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Full text of "Hearings regarding Jack R. McMichael. Hearings before the Committee on Un-American Activities, House of Representatives, Eighty-third Congress, first session. July 30 and 31, 1953"

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'HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 



HEARINGS 



BEFORE THE 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
^ ^^"V'HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 



EIGHTY-THIRD CONGRESS 



JULY 30 AND 31, 1953 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 



INCLUDING INDEX 






UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
39125 WASHINGTON : 1953 



(j w 



Boston Public Library 
Superintendent of Documents 

FEB 9 - 1954 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AJVIERICAN ACTIVITIES 

United States House of Representatives 

HAROLD H. VELDE, Illinois, Chairman 
BERNARD W. KEARNEY, New York FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania 

DONALD L. JACKSON, California MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missoxiri 

KIT CLARDY, Michigan CLYDE DOYLE, California 

GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio JAMES B. FRAZIER, Jr., Tennessee 

Robert L. Kdnzig, Counsel 

Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., Counsel 

Louis J. Rdssell, ChieJ Investigator 

Thomas W. Beai.e, Sr., Chief Clerk 

Raphael I. Nixon, Director of Research 

II 



CONTENTS 



July 30, 1953 

Page 

Testimony of Jack R. McMichael 2615 

July 31, 1953 
Testimony of — 

Jack R. McMichael (resumed) 2761 

Martha N. Edmiston 2823 

John J. Edmiston 2848 

Exhibits : 

McMichael Exhibit No. 1: The Fight (magazine), November 1937, 

page 28, article by James Lerner, entitled "Youth Notes" 2618 

McMichael Exhibit No. 1-B: Subpena in summons of Jack Mc- 
Michael to be and appear before the Committee on Un-American 
Activities on July 30, 1953 2636 

McMichael Exhibit No. 1-C: Subpena duces tecum in summons of 
Jack McMichael to be and appear before the Committee on Un- 
American Activities on July 30, 1953, and to produce certain papers 
and documents 2638 

McMichael Exhibit No. 2: Affidavit of Martha N. Edmiston and 
John J. Edmiston, dated January 31, 1953, with reference to Rev. 
Jack R. McMichael 2669 

McMichael Exhibit No. 2-A: Social Questions Bulletin, December 

1952, article on Korea, signed J. R. M 2662 

McMichael Exhibit No. 3: American Youth Congress, call to young 
people of New York to the New York State model legislature at 
the College of the City of New York, January 28-30, 1938, listing 
program and sponsors of the AYC opp. 2673 

McMichael Exhibit No. 4: American Youth Congress, Fifth Con- 
gress, Congress of Youth, pamphlet containing proceedings, July 
1-5, 1939, New York City 2675 

McMichael Exhibit No. 5: Young Communist Reviev\-, August 1939, 

pages 5-7, article. What Happened at the AYC, by Carl Ross 2680 

McMichael Exhibit No. 6: Sixth American Youth Congress, report, 

July 3-7, 1940 2683 

McMichael Exhibit No. 7: Young Communist Review, July 22, 1940, 
pages 8 and 9, article, Youth Speaks for National Defense Based 
on Youth Needs, Not for Imperialism, by Max Weiss, national 
president. Young Communist League, U. S. A., including photo- 
graph of Jack McMichael 2685 

McMichael Exhibit No. 8: Daily Worker, July 7, 1941, pages 1 and 

5, article, Youth Adopt Anti-Fascist Program, by Milton 5leltzer__ 2688 

McAlichael Exhibit No. 9: Young Communist Review, August 5, 

1940, pages 2 and 12, article, Historv Was Made at Sixth Youth 
Congress, by Carl Ross . 2692 

McMichael Exhibit No. 10: Young Communist Review, September 
30, 1940, page 3, article Yardstick for First Voters Drawn up by 
Youth Congress 2695 

McMichael Exhibit No. 11: Handbill advertising rally, sponsored by 
the American Youth Congress, at the Mecca Temple, Friday, 
January 31, 1941 2700 

McMichael Exhibit No. 12: Confidential police report on American 

Youth Congress Rally, described in exhibit No. 11 2701 

McMichael Exhibit No. 13: Town Crier, pamphlet printed for the 
Town Meeting of Youth held in Washington, D. C, February 7-9, 

1941, containing program and articles thereon 2707 

in 



IV CONTENTS 

Exhibits— Continued I'^ee 

McMichael Exhibit No. 14: Washington Star, February 8, 1941, 
article, Youth Congress Raps "Warmongers" in Rally at Turner 
Arena 2712 

McMichael Exhibit No. 15: Young Communist Review, March 3, 
1941, pages 2, 8, 9, and 15, article. Town Meeting Stuns Jingoes: 
Labor, Youth March for Peace 2714 

McMichael Exhibit No. 16: Town Meeting of Youth, leaflet published 
by American Youth Congress, containing on page 9, a reprint of an 
article from the Washington Times Herald, February 8, 1941 2718 

McMichael Exhibit No. 17: Daily Worker, October 17, 1941, article, 

Youth Rally Cheers Call: "We Can't Wait" 2719 

McMichael Exhibit No. 18: Confidential poUce report, October 18, 
1941, describing a mass meeting called by the American Youth 
Congress, outside the Japanese consulate, including the name of 
Jack McMichael as having been a speaker 2720 

McMichael Exhibit No. 19: EquaUty, February 1940, page 21, article, 

Mr. Youth Goes to Washington, by Jack R. McMichael 2723 

McMichael Exhibit No. 20: Call and program, Conference on Con- 
stitutional Liberties, June 7-9, 1940, Washington, D. C 2727 

McMichael Exhibit No. 21: National Conference on Constitutional 
Liberties in America, letterhead dated June 3, 1940, listing Jack 
McMichael on provisional committee 2731 

McMichael Exhibit No. 22: National Federation for Constitutional 

Liberties, letterhead dated September 11, 1940, and press release.- 2733 

McMichael Exhibit No. 23: Daily Worker, December 19, 1940, page 5, 

article. Free Sam Darcy, Educators and Writers Urge Olson. _ opp. 2736 

McMichael Exhibit No. 24: Call to National Action Conference for 

Civil Rights, April 19-20, 1941 2738 

McMichael Exhibit No. 25: Committee to Defend America by Keep- 
ing Out of War, letterhead dated August 10, 1940 2744 

McMichael Exhibit No. 26: Pamphlet, Mobilize for Peace, Chicago, 

August 31, September 1-2, 1940 2751 

McMichael Exhibit No. 27: Leaflet, Defend America Now, August 31, 

1940 2755 

McMichael Exhibit No. 28: Daily Worker, August 31, 1940, pages 1 

and 4, article, Delegates from All America Pour in to Peace Parley. 2756 

McMichael Exhibit No. 29: Daily Worker, October 8, 1940, page 2, 

article, Butler Drives Youth to War, Says AYC Leader 2762 

McMichael Exhibit No. 30: Daily Worker, February 6, 1941, article, 

Spain Rescue Mission Signs Contract for Refugee Ship 2766 

McMichael Exhibit No. 31: United American Spanish Aid Committee, 

undated letterhead 2777 

McMichael Exhibit No. 32: Daily Worker, March 5, 1941, page 2, 
article. Text of Statement in Defense of Communist Party, including 
list of 450 prominent Americans who signed statement opp. 2783 

McMichael Exhibit No. 33: American Council on Soviet Relations, 
invitation to a reception, November 16, 1941, on occasion of eighth 
anniversary of establishment of diplomatic relations between the 
U. S. A. and the U. S. S. R., and Hsting Jack McMichael as an 
honor gu est 2786 

McMichael Exhibit No. 33-A: American Council on Soviet Relations, 
letter dated November 10, 1941, announcing the sale of tickets for 
a meeting, November 17, 1941, in connection with the occasion 
described in exhibit No. 33, and listing Jack McMichael among the 
speakers 2787 

McMichael Exhibit No. 34: American Council on Soviet Relations, 
invitation to be guest of honor at celebration described in exhibit 

No. 33-A 2788 

McMichael Exhibit No. 35: American Council on Soviet Relations, 
press release describing speech delivered by Jack McMichael on 

occasion described in exhibit No. 33-A 2789 

McMichael Exhibit No. 36: Confidential police report, dated Novem- 
ber 28, regarding a meeting held under the auspices of the Fordham 
Forum in cooperation with the American Council on Soviet Rela- 
tions, and listing Jack McMichael as a speaker 2790 



CONTENTS V 

Exhibits— Continued P"K8 

McMichael Exhibit No. 37: Schappes Defense Commiuee, letter- 
head (undated), hsting Jack R. McMichael among the sponsors 2793 

McMichael Exhibit No. 38: People's Institute of Applied Religion, 
letterhead dated April 9, 1942, listing Jack R. McMichael, Jr., 
among the sponsors 2810 

McMichael Exhibit No. 39: People's Institute of Applied Religion, 
letterhead dated January 1, 1948, listing Rev. Jack McMichael as 
one of the international sponsors 2811 

McMichael Exhibit No. 40: Daily Worker, February 17, 1942, page 

3, article, Union Rally for Browder Set for Tomorrow Night 2821 

McMichael Exhibit No. 41: Daily Worker, February 24, 1942, page 

3, article, Youth Parley to Free Browder Speeds Drive 2822 

Mrs. Edmiston Exhibit Mo. 1: Methodist FederatiDO for Social Action 

Program of Study and Action, as revised December 30, 1949 2828 

Mrs. Edmiston Exhibit No. 2: Official program of the Emergency 

Peace Mobilization, Chicago, August 31-September 2, 1940 2833 

Index 2853 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
AcTivitief operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946], chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides : 

Be it enacted fty the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assemUed, * * 

PART 2-RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 



17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 



(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

\ii T^L'c'SmSL't' un-American Activities, as a whole or by s^ommlt- 

te/LSbSS,.^^^..^a.e^ 

character, and objects ot "°-^™f "^^^^.^' "f* „^ subversive and un-American propa- 

SfsnTSesL^?nar5>rort.r^/?ufr^ 

designated by any such chairman or member. 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 83D CONGRESS 
House Resolution 5, January 3, 1953 



Rule X 

B■-^V5>Sfc > ■ 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Congress, 
the following standing committees : 

******* 

(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 

«., « * * * * * 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
* * * * * • * 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American Activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time, investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States; 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 
' For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by such chairman, and may be served by any person desig- 
nated by any such chairman or member. 



HEAEINGS KEGARDING JACK E. McMICHAEL 



THURSDAY, JULY 30, 1953 

United States House of Representatives, 

Committee of Un-American Activities, 

Washington^ D. C. 

PUBLIC HEARING 

The Committee on Un-American Activities met, pursuant to call, at 
10 : 10 a. m., in the caucus room, 362 Old House Office Building, 
Hon. Harold H. Velde (chairman) presiding. 

Committee members present: Representatives Harold H. Velde 
(chairman) , Donald L. Jackson, Kit Clardy, Gordon H. Scherer, Fran- 
cis E. Walter, Morgan M. Moulder, Clyde Doyle (appearance noted in 
transcript), and James B. Frazier, Jr. (appearance noted in 
transcript). 

Staff members present : Robert L. Kunzig, counsel ; Frank S. Taven- 
ner, Jr., counsel ; Thomas W. Beale, Sr., chief clerk; Raphael I. Nixon, 
director of research ; James A. Andrews, investigator ; Earl L. Fuoss, 
George C. Williams, and George E. Cooper, investigators; Leslie C. 
Scott, research analyst : Mrs. Juliette Joray, assistant to the chief clerk ; 
and Kathryn Zimmerman, staff representative. 

Mr. Velde. The committee will be in order, please. 

Let the record show that present are Mr. Jackson, Mr. Clardy, Mr. 
Scherer, Mr. Walter, Mr. Moulder, and the chairman, Mr. Velde, a 
quorum. 

Before commencing the hearing this morning I would like to remind 
the members of the committee, the press, and the public that we are 
obligated under Public Law 601 to investigate subversive activities and 
propaganda and to report thereon to the Congress for the purposes of 
remedial legislation. 

The committee has done its best to follow its line of duty in this 
respect, and, in this hearing, therefore, I must insist that we follow the 
regular rules of procedure which have been adopted by our committee. 

The committee is unanimous, I am sure, in the feeling that it should 
not be used as a forum for any religious dispute. I, therefore, respect- 
fully request of the witness and the members that the hearing this 
morning be confined to the jurisdiction of this committee. 

The Chair will do its utmost to assure every member of this commit- 
tee as well as the witness ample opportunity to make statements, ask 
and answer questions, which are in line with the purposes and aims of 
the United States Congress in the establishment of this committee. 

With that, will you proceed, Mr. Counsel ? 

Mr. Kunzig. Will the Reverend Jack McMichael please step for- 
ward? 

2611 



2612 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

He was subpenaed, Mr. Chairman, for 10 o'clock. It is now almost 
a quarter after 10. If he is slightly delayed 

Mr. Velde. Well, of course, we should give the witness a reasonable 
opportunity to appear. 

Mr. KuNziG. Then, I respectfully request that we take a few mo- 
ments respite here while we wait for the witness, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. The committee will be in recess for 10 minutes. 

(Whereupon, at 10 : 14 a. m., the hearing was recessed, to reconvene 
at 10 :24 a.m.) 

(The hearing reconvened at 10:20 a. m., the following committee 
members being present : Representatives Harold H. Velde (chairman) , 
Donald L. Jackson, Kit Clardy, Gordon H. Scherer, Francis E. Walter, 
Morgan M. Moulder, and Clyde Doyle.) 

Mr. Velde. The committee will be in order, please. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Chairman, the witness is now present. Would the 
witness please stand to be sworn 2 

Mr. Velde. Will you raise your right hand, please? 

In the testimony you are about to give before this committee, do you 
solemnly swear you will tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God ? 

Reverend McMichael. I do. 

Mr. Chairman, back in the country town where I've come from it's 
7 o'clock in the morning. 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Chairman, I ask for regular order. 

Reverend McMichael. I wanted to 

Mr. Clardy. We haven't addressed a question to the witness yet. 

Reverend McMichael. I am sorry. I was told I was to make this 
request myself. 

Mr, KuNziG. Mr. Chairman, perhaps it would be facilitated if I ask 
the witness if he has counsel present with him. 

Reverend McMichael. Yes. Mr. Donner. 

Mr, KuNziG. Would counsel please state his name and home office 
address for the record ? 

Mr. Donner. My name is Frank J. Donner. My home office address 
is 104 East 40th Street, New York City. 

Mr. KuNziG. Is counsel familiar with the printed rules and regula- 
tions of this committee? 

Mr. Donner, Well, I should explain I was called by the Methodist 
Federation for Social Action last night to appear before the committee 
in order to ask for an adjournment on Mr. McMichael's belialf ; that I 
haven't had a chance to familiarize myself with the rules, because I 
was called in so suddenly. The regular counsel is Mr. Royal France, 
who is on vacation now, and it was proposed to the committee that an 
adjournment be asked until Mr. France could be here to act as Mr. 
McMichael's counsel. 

Mr. Walter. I am sure the witness doesn't need counsel. Of 
course, he is entitled to counsel but when any legal questions arise you 
can certainly advise him. You don't have to know anjrthing about the 
facts. You know the Constitution. 

Reverend McMichael. Mr. Chairman, may I just briefly — I don't 
want to press this point at all. I have come from a small town in Cali- 
fornia, Mr. Chairman, and found myself somewhat unprepared so 
far as documentation and materials are concerned about things I 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 26 13 

thought you would be interested in, and could have — had I been given 
more time — could have prepared myself a little better; but I don't 
want to press this point at all, if you don't want to make it. 

And I would just like, in courtesy to you, to say it is 7 o'clock in 
California and I regret being a little bit late, but it's partly because 
I wanted to be helpful today and I have been trying to get these docu- 
ments together. 

Mr. Velde. Just a minute, Reverend. When did you arrive in 
Washington ? 

Reverend McMichael. I arrived yesterday in Washington and I 
have been trying to get hold of material I didn't have in Upper Lake, 
Calif., because I thought — I understood from the subpena — you, 
wanted material on my association with the federation. I have been 
trying to meet that request, because 

Mr. Velde. Did you hire other counsel before your present counsel ? 

(Representative James B. Frazier, Jr., entered the hearing room 
at this point.) 

Reverend McMichael. Yes. Let me explain that so the record will 
be clear. 

My annual conference — the California-Nevada Conference of the 
Methodist Church — has a board of lay activities, and the lay leader 
of the district, in which my church is, is also a lawyer and was engaged 
by the chairman of the conference board of lay activities as my at- 
torney, and did function in terms of telephone calls ; but, as we thought 
about it, it seemed that the expense was pretty great. I'm not — I'm 
just a poor Methodist preacher. It would have involved the old Meth- 
odist custom of passing the hat, with which you would be familiar — 
passing the collection plate. 

Mr. Walter. Where are you stopping at in Washington? 

Reverend McIVIighael. Mayflower Hotel. 

Mr. KuNziG. Who passed the hat for that ? 

Reverend McMichael. I assume this committee will pay my ex- 
penses, Mr. Chairman. Isn't that true ? 

Mr. Velde. What is your request ? 

Reverend McMichael. I am under subpena. 

Mr. Velde. Will you state your wish so we may get on with this 
hearing? 

Reverend McMichael. No; I was only saying I wasn't pressing the 
point about a hearing adjournment. The gentleman — I don't know 
his name — made the suggestion I wouldn't need counsel. That is 
perfectly all right with me. I won't press that point at all. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Chairman, I would like the record to show, since 
I dealt with Mr. George Dilley — D-i-1-l-e-y — that on July 28 Mr. 
Dilley called from Santa Rosa, Calif., stated that he was the counsel 
for Reverend McMichael, that he would be present here today, and he 
made arrangements with me over the phone with regard to flights on 
airplanes, and so forth. He stated that he had a copy of our printed 
rules of procedure and that he understood them, and that he would 
meet me here in Washington yesterday. • 

I waited all day yesterday, sir ; but I never heard from either Rev- 
erend McMichael or Mr. George Dilley, who is a member of the 
California bar. 

(Representative Francis E. Walter left the hearing room at this 
point.) 



2614 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

Mr. KuNziG. This morning at about 25 minutes of 10 — probably 25 
minutes before this hearing was scheduled to begin — I received a 
telephone call from Mr. Domier, who is present here acting as coun- 
sel. That is the first I knew or any of us knew there was a shift in 
counsel, sir ; and I think that should be made clear for the record. 

Reverend McMiciiael. Mr. Chairman, it is true 

Mr. Clardy. You may remain seated. 

Reverend McMichael. Oh, that is all right. I am sorry. That will 
be much more comfortable. 

Mr. George Dilley is counsel from the standpoint of my annual con- 
ference, and the group back there, which is backing me fully, and Mr. 
Donner is substituting for Mr. France, who's been ill and on vacation 
and unable to be here at this time, on behalf of the federation. 

There were 2 subpenas, and 1 bore on the Federation and 1 was to 
me personally. 

Mr. Dilley phoned Mr. Kunzig 

I think this is probably Mr. Kunzig here 

Mr. Kunzig. That is correct. 

Reverend McMichael. And told him I would be at the Mayflower 
Hotel yesterday morning, and gave him the flight schedule. I arrived 
and was there, and stayed all morning. 

Mr. Velde. Just a minute, Reverend McMichael. 

Reverend McMichael. Yes. 

Mr. Velde. You and your former counsel, Mr. Dilley, were both 
familiar with the rules of procedure ? 

Reverend McMichael. I've — I've had the rules and looked oyer 
them. I'll do the best I can. I'm not a lawyer, but I'm not worried 
about that. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. The Chair recognizes the gentleman from California, 
Mr. Jackson. 

Mr. Jackson. You understood, from going over the rules, the 
function of counsel is that solely of advising you as to your constitu- 
tional rights? 

Reverend jSIcMichael. That's ri^ht. 

Mr. Jackson. If at any time during the course of the hearing there 
is, in your mind, a question as to your constitutional rights, as to 
whether or not you should answer the question, you, of course, may 
consult with your counsel. 

Counsel has a somewhat restricted activity before the committee, 
in that his purpose is that of giving advice on constitutional questions 
when requested. 

It appears to me, in light of that, that one counsel may serve your 
purpose almost as well as another 

Reverend McMichael. That's right. 

Mr. Jackson. And I would suggest, if you are not inclined to labor 
the point 

Reverend McMichael. No. 

Mr. Jackson. We proceed, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. Yes. 

(Representative Francis E. Walter reentered the hearing room at 
this point.) 

Reverend McMichael. Mr. Chairman 

Mr. Velde. We will proceed. 

Reverend McMichael. Just to conclude 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2615 

Mr. Velde. The Chair concurs with the gentleman from California. 

Reverend McMichael. Mr. Chairman 

Mr. Velde. Will you proceed, Mr. Counsel ? 

Reverend McMichael. Mr. Chairman 

Mr. KuNziG. Yes, Mr. Chairman. 
Mr. Velde. Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

TESTIMONY OP REV. JACK RICHARD McMICHAEL, ACCOMPANIED 
BY HIS COUNSEL, PRANK J. DONNER 

Mr. KuNziG. Reverend McMichael, will you please state your full 
name for the record? 

Reverend McMichael. Jack Richard McMichael. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you spell it, please? 

Reverend McMichael. J-a-c-k R-i-c-h-a-r-d M-c-M-i-c-h-a-e-1. 

Mr. KuNziG. What is your present address, sir? 

Reverend McMichael. Upper Lake, Calif.; box 276. I live on 
Church Street, next door to the Methodist Church. 

Mr. KuNziG. What is your age. Reverend McMichael? 

Reverend McMichael". I was born February 25, 1917. 

Mr. KuNziG. You are, therefore, what — 35 ? 

Reverend McMichael. That would be 36. 

Mr. KuNziG. Thirty-six. 

Would you tell the committee where you were born, sir? 

Reverend McMichael. Q-u-i-t-m-a-n — Quitman, Ga. 

Mr. KuNziG. Now, would you give the committee, please, a resume 
of your educational background? 

Reverend McMichael. I was — I'm a graduate of Quitman High 
School, Quitman, Ga., High School, of course. I went through gram- 
mar school and high school there. Following graduation from Quit- 
man High School, I went to Methodist University, outside of Atlanta, 
Emory University, and graduated from there with my bachelor of arts 
degree, taking preministerial work there, and I received mj' bachelor of 
divinity degree from Union Theological Seminary in New York City ; 
and, on the traveling fellowship which that seminary offers to a stu- 
dent, I went to the Pacific School of Religion to prepare for the chap- 
laincj^ and also to serve a pastorate in California, and at the same time 
did further graduate work at the Pacific School of Religion, which is in 
Berkeley, Calif., where I received a master of sacred theology degree. 

I have done further work in preparation for doctorate in the field 
of religion at Columbia University, and have completed a matricula- 
tion examination but have not yet done my dissertation on that. 

Mr. KuNziG. Will you now, please, sir, give the committee a resume 
of your employment background — your assignments — since you be- 
came a minister? 

Reverend McMichael. Yes. 

I was first assigned in the — when I became a member of the Cali- 
fornia-Nevada Conference — prior to that, though, it was a ministerial 
assignment. I was assigned to Arkansas for two summers during my 
theological seminary work at Union Seminary, and worked under the 
Home Missions Council on one of those years, the latter of those 2 
years, which was connected with the Federal council — it's now the 
National Council of Churches — and then the — another year I worked 
under the board of home missions of the Presbyterian Qiurch, United 



2616 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

States of America — that is, one summer — among sharecropper folk, 
largely in Arkansas. 

Then, I have served as a — as a preacher, really, since high-school 
days in my home church, and on revivals, and things of that kind, and 
during school years did some preaching; but I was appointed, after 
seminary, to the Court Street Methodist Church — C-o-u-r-t Methodist 
Church, Alameda, Calif., and was in that church until I was invited 
by a naval commander to become a chaplain at the Coast Guard base 
there in Alameda, and became a chaplain then in the middle of that 
year, and resigned from that local pastorate, with the full backing of 
the bishop and church authorities, and was a chaplain then in the 
United States Maritime Service, and was assigned in Alameda at 
the United States Maritime Service Officers' Training School ; and at 
the completion of that work, on the urging of my bishop, I left that 
to go, in 1945, into the Methodist Federation for Social Service, it was 
then called, and that name was changed at our annual membership 
meeting. 

I think the House committee wanted that information for its review. 
They said they didn't know when that happened. 

Mr. KuNziG. What date was that ? 

Reverend McMichael. That was in December of 1946, going over 
into January of 1947, and it was at Garrett Biblical Institute in Evan- 
ston, 111., and the name was changed to social action, because some 
people misinterpreted the organization as being a professional social- 
work organization; and I worked with that organization as executive 
secretary until — and having under appointment and a full member of 
my annual conference, which is the California-Nevada Conference of 
the Methodist Church — it was formerly called the California Confer- 
ence, but it was changed — until June of this year, when I resigned 
from that work in order to accept a pastorate, to which — to which the 
bishop had invited me, and I am now the pastor of the Community 
Methodist Church in Upper Lake, Calif 

I think that completes the resume. 

Now, you asked about employment. I was also employed by the 
National Young Men's Christian Association for a period of 2 years, 
between — and in part with the TWCA, but primarily with the YMCA, 
especially for student work, in the 2-year period between my gradua- 
tion from Emory University in Georgia and my entry on scholarship 
into Union Theological Seminary. 

Mr. Jackson. What was the date, Mr. Chairman ? 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Jackson. 

Mr. Jackson. What was the date of that employment? 

Reverend McMichael. That YMCA employment was from the be- 
ginning or the fall of 1937 — I graduated from Emory in June of 
1937 — to the completion of the academic year, 1938-39, to the summer 
of 1939, prior to entering the seminary in 1939. 

Mr. Jackson. Thank you. 

Mr. KuNziG. Reverend McMichael, I have here a document marked 
"McMichael Exhibit No. 1" for identification, which is a copy of a page 
from the November 1937 issue of the Fight. The Fight ^ was a publica- 

1 Ficht : 

1. Cited as tlie official organ of the American League Against War and Fascism, later 
known as tlie American League for Peace and Democracy. (Special Committee on Un- 
American Activities, report, March 29, 1944, pp. 113 and 128 ; also cited in report, June 
25, 1942, p. 15). 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2617 

tion of the American League Against War and Fascism ^ which, of 
course, is well known by this time as a cited Communist-front organ- 
ization. This publication lists Jack R. McMichael as one of the en- 
dorsers of the People's Congress for Peace and Democracy.^ Did you 
endorse the People's Congress for Peace and Democracy? 

Reverend McMichael. Perhaps if you could share that document 
with me 

Mr. KuNziG. I would be glad to show it to you sir. It is on the right 
there. 

That was roughh^ in 1937. 

May I state for the record the People's Congress for Peace and 
Democracy has been cited by the California Committee on Un-Ameri- 
can Activities. The meeting of the People's Congress in 1937 spawned 
the American League for Peace and Democracy,* another cited organ- 
ization. 

Reverend McMicpiael. It says here, Mr. Chairman, "We can men- 
tion at this early date Jack R. McISIichael, cochairman of the National 
Inter-Collegiate Christian Council," and then it names other people 
from the YWCA — Joseph P. Lash, from the American 

Mr. KuNziG. Just answer the question, will you, please? 

Did you sponsor this Communist-front organization? 

Reverend McMichael. Well, I don't have tliat exhaustive a memory, 
Mr. Chairman, to be certain about that, as to whether I did. I can say 
I was never a member of the organization you refer to — the American 
League — but I could have done that. I just — that's a pretty long 
time ago, and I'm not sure. I would be glad to look it up and see if I 
have any record about it. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Chairman, I offer 

Reverend McMichael. I was against war and fascism, as far as that 
goes, though. 



-American League Against War and Fascism : 

1. Cited as subversive and Communist (Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty 
Review Board, released December 4, 1947, and September 21, 1948.) 

2. A "Communist-front organization" (Attorney General Francis Biddle, in re Harry 
Bridges, May 28, 1942, p. 10). 

3. "Established in the United States in an effort to create public sentiment on behalf 
of a foreisn policy adapted to the interests of the Soviet tjnion" (Attorney General 
Francis Biddle, Congressional Record, Sept. 24, 1942, p. 7683). 

4. "The American League Against War and Fascism was organized at the First United 
States Congress Against War which was held in New York City. September 29 to October 
1, 1933. Four years later at Pittsburgh, November 26-28, 1937, the name of the or- 
ganization was changed to the American League for Peace and Democracy. * * * It 
remained as completely under the control of Communists when the name was changed 
as it had been before" (Special Committee on Un-American Activities, report, March 29, 
1944, p. 53 ; also cited in reports, January 3, 1939, pp. 69 and 121 ; January 3, 1940, p. 
10 ; June 25, 1942, p. 14). 

^ People's Congress for Peace and Democracy : 

1. The above, "meeting in Pittsburgh in November 1937, spawned the American League 
for Peace and Democracy" (California Committee on Un-American Activities, report, 
1948, p. 150). 

■•American League for Peace and Democracy : 

1. Cited as subversive and Communist (Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty 
Review Board, released June 1, 1948, and September 21, 1948). 

2. Established in the United States in 1937 as successor to the American League Against 
War and Fascism "in an effort to create public sentiment on behalf of a foreign policy 
adapted to the interests of the Soviet Union. * * * The American League for Peace and 
Democracy * * * was designed to conceal Communist control, in accordance with the new 
tactics of the Commmunist luteinational" (Attorney General Francis Biddle, Congressional 
Record, September 24, 1942, pp. 7683 and 7684). 

3. "The largest of the Coninninist 'front' movements in the United States is the Ameri- 
can League for Peace and Democracy, formerly known as the American League Aeainst 
War and Fascism, and, at the time of its inception, as the United States Congress 
Against War. * * * The League contends publicly that it is not a Communist-front move- 
ment, yet at the very beginning Communists dominated it. Earl Browder was its vice 
president." * * * "An examination of the program of the American League will show 
that the organization was nothing more or less than a bold advocate of treason" (Special 
Committee on Un-American Activities, reports, January 3, 1939, pp. 69-71. and March 29, 
1944, p. 37: January 3, 1940, p. 10; January 3, 1941, p. 21; June 25, 1942, pp. 14-16; 
January 2, 1943, p. 8). 



2618 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

Mr. KuNZiG. Mr. Chairman, I offer in evidence this document as 
McMichael Exhibit No. 1. 

Mr. Velde. Without objection, it will be admitted in evidence at 
this point. 

(The document referred to, the Fight (magazine) November 1937, 
p. 28, article, Youth Notes, by James Lerner, was received in evidence 
as "McMichael Exhibit No. 1.") 

McMICHAEL EXHIBIT NO. 1 

[The Fight, November 1937, p. 28] 

Youth Notes 

(By James Leruer) 

After many weeks of careful discussion and tliought, the United Student Peace 
Committee is prepared to issue its program for Armistice Day demonstrations. 
This platform represents a tremendous advance over that vrhich was issued by 
the same group in April for the student strike. At that time, although the need 
for cooperation by the people of the world was recognized, the committee ad- 
vocated stringent neutrality legislation. There was no appraisal of the dif- 
ferences between aggressors and victims and no effort to rally support for the 
victims of aggression. 

But students will learn. Now the committee declares boldly : "We must help 
the Chinese people in their struggle against Japanese aggression" ; it approves 
of collecting aid for the students of China who are victims of this aggression ; 
it supports "the demand for the withdrawal of foreign troops in Spain" and 
urges "our Government to extend its present embargo" to Italy, Germany, and 
Portugal if this is not granted. 

There are other important sections of the program, but this indicates what a 
tremendous advance has been made by a committee which represents the leading 
groups at work on the American campus. The President's denunciation of 
aggression in his Chicago speech, therefore, will receive hearty response from 
students. 

The Armistice Day program, however, omits an appeal for a people's boycott 
of Japanese goods. There is no other understakiug which can solidify American 
support for China and at the same time strike at the shaky financial structure of 
Japan as can the boycott, and it should sweep the campus like wildfire within a 
short time. 

There are a few organizations opposed to the boycott for fear that it will be 
used to develop a "hate" campaign against the Japanese people. The guaranty 
that this won't happen lies in the groups which support such a move. To have 
it come from Hearst would be one thing, but when labor, student, peace, and 
religious groups couple their boycott with pledges of sympathy to the people 
of Japan, as has invariably been the case, we fail to see the "hate" danger. At 
our Madison Square Garden meeting where we opened the boycott campaign, 
Japanese contributed money to assist. 

So a number of student and youth groups will see to it that Japanese tooth- 
brushes, silks, and other articles are not bought. If we can keep Santa Glaus 
from bringing in a load of toys from Japan, there will be fewer made-in-America 
bombs falling in China this Christmas. 

The forward step taken by the United Student Peace Committee should help 
make the People's Congress for Democracy and Peace a huge success. Already we 
have secured endorsements from a number of prominent youth leaders. We 
can mention at this early date Jack R. McMichael, cochairman, of the National 
Inter-Collegiate Christian Council; Robert G. Spivack, secretary of Interna- 
tional Student Service; Joseph P. Lash, secretary of the American Student 
Union ; A. L. Sachar, head of the Hillel Foundation ; John Lewis, president of the 
Young People's League (United Synagogues of America) ; and Rose Troiano, 
chairman of the Industrial Council of the YWCA. 

The particular value of our Congress to student and youth groups is that it will 
help illuminate the path to a more effective program and bring them into cooper- 
ation with other sections of the population. The cross-fertilization will be scien- 
tifically correct and socially invaluable. 

If you went to the movies this month and saw a picture of a fellow picketing 
young Mussolini's press conference in New York, you should be told that the 
picketer was Gordon Sloane, our New York youth director. 



HEARINGS REGARDESTG JACK R. McMrCHAEL 2619 



Mr. KuNziG. Now, I have- 



Reverend McMiCHAEL. If at any time, Mr. Chairman, you want me 
to do further research on these particular points — of course, not having 
had them — I'll be glad to do that and submit for the record, if you 
want to keep it open, any — any fm-ther word on it. 

Mr. Velde. Well, I think you should state to the best of your 
recollection 

Reverend McMichael. That's right. I don't have any recollection. 

Mr. Velde (continuing). The truth about it. 

Reverend McMichael. But he has a document which says so. Of 
course, you don't always have to believe everything that's written in 
print, you know. It may be true ; it may not. I don't know. 

Mr. Jackson. But to the best of your recollection this is not true ? 

Reverend McMichael. To the best of my recollection, I have no 
memory about it whatsoever. 

IMr. Walter. Mr, Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Walter. 

Mr. Walter. Before we embark on another line, may I get this 
straightened out ? 

You entered the Union Theological Seminary in 1939 ? 

Reverend McMichael. That's right. 

Mr. Walter. AVere you in Ohio in 1940 ? 

Reverend McMichael. During the year of 1940, was I in Ohio ? 

Well, at what particular date do you have in mind? 

Mr. Walter. Well, in the early summer. 

Reverend McIMichael. Early summer of 1940. 

Let me — occasionally, Mr. Chairman, I want to take just a moment 
to try to do a little recollecting because I want to be as helpful as I can. 

Mr. Walter. Well, you weren't employed there ? 

Reverend Mc]MicnAEL. In the end — the summer of 1949 — I have 
no recollection of being in Ohio. I was in Arkansas. I referred to 
working under the board of home missions— — 

Mr. Walter. Yes. 

Reverend McMichael. The Presbyterian Church, U. S. A. They 
would have some records about that, and I think — I am sure I went 
into that work in June, and was there through the summer. So, I 
don't think I was — I don't have any recollection of being there. 

Incidentally, I brought along some diaries and perhaps it would 
he helpful — some old diaries — because I thought some of these ques- 
tions might come up — if you just give me a minute, I could look in my 
1940 diary, because I have that, and take — and see whether or not — be- 
cause I know you want an answer to that question, and I want to be 
as helpful as I can on it. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Chairman, I have a little reminder here which 
might help the reverend, if I may be permitted to continue. 

Mr. Velde. Yes ; I think we would be glad to have counsel refresh 
your recollection on any material he has. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Chairman, I have here and should like to read for 
the record a statement written and sworn to and signed by Martha N. 
Edmiston — E-d-m-i-s-t-o-n — and John J. Edmiston — E-d-m-i-s- 
t-o-n--of Wayne Township, Warren County, Ohio. 

With the chairman's permission, sir, I should like to read pertinent- 
portions of this document into the record. 

Mr, Velde. Permission is granted. 

Reverend McMichael. Mr, Chairman, may I just mention this 

39125—53 — —2 



2620 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

Mr. Velde. Just a minute. The counsel 

Reverend McMichael. Oh, I'm sorry. 
Mr. KuNziG (reading) : 

Before me, the undersigned authority, this day personally appeared Martha N. 
Edmiston and John J. Edmiston, to me well known and known to be the sub- 
scribers hereto, and, being by me first duly sworn, deposed and said that they 
are residents of Wayne Township, V\'ari-eu County, Ohio, and they further 
deposed and said as follows : 

That during the years 1940 and 1941 they were members of the Communist 
Party of the United States of America, having joined this conspiracy while 
working as undercover operatives for the Federal Bureau of Investigation. 
That they also were members of several Communist transmission line or front 
organizations, such as the Workers' Alliance of America, the Emergency Peace 
Mobilization, the American Peace Mobilization, the YANKS — Y-A-N-K-S (The 
Yanks are Not Coming), the North Side Peace League, the Linden Peace League, 
the South Side Peace League, the latter three being local front groups in 
Columbus, Ohio, and — 

Reverend McMichael. May I ask a question, Mr. Chairman? 
Mr. KuNziG (continuing to read) : 

And from time to time — 

Reverend McMichael. Mr. Chairman, may I ask a question? 
Mr. Velde. Just a minute. Will you wait for the counsel, please ? 
Mr. KuNziG (continuing to read) : 

And from time to time served as deles'ates and observers from these groui)S 
to meetings of the Ohio Youth Congress, the Southern Ohio Youth Conference, 
and the American Youth Congress, at the direction of Communist Party officials 
as a part of their regular Communist Party assignments. 

That they first met the Reverend Jack R. McMichael in Columbus, Ohio, at 
a meeting of the Ohio Youth Congress in the Southern Hotel. To the best of 
their recollection, this meeting was held in INIay or June of 1940. At the time 
the deponents were members of the Franklin County, Ohio, chapter of the Work- 
ers' Alliance of America, an organization which was then under the complete 
domination of the Communist Party. At the Workers' Alliance meeting just 
prior to the opening of the Ohio Youth Congress the Workers' Alliance selected 
delegates to the congress. These included the deponent, Martha Edmiston, Lula 
Mae Leigh, and others whose names the deponents do not recollect at this 
time. 

To the best of these deponents' recollection, the sessions of the Congress 
occupied 2 or 3 days and some 200 delegates and American Youth Congress 
otEcials were present. 

Then it goes on and lists their names — very many Communists who 
were present. 

They go on to say : 

That the Workers' Alliance delegates to the congress received their instructions 
from Jack Perloff, P-e-r-1-o-f-f — Young Communist League organizer, and Joseph 
Socoloff, S-o-c-o-l-o-f-f — Communist Party organizer. 

All advance literature on the Ohio Youth Congress was distributed from the 
Franklin County Headquarters of the Communist Party at Sixth Avenue and 
Summit Streets, Columbus. 

The principal spealcers and prime movers at the Ohio Youth Congress were 
the three top-ranking officers of the American Youth Congress : The Reverend 
Jack R. McMichael, AYC Chairman — American Youth Congress Chairman — 
Joseph Cadden — C-a-d-d-e-n — and Robert (Bobbie) Thompson — T-h-o-m-p- 
s-o-n— American Youth Congress. All spoke and outlined the purposes and pro- 
gram of the Congress. These purposes were incorporated in resolutions at 
the final session of the Congress. 

That in substance these resolutions set forth : 

(1) The Ohio Youth Congress and the AYC was against any American inter- 
vention in W^orld War II. 

(2) Against any assistance to the allies, either in shipments of munitions or 
supplies or any convoys to protect them. 

(3) Against conscription and military training. 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2621 

Keverend Mc]Michael. Mr. Chairman 

Mr. KuNziG (continuing to read) : 

(4) That 

Eeverend McMichael. Are we trying to find the date, or are we 
going into these other matters ? 

I thought 

]Mr. Velde. The counsel is reading from an affidavit- 



Keverend McMichael. Yes ; I know. I've seen that before. 
Mr. Velde. In order to refresh your recollection. 
Eeverend McMichael. He didn't refresh my recollection. 
Mr. Jackson. Mr. Chairman. 

Reverend McMichael. If it's to help me, he's not doing that. 
Mr. Jackson. Mr. Chairman, regular order. 

Eeverend McMichael. I've read that already, and it didn't refresh 
me. So, I think he's wasting his time, if that is the purpose. 
Mr. Jackson. Mr. Chairman, let's have regular order. 
Mr. Velde. Eegular order. 
Will the counsel proceed ? 
Mr. KuNziG (continuing to read) : 

That tbe OYC and AYC would support the YANKS organization which recently 
had been formed at the direction of the Communist Party by one of Harry 
Bridges' Communist-controlled unions on the west coast. 

(o) Would join in forming organizations which would send delegates to a 
proposed Emergency Peace Mobilization to be held in Chicago in the late 
summer. 

The deponents noted that the various pieces of peace literature which were 
passed out at the sessions of the OYC had been received and were distributed 
from the local Communist Party headquarters. The resolutions noted above 
were mimeographed at the conclusion of tbe Congress on the local Communist 
Party's mimeograph, loaned for the occasion by E. S. Grattan, Communist 
Secretary. 

During a recess in one of the evening sessions an event occurred which the 
deponents found rather odd and amusing. The deponents, Martha Edmiston 
and John Edmiston, were standing on the mezzanine floor with E. S. Grattan, 
Communist Party secretary ; Jack Perloff, YCL organizer ; and Joseph Socoloff, 
Communist Party organizer. This group was joined by the Reverend Jack 
McMichael and Robert Thompson. (This is' the same Robert Thompson who 
later became general secretary of the Communist Party of New York, who 
was convicted in the New York Federal Court of teaching the overthrow of the 
American Government by force and violence, and who now is at large, having 
jumped bail following his conviction.) Thompson and the Reverend Jack Mc- 
Michael launched into a discussion of alleged attempts by FBI agents to infiltrate 
the American Youth Congress. 

It must be remembered this document was prepared and sworn to 
by two FBI agents. [Eeading:] 

This led to further remarks 

Mr. Velde. Now, just a moment. 

ISIr. KuNziG. Pardon me — two FBI agents, in the sense of under- 
cover agents, sir. 

Mr. Velde. All right. 

Mr. KuNziG (continuing to read) : 

This led to further remarks by the two AYC officials on how to spot an FBI 
agent in Communist Party meetings. The deponents found this both educational 
and entertaining. 

The deponents' next meeting with the Reverend Jack McMichael was at the 
Emergency Peace Mobilization in Chicago, August 31, 1940. 



2622 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

Reverend McMichael. May I- 



Mr. Velde. Well, now, do I understand that the witness has read 
this affidavit? 

Reverend McMichael. Read it? I don't know. I want to find 
my copy so I can go along with him, you see. Just give me a moment 
to do that. 

Mr. KuNziG. We have another copy here to do that. 

Reverend McMichael. Let me find my copy. 

Mr. Velde. Let me ask the witness 

Reverend McMichael. I thought the purpose, Mr. Chairman 

Mr. Velde. Has your memory been refreshed 

Reverend McMichael. Not in the slightest, sir. 

Mr. Velde (continuing) . So that you have any recollection 

Reverend McMichael. Not in the slightest, sir. 

Mr. SciTERER. I suggest counsel continue and conclude the reading 
of this affidavit. 

Reverend McMichael. You can put the affidavit in, but the purpose 
alleged, Mr. Chairman, was to refresh my memory, and I have got 
better sources of doing that. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Chairman, may I interrupt? 

Reverend McMichael. The purpose, Mr. Chairman 

Mr. Clardy. I suggest the witness be instructed to remain silent 
until the conclusion of the reading of the affidavit 

Reverend McMichael. Mr. Chairman, may I 

Mr. Clardy. And the proper question has been propounded to him. 

Reverend McMichael. Mr. Chairman, may I make a request? 

Mr. Clardy. Now, I think the proper order should be observed, as 
you so carefully outlined at the beginning. 

Mr. Velde. Yes ; counsel will proceed in regular order. 

Reverend McMichael. Mr. Chairman, that is all right — I am not 
trying to stop that 

Mr. Velde. Just a moment. 

Reverend McMichael. But I would like to be able to follow his 
reading, because I have a copy. 

Mr. I^uNziG. Well, we will give you a copy. 

Reverend McMichael. No ; I have a copy. 

Mr. KuNziG. You may have a copy. 

Reverend McMichael. No; I want my own copy, please. 

Mr. Scherer. May I ask 

Mr. Velde. I believe the witness should have an opportunity to look 
at his own copy, if he prefers to do that. 

Reverend McMichael. If I can lay my hands on that, I can do that, 
because he's reading a lot which doesn't bear on where I was in the 
summer of 1940. 

JNIr. Clardy. Mr. Chairman, may the witness be admonished to re- 
main silent until the question is directed to him? 

Mr. Velde. The Chair has already 

Mr. Clardy. We have a busy schedule today, as you know. 

Mr. Velde. I realize that. 

Reverend McMichael. You are using a lot of time with an alleged 
purpose. 

Mr. Velde. I have tried to be as fair to the witness as possible, and 
as fair to the members of the committee as possible. 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2623 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Chairman, I can't see how any particular pur- 
pose is served by the witness having his own copy. We will gladly 
give him a copy, and I request permission to continue reading this 
document into the record. 

Keverend McMichael. Mr. Chairman, the point is, I want to see 
if my copy, which I received through the mail 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Chairman. 

Reverend McMichael. Agrees with this copy. I don't know. 
These things can be changed. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Chairman. 

Eeverend McMichael. I just want 

Mr. Velde. Just a minute, please. 

Mr. Jackson. I suggest when the printed transcript is available 
that if the copy that the witness has does not agi-ee with the copy that 
is being read by counsel that matter be adjusted at that time; and 
now, in the interest of time, that counsel proceed with the reading 
of the affidavit. 

Mr. Velde. Yes ; the Chair agrees. 

Eeverend McMichael. I suggest he just dispense with the read- 
ing of it. 

Mr. Velde. This will probably be a long hearing, and we don't want 
to stay here all night. 

Eeverend McMichael. No ; of course not. 

Mr. KuNziG. There has been a suggestion 

Mr. Velde. So I ask the counsel proceed and the witness please not 
interrupt until the counsel has finished and asked his question. 

Mr. KuNziG (continuing to read) : 

The deponents' nest meeting with the Reverend Jack McMichael was at the 
Emergency Peace IMobilization in Chicago, August 31, 1940. The deponents, who 
covered this meeting for the FBI, were able to report that this convention was 
entirely Communist-hatched and Communist-dominated. It was at this 3-day 
meeting that the Communist Party sought to pull all of its various front organ- 
izations and captive unions into a national convention to form yet another huge 
subversive organization. During the previous months the deponents had been 
able to trace the course of the Emergency Peace IMobilization from the formation 
of apparently unrelated and spontaneous peace leagues into a national network 
of peace organizations, carefully nurtured, guided, and completely dominated by 
the Communist Party. 

Held in the Chicago Stadium, the Emergency Peace Mobilization was attended 
by more than 23,000 delegates. 

The Reverend Jack McMichael was one of the principal speakers at the Emer- 
gence Peace Mobilization. He spoke at the anticonscription rally held in the 
stadium on the first day of the meeting at 8 p. m. Dr. John B. Thompson was 
general chairman of the rally. 

On the final day of the Emergency Peace Mobilization the new organization, 
the American Peace Mobilization, was founded. At that time the Reverend Jack 
McMichael was named vice chairman of the new organization. 

The objects of this organization are well known : In short, they were to keep 
Ajtnerica from rendering any assistance to the allies, from taking defense meas- 
ures, and to impose every kind of opposition to the building up of America's 
armed services. This organization long has been on the Attorney General's list 
of subversive organizations. 

The deponents further depose and say that the Communist Party instantly 
abandoned its peace activities when Germany invaded Russia on June 22, 1941. 
Until that very day the American Peace Mobilization was the Communist Party's 
principal front organization for weakening America's military defense. Shortly 
after that date the American Peace Mobilization had a change of name to the 
American People's Movement 

Eeverend McISIichael. Is he still refreshing my memory, Mr. Chair- 
man? 



2624 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

Mr. KuNziG (continuing to read) : 

And the group now called for all-out aid to Soviet Russia and the allies, urged 
American intervention in the war and the setting up of a second front. 

On July 4, 1941, the deponent, Martha Edmiston, attended a national confer- 
ence of the American Youth Congress in Town Hall, Philadelphia, at which time 
the Communist Party oflicially announced the change in the party line to the 
American Youth Congress. 

Once again, the Reverend Jack McMiehael took a leading role in the confer- 
ence. He was at that time the chairman of the American Youth Congress and 
vice chairman of the Emergency Peace Mobilization. 

At that meeting, attended by some 1,500 delegates of the youth organization 
and allied Communist-front groups, the Communists abruptly dropped all peace 
programs and began talking about youth for victory. 

The deponent, Martha Edmiston, sat with the Reverend Jack McMiehael on a 
panel devoted to aid to China, at which time Mr. McMiehael discussed conditions 
in China under Japanese occupation and the urgency of need for American aid. 

The deponent attended this meeting as a delegate of the Woi'kers' Alliance of 
America, Hamilton County Chapter, Cincinnati. Her appointment as a delegate 
and her instructions were given by Marjorie Dowers — that is D-o-w-e-r-s — open 
Communist and member of the Hamilton County, Ohio, Communist Party's execu- 
tive committee, and Joanne Moore — M-o-o-r-e — secretary of the Hamilton County 
Young Communist League. All delegates from the Cincinnati area attending this 
convention were members of the Communist Party. All persons to whom the 
deponent was introduced in Philadelphia were introduced as Communist Party 
members. 

There was some friction at the meeting. The Communists had to force their 
party-line change down the throats of a small minority of delegates who were 
Socialists, but in general the conference went smoothly and the American Youth 
Congress made its about-turn, meekly accepting the new Communist Party line 
as its program, as it had accepted the peace slogan in the past. 

The deponent further notes that this was the first of any of the meetings of 
the American Youth Congress or any of its affiliated organizations at which she 
heard the Star Spangled Banner sung. 

In December 1941, both deponents were expelled from the Communist Party as 
"proven FBI spies." They testified to some of the facts contained above at a 
hearing before the United States House of Representatives Committee on Un- 
American Activities in 1950. 

On or about July 18, 1950, the deponents again met the Reverend Jack Mc- 
Miehael. 

That was July 18, 1950. 

He was at that time the executive secretary of the Methodist Federation for 
Social Action. The occasion of meeting him was the conference of the Feder- 
ation at Wilberforce University. Mr. McMiehael was one of the principal 
speakers at the meeting. Also speaking with him was Dr. John B. Thompson 
who had spoken with Mr. McMiehael at the Emergency Peace Mobilization 10 
years before. 

At the Wilberforce meeting IMr. McMiehael 

Reverend McMichael. May I be refreshed with what happened 
in the summer of 1940 ? 

Mr. KuNziG (continuing to read) : 

At the Wilberforce meeting Mr. McMichael voiced 

Reverend McMichael. He's not talking about 1940. 

Mr. Velde. If the witness please 

Reverend McMichael. He is dealing with 1950 now. 

Mr. KuNZiG. I don't think the witness desires to have his memory 
refreshed. 

Reverend McMichael. You are not refreshing me about 1940. 
This is 1950 you are talking about now. 

Mr. KuNziG (continuing to read) : 

At tlie Wilberforce meeting Mr. McMichael voiced what then was the accepted 
Conmiunist Party line. He blamed America for aggression in Korea and saw 
the United Nations as an invader. 



HEARINGS REGARDESTG JACK R. McMICHAEL 2625 

Reverend Mc^NTichael. Mr. Chairman. 
Mr. KuNziG (continuing to read) : 

Absolving Soviet Russia of blame, he 

Reverend McMichael. Mr. Chairman, may I ask one question? 
Mr. KuNziG (continuing to read) : 

And otlier speakers 

Mr. Velde. Just a minute. The Chair has respectfully requested 
you desist until the counsel 

Reverend McMiciiael. I just want to know ■ 

Mr. Velde. Finishes reading 

Reverend McMichael. What I'm supposed to get out of this. Am 
I supposed to answer all of this now or am I supposed to tell you what 
I did in 1940? 

]\Ir. Velde. Just a minute, please. 

Reverend JNIcMichael. That is the way it started 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Chairman. 

Reverend McMichael. Wliat did I do in 1940, or was I in Ohio. 
That was the question. He's gotten way off that. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Jackson. 

Mr. Jackson. I assume questions based on this will be asked the wit- 
ness. 

Mr. KuNziG. That is correct. 

Mr. Jackson. Is that correct, Mr. Counsel? 

Mr. KuNziG. That is correct, Mr. Jackson. 

Mr. Velde. Then will you proceed, Mr. Counsel — and please with- 
out interruption. Reverend McMichael. 

Mr. KuNziG (continuing to read) : 

At the Wilberforce meeting Mr. IMcMichael voiced what then was the accepted 
Communist Party line. He blamed America for aggression in Korea and saw 
the United Nations as an invader. Absolving Soviet Russia of blame, he and 
other speakers at the meeting advocated the immediate withdrawal of United 
Nations troops from Korea. He also advocated tlie recognition of Red China's 
"democratic government of the people of China" by the United Nations. He 
spoke against conscription and defense rearmament. 

At this meeting, attended by relatively few delegates, there appeared a report 
prepared by several members of the Methodist Federation for Social Action 
urging the ousting of Mr. McMichael as executive secretary for his known activi- 
ties in Communist-front organizations. This report, containing more than 20 
pages, listed 48 Communist Party front organizations in which, the report 
charged, Mr. McMichael had been active since the beginning of 1948. 

The deponents learned that this report, however, failed to create any wide 
distrust in Mr. McMiciiael on the part of the great majority of the delegates. On 
the contrary, they gave him a vote of confidence, voting to retain his services 
by an overwhelming majority. 

Unfortunately, the deponents had no opportunity to talk with the Reverend 
Jack McMichael at this meeting. When the deponent, John Edmiston, caught 
Mr. McMichael's eye, Mr. McMichael hurriedly left the room and the deponents 
were unable to interview him. 

Witness the signatures of the deponents this 31st day of January 1953. 

(Signed) Martha N. Edmistox. 
John J. Edmiston. 

Sworn to and subscribed before me, a notary public in and for said county and 
State, on the above date in the city of Cincinnati, Ohio. 

(Signed) Mary C. Yotjng, 
Notary Public, Hamilton County, Ohio. 

Mr. JMouLDER. Mr. Chairman, may I suggest counsel give the witness 
the copy which he has read and then ask his questions ? 



2626 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

Mr. KuNziG. I gave him one, sir, 10 minutes ago. 

Mr. Moulder. I mean that copy you read, because he is still search- 
ing for one. 

Mr. KuNziG, I gave him the one. 

Mr. Moulder. Well, give him that one. 

Mr. KuNziG. Sir, I need this one. 

Mr. Moulder. I think you can give him that. 

Mr. KuNziG. I've given him one. 

Mr. Moulder. Well, give liim that. 

Mr. Walter. Give him two. 

Reverend MgMichael. You mean those are the only ones you have, 
Mr. Kunzig — you just have that one copy? 

Mr. Kunzig. I have given the witness one, Mr. Moulder. 

Eeverend MgMichael. Is that all you have ? 

Mr. Kunzig. And, Mr. Chairman, I respectfully request I be al- 
lowed to continue to ask questions. 

Mr. Velde. Well, will you 

Eeverend MgMichael. Mr. Chairman, I thought he was refreshing 
my memory. 

Mr. Velde. Just a minute, please. 

Reverend MgMichael. All right. 

Mr. Velde. Counsel has requested permission to ask questions, and 
certainly it is his prerogative to do that, and the committee's preroga- 
tive to do that. 

Eeverend MgMichael. All right. 

Mr. Velde. Counsel will ask the questions. 

I regret to say we have had a call of the House, and we must recess in 
very short order. So, will you make your questions as simple as pos- 
sible and short as possible? 

Reverend MgMichael. Mr. Chairman, what is the question which 
I am supposed to answer ? 

Mr. Velde. Just a minute, please. 

Mr. Jackson. Regular order, Mr. Chairman. 

Is it going to be necessary to admonish the witness every 30 seconds, 
or are we 

Mr. Velde. I was in hopes it wouldn't be. 

Reverend MgMichael. Mr. Chairman, wasn't I supposed to answer 
a question about 1940? 

Mr. Velde. Just a minute, please. 

Reverend MgMichael. I thought I was supposed to answer a ques- 
tion about 1940. 

Mr. Velde. Now, just a minute, please. 

Reverend MgMichael. I'm sorry. 

Mr. Velde. Will you answer the question the counsel has for you? 

Mr. Kunzig. Mr. Chairman, so the record may be clear, I have read 
into the record this affidavit by the Edmistons, and now I intend, sir, 
to ask questions based on this sworn affidavit by two American citizens. 

Reverend McMichael, were you present in Ohio at the meeting to 
•which we have just referred, at which 200 delegates came together 
from the American Youth Congress ? ^ 

■ American Youth Congress : 

1. Cited as subversive and Communist (Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty 
Review Board, released December 4, 1947, and September 21, 1948). 

2. "It originated in 1934 and * * * has been controlled by Communists and manipu- 
lated by them in influence the thought of American youth" (Attorney General Francis 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2627 

Keverend McMichael. Would you repeat tliat, please, Mr. Kunzig? 

Mr. Kunzig. Now, you have asked for a question several times. 

Keverend McMichael. That's right. 

Mr. Kunzig. I will be glad to repeat it. 

Eeverend McMichael. Thank you. 

Mr. Kunzig. Would the reporter please read it back ? 

(The reporter read the question, as follows :) 

Reverend McMichael, were you present in Ohio at the meeting to which we have 
just referred, at which 200 delegates came together from the American Youth 

Congress? 

Mr. Doyle. I suggest, Mr. Chairman, that the counsel 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Doyle. '^ 

Mr. Doyle. I suggest the counsel in his question, for the purpose of 
absolute identification, fix the date and the place 

Keverend McMichael. Kight. 

Mr. Doyle (continuing). Of this meeting. 

Mr. Kunzig. I will be glad to restate it, Mr. Doyle. I will be glad to 
say it once again. 

It was the Ohio Youth Congress in the Southern Hotel, May or June 
of 1940. 

Keverend McMichael. Mr. Chairman, I have my diary for 1940 
before me. 

Mr, ScHERER. Now, Mr. Chairman, I submit that is not an answer 
to the question — whether he has his diary before him or not. 

Keverend McMichael. Well, I think 

Mr. Scherer. Now, just a minute. 

Keverend McMichael. Yes. 

Mr. Scherer. Just a minute. 

Mr. Velde. We have always required the witness to answer the 
question 

Keverend McMichael. I intend to answer it. 

Mr. Velde (continuing) . And make any explanation, which I think 
is very fair. 

Reverend McMichael. Well, I think certainly I have the right to 
consult my diary to find out. 

Mr. Velde. Now, will you answer the question? 

Keverend McMichael. Yes ; after I have consulted my diary to find 
out whether I was there or not. 

Mr. Velde. All right ; you may consult it. 

Keverend McMichael. That's right. 

May or June — I am starting the 1st of May, and going down. 

I'm prepared to answer the question, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. All right; please answer it. 

Reverend McMichael. On the basis of consulting not only my mem- 
ory, but also my diary, which I did keep for the period of May and 
June 1940, I must say that I'm confident I did not attend any such 
meeting in Ohio in May or June of 1940. I'm confident that I would 
have noted it in my diary here and that I would have some memory 
about it. I have no memory of it, nor does my diary bear that out. 

Biddle, ConRressional Record, September 24, 1942, p. 7685 ; also cited in re Harry Bridges, 
May 28, 1942, p. 10). 

3. "One of the principal fronts of the Communist Party" and "prominently identified 
•with the White House picket line * * • under the immediate auspices of the American 
Peace Mobilization" (Special Committee on Un-American Activities, report, June 25, 
1942. p. 16 : also cited in reports of January 3, 1939, p. 82 ; January 3, 1941, p. 21 ; and 
March 29, 1944, p. 102). 



2628 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

Mr. KuNziG. Let's change the question : Were you present at any 
such conference in Ohio at any time during 1940 ? 

Reverend McMichael. Just a minute. 

Mr. KuNziG. As I said before, of course, we are referring to a con- 
ference in the Southern Hotel, Columbus, Ohio 

Reverend McMichael, All right. 

Mr. KuNziG. 1940. 

Reverend McMichael, Thank you. 

Mr. Velde. The Chair would like to make a statement. 

I was wrong about having a call of the House. It was merely the 
warning bell. So, we will proceed in regular order as soon as the 
Reverend McMichael has had a chance to consult his diary. 

Reverend McMichael. All right, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. Would the witness care for a recess ? 

Reverend McMichael. No ; it's perfectly all right, Mr, Chairman. 
T appreciate your courtesy on that. 

I've gone through my diary. I wish somebody were keeping a rec- 
ord of time as to how much time it took and compare that with the 
brother's reading of that document, because I had a feeling there was 
some pressure on me and I had a sense of psychological pressure as 
I was reading through this diary. I want you to know the atmos- 
phere as I was reading through it. However, I have gone through 
the diary and, on the basis of the diary, as I read it under those condi- 
tions, in 1940, and on the basis of my memory, I reaffirm that I'm con- 
fident that I have no recollection of and have no evidence of — and I 
think this is a source of good evidence — attending any such meeting 
in 1940. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Chairman, 

Mr, Velde. Mr. Jackson. 

Mr. Jackson. May I ask a question? 

Did I understand you to say, sir, you have in your possession a copy 
of the affidavit of the Edmistons ? 

Reverend McMichael. Yes ; I wanted the privilege of finding that. 

Mr. Jackson. But you have gone over that; have you? 

Reverend McMichael. I have read it through hurriedly. 

Mr. Jackson. In some detail? 

Reverend McMichael. Yes ; I've read it. 

Mr. Jackson. You said it was not necessary to refresh your recol- 
lection because you were in possession of a copy of the affidavit? 

Reverend ]\IcMichael. I wanted the help of having a copy before 
me. You can understand that. 

Mr. Jackson. Well, having gone over it 

Reverend McMichael. You didn't give me that privilege, 

Mr. Jackson. Having seen that these statements were made under 
oath, did you not make an effort at that time to determine whether or 
not you were at the places alleged- 



Reverend McMichael. The incident 

Mr. Jackson (continuing). At the times stated? 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Chairman, may I 

Mr. Velde. Just a minute. There is a question pending. 

Mr. Doyle. I know, but 

Mr. Velde. I will recognize you as soon as the witness answers the 
question. 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2629 

Mr. Jackson. You very clearly stated it was not necessary to refresh 
your memory on these points because you had had an opportunity to 
o-o over the affidavit and that it was a total waste of time. 

Keverend McMiciiael. Yes; I think it was 

Mr. Jackson. Now, on the first questions 

Reverend McMichael. Completely, as far as the 

Mr. Jackson (continuing). Put to you by counsel, it is necessary 
for you to go to other sources to refresh your memory. 

Reverend McMichael. I should assume you want information; if 
you want information, you would want me to be as accurate as possible 
in my answers. This is a source of information. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Chairman, may I ask a question there? 

Mr. Velde. Just a minute, Mr. Doyle. May we allow the witness 
to answer the question ? 

Mr. Dotle. Well, I think my question is foundation, though. 

Mr. Velde. Just a minute, Mr. Doyle. 

Proceed. 

Reverend McMichael. Wliat is the question now I'm supposed to 
answer? 

Mr. Jackson. The question is : Did the affidavit refresh your mem- 
ory to the extent you told the committee a little while ago it had 
refreshed it and it wasn't necessary to read it ? 

Reverend McMichael. Oh, it wasn't necessary; and furthermore, 
he went into 1950. He wasn't refreshing my memory in 1940. 

Mr. Jackson. We are asking you specifically about things which 
you have stated it was not necessary to refresh your memory on. 

Reverend McMichael. That's right. 

Mr. Jackson. On the very first questions asked you, however, we 
find a considerable amount of refreshment is required in the form of 
your diary. 

Now, did the affidavit refresh your memory in any way? 

Reverend McMichael. His reading refreshed my memory in no 
way whatsoever. 

Mr. Jackson. It is still necessary to go to your diary for certain • 

Reverend McMichael. Well, I trust my memory a lot more than I 
do his reading of that document, of course, and also this diary. I trust 
that a lot more, naturally. I don't know 

Mr. Jackson. Hoav long, may I ask, have you been in possession 
of the affidavit of the Edmistons ? 

Reverend McMichael. It came to me just as I was leaving. It 
came to me from a Methodist preacher, who got it, thought it was a 
lot of nonsense, and sent it along to me; and I just wanted to lay my 
hand on it because I thought I noted a discrepancy between the docu- 
ment I got from him and this, but I would have liked to have had it 
before he carried that out. 

Mr. Jackson. But did you receive a copy of the affidavit prior to your 
departure from California? 

Reverend McMichael. Yes ; that's right. That's right. It's been 
very short notice to go into all of this material, though. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. The Chair 

Reverend McMichael. Mr. Chairman, may I 

Mr. Velde. The Chair now recognizes the gentleman from Califor- 
nia, Mr. Doyle. 



2630 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

Reverend McMichael. Just let me make this suggestion 

Mr. Velde. Just a minute, please. 

Reverend McMichael. All right. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Chairman, I understood our counsel to say a few 
minutes ago he had given the witness a copy of this affidavit 10 
minutes before. I so understood our legal counsel to state that, and 
that is what I want to know — whether or not the affidavit that counsel 
referred to as having been given the witness 10 minutes before 

Reverend McMichael. It was not given to me 10 minutes before. 

Mr. Doyle. Is this affidavit or 

Reverend McMichael. It was 



Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Chairman, let me make this completely clear, 
since there seems to be some misunderstanding. When the witness 
stated he was looking for his own copy at the beginning of the reading 
of this document, I said I had an extra copy here which I would 
gladly pass over to him. I passed same over to him, and that is my 
sum and total knowledge 

Reverend McMichael. It wasn't 10 minutes before. 

Mr. KuNziG. It was 10 minutes before the comment that was made 
by Mr. Moulder as to whether or not he had a copy. He said he had 
his own copy. He has had a copy here ever since practically right 
after I started reading it 

Reverend McMichael. The whole point of it is 

Mr. KuNziG. And I wish the record to state that clearly, Mr. Chair- 
man. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, now, may I follow that question with one more 
question 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Doyle. Which I believe is foundational? 

May I ask the witness this question 

Reverend McMichael. All right, Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Doyle. When did you make these notes in this diary which you 
are now referring to ? 

Reverend McMichael. In 1940. 

Mr. Doyle. In your own handwriting ? 

Reverend McMichael. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. On the same date to which you refer ? 

Reverend McMichael. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. In your diary ? 

Reverend McMichael. Yes ; that's right. 

Mr. Doyle. Is that a diary kept in your course of 

Reverend McMichael. Well, Mr. Chairman 

Mr. Doyle. Your occupation 

Reverend McMichael. I want • 



Mr. Doyle. Just a minute, please. 

Reverend McMichael. I want to answer that accurately. 

Mr. Doyle. Please let me 

Reverend McMichael. I want to answer the previous question 
honestly, and I want to correct what I said. I said on the same date. 
No ; not always on the same date. Sometimes in advance. You see, if 
I had an engagement, I would put it down in advance when I knew 
about it. Ministers always do that. If you have this kind of diary, 
you write a date in advance. So, it wasn't always the date — some- 
times I wrote that date down ahead of the time. 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2631 

Mr. Doyle. Well, is that a diary you kept throughout the year of 
1940 in your own handwriting ? 

Keverend McMichael. Yes ; that's right. 

Mr. DoTLE. To keep a record of your appointments; to keep a 
record of what places you attended ? 

Eeverend McMichael. And what I intended to attend in advance, 
you see, so I would be there, if possible. If I had the appointment, 
I would keep it. 

Mr. DoTLE. During the year 1940, did you rely on this diary for 
those purposes ? 

Keverend McMichael. Yes; that's right, 

Mr. Doyle. I asked those questions, Mr. Chairman, because I be- 
lieve they are foundational to identify the reliability of the diary, to 
whatever extent it is reliable. 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Chairman, may I 

Mr. Velde. The Chair recognizes the gentleman from Missouri, 
Mr. Moulder. 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Chairman 

Reverend McMichael. As to the reliability of my diary, Mr. Chair- 
man 

Mr. Jackson. Mr, Chairman. 

Reverend McIMichael. I might say that I consider it far more 
reliable 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Chairman, may we have regular order? 

Mr, Moulder. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Moulder. 

Mr. Moulder. It seems to me we have trouble staying in the channel 
with this witness on questions being propounded to him. 

Now, Counsel asked a question a moment ago, Mr. McMichael, con- 
cerning your attendance at a meeting of the Ohio Youth Congress at 
the Southern Hotel. The response to that question impressed me as 
being somewhat evasive, in that you say you have no recollection of 
the diary revealing this or that. 

Reverend McMichael. Mr. Chairman, I think the 

Mr. Velde. Just a minute. 

Mr. Moulder. Just a minute, until I ask you this question, please. 

Reverend McMichael. Surely. 

Mr. Moulder. Did you ever attend a meeting of the Ohio Youth 
Congress in the Southern Hotel at any time, whether or not it was in 
May or June 1940, or the year before, or the year after that, or at 
any time ? 

Reverend McMichael. Mr. Chairman, since the questioner also 
made a statement about the evasiveness of my previous answer, I 
request 

Mr. Moulder. You are being evasive now. 

Reverend McMichael. I request 

Mr. Velde. Will you answer the question ? 

Reverend McMichael. I believe we have a verbatim record of my 
answer. 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Chairman. 

Reverend McMichael. I wish it be read so we can decide whether 
that is evasive or not. 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Chairman. 



2632 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

Reverend McMichael. I didn't think the questioner was supposed 
to make accusations. 

Mr. Velde. Now, just a minute, please. 

Reverend McMichael. He made an accusation about the evasive- 
ness of my answer. I think tliat is a matter of record. 

Mr. Velde. Will you please answer the question of the gentleman 
from Missouri, Mr. Moulder 

Reverend McMichael. Well, I- 



Mr. Velde. To the best of your recollection ? 

If you don't know, say so. 

Reverend McMichael. I have no recollection of the meeting. 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Chairman, may I ask 

Mr. Velde. The Chair recognizes 

Reverend McMichael. But I would like to suggest- 



Mr. Velde (continuing). The gentleman from Michigan, Mr. 
Clardy. 

Reverend McMichael. Mr. Chairman, I would like to suggest 

Mr. Clardy. Will you please subside and remain quiet until I have 
finished the question? 

Reverend McMichael. Yes; that's all right. 

Mr. Clardy. Please do not interrupt by ejaculations of any kind 
while I am asking the question, and I shall be courteous, too. 

Now, with that understanding, you said you had no recollection, 
as I understand it. Will you now deny that you attended such a 
meeting ? 

Now, please answer that question or not, and follow it by any 
explanation you care to give. 

Does it take that long ? 

Reverend McMichael. Thirteen years ago, brother — whatever your 
name is — that's quite a long while. I don t know how your memory 
is, but it takes that long for me. 

Mr. Clardy. Well, if I attended a Communist meeting, I would 
remember it. 

Now, can you answer the 

Reverend McMichael. Communist meeting. 

Mr. Clardy (continuing). Question? 

Reverend McMichael. That is the Ohio Youth Congress he is 
talking about, not a Communist meeting. 

Mr. Clardy. You heard it described. Now, answer the question. 

Reverend McMichael. Wliat is the question about — this Ohio 
Youth Congress or a Communist meeting? 

They're different things altogether. 

Now 

Mr. Velde. Just a minute. Do you care to have the question 
repeated ? 

Reverend McMichael. Yes; I would appreciate it. 

Mr. Velde. Will you read the question, Mr. Reporter? 

(The reported read the question as follows:) 

Will you now deny that you attended such a meeting? 

Reverend JNIcMichael. Mr. Chairman, I ought to explain to you, 

so you'd understand what's going on, that I'm consulting 

Mr. Velde. I understand what is going on very well. 

Reverend McMichael. I'm consulting the 19 

Mr. Velde. This has been 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2633 

Reverend McMichael. This is my 1939 diary. I want to consult 
that — I want to be fair to these men — to see if I have any record of 
it in 1939. 

Mr. Clardt. Now, Witness, may I say, in helping you answer, I do 
not ask anything that requires any reference to anything except your 
own mind. I have asked you pointblank: Do you now deny ever 
attending such a meeting ? 

Reverend McMichael. If you want to know 

Mr. Clardt. No comment, please. Just answer the question. 

Reverend McMichael. No ; you said I would have an opportunity 
for an exiolanation. 

Mr. Clardt. After you have answered the question. 

Mr. Velde. Certainly, after you have answered the question. 

Reverend McIMichael. Oh, I see. 

Mr. Velde. That has been the procedure. 

Mr. Clardt. I hope you do see. 

Mr. Scherer. He sees. 

Reverend McMichael. Of course, I see. 

I have no recollection of this meeting. 

I'm eager to find out whether I attended it, and I would like to have 
a few moments to see whether or not there's any record in the other 2 
3^ears concerned, because I have these two diaries, and if I have 
attended it, I certainly will say so and tell you when. 

Mr. Clardt. Now, Witness, may I bring you back to the question. 
You have evaded it completely by saying you have no recollection. My 
question is : Do you deny not whether you have recollection, but do you 
deny attending such a meeting? 

Reverend Mc]Michael. I can't answer that question without having 
some investigation on my own part as to what happened in those other 
2 years. I have to — I have to answer your question accurately. If 
you're trying to trick me or trap me, why, then that's a different 
proposition altogether, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. Just a minute. The committee is not trying to entrap 
you. 

Reverend McMichael. It sounds that way. If I find now in 1939 
I attended the meeting — I don't want to deny anything that's true. 

Mr. Velde. Just a minute. 

Reverend McMichael. I want to give a truthful answer. 

Mr. Velde. I would like to make a statement. 

Reverend McMichael. All right, Mr. Chairman. I'm sorry. 

Mr. Velde. This committee 

Reverend McMichael. I don't think he is fair. That is all. 

Mr. Velde (continuing) . Is interested in subversive activities. 

Reverend McMichael. He is completely unfair. 

INIr. Velde. As I suggested in my opening statement 

Reverend Mc]\Iiciiael. You want information ? 

Mr. Velde. That is right. 

Reverend McMichael. I am trying to help you on that. 

Mr. Velde. And I resent the accusation 

Reverend Mc^Iichael. I am not speaking about you at all. 

Mr. Velde. That the committee is trying to entrap you 

Reverend IMcINIichael. No. 

Mr. Velde. In any way. 



2634 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

Reverend MoMichael. I am not speaking about you. You haven't 
tried to entrap me. 

Mr. Velde. As you realize, this is not a court of Law. 

Eeverend McMichael. That's right. 

Mr. Velde. We are only asking for information. 

Reverend McMichael. It is not a court of law. 

Mr. Velde. And we are asking you to tell the truth. 

Reverend McMichael. That's right. That's what I'm doing. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Chairman, can the witness be required to cease 
the asides? 

It is almost impossible to get a question in, Mr. Chairman ; and if 
he is going through the diary, may I ask it be confined to May and 
June of the years in question. It isn't necessary to start at January 
and go through to December. 

Reverend McMichael. Then I'll have to confine my answer to May 
and June. 

Mr. Jackson. That is all you are being asked to do. 

Reverend McMichael. He said any time, any history That is a 
different proposition altogether. 

Mr. Velde. Well, can you answer the question if you are allowed an 
opportunity to consult your diary for 5 minutes ? 

Reverend McMichael. For 2 years in 5 minutes, Mr. Chairman ? 

Mr. Velde. No, no. 

Reverend McMichael. Well, I'll do the best I can. 

Mr. Velde. On just the question the gentleman from California 
mentioned — May and June of 1940. 

Reverend McMichael. Then he better change his question to May 
and June, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Clardy. May I refresh the recollection? I have asked a very 
simple question. 

Reverend McMichael. I heard it. 

Mr. Clardy. It is very short, and I shall repeat it. 

Reverend McMichael. I heard it. 

Mr. Clardy. Will you please remain quiet? 

I would like very much to ask you to give me your undivided atten- 
tion and take it away from the books. 

Reverend McMichael. All right. 

Mr. Clardy. Now, the question is this : Do you now deny having 
attended such a meeting at any time? 

Reverend McMichael. I thought we understood that I was 

Mr. Clardy. Now, Witness, I asked you and cautioned you to please 
refrain from asides. 

Reverend McMichael. This isn't an aside. 

Mr. Clardy. It certainly is. 

Reverend McMichael. This is a very relative point, Mr. Chairman. 
It is not an aside. 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Chairman. 

Reverend McMichael It is no aside at all. 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Chairman, will you direct the witness 

Reverend McMichael. I have been asked to confine my consultation 
of the diary to 2 months, and there are 2 years involved. Then you 
say anytime in history. You're just going back to the same point. 

I want to be honest. I'm a preacher. I want to tell the truth — 
whatever is true. 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2635 

Mr. Clardy. That is all I want. 

Eeverend McMichael. I want you to give nie a chance, then. 

Mr. Clardy. You have done your best to 

Reverend McMichael. I am trying to 

Mr. Clardy. Evade the question. 

Eeverend McMichael. I have done my best to answer as honestly 
as I can. I want to tell you if I find I attended a meeting. 

Mr. Moulder. Will the gentleman from Michigan yield for just a 
minute ? 

Mr. Clardy. I will be very happy to. I have had to yield to the 
witness. 

Mr. Moulder. Of course, the witness is entitled to refer to notes to 
refresh his memory. However, Mr. Chairman, may I move a recess 
in 10 minutes, and, Rev. McMichael, would you have any objection to 
the committee having an opportunity to examine your diary ? 

Reverend McMichael. Yes; I would. 

Mr. Velde. Well, in that case, I believe the suggestion of the gentle- 
man from Missouri, Mr. Moulder, is very much in order, and the 
Chair will grant a recess at this time for 10 minutes 

Mr. Moulder. To allow 

Mr. Velde. In order to allow you to examine your diary. 

Mr. Moulder. To allow us to examine his diary ? 

Mr. Velde. No ; to allow him. He refused 

Reverend McMichael. You are trying to get an answer from me, 
not from you, aren't you ? 

Mr. Moulder. I understood you 

Mr. Velde. No. 

We will be in recess for 10 minutes. 

(Whereupon, at 11 : 20 a. m., the hearing was recessed, to reconvene 
at 11:30 a. m.) 

(The hearing reconvened at 11:34 a. m., the following committee 
members being present : Representatives Harold H. Velde, Donald L. 
Jackson, Kit Clardy, Gordon H. Scherer, Morgan M. Moulder, Clyde 
Doyle, and James B. Frazier, Jr.) 

Mr. Velde. The committee will be in order. When we recessed, 
Reverend McMichael, we were discussing your diary. 

Reverend McMichael. Yes. 

Mr. Velde. At this time I would like to introduce in the record the 
subpena which was served upon you to appear before this committee, 
which will be McMichael exhibit No. 1-B 

(The subpena was marked for identification as '"Michael Exhibit 
No. 1-B.") 

Mr. Velde. And the subpena which was served upon you to produce 
documents, correspondence, papers, and records in your possession 
relating to your association, past or present, with the Methodist Fed- 
eration for Social Action or the Methodist Federation for Social Serv- 
ice will be marked as "McMichael Exhibit 1-C." 

(Subpena duces tecum was marked for identification as "McMichael 
Exhibit No. l-C") 

Mr. Velde. Without objection, these documents will be introduced 
in evidence as McMichael exhibits 1-B and 1-C. 

(McMichael exhibits No. 1-B and No. 1-C were received in 
evidence.) 

39125—53 3 



263G 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 



McMICHAEL EXHIBIT NO. 1-B 
(Part 1) 

ORIGINAL 

BY AUTHORITY OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES OF THE CONGRESS OF THE 
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



To „..Wllllam..A....Vfoeeler _. 

You are hereby commanded to summon „.^ 

B!?.Ya.. Ji?:5??...?.i...M°Mlchael;i..yp 



to be and appear before the Co?Bmlttee..on .Un-MeTlOjan..AQ.ti.7J.Jtlaa 

authorized subcommittee thereof 
Sanrateag of the House of Representatives of thp United States, of which the Hon. 



Haro3L.d.H.._Yel4e_ 



is chairman, 



in their chamber in the city of Washington, on July...30-» -195-3- 

at the hour of 1° A OQ-.a^rin^ __ 

4hen and there to testify touching matters of inquiry committed to said Committee; and he is 
not to depart without leave of said Committee. 

Herein fail not, and make return of this summons. 

Witness my hand and the seal of the House of Representatives 
of the United States, at the city of Washington, this 
2jlrd.... day of Mil \9S2 



^.a.,.*M-J(/jASd<.. 



Chairman. 



Attest: 




HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL. 2637 

McMICHAEL EXHIBIT NO. 1-B 
(Part 2) 

ORIGINAL 



Subpena 



for .LlU}Ai^^!k*r^.....][^^ 



before the Committee on tke .(A<>1l.:.U^<M4d<> 



l-'J-Cx^ 



.MLoA../^.. 




3..o^J±S^ 



^Ct /(^s^ 




lL)ilL^{1.LoiL^ 

.a^ffiAiA^^LM-^L^l^/yi^PX...- House of Representatives. 

I>. S. eO^NHENT rRINTINS OFFICC 18 — 26308^2 



2638 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 



McMICHAEL EXHIBIT NO. 1-C 

(Part 1) 

ORIGINAL 

BY AUTHORITY OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES OF THE CONGRESS OF THE 
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



To Wl 111am. Aj... Wheeler _. 

You are hereby conunanded to summon ?e7.»...JaQjt_R?...McMJ,<jJftfl.j9JL^. 

__ Upj3er_JLaiej__ Calif prnla 



to be and appear before the Committee on Un-American AotlvitiflB or b A\\'\ y 

authorized subcommittee thereof 
S8JK1BRU6 of the House of Representatives of the United States, of which the Hon. 

Harold..B^.jr£l.4t is chairman, „ 

.■■■jftnA..prg4uO-e---f-Qr.thMl-th..fill..pj^;iflrfl-,_AQxuunenta»...o 

....«^.<l.rec.ordB..ln.jour..poB 

past or present, with the Methodist Federation of Social Action 
....jar...thft..MethQdifl.t..F.edaratlQn..ior..flQxiial-fler3rixie^.- 

in their chamber in the city of Washington, BtSL.i! ortlxwl.1ih. _ 

, at the hour of „ 

then and there to testify touching matters of inquiry committed to said Committee; and he is 

not to depart without leave of said Committee. 

Herein fail not, and make return of this summons. 

Witness my hand and the seal of the House of RepresentJiiives 

of the United States, at the city of Washington, this 

23rd... day of July. 19^3. 



jdjL>jdj!L.mi^. 



Chairman, 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2639 



McMICHAEL EXHIBIT NO. 1-C 

(Part 2) 

ORIGINAL 



Subpena f or Ja^!^--/Syk^Lk^. 

.J'.^.mL^. 



before the Committee on tlw ..C0l.-0tiMiC»f^ 







\h..dL,::^M^.UJ.:<t^^ 




r.^J?^^**rfr^^^;^^^^4.^<»r^^:t> House of Repre«entative«. 

V. S. e((i^RNHCNT PRINTING OFFICE 1ft— "25308-^ 



2640 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

Mr. Velde. The Chair would like to ask you whether you were 
served with those two subpenas. 

Reverend McMichael. Yes. It was dated July 23 from Washing- 
ton. I guess it was delivered, of course, later than that, the next day, 
the 24th. •^' 

Mr. Velde. Is there anything in your diary pertaining to the Meth- 
odist Federation for Social Action? 

Reverend McMichael. Mr. Chairman, my association with the 
Methodist Federation for Social Action did not begin until after the 
years covered by the question before. I was looking in my diary for 
3 years, 1939, 1940, and 1941. There wouldn't be any bearing on that. 
I wasn't looking for it. 

Mr. Velde. Will you answer the question? Is there anything in 
your diary pertaining to the Methodist Federation for Social Action? 

Reverend McMichael. No, no. 

Mr. Velde. Are you certain about that? 

Reverend McMichael. Well, how could there be if I was not asso- 
ciated with the federation until 1944 or 1945 ? How could these diaries 
have any — no ; they wouldn't appear. 

Mr. Velde. You do not have any diary after you became associated 
with the Metliodist Federation for Social Action? 

Reverend McMichael. Oh, yes ; oh, yes, of course. I keep a diary. 

]\Ir. Velde. Where is the diary ? 

Reverend McMichael. Well, I will look and see what I have. I 
have here 1951 and 1946. I have not been looking through these other 
ones, you see. 

Mr. Velde. Well, can you state whether or not there is anything 
in your diary pertaining to the Methodist Federation for Social 
Action 

Reverend McMichael. I would assume there would be something 
in there referring to some meeting or something of that kind con- 
nected with the federation, naturally, if it were here for those years, 
I don't understand 

Mr. Velde. Under the circumstances, are you willing to produce 
and submit to the committee your diary. 

Reverend McMichael. This entry relates to the federation. I will 
be glad to do that, surely. 

Mr. Velde. Will you submit that at the present time ? 

Reverend McMichael. I will be glad to do that if you want me to 
take the time to do that. 

IVIr. Velde. Well, I don't think 

Reverend McMichael. I am not going to give you the whole diary 
but I will give you the entry pertaining to the federation. 

Mr. Velde. I will take your word that you will submit the entry 
relating to the federation. 

Reverend McMichael. I will be glad to prepare that. 

Mr. ScHERER. I don't want anything he prepares. I want the diary. 

Mr. Clardy. What you are referring to are the original documents 
and nothing you prepared. 

Reverend McMichael. I will photostat the excerpts. 

Mr. Clardy. We are talking about the document itself. 

Reverend McMichael. Yes; I imderstand what you are talking 
about. 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2641 

Mr Velde. And you will submit that document ? 

Reverend McMichael. I am not willing to turn my diary over to 
you I don't think it is germane. 

Mr Velde. You are willing to turn any excerpts m your diary——- 

Reverend McMichael. Of course, I stated that I will do that if it 
shows any relation to the federation. If you think there will be any 
value in that, I will do it. I did comply with your request and bring 
documents showing any relation to the federation. 

Mr. Clardy. Just oiie further suggestion. I ask that you instruct 
the witness to keep in his custody until the conclusion of this hearing 
the diaiy from which he was either reading or refreshing his recol- 
lection in answer to the previous questions, because before the hearing 
is concluded I ask that the witness surrender that up to the committee 
for purposes of cross-examination, as we are entitled to under the 
laws of the land. . 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Chairman, this question I have would not take 
but about 3 seconds for you to refer to your diary which you had m 
your hand a while ago with reference to where you were m 1940. 
Does your diary show where you were in those months of that year? 

Reverend McMichael. Yes, and I will be glad to tell you that. 
Is that your question ? 

Mr. Moulder. Yes. 

Mr. Clardy. So that there will be no misunderstanding, 1 was 
merely asking that the witness be instructed to retain it because I 
shall make a request for their production before we are through the 

hearing. • • ^.i 

Reverend McMichael. I have every intention of retaining them. 

Mr. Clardy. I want to make sure that they are available for the 
members or counsel for such purposes as they may wish to make of 
them in further examination. 

Mr. Velde. That request will be presented at the proper time, Mr. 
Clardy? 

Mr. Clardy. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. May I inquire if I understand the request of my dis- 
tinguished colleague, Mr. Clardy, for the presentation of the full 
diary and full contents? I respectfully submit I don't think we 
should ask that. I think we have a right to have our attentions spe- 
cifically called to any items, but not his whole confidential diary. 

Reverend McMichael. Amen. 

Mr. Doyle. I do not think it is a proper function of this committee 
to go into a confidential diary of a witness on other things than mat- 
ters which are pertinent before this committee. 

Mr. Clardy. You did not understand my request. 

Mr. Doyle. The reason I am making the request is that I do not 
want to inspect all the entries of this witness, and I would like to see 
them subject to his counsel's approval, always, I would like to see 
that part of the diary which refers specifically to the subject matters 
under discussion, and nothing else. 

Mr. Clardy. That is what I had in mind. 

Mr. Velde. I am sure that the gentleman from Michigan had in 
mind the material that was subpenaed under the subpena duces tecum 
which was issued, and the witness has acknowledged he has received. 



2642 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

Mr. DoTLE. If it is limited to the express purpose, I think it would 
be proper, but not otherwise. 

Mr. Moulder. I have a question pending, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. Yes, the gentleman from Missouri does have a question 
pending. 

Reverend McMichael. I would like to say that I don't know how — 
I would like to say that I did — I think I did state that I would do 
that. For May and June of 1940, was that what your request was? 

Mr. Moulder. Yes, that is right. 

Reverend McMichael. May and June of 1940. 

Mr. Moulder. Yes. 

(At this point Reverend McMichael conferred with Mr. Donner.) 

Reverend McMichael. Counsel advises me that I do not have to 
tell you everywhere I was and at every particular time, but I am 
here to answer questions. I would like to go ahead and do it despite 
his suggestion that I was not required to do it, because I think you 
are being fair about it. If you do not object too strenuously, Mr. 
Donner, I would like to comply with the request. 

Mr. Donner. Now 

Reverend McMichael. I was at Union Theological Seminary as 
a student in May of 1940, and that is located in New York City and 
I see the items in the diary bear that out that I was in New York City 
in May. I am going to see if I have any evidence here of being any- 
where else besides New York State. 

The evidence I have shows that I was at the National Conference 
of Social Workers in Grand Rapids, Mich., in the latter days of May. 
I was requested to make a speech, which is of record in New York 
City, then I think I indicated already that I went to Arkansas to 
work with the Board of Home Missions of the Presbyterian Church 
in June and they would have some record of that, what those dates 
were in June of 1940 because I was under assignment and they knew 
where I was and knew what I was doing in Arkansas, doing Bible 
study and other recreational work with sharecropper children and 
other work under their supervision. 

Mr. Moulder. Are those all the entries you have in your diary 
covering those 2 months ? 

Reverend McMichael. That is right, sir. 

Mr. Clardy. Well, now we come back to the question that was pend- 
ing when we recessed. Now I will confine the question at the moment 
to May and June of 1940. Are you now, by the answer you just gave, 
intending to tell us that you deny attending the meeting in question 
during those months of that year ? 

Reverend McMichael. Mr. Chairman, there was a question pend- 
ing and we recessed for me to get the answer to it. I would like for 
the secretary to read that question. I have been thinking about that 
question. 

Mr. Clardy. We will come to that. 

Mr. KuNZiG. It is the same question, and I am going to read it. 
It is the same question: "Do you now deny having attended such a 
meeting at any time?" 

Reverend McMichael. That is a different question. That is why 
I wanted it read that way. 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2643 

Mr. Chairman, my answer to that, and you did promise me an 
explanation 

Mr. Velde. I promised you 

Reverend McMichael. You want to be fair with me and I would 
like to assume that. 

Mr. KuNziG. I would like to ask that the witness answer the question 
and not give these little asides and speeches which he is doing pur- 
posely and obviously to confuse the record and the committee and to 
avoid answering. 

Mr. Clardy. Try to reply to us. 

Reverend McMichael. Mr. Chairman, an accusation was made and 
I wonder if I could reply to it. Do I have the right to reply on a 
matter of personal privilege to an accusation ? 

Mr. Velde. Please, there is a question of you pending before us. 

Reverend McMichael. What about the accusation made against 
me? 

Mr. Velde. Will you answer the question ? 

Reverend McMichael. I have no voice in reference to unfair 
accusations. 

Mr. Clardy. It is my question. Will you please answer it ? 

Reverend McMichael. And I want to give that explanation. You 
promised that. I have no recollection at any time of attending the 
meeting referred to. 

Mr. Clardy. You have not answered it at all. The question was 
very carefully phrased before the reply to exclude that 

Reverend McMichael. I have answered the question. 

Mr. Clardy. To exclude that evasive tactic. I am coming back to 
the answer that you gave a few minutes ago that you deny that you 
attended such a meeting during the month of May or June of 1940. 

Reverend McMichael. I deny that I have any 

Mr. Clardy. May I enjoin you to remain silent until the questions 
are finished. 

Reverend McMichael. I thought it was finished. 

Mr. Clardy. You are not occupying a public rostrum. You are here 
as a witness. 

Reverend McMichael. I recognize that. I thought you wanted 
to be fair. 

Mr. Clardy. It is diflficult to be fair when you conduct yourself as 
you are. Did I correctly interpret your previous answer that you 
deny attending such a meeting during the months of May or June of 
1940? 

Reverend McMichael. You can infer what you like. It means what 
it says ; that I deny a memory of it. 

Mr. Clardy. You do deny that you may have attended the meeting ? 

Reverend McMichael. I deny any memory of it. 

Mr. Velde. Proceed. 

Reverend McMichael. Mr. Chairman, I want my right to explain. 
You promised me my right of explanation. 

Mr. Velde. There is nothing to explain. 

Reverend McMichael. There is plenty to explain. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Chairman, this committee has other work on the 
floor that it could be doing. 



2644 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

Reverend McMichael. Mr. Chairman, you promised me when I 
answered the question I would have a chance to explain. The record 
will show you promised me an opportunity to explain. 

Mr. Jackson. You cannot explain a failure of your memory. 

Reverend McMichael. I can explain that. Anybody can explain 
that. You can decide whether it is an explanation. Let you decide 
whether it is an explanation after I give it. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Counsel, you may proceed. 

Reverend McMichael. I want to explain. 

Mr. Velde. How long will it take you ? 

