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Sweet Fund 






H. D. GRISWOLD, M.A., Ph.D. 





By NicoL Macnicol, M.A., 
D.Litt. Pp. xvi + 292. Price 
6s. net. 








By J. N. Farquhar, M.A. 

By H. D. Griswold, M.A., 

By A. G. Hogg, M.A., Chris- 
tian College, Madras. 

By John McKenzie, M.A., 
Wilson College, Bombay. 

By K. J. Saunders, M.A., 
Literary Secretary, National 
Council of Y.M.C.A., India 
and Ceylon. 

By H. a. Walter, M.A., 
Literary Secretary, National 
Council of Y.M.C.A., India 
and Ceylon. 


The writers of this series of volumes on the variant forms 
of rehgious hfe in India are governed in their work by two 
impelHng motives. 

I. They endeavour to work in the sincere and sympathetic 
spirit of science. They desire to understand the perplexingly 
involved developments of thought and life in India and dis- 
passionately to estimate their value. They recognize the 
futility of any such attempt to understand and evaluate, 
unless it is grounded in a thorough historical study of the 
phenomena investigated. In recognizing this fact they do no 
more than share what is common ground among all modern 
students of religion of any repute. But they also believe that 
it is necessary to set the practical side of each system in living 
relation to the beliefs and the literature, and that, in this 
regard, the close and direct contact which they have each had 
with Indian religious life ought to prove a source of valuable 
light. For, until a clear understanding has been gained of the 
practical influence exerted by the habits of worship, by the 
practice of the ascetic, devotional or occult discipline, by the 
social organization and by the family system, the real impact 
of the faith upon the life of the individual and the community 
cannot be estimated ; and, without the advantage of extended 
personal intercourse, a trustworthy account of the religious 
experience of a community can scarcely be achieved by even 
the most careful student. 

II. They seek to set each form of Indian religion by the side 
of Christianity in such a way that the relationship may stand 
out clear. Jesus Christ has become to them the light of all 
their seeing, and they believe Him destined to be the light of 


the world. They are persuaded that sooner or later the age- 
long quest of the Indian spirit for religious truth and power 
will find in Him at once its goal and a new starting-point, and 
they will be content if the preparation of this series contri- 
butes in the smallest degree to hasten this consummation. 
If there be readers to whom this motive is unwelcome, they 
may be reminded that no man approaches the study of a 
religion without religious convictions, either positive or nega- 
tive : for both reader and writer, therefore, it is better that 
these should be explicitly stated at the outset. Moreover, 
even a complete lack of sympathy with the motive here 
acknowledged need not diminish a reader's interest in follow- 
ing an honest and careful attempt to bring the religions of 
India into comparison with the religion which to-day is their 
only possible rival, and to which they largely owe their pre- 
sent noticeable and significant revival. 

It is possible that to some minds there may seem to be 
a measure of incompatibility between these two motives. 
The writers, however, feel otherwise. For them the second 
motive reinforces the first : for they have found that he who 
would lead others into a new faith must first of all understand 
the faith that is theirs already, — understand it, moreover, 
sympathetically, with a mind quick to note not its weaknesses 
alone but that in it which has enabled it to survive and has 
given it its pov/er over the hearts of those who profess it. 

The duty of the editors of the series is limited to seeing that 
the volumes are in general harmony with the principles here 
described. Each writer is alone responsible for the opinions 
expressed in his volume, whether in regard to Indian religions 
or to Christianity. 





M.A.; Sc.D. (Dublin) 







REV. G. P. TAYLOR, M.A., D.D. 






1 915 

Fecisti nos ad te, et inquietum est cor nostrum donee requiescat in te. 

{Conf. Div. Aur. Augusttni, i. i.) 










Amongst the many friends, Indian and English, whose 
help has made the production of this little book possible, 
the writer owes a special debt of gratitude to the Rev. 
G. P. Taylor, M.A., D.D., who years ago first directed her 
attention to Jainism as an almost untrodden field for 
research, and who ever since has allowed her to make the 
fullest use of his unrivalled stores of oriental scholarship ; 
to Mr. J. N. Farquhar, M.A., from whom she has received 
constant help and suggestion, especially in the compilation 
of the Historical Summary and the paragraphs on Jaina 
writers ; and to her husband, who, when she was hindered 
by illness, not only prepared the index, but also under- 
took, together with Mr. Farquhar, the whole of the proof 

Amongst her Indian friends, the writer would like to 
thank two Jaina pandits, who successively lectured to 
her in Rajkot (Kathiawad) almost daily during a period 
of seven years, for the patience and lucidity with which 
they expounded their creed. Each of these gentlemen, 
the one representing perhaps the more modern, and the 
other the more conservative, points of view, most kindly 
re-read the MS. with her. 

In her study of Jainism, however, the writer is not only 
indebted to pandits, but also to nuns in various Apasara, 
to officiants in beautiful Jaina temples, to wandering 
monks, happy-go-lucky Jaina schoolboys and thoughtful 
students, as well as to grave Jaina merchants and their 
delightful wives. Nearly all these informants spoke Gujarat!, 


but the technical words they used in discussing their 
faith were sometimes of Gujarat!, sometimes of Magadhi 
and sometimes of Sanskrit origin. This ' use ', which 
seems to be one of the idioms of Jainism, the writer has 
tried to reproduce by transhterating the actual words 
employed, beheving that thus her work would retain more 
of the character of field-study and have less of the odour 
of midnight oil than if she had standardized and sanskritized 
all the terms. 

But whatever language they spoke, every one whom the 
writer asked showed the same readiness to help ; indeed 
almost every fact recorded in this book owes its presence 
there to the courtesy of some Jaina friend, and every page 
seems to the writer water-marked with some one's kindness. 
The difficulty of the task has sometimes seemed over- 
whelming ; but never perhaps does the magnificent old 
motto Dominus illuminatio mea prove a greater inspiration 
than when one is attempting sympathetically to decipher 
an alien creed ; and to no one does it, together with its 
sister-saying Magna est Veritas et praevalebit, ring a happier 
carillon of hope than to the foreign missionary. 

6"/. Patrick's Day, 191 5. 


To the general public Jainism is little more than a mere 
name, and even students of the Religions of India have 
often failed to give it the attention it well may claim. True, 
out of India's 315 miUions less than one million and a 
quarter (1,248,162) to-day profess the Jaina faith, and the 
last twenty years have witnessed a steady decrease in the 
number of its adherents ; but, its numerical weakness 
notwithstanding, Jainism can make its own distinct appeal 
for a more informed acquaintance with its special tenets. 
If Professor Hopkins is right, and we believe he is, in 
affirming that Jainism ' represents a theological mean 
between Brahmanism and Buddhism ',^ then assuredly 
a serious study of Jainism becomes incumbent on all who 
may seek to understand aright either the early Brahmanic 
ritual or the trenchant and for long effective Buddhist 
protest which that elaborate ritual evoked. 

In that sixth century before Christ which in so many 
countries witnessed an earnest aspiration after higher 
truths and nobler lives, the country of Bihar was strangely 
agitated by the teachings of not a few bold reformers, men 
then styled heretics. Mahavira, Buddha, Gosala, Jamali, 
all founded sects of their own, and others there were who 
vied with these either in propounding rival heresies or in 
establishing separate monastic organizations. Yet of all 
these ancient Orders one only has survived in India down 
to the present day, and that one is the Jainism founded 
whether by Mahavira himself or by his reputed master 

^ E. W. Hopkins, The Relis^ions of India, p. 283. 


Parsvanatha. It were surely at once an interesting and an 
instructive study to search out the causes that enabled 
Jainism thus to weather the storms that in India wrecked 
so many of the other faiths. Quietly, unobtrusively, 
Jainism has held on the even tenor of its way : but why ? 
Here, for the student of Comparative Rehgion, lies a 
fascinating problem. Dr. Hoernle's discussion of this 
subject in his Presidential Address of 1898 before the 
Asiatic Society of Bengal was singularly luminous, empha- 
sizing as it did the place accorded from the very first to the 
lay adherent as an integral part of the Jaina organization. 
In the Buddhist Order, on the other hand, the lay element 
received no formal recognition whatsoever. Lacking thus 
any ' bond with the broad strata of the secular life of the 
people ', Buddhism, under the fierce assault on its monastic 
settlements made by the Moslems of the twelfth and 
thirteenth centuries, proved incompetent to maintain itself 
and simply disappeared from the land. In contrast there- 
with, Jainism, less enterprising but more speculative than 
Buddhism, and lacking the active missionary spirit that 
in early times dominated the latter, has been content to 
spend a quiet life within comparatively narrow borders, 
and can show to-day in Western and Southern India not 
only prosperous monastic establishments but also lay 
communities, small perhaps, yet wealthy and influential. 
Adopting the terms of present-day ecclesiastical discussion, 
one may say the survival of the Jainas has been due in large 
measure to their having opened the doors of the Synod of 
their Church to lay representation. 

Yet another reason that well may attract to the study 
of Jainism lies in the fact that a singular interest attaches 
to its doctrines and its history. Its first home was near 
Benares, and thus lay to the east of that ' holy land ' which 
was the seat of the Vedic cult. But with the process of 
years it has migrated westwards and northwards, with the 
remarkable consequence that to-day ' there are no Jainas 


among the indigenous inhabitants of Bengal, which includes 
Bihar, where the religion had its origin, and Orissa, where 
the caves of Udayagiri and Khandagiri bear witness to its 
popularity in the early centuries of our era '.^ While to the 
north in Mathura, Delhi, Jaipur, and Ajmer, it is still fairly 
well represented, the chief seats of Jaina influence in 
modern times are the cities and trading marts of Western 
India. The mercantile communities of Gujarat and Marwar 
owe not a little of their prosperity to Jaina enterprise, and 
the Order is said to be largely recruited from the cultivators 
in the Carnatic district of Belgaum. To trace through the 
centuries this westward trend of Jainism and to investigate 
its causes were surely a subject worthy of engaging the 
attention of students of the Indian religions. 

Again, in its origin, Jainism was a protest on the part of 
the Ksatriyas, or warrior caste, against the exclusiveness 
of priests who desired to limit entry into the mendicant 
stage [Sannydsin Asrama) to persons of the Brahman caste 
alone. As Professor Hopkins graphically puts it, ' The 
Kings of the East were impatient of the Western Church : 
they were pleased to throw it over. The leaders in the 
"reformation" were the younger sons of noble blood . . . 
they were princes and had royalty to back them.' ^ But 
time brings its revenges, and this Jaina rehgion, cradled in 
the aristocracy of a military caste, was destined to become 
the chief exponent of a grotesque exaggeration of the 
principle of ahiiksd, or ' non-injury ' to any living being. 
The explanation of a change so radical cannot but prove 
of the deepest interest. 

Yet once again Jainism, with its explicit belief in a 
plurality of eternal spirits, every material entity having 
its own individual spirit, jlvdtmd, no less expressly dis- 
believes in the Supreme Spirit, the Paramdtmd. Jainism is 
definitely atheistic, if by atheism we mean the denial of 

^ Imperial Gazetteer of India (New Edition), i. 417. 
2 E. W. Hopkins, op. cit., p. 282. 


a divine creative spirit. In the philosophy of the Jainas 
no place is reserved for God. Indeed it seems probable 
that the first Jainas did not acknowledge gods at all. 
They early taught that one should not say ' God rains ', but 
just ' the cloud rains '. Thus one of their fundamental 
principles would seem to have been that there is no power 
higher than man. This principle, however, it is instructive 
to note, soon proved unworkable, and it has long since been 
practically abandoned. The Jainas do worship, yet are the 
objects of their worship neither God nor gods. Denying 
God, they worship man, to wit, the Venerable {Arhat), the 
Conqueror {Jina), the Founder of the (four) Orders [Tlrthan- 
kara). Now this revolt from God- worship, and the 
acceptance in its stead of man-worship, this starthng 
anticipation of Positivism, may well claim one's attention, 
if only as affording some idea of the possibihties of intel- 
lectual frailty. 

Within the last thirty years a small band of scholars, 
pre-eminent amongst whom are the late Hofrath Professor 
Biihler, Professor Jacobi, and Dr. Hoernle, have effected 
a great advance in our knowledge of Jainism. For long 
it had been thought that Jainism was but a sub-sect of 
Buddhism, but, largely as a consequence of the researches 
of the Orientalists just mentioned, that opinion has been 
finally relinquished, and Jainism is now admitted to be 
one of the most ancient monastic organizations of India. So 
far from being merely a modern variation of Buddhism, 
Jainism is the older of the two heresies, and it is almost 
certain that Mahavira, though a contemporary of Buddha, 
predeceased him by some fifty years. ^ A flood of light has 
been shed on the origin of Jainism, on its relations both to 
Brahmanism and to Buddhism, on the sects of the Jainas, 

^ As now generally accepted, the dates are 

for Mahavira, 599-527 B.C. 

and for Buddha, 557-477 B.C. 
If these dates be correct, then Mahavira and Buddha were for thirty 
years contemporaries. 


the ' white-clad ' and the ' space-clad ' votaries and the 
non-idolatrous Sthanakavasis, on the formation of the 
Jaina Siddhanta or Canon, and on the Councils of Patali- 
putra and Vallabhi that legislated regarding the Jaina 
Scriptures : also the highest linguistic scholarship has been 
brought to bear upon translations of a few of the Sacred 
Books of the Jainas. For all this good work accomplished, 
students of Jainism cannot be too grateful. But one whole 
department of this large subject still awaits elucidation. 
One can learn much concerning early Jainism and of its 
development in mediaeval times : but modern Jainism, its 
present-day practices and its present-day teachings, these 
still remain very much a terra incognita. Blihler's Indian 
Sect of the Jainas and an article by Dr. Burgess on the 
Jaina Temple Ritual tell us something, but very much 
remains untold. 

And just here a necessary caution should be given. It 
is not always safe to assume that the meaning a technical 
term bore in early times remains the same in the 
Jainism of to-day. For instance, the term Tirtha-kara, 
or Tlrthankara, would seem originally to have denoted 
the man who has ' made the passage ' across the ocean 
of worldly illusion {samsdra), who has reached that 
further shore where he is, and will for ever be, free from 
action and desire : thus, the man who has attained unto 
a state of utter and absolute quiescence, and has entered 
into a rest that knows no change nor ending, a passionless 
and ineffable peace. But no Jaina whom I have ever 
consulted has assigned this meaning to the word Tlrthan- 
kara. Widely different is the explanation given me by 
those whom I have asked, and they all agree. A Tlrthan- 
kara, they say, is one who has ' made ', has founded, the 
four ' tirthas '. But what then is a tirtha } Tirtha, 
derived from the root tr^ ' to save ', is, they affirm, a technical 
term indicating ' the means of salvation ', the means par 
excellence ; and the caturvidha sahgha, or that ' fourfold 


Communion ' within which all who take refuge find ultimate 
salvation, consists of the four tirthas, or * orders ', namely, 
those of (i) sadhu or monk, (2) sadhvi or nun, (3) sravaka 
or lay-brother, and (4) sravika or lay-sister. These four 
tirthas are thus, as it were, four boats that will infallibly 
carry the passengers they bear unto the desired haven of 
deliverance [moksa). Hence the Tirthankara is one who 
is the Founder (with a very large F) of the four ' orders ' that 
collectively constitute the Communion or Saiigha. 

Another illustration of a term whose meaning may have 
changed with time is Nirvana. Originally the prefix nir, or 
nis, was held to be intensive, and hence nirvana, from the 
root vd, * to blow ', came to mean * blown out, extinguished '. 
Thus, according to the early Jainas, Nirvana is that state 
in which the energy of past actions {karma) has become 
extinguished, and henceforward the spirit {jivdtma), though 
still existent as an individual spirit, escapes re-embodiment, 
and remains for ever free from new births and deaths. But 
nowadays some Jainas at least regard the prefix nir as 
a mere negative, and thus with them Nirvana implies that 
state in which ' not a breath ' reaches the emancipated one. 
The underlying conception is that of a constant steady 
flame with ' never a breath ' to make even the slightest 
tremulous quiver. 

