answer of Mr. Eisler? 

JNIr. Savoretti [reading] : 

My political belief is : I admire very much the United States. I hate fascism 
in every form and I hate Stalin in the same way as I hate Hitler. 

Question. Are you in sympathy with the democratic form of government in the 
United States? 

Answer. One hundred percent sympathetic. 

Mr. Stripling. Now, Mr. Savoretti, do you find the question there 
[reading] : 

Have you ever belonged to any political party? 

Mr. Savoretti. That follows the one that I have just read. [Read- 
ing :] 

Question. Have you ever belonged to any political party? 
Answer. Never. My life is wholly devoted to nuisic. 

Mr, Stripling. Do you find the following question [reading] : 

Are you acquainted with the principles of the Communist Party? 

Mr, Savoretti. I do. 

Mr. Stripling. And the answer to that? 



52 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

Mr. Savoretti. (reading) : 

Answer. No. 

Mr. Stripling. Do you find the question [reading] : 

Are you aware of the fact the party advocates the overthrow of the United 
States by force? 

Mr. Savoretti. 'Well, the question reads : 

Question. Are you aware of the fact that that party advocates the overthrow 
of the Government of the United States by force? 

and the answer is [reading] : "Yes." 

Mr. Stripling. Do you find this question [reading] : 

Have you ever been affiliated with the Communist Party in any manner? 

Mr. Savoretti. I do. 

Mr. Stripling. And the answer? 

Mr. Savoretti (reading) : "No." 

Mr. Stripling. Do you find this question [reading] : 

Did you ever cooperate with the present Soviet regime? 

Mr. Savoretti. I do. 

Mr. Stripling. And the answer ? 

Mr. Savoretti (reading) : "Not at all." 

Mr. Stripling. Now, Mr. Savoretti, do you also have in the file any 
testimony taken in connection with an application or for an extension 
of an application ? 

Mr. Savoretti. I do. 

Mr. Stripling. Would you turn to that, please. 

Would you state the date of the hearing and the place ? 

Mr. Savoretti. This was a statement made by Mr. Eisler on March 
27, 1039, before Inspector McDowell, then in the New York office of 
the service. 

Mr. Stripling. Are there any questions contained in that transcript 
dealing with the political affiliation or possible political affiliation of 
Mr. Eisler? 

Mr. Savoretti. There are. 

Mr. Stripling. Would you read those, please. 

Mr. Savoretti. On page 3 of the reported statement there is a 
question [reading] : 

Do you advocate the overtlirow of tlie present United States form of gov- 
ernment ? 

The answer is : "No." 

Question. Are — 

possibly if I could read a few of the questions without skipping? 
Mr. Stripling. Is that all right? 
The Chairman. So ordered. 
Mr. Savoretti. (reading) : 

Question. Are you a subscriber to any newspaper — by that I mean any radical 
newspaper? 

Answer. No. 

Question. You have been a guest lecturer at the New York New School of 
Research. Just what is the subject you teach there? 

Answer. I teach music composition, technical ; and, second, is a class instruc- 
tion in music. 

Question. Just what is the principle of the school? Is it political? 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 53 

Answer. Mostly they me interested in sociology and philosophy. 
Question. Since yonr an-iv;il in th(> Ignited States January 21, 1938, at the 
port of New York, what cities have you been in? 

Answer. Only New York; but I was at Valley Cottage in the summertime. 

The CiiAiKM.vN. Could you speak a little louder? 
Mr. Savoretti. ( reading) : 

It is nearer Nyack, N. Y. 

Question. This Valley Cottage, is that the name of some colony run by some 
organization? 

Answer. It is a private house which we took for the summer months. 

Question. In the composition of the songs which you have composed in the 
past, would you say the basis or theme was the advocating or overthrow of the 
Government? 

Answer. No. 

Question. Was it anti-Nazi in cliaracter? 

Answer. Yes. 

Question. Were you ever arrested and convicted? 

Answer. No. 

Question. Have you ever been in any difficulty or trouble with the police, any- 
time, any place? 

Answer. I wasn't really in trouble, but the last week of my stay in Berlin 
I was questioned by the jwlice as to what I was doing. 

Question. Then, from what you state, you have never been in prison anytime, 
any place, anywhere in the world? 

Answer. No. 

Question. How did you come in contact with the New School of Social Re- 
search? 

Answer. The New School of Social Research has a very fine faculty of refugee 
professors who are well known to the world, so naturally I wrote to them asking 
if I could have a chance to lecture at their institution. 

Question. Have you taken part in any demonstrations or any political rallies 
in the United States since your arrival January 21, 1938? 

Answer. No. 

Mr. Stripling. Was Mr. Eisler questioned concerning liis political 
affiliations? 

Mr. Savoretti. I might start here : 

Question. I have an article in front of me which states that Hanns Eisler is 
a revolutionary German refu.gee composer. AVould you say that statement is 
correct? 

Answer. That is incorrect. I am an anti-Nazi refugee. 

(.^)uestion. Were you aware that such a statement was made in the Daily 
Worker relating to your political activities? 

Answer. I don't remember. 

Question. Did you ever take issue at any time with certain newspapers in this 
country tliat might have printed certain statements relative to your political 
activities? 

Answer. No. I let it stand. 

Question. Since your arrival in the United States January 21, 1938, have you 
joined any organization in the United States? 

Answer. No. 

Qnostion. Yon previously stated you took no part in any demonstration or 
rally that niiglit occur in the United States; is that correct? 

Answer. Yes. 

Question. How often do you attend the New School of Social Research? 

An.swer. Twice a week; 8 o'clock in the evening and 4 o'clock Saturday 
afternoon. 

Question. Wliere is the New School of Social Research located? 

Answer. 66 West Twelfth Street, New York City. 

Mr. Stripling. Pardon me, Mr. Savoretti 

Mr. Savoretti. I was trying to get througli. 

Mr. Stripling. Yes. We will go into the New School of Social 
Research with a later question. 



54 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

Mr. Savoretti. Here is a question [reading] : 

Question. Did you make any remarks relative to your political thoughts at 
this meeting — 

that was at a meeting in Boston. 

Answer. No. 

Question. Were you a member of any workers' party in Germany? 

Answer. No. 

Mr. Stripling. I think that is enough. 
Mr. Savoretti, these statements were made under oath? 
Mr. Savoretti. That is correct, sir. 

Mr. Stripling. Is there any penalty for swearing falsely in these 
statements ? 

Mr. Savoretti. Yes. The penalty is perjury. 
There is one question here [reading] : 

Question. Have you ever been a member of the Communist Party? 
Answer. No. 

Mr. Stripling. That is all, Mr. Savoretti, at this time. 
Mr. Eisler, would you take the microphone, please, and put it in 
front of you. 

TESTIMONY OF HANNS EISLER— Resumed 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Eisler, you stated that you have a sister in the 
United States. 

Mr. EiSLER. Yes. 

Mr. Stripling. By the name of Ruth Fischer. 

Mr. EisLER. Yes. 

Mr. Stripling. Do you recall receiving a letter from her on April 
27, 1944, addressed to you and your wife ? 

Mr. Eisler. I don't recall it. What kind of letter was it, please? 

Mr. Stripling. In this letter she accused you and her brother Ger- 
hard of being agents of the GPU. She stated as follows [reading] : 

If the local branches of the GPU can succeed in making clever arrange- 
ments for a natural death it will not succeed this time. Not for you nor for 
Gerhard Eisler, Chief of the German GPU division in the United States * * *, 
This time it will not be made so easy for you. You always play with terror and 
are always afraid to take your responsibility for your acts. 

I have made the following preparation : No. 1, three physicians have given 
me a thorough examination. T am now in good health. There is no cause for 
natural death. I am constantly under a physician's care and am taking care of 
myself in a sensible manner. The doctors are informed that in case of any 
trouble they will testify accordingly. 2, a niimber of reputable journalists and 
politicians have been informed aiid possess a copy of this letter. A number 
of German immigrants have also been apprised. 

Do you recall receiving that letter ? 

Mr. Eisler. Really not. 

The Chairman. AVlint was the answer? 

Mr. Eisler. Really not. I don't recall getting such a letter. I think 
the letter is absolutely idiotic. 

The Chairman. Don't you think, Mr. Eisler, if you had received 
such a letter you would be able to recall whether you had gotten it 
or not ? 

Mr. Eisler. Maybe it was sent to the wrong address 

The Chairman. Beg your pardon ? 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 55 

Mr. Eisr.EH. But I read similar things. 

The CiiAiR3rAN. Would you say you never received that letter? 

Mr. EiSLER. It could be possible. 

The Chairmax. "Would you say that you did receive the letter? 

Mr. EisLER. Oh, let's say I don't recall exactly. 

The CiiAiRMAisr. Now, now, you better jog that memory of yours 
a little bit, because it is getting right back to where it was in 
California. 

Mr. EiSLER. Yes. 

The Chairman. If I had received a letter like that, or anyone else 
in this room had received a letter like that, they would know, particu- 
larly if it Avas from our sister. They would remember whether they 
received it or not. 

Mr. EiSLER. Yes. 

The CiiAiR^iAX. So I want 3'ou to answer whether you received 
that letter or whether you didn't receive the letter. 

Mr. EisLER. It is quite a possibility that I received the letter. 

The Chairman. That is not an answer to the question. 

Mr. EiSLER. I say, Mr. Chairman, it is quite a possibility that I 
received the letter. This must be a sufficient answer. I don't recall 
this letter. I have no reason to deny it, but I don't know exactly. 

The Chairman. Yes ; but don't you think that if you had received it 
5'ou would recall it ? 

Mr. EiSLER, No. It is so foolish and idiotic 

The Chairman. That is why you would recall, if you say it was 
foolish. 

Mr. EiSLER. Maybe my wife put it away. It is possible. But let's 
say, for the sake of the record, I received this letter. 

The Chairman. You received it. All right, for the sake of the 
record, he received it. 

Mr. Stripling. All right. 

Mr. Chairman, I don't want to burden the committee with putting 
in any more of this evidence. 

I would like, however, to put into the record as exhibits a number 
of books containing songs of Mr. Eisler.-^ For example, I have one 
here published by the Hand School in New .York, entitled "Rebel 
Song Book," which contains 

Mr. EisLER. The song Comintern, with a different title. 

Mr. Stripling. We're Marching, O Comrades, by Hanns Eisler. 

Mr. EiSLER. It is the song Comintern, with a different title in this 
book. 

Mr. Stripling. I also have another one, Mr. Chairman, entitled 
"Workers Sonir Book," publislied by the Workers Music League in 
1935.29 Forward, We've Not Forgotten, by Hamis Eisler. 

The Chair3ian. Are those the only one you have, Mr. Stripling? 

Mr. Stripling. No. I have one or two others I would like to put in. 

I have here Soviet Russia Today, May issue, 1936. It says, on page 
33 2° [reading] : 

For May Day and every day, timely records of workers' songs. One is Rise 
T^p; another is the Internationale; and another one is In Praise of Learning, 

^ See appendix, p. 190, for exhibits .35 and 36. 
=» Soe appendix, p. 190, for exhibit 37. 
^o See appendix, p. 190, for exhibit 38. 



56 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

which was written by Hanns Eisler and Berthold Brecht for Mother, a musical 
play based on Maxim Gorki's novel of the same name. 

The recorded version has been rearranged by the composer, who supervised 
the recording. The fresh note this song strikes, coupled with its splendid vigor, 
makes this a recording of particular interest. 

Mr. Eisler. That is just what I told you- 

Mr. Stripling. The other songs listed, as I say, are the Interna- 
tionale, Forward, We've Not Forgotten, and also the Soup Song and 
United Front, by Brecht and Eisler. 

Mr. Eisler. I offer as evidence my book, too. 

The Chairman. Just a minute. 

Do you have any others, Mr. Stripling? 

Mr. Stripling. Well, I have a number, Mr. Chairman, but I don't 
think they should be included in the record. 

The Chairman. Now, you want to include this one, too ? 

Mr. Eisler. With pleasure. Here [hands]. 

The Chairman. What is the name of this one? 

Mr. Eisler. Composing for the Films.^^ 

The Chairman. Without objection, it is so ordered. 

Mr. McDowell. May I see it? 

(Book handed to Mr. McDowell.) 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Chairman, those are the only questions I have 
at this time of Mr. Eisler. I should like to point out, however, that 
it might be necessary to bring him back as a witness. He will have 
to be subpenaed back in the Hollywood hearing. 

Mr. Rankin. Mr. Chairman, under the law, it is not necessary to 
resubpena a witness. Just direct him to stay within the call of the 
Chair. 

The Chairman. Well, I am quite confident that Mr. Eisler will 
stay — — 

Mr. Eisler. Pardon me? 

The Chairman. I am quite confident that you will stay within the 
call of the Chair. 

Mr. Eisler. Absolutely. 

]Mr. Greenberg. Are you putting any geographical limitation on 
him when you say "Within the call of the Chair"? 

The Chairman. xVnywhere within the United States, but not out- 
side of the United States. 

Mr. Eisler. Oh, yes. Surely. 

Mr. Greenberg. That is all right. 

The Chairman. Mr. McDowell, do you have any questions? 

Mr. McDowell. Yes. 

Mr. Eisler, you were born in Austria? 

Mr. Eisler. I was born in Leipzig, but I always w^as an Austrian 
citizen. 

Mr. McDowell. During the First World War were vou a member 
of either army — the Austrian or the German Army? 

Mr. Eisler. The Austrian Army. 

Mr. McDowT>LL. Did j^ou work l)efore you became a soldier? Did 
you have a job? 

Mr. Eisler. No. I was in school. 

Mr. McDowell. You were a student? 



^^ See appendix, p. 190, for exhibit 39. 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 57 

Mr. EisLEK. Yes. 

Mr. JNIcDowELL. And after the war was over did you return to your 
school and continue your studies? 

Mr. EisLEK. Yes. 

Mr. ]\IcDowELL. Have you ever worked for anybody? Have you 
ever liad what we call in America a job? 

Mv. EisLEK. Yes. I was a professor of music in the Conservatory 
of the City of Vienna. 

J\lr. McDowell. You taught? You were a teacher? 

Mr. P]lsler. I was a student, a })ostgraduate musical student. I 
taught there. 

Mr. McDowell. In the song Red Front, which I liave before me — 
music by Hanns Eisler — in the publication The AVorker Musician, 
among otlier things, it says this : ''We carry the flag of the working 
class, in the face of our class enemy," and so forth, and various other 
publications bearing your name, w^ith either music or words, or both, 
composed by you, where you refer to the working class. Now, from, 
your testimony here I conclude that your opinion on matters of work, 
as we understand work in the United States, is purely academic. 

Mr. EiSLER. I am a composer and composing is my whole life. 
That is working, too. 

Mv. jNIcDowell. Those are all the questions I have. 

The Chairman. Mr. Rankin? 

j\Ir. Rankin. I think Mr. Stripling has covered it in the questions 
pretty well. 

The Ciiair:max. jNIr. Eisler, on this question of work, you are now 
employed with RKO ? 

Mr. EisLER. No. I was only a free-lancer. I didn't get any job 
the last 

The Chairman. Did you do any work for RKO last year? 

Mr. EisLEK. Let me see. Yes, in spring or at the beginning of 
the year I wrote the score to a picture. 

The Chairman. What is the total amount of pay that you have 
received from RKO i 

Mr. EisLER. I cannot say this immediately. I can say my income 
normally in Hollywood is between $7,000 and $9,000. 

The Chairman. What was the total 

]VIi\ EisLER. A year. 

The Chairman. Received from RKO? 

Mr. EisLER. I have to reckon this out. I cannot recall it. 

The Chairman. It would be in excess of $20,000? 

Mr. EisLKR. In the last 4 years, yes. 

The Chairman. It would" be in excess of $20,000? 

Mr. Eisler. Not even I would say in excess ; but in 4 years, I would 
make every year five or six thousand dollars from RKO — sometimes 
more, sometimes less. 

The Chairman. Mr. Wood? 

Mr. Wood. I have nothing. 

Mr. McDowell. I have just one more question. 

The Chairman. Mr. McDowell. 

Mr. McDowell. Mr. Eisler, did you write the Ballad to Paragraph 
218 ? 3- 

]\Ir. Eisler. I write only music. 

32 See appendix, p. 190, for exhibit 40. 



58 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

Mr. IMcDowELL. You wrote only the music? 

Mr. EiSLER. I wrote only the music. 

Mr. McDowell. You remember the words? 

Mr. EiSLER. Sure, I remember the words. 

Mr. McDowell. Did you write the ballad "Address to the Crane 
'Karl"'?=*^ 

Mr. EiSLER. I wrote the music to it. 

Mr. McDowell. Only the music? 

Mr. EiSLER. I never write words. 

Mr. McDowell. Have you read the words ? 

Mr. EisLER. You mean read? 

Mr. McDowell. Have you read the words ? 

Mr. EiSLER, Sure. 

Mr. McDow^ell. Did you write the Ballad of the Maimed ? ^"^ 

Mr. EiSLER. Of what, please? 

Mr. McDowell. The Ballad of the Maimed — the hurt, the injured? 

Mr. EisLER. Sure. 

Mr. McDowell. The Ballad of the Maimed? 

Mr. EiSLER. I wrote the music to it. 

Mr. McDowell. Did jou write the words? 

Mr. EiSLER. No. I never write words. 

Mr. McDowell. Have you read the words ? 

Mr. EiSLER. Yes. 

Mr. McDowell. Did you write Ballad of Nigger Jim? ^^ 

Mr. EiSLER. I wrote the music. 

Mr. McDowell. You didn't write the words? 

Mr. EiSLER. No. 

Mr. McDowell. You read the words ? 

Mr. EiSLER. I read the words. 

Mr. McDowell. Did you write Song of the Dry Bread? ^® 

Mr. EiSLER. Yes. It was in a play. It w^as a song from a part. 

Mr. McDowell. It was a part of a play. Did you write the words ? 

Mr. EiSLER. No. I never write the words. 

Mr. McDow^ELL. Did you read the words? 

Mr. EiSLER. Sure. 

Mr. McDowell. Did you write Song of Demand and Supply ? ^^ 

Mr. EiSLER. It is one of the songs of the 

Mr. McDowell. Did you write the words ? 
Mr. EiSLER. No. 

Mr. McDowell. Did you read the words? 
Mr. EiSLER. Yes. 

Mr. McDowell. As a composer of the music for the various pieces 
that I have named here, would you be consulted in the words that 
would go with this music ? 

Mr. EiSLER. No. I get the text and then I write the music to it. 
Mr. McDowell. I would like to say, Mr. Chairman — and to the 
members of the committee — that I think all members of the commit- 
tee should examine these exhibits that I have here, and that I have 
just named to Mr. Eisler, who maintains he is a composer of the music. 

33 See appendix, p. 190, for exhibit 41. 
3* See appendix, p. 190, for exhibit 42. 
^^ See appendix, p. 190, for exhibit 43. 
3" See appendix, p. 190, for exhibit 44. 
3' See appendix, p. 190, for exhibit 45. 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 59 

This is mat tor that couldn't be sent through the mails in the United 
States. It deals with atfairs that are entirely out of political matters, 
enirel}^ out of anything except perhaps that of medicine. Obscenity 
is a poor word for it. I don't know what the custom is in Germany 
or in Austria, but such words as are in those sheets havej no place in 
any sort of a civilization. 

Mr. EisLER. They are considered as great poetry. 

ISIr. IMcDowELL. They are considered as what ? 

]Mr. EiSLER. Great poetry. 

Mr. McDow^ELL. Great poetry? 

Mr. EiSLER. Yes. 

Mr. McDowell. Well, great poetry as we are taught in America 
has nothing to do with that kind of truck. Among other things, 
there is a song in there apparently dedicated or written because of 
the laws prohibiting abortion. 

Mr. EiSLER. Yes. 

Mr. McDowell. In Germany. 

Mr. EiSLER. Yes. 

Mr. ^McDowell. This song ridicules the law 

Mr. Eisler. Yes. 

Mr. McDowell. Opposing the prohibition of abortions. 

Mr. Eisler. Yes. 

Mr. ISIcDowELL. In other words, this song would, I presume, in your 
Communist fashion of thinking, urge that the law opposing abortion 
be disregarded. j 

The Chairman. I would suggest that we don't get very deep into 
the question of abortion. 

Mr. Eisler. Mr. McDowell, repeat 

The Chairman. Mr, Rankin. 

Mr. Rankix. I understand that }■ ou have complained that this com- 
mittee had smeared you. 

Mr. Eisler. Yes, Mr. Rankin. 

Mr. Rankix. When you make that charge you are making that 
charge against a committee of the Congress of the United States. 
You realize that, do you? 

Mr. Eisler. Yes. 

Mr. IVIcDowELL. This committee is governed by the rules of the 
House of Representatives. Nothing that this committee has done is 
in violation of the rules of the House, or in conflict with the laws of 
common decency. 

Now, where do you get any authority for saying that this commit- 
tee has smeared you ? 

Mr. Eisler. I haven't any authority at all, but if you Jiad made 
such a hearing without giving, every week the last 12 months, things 
about me which are not even sometimes the truth, it would be differ- 
ent. But when you have distortions or inventions of somebody which 
told it to one of the members of the committee, when you go into this 
fantastic press campaign against an artist, I am sure every red- 
blooded artist will be, after 1 year, after you nearly ruined him, very 
angry about this. 

Mr. Raxkix. I am conscious, when I look at this filth here, to which 
Mr. McDowell has referred 

Mr. Eisler. Pardon me, Mr. Rankin. It is not filth. 



60 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

Mr. Rankin. I am conscious tliat anybody that would write that 
stuff would certainly not have much respect for the Congress of the 
United States. But this connnittee has given j;ou more than a fair 
deal, more than a fair trial, more than you would have gotten in any 
other country in the world. In any other country in the world you 
would have fared worse than you have in the United States, if you 
had carried on the same class of conduct that has been brought out by 
the testimony here. 

Mr, EiSLER. I don't know, Mr. Rankin, how you are familiar with 
American poetry. 

Mr. Rankin, American what? 

Mr. EiSLER, Poetry. 

ISIr. Rankin, Poetry. 

Mr, EiSLER, And American writing. This is not American poetry 
or American writing. This was written in German, It is not trans- 
lated. It was written in Berlin in 1927 or 1928 or 1929, I say, again, 
it is great poetry. We can have different tastes in art, but I cannot 
permit, Mr, Rankin, that you call my work just in such names, I 
protest against that. 

Mr, Rankin, I suppose that I am as familiar with American poetry 
and with English poetry generally as any Member of either House. 
And anybody that tries to tell me that this filth is poetry certainly 
reads himself out of the class of any American jDoet that has ever 
been recognized by the American people. 

Mr, EiSLER, I am sorry 

Mr, Rankin, I don't believe I have anything further, Mr, Chair- 
man. 

The Chairman, Mr, Wood? 

Mr. Wood. No questions. 

The Chairman, Mr, McDowell, you have something further? 

Mr, McDow^ELL, Yes. 

Mr. Eisler, you wrote the poem about killing, "About Killing? ^^ 

Mr, Eisler. It was a quotation from poetry. 

Mr. McDowell. It was a quotation ? 

Mr. Eisler. Quotation. 

Mr. McDowell. But you were the author of the poem ? 

Mr, Eisler, No; I just put it together from poetry, I cannot write 
words, you know, 

Mr, McDowell, You merely put this together? 

Mr, Eisler, Yes, from the poetry, I am not a writer, 

Mr, McDowell, Mr. Chairman, I would like permission to read 
these nine lines, which is the entire poem, that Mr. Eisler put together. 

Mr. RjfNKiN. I reserve the right to object. But we will hear him 
read it. 

Mr. McDowell (reading) : 

"Terrible it is to slied blood 

Hard it is to learn to kill 
Bad it is to see people die before their time 

But we must learu to kill 
We must see people die before their time 

We must shed blood 
So that no more blood will be shed." 



^^ See appendix, p. 190, for exhibit 46. 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS- EISLER 61 

]\Ir. Ekslkk. This is a correct anti-Fascist sentiment. 

The Chairman'. jMr. Stripling, do yon have any more? 

^h: EisLER. AVvitten in V>2\) and 1930 in Germany. And when 
!Heidrich was killed in Prague by the Czech people, I agreed with 
this. He is a gangster and he killed innumerable good-hearted peo- 
ple. This is poetry and not reality. The ditference between art and 
real life has to be reconsidered. Take Hollywood, at every street 
corner you can see the most cruel pieces of art, and you can read 
stories in mystery magazines, that you can buy in every drug store, 
which are horrible. I don't like such stuff. This is a little philo- 
sophical poem dii'ccted against gangsters. 

The CiiAiiniAx. Do you have any more questions? 

Mr. Stripling. No ; I have no more questions, Mr. Chairman. 
'That is all at this time.^^ 

"Sir. Raxkix. Mr. Chairman, the American people, of course, have 
just whipped Hitler, but the thing that shocks me is that while our 
i)oys were dying by the thousands over there to get Hitler's heel off 
their necks some of these people come here and attempt to foment 
revolution, in the United States. It is about time the American 
people woke up and put a stop to it. 

The Chair:max. Mr. Eisler, the Chair wishes to direct you to remain 
in the United States. 

]Mr. EisLER. I will. 

The Chairmax. Until you are released by us. 

Mr. Eisler. Yes. 

Mr. Striplix'g. And have him remain for the hearings, Mr. Chair- 
man. 

The Chairman. And be subject to a call from us at the coming 
hearings, which will start on October 20. 

Mr. Eisler. Yes. Do I have to remain in Washington? Do you 
need me tomorrow or another day ? 

The Chairman. Do you want him any more? 

Mr. Stripling. Mv. Chairman, I would like for him to remain this 
.afternoon, please. 

The Chairman. Stay throughout the day in Washington. 

JMr. Eisler. I am to stay in this room ? 

Mr. Stripling. In this room. 

The Chairman. In this room. 

Mr. Greexberg. That is all right. 

The Chairman. That is all, Mr. Eisler. Thank you very much. 

Mr. Stripling. The next witness, Mr. Chairman, is Sumner Welles. 

The Chairman. Mr. Welles. 

Mr. Welles, raise your right hand, please. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
is the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
'God? 

jNIr. Welles. I do. 

The Chairman. Thank vou. Sit down. 



2'' See ai)peu(lix. p. 191. for other musical works by Hanns Eisler, exhibits 47-51. 



CG9.57 — 47- 



62 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

TESTIMONY OF SUMNER WELLES 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Welles, do you have counsel with you? 
Mr. Welles. I have asked Mr. Norman Littell, Mr. Chairman, to 
act as my counsel, in view of the many questions involving the im- 
migration laws and other questions of that kind. 
The Chairman. That is agreeable. 

Mr. Welles. Of course, I ask for no privileges of any kind that are 
not accorded by the committee to any other witness. 

The Chairman. Sit down. Mr. Welles. 

And will you identify the counsel, Mr. Stripling? 

Mr. Stripling. Yes; I will. Mr. Littell, will you state to the com- 
mittee your full name ? 

Mr. Littell. Norman M. Littell, 1422 F Street NW., Washington, 
D. C. 

Mr. Stripling. Are you a former Assistant Attorney General of the 
United States? 

Mr. Littell. That is correct. 

The Chairman. Mr. Littell, did you hear my direction to the counsel 
for Mr. Hanns Eisler ? 

Mr. Littell. I did, unfortunately, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. You did ? 

]\Ir. Littell. Yes. 

The Chairman. The same will apply to you. 

Mr. Littell. I so understand the matter. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Welles, will you state your full name and pres- 
ent address? 

Mr. Welles. Sumner Welles, Oxon Hill, Md. 

Mr. Stripling. When and where were you born? 

Mr. Welles. New York City, October 14, 1892. 

Mr. Stripling. What is your present occupation? 

Mr. Welles. Author and columnist. 

Mr. Stripling. Have you ever held any office or position in the serv- 
ice of the Government of the United States? 

Mr. Welles. Yes; during many years. 

Mr. Stripling. Would you enumerate to the committee some of the 
various posts and positions you have held ? 

Mr. Welles. I entered the Foreign Service in 1915. I went as third 
secretary of the Embassy in Japan. I was then transferred back to 
the Department of State. I was then transferred to the Embassy in 
Argentina. I was then transferred to the Department of State, in the 
spring of 1920, as Assistant Chief of tlie then Division of Latin Amer- 
ican Affairs. Then later I was appointed Chief of that Division. I 
was then appointed Commissioner of the United States in the Domin- 
ican RejHiblic, where I remained — including other special duties — for 
some 4 years. 

I resigned in 1925. I returned to the Government service in the 
spring of 1938 as Assistant Secretary of State. Then Ambassador to 
Cuba. Then back to Wasliington as Assistant Secretary of State. 
And in 1937 I was appointed LTnder Secretary of State, until my res- 
ignation in 1943. 

Mr. Stripling. Now, Mr. Welles, you are here today in response to 
a subpena; is that correct? 

^Mr. Welles. Yes. 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 63 

Mr. Sthii'lixc;. I would like for the record to show. Mi'. Chainnaii, 
that on Aiio-us^t '2C^ you addressed a tele<;raui to Mr. Welles at B;ir Har- 
bor, Maine, requestino- liis appearance and asking him if he would ac- 
cept the tele<2:rani as a constructive subpena. He replied, '"Gladly 
accept teleijrani as subpena. Will appear as indicated September 24." 
When he arrived today a subpena was served on him, and he is here 
in response to a subpena. 

Now, Mr. Welles, in ID.'IO. January 1039. Avere you Under Secretary 
of State for the State Department of the United States? 

Mr. Welles. That is correct ; yes. 

Mr. Stiuplixg. Will you briefly state the general functions of the 
ITuder Secretary of State, as to whether or not he is in charge of visa 
matters. 

Mv. Welles. Under the organization of the Department of State at 
that time, the Secretary of State, of course, was in entire control of 
the Department of State. It was obviously impossible for the Secre- 
tary of State to attend to all of the manifold duties, particularly as the 
months were becoming more and more precarious. 

The division of work in the Department of State at that time was 
approximately as follows : The Secretary of State had general super- 
vision but paid more particular attention to certain political and 
economic questions. The Under Secretary of State likewise devoted 
almost all of his time to certain political questions and to certain 
economic questions, leaving the administration of the Department to 
one of the Assistant Secretaries of State. The administration of the 
Department at that time was in the hands of Mr. George Messersmith, 
I think it can be said without any qualification, one of the ablest, most 
devoted, most efficient public servants I have ever known. 

Mr. Striplixg, Mv. Welles, do you recall receiving any communica- 
tion, either written or oral, from anyone regardino; Hanns Eisler in 
January of 19;^*)? 

Mr. Welles. Yes. The first I heard of his case was on January 11, 
19;J9. by means of a note from the White House which had been signed 
by Mrs. Roosevelt. 

Mr. Strtplixc;. Mr. Welles, may I interrupt you there. Before you 
read that document, I should like to state, Mr. Chairman, that on'the 
14th of February 1937 a subpena was served upon the Department 
of State, calling upon them to produce the records of that Depart- 
ment in the case of Hanns Eisler. AVe have here a number of photo- 
stats of documents which the Department furnished us in response to 
that subpena. 

Now, jNIr. Welles, you stated that your first communication was on 
January 11. 

Mr. Welles. Yes. 

Mr. Stripling. Are you referring to a letter from p:ieanor Roose- 
velt? 

Mr. Welles. That is correct. 

Mr. Stripling. I show you a photostatic copy, which was furnished 
us by the Department of State, dated January 11. the White House, 
addressed, '"Dear Sumner," and signed "Eleanor RfX)sevelt." Is that 
the letter you refer to? '" 

Mr. Welles. That is the letter ; yes. 

•w See apiieiulix, p. 191, for exhihit 52. 



tj4 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Chairman, I would like to read tins letter into 
the record. It reads : 

Dear Sumner: All these papers were brought to me yesterday by a friend of 
Mr. Eisler. The man who brought them is a perfectly honest person and very 
much disturbed. He thinks the State Department has really told the Cuban 
consul that they do not wish to admit the Eislers, and he is perfectly sure that 
the Eislers are not Comnmni.sts and have no political affiliations of any kind. 
He is sure tiiat they believe our foim of government is "iieaven" and would be 
entirely agreeable without reservation to take an oath of allegiance. 

I believe that it is said that the Labor Department did not examine the case 
carefully enough. Why not do it all over again and bring it out in the open and 
let the Eislei's defend themselves V 
Cordially, 

Eleakob Koosevei.t, 

Mr. Welles, do 3011 recall examining the material which Mrs. Roose- 
velt transmitted with her letter of -Tannary 11 ? 

Mr. Welles. I remember that when this letter was received I looked 
through the papers attached to the letter, probably not very carefully. 
I make that comment parenthetically, Mr. Chairman, because I think 
it must be recognized that at that particular time the Under Secretary 
of State was not able to devote the time and attention necessary to 
questions of this character, which did not come directly within his 
province. I am unable, for that reason, to say how carefully I ex- 
amined the papers. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Welles, can you identify 

The Chairman. Just a minute. 

Mr. Stripling. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Even though that communication came from the 
White House? 

Mr. Welles. For this reason, Islr. Chairman : As I have already 
explained, in view of the organization of the Dei)artment of State, 
the highest authority to whom I could refer these questions in the De- 
partment of State would hav3 been the Assistant Secretary of State 
in charge of the administration of the Department, which included, 
of course, the Visa Section. These papers were consequently trans- 
mitted by me to Mr. Messersmith, since I knew that the fullest pos- 
sible consideration would be given to them and that every proper pre- 
caution would be taken in their regard. 

Mr. Stripling. Now, Mr. Welles, did you tell the committee who 
Mrs. Roosevelt was referring to when she said that these papers were 
brought to her by a perfectly honest person who was very much dis- 
turbed ? 

Mr. Welles. The only way I car. give you that information now, of 
course, is through what 1 assinne is hindsight, since later papers 
would seem to indicate that these papers were brought or left with 
Mrs. Roosevelt by a gentleman called Mr. Donald Stephens, I think, is 
the name. 

Mr. Stripling. Can you further identify Mr. Stephens? 

Mr. Welles. I am afraid not. I find here in the file a letter which 
he addressed to me some weeks later, but so far as I know I never 
replied to that letter, and further correspondence with that gentle- 
man was held by other officials in the Department. 

Mr. Stripling. Now, I have here, Mr. Chairman, a photostatic 
copy of the material which was sulnnitted bv Mr. Donald Stej^hens. 
We have not definitely ascertained that Mr. Donald Stephens was the 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 65 

person who siibinittiHl them. TTowevor. from that examination of the 
file it wouhl api)ear so, confirmino- wluit Mr. AA^^lles just said. 

Tlie CiiAiRMAx. Is someone jLTointr to identify Donald Stephens? 

Mr. Stkipmxo. Yes. sir; he will he identified. 

Tn the memorandum which Mrs. Iloosevelt had transmitted to Mr. 
Welles it states, under the headincr of "Hanns Eisler'' ^^ [reading] : 

AUi'v this assurance from the Amerioaii consul in Ciiha tliat he was placed on 
tlif (luota, he Irarned that the Stati' I tcpai-tnient liad informed the consul in 
Cuba not to issue any visa to p]isler until furtlier notice. Through otlier friends 
he has learned that the State Department claimed to have on tile protests from 
patriotic organizations against admitting Eisler. They state that there is a ques- 
tion as to wlictlici- Eisler's views would not bar him from legal entry. Although 
Eisler and his \vi!'e wei'e interviewed last summer by the Labor Department and 
f<iun<l acceptable as immigrants, the State Department claims that the Labor 
Department's examination was supeificial and unsatisfactory. 

The State Department states to interested inquirers that of course the whole 
matter of the Eisler visa rests with the consul in Cuba. The consul in Cuba says 
he has been requested by the State Department not to take any further action 
on the Eisler visa until he hears from them. The Eisler visa expires in January. 
They cannot return to Austria without facing at the very least a concentration 
camp, since both are Jews. If the United States turns them out, they are suspects 
in the eyes of every other country. 

The main point on wliich information would be valuable is. What information 
does the State Department have that is being used against them? The case is in 
charge of Mr. Robert C. Alexander. Are they really pressing this case? Are they 
acting at the instigation of some group; and if so, what group? 

What people or groups should bfing pressure, and where, to have the Eislers 
assured of an immigrant visa? 

Xow. Mr. Welles, you say you did not examine this material. 

Mr. Wei.o:s. I am not familiar with it. 

Mr. Striplixo. Yon referred it to ]Mr. Messersmith? 

Mr. Welles. That is correct. 

Mr. Strlplixg. Did you ask Mv. Messersmith to prepare a reply to 
Mrs. Rooseyelt? 

Mr. Welles. I did ; yes. 

Mr. S'lTJiPLiNG. Was it customary for ISIrs. Roosevelt to communi- 
cate with you on yarious matters? Did she make requests upon you 
from time to time? 

Mr. Welles. I haye had the privilege, Mr. Stripling, of being a 
friend of ]\Irs. Roosevelt for more than 50 years, since I w^as a child, 
and for that reason I liave heard from Mrs. Roosevelt frequently during 
my life, when I was in the Government as well as out. 

Mr. Stripling. Now, your reply to ]\Irs. Roosevelt, as I imderstand 
from the file, was prepared by Mr. Messersmith or his subordinates? 

Mr. Welles. That is correct. 

Mr. Stripling. And you replied on Januar}^ 24, 1939; is that true? " 

Mr. Welles. That is correct. 

Mr. Stripling. Would 3'ou mind, Mr. Welles, reading your reply to 
Mrs. Roosevelt ? 

Mr. Welles (reading) : 

Ja-ntauy l>4. la'W. 

Dkar Er.EA>'OR : T have your letter of .January 11, enclosing a number of papers 
which were brouvdit to you by a friend of Ilaiins Eisler. and I have somewhat 
delayed writing you as I wished the matter to be gone into very carefully. 

It is quite possible that Mr. Eisler and his wife will be able to show that they 
are admissible into the t'nited States under our immigration laws. The de<'ision 



" Spf appendix, p. 191. for exhibit .5.S. 
*^ .See appendix, p. 191, for exliiliit 54. 



66 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

in their cases must be made under the law by the consul general at Habana, to 
whom they desire to apply, and he cannot reach a decision until he shall have had 
an opportunity to examine Mr. and Mrs. Eisler when they call in person at the 
consulate general to apply for visas. This is the customary procedure under the 
law and, although Mr. and Mrs. Eisler may desire to have a decision reached as to 
.their qualification for visas before they leave the United States, this would not be 
practicable. 

Our file- indicates that Mr. Eisler has been connected in some measure with 
communi.stic organizations, and the facts will therefm-e have to be gone into very 
carefully by the consul general when he interviews ^Ir. Eisler and his wife. I 
believe that it would be most helpful to inform Mr. and Mrs. Eisler that it would 
not be possible to have a decision made in their cases until they can proceed to 
Cuba and appear before the consul general. They would have to obtain per- 
mission from the Cuban authorities to enter that country temporarily, and they 
can then call at the consulate general to apply for visas. 

They should, of course, take with them documentary evidence to establish the 
facts in their cases and to support their claims that they are not involved in 
communistic activities and that they do not have affiliations and do not hold 
beliefs which, under our immigration laws, would exclude them from favorable 
consideration for visas. It is impossible, of course, for me to indicate just what 
the nature of this evidence should be, but I think it would be very desirable for 
them to carry letters from some of their responsible friends in this country indi- 
cating that to their knowledge and belief Mr. and Mrs. Eisler do not hold opinions 
which under our immigration laws would exrlude them. 

If it is Mr. Eisler's intention, as I understand it is, to apply for a nonquota visa 
as a professor, he should, of course, carry with him specific evidence from the 
New School of Social Research of his appointment as a professor there. This 
can very effectively be in the form of a letter from the head of the New School of 
Social Research to the consul general at Habana, .setting forth the appointment 
and the salary which Mr. Eisler is to receive. It is also necessary, under the law, 
to establish nonquota status as a professor, that he should have available to 
present to the consul general evidence concerning his teaching activities during 
the past 2 years and evidence regarding the institutions with which he has been 
connected and to which he is coming as bearing upon his qualification as a pro- 
fes.sor of a college, academy, seminary, or university in the terms mentioned in 
the law. 

Mr. Eisler may be assured that the Department only desires that the question 
of his qualification and that of his wife to receive visas shall be determined in 
the usual manner by the consular officer who is responsible under the law for 
deciding this question. Mr. and Mrs. Eisler may also be assured that the consul 
general will accord them every possible consideration. 

I am sending you herewith a duplicate of this letter in case you may wish to 
have it sent to Mr. Eisler. 

Believe me, 

Tours very sincerely, 

[Sumner Wetxes.] 

Mi\ Strtpt.ino. Xow, Mr. Welles. I show you what appears to be a 
very brief memoraiKliim, on the Department of State letterhead, ad- 
dressed to Mr. Messersmith.'*^ Is this your initial? 

Mr. Welles. No. 

Mr. Stripling. Can you identify that? 

Mr. Welles. I think'it is Fletcher Warren, who was at that time one 
of the assistants to Mr. Messersmith. I think Mr. Messersmith would 
be a better authority on that initial than I. But that is rny recollection. 

Mr. Stripling. It occurred to me it might be your initial. 

Mr. Welles. No. 

Mr. Stripling. Now. Mr. Chairman. I have a memorandum written 
on the letterhead of the Department of State. Assistant Secretary, 
dated January 24. 1039. to Mr. Welles, from "G. S. M.," whom I assume 
to be George S. ^Messersmith.** It reads : 

Mr. Welles : Herewith a letter which you may wish to send to Mrs. Roosevelt 
in reply to her note to you of January 11, regarding Hanns Eisler. I have some- 



*^ See apiiendix, p. 191, for exhibit 55. 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 67 

what dclayi'd the reply diic to Hie iifcssurc on nie and dur to our desire to gp 
into the matter very carefully. We have a very full file on this case. 

Yon will note that I am also sendiiifr a coiiy of your letter to Mrs. Roosevelt to 
the con.sul jieneral in Ilaltana, toyetlier with c(M-tain observations to him which 
may be useful — 

si<i-ne(l ''(i. S. M." Do von i-ocall receiving this nionioranduni, Mr. 
Welles? 

Mr. Welles. I recall, undoubtedly, that that is the memorandum 
from Mr. Messersmith to me. 

Mr. Stkii'ltxg. What do you understand by the Lmguage in this 
memorandtnn. ''(hie to the pressui'c on me"? 

Mr. Welles. My understanding of that is extremely clear, although 
I think Mr. Messersmith, again, Mr. Stripling, should interpret his 
own language. 

]\Ir. Stkii'lixc;. What do you tniderstand by the language? 

ISIr. Welles. The imderstanding that I unclonbtedly gave to it was 
that Mr. ^Messersmith. owing to the pressure of work on his Depart- 
ment, wrote this memorandum and that was the reason for the delay 
in his reply. The pressure on him was as great as that on any other 
official in the Department, and it was perfectly understandable to me 
for that reason there might be some delay in preparing the reply I 
requested. 

Mr. Stripling. He says, "We have a very full file on this case.*' Did 
you personally ever examine the file, Mr. Welles? 

Mr. Welles. No ; I did not. 

ISIr. Striplixg. I show you a memorandum on the letterhead of the 
Department of State dated January 20, 1939, marked "Personal to Mr. 
Messersmith," and ask you if yon can identify it, or if you have ever 
seen this memorandum.*^ 

INIr. Welles. I do not recollect having seen this before. It is signed 
by Mr. Mossmyer, who was also an assistant to Mr. Messersmith at 
that time. 

INIr. Striplix'g. He was an assistant to Mr. Messersmith ? 

Mr. Welles. Yes. 

ISIr. Stripling. This memorandum refers to your reply to Mrs. 
Roosevelt. It reads: 

Dear Mr. Messersmith : The attached draft of letter to Mrs. Roosevelt is ex- 
cellent. I have tried to read it from the standpoint of whether Mrs. Roosevelt 
could have possibly gained a misapprehension in regard to the ca.se. 

In this connection. I query whether she might not have informed her friend 
that the Eislers should proceed as soon as possible to Habana to prosecute the 
application for an innnigration visa. 

I realize that if Eisler is unable to establish his nonquota status they would 
probably be unable to get visas before some time in 1940, if at all. and they 
could not — 

"not" is underscored — 

return to the United States on visitors" visas and remain on the waiting list in 
Habana. 

It is possible that if Mrs. Roosevelt knows this, she may prefer not to urge 
them to leave this country, but, rather, seek a further extension of their present 
status and thus make it unnecessary to go into this. But I felt I should raise the 
question — 

Yon have never seen that memorandum, Mr. Welles? 
Mr. Welles. Not so far as I remember. I don't think so. 



** See appenflix. p. 191. for e.xhiliit ."ifi. 
■""See appendix, p. 191, for exhibit 57. 



68 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

Mr. Stripling. Now, Mr. Welles, did you receive another communi- 
cation from Mrs. Roosevelt regarding this case? 

Mr. Welles. I did ; yes. 

Mr. Stripling. I have here, JNIr. Chairman, a photostatic copy of 
a memorandum written on the White House stationery dated- 
February 7, 1939.« [Reading:] 

Meiuorandniu for Hon. Sumner Welles. 

It says : 

See Mrs. Roosevelt's note. 

Then it says : 

Dear Sumner: This Eisler case seems a liard nut to crack. What do yom 
suggest? 

Sincerely, 

[E. R.] 

Have you examined this memorandum, Mr. Welles, in the State- 
Department file ? 

Mr. Welles. I have seen a copy of it, Mr. Stripling. 

Mr. Stripling. Would you explain to the committee just 

Mr. Welles. I assume, Mr. Chairman, that this memorandum from^ 
Mrs. Roosevelt of February 7 was sent to me after receipt of my letter 
which has already been read, the one of January 24, asking if any 
further suggestions could be offered by the Department of State with 
regard to the case under consideration. 

Mr. Stripling. You replied to this memorandum of February 7 on^ 
February 10, did you not, Mr. Welles? 

Mr. Welles. May I interrupt you just a minute, Mr. Stripling? 

Mr. Stripling. Yes. 

Ml'. Welles. It may be, also, Mr. Chairman, that there were some- 
further papers attached of the same type as those with the original 
letter of January 11 from Mrs. Roosevelt. But if that does not show 
in the file, of course that is merely a surmise on my part. 

Ml'. Stripling. I wonder if you would now read your reply to Mrs. 
Roosevelt of February 10, a photostatic copy of which I hand you.*^ 

Mr. Welles. This letter, as you will also see, Mr. Stripling, was- 
prepared at my I'equest by Mr. Messersmith. 

Mr. Stripling. Yes. 

Mr. Welles. With my signature. [Reading:] 

February 10, 1939. 

Dear Eleanor: I have your note of February 7 with which you sent me the- 
letter of February 3 — 

this evidently clears it up, Mr. Chairman. This is obviously the 
enclosure to the memorandum of February 7 to Mrs. Roosevelt, enclos- 
ing a memorandum that had been written by Mr. Stephens. 

Mr. Stripling. Yes. 

Mr. WeIoLes (continues reading) : 

vpith which you sent me the letter of February 3 you have received from Mr. 
Don Stephens from the National Arts Club in New York with regard to Mr. 
Hanns Eisler. You will recall tliat I wrote you on January 24, 1939, with regard 
to this case. 

I have had tlie matter carefully gone into further and I think I should tell 
you that some of the friends of Mr. Eisler entertain some thoroughly wrong. 

■•"See appendix, p. ]f)l. for exhibit 5S. 
^' See appendix, p. 1J»1. for exhibit 59. 



HEARINGS REGAHDING MANNS EISLER 69 

impressions with regjird to tlir attitude of this Department and our tdiisuhite 
general in IIal)aiia in this case. 'J'hese friends of Mr. I^isler are thoi-dugldy 
well-meaninii people, hut they seem to think that this Department and the con- 
sulate general in Hahana have certain prejudices and fixed attitudes with resi)ect 
to his admission to this country. Of course this is utterly without f(»undation. 
These friends of Mr. l-:ish>r, too, seem to think that there is some special con- 
sideration or treat luenf which can he given liim which is not provided f<ir in 
our law or that i>erhaps certain liberties could he taken witli the hiw. 

We in the Department and our consular ollicers in tlie field iire .iust as under- 
standing of and as sympathetic toward the problems of people lilve Mr. Eisler 
as these otiier well-meaning people, but, of course, our attitude in tliese matters 
must he in accord with the law. There is notliing tliat we can do or sugtiest 
that Mr. l-^isler should do that iloes not fall within tliese statutory prescriptions. 

Tlie letter ot ^Ir. Stephens which you sent me does clarify one situation and 
it siives us for the lirst time the definite informaton that Mr. Eisler was not a 
professcn- of music abroad within the letter and spirit of the law through which 
he cotild he jrivcn noiupiota status. It is not clear that he would have to come 
into this country for permanent residence on non-prelerence-(piota status. As 
he is not now on the registration list of the German quota, to which I believe 
he belongs, and could only get on such a list by leaving this country, the problem, 
of course, is a very difficult one. 

I do not believe that it would serve any useful purpose to answer the letter 
of ;\Ir. Stephens in any detail. I believe that the best thing to do would be to 
tell I'rot. Alvin Johnson of the New School of Social Research, and who is very 
much interested in Mr. Eisler, that if he would get in touch with me or with 
Mr. Messersmith here in the Department the next time he comes to Washington, 
we would be very glad to go into this matter with him. Professor Johnson 
has had a good deal of experience in matters of this kind, and I am sure that 
the interests of Mr. Eisler woidd be much better served by Professor Johnson 
taking it up with us in this personal way when he may be in Washington, rather 
than in endeavoring to do so by letter. 

P.elieve ine. with very good wishes, 
Sincerely yours, 

[Sumner Weixes.] 

Afay I make a correction for tlie record, Mr. Stripling? 

iNIr. Strii'lixg. Yes. sir. 

Mr. Welles. In the fourth paragraph of this letter, I read it : 

It is not clear that he would have to come into this country. 

It should read : 

It is now clear that he would have to come into this country for permanent 
residence on non-preference-quota status. 

]\Ir. STRiin.rxo. All right. 

NoAv, Mr. Chairman. 1 have a letter written on the letterhead of the 
National Arts Club. 15 Gramercv Park. New York, N. Y.. dated March 
2, 103D, addressed to Mr. Sumner Welles, Under Secretary. State De- 
partment, Washington. D. C.. reading:** 

My Dear Mr. Wf:LLES : — 

Tiiis letter, ]\Ir. Chairman. Avas written by Donald Stephens. The 
first paragraph states : 

Our esteemed mutual friend Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt has been good enough to 
show me your letters of February 10 in which you made observations relative to 
my letter of February 3 regarding the cn,se of my friends Mr. and Mrs. Hanns 
Eisler. A case of grippe, coupled with acciunulated work, has delayed my reply. 
I have, followed your suggestion and have talked with .Mi-. ,\lvin .Tohnson of 
the New School of Social Research. He. of course, will be glad to do as .von say 
and call on you on his next trip to Washington. However, he is extremely busy 
here in New York and does not know when he will go to Washington next. 

*•* See appendix, p. 101. for «ixhit)it 60. 



70 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

In the meantime I hope it may be possible for yon to relieve the great suspense 
under which Mr. and Mrs. Eisler naturally live by clearing up some of the uncer- 
tainties in this case. 

I was glad to learn from your letter that you and the State Department and 
consular officers in the field have a sympathetic feeling for the problem of people 
like the Eislers. Of course, you cannot do anything which is not in accordance 
with the law — and let me assure you that none of us interested in the Eisler case 
desire any steps contrary to law be taken. 

It seems to me under the circumstances that our viewpoints are similar and I 
feel that, therefore, our ob.iective must be the same. * * * We all feel great 
sympathy for an unfortunate couple from a foreign land who seek asylum in the 
United States because they have lost their country through anschloss and cannot 
return to their homeland without arrest and probable death because they were 
opposed to Mr. Hitler. 

Without any reason having been given, entry under the German quota was 
blocked until almost all possibility for entry into the United States under it before 
3 years have elapsed has disappeared. It is the belief of the Eislers and their 
friends that this was done through false accusations against them by someone. 
But all efforts by them, their attorneys, and their fi'iends over a period of almost 
a year to discover why action on their case was blocked and who accused, and of 
what they were accused, have proven fruitless. 

Since the charges against Mr. and Mrs. Eisler originated here in the United 
Slates and not in Cuba, and since you say you have them in the files of tlie State 
Department, is it not possible under the law to have a hearing in New York or 
Washington in which these charges could be preferred and the Eislers be given 
a chance to answer them? 

If a formal hearing is not possible, might it not be possible to have an informal 
hearing which would achieve the same ends? 

As I said in my letter to Mrs. Roosevelt, I do not know the intricacies of the 
law and procedure, but I am sure there must be some way in which the Eislers 
einild be appraised of the details of the case against them and allowed to reply 
to the accusations. 

I'ou, being so intimately conversant with both the law and procedure, no doubt 
could see ways of helping the Eislers out of the dilemma in which they find them- 
selves. Feeling sympathetically disposed toward them, I am sure that you can 
think of some way to help. Let me put this hypothetical question : AVhat would 
yon suggest if your brother and his wife were in the same unfortunate plight as 
that in which "the Eislei-s find themselves? Surely there must be some an.swer 
other than the advice to penniless emigres that they go to Cidia, where they have 
no friends nor opportunities to make a living, and somehow eke out an existence 
there for several years until they could come in under a new quota. 

The problem, it seems to me, resolves itself into two parts : 

(1) A hearing in this country in which the Eislers would have an opportunity 
to learn the case against them and defend themselves ; 

(2) And if, as we believe, they will be found to have been innocent of the 
charges, that the best solution under the circumstances would be found for them. 

Sincerely yours, 

Donald Stephens. 

Do you recall receiving that communication ? 

Mr. Weli.es. I think this is the communication, Mr. Stripling, as 
T said before, that was enclosed with Mrs. Roosevelt's memorandum — 
or is this a later one? 

Mr. Stripling. That is the later one. 

Mr. Welles. I do not now recall it. but I am quite sure that I never 
replied to it personall}'. 

Mr. StriplinCx. You would refer that to Mr. Messersmith? 

Mr. Welles. That would have been referred to some other official 
of the Department, presumably Mr. Messersmith in this case. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. WeUes, you are familiar with the laws of the 
land regarding the issuance of immigration visas or exit permits? 

Mr. Welles. I believe so. 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 71 

Mv. Strtptjxo. Is it the policy or tlie law of the Department of State 
to grant visas to peoi)]e who are Connnnnists or wlio are strongly 
suspected of being Communists? 

IMr. Welles. Certainly not. 

Mv. Stripltxg. You have heard the testimony and the evidence 
whicii was presented here today. Are you of the o})inion that Mr. 
Eisler was inadmissible at the time he applied for a nonquota visa in 
Habana.Cuba.in 19H0? 

Mr. Welles. Mr. Chairman. I would like to make a statement of one 
or two sentences in reply to that (juestion. with your permission. 

It is very easy, Mr. Chairman, for officials of this Government, or 
ex-oflicials of this Government, to be accused of negligence or dere- 
liction on account of hindsight. It is perfectly obvious that if some of 
the facts that have now been brought out by this connnittee had been 
in my possession at that time, the action which I took would probably 
have been moie far reaching and more careful, but I also want to make 
this point, Mr. Chairman: At the time of whicli we are speaking the 
atrocities that had been committed in Germany had already been 
going on for some years. I think there is no responsible official of the 
Department who is not anxious to have the I'nited States live up, 
within all proper limits of security, to its great record and its great 
traditions as a home for the refugees from political persecution and 
from racial and religious persecution. And I think for that reason, 
Mv. Chairman, that insofar as we felt it possible Avithin the limits of 
the law and of security of the country, that in cases of that kind we 
always gave the most sympathetic consideration. 

It is for that reason that I wanted to answer to Mr. Stripling's ques- 
tion that, of course, a great deal of this information now available to 
me and to my associates was not available. We didn't have the means 
of having it available. And the Department as early as the early 
winter of 1941 took measures to strengthen up the security regulations 
with regard to the issuance of visas. An interdepartmental com- 
mittee was constituted; a higher board was set up within the Depart- 
ment of State. Of course, cases of this kind make it very clear indeed 
that those measures of precaution and security should have been taken 
earlier. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Chairman, I would like to follow that point. I 
asked Mr. Welles if Mr. Eisler, in his opinion, would qualify for ad- 
mission in 1930 if the Department had before them evidence or infor- 
mation that he was a Communist. 

Ml-. Welles. Any evidence which is conclusive proof, Mr. Strip- 
ling, that the applicant for visa is a Communist, of course, automati- 
cally disqualifies him from a visa. I would not attempt to set myself 
up as a court here individually to pass on this particular case. 

Mv. Strtplixg. I realize, Mv. Welles, that according to the file, you 
had no personal knowledge of that. However. I do want to get clear 
before the committee the fact that if Eisler was a Communist, even 
though he might characterize himself as a refugee, he Avas not admis- 
sible to the United States? 

Mr. Welles. The law makes that entirely cleai-. and I have always 
held that to be so. 



72 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

ISIr. Stkipling. Mr. Eisler could have oone to Moscow as lie had 
been doino-. The United States was not the only haven for Mr. Eisler. 
Of course, he subsequently went to Mexico City. 

You did not read the summary of the Labor Department's file which 
was prepared by the Visa Division of the Department of State on the 
case, did you. Mr. Welles ? 

Mr. Wklles. Not to the best of my recollection, Mr. Stripling. 

Mr. STKiriJxo. Mr. Chairman. I will i-eserve this memorandum un- 
til Mr. INIessersmith is called. I would like to point out. however, that 
on October 24, 1939, the State Department had in its file on Mr. Eisler 
a resume of the material at hand on him; the summary and commen- 
tary on that states, "The evidence establishes preponderantly that 
Eisler is a Communist." 