Reverend McMichael. It will take me considerably less than 5 
minutes, probably less than 2 or 3. 

Mr. Scherer. I think the committee has got to recognize 

Mr. Velde. Just a moment, please. You may have 2 minutes to 
explain your answer. 

Reverend McMichael. My desire is that we get the truth on this 
question. I have no memory of it. I wouldn't go beyond my memory 
where there is no evidence in the diary because I do not want to make 
a statement about something different from my memory. I am per- 
fectly willing to try to make some research if you are interested in it 
and put it in the record and I do not want a perjury suit on my hands 
on such a technical matter as this. My memory and my diaries may 
give me some evidence and on the basis of that I have no recollection 
of it. I have nothing to hide. If I was there — and my life has been 
an open book. I am a minister. I preach in the pulpit. It is a matter 
of record what I am saying. If it was true that I was at that meeting 
I want to get the evidence for it. I do not want to be tricked, and 
I have an idea this kind of a question is a trick question. I don't 
think anybody ought to make a statement if he is interested in the 
truth that closes the door to any truth. 

There must be some record of these meetings. Do these Edmistons 
have any record? Let them show that there was a meeting in May 
and June of 1940. 

Mr. Velde. I think that is sufficient explanation. I am sure that 
the further questions of counsel will tend to develop your memory 
concerning a lot of the other groups that you may or may not have 
been associated with. 

Reverend McMichael. I will be glad to have my memory helped. 

Mr. KuNziG. Do you know the Edmistons to whom we have been 
referring here this morning? 

Reverend McMichael. I do not recall those names at all. I might — 
are they here in the room ? 

Mv. KuNziG. They are not here in the room. 

Mr. Clardy. I suggest he be instructed not to ask questions but to 
answer them. 

Mr. KuNziG. The question is, Do you know the Edmistons? 
I take it your answer is that you do not recall. 

Reverend McMichael. My answer is that by name I don't know 
them except this past week I got a copy of this from a preacher in 
Pennsylvania. I would be happy if you would produce these 
witnesses. 

Mr. Jackson. May we have the regular order without these 
harangues which are obviously intended to delay the hearing. 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2645 

Reverend McMichael. That is not the purpose. 

Mr. Velde. Let the Chair assure all the members of the committee 
that I am willing and I hope, with the permission of the members, to 
sit here today and tomorrow and the rest of the week until all of the 
information has been developed. 

Mr. Clardy. I will go beyond it, beyond the end of the week if 
necessary, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. KuNziG. ]\Iay I state for the record so that the procedure is 
clear that we are on Document No. 2, and that there are some 80 or 90 
documents involving this witness. 

Do you know a Martha N. Edmiston ? 

Reverend McMiciiael. 1 have answered the question. You are 
wasting time. 

Mr. KuNziG. I respectfully request that the witness answer the 
question and be directed to answer whether he knows Martha N. 
Edmiston. 

Mr. Velde. The witness is directed to answer that question. 

Reverend McMiciiael. I have answered, Mr. Chairman. The ans- 
wer is in. Shall I answer it, sir ? 

Mr. Velde. Very simply, but do not go into all phases of your ac- 
quaintancesliip with her. 

Reverend McMichael. I would like to do that. I do not have any 
recollection on the basis of these names. 

Mr. KuNziG. The question has not been specifically. Do you know a 
Martha N. Edmiston? 

Reverend ISIcMichael. The names I do not know. 

Mr. KuNZiG. We are speaking about one person, not plural. 

Reverend McMichael. You are talking about one name, not a 
person ? 

Mr. KuNziG. One name. 

Reverend McMichael. Tliere is a difference between a name and 
the body. Produce the body. 

Mr. KuNziG. JNIay I respectfully request, Mr. Chairman, that the 
witness be required to answer the question of whether he knows a 
Martha N. Edmiston. I think his evasive tactics are obvious. 

Reverend McMichael. I shall trust to the intelligence of the com- 
mittee members to know whether it is evasive or not. I want to give 
a truthful answer. 

Mr. KuNziG. Then give it. 

Reverend McMichael. I used to sell boiled peanuts as a little boy. 
I can speak as loudly as you can. 

Mr. KuNziG. Speak clearly. 

Reverend McMichael. It is not an eye for an eye. I will be glad 
to shout back at you. 

Mr. Jackson. It is quite obvious that the answer of the witness is 
going to have to stand on this point unless we do go on until the middle 
of next month. 

Reverend McMichael. Of course it will stand. 

Mr. Jackson. There are far more important matters here which 
will not require any great amount of refreshment of memory, and I 
suggest we move along as rapidly as possible to the important points 
in issue. 

Mr. Velde. The Chair certainly concurs in that. Will counsel 
proceed ? 



2646 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you attend the Emergency Peace Mobilization * in 
Chicago in August of 1940? That is what I have read before from 
this affidavit of the Edmistons. 

Mr. Clardy. While he is looking, is that the one at which some 
23,000 people were present? 

Mr. KuNziG. Yes, sir ; 23,000 delegates. 

Mr. Clardy. It was not a small, secret affair. 

Mr. KuNziG. No. It was a rather large, I would say, meeting. 

Mr. Velde. May I admonish the physical audience present that we 
cannot tolerate demonstrations before this committee, of approval or 
disapproval in any way. The committee will be in order and the 
witness will answer the question. 

Reverend McMichael. Out of my interest in the peace, which the 
gospel of Jesus Christ requires us to serve, I did attend that meeting. 
The exact dates I do not recall, I am sure, of the one you are referring 
to in Chicago. 

Mr. KuNziG. When the Edmistons put you at that meeting in Chi- 
cago they are correct, but when they speak of the earlier meetings in 
Columbus, Ohio, you have no recollection ; is that correct ? 

Reverend McMichael. That is right, I have no recollection of the 
earlier meeting in Ohio then or at aiiy other time. 

Mr. Jackson. Is the date of the Emergency Peace Mobilization in 
Chicago August 31, 1940? 

Mr. KuNziG. Yes, sir ; it so states. 

Mr. Jackson. I wonder if the witness would be good enough to refer 
to his diary and see what is reflected on that day. 

Reverend McMichael. Yes ; I am sure that is the day. I got mar- 
ried just about that time and I was on my way. 

Mr. ScHERER. Will you let us see the diary for those dates? 

Reverend McMichael. No. 

Mr. Scherer. Isn't it a fact, Reverend McMichael 

Reverend McMichael. I have affirmed presence at the meeting. 

Mr. Velde. I believe that we should not ask him to submit a diary 
relative to his wedding and honeymoon. 

Reverend McMichael. Amen. Those are most personal matters, 
it seems to me. 

Mr. KuNziG. Still going from the affidavit of Martha N. Edmiston 
and John J. Edmiston 

Reverend McMichael. I haven't yet found any question. 

Mr. KuNziG. I respectfully request he not talk through questions. 

Mr. Velde. The witness is instructed that he is interrupting coun- 
sel's questioning' and will you please wait ? 

Reverend McMichael. I haven't found the copy. 

Mr. KuNziG. This is the second time I have given you one. 

Reverend McMichael. Well, that is right. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you, on July 4, 1941, attend a national conference 
of the American Youth Congress in Town Hall, Philadelphia, Pa., 

• Emergency Peace Mobilization : 

1. "The American Peace Mobilization • • * was formally founded at a meeting in Chi- 
cago at the end of August 1940. known as the Emergency Peace Mobilization" (Attorney 
General Francis Biddle, Congressional Record, September 24, 1942, p. 7684). 

2. Cited as a Communist front which came forth, after Stalin signed his pact with Hitler, 
to oppose the national defense program, lend-lease, conscription, and other American 
"war-mongering" efforts. It immediately preceded the American Peace Mobilization in 
1940 (Special Committee on Un-Amerlcau Activities, report, March 29, 1944, pp. 195, 
1&6, and 169). 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2647 

as stated by Martha N. Edmiston, and John N. Edmiston, undercover 
agents for the Federal Bureau of Investigation? 

Reverend McMichael. In July of 1941, 1 clearly remember attend- 
ino" a meeting of the American Youth Congress in Philadelphia and 

1 have some record about that, and in view of the charges they make, 
and I would request for the purpose of knowledge the opportunity to 
speak specifically to what happened in July of 1941 at the American 
Youth Congress in Philadelphia in relation to the charges made by the 
Edmistons. I w^ould like to have that opportunity for the purpose of 
giving you needed information. 

Mr. Velde. Will you answer the question. 

Reverend McMichael. Yes ; I clearly remember attending in July 
1941 and presiding and chairing that meeting of the American Youth 
Congress, and I have asked for the opportunity of speaking to what 
happened there with reference to the charges made by the Edmistons 
which shows the inaccuracy of the Edmiston document. If you want 
information you will give me that privilege. 

Mr. Clardy. Did you speak at that meeting ? 

Reverend McMichael. I was the chairman of it. 

Mr. Clardy. Did you speak ? Sometimes chairmen do not speak. 

Reverend McMichael. Of course I spoke. 

Mr. Velde. How long will it take you to make this explanation ? 

Reverend McMichael. It won't take but a few minutes. 

Mr. Velde. You can do it in 2 minutes. 

Reverend McMichael. That is a very small time. 

Mr. Velde. It is apparent to the whole committee that you are 
attempting to delay the procedure of this matter. 

Reverend McMichael. I will take the 2 minutes, but I would re- 
quest more if you are interested in knowing whether the Edmiston 
document is accurate. I would like to give you evidence. 

Mr. Velde. I am sure that the other members of the committee feel 
they are being overly fair. 

Reverend McMichael. I have some rights as a minister. 

Mr. Velde. Proceed. 

Reverend McMichael. I have evidence that shows that as chairman 
of the American Youth Congress in July 1941 in Philadelphia I 
led a fight for a resolution against an American Expeditionary Force, 
which resolution obviously was opposed by the young Communists 
present, and which resolution was adopted and was a part of the 
policy of the American Youth Congress. 

This was after the invasion of the Soviet Union. I have evidence 
here which has been brought to my attention from the Young Com- 
munist League from their publication as to their unhappiness over 
the resolution and the fight which I led against their point of view in 
the 1941 meeting. 

The Edmiston charge is that these meetings followed the Com- 
munist point of view and the truth of the matter is that I have been an 
independent person in my thinking. I think it is worth more than 

2 minutes. 

Mr. Velde. Are you a member of the Communist Party ? 
Reverend McMichael. Mr. Chairman, it has been charged — — 
Mr. Velde. Will you answer the question before you make your 
explanation. 



2648 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

Reverend McMichael. I do not choose your questions and I do not 
want you to choose my answers. You are asking me questions and 
please let me answer in my way. 

Mr. Clardy. You are being asked. 

Reverend McMichael. This is an important question. Is the 
question : Am I a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Velde. Yes. 

Reverend McMichael. My 6-year-old girl and my 8- and 10-year- 
old boys heard over the radio 

Mr. Jackson. As has been said so often, the point of the question 
does not go to his children at all. It goes to the 

Reverend McMichael. It goes to the children in this way, Mr. 
Chairman 

Mr. Velde. If you will answer the question first. 

Reverend McMichael. I promise to answer the question. 

Mr. Velde. Answer the question first and then give your explana- 
tion. 

Mr. Jackson. The question is one which should, under the rules 
of procedure of the committee and under the standard procedure of 
the committee, be answered yes or no, at which time I am sure the 
Chair will give you every opportunity to elaborate upon the answer. 
However, I do request, Mr. Chairman, that the rules be followed to 
the extent that an answer be given to the question, following which 
the witness will be permitted to make any statement in connection 
with his answer. 

Reverend McMichael. In view of the importance of the question — 
we are fellow Methodists and we understand each other 

Mr. Velde. I am not assuming that we understand each other. 

Reverend McMichael. I take that back. We are a long way from 
agreement with one another about a lot of things. 

Mr. Doyle. May I join with my committee member, Mr. Jackson, 
in the one premise he stated ? May I add this, that that is a question 
that can be answered yes or no ? 

Reverend McMichael. That is correct. All right, the answer is 
"No." Here is my explanation. Despite the fact that the answer is 
"No," my little girl and my two boys heard over the radio that I was 
charged with being a Communist. This committee is completely 
responsible for having circulated a false charge across the country. 
It was calculated to disturb the people. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Chairman 

Reverend McMichael. I want the opportunity to elaborate. 

Mr. Jackson. An accusation has been made against the committee. 

Reverend McMichael. This is not an accusation. 

Mr. Jackson. No chai-ges have been made against you by this com- 
mittee or any member of the staff of the committee. Allegations which 
may have been made against you were made by witnesses under oath. 
This committee is simply exploring those allegations and seeking the 
information on them. AAHien you say that this committee made a 
charge that you are a member of the Communist Party, it is abso- 
lutely false. 

Reverend McMichael. I agree. The committee circulated the 
charge, released it to the press, and to my little girl, and to my church 
members. I am not questioning your right to subpena me, but I am 
questioning whether or why you did not subpena me if you were 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2649 

concerned about the charge to answer the question and then to decide 
whether or not you wanted to answer to the entire American people 
that this charge had been made against a Methodist minister m good 
standing with his church. , -,.-,• 4; 

Mr. SciiERER. I am surprised that you are m good standing trom 
your performance today. . n ^ ■.• vi, _„ 

Reverend McMiciiael. I assure you I am m good standing with my 
cono-recration and the bishop and with the church. I think it is highly 
unf airto circulate a charge against a person before there is an oppor- 
tunity for a person to be heard on the matter. I don't know whether 
that is your usual procedure. This is the first time a minister has been 
called, and mind you, it is a prelude. It is a preface. 

Mr Jackson. Let us keep the record straight as we go along, it 
is quite obvious that Reverend McMichael is speaking out of a deep 
well of ignorance when he says this is the first time that a minister 
has been called. Let us have the record straight. _ 

Mr. ScHERER. Didn't he testify before the Senate committee i 

Reverend McMichael. Yes; I did. 

Mr. ScHERER. Then it isn't the first time. 

Reverend McMichael. I have testified before the subcommittee on 
this question and I was under oath and you wanted the answer and 
had the answer to my question available, there was a transcript and 
my lawyer in California telephoned Mr. Kunzig and said that I would 
take a lie-detector test and I would be at the Mayflower Hotel. 

Mr Velde. No one has accused you of telling a lie. There is no 
request by anybody of this committee that there should be a lie-detector 
test. We are merely asking you to tell us the truth. 

Reverend McMichael. I have told you the truth and you promised 
me I could elaborate. I proceed with my elaboration. 

Mr. Jackson. The elaboration is entirely extraneous and does not 
relate to the question. . , . , t i 

Reverend McMichael. It relates to the atmosphere m which 1 have 

come here. 

Mr. Velde. Let me ask you this question: Have you ever been a 

member of the Communist Party ? i 1 . 

Reverend McMichael. Will you also give me a chance to elaborate 

on that? 

Mr. Velde. If you will answer the question. 

Reverend McMichael. Yes ; I will be glad to answer the question. 
I have never been a member of the Communist Party. Now, may I 
elaborate? This is not new testimony and on this question, too, I 
was prepared to take the lie-detector test. My attorney spoke to Mr. 
Kunzig. 

Mr. Kunzig. That is the attorney who did not show up here. 

Reverend T^IcMichael. That is Mr. Dilley. I was prepared to an- 
swer the question with a lie-detector test. I have answered this ques- 
tion before the Senate subcommittee. Now, to proceed with my elabo- 
ration. It has been stated, and it may be true that we may be going 
back to the Inquisition . 

Mr. Clardy. I ask that the witness be requested to desist. Will you 
remain silent? 

Reverend McMichael. Under the first amendment to the Constitu- 
tion it says "Congress shall make no law respecting " 



2650 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

Mr. Clardt. Mr. Chairman 



Reverend McMichael. "And establishment of religion, or pro- 
hibiting the free exercise thereof " 

Mr. Jackson. I move 

Reverend McMichael. "Or abridging the freedom of speech or of 
the press- 



Mr. Clardy. Mr. Chairman, I would like to 

Reverend McMichael. "Or the right of the people peaceably to as- 
semble and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances." 

Mr. Jackson. I move that the gratuitous statement just put on 
the record be stricken. 

Mr. Velde. Without objection, it will be stricken. 

Reverend McMichael. I do not think it is gratuitous to call atten- 
tion to the Constitution you are sworn to uphold. I think it is a 
pretty important matter. I am a loyal supporter of this Constitution. 
Why would you want to exclude a reference to that ? 

Mr. Velde. That in no way explains your answer whatsoever. 

Reverend McMichael. It gives an elaboration of it. 

Mr. Jackson. I again move that the extraneous matter be stricken 
from the record physically. 

Reverend McMichael. Is the Constitution extraneous? 

Mr. Jackson. It was not extraneous and we are making every effort 
to defend it against people who joined in a conspiracy against the 
(rovernment of the United States and to render aid to the Communist 
Party. You are being asked to give to this committee the benefit of 
your knowledge. 

Reverend McMichael. That is right. I am not engaged in any 
conspiracy. I have been trying to carry out the Gospel of Jesus. 

Mr. ]\IouLDER. In response to the question by the chairman, you 
denied affiliation with the Communist Party. 

Reverend McMichael, That is true. 

Mr. Moulder. Are you opposed to the philosophy and the policy 
of the Communist Party as such ? 

Reverend McMichael. Not being an authority on it I would like 
for you to specify what you have in mind. I am not an authority 
on what they are. I do not read their publications. I am more of 
an authority on this Bible and I can tell you where I stand on that. 
If you want to ask me M^hat policy I have in mind I can tell you my 
personal opinion. 

Mr. Velde. Do vou care to go into that. Mr. Moulder ? 

Mr. Moulder. No. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Doyle. Reverend McMichael, I have read this affidavit by 
Martha N. Edmiston and John J. Edmiston. I don't know those 
people, but our counsel has identified them as former undercover 
Federal Bureau of Investigation agents, I think. Now whether you 
know them or not by name, you ha,ve read this affidavit, according to 
your own statement, and to me as 1 read it for the first time alx)ut an 
hour ago it seems that they are trying to identify you as during the 
period of years that they swear that they knew you as a member of 
the Communist Party, or Communist fronts. I want to ask you a fair 
question and I think it is fair. Will you state frankly whether or 
not you were a member at any time or now are of any of these 
alleged Communist fronts which the two Edmistons 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2651 

Reverend McMiciiael. What page is that? 

Mr. Doyle. It is throughout the whole affidavit. 

Reverend McMichael. I will have to look through it. I am not at 
all unwilling to answer your question. I want to see what organi- 
zations you are talking about. 

Mr. DoYEE. Let me ask you the question this way ; well, any of the 
organizations in this affidavit which you have read and had in your 
possession for several days. 

Reverend McMichael. I haven't been spending the last few days 
looking at that document, I assure you. It is not worthy of it. 

Mr. DoYT.E. Are any of these organizations identified by the Edmis- 
tons which it is claimed are Communist or Communist fronts — are 
any of those organizations which you were not a member of? 

Reverend McMichael. Oh, yes, indeed. 

Mr. Doyle. Which ones were you not a member of ? 

Reverend McMichael. I have told you. The first is the Communist 
Party. After all they have identified themselves as members of the 
Communist Party and I have identified myself as not having been a 
member of the Communist Party. 

INIr. Doyle. ^^Hiich organization in this affidavit is it that you say 
you were a member of ? Are there any such ? 

Reverend McMichael. That is right. First of all, however, I don't 
think they say anything about being a member of the Communist 
Party. They do not make the charge that I was a member. There 
was all this combination of — well, go ahead. 

Mr. Doyle. I have asked you a question and am trying to be 
helpful. 

Reverend jVIcMichael. I appreciate it. 

Mr. DoYiiE. Go ahead and answer it. 

Reverend McMichael. That refers to the Workers' Alliance of 
America. I was never a member of that organization, and of course 
they do not charge that I was as far as that goes. 

They refer to the Communist Party. I was never a member of the 
Communist Party, and they do not charge that. 

Mr. Doyle. Wliat others? 

Reverend McMichael. I want to be as full in this as possible to see 
what they are. They refer to the "YANKS," and that is spelled out 
"the YANKS are not coming." ^ I was never a member of that. 

They refer to the North Side Peace League. They do not charge 
that I was a member of that. I was not a meml^er of that. 

Then there is a reference to the Linden Peace League. 

I was not a member of that. 

Then there is a reference to the South Side Peace League, and I 
was not a member of that. 

Then there is the reference to the Ohio Youth Congress, and I was 
not a member of that. I was not an Ohioan. 

Then there is the reference to the Southern Ohio Youth Conference. 
I have never lived in Ohio. I was not in that. They do not charge 
that I was. 

Mr. Clardy. You skipped the American Youth Congress. 

' Yanks Are Not Coming Committee : 

1. The Communist Party was "the principal asent" in "the Yanks Are Not Coming 
movement." This Communist Party slogan in the day of the Stalin-Hitler pact was 
formulated by Mike Quinn, Daily Worker columnist (Special Committee on Cn-American 
Activities, report, March 29, 1944, pp. 17, 95, and 100). 

39125—53 4 



2652 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

Reverend McMichael. I was chairman of that, but I was not a 
member of the American Youth Congress and I want to explain that. 
The organization was not a membership organization. It was a fed- 
eration of youth organizations and I was a delegate to that as a 
representative of the National Student Young Men's Christian 
Association 

Mr. KuNziG. You are not a member of the American Youth Con- 
gress? You were just chairman of it. 

Reverend McMichael. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. National chairman. 

Reverend McMichael. Oh, I have identified myself as chairman 
and having led the fight against the Communist viewpoint successfully. 

Mr. Velde. You make that distinction. 

Reverend McMichael. Yes; it is a good distinction. It was not 
my decision to join it. I was sent there by the National Student 
Young Men's Christian Association. I want to proceed with Mr. 
Doyle's question. 

Mr. Clardy. May I ask that counsel be given an opportunity to 
answer the question? 

Mr. Velde. He is answering Mr. Doyle's question. 

Reverend McMichael. He refers to the American Student Union,® 
the Young Communist League,'' and union groups. I was not a mem- 
ber of any of those three. 

Then he refers to the party's county committee. I was not a 
member of that. Of course, he is not charging me with having been 
a member, but you wanted to know and I want to tell you that I was 
not. He repeats the Ohio Youth Congress, and I have stated that I 
was not a member of that. 

He refers to the Communist Party headquarters of Columbus, Ohio, 
and I was not a member of that. 

Mr. Velde. Again, will you repeat that ? You were not a member ? 

Reverend McMichael. Oh, I was not a member. Of course, I have 
said it already. 

Mr. Clardy. Will you get to those that you are charged with being 
a member of ? 

Reverend McMichael. I have answered his question. I am answer- 
ing Mr. Doyle's second question. You can't change a question in 
the middle of it. 

Then he refers to the Workers' Alliance of America, Hamilton 
chapter of Cincinnati, and I think I have covered that by saying that 

® American Student Union : 

1. Cited as a Communist front wliich was "the result of a united front gathering of 
young Socialists and Communists" in 1937. The Young Communist League took credit for 
creation of the above, and the union offered free trips to Russia. The above claims to 
have led as many as 500, COO students out in annual April 22 strikes in the United States 
(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, report, January 3, 1939, p. SO; report, 
January 3, 1940, p. 9 ; June 25, 1942, p. 16; and March 29, 1944, p. 159). 

" Young Communist League : 

1. Cited as a "subversive," "Communist" organization which seeks "to alter the form of 
government of the United States by unconstitutional means" (Attorney General Tom 
Clark, letters to Loyalty Review Board, released June 1, 1948, and September 21, 1948.). 

2. Cited as "organized and maintained under strict Communist Party control" and as 
having "direct connections with Moscow in addition to indirect connections through the 
Communist Party" (Special Committee on Un-American Activities, report, January 
3, 1940, pp. Sand 9). 

3. "On October 15, 1948, a special convention of the Young Communist League was 
held at Manhattan Center at 34th St. and 8th Ave. in New York City. At this con- 
vention the Young Communist League officially transformed itself into the American 
Y'outh for Democracy" (congressional Committee on Un-American Activities, Report No. 
271, April 17, 1947, p. 2). 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2653 

I was not a member of the Workers' Alliance and certainly not the 
Hamilton County chapter or any other chapter. He doesnt charge 
me with being a member of these. . 

He refers to the Federal Bureau of Investigation. I have never 
been a member of that. i^ £ 

I think, therefore, Mr. Doyle, that I have not been a member ot 
practically all that he talked about there, with the exception of 1 or 2. 
Mr. Doyle. That is all. 
Mr. Velde. Proceed, Mr. Kunzig. 

Mr Kunzig. Is it not true that a great many of those organizations 
you have just read and denied membership m were part and parcel 
of the American Youth Congress? . -, . • 4^ f„„i 

Reverend Mc^Iiciiael. Mr. Chairman, I wanted to give as tactual 
an answer on that as possible. It could be that Mr Kunzig has sonie 
kind of a document that would show what were the affiliated youtn 
groups in the American Youth Congress, more complete than 1 have 
been able to get, because I did not have anything like that in Upper 
Lake That is not what I am preaching about, bome ot it i do 
have I have some material and I have been trying to go through it 
to see if I have anything like that. It would appear that as a general 
answer that some of the organizations were and some were not. 

Mr. Kunzig. His answer was that some were and some were not, ana 
let us leave it at that. 

Reverend McMichael. Wliat was my answer { 
Mr. Kunzig. Some were and some were not was your answer. 
Reverend McMichael. Yes; that is right. 

Mr Kunzig. I should like to read the citations with respect to 
organizations of which this witness was alleged to be a member 

First of all, I will start off with the organization of which this 
witness was the national chairman, the American Youth Congress, as 
shown on page 27 of our Guide to Subversive Organizations and Tub- 
lications The American Youth Congress was cited as subversive and 
Communist by Attorney General Tom Clark in letters to the Loyalty 
Review Board, released on December 4, 194 r, and September 21, 194b. 
In one of the letters it states as follows : 

It originated in 1934 and * * * has been controlled by Communists and 
manipulated by them to influence the thought of American youth. 

It was also cited by Attorney General Francis Biddle in the Con- 
gressional Record of 'September 24, 1942, at page <685; and also cited 
in re Harrv Bridges, May 28, 1942, page 10. 
Then there was this statement : 
One of the principal fronts of the Communist Party— 

and — 

prominently identified with the White House picket line * * * under the im- 
mediate auspices of the American Peace Mobilization. 

That citation was in the Special Committee on Un-American 
Activities Report, June 25, 1942, page 16; also cited m reports ot 
January 3, 1939, page 82; January 3, 1941, page 21; and March 29, 
1944, page 102. 

Then there was this statement : 

Launched during August of 1934 and for about 7 years * * * one of the 
most influential front organizations ever established by the American Communist 
Party. 



2654 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

So said the California Committee on Un-American Activities 
report, 1948, page 179. ' 

Tlie next citation is as follows : 

The purpose of the Young Communist League in controlling and building 
this American Youth Congress is the same as in its other youth groups • namely 
to build up a united front, to push the objectives of and produce cadres for 
the Communist Party among persons to whom they would be unable to make 
a direct approach. 

So said the Massachusetts House Committee on Un-American 
Activities, report, 1938, page 525. 

Then it was cited as subversive and un-American by the special 
subcommittee of the House Committee on Appropriations, report 
April 21, 1943, page 3. ^ ' i ^ 

It was cited as a Communist front by the Pennsylvania Common- 
wealth counsel before the reviewing board of the Philadelphia County 
Board of Assistance, January 1942. 

Those, Mr. Chairman, are the citations by the official bodies of 
governments of States and also of the United States as to the organi- 
zation of which the witness was the national president. 

Mr. Doyle. May I ask counsel to identify the book he was reading 
from. ^ 

Mr. KuNziG. From the Guide to Subversive Organizations and Pub- 
lications published on May 14, 1951. 

Reverend McMichael.'I want the right to answer that question. 

Mr. Velde. There is no question pending. 

Reverend McMichael. 1 Avant to reply to that. 

Mr. Velde. Proceed. Counsel please proceed. 

Reverend McMichael. He is reading your own charges that I 
was 

Mr. Velde. There is no question pending. 

Reverend McMichael. The question 1 would like' to answer— I 
would like to deal with these citations. He is talking about what he 
and people of his mind have been saying. 

Mr. KuNziG. I have said nothing about these organizations. These 
are representative groups of the United States Government which 
stated these things as well as statements by two different attorneys 
general. "^ 

Reverend McMichael. May I request that there be read into the 
record the annual report of the Dies committee which I understand 
is connected historically with this committee, of 1940, January 1940 
concerning the American Youth Congress. The only report that that 
committee ever made after giving a hearing. I have evidence here 
and 1 have cited evidence to prove there was, and I have here— vou 
said you would give me ■ 

Mr. Jacivsox. There is no question pending. 

Reverend McMicvhael. That this organization was not dominated 
by the Communist Party. 

Mi^^KuI™' '^^'^^^ '^ ^° question pending. So will you proceed, 

Reverend McMichael. I have to answer to Almighty God and not 
to the Attorney General. 

Mr. Jackson. I move that all the witness' statements after the 
committee was called to order be stricken from the record. 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2655 

Reverend McMiciiael. How can I o;ive vital testimony if you are 
in the business of striking everything I say and only putting in what 
you say and what your counsel says? 

Mr. Velde. Let us proceed with regular order. 

Reverend McMichael. If you put in what Mr. Kunzig says, why 
don't you put in what the chairman says ? 

Mr. Velde. The extraneous material will be stricken from the 
record. 

Reverend McMichael. Well, that was extraneous. 

Mr. Doyle. May I raise a point, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. The Chair does not recognize the gentleman from Cali- 
fornia, Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Doyle. I want the record to show, Mr. Chairman, that if this 
witness has referred to an official record of the Dies committee 

Reverend McMichael. That is right. 

Mr. Doyle. That is certainly material and is not extraneous. 

Reverend McIMichael. And it cleared the American Youth Con- 
gress. 

Mr. Velde. Does the gentleman make objection? 

Mr. Doyle. I make objection. 

Reverend McMichael. They won't even put Dies committee mate- 
rial in the record. 

Mr. Jackson. Will the witness be required to be in order, Mr. Chair- 
man? 

Mr. Velde. Does the gentleman make objection to the order of the 
Chair? 

Mr. Doyle. I think the ruling of the Chair ought not to apply to an 
official record of the Dies committee to which he called our attention. 
I think that that is pertinent. 

Mr. Jackson. I have no objection to letting the Dies record in. 

Mr. Clardy. That is part of the record of this committee, and we 
take judicial notice of everything in our file. 

Mr. Velde. The order of the Chair is that the voluntary testimony 
of the witness not in answer to a question be retained in the record. 
Proceed, Mr. Counsel, in regular order. 

Reverend McMichael. Also put in that Dies committee document. 
I thought that w^as what you were asking for, the Dies committee 
record. 

Mr. Clardy. May I make a suggestion ? 

Mr. Velde. The Chair does not recognize the witness. Will you 
proceed, Mr. Kunzig? 

Mr. Kunzig. I wish to state at this time categorically for the record 
that there are two identifications of this witness as a member of the 
Communist Party of America. 

Reverend McMichael. That has been broadcast to my little girl 
and all of the people I know. 

Mr. Kunzig. I wish to read into the record the sworn testimony 
of two witnesses appearing under oath before this committee. 

Reverend McMichael. And, as a Methodist minister, I am under 
oath, too. 

Mr. Velde. I don't care who you are, but you are a witness before 
a committee of the United States Congress, and we expect you to 
behave. 



2656 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

Mr. Jackson. I think it should be shown that he is not called here 
as a Methodist minister, but because he has been twice identified as a 
member of the Communist Party. 

Reverend McMichael. Will you invite everybody who has ever 
been called a Communist here ? It will cost a lot of tax money. 

Mr. KuNziG. Manning Johnson, in executive testimony before the 
committee in New York City on July 8, 1953, testified as follows, on 
pages 204 to 20G : ^° 

Mr. ScHEREK. Mr. Johnson, do you know of any other person who was an officer 
of the Methodist Federation at any time who was a member of the Communist 
Party ? 

Mr. Johnson. Yes ; the Reverend Jack McMichael was a member of the Meth- 
odist Federation. 

Mr. ScHEREK. Did you say Reverend McMichael? 

Mr. Johnson. I understand that he did attend and graduate from divinitv 
school. ^ 

Mr. ScHERER. What was his connection with the Methodist Federation? 

Mr. Johnson. He was executive secretary of the Methodist Federation for 
Social Action up until 1953. 

Mr. KuNziG. I note you say "Methodist Federation for Social Action," whereas 
a moment ago you were referring to it as the "Federation for Social Service." 
Could you clarify that point and explain just what those two organizations were? 

Mr. Johnson. They are one and the same organization. It is just a change 
of names. It was first called the Methodist Federation for Social Service, and 
later changed its name to the Methodist Federation for Social Action. 

Mr. ScHERER. How did you know that Reverend Mc:Mic-hael was a Communist' 

Mr. Johnson. Well, during the period that I was member of the Communist 
Party, during the thirties, Jack McMichael was a member of the national com- 
mittee of the Young Communist League, and he was also a member of the 
Communist Party, and from time to time he met with tlie now fugitive Com- 
rnunist, Gilbert Green, who was head of the Young Conunuuist League at that 
time, and he attended occasionally meetings of the national committee of the 
Communist Party with Gilbert Green. 

Mr. Scherer. Was Reverend McMichael still a member of the Communist 
Party when you left the party? 

Mr. Johnson. Yes, he was. 

Then Leonard Patterson, in executive testimonv before the com- 
mittee on July 7, 1953, in New York City, testified as follows, pages 

78 to 80 : " ^ ^ 

Mr. Kunzig. When you were in the Young Communist League did you ever 
know one Jack McMichael? 

Mr. Patterson. Yes. 

Mr. Kunzig. What position did he hold in the Young Communist League? 

Mr. Patterson. He was a member of the New York District of the Young 
Communist League and was a member of the top fraction of the Young Com- 
munist League and the Communist Party in the American League Against War 
and Facism. Also he was a member of the top fraction of the American Youth 
Congress that was organized around 1934. 

Mr. Kunzig. You knew him then as one of the leading members of the Young 
Communist League? 

Mr. Patterson. Yes. 

Mr. Kunzig. I hand you a document marked "Patter.son Exhibit No. 1" for 
Indentification. I am very carefully holding my hand over any names mentioned 
and in passing you this document marked "Exhibit No. 1" for identification I 
show you a picture and ask you if you recognize that person? 

Mr. Patterson. Yes. 

Mr. Kunzig. Who is that? 

Mr. Patterson. That is the McMichael as I recognized in the Young Com- 
munist League together with me from 1931 until I went out in 1935. 

^^»This testimony is printed in Investigation of Communist Activities in the New York 
City Area — Part 7, pp. 2198-2199. 

1^ This testimony is printed in Investigation of Communist Activities in tlie New Tori? 
City Area — Part 6, pp. 2137 — 2139. 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2657 

^T TTTTM^n T.et the record show, Mr. Chairman, that the witness has identified 

"""Bodf ^eeleS'lleverend McMichael," and then there is a picture under 
which appears the name of Reverend McMichael. 

'Al- IXri^^arrthi^K ilr'chairman, would like to offer this docu- 
ment" marked "Patteion Exhibit No. 1" for identification, into evidence as 
Patterson Exhibit No. 1. , 

Mr SCHEKER. It will be so received. 

Keverend McMichael. I would suggest that that be made a part 
of the transcript so that I might get hold of it, ^ -x _„, 

C KuNZiG It is obviously a part of the transcript smee it was 
read intrhe record and it will be a part of the record which any 

^ Tr Velde^ Are the matters which Mr. Johnson and Mr. Patterson 

testified to true or false? . , -^ ..-v. 

Reverend I^IcMichael. They are liars and perjurers and I think 

they ought to be so tried and charged. 4--^„o ^.. fi.a 

Mr ScHERER. I heard their testimony and from their actions on the 

witness stand and from your actions on the witness stand, I am mclmed 

^""Sre^nVMcMiCHAEL. Well, then, you can act accordingly if you 
want to. They are not telling the truth. , j i.v 

Mr. Moulder. Do you know either of the gentlemen who made the 
affidavits referred to by counsel ? -,• j ^ ^ +^.^. 

Reverend McMichael. Oh, no. I would take a lie-detector test 

Mr Moulder. Are you acquainted with either of the gentlemen^ 

Reverend McMichael. I am acquainted with them by virtue o± the 
fact that their names appear in the newspapers. 

Mr Moulder. Should I assume from your answer that you have 
never met them before or never had any connections with them i 

Reverend McMichael. Those names didn't mean a thing to me when 
they came to me, which was a week ago. j, ^x, j- 

Mr KuNziG. The names are Manning Johnson, one o± the lormer 
members of the national committee of the Communist Party ot the 
United States, and Leonard Patterson. , , « ,, ^ • . 

Reverend McMichael. Oh, well, there are a lot of those Communist 
Party persons that I don't know. . -, . , -, i 

Mr. Moulder. You say you are not acquainted with and never have 
beenassociated with Manning Johnson? j • i- 

Reverend McMichael. I would appreciate your producing him. 
The name meant nothing to me. I have forgotten about people i 
have met. I would like to see him. He is my accuser. I am an 
American citizen. If I met him on the street, I wouldn t know who 
Manning Johnson is. 

Mr. Moulder. Going back again to your position as executive secre- 
tary of the Methodist Federation for Social Action, do you recall 
attending a meeting, as such an official or as a member of that organi- 
zation, held at Wilberf orce University ? ... 

Reverend McMichael. Yes; that meeting was the national meeting 
and we have records of that in our social questions bulletin that was 
published. 

Mr. Moulder. Was Dr. John B. Thompson at that meeting? 



2658 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

Reverend McMichael. Yes ; he was one of the speakers. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you recall the Wilberforce meeting where you 
made the statement blaming America and condemning America as 
being the aggressor in Korea ? 

Reverend McMichael. No. 

Mr. Moulder. Did you say anything that implied that? 

Reverend McMichael. No; I didn't say that. This man's mind — 
I don't know what it implied to him. Men can infer strange things. 

Mr. Moulder. Did you make any statement which would leave the 
impression that the United Nations was the invader in Korea? 

Reverend McMichael. If you want to know what I said, to the 
best of my memory I will be glad to say it. 

Mr. Moulder. You did not make any such statement ? 

Reverend McMichael. Just a moment, please. I want to look up a 
document on that because I have got some records about it. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Chairman, I move that we have a short recess. 

Mr. Velde. The committee will be in recess for a few minutes while 
the witness is looking up his record. 

(Whereupon, at 12:37, the hearing was recessed, to reconvene at 
12:55 p. m.) 

Mr. Velde. The committee will be in order. The committee will 
proceed until 1 : 30 and take an hour's recess for lunch and reconvene 
at 2 : 30. 

I think the last question was from the gentleman from Missouri, 
Mr. Moulder. 

Reverend McMichael. As I understood it, Mr. Chairman, the ques- 
tion bears upon the stands that were taken by the Methodist Federa- 
tion for Social Action and by me as its executive secretary, and state- 
ments with reference to the war in Korea and I have been looking 
through for the documents on that because I think you would want 
to know just what I have stated and just what the Methodist Federa- 
tion for Social Action has stated about the war in Korea and of course 
we are very happy to make it if you will bear with me. 

Mr. Moulder. I am referring to the speech you made at Wilberforce 
University and my question is not directed at the stand taken by the 
organization, but I am referring to what you said. 

Reverend McMichael. I saw one of your committee members nod- 
ding his head. It would seem to me it would be of value for you to 
get this matter from the beginning to the end. 

Mr. Velde. Will you answer the question. 

Reverend McMichael. Yes. 

Mr. Velde. This committee has' been insulted by a lot better men 
than you and we welcome any criticism. 

Reverend McMichael. I was not criticizing. I assumed you wanted 
information. 

Mr. Velde. Will you please answer the question. 

Mr. Moulder. You do recall that meeting? 

Reverend McMichael. Oh, definitely. 

Mr. Moulder. And you do recall in a general way what you stated 
in your speech at that meeting ? 

Reverend McMichael. Yes, and I have some record of it. 

Mr. Moulder. Wliat subject did you speak on at this meeting, what 
subject did you speak on ? 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2659 

Reverend McMichael. I spoke on the gospel of Jesus as it relates 
to the problems we face today as human beings and as followers of 
Jesus. 

Mr. Moulder. Did you speak on the conflict in Korea ? 

Reverend McMichael. Yes, and I wanted to give you the evidence 
on that. 

Mr. Moulder. Did you make the statement or any statement im- 
plying the meaning that America was to blame for the aggression in 
Korea and that the United Nations was really the invader. 

Reverend McMichael. No I didn't. 

Mr. Moulder. Did you at that meeting advocate 

Reverend McMichael. Do you know what I did say ? 

Mr. Moulder. You denied that ? You said you did not make it. 

Reverend McMichael. I wanted to tell you what I did say so far 
as the record shows. 

Mr. Moulder. Did you at this meeting advocate the admission of 
Red China, the government of the people of Red China, by the United 
Nations? 

Reverend McMichael. Not only personally, but along with the 
Quakers and the Board of World Peace of the Methodist Church 
and England and Denmark and Norway and the Federation did ad- 
vocate the recognition of any government in China and thought that 
it would contribute to the peace and prevention of further bloodshed. 

Mr. Moulder. At that meeting and in this speech did you speak 
against conscription in the defense rearmament program of this 
country ? 

Reverend McMichael. In order to be as accurate as possible, I do 
not recall just that. I would like to answer the question in my own 
way by referring to a document. He has changed it, but I have docu- 
ments on this. 

Mr. Velde. You say you don't recall. 

Reverend McMichael. No, I can recall, if you want to do that. 

(At this point Reverend McMichael conferred with Mr. Donner.) 

Reverend McMichael, But I would like to read the report. I will 
come back to that factually in terms of the documents. I want to be 
completely documented on that. 

Mr. Moulder. Was there a report prepared by several members of 
the Methodist Federation for Social Action urging that you be ousted 
as executive secretary for your known activities in Communist-front 
organizations ? Was such a report prepared ? 

Reverend McMichael. The fellow who prepared it voted for it. 

Mr. Moulder. Was such a report prepared 'i 

Reverend McMichael. It was thoroughly considered and rejected, 
and he did vote for it. 

Mr. Moulder. Have you also written articles of recent date con- 
cerning the Rosenberg espionage case in your Methodist Federation 
magazine ? 

Reverend McMichael. I will be glad to check that. There are so 
many questions. I will be glad to check that and answer it. Though 
again I don't know just what the answer is. I would like to give you 
the answer factually. It will take a little time, of course. 

Mr. Moulder. I will yield to counsel to pursue the line of ques- 
tioning. 



2660 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

Reverend McMichael. May I answer the question ? 
; Mr. Moulder. You haven't answered it. 

Reverend McMichael. No I haven't. 

Mr. Velde. The Chair w^ill allow you 2 minutes to make any de- 
rogatory statements you may want to concernino; this committee. 

Mr. Doyle. I am glad to see the chairman do that because records 
of what he has said at that time are the best evidence. 

Reverend McMichael. The October 1950 issue of the Social Ques- 
tions Bulletin with reference to the kind of statement that the Edmi- 
stons apparently base their statements on, the federation took no 

{)osition on Korea despite contrary press reports. In discussion on 
^orea members differed freely, as expected in truly democratic 
gatherings. 

The secretary explained his view, and that is me. The secretary 
explained his view that Korea's future should be determined not by 
Korea's neighbors, the U. S. S. R. and China, not by the United States 
and its Allies, but rather by the Koreans themselves, peacefully if 
possible. 

To help demonstrate peace in the world and the rights of the Korean 
people we can repeal the oriental exclusion laws which deny Koreans 
American citizenship. 

Another step would be fair employment practices, legislation by 
which Korean Americans would be protected from discrimination. 
The secretary stated certain facts about Korea, the first being that 
despite North Korean and other reports the North Koreans had in- 
vaded South Korea. 

That is the statement there. Now the meeting itself took this posi- 
tion, and I read it to you precisely : 

To seek peace and pursue it is our biblical imperative, we desire all men to 
seek tbe moral concerns indicated by the Prince of Peace as a true basis for 
salvation of our Nation. 

Old modes of thought, old trust in power — until we are faced with such chaos 
as the H-bomb and bacteriological warfare — the only power equal to our need is 
moral concern for all men. Ideas are not killed by violence. Our Christian mis- 
sion is to build sound foundations for human relief, not through violence but 
through a living application of prophetic Christianity. 

And then there was reference to the Russian propaganda campaign, 
saying that it can be dispelled by forthright disarmament through the 
United Nations' acting on the Tydings resolution. We urged consid- 
eration of a disarmament conference through the United Nations and 
to use our economic resources for underdeveloped areas as approved 
by Senator McMahon and others. 

Mr. Velde. I am sure that the members of this committee are op- 
posed to the killing of time in this answer and the members of the 
committee should have an opportunity to ask questions and get your 
answers. 

Reverend McMichael. I wanted to give the answers. 

Mr. Velde. We will stay here all day and tonight until we get 

Reverend McMichael. And unless I have the opportunity of 
answering it factually, I cannot. Because we are proud of our 
position. 

Mr. Clardy. I want to make an observation that I think should be 
the basis of what we do from here on out. 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2661 

I practiced law for pretty nearly 30 years. If this witness had 
appeared before any court in which I had practiced during all that 
time he would have been in jail. 

Reverend McMichael. I thought you said 

Mr. Clardy. Be still. 

Reverend McMichael. I am not moving very far. 

Mr. Clardy. He would have been in jail for the contemptuous atti- 
tude he has displayed. I regret that tliis committee does not possess 
the power that it should have to punish instantly as a court does. 
Unfortunately, we do not have that. So that this may be conducted 
with some semblance of fairness and expedition, I would suggest at 
this time that the witness be told firmly and emphatically from here 
on out he has to refrain from injecting remarks, from interrupting 
counsel, that he be told that if he persists in that attitude that we will 
have no recourse but to consider his actions in contempt of Congress 
of the United States. 

I ask that in all seriousness because I do not think in all the time 
I have been on this committee T have seen a witness so utterly con- 
temptuous of the Congress of this Nation and I think that it is high 
time that he be instructed to follow the rules that you laid down at 
the beginning, Mr. Chairman. 

Now, will the chairman bear with me and make that admonition ? 

Mr. Velde. The Chair, as far as he is personally concerned, heartily 
concurs with the gentleman from Michigan and we do need to proceed 
in regular order and no further voluntary statements will be per- 
mitted. If you will answer the questions that are asked of you 

Reverend McMichael. I was broken off before I completed the 
answer. 

Mr. Clardy. Now you have been enjoined. Now please remain 
quiet until you have been asked a question. 

Mr. KuNziG. The witness has just read from the Social Questions 
Bulletin of the Methodist Federation, and I have here a document 
marked "Exhibit 2-A" and which is also the Social Questions Bulle- 
tin of December 1952. In an article signed "J. R. M.," which I assume 
for the record is this witness. Jack R. McMichael, who was executive 
secretary of the federation, we perhaps get a more accurate viewpoint 
of Mr. McMichael 's idea as to the Korean question where he says: 

Shifting Definitions of Aggression 

Since both governments in Korea ignore parallel 38 in their constitutions and 
claim all of Korea — is parallel 38 a boundary between two countries, or an arbi- 
trary line within one? Did the conflict begin as Civil War, or aggression by 
one country against another? 

We Americans have a similar problem. Did we have a Civil War or a War 
between two states, the Confederacy and the Union? When Northern armies 
crossed the Mason-Dixon Line and marched into the South, were they unifying 
one country, or committing aggression? The editor's grandfather, a Methodist 
Georgian, enlisted with the Confederate Army ; was captured by Northern sol- 
diers in South Carolina. He and other Confederates had little doubt who the 
aggressor was. But aggression to some Southerners was "liberation" to others, 
Negro slaves for whom Lincoln wrote an Emancipation Proclamation, counter- 
parts perhaps of South Korean i)easants today who conduct guerrilla warfare, 
have landlordism, and want land. 

If it was aggression for the North Koreans to march across the 38th parallel 
in late June 1950 — what was it when General MacArthur a few months later 
in 1950 led non-Koreans (mainly U. S.) and South Korean troops across the 



2662 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

same parallel? If U. S. Korean troops to save the South Korean Rhee govern- 
ment was good, how condemn as aggression the Chinese intervention later to 
save the North Korean Kim government? 

That is a quotation from the Social Questions Bulletin of December 
1952. 

Reverend McMichael. Why don't you complete the passage ? 

Mr. Velde. I think we should proceed in the regular order. 

Reverend McMichael. That is all right. The context is not com- 
plete. I assure you I was going to read 

Mr. Velde. Will the counsel ask questions relative to our duties 
and our jurisdiction, and proceed in regular order? 

Mr. KuNziG. I should like, in order to get the complete document 
in the record, which I am sure Reverend McMichael wants, to offer 
in evidence this document marked "Exhibit 2- A" from which I have 
just read. 

Mr. Clardy. The entire document? 

Mr. KuNziG. Yes, and I would like to state for the record also that 
it be absolutely correct that we are referring merely to actions in this 
hearing today of the Reverend McMichael and not the Methodist Fed- 
eration for Social Action. 

Mr. Velde. Without objection, it will be introduced in evidence at 
this point. 

(Social Questions Bulletin, December 1952, article, Christmas Peace 
and Korean Issues, signed J. R. M., was marked for identification as 
"McMichael Exhibit No. 2-A" and received in evidence.) 

JACK McMICHAEL EXHIBIT NO. 2-A 

(Social Questions Bulletin, Decenaber 1952, p. 39) 

Christmas Peace and Korean Issues 

[By Jack R. McMichael] 

In the Christmas Story we read : "The dayspring from on high shall visit 
us * * * to guide our feet into peace." "Ye shall find the babe in a manger. 
Glory to God, and on earth peace, good will toward men." The Babe grew 
into manhood and declared : "Blessed are the peacemakers : they shall be called 
sons of God." The Prophet of old had declared : "They in the land of the shadow 
of death, upon them hath the light shined. Every battle of the warrior is with 
confused noise, and garments rolled in blood ; but this shall be with burning 
and fuel of fire (i. e., be ended). For unto us a child is born, a son is given: 
and his name shall be called Prince of Peace." 

Is not Korea today's "land of the shadow of death" with "garments rolled 
in blood?" 

What aiout a cease-fire noic? 

In the current U. N. debate on Korea, Pakistan urged an immediate end on 
both sides to the slaughter, destruction, bloodletting. It was a moving, humani- 
tarian appeal, appropriate in the pre-Christmas season, and based on the view 
that reason rather than violence should be employed to settle the sole point at 
issue in the stalled armistice negotiations (prisoner-of-war repatriation). The 
M. F. S. A. Executive Committee on September 2 called for an immediate cease- 
fire with negotiations to go on. Methodism's ofiicial Christian Advocate took 
that position editorially in its issue of October 23. M. F. S. A. Chapters and 
other churchmen have also asked an immediate cease-fire. But at the U. N. 
our U. S. delegation promptly and publicly rejected Pakistan's cease-fire ap- 
peal — insisting that the violence (against prisoners and nonprisoners alike) 
must go on until the prisoner-of-war issue is settled in the way we demand. 
So the war goes on, and casualties on both sides are very high in this pre- 
Christmas season. Why not read the Christmas story and write Secretary of 
State Acheson or President Truman or President-elect Eisenhower (Commodore 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2663 

Hotel N Y City) if you think the war in that "land of the shadow of death" 
should be ended and the dispute be negotiated and settled m Peace? 

United Nations Command negotiators at Panmunjom are Jigh^raid.mg mxh- 
tary officers from only one U. N. member-country— the U. S. A. Ihey too have 
Sposed any cessation of the fighting prior to completion of the armistice draft 
Thus the U. S. position at Panmunjom and now at the U. N. is that military 
nressure and action is required to make the negotiations succeed. 
^ BiTboththe U. S. and the U. N. majority took exactly the opposite position 
in the U N. Assembly's Korean debate in January 1951. This was after Chi- 
nese intervention and the route of MacArthur's forces near the Yalu river 
boundary The U. S. and U. N. majority then asked the advancing Chinese 
and North Koreans to stop their advance and agree to an immediate cease fire 
as a prelude to peace negotiations and as a prerequisite to a rational n^^iyiole^ 
atmosphere in which negotiations would have a chance to succeed. U. b. del^ 
5a?es and their allies argued cogently and vigorously that honorable negotiations 
were fmpossible without a cease-fire, that honorable men could not negotiate 
under fire or duress. When the military situation improved for the U. b. its 
cease-fire stand was reversed. Was the stand, and its reversal morally or mili- 

^^VF^or^ur similar reversal on the demarcation line issue, see the Nov. 1951 

Bulletin Our opponents made a big concession by accepting our insistence 

that we occupy captured territory north of the 38th Parallel even after an 

armistice.) 

Shifting Definitions of Aggression 

Since both governments in Korea ignore Parallel 38 in their Constitutions, and 
claim aU of Korea— is Parallel 38 a boundary between two countries, or an 
arbitrary line within one? Did the conflict begin as civil war in one country, 
or aggression by one country against another? 

We Americans have a similar problem. Did we have a Civil War or a War 
Between Two States, the Confederacy and the Union? When Northern armies 
crossed the Mason-Dixon Line and marched into the South, were they unifying 
one country, or committing aggression? The Editor's grandfather, a Methodist 
Georgian, enlisted with the Confederate Army ; was captured by Northern soldiers 
in South Carolina. He and other Confederates had little doubt who the ag- 
°-ressor was But "aggression" to some Southerners was "liberation to others, 
Negro slaves for whom Lincoln wrote an Emancipation Proclamation, counter- 
parts perhaps of South Korean peasants today who conduct guerrilla warfare, 
hate landlordism, and want land. T>„„„n^i 

If it was aggression for the North Koreans to march across the 38th Parallel 
in late June 1950— what was it when Gen. MacArthur a few months later in 
1950 led non-Korean (mainly U. S.) a7i4 South Korean troops across the same 
Parallel' If U S intervention to save the South Korean Rhee government was 
good, how condemn as "aggression" the Chinese intervention later to save the 
North Korean Kim government? 

When we insisted that the U. N. label and condemn China as an aggressor, 
we lost India and our other major Asian allies whose definitions of "aggression" 
were not so shifting and who regarded such action as unnecessarily harmful 
to peaceful settlement. ^. ^ ,. 

All of which may throw some light on the current but hardly noticed dispute 
in the U. N.'s Legal Committee. The Soviet Union is urging that Committee 
to accept the task of agreeing on a legal definition of aggression. Governments 
allied with us deny the possibility or wisdom of any such definition ! 

What About Prisoners of War? 

In the current U. N. debate all parties admit that the negotiators have agreed 
on all points but repatriation of war prisoners. 

Our spokesmen insist on voluntary rather than universal repatriation. They 
claim moral and humanitarian reasons— concern for the welfare of the prisoners. 
As for strictly humanitarian concern for prisoners, has it been practiced in 
the camps where our troops' admittedly have shot and slain unarmed captives? 
And is humanitarian concern, either for prisoners or nonprisoners, shown in 
our insistence that the murderous fighting go on until the prisoner issue is 
settled our way? 

What about our present stand on prisoner repatriation? Has our stand on 
this issue been without shift? How many Americans have seen the text dis- 
tributed at the U. N. of the Armistice Draft articles already agreed to at Pammun- 



2664 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

jom by our U. S. negotiators on behalf of the United Nations Command? Article 
III of the agreed draft is entitled "Arrangements Relating to Prisoners of War," 
and includes : 

"51. All prisoners of war in the custody of each side at the time this armistice 
agreement becomes effective shall be released and repatriated as soon as possi- 
ble. The release and repatriation of such prisoners of war shall be effected 
in conformity with lists of exchanged and checked by the respective sides. 

"54. Repatriation of all the prisoners of war required by paragraph 51 shall 
be completed within a time limit of two months after this armistice agreement 
becomes effective. \\ ithin this time limit each side undertakes to complete the 
repatriation of all prisoners of war in its custody at the earliest practicable 
time." Note the first word of Article III and of Paragraph 51 is "aZi", a word 
repeated at the beginning of Para;;raph 54. Note further that our negotiators, 
headed by Major General W. K. Harrison, Jr., U. S. Army, on behalf of Gen. 
Mark W. Clark. U. S. Army, Commander in Chief United Nations Command, 
helped draft and have agreed to those paragraphs. 

The N. Y. Times of Nov. 20 has a letter on prisoner repatriation by Wm. R. 
Mathews, Editor and Publisher of The Arizona Daily Star of Tucson, who 
writes: 

Americans "do not know they are condoning an official breach of a treaty 
that their representatives signed in Geneva in July 1949." "Article 118 of 
Section II (Geneva Convention of War Prisoners) provides: 'Prisoners of war 
shall be released and repatriated without delay after cessation of hostilities.' 
Nowhere in the treaty is provision made for any unilateral exception. The treaty 
was registered on Nov. 2. 1950, with the United Nations * * * Within 18 months 
after signing it we are demanding the unilateral right to revise one provision to 
suit ourselves. I cannot believe the American people would approve of this 
conduct on our part if they were aware of its implications * * * They do not 
know they are setting a precedent of official conduct that other nations, large 
and small, can in future use to justify equally flagrant breaches when they 
redound to their temporary advantage * * * 

"Worst of all, we use the 'humanitarian' excuse to weaken the vei*y founda- 
tion any hmnanitarian ideals must have to be effective — the rule of law. Without 
the rule of law humanitarian principles will depend upon the whim or caprice 
of a few top individuals * * * 

"We would set a precedent * * * Our enemies could use it as a mask for slave 
labor camps, where our men would be retained under the pretext that they 
did not want to be returned. Thus humanitarian ideals will suffer rather 
than progress. 

"To support the rule of law we went to war in Korea and now, after all 
the sacritices, we try to delude ourselves and the world into thinking that for 
humanitarian reasons we can breach the rule of law." 

Mr. Mathews also points out that, whereas we demand the right to screen 
and withhold 14,000 Chinese and 34,000 North Korean prisoners, we also "de- 
mand the return of all our men taken prisoner." 

M. F. S. A. has no official stand on the prisoner of war issue, but it does contend 
that there should be no more fif/Jitin(j or kiUin<i hi/ or on either side pending 
further discussion and final settlement on the disputed issue. Efforts to win 
this argument should be by reason and logic, not force and violence. 

The World's First Hi/drogen Bmnhf 

Is our growing reliance on force to settle disputes and i.ssues (and our con- 
sequent neglect of reason or consistency) highlighted by the fact that we not 
only built and first used the atom bomb (against the civilian populations of 
Pliroshinia and Nagasaki), but have now also apparently first built and used 
(at Eniwetok) the even more heinous Hydrogen Bomb-— which the conserva- 
tive World Council of Churches once called a "sin against God?" 

How better observe Christmas in 1952 than by prayerful reelection and re- 
sponsible action on these issues of war or peace? Won't you tell us what 
you and your groups are doing for peace, how this Bulletin can be more useful 
to you. and how we can do a better peace job? Together this Christmas let 
us recall these New and Old Testament words : "Saith Jesus, "They that take 
the sword shall perish with the sword." "Woe to them that go down to Egyi>t 
(to military alliances and pacts) for help: and trust in chariots, because they 
are many; and in horsemen, because they are strong; but look not unto the 
Holy One, neither seek the Lord." 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2665 

A Happy Christmas and New Year to you, to your loved ones, and to all of 
God's loved ones of all nations ! And may the sons of God who are peacemakers, 
win new victories in 1953 for the final abolition of war. 

J. R. M. 

Mr. Jackson. May I refer to the Dies committee report to which 
the Reverend ^IcMichael referred in liis answers several minutes ago, 
in which the inference was given that the Dies committee had cleared 
the American Youth Congress of any taint of Communist Party activ- 
ity or Communist Party domination. Mr. McMichael, my recollec- 
tion is that you indicated that the Dies committee had cleared the 
American Youth Congress. 

Reverend ISIcMichael. The Dies committee report in 1940, which 
followed the only hearings that we were given, could be read if you 
want to have it read. You must have it there before you, and then 
it will speak for itself. 

Mr. Jackson. I have all of the references here, Mr. Chairman, from 
the reports of the Committee on Un-American Activities from 1939 
to 1944, and I ask unanimous consent, inasmuch as the request was 
made, that this be inserted and that I be permitted at this time to 
read into the record all of the references to the American Youth 
Congress in the hearings and the reports from 19^59 to 1944. 

Mr. Velde. Is there objection? Otherwise the request is permitted. 

Mr. Jackson. It is ni}^ understanding that it was your desire to 
have this request granted. 

Reverend McMichael. With reference to 1940. 

Mr. Velde. Permission is granted. 

Mr. Jackson. The Dies committee report as of January 3, 1939, has 
this to say with reference to the American Youth Congress : 

The American Youth Congress was not originally set up by Communists, but 
it was penetrated by them, as shown by the rei>orts of its first congress, which 
was held in Washington, D. C. In 1934, at its secon 1 convention, it was brolien 
up and reorganized into a Red front. (See pp. 611 and 612, vol. 1, committee 
hearings.) 

While there are man.v non-Communist organizations in the Youth Congress, 
there are over a dozen Communist, Communist-front, and Communist-sympathiz- 
ing movements in it. (See p. G13, vol. 1, cormnittee hearings.) 

The Communists, realizing the value of such an excellent camouflage, imme- 
diatel.v set about organizing similar congresses in other countries, and they called 
for a Paris international congress. (See p. 613. vol. 1, committee hearings.) 

Later a World Youth Congress came into being. This embraced the same 
organizations which were afliliated with the American Youth Congress. (See 
pp. 61.5 and 616, vol. 1, committee hearings.) 

Right-wing youth movements refused to attend the World Youth Congress, 
which was held at Vassar. The organizers in the Unite:! States were leaders 
of Communist, Communist-front, and Communist-sympathizing movements. (See 
pp. 61.5, 616, and 617, vol. 1, committee hearings.) 

Then, in the January 3, 1941, issue of the Dies committee, Report 
No. 1, 77th Congress, 1st session, on page 21, it states as follows: 

Other organizations which formed units in the People's Front movement have 
been greatly crippled in their effectiveness as a result of our exposures. The 
American Youth Congress once enjoyed a very considerable prestig:^ and an 
impressive following among the youth of our country. Today many of the dis- 
tinguished former sponsors refuse to be found in its company. Best of all, it 
has been deserted by American youth. We kept the spotlight of publicity focused 
upon the American Youth Congress, and today it is clear to all that, in spite of 
a degree of participation in its activities by many fine young people, it was never 
at its core anything less than a tool of Moscow. 



2666 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

Now, on page 16 of the report issued June 25, 1942, it has this to 
state with reference to the American Youth Congress : 

The American Youth Congress was prominently identified with the White 
House picliet line which, under the immediate auspices of the American Peace 
Mobilization, opposed every measure of national defense up until the very day 
that Hitler attacked Russia. From its very inception the American Youth 
Congress has been one of the principal fronts of the Communist Party. 

Eight of the 50 leaders of the Union for Democratic Action have been affiliated 
with the American Youth Congress. They are Thomas R. Amlie, Leroy E. Bow- 
man, J. B. S. Hardman, Gardner Jackson, Dorothy Kenyon, A. Philip Randolph 
Frederick L. Redefer, and Maxwell Stewart. ' 

Then, on page 102 of the February 17, 1944, report of the Special 
Committee on XFn- American Activities of the House of Representa- 
tives, 78th Congress, 2d session, it has this to say : 

Together with such notorious fellow travelers as Harry F. Ward and Max 
Yergan, Joseph Curran was a speaker for the American Youth Congress the 
Communist front which has now been largely absorbed by American Youth for 
Democracy, the new name under which the Young Communist League oneratea 
at present. o ^ ■=> 

Those, Mr. Chairman, are all of the annotated references to the 
American Youth Congress contained in the hearings between 1939 and 
1944. 

Mr. Doyle. May I ask this, Mr. Chairman ? In view of the witness 
having currently referred to some report of the Dies committee, I am 
wondering if this list— and may I ask the gentleman from California- 
does this list include that reference ? If it does not, I would certainly 
expect that the witness have the privilege of reading into the record 
it we haven't read it from Mr. Jackson's report. 

Mr. Velde. Does the witness desire to add anything more from the 
Dies report? 

Reverend McMichael. I would like to see the 1940 report 

Mr. Jackson. These are the reports of the committee prepared bv 
the committee. Are you referring possibly to testimony? 

Reverend McMichael. I am referring to a report. It would be 
in Januaiy 1940 and it must be there, and I would appreciate your 
^™ing it to me and telling me whether you read it. 

Mr. Jackson. This is a report of January 3, 1939 

Reverend McMichael. I meant 1940. 

Mr. Jackson. A report of January 3, 1940? 

Reverend McMichael. Would you read it to me, please, the 1941 

Mr. Jackson. It is somewhat lengthy. 

Reverend McMichael. Just on the Youth Organization 
..r;.% 1 Q^f"- ^ll^ight I will be glad to repeat it. This is the Jan- 
Kaph aAS^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^^ '' P^^^ ^1' t^^ -ry bottom 

beSJ'iTeauT^HnSeS'i^ H,?/''^'.'^ ""*'' '" '^^ ^^"P^^'« ^^«"t movement have 
AmerSn YnnVh ^r ^'"^ effectiveness as the result of our exposures. The 

Anierican louth Congress once enjoyed a very considerable prestige and an 
impressive following among the youth of our country. Today mfnv of ?ts 
distinguished former sponsors refuse to be found in its company B^st ot all 
It has been deserted by American youth. We kept Qie ZtMght of oublic^Jv 
focused upon the American Youth Congress, and today it is'^clear to alf IhatTS 

Co'^^Z^l^'l^tA'^LSiclT^^^^^^^ ^'-^ '^^ -PO>^t Of the Special 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2667 

spite of a degree of participation in its activities by many fine young people, it 
was never at its core anything less than a tool of Moscow. 

Keverend McMicHAEL. Could I see the book ? That is not the docu- 
ment I was referring to. 

Mr. Jackson. It is at the bottom of the page. I hand it to you now. 

It is a little different. . ■,-,,. -.ooa j 

Eeverend McMichael. Mr. Chairman, I see it marked tor W6d and 
1941. I do not see one for 1940. 

Mr. Jackson. The one I read is for January 3, 1940. 

Reverend McMichael. It says 1941. 

Mr. Jackson. Bring it up. 

Reverend McMichael. The annual report of January 1940. 

Mr. Velde. May we proceed while he is checking ? 

Reverend McMichael. I can read a portion of it if you want me to, 
but I would rather have the original. 

Mr. Velde. The question is that the witness first offered some infor- 
mation from the Dies committee. 

Reverend McMichael. That is right. 

Mr. Velde. Do you care to insert anything in the record that has not 
been inserted? 

Reverend McMichael. Yes. From the 1940 report of the Dies 
committee w^hich is published in the New York Times, and you must 
have a file of that available, I read the following from the Dies com- 
mittee report regarding American Youth Congress : 

In the case of the American Youth Congress, the committee— 
that is the Dies committee — 
finds an organization which has no membership of its own — 

And that is a point that I made and someone raised a question as to 
whether it is important. The committee made that point itself. 

Now to go on : 
but which attempts to affiliate together the largest possible number of organi- 
zations of young people, the vast majority of whom have no connection with 
communism, nazism, or other movements of that sort, but are some of the most 
necessary and valuable organizations which our country possesses. 

That, sir, is from the only report of the Dies committee which fol- 
lowed a hearing granted to the leaders of the organization. 

Mr. Velde. I personally am very happy that you read the state- 
ment because it shows exactly what the Communist Party has done 
to influence gullible people to go along with the Communist movement. 

Mr. Jackson. I am told that the report dated January 3, 1941, is 
the report of the activities of the committee for the year of 1940. 

Reverend McMichael. That is not what I am referring to. 

Mr. Jackson. Are you referring to the testimony, by any chance 

Reverend McMichael. Not testimony 

Mr. Jackson. Of Mr. Hinckley. 

Reverend McMichael. I am referring to the official report and 
I have read to you from the official report of the Dies committee itself. 

Mr. Jackson. We have it here. , , . 

Reverend McMichael. But I am not talking about activities m 
1940. 

Mr. Velde. This is a report of the activities in 1940 from which 
Mr. Jackson was reading. 

39125—53 5 



2668 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

_ Eeverend McMichael. Yes, but I am not referring to activities 
m 1940. I am referring to the official report of the Dies committee 
that was printed in the New York Times in early 1940. 

Mr. Clardt. Then it isn't a report for 1940 at all', but for 1939. 
Those, of course, have to necessarily be published a few days after 
the end of a calendar year. Now, for 1939, if there was one published, 
it was in 1940. 

Reverend McMichael. There was one published. I have read it 
to you. 

Mr. Clardy. You may not have read it correctly. I suggest we 
proceed. I don't think the witness knows what he is talkiiig about. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Chairman, there is a report on the investigation 
of the un-American propaganda activities in the United States, dated 
January 3, 1940. 

The next report on the investigation of the un-American propa- 
ganda activities in the United States is dated January 3, 1941. These 
were obviously issued at the commencement of each session of a given 
Congress, summarizing the activities and the findings of the commit- 
tee for the year previous. 

Eeverend McMichael. And it was the January 1941 that I wanted 
to be sure was included in the record, along with this other one. 

Mr. Jackson. January 1941, the excerpt from that report is the 
one that I read. 

Mr, Clardt. Twice. 

Mr. Jackson. That is right, I read it twice. 

Reverend McMichael. Would you show it to me ? 

Mr. Jackson. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. I would suggest that in order to expedite time that 
our staff immediately investigate and see if such report is as quoted 
m the New York Times and read by this witness, see if it ever existed. 
If it does, I submit it is fair that that report be included. 

Mr. Velde. It has been read into the record. 
^ Mr. Doyle. The witness read it and we cannot find a copy to verify 

Mr. Clardy. We found a copy of each report. The witness is con- 
fused. He doesn't know what he is talking about. In the one we 
did find and read from it has been put in twice. The one for the year 
preceding that has no reference to the subject. 

Mr. Doyle. The gentleman purported to read from an official report. 

Mr. Clardy. Purported is right. 

Mr. Doyle. Let us find whether or not such report was ever issued. 

Mr. Velde. With all clue respect, Mr. Doyle, that is a matter of 
investigative procedure. 

Reverend McMichael. Mr. Chairman, I have found here what was 
not read before and I want to read it. 

It is from page 9, and this is the document, and I think it was 
purely an inadvertence that he missed it. It is dated January 3, 
1940," and it states : 

In the case of the American Youth Congress — 

And I am not quoting the New York Times — 

the committee finds a central organization which has no membership of its 
owe, but wh ich attempts to affiliate together tBe largest possible number of 

" Report No 1476, 76th Con?., 3d sess., January 8. 1940, being the report of the Special 
Committee on Un-American Activities for the year 1939. lepon oj. me special 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2669 

organizations of American youth people, the vast majority of whom have no 
connection with communism, nazism, or any movement of that sort, but are 
members of some of the most necessary and valuable organizations which our 
country possesses. 

Now, that is what I have read. I have found it. But before I did 
not read it from this document. 

Mr. Velde. The Chair wholeheartedly concurs in that report of the 
Dies committee which you have read. 

Mr. Claedy. You are the most obtuse witness we have had willingly. 

Mr. Velde. Proceed. 

Mr. KuNziG. I think it is perfectly clear when we get together the 
entire report of the Dies committee that we will get what the com- 
mittee thought of this organization, as well as the opinion of the 
Attorney General with respect to this organization. 

Mr. Jackson, It was an inadvertence and I made no effort to mis- 
represent the organization, and I believe the citations indicate quite 
clearly the fact. 

Reverend McMichael. I didn't indicate it was anything but. 
inadvertence. 

Mr. Clardt. Wliat Mr. McMichael read did not in any way con- 
tradict anything Mr. Jackson read. 

Mr. Velde. I wanted to give the witness a full opportunity to 
answer the questions and to give members an opportunity to ask 
questions. Proceed in regular order. Counsel has a lot of infor- 
mation he would like to delevop and ask questions about. 

Reverend McMichael. May I speak to the American Youth Con- 
gress in terms of information ? 

ISIr. KuNziG. I would like to offer in evidence the document marked 
"McMichael Exhibit No. 2" which was the sworn affidavit of Martha 
N. Edmiston and John J. Edmiston. 

Mr. Velde. Without objection, it will be admitted in the record. 

(Affidavit of Martha N. and John J. Edmiston was received in evi- 
dence as "McMichael Exhibit No. 2.") 

McMICHAEL EXHIBIT NO. 2 

Affidavit 
State of Ohio, 

Hamilton County, ss: 

Before me, the unclersisned authority, this day personallv appeared MARTHA 
N. EDMISTON and JOHN J. EDMISTON, to me well known and known to be 
the subscribers hereto, and being by me first duly sworn, deposed and said that 
they are residents of Wayne Township, Warren County, Ohio, and they further 
deposed and said as follows : 

Til at durins the years 1940 and 1941 they were members of the Communist 
Party of the U. S. A., having joined this conspiracy while working as undercover 
operatives for the Federal Bureau of Investigation. That they also were mem- 
bers of several Communist "transmission line" or "front" organizations, such as 
the Workers' Alliance of America, the Emergency Peace Mobilization, the 
American Peace Mobilization, the YANKS (The Yanks Are Not Coming), the 
North Side Peace League, the Linden Peace League, the South Side Peace League 
(the latter three being local front groups in Columbus, Ohio) and from time to 
time served as delegates and observers from these groups to meetings of the 
Ohio Youth Congress, the Southern Ohio Youth Conference, and the American 
Youth Congress, at the direction of Communist Party oflScials as a part of their 
regular Communist Party assignments. 

That they first met the Eeverend Jack R. McMichael in Columbus, Ohio, at a 
meeting of the Ohio Youth Congress in the Southern Hotel. To the best of their 
recollection this meeting was held in May or June of 1940. (The date of this 



2670 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

meeting can be established by reference to a report of it prepared by the depo- 
nents, now in the possession of the FBI.) At the time, the deponents were 
members of the Franklin County (Ohio) Chapter of the "Workers' Alliance of 
America, an organization which was then under the complete domination of the 
Communist Party. At the Workers' Alliance meeting deponents were members 
of the Franklin County (Ohio) Chapter of the Workers' Alliance of America, 
an organization which was then under the complete domination of the Commu- 
nist Party. At the Workers' Alliance meeting just prior to the opening of the 
Ohio Youth CongTess, the Workers' Alliance selected delegates for the congress. 
These included the deponent, Martha Edmiston, Lula Mae Leigh, and others 
whose names the deponents do not recollect at this time. 

To the best of these deponents' recollection, the sessions of the congress occupied 
2 or 3 days and some 200 delegates and American Youth Congress officials were 
present. The deponents personally knew a number of the delegates from 
Columbus organizations, such as the Workers' Alliance, the American Student 
Union, the Young Communist League, and union groups. These delegates in- 
cluded the following Communist Party members: Jack PerlofE, Ruth Williams 
Perloff, Lula Mae Leigh, Irwin Barkan, Virginia Dillon. Betty Brhart, Esther 
Eodgers, Donald Rodgers, Robert Evans, Regina Rosen, Manny Rosen, LeVerne 
Slagle, Bernard Rucker, Lillian Rothenburg, Herbert Seins, John Davis, Beatrice 
Dunn Davis, and Nelrene Grattan. These people included several officers of the 
Franklin County Section of the Communist Party. Nelrene Grattan was treas- 
urer ; Perloff was organizer for the Young Communist League ; Ruth Perloff 
was a member of the party's county committee as was Bernard Rucker. Also 
visiting several sessions of the congress, but not known to us to be delegates 
were E. S. Grattan, Communist Party secretary, and Joseph Socoloff, Communist 
Party organizer in Franklin County. 

That the Workers' Alliance delegates to the congress received their instruc- 
tions from Jack I'erloff, YCL organizer, and Joseph Socoloff, Communist Party 
organizer. All advance literature on the Ohio Youth Congress was distributed 
from the Franklin County headquarters of the Communist Party at Sixth Avenue 
and Summit Streets, Columbus. 

The principal speakers and prime movers at the Ohio Youth Congress were 
the three top-ranking officers of the American Youth Congress : the Reverend Jack 
R. McMichael, AYC chairman; Joseph Cadden, and Robert (Bobbie) Thompson, 
AYC secretary. All spoke and outlined the purposes and program of the Con- 
gress. These purposes were incorporated in resolutions at the final session of 
the Congress. 

That in substance these resolutions set forth : 

(1) The Ohio Youth Congress and the AYC was against any American inter- 
vention in World War II ; 

(2) Against any assistance to the Allies, either in shipments of munitions or 
supplies, or any convoys to protect them; 

(3) Against conscription and military training; 

(4) That the OYC and AYC would support the YANKS organization which 
recently had been formed at the direction of the Communist Party by one of 
Harry Bridges' Communist controlled unions on the West Coast. 

(5) Would join in forming organizations which would send delegates to a pro- 
posed Emergency Peace Mobilization meeting to be held in Chicago in the late 
summer. 

The deponents noted that the various pieces of "peace literature" which were 
passed out at the sessions of the OYC had been received and were distributed 
from the local Communist Pai'ty headquarters. The resolutions noted above 
were mimeographed at the completion of the Congress on the local Communist 
Party's mimeograph, loaned for the occasion by E. S. Grattan, Communist 
secretary. 

During a recess in one of the evening sessions an event occurred which the 
deponents found rather odd and amusing. The deponents, Martha Edmiston 
and John Edmiston, were standing on the mezzanine floor of the hotel with 
E. S. Grattan, Communist Party secretary; Jack Perloff, YCL organizer; and 
Joseph Socoloff, Communist Party organizer. This group was joined by the 
Reverend Jack McMichael and Robert Thompson. (This is the same Robert 
Thompson who later became general secretary of the Communist Party of New 
York, who was convicted in the New York Federal Court of teaching the over- 
throw of the American Government by force and violence, and who now is at 
large, having jumped bail following his conviction.) Thompson and the Reverend 
Jack McMichael launched into a discussion of alleged attempts by "FBI agents" 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2671 

to infiltrate the American Youth Congress. This led to further remarks by 
the two AYC officials on how to spot "an FBI agent" in Ck)mmunist Party 
meetings. The deponents found this both educational and entertaining. 

The deponents' next meeting with the Reverend Jack McMichael was at the 
Emergency Peace Mobilization in Chicago, August 31, 1940. The deponents, 
who covered this meeting for the FF)I were able to report that this convention 
was entirely Communist-hatched Communist dominated. It was at this 3-day 
meeting that the Communist Party sought to pull all of its various front or- 
ganizations and captive unions into a national convention to form yet another 
huge subversive organization. During the previous months the deponents had 
been able to trace the course of the Emergency Peace Mobilization from the 
formation of apparently unrelated and spontaneous "peace leagues" into a 
national network of "peace" organizations carefully nurtured, guided, and 
completely dominated by the Communist Party. 

Held in the Chicago Stadium, the Emergency Peace Mobilization was attended 
by more than 23 thousand delegates. 

The Reverend Jack McMichael was one of the principal speakers at the 
Emergency Peace Mobilization. He spoke at the "Anti-Conscription Rally" held 
in the Stadium on the first day of the meeting at 8 p. m. Dr. John B. Thompson 
was general chairman of the "Bally." 

On the final day of the Emergency Peace Mobilization, the new organization. 
The American Peace Mobilization, was founded. At that time the Reverend 
Jack McMichael was named vice chairman of the new organization. The 
objects of this organization are well known : In short, they were to keep America 
from rendering any assistance to the Allies, from taking defense measures, and 
to impose every kind of opposition to the building up of America's Armed Serv- 
ices. This organization long has been on the Attorney General's list of subversive 
organizations. 

The deponents further depose and say that the Communist Party instantly 
abandoned its "peace" activities when Germany invaded Russia on June 22, 
1941. Until that very day the American Peace ^Mobilization was the Communist 
Party's principal front organization for weakening America's military defense. 
Shortly after that date the American Peace Mobilization had a change of name 
to the "American People's Movement" and the group now called for all-out aid 
to Soviet Russia and the Allies, urged American intervention in the war and 
the setting up of a "second front." 

On July 4, 1941, the deponent Martha Edmiston attended a national confer- 
ence of the American Youth Congress in Town Hall, Philadelphia, at which 
time the Communist Party officially announced the change in the "party line" 
to the American Youth Congress. 

Once again, the Reverend Jack McMichael took a leading role in the conference. 
He was at that time the chairman of the American Youth Congress and vice 
chairman of the Emergency Peace Mobilization. At that meeting, attended 
by some 1,500 delegates of the youth organization and allied Communist-front 
groups, the Communists abruptly dropped all "peace slogans" and began talking 
about "Youth For Victory." 

The deponent Martha Edmiston sat with the Reverend Jack McMichael on 
a panel devoted to aid to China, at which time Mr. McMichael discussed con- 
ditions in China under Japanese occupation and the urgency of need for American 
aid. 

The deponent attended this meeting as a delegate of the Workers' Alliance of 
America, Hamilton County chapter (Cincinnati). Her appointment as a dele- 
gate and her instructions were given by Marjorie Dowers, open Communist and 
member of the Hamilton County (Ohio) Communist Party's executive com- 
mittee, and Joanne Moore, secretary of the Hamilton County Young Communist 
League. All delegates from the Cincinnati area attending this convention were 
members of the Communist Party. All persons to whom the deponent was intro- 
duced in Philadelphia were introduced as Communist Party members. 

There was some friction at the meeting. The Communists had to force their 
"party line" change down the throats of a small minority of delegates who were 
Socialists, but in general the conference went smoothly and the American Youth 
Congress made its about-turn, meekly accepting the new Communist Party line 
as its program, as it had accepted the "peace slogan" in the past. 

And the deponent further notes that this was the first of any of the meetings 
of the American Youth Congi-ess or any of its affiliated organizations at which 
she heard the Star-Spangled Banner sung. 



2672 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

In December 1941 both deponents were expelled from the Communist Party 
as "proven FBI spies." They testified to some of the facts contained above at a 
hearini,' before the United States House of Representatives Committee on Un- 
American Activities on July 13-14, 1950. 

On or about July IS, 1950, the deponents again met the Reverend Jack Mc- 
Michael. He was at the time the executive secretary of the Methodist Federa- 
tion for Social Action. The occasion of meeting him was the conference of the 
federation held at Wilberforce University. Mr. McMichael was one of the princi- 
pal speakers at the meeting. Also speaking with him was Dr. John B. Thompson, 
who had spoken with Mr. McMichael at the Emergency Peace Mobilization 10 
years before. 

At the Wilberforce meeting Mr. McMichael voiced what then was the accepted 
Communist Party line. He blamed America for "aggression" in Korea and saw 
the United Nations as an "invader." Absolving Soviet Russia of blame, he and 
other speakers at the meeting advocated the immediate withdrawal of United 
Nations troops from Korea. He also advocated the recognition of Red China's 
"democratic govex'nment of the people of China" by the United Nations. He 
spoke against conscription and defense rearmament. 

At this meeting, attended by relatively few delegates, there appeared a report 
prepared by several members of the MFSA urging the ousting of Mr. McMichael 
as executive secretary for his "known activities" in Communist-front organiza- 
tions. This report, containing more than 20 pages, listed 48 Communist Party 
front organizations in which, the report charges, Mr. McMichael had been active 
since the beginning of 1948. 

The deponents learned that this report, however, failed to create any wide 
distrust in Mr. McMichael on the part of the great majority of the delegates. 
On the contrary, they gave him a vote of confidence, voting to retain his services 
by an overwhelming majority. 

" Unfortunately, the deponents had no opportunity to talk with the Reverend 
Jack McMichael at this meeting. When the deponent John Edmiston caught 
Mr. McMichael's eye, Mr. McMichael hurriedly left the room and the deponents 
were unable to interview him. 

Witness the signatures of the deponents this 31st day of January 1953 : 

/s/ Martha N. Edmiston 
/s/ John J. Edmiston 

Sworn to and subscribed before me, a notary public in and for said county and 
State, on the above date in the city of Cincinnati, Ohio. 

/s/ Maky C. Young, 
Notorij PicMic, Hamilton County, Ohio. 

My commission expires June 12, 1953. 

Mr. KuNziG. I have here a document marked "McMichael Exhibit 
No. 3" for identification, which is a photostatic copy of a meeting to 
be held on January 28 to 30, 1938, at the College of the City of 
New York, under the auspices of the American Youth Congress, which 
lists Jack McMichael as one of the signers of the call. 

The question is did you sign the call of this organization, and I pass 
you this document marked "McMichael Exhibit No. 3" for identifica- 
tion? Your name is underlined in red, if you are having trouble 
finding it. 

Reverend McMichael. Would it be relevant to have the particular 
program outlined read into the record, and names of the other signers ? 
I would suggest that if you want to know the complete picture. 

Mr. Velde. If you will answer the question first, and then the 
committee will take that up. 

Mr. KuNziG. Document of course will be offered in evidence and it 
will speak for itself and will show all the names of those who have 
joined. The only question here is were you one of the signers of this 
call under the auspices of the American Youth Congress ? 

Eeverend McMichael. Well, all I have got to go on is my memory 
and this document. On the basis of memory I do not recall this, but 




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HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2673 

on the basis of the document it would seem that I did, along with 
many distinguished people and that, from glancing at it hurriedly, 
was a program well in the traditions of the American democracy. 
That is my impression on looking at it. I was trying to see something 
about the contents. 

iNIr. Velde. Your answer is that you don't remember. 

Reverend McMichael. I don't actually remember it, but the docu- 
ment does list me, along with other people. 

Mr. Velde. Would you state categorically that you signed the 
petition ? 

Reverend McMichael. No, I can't do it because I don't remember it. 
It may well be that I did. 

He has this New York State model legislature and it lists various 
people, including myself as signers for what hastily appears to be a 
pretty worthy program in the terms of interest of young people. I 
do not happen to remember it. 

Mr. Velde. The committee will be in recess now until 2 : 30 this 
afternoon. 

(Thereupon, at 1 : 32 p. m., the hearing was recessed, to reconvene 
at 2 : 30 p. m., the same day.) 

ArTERNOON SESSION 

(At the hour of 2 : 42 p. m., of the same day, the proceedings were 
resumed, the following committee members being present : Representa- 
tives Harold H. Velde (chairman), Donald L. Jackson, Kit Clardy, 
Gordon H. Scherer, and Clyde Doyle (appearance noted in 
transscript).) 

Mr. Velde. The committee will be in order. 

Let the record show at this point that I have appointed a subcom- 
mittee consisting of Mr. Jackson, ]Mr. Clardy, Mr. Doyle, and myself 
as chairman for the purpose of continuing this hearing. 

It is the feeling of the Chair that inasmuch as counsel, I believe, can 
be present tomorrow and the witness also can be present tomorrow 
that we should not proceed longer than 6 o'clock this evening. And 
if there are other questions following that, that we will continue until 
10 o'clock tomorrow morning. With that, Mr. Counsel, will you 
proceed. 

Reverend McMichael. I would like to 

Mr. Velde. I asked counsel to proceed. 

Mr. KuNziG. I should like to offer into evidence the document which 
has been marked "McMichael Exhibit No. 3." I would like to offer it 
in evidence as McMichael exhibit No. 3. 

Mr. Velde. Without objection it will be admitted. 

(Call by the American Youth Congress to New York State model 
legislature at the College of the City of New York, January 28-30, 
1938, including program and sponsors, was received in evidence as 
Mc:^richael exhibit No. 3.) 

Mr. KuxziG. Mr. Chairman, in order to save time, instead of my 
reading the various citations of organizations which have been cited 
as subversive or Communist by different committees of Congress, and 
the Attorney General, I should like to ask your permission, sir, and 
ask that a committee member make a motion to the effect that the cita- 



2674 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

tions of organizations which come up during this hearing automati- 
cally be incorporated into the written record instead of my reading 
them aloud at this time. 

Mr. Velde. Is there any objection to the suggestion of counsel? 

Mr. Doyle. No, provided that the citation includes the date. 

Mr. KuNziG. The citation shall include the exact, verbal verbatim 
citation in the Guide to Subversive Organizations and Publications 
issued May 14, 1951. 

Mr. Velde. Without objection, it will be so ordered. 

Mr. KuNziG. I have a document marked McMichael Exhibit No. 4 
for identification, Mr. Chairman, which is a photostatic copy of a por- 
tion of the proceedings of the Fifth Congress of Youth held by the 
American Youth Congress, July 1 to July 5, in New York City in 1939, 
at which the Reverend Jack McMichael was elected chairman. I 
should like to ask you whether you attended that session and whether 
you were elected chairman of the American Youth Congress at that 
time. 

Reverend McMichael. Yes, I attended the session for the National 
Intercollegiate Christian Council which is composed of the student 
YMCA and YWCA youth groups affiliated with the Congress, and I 
was elected chairman. 

Mr. KuNziG. I should like to offer this document in evidence as 
McMichael Exhibit No. 4, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. Without objection, it will be admitted. 

(Proceedings of Fifth American Youth Congress, July 1-5, 1939, 
New York City, was received in evidence as McMichael Exhibit No. 4.) 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2675 



McMICHAEL EXHIBIT NO. 4 
(Part 1) 



IPjll®(g®SlDaKI©' 



CONGRESS 
ot YOUTH 

m 

s^jsw ¥®Si[K (oair^ 



2676 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMIGHAEL 

McMICHAEL EXHIBIT NO. 4 
(Part 2) 

K^aUina the L^onare66 or iyoutk 



We the Undersigned* 

urge the organizations of youth and the agencies serving youth to respond to this 
CALL to the CONGRESS OF YOUTH. We take the initiative in calling the 
young people of America together to give them an opportunity to consider 
their mutual problems and train themselves for self-government by practicing 
citizenship. 



John P. Davis, National Segro Congress 
COLRTENAY DiNwiDDlE, National Child 

Labor Committee 
Dorothy Canfifld Fisher 
W. P Freeman, Order oj Rainbow for Girls 
T. Arnold Hill, National Urban League 
Chase Kimball, League of Nations 

Allocution 
Mrs. Edgerton Parsons, Pan-Pacific 

. Women's Association 
Leland Rex Robinson, League of Nations 

Association 
Lester F. Scott, Camp Fire Girls 
George N. Shuster, "Commonueal" 
George Sol le, Editor, "The New Republic" 
Monroe Smith, American Youth Hostels 

Association 
Oswald Garp.ison Villard, "The Nation' 
C. W. War BASSE, Cooperative League oj 

the U.S.A. 
Richard Welling, National Self-Goiem- 

meat Committee 
Max ^'ergan. International Committee on 

Ajriuin Afjairs 

WOMEN S ORGANIZATIONS 

Mary McLeod Bethune, N.n/'.nal Council 

of Negro Women 
Esther Caukin Brinauer, Amcr::an As- 

soiiation of Unitersity Women 
Hannah Clothier Hlll, Women's Irm- 
— national League for Peace and Frti.doin 
Lena Madesin Phillips, Irtemational Ti-.-i- 

eralion of Business and Professio>:jl 

Women 
Josephine Schain, National Commiitee on 

the Cause and Cure of War 

HEALTH 

Dr. Reginald M. Atwater, American 

Public Health Association 
Dr. Kendall Emerson, N.itional Tuber. 

culosis Association 
Dr. Edix-ard HiMF, Christian Medical 

Council for Our seas Work 
E. D. Mitchell, joumal of Health and 

Ph)sical EJucalion 
>X'iliiam F. Snow, Amciic.in Social 

Ihgiene Associ.ilion 



EDUCATION 

I.eRoy E. Bowman 

William H. Bristow, National Congress 

of Parents and Teachers 
Mrs. H. R. Butler, National Congress of 

Colored Parents and Teachers 
President W. W. Comfort, Haverford 

College 
Prtsident Donald J. Cowling, Carleton 

College 
President John W. Davis, West Virginia 

Slate College 
Edgar J. Fisher, Institute of Iniemaitonal 

Education 
Robert Morss Lovett, Unitersny of 

Chicago 
President Hfnry Noble MacCracken, 

I'assar College 
Acting President Nelson P. Mead, 

College of the City of New York 
Ord^'ay Tead, Board of Education, Neu 

York 
Irma E. Voight, National Association of 

Deans of Women 
Mary E. VC'oolley, President Emeritus, 

Mount Hoi yoke College 

TRADE UNION 

LuiGi Anionini, International Ladies' G.ir- 

meni Workers Union 
Hevxood Broin, American .Newspaper 

Guild 
Redmond Birr, Order of Railway 

Telegraphers 
Jerome Davis, American Federation of 

Teachers 
Frank Gillmore, Associated Actors and 

Artists of America 
J. B. S. Hardman, Editor, "The AJiance." 