Evidently, then, the study of the Jainism of the past, 
helpful though it be, does not of itself alone suffice to 
acquaint one accurately with the current phases of that 
faith, and accordingly some account, more or less detailed, 
of modern Jainism becomes a distinct desideratum. It is 
in the hope of supplying this felt need that Dr. Margaret 
Stevenson has prepared the present volume. She has 
named it ' The Heart of Jainism ', and aptly so, for in the 
writing of it she has been careful to indicate not so much 
the causes that contributed to the origin and development 
of that religion as the conditions that now obtain in it, and 
its present-day observances. The life-blood that is coursing 


through its veins and is invigorating it, this she seeks to 
gauge. She would fain register, and not unsympathetically, 
its pulse-beats and its heart-throbs. For the execution of 
this self-imposed task Mrs. Stevenson has special qualifica- 
tions. More than eight years ago, on her arrival as a bride 
in Ahmadabad, she and her husband visited with me the 
large Jaina temple erected in this city so recently as 1848, 
through the munificence of Seth Hatthisirhha. We were 
on that occasion conducted past the enclosing cloisters 
(bhamati) with their fifty-two small shrines to the inner 
court, and then admitted to the temple itself, passing 
through first the open porch [mandapa) and next the hall 
of assembly [sahhd mandapa)^ till we stood on the very 
threshold of the adytum {gabhdro), and there we witnessed 
the ceremonial waving of lights (draft). The pathos of 
this service and its sadness made a deep impression, and 
from that evening Mrs. Stevenson has been a keen and 
constant student of Jainism. Her knowledge of the 
Gujarat! language has enabled her to acquire much 
information at first hand both from the Jaina pandits who 
have for years assisted her in her research-work, and from 
the vernacular text-books which have of late been issuing 
from the local printing-presses. Her kindly sympathies 
have won her many friends in the Jaina community, and 
have even procured her a welcome entree into the seclusion 
of a Jaina nunnery. Time and again she has been present 
by invitation at Jaina functions seldom witnessed by any 
foreigner. Her long residence in Kathiawad has afforded 
her opportunities for repeated visits to those marvellous 
clusters of stately temples that crown the holy hills of 
Girnar and Abu and Satrufijaya. In her admirable Notes 
on Modern jfainism, severely simple notes published five 
years ago, Mrs. Stevenson gave us a first instalment of the 
rich fruits of her patient research, but since then she has 
been able to glean a more abundant harvest. The contri- 
bution that she now offers to the public will prove simply 



invaluable to the Christian missionary and to the student 
of the religions of India, but we further bespeak for it 
a hearty welcome from all who delight in fine scholarship 
and literary grace. 


Stevenson College, 




The ideal of Indian thought death, not life—Attraction of 
asceticism— Revolt against Brahman exclusiveness— Rise of 
Buddhist and Jaina orders. 


The sixth century — Mahavlra- Order of Parsvanatha — 
Sudharma and his successors — The great famine and conse- 
quent migration under Bhadrabahu to Mysore — Sthulabhadra 
and the Council of Pataliputra — The Canon of Scriptures— The 
nudity question — Idolatry — Suhastin — Disruption into Svetam- 
bara and Digambara sects— Council of Vallabhi — The Scrip- 
tures—Zenith of Jainism — Decline under Mohammedan and 
Saiva persecution — Rise of SthanakavasI sect — Modern con- 



Birthplace — The fourteen dreams — Birth — Childhood and 
legends — Initiation — Parsvanatha's Order — Legends of Maha- 
vira's asceticism — Enlightenment — Preaching — Death — Pre- 
vious incarnations. 



Parsvanatha — The Four Vows of Parsvanatha — The twenty- 
two earlier Tirthankara : — Risabhadeva — Ajitanatha — Sam- 
bhavanatha — Abhinandana — SumatinatKa — -Padmaprabhu — 
Suparsvanatha — Candraprabhu— Suvidhinatha — Sitalanatha — 
Sreyamsanatha — Vasupujya — Vimalanatha — Anantanatha — 
Dharmanatha — Santmatha — Kunthunatha — Aranatha — Malli- 
natha — Munisuvrata — Naminatha — Neminatha — The Fol- 
lowers of Mahavlra : — Gosala — Gautama Indrabhuti — Sermon 
by Mahavlra — Sudharma. 





The four Tirtha : — Monks — Nuns — Laymen — Lay women — 
The great leaders: — Jambu SvamI — Prabhava — Sayambhava — 
Bhadrabahu— Sthulabhadra — The six Srutakevali — The Dasa- 
purvl — The early Schisms :— Jamilll's — Gosala's — Avyakta, 
KsanikavadI, and Ganga schisms— Mahagiri — Samprati — 
Suhastin — Susthitasuri — Indradinna — Kalikacarya — Siddha- 
sena Divakara — VajrasvamI — Vajrasena — Digambara schism 
— Differences between Svetambara and Digambara — Hari- 
bhadra Suri — Siddhasuri — Silagunasuri — Bappabhattlsuri — 
Sllilngacarya — Abhayadevasuri — Hemacarya — Epigraphic 
Corroboration — The later sects — Non-idolatrous sects : Lonka • 
— Sthanakavasl. 



Origin of Jaina ideas — The Sankhya and Vedanta schools — 
The SaptabhangI Naya. 



i. JIVA (94) : Prana — Divisions of Jiva : into Siddha and 
Saiiisari — Male, Female and Neuter — Hell-beings, Animals, 
Human beings and Gods — Ekendriya, Be-indriya, Tri-indriya, 
Corendriya and Pancendriya — Prithvlkaya, Apakaya, Teukaya, 
Vayukaya, Vanaspatikaya and Trasakaya — Two artificial 
divisions — Lesya division — Paryfipti division. 

ii. AJIVA (106): Arupl : (Dharmastikaya — Adharmastikaya 
— Akasastikaya — Kala) — Rupl : (Pudgal.astikaya). 

iii. MERIT (no) : Nine kinds (giving food, drink, clothes, 
lodging and bed ; good wishes, kind acts, kind words and 
reverence) — Forty-two ways of enjoying the fruit of Merit. 

iv, SIN (116): Eighteen kinds (killing, untruth, stinginess, 
impurity, acquisitiveness, anger, pride, deceit, greed, attach- 
ment, hatred, quarrelsomeness, slander, tale-bearing, criticism, 
lack of self-control, hypocrisy, false faith) — Eighty-two results 
of Sin. 

v. ASRAVA (Channels of Karma) (139): Seventeen major 
and twenty-five minor. 

vi. SAMVARA (Impeding of Karma) (144) : Five points of 



good behaviour (Samiti) — Control of mind, speech and body 
(Gupti) — Twenty-two ways of enduring hardship (Parlsaha) — 
Ten duties of Ascetics — Five Rules of Conduct (Caritra)— 
Twelve important Reflections (Bhavana). 

vii. BONDAGE to Karma (i6i) : Four kinds. 

viii. DESTRUCTION of Karma (163) : Six Exterior Aus- 
terities — Six Interior Austerities. 

ix. MOKSA (169) : the Siddha— Final Bliss. 



Four Sources of Karma — Nine ways of arresting Karma — 
Eight kinds of Karma — their arrangement — Ghatin and Aghatin 
— Three tenses of Karma — Fourteen steps to Liberation. 



Babyhood and birth-ceremonies — Betrothal and marriage 
ceremonies — The first child — Death and funeral ceremonies. 



- The Twelve Lay Vows : Five Anuvrata (against killing, 
falsehood, dishonesty, unchastity and covetousness) — Three 
Strengthening Vows (limiting travel and use of possessions 
and guarding against abuses) — Four Vows of Religious Ob- 
servances — How the vows are taken — Santharo (Religious 
suicide) — The eleven Pratima — The perfect gentleman. 



Initiation — Daily duties — Begging — Confession — Leisure — 
Study — Nuns — Goraji — The Five Great Vows : (Non-killing 
— Truth — Honesty — Chastity — Detachment) — No meals after 
sundown — The ideal monk. 



The Five Great Ones : (Sadhu — Upadhyaya — Acarya — Tir- 
thankara — Siddha) — Rules by which even non-Jaina may reach 
Moksa— The Three Jewels — The Three Evil Darts. 





Temple worship (Digambara and Svetambara) — Private wor- 
ship — Jaina holy days — Pajjusana — Samvatsarl — Divali — 
Full-moon fasts — Dusting day — the Eleventh — Saint-wheel 
worship — Days of Abstinence — Consecration of an idol — 
Sravana Belgola festival — Oh — Hindu festivals — Sraddha — 
Superstitions: Evil eye — Demons and ghosts— Plague and 
Small-pox — Childless women. 



Gods in Hell and Patala — Gods in Heaven — Divisions of 
time : AvasarpinI and Utsarpinl — The twenty-four Tirthan- 
kara to come. 



Wooden buildings — Stupa — Cave-temples — The golden age 
of architecture — The shadow of Islam — Modern architecture — 
Architecture of the South — Jaina writers — Hemacandra — 
Modern literature. 



Attraction of Christ for the Jaina — Dissatisfaction with in- 
adequate ideals — The problem of pain — Mahavira and Christ 
— The lack of Jainism — No Supreme God — No forgiveness — 
No prayer- — No brotherhood of man — Difference in ideas of 
Heaven — Karma and Transmigration — Ahiiiisa and service — 
Ethics — Personality and Life — The empty Throne. 


I. Analysis of the Nine Categories 299 

II. The Twenty-four Tirthahkara of the Present Age . .312 

INDEX 314 


Barodia, U. D., History and Lite^'ature ofjamisfn, Bombay, 1909. 
Benarsi Dass, Lala, Lecture on Jainisni^ Agra, 1902. 

Bhandarkar, R. G., Report on the Search for Sanskrit Manuscripts in 

the Bombay Presidency duri7tg the year 188^-4, Bombay, 1887. 
Bombay Gazetteer, vol. ix, part I. 

Biihler, J. G., On the Indian Sect of the Jai7tas (translated and edited 
with an outline of Jaina mythology by J. Burgess), London, 1903. 

Ueber das Leben des Jaifia-Monches Heinacha7idra, Vienna, 1889. 

Colebrooke, H. T., Miscella^ieous Essays, vol. ii, London, 1873. 

Crooke, W., Article on Indiaft Religions in the Imperial Gazetteer of 
India, vol. i, Oxford, 1909. 

De Milloue, Essai sur la religion des fains, Le Museon, Louvain, 1884. 

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics (E.R.E.) : articles on Jaina 

Girndra Mdhdtinya (in Gujarati). 

Guerinot, A. A., Essai de bibliographic jaitia, Paris, 1906. 

Hoernle, A. F. R., Annual Address, Asiatic Society of Bengal (A.S.B.), 
Calcutta, 1898. 

Uvdsagadasdo, Calcutta, 1890. 

Hopkins, E. W., The Religions of India, Boston, 1895. 

Jacobi, H., Sacred Books of the East (S.B.E.), vols, xxii and xlv. 

The Metaphysics and Ethics of the fainas (Transactions of the 

Congress for the History of Religion), Oxford, 1908. 

Edition of Hemacandi-a's Parisista Parvan (Bibl. Ind.), Calcutta, 


faina Dha7'nia Pravesa Pothi Series, Ahmadabad, 1907 (in Gujarati). 

Jaini, Manak Chand,Z2/^ of Mahdvi7'a, Allahabad, 1908. 

Jhaveri, J. L., First Principles of fai7ia Philosophy, Bombay, 191 2. 

Latthe, A. B., An Introductio7i to fai7iis77i, Bombay, 1905. 

* Seeker ', Notes on the Stha7iakivasi or the non- Idolatrous Shweta77dnxr 
fains, India, 191 1. 

Shah, Popatlal K., Jai7ia Dhar77ia Ni7'upa7ia (in Gujarati). 


Smith, Vincent A., The Early Hist oiy of hidia (third edition), Oxford, 

Stevenson, Rev. J., Nava Tatva, London, 1848. 
Stevenson, Mrs. Sinclair, Notes o?i Mode?Ji /(Wiisni, Oxford, 1910. 

Weber, A., Saci'ed Literature of the Jai?ias (tr.), Indian Antiquary 
(I. A.), xvii(i888)-xxi (1892). 

Jaina Architecture and Archaeology. 

Biihler, J. G. Specimens of Jai?ia Sculptures ft'ovi Mathurd, Epi- 
graphia Indica, i (1892) and ii (1894). 

Burgess, J., Dii^ambara Jai7ia Ico?iograf)Jiy, I. A., xxxii (1903). 

Fergusson, J., History of India?i afid Eastern Architecture (new 
edition), London, 1910. 

Fergusson, J., and J, Burgess, Cave l^einples, London, 1880. 

Guerinot, A. A., Repertoire d'epigi-aphie jaina, Paris, 1908. 

Smith, \^incent A., A History of Fi7ie Art in India and Ceyton, 
Oxford, 191 1. 



The desire of India is to be freed from the cycle of re- 
births, and the dread of India is reincarnation. The rest that 
most of the spiritual seek through their faith is a state of 
profound and deathlike trance, in which all their powers 
shall have ceased to move or live, and from which they shall 
never again be awakened to undergo rebirth in this toil- 
some and troubled world. 

If, therefore, we would try reverently and sympatheti- 
cally to grasp the inner meaning of an Indian faith, we 
must put aside all thought of the perfectly developed per- 
sonality which is our ideal, and of the joy and zest that come 
from progress made and powers exercised, and, turning our 
thoughts backwards, face for a while another goal, in which 
death, not life, is the prize, cessation not development 
the ideal. 

In Indian religions as in ours asceticism has its place, but 
we must remember the different connotation which that 
word bears to Indian minds. To the Christian, asceticism 
is only a means to an end, the eager, glad decision of the 
athlete to refuse the lower, if it clash with the higher, good. 
Far different is the Indian ideal, for in India asceticism 
has been born of fear, fear of future rebirths no less than of 
present ills. To Indian thinkers asceticism is the beginning 
in this life of the cessation they crave, and their hope is that 
thus one by one their powers and talents, with all that 
leads to and results from action, may drop off, burnt away 
in the glow of austerity, till only a stump of character 
remains, from which the soul may easily free itself. The 
unused gifts shrivel up the quicker if their owner be a pro- 
fessed ascetic, for the more limited the sympathies and the 



fewer sides of life a mortal touches, the better. All that 
makes for colour and vividness and joy in life must be 
sacrificed, and if through voluntary starvation life itself 
should go, the less risk is there of doing those actions which 
involve reincarnation. 

To men believing thus, the life of the professed ascetic 
offered irresistible attractions. As such they were cut off 
from wife and child, and from all the labours and keen joys 
and sorrows these entail ; clothing, food, or shelter need 
not claim their thought or work ; houseless and effortless 
they might wander at will through a land of hospitality 
and sunshine. 

To understand the creeds of India one must, of course, 
remember its climate : over a large part -of the country, 
except during the rainy season, when ascetics suspend their 
wanderings, it is always fine : no drenching rain and (in the 
greater part of India) no biting frost compel men to provide 
themselves w^th houses or fires. The intense heat dis- 
courages exertion and robs men of energy, till rest seems 
the greatest bliss and meditation an alluring duty. And 
then, as we know only too well, the influence of the climate 
breeds pessimism eventually in the blithest European or 
Indian. In the east death and disease come with such 
tragic swiftness, and famine and pestilence with such 
horrifying frequency, that the fewer hostages one has given 
to fortune, the happier is one's lot.^ To the poor and un- 
aided in ancient India justice was unknown and life and 
property but ill secured, just as we may see in many native 
states to this day. All these influences, creed, climate, 
pessimism and injustice, pressed men more and more 
towards the pathway of the professed ascetic's life ; but 
the door of this pathway was barred more and more firmly 
as time went on to every qualification but that of birth. 

^ ' Happy are we, happy live we who call nothing our own ; when 
Mithila is on fire, nothing is burnt that belongs to me.' Uttarddhya- 
yafiii, S. B. E., xlv, p. 37. 


Unless a man had been born a Brahman,^ he must remain 
in all the hurry, sorrow and discontent of the world, until his 
life's end ; but to a Brahman the way of escape was always 
open ; he must pass through the four Asrama (or stages), 
and having been successively a student, a householder, 
and a hermit, spend the remaining years of his life as a 
wandering mendicant. 