The Chairman. May I ask if that document was in the file of the 
State Department at the time Mr. Welles speaks of? 

Mv. Stkipling. It was. Ilowever, there is nothino- in the file to 
indicate that Mr. Welles ever saw the file or examined the file. 

Now, Mr. Chairman, there are a number of people who interceded — 
ju'ominent people who interceded — in behalf of Mr. Eisler. Those 
Avill be brought out when Mr. Messersmith takes the stand. The only 
reason INIrs. Roosevelt has been brought into it is because it was from 
her that Mr. Welles received these communications. So far as we 
liave been able to determine from the files, this is the only matter in 
which Mr. Welles enters into this case. 

I have no further questions of him. 

The Chairman. Mr. McDowell. 

Mr. McDowell. I have no questions. 

The Chairman. Mr. Wood. 

Mr. Wood. Mr. Welles, I noticed in one of your replies to a question 
you mentioned a Professor Johnson. What is Professor Johnson's 
connection ? What did he do ? Who is he ? 

Mr. Welles. Dr. Alvin Johnson, I think, is now president emeritus 
of the New School for Social Eesearch in New York City. At this 
time he undoubtedly was the active president of that organization. 

Mr. Wood. It was also pointed out in the letter that was read that 
he had oj^portunity to familiarize himself with the workings of the 
Department of State in connection with matters of this sort. Had he 
been interesting himself prior to this time in the admission of people 
into this country? 

Mr. Welles. I think that wording, ISIr. Representative, is used in 
this draft on account of the fact that the New School for Social Re- 
search had given an opportunity for livelihood to a great many refu- 
gees, professors who had sought refuge in this country, and otherwise 
had no means of getting their livelihood, and for that reason, presum- 
ably, he was familiar with the procedures necessary.^ 

Mr. Wood. Are you, Mr. Welles, in position to give the committee 
any information as to the character of people whose admission has 
heretofore been advocated by Professor Johnson ? 

Mr. Welles. Not more than in general terms such as I already have, 
Mr. Representative. I have known one or two of them personally in 
more recent years. 

The Chairman. Mr. Rankin. 

Mr, Rankin. Mr. Welles, as I understood, if you had been in pos- 
session of all the information that has been developed here, it would 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 73 

luive been your opinion tliat Eisjer Avould not have been adniissable to 
the United States? 

-Mr. Welles. I would most certainly, Mr. Congressman, have re- 
quested that a far nioi-e searching and far-reaching investigation be 
made than that which took place. 

Mr. Kaxkin. If 3-0U had had the information that has been de- 
veloped here? 

Mr. Wkllks. That is correct. 

Mr. Kaxkin. That is all. 

The Chairman. Anvthing further? 

]Mr. Stripling. No more questions of Mr. Welles. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Mr. Welles. You are ex- 
cused. 

Mr. AVelles. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. The committee will stand in recess until 10 : 30 to- 
morrow morning, at whicli time Mr. Messersmith will be the first 
witness. 



INVESTKIATION OF UN-AMERICAN PKOPAGANDA 
ACTIVITIES IN THE UNITED STATES 



thursday. september 25, 1947 

House of Representatives, 
Committee on Un-American Activities. 

Washington. D. C. 

The committee met at lU : 30 a. m., Hon. J. Parnell Thomas (chair- 
man) presiding. 

The Chairman. The meeting will come to order. 

The record will show that a suhcommittee is present. Those pres- 
ent are Mr. McDowell, Mr. Thonnas, and Mr. Rankin was here but he 
left the room. He will be back in about an hour. 

Staff members present : Mr. Robert E. Stripling, investigator, and 
Mr. Louis J. Russell and Mr. Donald T. Appell, investigators. 

The first witness will be Mr. Savoretti? 

Mr. Stru'likg. Mr. Savoretti; yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Who is this other gentleman? 

Mr. Savoretti. Mr. Porter of the Inspection Office of the Service. 

The Chairman. Will you rise and be sworn, please. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you shall give shall be 
the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth? 

Mr. Porter. I do. 

The Chairman. Mr. Savoretti was sworn yesterday. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Chairman, Mr. Porter may testify this morn- 
ing and may not, but it is just as well that he be sworn. 

TESTIMONY OF JOSEPH SAVORETTI (ACCOMPANIED BY 
CLARENCE R. PORTER) 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Savoretti, do you have the file of the Immigra- 
tion and Naturalization Service with you? 

Mr. Savoretti. Yes, I have. 

Mr. Stripling. I would like for you to give the committee in chron- 
ological order Hanns Eisler's entrances and departures into the 
United States and from the United States and his various applications 
extensions, and so forth, up to the time he applied for a nonquota visa 
to the consul at Habana, Cuba, which was in 1939. 

Mr. Savoretti. Johamies Eisler was first admitted to the United 
States as a temporary visitor in Feljruary 1935. He arrived on the 
steamsliip Berengar'm at the port of New York and was admitted for 
a period of 3 months. His occui)ation was shown as music composer. 
He was accompanied by a cousin, Louise Yolesch, probably the same 
individual who later became his second wife. He claimed to have 
been born in Leipzig, Germany. 

75 



76 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 



Eisler next arrived in the United States on October 4 

The Chairman. Excuse me, Mr. Savoretti. 

The record will show that Mr. Wood is present. 

Mr. Savoretti. Eisler next arrived in the United States on October 
4, 1035, on the steamship Lafayette^ and he was then admitted for a 
period of 6 months. The indications from the file are that he remained 
in the United States only a period of ?> months. 

Eisler next arrived in the United States accompanied by his second 
wife, having- been divorced from his first wife in Austria, on January 
21. 1938, and was then admitted as a temporary visitor for a period of 
6 months upon presentation of a passport visa issued by the American 
consul at Prar>ue, Czechoslovakia, on December 18, 1937. 

In June 1938, Eisler requested an extension of his term of temporary 
stay for 3 months, his previous admission having been on January 21, 
1938, on the steamship Lafayette. 

Notations, accoi'ding to the file, wei-e made, first that he should be 
allowed to remain for the period of his teaching engagement at the New 
School for Social Research, and a later notation appears on the file, in 
pencil, "For G months,"' and on August 5, 1938, the Acting Secretary of 
Labor signed an order permitting Eisler and his wife to remain in the 
United States until January 21, 1939. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Savoretti, is there anything in your file to indi- 
cate when Mr. Eisler came to the United States for the purpose of 
teaching at the New School for Social Research 'I 

Mr. Savoretti. Ma}^ I proceed in chronological order 'I 

Mr. Stripling. Yes, please. 

Mr. Savoretti. The vertification of his arrival at the time of his 
entry at New York on the steanrship Berengaria on February 13, 1935, 
shows that his purpose in coming to the United States was for a tem- 
porary visit. It doesn't indicate just exactly what he intended to do 
wdien here. 

Mr. Stripling. There is a special statute which provides for the 
admission of professors for the purpose of teaching ? 

Mr. Savoretti. That is correct. 

Mr. Stripling. Did he apply for admission under that statute ? 

Mr. Savoretti. Not at this time. 

Mr. Stripling. Not at that time ? 

Mr. Savoretti. No, sir : he did not. 

The file further shows that a memorandum dated November 23, 1938, 
indicates that Eisler and his wife had submitted applications to the 
American consul at Habana, Cuba, for the issuance of quota visas in 
order that they might make their permanent home in the United States. 

Mr. Stripling. Would you repeat that date ^ 

Mr. Savoretti. November 23, 1938. 

]Mr. Stripling. Does your file show who made the application for 
the Eislers, what law firm ? 

Mr. Savoretti. I have a letter here dated May 20, 1938, from the 
firm of Soffer & Rediker, of 150 Broadway, New York, addressed to 
the Labor Department, Washington, D. C. 

Johannes Eisler and his wife have applied for a quota visa to the American 
consul general at Habana, Culta. Amongst the papers which they suhmitted to 
the consul general was an offer for a contract from the New School for Social 
Research, copies of which I am enclosing herewith. We umlerstand that they 
require a permit from your Department in connection with this application, and 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 77 

\\x)uld aiiprt'ciato it if ynu vim vUhvv send such a permit or advise us how to 
obtain it for the Eislers. If you desire to write to them directly they reside at 
225 West Sixty-ninth Street, New Yorli. 

And the letter is sio-ned "Solt'er c^ Kediker." 

Mr. Stkii'lixg. jNIr. JSavoretti, in ordinary procedure if a person 
ap])lied to a foreign port for a visa would that person be residing 
in the coinitry in which he intended to enter? For example, woiddn't 
the applicant have to go to Habana in this case in order to apply 
properly '( 

Mv. Savoretti. That is correct. Visas cannot be issued in the 
United Slates. The applicant nuist obtain the visa from an American 
consul stationed abroad. 

Mr. STiurLiNG. He has to appear before the consul? 

Mr. Savoretti. That is correct. 

Mr. Stripling. I Avant to make that jioint clear. j\Ir. Chairman. 
AVhat happened, as will be developed, in this case Mr. Eisler, througli 
inlhience, attempted to assure issuance of visa before he left the 
United States to go to Habana. In other words, he didn't want to 
take the chance of leaving this country, going to Habana, and then 
being denied, thus having to reside and remain in Habana, or else- 
Avhere. I understand froniHlklr. Savoretti that is an unusual pro- 
cedure — or is it ? 

Mr. Savoretti. AVould you mind repeating that? 

jNIr. Stripling. In other words, if a person is going to apply for 
a nonquota visa to enter the United States that person is usually in 
a foreign country ? 

Mr. Savoretti. That is correct. 

Mr. Stripling. He is not then in the United States? 

Mr. Savoretti. That is correct; usually. 

Mr. Stripling. Yes. 

Mr. Savoretti. There are some agents who are in the United States 
and do make applications for visas. 

• Let me put it this way: They submit papers to consulates which 
will -uj^jiort an application for a visa when they appear. 

Mr. Stripling. But the consular officer does not advnse him prior 
to his aj^pearance that he v\ill or will not grant it, because it is based 
upon what information he obtains from his investigation as to whether 
or not he will grant it: isn't that correct? 

Mr. Savoretti. I would say so. I can't speak for all consids. bur 
I think that is the general thing. 

Mr. Stripling. Go right ahead. 

Mr. Savoretti. In November 1938. the files show that the Service's 
complete record of the case was forwarded to the De]5artment of 
State for its information and tbe information of the American consul 
fit Habana. 

Mr. Stripltxg. Xow. I think that has brought us up to the point 
we want. If you would step aside, Mr. Savoretti, and Mv. Porter, 
we will call you later. 

I would like now, Mr. Chairman, to call Mr. Donald Appell, inves- 
tigator for the committee. 

The CiL^iRMAN. Mr. A])pen. will you take the stand. Please 
raise your right hand. 

r,fi057— 47 6 



78 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you will give ^vill be 
the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth? 
Mr. xVppell. I do. 
The Chairman. Sit down. 

TESTIMONY OF DONALD T. APPELL 

Mr. Stripling. State your full name, Mr. Appell. 

Mr. Appell. Donald T. Appell. 

Mr. Stripling. And you are an investigator for the Committee on 
Un-American Activities ? 

Mr. Appell. That is right, sir. 

Mr. Stripling. You were appointed in January of this year? 

Mr. Appell. That is right, sir. 

Mr. Stripling. And prior to your appointment you were in the 
Army ? 

Mr. Appell. I was, sir. 

Mr. Stripling. You were an officer in the Army ? 

Mr. Appell. I was a captain in the Finance Corps. 

Mr. Stripling. As a fiscal officer in the Army, did 3^ou conduct in- 
vestigations, make audits, and that type ^f work? 

Mr. Appell. I audited all types of Army accounts. 

Mr. Stripling. You were also an employee of the Bureau of the 
Budset 



*&^ 



Mr. Appell. That is correct, sir. 

Mr. Stripling. Prior to your employment with the Committee on 
Un-American Activities? 

Mr. Appell. That is correct. 

Mr. Stripling. Were you directed by the committee in the early 
part of this year to go to New York and to make an investigation as 
to ^Ir. Eisler's status as a professor W'ith the Xew^ School of Social 
Research in New York ? 

Mr. Appell. I was, sir, and I conducted an investigation into the 
activities of Hanns Eisler as a visiting lecturer and professor in music 
with the New School for Social Research, 66 West Twelfth Street, 
New York City. 

Mr. Stripling. I may say, Mr. Chairman, the purpose of Mr. 
Appell's testimony is to show that Mr. Eisler's position as professor 
with the New School of Social Research was used merely as a sub- 
terfuge in order for him to remain here. You recall Mr. Welles' 
letter read yesterday of February 10, 1939, to Mrs. Roosevelt, in 
which he stated : 

The letter of Mr. Stephens which you sent me does clarify one situation and it 
gives us for the first time the definite information that Mr. Eisler was not a 
professor of music ahroad within tlie letter and spirit of the law throu.iJ:h which 
he could be given nonciuota status. 

Now, Mr. Appell went to the New School of Social Research and 
examined their files and interviewed officials to determine whether or 
not Mr. Eisler did in fact serve as a professor, and just how it was 
arranged. 

AVill you proceed now to relate to the committee the results of your 
investigation, Mr. Appell. 

Mr. Appell. Yes, sir. 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 79 

The iiivostiaatioii iimdo by nie was coiidiictod on April 18. 11)47. 
Inteiviewcd worc^ Diroctor I^ryn J. Ilovde. Desin Clara Mayer, of the 
School on l^hilosophy and Fine Arts, and Issai Hosioski, treasurer 
of tlie institution. Dr. Ho\(le joined tlie school as director in Decem- 
ber of 1045 and was not familiar with the activities of Hanns Eisler. 
Dean Clara Mayer did not clearly recall how Ilanns Eisler first be- 
came associated with the school, but states that his ap])()intmeiit grew 
out of the reconunendations of several of the school faculty who were 
familiar with Eisler's musical accomplishments. E^isler joined the 
school on October 5. 1935. 

A review of the correspondence file dealing with Eisler discloses 
that on ]May '2. 10o5. Alvin Johnson, then director of the school, wrote 
Eisler at IS West Seventy-fifth Street. New York City, that he was ap- 
pointed visiting professor of music for the academic year 1935-86, the 
term to begin October 1, 1935.^^ In the letter he was guaranteed a 
salary of $-2,00() for the year, payable monthly, in advance, from the 
first of October. However, the pay-record cards disclose that during 
his entire period of association with the New School for Social Re- 
search, from October 5, 1935, through May 13, 1942, Eisler was never 
on a contract salary basis as a lecturer of music but. rather, received 
compensation equaling 50 percent of the fees paid by the students 
attending his lectures. 

On the same day that Dr. Johnson offered Hanns Eisler the appoint- 
ment as lecturer of music, a group of people were meeting in the 
interest of Eisler. A member of this group was Nathan Frankel 

The Chairman. The record will show that Mr. Rankin is present. 

]Mr. Appell. ^Ir. Nathan Frankel. of 2 Lafayette Street, New York. 

On the following day. ^lay 3, 1935, Nathan Frankel addressed a 
communication to Director Johnson of New School for Social Re- 
search, from which I will quote a part : 

In behalf of a group of people who are very much interested in helping provide 
a field where the talents of Hanns Eisler can be exercised to influence the direc- 
tion of musical composition and appreciation, Mr. Carl Hauser, who was present 
at tliis meeting yesterday with Hanns Eisler, has suggested that we communicate 
with you. We are i>erfectiug our plans to raise whatever funds might conceivably 
become necessary to supplement the income he would derive from the courses 
conducted by him, to provide for his living exipenses here. 

Alvin Johnson, in reply to the above, dated Ma}' 5, 1935, stated : 

We decided on a full year, because otherwise he could not get a full year's 
A'isa and he might have difficulty in getting the visa extended. 

Mr. Chairman, the records of the Committee on Un-American 
Activities disclose that one Nathan Frankel of 50 Malton Street, Kings, 
New York, was a signer of the New York State-wide nominating peti- 
tion for Communist Party candidates in the year 1942. Nathan 
Frankel was a member of the National Lawyers Guild which has been 
denounced by many prominent lawyers and which was cited bv the 
special Committee on Un-American Activities as a Communist Front 
organization. The Daily Worker of February IT, 1939, page 2, shows 
that Nathan P'lankel was a member of the lawyers conunittee on re- 
lations with same, and was the signer of an appeal to lift the Spanish 
embargo. Nathan Frankel Avas also a contributor to the official Com- 
munist i)ublication New Masses, issue of January 19, 1937, page 24. 

■"'See appendix, p. 191. for exhibit 01. 



80 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EI8LER 

To raise the funds mentioned in Nathan Fi'ankel's letter, there was 
established the Hanns Eisler Scholarship Fund Committee. This 
conmiittee in soliciting funds used the letterhead of the New School 
for Social Research. "'^' Mrs. Eva Robin, of 77 Park Avenue, New 
York City, was the chairman, Dr. Alvin Johnson, treasurer, and 
Nathan Frankel, secretary. The only fund-raising activity in addi- 
tion to this letter evident in the files of the New School was a buffet 
su])per at the home of Mrs. Robin at $1 per plate. 

After Hanns Eisler departed from the United States, he regularly 
corresponded with Dean Clara Mayer of the New School for Social 
Research. 

Mr. Stripling. You mean when he departed in 1935? 

Mr. Appell. In 1936, sir. He started with the school in October 
1935, after he had returned to the United States from a visit to Russia. 

After Hanns Eisler departed from the United States he regidarly 
corresponded with Dean Chira Mayer of the New School for Social 
Researcli. From a letter dated October 4. 1937, addressed to Dean 
Chara Mayer and written by Hanns Eislei-. from Prague, Czecho- 
slovakia.''^ I will read two sections, one of which conclusively shows 
that tlie New Scliool for Social Research was used as the means of 
obtaining Eisler's admission into the United States. 

The first quote, ]Mr. Chairman, is : 

I wish to thank you most cordially ; for your letter proves to m^ anew in what 
a comradely way you have sto(^)d up for me. 

The postscript to this letter reads 

The Chairman. Who wrote that letter? 

Mr. Appell. Hanns Eisler to Dean Clara Mayer of the New School 
for Social Research. 

The postscrijit to this letter reads : 

May I refer to the school in my visa application? For that purpose a document 
would lie necessary, or shall I again travel on a visitor's visa, and shall I thereon 
refer to the school? 1 shall he most grateful to you for this information. 

In a little over a month, Mr. Chairman, on November 12, 1937, Dr. 
Johnson offered Eisler an appointment as a lecturer in music for a 
second term, beginning February 1, 1938. Apparenth^ this letter did 
not satisfy the requirements of the visa authorities for a month later, 
on December 14, 1937, Dr. Johnson advised Eisler that the board of 
trustees had elected him a lecturer in music for the 2-year period 
1938-39, salary $1,200. payable monthly, in advance, beginning Feb- 
ruary 1, 1938. 

With this letter Eisler obtained a visitor's visa, I'eturned to the 
United States, and resumed his lectures at the New School on February 
2,1938. 

In March of 1938, Eisler requested that Dean Mayer intercede in his 
behalf to the Amei-ican consul at Habana, Cuba, where he was contem- 
plating making application for a permanent visa. Apparently Dean 
Mayer turned Eisler's request over to Dr. Johnson, because, on March 
29 Dr. Johnson addressed a letter in Eisler's behalf to the consul at 
Habana, Cuba."- On the same date. March 29, 1938, Dr. Johnson, with ■ 
the apparent purpose of qualifying Eisler as a non(}uota visa applicant, 

=0 See appendix, p. 191, for exhibit 62. 
^1 See appendix, p. 191, for exhibit 63. 
^2 See appendix, p. 191, for exhibit 64. 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 81 

chnnjicd Eislor's status at \\\o New School from Iccturei- in music to 
pi-otVssor of music.''' 

In t his letter, which was written at the time Eisler was under a letter 
contract which would run until the end of 19o9, Dr. Johnson stated 
that the Xew School and its students were so enthusiastic over' his work 
as a visitino- lecturer that they wanted him to remain permanently. 
Therefore, the appointnu>nt committee authorized the president to 
extend a a-year api)ointmeiU with the title of professor of music at a 
salarly of $.'),0()0 a year. 

Mr. Chairman, with respect to this appointment which was prompted 
by the overwhelming enthusiasm of the New School and its students, 
I should like to refer to the i)ay record and attendance cards of the 
New School for Social Research in substantiation of the overwhelm- 
ing enthusiasm. 

I have here, ]Mr. Chairn.ian. the photostatic copies of pay records 
and attendance cards ot" the New School for Social Research.^* In 
the two courses conducted by Eisler from October 5, 11)35, to Janu- 
ary 18, 1936, no more than eight students attended the course on 
"JNIusical composition" and only three attended the course on "The 
crisis of modern music." 

The cards further show that while Eisler was to receive $2,000 for 
the 3^ear, payable monthly in advance, he received only $100 for lec- 
turing for 4 months, and this $100 was paid from the Eisler scholar- 
ship fund. As a matter of fact. Mr. Chairman, the records show that 
the New School sustained a loss of $31.77 on these two courses. 

In the three courses Eisler conducted starting February 2, 1938, 
and ending May 14, 1938, while under a letter contract calling for 
payment of $3,000, Eisler received from the three courses only $163.25, 
of which $100 came from the Eisler scholarship fund, and on March 
29, 1938, when Dr. Johnson wrote the letter prompted by the over- 
whelming enthusiasm, Eisler had seven students attending the lecture 
on ''Musical composition." one student attending the lecture on "Coun- 
terpoint," with the third course having been canceled after the first 
lecture. 

On June 20, 1938. after Dr. Johnson had been in contact with various 
Government officials, as has been brought out in this hearing, and 
had been advised that Eisler's visa was being held up. he wrote Hanns 
Eisler at the Parsens House, Lake Road Valley Cottage, New York, 
as follows : 

I uiulersr;in<l that your visa is being lield up liecanse you liave liepu boosted by 
the Daily Worker as a ••('oini-ade," tliat is, as a Communist. 1 personally have 
no prejudice against Comnuinists and can see no earthly reason why a good 
Communist should not be a good musician. 

Mr. McDowell. Who is saying this? 
Mr. Appell. Dr. ,Johnson. 

I am urged to conHuunicatc wiili tiic DrjiartuK'nt in (piestion denying that 
you c()mi)ronjise with tlie Conuuunist Party. If it is not true, of course, I 
cannot be exi)ected to make a statement to that effect. Will you tell me frankly 
how this matter stands with you? 

On June 21, 193'^, P^isler replied to this letter, stating:" 

^ See appenrli.x, p. 191, for p.xhiliit 05. 
^* See appendi.K, p. lt>l, for exliil)it t>(5. 
""See appendix, p. 191. for exhitiit MT. 



82 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

I greatly appreciate your sustaining help concerning our visa. As you know 
so different newspapers as New York Times, Herald Tribune, and various musi- 
cal periodicals, have written about me as a progressive musician. It is certainly 
more incidental that only the Daily Vv'orker has been picked out among these 
papers by the Inunigration Department in order to compromise me with the 
Communist Party. You know my sympathies are anti-Pascistic, but I assure that 
I am not a member of any political party, neither the Conununist Party. I am 
a composer. All my aims are musical ones, and I see everything from the 
musical point of view. 

On June 22, 19;^>8, Johnson addressed a letter to James L. Hough- 
teling, Commissioner of the Bureau of Inmiigration and Naturaliza- 
tion, from which I quote : ^^ 

I am quite aware of the diliiculties confronted by our own musicians and that 
there is every reason for not employing an alien where an American could be 
employed. But this is a siwcial case of a man who has a special ability to con- 
tribute to this country just at a time when all signs point to a renaissance of song 
and music and indeed every variety of amateur nmsic. Besides, the special fund 
out of which we should pay his salary would not be available for an American 
composer even if I knew of one who could answer the same purpose, which I do 
not. 

Referring again to the pay cards for the courses Eisler taught, it 
appears as of January 18, 1936, the fund amounted to only $132.50 
and that by March 26. 1938, only an additional $100 had been raised, 
^vhich sum was paid to Eisler on this date and apparently exhausted 
the fund. 

It seems to me that Dr. Johnson attemj^ted to influence the decision 
of the Immigration and Naturalization Service by referring to this 
fund as a means of payment available to Eisler but not available to 
an American comjjoser when, in fact, the fund hardly existed from a 
monetary point of view. 

The next correspondence in the file is a letter of March 24, 1939, 
from Dr. Johnson in which lie offers Eisler an appointment as pro- 
fessor of music for a period of 5 years, beginning September 1, 1939, 
salary being fixed at $3,000 per annum. This notice of employment 
was issued at the time Eisler was preparing to depart for Mexico to 
make application for his nonquota visa. It was issued apparently for 
the purpose of influencing the American Consul to expedite the issu- 
ance of the visa in order that Eisler return to New York by September. 

The appointment, however, was not necessary as on March 29, 1938, 
at the time Eisler was preparing to depart for Habana, Cuba, he was 
extended a 5-year contract at the same salary and with the sme title. 

On September 6, 1939, Johnson wired Eisler at Av. Ajusio 105, 
Lomas de Chapultepec, Mexico, D. F. : 

Washington advises make application for temporary visa on Nansen passport 
and return to teaching at New School. Come immediately. 

The Chairman. Just a moment. I w^ant to get that straightened 
out. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Chairman, that will be brought out later through 
other witnesses. 

When Mr. Eisler was in Mexico — you see, he was ordered to depart. 
The warrant was never served 

The Chairman. Who sent that wire? 

Mr. Appell. Dr. Johnson sent that to Eisler who was then living: 
at Avenue Ajusio 105. Lomas de Chapultepec, Mexico, D. F. 

"^ See appendix, p. 191, for exhibit 68. 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 



83 



As Mr. Eisler testified yesterday, tlie Xanseii or visitor's passport 
■was issued and Eisler a^ain returned to tlie United States and resumed 
teach in Of witli the New School nntil April 10, 104-2, except for the 
time lie I'eturned to Mexico and obtained his nonquota visa. 

Mr. Stripling. Since this has come up: He apjtlied for admission 
as a professor under section 4— D as a professor. The Board of Immi- 
gration Appeals declined the admission. However, he appealed to 
"WashinfTton and the Board of Tmmiirration Appeals here in Washing- 
ton revei"sed the oi'i<iinal board and said tliat he was a jirofessor. We 
have the decision in the case in whicli they set fortli in their judgment 
he was a professor, and so forth, which will be put in tlirough other 
witnesses. 

Mr. ArPEix. I would like. Mr. Chairman, to read from the photo- 
static copies of the pay and attendance cards of the New School for 
Social Researcli the numlier of students and the compensation which 
Eisler received for each of these courses, covering his entire period of 
association with the New School for Social Research. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Chairman, do you want him to read those? 

Tlie Chairman. How many are there? 

Mr. Appell. About 13. Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. I think we ought to have them in the record. 

Mr. Appell. Course 93, Musical Composition, from October 5. 1935, 
to January 18, 1936. which was coupled with course 99. the Crisis of 
Modern Music. Eisler received total compensation of $100, which sum 
was charged against the Hanns Eisler Scholarship Fund. 

For the course 98 there were eight pupils. For course 99 there were 
three pupils. 

The Chairman. Now, the Chair would like to ask if most of these 
records are similar to that one ? 

Mr. Appell. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Is there any objection to placing them in the 
record ? 

If not. we will place them in the record at this time. 

Mr. Rankin. It is all right with me. 

The Chairman. It is so ordered. They will be placed in the record 
at this point. 

(The record above referred to is as follows :) 



Course 


Title 


Xo. of 
lectures 


X'ature of contract 


Payments to Eisler 


98— Oct. 5, 1935-Jan. 18, 
1936. 

99— Oct. 5, 1935-Jan. 18, 

1936. 
64— Feb. 2, 1938-Apr. 20, 

1938 
65-A-^Feb 5, 1938-May 


Musical Composi- 
tion. 

The Crisis of 
Modern Music. 

The Future of 
Music. 

Counterpoint 

Musical Composi- 
tion. 

Music as Human 
Expression. 

Musical Composi- 
tion. 

Introduction to 
Musi c — W hat 
We Must Know. 

Musical Composi- 
tion. 


15 

15 

1 

10 
15 

15 
13 
15 

8 


$1,000 per term, 
monthly in ad- 
vance. 
do 

50 percent net 

receipts. 
.... do 


$100 charged to Eisler fund 
(loss to school on courses 
98 and 99. $.34.77). 

Coupled with course 98. 

Course discontinued Feb. 

2, 1938. 
$20 representing 100 percent 


21 1938 
65-B— Fei). 5, 1938-May 
14, 19.38. 

99— Oct. 5, 19.38-Jan. 25, 

19.39 
lOO^Oct. 8, 1938-Feb. 18, 

1939. 
58— Feb. 8, 1939-May 24, 

1939. 

61— Feb. 11, 1939-May 
20, 1939. 


.... do 


payment. 
$143.25. of which $100 was 


do 

50 percent net 
receipts. 
. do 


charged against scholar- 
ship fund. 
$204. 

$43.25 representing 100 per- 
cent payment. 
$153.91. 


do 1 


.$1. Course discontinued 
Apr. 1, 1939. 



84 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 



Course 


Title 


No. of 
lectures 


Nature of contract 


Payment? to Ei=Ier 


98— Oct. 4, 1939-Jan. 24, 


lutrodiiction to 


15 


50 percent net 


.$267.84. 


1940. 


Music — What 
we ATust Know. 




receipts . 




lOl^Oft. 4, ]939-.Tan. 24, 


Musical Composi- 
tion. 


15 


... do 


$19.38. 


1940. 






71— Mar. 13, 1940-May 


Introduction to 


12 


do ._ 


.$144.63. 


29, 1940. 


Music— What 
we Must Know. 








73— Mar. 13, 1940-May 


Musical Composi- 


5 


do 


No payment. Course dis- 


29, 1940. 


tion. 






contimied Apr. 24, 1940. 


141— Oct. 30. 1940-.Tan. 


The Art of Listen- 


15 


do 


$207.88. 


?, 1941. 


ing to Music. 








100— Feb. 3, 1941-May 


do 


15 


do 


$238.35. 


12, 1941. 










172— Sept. 30, 1941-,Ian. 


do 


15 


do 


$416. 68. 


13, 1942. 










1932— Feb. 4, 1942-Mav 


do 


15 


do 


$65.89.** 


13, 1942. 










Total 


$2, 026.06. 













Mr. Stripling, Mr. Appell, did you also investigate to determine 
Avhether or not tlie Rockefeller Foundation made a grant to the New 
School for Social Research, which grant was to be used for musical 
composition under the direction of Mr. Eisler? 

Mr. Appell. Yes, sir; I did, and the record of the new school re- 
flects that Hanns Eisler, through the Xew School for Social Research, 
received a Rockefeller Foundation in the amount of $20,160. 

Mr. Chairman, on May 27, 1947, you addressed a letter to Raymond 
B. Fosdick, president of the Rockefeller Foundation, asking for the 
complete report on the grant which the Foundation made to Mr. 
Eisler, and on June 4, 1947, Mr. Fosdick referred you to the 1940 
annual report of the Rockefeller T'oundation, page 3i6." 

While this report is reprinted in full in "Sir. Fosdick's letter of June 
4, 1 should like to quote two sections of that report: 

The request for this grant was in the first instance presented orally to Mr. 
John INIarshall, Associate Director of the Humanities Division of the Foundation, 
by Dr. Alvin .Johnson, Director of the New School for Social Research. 

This, however, Mr. Chairman, does not appear to be the fact, be- 
cause in the files of the New School for Social Research there ap])ears 
a letter from Joseph Losey, dated September 2G, 1939, in which he 
states 

The CiiAiRMAx. Who is that letter from? 

Mr. Appell. Joseph Losey. 

I approached John Marshall of the Rockefeller Foundation on Hanns" behalf. 
Mr. Mai-shall said that the Foundation had a jjolicy which yon know of making 
grants to assist scholars of indisputable imminence to establish themselves here. 
Hanns' work on films, and so forth, will not qualify him as a scholar, but I believe 
the research he is doing for you might. Mr. Marshall also thought so. 

The second quote from the Foundation report for 1940 reads : 

When the Eisler pro.iect was presented to us, we were assured that Eisler had 
vo political interests and was entirely preoccupied with his music. 

While the report does not state from whom these assurances were 

obtained, in my opinion no investigation was made by the Foundation. 

On November 16, 1937, Dr. Johnson wrote to Mi\ Marshall as fol- 

" See appendix, p. 101, for exhibit 69. 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 85 

lows, and I assume this ktter was the entire assurance received by the 
Foundation : 

After seeing yoti. I quizzed Eisler witli tlie view to finding out whetlier lie had 
any connection "with the Coinniunists oi- more partieulnrly the Still in-Trotzky row. 
In the course of discussion, I tohl him contidentially tliat you appear to have 
ilouhts about some of bis friends. lu this connection, I mentioned Losey. As I 
unght liave anticipated, the matter came to Losey's ears and lie has set out to 
prove that he belongs to no Communist tribe at all. I am gbid to have him 
prove it. 

Mr. Sti{ipmx(;. Now. Mr. Cluiirman, the eonii)lete report from the 
Rockefeller Foundation I suooest be made a part of the record. 

The CiiAiiniAX. AVithout objection, it is so ordered. 

(The re[)oit above referred to is as foUows:) 

The Rockefeli^ek Foundation, 

June 4, 1047. 
Delvr Mr. Thomas: 1 have your letter of May 27 in regard to the Hanns Eisler 
case, and I am glad to send you, in answer to your questions, such facts as we 
have in our possession. 

The grant which the Foundation made to Hanns Eisler represented a phase of 
our program in the development of the techniques of radio and film. Perhaps I 
can do no better in giving you the background of the situation than to quote from 
page 31G of the published annual report of the Rockefeller Foundation for 1940. 

NEW SCHOOL FOR SOCIAL RESEARCH 

Music i)i pJni production 

The Foundation made a grant of $20,1G0 to the New School for Social Research 
for experimental studies of music in film production during the 2-year period 
beginning February 1, 1940. These studies are under the direction of Dr. Hanns 
Eisler. a member of the school's faculty and a well-known composer of music for 
motion pictures. His studies will deal with the possibility of utilizing new types 
of musical material in film production, with problems of instrumentation, music, 
and sound effects, and with the more esthetic problem of music in relation to the 
visual content of the film. 

The work will culminate in the preparation and recording of different musical 
scores for various types of visual content. These records will he deposited in the 
film library of the Museum of Modern Art, where they will be available to pro- 
ducers and to students of the motion picture. 

An earlier Foundation grant to the Stevens Institute of Technology for research 
in the control of sound for dramatic purposes deals with the problem of making 
sound a more effective medium of dramatic production. The present grant for 
Dr. Eisler's work recognizes tlie importance of a similar study of music in motion 
pictures. 

The request for this grant was in the first instance presented orally to Mr. John 
Marsliall, associate director of the humanities division of the Foundation; by 
Dr. Alvin Johnson, director of the New School for Social Research. The Founda- 
tion has long been acquainted with the work of the New School, and while we 
never contributed to its general support we have from time to time assisted in 
the work of particular scholars there, just as we have in dozens of universities 
and schools in the United States and abroad. We have always had the greatest 
respect for the integrity and loyalty of Dr. Johnson, who was director of the 
New School for 2-5 years but has now retired; and it woiild be difficult for iis to 
believe that any act of his could be other than open and honorable. 

When the Eisler project was presented to us we were assured that Eisler 
had no politi<-al interests and was entirely preoccupied witii his music. Our 
concern, therefore, was whether fi'om a technical point of view he was qualified 
by experience for the research in film music which was contemplated. We 
accordingly directed inquiries to the film library of the Museum of Modern Art 
here in New York City :ind to the otrice of radio research at Columbia University, 
where the direi-for had been accpiainted with Eisler's musical ex|ierience in 
Austria. We were completely satisfied with the information which we obtained. 
Eisler had l)een a pupil of the distinguished Arnold Schoenlierg in Vienna, and 
was known as one of the leatling composers of music for films in Europe. In 



86 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

1924 he received the annual composer's award of the city of Vienna, which was 
one of tlie siiinal iionors in Eurojtean music. 

The trustees of tlie foundation voted tlie grant on .January 19, 1*J40. The 
annual budget of this project, which was to run for 2 years, was as follows: 

( a ) Salaries : 

Hanns Eisler $3, 000 

Research assistant 1, 440 — — — 

$4, 440 

(b) Travel 250 

(e) Reproduction of reports 250 

(d) Expenses of demonstrations of alternate musical accompani- 
ments 5, 000 

(e) Measurement of audience reactions 500 

Total 10,440 

The final payment to the New School on tliis pledge was made July 25, 1941. 
On December 10, 1941. we recived a request from r>r. Johnson enclosing a 
memorandum from Mr. Eisler asking for a supplementary grant of $4,900. This 
we declined, but we allowed the balance of the 1940 grant to be utilized for a 
period of 9 months beyond the original date of termination. On September 12, 
1944, the New School refunded to us an unexpended l)alance on this appropriation 
of $185.25. The Oxford University Press is publishing the result of Mr. Eisler's 
research under our grant in a book called Composing for the Film, which they are 
bringing out in September of this year. 

AVith relation to your fourth question, the Rockefeller Foundation does not 
make contracts with recipient institutions. However, I am enclosing a copy of 
the resolution adopted by our trustees on January 19, 1940, which the secretary 
of the foundation has attested. 
Sincerely yours, 

Raymond B. Fosdick. 

[From niimites of the Rockefeller B'oundatioii for Jamiar.v 19, 1940^^] 

Resolved, That the sum of $20,100, or as much thei-eof as may be necessary, 
be. and it hereby is. appropriated to the Ne\\- School for Social Research for 
exp?riniental demonstrations of music in film production over the 2-year period 
beginning E'ebruary 1, 1940. 

Attest : 

[seal] Norma S. Thompson, Secretary. 

Date : .June 4, 1947. 

Mr. Stripling. The research, as I understand it, Mr. Api^ell, was 
in the denotino- (^f certain sounds, like rain, by music; is that right? 

Mr. Appell. Yes, sir. The foundation sets forth as its reason for 
these studies — 

for experimental studies of music in film production * * * 

His studies will deal with the possibility of utilizing new types of musical 
material in film production * * *_ 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Cliairman, do vou want anv more details on 
this? 

The Chairmax. Have you finished ? 

Mr. Appell. I have with respect to the grant. That is the only 
thing that the file of the New School contained dealing with the 
Rockefeller Foundation grant. 

Mr. Stripling. Out of the $20,000 how nuich did Eisler receive? 

Mr. Appell. Eisler received $8,250 as compensation for salary. 

Mr. Stripling. Do you know the rate of compensation? Do you 
have that there ? 

The Chairman. Over how long a peiiod was that? 



See appendix, p. 191, for exhibit 70. 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 



87 



Mr. Appell. Mi-. Cliainuaii. I hnve here the expense vouchers for 
the entire project. The first sahirv pavnient of $1,500 was made to 
Hanns Eisler on February 28, 1940."=^ 

Mr. Stkii'Lixg. Mr. Chairman, I ask tliat those be inchided in the 
record. 

The CiiAiRMAx. AVithout objection, it is so ordered. 

(The material above referred to is as follows :) 

Rockefeller Mii.sir Fund — Expenses, Hanns Eisler 



Date 




Total 
amount 


Research 

assistant, 

salary 


Travel 

ex- 
penses 


2 demon- 
strations 


Audi- 
ence re- 
action 


Other 

ex- 
penses 


Salary, 

Dr." 

Eisler 


191,0 
Feb. 28 


H. Eisler, salary Feb. 1 to 
31, 1940 


.$1,500.00 

5.00 

1.00 

6.80 

8.40 

.45 

120.00 

13.60 

1.50 

200. 00 

807. 50 

14.00 

24.00 

50.00 

12.50 

12.50 

12.50 

12.50 

10.00 

10,00 

8.00 

250. 00 

120.00 

1, 500. 00 

50.00 

120.00 

16.60 

120, 00 

2.90 
48.09 
1, 000. 00 
60.00 
16.47 
40.00 

5.31 

21.50 

3.67 

1.59 

100.00 

10.30 

500.00 

5.00 

41.05 
9.00 

31.37 

500. 00 

8.50 

250. 00 

15.00 
250. 00 

10.00 
652. 30 
208. 25 

50.00 

150.00 

2. .50 

300. 00 

125.00 

20.00 












$1,500.00 


Apr. 22 


Cash for metronome 

Preview Theater _ 






$5. 00 

1,00 

6.80 

8.40 

.45 








Mav 3 












June 10 


Associate musician 












June 24 


..__ do 












Julv 8 


Telephone and telegraph. _ _ 
H. Robins 












July 3 


$120, 00 










July 8 


Associate musician . 




13.60 

1,50 

200,00 

807. 50 

14,00 

24.00 

50.00 

12.50 

12.50 

12.50 

12.50 

10.00 

10.00 

8.00 








July 9 


Hammond Trust Co 

J. Uorenstein 












July 16 














Musician union 














Sam Borodkin __- 














Hardman Peck & Co 

Hammond Trust Co 

Borodkin 
























July 17 














G. Flessig 














R. Sims. 














T. Spiwakowskv .. 














A. Zakin 




























A.Wallis 












Aug. 2 


Hanns Eisler 




$250. 00 










H, Robin 


120. 00 












H. Eisler 










1, 500. 00 


Aug. 8 


H. Robin 


50.00 
120. 00 












Sept. 3 


do 












Sept. 10 


W. Wander. 




16.60 








Oct. 5 


H. Robin 


120, 00 










Oct: 7 


Motion picture research 
project 




2.90 
48.09 








Oct. 31 


Frontier Films 














H. Eisler. 










1, 000. 00 


Nov. 1 


H. Robin 


60.00 












Nov. 4 


Arts Van Storage Co 

R. Anscer 




16.47 








Nov. 19 


40.00 












Motion picture research 
project 

Preview Theater 




5.31 

21,50 

3. 67 

1.59 

100. 00 

10. ,30 








Oct. 22 














Ralph Ensur 

Petty cash 
























Dec. 10 


J. Horcnstein 

Preview Theater 

Hanns Eisler 

Preview Theater 












mi 

Feb. 1 












Feb. 3 










500. 00 


Mar. 10 






5.00 
41.05 

9.00 
31.37 










B. Anscur 

Preview Theater 

Harry Robin. 

H. Eisler 

Preview Theater.. 

H. Kisler 

Preview Theater . 












Mar. 31 












Apr. 3 
Mav 2 




















500.00 


Mav 20 






8.50 








June 20 










250.00 


Julv 31 






15.00 








Aug. 19 
Sept. 22 
Sept. 25 


H. Eisler.. 

do 










250.00 






10.00 
652. 30 
208.25 

50.00 

150.00 

2. .50 








Max Goberman 

Reeves Sound Studio 

R. Kolisch 






















Sept. 30 












J. Uorenstein 














Previ(>w Theater 














I/. A. Gostomy 

M. Goberman 


300.00 
125.00 










Oct. 10 












Oct. 15 


J. Suffer 




20.66 









^ See appendix, p. 191, for exhibit 71. 



88 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 



Rockefeller Music Fund — Expenses, Hanns Eisler — Continued 



Date 




Total 
amount 


Research 

assistant, 

salary 


Travel 

ex- 
penses 


2 demon- 
.*:trations 


Audi- 
ence re- 
action 


Other 

ex- 
penses 


Salarv, 

Dr." 
Eisler 


Oct. 19 


R. Anscer 


.$20. 00 
60.50 
35. 00 
25. 00 
15.00 
64.00 
7.50 

25. 00 
10.00 
19.95 
10.00 

125. 00 
275. 00 
918. 50 
152.90 

6.00 

100. 00 

21.50 

26. 00 
100.00 

30.00 
88.88 

250. 00 
10.00 
6.00 
6.00 
57.50 
12.00 
65. 00 
29.08 

250. 00 
88.88 

5. 25 

250. 00 

88.88 

550. 00 

250. 00 

2.25 

2.00 

68.56 

9.00 

9.00 

88.88 

2.50. 00 

300. 00 

250. 00 

88.88 

36. 37 

250. 00 

88.88 

250. 00 

88.88 

250. 00 

88.88 

250. 00 

88.94 

13. 55 

1.362.50 

1, 422. 04 






$20.00 
60.50 
35.00 
25.00 
15.00 
64.00 
7. 50 
25. 00 
10.00 
19.95 
10.00 










A. Aimstein ,.. 












Oct. 27 


J. Suffer .___ 

M. Kenneth White 












Nov. 3 












Nov. 4 


R. Anscer 












Nov. 5 


Reeves Sound Studio 

Preview Theater 

H. V. Doug'in 
























Nov. 12 














do..__ 

Museum of Modern Art_-_ 
Dr. H. Eisler 












Nov. 19 












Nov. 26 












Dec. 1 


M. Goberman 


$125. 00 










Dec. 22 


J. Schumacher 

R. Kolisch 

Soundfilm Enterprises..-..- 

Preview Theater 






$275. 00 






Dec. 23 






918. 50 
1.52.90 

6.00 

100. 00 

21.50 

26.00 

100. 00 

30.00 


















1942 
Jan. 2 












Jan. 14 


A'Toushi .Jonas. 

R. Kolisch 

Soundfilm Enterprises 

J. Horenstein... 




































Jan. 26 












Jan. 31 


H. V. Dougin 

L. Gostonv 

H. Eisler 












Feb. 3 


88.88 


.. - 


















$250. 00' 




.... do 






10.00 
6.00 
0.00 
57.50 
12.00 
65. 00 
29.08 








J. Femo 

Soundfilm Enterprises 

Preview Theater ... .. 
























Feb. 14 












Feb. 17 


H. Robin 

A. Arnstein ... 












Feb. 24 












Feb. 27 


De Lu.xe Laboratories 

Dr. Eisler 












Mar. 2 










250. 00' 




Ty. Gostonv... - .. 


88.88 














Soundfilm Transcriptions, 
Inc . . -- .. _ 




5.25 








Apr. 2 


Dr. Eisler 










250. 00 




L. Qostony.. ... 


88.88 












Apr. 9 


Dr. Eisler 


$550. 00 












Dr. Eisler salary for May... 
H. Eisler 










250.00 


Apr. 13 






2.50 
2.00 
68. 56 
9.00 
9.00 










H. Robin 












Apr. 17 


De Duxe Laboratories 

Preview Theater 


























Reeves Sound Studio 

L. Gostonv 












May 2 


88.88 










May 13 


B. Rrecht 








$250 00 




A. Schoenberg 











300. 00 




June 4 


Dr. Eisler 


250. 00 




L. Gostonv .. 


88.88 












June 24 


Brandon Films. .. ... 




36. 37 








July 1 


Dr. Eisler 










250. 00 




L. Gostonv.. 


88.88 












AufT. 1 


Dr. Eisler 










250. 00 




ly. Gostony .. 


88.88 












Sept. 1 


Dr. Eisler 










250. 00 




Tj. Gostonv... . 


88.88 












Oct. 1 


Dr. Eisler 










2,50. 00 




L. Gostonv 


88.94 












Oct. 26 


Preview Theater 

.\d. Weiss (union) 

H. Ei.sler 




13. .55 
1, 362. 50 
1.422.04 




















Oct. 31 














Total 

.\ . Weiss (musicians union) . 
Musicians Mutual Protec- 
tive Association 

H. Eisler f Moriola. 














18, 917. 70 


1,980.00 


800. 00 


7, 062. 70 


275. 00 


550.00 


8.250.00 


Nov. 10 


500. 00 

57.00 

14.00 

42.75 

2.49 

17.50 

5.15 

7.13 

16.50 

70.75 

5.92 
50.00 






500. 00 

57. 00 
14.00 

42.75 
2. 49 

17.50 

5.15 

7.13 

16.50 

70.75 

5.92 








Dec. 4 
























Dec. 18 


R. H. Menges 

H. Eisler, petty cash 

Preview Theater 

Gotham Book 
























1943 
Feb. 8 












Feb. 25 












Mar. 1 


Railway E.xpress 

Moviola 

Brulasor 

Glenn Wallaeh's Music 
City 












Mar. 12 
























Mar. 2.5 














Carl Tuphaus 






50.00 









HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 



89 





Rockefeller Music F 


/ // (/ — Expenses, Ha ii ii -s 


Eisler— 


Contin 


ued 




Date 




Total 
amount 


Research 

assistant, 

salary 


Travel 

e.\- 
penses 


2 demon- 
strations 


Audi- 
ence re- 
action 


Other 

ex- 
penses 


Salary, 

Dr. 
Eisler 


Apr. 1 


Hanns Eisler 


$15.00 
22. 21 
43.35 
67.50 
6.00 
75.00 

75. 00 
104. 50 






$15.00 

22.21 

43. 35 

67.50 

6.00 








Path§ Laboratories . - 












Apr. 24 


. ..do 












Fathe Laboratories 

Oenonil Service Studio, Inc. 
Kicliardson <fc Kicliardson.. 
Rcscrvc'd clieck for trans- 
portation 
























M:iv 14 








$75.00 




July 17 






75. 00 
104. 50 






") 


Monthly payment for rent 
Moviola and Preview 
Theater 














Total 














1,197.75 






1,122.75 




75.00 






Grand total 










20,115.45 


$1,980.00 


$800.00 


8, 185. 45 


$275. 00 


625.00 


$8, 250. 00 



•July 1943 to June 1944. 

Bills to he paid until June 30: 

Preview Tlieater (monthly rent, $5). 
Moviola (monthly rent, $3.50"i 



$14.00 
7.00 



Receipt.s 20,160.00 

Disbursements 20, 115.45 



Balance June 30, 1944. 



44.55 



Mr. Stripling. Proceed, Mr. Appell. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, in questioning Dean Clara Mayer, I 
advised her that the pay record cards for the courses Eisler taught 
did not disclose where his studies had changed to the extent of chang- 
ing his employment from a visiting lecturer to that of a professor 
of music. She advised that there was no difference between a lecturer 
and a professor as far as the New School was concerned. She admitted 
that the change was apparently made to qualify Eisler under the law 
for a nonquota visa. 

In reply to my question : "Was it the policy of the school to make 
these changes for the purpose of circumventing the law?" Dean Mayer 
replied that they would do what they did for Eisler for anyone. Then 
slie qualified her reply by adding, "If the person possessed musical 
ability comparable to that of Eisler." 

Mr. Stripling. In that connection, Mr. Chairman, yesterday it was 
brought out that a number of the songs which Mr. Eisler composed the 
music for. the words were provided V)v Berthold Brecht, who will be 
one of the witnesses in the Hollywood investigation, who is a Com- 
munist. 

Did your investigation disclose that Berthold Brecht had also been 
been brought to this country in a similar manner by the New School? 

Mr. Appell. Apparently he was, Mr. Stripling, although there was 
nothing in the file to describe it. However, an investigation which I 
conducted in the Visa Division of the State Department disclosed there 
a copy of a wire dated Se])toinber 24, 1940, from the American Con- 
sulate at Stockliolm — the man's name was Johnson; I don't know what 
his status was at Stockholm, but he was official of the State Depart- 
ment — he referred to Brecht, saying: 

liidivitln.-il is a Gpnuaii author who camo to Sweden in lOSti. Went recently to 
Finland. Reported to have said he hopes to join friends in New York; no visa 
issued in Sweden. Police understand he has been in Russia and is very much 
to the left. 



90 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

I have received a telegram for him addressed to this consulate general signed 
Alvin Johnson, president of New School for Social Research, offering liim appoint- 
ment as lecturer in literature. 

Mr. Stripling. We will go into that later, Mr. Chairman. 

Those are all the questions I have. 

The Chairman. Mr. Rankin. 

Mr. Rankin. Mr. Appell, you say this was a Communist school of 
instruction ? 

Mr. Appell. No, sir ; I do not say that it is a Communist school. I 
don't think that there is any evidence in our records that would desig- 
nate that it was. 

Mr. Rankin. It was spreading Communist Dropao;anda ? 

Mr. Appell. I can't say that the school itself — I have no evidence 
that the school itself, Mr. Rankin, has put out any Communist propa- 
ganda — but I know tliat the members of the faculty of the New School 
of Social Research have been checked against our iiles, and that a con- 
siderable number of the members of the faculty are very prominently 
displayed in our files. 

Mr. Rankin. Do you know whether or not Mrs. Roosevelt was fa- 
miliar with that situation when she urged the admission of Hanns 
Eisler into the United States? 

Mr. Appell. I do not, sir. 

Mr. Rankin. You do not know? 

Mr. Appell. No, sir ; my investigation dealt with the New School, 
and there was notliing in their file to show any connection with Mrs. 
Roosevelt. 

Mr. Rankin. Did you read her recent article in the Ladies Home 
Journal? 

Mr. Appell. No, sir ; I haven't. 

Mr. Rankin. It is the most insulting, communistic piece of propa- 
ganda that was ever thrown in the faces of the women of America. I 
am just wondering if she was familiar with all of this Communist 
infiltration when she was trying to get Hanns Eisler into the United 
States. 

jNIr. Appell. I do not know that, sir. 

Mr. Stripling. For the benefit of the committee, I want to point out 
that Hanns Eisler and his wife were in tlie United States wdien Mrs. 
Roosevelt wrote to Sumner Welles. What they were attempting to do 
w^as to get assurances tliat they would be given a nonquota visa by the 
consul in Habana, Cuba, before they left this country. They were 
here. They had been here from 1938 on. 

Mr. Rankin. I want to point out that her action was not official. 
She did not represent the party in power in trying to get these Com- 
munists retained or readmitted to the United States. And she doesn't 
certainly represent the better elements of the American people in this 
Connnunist propaganda that she has written in the Ladies Home 
Journal. 

That is all. 

Tlie Chairman. Mr. Wood. 

Mr. Wood. No questions. 

The Chairman. Mr. McDowell. 

Mr. McDowell. Do you know how old this school is, Mr. Appell ? 

Mr. Appell. It was 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 91 

Mr. 8TKIPLTXG. Mr. Chaii'inan. I liave a nieinoraiuluiii hero on tlie 
school which 1 will be glad to submit to the nieiiibers. 

(A document Avas handed to the chairman.) 

The Chairman. I have no questions. 

Thank you very uuich, Mr. Api)ell. 

Mr. Stiui'lixg. The next witness, Mr. Chairman, will be Mr. 
Georo;e Messersmith. 

The Chairman. Mr. Messersmitli, do you solemnly swear this 
testimony you are about to give shall be the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truths 

]\fr. ]VIi:ssEKSMiTH. I do, sir. 

TESTIMONY OF GEOEGE S. MESSERSMITH 

Mr. Striplixg. Mr. Messersmith. do you desire counsel? 

Mr. Messersmith. Yes. 

Mr. Striplixg. Mr. Littell is your counsel? 

Mr. Messersmith. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Striplixg. Will you again identify j^ourself, Mr. Littell, for 
the record? 

Mr. Littell. Xorman M. Littell, 142-2 F Street, Washington, D. C. 

The Chairmax'. Mr. Littell, you heard the chairman''s instructions 
to counsel for Mr. Hanns Eisler yesterday? 

Mr. Littell. 1 did, Mr. Chairman. I understand that counsel is 
practically emasculated here. 

The Chairman. Well. I wouldn't say that, but the instructions 
are the same today. 

Mr. Littell. I understand that, and I understand the reasons for 
it fully. 

The Chairmax. Go ahead, Mr. Stripling. 

Mr. S'raiPLixG. Mr. Messersmith, will you please state your full 
name and present address? 

Mr. Messersmith. My full name is George S. Messersmith. M3' 
present address is Rehoboth, Del. 

Mr. Striplixg. When and where were you born? 

Mr. Messersmith. 1 was born in Fleetwood, Pa., on the 3d of 
October 

Mr. Striplixg. Will you talk into the microphone, please? 

]\Ir. Messersmith. I was born in Fleetwood. Pa., on October 'S. 
1883. 

Mr. Striplixg. AVhat is your present occupation? 

Mr. Messersmith. I have no present occupation. I retired from 
the Foreign Service after more than 33 years of service on the 12th 
of August of this year. 

Mr. Striplixg. Will you outline for tht^ committee some of the im- 
portant posts that you have held in the Federal Government? 

Mr. Messi:rsmith. In the Federal Government ? 

Mr. Striplixg. Yes. 

Mr. Messersmith. I was appointed consul, after examination, in 
1914. in the lowest grade in the Foreign Service, at Fort Erie, 
Canada, where I remained until lUlG, when I was transferred to 
Antwerp, Belgium; in 1925 I was api:)ointed consul general for 
Belgium and Litzenberg, and remained in charge of that office until 
1928. when I was appointed consul general in th;' Argentine at 



92 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

Buenos Aires; while I was at Buenos Aires I wtis also appointed as 
inspector of embassies, legations, and consulates, and carried on those 
duties in connection with my duties as consul general in Buenos 
Aires. 

In 1930 I was appointed consul general at Berlin and remained 
there until the spring of 1934 when I was appointed Minister to 
Uruguay, but before I could proceed to that post I was appointed 
Minister to Austria; I remained as Minister to Austria until 1936 
or 1937, 1 believe toward the late spring, early summer of 1937, when 
I was asked to return to Washington to serve as Assistant Secretary 
of State, and remained as Assistant Secretary of State in Washing- 
ton until January of 1940, when I was appointed Ambassador to Cuba ; 
I reamined in Cuba until early in 1942, when I was asked to proceed 
to Mexico as Ambassador there; I remained in Mexico City until 
May 1946, when I was asked to proceed to Buenos Aires as Ambas- 
sador to the Argentine; I remained in the Argentine until June 22, 
1947, when I returned to Washington and asked that my retirement be 
made effective 30 days after my arrival, which was on August 12, 1947. 