Amalgamated Clothing Workers of 

At'ierica' 
Gardner Jackson, Libor's Non-Partisan 

League 
Si'ENCer Miller. Jr.. Workers Education 

Bureau of A:nerica 
Philip Murray, Steel Workers Organizing 

Committee 



[-3 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 



2677 



McMICHAEL EXHIBIT NO. 4 



(Part 3) 



A. Philip Randolph, Brotherhood of 

Sleeping Car Porters 
RtiD Robinson, International Union of 

Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers 
Rose Schneiderman, Women's Trade 

Union League 
A. F. Whitney, Brotherhood of Railway 

Trainmen 

SOCIAL SERVICE 

Lucy P. Carner, Council of Social Agen- 
cies of Chicago 

Charlotte Carr, Hull House 

Hazel E. Foster, Association of Church 
Social Workers 

Helen Hall, National Federation of 
Settlements 

Fred K. Hoehler, American Public Wel- 
fare Association 

Howard R. Knight, National Conference 
of Social Work 

Eduard C. Lindeman, New York School 
of Social Work 

Francis H. McLean, Family Welfare 
Association of America 

LiLLiE M. Peck, National Federation of 
Settlements 

Mary K. Simkhovitch, Greenwich House 

Lillian D. Wald, Henry Street Settlement 
House 

GOVERNMENT 

Ruth O. Blakeslee, Social Security Board 
C. A. Bottolfsen, Governor of Idaho 
Arnold B. Cammerer, National Parks 

Service 
Arthur Capper, U.S. Senator from Kansas 
John M. Coffee, U.S. Representative from 

Washington 
L. D. Dickenson, Governor of Michigan 
Matthew A. Dunn, U.S. Representative 

from Pennsylvania 
James A. Farley, U.S. Postmaster General 
Thomas F. Ford, U.S. Representative from 

California 
Frank W. Fries, U.S. Representative from 

Illinois 
Lee E. Geyer, U.S. Representative from 

California 
Harold L. Ickes, Secretary of the Interior 
Ed. V. IZAK, U.S. Representative from 

California 
R. T. Jones, Governor of Arizona 
Marvel M. Logan, U.S. Senator from 

Kentucky 
Robert Marshall, United States Forestry 

Service 
John Moses, Governor of North Dakota 
}KiAZ% E. Murray, US. Senator from 

Montana 
CULBERT L. Olson, Governor of California 



Robert F. Wagner, US. Senator from 

New York 
C. W. Warburton, U.S. Department of 

Agriculture 
M. L. Wilson, Under Secretary of 

Agriculture 

RELIGIOUS 

Henry A. Atkinson, World Alliance for 

International Friendship Through the 

Churches 
Naomi Brodie, Junior Hadassah 
Mrs. Samuel McCrea Cavert, Young 

Women's Christian Association 
Samuel M. Cohen, Young People's League 

of the United Synagogue of America 
Bishop Ralph S. Cushman, Methodist 

Episcopal Church 
Robert C. Dexter, American Unitarian 

Association 
Mrs. Kendall Emerson, Young Women's 

Christian Association 
Frederick L. Fagley, General Council of 

the Congregational and Christian ■ 

Churches 
Stephen H. Fritchman, Unitarian Youth 

Commission 
William E. Gardner, National Young 

People's Christian Union of the 

Universalist Church 
Philip B. Heller, American Jewish 

Congress 
Rufus M. Jones, American Friends Service 

Committee 
Caroline B. Lourie, National Council of 

Jewish Juniors 
Louise Meyerovitz, Young Judea 
J. Carrell Morris, Christian Youth 

Council of North America 
Helen Morton, National Intercollegiate 

Christian Council 
Reverend A. Clayton Powell, Jr., 

Abyssinian Baptist Church 
Henrietta Roelofs, Young Women's 

Christian Association 
Carl C. Seitter, National Council of 

Methodist Youth 
Katherine Terrill, Council for Social 

Action, Congregation and Christian 

Church 
Jay a. Urice, Young Men's Christian 

Association 
Charles C. Webber, Methodist Federation 

for Social Service 
Bishop Herbert Welch, Methodist 

Episcopal Church 



*The signers are issuing this Call, not as 
the official representatives of their organi- 
zations, but in their personal capacities as 
individuals deeply concerned with the role 
of young people in the United States, 



[3} 



2678 HEARINGS REGARDESTG JACK R. McMICHAEL 

McMICHAEL EXHIBIT NO. 4 
(Part 4) 

NATIONAL LEGISLATP/E PROGILAM 
Support of 

Thomas-Ijirrabce Federal Aid to slducatioo Bill. 

Wagner Health Bill. 

Bloom Neutrality Aa Revision Bill. 

'Pittman Resolution embargoing violators of Nine-Power Treaty. 

Wagner-Van Nuys Anti-Lynching Bill. 

Mitchell Bill barring discrimirution on interstate carriers. 

Wagner LatK>r Relations Aa without amendment. 

Wagner-Rogers Child Refugee Bill. 

Amendments to Social Seoirity Aa extending benefits to migratory, agri- 
cultural and domestic workers. 

Pensions of $60 per nwnth at age of 60. 

Extension of Federal Farm Loans. 

Placemetit of C.C.C under civilian control and extension of educational 
program. 

Expansion of N.Y.A. and W.P.A. 

Ratification of 

Child Lat>or Amendment. 

Repeal of 

Oriental Exclusion Aa. 

Opposition to 

Smith Omnibus Bill and others directed at curtailment of civil libenies. 

OFFICERS ELECTED 

The Nonunations Committee, eleacd at the Congress, presented a slate of 
Officers, made up from nominations received from organizations and State 
Delegation meetings, to the Joint Session of Senate and House. At the Session, 
declinations, substitutions, and nominations were accepted from the floor and a 
final "ballot distributed for the vote resulting in the elertion of the following 
Officers: 

CHAIRMAN — Jack McMichael, NalionaJ Intetcollegiate Christian Council 

VICE-CHAIRMEN— J. Orrel Morris, Christian Youth Council of North 
America 
James B. Carey, United Electric, Radio and Machine 

Workers of America 
Mary Jeanne McKay, National Student Federation of 
America 
Louise Meyerovitz, Young fudea 

Edward E. Strong. National Negro Congress, Youth 
Section 

James V. Krakora, Czechoslovak Society of America 

(Representative of farm organization to be named later) 

[48] 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2679 

McMICHAEL EXHIBIT NO. 4 

(Part 5) 

REGIONAL REPRESENTATIVES 

New England — Alexander ICaranika5, Massachusetts Youth Congress 
Middle Atlantic — Michael Gravino, New York Stale Youth Council 
East Central — Myrtle PowcU, Pillsburgb Y.W.C.A. 
South — Thclma Dale, Soythem Negro Youth Congress 

Miss Jim.'ny Woodward, Y.W^.C.A., Randolph -Mac on College 
South West — Wynard Norman, Oklahoma City Youth Assembly 
West Central — Harlan Oippen, Minnesota Youth Assembly 
West Coast and Rocky Mountain — Clara Walldow, California Youth 

Legislature 
Puerto Rico — Julia Rivera 

TREASURER — Harriet Pickens, Business and Professional Council^ Y.W.C.A. 

EXECUTIVE SECRETARY— Joseph Cadden 

REPRESENTATIVES- AT- LARGE 

Qarence Orter, Connecticut Conference of Youth 

Daniel J. Spooner, Young Peoples League of the United Synagogue of 
America 

Howard Ennes, Washington, D. C, Youth Council 

Joseph Lash, American Student Union 

Margeret Day, National Federation of Settlements 

Josiah R. Bartlett, Social Action Committee, Union Theological Seminary 

(Representatives of Industrial Council, Y.W.C.A. and ah A. F. of L. Union 
to be named later) 

Eleaed Officers listed above constitute the Cabinet of the American Youth 
Congress. 

The Cabinet, meeting on July 5, made the following appointments: 

ADMINISTRATIVE SECRETARY— Frances M. Williams 
LEGISLATIVE DIRECTOR, Abbott Simon 

CREDENTIALS REPORT 

Presented by the Chairman of the Credentials Committee, Roy Lancaster of the 
Cos By-Product, Coke and Chemical Workers. 

736 Senators and Representatives representing organizations with a total 
membership of 4,697.915 (after subtraaion for duplication) are accredited at 
the Congress of Youth. Of these, 96 are Senators delegated by 63 different 
national organizations; 640 are Representatives from 450 organizations. 

Representation of women is approximately two-thirds that of men. The 
youngest delegate is 14 years old and the median age is 22. 

[49] 



2680 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

Mr. KuNZTG. ]Mr. Chairman, I have a document marked "McMichael 
No. 5" in which there is a picture of Jack McMichael and under the 
picture it says "Jack McMichael, of the National Intercollegiate 
Christian Council, newly elected chairman of the American Youth 
Congress." This document is the Young Communist Review ^* of 
August 1939. This is marked "McMichael Exhibit No. 5" and I hand 
it to you and ask you whether that is a picture of you and whether you 
were, as you stated a moment ago, so elected, if that document is 
correct in what it states. 

Reverend McMichael. Well, it states what I have already stated, 
that I was from the National Intercollegiate Christian Council and 
elected chairman of the Youth Congress. 

Mr. Velde. You haven't answered the question. 

Reverend McMichael. It is the same question. 

Mr. Velde. Is the statement contained in the exhibit true ? 

Reverend McMichael. I will have to see the exhibit again. If it is 
a matter of my being elected, I have said that. 

Mr. KuNziG. I offer in evidence this document marked "McMichael 
Exhibit No. 5," Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. Without objection, it will be admitted. 

(August 1939 Young Communist Review, article, Wliat Happened 
at the AYC, by Carl Ross, was received in evidence as McMichael 
Exhibit No. 5.) 

McMICHAEL EXHIBIT NO. 5 

(Young Communist Review, August 1939, pp. 5-7) 

What Happened at the AYO 
By Carl Ross 

If you read the newspapers, the chances are you have heard a lot about the 
Congress of Youth which met in New York City, July 1 to 5. The whole country 
knows about it — the reactionary press has seen to that. But it's still necessary 
to state the facts behind the headlines. 

Seven hundred and thirty-six delegates from 23 states, including 66 delegates 
from national youth organizations, and representing in all 4,700,000 young people 
made up this Congress. This does not include the 10 million youth that the 
United Christian Youth Movement claims to represent. 

While in respect to farm youth, the Congress showed definite weaknesses, 
even compared to the Milwaukee meeting 2 years ago, in its representation from 
the Christian youth groups, the trade union youth, and local community councils 
definite gains can be recorded. Certainly, from the point of view of its political 
maturity, in its crushing defeat to the red-baiters, its firm stand for the unity 
of all progressives, and its support for New Deal legislation, the Fifth Model 
Youth Congress indicated major advances. 

Just as coming events cast their shadow before them, the issues of 1940 
dominated this Congress. That emphasizes its importance. For if we learn 
the lessons of this Congress, we have advance clue to many of the trends that 
can be expected in other organizations for some time to come. 

Most important among the specific measures which the Congress advocated 
is the Homestead Act of 1939, a proposed bill to the United States Congress 
calling for a revolving fund of up to $500,000,000 out of which loans would be 
made for expenses of education, medical expenses, for marriage bounties and 
subsidies to young people establishing homes, funds for young people to buy 
land and seed, as well as money for young people to establish themselves in 
businesses, and the professions. 



i^ Young Communist Review : 

1. Published by the National Board of the Young Communist League of the United States 
(California Committee on Un-American Activities, report, 1948, p. 181). 

2. Successor to the Young Worker, nationwide magazine of the Young Communist League 
(Massachusetts House Committee on Un-American Activities, report, 1938, p. 185). 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2681 

This is the kind of program, as the keynote address by Joseph Cadden put it 
will "preserve the character, health, and morale of the American Youth." Al- 
though the Congress was prevented from working out aggressive plans in its 
behalf, this is undoubtedly its most significant new legislative proposal. It can 
really arouse the kind of support from young people which distinguished the 
campaign around the American Youth Act several years ago. The Homestead 
Act should be seen together with proposals for an apprenticeship program, a 
program of vocational training in the industry, to both of which the YCL gives 
its active support. 

In addition to their stand for revised neutrality legislation that would make 
America a force for peace against fascist aggression, the delegates spoke out 
for the unity in flie labor movement, for the defense of the Wagner Act and 
for the fullest expansion of the Good Neighbor policy. Likewise, it emphasized 
the importance of citizenship education in preparation for the elections of 1940, 
and proposed that Armistice Day be set aside as a day "of youth education and 
action for peace." 

The importance of the Congress program for citizenship training can hardly 
be overemphasized. Projects of this kind have been recommended by youth 
organizations for many years. The YCL adds its weight to the movement for 
citizenship training together with expressions of approval that have already 
come from Catholic youth organizations, the Boy Scouts and others. 

Among other positive aspects of the advances at this Congress compared 
with the past was the complete exposure of the Socialists, the Trotskyite in- 
fluenced elements, and the unprincipled pacifists. On the peace position they 
were wholly isolated, and their pet project the Ludlow amendment rejected 
overwhelmingly. Early in the Congress, they had themselves introduced a sub- 
stitute creed to the one which the Congress adopted and which is reprinted 
elsewhere in these pages. In that original creed, they themselves lumped 
fascism and communism together. 

But in the face of the outright reactionary attack, they were compelled to dis- 
tinguish themselves from the Coughlinites, fascists, and others. So they with- 
drew their proposed creed. But when the final resolution was introduced on 
the floor, "opposing all forms of dictatorship, whether they be Communist, 
Fascist, or Nazi," the Socialist elements, the Youth Committee Against War 
delegates, and others made themselves completely comical by rushing to sup- 
port the resolution, bewailing the fact that they had not been invited to formu- 
late, if and qualifying their position with a little red-baiting of their own. 

Another positive aspect of the Congress were the organizational changes that 
make possible improving its work and solidifying itself among local communi- 
ties. Changes in the leadership of the Congress should also be mentioned. 
Jack McMichael, of the National Intercollegiate Christian Council, the co- 
ordinating body of the student YWCA and YMCA, of Atlanta, Ga., was elected 
chairman. Joseph Cadden was reelected executive secretary, and Harriet 
Pickens, of the National Business and Professional Division of the YWCA, was 
elected treasurer. James Carey, secretary of the CIO, and Carrell Morris, of 
the Christian Youth Council of North America, remain as vice chainnen. 

These are all concrete achievements of the Congress. They are a record of a 
job done under severe handicaps. There can be no doubt but that the Congress 
was a thoroughly progressive one that scored a victory over reaction and places 
the progressive youth movement in a stronger, more united position to meet 
the challenge of 1940. But the real test lies ahead. 

In another part of this issue, John Gates deals with the question which dom- 
inated the Congress : the issue of red-baiting, and the effort of the reactionaries 
to disrupt the unity which the Congress had achieved. John Gates explains 
in detail the position which the delegates of the Young Communist League 
adopted. He goes deeper into the meaning of the issue which confronted the 
delegates and explains in a fundamental way the positive aspects as well as the 
shortcomings of the resolution "opposing all forms of dictatorship, whether 
they be Communist, Fascist, or Nazi, or any other type, or bearing any other 
name" which the Congress adopted. 

Reactionaries Organising 

Needless to say, the reactionaries will not allow the matter to rest. As John 
Gates puts it "The Youth Congress has passed through a difficult test with 
flying colors. The reactionaries received a severe rebuff, but it would be wrong 
to conclude that they have been finished. Reaction is fearful of the power of a 



2682 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

united, progressive youtli movement and will try to split and destroy the Congress 
throughout the country. They can and must be defeated in no inconsistent and 
contradictory way." 

Already the reactionaries are setting up a new youth center, which will be 
an agency of the Coughlin-Dies-Republican propaganda. The reactionaries will 
attempt to use the resolution passed by the Congress as the "Go-Ahead signal" 
for an offensive against the Communists and progressives generally. Obviously, 
the best assurance that the youth movement will remain firm against all at- 
tacks is for the Communists, once and for all, to convince young people that 
they are sincere allies of democracy. Once the democratic movement has learned 
that the Communists on their side represent the best defenders of democracy, that 
the fascists rather than the Communists represent the true menace of dicator- 
ship, resolutions such as were adopted by the Youth Congress will prove 
unnecessary. 



The Creed of the American Youth Congress 

1 dedicate myself to the service of my country and mankind. 

I will uphold the American ideal, which is the democratic way of life. I will 
help assure its bounty to all races, creeds, and colors. 

I will maintain my country, founded by men and women who sought a land 
where they could worship God in their own way, as a haven of a free conscience 
and the free religious spirit. 

I will safeguard the heritage of industrial development, technical skill, natural 
resource and culture which has made my country the inspiration for the youth 
of all lands, and I will use whatever talents I have to add to that heritage. 

I will be a social pioneer helping to forge new tools for an era in which educa- 
tion, the chance to make a decent living, the opportunity for health, recreation, 
and culture will assure the fullest development to all. 

I will respect and defend the Constitution, keystone of American liberties, 
which includes the Bill of Rights granting freedom of religion and press, of 
speech and assemblage. I will seek progress only within the framework of the 
American system of government which is founded on the principle that all 
political power is vested in the people, and I will oppose all undemocratic 
tendencies and all forms of dictatorship. 

I will help make the United States a force for peace and pledge that my patri- 
otism will not be at the expense of other peoples and nations, but one that will 
contribute to the brotherhood of man. 

I will not permit race prejudice, religious intolerance, or class hatred to divide 
me from other young people. I will work for the unity of my generation and 
place that united strength at the service of my country, which I will defend 
against all enemies. 

I pledge allegiance to the Flag of the United States of America and to the 
Republic for which it stands, one Nation indivisible with liberty and justice 
for all. 

Mr. KuNziG. I have a document marked "McMichael Exhibit No. 6" 
for identification, which is a photostatic copy of a report of the 
Sixth American Youth Congress entitled "Youth Defends America." 
This is the July 3-7, 1940, issue and this is the report of the congress 
held at Lake Geneva, Wisconsin, and shows the Reverend McMichael 
as chairman. 

Did you attend the Sixth American Youth Congress, Reverend 
McMichael, and were you there as chairman ? 

Mr. Velde. Please take your time in examining the documents. 

Reverend McMichael. Thank you, kindly. 

(At this point Reverend McMichael conferred with Mr. Donner.) 

Reverend McMichael. Mr. Chairman, I attended the meeting at 
which a resolution was adopted against all dictatorships. Communists, 
Nazis, and others, among other things, and that was in 1940. I 
thought possibly you would be interested in the resolution, the matter 
of the resolution that was adopted at that time which of course the 
Communists, had they dominated it, would not have approved. 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2683 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Chairman, I think that the statement that such 
a resohition was adopted is sufficient, indicating it was adopted 
against all totalitarian forms of 

Eeverend McMichael. It specifically mentioned various ones and 
included Communists and I thought that would be of interest to you 
since there have been allegations about Communist domination, which 
have not been borne out. 

The 1941 meeting adopted a resolution against an American expe- 
ditionary force and against American conscription. This was after 
the Soviet Union had been invaded. 

Mr. KuNziG. We will come to the 1941 document. 

Your answer to this, so that we are correct, I believe you did attend 
this congress and you were there as chairman. 

Eeverend McMichael. Yes. 

]\Ir. KuNziG. I offer this document in evidence as McMichael Ex- 
hibit No. 6. 

Mr. Velde. Without objection, it will be admitted. 

(Report, Sixth American Youth Congress, July 3-7, 1940, was re- 
ceived in evidence as "McMichael Exhibit No. 6.") 

McMICHAEL EXHIBIT NO. 6 

Youth Defends America 
(Report of the Sixth American Youth Congress, pp. 43 and 44)' 

(College Camp, Lake Geneva, Wis.) 

July 3-7, 1940 

Published by American Youth Congress, 8 West 40th Street. New York City 

Resolution of Appreciation 

Whereas The Sixth AYC is the most representative and most successful 
American Youth Congress ever held ; and 

Whereas Many members and friends of the AYC have given unselfishly of the 
time and energy to make the success of the Congress possible : Therefore be it 

RevSolved : That the Sixth American Youth Congress goes on record voicing its 
grateful appreciation of the many individuals whose invaluable contributions 
have made possible the success of the Congress we would especially like to men- 
tion the following: 

Norma Spelrein and all members of the technical staff of this Congress who 
have done a very difficult but successful piece of work on the technical staff. 

Leslie Gould who has been in charge of coordinating the recreation and pro- 
gi'ams. 

Bridget Roberts, full-time vohmteer worker during the past year, who directed 
the work of 180 volunteer AYC workers of the commissions. 

Vivian Liebman, in charge of congress publicity. 

Lee ]\Iarsh, in charge of rural commission work. 

Jack Kalish, in charge of ushers. 

Zylphia Horton, song leader ; and other entertainers. 

Ellen Hays who has worked full time on credentials. 

Bernard Liebman, in charge of mimeographing. 

Abbott Simon, legislative director. 

Frances M. Williams, administrative secretary. 

Joe Cadden, executive secretary. 

Jack McMichael, chairman. 

We extend our thanks to Mr. Bentsen, director of College Camp, and Dr. 
Coffman, President of George Williams College, for their kind cooperation in 
making it possible for us to hold the Congress here ; to those who have pre- 
pared the excellent food and to all employees of College Camp who have assisted 
during the Congress ; and to all those persons whose names may have been 
omitted but who have contributed to the successful arrangements of the Sixth 
American Youth Congress. 

39125—53 6 



2684 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

As its final order of business, the Congress entertained the report of tlie 
Nominations Committee, approved one cliange in the Constitution to make pos- 
sible the election of thirteen delegates at large, voted and elected the following 
slate of officers and executives : 

CHAIRMAN 

Jack McMichael, Interseminary Movement. 

VICE CHAIRMEN 

J. Carrell Morris, Christian Youth Council of North America. 

James B. Carey, United Electrical Radio and Machine Workers of America. 

Mary Jeanne McKay, National Student Federation of America. 

Edward E. Strong, Southern Negro Youth Congress. 

Naomi Ellison, National Industrial Girls Council of the Y. W. C. A. 

Ruth Shields, National Intercollegiate Christian Council. 

Gerald Harris, Jr., Alabama Farmers' Union. 

REGIONAL REPRESENTATIVES 

New England — Nathaniel Mills, Massachusetts Youth Council. 
Middle Atlantic — Jean Horie, New York Youth Congress. 
West Central — June Wooster, Chicago Youth Congress. 

South — Thelma Dale, Southern Negro Youth Congress ; Malcolm Cotton Dobbs, 
League of Young Southerners. 

Southwest — Nena Beth Stapp, Oklahoma Youth Legislature. 

West Coast— Charles Rosenthal, California Youth Legislature. 

East Central — Doris Miller, Cleveland Youth Council. 

Rocky Mountain — Tom Ely, Colorado Council of Methodist Youth. 

TREASURER 

Harriet I. Pickens, Business and Professional Council, Y. W. C. A. 

EXECUTIVE SECRETARY 

Joseph Cadden. 

ADMINISTRATIVE SECRETARY 

Frances M. Williams. 

ORGANIZATIONAL SECRETARY 

Abbott Simon. 

RECORDING SECRETARY 

Myrtle Powell. 

EEPEESENTATIVES AT LARGE 

Joseph Lash. 

A. Everett Winne, Young Men's Council of the Y'. M. C. A. 

Milner Dunn, Young People's Christian Union of the Universalist Church. 

James Robinson, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. 

Bert Witt, American Student Union. 

Maxine McKinley, National Intercollegiate Christian Council. 

Sam Freedman, Youth Division of the American Jewish Congress. 

Louise Morley, International Student Service. 

Louis Burnham, Y'outh Division of the National Negro Congress. 

Leonard Detweiller, National Intercollegiate Christian Council. 

Roy Lancaster, United Mine Workers of America. 

John Darnell, National Student Federation of America. 

Richard Heikkimen, Michigan Committee to Pass the American Youth Act. 

"Marching Forward * * *" 

Just as he had convened the opening session, had helped guide various interim 
sessions, reelected Chairman Jack McMichael carried through his responsibilities 
with a closing address. He spoke of the sincere appreciation with which the 
new officers accepted the mandate of the delegates. * * * 

Mr. KuNziG. I have a document marked "McMichael Exhibit No. 7," 
a photostatic copy of Review, the publication of the Young Commu- 
nist League, dated July 22, 1940. There is an article by Max Weiss 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2685 

under a picture of Jack McMichael. He [Max Weiss] is identified 
as the national president of the Young Communist League, U. S. A. 
This article describes the proceedings of the Sixth American Youth 
Congress, to which we have just referred and at which Jack McMichael 
was the chairman. 

I ask you is it correct that you were reelected chairman at that 
convention? The heading on the front of the Review is the same 
masrazine 



Reverend McMichael. Yes ; I was. 

Mr. KuNziG. I hand you this document marked "McMichael Exhibit 
No. T"' for identification and ask you whether it is correct that you 
were reelected chairman of the American Youth Congress, as shown 
in that document. 

Reverend McMichael. Not having been a reader of this magazine 
and having any comiection with it, it testifies to a fact that could have 
been secured from a magazine of the National Intercollegiate Chris- 
tian Council, or from the New York Times. I don't know whether 
that shows that publication. 

]Mr. Velde. You did state that you were the chairman ? 

Reverend McMichael. Yes; I was the chairman of that organ- 
ization. 

Mr. Velde. Proceed. 

Mr. KuNziG. I should like to offer McMichael Exhibit No. 7 into 
evidence at this time, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. Without objection, it will be admitted. 

(The July 22, lOttO, issue of the Young Communist Review, pp. 8 
and 9, was received in evidence as McMichael exhibit No, 7.) 

McMICHAEL EXHIBIT NO. 7 

(Young Communist Review, July 22, 1940, pp. S and 9) 

Youth Speaks fob National Defense Based on Youth Needs 
Not fob Imperialism 

(By Max Weiss, national president, Young Communist League, U. S. A.) 

(Including photograph of Jack McMichael) 

Geneva, Wis. — Issuing a call to American youth to join the emergency cam- 
paign to defeat the Roosevelt plan of military conscription and labor camps for 
youth and to keep America out of war, 482 delegates and 113 observers at the 
Sixth American Youth Congress, representing over 5 million youth on farms 
and factories, in churches and schools, returned to their homes to prepare for 
the Emergency Peace IMobilization in Chicago on Labor Day. The largest gather- 
ing of young Americans in history pledged the Youth Congress' participation in 
the Chicago mobilization. 

Lasting 4 days, the sessions produced a youth program which delivered a strong 
blow to the Roosevelt war program. The declai-ation on national defense, adopted 
by an overwhelming majority, declared youth have a right to insist that their 
ideals and aspirations be embodied in any defense program. 

Real National Defense 

"For these reasons we oppose those policies which in the name of national 
defense have been leading America step by step toward involvement in war 
through incitement of war hysteria, through unauthorized commitments by public 
officials, through traffic in arms and munitions with belligerents in Europe and 
Japan, through proposals for American participation in a new Munich at the 
exj^ense of our own people and other lands." 

Stating that "such politics arouse grave fears among us that huge armaments 
voted by Congress will not be used for defense of our country but for military 



2686 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

adventures abroad or for intervention in internal affairs of the Latin-American 
peoples," the delegates insisted that "armed forces must not be sent to fight on 
foreign soil." 

The resolution went on to say that "domestic policy based on maintenance and 
extension of our civil liberties and continued improvement of the living standards 
of the people" is fundamcntiil to a real program of defense. The Congress 
affirmed solidarity with the demand of the CIO's executive council that the rights 
of labor be maintained. It also went on record for the immediate passage of the 
Federal Anti-Lynching Bill, the Geyer Anti-Poll Tax Bill, expansion of the WPA, 
and passage of adequate housing and health programs. These were in the fore- 
front of the declaration which attaclced the present Administration's drive against 
the security and liberties of the American i)eople. 

Unregimented Youth 

The Jobs Commission recommended the "expansion of NYA, CCC, and WPA, 
under democratic civilian control, strengthening of the Wage-Hour, Walsh- 
Healey, and National Labor Relations Acts, a great Government housing pro- 
gram, the extension and liberalization of the Social Security Act, increased 
provision for vocational guidance and training under democratic supervision, 
and the fight for the 30-hour week." 

Greeted by heavy applause, the rural program declared that "the land must 
be owned by those who farm it." It urged extension of NLRA to all agricultural 
workers, changing AAA to benefit the small farmer and sharecropper, adoption 
of a full soil conservation, producing, and marketing co-op program, Federal aid 
to the young farmer by long-term interest loans, racial equality in educational 
opportunities and their extension, elimination of malaria, pellagra, tuberculosis, 
and rickets ; the wiping out of the shacks which we call homes, and au end to the 
discrimination against the Negro people. 

"The first line of defense of our country is a free, unregimented, happy youth, 
guaranteed the right to education, vocational training, and jobs," declared the 
resolution. "We are opposed to all proposals which have been made for com- 
pulsory military training or un-American regimentation of youth in compulsory 
labor camps." 

The commissions on jobs, civil liberties, education, rural youth, housing, and 
health developed detailed programs and techniques for the cooperation of na- 
tional and local organizations in order to carry out the program adopted. 

Unprecedented provocations in the press and an attempt to disrupt the Con- 
gress made by Gene Tunney and Murray Plavner found the youth organizations 
of America united much more firmly and deeply than ever. When the delegates 
rose at the end of the last session and recited the Creed of the American Youth 
Congress under the leadership of reelected Chairman Jack McMichael, the 
strength of their unity was the guarantee that the program adopted would be 
put into practice in evei-y part of the land. 

A long debate occurred on the national-defense declaration when a substitute 
resolution was introduced by Joe Lash, stating that "to defend our freedom, our 
security, and our well-being, we favor the continuance of material aid, short of 
sending an expeditionary force, to the forces resisting the onward march of 
Hitlerism, particularly to England." It supported conscription indirectly. 

Youth leaders declared in discussion that the rulers of England were not "one 
of the forces resisting the onward march of Hitlerism." 

Opposition to labor camps was expressed by the delegates because they de- 
clared democracy cannot be defended by Hitlerizing America. The resolution 
introduced by Lash could muster only 19 of the total votes. 

Speaking for the Young Communist League, I said that : "the way to stop the 
menace of war is for the United States to ally itself with that other great power, 
the U. S. S. R. * * *. The Young Communist League and the Communist Party 
have at all times favored friendship between the United States and the Soviet 
Union. I cannot speak for the Soviet Union, but its policy has always been 
friendship and collaboration with all countries genuinely desiring peace * * *." 

The heralded invasion of the Congress by Gene Tunney did not take place, 
although the delegates voted unanimously to invite Tunney to address the 
plenary session after the group of 42 Tunney followers had refused individually 
to appear before the credentials committee, for seating rights at the Congress. 

An effort to place the Congress on record against the Soviet Union was de- 
feated in the resolution presented by Frank Kramer of the University of 
Wisconsin for condemnation of England, France, Germany, Italy, and the Soviet 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2687 

Union as dictatorships. Tom Ely, of the Colorado Young Methodists, declared 
condemnation of the Soviet Union would endanger America's defense because it 
would provoke hostility with a powerful and friendly neutral country. 

Defense of the U. S. S. R. 

A young Jewish delegate declared he would oppose condemnation of the 
Soviet Union because the Jewish people found their rights guaranteed in the 
Soviet Union. A substitute resolution, introduced by the Resolutions Committee, 
calling for reaffirmation of the resolution adopted by the Youth Congress last 
July at the fifth convention, condemning all dictatorships but declaring the right 
of all young people regardless of race, color, creed, or political belief to be 
part of the Congress, was adopted by the delegates. 

Carl Ross, speaking for the Young Communist League, declared that his 
organization's delegates would abstain from voting on the resolution, although 
he did not consider that this resolution applied to the Soviet Union which was 
a higher form of democracy than that practised anywhere in the world. Ross 
announced abstention of his organization because of efforts by reactionaries to 
exploit this resolution. Kramer's resolution was defeated and the resolution 
adopted last July reaffirmed. The Congress ended on a note of complete unity 
of the youth movement. 

Eeverend McMichael. On that question of the Young Communist 
League, is that the Review? I have been given information about 
another issue of the Review put out in 1941, complaining about the 
stand that was taken by the Youth Congress against the wishes of 
the Young Communists at that meeting. I led a fight against the 
American Expeditionary Forces. Most of us did not want to go to 
war until we were attacked and it might be of some interest that the 
Young Communist League Review, this report has come to me follow- 
ing July 1941, indicated that they had wanted intervention. They 
wanted intervention in that war in Europe and wanted a stand by the 
American Youth Congress, and the American Youth Congress instead 
of what the Young Communists wanted, had adopted a clear stand 
against an expeditionary force. Thus they admitted they were de- 
feated by the Youth Congress. There was no issue more important 
to them than intervention in that war, and I led a fight against that 
and as long as you want to go to Communist magazines I thought 
vou might want to see that. They complained about the stand taken 
by the Youth Congress against the position they took. 

Mr. Jackson. I suggest the statement of the witness has gone in 
the record and we might as well go in the regular order again. 

Mr. Clardt. It is remarkable the surprising amount of information 
you have about something which you say you paid no attention to. 
That is all I have to say. 

Reverend McMichael. I would like to have the secretary read to 
me that I paid no attention to the American Youth Congress. 

Mr. Clardy. You may go ahead. 

Reverend McMichael. There is a charge there. I paid a lot of at- 
tention to the Youth Congress. 

Mr. KuNziG. I think the record should show clearly that I am cer- 
tain the Attorney General of the United States took these various 
factors into consideration before labeling quite clearly this organiza- 
tion as a Communist-front organization, in toto. 

Mr. Clardy. I don't think there is any doubt in anybody's mind it 
was a Communist organization. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Chairman, I have a document marked "Mc- 
Michael Exhibit No. 8," which is a copy of the Daily Worker of 



2688 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

Monday, July 7, 1941, which reports the Seventh American Youth 
Congress held in Philadelphia is dated Jnly 6, 1941. 

1 hand you this document marked "McMichael Exhibit No. 8," and 
ask you if it is correct that you were reelected national chairaian at 
that time? 

Keverend McMichael. I wonder why this exclusive reliance on 
Communist publications for this information? 

Mr. Velde. Will you please answer the question. 

Reverend McMichael. The New York Times reported that fact.. 

]VIr. Velde. Will you please answer the question. 

Reverend McMichael. Yes; that was the one year we took the 
stand against an expeditionary force, under my leadership. It was 
the American Young Communists 

Mr. Velde. Under your leadership of what? 

Reverend McMichael. Under my chairmanship, the American 
Youth Congress 

Mr. Velde. You mentioned Young Communist League or the 
American Young Communists. 

Reverend McMichael. The American Youth Congress took, in July 
1941, a stand against an American expeditionary force, of which the 
American Communist League or the Young Communist League com- 
plained in their Review. 

Mr. Velde. You mentioned the Young Communist League. 

Reverend McMichael. Yes, having complained against the stand 
which we took under my leadersliip. They were opposed to what I 
did there. 

Mr. KuNziG. Were they opposed to everything j^ou did at all 
times ? 

Reverend McMichael. No. They were opposed to that matter of 
intervention. They were in favor of it. 

Mr. KuNziG. I should like to offer in evidence this document as 
McMichael exhibit No. 8, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. Without objection, it will be received in evidence. 

(Monday, July 7, 1941, issue of the Daily Worker, pp. 1 and 5, 
article. Youth Adopt Anti-Fascist Program, was received in evidence 
as McMichael exhibit No. 8.) 

McMICHAEL EXHIBIT NO. S 

(Daily Worker, July 7, 1941, pp. 1 and 5) 
Youth Adopt Anti-Fascist Program 

COGEESS upholds RIGHTS OF LABOR: REELECTS M'MICHAEL 

(By Milton Meltzer) 
(Special to the Daily Worker) 

Philadelphia, Pa., July 6. — Solidly united behind a pi'ogram to defeat Hitler- 
ism abroad and stop fascism at home, the Seventh American Youth Congress 
ended its sessions tonight )it the Stephen Girard Hotel with the adoption of several 
proposals for practical action and the election of new oflficers and cabinet. 

Five and a half million organized young Americans were represented at the 
Congress by 1,100 official delegates, according to the credentials committee re- 
port, of the more than 800 local and national organizations who sent delegates. 
By far the largest single group wei'e trade unions. Students, Christian, youth, 
local Youth Councils and Negro groups were also heavily represented. 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2689 

Reelect McMichael 

Jack McMichael, young theological student from Georgia, was reelected na- 
tional chairman. Other executive officers chosen are Josepli Cadden, first vice- 
chairman, Prances M. Williams, executive secretary ; Edward Strong, organiza- 
tional secretary, and Marie Reed, administrative secretary. 

Elected together with these to the national cabinet were 7 vice-chairmen, 10 
regional representatives, and 12 representatives-at-large, including leaders of 
many of America's most important youth, labor, Negro, and religious organiza- 
tions. Yesterday's closing plenary session, after considerable discussion, adopted 
a resolution opposing an American Expeditionary Force out of concern that 
it might be used for imperialist intervention. 

Speaking for the Young Communist League, John Gates said that his organi- 
zaticm understood youth's concern, but believed that with the new change ia 
the war, permanent peace could be secured only by a military victory over Hit- 
ler fascism. The YCL took the position that America must be prepared to take 
any measure necessary for the end, whether it be political, economic, or mili- 
tary. The Young Communist League abstained from voting on the resolution. 

Picket Jim-Crow Hotels 

Mass picket lines around two of Philadelphia's jim-crow hotels on Saturdays 
made dramatic for this city the Youth Congress' firm stand against all dis- 
criminatory practises (sic). 

In one case police forced the pickets off the sidewalk, whereupn (sic) the- 
YCL sent delegations to the City Hall and into the hotels to protest this new 
defiance of constitutional rights. 

During the morning the delegates divided into panels to discuss their local 
and organizational experiences in carrying out the AYC's program. Conferences 
of industrial, youth, students, Negro youth, national and fraternal groups, re- 
ligious and rural youth, heard reports from both leaders and rank and tilers that 
intended to serve as guides for future campaigns on progressive issues. 

Fight Repressive Bills 

Among the reports of the afternoon were two on civil liberties and conscrip- 
tion. Josephine Timms, secretary-treasurer of the American Communications- 
Association, listed antilabor and discriminatory legislation that the Congress 
voted to fight against. The resolution passed in this field yesterday supported 
the antilynching bill, the Geyer-antipoll-tax bill, and the Marcantonio bill to 
eliminate jim crow in industry and public agencies. All legislation seeking ta 
outlaw minority parties or cut down their rights was opposed, as were anti- 
Semitic and antialien measures. 

The use of the conscription law as a "work or fight'' order and the use of 
troops to break strikes wei"e denounced and "day-to-day cooperation with the 
labor movement" called for to fight against antilabor moves on every front. 

Nathaniel Mills, of the Massachusetts Youth Council, reporting at the con- 
scription panel, in which a number of draftees in uniform participated, said 
"the conscripts want us to give them a voice. Every local organization ought 
to have a draftee welfare committee to adopt an Army Camp nearby and become 
their champions." He urged steady action in behalf of the Congress' new 21-point 
program "for the material welfare, health, housing, and recreational facilities 
of the conscripts," embodied in a resolution adopted the preceding night. 

"Conscript Week" 

The rallying point for action on this wall be the National Conscript Week, 
August 15-21, proposed by the YCL. Organizations are urged to send delega- 
tions that week to the camps and public officials, placing pressure upon them to- 
improve the welfare of the boys in the camps. 

Another important call proposed today came out of the Negro Youth panel. 
After hearing intense discussion from Negro and white delegates on their cam- 
paigns to end discrimination against Negroes in local industries, in housing, in 
parks and on beaches, it was decided to work toward a National Conference 
of Negro Youth to be held some time this Autumn. The plenary session endorsed 
the proposal enthusiastically. 

In an interview with Joseph Cadden, AYC leader, who is also a member of 
the Committee for the World Youth Congress, Mr. Cadden declared that there 



2690 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

will soon be a meeting of a provisional arrangements committee to discuss 
details for calling a World Youth Congress. 

"Youth delegates from Canada, Cuba, Mexico, India, and China are already 
in this country," he said. "In Latin America, young people have been thinking 
of calling a Hemisphere Conference. We plan, following the resolutions to that 
effect passed here, to invite Youth from countries to the South of us to meet 
with those already here. Miss Janet Margesson, British Youth leader, will 
probably arrive in America in mid-July and she, too, will take part in the 
provisional committee meeting. Interest in this projected World Youth Congress 
is widespread and rapidly increasing." 

Reverend McMichael. The New York Times reported that meeting. 

Mr. Clardy. May I suggest that the witness again be admonished 
that these uncalled for asides be silenced. 

Mr. Velde. I do not think it makes any difference whether the 
witness is admonished. I would appreciate it if you would confine 
your answers to the questions. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Chairman, I should like to say that I think there 
is a considerable degree of relationship as between these publications, 
these Communist publications, and the fact that the witness has been 
identified under oath as not only a member of the Communist Party 
but also as a member of the Young Communist League. I believe that 
we know as a matter of record the favorable comment given to you in 
Communist publications and that such favorable comment is very 
•seldom given, let us say, the members of this committee. Favorable 
comment in the Worker or the New Masses is largely confined to those 
individuals whose actions willingly or inadvertently have given indi- 
cation of lending some measure of aid and comfort to the matters 
which are espoused by the Communist Party, the Young Communist 
League, and things of that sort. So I think those identifications of 
you must be brought in and must be borne in mind when referring to 
Communist Party publications. 

Reverend McMichael. I would like you to bear in mind that I have 
before me the statement by Mr. Johnson that Jack McMichael was 
a member of the national committee of the Young Communist League 
and that Mr. Patterson stated that he recognized me from 1934 until 
I went out in 1935, and that Mr. Patterson said he, referring to me, 
was a member of the New York district of the Young Communist 
League and was a member of the top fraction of the Young Communist 
League, and on the basis of the statement which refers to the Young 
■Communist League I would like to point out to you that the gentle- 
man was falsifying and not on the basis of my statement but on the 
basis of records. It is not a question of his statement against mine, 
but in 1934 until he went out in 1935 I was nowhere near where he 
was. I was at Emory University in Georgia. I was a freshman and 
sophomore and did not graduate until 1937, and I don't thiiik Mr. 
Patterson claims that he was down in some kind of a Young Com- 
munist League at Emory University, that Methodist university. 

Mr. Clardy. Perhaps you had better pause at this time. You have 
not seen all the testimony of the witness in question. 

Reverend McMichael. Counsel made that available to me. 

Mr. Clardy. Let me help you. 

Reverend McMichael. I appreciate your desire to help me. I am 
drying to help myself. 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2691 

Mr. Clardy. You are going to help yourself in a way you little 
suspect. May I suggest you not make statements about the witness 
who has called you a Communist until you have read all his testimony. 

Reverend McMichael. I have the clear evidence that the man 
was lying. I was in Georgia and was not anywhere near where he 
was, so I couldn't possibly have been where he was. 

Mr. Jackson. May we have regular order. 

Reverend McMichael. I couldn't possibly have been there. 

Mr. Velde. We did not accuse you. 

Reverend McMichael. I know you want to be fair with me. I 
haven't hesitated yet to answer. I want to be careful. 

Mr. Velde. Proceed. 

Reverend McMichael. And they contradict themselves. 

Mr. KuNZiG. I have a document market "McMichael Exhibit No. 9," 
which is a photostat of the August 5, 1940, edition of Review. The 
headline is "Youth Fighting To Bar Draft." 

The picture says that Jack McMichael is addressing a delegation of 
youth, the Youth Congress, telling them that there is a job to be done, 
to keep the United States out of war. On the same page there is a 
picture which goes on to say that in England the young people have 
already been given a job. It states "We see them here busily engaged 
in learning the facts of death." 

This photostatic copy describes proceedings of the Sixth American 
Youth Congress at Lake Geneva. 

Did you lecture to the group as pictured here to keep the United 
States out of war, as shown on McMichael exhibit No. 9 ? 

Reverend McMichael. Not having been a reader of this magazine,, 
it has not been one of the publications that I have relied on. I want 
to glance at it since it is going into the record and concerns me and I 
notice here that the resolution I referred to before was adopted at that, 
meeting. 

Mr. Clardy. He is not answering the question. 

Reverend McMichael. I am going to answer the question. 

Mr. Clardy. Will you be quiet. 

Mr. Velde. The Chair has given you a reasonable time to answer the- 
question. 

Reverend McMichael. Since that publication is going into this- 
record, it shows them complaining about this resolution against com- 
munism and other dictatorships as having been adopted. 

Mr. Velde. Proceed, Mr. Counsel. The witness apparently refuses- 
to answer the question. Will you proceed, Mr. Kunzig ? 

Reverend McMichael. I spoke to the meeting. That I have already 
answered before. 

Mr. Kunzig. And you spoke against war ? 

Reverend McMichael. I spoke against entry into war. 

Mr. Kunzig. You have answered the question. 

I offer into evidence the document which is marked "McMichael 
Exhibit No. 9" for identification. 

Mr. Velde. It will be introduced in evidence, without objection. 

(August 5, 1950, issue of Young Communist Review, pp. 2 and 12^ 
article. History Was Made at Sixth Youth Congress, was received 
in evidence as McMichael exhibit No. 9.) 



2692 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

McMICHAEL EXHIBIT NO. 9 

(Young Communist Review, August 5, 1940, pp. 2 and 12) 

History Was Made at Sixth Youth Congress 

By Carl Ross 

SUCH meetings as the sixth American Yonth Congress at Lake Geneva are 
usually described as cross-sections of youth. But in this case that description 
Is not adequate for this was a Congress of the most articulate and capable lead- 
ership that American youth has produced both from its national and local move- 
ments. Most significant was the strong representation of young people from 
the labor movement, proving that the collaboration begun especially with the 
CIO at the Citizenship Institute has born fruit. 

This Congress more than any previous one was truly national in its scope. No 
fact reflected this so much as the powerful group of delegates from the South 
who played a leading part in all deliberations, while the presence of a compara- 
tively large group of fann youth indicated that in this field the youth movement 
has at last broken the ice and found a good response. A large representation 
of Negro youth who made important contributions indicated a deeper integration 
of Negro and white youth movements in the solution of common problems. 

The advanced and comprehensive program adopted reflected this broad articu- 
late character of the gathering. While in every respect a minimum program, it 
will certainly be a guide to action guaranteeing that the Congress will continue 
to serve the interests of the youth. On the issues of civil liberties for all includ- 
ing the Communists ; in the demand for jobs and economic security especially 
as embodied in the Youth Act ; in the programs on health, housing, education 
and for rural youth ; in the Declaration on National Defense and the stand 
against conscrijftion, a remarkable degi'ee of unity was attained. It is precisely 
this broad and cieflnite program that made possible the election of a new national 
leadership (National Cabinet) representing all tendencies within the Congress. 
Such a leadership even though it does not include a representative of the Young 
Communist League is certainly to be desired and supported by all including the 
Communists so long as it adheres to the program to wliich it is pledged by the 
Congress. It can be said that the Congress continues to represent broad and 
diverse sections of the youth regardless of their allegiance to various political 
groupings. Of course it is regrettable tliat not as large a number of national 
organizations as previously were represented, but that in a large measure is 
compensated in the great increase in local youth council representation and 
from local bodies of national youth organizations. 

Again the American Youth Congress became the focal point of national atten- 
tion and publicity as the target around which contending forces clashed in their 
struggle for leadership over the youth and their organizations. Chief of these 
outside the Congress majority itself were the Plavner-Tunney crowd and the 
group which earlier announced itself as a pro-Roosevelt bloc. 

National Attention 

Tunney and Plavner went down in ignominious defeat except in the columns 
of the press which gave the ex-champ pugilist enough free publicity to knock him 
"slaphappy." 

Mr. Tunney found it advisable to ashcan Plavner's redbaiting platform and to 
write a new program for the "Pro- American" youth movement he proposes to 
sponsor. The "new" program is significant in that for the first time this reac- 
tionary gang demagogically appeals to the youth on other issues than anti- 
communism. Even they recognize that the youth of America cannot be won on a 
program of redbaiting. 

Largely for that reason it would be a serious ei'ror to underestimate or ignore 
the danger that the Plavner-Tunney crowd or the group of Democratic, Re- 
publican, and Legionnaire elements from Michigan who have decided to launch 
an independent movement represent. It must be borne in mind that it is just 
from such incipient even "crackpot" groups that fascist movements have sprung 
up in other countries. The youth can defend their movement only if they remain 
on guard against disruption and provocation organized by such forces as Plavner 
represents, and by spreading wide the truth about what happened at Lake 
Oeneva. 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2693 

A Miracle 

From the outside the Young People's Socialist League, true to its role of fol- 
lowing in the footsteps of reaction, echoed the redbaiting cry of Tunney and 
Plavner. And to confound those who don't believe in miracles the YPSL per- 
formed the impossible feat of again announcing its withdrawal from a Congress 
it has long ago left. 

The pro-Roosevelt and prowar forces represented by Joe Lash and his followers 
were decisively defeated by the Congress. In fact, they could win so little sup- 
port among the youth representatives, that they had no other alternative, but 
to remain within the leadership of the Congress, if they were not to be com- 
pletely isolated from the youth movement. Their participation in the leader- 
ship also indicates, that although the Youth Congress repudiates Roosevelt's 
prowar and reactionary policies, it remains a movement which is neither for nor 
against any political party. 

The march of history itself was the most powerful force making for the repu- 
diation of the policies put forward before and during the Congress by the ad- 
ministration forces. Even among themselves there was no agreement for support 
of the conscription proposals of Roosevelt. And in advocating a policy of all aid 
to Britain in the war with Germany Lash and his friends found that tht 'letrayal 
and fall of France had swept the ground out from under their feet. '..-Le path 
toward war inherent in the policy of aid to British imperialism smacked the 
Congress squarely between the eyes. Its Declaration on National Defense pledged 
the youth of America to the defense of our country against ''any attack of ene- 
mies from without and any 'betrayal from tvithin, as in France," but rejected the 
war-policy of the administration. 

The young Communists supported that declaration while pointing out that 
America's best assurance for the defense of its peace and security lies in col- 
laboration with the Soviet Union. Such a statement would immeasurably have 
strengthened the stand of the AYC, but the fact remains that this is not yet fully 
recognized by a majority of the organized youth and their representatives. 

The Congress repudiated the imperialist policy of the Roosevelt administration 
and its supporters. If there was any criticism to be made it would be that the 
similar policy of the Republican Party was not exposed and rejected with equal 
vigor and emphasis. 

No Redbaiting 

The press has made much of the refusal of the Congress to be stampeded into 
redbaiting attacks upon the Soviet Union and the Communists. Again the answer 
cannot be found within the Congress itself as the newspapers with their slanders 
about "Communist control" would have it. Mr. Lash who only a few weeks before 
the Congress had demanded that the AYC condemn the Soviet Union as an 
aggressor nation and as a "dictatorship" was strangely silent on this matter. 

When a lone anti-Soviet resolution was introduced Mr. Lash and the Adminis- 
tration bloc shyly kept to the background because the intent of such a resolution as 
creating dissension, as creating a war hysteria towards a friendly nation was 
obvious for all to see. Events in the Baltic and Balk-ans have added proof to the 
peaceful liberating role of the Soviet Union especially to the Jewish peoples. 

For the first time in any Youth Congress an open bold defense of the Soviet 
Union was undertaken by others than Communists, not because they neces- 
sarily agreed fully with its policies, but because they have recognized its peaceful 
role and the necessity of friendship by the United States towards so powerful a 
neutral. 

However a majoi-ity of the Congress felt they could best dissasociate (sic) 
themselves from the charge of "Communism," and declare their Americanism 
by reaffirming the resolution adopted a year ago against "all forms of dictator- 
ship." As last year the spokesman of the Young Communist League pointed out 
that this resolution does not apply to Communists who are defenders of democracy 
nor to the Soviet Union whose people enjoy the highest. Socialist, democracy. 
But because this same resolution has been misinterpreted and used by reaction- 
aries against both the Congress and the Communists the delegates of the YCL 
declared their inability to support it and abstained from voting. 

YCL Stand 

That such a resolution, open to misinterpretation by reaction as an attack 
upon Communists and the Soviet Union, was adopted is unfortunate. But con- 



2694 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

tinuing to explain its own aims and the principles of the Soviet Union, the YCL 
will cooperate with the Yonth Congress on all other questions on which it holds 
a policy in common with the AYC. 

The American Youth Congress has come of age. It confronts new burdens 
and new responsibilities with greater maturity. And with barely a breathing 
space to gather its new-found resources the American Youth Congress has 
moved on to the greater task of assuring the success of the Emergency Peace 
Mobilization in Chicago. 

Reverend McMichael. Practically all young people were against 
going into war, Mr. Chairman, especially the Christian people. 

Mr. KuNziG. They did not all shift. 

Reverend McMichael. I did not shift. 

Mr, KuNziG. I have a document marked "McMichael Exhibit No. 
10" for identification, which is a photostatic copy of Review again, the 
same publication, dated September 30, 1940, which reports that the 
American Youth Congress held a national cabinet meeting in Chicago 
during the weekend of the Emergency Peace Mobilization which was 
held there. 

Did you attend this national cabinet, which is listed here on exhibit 
No. 10, marked so for identification, of the American Youth Congress? 

Reverend McMichael. Is there a date on that ? 

ISIr. KuNziG. I believe the date is August 31, 1940, between August 
31 and September 2, 1940. It was the American Youth Congress, the 
national cabinet of the American Youth Congress. You have already 
said you were at the Emergency Peace Mobilization. 

Reverend McMichael. Yes, and I told you I got married very 
shortly thereafter. I do not have memory of it and I do not propose 
to just rely on this particular magazine to take the place of my 
memory. 

It would seem that if there were a cabinet meeting I endeavored to 
be there, because I took my job seriously, so I am sure that I must have 
chaired it. 

Mr. Velde. You did chair the meeting. 

Reverend McMichael. I do not recall the meeting, but if there was 
a meeting held there, I am not sure I was there. Not all reports, 
Communist or otherwise, are accurate. 

Mr. Velde. You have no memory of it ? 

Reverend McMichael. I do have — I was saying I could refer to the 
diary. 

Mr. Velde. Yes; this is important. If you want to consult your 
diary, certainly. 

Reverend McMichael. I do not find it mentioned in the diary, but 
I am not denying having chaired it. 

Mr. Velde. After consulting your diary, you now recollect? 

Reverend McMichael. I do not recollect the meeting, but if there 
was a meeting held at all, and there may be some other evidence, I 
will be glad to look it up. I may have some records of it, cabinet 
records. I certainly remember chairing cabinet meetings in general. 

Mr. Clardy. In view of what you said about not finding any refer- 
ence to this particular meeting in your diary, but suggest that despite 
that you might have attended, I wonder if you will not agree that you 
may have attended many meetings that are not recorded in your 
diary ? 

Reverend McMichael. I don't suppose that I could agree to that 
because I may have made some slips and not put something down. 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2695 

Mr. Clardy, It is possible you may have attended some meetings 
that are not recorded in j'our diary. 

Reverend McMichael. It is perfectly possible, as I said before, if 
tliere was a cabinet meeting I probably chaired it. I cannot recall 
it. 

Mr, KuNziG. I offer this in evidence as McMichael exhibit No. 10. 

Mr. Velde. Without objection, it will be admitted. 

(September 30, 1940, issue of Young Communist Review, p. 3, 
article. Yardstick for First Voters Drawn Up by Youth Congress, 
was received in evidence as McMichael exhibit No. 10.) 

McMICHAEL EXHIBIT NO. 10 

(Young Communist Review, September 30, 1940, p. 3) 

Yardstick for First Voters Drawn Up by Youth Congress 

A "Yardstick" which young people can use to measure candidates for public 
■office is being furnished to America's young voters by the American Youth Con- 
gress. At its National Cabinet meeting held in Chicago during the weekend of 
the Emergency Peace Mobilization, the Youth Congress decided to develop a 
program of increased activity during this crucial election campaign. Continuing 
its previous drive for better citizenship, the AYC decided to stress the education 
of America's young generation on the real issues and problems of the elections. 
The cabinet showed the importance of such education on issues and on the records 
of candidates for office so that the drive to get young people to exercise their 
right to vote will have greater meaning. 

When tbis yardstick is worked out, it will include "measurements" devoted to 
the candidate's record and stand on tlie American Youth Act, and on the all- 
important issue of conscription. It is estimated that this campaign of the 
American Youth Congress will help defeat those Representatives and Senators 
who flouted the public will by voting for conscription. Local councils of the 
AYC are being urged to arrange symposiums where the various candidates for 
a given office will show how they measure up to the standards set by the American 
Youth Congress yardstick. 

Youth and Labor 

To facilitate its legislative activity, especially in behalf of the American 
Youth Act, the Congress decided to establish a Washington office. This will also 
make possible closer collaboration between the American Youth Congress and 
Labor's Non-Partisan League on legislation of benefit to youth and labor. 
Both Labor's Non-Partisan League and the American Youth Congress are 
determined to prevent the economic royalist from utilizing the war crisis in 
order to drive down living standards, deprive the American people of civil rights 
and liberties, and push America into war. 

The cabinet also decided to follow up the intensive activities that had been 
conducted in behalf of the Emergency Peace Mobilization with a campaign to 
build the local councils of the American Youth Congress. It was agreed to 
hold large rallies for peace on Armistice Day, whieli was also set aside by the 
American Peace Mobilization as a day to honor the dead of previous wars by 
preventing the warmongers from involving the young generation in the present 
slaughter. 

The Cabinet meeting which took place on September 1, was opened by The 
National Chairman of the Youth Congress, Jack McMichael, and the remarks urg- 
ing active participation in the election campaign along the above lines were 
made by Joseph Cadden, National Secretary. As a result of the full discussion 
at the meeting the members of the Cabinet felt that better citizenship in 1940 will 
mean that America's 9,000,000 first voters in the presidential election will know 
how to vote for the interests of youth and the people, and against the warmakers. 

Mr. KuNziG. It is true, is it not, that the American Youth Con- 
gress had in it the Young Communist League as one of its aflEiliated 
groups ? 

Reverend McMichael. Yes, along with the National Student Young 
Men's Christian Association, and at times the Young Republicans, 



2696 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

and at times the Young Democrats, and there were about 65 or 70 of 
those. 

Mr. Clardy. He has made a suggestion about the Young Repub- 
licans and the Young Democrats. 

Mr. Velde. No, he has not made any suggestion about the Young 
Republicans. 

Mr. Clardy. You used those words. 
Reverend McMichael. Yes. 

Mr. Velde. Are you intending to imply that that organization be- 
longed to this group ? Just answer my question. Are you implying 
that ? 

Reverend McMichael. We had all manner, including Republicans 
and Democrats. 

Mr. Clardy. That is different. You are not implying that the 
organization belonged 

Reverend McMichael. I am implying more than that. I am imply- 
ing that there was a Young Republican group represented at a Youth 
Congress meeting and that Young Democrats were participating, and 
Young Christians, and I was with the Young Christian group my- 
self. 

Mr. KuNziG. But you were willing to accept the chair and to direct 
an organization which had in it the Young Communist League; is 
that correct? 

Reverend McMichael. The National Student Young Men's 
Christian Association. 

Mr. KuNziG. Is that correct? 

Mr. Velde. Answer the question. 

Reverend McMichael. I was under obligation to go there from the 
National Student Young Men's Christian Association. 

Mr. Ktjnzig. And under obligation to accept chairmanship of a 
group which included a Communist group in it? 

Reverend McMichael. I accepted it. 

Mr. KuNziG. And it included the Communist group, did it not? 

Reverend McMichael. And it included the Communist gi'oup. Re- 
member about Jesus and the publicans and the sinners, and I con- 
sidered the Communists sinners and I followed the practices of Jesus. 

Mr. Velde. Are you through ? 

Reverend McMichael. That is all right. It is a kind of propa- 
gandizing device he is using. 

Mr. KuNziG. The witness is an expert on propagandizing. 

Reverend McMichael. I didn't know he was the prosecutor. 

Mr. Velde. That is a very poor statement on your part. 

Reverend McMichael. I want to give you any information on any 
question and the fuller the information the more satisfied I will be, 
Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Jackson, It is almost impossible to talk through the witness. 

Mr. Velde. I recognize the gentleman from California. Will you 
be quiet a moment, please. Reverend McMichael ? 

Reverend McMichael. Yes. 

Mr. Jackson. I have here what purports to be the organizational 
structure of the American Youth Congress, and I do not find listed 
either the Young Republican movement or the Young Democrat move- 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2697 

ment, and I think that should be stated and I must assume that this 
is the record. 

Reverend MgMichael. May I see it? 

Mr. Jackson. After I have finished with it. 

Eeverend MgMichael. I would like to take a look at it. 

Mr. Jackson. And if it is the will of the Chair, I shall have no 
objection, but your request comes through the Chair. 

Eeverend MgMichael. Mr. Chairman, I would like to see that. 

Mr. Velde. Will you just wait, please? 

Reverend MgMichael. Mr. Chairman, I would like to see that if I 
may. Mr. Chairman, I think this 

Mr. Clardy. Never mind. Witness. 

Mr, Jackson. I merely questioned the statement about the Young 
Republicans. 

Reverend MgMichael. This is no source of information. 

Mr. Jackson. I said it purported to be the structural outline of the 
American Youth Congress, 

Reverend MgMichael. We published the names of the American 
youth organization. 

Mr. Velde. Are you disputing the validity of the gentleman from 
California ? 

Reverend MgMichael. I am disputing this. 

Mr. Velde. There is no question pending. 

Reverend McMighael. We published all the organizations that were 
affiliated. I will be glad to look it up. 

Mr. Velde. Can you find anywhere on this document where the 

Reverend MgMichael. This document is worthless as a source of 
information. 

Mr. Velde (continuing). Where the Young Republicans or the 
Young Democrats are represented? 

Reverend MgMichael. I wouldn't go to this document to see who 
was in the Youth Congress. There are groups here that were not 
in the Youth Congress. 

Mr. Jackson. Was the Young Communist LeagTie in the Youth 
Congress ? 

Reverend MgMichael. Along with the National Student Young 
Men's Christian Association. 

Mr. Jackson. Were the Young Communists, the Young Commu- 
nist League in the organization ? 

Reverend MgMichael. I said along with the Young Democrats and 
Young Republicans and Young Christians, they were in it. 

Mr. Jackson. It is rather difficult to separate the wheat from the 
chaff in many of the things you say. I asked you a specific question ; 
was the Young Communist League 

Reverend MgMichael. I have answered it before. 

Mr. Jackson. And the answer is what ? 

Reverend McMighael. That along with many other organizations 
of young Christians they were present. 

Mr. Jackson. I remember you answered it in that manner. 

Mr. Velde. Proceed. 

Mr. KuNziG. I have here a document which is marked "McMichael 
Exhibit No. 11" for identification, which is a photostatic copy of a 



2698 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

handbill concerning a rally of the New York division of the Youth 
Congress held at Mecca Temple, 133 West 55th Street on Friday, 
January 31, 1941, listing speakers as Vito Marcantonio, Josephine 
Timms, Jack McMichael, and others. 

It is entitled "Rally for Jobs. No Slave Labor. Exposing Plans 
To Eegiment Youth Enforced Labor Battalions. Proposing a Real 
Program for Jobs and Training for American Youth." 

I hand you this document marked "McMichael Exhibit No. 11" and 
ask you if you did speak at the Mecca Temple, along with Vito Marc- 
antonio, as is listed there. 

Reverend McMicpiael. What is the date, Mr. Kunzi^? What is 
the date? " 

Mr. KuNziG. I believe it is January 31, 1941. Isn't that on the 
front there ? 

Reverend McMichael. No. It says January 31. I do not see anv 
year. Is it 1941? ^ 

Mr. Jackson. Will you look in your diary for the years 1939, 1940, 
1941, and 1942 on that particular day, and maybe it will show. 

Reverend McMichael. I do not recall it and have no evidence of 
it. It might well be that I spoke at some such meeting but I have 
no— m addition to Mr. Marcantonio it says that Mr. Leneord Det- 
weiler of the National Intercollegiate Christian Council and Madison 
Jones, the Youth Director for the National Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Colored People were to speak. Pie just picked out two 
people. 

Mr. KuNziG. The main person we were interested in was you. 

Reverend McMichael. And he mentioned another one or two. 

Mr. KuNziG. This whole document is going into the record and 
every bit of what you read will go in the record for all to see. 

Reverend McMichael. Quit selecting. 

Mr. Velde. The committee has not said you were not at that meeting. 

Reverend McMichael. I have not said I was or was not. 

Mr. Clardy. The witness is continually admonishing counsel and 
the committee on how to conduct the committee. I suggest that he 
should be told that we are in charge of the procedure and his objec- 
tions are entirely out of order and contemptuous of the Congress. 

Mr. Velde. Of course the witness has been told that this is a com- 
mittee of the United States Congress. 

Reverend McMichael. Yes, and 

Mr. Velde. And that while • 

Reverend McMichael. Sure. 

Mr. Velde (continuing) . We have got a lot of insults and vitriolic 
statements made against us 

Reverend McMichael. That is mutual, brother. 

Mr. Velde (continuing). We are authorized by the United States 
Congi^ess to investigate 

Reverend McMichael. Sure. 

Mr. Velde (continuing). And report concerning subversive- 
Reverend McMichael. That is right. 

Mr. Velde (continuing). Activities in the United States. 

Reverend McMichael. I want to give any information I can. I 
want the opportunity of giving you facts, not distorted facts, facts 
m their whole context. 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2699 



Mr. Clardt. Mr. Chairman- 



Mr. Velde. Will you proceed, Counsel. 

Reverend McMichael. That is what I am trying to do. 

Mr. Velde. The Chair recognizes the gentleman from California, 
Mr. Jackson. 

Mr. Jackson. Are you acquainted with Vito Marcantonio ? 

Reverend McMichael. Yes, I am ; I recall having met him. 

Mr. Jackson. Are you acquainted with Josephine Timms ? 

Reverend McMichael. I don't recall. 

Mr. Jackson. Are you acquainted with Madison Jones? 

Reverend McMichael. That name sounds familiar. 

Mr. Jackson. Leneord Detweiler ? 

Reverend McMichael. Yes ; he was another member of the National 
Intercollegiate Christian Council. 

Mr. Jackson. And were you acquainted with Charles Klare, direc- 
tor of the Yorkville Youth Services ? 

Reverend McMichael. That sounds respectable enough, but I can- 
not recall him. 

Mr. Jackson. You have no present recollection of having appeared 
on the platform in New York City with these individuals ? 

Reverend McMichael. No; I do not have the recollection. I am 
going to be just as reasonable about it as possible. 

Mr. Jackson. I should like to say that no connotation should attach 
to the mention of these names in the record. 

Reverend McMichael. That is an important point. 

Mr. Velde. It will be so ordered and, without objection, the exhibit 
will be introduced. 

Mr, KuNziG. I would like to make it clear that was McMichael 
Exhibit No. 11 about which we have been speaking, IVIr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. Yes; McMichael Exhibit No. 11. It is introduced and 
received in evidence. 

(Handbill advertising the rally, sponsored by the American Youth 
Congress, Friday, January 31, 1941, at the Mecca Temple, was received 
in evidence as McMicliael exhibit No. 11.) 



39125—53- 



2700 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 



McMlCHAEL EXHIBIT NO. 11 




MECCI TEMPIE 

133 WEST 55 STREET, N.Y.C. 






*0* 




aP*M« 

ADMISSION... 25c 



Speakezs 

CttNO RESSMAN 

VITO KURCANTONIO 

JOSEPHINE TIMMS 

r^AM McMIOHm 

(fttUk dirtctor, i/KVV C P 

LENEORODETWEILER 
CHARLES KLARE 



D 



SPONSORED BY 
Iv<(t1 NEW YORK Y017TM CONGRESS t 1 1 4 EAST 32 ST., HKVf YORK CITT 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2701 

I^rr. KuNziG. I have a document marked "McMichael Exhibit No. 
12*' for identification which is a photostatic copy of a confidential 
police report showing personal observation of the rally of the New 
York division of the New York Youth Conference held in Mecca 
Temple, New York City, and quoting Reverend McMichael as saying 
that he had gone to Washington before conscription and tried to get 
some reforms into the bill but had not been successful. He wanted 
some other things which are mentioned. 

I hand you this document and ask you whether you did attend that 
rallv on that date, as this document says. 

Reverend McMichael. Mr. Chairman, it says, "McMichael said 
that he had gone to Washington " 

Mr. Velde. Will you answer the question, please, first? 

Reverend McMichael. And it goes on and says — 

before conscription and tried to get some reforms into the bill but had not 
been successful. He wanted (1) no Jim Crow regiments, (2) to send people 
near their homes. 

It sounds like a good idea. 

]\Ir. Velde. Will you answer the question ? 

Reverend McMichael. This refers to the same meeting and it does 
not refresh my memory. It is the same meeting that the question was 
asked about before and I find these aims very worthy from a Christian 
point of view. 

Mr. Velde. Will you answer the question ? 

Reverend McMichael. The answer has to be the same as before. 
I do not have any memory of being at that meeting. 

Mr. Clardy. And you are not sure you were not there ? 

Reverend McMichael. That is right; I am not sure I was or was 
not there. 

Mr. KuNziG. I oflfer this document in evidence as McMichael 
exhibit No. 12. 

Mr. Velde. Without objection, it will be received. 

(Confidential police report, Mecca Temple rally, January 31, 1941, 
was received in evidence at McMichael exhibit No. 12.) 

McMICHAEL EXHIBIT NO. 12 

(Confidential Police Report) 

American Student Union 
Young Communist League 
New York Untversity 
Fri., Jan 31st, 1941. 

Attended A. Y. C. rally at Mecca Temple. 

Speakers were: Mrs. Josephine Timms, Nat'l secretary-treasurere (sic.) of 
American Communications Assoc, Charles Klare, director of Yorkvilie Youth 
Service, Madison Jones, Negro (NAACP), Leonard Detweilder, rep of Chris- 
tian Youth and Maia Turchin. The main speaker was Vito Marcantonio. 

They all called for the defeat of the Lend Lease Bill. 

Maia Turchin spoke against the Rapp-Coudert Comm. Asked why Rapp and 
Coudert didn't investigate a high school in vphich a pupil was excused from class 
to sell Social Justice. Urged A. S. U. support by labor. Marcantonio ridiculed 
Halifax and Willkie. Called them the Downing St.-Wall St. axla which will 
put America into war. 



2702 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

Stated he was for Aid to Britain, but the England of Peoples Convention not 
the present England. Each person was given a post card which they filled out 
there and sent to Senator George or their Congressman calling for defeat 
of lend lease bill. 

A copy of the attached pamphlet — autographed by Vito Maecantonio was put 
up for sale to the highest bidder. Donations were accepted to help publish the 
Damphlet. 

McMICHAEL said that he had gone to Washington before Conscription and 
tried to get some refroms (sic.) into the bill but had not been successful. He 
wanted 1. — No Jim Crow regiments, 2 — To send people near their homes (camps) 

Feb. 1st, 191,1. 

Attended city-wide A. S. U. meeting for executive members. Mala Tubchin 
gave a report on the perspective for the A. S. U. meeting was attended by about 
50 people. It was held in the A. L. P. headquarters at 77 5th Avenue. Maia 
TuECHiN stated that the student movement is stronger today than it has ever 
been. It is the duty of the A. S. U. to rally the campus and fight any proposed 
bill that Roosevelt makes that would get us into war. However, even though 
the student movement is strong it has 2 major weaknesses : 

1. The ASU hace (sic.) not brought its positive political program "the people 
will win the war" to the campus. 

2. The ASU does not reflect in the size of its organization its influence and 
prestige on campus. She listed 6 menaces to the A. S. U. including the Rapp 
Coudert Committee and the school administrations. Two political tasks face 
the ASU this terra 1. National Conference on Ed. which is being called by 
A. Y. C. and 2. April 24th Peace Strike. The A. S. U. attitude concerning the 
Teachers Union's necessity for handing over its membership list is 1. to safe- 
guard the sovereignty of the ASU and 2. it is prepared to defend its members. 
The ASU will conduct a membership drive from Feb 17th to March 15th. By 
that time they hope to have 2,000 college members in New York City. Every 
other Saturday there will be a mass district class and a special training school 
for 40 leading people in the ASU chapters in NYC. 

Discussion of membership and fund drives sale of Student Advocate etc, 
followed. 

Feb. Srd, 19^1. 

Attended ASU exec at Mimi Segal's, 250 W 103rd St. Claire NsiiaND from 
the district office was there to give us guidance. Others present were: 

MB3JVTN Jones Joe Fine Mimi Segal 

Bob Claiborne Florence Bachrach Gladys "Wootz" Cantor 

Dick Cecil Anita Kbiegeb Ida Mazur 

Phil Diamant Barbara Baee Barbara Avalon 

Here too, a perspective for the coming semester was planned. The necessity 
for defeating HR 1776 was discussed. The necessity for building the ASU and 
activizing negro students took up most of the time. 

I am now in charge of selling "Student Advocate" a national paper being put 
out by the ASU. 

Joe Fein who lives in Stamford, Conn., told us that he is going to Eastern 
Aereonautical School there. 

Feb. 4th, 1941. 

Attended Y. C. L. group meeting at Harold Bogrow's 164 E. 97th St. Those 
present were : Bogeow, Dolph Greenberg and Frances Wilensky. This group 
consists of the people in the School of Education The main problem here is 
the fate of the ASU in the school of ed. The administration is trying to oust 
it. They have given no reason so far but Frances Wilensky has learned from 
Mr. Dossick (School of Ed) and Bob Ervine head of student council that the 
charges will be that the ASU is subversive and will hinder NYU graduates from 
obtaining jobs. 

The YCL is trying to get control of the Negro Culture Foundation whose presi- 
dent NiDA Edwards is a YCL member and the Peace Council. They get very 
little support in the School of Ed. 

Feb. 5th, 1941. 

ASU has table in cafeteria and collect funds for trip to Washington. Is sell- 
ing the NY Student. 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2703 

The plan a fight on the case of Al Berenberg who applied for NYA hut was 
refused because he is an ASU member — he is also a YCL member. 

Council for Student Equality fought for a negro student who had been 
accused of cheating on an exam. He was given a reprimand and another exam. 
This campaign was kept quiet. 

Old Names : 

Josephine Timms Dick Cecil Harold Bogbow 

Leonard Detwieldeb Phil Diamant Dolph Green berg 

(sic.) Joe Fine Frances Wilensky 

Maia Turchin Florence Backback (sic.) Negro Culture Founda- 

Jack Mc Micheal (sic.) Anita Kriegeb tion 

Rafe Scobey Barbara Baeb Peace Council 

MiMi Segal Gladys Cantor Nida Edwards 

Mervyn Jones Ida RIagab 

Bob Claiborne Barbara Avalon 

New Names : 
Charles Klare — Yorkville Youth Center 
Madison Jones, NAACP. 
Charles Cohen alias Charles Kingsfobd 

Mr. KuNziG. I have a document marked McMichael exhibit No. 13 
which is a photostatic copy of Town Crier, a pamphlet of a meeting 
held in Washington, D. C., February 7 to February 9, 1941. This is 
a part of the American Youth Congress and the program has listed 
Jack McMichael, American Youth Congress chairman, speaking on 
Youth and the Nation. 

I hand you this document and ask you whether you did speak at 
this meeting held in Washington, D, C., under the auspices of the 
American Youth Congress, the overall auspices. 

Reverend McMichael. Wliat year is that, Mr. Kunzig ? 

Mr. Kunzig. You have it' in front of you. 

Reverend McMichael. I do not see it here. Perhaps it is there. 

Mr. Kunzig. 1941. 

Reverend IVIcMichael. The year does not seem to be in the docu- 
ment, at first glance. 

Mr. Chairman, I have a fuller report which indicates that I led 
the group there in a creed which I would request the opportunity — a 
creed stating just what we stood for 

Mr. Velde. Will you answer the question ? Were you there ? 

Reverend McMichael. I was there and led the group in a creed 
which I would like to ask the opportunity to read into the record as 
an indication of what we stood for. 

Mr. Clardy. May I object to this? He has answered the question 
and that is all that is necessary. 

Reverend McMichael. A creed is a pretty important thing. 

Mr. Clardy. I have addressed the Chair and please remain silent 
while we are conducting the affairs of this hearing. He has answered 
it and this is mostly extraneous matter. 

Reverend McMichael. It is not extraneous. 

Mr. Clardy. We are not talking to you. 

Mr. Velde. The Chair feels the witness should have the right to 
make a statement as long as it is not out of bounds. 

Reverend McMichael. It will not be out of bounds, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Clardy. Well, if there has been anything in bounds, Mr. Chair- 
man, I would like to find it. 

Reverend McMichael. The creed is as follows : We dedicate our- 
selves to the service of our country and mankind. We will uphold 
the American ideal which is the democratic way of life. We will 



2704 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

help to assure bounty to all races, creeds and color. We will maintain 
our country founded by men and women who found a land where they 
could worship God m their own way as a haven of a free conscience 
and a free religious spirit. We will develop technical skills, natural 
resources and culture which has made our country the inspiration for 
the youth of all lands. We will use whatever talents we have to add 
to that heritage. We will be helping to forge new tools for an early 
enough education and from which to make a decent living, the oppor- 
tunity for healthful recreation and culture and assure the fullest 
development m all. We will respect and defend the Constitution and 
the American liberties, which includes the freedom of religion and 
free speech and assemblage. We will seek always, only within the 
framework of the American system of government which is founded 
on the point that all political power is vested in the people and we 
will oppose all undemocratic tendencies in all forms. We will help 
make the United States a force for peace and peace will not be at 
the expense of all other peoples and nations but one that will con- 
tribute to the brotherhood of man. We will not permit race prei- 
udice, religious intolerance, or class hatred to divide us from other 
young people. We will work for the unity of our brothers in the 
service of our country which we will defend against all enemies The 
fanal sentence, we pledge allegiance to the flag of the United States of 
America and to the Republic for which it stands, one Nation in- 
divisible with liberty and justice for all. 

That is what came out of that meeting. 

Mr. Velde. The Chair feels that the statement or the readino- of the 
statement is entirely irrelevant to the question that was presented 

Keverend McMichael. The nature of that meeting? 

Mr. Velde. However, we feel that you should have the opportunity 
to insert this m the record if you care to do so. n j 

Reverend McMichael. Yes, I would care to do so, as the official 
creed of the American Youth Congress. 

Mr. Jackson. May I look at that. 

Reverend McMichael. Yes. 

Mr. Clardt. It is incredible that any Communist would subscribe 
to anything dealing with religion or God. 

Reverend McMichael. I was not a Communist. 

Mr. Clardy. Any time you try to tell me that an atheistic Com- 
munist believes any of the stuff you read, you are playing with the 
wrong people. I wouldn't believe that from anybody. 

Reverend IVIcMichael. If you want to know what I believe, go to 
the people who listen to me preach every Sunday. Maybe you are not 
referring to me. 

Mr. Clardt. I am not talking to you. 

Reverend McMichael. You called me here. It is not mv choice 
at all. -^ 

Mr. Velde. Let me say this, that if you make any further outbursts 
without any question propounded to you 

Reverend McMichael. Could you ask him not to attack me? 

Mr. Velde (continuing). It will be necessary for me to order you 
removed from this hearing room. I would be reluctant to do that. I 
would not want to do that to any American citizen or anyone who 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2705 

appears as a witness, but if you make further outbursts and do not 
respond to the questions 

Reverend McMichael. I have not failed to answer a question yet. 

Mr. Velde. Then we will have to remove you from this hearing. 

Reverend McMichael. You do not have people always who try to 
give you information. 

Mr. KuNziG. I want to be sure that the record shows that the creed 
which was' just read is the creed of a cited Communist front organiza- 
tion. Let the record be clear as to that. 

Mr. DoTLE. May I make an observation, in view of the fact that 
other committee members are making observations? The chairman 
allowed this creed to go in. In view of that statement may I say that 
manifestly this exhibit that was produced is used for the purpose of 
identifying this witness as a member of a cited Communist organiza- 
tion. Xow, therefore, it seems that in view of the use of that docu- 
ment for that purpose and if this witness is chairman of that meeting 
and he made a speech, whatever the speech was, that the text of that 
speech was highly important, especially in view of the fact that this 
witness has denied that he was a member of the Communist Party. 
So I compliment this chairman on allowing that to go in. 

Mr. Clardt. That was not his speech. 

Mr. DoYEE. He spoke that out loud. 

Reverend McMichael, I led them in that and made them say that 
because those things were very important to me. I believed very 
deeply in those things I read there. They seemed to me important 
and to be in line with the democratic and Christian attitude, to both 
of which I am loyal. 

Mr. Clakdy. It might be interesting to have his speech. 

Mr. KuNziG. Our next exhibit will give a little bit of that. 

Reverend McMichael. If I had known what you wanted I would 
have tried to get all the documents and help I could, and in that re- 
spect I would like to request that the record be kept open so that I 
could give you fuller information as to all these questions. I might 
be able to find speeches and things of that kind that you might be 
interested in, and if I do not have the speech and can lay my hands 
on it, and everything I said was aboveboard and I will be glad to 
help fill out any loose ends because we are relying on memory of a 
long time back. 

Mr. Velde. The committee will decide in executive session whether 
you will be granted that request. 

Reverend McMichael. The request is there. I want to see if there 
is anything about the speech in this report of the meeting. 

Mr. Doyle. The chairman will recall that I stated I had made 
an official appointment which I must keep at 4 o'clock today. That 
is before this meeting was set, and I do not want my leaving to indi- 
cate that I am not interested, because I am, and I will hurry back as 
soon as possible. 

Mr. Velde. How soon can you be back? 

Mr. Doyle. About an hour or an hour and a half, I think, 

Mr. Velde. We do want the minority represented, and I do believe 
it would be in order to recess for 20 minutes to try to give the mem- 
ber from the minority an opportunity to be present. 



2706 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

The committee will be in recess. 

("VVliereupon, at 3:33, the hearing was recessed, to reconvene at 
4:02 p.m.) 

Mr. Jackson. The committee will be in order. At the request of 
Mr. Velde, a subcommittee has been appointed consisting of the 
Messrs. Clardy, Moulder, Scherer, and Jackson as acting chairman. 
Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. KuNziG. I would like to offer in evidence the document we have 
been discussing as McMichael exhibit No. 13 in evidence. 

Mr. Jackson. It will be so received. 
^ (February 7, 1941, issue of Town Crier, printed for the Town Meet- 
ing on Youth, held in Washington, D. C, containing program and 
articles thereon, was received in evidence as McMichael exhibit No. 13.) 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 



2707 



McMICHAEL EXHIBIT NO. 13 

(Part 1) 




ACTIVITIES GUIDE TO THE 




CRIER 



TOWN MEETING OF YOUTH 



WELCOME TO WASHINGTON 

READ THIS BULLETIN NOW! KEEP IT FOR REFERENCE! 



GREETINGS FROM 

WASHINGTON'S YOUTH 

The Washington Youth Council 
is happy to welcome young people 
from every part of our country. 

Those of you who have been in 
Washington before, know that ho- 
tels, restaurants, meeting halls and 
other public place here follow a 
Jim-Crow policy directed against 
the Negro people. 

InvcBtigation Results 

People of Washington cannot but 
consider such practices disgraceful 
— all the more since the responsi- 
bility in our Capital rests squarely 
on the Federal -administration. 

Together with the National Staff 
of the A. Y. C. and with representa- 
tives of many local organizations, 
we have gone to the Congressional 
Committees in charge of the Dis- 
trict, to the District Commission- 
ers, and to Vice-President Wallace, 
to demand that govemment-owred 
facilities be opened to house dele- 
gates. 

We are working for a civil rights 
law which would make it unlawful 
for business establishments to dis- 
criminate against any person be- 
cause of his race or color. 



INFORMATION 

Pmge 

Songs 3 

Procedure 1 

Discrimination 1 

Visiting Congress 2 

PARADE 4 

PROGRAM 2 



But we know that during your 
stay in Washington you will be 
faced with many outrageous ex- 
amples of Jim-Crowism. It is im- 
portant that these be acted upon 
in an organized, effective fashion. 
Special Committee 

Therefore a Committee on Dis- 
crimination has been set up to 
function during the Town Meeting. 
Marie Reed, A. Y. C. Staff, will 
have a desk in the lobby of Turners 
Arena and there will receive all 
reports of discrimination. The 
Committee will consider these re- 
ports and propose appropriate ac- 
tion on them. Bring your reports 
to Miss Reed. 

The Washington Youth Council 
and the Washington Negro Youth 
Federation pledge to continue and 
intensify its fight against Jim-Crow 
80 that when another Town Meet- 
ing comes to Washington, real 
democracy will prevail. 



THIS IS YOUR TOWN 
MEETING 

This is a Town Meeting. You 
will hear many viewpoints ex- 
pressed, and whether or not a par- 
ticular point of view is one that 
you share, you will want to listen 
to it. 

This is your Town Meeting. You 
will undoubtedly have something 
to say. 

Each session will begin with a 
report from the platform. This 
will be followed by discussion. Any 
person may speak. 

In order that the maximum num- 
ber shall have an opportunity to 
address the Town Meeting, each 
speaker will be limited to three 
minutes. 

How to Participate 

If you want to speak, an ush^ 
will give you a card. Write in 
your name, organization, and the 
specific topic about which you wish 
to speak. The usher will bring 
your card to the chairman and you 
will be called to the platform to 
speak. Try not to repeat what 

(Contintwd on P»«« 8, Col. 3) 






FOR COMPLETE INSTRUCTIONS 
ON SATURDAY'S PARADE 



2708 



HEARESTGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 



McMICHAEL EXHIBIT NO. 13 

(Part 2) 

YOUR PAJIU%BE lNSTilUCTIOM9 



Assembling 

At the close of the afternoon ses- 
sion on Saturday, February 8 all 
participants in the Town Meeting 
will assemble in organized fashion 
on the streets outside of Turner's 
Arena prior to nmarching in a gala 
parade to the Washington Monu- 
ment. Assembly forajation will be 
by platoon numbers ONLY — not 
by geographic or other groupings! 

69 

Your platoon number is 

On the chart below you will find 
the epproximate location of your 
platoon on the streets around Tur- 
ner's Arena. When the session ad- 
journs — go at once to the location 
of your platoon. Its exact location 
will be marked by a numbered sign. 
Remember your platoon number! 

Marshals 

Colored arm bands with the word 
"Marshal" distinguish the leaders 
of each platoon. Please cooperate 
by observing the directions of the 
marshal of your platoon. He will 
organize the formption of your 
platoon and the allotment of signs, 
placards, banners and stunt ma- 
terial. 

Each platoon will consist of 48 
people — 12 rows, 4 in a row. On 
lining up participants should stand 
with both arms extended to keep 
proper spacing. As parade starts 
to move distance between lines 
should become 8 feet. Chief mar- 
shals at starting point will assist 
in this proper spacing. Please pay 
careful attention to their instruc- 
tions as you pass starting point. 
Distance between platoons will be 
30 feet. 

Please follow the marshals in- 



structions with regard to slogans 
ard songs. They will lead you in 
shouting officisi slogans. To assist 
marshals please listen to instruc- 
tions from the oilkial sound trucks. 
They are the tinal word as to all last 
minute changes and adjustments. 
Sound trucks will give you march- 
ing rhj-thms for a smart lookiag 
parade style. 

Route 

Ali platoons will march from 
assembly point towards 14th Street. 
When they reach 14th Street they 
will turn right and march down 
14th Ctrect. At Thomas Circle there 
will b'i a half swing to the right 
and continue around the outer circle 
picking up 14th Street again on the 
far side. Proceed down 14th Street 
across Constitution Avenue. Take 
first right turn roadway past Con- 
stitution Avenue towards Washing- 
ton Monument. Continue up and 
around monument, then left turn 
towards Sylvan Theatre. In front 
of natural platform at Sylvan 
Theatre all marchers will assemble 
to hear speakers at open air meet- 
ing. 

Clothing 

Because it is likely to be cold 
during the parade and during the 
outdoor meeting all Town Meeting 
participants are urged to wear 
heavy clothing — especially warm 
socks and sweaters and gloves. 
Placards 

If you are assigned to carry a 
banner or placard by the marshal 
please cooperate with the parade 
committee by folowing his instruc- 
tions. Banners and placards should 
be carried as high as possible 
throughout the duration of the 



parade. At Sylvan Theatre — those 
carrying cloth streamers should 
bring them to the dirt stage and 
deposit them upright at the stage 
rear to form a background. Those 
carrying placards should deposit 
them in the truck which will be 
available to make proper disposition 
of them. Please DO NOT LEAVE 
SIGNS AROUND THE MONU- 
MENT OR PARK GROUNDS. 

Torches and Flares 

If the marshal requests you to 
carry a torch flare — please do so 
end assume a special responsibility. 
The flares are perfectly legal and 
safe but for maximum effect they 
require special handling. They burn 
for 15 minutes and they should be 
burning mainly when the parade 
passes through the busy part of 
Washington. Therefore — you will 
not light the torches yourself. As 
the parade passes Thomas Circle 
there will be special marshals with 
lights equipi)ed to ignite your torch. 
All torch-bearers must march on 
the outside of the platoons — not 
inside! Nor separate from the 
platoons — but part of them. Torch 
bearers will not carry any other 
signs or placards ! Torches should 
be held high and clear of all other 
marchers and all signs and placards 
so as to prevent them from catch- 
ing fire. When torches burn out 
they should not be thrown on the 
street but carried to SylvaffTheatre 
and dumped on the disposal truck. 

Reminder 

Memorize Your Platoon number! 

Spot your platoon location on the 
chart below ! 

(Jo to your platoon rapidly when 
the session ends! 

Obey your marshals implicity ! 



LOCATION CHART FOR PLATOONS 

Platoons 1 Through 18— W Street Between 14th & 15th Streets 
Platoons 19 llirongh 28— 15th Street Between V & W Streets 
Platoons 29 Through 36— 15th Street Between U & V Streets 
Platoons 37 Through 54— V Street Between 14th & 15th Streets 
Platoons 55 Through 60— Portaer Place Between U & V Streets 
Platoons Above No. 60— W Street Between 15th & 16th Streets 
(NOTE: Reach Portner Place by Walking Along V Street 
Halfway Towards 15th Street 



HEAEINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 



2709 



McMICHAEL EXHIBIT NO. IS 
(Part 3) 



PROGRAM 



FOR TOWN MEETING OF YOUTH 

ALL SESSIONS AT TURNER'S ARENA 

Friday, February 7'^ 

ALL DAY — Visits to Congrress 

8 :00 P. M.— OPEN HEARING ON H. R. 1776 

(Invitation of Washington Youth Council) 

Saturday, February 8 

9:00 A.M.— OPENING 

"Youth and the Nation," Jack Mc- 
Michael, AYC Chairman 
10:00 A.M.— YOUTH AS CITIZENS 

Co-Chaimien Harriet Pickens, National Business and 
Professional Girls Council, Y. W. C. A. 
Jean Horie, New York Youth Congress 
Reporters Leonard Detweiller, National Intercol- 

legiate Christian Council 
Esther Cooper, Southern Negro Youth 
Congress 
1 :30 P. M.— YOUTH AT WORK 

Co-Chainnen Tom Perry, Association of Medical Stu- 
dents 

Leonard Troutman, Detroit Youth As- 
sembly 
Reporter Roy Lancaster. Youth Director, Labor's 

Non-Partisan League 
4:00 P.M.— PARADE 

Ending at Washington Monument 
Address by Congressman Vito Marcan- 
tonio 
8:30 P. M.— SPECIAL MEETINGS 

Student — Asbury Methodist Episcopal 
Church. 11th and K Streets, N. W. 
Trade Union — Metropolitan Baptist 
Church, 1225 R Street, N. W. 
Farm — United Federal Workers of 
America. 532 17th Street, N. W. 
Health— Phyllis Wheatley Y. W. C. A., 
901 Rhode Island Avenue, N. W. 
unday, February 9 
9:Z0 iC-li.— INTERFAITH SERVICE 

Rev. William B. Spofford 
10:30 A.M.— RELIGION AND DEMOCRACY 

Chairman Maxine McKinley, National Intercol- 

legiate Christian Council 
Reporter J. Carrell Morris, Christian Youth 

Council of North America 
11:00 A. M.— YOU'RE IN THE ARMY NOW 

Co-Chairmen Ruth Shields, National Intercollegiate 

Christian Council 
Reporters. Delia Davis. National Industrial Girls' 

Council. Y. W. C. A. 
Charles Shinn, Flint Youth Council 
2:00 P. M.— KEEPING AMERICA OUT OF WAR 
Co-Chairmen Jack McMich.icl 

Helen Wheeler. California Youth 
Legislature 



fe 



VISIT CONGRESS 

You have b«en asked to make 
•ppointmenta in advance with 
Senators and BepreaentAtives. You 
will be anxious to visit Congress on. 
Friday and on Monday, so that each 
Congressman will have the oppor- 
tunity of meeting a young person 
from his District or his State and 
discussing the problems which face 
youth in that commimity. 

If appointments have not been 
made in advance, you should tele- 
phone upon arrival in Washington. 
If a definite appointment is not pos- 
sible, go directly to the Capitol. 

Each Senator has an oflfice in the 
Senate Office Building, near the 
.Capitol. If the Senate is in session, 
you can go directly to the Senate 
floor and send in your card to your 
Senator, asking for a word with 
him. 

The Senate Committee on For- 
eign Relations meets in Room 318, 
Senate Office Building. 

Representatives have their offices 
in the Old and New House Office 
Buildings near the capitol. They 
also may be called off the floor, if 
the House is in session and you do 
not find your Representative in his 
office. 

Guards in all buildings will give 
you the room numbers of Congress- 
men and direct you to the offices. 

A member of the National Staff 
will be stationed at "Registration" 
— John Wesley Church. Leaders of 
delegations should consult with this 
Staff member on arrival about any 
■ special problems. Other members 
of the National Staff will be at the 
Capitol during Friday and Monday. 
Their exact whereabout can be de- 
termined by telephoning RE. 2584. 

Many of you will want to visit 
Agencies to discuss special prob- 
lems affecting your community. 
These agencies are open from 
9 a. m. to 4 :30 p. m. : 

National Youth Administration, 
2145 C Street, N. W. 

U. S. Office of Education. Interior 
Building. 18th and C Streets. N. W. 

State Department, 17th Street 
and Pennsylvania Avenue, N. W. 

Consult Telephone Directory for 
others. 

Visits to Congressmen and to Offi- 
( Continued on Page 3, Col. 2) 



2710 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 



McMICHAEL EXHIBIT NO. 13 
(Part 4) 



PROGRAM Continued 

Reporter 
Symposium 



Frances Williams. 
SecreUry, AYC 



Administrative 



6:00 P. M.— WHERE DO WE GO FROM HERE? 
Chairman Jack McMichael, AYC 

Rcporta Joseph Curran, President, National 

Maritime Union ; Vice President C. I. O. 
Joseph Cadden, AYC 

TOWN MEETING SONGS 

Song Leaders : Peter Seeger and Lee Hayes 



WHY DO YOU STAND THERE 
IN THE RAINT 

Juat about a year ago 

When we had our rainy show 

The President addressed ua on the lawn. 