There must have been constant revolts against the ex- 
clusiveness that so selfishly barred the door to other castes, 
and echoes more or less clear of such revolts have come 
down to us, but only two were really permanent — the 
revolt of the Buddhists and the revolt of the Jaina. The 
Buddhists are scarcely found any longer in India proper, 
but the Jaina exist as an influential and wealthy community 
of laymen who support a large body of ascetics, the only 
example of the early mediaeval monastic orders of India 
which has survived to our day. 

Both Buddhist and Jaina orders arose about the same 
time, the sixth century B.C., a period when the constant 
wars between various little kingdoms must have made the 
lot of the common people hideous with suffering and oppres- 
sion ; and a man might well have longed to escape from all 
fear of rebirth into such a sorrowful world, and have hoped, 
by renouncing everything that could be taken from him, 
and by voluntarily stripping himself of all possessions and all 
emotions, to evade the avaricious fingers of king or fortune.^ 

About this time, too, a wave of religious feeling was making 
itself felt in various parts of the world, and India has always 
been peculiarly susceptible to psychic emotions. 

^ Some European scholars doubt this, but all the Jaina the writer 
has met believe it most strongly ; and the aim of this book throughout 
is to present the Jaina point of view and to reflect current Jaina 

^ ' At one time, his manifold savings are a large treasure. Then at 
another time, his heirs divide it, or those who are without a living 
steal it, or the king takes it away, or it is ruined in some wayor other, 
or it is consumed by the conflagration of the house.' Acardhga 
Sutra, S, B. £"., xxii, p. 20. 

B 2 


The fact of being debarred from entering the ascetic life 
through the recognized stages and of being treated as in 
every way inferior was naturally most keenly felt by those 
in the caste next below the Brahmans, the clever, critical 
Ksatriya,^ and it is from the ranks of these that the Jaina 
as well as the Buddhist reformers sprang. 

Sacrifice was another occasion of quarrelling between the 
two castes. The Ksatriya claimed that in old days they 
had been allowed to take part with the Brahmans in the 
sacrifices from which they were now shut out ; but the 
whole feeling about sacrifice was altering. As the Aryan 
invaders settled down in India, they grafted on to their 
original faith much from the darker creeds belonging to the 
lands and people they conquered, and gradually lost the 
child-like joy of the earlier Vedic times. The faith of the 
woodland peoples inspired them with the idea that all 
things — animals, insects, leaves and clods — were possessed 
of souls ; and this, together with the growing weight of 
their belief in transmigration, gave them a shrinking horror 
of taking life in any form, whether in sacrifice^ or sport, 
lest the blood of the slain should chain them still more 
firmly to the wheel of rebirth. So they came to dislike 
both the creed and the pretensions of their own priests, 
and the times were indeed ripe for revolt. 

The Brahmans declared that their supremacy and their 
sacrifices were based on the Vedas, so the authority of the 
Vedas was denied by the new thinkers. The Brahmans 
claimed that the four castes had been created from the 
mouth, arms, thighs and feet of the Creator, thus ensuring 
the supremacy of that caste which had issued from the 

^ It seems probable that the atheistic (anti-Brahmanic) system of 
philosophy — the Sankhya — also arose amongst the Ksatriya. Jaina 
philosophy, as we shall see later, has much in common with this. 

2 ' The binding of animals (to the sacrificial pole), all the Vedas, 
and sacrifices, being causes of sin, cannot save the sinner ; for his 
works (or Karman) are very powerful.' Uttaradhyayana, S. B. £"., 
xlv, p. 140. 



highest portion, i. e. the Brahmans who came from the 
god's mouth. So the reformers proceeded to deny the exis- 
tence of a creator, feeling that, if that creator had existed, 
not only would he be responsible for the superiority of 
the Brahmans but also for all the sorrows that darkened 

From the birth-story of their great founder one school of 
reformers — the Jaina — proved that it was a greater honour 
to be born of a Ksatriya than of a Brahman mother. 
Indeed all through the Jaina sacred books one comes across 
traces of this antagonism to Brahmans and to Brahmanic 
practices such as bathing,^ divination,^ &c., and one whole 
chapter, ' The True Sacrifice ',^ is directly written against 

The Brahmanic ascetic had to pass through four stages, 
but once the door of asceticism was forced open by rebels 
like the Jaina, it was opened as widely as possible, and the 
postulant was allowed to leap the intervening stages and 
become a wandering mendicant at once, if he so willed. 

Having declared against birth exclusiveness, the Jaina 
were bound to find some other hall-mark of worth, and for 
this purpose they laid stress on karma, A man's karma* — 
his actions — not his caste, they declared, was of supreme im- 
portance, but from this position they have since backslidden, 
as they themselves lament, and it rests with the Jaina of 
to-day to free themselves from the shackles of caste which 
they have allowed to rebind them, and once more to restate 
this fundamental tenet of their creed. 

It must always be remembered that Jainism, though 
a rebellious daughter, is none the less a daughter of Brah- 
manism, many of whose leading beliefs are still held by the 

^ Suti'akritahga^ S. B. E., xlv, p. 294. 

^ Ibid., p. 366. 

^ Uttaradhyayana^ S.B. E., xlv, p. 136 ff. 

* ' By one's ^actions one becomes a Brahmana or a Kshattriya or 
a Vaisya or a Sudra . . . him who is exempt from all Karman we call 
a_ Brahmana.' Uttarddhyaya7ia^ S.B.E., xlv, p. 1 40. See also 
Acdraiiga Siltra^ S. B.E,, xxii, p. 45. 


Jaina, while much of their worship exactly resembles Hindu 
worship, and their domestic chaplains, though not their 
temple officiants, are still Brahmans ; in fact both faiths 
must be studied if Jainism is to be understood. One 
might even suggest that one of the easiest approaches to 
the study of the boundless creed of Hinduism would be 
through the study of its more clearly defined and less 
nebulous offspring, Jainism. 



Early Indian history as yet resembles those maps of our 
grandfathers in which 

Geographers for lack of towns 
Drew elephants on pathless downs. 

The genius of the people of India does not lie in historical 
research : to them metaphysical thought is the chief end 
of man, and they are content to leave to Western scholars 
the task of filling in the large gaps of unexplored country 
in their history. It is the misfortune of Jainism that so 
much of its life-story falls within these unexplored tracts 
of time, and, though the Jaina have kept historical records* 
of their own, it is very difficult to correlate these records 
with known facts in the world's history. 

Modern research seems to have proved that this great 
monastic fraternity arose at the end of the sixth centuryB.c, 
and one of its great claims to interest lies in the fact that 
enshrined in its rules and precepts it has, like some slow 
moving glacier, brought down to this materialistic century 
the thoughts of a time when men, ignoring the present, 
were ready to stake their all on a future life. Originating 
amongst a people whose trade was war, it has laid greater 
emphasis on the duty of mercy and the evils of killing than 
any sect save the Friends ; its founder was an aristocrat, 
but it has met with greatest acceptance amongst the middle 
classes ; and though an unworldly faith, whose highest 
precept it is to discard all wealth as dross, it has nevertheless 
won its adherents from a class famed throughout India 
for their love of gain and their reluctance to part with 


money, and induced these close-fisted merchants to support 
out of their largesse a large body of religious mendicants. 
Indeed it would be impossible to imagine any creed or rule 
of conduct which, prima facie, would seem so little likely to 
appeal to a constituency of cautious, middle-class bankers 
and shopkeepers. Yet even to-day Jaina men and women 
are renouncing everything for the sake of an idea with 
a heroism that has all the romance of the early Rajput days, 
when kings and nobles vied with one another to enter the 
order ; and to this wealth of devotion, this still surviving 
power of renunciation, the religion of the Cross must 
eventually make a victorious appeal. 

It may make for clearness to state quite baldly the few 
facts which we do know about Jaina history, taking, as it 
were, a bird's-eye glance over it from a European stand- 
point, before we look at it from the Jaina point of view. 

Mahavira, the great hero of the Jaina, was born the 
second son of a Ksatriya chieftain, in Magadha (the modern 
Bihar), then the most powerful state in India. According 
to Jaina tradition, he was born in 599 and died in 527 b. c.^ 
Many modern scholars think these dates are somewhat too 
early, and are inclined to place his death about the begin- 
ning of the fifth century, but absolute certainty is not yet 
attainable. When he was thirty years of age, he entered 
a previously established order, that of Parsvanatha, but 
left it after twelve months and spent the following eleven 
years in preaching his Law of Renunciation, albeit with 
little acceptance. Then came the high tide of success, 
and during the last thirty years of his life men and women 
from the lands east of ' the middle country ' crowded into 
his order. His adherents were drawn chiefly from the 
Ksatriya aristocracy, with whom he was connected through 
his mother by ties of kinship. The great ascetic pro- 
ceeded to organize all his followers into a regular com- 
munity containing lay as well as monastic members of 

^ Other traditions give 545 and 467. 


both sexes; and at his death it contained more than 14,000 

Under Mahavlra's influence members of two differing 
opinions had joined the order, those who held with the 
great leader that the complete abandonment of possessions 
involved the giving up of all clothing, and also members 
of another and earlier order, that of Parsvanatha, who 
felt that some covering was a necessity and stopped short 
of this extreme of Renunciation. For long after the 
founder's death the sections cohered together, and the 
genius of Mahavira in adapting his order to the need of 
the times was shown in the numbers of harassed men 
and women who crowded into it, finding in the renuncia- 
tion of all things — property, affections and emotions — the 
surest refuge from the trials and changes of this mortal life. 

The Jaina sometimes speak of Mahavira's order as a pro- 
test against caste exclusiveness as such, but some European 
scholars hold that it was rather a protest of Ksatriya 
against Brahman ; and the present practices of the Jaina 
community would seem to uphold this view, for the modern 
Jaina is as fast bound as his Hindu brother in the iron 
fetters of caste. 

But, whatever its origin may have been, the order after the 
death of Mahavira continued to flourish under the rule of the 
great ascetic's disciple, Sudharma, and his successors, as 
we shall learn from our study of Jaina legends and history. 

Unlike Buddhism, Jainism has never spread beyond the 
borders of India. A religion which, by its very nature, is 
one of intense individualism, feels little responsibility for 
another's soul and spends its energy on saving itself, is not 
likely to spread rapidly or far ; yet, as we shall see, Jainism 
did gradually extend over the whole of India. 

In particular it is plain that it found its way into Mysore 
and the Tamil country at a very early date. We shall study 
later the literary and artistic results of the predominance 
of this religion in the south during the early centuries 


of the Christian era. The following tradition is given by 
Jaina authorities as the reason for this early transplanting 
of the faith to such a distance. There is no conclusive 
evidence of the truth of the narrative, and some modern 
scholars think it a pure invention ; yet it links itself so 
closely and naturally to later facts, that it is safer to say 
that it is probably, though not certainly, historic. 

Some two centuries after Mahavira's death, according 
to this story, a terrible famine visited Magadha, which had 
been the scene of his labours. Year after year the monsoon, 
on which the fertility of the land depends, failed, until at 
length all the accumulated stores of grain were consumed, 
and it became apparent that the country had no longer any 
superfluity, out of which to provide for a large body of 
mendicants. Accordingly half the community, under the 
leadership of Bhadrabahu, moved off towards the south ' 
and settled in Mysore ; and as the famine lasted for twelve 
years, they were able to establish their faith in all that 
region. We are also told that the emigrants were accom- 
panied to Mysore by Candragupta, the first Emperor of 
India, and founder of the Maurya Dynasty, whom the Jaina 
claim as a co-religionist. They add that he committed 
rehgious suicide by self-starvation at Sravana Belgola. If 
the tradition is trustworthy, the date of the migration 
must be placed c. 298 or 296 b.c, for Bindusara succeeded 
Candragupta about that time. 

This period is perhaps the most important in Jaina 
history ; for not only did it lead to the establishment of 
Jainism in the south, but it is also the time of the fixing 
of the earliest canon of Jaina scripture. 

Tradition says that all the monks did not migrate to the 
south ; some, under the leadership of Sthulabhadra, pre- 
ferred to cling at any risk to the hallowed scenes of their 
Holy Land. It was perhaps easier for the minority to carry 
things through than it would have been for the whole un- 
wieldy body ; or it may have been that the death of many 


of their members through famine warned their leaders on 
how precarious a footing the memoriter knowledge of their 
sacred books stood. However this may be, Sthulabhadra 
summoned a council of monks early in the third century 
B.C. at Pataliputra, the modern Patna, a place historic in 
the annals of their order and at that time the capital of 
the Maurya Empire. This council fixed the canon of the 
Jaina sacred literature, consisting of the eleven Ahga and 
the fourteen Purva. It seems likely that the books were 
not committed to writing at this time, but were still pre- 
served in the memories of the monks. The action of the 
council would thus be limited to settling what treatises 
were authoritative. Unfortunately, as we shall see later, 
the sects do not quite agree as to what is meant by the 
eleven Anga and the fourteen Purva, so that the work of 
the famous council of Pataliputra did not carry the weight 
which Sthulabhadra hoped it would have done. 

During this period not only was Jainism established in 
■ the south and the canon of the Scriptures fixed in the north, 
but also the famous clothQS-versus-nndity question was 
raised, never again to be laid. We are told that, when at 
last the famine was over and the real head of the order, Bha- 
drabahu or his successor, could bring some of his travelled 
mendicants back from the south to the original home 
of their order, he found that the home-keeping minority 
had all adopted some form of clothing ; and, though the 
actual schism did not take place until two more centuries 
had passed, the unity of the order was lost for ever, and any 
whole-hearted agreement on such a question as the canon 
of their scriptures was never again possible. 

As the Jaina laity had been drawn away from Hinduism 
by their adhesion to Mahavira, they were left without any 
stated worship. Gradually, however, reverence for their 
master and for other teachers, historical and mythical, 
passed into adoration and took the form of a regular cult. 
Finally, images of these adored personages were set up for 


worship, and idolatry became one of the chief institutions 
of orthodox Jainism. The process was precisely parallel 
to what happened in Buddhism. It is not known when 
idols were introduced, but it was probably in the second or 
first century B.C. 

The third and second centuries B.C. must have been 
a period of great activity amongst the Jaina. Under Asoka 
the religion is said to have been introduced into Kashmir. 
Under Suhastin, the great ecclesiastical head of the order 
in the second century, Jainism received many marks of 
approbation from Samprati, grandson of Asoka. Inscrip- 
tions show that it was already very powerful in Orissa in 
the second century and in Mathura in the north-west in 
the first century b. c. The history is not known in detail, 
but it is clear that after the Christian era the faith spread 
over the whole of the west and rose to great prominence 
and power in Gujarat. We have also evidence of its activity 
in most parts of Southern India during the first millen- « 
nium of the Christian era. M 

The next important event in Jaina history is the great 
schism and the final division into Svetambara (white- 
clothed) and Digambara (atmosphere-clad, i.e. nude) sects 
which took place in a. d. 79 or 82. The Jaina have many 
legends to account for the division taking place when it did ; 
but, whatever the reason, the depth of the cleavage between 
the two parties is shown by the fact that nowadays every 
sect adds after its own particular designation the name of 
one of these two great parties to which it adheres. For in- 
stance, the members of the modern non-idolatrous sect, the 
SthanakavasI, call themselves Sthanakavasi Svetambara, 
though it would seem to us that in having no idols they 
differ from the Svetambara far more than the Svetambara 
differ from the Digambara. 

In the meantime the sacred literature of the Jaina was 
in a thoroughly unsatisfactory state, and was in real danger 
of being entirely lost. Owing to the conversion or patron- 


age of western kings the centre of Jainism was gradually 
changing from Bihar to Gujarat, and so when the great 
council of A.D. 454-^ came together, it was summoned not 
in the historic land of Magadha but in the western country- 
won for the Jaina faith by missionary effort. The place 
chosen was Vallabhi, near Bhavnagar, and the president 
of the council was Devarddhi. So far the Svetambara 
and Sthanakavasi sects concur, though they do not agree 
as to the canon of the scriptures then determined. In 
Kathiawad at the present time there are at least eleven 
sub-sects amongst the Sthanakavasi Jaina and eighty-four 
amongst the Svetambara, and these hold differing views 
as to the correct list of books rightly comprised in their 
canon. Curiously enough they do not seem much to study 
the sacred texts themselves, but usually content themselves 
with quoting lists of the names of their books. It will 
perhaps suffice for our purpose if we note one such list 
from amongst those that have been given to the writer. 