Mr. Stripltno. Mr. Messersmith, you are liere in response to a 
subpena which was served upon you ; is that ti'ue '^ 

Mr. Messersmtth. That is correct, sir. 

Mr. Stripling. As Assistant Secretary of State, was it a part of 
your duties to handle cases involving the issuance of visas to persons 
desii'ing to enter the TTnited States '? 

Mr. Messersmith. That wxmldn't be exactly the way to put it, Mr. 
Chairman. I was in the hierarchy of the Department. Mr. Hull, 
then Secretary of State, of course, had the over-all responsibility 
for the conduct of all of the affairs of the Department. The Under 
Secretary, then Under Secretary Mr. Sumner Welles, carried a great 
deal of this responsibility, and the Assistant Secretaries were, in many 
cases, directly responsible to him; that is. re])orting to him. 

My duties in the Department at the time were numerous. There 
were some 30 divisions in the Department, of which 4 were political 
divisions, near eastern, far eastern, European, and Latin America. 
Those were more directly under the immediate supervision of Mr. 
Welles as Under Secretary, although I intervened, because of mv long 
experience in Europe, at the request of Secretary Hull and Mr. Welles, 
in a partial supervision of the European Division. 

Mr. Striplino. Let me put it this way, Mr. Messersmith: You did, 
on occasion, handle visa cases? 

Mr. Messersmith. Well, the Visa Division was one of some, I think, 
31 or 32, I haven't counted them u]i, divisions in the Department, 
divisions and offices, as we called them, who were under the immediate 
supervision of my office, as the administrative office of the Depart- 
ment, responsible for the budget and most of the affairs of the De- 
partment outside of purely political ones, and Mr. Avery Warren, now 
Minister to New Zealand, was at the time Chief of the Visa Division 
and directly responsible to me. 

Mr. Stripling. Do you I'ecall handling a case involving Hanns or 
Johannes Eisler and his wife, aliens, who had made ai)plication for 
an American visa under the German quota, to the consul general at 
Habana, Cuba? 

Mr. Messersmith. I remember the Eisler case, which was brought 
to my attention after the subpena which was issued to me in the Hotel 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 93 

Carlton lu-re in AVashinoton durino- one of my short slays here, and I 
familiarized — I read the file in the State Dejjartment, and that re- 
called my memory on the Eisler case. 

The CiiAiKMAx. So you do recall, then, the Eisler case ? 

Mr. ]Messersmith. Yes. 

Mr. Stripling. Could you tell the committee when the case was first 
brouii'ht to your attention ? 

Mr. Mkssersmith. I read the file in the State Department very care- 
fully, and I did ni}' best to — I read it several times, and it took several 
readings of the case to really refresh my memory fully, or as much as 
it could be refreshed ill view of the fact that — I think, Mr. Chairman, 
I should nuike one statement at this time in that connection. 

At that time we were not in war, but the responsibilities on the State 
Department had already tremendously grown because of the develop- 
ing situation in Europe. That meant an extraordinary increase in the 
volume of the work of the Department, and in its responsibilities, and 
there were some of us, and particularly Mr. Welles and myself, who 
had a very great burden to carry, and it was necessary for us to have 
as much help as we could get at those times under the difficult condi- 
tions in the Department — which had a very small staff. 

The matters in the Visa division did not reach me unless they were 
referred to me when it was thought desiral)le that they should have my 
attention, or there was a question of policy or principle involved in 
connection with a visa matter. It was only on those occasions that 
they were referred to the Assistant Secretary, Otherwise, they were 
handled by the Chief of the Visa Division. 

Mr. Stripling. I asked you when it was brought to your attention. 

Mr. Messersmith. Oh, yes. This came to my attention, I feel sure, 
Mr. Chairman, for the first time when Miss Dorothy Thompson com- 
municated with me. I am not able to say whether she communicated 
with me by letter or by telephone, but I assume that it must have been 
by telephone as she frequently telephones me about situations in 
Europe. She was a columnist and tried to get background — very prop- 
erly. There was no letter in the file from Miss Thompson so it must 
have been a telephone conversation. 

The Chairman. Mr. Messersmith, when you reviewed the file the 
other day 

]Mr. Messersmith. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. After you received our subpena, did you conclude 
that the file was intact ? 

Mr. Messersmith. I had no reason to have any other — to raise that 
question — because I assumed that it was the complete file. 

The Chairman. You do assume that it is the complete file? 

Mv. Messersmith. Yes; I assumed it was the complete file because I 
asked a question as to whether this was the file of the Department on 
the Eisler case 

The Chairman. Who did you ask that question of ? 

Mr. Messersmith. I was only in contact in this matter with Mr. 
Klaus in the State Department. 

The Chairman. Did he say that that was the complete file? 

Mr. Messersmith. He said that that was the file of the Department 
so far as I — I don't know what ({ualification he used, or if he used any — 
but he said this is the file. 

6S957 — 47 7 



94 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

The Chairman. Go ahead, Mr. Striplinp;, 

Mr. Stripling. INIr. Messersmith, I will come to the letter 

Mr. Ranki?^. Mr. Chairman, the witness has gotten up to the point 
of stating what Dorothy Thompson had said to him. I was interested 
in hearing that. 

Mr. Stripling. If I may interrupt, Mr. Chairman, I have here the 
files and records of the State Department. I would like to put all of 
these records in according to the order in which we have arranged them. 
The Dorothy Thompson is. I think, about exhibit 10. 

Mr. Rankin. Let's read it. 

Mr. Stripling. I would prefer, and I think it would be better, if w-e 
woulcl proceed by putting them in as they have been arranged. I 
think you will get a clearer picture. 

The Chairman. I think that is right. 

The reason I asked the question I did is that I am of the opinion 
that certain papers have been taken from the file, and that is not the 
complete file. However, that point will be reached at a later time in 
this hearing. 

You go ahead. 

Mr. Messersmith. I would not be able to say that, Mr. Chairman. 
The only question that has arisen in my mind is that yesterday the 
attorney for the committee brought out the memorandum signed by Mr. 
Warren to me, which I don't remember seeing in the file — although it 
may be there. I don't remember having seen it. 

The Chairman. Go ahead. Mr. Stripling. 

Mr. Rankin, Mr. Chairman, this whole testimony, it seems to me, is 
going to the root of the question of the admission of Communists into 
the country by the State Department, and I would like for the witness 
to proceed in his usual order. 

The Chairman. Go ahead. 

Mr. Rankin. We want to find out just what is behind all of the 
admissions of Communists — when it was known they were coming 
here to try to overthrow this Government. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Messersmith. if you will bear with us on this^ 
I have some documents, some of which have nothing to do with you, 
but which are from the State De]-)artment file. The first docu- 
ment I would like to introduce, Mr. Chairman, is Communication No. 
311, dated May 16, 1938, from Habana, Cuba, from the American con- 
sul general, addressed to the Secretary of State, Washington.**" The 
subject is Prospective Visa Application of Johannes Eisler. 

It reads : 

I have the honor to refer to a lookout notice from the Department dated April 
16, 1136, concerning one Hanns Eisler, and to inform the Department that I am 
in receipt tor preliminary examination of the documents of one Johannes ( Hanns) 
Eisler, horn at Leipzig .July 6, 1938, son of Rudolph Eisler and Marie Ida Eisler 
nee Fischer. Mr. Eisler is apparently a composer of note, and submits letters 
of recommendation fi'om William E. Dodd, Alvin Johnson, and other persons. 
Mr. Eisler is now residing in New York, care of Softer & Rediker, 150 Broadway. 

It is requested that the Department advise me at the earliest opportunity 
whether the prospective applicant is the person referred to in the notice. 

Very respectfully yours, 

COEET DU BOIS, 

American Consul General. 



^ See appendix, p. 101, for exhibit 72. 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 95 

Mr. Messersmitlu could you tell the eonuuittee what he means when 
he refers to ""a lookout iu)tiee" from the I)ei)artmeut, dated April 16, 
1936? 

Mr. INlESSERsiMrrH. It was customary. ]Mr. Chairman, that when any 
information came to the De[)artuieut of State from any source, whether 
it was verified or not. which would be useful in connection with the 
examination of a visa application by a consul, who had the responsi- 
bility under tiie law. to send such information to the consul, and also 
when such information came in to send — to make a form, make out a 
form notice, which was sent to all consul officers — and which I under- 
stand was sent to immigration officers as well — indicating that before 
an action was taken on a visa in that particular case, or person of that 
parlicular name, the Department should be informed. 

Mr. Stripling. In other words, you mean because there was some 
suspicion as to the person's political or criminal background that no 
visa should be issued to him without approval from the Department ? 

Mr. Messersmith. As I said, Mr. Chairman, any information which 
reached the Department which had a bearing on a case, which might 
indicate that the consul should have information available, and which 
might have a bearing on the granting or the refusal of the visa, then 
such card was sent out. But it didn't mean that the information was 
verified in any sense. 

Mr. Stripling. Next, Mr. Chairman, I would like to introduce the 
reply of the Department of State to the Consulate General at Habana, 
dated May 16, 1938 — I am sorry, it is a communication to the Depart- 
ment of Labor regarding the consulate general's letter of May 16.*^^ 
It savs : 

The Secretary of State presents his compliments to the Honorable the Sec- 
retary of Labor and. with reference to Mr. Shaughnessy's letter of April 6, 
1936 (File: 55883/G94), regarding the case of Hanns Eisler, encloses a copy of 
an air-imiil despatch No. 311 of May 16, 1938, from the American consul general 
at Habana, Cuba, regarding the case of Johannes Eisler, a prospective applicant 
for an immigration visa. 

The Department will appreciate being advised whether the prospective visa 
applicant is identical with the alien mentioned in Mr. Shaughnessy's letter. 

In Mr. Shauirhnessy's letter, dated May 31, 1938, written on the 
letterhead of the United States Department of Labor, Immigration 
and Xaturalization Service, addressed to the Secretary of State,*^- it 
says : 

My Dear Mr. Secretary : Have the honor to acknowledge receipt of your letter 
of May 25 ( Nq. VD 811.111 Eisler, Hanns). enclosing a despatch dated May 16, 
1938, from the American consul general at Habana, Cuba, in reference to the case 
of Johannes (Hanns) Eisler. 

It is believed by this office that the Hanns Eisler referred to in our letter 
of Apiil 6, 1936, is identical with the person referred to in the report submitted 
by the American consul general ,it Habana. However, the only detailed informa- 
tion we have concerning this man is that contained in the manifest data of the 
steamship Lfifaycttc at the time of his arrival at the port of New York on 
October 4, 1935. A copy of the verification of this entry is enclosed herewith. 

It is noted from the consular report that Mr. Eisler is now residing in New 
York, care of Soffer & Rediker, 150 Broadway. Consequently, we are referring 
this case to our Ellis Island office for investigation, in order that Mr. Eisler's 
present statu s under the immigration laws may be determined, as we have 

«i See appendix, p. 191, for exhibit 73. 
« See appendix, p. 192, for exiiibit 74. 



96 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

apparently no record of his admission to the United States subsequent to 
October 4, 1935. Upon receipt of a report from our Ellis Island office I shall be 
glad to communicate with you further in connection with this case. 
Respectfully, 

Edward Shaughnessy, 

Deputy Commissioner. 

Next, Mr. Chairman, is a communication dated June 11, 1938, to 
the American consular officer in charge, Habana, Cuba, from the 
Department of State.**^ It says: 

The Secretary of State refers to the consul general's air-mail dispatch No. 311 
of May 16, 1938, and encloses a copy of a letter of ]May 31, 1938, which has been 
received from the Department of Lal)or, regarding the case (.)f Johannes or Hans 
or Hanns Eisler, a prospective applicant for an immigration visa at the Con- 
sulate General. 

It is suggested that no action be taken in the alien's case until after the receipt 
of a further instruction from the Department. 

Now, Mr. Messersmith, was that customary ? 

Mr. Messersmith. Was 

Mr. Stripling. Was it customary for the State Department to ad- 
vise a consular officer not to take any action in the issuance of a 
visa until he received further instructions from the Department? 

Mr. Messersmith. Yes — only in this sense: So that all information 
available to the Department could be made available to the consulate. 

Mr. Stripling. I see. 

Next is a memorandum dated October 19, 1938, written on the 
letterhead of the Department of State, Visa Division.*'* It says: 
"Memorandum for the files." It is signed "R. C. A." 

Could you identify "R. C. A.", INIr. Messersmith? 

Mr. ]\Iessersmith. That must be Mr. Alexander. 

Mr. Stripling. Robert C. Alexander. Do you know what posi- 
tion he holds in the Department of State? 

Mr, Messersmith. He holds, or held? 

Mr. Stripling. Well, that he held at that time. 

Mr. Messersmith. At that time he was one of the — I don't know 
exactly what his status was, but he was one of the — not officers, I 
think, but one of the clerks in the Visa Division of the Department. 
I don't remember exactly what his title was. 

Mr. Stripling. Is he head of the Visa Division now ? 

Mr. Messersmith. No. 

Mr. Stripling. What i:)osition does he hold now? 

Mr. Messersmith. I think he is Assistant Chief in the Division 
now. 

Mr. Stripling. You think he was 

Mr. Messersmith. I don't know what his status was, but he was 

not 

Mr. Stripling. He wasn't important? 

Mr. Messersmith. He wasn't important ; no. 

Mr. Stripling. To proceed with the memorandum for the files, 
signed "R. C. A.", it says : 

Mr. Messersmith telephoned me today and stated that he had received a tele- 
phone call from Miss Dorothy Thompson regarding the case of Hanns Eisler. 
I told Mr. Messersmith briefly ■ibout the point at issue in the case. 

He wants a letter drafted to Miss Thompson for his signature. 

<» See appendix, p. 192, for exhihit 75. 
<M See appendix, p. 192, for exhibit 76. 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 97 

At the bottom tliere is a note. It says : 

It is interesting to note that the persons who are protesting against the admis- 
sion of Eislcr are also protesting against tlie admission of John Stracliey. See 
original oommunicatiou, which forms the beginning of Labor's file. 

Mr. Rankin. You mean John Strachey of the British Empire? 

Mr. Stripling. Yes, sir, 

]Mr. Rankin. He is a Communist, is he not, a British Communist? 

INfr. Stripling. I am not in position, Mr, Rankin, to characterize 
him at this time. I would have to check the file in the record. 

INIr. Rankin. I don't think you will have any trouble about that. 

ISIr. Stripling. That might be true. 

Next, ]Mr. Chairman, is a memorandum : "Department of State, Visa 
Division,"' dated October 24, 1938, and signed, R. C. A., to Mr. Messer- 
smith.®^ It says : 

Dear Mr. Messersmith : Here is the i^esume of the file in the Eisler case, which 
5'ou reqnested. 

It will require about 10 or 15 minutes of your time to read it, and you will 
note that I have included some commentaries concerning Strachey, which were 
found in the file, and which might be of interest. 

I have been subpenaed to appear in the Federal court in New York on a coun- 
terfeit visa case tomorrow and if I can finish my testimony in time I hope to be 
al)le to listen to the legal argument in Judge Conger's court on Strachey's petition 
for a writ of habeas corpus. 

In other words, you asked Mr. Alexander, the clerk, to prepare a 
resume of the file for you, is that correct, Mr. Messersmith? 

Mr. ^Messersmith. Mr. Chairman, I don't think there is any ques- 
tion but what I asked Mr. Alexander to prepare a memorandum or to 
give me information with regard to this, after I had had this call 
from Miss Thompson, don't you know, which I wish to go into later. 
But I don't remember that memorandum, Mr. Chairman. Is that in 
the files? 

]Mr. Stripling. It is among the documents which were subpenaed 
by the committee. 

]\Ir. ISIessersmith. It is not important. But I mean with regard to 
the State Department file, I don't remember seeing this memorandum 
in my examination of the State Department files, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Stripling, Now, on October 24, 1938, Mr, Alexander prepared 
a resume, which is written on the letterhead of the Department of 
State, Visa Division, dated October 24, 1938,^^ 

Confidential, Resume of the File of the Department of Labor in the case of 
Johannes Eisler. 

In the meantime, there are documents to sho^v that the file had been 
transferred at the request of the State Department from the Depart- 
ment of Labor, which at that time had jurisdiction over the Immi- 
gration and Naturalization Service, The file was transferred from 
Labor to the State Department. 

In this resume, which goes on for eight pages — and I would be glad 
to read it all. Mr. Chairman, if you like • 

]Mr. Rankin. Mr. Chairman 

The Chairman. Just a minute, Mr. Rankin. 

Mr. Rankin, All right. 

The Chairman. Do you suggest that it be read? 



® See appendix, p. 192, for exhibit 77. 
*^ See appendix, p. 192, for exhibit 78. 



98 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

Mr. Stripling. Unless Mr. Messersmith desires it be read, I have 
no desire to do so. 

Mr. Rankin. Mr. Chairman, I would like to see that Strachey 
letter that was referred to. 

Mr. Messersmith. I think, Mr. Chairman, it may be necessary to 
read this memorandum at some length, or to put it into the record, 
because it is necessary to do it to show certain aspects of the super- 
ficiality of the memorandum. 

The Chairman. Do you suggest that it be read now or put in the 
record ? 

Mr. Wood. I suggest you include it in the record, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Stripling. It may be rmade a part of the record ? 

The Chairman. Without objection, it is so ordered. 

(The document referred to is as follows :) 

[Confidential] 

Department of State, 

Visa Division, 
October 24, 1938. 

Resume of the File of the Department of Labor in the case of Johannes 

ElSLER 

George O. Brisbois, chief of police, Phoenix, Ariz., writes the Commissioner 
of Imniigration and Naturalization, stating that he had noted from an item in 
the Daily Worker of February 23, 1935, that Hanns Eisler, "revolutionary 
German refugee composer," was scheduled to give a concert at the Repertory 
Theatre, 264 Huntington Avenue, Boston, at which Eisler's "stirring revolutionary 
songs" were to be sung by several workers' choruses, including the Workers' 
Music League Chorus, the Russian Ukranian Chorus, the Laisve Chorus, and 
the Freiheit Gesang Verein. 

Eisler was scheduled to speak concerning conditions in Germany. 

Chief Brisbois points out that "we already have a plethora of agitators among 
us who are endeavoring to throw grit in the gears of recovery, much less 
admitting another agitator to stir up strife and unrest among our already-em- 
bittered jobless and destitute men and women." He goes on to recite some 
experiences in attempting to quell riots, breaches of the peace, and other dis- 
turbances caused by Communist agitators. He wants Eisler deported. 

March 16. 1935 

J. E. Wilkie, secretary-treasurer of the Arizona Peace Officers' Association, 
Phoenix, writes the Department of Labor and requests that Hanns Eisler and 
John Strachey be deported as alien Communists. 

Mr. Wilkie encloses a copy of New Masses of March 12, 1935, on page 27 
of which there is a letter to the editor from an anonymous writer protesting 
against having to listen to so many speeches at the music concerts given by 
Eisler, who is i-eferred to in the letter as "a great proletarian artist." 

Mr. Wilkie describes Eisler as a German political refugee and "world famous" 
composer of such revolutionary songs as Comintern, Solidarity, and United 
Front. 

With reference to Strachey, Mr. Wilkie says : 

"Members of the Arizona Peace Officers' Association were much gratified to 
learn that a deportation warrant had been issued for Strachey, as he is a 
radical of the most pernicious type, particularly in view of his reputation and 
connections, which are calculated to invest him with an influence and authority 
which a lesser radical can never hope to inspire. 

"Strachey's contention that he is a Communist in theory and doctrine alone is 
sheer foolishness, and it is certainly to be hoped that your Department will not 
permit such a consideration to influence your decision to deport Strachey, as the 
good citizens of our country are firmly backing your stand. 

"The issue of New Masses being attached further contains (p. 22) an announce- 
ment of a debate between Strachey and Everett Dean Martin on the subject, 
Resolved, That the Present Crisis Can Be Solved Only by Communism, which in 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 99 

itself is proof of Strachey's advocacy of communism and of the fact that his visit 
to America is strictly for 'business' purposes; that is, propaganda. 

"You will also note from the baclv cover page that a copy of Strachey's new 
book is being included with each new subiscription to New Masses, further proof 
of the fact that he is being exploited by the Communists and is working in close 
cooperation with party affairs." 

May 6, 1935 

The Department of Labor, after a thorough search of the records at various 
ports of entry, finds a record showing that Johannes Eisler, a native of Leipzig, 
age 30, divorced, music composer, Austrian citizen, was admitted at New York 
on February 13, 1935, for 3 months, with a nonimmigrant passport visa as a 
temporary visitor, issued at London on January 23, 1935. 

May 8, 1935 

Mr. John K. Baxter, of the Department of Labor, in a memorandum to Mr. 
Shaughnessy, states in part : 

'•This might easily become another Strachey case. At the present time probably 
very few Americans outside of Communist circles have ever heard of Eisler, but 
there would be plenty of noise made about him if it could be represented that he 
had been excluded or deported on the ground that his Communist tunes threatened 
the overthrow of the Government by force or violence. 

"Nevertheless, the man may very well be a Communist; and, as a matter of 
fact, a rousing Communist song might have more explosive revolutionary force 
than a hundred pamphlets or speeches." 

Mr. Baxter further states that he understands that J. E. Wilkie has lost his 
position as secretary-treasurer of the Arizona Peace Officers' Association and is 
looking for a new one in California. 

October 6, 1935 

J. E. Wilkie writes again in the capacity of secretary of the Arizona Peace Offi- 
cers' Association, which indicates that he had not lost his position or, if he did, 
lie has recovered it. 

Mr. Wilkie states that Eisler has returned to the United States from a trip to 
Moscow and that he is in the United States to "aid his fellow Communists in 
arousing mass feelings." 

October S, 1935 

Mr. Wilkie writes the Secretary of Labor, quoting the following item which 
appeared in the Daily Worker of October 5, 1935 : 

"music a weapon fob fraternization, says eisler 

"The importance of music in a time of international conflict like this is that 
soldiers on either side can sing our proletarian songs and thus begin a brotherhood 
across no man's land," declared Hanns Eisler, at pier 57, North Kiver, yesterday, 
where he was welcomed by his wife and an admiring group of musicians on his 
return to America. 

"Eisler, who was recently elected world chairman of the International Music 
Bureau, whose headquarters are in Moscow, will give two courses on composition 
and a sociological introduction to modern music at the New School for Social 
Research this fall, he announced." 

The records of the Department of Labor show that Eisler was readmitted into 
the United States at New York on October 4, 1935, for a temporary period of 6 
months and that he presented the same visa he obtained at London in January 
1935. The records also show that he gave negative answers to the questions on 
the manifest which are designed to show whether he might be inadmissible as an 
alien of a politically undesirable class within the meaning of the provisions of the 
act of Congress of October IG, 1918, as amended by the act of June 5, 1920. 

January 3, 1936 

Mr. Wilkie writes jiirain as the secretary of the Arizona Peace Officers' Associa- 
tion, stating in part : 

"It is further revealed in a recent issue of the Daily Worker (December 19, p. 
6) that Eisler has also been engaged in the making of phonograph records of 
The International and certain other revolutionary songs, some of which he him- 
self composed. The Daily Worker goes on to state that it is the first time phono- 
graph records of the various revolutionary songs have been available for distribu- 



100 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

tioii to the 'workers' in this country, and for this somewhat dubious benefit the 
patriotic and loyal citizens of our country — who still constitute a majority, as 
members of the present administration might do well to note — are indebted to 
our alien 'visitor,' Herr Eisler." 

Jamtary 28, 1936 

Senator Hayden, of Arizona, writes the Secretary of Labor, transmitting a copy 
of a letter from Mr. Wilkie concerning Eisler and inquiring why he has not been 
deported, in order that Mr. Wilkie might be informed. 

February 28, 1936 

Senator Hayden again writes the Secretary of Labor and requests a reply to 
his previous letter. 

March 3, 1936 

In a letter from Mr. Sbaughnessy to Senator Hayden, it is stated that in de- 
portation proceedings the burden of proof is upon the Government and that news- 
paper articles are not accepted as evidence in such proceedings ; that the visa is 
assumed to have been issued to Eisler in London because the consular officer 
was not in possession of information showing Eisler to be inadmissible into the 
United States ; that careful consideration would be given to any request made 
by Eisler for an extension of his stay in the United States. 

(Note. — Mr. Shaughnessy does not discuss the provisions of sec. 23 of the act 
of 1U24, which places the burden upon an alien in deportation proceedings to es- 
tablish that he entered lawfully, nor does he discuss the fact that the courts have 
held that the administrative authorities are not bound to follow the strict rules 
of evidence in deportation cases. Furthermore, he fails to discuss the rule of 
evidence that a statement in the nature of an admission, although hearsay, is 
admissible in evidence.) 

April 9, 1936 

Eisler is to give a concert under the auspices of the Workers' Cultural Organiza- 
tion in the People's Auditorium, 2457 West Chicago Avenue, Chicago ( ?). He Is 
described in a circular concerning the concert as "the celebrated revolutionary 
composer." 

March 9, 1938 

Harry V. Jung, honorary general manager of the American "Vigilant Intel- 
ligence Federation, Bos 144, Chicago, III (founded in 1919, incorporated not 
for profit), writes the district director of immigration and naturalization at 
Chicago, in part, as follows : 

"In Monday's Chicago Daily Times a columnist asserted that Hanns Eisler 
is seeking citizenship. It did not see the item myself but was so informed. 
We do not know where his petition for citizenship is entered or what the present 
status of his case liappens to be, but we do know that Hanns Eisler is a Com- 
munist and it would seem to me, therefore, ineligible to citizenship." 

The following are exerpts from the column in the Chicago Daily Times, to 
which Mr. Jung referred : 

"Congress is planning an investigation of the diplomatic service. * * * 

"Composer Hanns Eisler, the German expatriate who arrived here last month, 
will apply for American citizenship within the next few weeks. He already has 
an assignment from the Federal theater." 

Mr. Jung enclosed an excerpt from the column of Leonard Lyons entitled 
"Broadway Medley," which appeared in the Chicago Daily Times of March 9, 
1988. which reads as follows : 

" * * * Hanns Eisler, the exiled German composer, received a note from 
Ernest Hemingway asking him to write the music for his new play, an agent 
reports at Bertolotti's. 'Eisler couldn't find any spot where music would fit. 
Hemingway told him about some phonograph recoi'dings of Arise, a song the 
Loyalists sang in Madrid, and that he wanted that tune if they could get it. 
Eisler wrote back: "We can get it. I composed that song * * * I'm going 
to Europe for a vacation * * *." ' " 

March 29, 1938 

Dr. Alvin Johnson offers Eisler a position as professor of music for 5 years, 
at $3,000 a year, with the New School for Social Research, 66 West Twelfth 
Street. New York City, expressing enthusiasm for Eisler's previous work as a 
"visiting lecturer." 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 101 

Dr. Johnson also writes Coert du Bois, Aniorican consul general at Habana, 
on the sam-o day, endorsing Eisler's prospective application for an immigration 
vii-^a. and stating: 

"Eisler is a famous and important composer, a nuisician who knows how to 
make millions of people throughout the world respond to his compositions." 

In a hearing given Kish>r at Ellis Island, he states tliat iiis addr(\ss is 225 West 
Sixty-ninth Street, New York City: that he was born on July 6, 18)8, at Leipzig, 
son of a naturalized Austrian father: came to the United States the last time 
with a noninunigrant visitor's visa issued at Prague on December 18, 1937; 
Austrian passport No. 284 (series .\-28a84S), issued at Paris, France, on June 
14, l!t.'!,S. and valid by extension uiit 11 May 1, 193!) ; wants to go to Habana to obtain 
an inuuigration visa and requests extension of his stay in the United States nntil 
he can obtain word from the American consul general at Habana that his docu- 
ments are in order : coming back to the New School for Social Research headed by 
Dr. Alvin Johnson : compo.sed of every kind of music : denies that his compositions 
were ccmnnunistlc in character but claims they were only anti-Nazi: claims to be 
a political relugee: political belief anti-Nazi : plays piano, but not very well : first 
came to the United States for lectures: came second time to witness premiere on 
Broadway of a play he had written ; has $750,000 ; he has had no trouble with 
police anywhere : exiled from Austria because of anti-Nazi and anti-Fascist views ; 
?0 percent Aryan and 50 percent Hebrew ; married twice : divorced from first wife 
in Austria in 1935 or 1936: married second wife, Louisa (losztani, with whom he 
is now living, in Czechoslovakia on December 7, 1937 ; one son, George Eisler, now 
livinu' at Prague. 

^Irs. Eisler was also heard ; lives with her husliand in New York : arrived with 
him as temporary visitor on January 21, 19.38; Austrian passport No. 80, series 
A-S3945(t, issuedat Prague on September 13, 1937, valid to September 12, 1942; 
nonimmigrant visitor's visa issued at Prague December 18, 1937; writer; mother 
Jewish but father was not ; is in correspondence with agent in London who may 
publish her works of fiction. 

June 22, 1938 

Dr. Alvin Johnson writes Commissioner Hough teling that he desires to employ 
Ei.sler "as a teacher, primarily of song composition." States that he is aware of 
the difficulties confronted l)y our own musicians and there is every reason for 
not employing an alien where an American could be employed * * * \y^ji 
* * * ''the special fund out of which we should pay his salary would not be 
available for an American composer even if I know one who could answer the 
same purpose. * * *" 

(It would be interesting to know the source of the funds available to Dr. John- 
son but which are not available for paying the salary of an American composer. 
If the funds are to be made available only to pay the salary of an alien, what 
kind of an institution is Dr. .Johnson trying to operate in the United States?) 

July 2, 1938 

Commissioner Houghteling directs that Eisler be allowed to stay in the country 
lor tlie duration of his teaching engagement with the New School of Social 
Research. 

August 5, 1938 

The Board of Review, Department of Labor, grants Eisler permission to remain 
temporarily in the United States only until January 21, 1939. 

SUMMARY AND COMitENTAEY 

The evidence establishes preponderantly that Eisler is a Communist, although 
it does not show that he is an enrolled member of the Communist Party. His 
beliefs are anti-Nazi and procomnmnistic ; he has given the Communists in the 
United States and other countries aid, comfort, and active association in the 
promotion of their cause. The consul general at Habana will be cjilled upon 
to determine the admissibility of Eisler in connection with his apjilication for 
an immigration visa. Carol King, the attorney for Eisler, is pressing the 
Department to advise Plabana concerning Eisler in order that ^abana may 
advise Eisler when to appear to make application for an immigration visa. As 
matters now stand, it is believed that Habana must be advised that Eisler is 
inadmissible because of his political views and affiliations: that he obtained 
the nonimmigrant visas at London and Pralia through fraud ; and that he should 



102 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

not be encouraged to make an application for an immigration visa. However, 
the Strecker case, now pending before the Supreme Court of the United States, 
may have some bearing iipon the decision to be made in Eisler's case. In any 
event, it would be unwise to render any decision in Eisler's case before the 
Supreme Court decides the Strecker case.^ 

The Chairman. And will you let me see the Strecker letter? Mr. 
Rankin would like to see it. 

(Document handed chairman.) 

Mr. Stkipling. On page 7 of the memorandum it states : 

June 10, 19S8 

In a hearing given Eisler at Ellis Island he states that his address is 225 West 
Sixty-ninth Street, New York City ; that he was born on July 6, 1898, at Leipzig ; 
son of a naturalized Austrian father ; came to the United States the last time 
with a nonimmigrant visitor's visa issued at Prague on December 18, 1937 ; 
Austrian passport No. 234 (series A-28.1848), issued at Paris, France, on June 
14, 1933, and valid by extension until May 1, 1939; wants to go to Habana to 
obtain an immigration visa and requests extension of his stay in the United 
States until he can obtain word from the American consul general at Habana 
that his documents are in order ; coming baclv to the New School for Social 
Research headed by Dr. Alvin Johnson ; composer of every kind of music ; 
denies that his compositions were communistic in character but claims they 
were only anti-Nazi ; claims to be a political refugee ; political belief anti-Nazi ; 
plays piano but not very well ; first came to the United States for lectures ; 
came second time to witness premiere on Broadway of a play he had written ; 
has $750,000; has had no trouble with police anywhere; exiled from Austria 
because of anti-Nazi and anti-Fascist views ; .50 percent Aryan and 50 percent 
Hebrew ; married twice ; divorced from first wife in Austria in 1935 or 1936 ; 
married second wife, Louisa Gosztani, with whom he is now living, in Czecho- 
slovakia on December 7, 1937 ; one son, George Eisler, now living at Prague. 

Mr.s. P^isler was also heard; lives with her husband in New York; arrived 
with him as temporary visitor on January 21, 1938; Austrian passport No. 80, 
series A-S39450, issued at Prague on September 13, 1937, valid to September 12, 
1942 ; nonimmigrant visitor's visa issued at Prague December 18, 1937 ; writer ; 
mother Jewish but father was hot ; is in correspondence with agent in London 
who may publish her works of fiction. 

June 22, 19S8 

Dr. Alvin Johnson writes Commissioner Houghteling that he desires to employ 
Eisler, "as a teacher, primarily of song composition." States that he is aware 
of the difhculties confronted by our own musicians and there is every reason 
for not employing an alien where an American could be employed * * * 
but * * * "the special fund out of which we should pay his salary would 
not be available for an American composed even if I know one who could answer 
the same purpose * * *" 

It would be interesting to know the source of the funds available to Dr. 
Johnson, but which are not available for paying the salary of an American 
composer. If the funds are to be made available only to pay the salary of an 
alien, what kind of an institution is Dr. Johnson trying to operate in the United 
States? 

Jvhj 2, 193S 

Commissioner Houghteling directs that Eisler be allowed to stay in the 
country for the duration of his teaching engagement with the New School for 
Social Research. 

August 5, 1938 

The Board of Review, Department of Labor, grants Eisler x>ermission to 
remain temporarily in the United States only until January 21, 1939. 

Summary and commentary — 

Mr. Messersmith, could you tell us now what Mr. Alexander's posi- 
tion was at that time, his salary, and so forth ? You have referred to 

^ The Strecker case merely decided thiat an alien was not subject to exclusion because he 
had at one time been a Communist. 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 103 

him as a clerk. I think it is important that we establish now whether 
or not a clork prepared this memorandum and partici])ated in the 
handling; of this case, or whether it was an official of the Visa Division. 

Mr. Messersmith. Well, Mr. Chairman, I am not able to say what 
Mr. Alexander's position in the Visa Division was at the time — 
I mean, what his salary was, and all that. We had a very small 
number of peoj^le in the Department, 800 at the time, but I wouldn't 
be able to tell what Mr. Alexander's salary was. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Chairman, I suojfjest that one of the investiga- 
tors be instructed to communicate with the Department of State now 
and find out just what position he holds now and what position he 
held in 1938, because if this memorandum was prepared by a clerk, 
as Mr. Messersmith says, why then I think the committee should 
know it. 

The Chairman. Mr. Messersmith, do you know Mr. Alexander? 

Mr. Messersmith. Oh, yes, indeed ; yes, indeed, Mr. Chairman. I 
knew him quite well. 

The Chairman. About how many years was he in the service? 

Mr. Messersmith. I have no idea. I think the Department of State 
register shows that he came into Department first as a clerk, in the 
office of the then Secretary of State Hughes. 

The Chairman. Awd how long was he in the service — how many 
years? 

Mr. Messersmith. Since that time, I think. 

The Chairinian. That wonld be about 

Mr. Stripling. I think he has about 25 or 30 years' service. 

The Chairman. Twenty-five or thirty years? 

Mr. Stripling. I think so. 

The Chairman. And would you say he was a clerk at the time he 
wrote that memorandum? 

Mr. Messersmith. I should say he was a law clerk, or something 
of that kind. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. Stripijng. I think jNIr. Eussell 

The Chairman. Mr. Russell, you get in touch with the State Depart- 
ment and find out what his position was at that time and what his 
salary was at that time. 

Mr. Stripling. October 1938. 

The summary and commentary on this document, which is under 
the heading of "Resume of the file of the Department of Labor in 
the case of Johannes Eisler," states : 

The evidence establishes preponderantly that Eisler is a Communist, although 
it does not show that he is an enrolled member of the Communist Party. His 
beliefs are anti-Nazi and pi'O-Communist ; he has given the Communists in 
the United States and other countries aid, comfort, and active association in 
the promotion of their cause. The consul general at Habaua will be called 
upon to determine the admissibility of Eisler in connection with his application 
for an immigration visa. Carol king, the attorney for Eisler, is pressing the 
Department to advise Habana concerning El.sler in order that Habana may 
advise Eisler when to appear to make application for an immigration visa. As 
matters now stand, it is believed that Habana must be advised that Eisler is 
inadmissible because of his ix)litical views and affiliations; that he obtained 
the nonimmigrant visas at London and Praha through fraud; and that he 
should not be encouraged to make an application for an immigration visa. 
However, the Strecker case, now pending before the Supreme Court of the United 
States, may have some bearing upon the decision to be made in Eisler's case. 



104 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

In any event it wouUl be unwise to render any decision in Eisler's case before 
the Supreme Court decides the Strecker case. 

Now, Mr. Messersmith, I want to refer to the first two sentences of 
this summarj^ and commentary — and I reqnest that the members pay 
j)articnlar attention to this, because in view of the evidence which was 
produced before the committee yesterday, I just wonder how far 
wrong this clerk was in his summary : 

The evidence establishes preponderantly that Eisler is a Communist, although 
it does not show that he is an enrolled member of the Communist Party. His 
beliefs are anti-Nazi and pro-Conununistic ; he has given the Communists in the 
United States and other countries aid, comfort, and active association in the 
promotion of their cause. 

Do you think that that summary was incorrect, Mr. Messersmith? 

Mr. Messersmith. Mr. Cliairman, at the time that this summary 
was prepared by Mr. Alexander, at my request either to him or to 
Mr. Warren, the Chief of the Division — I wouldn't be able to say 
whether I made the short cut directly to INIr. Alexander or whether 
I asked Mr. Warren, the Chief of the Division, for it — the request was 
provoked by what must have been, as I say, a telephone conversation, 
instead of a letter, from Miss Dorothy Thompson, because there is 
no record in my personal files or in the Department of a letter from 
Miss Thompson. 

In this connection, I shall state that Miss Thompson had been a fre- 
quent visitor to Europe, from 1935 on, in her connection as a columnist. 
While I was stationed in Berlin and in Austria, Miss Thompson made 
a numlier of visits there, just as other columnists and correspondents 
did, and they naturally saw our consular officers to get background 
information. In this way, I knew Miss Thompson. 

The Chairman. Do you have the question in mind ? 

Mr. Messersmith. Yes ; I have the question in mind. 

The Chairman. You seem to be dwelling more on Dorothy Thomp- 
son, when the question concerns this clerk. 

INIr. Messersmith. I want to explain wh}" 

Mr. Eankix. Mr. Chairman, I didn't get the date of that memo- 
randum. Mav I ask the date ^ 

Mr. Stripling. That is October 24, 1988. 

On October 27, 1938, Mr. Messersmith replied to Dorothy Thompson. 
That is the next exhibit. 

Mr. Messersmith. Yes. 

Mr. Stripling. The reply to Dorothy Thompson. 

Mr. Messersmith. I want to bring out 

Mr. Stripling. And I assume, Mr. Messersmith, your reply to Miss 
Dorothy Thompson was based in part on the resume. 

Mr. Messersmith. I want to bring out, Mr. Chairman, that the fiist 
information for recollection, or anything that is in the files which 
shows any knowledge of mine of the Eisler case, came when Miss 
Thom]3son called me on the telephone. I can't recall that conversa- 
tion, that is, what the substance of it was, but from the character of 
the letter which I wrote to Miss Thompson — which it will be noted is 
a personal and unofficial one and was not intended to be an official 
letter — you can see that she must have been veiy emotional over the 
telephone. One must remember at that time — and we have got to keep 
in mind the perspective in this matter — Miss Thompson called me on 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 105 

the telephone, practically all ihoiiirhtful persons in the United States 
were concerneil with Avhat was happening in Europe. And Miss 
Thompson 

The Chaikmax. Just as they are concerned with what is happening 
today. 

Mr. Messeksmith. Exactly, sir. And Miss Thompson was one of 
these people who had been in Europe and who knew better than a great 
many of our people what was happening to people there. Therefore, 
when she telephoned me about Eisler, she must have been, as I say, 
not only factual, but a bit emotional. She, I think, thought that there 
were many things that the State Department could do for refugees 
which it was quite impossible to do. 

^ly letter to Miss Thompson was drafted as a personal and unofficial 
letter, because I wished to give her some background which would sort 
of make her understand. 

The Chaikmax. Mr. Messersmith. you talk so much about Dorothy 
Thompson that I have forgotten the question. What was the question ? 

Mr. Striplixg. Well, the question was whether or not he disagreed 
with the first two sentences of the summary and commentary. 

The Chairmax. Yes ; that is the question. 

]\lr. Messersmith. Yes. 

The Chairmax. And will you try to answer that question without 
going into a long discourse about Dorothy Thompson ? 

Mr. Kaxkix. jNIr. Chairman, may I ask a question of Mr. Stripling? 
^Vas that before or after Mrs. Koosevelt's note to Mr. Sunnier Welles? 

Mr. Striplixg. INIr. Rankin, this is before, and I have this 

Mr. Raxkix-^. How long before ^ 

Mr. Striplixg. Well, this is October, and ]Mrs. Roosevelt brought 
it to the attention of Mr. AVelles in January of the next j^ear. 

Mr. Raxkix'. I see. 

Mr. Striplixg. And 3 months before. 

I\Ir. Chairmax. Repeat the question so Mr. Messersmith will under- 
stand the question and won't get off on Dorothy Thompson. 

]Mr. Striplixg. As I understand from Mr. Messersmith, Dorothy 
Thomi)son called him on the phone about Hanns Eisler. He in turn 
called upon a clerk in the Visa Division, Mr. Robert C. Alexander, to 
prepare a resume of the file of the Labor Department, which was at 
that time in charge of the Immigration Service, on the case. Mr. 
Alexander compiled the resume, eight pages of it. and concludes, in 
the summary and commentary : 

The evidence establishes preponderantly that Eisler is a Comnmnist, although 
it does not show that he is an enrolled member of the Communist Party. His 
beliefs are anti-Nazi and pro-conimunistio ; he has given the (Vminnuiists in the 
United States and other countries aid, comfort, and active association in the 
promotion of their cause. 

Now, in view of what was brought out before the' committee yester- 
day, I just wondered if Mr. Alexander wasn't just about 100 percent 
correct in his .summary. 

The Chairmax. That is the question. 

Mr. Raxkix. The point I was making 

The Chairmax. Just a minute. We are going to have the answer 
to that question. 

Mr. Rankix. All right. 



106 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

Mr. Messersmith. Mr. Chairman, you wish to know whether I took 
into account this memorandum in my consideration of the case — is that 
the question? 

Mr. Stripling. Let me make this clear, Mr. Chairman. The point 
is this : Mr. Messersmith has referred to Mr. Alexander as a clerk, 
some underling who would perform some menial task in connection 
with this case. 

Mr. Messersmith. No. 

Mr. Stripling. Now, this memorandum — this resume — remained in 
this file throughout the entire period. It was before the consulate 
general in Mexico City. Durino- the entire time this Eisler case was 
handled by the State Department, this memorandum was in the file. 

Now, what I want to establish is this : If Mr. Alexander's resume, 
or any memorandum he writes, is not to be taken with any particular 
authority, then we should determine that now because it has a bearing 
on the entire case. Here is the person in the State Department that 
says a man is a Communist back in 1938. Now, based upon that 
memorandum, Mr. Messersmith writes to Dorothy Thompson, and 
many other people, and he prepares a letter for Mr. Sumner Welles 
in reply to Mrs. Roosevelt. Was he basing his replies upon Mr. 
Alexander's memorandum or just what is the status of this summary? 

Mr. Messersmith. Mr. Chairman, I don't wish to be quibbling, but 
I wish to understand just what the question is. If the question is: 
Did I take this memorandum into account in the preparation of the 
letters which I prepared — is that the question ? 

The Chairman. All right, I will put that question : Did you take 
this memorandum into account when you prepared those letters? 

Mr. Messersmith. I certainly did, Mr. Chairman; I certainly did. 

The Chairman. Then you came to the conclusion, also, that Hanns 
Eisler was a Communist ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Messersmith. No ; I came to no conclusion, as the letter showed. 

The Chairman. Did you difi'er with the conclusion in the letter? 

Mr. Messersmith. I think it is necessary, Mr. Chairman, that I 
make a clarifying statement in that comiection. I want to answer, 
however, very categorically, that I took into account the memorandum 
of Mr. Alexander. And I should say this in explanation to the counsel, 
that my reference to Mr. Alexander as a clerk would not be in any 
sense disparaging, because a great deal of the work in the State De- 
partment is done by people who have the designation of clerk and who 
do have responsible work there. It is a word which is not used in 
any derogatory sense at all. I merely wish to make it clear that I do 
not know what Mr. Alexander's status in the Visa Division at that 
time was, except that he was one of the persons who worked in the 
Visa Division, who prepared memoranda and handled the cases for the 
then Chief of the Visa Division. 

The Chairman. You saw the memorandum when it was prepared? 

Mr. Messersmith. I saw the memorandum when it was prepared, 
because it was prepared either through a request which I made to 
Mr. Warren, as Chief of the Division, or probably it may have been 
made directly to Mr. Alexander. 

The Chairman. And you noted his conclusion that Hanns Eisler 
was a Communist? 

Mr. Messersmith. Exactly. 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 107 

The Chairman. And that based on that conclusion, you answered 
Dorothy Tliompson ; is that correct? 

Mr. Messersmith. I be*:; your pardon ? 

The Chairman. Based on the conchision, you ansvverd Dorothy 
Thompson ? 

Mr. Messersmith. No; based on my general consideration of the 
case, because you must remember, Mr. Chairman, that my position 
in the Department was that of tlie responsible officer in the Depart- 
ment. I had to analyze all the information which came to me. 

The Chairman. And did you ha\^e any other information on this 
Hanns P^isler case right at that time, otlier than this memorandum? 

Mr. Messersmith. At that time I had no information other than 
fliis. 

The Chairm^^n. Go ahead, Mr. Stripling. 

]Mr. Stripling. Now 

Mr. Messersmith. Except what was in the file. 

The Chairman. Go ahead, Mr. Stripling. 

Mr. Stripling. All right, Mr. Messersmith. 

The next document which I would like to introduce is your reply 
to Dorothy Thompson, dated October 27, 1938, which is marked "Per- 
sonal and strictly confidential", and then written in, in hand, "Unoffi- 
cial and strictly confidential".^^ 

Dear Dorothy : I regret that I have not been able to write you earlier with 
regard to our telephone conversation concerning the case of Joliannes or Hanns 
Eisler, who is considering applying for an immigration visa at the consulate 
general at Habana. I have gone into this matter very carefully and I find that 
we have a fairly considerable file on this matter. It seems that Eisler has been 
in this country from time to time during the last years on visas as a temporary 
visitor. He has been coming in on a temporary visitor's visa, then leaving the 
country and securing another visa as a temporary visitor. In this way he has 
been able to make quite an extended stay in this country. I now understand that 
he intends to apply for an immigration visa at the consulate general at Habana 
in order to make permanent entry into the country. In this connection there 
has arisen a question as to whether he is a Communist and whether, under the 
immigration laws, he could be granted an immigration visa. 

There are all sorts of considerations which arise in this connection. First of 
all, I think I should tell you frankly that there appears to be considerable evi- 
dence in the files that Eisler is a Communist and that he obtained a nonimmigrant 
visitor's visa without disclosing the facts concerning his political views and 
perhaps affiliations. A number of protests have been received from patriotic 
organizations and individuals against Eisler being granted an immigration visa 
or being permitted to remain in this country. Whether Eisler is a Communist 
or not, I do not know, and I do not know whether he holds views whicli, under 
the immigration laws, would make it impossible to grant him an immigration 
visa. This is a question which this Department cannot decide. You know that 
under our immigration laws, the consular ofiicer before whom an immigrant 
applies for a visa is the one who must determine whether or not, inider the 
immigration laws, the applicant may be granted a visa. The Department of 
State may be called upon by the consul to give an interpretation of the law, but 
the decision, as to whether a visa can be granted in an individual ca.se must be 
made by the consul before whom the application is made. The final decision, 
therefore, whether Eisler can get an immigration visa would have to be made 
by the consul and not by this Department. 

There is another circumstance which may give concern. It is presupposed 
that a jjcrson who conx's into this country on a nonimmigrant's visa — that Is, 
a visa as a temporary visitor — will not engage in gainful employment. In other 
words, it is presupix)sed that he is coming to this country for a bona fide tem- 
porar.v stay which would ordinarily not involve fixed employment. In practice 
this has not been interpreted to preclude making it impossible for a person here 

^ See appendix, p. 192, for exhibit 79. 



108 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

* 

on a temporary visa to give lectures for wliicli he gets remuneration, or to 
engage in some very temporary incidental employment for which he may get 
remuneration. I think, however, that under the law we must take it that a 
person who is here on a temporary stay cannot accept any definite continued 
employment. I am not sure that Eisler has not violated this at least implied 
provision incident to his stay in the country on a visa as a temporary visitor. 

I am not at all sure that Eisler will be able to secure a visa at the consulate 
general at Habana without long delay. It was possible, when the pressure under 
the quota was not so great, for persons to secure visas at some of the nearby 
consulates without a very long waiting periotl. Now, however, with the tens 
of thousands of applicants who are registered under the quotas, all persons 
must await their turn on the waiting list and, as 1 gather that Eisler is not on 
the waiting list of any quota, it will be some time befoi-e his name would be reached 
if he were to register now. A person who seeks for and secures a visa as a 
temporary visitor to the United States is not supposed to be on the waiting list 
of any quota if such a tempin-ary visit(n-'s visa is granted to iiini. 

It would seem, therefore, from the circumstances of liis being in this country 
on a temporary visitor's visa, that he could not be on the waiting list at Habana 
or elsewhere. If he has indicated his intention to the consulate general at 
Habana to apply for an immigration visa there, he would naturally have to take 
his place on the waiting list in the respective order of those registered against 
the German quota. As things are now, I do not see how he could get on the 
waiting list at Habana, or elsewhere, until he leaves this country and applies 
in person for an immigration visa at one of our consular establishments. He 
would then go on the waiting list of the German quota, to which I understand 
he is chargeable, and this would mean that he would have several years to 
wait as the demands on the quota are particularly heavy. I need not tell you 
that our consular officers cannot give any preference to any applicant to which 
he is not entitled under the law. It is absolutely necessary that our consular 
officers enforce our laws without discriminating between persons and that vhey 
accord preference only when such preference is specifically provided for in the 
law. Under our law, Eisler does not have any preference whatever. 

I have written you so frankly and so fully because I think I should tell you 
that completely aside of the question of the political vi.^ws which Eisler may 
hold, the possibility of his securing an immigration visa in the near future 
is very slender. He would have a considerable waiting period, which I see 
might be as nmch as 2 years considering the present demand against the German 
quota. I know that this may seem hard, but after all the United States cannot 
alone solve the refugee question and we have to keep in mind that the temper 
of the country is for the maintenance of our present innuigration laws and 
practice. We have at present the most liberal and the most understanding 
immigi-ation practice of any country. I am convinced that if an endeavor were 
made to get more liberal immigration legislation written into the statutues,. 
the results would be more restrictive rather than more liberal legislation. 
That is why I have hoped that we may leave well enough alone. 

Now. with regai'd to Eisler's political views and alliliations, I do not feel 
that I am able to go into this. Our files sliow that lie has had connections 
and that he does seem to hold views which the consul might find would preclude 
him fi-om granting a visa. 

The Chairman. Read that line over again, please. 
Mr. Stripling (readinor) : 

Now, wirh ivgard to Eisler's political views and affiliations. I do not feel 
that I ani able to go into this. Our files show that he lias had connections and 
that lie does seem to hold views which the consul might find woiild preclude 
him from granting a visa. It seems, for example, that it was reported in the 
Daily Worker of October 5, 1935, that Eisler had been appointed the world 
chairman of the International Music Bureau, whose headquarters nre in Moscow. 
The chances are that, although he may not be an nctive member or even a 
member of the Communist Party, he may hold views which, under the law, 
Avould exclude him from securing a visa. I am not passing any judgment on 
this matter because I do not have the facts and I have no reason for going 
into them, nor would I be competent to go into them. It wcmld be a (juestion 
for the consul to whom he applies for an im'migration visa to decide. 

I can appreciate your interest in this man and it does cjedit to yoiir goodness: 
of heart. We do not make the law here in the Department, hut we have certain 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 109 

obligations undei- the law and our oHkors have very speiiiic duties under the 
hnv. This I know you will apyreciatr. There are so many thousands of those 
people who have a claim on our thought and care but whom we can't possibly 
begin to take care of in this country. The root of the problem after all is not 
in our law and practice but in the acts of those persons and countries which 
make these refugees. It would be line it we could epeii our doors wide, but 
we cannot even think of tliat. 

If there is anything more specific that you think I may be able to give you, 
I would be very glad to have you write me further. 1 see his case as a most 
ditlicult one completely aside from any political views which he may have. 

Willi all good wishes, 
Cordially yours, 

Geokge S. Messersmith. 

Mr Messersmitji. That is the letter, Mr. Chairman, which I wrote 
lo Miss Tliompsoii, after very careful coiisicleration of what I had 
before me. I had to take into account many factors. One of them 
was — I mean, I wrote her first of all such a personal and full letter 
because she was a coltminist. At that time there were a great many 
people in our country who felt, because there were so many people — 
political refugees — that our innnigration laws should be changed. 
And perhaps Miss Thompson had mentioned to me in her telephone 
conversation something about that. That is why I included it in the 
letter. But it was quite obvious that in spite of the sympathy which 
we had for these reftigees we could not contemplate any change in our 
immigration laws at that time. It wotild have been impossible, I 
think. That is what we all thought. 

Mr. Stripling. Pardon me, Mr. Messersmith. I think the letter 
speaks for itself. Mr. Messersmith is just reiterating what he said in 
the letter, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. ^Messersmith. Xo. I mean 

The CHAiRMAiSr. I think Mr. INIessersmith would like to explain a 
little bit wh}' he wrote the letter, and why he wrote such a long letter. 

^Ir. ]\Iessersmitii. That is right. 

The Chairman. A nice and personal letter to Dorothy Thompson. 

INIr. Messersmith. That is right. 

The Chairman. And I think we ought to let him continue. 

]Mr. INIessersmith. She was only representative of many people 
in this country, and the Department of State was under very con- 
siderable attack at the time because many people in the country 
thought we Avere being too strict and too definite in our application 
of the law. The Department, on the other hand, has very definite 
responsibilities, in spite of the sympathy which we miglit feel for 
people. It was necessary for us to carry through our statutory obli- 
gatioiis to hear every alien, because every alien who aj^plies to a consul 
abroad has the right to be heard bj^ the consul who has to reach the 
decision in this case, and the law specifically places the responsibility 
oil the consul. 

Xow. the Department of State in tliose days. Mr. Chairman, could 
not give any directives to the cousid. They could not say to the 
consul, "You grant a visa," or "you do not grant a visa." They could 
simply make available to the consul all the information which they 
had witli regard to a particular case. 

The Chaikman. And did 3'ou make available lo the consul the 
report from Mr. Alexander? 

66957 — 47 8 



110 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

Mr. Messersmith. That was made available to liim later, yes, sir, 
Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. How much later? 

Mr. Messersmith. Not much later, certainly not — well, before he 
had any reason to consider the decision. I think it was in December. 

The Chairman. Mr. Stripling. 

Mr. Stripling. Now, Mr. Messersmith, did I understand you to 
say that the DejDartment could not make recommendation to the 
consul ? 

Mr. Messersmith. I don't think we could. 

Mr, Stripling. Didn't you yourself make recommendations to Mr, 
du Bois as to whether or not he should grant his visa ? 

Mr. Messersmith. No. I said we can't give any directives. It was 
desirable and necessary for us to give the consul all the information 
which we had, but we could not give any directives, and we did not 
give any directives. 

Mr. Stripling. But you made suggestions. 

Mr. Messersmith. No suggestions. The only suggestion is the 
letter that Mr. du Bois shows I made was that I said this was a case 
that would require the attention of himself or one of his responsible 
'Officers. And I will give the reasons for that later, Mr. Stripling. 

Mr. Stripling. But you didn't give suggestions ? 

Mr. Messersmith. No suggestions, Mr. Stripling. 

Mr. Stripling. Next I would like to introduce, Mr. Chairman 

Mr. Rankin. Mr. Chairman, before we move to something else, 
I wonder if it would be in order for the members to question the wit- 
ness about this particular proposition. 

The Chairman. That is perfectly agreeable. You go ahead, Mr. 
Hankin. 

Mr. Rankin. Mr. Messersmith, you were in the State Department 
at that time as Under Secretary of State, is that right? 

Mr. Messersmith. No; as Assistant Secretarj^, Mr, Rankin. 

Mr. Rankin. Assistant Secretary of State. 

Mr. Messersmith. From about June, 19 

Mr. Rankin. I never got the exact line of demarcation as between 
as undersecretary and an assistant secretary. You were informed 
loy your own representative, your own subordinate, that this man 
Eisler was a Communist. Are you aware of the fact that his sister 
testified here that both these Eislers were in this country at that time 
and stayed here all during the war? While our boys were dying by 
the thousands to get Hitler's heel off their necks they were here fo- 
menting revolution in this country. Are you aware of that statement? 

Mr. Messersmith. I learned from the testimony here that Mrs. 
Fischer, who is, as I understand, the sister of Mr. Eisler 

Mr. Rankin. Yes. 