"Opportunity" he said, "is very far from 

dead." 
But when we look for jobs they're dead 

and gone. 

Chorus 

Why did we stand there in the rain? 
Why were we standing in the rainT 
Those were strange carryings on 
On the White House Capital lawn 
Tell me why did we stand there in the 
rain? 

Invasion from the air 

Is the latest danger scare 

So we crane our necks and look across 

the foam. 
But there's really naught to fear 
Our problem's over here 
Democracy's invaded right at home. 

Chorus 

From the White House to the Hill 

Has gone the lend lease bill 

To make our land a war dictatorship. 

Instead of aiding Britain 

Let's attend to our own knittin' 

We don't want an A. E. F. to malce a trip. 

Chorus 

It's time you knew the facts 

About the South's poll tax 

And the strange fruit hanging from a 

lynching tree. 
Where once they hounded Lizas 
Now it's labor's organizers 
We can't exist half slave and one half 

free. 

Chorus 

Dictators are the champs 

At building labor camps 

And phoney names are not much of dis- 
guise. 

Any slave battallion force 

la a U. S. trojan horse 

It's against these things the youth must 
organize. 



THERE IS MEAN THINGS HAPPENING 
IN THIS LAND 

There is mean things happening in this 

land 
There is mean things happening in this 

land 
Oh they're trying hard to spike 
The workers' right to strike 
There is mean things happening in this 

land 
(On verse A. and B. repeat lines 1, 2 

and 6, and substitute refrain lines 

3 and 4) 

Refrains 

A. Oh the worker goes in rags 
While the rich man boasts and brags. 

B. Oh they're beating big war drums 
While the people live in slums. 



There'll be good things happening in this 

land 
There'll be good things happening in this 

land 
When the workingmen refuse 
To put on their old war shoes 
There'll be good things happening in this 

land 

(On verse C. and D. repeat lines 1, 2 and 
5, and substitute refrain lines 3 and 
4) 

C. When we all begin to sing 
This Time Let God Save the King 

D. When Conscriptron gets repeal 
And the Youth Act becomes real. 



Ton*: 

JOHNNY WANTS A JOB NOT A GUN! 

Johnny wants a job, not a war 

Johnny knows juat what If* is for. 

Just a while ago 

Roosevelt on the radio 

Said that Johnny would have dough 

Not a war I 

Battle cries are starting to roar 

Plans for sending Johnny to war. 

But Johnny's standing firm 

And in no uncertain terms 

He's demanding a job 

Not a war! 

Johnny wants a job, not a war 
Life for him has so much in store. 
Johnny wants to live 
For he has so much to give 
But Johnny cannot live 
In a war. 

Johnny is now just twenty-four 
Johnny wants hie life and what's mor* 
Johnny wants a wife 
And some kids to fill his life 
That's why Johnny wants a job 
Not a war- 
Tune: U'L LIZA JANE 

Heard a speech by a Congressman 
Li 'I Liza Jane 

He don't like the union man 
Li'l Liza Jane. Oh Li'l Liza 
Li'l Liza Jane. Oh Li'l Liza 
Li'l Liza Jane 

Said in Congress yciterday 
Li'l Liza Jane 

Take the right to strike away. 
(Repeat; Chorus) 

President said to the labor board 
Li'l Liza Jane 

Don't be so hard on Mr. Ford 
(Repeat: Chorus) 

Said that labor camps are fine 

Li'l Liza Jane 

To make the young folks toe the line 

Li'l Liza Jane 

(Repeat: Chorus) 

Oh we go on strike and the President 

cries 
Li'l Liza Jane 
Here's a case for Mr. Dies 
(Repeat: Chorus) 



TOWN MEETING 

(Continued from Page 2, Col. 3) 
other people have already said. 
We want to get as many opinions, 
experiences and suggestions as 
possible out of this Town Meeting. 
The Town Meeting is a forum — 
not a policy-making body. There- 
fore there will be no resolutions 
proposed or voted on. 



VISIT CONGRESS 

(Continued from Page 1, Col. 3) 
cials in Agencies should be carried 
out in a well-organized fashion. In 
order to make the best impression, 
be certain to keep the discussion 
on the subject you are interested 
in and have a written statement on 
the subject to leave. 

Be specific about all questions, 
particularly when making requests. 
Remember that an intelligent and 
orderly presentation of your case is 
the most convincing. 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2711 

Mr. KuNziG. I have a document marked "McMichael Exhibit No. 
14" for identification which refers to a meeting, and the headline of 
the article is Youth Congress Raps Warmongers in Rally at Turner 
Arena. 

Reverend McMichael. Mr. Chairman, there was a question pending. 

Mr. Jackson. There is no question pending. 

Reverend McMichael. Didn't Mr. Doyle ask a question? 

Mr. Jackson. There is no question pending. 

Mr. KuNziG. It is a photostatic copy of a newspaper dated February 
8, 1941, covering this town meeting of the Youth Congress held in 
Washington, February 7-9, 1941, containing a speech by Jack Mc- 
Michael, chairman of the Youth Congress, and his attack centered on 
the lend-lease bill to aid Britain. 

The speech goes on to say : "AVhat Congress does with this bill to- 
morrow, Monday, and Tuesday will decide whether some people will 
live normal creative lives or die in EurojDe's slaughter." 

I pass this document to you and ask you whether you made that 
speech to that effect as so stated in the exhibit. 

Reverend McMichael, While I am looking for that, I think the 
record would show that Mr. Doyle, who is not here to speak for him- 
self, did ask that I read into the speech that I made, and I have found it. 

Mr. Jackson. The committee will be glad to receive this speech and 
give it consideration for inclusion in the record. 

Reverend McMichael. I am looking for that. I have a copy of the 
speech itself. 

Mr. Jackson. I think the question is. Were you present on this occa- 
sion ? Is that correct ? 

Mr. KuNziG. I think I asked whether he was present and whether 
he did give the speech, as reported in the Washington newspaper, the 
[Washington] Star. 

Reverend McMichael. Yes, but not as reported in the Star, neces- 
sarily. Sometimes things are misreported. 

Mr. Jackson. The question is. Were you present on this occasion? 

Reverend McMichael. Oh, yes, I was there. I have the speech I 
made there. 

Mr. Jackson. You did make a speech ? 

Reverend McMichael. Yes, and Mr. Doyle is not here, and he aslied 
for me to read it. 

Mr. Jackson. The committee will be glad to accept it and consider 
it. Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you give that back, please. 

Reverend McMichael. I think the newspaper item is a distortion 
of the speech on that particular occasion in that particular instance. 

Mr. KuNziG. I offer in evidence this exhibit as McMichael exhibit 
No. 14, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Jackson. It will be so received. 

(Newspaper article, Youth Congress Raps "Warmongers" in Rilly 
at Turner Arena, February 1941, was received in evidence as Mc- 
Michael exhibit No. 14.) 



2712 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

McMICHAEL EXHIBIT NO. 14 

(Washington Star, February 8, 1941) 
Youth Congress Raps "Wakmongers" in Rally at Turner Arena 
Speaker Assails Roosevelt and Lindbergh; Parade Is Planned Today 

Joe Turner's boxing arena vibrated last night and again this morning with 
shouts, applause, wisecracks and hisses from 3,000 members of the American 
Youth Congress assembled to fight a perscmal battle against "Wall Street and 
President Roosevelt trying to drag us into war." 

Carrying their battle to the public, they were scheduled to parade from the 
fight auditorium down Fourteenth Street to the Washington Monument at 
4 p. m. today, bearing banners and flaring torches. Their favorite Congress 
member, Representative Marcantonio, American Labor Party member from New 
York City, was chosen to speak there. 

Attack centered on the lease-lend bill to aid Britain, under leadership of 
23-year-old Jack McMichael, chairman of the Youth Congress, who declared 
that "what Congress does with this bill tomorrow, Monday and Tuesday, will 
decide whether young people will lead normal creative lives or die in Europe's 
slaughter," 

Col. Lindbergh Criticized 

The tall, blond-haired young Georgian said he thought a boxing ring was an 
appropriate spot in which to speak. He took verbal jabs at President Roosevelt 
for asking "dictatorial powers" under which he could "issue rules and regula- 
tions to stop all further opposition to his policies." Engaging other opponents, 
he criticized Col. Charles A. Lindbergh for attempting to represent opposition 
to the bill, while Youth Congress spokesmen "are denied a hearing." 

"We hold no brief for Hitler and don't go around wearing medals from Hitler," 
he shouted to an enthusiastic audience. 

He scored the "inconsistency" of Chairman George of the Senate Foreign 
Relations Committee in having previously opposed "embargoing shipments to 
Japan and giving China real aid," while supporting aid to Britain. His com- 
ments about Representative Dies of Texas evoked hisses for the chairman of the 
House Committee on Un-American Activities. 

Having been denied use of the Inter-Departmental Auditorium where they met 
last year, largely because Mrs. Roosevelt was unwilling to sponsor the organiza- 
tion this year, the young men and women made the most of their informal 
meeting place. 

'"Hearings" Conducted 

They conducted last night's session as a "hearing" before the Senate and House 
Foreign Affairs Committees and reserved empty chairs on the boxing ring 
platform for committee members, who were invited but did not attend. 

At one point proceedings paused for an imaginary speech by an imaginary 
Congress member. The packed arena was silent for a few minutes, then boos were 
heard and there chortled cries of "Throw him out." 

Tlie night's proceedings heard denunciations of the following persons : Wendell 
L. Willkie. In a speech which brought delegates to their feet cheering, Michael 
J. Quill, president of the Transport Workers' Union (C. I. O.) declared that "Mr 
Willkie IS spreading piffle all over Europe as Mr. Roosevelt is spreading twaddle 
all over the United States." 

Two prominent diplomats. Denounced by .Tohn P. Davis, secretary of the 
National Negro Congress, as "members of the firm of Bullitt, Biddle and Bunk." 

ChurchilVs War Aims Assailed 

Winston Churchill. Described by Frederick Field, executive secretary of the 
American Peace Mobilization as having war aims of an imperialistic nature, 
contrary to aims of the British and American people. Mr. Field proposed a 
peace guaranteeing freedom for colonies all over the world, no annexations, no 
indeiunities and sweeping domestic reforms. 

Gene Tunney, who leads a youth organization hostile to the Youth Congress. 
Characterized by Mr. Quill as "speaking for two and a half dozen youths of 
Hockefeller Center, New York." 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2713 

Those who are trying to "break our friendly relations with the great nation 
remaining at peace in Europe, Soviet Russia." Denounced by Mr. Davis, who 
told reporters he referred particularly to Representative Tinkham, Republican, 
of Massachusetts. 

Secretary of State Hull. Attack by Mr. Davis for "contending that aid to 
Britain is required by the pact of Paris." 

Witnesses Called ''Stuffed Shirts" 

The bulk of men and women who have testified before congressional commit- 
tees on the lease-lend bill. Termed "triple-star stuffed shirts" by Herbert Witt, 
executive secretary of the American Student Union, who acted as master of 
ceremonies. 

Last night's session opened with a phonograph record of "God Bless America" 
played over an amplifying system, and singing of the National anthem, in a hall 
decorated with American flags and bunting. 

The Congress will continue through tomorrow, opening with an interfaith 
religious service at 9 : 30 a. m. and closing at 6 p. m. with addresses by Reid 
Robinson, vice president of the C. I. O., and Joseph Cadden, executive secretary 
of the Youth Congress. At 11 a. m. there will be discussion of the welfare and 
rights of selective service recruits, and at 2 p. m. a report on "Keeping America 
Out of War." 

Mr. KuNziG. I have a document marked McMichael Exhibit Num- 
ber 15, a copy of the Keview dated Marcli 3, 1941, carrying an 
article covering this town meeting and it has in it : 

Says Youth : For a secure, constructive future, young people need jobs, they 
also need education. The American Youth Commission points out that more 
than one million American children are denied the chance to attend elementary 
school, more than one-half of America's out-of-school youth never finished the 
ninth grade and more than three million American citizens have passed from 
youth to adulthood without knowing how to read or write their own names. 
Today the supposed leaders of this nation ignore this need of American youth 
and American democracy for more universal and more democratic education by 
adopting unprecedented peace-time conscription, taking us away from out schools 
as well as from our jobs. 

Jack McMichael, A. Y. C, Chairman. 

I hand you this document, McMichael Exhibit Number 15, and ask 
you whether that is a correct statement of the viewpoint that you 
expressed at that time. 

Mr. Jackson. Was this a meeting ? 

Reverend McMichael. Yes, tliis was a meeting and there is a record 
of my speech there which would cover all my points, but if you want 
to know whether the speech is reported accurately, I would have to 
check it. I have the speech. 

Mr. Jackson. Were you present or not ? That is the question. 

Reverend McMichael. I think this question had been answered 2 
or 3 times already. 

Mr. Jackson. Does this deal with the same matter ? 

Reverend McMichael. Yes ; same matter, same meeting. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you speak at that tim.e violently against con- 
scription ? 

Reverend McMichael. No; I did not speak violently at all about 
it, but I was against conscription as far as that goes and so was the 
organization, the National Student Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion and practically all the people, the churches have been against 
that peacetime conscription. 

Mr. Jackson. Is your question answered? 

Mr. KuNziG, Yes. I offer this document in evidence as McMichael 
exhibit No. 15. 



2714 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

Mr. Jackson. It will be received. 

(March 3, 1941, issued of the Young Communist Review, article, 
Town Meeting Stuns Jingoes : Labor, Youth March for Peace, pp. 2, 
8, 9, and 15, was received in evidence as McMichael exhibit No. 15.) 

McMICHAEL EXHIBIT NO. 15 

(Young Communist Review, March 3, 1941, pp. 2, 8, 9, and 15) 
Town Meeting Stuns Jingoes ; Labor, Youth March for Peace 
(By Mickey Milton) 

Youth came of age that Town Meeting night of February 8 when 6,000 young 
men and women from America's factories and farms and schools marched 
through the streets of Washington. Down through tlie center of the Capital 
they swung, broad files two miles long, the hundreds of torches flaring in the 
twilight, the band playing, banners and young voices shouting the slogans of 
the American people : Don't Lend or Lease Our Lives ! Don't Let 'Em Spike the 
Right to Strike ! Old Jim Crow Has Gotta Go ! 

Through the red and grey shacks that sag on the Negro side of town, past the 
new granite and marble monuments to "National Defense," way down along the 
sidewalks abuzz with government workers who had never seen anything but 
military and inaugural parades on Pennsylvania Avenue before, to the foot of 
the Washington Monument and swelling out there in a great singing semicircle, 
waiting for their one voice on Capitol Hill, Vito Marcantonio. 

Different This Year! 

There had been a great meeting like this in Washington last year, with the 
American Youth Congress its sponsor and thousands of young people taking part. 
But with a difference ! A difference that measures the giant steps forward 
progressive youth have taken in this time of crisis. 

Last year they met in the Labor Department auditorium and were housed and 
fed with the aid of the administration. Last year the President spoke to them, 
and Mrs. lloosevelt and Aubrey Williams, NYA administrator, and John Hamil- 
ton of the Republican Party and John L. Lewis of the CIO. 

This year they came together in Turner's Arena and fought Jim Crow discrim- 
ination in rooming houses and restaurants every day. This year Mr. and Mrs. 
FDR sat at home and sent FBI-men to represent them. This year it was the 
rank and file of America's labor movement that pounded the milie in the center 
of the prize ring with powerful speeches against HR 1776 and the Hitler program 
the warlords have built around it. 

No, this year the Youth (L'ongress was not just a prize with Democrats and 
Republicans and labor wrestling with each other for it. If you were in Wash- 
ington that weekend you saw how solid now the ranks of youth are — united 
with labor against the fascist program of an Administration owned lock, stock 
and barrel by the moneybags. 

Congress's "Joke" 

And the reason for this new and decisive unity was plain in the hundreds of 
experiences that poured hotly through the amplifiers from the boys and girls 
who plant the Arkansas cotton, pour the Pittsburgh steel, weld the Detroit autos, 
file the Hartford insurance claims and study the California airplane blue prints. 

That first afternoon in Washington many of them had knocked vainly at the 
doors of their Representatives and Senators to tell them what the folks back 
home thought of the War Powers bill. Others had squeezed into the packed 
gallery of the House and watched in angry amazement the handful of Congress- 
men making a bitter joke of the democratic process while playfully tossing HR 
1776 back and fourth between the Republican and the Democratic side of the 
chamber. 

From the hill they came miles out to the edge of town where the dingy fight 
arena squats amidst some of Washington's choicest slums. One after the other 
the leaders of the people's organizations who had been booted away from House 
and Senate committee rooms came out into the center of the ring to speak their 
part in this open hearing on 1776, White House version. There was tall, blonde 
Jack McMichael, leader of the Youth Congress, and Frederick Field, head of the 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2715 

American People's Mobilization. Then John P. Davis, of the National Negro 
ConsTess, in a ringing indictment of a "defense of democracy" that lynches and 
segregates a tenth of the people, the Negroes of America. And Mike Quill with 
a roaring, standing welcome to this militant leader of the Transport Workers. 
And at the end, that fighter for civil liberties, the Reverend Owen Knox. 

Defeat H. R. 1776! 

You couldn't hear a speech those next two days that didn't lace into the Lend- 
Lease Bill. From the trade unions and the student organizations and the neigh- 
borhood councils they came, to tell what was happening back home. It was 
those dozens of swift speeches that gave the answer to the question Jack Mc- 
Michael had put in his opening report to the Town Meeting. "Evidently there 
has been a change in program," he had said, speaking of the absence of the big 
shots this year. "Who has done the changing," he asked, "the rank and tile 
young people of America or the national administration?" 

Joe and Jane America spoke of their fight last year to stop conscription, their 
watchful defense against all attempts to put over forced labor camps, their out- 
cries against higher price for ever.vday groceries, their campaigns to resist the 
inquisitions of Rapp-Coudert committees from New York to California. And 
always and everywhere the fight to defeat H. R. 1776. 

So who had done the changing? That was an easy one to answer, listening to 
those voices. Behind all of these attacks upon the people's peace and living 
standards and freedom has been the Washington administration, and pulling its 
strings right out where anyone could see it — the bankers and manufacturers 
who've been running America these many years. 

Who Has Changed? 

Tliere was something else about those speeches that explains the fast-growing 
unity of progressive youth. Lots of them called this war an imperialist war, 
and they showed how you couldn't separate the fight of the British and German 
bankers over sources of profits, and the J. P. Morgans' part in that war, with 
what's going on right here at home. America's undeclared entrance into the war 
and the blitzkrieg on wages, the right to organize and our civil liberties are all 
part of the same process. 

When Lin Liang-Mo of China and S. Chandra Sekhar of India got throu'ih 
describing Roosevelt's attempts to break the unity of China in its struggle 
against the Japanese invaders and Lord Halifax's slaughter and imprisonment 
of thousands of the Indian people there was little lioubt left as to just wiiat 
kind of war such noble "democrats" could fight. And even that doubt must have 
been cleared up by the words of the fraternal messengers from the people's 
movements of Haiti, Puerto Rico, and Cuba. (See p. 7 this issue.) 

These Town Meeters weren't kidding about not liking Jim Crow either. On 
Sunday afternoon hundreds of them grabbed up "Jim Crow Has Gotta Go' 
placards and rushed down to the Palace Lunch and the ritzy Willard Hotel to 
make their walls ring with the militant slogans of great picket lines. Friday 
a delegation had visited US Army Chief of Staff Marshall and listened to his 
shocking anti-Negro line in answer to their presentation of the many examples 
of Jim Crow in the armed forces. On Monday, anotaer delegation got the same 
smug answers from Secretary of War Stimson to a picketline thrown around the 
War Department building. 

Jim Crow's Gotta Go! 

Those demonstrations of youth's bold determination to get rid of this blot 
upon the American nation were further signs of the complete break between the 
Youth Congress and Papa and Mama Roosevelt. Before the Town IMeeting had 
opened Mrs. FDR had trumpeted that her disagreement with the AYC stenuued 
from the issue of foreign policy. But her open statement to the press of uncon- 
cern for the problems of Negro delegates and her now widely known declaration 
of belief in the virtues of forced labor camps for youth, proved that she and not 
progressive youth has been doing all the flipflops in policy this year. 

Although her royal highnes-s did not appear herself, her lackeys were there in 
full lorce to make tlieir master's voice heard. Joseph Lash, the one-time student 
leader now recruited at $4,000 per year by the opposition to do their dirty jobs, 
was on the spot to make a few "all-out-for-IJritain" si^eeches. Haviig Ir d 
proved to him in many youth conferences lately (as though he needed proof) 
39123— 53— —8 



2716 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

that British imperialism is not exactly a democratic heaven, the only weapon 
left him is red-baiting. That business didn't get Eleanor's pal Joey to tirst base. 

Johnny Gates Speaks 

The very next speaker, Ed Strong, of the Southern Negro Youth Congress, 
blasted Lash out of the ring. "It is the people of England who are fighting this 
war," said Strong, "but it is also the people of Germany and Italy. Lash forgot 
to mention this, and to add that it is the imperialist governments of all these 
countries that are running the war. American youth do not want to help fight 
an imperialist war. Together with the People's Convention of England, they 
want to end this war with a people's peace." 

Leaders of young women's organizations, of Negro, church, Jewish, student, 
fraternal, labor, Y and youth councils added their voices to Strong's. Later 
that afternoon John Gates spoke for the Young Communist League, pointing 
out that : 

"We in America have a great lesson to learn from the Soviet Union's having 
remained at peace so long. It is because in the Soviet Union capitalism has 
been abolished and they are no longer ruled by the international bankers who 
make wars. Capitalism has been eliminated and Socialism, the true brotherhood 
of man, established." 

It was in that direction, towards the basic solution of youth's problems, that 
Johnny Gates pointed. It is a way that more and more of America's young 
progressives are beginning to seek, and it stands in monumental contrast to the 
"fruit-basket" program of the long-count champ, Gene Tunney, that was proposed 
by Tunney's Republican knee-pants stooges at the Town Meeting, Murray Plavner 
delivered a basket of fruit at the White House, and it got nothing but a belly- 
laugh from the young delegates. 

Labor Joins Youth 

Youth saw who Roosevelt's buddies are among American youth ; a handful of 
bought-up phonies who got tired of playing Socialist. But they also saw some- 
thing even more important — who their own, who youth's friends, are. Labor — 
the best, the strongest, the truest fighters for the people's needs. 

Never before at any youth gathering had there been so many young trade 
unionists. From the newest members of the rank and file to the older tested 
leaders of organized labor they were there ; giving America's progressive youth 
movement the iron backbone that it needed. When Tom Foley of the Harvester 
strike committee spoke and Ed Taylor, too, of the Ford organizing staff, you 
could hear in the terrific roar of welcome and the many-minutes chant of 
"Organize Harvester !'' "Organize Ford !" the great sound of future victories 
that youth will win. 

"Youth knows," said Roy Lancaster, Youth Director of Labor's Non-Partisan 
League, "that the progressive labor movement is today its staunchest ally in 
the fight for youth rights, for jobs, for peace, and civil liberties. And labor 
knows that unless youth has decent jobs, higher wages, is organized into unions, 
that the low standards under which youth is working will be used to undermine 
and undercut standards of work and wages won by labor through long a struggle." 

It was that speech, especially, and the presence of so many unionists that 
showed the reason for youth and labor unity and it was the size and the program 
of the meeting itself that proved the power of that unity. 

To Help Conscripts 

Throughout the Town Meeting's sessions there was discussion of many prob- 
lems in which youth and labor are both deeply concerned. From Flint's CIO 
Youth Council came Charles Shinn to tell of the treatment given conscripts in 
the army camps and to outline the people's program for the welfare of the 
conscripts based upon the Youth Congress's publicized seven points. Roy Lan- 
caster showed how the Administration's "job-training" program is being used as 
a wage-cutting, strike-breaking, union-smashing threat to organized labor and 
called for the passage of the American Youth Act as the way to a real job- 
training program. 

These are but a few highlights of a history-making youth meeting. The lessons 
youth learned down in Washington and that they will bring back home to their 
organizations will reinvigorate the fight of the American people to get out of 
this imperialist war and to build a solid democracy on our own ground. The 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2717 

thousands who saw the capital police forcibly prevent Jack McMichael from 
speaking for them to the Senate committee will not soon forget. Young America 
is learning the meaning of a capitalist society rushing madly downwards into 
war and fascism. And in these times when youth are uniting their strength 
with the people's organizations everywhere, they are learning what such power- 
ful solidarity will one day do for them. 

Youth Versus Warmakers 

When 6,000 representatives of the nation's youth assembled at their town 
meeting in Washington, they let the country know what youth wants. They 
didn't ask for a handout. They came to defend the peace, security and democ- 
racy of America. They demanded jobs for youth : they demanded a .job-train- 
ing program which would not create a huge scab labor force, but workers for 
American peace-time jobs as provided in the American Youth Act. They de- 
manded protection of the right of the conscripts : guarantees that they would 
get back their jobs in industry, better pay and maintain their civil rights. Above 
all, America's youth protested against the War-Dictatorship Bill. They de- 
manded that America GET OUT AND STAY OUT OF THE WAR. Below is 
the record of what youth wants and what the warmakers seek to impose on the 
people. 

Says youth: 

For a secure, constructive future young people need jobs, they also need educa- 
tion. The American Youth Commission points out that more than one million 
American children are denied the chance to attend elementary school, more than 
one-half of America's out-of-school youth never finished the 9th grade, and more 
than 3 million American citizens have passed from youth to adulthood without 
knowing how to read or write their own names. Today the supposed leaders 
of this nation ignore this need of American youth and American democracy for 
more universal and more democratic education by adopting unprecedented peace- 
time conscription taking us away from our schools as well as from our jobs. — 
Jack McMichael, AYC chairman. 

Mr. KuNziG. I have a photostatic copy of a document marked 
"McMichael Exhibit No. 16" from the Times Herald, Washington, 
D. C, dated Saturday, February 8, 1941, showing an article, Yankg 
Aren't Coming, 4,000 Youths Shout. 

Then the article goes on to say : 

Jack McMichael, divinity student from Georgia and the AYC Chairman, 
opened the morning session with a reading of the youth creed in which the 
delegates dedicated themselves to the service of our country and mankind and 
to the maintenance of America as a haven of a free conscience and the freedom 
of religious spirit. 

The crowd, larger than that in attendance at any previous Youth Congress 
gathered here, stopped McMichael's speech with applause when he shouted that 
Europe should be told that the ''Yanks are not coming." 

Gusts of derisive laughter came when McMichael sarcastically referred to 
"those in high places who wishfully think the Youth Congress is deflated." 

I hand you document McMichael exhibit No. 16. 

Mr. ScHERER. What is the date of that? 

Mr. KuNziG. February 8, 1941. 

Reverend McMichael. It is the same meeting. Wliat is the ques- 
tion, Mr. Kunzig? 

Mr. KuN^ziG. The question is whether the account therein so written 
is an accurate account of what took place at the meeting and whether 
you took the viewpoint, "the Yanks are not coming." 

Reverend McIVIichael. Referring to this document, because it is 
new to me, tlie document does demonstrate the validity, at least cor- 
roborates the statement, that I led the meeting in that creed. That is 
what I read into the record a while ago, that creed, and it quotes the 
section of "to the service of our country and mankind" and to the 



2718 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

maintenance of America as a "haven of a free conscience and the free- 
dom of religious spirit." 

I certainly did that. I certainly attended the meeting. 

Mr. Jackson. Are the other statements attributed to you, in sub- 
stance, true or false? 

Keverend McMichael. That will be within the framework of the 
speech. The reference to shouting and all that, I don't think that is 
true because I do not believe I did any shouting. 

Mr. KuNziG. I offer in evidence this document as McMichael ex- 
hibit No. 16. 

Mr. Jackson. It will be so received. 

(Saturday, February 8, 1941, Washington Times Herald, article 
entitled, "Yanks Aren't Coming, 4,000 Youths Shout," received in 
evidence as McMichael exhibit No. 16.) 

McMICHAEL EXHIBIT NO. 16 

(Town Meeting of Youth, leaflet published by American Youth Congress, containing on 
p. 9 a reprint of an article from Times Herald, February 8, 1941) 

Yanks Aren't Coming, 4,000 Youths Shout 

Won't let Roosevelt "Pull a Wilson," Congress Head Says, hy Una Franklin 

Four thousand delegates to the American Youth Congress today answered 
with ear-splitting cheers a statement from their chair that "Roosevelt can't 
pull a Wilson on us." 

"Service of Our Country" 

Jack McMichael, divinity student from Georgia and the A. Y. C. chairman, 
opened the morning session with a reading of the Youth Creed in which the 
delegates dedicated themselves "to the s'ervice of our country and mankind," 
and to the maintenance of America as a "haven of a free conscience and the 
freedom of religious spirit." 

The crowd, larger than that in attendance at any previous Youth Congress 
gathering here, stopped M( Michael's speech with applause when he shouted 
that Europe should be told the "Yanks are not coming." 

Gusts of derisive laughter came when McMichael sarcastically referred to 
"those in high places who wLshlully think the Youth Congress is deflated." 

Halifax's name was booed when McMichael referred to him as having been 
responsible for the imprisonment of 47,000 Indians when he was viceroy of 
Inula. Democracy has come to a fine pass, he s'aid, when "Wall Street Willkie 
represents tis in London, and Halifax, that same old friend of Hitler's, represents 
England here." 

Mr. Moulder. Do I understand you to say that you have a copy of 
the speech you delivered ? 

Reverend McMichael. Yes. 

Mr. Moltlder. May I see that copy of the speech. 

Reverend McMichael. Yes ; I think it will be a part of the record. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Chairman, time moves on and as we all know 
Germany attacked Russia. When Russia was attacked an awful lot 
of people did an awful lot of jumping, particularly those following 
the Communist line. 

I have a document market "McMichael Exhibit No. 17" for identi- 
fication, which is a photostatic copy of the Daily Worker of October 
17, 1941, page 4, in which there is an article covering a mass rally 
at Manhattan Center in New York City on October 15, 1941. The 
Reverend Jack McMichael was a speaker. The headline states "We 
can't wait." Down further in the article it states that Vito Marcan- 
tonio told the cheering audience "We are now facing the Civil War 
of 1861 on an international scale. Today, the Battle of Moscow, for 
us, must become the Battle of Gettysburg." 



HEAKINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2719 

Now they were all for fighting. Everyone should get behind and 
start fighting, and that was the argument of Reverend McMichael. 

I should like to ask you why suddenly your viewpoint after all 
this peace and fighting for peace shifted as did the Communist line? 

Reverend McMichael. Mr. Chairman, the answer to that is that my 
viewpoint did not shift, that I led the fight in the Youth Congress in 
1941 against intervention and that I remained against intervention 
and that it is the policy' of the Youth Congress to be against interven- 
tion. That is the national organization that I chaired until Pearl 
Harbor and I want to see whether or not they quoted me as having 
said anything in favor of intervention. It will take me a moment to 
read it because the Daily Worker is not my daily reading at all and I 
just want to see what it says. 

Mr. Chairman, in answer to the question, from a hasty glance at this 
Daily Worker article it is obvious that the Daily Worker has com- 
pletely failed to represent me here at all. All of these quotes that Mr. 
Kunzig was reading were from Mr. Marcantonio and my position was 
against intervention. 

Mr. Jackson. Very well, your position has been made clear with 
respect to the exhibit. 

Reverend McINIictiael. That certainly misrepresents me. I was 
against it until Pearl Harbor. 

Mr. Jackson. The witness has stated that he was against inter- 
vention. 

]\Ir. Kunzig. I offer this document as McMichael exhibit No. 17, 
Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Jackson. It will be accepted. 

(Daily Worker, October 17, 1941, article, Youth Rally Cheers Call: 
*'We Can't Wait," was received in evidence as McMichael exhibit 
No. 17.) 

McMICHAEL EXHIBIT NO. 17 
(Daily Worker, New York. Friday, October 17, 1941) 

Youth Rally Cheers Call : "We Can't Wait" 
Marcantonio Demands U. S. Act; 5,000 ask Neutrality Repeal 

The immediate opening of a Western Front against Hitler, as well as all-out 
aid to Britain, the Soviet Union and China were called for in a mass youth rally 
Wednesday night in Manhattan Center, Eighth Avenue and 34th Street. 

Almost 5,000 young people at the rally, which was under the auspices of the 
New York Youth Congress formally pledged "my strength, skill, energy and my 
life, if need be, to the defense of my country in the common struggle of mankind 
to end the threat of Hitler and Hitlerism in every form." 

Congressman Vito Marcantonio, the chief speaker, told the cheering audience: 
"We are now facing the Civil Wr (sic.) of 1861 on an international scale. To- 
day, the Battle of Moscow, for us, must become the Battle of Gettysburg." 

He continued : "The conquest of Madrid meant Munich. The conquest of 
Moscow would mean worse than Munich — it would mean our backs to the wall, 
fighting a power that had conquered the rest of the world." 

"WE MEAN SHOOTING. . ." 

"By defending our country today," he said, "we mean rushing arms, tanks, 
planes to the countries fighting Hitler. Yes, and we mean shooting out of the 
sea everybody who tries to interfere with this aid. Yes, and we mean repeal of 
the entire Neutrality Act." 

He went on, "But we mean something more than that." And then, in a powerful 
climax. Congressman Marcantonio shouted : "I know that this war is a war of 
defense, that it is our war, and we must participate in the establishment of a 
Western Front at once ! We can't wait for the conquest of the Soviet Union ! We 
can't wait for an England which becomes subject if not allied to Hitler ! We can't 



2720 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

wait for a Nazi-dominated Japan ! If we wait for these, we shall have to fight 
alone !" 

A radiogram of greeting from the Anti-Fascist Youth Meeting in Moscow, 
signed by its chairman, Hero of the Soviet Union Evgeny Fedorov, which was 
read from the platform, stated : "Soviet people and its young generation, arms 
in hand, are destroying the Nazi cannibals. Joint action of Soviet, British, and 
American youth against blood-thirsty fascism brings nearer the day when free- 
dom-loving peoples of the whole world will vanquish fascism." 

Answer Moscow Cable 

The youth rally adopted an answering cable to the youth of Moscow, which 
read in part: "We pledge that we will not rest until the Nazi barbarians are 
wiped from the earth forever." 

Other messages adopted at the meeting included one of support addressed to 
United Youth for Defense, a greeting to Joe Louis, a pledge of support to the 
International Youth Rally in London, and a telegram sent collect to Charles A. 
Lindbergh informing him : "You will find no support for your fascist program 
among the young men and women of America." 

Speakers at the rally included John Darr, of the National Collegiate Christian 
Council; Agnes Kessler, YWCA national staff; Halina Chybowska, Polish youth 
leader ; Madison Jones, youth secretary of the National Association for the 
Advancement of Colored People; Evelyn Shields, of the national staff of the 
American Women's Voluntary Services ; Arthur Osman, president of Local 65, 
United Wholesale and Warehouse Employees, CIO ; Jack McMichael, national 
president of the American Youth Congress ; and Jean Horie, executive secre- 
tary of the New York Youth Congress. Thomas Jones, chairman of the New 
York Youth Congress, acted as chairman. 

Entertainment furnished by the American Youth Theatre included the singing 
of "I've Got Those Red. White and Blues" by John Fleming, young Negi-o bari- 
tone and the presentation of an "Appeasement Strip-Tease." Both songs were 
written especially for the rally by Lewis Allen. 

Text Under Photograph 

Youth Defense Rally : Strong support for President Roosevelt's foreign poli- 
cies was voiced at a meeting held here Wednesday night at Manhattan Center by 
the New York Youth Congress. Photo above shows, left to right, Representative 
Vito Marcantonio ; Jack McMichael, president of the American Youth Congress ; 
John Darr, National Intercollegiate Christian Council; and Edward Strong, 
national organizational secretary of the AYC, seated on the platform. Below the 
platform with the huge banner urging action to build U. S. defenses hanging 
over it. 

Reverend McMichael. It doesn't prove anj^thing. 

Mr. ScHERER. It proves you were there. 

Reverend McMichael, I don't know that it proves I was there. The 
Daily Worker article misrepresents. 

Mr. Jackson. Will committee members please seek recognition of 
the Chair? 

Reverend McMichael. He asked a question. May I answer it? 

Mr. ScHERER. He has answered it. 

Reverend McMichael. That publication misrepresents me. 

Mr. Jackson. Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. KuNziCx. I have a photostatic copy of a document marked "Mc- 
Michael Exhibit No. 18" for identification, which is a confidential 
police report, New York City, revealing Reverend McMichael speak- 
ing at a mass meeting outside the Japanese consulate, 51st Street and 
5th Avenue, on Saturday, October 18, 1941. 

It reads as follows : 

SATUKnAT, October 18, 1941. 

Attended mass meeting outside Japanese consulate, 51st Street and 5th Avenue. 
Meeting was called by American Youth Congress. About 800 people attended. 
Ruth Simon phoned me Friday night to tell me that Marcella Sloane, of the 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2721 

Y. C. L., insisted on all the comrades attending it. Tom Jones, negro, chaired 
the meeting. Speakers included Jack McMichael, Bert Witt, and Conrad Kaye, 
of the Amalgamated Meat Cutters, Local 623, A. F. of L. They all called for 
the repeal of the Neutrality Act, no appeasement towards Japan, and increased 
aid to S. U. and Britain, and an A. E. F. if necessary. 

I hand you this document for your perusal and ask you if you were 
present and spoke as therein listed in a report from the New York 
Police Department. 

Reverend McMichael. I notice that this report refers to comrades 
present and does not include this witness. 

Mr. Jackson. Was the witness present? I think that is the 
question. 

Reverend McMichael. I thought sometimes these reports have been 
based on other points. 

Mr. Jackson. The only point of particular interest to the com- 
mittee is whether or not you were present in front of the Japanese 
consulate. 

Reverend McMichael. I do not recall it. And if this statement 
that all of the speakers spoke in favor of an AEF, if necessary, is 
true, then all the speakers could not have included me because I was 
against an AEF up to Pearl Harbor. I was in favor of stopping 
the war materials to Japan because of the position that the 

Mr. Jackson. But you have no personal recollection of being present 
on that occasion ? 

Reverend McMichael. I have no recollection of being present and 
J know I was never for the AEF. 

Mr. ScHERER. Did you say that the police report of your presence 
was incorrect? 

Reverend McMichael. It is obviously incorrect at the point where 
the statement is made. 

Mr. ScHERER. Is it incorrect as to your presence at this demon- 
stration ? 

Reverend McMichael. It might be correct or incorrect as to my 
presence, but it is incorrect that I was there speaking for an AEF, 
if that is what it says. 

Mr. Scherer. I am only interested in whether or not you were 
present. 

Reverend McMichael. I thought you were interested in whether 
I was present for that particular purpose, because I was not. That 
does not seem to have any bearing on the question of an AEF. 

Mr. Scherer. I want to know whether or not the confidential police 
report is true or untrue? 

Reverend McMichael. The only point I was making is that I have 
no memory of it. 

Mr. Scherer. Is it true or untrue? 

Reverend McMichael. But I have a 

Mr. Scherer. Is it true or untrue ? 

Reverend McMicpiael. Is what true or untrue ? 

Mr. Scherer. The police report ? Is that a true report ? 

Reverend McMichael. I don't know. 

Mr. Jackson. Very well, the witness states he cannot remember 
whether he was there or not. 

Mr. KuNziG. I offer this in evidence as McMichael exhibit No. 18. 

Mr. Jackson. It will be received. 



2722 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

(Police report, Saturday, October 18, 1941, meeting outside Japa- 
nese consulate was marked for identification and received in evidence 
as McMicliael exhibit No. 18.)^^ 

Mr. KuNziG. I have a document marked "McMichael Exhibit No. 
19" for identification and I am turning to a new section of this ques- 
tioning. It is a photostatic copy of the journal Equality, the issue 
of February 1940. Page 21 carries an article by Jack R. McMichael 
requesting all youth between the ages of 16 and 25 during the period 
February 9 to 12, 1940, to urge the President and Members of Con- 
gress to act and to repress "antialien" measures and also to support 
"antilynching" bills. 

The purpose of this is that this article written by the Reverend Jack 
McMichael, is written in a publication entitled "Equality" ^^ which has 
been cited as a Communist Party enterprise by the Special Com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities in 1944 and also among publica- 
tions which the committee found to be Communist initiated and con- 
trolled, found so by the California Un-American Activities 
Committee. 

Mr. Jackson. Were the citations prior to or following the article ? 

Mr. KuNziG. Following the article, but based upon the time which 
the article was written. It was for the contents of the magazine dur- 
ing this period of time that they were cited by the Committee on Un- 
American Activities. 

Mr. Jackson. What is the pending question? 

Mr. KuNziG. The question is did you write that article in that 
magazine and did you contribute to it as therein evidenced ? 

Reverend McMichael. I am trying to read the article to see whether 
or not it reminds me of an}- thing I wrote. 

Mr. KuNziG. You don't recall whether you wrote for that 
magazine ? 

Reverend McMichael. I am trying to be helpful. This is new to 
me. Mr. Chairman, so far as the content of the article is concerned, 
on glancing at it hastily, it would appear to me that if I did not 
write it I should have written it. It expresses the views I recall hold- 
ing at that time. 

Mr. Jackson. The question is. Did you write the article at that 
time? 

Reverend McMichael. I would believe that I did but I do not 
actually recall writing it, but it sounds pretty good to me and these 
goals are ones that I certainly supported at that time. 

Mr. Jackson. It reflects your views but you cannot say you wrote 
the article? 

Reverend McMichael. Yes, and incidentally it bears out that at 
that time, which was a year before the time that the police report 
was about, it would indicate if I wrote this as indicated that I was then 
against the sending of war materials to Japan. 

Mr. Jackson. Is it your impression that you authored this article ? 

Reverend McMichael. Yes, sir ; it is my impression. 

INIr. KuNZiG. I offer this in evidence, ]NIr. Chairman, as McMichael 
Exhibit No. 19. 



" Text of report was read into the record of this hearing. See p. 2720. 
1' Equality : 

1. Cited as a Communist Party enterprise (Special Committee on Un-American Activi- 
ties, report, March 29, 1944, p.49). 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2723 

Mr. Jackson. It will be so received. 

(Equality, February 1940, article, Mr. Youth Goes to Washington, 
by Jack R. McMichae'l, was received in evidence as McMichael exhibit 
No. 19.) 

McMICHAEL EXHIBIT NO. 19 

(Equality, February 1940, p. 21) 

Mr. Youth Goes to Washington 

(By Jack R. McMichael) 

Apathy of Elders Irks Youn;/ America: Deleyates Will Seek Ways To Insure 
Democracy, Peace, and Livelihood 

A generation of 21 million, 5 million of them unemployed and out of school — 
young America between the ages of 16 and 25 — read in the papers that President 
Roosevelt has suggested reductions in expenditures for the National Youth Ad- 
ministration, the CCC, WPA, and PWA, the Public Health Service, the Office 
of Education. 

Representatives of young America — gathered together in the American Youth 
Congress — meet, discuss the drastic nature of the situation, decide to act. So 
Mr. Youth goes to Washington. 

From February 9 to 12, thousands of young people from farms and factories, 
schools, colleges, churches, and settlement houses will be in Washington at- 
tending a citizenship institute sponsored by the American Youth Congress. 
They will come to discuss citizenship there and then. Meeting with Congress- 
men and administrators of Federal agencies, they will explain the problems of 
their neighborhoods and discuss what can be done to remedy them. 

The focal point in their efforts will be the passage of the American Youth 
Act now being introduced in Congress. It calls for a National Youth Adminis- 
tration of proportions capable of giving opportunity to the 5 million unemployed 
youth who without such opportunity can never be expected to be good, useful 
citizens of our democracy. 

Emphasis will also be placed on questions of civil liberties and peace. Opposi- 
tion will be expressed to repressive legislation in Congress such as the so-called 
''anti" alien measures. Support will be given to the antilynching bill. Opposition 
will be registered to the attempts being made to amend the National Labor 
Relations Act, weaken it, and take from labor some of its inherent rights. 

Solidly behind the policy of keeping the United States from being involved 
in war, youth's opinion will be expressed on the already severe effect of the 
war. The necessity of taking steps to prevent circumvention of our Neutrality 
Act by munition makers and profiteers intent on the dangerous game of supplying 
loans and materials to belligerents will also find expression. At the same 
time, a strong stand will be taken to stop our country from being used as an 
arsenal by Japan in its widely condemned invasion of China. 

These are issues young people feel strongly about. Their basic concern is 
for democracy. They realize that if democracy is to prosper it must be a reality — 
in terms of jobs, peace, civil rights, health, education, and housing — as well as 
a glittering ideal. This generation is detennined to make democracy work, 
to practice good citizenship instead of just talking about it. 

The way has been prepared through organization. For unless there is joint 
action among young people in organizations and between these organizations, 
little can be accomplished. Concrete steps toward the full blossoming of our 
democracy depend on the ability of the best-informed citizens to arouse the 
great majority from their lethargy. Lack of interest in public affairs is the most 
dangerous disease imaginable. It exists in America. It must be overcome. 

And young people are determined to have a part in doing away with this 
lethargy, arousing the public to the vital issues of the day — and to the issues 
on which our tomorrow depends. 

In Washington, Mr. Youth will be con.sulting with some of the Nation's lead- 
ers : Congressmen who have introduced vital legislation, public figures such as 
Mrs. Franklin D. Roo.sevelt, Attorney General Robert H. Jackson and National 
Youth Administrator Aubrey Williams. Meeting in the departmental auditorium 
for 3 days, Mr. Youth will be providing leadership for the Nation, impetus to 
the millions of citizens now unwilling to give serious consideration to public 
affairs. Watch this generation make democracy work. Watch Mr. Youth go to 
Washington. 



2724 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

Mr. Jackson. Proceed. 

Mr. KuNziG. I have here a document marked "McMichael Exhibit 
No. 20," which is entitled "Call to a Conference on Constitutional 
Liberties in America." 

The photostatic copy of the "Call to a Conference on Constitutional 
Liberties in America" which was held in Washington, D. C, at the 
National Press Club Auditorium, 14th and F Streets NW., on June 7, 
8, and 9, 1940. This lists the Reverend McMichael as a member 
of the provisional committee setting up this conference. 

I hand you this document marked "McMichael Exhibit No. 20" for 
identification and ask you whether you were a member, as set up here 
and setting up this conference? 

While at it, I will give you a document marked "McMichael Exhibit 
No. 21" for identification, which is a letterhead of the National Confer- 
ence on Constitutional Liberties in America and which also has you 
listed as a member of the provisional committee. 

Mr. Jackson. I have no desire to unduly hasten you. You may 
examine the document, but do you know whether or not you were a 
member of the organization or a sponsor of whatever is attributed 
In that document? 

Reverend McMichael. I have no memory of being a member of 
the organization. I don't think I was, Mr. Chairman, but I appear 
from this, and I am just looking at this and I have been trying to 
check some other information to see if it would bear on it to have 
been on a provisional committee. At least they listed me that way. 

Mr. Jackson. You have no recollection of it? 

Reverend McMichael. I certainly have been in favor of constitu- 
tional liberties in America for a long time. 

Mr. Jackson. The Communists are very adept in choosing names 
which are most appealing. Do you have any questions on this exhibit ? 

Mr. KuNziG. Yes, sir. You have no recollection, you say, of being 
a member of the provisional committee. Well, did you attend this 
Conference on Constiutional Liberties in America on June 7, 8, and 9, 
1940, here in Washington, D. C? 

There were two separate documents, a letterhead and a Call to a 
National Conference listing your name. 

Reverend McMichael. Does it indicate I attended ? 

Mr. KuNziG. No ; but can you say whether you attended ? 

Reverend McMichael. What were the dates ? 

Mr. KuNziG . I will tell vou for the third time, June 7, 8, and 9, 
1940. 

Reverend McMichael. No; there is no indication in this that I 
attended the meeting, and I gather from what you say that there is 
none in that statement that I attended. I have no memory of at- 
tending the meeting. 

Mr. ScHEREE. While he has the diary of June 1940 in his hand, 
would you tell us what your diary shows as to where you were on Sat- 
urday, June 22, and Sunday, June 23, 1940, the same month you were 
just looking at in your diary ? 

Reverend McMichael. I think that the Board of Home Mis- 
sions 

Mr. Scherer. I didn't ask that question. I asked what your diary 
shows. 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2725 

Reverend McMichael. It doesn't show, but I think I was in Ar- 
kansas. The Board of Home Missions employed me in June of 1940, 
and I recall goings to Arkansas to do this church work. 

Mr. ScHERER. Will you answer my question? 

Reverend McMichael. Yes. 

Mr. ScHERER. What does the diarv show as to where you were on 
June 22? 

Reverend McMichael. It does not show. I do not have an entry 
on those days, but I think there is a record of it. 

Mr. Scherer. You have no record of those days? 

Reverend McMichael. I tliink there is a good record. 

Mr. Scherer. I am talking about your diary. 

Reverend McMichael. The 22d and the 23d? 

Mr. Scherer. That is right. 

Reverend McMichael. I have no record. 

Mr. Scherer. How many other days in June have you no record of 
where you were in June of 1940 ? 

Reverend McMichael. I was in Arkansas. 

Mr. Scherer. I am asking about the diary. How many other days 
in June do you have no record of? 

Reverend McMichael. I was in Arkansas, I am confident, on those 
days. 

Mr. Scherer. That is not my question. I ask that he be instructed 
to answer the question. 

(At this point Reverend McMichael conferred with Mr. Donner.) 

Reverend McMichael. What do you want to find out, sir? 

Do you want to find out where I was in June, as indicated by this 
diary ? 

Mr. Scherer. My question first was what does your diary show 
with reference to where you were on Saturday, June 22, 1940, and 
June 23, 1940, a Sunday, and you say it shows no entries. 

Reverend McMichael. I have stated that I think we can get the 
information if you are interested in that. The Board of Home Mis- 
sions of the Presbyterian Church has that. 

Mr. Jackson. I think the question has been answered. 

Mr. Scherer. j\Iy next question is for what other dates in June do 
you have no record at all showing where you were on those dates in the 
diary ? 

Reverend McMichael. Is it germane? 

Mr. Jackson. I believe so, inasmuch as you yourself brought the 
diary to refresh your recollection. 

Reverend McMichael. A meeting of the National Intercollegiate 
Christian Council. 

Mr. Scherer. That is still not the question and the answer to my 
question. 

Reverend JNIcMichael. I am going to answer it in my own way. 

Mr. Scherer. You are going to answer it my way. 

Reverend McMichael. It has to be in my own way. I am not 
your alter ego. It is clear to me that I went to Arkansas and I do 
not have any entries for the rest of June. 

Mr. Scherer. Will you tell us the days in the month of June of 1940 
for which you have no entry in your diary. 

Reverend McMichael. I have already answered that. From the 
4th of June I have no entry. 



2726 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

Mr. ScHERER. From the 4tli of June on you have no entries? 

Reverend McMichael. That is right, and I was in Arkansas doing 
church work with the Home Missions Council and we can get, I mean 
under the Board of Home Missions of the Presbyterian Church. 

Mr, ScHERER. And on June 22 and on June 23, 1940, you say you 
were in Arkansas ? 

Reverend McMichael. I am sure I can find out. I think I was. 

Mr. ScHERER. I want to find out whether you claim you were in 
Arkansas on June 22 and June 23, 1940. 

Reverend McMichael. That is my memory of it, that I was in 
Arkansas. We do not have to rely on memory. 

Mr. KuNziG. I offer in evidence McMichael exhibits 20 and 21 as the 
documents we have been discussing. 

Mr. Jackson. They will be so received in the record. 

(Call and program, Conference on Constitutional Liberties, June 7, 
8, and 9, 1940, at Washington, D. C., was marked "McMichael Exhibit 
No. 20" and received in evidence.) 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2727 



McMICHAEL EXHIBIT NO. 20 
(Part 1) 



Call 

to a 

Conference 



on 



Constitutional Liberties 
in America 



June 7, 8 and 9 OfVo) 



Washington, D. C. 
National Press Club Auditorium 

Fourteenth and F Streets, N. W. 



2728 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 



MoMICHAEL EXHIBIT NO. 20 

(Part 2) 

The long dreaded oightnufc <rf (otal war has become the tcrriUe reality of Eorope 
today. la shadow falls across our owo peaceful land Its horror arouses ainoag our 
people the fears that too easily becotae poniG, motual suspicion, and persecudoa. To all 
the enemies of American freedom, war offers the excuse for its destruction. 

The rights of labor, the rights of political and aatioaal micorities, ths rights of 
citizens are under attack. The attack is gathering momentum. With alarming speed it 
moves toward abrogation of the Bill of Rightt and the annulment of all our Coosdtutiooal 
guarantees of liberty. 

Each day's events show more clearly the trend and the pattern. Unless the words 
and the acts of thinking people call a halt, our democracy will be annihilated. 

The time ii short. Aaioo now is imperative. Responding to the challenge of this 
crisis, a group of people from the ranks of labor and the adherents of American democracy 
is meeting in Washington to plan and put in motion a program to preserve our traditional 
way of life. 

We urge your anendance at this meeting, your aid and your participation. Come to 
help us as an individual, as a member of your organization, as an American who wants to 
keep America free. 



Program 



FRIDAY, JUNE 7 

Registration 7:30 pjn. 

Rights of Citizenship 8:13 pan. 

C&tfr«M— PROFESSOR ROBERT K. SPEER, Nrw Yti Vwhtnkr 

AtUrtst of IT WrOMr— MERLE D. VINCENT. Ttm^r'n CMrMa N^imJ Camltnmn m 

Cemtiimhmtl tMtrtbt kt Ammk*. 

S/>r«kfri— REVEREND OWEN A. KNOX, fWn^mi, CtwU Ught, ftdfttritm •! Mkkitm 

"The Detroit Raids" 
PEARL M. HART, Chmtmm. ChU UUnin C»mmi»tt, NmhmJ tt*jtn <MU 

"Wmr Hjntcria Causes Breakdown of Law and Order ia llliools" 
ALDERMAN EARL a DICKERSON, CMr«t*. 10. 

"Rights of the Negro' 
HAROLD J. PRTFCHETT. rmUnt. Imtrmfhmtl Wtd Wtrhrrt •/ AamU* 

"Terror in Omfx Harbor" 
JAMES DOMBROVCSKI, Mtmhtt. Smti*ru Cmftrtmtt It, Hmmm Wdim* 

"The Poll Ta«" 

Registration Fc»— SI.OO Hcadquaitcn: )3S SoudMfn Boildiflg: Htooa: NA. tilt 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2729 

MoMICHAEL EXHIBIT NO. 20 

(Part 3) 

SATURDAY, JUNE 8 

REGlsnATlON 9:30 ajn. 

CMr«M«— REVEREND ALBERT T. MOLLEGEN. r^/nnr Ciritilm Bhici. VkgimU 

Rights of Minority Groups 9:30-io:30 a.m. 

Sft4luTi—MAX YERGAN. rrtiidtt. NtltnJ Ntgn C^ugrnt 

ELIZABETH GURLEY FLYNN, Mm^. Sttitmtl CcmJCMv, Cawmmdu frnty 

PROFESSOR C. FAYETTE TAYLOR, ft*mitr, Amtrit^ Ctrnmintt /ar Dtm»<tty mi 

ImltUtetMtl Frnimm 

Rights of Alien and Foreign Born 10:30-12:00 noon 

SpfktTf—CARrf McWILUAMS, Ctmrmm, Amtritm Ctrnmilln l»r lit PnltftUm •/ Iht 

Fareigm Btrm 
ALFRED K. STERN, CbairmjM, Naliomtl Emngtncy Ctafrrtuft It Dm»<Ttlk Rittii 

JOSEPHINE TRUSLOW ADAMS. VUtPrtsidfui. PhUtitltbU CUpur. DttctmUMt 

•/ lie Amtrirtm Kn>»liuiom 

JOHN A. LAPP, Cbammtm, Cbutgo CnU LUtrliti Commitlet 

HOPE STEVENS. StCTtltfy. CtriHttm Vmlom 

SATURDAY, JUNE 8 
Rights of Labor 2:00-4:30 p-m. 

CAatotm— morris WATSON, Vut PrtiUm. Amtritm Ntutptptr Guild 
S/>««Am— HONORABLE FRANK M. FRIES, C»ugr*timsm from lUmeh 

JOSEPH CURRAN, Prttidtmi. NaliomJ AUrilimt Vmiom 

FRANCES WILLIAMS, Admimilrtiht StcTtUty, Amtricsm Yatilh Cougrtit, 

JOHN P. DAVIS, Stcrelsry, N^iomd Ntgro Ctngritt 

ELMER BENSON, fermtr Covtrmer of Mhmesau 

SUNDAY, JUNE 9 
CoMMnTEE Meetings 10:00-12:00 noon 

The following committees will meci to prepare reports and recommeadations to the conference. 
Delegates are invited to attend the meetings in which (hey are interested. 

Rights of Citizenship Rights of Minority Groups 

Rights of Labor Rights of the Alien and Foreign Bora 

Luncheon— 12:45 p.m. 

Natioiul Press Club Auditorium 
SPEAKER 

EDWIN S. SMITH, 

Mtmhtr, Nal'wmtl Ldbor Relallomi Beard 

"Civil Rights and National Defense" 

Afternoon Session 2:3o p.m. 

Resolutions Program of Action 



2730 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 



MoMICHAEL EXHIBIT NO. 20 

(Part 4) 



PROVISIONAL COMMITTEE 



N0m YmkCmw 

MMw. OmwM A. Knox 
tija% BsNaoN 

HeUCIT BfkUlMAH 

f%or HiajiAN C- Nixi 



Tiuuov ACuua 



Oi/«£o«M Cuy. Oki^ 

Elbanoi lopcnhavbi AMtmtttm 

N^ Yori. N Y. 
JUDCe VX^IILIAW 

PBOr C8UICI D. ATTVLLC 



B»^ti. 



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Macion Bach 



D BA1.L 

■ N. /. 

Vom D C. 



LOUil P BiBK 

Mabc Blftzitbin 

N*» y»,*. N. Y. 
mv, J H BOLIENS 

tOHN Bosch 



P-/0 Alio. CJif. 
fttlUFLL N ( HAIP 

WILUAM F COCMIAN 

HON lOIIN M (OPFEB 
Co>,t'>nm^ from I 

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MUX YnOAN 

N«p r«* c«7 

HovAUt p. CocnoAM 

N«v Ym 
KOBBIT UaO 

Poni^U. On. 



SPONSORS 



EOVABD PUMJjaUBOin 

ArmUl J COLDBEIO 

Ck**^9. fU. 

Rabbi David CBAUftAST 

JOSEPH S CBLMB. 



FbO^Upt^ 


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CHAKLCl H HOUTTON 


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RtV W H JUNACIN 
HON KBNT KELLSI 

Paul I Kfun 

N«.. Vort, N. y. 
Caiol KlNC 

Nn' Yc-k. N. Y. 
EDWARD Lamb 

r,j,j<,, ot-D 
Haiky C Lamberton 

V^t.;!^.. O C. 

KiiiN A Lapp 

Ct..«o. Ill 
PROP OLIVER LaIKIN 

fOSEPM LEE 



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P*Or P O UATTHimiN 



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Haivst O'Conno* 

Mu. Lucy e PAUom 

WlLLIAJi L PaTTCUON 



HAAOLD I Pl 

J.*l/.. If 

MICHAIL QUIl 



Nfu- Yo'i. N. Y. 



HN I DE BOEt 

c*.<««. /a. 



: Fayette Tatlo« 
inc h tobias 



JAHES R DL'MPSON 






LFORD E LUCCOCK 
I H LUl^OUB 



N Y. 
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PROP LEBOY WaTIRMAN 

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MORRIS 

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HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 



2731 



(Letterhead, dated June 3, 1940, National Conference on Constitu- 
tional Liberties in America listing Jack McMichael on provisional 
committee was received in evidence as McMichael exhibit No. 21.) 



McMICHAEL EXHIBIT NO. 21 



NATIONAL CONFERENCE 



CONSTITUTIONAL LIBERTIES IN AMERICA 



provisional 
committee 

Pbof Franz Boas 
Rev. OWEN A. Knox 
Elmer Benson 
Carey McWlLLtAua 
Prof, neo H. Dearbor 
Herbert Biberman 
Prof. Herman C. Nixot 




IjACK MCMlCM 

Tom moonev 
Prof. Robert K. Speer 
George m-arshall 
Howard P.Costioan 

Merle D. Vincent 



3m 335, Southern Building 
Washington, D. C. 
Ulephone Nailonel ?I2I 



June 3, 1940. 



De&r Friend: 

Widespread Interest In the local Conference on Civil 

Rights, held in Washington under the sponsorship of the Washington 
Coamlttee for Democratic Action, brought Into focus the general 
deslr.e of many scattered civil rights groups to get together and 
talk over their common problems. 

As & result of the discussions growing out of the Wash- 
ington Conference, a Provisional Committee was formed to initi- 
ate the Call to a National Conference on Constitutional Liberties 
in America, which will take place in Washington on June 7, 8, and 
9 at the National Press Club Auditorium. 

The enclosed program speaJfs for itself. Our Provisional 
Committee and sponsors are proud of the wide response which b&s 
already been assured for the success of the conference. 

But it will take more them speakers and sponsors to make 
our conference all that the hour requires. 

If we are to do the Job that needs to be done, if we are 
to make this meeting a real power for the preservation of democ- 
racy, you and others like you must come to It and play a part in 
directing Its course. 

In particular, we extend an invitation to you and others 
in Washington who, by initiating and supporting the local confer- 
ence on civil rights, made this broader conference possible. 

Because the time Is so short, please let us know on the 
enclosed blank by return mail whether you wish a reservation for 
the Luncheon on Sunday, June 9. 

Hoping you can attend all the sessions of the con- 
ference, I am, 






Slnf orely yours. 



Temporary Chairman 

Mr. KuNziG. I have a document marked "McMichael Exhibit No. 
22," Mr. Chairman, which is a photosatic copy of a letterhead of the 
National Federation for Constitutional Liberties." It is dated Sep- 

" National Federation for Constitutional Liberties : 

1. Cited as subversive and Communist (Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty 
Review Board, released December 4, 1947. and September 21, 1948). 

(Continued on p. 2732) 

89125—53 9 



2732 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

tember 11, 1940, and it is a press release which itself is dated Septem- 
Jjr l^^ l^-^Oj ^"^ this letterhead lists Reverend McMichael, Jack Mc- 
Michael, New York, as a sponsor of this organization, the National 
Federation for Constitutional Liberties, and I think the record will 
show that I stated that the National Federation for Constitutional 
Liberties grew out of the National Conference on Constitutional Lib- 
erties m America about which the witness has no recollection a moment 
ago but on which his name was listed as a member of the provisional 
committee. 

I hand you the document, McMichael exhibit No. 22, and ask you 
whether you were a sponsor of the National Federation for 
Constitutional Liberties, as is shown on that official letterhead of the 
organization. 

Reverend McMichael. Where is my name ? 

Mr. KuNziG. It is on the next page, underlined in red. Do you have 
any recollection of this National Federation for Constitutional 
Liberties ? 

Reverend McMichael. Yes, I remember the organization existed 

Mr. KuNziG. Were you a sponsor? 

Reverend McMichael. I am listed as a sponsor and I was in favor 
of constitutional liberties, but I do not have the actual recollection 
01 being a sponsor. 

Mr. KuNziG. So all these various times your name was used, the 
name was perhaps used improperly or they got it out of the thin 
air? 

Reverend McMichael. I am not charging it was used improperly, 
but I do not recollect. It may have been used improperly. I want to 
give you an honest answer. 

Mr. Scherer. We want to have one. 

Reverend McMichael. A what? 

Mr. Scherer. An honest answer. 

Mr. KuNziG. The National Federation for Constitutional Liberties 
was cited as subversive and Communist by Attorney General Tom 
.i^l^ m letters to the Loyalty Review Board, released December 4, 
1947, and September 21, 1948. 

Here is something further : 

Part of what Lenin called the solar system of organizations, ostensibly having 
no connection with the Communist Party, by which Communists attempt to 
create sympathizers and supporters of their program. * * * (It) was estab- 
lished as the result of a conference on constitutional liberties held in Washing- 
ton, D. C. June 7-9 1940. * * * the defense of Communist leaders such as Sam 
Darcy and Robert Wood, party secretaries for Pennsylvania and Oklahoma have 
been major efforts of the federation. 

That was cited by Attorney General Francis Biddle in the Con- 
gressional R ecord of September 24, 1942, at page 7687. 

conterence on constitutional liberties held in Washingtol D £ June 7-9 1940^^ * ^ * 
The defense of Comniimist leaders such as Sam Darcy and Robert Wood nar'tv secretaries 

Ac vi«e^' SvTmTcI 2I %fT'".r''^*, ^^'-7': /«P«"^I Commit'lel on Un-AmeHca^ 
January 2, 1943, pp^9 and 12) "' ' *" """'^^ ^° ''^^'''^^' •^"°' ^^' ^^^^^ P' ^^ : and 

^^f' 4P°°? ?, y^^^^. ^^ organizations" which were "spawned for the alleeed ournose of 
from anf penal lerurdeV^tfe"?^'..''?^ ""*"''"y ^-^f^S^^^ *« protect CommSt sKrIion 
Reporri^o.^SlK September^ mz, ^^ongress.onal Committee on Un-American Activities. 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 



2733 



I wanted to refer to Sam Darcy because of the next exhibit that is 

coming up. . , 

Then this National Federation for Constitutional Liberties goes on 
and is cited by the Special Committee on Un-American Activities 
and by this name and others. I now offer in evidence this document 
as exhibit No. 22. 

Mr. Jackson. It will be received. 

(Letterhead, National Federation for Constitutional Liberties, 
dated September 11, 1940, and press release were received in evidence 
as McMichael exhibit No. 22.) 

McMICHAEL EXHIBIT NO. 22 
(Part 1) 



NATIONAL FEDERATION 



Foe 



CONSTITUTIONAL LIBERTIES 



I4IO H Str»et, N. W. 

Roomt lOO — 102 

WMhiogtoo, D. C. 
TtUphorw: Nitlonal 7721 



Soptember llf 1940. 



VICE04AIIMEN 

Malcolm Cotton Doau 



Alpuo K. SntD 

Nrf YDrt, N. Y. 

Max Ybkgan 

«»«■ York. N. Y. 

tXiOrnvt COMMTTTEE 

JoirFH Cluan 
N«. Y^t, N. Y. 

BCtTHA Jo 
Nfw Yc 

lOSSPH GELDBBS 
TrmiinlU. AU. 



ABRAHAM USEBMAM 



Geobcb Marshall 

Nt<t York, N. Y. 

Rabbj MOSBS MILLBB 
N«« yor4. S. Y. 

Michabl Quill 

Nmt Yort. N. Y. 

MOBBI9 WaTBON 
N«w York. N. Y. 



TREASL'Uai 

Benjamin Allen 
SECRETARY 

EVB DUDO 
EXECUTIVE SECRTTARV 

Milton N- Keunitz 



ACTION L8TTia 

Subjejt: Attae^ts at Intimidation of Antl-Oonsorlptlon Lobbyists 
Sltuation l Mounting popular resentment against coAserlptlon has talc* 
en the form of a people's march on Oapltol Hill. Tiie number of 
antl-oonaorlptlon lobbyists representing organizations and oonm- 
unities the country over grew last weelc to thousends. Becoming 
desperate, draft proponents are attempting to beat down this oppo- 
sition with clubs and by intimidation, Polloe haTej 

1, ATrested clergymen and assaulted partioiponte In an antl-oon- 

• scriptlon devotional sorvioe on the oapltol steps. 

2, Arrested a number of persons for distributing loaflats, 

3. Ordered automobile drivers to raoove from their oars signs op- 

• posing conscription. 

4. Ordored Individuals to ranove from their persons badges mark- 
. od "anergenoy Peoca Mobilization." 

n»e National Tederation for Constitutional tibarties hast 

1, Brought suit against offending authorities to stop these un- 
. lawful act*. 

2. Publishod the onolosad lerflot. 
ACTION ; 

1, Wire or write the following at Washin/^ton P.O .dammding that 
they stop their unlawful and violent attacks on civil rlghtst 



M^Jor Brnost W. Brown 
Superintendent of Polioa 

Kolvlr C. HataA 

J. Russell Young 

Col, David- McCoach, Jr. 
Commlsslonern of the 
District of Columbia 



Hon. Clesley W. Jumoy, 
Sor.rGont-at-Arma , 
United States Senate 

Fr.-'xcis 7. Glllen 
Acting Superintendent of Parks 
U.S. Dope.rtment of Interior 



2. Distribute, post ?\nd roprint the enclosed leaflet. Qucntltloa 
of the 'loaf let and mats of the picturo m.y be o^oalnod lv wir- 
ing us. 



BTORTANT ; 

Rush funds to the Nation'^l yodor^tlon for Constlta+inn.-.i. Liberties 
N07; for 'the fight for froedom of speoch and assembly In the Nation's 
Capitol . 



2734 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 



McMICHAEL EXHIBIT NO. 22 





(Part 2) 






^ponAorA 




Dm. ThoumAbou 
Ssa Frtweuco, Calif. 


GoLME Eavm 
PAiUJelfku. P*. 


Aliut Maltz 
Umg ItUmd City. Ntm York 


0>C4> Atoawsu 
OiUiema Cay. Okf*. 


EUUEE O. FUIUIABU 

CleveUwJ, Ohio 


Clifford T. McAvot 
Nem Yark, Nam York 


KoaiHU AirmDMT 
iphKgtuU, Mm. 


lOfMAEI. p. FU>«T' 

Chngo, 111. 


Looa F. MoCabi 
PUladelphm, Pa. 


E1.MEB BbNION 

Appleum, Uinn. 


Sara B.otD Field 
Los Caioi, Calif. 


Dr. ). J. McClrmdon 
Detroit, MUh. 


rioM. John T. Bunjuib 
EriUih, Uim. 


MiTcmu. Feankun 
New Orlrant. L*. 

D«. HaEKT J. G«tENE 

PhiMelpha. Pa. 

Mart Folit OiMOf an 
PUIadelpha. Pa. 


Pbof. H. J. McFarlan 
Ann Arbor, Mich. 


HusuT BnuiAN 
MtJfywvoJ, CsUU 


\^ New York, New York A 


Loon P. BiitK 
Nem VorK. Vw York. 


Tom Moonet 

San Framc'tcp, Calif. 


Dk. EmNfT P. BoAi 
Ktm Vork.. Ntw Vork 


PnoF. Ma»ion Hathwat 
Pitulmrgi, Pa. 


Harvit O'Conno* 
Chuago, III. 


twor. FuNZ^OAS 

New York. New York 


P«OF Melville J. Heiskovhs 
Epantion, III. 


William L. Patterson 
Chicago, m. 


Dit. HiKST BniT 
Kingitom. Nem York, 


Chaelu H. HourroN 
Wathinglon, D. C. 


Prof. D. W. Prall. 
Cambridge, Mast. 


Us. Ctautt L BaovH 
Phttittfkia, Pemn. 


Daniel Howaud 
Windsor, Conn. 


Harold J. PurciOTT 
StaiiU, Wash. 


P*or. Hasolo Chapman Biiown 
Me Alto. Calif. 


foEL D. Hunter 
Chicago, III. 


Hon. Iooth H. Raihfy 
Philadrlphia, Pa. 


\aarH Caooin 
Nem York, Nem York 


Rockwell Kent 
Aiuatle Fork'. New York 


Prof. Wrlter Ractrnitrauch 
New York. New York 


Rucs£U. N. Chau 
CUreUtad. Ohio 


Carol King 

New York. New York 


Rertha C. Retnouk 

Long Island City. New York 


Hon. John M. Coffee 
Congrestman from WtsUtiglon 


Edhako Laui 
Toledo. Ohio 


Donald Qcoen Stewart 
Carmel, Calif. 


Miu.,W«LTi> Cora 
Gfrmtmiomm, P». 


JoUPH Lanot 

Newark, New lersey 


Mr*. Albrrt B. Tricrer 
Philadelphia, Pa. 


Davd DAvn 
rhiUJdpkie,P: 


Prof. Oliver W. Larux 
Nonkampion, Uass 


Saw. C Waloraum 
Philadelphia, Pa. 


yam P. Davu 
Waldugmn, D. C. 


Dr. M. V. LioF 
Philadelphia. Pa. 


Prof. Do«it A. Wilrerson 
WaiUagtoB, D. C. 


Ammetta M. Diinnmoi 
Ckictgo, III. 


Geosou Lloyd 

Clbeago. III. 


Rev. Edwin H. Wiuon 
Chicago, lU. 


Beuj> V. Dodo 
Nem York, Nem York 


Dr. RoRERT LoWENtTEIN 

Newark, New lerrey 


Ella Winter . 
Carmel, Calif. 


Jut— R. DOMTtOM 

HiltMpki: P*. 


Dr. W. L. Mahanct, |t. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 


Col. Charuer Erucini Scott W« 
Los Gatos. Calif. 


ROBUT W. DCICM 

Nem Ytrk, Nem York 


Prof. William M. Malimff 
Brooklyn, New York 


Art Young 

New York. New York 



McMICHAEL EXHIBIT NO. 22— Continued 

(Parts 3 and 4) 
For immediate release September 10, 19^0 

Suit a,?ainst the Commissioners of the District of Columbia, the Metropolitan 
Police Department, the Capitol Police, and the National Park Service and a num- 
ber of police officers was filed in the Federal District Court here *-"'!"" u_ -^ 
torneys of the National Federation for Constitutional Liberties on ) 
American Peace Mobilization and a number of individuals. 

The suit arose out of police action in arresting leaflet distributors 
allove the display of badges or buttons and banners on automobiles, t 
breaking up peaceful meetings and public prayers in the course i 
against passage of the Burke- W'adsworth bill nov? before Congress. 

The complaint, after citing numerous instances of illegal interfere; 
rights of free speech and assembly, asks for a preliminary and a pe 
junction against the Commissioners, Major Ernest Brown of the 1 
Dept , Chester W. Jurney, sergeant-at-arms of the U. S. Senate, Franc 
acting superintendent and director of the Natl. Park Service, Acti 
Robt. J. Barrett of the D. C. police, and a number of D. C. policemen. , 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2735 

The suit also asks for a test of the constitutionality of D. C. police regulations 
cited by the police in refusing to allow distribution of leaflets, wearing of badges 
and buttons, and exhibition of banners on automobiles. 

The police are charged in addition with using "force and violence to break up 
a peaceful meeting gathered on the steps of the Supreme Court to pray against 
passage of the conscription bill, and are accused of having "beaten, bruised and 
severely injured several of the plaintiffs." * , ^.u^ 

The meetings which were dispersed were entirely peaceful and lawful, the 
complaint declares, whereas the police "made no effort to preserve peace and to 
protect the plaintiffs in their peaceful activities, but attempted, rather, through 
force, threats, and violence to restrain the plaintiffs from continuing their 

lawful activity." . , ^, . i a. ^„ 

In conclusion, the complaint declares that the police have threatened to con- 
tinue arresting leaflet distributors, seizing and destroying leaflets, badges, ban- 
ners etc , breaking up peaceful and lawful meetings, and in general preventing 
the individual plaintiffs and the American Peace Mobilization from making their 
opposition to the conscription bill known to the public. ^ , ., ,. 

The suit was filed in the names of Rev. Owen A. Knox of Detroit, pastor, 
Bethlehem Methodist Church and chairman of the National Federation for Con- 
stitutional Liberties, Oliver Haskell of Seattle, field director, American Peace 
Mobilization, Howard Lee of Chattanooga, secretary, Southern Conference for 
Human Welfare, Rabbi Moses Miller of New York, chairman, Jewish Peoples 
Committee, Charles I. Stewart of New York, member, Descendants of the Ameri- 
can Revolution, and others. „_, ,. . ^ .V, 

Attorneys for the plaintiffs are Charles H. Houston, of Washington and Abra- 
ham J. Isserman of Newark, N. J. 

Mr. KuNziG. I have a document marked "McMichael Exhibit No. 
23," which is a photostatic copy of the Daily Worker of December 19, 
1940, pa^e 5, an article entitled "Free Sam Darcy, Educators and 
Writers Urge Olson." That is, of course, the same Sam Darcy just 
referred to in the words of Attorney General Francis Biddle. 

One of the signers or sponsors of this appeal to free Sam Darcy, 
among the names listed, is one Jack McMichael, American Youth 
Congress, New York City. 

I hand you this document marked "McMichael Exhibit No. 23" for 
identification and ask you if you did allow your name to be used, or 
lent your name to be used in an appeal to free Sam Darcy, noted 
Communist leader. 

(At this point Reverend Mc:Michael conferred with Mr. Donner.) 

Reverend McISIichael. Mr. Chairman, previously someone indi- 
cated that this December 19, 1940, issue of the Daily Worker had my 
name in this connection and I couldn't lay my hands on that publi- 
cation. I wanted to confirm what he said, and I see you have a photo- 
stat of it here. That is not necessarily accurate just because it is in 
the Daily Worker, though you seem to think so, Mr. Kunzig. 

Mr. Jackson. We understand it is not necessarily correct. We ask 
you whether or not it is correct and whether or not it is correct that you 
did join in such a movement. We are asking for some enlightenment. 

Reverend McMichael. On this Daily Worker? 

Mr. Jackson. That is right. 

Reverend McMichael. That is my name. 

Mr. Ktjnzig. Apparently none of the papers, the Daily Worker 
and others, are correct when they refer to you. 

J^everend McMichael. That is not correct. 

]\ [r. Kunzig. None of those papers referred to today. 

R.'iverend McMichael. It seems to me you have been selective. I 
liaveAi't noticed you bringing in the Washington Post or the— — 

Mr'. Jackson. The question is whether or not you did enter into such 
a pleai to free Mr. Darcy. 



2736 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

Reverend McMichael. Though I don't recall signing this or having 
my name on it, from the study that I made at the time that I referred 
to of the issue involved, it seemed to be a clear case of discrimination 
against the man, and so I have been against political discrimination 
as these other religious and professional leaders, many of whom are 
very distinguished men who signed it, were — ■ — 

Mr. Jackson. Yes, but to the point 

Reverend McMichael. I have no recollection of signing, but I 
certainly have been against political discrimination or discrimination 
against any child of God. 

Mr. Clardy. Would you deny that you did join in this movement? 

Reverend McMichael. My answer to that would have to be, if you 
want an honest answer, but I have no memory of it, I won't deny 
it or affirm it, either, because I have no memory of it, but I will 
affirm from my consideration of the case I find myself in the position, 
taken from an ethical and Christian point of view 

Mr. Clardy. Regardless of whether you actually signed something 
or joined the movement, was it your belief that what this recom- 
mends should be done? In other words, was that in agreement with 
your outlook and philosophy ? That is independent of anything you 
have in writing anywhere. 

Mr. Jackson. I think the witness stated that was in general accord 
with his philosophy at that time. 

Mr. Clardy. I understood 

Reverend McMichael. People put in jail for the same length of 
time 

Mr. Clardy. My question is, Were you in sympathy with the move- 
ment ? 

Reverend McMichael. I don't remember being at the time, but as 
I have looked into it now as the issue was, I think it seems to be, from 
the Christian point of view I don't think we ought to favor that. 

Mr. Jackson. Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. KuNziG. Now, this document, McMichael exhibit No. 23, that 
we have just been discussing, which contains an appeal to free Sam 
Darcy, Communist leader, I will offer in evidence as McMichael exhibit 
No. 23. 

Mr. Jackson. Admitted. 

(Photostatic copy of Daily Worker, December 19, 1940, p. 5, article, 
"Free Sam Darcy, Educators and Writers Urge Olson," was received 
in evidence as McMichael exhibit No. 23.) 

Mr. KuNziG. I have a document marked "McMichael Exhibit No. 
24," sir. Call for a National Action Conference for Civil Rights, 
sponsored by the National Federation for Constitutional Liberties, 
the same organization referred to as a cited Communist-frc ' ^^o-an- 
ization. 

This call to this conference of April 19 and 20, 1941, lists a; 
Jack McMichael, New York, N. Y. 

I hand you this document, McMichael exhibit No. 24, ar 
sir, if you were a sponsor for this conference called by 
Communist- front organization. 

Reverend McMichael. Mr. Chairman, never having be 
ber of the Civil Rights Congress, and the call to this meet 
refers to, Mr. Chairman, giving no indication at all that a 



nAll.V WORKKR. NKW YORK. THIRSOAY, nKCEMBER 19, 1910 



HcHICHAH. EXHIBIT BO. 23 



Page 5 



Froo Shiii llarev. EfliicatorN siiiil Writers Urge OInoiiI^ 



the hei 



. f^%\Ti Vilo Mkrocntcnlo: 
..»;» Shiuitllii UioAtriral pro-' 

■■■ I'-' ■" D-hi'.ld C?ri?n S;pr.-Rrt, p -- 

iriwit. L#aB']p of Ammcnn W. ; ■ 
ulii^rt b\ ■"** Han.', f-tio Stirm. author 



'tifr 



:ha 



rgeti 



in no *«>■ Rff«cl«d I 

us n voi<T. 1 

- . <<i Uieir ft.\afruon thai' 

.. ■it'' updm of dK-rUnlJift- 

t^f^ (It*" Lhe 6t«'emmt ol 

■*■ Wrtu flitornej'-RFneral ol ' 

<- AiUorniR in \9U. that 250,000 faloe 

voirr's re;i-irntlons wfrf made in i 

that year. \c' no pmaecuttons werei 

ordered 

"Mm. ri)3rlr<k (i. Johnaon. sUtc 

Irr urT <*r fj!lfornl». ■ the lelWr • 

Myt. "pitred on hli rrcl&tratlon 

irrllficr.> loi thr vfar 1932 pr*- 

'l«e)v (hr sarnt Insrruracy rhftrjcrd 

Darry. Quite properly. 

on. Mr. Johnson was not ; 

rthkh tU offkial* hare prowruled. ' j 

i*nr\\ |« uplielil. The full liM of ctgnera follows: j 

"We nt%t ynu to dlMnUft the Or ThDmat Addii S(«ntord Unucrtity. > 
rhftrcf- acain^t Mr. Sam Adami ^^^'i i'rVt.ot'.Tfo' c.ifr"!.'?!"' ^**"**'- 

'^"" IW»»td 8. Allfp.. Aiti". !(»»■ 

nn P^ul J Alturea Ki 
THK >*1(;NERS I M«* Rob-ni* Anth^ 



- - r Bftvpf Nf« Yii, . . 
S Bnjer. MllliK..) L*i.. 

Brft»-n riiilBd'Iptil*. ri 
■...n Biawn, rior, M l-n;:- 

Bromn. tipptr M<micl4iT, H»« 
U«ln Berry Burium, N«« Y<rrk 
id Mr. CharUi L. Cftrh*ri. Ch>%y 



, niinou. 
I N OhkJC. 



™r: 



Uiitvrrsity nt ii. 



Joierh Of!dfr» aouth 



WliWft. 



■h<»liriti 



I \ r lh..| Ihr SUIr of 
Ihev wrote, "if It ron- 
ke «urh dbrrlminatory 
il Ihf Uw. pliirM our 
;i jrop.irdy and under- **' 
iistklutinn of Ihr t nitcd 



IibM Connelly 
Infbn Council. La 



f>l«rin H Ooodrll, Jr Bation. M«». Prol 

Ro^f>tt Ci'Man Orkdr. CleveUnd. t)r v 

n";.*.;: ». H>ni Prr.,(tent. Mt I'rnl 

ipll H«mnn-ti Au'.Snr. N»* York Brcokly 

tKinald Httringion. Chloio. Itll* York 

' IHvit H»yM. Hut York Cliy Yiik C 



'. jLandPs Ckifyman. Chirttr 

V. Leof. Ph)l*prlphi4. P»nnt>yl 

I tievrer, Ne* Vork Cily 

k Liebman. AM«rn«y, Chiett' 

objrt Low«n»l*ln, Newark. Nt" 

• rnrtl* Uoyd. Cmc«KO. Illiri'Jii. 
'« H LuKomb, Srookhnr. Mkmi 

ETjicn? W. LvoiKn. S«cat Brlai 

Iplfii Mfrrrtl Lynd. 8Hr*h La* 
,\t%t. BroDKVllle. New Vofk. 
£ MKhkiiey, it , PhiUdelphK 



A'tlllt. 



Rev Georce 

.Mariir p4ui«. 

M C Pe:i 
P Peiei 

New fl»vei>. Conn 
Pickens. NitiK 



t^M Aas«lei>. Call 



AiAOciaciOii 



Madikfvn. 



Ovr> 



«( Rrlenet. P^lyieehiiic Instiime. Rslph RoMi 

ft New York, PrCf " 

M»1U. New York Univeijiiy. Naw ony Ei 

RoHalle Manoirif. Preti 



Koie E>-hrei>lei 



, Uichii 



Col«Ted Penple, ' 
Rer Dr Edwin MoNirll Potest. C\t\r- 

Bishop Willi Bm P RemmiMn, Penrtle- 
too. Orecoiv 

Mlu er^(^a C. Reynold!. Lone l«l>nd. 
New Yeik 

Piof Beinnid P Rte*i. Htinter Coll«|r. 
Nrw York Cily 

P(6( WDIlBm Oarbun Ricr. 

Wisconsin. 

i-r. Amhor. New York Ci!) 
PrCf Edward A Ro.M. PrOf Of S-icl-^i 

ifhtj, Ccmnii'tri 
from Peniuylvd 
York Ptof. vida D Swuddei. wellettry Col- 



Nfw York. 



SpilntAeld. 



Uni- 



l«p. 



A f\Y 



Irvrv 



:ip[V*' 



niM 



:»r. Ptiiladftpliia. 
H;%. R«p>d City. 

■ rd. N**- York 
. I. PhiUdelphti. 
rtienloiicAl Sem- 



IIRONX MISK C ENTKR 

VI«TOK IIMOKIIK 

PAT I. Rnnr^nN "*[,V* 



RKDl CTIONS II* TO 50 „ 



n. Lake «i»f' 

Phiii 

Editor. re 



Maithr- Bradv nf San F'mi-.c ;,. 

Stfnorv .ijc;udr Oswald Garrifir.n "p"^ 
VUlard. BiCirp WilUam P Riming- > . 

ton. Pendlf.on. Ore : CUIfocxl T, ^"^'J 

UtAvo)-. Deputy Oomml&stoner. New kk*. 









>»ri Ciild PhH»«-iph.a. Penu- 


Ner • 




Abi?i.-m I.,wrni*i. .N» 


**i*. .S>» Jf:- 


J.. 


•. MrMlcher!. American Youth Cnn- 


HeiEl.i. P:' 










Nr* York CllT 








Afierte*. CaiKlT- 


.,^,', 


ce Mlninn. Wiiiar. Hrstpott. Con- 


Randolph 


for Teathe 


Or Elsie Vo«rhi'» Joni 


BfhMl nf'sn- 








ih SpoftPr 




. Slata Unitat- 






Inr IndkStf 


Il Dem«<r( 


iBiiy. Columbus, Oblo, 




jMain 




I Alfred K. 


Btcin. Hiw 



La <'2i^iiai 

K > K fl Y T II I > <• 



Iv (tItr.BMINC. ITS 

T II N M. H I : 
EnliriainmriK 

S l» A\ I S H 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2737 

tion of that kind was going to be organized as a result of it, but rather, 
speaking in terms of the defense of civil liberties for all Americans, 
along with many distinguished presidents of universities, such as Ben- 
jamin E. Mays, once a president of the Council of Churches in Mis- 
souri 

Mr. Jackson. All of the names will appear in the record. 

Reverend McMichael. Professor Boas — I did sign. I investigated 
that and have evidence that I did sign the call. There was no indica- 
tion the organization would come out of it, and I have never been a 
member of the organization. 

Mr. Jackson. But the answer to the question is that you did sign 
the call? 

Reverend McMichael. I signed the call, which didn't indicate the 
organization would be formed, but the call I will stand by it and I 
read it with many distinguished people and I was proud to be in their 
company. 

Mr. KuNZiG. I offer in evidence this McMichael exhibit No. 24, 
Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Jackson. It will be so received. 

(Photostatic copy of call, National Action Conference for Civil 
Rights, April 19-20, 1941, was received in evidence.) 



2738 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMlCHAEL 



McMIOHAEL EXHIBIT NO. 24 
(Part 1) 



CALL 

national 

A C T I O N 

conference 



for QwiL (llaJtti 

APRIL 19-20 
HOTEL HAMILTON 
WASHINGTON, DC 



National Federation k^ Constitutional Liberties 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2739 

McMICHAEL EXHIBIT NO. 24 
(Part 2) 

*********** ****** 



"Aa Blaclzfud o/ Qiod RiCfkU! 



// 



EVERYWHERE throughout America the people have swung into action in defense of 
their civil rights. There is deep and mounting indignation at the attacks on Constitu- 
tional liberties. 

These ottocks are directed at the people — in homes, in factories, on farms, in organiza- 
tions. They are directed against freedom of speech, press and assembly; the right to 
organize and bargain collectively; the right to privacy of membership lists; the right to 
vote as you please; the right to freedom of worship and opinion. They are carried on with 
police violence and vigilante intimidation. 

These attacks are initiated or supported, in many instances, by agencies of federal, 
slate and local government. Other assaults, less direct but more subversive of the people's 
sovereignty, are governmental proposals for mediation, arbitration, super-labor tribunals 
on a "voluntary" basis. 

In Congress, now ready for enactment are bills on wire tapping; universal fingerprint- 
ing; repeal and drastic amendment of the National Labor Relations Act; outlawing closed 
shops; prohibiting strikes; deportation or concentration camps for aliens; outlawing 
minority parties; life imprisonment for "treachery"; death sentence for "sabotage"; and life 
imprisonment for advocating changes in government. 

In 43 state legislatures, similar bills or worse, are under consideration. 

In the face of these attacks, the people have refused to give ground. They have 
moved forward, .strong and unyielding, in defense of our American liberties which the 
iorces of reaction, under the cloak of war hysteria, would destroy. 

From coast to coast come reports of successful action: 

% New organizations to defend civil liberties are springing up. 

• State-wide conferences to defend civil rights are being organized. 

# From thousands of people come mass protests. 

Everywhere the fight for civil rights, though different in detail, in essence is the same. 
The time has now come to pool our experiences and ideas. Systematic strategy is required 
on a national scale to defend Constitutional liberties. 

Therefore, the National Federation for Constitutional Liberties is calling a National 
Action Conference on Civn. Rights. This is a conference, not for talk, but to plan and act. 
The masses of the people demand, "Wo blackout of civil rights!" 



National Federation for Constitutional Liberties 

1410 H Street, N. W. — NAtional 7720 — Washtnatoa, D. C. 
"the; way to keep free speech is to SPEAK" 



2740 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 



McMICHAEL EXHIBIT NO. 24 
(Part 3) 

PROGRAM 

Registration— Hamilton Hotel, Gold Room 9:30 a.m. 

Chairman— REVEBEND OWEN A. KNOX, Chairman, National Federation tor Constitutional Liberties 
Roll Call of the States 10:00-10:30 

Report of the Secretary 10:30-11:00 

ACTION MEETINGS 

Thi« is a Conference to plan effective oclicn in defense ol civil rights. The Action Meclinga, 
without formal &p*«cheB. will center discuuion on the roost pieasinq civil rights issues today, 
la them the delegates must play the leading part. Out of them will come clear-cut. workable 
plans in meeting the issues .•••. •••«••• 

Rights of Franchise 11-12:30 

Labor's Rights 2:00- 3:30 

Racial Discrimination 3:30- 5:00 

Satwidatf. Coe*u*Uf. 
Open House to Delegates— Hosts: Washington Committee lor Democratic Action 8:30 p.m. 

Sundoif. Mon*tiH^, ^p4*l 2.0 
ACTION MEETING 

Freedom of Speech, Press and Assembly 10:30-12:00 

Su*tda4f. A^e/utoo*t 

PLANS FOR ACTION— Immediate and Long Range 2:00- 4:00 

On Issues: Plans ior action, growing out oi the Action Meeting, will be submitted for 

discxission and decision. 
On Organization: Plans for more effective organization of forces, nationally and locally, 

will be submitted. 

MASS MEETING— National Pbess Club Auditorium 8:15 p.TO. 

Ayxspices'. Washington Committee for Democratic Action 
Speakexs: Edwin S. Smith 

Member, National Labor Relations Board 

Clifford T. McAvoy 

Deputy Commissioner of Welfare. New York, City 

Mtmdtuf, /ipAit 3.f 

Delegates will visit their Congressmen and Senators on legislation 

affecting Civil Rights 9:30 a.m. 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 



2741 



McMICHAEL EXHIBIT NO. 24 
(Part 4) 

National Federation for Constitutional Liberties 

OFnCERS 



«:nAlKM.\N 


1 \hCtll\l i.u.MMIiJ^ 


1 FoWAftb l.\MK 


Rn. \Vm. B. SpuffuU 


Ki\. (JwiN A Kn.>\ 


\llCt BARitU\>> . 


Toledo. 0/uo 


Middletown. N. 1. 


Dell oil. M„/i. 


WMhiitpom. U. C. 


llt»T LAMSCtrUN 


MOHAIA Wation 


\ li ICIMIRMKN 

|iA,P,.,NET.HIU« A...M. 

I'liihdtipiiiit. r,i. 


|.,>LPM CL..AN 

Wk' Vor^. .V 1 . 
Ht-HTIIA JOSSEL^S loss 

Sew York. \ V 


Watkmglou. D. C. 

K.»AL1E MaMNIM. 

Sen' York. N. V. 


New York. N. V. 

hBAKCEl WiLLlAMA 

New York, N. Y. 
Nathan Witt 


M\H.01.M Col TON ll'ibl.- 


ImlPH GELOtX 

TniitviUe. .11.7 


liLUtCE MaBAHALL 


Ncm York. N. Y. 


('Lmninoofia. 1 fun. 


New York. N. Y. 