A. The Eleven Anga. 

1. Acaranga Sutra. 

2. Suyagadahga (Sutrakritaiiga) Sutra. 

3. Thananga (Sthanahga) Sutra. 

4. Samavayahga Sutra. 

5. BhagavatijI or Vivihapannanti. 

6. Jfiatadharma Kathafiga. 

7. Upasaka Dasanga. 

8. Antagada Dasanga (Antakritahga). 

9. Anuttarovavai Dasanga (Anuttaropapatika). 

10. Prasna Vyakarana. 

11. Vipaka Sutra. 

B. Twelve Updnga. 

1. Uvavai (Aupapatika). 

2. RayapasenI (Rajaprasniya). 

3. Jivabhigama. 

^ Other traditions, however, put the date as late as a.d. 467 or even 
A.D. 513. 


4. Pannavaqa (Prajfiapana). 

5. Jambudivapannati (Jambudvipaprajfiapti). 

6. Candapannati (Candraprajnapti). 

7. Surapannati (Suryaprajnapti). 

8. Niravalia (Nirayavali) (according to other lists, 


9. Kappavadlsayya (Kalpavantasika). 

10. Pupphiya (Puspaka). 

11. Puppaculia (Puspaculika). 

12. Vanhidasa. 

C. Six Chedagrantha (or Five Chedagrantha). 

1. Vyavahara Sutra. 

2. Brihatkalpa (Vrihatkalpa). 

3. Dasasrutaskandha. 

4. Nisitha. 

5. Mahanisitha.^ 

6. Jitakalpa.^ 

Four Millagrantha (according to the Svetambara canon). 

1. DasavaikaHka. 

2. Uttaradhyayana. 

3. Avasyaka. 

4. Oghaniryuti. 

Four Mulagrantha (according to the Sthanakavasi canon). 

1. DasavaikaHka. 

2. Uttaradhyayana. 

3. Nandl Sutra. 

4. Anuyogadvara. 

This completes the Sthanakavasi canon, but the Svetam- 
bara also accept the following : — 
Ten Pay amid (or Prakirna). 

1. Causarana (Catuhsarana). 

2. Santhara (Sanstaraka) Payanna. 

^ Sthanakavasi Jaina do not recognize the MahanisTtha or the 

^ Some Svetambara Jaina do not accept the Jitakalpa, but add 
another Mulagrantha. 


3. Tandulaveyalla (Tandulavaicarika). 

4. Candavijaya (Candravedhyaka). 

5. Ganlvijaya (Ganividya). 

6. Devindathuo (Devendrastava). 

7. Virathuo (Virastava). 

8. Gacchacara. 

9. Jyotikaranda (Jyoti§karandaka). 

10. Ayuhpaccakhana (Aturapratyakhyana). 

In certain other lists the Svetambara canon is made to 
contain eighty-four books by adding twenty more Payanna, 
twelve Niryukti, and nine miscellaneous works, including the 
Kalpa Sutra, which is held in special honour among the 
Svetambara. Both Svetambara and Sthanakavasi agree 
that there were originally twelve Ahga, but that the twelfth 
or Dristivada Anga, containing an account of the fourteen 
Purva, has been lost. 

What is the relation of the new canon to the old ? It is 
probable that the Anga of the later correspond to those 
of the original canon ; but it is also probable that during 
the centuries they underwent many changes. Jaina tra- 
dition acknowledges that all the Purva were lost at quite 
an early date. The other books are doubtless of later origin; 
yet even they rest on early tradition and probably contain 
a good deal of early material. 

The original canon was not written, but it is not unlikely 
that individual monks used writing to aid memory long 
before the second codification. It seems certain that in 
A.D. 454 the whole canon was reduced to writing, and that 
a large number of copies were made, so that no monastery 
of any consequence should be without one. 

The Jaina are very proud of the fact that their scriptures 
were not written in Sanskrit but in ' one of the most im- 
portant, the best preserved, and the most copious of all the 
Prakrit dialects \^ that of Ardha-Magadh! ; that is to say, 

* hnperial Gazetteer of hidia^ ii, p. 261. 


not in the language of the learned but of the common 
people ; and we who have our scriptures and our book of 
Common Prayer in our mother tongue can understand 
their pride. 

The Svetambara do not, as a rule, allow their scriptures 
to be read by laymen, or even by nuns, but restrict the 
study of them to monks. The laity seem to read chiefly 
a book composed of quotations from their scriptures. The 
Sthanakavasi are not so strict, and allow most of their sacred 
books to be read by the laity, but not the Chedagraiitha, 
which they say were intended for the professed alone. The 
most popular of the books amongst the Sthanakavasi laity 
are the Updsaka Dasdnga, the Acdrdnga Sutra, and the 
Dasavaikdlika. To judge by their preaching and lectures 
the Kalpa Sutra would seem to be the scripture most studied 
by the Svetambara sadhus. 

The Digambara canon differs so entirely from the 
Svetambara that it does not seem probable that the sect 
was represented at the great council of a. d. 454. 

They call their scriptures their Four Veda, and members 
of their community at Mount Abu and at Palitana gave 
the writer a list of them in the following order : 

1. Prathamanuyoga. 

2. Karananuyoga. 

3. Carananuyoga. 

4. Dravyanuyoga. 

Professor Jacobi adduces in proof of the antiquity of the 
Jaina scriptures, amongst other things, the fact that they 
contain no reference to Greek astrology which was intro- 
duced into India in the third or fourth century a. d. 

As we have already seen, it seems probable that, though 
the canon of the scriptures had been fixed in 300 b. c. by the 
council of Pataliputra, they had not all been committed to 
writing, but had generally been handed down by word of 
mouth from teacher to disciple ; the result, however, of the 


council of Vallabhi was the enshrining of the sacred lore in 
manuscript books. To this day the manuscript scriptures 
are considered more sacred than those which have been 
printed — the writer has sometimes seen a little pile of rice 
placed before a bookcase to do honour to the manuscript 
scriptures it contained. 

■ The zenith of Jaina prosperity lasted from the council 
of Vallabhi down to the thirteenth century. Strangely 
enough the years that witnessed the decHne and fall of 
Buddhism saw the spread both in the west and south of its 
rival faith, and though Jainism almost vanished from 
Bihar, the land of its birth, yet in the west it became the 
court religion. The events of these happy centuries are 
enshrined, as we shall see, in the legends that are still current 
amongst the Jaina, and more abiding monuments to this 
epoch of prosperity remain in the books that were written 
and the temples erected in the sunshine of royal favour. 

The princely names the Jaina best love to recall in this 
connexion are Mandalika, a king of Surastra (Kathiawad) 
about A. D. 1059, who repaired the temple of Neminatha on 
Mt. Girnar ; Siddharaja Jayasimha, a king of Gujarat 
(died A. D. 1125), the first patron of Hemacandra, who 
often went on pilgrimage to Girnar, and his successor 
Kumarapala (a. d. 1125-59) whom the Jaina claim to have 
been converted to their faith, ^ and who is said to have 
estabhshed Jainism as the state religion. 

But the decline of Jainism was close at hand. The 
Jaina attribute the first destruction of their temples to 
the hostility of the Brahmans, especially under Ajayapala, 
A.D. 1174-6, but the injuries he inflicted were as nothing 
to the devastation wrought by the Mohammedans. As the 
Irish execrate the name of Cromwell, so did the Jaina that 
of Ala-ud-din — ' the Bloody ' — who conquered Gujarat 
A.D. 1297-8. 

^ At any rate he built thirty-two temples to atone for the sins of his 
teeth ! 

t8 historical summary 

He razed many of their temples to the ground, massacred 
their communities and destroyed their libraries. Many of 
the most beautiful Mohammedan mosques in India have 
woven into their fabric stones from Jaina shrines which 
the ruthless conquerors had destroyed. 

In the south Jainism had flourished exceedingly after its 
introduction by Bhadrabahu, and many of the languages 
and grammars were largely shaped by the labours of Jaina 

In A. D. 640, when the Chinese traveller Hiuen Tsang 
visited India, he met numbers of monks belonging to the 
Digambara (naked) sect in the south and admired their 
beautiful temples. But after his visit a great persecution 
arose. A Jaina king, Kuna,^ became converted to Saivism 
in the middle of the seventh century and, if we may trust 
the sculptures at Trivatur in Arcot, slew with the most 
horrible severity thousands of his former co-religionists who 
refused to follow his example. Even if the account of the 
persecution be exaggerated, there is no doubt that after 
this time the prosperity of Jainism in the south steadily 

To return to the north. The wonder is, not that any temples 
survived the Mohammedan persecutions, but that Jainism 
itself was not extinguished in a storm which simply swept 
Buddhism out of India. The character of Jainism, however, 
was such as to enable it to throw out tentacles to help it in 
its hour of need. It had never, like Buddhism, cut itself 
off from the faith that surrounded it, for it had always 
employed Brahmans as its domestic chaplains, who presided 
at its birth rites and often acted as officiants at its death and 
marriage ceremonies and temple worship. Then, too, amongst 
its chief heroes it had found niches for some of the favourites 
of the Hindu pantheon, Rama, Krisna and the like. 
Mahavira's genius for organization also stood Jainism 
in good stead now, for he had made the laity an integral 

^ Vincent Smith, Early History of India ^ third edition, p. 455. 


part of the community, whereas in Buddhism they had no 
part nor lot in the order. So, when storms of persecution 
swept over the land, Jainism simply took refuge in 
Hinduism, which opened its capacious bosom to receive it ; 
and to the conquerors it seemed an indistinguishable part 
of that great system. 

The receptivity, however, which Hinduism has always 
shown towards it is to-day one of the reasons that makes 
Jainism so difficult to study ; for many Jaina, justified by the 
resemblance in their worship and thought, simply count 
themselves Hindus and actually so write themselves down 
in the census returns. 

If one effect of the Mohammedan conquest, however, was 
to drive many of the Jaina into closer union with their 
fellow idol-worshippers in the face of iconoclasts, another 
effect was to drive others away from idolatry altogether. 
No oriental could hear a fellow oriental's passionate outcry 
against idolatry without doubts as to the righteousness of 
the practice entering his mind. 

Naturally enough it is in Ahmadabad, the city of Gujarat 
that was most under Mohammedan influence, that we can 
first trace the stirring of these doubts. About a.d. 1452 
the Lohka sect, the first of the non-idolatrous Jaina sects, 
arose and was followed by the Dhundhia or Sthanakavasi 
sect about a. d. 1653, dates which coincide strikingly with 
the Lutheran and Puritan movements in Europe. 

Jainism has never recovered its temporal power since the 
days of the Mohammedan conquest ; it is no longer in any 
sense a court religion ; nevertheless the influence that it 
wields in India to-day is enormous. Its great wealth and 
its position as the religion par excellence of money-lenders 
and bankers makes it, especially in native states, the power 
behind the throne ; and if any one doubt its influence, he 
need only count up the number of edicts prohibiting the 
slaying of animals on Jaina sacred days that have recently 
been issued by the rulers of independent states. 

c 2 


According to the last census the Jaina numbered some 
1,248,182, but probably many more are included under 
Hindus. Their standard of literacy (495 males and 40 
females per thousand) is higher than that of any other 
community save the Parsis, and they proudly boast that 
not in vain in their system are practical ethics wedded to 
philosophical speculation, for their criminal record is 
magnificently white. 



Birth and Childhood. 

We have seen that in the sixth century B.C. the times 
were ripe for revolt ; now, after the event, it is almost easy 
to prophesy where the revolt was first likely to arise. 

The strongest centre of Brahmanical influence was in Birth- 
the country lying round the modern Delhi — it was the ^ 
language spoken by the people in this tract of land that 
was destined to be developed by grammarians into the 
classical Sanskrit, and it was they who composed much 
of the old Brahmanic literature that has come down to us. 
All this region, Dr. Grierson tells us, was called the ' Mid- 
land ', but encircling it on east, south, and west was an 
' Outland ', where the Brahmanic influence was less strong, 
and where the thinkers were to be found not in the priestly 
ranks, but ' among the Ksatriya class to whose learning 
and critical acumen witness is borne even in contem- 
porary Brahmanic writings.' ^ In this Outland near the 
modern Patna is a town called nowadays Besarh. 

Most Indian towns are to-day divided into wards, where 
the various castes live apart. One must seek the potters 
in one quarter and the washermen in another, whilst the 
lowest of all, the despised refuse-removers, live actually 
outside the city walls. 

Some two thousand years ago in Besarh the same divi- 
sions existed as would be found to-day ; and there, in fact, 
the priestly [Brahman), the warrior [Ksatriya), and the 
commercial [Baniyd) communities lived so separately that 
their quarters were sometimes spoken of as though they had 
been distinct villages, as Vaisali, Kuijdagrama, and Varii- 
jyagrama. Strangely enough, it was not in their own but 

^ See art. Bhakti Mdrga in E.R.E, 


in the K$atriya ward that the man was born who was to 
be the great hero of the Baniya, and who was to found 
amongst these commercial people a religion which, with all 
its limitations, yet made one of the most emphatic protests 
the world has ever known against accounting luxury, wealth, 
or comfort the main things in life. It seems almost para- 
doxical also that the warrior caste should produce the great 
apostle of non-killing. He was afterwards known from his 
exploits as Mahavira — the great hero — but his earliest 
name he derived from his birthplace, being known simply 
as Vaisaliya, ' the man of Vaisali ' (the main ward of the 
town). The government of such a city or ward seems to 
have resembled that of a Greek state. ' It was ', says 
Dr. Hoernle,^ ' an oligarchic republic ; its government was 
vested in a Senate, composed of the heads of the resident 
Ksatriya clans, and presided over by an officer who had 
the title of king and was assisted by a Viceroy and a Com- 
mander-in-Chief.' The chief of one of these Ksatriya clans, 
the Nata or Naya clan, was a man called Siddhartha, who - 
doubtless attained some eminence in Senate and State, 
for he eventually married the daughter of this repubhcan 
king, a Ksatriya lady named Trisala. ' 

-phe This old-world princess longed, as every Indian woman 

lourteen does to-day, to bear her lord a son, and suddenly one night, 
the legend tells, wonderful dreams came to her as she slept, 
revealing to her not only that she should bear a son, but 
also that this son should win everlasting rest and renown. 
These dreams of Trisala's ^ are to-day often graven 
round the silver treasuries in Jaina temples, and Jaina 
women love to recall them, for it is given to all the 
mothers of the great Jaina saints to see them. 
i First the happy princess dreamed of a mighty elephant ^ 

^ Hoernle,/. ^4.5. j5., 1898, p. 40. 

^ Many devout laymen and lay women repeat them every day at 
their morning devotions. 

^ All mothers of Tlrthankara see first of all this elephant in their 
dreams, excepting only the mother of Risabhadeva, who saw a bull 
first, hence the child's name. 


whose colour was whiter than a cloud, a heap of pearls, 
the spray of water, or moonbeams, and the sound of whose 
voice was like thunder. 

Then she saw a white bull, whiter than the petals of the ii 
lotus, which diffused a glory of light on all around, and this 
— so one sect of the Jaina, the Digambara, say — foretold 
the birth of a great religious teacher who should spread the 
light of knowledge. Another sect, however, the Sthana- 
kavasi, hold that it showed that he should have strength to 
bear the yoke of religion, for the yoke that a Jaina ascetic 
must bear is not light, and no weakling can endure it. 

The next dream prophesied that she should bear one ill 
who should overcome all his enemies (i. e. his karma, 
the results of his actions) : for she saw a magnificent white 
lion leap from the sky towards her face ; his eyes were like 
pure lightning, and his tongue came out of his mouth ' like 
a shoot of beauty'. This further foretold that Mahavira 
should be ' the lion of houseless monks ', and so he has the 
lion as his symbol. 

The fourth dream was of the beautiful goddess Sri or iv 
LaksmI (the goddess of wealth), whom Trisala saw floating 
on the petals of a lotus in the lotus lake on Mount Himavata, 
with guardian elephants ' anointing' her with water, and this 
she knew meant that her son should be an ' anointed ' king. 

Next, a garland^ of sweet-smelling Mandara flowers fore- v 
told how fragrant the body of the little child should be. 