Mr. Messersmith. Made some statements later. 

Mr. Rankin. Oh, yes. 

Mr. Messersmith. And considerably later. We are talking now 
about the information that was available at this time. 

Mr. Rankin. Don't you think the information given by your effi- 
cient subordinate there was sufficient to put the State Department on 
notice that this man was a dangerous Communist and was coming 
to this country for no good ? 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 111 

Mr. Messersmith. Mr. Chairman — Mr. Rankin, when I received 
this memorandum from Mr. Alexander, which I think was a seven- 
or eight-page memorandum, I read it very carefully. I had to take 
into account all the facts in my possession, one of them being that 
Mr. Alexander — who is a man, I am sure, of certain real capacities — 
was not one inclined to take responsibility. We had to deal, in the 
State Department, at that time, with the fact that i-ome of our consul 
officers abroad and some of our officers in the Department were acting 
to a certain extent on the basis of their personal feelings. Those 
feelings are inclined to influence all of us. 

Mr. Rankin. Did you call that information to the attention of 
Mr. Sunnier Welles? You were under Sumner Welles, were you not? 
Sumner Welles was Actiiig Secretary. 

Mr. Mesersmith. Sumner Welles was higher in the hierarchy. Was 
the next officer, yes. 

Mr. Rankin.' He was acting Secretary of State, was he not? 

Mr. Messersmith. No, no. He was Undersecretary of State, Mr. 
Rankin. 

Mr. Rankin. You were his subordinate, as I understand it. 

Mr. Messersmith. I was, wdth the other assistant Secretaries of 
State, in the hierarchy under Mr. Welles. 

Mr. Rankin. Did you call that information to the attention of 
Mr. Sumner Welles ? 

Mr. Messersmith. I did not. I wrote letters to Mr. Sumner Welles 
later, but there was no need. And we must remember at that time 
there were thousands and thousands of letters coming into the De- 
partment every day — I mean not every day, but constantly, with 
regard to people. I couldn't bring a case of this kind to the attention 
of Mr. Welles. 

Mr. Rankin. But these Eislers were continuously beating the tom- 
tom, and especially this one, trying to get into or stay in the United 
States. 

Mr. Messersmith. Well, Mr. Rankin, don't you think we have to 
remember what we are dealing with ? 

Mr. Rankin. Let me read you my question to Sumner Welles 
yesterday and his answer. 

Mr. JVIessersmith. Yes, but that is another matter. 

Mr. Rankin. No, it is not. It is on the same matter, exactly the 
same matter 

Mr. Messersmith. Mr. Rankin, I must submit that we are dealing 
with the information which was available to me at that time. 

Mr. Rankin. All right. Now, just a moment. I asked Mr. Welles 
on yesterday the following : 

Mr. Rankin. Mr. Welles, as I understand it, if you had been in possession of 
all the information that has been developed here, it would have been your opin- 
ion that Eisler would not have been admissible into the United States? 

Mr. Welli':s. I would most certainly, Mr. Congressman, have requested that a 
far more searching and far more reaching investigation be made than that which 
took place. 

Mr. Rankin. If you had had the information that has been developed here? 

Mr. Welles. That is correct. 

Mr. Messersmith. Yes. 

Mr. Rankin. In other words, if this information, according to Mr. 
Sumner Welles' testimony, had been communicated to him or brought 



112 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

to liis attention, he would have gone into the proposition thoroughly, 
and if the facts developed as they have developed since and could have 
been developed at that time, he would have held that this man was not 
admissible to the United States. 

Mr. Messersmitii. Well, it wouldn't have been in the position of 
Ml'. Welles to hold that he was not admissible because that was not 
within his or my ;iuthority. But again I submit 

^[r. Rankin. Whose authority 

Mr. Messersmith. Mr, Welles, I again submit, when he answered 
that question, was saying, jSIr. Rankin, if he had the information 
which had been developed yesterday. But that was not available to 
us at that time, and that is a point which I must go into later. 

Mr. Rankin. Yes ; but you had the information in black and white 
developed by one of your efficient subordinates to the same effect as 
was developed by the testimony here yesterday. 

Mr. Messersmith. No, JMr. Rankin. I think you would 

Mr. Rankin. You say it was not in Mr. Sumner Welles' power to 
exclude this man. In whose power was it? 

Mr. Messersmith. Under the law a person who wishes to enter the 
United States has to apply for a visa to a consul officer in the district 
in which he is residing. And under the statute the consul officer is 
the sole person who can pass on that evidence, based on an examination 
of the alien 

Mr. Rankin. And the consular officer is a subordinate of the State 
Department, isn't he? 

Mv. Messersmith. Oh, yes. 

Mr. Rankin. All right. Then he was under you or Mr. Sumner 
Welles. 

Mr. Messersmith. This is a well-debated question, Mr. Chairman, 
which has been decided long since, that the statute places the duty on 
the consul to make this decision and the State Department cannot 
interfere in that decision. 

Mr. Rankin. Well, Mr. Messersmith 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Rankin, if I may interrupt you, I have the docu- 
ments which pertain to this very point, which I think would clarify 
this whole matter. 

Mr. Rankin. All riglit. Thank you, Mr. Stripling. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Messersmith, you stated that the Department 
did not make directives or suggestions to the consulate in whose au- 
thority and domain it is to determine whether or not an applicant 
gets a visa. 

Now I am going to refer to a memorandum, of December 3, 1938, of 
Coert du Bois, American consul general — and he is the person to whom 
Hanns Eisler had made application — addressed to the Secretary of 
State.*^^*^ It says : 

Sir: I have the honor to refer to the Department's instruction, dated June 11,. 
1938, and to previous correspondence in tlie case of Johannes Eisler, a prospective 
applicant at this office for an immigration visa, and to inform the Department 
that I am in receipt of an inquiry from Soffer «fe Rediker, attorneys, 100 Broadway, 
New York, concerning the investigation being undertaken in the matter. It iS"- 
accordingly respectfully requested tliat the findings of the Department's investiga- 
tion be transmitted at an early date. 

«■* See appendix, p. 192, for exhibit 80. 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 113 

On December 23, 1938, in a strictly confidential nienionunluni signed 
by yourself, and addressed to Coert du Bois, American consul general 
at ilabana, Cuba,''" yon say 

JNlr. Messkrsmith. A letter? 

]Mr. Striplixg (reading) : 

The Department acknowledges the receipt of your despatch No. 636 of Novem- 
ber 29, 1938, concerning the case of Johannes Eisler, a prospective applicant for 
an immigration visa at your office. 

There is enclosed lierewith a copy of a summary of the file of the Department 
of Labor concerning the alien mentioned, which has been prepared in the Depart- 
ment, and from which it will be noted that the alien may have political views or 
affiliations which would render him inadmissible into the United States. It is 
not believed, however, that you can pass properly upon the alien's case until he 
si Kill have appeared at your office and executed a formal application for an 
innnigration visa, supplemented as provided in note SO, section 361, part II, 
Foreign Service Regulations, and until the Supreme Court of the United States 
shall have passed urxni the Strecher case, which is now pending before the Ccmrt. 

It is suggested that further inquiries regarding the case be answered by pointing 

out the necessary waiting period under the alien's quota and that no decision can 

be reached regarding his eligil)ility to receive an immigration visa until he departs 

from the United States, awaits his turn on tlie waiting list, and is formally 

■^examined in connection with his application for an iimnigratiou visa. 

Very truly yours, 

G. S. Messersmith 
(For the Acting Secretary of State). 

Mr. Rankin. What is the date of that? 

Mr. Stripling. That is December of 1938. 

Now, Mrs. Roosevelt entered the case in January 1939, through Mr. 
Sumner Welles. Thirteen days after Mrs. Roosevelt entered it, here 
is what 3^ou wrote to Mr. du Bois, on this same matter : '° 

You will recall that there has been considerable correspondence concerning a 
Mr. Hans Eisler and his wife who desire to secui'e visas to proceed to this 
country for permanent residence. The question has been raised as to whether 
Mr. Eisler may not hold beliefs or have affiliations which, under our law, would 
make it impossible for him to be given a visa. 

Mr. Eisler, I understand, is now in this country on a temporary visitoi''s visa 
and intends to proceed to Habana to apply for a nonquota visa as a professor. 
Various persons in this country have from time to time written to tlie Depart- 
ment with regai-d to him and tliey have given assurances that in their opinion 
Mr. Eisler is not a man who holds opinions such as would exclude him from this 
country under our laws. I am now transmitting to you herewith a letter which 
the Under Secretary, Mr. Welles, has written to Mrs. Roosevelt in reply to an 
injury which he has received from her. You will note that the Under Secretary 
lias replied to Mrs. Roosevelr as si)eciticaliy as is possible for us to do and .-in en- 
deavor has been made to give as clear information as is possible. The decision, 
of course, as to whether a visa may issue rests upon the consulate general in 
Habana or where he may apply. 

I may tell you that I have personally gone through the ratlier heavy file that 
we have covering Mr. Eisler. While tliere is no question in my mind that Mr. 
Eisler is a man of very liberal views and while his name has been mentioned 
in some communistic papers and while he may have written certain pieces of 
music wliich have a comnuinistic title, I find it difficult myself to believe that 
information which we have so far seen would be sufficient to iirove that Mr. 
Eisler is a Communist or holds views which would exclude him from our country. 
I am inclined to believe that Mr. Eisler is a musician and an artist who does hold 
liberal views but I can find nothing which would indicate that he believes in 
the overthrow of government by force or that he has been engaged in activities of 
a comnnmistic or sulwersive charactei- either abroad or in this country. 

It would seem to me that, urdess there is definite and conviming proof that Mr. 
JEisler does hold opinions which would exclude him, his case can be favorably 



«»See appendix, p. 192. for exhihit 81. 
'* See appendix, p. 192, for exhibit 82. 



114 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

considered from that point of view. I think in this connection an examination! 
of Mr. Eisler himself should be conclusive in the absence of any proof to the 
contrary of his statements. If, wlien Mr. Eisler should call at the consulate at 
Habana, he definitely states that he does not hold views for which he could be 
excluded under our immigration laws, I do not believe that a visa could be with- 
held unless the consul lias evidence which would disprove his statements. 

In view of the fact that this case has been pending for some time and has 
received a eei'tain amount of attention, I believe it would be advisable, when Mr. 
Eisler presents himself for a visa, that you either see him yourself or that you 
delegate one of your most responsible ofiicers to consider this case. 
Very sincerely yours, 

G. S. Messersmith. 

Now, Mr. Messersmith, it certainly appears to me that that was 
a very strong suggestion to the consulate general and rather a reversal,, 
if I may say so, in your position. 

Mr. Raxkin. That was almost a directive, was it not ? 

Mr. Messersmith. No. Mr. Chairman 

The Chairman. If you can explain yourself out of this one, you 
are good. Now, go ahead. 

Mr. Messersmith. Well, Mr. Chairman, I don't think that I need 
any explaining of myself, because so far as I am concerned, I have 
never had any contact with Mr. Eisler. For me it was simply a case 
which had come across my desk and which required my attention. 

At that time, as I told you before, there was this strong feeling 
in this country that many of our officers, including officials of the- 
Department, were not giving adequate attention to some of these 
cases that were presented. As a matter of fact, some of our officers 
had to be removed and transferred because they had shown prejudice^ 
in the examination of visa cases. Any man who would not at that 
time have given the most serious consideration to every case that 
came to his attention would have had his own conscience crucified, 
if he knew what was happening in the world, and he would have- 
been crucified by jiublic opinion in this country. 

It was necessary for officers of the Department, both in Washington 
and in the field, to give the most careful, considered and objective 
consideration to every case that came before it. 

Now, so far as Mr. du Bois is concerned, I think he is now a retired 
Foreign Service officer. I had known him at the time that this letter 
was written for many years. He was a very capable officer. But 
Mr. du Bois had the attitude toward visa cases that they were a 
molestation and took time away from other things, and like some of 
us are known to be. he was known to be a little tough. When this 
question came up of Mr. Eisler's application impending at Habana^ 
two of my assistants, known as executive assistants at the time : Mr. 
Charles Hosmeyer, who was a high-ranking Foreign Service officer, 
and who died from really the result of overwork a few years ago, and 
Mr. Fletcher Warren, who is now our Ambassador to Paraguay, 
having just gone there from his post in Managua where he was 
ambassador for several years, said to me : 

You'd better send this letter addressed to Mrs. Roosevelt to Coert du Bois 
in Habana, because you know that Coert is a little tough about these things- 
and he may not give it attention, and it would be better for you to bring it 
to his attention so that the case will receive the really adequate going into- 
that it should. 

The Chairman. Except that Mrs. Roosevelt now says that it was. 
just a routine matter and she doesn't know anything about it. 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER US- 

Mr. Messersmith. Of that I know nothing, Mr. Chairman. 
So this letter to Mr. du Bois was written to him at the suggestion of 
my two associates, merely to make it clear to him that this was a case 
which had angles which made it necessary for him to go into it very 
carefully. The suggestion was that he should examine it himself, or 
haA'e one of his responsible officials in the Embassy, one in whom he 
had every confidence and who would go into it thoroughly, examine it.. 
The CiiAiKMAx. Tell me, Mr. Messersmith, when did Mrs. Roose- 
velt get in touch with you ? What was the date? 

Mr. ISIessersmith. Mre. Eoosevelt was not in touch with me. 
The Chair^ian. She got in touch with Mr. Welles on January 11.. 
Mr. Messersmith. I think she wrote the letter to Mr. Welles on 
January 11. 

The Chairman. Wlien Dorothy Thompson got in touch with you, 
you took the attitude that you should spend a lot of time in explain- 
ing the situation and giving both sides of the story, and that nothing 
should be done at this time. But when Mrs. Roosevelt gets' in touch, 
with Sumner Welles on January 11, you come out with this letter of 
January 21 to Mr. du Bois, and you say this — I just want to read this- 
over to you : 

It would seem to me that unless there is definite and convincing proof that 
Mr. Eisler does hold opinions which would exclude him, his case can be favor- 
ably considered from that point of view. 

And yet you had proof from your own man, Mr. Alexander, the 
best proof that you could possibly want 

Mr. ^Messersmith. We had no — — • 

The Chairman. And you didn't even mention that in the letter. 

JNIr. Messersmith. We had no 

The Chairman. The .point I am trying to make is : There was a 
big reversal of position on your part after Mrs. Roosevelt got in touch 
with Mr. Welles on January 11. 

]\Ir. Messersmith. Ma}^ 1 respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that 
if there ap])ears to be such a reversal of attitude, it is something which 
is your opinion and certainly not anything of which I was conscious 
of at the time. 

The Chairman. Well, the facts — it is not opinion — show there was 
a reversal of opinion. 

Mr. ^Messersmith. No. 

The Chairman. You take your letter to Dorothy Thompson and 
put it right next to your letter to Mr. du Bois and you will see your- 
self there was a reversal. 

]Mr. Messersmith. No. 

jMr. Stripling. Mr. Chairman, I can give you a document in that 
connection. On April 30, 1910, Assistant Secretary of State, Mr. 
Breckinridge Loncf. wrote to Mr. du Bois about this same case, and 
here is what he said : ^^ 

RpfpiTing to the Department strictly confidential instructions of December 
23, in.38— 

which we never did get — 

due precaution should, of course, be taken in order to preclude the issuance of a 
visa to an alien who is inadmissible into the United States under the provisions 



" See appendix, p. 192, for exhibit 83. 



116 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

of the act of October 16, 1918, as amended by the act of June 5, 1920. In this 
connection it may be pointed out tliat the alien's own statements need not be 
I'egarded as concln^ive evidence of the facts concerning his achnissibility, but 
should be appropriately considered in conjunction witli (ither evidence in tlie case. 

Ml'. Messersmith in his memorandum stated — 

If Mr. Eisler appeared and denied himself that he was a Communist he should 
be given a visa. 

Mr. Long says the mere fact that he saj^s he is not a Commnnist 
should not be sufficient. 

April 30, 1940. 
COERT Du Bois. Esq., 

American Consul General, Hahana, Cuba. 

Sir: Reference is made to the immigration case of Hanns (Johannes) Eisler, 
which is understood to be again pending at your office after having been sub- 
mitted for your consideration in 19.38 and subsequently transferred to the con- 
sulate general at Mexico, D. F., in which city the applicant was stated by that 
office to have resided from on or about INIay 2, 1939. until September 7. 1939. 

Mr. Leo Tanb, attorney at law, of New York City, has recently called at the 
Department, stating that it had been suggested to him at your office that he 
discuss the question of the 2-year period required under section 4 (d) of the 
Immigration Act of 1924, and request that you be furnished an instruction relative 
thereto. Reference is made in this connection to the discussion of this general 
question contained in the Department's recent instruction regarding the individual 
case of Dr. Heinrich Friedlaender. 

Before reaching any conclusion in the case of Mr. Eisler. with regard either to 
the question whether he has been following the vocation of professor in the United 
States or other aspects of his application, it is suggested that you communicate 
with the consular officer at Mexico City with a view to obtaining the file of his 
office concerning the applicants, in the event yo\i have not already done so. 

Referring to the Department's strictly confidential instruction of December 23, 
1938, due precaution should, of course, be taken in order to in-eclude the issuance 
of a visa to an alien who is inadmissible into the United States under the pro- 
visions of the act of October 16, 1918, as amended by the act of .Tune 5. 1920. In 
this connection it may be pointed out that the alien's own statement need not be 
regarded as conclusive evidence of the facts concerning his admissibility, but 
should be appropriately considered in conjnnction with other evidence adduced in 
his case. 

It is suggested that the alien be informed that no decision can be reached 
regarding his eligilfllity to receive an immigration visa until he departs from the 
United States and is formally examined in connection with his application. 

You are requested to keep the Department informed regarding the develop- 
ments in the case. 

Very truly yours, 

Breckinridge Long 
(For the Secretary of State). 

Tlie Chairmax. Well, we will recess now and w^e will reconvene at 
2 o'clock. 

Mr. Messersmith. Mr. Chairman 

The Chairman. At 2 o'clock, Mr. JNIessersmith, you may make your 
statement. 

afternoon SESSION 

Tlie Chairman. The meeting will come to order. 
Mr. Stripling. 

TESTIMONY OF GEOEGE S. MESSERSMITH— Resumed 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Messersmith, regarding the letter which you 
wrote to Dorothy Thompson, I have here a photostatic copy of her 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 117 

reply, dated November 8, 1938, from Dorothy Thompson, 88 Central 
Park AVest, New York City : '- 

Dear George: I am a bit discouraged and upset about your letter concerning 
Eisler, but I am grateful, nevertheless, for all of the trouble you have taken 
in this matter. 
Cordially, 

Dorothy. 

Mr. Chairman, I ask that that be received. 

Tlie Chairman. Without objection, so ordered. 

Mr. SxRirLixG. Next, INlr. Chairman, I have a memorandum, ad- 
dressed to Mr. Warren, siirned "RCA'' — I assumed Robert C. Alex- 
ander.'" I believe you said Mr. Warren was the chief of the Visa 
Division ? 

Mr. Messersmitii. Was chief. 

Mr. Stripling. The memorandum reads: 

Here is another case of an alien Communist who is in this country as a non- 
inuniarant temporary visitoi-. He desires to proceed to Habana for the purpose 
of obtaining a quota immimation visa. Until the Strecker case is decided by 
the Supreme Court I do not see how Habana can pass properly upon the alien's 
admissibility under the immigration laws. 

I suggest that the file bo returned to me to hold until the Strecker case is 
decided and that if Carroll King makes any further inquiries about the case 
she be advised that certain phases of the case are under consideration but no 
ctuiclusion can be reached until the alien departs from the United States, ap- 
plies for an immigration visa at the American consular offices, and the con- 
sular officer advises the Department further regarding the alien's visa applica- 
tion. 

Then there is a notation in handwriting which says, "How does this 
case resemble the Strecker case." 

Now, Mr. Chairman, the Strecker case, as I have been able to deter- 
mine from the file, has no bearing whatever on this case. It dealt en- 
tirely with a person in the United States and who was being deported. 
Here we have a man who is seeking a visa to enter the United States. 
There is a memorandum here from the legal adviser of the Depart- 
ment of State on the Strecker case, but unless ]Mr. Messersmith desires 
to bring up this question of the Strecker case, I see no need of going 
into it. 

Mr. Messersmith. Mr. Chairman, in this sense, that the Strecker 
case was constantly before the Department in the consideration of visa 
cases, or the possible application of it to visa cases, in view of the fact 
that a Circuit Court of the United States had reached a decision to 
the effect that previous membership in the party would not affect 
deportation if it was proved that at the time of deportation or entry 
the person was not a member of the party. 

In the memorandum of October 10. to which counsel has referred, 
Mr. Alexander states : 

Until the Strecker case is decided by the Supreme Court I do not see liow 
Habana can pass properly upon the alien's admissibility under the immigration 
laws. 

Mr. Warren replied to the memorandum of Mr. Alexander by 
stating : 

Hold the attached file until the Supreme Court's decision in the Strecker case is 

announced. 



•- See appendix, p. 192, for exhibit 84. 
" See appendix, p. 192, for exhibit 85. 



118 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

The Strecker case was decided by a circuit court — I forget whicli 
one — in April, 1938, and tlie Supreme Court decision was made, I 
believe, in April 1939, supporting the decision of the circuit court, and 
under that decision the Department of State, which has to be gov- 
erned by the law, had to take into account the fact that at the time of 
entry previous membership in the Communist Party would not hold 
against a man, that it had to be proved that at the time of entry, or 
at the time of deportation, that he was a member of the party. 

The Chairman. Am I correct in assuming from what you said, Mr. 
Messersmith, that you took the Strecker case into consideration in 
permitting this man to get a visa ? 

Mr, Messersmith. Well, Mr, Chairman, the Strecker case I said was 
one of the many factors in connection with visa matters that had to be 
taken into account in the Department in determining its general atti- 
tude toward such cases, but so far as the latter part of your observa- 
tion is concerned in the Department determining that a visa could be 
granted the Department of State was not in a position, as I said this 
morning, to determine whether a visa could be granted or could not 
be granted, because under the statute it is the consul who must deter- 
mine whether, on the basis of evidence presented, and which he must 
carefully examine at the time, whether a visa can issue under the law. 

And in all the letters which you will note have been written in this 
case, as well, as I am sure, the record in the State Department would 
show, of all letters and instructions which were written in connection 
with visa cases, the Department has emphasized under the statute that 
the responsibility for the decision on the evidence as to whether an 
applicant can or cannot be given a visa rests upon the consul. 

The Chairman, Except in that last letter that was read. 

Mr, MESSERs:MirH. No ; I must really — I mean, jVIr. Chairman, that 
letter did not give any directions at all, because the last statement in 
the letter was. to Mr. du Bois, you will go into this case very carefully 
yourself, or have one of your officers, and the only thing that meant 
was that if there had not been adequate examination of such a case by 
any consul it would lead to i)opular reactions in this country. 

The Chairman. Let me ask you what you meant by one sentence in 
that letter. 

May I have the letter ? 

What did you mean by this one sentence — and I quote from your 
letter of January 24 to Mr, du Bois : 

It would seem to me that unless there is a definite and convincing proof that 
Mr. Eisler does bold opinions which would exclude him his case can be favorably 
considered from that point of view. 

Mr. Messersmith, Yes; because, as a matter of justice— I mean, 
after all, Mr, Chairman, when one sits in a position of responsibility 
and one of having to give his own direct guidance to the people who 
are acting for the Department, you have to call attention to the fact 
that our decisions and our actions must be based on the facts. 

Now, we had sent to the consul in Habana all the information which 
we had, and all I wished to point out was that at the time that Mr. 
Eisler, or any other visa applicant, made his appearance before the 
•consul in order to make an application for a visa, of whatever kind, 
that it was necessary to go into all the facts and that we could not — 
I mean it stands to rea'^on that, in all justice, a consul officer, as an 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 119 

•officer with a statutory responsibility ""iveii him by Congress, could not 
take any prejudiced position. He would have to have proof. 

The CiiAiKMAX. You hold, then, that he was prejudiced? 

Mv. MKSSERSMrrH. No; I don't say he was prejudiced. Pardon me, 
Mr. Chairman. I said Mr. du Bois was considered to be a little bit 
tough. I may have been considered so myself. 

The Chairman. It couldn't be that you had become prejudiced after 
5^ou got the word from Mrs. Roosevelt? 

Mr. Messersmith. Mr. Chairman, I don't want to speak about my- 
self, but I think that during all of the many years that I have been 
in the Foi-eign Service the record must speak pretty clearly. I have 
acted only always in the best interests of my country, and 1 have not 
allowed my personal feelings or prejudice to influence me. 

So far as I am concerned, I have always been, and the record will 

\show that I have always been very strongly anti-Communist. I could 

not, however, permit that personal attitude of mine to^ prejudice my 

attitude with regard to an individual who had to appear before the 

consul — which was another form of court — a little court. 

The Chairman. Don't you think by that sentence you practically 
gave him a directive? 

Mr. Messersmith. No, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Then what would you call it? Would you say 
a strong suggestion? 

Mr. Messersmith. It was an observation to a consul officer whom 
I knew. 

The Chairman. Listen to this again — and this is the last time I 
am going to read it : 

It would seem to me that, unless there is definite and convincing proof that 
Mr. Eisler does hold opinions which would exclude him, his case can be favor- 
ably considered from that point of view. 

And your own man, Alexander, stated that there was no question 
but what he was a Communist. 

If that isn't a directive or strong suggestion I don't know what one is. 

Mr. Messersmith. I think, Mr. Chairman — I think it is a per- 
fectly correct and proper statement of the situation. Insofar as the 
statements made b.y Mr. Alexander in that memorandum of October 
24 are concerned, I always gave considered consideration to the state- 
ments in that memorandum, but I had to bear in mind that Mr. Alex- 
ander had based his opinion entirely on articles which had appeared 
in the Daily Worker, and on reports which had come to the Depart- 
ment about 2 years before from some organization in Phoenix, Ariz., 
the character of which has never been — we were not able to determine 
at that time, and of which I know nothing today, but which I believe 
was of not considerable importance. 

The Chairman. Did you check up and find out what Mr. Alex- 
ander's position was ? 

INIr. Messersmith. I don't recall the conversation with Mr. Alex- 
ander, but later on the record shows that I asked Mr. Coulter, who 
was, I believe, assistant chief of the Division at the time, to jrive me 
an oral report on the matter, and I know that the opinion that Mr. 
Coulter gave me at the time was that there was no adequate informa- 
tion in the Department files to substantiate such a statement. 



120 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

The Chairman. I mean this noontime, did you get in touch with 
the State Department to determine just what position Mr. Alex- 
ander held at that time ? 

Mr. Messersmitii. I didn't understand. 

The Chairman. This noon, did you get in touch with the State 
Dei^artment to determine what Mr. Alexander's position was at that 
time ? 

Mr. Messersmith. No. 

The Chairman. All the time you have refered to him as a clerk. 

Mr. Messersmith. No; I have not been in touch with the Depart- 
ment. 

The Chairman. We asked Mr. Eussell to check up. Perhaps he 
has it. 

Mr. Messersmith. May I say that Mr. Littell got from the State 
Department register a statement — they have a register which carries 
all of the officers and employees of the Department, and this is what 
it says 

The CiiairjMan. Is that a modern statement? 

Mr. Messersmith. Yes. This is of this date. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Chairman, we have the statement from the chief 
of the Legal Division about Mr. Alexander's position. 

The Chairman. Let Mr. Messersmith read what he has. 

Mr. Messersmith (reading) : 

Alexander, Robert Clark. Born near Paris, Tenn. Robert E. Lee private 
tutor : YMCA School of Acconntinj? ; Southeastern University Law School, 1925- 
26; Washington College of Law, 1927; private secretary to Secretary of State, 
1920; law clerk witli counsel for Chile in Tacna-Arica ; arbitration income 
tax accountant and secretary, 1924-28; appointment clerk, at $1,800, in State- 
Department, January 1, 1929; at $1,920, July 1, 1930; at $2,300, June 1, 1931; 
administrative assistant, at $3,200. July 1, 1930; technical adviser, at $3,000, 
August 3, 1938; division assistant, at $4,600, August 1, 1941; Assistant Chief, 
Visa Division, Nov mber 26, 1941, at .$5,600 (P-6), December 16, 1941; member 
of Efficiency Rating Commission in 1942; technical adviser, special mission to 
American Embassy at Panama, February 1942 ; technical assistant to United 
States delegate, meeting of representatives of United States and British Govern- 
ments to consider the refugee problem, Bermuda, 1943 ; chairman, Efficiency 
Rating Commission, 1946. 

The CiiAiR3fAN. Do you have anything to add to that, Mr.. 
Stripling? 

Mr. Stripling. No, Mr. Chairman, except that I think Mr. Messer- 
smith clarified the situation in the hearing this morning; he had re- 
ferred to this employee as a clerk, but he stated that very important 
posts in the Department are held by people who go under the title 
of clerk. I assume Mr. Alexander must have had sufficient responsi- 
bility if Mr. Messersmith called him in to prepare a resume of the 
file for him or to perform other duties. Certainly he wouldn't call 
on someone who was irresponsible to do it. 

Mr. Alexander has appeared before a number of congressional com- 
mittees on visa matters and on visa laAv; and, as was pointed out, 
he is now Assistant Chief of the Visa Division. At the time thi& 
ha])pened he was technical adviser of the Visa Department. 

The Chairman. I think you have sufficiently identified him. 

Go ahead. 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 121 

Mv. SnuPLiNG. ]Mr. Messersmith, on Mmvli 2, Donald Stephens, 
who was identified yesterday, I believe, wrote Sumner Welles, Under 
Secretary of State,^* in which he stated : 

Our esteemed mutual frieud, Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt, has been good enough 
to show nie your letter of F'phruary 10, in which you made observations relative 
to my letter of February 3 reii'arding the case of my friends, Mr. and Mrs. 
Hanus Eisler. 

Do YOU recall whether or not this letter was referred to you by Mr. 
Welles^ 

]Mr. Messersmith. When I saw that letter in the file — and I think 
it is in the file in the State Department which was shown to me — I 
had no recollection of tliat letter whatever, and so far as Mr. Donald 
Stephens is concerned, 1 am very certain — well, I mean, it is awfully 
difficult after one has been in this business for so long to say that you 
have never met somebody, because I have people telling me all the 
time that they know me, and they recall circumstances, and so forth. 

Mr. SxRirLijsG. You did receive it? 

Mr. Messersmith. No: I don't remember that letter at all, except 
as I saw it in the files. 

Mr. Striplixg. It has your stamp, Mr. Messersmith, March 10, 1939, 
"Assistant Secretary of State, Mr. Messersmith."' 

Mr. Messersmith. Yes; that may have been received, Mr. Chair- 
man, in my outer office, you see, but there was some of these letters 
that were not necessarily shown to me. They may have been seen by 
Mr. Warren — by my administrative assistants. 

I have no recollection of the letter whatever. 

Mr. Stripling. On March 11, 1938, you wrote to Mr. Stephens:" 

My Dear Mr. Stephens: I have before me your letter of March 2 which you 
addressed to the Under Secretary, Mr. Welles, with further reference to the case 
of Mr. and Mrs. Hanns Eisler. Mr. "Welles has referred this letter to me for 
acknowledgment, as I am familiar with all the facts involved. 

It will interest you, I am sure, to know that I have been in touch this morning 
over the telephone with Dr. Alvin Johnson, of the New School of Social Research, 
and I have indicated- to him the steps which I think Mr. Eisler should take in 
order to secure a prolongation of his stay in this country on his present visa. 

Believe me, 

Very sincerely yours, 

G. S. Messersmith. 

Mr. ]Messersmith, do you recall what you told ]\Ir. Johnson for Mr. 
Eisler to do in order to prolong his stay in this country — even though 
you had been previously advised that he was a Communist, and in the 
memorandum ^Yhich advised you that he was a Communist it also 
stated tliat he was liere through fraud. 

Mr. Messersmith. What was the latter part of tlie question? 

Mr. Stripling. In Mr. Alexander's resume of the Labor Department 
file he states that Mr. Eisler was here through fraud, in that he used 
a fraudulent ])assport or visa which he obtained in Prague to enter 
this country originally. 

Mr. Messersmith. May I ask counsel whether this letter was in the 
file from the State Department^ — because I liave no recollection of 
seeing this. 

'* See appendix, p. 191. for exhibit 60. 
^° See appendix, p. 192, for exhibit 86. 



122 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

Mr. Stripling. Yes; it was. 

Mr. Messersmith. I have no recollection of it. This letter, in reply 
to Mr. Stephens to Mr. Sumner Welles' letter, which I said I did not 
remember, bears my initials as the dictating officer, so I must have seen 
Mr. Stephens' letter and dictated this reply. 

But may I ask again whether this letter w^as in the file that was in 
the State Department that I saw — because I have no recollection of 
seeing it there. 

Mr. Stripling. I believe it contains your stamp. It contains your 
stamp, "G. S. Messersmith.'' 

Mr. Messersmith. Yes. 

Mr. Stripling. It says, "A true copy of the signed original." 

Mr. Messersmith. I don't think it is important. I am not giving- 
any importance to this except from this — I have a resume here of the 
letters that were in the State Department file that I saw, and it 
contains no reference to this letter, and I have no recollection of it. 
So far as this letter is concerned, I wrote the letter, because my 
initials — that is a photostatic copy, and my initials are there. 

Mr. Stripling. The question is — — 

Mr. Messersmith. The further indication — I said that I talked 
with Mr. Alvin Johnson. I just wanted to correct what I had said — 
that I had no recollection of the letter. I must have seen it. 

Mr. Stripling. Now, getting back to the question. You say : 

I have been in touch this morning over the telephone with Dr. Alvin Johnson, 
of the New School of Social Research, and I have indicated to him the steps 
which I think Mr. Eisler should take in order to secure a prolongation of his 
stay in this country on his present visa. 

You are suggesting to Dr. Johnson means by which Mr. Eisler can 
remain here, even though you had before you a document to the eifect 
that the man was a Communist ; furthermore, that he might be illegally 
here. 

Mr. Messersmith. Well, you make it necessary for me — Mr. Chair- 
man, counsel makes it necessary for me to revert again to this memo- 
randum of Mr. Alexander. I don't like to make remarks which are 
derogatory or which reflect on any person who has worked with me, 
but it makes it necessary for me to say that — this reference by counsel 
to this memorandum makes it necessary for me to say that during 
the time that I was Assistant Secretary of State that I was not happy 
with the manner, the correctness, the completeness, the objectivity with 
which Mr. Alexander went into these mattters. As a matter of fact, 
to the degree — last evening I happened to meet, in the Metropolitan 
Club, a friend who was closely associated with me in the Department 
at that time, and to whom I made ment of this memorandum, and he 
said : "Why didn't you fire him, as we often said we ought to at the 
time?" 

Mr. Wood. Mr. Chairman 

The Chairman. Mr. Wood. 

Mr. Wood. I understood Mr. Messersmith to leave the impression 
this morning with the committee that he knew Mr. Alexander only 
casually. Is that right, Mr. Messersmith' — that you didn't know 
what position he held in the Department? 

Mr. Messersmith. I did not say that; I am sorry, 

Mr. Wood. That is the distinct impression that you left with me. 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 123 

Mr. Messersmith. I said distinctly this morning — and if you will 
examine the record you will find it so — that Mr. Alexander was one 
of the people working: ill the Visa Division. 

Mr. Wood. But you didn't even know the position. 

Mr. Messersmith. I did not know the exact position that he held 
there, but I knew he was working there — that he was writing memo- 
randums. 

Mr. AVooD. But now you say that his work was so unsatisfactory 
that you were not happy in your connection with him. 

Mr. JVIessersmith. Exactly. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Chairman 

Mr. Messersmith. May I be permitted to continue? 

The Chairman. Go ahead, Mr. Messersmith. 

Mr. Messersmith. I am a very patient person, and I want to col- 
laborate with the committee in the most complete manner, because I 
am in sympathy with your objectives. There is no way in which this 
connnittee can ask me to work with it that I would not be willing to 
work with it, with my whole heart, because I am one of those who feel 
.strongly about these things. I am not here to defend Hanns Eisler. 
1 have no interest whatever in that case. I never knew the man. I 
dealt with it only as a name and a case that went over my desk, and 
I handled it in an administratively just and correct manner, as it had 
to be handled, at the time. 

When this particular memorandum from Mr. Alexander came, and 
the letter, I asked for the full information that we had in the files 
which would substantiate these very categoric statements which were 
made about INIr. Eisler being a Comnmnist and having secured visas 
by fraud, and there was nothing — there was nothing in the Department 
files which I could get; and, as Assistant Secretary, I should have 
been able to get what there was. There was nothing that I could 
get 



The Chairman. Mr. Messersmith 

Mr. Messersmith. Beyond the reference to the articles in the Daily 
Worker and beyond these letters which had been received in 1936 
from. I believe. Phoenix, Ariz. — to indicate that he was a Communist — 
and there was nothing to indicate whatever that he had secured visas 
fraudulently. If he had secured visas fraudulently — he had had sev- 
eral visas before this matter ever came to my desk, in some years be- 
fore, you know, as has been brought out in the record — then the Im- 
migration Service and the Department of Justice should have long 
since taken action, if they had information of an adequate character, 
and I am sure they would have taken it, if they had. in order to 
exclude him, deport him, and prevent the issuing of further visas. 

The Chairman. AATien there became considerable doubt in your 
mind as to the correctness of Mr. Alexander's statements, did you con- 
tact Mr. Alexander and ask him for his proof? 

]Mr. Messersmith. I have no recollection — yes : we asked Mr. Alex- 
ander at the time what his proof was, but we could not get any. 

The Chairman. At least you had good gratuitive powers, if nothing 
else. 

^Ir. Messersmith. But he was inclined to make these categoric 
statements. 

For instance, on April 22 Mr. Alexander — I am very sorry to go into 
this, because, with regard to Mr. Alexander, I have no feelings what- 



124 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

ever — but on April 22, 1939, lie wrote a memorandum for Mr. Warren 
which I had asked for. It was brought to my attention orally by some- 
one in the Department that a request had been made for the transfer 
of the papers of Mr. Eisler from Habana to JNIexico City, and I con- 
sidered that a very strange thing, because I couldn't understand why 
a man should request a transfer from Habana to Mexico. So I asked 
for information as to why — I asked the Visa Division as to why this 
change could have been made, and on April 22 Mr. Alexander pre- 
pared a memorandum for Mr. Warren, which was intended for my 
information, which read something like this — giving the reasons as to 
why he might have asked for this transfer : 

1. In view of the communistic background of Eisler, tlie interested persons 
may feel that he would be more likely to be comfortable in Mexico than in Cuba 
while awaiting the issuance of an immigration visa — — 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Chairman, may I interrupt? That memoran- 
dum is going to be put into the record, but I think we shoidd put it in 
at the right place. 

The Chairman. Do you mind, Mr. Messersmith ? 

Mr. Messersmith. Really, this thing has come up all the time, Mr. 
Chairman ; and, as I said, I want to cooperate with this committee, be- 
cause I am in agreement with its objectives, but I think that counsel 
should permit me also, as a matter of courtesy 

The Chairman. All riglit ; you will be permitted to read the mem- 
orandum, and then we will bring it up later. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Chairman, I think there ought to be more con- 
sideration in this matter. This is an important memorandum. 

Mr. Messersmith. That is why I want to make reference to it. 

Mr. Stripling. I want the record to be straight on this point. 

This memorandum, resume of the files of Mr. Alexander, which you 
are now seeking to discredit, was so important to you that on December 
23, 2 months after it was written, you sent it down to Mr, du Bois and 
said: 

There is enclosed herewith a copy of the summary of the file of the Department 
of Labor concerning the alien mentioned which has been prepared in the Depart- 
ment. 

If you had such a low" regard for his work, why did 3'ou send it to 
the consul general? 

Mr. Messersmith. I have tried to make it clear tliat the Department 
of State and its responsible officers considered it their duty, liecause 
they could not decide on visa cases, to give the consul officer, who had 
to reach the decision, all possible information; and therefore it was 
just a matter of course that I would send — or, rather, that the Depart- 
ment would send — such a memorandum to the consul concerned. 

The implication that special attention should be given to it, that 
counsel wishes to convey, is not correct. 

The Chairman. Read the memorandum. 

Mr. Messersmith. If I might have the original. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Chairman, this memoi-andum is not signed by 
Mr. Alexander 

Mr. Messersmith. It has his initials on it. 

Mr. Stripling. That is right. It is signed "A. M. Warren, Chief 
of the Visa Division." Mr. Warren must have approved of the mem- 
orandum or he woiddn't have signed it. 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 125 

The Chairman. Let the witness read the memorandum. 
Mr. Messkksmith. T only liave a very few things hcre- 



IVIr. Stripling. Mr. Chairman, I submit Mr. ]\Iessersmith and Mr. 
Littell have had the State Department's comi)lete file. That is some- 
thing- this committee didn't have; still don't have. 

The Chairman. That is true, but Mr. Messeremith has had a hard 
time today, and we will make it as easy for him as we possibly can. 

Go ahead, 

Mr. Messersmitji. There is a memorandum here, in my handwriting, 
]Mr. Chairman, to Mr. Warren, in which I say 

The Chairman. You were just going to read that, 

Mr, Messersmith (reading) : 

I wonder what the transfer of the case to Mexico City means. 
Mr, Alexander, at the request of Mr, Warren, prepared the memo- 
randum on that, and he says : 

Wliile tlie Visa Division has received no information which would indicate the 
reasons of the interested persons for having the tile in the case of Hanns Eisler 
transferred from Habana to Mexico City, it is believed that this has been done 
for one or more of the following reasons — 

These are personal opinions of Mr, Alexander : 

(1) In view of the communistic background of Eisler, the interested persons 
may feel that he would be more likely to be comfortable in Mexico than in Cuba 
while awaiting the issuance of an immigration visa. 

(2) The interested persons may have found that the entry of Eisler into Mexico 
can be accomplished with greater facility than entry into Cuba. 

(3) Since Eisler is said to be without substantial financial resources, it may 
be that the opportunity for earning a livelihood is brighter in Mexico than in 
Cuba, which is already congested with refugees. 

(4) The interested persons may believe that they can bring greater pressure to 
bear on the consul general at Mexico City — possibly through Ambassador 
Daniels — than they have been able to bring on the consul general at Habana 
through the Department. 

(.")) It may be that the interested persons fear the ultimate refusal of an 
immigration visa in Eisler's case, in which event he would probably prefer to 
remain in Mexico than in Cuba for an indefinite period. 

(6) The interested persons may contemplate the refusal of an immigration 
visa in this case and may therefore be planning to have the alien return to the 
port of entry without an immigration visa (which could be easily accomplished 
at any of tiie ports of entry on the Mexican border) and there seek a writ of 
habeas corpus on the ground that the alien had been improperly excluded at the 
port (if he should be excluded) because of an alleged improper refusal of the 
immigration visa. 

(7) The interested persons may realize that it would be much easier for Eisler 
to effect an illegal reentry into the United States from Mexico than if he were 
refused an immigration visa in Cuba and were faced with the problem of reenter- 
ing illegally from that country. 

(5) In view of Eisler's lack of funds, it may be that some person is planning 
to take him into Mexico by automobile, which would be more diflieult if he were 
going to Cuba. 

It is believed that the case may be filed pending further developments. 

The Chairman. That is signed by whom? 

^Ir, ^Messersmith. That is signed by Mr. Warren, but it was dic- 
tated — prepared by Mr, Alexander. 

The Chairman. But Mr. Warren read it before it was sent out? 

Mr. Messersmith. That I don't know. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. Messersmith. Mr. Chairman. I asked that that memorandum 
be read for a specific leason, because these questions have been raised 

66957—47 9 



126 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

with regard to previous memorandca. The memorandum shows why 
I had not too high an opinion of Mr. Alexander's judgment. He says 
liere : 

1. In view of the communistic background of Eisler, the interested persons may 
feel that he would be more likely to be comfortable in Mexico than in Cuba while 
awaiting the issuance of an immigration visa. * * * 

Mr. Stripling. We are going to proceed with the case. 

The Chairman. Mr. Stripling. 

Mr. Stripling. The essence of the entire memorandum is the sen- 
tence before. He says "it is believed that this has been done for one 
or more of the following reasons." You asked him for it. His obser- 
vations on it were quite proper. 

The Chairmx\n. Mr. Messersmith, we permitted you to read the 
memorandum. We will now proceed. 

JNIr. Messersmith. Yes ; I want to make certain observations on the 
memorandum. 

The Chairman. You can make your observations when we refer to 
the memorandum in the regular order of our investigation. 

Go ahead, Mr. Stripling. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Chairman, I believe we were discussing the 
letter which Donald Stephens wrote to Sumner Welles and which 
was referred to Mr. Messersmith 

This is a letter from Mr. Stephens to Mr. Messersmith himself^ 
dated March 15, 1939 : '« 

Mr. George Messersmith, 

Assistant isecretary, Depar'tment of State, 

\\'ashington, D. C. 

My Dear Mr. Messersmith : Your letter of the 11th Rlarch, in response to my 
letter of 2d March to Mr. Sumner Welles regarding the case of my friends, 
Mr. and Mrs. Hauns Eisler, has reached me. 

The hope which you hold out that a prolongation of the Eisler stay in this 
country may be arranged is most encouraging. I believe the steps which you 
indicated to Dr. Alvin Johnson over the telephone have been taken by Mr. Eisler, 
and I trust that the Department will effect an extension of the Eisler visa. 

From my old friend David K. Niles and others I have heard some nice things 
of you and your work in the Department. Your kind interest in the Eislers' 
case and constructive suggestion but gives additional evidence. I hope on my 
next trip to Washington I may have the pleasure of meeting you and discussing 
angles of this case which may still further clear it up. 
Cordially yours, 

Donald Stephens. 

Mr. Messersmith, you haven't told the committee what you sug- 
gested to Dr. Johnson that Mr. Eisler should do to prolong his stay 
in this country. 

Mr. Messersmith. It is quite obvious, Mr. Chairman, that Dr. Alvin 
Johnson called me. What I said I do not remember at this time, but 
the only thing which I could have said to Mr. Johnson was that in 
order to secure a prolongation of his stay in the United States Mr. 
Eisler would have to make an appropriate approach and application 
to the immigration officials in the district in which he was residing, 
which I assume w^as New York City. That was all that I could and 
would say. 

Mr. Stripling. What does that have to do with the prolongation 
of his stay here or extension of it? 

'® See appendix, p. 192, for exhibit 87. 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 127 

Mr. Messersmith. Well, I didn't do anything to prolong his stay. 
All I did was to answer whatever questions Dr. Johnson may have put 
to me as to what had to be done to endeavor to secure prolongation of 
stay. I was not interested in the prolongation of tlie stay of ^Ir. Eisler. 
But at that time you must remember this, that if these people had been 
summarily deported, or had to leave the country — in most cases this 
was the oidy place they could go to, and I contend that any decent 
human being, just as our inmiigration officials did at that time, would 
be lenient and understanding — they were lenient in these situations. 
You can understand that the aliens couldn't be thrust into a place 
where they would tind their death, and they prolonged the stay of a 
great many aliens. Xot the Eislers alone, but thousands of aliens had 
their stays in this country prolonged, simply because there was no 
])ossible way of their returning, leaving the country, without meeting 
almost a certain death, or concentration camp, or whatever the horrors 
might have been. That was the atmosphere in which we had to work 
in those days. 

I resent, Mr. Chairman, any imputation — and I want to make this 
absolutel}' clear, and I want to put some heat in what I say — for the 
first time today — I resent any imputation that the action of myself 
or any of my associates immediately concerned around me in my 
office — that we did anything that was in any way a controversion of 
our law, but, on the other hand, we had it absolutely clear that no 
matter what the circumstances in a case where there would be no visa 
no facilitation by an officer of the Department of State unless the 
alien could show that he was legally admissible to this country. 

The Chairman. Mr. Messersmith, I can assure you that the com- 
mittee and its staff isn't trying to impugn j^ou or your motives. What 
we are trying'to do is to bring out the record in an orderly procedure. 
We will let the record speak for itself. That is why we haA^e photo- 
static copies of voluminous correspondence — that came to us right 
from the State Department. 

Mr. Messersmith. Right. I think, INIr. Chairman, then we must 
be careful not to endeavor to read into any of these actions on the part 
of responsible officials of our Government implications which do not 
properly belong there. 

The Chairman. I don't think we are trying to imply anything. 

]Mr. ]\Iessi:rsmith. I don't think 3'ou are, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. I think the record clearly speaks for itself. 

Go ahead. 

Mr. Stripling. Xext, Mr. Chairman, I have a letter of March 10, 
1939, written on the letterhead of the Xew Republic : " 

Dear Me. JIessersmith : All of us here have been very puzzled by the case 
of Hanns Eisler, who has been given 6 days to get out of the country. There 
seems absolutely no reason for picking on him. I suppose the alleged reason is 
that he used to be coiuiccted with tlie radical movement in Germany before 
Hitler. But that seems a very specious excuse for deporting a man who has 
nowliere to go, and who has been doing such valuable worlv in this country. 

I think you know who he is — the famous German composer of songs about 
the working class. Unlike many other refugees who came here, he has been at 
work steadily. This year he did the music for the Four Hundred Million, 
and he has a regular job lecturing at the New School. To the best of my 
knowledge he has engaged in no political activity of any sort. He is a man 
of absolutely outstanding talent who has already contributed a great deal 

" See appendix, p. 192, for exhibit 88. 



128 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

to musical ideas in this country — especially to music for the theater — and who 
would be certain to contribute more in the future. 

He has been here on a visitor's permit which has been renewed a couple 
of times, but with increasing difficulty. Now he has been ordered out of the 
country. The only explanation that his friends can find is that some enemy 
in Washington must be making trouble for him. Outside of any question about 
his personal tribulations, the country can't afford to lose a man of his ability. 
If you could possibly do anything to stop his deportation, we would all be very 
grateful. 

This, of course, is a private letter. I understand that Eisler doesn't want 
to have anything published about his case unless he is actually deported — and 
then, of course, it would be too late. 
Sincerely, 

Malcolm Cowley. 

Mr. Messersmith. I don't recall that letter, Mr. Chairman. I 
suppose that it is quite possible that it may have come to my desk. 
But that letter would not have had much impression on me. 

Mr. Stripling. Here is your reply to Mr. Cowley. March 11.'® 

The Chairman. Is this letter from' Mr. Messersmith to "Sh: Cowley 'i 

Mr. Stripling. That is right. 

My Dear Mr. Cowley : I have your letter of March 10 with regard to the 
situation of Mr. Hanns Eisler, who is in this country on a visa as a temporary 
visitor. I am very familiar with the facts in this case and unfortunately iime 
does not permit me to write you at any length with regard to this matter, but 
I think I should remind you that the question is not one within the province 
of this Department but is within the province of the Department of Labor. 
In carrying through our existing immigration laws and practice both the officers 
of the "state and Labor must be governed by the provisions of existing law. 
I think it will be possible for Mr. Eisler to secure an extension if his stay as 
a temporary visitor. I have been in touch with T^r. Johnson, of the New Scliool 
of Social Research, and have indicated to him the steps wliich I think Mr. 
Eisler can usefully take. 

Very sincerely yours, 

G. S. Messersmith, Assistant Secretary. 

Mr. Messersmith, you still haven't told us what you suggested. 

Mr. Messersmith. To Dr. Johnson? 

Mr. Stripling. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Messersmith. I did say that the only thing that I could have 
told Dr. Johnson was to point out to him what the procedure was. 
That is, to make application to the immigration authorities in the 
district in which he was residing — that is, Eisler — for the extension 
of his stay. Beyond that I could have made no suggestion to Dr. 
Johnson. 

Mr. Stripling. You say : 

I think it will be possible for Mr. Eisler to secure an extension of his Ptay 
as a temi)orary visitor. 

Mr. Messersmith. Yes, sir; and I made that statement in the gen- 
eral knowledge that the Department of Labor, or through the Immi- 
gration Service— they were extending the stays of such persons — for 
tlie reasons whicli I have stated before. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Cowley, in reply to that letter, wrote you on 
March 13, 1939, on the letterhead of the New Eepublic : "^ 

Dear Mr. Messersmith : I am enclosing a copy of an editorial on Hanns Eisler 
which we are not printing in this week's issue, at his special request. Eisler 
is anxious not to have anything publislied about his case so long as there is 

'« See appendix, p. 192, for exhibit 89. 
'" See appendix, p. 192, for exhibit 90. 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 129 

liope of his being allowed to stay in tliis country. The fact that his Austrian 
passport expires in a few wtH'ks is going to he an extra complication. But he 
is such a valuable man that cverytliing possible ought to be done for him. 

He told me when he called tliat he has written Commissioner Houghteling at 
the Bureau of Immigration and Natui'alization. 

I want to thank you for your interest in this case. Eisler deserves any help 
we can give hiiu. 
Sincerely, 

Malcolm Cowley. 

Are you familiar with Mr. Cowley? 
Mr. Messersmitii. No. 

Mr. Stripling. Do you know him personally? 
Mr. Messersmith. I have no recollection of knowing Mr. Cowley 
at all. I don't have any recollection of knowing Mr. Cowley at all. 
Mr. Stripling. You replied as follows on March 14, 1939 : ^° 

My Dear Mr. Cowley : I have your letter of March 13 with whicli you sent 
me a copy of an editorial which you state you are not printing in this week's 
issue of the New Republic at Mr. Eisler's request but whicli you may be planning 
to publish later. 

I would not, of course, wisli to offer any comment on anything wliich you 
may wish to print, but would only remark that the reference to the State 
Department is not quite correct. The State Department has not and is not 
in a position to find "some technicality to prevent his leaving New York," nor 
is the State Department in a position to find "another technicality for refusing 
to extend Eisler's visa." Under our immigration laws our consular officers are 
authorized in certain cases to grant visas to persons desiring to come to this 
country for a temporary or pernianent stay. Once the prospective immigrant or 
temporary visitor arrives at an American port, or is in tliis country, the D?part- 
ment of State and our consular officers have no functions or authority under 
our immigration laws. It is the Department of Labor which is charged under 
our laws with the actual admission of aliens on their arrival at American ports 
or with questions involving their continued stay in this country. 

I realize the difficult situation in which Mr. and Mrs. Eisler find themselves. 
I am hoping that some solution of their difficulties may be found. 

Believe me. 

Very sincerely yours, 

G. S. Messersmith. 

Mr. Messersmith. Quite correct, Mr. Chairman. I mean I don't 
recall the letter ; but I am sure I wrote it ; there is no question about 
that. It was the type of administrative and understanding letter that 
it was necessary to write at the time. 

And you will note that I pointed out very specifically that there 
was nothing that the State Department could do to carry out his 
implied idea, really, Mr. Chairman, that many good people in this coun- 
try have ; many good people had the notion that the State Department 
could do this and that, don't you know, which would be not perhaps 
a violation of law, but which to us would have been, at least, an im- 
plied violation of the law, and we could not just do that. So we had, 
in a nice way, to tell these people that those things could not be done. 

Now, with respect to the sentence in there tliat I hope that the 
Eislers — at that time I had no reason, we had no reason to know, and 
the Department had no information that Eisler was a Communist, 
that he was engaged in improper activities, and therefore there was 
no reason for me to make any other statement than to express a hope 
that a person who would get into trouble if he was deported would 
not be thrown out of the country. 



' See appenjjix, p. 192, for exhibit 91. 



130 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

The Chairman. When you say that you had no reason, I don't think 
that is a correct statement, because you did have reason, Mr. Messer- 
smith. You had a memorandum from an employee, one of your own 
employees, stating that he was a Communist. 

ISIr. Messersmith. Well, there was no 

The Chairman. You say you had no reason other than that one? 

Mv. JMessersmith. I must revert again, Mr. Chairman, to the state- 
ment that the memorandum of Mr. Alexander was not based on ade- 
quate information. If he had information 

The Chairman. It turns out now" that it was based on very accurate 
information. 

Mr. Messersmith. I am sure that from the development here now 
and from the information that has developed since, which I am very 
happy has developed, why, Mr. Alexander's statement is correct, but 
I could not have accepted the statement at that time. 

The Chairman. But 3^011 say now that the statement is correct? 

Mr. Messersmith, What? 

The Chairman. You admit now that his statement is correct. 

Mr. Messersmith. I am merely wishing to say by that that after 
hearing what has developed as a result of the work of this committee 
in the last few months, information which has been developed in that 
time, and which was not open to any of us in the State Department, 
and I am sure not in the Immigration Service at the time, that there 
is a very dilferent situation. 

The Chairman. You do admit now that he was correct ? 

Mr. Messersmith. Well, I mean — in what sense? I mean, not cor- 
rect in making the assumptions which he did at that time, Mr. Chair- 
man, no. 

The Chairman. Except that as a result of your listening to all of 
the testimony in the past 2 days here you conclude that Mr. Alexander 
was correct then ? 

Mr. Messersmith. But Mr. Alexander didn't know those things 
at that time. 

The Chairman. I don't know whether he knew them or not, but 
wouldn't you say that, based on what you heard in the last 2 days, 
that Mr. Alexander was correct ? 

Mr. Messersmith. You are asking me to make a statement which 
I don't quite see the purpose of, Mr. Chairman, but what I am prepared 
to say is that it turns out that with the information that has now 
developed that there are things which it would have been useful for 
us to know at the time. 

I would like to make this further observation here now 

The Chairman. Mr. Wood has a question. 

Mr. Wood. Mr. Messersmith, when you read Mr. Alexander's memo- 
randum, in which he made the specific charge that this applicant was 
a member of the Communist Party 

Mr. INIessersmith. He didn't say that. 