Rtv. Paul S. Wbicmt 


IIOV. VlT.lMARt.M 


tJIAS. GflAlttM 


KtBm Mu>u Mui.iA, 


OkUJioma City. Okla. 


i.orsrriininn horn \,„ >„.. 
< ,«iv McWnii.MN 


WASHIFtL Haxisii I 1 


Vw York. N.gY 

O M. 0«TOK 


TREASURER 


Ims Aniilei. CiitiJ 


Wf«' Vork. V. v. 


Snale. Wik. 


Blnjaamn Allan" 


SiiKii. K Srrio 


I'l \llt. M. Kami 


Michael Quill 


MXRETARY 


.\V„- V„,t. .V. V 


C* rjjo. ///. 


.Vf» York. K. V. 


Em BlTW 


Max ^liio>n 


\MIMIAM l»IIIM,N 


I'AOF. ROBFJIT K. SpEEK 


UXECimVE StCKEI ARV 


V,i, V.it \ \. 


\V„v>r«. V / 


Vfii York. N. V. 

SPONSORS 


MiiTon N KFMviri 


1). lllOMA. AUU,. ^ 


I..1IN V. LlA>.» 


Rockwall Kfm , 


f |>^A MuMlULAAL ^ 


\^ti Fraanicn. C>tti/ 


Waihnilon. U. I'. 


Aiuotlr Fork). N. V. 1 


L New York. N. Y J 


lA.Mt AMfKtN'.l H 


AVMTTA M. Dli. kvn-is - 


Caaol KlMC 




itt^Ufionij Cm ny 


Cliieago. lit. 


inw'",.?!!,,''^ 


San Fnmcino. CiiliU 


K..„1M, ASTIIOM 

•^yringfield. A/... | 
1 IMEII nFNS<.V 


11.1 l.A \' DODU 

V,-.. York. V > 
l>MM R Dl»irwv 


Toledo. Ohio 
l"kFPii Landy 


Mabvey O'Consoa 
Ciinvo, W. 


Iprleloti. Mum. 


rlnlidelphia. P.,. 


\>i«<.*, ,V /. 


William L. PattaB90># 


II'.M luMM T. UlUvtlci 


KOBERI W. DtKS 


I'AOF. OlIVLA W. I.>«a\ 


Chicago. III. 


Prr/wit. \/,n. 


New York. N. \. 


\ortliaiilpton. Ma*.. 


Harold ). Paitchett 


llFK.tKT Hll.^M.N 


'<;.)L01E ElVIN 


U«. M. V. Leoi 


SeatUe. Wash 


Hollyin ;! Calil 


Philcdelfhu,. l-y 


Philadelphio. P.i^ 


Hon. Joseph H. Rainat 


f.oi.is !• Rink 


llME.O FF11L11a1.>« 


(.FoAciA Lloyd 


PUadelfhu. Pa. 


W.. Vijr< .V y. 


CleiehiiJ, 0/ti" 


CUcoto. III. 


Paof. Walter Raute.nitrai. 


I)«. l-fuNsr I' IIOA. 


I>11M\EL p. FlO»| 


lift. RoSEftT LoWANklilS 


.V<»' York. N. Y. 


Wii. Vnrt. .V \ 


C/iic«gu, III. 


Newark. ^- /■ 




IV.K F«^^/ Hu,. 


ll.IA«tl.lCtKllV hl.>K, 

W.,. York, N. y 


llnS-. ROIEAT MoftAS Lu\L1X 

%i. Thomas. Virgin lil^^W 


bLATMA C. ReY-NOLIM 

t/>»» liland City, N. V. 


li« IUn.v Hum 


NsKA BaU) Field 


RoAEftT W. MacGaeco/ 


LlONALO OCDEN STCYPART 


Kinsiloii. .V ^ 


Imi Gitloi. Catij 


PortlamJ. Ore. 


BeieHy Hilli. Call/. 


Dk Ctotui L M«..„N 


M.TCIIEIL F.A.-.KL1N 


IM. W. L. Mahanay, (ft. 


Mrb. Albert B. Tbickfr 


rM.,Jrlpl,i.,. P« 


\rw Orlmitt. U. 


Pkiladelpkia. Pa. 


Pkiladelphi.i. Pa. 


ril"l IKHOLU CllM M<S llllM» 


I» Hamv J Galium 


I'.OF. WiLLLAM M MaLiJ^F 


Saul C W.ldbaum 


i:,l.. Alw. r.,l,i. 


rhiladelphui. Ph. 


BrooVyB, N. V. 


Philadelphia. Pa 


("Ol'li i:ai.imv 


MaKV I'OLty CftOUklAN 


Al BEAT MaLTI 


l-ROF. DOALV A. WlLKlRxlV 


Vrn Vor*. .V V 


r/iilHdelf/uj. Pi. 


Long tdand City. N. Y. 


Waihingion. P. C. 


Kim/li N Cm»»i 


I«..,.MaiiiosHatm».y 


ILIFFOAOT.MCAVOY 


Rev. Eotto H. Wiiiov 


CIri-flitnJ. Ohtn 


Pittilntrgfi. Pt. 


New York. N. V. 


Chicago. III. 


Iriii, C.<D, 


I'mor. Melville ). H...»ov 


n- I.OLU F. MoCasi , 


LiLA Winter 


/.onf ;//jn</. :*^V 


ULimion. III. 


PkiladelpkiM. Pai 


BeatHy HiU*. Calil. 


Mm-WaltliCopi 


Chajllea. H. HOUSTUA 


IJ.. I. ). McCuhoonI 


CoL. Chauju £raai?(E Scon 


GfrmaHtOM'H. Pt. 


WmhintKn. D. C. 


Demit. Mick. 


Los Gatos. Caiif. 


lUvio Davii 


Pamel HoWAtO 


I'Aop. H. ). McFablan 


Art Yoetnc 


PMcirlfkiM. r* 


H'indror. Conn. 


Amm Arier. Ukk. 


New York. N. Y. 



CREDENTIAL 



Nam* oi Organisation 

AddiMai StTMt 

Nam* oi Dologol* or O b i T ot 



-. jaty aad Stat* 



CUy and Slot* 



.tot w q U tecttoo oi $\M par panon. S- 



. coeMbutloe tewqrd'wrpwMi ol eoaianac*. 



NATIONAL FEDERATION for CONSTITUTIONAL LIBERTIES 

1410 H StTMt N. W .- . . Phone NAtioncd 7720 WcaUngtoiiA D. C. 



2742 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

Mr. Jackson. Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. KuNziG. May I have just a minute? 

Reverend McMichael. Mr. Chairman, will the contents of the Call 
go into the record, and all of the people that signed it ? I assume that 
will be a part of it? 

Mr. KuNziG. The whole thing will be in the record. 

Mr. Jackson. Yes, the entire Call will go in. 

Reverend McMichael. And the signers ? That will show there is 
nothing about the civil-rights signers in the Call. 

Mr. KuNziG. It will show the names of all those who signed, whether 
they were members of subversive groups or duped by subversive groups, 
all the names mentioned. 

Reverend McMichael. That is right, but there is no mention of the 
Civil Rights Congress. 

Mr. KuNziG. We will come to that. There is plenty on that, as 
you know very well. 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Chairman 

Mr. Jackson. Proceed. 

Mr. KuNziG. I will return to the Committee To Defend America by 
Keeping Out of War,^^ and I have a photostatic copy of a letterhead 
of the Committee To Defend America by Keeping Out of War, dated 
August 10, 1940, which lists Jack McMichael, chairman of the Ameri- 
can Youth Congress, as a sponsor. 

I have this document marked "McMichael Exhibit No. 25" for identi- 
fication, and I hand it to you and ask you, sir, whether you v/ere, as 
listed on that letterhead, a sponsor of the Committee To Defend 
America by Keeping Out of War? 

(At this point Reverend McMichael conferred with Mr. Donner.) 

Reverend McMichael. Do you see my name ? 

(At this point Reverend McMichael conferred with Mr. Donner.) 

Reverend McMichael. I am looking for my name. 

Mr. KuNziG. It appears on the reverse side, a list of sponsors. 

(At this point Reverend McMichael conferred with Mr. Donner.) 

Reverend McMichael. Yes, I see that it appears. I don't — let's 
see, August 1940 

Mr. Chairman, I was certainly for keeping America out of war in 
1940 ; that is what it was 

Mr. Jackson. Well, fine, but were you in the organization? 

Reverend McMichael. I don't know. I have no evidence. I could 
look into that and try to find out. I would want the record to show 
factually where my memory fails me. I don't have any memory of 
it because this has never been brought to my attention. Some things 
had been — the Call ; I looked into it and — I was in favor of keeping 
America out of war right up to Pearl Harbor, and that included 1940, 
so I certainly favored that. 

Mr. Jackson. You have no present recollection of being in the 
organization ? 

Reverend McMichael. No ; I have none ; that is right. I suppose 
sometimes people's names are used inaccurately. 



" Committee to Defend America by Keeping Out of War : 

1. "After Stalin signed his pact witti Hitler, the Communist-led Committee to Defend 
America by Keeping Out of War * * * came forth to oppose the national-defense program, 
lend-lease, conscription, and other 'war-mongering' efforts." It initiated the American 
Peace Mobilization (Special Committee on Un-American Activities, report, March 29, 
1944, pp. 99 and 105). 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2743 

Mr. Clardy. This is an instance in which, I take it, you are unable 
to deny what the document represents as the fact ? 

Keverend McMichael, I neither deny nor confirm that it is a fact. 

Mr. Clardy. My question is : You are unable to deny what is stated? 

Reverend McMichael. I state both — I neither deny nor affirm it. 
I add a little bit ; I was in favor of keeping America out of war, so it is 
a possibility. 

Mr. Clardy. Since you were in sympathy with what this document 
represents 

Keverend McMichael. Practically all people were for keeping 
America out of war. 

Mr. Clardy. Now, if you want to remain in this hearing room I 
advise you to be respectful. 

Reverend McMichael. I am here because you subpenaed me, sir. 
That is why I am here. 

Mr. Clardy. My question here 

Mr. Jackson. Just a minute. There will be no personalities be- 
tween the witness and committee members on any occasion and under 
any circumstances. 

Proceed with the questioning. 

Mr. Clardy. Now, Witness, since you have indicated you are in 
sympathy with the objectives covered by the document in question, 
is it not probable that it correctly reflects the fact that your name 
was used with permission ? 

Reverend McMichael. Mr. Chairman, that doesn't tell you much 
about the organization. It is just the title of it. I would have to 
know a lot more about that before — from the title of it 

Mr. Jackson. You cannot affirm or deny at this time whether or 
not you were a member of this organization ? 

Reverend McMichael. Not honestly. I am in favor of the title, 
but I don't know the rest of the organization. 

Mr. Jackson. Proceed. 

Mr. KuNziG. I offer McMichael exhibit No. 25 in evidence. 

Mr. Jackson. So received. 



2744 



HEARINGS REGARDENG JACK R. McMICHAEL 



(Photostatic copy of letterhead of Committee To Defend America 
by Keeping Out of War, dated August 10, 1940, was received in evi- 
dence as McMichael exhibit No. 25.) 



McMICHAEL EXHIBIT NO. 25 
(Part 1) 




COMMITTEE TO DEFEPAMERICii 

ey KEEPING DOT or 



mi.ii!m«"HVHiPiiiiimwjiijiijiiiwiMiwiyjwiiPww 



8..dg*po'r Cor,n,o.<v* 
REV C'OSS w AlEXANOfH 



Afiei MICHAEI *IF 
ISCAB AMEBlNGfR 



lomo C.' 



.ton Guo' 
f Olio 



wniiAM c ANDEBSON 
J CARITON BAUS 
BOIANO H SAINTON 



: f BAKER 



KAIHERINE H BABSOUa 

r w C * 
MAHRT ElMfB BARNES 
JEAN BEllEfEUUlE • 

MBS VICTOR I BERCER 
lEWlS AllEN BERNE 



BEv IMEODORt BOBOllf 
E C DE BRAIE 



IIHPORflR) OIIICiRS 



August 10, 1940 



Dear Brother nMsuttt 

MtSS PEABl M HART 

Each day the danger of America's Involve- Z' :h,"p°^,„„Z"l'i''to„°,"'t^'' 
ment In war teoomes mora Insnedlate. Tet we imcuuvi stc«nA»r 
all know that the American people do not want "'""""*" mcos 
war. 

On August 31, Septsmber 1st and 2nd, more than 20,000 delegates 
from all walks of life-labor, church, farm, youth, women, will ex- 
press this demand in an linergency Peace Mobilization, to be held in 
Chicago o-ver that Labor Day weekend. Prominent speakers such as 
Senator Nye, Senator Clark, Paul Robeson, Dr. Townsend and many others 
will participate, indicating the breadth and sveep of this aoveiiient. 

I „, In this mobilization, the American people will insist that the 
best defense is to keep out of war. They will express their deter- 
mination to protect labor standards, social welfare, civil liberties, 
and their opposition to any attempt at regimentation through con- 
scription. 

Surely we In the railroad Industry know from bitter eacperienoo 
what attacks are made during wartime on labor's hard won standards, 
its right to organize. We believe the labor movement has a great 
stake in the success of this Mobilization, which represents above 
all the working people of this country. 

r,o. This movement has no beiikers or munitions manufacturers behind 
it. Its money must come from those of us who want to keep America 
out of war. As representative of railway labor, we appeal to you to 

''" do what you can. No matter how small send us your contribution. It 
will help mobillEe America for peace. 



M. Gottfried, Vice Free., Onion Assn. Retired R.R. Birployees 
J. R. Quald, Ch. Bngr. , Lodge 406, Brotherhood of Loco. Engra. 
John L. Feldkerohner, Secy. Lodge #191, Brotherhood of R.R. Trainmen 
T. E. Casey, Asst. Ch. Conductor, Order of R.R. Conductors, Div. #46 



MOBILIZE fOR PEACE • CHl^^Qa; .AMQUST 31 -lEPI^ 2 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 



2745 



McMICHAEL EXHIBIT NO. 25 
(Part 2) 



THOMAS ( CASfT 

it . WitCOMMM Sfof« C0Mf«f«M« I 

S«ci«f i»gitlolion 
lt»tOlD CMIISIOFfEl - 



Miiir M coNNEiir 

■IV I N COMfMT 



HON MICHAll CtAn ' 

ttoralx. s< fix («<iil •! «U<>< 

CEIAID HAMIS 

Dt MAtlAN HATHAWAY 

l.,,^,.. So'Oo'r. A««.K<i» A 

MAS. AlVINA HATMAN 

G tmmhktt^ fotmtrt U«i««. Wn 

SOaOON M HIT ' 

w«fo<«aM Sfvf* EMpJ»]r«m An 



lOIEIt MOfISS lOVCTT 



(IMEt MAITT 

Co»"i.'. A > •) I . » 
ClIFEOBD T MtAVOY -* 



S J M<CAiIr 



iEID tOIINSON 

M>rr attd imth^t Worlivfi 



CHAtlES SCHWIESO, J« 



JOSEPH CUMAN 



•EV BUDTON SHErfAlO 
tEV H M SMITH ' 



ARCEtT DAllET 



C«'«b"d9«. Mdh 
JEHOmE DAVIS ' 



■ EV MAICOIM COnON DOMS 

£«t<wf>f« Stt'tiory, tcogwt o' Yovng 

iHAtlES DOIAINE * 

THEODOtE DIEISEI 
J T DUOIET 

S«« r '<•« >«<™iii«"'0. C«(i/ , InJuilnol 



NAOMI EILISON 

ClHK'mon. Nor.o.ol l.<f.l>r.«l Au.«bl: 

rwcA 

JULIUS EMSFAK 

S«<'>lorr Tr.oitir*/. Unrl«^ IhOf'tol 



COIDIE F EIVIN ' 

rtiilo. Co»K<'l, NsFioiKil Nigri 



AITHUR HUFF FAUSfT 
VADDIS FISHE* 
ABXAM FlAXEt 



ISHMAEl FLOtT. 

Clt'cogo Ce*n('', No'ionof N* 

■EV STEPHEN H FklTCHMAN 
f..cc4... D.r.cfo.. U^Mnon T 

MICHAEL GALAZAN ' 



iOSEPH F CELDEIS 



MICHAEL HOWASO 

Un.l«/ Conxor. Ag'ituKuio'. foil 
end Air.td Woftfrt oF A<T<«'Ka 

ELLIOTT JACQUES ' 

Pr«i . Nodono/ AuocwfioA o/ Mcrf 
Sl><<«><>i 

MCS FAITH JEFFEISON JONES 
Hull H»«n 
CFiXOgo. l»>noli 

MtS C S JONES 



nol Un,o« Council. 



*'»■>'> 



: M<M1CHAEI 



B£V O I MEaHITT -• 

S.".pio» M„hod„l < 

m.i.o.Im, W.u 

MBS AlBECT MILLEB 



BOCKWEIL «ENI • 

MABEL HOUK KING 

FLEMMIE C KITTBELl 

Dtan of Womafi. Btnn«»f Co"«9«. 
G'oxiboii N C 



BEV OWEN A KNOX 

Cft0"m9n. Nolienol CrrJ tighff 
Conl<rin<t 

HABBY KOGEB ' 

f..l.<<.n>. CoHon SfoXl Coi/«C<T. I/"* 
Cenntrf. Ag'icuJfvro/. locking Ond 



AlFBED G LABKE - 

• ^ol^ ll>>o> !•<»<•', 
iu«clo. N. Y. 



HOWABD LEE 



E STEVENSON 
S>c>rto.,. CI>.>lo: 
Cour.i.1 



EDWABC E STBONG 

Yo.il, Co-9.. 
0> D J STBUIK 



■ EV JAMES K mOBSE 
GEOBGE MUflPHY, JB 



. Soutfl.n C„„l,„ 



CEOBCE NELSON 



EOWABO NESTINGEN 

Cho.'non. Ptoo Co^nnuxon, NcHon 
Inl.xolligKil. ChMiI.on Couiol 

BEV EVEBETT PAIMEB P 



HARBIET PICKENS 

Noiicnol evxnvii en. 
Counol, YWCA 

HABPfB POUISON ^ 
l-n S.i..li.r,. U 



PBOFESSOa WALTEB BAUTENSTBAUCH 



J>«<ii«r* Negro 



KATHE8INE TEBBILl' 

Cou.t.l (o. Soj.ol Ao.on of fht 
Chr.it.ofi « Congragolwrtol Chwrch 

BEV JOHN B THOMPSON 

Normon. OLIoFiC^O 
JIM TULLT 



MOBBIS WATSON 
BEV HOBACE WHITE - 
PBOF OOKEY A WILKHSON 



SIDNEY WI^IAMS 

Ufbort L«ogw«. Sf tovil. Ma. 
BEV EDWIN H WILSON ' 

Ch.coge. Ml.^^il 

HUGH Wilson' 

S*<'r- Sw'f'«on CownFf IWwtfrivl 
Un.o.. Count.l 
COL CHABIES EBSKINE SCOH WOOO 



BEV JAMES BOBINSON.' 

P'.i.iF.nl. IqM S«I.<»i. N«I.<»ioF 
Auot.ol.on (or tk. Ad.< 
oF Colo'9d f^vpl* 



TImm irdividualt signtd in puivly personal capaciltes. Their organit 



DB MAX YEBCAN 

CFioiraiqn. No! orgf Nogro CoMfn 
WINIFBED WYCAl 



listed tor idcniiFtcofion only. 



Mr. KuNZiG. And I shall read, to give information to the witness, 
that this Committee To Defend America by Keeping Out of War, a 
specific committee so named, was cited by 

Reverend McMichael. Mr. Chairman 

Mr. KuNziG. Just a moment. 

Mr. Jackson. Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Reverend McMichael. This information 

Mr. KuNziG. After Stalin signed his pact with Hitler, the Com- 
munist-led Committee To Defend America by Keeping Out of War 
came forth to oppose the national defense program, lend-lease, con- 
scription, and other "warmongering" efforts. It initiated the Ameri- 



2746 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

can Peace Mobilization. It was so cited by the Special Committee 
on Un-American Activities. 

The California Committee on Un-American Activities said : 

Cited as "inspired and dominated by the Communist Party" and "created for 
the purpose of assisting Hitler during his pact with Stalin." It "cooperated 
with the German-American Bund to keep the United States from assisting Great 
Britain, France, and China" and it "preceded immediately the launching of the 
American Peace Mobilization." 

Those are official citations, sir, as listed in the Guide to Subversive 
Organizations and Publications. 

Keverend McMichael. Well, if that is true, if that citation is ac- 
curate I couldn't possibly have been sponsor because I am very much 
against some of the things he read there. 

Mr. Jackson. Do you now deny that you were a sponsor of that 
organization ? 

Reverend McMichael. No; I don't deny that. I simply say if 
that is true, sir, if that citation is accurate — I have no information on 
the organization that it was trying to help Hitler, and all that. 

Mr. Jackson. But as of this moment you neither confirm nor 
deny 

Keverend McMichael. That is right, the same as before. 

Mr. Jackson. Very well. Proceed, counsel. 

Reverend McMichael. I only know that stated things that I have 
opposed, and I am on record as having opposed, that is all, so I couldn't 
have given my name to it. 

Mr. Kunzig. Do you still have a copy, the photostatic copy of the 
letterhead 

Reverend McMichael. I never saw it, did I? I'll see; I'll look. 
I think I handed you that, Mr. Kunzig. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman, while we are waiting, there are a 
couple of dates I want to clear up, if possible. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Scherer. 

Mr. Scherer. Where did you say you attended the university ? 

Reverend McMichael. Emory University. 

Mr. Scherer. Emory University? 

Reverend McMichael. That is right. 

Mr. Scherer. Where is that? 

Reverend McMichael. It is a Methodist school in Georgia, right 
out of Atlanta. 

Mr. Scherer. And from what years to what years ? 

Reverend McMichael. I entered in 1933 and concluded in 1937. 
That is why this statement here is not only libelous and obviously rep- 
resents perjury because he states I was a member of the Young Com- 
munist League and I couldn't have been. 

Mr. Jackson. The decision as to perjury committed and when and 
where are not within the purview of this committee but other agencies 
of this Government. 

Reverend McMichael. I hope they will take into consideration that 
point. 

Mr. Scherer. Where were you living? 

Reverend McMichael. Quitman, Ga., was my home, but I was 
living at Emory University at the Sigma Epsilon fraternity house. 

Mr. Scherer. During those years were you ever out of the State 
of Georgia? 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2747 

Keverend McMichael. Was I ever out of the State of Georgia ? 

Mr. ScHERER. Yes. 

Reverend McMichael. Well, in the year of — ^yes, the answer to that 
is "Yes," because I was active in the YMCA, and we had in North 
Carolina every year in the summer, at Blue Ridge, a conference, Stu- 
dents' Christian Conference, that brought the YMCA and YWCA 
from college campus 

Mr. Jackson. Very well ; you have answered the question. 

Reverend McMichael. I wasn't confined to Georgia; I was not 
under arrest. 

Mr. ScHERER. Now, how long were your vacation periods during the 
4 years? 

Reverend McMichael. The normal vacation period. 

Mr. ScHERER. And during any of that time were you in the State 
of New York? 

Reverend McMichael. During any of that time was I in New York ? 

Mr. ScHERER. While you were at Emory University were you in 
theStateof New York? 

Reverend McMichael. Well, the National Intercollegiate Chris- 
tian Council meetings that I attended must have been held in New 
York. I could check on that. 

Mr. ScHERER. Must have been ? 

Reverend McMichael. Yes. 

Mr. ScHERER. Were you in New York City on a number of occasions 
during the time you were in school ? 

Reverend McMichael. What particular ones? 

Mr. Scherer. I am not asking about any particular times; I am 
asking whether or not you were in New York City during the time 
when you were a student at Emory ? 

(At this point Reverend McMichael conferred with Mr. Donner.) 

Reverend McMichael. Not in the period this gentleman talka 
about 

Mr. Scherer. I am not talking about what that gentleman talks 
about 

Reverend McMichael. That was quoted to me. 

Mr. Scherer. I am talking about the time you were a student at 
Emoiy University. 

Reverend McMichael. In the final year, in my senior year at Emory 
University I was chairman of the National Student YMCA, and that 
was the year that began in September of 1937, you see, and 

Mr. Scherer. That isn't my question, whether you were chairman 
of the YMCA. My question was, were you ever in New York City 
during the period that you were at Emory University ? 

Reverend McMichael. The only knowledge that I have of that 
would follow the September of 1937 when there would be committee 
meetings in New York, I am sure, of the National Intercollegiate 
Christian Council, that would have been a matter of a few hours for 
these committee meetings. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you now deny that you were in New York City 
at any other time than September 1937, during the time you were at 
Emory University? 

Reverend McMichael. No ; I don't deny that. 

Mr. Scherer. How many other times were you there ? 

S9125— 53 10 



2748 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

Reverend McMichael. Well, my dear sir, I can't answer a question 
like that. That is quite impossible. 

Mr. ScHERER. Quite often? 

Reverend McMichael. No ; not quite often at all. 

Mr. ScHERER. You were there at least five times ? 

Reverend McMichael. Are you making a statement or asking a 
question ? 

Mr. ScHERER. I say, you were there at least five times, were you not? 

Reverend McMichael. I don't know that I was there at least five 
times. 

Mr. Scherer. You wouldn't say that you weren't there five times? 

Reverend McMichael. Would you say — now, listen, that is really 
a silly thing. If you want me to look through the year — no, because 
that is a different year, you see. You are talking about my period at 
Emory, aren't you? 

Mr. Scherer. Yes. I think everybody else in the audience realizes 
I am talking about the period you were at Emory. 

Reverend McMichael. I have no assurance I was there five times. I 
was a Phi Beta Kappa in my junior year and did academic work, so 
I must have spent a good deal of time at Emory, and so I couldn't have 
been spending time in New York City during that period. I certainly 
did not. If I went at all it was only to attend a meeting for the day of 
the National Intercollegiate Christian Council, and there will be a 
record about that. They must have a record of those meetings as to 
just what the dates are. 

Mr. Scherer. That is all. 

Reverend McMichael. If you have some evidence I would be glad 
to hear it, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. I have evidence. 

Reverend McMichael. Present it to me. I would be glad to know 
what it is. 

Mr. Scherer. You answered what I wanted to know. 

Mr. Moulder. You made the statement 

Reverend McMichael. What is your name, sir ? 

Mr. Jackson. There is a question being addressed. This is Mr. 
Scherer, of Ohio ; Mr. Clardy, of Michigan ; Mr. Moulder, of Missouri. 

Mr. Moulder. You made the statement a few minutes ago that 
perjury had been committed against you on a charge made that you 
were a member of the Young Communist League. 

Reverend McMichael. In years I couldn't have been, that is right. 

Mr. Moulder. That is the point of my question. Why would it have 
been impossible for you to have been a member of the Young Com- 
munist League while attending school at Emory University ? 

(At this point Reverend McMichael conferred with Mr. Donner.) 

Mr. Moulder. You make the emphatic statement it would have been 
impossible to be a member for that reason, because you were attending 
Emory University at that time. 

Reverend McMichael. Well, at that time I didn't so much as know 
there was an organization by that name ; I never had heard anything 
about it, and I was finishing my freshman year at Emory, and it is 
completely impossible from that point of view, and I was living and 
residing in Georgia, at Emory LTniversity, and I am charged here by 
Mr. Patterson as having been a member of the New York district. 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2749 

Now, perhaps you know more than I do about how that organization 
functions, and maybe the New York district inchides Georgia, but it 
doesn't make much sense to me to think it does. 

Mr. Moulder. My question was, You made the assertion it would 
be impossible for you 

Keverend McMichael, Absolutely impossible as they charge, on 
the basis of the fact of where I was and who I was, and so forth, at 
time. 

Mr. Moulder. Very well. 

Mr. Clardy. May I inquire? 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Clardy. 

Reverend McMichael. Plus the fact that the two gentlemen con- 
tradict themselves as to what I was. They make contradictory 
charges. They can't both be right. In fact, neither one is, of course. 

Mr. Jackson. After recognition of Mr. Clardy, strike out the last 3 
or 4 sentences of the witness. 

Reverend McMichael. Mr. Chairman, if you keep striking out 
things you don't have the picture. 

Mr. Jackson. If you keep on talking when the Chair is trying to 
recognize the members of the committee we will certainly make no 
headway at all. 

Reverend McMichael. I certainly object to striking out relevant 
points. 

Mr. Jackson. The Chair recognizes the gentleman from Michigan, 
and in the regular order of the committee he had the floor and was 
entitled to be heard. 

It is only that portion after the chairman recognized 

Reverend McMichael. I am not a lawyer. I don't know if I can 
compete with these trick questions. I will answer if I can. 

Mi\ Clardy. Here is your chance. 

Reverend McMichael. All right. 

Mr. Clardy. You have said that it was impossible for you to have 
been a member of the Young Communist League during a certain 
period. My question is this : 

Would you now deny that you were ever a member of the Young 
Communist League ? 

Reverend McMichael. Yes, I would now deny that because — and I 
have done that before ; I have done that today. 

Mr. Clardy. That is all I asked you. 

Reverend McMichael. I was never a member 

Mr. Jackson. Continue, Mr. Counsel. 

Reverend McMichael. But I am interested in the fact that when 
they pin down when I was they make statements that are false. 

Mr. Jackson. Proceed. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Chairman, we were talking about the Committee 
To Defend America by Keeping Out of War, a Communist- front cited 
organization. 

I have here McMichael exhibits Nos. 26, 27, and 28, and I would like 
to hand them to the witness to examine. 

No. 26 is a photostatic copy of a pamphlet. Mobilize for Peace, 
which outlines the program for the Emergency Peace Mobilization 
sponsored by the Committee To Defend America by Keeping Out of 
War, held in Cliicago August 31 to September 2, 1940. The Reverend 
McMichael is listed as a sponsor. 



2750 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

I believe, sir, you have already said in testimony here today that 
you were a sponsor of that Emergency Peace Mobilization, is that 
correct ? 

Reverend McMichael. I have said I was there. I certainly was, 
and I am sure I was a sponsor on the basis of having been there. It is 
quite likely I was sponsor. I remember definitely being there. That 
came up already. I certainly remember that. I don't remember spon- 
soring it, but I will be confident that I did on the basis of the fact that 
I attended the meeting. That was the meeting that shortly preceded 
my wedding in that year, and I am confident this is accurate so far as 
my name goes. I was for peace. 

Mr. KuNZiG. And you were a sponsor of this Communist-front 
organization 

Reverend McMichael. How is that? 

Mr. KuNziG. And you were a sponsor under the auspices of this 
Communist- front organization ? 

Reverend McMichael. Sponsor of what? 

Mr. KuN'ziG. Emergency Peace Mobilization, sponsored by the 
Committee To Defend America by Keeping Out of War. 

Reverend McMichael. Who said that was a Communist front? 

Mr, KuNziG. I read it to you. I will read it again. 

Reverend McMichael. No. Who said it and 

Mr. KuNziG. I think we went through all that. That has been read 
into the record.^^ 

Reverend McMichael. I certainly have no awareness ; I am trying 
to find out whereby anybody said 

Mr. Jackson. Just a minute. The citation has been read into the 
record ? 

Mr. KuNziG. Yes, sir ; it has. 

Reverend McMichael. I was asking a question 

Mr. Jackson. I was addressing my question to counsel. 

Mr. KuNziG. Yes. 

Reverend McMichael. I don't think peace is subversive. That is 
a dangerous idea that is getting around. That is most pro-American. 
I don't see any of these prowar groups listed as subversive. I think 
the people that make lists have an inadequate perspective. They 
don't look at the complete picture. 

Mr. Jackson. Let me say for the record that all of the members of 
the committee and the staff are for peace 

Reverend McMichael. That's fine. 

Mr, Jackson. And I think that reflects the opinions of the vast 
majority of the American people. 

Reverend McMichael. I am sure it does. 

Mr. Jackson. You are not alone in your sincere search for peace. 

Continue. 

Mr. KuNZiG. I offer in evidence McMichael exhibit No. 26. 

Mr. Jackson. Received. 

(Photostatic copy of pamphlet entitled "Mobilize for Peace," Chi- 
cago, August 31, September 1-2, 1940, was received in evidence as 
McMichael exhibit No. 26.) 



w See footnote 18 on p. 2742, 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 
McMICHAEL EXHIBIT NO. 26 



(Part 1) 



2751 




2752 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

McMICHAEL EXHIBIT NO. 26 

(Part 2) 

CALL TO THE EMERGENCY PEACE MOBILIZATION 

Chicago — August 31, September 1 and 2, 1940 

MoJuU^ ^ Peace ta jbe^e^id 2>emoc4<Ulc Ame^Uca! 

The lengthening shadow o£ war creeps over our land. 

Poweriul voices — spreading confusion and hysteria — demand that our youth 
shed their blood on foreign soil. Powerful voices suggest in the name of 
security that we Nazify America and come to terms with Hitler. 

They would exploit youth's desire to defend our country, our people, and our 
free institutions in order to conscript, gag, and regiment them in labor camps. 

They would exploit labor's desire to defend our country, our people, and our 
free institutions by the stealthy application of M-Day plans in order to shackle 
labor and subvert our democratic rights. 

Are tve to permit — by silence Or inaction — this destruction of 
everything tve have struggled to build up for generations? The 
few who cry for tvar are as nothing compared to 93% of the 
people who want peace — if the people speak! 

How are we to adjust ourselves to the cataclysmic developments in Europe 
and throughout the world? How are we to prevent American involvement in 
w^ar? How are we to defend America and at the same time preserve our free 
institutions and advance our standards of living? 

These are the crucial questions before the American people! 

In this hour when action is imperative, v/e oall upon all organizations of the 
people — labor, farm, youth, church, cooperative, fraternal — regardless of race, 
creed or color, to take part in an 

EMERGENCY l>EACE MOBILIZATION 

To be held in the City of Chicago on August 31. September 1 and 2. 1940. 

In this setting, we the people shall discuss this grave emergency and work out 
a common program to attain our common ends. Together we shall find the 
poiver in our mutual strength to achieve tvhat tve all want , . . 

to defend America . . . 

to keep America democratic . . . 

to keep America out of vrar! 



HEARINGS REGARDESTG JACK R. McMICHAEL 2753 

McMICHAEL PJXHIBIT NO. 26 
(Part 3) 

BASIS OF REPRESENTATION 

All organizations, are entitled to send delegates to the Emergency Peace 
Mobilization. 

National organizations may send 10 delegates. 

State organizations — 5 delegates. 

Local organizations — 1 delegate for every 50 members- 
Individuals who are deeply concerned with organization for peace are urged 
to attend the mobilization as Visitors. 

The registration form attached is for DELEGATES ONLY! 
All visitors will register at the scene of the Emergency Peace Mobilization. 

FEES 

Delegates and Visitors: — $1.00 for all sessions including Mass Meeting. 
Information. Petitions. Posters, Additional Calls, Buttons Available at: 

COMMITTEE TO DEFEND AMERICA BY KEEPING OUT OF WAR 

Room 812 • 203 North Wabash Avenue • Chicago • Illinois 
This credential to be presented by delegate 

PLEASE PRINT ALL INFORMATION 





Fint Name 


Lad Name 








Mailing AdcUeM 


City 




Stale 




Name oi Organization 










No. oi Memberm 
Dalg. RcpreionU 


Addreu ol Orgonixalion 


City 


Slate 




Type ol Organiialion Local. Stale or National 
(peace, icnn. labor, etc.) 

(Namei oi additional delegate* may be attached to thie 


credential) 


Signature ol Secretary 



This credential to be mailed to our ofRce 

Room 812, 203 North Wabash Avonuo. Chicago, lilinoi* 
Delegate* Fee* $1.00 per Delegate 

PLEASE PRINT ALL INFORMATION 



First Nome 


La*t Name 








Mailing Addreu 


Cily 




State 




Name ol Organiialion 


No. el Member* 
Delg. Repreaenta 


Addr*** ol Orgoniiatien 


City 




Stale 



••»i-^ 



Type oi Organiialion Local. Stat* or Notional 

(peace, farm, labor, etc.) 

(Name* ol odditional delegate* may be attached to thia credential) 



Signature el Secretary 



2754 



HEABINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 



McMICHAEIi EXHIBIT NO. 26 



Saturday. August 31st 



(Part 4) 

REGISTRATION: Continuous from 6:00 p.m., Friday, August 30tli 
through 12 noon Sunday, September 1st. 

Afternoon 2:30 p.m. Business Session, Election oi Committees 
Evening 8:00 p.m. MASS MEETING 
Sunday, September 1st Morning 8:30 a.m. Invocation and Religious Service 

9:30 a.m. Dictatonhip or Democracy 

How war aliects lile. liberty omd the pursuit 
oi happiness in America 
Afternoon 2:30 p.m. How to Keep America Out of War 

A discussion of our foreign policy 
Evening 8:00 p.m. Discussion and Adoption of Committee Reports 
Monday, September 2nd Morning 9:00 a.m. State and Regional Delegation Meetings 
Afternoon 2:30 p.m. Mobilizing America fbr Peace 



(Initial Listing J 



ond 



H, 



REV. GEORGE A. ACKERLY. 

WuhmgtoD. D. C. 

OSCAR AMERINGER. 

Editor, Th« Am«ricac Guardian. Oklahoma 

REV. WILLIAM C. ANDERSON, 

Br«in«D. Indiana 

REV. I. CARLTON BABBS. 

K«ynold«buig. Ohio 

PROF. ROLAND H. BAINTON, 

Yale Divinily School 

Ed-ioT, Journal ol Roligroul Educaboo 

DR. FRANK E. BAKER, 

Prrudeni. Milwaukoo Stat* Ttacbor's ColUg* 
LEWIS ALLEN BERNE, 

Fret, dent. F«d«ralion ol Architocli. Enginters. Chomiiti 

and Techniciana 
PROF. FRANZ BOAS, 

CAo,rm,<n, Amgncan Commilto* lot Domociacy 

Inlollactual Fresdom 

E. C. de BRAIE. 

Prendent. Wiiconain Fedvratioo ol Teachvra 
S. BRUCE, 

Editor. Formori' Union Nowi ol Montana 
RABBI JED COHEN, 

Los Angeles. Calijomia 

REV. N. E. COMFORT. 

Dear, ol the Sthool ol Kelit>ox. Unirersity ol Oklahoma 
MALCOLM COTTON DOBBS, 

Executive Secretary. Leoguo oi Yotuig Soutbenssr* 
DR. ABE CRONBACH, 

Hebrew Union Collego, Cincinnati 

JOSEPH CORRAN, 

Pretiderrt. National Manlim* Union 
THEODORE DREISER 
NAOMI ELLISON. 

Chairmnn. National Industrial Assembly. Y.W.C.A. 

JULroS EMSPAK. 

ieiretory-Treeiurer. United Electrical Radio aod Machine 

Workers ol America 
VARDIS FISHER 
ABRAM FLAXER, 

Preiidcni. Slat*. County and Municipal Worker* ol 

America 

QUENTIN D. GORE. 

Editor, the Southern News AlmcDoe 
GERALD HARRIS. 



DR. METZ LOCHARD, 

Editor. The Chicago Delendet 
REV. EUGENE W. LYMAN, 

Union Ibeological Seminary 

HON. VITO MARCANTONIO. 

Membftr of CongresA 

B. J. McCARTY, 

Secrctaiy-Treaturer, lote 



at Woodworkers ol 



NANCY McINERNEY, 

Editor. Vossar Miscellany News 

REV. JAMES w. Mcknight, 

Fort Wayne. In 



'ftgt^lM ^t ^c a 



ulh Congress 
MRS. ALBERT MILLER. 

Pre, idem. Associated Farm Women ol Kansas 
MRS. LUCY SPRAGUE MITCHELL. 

Preiident. Co Operative School lot Teacher* 
J. CARRELL MORRIS, 

Pretiderrt. Chnslian Youth Coun<;il oi North Ame 
GEORGE MURPHY, JR., 

National Associolion lot the AdToncement ol C 

People 

GEORGE NELSON, 

WisconBin Farmers Untoa 

MRS. EUNICE PETERSON, 



Colilo 



Slo 



nge 



HARRIET PICKENS 

Notional Business and Pioiessional W< 

Y.W.C.A. 
DR. D. W. PRALL. 

Chtiirmen. Philosophy Department. Hoi 
MICHAEL QUILL. 

Pi.iidrnt. Ttoneport Workers Union c 

PROF. WALTER RAUTENSTRAUCH, 

Columbia University 
REID ROBINSON. 

Pr.iid.ii. Mine. Mill and Smelter Work 
GEORGE SELDES. 



I An 



CHARLES SCHWIESO. IR., 

N.r, .>,>,>. Rocky MountaiE 



REV. BURTON SHEPPARD, 



Alaba 



Unii 



DR. MARIAN HATHAWAY, 

Executive Secretary, Americon Association ol Schools ol 

Social Work 
-REGIS KENNEDY. 

Pmideiit. Student Board. Columbia UniTersily 
FLEMMIE P. KITTRELL, 

Oran o/ Women. Beoaett College. Creensboio. N. C. 
REV, OWEN D. KNOX. 

Cliairman. Detroit Civil Rights Federation 
REV. JOHN HOWLAND LATHROP, 

Brooklyn. N. Y. 

HOWARD LEE. 

Executive Secretary. Southern Conlerence lot Humon 

WeUare 
KENNETH LESLIE, 

Editor. The Protestant Digest 



Student Christian 



lot Industrial 



EDWARD E. STRONG, 



Southern Negro Youth Congri 
REV. JOHN B. THOMPSON. 

Norman. Oklahoma 
JIM TULLY, 

Author 

EDA LOU WALTON. 

New York University 

MORRIS WATSON. 

American Newspaper Guild 
COL. CHARLES ERSKINE SCOTT WOOD 
DR. MAX YERGAN. 

Chaiiman. National Negro Congress 



Tft*i« IndMduals ilgncd lit purely ptrtonel capatlH*%. Thtir orgonliofioni or* (lst«d for Idtnti^catloH oafy. 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 



2755 



Mr. KuNziG, McMichael exhibit No. 27 is a photostatic copy of leaf- 
let entitled "Defend America Now," sponsored by the Committee To 
Defend America by Keeping Out of War, announcing an anticonscrip- 
tion rally in Chicago, the same rally of August 31, 1940, which is 
further documentary proof, listing Reverend McMichael among the 
speakers. I offer it in evidence. 

Reverend McMichael. I was against conscription, and most church 
groups are against conscription, as far as that goes. 

Mr. Jackson. Received. 

(Photostatic copy of leaflet entitled "Defend America Now^" 
August 31, 1940, was received in evidence as McMichael exhibit 
No. 27.) 




■■HI ISO'' f '^"-'^■s' cat- 



■M-f.fl-i iND >j.{f,i?0(5'. 



Stop Conscrlpfmn! 



Thare^are an oftampt 

SCS!f TiON by ony sraow WUSt St CCf f AV5£5 



nhu momuitkimn 



fkv* I I '1 > '-av. ■/oil! s>rgari<3t«fj<i« Ui ike iMCiJi'Sih 




IT umm Oil of wk 




McMICHAEL EXHIBIT |fO. 27 



2756 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

Mr. KuNziG. I offer McMicliael exhibit No. 28, which the witness 
has ah'eady examined, a photostatic copy of the Daily Worker, dated 
August 31, 1940, listing Jack McMichael scheduled to speak at the 
mobilization 

Reverend McMichael. May I see that? 

Mr. KuNziG. I handed it to you, but I will hand it to you again. 

Mr. Jackson. Received. 

(Photostatic copy of the Daily Worker, dated August 31, 1940, 
pp. 1 and 4, article. Delegates from All America Pour in to Peace 
Parley, was received in evidence as McMichael exhibit No. 28.) 

McMICHAEL EXHIBIT NO. 28 

(Daily Worker, August 31, 1940, pp. 1 and 4) 
Delegates Feom All America Pour in to Peace Parley 

Opens Today in Chicago's Huge Stadium 

Mass Rally Tonight to hear Marcantonio ; Roheson to Sing 

By Art Shields (Daily Worker staff correspondent) 

Chicago, Aug. 30. — The voice America will be raised against war and mili- 
tarism at the greatest peace conference in American history, which opens at 
Chicago Stadium at noon tomorrow. 

Many thousands of delegates and many thousands of visitors will be present 
at the Emergency Peace Mobilization from almost every state in the Union. 

Meeting from Saturday till early Monday afternoon the peace delegates will 
lay plans for effectively continuing the fight for peace when they return to their 
homes. Definite plans for continuing the fight for peace in an organized way 
will be made, delegates said. 

Thousands of Chicagoans and delegates are expected to pack the huge Chicago 
stadium tomorrow night to hear Rep. Vito Marcantonio and Dr. Francis Town- 
send, leader of the old-age pension movement. Paul Robeson, world-famous 
Negro singer, will lead a chorus of 200 voices in the "Ballad for Americans" at 
the giant peace rally. 

Huge peace slogans — the handiwork of the artists union — hang around the 
great Chicago auditorium, telling the people to "Keep America Out of the War," 
to "Defend America by Protecting Civil Liberties" and calling for "a job not 
a gun." 

Keynote Speech 

And the slogan "Mobilize for Peace," will face the delegates in ten foot high 
letters rising from the platform. 

Delegates arriving for the great conference say that they will profit from 
the lessons of the vigorous People's Council of World War No. 1, which failed 
to lay solid plans for the future at its Chicago meeting in September 1917. 

The keynote speech, which will indicate the direction the conference plans 
will probably take, will be made a few minutes after the conference opens by 
the Rev. John B. 'Thompson of Norman, Oklahoma, chairman of the Committee 
to Defend America by Keeping Out of War (otherwise known as the Emergency 
Peace Mobilization). 

Rev. Thompson, who expresses the anti-war sentiments of the masses of 
people of the western plains, is a vital force in the fight for Peace. 

Vito Marcantonio, Representative in Congress from East Harlem, New York, 
and Frank Fries, an Illinois Representative, will speak later in the conference — 
Marcantonio Saturday night at 10 : 30 and Representative Fries Saturday after- 
noon at 3. 

Paul Robeson's mighty baritone voice will give the delegates a treat Saturday 
night as he sings the "Ballad for Americans" and "Ain't Gwine to Study War 
No More" and "Old Man River." 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2757 

Labor Delegates 

Core of the vast assemblage tomorrow will be several thousand trade union 
delegates. At least a third of tlie delegates are from the hundreds of local 
unions and the many trade union councils and the various national unions rep- 
resented at the conference. 

Prominent among these trade union delegates will be the automobile and 
aircraft workers, the transport, maritime, woodwoi'king, mining and other 
unions. 

National leaders of some of these unions will be major speakers at the con- 
ference. Among tliem will be — 

Joseph Curran, president, the National Maritime Union (Saturday afternoon) ; 

Michael Quill, president, the Transport Workers Union (Sunday afternoon) ; 

Reid Robinson, president, the International Union of Mine, Mill & Smelter 
Workers (Saturday afternoon) ; 

Lewis Merrill, president, the United OflSce & Professional Workers (Saturday 
afternoon) ; 

And Frank Ingi-am, secretary-treasurer of the Workers' Alliance, will speak 
for America's unemployed (Saturday afternoon). 

From the State of North Dakota, whose Senator, Gerald P. Nye (along with 
Senator Clark of Idaho), left the conference at the last moment, comes State 
Senator Charles Fine, who also is chairman of the board of directors of the 
North Dakota Farmers Union. He speaks Saturday afternoon. 

Youth will speak Saturday night through the vivid personality of Jack Mc- 
Michael, chairman of the American Youth Congress. 

Old age will be represented by Dr. Francis E. Townsend, founder of the 
Townsend pensions plan, speaking at the same session. 

Memories of the profiteers' rule and government terror during the war of 
1917 and 1918, will be given that night by Oscar Ameringer, editor of the Ameri- 
can Guardian, of Oklahoma City. 

John P. Davis, secretary of the National Negro Congress, speaks the same 
evening. 

Dr. Max Yergan, professor of Negro history at the College of the City of 
New York, speaks Sunday morning. 

So does Rabbi Moses ]Miller, head of the National Jewish Peoples Committee. 

There are many other distinguished speakers. 

The conference will be opened tomorrow noon by Pearl Hart, treasurer of 
the Emergency Peace Mobilization. 

Cochairman with her will be Harvey O'Connor, author of "Mellon's Millions" 
and chairman of the Chicago Peace Federation. 

Rev. George Williams, pastor of the African Methodist Episcopal Church of 
Chicago, delivers the invocation. 

After Reverend Thompson's keynote speech. Rev. Owen A. Knox of Detroit, 
chairman of the National Federation for Constitutional Liberties, will deliver 
a report on the tasks involved in "Defending Democracy at Home." 

Floor Discussion 

There will be discussions from the floor and special church, farm, and labor 
panel group meetings. 

Plans for permanent action will be adopted at the closing session Monday, 
when permanent officers will be elected. 

It's a pleasure to talk to the delegates arriving in Chicago for the mighty 
Emergency Peace INIobilization conference that opens at the Stadium today. 

Southern schoolteachers, miners, tenant farmers, steel workers ; Pacific coast 
seamen, writers, movie men, loggers ; Midwest auto workers, packinghouse work- 
ers, corn-and-hog farmers ; men and women from the offices and factories of 
New York, Boston, and Philadelphia — they are coming in every hour to take 
part in the biggest peace demonstration this country has seen. 

They are here to organize a national peace movement and then go back to 
their homes to build the peace movement at home. 

Southern Delegates 

The 250 and more Southern delegates are a refreshing contrast to the bitter 
old Tories I heard appealing for conscription in the Senate debates at Wash- 
ington last week. These bitter old Tories are not the people — they are not 



2758 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

elected by the masses of the people, but by the small percentage of the electorate 
who can pay poll taxes. 

But the 30 Negro and 30 white delegates from Birmingham — they are the peo- 
ple, whom Abraham Lincoln would have loved * * * These steel workers, miners, 
and evicted cotton farmers — they are the people. 

Abraham Lincoln would have loved a man like Gerald (?) Harris, vice presi- 
dent of the Farmers Union in Alabama, a muscular dark man in his early 
forties, who comes here to speak for peace. He's a tighter for peace. He went 
to Washington this month with a Labor's Non Partisan League delegation to 
ask his Senators and Representatives to vote against conscription, and the 
Birmingham police locked him up when he returned. Now he's out and up here 
to carry the fight, which the Senators fudged, to the American people themselves. 

Every Southern State is represented here — every State of old Dixie from the 
hanks of the Potomac to the banks of the Rio Grande. The Southern people 
want peace, despite the warmongers like Connally, of Texas, and Garter Glass, 
of Virginia. 

"Don't forget that the Southern people had no chance to vote against con- 
scription in the Senate this week," said Malcolm Cotton Dobbs, young Texan 
and Executive Secretary of the League of Young Southerners, who is taking a 
leading part in the peace fight. 

"The vast majority of the Southern people," continued Dobbs, "are disfran- 
chised by the poll taxes. They had no voice in choosing the Senators who voted 
to militarize America. Many of the delegates who came here can't vote. * * * 
But they are here to show the world that they want peace, and their wishes 
must not be disregarded." 

Negro Delegates 

Very striking is the militant attitude of the hundred or more Negro delegates 
from the South — CIO steel workers, coal miners, and tenant farmers. 

Burned into the minds of the Negro delegates is the terrible betrayal of 
World War No. 1. They tell how they were promised social and political rights 
if they helped win the war. * * * They tell what happened next, how the Wilson 
government jim-crowed them in black regiments under white officers. * * * 
How the Government used them for the dirtiest and most dangerous work * * * 
and how they came home to be lynched and shot up in the "race riots" of 1919. 

The Negroes cannot forget. * * * They cannot forget while lynchings go on. 
* * * One reminded me of two more murders by Alabama police just recently, 
one in the Tennessee coal and iron town of Fairfield, near Birmingham. 

The people behind those murders are the people behind conscription and war. 

Vanguard delegates from the Pacific coast — with hundreds to follow — arrive 
every hour. 

Twenty loggers and lumbermill workers from the CIO woodworkers' union in 
the Pacific Northwest and seamen and fishermen and professional men and farm 
workers are arriving from the coast. 

"Seamen know that war will smash every condition they have won by years 
of struggle unless they prevent it," said Walter Stack, an officer of the Marine 
Firemen's and Oilers' in San Francisco, and a trustee of the Maritime Federation. 

A National Maritime Union delegate from Philadelphia said the same thing. 

Hundreds of CIO automobile workers are coming here today to fight against 
M-day. 

A hundred delegates are arriving from Flint, Mich., the busiest automobile 
factory town in the country. 

Hundreds more are arriving from Detroit, Cleveland, Toledo, and other motor 
cities. 

M-day would revive the Black Legion terror movement in Michigan — that's 
one reason why at least 500 or 600 delegates will be present from the Peninsula 
State. 

Settlement House workers will be there with other professionals, for the 
Reverend Jones, chairman of the Settlement House Association of Detroit, has 
asked all settlement houses to be represented at the Chicago Stadium's peace 
conference. 

Delegates from Minnesota and Wisconsin would more than fill an Army 
battalion. From Duluth, Minn., for instance are arriving Finnish-Americans, 
Swedish-Americans, and many other kinds of Americans. They represent the 
Duluth CIO Council and local CIO unions ; the Duluth Peace Council, the Youth 
Council, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, and 
other groups. 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2759 

A goodly block of seats will be filled by the delegates from Minneapolis and 
St Paul with farmers from the country around sitting with them. 

Farmers' Union men in Minnesota and many other places are warmly cooper- 

cfo packinghouse workers from Austin, Minn., are also taking part in the 

move in Chicago against M-day. _ ^v, „ i o<-„«^^'o 

Carload after carload of Wisconsin delegates are driving the Badger btate s 
mark up toward the TOO or more fighters for peace that field organizers for the 
Emergency Peace Mobilization have promised. _ 

The Peace Conference has been well advertised at county fairs and m many 

mGPtiiiffS 

Crude "attempts by some Socialist Party leaders to sabotage the antiwar con- 
ference with cries that it was "red" were spiked at a recent press conference in 
Milwaukee, in which Mrs. Meta Berger, widow of the late Victor Berger, and the 
chairman of the Ministers Association of Milwaukee took part. 

The Ministers' Association representative told newspapermen that he was 
advising afliliated clergymen to take part in this movement for peace. 

The Committee to Defend America By Keeping Out of War today also made 
public an exchange of letters between it and Senators Gerald P. Nye and D. Worth 
Clark on the withdrawal of the two Senators from the mobilization. 

August 28. 

"Rev. John B. Thompson, Chairman, 

Committee to Defend America By Keeping Out of War, 

203 North Wabash Street, Chicago, III. 

Our sympathies are with each and every individual and collective effort to 
break this march of our country into war. We know that you and many of the 
fine sponsors have but one purpose you are serving. But we do not see how 
with the division as seems to prevail with respect to the Chicago meeting we 
could contribute to the fine cause of keeping out of war. Please excuse us from 
the plans made for us to address the conference Saturday night. And understand 
please that we are not reflecting in the least upon you and the many fine people 
whose names appear as sponsors of the conference. Sincerest regrets. 

' Senator Gerald P. Nte. 

Senator D. Worth Clark. 

Senator Gerald P. Nye, August 29. 

Senator D. Worth Clark, 

Senate Office Building, Washington, D. C. 

It is tragic that at this time certain people who place petty grudges and un- 
founded suspicions above the great task of stopping conscription and involve- 
ment in war should have prevailed upon you. It is a matter of deep personal 
regret to me and a disappointment to many others that you who have been such 
an inspiration to the peace forces should yield to such pressure in a time of grave 
crisis. This will be a source of great satisfaction to those groups whom you and 
I know to be leading us toward war. ^ t i, i/i 

There are times when it is easy to work for those things which you and I hold 
dear There are times such as 1917 and today when peace itself is suspect. It 
is in such times that we must stand together despite all eiforts to divide us. 
The emergency peace mobilization will bring together for the first time farm and 
labor movements, old age and youth, church, and woman groups. It is the only 
national medium for the expression of the wiU of our people to stay at peace 
that is of sufficient magnitude to be effective. Those who attack it are pur- 
posely or unwittingly giving aid and comfort to the forces who would stifle 
democracy in our country and jeopardize its peace. I know that is not your 

intention. „, ^ t> 

I pray that it may not be the effect of your decision. The Emergency Peace 
Mobilization will give tremendous impetus to those ideas which you have held 
and I am sure that you will rejoice with me in its success. 

(Signed) John B. Thompson, 
Chairman, Committee to Defend America by Keeping Out of War." 

Mr. KuNziG. That is the end of the exhibits dealing with the Com- 
mittee to Defend American by Keeping Out of War. 



2760 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

Mr. Jackson. Do you have any estimate of the amount of time which 
may be required for the completion of this hearing or the number 
of exhibits still remaining to be — - 

Mr. KuNziG. There are quite a few exhibits, Mr, Chairman. I 
certainly think it would take at least all tomorrow morning and per- 
haps into the afternoon. 

Mr. Jackson. I understand that the witness and counsel can be 
present tomorrow morning ? 

Mr. DoNNER. Yes. 

Mr. Jackson. Very well. 

Reverend McMichael. Mr. Chairman, I have to preach from the 
pulpit in this church and they have taken me away from my pastoral 
calling and visiting the bereaved and the sick, and so forth, for all 
of this stuff. 

Of course, I could give you all that information from there. If you 
want to know, I could look it up and give you the information. 

Mr. Jackson. The important thing is to know whether or not you 
can be here tomorrow morning at 10 o'clock. 

Reverend McMichael. To know whether I can? I have to be; I 
am under subpena. 

Mr. Jackson. We would like to accommodate you insofar as 
possible. 

Reverend McMichael. I am not thinking of myself but of the 
congregation of people who called me and are standing by me. They 
need a pastor up there. 

Mr. Jackson. I am sure the committee is interested in finding out 
your answers to these various things and allegations, and 

Reverend McMichael. I am perfectly willing to answer all these 
things. 

Mr. Jackson. And they probably will find it possible to get along for 
a couple of days. 

The subcommittee will stand in adjournment until 10 o'clock to- 
morrow morning. 

(Whereupon, at 5 : 10 p. m., the hearing was adjourned until 10 
a. m., Friday, July 31, 1953.) 



HEAEINGS EEGAEDING JACK E. McMICHAEL 



FRIDAY, JULY 31, 1953 

United States House of Representatives, 

Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington, D. G. 
Public Hearing 

The Committee on Un-American Activities met, pursuant to recess, 
at 10 : 20 a. m., in the Caucus Room, 3G2 Old House Office Building, 
Hon. Harold H. Velde, chairman, presiding. 

Committee members present: Representatives Harold H. Velde 
(chairman), Donald L. Jackson, Kit Clarcly, Gordon H. Scherer, 
Francis E. Walter (appearance noted in transcript), Morgan M. 
Moulder (appearance noted in transcript), and Clyde Doyle. 

Staff members present : Robert L. Kunzig, counsel ; Frank S. Taven- 
ner, Jr., counsel ; Thomas W. Beale, Sr., chief clerk ; Raphael I. Nixon, 
director of research; James A. Andrews, Earl L. Fuoss, George C. 
Williams, and George E. Cooper, investigators; Leslie C. Scott, re- 
search analyst; Mrs. Juliette Joray, assistant to the chief clerk; and 
Kathryn Zimmerman, staff representative. 

Mr. Velde. The committee will be in order, please. 

Mr. Reporter, let the record show present are Mr. Jackson, Mr. 
Clardy, Mr. Scherer, Mr. Doyle, and the chairman, a quormn of the full 
committee. 

Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

TESTIMONY OF REV. JACK E. McMICHAEL, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS 
COUNSEL, FEANK J. DONNER— Resumed 

Mr. Kunzig. Mr. Chairman, I have here a document, which is 
marked "McMichael Exhibit No. 29" for identification, which is a 
photostatic copy of the Daily Worker of October 8, 1940, page 2, con- 
taining an article stating that Jack MclMichael was a speaker on 
October 7, 1940, at a meeting of the Columbia University chapter of 
the American Student Union. 

The American Student Union,-" Mr. Chairman, is a cited organi- 
zation. 

The article purports to say that McMichael was denouncing Dr. 
Nicholas Murray Butler's assault on academic freedom, wliich was 
the time that Dr. Butler got rid of some teachers and professors 
after the Rapp-Coudert report and investigation in New York. 

I hand you this document. Reverend McMichael, and ask you 
whether you did attend this meeting and whether you were a speaker 
at this meeting of the American Student Union, a cited organization. 

20 See footnote 8 on p. 2652. 

2761 



2762 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

Reverend McMichael. Like Jesus, who addressed the cited Phari- 
sees and sinners, I've also had the position of witnessing to my con- 
victions before groups- 



Mr. Velde. Will you answer 

Reverend McMicpiael. Simple though they may have been. 

Mr. Velde. The question, Reverend McMichael, please. 

Reverend McMichael. Yes. 

And in view of the fact that Dr. Butler had stated that academic 
freedom does not apply to students, specifically for that reason I did 
make a speech on behalf of academic freedom to the group. 

Mr. KuNziG. So, you did attend this meeting of the Columbia Uni- 
versity chapter of the American Student Union ? 

Reverend McMichael. I did speak at Columbia. 

Mr. KuNziG. At that meeting? 

Reverend McMichael. Yes ; at that meeting. 

Mr. KuNziG. At that meeting. 

Reverend McMichael. In the same way Jesus spoke at meetings 
of Pharisees and publicans and sinners. 

Mr. ScHERER. Can't we leave Jesus out 

Reverend McMichael. It's a little hard for me to leave Jesus out. 
You may be able to do it 

Mr. Scherer, In a situation like this? 

Reverend McMichael. But I can't. In a situation like this, where 
guilt by association seems to be the principle on which you are operat- 
ing rather than an analysis of the activities itself, I am sure He 
would have long ago been haled before this committee. 

Mr. KuNziG. A man is also known by the company he keeps. 

Reverend McMichael. Then Jesus was a wine drinker, glutton, and 
sinner, according to the people who have said that and what you 
have said today — you know men by the company they keep. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Chairman, I offer this exhibit into evidence as 
McMichael exhibit No. 29. 

Mr. Velde. Without objection, it will be admitted. 

(The photostatic copy of p. 2 of the October 8, 1940, edition of the 
Daily Worker article, "'Butler Drives Youth to War,' Says AYC 
Leader," was marked and received in evidence as "McMichael Exhibit 
No. 29.") 

McMICHAEL EXHIBIT NO. 29 

(Daily Worker, October 8, 1940, p. 2): 

Butler Drives Youth to War, Says AYC Leader 

Tells Students of Columbia "Eyes of Nation" are on Them, Calls for Firm Answer 
to Butler's "March-or-Resign" Speech at University 

Denouncing Dr. Nicholas Murray Butler's assault on academic freedom as a 
move to drive the youth of the Nation into war, Jack McMichael, chairman of the 
American Youth Congress, called upon the students of Columbia University to put 
up a real fight in defense of our democratic rights. 

Speaking before several hundred students yesterday afternoon at a meeting 
of the American Students Union, the youthful leader said, "This is totalitarian- 
ism. This 'take it or leave if attitude of Dr. Butler must be answered un- 
equivocably. The eyes of the nation are on you. The right of students and 
faculty to think for themselves must be protected. No college head speaking for 
a board of trustees can stop the voice of truth, of research, of analysis. It is for 
this that our forefathers fought and died." 

McMichael pointed out that the Butler affair was no longer a local issue. It 
has become part of the fight for civil rights and minority political opinion. 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2763 

"This is a national issue, a test case. If reaction is successful here, every 
campus will be overrun with war hysteria. The problem has been posed for 
everyone attending school, whether he be student or instructor. The American 
people must also answer as they always have in favor of demociatic institutions. 

"I am sure that Columbia students will not be found wanting." 

Reads British Resolution 

The audience made up of students and some faculty members listened atten- 
tively as he read a resolution passed by the students of England in defense 
of their civil rights durinji the war period. He described the manifestations 
of war hysteria on various American college campuses. He explained the dif- 
ference between the real defense of a nation's freedom, as is now taking place 
in China, and the false and reactionary cry for "defense" now being made in 
governmental, industrial, and academic circles. , 

In the meanwhile, the ASU is handing out petitions on the campus outlining 
a stndtmt's bill of rights. The petition reads: "We the undersigned, believing 
that freedom of th«;ught, enquiry, and action are essential to the sncce.sstul 
functioning of our democracy, wish to make clear in view of Dr. Butler s recent 
statements, the i)recise extent of t)ur rijfhts on these issues. We believe that the 
university exists for the beneHt of student and f:uulty members and has no 
other aims than those which on the basis of their considered convictions they 
freely subscribe. . . . ,. . 

"We believe in (1) the right of all students to express their beliefs on any 
subject whatsoever without interference or fear of intimidation; (2) the right 
of students to hear speakers of their own choosing; (:}) the rij;ht of students 
to enquire freely into all matters and to form conclusions withoiit interference; 
(4) the right of students to act on their beliefs and to join any organization 
without fear of reprisals." 

8 teachers challenge 

Since Butler's address, eight Columbia professors, including three department 
heads, two former presidents of the American Association for the Advancement 
of Science and a Nobel prize winner have challenged the president's edict to 
accept his pro-war stand and "get out" in an open letter. Two college pro- 
fessors have joined the dissent of Butler's war inciting statements. Leaders 
in govei-nment circles, cultural, academic and political figiares have protested 
Butler's attack on student and faculty. 

A mass protest meeting will be held on every campus in the country this 
Thursday by the American Students Union to help keep this country out of war 
and protect academic freedom from future attack by Wall Street university 
presidents, 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Chairman, may I ask the date of the meetinjr be 
fix-^d and the date on wliicli the organization was cited be fixed." 

Reverend McMiciiael. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. I think both the date of the meeting at which the wit- 
ness spoke and the date on which the organization was cited are 
important. 

Reverend McMiciiael. The grandson of Woodrow Wilson 

Mr. Veloe. Just a minute. 

Reverend McMichael. Yes; that is all right. 

Mr. Velde. There is no question pending. 

Reverend McMiciiael. Oh, I'm sorry. 

That would be a helpful procedure 

Mr. Velde. Please. 

Reverend McMiciiael. In all of these cases. 

Mr. KuNziG. We will bring that out in various cases. 

As I read before from the Daily Worker of October 8, 1940, that 
meeting took place on October 7, 1940. 

» See footnote 8 on p. 2652. 
39125—53 11 



2764 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

All of this is already in the record, Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Doyle. I am sorry. 

Mr. KuNziG. And I will now read the date of the citation — and let 
it be perfectly clear, so that w^e understand, when the Attorney Gen- 
eral or any organization or any congressional committee cites an or- 
ganization, it is not because of activities of that organization the day 
before or the day of the actual citation; but let the record be clear 
that it is because of the activities of the organization in the period 
prior to the citation. Obviously that is the reason 

Reverend McMichael. It's not the activities 

Mr. KuNziG. The organization was cited. 

Reverend McMichael. Spoken of at that meeting. There is a 
difference. 

Mr. Velde. Just a minute. There is no question pending. 

Rsverend McMichael. Well, he is talking . 

Mr. KuNZiG. The American Student Union was cited as a Commu- 
nist front which was the result of a united- front gathering of young 
Socialists and Communists in 1937. The Young Communist League 
took credit for creation of the above, and the union offered free trips 
to Russia. The above claims to have lead as many as 500,000 students 
out in annual April 22 strikes in the United States. 

It was cited then by the Special Committee on Un-American Activi- 
ties in 1939 ; also in 1940, 1942, and 1944. 

It was cited by the Massachusetts committee in 1938, Mr. Doyle, sir. 

It was cited by the Rapp-Coudert committee in 1941 and by the 
special committee of the House Committee on Appropriations in 1943. 

So, you will note that some of those citations were prior to the date 
of this meeting in 1940, sir. 

This was, then, a cited — publicly cited — Communist-front group 
prior to the time that this witness spoke. 

Mr. Doyle. Whatever the record is, that is what we should have. 

Reverend McMichael. Let me make clear 

Mr. Velde. Just a minute here. 

Rsverend McMichael (continuing). That the minister 

Mr. Velde. There is no question 

Reverend McMichael (continuing). Is not cited. 

Mr. Velde ( continuing) . Pending. 

Reverend McMichael. And he was not a member of the organiza- 
tion. 

Let there be no implication I was a member, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. KuNZiG. I have here a document, marked "McMichael Exhibit 
No. 30," for identification, which is a photostatic copy of the Daily 
Worker of February 6, 1941, listing Jack McMichael as one of the 
sponsors of the American Rescue Ship Mission — the American Rescue 
Ship Mission, which would carry Spanish refugees from Casablanca, 
French Morocco, to Vera Cruz, Mexico. 

I hand you this document. 

And, of course, Mr. Chairman, the American Rescue Ship Mission ^^ 
is a cited Communist-front organization. 



" American Rescue Ship Mission : 

1. Cited as Communist, and "a project of tlie United American Spanish Aid Committee" 
(Attorney General Tom Clarli, letter to Loyalty Review Board, released July 25, 1949). 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL" 2765. 

Mr. Velde. Will you ^ive the citation, please? _ tt -^ /i 

Mr KuNZiG. It was cited as Communist and a project ot the United 
American Spanish Aid Connnittee ~' by Attorney General Tom Clark- 
letter to the Loyalty Review Board in 1949. . ^^ ., , . 

It was cited as an enterprise of the Communist United American 
Spanish Aid Committee by the California Committee on Un-Ameri- 
can Activities. „ , ^ i.p -XT A 

Mr. Yelde. Do you have the latter date of the California Un-Amer- 
ican Activities Committee citation? . 

Mr. KuNZiG. The California date is 1948, Mr. Chairman. 

( it this point Keverend McMichael conferred with Mr. Donner.) 

The question is, since I have not yet asked a question, Reverend 
McMichael : Were you a sponsor of the American Rsscue Ship Mis- 
sion, as is listed in exhibit 30 ? , , -r^. 1 -D UV 

Reverend McMichael. Alonor with the Eisenhower Republican, 
Louis Bromfield, and the president of the American Law Institute 
and the president of the Smith College, and many other distinguished 
educators and religious leaders, it appears, from this document, that 
on behalf of this humanitarian cause of saving lives of people, who, 
after all, are loved by God, I signed this, though I have no recollec- 
tion of it It seems to me to have been a worthy cause. 

Mr KuNziG Well. I doubt if the various people you mentioned 
will be found. Reverend McMichael, on all the organizations that you 
are found on. 

Rsverend McMichael. As the dean 

Mr. KuNziG. That is the point. ^ , n , •,., ^i 

Reverend McMichael. Of the Washington Cathedral said the other 
day, "God is my judge, not the Un-American Activities Committee, 
or the Attorney General." . .. ^- x 

Mr. Jackson. Let it be perfectly clear we are not attempting to 

judge you. , ,. , . 

Reverend McMichael. Well, instead of asking questions 

Mr. Jackson. We are seeking information. 

Reverend Mc:Michael. He seems to be trying very hard to make 
accusations. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Chairman, I offer 

Reverend McMichael. Instead of asking questions, he is making 

accusations constantly. tit -»/r- i, i 

Mr. KuNZiG (continuing). This exhibit m evidence as McMichael 

exhibit No. 30. 

Mr. Velde. It will be received in evidence at this point. 

(The photostatic copy of the article concerning the Spanish Rescue 
Mission, from the February 6, 1941, edition of the Daily Worker, was 
marked and received in evidence as "McMichael Exhibit No. 30.") 

=3 United American Spanish Aid Committee : ^. ^ , ,, ^ ^ w r, • t, j 
1. Cited as Communist (Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loj-alty Review Board. 

released July 25, 1949). „ ^ ^, ,^ ,- ,. , ., <. j, . ^ i,, 

•* "In 1987-1938, tlie Coniniunist Party threw itself wholeheartedly Into the campaign 
for the support of the Spanish Loyalist cause, recruiting men and organizing multifarious 
so-called relief organizations." Among these was the above Communist front i Special Com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities, report, March 29, 1944, pp. 82 and 138). 



2766 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

McMICHAEL EXHIBIT NO. 30 

(Daily Worker, February 6, 1941) 

Spain Rescue Mission Signs Contract fob Refugee Ship 

8: S. Lovcen Will Sail for Morocco Feb. 26, Says Dr. Barsky 

WILL CAUET 450 
MEXICAN gov't BEADY TO RECEIVE THEM HIDALGO WIRES 

By Art Shields 

The American Rescue Ship Mission yesterday signed a contract for a ship 
to carry Spanish refugees from Casablanca, French Morocco to Vera Cruz, 
Mexico. 

Dr. Edward K. Barsky, chairman of tlie United American Spanish Aid Societies 
announced at a press conference last night that the S. S. Locccn, of 3,.TO0 tons 
disjilacement, had l»een provided by the Central American Navigation Co. of 
Panama for the trip. 

The S. S. Lovcen is now lying at Pier 1, the municipal docl? at the tip of 
Manhattan, said Dr. Barsky. It has a Lloyd's certificate of safety. Built in 
lyil, it was reconditioned in 1030. 

It returned from a West Indian passenger cruise last week. 

The Rescue Ship will sail from New York about Feb. 26 or 27 for Casablanca 
to take aboard about 450 Spanish refugees. 

More Trips Expected 

Options have been signed for two more trips, said Dr. Barsky. 

"We hope the shii) can make as many trips as possible," said the Spanish 
Aid Societies chairman. "We believe the American people will give the fullest 
support. We know the American people want to save the refugees from the 
misery and hopelessness of the Moroccan camps and send them to a land of hope 
in Mexico." 

"What can be finer than this," continued Dr. Barsky. 

There was strong feeling in the tones of the Spanish Aid chairman as he told 
of the plight of the refugees in Africa and France. 

Dr. Barsky, who knows the Spanish people from his long service as adminis- 
trative surgeon with the Spanish Republican . . . 

Mr. KuNziG. Now, Reverend McMichael, I want to <?o back to the 
testimony of Manning Johnson, which we introduced into evidence 
yesterday, in which he identified you as a member of the national 
committee of the Young Communist League and a member of the 
Communist Party. I want to ask a few more questions about that, 
sir. 

Reverend McMichael. Fine. 

Mr. KuNziG. Were you ever a member of the national committee 
of the Young Communist League? 

I am not talking about the Communist Party now; I am talking 
about tlie Young Communist League. 

Reverend McMichael. Of course not. I said yesterday I was not 
a member of the organization. How could I be a member of the 
national committee? 

Mr. KuNziG. So, you were not a member of the national committee 
of the Young Communist League nor of the Young Communist 
League ? 

Reverend McMichael. I answered the question- 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you 

Reverend McMichael. Of course not. 

Mr. KuNziG (continuing). Answer it again? 

Reverend McMichaeil. Of course not. 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2767 

Mr. KuNzio. Of course not? 

Reverend McMiciiael. Yes; of course not. 

Mr. KuNzio. Did you attend meetings of the Young Communist 
League? 

Reverend McMichael. And to the extent which you identify your- 
self with 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Chairman. 

Reverend McMiciiael (continuing). These apparently absurd and 
contradictory cliarges 

Mr. Velde. Just a minute. 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Chairman. 

Reverend McMiciiael. Thousands of Protestant ministers will 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Chairman, may I request 

Mr. Velde. Will you answer the question ? 

Reverend McMiciiael. Mr. Chairman, he's repeating the same 
question. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Chairman, I am not repeating the question. 

Reverend McMiciiael. It's the same question. 

Mr. KuNziG. If the witness would listen instead of talking and 
trying to get in these asides 

Reverend McMiciiael. It is not an aside. 

Mr. KuNzio (continuing). And trying to bring in thousands of 
ministers who are not before this committee 

Reverend McMichael. They will recognize that this is the opening 
wedge 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Chairman, I move to strike 

Mr. Jackson. Regular order, Mr. Chairman. 

Reverend McMichael. For carrying out these ridiculous charges, 

Mr. KuNziG. I respectfully request this man 

Mr. Velde. Just a minute, please. 

Will the counsel please ask the question again ? 

Mr. KuNziG. I am attempting to, Mr. Chairman, but I respectfully 
request this man be kept quiet when he has no right to speak. 

Mr. Ci.ARDY. Mr. Chairman, may I request or move that the testi- 
mony of the witness be stricken 

Mr. Velde. I would ask you to ask the question again, and respect- 
fully ask the witness to answer the question. 

Reverend McMichael. Mr. Chairman, I stated I wasn't a member 
of tlie organization. How could I be a member of the national com- 
mittee? 

Mr. Velde. That wasn't the question pending at all. 

Mr. KuNziG. The question pending, which he couldn't obviously 
hear since he was talking 

Mr. Clardy. Wait a minute. 

Mr. KuNziG. Yes, Mr. Clardy. 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Chairman, I move to strike- 



Reverend McMichael. Are you trying to hide something by strik- 
ing this from the record? 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully request that some action 
be taken to keep this witness from making the obviously insulting, dis- 
paraging, and disrespectful comments that he makes. 

And I wish the Congress of the United States could hear this. 



2768 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Counsel, would you repeat tlie question, please 

Mr. KuNziG. Yes, sir. 

Reverend McMichael. I wish he would stop making accusations. 

Mr. Velde (continuing). So the witness can hear it. 

Mr. KuNziG. Tlie question is : Have you ever. Reverend McMichael, 
attended meetings of the Young Communist League? 

Reverend McMichael. I have not. 

Mr. Clardy. Now, Mr. Chairman, may I have recognition? 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Clardy. 

Mr. Clardy. I move to strike the remarks made by the witness from 
-the point of the first asking of the question. 

Tlie remarks were obviously contemptuous, but I think they should 
not remain in the record. 

Mr. Velde. Is there objection to the request of the gentleman from 
Michigan ? 

Mr. D JYLE. Now, I wish, please, to have the remarks to which Mr. 
Clardy refers read. 

Mr. Clardy. If the reporter got them, that is all right. 

Were you able to get those remarks, Mr. Reporter? 

The Reporter. Mr, Clardy, I am sure I didn't get all of the aside 
remarks and comments. I am sure I got only portions of some of 
them. 

Mr. Clardy. If you didn't get that trivial stuff, it is all right with 
me. 

Reverend McMichael. There is nothing trivial about it. 

Mr. Clardy. Witness, if you 

Reverend McMichael. If you are standing on these documents — 
if you identify yourself with any of this kind 

Mr. Velde. Please. 

Mr. Clardy. Witness, may I suggest you pay attention to the Chair 
today. 

Mr. Velde. Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. KuNziG. Now, Reverend McMichael, you said you never at- 
tended any meetings of the Young Communist League. May I ask 
if you 

Mr. Donner. May I ask the questioner to fix the time? 

Mr. KuNziG. No; you may not ask anything. 

Mr. Velde. No; the counsel 

Mr. Jackson. You may consult, if you care to. 

Mr. Velde. Yes ; j^ou may consult, if you care to. 

Reverend McMichael. That is all right. 

Mr. KuNziG. You testified yesterday you were never a member of 
the Communist Party, and you testified you are not now a member 
of the Communist Party. I now wish to ask you if you ever at any 
time attended Communist Party meetings. 

Reverend McMichael. Not to my knowledge. I've been — I've 
been very curious and interested in all sorts of things, and I've gone 
to a lot of meetings of groups I didn't agree with ; but never, to my 
knowledge, attended this kind of meeting. 

Mr. KuNziG. Will you deny here, under oath, you never attended 
a Communist Party meeting? 

Reverend Mc]VIichael. Yes ; I will deny, under oath, that I never, to 
my knowledge. 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2769 

Mr. KuxziG. I thought that would be the answer, and I think the 
record should note you very carefully added "to my knowledge.-' 

The question is : t)o you deny you ever attended a Communist Party 
meeting ? 

Reverend McMichael, The answer is: To my knowledge, I never 
attended such a meeting. 

Mr. KuNziG. In other words, that is an evasive answer. 

Reverend McMichaei You keep making charges of evasive 
answers. What is evasive about that ? 

Isn't it possible for a group to have a meeting and not know the 
nature of it ? 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Chairman. 

Reverend McMiciiael. Mr. Chairman, will you ask the counsel to 
be a counsel rather than a prosecuting attorney here? 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Jackson, 

Mr. Jackson. I would respectfully request of the Chair that all 
of these asides which are not directly responsive to a question be 
deleted from the record. 

Reverend McMichael. Including the counsel's 

Mr Jackson. It is quite obvious 

Reverend McMichael. Charges, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Jackson. Will you please be quiet until I finish? 

If you would only mind, if you can run down for 10 seconds, will 
you please give the committee members a chance? 

Reverend McMichael. Sure. 

Mr. Jackson. It is quite obvious that the witness, on most occasions, 
at least, is simply speaking to make the record. He has brought the 
Almighty in — unnecessarily, I believe — and to the point of near 
blasphemy, in my humble opinion. 

Reverend McMichael. Blasphemy refers to God, and you are not 
God, sir. 

Mr. Jackson. I am still speaking, if you don't mind. 

Reverend McMichael. All right. 

Mr. Jackson. And I would certainly suggest, as this day's hearing 
gets started, in order that we don't go through a rambling proposition 
such as the record of yesterday must appear, that every portion of 
the witness' testimony which is not directly responsive to the question 
that is asked be physically stricken from the record and that the re- 
porter be instructed not to take such portions as are not directly re- 
sponsive to the question. 

Reverend McMichael. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. Well, the Chair certainly concurs, and I believe the 
fellow members — — 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Chairman. 

Reverend McMichael. If the committee is not trying to be unfair, 
Mr. Chairman 

Mr. Doyle. Just a minute. 

If the Chair please 

Mr. Velde. The Chair recognizes the gentlemen from California, 
Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. DoYLE. As to the last part of my distinguished colleague's 
motion — of course, it is beyond the ability or the jurisdiction of the 
reporter to determine which is responsive and which is not. Mani- 



2770 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

festly, the reporter should not be put in a position where he is in- 
structed in advance to use his judgment as to what part of the witness' 
answer is responsive and what is not. I object very strenuously to 
that. I think it simply cannot be — not without my very strenuous ob- 
iection. I want the record to show that I think that is certainly 
improper. 

And certainly I think my colleague from California, Mr. Jackson, 
couldn't have realized the burden and the authority he was placing 
on the reporter. 

I never heard of such a thing. 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Chairman. 

Reverend McMichael. Mr. Chairman, will you strike from the 
record also the asides 

Mr. Clardy. Pardon me, Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Doyle. Pardon me. I am not through, please. 

Mr. Velde. Just a minute, Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Jackson. Quite naturally, I make that subject to the direction 
of the Chair, Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Doyle. I know, but you did not say you made it subject to the 
direction of the Chair. 

Mr. Jackson. I know. I so state now, and I am certain the Chair 
will see fit 

Mr. Doyle. Of course, if the Chair instructs the reporter not to 
take down something, that is another thing — and I am not sure that is 
right. I don't think it is. I think we want a record here of what 
occurs. That is my conception. 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Doyle. That is my conception of this sort of hearing. 

Mr. Velde. Well, I am inclined to agree with the gentleman from 
California, Mr. Doyle, that we must have a record here that pur- 
ports the actual statements that are made. 

Mr. Jackson. Very well. 

Mr. Velde. I would suggest 

Mr. Jackson. I withdraw my request. 

Mr. Velde. Any time a member feels voluntary statements are 
being made, blasphemous statements, or any kind of statement which 
the witness has been making — no question about that — that he ask it 
be stricken. 

Mr. Jackson. Very well. That is quite satisfactory. 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Chairman, may I 

Mr. Velde. Now, will you proceed, Mr. Counsel? 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Chairman, may I say something? 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Clardy. 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Chairman, in order to expedite matters — and you 
made the suggestion I had in mind — whenever the witness interjects 
these asides, which is obviously and purely for the purpose of trying 
to make the press, I am going to 

Reverend McMiciiael. For what purpose? 

Mr. Clardy- Will you please remain 

Reverend McMichael. The counsel 

Mr. Clardy (continuing). Quiet? 

You are not being asked any question — and it is this contemptuous 
attitude about which I am now addressing the Chair. 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2771 

Now, may I conclude, Mr. Chairman ? 

May I suggest, instead of interrupting to ask, that you are merely 
taking for granted that I am requesting in advance right now every 
time the witness makes any aside not in response to a question, or 
during the time a question is being asked, that you automatically and 
without my saying anything more direct the reporter to strike it out? 

I tliink that is the substance of Mr. Jackson's request, and it will 
expedite matters and we won't have the interruption. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. I would appreciate it very much if the witness would 
cooperate 

Reverend McMicitael. Mr. Chairman, if you will, I'll be glad to. 

Mr. Velde (continuing). With the committee. 

Mr. Scherer. He doesn't want to cooperate. 

Reverend McMiciiael. Let the counsel not make accusations, but 
ask questions. I'll give answers to questions. 

Mr. Velde. All right; proceed, Mr. Counsel. Let's get on with 
this hearing. 

Reverend McMiciiael. He's engaging in an attack 

Mr. KuNzio. Have you ever met Manning Johnson, Reverend Mc- 
Michael? 

Reverend McMiciiael. The name is unfamiliar to me. 

I would appreciate your producing him and let me look at him. 
Perhaps I would be able to recognize him by his face. 

Is he here in the room ? 

Mr. Velde. Is Mr. Manning Johnson in the audience? 

Mr. Williams, would you attempt to find Mr. Johnson? 

Mr. Williams. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Clardy. Would you know him if you saw him ? 

Reverend McMiciiael. I'll be glad to look at him. 

Mr. Clardy. Answer my question: Would you know him if you 
saw him? 

Reverend McMichael. How can I answer that question? 

I'll let the record show that question — how unfair it is. 

Mr. Clardy. If you were a truthful man, you would answer that 
question, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, now, Mr. Chairman- 



Reverend McMiciiael. What kind of a question 

Mr. Doyle. Just a minute now. 

I don't want to differ with my distinguished colleagues, but I submit 
that sort of statement by a member of this committee is highly 
improper. 

Mr. Clardy. I stand by it. 

Mr. Doyle. It is highly improper at this time. We are not judges. 
We are here to get the facts, whatever they are, and I think it is very 
unfortunate to have to disagree with my colleagues, and yet I can't 
sit as a member of this committee and complacently be silent when that 
sort of a statement is made from the committee bench. I just can't be 
silent. 

Mr. Clardy. You should be convinced by now, Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Doyle. That is all right. Whatever I am convinced of, I am 
not going to announce from the bench before the hearing is over. 

Mr. Velde. I can see no gain, as far as the committee is concerned 
in this work, by engaging in these disputes. 



2772 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

Mr. Clardy. I agree, Mr. Chairman. Patience has an end, though. 

Mr. Velde. Let us remind ourselves again of the duty we have — 
that is, to investigate subversive activities, subversive propaganda, 
and report tliei'eon to the Congress for remedial legislation. 

Let us try to keep the hearing within the confines of our jurisdic- 
tion. 

Reverend McMichael. Amen. 

Mr. Clardy. I move to strike that remark, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. Without objection, it will be stricken. 

Reverend McMichael. I am simply agreeing with the chairman on 
that. 

Mr. Clardy. I move to strike that remark. 

Reverend McMichael. I think it should be kept within the con- 
fines, too. 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. That was an entirely voluntary statement, Mr. Mc- 
Michael. There was no question pending. 

Mr. KuNziG. May I respectfully request several minutes' recess, 
until Mr. Johnson is produced ? 

Mr. Velde. The committee will be in recess for about 2 minutes. 

(Whereupon, at 10 : 44 a. m., the hearing was recessed, to reconvene 
at 10: 46 a.m.) 

(The hearing reconvened at 10:49 a. m., the following committee 
members being present: Representatives Harold H. Velde (chair- 
man), Donald L. Jackson, Kit Clardy, Gordon H. Scherer, and Clyde 
Doyle.) 

Mr. Velde. The committee will be in order. 

Have you been able to find Mr. Johnson 2 

Mr. Williams. Yes, Mr. Chairman ; I located Mr. Johnson. 

Mr. KuxziG. What was the 3^ear, Reverend McMichael, you said you 
graduated yesterday — was it 1938 — from Emory University? 

Reverend McMichael. Thirty-seven. 

Mr. KuNziG. Thirty-seven. 

And, then, what Avas your testimony — I would like to ask you again 
to testify — as to whether you went, after graduating from Emory, to 
China? 

I believe you made a trip. Was it to China? 

Reverend McMichael. I would like to ask, Mr. Chairman 

Mr, KuNziG. What were the dates ? 

Reverend McMtchaei^. Are you trying to inform the witness? 

Mr. KuNziG. What were the dates ? 

Reverend McMichael. I would like to know, Mr. Chairman 

Mr. KuNZiG. Mr. Chairman, there is a question pending. 

Reverend McMichael. Are 3'^ou trying to inform the witness you 
brought into the room? 

Mr. KuNZiG. There is a question pending. 

Reverend McJNIichael. Is this man in the room ? 

Mr. Velde. You are here as a witness. 

Reverend McMichael. Yes, but you are not here as prosecutors. 

Mr. Velde. You are not being prosecuted 

Reverend McMichael. Is tlie witness here, Mr. Chainnan ? 

Mr. Velde (continuing). Whatsoever. 

Reverend McMichael. Are you trying to give information 

Mr. Velde. Now, please answer the question. 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2773 

]Mr. Clardy. Mr. Chairman, I move to strike 



Reverend McMiciiael. Are you asking these questions to give some 
information to someone who will then be able to make accusations 
against me? 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Chairman, I move to strike all the remarks 

Reverend McMiciiael,. If that is true 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Chairman, I ask 

Reverend McMiciiael. I am a citizen. I object to that. 

Mr. KuNziG. We have a right to ask questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Reverend McMichael. JNIr. Chairman, is the witness in the room? 

I propose that you produce him and let me see him and ask him some 
questions. 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Chairman, I ask 

Mr. Velde. No ; of course that will not be allowed. 

Reverend McMiciiael. Well, don't be giving information to this 
accuser, who is a perjurer. 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. Now, voluntary statements will be stricken from the 
record. 

Mr. Donner. Object. 

Reverend McMichael. I object strongly to answering questions in 
the presence of a person who is trying to build up a case against me. 

Mr. KuNziG. When did you go to China ? 

Reverend McMichael. I object strongly to answering questions in 
the presence of a witness who is trying to build up a case against me, 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Chairman, I move to strike these remarks. 

Reverend McMichael, This case you have here from this testi- 
mony is so flat apparently that you are trying to reconstruct it or 
change it on the basis of my truthful answers to these questions. 

Mr. Clardy. I move to strike that, Mr. Cliairman. 

Reverend McMichael. I protest against 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. Will Mr. Manning Johnson please come forward'^ 

Mr. Cl-^rdy. Mr. Chairman, I move to strike 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. The Chair does not recognize any of the members at 
this time. 

Mr. KuNziG. Stand right there, Mr. Johnson. 

Now, Reverend McMichael 

Mr. Velde. Just a minute, please, Mr. Counsel, 

This, Mr. Witness, is Manning Johnson. 

Reverend McMichael. I don't know him, Mr. Chaiiman. 

Mr. Velde. Have you met Mr. Johnson? 

Reverent JNIcMichael. I don't know him. 

Mr. Velde. Have you ever met him ? 

Reverend McMichael. I don't know the man. 

Mr. Johnson. Take a good look. 

Reverend McMiciiael. I am taking a good look. 

Mr. Velde. Will you answer my questions ? 

Reverend McMichael. I would like to have the privilege of ask- 
ing him some questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. Well, of course, you are the witness at the present 
time. 

Reverend McMichael. Are you interested in the information? 



2774 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

It certainly will come out if I can ask him some questions. 

Mr. Vklde. Will you answer as to whether you have ever met Mr. 
Manning Johnson ? 

Keverend McIMichael. I certainly don't recognize the name, and I 
don't recognize his appearance. 

Mr. Vklhk. And will you say definitely you have never met him? 

Keverend McMichael. I will say definitely I have no knowledge 
of ever having met him and, on the basis of his name and on the 
basis of looking at him, that 1 haven't; and I would like the privilege, 
if you are interested in information, of asking him some questions 
that will bring out some information. 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Chairman, regular order. 

Mr. Velde. The committee is asking questions. 

Reverend McINIiciiael. Well, I would like to have the privilege, as 
an American citizen, of cross-examining this witness. 

Mr. Jackson. Have you read the rules of the committee, Witness? 

Reverend McISIiciiael. Yes; I've read the rules of the committee. 

Mr. Jackson. Well, then, you know perfectly well the request you 
are making is not in accordance with the rules of the committee. 

(At this point Reverend McMichael conferred with Mr. Doimer.) 

Reverend McMichael. Is the committee trying to prosecute me, sir ? 

Mr. Jackson. The committee, excepting you are prosecuting your- 
self in your own mind, has absolutely no intention of prosecuting you. 

Reverend McMichael. The committee has circulated perjured 
charges against me. 

Mr. Jackson. Very well. That will be determined in another 
tribunal as to who has perjured himself. 

Reverend McMichael. Very well. 

]\ir. Velde. All right, Mr. Johnson, you may retire. 

Reverend McMichael. Mr. Chairman, in the matter of privilege, 
may I ask for the opportunity 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Chairman. 

Rsverend McMichael. Of asking this perjurer questions? 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Chairman, I move that be stricken from the 
record. 

Mr. Velde. Without objection, that will be stricken from the 
^^^- record. It is not responsive to any questions. 

Mr. KuNzTo. Mr. Chairman, I have here a document, marked 

"McMichael Exhibit No. 31" for identification, which is a photostatic 
copy of an undated letterhead of the United American Spanish Aid 
Committee, showing Jack McMichael as a sponsor of the organization. 

I hand you that copy. 

(At this point Reverend McMichael conferred with Mr. Donner.) 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. KuNziG. Yes, Mr. Jackson. 

Mr. Jackson. What is the organization? 

Mr. KuNziG. The organization, sir, is the United American Span- 
ish Aid Committee. 

Mr. Jackson. Was there a citation on the organization? 

Mr. KuNziG. Yes, sir; I am getting that. 