The white moon^ dispelling the darkness of the wildest vi 
wilderness again prophesied a religious preacher. 

The radiant sun,^ red as the beak of a parrot, which vii 

^ The SthanakavasI say there were two garlands. 

^ In all the pictures of this moon vision a stag is seen in the centre 
of the moon. The general belief of all Indians is that there is either 
a stag or a hare inhabiting the moon. There are a score or more of 
names for the moon in Sanskrit, and a dozen at least are derived from 
this belief. The villagers, however, find in the moon an old woman 
spinning a wheel and a she-goat standing by her. 

^ The Digambara assert that she saw the sun before the dream 
about the moon. 


throttles the cold and ' disperses the evil-doers who stroll 
about at night, whose thousand rays obscure the lustre 
of other lights ', showed that the child should dispel the 
darkness of ignorance. 

viii The sects do not agree as to what the eighth dream of 
the princess was about. The Svetambara believe she saw 
a beautiful banner (an Indra Dhvaja) embroidered with 
those signs which Hindus and Jaina alike consider specially 
auspicious, and to whose golden pole-^ was tied a plume of 
peacock's feathers ; while the Digambara affirm that she 
saw two fishes, which showed the child was to be happy. 
ix The ninth dream, the Svetambara say, was a golden 
pitcher of exquisite beauty, filled with water — or, accord- 
ing to others, with jewels — which was the abode of happy 
fortune and was wreathed at all seasons with fragrant 
flowers, portending happiness. The Digambara assert 
that she saw two golden pitchers filled with pure water, 
to show that the child should be constantly immersed in 
spiritual meditation. 

^ X The next vision was that of a lotus lake whose flowers 
' were licked by bees and mad drones ', from which Trisala 
knew that her baby would possess all the marks of 
a perfect being ; or, as the Sthanakavasi say, that the 
honey of his sermons would be eagerly absorbed by the 
whole world, 
xi The princess then saw the milk ocean, white as the 
breast of Laksmi, tossing its transparent breakers as the 
wind played over it and the great rivers rushed into it, 
and this foretold that the child should attain to the perfect 
knowledge of the Kevali. 

xia At this point the Digambara, who beheve the princess 
saw not fourteen but sixteen dreams, insert a vision of 
a throne of diamonds and rubies, which foretold that the 
coming child should rule over the three worlds. 

1 According to the Tapagaccha sect the pole was topped by a temple 


Her next dream was of a jewel-bedecked celestial abode ^ xii 
which shone like the morning sun and which was hung 
with garlands and pictures of birds and beasts. There the 
celestial choirs gave concerts, and the place resounded 
with the din of the drums of the gods which imitated the 
sound of rain clouds. 

Here again the Digambara insert a vision of a great xii a 
king of the gods dwelling below the earth. This the 
Svetambara do not accept, but both agree about the next xiii 
dream, in w^hich Trisala saw a great vase piled up with 
jewels. The base of the vase was on the level of the earth, 
and its height was as the height of Mount Meru, and its 
brightness illuminated even the sky ; it foretold the birth 
of a child that should possess right knowledge, right intui- 
tion, and right conduct. 

Her last dream was of a clear fire fed with clarified butter, xiv 
whose beautiful flames seemed almost to scorch the firma- 
ment, which prophesied that the white-souled child she 
was to bear should illumine the universe by his wisdom. 

All these dreams Trisala related to Siddhartha, and the 
next day the interpreters that he summoned foretold from 
them the birth of a spiritual conqueror (Jina), lord of the 
three worlds and the universal emperor of the law. 

Some of the more advanced Jaina do not believe that 
Trisala actually saw all these dreams,^ but they hold that 
before the child's birth both father and mother knew/ 
that he would be either a Cakravartl (universal monarch) or' 
a Tirthahkara. Perhaps the legend of the dreams may 
carry with it this meaning, that at that time there was 
a universal stirring of desire, and that many were hoping 
some reformer or reHgious leader might be born. At any 

^ The SthanakavasI believe this abode to have been a huge im- 
movable car as big as a city. 

"^ A really orthodox Jaina, however, would deny the title of Jaina 
altogether to any one who did not hold these and all the other legends 
mentioned in this book to be literally and historically true, though 
varying interpretations of them are given. 


rate they ijiust have conveyed the welcome assurance 
that the child at least would safely survive all the dangers 
that an Indian birth-chamber holds for both mother and 

There is another legend about Mahavlra's birth which 
is also recorded in the Jaina sacred books, and which 
possesses some value as showing the intense hatred exist- 
ing between the Brahmans and the Ksatriyas. Accord- 
ing to this legend, a Brahman lady, Devananda, wife 
of the Brahman Risabhadatta, living in the Brahmanical 
part of the town, saw the Fourteen Auspicious Dreams 
which foretold the birth of a great saint or Tirthan- 
kara. But Indra,^ the chief of the gods, saw from his 
celestial throne what had happened, and knew that the 
child would be the great Tirthahkara Mahavira ; so he 
sent his commander-in-chief in the form of a deer to 
remove the embryo from Devananda^ and to give it to 
Trisala, in order that Mahavira might not be born in a 
* beggarly or Brahmanical family '. However that may be, 
the stories go on to show how carefully Trisala, two thou- 
sand years ago, prepared for the joy of motherhood just 
as a modern woman would, by avoiding all sickness and 
fatigue and walking in quiet country places, so that she 
might gain health for body and mind. At last, in the 
year 599 b.c. of our era, or towards the end of the 
Dusama Susama period, as the Jaina reckon time, on 
the thirteenth day of the bright half of the moon in the 
month Caitra, the time came when Trisala, herself perfectly 
healthy, gave birth to a perfectly healthy child. 

The thought of India centres largely round marriage 
and motherhood, and the birth of a manchild then, as now, 

^ The Jaina believe that Indra (or Sakra), the chief of the sixty-four 
gods of that name, belongs especially to them, but has been stolen from 
them by the Brahmans. 

^ It is interesting to compare with this the story of Krisna being re- 
moved from the womb of Devaki to that of RohinI, for the Jaina believe 
Krisna to be one of their own future Tirthankara. 


was the occasion of a very delirium of rejoicing. To-day, 
in a native state, the birth of an heir is celebrated in very 
much the same way as it was in Mahavira's time. The 
town is en fete, prisoners are released, fines are cancelled, 
presents are given, and presents (alas !) are exacted. 

When the child was three days old, it was shown the 
sun and the moon (this is not usual now) ; on the sixth 
day they observed the rehgious vigil (modern Jaina still 
worship ' Mother Sixth '), Trisala bathed on the tenth 
day, and on the twelfth, after the usual family feast, the 
boy w^as named with all pomp and circumstance. In 
India it is the father's sister who usually names a child, 
but his parents themselves chose Mahavira's name, an- 
nouncing that ' since the prince was placed in the womb 
of the Ksatriyaiii Trisala this family's (treasure) of gold, 
silver, riches, corn, jewels, pearls, shells, precious stones 
and corals increased ; therefore the prince shall be called 
Vardhamdna (i.e. the Increasing^) '. Mahavira was some- 
times, as we have seen, called Vaisaliya from his birth- 
place ; his followers, however, seldom call him by this or 
by the name his parents gave him, but prefer to use the 
title they say the gods gave him, that of Mahavira, the 
great hero, or else Jina, the conqueror, though this last 
is really more used in connexion with the reHgion ( Jainism) 
he promulgated than with himself. He is also known as 
Jfiataputra, Namaputra,^ Sasananayaka, and Buddha. 

It was partly the multitude of his names, partly also the 
number of legends that loving child-Hke folk had woven 
round the cradle of their hero, that long obscured the 
fact that Mahavira was an historical, personage. Another 
reason for doubting his existence lay in the superficial 
resemblance there is bietween his life and teaching and 
that of his contemporary, Buddha. It was assumed that 
one of the two systems must have sprung from the other, 

* Acarahga Sutra, S.B.E., xxii, p. 192. 
Or Nayaputra, sometimes Nataputta. 



and it is only through the labours of European scholars 
like Jacobi, Hoernle, and Biihler that Mahavira's historical 
existence has been proved. It seems strange that Jaina 
should still be dependent on the labours of scholars of 
another faith and speech for all they know about their 
greatest hero ! 

We have noticed some of the legends that have gathered 
round Mahavira, and it is worth while examining more, 
since legends help us in a special way to grasp the latent 
ideals of a faith. We can learn from them what its 
followers admire and what they despise, and also what 
qualities they revere sufficiently to link with their leader's 
name. If we contrast the stories told of Mahavira with 
those told, for instance, of Krisna by Hindus, we shall see 
at once that the thoughts of these early followers of Jainism 
moved on a higher, cleaner plane, and this purity of 
thought is one of the glories of Jainism to-day. 

Austere though the creed of the Jaina is, there are 
some amongst them whose habit of mind leads them to 
interpret even these severe tenets as sternly as possible. 
This diversity of temperament (which is surely inherent 
in the human race) manifests itself in the stories told of 
Mahavira's life. The Digambara (who are the straitest 
sect among the Jaina) always represent their hero as 
choosing the sterner and less pleasing path : avoiding 
marriage and going on his way unhindered by any fear of 
hurting his parents' feelings. The Svetambara sect, on 
the other hand, believe that, though from his earliest hours 
Mahavira longed to forsake the world and betake himself 
to a houseless, wandering life, he nevertheless felt he 
could not do this during his parents' lifetime, lest he 
should cause them pain. Even before his birth, the legend 
runs, he decided thus : ' It will not behove me, during the 
life of my parents, to tear out my hair, and leaving 
the house to enter the state of houselessness.' ^ So he 

^ Kalpa Sutra^ S. B. E.^ xxii, p. 250. 


lived the ordinary life of a happy boy, watched over 
by the innumerable servants that seem inseparable from 
Indian life,^ but enjoying to the full ' the noble five- 
fold joys and pleasures of sound, touch, taste, colour 
and smell '. 

Both sects delight to tell of his boyish prowess and of how 
easily he excelled all his companions in strength and 
physical endurance, as he did in beauty of mind and body. 
One day, they say, the sons of his father's ministers had 
come as usual to play with him in the royal gardens, when 
suddenly a mad elephant charged down on the group of 
children, who fled hither and thither in their efforts to 
escape. Mahavira, however, quietly went up to the in- 
furiated animal, caught it by its trunk, and climbing up on 
it, escaped being trodden by its feet by riding on its back ! 

Another legend tells how, when he was playing with the 
same children at dmbali pipall (a sort of ' tick ' or ' tig ') 
among the trees, a god appeared and thought to frighten the 
child by carrying him high up into the sky on his shoulders. 
Mahavira, however, was not in the least alarmed, and, 
seizing the opportunity to show his superiority over im- 
mortals, whacked the god and pulled his hair so hard, 
that he was only too ready to descend and get rid of his 
obstreperous burden. The child who had thus defeated 
one of their number was called Mahavira by the other gods 
■ — a name mortals were quick to adopt. 

According to the Svetambara tradition Mahavira married 
a lady called Yasoda (belonging to the Kaundinya gotra), 
and a daughter was born to them named Anuja (Anojja) 
or Priyadarsana. This daughter eventually married a 
nobleman called Jamali, who, after becoming one of 
Mahavira's followers and fellow workers, ended by opposing 
him. Their child (Mahavira's granddaughter) had two 
names, being known both as Sesavati and Yasovati. 

' He had five nurses : a wet nurse, a nurse to wash him, one to dress 
him, one to play with him, and one to carry him. 


It was pointed out in the introduction how profoundly some 
Indians beheve that the result of action (karma) ties men 
to the cycle of rebirth, and that if, through the cessation 
of life, action and its resultant karma could be ended, so 
much the less would be the danger of rebirth. This tenet 
naturally encouraged belief in suicide as a form of prudential 
insurance ! Amongst the recorded deaths by suicide are 
those of Mahavlra's parents, who, according to the Svetam- 
bara belief, died of voluntary starvation : ' on a bed of 
kusa grass they rejected all food, and their bodies dried 
up by the last mortification of the flesh which is to end in 
death.' ^ At their death Mahavira, who was by now ap- 
proaching his thirtieth year, felt free to become an ascetic, 
and asked his elder brother's permission to renounce the 
world ; the brother consented, only stipulating that Maha- 
vira should do nothing in the matter for a year, lest 
people should think they had quarrelled. 

The Digambara accounts differ widely from this. Accord- 
ing to them, even when only a child of eight, Mahavira 
took the twelve vows ^ which a Jaina layman may take, 
and that he always longed to renounce the world ; other 
Digambara say that it was in his thirtieth year that, whilst 
meditating on his * self ', he determined to become a monk, 
realizing that he would only spend seventy-two years in 
this incarnation as Mahavira. At first his parents were 
opposed to the idea of their delicately nurtured child 
undergoing all the hardships that fall to the lot of a house- 
less mendicant, but at last they consented, and it was 
during their lifetime that Mahavira entered on the spiritual 
vocation, which in India, as in Europe, has so often proved 
a suitable career for younger sons. 

Modern research would seem to favour the Svetambara 
belief that Mahavira had married, but this the Digambara 
strenuously deny, for an ascetic who has never married 

^ Acardhga Siltra, S.B.E., xxii, p. 194. 

^ See below. Twelve Vows of a Layman, p. 205. 


moves on a higher plane of sanctity than one who has 
known the joys of wedded hfe. 

Mahdvira's Initiation. 

Jainism, though it denies the existence of a creator 
and of the three great gods of the Indian Trimurti, Brahma, 
Visnu and Siva, has never shaken itself free from the belief 
in many of the minor gods of the Hindu pantheon. It gives 
these gods, it is true, a very secondary position as servants 
or tempters of the great Jaina saints, but their existence 
is accepted as undoubted ; accordingly, in the account 
of Mahavira's initiation we shall find many of the old Hindu 
gods represented as being present. 

This initiation, all sects agree, took place when Mahavira 
was about thirty years of age, some time therefore between 
570 and 569 B. c. The Naya clan to which he belonged 
seem to have supported a body of monks who followed 
the rule of Parsvanatha, an ascetic who had lived some 
two hundred and fifty years before Mahavira. It was 
naturally to this order, probably considered rather irregular 
by the Brahmans, that the thoughts of Mahavira turned. 
Its monks had their cells in a park^ outside the Ksatriya 
suburb (Kundagrama) of Vaisall, and in the centre of this 
park grew one of those evergreen Asoka or ' sorrowless 
trees, whose leaves are supposed never to know either 
grief or pain. The Asoka tree is always associated with 
Mahavira, for the legends say that in his later life an Asoka 
tree grew wherever he preached, and it was now under 
its shade that he made the great renunciation and entered 
upon that ascetic life, whose austerities were to dry up 
all the founts of karma and free him from the sorrowful 
cycle of rebirth. 

Mahavira had fasted for two-and-a-half days, not even 
allowing water to cross his lips, and had then given away 

^ The Svetambara call the park Sundavana, the Digambara Sarathi 


all his property, which can only have been the ordinary 
possessions of the cadet of a small House, but which the 
love of his followers has exaggerated into the wealth of 
a mighty emperor.^ Then, followed by a train of gods 
and men, he was carried in a palanquin to the park and, 
alighting, took his seat on a five-tiered throne,^ which 
was so placed as to face the east. There he stripped 
himself of all his ornaments and finery, flinging them to 
the attendant god Vaisramana, who caught them up as 
they fell. 

Most Hindu mendicants cut or shave off their hair, but 
a peculiar and most painful custom of the Jaina is that 
all ascetics, as a proof of their power of endurance, must 
tear out their hair by the roots. One Jaina writer declares 
in his English ' Life of Mahavira ' that ' only those can do 
it who have no love with their flesh and bones '. It is looked 
on as a sign that henceforth the monk or nun will take no 
thought for the body. 

As Mahavira performed this crowning act of austerity, 
Indra, the leader and king of the gods, falling down before 
the feet of the venerable ascetic, caught up the hairs in 
a diamond cup and took them to the Ocean of Milk. The 
saint then did obeisance to all liberated spirits, and vowing 
to do no sinful act, adopted the holy conduct.^ 

The Jaina mark with great precision the five degrees of 
knowledge that lead to Omniscience. Mahavira, they say, 
was born with the first three, Mati jfidna, Sruta jndna^ 

* The Jaina believe that when an ascetic who will eventually develop 
into aTlrthankara is about to give away his possessions, the god Indra 
bestows on him all the wealth that has been buried in forgotten treasure 
stores, in order that the amount to be given away may be worthy of 
the giver. 