Mr. Wood. That he was a Communist, had Communist affiliations, 
did you discuss it with him and ask him where he had gotten his 
information? 

Mr. Messersmith. I must have. 

Mr. Wood. Do you say now that you did or that you do not recall ? 

Mr. Messersmith. I must have discussed it 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 131 

Mr. Wood. I have asked you what you did. Not what you must 
have done. Did you discuss it, or do 3'ou remember it? 

Mr. IVIessersmitii. With IVIr. Alexander — I do not remember dis- 
cussinfj it witli Mr. Alexander. 

Mr. Wood. Very well. 

Mr. Messersmitii. Mr. Chairman, constantly reverting to this 
memorandum of Mr. Alexander, Mr. Alexander received a personal 
letter from Mr, Hutton, consul in Mexico City 

]Mr. S'rRirLixG. Mr. Chairman, may I interrupt? Here again Mr. 
Messersmith is proceeding to discredit another document which Mr. 
Alexander wrote. 

I would like to point out that Mr. Alexander is still employed in 
the State Department ; has been constantly promoted ; there has been 
no indication that he was the type of person that Mr. Messersmith 
is trying to picture him today. Some of these documents are very 
embarrassing — and there is a very embarrassing document written by 
Mr. Alexander. I agree with you 

Mr. Messersmith. I would like to point out that I made these 
remarks about Mr. Alexander only when — that is, personal observa- 
tions — only after counsel made it necessary for me to do so because 
of the insistence of the value to be placed on this memorandum. 

I must insist on making another statement, Mr. Chairman 

The Chairman. Mr. Messersmith, I gave you opportunity before to 
read a memorandum that we were going to bring out at a later time. 

Mr. Messersmith. Yes. 

The Chairman. I shall have to decline your request now. 

Mr. Messersmith. Well. I am sorry. I hope you w^ill give me 
permission later. 

The Chairman. When the memorandum comes up we will be 
pleased to hear you. 

Mr. ]\Iessersmith. Unless I have permission to make a statement 
here I shall consider it my duty to cive my statement in another form. 

The Chairman. That is perfectly all right. When we refer to the 
memorandum you may make your statement. 

Go ahead, Mr. Stripling. 

^Ir. Messersmith. I have to do this, Mr. Chairman, because there 
are incorrect implications that counsel is constantly making. 

Tlie Chairman. Never mind. 

Mr. Stripping. Mr. Messersmith, I am not making implications 
against you. but I don't think it is fair for you to make implications 
as to Mr. Alexander. 

The Chairman. Let's stop the argument and proceed with the 
questions. 

Mr. Stripling. Next we have a letter from Mr. Cowley in reply to 
your letter, dated ^March 17, 1939.«^ 

Dh^^b Mr. Messersmiih: Thanks very much for your letter. If the editorial 
about Hanns Eisler is published we shall be careful not to put all of the onus on 
the State Department. On the other hand, when the Labor Department was asked 
to do something last year, it threw up its hands and said that the State Depart- 
ment had taken over the case. 

The last development has been another letter from Ellis Island telling the 
Eislers to get out immediately. Of course, they have nowhere to go and no 
money to go there. 
Sincerely, 

Malcolm Cowley. 



^ See appendix, p. 192, for exhibit 92. 



132 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

Mr. Stripling. Next, Mr. Chairman, is a telegram from Freda 
Kirchwey, The Nation, to Mr. Messersmith, dated March 10, 1939, 
State Department, Washington, D. C. : *^ 

Would deeply appreciate help in obtaining extension of Tisitor's visa for Hanns 
Eisler, German refugee, musician, now lecturing New School of Social Research 
in line with President Roosevelt's assurance of leniency for refugees from Fas- 
cist countries. His deportation to Germany means certain death, and possibility 
of finding refuge elsewhere highly problematical. 

Freda Kirchwey. 



Mr. Stripling. On March 11, you replied, that is, on March 11, 
1939, you replied to Miss Kirchwey ^ 

The Chairman. Replied to whom? 

Mr. Stripling. He replied to Miss Kirchwey. 

The Chairman. Freda Kirchwey? 

Mr. Stripling. That is right. 

Mr. McDow^ELL. She is the publisher of The Nation, I believe. 

Mr. Stripling. She was the editor, I believe, of The Nation at that 
time. 

Mr. Messersmith. No. She was a writer on The Nation at the 
time. I don't think it will be found that she was the editor of The 
Nation at the time. She was on the editorial staff, I think. 

Mr. Stripling. Well. 

]My Dear Miss Kirchwey : I have your telegram with regard to the situation 
of Mr. Hanns Eisler, who is now lecturing in the New School of Social Research. I 
may say to you that I am very familiar with this case and have followed it per- 
sonally for some time. It is a very complicated situation and. of course, it has 
to be handled in accord with our existing immigration laws and practice. There 
is no course other than that open to the ofiicers of our Government. I think, how- 
ever, that, as he is here on a temporary visitor's visa, it may be possible to secure 
a prolongation thereof. I have been in touch with Dr. Johnson of the New School 
of Social Research and have indicated to him the steps which should be taken by 
Mr. Eisler. The matter of the extension of Mr. Eisler's stay in this country is, 
as you know, one not in the province of this Department and is within the province 
of the Department of Labor. I shall be very glad, however, to bring the matter 
to the personal attention of Mr. Houghteling, the Commissioner of Immigration 
and Naturalization, who I am sure will be very glad to give it his personal 
consideration. 

"Very sincerely yours, 

G. S. Messersmith, AssistoJit Secrelary. 



In reply. Miss Kirchwey wrote to you on March 15, 1939 : 



84 



Dear Mr. Messersmith : Please accept my thanks for your prompt and kind 
answer to my wire about Mr. Eisler. It is good of you to give his case personal 
attention and I can assure that he as well as his friends are most grateful to you. 
Sincerely yours, 

Freda Kirchwey. 

Next I would like to introduce a letter written on the letterhead of 
Fortune Magazine, Time and Life Building, Rockefeller Center, New 
York. March 16, 1939. Editorial Offices. This letter is from Russell 
Davenport.^^ 

Dear Mr. Messersmith : It has been brought to our attention that a musician 
by the name of Hanns Eisler, at present employed in this city, is about to be de- 
ported, through his deportation to his native Germany will almost certainly result 
in his death. We do not know on what grounds he is being deported, but we 

^- See appendix, p. 192, for exhibit 93. 

^ See appendix, p. 192, for exhibit 94. 

^ See aiipendix, p. 192, for exhibit 95. 

- ^ See appendix, p. 192, for exhibit 96. 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 133 

should like to ask that every consifleratiou be given to his case in order to avoid 
a terrible tragedy. From past experience with your kiiidiH>ss and patience, we 
feel sure that such consideration will be given. 

Yours gratefully, 

RussKLL Davenport. 

There is a liandwritten notation at tlie foot of the letter which I will 
show you, Mr, Messersmith. I don't know whether yon have any ob- 
jection to it being read or not. I don't think you do [Exhibits docu- 
ment] . 

Mr. INIessersmith. My eyes are very poor and I can't read that. I 
am sure I have no objection to your reading it. 

Mr. Striplixg. It says : 

And with niy particular appreciation — you have done so much for my friends 
in trouble! Most cordially — 

Do you know- 



Mr. Messersmith. That is Marie Davenport, his wife. 

Mr. Stripling. You are acquainted with Mr. Davenport and his 

wife? 

Mr. Messersmith. Well, I think I knew Mrs. Davenport, Mr. Chair- 
man, better than I did Mr. Davenport. Mr. Davenport at that time 
was the editor of Fortune, and the only connection that I had ever had 
with him was that he was planning to write an article on the State 
Department, about functions and that sort of thing, for Fortune, which 
was after it was published. But j\Irs. Davenport I had met from 
time to time in New York socially. 

What reference Mrs. Davenport there makes is only that I was one 
of those persons at the time who, having lived in Germany for 4 years 
and having seen when the Nazis came in first the members of the Com- 
munist Party in Germany and all labor leaders, and anyone connected 
with labor, with any labor organization, Communist or otherwise, put 
into concentration camps and literally hundreds of them disappear 
during the first days of February 1933, and then seeing men like 
Dr. 

The Chairman. I think you have answered the question. I think 
you completed your answer to the question. 

Mr. Messersmith. What I am getting at is this, Mr. Chairman : 
I did what I could within the law to help persons who were in difficulty 
when I was in Europe and when I was over here, and I am very glad 
that I did it. 

Mr. Wood. You mean irrespective of their political affiliations? 

Mr. IMessersmith. I think that question is a very improper one. 
It is an improper remark. It is an improper remark for you — and I 
say this with all respect — to make to me, who has had a long, and I 
believe honorable, career in the service of our Government, and who 
would not have been entrusted witli the post which he was if I had 
uot been a person who always loyally did my duty. 

Mr. Wood. I was hoping you would qualify that statement. 

Mr. Messersmith. I qualify what statement ? 

Mr. Wood. The statement you made that you helped people who 
were in trouble. 

Mr. ]\Iessersmith. Well, I certainly did. All my correspondence 
shows that I made it always very clear that Avhatever was done could 
only be done under the laws of our country. I wish to make it clear 
that so far as any person 



134 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

Mr. Wood. I was hoping you would qualify it to that extent. That 
is the reason I asked you, sir. 
Mr. Messersmith. Thank you, sir. 
The Chairman. Go ahead, Mr. Stripling. 
Mr. Stripling. Your reply reads as follows, dated March 18, 1939 : ^ 

lyEAB, Mr. Davenport : I have your letter of March 16 w^ith regard to Mr. Haiina 
Eisler. I am very familiar with this case and have gone into all aspects of it very 
carefully. It is one which is completely out of our hands as Mr. Eisler is in 
this country on a visa as a temporary visitor and is endeavoring to secure an 
extension of his stay. This is a matter wholly within the province of the Depart- 
ment of Labor and I have been in touch with various officials in Labor about the 
case, including the office of the Secretary. There is nothing really which I can 
do in the matter or that this Department can do. 

Believe me, 

Very sincerely yours, 

G. S. Messejrsmith. 

Next, Mr. Chairman, I should like to introduce a letter addressed 
to the Honorable Cordell Hull, Secretary of State, from Raymond 
Gram Swing, 36 East Fortieth Street, New York City, dated March 
28, 1939. «^ 

My Dear Mr. Secretary : The people I know in New York are greatly upset and 
offended by the failure of the eminent composer Mr. Hanns Eisler and his wife 
to obtain an extension of their visitor's visas. I have been through all the records 
of their case that Mr. Eisler has been able to gather together. No doiibt the 
Government is within its technical rights in refusing the extension. 

Mr. Eisler is not only an internationally known composer, but has an offer of a 
5-year contract to be professor of the music department at the New School 
of Social Research. He is now under command to leave the country. As he is an 
Austrian, this may mean a long sentence to a German concentration camp. 
Many well-known Americans, including Mrs. Roosevelt, are interested in this 
case. I would not presume to call it to to your attention if I did not believe 
Mr. Eisler was worthy of an asylum in this free country. I believe there is 
some prejudice against him in your Department because he has composed music 
for workers' choruses. 

Respectfully yours, 

Raymond Gram Swing. 

Mr. Swing's letter was answered by A. M. Warren, Chief of the 
Visa Division, as follows, on April 5, 1939 : ^^ 

JMy Dear Mr. Swing: I refer to your letter of March 28, 19.39, regarding the 
desire of Mr. Hanns Eisler and his wife to obtain an extension of temporary stay 
in the United States. 

There is no way in which this Department may be of assistance to Mr. and 
Mrs. Eisler since matters relating to the granting of extensions of stay in the 
United States come solely within the jurisdiction of the Department of Laboi*. 
Mr. and Mrs. Eisler should be advised to take up their cases with the immigration 
authorities of the Department of Labor. 
Sincerely yours, 

A. M. Warren, 
Chief, Visa Division, 
(P^'or the Secretary of State). 

I have here, Mr. Chairman, several letters from George Cukor, 
addressed, one to the President, and the other to the Secretary of 
State, Cordell Hull, in behalf of Mr. and Mrs. Eisler.^^ Unless the 
committee desires, I see no point in reading them. 

The Chairman. Without objection, it is so ordered. 

Mr. Strtpijng. They were also answered by Mr. Warren.^ 

^ Sep appendix, p. 192. for exhibit 97. 

^ See appeiKlix, p. 192. for exhibit 98. 

*' See appendix, p. 192, for exhibit 99. 

8" See appendix, p. 192, for exhibits 100 and 101. 

»» See appendix, p. 192, for exhibits 102 and 103. 



90 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 135 

(The letters are as follows:) 

March 25, 1939. 

The 1*RESIDENT, 

White House, Washington, D. V. 

To THE Pkesioext : May I respectfully urge you to grant an extension of the 
passport issued to Joliaiines Eisler and his wife, Louisa, who came to this 
country as visitors a year ago. Tlie i)assport which I understand has already 
been renewed once, expires April 25. 

Mr. Eisler, an Austrian citizen whose anti-Fascist beliefs have exposed him 
to danger at home, is a noted composer not only in his native land, but in 
England, France, and America as well. If he is compelled to return to Austria 
at this time, he faces inipi'isonment, or worse. 

He is at present engaged In writing the score for a film about the oil industry 
which is being produced for the New York World's Fair by Mr. Joseph Losey, 
and is also teaching music at the New School for Social Research. 

It has been amply proved that Mr. Eisler will not become a burden to the 
community, and that as an artist he has considerable to contribute to this 
country. Compelling him on technical grounds to return seems to me to be 
needlessly cruel, and again, I urge that every effort be made to allow him to 
remain here. 

Yours very truly, 

Geokge Cukok. 



Makch 25, 1939. 
Honorable Cordexl Hull, 

Secretari) of State, Washinffton, D. C. 

Dear Sir: May I resijectfully urge you to grant an extension of the passport 
issued to Johannes Eisler and his wife, Louisa, who came to this country as 
visitors a year ago. The passport, which I understand has already been renewed 
once, expires April 15. 

Mr. Eisler, an Austrian citizen whose anti-Fascist beliefs have exposed him 
to danger at home, is a noted composed not only in his native land, but in 
England, Prance, and America as well. If he is compelled to return to Austria 
at this time, he faces Imprisonment, or worse. 

He is at present engaged in writing the score for a film about the oil industry 
which is being produced for the New York World's Fair by Mr. Joseph Losey, 
and is also teaching music at the New School for Social Research. 

It has been amply proved that Mr. Eisler will not become a burden to the 
community, and that as an artist he has considerable to contribute to this 
countiy. Compelling him on technical grounds to return seems to me to be 
needlessly cruel, and again, I urge that every effort be made to allow him to 
remain here. 

Yours very truly, 

George Cukor. 



April 5, 1939. 
Mr. George Cukor, 

West Hollinvood, Calif. 

My Dear Mr. Cukor: I refer to your letter of March 25, 1939, concerning the 
desire of Mr. Hanns (Johannes) Eisler and his wife to obtain an extension of 
temporary stay in the United States. 

Tliere is no way in which this Department may be of assistance to Mr. and Mrs. 
Eisler, since matters relating to the granting of extensions of stay in the United 
States come solely within the jurisdiction of the Department of Labor. Mr. and 
Mrs. Eisler should be advised to take up their cases with the immigration authori- 
ties of the Department of Labor. 
Sincerely yours, 

A. M. Warren, Chief, Visa Division. 



136 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

Apkil 7, 1939. 

My Dear Mr. Cukor : I refer to your letter of March 25, 1939, to the President 
concerning the cases of Mr. Johannes (Hanns) Eisler and his wife, Louisa. 

You have no doubt received the Department's letter of April 5, 1939, in reply to 
your letter to the Secretary regarding these cases. 
Sincerely youi'S, 

A. M. Warren, Chief, Visa Division. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Clifford Odets wrote a letter to the American 
consul in behalf of Mr. Eisler, which reads as follows : ^^ 

Dear Sir : I knew Hanns Eisler, the eminent German composer, by reputation 
for many years before I had the pleasure of meeting him. Since then a personal 
friendship of several years duration has served to strengthen my first impression 
of Mr. Eisler. He is the owner of a first-rate musical gift; he is splendidly 
equipped for the twin role of teacher and lecturer on music and allied subjects ; 
and his character, in my opinion, is above reproach or question. 

Mr. Eisler is a man who can and is making a valuable and lasting contribution 
to the cultural life in America. For this reason I am happy to write this letter 
in his behalf. 

Sincerely yours, 

Clifford Odets. 

Mr. Odets has been siibpenaed in connection with the Hollywood 
hearing, INIr. Chairman. 

I also have a letter by William Dieterle in behalf of Mr. Eisler.^^ 

The Chairman. Who was that last one? 

Mr. Stripling. William Dieterle, to the American consul in Habana 

There are a number of letters here, Mr. Chairman, which are written 
in behalf of Mr. Eisler. If you would like the names put in the record, 
all right. And if you would like them read, I will be glad to do so. 
It has nothing to do with Mr. Messersmith. 

The Chairman. Put them in the record.^^ 

Mr. Stripling. All right. 

(The letters referred to are as follows :) 

Hollywood, Calif., January 28, IB'/O. 
To the American Consux,: 

Sir : I take great plea.sure in writing this letter in behalf of Mr. Hanns Eisler. 
Mr. Eisler is one of the foremost living European composers. He has a great 
reputation as a teacher of all phases of music. I know him as a man whose 
prime interest is his art and the ideals of his art. Our country will gain in him 
a citizen it can be proud of. ' 

I hope that you will speedily grant his request for a visa. 
Very sincerely yours, 

Wuxiam Dieterle. 



JuiLLiARD School of Music; 
Office of the Dean of the Graduate School, 

New York City, January 30, lO'iO. 
The American Consul General, 

Habana, Cuba. 
My Dear Consul : Mr. Hanns Eisler has been known to me for the past 2 years 
or 3 years. He has been teaching in the New School of Social Research in New 
York City. 

Musicians whose judgment I trust speak highly of his work, and I know that 
he is considered seriously and favorably in this country for his talents and 
knowledge. 

Very sincerely yours, 

Oscar Wagner, 
Dean, Jiiilliard Graduate School. 

"^ See appendix, p. 192, for exhibit 104. 
^ See appendix, p. 192, for exhibit 105. 
«> See appendix, p. 192, for exhibit 106 ; p. 193 for exhibit 107-111. 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 137 

Department of Surveys, 

russetx sage foitndation, 
New York City, Fcbniary 2, W-iO. 
Shelby M. Harkison, Director, 
COERT UE Bois, Epq., 

American Consul Oeneral, 

Habana, Cuba. 
Dear SiR: I am glad to join others in giving testimony as to the reputation and 
character of Mr. Hanns Eisler, who, I understand, is taking steps to enter the 
United Spates b.v way of Cuba as a nonquota immigrant. 

In the nuisical workl, as you perhaps know, Mr. Eisler ranks among the world's 
liigiiest in his particular field of motion-picture music. In teaching this subject 
in our country today I know of no one who equals him. So I feel that America 
would be fortunate to have him permanently here to help develop this important 
new art and thus help to enrich our culture. 

I have found him a man of charm and sensitive feeling. His honesty and in- 
tegrity are unquestionable. He is an idealist, with a warm sympathy for those 
who suffer or are oppressed. He is enthusiastic about America and to my mind 
would make a splendid citizen. 

I would be pleased to give you additional information if it would be useful 
In this case. 

Sincerely, 

AiXEN Eaton. 



KOLlSiCH-QXTAKTETT, 

Nationat. Bkoadcastinct Corp., Artists Service, 

ISIew York City. 

American Consul: I take great pleasure in recommending Mr. Hanns Eisler 

to you. 

I have known him in Europe as one of the foremost composers and have 
performed his works on several important occasions. 

His excellent training and exceptionally high intellectual qualities make him 
a brilliant teacher, and his colortul personality will certainly be a gi-eat gain 
for the musical life of this country. 
Very sincerely yours, 

Rudolph Kolisch. 

Geeman-American Writers Association, 

New York, N. Y., January 29, 1940. 

To the American Consltt, : 

Dear Sir : We take the liberty to recommend you our member, Mr. Hanns 
Eisler. Mr. Eisler belonged to the most important young composers in pre-Hitler 
Germany. According to such fine experts as Schoenberg and Stravinsky, he 
is one of the most serious aiul gifted personalities in modern music, whose works 
will undoubtedly outlive our time. 

Mr. Eisler has also shown his great quality as a pedagogue in Paris, Vienna, 
and Berlin. His success achieved in this field at the New School for Social 
Kesearch in New York during the last few years has become public property. 

Mr. Eisler is one of the rare personalities who live only for their art and 
sacrifice everytliing in order to devote all his time and eff(u-ts to serious music. 
We cannot be but certain tl at it will be to the advantage of the musical life 
in the United States, if Mr. Eisler should be allowed to enter this country 
without having to leave after a certain time, as he now is requested to do. 

As an organization of writers, devoted only to the art of writing and without 
any other interests than our professional ones, we hope that a solution can be 
found which will allow Mr. Eisler to live entirely for his music. 
Sincerely yours, 

Curt Riess, Cfeneral Secretary. 



138 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

January 23, 1940. 

American Consul, 

Eahana, Cuba. 

Dear Sir: This letter concerns Hanns Eisler who is a personal friend of mine 
of long standing. Mr. Eisler composed the score for the two-reel animated mo- 
tion picture wliicli I produced for the petroleum iiidusti\v exliibit at the World's 
Fair. As you i)erhaps know, the score has attracted a great deal of attention. 
It has been highly praised by New York reviewers and is also praised by Oscar 
Levant in his current book. 

However. Mr. Eisler's reputation as a musician is by no means based solely 
on this score. Mr. Eisler is internationally recoj^nized as a top-ranking composer. 
He is considered the most brilliant pupil and disciple of Schoenberg; Mr. Eisler 
is also known as a conductor of considerable accomplishment ; Eisler's work 
on film scores put him among the two or three foremost musicians in this field. 

With Mr. Eisler's teaching, I am less familiar. However. I do know his repu- 
tatifin as perhaps one of the greatest teachers of harmony who lias ever come 
to this country. As teacher, as composer, as film technician, and as person, 
Mr. Eisler will be an invaluable addition to the culture of this country. 

With a multitude of other friends, I sincerely hope that everything possible 
will be done to facilitate Mr. Eisler's establishment in tlie United States on a 
permanent basis. 

Very sincerely yours, 

Joseph Losey. 



The Grotp Theater, 
New York City, January 25, 1940. 
To Whofyi It May Concern : 

I wish to say in behalf of Hanns Eisler that I have known him personally for 
almost 4 years. Before that I had heard of his great reputation as an important 
composer and worker in the theater in Germany. In fact, I knew of his music 
before I met him, and it was this knowledge which made me so anxious to know 
him when he arrived in this country. 

Hanns Iilisler is unquestionably one of the outstanding figures of world music, 
and his work will undoubtedly give pleasure and inspiration to many thx'ough 
the medium of the American stage and movie. 
Very cordially yours, 

Harold Clurman, Director. 

Mr. Stripling. Next I would like to refer to a letter of July 18, 1939, 
written on the letterhead of the department of surveys. Russell S.a^e 
Foundation — and I would like to ask Mr. Messersmith, Do you know 
Donald Stephens? 

Mr. Messersmith. To m}^ knowledge, I have never met Donald 
Stephens. 

Mr. Stripling. You don't know whether he is connected with the 
Russell Sage Foundation ? 

Mr. Messersmith. I do not. 

Mr. Stripling. This letter is addressed to Mr. Warren, Chief of the 
Visa Division, State Department : '■'^ 

Dear Mr. AVarren : Pursuant to our telephone conversation Saturday, I am 
sending the data promised concerning Mr. Hanns Eisler. 

Mr. and Mrs. Eisler left New York City April 9 and passed into Mexico just 
before the expiration of the last extension on his visa, April 1.5. He soon obtained 
a position in the State Conservatory of Music in Mexico City, where he has been 
teaching ever since. I have heard from him a number of times, and this morn- 
ing received an air-mail letter from him, postmarked Mexico City, dated July 13, 
in answer to an air-mail letter sent him from here July (j. So there can be no 
doubt that the information you received that he had not gone to Mexico was 
erroneous. 



9* See appendix, p. 193, for exhibit 112. 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 139 

I would be jtreatly obliged to you if you will U4 me know at your earliest 
couvtMiiciico wlial Iho prospects are of Mr. Eisler returning to New York not 
later than early September (or, if possible, earlier) when the work of synchroniz- 
ing the music with the film America's ilaking begins. 

And will you kindly let me know if there is anytliing which I can do, or have 
done, to help in this matter. 

I believe I told you in our conversation tliat Mr. Eisler began his work on 
this music before he left for Mexico, and that is how 1 have kept in touch with 
him. The picture is a very important documentary film, which is sixnisored 
by Dr. John H. Finley, of the New York Times, Mr. Frederick A. Delano, 
Dr. Stephen P. Duggan, Mrs. Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Mr. Paul U. Kellogg, 
and others. 

You may have had an opportunity to know of Mr. Eisler's extraordinary ability 
in the tield of music for motion pictures. He is quite the ablest man we could 
find for this job. I have several expert opinions wliich place him at the top in 
this work. 

I am enclosing a rough outline of tlie educational picture which Mr. Eisler is 
Worlving on, wliich you may keep if you wish. 

Because of the seriousness of this matter to our project, I will appreciate any- 
thing you may be able to do to facilitate Mr. Hanns Eisler's return to the United 
States. As I understand the matter, he will have completed by August the 2 years 
teaching required for his entrance upon a professional nonquota basis — teaching 
for Dr. Alvin .Johnson at the New School for Social Research during the academic 
years of 1937-3S and 193S-39, with the exception of the latter part of the second 
year, which lie will have completed at the State Conservatory of Music in Mexico 
next month. 

If there is any additional information which may be helpful to you, kindly 
let me know. 

Thanking yovi for your courteous offer to follow this matter throiigh, I am, 
Sincerely, 

Allen Eaton. 

Mr. McDowell. What year was that? 

Mr. SxRiPLiNCi. July 18" 1939. 

Now, I have a brief description here of a motion picture: America's 
Making. 

The Chairmax. What is the name of the picture? 

Mr. Striplixc;. America's Making — M-a-k-i-n-g. It says, "The 
story of immigrant contributions to the life of our Nation." ''^ If you 
like, I will put it in the record, or will read it, either one. 

The Chair:m.\n. Without objection, it is so ordered. Put it in the 
record. But will you explain to the committee a little bit about this 
picture and who was making the picture? 

Mr. Striplixo. AVell, the Russell Sage Foundation, Mr. Chairman, 
was apparently making the picture, in cooperation with other people. 
Mr. Eisler was writing the music for the picture. 

I might read this : 

I believe I told you in our conversation that Mr. Eisler began his work on this 
music before he went to Mexico, and that is how I have kept in touch with him. 
The picture is a very important dosumentary film which is sponsored by — 

the persons I named. 

(The description of America's Making is as follows:) 

America's Making 

the stoky of immigr.\nt (contributions to the life of our nation 

In these days when the fires of liberty and freedom burn low in other lands ; 
when dictators deny the achievements of democracy and despise its principles; 

»5 See appendix, p. 193, for exhibit 113. 



140 HEARINGS REGAEDING HANNS EISLER 

when — in the so-called interest of the state — Christian institutions are suppressed 
and their temples destroyed ; when — in the name of racial purity — men, women, 
and children of ancient faiths are robbed and driven from their native laud; 
America must not allow this challenge to democracy, this threat to civilization, to 
go unanswered. 

America's answer will not be in blind abuse of peoples who at heart we know 
are for the fundamental rights of men, nor by force of arms, nor by a holier-than- 
thou attitude toward other nations ; it will be by keeping the lamp of democracy 
shining bright at home that its light may reach the oppressed of other lands, so 
that we and they may strive on, "that government of the people, by the people, 
for the people shall not perish from the earth." 

America's answer to these attacks on democracy, these claims to racial superi- 
ority, these threats to Chi-istian civilization, is in every chapter of our Nation's 
life : but America's greatest answer is in the making of America, in the epic story 
of the millions of immigrants who left their homelands in the Old World and 
crossed the ocean to the New. Here they have come from every country, of 
all beliefs — Protestant, Catholic, Jew, Quaker, and others. To them and to 
their children America has given many opportunities ; and they in turn have 
built new homes, rekindled old fires, and become citizens, have helped to make 
our country a stronger, a freer, and a better nation. The text of this story 
of America's Making is the words of an immigrant from Canada. Franklin K. 
Lane, Secretary of the Interior under President Wilson. We see Mr. Lane 
in his study toward the end of his life of public service as he speaks tliis message 
to his countrymen : 

America is a land of but one people 

Gathered from many countries. 

Some came for love of money 

And some for love of freedom. 

Whatever the lure that brought us. 

Each has his gift. 

Irish lad and Scot, 

Englislmian and Dutch, 

Italian, Greek, and French, 

Spaniard, Slav, Teuton, Norse, Negro — - 

All have come bearing gifts. 

And have laid them on the altar of America. 

The theme brings out the fact that we have always been an immigrant nation. 
It quotes Washington, Whitman, Theodore Roosevelt, Wilson, Coolidge, and 
Pershing in praise of the part our foreign-born citizens have played in the life 
of America. The gift of 20 different groups, both mass and individual contri- 
butions, are shown. 

As the picture develops we are reminded of how many of our customs and 
institutions originated in other homelands, and how much of our wealth and 
prestige can be traced in part to the labor, the skill, the ingenuity, the artistry, 
and the loyalty of our "citizens by choice." It is a pageant of work, education, 
and democracy such as no other nation has ever seen, so great in volume and 
variety that only through a moving picture could it be presented in such a short 
space of time. Shown also are the contributions of nearly a hundred individual 
citizens, most of whose contributions we have often acknowledged but never 
before have we been so definitely reminded that all were born in other countries. 
It is as though Amierica were asking for an account of those who had entered 
her gates, and out of the multitudes emerge leaders in every field. 

An easy transition is made from our quite recent citizens from the Baltic 
Repulilics to tlie Negro, who, though not an immigrant in the sense of the others, 
yet like all of them is making his contribution to the life and culture of America, 
and, in point of population, outnumbers any other group. 

The Negro episode is a brief but stirring presentation of the progress of the 
Negro people, of their labor, their loyalty, their courtesy, and their aclneve- 
ments In the life, work, and culture of our Nation, including 10 outstanding 
examples of individual leadership in several fields. 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 141 

And after the eontributioivs of these many groups have been shown, the picture 
closes with an expression .>f iniity appropriate to its purpose, the spirit of which 
may be stated rouglily as follows : 

America is a land of but one people 

Gathered from many countries. 

H.'re we have all joined together — 

>i'ative and foreign born 

Protestant, Catholic, Jew, Quaker, all faiths, 

Dedicating ourselves to a single loyalty 

That the principles of democracy — though far from perfect^ — ■ 

But the best that man has yet devised. 

And the priceless heritage from onr fathers 

Shall be saved and improved and shaped 

By us and by our children 

To meet the new and better day. 

(Note. — No attempt has been made in the above sketch to show how the pic- 
ture will be arranged, of the ways in which music, titles, and commentary will 
be used to develop this remarkable story of American democracy. It should be 
noted, however, that it is a picture without professional actors, which gives it 
a convincing authenticity, and a certain homely charm not to be found elsewhere. 
No picture lias been made which holds greater opiK)rtunity for a fine yet popular 
musical score, bringing in the national airs and folk music of many homelands.) 

The Chairman. As I understand it, this request was being made in 
order to get Mr. Eisler into this country from Mexico ? 

Mr. Stripling. That is right. The order for the deportation of Mr. 
Eisler had been issued by the Immigration and Naturalization Serv- 
ice. It was never served. He went into Mexico. 

The Chairman. But he went into Mexico and then in order to 
hel]) 

]Mr. Stripling. The order was in effect several months before he 
went into Mexico. 

Now, Mr. Chairman, I would like to point out that on July 5. 1938, 
Hanns Eisler appointed Carol King to represent him. The letter is 
signed by Eisler."** It states : 

Department of State. 

Gentlemen: This will serve to inform you that I and my wife have retained 
Carol King to represent us in connection with our application for immigration 
visas to the I'nited States which we intend to apply for at the American Consu- 
late at Habana. Cuba. 

Yours respectfully. 

Hanns Eisleb. 

Now, these applications, Mr. Chairman, were at the request of 
Carol King. The entire file was transferred from Habana, Cuba, 
to Mexico City. And as the witness has mentioned pi'eviously, at 
the time he addressed this handwritten memorandum to Mr. Warren, 
he says: "I wonder what the ti-ansfer of the case to Mexico Citv 
means," signed "G. M." «^ 

You wrote that, Mr. Messersmith ? 

Mr. Messersmith. That is right. That is in my handwriting. 

Mr. Stripling. Yes. Now. in reply to that, we have a memorandum 
written on the letterhead of the Department of State, Visa Division, 
dated Aj^ril 22, 11)39, signed by A. M. Warren.«« As Mr. Messer- 

"* See appendix, p. 19;?. for exhibit 114. 
^ See appendix, p. 1'.)'.',. for exliitiit 11."). 
"** See appendix, p. 198, for exhibit 110. 



66957 — 47 10 



142 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

smith has pointed out, it contains the initials "VD-RCA." It reads 
as follows : 

Deur Mb. Messersmith : While the Visa Division has received no information 
which would indicate the reason of the interested persons for having the file 
in the case of Hanns Eisler transferred from Hahana to Mexico City, it is believed 
that this has been done for one or more of the following reasons 

He has read the eight reasons. If you would like for me to read them 
again, I will be glad to. 

The Chairman. No ; never mind reading them. 

Mr. Stripling. Now, Mr. Chairman, so far as the records which 
we subpenaed are concerned, there is nothing else in the file which 
indicates that Mr. Messersmith had any connection with the case after 
it was transferred to Mexico City. 

The Chairman. Mr. Messersmith, you made a request a few minutes 
ago to make a short statement. Do you care to make a statement at 
this time ? 

Mr. Messersmith. It was only with reference to this memorandum 
from ]\Ir. Warren which we read — I mean, written by Mr. Alexander. 

The first statement is : 

In view of the communistic background of Eisler the interested persons may 
feel that he would be more likely to be comfortable in Mexico than in Cuba while 
awaiting the issuance of an immigration visa. 

The question has been raised why I did not have this confidence in 
Mr. Alexander's memoranda. This particular statement shows that 
he had no comprehension of the situation in Mexico, because he takes 
it for granted that because Mr. Eisler may be or was a Communist 
he would be more comfortable in Mexico, leaving the implication that 
Mexico is a communistic country. Well, Mexico is a very advanced 
country and has been since the revolutions early in this century. It 
is a country which is very liberal in its social, labor, and general 
legislation, but it is far from a Communist country. Mexico is, for- 
tunately, one of the few countres in which communism and the Com- 
munist Party have no real strength at all. So that Mr. Alexander 
was completely mistaken in his conception of what the situation in 
Mexico was in that respect. 

The Chairman. Do you think that is what he meant by that state- 
ment? 

Mr. Messersmith. Yes. 

The Chairman. That Mexico was a Communist country? 

Mr. Messersmith. Yes; that is what he meant. He had the im- 
pression that Mr. Eisler would be more comfortable there because 
it was more of a Communist country. 

Two 

Mr. Stripling. If I may comment on the first point, Mr. Chair- 
man, I think it should be noted that Mr. Eisler did fare very well 
in Mexico City. He was appointed professor at the National Con- 
servatory of Music. So he wasn't wrong in that assumption. 

Mr. Messersmith. No, no, no. 

Mr. Stripling. Isn't it true, Mr. Messersmith, that a number of 
Communists have taken liaven in Mexico City? 

Mr. Messersmith. What? 

Mr. Stripling. That a number of Communists have taken haven in 
Mexico City ? 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 143 

Mr. Messeksmitii. Yes; Mexico has a very liberal attitude. I mean, 
ill the Spanish revolution they admitted, following our tradition and 
going further, all kinds of refugees from Spain : The Connnunists, the 
Monarchists — from the extreme poles, without any distinction. 

The second point is: 

The interested persons may have found that the entry of Eisler into Mexico can 
be accomplished with greater facility than entry into Cuba. 

I don't see how there could be any implication of that kind, because 
the Mexican authorities have been very, very strict in their admission 
of aliens. 

3. * * * opportunity for earning a livelihood is brighter. 

Knowing Cuba and knowing Mexico, why, it is much more difficult 
for an alien to secure employment in Mexico than it is in Cuba. 

4. The interested persons may believe that they can bring greater pressure to 
bear on the consul general at Mexico City — possibly through Ambassador 
Daniels — than they have been able to bring on the consul general at Habana 
through the Department. 

I think that is an unwarranted observation. Mr. Daniels is a very 
distinguished man, who served our country for 9 years as Ambassador 
to Mexico. 

The Chairman. But isn't it true that Hanns Eisler couldn't get a 
visa from the consul in Cuba, but did get a visa in Mexico? 

Mr. Messersmitii. But not a nonquota immigration visa. He only 
got a visa from the consul in Mexico, Mr. Chairman, permitting him to 
make a 2-months' stay in this country; that is, a visitor visa, on the 
basis of representations which he made, that he had urgent business to 
attend to in this coinitry. 

The Chairman. Yes ; but he got a visa. 

Mr. Messersmith. Yes. 

The Chairman. In Mexico and he could not get one in Cuba. 

Mr. Messersmith. No; he didn't pursue the matter in Cuba. He 
was never examined by the consulate general in Habana, to my knowl- 
edge. He didn't pursue the matter of the visa in Habana. And the 
records in Mexico City show that he was refused a visa as a nonquota 
immigrant on the basis of 2 years' service as a professor, as he had not 
adequately established his status which would have given him that 
exemption under the law. 

The Chairman. All right. When he came in, he came in on what 
type of a visa ? 

Mr. Messersmith. At that time from Mexico? At that time he 
came in from Mexico on a so-called visitor's visa. 

The Chairman. And how long did he stay? 

Mr. INIessersmith. That I am unabale to say — how long he 
stayed 

The Chairman. And wliere did he go after he left here? 

Mr. Messersmith. Wliat is that? 

The Chairman. Theil what happened to him? 

Mr. Mp:ssersmith. T have no idea. I think the record shows it. The 
im])()rtant thing in this connection is 

The Chairman. But your connection with the case, though, ends 
with his visit to Mexico? 

Mr. Messersmith. Yes; but this memorandum was still a memo- 
randum to mo, vou see. that I have under reference here. And the 



144 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

important thing about it is : Here is all this speculation by Mr. Alex- 
ander with regard to the reason's don't you know, which I think were 
mostly based on inadequate information, don't you know. 

The Chairman. Yes; then, when you came to the conclusion that 
that was based on inadequate information, what did you do about 
Mr. Alexander ? 

Mr. Messersmitii. I didn't do anything. 

The Chairman. Didn't do anything? 

Mr. Messersmith. No, sir. The important thing in the record, 
which I imagine will be brought out later by Mr. Stripling, or may 
not be, is that on July 21, 1939, Mr. Warren, who was the Chief of the 
Visa Division, put a memorandum into the file of the Visa Division 
to the effect that the reason that Eisler delayed applying in Mexico 
is that he wished to complete 2 years of teaching, which would have 
been made up in August of this year. That is really why he went 
there, because he could fulfill the statutory requirement there. 

The Chairman. Why did you ask Mr. Warren to give you the rea- 
sons for Mr. Eisler's transfer from Cuba to Mexico? 

Mr. Messersmitii. That would be the natural reaction, Mr, Chair- 
man, of an administrative officer to whose attention this case had been 
constantly brought, as one in which many responsible people in this 
country were interested. They were saying that Mr. Eisler was a 
good man, don't you know, and all that. I was wondering whether 
there might be not something wrong about this, or why should he be 
changing from Habana to Mexico, don't you know. 

The Chairman. Do you recall any other case similar to this that 
prompted you to send a memorandum to Mr. Warren because of trans- 
fer from Cuba to Mexico ? 

Mr. Messersmitii. Well, not of that kind ; no. But the transfer in 
many cases — and I say that advisedly, many cases, Mr. Chairman — 
was where refugees asked for the transfer of their papers from one 
consulate to another because it was easier for them to get into the coun- 
try, into the other country. For instance, many of these people who 
had been admitted to this country for temporary stays asked that their 
papers be sent to Canada. In the beginning Canada was very liberal 
in permitting people to go up there and live there a while, you see, 
and then make their application for an immigration visa, which was 
necessary under our law\ Then Canada became very strict about it 
and wouldn't let these people in there. So they would have their 
papers transferred from Toronto or Montreal or wherever they had 
had them sent, to some other consulate. 

The Chairman. Now, Mr. Messersmith, what was the date of the 
first memorandum on Hanns Eisler written by Mr. Alexander to you? 

Mr. Messersmith. I think it was October 24. 

Mr. Stripling. 24. 

Mr. Messersimith. Mr. Chairman 

The Chairman. October 24. 

Mr. Stripling. 1938. 

Mr. Messersmith. 1938; yes. 

The Chairman. 1938. 

Mr. Messersmith. Yes. 

The Chairman. And what was the date of this memorandum ? 

Mr. Messersmith. This was written on April 22, 1939, 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 145 

Tlie Chairman. So that would be about 6 montlis. You didn't have 
much faith in the contents of the first memorandum. 

jVIr. ]\Iessersmith. No. 

The Chairman. And you <;ot less faith in the contents of the second 
memorandum. 

Mr. Messkrsmith. I 

The Chairman. But you didn't do anything about it. 

]\lr. Messkrsmith. About what? 

The (^HAiRMAN. About this man Alexander. 

Mr. Messersmith. Well, Mr. Chairman, I have had a lot to do with 
people and 1 recognize that some people are very competent, others 
are ackHjuately competent, others are moderately competent, and so on. 

Tlie Chairman. You have done a great job here of discrediting this 
man Alexander. Now, I happen to know Mr. Alexander and have 
known him for a number of years. I have had personal knowledge 
of Mr. Alexander, the same as I have personal knowledge of other em- 
l)loyees of the State Department. I have never found anything — cer- 
tainly nothing like what you mentioned here — that would discredit 
Mr. Alexander. And I want to say this : If because of your testimony 
here today anything happens to Mr. Alexander, I mean happens to 
his employment with the State De]5artment, there will have to be an 
accounting to this committee, 

^Ir. ]Messersmitii. Well, Mr. Chairman, I don't think that that is 
in question. I would like to make it clear, as I did at the outset, that 
it was with the greatest regret that I had to make any mention of that 
at all. But it was because of the very great attention which counsel 
gave to this memorandum and because of this that I want to bring 
attention to the fact that on August 9, Mr. Alexander wrote a letter 
to ]\Ir. Hutton, our consul in Mexico City 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Chairman, again he has returned to documents 
which the conunittee decided to deal with later on. 

The Chairman. You are going to have Mr. Hutton as a witness? 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Hutton is here to testify, and those letters will 
be ]iut in the record. 

The Chairman. We will take up those letters when we have Mr. 
Hutton as a witness. 

Mr. jSIessersmith. Well. I would simply like to remark, then, that 
that paragraph in Mr. Hutton's letter 

]Mr. Wood. Mr. Chairman 

The Chairman. !Mr. Wood. 

Mr. AVooD. If Mr. Messersmith is going to be recalled, I think it is 
fair to let him make any statement that he desires about any docu- 
mentary evidence that is presented here. If he is to be recalled, I think 
he should have that opportunity. 

The Chairman. Yes. 

^U\ Stripling. Mr. Chairman, may I make a suggestion? It is 
quite apparent from reading the letter why Mr. Messersmith seeks to 
discredit Mr, Alexander. 

The Chairman. Who is being discredited now? 

Mr. Stripling. I beg you pardon ? 

The Chairman. Who did you say is being discredited? 

Air. Stripling. Mr. Alessersmith is seeking to discredit Mr. Alex- 
ander, his own employee. 



146 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

I would like to read now from the Register of the Department of 
State concerning Mr. Alexander. It says : 

* * * Assistant Chief. Visa Division, November 26, 1941, at $5,600 * * * 
December 16, 1941; member of Efficiency Rating Commission in 1942; teclinieal 
adviser, special mission to American Embassy at Panama, February 1942 ; tech- 
nical assistant to United States Delegate, Meeting of Representatives of United 
States and British Governments to consider the refugee problem, Bermuda, 1943 ; 
Chairman, Efficiency Rating Commission, 1946. 

And at the present time he is emplo^yed at a base salary of $6,440 a 
3'ear. And Mr. Russell advises me that his salary has been increased. 

Now, it seems to me that a man that is on the Efficiency Rating 
Commission of the State Department and who has advanced every 2 
or 3 years slioiddn't be placed in such a position by a man who could 
have fired him — or put a memorandum in the record to the effect that 
he did not seriously consider what he had written, when the evidence 
shows that Mr. Messersmith acted upon the memorandum. He sent 
the memorandum to Mr. du Bois, the consulate general at Habana. 

Now, getting back to why Mr. Messersmith wants to head off the 
letter, if I may say, from Mr. Alexander, I would like to read the 
letter dated August 9, 1939, to Mr. Hutton.^^ Mr. Hutton, who was 
the consul in charge of visas in Mexico City and who eventually 
granted a visitor's visa to Eisler, wrote Mr. Alexander, having been 
a former employee of Mr. Alexander, asking him for advice on certain 
questions, and Mr. Alexander, after giving him the advice, wrote as 
follows : 

I think you are wise in leaving the political phase of the case for future con- 
sideration. However, when the time comes, I hope you will go into this matter 
with your usual care and .skill. If this alien obtains an immigration visa and 
enters the United States we are likely to hear from the anti-Communist organiza- 
tions in this country. Of course, if he is refused an immigration visa there will 
also be some repercussions among the so-called liberal elements in this country. 
We have a ccmgressional investigation hanging over our heads, however, and I 
am sure that we will be called upon to render an explanation concerning the 
issuance of visas to so many of the Reds and Pinks who have been filtering into 
the country in recent years If I were handling the case I would reach a con- 
clusion I could defend before all the world and let the future take care of itself. 

I hope you like your new post, and if I can be of any assistance to you I hope 
you will not hesitate to beckon me. 

With kindest regards, always, I am, 
Sincerely yours, 

Robert C. Alexander. 

It is quite apparent why Mr. Messersmith would like to discredit 
Mr. Alexander. 

Mr. Messersmith. I particularly wanted and I appreciate counsel 
reading this letter because so far as I am concerned and was concerned 
as a responsible officer of the Department — and I wouldn't change my 
opinion today — that letter shows a very cynical attitude toward the 
responsibilities which a consul officer has. The Congress of the United 
States gave to consuls by statute the obligation to grant these visas 
when, after due examination, they found that a visa should be granted 
or refused. That meant that every alien who appeared for a visa had 
to be given a fair hearing. All the available facts had to be taken 
into account, and then the consul reached a decision. 

This was practically a statement on the part of someone in the De- 
partment to the effect that you must avoid responsibility, ycni must 

»9 See aiipeiulix, p. 193, for exhibit 117. 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 147 

not take any responsibility. That is an evasion of responsibility based 
upon the consul by the statute. 

The Chairman. Mv. Messei-smith, in this letter of August 9 from 
Mr. Alexander to Mr. Paul Hutton, who was then the American con- 
sul in Mexico, I notice that Mr. Alexander addresses Mr. Hutton, who 
I am sure you would say was a very responsible official at that time. 

Mr. AIessersmith. Yes. 

The Chairman. And still is. 

JNIr. Messersmith. Yes. 

The Chairman. As "Dear Paul." 

Mr. ^Iessersmith. Yes. 

The Chairman. They sort of know each other pretty well, I would 
say. 

Mr. Messersmith. Right. 

The Chair]man. That would indicate, if Mr. Alexander could ad- 
dress Mr. Hutton as "Paul'' — and he starts off by saying, "I have your 
letter of August 9, 1939, concerning the case of Hanns Eisler" — that 
certainly Paul Hutton had some confidence in Mr. Alexander. 

]Mr. Messersmith. I am quite sure of it. 

Tlie Chairman. I think we are going too far- 



Mr. Messersmith. I think we are going too far on this line- 



The Chairman. In connection with Mr. Alexander. I think it is 
a mistake to seem to discredit him. I would rather not take up this 
question of Mr. Alexander any more today. 

Mr. Messersmith. I wish to repeat that I did not get into that until 
it became necessary, because of the emphasis placed on the memo- 
randum. 

The Chairman. Do you have any more questions? 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Chairman, I want to get away from it also, if 
you desire. However, this whole case, a lot of it. turns upon this mem- 
orandum, because it was a part of the file in Mexico City, it was a 
part of the file in Habana, it was a part of the file in Washington. 
Now, I didn't write the memorandum. It was the subordinate of Mr. 
Messersmith who wrote the memorandum. These are his files, the 
Department's files. We are just merely bringing them out here for 
them to speak for themselves. Mr. Messersmith, it appears to me, 
is here to discredit his own files and his own employees. 

Mr. Messersmith. No. 

The Chairman. I think the files speak for themselves. 

Mr. Messermith. I think, Mr. Chairman, it is desirable to note that 
when this visa was finally granted. Mr. Eisler continuously failed to 
succeed in getting an immigration visa; that is. any kind of an immi- 
gration visa from consul officers of our Government until he applied 
at Mexicali in 1940, when he secured a visa from the consul at IVIexicali, 
who obviously failed to consult a stop card which was in his file. He 
was given a nonquota immigration visa as a professor. 

The Chairman. Yes. But based on the testimony here today and 
the testimony we received yesterday, and the correspondence that was 
read here, I think the main reason, in fact the only reason, he didn't 
get a visa when he was in Cuba was because the consul in Cuba refused 
to give him a visa. 

Mr. Messersmith. He didn't 

The Chairman. Tliere was a lot of pressure put on by various peo- 
ple so that he could get a visa, but the consul stood his ground. 



148 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

Mr. Messersmitii. Well — — 



Mr, Stripling. Mr. Chairman 

The Chairman. And we will show tomorrow that the consul in 
Mexico didn't stand his ground. 

Mr. Wood. Mr. Chairman 

The Chairman. Mr. Wood. 

Mr. Wood. I understand, Mr. Messersmith, from the statement you 
just made, that you question the action of the consul in Mexico in grant- 
ing him the nonquota visa under which he is now in America. 

Mr. Messersmitii. No ; I do not question that. I merely say this, 
that the visa was not granted in Habana. 

Mr. Wood. I understand, but 

Mr. Messersmith. It was not granted in Mexico City. It was 
granted in Mexicali. 

Mr. Wood. Do you in fact question the wisdom of the action of the 
consul in Mexico in granting him the visa, under which he is now in 
America ? 

Mr. Messersmith. The consul in Mexicali obviously failed to con- 
sult his index cards, don't you know, which they are supjDosed to 
consult. 

Mr. Wood. I understand, but do I also understand from that state- 
ment that it is your opinion if he had consulted it and acted on it as 
he should have done he wouldn't have issued the visa ? 

Mr. Messersmith. No. All I meant to say is that he had available 
in his files, you see, all the information which the Department had sent 
to Habana and to Mexico City, and if the consul had consulted his 
cards he would have referred the case to the Department of State, 
which would have called his attention to all these previous statements. 

The Chairman. Who was the consul in Mexicali ? 

Mr. Messersmith. I really can't say. 

The Chairman. Who failed to consult the cards ? 

Mr. Messersmith. I think it was a vice consul by the name of Meyer. 

Mr. Wood. The whole question, as I understand it, that we are con- 
cerned here today with, is whether or not this man is in this country 
now properly or improperly. Should he have been admitted or 
shoiddn't have been ? 

Mr. ]\Iessersmith. Well 

Mr. Wood. Since he was admitted, then who is responsible if he 
shouldn't have been. 

Mr. Messersmith. Well, it is necessary in that connection to bear 
in mind for your future consideration of the case, which I am sure you 
will, that when the consul in Mexicali granted this visa the immigra- 
tion authorities at Calexico held up the" entry of the alien on this par- 
ticular visa. However, that was not on the basis of any political mat- 
ter; that is. Communist or that sort of thing, but on the ground that 
he was not entitled to nonquota status. 

Mr. Eisler appealed from this decision of the immigration author- 
ities in Calexico. The board of review of the Immigi-ation Depart- 
ment, with which the Department of State had nothing to do, ruled 
that he was entitled to nonquota status, and he was admitted. So all 
these things that we have been going into so far, before Mexicali, in- 
dicated tliat the action of the Department had been to impede the issue 
of a visa. The final responsibility for according nonquota status was 
on the board of review of the Imrnigration Department here in Wash- 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 149 

ington, which determined that lie was entitled to that statns. So there 
was no action of the Stat€ Department whatever involved in the 
granting of the visa, in the final admission of Mr, Eisler. 

The Chairman. In the final admission. 

Mr. ^Iessersmitii. Yes. 

The CnAimrAN. Mr. Stripling, do yon have any more questions? 

*Mr. Stripling. No, sir; I have no more. 

The Chairman. Do you have any more, Mr. McDowell? 

Mr. McDowell. Yes. 

I would like, Mr. Secretary, to ask you this question: He was 
declined at Calexico on what rounds? 

Mr. Messersmitii. He was granted a visa, you see, by the consulate. 

Mr. McDowell. In Mexicali? 

Mr. Messersmith. At Mexicali. Then, naturally, he went across the 
border and there he had to present his visa to the immigration au- 
thorities, and there the immigration authorities were apparently more 
alive to the situation. They have copies of these cards, because when 
the State Department sent out a card like that, a stop card, you know, 
that was sent out in 1936, the copies were sent to all immigration 
officers at ports of entry into the United States. They looked at that. 
They examined the records, and apparently — I don't know what the 
record there shows from the point of view of his political opinions, 
and so on — they thought that was all right. But the immigration 
authorities at Calexico decided that he was not a nonquota immigrant, 
that is, he was not entitled to that special status which exempted him 
from the quota. So they refused him admission. Then Mr. Eisler 
had the right to appeal. 

He appealed from the decision of the immigration authorities at 
Calexico. The case was sent up here to the board of review, I assume, 
in Washington. At that time it was still in Washington, that is, 
the headquarters of the Immigration Service. They decided that he 
was entitled to nonquota status. So at the time the visa was granted 
at Mexicali and he was admitted into the United States, the State 
Department had no knowledge of his being admitted or the visa having 
been granted. They only learned of that when in due course the consul 
at Mexicali sent in the statement, which he had to send in every 2 
weeks, I believe, of visas issued, you see. 

]Mr. McDowell. Well, Mr. Secretary, I was in Calexico, I believe, 
in May. If I recall rightly, the officials told me there that he had 
been declined entrance on the basis that he might become a public 
charge. That, as I recall, was the term they used — a catch-all phrase. 
They had no information that I can recall from Washington on any 
communistic activities or affiliations. But on their initiative they 
declined to admit him. 

Mr. Messersmith. You mean, this is the immigration authorities, or 
the 

]\rr. ^IcDoAM^-LL. At Calexico. 

]\Ir. Messersmith. Yes. at Calexico. 

Mr. ISlcDowELL. If I recall, 2 or 3 daj^s later a wire was received in 
Calexico from some official in the East revoking the order barring him. 
I assume from what you just testified you have no knowledge of that? 

Mr. Messersmith. No, I have no knowledge of those things, except 
from the record, don't you know. I mean, I had no personal knowledge 
of it. 



150 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

The Chairman. Do 3^011 have any more questions? 

Mr. Stripling. No. I just want to point out, Mr. Chairman, when 
he finally did enter, his political views were not considered by any of 
the agencies concerned, on his admission to the United States. 

The Chairman. Anything more ? 

Mr. McDowell. Can anybody tell me how long he had been out of 
the United States proper when he applied at Mexicali or at Calexlco 
for reentry into the United States? 

Mr. Stripling. Well, we have Mr. Porter here, Mr. McDowell, who 
will be on tomorrow and can testify concerning that. 

The Chairman. Is Mr. Hutton the first witness tomorow ? 

Mr. Stripling. The first witness tomorrow will be Mr. Porter, to be 
followed again by Mr. Savoretti. 

The Chairman. And then Mr. Hutton? 

Mr. Stripling. And then Mr. Hutton. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Mr. Messersmith. 

We stand adjounred until 10 : 30 tomorrow morning. 

(Wliereupon, at 4 p. m., the hearing was adjourned until Friday, 
September 26, 1947, at 10 : 30 a. m.) 



INVESTICtATION of UN-.VMERICiVN PROPAGANDA 
ACTIVITIES m THE UNITED STATES 



FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 26, 1947 

House of Representatives, 
Committee on Un-American Activities. 

Waxhington, D. C. 

The committee met at 10: 30 a. m., Hon. J. Parnell Thomas (chair- 
man) presiding. 

The Chairman. The meeting will come to order. 

The record will show that those present are Mr. McDowell, Mr. 
Wood, Mr. Rankin, and Mr. Thomas. 

The first witness will be Mr. Hntton. 

Staff members present : Mr. Robert E. Stripling, chief investigator 
and Mr. Louis J. Russell and Mr. Donald T. Appel, mvestigators. 

Mr. Stripijng. Mr. P. C. Hutton. 

The Chairman. Mr. Hutton, will you take the stand, please? 

Will you raise your light hand^ Do you solemnly swear that the 
testimony you are about to give is the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Hutton. I do. 

The Chairman. Sit down, 

TESTIMONY OF P. C. HUTTON, AMERICAN EMBASSY, GUATEMALA 

CITY 

]\Ir. Stripling. Mr. Hutton, will you speak into the microphone and 
address the committee, please? 

What is your full name and present address? 

Mr. Hutton. Paul Churchill Hutton, American Embassy, Guate- 
mala City. 

Mr. Sti!ipling. When and where were you born, Mr. Hutton ? 