The United American Spanish Aid Committee was cited as Commu- 
nist by Attorney General Tom Clark in 1949, by the Special Commit- 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2775 

tee on Un-American Activities in 1944 and by the California com- 
mittee in 1948. 

;Mr. Jackson. Thank you. 

(At this point Reverend McMichael was still conferring with Mr. 
Donner.) 

Reverend McMichael. Mr. Kunzig, what was the date of this; 
do you know ? 

Mr. Kunzig. I already stated there is no date on the thing, Reverend 
McMichael. 

Reverend McMichael. Do you have any knowledge of the date? 

Mr. Kunzig. I haven't any knowledge as to the date. I just have 
the document, which has your name on it. It is unfortunately undated. 

Reverend McMichael. Along with the distinguished humanitarian, 
Helen Keller 



Mr. SciiERER. Now, Mr. Chairman 

Reverend McMichael. And the distinguished author 

Mr. ScHERER. I object to this answer. 

Reverend McMichael. Van Wyck Brooks 

Mr. Velde. If the witness will answer the question — — 

Reverend McMichael. Olin Downes 

Mr. Velde. Please. 

Reverend McMichael. The document indicates here I was a spon- 
sor of this attempt to bring milk to thousands of children who survived 
the horror of concentration camps in Franco Spain. 

Now, I have no memory of it at all, Mr. Chairman. It seems like 
a very worthy cause, from a democratic and humanitarian 

Mr. Velde. You have no memory of it? 

Reverend McMichael. No; but it seems like a very humanitarian 
cause, from a Christian and democratic view, and that is the basis 
I am operating on. 

Mr. Velde. We are interested to know 

Reverend McMichael. So, I could have done it. 

Mr. Velde. Whether you v/ere a member. 

Reverend McMichael. I wasn't a member. 

I haven't been charged as being a member of any of these organiza- 
tions. 

Mr. Velde. The counsel is questioning you about 

Reverend McMichael. These questions haven't 

Mr. Velde (continuing). Your activities 

Reverend McMichael. To do with membership. 

Mr. Velde (continuing). In connection with these organizations, 
and it is within the jurisdiction of this committee and within the 
jurisdiction of the United States Congress to ask one of its citizens to 
answer questions 

Reverend McMichael. That's right. 

Mr. Velde. And be responsive to questions. 

Reverend McMichael. I assume you want to be fair, and I want to 
answer in context. I want to give the context — that's all — so I won't 
be misrepresented. 

Mr. Kunzig. And to make the record clear, we are not sayino-, Rev- 
erend McMichael, you were a member; we are saying or asking you: 
Were you, as listed 



2776 HEARINGS REGAKDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

Reverend McMichael. Along with Helen Keller 

Mr. KuNziG (continuing). A sponsor 

Reverend McMichael (continuing). Van Wyck Brooks 

Mr. KuNziG (continuing). Of this organization ? 

Reverend McMichael (continuing) . And one of our greatest sculp- 
tors 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Chairman, I offer in evidence 

Reverend McMichael. Olin Downes 

Mr. Velde. Just a minute. 

Mr. KuNziG. I offer in evidence this document as McMichael ex- 
hibit No. 31, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. Without objection, it will be admitted at this point. 

(The photostatic copy of the undated letter on the letterhead of the 
United American Spanish Aid Committee was marked and received 
in evidence as "McMichael Exhibit No. 31.") 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 
McMICHAEL EXHIBIT NO. 31 



2777 



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200 FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK, N. Y. 

KCXM 810 GRAMERCY S-7607 



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John Shskman 

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Edward E. Streog 
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Ed> Loo Wthoa 



Dear friend : 

The peoplee of Europe are again being subjected to the bar- 
baritlee of war as the continent goes up in flames - a war that 
threatens the very life of democracy. The first victims of the 
war, the foremost defenders of democracy and peace, were the 
Spanish Republican Army and International Brigades, the harrassed 
Spanish people, the millions Imprisoned and shot by the Franco 
GoTemaent. 

The intensification of the war aeans a further worsening of 
the tragic plight of the Spanish people and refugees who had to 
flee their native land. For three years they fought with couraga 
and heroism. They can never be forgotten, lest we pay an even 
greater price for Liberty. 

Thousands of children who survived the horror of concentra- 
tion camps need milk to keep alive. Thousands of "able-bodied" 
men, workers, intellectuals and professionals working in "pick 
and shoVel gangs" of forced labor battalions, need shoes, soap, 
aediolnes. Thousands of scattered families must be reunited and 
given a minimum of food if they are to survive. Soldiers whose 
wounds are not yet healed need not only medicines, but also art- 
ificial legs and arms. And for as many as possible we must provid* 
transportation to counfries where they can start life anew. 

Millions of people have contributed much and continously to 
keep alive the spirit of democracy and to relieve the suffering 
of those who defended it. In spite of all difficulties, the way 
is still open for us to bring them aid - through our International 
Coordinating Committee in France. Tith YOUR help - we can and nuat 
answer the urgent appeals we constantly receive. 



Please send us inmediatgly -the largest contribution you can, 
to help ease the suffering of those who depend on us. 



Sinoerely yours. 



^Ifi»y»OZ. ¥QcLK*^ 



Edward K. Barsky, tl. D. 



^^V«^ HeUkJlc^ 



Dorothy Parker 



Helen Keller 



Mr. Velde. The Chair recognizes the gentleman from California, 
Mr. Jackson. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Chairman, I want to say on several occasions the 
witness has remonstrated over guilt by association, and he is quite 
obviously making every possible effort to disassociate himself from 
these organizations or any connection with them by the simple process 
of innocence by association. 

Reverend McMichael. I thought you just said you were not judg- 
ing me, sir. 



2778 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

Mr. Jackson. I am not judging you at all. 

Reverend McMichael. Well, it certainly amounts to that. 

Mr. Jackson. I was simply making an observation. 

Reverend McMiciiael. May I say 

Mr. Jackson. Just a minute. 

Reverend McMiciiael. I don't think 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. The committee members have a perfect right to make 
statements. 

Reverend McMiciiael. I know, but he said I was not being judged, 
and now he makes an observation which amounts to that. 

Mr. Jackson. No ; I suggested you were using other names 

Reverend McMichael. No. 

Mr. Jackson. To establish 

Reverend McMichael, To correct the misrepresentation. 

Mr. Jackson. Or to demonstrate your innocence in the same manner 
which you used or stated guilt by association. 

Reverend McMichael. I said I was not connected with it. 

Mr. Jackson. Guilt by association 

Reverend McMichael. Is un-American 

Mr. Jackson. Is a terrible thing 

Reverend McMichael. And un-Christian. 

Mr. Jackson. And I am moved to remark- 



Reverend ISIcMiCHAEL. That is the principle on which these ques- 
tions are based. 

Mr. Jackson. Now, just a minute. I still have the floor. 

Reverend McMichael. All right. 

Mr. Jackson. Innocence by association, when it can be used, is very, 
very desirable. 

I should like to know on how many other occasions and how many 
letterheads the names of some of these distinguished people appear. 

Reverend McMichael. If you give me an opportunity, I would be 
glad to answer that. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman, may I have the floor for a moment. 

Mr. Velde. The Chair recognizes the gentleman from Ohio, Mr. 
Scherer. 

Mr. Scherer. I want to admonish counsel in this case. Counsel, 
under the rules, is permitted to advise his client as to the law and his 
constitutional rights. Counsel in this case, on three separate occasions 
this morning, when a question has been asked the witness, has given 
the witness the answer. 

I have watched that carefully. You gave him the last answer. 
Now, that is not the duty of counsel in this case. 

Mr. DoNNER. I don't want the record to stand with that accusation 
on it. That is a most improper accusation. 

Mr. Velde. Let the record show 

Reverend McMichael. The record shouldn't stand with false ac- 
cusations. 

Mr. Velde. Let the record show at this point that Mr. Jackson has 
to leave the committee on official business and I, therefore, appoint 
a subcommittee consisting of Mr. Scherer, Mr. Clardy, Mr. Doyle, 
and myself as chairman for the purposes of further hearing. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Chairman, may I 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Doyle. 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2779 

Mr. Doyle. Being a member of the bar, as you know, I have always 
taken the position that counsel should have considerable leeway in 
advising his client before this committee, and I know what our rule 
is; but I think counsel ought to thoroughly understand — and I be- 
lieve you have instructed him, Mr. Chairman — any time he feels his 
client's constitutional rights are, if they are ever, in jeopardy, or feels 
it is important that he advise his client, he may do so and I, as a 
member of the bar, hope he will do so. 

Mr. Velde. Of course, Mr. Doyle, you realize that the counsel 
always has been accorded that privilege by this committee, and 
will 

Mr. ScTTERER. But he has no right — — 

Mr. VrxnE (continuing). Be accorded that privilege while I am 
chairman of this committee. However, I want to say it is not within 
the bounds of decent, ethical behavior for counsel to put words 

Keverend McMiciiael. Nor has he done so 

Mr. ScuERER. He certainly has. 

Reverend McMiciiael. And the accusation oughtn't to stand. 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Chairman, I move 

Reverend McMichael. He has not put words in my mouth. 

Mr. Clardy. I move those remarks be stricken, Mr. Chairman. 

Reverend McMiciiael. I have given my own answers, and they are 
effectual answers, and they can stand. 

Mr. Velde. Without objection, those remarks made by the witiiess 
will be stricken from the record. 

Mr. DoNNER. I would like the record to show my protest. I think 
the accusation is unfounded. 

Reverend McMicuael. If you make accusations, can there be no 
reply at all ? 

Are you supposed to be asking questions or making accusations, 
without giving us any chance to reply? 

Mr. Clardy. I move that be stricken, Mr. Chairman. 

Reverend McMiciiael. Mr. Chairman, that is a question for infor- 
mation. I would like to know. Is it your purpose to never give 
people who are accused a chance to reply? 

]\Ir. Clardy. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. Without objection, those remarks — voluntary remarks 
of both counsel and the witness — will be stricken from the record 
at this point. 

Reverend McMiciiael. Mr. Chairman, could you let us know 
whether or not you intend for us to let go unanswered 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Chairman. 

Reverend McMiciiael. Unfair accusations? 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. Those remarks will be stricken. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Chairman, I have 

Mr. Velde. As I admonished you yesterday, I would very much 
regret to have to ask you to leave the witness stand; but if further 
outbursts are made, with no question pending 

Reverend McMiciiael. Would you please refrain from making 
accusations, Mr. Chairman? 

Mr. Velde. I shall have to ask the officers to escort you from the 
room. 

39125—53 12 



2780 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

Will you proceed? 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. Just one minute, please. 

Mr. Doyle. I want to make one observation. 

Mr. Velde. The Chair recorjnizes the gentleman from California. 

Mr. Doyle. I object to the rulinc; of the chairman striking the pro- 
test of counsel from this record about a charge made by my distin- 
guished committee member. I think a member of the bar, to be 
charged with a violation of this committee's rules, should be permitted 
to make a dignified statement, wliich he made, to show in the record, 
because he has a reputation to protect the same as we have ; and, there- 
fore, I object to the Chair's ruling that his protest be stricken from 
the record. 

I believe he owes it to himself and the profession of law to have 
the record show that he didn't sit there in silence and be charged — 
I am not saying the criticism was not well founded ; I don't know, but 
I do think, Mr. Chairman, that a member of the bar, under such cir- 
cumstances, should have the right to show in the record that he denies 
the charge. 

That is all I have to say. 

Mr. Clakdy. Mr. Chairman, I am the only member who hasn't 
spoken on that. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Clardy. 

Mr. Clardy. I think I should point out that the rules specifically 
and explicitly prohibit counsel addressing the committee at any time. 

Now, I have also observed the conduct of counsel. I shall reserve 
my remarks as to what I think about it for an appropriate time and 
place, but I concur in the ruling of the Chair. 

Mr. Velde. Well, let me make this statement, Mr. Doyle : The coun- 
sel, of course, in this particular case, is not under oath and any state- 
ment that he might make would be a voluntary statement by a person 
not under oath in that connection ; and, therefore, the proper 

Reverend McMichael. Mr. Chairman, I am under oath and I will 
be glad to make a statement for him. 

Mr. Clardy. Regular order, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Chairman, may we continue? 

Mr. Velde. I might say the committee will take up the matter as 
to whether or not counsel should be ]:)ermitted to make a statement 
after we are through with the present witness. 

Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Chairman, I have a document, which is marked 
McMichael exhibit No. 32 for identification, which is a photostatic 
copy of the Daily Worker of March 5, 1941, page 2, which shows that 
a Jack R. McMichael, of New York City, was a signer of a statement 
urging the President and Congress to defend the rights of the Com- 
munist Party. 

I hand you this document, and ask you if you signed or peraiitted 
yom' name to be used in this listing of those who signed, defending the 
rights of the Communist Party. 

Reverend McMichael, Mr. Chairman 

Mr. Velde. I might announce at this point we have had a call of 
the House, and the committee will stand in recess for 30 minutes. 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2781 

(Whereupon, at 11 : OG a. m., the hearing was recessed, to reconvene 
at 11 :36 a.m.) 

(The hearing reconvened at 11:45 a. m., the following committee 
members being present : Representatives Harold H. Velde (chairman), 
Kit Clardy, Gordon H. Scherer, and Clyde Doyle.) 

Mr. Vfxde. The committee will be in order. 

Mr. Reporter, let the record show that I have appointed a sub- 
committee consisting of Mr. Clardy, Mr. Scherer, Mr. Doyle, and 
myself as the chairman, for the purposes of our continuing this 
hearing. 

Will you proceed ? Was there a question pending ? 

Mr. KuNziG. I have it here. I had passed McMichael exhibit No. 32 
to the witness, which was a copy of the Daily Worker having a long 
list of names signing a statement urging the President and Congress 
to defend the rights of the Communist Party. The question was, Did 
you sign or permit your name to be used in the list of those defending 
the rights of the Communist Party ? 

Reverend McMichael. My answer is that, as the distinguished 
Harvard Law Review put it in October 1947, the statement in question, 
also in defense of the Communist Party's rights under the Constitu- 
tion 

Mr. Velde. Will you answer the question first ? 

Reverend McMichael. I, along with Dean Fleming James 

Mr. Velde. You said you will answer it. Please answer it. 

Reverend McMichael. I am answering it, in context. 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Chairman, I ask that the witness be directed to 
give a yes or no answer preceding any explanation he wants to give, 
and I move to strike out the answer thus far. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Clardy, I expect we have to have the patience of 
Job to continue this hearing. As I announced yesterday, I am willing 
to stay here 

Reverend McMichael. I want to answer in context. 

Mr. Velde (continuing). To continue this hearing until all of the 
information concerning you and concerning the subversive activities 
and subversive propaganda is fully developed. 

Reverend McMichael. Surely. 

Mr. Velde. I hoped that you, in the interests of saving your Con- 
gress' and your elected Members of Congress' time, would cooperate in 
that regard. 

Mr. Doyle. I concur with my chairman. I want to stay until the 
hearing is finished. I want to join with my chairman in urging you 
cooperate with us. 

Reverend McMichael. I want to cooperate and I want to answer 
questions in context, so that I am not misrepresented. 

Mr. Velde. Will you ask the question again, Mr. Kunzig, please ? 

Reverend McMichael. Yes. I have not failed to answer, and I 
will. 

As I stated the Dean of the University of the South who 

Mr. Velde. That is not in answer to the question. Will you answer 
the question, })lease. It is entirely irrelevant. 

Reverend McMichael. Mr. Chairman, it is not irrelevant because 
it shows the nature of the statement. 

Mr. Scherer. Who is runnincr the committee? 



2782 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

Reverend McMichael. The statement has been- 



Mr. SciiERER. Just a minute. I have the floor. I want to know 
who is running the committee. Is he to determine whether a question 
is relevant, or the Chair? That is absolutely contemptuous, as all of 
his conduct has been, and I want the record to show that this conduct 
of the witness has persisted in utter contempt of the Congress of the 
United States. 

Reverend McMichael. This is a witness trying to cooperate in 
answering questions. 

Mr. Velde. There is no question pending except the one asked you 
by counsel. Will you please answer? 

Reverend McMichael. If you will let me answer it in my own way 
I will, and I will answer it satisfactorily. 

Mr. Velde. Will you repeat the question? 

Reverend McMichael. I understand the question. 

Mr. KuNZiG. I repeat the question. Did you sign or permit your 
name to be used in this list of those defending the rights of the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. Velde. That is a very simple question and can be answered 
very simply. 

Reverend McMichael. Yes, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. And you have agreed to cooperate. 

Reverend McMichael. I am cooperating. I want the oppor- 
tunity 

Mr. Velde. All of the members of the committee have other things 
they would like to do. 

Reverend McMichael. I would like 1 minute to answer this 
question. 

Mr. Velde. All right. The Chair will grant you 1 minute. 

Reverend McMichael. Along with Dean Fleming James of the 
University of the South, who conducted the funeral services for the 
late Chief Justice Stone, and the professor of Mount Holyoke, and 
many other distinguished people who identified themselves in the 
statement which the Daily Worker, the favorite source of authority 
of Mr. Kunzig, indicates I signed — a statement which the Harvard 
Law Review describes not as a defense of the Communist Party, but 
the American Constitution and the right of the American people to 
vote for any party they want on the ballot, and letting a multiparty 
system rather than a one-party system, which is a democratic and 
American system, rather than the antidemocratic system, prevail. 

Mr. Clardy. I move to strike out the insults directed at counsel. 

INIr. Kunzig. May I point out he has not said "Yes" or "No," as to 
whether his name was used. He gave a long song and dance 

Reverend McMichael. Yes. My name is used. 

Mr. Velde. We have given you an opportunity to make a 1-minute 
speech, which you have just gotten through doing. You haven't an- 
swered the question, 

Rsverend McMichael. I have answered the question, that my name 
was used, according to the Daily Worker. 

Mr. Velde. Will you please answer the question? 

Mr. Kunzig. The question was, Did you permit your name to be 
used ? Did you authorize this ? 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 27S.^ 





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HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2783 

Reverend McMichael. I don't recall authorizing it, but having 
read the statement and seeing the nature of it, I think it was mis- 
represented from your description. 

Mr, KuNziG. Now we get tlie facts. 

Mr. Velde. Now we will proceed. 

Reverend McMichael. I am not denying I did. 

Mr, Velde. There is no question pending. 

Reverend McMichael. All right. 

Mr. Velde. The Chair would like to make a statement that the 
committee members are unanimous in feeling we should continue this 
hearing until 12: 15 and adjourn for II/2 hours, which will make it 
1 : 45, and let us get as much developed as we possibly can. 

We will give you an opportunity to answer questions here. 

Reverend McMichael. That is all I want, is an opportunity to 
answer. I haven't been withholding answers, I^Ir, Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. Of course, you are being given an opportunity. 

Reverend McMichael. All right, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. And I would hope you will answer questions. 

Reverend McMichael. If you will give me an opportunity of an- 
swering and not to misrepresent myself, that is all I ask. I want my 
Christian and democratic privilege. 

Mr. KuNziG. I offer this document in evidence as McMichael ex- 
hibit No. 32, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. Without objection, it will be introduced. 

(McMichael exhibit No. 32, Daily Worker, March 5, 1941, p. 2, 
article. Text of Statement in Defense of Communist Party, including 
list of 450 prominent Americans who signed statement, was made a 
part of the record.) 

Mr. KuNziG. I have a document marked "McMichael Exhibit No. 
33" which is a photostatic copy of the official invitation of the 
American Council on Soviet Relations,^* inviting the people who re- 
ceived this to a reception in honor of various people, 6 or 7 people, 1 of 
whom is Jack McMichael, on Sunday, November 16, 5 to 8 p. m., in the 
Gold Room, Hotel Ambassador, Park Avenue at 51st Street, New York 
City. I hand this to you. 

Mr. Chairman, the American Council on Soviet Relations was cited 
as subversive and a Communist successor to the Friends of the Soviet 
Union by Attorney General Clark in 1948 ; cited as a Communist front 
by Attorney General Biddle in 1942; and cited as a Communist front 
by the Special Committee on Un-American Activities and the Cali- 
fornia Committee on Un-American Activities. 

Mr. Velde. Thank you. What are the dates of the citations? 

Reverend McMichael. Do vou have the dates of this^ 

Mr. KuNziG. 1948 for Tom Clark, 1942 for Francis Biddle, 1944 for 
the Special Committee on Un-American Activities, and 1948 for the 
California committee. 



** American Council on Soviet Relations : 

1. Cited as the subversive and Communist successor to tiie Friends of the Soviet Union 
(Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review Board, released June 1, 194S, and 
Septenil)er 21. 1948). 

2. Cited as a Conimunipt front (Attorney General Francis Biddle, Congressional Record, 
September 24, 1942, p. 7688). 

3. Cited lis a Communist front (Special Committee on Un-American Activities, report, 
March 29, 1944, p. 174). 



2784 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

Reverend McMichael. Do you have the date of this, Mr. Kunzig? 
Is there a date for that ? Can you provide that ? 

Mr. Kunzig. Let me see it. Why are you asking? You have the 
date in front of you. I read it. 

Reverend McMichael. What is the date ? 

Mr. Kunzig. Read it out loud yourself. I read it already, so it is 
no secret. 

R3verend McMich\el. Wliatyear? 

Mr. Kunzig. You can read it, can't you? 

Reverend McMichael. Will you please read it to me ? 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Chairman, Mr. Kunzig, I suggest you do not 
follow the request or direction of the witness. 

Mr. Kunzig. He is referring to the year. 

Mr. Clardy. He is being contemptuous again. 

Reverend McMichael. There is nothing contemptuous about ask- 
ing for a year. 

Mr. Kunzig. Mr. Chairman, he is referring to the year, Sunday, 
November IG. The year is 1941. 

I will give him the next documents, which are all attached and have 
to do with the same thing. 

Reverend McIMichael. May I see that ? 

Mr. Kunzig. The next is the American Council on Soviet Relations, 
letter dated November 10, 1941, announcing the sale of tickets to a 
celebration to be held on November 17, 1941, commemorating the 
eighth anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations be- 
tween the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist 
Republics, and listing Jack McMichael among the speakers, which is 
marked here "Exhibit 33-A." There is also a document marked 
"Exhibit 34," wliich is an invitation to be guest of honor at celebra- 
tion commemorating the eighth anniversary of the establishment of 
diplomatic relations between the United States of America and the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Monday, NoA^ember 17. 

It is an official invitation of the council showing that Jack Mc- 
Michael was among the speakers at the celebration of the eighth 
anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between the 
United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, 
held by the American Council on Soviet R3lations. 

Tied in with it and in relation to the same thing, so that you have 
the full picture, is a photostatic copy of a confidential police depart- 
ment report of New York City showing that Jack McMichael was a 
speaker at the meeting, hinting that this is all part and parcel of the 
American Council on Soviet Relations. 

These four documents have to do with the same group. The last 
exhibit in connection with this, marked McMichael Exhibit No. 35 
for identification, contains the statement : 

In answei'ing the recent appeal made by Soviet Youth at their meeting in 
Moscow, .laelj McMichael of the American Youth Congress said : 

"The Soviet Union has in two brief decades made more progress than any 
other great power in realizing in practice the Christian and democratic principles 
of equal opportunity regardless of race or national origin." 

These are four documents relating to instances in which your name 
is used as a participant speaker in meetings sponsored by this Commu- 
nist-front organization. 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2785 

The question is, did you attend and were you the speaker at these 
meetings ? 

Let me hand you also the document marked "McMichael Exhibit 
No. 36," because that goes with them. That is a confidential police 
report, and the other (McMichael Exhibit No, 35) is a statement put 
out by the American Council on Soviet Relations. (Press release de- 
scribing speech delivered by Jack McMichael on occasion referred to in 
McMichael Exhibit No. 33-A.) 

Reverend McMichael. Yes. 

Mr. Chairman, remembering that the President of the 

Mr. Velde. Will the witness remember that he has been asked to 
answer question as concisely as possible? 

Reverend McMichael. I will do that as briefly as possible, to be 
accurate. 

Remembering the date and that the President of the United States 
had promised all support to this invaded country, and that the present 
President of the United States wrote to this organization, or another 
organization like this, praising its work, and remembering the historic 
period in which this happened 

Mr. Velde, Will you answer the question? 

Reverend McMichael. Yes. And remembering the historic pe- 
riod in which this happened, which is not today, and it is quite a 
different situation, I testify that I am sure that I did, along — did 
speak on that occasion and am quoted as having been speaking in 
support of the President of the United States. 

Then, with reference to this other 

Mr. ScHERER. Are you quoting from the police report as having 
spoken ? 

Reverend McMichael. No, sir. In the police report I am quoted 
as having spoken for better employment opportunities for the youth 
of America, alleging that there are still 5 million unemployed in the 
United States, and expressing joy over the fact that the Rapp-Cou- 
dert committee will end its functions after December 31. 

Those sentiments are certainly in accord with my conception of 
what is Christian and democratic, and I think we should work to get 
rid of unemployment for all young people. They are in line with 
my conviction. 

Mr. Velde. Will you answer the question then ? 

Raverend McMichael. So I answer on the basis of this police 
report as it is descri}>ed I am willing to testify I did speak at the 
meeting. 

Mr. Velde. Is that an exhibit, Mr. Counsel ? 

Mr. KuNziG, Yes. 

Mr. Velde. What is the number of the exhibit ? 

Mr. KuNziG. I now offer in evidence McMichael exhibit Nos. 3r>. 
33-A, 34, 35, and 36. 

Mr. Velde. Is there a request they be admitted ? 

Mr. KuNziG. I request they be admitted into the record. 

Mr. Velde. Without objection, they will be admitted into the rec- 
ord at this point. 

(McMichael Exhibit Nos. 33, 33-A, 34, 35, and 36 were made a part 
of the record. ) 



2786 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 



McMICHAEL EXHIBIT NO. 33 

On ilic or<,i^ir)n of thr f'icfi»l» Annivr^ary 

o( jIk- l!<.t,iK|j4lim«nt of Piplomafir Hr\i\- 

lions hclwron ihr L nilocf Staff's of Aiiiofn,i 

ant! llu- Union of >o\iol N>ciati»l Ropuf)lir$ 



^he .^mencan L^ouncil on Soviet /\elali 



ions 



ini'ilcs vou to a 



r^ecepUon 



I \ HONOR OF 

Lt. Conmianffor Cfiarle* S. Secly 
Arthur L'pfiam Pope Genevieve Tag(^ar(^ 

Dr. Hrnry E. Sigerist Clifford T. f^. Avoy 

Corliss Lamont Ja<k McMichacI 

Mr* Joseph E. Davies 



Vi6tli/- 5 (o 



SUNDAY. NO\ENIBEiy^i6iy- 5 «o 8 P.M 

in tfie Com Room 

HOTEL AMBASSADOR 

Park Avcnur nl -jist Sired 
New York Cily 

R.SV.P. NtUSIC 

Our giipsfs of ^onor al l/iis Re<eplion irilJ oc the 
principcl speaf<crs at a forlhconiing Anniversary Meeting 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 



2787 



McMICHAEL EXHIBIT NO. 33-A 

AMERICAN COUNCIL ON SOVIET RELATIONS 



IIJ LAST lOil. SIKIIIT 



TIIK HKV. J<IMI-|| F. KI.F.TrtlF.R 
*l.ltlliHll T. MC AVOV 



Nf^W YORK CITV 



C\in,^i.y 7 612:1 



KoTsober 10, X941 



CI.CIHGK MARSHALL 
Pllll.lt' J. JAFKE 
THOMAS 1_ HARRIS 
CI.IFrOBn F. UTI.CH 



MARY VAN KLErCK 

CKiif'^jm el UrtrdubCommHut 



Doar* Triend: 

On Monday, Noveobor 17th, Iho JtJurican Council on 
Soviut Rolationo Is coumauoratin^ the Zlghtli Anniversary 
of the establishuent of diplonatic relations between tho 
United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist RopublicB, 
nt Manhattan Center, 34tn Stroet & 8th Avenue, at 8:00 P.M. 
Spe.-Ucers will include Lt. Conaander Charles S. Seely, 
U.S. Navy (Rotirud) .ind Editor of UAVY N3»S, the official 
organ of tho Navy and author of a recent book on the Sovlot 
Union, RUSSIA AND THE APPROACH 0? ARUACZDDON; Mrs. Joseph 
E, Davies, who, ao wife of tho fonaor Ambassador to tho 
Soviet Union, spent over a year and a half in Russia- 
Professor Arthur Uphaa Pope, Chaiman of Comuitteo for 
National Morale, who as head of the Aaorican Institute 
for Iranian Art, has attended laany conferences in Moscow; 
Jack UcMlchael, Chaiman of the Auerlcan Youth Conpross; 
Genevieve Iftg/;ard, Poet, Corliss laoont of tho Anorlcan 
Council on Soviet Relations will also bo a principal 
epookerw Dr. Henry E. Siseriet, Director of the Instituta 
of tho History of Modicino, John Hoplcins University, will 
preside, 

Tlclrets may be "jought in advance for this oeoting at our 
offices, 112 East 19th Street, Rooa 805, or at the 
Bookfair, 133 Viost 44th Street. Prices range frou 35/ to 
H.IO. 

I hope you will drop in and taJco *■ maajr tickets as 
possible for this Beotlng, 



etm/t 
uopwa #16 



Sincerely, 
aifford 7. Welch 



2788 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

McMICHAEL EXHIBIT NO. 34 
Tlir. AmIKICAN Coi'NCll. on SoVII l RllMlnNS 

iNvni:s Yoi* TO m: \ giist oi hdnok ANi> mi on imi 

PLATIOKM AT A I»L'BI.ir Ml ITINC. DN Till. (K"( AMON Ol I III 



C^ialdli .^nnivc 



«>f llir 



UNITED sr.vn:s oi- ami-rk a 

iiiul tflP 

UNION Ol- so\ii:r sociAnsr ri:pubijc\s 

Monday, Novcnilwr i7</i. 8 p.m. 
s /» /: .A K / li s 

Mis. lnM*|>ll r.. I)*i\ii-H 

I,!. Coijimamlrr CliHrlc!! S. S'«ly Nrllmr I 'p'""" '*"•!••" 

CorlisH I.iiiiHmt ••"'^ Nl. ^li. Ii.mI 

( 'triH'virvr TatJUHnl I Iuhiimh I. I ItitrH 

Dr, llrnrv I.. Siv!«ri>l. ( '/i«iiriri<iM 

and <tlli(*r.<i 

Manhattan (^i:nti:r 

3Jlll Slrrvt IiikI Htli Avriuir 
Nrw York ( ily 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2789 




McMICHAEL EXHIBIT NO. 35 

AMERICAN COlNCIl ON SOVIET RELATIONS 

SaiionJ Oflae. iij EAS I iQil. S I RELH • NEW YORK CUT 

CRamrrry 701 ai 



o>r THE occASio:; of tk2 eiohth jiiwivzesahy cf 7fE zsrABLis;i;r.r: 

OF A::£RICA;*-SCVI2I DIPXOI^^TIC RiLATICKS. 

In answering tho roccnt uppoal uado by Soviet Youth ;:t t^ioir ticutin/: 
in lloscon. Jack MclSicliaal of ths *iioricr-n Youth Cciifrosc ealdi 
"Bic Soviet Union haB in two brief doccdos r..ad- :-.crc practice tiv.r. any 
othor Croat power in ro-lizing in pr.'ictlco f.io Chricti;-.ii -ind d>.r.iocr;:Otlc 
principloE of equal opportunity r^Cwrdlcss cf rcco or :i;:ticii."-l f>ri,:in, 

"Let us pay tribute to these Scvict youtli for tho trouondcu's projtroso 
thoy have uado in sue'.-, a brief period against such liufo intern;:! and 
oxtomal obstaclos. Now tho pov/orful amies of Hitler are sookln;.: to v/ipo 
out every or.o of thoso gains, by destroying tho hones, schools, factories, 
tho very llfa-blocd of this ."iroat section of tho world's younf:er i^oneration. 
Hitler vrould replace the oq-oality which lias been v7on fer racial and nr.ticnal 
uinoritios in tho Soviet Union v/ith tho uost pmrarfully vicious cy3to:.i of 
racial persocutiori yet kr.cnn to ijan, 

"Bat Hitler v/lll not succeod. At last Hitler's tiuotablc is not werkiii^. 
There are no fifth coluimists aucng_ tho youth of tho Soviet Union, T.'.oir 
courage is magnificent. Hioir uoralo is high. This noralo is basod not 
■ alone on slogans, but on the solid t'ains their nation has riade toi/ards tho 
solution of youth's pressing pr&bleus. Thoy uill win in tlioir epic battlo 
against Hitlorlsu, Thoy liave sent to tho youth of JLierica the soloi.in proiiiso 
that thoy will keep cnf ighting. and cartl>-scjrchine and dyinc 'ontil HitleriSJ 
Is dostroyod, Thoy will hoop their proulse. TIio strugt-'lo for tho defeat 
of agprcBSive fascisxi is not only their Etru/:glc, or that of tho youth of 
Qiina or the youth of Bigland, The President of the U, S. l.as protiisod to 
stand by then until cur counon job is ca.iploted. Ho support our rresidont. 
It is cur stpogglo too; and no, the youth of JSucrlca, will do cur part,* 



2790 HEARINGS REGARDrNG JACK R. McMICHAEL , 

McMICHAEL EXHIBIT NO. 36 

(Confidential Police Report, November 28, 1941) 

Nov. 28th: Attendetl a meeting held under the auspices of the Fordham 
FoBUM in cooperation with the American Council on Soviet Relations at 2413 
Grand Concourse, Bronx, approximately 22.T persons were present. The diairnian 
of this meeting was Thomas L. Harris, secretary of the ACSR; other speakers 
Mere Jessica Smith, sec. to Harris; Rev. Ver Lin Sprague, associated with the 
Local Chapter of the United Oflice and Professional Workers Union, CIO, and 
Jack McMiehael, president of the American Youth Congress. 

The purpose of this meeting, as expressed by Harris, "is to foment a better 
understanding between the American and Soviet peoples," adding that "no one 
should feel apologetic when speaking in behalf of the Soviet Union." Furtlier 
on Harris spoke in len^ith of the necessity for a better understanding and friend- 
ship towards the Soviet Union by the American people, stressing that President 
Roosevelt has "done a great deal toward that end, by his generous contributions 
such as the lend-lease and the billion dollar loan." 

McMiehael, in his talk, expressed jubilation over the fact that the Rapp- 
Coudert committee will end its functions after December 31, the audience re- 
sponded with great applause upon this announcement. Further on, McMiehael 
stresspd need for better employment opportunities for the youth of America, 
alleging that there are still five million unemployed in the United States. 

Sprague made the usual collection speech "to carry on the work and activities 
of the ACSR. in his talk, however, he defended the Constitution of the Soviet 
Union as rffering freedom of religion and worship to the Russian peoples, in 
this he attempted to dispel statements made in the public press contrary to the 
same. 

Mr. KuNzio. I have a document marked "McMiehael Exhibit No. 
37," Mr. Chairman, which is a photostatic copy of an undated letter- 
head — and so that there is no request later on for a date I state again, 
so it is perfectly clear, this is an undated letterhead of the Schappes 
Defense Committee, listing Jack R. McMiehael as one of the sponsors. 

The letterhead is attached to a press release dated December 22, 
1941. The Schappes Defense Committee ^^ is a cited organization, Mr. 
Chairman. 

]\Ir. Velde. Will you read the citations into the record, and the dates 
of the citations? 

Mr. KuNziG. I will get it in just 1 minute, Mr. Chairman. 

Cited as Communist by Attorney General Tom Clark in 1949. Cited 
as a front organization with a strictly Communist objective, namely, 
the defense of a self-admitted Communist who was convicted of 
perjury in the courts of New York. Morris U. Schappes was on the 
teaching staff of the College of the City of New York for a period 
of 13 years. In 1936 his superior on the college faculty refused to 
recommend him for reappointment. This action led to prolonged 
efforts by the Communist Party. It is in a special report by the Spe- 
cial Committee on Un-American Activities dated March 29, 1944. 

Mr. Velde. The first citation you read was in the citation of this 
committee as of what date ? 



^ Schappes Defense Commitee : 

1. Cited as Comnninist (Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loyalty Review Board, 
released April 27, 1949). 

2. "A front orpanization witli a strictly Comimmist objective, namely, the defense of 
a self-adniittPd Comnnmist who was convicted of perjnry in the courts of New York." 
Morris U. Schappes "was on the teachinc: staff of the Collese of the Citv of New York 
for a period of 13 years. In 10.^6 his superior on the college faculty refused to recom- 
mend him for reappointment. This action led to prolonged agitation by the Communist 
Party" (Special Committee on Un-American Activities, report, March 29, 1944, p. 71). 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2791 

Mr. KuNziG. The first citation I read was that of Attorney General 
Tom Clurk in 1949. The second citation I read was that of this com- 
mittee, March 29, 1944. 

Mr. Velde. Does the witness remember the question ? 

Reverend McMichael. Yes, I do. 1 am trying to check my memory. 

Mr. KuNzio. The question is, were you a member of the Schappes 
Defense Committee? 

Mr. McMichael. Mr. Chairman, I was not a member of the com- 
mittee. I never attended any of its meetings; I never made any fi- 
nancial contribution to its work, but note that among the many spon- 
sors were Frieda Kineway, Prof. Robert H. Mowers, Lester H. Lowe- 
berg, Bishop Francis J. McConnell, and the President of our Meth- 
odist St-hool in North Carolina, Dr. David D. Jones, and the beloved 
(ieorge Addison, philosopher, Prof. Edgar S. Bride, and others. 

Mr. Clardy. What is the answer? 

Reverend McMichael. The answer is, I never was a member of 
the committee, and I never attended any of the meetings and never 
made any contribution to it. 

]Mr. Velde. At this time I should like to make a statement with 
reference to the voluntary statements made by the witness : That any 
name of any person who is mentioned by the witness, let it please be 
understood 

Reverend McMichael. No charge. 

]Mr. Velde. That there is no inference drawn by this hearing, or 
necessarily drawn by this hearing, that the person so named is a sub- 
versive or in any way connected with any subversive organization. 

Reverend McMichael. That is right. If people want to know if 
someone is subversive, let them go to the people that preach or talk 

Mr. Velde. Counsel. 

Mr. KuNziG. I have another question. 

Mr. McMichael, you very carefully said you were not a member. 

Reverend McMichael. That was not the question. 

Mr. KuNziG. I am asking you if you were a sponsor. 

Reverend McMichael. As to the question whether I was a sponsor, 
I have indicated the names of other sponsors. I have no recollection 
of being a sponsor, but I would feel honored to have been in such 
company as that. 

At the same time, I have been long interested in defending the 
constitutional right of all individuals, even though I may disagree 
with them. It seems to me that is the democratic and Christian ■ 

Mr. Velde, You answered you have no recollection. 

Reverend McMichael. I have no recollection of it, Mr. Chairman. 
That is right. 

Mr. Clardy. And you don't know how your name appeared as a 
sponsor ? 

Reverend McMichael, How could I know that? 

Mr. Clardy. I am asking you. 

Reverend McMichael. No, I have no idea. 

Mr, Clardy. How does your name happen to appear as sponsor 
of so many things of which you have no idea ? 

Reverend McMichael. I have a recollection of some things. 



2792 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

Mr. Clardy. Very few. 

Reverend McMichael, Oh, quite a few. 

Mr. Clardy. My question is, how is it possible that your name 
could appear so often without your having any recollection of it at all ? 

Reverend McMichael. I propose to answer questions honestly. 
If I do not have memory I am not going to create one to make it look 
better to you. 

Mr. Clardy. We have not come within gunshot of the answer, but 
we will let it e:o. My patience isn't that great. 

Reverend McMichael. If you think you remember everything from 
13 years back when you were a young person and you are engaged in 
entirely different work now 

Mr. Clardy. If I had ever been a member of a Communist-front 
organization I Avould remember it to the day of my death. 

Reverend McMichael. Of course you would ; and I am not charged 
with having been a member of any organization. The question has 
to do with a particular project — a particular project on behalf of 
humanitarianism, or civil liberties, or peace. These are the charges. 
They could be made against thousands of ministers and it seems to 
me this is an opening gun for what Matthews was talking about. 
Read the names of the people who signed the statements. 

Mr. Velde. It is entirel}^ out of order. There is no question pend- 
ing before you. 

Reverend McMichael. Your colleague makes charges against us. 

Mr. Velde. This is entirely out of order, and without objection that 
voluntary statement will be stricken from the record. It has no place 
in the record and has nothing to do with it. 

(At this point Reverend McMichael conferred with Mr. Donner.) 

Reverend McMichael. What part? 

Mr. Velde. Will you proceed, Mr. Counsel? 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Chairman, I offer McMichael exhibit No. 37 into 
evidence. 

Mr. Velde. Without objection, it will be received in evidence at 
this point. 

(McMichael exhibit No. 37, undated letterhead of the Schappes 
Defense Committee, was made a part of the record.) 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 



2793 



McMrcHAEL Exhibit No. 37 
(Part 1) 



SCHAPPtS 

DIPINSI 




eOMMITTII 



FOR 



R E V I E W 






LETTERS PROU THE TOMBS: by 

MOhRIS 0. SC.'tA-'PES 

These letters were written to his wife, to 
Cherles J'. Hendley, President of the Teeohers 
Union of New Ycrk, Professor Margsret Schleuoh 
of N.Y.U. end other friends. 

Foreword tj RIC:J\nD TOIOHT 

•uthor of "Native Son" 






Edited, with en a^-^endlx, by LODIS I£KUAN 
author of "winter Soldiers" 



.ki» •«* ao 



> ItaMW rfA. C« 






Illustrated with S drawings by JAKES 0. EOIfSON 
Pomat: 8vo, 6^ by 8^ Inches | peper cover | 128 page* 
Publication date: December 20, 1941 
Price: 25^ (proceeds go to SCHAIPES D5TENSE FOND) 



Published by: SCHA. "ES DEFENSE COfrtaTTTE 
114 East 16 Street, New YorK, II. Y. 

To order copies: by mall: SCHA' iTS DEFEliSK CONVITTEE 
114 E. 16 St. , New York 
by phone: ORanercy 3-6070 

NOTF: Please send clippings or tear sheets of your 

review to sc'iA rrs DEFFiiSE co-'"irr:^. 

FOH ISFORl'JiTlCH about the CASE OF KORfilS 0. SC'IA.rES 
consult the Appendix. 



uopwa i^l6 



2794 HEARINGS REGARDINQ JACK R. McMICHAEL 

MoMicHAEL Exhibit No. 37 
(Part 2) 

SCHAPPK8 JXStaSE COUMITTSE 114 Baut 16 8tr*«t 

TjpofMsov Jelbn Brld^, S«or«tftr7 Qi^MMrey S-6070 

FOR RET£ASE 
D^ommtmr 22, 1941 

With D«e*Bb«r 29th act «• thm dat« f«x> th« filing of tta* 

ttpjMAl in th* oas* of Lorrla U. Sohappea, Profaascr Jobn Brldg** 

SMratary of th« SCRAP PCS DT .FENCE ca3i(ITl>EE. anncunoad that n«« 

(rapport f«r )Ct, Sohappaa aqatinuaa to appaar In tha form of 

Sponaora, roaolutlona of aupport, and flnanolal -eontrlbutlona. 

Tha lataat to join tha Hat of Sponaira af tha Ccanlttaa ara: 

Lional Standar , HollTWood aerean atar, and Broadway 

produoar of playa like "Natlva Son"; . 

John Bright , acraan vrltar and oc-author of "Brooklyn, U.S.A.*, 
vhleh opanad laat night at the Porraat Thaatar; 

Salvatora Qantlla , organlsar cf tha ^altera and Waltraasat 
Union, Local 1, APL. 

Taaahara unlana throughout tha country eontlnua to axtand 
thair support. Tha UnlTaraity of '.Vaohlngton Tx>oal, No 401 of 
tha Aaar lean Fadaration of Taaahara, and tha Chapal Hill Taaahara 
Union (Unlvaralty of Horth Carolina) aant in aontributlons of 
fuada for tha dafanao, and tha l.»ro»r Ooanty (V J ) Taaahara 
Union, Loaal 4S7 of tha A.F.T. , wrota to OoTamor Lahaan aakinf 
hln to B— to it that Sabappaa eontlnua liia antl'-faaolat vark 
without furthar intarruption. 

fliallar roaolutlona to tha aovamor vara aant by lodgaa 11, 
877 6S1 and 797 of tba Intamational Vorkora Ordor In New York. 

Sataappoa ia • auapondad City Collosa toaahar of Sngllah 
aantonead to ona and a half %• tmo yaara In State PriaMi on a 
ahars* of perjury ataitng frm hia taatlaony bafora tha Rapp- 
C«Bdart CaMittaa. 8ah«ppo»# • t^rmr aa^ar of tba Ce««niat 



HEARDfGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2795 

McMicHAEL Exhibit No. 37 
(Part 3) 
t. 
Party, atatad ho knav of only feor Coaenunlsti at tha City 
Cellego, while vltnossoa for tho prosaeutlon oontondad ha 
knav aany aora than that. Sehappea la now out on ^m^ooo 
eaah ball pandlng appeal. 

Profosaor Bridge alao announoad that about half of tho 
flrat edition of 7ft00 of Sehappea' IXTTERB F^0^ TVZ T0?33, 
vlth a foreword by Rlohard i^right, odltad by Loula Leraan» emS 
llluatrated by Jaaea D. Egleasn, has already been aold on tha 
baala of advanoo ordora. The book le being hailed by rovlowora 
aa both a contribution to literature and a etl:malaa to tha 
antl*faaclet atrugglo "It la expeeted*" sold Profueeor Bridge » 
"that publication of thla voIubq will eroate n»« Intoreat In a 
eaao of political Injuatleo that aoona doubly ontrafeoua ngw > 
when war oountry nooda ana llles IforrSa U Sohappoc for the 
Bobl Using of tnir nation to win tho war." 



Mr. KuNziG. I have a document marked "McMichael Exhibit No. 
88," Mr. Chairman, which is a photostatic copy of a letterhead of the 
People's Institute of Applied Keligion, dated April 9, 1942, which 
lists Keverend McMichael as one of its sponsors. It lists Jack R. 
McMichael. 

I hand you this document marked "McMichael Exhibit No. 38" and 
ask you if you were a sponsor of the People's Institute of Applied 
Religion. 

Mr. Chairman, the Peojjle's Institute of Applied Religion-'' is a 
cited organization and has been cited as subversive and Communist by 
Attorney General Tom Clark, June 1, 1948, and September 21, 1948. 

Mr. Velde. Are both of those citations by the Attorney General? 

Reverend McMichael. Mr. Chairman, along witli tlie noted anti- 
Communist L. M. Birkhead, a bishop of the Methodist Church who 
was formerly 

Mr. Velde. Was there a question pending? 

Reverend McMichael. There is a question, and I am answering it. 

I say along with the noted anti-Communist, L. M. Birkhead, who is 
engaged in quite vigorous anti-Communist work, and the former 



-' People's Institute of Applied Relijiion : 

1. Cited as subversive and Communist (Attornev General Tom Clark, letters to Loy- 
alty Review Board, released June 1, 194S, and September 21, 1948). 

39125—53 13 



2796 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

president of the Federal Council of Churches of Christ in America, 
and one of the most beloved Methodist bishops and a noted anti-Com- 
munist, a professor of Yale Divinity School, I see my name listed 
here on the letterhead. Whether with or without my consent, I can- 
not say, but it 

Mr. Velde. You don't have any memory in that regard ? 

Reverend McMichael. Of actually giving consent to it. I might 
be able to check on it. I don't know the thing would come up. 

Mr. Clardy. Would you have withheld it, had it been asked ? 

Reverend McMiciiael. Would I 

Mr. Clardy. Would your consent have been withheld had you been 
asked to allow it to be used ? 

Reverend McMichael. At that time, or today ? 

Mr. Clardy. At the time. 

Reverend McMichael. At that time in 1942 I thinlv I probably 
would have taken the position that these anti-Communists that I 
referred to did. 

Mr. Doyle. What would you do today, as long as that has been 
raised ? 

Reverend McMichael. No. Today I would not be a sponsor of it. 

Mr. KuNziG. Let me hand you the next exhibit, which is McMichael 
exhibit No. 39, which is in connection with the same organization in 
1948. That jumps it up 6 years, listing you as an international board 
member and sponsor. 

Were you a member of the international board and sponsor? That 
is another letterhead of the same organization. 

Reverend McMichael. It is somewhat as though you were made 
an honorary officer of the Nazi Bund, or something, without your 
consent. I am sure in 1948 I was not consulted on the question. 

Mr. Velde. You have no memory ? 

Reverend McMichael. I have no memory of having been consulted 
on it at all. 

Mr. Clardy. May I ask a question? 

Mr. Velde, I recognize the gentleman from Michigan. 

Mr. Clardy. In connection with the last exliibit on which you say 
you have no recollection, was the fact ever called to your attention 
that your name had been used, until today ? 

Reverend McMichael. In 1942. I am not sure of that. 

Mr. Clardy. This last date is 1948. During the interval since this 
document was published, was the fact that your name was used ever 
called to your attention, or did you discover it in any way? 

Reverend McMichael. Yes; I have — let me see what I have on 
that. 

I have a statement that was called to my attention with my name. 

Mr. Clardy. I am asking you : Was it called to your attention and 
you knew about it ? 

Reverend McMichael. Yes. 

Mr. Clardy. I understand your answer is "Yes" ? 

Reverend McMichael. Yes. 

Mr. Clardy. How long ago? 

Reverend McMichael. I think it was in 1950. 

Mr. Clardy. Did you take any positive action in writing to do any- 
thing about it ? 



HEARDSrGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2797 

Reverend McMighael. No, sir. As I understand it, the organiza- 
tion isn't a functioning- one. 

Mr. Clardy. That was not my question. Did you do anything at 
any time in writing concerning it? 

Reverend McMichael. Except to put the facts clear. Yes ; to put 
the facts clear. 

Mr. Clardy. What did you do ? 

Reverend McMichael. You want to hear this ? 

Mr. Clardy. No; I don't want to hear. I am just asking you to 
tell me the nature of what you did. 

Reverend McMichael. The nature of what I did was to set the facts 
straight. 

Mr. CL.VRDY. To whom ? 

Reverend McMichael. To the people concerned who were the mem- 
bers of the Methodist Federation for Social Action. 

Mr. Clardy. That is all you did ? 

Reverend McMichael. Yes. 

Mr. Clardy. You made no public speeches about it as you have on 
these other subjects? 

Reverend McMichael. No. I made no public speeches about it. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Chairman, I suggest that if the witness has a copy 
of an original statement he made at the time that he be allowed to 
read it. I don't know what it is, but it is certainly material on this 
issue. 

Mr. Clardy, I shall object to it. I did not ask for that. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Clardy has a right to ask a question. 

Mr. Doyle. Certainly he has. 

Mr. Velde. The question has been answered. 

Mr. Doyle. No. It has not been answered, in my judgment. 

Mr. Clardy. I am satisfied with the answer, Mr. Doyle, and I don't 
care to ask this witness to deliver any more sermons from the stand. 

Mr. D0Y1.E. It seems to me, Mr. Chairman, my colleague has brought 
this out and we should have the full information in the record. 

Mr. Velde. Do you want to ask a question. Mr. Doyle, or do you 
want to argue with the gentleman from Michigan ? xVs I said before, 
there is no purpose that can be fulfilled in the jurisdiction of this 
committee by arguing among the members. You are busy, and we 
are all busy with other things. 

Mr. Doyle. The only way I know is to raise an objection. If that 
starts an argument, I can't help it. 

Mr. Velde. Would the gentleman care to ask a question of the 
witness ? 

Mr. Doyle. I would be highly honored to have that privilege. 

Mr. Velde. You have the floor. 

Mr. Doyle. May I ask the witness, please. You referred to some 
copy of some statement that you made with reference to the subject 
matter about which you were interrogated by my distinguished col- 
league from Michigan, Mr. Clardy, just now. I have asked, Mr. 
Chairman, that the witness be privileged to read that, if it isn't too 
long. 

Mr. Velde. You have been granted permission to ask a question. 
Will you wait until the witness has a chance to answer without mak- 
ing suggestions to the Chair ? 



2798 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

Reverend McMichael. Is there a question for me to read this ? 

Mr. Doyle. If you want me to ask the witness to read it, I will do 
that. If you have possession of a copy of an original statement 

Reverend McMichael. That's right. 

Mr. Doyle. I will ask you to read it, if that is the way the chairman 
wants me to ask it. 

Mr. Clardy. May I interrupt and suggest that we are now beyond 
the announced hour for adjournment, and that be held up until after 
the recess ? 

Mr. Velde. Is that satisfactory ? 

Mr. Doyle. It is satisfactory. Yes, indeed. 

Mr. Velde. All right. The committee will stand in recess for li/^ 
hours. 

(Whereupon, at V2 : 15 p. m., the hearing was recessed, to reconvene 
at 1 : 45 p. m., same day.) 

AFTERNOOlSr SESSION" 

(At the hour of 2 : 59 p. m., of the same day, the hearing was re- 
sumed, the following committee members being present : Representa- 
tives Harold H. Velde (chairman), Kit Clardy, Gordon H. Scherer, 
Francis E. Walter, Morgan M. Moulder, and Clyde Doyle.) 

Mr. Velde. The committee will be in order. 

Mr. Reporter, let the record show that present are Mr. Clardy, Mr. 
Scherer, Mr. Walter, Mr. Moulder, Mr. Doyle, and the chairman, a 
quorum of the full committee. 

Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

TESTIMONY OF EEV. JACK R. McMICHAEL, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS 
COUNSEL, EEANK J. DONNER— Eesumed 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Chairman, I believe we were at the point of the 
reading of a statement, which was just about to be read, as we ad- 
journed for lunch, that is, the reading of a statement by Reverend 
McMichael. 

Reverend McMichael. I might explain, Mr. Chairman, that this — 
the statement is a statement in reply to the question as it came up 
within our Methodist Federation of Social Action and as it was 
thoroughly considered by our members there. 

Mr. Velde. It might be helpful if the gentleman from California, 
Mr. Doyle, would repeat the question that he had pending at the time 
of the recess. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, thanks for the compliment. I don't remember the 
exact wording of it, Mr. Chairman. Maybe the shorthand reporter 
will give it to us. 

Mr. Velde. Do you have it ? 

Mr. Doyle. I am sorry, I don't remember the exact wording of my 
question. 

Reverend McMichael. Mr. Chairman, I might say 

Mr. Velde. Just a minute, please. 

(The reporter read the question as follows:) 

I will ask you to read it if that is the way the chairman wants me to ask it. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Doyle asked you to read the statement. 
Reverend McMichael. That's right. 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2799 

Mr. Velde. Will you confine your answer to the reading of th« 
statement ? 

Reverend McMichael. All right. 

This document, alleging my association with the People's Institute 
of Applied Religion, stated : 

We have received great help from material given us by Leon Birkhead of the 
Friends of Democracy — 

who stated that my name had appeared on an old letterhead of the 
organization. 

This is interesting, for Mr. Birkhead's name also appears on an 
old letterhead of the People's Institute of Applied Religion. 

Mr. Velde. Will the witness please answer the question as sub- 
mitted by Mr. Doyle, without going into 

Reverend McMichael. Yes. 

Mr. Velde. An explanation? 

Reverend McMichael. Mr. Chairman, I thought you wanted me to 
read this material. I thought that was what you wanted. 

Mr. Velde. That is right. 

Reverend McMichael. Well, that's what I'm doing. 

Mr. Velde. It isn't what the Chair wanted, incidentally. 

Reverend McMichxVel. That's right. 

Mr. Velde. It is what the gentleman from California, Mr. Doyle, 
wanted. 

Reverend McMichael. Yes. 

If Mr. Doyle is not satisfied at any time, I would appreciate it if 
he would tell me. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, Mr. Chairman, may I make it clear to the wit- 
ness all I ask that you have the privilege of doing is reading the copy 
of your original statement that you testified you had before you. 

Reverend McMichael. Yes. This statement 

Mr. Dotle. Now, that is all. 

Reverend McMichael. All right. 

Shall I read the entire statement, Mr, Doyle ? 

Mr. Doyle. I have no idea how long it is. 

Reverend McMichael. I was trying to save the time of the com- 
mittee, Mr. Chairman. I was trying to cut it a little bit short. It's 
2 or 3 pages. 

Mr. Scherer. Pick out the best parts suitable to you ? 

Reverend McMichael. No ; I wasn't trying to do that. 

I'll read the entire thing, if that's what you would like, Mr. Scherer. 
I just wanted 3'ou to decide on it. I'll be glad to read the entire 
statement. 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Chairman, may I ask 

Mr. Velde. Will it be satisfactorj^ to the gentleman from Cali- 
fornia if the document he has is submitted for evidence ? 

Mr. Doyle. Yes, to save time. 

Mr. Velde. Wliat is the next number, please ? 

Mr. Cooper. Thirty-nine, sir, was the last one. 

Mr. Velde. The last 

Mr. KuKZiG. The last number is 39, We can make it 39-A. 

Mr. Velde. Without objection, the statement of the witness, wliich 
he has before him, will be marked "Exhibit " 

(The witness did not leave a copy of this statement with the com- 
mittee, and therefore it cannot be introduced as evidence. ) 



2800 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

Mr. Velde, Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman, may I ask a question of the witness ? 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Scherer. 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Witness, what did you say 

Reverend McMiciiael. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Scherer (continuing). Your connection was with the People's 
Institute of Applied Religion ? 

Reverend McMichael. Perhaps the secretary here could read that. 
I don't know just what — what the question was. 

Mr. Scherer. Well, I don't want him to read it. Will you just 
tell me what your position 

Reverend McMichael. What I said ? 

Mr. Scherer. Well, just 

Reverend IMcINIichael. If you want to know that, why, I'm sure 
the exact wording would be recorded, Mr. Scherer. That would be 
the best way to find out that. 

Mr. Scherer. I am asking you now 

Reverend McMichael. Yes, and I 

Mr. Scherer. Will you answer the question as to what you said 
your relationship was with the People's Institute of Applied Religion? 

Reverend McMichael. xVnd I refer you to the fact that we have 
taken a verbatim transcript here, and I'll be glad to have it read. 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Chairman, I ask that you direct the witness to 
answer my c{uestion. 

Mr. Velde. Ceitaiulj^ the question is simple and the answer • 

Reverend McJNIichael. The question is simple. 

Mr. Velde (continuing). Can be simple, and you are directed to 
answer that, Revei'end McMichael. 

Reverend McMichael. I'm directed to answer the question as to 
just what — in what words I stated 

Mr. Velde. Would you like to have the question repeated ? 

Reverend McMichael. I would like to say, sir 

Mr. Velde. Now, j ust a minute. Do you know what the question is ? 

Reverend McMichael. The wording 

Mr. Velde. Do you know what the question is ? 

Reverend McMichael. The wording of my previous answer, which 
was before the recess, is undoubtedly here and would be available 
to us. 

Mr. Velde. Would you repeat the question ? 

Reverend McMichael. If you want the information, we have an 
accurate source of it here. 

Don't you — you're taking a transcript. 

Mr. Scherer. Will you read my question ? 

(The reporter read the question as follows :) 

Mr. Witness, what did you say your connection was witli the People's In- 
stitute of Applied Religion? 

(At this point Reverend McMichael conferred with ]Mr. Donner.) 
Reverend McMichael. Mr. Chairman, as I recall it, from this morn- 
ing — and we could go back to the transcript to find out just exactly 
what it was — the question was raised in connection with a letterhead, 
and I indicated in response to several questions that were asked, that 
along with such anti-Communist leaders as the clean of the Divinity 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2801 

School of Yale, Dr. Listen Pope, Dr. L. M. Birkhead of the Friends of 
Democracy, who is engaged 

Mr. Walter. Why don't you answer the question ? 

Reverend McMiciiael. To a great extent in anti-Communist 

Mr. Walter. Why don't you answer the question ? 

Reverend McMiciiael. I thought I was. I am trying the best I 
can. 

Mr. Clardy. No ; you are not. You are not even trying. 

Mr. Walter. What was your connection with this organization? 

Reverend McMichael. Is that the question, sir ^ 

JMr. Walter. I don't know. 

Reverend McMiciiael. I thought the question was — how did I 
answer the question. 

It came up in specific reference to a letterhead, as I recall, and the 
statement was made that — was my name — was my name on this letter- 
head, and I indicated that, along with these anti-Communist leaders, 
to whom I've referred, my name was on the letterhead. 

The question was asked — I think it was by you, sir, Mr. Doyle — as 
to whether I would consent to — for it to be on the letterhead today, 
and that was — to that question I responded no, because I would feel 
that — to explain that, that I would not have an opportunity to par- 
ticipate in any way in the formulation of decisions; and I want to 
be a part of, actually have a voice in, anything that I would be on the 
letterhead today. 

Mr. Scherer. I will ask you again : What was your affiliation with 
the People's Institute of Applied Religion ? 

Reverend McMiciiael. Now, that is a separate question. I'll be 
glad to answer that 

Mr. Velde. If you will, please — 

Reverend McMichael (continuing). Except that 

Mr. Velde (continuing). Answer the question, instead of making 
a speech. 

Reverend McMichael. Mr. Chairman, let me indicate that Mr. 
Doyle asked me to read a statement, and in 

Mr. Scherer. Listen, I don't care what Mr. Doyle asked. 

Reverend McMichael. Well, Mr. Doyle 

Mr. Scherer. Answer my question. 

Reverend McMichxVel. Is a member of this committee • 

Mr. Scherer. Just a minute. 

Reverend McMichael. And Mr. Doyle asked 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Doyle doesn't have the floor. I have the floor, 
and you are to answer a question 

Reverend McMichael. I have not answered the previous question, 
and the answer to that question will answer your question, sir, and 
will do it fairly. 

Mr. Velde. Answer the question that is pending. 

Reverend McMichael. Yes. From the 

Mr. Velde. From the gentleman from Ohio, Mr. Scherer. 

Reverend McMichael. To help you and save time, I offered not to 
read this statement; but the statement will show my connection. 

Now, then 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Chairman, I ask you to direct the witness to 
answer my question. 



2802 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

Mr. Velde. Yes. 

Mr. ScHERER. Let's keep this record straight. 

Reverend McMichael. All ri^rht. All right. 

Mr. Velde. Certainly the gentleman 

Reverend McMichael. All right ; I'll be glad- 



Mr. Velde. From Ohio is entirely correct. The answer can be 
simple 

Reverend McMichael. Yes; that's right. 

Mr. Velde. Tlie question being a simple question. So will you 

Reverend McMichael, Yes. My first 

Mr. Velde. Please answer the question ? 

Reverend McMichael. Yes; I'll answer it. 

My first connection, as I recall, Mr. Chairman, was in the summer 
of 1941 when, working under the Home Missions Council, engaged 
in religious work with farm folk in northeastern Arkansas, I was 
directed by the director of the council to cooperate with the director 
of the People's Institute of Applied Religion ; and, as I recall, I made 
my first association with that organization and with its director under 
that directive that I received from the director of the Home Missions 
Council, which was connected with the Federal Council of Churches, 
because he felt that this group, that particular — its director was doing 
significant work in helping sharecropper preachers, poor preachers, 
to 

]Mr. Velde. Well, I don't think you are qualified to say before this 
committee of Congress what somebody else felt. We just ask you to 
answer 

Reverend McMichael. I'm explaining- 



Mr. Velde (continuing). The question. 

Reverend McMichael (continuing). My association with the or- 
ganization, sir. 

Mr. Velde. You were connected with the People's Institute 

Reverend McMichael. I was connected 

Mr. Velde. Of Applied Religion? 

Reverend JMcMichael. Myself with the Home Missions Council of 
North America, which was jjart of the Federal Council of Churches. 
I was employed by them, Mr. Chairman, for rural church work, 
and 

Mr. Walter. Is that an answer? 

Reverend McINIichael. In that connection • 

Mr. Walter. Isn't that enough ? 

Reverend McMichael. In connection with that work — in part of 
my assignment, I was asked to work with the director of the People's 
Institute of Applied Religion. In coming to know some of the poor 
preachers, the sharecropper preachers, and in studying with them the 
religion of the Bible, in the interest of coming to know them and 
helping them in their work 

Mr. Velde. You did 

Reverend McMichael. We were directed 



Mr. Velde. You did associate yourself with the director of the 

Institute of Applied Religion 

Reverend McMichael. I was associated myself- 



Mr. Velde (continuing). And in the work they were doing? 
Reverend McMichael (continuing). With tlie Home Missions 
Council. 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2803 

Mr. Velde. Is that true ? 

Reverend McMichael. That is true and I am explaining that asso- 
ciation. 

I associated myself as a part of my work with the Home Missions 
Council of North America. This did not involve membership in the 
organization. It did involve work that I was supposed to do as a 
part of my assignment by the Home Missions Council, and the work 
consisted largely of Bible study groups, aiid the supplementary Avork 
that my Presbyterian colleague and I did was to — to give recreational 
opportunities to sharecropper young people and children. 

If vou want my feeling about that at all, if you're interested in 
that, ril be glad-^- 

Mr. ScHERER. No ; I'm 

Reverend McMichael (continuing). To testify- 



Mr. SciiERER (continuing). Not interested in your feeling. 

Reverend McMichael (continuing). About that; but that was — — 

Mr. Scherer. I am interested in your connection. 

Reverend IMcMichael. That was the connection. It came through 
the Home Missions Council. 

Mr. Scherer. Now, this morning when you were showed this ex- 
hibit, on which your name appears as one of the members of the board 
of international sponsors, you picked out a few names and read them. 
You, however, omitted to read the very first one that appears on the 
first page, Winifred L. Chappell, and you also failed to read Cedric 
Belfrage. 

Now, you know that Cedric Belfrage has just been arrested and 
ordered deported; do you not? 

Reverend McMichael. I — I don't know about the order of deporta- 
tion. I don't know. I knew he was under arrest. I thought lie was 
out. 

And with reference 

Mr. Scherer. And that 



Mr. Velde. Now, were you acquainted — . If the gentleman will 
yield 

Reverend McMichael. Yes. 

Mr. Velde. Were you acquainted with Cedric Belfrage ? 

Reverend McMichael. Yes; I have met Cedric Belfrage. 

And let me say also that one of the most tragic things, it seems to 
me, that has happened in a long time is the defaming of the name of 
Winifred Chappell, who died courageously, in great spirits, some 
time ago by this committee in releasing these charges against a dead 
woman who was a deaconess in the Methodist Church. 

I have been very deeply hurt by that, and I think a lot of the people 
who knew it were. 

It seems to me you would refrain from making accusations against 
dead people. 

Mr. Scherer. You did not read her name? 

Reverend jNIcMichael. I read her name in the paper, sir, as having 
been released by this committee. 

Mr. Scherer. Just a minute. 

When you read these names before lunch, you didn't read the very 
first name, Winifred Chappell ? 

Reverend McMichael. No ; I didn't. I didn't read the names 

Mr. Scherer. Did you purposely omit reading those names? 



2804 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

Reverend McMichael. I purj^osely read- 



Mr. SciiERER. Just a minute. Let me finish. 

Did you purposely refrain from reading- those names of these two 
people you said you knew? 

Reverend McMichael. I didn't purposely 

Mr. SciTERER. Did yon do that willfully 'i 

Reverend JMcMichael. The answer to that is that I wanted to 
indicate that their names — that there were names of people there 

Mr. SciiERER. Was it 

Reverend McMichael. Whose names', being here, would show that 
a person on that letterhead would not have the characterization which 
apparently you were intendiuiji; to give me as a Christian minister. 

Mr. ScHERER. And wasn't it because you knew these two individuals 
intimately and you knevr of their background that you didn't want 
to associate yourself with them this morning 

Reverend. McMichael. The answer to that 

Mr. Scherer (continuing). And that you— — 

Reverend McMichael (continuing). Is "No." 

Mr. Scherer (continuing). Willfully refused to read those names? 

Reverend McMichael. The answer to that is "No'' 

Mr. Scherer. I expected 

Reverend McMichael. And, as I said before 

Mr. Scherer (continuing). That answer to be "No." 

Reverend McMichael. The answer to that is "No,'' and, as I said 
before, I think nothing unfairer has hapjiened than that attack on a 
dead woman, who was a deaconess in the Methodist Church 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Chairman. 

Reverend McMichael. And loved and honored by manj^ people. 

Mr. Scherer. Was she associated with you in the Methodist Federa- 
tion for Social iVction? 

Reverend McMichael. As a matter of fact, her work for the 
Methodist Federation for Social Action, which we were told was not 
under investigation here yesterday, preceded by some years, sir, my 
connection with the organization. 

Mr. Walter. Was this the Communist 

Reverend McIMichael. I might say that I am not ashamed at all in 
having known Winifred Chappell. I am only ashamed of this com- 
mittee in releasing charges against her. 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. The Chair recognizes the gentleman from Pennsyl- 
vania, Mr. Walter. 

JNIr. Clardy. Will the gentleman yield just a minute? 

Mr. Walter. Was she a known Communist ? 

Reverend McMichael. I never knew her as a Communist. 

Mr. Scherer. She was identified as such. 

Reverend McMichael. She was identified by people who lied, as 
far as the testimony about me is concerned. 

Mr. Sciieri^r. Everybody lies but you. Reverend. 

Reverend McMichael. No. 

If you are going to make accusations 

Mr. Velde. May I remind 

Reverend McMichael. I would like to have the opportunity of 
replying. 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2805 

Mr. Velde. Just a minute, please. 

Reverend McMichael. Everybody doesn't lie according to me. 

Mr. Velde. This is a hearing to determine the extent of subversive 
activities in which the witness has been engaged, so that we might do 
our dutv as imposed upon us bv Congress. 

Rpvorenr) McMichael. Is this an investigation of the clerirv. Mr. 
Chairman? 

Mr. Walter. No ; of course not. 

Reverend McMicilvel. Is this an investigation of a clergyman? 

Mr. Walter. No. 

Mr. Velde. Certainly it isn't an investigation of the clergy or of 
the church. 

Reverend JMcMichael. Well, I just want to say 

Mr. Velde. Just a minute, I recognized the gentleman from Penn- 
sylvania. 

Reverend McMichael. I just want to say, Mr. Chairman, that in 
this part of my duties, as a clergyman, I was under assignment to 
associate with that organization. 

Mr. Walter. This is an investigation of an individual who has been 
identified as being a Communist. This individual happens to be a 
clergyman. 

Reverend McMichael. I wonder if it happens to be related to the 
fact that Bishop Oxnam has said you couldn't find any 

Mr. Clardy. Regular order, Mr. Chairman. 

Reverend McMichael. And Mr. Matthews has written an article, 
and you are going to hear him. 

Mr. Walter. Well, just a minute. 

Mr. Velde. Let me remind the witness once again : You are here to 
answer questions and not to ask them 

Reverend McMichael. Yes. 

Mr. Velde. Please. 

Mr. Walter. I wonder if the witness read what Mr. Poling had to 
say on yesterday. 

Reverend McMichael. No. I VI be glad to see it, sir. I didn't read 
it. If you have it to share with me, I'll be glad to read it. I didn't 
read it. 

Mr. Walter. Well, for your information, he said Mr. Matthews 
had experienced no difficulty whatsoever in naming 7,000 individuals 
who are Communists who happened to be clergymen. 

Reverend McMichael. That serves to prove my point — this is the 
beginning of an attack on the Protestant Church. 

Mr. Velde. There is no question pending, please. 

Reverend McMichael. Your statement, Mr. Walter, proves what I 
liave in mind, and a lot of Protestants will see it, sir. 

Mr. Walter. Well you are not fooling me 

Reverend McMichael. No. 

Mr. Walter (continuing). By your conduct and the act you are 
putting on here. You are not deceiving me for 1 second. 

Reverend McMichael. No ; I appreciate your honesty, sir. 

Mr. Walter. That's right. 

Mr. Scherer. It is the typical tactics that have been followed by 
the Communists who have appeared before us. 

Mr. Walter. They haven't been so clever. 



2806 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

Mr. ScHERER. No ; they haven't been as contemptuous either. 

Reverend McMichael. You are going to have a k:!t of trouble if 
you go after 7,000 Protestant clergymen in the way you are going 
after me, in denying 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. We will be in regular order. 

The Chair recognizes the gentleman from Michigan, Mr. Clardy. 

Mr. Clardy. Witness, the second name Mr. Scherer called to your 
attention and which you omitted when you were making your state- 
ment earlier this morning 

Reverend McMiciiael. I omitted a lot 

Mr. Clardy. Was Cedric Belfrage. 

Reverend McMichael. Of names. 

Mr. Clardy. Please do not interrupt. 

You are exhibiting probably the greatest amount of contempt that 
any witness has ever exhibited, and it is with a great deal of difficulty 
that we restrain ourselves from having you removed forcibly from the 
stand. Now, don't try our patience too far. 

But let's get back to the question. 

Reverend McMichael. Don't try mine too far. 

Mr. Clardy. Will you please remain silent when we are talking 
to you, sir. You have no right, and you must have had a very poor 
background 

Reverend McMichael. If you would question me- 



Mr. Clardy. To be able to do what you are doing, and what you have 
been doing throughout this hearing. 

Reverend McMichael. If you would question me instead of accus- 
ing me, I would remain silent. 

I am not here to be accused. I am here to answer questions. 

Mr. Clardy. And you are going to be asked one, and you can answer 
it yes or no, and it is this : Did you know Cedric Belfrage well? 

Reverend McMichael. I knew him. 

Mr. Clardy. Did 3'ou know him well ? 

Reverend McIMichael. Well, I think I know him well. 

Mr. Clardy. Did you associate with him in a number of organiza- 
tions ? 

Reverend McMichael. Not to my knowledge. 

Mr. Clardy. Did you associate with him in any organizations? 

Reverend McMichael. No. 

I recall Miss Chappell 

Mr, Clardy. I am not asking you- 



Reverend McMichael (continuing). In that connection 

Mr. Clardy (continuing). Anything about Miss Chappell. I am 
talking about Mr. Belfrage. Stay on the subject. 

Reverend McMichael. I do not recall being associated with him in 
that organization. 

]Mr. Clardy. What organization ? 

I didn't name one. 

Reverend McMichael. I am sorry. I think the record will 
show 

Mr. Clardy. I asked if you had been associated with him in any 
organization. 

Reverend McMichael. No. 

Mr. Clardy. Now, were you or not? 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2807 

That may be funny to you, but it is serious busine-ss to us. 

Reverend McMichael. No; what I'm thinking about is the fifth 
chapter of Luke, when Jesus, associating with publicans and sin- 
ners 

Mr. Clardy. That is not an answer to the question, and will you 
please quit likening yourself to Christ? 

Reverend McMichael. I am not likening myself to Him, but I 
assure you He associated with publicans and sinners 

Mr. Clakdy. Will you answer my question- 



Reverend McMichael. And if He were alive today 

Mr. Clardy. Yes or no ? 

Reverend McISIichael. He would have been called before this com- 
mittee a long time ago because of guilt by association. 

Mr. Clardy. Will you answer my question ? 

Mr. Velde. Will the witness please answer the question? 

Reverend McMichael, The question is 

Mr. Clardy. Were you associated with him in any organization? 

Reverend McMichael. Not to my knowledge. 

Mr. Clardy. None whatever? 

Reverend McMichael. Not to my knowledge. 

Mr. Clardy. That, of course, is not quite the answer. 

Now, did you know and do you know now that Cedric Belfrage 
has been identified publiclv as an avowed member of the Communist 
Party? 

Reverend McMichael, I'm not in the habit of confusing accusation 
with reality, sir 

Mr. Clardy. Did you know- 

Reverend McMichael. And I'm aware of the fact the accusation 
has been made; yes. 

Mr. Clardy. Did you know there was sworn testimony taken before 
this committee identifying him as a Communist, and that it was on 
that basis that deportation proceedings have been commenced against 
him? 

Reverend McMichael. You want to deport me to Georgia? 

Such accusations are made against me, under sworn testimony, but 
they're lies. 

Mr. Walter. But the only difference is nobody can be deported 
unless they have had a trial, or until they have had a trial in court. 

Reverend McMichael. Sure. 

Mr. Clardy. Now, let's just get back to my question : Did you know 
those things I was telling you? 

Reverend McMichael, Did I know that it was before — before this 
committee 

Mr. Clardy. I will repeat it. 

Reverend McMichael. Yes; please do. 

Mr. Clardy. Did you know that he had been publicly identified 
before this committee in sworn testimony as a member of the Com- 
munist Party, and that it was upon the basis of that largely at least 
that his deportation proceedings were instituted? 

Reverend McMichael. Guilt by accusation being very un-Ameri- 
can, I — I don't accept the charges against anyone until they're 
proven 

Mr. Clardy. My question was 

Reverend McMichael. In regular courts. 



2808 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

Mr. Clardy. Did you know those facts ? 

Keverend McMichael. I have read facts. 

Mr. Clardy. Did you know that prior to his appearance before our 
committee he had been identified by Elizabeth iientley as a member 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Doyle. Well, Mr. Chairman, may I just interrupt here: Wliat 
is the materiality of this for the purpose of our investigation? 

Reverend McMiciiael. It's a good question. 

You're supposed to be getting facts for legislation. 

Mr. Doyle. I just don't see 

Reverend McMichael. What legislation are you going to get out 
of that ? 

Mr. Velde. Well 

Mr. Clardy. I would like to explain for Mr. Doyle, if I may. 

Mr. Doyle. You don't need to explain. I don't see the materiality 
of taking the time of the committee in this line of questioning. 

Mr. Clardy. I have a definite purpose. I am endeavoring, Mr. 
Doyle, to demonstrate the fact that this man has associated with 
persons who were publicly identified as Communists. 

Mr. Doyle. This man has testified 

Mr. Clardy. Now, he was asked this morning 

Mr. Doyle. That he 

Mr. Velde. Just a minute, Mr. Doyle. 



Mr. Clardy (continuing). Whether or not he ever associated 

Mr. Doyle. I will yielcl. 

Mr. Velde. The Chair will recognize the gentleman from California 
as soon as the gentleman from Michigan has finished. 

Mr. Clardy. I think I ought to make it clear, Mr. Doyle, that 
since this morning some self-serving statements were made by the wit- 
ness, as Mr. Scherer has so well developed, by omitting to name known 
Communists on the same list 

Reverend McMichael. They weren't known to me that way. 

Mr. Clardy. I am endeavoring to demonstrate, whether he did it 
willfully or not, that there were Communists with whom he associ- 
ated on that same list, so that the record may be absolutely correct 
and complete in that it shows both sides of the picture. 

Reverend McMichael. Let me make 

Mr. Clardy. Now 

Mr. Velde. The Chair recognizes the gentleman from Cali- 
fornia 

Mr. CioArdy. All right. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, Mr. Chairman, I find myself in a very uncom- 
fortable position, because I am certainly not trying to — well, I know 
hardly how to put it, but I find myself in a position where I feel that 
the witness on some occasions is not being allowed to present his 
side of whatever controversy we are in. 

I do say this : I think in view of the committee members now open- 
ing up the matter of these lists, which they have, they have opened 
up now the subject of these lists, and I submit that, under any fair 
rule of procedure, opens up to this witness the privilege of reading 
any other names he wants on any of these lists. 

Mr. Clardy. Well, they are all in the record. 

Mr. Doyle. No; no. 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2809 

Reverend McMiciiael. But the record the press is getting is only 
what you select. 

Mr. Doyle. No. I think 

Mr. Walter. But, you see- 



Mr. Velde. Will the gentleman yield ? 

Mr. Walter. You seem to overlook the fact he was not honest. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, now, I don't think 

Mr. Walter. He was not entirely honest in reading the list because 
he didn't read the entire list. 

Eeverend McMiciiael. I didn't purport to be reading the entire list. 
I never made no such claim. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Walter, you weren't able to be here this morning. 

Mr. Walter. I know, but I have been here long enough now to insist 
the rules of procedure of this committee be followed and that the ques- 
tioning be done by counsel and that the members refrain from asking 
questions until the counsel has completed his examination. 

Mr. Velde. Without objection, that is so ordered. 

Will you proceed, Mr. Counsel ? 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Chairman, I offer McMichael exhibits Nos. 38 
and 39 in evidence at this time. 

Mr. Velde. Without objection, they will be received in evidence. 



2810 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 



(The photostatic copy of the letter of April 9, 1942, on the letterhead 
of the People's Institute of Applied Religion, addressed to Max Be- 
dacht and signed by Winifred L. Chappell, was marked and received 
in evidence as "McMichael Exhibit No. 38.") 



McMICHAEL EXHIBIT NO. 38 



APR 101942 




'■rtirARI Yr TMl WAY Of TMI fiOrili CAIT Uf. CA » T » f THI HI«MWAT| 
«ATHI« OUT THi STONiS: llfT Ur A STANOAirO rOR TNI riOrLI." ISAIAH 4Sil* 

PEOPLE'S BNSTITUTE of APPLIED RELIGION 

313 SOUTHEAST FIRST STRCET • EVANSVILLE • INDIANA 

'CLAUDE C. WILLIAMS 

~J^ WINIFRED L. CHAPPELL 
wEDNA JOYCE KIN« 

April 9. 19'«2 
Kr. Max Bedaoht 
Intnrnstlonsl lorker* Order 
ao Fifth Are, Now Hork 

Dsar Ur. Bedacht- 

Ai yju auggsd, I am putting into writing my roquaat for • con- 
tribution froB the International *orkera Order, toward tbs t^OO 
that the fortheonlng * institute* of the People's Institute of 
ApplieJ religion will cost. 

I enclose a program ( which you aaw in another font) and «ith it 
a little StD'3 ttO of our dlscusaion leaders at this inatitute. 

I enclooe also a general oonununloation from Olaude Cilliama, Director 
- of thr People's Inetitut«; and a letter from one of our rural praaeh> 
era illuatrating how the program gets into action among the people 
toward the ends that we oo earnestly aeak* 

' The Dixie ^emagogues uee the Bible anong the religiously^eonditloned 
folk of the * Bible ^elt' toward unoocial enda> 

The People's Institute is using the Bible— legitimataly— to lead 
the people to«ard Qsnocreoyi 



--■.i.»« t ifoKoto— to.u will see by the letterhead that most, though not all, of ttttr 

m'!r*r "^"'V.'""'"!— ' sponsors are church loaders' It ie the firm cenYietion of 01«#l* 

—JOHN t. TMo-noM— fllliama that the church people, since the Christian church 'has b««B 

'w ii*L>i'o- ■.. gr H. u 1 - the chief (inner in proootlng anti-Semitism should bear tba reaponr 

-(■■•OK "■^" °l^ aibility of supporting financially our work whloh ie dlrectad 

^Lvas w«io- tgainat anti- >>emiti3m and racleic. 
-«N>iiit c. »imi - 

— iisNiT • aiiiiAut- But as a mekber of the IliO and one who knows itjbroad social lnter«(t« 

~cMmn c. •iii^o«— 1 jj, taking the liberty a{ appealing to you for halp> 

1 can t hvik of no core ueeful place to invest a little money than 

I in this institute fron which— as from each of our former oneo- 

\ • I • I L I A e I • «^ will go men nha Kill use their Bibles toward meeting the breod- 

^•oii'i''' o.'ftiuH 'I'l t — and^meat probleyl of the people; and toward loading them in 

' the effort for national unity afainst Hitler and Hltleriam, abroad 

J'J*i°,'',", . and here' 

V, Sincere ly» 

n i'« ; '. L c.' -" " '°j ; - xj .j—iA,.^ L . c ti«^-u»jA. 

^ ...... .^^ *inifred 1. Chappell ' 

-.'.'.".V .'o'.'r'I- 1J6 E 17, tlaw Xork, M.I. 

V' • • ' <ir5-985l. 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 



2811 



(The photostatic copy of the letter of January 1, 1948, on the letter- 
head of the People's Institute of Applied Religion, was marked and 
received in evidence as "McMichael Exhibit No. 39.") 



McMICHAEL EXHIBIT NO. 39 
(Parti) 




■■PREPARE YE THE WAY Of THt PEOPLE. CAST UP, CAST UP THE HIGHWAY; 
GATHER OUT THE STONES, LIFT UP A STANDARD FOR THE PEOPLE. ■■ 'l^AIA'H 62:10 

PEOPLE'S INSTITUTE of APPLIED RELIGION 



^\05Vz THIRD AVENUE, SOUTH 



BIRMINGHAM 6, ALABAMA 



TELEPHONE 59-M22 



January 1, 19*»8 



TO ALL NATIORAL BOATO MS>«EFS 

GREETZBC6: 

This letter 1. de.lgn.d to b. pereenal tc ..ch of our ««I0«^^^ 
MEMBERS. E»ch one of you he» endorsed the prograa ^^.^^^fj^f ' 
Y^^Uare foUowed Its actlvltlsB, You taow tte Importance of Its 
vor^ You tarthat the Iseuea before ue In 19^0 inake Ita vor^ niore 
I^portanc th:m ever before. You also Imow that the very f«<^tor8 
^^ch^to the vork »ore Important w^ doing the -"^^■"^^^^^^'^^'^ 
than ever before. Therefore, It Is neceseary for ne to state our 
J^hCs nore f ranUy to you'than It vae needful to do In our gener- 
al report to other FRIERDS. 

I do hope that you have found tlae to read and 'PP'^^" °^,'?"!^^r, 
ganeral report. In It we naaed flv» dynamic and •f-'-Jt"^*t/!tttI 
vho desire and are available, to devote their entire tl»e to fleU 
:orK "th ihe institute. One'of ^^^ V^"^'" ' ^^-.f/ ^e^^ to 
rey Is vlth me In the office today. Tomorrow he "ll^^"^^"™ ;° 
^o^g a vlth only one hundred doUars to begin his york vlth u» on 
m^ - fclth in the program of the I»«"^"^«l/»i*\'°,^ °°^^i, 
m^n people, and faith that the liberal friends of the I^^^l^:^'^^ 
enable hla to renialn active vlth the people on the ' |°^*- 3~^ 
Ruben Archer Torrey III has Juat reelgoed a chaUenglng pMtoreta 
to undertake this work. 

The five leaders ve neaed in our report and all office "'fr-head, 
I^lull^ a secretary can be ^.Intalned for full-tl»e -^jk throu<^ 
out this Whole year on a budget of only *"«!'» *»>°"«^*°^-*^ 
^ I again ampLsize my personal conviction, that °° °!^°^^^^'^ 
^Id r^ch as many thoueande of n^ral P<»°Pl» . 1° "^^Tf l"!! "J^ 
^d enlist them for such positive action in I9U8 a» ^f « 8^^°^' "'^ 
leaders. In fact, no other proBroaelve group could ""^^f ^!^»tTt. 
theoe leaders would reach. PEPIOD.' And may I P'^-"^^?^^^ 'i^? 
ther conviction - and wltn all deference due - that 8«»e P^^^ 
eive groups will spend much more and reach fewer people In loaa atra- 
taglc areas. Let 00 briefly Buggeot what algbt be done: 

Rev Torrey is returning to Oecrgla »lth inatructloo* to ^-m full- 
ZL work with the"Gldeon Ai«y" (Liberal groups) forces of tha .tato. 
e^cl^ly oShaslrlng worHlth the hiU. people. To initiate this 
work ?orroy is to visit Rov. J. L. Jordan, Bualness Manager of tha 
Pentecostal Holiness Church, publications, Franklin Springs, Oe. ,and 
tl^step^ to set up a posslblo two-day Institute for the scores of 
^^ ^!t!l nastors in Georgia. Gerald Harris is waiting for an 

on^lc bas^to be pro^id^ for him to visit Bishop Oliver Mills, 
» t^^l Sec^ta^y of the Church of God, Red Bay, Ala., and pS^poae 
^irtltute f^'the more than on^C^^. I^stors In Alaba^-Mllla 



8012S-H58 14 



2812 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 



McMICHAEL EXHIBIT NO. 39 
(Part 2) 



INTERNATIONAL BOARD AND SPONSORS 



M 


nrtin Ai 


T" 




7)- 


Unitarian Sri 


■r Adnmj 
rTire Comr 


R. 


.V. F.rni 
P.I AJ« 


•St An 
. R«pri 


!Sur 
wpnlnllv. 


S. 


.T. Frir 
Snmtn 


il; Bon 
'» Sen 


rrofi 


R. 


fv. Mcr 
Piutor, 


rill 0. 
I'nit.-i 


Bntn 



. Hrnry D, Jono 



Indu'trial t'nion Cnunrll, tWtralt 
RnShi A SrSustrrmAn 



Rov KnrnlH K ShcHey 



Rr,l,ort I.akf 
Liilwjr OrjAni. 

Milli.rtI I,i.mi.oll 
ITnmu. R1..H0 



Itr 



Willi 



p. SpolTuM 



Rev. Willlnm B Spofford. Jr. 
E»ecutivf .=;ecrol«r>. 
Chiiirh I,caru<» for IndnAtrlat Dvmftcraey 

Bory Sleini.frc 
Mcnhant 



I'red L. Chapprll 



for Hun 
for Hun 



in Welfare 
m Welfara 



tt!. William Huivard Mellsh 

I'astor, Episcopal 
Iheraood Mos^ner 

Cahot Memorial Fund 
t'v. John M. Milea 

Pastor. People's Church P.I.A.R. 



Rev. Richard Morford 

r^ationnl Council for American-Soviet 
Friendship 
Carlton Moss 

Actor 
Alexander Munsell 

Author, P.ycholo^iat 
Rev. Burton .MacLean' 

■ Missionary, Presbyterian 
fcev. Charles F, MacLennan 

Rellcion and Labor Fellofcshir 



■ lot Human Welfar* 



Dr- John B. Thompson 

Professor. Uni>eriltr of Oklahoma 

Jcnn Tro.l.ridce 

Comn.unity Action 
Leon F. Turner 

Youth Ctniirjss. f 1 A R. 

^. 7 



n 



Peolllcs Insctute. Trustee 
Dr. Gregory Vlagtos 

Professor. Qucent Collece, Canada 



ReV. Charles C. Weblier 
Labor Oreanizcr, CIO 
Rabbi Jacob W.insUin 
KcT. Donald L. West 
... Pro»es..or. Oirlelhorpe Vnv 



Re' 



Ne 



Eliiabeth P. Frailer 
Church League fur Industrial Democracy. 
Phlladalphia 



MutsaratU Gaede 



Paul B. Neamnn 
Labor Organiic 

Daniel' NItibu re 
Student 



Rev. Pwrn H. Whitfield 
Castor. Baptist 

Rev. diaudi C. Willlnmi 
.iPeoFlc'a Institute 
Joyfe.Williama 
P^ople'a Institute 

.Sidney R. William. 

Urban Lraicue, Cleveland 



Oliver LaGron* 

Sculptor 
K«lMrt Gre«uSo1d . 

Cblea^ AelloD*CiaincU 
Carl CoesaUr 

Fxhrstcj Preu 
GtnM Harrii 

BtrmlAcbam Counen P.t..A.R. 
R«v. Hanun Hwhn 

Paator* KviBgellcBl 
Ina BalHnt 

.Dr. Ahigbiijm Mnelacharf 
Natwna] tTrMD L««gQ« 



Rev. Tr*V'M. PulJm 
Putsr, Unitarian 

Milton Raynor 

Attarnoy 
IUt. Ed ^dman 
I Paatdr, Unitarian 



.Charlemaa RolUu 
_ Atitbor, Libmrlas 
Baae Baaa 
Spulah Ballat 



*0r(wilaat2*M «n IbCcd <er tk* pnpoa* of ISaBtllcalW)! enly.- 



Nicholas Wirth 
Author 

Morlar S. Wolfa 

.Attorney 
Dr. A. Wolfaon 

P<Aitlcal Action Committaa 
Max Yerg'an 

Council on African AITalra 



Mr. KuNZiG. I have a document marked "McMichael Exhibit No. 
40," Mr. Chairman. It is a photostatic copy of the Daily Worker of 
February 17, 1942, page 3, showing the Citizens Committee to Free 
Earl Browder -^ announced Jack McMichael to be among the sponsors 



" Citizens' Committee To Free Earl Browder : 

X. Cited as Communist (Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loyalty Revie-w Board, 
released April 27. 1949). 

2. Cited as a Communist organization (Attorney General Francis Biddle, Congressional 
Record, September 24, 1942, p. 7687). 

8. When Earl Browder (then general secretary, Communist Party) was in Atlanta 
Penitentiary serving a sentence involving hi.i fraudulent passports, the Communist Party's 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2813 

of the National Free Browder Congress to be held in New York City 
on March 28, 29, 1942. 

Now, I hand you this document and ask you whether you were 
among the sponsors of the National Free Browder Congress at the 
time mentioned in that exhibit. 

I will also at the same time give you "McMichael Exhibit No. 41," 
which is a photostatic copy of the Daily Worker of February 24, 1942, 
showing that Jack McMichael was a speaker at a conference held 
February 21, 1942, at the Fraternal Club House, New York City, 
under the auspices of the Youth Committee of the Citizens Committee 
to Free Earl Browder. 

Those two hare to do and relate with the Citizens Committee to 
Free Earl Browder. 

Mr. Chairman, the Citizens Committee to Free Eurl Browder was 
cited as Communist by the Attorney General, Tom Clark, in 1949 ; 
cited as a Communist organization in 1942 by the Attorney General, 
Francis Biddle; was cited in 1944 by the Special Committee on Un- 
American Activities, and in 1947 by the California Committee. 

Those are the citations with regard to this Communist-front 
organization. 

My question was whether you were a sponsor of the National Free 
Browder Congress, and then my next question will refer to the other 
exhibit. 

Reverend McMichael. In 1942, Mr. Chairman, after Pearl Harbox., 
along with Bev. Harry Emerson Fosdick and the Very Reverend Dean 
Elwood L. Hayes and John Wharton Pepper, William Draper Lewis, 
and the chairman of the Committee on National Morale, Arthur Up- 
ham Pope, I did join in urging President Roosevelt to free Mr. 
Browder, who was in prison for an offense for which others were not 
imprisoned for so long a time and suggesting political discrimination; 
and, as you recall. President Roosevelt did issue a statement himself 
agreeing with that position, and did free Mr. Browder. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman, may I ask the witness a question at 
this point? 