2 This sort of throne is called a Pdndusild, and in Jaina temples 
Mahfivlra's image is generally kept on one. 

^ The Kaipa Sfitra gives quite a different account, in which it says 
that Mahavira fasted for two-and-a-half days after all the pomp, and 
then, ' Quite alone, nobody else being present, he tore out his hair, and 
leaving the house entered the state of houselessness '. Kaipa Sillra, 
S. B. /T., xxii, p. 259. 


and Avadhi jndna. He now gained the fourth kind of 
knowledge, Manahparydya jiidna, by which he knew the 
thoughts of all sentient beings of five senses in the two- 
and-a-half continents, and it only remained for him to 
obtain the fifth degree of knowledge, that of Kevala jiidna 
or Omniscience, which is possessed by the Kevali alone. 

The Digambara, however, do not believe that Mahavira 
obtained the fourth kind of knowledge till some time after 
his initiation. According to them, he failed to gain it, 
though he performed meditation for six months, sitting 
absolutely motionless. At the end of the six months 
he went to Kulapura ; the king of Kulapura, Kuladhipa, 
came and did him honour, washed his feet with his 
own hands and, having walked round him three times, 
offered him rice and milk; these Mahavira accepted 
and took them as his first meal [pdranuin] after a fast 
of six months. He returned to the forest and wandered 
about in it performing twelve kinds of penance, but still 
the knowledge was withheld from him. At last he visited 
Ujjayini (Ujjain) and did penance in a cemetery there, 
when Rudra and his wife in vain tried to interrupt him ; 
it was only after overcoming this temptation and again 
entering on his forest life of meditation that, according to 
the Digambara belief, he obtained Manahparyaya jfiana. 
Henceforth Mahavira was houseless, and wandered through 
the land so lost in meditation as to be indifferent to sorrow 
and joy, pain and pleasure, subsisting only on the alms of 
the charitable. 

Research seems to have established the fact that at first 
he belonged to the order of Parsvanatha mentioned above, 
a body of mendicants leading a more or less regular life, 
and that in accordance with their custom he wore clothes ; 
but many Jaina will not acknowledge that a Tirthankara 
could have belonged to an order even for ever so short 
a time ; they agree, however, that for thirteen months he 
did wear one cloth. 



The legend runs that the god Indra himself gave Maha- 
vlra the beautiful robe which he wore at his initiation. 
Before the ceremony the saint had given away all his goods 
in charity, but a certain Brahman named Somadatta, being 
absent at that time, had received nothing. He came and 
complained, and Mahavira was greatly troubled to think 
that he had nothing left to give him, till he remembered 
Indra's robe ; taking this off, he cut it in two and gave 
half to the greedy Brahman. Somadatta was delighted, 
and showed it off with great pride to a friend of his who 
was a weaver. The weaver told Somadatta to go back and 
get the other half and then he would have a robe worth 
having, which could all be woven into one. The Brahman 
was ashamed to actually go and ask for the remaining part, 
but knowing how completely unconscious of everything 
that went on around him Mahavira was, he w^alked softly 
behind the ascetic, and when the robe slipped off (as is 
the nature of half robes) he stooped, and gently lifting it 
off the thorns on to which it had fallen, quietly made off 
with his booty. When Mahavira discovered the theft, all 
he did was to make a parable about it, in which he taught 
how thorny would be the road of his true disciples in this 
world, but how priceless would be their value when delivered 
at last from the thorns that beset them. 

Not only was the great ascetic unconscious of the 
whereabouts of his earthly possessions, he was also abso- 
lutely indifferent to pain ; for instance, one day he was 
sitting in meditation outside a village, when some herdsmen, 
in rough sport, lit a fire between his feet and drove nails 
into his ears, without the saint being in the least aware of 
what they were doing. 

In India it would be specially easy for abuses to spring 
up among a body of mendicants ; they could gain their 
food so easily, that a great part of ' the long Indian day ' 
would hang idle on their hands, and our proverb about 
Satan finding work for idle hands to do has its Gujarat! 



counterpart : ' A man sitting idle brings ruin to pass.' ^ 
Many men doubtless had become monks through a constitu- 
tional aversion from honest labour, and the climate and 
leisure, whilst increasing this distaste for work in them, 
would be apt to create it even in those who had entered 
the order from the highest motives. Altogether the world- 
old employer of the unemployed could find fair scope for 
his mischievous energies amongst them ! ^ And so before 
long Mahavira found the discipline of Parsvanatha's monks 
too lax, and after a year he left them, to wander alone in 
a state of absolute nudity. 

The question of clothes was a crucial one amongst the 
Jaina. Mahavira apparently felt that the complete ascetic 
must have completely conquered all his emotions, shame 
amongst others, A true monk would not feel either heat 
or cold, and so would not need the protection from the 
weather offered by clothes, and he would be so indifferent 
to mere appearance as to be unconscious as to whether he 
wore raiment or not. Being rid of clothes, one is also rid 
of a lot of other worries too : one needs no box to keep them 
in, no materials to mend them with, no change of raiment 
when the first set is dirty or outworn, and, still more impor- 
tant to a Jaina, no water is needed in which to wash them. 

On this point Mr. Benarsi Dass makes some rather 
interesting remarks in his lecture on Jainism, and throws 
an astonishingly new light on an old story. 

' Jaina monks ', he says, 'are naked because Jainism says that as 
long as one entertains the same idea of nakedness as we do, he cannot 
obtain salvation. One cannot, according to Jain principles, obtain 
Moksa, as long as he remembers that he is naked. He can only cross 
over the ocean of the world after he has forgotten that he is naked. . . . 
As long as a man thinks and knows that he is naked, that there is 
something like good and evil, he cannot obtain Moksa. He must 
forget it to obtain Nirvana. This is very well illustrated by the well- 

2 The Brahmans had tried to avoid some of the more obvious abuses 
by restricting entrance to the fourth dsraina to men of mature years, 
who had passed through a long course of preparatory discipline. 

D 2 


known story of the expulsion of Adam and Eve from heaven. Adam 
and Eve were naked and pure. They enjoyed perfect happiness in the 
garden of Eden. They had no knowledge of good and evil. The 
devil, their enemy, desired to deprive them of their happiness. He 
made them eat of the fruit of the tree of the knowledge of good and 
evil. They at once saw their nakedness. They fell. They were ex- 
pelled from heaven. It is this knowledge of good and evil, it is this 
knowledge of nakedness, that deprived them of Eden. The Jains hold 
the same belief. Our knowledge of good and evil, our knowledge of 
nakedness, keeps us away from salvation. To obtain it we must forget 
nakedness. The Jaina Nirgranthas have forgot all knowledge of good 
and evil. Why should they require clothes to hide their nakedness ? ' ' 

Sir Monier Williams suggests^ that the Jaina 'felt that 
a sense of shame implied sin, so that if there were no sin 
in the world there would be no shame. Hence they argued 
rather illogically that to get rid of clothes was to get rid 
of sin, and every ascetic who aimed at sinlessness was en- 
joined to walk about naked with the air or sky {dig) as his 
sole covering.' 

The Digambara believe that Mahavira abandoned clothes 
at the time of his initiation ; the Svetambara, as we have 
seen, that he abandoned them after thirteen months. 

It was whilst Mahavira was walking naked and homeless 
and, as the Digambara believe, keeping absolutely un- 
broken his vow of silence, that he was joined by Gosala, 
a disciple whose story we shall have to study more in 
detail later. For the present we need only note that 
Gosala followed Mahavira for six years, but subsequently 
left him and fell into those grievous sins which so easily 
beset a mendicant, and to guard against which so many 
precepts in the Jaina scriptures are directed. 

For twelve years Mahavira wandered from place to place, 
never staying for longer than a single night in a village 
or for more than five nights in a town. The object of 
this custom may have been to avoid levying too great 

* Lecticre 07i Jaitiism. Agra, 1902, p. 69. 
^ Buddhism^ p. 530. 



a tax on the hospitality of the people, and also to pre- 
vent the ascetic forming close or undesirable friendships, 
which might tempt him to break either his vow of non- 
possession of goods or of chastity.^ The rule was, however, 
relaxed during the rainy season, when Mahavira, like his 
subsequent followers, made a practice of remaining for 
four months at the same place, lest he should injure any 
of the young life that springs so suddenly and abundantly 
into being, once the monsoon bursts and the rains, on 
which India's prosperity depends, begin to fall. During 
these twelve years, we are told, he meditated always on 
himself, on his Atma, and walked sinless and circumspect 
in thought, word and deed. 

'As water does not adhere to a copper vessel, or collyrium to 
mother of pearl (so sins found no place in him) ; his course was un- 
obstructed like that of Life ; like the firmament he wanted no support ; 
like the wind he knew no obstacles ; his heart was pure like the water 
(of rivers or tanks) in autumn ; nothing could soil him like the leaf of 
a lotus ; his senses were well protected like those of a tortoise ; he 
was single and alone like the horn of a rhinoceros ; he was free like 
a bird ; he was always like the fabulous bird Bharunda, valorous like 
an elephant, strong like a bull, difficult to attack like ia lion, steady 
and firm like Mount Mandara, deep like the ocean, mild like the moon, 
refulgent like the sun, pure like excellent gold ; like the earth he 
patiently bore everything ; like a well-kindled fire he shone in his 
splendour.' ^ 

Many legends are told of Mahavira's absolute absorp- 
tion in meditation and of his unconsciousness of outward 
circumstances during these years. One of these stories 
has a slight resemblance to that of -King Alfred and the 
cakes : Once upon a time the great ascetic sat down to 
meditate on the outskirts of Kumaragrama. He crossed 
his ankles, and, gazing fixedly at the tip of his nose, was 
soon so immersed in reflection as to be lost to all that went 

•■• There is a GujaratI couplet : 
' Water should be allowed to flow that it become not stagnant, 
Monks should be allowed to wander that they may be stainless.' 
A Sanskrit proverb runs : ' A monk who wanders is worshipped.' 
^ Kaipa Siitra^ S, B. E., xxii, pp. 260, 261. 


on around him. A busy farmer bustled past and asked 
this man who was sitting down and apparently doing 
nothing to look after his bullocks till his return. Mahavira 
neither heard the request nor saw the animals, far less 
took care of them. On his return the farmer saw the 
apparently idle man still seated doing nothing, but could 
get no answer from him as to the whereabouts of his beasts 
and had to go off in search of them. The bullocks mean- 
while, having eaten their fill, returned and lay down to 
rest beside the gentle saint. The poor owner searched 
for the beasts the whole night through, and was enraged 
on returning next morning to find where they were, for it 
seemed to him a plot to steal the animals ; so he seized 
their halter and began to beat Mahavira with it. For- 
tunately the god Indra knew what was happening and 
interfered in time to stop such sacrilege ; but he begged 
Mahavira to allow him in future to guard him himself, or 
to appoint some other god to do so. The saint, however, 
refused any protection, saying that, just as a Tirthahkara 
must always obtain omniscience by his own unaided efforts, 
so must he attain Moksa unprotected by any one. But 
the gods had grown nervous lest Mahavira should be killed 
inadvertently, so Indra, without the saint's knowledge, 
appointed one Siddhartha (a cousin of Mahavira's who had 
become a god) to protect him. 

Enlightenment and Death. 

low We have seen that Mahavira was born with three degrees 

lahavTra of knowledge and had acquired the fourth. He was now, 
at the end of his twelve years of wandering and penance, 
to acquire the fifth degree — Kevala jndna or Omniscience. 
In the thirteenth year after his renunciation of the world 
and initiation as an ascetic, Mahavira stayed in a place 
not very far from the Parasnath hills called Jrimbhaka- 
grama.-^ There was a field there belonging to a farmer 

* Also called Jrimbhila or Jrimbhikagrama. 


called Samaga ^ which surrounded an old temple, and 
through this field the river RijupaHka^ flowed. One after- 
noon Mahavira was seated under the shade of a Sala tree 
in this quiet meadow in deepest meditation. Just as before 
his initiation, so now he had fasted for two-and-a-half 
days without even touching water, and as he sat there 
lost in thought, he peacefully attained supreme knowledge. 
Henceforth he possessed ' complete and full, the unob- 
structed, unimpeded, infinite and supreme, best knowledge 
and intuition called Kevala jfiana '. His meditations and 
austerities had been so profound as to destroy the last of 
all the karma, the enemies to enlightenment, knowledge 
and freedom, and henceforth his pathway would be unim- 
peded. Mahavira now added to his titles those of Jina 
(or Conqueror of the Eight Karma, the great enemies), from 
which Jainism derives its name, Arhata (or Being worthy 
of Veneration), Arihanta (or Destroyer of Enemies) and 
Aruhanta or (One who has killed even the roots of karrna). 

Now,^ as the conqueror of karma and equipped with Maha- 
supreme knowledge, Mahavira began to teach his way, p^\^^^, 
and his first sermon was on the five great vows which we 
shall study later. 

The Jaina declare that Mahavira's great message to 
mankind was that birth is nothing and caste nothing, 
but karma everything, and on the destruction of karma 
future happiness depends. 

The Brahmans had laid stress on birth, and had insisted 
that, however bad a Brahman were, he would need to do 
small penance compared with what would be obligatory 
on even a righteous man of low caste. 

Mahavira's contemporary Buddha had taught that in 
desire lay the cause that led to rebirth ; that mental 

^ Or Samaka or Samaka. 

^ Or Rijukula, or Rijuvalika. 

^ If Mahavira had preached before he got Kevalajndnay\i\'5> sermons 
would have contained some mistakes ; now of course they were 

40 THE lifp: of mahAvira 

discipline was of supreme importance, and asceticism and 
austerity of no avail. Mahavira, on the contrary, laid the 
greatest stress on asceticism. In its glow karma could be 
burnt up, and only through austerities could one become 
a Tirthaiikara. 

Mahavira's first disciple was Gautama Indrabhuti, who 
in turn became a Kevali, and whose story we tell later. 
After instructing Gautama, Mahavira set off on his preach- 
ing tours in real earnest, and taught his Rule with great 
acceptance to all his warrior kinsfolk. Like Buddha, he 
preached first to the rich and aristocratic, and though his 
followers to-day are to be found more amongst the middle 
classes, his earliest supporters seem to have been rulers 
and petty kings. This may have been because they too 
disliked Brahman pretensions and were pleased that one 
of their own kinsfolk should lead a revolt against them. 
Mahavira's connexions through his mother Trisala must have 
been invaluable to him at the beginning of this work ; indeed, 
Dr. Jacobi thinks that the real meaning of the story about 
the removal of the embryo from one mother to another was 
to hide the fact that Mahavira was really the son of another 
and far less highly connected wife of the king, and to pre- 
tend that he was the son instead of the stepson of Trisala.-^ 
This of course the Jaina indignantly deny. The Digambara 
and Svetambara legends give the names of the different 
rulers Mahavira visited, and tell how Cetaka, king of Videha, 
became a patron of the order, and Kunika, king of Ahga, 
gave him the most cordial welcome, and how, when he 
travelled as far as KausambI, he was received with the 
greatest honour by its king Satanika, who listened with 
deep interest to his preaching, and eventually entered 
his order. The Digambara claim that in thirty years he 
converted to Jainism Magadha, Bihar, Prayaga, Kau- 
sambI, Campapurl and many other powerful states in 
North India. They believe that he did not travel alone, 
^ See Introduction, S. B. E.^ xxii, p. xxxi. 


but that everywhere he went he was accompanied by all 
the monks and nuns who had entered his order (eventually 
these amounted to fourteen thousand persons), and that 
magnificent halls of audience were erected for him to preach 
in. He preached in a language which they call An-aksari, 
which was unintelligible to the common people, so Gau- 
tama acted as his interpreter and translated all he said 
into Magadhi. 

According to the Digambara again, the place Mahavira 
loved best of all was Rajagriha, the capital of Magadha. 
Its king Srenika, with his whole army, had gone out to do 
honour to the saint on his first entry into the country and 
had been won over by him. The king asked sixty thou- 
sand questions concerning the faith, and all of them being 
satisfactorily answered by Gautama, he entered the order 
and became one of the staunchest champions of Jainism. 