Mr. Hutton. Goldsboro, N. C, November 17, 1903. 

Mr. Stripling. Where are you presently employed? 

Mr. Hutton. I am a Foreign Service officer of the Department of 
State, presently assigned to Guatemala City. 

Mr. Stripling. In what capacity ? 

Mr. Hu'iTON. I am second secretary of embassy and consul. 

Mr. Stripling. How long have you been in the Foreign Service? 

Mr. Hutton. I have been in the Foreign Service since July 19, 1930. 

The Chairman. May I interrupt just a minute? 

Mr. Stripling. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. The Chair failed to announce that there will be an 
executive session of the committee at 2 o'clock this afternoon, in our 

151 



152 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

chambers downstairs, to take up the question of this Hanns Eisler 
hearing. 

All ri<rht, Mr. Stripling. 

Mr. Striplixg. JMr. Hutton, would you outline for the committee the 
various posts and positions that you have held in the Foreign Service 
of the State Department since 19o0? You need not go into great 
detail, but just name some of the positions you filled. 

Mr. Hutton. I have been a public servant since graduating from the 
United States Military Academy in 1926. I served 4 years in the 
United States Army. I resigned to enter the Foreign Service. My 
post of assignment was Panama, Panama. My second post was the 
Foreign Service School in the Department of State. 

My first permanent post of assignment was with the consulate in 
Bombay, India. I was in Bombay for a little over 2 years. I next 
drew the consulate general at Dublin, Ireland. My next post of 
assignment was temporary in the Department of State. 

Mr. Stripling. Wliat year was this, the temporary assignment in 
the Department of State ? 

Mr. Hutton. In the early part of 1939. In about the middle of 
1939 I arrived in Mexico City, Mexico, where I was attached to the 
consulate general and assigned as consul in charge of the Visa Section. 
I remained in Mexico City for approximately 2 yeai-s, I was then 
transferred to the Department of State. I did special work for the 
Department of State for 4 years. 

I was then— this was in 1945, the latter part of 1945 — assigned to 
my present post in Guatemala City. I have remained there since then. 

Mr. Stripling. Prior to your going to Mexico City, did you ever 
do any visa work in any of your assignments? 

Mr. Hutton. I did. I was in charge of the Adsa office for about 
3 years in Dublin, Ireland. I was assigned to the Visa Division in 
the Department of State on temporary detail for about 2 months, in 
the early part of 1939. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Hutton, in connection with your assignment 
at Mexico City as the consul in charge of visa matters, do you recall 
whether or not the case of Hanns Eisler was ever brought to your 
attention, or an application by Hanns Eisler and his wife for a non- 
quota visa into the United States ? 

Mr. Hutton. I certainly do. 

Mr. Stripling. You do remember that ? 

Mr. Hutton. I do. 

Mr. Stripling. Very well. 

Mr. Hutton. There are many parts of the case that I cannot recall 
at this late date. That was 8 years ago. But I remember the case ; yes. 

Mr. Stripling. First, Mr."^ Chairman, I would like to introduce a 
letter dated August 1, 1939, written on the letterhead of the American 
Consular Service, Department of State, Mexico, D. F., from Mr. 
Hutton to Mr. Robert C. Alexander ^""^ 

Mr. Eankin. Mr. Stripling, I didn't get that date. 

Mr. Stripling. That is August 1, 1939. 

The letter reads as follows : 

Dear Alex : I have thought many times about the two rather hectic months 
that I spent with you in the Visa Division back in Washington and I must 

^00 See appendix, p. 193, for exhibit 118. 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 153 

I'onfess that 1 do not envy you laboring away among the mass of papers in 
the heat that I read about in the latest reports from home. As I susiiected 
before I came to Mexico I have been designated as the visa officer here and I 
must say that I find the work quite different from my visa experience hereto- 
foi-e and incidentally nuich m(»re varied and interesting. 

Our friend Ilanns Eisler has finally put in his appearance and the whole 
case has btvn dropped in my lap as my particular "baby." I spent most of 
yesterday putting liim through the jumps and it so hapiiens that I had already 
decided for the time being to disregard the Communist aspect of his case, be- 
lieving that it was quite possible that he would have to remain down here for 
about 2 years or possibly longer, if not entitled to nonquota status, befoi'e a 
final decision need be reached in the matter. This is in line with the la.st 
paragraph of the Department's instruction of July 24, 1039, which, happily, 
was received on the very day that Eisler and his wife called for formal interview. 

I call the committee's attention, Mr. Chairman, to the lanouage 
"the Dei)aftmeiit"s instrtiction of July ^4, 1039. ■' ^"^ It will be recalled 
that the witness yesterday, Mr. Messersmith, definitely told the com- 
mittee that the Department did not issue instructions or directives 
to the consular offices. 

Tlie letter continues 

Mr. HuTTON. Mr. Chairman, cotild I interrupt there and make 
an explanation that I think is very pertinent to the record? 

Mr. Stripling. Yes, sir. 

The CiiAiRMAx. Yes ; ^o ahead. 

Mr. HuTTON. We use in the Department of State the word "instruc- 
tion" to apply to any written communication sent to a consular officer 
abroad. There are all kinds of instructions. That does not mean 
that it is an actual instruction or directive. It is any message that 
is sent abroad not in the form of a telegram or an airgram or an 
operat ions memorandum . 

The Chair:man. Well, Mr. Stripling, are 3^011 going to bring out 
just what these instructions were? 

^fr. Stripling. Yes, sir; I just wanted to mention that. 

The case as it resolves itself now has to do with the determination of whether 
Eisler's association over a period of approximately 15 months with the New 
School for Social Research in New York may be counted as a portion of the 
2-year period before he may be eligible for nonquota status as a professor. 
There is no doubt in my mind but that this whole professor business is a guise 
and that Eisler's teaching activities have been undertaken with a very definite 
end in mind. Nevertheless all of the evidence and facts about his case indicate 
that he can meet all of the requirements of tlie law and of the instruction 
of May 9 relating to professors, in the preparation of which I had a hand, in 
view of the fact that the New School for Social Research has been in the past 
and apparently continues to be considered as an acceptable faculty thereof, 
and that, whether by design or otherwise, his activities liave been almost 
wholly concerned with the teaching of students in the school and with the 
composition of music in liis spare time. There are only two points about which 
I am in doubt insofar as concerns his past association with this school and 
which might be sufficient to discount this association. The first is the fact 
thar the school is in the United States and not in sonne foreign country. I find 
nothing in the law, either express or implied, which indicates that the scliool 
should be in some foreign country, and I am therefore inclined to discount 
the possibility of throwing out his case on this account. The other point 
is that whereas Eisler was carried as a member of the faculty of the school 
he was not paid a salary, apparently becau.se of the refusal of Labor to permit 
extensions of his stay in the United States if he was j)aid a salary. However, 
he did receive comjjfMisation foi- his teaching in the form of one-half of the 
tuition fees of his students, the other half going to the school. This fact might 

'"' See apppnrlix. p. 10.''.. for cNliihit 119. 



154 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

also be sufficient to discount his past association \Yitli the school for nonquota 
status purposes. 

In the Department's instructions under reference it appears that someone 
assiduously avoided commenting upon Eisler's status while in the United States 
but did go so far as to point out that he could not be considered a professor 
while abroad, a fact about which there is no question and which Eisler did 
not even undertake to contend. 

My first reaction after going into the case was to throw up to the Depart- 
ment for its official interpretation these two points but I am reluctant to 
do this if I can obtain from some other source some intimjation as to the De- 
partment's attitude and I am therefore approaching you in a purely personal 
and unofficial way for your comments, if any, which might help me in my 
dilemma. Needless to say, I would just as soon that tliis question sliould not 
be taken up through the regular channels as yet. 

I might mention for your confidential information that I have gone all 
through the Eisler case from start to finish and that while I carefully avoided 
touching upon any other than the nonquota status aspect there is reason to 
believe that a finding that he is inadmissible into the United States because 
of his political beliefs or associations would be most difficult to sustain. If, 
however, he is found ineligible for nonquota status as a professor it is very 
probable that someone else rather than I will have to worry about that aspect 
of his case. Personally he and his wife are very likable and intelligent people 
although, of course, he made every effort with me to put his best foot forward, 
as did liis wife. 

I hate to bother you with my problem but if you are disposed to do it 
I should certainly appreciate your dropping me just a few lines as an indica- 
tion not so much of your personal views (which I think I am fairly well aware 
of) as of the legal or departmental aspects of the two points I have raised. 

I would have bothered Elliot in this matter before you since I think he has 
had more to do with professors tlian you liave but for the fact that I tliink 
he is now on his lioneymoon. Please give my best to all my friends in the 
Visa Division. 

With kindest regards, 
Sincerely yours, 

P. C. HUTTON. 

Mr. Hiitton, do you recall writing this letter ? 

Mr. HuTTON. I do. 

Mr. Stripling. Do you know Mr. Alexander? 

Mr. HurioN. Yes. 

Mr. Stripling. Did you hear the testimony yesterday by Mr. 
Messersniith concerning Mr. Alexander? 

Mr. HuTTON. I did. 

Mr. Stripling. Do you consider Mr. Messersmith's testimony to be 
correct concerning Mr. Alexander and his qualifications or his ability 
on visa matters? 

Mr. HuTTON. Mr. Stripling, I am Foreign Service officer. I have 
little or nothing to do with the administration of the Department of 
State. There are many, many people in the Department far better 
able to answer than I. I would rather not 

The Chairman. Just a minute. That question Avas asked of you. 
You know Mr. Alexander well. 

Mr. HuTTON. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. You have known Mr. Alexander over a period of 
years? 

Mr. HuiTON. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. I must insist that you answer that question. 

Mr. HuTTON. I have the highest regard for Mr. Alexander, both 
personally and otherwise. 

The Chairman. Do you believe that he has been competent in his 
position ? 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 155 

Mr. HuTTON. I have no particular reason to believe otherwise, sir. 
There are obviously instances in Avhich any responsible officers have 
an honest ditFerence of opinion. I"^ii(loubtedly there was a difference 
of opinion in this particular case between Mr. Messersmtith and 
Mr. Alexander. 

The Chairman. You must have thouiiht he was competent or you 
wouldn't have nskod him to aive you this information and contacted 
him the way you did. 

Mv. Hu'iTOx. That is correct, sir. 

The Chairman. You do think he is competent? 

Mr. HuTTON. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. That is right. We want you to be very frank here 
today. You have nothing to worry about. 

jNIr. JNIcDowEix. I think Mr. Hutton made a very fine answer. 

The Chairman. So do I. 

Go ahead, Mr. Stripling. 

Mr. Stripling. Next, Mr. Chairman, I would like to introduce a 
letter dated August 9, 1989, from Robert C. Alexander "- 

Mr. Rankin. Mr. Chairman, I call attention to the fact that the 
difference of opinion betw^een Mr. Messersmith and Mr. Alexander 
never did arise until Mrs. Roosevelt's letter was written in the Eislers' 
behalf. 

:\Ir. Stripling. This letter is dated August 9, 1939, to "Dear Paul," 
written by Robert C. Alexander. A portion of this letter, Mr. Chair- 
man, was placed in this record yesterday, but I should like to read 
it in its entirety today. This is in reply to the letter I have just read : 

I have your letter of August 1, 1939, concerning the case of Hanns Eisler. 

You are correct in your view that an alien may have periods of teaching as 
a professor of a college in the United States counted in determining whether 
he has been following the vocation of a professor for the necessary 2-year period 
preceding his application for admission. In other words, the law does not 
require an alien to have been following such vocation abroad for the statutory 
2-year period. He may have been following such vocation in the United States 
for part of the period and abroad for the other part. 

With reference to your second question, there is some doubt in my mind as 
to whether Hanns Eisler has actually been following the vocation of a professor 
in the United States for any appreciable length of time. You will note from 
the sunnnary of the file of the Department of Labor, a copy of which we sent 
to H:ibana and which may be contained in Habana's file, which you probably 
have in Mexico City, that Dr. .Johnson of the New School for Social Rtsearcii 
made an offer of a professorship to Hanns Eisler early in 1938 and that on July 
2. 1938, Liibor authorized the extension of stay to permit Eisler to remain here 
temporarily to accept the pi'ofesscjrship in question. If, as it appears, therefore, 
Eisler did not b\gin his work as a professor in the United States until .luly 1938 
he could not qualify as a professor within the meaning of section 4 (d) until 
some time in 1940, even if lie has been continuing to follow his vocation after 
he departed from the United States. In this cf»nnection you will also note from 
Ihe Habana file that the Department has advised the interested i)ersons that 
Eisler's activities befoie lie entered the United States the last time cannot be 
consi(lere<i as bringin.LT hini within the nonquota classific-it'on nrovi<U'fl in s'^ct'on 
4 (d) of the Immigration Act of 1924. The 2-year period of professorship will 
therefore not begin to run in Eislor's case until aiier iiis last entry into the 
United States, if at all. 

There is some doubt in my mind also regarding the question whether Eisler's 
teaching activities with the New School for Social Research would enable him 
to claim successfully that he has been following the vocation of a professor 
within the meaning of section 4 (d). If he did not accept the professorship 
offered by Dr. .Johnson, but instead engaged in other teaching activities which 

><« See appeudix, p. 193, for exhibit 117. 



156 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

would preclude his classification as a professor with that institution, such as 
teaching a private class and giving the institution half of the tuition of his 
students for the use of the institution's classrooms and otlier facilities, he 
would not seem to have been a professor "of a college, academy, seminary, or 
university"' within the meaning of section 4 (d). His precise connection with 
the New School for Social Research is, however, a question of fact and he will 
have to prove such fact to your satisfaction. 

I think you are wise in leaving the political phase of the case for future con- 
sideration. However, when the time comes, I hoi^e you will go into this matter 
with youi; usual care and skill. If this alien obtains an immigration visa and 
enters the United States we are likely to hear from the anti-Communist organi- 
zations in this country. Of course, if he is refused an immigration visa there 
will also be some repercussion among the so-called liberal elements in this coun- 
try. We have a congressional investigation hanging over our heads, however, 
and I am sure that we will be called upon to render an explanation concerning 
the issuance of visas to so many of the Reds and "pinks" who have been filter- 
ing into the country in recent years. If I were handling the case I would reach 
a conclusion I could defend before all the world and let the future take care of 
itself. 

I hope you like your new post, and if I can be of any assistance to you I hope 
you will not hesitate to beckon me. 

Witli kindest regards always, I am 
Sincerely yours, 

Robert C. Alexander. 

Do yoii recall receiving that letter? 
Mr. HuTiON. I do. 

Mr. Stripling. Now, Mr. Hiitton, going back to your letter to Mr. 
Alexander, you state : 

Our friend, Hanns Eisler, has finally put in his appearance and the whole case 
has been dropped in my lap as my particular "baby." 

That sentence, Mr. Hutton, indicates that you were well aware of 
the Eisler case prior to the time that Mr. Eisler appeared. 

Would you tell the committee what you knew of the case — ^back- 
ground, and so forth — prior to the time Mr. Eisler appeared at the 
consulate? 

Mr. Hutton. My knowledge of the case of Mr. Eisler before it 
came to Mexico was very limited. As I stated, previously, however, 
I was in the Visa Division for approximately 2 months and I was in 
a general way familiar with the case not only of Mr. Eisler but of 
many other persons of some prominence ; that is to say, persons who 
had been the subject of letters from prominent persons. Mr. Alex- 
ander happened to work in the same office with me, or perhaps I 
worked in the same office with him, and from time to time we would 
exchange conversation about our work. I presume that the exchanges 
that I had with Mr. Alexander, in an unofficial and personal w^ay,'Were 
responsible for my referring to Eisler as ''our friend." 

I knew, of course, that Mr. Alexander had been devoting consider- 
able time to the case of Eisler, and that he had communicated with 
Mr. Messersmith, Mr. Warren, and others in the case. 

The Chairman. May I interrupt right there? 

Mr. Stripling. Yes. 

The Chairman. Mr. Hutton, you said "many other persons of some 
prominence." Who were those persons? 

Mr. Hutton. The record yesterday mentioned a number of names, 
that is to say people who had written letters about Eisler. And I am 
under the impression that Mr. Alexander had a liand in drafting 
some of the replies, perhaps the majority of the replies. I don't know 
who drafted all of the letters in the case. 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 157 

The Chairman. Well, from your own knowledge, you ntune them, 
these persons of some prominence that you referred to. 

Mr. HuTTON. We know, of course, that Mi-s. Roosevelt wrote Mr. 
Welles about the case; Mr. Raymond Graham Swing; Miss Dorothy 
Thompson; Mr. Stephens; Mr. Oscar Levant, I believe — I am speak- 
i]ig noAv from memory, Mr. Chairman; Garrison Films, of Holly- 
wood, I believe. 

The Chairmax. Garrison who? 

Mr. HuTTON. The Garrison Films of Hollywood, I believe. I would 
like to refresh my memory, sir. 

But there were many, many 

The Chairman. You go ahead and refresh it. 

Mr. HuTTON. I don't know" that I am able to do so here. Of course, 
there was Mr. Alvin Johnson. I haven't the file in front of me that 

fives that information, Mr. Chairman. The file, I believe, is with 
Ir. Stripling. 

jSIr. Stripling. Mr. Chairman, yesterday you gave permission that 
they be inserted in the record. I did not react all of the papers. 

The Chairman. All right. I thought maybe he might mention 
some that were not included yesterday. 

Mr. HuTTON. I had no one particularly in mind, in saying that, sir. 

Mr. Stripling. What you mean, Mr. Hutton, is that this was a 
very prominent case? 

Mr. HuTTON. It was a very prominent case, and that was respon- 
sible 

Mr. Stripling. You were well aware of it ? 

Mr. Hutton. I was well aware of the bold outlines of the case. I 
had not read the file over myself, but I had heard ]Mr. Alexander 
discuss it personally indirectly with other people of the Visa Divi- 
sion. He mentioned from time to time, I suppose, some new develop- 
ment in the case, which he would call to my attention. 

Mr. Stripling. Xow. the case of Hanns Eisler, the application of 
Hanns Eisler, was transferred from Habana, Cuba, to the consulate 
at Mexico City ; is that right ? 

Mr. HuTTON. That is correct. 

Mr. Stripling. Do you have the date that it was transferred? 

Mr. HuTTON. I believe it was transferred in the early part of April 
1939. 

Mr. Stripling. April 1939. 

Mr. Rankin. Who transferred it ? 

Mr. Stripling. It was transferred, Mr. Rankin, at the request of 
Carol King, who had been designated as the counsel for Mr. Eisler — 
Carol AVeiss King. 

Mr. Raxkix. Who designated him as counsel for Eisler ? 

Mr. Stripling. Hanns Eisler. 

The CiiAiRMAx. It is a she. 

Mr. IMcDowell. Well, to whom would she make a request? 

Mr. Striplixg. Carol Weiss King was designated as counsel for 
Mr. Eisler, That letter was introduced yesterday.^"^ 

Mr. Raxkix, She was designated by Eisler, himself? 

Mr. Striplixg. That is right. 



>™ See appendix, p. 193, for exhibit 114. 
66957 — 47 11 



158 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

Mr. Rankin. And not by the Government ? 

Mr. Stripling. That is right. 

Mr. Rankin. In other words, she was Eisler's lawyer? 

Mr. Stripling. That is right. 

Mr. Rankin. Who got this case transferred in order to find a soft 
place through which to get over the border? 

Mr. Stripling. When he did not receive a visa at Habana, the case 
was transferred to Mexico, at the request of Carol King, who was 
acting as Mr. Eisler's lawyer. 

The Chairman. Was Carol King Gerhart Eisler's attorney? 

Mr. Stripling. She was his attorney in the recent trial in Wash- 
ington, both in the contempt case and I believe in the passport fraud 
case. 

The CiiAiR]\rAN. And was she Harry Bridges' attorney? 

Mr. Stripling. She was. 

The Chairman. Go ahead. 

Mr. HuTTON. Mr. Chairman, may I make an interjection? Mr, 
Stripling said that when the visa was not given at Habana the case 
was transferred. I am afraid that may lead to a misinterpretation, 
and I would like to straighten that out for the record. 

The case was never acted on by Habana. 

Mr. Stripling. Well, the fact still remains, Mr. Hutton, that a 
visa was never issued at Habana, although a visa was applied for at 
Habana. 

Mr. Hutton. No ; I would like to correct you, Mr. Stripling. 

No application for a visa was made at Habana. A preliminary 
examination of the documents was made, which is quite different from 
an application. An api^lication presupposes that the applicant ap- 
peared in pei'son and goes through the usual rigamarole. 

Mr. Stripling. Yes ; but he didn't appear in person in Habana. 

Mr. Hutton. He did not. 

]Mr. Stripling. I think that is the whole essence of the case. Mr, 
Eisler was attempting to insure that he would be granted a visa, 
before he proceeded to leave the United States to go to Habana. 

Mr. Hutton. I may say this, that no responsible consular officer 
ever gives any assurance of the issuance of a visa before the applicant 
appears personally. There are too many facts that can throw out the 
case. 

Mr. Stripling. I am not referring, Mr. Hutton, to a consular officer. 

Mr. Chairman, at this point I would like to insert Mr. Hutton's 
reply to Mr. Alexander's letter thanking him, dated August 21, 19H9.^°-* 

Dear Alex : Many thanks for your very helpful reply to my letter regarding 
Hanns Eisler. I am in entire agreement with all of your ideas on the case. Now 
that Mr. Sliaw has returned we are to have a council of war on the subject in a 
few days and I think that Dr. Eisler and his wife are due for a protracted wait 
in Mexico before their case will finally be acted upon. 
With kindest regards, I am 
Sincerely yours, 

P. C. Hutton. 

Now, Mr. Hutton, in reading the correspondence, it is quite evident, 
that there was no desire on your part to expedite the visa for Mr. Eis-- 
ler. Is that the case? 

i« See appendix, p. 193, for exhibit 120. 



HEAKINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 159 

Mr. HuTTON. That is substantially correct. 

Mr. Stripling. What prompted such an attitude on your part? 

Mr. HurroN. JNIy correspondence with Mr. Alexander presupposed 
tliat Eisler was noing to apply for an immigration visa. I think the 
letter speaks pretty well for itself. My first question was to determine 
whether or not Mr. Eisler was in fact entitled to nonquota status under 
section 4 (d). 

Mr. Stripling. If I may interrupt you. Would you explain to the 
committee the difference, if there is any difference, between an immi- 
gration visa and a nonquota visa. 

Mr. HuTTON. A nonquota visa is an immigration visa. There are 
in general terms two types of immigration visas : Quota visas and 
nonquota visas. Those are both immigration visas. 

There are in addition, of course, nonimmigration visas. 

Mr. ISIcDowELL. Does that letter refer to Eisler as a "Dr. Eisler"? 

Mr. Stripling. Yes; it does. 

Mr. McDowell. We have him a doctor now, do we? 

Mr. HuTTON. Apparently I considered him a doctor, on the basis of 
the evidence in front of me. JNIaybe he considered himself one. I 
don't know. I cannot answer that question now. 

Mr. Stripling. Now, to get back to your letter of August 1, 1939, to 
Mr. Eisler, you state: 

I spent most of yesterday putting him through the jumps and it so happens 
that I had already decided for the time being to disregard the Communist aspect 
of his case. 

Would you explain to the committee, Mr. Hiitton, why you decided 
to disregard the Communist aspect of the case? 

Mr. HuTTON. Because that was a bridge that I reasoned I would not 
cross for probably 2 years. 

Mr. Stripling. Why? 

Mr. Hutton. There was no use going into that aspect of the case 
at that time. 

Mr. Stripling. Now, why? 

Mr. Hutton. because if he was not entitled to an immigration visa 
for 2 years 

Mr. Stripling. As a professor? 

Mr. Hutton. As a professor or a quota visa as a nonpreference im- 
migrant, either one, there would be no occasion to cross that bridge 
until I came to it. 

]\lr. Stripling. Therefore, you saw no point in going into the con- 
troversial aspect of it, which was the political aspect? 

Mr. Hutton. That was the principal controversial aspect, undoubt- 
edly. 

Mr. Stripling. Now, did you interview Mr. Eisler and his wife at 
the consulate when they appeared ? 

Mr. Hutton. I did, very thoroughly. 

]\lr. Stripling. Would you tell the committee of your interview with 
Mr. Eisler and his wife? 

Mr. Hutton. Fortunately, we have received from Mexico City, from 
the consulate general down there — it is now the American Embassy — 
certain notes that I took at the time. Some of the information, ap- 
parently was filed with Mr. Eisler's subsequent application for a non- 
immigrant visa. Under authority vested in consular officers, certain 



160 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

of the material in connection with applications for nonimmigrant 
visas may be destroyed after 3 years. Accordingly, the file is incom- 
plete. 

However, insofar as concerned the application for an immigi^ation 
visa, we have everything that is now available in Mexico and I am 
satisfied that that is all that was in the file at the time. 

Mr. Stripling. Do you have the transcript of your question and 
answer forms, in your interview with Mr. Eisler and his wife? 

Mr. HuTTON. I have not the transcript of the interrogatory to which 
I subjected him at the time that he applied for a nonimmigrant visa, 
after I had determined that he was not eligible for classification as a 
nonquota immigrant. 

JSlr. Stripling. Were those statements made under oath ? 

Mr. HuTTON. Those statements were made under oath. 

Mr. Stripling. Where is that record ? 

Mr. Hutton. That record was probably filed with the application 
for a nonimmigrant visa. Under a departmental instruction dated 
March 4, 1944, consular officers may destroy certain nonimmigrant 
records that are 3 years old or over. 

Mr. Stripling. In other words, you assume that it has been 
destroyed ? 

Mr. HuTioN. I have no knowledge what happened to it. That is 
the only assumption I can make. 

Mr. Stripling. Did you examine the file of the State Department 
here in Washington in this case, prior to coming here to testify ? 

Mr. HuiTON. I certainly did. 

Mr. Stripling. Did you find a transcript of the interview between 
you and Mr. Eisler? 

Mr. Hutton. No ; no transcript of the interviews. I found in the 
file from Mexico City certain notes that I had made on the basis of 
my interviews with Mr. Eisler. 

Mr. Stripling. I know ; but I am speaking of the sworn statements 
that Mr. Eisler gave in reply to your questions. 

Mr. Hutton. You are referring now to the application for a non- 
immigrant visa. Yes ; I have seen those. 

Mr. Stripling. I am referring to any sworn statements that Mr. 
Eisler made to you in connection with any visa which he applied for 
in Mexico City. 

Mr. Hutton. Yes. 

Mr. Stripling. Do you have those transcripts ? 

Mr. Hutton. I may have them here— yes ; I have them in front of 
me. 

Mr. Stripling. All of them ? 

Mr. Hutton. I have not the testimony that I took from him under 
oath before I issued him a nonimmigrant visa, if that is what you 
are referring to. But I have the two forms that he signed — we call 
them form 257 — in connection with his application for a nonimmi- 
grant visa. 

Mr. Stripling. What I am trying to find out, Mr. Hutton, is what 
happened to the testimony. 

Mr. Hutton. My only answer to that, as I indicated a moment 
ago, was that it was probably destroyed after this instruction was 
received authorizing the destruction of certain records. 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 161 

Mr. Stripling. Well, then, to the best of your recollection, will you 
tell the committee the type of questions you asked Mr. Eisler regard- 
ing his political affiliations and your best recollection as to his answers? 

jMr. HuTTON. I think I should premise my reply to that with a 
statement that these questions that I asked, the record on which can- 
not now be found, were asked in connection with his application for 
a visitor's A^isa. All of the preliminary examinations that I had had 
with Mr. Eisler were in connection with his applicaton for an un- 
migration visa. 

If you would like me to jump ahead, I will undertake to do so. 

Mr. Stripling. Yes ; I would like for you to do so. 

Mr. HuTTON. I can only surmise the nature of the questions that 
I. would now ask him if he were applying before me. 

Mr. Stripling. Let us make this distinction. 

As I understand from your letter, you decided that you wouldn't 
ask him any questions about his communistic activities in connection 
with his immigration visa because you were going to deny that on 
the ground that he wasn't a professor under section 4(d). 

Mr. Hutton. That is not precisely correct, Mr. Stripling. I did 
not go into that aspect at the time I examined him for an immigration 
visa so thoroughly as I did later. 

Mr. Stripling. But you did go into it? 

Mr. HuTTON. I did. 

Mr. Stripling. But when he applied for a visitor's visa to the 
United States — which you wanted ; that is correct, is it not ? 

]\Ir. Hutton. That is correct. 

^Ir. Stripling. You did question him? 

Mr. Hutton. I did 

Mr. Stripling. About his political affiliations? 

Mr. Hutton. I did. 

]Mr. Stripling. And that is the testimony which cannot be found ; 
is that correct ? 

Mr. Hutton. That is correct. 

Mr. Stripling. Now, that is what we would like to know. Did you 
ask him if he was a Communist, for example? 

Mr. Hutton. I did. 

Mr. Stripling. Now, relate to the committee the type of questions 
you asked and his answers, as you remember them. 

Mr. Hutton. Obviously, I cannot recall, after 8 years, the ques- 
tions that I asked him. 

The Chairman. I know ; but do the best you can. 

To start off, did you ask him if he was a Communist? 

Mr. Hutton. My practice in all such cases as this, Mr. Chairman, 
is to ask the many every conceivable question that would throw any 
light on his past affiliations. I think that I probably asked him to 
outline his career for me, the nature of the work that he had done, 
the type of songs that he had wi'itten. why he had written these songs 
entitled "Comintern," "Solidarity," "United Front," and so forth. 

I am sure that I asked him whether or not he was a member of any 
of the various organizations which are listed in the latter part of 
Foreign Service regulations. These organizati(ms are stated by the 
Department to be those which may be regarded as either communistic 
or Communist-front organizations, or other organizations, connec- 



162 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

tions, or affiliations with which on the part of any visa applicant 
would be sufficient to disqualify that applicant from receiving a visa. 

The Chairman. Did you ask him if he was a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

JNIr. HuTTON. I must have asked him that. 

The Chairman. And what was his answer ? 

Mr. HuTTON. His answer would have been, "No." I have never 
yet received an affirmative answer to that question, as naive as it may 
be — that a person is a member of the Communist Party. 

The Chairman. Did you ask him if he had ever been a member of 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. HuTTON. I certainly must have. 

The Chairman. And what was his answer to that? 

Mr. HuTTON. His answer was, "No." 

Mr. Stripling. Now, Mr. Hutton, you granted this visa ? 

Mr. HuTTON. I did. 

Mr. Stripling. For him to come to the United States, for a period 
of how long ? 

Mr. HuTTON. Ostensibly for a period of 2 months. 

Mr. Stripling. If you knew the man was a Communist, or if you 
suspected that he was a Communist, would you issue a visa ? 

Mr. Hutton. No. 

Mr. Stripling. Did you have before you the resume of the Labor 
Department file which Mr. Alexander had prepared, and which has 
been brought into this hearing time and time again, and which closes 
with the statement, "The evidence establishes preponderantly that 
Eisler is a Communist"? Did you have that before you? 

Mr. Hutton. I had before me a resume of the Department of Labor 
file. I do not think that I had before me the analysis and conclusion 
of Mr. Alexander. I have spoken about this to Mr. Alexander him- 
self. Mr. Alexander wrote the instruction — again I refer to the word 
"instruction" as any dispatch going out to the field — to Habana, en- 
closing a synopsis of the Labor Department file. There is nothing 
in the records to indicate that the gratuitous comments of Mr. Alex- 
ander at the end of that memorandum were sent to Habana. How- 
ever, I could not say definitely one way or another whether those were 
included in the file sent to Habana or not. I do not think so. 

The Chairman. May interrupt just a minute? 

Mr. Stripling. Yes. 

The Chairman. You mentioned that it was the custom of the De- 
partment to destroy the files in connection with such an application 
after 3 years. 

Mr. Hutton. It is not the custom, sir. There is granted consular 
officers discretionary authority. A person who is not familiar with 
the papers that are accumulated in an active office has no concep- 
tion of the difficulty in filing those papers and of the space they take 
up over the course of years. 

The Chairman. Now, you mentioned before that this was a very 
prominent case. Would it have been the custom to destroy the tiles 
in connection with the application in a very prominent case? 

Mr. Hutton. I certainly do not think it would have been. But 
obviously the person who did destroy these, if they were destroyed, 
would have no knowledge of the case. We handle thousands of visas 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 163 

in Mexico, and it wiis just unotlun- name, as far as he was concerned. 
Had 1 been there, and had I had anything to do with it, obviously 
I should never have destroyed any such paper as that- 

Mr. Stripling. Now. Mr. Hutton. you have already referred to the 
fact that you were aware of the Communist aspect of this case, but, 
as a result of your examination of Mr. Eisler and his wife — and, by 
the Avay, how long did you examine them? 

Mr. HuTTON. I subjected Mr. Eisler and his wife to a number of 
very searching, careful inquiries. Before the case came to me I 
knew what I was to be faced with. I had prepared in my own mind 
an outline of the questions that I would ask him. As I stated pre- 
viously, I supposed I would have to determine his admissibility as an 
immigrant. 

Now, fortunately, I took certain notes, and the notes have been 
sent up from Mexico City. I believe I could probably answer your 
question on the basis of these notes. 

I have lost the question, Mr. Stripling, and I wish you would ask 
it again. 

Mr. Striplixg. I wish you would look through your notes and give 
the committee any information you have there regarding the question 
of political affiliation. 

]Mr. HuTTOx. I have here two papers, the first of which was pre- 
pared before Mr. Eisler had appeared at the consulate general. Hay- 
ing looked over this paper, I now conclude that I had prepared this 
for the knowledge of Ambassador Daniels, of the case. And Am- 
bassador Daniels had apparently received the letter from Mr. Donald 
Stephens. 

As is the case in many offices, the Ambassador frequently asks the 
officer handling visa work to discuss a case with him and to tell him 
the salient points involved. 

Mr, Striplixg. Did Mr. Ambassador Daniels call you in about this 
case? 

]\Ir. HuTTOx. I could not say that he did ; but since I have prepared 
a memorandum for his information, he unquestionably spoke to either 
me or someone else in the consulate general about the case. Other- 
wise, I would not have prepared this memorandum. 

Mr. Striplix^g. Do you remember whether he indicated the visa 
should be issued ? 

Mr. HuTTOx. No; he did not, I can say almost definitely in this 
case, because the man had not applied. 

Mr. Striplix^g. Had not applied ? 

Mr, HuTTOx^. Had not applied at the time this was prepared. 

^Ir. Striplixg. Well, did Ambassador Daniels communicate with 
you at any other time about this case? 

'Slv. Huttox". Not to my knowledge, about this case. 

Mr. Striplix'g. You go ahead, then, and recite from your notes the 
questions of a political nature that you asked ]\Ir. Eisler. 

Mr. HuTTOx-. There are a few indications here of his answers to 
specific questions. I think perhaps I may find one or two, however. 
Most of the notes Avere prepared for otlier purposes. 

Here is one place, however, that Mr. Eisler states something of 
interest. 

This is not, incidentally, in the memorandum that I prepared for 
the Ambassador. This statement is made in notes that I prepared 



164 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

for my own use. And, incidentally, I may say that I have the sen- 
tence here, "The following facts were obtained from Mr. Eisler under 
oath." He states that he was not directly or indirectl}^ connected 
with political or other activities beyond his musical work during 
the entire time that he was in Europe, and he adds parenthetically 
that he has never been connected with the various political causes, 
other than anti-Nazi, with which his name is associated in the United 
States, or elsewhere. That is one of the answers that might answer 
your question. 

I don't know that I can find anything else, without going over this 
for some time. 

Mr. Stripling. You will state, however, that to the best of your 
recollection you questioned him thoroughly on the point of his politi- 
cal affiliations ? 

Mr. HxjTTON. I certainly did, and I would go beyond that and 1 
can state with every assurance in the world — reasonable assurance in 
the world — that I asked him specifically if he was a member of, was 
directly or indirectly affiliated with, or otherwise connected with, 
any of the organizations as listed in the latter part of the Manual 
of Visa Regulations in the Department of State files. 

Mr. Stripling. Now, Mr. Hutton, as I understand it, the issuance 
of a visa is entirely within the province of the consul officer; is that 
right? 

Mr. HuTTON. That is right. 

Mr. Stripling. The Ambassador is not in charge of that, is he? 

Mr. HuTTON. No. 

Mr. HcTTON. It is entirely within the province of the officer who 
are the consul officer ? 

Mr. HuTTON. It is entirely within the proviince of the officer who 
is in charge of the office. 

Mr. Stripling. You were that person, or Stewart was that person? 

Mr. HuTTON. Mr. Stewart obviously could override any action that 
I took. 

Mr. Stripling. The point I am making is this: Does the Ambas- 
sador to a foreign country have the authority to rescind or cancel the 
action of a consul officer? 

Mr. HuTTON. He certainly does not. 

]\Ir. Stripling. On a visa? 

Mr. HuTTON. He does not. 

Mr. Stripling. He does not ? 

Mr. HuTTON. No. 

Mr. Stripling. Then, why did you prepare a memorandum for the 
Ambassador in this case. Ambassador Daniels ? 

Mr. Hutton. Apparently for his edification, to permit him to know 
what the case was all about so he could answer intelligently the letters 
that had obviously been written to him. 

I know of two instances in which letters were written to him, as 
borne out by the file in the case. There may have been others. 

Mr. Stripling. You recall two instances? 

Mr. HuTTON. I don't recall them. I saw them in the file. 

Mr. Stripling. Did those cases have anything to do with people 
whose political activity was under suspicion — that is, their Communist 
activity ? 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 165 

Mr. HuTTON. These were two letters to the ambassador 

Mr. Stripuxg. Let's 

Mr. HunoN. From people interested in Eisler. 

^fr. Stkii'Ling. Let me ask you this: Did Ambassador Daniels ever 
call you in regarding the issuance or your refusal to issue a visa to a 
person who was suspected of Communist activity and who applied for a 
visa ? 

]Mr. HuTTON. Yes. 

]Mr. Stripling. He did? 

Mr. HuTTON. Yes. 

Mr. Striplixg. And what was the nature of this conversation with 
you when he called you in? Did he object to your issuing visas? 

Mr. HuTTOx. I have never been held to account, so to speak, for 
having issued a visa, until my present appearance at this committee. 

Mr. Stripling. You have never been held to account? 

Mr. HuTTON. For having issued a visa. It has always been because 
of having refused to issue a visa. 

Mr. Stripling. Because of having refused one? 

Mr. HuTTON. Correct. 

Mr. Stripling. Did Ambassador Daniels call you in because you 
had refused to issue certain visas? 

Mr. Huttox. He called me in on a number of occasions 

The Chairman. Let us get down to this case now. 

^Ir. HuTTOX'. Yes, sir ; he did — he has 

The Chairman. He did? 

Mr. HuTTON. He has called me in because I objected to the issuance 
of visas. 

Mr. Stripling. In the case of people who were suspected of Com- 
munist activities ? 

Mr. HuTTON. That is correct. 

Mr. Stripling. Now, Mr. Chairman, the reason I have questioned 
the witness along those lines is because in the memorandum which 
Mr. Messersmith asked for, on April 22, 1939, signed by Mr. Warren, 
as to why the case was transferred from Habana, Cuba, to Mexico 
City, point No. 4 was : 

The interested i)ersons may believe that they can bring greater pressure to 
bear on the consuhite general at Mexico City, possibly through Ambassador Dan- 
iels, than they have been able to bring to the consulate general at Habana 
through the Department. 

INIr. HuTTON. I think — if I may interject something, Mr. Chairman — 
the conclusion of Mr. Stripling is not correct. The record will 
show 

The Chairman. He isn't making any conclusion. 

Mr. Stripling. I am not making any conclusion. I am making an 
observation. 

The Chairman. He is just reading from the letter. 

Mr. Huttox'. The record will show, Mr. Chairman, that Eisler after 
having come to Mexico and after having run into several stumbling 
blocks in connection with his application for an immigration visa, 
decided to go liack — I won't say to go back, but to proceed to Habana, 
as had been his original intention. Presumably, it was on the theory 
that he could get a visa more easily there, the kind of visa he wanted 
more easilv in Ilabana than he could in Mexico. It is another instance, 



166 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

apparently — you see — all this kind of people shopping around to try 
to find a consul who is weak or who will give visas without thorough 
examinations. 

The Chairman. All right. 

What was Ambassador Daniels' interest in this case ? First of all, 
you said he received two communications. Who were those communi- 
cations from? 

Mr. HuTTON. One of those communications was from a man named 
Julien Bryan. 

The Chairman. What was his name ? 

Mr. HuTTON. Julien Bryan. 

Tlie Chairman. Julien Bryan. 

!Mr. HuTTON. The other one was from Mr. Donald Stephens. 

That is shown in the record. There may have been other communi- 
cations, I don't know. 

The Chairman. And then, when Mr. Ambassador Daniels got those 
two communications, he called you in. What was the nature of the 
conversation you and Ambassador Daniels had? 

Mr. HuTTON. I cannot recall it, Mr. Chairman. I don't even know 
that he called me in. He certainly evinced an interest in the case or 
referred the letter to me or spoke to someone, either me or someone 
else in the office over the telephone — in other words, there was some 
communication between us or I should not have prepared a memo- 
randum for his use, that I never sent him. It so happens that for some 
reason that is not clear to me now I never sent him the memorandum, 
indicating that he apparently lost interest. 

The Chairman. You might identify Julien Bryan for the record 
at this point. 

Mr. Stripling. Beg pardon? 

The Chairman. You might identify Julien Bryan for the record, 
because I think this is the first time that that name has appeared in 
this case. 

Mr. Stripling. Yes. I have the record of Mr. Julien Bryan, Mr. 
Chairman, as reflected by our file. I prefer to put the record in. 

The Chairman. All right. Would you see that it is placed in the 
record nt this point. 

Mr. Stripling. Yes. 

On July 5, 1939, Ambassador Daniels wrote Mr. Julien Bryan as 
follows : ^°5 

My Dear 1\Ir. Bryan : I have received your letter of June 23, 1939, and have 
noted your interest in the case of Mr. Hanns Eisler wlio, you state, is now in 
Mexico City and proposes to apply for an immigration visa. 

I am informed by the American consul general who, under the law is charged 
with the responsibility for determining- Mr. Eisler's eligibility to receive a visa 
for the United States, that he has not as yet made application for such a document. 
In the circumstances and until tliere shall have been an opportunity for his case 
to be thoroughly examined in the light of pertinent provisions of the immigration 
laws upon his personal application, it would seem premature to make any com- 
ments on it. I shall, nevertheless, be glad to see Mr. Eisler if he feels that any 
purpose woiild be served by calling on me, and I can assure you that should he 
apply for a visa, his case will receive every proper consideration by the American 
consul general. 

With kindest regards, I am. 
Sincerely yours, 

JoSEPHus Danieils, American Ambassador. 

^<» See appendix, p. 193, for exhibit 121. 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 167 

Now, Mr. Hiitton, I have here a letter dated July 24, 1939, from the 
files of the Department of State, signed by E. Walton JNloore, to James 
B. Stewart, Esq., American consul general, Mexico, D. F., Mexico."® 

Sir:. Reference is made to the imniim'atidn cases of Mr. Hanns Eisler and his 
wile, who were at one time in communication witli tlie consulate general at 
Habana 

Do you have a copy of that strictly confidential instruction of De- 
cember 23, 1938, to the consulate general at Havana ? 

Mr. HuTTON. I have no copy of it. But you have, yourself, I think. 

Mr. Stkipling. You think we have it? 

Mr. HuTTON. I am sure that I heard that 57esterday ; yes. 

Mr. Striplixg. You don't consider that to be an instruction, 
however I 

Mr. HuTTON. As I said before, all communications going to the field, 
other than certain telegrams and so forth, are referred to as instruc- 
tions. That word is a misnomer. 

Mr. Striplixg. You don't have a copy of that ? 

Mr. HuTTOX. I haven't a copy. I think you have. 

Mr. Raxktx. Mr. Stripling, I would like for you to further identify 
this fellow Julien Bryan. 

Mr. Striplixg. Yes, sir. 

Mr. E-AXKix. I would like to know who he is. 

JNIr. Striplixg. I would be glad to put it in the record in a few 
moments. 

]Mr. Raxkix. All right. Thank you. 

Mr. Striplixg. Now, on September 11, 1939, Mr. James B. Stewart, 
American consul general — and I assume he was your superior, was he 
not? 

Mr. Huttox. That is correct. 

Mr. Striplixg. Addressed a letter to the Secretary of State. It 
says : "" 

Sir. : I have the honor to refer to the Department's instruction of July 24, 
19.39 (file No. 811,111, Eislex", Hanns), and to previous correspondence concerning 
the immigration visa cases Hanns (Johannes) and Luise Eisler and to advise 
that following the failure of the aliens to establish their eligij)ility for immigra- 
tion visas under section 4 (d) of the act of 1924, they requested passport visas 
to enable them to visit the United States for about 2 months in connection with 
certain matters of a business nature, and that having satisfactorily established 
their admissibility as visitors they were issued nonimmigrant visas on September 
7, 1939, under section 3 (2) of the act of 1924. 

Are you the officer who issued the visitor's Adsa on September 7, 
1939 ? 

Mr. Huttox. I am. 

Mr. Striplixg. For a period of 2 months ? 

Mr. Huttox. The visa that I issued was issued on the basis of his 
statement that he proposed to remain in the United States for 2 
months. 

Mr. Striplixg. How long did he remain? 

]\Ir. Huttox. I beg your pardon ? 

Mr. Striplixg. How long did he actually remain in the United 
States? 

Mr. Huttox. It now appears from the record that he remained in 
the United States for over 1 year. 

^•^ See appendix, p. 19.3. for exhibit 119. 
^'" See appendix, p. 193, for exhibit 122. 



168 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

Mr. Stkipling. Although you issued him a visa to visit here on 
business for two months? 

Mr. HuTTON. According to his statement under oatli he intended to 
stay for 2 months at the time he made application. 

Mr, Stripling. Did he ever make application for an extension of the 
visa which you issued ? 

Mr. HuTTON. He would not make such application for extension to 
me. 

Mr. Stripling. Do you know whether such an application was 
made ? 

Mr. HuTTON. It obviously was because he remained far beyond the 
2-month period. 

Mr. Stripling. Did he receive an extension ? 

Mr. HuTTON.' I have no personal knowledge of that, but obviously 
he did — apparently he did. At least, I have no reason to believe that 
he remained in the United States beyond the period of his permitted 
entry. 

Mr. Stripling. Were you aware that a warrant of deportation was 
issued against him ? 

Mr. Hutton. Pardon me? 

Mr. Stripling. Were you aware that a warrant of deportation had 
been issued against Mr. Eisler ? 

Mr. Hutton. Yes. I am not sure that I was aware of it at the time 
the warrant was issued. As a matter of fact, I don't think I was aware 
of it. 

Mr. Stripling. What file would reflect whether or not the exten- 
sions were granted? 

Mr. Hutton. The file in the Department of Labor would indicate 
whether the extensions were granted. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Chairman, I ask that Mr. Savoretti be called to 
the stand with Mr. Hutton. 

The Chairman. Mr. Savoretti, will you take the stand, please ? 

STATEMENT OP JOSEPH SAVORETTI— Resumed 

Mr. Rankin. Mr. Chairman, I think the information on this Julien 
Bryan should be read into the record at this point. 

Mr. Stripling. All right, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. It is so ordered. Read it into the record. 

Mr. Rankin. I will ask Mr. Stripling to read it into the record at 
this point. 

Mr. Stripling (reading) : 

Soviet Russia Today, May 5, 1936, page 5, contains photographs by Julien 
Bryan. This publication was cited as "a mouthpiece of the Communist Party" 
in the June 25, 1942, report of the Special Committee on Un-American Activities 
(p. 21) as a Communist front in the committee's report on March 29, 1944. 

The Daily Worker of May 6. 1937, page 5, lists Julien Bryan as a lecturer for 
New Masses, which Attorney General Biddle cited as a "Communist periodical" 
and the Special Committee on Un-American Activities cited as a "Communist 
front * * *" on a number of occasions. It is one of the official organs of the 
Communist Party. 

Several sources list Julien Bryan as a guide or tour conductor to the Soviet 
Union and as having lectured on the Soviet Union. (See Dailv Worker, May 
1, 1937, p. 6, and April 5, 1937, p. 7; and New Masses, March 16, 1937, p. 29.) 

Julien Bryan's name also appears as a leader of a seminar in the Intourist 
Bulletin, March 1, 1939, page 8. Intourist Bulletin was a publication of Intourist, 
Inc., the Soviet State Tourist Co. 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 169 

There are other references here, Mr. Chairman, to various testimony 
concerning him in the hearings. If you would like it read into the 
record, I would be glad to do so. 

The Chairman. Do you want any more of it read, Mr. Eankin? 

Mr. Stripling. I think that is sufficient to identify him. 

Mr. Rankin. I think that is sufficient to establish his identity as a 
Communist from my viewpoint, but I think if any members liave any 
doubt about it, we might read the rest of it. Whether it is read or not, 
I think the rest of the material should go in the record. 

The Chairman. Mr. Stripling, put it all in the record at this point. 
Never mind reading any more. 

(The balance of the report above referred to is as follows :) 

Volume 1 of the Public Hearings of the Special Committee on Un-American 
Activities contains a reprint of a great deal of evidence submitted by Mr. Walter 
Steele in connection with his testimony before the committee on August 17, 1938. 
This material contains the following reference to a speech on Russia made by 
Julien Bryan : 

'"The United Farmers' League is a section of the International Peasant Council 
of Moscow. It was organized in the United States in 192G. It is active in farm 
strikes. Alfred Taile, secretary of the league, has an extensive jail record for 
his agitational activities and leadership of mass resistence of farmers in the 
Middle West. Its organ is the United Farmer. The league was merged with the 
Farmers' National Committee for Action at a national convention held in Chicago 
in 1933. 

■' 'A ('all to Action' was issued to farmers asking them to 'unite their fight.' 
Russian farmers were described in glittering terms by Julien Bryan in a lecture 
on Russia. Clarence Hathaway of the New York Bureau of the Communist Party 
addressed this 'united front' congress. Fifty-nine farmers' organizations were 
I'eported represented, but the Communists edged in the Communist Party, the 
(Communist) Labor Sports Union, the Young Communist League, the Young 
Pioneers, the United Farmers' League, the Communist Unemployed Councils, the 
Share-croppers Union, and scores of State committees of action, quickly organ- 
ized by them in order that they might assure the Reds control.' 

In addition to the above references to Julien Bryan, the following on Julien 
Bryan are found : 

Photographs by Julien Bryan appeared in the Daily Worker on April 14, 1936, 
page 5 and March 31, 1936, page 5. 

In volume 1 of the Public Hearings of the Special Committee on Un-American 
Activities, a reference to Julien Bryan appears in the evidence submitted by 
Mr. Steele, in connection with his testimony on August 17, 1938. The following 
paragraphs appear : 

On June 4. 1936, the Washington Times editorially criticized the production of 
"Communist approved films"' by the March of Time. The pictures were said to 
have been photographed in Russia by Julien Bryan, a professional lecturer on 
Soviet Russia, and a member of the national committee of the Communistic 
Friends of the Soviet Union in 1933. 

Bryan gave an illustrated lecture at Washington Irving High School in New 
York, May 15, 1936, under the auspices of Soviet Russia Today, the organ of the 
Friends of the Soviet Union, a communistic movement headed by Corliss Lamont, 
son of the partner of Morgan, the Wall Street banker (public hearings, p. 541). 

Mr. Rankin. Mr. Hutton, you said that Julien Bryan communi- 
cated with you in this case ? 

Mr. HuTTON. He communicated with the Ambassador. 

JNIr. Rankin. That is, Josephus Daniels, I presume ? 

Mr. HuTTON. Yes. 

Mr. Rankin. And Josephus Daniels was sympathetic toward get- 
ting Eisler into the country, was he? 

Mr. HuTTON. I could not say that. 



170 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

Mr. Rankin. But Daniels communicated that information to you? 

Mr. HuTTON. He apparently referred the case to me. As a matter 
of fact, my initials appear on that letter to Mr. Bryan. 

Mr. Rankin. That was after this man Julien Bryan had intervened 
in Eisler's behalf? 

]Mr. HuTTON. The letter to Bryan was obviously referred to me. 
My initials appear on the letter which the Ambassador signed. 

Mr, Rankin. You mean the letter from this Julien Bryan, Com- 
munist Julien Bryan, was referred to you by Ambassador Daniels ? 

Mr. HuTTON. The letter from Mr. Daniels was referred to me. 
• Mr. Rankin. Did you at the time know of his affiliation with these 
Communist front organizations and his Communist activities in this 
country ? 

Mr. HuTTON. I can say quite honestly that to the best of my knowl- 
edge the name Julien Bryan meant no more to me then than it means 
to me now. 

The Chairman. I would like to say to the gentleman from Missis- 
sippi that I doubt if we have anything in our files that proves that 
Julien Bryan is a Communist. We do have in our files the associations 
that have been referred to here today. I am not defending Julien 
Bryan. I just want to say for the record that we haven't got anything 
in our files to prove he is a Communist. 

Mr. Rankin. I will say to the gentleman from New Jersey, the 
chairman, that you don't need any more than that report just read by 
Mr. Stripling. 

The Chairman. The gentleman from Mississippi is entitled to his 
own opinion. 

Mr. Rankin. I certainly have that opinion — a man going around 
representing all of the Communist- front organizations in the country, 
and probably getting paid for it, he is either a Communist or one of 
their tools. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Chairman, in connection with the identification 
of the people who have been mentioned here, it was brought out in 
the hearing of day before yesterday that Donald Stephens was the 
individual who went to Mrs. Roosevelt, who turned the material over 
to Mrs. Roosevelt, which material she in turn turned over to Mr. 
Welles. There are several letters in the files from Mr. Stephens 
written on the letterhead of the National Arts Club. We have checked 
his name through the passport records of the State Department. He 
gives his residence as Arden, Del. ; born April 30, 1887 ; calls himself 
secretary" and "teacher" of Philadelphia, Pa. ; gave his address, as 
late as 1945, as National Arts Club; he was in Russia for undisclosed 
reason in August 1926 and August 1927. 

Now, Mr. Savoretti, will you look in the file and give the committee 
the facts on the extensions to the visitor's visa which Mr. Hutton 
granted Mr. Eisler on September 7, 1939, for a period of 2 months. 
Mr. Hutton has stated that he remained in the United States over a 
year. Does the file reflect just how long he remained here? 

Mr. Savoretti. On January 26, 1940, Eisler submitted an applica- 
tion to have his temporary stay extended. He stated in that applica- 
tion that the reason he wanted a stay, a continuance of his staj , was 
to complete immigration application to American consul to reenter 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 171 

on nonquota status as a professor. That application was submitted 
to the port of entry, as required by the rules. The district office in 
San Antonio finally submitted the application to ^Vashington stating: 

This case is submitted to .voii for decision as to the granting of extension due 
to the fact that the applications — 

including Eisler's wife — 

were received by tliis oflBce after the expiration of the period for wliich the 
aliens were admitted and for the further reason that they do not appear 
meritorious. 

It appears that these aliens entered tliis country as visitors some time prior to 
April 1!)39 and requested an extension at that time. They departed to Mexico 
via this port on April 12, 1939. The previous entry was at New York and it is 
contained in Ellis Island file no. — 

SO and so. 

The case was considered by the central office of the Immigration 
and Naturalization Service on February 21, 1940, and an order was 
signed by the Assistant to the Secretary of Labor to the effect that a 
further stay be denied, the aliens to be instructed to depart forthwith. 

If you wish I will read the record in its entirety as to the reasons 
for the denial. 

Mr. Stripling. Yes ; read them. 

Mr. Savoretti. The record relates to — 

a 42-year-old married male musician, native of Germany, and his 33-year-old 
wife, native of Austria, both residents of Mexico, German race, who were 
admitted to the United States at Laredo, Tex., on September 11, 1939, as visitors 
for a period not to exceed January 28, 1940. 

A resume of this case discloses that at time of entry tliey were in possession 
of a valid certificate issued by the Mexican Government ijermitting their reentry 
to Mexico on or before April 22 ,1940. 

Aliens are now requesting an extension of 3 months in order to complete immi- 
gration application to American consul to reenter this country as nonquota 
immigrants. 

The necessity for remaining in the United States for the reason given is not 
apparent as such applications for immigration visas must, of necessity, be tiled 
with an American consul outside of the United States. Furthermore, if these 
aliens fail to leave this country on or before the expiration date of this permit 
to return to Mexico they will be without documents to proceed to any country. 

It is ordered that the request for a further stay be denied, the aliens to be 
instructed to depart forthwith. 

Mr. Stripling. That is dated when ? 

Mr. Savoretti. That is dated February 21, 1910, and was trans- 
mitted to the field office at San Antonio on the date of February 27, 
1940. 

Mr. Stripling. Xow. did they receive the 2 months' visitor's visa 
on September 3, 1939? They were in the United States in October, 
November, December, January, and then in February they requested 
an extension, in tlie latter part of January? 

Mr. Savoretti. That is right. 

Mr. Stripling. They were ordered deported in February? 

Mr. Savoretti. Not ordered deported. 

Mr. Stripling. Ordered to leave? 

Mr. Savoretti. That is right. 

Mr. Stripling. Did they leave? 

Mr. Savoretti. Ordered to leave "forthwith." 



172 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

Mr. Stripling. Did they leave ? 

Mr, Savoretti. I would' like to read a memorandum on that that is 
dated June 8, 1940, by the man who was then handling visa exten- 
sions that was directed to our warrant division : 

A report from the San Francisco oflBce indicates that these aliens have made 
no effort to leave the country. The case is being forwarded to you for whatever 
action you may wish to take. 