Mr. Velde. The Chair recognizes the gentleman from Ohio, INIr. 
Scherer. 

Mr. Scherer. Yesterday there was considerable discussion and tes- 
timony made with reference to the meeting of the Ohio Youth Congress 
at the Southern Hotel in 1940. There was a question as to whether 
it was in May or June. It now has been definitely established by the 
newspapers from Columbus, Ohio, and another source, that conference 
was held on Saturday and Sunday, June the 22d and 23d, of 1940. 

Now, witness, I am going to ask you whether or not you were not 
the American Youth Congress chairman at that time. 

Reverend McMichael. I was, sir. I testified to that yesterday. 

Mr. Scherer. And did you 

Reverend McMichael. As a representative of the Student Y'NICA, 
I had been sent to the Youth Congress to represent them by the 
Student YMCA. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you know Joseph Cadden? 



front which agitatocl for his release was known as the Citizens' Committee to Free Earl 
Browder * * * Elizabeth Gurley Flynn. one of the few outstanding- women leaders of 
the Communist Party in this country, headed it" (Special Committee on Un-American 
Activities, report, March 29, 1944, pp. 6 and 55). 



2814 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

Reverend McMichael. Yes. He was the — he was an officer of the 
Youth Congress. 

Mr. ScHERER. And did you know Robert (Bobbie) Thompson, the 
AYC secretary? 

Reverend McMichael. I recall from that affidavit that his name 
was mentioned, and I do not recall that he was, as desigiiated there,, 
AYC secretary ; but it's a matter of record and we can easily find out. 

Mr. ScHERER. Well, did you know 

Reverend McMichael. I think it will be shown that is false, sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. Did you know Robert Thompson ? 

Reverend McMichael. I do not recall knowing him. 

Mr. ScHERER. Well 

Reverend McMichael. I w^ould have. If he was in the Youth 
Congress, I probably did ; but there were a lot of young people there. 
I don't remember all of them. 

Mr. ScHERER. Isn't that the same Robert Thompson who later be- 
came general secretary of the Communist Party of New York ? 

Reverend McMichael. Perhaps you could answer that, sir. As 
I've indicated, I don't recall knowing him; but I could have, be- 
cause- 



Mr. ScHERER. Well, isn't it a fact you do know that was the same 
Robert Thompson who was the Secretary of the Communist Party of 
New York? 

Reverend McMichael. I'm not an authority on who the officers 
of the Communist Party of New York are. 

Mr. Sciierer. And you know that 

Reverend McMichael. I'll be glad to take information from you, 
sir, but I'm a poor one to give it on who the officers of the Communist 
Party of New York — that's not been my field of study. I've been 
years studying other things that have to do with the Methodist min- 
istry. 

Mr. Velde. That isn't responsive to the question. 

Reverend McMichael. Well 

Mr. Velde. Proceed. 

Reverend McMichael. If he wants information, perhaps he has it 
already. 

Mr. Scherer. And isn't it a fact that you know it is the same Robert 
Thompson who was convicted in the New York Federal Court for 
teaching the overthrow of the American Government by force and 
violence, and he jumped bail and is still out? 

Reverend McMichael. Mr. Chairman, as I understand it, the 
charge — and that's a matter of record — the charge was conspiracy to 
teach it, not actually teaching it. 

Mr. Scherer. All right. 

Reverend McMichael. Justice Black's decision makes it clear there 
was no charge they actually taught it 

Mr. Scherer. Did you know 

Reverend McMichael (continuing) . Only they conspired 

Mr. Velde. Will you answer 

Reverend McMichael (continuing). At some future time 

Mr. Velde (continuing). The question? 

Reverend McMichael (continuing). To teach it. 

Mr. Velde. All we are asking 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2815 

Reverend McMichael. He makes a statement about it. I don't 
agree with it. I think it is a matter of fact 

Mr. Walter. "Well, yon have been studying more than in the field 
of the Methodist ministry. 

Reverend McMichael. I have been studying in the civil-liberties 
field, and I have been interested in protecting the liberties of all 
Americans, without exception. 

Mr. Walter. A little law on the side, too. 

Reverend McMichael. No ; I'm not a lawyer. 

Mr. Walter. No ; I know that, of course. 

Reverend McMichael. I have no legal training. It's a little diffi- 
cult for me to avoid being trapped, as a result of not being a lawyer, 
apparently. 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. Proceed. 

Mr. Scherer. Isn't it a fact that Joseph Cadden and Robert Thomp- 
son were speakers with you at the Ohio Youth Congress on either or 
both of the dates of June 22 and June 23, 1940, in Colmnbus, Ohio? 

Reverend McMichael. I appreciate your question, Mr. Scherer. I 
assure you I do not recall being at the meeting. I do not recall it. I 
think it is subject to further inquiry. 

If I was there, I want very much the record to show it, because I 
certainly attended meetings of the Youth Congress. I just don't 
happen to recall it. 

Mr. Scherer. Now, yesterday you positively testified you were not 
at the Youth Congress meeting in Columbus, Ohio 

Revei'end McMichael. I challenge that statement, Mr. Scherer 

Mr. Scherer. And that you were 

Reverend McMichael. And I ask the recorder to read what I stated 
yesterday. 

Mr. Scherer. And that you were in Arkansas 

Reverend McMichael. Yes, according to my recollection 

Mr. Scherer. At that time. 

Reverend McMichael. I was in Arkansas. 

Mr. Scherer. You were in Arkansas 

Reverend McMichael. And I stated that can be found out. That 
is a matter of record. 

Mr. Scherer. And that you 

Reverend McMichael. These things can be found out. 

Mr. Scherer. And that you further stated there was no record in 
your diary of any date you had or engagement you had after June the 
4th of that year? 

Reverend McMichael. I did, and that remains true, unless some- 
body put it there, which I don't believe. 

Mr. Scherer. Now, I am asking you again : Isn't it a fact that you 
and Robert Thompson — the Robert Thompson who has been convicted 
in the Federal courts — and Joseph Cadden were the principal speak- 
ers at the Columbus Youth meeting on June 22? 

Reverend McMichael. It's a fact — and has been for quite a while — 
that this charge has been made by the Edmistons. I don't recall it; 
and if it was true, I would certainly have no hesitancy in confessing it, 
sir, and I'll be eager to try to get the answer, if you want information 
and want me to try to find out. 



2816 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

There must be some records if a meeting was held and if I was there. 
There must be some way to demonstrate that. I don't recall it. 

And as to whether I Avas in Arkansas — there is a source of informa- 
tion on that, and I intend to look it up, sir, to find out from the home — 
the Board of Home Missions of the Presbyterian Church wliat their 
records show\ 

Mr. ScHERER. We will let the records show what you testified 
yesterday. 

Reverend McMichael. I think the record should show that. 

Mr. Scherer. It sure does show it. 

Reverend McMichael, That is a true 

Mr. Velde. There is no question pending. 

Reverend McMichael. An accusation has been made once more. 

Time after time accusations have been made and I have no oppor- 
tunity to answer them. 

Mr. Velde. There is no question pending. 

Proceed, Mr. Scherer. 

Mr. Scherer. Isn't it a fact 

Reverend McMichael. You don't give the American citizens many 
rights here 

Mr. Scherer. Do you know^ Jack Perloff? 

Reverend McMichael. To answer these accusations. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you know Jack Perloff? 

Reverend McMichael. I don't recall knowing him. 

Mr. Scherer. You don't recall? 

Reverend McMichael. No. 

Mr. Scherer. You won't say you didn't know him? 

Reverend McMichael. Oh, no ; I wouldn't say I didn't know him. 
There are a lot of people 

Mr. Scherer. Isn't it a fact you do know him as well as you know 
Belf rage ? 

Reverend McMichael. No ; I wouldn't say that. No. 

Mr. Scherer. How well do you know him ? 

Reverend McMichael. I know that's not true. 

Mr. Scherer. How well do you know him? 

Reverend McMichael. How well do I 

Mr. Scherer. Know him. 

Reverend McMichael. I just testified I am not a lawyer, but I 
didn't get my eyeteeth yesterday either. I just testified I didn't know 
him. 

I have nothing to liide about it. If I knew him, I would have told 
you. 

I told you I knew Mr. Belfrage 

Mr. Scherer. Do you 

Reverend McMichael. And I told you I was proud to have known 
Miss Chappell, a deaconess in the Methodist Church, whose character 
and reputation was defamed 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Chairman. 

Reverend McMichael. By this committee after she was dead. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Clardy. I move that be stricken, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. That will be stiicken from the record 

Reverend McMichael. I wish you would strike these accusations, 
Mr. Chairman, that I can't answer here. 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2817 

IMr. Velde. And the Chair must insist — — 



Reverend McMichael. You are not my master, Mr. Scherer. I am 
an American citizen, and you are supposed to be my servant. 

Mr. SciiERER. I am not your servant. 

Reverend McMichael. You referred to blasphemy this morning. 
That applies to God, and you're not God. 

Mr. Scherer. All right, now, wasn't the Jack Perloff you knew as 
a member of the Communist Party at that very meeting in Columbus 
with you? 

Reverend McMichael. I'm really not— not quite aware of why 
you continue with these questions, sir. If 3'ou're trying to trick or 
trap me, go right ahead, if that's what you want to do with the 
Methodist preachers you bring before this body. 

I thought there was a ruling some time ago the counsel was going 
to ask questions. It's all right, but you're violating your own ruling 
here. 

Mr. Velde. Will the witness please refrain 

Reverend McMichael. That's all right. 

Mr. Velde. From making voluntary statements? 

Reverend McMichael. The record will show you made one ruling 
and you are carrying out another. 

Mr. Velde. The statements, without objection, that the witness has 
just made will be stricken from the record. 

Reverend INIcIMichael. I protest. 

Mr. Scherer. Now, isn't it a fact that on June 22 or June 23, on 
the mezzanine floor of a Columbus, Ohio, hotel that you, witli E. S. 
Grattan, who was the Communist Party secretary. Jack Perloif , YCL 
organizer, Joseph Socoloff, Communist Party organizer, engaged in 
a conversation with Martha Edmiston and John Edmiston, and also 
Robert Thompson was there ? Isn't that a fact ? 

Reverend Mc^VIichael. I appreciate your being specific. 

I have no evidence that it's a fact, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. Well, you wouldn't deny that was a fact? 

Reverend McMichael. I deny that I have any memory of it what- 
soever — any memory whatsoever of it. 

Mr. Scherer. All right. 

Isn't it a fact that the one subject of that conference 

Reverend McMichael. I just said, sir — you're being very unfair 
to me 

Mr. Velde. Just a minute, please. 

Reverend McMichael. And the record will show that. 

Mr. Velde. Will you answer the question? 

Reverend McMichael. I have no recollection of the conference, 
and then you are going to ask me questions about the content of a 
conference I don't recall. 

Mr. Scherer. Isn't it a fact 

Reverend McMichael. How can you answer a question like that? 

Mr. Scherer. Isn't it a fact 

Reverend McMichael. It is impossible to answer a question like 
thaff. 

Mr. Scherer. Isn't it a fact that the subject of that conference 

Reverend McMichael. How can I answer questions about a confer- 
ence I don't recall ? 



2818 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

Mr. Velde. Just a minute, please. 

The voluntary remarks of the witness will be stricken from the 
record, without objection. 

Reverend McMichael. Do you see the unfairness of the questions 
this committee member is asking me, which the counsel is supposed 
to be asking'? 

Isn't it obvious to any lawyer the questions are unfair? 

Mr. Velde. The questions asked by Mr. Scherer 

Reverend McMichael. I am not under prosecution here. 

Mr. Velde (continuing). Are entirely proper 

Reverend McMichael. You assured me of that. 

Mr. Velde (continuing). And simple questions, and the witness 
could answer, if he would. 

Reverend McMichael. You told me I was not being prosecuted, sir. 

Mr. Clardy. If you were in court — — 

Mr. Velde. That statement, without objection, will be stricken from 
the record. 

Mr. Walter. No; I object. I think the record should show this 
whole performance in its entirety. 

Reverend McMichael. Amen. I do, too, Mr. Walter. 

Mr. Walter. I object to removing that, and it is just too bad we 
can't have pictures of this so that — — 

Reverend McMichael. We ought to have a sound recording of 
everything that goes on here 

Mr. Walter. Keep quiet, will you, please ? 

Reverend McMichael. So that 

]Mr. Walter. You aren't half as funny as you think you are. 

Reverend McINIichael. This isn't funny to me. 

Mr. Walter. Now, then— — 

Reverend McMichael. It's very tragic — what's happening to the 
Bill of Rights here today — I assure you. 

Mr. Velde. The Chair will withdraw his ruling 

Reverend McMichael. There's nothing humorous about it. 

Mr. Velde. And the statement will be reinserted. 

Reverend McMichael. I have a sense of humor, but this 

Mr. Moulder. May I ask a question, Mr. Chairman ? 

Mr. Scherer. Just a second. 

Mr. Velde. Will you yield to the gentleman ? 

Mr. Scherer. I will yield for a question. 

Mr. Moulder. All right. 

I wanted to find out, in line with your questioning, where he re- 
sided — where his residence was — on June 22 and 23 of 1940. 

Reverend McMichael. I believe I was in Arkansas, Mr. Moulder, 
but I would have to go and check the records on that because, as I 
indicated yesterday, after I believe the 4th of June my diary doesn't 
show any entries and, as I recall, I went in June — I certainly spent 
that period in Arkansas doing rural church work under the Board of 
National Missions of the Presbyterian Church, U. S. A., and I think 
that's as reliable an authority as some of the others that are being 
relied on there 

Mr. Scherer. Now, then 

Reverend JNIcMichael. And we can check that. 

Mr. Scherer (continuing). Getting back to this conversation on 
the mezzanine floor, do you deny that you led that conversation and 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R, McMICHAEL 2819 

the subject of the conversation was how to spot FBI ajxents in Com- 
munist Party meetings? 

Kevei-end AIcMichael. Yes ; I deny that. 

JNIr. ScHERER. You deny that? 

Reverend McMichael. Surely. 

Mr. ScHERER. Now, do you know Martha Edmiston and John 
Edmiston ? 

Eeverend McMichael. I answered that question yesterday, sir. 

Mr. Sciierer. Will John Edmiston step forward, please? 

Eeverend IMcMichael. My answer was I didn't recall from the 
name. 

Mr. Velde. Just a minute, please. 

Reverend McMichael. I wanted to make it clear what the answer 
was. 

Mr. Velde. Just a minute. You have already made it clear. 

Reverend McMichael. That is all right. 

Mr. ScHERER. This is John Edmiston, former undercover agent for 
the FBI. I want you to look at him and tell us whether you know 
this man or not. 

Reverend McMichael. I don't recognize him, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. You say you don't know liim ? 

Reverend McjMichael. I wouldn't say I don't know him. I would 
say I don't recognize him. 

Mr. Scherer. Isn't it a fact you know him real well ? 

Reverend McMichael. It's not a fact I know him real well. That 
I deny. That I certainly deny. 

Mr. Scherer. How well do you know him ? 

Reverend McMichael. I don't know him, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. Xow, will you call 

Reverend McMichael. As to whether I've ever seen him 

Mr. Scherer. Martha Edmiston? 

Mr. Velde. Mrs. Edmiston, will you step forward ? 

My. Edmiston, you may retire. 

Mr. Sherer. I want you to look at Martha Edmiston and tell us 
whether you know her ? 

Reverend ISIcMichael. I don't know her, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you ever see her? 

Reverend McMichael. I may have seen her. I don't know. 

Mr. Walter. Will the gentleman yield ? 

Mr. Scherer. You don't recall having seen her? 

Reverend McMichael. I don't know. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you recall having seen her? 

Reverend McMichael. I don't know. Having seen her, I certainly 
don't know of her. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you ever meet her ? 

Reverend McMichael. I don't recall having ever met her. 

Mr. Scherer. Isn't it a fact you met her on numerous occasions ? 

Reverend McMichael. I'm convinced that is not a fact, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. How many occasions 

Reverend McMichael. It's my policy as a Christian minister to 
meet all kinds of people and all kinds of folks. I certainly don't cut 
m3^self off from any of the human family at all. 

Mr. Scherer. Now, let me refresh your recollection. 



2820 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

Didn't you participate on a panel, with Mrs. Edmiston, devoted to 
the aid of Cliina, on July 4, 1941, in Phihidelphia, in the town hall? 

Reverend McMichael. As I testified yesterday, I was present at 
that meeting, and I may liave here some record as to whether or not 
I — I was with her tliere. 

I've got a record. If you'll give me just a moment on that, I'll see 
if we have any record. 

What was the name of that panel you referred to ? 

Mr. DoNNER. Aid to China. 

Reverend McMichael, Aid to China. 

See, I have here a report of that meeting. 

That was the meeting, sir, at which we took, under my leadership, 
a stand against an American expeditionary force 

Mr. SciiERER. I don't care what stand you took. Did you partici- 
pate with this woman on a panel on July 4 in the city of Phila- 
delphia, Pa., at the National Conference of the American Youth 
Congress ? 

Reverend McMichael. I was certainly at that congress, sir. I was 
the chairman. 

Mr. ScHERER. I understand that. 

Reverend McMichael. That's right. 

Mr. SciTERER. But did you participate with her on the panel ? 

That is the question. 

Did you or did you not? 

Reverend McMichael. Yes; I understand the question. I'm try- 
ing to see if there's any evidence in this report about it or not. 

Mr. ScHERER. I am not asking you to look at the report. 

Reverend McMichael. You want me to consult my memory — only 
my memory ? 

My memory doesn't say I did, but I don't deny it, because I may 
have — I may have — and if I did I'm perfectly willing to find out and 
to say so. 

I was certainly for aid to China at that time, as was the Student 
Christian Association. This was the time, of course, when the Jap- 
anese Army was marching into China, and that was part of our pro- 
gram. So, I'm convinced of that. 

Mr. Velde. The committee at this point will be in recess for 10 
minutes. 

(Whereupon, at 2: 45 p. m., the hearing was recessed, to reconvene 
at 2: 55 p. m.) 

(The hearing reconvened at 2:58 p. m.. the following committee 
members being present: Representatives Harold H. Velde (chair- 
man), Kit Clardy, Gordon H. Scherer, Morgan M. Moulder, and 
Clyde Doyle.) 

Mr. Velde. The committee will be in order. 

Let the record show at this point that present are Mr. Clardy, Mr. 
Scherer, Mr. Moulder, Mr. Doyle, and the chairman, a quorum of the 
full committee. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Chairman, I should like at this time to move the 
admission of Documents Nos. 40 and 41 into evidence. 

Mr. Velde. Is there objection? 

Without objection, those documents will be in evidence at this point. 

(The photostatic copy of p. 3 of the February 17, 1942, edition of 
the Daily Worker article, Union Rally for Browder Set for Tomorrow 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2821 

Night, was marked and received in evidence as "Mc^Iichael Exhibit 
No. 40.") 

McMICHAEL EXHIBIT NO. 40 

(Daily Worker, February 17, 1942) 

Union Rally for IJrowdek Set for 'J'omorrow Night 

Outstanding labor leaders and favorite union si^eakers will take part tomorrow 
night in the first of a series of meetings sponsored by the New I'ork Trade Union 
Committee to Free Earl Browder. 

The meeting will be held at Hotel Diplomat. 108 West 43d St.. at 7 : 30 p. m. 

The speakers at the meeting will be Ben Gold, president, United Fur and 
Leather Workers Union ; Lewis Merrill, president. United Othee and Professional 
Workers of America ; Charles Collins, organizer, AFL Hotel and Club Employees 
Union Local 6 ; Morris Gainor, president, International Brotherhood of Painters, 
Local No. 905; Joseph Brodsky, noted labor attorney; I^ouis Weinstock, admin- 
istrative secretary and William Albertson, trade-union secretary, Citizens 
Committee to Free Earl Browder. 

"This, our lirst trade-union mass meeting on behalf of the freedom of Earl 
Browder," said Ben Gold, cluiirman of the New York Trade Union Committee to 
P^'ree Earl Browder, "is the direct result of the demands made liy more than a 
half million New York workers for equal justice in the ca.se of the valiant fighter 
for labor's rights, for this pioneer anti-Fascist who was imprisoned unjustly for 
4 years on a minor and technical charge which is seldom prosecuted. 

"The workers of New York want to know, why tlie continued imprisonment of 
Earl Browder? This mass meeting is the first of a series of such mass meetings 
planned for the city. We must free Elarl Browder, now." 

Many new supporters for Free Browder Congress 

Scores of additional sponsors have declared their support for the National Free 
Browder Congress, the Citizens Committee to Free Earl Browder said yesterday. 

The Congress will be held March 28-29, 1942, in New York City and is sponsored 
jointly by the Citizens' Committee and a group of trade-union officers, educators, 
religious leaders, and other patriotic and public-spirited citizens. 

The call to the Congress in outlining the purpose of the assembly stated that 
"We, the undersigned, who believe that neither the ends of justice, nor the inter- 
ests of the Nation in this crisis will best be served by the continued imprisonment 
of Earl Browder, call upon all patriotic, justice-loving Americans, upon all trade 
unions, fraternal, youth, and religious organizations, upon all public-spirited 
groups, to join in a National Free Browder Congress, on March 28-29, at Man- 
hattan Center, New York City, for the express purpose of taking counsel tigether 
(sic.) and petitioning our President, FranTjlin Delano Roosevelt, to exercise his' 
Executive jwwer and correct this injustice, by granting Earl Browder his 
freedom." 

The additional sponsors for the Congress announced today were : Prof. Karl 
Paul Link, University of Wisconsin, Daniel Howard, chairman, Connecticut Con- 
ference on Social and Labor Legislation ; Frank Ellis, president, Minnesota State 
CIO ; Leonard Lageman, secretary, Minnesota State CIO ; Lucius Harper, maan- 
aging (sic.) editor, Chicago Defender; J. Stevents, secretary. International Long- 
shoremen's and Warehousemen's Union, Seattle Local No. 1-9 ; Glen Kinney, dele- 
gate, AFL Washintrton St.'ite Machinists Council ; H. E. Walters, president, Seattle 
AFL International Hod Carriers and Building Laborers ; Arthur Upham Pope, 
chairman, Committee for National Morale. 

Also Nicholas Tomasetti, Connecticut State representative and president of 
Labor's Non-Partisan League ; .John H. Cook, president, Hennepin County (Minne- 
sota) Industrial Union Council; Jack R. McMichael, national chairman. Ameri- 
can Youth Congress ; Rev. George Gilbert, author. Forty Years a Country 
Preacher; Mel Heinritz, regional director, State, County, Municipal Workers of 
America; Llewllyn A. Coles, editor, Ohio State News'; Roy Lami;itt, AFL 
United Brotherhood of Carpenters and .Jointers, Seattle; Frank Shanks, delegate, 
AFL Spokane Central Labor Council ; Rev. Stephen H. Fritchman, Boston, Mass. ; 
Rev. Harold E. Bremer, director, Indianola Student Center (Methodist), 
Columbus, Ohio, and many others. 



2822 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

i (The photostatic copy of p. 3 of the February 24, 1942, edition of the 
Daily Worker article, Youth Parley To Free Browder Speeds Drive, 
was marked and received in evidence as "McMichael Exhibit No. 41.") 

McMICHAEL EXHIBIT NO. 41 

(Daily Worker, February 24, 1942, p. 3) 

Youth Parley to Free Browder Speeds Drive 

Students, Labor, Fraternity arid Civil Groups Press Unity in Campaign 

To have Earl Browder in prison while the United States is at war with the 
fascist Axis makes the youth of America ashamed. Jack McMichael, national 
chairman of the American Youth Congress told a youth conference on freedom 
for Earl Browder. Saturday at the Fraternal Clubhouse. 110 W. 48th Street. 

The conference, which was sponsored by the newly-formed Youth Division 
of the Citizens' Committee to Free Earl Browder, was attended by more than 
120 yonn.',^ people, both delegates and visitors, including trade union representa- 
tives, chairmen of defense councils from settlement houses, presidents of social 
clubs, college clubs and fraternities, members of the YMCA and YYVCA. 

Calls for Ignited Action 

Mala James, youth secretary of the Citizens Committee to Free Earl Browder, 
who made the main leport, told the group: "We young people rallied to the ban- 
ner of the Scottsboro Boys. We made the story of Angelo Herndon a by-word 
among the people. We strove long y(>ars to open the doors for Tom Mooney. 
Yet the case of Earl Bi-owder is even more a blot on our national honor than were 
these cases. 

"Now is not the time for division. The cry of the hour is for unity. Our 
hopes — our dreams — our future — our very lives are at stake. Only a nation 
united in purpose, drawing upon all its resources, can destroy the enemy without 
and the traitors within. In the factories, in the farms, we are working with 
but one thought : All for the defense of our country. We say if Earl Browder has 
a contribution to make to his country's defense, then his release is as important 
as the tanks, the food, the guns, the p?anes." 

Other speakers included David Livingston, vice president of Local 65, United 
Wholesale and Warehouse Workers, CIO: Esther Letz, finance secretary of Local 
65 ; Herbert Goldenberg, secretary of Tau Alpha Omega fraternity, Brooklyn 
College: Maureen Austin of the Central New York YWCA and Harry Rosen, of 
the Bronx YMHA. 

A telegram from Tom Jasper, young Negro trade unionist, assistant manager 
of Local 125, Fur Floor and Shipping Clerks, CIO. stated: "The Negro young 
people's needs are attuned to the trade unions in demanding Browder's release, 
because he is a most effective voice for Negro and labor progress." 

A resolution adopted unanimously at the conference pledged that the youth 
leaders attending it would aid in the distribution of 50.000 postcards among 
the youth of the City, demanding Browder's release ; obtain resolutions from 
their organizations calling on the President for executive clemency in the 
Browder case, and secure delegates from these organizations to the National 
Free Browder Congress to be held in New York City on March 28 and 29. 

Reverend McMichael. Which were those, Mr. Kunzig? 

Mr. KuNziG. The last two were with regard to Browder. 

Mr. Velde. May the Chair make an announcement? 

The committee has unanimously decided that the witness, Mr. Mc- 
Michael, may retire, under subpena, for 1 hour, and we will proceed 
with the hearing of the testimony of Mr. Edmiston and Mrs. Edmiston. 

Mr. M0UT.DER. Mr. Chairman, by that, I understand you to mean he 
will be excused for a period of 1 hour, but he will remain here in tha 
hearing room, if he so desires? 

Mr. Velde. Well, to be available. He is still under subpena. 

Mr. MoTiLDER. He is not to retire from the hearing room ? 

Mr. Velde. Well, not unless he wishes. 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2823 

Mr. MoTXLDER. I see. 

Mr. Velde. Does the gentleman 



Mr. Moulder. No; I was just wondering. 

Mr. Velde. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Martha Edmiston. 

Mr. Velde. "Will you stand, please, Mrs. Edmiston? 

In the testimony you are about to give before the committee, do 
you solemnly swear you will tell the truth, the whole truth, and noth- 
ing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mrs. Edmiston. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MARTHA N. EDMISTON 

Mr. KuNziG. Mrs. Edmiston, will you give your full name, please, 
spelling it carefully for the record ? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Martha Nichols — N-i-c-h-o-l-s — maiden name — 
Edmiston — E-d-m-i-s-t-o-n. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mrs. Edmiston, what is your present address, please 2 

Mrs. Edmiston. Waynesville, rural route 2. 

Mr. Velde. Which State? 

Mr. KuNziG. Which State? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Waynesville, Ohio. 

Mr. Kunzig. You understand, of course, every witness before the 
committee has the right to counsel. I assume, because you are appear- 
ing here without counsel, you do not desire to have a lawyer at your 
side. 

Mrs. Edmiston. Right. 

Mr. Kunzig. Mrs. Edmiston, do you know the previous witness who 
just stepped down from the stand, Reverend McMichael ? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Yes ; I do. 

Mr. Kunzig. Where did you first meet him? 

Mrs. Edmiston. As we stated in our affidavit, our first meeting with 
Mr. McMichael was at the Southern Hotel in Columbus, Ohio, when 
we were acting as undercover operatives for the Federal Bureau of 
Investigation. 

Mr. Kunzig. "We" being who? 

Mrs, Edmiston. My husband and I, John Edmiston. 

Mr. Kunzig. I see. 

How do you rexi-all or what brings to your mind particularly the 
Reverend McMichael? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Well, it was our business to remember faces and 
names at that time. Ours was a job of reporting facts back to the 
Bureau, and the instance which we have cited in our affidavit hap- 
pened at the Southern Hotel, where we were drawn aside by a small 
group of people and instructed on how to detect an FBI stool pigeon 
and enemy of the people within the youth organization. 

It was highly instructive to us. We learned a lot of things. We 
learned that undercover operatives were always the first to be on 
the picket lines or the first to promote the petitions that were being 
passed out. So, we learned to back up a little bit from the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Kunzig. Well, Mrs. Edmiston, this little discussion you are 
talking about — who was present at this discussion ? 



2824 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

Mrs. Edmiston. Stephen Grattan, E. S. Grattan, Communist Party 
secretary in Columbus; Jack Perloff, who has been mentioned here 
ah'eady, YCL organizer in Columbus — that is, Young Communist 
League ; Joseph Socoloff , Communist Party organizer for Columbus — 
and this little group was with us, with Ed and — with John and myself, 
when we were joined by Mr. McMichael and Robert Thompson, who 
is — who was indicted in Judge Medina's court and is presently on the 
loose somewhere. 

Mr, KuNziG. Now, did all these people obviously know each other 
and know each other well ? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Apparently so; yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. The discussion was most cordial and friendly among 
a group of one mind, so to speak? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Right. 

Mr. KuNziG. And, of course, you at that time were going under the 
front of being a Communist Party member ? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Oh, yes ; we were. 

Mr. KuNziG. So, all thought you were one of the group, so to speak? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Yes; we were doing a pretty fair job of acting 
as Communist Party members, and our appearance was perhaps dif- 
ferent. We were posing as Communist Party people at that time. 

Mr. KuNziG. Let me ask you this — and I ask you to think most 
well and seriously upon the answer, since there obviously has been 
a difference of opinion : Do you know absolutely that the Reverend 
McMichael who previously was in this witness stand a few minutes 
ago was in that group ? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Yes ; I do. Otherwise we would not have signed our 
affidavit to that effect. 

Mr. KuNziG. You took an oath to that ; is that right? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Right. 

Mr. Kunzig. And you are under oath this minute, as you are swear- 
ing before this committee? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Exactly. 

Mr. Kunzig. Now, you also discussed the Emergency Peace Mo- 
bilization. Did you attend that meeting of the Emergency Peace 
Mobilization ? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Yes; I did. I was representing the Workers' 
Alliance of America, and it was during this time that an affidavit was 
issued for my arrest for false circulation of the Communist peace 
petition in Columbus. This was done in an attempt to get into Com- 
munist Party favor, you see. 

At that meeting we had delegates from all over the country. There 
must have been 

Mr. Kunzig. Was this August of 1940? 

Mrs. Edmiston. That was August, and over the Labor Day week- 
end. 

Mr. Kunzig. I see. 

Mrs. Edmiston, It tied in the Emergency Peace Mobilization. Pre- 
ceding that was the Workers' Alliance convention, and I have here 
a copy of the Daily Worker for August the 31st, 1940, and it talks 
about the delegates from all American cities to pour into the Chicago 
peace parley, and it says here : 

Youth will speak Saturday night through the vivid personality of Jack Mc- 
Michael, chairman of the American Youth Congress. 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. MdiHCHAEL 2825 

Mr. KuNziG. Well, now, did you see Jack McMichael present at this 
peace mobilization? 

JVfrs. Edmiston. Yes ; he was one of the speakers. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you hear him speak? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Yes; I did. We were present at all the sessions. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did he speak at the anticonscription rally? 

]Mrs. Edmiston. Yes. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Just what was that, Mrs. Edmiston, if you could tell 
the committee a bit about it? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Peace meeting — spurious peace organizations were 
set up at that time all over the country. They were organized in 
small neighborhood groups. Then they were pulled into neighbor- 
hood churches, and then into the larger churches in the various cities. 
All these people, then, were gathered together in one mass assembly 
called the Emergency Peace Mobilization, whose purpose was to stop 
conscription, keep America out of war, and keep our — our slogan at 
that time was "The YANKS were not coming'', if you will recall. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Was the Reverend McMichael named any officer of 
this organization? 

Mrs. Edmiston. I believe he was named chairman of that organ- 
ization. 

That was a Communist-dominated and Communist-formed organ- 
ization. 

Mr. KuNZiG. I am referring, of course, to the Emergency Peace 
Mobilization. We were talking about the Emergency Peace Mobili- 
zation, and then I believe in your statement you said that a new 
organization, the American Peace Mobilization, was founded 

Mrs. Edmiston. Yes; that succeeded 

JMr. KuNZiG. And of this new organization Reverend McMichael 
was named vice chairman ? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Yes; vice chairman rather than chairman of the 
American Peace Mobilization.^* 

Mr. KuNZiG. American Peace Mobilization. That is right. 

Mrs. Edmiston. I have here a copy of the program — Emergency 
Peace Mobilization — at which Mr. McMichael spoke — the anticon- 
scription rally, 8 p. m., on Saturday, August the 31st, and he's named 
here as chairman, American Youth Congress, also. 

Mr. Velde. May I ask a question at this point ? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Yes. 

Mr. Velde. Will you tell the committee what information you have 
concerning the American People's Mobilization ? 



-* American Peace Mobilization : 

1. Cited as subversive and Communist (Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty 
Review Board, released December 4, 1947. and September 21, l'it4S). 

2. "Formed in the summer of 1940 under the auspices of the Communist Party and 
the Young Communist Leaiiue as a 'front' orjranization designed to mold American 
opinion against participation in the war against Germany. * * * The most conspicuous 
activity of American Peace Mobilization was the picketing of the White House, which 
began in April 1941. in protest against lend-lease and the entire national defense pro- 
gram * * * on the afternoon of June 21, 1941, he (Frederick V. Field, national secretary) 
suddenly called off the picket line around the White House" (Attorney General Francis 
Biddle, Congressional Record. Septemlier 24, 1942, p. 76S4). 

3. Cited as "one of the most seditious organizations which ever operated In the United 
states" and "instrument of the Communist Party line prior to Hitler's attack on Russia" 
(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, report, March 29, 1944, p. & ; also cited 
in reports, June 25, 1942, p. 13 ; and January 2, 1943, pp. S and 9). 



2826 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

Mrs. Edmiston. Oli, the American People's Mobilization was the 
final phase that it went into when the switchover came from peace 
to war. 

I'm sorry. 

Mr. Velde. And when was that? 

Mrs. Edmiston. That was in 1941, just after Hitler invaded Russia. 

Mr. Velde. Well, was there any chan<jje that you were able to see 
in the membership of the American Peace Mobilization and the Ameri- 
can People's Mobilization ? 

Mrs. Edmiston. No ; the same people showed up in both organiza- 
tions, following consistently the party line, since it was Communist- 
dominated. They would naturally follow the party line. 

Mv. Velde. Proceed. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mrs. Edmiston, you also, in your deposition, stated 
that on July 4, 1941, you attended a national conference for the Ameri- 
can Voutli Congress in Philadelphia; is that correct? 

Mis. Edmiston. Right. 

Mr. KuNZiG. And would you describe that meeting to the commit- 
tee, briefly? 

J Irs. Edmiston. My part? 

Mr. KuNziG. Yes; your part. 

Mrs. Edmiston. I was representing the Workers' Alliance, and I 
was sent by — actually, by the Communist Party, representing the 
Workers' Alliance. With me were Joanne Moore, with the Young 
Communist League in Cincinnati — the people who went in my car — ■ 
the four people from Cincinnati were all Communist Party members. 
At that meeting we talked — you talked about the questions that were 
directed to Mr. McMichael a while ago — on the panel, upon which we 
both sat, the aid to China panel, and 

Mr. KuNziG. Both — you mean yourself and the Reverend Mc- 
Michael ? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. I see. 

Mrs. Edmiston. It was a sizable panel, as a matter of fact. 

Mr. Kunzig. And you know, as a definite matter of fact, he sat 
on that panel • 

Mrs. Edmiston. Yes. 

Mr. Kunzig. Together with you? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Yes, and I recall his speech at that time. I have 
a quote which I found quite amusing, as it indicated the complete 
switch-over of the Communist Party line. He said at that time: 

We'll take up arms in defense of Russia, who is now our ally, and lay down 
our lives if need be. 

Mr. Kunzig. This was July 4, 1941 ? 
Mrs. Edmiston. Yes. 

]Mr. Kunzig. Therefore, only a few weeks, as I recall 

Mrs. Edmiston. Yes. 

Mr. Kunzig. After the invasion by Germany of Russia ? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Which was, I believe, on June 22, 1941. 

Mr. Kunzig. And there was this definite switch in the McMichael 

viewpoint, as you, yourself, saw it 

Mrs. Edmiston. Yes. 

Mr. Kunzig. And heard it? 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2827 

Did you see the Reverend McMichael again, recently, in 1950? 

Mrs. Edmiston. We did. After we testified before this committee 
in 1950, on the 13th, 14th and 15th of July that year, the following 
Monday we understood there was to be a meeting of the Methodist 
Federation for Social Action down at Wilberforce, which is Ohio's 
little Negi'o college, in southern — southwestern Ohio. 

Mr. KuNziG. Now, this, of course, was long after you had been 
expelled 

Mrs. Edmiston. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG (continuing). From the Communist Party when they 
caught you as FBI agents'? 

Mrs. Edmistox. We were expelled in 1941, having been detected 
in our business of reporting on Communist Party activities to the 
FBI. 

Incidentally, we gave daily reports to the Bureau. 

Mr. Velde. At this point, since we have had another call of the 
House, the committee will be in recess for 30 minutes. 

(Whereupon, at 3:11 p. m., the hearing was recessed, to reconvene 
at 3: 43 p. m.) 

(The hearing reconvened at 4 p. m., the following committee mem- 
bers being present: Representatives Harold H. Velde (chairman), 
Kit Clardy, Gordon H. Scherer, Morgan M. Moulder and Clyde 
Doyle.) 

Mr. Velde. The committee will please be in order. 

Let the record show at this point present are Mr. Clardy, Mr. 
Scherer, Mr. Moulder, Mr. Doyle and the chairman, a quorum of the 
full committee. 

I would like to state for the record at this point that members of this 
committee have quite a number of other duties to attend to, and I have 
just been advised by counsel for Mr. McMichael that he cannot be here 
tomorrow, and we expect to adjourn by 5 o'clock this evening. So, I 
have asked counsel to finish with Mr. and Mrs. Edmiston as soon as 
possible, and if we are not able to complete the testimony of Mr. Mc- 
Michael he will be continued under subpena until later on in the year. 

With that, will you proceed, Mr. Counsel ? 

Mr. KuNziG. Mrs. Edmiston, when we adjourned a few moments 
ago to answer the call of the floor of the Congress you were discussing 
a July 18, 1950, meeting that you had with the JReverend Jack Mc- 
Michael. He was, at that time, as I understand, executive secretary of 
the Methodist Federation for Social Action. 

Now, would you describe that occasion, please, to the committee? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Yes. The conference was held at Wilberforce Uni- 
versity, a small Negro university, which had no part in the federation. 
They simply provided a place for them to meet. 

Now, Mr. McMichael was one of the principal speakers, and we went 
to the meeting to more or less refresh ourselves on what the party line 
might be. We thought there we might find it. 

He, Mr. McMichael, voiced what seemed to be the party line, or was, 
from all of the things we were acquainted with at that time. He 
blamed America as being the aggressor in this imperialist war. 

Mr. KuNziG. What war was this? 

Mrs. Edmiston. The war in Korea, which had just begun. He had 
no blame for Soviet Russia, and advocated withdrawal of troops from 
Korea. 

39125—53 15 



2828 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

' At that time we picked up — there was distributed Communist litera- 
ture, and also this program of study and action of the MFSA. The 
committee probably has a copy of it, and they called for such things 
as abolishing the House Committee on Un-American Activities as it is 
an un-American procedure for setting up — or to seek, rather, to expand 
the people's power, democratic rule; raise the standard of living by 
mass purchasing power; for the cooperative ownership of farm ma- 
chinery, and all of those things, which seemed to me to have no particu- 
lar place in a church convention. 

Mr. KuNziG. Well, now 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Clardy. 

Mr. Clardy. Is it possible to have that marked as an exhibit, or do 
you have a copy of it ? 

Mrs. Edmiston. I turned over my other copy — although, I might 
point out, we are not working for the FBI, yet I turned over my copies. 
You may have this one. 

Mr. Velde. Will the clerk mark that as an exhibit, and will the 
counsel offer it for 

Mr. KuNziG. I have this exhibit marked Mrs. Edmiston exhibit No. 1 
for identification, and I offer it in evidence, Mr. Chairman, as Mi^ 
Edmiston exhibit No. 1. 

Mr. Velde. Without objection, it will be admitted at this point. 

(T. MSFA program of study and action was marked and received 
in evidence as "Mrs. Edmiston Exhibit No. 1.") 

MRS. EDMISTON EXHIBIT NO. 1 

(MFSA Program of Study and Action) 

(As Revised Dec. 30, 1949) 

Objects and Governing Principles 

(1) The object of the Federation shall be to deepen within the Church the 
sense of social obligation and opportunity to study, from the Christian point of 
view, social problems and their solution ; and to promote social action in the spirit 
of Jesus. 

(2) The Methodist Federation for Social Action seeks to bear witness in wor- 
ship, education, and action to the social conscience of Christianity. It seeks to 
make explicit for our day what is implicit in the prophetic tradition of the Old 
Testament, the teachings of Jesus, and evangelical Christianity. 

(3) The Methodist Federation for Social Action affirms the radical character 
of the Kingdom of God with its principles of love, righteousness, social justice, 
and an inclusive fellowship of all men, without artificial barriers of race, creed, 
or class, each member of which is a person of infinite value. In seeking the 
establishment of full democracy and unreserved brotherhood in our political, 
economic, and social life, we work for a social order based on respect for per- 
sonality, and service without special class or group discriminations and privi- 
leges. The Federation rejects the method of the struggle for profit as the 
economic basis for society and rejpcts all forms of totalitarianism, replacing 
them by the method of democratic social economic planning. It subscribes to 
no "ism" but to Christianity. 

(4) In seeking to realize these objects and principles, we work to make peace 
secure and to bring the impact of prophetic religion to bear upon our society and 
all its institTitions — economic, political, social, and ecclesiastical. Through a 
concrete immediate program, the Methodist Federation for Social Action works 
to attain ultimately a society in which the people themselves cooperatively and 
democratically plan and provide the production and distribution of goods and 
services with the motive and to the end, not of profits for the few, but of service 
for all ; and in which frustrating and unbrotherly barriers of inequality, whether 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2829 

grounded on class distinction or on race or national or sex discrimination, have 
been ended, supplanted by brotherhood, full and unreserved, and by equal oppor- 
tunity for maximum personal development. 

Our Program seeks: 

i. to extend, cooperate with : 

1. The democratic trade itnion movement which is : 

An indispensable tool through which the workers, themselves, through collec- 
tive bargaining, can have a direct voice in expanding people's purchasing power. 

Essential to extension of industrial democracy as a necessary bulwark of 
political democracy. 

(1) Return to the principles of the Wagner National Labor Act. 

(2) Repeal Taft-Hartley and similar repressive antilabor legislation. 

(3) Thwart persisting state and federal legislative attacks on labor. 

(4) Strengthen the Department of Labor and all federal and state concilia- 
tions services. 

(5) Extend Church-labor cooperation: 

a. Espouse fair labor standards and bona fide collective bargaining in the 
Nashville Plant and other institutions of the Church. 

b. Support a training program among churchmen in the field of religion 
and labor through : 

(a) Setting up more Students-in-Industry groups; 

(b) Helping in the formation of local Religion-Labor Fellowships for 
the development of understanding : 

(c) Recruiting, training and dedicating young people for participation 
in union : 

(d) Special courses in colleges and theological seminaries; 

(e) Inviting labor leaders to address annual conferences; 

(f) Setting up trips for young people and adults in the church for 
studies in industry, and conferences with labor leaders ; 

(g) Taking student and minister groups to observe labor conventions; 
(h) Recommending that all church agencies follow the practice of 

the MFSA by using the Union label. 

c. Support the Church in assigning specialized labor ministers. 

d. Cooperate with progressive employers in promoting these ends. 

e. Urge the Church to make full use of her ministry of reconciliation in 
industrial conflicts. 

3. The cooperative movement, both rural and urban as : 

A democratic vehicle for increasing real income and thus purchasing power 
and employment ; 

Another force for democracy. 

4. Expose and frustrate legislative attacks on the power and growth of co- 
operatives. 

5. Continue education about, and on behalf of, cooperatives. 

6. Seek extension of participation by churchmen and churches in the Co- 
operative Movement. 

II. TO establish and extend full ethnic democracy 

1. Repudiate, in word and deed, the myth of racial and national superiority and 
practices in racial and national discrimination and segregation ; 

2. Seek complete realization of democratic promise of equal opportunity. 

(1) Support strong, permanent federal Fair Employment Practices Com- 
mittee, and parallel state FEPC's, aimed at the elimination of all racial 
and religious discrimination in industry. 

(2) Seek abolition of all discrimination and segregation in restrictive 
housing covenants, divine worship, transportation, education, hospitaliza- 
tion, hotel and eating and recreational facilities, armed forces. 

(3) End all discrimination and segregation in our nation's capital. 

(4) Help establish or develop inclusive, interracial churches. 

(5) Secure non-discriminatory employment by all church institutions. 

(6) Develop interracial MFSA chapters. 

(7) Expose, eradicate anti-Semitism. 

(8) Abolish Oriental exclusion laws. 

(9) Support and implement the Methodist General Conference resolution 
on race. 



2830 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R, McMICHAEL 

III. TO EXTEND AND UNrVERSALIZE DEMOCRATIC SUFFRAGE 

1. Abolish the poll tax, white primary, etc. 

2. Lower the voting age to 18. 

3. Fully enfranchise the American Indians, and citizens of the District of 
Columbia, Puerto Rico, Hawaii, Alaska, etc. 

4. Help get out the vote in all local, state, and federal elections ; and help 
find social conscious candidates. 

rv. TO ESTABLISH, PRESERVE, AND UNDERGIRD CIVIL LIBERTIES AND MINORITY BIGHTS 

1. Stand guard for the liberties, rights, and equal opportunity of all those 
groups (e. g., seek adequate financial support within Methodism for Methodist 
conscientious objectors), oppose proposals to outlaw the minority political par- 
ties, contribute to the legal defense of communists or others brought to trial 
simply for their political views. 

2. Work for immediate amnesty (and release) for all conscientious objectors, 
both in and out of prison. 

3. Support academic freedom. 

4. Support freedom of the church press and of the pulpit. 

5. Support federal anti-lynching legislation and the Civil Rights legislative 
program as a whole. Change Senate rules to end filibuster. 

6. Abolish the House Committee on Un-American Activities, as itself an 
un-American procedure. 

7. Strengthen the Civil Rights work of the Federal Government through : a 
stronger Civil Rights section in the Department of Justice, a permanent Presi- 
dent's Committee on Civil Rights, and a joint Congressional Civil Rights 
Committee. 

8. End the blacklisting of legal and peaceful organizations by the Attorney 
General under Presidential directive. 

9. Repeal the Smith Act as an abridgment of free speech and assembly. 

10. Study, support and implement the United Nations Declaration of Human 
Rights. 

V. TO CONTEST ALL POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, AND MILITARY IMPERIALISM 

1. Seek to expand peoples' power (democratic rule) and raise the standard 
of living (mass purchasing power) throughout the world, remembering that a 
strong democratic trade union movement is one of our chief allies. 

2. Promote political and economic independence for all colonial peoples. 

3. Support UN administration and trusteeship over still dependent territories. 
Develop civilian control of U. S. Pacific dependencies, with promotion of the 
peoples' social and educational advance. 

4. Oppose American economic imperialism as basic to the struggle against 
British, French, Dutch colonialism. 

5. Urge self-determination for Puerto Rico ; statehood for Alaska, Hawaii. 

VI. TO SEEK FULL, SOCIALLY USEFUL EMPLOYMENT IN THE DAYS, AND FOR THE NEEDS 

OF PEACE 

(The widespread lack of which, in the past brought a breakdown of democracy 
to Germany and other lands — and the lack of which in the future could bring a 
similar breakdown again to the same and new nations, including the U. S. A.) 
Full, useful, employment, within the framework of American democracy con- 
stitutes, therefore, a basic and immediate goal of MFSA. 

1. Encourage international economic cooperation (vs. imperialist competition) 
to promote economic expansion, higher living standards, more world trade : 

(1) A world-wide reconstruction plan operated by and through the UN 
to fight starvation and devastation everywhere non-politically. 

(2) Reciprocal trade extension, etc. 

2. Support and promote overall social-economic planning to meet crying 
human needs, implemented by : 

(1) Nationally integrated systems of socially owned and operated TVA's, 
MVA's, CVA's, and a St. Lawrence waterway. 

(2) Vast public and private housing. 

(3) Full peacetime use of the plant and equipment built for war, under 
social control and for the social good. 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2831 

(4) Increased unemployment compensation and expansion of Social Se- 
curity benefits and extension of coverage to workers in ecclesiastical and 
other non-profit institutions, domestics, farmers, etc. 

(5) Expansion of educational facilities and opportunities without dis- 
crimination, including e. g. support of Federal Aid to Public (not private) 
Education. 

(6) Expansion of recreational and health facilities, to include adequate 
medical care for all. 

(7) Constructive public works giving employment to those unable to 
find private jobs. 

(8) Extension and support of Farm Security Administration, Rural Elec- 
trification, and other programs to lifi living standards. 

(9) Return to price controls under a democratic form of organization, 
and with participation by the local community, to keep living costs down. 

(10) Acceptance and application of the principle of an annual living wage 
and increased minimum wage. 

(11) A strong "Full Euiployment" bill. 

3. Support a progressive program to meet rural needs, including 

(1) A thorough study of cooperative ownership of farm machinery. 

(2) Guaranteed floor under farm prices of a fixed percentage of parity. 

(3) Continued low-interest government loans to family farmers. 

(4) Expansion of rural electrification, telephone, roadbuilding ; health, 
welfare, and cultural programs. 

(5) Demands for legislation to curb the alarming expansion of large 
scale and corporation-farm systems and protect the family-tyi)e farmer who 
represents a substantial percentage of Americans. 

(6) Urge our Government to give full support to the original program of 
the International Food and Agriculture Organization. 

(7) Extend more federal employment services to farm labor groups. 

(8) Enlarge and expand the program of federal aid to migrant labor, 
including more adequate housing. 

(9) Expansion and extension of soil conservation with direct payments 
to farmers for soil conservation practices. 

(10) An ever-normal granary program on a much expanded basis, with 
emphasis on federal aid and loans to REA-type of cooperatively owned 
storage facilities. 

(11) Federal crop insurance. 

4. Continue and extend labor-management committees and the cooperation 
developed during the war to end of a cooperative endeavor to secure maximum 
employment. 

5. Remove discrimination against economically disadvantaged areas (espe- 
cially tlie South) to promote industrial and economic expansion. 

6. Support a progressive tax program to stimulate sound economic expansion 
and increase purchasing power at the bottom. 

(1) Abolition of sales taxes. 

(2) Levying of stiff inheritance taxes, steeply graduated income taxes. 

(3) Opposition to any "across the board" reduction in income taxes. 

7. Accept nationally the proposition that labor-saving machinery and all tech- 
nological advancement shall serve the community as a whole, not merely the 
privileged few who own and control the machines (which points to the ultimate 
ownership and control of the basic means of production by the people as a 
whole). 

VU. TO COMBAT THE EVTLS OF MONOPOLY CAPITALISM BY SEEKING NATIONAL AND 
INTERNATIONAL CURBS ON MONOPOLIES AND CARTELS 

Accepting the ultimate goal of public ownership and control of the primary 
sources of power, we urge : 

1. Public or social civilian ownership and control of atomic power. 

2. United Nations control to insure the constructive (vs. destructive) produc- 
tion and use of atomic power. 



2832 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

Pin. TO PKOMOTE AN AMERICAN FOEEIGN POLICY AIMED AT LASTING PEACE AND PRO- 
GRESSIVE CHANGE IN THE WORLD THROUGH THE EXTENSION OF PEOPLES' POWER 

1. Support and implement the Methodist General Conference position on War 
and Peace. Cooperate to that end with the Commission on World Peace, the 
Methodist Committee for Overseas Relief, the Woman's Division of Christian 
Service, and others. 

2. Support and implement the United Nations Charter, and seek wholehearted 
participation in all of its important agencies. 

3. Cease manufacture and stockpiling of atom bombs and destroy existing 
stockpiles. 

4. Outlaw the atom bomb and other weapons of mass destruction (e. g., for 
biological warfare), through U. N. 

5. Oppose peacetime military conscription in the U. S. A. and seek its abolition 
throughout the world as part of a bold, worldwide disarmament program. Repeal 
the Selective Service Act of 1948. 

6. Substantially reduce national military budget. 

7. Oppose further militarization of the "Marshall Plan" as in military alliance 
with Marshall Plan countries. 

8. Engage in friendly cooperation with the Soviet Union. End the Cold War. 
Solve problems through negotiations. 

9. Engage in friendly cooperation with the new regimes of Europe (both East 
and West) and Asia. Secure prompt recognition of the developing new people's 
government in China and large-scale cooperation and aid. 

10. End existing economic, political, and military support of colonial regimes, 
of fascist regimes in Spain and Argentina and of reactionary and protofascist 
forces in Greece, China, etc. 

11. Return to a progressive, democratic, reform program in Japan, 

12. Promote a peaceful, unified, democratic Germany, free to develop its own 
peaceful, economic system. Internationalize the Rhur for the benefit of all 
Europe's people. 

13. End Diplomatic representation with the Vatican in any guise, in keeping 
with the principle of separation of Church and State and with the need for a 
progressive peace policy. 

14. Curb the power and influence of international cartels through the kind of 
intergovernment cooperation in peace which the war proved possible. 

Mr. KuNziG. Do you have that other thing you have over there? 

Mrs. Edmiston. This? 

Mr. KuNziG. Yes. 

Mrs. Edmiston. This is the only copy I have. Might I have a 
photostat of that ? 

Mr. KuNziG. Yes. 

I should like to offer also in evidence a document which was testi- 
fied to earlier, Mr. Chairman — the official program of the Emergency 
Peace Mobilization. I offer this in evidence as Mrs. Edmiston ex- 
hibit No. 2 and ask permission of the committee, sir, if it is received 
in evidence, to have it photostated and return the original to the 
witness, 

Mr. Velde. Without objection, it is so ordered. 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 



2833 



(The official program of the Emergency Peace Mobilization was 
marked and received in evidence as "Mrs. Edmiston Exhibit No. 2.") 



MRS. EDMISTON EXHIBIT NO. 2 

(Part 1) 





2834 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 



MRS. EDMISTON EXHIBIT NO. 2 
(Part 2) 



Let My People Go! 

The cry of the South , * . the inspirmg story of 
the spirituaUeader of the sharecroppers^ Rev. 
Claude Williams . . . from the pen of the great 
British writer^ Cedric Belfrage . . . published 
in Irfsudon by Victor GoUoncz and released by 
the Left Book Club NOT FOB SALE TO THE 
PUBLIC. 

Now Published lor the First Time In America 

FIRST INSTALLMEHT OF THIS GHIPPIHG LIFE STORY WILL 

APPEAR m THE SEPTEMBER ISStJE OF 



"Voice 'i>f America's Conscience" 

On Scde At Counters Inside Stadium and Leading News Stands 

25 Cents per Issue — SI - 5 Moath Sabscriptica ~ S3 - 1 Ya<a 

HeJp via <?et this magccrine in the hands oi ©very raljgious leader in America 

Write: PROTESTANT DIGEST, 521 Fiiih Avenue, New York N. Y. 




/?*** 



/ 

EQUAUTY 

JOINS the thousands of EPM delegates in sounding 
the warning that the American people musi NOW 
siqnd gucxd to 

BEfESD AMEHICA 

KEEP AMERICA OUT OF WAR 

EEEP AMERICA DEMOCHATIC 

EOUALITY, a non-profit, independent monthly jour- 
nal, is Your Magazine. It has become the p^ogres- 
sivs voice of thousands ol Negro, Youth, Labor and 
Peace organizations, Use it to bring the messag® 
of EPM to your co-jnmuajty. Help moke EQUAUTY 
a more vital reHection of events in csU sections of 
our country by wi' sting us oi the experiences of your 
orgomzoticn and the happenings in your commu- 
nity. 

Finance youi activities by circulating EQUALITY. 
Liberal commissions and special rates to organiaa- 
ti:na. 10c per copy. 12 issues for $1.00. 




qmlity 



512 HFTH AVENUE 
New York. R. Y. 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2835 

MRS. EDMISTON EXHIBIT NO. 2 
(Part 3) 

Onjfi^mxiiicM, Ifi^ 3>elefcUed> and VuUo-M 



ALL SESSIONS START ON TIME 

Because there is so little time to trans- 
act so much important business all 
EPM sessions will start precisely AT 
THE HOUR INDICATED. Please co- 
operate with all other delegates by 
being punctual always. 

INFORMATION BOOTH 

All inquiries concerning mail, lost and 
found, etc., will be handled at the spe- 
cial booths located in the lobby of Gate 
2. Ushers and all EPM staff members 
are NOT EQUIPPED to answer inquiries. 
Lost and Found articles will be held 
for owners until 6 P.M. September 2nd. 



BOOKSTORE 

A popular selection of free and low- 
priced literature, non-fiction and social 
action pamphlets is available at special 
book-stalls along the corridors behind 
the orchestra seats. Your chance to 
stock up on what's new. 

TRANSPORTATION INFORMATION 

Uniformed attendants (not ushers) will 
be stationed outside the gates to help 
you find the quickest and cheapest 
transit to various points in Chicago. 
Refer all local transportation inquiries 
to them only, please. 



TELEPHONES 

Numerous coin box (nickel) telephones 
are located on all stadiiun floors. 



MEALS 

special budget luncheons and dinners 
have been arranged for delegates and 
visitors in the Stadium Grill (East of 
Gate 2). Show your blue or yellow 
card to get the reduced price meals. 
For those who do not demand table 
service, arrangements have been made 
to sell sandwiches, soft drinks and 
other refreshments through counter 
and aisle service at popular prices 
within the Stadium. 

AT THE GATES 

Your admission card will be punched 
as you enter each session. Should you 
leave the stadium during a session, 
cards once punched will NOT BE 
GOOD for re<tdjnission. 



PETITIONS AND BUTTONS 

All outstanding funds and collections 
on EPM buttons and petitions must be 
deposited with the Collector stationed 
in the special booth on the orchestra 
floor near the Wolcott Street corridor. 

SERVICES 

The staff and captains and workrooms 
of EPM axG not peimitted to provide 
typewriting or mimeographing facilities 
for any groups or delegations. 

SPECIAL PANELS 

Special interest groups not included in 
the official program must make their 
own arrangements for meeting places. 
These meetings should be scheduled 
for Monday afternoon. Wherever pos- 
sible, pubhc announcement of these 
meetings vnU. be made. 



2836 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

MRS. EDMISTON EXHIBIT NO. 2 
(Part 4) 




e ai £ue44i4. - ome^ 



SATURDAY. AUGUST 31sl 

9:00 A.M. — Meeting of Sponsors — Stevens Hotel 

12:00 Noon— OPENING SESSION CONVENES 

Miss Pearl Hart, Chairman 

Harvey O'Connor, Co-Chairman 

Invocation — Rev. George W. Williams, Chicago, St. Stephen 

A.M.E. Church, Chicago. 
Selections — Agatha Lewis 
Keynote — Rev. John B. Thompson, Temporary Chairman, E.P.M. 

Chairman, Southern Conference for Human Welfare 
Business of the Meeting — Setting up Committees 
Adoption of Procedure 
Adoption of Agenda 

1:45 P.M. — Recess 

2:00 P. M.— SESSION RECONVENES 

Report— DEFENDING DEMOCRACY AT HOME— Rev. Owen A. 
Knox, Chairman, National Federation for Constitutional 
Liberties. 

Speakers — Joseph Ctirran, President, National Maritime Union 

Charles W. Fine, State Senator, Minnewaukon, N. D„ Chair- 
man, Executive Board, North Dakota Farmers' Union. 

Discussion from Fioor — Series of 5 minute speeches 
5:00 P. M.— SESSION ADJOURNS 

5:00 P. M.— COMMITTEE MEETINGS 
Resolutions Committee — Room 5 
Continuations Committee — Room 10 
Credentials Committee — Room 4 
Auditing Committee — Room 8 

8:00 P. M.— ANTI-CONSCRIPTION RALLY 

•Dr. John B. Thompson, General Chairman 

Invocation — Dr. Ernest L. Waldorf, Resident Bishop, Chicago Area, 
Methodist Chiuch 

Speakers — Reid Robinson, President, International Union of Mine. 
Mill and Smelter Workers 

Oscar Ameringer, Editor, The American Guardian 

Jack. McMichael, Chairman, American Youth Congress 

John P. Davis, Executive Secretary, National Negro 
Congress 

Selections — Paul Robeson and Mixed Chorus present "BALLAD 
FOR AMERICANS" 
James A. Mxmdy Singers 
Chicago Repertory Chorus 
The Song Baggers 

Speakers — ^Dr. Francis E. Townsend, President, Townsend National 
Recovery Plan 
Representative Vito Maicantonio, New York 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2837 

MRS. EDMISTON EXHIBIT NO. 2 
(Part 5) 

*uie4iC4f Peace AfoJuUg^iiian 

SUNDAY, SEPTEMBER 1st 

9:30 A. M— BUSINESS SESSION CONVENES 

Invocation — Rev. William C. Anderson 

Report— HOW TO KEEP AMERICA OUT OF WAR — Katherine 
Terrill, Executive Secretary, Council for Social Action 
of the Congregationalist and Christian Church 

Speakeis — Frederick V. Field. 
Dr. Max Yergan 

Community Sing 

Discussion from the Floor — Five minute speeches 

12:30 A.M.— SESSION ADJOURNS 

12:35 P. M.— COMMITTEE MEETINGS 

1:30 P. M.— BUSINESS SESSION CONVENES 

Michael J. Quill, President, Transport Workers Union 

Report of Credentials Committee 

Report of Resolutions Committee 

Discussion and Action 

Recess 

4:00 P. M.— Presentation by the Chicago Repertory Group 

4:30 P. M.— BUSINESS SESSION RECONVENES 

Discussion and Action on Resolutions 
Report on Continuation and Organization 
Discussion and Action 

6:30 P. M.— SESSION ADJOURNS 
6:35 P.M.— COMMITTEE MEETINGS 
8:00 P. M.— Meetings of State Delegations 
(SEE PAGE 6 of this program for LOCATION OF THESE MEETINGS) 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 2nd 

9:00-11:00 A. M.— PANEL MEETINGS 

Labor — Mezzanine Sections. R, S and T 
Farm — Mezzanine Sections K, L, M, and N 
Religious — Mezzanine Section E. F, and G 
Cultural — Mezzanine Sections W. X. A and B 

11:30 A. M.— CLOSING SESSION 

State Reports 
Panel Reports 
Election of Officers 

12:50 P.M.— CALL TO ACTION 

1:30 P. M.— CONVENTION ADJOURNS 



2838 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 



MRS. EDMISTON EXHIBIT NO. 2 
(Part 6) 

State ^eU^fotian Meeilit<j4> 

These meetings have been arranged to enable delegates from various stales 
to assemble as a body and develop programs based upon the policy adopted 
at EPM. All delegates should study the locations of their meetings carefully. 
For economy's sake many meetings have been scheduled in various parts of 
the Stadium. AW state groups should maintain complete quiet when assembl- 
ing and dispersing so that other state groups meeting will not be incon- 
venienced by noise. 

TIME OF ALL STATE MEETINGS: 8:00 P.M. SUNDAY, SEPTEMBER 1st 



Name of State 



Location of Meeting 



MINNESOTA 

THE SOUTH (Virginia, West 
Virginia, No. Carolina, So. 
Carolina, Alabama, Georgia, 
Florida, Mississippi, Texas, 
Kentucky, Louisiana, Tennessee, 
Oklahoma, Arkansas) 

CALIFORNIA 
PENNSYLVANIA 
WISCONSIN 
INDIANA 
NEW JERSEY 

MARYLAND, DELAWARE 
and WASHINGTON, D. C. 

NORTHWEST, (Washington. 
Oregon, Idaho, Montana, 
and Wyoming) 

MIDWEST (No. Dakota, lovwi. 
So. Dakota, Nebraska, 
Kansas and Missouri) 

SOUTHWEST (Utah, Colorado. 
New Mexico, Arizona and 
Nevada) 

OHIO 
ILLINOIS 
MICHIGAN 
NEW YORK 

NEW ENGLAND (Connecticut, 
New Hampshire, Maine, Rhode 
Island, Vermont <md Massachusetts) 



ORCHESTRA— Wood Street (East) Side 



ORCHESTRA— Wolcott Street (West) Side 



MEZZANINE— Section F 
MEZZANINE— Section S 
MEZZANINE— Section X and A 
MEZZANINE— Section L and M 
1st BALCONY— Section C 

I St BALCONY — Section G 



2nd BALCONY— SecUon B 
2nd BALCONY— Section L 

2nd BALCONY— Section R 

To be announced 
To be announced 
To be announced 
To be announced 

1st BALCONY— Section 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2839 

MRS. EDMISTON EXHIBIT NO. 2 
(Part 7) 

Win SUacke — Community Sing Leader 
Song Baggej-s — Community Sing Chorus 
Stage Display — United American Artists 
Cover Design — Hugh Leckie 
Accompanists — Sonny Vale and Abe Liefer 

Mason and Hamlin Pianos from Cable Piano Company 



Life Insurance Is Not Guesswork 

BUY YOUR LIFE INSURANCE IN 
AN ORGANIZATION WHICH ALSO 
PROMOTES YOUR SOCIAL SECURITY 

Any insurance expert will tell you that any other but tlie insurance fea- 
tures of a policy is nothing but compulsory savings. And he will add that 
if it is life insurance you want, your best bet is a policy whose only 
feature is life insurance in an organization which is devoted to increasing 
your Social Security. The main efforts of the I.W.O. are concentrated 
on obtaining a real Social Security program. 

Let's see what this type of insurance costs the J. B. Bordon family in 
the International Workers Order. 

David, aged 31 

Carries J3,000 insurance, $8 sick benefit which in- | $2.44 

eludes T. B. and disability benefit up to $400 I per month 

which also entitles him to 30 weeks of T. B. bene* 

fit at $20 a week. 

Mary, aged 30 

As a housewife, she has $300 disability benefits / *^"= 

up to $400 and T. B. benefits of $20 a week for I per month 

ihrity weeks. 

Little Betty, aged 3. 

She has a $250 life insurance policy which only / 

costs 15c a month. / P" '»»""' 

THE WHOLE FAMILY IS PROTECTED FOR $3.02 PER 
MONTH. COMPARE THIS WITH ANY OTHER TYPE OF 
INSURANCE. 

WHAT IS THE L W. O.? 

A great number of people, seeking protection that they could not get 
alone, joined together and formed an organization wliich is devoted to 
promoting Social Security. They invite you to join them. 

(f rite for information to 

INTERNATIONAL WORKERS ORDER 

80 Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y. 

CHARTERED BY THE INSURANCE DEPARTMENT OF NEW YORK STATE 

• $1459,000 ASSETS 166,000 MEMBERS 



2840 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

MRS. EDMISTON EXHIBIT NO. 2 

(Part 8) 



91 U044. a/ie nMoUn. 2.6 



GT^ri 



y 



Id 



ge( details at our 

SPECIAL EPM BOOTH 

(Warren Blvd. corridor) 

a^ 1775 BioaduAotfr A/.y.3. 



* prestige 

* professional 
standing 

* $1500 Prizes 

* aid to youth 



NATIONAL PHOTO CONTEST FOR YOUNG PEOPLE 



FOR THE MILLIONS 

WHO WANT A 

FREE PRESS 



In fact 



FOR THE MILLIONS 
WHO WANT PEACE 
AND DEMOCfiACY 



IN FACT, edited by Geprge Seldes, fearless Ameri- 
can journalist, author, and one of the sponsors of the 
Emergency Peace Mobilization, is the new four-page, 
streamlined newsletter that appears every two weeks. 
IN FACT prints the real inside news, the kind news- 
papers dare not print ... it exposes the lies and 
distortions of news and headlines — and especially the 
war hysteria of the press. IN FACT eschews editorial 
comment. It believes in letting facts speak for them- 
selves. IN FACT gives you news in a new form, no 
shilly-shallying, but facts straight from the shoulder. 
Although IN FACT stands for everything progressive, 
it is independent and is not tied down to any group 
or anyone's political bandwagon. IN FACT STANDS 
FOURSQUARE FOR PEACE. 

To fight war and conscription you need facts — 
facts that fight war and conscription— facts that mobil- 
ize America for peace and democracy. Today you 
need IN FACT. IN FACT needs you. Subscribe now 
for yourself and friends to the special introductory 
offer of 10 months (22 issues) for 25c. 



Subscr/be Nov/! 
10 MONTHS 

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' Enclosed find 25c for a 10 months subsciip- ' 

tion to IN FACT. (Please do not send stamps. 
Make sure coin is carefully wrapped and will 
not rip through envelope) I 

Name . 

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May we sefid you some material to help I 
us secure subscriptions for IN FACT? • 

I Q YES rplease check) | 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2841 

Mrs. Edmiston. Sir, may I point out- 



Mr. Velde. I am sorry, Mrs. Edmiston ; there is no question pending. 

INIrs. Edmiston. Oh. 

Mr. Velde. Not because we don't want to hear what you have to 
say 

Mr. ScHERER. May I ask a question ? 

Mr. Velde. But because of the regular rules 

Mr. Scherer. May I ask a question? 

Mr. Velde. Yes. 

Mr. Scherer. What were you going to say, Mrs. Edmiston ? 

Mrs. Edmiston. I was going to point out in our affidavit and in any 
testimony which we could offer this committee we will not say — be- 
cause it is not a fact, we will not say that we sat with Mr. McMichael 
in any closed Communist meeting where party action was taken, nor 
were we put on assignment with him by a party superior as a Com- 
munist Party member, nor was he identified to us as a Communist 
Party member. 

I am putting that down — I would like that on the record — as facts. 

When we came before this committee in 1950, they were scrupulous, 
as they always are, and very fair to see that we didn't mention Com- 
munist Party fellow travelers. We were only permitted to name 
Communist Party names. So, I believe Mr. McMichael's name does 
not appear in that testimony ; but our question then — and it has been 
to the groups of people we have talked to since — is : Who is doing 
the most damage, the Communist Party member who rolls the poison 
pill or the person who, under the guise of religion, shoves it down our 
throats ? 

I'm sorry — it's a bit of editorializing there. 

Mr. Velde. Well, let me say this: That the previous witness has 
done much more than editorialize, and we certainly welcome your 
comments. 

Mr. KuNziG. I have one personal, final question, Mrs. Edmiston: 
This affidavit which you signed, together with your husband, the 
31st day of January 1953, in front of Mary C. Young, notary public, 
Hamilton County, Ohio — you are today, of course, here under oath 
before the committee — is everything you put in that affidavit true and 
correct, to the best of 3^our knowledge and belief ? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Yes ; indeed it is. 

Mr. KuNziG. Do you have any further questions, sir ? 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Clardy. 

Mr. Clardy. Just a few. 

Witness, so that we may thoroughly and correctly understand the 
full import of your testimony, I wonder if this would be a fair sum- 
mary : that you are trying to tell the committee that you have sat on a 
panel 

Mrs. Edmiston. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Clardy (continuing). With him; that you have attended meet- 
ings that were Communist-sponsored, such as the one in Columbus, 
Ohio 

Mrs. Edmiston. Right. 

Mr. Clardy. And others ; and that while you do not have any evi- 
dence, documentary or otherwise, to make him a card-carrying Com- 
munist Party member, you have attended meetings that were started 
and carried on, pushed as part of the Communist, Party line? 



2842 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

Mrs. Edmiston. Eight, sir, and his associates were Communist 
Party members. 

We intend to show the closeness, and also the changeover with every 
phase of the Communist Party line, from peace to war and back to 
peace again, as it suits the Soviet. 

Mr. Clardy. What you are saying, then, is Mr. McMichael and 
those he associated with followed the twists and turns of the Commu- 
nist Party propaganda line? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Exactly. Their slogans change from time to time, 
but the aim is the same — the overthrow of the Government by force 
and violence. 

Mr. Clardy. And there was comparable to that a change of name 
to take away the word "peace" and substitute the word "people's" 

Mrs. Edmiston. Right. 

Mr. Clardy. At one time to disguise or at least conceal the fact 
there had been a shift in the party line ? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Right. 

Mr. Clardy. And is it your further purpose here to make it per- 
fectly clear on the record that you have knowledge, which came to 
you through your associations, to support the things you are telling 
us in the affidavit ? 

Mr. Edmiston. Yes, sir. We have no reason to give to the com- 
mittee other than facts. 

Mr. Clardy. Now, at the time this knowledge was acquired by you, 
you were not a member of the Communist Party in the commonly 
accepted meaning of that word ? 

JNlrs. Edmiston. No ; we were posing as Communist Party members 
in order to gather information for the Federal Bureau of Investiga- 
tion. 

Mr. Clardy. So that you were working for your Government 
against the Communist conspiracy 

Mrs. Edmiston. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Clardy. At that time ? 

Mrs. Edmiston. We felt that since we had a chance to observe its 
activities we should offer ourselves to the Bureau. 

Mr. Clardy. This was something voluntary on your part ? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Yes; entirely. 

Mr. Clardy. And, as such, you did your best to conceal the fact 
that you were a member of the FBI ? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Yes ; and fortunately we were not perhaps detected 
by the Communist Party security branch. They have, of course, their 
own security. 

]Mr. Clardy. How long were you acting in that capacity ? 

Mrs. Edmiston. For — from the period of about January 1940, to 
December — late December — shortly after Pearl Harbor Day. Let's 
see — that would be about 2 weeks after Pearl Harbor day when we 
were expelled from the Communist Party? 

Mr. Clardy. Roughly 2 years? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Yes. 

Mr. Clardy. And were you expelled because you were discovered 
to be 

Mrs. Edmiston. Yes. 

Mr. Clardy. An FBI agent? 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2843 

Mrs. Edmiston. Unfortunately, because we had hoped to stay in 
much longer. 

Mr. Clardy. That is all I have, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Scherer. 

Mr. Scherer. One question : I want to go back to the meeting on 
the mezzanine floor of the Southern Hotel during the convention. 
Those present — let's see if we have it right — were E. S. Grattan? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Right. 

Mr. Scherer. I understand he was the Communist Party secretary? 

Mrs. Edmiston. He was the secretary in Colmnbus at that time. 

Mr. Scherer. Of the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Right. 

Mr. Scherer. He was a Communist, and you know about it ? 

Mrs. Edmiston. He was an open Communist. 

Mr. Scherer. He was an open Communist. 

Then there was Jack Perloff. He was a Communist? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Yes. 

Mr. Scherer. In fact 

Mrs. Edmiston. Organizer for the Young Communist League. 

Mr. Scherer. He was the organizer. 

Then there was Joseph Socoloff ? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Joseph Socoloff, alias Joseph Socol. 

Mr. Scherer. And he was the Communist Party organizer ? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Yes ; for the Communist Party proper. 

Mr. Scherer. Then also present in that conversation was Robert 
Thompson ? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Robert Thompson. 

Mr. Scherer. And he, of course, later became the secretary of the 
Communist Party in New York? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Yes. 

Mr. Scherer. And he is the man you have said has been convicted 
in Judge Medina's court and has since jumped his bail ? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. And then you and your husband were there? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Yes. 

Mr. Scherer. And as far as the outside world knew at that time 
you were Communists? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Right. 

Mr. Scherer. And, then, the other person — the only other person 
who was there — was the Reverend Jack McMichael ? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Yes. 

Mr. Scherer. And the subject of that conference was — and, as you 
say in your affidavit, it was Thompson and Rev. Jack McMichael who 
launched into a discussion of — alleged attempts by FBI agents to 
infiltrate the American Youth Congress? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Yes. 

Mr. Scherer. This led to a further remark by the two AYC offi- 
cials on how to spot an FBI agent in Communist Party meetings? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Yes. 

Mr. Scherer. Is that the subject of the conversation ? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Yes; it was. 

S9125— 53 16 



2844 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

Mr. ScHERER. I think that testimony speaks for itself, Mr. 
Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Moulder. 

Mr. Moulder. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 

Pursuing the same course that is in your examination by counsel, 
I want to go back into your background. 

Mrs. Edmiston. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. Where were you born ? 

Mrs. Edmiston. At East Ringgold, Ohio. 

Mr. Moulder. Where? 

Mrs. Edmiston. East Ringgold, Ohio. 

Mr. Moulder. And what was your work or occupation prior to 
your working for the FBI as an undercover agent ? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Columnist. 

Mr. Moulder. What? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Columnist on history. Columnist for Ohio news- 
papers. 

Mr. Moulder. Have you always been a resident of Ohio ? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Yes ; except for a brief time when we were living 
in Michigan. 

Mr. Moulder. Where did you attend school? 

Mr. Clardy. Living where? 

Mrs. Edmiston. We were living in Michigan. 

Mr. Moulder. How far did you live from Columbus, Ohio, or let's 
say, where did you reside on June the 22d and 23d ? 

Mrs. Edmiston. June the 22d and 23d of what year, sir? 

Mr. Moulder. Of 1940. 

]\Irs. Edmiston. We were living in Columbus. 

Mr. Moulder. That was your home at that time? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Yes. 

Mr. Moulder. Now, going along the questions asked you by Mr. 
Scherer concerning this meeting on the mezzanine floor, was it at a 
table or just a gathering in a circle? 

Mrs. Edmiston. No; we were just standing about there. 

Mr. Moulder. Just standing 

Mrs. Edmiston. During a break in the conference. 

Mr. Moulder. Was it a meeting that had been called 

Mrs. Edmiston. No. 

Mr. Moulder. Or previously arranged, or did it just happen? 

Mrs. Edmiston. It happened. 

Mr. Moulder. Were they standing there when you arrived or were 
you one of the first ? 

Mrs, Edmiston. Our little Columbus group was standing there, 
talking about our peace leagues that we were going to set up, when 
Robert Thompson and Mr. McMichael joined us. 

Mr. Moulder. Just on the open mezzanine floor? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Yes, 

Mr. Moulder. How long 

Mrs. Edmiston. It was during the break in the conference. 

Mr. Moulder. How long did this meeting last ? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Oh, probably 10 or 15 minutes. 

Mr. Moulder. Was that the first time you had ever met the Reverend 
McMichael ? 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2845 

Mrs. Edmiston. Yes. We had heard of him from Communist Party 
members as being a good person, who could be trusted on the peace 
groups. 

Mr. Moulder. Were you introduced to him there at that time by 
anyone ? And who introduced 3^ou ? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Yes. I can't recall whether it was Grattan or 
Thompson. However, it was a Communist, because that's all we had 
in the group, 

Mr. ISIouLDER. You were introduced — you remember that — to him 
on that occasion for the first time? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Yes. The other people — there were no other intro- 
ductions performed — they all seemed to know each other. 

Mr. Moulder. And this Robert (Bobbie) Thompson was there? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Yes. 

Mr. Moulder. Did he talk with Reverend McMichael? 

Mrs. Edmiston. They joined us together. 

Mr. Moulder. Oh, they were together when they joined the group? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Yes. 

Mr. Moulder. They were together before, when you saw them ? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Right. They joined our little group. 

Mr. Moulder. Now, going to this Wilberforce University meeting — 
in what building was that meeting held ? 

Mrs. Edmiston. The one in 1950 ? 

Mr. Moulder. Yes. If you can remember. 

Mrs. Edmiston. I can't recall the name of it. I know where the 
building is, but it has an assembly hall in it, where they hold chapel, 
and so on. 

Mr. Moulder. There was an auditorium ? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Yes. 

Mr. Moulder. Can you tell lis where you sat in that meeting, ap- 
proximately ? Do you remember where your seat was, or what row, 
approximately where you were ? 

Mrs. Edmiston. I was probably back about 10 rows, sitting with 
Lou Rock, who was a reporter for the Dayton Journal-Herald. He 
was covering the meeting for the Journal-Herald. 

Mr. Moulder. Was jowr husband with you then ? 

Mrs. Edmiston. No ; my sister was with me. Ed was sitting over 
on the opposite side, on the other aisle. 

Mr. Moulder. He was there at the meeting? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Yes. He had stopped to take a look at the litera- 
ture which was being passed out on the outside. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you recall any conversation you had with the 
Reverend McMichael at that time ? 

Mrs. Edmiston. I had none at that time. 

Mr. Moulder. Oh. ^ 

Mrs. Edmiston. My sister and I, however, joined the group — there 
was a photograph taken of the whole group. We were told, "Come 
on out and get your pictures taken." I believe in that I am standing 
behind Mr. McMichael. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you have that picture ? 

Mrs. Edmiston. No ; I'm sorry, I don't. 

Mr. Moulder. Who took the picture; do you know? 

Mrs. Edmiston. I don't recall. Someone from the conference. 



2846 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 

Mr. Moulder. Someone from where ? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Someone who was attending the conference, who 
had a camera. 

Mr. Moulder. It wasn't a newspaper 

Mrs. Edmiston. No ; it wasn't for the newspaper. It was a record 
shot, I suppose. 

Mr. Moulder. Then, it was on those 3 or 4 occasions that you met 
and knew Reverend McMichael ? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Yes. 

Mr. Moulder. Did he know you well enough to call you by name? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Probably. 

Mr. Moulder. And did he address you by name? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Probably by first name. 

Mr. Moulder. By your first name? 

Mrs. Edmiston. That is, if he had occasion to. As I say, we were — 
when we were working with the Communist Party, our appearance 
was different. 

Mr. Moulder. Sure. 

Mr. Cl \rdy. I didn't hear the end of that sentence. 

Mrs. Edmiston. Our appearance was different when we were work- 
ing with the Communist Party, since we were trying to play a part. 

Mr. Moulder. At the Chicago Stadium meeting at the Emergency 
Peace Mobilization did you meet and talk with the Revetend Mc- 
Michael at that time ? 

Mrs. Edmiston. No ; we heard him from the audience, as I recall. 

Mr. Moulder. You just saw him there at that time? 

Mrs. Edmiston. I did. Whether Ed had a chance to talk to him 
at that time, I don't remember. 

Mr. Moulder, You had no personal conversation or discussion with 
him, but you just saw him? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Yes. 

Mr. Moulder. You saw him only while he was speaking? 

Mrs. Edmiston. And heard him speak; yes. 

Mr. Moulder. That is all, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Doyle. I think before the recess I heard you say concerning 
a panel on which you were a member with the witness — I wrote down 
your exact words — "It was a sizable panel." Now, how many mem- 
bers, therefore, were on that panel ? 

Mrs. Edmiston. I suppose 10 or 12. There must have been at that 
meeting — I should say 1,000 to 1,500 young people. 

Mr. Doyle. And how long did the panel last? 

Mrs. Edmiston. That I don't remember, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. About how long did the panel last ? 

Mrs. Edmiston. I think perhaps an hour. 

Mr. Doyle. Did I understand you a minute ago to say you had 
been told about Reverend McMichael as a person who would be 
interested in peace ? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Right. 

Mr. Doyle. And that is all you had ever heard about him? 

Mrs. Edmiston. I said, I believe, that lie could be trusted to carry 
on the work of the peace groups. 

Mr. Doyle. And that is what you heard about him ? 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2847 

Mrs. EoansTON. Yes, prior to the Southern Hotel meeting. 

Mr. ScHERER. Wlien you said "groups" — what do you mean by 
"groups"? 

Mrs. Edmiston". Well, the peace organization — in the peace organi- 
zations we were setting them up — little ones which were pointed 
toward this Emergency Peace Mobilization in Chicago. 

Mr. ScHERER. The Communists were setting them up? 

Mrs. Edmistox. Right. 

]\lr. Doyle. May I finish my questions, please ? 

That is all you had ever heard about him, is it? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Yes, because 

Mr. Doyle. Well, that is all right. That is just what I want to 
know. 

Now, let's see — you were a paid FBI agent at that time ? 

Mrs. Edmiston. We were operatives, not agents, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. I beg your pardon. You were under salary from the 
F. B. I. 

Mrs. Edmiston. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. To run down, discover, and report known Communists? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. I think you said a few minutes ago that you had never 
been able to identify Mr. McMichael? 

Mrs. Edmistox. That's right. 

Mr. Doyle. What did you do to try to identify Eeverend McMi- 
chael as a Communist 

Mrs. Edmiston. As a Communist? 

Mr. Doyle. If anything? 

Mrs. Edmiston. As an undercover operative, you're careful about 
asking outright questions, particularly at that time because the party 
was underground, as it is now. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, you tried to identify him as a Communist, did 
you? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Our paths didn't cross that often. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, did you make any effort to identify Reverend 
McMichael as a Communist ? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Certainly. We would lead him into conversations, 
but we couldn't ask overt questions — is Reverend McMichael a Com- 
munist? 

Mr. Doyle. Well, then, your answer is you made an effort, but 
failed? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Right. 

Mr. Doyle. That is all I have. 

Mr. Moulder. One question, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Moulder. 

Mr. Moulder. I Avanted to ask the approximate time of day when 
this meeting was held on the mezzanine floor of the Southern Hotel. 
Can you give us that? That is, was it during the morning or the 
afternoon ? 

Mrs. Edmiston. I believe it was an afternoon session. 

Mr. Moulder. That is all. 

Mr. Clardy. ^lay I ask a further question ? 

Mr. Velde. Mr. "Clardy. 

Mr. Clardy. I am not sure that I understood one of your answers to 
my colleague, Mr. Doyle. You said that was all you knew about him. 



2848 HEARINGS REGARDIXG JACK R. McMICHAEL 

Do you mean all that you knew about him prior to the Columbus hear- 
ing or all you knew 

Mrs. Edmiston. Prior to the Columbus hearing. 

Mr. Clardy. I see. 

The first meeting you had with him, however, was at Columbus ? 

Mrs. Edmiston. That's right. 

Mr. Clardy. So that what you heard prior to that time came from 
other sources, other than personal contacts ? 

Mrs. Edmiston. That's right. 

Mr. Clardy. Where did you pick this up ? 

Mrs. Edmiston. From the party ; from Steve Grattan 

Mr. Clardy. Oh. 

Mrs. Edmiston. Communist Party members. 

Mr. Clardy. Oh, from Communist Party members ? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Yes. 

Mr. Clardy. I see. They brought up the subject or 

Mrs. Edmiston. Yes, prior to the youth conference there at the 
Southern Hotel 

Mr. Clardy. All the- 



Mrs. Edmiston. A general discussion of the people would be at 
the conference 

Mr. Clardy. I see. 

Mrs. Edmiston. National officers of it. 

Mr. Clardy. So, what information you had before you met him 
came from people you knew to be members of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Edmiston, Yes. 

Mr. Clardy. Thank you. 

Mr. Velde. May the Chair just make a statement ? 

Mrs. Edmiston. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Velde. I remember, Mrs. Edmiston, when you testified before 
this committee in 1950, at which time I was a minority member of 
the committee, and I felt very definitely you had done a great service 
to the American people, a great service to your Congress, and I cer- 
tainly want to thank you for coming here again today — and I know 
it took some of your valuable time, but I certainly do appreciate 
your coming here. 

With that,— 

Mrs. Edmiston. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. If there are no further questions, the witness is dis- 
missed. 

Mr. KuNziG. John J. Edmiston. 

Mr. Velde. Will you raise your right hand, please ? 

In the testimony you are about to give before this committee, do 
you solemnly swear you will tell the truth, the whole truth and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Edmiston. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF JOHN J. EDMISTON 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Edmiston, would you give your full name for 
the record, please, sir ? 

Mr. Edmiston. John J. Edmiston — E-d-m-i-s-t-o-n. 

Mr. KuNziG. And your address ? 

Mr. Edmiston. Route 2, Waynesville, Ohio. 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2849 

Mr. KuNziG. You understand, of course, every witness has the right 
to counsel before this committee, and I presume you, by appearing 
here without counsel, are perfectly willing to testify without counsel i 

Mr, Edmiston. I waive counsel. 

Mr. KuNziG. Are you related to the previous witness, Mr. Ed- 
miston ? 

Mr. Edmiston. Only by marriage. 

Mr. KuNziG. I take it the previous witness was your wife; is that 
correct ? 

Mr. Edmiston. That is correct. 

Mr. KuNziG. Were you present in the room, sir, during her 
testimony ? 

Mr. Edmiston. I was. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Edmiston, do you know the previous witness prior 
to your wife, the Reverend McMichael ? 

Mr. Edmiston. Yes ; I do. 

Mr. Kunzig. When did you first meet Reverend McMichael ? 

Mr. Edmiston. During June of 1940. 

Mr. Kunzig. Was that the meeting to which your wife has just 
testified — of the Ohio Youth Congress in the Southern Hotel in 
Columbus ? 

Mr. Edmiston. That is correct. 

Mr. Kunzig. Is everything that is in your affidavit that you and 
your wife swore to, signed by you and your wife, sworn to before 
Mary C. Young, notary public, Hamilton County, Ohio, on the 31st 
day of January, 1953, true and correct, to the best of your knowledge 
and belief? 

Mr. Edmiston. It is, sir. 

Mr. Kunzig. You have been in the room, as you just testified, and 
heard your wife testify. Do you corroborate the testimony she gave, 
and was her testimony true and correct ? 

Mr. Edmiston. Her testimony was true and correct, insofar as I 
know. I cannot corroborate her testimony which covers, I believe, a 
meeting in Philadelphia on July 4, which I did not attend. 

Mr. Kunzig. But you were present at the other times about which 
she testified with regard to Reverend McMichael? 

Mr. Edmiston. Yes; I was. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Clardy, do you have any questions ? 

Mr. Clardy. No; I believe not. The witness has been identified 
and has covered the subject. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Scherer. 

Mr. Scherer. I have no questions. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Moulder. 

Mr. Moulder. Just this one question : Is the Reverend Jack R. Mc- 
Michael that you were called up here a little while ago for him to 
identify you the same Reverend Jack R. McMichael that you met in 
the Southern Hotel at this conference meeting and the same person 
referred to in your wife's testimony ? 

Mr. Edmiston. That is correct. 

Mr. Moulder. That is all. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Doyle. No questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. All right. 



2850 HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R, McMICHAEL 

Mr. Clardy. Oh, I think I had better ask one question. 

Counsel, did you ask him to look at the witness, McMichael, so he 
he might possibly identify him in the record ? 

Mr. KuNziG. He identified McMichael, sir, as I understand, as the 
man who just testified before. 

Mr. Velde. Maybe you better do that. 

Mr. Clardy. Yes ; I think I will do that. 

Mr. Velde. Yes. 

Mr. Clardy. Will you take a good look at the witness ? 

Is he the same McMichael you knew back in 1940 ? 

Mr. Edmiston. Certainly, sir. 

Mr. Velde. May the record show at this point the witness has ob- 
served the witness. Rev. Jack McMichael, and has identified him. 

Mr. Clardy. And when you were called to the front of the bench 
here earlier today to confront the witness, McMichael, did you recog- 
nize him at that time as the same person you knew as McMichael back 
in 1940? 

Mr. Edmiston. I did. 

Mr. Moulder. I think I covered that in my question. 

Mr. Clardy. Well, I think you did, but I wasn't too sure. 

Mr. KuNziG. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. I don't want to be partial to the distatf side of the family, 
but let me say again I recall your testimony, too, in 1950 and we 
appreciate what you have done for us. 

Mr. Edmiston. Thank you. We are very grateful to have the 
opportunity. 

Mr. Velde. With that, the witness is dismissed. 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. At this time 

Mr. Clardy. Pardon me. 

Mr. Velde. I believe counsel has some 27 more exhibits or docu- 
ments. 

Mr. KuNziG. Yes, Mr. Chairman. With regard to the previous 
witness. Reverend McMichael, there are 27 more official documents 
here relating to 12 organizations, 12 additional organizations that I 
have not yet mentioned, all of which are cited by the Attorney General 
of the United States and by this committee and other committees. 
I have that material to present, but it will take, of course, some time 
to present it. 

Mr. Velde. May we go into executive session out in the hall ? 

Mr. Clardy. Before we do, might I ask how many exhibits have we 
put in all together so far? 

Mr. KuNziG. We have already introduced 41 exhibits so far, Mr. 
Clardy. 

Mr. Clardy. And 27 more to go? 

Mr. KuNziG. There are 27 more to go ; yes. 

Mr. Clardy. Do you think you can go any faster on those than you 
did on the others? 

Mr. KuNziG. I imagine that depends on the witness. 

Mr. Velde. We will stand in recess, to go into executive session. 

(Wliereupon, at 4: 30 p. m., the hearing was recessed.) 

(The hearing reconvened at 4:34 p. m., the following committee 
members being present: Representative Harold H. Velde (chairman), 



HEARINGS REGARDING JACK R. McMICHAEL 2851 

Kit Clardy, Gordon H. Scherer, Morgan M. Moulder, and Clyde 
Doyle.) 

Mr. Velde. The committee will be in order. 

The committee has decided unanimously in executive session that, 
due to the fact that counsel for the witness, Jack McMichael, is unable 
to be present tomorrow, and due to the fact that a number of the 
members of the committee — in fact, all of them — have a lot of other 
duties to attend to, Mr. McMichael will be continued under subpena 
until the committee has a further opportunity to hear testimony from 
him concerning the various exhibits counsel has mentioned. 