The Svetambara have recorded the names of the places 
where Mahavira stayed during each rainy season, and 
they cover a period of forty-one years. First, they say, 
he went to Asthikagrama (the village of bones). The 
name of this village, the commentators declare, was 
originally Vardhamana (the Kathiawad Jaina believe it 
to have been identical with the modern Wadhwan) ; but 
an evil demon, Yaksa, collected there an enormous heap of 
bones belonging to all the people he had killed, and on this 
heap the inhabitants built a temple, hence the change 
of name. 

Mahavira then spent three rainy seasons in Campa and 
Pristicampa (Bihar). As a prophet he cannot have been 
without honour in his own country, for he spent twelve 
monsoons at Vaisall and its suburb Vanijyagrama, doubtless 
recruiting for his order, which, having at its head the 
brother of their king, naturally held out many attractions 
to the inhabitants. He was also able to win over all the 
members of the order of Parsvanatha to which he had 
originally belonged. He paid even more visits to Rajagriha, 


where, as the Svetambara and Digambara both agree, he 
was much beloved, and whose inhabitants prevailed on him 
to return fourteen times. Another favourite resort, Mithila, 
has provided the Jaina ascetics with a proverb : ' If Mithila 
burns, what have I to lose ? ' ; and it must have been a place 
of considerable importance, for Mahavira spent six mon- 
soons there, and its kings, as we know from other sources, 
were men of high standing and culture. The great ascetic 
spent two rainy seasons in Bhadrika, and then just for one 
monsoon he went to Alabhika, to Punitabhumi, and to 
Sravasti in turn, and his last monsoon he spent at Papa 
(or Pampa). 

It will be noticed how closely these travels of Mahavira 
resemble those of Buddha, and this, and the fact that 
they never met^ led to a doubt of Mahavlra's separate exis- 
tence. It must have required no small tact to have won 
over the members of an order to which he had once belonged 
and afterwards left, but, despite this tact, Mahavira seems 
never to have possessed the personal charm which Buddha 
had, a charm which even Western people can feel to-day 
as they read his story ; but the Jaina leader certainly 
possessed a greater power of organization (a gift which 
seldom goes with charm), and to this faculty we owe the 
existence of Jainism in India to-day. 

The work of Mahavira during these years must have 
closely resembled that of the Dominican or Franciscan 
monks who (owing how much of their inspiration to him 
and his compeers we do not know) were to wander over 
Europe centuries later. 

About a year after gaining Omniscience Mahavira became 
a Tirthahkara, one of those who show the true way across 
the troubled ocean of life. The path Mahavira pointed 
out for others to follow lay in becoming a member of one 
of the four Tirtha — a monk, or nun, if possible, otherwise 
a devout layman or lay woman. 

We come now to the closing scene of Mahavlra's life. 


He died in his seventy-second year, some fifty years before The 
his rival and contemporary Buddha.^ Modern research has ^^J - 
shown that the traditional dates for his birth and death,^ vira. 
599 B.C. and 527 B.C., cannot be far wrong. 

Mahavira's last rainy season was spent in Papa, the 
modern Pavapurl, a small village in the Patna district 
which is still held sacred by the Jaina. The king of Papa, 
Hastipala, was a patron of Mahavira's, and, according to 
some accounts, it was in his ' office of the writers ' that 
the saint died. Sitting in the Samparyahka position, he 
delivered the fifty-five lectures that explain the results 
of karma and recited the thirty-six unasked questions 
(i. e. the Uttarddhyayana Sutra), and having finished his 
great lecture on Marudeva he died all alone, and cut asunder 
the ties of birth, old age and death. ^ 

Legends have gathered as thickly round Mahavira's 
death as round his birth. One tells how nearly all the 
ruling chiefs of the country had gathered to hear his dis- 
courses, and how the saint preached to them with wonder- 
ful eloquence for six days ; then on the seventh he took 
his seat upon a diamond throne in the centre of a magni- 
ficent hall, which had been specially built for him on the 
borders of a lake. His hearers had arranged themselves 
into twelve grades according to their rank, for all were 
there from the king to the beggar. It was a dark night, 
but the hall was brilliantly illumined by the supernatural 
glow that issued from the gods who had come to listen to 
the illustrious preacher. Mahavira preached all night, 
and towards dawn his hearers fell Asleep. The saint knew 
by his Sukladhyana that his end was drawing nigh, so he 
sat reverently with clasped hands and crossed knees (the 
Samparyahka position), and, just as the morning dawned, 

1 Hoernle, A.S.B., p. 42. Buddha's dates are 557-477 B-C. 
^ The word the Jaina prefer to use instead of Death is Mrityu 
Mahotsava or Great Death Festival. 
^ Kaipa Sutra, S. B. E., xxii, p. 264 ff. _ 


he attained Nirvana, and the people awakened only to find 
their lord was dead. 

Now at last Mahavira was freed ; his forty-two years 
as a monk with all their self-denial and austerities had 
completely exhausted his karma. He had, unaided, worked 
out his own salvation, and never again could the accumu- 
lated energy of his past actions compel him to be reborn, 
for all their force was spent. The Jaina say there are two 
Terrible Ones who dog the soul, like policemen attending 
a prisoner : one is called Birth and one Death, ' He who 
is born must die some day or other, and he who is dead 
must be born in some form or other.' These two Terrible 
Ones had no longer any power over Mahavira, for the 
chain of karma that bound him to them had been snapped, 
and never again could the prisoner be sentenced to life. 

All of Mahavlra's disciples had been present at his death, 
save the chief of them, Gautama Indrabhuti. This earliest 
disciple knew that he could never attain omniscience 
whilst he was attached to a human being ; nevertheless, 
he could not conquer his love for his master. On the 
night of Mahavlra's death he had been sent on some mis- 
sion, and whilst absent he was able to overcome this last 
tie of friendship, and having attained Kevala jfiana,-^ he 
returned to find the master, whom he no longer loved, dead 
and the people mourning. 

The kings who were present on the night that Mahavira 
died instituted an illumination to commemorate him, for 
they said, ' Since the light of intelligence is gone, let us 
make an illumination of material matter ' ; ^ and this the 
Jaina claim to be the origin of the yearly festival of lamps, 
Divali, which the Hindus and they alike observe. 

Some Digambara give a different version of the saint's 

^ It was only for sixty-four years after Mahavlra's death that it was 
possible for any one to obtain Kevala jiiana, but during that time not 
only Gautama but also Sudharma (on Gautama's death) and Jambu 
(on Sudharma's death) became omniscient. 

^ Kalpa Siitra^ S. 13. £"., xxii, p. 266. 


death, according to which they say that there was neither 
hall, illumination, nor audience, but that Mahavira died 
quietly and alone, and when he had passed away only his 
nails and hair were left, all else had dried up and dis- 
appeared with his karma. A new body was made from 
these relics, which was duly cremated with all fitting 

Mahavira's enemies record yet another version — that the 
saint died in a fit of apoplectic rage. But this hardly 
accords with the character of the man, nor with his prob- 
able physical condition after such prolonged austerities. 

Both Digambara and Svetambara Jaina love to visit 
Pavapurl at the feast of Divali. There are several small 
temples there belonging to both sects, but the main temple 
is the one which contains the footprints of Mahavira, and 
a narrow stone bridge leads to this shrine over a lake on 
which bloom white and red lotus lilies. 

Mahavira, or rather his jiva, the more orthodox Jaina Previous 
believe, passed through many incarnations previous to his J^carna- 
birth as Mahavira. Some of the more modern members Maha- 
of the community believe these to be purely legendary, ^""''^• 
but they illustrate the Jaina view of karma so pictorially 
as to be worth quoting here. 

Once upon a time Mahavira was incarnate as a carpenter 
called Nayasara, who worked at his trade in the jungle. 
One day he met there some tired, travel-worn Jaina sadhus, 
whom he took pity on and fed. They preached to him 
in return the Jaina creed, with the result that he became 
a convert. He met his death later through a branch of 
a tree falling on him, and was reborn as Marici, the grand- 
son of Risabhadeva, the first Tirthafikara. 

This was the most famous of his early incarnations, and 
during it he became a Jaina sadhu through listening to 
a sermon of Risabhadeva's. However, he found the life 
of an ascetic as usually practised very hard, and the 
hardest part of all was to remember to control speech, 


word and act, which the Jaina call the three Danda. This 
difficulty he evaded by an ingenious mechanical pun. The 
word Danda or stick is the same as the word Danda that 

• • • • 

connotes the three controls he found it so hard to exercise, 
so he gathered together three sticks and preached far and 
wide the comforting doctrine that any ascetic might do 
what he liked and linger at will on the primrose path of 
dalliance, provided he carried in his hand three rods. He 
gained a disciple, Kapila, who preached the doctrine even 
more vigorously than his master. 

Mahavira was then reborn a god, and in his next birth was 
born as a Brahman, and after that he was born alternately 
as a god and a Brahman, with the occasional interlude 
of being born a king, for countless ages. He was once the 
famous king Vasudeva or Triprista, and during this incar- 
nation he wrought so many evil deeds that he was con- 
demned to spend his next rebirth in hell (Naraka) ; from 
there he issued forth in his following incarnation as a lion. 
When a lion he slew so many people that his evil karma 
condemned him once more to Naraka for an incarnation ; 
when that was over he became a god, and then a Brahman, 
and, alternating between the two, he at last arrived at his 
twenty-seventh and most famous incarnation as Mahavira. 
During his incarnation as Marici he had learned ^ that he 
was to be the twenty-fourth and last Tirthahkara, where- 
upon he had been so overcome with pride and joy and 
had shown so much conceit, that he had accumulated 
a great weight of karma ; it was this that very nearly 
resulted in his being born a Brahman, but fortunately his 
karma was exhausted just before his birth in time to 
admit of his embryo being removed from ' the beggarly 
Brahman stock ' to the womb of a Ksatriya lady. 

The Jaina women have a story to account for the dis- 

^ King Bharala had once asked his father Risabhadeva who would 
be among the next Tirthankara, and Risabhadeva had pointed to Marici 
who was sitting last in the assembly. 


appointment of the poor Brahman lady Devananda, which 
was due, they say, to her evil karma. In a previous 
incarnation Devananda and Trisala had been sisters-in- 
law, and Devananda had taken advantage of their intimacy 
to steal a priceless jewel from Trisala, and so, by the auto- 
matic working of the law of karma, which invariably 
makes the punishment fit the crime, her jewel of a son 
was removed from her and given to the woman she had 



mahAvira'S predecessors and disciples 

Pars- Parsvanatha, the Tirthankara who immediately pre- 

' ceded Mahavira, may also have been an historical person. 
Very probably he did something to draw together and 
improve the discipline of the homeless monks who were 
outside the pale of Brahmanism, much as St. Benedict did 
in Europe. If so, he was the real founder of Jainism, 
Mahavira being only a reformer who carried still further 
the work that Parsvanatha had begun. 

The Jaina say that Parsvanatha was born in what is 
now the city of Benares about 817 b. c. His father, 
Asvasena, was the king of that town, and to his mother. 
Queen Vama, were granted the wonderful dreams which 
always foretell the birth of a Tirthankara. Before he was 
born, his mother, lying in the dark, saw a black serpent 
crawling about by her side, and so gave her little son the 
name of Parsva. All his life Parsvanatha was connected 
with snakes, for when he was grown up he was once able 
to rescue a serpent from grave danger. A Brahman 
ascetic was kindhng a fire, without noticing whether in 
so doing he was destroying life or not, when Parsvanatha 
happened to pass and drew from the log the Brahman was 
lighting a poor terrified snake that had taken up its abode 
in the w^ood. 

Whilst in the world, Parsvanatha bore himself with 
great credit ; he was a brave warrior and defeated the 
Yavana king of Kalihga, and he eventually married Pra- 
bhavat!, daughter of Prasannajita, king of Ayodhya. 

At the age of thirty he renounced the world and became 
f an ascetic with the same ceremonies that have been de- 
scribed in the case of Mahavira. In order to gain Omni- 

mahAvira's predecessors 49 

science he practised austerities for eighty-three days, and 
during this time an enemy, Kamatha, caused a heavy 
downpour of rain to fall on him, so that these austerities 
might be made as trying to flesh and blood as possible. 
Now this enemy was no one else than the Brahman ascetic 
whose carelessness in a previous incarnation had so nearly 
caused the death of the poor snake. But if Parsvanatha's 
enemies were active, his grateful friends were no less 
mindful of him, and the snake, who by now had become 
the god Dharanendra, held a serpent's hood over the 
ascetic, and sheltered him as with an umbrella ; and to this 
day the saint's symbol is a hooded serpent's head. On 
the eighty-fourth day Parsvanatha obtained Kevala jfiana 
seated under a Dhataki tree near Benares. 

He now became the head of an enormous community, 
his mother and wife being his first disciples. Followed 
by these, he preached his doctrines for seventy years, until 
at last his karma was exhausted, and, an old man of 
a hundred years, he reached deliverance at last on Mount 
Sameta Sikhara in Bengal, which was thenceforth known 
as the Mount of Parsvanatha. 

Parsvanatha made four vows binding on the members The four 
of his community : not to take life, not to lie, not to steal p^^f ^^ 
and not to own property. He doubtless felt that the vow of natha. 
chastity and celibacy was included under the last two heads, 
but in the two hundred and fifty years that elapsed between 
his death and the coming of Mahavira, abuses became so 
rife that the latter was forced to add another vow — that of 
chastity — to those already enumerated. This he did by divid- 
ing the vow of property specifically into two, one part relating 
to women and the other to material possessions. Some Jaina, 
however, believe that Parsvanatha's four vows were those 
of non-killing, non-lying, non-stealing and chastity, that 
it was the promise to keep nothing as one's own possession 
that Mahavira added to these, and that it was in order to 
keep this vow that Mahavira himself went about naked. 



mahAvira's predecessors 


Another reform which they say Mahavira introduced was 
the making confession compulsory instead of optional for 
monks. All these traditions bear out the idea that Maha- 
vira was a reformer rather than a founder of his faith and 
order, and that the rule of Parsvanatha had not been found 
in practice sufficiently stringent. 

The Twenty-two Earlier Tirthahkara. 

We have begun our survey of Jaina legend with the 
birth of Mahavira, but no Jaina historian would do that. 
The Jaina firmly believe that theirs is the oldest religion 
in India, and delight to quote many passages ^ from the 
Veda which prove to them that Jainism existed before 
the Veda were written and cannot therefore be an offshoot 
of Brahmanism, as most scholars believe. They reject 
the old theory ^ that Gautama Indrabhuti revolted from 
Jainism and became the founder of Buddhism, and claim 
Buddhism as a late offshoot of Jainism, telling the follow- 
ing legend to prove it. During the interval between the 
days of Parsvanatha and those of Mahavira there lived 
a certain Jaina monk called Buddha Kirti, who was well 
learned in the scriptures. One day he was performing 
austerities by the side of the river Sarayu in Palasa Nagara, 
and as he sat there he saw a dead fish floating by him. 
As he watched it, he reflected that there could be no harm 
in eating the flesh of dead fish, for there was no soul within 
it. This thought inspired him, the Jaina say, to found 
a new religion ; he left his austerities, assumed red gar- 
ments, and preached Buddhism. 

According to the Jaina, the best way to begin the study 
of their history is through the stories of the Tirthankara. 
We have studied the lives of the two latest Tirthankara, 
Parsvanatha, the twenty-third, and Mahavira, the twenty- 

^ See, for instance, Jain Itihds series, No. i, a lecture by Lala 
Benarsi Dass, M.A., Agra, 1902. 

^ They declare that this mistake was never made by Jaina, only by 
European scholars. 


fourth ; but the Jaina have legends regarding each one 
of their predecessors. 