And on July 17, 1940, the Chief of the Warrant Division of the 
Immigration Service issued a warrant of arrest in deportation pro- 
ceedings against Hanns or Johannes Eisler and wife, Louisa Eisler, on 
the ground that they had remained in the United States for a longer 
period of time than permitted under the terms of their admission. 

Mr. Stripling. Was that warrant ever served or enforced ? 

Mr. Savoretti. The warrant was sent to New York, where we under- 
stood the. aliens were living, for service. On October 12, 1940, one of 
our investigators reported to the district head of the New York office : 

The above-named aliens could not be found at 39 West Seventy-fourth Street, 
New York City, as they have moved. The janitor of this building stated that 
their present address is Clearview Farm, Quakertown, Pa. 

The warrants were thereupon sent to our district office in Philadel- 
phia by the New York office, under date of August 15, for service. The 
investigator of the Philadelphia office learned that the aliens had pro- 
ceeded to 2738 Outpost Drive, care of Page, Hollywood, Calif. 

The Chairman. Care of who ? 

Mr. Savoretti. Care of Page — P-a-g-e. 

Mr. Stripling. Was the warrant forwarded to California ? 

Mr. Savoretti. The warrant was forwarded to tlie district office in 
Los Angeles, Calif., under date of September 2o, 1940. Later on, the 
record shows, that the aliens did leave the United States, prior to the 
service upon them. 

Mr. Stripling. The warrant was never issued ? 

Mr. Savoretti. It was issued, but never served upon the aliens. 

Mr. Stripling. Issued but never served. In other words, Mr. Hut- 
ton, they requested of you a visitor's visa for a period of 2 months to 
attend to business. Do you recall this request — the reasons for it? 

Mr. Hlttton. I cannot recall it, but it is in the record. 

Mr. Stripling. It was convincing enougli to you that yon gave it, 
even though you had suspicions of their Communist activities ? 

Mr. HuTTON. I gave them a visitor's visa because I felt that they 
could meet the standards of admissibility for nonimmigrants on the 
basis of their sworn testimony that they intended to proceed to the 
United States for not over 2 months — speaking now from memory, 
from having refreshed my memory, rather, from the files — in order to 
proceed to the United States for not over 2 months to attend to per- 
sonal and private matters in New York. I believe that one of the 
reasons for entry had to do with Mr. Eisler's desire to discuss certain 
publications of his with the Oxford University Press. I am not sure 
of the name of that. 

The Chairman. I don't think that answers the question. 

Mr. Stripling. I am going to develop the point, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. When a question is specific, Ave want a specific 
answer. 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 173 

]Srr. Stripling. In other words, do you consider that Mr. and Mrs. 
Eisler applied in good faith if they remained in the United States over 
a year when they told you that they w^ anted to come to the United 
States for 2 months ? 

Mr. IIuTTON. I do not now consider that they applied in good faith. 

Mr. Sthiplixg. And a warrant was issued for their deportation? 

Mr, HuTTON. That is correct. 

The Chairman. Let me ask this question : You were suspicious of 
their Coinnuinist affiliations, were you not? 

Mr. HuTTOx. I suppose that is one way of putting it. 

The Chairman. In view of the fact that you were suspicious of their 
Communist affiliations why did j^ou permit them' to come into the 
United States ? 

]\Ir. HunON. That is a different aspect of the case, Mr. Chairman, 
and I am prepared to take that up, if it is so desired. 

The Chairman, Would it be customary for you to permit someone 
to enter the United States if you were suspicious of their Communist 
affiliations? 

Mr. HuTTON. Not if I thought that they were actually Communists. 
I had no choice but to consider this case on the basis of the evidence in 
front of me and all of the factors that surrounded the case and on con- 
sideration of all of these factors I reached the conclusion that they 
could meet the usual standards of admissibility insofar as concerned 
their political orientation. 

The Chairman. You were suspicious of their Communist affilia- 
tions ? 

Mr. Htjtton. Yes, sir. I was also — I don't know that "suspicious" 
is the correct word. 

The Chairman. You were certain of their Communist affiliations? 

Mr. HuTTON. No, sir ; I was not, or I should not have issued the visa. 

The Chairman. You were suspicious of their Communist affilia- 
tions ? 

Mr. HuTTON. There was a strong suspicion all through this case. 

The Chairman. And you let them come in just the same ? 

Mr. HuTTON. Yes. sir. 

Mr. McDowell. Didn't you testify that you were instructed to dis- 
regard the Communist aspect ? 

Mr. HuTTON. No, sir ; I did not. I said in my letter to Mr. Alex- 
ander that I desired for the time being to postpone consideration of 
the Communist aspect of the case since that was not a bridge that I 
thought I would have to cross for at least 2 years or thereabouts. 

Mr. McDowell. You received no instructions on the Communist 
angle at all ? 

Mr. HuTTON. We had available to us information that was received 
from Habana in the case. That is m the record. I had all of the 
information that Habana had, 

Mr, McDowell, What instructions did a^ou receive on July 24, 
1939? 

Mr, HuTTON, Mr. Stripling read the instructions from the Depart- 
ment of State. That dealt mainly with the nonquota aspect of the 
case. 



66957—47 12 



174 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

Mr. Stripijng. That is the strictly confidential instructions, Mr. 
Chairman, which Mr. Messersmith signed and sent to the American 
consul in Havana, but which was prepared by Mr. Alexander. That 
is the resume about which there has been some controversy. 

Now, Mr. Hutton, after you issued that visitor's visa, did you have 
anythino- else to do wdth this case of Hanns Eisler ? 

Mr. HuTTON. I did not. However, I was still concerned about 
Hanns Eisler. It began to look, after the lapse of some time, as though 
he had not applied to me in good faith as a visitor. As the records will 
show, I apparently undertook to communicate with the National 
Conservatory for .Music in Mexico to check up on his status with that 
organization with a view to determining whether or not he had in fact 
returned to Mexico. I had no way of knowing when he would come 
back. 

Mr. Stripling. Did they reply to your request ? 

Mr. Hutton. They must have replied to my request because I have 
a note in the files indicating that he had not turned up. I will read 
the note to you, if you desire. 

Mr. Stripling. Yes. 

Mr. Hutton. This is dated February 9, 1940? 

(1) Afcording to best information available at the Conservatory of Music, 
Hanns Eisler is now in New York City. 

(2) The date of his return uncertain. 

(3) He left the conservatory 5 months ago having iinished his courses there. 

(4) Seiior Mendoza, a director of the conservatory, declares that further 
information about Eisler may be had from Sefior Halsfter, Madero 32, apartment 
306. 

Mr. Stripling. Did you take any action after you determined that he 
had not returned to Mexico? 

Mr. Hutton. I did not. There was little action that I could take. 

Mr. Stripling. Did you notify anyone that he was in violation, so to 
speak, of the visitor's visa which you granted? 

Mr. Hutton. In the case of a person like Eisler it would not be 
necessary to. I realized that the Department of Labor was well aware 
of who he was, and all of the circumstances in his case. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Hutton, would you tell me whether or not you 
were aware, or are you now aware, that a visa was issued to Mr. Eisler 
at Mexicali, Mexico, by Mr. Meyers ? 

Mr. Hutton. That has been brought out in the record. I had no 
personal knowledge. 

Mr. Stripling. In the record? Is that in the record which j^ou 
examined ? 

Mr. Hutton. In the record of the testimony that was taken yester- 
day. 

Mr. Stripling. Yes; but did you find anything in the record of the 
State Department that Mr. Meyers had issued a visa? 

Mr. Chairman, the reason I bring this point up is that because in 
the documents which we subpenaed from the State Department — and 
we asked for the entire file, although I am fully aware that they didn't 
give us the entire file — there is nothing in the file to indicate that a 
visa of entry was issued by a State Department official, namely, Mr. 
Meyers whom Mr. Littell referred to as "a sleepy consular officer" 
yesterday. 

Mr. Hutton. INIr. Chairman 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 175 

The CiiAiRMAx. Just a minute. I would like to ask, wlien we asked 
for this file did we subpeiui it i 

Mr. JStkipling. AVe did; yes, sir. 

The Chairman. We subpeiiaed it, the subpena called for the whole 
file? 

Mr. Stripling. It did. 

The Chairman. And there was nothing in that file that mentions 
Mr. Meyers i 

Mr. Stripling. I have seen no reference to it, nor has Mr. Kussell, 
wlio also examined it. 

Mr. HuTToN. Mr. Chairman, I think I can explain that matter. You 
subpenaed the departmental file, as I understand it. You received 
every piece of information in the dei^artmental file. I have before me 
a copy of the letter that was sent to this connnitee on February 20, 
1947, the last paragraph of which reads as follows : 

If you desire to examine the files of any other consular office with respect to 
this matter, the Department will promptly request that such files be forwarded. 

You did not subpena the file from Mexico City nor in Habana, nor 
in Mexicali. 

The Chairman. Wouldn't the file in the State Department here be 
so complete that it would mention the situation as regards to Mexicali ? 

Mr. HuTTON. No, sir; not necessarily. I see no reason why that 
would appear in the departmental file. 

Mr. Stripling. Well, the file mentioned Mexico City, it has many 
papers in connection with Habana, many papers in connection with 
the case up here in the United States, and not one communication re- 
fering to Maxicali or Mr. Meyers. 

Mr. Huiton. There is in this same letter — perhaps I should read 
the whole letter to you, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Go ahead. 

Mr. Hutton (reading) : 

February 2, 1947. 

My Dear Mr. Thomas : In response to your summons to produce "all materials 
contained in the files of the Department of State pertaining to the matter of 
Hanns Eisler. including applications for passports, visas, and related matter, as 
well as any and all correspondence pertaining thereto," I have caused a diligent 
search to be made of the files of the Department. Accordingly I transmit herewith 
the following : 

(1) Photostatic copies of the files of the Department of State relating to the 
visa applications and related matters and all correspondence and memoranda 
pertaining thereto in the case of Hanns (.Johannes) Eisler. 

(2) A photostatic copy of the file in the ofiice of the consul at Maxicali, Lower 
California, relating to the immigration visa which was issued to Johannes Eisler 
on September 29, 1940. 

I think that answers your question. 

Mr. Stripling. But there is no evidence in the file concerning it — 
no documents. 

Mr. Huttox. I am not in a position to answer that question, I can 
continue with the lettei-. 

The Chairman. Then you say that we did not receive any com- 
munications in connection with Mexicali ? 

Mr. Stripling. That is right. Now, 1 think we can get the in- 
formation from Mr. Savoretti, hoAvever. 

The Chairman. All right, proceed with ]Mr. Savoretti. 

Do you have anj'thing you want to say further ? 



176 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

Mr. HuTTON. I was going to say that that letter shows you received 
a j)hotostatic copy of the file of the office of the consul in Mexicali. 

Mr. Stripling. We will be glad to make another search, but I 
haven't seen such a communication, and Mr. Russell, who examined 
the file, not once, but many times, has never seen such a communica- 
tion. I do not mean to infer that it is not definitely in there, because 
it could be. We were not aware of it. 

That is all the questions I have of Mr. Hutton. 

The Chairman. Does the committee have any questions of Mr. 
Hutton? Mr. McDowell. 

Mr. McDowell. No. 

The Chairman. Mr. Wood. 

Mr. Wood. No. 

The Chairman. Mr. Rankin? 

Mr. Kaxkin. No. 

The Chairman. Thank you very maich, Mr. Hutton. 

(The following letters were submitted for the record:) 

Washington, D. C, September 26, 1947. 
The Honorable J. Parnell Thomas, 

Chairman, Committee on Un-American Activities, 
United States House of Representatives. 

My Dear Mr. Thomas : When I provided certain testinwny today in the 
case of Hanns Eisler I sought but found no adequate oiiportunity, before being 
excused from the stand, to expand on sometliing I stated that I feel needs 
clarification. Accordingly, I am addressing this letter to you with the request 
that, if possible, you kindly arrange to have it put in the record. 

You may recall that when I was asked whether I entertained suspicions 
against Eisler I indicated at one point — and I do not now remember my pre- 
cise words — that I continued to have suspicions throughout my handling of the 
case. I was then asked whether, in spite of these suspicions, I did not grant 
Eisler and his wife visitors' visas and I naturally answered in the affirmative. 
As the testimony was immediately thereafter directed along another course 
I do not feel that these replies should be allowed to stand without fuller 
explanation. 

It is obvious that I had suspicions about Eisler regardless of his protesta- 
tions else I should never have subjected him to the series of lengthy and 
searching interrogations that I conducted, during at least two of which, I learn 
from the available files, I had put Eisler under oath. As has already been 
brought out, I eventually declined to issue him the requested immigration visa 
as a professor. In considering his subsequent application for a visitor's visa, 
despite the further thorough examination to which I subjected himi I could un- 
cover nothing of an adverse nature that had not already been the subject of 
investigations by another branch of the United States Government including, 
according to Eisler's sworn statement, a lengthy one held at Ellis Island on 
the occasion of his last entry. I was thus in effect covering ground that I 
had reason to know had already been gone over at least once before by 
authorities of our Government who had facilities for investigation, presumably 
including the opportunity of obtaining documents, calling witnesses, and look- 
ing up records, that were certainly not available to me. 

Actually the case of Eisler had altered in his favor with the elapse of time. 
The Department of State had called attention in two instructions concerning 
his case to a possible connection between it and the case of Joseph Strecker, 
on whom, as has already been brought out in testimony, the Supreme Court 
had recently rendered a favorable ruling." In addition, as has also already 
been brought out, a great many letters had recently been written in Eisler's 
behalf, including some from persons of prominence. As I then had no reason 
to believe that any of these letters emanated frorw other than responsible and 
presumably patriotic United States citizens, such letters were naturally given 
some weight as character evidence tending to vindicate the findings implicit 
in the failure of our Government on previous occasions to act on the old 
charges against Eisler. 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 177 

I believe, Mr. Chairman, tliat in view of nil of the foregoing it will be ap- 
parent why, in spite of such lingering suspicions as I may have held against 
Eisler, I nevertheless could find no solid basis for refusing a visitor's visa. 

I miaht call attention, as of incidental interest, to the fact that the records 
of neither the board of inquiry held in September 1940 at Calexico nor the 
review of the board's findings when the case was appealed to Washington 
reveals that the political aspect of Eisler's case was even mentioned in the 
judgments rendered. 

Respectfully yours, 

P. C. HUTTON. 

Subscribed and sworn to before me this 29th day of September, 1947. 
[SEAL] Harriette E. Spalding, Notary Public. 

My commission expires March 31, 1949. 



Department of State, 
WasMngton, September 30, 1947. 
Hon. J. Paenell Thomas, 

Chairma7i, TJn-American Activities Committee, House of Representatives. 

My De:ar Mr. Thomas : My attention has been called to the fact that some 
doubt was raised by members of your committee and by its counsel during 
the hearings conducted during the past few days in the matter of Hanns Eisler 
with respect to whether this Department fully complied with the terms of your 
subpena requiring the Department to prodiice certain papers in its files regard- 
ing Mr. Eisler. This doubt, it appears, relates to a departmental confidential 
instruction dated December 23, 1938, and to certain papers in the files of the 
consulate at Mexicali, Lower California. 

I believe that the doubt entertained by members of your committee in the 
first respect may arise from a misapprehension of the term "instruction" as 
used in the Department of State. For your infoiTnation, every written com- 
munication other than a telegram', airgram, or operational memorandum which 
emanates from the Department of "State and is directed to officers in the field 
is called an "instruction," while every similar communication from the field to 
the Department is called a "despatch." 

The document dated December 23, 1938, to which you refer was one of the 
photostatic documents delivered to your committee by special messenger under 
transmittal letter signed by me and dated February 20, 1947. I understand 
that in fact the document in question has been admitted in evidence in the 
open hearings in this matter. 

While your committee's subpena called only for the production of papers 
in the files of the Department of State, I undertook on Felnniary 20, 1947, to 
transmit to your committee as well as the photostatic copies of the entire file 
in this matter at Mexicali. This file was requested by the Department from the 
consulate at Mexicali for this special purpose, since it appeax'ed from the files 
of the Department that the immigration visas under which Mr. and Mrs. Eisler 
entered the United States were issued at Mexicali. 

You will note from the transmittal letter dated February 20, 1947, a copy of 
which is sent you herewith, that photostatic copies of that file were delivered 
to your committee at the same time as the departmental documents which 
were subpenaed. 

I trust that this clears up entirely any doubts you may have in this regard. 
Should you have any further question with respect to this subject I hope that 
you will communicate with me. It would be appreciated, in view of the present 
state of the I'ecord, if you would include this communication as part of the 
record or take such other action as will correct the record in this regard. 
Sincerely yours, 

John E. Peurifoy, Assistant Secretary. 



February 20, 1947. 
Hon. J. Parneix Thomas, 

Chairman, Un-American Activities Com-tnittee, 

House of Representatives. 
My Dear Mb. Thomas : In response to your summons to produce "all material 
contained in the files of the Department of State pertaining to the matter of 
Hanns Eisler, including applications for passports, visas, and related matter 



178 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

as well as any and all correspondence pertaining thereto," I have caused a 
diligent search to be made of the files of the Department. Accordingly, I trans- 
mit herewith the following : 

1. Photostatic copies of the files of the Department of State relating to the 
visa applications and related matters and all correspondence and memoranda 
pertaining thei'eto in the case of Hanns, also known as Johannes, Eisler. 

2. A photostatic copy of the file in the office of the consul at Mexicala, Lower 
California, relating to the immigration visa which was issued to Johannes Eisler 
on September 29, 1940. 

3. No record has been found in the Department of any passport application 
in the name of this person. 

If you desire to examine the files of any other consular office with respect 
to this matter, the Department will promptly request that such files be forwarded. 
Sincerely yours, 

John E. Peukifoy, 
Acting Assistant Secretary. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Savoretti, do the files of the Immigration and 
Naturalization Service reflect that the nonimmigrant visa was issued 
to Johannes Eisler and his wife ? 

Mr. Savoretti. I have a nonquota 

Mr. Stripling. I am sorry, nonquota. 

Mr. Savorktti. Immigration visa which was presented and sur- 
rendered by Eisler at the time of his application for admission on 
September 25, 1940. 

Mr. Stripling. Now, who issued that visa? 

Mr. Savoretti. The visa was issued at the American consulate at 
Mexicali, Mexico, and bears No. 36, date September 20, 1940, and 
signed by Willis A. Myers, a vice consul of the United States, and it 
was valid until March 'lO, 1941. 

Mr, Stripling. Now, is there anything in that visa which would 
require the applicant, Mr. Eisler, to go on record under oath that he 
was or was not a Communist ? 

Mr. Savoretti. The application for an immigration visa requires 
any applicant to state that he is not a member of an inadmissible 
class of aliens to the United States. One of the questions that he must 
answer is : 

Are you a person inadmissible under the provisions of the act entitled, "An 
act to exclude and expel from the United States all aliens who are members of 
the anarchistic and similar classes," approved October 16, 1918, as amended by 
the act approved June 6, 1920. 

That question is No. 19. 

Mv. Stripling. Does that act include the Communist Party? 

]\Ir. Savoretti. We have so held, the Department of Labor and 
the Department of Justice, the act excluded an alien who believes in 
the overthrow of the Government of the United States by force and 
violence. The act does not name Communists. 

Mr. Stripling. But in the administration of the law isn't it true 
that over a period of time and at the present time if a person is be- 
lieved by the consulate to be a Connnunist, or there are definite suspi- 
cions that he is communistic, he is inadmissible under this act ? 

Mr. Savoretti. I think that is correct. 

Mr. Stripling. In other words, here again Mr. Eisler has sworn 
that he was not a Communist and inadmissible under this act. 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 179 

In reviewing the file, Mr. Savoretti, liow msun^ different times do 
you think Mr. Eisler has gone on record under oath, from the time 
he entered the United States in IdlV) until and including this date, 
lunv many times has he sworn that he was not a Conunuiiist or did 
not believe in the fundamental principles of communism? 

]Mr. Savokk'ii'I. I believe in answer to this question appearing on 
the ap[)lication which 1 have just read, and also at the time he was 
examined by a board of special inquiry subsequent to the issuance 
of that visa, and at one prior time when an investigation was being 
conducted to determine whether an extension should be granted to 
him. At the hearing before the board of special inquiry he was 
asked the question : "Have you ever been affiliated with the Connnu- 
nist Party in any manner," and his answer was, "No.'' 

Mr. Stripling. He either perjured himself then or he did so the 
other da}- because he then said he was a member of the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Savoretti. I would say so. 

The Chairiman. He admitted he had been a member of the Com- 
munist Party for at least 11 months. 

Mr. Rankin. The truth of the business is that there is only one 
way to get out of the Connnunist Party and that is to be expelled. 
They don't permit you to resign, I understand. Under that ruling 
he is a member yet. • 

jNIr. Stripling. I don't think there is anything in Mr. Eisler's rec- 
ord to indicate that he has ever been expelled, jNIr. Rankin. 

INIr. ISIcDowELL. There is something in his record which indicates 
that he is going to get into trouble when he gets back into Russia for 
saying that he hated Stalin. 

Mr. Stripling. The issuance of this visa permitted Mr. and Mrs. 
Eisler to enter at Mexicali? 

Mr. Savoretti. That is correct. 

Mr. Stripling. They crossed the border into Calexico, Calif. 

Mr. Savoretti. That is correct. Let me be more technically cor- 
rect. They were stopped at the border. 

Mr. Stripling. Xow, I would like for you to remain on the stand 
and I would like to call Mr. Porter. 

Mr. Rankin. Mr. Stripling, at that point, let me call attention to 
the fact, whether ]\Ir. Eisler has been expelled from the Communist 
Party or not, he certainly has followed the Communist line in writing 
these Communist songs and having them spread before the youth of 
this Xation through the moving pictures and other sources. In other 
words, he is serving the Comintern just as effectively today as if he 
had been an outspoken and announced member of the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Stripling. I don't think there is any question, INIr. Rankin, 
as the chairman of the International Music Bureau, with headquar- 
ters in ]\Ioscow, I don't think there is any question but what he would 
be a party agent. 

Mr, Rankin. I don't either. 

The Chairman. Mr. Porter. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Porter has been sworn. 



180 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

TESTIMONY OF CLARENCE R. PORTER— Resumed 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Porter, will you state your full name again 
for the record ? 

Mr. Porter. Clarence R. Porter. 

Mr. Stripling. And your present occupation. 

Mr. Porter. Officer in charge of the Immigration and Naturaliza- 
tion Service stationed at the port of entry, Calexico, Calif. 

The Chairman. Will you speak a little louder, please? 

Mr. Porter. Officer in charge of the Immigration and Naturaliza- 
tion Service, stationed at the port of entry, Calexico, Calif. 

Mr. Stripling. When and where were you born ? 

Mr. Porter. Peck, Idaho, January 5, 1904. 

Mr. Stripling. How long have you been employed by the Immigra- 
tion and Naturalization Service? 

Mr. Porter. Since 1929. 

Mr. Stripling. Do j^ou recall Hanns Eisler and his wife applying 
for admission to the United States? 

Mr. Porter. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Stripling. With the visa which has just been introduced? 

Mr. Porter. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Stripling. By Mr. Savoretti? 

Mr. Porter. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Stripling. Did you examine Mr. Eisler and his wife at that 
time. 

Mr. Porter. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Stripling. Tell the committee what steps you took, if any, to 
admit them or refuse admission. 

Mr. Porter. Mr. Eisler first came to the port of entry on September 
20, 1940 

Mr. Stripling. September what? 

Mr. Porter. September 20. That was the same date the visa was 
issued. A preliminary examination of him determined that he had 
been unlawfully in the United States and, apparently, the subject of 
deportation proceedings. 

As is customary, all known files were sent for at that time. That 
included, at the time, the Laredo file and the New York file. It was 
subsequently determined that the New York file was in the Los 
Angeles district office and we sent for both the Los Angeles file and 
the New York file. These files were sent air mail and telegraphed 
for, at Mr. Eisler's request and expense. They arrived on Septem- 
ber 25, 1940. An examination of these files disclosed that there 
might be some doubt as to his admissibility under the status which 
he claimed. 

At that time I prepared the usual manifest form and held him for 
hearing before the board of special inquiry. 

Mr. Stripling. You refused to admit him? 

Mr. Porter. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Stripling. You referred to a manifest. Will you explain to 
the committee what you mean by "manifest"? 

Mr. Porter. This is the Form 548 — at that time — that is required 
in the preparation of all aliens arriving for permanent entry into 
the United States over the border. It gives all the technical listings 
of the known data concerning the alien and his statements, and the 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 181 

lower corner of it has a block for tlie disposition of the preliminary 
inspection, ■which is either one of two things, either admit or hold him 
for hearin*:^ before the special board of inquiry. 

jNIr, Stripling. Were you the preliminary inspector? 

]Mr, Porter. I was. 

]\Ir. Stripling. You held him for hearing before the board of special 
inquiry ? 

Mr. Porter. I did. 

]Mr. Stripling. Do you have any other information which you think 
would help this committee in this investigation? 

]Vlr. Porter. Well, at the time these remarks were what I put on the 
back of the card and which give more or less the reason for holding 
him for hearing. 

INIr. Stripling. Would you read that into the record? 

Mr. Porter (reading) : 

* * * Passport No. 4840 issued at New York, March 11, 1940. valid for 
1 year. New York file 99328. snb 721, bears letter of October 26, 1935, by the 
Arizona Peace Officei's Association protesting the presence of the applicant in 
United States due to his Communist associations. This applicant also states 
that he has been a bona fide professor for the past 2 years and practices his 
profession, but that in 1938 and the first part of 1989 he was employed on a 
commission basis. 

Mr. Stripling. You denied him admission? 

Mr. Porter. I held him for hearing before a board of special inquiry. 

Mr. Stripling. That is all of the questions I have of Mr. Porter. 

Mr. McDo^vell. What was the result of the board of inquiry 
hearing? 

Mr. Porter. He was excluded by the board of special inquiry at 
Calexico. 

Mr. McDowt:ll. He was excluded ? 

Mr. Porter. B}^ the board of — ■ — • 

Mr. Stripling. May I interrupt? Mr. Savoretti was going to read 
the proceedings into the record just as soon as Mr. Porter had finished. 
The proceedings before the board of special inquiry. 

Mr. McDowell. All right. 

The board of inquiry confirmed your judgment. That is what 
it did? 

Mr. Porter. Yes. sir. 

Mr. McDo^VELL. Then what happened ? 

Mr. Porter. He appealed to the Immigration Board of Appeals. 

Mr. McDowT.LL. Wliere did that board sit? 

Mr. Porter. That was sitting in Washington. 

Mr. McDowt:ll. It was sitting in Washington ? 

Mr. Porter. Yes, sir. 

Mr. McDo^vELL. Then what happened ? 

Mv. Porter. His appeal was sustained and he was orderd admitted. 

Mr. ISIcDow^ELL. Wlien he appealed to the board in Washington, 
Mr. Porter — would you know the date of that? 

Mr. Porter. He was excluded by the board of special inquiry on 
September 26. 1940. He appealed 

Mr. Ranktn. Nineteen what ? 

Mr. Porter. He appealed that same date. 

Mr. McDoweli>. He appealed then? 



182 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

Mr. PoRTEfi. He appealed right there. He has the right of appeal 
before the board. At that time he can either elect to appeal or not 
to appeal. 

I might explain that the procedure is that the records are sent into 
the district office at that time for review, and then forwarded to our 
central office who turns it over to the Board of Review. 

Mr. McDowell. He appealed, then, to the Washington board on 
September 26, and then what happened ? 

Mr. Porter. Well, eventually, on October 21, 1940, the board of 
review authorized his admission for permanent residence and he was 
finally admitted physically on October 22. 

The Chairman. Mr. Wood. 

Mr. Wood. Was there a hearing before the board of review ? 

Mr. Porter. That I am not in position to answer. All we received 
was the telegram authorizing his admission for permanent residence. 

Mr. McDowell. It is assumed that during the period between Sep- 
tember 26 and October 22, that he was in Mexicali'^ 

Mr. Porter. He was in Mexicali, unless he got across the line, which 
we don't believe, because we communicated with him then, as soon as 
the authorization of the board. He gave us the address of the Com- 
mercial Hotel in Mexicali. 

Mr. McDowell. He wasn't in Washington to personally make his 
appeal before the board ? 

Mr. Porter. Not to my knowledge. If he was, he was illegally here. 

Mr. McDowell. Did he enter Mexicali from Calexico ? 

Mr. Porter. Yes, sir. He checked out of the port of departure on 
September 19, 1940. 

Mr. McDowell. Would you mind if I saw that card ? 

Mr. Porter. No, sir. 

(The card was handed to Mr. McDowell.) 

Mr. McDowell. I see here a note in ink — everything else is, appar- 
ently, in typewriting : "Received telegram of 10/21/40. N. E. Kitter, 
Chairman. Authorize admission for permanent residence. Physi- 
cally admitted." 

That notation was made by you, Mr. Porter? 

Mr. Porter. No, that was made by Mr. Kitter, the chairman of the 
Board of Special Inquiry. 

Mr, Rankin. By whom? 

Mr. Porter. Kitter. 

Mr. McDowell. That was the board that sat at Calexico ? 

Mr. Porter. Yes, sir. 

Mr. McDoAVELL. How is that made up ? 

Mr. Porter. Three members, usually two immigrant inspectors, 
one of whom acts as chairman, and a stenographer, who is also author- 
ized to act as a member of the board of special inquiry. 

Mr. McDowell. After you received this wire admitting Eisler, you 
had nothing further to do with this ? 

Mr. Porter. That is all we had to do with it. 

Mr. McDowell. I would like to note to the committee that Mr. Por- 
ter, to my way of thinking, is the only one of all of the various officers 
we had iDcfore us, or discussed, who actually stopped this man cold, 
denied him admission to the United States, and carried out the law 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 183 

to its full extent. He was overruled. I would commend this man to 
his superiors in the Department as a good and faithful employee. 

Mr. Porter. Thank you. 

The CiiATRMAx. Mr." Rankin? 

Mr. Raxkix. No questions. 

The Chairman. Mr. Wood? 

Mr. "Wood. No questions. 

The Chairman. Mr. Stripling, do you have any further questions 
of Mr. Porter? 

Mr. Stripling. No, sir. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Mr. Porter. 

Mr. Stripling. Now, Mr. Savoretti, do the files reflect information 
concerning the hearing before the special board of inquiry, and, if 
so, I will ask you whether or not there are any questions asked dealing 
with the political affiliations of Hanns Eisler? 

Mr. Savoretti. There are. 

]\Ir. Stripling. "Would you read them, please, to the committee. 

Mr. Savoretti (reading) : 

Q. What are your political beliefs? 

A. My political belief is : I admire very much the United States, I hate Fascism 
in every form, and I hate Stalin in the same way as I hate Hitler. 

Q. Are you in sympathy with the democratic form of Government in the United 
States? 

A.Yes, sir ; 100 percent sympathetic. 

Q. Have you ever belonged to any political party? 

A. Never. My life is wholly devoted to music. 

Q. Is it a fact that a number of your musical scores have been used as workers' 
choruses or made a portion of songs of the revolutionary movement? 

A. Those songs were taken mostly out of plays for which I wrote the music 
in Germany. The words of these songs were written by German poets in plays 
mostly against Hitler and the whole German regime. These songs, of which I 
wrote only the melodies, became very famous in the war. Every country which 
wanted to adopt these songs wrote new words to them which have sometimes 
nothing to do with the original songs. I never knew this until I went out of 
Germany and then I was shocked sometimes by so much stupidity and chief 
political value to which these melodies were used. In this I am helpless. I 
should not be identified with songs which have been translate*! without my knowl- 
•edge or agreement. Sometimes if you bring a song out of the play and play it 
separately it becomes a different meaning. 

The Chairman. Excuse me, Mr. Savoretti. 

The Chair wishes to announce that he just received an important 
message, and he has to leave. Mr. McDowell will act as chairman, and 
the committee will proceed. 

Mr. Savoretti (continuing) : 

Q. Do you admit that certain political movements have expropriated your 
melodies for their own purposes in social, democratic, and communistic or- 
ganizations? 

A. They are the same songs with different verses and titles, but I know nothing 
about it. 

Q. Of these particular scores that have achieved fame as songs of the revolu- 
tionary movement, what type of plays were these scores written for? 

A. Different types. Sometimes humoristic and sometimes tragic. The play 
by the name of the "Round Heads and the Pointed Heads" was against Hitler 
and his race theory. It was against Hitler's theory that a good race had a 
certain tyjie of head, and it was a satire against race hatred. The Mother was 
made after a famous novel by Maxim Gorki. It showed the faith of a peasant 
worker woman in Russia and how she suffered and how she lived. It is a classic 



184 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

novel of the Russian literature. The Expedient was a play with its theme in 
China and was some situation of the Chinese Revolution. It is an episode of the 
Chinese unification. 

Q. Were the lyrics in those original plays of a revolutionary design? 

A. In the play "The Mother, for example, naturally. In the play concerning the 
Chinese ; no. In the play The Round Heads and the Pointed Heads, it was more 
humoristic and satire. 

Q. Do you ordinarily collaborate with your lyric writers in preparing your 
scores? 

A. Yes ; when I lived in Germany and the lyrics were written in Germany. 
These were the only songs which I wrote of recognized merit. 

Mr. Stripling. Pardon me. 

Mr. Chairman, do you want to continue reading those questions and 
answers? I mean, dealing with music. I think we have gone into 
that far enough. 

Mr. McDowell. If you want to inchide them in the record, you 
may. I don't see any point in reading them now. I would like to 
observe, however, that my examination of these songs that he wrote 
suggests that the great majority of them were written before Hitler 
came to power. Hitler was just another politician in Germany. Pres- 
ident Von Hindenberg was the German chief of state. Which indi- 
cates again that he was lying. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Savoretti, is there a question in there, "Do you 
believe in the form of Government as it exists in the United States?" 

Mr. Savoretti. Following what I have just read : 

Q. Are you acquainted with the principles of the Communistic Party? 
, A. No. 

Q. Are you aware of the fact that that party advocates the overthrow of the 
Government of the United States by force? 
A. Yes. 
Q. Did you ever ascribe 

I think it is "subscribe" — 

to that principle? 
A. No. 

Q. Have you ever been affiliated with the Communist Party in any manner? 
A. No. 

Mr. Stripling. I think that is sufficient for the record, Mr. McDow- 
ell, on this question of communism. 

Mr. Savoretti, does it show there the decision of the boad ? 
Mr. Savoretit. Yes. I will be glad to read that. 

By Member Atherton. I move that the applicants be excluded as persons who 
are not nonquota immigrants as specified in the immigration visas. 

By IMember Parker. I second the motion. 

By The Chabiman. It is made unanimous. This board is not inclined to recog- 
nize as valid the establishment of a section 4 (d) status by the male applicant 
based on instructions said to have been performed while he was in the United 
States as a visitor under section 3 (2) of the Immigration Act of 1924. nor does 
it believe that the law contemplates that the performance of the profession for 
2 years i^recediug admission be accomplished in the United States. 

The record then shows that the alien is advised of his exclusion and 
is asked whether or not he wishes to appeal to the Attorney General, 
to which the alien said "Yes." 

Mr. Stripling. Do you have the record of the Appeal Board? 

Mr. Savoretti. I do. 

Mr. Stripling. Would you read that, please ? 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 185 

Mr. Savoretti. The nienioranduni is dated October 16, 1940: 

In re Jolianiies Eisler aud wife Louise Anna Eisler, nee Gosztonyi, before the 
Board of Imniii;ration Ap])eals in exclusion i)roceedings. 

Board: Messrs. Stewart, Fimicane, and Charles. 

In hehall' of the appellants Attorney Peter F. iSnyder, National Press Building, 
Washington, D. C. 

Oral hearing was heard on October 6, 1!J40. 

Excluded : Under the act of 1924, not nonquota immigration as specified in 
immigration visas. 

Aiiplication : Admission as a nonquota immigrant under section 4 (d) of the 
Immigration Act of 1924. 

Disposition: Appeal sustained and admission authorized. 

Statement of the case : The aplpicants arrived at the port of Calexico, Calif., 
September 26, 1940, and applied for admission as nonquota immigrants under 
section 4(d) act of 1924. The board of special inquiry found them inadmissible 
under section 13 (a) (3) act of 1924 and excluded them on the grounds above 
stated. From this action the aliens appealed. 

Discu.ssiou : The appellants testify that they are, husband, 42 years of age. and 
wife, 44 years of age; that they are citizens of Germany without nationality; 
the husband presented a Czechoslovakian passport valid to March 10, 1941, in 
which his nationality is shown as "uncertain" ; the wife presents a Czechoslo- 
vakian pas.sport valid to February 26, 1942, in which it is stated that her na- 
tionality is "unknown" ; they present nonquota immigration visas issued under 
section 4(d) act of 1924 at the American consulate in Mexicali, Mexico, on Sep- 
tember 20, 1940, valid to January 19, 1941. 

The husband testifies that he was a teacher in the Conservatory of IMusic of the 
city of Vienna from about 1924 to 1926 ; that he was appointed a professor in 
that conservatory and was the head of the department of music ; that the con- 
servatoi-y was attended by advanced students. 

He testifies that he was a member of the faculty of the Stern Sche Conservatory 
of Music in Berlin, Germany, from 1926 to 1933 ; he states that he left Germany 
in 1933 because of political scruples and made his temporary headquarters in 
Paris from February 1923 to February 1934 ; thereafter he states he spent some 
time in Denmark, after which he sojourned in London for a few months in 1934 
and 1935 ; during the period from 1933 to 1935 he states that he was a guest pro- 
fessor at conservatories in Paris, London, and Antwerp for short periods. 

He states that since October 1935 he has been under contract almost continu- 
ously as head of the department of music of the New School of Social Research 
located in New York City ; he states that his present contract expires February 
3, 1942 ; he states that the New School for Social Research is a university recog- 
nized by the State of New York; he testifies that the students are teachers or 
postgraduates and that the school confers only the degree of doctor of philoso- 
phy ; he testifies that he meets classes and supervises the work of the subordinate 
professors and their assistants. 

Counsel presents evidence that the Rockefeller Foundation on January 19, 
1940, appropriated about $20,000 to the New School for Social Research for re- 
search in music to be made by the applicant. 

The appellant's claim as to his connection and contract with the New School 
for Social Research is supported by letters aud other evidence which ajjpears 
in the record and in the visas. 

It is noted that the New School for Social Research of New York City has been 
approved for nonquota immigrant students defined in section 4 (e) act of 1924. 
This approval has no direct bearing on the issue in the present case but is indica- 
tive of the standing of the school. 

Insofar as pertinent section 4 (d), act of 1924, as amended, accords nonquota 
status to "an immigrant who continuously for at least 2 years immediately pre- 
ceding the time of his application for admission * * * jj^jg j^g^^ ^^^^\ ^j^^ 
seeks to enter * * * solely for the puiiiose of carryiijg on the vocation of 
* * * professor of a College * * * or university and his wife." 

The language of the excluduig motion of the Board of Special Inquiry in the 
case that that board wassati-sfied that the male applicant was a professor within 
the meaning of the above-quoted section but believed that he was not entitled 
to a nonquota status thereunder for the reason that he had been engaged as a 
professor in the United States during the past 2 years. We do not subscribe to 



186 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

the view that the vocation of professor must have been followed in a foreign 
country during the past 2 years. To do so would read into the law a meaning not 
expressed tlierein. We find that the appellants very reasonably established that 
they ix)ssess the qualifications necessary to a nonquota status under section 4 
(d). Therefore, tliey may not be regarded as subject to exclusion under section 
13 (a) (3) act of l!»-;4 on the ground that they are not nonquota immigrants as 
specified in their innnigration visas. 

Mr. Stripling. Mr. Savoretti, according to that decision of the Ap- 
peal Board, there is nothing there that deals with the political angle of 
that case? 

Mr. Savoretti. That is correct. 

Mr. Stripling. That is all the questions I have, Mr. Chairman. 

I would like to submit to the committee that in view of the develop- 
ments the committee should certainly bring Willis Meyer, the consu- 
late of the State Department in Mexicali who issued the nonquota 
visa, in. He would have been subpenaecl, I am sure, by the committee 
if we had had before us the information that he was the person who 
issued it. But we did not have the Labor Department file which Mr. 
Savoretti has there. I would like for the committee to consider issuing 
a subpena for some later date. I understand he is in Mexico now. 

I am advised just now that he is in town. 

The Chairman. He is in town ? 

Mr. Stripling. Yes. 

The Chairman. May I say that the Chair is of the opinion that we 
should call Mr. Meyer, but rather than come to an immediate decision 
I would rather wait until our executive session this afternoon, at which 
time we will discuss it. But the Chair wants to say this, that even 
though Mr. Meyer permitted this man to come in, there is no question 
but what the State Department has been lax over a period of time in 
this matter. They let him come in at other times. He came in and went 
out, and came in and went out. So it won't affect the case any whether 
we have Mr. Meyer or not, but we will decide at our meeting this 
afternoon in executive session whether we will call Mr. Meyer. Per- 
sonally I am in favor of it. 

Mr.McDowell. 

Mr. McDowell. I want to ask the chief investigator if Mr. Meyer 
is the person referred to in the statement issued by Norman M. Littell, 
counsel for Sumner Welles and George S. Messersmith, which was ap- 
parently prepared prior to Mr. Messersmith 's testimony yesterday, in 
which he says, speaking of Eisler, "made a surprise run around left 
end and caught a sleepy consular officer in the small town of Mexicali 
off guard." Would that be the same man ? 

Mr. Stripling. That is the same man ; yes. 

The Chairman. Any questions of Mr. Savoretti ? 

Mr. Savoretti, thank you very much. 

September 26, 1947. 
In re Eisler, Johannes and Luisa Anna, No. 56048/99. 

Hon. J. Parnell Thomas, 

Chairman, Committee on Un-American Activities, 
United States House of Representatives, 

Washington, D. C. 

Dear Mr. Chairman : Inasmuch as my name was read by Witness Savoretti in 
the course of his testimony before your committee today, noting therein that I 
had appeared as counsel on the occasion in October 1940, of the consideration by 
the Board of Immigration Appeals of the appeal of the above-named from an 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 187 

excluding order entered by a board of sjpecial inquiry at Calexico, Calif., permit 
me respectfully to advise yon as follows : 

1. I have never knowingly represented a member of the Communist Party or 
an affiliate of that party. I have spoken publicly and privately in opi>osition to 
the principles of connnnnisin and have contributed to oi-ganizations actively 
opposing conmmnistic doctrines. 

2. In the ca.se of the above-named I was retained October 3, 1940, by Leo Taub» 
Esq., then an attorney at 521 Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y., being tlien informed 
that the aliens had been excluded at Calexico and that their appeal from the 
excluding decision was then en route from the border port to the Board of 
Immigration Appeals. Theretofore I had never heard of the aliens and my only 
information concerning their situation was that which was supplied by Attorney 
Taub and that which appeared in the testimony transcribed at the board of 
special inquiry hearing at Calexico. As Witness Savoretti read the text of this 
hearing, it contained the firm assertion of the alien that he was entirely sympa- 
thetic with tlie principles of the American Government and wholly opposed to 
the dictatorship of Stalin as well as the dictatorship of Hitler. Thus there was 
nothing in the official record to inform me that the alien had ever been sympa- 
thetic toward or affiliated with any communistic organization or group. 

3. The only questions before the Board of Immigration Appeals had to do 
with the alien's eligibility to have or hold the section 4(d) nonquota immigrant 
visa which was issued to him by the American consul at Mexicali, Mexico. 
Concerning this I wrote to my correspondent, Attorney Leo Taub, informing him 
that I had apijeared before the Board of Immigration Appeals on October 7, 1940, 
and stating : 

"The subject matter and argument were heard with patience by the board, 
which seemingly agreed with me concerning the two points at issue: (1) As to. 
whether the New School for Social Research is properly qualified as a 'collegOt 
academy, seminary, or university,' and (2) whether the functioning as a pro- 
fessor within the United States is permissible under the text of the statute. 

«'* * * there is nothing in the law to forbid recognition of the alien's 2 
years of professorship within the United States, particularly in view of the fact 
that he has been a professor for 16 years last past, has taught in important con-- 
servatories, and has been recognized by the Rockefeller Foundation with a grant 
of $20,000 for research work." 

4. As to what contact Attorney Taub had with these aliens prior to the time 
he engaged my services, I have no information. I only Ivuow that Attorney 
Taub represented numerous persons in the theatrical and musical fields, including 
such eminent artists as .Joseph Szigetti, violinist, Bruno Walter, conductor, 
Ferenc Molnar, playwright, and Elizabeth Bergner, actress. Attorney Taub 
entered the Army of the United States as a private in 1942, was commissioned a 
second lieutenant in 1943, was promoted to captain, and lost his life in the 
European theater of operations in 194.5. 

I submit tliis satement for whatever usefulness it may have. 
Respectfully yours, 

Peter F. Snydhr. 

We will stand adjourned to meet in executive session, at 2 o^clock. 
(Thereupon, the meeting was adjourned.) 



APPENDIX 



The following were introduced with testimony in the course of the hearings 
before tlie Committee on Un-American Activities, September 24, 25, and 2(3, 1947, 
as exhibits. These were placed in the record and are retained in the files of the- 
Committee on Un-American Activities : 

Exhibit 

1. Daily Worker. January 15, 1935, article carrying headline, "Hanns Eisler 

Will Arrive Here Jan. 27." 

2. The Worker ^Musician, The Workers Music IMagaziue, December 1932, A^ol. I, 

No. 1 : "Red Front," song with music by Hanns Eisler reprinted in entirety 
with musical score. 

3. Daily Worker, February IS, 1935, article by Sergei Radamsky, with head- 

line, "Noted Composer of Comintern Arrives for U. S. Concert Tour." 

4. Daily Worker, February 23, 1935, article carrying photo of Hainis Eisler 

giving the Communist sahite along with many others. Headline, "Chorus 
of 1,000 Hails Eisler." 

5. Daily Worker, March 1, 1935, article by Joe Foster with headline, "Hanns 

Eisler Revolutionary Composer." 

6. Daily AVorker, October 7, 1935, article by Charles Hatchard ; headline, "Music 

Unifies Workers Says Eisler Describing Experiences in Europe." 

7. Daily Worker, October 2, 1935, article by L. E. Swift; headline, '"The Return 

of Hanns Eisler." 

8. Soviet Music, ^March-April 1933, No. 2, pp. 126, 127, article entitled, "For a 

Solid Front of All Proletariat and Revolutionary Musicians," by P. Weis 
(L. C. translation, Veis). 

9. Soviet Music, January-February 1933. No. 1, p. 142, article entitled, "Inter- 

national Bureau of Revolutionary Music." 

10. Pierre Degeyter Club, membership roll. Hanns Eisler's name and address 

at 147 Abbey Road, London, is included. 

11. "The Heartiest Revolutionaiy Greetings and Whshes to the Pierre Degeyter 

Club," and with musical notes. "Leave the machines out, you proletari- 
ans," written signed and dated by Hanns Eisler in his own handwriting, 
14 February 1935. 

12. Statement by Kenneth Hunter that the Pierre Degeyter Club w\as pred- 

essor of the American Music Alliance. 

13. American Music Alliance, minutes of meeting, Monday, June 15, 1936, 

9 : 00 p. m. 

14. American Music Alliance, minutes of membership meeting, June 22, 1936, 

written on letterhead of the American Music Alliance, 114 West 54th 
Street. New York City. 

15. Music Front, September, Vol. I, No. 3, publication of Pierre Degeyter Club 

of New York, 165 West 23rd Street. 

16. "Down With Fascist Terror," Mass Song Series No. 1, Words by Earl 

Robinson, music by Julius Keil, published by Pierre Degeyter Club, 
165 West 23d St.. New York. 

17. Piere Degeyter Club, 128 E 16th St., New York City, mimeographed letter 

urging attendance at meetings. 

18. Pierre Degeyter Club 128 E 16th St., New York City, notification of ac- 

ceptance of membership application and subsequent membership in or- 
ganization. 

19. Pierre Degeyter Club, Receipt Book, showing acceptance of membership 

dues and monies for publications from various members. 

20. International Collection of Revolutionary Songs, published by the Moscow 

State Musical Publishing Office, 19:^, p. 24, "The Comintern March," by 
Hanns Eisler. 

66957 — 47 13 189 



190 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

Exhibit 

21. International Music Bureau, "International Collections of Revolutionary 

Songs," for mixed and male voices, edited by W. Ramm ; entitled, '"Woi-k- 
ers of the World, Unite !" published in Moscow in four languages by the 
International Music Bureau, 1935. 

22. Soviet Music, January 1934, No. 1, p. 112, article, "International Collection 

of Revolutionary Songs." 

23. Red Song Book, prepared in collaboration with the Workers Music League, 

New York, Workers Library Publishers, 1932 ; cycle and hammer resting 
on a bar of music used as emblem on front cover ; the Comintern, music 
by Hanns Eisler, printed on back cover, complete with musical accom- 
paniment. 

24. America Sings, book of songs published by Workers Book Shop, 50 East 

13th St., New York, N. T. 

25. Soviet Music, May-June 1933, No. 3, pp. 173, 174, 175; article entitled 

"The Revolutionary Music Front," by G. Schneerson. (Photostat of the 
original in Russian together with English translation.) 

26. The International Theater, No. 1, 1934, published by the International Union 

of the Revolutionary Theater in the U. S. S. R., the United States, 
England, and France, p. 62, article, "News of the International Music 
Bureau." 

27. The International Theater, No. 2, Moscow, 1932, p. 11, article, "The Revolu- 

tionary Music Movement." 

28. Sovetskoe Iskusstvo, Moscow, July 29, 1935, p. 2. photostat of original article 

and translation, "The Destruction of Art, Music in Fascist Germany," 
by Hanns Eisler. 

29. Evening Moscow, June 27, 1935, interview with Hanns Eisler. 

30. "In Praise of Learning," song by Hanns Eisler, Mutual score with the 

lyrics. 
SI. Soviet Music No. 10, October 1936, p. 6, article by Hanns Eisler, "Musicians 
Abroad on the Subject of Stalin's Constitution." 

32. The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, Moscow, 1933, Vol. 63, columns 157 and 158, 

briographical sketch of Hanns Eisler accompanied by his picture (photo- 
stat of original and translation). 

33. International Literature. No. 5, published by the State Publishing House, 

Moscow, 1933-34, pp. 113-118, article, "Hanns Eisler: Revolutionary Com- 
poser," by S. Tretyskov, a Soviet writer. 

34. "Die Massiiahme," opus 20, by Hanns Eisler, English translation. (Trans- 

lation printed in entirety at end of Appendix.) 

35. Rebel Song Book, published by the Rand School Press, New York, 1935. 

36. Songs of the People, Workers Library Publishers, Inc., New York City, 

January 1937. 

37. Workers Song Book, No. 2, published by Workers Music League (U. S. A. 

Section of International Music Bureau), New York, 1935. 

38. Soviet Russia Today, May 1936, p. 33. 

39. "Composing for the Films," by Hanns Eisler, Oxford University Press, New 

York, 1947. 

40. "Ballad to Paragraph 218," song; music composed by Hanns Eisler, words 

written by Bert Brecht ; copyright 1931 by Universal-Edition, printed in 
Austria. 

41. "Address to the Crane 'Karl,' " song ; music composed by Hanns Eisler, 

words written by Bert Brecht; copyright 1931 by Universal-Edition; 
printed in Austria. 

42. "Ballad of the Maimed," song; music composed by Hanns Eisler, words 

written by David W^ber ; copyright 1931 by Universal-Edition ; printed 
in Austria. 

43. "Ballad of Nigger Jim," song; music composed by Hanns Eisler, words 

written by David Weber ; copyright 1932 by Universal-Edition ; printed in 
Austria. 

44. "Song of the Dry Bread," song; music composed by Hanns Eisler, words 

written by Walter Mehring; copyright 1931 by Universal-Edition ; printed 
in Austria. 

45. "Song of Supply and Demand," song ; music by Hanns Eisler, words by Bert 

Brecht ; copyright 1932 by Universal-Edition ; printed in Austria. 

46. The Worker.s Chorus, a colection of proletarian choral music ; "About Kill- 

ing," song for mixed chorus ; copyright application credits Hanns Eisler 
with both words and music ; copyright 1931 by Universal-Edition ; printed 
in Austria. 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 191 

Exhibit 

47. The Workers Chorus, a collection of proletarian innsic; "Peasant Revolt," 

and "Song of the Unemployed," songs for mixed voices; coi^yright applica- 
tion credits Hanns Elsler for music and contains no credit for the words; 
copyright 1929 by Universal-Edition ; printed in Austria. 

48. The Workers Chorus, a collection of proletarian choral music; "Prologue," 

"Song of the Defeated," "Contemplation of Nature," "Kurfuerstendam," 
songs for mixed voices ; copyright application credits Hanns Eisler for 
music and contains credit for no one for the words ; copyright 1929 by 
Universal Edition ; printed in Austria. 

49. The Workers Chorus, a collection of proletarian choral music ; "Also Strik- 

ing," and "In the Barracks," songs for mixed voices; music by Hanns 
Eisler, words by an anonynjous writer; coijyright 1930 by Universal- 
Edition ; printed in Austria. 

50. The Workers Chorus, a collection of proletarian choral music ; "Street Song," 

music by Hanns Eisler, words by David Weber; copyright 1929 by Univer- 
sal-Edition ; printed in Austria. 

51. The Workers Chorus, a collection of proletarian music ; "Song of Joe Hill," 

and "Down With Scabs," made by Hanns Eisler, words of the latter by 
David AVeber ; copyright 1929 by Universal-Edition ; printed in Austria. 

52. Letter : Eleanor Roosevelt to Sumner Welles, dated at the White House, 

January 11, 1939 (photostatic copy). 

53. Memorandum on Hanns Eisler submitted by Eleanor Roosevelt with her 

letter to Sunnier Welles on January 11, 1939 (photostatic copy). 

54. Letter: Sumner Welles to Eleanor Roosevelt, January 24, 1989 (photostatic 

copy). 

55. Memorandum : F. W. [Fletcher Warren] to Mr. Messersmith, January 20, 

1939 (photostatic copy). 

56. Memorandum : George S. Messersmith to Sumner Welles, enclosing draft of 

letter to Eleanor Roosevelt for Mr. Welles' approval, January 24, 1939 
photostatic copy). 

57. IMemorandum : H. M. [H. Mossmyer] to Mr. Messersmith, January 20, 1939 

(photostatic copy) . 

58. Memorandum: E. R. [Eleanor Roosevelt] to Sumner Welles, dated at the 

White House, February 7, 1939 (photostatic copy). 

59. Letter: Sumner Welles to Eleanor Roosevelt, February 10, 1939 (photostatic 

copy). 

60. Letter : Donald Stephens to Sumner Welles, on letterhead of National Arts 

Club, dated INIarch 2, 1939 (photostatic copy). 

61. Letter: Alvin Johnson, president of the New School for Social Research, to 

Hanns Eisler, May 2, 1935 (photostatic copy). 

62. Form letter : Hanns Eisler Scholarship Fund Committee on letterhead of the 

New School tor Social Research (photostatic copy). 

63. Letter : Hanns Eisler to Dean Clara Mayer, New School for Social Research, 

New York, dated at Prague, Czechoslovakia, October 4, 1937 (photostat of 
original in German and t.vped original English translation). 

64. Letter : Alvin .Johnson, president of the New School for Social Research, to 

Mr. Coert du Bois, Esquire, American Consul General, Havana, Cuba, 
March 29, 1938 (photostatic copy). 

65. Letter : Alvin Johnson, jiresident of the New School for Social Research, to 

Hanns Eisler, jNIarch 29, 1938 (photostatic copy). 
06. Pay and Attendance records, New School for Social Research, courses con- 
ducted by Hanns Eisler (photostatic copy). 

67. Letter: Hanns Eisler to Alvin Johnson, director. New School for Social 

Research, June 21, 1938 (photostatic copy). 

68. Letter: Alvin Johnston to James L. Houghteling. Commissioner of the 

Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization, Washington, D. C, June 22, 
1938 (photostatic copy). 

69. Letter : Ra.vmond B. Fosdick, president. The Rockefeller Foundation, to the 

Honorable J. Parnell Thomas, June 4. 1947. 

70. Exeeri)t from minutes of the Rockefeller Foundation, .January 19, 1940, 

attested to by Norma S. Thompson, secretary, June 4, 1947. 

71. The Rockefeller Foundation, Rockefeller Music Fund, expense records of 

grant to Hanns Eisler (photostatic copy). 

72. Letter : Coert dn Bois, American Consul General, Habana, Cuba, to the 

Secretary of State, Washington, D. C, May 16. 1938 (photostatic copy). 

73. Letter: Department of State to the Department of Labor, May 16, 1938 

(photostatic copy). 



192 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

Exhibit 
74 Letter- Edward J. Shaiiglinessy, Deputy Commissioner, Department of 

Labor, to the Secretary of State, Washington, D. C, May 31, 1<J38 (plioto- 

statlc copy). 
75. Letter: Department of State to American Consular Officer in Charge, 

Hal)ana, Cuba, Jinie 11, 1938 (photostatic copy). 
76 Memorandum : For the Files. Department of State, Visa Division, October 

19, 1938, signed R. C. A. [Robert C. Alexander] (photostatic copy). 
77. Memorandum: Mr. Robert C. Alexander to Mr. Messersmith, October 24, 

193S (photostatic copy). 
78 Resume of the tile of the Department of Labor in the case of Johannes Eisler, 

Confidential, dated October 24, 1938 and signed R. C. A. [Robert C. Alex- 
ander] (photostatic copy). 