Keverend McMichael. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Clardy. May I add a word to that ? 

I think the record should show some of the members who have been 
here and have been absent have been busy on conference committees 
and that all of us are anxious to get back to the floor because of the 
debate on the debt limit that is now just about to start. They have 
been on the rule and I am exceedingly anxious to be heard on that. 

Mr. Velde. Yes; certainly. 

Eeverend McMichael. Mr. Chairman, I had 

Mr. Velde. The Chair realizes, as I said before, all of us have a lot 
of other duties to attend to, which some of us may think are more 
important than the duty we are performing here, and I would like 
to say at this time the Chair certainly excuses any member who has 
been unable to attend this hearing because I know very definitely that 
they have been engaged in other duties. 

Reverend McMichael. Mr. Chairman, may I just ask a couple of 
questions ? 

Mr. Velde. No; the committee will stand in adjournment at the 
request of your attorney- 



Reverend McMichael. Yes; I understand 

Mr. Velde. Until you are further notified to appear. 
(Whereupon, at 4: 46 p. m., the hearing was adjourned, subject to 
call.) 



INDEX 



Individuals 

Page 

Aaron, Martin 2812 

Abbott, Edith opp. 2783 

Acheson 2662 

Ackerly, George A 2744, 2754 

Adams, Dorothy D opp. 2783 

Adams, Earl F opp. 2673 

Adams, James Luther 2810, 2812 

Adams, Josephine Truslow 2729,2730,2733,2741,2744,2777 

Adams, Oscar M 2744 

Addis, Thomas 2734, opp. 2736, 2741, 2777, opp. 2783 

Addison, George 2791 

Adelman, Meyer 2744 

Adler, Joseph opp. 2633 

Adler, Lawrence opp. 2673 

Allien, Edwin E. (Jr.) opp. 2783 

Albertson, William 2821 

Alderson, William H 2744 

Aldrich, Charles S opp. 2783 

Alexander, Grace M opp. 2783 

Alexander, Gross W 2744, opp. 2783 

Alfred, Helen opp. 2783 

Allen, Benjamin 2733, 2741 

Allen, Carolyn E opp. 2783 

Allen, Edward S opp. 2736, opp. 2783 

Allen, Lewis 2720 

Allured, Paul J opp. 2736, opp. 2783 

Alper, Michael 2744, opp. 2783 

Ameringer, Oscar 2730, 2734, 2741, 2744, 2754, 2757, 2836 

Amlie, Thomas R 2666 

Anderson, Cornelia N opp. 2783 

Anderson, Eleanor Copenhaver 2730 

Anderson, Eleanor C 2810 

Anderson, William A 2730 

Anderson, William C 2754, opp. 2783, 2887 

Andrews, Charles W opp. 2783 

Andrews, Elmer F opp. 2673 

Anthony, Robenla 2730, 2734, opp. 2738, 2741 

Antonini, Luigi 2676 

Anyon, Bella opp. 2673 

Appel, Benjamin opp. 2783 

Arndt, Elmer J. F opp. 2783 

Arthur, Ernest 2812 

Ashbrook, Harriette opp. 2673 

Atkinson, Henry A 2677 

Atwater, Reginald M 2676 

Austin, Charles opp. 2783 

Austin, Maureen 2822 

Avalon, Barbara 2702, 2703 

Avery, Anne opp. 2783 

Axtelle, George D 2730, opp. 2736, 2777 

Babbs, J. Garlton 2744, 2754 

Baehrach, Florence 2702, 2703 

Baehrach, Marion 2730 

2853 



2854 INDEX 

Page 

Bacon, Charles S opp. 2783 

Bacon, Elizabeth opp. 2783 

Bacon, George R opp. 2783 

Bacon, Spencer opp. 2783 

Baer, Barbara 27U2, 2703 

Bagnall, Robert W opp. 2783 

Bainton, J. Herbert opp. 2783 

Bainton, Roland H 2744, 2754 

Baker, Frank E 2744, 2754 

Ball, Archey D 2730, opp. 2736 

Ball, Lee H opp. 2736, opp. 2783 

Bailer, Albert H opp. 2783 

Ballin, Richard opp. 2783 

Bancroft, Frank C opp. 2736, opp. 2783, 2S10, 2811, 2812 

Baraty, Louis 2744 

Barbour, Katherine H 2744 

Barkan, Irwin 2760 

Barnes, Harry Elmer 2744 

Barr, Norman B opp. 2736, opp. 2783 

Barr, Stringfellow opp. 2736 

Barrett, Robert J 2734 

Barrows, Alice 2730, 2741 

Barsky, Edward K 2766, 2777 

Bartlett, Josiah B 2679 

Bates, Merrill O 2812 

Bates, Winifred 2777 

Beach, Joseph Warren 2730, opp. 2783 

Beckelman, Moses 2673 

Becker, Maurice opp. 2783 

Bedacht, Mas 2810 

Beiler, Irwin R opp. 2783 

Belfrage, Cedric 2803, 2806, 2807, 2810-2812, 2816, 2834 

Bellefeuille, Jean 2744 

Benson, Elmer 2729-2731, 2734, 2741 

Beutall, David opp. 2783 

Bentley, Elizabeth 2808 

Bentley, Jerome H opp. 2673 

Bentsen, Mr 2683 

Berenberg, Al 2703 

Berger, Meta 2759 

Berger, Victor 2759 

Berger, Mrs. Victor L 2744 

Bergman, Walter G 2810 

Berlow, Herman D opp. 2783 

Bernard, John T 2730, 2734, opp. 2736, 2741, 2777 

Berne, Lewis Allen 2744, 2754 

Berse, Ruby opp, 2783 

Bethune, Mary McLeod 2676 

Bibbv, Henry 2730, 2734, opp. 2736, 2741 

Biberman, Herbert 2730, 2731, 2734, 2741 

Biddle, Francis 2617, 2626, 2646, 2653, 2732, 2735, 2783, 2812, 2813, 2825 

Biedenkapp, Fred 2777 

Birk, Louis P 2730, 2734, opp. 2736, 2741, opp. 2783 

Birkhead, L. M 2795, 2799, 2801, 2810 

Birrell, Crissie opp. 2673 

Bishop, George opp. 2783 

Bjornberg, Esther opp. 2783 

Black (Justice) 2814 

Blackstone, William L 2810 

Blackwell, Alice Stone opp. 2736 

Blake, Katherine D opp. 2783 

Blakeslee, Ruth O 2677 

Blitzstein, Madelin 2777 

Blitzstein, Marc 2730, opp. 2736, opp. 2783, 2793 

Blount, Ralph E opp. 2736 

Blume, Peter 2777 



INDEX 2855 

Page 

Blumer, George opp. 2783 

Boas, Ernst 2734, 2741 

Boas, Franz 2730, 2731, 2734, 2737, 2741, 2744, 2754, opp. 2783, 2793 

Bobolin, Theodore 2744 

Bogrow, Harold 2702, 2703 

Boland, John P opp. 2673 

Bollens, J. H 2730 

Bollolfsen, C. A 2677 

Boobar, Lester L opp. 2783 

Booth, Lewis 2812 

Bosch, John 2730 

Bottinger, Charles opp. 2673 

Boudin, Leonard B opp. 2783 

Bouwman, J. Burt opp. 2783 

Bowman, Leroy E 2666, 2676 

Boyer, Clarence opp. 2736 

Boyer, Edward S opp. 2736 

Boyesen, Bayard opp. 2783 

Koyesen, Priscilla opp. 2783 

Bradley, Dwight 2730 

Bradley, Lyman II 2777 

Brady, INIatthew opp. 2736 

Brand, Millen 2777 

Brandstetter, Hugo opp. 2783 

Brandt, Zelma C 2812 

Breen, Joan opp. 2783 

Bremer, Harold E 2821 

Brewster, Dorothy opp. 2736, 2793 

Bride, Edgar S 2791 

Bridge, John 2794 

Bridge, Professor 2795 

Bridges, Harry 2617, 2621, 2627, 2653, 2670 

Bridgman, Ralph P opp. 2783 

Briehl, Walter opp. 2783 

Briggs, Marian 2744 

Brigham, John opp. 2783 

Bright, John 2794 

Brightman, Edgar S opp. 2783 

Brissenden, Paul F opp. 2783 

Bristow, William H 2676 

Brodie, Naomi 2677 

Brcdman, Sidney opp. 2783 

Brodsky, Joseph 2821 

Bromfield, Louis 2765 

Bronfenbrenner, Jacques opp. 2783 

Brooks, Leonard opp. 2783 

Brooks, Van Wyck 2775-2777 

Brotman, Milton opp. 2783 

Broun, Heywood 2676 

Browder, Earl 2617, 2813, 2820-2822 

Brown, Alan N 2812 

Brown, Emily C opp. 2783 

Brown, Ernest W 2733, 2734 

Brown, George L 2730, opp. 2736, 2741, 2743 

Brown, Harold Chapman 2730, 2734, opp. 2736, 2741, opp. 2783 

Brown, J. F 2777 

Brown, Lewis opp. 2783 

Brown, INIrs. Lewis opp. 2783 

Brown, Zaidee opp. 2736 

Bruce, H. S 2744,2754 

Brunauer, Esther Caukin 2676 

Buck Albert W opp. 2783 

Buck, Ruth 2783 

Buekmaster, Henrietta 2810, 2812 

Budd, Eve 2733, 2741 

Buegeleisen, Joseph 2812 

Burgum, Edwin Berry opp. 2736, 2777, 2793 



2856 INDEX 

Paee 

Burke, Fielding 2777 

Burke, Spensor Walter 2744 

Burnham, Ivouis 2684, 2811, 2812 

Burr, Uedmond 2676 

Butler, Mrs. H. R 2676 

Butler, J. George opp. 2783 

Butler, Nicholas Murray 2761-27(53 

Butler W. Fay opp. 2783 

Cadden, Joseph 2620, 2670, 2679, 2681, 2683, 

2684, 2689, 2695, 2710, 2713, 2730, 2734, 2741, opp. 2783, 2813, 2815 

Cadigan, Charles 2812 

Calhoun, William, Jr opp. 2783 

Cammer, Harold I opp. 2783 

Caimuerer, Arnold B 2677 

Cameron, Alexander 2811, 2812 

Campbell, A. L 2810 

Campbell, Mary opp. 2783 

Canning, John B 2730 

Cannon, Antoinette opp. 2783 

Cantor, Gladys "Wootz" 2702, 2703 

Capper, Arthur 2677 

Carey, James B opp. 2673, 2678, 2681, 2684 

Carhart, Charles L opp. 2736 

Carhart, Mrs. Charles L opp. 2736 

Carlson, Anton J opp. 2736 

Carlson, Eva M opp. 2783 

earner, Lucy P 2677 

Carpenter, Daniel opp. 2673 

Carr. Charlotte 2677 

Carrington, Helena M - 2744 

Carter, Clarence 2679 

Cartwright, Calhoun opp. 2783 

Carver, Lucy P opp. 2783 

Casey, Thomas E opp. 2736, 2744, 2745 

Castle, Molly 2812 

Catlove, Ernest opp. 2783 

Caulk, Rosvi^ell opp. 2673 

Cavert, Mrs. Samuel McCrea opp. 2673, 2677 

Cecil, Dick 2702, 2703 

Chafee, Zachariah opp. 2783 

Chamberlain, Mark A opp. 2783 

Chanter, W. G opp. 2783 

Chappell, Winifred L 2803, 2804, 2806, 2810-2812, 2816 

Chase, Don M opp. 2783 

Chase, Russell N 2730, 2734, opp. 2736, 2741 

Chipman. Edward E opp. 2783 

Christoffel, Harold 2745 

Churchill, Winston 2712 

Chute, Charles L opp. 2673 

Chybowska, Halina 2720 

Claiborne, Bob 2702, 2703 

Clark, Allen Williams opp. 2783 

Clark, D. Worth 2759 

Clark, H. T opp. 2783 

Clark, Mark W 2664 

Clark, Senator 2744, 2757 

Clark, Tom 2617, 2626. 2652, 26r,3, 2732, 

2764, 2765, 2774, 2783, 2790, 2791, 2795, 2812, 2813, 2825 

Clarke, Walter opp. 2673 

Cleghorn, Sarah opp. 2736 

Clounh. Almond opp. 2783 

Clyde, Ethel opp. 2736, 2741 

Cober, Keimeth L opp. 2673 

Cochran, William F 2730 

Coe, George A opp. 2783 



INDEX 2857 

Page 

Coffee, John M 2677, 2730, 2734 

Coffman, Dr 2683 

Cohen, Charles (alias Charles Kingsford) 2703 

Cohen, Jed 2745, 2754 

Cohen, Samuel opp. 2673 

Cohen, Samuel M 2677 

Cole, Charles G opp. 2783 

Coles, Llewellyn A 2821 

Collier, Caroline Nash opp. 2783 

Collins, Charles 2S21 

Collins, C. Leslie opp. 2783 

Collins, Dorothy J opp. 2783 

Collins, Henry H., Jr opp. 2736 

Coman, Alfred P opp. 2783 

Comfort. E. N. (N. E.) 2745, 2754 

Comfort, Richard l 2810 

Comfort, W. W 2676 

Comirher, A. L opp. 2673 

Conason, Emil G opp. 2783 

Conklin. Jean opp. 2783 

Connally 2758 

Connelly, Philip M opp! 2736, 2745 

Conover, Elbert M opp. 2783 

Cook, Jerome E opp. 2783 

Cook, John H 2821 

Cooke, Stella 2812 

Cooley, Thomas B 2730, opp. 2736 

Cooper. Esther 2709 

Cope, Eli/a M 2777 

Cope, Mrs. Walter 2730, 2734, opp. 2736. 2741 

Copland, Aaron opp. 2736, opp. 2783. 2703 

Costisran. H iward P 2730. 2731 

Covello, Leonard opp. 2673 

Cowling, Donald J 2(^76 

Cox, Riohard T opp. 2736, opp. 2783 

Cox, Ted opp. 2783 

Craw. Harold E opp. 2783 

Crawford. Arthur M opp. 2783 

Crawford, Kenneth 2730 

Crawford, Matthew 2812 

Crichton, Kyle 2777 

Crippen, Harlan 2*^79 

Cromlet, C. M opp. 2736 

Cronl ach. Abraham 2745, 2754 

Crosby, Willis K opp. 2783 

Cross. Ephraim opp. 2736, 2793 

Cullen, Countee opp. 2736, opp. 2783 

Cummins. E. E opp. 2fi"3 

Curran, Dale opp. 2783 

Curran. Joseph 2666, 2710, 2729, 2733, 2741, 2745, 2754. 2757, 2793. 2836 

Curtis. Edward E opp. 2736 

Cushman, Ralph S 2677 

Cutler, Addison T 2793 

Czik, Jafob 2793 

Dakin, E. Leroy opp. 2736 

Dale, Edcrar 2730 

Dale, Thelma 2679, 2684 

Dallet, Margery 2745 

Dana, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow 2745, 2777, opp. 2783, 2793 

Daniel, Howard 2730, opp. 27S3 

Darchester. Donald H opp. 2783 

Darcy, Sam 2732, 2733, 2735, 2736 

Darcy, Sam Adams opp. 2736 

Darin. Margaret opp. 2783 

Darnell, John 2684 



2858 INDEX 

Page 

Darone, Anna OPP- 2783 

Darr, John 2720 

Darr, John Whittier, Jr 2812 

Uashiell, J. F 2777 

David, Herbert D opp. 2783 

Davidoff, Milton opp. 2783 

Davies, Mrs. Joseph E 2786-2788 

Davis, Mr 2713 

Davis, Beatrice Dunn 2670 

Davis, David 2730, 2734, opp. 2736, 2741 

Davis, Delia 2709 

Davis, Horace B 2793 

Davis, Jerome 2676, 2745 

Davis, John P 2670, 

2676, 2712, 2715, 2729, 2730, 2734, 2741, 2757, 2777, opp. 2783, 2836 

Davis, John W 2676 

Davis-Dubois, Rachel opp. 2736 

Davison, Walter S opp. 2783 

Dawber, Mark A opp. 2783, 2810 

Day, Margeret 2679 

Dearborn, Ned H 2730, 2731 

Deberry, William 2810-2812 

DeBoer, John J 2730 

de Bordenave, E. A opp. 2736 

De Braie, E. C 2744, 2754 

Delacey, Hugh opp. 2736, 2793 

Dennett, Eugene V 2745 

Detweiller, Leonard 2684, 2698, 2699, 2700, 2701, 2703, 2709 

Dexter, Robert C 2677 

Diamant, Phil 2702, 2703 

Dickenson, L. D 2677 

Dickerson, Earl B 2728 

Dieckman, Annetta M 2734, 2741 

Dietrich, Helen L opp. 2783 

Digges. Charles C 2745, 2756 

Dillard, Hardy opp. 2736 

Dilley, George (Dilly) 2613, 2614, 2649 

Dillingham, Harriet A opp. 2736 

Dillon, Virginia 2670 

Dinwiddle, Courtenay 2676 

Dobbs, Malcolm Cotton 2684, 2733, opp. 2736, 2741, 2745, 2754, 2758, 2810-2812 

Dodd, Bella V 2730, 2734, 2741, 2793 

Dodd, Martha 2777 

Dodd, William E., Jr 2793 

Dodge, Stanley D opp. 2783 

Dombrowski, James 2728, opp. 2783, 2810-2812 

Donner, Frank J 2612, 2614-2822 

Doraine, Charles 2745 

Dossick, Mr 2702 

Douglas, Aaron opp. 2783 

Dowers, Marjorie 2624, 2671 

Downes, Olin opp. 2736, 2775-2777 

Draper, Muriel 2777 

Dreckman, Annetta M 2741 

Dreiser, Theodore opp. 2736, 2745, 2754, opp. 2783 

Dublin, Mary 2730 

Dubro, Ann 2777 

Dudley, J. T 2745 

Dumpson, James R 2730, 2734, opp. 2736, 2741 

Dunjirst, Guy opp. 2783 

Dunn, Matthew A 2677 

Dunn, Milner 2684 

Dunn, Robert W 2730, 2734, opp. 2736, 2741 

Durr, Virginia 2812 

Dutton, Rolland N opp. 2673 



INDEX 2859 

Page 

Eatou, Horace A opp. 2TM 

Edel, Abraham 2793 

Edmiston, John J 2(519- 

2621, 2625, 2626, 2628, 2629, 2644, 2646, 2647, 2650, 2651, 2660, 
2669, 2670, 2672, 2815, 2817, 2822. 2824, 2827, 2845, 2846, 2848- 
2850 (testimony) 

Edmiston, IMartlia N 2619- 

2621, 2624-2626, 2628. 2629, 2644r-2647, 2650, 2651, 2660, 2669- 
2672, 2815, 2817, 2820, 2822, 2823-2848 ( testimony ), 2849. 

Edwards, Gladys T 2730 

Edwards, Nida 2702 , 2703 

Egelson, James D 2793, 2795 

Ehrlich, Leonard 2793 

Eisenbud, A opp. 2783 

Eisenbud, Jule opp. 2783 

Eisenhower 2662 

Ekins, Robert opp. 27-36 

Ellis, Frank 2821 

Ellis, Joanne 2812 

Ellison, Naomi 2684, 2745, 27.54 

Elwood, Charles A opp. 2736 

Ely, Tom 2684, 2687 

Emerson, Kendall 2676 

Emerson, Mrs. Kendall opp. 2673, 2677 

Emery, Andree opp. 2673 

Emspak, Julius 2745, 27.54 

Engel, Morris opp. 2783 

Ennes, Howard 2679 

Entes. Isidore opp. 2783 

Erhart, Betty 2670 

Ervin, Goldie 2730, 2734, 2741, 2745 

Ervine, Bob 2702 

Evans, Clinton J opp. 2783 

Evans, Robert 2670, 2812 

Ewing, Raymond H 2745 

Eyre, Courtlaud 2730 

Fagley, Frederick L 2677 

Fairchild, Henry Pratt opp. 2783 

Fairchild, Mildred opp. 2736 

Fanning, John opp. 2673 

Farley, James A 2677 

Fauset, Arthur Huff (Fausett) 2745, opp. 2783, 2793 

Feder, Janet opp. 2673 

Feder, Leah opp. 2783 

Fehlhaber, Elmer 2730, 2734, 2741 

Feldkerchner, John L 2744 

Field, Frederick V 2712, 2714, opp. 2783, 2825, 2837 

Field, Sarah (Sara) Bard 2730, 2734, opp. 2736, 2741 

Findlev, John K opp. 2783 

Fine, Charles 2757, 2836 

Fine, Joe 2702, 2703 

Finney, Kathleen Kent opp. 2783 

Fisher, Dorothy Canfield 2676 

Fisher, Edgar J 2676 

Fisher, H. H opp. 2783 

Fisher, Vardis 2745, 27.54 

Fitzpatrick, James L opp. 2736 

Flaxer, Abram 2745, 2754, 2793 

Fleming, James opp. 2783 

Fleming, John 2720 

Fletcher, Joseph H opp. 2783, 2787 

Fletcher. Joseph F 2810, 2812 

Fletcher, Norman D opp. 2783 

Fliesher, Myer A opp. 2783 

Florant, Lionel opp. 2673 

Flory, Ishmael P 2730, 2734, 2741, 2745 

39125 — 53 17 



2860 INDEX 

Page 

Floyd, Louise Adams opp. 2783 

Floyd. Walter (Jr.) opp. 2673 

Flynn. Elizabeth Curley 2729, 2741, 2813 

Foley, Tom 2716 

Folmet, Joe opp. 2783 

Folsom, Franklin opp. 2783 

Fontanue, Lynn 2777 

Ford, Harry G opp. 2783 

Ford. Thomas F 2677 

Forrester. Marian opp. 2673 

Fosdiek, Harry Emerson 2813 

Foss, Bertha Josselyn 2730, 2733, 2741, opp. 2783 

Foster, Hazel E 2677 

Foster, John B opp. 2783 

Fox, Ernest L opp. 2783 

France, Royal 2612, 2614 

France, Sadye opp. 2673 

Franklin, Mitchell 2730, 2734, 2741 

Frazier, Elizabeth P 2812 

Frazier, Winifred opp. 2673 

Freedman, Samuel 2684, opp. 2783 

Freeman, W. P 2676 

Fries, Frank M. (W.) 2677,2729,2756 

Fritchman, Stephen H 2677, 2745, 2777, 2812, 2821 

Fuhlbriiegge. Edward 2730 

Gabrielson, John opp. 2783 

Gaede, Margarette . 2812 

Gage, Margaret opp. 2736 

Gaines, Anna opp. 2783 

Gainor, Morris 2821 

Galazan, Michael 2745 

Gale. Bradford opp. 2783 

Gale, Joyce opp. 2673 

Gandy. John M opp. 2783 

Gaus, David opp. 2783 

Gardner, William E 2677 

Gates, Leo Alvin opp. 2783 

Gates, John 2681, 2689, 2716 

Gaylord, Donald F opp. 2783 

Gelders, Joseph S 2730, 2733, opp. 2736, 2741, 2745 

Geline, Max E opp. 2736 

Geller. Robert opp. 2783 

Gemmill, Paul F opp. 2736, opp. 2783 

Gentile, Salvatore 2793 

George, Senator 2702, 2712 

Gevertzman, Harry opp. 2673 

Geyer, Lee E 2677 

GifEord, Helen opp. 2673 

Gilbert, George B 2783, 2821 

Gilhausen, Flossie 2812 

Gillen, Francis F 2733, 2734 

Gillmore, Frank 2676 

Gilson, C. Q 2745 

Girelius, Charles G opp. 2783 

Glanville, J. L opp. 2783 

Glass, Carter 2758 

Gliona, Will opp. 2673 

Gold, Ben 2793, 2821 

Gold, Herman 2777 

Goldberg, Arthur J 2730 

Goldenberg, Herbert 2822 

Goldman, Leslie A opp. 2673 

Goldsmith. Leonard 2745 

Goldwater. A. L opp. 2783 

Goliancz, Victor 2834 

Gonzalez, Ernestina 2777 



INDEX 2861 

Page 

Goodell, Edwin B., Jr opp. 2736 

Goodman, Irwin opp. 2783 

Gordon, Robert opp. 2783 

Gore, Quentin D. (P) 2745,27.54 

Gorelik, Mordecai 2777 

Gottfried, M 2744 

Gottschall, Morton opp. 2673 

Gould, Leslie 2683 

Grady, Robert Cowan opp. 2736 

Graiiam Charles 2741 

Granger, Lester opp. 2673 

Grant, V. C opp. 2783 

Gratt, Michael 2745 

Grattan, E. Stephen 2621, 2670, 2817, 2824, 2843, 2845, 2848 

Grattan, Nelrene 2670 

Graubart, David 2730 

Graves, Helen M opp. 2783 

Gravino. Michael 2679 

Green, Gilbert 2656 

Green, Richard F opp. 2783 

Greenberg, Dolph 2702, 2703 

Greenberg, Sarah K opp. 2783 

Greene, Amy Blanche opp. 2673 

Greene, Harry J 2730, 2734, 2741 

Greenfield, Robert 2812 

Gropper, William 2777 

Grossman, Aubrey opp. 2783 

Grossman, Mary Foley 2730, 2734, 2741 

Gundlach, Ralph H 2777, 2783 

Guerrero, Armand opp. 2783 

Hackett, Allen opp. 2783 

Haessler, Carl 2811, 2812 

Hahn, Herman J opp. 2783 

Hahn, Herman C 2810, 2812 

Halfant, Ina 2812 

Halifax, Lord 2701, 2715, 2718 

Hall, Helen 2677 

Ham, Roswell G opp. 2736 

Hamilton, Alice opp. 2783 

Hamilton, Frank A opp. 2783 

Hamilton, John 2714 

Hamlin, C. H opp. 2736 

Hammett, Dashiell 2730, opp. 2736, 2741, opp. 2788, 2793 

Hammond, P. M opp. 2783 

Handy, Dorothy opp. 2783 

Hardman, J. B. S 2666, 2676 

Harkavy, Minna R opp. 2783 

Harkness, Georgia , opp. 2783 

Harper, C opp. 2783 

Harper, Fowler V opp. 2783 

Harper, Lucius C opp. 2783,2821 

Harrington, Donald opp. 2736, opp. 2783 

Harris, Gerald, Jr 2684, 2745, 2754, 2758, 2811, 2812 

Harris, Thomas L , 2787, 2788, 2790 

Harrison, William opp. 2783 

Harrison, W. K., Jr 2664 

Hart, Henry , opp. 2783 

Hart, Pearl M 2728, 2730, 2733, 2741, 2744, 2757, opp. 2783, 28.36 

Haskell, Oliver 2735 

Hastie, William H 2730 

Hathaway, Marian 2745, 2754 

Hathway, Marion 2730, 2734, 2741 

Hawes, Oscar B opp. 2783 

Hayes, Aline Davis opp. 2736 

Hayes, Dean Ehvood L 2813 

Hayes, Lee 2710 

Hayman, Mrs. Alvina , 2745 



2862 INDEX 

Page 

Hays, Aline Davis opp. 2783 

Hays, Ellen 2683 

Haywood, Allan S opp. 2G73 

Hazen, Melvin C 2733 

Hazzard, Lowell B opp. 2783 

Heikkimen, Richard 2684 

Heinritz, Mel 2821 

Heiser, Florian opp. 2783 

Heist, Allen A opp. 2783 

Heller, Pliilip B 2677 

Hempelman, G. Theodore opp. 2783 

Henderson, Donald opp. 2736, 2793 

Hendley, Charles opp. 2673, 2793 

Henninburs, Alphonse 2812 

Hepburn, Mrs. Thomas opp. 2783 

Herkovitz, Melville 2730, 2734, 2741 

Herndon, Angelo 2822 

Herring, Elizabeth 2810 

Herstein, Lillian 2730 

Hey, Gordon M 2745 

Hilgard, Ernest B opp. 2783 

Hill, T. Arnold 2676 

Himes, Norman E - opp. 2783 

Hinckley, Mr 2667 

Hires, Harrison 2777 

Hir.?ch, Alfred opp. 2783 

Hoagland, Robert S 2745 

Hocking, W. E opp. 2783 

Hodgeson, Chester E 2812 

Hodson, William A opp. 2073 

Hoehler, Fred K 2677 

Holbrook, Sabra opp. 2673 

Holland, Richard opp. 2673 

Hoover, Mary Alice opp. 2783 

Hopkins, Mark opp. 2783 

Horie, Jean 2684, 2709, 2720 

Horowitz. Alfred H opp. 2783 

Horton, Zylphia 2683 

Houston, Charles H 2730, 2734, 2735, opp. 2736. 2741, opp. 2783 

Howard, Daniel opp. 2736, 2741, 2821 

Howard, Michael 2745 

Howell, Clarence V opp. 2783 

Hubert, James H opp. 2673 

Hughes, Elizabeth opp. 2783 

Huling, Elizabeth opp. 2783 

Hull 2713 

Hull, Hannah Clothier 2676 

Hume, Edward 2676 

Hunter, Joel D 2730, 2734 

Huntington, Ellsworth opp. 2736, opp. 2783 

Hunton, W. Alpheus 2730, opp. 2736, opp. 2783 

Huchinson, Edith Aldis opp. 2783 

Hutt, Max L opp. 2783 

Hyman, Sol opp. 2783 

Ickes, Harold I 2677 

Imes, William 2730 

Ingram, Frank 2757 

Irwin, Paul B opp. 2783 

Isserman. Abraham J 2730, 2733, 2735, opp. 2736, 2741, opp. 2783 

Izak, Ed. V 2677 

Jackson, Edgar S opp. 2783 

Jackson, Edward W opp. 2783 

Jackson, Gardner 2666, 2676, 27.30 

Jackson, Robert H 2723 

Jacobs, Douglas 2777 



INDEX 2863 

Page 

Jacobs, Murray opp. 2783 

Jacques, Elliott 2745 

Jacquier, Ives 2777 

Jaffe, Philip J 2787 

James, Alexander opp. 2783 

James, Fleming 2781, 2782 

James, Frederick opp. 2783 

James, Maia 2822 

Janovski, Joseph opp. 2673 

Jasper, Tom 2822 

Jernagin, W. H 2730 

Johnson, Bede A opp. 2736 

Johnson, Mrs. Charles G opp. 2736 

Johnson, Henry opp. 2783 

Johnson, Hewlett 2812 

Johnson, Manning 2656, 2657, 2690, 2771-2774 

Johnson, Willard opp. 2783 

Jones, David D 2701 

Jones, Elsie Voorhies opp. 2736 

Jones, Faith Jefferson 2745 

Jones, Mrs. G. S 2745 

Jones, Henry D 2812 

Jones, Joe 2793 

Jones, John Paul opp. 2783, 2810 

Jones, Katherine opp. 2783 

Jones, Lewis W opp. 2783 

Jones, Madison 2698-2701, 2703. 2720 

Jones, Mervyn 2702, 2703 

Jones, Rufus M 2677 

Jones, R. T 2677 

Jones, Thomas 2720 

Jones, Thomas R opp. 2783 

Jones. Tom 2721 

Jordan, J. L 2811 

Josephy, Robert opp. 2736 

Jungfer, Richard W opp. 2783 

Jurich, J. F opp. 2736 

Jurney, Chester 2733, 2734 

Justiz, Harry M opp. 2736 

Kahn, Alexander opp. 2783 

Kahn, Yereth Frank 2777 

Kaiser, Irwin opp. 2673 

Kalish, Jack 2683 

Kallett, Arthur opp. 2673 

Kane, Francis Fisher opp. 2783 

Kantor, .1. R 2777 

Karanikas, Alexander 2679 

Kaufman, Milton opp. 2673 

Kaye. Conrad 2721, 2793 

Keegan, J. Clyde opp. 2783 

Keller, Helen 2776. 2777 

Keller, Kent 2730 

Kemnitz, ]Milton N 2733. 2741 

Kennedy, Regis 2745. 2754 

Kent, Frances opp. 2783 

Kent, Rockwell 2734, opp. 2736, 2741, 2745, 2777, opp. 2783, 2793 

Kenyon, Dorothy 2666 

Kern, Paul opp. 2673 

Kern, Paul J 2730, opp. 2783 

Kerner, William opp. 2783 

Kessler, Agnes 2720 

Kimball, Chase 2676 

Kimball, Norma M opp. 2783 

Kineway, Frieda 2791 

King, Carol 2730, 2734, opp. 2736, 2741, 2777, 2793 

King, Edna Joyce 2810. 2811 



2864 INDEX 

Page 

King, Mabel Houk 2745, opp. 2783 

Kingsbury/ John A opp. 2783 

Kingsford, Charles (alias for Charles Cohen) 2703 

Kinney, Glen 2821 

Kirsch, Blanche opp. 2673 

Kiser, Stephen L opp. 2783 

Kittrell, Flemmie 2745, 2754 

Klabouch, John V 2745 

Klare, Charles 2699-2701, 2703 

Klein, Philip opp. 2736, opp. 2783 

Klineberg, Otto opp. 2783 

Knight, Howard R 2677 

Knox, Owen 2715 

Knox, Owen A 2728, 2730, 2731, 2733, 2735, 2740, 2741, 2745, 2754, 2757, 2836 

Knox, Owen D opp. 2783 

Koch, Henry C opp. 2783 

Koger, Harry 2745, 2810-2812 

Krakora, James V 2678 

Kramberg, Sam 2793 

Kramer, Frank 2686 

Krenwinkel, JuUa 2812 

Krieger, Anita 2702, 2703 

Krifer, Adah opp. 2783 

Krumpe, Thomas P opp. 2783 

Kryszak, Mary O 2745 

Kuch, G. Richard 2810 

Kiich, A. Richard _— 2812 

Kncharski, Vladislaw opp. 2783 

Kuebler, Ernest W opp. 2783 

Kuntz, Ray 2777 

Kusman, Felix 2777 

Lageman, Leonard 2821 

LaGrone, Oliver 281 2 

Lake, Alfred G 2793 

Lake, Robert 2812 

Lamb, Edward 2730, 2733, 2734, opp. 2736, 2741, opp. 2783 

Lamberton, Harry C 2730, 2741 

Lamont, Corliss opp. 2783, 2786-2788 

Lampe, William E opp. 2736 

Lampell, Millard 2812 

Lampitt, Roy 2821 

Lancaster, Roy 2679, 2684, 2709, 2716 

Landes, Carl J opp. 2736 

Landy, Joseph 2730, 2734, 2741 

Lapham, John K opp. 2673 

Lapp, John A 2729, 2730 

Larke, Alfred G 2745 

Larkin, Margaret opp. 2783 

Larkin, Oliver 2730, 2734, 2741, 2745 

Lash, Joseph P 2617, 2618, 2679, 2684, 2686, 2693, 2715, 2716 

Lasser, David 2730 

Lathrop, John Howard opp. 2673, 2745, 2754, 2810, 2812 

Latimer, Ira 2730 

Lavites, Paul H opp. 2783 

Lawson, John Howard 2793 

Lay, Lawrence 2810 

Lazenby, John C opp. 2783 

Leckie, Hugh 2839 

Lederer, Howard W opp. 2783 

Lee, Howard 2745, 2754, opp. 2783, 2810 

Lee, Joseph 2730 

Lehman, Governor 2794 

Lehman, Paul L opp. 2783 

Lehrman, Alexander opp. 2783 

Leider, D. William 2777 



1 Name shown as Dr. John A. Kingebury. 



INDEX 2865 

Page 

Leigh, Lula Mae 2620,2670 

Leuox, F. R 2745 

Leof, M. V 2730, 2734, opp. 2736, 2741, 2777 

Lerman, Louis 2793, 2795 

Lerner, James 2618 

Lerner, Max opp. 2783 

Leslie, Kenneth 2745, 2754, 2810 

LeSuer, Meridel opp. 2783 

Letz, Esther 2811 

Levi, M opp. 2783 

Levinger, Lee J 2777 

Levinson, L. B 2777 

Levner, William opp. 2736 

Levy, Harry opp. 2673 

Levy, Julien opp. 2783 

Lewis, Agatha 2836 

Lewis, John L 2618, opp. 2673, 2714 

Lewis, William Draper 2813 

Liang-Mo, Lin 2715 

Liebman, Bernard 2683 

Liebman, Charles opp. 2736 

Liebman, Vivian opp. 2673, 2683 

Liefer, Abe 2839 

Lightbody, Charles 2810 

Limbert, Paul M opp. 2783 

Lincoln, Abraham 2758 

Lindbergh, Charles A 2712, 2720 

Lindeman, Eduard C 2677 

Linder, Leo J 2777 

Line, Thelma 2745 

Liner, Fedora G opp. 2783 

Linli, James H opp. 2783 

Link, Karl Paul 2821 

Linton, Harry J opp. 2673 

Lippman, Richard W opp. 2783 

Little, John opp. 2673 

Livingston, David 2822 

Lloyd, Georgia 2734, opp. 2736, 2741 

Lochard, Metz 2745, 2754 

Locke, Alain 2730 

Locklin, Hilda opp. 2783 

Lofton, Ely L 2812 

Logan, Howard L opp. 2673 

Logan, Marvel M 2677 

Longstreth, Wilbur E opp. 2783 

Lord, Jack opp. 2783 

Lotker, Aaron opp. 2673 

Lothrop, Donald 2810 

Lothrop, Donald G opp. 2783 

Lotz, P. Henry opp. 2783 

Loughran, John M op. 2673 

Lourie, Caroline B 2677 

Lovett, Robert Mors.s 2676, 2730, 2741, 2745 

Lowe, Harriet opp. 2783 

Lowenberg, Lester H 2791 

Lowenstein, Robert 2730, 2734, opp. 2736, 2741 

Lozowick, Louie opp. 2783 

Luccock, Halford E 2730 

Lund, Harold H 2777 

Lund, Harald H opp. 2783 

Luria, Sydney A opp. 2783 

Luscomb, Florence H 2730. opp. 2736 

Lyman, Eugene W opp. 2736, 2745, 2754 

Lynd, Helen Merrell opp. 2736 

Lynd, Robert S 2730 

Lynn, Olive opp. 2783 



2866 INDEX 

Page 

MacArthur, General 2661, 2663 

MacAvoy, Clifford T. (see also Clifford T. McAvoy) 2793 

MacCalluiu, John A 2810 

MacCormiclv, Austin H opp. 2673 

MacCracken, Henry Noble opp. 2673, 2676 

MacGregor, Robert 2730, 2731 

Mac Gregor, Robert W 2741 

Machlis, Samuel 2793 

MacLean, Burton 2812 

MacLennan, C. F opp. 2783, 2810 

MacLennan, Charles F 2812 

Macy, Paul G 2810 

Magar, Ida 2703 

Magruder, N. Burnett 2810 

Mahaney, W, L 2730, 2734, opp. 2736, 2741, opp. 2783 

Mahl, Carl W opp. 2783 

Maier, Norman R. F 2736 

Malament, Edward J opp. 2783 

Malisoff, William M 2730, 2734, opp. 2736, 2741, opp. 2783 

Malkin, Moses M opp. 2783 

Maltz, Albert 2730, 2734, opp. 2736, 2741, opp. 2783, 2812 

Manning, Rosalie opp. 2736, 2741, opp. 2783 

Mansfield, H. E opp. 2783 

Marcantonio, Vito 2698-2702, 

2709, 2712, 2714, 2718-2720, 2730, 2733, opp. 2736, 2741, 2745, 2754- 

2756, 2836. 

Margesson, Janet ' 2690 

Marks, Herbert E opp. 2736 

Marley, Harold P opp. 2783, 2810, 2812 

Marlies, Charles A opp. 2783 

Marsh, Lee 2683 

Marshall, George 2730, 2731, 2733, 2741, 2777, 2787 

Marshall, Robert 2677 

Martin, Carl E opp. 2783 

Martin, Mildred V opp. 2783 

Marty, Elmer 2745 

Maslen, Sidney opp. 2736 

Mason, Gabriel opp. 2673 

Mathews, William R 2664 

Matthews 2792 

Matthews, J. B 2805 

Matthews, Stanley opp. 2783, 2810 

Matthiessen, F. O 2730, opp. 2736 

Maurer, Jean 2777 

Maurice, Paul opp. 2673 

Mays, Benjamin 2737 

Mazur, Ida 2702 

McAvoy, Clifford T. {see also Clifford T. MacAvoy) 2730, 

2734, opp. 2736, 2740, 2741, 2745, opp. 2783, 2786, 2787 

McCabe, Louis F 2730, 2734, opp. 2736, 2741 

McCarthy, B. J 2745. 2754 

McCausland, Elizabeth opp. 2783 

McClendon, J. J 2734, 2741 

McCoach, David, Jr 2733 

McConnell, Francis J 2791, 2810 

McConnoll, F. W opp. 2783 

McCormack, Henry J opp. 2783 

McFall, Russell C opp. 2673 

McFarlan, H. J 2734, 2741 

McGee, William opp. 2783 

McGowan, C. C opp. 2783 

McGrath, Howard D opp. 2783 

Mclnerney, Nancy 2754 

Mclnnes, Ian opp. 2673 

McKav, Mary Jeanne 2678, 2684 

McKenney, Ruth 2793 



INDEX 2867 

Page 

McKinley, Maxine 2684, 2709, opp. 2783 

McKnight, James W 2745, 2754 

McLean, Francis H 2077 

McMichael, Jack Richard, Jr 2611, 

2613, 2615-2822 (testimony), 2823-2827, 2S36, 2841-2847, 2849-2851 

McMillian, James L 2745 

McNauiara, James 2780 

McWilliams, Carey 2729-2731, 2733, 2741, 2812 

Mead, Nelson P 2676 

Medina (Judge) 2824, 2843 

Meehan, Matt 2745 

Meikeljohn, Ann opp. 27S3 

Melish, William Howard 2812 

Meltzer, Milton 268S 

Mendelson, Janet opp. 2783 

Mennin, Samuel D opp. 2783 

Merriam, Thornton 2730 

Merrill, Lewis opp. 2673, 2730, 2757, 2821 

Merritt, O. L 2745, opp. 2783 

Messner, Sherwood 2812 

Meterovitz, Louise 2677 

Meyer, Arthur S opp. 2673 

Meyer, Henry A opp. 2783 

Meyerovitz, Louise 2678 

Midgley, David A opp. 27S3 

Miles, John M 2811, 2812 

Miller, Mrs. Albert 2745, 2754 

Miller, Arthur opp. 2673, 2812 

Miller, Clyde R opp. 2783, 2810 

Miller, Doris 2684 

Miller, Louis 2777 

Miller, Moses 2733, 2735, 2741, 2757 

Miller, Rose opp. 2673, 2777 

Miller, Spencer (Jr.) 2676 

Mills, Nathaniel 2684, 2089 

Mills, Nathaniel (Jr.) opp. 2783 

Mills, Oliver 2S11 

Mills, Saul 2793, 2812 

Milton, Mickey 2714 

Milwitzky, Selma 2812 

Minton, Bruce opp. 2736 

Mitchell, E. D 2676 

Mitchell, Lucy Sprague 2745, 27.54 

Moliegen, Albert T 2729, 2730 

Moody, James opp. 2673 

Mooney, Tom 2730, 2731, 2734, opp. 2736, 2741, opp. 2783, 2822 

Moore, Arthur Newell opp. 2736 

Moore, Elbert P opp. 2783 

Moore, Henry T opp. 2673 

Moore, Joanne 2624, 2671, 2826 

Moore, Joseph G 2810-2812 

Morand, Edward V 2793 

Moreland, Marc opp. 2783 

Morford, Richard opp. 27&3. 2812 

Moritz, Paul opp. 27S3 

Morley, Louise 2084 

Morris, J. Carrell (Carrel) 2677,2678,2681,2684,2709,2745,2754 

Morse, James K 2745, opp. 27S3 

Morrow, Marco opp. 2783 

Morton, Helen opp. 2673, 2677 

Moses, John 2077 

Moss, Carlton 2S12 

Mowers, Robert H 2791 

Mowrer, C. H opp. 2783 

Mundy, James A 2836 

Munsell, Alexander 2812 



2868 INDEX 

Page 

Murphy, George (Jr.) 2745,2754 

Murphy, George B. (Jr.) opp. 2783 

Murray, James E 2677, 2730 

Murray, Philip 2676 

Myers, Skillman E opp. 2783 

Nagler, Isidore opp. 2(j73 

Neikind, Claire 2702 

Neill, Thomas opp. 2783 

Nelson, George 2745, 2754 

Nelson, L opp. 2673 

Nestingen, Edward 2745 

Newell, Charles opp. 2783 

Newell, J. Pierce opp. 2736 

Newman, Paul B 2812 

Newman, Robert opp. 2783 

Nisselson, Michael 2777 

Nitzburg, Daniel 2812 

Nixon, Herman E 2730, 2731 

Nixon, Russell opp. 2736 

Norman, Wynard 2679 

Northwood, Arthur (Jr.) opp. 2673 

Noss, Theodore K opp. 2783 

Novarine, R. L opp. 2673 

Noves, Wm. A opp. 2783, 2793 

Nye, Gerald P 2744, 2755, 2757, 2759 

Nye, Helene M 2736 

Nygren, A. J _— opp. 2783 

Oakes, Grant W 2793 

Ober, .J. H opp. 2783 

O'Brien, Patrick H opp. 2736 

O'Connell, Jerry 2730 

O'Connor, Harvey 2730, 2734, opp. 2736, 2741, 2757, opp. 2783, 2836 

O'Connor, Jessie Lloyd 2811, 2812 

O'Day, Caroline opp. 2673 

Odets, Clifford opp. 2783 

Oftedahl, Einar opp. 2783, 2812 

Oden, .Tane B opp. 2783 

Oldfather. W. A opp. 2736 

Olson, Culbert L 2677 

Olson, Cuthbert 2735, 2736, opp. 2736 

Ornitz, Samuel opp. 2783 

Orr. C. A opp. 2783 

Orser, George H opp. 2783 

Orton, O. M 2741 

Osborne, Howard B opp. 2736 

O'Sheel, Shaemas 2777 

Osman, Arthur 2720, 2793 

Otuayer, Louis L opp. 2783 

Page, Harold opp. 2673 

Paine, George L opp. 2736 

Palmer, Albert W opp. 2783 

Palmer, Everett 2745 

Park, Julian opp. 2673 

Parker, Dorothy 2777 

Parsons, Mrs. Edgerton 2676 

Parsons, Edward L opp. 2783 

Parsons, Lucy E 2730 

Patterson, Leonard 2656, 2657, 2690, 2747 

Patterson, William L 2730, 2734, 2741 

Paul, Elliot 2730 

Paustian, W 2730 

Pautz, Marie opp. 2736 

Pearee, Arthur opp. 2673 

Pearlin, Emma 2777 

Peek, Lillie M 2677 

Peeora, Louis A opp. 2673 



INDEX 2869 

Page 

Peet. Edward L opp. 2783 

Penninston, Irene opp. 2783 

Pepper, John Wharton 2813 

Perloff. Jack 2620, 2621, 2670, 2816, 2817, 2824, 2843 

Perlofe, Kuth Williams 2670 

Perlow, Max 2793 

Perrera, Lionel C opp. 2736 

Perry, Tom 2709 

Periy, Thomas L., Jr opp. 2783 

Pershing, George O 2777 

Peters, John P opp. 2736, opp. 2783 

Peters, L. S opp. 2783 

Peters, Paul opp. 2783 

Peterson, Eunice 2745, 2754 

Petroni, Charles A opp. 2783 

Phillips, Donelan opp. 2673 

Phillips, Lena Madesin 2676 

Pickens, Harriet I 2679, 2681, 2684, 2709, opp. 2783 

Pickens, Harriet 2745, 2754 

Pickens, William opp. 2736 

Pierce. Joseph L opp. 2783 

Pike, Jane Todd opp. 2783 

Pina, Francisco 2777 

Piukham, Henry opp. 2783 

Plavuer, Murray 2686, 2692, 2693, 2716 

Poling, (Mr. ) 2805 

Pollack, Sophie opp. 2673 

Poor, George L opp. 2783 

Pope, Arthur Upham 2786-2788, 2813, 2821 

Pope, Liston 2801, 2810 

Pope, Henry W 2812 

Post, Lancdon W opp. 2673 

Poteat, Edwin McNiell opp. 2736, 2810 

Poulson. Harper 2(45, opp. 2T83 

Powell, A. Clayton (Jr.) opp. 2673, 2677 

Powell, Bert A opp. 2783 

Powell, Myrtle 2679, 2684 

Prall, D. W 2730, 2734, 2745, 2754 

Price, William opp. 2783 

Pritchett, Harold J 2728, 2730, 2734, 2741 

Pullman, Tracy M 2812 

Quaid, J. R 2744 

Quill, Michael J opp. 26,73, 2712, 2715, 2730, 2733, 2740, 2745, 2754, 2757, 2837 

Quimby, Chester W opp. 2783 

Quinn, Mike 2651 

Eackley, Mildred 2777 

Raebeck, Helen opp. 2673 

Rainey, Joseph H 2730, 2734, 2741 

Rail, Harris Franklin opp. 2783 

Randall, Mrs. J. H. (Jr.) opp. 2673 

Randolph, A. Philip 2666, 2677 

Ratcliff, Dillwyn F 2777 

Rautenstrauch, Walter 2730, 2734, 2741, 2745, 2754, opp. 2783 

Ravnor, Milton 2812 

Redefer, Frederick L 2CP,Pi 

Redman, Ed 2812 

Reed, Marie 2689, 2707 

Reed, Marie Josephine opp. 2783 

Reich, Harry 2793 

Reich, Morton L opp. 2783 

Remington, William P opp. 2736 

Reynolds, Bertha C 2730, 2734, opp. 2736, 2741, 2777, opp. 2783, 2810, 2812 

Rice. William Gorham, Jr opp. 2736 

Richie, Paul A opp. 2783 

Richter, Arthur W opp. 2783 



2870 INDEX 

Page 
Richter, H. M opp. 2783 

RieffKer, Wallingford 2777, opp. 2783 

Riess, Bernard F : opp. 2736, 2793 

Riess, Ernst 2793 

Riggle, Samuel M opp. 2783 

Rittenhouse, Mary W opp. 2736 

Rivera, Julia 2679 

Roberts, Bridget 2683 

Robeson, Paul 2744, 2755, 2756, opp. 2783, 2836 

Robinson, Earl 2793, 2812 

Robinson, Henry Lee, Jr opp. 2783 

Robinson, James 2684, 2745, opp. 2783 

Robinson, John W 2793 

Robinson, Leland Rex 2676 

Robinson, Olga K opp. 2783 

Robinson, Reid 2677, 2713, 2730, 2745, 2754, 2755, 2757, 2836 

Rock, Lou 2845 

Rockel, Charles D opp. 2783 

Rodgers, Donald 2670 

Rodgers, Esther 2670 

Rodri^iuez, William E 2730 

Roeder, Ralph opp. 2736 

Roelofs, Henrietta 2677 

Rollins, Charlemae 2812 

Roosevelt, Eleanor opp. 2673, 2712, 2714-2716, 2723 

Roosevelt, Franklin Delano 2712, 2714-2716, 2718, 2720, 2723, 2790, 2813, 2821 

Rose, Rose ,_ 2811, 2812 

Rosen, Edward opp. 2783 

Rosen, Harry 2822 

Rosen, Manny 2670 

Rosen, Regina 2670 

Rosenberg, I 2793 

Rosenthal, Charles 2684. opp. 2783 

Ross, Carl 2680, 2687, 2692 

Ross. Edward A opp. 2736 

Roth, Torias opp. 2673 

Rothenbers, Bernard opp. 2673 

Rothenberg, Lillian 2670 

Rothschild, John 2812 

Rotundo, Joseph opp. 2673 

Rowland, Wilmina opp. 2783 

Rucker, Bernard 2670 

Rudbarg, Stanley 2812 

Russell, Charles Edward opp. 2736 

Ryan, W. Carson, Jr opp. 2673 

Sachar, A. L 2618 

Sacher, Harry , opp. 2783 

Sage, Samuel 2812 

Sager, Clifford J opp. 2783 

St. Gaudens, Homer 2777 

Sanborne, Leon D , opp. 2783 

Sanchez, Salvador 2777 

Saxman, Walter C. B opp. 2783 

Sayre, John Nevin , , opp. 2673 

Sayre, Walker S 2730 

Scattergood, J. Henry , opp. 2736 

Schain, Josephine opp. 2673, 2676 

Schappes, Morris U 2793-2795 

Schevill, Ferdinand , 2745 

Schiff, Philip opp. 2673 

Schlater, Francis C . opp. 2783 

Schlauch, Margaret 2793 

Schlauch, Walter S 2793 

Schmalz, Alfred . opp. 2673 

Schneiderman, Rose opp. 2673, 2677, opp. 2736 

Schneirla, T. C 2777, opp. 2783 



INDEX 2871 

Page 

Schnurman, Irving , 2793 

Schreiber, Meyer opp. 2673 

Schor, Manny _, opp. 2783 

Schusterman, A 2812 

Schwarzbart, Elias M , opp. 2783 

Schwieso, Charles, Jr 2745, 2754 

Scobey, Rafe 2703 

Scott, Jessica 2745 

Scott, Lester F 2676 

Scudder, Vida D opp. 2736 

Sears, Hayden B , opp. 2783 

Seeger, Peter 2710 

Seeley, Charles S 2787, 2788 

Segal, Mimi , 2702, 2703 

Seibert, E. W opp. 2783 

Seins, Herbert . 2670 

Seitter, Carl C 2677 

Sekhar, S. Chandra 2715 

Seldes, George 2730, opp. 2736, 2745, 2754, 2777, 2840 

Sellars, Helen Earle , opp. 2783 

Sellars, Eoy Wood opp. 2736 

Selsam, Howard opp. 2783 

Shackelford, Shelby , , opp. 2783 

Shanks, Frank 2821 

Sharp, Malcolm 2730, opp. 2783 

Sharpley, Lilliam , opp. 2673 

Sheafe, Doris opp. 2673 

Shelley, Harold K . 2811, 2812 

Shepard, John F opp. 2783 

Sheppard, Burton , 2745, 2754 

Sherman, Florentine 2777 

Sherman, John , 2777 

Sherman, Robert opp. 2736 

Sheyney, Edward P . , opp. 2783 

Shields, Art 2766 

Shields, Evelyn 2720 

Shields, Ruth 2684, 2709 

Shinn, Charles 2709, 2716 

Shubert, I. J opp. 2783 

Shumlin, Herman 2730, opp. 2736, 2777, opp. 2783 

Shumpert, Robert D 2810 

Shuster, George N 2676 

Sibley, H. Norman opp. 2736 

Siddon, Richard opp. 2783 

Siegmeister, Elie 2793 

Sigerist, Henry E 2777, 2786-2788 

Silberstein, Robert J opp. 2783 

Simkhovitch, Mary opp. 2673 

Simkhovitch, Mary K 2677 

Simon, Abbott 2679, 2683, 2684 

Simon, Helen 2777 

Simon, Ruth 2720i 

Sizer, Leonard M 2810, 2812 

Slagle, Le Verne 2670 

Sloane, Gordon 2618 

Sloane, Marcella 2720 

Slocombe, Edwin M opp. 2783 

Smith, Albert L opp. 2783 

Smith, Edwin S 2729, 2730, 2740 

Smith, Ferdinand 2777, 2793 

Smith, Frederick J 2811, 2812 

Smith, H. M 2745 

Smith, Jessica 2790 

Smith, Lorna D opp. 2783 

Smith, Luther N opp. 2783 

Smith, Mason 2745 

39125 — 53. 18 



2872 INDEX 

Page 

, . , ^. 2676 

Smitb, Monroe 2783 

Smith, Nicky ^ 2736 

Smith, Randolph B ^^ otcq 

Smith, Tredwell ^'"P- g°^ 

Snow, Mrs. Sydney B III'" I__I '^676 

Snow, William F - " 27Sq 

Bnyder, G. Franklin ---— --^"^ ^^' 

Socol, Joseph. (See Joseph Socoloff.) ___ 2^20, 2621, 2670 

Socolotf, Joseph (bcoloft) -— 9S17 9^94 2S43 

Socoloff, Joseph (alias Joseph Socol) ^»i'. ^^^-^' ^^ 

Soil, Joseph F— — -_-_-_-_- y 2673 

SomipnreR-h, Emanuel ^^ 2673 

Sossis, Anita " * 2676 

Soule, George _ 2777 

Soule, Isobel Walker ^_"~~""'_"_~ "opp ''783 

Spelrein Norma— — "-"opp. 2788 

Spence, Lucile — _"-- 2783 

Spencer, Joseph '"_"___ 2618 

Spivack, Robert G ^-,og ^^p 2783 

Ip^K: wnS B*:::::::::-2m2m 274i:¥7T572754; opT2783;28io, 2^^^^^^ 

Spofford, William B., Jr ^ -^ - ^-_ 2679 

Spooner, Daniel J 1 ""IZI'I ~_I_Z_ 2790 

Spragiie, Ver Lin "_" I" 2794 

Stander, Lionel "" ~ ~~ " 2684 

Stapp, Nena Beth _""'_ I __~I " 2777 

Starr, George "_ " — ' 2733, 2793 

Steig, William --" _" _ _J_^ 2812 

Steinberg, Bory ""_!_" II"_ 2812 

Steinmetz, Harry _ ::__"opp. 2783 

Steinmetz Philip H 2729;2m2733, opp. 2736, 2741 

Stern, Alfred K _ ' 3^ 2783, 2T93 

Stern, Bernhard J 1".. __ opp. 2783 

Stevens, Alice - 2729 

Stevens, Hope _" __;__: opp. 2736 

Stevens, Mr. Hope R -— _" _ _ p 2783 

Stevens, Hope K ^ """" ~ ~ _ 2821 

Stevens, J — ~_" _""_Z" I'll 2745,2793 

Stevenson, A. E - "^^ 2735 

Stewart, Charles I ^27^0 "'>734 odd 2736,2741 

Stewart, Donald Ogden 2730, ^734, opp. -<^d, ^^^^ 

Stewart, Maxwell "" 0715 

Stimson (Secretary of War) "Iirri.I. _ opp. 2783 

Stockdale, M ~_" "" 2782 

Stone, Chief Justice _-__-" ~_ 2730 

Stone, I. F --" -~_ _"" ~~~ 2793 

Storm, Adolph _"" "__ opp. 2736 

Storm, Hans Otto ~_" "" __ 2758 

Strack, Walter __II__II _I~I 2839 

Stracke, Win ""__ I_ II 2777 

Strand, Paul Zlll-Z~—-~ -I— I - 2745 

Struik, Dirk J _2~.-- I opp. 2673 

Stumpf, William A - ~ ^sio '>S11 2812 

Sullivan, William Wallace _I"odp'2783 

Sutcliffe, E. Lenton II.'_III_II_ _ __ 2730 

Swan, Alfred W "_" _ 2812 

Sweet, Frederick B --_ _ l_ ^ _ opp. 2736 

Taft, Sigmund C " '>786-2788 

Taggard, Genevieve ^ _ "opp. 2783 

Tanz, Channa ""___II__ opp 2783 

Tasman, Eric M 



INDEX 2873 

Page 

Taiibin, Harold opP- 2783 

Taussig, Albert opp. 2783 

Tayloi-r Alva W 2810-2812 

Tavlor, C. Fayette 2729,2730 

Tavlor, Ed 2716 

Taylor, Fayette opp. 2736 

Taylor, John H opp. 2783 

Tead, Ordway 2676 

Tennant, Calla E 2811,2812 

Tennenbaum, Saul A opP- 2783 

Terrill, Kathevine 2677, opp. 2736, 2745, opp. 2783, 2837 

Thacher, John Boyd opp. 2673 

Theodore F oPP- 2783 

Thomas, Robert F opp. 2783 

Tliompson, Frederick opP- 2783 

Thompson, Hugh opp. 2673 

Thompson, John B 2623, 

2624, 2657, 2671, 2672, 2744, 2745, 2754, 2756, 2759, 2810, 2812, 2836 

Thompson, Robert (Bobbie) 2620, 

2621, 2670, 2814, 2815, 2817, 2824, 2843-2845 

Throckmorton, D. R opp. 2783 

Timms, Josephine 2689, 2698-2701, 2703, 2793 

Tinkham 2713 

Tobias, Channing H 2730, 2810 

Todd, Arthur J opp. 2736 

Tomassetti, Nicholas opp. 2783, 2821 

Tolmach, Jesse A 2777 

Torrev, Reverend 2811 

Townsend, Francis E 2744, 2754-2757, 2836 

lYicker, Mrs. Albert B 2734, opp. 2736, 2741 

Trimble, Bruce R opp. 2783 

Troiano, Rose 2618, opp. 2783 

Troutman, Leonard 2709 

Trowbridge, Jean 2812 

Truman 2662 

Tullis, Edward opp. 2736 

Tully, Jim 2745, 2754 

Tunney Gene 2686,2692,2693,2712,2716 

Turchin, Maia 2701-2703, opp. 2783 

Turner, Jacob 2812 

l^irner, Leon F 2811,2812 

Twiddy, William opp. 2783 

Tyler, Helen opp. 2783 

Tyler, William A opp. 2736 

Uphaus, Willard E 2810 

Urice, Jay A 2677 

Uzin, Shirley opp. 2673 

Vale, Sonny 2839 

Van Kleeck, Mary 2730, 2787 

Vecchione, Pasqual J opp. 2783 

Villard, Oswald Garrison 2676, opp. 2736, 2745 

Vincent, Clara M 2811, 2812 

Vincent, Merle D 2728, 2730, 2731 

Vixman, Rachel 2780 

Vlastos, Gregory 2810, 2812 

Voight, Irma E 2676 

Wagner, Robert F 2677 

Wald, Lillian D 2677 

Waldbaum, Saul O 2730, 2734, opp. 2736, 2741 

Waldorf, Ernest L 2836 

Walker, Kenneth C opp. 2783 

Wallace 2707 

Walldow, Clara 2679 

Walters, H. E 2821 

Walton, Eda Lou 2745, 2754, 2777, opp. 2783, 2793 

Wangemann, T. D 2745 



2874 INDEX 

Page 

Warbasse, C. W 2676 

Warburton, C. W 2677 

Ward, Eleanor B . opp. 2783 

Ward, Harry F 2666, opp. 2736, opp. 2783, 2810 

Ward, Lynd opp. 2783, 2810-2812 

Warne, Colston E 2730, opp. 2783 

Waterman, Leroy 2730 

Waterman, LeRoy E opp. 2736 

Watson, Goodwin opp. 2783 

Watson, Hubert G opp. 2673 

Watson, Morris 2729, 2730, 2733, 2741, 2745, 2754 

Weatherwax, Clax-a opp. 2783 

Webb, U. S opp. 2736 

Webber, Charles C 2677, 2810, 2812 

Weber, Max opp. 2736 

Weinstein, Jacob 2812, 2821 

Weinstock, Louis 2821 

Weisman, Maxwell N opp. 2783 

Weisner, Louis opp. 2736, opp. 2783, 2793 

Weiss, Arthur opp. 2783 

Weiss, Max 2684, 2685 

Welch, Clifford F 2787 

Welch, Herbert 2677 

Welling, Richard 2676 

Wellman, Charles P opp. 2783 

Wendell, Richard G opp. 2783 

Wendt, Bruce J opp. 2783 

Weugut, Paul opp. 2783 

Werthley, James A opp. 2783 

West, Donald L 2810-2812 

Weston, Robert T , opp. 2673 

Weymouth, F. W 2793 

Wheatley, Melvin E. (Jr.) opp. 2783 

Wheelor, Helen 2709 

Wheeler, Margaret L opp. 2783 

Wheeler, William A 2636-2639 

Whitaker, Robert opp. 2783 

White, David McKelvy 2777 

White, Eliot opp. 2736 

White, Elliott opp. 2783 

White, Glen Frank 2812 

White, Horace 2745 

White, Mable R opp. 2783 

White, Paul C opp. 2673 

White, Wayne opp. 2783, 2812 

Whitfield, Owen H 2810-2812 

Whitfield, Zella 2811 

Whiting, Mrs. George —- opp. 2736 

Whitney, A. F 2677 

Whitney, Hassler opp. 2736 

Whitney, Mary T opp. 2783 

Wieman, Henry M opp. 2783 

Wieman, Henry K opp. 2736 

Wilenskv, Frances 2702. 2703 

Wilkerson, Doxey A. (Doxie)__ 2730, 2734, opp. 2736, 2741, 2745, opp. 2783, 2793 

Williams, Aubrey opp. 2673, 2714, 2723 

Williams, Claude C 2745, opp. 2783, 2810-2812, 2834 

Williams, Daniel C 2810 

Williams, David R opp. 2673 

Williams, Frances M opp. 2673, 2679, 2683, 2684, 2689, 2710. opp. 2783 

Williams, Frances 2733, 2741 

Williams, George 2757 

Williams, George W 2736 

Williams, H opp. 2783 

Williams, Joyce 2S12 

Williams, Sidney 2745 

Williams, Sidney R 2810, 2812 



INDEX 2875 

Page 

Williams, William Carlos opp. 27S3 

Wilkie, Wendell L 2701, 2712, 2718 

Wilson, Charles C 2810, 2812 

Wilson, p:dwin H 2734, 2741, 2745 

Wilson, Hugh 2745 

Wilson, M. L 2677 

Wilson, Nathan 2812 

Wilson, Theodore E 2812 

Wilson, Woodrow 2763 

Winne, A. Everett 2684 

Winter, Ella 2730, 2734, 2741 

Wirin, A. L opp. 2783 

Wirth, Nicholas 2812 

Wirtz, Robert 2730 

Witt, Herbert (Bert) opp. 2673, 2684, 2713, 2721, 2777, opp. 2783 

Witt, Nathan 2741 

Wolfe, Morley S 2812 

Wolfson, A 2812 

Wood, Charles Erskine Scott 2730, 2734, 2736, 2741, 2745, 2754 

Wood, Robert 2732 

Woodruff, John 2730 

Woodward, Miss Jimmy 2679 

Woody, Thomas opp. 2736 

Woolley, Mary E 2676 

Wooster, June 2684, 2745 

Worley, Lyod I opp. 2783 

Wrisht, Paul D opp. 2783 

Wright, Paul S opp. 2736, 2741 

Wright, Richard 2730, 2793, 2795 

Wygal, Winifred 2745 

Wylie, Harold Worden opp. 2736 

Yergan, Max 2666, 2676, 2729-2731, 

2733, 2741, 2745, 2754, 2757, 2777, opp. 2783, 2793, 2810, 2812, 2837 

Yoder, T. Dayton opp. 2783 

Young, Art 2730, 2734, 2741, opp. 2783, 2793 

Young, J. Russell 2733 

Young, Mary C 2672, 2725, 2841, 2849 

Young, Walter 2812 

Zacharoff, Lucian 2793 

Ziegler, James N opp. 2783 

Zugsmith, Leano opp. 2783 

Organization 

Abraham Lincoln High School opp. 2673 

Alabama Farmers' Union 2684, 2745, 2754 

Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America 2676 

Amalgamated Meat Cutters, Local 623, AFL 2721 

American Association for the Advancement of Science 2763 

American Association of Medical Students 2745 

American Association of Schools of Social Work 2754 

American Association of University Women 2676 

American Baptist Publication Society opp. 2673 

American Committee for Democracy and Intellectual Freedom 2729, 2744, 2754 

American Committee for the Protection of the Foreign Born 2729, 2744 

American Communications Association 2689, 2701 

American Communications Association, CIO 2793 

American Council on Soviet Relations 2783-2790 

American Federation of Labor 2721, 2745, 2793, 2812, 2821 

American Federation of Teachers 2676, 2794 

American Friends of the Chinese People opp. 2673 

American Friends Service Committee 2677 

American Institute for Iranian Art 2787 

American Jewish Congress opp. 2673, 2677, 2684 

American Labor Party 2702, 2712 



2876 INDEX 

Page 

American Law Institute 2765 

American League Against War and Fascism 2616, 2617, 2656, opp. 2673 

American League for Peace and Democracy 2616, 2617 

American Newspaper Guild 2676, 2729, 2745, 2754 

American Peace Mobilization 2620, 2623, 

2646, 2653, 2669, 2671, 2695, 2712, 2734, 2735, 2742, 2746, 2825, 2826 

American People's Mobilization 2715, 2825. 2826 

American People's Movement 2623, 2671 

American Public Health Association 2676 

American Public Welfare Association 2677 

American Rescue Ship Mission 2764r-2766 

American Social Hygiene Association opp. 2673, 2676 

American Student Union 2618, 

2652, 2670, opp. 2673, 2679, 2684, 2701-2703, 2713, 2761, 2763, 2764 

American Unitarian Association 2677 

American Women's Voluntary Services 2720 

American Youth Congress 2620, 

2621, 2624, 2626, 2627, 2646, 2647, 2651-2656, 2665-2667, 2669-2674, 
2679, 2680, 2682, 2683, 2686-2688, 2692-2697, 2701, 2703, 2707, 2709- 
2712, 2714-2718, 2720, 2723, 2729, 2735, 2742, 2745, 2754, 2757, 2762, 
2787, 2789, 2790, 2793, 2813, 2814, 2820-2822, 2824-2820, 2830, 2843 

American Youth Congress, Fifth 2674 

American Youth Congress, Sixth 2682, 2683, 2685, 2691, 2692 

American Youth Congress, Seventh 2688 

American Youth Congress, New York City Council opp. 2673 

American Youth for Democracy 2652, 2812 

American Youth Hostels Association .;.— 2676 

American Youth Theater 2720 

Associated Actors and Artists of America 2676 

Associated Czech Societies, Milwaukee, Wis 2745 

Associated Farm Women of Kansas 2745, 2754 

Association of Church Social Workers 2677 

Association of Medical Students 2709 

Bakery and Confectionery Workers, Local 1, AFL 2793 

Benjamin Franklin High School opp. 2673 

Bennett College, Greensboro, N. C 2745, 2754 

Birmingham Council, P. I. A. R 2812 

Board of Education, New York 2676 

Board of Home Missions of the Presbyterian Church 2642, 2725, 2726, 2816 

Board of National Missions of the Presbyterian Church, U. S. A 2818 

Board of World Peace of the Methodist Church 2659 

Boy Scouts of America opp. 2673 

Bronx House opp. 2673 

Brooklyn College opp. 2673, 2822 

Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers Lodge 405 2744 

Brotherhood of Painters, District Council No. 9 opp. 2673 

Brotherhood of Railway Trainmen 2677 

Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen, Lodge 191 2744 

Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters 2677 

Buffalo Peace Council, Buffalo opp. 2673 

Business and Professional Council, YWCA 2679, 2684 

Butchers District Council, New York and New Jersey, AFL 2793 

Cabot Memorial Fund 2812 

Cafeteria Emplovees Union, Local 302, AFL 2793 

California-Nevada Conference of the Methodist Church 2613, 2615, 2616 

California State Grange 2745, 2754 

California Youth Legislature 2679, 2684, 2709 

Cambridge Theological School 2812 

Camp FiVe Girls 2676 

Carleton College 2676 

Caribbean Union 2729 

Central American Navigation Co. of Panama 2766 

Central New York Young Women's Christian Association 2822 

Chapel Hill Teachers' Union (University of North Carolina) 2794 

Chicago Action Council 2812 

Chicago Baptist Institute 2745 



INDEX 2877 

Page 

Chicago Civil Liberties Committee 2729 

Chicago Peace Federation 2757 

Chicago Youth Congress 2684 

Christian Medical Council for Overseas Work 2676 

Christian Youth Council of North America 2677, 

2678, 2681, 2684, 2709, 2745, 2754 

Church League for Industrial Democracy __ 2745, 2754, 2812 

Church League for Industrial Democracy, Philadelphia l 2812 

Citizens Committee To Free Earl Browder 2812, 2813, 2821, 2822 

City Wide Tenants Council opp. 2673 

Civil Rights Congress 2736, 2742 

Civilian Conservation Corps 2678, 2686, 2723 

Cleveland Industrial Union 2745, 2793 

Cleveland Youth Council 2684 

College Camp, Lake Geneva. Wis 2683 

College of the City of New York 2672, 

2673, opp. 2673, 2676, 2757, 2790, 2793, 2794, 2795 

Colorado Council of Methodist Youth 2684 

Columbia University 2615, opp. 2673, 2745, 2754, 2762, 2793 

Columbia University chapter of the American Student Union 2761, 2762 

Commission on World Peace 2832 

Committee for Industrial Organization opp. 2673 

Committee for Industrial Organization, Buffalo opp. 2673 

Committee for National Morale 2787, 2813, 2821 

Committee for the World Youth Congress 2689 

Committee to Defend America by Keeping Out of War 2742, 

2744, 2745, 2749, 2750, 2753, 2755, 2756, 2759 

Community Action 2812 

Conference on Constitutional Liberties in America 2724, 2726-2728 

Congress of Industrial Organizations 2681, 

2686, 2709, 2710, 2713, 2714, 2716, 2758, 2793, 2812, 2821, 2822 

Connecticut Conference of Youth 2679 

Connecticut Conference on Social and Labor Legislation 2821 

Consolidated Tenants League of New York opp. 2673 

Consumer's National Federation opp. 2673 

Consumer's Union opp. 2673 

Cooks, Pastry Cooks and Associated Union, Local 89, AFL 2793 

Cooperative League of the U. S. A 2676 

Cooperative School for Teachers 2745 

Council for Civic Unity, San Francisco 2812 

Council for Social Action of Congregational and Christian Churches opp. 2673, 

2677, 2745, 2837 

Council for Student Equality 2703 

Council of Social Agencies of Chicago 2677 

Council on African Affairs 2793, 2812 

Czechoslovak Society of America 2678 

Dakota Farmers Union 2757 

Denver Council, P. I. A. R 2812 

Descendants of the American Revolution 2729, 2735 

Detroit Civil Rights Federation 2754 

Detroit Council, P. I. A. R 2812 

Detroit Youth Assembly 2709 

Douglass-Singerley High School, Philadelphia 2793 

Emergency Peace Mobilization 2620, 2621, 

2623, 2624, 2646, 2669-2672, 2685, 2694, 2695, 2744, 2749. 2750, 2752, 
2753. 2756, 2757, 2759, 2824, 2825, 2832-2836, 2838, 2840. 2846, 2847 

Emory University, Georgia 2615, 2616, 2690, 2746-2748, 2772 

Erie County Industrial Union Council 2793 

Family Welfare Association of America 2677 

Far Eastei-n Student Service Fund 2745 

Farm Equipment Workers, CIO 2793 

Farmers Union 2758 

Farmers Union, Alabama 2758 

Farmers Union, Ohio 2745 

Federal Bureau of Investigation 2620, 2621, 2623, 2624, 

2647, 2650, 2653, 2669-2672, 2819, 2823, 2827, 2828, 2842-2844, 2847 



2878 INDEX 

Page 

Federal Council of Churches 2802 

Federal Council of Churches of Christ in America 2796 

Federation of Architects, Engineers, Chemists, and Technicians 2744, 2754 

Federated Press 2812 

Fifth American Youth Congress 2674 

First United States Congress Against War 2617 

Flatbush Inter-Club Council opp. 2673 

Flint Youth Council (CIO) 2709,2716 

Fordham Forum 2790 

Foreign Policy Association opp. 2673 

Franklin County (Ohio) chapter of the Workers' Alliance of America 2670 

Fraternal Club House 2813, 2822 

Friends of Democracy 2799, 2801 

Friends of the Soviet Union 2783 

Fur Floor and Shippin.s; Clerks, CIO, Local 125 2822 

Garrett Biblical Institute in Evanston. Ill 2616 

Gas By-Product, Coke, and Chemical Workers 2079 

General Council of the Congregational and Christian Churches 2677 

Georse Williams College 2683 

German-American Bund 2746 

Grand Street Settlement House opp. 2673 

Greater Flint Industrial Union Council, Flint, Mich 2744 

Greater New York Federation of Churches opp. 2673 

Gi'eater New I'ork Industrial Union Council 2793 

Greenwich House 2677 

Greenwich Settlement House opp. 2673 

Harlem Youth Opportunity Club opp. 2673 

Harvard University 2745, 2754, 2793 

Haverford College 2676 

Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati 2745, 2754 

Hennepin County (Minn.) Industrial Union Council 2821 

Henry Street Settlement House 2677 

Hillel Foundation 2618 

Home Missions Council 2615, 2726 

Home Missions Council of North America 2802, 2803 

Hotel and Club Employees Union, Local 6, AFL 2821 

Howard University 2745 

Hudson Guild opp. 2673 

Hudson Shore Labor School 2812 

Hull House 2677 

Hull House, Chicago 2745 

Hunter College 2793 

Indianola Student Center (Methodist), Columbus, Ohio 2821 

Industrial Council of the YWCA 2618 

Industrial Union Council, Detroit 2812 

Institute of International Education 2676 

Institute of the History of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University 2787 

International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers, Local No. 3 opp. 2673 

International Brotherhood of Painters, Local No. 905 2821 

International Brotherhood, Painters, Decorators, and Paperhangers, AFL_ 2793 

International Committee on African Affairs 2676 

International Federation of Business and Professional Women 2676 

International Food and Agriculture Organization 2831 

International Fur and Leather Workers of America, CIO 2793 

International Hod Carriers and Building Laborers, AFL, Seattle 2821 

International Ladies' Garment AVorkers Union 2676 

International Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union 2745 

International Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union, Seattle Local 

No. 1-9 2821 

International Student Service 2G18, 2684 

International Union of Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers 2677, 

2745, 2754, 2757, 2836 

International Woodworkers of America 2745, 2754 

International Workers' Order 2810, 2839 

International Workers' Order, Lodge 11 2794 

International Workers' Order, Lodge 277 2794 



INDEX 2879 

Page 

International Workers' Order, Lodge 321 2794 

International Workers' Order, Lodge 737 2794 

Jewish People's Committee 2735 

Jewish Vocational Service, Milwaukee, Wis 2745 

Jewish Young Men's Association, Rochester opp. 2673 

Johns Hopkins University 2787 

Joint Board of Cloak, Suit, Skirt, and Reefer Makers Unions opp. 2673 

Junior Hadassah 2677 

Labor's Non-Partisan League 2676, 2695, 2709, 2716, 2758, 2821 

Lansing Industrial Union Council 2745 

League of Nations Association 2676 

League of Young Southerners 2684, 2745, 2754, 2758 

Left Book Club 2834 

Linden Peace League 2620,2651,2669 

Little Italy Neighborhood House, Brooklyn opp. 2673 

Los Angeles Industrial Union Council 2745 

Louisiana Farmers Union 2745 

Lowell, Mass., Industrial Union Council 2744 

Loyalty Review Board 2617, 

2652, 2653, 2732, 2764, 2765, 2783, 2790, 2795, 2812, 2825 

Lutheran League of New York State opp. 2673 

Madison House opp. 2673 

Marine Firemen's and Oiler's in San Francisco 2758 

Maritime Federation 2758 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology 2745,2793 

Massachusetts Youth Congress 2679, 2684 

Massachusetts Youth Council 2689 

Mercer County (N. J.) Teachers Union, Local 37 of the A. F. T 2794 

Methodist Committee for Overseas Relief 2832 

Methodist Federation for Social Action (Service) 2612, 2616, 

2624, 2625, 2635, 2638, 2640, 2656-26.59, 2661, 2662, 2664, 2672, 2677 

Methodist Federation for Social Action 2797, 2798, 2804, 2812, 2827-2830 

Methodist Federation for Social Service 2812 

Methodist General Conference 2832 

Michigan Committee to Pass the American Youth Act 2684 

Milwaukee County Industrial Union Council 2745 

Milwaukee State Teachers College 2744, 2754 

Minnesota State CIO 2821 

Minnesota Youth Assembly 2679 

Mount Holyoke College 2676 

Mount Holyoke 2782 

National Action Conference for Civil Rights (National Action Conference 

on Civil Rights) 2736-2739,2745 

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People 2684, 

2698, 2701, 2703, 2720, 2745, 2754 

National Association of Deans of Women 2676 

National Business and Professional Division, YWCA 2681 

National Business and Professional Girls Council, YWCA 2709, opp. 2673 

National Child Labor Committee 2676 

National Collegiate Christian Council 2720 

National Committee on the Cause and Cure of War opp. 2673, 2676 

National Conference of Negro Youth 2689 

National Conference of Social Work 2677 

National Conference of Social Workers, Grand Rapids, Mich 2642 

National Conference on Constitutional Liberties in America 2731, 2732 

National Congress of Colored Parents and Teachers 2676 

National Congress of Parents and Teachers 2676 

National Council for American-Soviet Friendship 2812 

National Council of Churches 2615 

National Council of Jewish Juniors 2677 

National Council of Methodist Youth 2677 

National Council of Negro Women 2676 

National Council of Parent Education opp. 2673 

National Emergency Conference for Democratic Rights 2729 

National Federation for Constitutional Liberties 2731-2735, 

opp. 2736, 2736, 2737, 2739-2741, 2757, 2836 



2880 INDEX 

Page 

National Federation of Settlements 2677, 2679 

National Free Earl Browder Congress 2813, 2821, 2822 

National Industrial Girls Council of the YWCA 2864, 2709 

National Inter-Collegiate Christian Council 2617, 2618, 2674, 

2677, 2680, 2681, 2684, 2685, 2698, 2699, 2709, 2725, 2745, 2747, 2748 

National Interfraternity Council opp. 2673 

National Jewish People's Committee 2757 

National Lawyers Guild 2812 

National Maritime Union 2710, 2729, 2745, 2754, 2757, 2758, 2793, 2812, 2836 

National Negro Congress opp. 2673, 

2676, 2684, 2712, 2715, 2729, 2745, 2754, 2757, 2836 

National Negro Congress, Youth Section 2678 

National Parks Service 2677 

National Public Housing Conference opp. 2673 

National Self-Government Association opp. 2673, 2676 

National Student Federation of America opp. 2673, 2678, 2684 

National Student Young Men's Christian Association 2652, 

2695, 2696, 2697, 2713, 2747 

National Tuberculosis Association 2676 

National Urban League 2676, 2812 

National Young People's Christian Union of the Universalist Church 2677 

National Youth Administration 2678, 2686, 2703, 2714, 2723 

Navy Yard Apprentice Association opp. 2673 

Negro Culture Foundation 2702, 2703 

New Jersey Industrial Union Council 2745 

Newspaper Guild of New York opp. 2673 

New York City Department of Correction opp. 2673 

New York City Department of Welfare opp. 2678 

New York City Housing Authority opp. 2673 

New York City National Negro Congress opp. 2673 

New York City Young Judea opp. 2673 

New York Council, P. I. A. R 2812 

New York Industrial Union Council, CIO 2812 

New York Lawyers Guild opp. 2673 

New York Police Department 2721 

New York School of Social Work 2677 

New York State Committee on Conditions of Urban Colored Population 

opp. 2673 

New York State Department of Labor opp. 2673 

New York State Labor Relations Board opp. 2673 

New York State Mediation Board opp. 2673 

New York State Model Legislature opp. 2673 

New York State Young Communist League opp. 2673 

New York State Youth Council 2679 

New York State Youth Council, Rome opp. 2673 

New York Trade Union Committee to Free Earl Browder 2821 

New York Tuberculosis and Public Health Association opp. 2673 

New York University 2728, 2745, 2754, 2793, opp. 2673, 2701 

New York Urban League opp. 2673 

New York Youth Con,gress 2684, 2700, 2709, 2720 

North Dakota Farmers' Union 2836 

North Side Peace League 2620, 2651, 2669 

Oglethorpe University 2812 

Ohio Youth Congress 2620, 

2621. 2627, 2631, 2632, 2651, 2652, 2669, 2670, 2813, 2815, 2849 

Oklahoma City Youth Assembly 2679 

Oklahoma Youth Legislature 2684 

Open Road 2812 

Order of Railroad Conductors, Division No. 46 2744 

Order of Railway Telegraphers 2676 

Order of Rainbow for Girls 2676 

Pacific School of Religion 2615 

Packinghouse Workers, CIO 2759 

Pan-Pacific Women's Association 2676 

Parent Teachers Association, West Allis, Wis 2745 

Peace Council 2702, 2703 

People's Congress for Peace and Democracy 2716, 2618 



I INDEX 2881 

Page 
People's Council of WW War No. 1 2756 

People's Institute of Alied Religion 2795, 2799-2802, 2810-2812 

People's Songs 2812 

Philadelphia Council, itional Negro Congress 2745 

Pittsburgh YWCA ___ 2679 

Pocketbook Workers ton, Local 1 opp. 2673 

Polish AVomen's Alliau, Milwaukee, Wis 2745 

Political Action Com.ttee 2812 

Progressive EducatioA-Ssociation opp. 2673 

Public Works Adminiration 2723 

Queens College, Can^ 2812 

Queens Youth Assem^ oPP- 2673 

Randolph-Macon Colfe YWCA 2679 

Religion and Labor Elowship 2812 

Rocky Mountain Reg!i, Student Christian Movement 2745, 2754 

Sacramento, Calif., Dustrial Union Council 2745 

St. James Presbyterii Church opp. 2673 

Samuel J. Tilden Hi? School opp. 2673 

Schappes Defense Ccmittee 2790-2794 

School of Religion, Irman, Okla 2745 

Seamen's Service 2812 

Seattle AFL Internaonal Hod Carriers and Building Laborers 2821 

Settlement House Aociation of Detroit 2758 

Seventh American 'iuth Congress 2688 

Sixth American Youi Congress 2682, 2683, 2685, 2691, 2692 

Skidmore College, Sratoga Springs opp. 2673 

Smith College 2765 

Social Security Bod 2677 

Southern Confereucfor Human Welfare 2735, 2744, 2745, 2754, 2812, 2836 

Southern Negro Youl Congress 2679, 2684, 2709, 2716, 2745, 2754, 2812 

Southern Ohio YoutlConference 2620, 2651, 2669 

South Side Peace Letue 2620, 2651, 2669 

Spanish Relief 4 2812 

Spokane Central Lal^r Council, AFL 2821 

Stanford University^ 2793 

State Baptist Missio^ry Convention opp. 2673 

State, County, and Mnicipal Workers of America 2754, 2793, 2821 

Steelworkers Organilng Committee 2676 

Steelworkers Organijng Committee, Milwaukee 2744 

Student Christian Asociation 2820 

Student Christian Mfrement, Rocky Mountain Region 2745, 2754 

Student Council, Hurer College opp. 2673 

Student Young Men": Christian Association 2813 

Sullivan County Indjstrial Union Council 2745 

Tau Alpha Omega 2822 

Teachers Union 2702 

Teachers' Union of Jew York 2793 

Teachers Union, Loci No. 5 opP- 2673 

Town Meeting on Yath 2706 

Transport Workers 2715, opp. 2673 

Transport Workers Inion of America 2745, 2754, 2757 

Transport Workers' Jnion (CIO) 2712 

Transport Workers Jnion 2837 

Union Association Rrtired Railroad Employees 2744 

Union College, Scheikctady opp. 2673 

Union for Democratic Action 2666 

Union Theological Saninary 2745, 2754 

Union Theological Seninary, New York City 2615, 2616, 2619, 2642 

Union Theological Seniniary, Social Action Committee 2679 

Unitarian Service Cooamittee 2812 

Unitarian Youth Conmission 2677, 2745 

United American Spanish Aid Committee 2765, 2766, 2774, 2776, 2777 

United Automobile Workers Union, Local 259 opp. 2673 

United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners, Seattle, AFL 2821 

United Cannery, Agricultural, Packing, and Allied Workers of America, 

CIO 2793 



2882 INDEX 

Page 
United Cannery, Agricultural, Packing, and Allied >rkers of America, 

Cotton States Council 2745 

United Electric, Radio, and Machine Workers of Amea 2678, 

pp. 2673, 2674, 2745, 2754 
United Electrical, Radio, and Machine Workers of ierica, CIO, Local 

237 (Bridgeport) 2793 

United Electrical, Radio, and Machine Workers Uni, Local No. 333, 

Schenectady opp. 2673 

United Fur and Leather Workers Union 2821 

United Furniture Workers of America, CIO 2793 

United Locomotive Workers Union, Lodge No. 2054, Schectady opp. 2673 

United Mine Workers of America 2684 

United Mine Workers of America, CIO 2793 

United Nations 2624, 2625, 2658-2660, 152, 2663, 2672, 2830-2832 

United Neighborhood House . opp. 2673 

United Office and Professional Workers of America opp. 2673, 2821 

United Office and Professional Workers, CIO 2757, 2790 

United Service Organization 2812 

United Shoe Workers of America, CIO, Joint Council 13 2793 

United States Congress Against War 2617 

United States Maritime Service 2616 

United States Maritime Service Officers' Training Schoc 2616 

United Student Peace Committee 2618, opp. 2673, 2745 

United Wholesale and Warehouse Employees of AmericalJIO 2793 

United Wholesale and Warehouse Employees, Local 65, CO 2720, 2822 

University of Buffalo, Buffalo opp. 2673 

University of California u 2812 

University of Chicago 2676, 2745 

University of Illinois 2793 

University of Oklahoma 2812 

University of Oklahoma, School of Religion 2745 

University of Texas 2745 

University of the South 2781, 2782 

University of Wisconsin 2821 

Urban League, Cleveland 2812 

Urban League, St. Louis, Mo 2745 

Vassar College opp. 2673, 2676, 2754 

Virginia Theological Seminary 2729 

Waiters and Waitresses Union, Local 1, AFL 2794 

Washington Committee for Democratic Action 2731, 2740 

Washington Commonwealth Federation 2793 

Washington, D. C, Youth Council 2679, 2707 

Washington Negro Youth Federation! 2707 

Washington State Industrial Union Council 2745 

Washington State Machinists Council, AFL 2821 

Waukesha Trades and Labor Council, A. F. of L., WiscoBin 2745 

Wesley Foundation of Wisconsin 2744 

West Branch YMCA, Manhattan opp. 2673 

West Virginia State College 2676 

Wilberforce University 2624, 2625, 2657 2658, 2672, 2827, 2845 

Wisconsin Farmers Equity Union 2745 

Wisconsin Farmers Union 2754 

Wisconsin Federation of Teachers, AFL 2744, 2754 

Wisconsin Industrial Union Council 2744 

Wisconsin State Conference on Social Legislation 2745 

Women's Division of Christian Service 2832 

Women's International League for Peace and Freedom opp. 2673, 2676 

Women's Trade Union League opp. 2673, 2677 

Woodworkers Union, CIO 2758 

Workers' Alliance of America.- 2620,2624,2651-2653,2661-2671,2757,2824,2826 

Workers Education Bureau of America 2676 

Works Progress Administration 2678, 2686, 2723 

World Alliance for International Friendship Through the Churches 2677 

World Council of Churches 2664 

World Peaceways opp. 2673 

World Youth Congress 2665, 2690 



INDEX 2883 

Paga 

Yale Divinity School 2744, 2754, 2796, 2801 

Yanks Are Not Coming Committee 2C20, 2651, 2660 

Yorkville Youth Center 2703 

Yorkville Youth Services 2701 

Young Communist League, U. S. A 2620, 

2621, 2624, 2647, 2652, 2654, 2656, 2666, 2670, 2671, 2680, 2681, 2684- 
2690, 2692, 2693, 2696, 2697, 2701-2703, 2716, 2721. 

Young Communist League 2746, 

2747, 2749, 2764, 2766-2768, 2817, 2824-2826, 2843 

Young Judea 2677, 2678 

Young Men's Christian Association 2616, 

opp. 2673, 2674, 2677, 2681, 2745, 2747, 2822 

Young Men's Council of the YMCA 2684 

Young Men's Hebrew Association opp. 2673 

Young Men's Hebrew Association, Bronx 2822 

Young People's Christian Union of the Universalist Church 2684 

Young People's League (United Synagogues of America) 2618, 

opp. 2673, 2677, 2679 

Young People's Socialist League 2693 

Young Women's Christian Association 2616, 2617, opp. 2673, 

2674, 2677, 2679, 2681, 2684, 2709, 2720, 2744, 2745, 2747, 2822 
Young Women's Christian Association : 

Baltimore 2745 

Brooklyn 2745 

Central New York 2822 

National Business and Professional Council 2745, 2754 

National Industrial Assembly 2754 

National Industrial Council 2744 

Youth Committee Against War 2681 

Youth Committee of the Citizens Committee To Free Earl Browder— _ 2813, 2822 
Youth Congress, P. I. A. R 2812 

Publications 

The Advance 2676 

American Guardian 2744, 2754, 2757, 2836 

Arizona Daily Star 2664 

Chicago Defender 2745, 2754, 2821 

Christian Register 2812 

Commonweal 2676 

Daily Worker 2651, 2687, 2688, 2718, 2719, 

2735, 2786, 2756, 2762-2766, 2780-2783, 2812, 2813, 2820-2822, 2824 

Dayton Journal-Herald 2845 

Equality 2722, 2723, 2834 

Farmers Union News of Montana 2744, 2754 

The Fight 2616, 2618 

Harvard Law Review 2781,2782 

In Fact 2840 

Jewish Review 2793 

Journal of Health and Physical Education 2676 

Journal of Religious Education, Yale Divinity School 2744, 2754 

The Nation 2676 

Navy News 2787 

New Masses 2690 

The New Republic 2676 

New York Times 2664, 2668, 2685, 2688, 2690 

New York World Telegram 2657 

Ohio State News 2821 

Protestant Digest 2745, 2754, 2834 

Review. (See Young Communist Review.) 

Social Questions Bulletin 2660-2662 

Southern News Almanac 2745, 27.54 

Student Advocate 2702 

Times-Herald (Washington) 2717,-2718 

Town Crier 2703, 2706, 2707 

Vassar Miscellany News 2754 

Waco Messenger 2745 



2884 mDEx 

Page 

Washington Star 2711, 2712 

The Witness 2812 

Worljer 2690 

Young Communist Review 2680, 2684, 

2685, 2687, 2688, 2691, 2692, 2694, 2695, 2713, 2714 

Young Worker 2680 

Youth in Focus 2840 

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