79. Letter: George S. Messersmith to Dorothy Thompson, Unofficial, Personal, 

and strictly confidential, October 27, 1938 (photostatic copy). 

80. Memorandum : Coert du Bois to Secretary of State, December 3, 1938 (photo- 

static copy). 

81. Letter: George S. Messersmith to Coert du Bois, December 23, 1938 (plioto- 

static copy). 

82. Letter: George S. Messersmith to Coert du Bois, January 24, 1939 (photo- 

static copy). 

83. Letter : Breckinridge Long to Coert du Bois, April .30. 1940 ( photostatic copy ) . 

84. Letter: Dorothy Thompson to George S. Messersmith, November 8, 1938 

( photostatic copy ) . 

85. Letter: Robert C. Alexander to Mr. Warren, October 10, 1938 (photostatic 

copy ) . 

86. Letter : George S. Messersmith to Donald Stephens, March 11, 1939 (photo- 

static copy). 

87. Letter: Donald Stephens to George Messersmith, 15 March 1939 (photostatic 

copy). 

88. Letter : Malcolm Cowley, editor. The New Republic, to George S. Messersmith, 

March 10, 1939 (photostatic copy). 

89. Letter : George S. IMessersmith to Malcolm Cowley, March 11, 1939 (photo- 

static copy). 

90. Letter: Malcolm Cowley, editor, the New Republic, to George S. Messer- 

smith, March 13, 1939 (photostatic copy). 

91. Letter: George S. Messersmith to Malcolm Cowley, March 14, 1939 (photo- 

static copy). 

92. Letter : Malcolm Cowley, editor. The New Republic, to George S. Messer- 

smith, March 17, 1939 (photostatic copy). 

93. Telegram : Freda Kirchwey, The Nation, to George S. Messersmith, March 

kCi939 (photostatic copy). 

94. Letter: George h'. Messersmith to Freda Kirchwey, March 11, 1939 (photo- 

static copy). 

95. Letter: Freda Kirchwey, The Nation, to George S. Messersmith, March 15, 

1939 (photostatic copy). 

96. Letter : Russell Davenport to George S. Messersmith, March 16, 1939 (photo- 

static copy ) . 

97. Letter: Geoei-ge S. Messersmith to Russell M. Davenport, March 18, 1939 

(photostatic copy). 

98. Letter: Raymond Gram Swing to Cordell Hull, March 28, 1939 (photostatic 

copy). 

99. Letter: A. M. Warren to Raymond Gram Swing, April 5, 1939 (photostatic 

copy). 

100. Letter: George Cukor to The President, March 25, 1939 (photostatic copy). 

101. Letter: George Cukor to Cordell Hull, March 25. 1939 (photostatic copy). 

102. Letter: A. M. Warren to George Cukor, April 5, 1939 (photostatic copy). 

103. Letter : A. M. Warren to George Cukor, April 7, 1939 (photostatic copy). 

104. Letter: Clifford Odets to the American (Consul in Havana, Cuba, January 

23, 1940 (photostatic copy). 

105. Letter: William Dieterle to the American Consul, Havana, Cuba, January 

28, 1940 (photostatic copy). 

106. Letter : Oscar Wagner, dean, Juilliard Graduate School, to American Consul 

General, Havana, Cuba, January 30, 1940 (photostatic copy). 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 193 

Exhibit 

107. Letter: Allen Eaton, Department of Surveys, Russell Sage Foundation, 130 

East 22n(l Street, New York City, to Coert ilu Bois, American Consul 
General, Havana, Cuba, February 2, 1940 (photostatic copy). 

108. Letter: Ivudolf Koliseli, Kolisch Quartet, to American Consul, Havana, Cuba 

(photostatic copy). 
100. Letter : CiU't Kies.s, general secretary, German-American Writers As.sociation, 
New Yorlv City, to -Vinerican Consul, Havana, Cuba, January 29, 1940 
(photostatic copy). 

110. Letter: Joseph Losey to American Consul, Havana, Cuba, January 23, 1940 

(photostatic copy). 

111. Letter: Harold Clurman, The Group Theater, to Whom It May Concern, 

January 2."), 1940 (photostatic copy). 

112. Letter : Allen Eaton, Department of Surveys, Russell Sage Foundation, 130 

East 22nd Street, New Y(n-k City, to A. M. Warren, July IS, 1939 (photo- 
static copy). 

113. '"America's .Making," motion picture on democracy, brief description, June 8, 

1939 (photostatic copy). 

114. Letter: Hanns Eisler (on letterhead of Carol King, 100 Fifth Ave., New York 

City and left personally with :Mr. Warren by Carol King) to Department 
of State, Washington. D. C, July 5, 1938 (photostatic copy). 

115. Memorandum: George S. Messersmith to Mr. Warren, undated (photostatic 

copy ) . 

116. Memorandum : A. M. Warren to George S. Messersmith, April 22, 1939 

(photostatic copy). 

117. Letter: Robert C. Alexander to Paul [Huttou], August 9, 1939 (photostatic 

copy ) . 
lis. Letter: P. C. Hutton to Robert C. Alexander, August 1, 1939 (photostatic 
copy). 

119. Letter: R. Walton Moore to James B. Stewart, Esq., July 24, 1939 (photo- 

static copy ) . 

120. Letter: P. C. Hutton to Robert C. Alexander, August 21, 1939 (photostatic 

copy). 

121. Letter: Josephus Daniels to .lulien Bryan, July 5, 1939 (photostatic copy), 

122. Letter: James B. Stewart to the Secretary of State, September S, 1939 (photo- 

static copy). 

[Translation] 

Hana-^s Eisler 

DIE MASSNAHME 
The Rule [or Doctrine'\ 

Drill [libretto] by Bert Brecht 

Piano score 

[Published by] Universal-Edition No. 2744 



Hanns Eisler 

The Rule [oi- Doctrhie] 

Drill [libretto] by Bert Brecht 

Op [us] No. 20 

Piano score by Erwin Ratz 

Performance right reserved 

[Published by] Universal-Edition A. G. 

Vienna Copyright 1931 by Universal-Edition Leipsic 

Printed in Austria 



194 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

CONTENTS 

Page 

No. 1 Prelude (The four agitators, mixed chorus, orchestra) 3 

I. The Teachings of the Classics 

No. 2a Recitative (The voung comrade, the three agitators, orchestra) 10 

No. 2b Praise of the USSR [Hail to USSR!] (mixed chorus with orchestra) 12 

II. The Cover-up [Masking] 

No. .3a Recitative (The director of the party headquarters, the two agitators, orchestra) 17 

No. 3b Declamation (mixed chorus with percussion [accompaniment]) 22 

No. 4 Praise of the illegal labor [Hail to illegal labor!] (mi.xed chorus with orchestra, later: The four 

agitators) 23 

III. The Stone 

No. 5 Song of the rice boatmen (Two coolies, the young comrade, the overseer, male chorus with 

orchestra) 31 

No. 6 Discourse (mixed chorus a cappella) 44 

No. 6b Declamation (Lenin quotation) (mixed chorus with percussion [accompaniment]) 44 

No. 6c Canon of a Lenin quotation (mixed chorus with percussion [accompaniment]) 45 

IV. Justice 

No. 7a Strike song (The young comrade, male chorus with orchestra) 46 

No. 7b Discussion 52 

V. What Actually is a Man [Human Being]? 

No. 8a Recitative (The trader [businessman]. The young comrade, orchestra) 53 

No. 8b Song of the products (The trader [businessman]. The young comrade, orchestra; later: 

mixed chorus) 59 

No. 9 Change the world — it needs it! (mixed chorus with orchestra) 68 

VI. The Treason 

No. 10 Praise of the Party [Hail to the Party!] (mLxed chorus with orchestra) 75 

VII. Utmost Persecution, and Analysis 

No. 11 Recitative (mixed chorus with percussion [accompaniment]) 85 

No. 12a Recitative (The four agitators, orchestra) 87 

No. 12b We are the scum of the earth (mixed chorus with orchestra) 89 

VIII. The Burial 

No. 13a and b (mixed chorus a cappella) 93 

No. 14 Finale (mixed chorus with orchestra) 95 

List of PERyoRMERS 



The First Agitator (to be performed by the same soloist: The director of the party headquarters; The 

first coolie. The trader [businessman]) Tenor 

The Second Agitator (The second coolie) 1 

The Third Agitator (The overseer, the policeman) khree actors 

The Fourth Agitator (The young comrade) 1 

ftlale chorus; mixed chorus 



ORCHESTRA 

Three trumpets 
Two horns 
Two bass horns 
Piano 

Percussion instruments : 

Two pairs of timpanis 

Big drum 

Small drum 

Tenor (or field) drum 

Cymbals 

Tomtom 
Duration of performance : one hour and thirty minutes. 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 195 

Performance ricbt reserved 
Droits d'execution r^serv^s 

THE RULE [or Doctrine] 

Drill [libretto] by Bert Brecht 

[music by] 
Hanns Eisler, op [us] No. 20 
[pp. 1-9] 

Above measure 23 : The controlling chorus. Then, from measure 24 on : "Come 
forth ! Your labor was successful./ In this country too marches the Revolution,/ 
and formed are the lines of the fighters there also./ We are in accord with 
you."/ 

After measui'e 65: The four agitators (calling out loudly) : "Halt!/ 

Measure 70: The four agitators: "We have something to tell [you]! We 
report the death of a comrade."/ 

From measure 73 on: "Who killed him?"/ 

Above measure S3 : The four agitators : "We killed him. We shot him and 
threw him into [a] quicklime [pit]."/ 

From measure 86 on: "What is it that he has done that you had to shoot 
him?"/ 

Above measure 96 : The four agitators : "Often he did the right thing, some- 
times the wrong [thing], but finally he became a danger to the movement. He 
wanted [to do] the right [thing] and did the wrong [thing]. We demand your 
judgment."/ 

From measure 99 on : "Describe how it happened, and you will hear our judg- 
ment."/ 

Above measure 117 : The four agitators : "We shall accept your judgment."/ 

[pp. 10-16] 

/. The Teaching of the Classics 

The four agitators: "We came from Moscow as agitators ; we were to travel to 
the city of Mukden to spread propaganda and to create, in the factories, the 
Chinese Party. AVe were to report to [district] party headquarters (the one) 
closest to the border, and to requisition a guide. There, in the anteroom, a 
young comrade came toward us and spoke of the nature of our mission. We are 
repeating the conversation:" 

(The line up ; three on one side, and one on the opposite side; one of the four 
[agitators] represents the young comrade.) 

The young comrade: "I am the secretary of the party headquarters which Is 
the last toward the border. My heart is beating for the Revolution. The wit- 
nessing of wrong-doing drove me into the lines of the fighters [party members]. 
Man must help man. I am for freedom. I believe in mankind. And I am for 
the rules [doctrines] of the Communist Party which fights for the classless 
society against exploitation and ignorance." 

The three agitators: "We come from Moscow." 

The young comrade: "We have expected you." 
. The three agitators: "Why?" 

The young comrade: "We do not get anywhere. There is disorder and need, 
little bread and much fighting. Many [people] are full of courage, but few can 
read. [There are] few machines, and no one understands [how to operate] 
them. Our locomotives are worn out [literally, "worn to pieces" — translator.]" 

A^o. 2a Recitative 

The yoking comrade: "Have you brought along locomotives?" 

The three agitators: "No." 

The young comrade: "Have you [any] tractors with you?" 

The three agitators: "No." 

The young comrade: "Our peasants even pull their own wooden plows. And 
then w^e have nothing to sow upon our fields. Have you brought along seed?" 

The three agitators: "No." 

The young comrade: "Are you at least bringing ammunition and machine 
guns?" 

The three agitators: "No." 



196 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

Tlie young comrade: "The two of us have to defend the Revolution here. Surely 
you have a letter to us from the Central Committee vv^hich tells us what to do?" 

The three agitators: "No." 

The young comrade: "So you want to help us yourselves?" 

The three agitators: "No." 

The young comrade: "In our clothes we resist day and night the onslaught of 
hunger, ruin and counter-revolution. You, however, bring us nothing." 

The three agitators: "So it is [you are right] : we bring you nothing. But 
across the border, to Mukden, we bring to the Chinese workers the teachings of 
the Classics and of the propagandists: the A B C of Communism; [we bring] 
to the ignorant the truth about their situation ; [we bring] to the oppressed, class 
conscience; and [we bring] to the class-conscious, the experience[s] of the Revo- 
lution. From you we shall requisition an automobile and a guide." 

The young comrade: "So I have asked badly?" 

The three agitators: "No[t at all] ; a good question was followed by a better 
an.swer. We [can] see that the utmost was demanded by you; but more will be 
demanded from you : one of you two [the two of you] must lead us to Mukden." 

The young comrade: "I am leaving, therefore, my post, which was too difhcult 
for two, for which, however, one [person] must be sufficient now. I shall go 
with you." 

The young comrade: "Marching onward, spreading the teachings of the Com- 
munist Classics : the World Revolution." 

No. 2b Praise of the USSR [Hail to USSR!] 

(spirited) 

Above measure 5 : (continue spirited) . 

"The whole world has already discussed our misfortune; but still shared our 
meager meal the hope of all oppressed which contents itself with water, and 
Knowledge with a clear voice taught the guest behind our collapsing door."/ 

Above measure 27: (spirited). From measure 27 on: "When the door [is] 
collapsed, we can be seen from farther afield/ [we] whom frost will not kill nor 
hunger — untiringly discussing the fate of the world."/ 

The four agitators: "So the young comrade from the bovder station was in 
accoi'd with us as to the nature of our mission, and we — four men and a woman — 
proceeded toward the director of the party headquarters." 

II. The Cover-up [Maskinig] 

[pp. 17-30] 

The four agitators: "But the work in Mukden was illegal, hence we had to 
'cover up our faces' ; our young couu-ade agreed to this. We repeat the 
Incident . . ." 

( One of the agitators represents the director of the party headquarters. ) 

The director of the party headquarters: "I am the director of the last party 
headquarters [party headquarters next to border — translator]. I am giving my 
approval of having the comrade from my station go along with you as a guide. 
There is, however, unrest in the factories of Mukden, and these days the whole 
world is loking toward this city [waiting to see] whether or not one of us [our 
comrades] is coming out of the huts of the Chinese workers, and I hear [am told] 
that there are gun-boats in the rivers and armored trains on the rails ready to 
attack us the moment one of us is seen there. I am therefore recommending to 
the comrades to cross the border as Chinese. (To the agitators) You must not 
be seen." 

The tiro agitators: "We shall not be seen." 

The director of the party headquarters: "If one [of you] is wounded he must 
not be found." 

The tiro agitators: "He will not be found." 

No. 3a Recitative 

Above measure 1 : Energetic. 

Above measure 3 : The director of the party headquarters. 

Above measure 5: (forceful, fresh). 

From measure 5 on : "Are you ready to talk as long as you can [are able to] 
talk,/ but to disappear before anybody is looking,/ [and] also to hide the living 
and [as well as] the dead?"/ 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 197 

Above measure 17 : The two agitators (spoken [not snn.ul ) . "Yes !" 

Abbreviation before measure 1!): The leader of tlie party headquarters. 

Above measure 23 : (in a loud tone of voire rhythniicaily). 

Above measure 22 in piano accompaniment : hurrying — ^a tempo. 

From measure 20 on : "Then you will not be yourselves any more ;/ you [will bej 
no lousier Karl Schmidt of Berlin,/ you [vpill be] no longer Anna Kjersk of 
Kasan,/ and you [will be] no longer Peter Sawitsch of Moscow:/ rather, you 
[will] all [be] without name and [without] mother, bhiuk pages upon whicli 
the Revolution writes its order[s]."V 

Above measure 25 (again sung). 

Abbreviation before measure 31 : The director of the party headquarters. 

Above measure 34 : The two agitators (siioken [not sung]). "Yes!" 

Above measure 37 : (The director of the party headquarters hands them masks.) 
a. tempo, somewhat slower. 

Above measure 47: (The dii-ector of the party headquarters) (always very 
forceful and fresh). 

From measure 47 on : "Then, from this liour on, you are no longer nobody ;/ 
rather, from this liour on. and probably until your disappearance,/ [you will be] 
unknown workers, lighters, Cliinese, born of Chinese mothers, yellow-skinned, 
speaking Chinese in [your] sleep and in [your] fever."/ 

Above measure 54 : (spoken [not sung]). 

Abbreviation before measure 58 : The director of the party headquarters. 

Above measure 59 : The two agitators ( they put on their masks) . 

Measure 60 : "Yes !" 

Above measure 70 : The director of the party headquarters (calling out loudly) : 
"In the interest of Communism,/ in sympathy with the marching on of the prole- 
tarian masses [the proletariat] of all countries,/ saying yes to [advocating] the 
revolutionizing of the world."/ 

Above measure 74 : The two agitators. "Yes !" 

[At the end] The two agitators: In this manner the young comrade showed 
his agreement with tlie cover-up [masking] of liis face, 

Xo .3b Declamation 

Above measure 1: (speak very distinctly) footnote: The tempo of the chorus 
is about 152 metronome beats, with particular stress, however, upon distinct 
pronunciation [of the words]. 

P>efore measure 1 : Cliorus. 

Before measure 1 of the accompaniment : Small drum. 

Above measure 23 : Broad. 

At the end : The four agitator.s : "We went as Chinese to Mukden — four men 
and a woman — to spread propaganda and to create the Chinese party through 
the teachings of the Classics and of the propagandists — the ABC of Conununism ; 
to bring truth to the ignorant about their situation: [to teach] the oppressed 
class conscience, and the class-conscious the experience [s] of the Revolution." 

No. 4 Praise of the lUegal Labor [Hail to Illcf/al labor!] 

Above measure 1 : Hard and dry. 

Before measure 1 : Tenor ; chorus, bass. 

From measure 2 on : "How beautiful [it is] to plead the cause of class struggle,/ 
to call our loudly and resoundingly [to urge] the masses to the fight,/ to annihilate 
tlie opitressors. to liberate the oppressed./" 

Above measure 13 : flowing. 

From measure 13 on : "Hard and useful is the daily toil — the persistent and 
secretive knotting of the great net of the Party before the rifles of the employers."/ 

Above measure 16 : (energetic). 

Above measure 22 : With full force. 

Before measure 22: Soprano, Contralto, Tenor, Bass. 

Soprano: "To talk ! To compier ! To die ! 

Contralto: ditto. 

Tenor: ditto. 

Bass: "To talk, but to secrete the talker. To conquer, but to secrete the 
Conqueror. To die. but to secrete the death." 

Above measure 28 : Somewhat hurrying. 

From measure 28 on. Soprano and Contralto. "Who would not do much for 
fame?/ But who does it for silence?"/ 



198 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

From measure 29 on, Tenor and Bass : same words. 

Above measure 34 : In march tempo. 

From measure 44 on : "But the needy eater invites honor to the table ;/ out 
of the luunble and tumbling down hut emerges inescapably greatness/, and 
fame asks in vain for the doers of the great deed."/ 

Above measure 63 : (spoken [not sung] ) 

From measure 64 on : "Emerge for a moment, [you] unknown [with your] 
masked faces and receive our thanks !" 

[At the end] The four agitators: "In the city of Mukden, we spread propa- 
ganda among the workers. We had no bread for the hungry, only knowledge 
for the ignorant ; therefore we spoke of the underlying reason of the need, did 
not. abolish the need, but spoke of the abolishing of the underlying reason." 

Footnote (NB. above measure 72:) This beiit must be repeated until the 
four agitators have finished their speech. 

///. The Stone 
[pp. 31-45] 

The four agitators: "At first we went to the lower city. There, coolies pulled 
a boat from the shore on a rope. But the earth was slipi>ery. When one [of 
them] slipped and the overseer kicked him, we told the young comrade: Follow 
them and spread propaganda among them. Tell them that in Tientsin you have 
seen boatmen with shoes provided with boards under the soles so that they could 
not slip. Try to manage that they too will demand such shoes. Don't, however, 
fall prey to pity ! And we asked : Are you agreed, and he was agreed and hurried 
there and fell prey to pity. We are demonstrating :" 

(Two of the agitators represent coolies, in that they tie a rope to a pole and 
pull the rope over their shoulders. One represents the young comrade, the other, 
the overseer.) 

The overseer: "I am the overseer. The rice must be in the city of Mukden 
before nightfall." 

The tico coolies: ''We are the coolies and drag the rice-boat up the river." 

No. 5 Sonff of the Rice Boatmen 

Above measure 4 : The first coolie : 

From measure 5 on : "In the city up the stream there is for us a mouthful of 
rice,/ but the boat is heavy which must go upstream, and the water flows down- 
stream ; we shall never get up there."/ 

Before measure 15 : Tenor, male chorus, Bass. 

From measure IS on: "Pull faster, the mouths are waiting to be fed./ Pull 
evenly, do not push the man next to you !" 

[Between staves, above measure 36] 

The young comrade: "Ugly it is to listen to the beauty with which the men 
cloak the anguish of their work." 

The overseer : "Pull faster !" 

Above measure 38: The first coolie: "Night is falling soon: the mattress, too 
small for a dog's shadown, costs half a mouthful of rice./ Because the shore 
is too slippery, we cannot make any headway."/ 

Above measure 55: (but faster). 

Before measure 55 : Tenor, male chorus, Bass. 

From measure 56 on : "Pull faster, the mouths are waiting to be fed./ Full 
evenly, do not push the man next to you !"/ 

Above measure 73: The second coolie: (slipping) "I am stuck." 

Tlie first coolie: (while the coolies are just standing and are being whipped 
until the one who fell is on his feet again) "Longer than we hold the rope which 
cuts into the shoulder ; the whip of the overseer has seen four generation, we 
are not the last one."/ 

Footnote to measure 81 : If the first basses do not have the high F-major, 
which actually is to be executed in a yelling fashion, all basses will sing only 
the voice of the second basses. 

From measure 82 on: "Pull faster, the mouths are waiting to be fed, to be 
fed./ Pull evenly, do not push tlie man next to you ! Ohay, Ohay !"/ 

The iiovtifi comrade: "Difficult it is to view these men without pity, (to the 
overseer) Don't you see that the earth is too slippery?" 

The overseer: "What is the earth?" 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 199 

The yoiing comrade: "Too slippery!" 

The overseer: "Wluit? Do jou cialm that the shore is too slippery to pull a 
boatload of rice?" 

The young comrade: "Yes!" 

The overseer: "So you believe that the city of Mukden does not need any 
i-iceV" 

The young comrade: "When (the) people fall down they cannot pull the boat." 

The overseer: "Shall I [do you want me to] put down a stone for everyone, 
from here to the city of Mukden V" 

The young comrade: "I don't know what you should do, but I know what they 
should [do]. (To the coolies) Don't believe that anything that has not worked 
for two thousand years is never going to work. In Tientsin I have seen shoes 
on the [feet of the] boatmen that have boards under the soles so that they could 
not slip. This they have accomplished through unanimous demand. There- 
fore, also demand such shoes unanimously." 

The coolies: "Keally, we cannot pull this boat without such shoes any longer." 

The overseer: "But the rice must be in the city tonight." 

(He whips, they pull) 

Above measure 92 : The first coolie : "Our fathers piilled the boat from the 
mouth of the river upstream aways,/ our children will reach the spring, we 
are in between."/ 

Bass from measure 100 on : "Pull faster, the mouths are waiting to be fed, 
to be fed. Pull evenly, do not push the man next to you, man next to you."/ 

Measures 102 and 103, 106 and 107, Tenor : "Ohay ! Ohay !"/ 

The second coolie: "Help me!" 

The young comrade: "Aren't you a man [human being]? Here, I am taking 
a stone and putting it into the mud (to the coolie) and now step [on it] !" 

The overseer: "Right. What can shoes in Tientsin do for us here? I'd rather 
let your pitying comrade run alongside you with a stone to put it down for anyone 
who slips." 

Above measure 110: The first coolie: Then : "There is rice in the boat./ The 
peasant who harvested it got a handful of coins ; we get still less ; an ox would 
be dearer./ We are too dear."/ 

Above measure 125: (One of the coolies slips, the young comrade puts down 
the stone for him, and the coolie gets up on his feet again.) 

Above measure 126: (very fast). 

Tenor and Bass from measure 126 on : "Pull faster, the mouths are waiting to 
be fed./ Pull evenly, do not push the man next to you !" 

Above measure 146: The first coolie: "When the rice arrives in the city and 
the children ask/ who has pulled the heavv boat, the answer will be: it has been 
pulled."/ 

Above measure l.'>6: (One of the coolies slips, the young comrade put down 
the stone for him, and the coolie get up on his feet again.) 

Tenor, from measure 159 on : "Ohay ! Hav ! Ohay ! Hay ! Ohay ! Hay ! 
Ohay! Hay!" 

P.ass. from measure 157 on : "Pull faster, the mouths are waiting to be fed, 
to lie fed./ Pull evenly, do not push the man next to you, man next to you !" 

Above measure 166: (yelling). 

From measure 166 on : "The food from below comes to the eaters above. [They] 
who pulled it/ have not eaten./ Ohay! Hay!"/ 

(One of the coolies slips, the young comrade puts the stone down for him, the 
coolie gets up on his feet again.) 

The young comrade : "I can do no more. You must demand other shoes." 

The coolie : "This [He] is a fool to be laughed at." 

The overseer : "No, be is one of those who agitate among the people [against] 
us. Halloh, grab him !" 

The four agitators: And pr(>sently be was seized. And he was hxinted for two 
days and met [up with] us, and we were chased w'ith him through the city of 
Mukden for a week and could not lot ourselves be seen in the lower [part of the] 
city. 

The leader of the controlling chorus: Discussion ! But it is not right to support 
the weak/, wherever be may be. to assist him, [to support and assist] the 
exploited, in his daily toil/ and oppression 1/ 

The four agitators: He has not helped him, but he has prevented us from 
spreading propaganda in our section of the city./ 



200 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

No. Ga 

Before measure 1 : Soprano, Contralto. 

Before measure 1 : Chorus : We are in accord. 

Before measure 1 : Tenor, Bass. 

Above measure 1 : (spoken [not sung] ) . 

The four agitators: The young comrade admitted that lie had separated feeling 
from sense. But we consoled him and quoted to him the [following] words of 
Comrade Lenin : 

No. 6b Lenin Quotation {Declamation [spoken chorus]) 

Before measure 1 : Soprano, Contralto, chorus. Tenor, Bass. 
"It is not he who makes no mistakes who is clever, but he who knows how 
to correct them quickly."/ 

No. 6c- Canon of a Lenin Quotation 

Before measure 1 : Soprano, Contralto, chorus. Tenor, Bass. 
Abbreviation before measure 1 : Small drum. 
Above measure 1 : Fresh, forceful. 

"It is not he who makes no mistakes who is clever, but he who knows how to 
correct them quickly !" 

Above measure 15 : (without ritardano). 

IV. Justice 

[pp. 46-52] 

Tlie four af/itators: We founded the first cells in the factories and trained the 
first functionaries, established a party school and taught them the secret manu- 
facturing of forbidden literature. But then we worked in the textile plants, and 
when the wages were cut down, a part of the workers went on strike. Since, 
however, the other part continued working the strike was endangered. We told 
the young comrade: Stand at the door of the factory and distribute pamphlets. 
We repeat the conversation [below]. 

The three agitators: You have failed with the rice boatmen. 

The i/oung coiiiraflc: Yes. 

Tlic three agitators: Have you learned something [from this experience]? 

The young comrade: Yes. 

The three agitators: Will you fare better with the strike? 

The young comrade: Yes. 

(Two of the agitators represent textile workers and the third, a policeman.) 

The two textile ivorkers: We are workers in the textile factory. 

TJie policeman: I am a policeman and gain my [daily] bread through the men 
in power in order to fight dissatisfaction. 

No. 7a strike Song 

Above measure 1 : Energetic march tempo. 

Before measure 7 : Tenor, male chorus, bass. 

From measure 10 on : "Emerge Comrade !/ Risk the penny which is a penny 
no more,/ the bedstead upon which it rains,/ and the place of work which you 
will lose tomorrow!/ Out [with you] on the street 1/ Fight! It is too late 
for waiting!/ Help yourself in that you help us!/ Practice solidarity!/ [Re- 
peat as refrain.] 

Above measure 46: The young comrade: Give away what you have [own], 
comrade : you have nothing ! 

Before measui-e 47 : Teiror, Bass. 

From measure 47 on : "Emerge, Comrade,/ confront the rifles and insist upon 
your wages! When you know that you have nothing to lose,/ their policemen do 
not have enough rirtes !/" 

After measure 64: (Here follows the refrain from X to the end, measure 45.) 

The two textile workers: We go home after hours, our wages are cut; we do 
not know, however, what to do and continue working. 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 201 

The jioung comrade: (puts leafit't into tlio pocket of one of the textile workers, 
while the other looks idly on) Kead it and pass it on. After you have read it 
you will know what you nnist do. 

The first [Iciiilc imrlicr]: (takes it and walks on) 

Tliv policciiKiii : (takes the pamphlet away from the first [textile worker]) 
who save you the pamphlet? 

71ie first [textile icorkcr]: I don't know, somebody gave it to me in passing 
by. 

The policeman: (approaches the second [textile worker]) You gave him the 
pamphlet. We policemen are looking for such [persons] who distribute those 
pamphlets. 

The second [textile ivorker]: I did not give a pamphlet to anybody. 

Tiie iiotnifi cnmraite: Is it a crime, after all. to bring knowledge to the ignorant 
about their situation? 

The ijolicviiKni: (to the second [textile worker]) Your teachings liave terrible 
consequences. When you teach in such a factory, then it does not know its 
owner any longer, [it belongs no longer to its owner]. This little pamphlet is 
more dangerous than ten canons. 

The young comrade: What's in it [what is the content]? 

The iKilieeman: That I don't know. (To the second [textile worker]) What's 
in it [what is the content] ? 

The second [textile worker] ; I don't know about the pamphlet; I did not dis- 
tribute it. 

Tlie young comrade: I know that he didn't do it. 

The policeman: (to the young comrade) Did you give him the pamphlet? 

The young comrade: No. 

The policeman: (to the second [textile w'orker] ) Then you gave it to him. 

The young comrade: (to the tirst [textile worker] ) What will happen to him? 

The first [textile tvorker] : He may be shot. 

The young comrade: Why do you want to shoot him, policeman? Aren't you 
also a proletarian? 

TJie policeman: (to the second [textile worker]) Come along, (hitting his 
head) 

llie young comrade: ( [tries to] prevent him) He didn't do it. 

The policetnan : Then it was you after all. 

The second [te-rtile worker] : He didn't do it. 

The policeman : Then it must have been both of you. 

The first [textile tcorker] : Run, man, run, your pocket is full of pamphlets! 

The policeman: ( beats the second [textile worker] down) 

The young comrade: (Points at the policeman. To the tirst [textile worker]) 
Now he beat down an innocent man ; you are a witness. 

The first [textile worker]: (attacks the policeman) You bought dog [you 
dirty dog] ! 

(The policeman draws his revolver. The young comrade grabs the policeman 
by the neck from behind; the hrst coolie slowly bends his arm back. The gun 
goes off ; the policeman is being disarmed. ) 

The young comrade: (yells) Help, comrades ! Help ! Innocent men are being 
killed here! 

The second coolie: (Rising [from the ground], ro the first [coolie]) Now we 
have beaten down a policeman and cannot .get into the factory tomorrow morning, 
and (to the young comrade) it is your fault. 

The young comrade: If you go to work [to the plant] you betray your comrades. 

The second coolie: I have a wife and three children, and when you left and 
went on strike, our wages were upped. Here, I had double wages! (He shows 
the money) . 

The young comrade: (strikes the money out of the coolie's hand) Shame on 
you, you bought (dirty) dogs! 

(The first coolie grabs him by the throat while the second picks up his mone.v. 
The young comrade strikes the attacker down with the blackj;uk of the 
policeman.) 

The second coolie: (yells) Help! There are agitators here ! 

The four agitators: And immediately the workers emerged from the plant and 
drove the pickets away. 



202 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

Discussion 

The controlling cliorus: What could the young comrade have done? 

The four agitators: He might have told the coolies that they could have de- 
fended themselves against the police [effectively] only if all the workers in the 
plant had managed to fight the police in solidarity. Then the policeman w^ould 
have been in the wrong. 

No. 7b 

Before measure 1: The controlling chorus. 

Above measure 1 : (spoken [not sung] ) : "We are in accord !" 

V. What actually is a man [human being]? 

The four agitators: Every day we struggled with the old unions, (organiza- 
tions) [with] the hopelessness and [with] the oppression ; we taught the workers 
to change the fight for better wages into the fight for power. [We] taught them 
the use of weapons and the art of street-fighting. Then we heard [were told] 
that the businessmen had a tariff quarrel with the British who ruled the city. 
In order to exploit the quarrel among the ruling in favor of the ruled, we sent 
the young comrade with a letter to the I'ichest businessman [in town]. In this 
letter was written : Arm the coolies ! To the young comrade we said : Behave 
in such a way that you will obtain the weapons. But when the food came on 
the table he was not silent. We are demonstrating the incident [below] : 

(One of the agitators represents the businessman) 

The trader [businessman]: I am the trader [businessman]. I am expecting 
a letter from the coolie union concerning an unanimous action against the 
British. 

The iioung comrade: Plere is the letter from the coolie union. 

The trader [businessman] : I am inviting you to eat with me. 

The young co)nrade: It is an honor for me to be permitted to eat with you. 

The trader [businessman] : While the food is being prepared I shall give you 
my opinion of the coolies. Please sit down here. 

The young comrade: I aiii much interested in your opinion. 

No. 8a Recitative 

Above measure 1: Free is to rythm (average tempo ca. 76 metronome beats) 

Above measure 10 : The trader [businessman] : 

From measure 11 on : "Why do I get everything cheaper than the others/ and 
why does a coolie work for me for practically nothing V" 

Above measure 14: (unhurried) 

Above measure 20: (spoken [not sung]). 

Above measure 22 : The young comrade : 

Measures 22 and 23 : "I don't know." 

From measure 24 on: (The trader [businessman]) : "Because I am a clever 
man./ You are also clever people because you know how to get the wages from 
the coolies."/ 

Above measure 32 : The young comrade : 

From measure 23 on : "We know how."/ 

Above measure 34 : The young comrade : "By the way, are you going to arm the 
coolies against the British V" 

Above measure 35: The trader [businessman] : 

From measure 35 on : "Maybe, maybe ... I know how to treat a coolie." 

Above measure 34 in accompaniment: Free as to rythm (according to the 
speaker ) . 

Abbreviation before measure 3S : The trader [businessman]. 

From measure 39 on : You must give a coolie only rice enough to keep him 
alive,/ else he cannot work for you. Is that right?" 

Above measure 47: The young comrade: 

From measure 48 on : "Yes, that's right." 

Above measure 40 (unhurried). 

Abbreviation before measure 50: The trader [businessman]. "But I sav: 
No !/ No !/ No !" 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 203 

Abbreviation before measure 54 : the trader [businessman]. 

Above measure 55 : Tempo as in tlie same place [ ?]. 

From measure 55 on: Tlien, if the coolies are cheaper than the rice,/ 1 can 
take [employ or hire] a new coolie./ Is that better [literally: more correct]?"/ 

Above measure 63 : Free as to rhythm (according to the speakers). 

Above measure 63, second staff: The young couirade: 

From measure 63 on: "Yes, that is better [literally: more correct]."/ 

Above measure 66 : The young comrade : When, by the way, will you send the 
first [batch of] arms into the lower city? 

The trader [businessman] : Soon, soon .... 

Above measure 6S : Tempo as in the same place [?] 

From measure (iS on : "You should see how the coolies who load my leather eat 
my rice./ Wliat do you think, do I pay much for the work?"/ 

Abbreviation before measure 70 : The trader [businessman]. 

Above measure 74 : Free (according to the speaker). Above that : The yoting 
comrade: No, but your rice is dear/ and the work must be good,/ but your rice 
is poor. 

Above measure 78: The trader [businessman] : 

Measures 78 and 79: You are clever [sly] people! 

Above measure 79: (They are smiling at each other) 

Above measure 80 : The young comrade : Are you going to arm the coolies 
against the British? 

Above measure 81 : The trader [businessman] : After the meal we can [let us] 
view the arsenal. 

From measui'e 83 on: "I [shall] now sing my favorite song to you."/ 

No. Sb Sonff of the Products 

Above measure 1 : Compact. 

Above measure 2 : The trader [businessman] : '"There is rice downstream/ 
people in the upper provinces need rice/ If we leave the rice in the warehouses,/ 
the rice will be dearer [more expensive] for them./ Those who pull the rice- 
boats/ will then get less rice./ Then the rice for me will become still cheaper./ 

Above measure 38: The young comrade: What actually is rice? 

Above measure 39 : Refrain somewhat more quiet. 

Abbreviation before measure 39: The trader [businessman]. 

From measure 39 on : "How do I know what rice is?/ I know who knows that !/ 
I don't know what rice is,/ I only know its price./ 

Above measure 68: The trader [businessman]: From then on: "Winter is 
coming, the coolies needs clothing,/ cotton must be bought and cotton must be 
held back./ When the cold arrives,/ clothing becomes more expensive./ The 
cotton mills pay too high wages./ There is actually too much cotton./" 

Above measure 104: The young comrade: What actually is cotton? 

Above measure 105 : Again somewhat more quiet. 

Abbreviation before measure 105 : The trader [businessman]. 
* From then on : "How do I know what cotton is,/ how do I know who knows 
that?/ I don't know what cotton is,/ I only know its price !" 

From measure 135 on:. "Such a man [Inmian being] needs too much grub./ 
This makes the man dearer [more expensive]./ To provide the grub men are 
needed. The cooks make it cheaper, but the eaters make it dearer [more ex- 
pensive]./ There are actually too few people."/ 

Above measure 158: The young comrade: What actually is a man [human 
being] ? 

Abbreviation before measure 1.50: The trader [businessman]. From then on: 
"How do I know what a man [human being] is,/ how do I know who knows 
that?/ I don't know what a man [human being] is./ I only know his price/" 

Before measure 173 : Soprano. Conti-alto, chorus. Tenor, Bass. From then on : 
"He does not know what a man [human being] is,/ he only knows his price."/ 

The trader [businessman] : (to the young comrade) And now we shall [let us] 
eat my good rice. 

The young comrade : (gets up) I cannot eat with you. 

The four agitators: This is what he said, and laughter and threat were of no 
avail in trying to force him to eat with him whom he loathed, and the trader 
[businessman] threw him out, and the coolies got no weapons. 



204 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

Discussion 

The controlling chorus : But isn't it right to put honor above everything else?' 
The four agitators : No. 

No. 9 Change the world — it needs it! 

Before measure 1 : Soprano, Contralto, Chorus, Tenor, Bass. 

From measure 2 on : "With whom wouldn't the one who is right get together 
in order to help the law?/ Wliat medicine would taste too bitter for the dying 
[man]V What infamy haven't you committed in order to extirpate infamy V/ 
If you could finally change the \\orld,/ what would you be too good for?/ Drown 
in the mud [literally : snuit], embrace the butcher, but change tlie world, it needs 
it!/ Who are you?/" 

Abave measure 49 : (spoken [not sung] ). 

Before measure 49 : Soprano, Contralto, Tenor, Bass. 

From measure 49 on: "For a long time we have listened to you not only as 
judges but also as studients." 

The four agitators: Hardly [had he arrived] at the stairs, the young comrade 
recognized his mistake and suggested that we send him back across the border. 
We clearly saw his weakness, but we still needed him, for he had a large following 
in the youth organizations and helped us much in tliose days to knot the nets 
of the party before the rifles of the employers. 

VI. The Treason 

The four agitators: During this [particular] week the persecutions increased 
extraordinarily. We had but a secreted room for the printing press and the 
pamphlets. But one [beautiful] morning strong unrest, caused by hunger, broke 
out in the city, and also from the country tliere came news concerning strong 
unrest. On the evening of the third day, arriving at our haven after being ex- 
posed to daniier, the door was opened by our young comrade. There were sacks 
in front of the house in the rain. We repeat [below] the conservation. 

The three agitators : What kind of sacks are those? 

The yoving comrade: They are our propaganda pamphlets. 

The thi'ee agitators : What are you going to do with them 

The young comrade : I have to tell you something : the new leaders of the 
unemployed arrived here today and convinced me that we have to start action 
right away. We also want to distribute the propaganda pamphlets and to 
storm the barracks. 

The three agitators : Then you showed them the wrong way. But tell us 
your rea.sons and try to convince us! 

The young comrade : The need is becoming greater and the unrest is increasing 
in the city. 

The three agitators: The ignorant are beginning to understand their position. 

The young comrade: The unemployed have accepted our teachings. 

The three agitators : The oppressed are becoming class-conscious. 

The young comrade: They are going out into the street and want to demolish 
the [cotton] mills. 

The three agitators: They are lacking the experience[s] of the Revolution. 
This makes our responsibility so much greater. 

The young comrade: The unemployed can wait no longer and 1/ can wait 
no longer either./ There are too many needs./ 

The three agitators : But there are too few fighters. 

The young comrade: Their sufferings are frightful. 

The three agitators: Suffering [alone] is not sufficient. 

The young comrade: There are inside the house seven [persons] who have 
come to us at the order of the unempUiyed. Behind them there are seven 
thousand, and they know: misfortune does not grow on your chest like leprosy; 
poverty does not fall from the rooftops like shingles; but misfortune and poverty 
are man-made ; want is being cooked for them, but their wailings is their food. 
They know everything. 

The three agitators: Do you know many regiments [troops] the government 
has at its disposal? 

The young comrade : No. 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 205 

The three agitators: Then you know too liltlo. Whore are your weapons? 

The young comrade: (he shows his h.mds) We shall tiiiht with tootli and 
nail. 

The three agitators: Tliat is not sufficient. You only see the misery of the 
uneniiiloycd, but not the misery of the emi)loyecl. You only see the city, but not 
tlie fiirnicrs. You see the soldiers oidy as oppressors, l)Ut not as opi)resse(I 
niiserables in uniform. Go, therefore, to the unemployed, recall your advice to 
storm the barracks, and convince them that they must i)articipate tonight in 
the demonstration of the factory-workers; and we shall try to convince the dis- 
satisfied soldiers that they should likewise demonstrate with us, in uniform. 

The young comrade: I have reminded the unemployed of the many times the 
sokliers have shot at them. Shall I tell them now that they should demon- 
strate j<tintly with murderersV 

The three agitators : Yes, for the soldiers can recognize that they were wrong 
to shoot at the wretched of their own class ffstate]. Remember the classical 
advice of Comrade Lenin not to view all farmers as class enemies but to wia 
over the village poor as co-fighters. 

The young comrade: Now I ask: Is it the intention of the classics [literally r 
do the classics tolerate] to let misery wait? 

The three agitators: They speak of methods which recognize misery in its 
entirety. 

The young comrade : Hence the classics do not advocate equal, immediate, and 
primary assistance to each and every miserable? 

The three agitators: No. 

The young comrade : Then the classics are dirt, and I am tearing them up ; for 
man, the living man, is roaring, and his misery breaks [tears] all the dams of 
their teacliings. Therefore I am now taking action, now and immediately, for 
I am roaring and 1 am breaking the dams of their teachings. 

( He tears up the pamphlets. ) 

The three agitators : 

Do not tear them up ! We need them/ 

Every one of them. Face reality !/ 

Your Revolution is started quickly and lasts for a day/ 

And tomorrow will be throttled./ 

But our Revolution will start tomorrow./ 

Will conquer and change the world./ 

Your revolution ends when you end [with you]./ 

When you have come to an end/ 

Our Revolution will continue [live on]. 

The young comrade: Listen to what I [have to] .say: 1 [can] see with pay- 
two eyes that mi.sery cannot wait. Therefore I oppose your resolution to wait. 

The three agitators : You have not convinced us. Go, therefore, to the unem- 
ployed and convince them that they must fall into the lines of the Revolution^ 
This is what we demand of you now in the name of the Party. 

The young comrade : 

Who, though, is the Party?/ 

Is it sitting in a house with telephones?/ 

Are its thoughts secret, its resolutions unknown?/ 

Who is it?/ 

The three agitators : 

We are it./ 

You and I and all of you — all of us./ 
In your suit it is, comrade; in your head it thinks/; 
Wherever I live there is its home; and wherever you are 
attacked, there it fights./ 

Show us the road which we shall choose, and we/ 

Shall choo.se it as you do, but/ 

Do not choose the right road without us./ 

Without us it is/ 

The wrongest [road]./ 

Do not separate from us !/ 

66957—47 14 



206 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

That the short road is better than the long [road], nobody will deny,/ 
But if somebody knows it/ And he is unable to show us, what good is his 

knowledge?/ 
Be wise [with us] !/ 
Do not separate from us!/ 

The young comrade : Because I am right, I cannot give in. With my two 
eyes I [can] see that misery cannot wait. 

No. 10 Praise of the Party [Hail to the Party] 

Before measure 1 : Soprano, Contralto, First Tenor, Chorus, Second Tenor, Bass. 

Above measure 1 : Forceful. 

From measure 3 on: (Soprano part) : The individual has two,/ the party has 
a thousand eyes./ The party sees [can see] seven states./ Tlie party has 
many hours./ The party cannot be destroyed,/ for it figlits with the methods 
of the classics which are drawn [created] from the knowledge of reality, and 
are destined to be changed/, in that the teachings spread through the masses./ 
Who, however, is the party?/ Is it sitting in a house with telephones?/ Are 
its thoughts secret,/ its resolutions unknown?/ AVho is it?/ It is [all of] us! 
[We are the party !]/ You and I and all of you, — all of us !/ In your suit it is, 
comrade,/ and in your head it thinks,/ wherever I live there is its home,/ wherever 
you are attacked, there it fights./ 

Above measure 48: (spoken [not sung]). 

Above measure 53 : ( again sung ) 

First Tenor part : The individual has two eyes./ The individual sees [can see] 
a city./ The individual has his hour./ The individual can be destroyed./ 
(continue same as Soprano part: for it fights with the methods, etc.) 

The young comrade : All this is valid no longer ; in view of the struggle I over- 
throw everything which was valid yesterday ; dissolve all agreements with 
everybody; and am doing the only human [thing]. Here is a [plan for] action. 
I am going to be the leader. My heart is beating for the Revolution. Here it is ! 

The three agitators : Silence ! 

The young comrade : Here is oppression. I am for freedom ! 

'The three agitators : Silence ! You are betraying us ! 

The young comrade : I cannot be still, because I am right. 

The three agitators : Whether you are right or wrong — if you talk we are lost ! 
Silence ! 

The young comrade: 

I saw too much./ 

Therefore I step before them./ 

As the one I am [as my.self], and tell the truth./ 
(He removes liis mask and yells) 

We have come to help you/ 

We come from Moscow./ 
(He tears up liis mask) 

The four agitators : 

And we looked toward him and in the twilight/ 

We saw his bare face,/ 

Human, open, and guileless. He had/ 

Torn the mask. 

And from the houses/ 

Came the yelling of the exploited : Who/ 

Is disturbing the sleep/ of the poor?/ 

And a wind(nv opened and a voice yelled :/ 

There are strangers here ! Chase the agitators !/ 

So they recognized us !/ 

And it was then that we heard that there was unrest/ 

In the lower city, and the ignorant waited in tlie/ 

Assembly-Halls, and the unarmed [waited] in the streets./ 

He, liowever, did not stop roaring./ 

And we beat him down/, 

Picked him up, and left the city in a hurry./ 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 207 

VII. Utmost Pcrsc<nition, and Analysis 
No. 11 RcoitativG ^ 

Before measure No. 1 : Soprano, Contralto, Chorus, Tenor, Bass, Small drum. 

Above measure 1 : Temperamental, somewhat hurrying. 

From measure 2 on : They left tho city !/ Unrest is growing in the city, but the 
leadership flees across the oi(y limits./ Your rule!/ 

Above measure 5: (spoken [not sung] ) 

Above measure 12: (a.irain sung). 

The four agitators: Just wait! Easy it is to know the right [thing]/ Far 
ahead of the end/ If one has time — if you know months ahead./ But we had 
ten minutes' time and/ [Had toj think in front of the rifles !/ 

When during our flight we came into the neighborhood of the quicklime pits 
outside of the city, we saw our persecutors behind us. Our young comrade opened 
his eyes, heard what had happened, realized what he had done, and said: We 
are lost. 

In the times of utmost persecution, confusion of theory,/ weighing asset [sj 
and possibility [liabilities]/ the fighters analyze their position./ 

Above measure 29 : The four agitators : We repeat the analysis. 

No. 12a Recitative 

Above measure 1 : March tempo. 

Below measure 3 in accouiitaniment : (very short) 

Above measure 4 : First agitator : (spoken in exact rhythm). We must get him 
across the border, we said./ 

Measure 9: Second agitator: But the masses are in the streets./ 

Above measure 13 : Third agitator : And we must bring them to the assemblies./ 

Above measure 17 : First agitator : Hence we cannot get our comrade across 
the border./ 

Above measure 22 : Third agitator : If w^e, however, hide him and he is found, 
what happens if he is recognized?/ 

Above measure 30 : The first agitator : There are gun-boats ready in the rivers, 
and there are armored trains on the trails, to attack us if one of us is seen there. 
He must not be seen./ 

No. 121) We are the Scum of the Earth 

Above measure 1: Strong march tempo (heavily stressed). 

Before measure 1 : Tenor, Chorus, Bass. From measure 1 on : If we are 
seen entering the hut[s] of the exploited,/ the canons of all exploiters will go 
off/ against the Imts/ and against our country./ For, when the hungry repels 
in pain the tormentor/, we have paid him for his pain and repelling. On our 
foreheads it is written that we are against exploitation;/ in our handbill it is 
written :/ these [men] are for the oppressed! Those who help the desperate are 
the scum of the earth/. We are the scum of the earth./ We must not be 
found./ 

Above measure 11 : (shrill) 

Above measure 26: (shrill) 

Above measure 40 : take your time 

Above measure 43: Only somewhat broader than at the beginning of the 
march. 

VIII. The Burial 
[pp. 93-100] 

The four agitators: We have resolved:/ Then he must disappear, and, as a 
matter of fact [disappear] entirely. For we cannot take him along, and we 
canot leave him here/ Therefore we must shoot him and throw him into the- 
quicklime [pit] For the quicklime will burn him./ 



208 HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 

No. 13a 

Before measure 1 : Soprano, Contralto, Chorus, Tenor, Bass : Was there no 
other way out? The four agitators: Due to the shortness of time we found no 
other way out./ As animal helps animal,/ We too wished to help him who/ 
Pought with us for our [common] cause./ Five minutes, facing the persecutors,/ 
We pondered a/ Better possibility/. You too are now pondering/ A better 
possibility./ 

(pause) 

Thus we have resolved : Now/ [let us] sever the foot from our body. Terrihle 
it is to kill. However, it is ourselves we shall kill, not only others, when nec- 
essary./ Since only force/ Can change this killing world, as/ Every living 
[person] knows./ However, we said,/ As yet the time has not come for us 
not to kill. Only with the/ Unyielding will to change the world we founded The 
Kule [Doctrine]. 

No. 13h 

Before measure 1 : Soprano, Contralto, Chorus, Tenor, Bass. 

Above measure 1: (without expression) 

From measure 1 on: "Spread [the tidings], you are assured of our sympathy,/ 
not easy was it to do what was right [to do the right thing]. It was not you who 
passed judgment on him/ but reality." 

The four agitators: We [let us] repeat our last conversation. 

The first agitator: We want to [let us] ask him whether he gives his consent, 
for he was a brave fighter. (It is true that the face which emerged from the 
mask was different from the face we had covered with the mask, as will the 
face which will be eaten by the quicklime be different from the face which 
at one time greeted us at the border.) 

The second agitator : Even if he does not give his consent, he must disappear, 
and, as a matter of fact [he must disappear] entirely. 

The first agitator: (to the young comrade) If you are caught, you will be 
shot ; and since you were recognized, our work is betrayed. Therefore we must 
shoot you and throw you into [a] quicklime [pit], to be be eaten by quicklime. 
However we ask you : Do you know any other way out? 

The young comrade : No. 

The three agitators: So we ask you: Do you give your consent? 

(pause) 

The young comrade : Yes. 

The three agitators: Where shall we put you? 

The young comrade: Into [the] quicklime [pit]. 

The three agitators: Will you do it by yourself? 

The young comrade : Help me ! 

The three agitators: Lean your head on our arm/ [and] Close your eyes! 

The young comrade : ( while he cannot be seen ) In the interest of Com- 
munism/, In accord with the on march of the proletarian masses/ of all 
countries/ Saying "Yes" to the revolutionizing of the world./ 

The three agitators: Then we shot him and/ Threw him into [the] quicklime 
[pit]. And when the quicklime had eaten him/ We returned to our work. 

No. IJf Finale [Final CJiorus] 

Above measure 1 : broad, weighty quarter-notes. 

Before measure 7 : Soprano, Contralto, Chorus, Tenor, Bass. 

From measure 11 on: And your work was happy [successful]/, and you have 
spread the teachings of the Classics, the A B C of Communism : [You have brought 
to] the ignorant knowledge of their situation, to the oppressed class consciousness 
and the experience [s] of the Revolvition./ And the Revolution marches there too./ 
And there too the lines of the fighters are orderly./ We are in accord with you./ 
But also, your report shows us/ how much is needed to change the world ; ire and 
tenacity; knowledge and uprising; quick action; deep thinking; cold suffering; 
endless waiting : understanding of the individual and understanding of the whole 
[masses?] :/ Only taught l)y reality can we change reality./ 

Above measure 17 : Do not hurry ! 

Above measure 55 : With greatest force. 

Before measure 62: Soprano, Contralto, Tenor, Bass, Small Drum (abbre- 
viated). 

Above measure 62 : (spoken [not sung] ) . 



HEARINGS REGARDING HANNS EISLER 209 

[Back cover] 

'Hanns Eisler — [List of J AVorks [compositions J [published by] Universal-Edition 

Opus 1. Sonata for piano. U. E. No. 7475. 

Opus 2. Six Songs [liederl. Voice and piano. U. E. No. 7778. 

(Ipus 3. Four pieces for Piano. U. E. No. 8436. 

•Opus 5. Palmstroem. Studies over twelve-tone-rows, for spoken voice, Flute, 
Clarinet, violin and violoncello. Poem by Christian Morgenstern, 
Partiture U. E. No. 8322. 

Opus 7. Duo for violin and violoncello. U. E. No. 8130. 

Opus 9. Diary. For women's tercet [three women's voices], tenor, violin, and 
piano. Partiture U. E. No. S8S2. 

Opus 10. Three male choruses, after the words of Heinrich Heine. 1. Tendency. 
2. Utopia. 3. "Democracy". Partiture U. E. No. 9763. [Parts for] 
chorus U. E. No. 9764. 

Opus 11. NewspaiJer items. Song and piano. U. E. 9647. 

Opus 13. Four pieces for mixed chorus. 1. Prologue (chorus) (with speaker 
and percussion ace. ad lib. ) 2. Song of the conquered. 3. Contempla- 
tion of nature [literal tran.slation ; might possibly be called "Scenery", 
"View".). 4. Kurfuerstendamm [this is a street in Berlin, a well- 
known avenue like Fifth Ave. in New York — translator]. Partiture 
U. E. No. 9765. Choral parts U. E. 9766. 

Opus 14. Two male choruses. 1. Peasant uprising (after a folk song of 1525). 
2. Short inquiry (Sons of the unemployed). Partiture U. E. No. 
9774. Choral parts U. E. 9725. 

'Opus 15. To sing in the streets. For mixed chorus and percussion instruments 
ad. lib. Partiture U. E. No. 9726. Choral parts U. E. No. 9727. 

Opus 16. Tempo of the Times. A cantata for Contralto and Bass Soli, speaker, 
mixed chorus and .small orchestra. Words by David Weber. On 
loan. Piano score with text U. E. No. 9848. 

Opus 17. Two male choruses. 1. The picket. 2. In lieu of a funeral sermon. 
Partiture U. E. No. 9776. Choral parts U. E. 9777. 

Opus 18. Book of Ballads. 1. Ballad of the Maimed (David Weber). 2. Ballad 
to Paragraph 218 (Bert Brecht). 3. Address to the "Karl" (Bert 
Brecht). 4. Song of Demand and Supply (Bert Brecht). 5. Song 
of Dry Bread (W. Mehring). 6. Ballad of Nigger Jim (David 
Weber). Edition for piano and voice. U. E. No. 3742a-f. 

Opus 19. Two pieces for male chorus. 1. Also striking : 50,000 lumberjacks. 
Partiture U. E. No. 9971. Choral parts U. E. No. 9972. 2. In the 
military barracks. Partiture U. E. No. 9973. Choral parts U. E. 
No. 9974. 

Opus 20. The Rule [Doctrine]. Drill by Bert Brecht. (Tenor, three speakers, 
male chorus, mixed chorus, and orchestra). Oh loan. Piano score 
U. E. No. 2744. Choral parts U. E. 2745. 

Opus 21. Two pieces for mixed chorus. I. Liturgy of the breath. Partiture U. E. 
No. 8202.* II. About killing. Partiture U. E. No. 8204. Choral 
parts U. E. No. 8205. 

* Choral parts U. E. No. 8203. 

Opus 23. Suite for orche.stra. 1. Prelude in form of a passacaglia. 2. Enter- 
tainment music No. 1 (Intermezzo). 3. Entertainment music No. 2 
(Potpourri of Russian folk songs). 4. Audio-Etude. On loan. 

To be ordered through any music store. 

Universal-Edition A. G., Vienna-Leipsic. 

(Translated by Elizabeth Hanunian, September 18, 1947.) 

hck. 

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