The first Tirthankara was born when the world had i. Risa- 
passed out of its happiest stage and was in the era ofoj-Adi^^ 
Susama Dusama.^ A Rajput king had a little son born to natha. 
him, whom his mother called Risabhadeva, because in her 
dream she had seen a bull {risabha) coming towards her. 
Risabhadeva (also called Adinatha) taught men seventy- two 
arts and women sixty-four, for these have only to be skilled 
in domestic and not in literary and industrial crafts ; but 
his great glory lies in the fact that he first taught men the 
Jaina faith. He lived for eighty-four lakhs of purva of time, 
of which he spent only one lakh of purva as an ascetic. 
Risabhadeva had one hundred sons (amongst whom was 
the famous king Bharata) ; their height was five hundred 
bow-shots. This first Tirthankara attained moksa from 
Astapada (or Kailasa) in the modern Himalayas. 

The world grew steadily worse, and in fifty lakhs of crores 2. Ajita- 
of sagara of time the next Tirthankara, Ajitanatha, was "^^"^* ■ 
born in Ayodhya. After his birth all his father's enemies 
were conquered {jita), hence his name, * the invincible one '. 
He was born in the period called Dusama Susama, and all 
the remaining Tirthankara were born in the same period. 
His sign, which one sees on all his images in the temples, 
is an elephant. During his life he himself earned the title 
of Victorious, for he was so devout an ascetic that he was 
beaten by none in performing austerities. He attained 
moksa together with a thousand other Sadhus. 

After thirty more lakhs of crores of sagara Sambhava- 3. Sam- 
natha, the third Tirthankara, was born in SravastI of Rajput bhava- 
parents. The king his father had been distressed to see the 
way his dominions were ravaged by plague and famine, but 
when he heard the good news of the boy's birth, he felt 
there was a chance {sambhava) of better times coming, hence 
the boy's name. He too was able to persuade a thousand 

^ Otherwise': Susama Duhsama. 
E 2 


ascetics to join his community or sartgha, who eventually 
all attained moksa with him. His emblem is the horse. 

4. Abhi- The fourth Tirthankara owes his name to the fact that 
nandana- ^^^ g^^ Indra used to come down and worship [ahhinanda] 

him in Vanita, where his parents, Samvara and Siddartha 
Ram, ruled. He attained moksa accompanied by a thou- 
sand monks, as indeed did all the first eleven Tirthankara 
except Suparsvanatha. Abhinandana has the ape for his 
sign ; he was born ten lakhs of crores of sagara of time 
after his predecessor. His height was three hundred and 
fifty bow-shots. 

5. Suma- The legend about the fifth Tirthankara, Sumatinatha, 
tinatha. |g ^lore interesting ; he was born in Kahkanapura, where 

his father, a Rajput named Megharatha, was king ; his 
mother's name was Sumahgala. The child was called 
Sumatinatha, because even before his birth his mother's 
intellect {sumati) was so sharpened. To prove the queen's 
ability, a story is told resembling that of the judgement 
of Solomon. An old Brahman died, leaving two wives ; 
both women claimed the only son as theirs, and the dispute 
was taken to the queen to settle, who decreed, as Solomon 
did (and with similar results), that the living child should 
be cut in two. This Tirthahkara's sign is sometimes given 
as a red goose, but others say it is a red partridge. He 
was born nine lakhS of crores of sagara after Abhinandana, 
and his height was three hundred bow-shots. 

6. Pad- Susima, the mother of the sixth Tirthankara, longed 
mapra- before his birth to sleep on a bed of red lotuses [padma), 

with the result that her son was always the colour of a red 
lotus, which flower he took for his emblem. His father, Dhara, 
was the Rajput king of Kausambi. Padmaprabhu was born 
ninety thousandcrores of sagara of time after his predeces- 
sor ; his height was two hundred and fifty bow-shots. 

7. Supar- The father of the next Tirthankara was the Rajput king 
svanatha. q£ Benares ; but his wife suffered from leprosy in both 

her sides. This dreadful disease was cured before the 


child's birth, so he was given the name of Su (good) pdrsva 
(side). His emblem is the Svastika symbol •- 



the other earlier Tirthahkara he attained moksa with only 
five hundred companions. Nine thousand crores of sagara 
of time had elapsed since the death of his predecessor, and 
his height was two hundred bow-shots. 

After a further interval of nine hundred crores of sagara 8. Can- 
of time the eighth Tirthankara was born ; his height was ^J'^P'^^" 
one hundred and fifty bow-shots. Before his birth his 
mother (the wife of the Rajput king of Candrapuri) longed 
to drink the moon [candra). To assuage her craving, a plate 
of water was one night handed to her in such a way that the 
moon was reflected in it ; when the child was born, he was 
found to be as bright and white as the moon, which accord- 
ingly became his emblem, and he was called Candraprabhu. 

Two names are given to the next Tirthahkara. Owing 9. Suvi- 
to the peace he brought to a distracted family, all of whose dhinatha. 
kingly relatives were warring against one another, he is 
called Suvidhinatha, for on his birth they gave up fighting 
and took instead to performing their religious duties 
(suvidhi) ; but as his teeth were so beautiful that they 
resembled the buds of an exquisite flower (puspa), he was 
also called Puspadanta. There is a dispute over his emblem : 
the Svetambara say it is the crocodile, while certain Digam- 
bara declare it is the crab. Ninety crores of sagara elapsed 
before his birth, and his height was one hundred bow-shots. 

The tenth Tirthahkara had a marvellous power of im- 10. Sita- 
parting coolness (slta/atd) to fevefed patients. Before his .^"^^'^a- 
birth his mother laid her hand on her husband, the 
Rajput king of Bhaddilapura, and immediately the fever 
which had defied all the efforts of his physicians left him, 
and all his life long the saint had a similar power, hence 
his name, Sitalanatha, , Lord of Coolness. His sign is 

' — Lj-i , or according to the Digam- 

the Srivatsa svastika ■ 1 ■ , 

T 'T' l— 

bara, the Ficus religiosa. 'His height was ninety bow-shots. 

54 mahAvira's predecessors 

and the interval of time between him and his predecessor 
was nine crores of sagara. 

11. Sre- King Visnudeva, who ruled in SirhhapurT, possessed 
n'atha^" ^ most beautiful throne, but unfortunately an evil spirit 

took up his abode in it, so that no one dare sit there. His 
wife, however, so longed to sit on it that she determined 
to do so at any risk ; to every one's astonishment she was 
quite uninjured, so, when her son was born, he was named 
Sreyamsanatha, the Lord of Good, for already he had 
enabled his mother to cast out an evil spirit and so do 
a world of good [sreydvisa). His sign is the rhinoceros; 
one crore of sagara of time had intervened before his 
birth ; and his height was eighty bow-shots. 

12. Vasu- Before the birth of the twelfth Tirthankara the gods 
pujya. Indra and Vasu used to go and worship the father of the 

future saint, and as the father's name was Vasupuja and 
the god Indra used to give him jewels called vasu, the 
child was naturally enough called Vasupujya. His sign 
is the male buffalo, and he passed to moksa from his birth- 
place, Campapuri, accompanied by six hundred Sadhus. 
Fifty-four sagara of time had intervened, and his height 
was seventy arrow-shots. 

i3.Vima- The sign of the thirteenth Tirthankara is the boar. 

lanatha. f^g got his name Vimalanatha, Lord of Clearness, through 
the clearness [vimalatd) of intellect with which he endowed 
his mother before his birth, and which she displayed in 
the following manner. A certain man and his wife un- 
wisely stayed in a temple inhabited by a female demon, 
who, falling in love with the husband, assumed his real 
wife's form. The miserable man was quite unable to 
tell which was his true wife, and asked the king of Kam- 
pilapura to distinguish between them. It was the queen, 
however, who solved the difficulty. She knew the long 
reach that witches and only witches have, and telling the 
husband to stand a long distance off, challenged the two 
wives to prove their chastity by touching him. Both 


tried their utmost, but, of course, the human wife could 
not reach so far, whereas the demon wife did and thus 
showed her real character. Vimalanatha had six hundred 
companions to moksa. Thirty sagara of time had passed 
before his birth, and his height was sixty bow-shots. 

There was an endless [ananta] thread which lay about i4.Anan- 
quite powerless in Ayodhya ; but after the king's wife had ^^-natha. 
given birth to the fourteenth Tirthahkara, it became 
endued with power to heal diseases ; this event, com- 
bined with the fact that his mother had seen an endless 
necklace of pearls, decided the child's name. Ananta- 
natha's birth was divided from his predecessor's death by 
nine sagara of time, and his height was fifty bow-shots. 
His sign is the hawk, or, according to the Digambara, 
the bear. 

The fifteenth Tirthahkara was born four sagara of time 15. Dhar- 
after Anantanatha's Nirvana, and his height was only manatha. 
forty-five bow-shots. His parents were the Rajput king 
and queen of Ratnapuri, and before his birth they exhibited 
such new zeal in the performance of their rehgious duties 
{dharma), that the child was given the name of Lord of 
Religion, Dharmanatha. He attained moksa with eight 
hundred monks. His sign is a thunderbolt. 

After the nirvana of the ninth Tirthahkara, Suvidhi- 16. San- 
natha, the Jaina faith disappeared until the birth of the ^^"^"^^• 
tenth Tirthahkara, who revived it; on his nirvana it dis- 
appeared again, but was revived on the birth of the eleventh ; 
and this continued to be the case until the birth of San- 
tinatha, the sixteenth Tirthahkara, after which it never 
disappeared again. The parents of this Tirthahkara ruled 
in Hastinapura three sagara of time after Dharmanatha's 
nirvana. It happened that plague was raging. Before 
Santinatha's birth, however, his mother was able to stay 
the course of the pestilence by sprinkling the sufferers 
with water ; so when the child was born he was called 
Santinatha, or Lord of Peace [sdnti). The special interest 


of this saint lies in the fact that he was the first Tlrthafi- 
kara to become a cakravarti/ or emperor of the whole 
of Bharata (i. e. India). Santinatha's height was forty 
bow-shots, and his emblem is the deer. He attained 
moksa from Mt. Parsvanatha in Bengal in company with 
nine hundred Sadhus. With the exception of four,^ all 
the Tirthahkara passed to nirvana from this hill. 

17. Kun- After half a palya of time the seventeenth Tirthankara 
thunatha. ^^,^g j^qj-j^ [^ Gajapurl, where his parents, King Sivaraja and 

Queen Sridevi, reigned. Before his birth his mother saw 
a heap [kuntha) of jewels ; during his life people began to 
show greater kindness to insects [kunthu), and the power 
of his father's enemies was stunted [kuntha). Kunthuna- 
tha's sign was the goat, and he was thirty-five bow-shots 
in height. He, like his predecessor, became an emperor, 
and obtained moksa from Parsvanatha, but accompanied 
by a thousand companions. 

18. Ara- Queen Devi, wife of King Sudarsana of Hastinapura, 
natha. gg^^y ^ vision of a bank of jewels before the birth 

of her son, the eighteenth Tirthankara, who was born 
a quarter palya of time after Kunthunatha. Aranatha was 
thirty bow-shots in height, his emblem is the third kind 
of svastika (the Nandavartta), he was also an emperor, 
and he passed to moksa from Sameta Sikhara (Mt. Pars- 
vanatha) with a thousand monks. 

19. Mai- The nineteenth Tirthankara is the most interesting of all, 
linatha. £qj. owing to deceitfulness in a previous life this saint was 

born as a woman ; ^ having, however, done all the twenty 
things that make an ascetic a Tirthahkara, nothing could 
prevent his becoming one, but his previous deceitfulness 
resulted in his becoming a female Tirthahkara. She was 
born in Mithila, where her parents. King Kumbera and 

^ There have been twelve of these great rulers, and these with the 
twenty-four Tirthankara, nine Bajadeva, nine Vasudeva, and nine 
Prati-vasudeva make up the sixty-three Great Heroes of the Jaina. 

* Risabhadeva, Vasupujya, Neminatha and Mahavlra. 

^ See p. 121. 


Queen Prabhavati, ruled. Before her birth her mother 
longed to wear a garland [malli) woven of the flowers of all 
seasons, and the gods and goddesses themselves brought 
the flowers to gratify her desire. Malhnatha's symbol is 
a water-jar, and she also passed to moksa from Sameta 
Sikhara. Her height was twenty-five bow-shots. The 
Digambara, who deny that any woman can pass to moksa 
without rebirth as a man, deny of course that Mallinatha 
could have been a woman. Another point of interest is 
that the time between the Tirthankara can now be 
measured by years, and this nineteenth Tirthankara was 
born a thousand crores of years after the eighteenth. 

Before the birth of Munisuvrata, his mother, the wife 20. Mu- 
of King Sumitra of Rajagriha, kept all the beautiful vows "isuvrata. 
of Jainism [su vrata, good vows) as devoutly as if she had 
been an ordinary woman and not a queen ; hence the child's 
name. Hisheight was twenty bow-shots; he was born fifty- 
four lakhs of years after the last Tirthankara. His parents, 
while Ksatriya or Rajputs, belonged to the Hari dynasty, 
whereas all the other Tirthankara, save the twenty-second, 
belonged to the Iksvaku family. His symbol is the tor- 

The twenty-first Tirthankara was born in Mathura after 21. Na- 
an interval of only six lakhs of years. His father. King "^i^^tha, 
Vijya, was engaged in an apparently hopeless warfare with 
his enemies, but the astrologers declared that if his wife, 
Queen Vipra, showed her face on the city wall (this was 
before the time of the zenana system) the enemy would 
bow down (nama) with fear and flee away. This all hap- 
pened, and the child was named accordingly. Naminatha 
was fifteen bow-shots in height, his emblem is the blue 
lotus, and he attained mok?a from Sameta Sikhara together 
with a thousand ascetics. 22. Ne- 

The twenty-second Tirthankara (like the twentieth) is minatha, 
always represented as black ; before his birth his mother, Nem?-^"^ 
the wife of Samudravijaya, king of Sauripura, saw a wheel natha. 

58 mahAvira's predecessors 

(nenii) of black jewels {arista). Kri§na and his brother 
Baladeva lived at this time, and were cousins of Nemi- 
natha's. This Tirthahkara was ten bow-shots in height, 
and his sign was the conch shell. Unlike most of the 
other Tirthahkara, he attained mok$a from Girnar in 

The twenty-third and twenty-fourth Tirthahkara are 
respectively Parsvanatha and Mahavira. 

The Followers of Mahavira. 

Maha- The peculiar temptations with which an ascetic's life 

unruly ^^^ beset are illustrated for us in the life of Gosala, an 
disciple early antinomian. He seems to have been the head of 
' a body of unclothed anchorites, a section of the Ajivika 
monks, and joined forces with Mahavira whilst the latter 
was still practising austerities before the period of his 
enlightenment. Gosala, Dr. Hoernle suggests in his ex- 
haustive article on the Ajivikas,^ may either have been 
moved by a desire to learn the tricks of Mahavlra's trade, 
or else the strong stern personality of the great ascetic 
may have had an irresistible attraction for the weaker 
sensual nature. At any rate, for six years they lived 
together, but a permanent association was impossible 
between a man like Mahavira and one of Gosala's tricky, 
unreliable disposition. 

There seems no doubt that they separated owing to 
some act of unchastity on Gosala's part, and this had the 
natural effect of opening Mahavlra's eyes to the special 
temptation besetting wandering mendicants. An added 
element of bitterness would be caused by the disciple 
venturing to preach before the master felt himself qualified 
to do so, for whilst Mahavira waited twelve years before 
teaching his Way, Gosala preached after only six. 

It was probably owing to Gosala's conduct that Mahavira 

^ E. R. £"., vol. i. 


added the vow of chastity to the four vows of Parsva- 
natha's order, and all through the Jaina scriptures one 
seems to find references to this unworthy disciple. ' A 
wise man should consider that these (heretics) do not live 
a life of chastity.' ^ ' In the assembly he pronounces holy 
(words), yet secretly he commits sins ; but the wise know 
him to be a deceiver and great rogue.' ^ A dialogue is 
given between a disciple of Mahavira's, called Ardraka, and 
Gosala, in which Gosala, hke many another impenitent, 
tries to defend himself by finding fault with his old leader, 
and takes up an antinomian position : ' according to our 
Law an ascetic, who lives alone and single, commits no 
sin if he uses cold water, eats seeds, accepts things pre- 
pared for him, and has intercourse with women.' ^ 

The references to Gosala in the Buddhist books, though 
slighter, bear out the same idea of his character. Dr. 
Hoernle mentions Buddha's well-known abhorrence of 
Gosala, and tells how Buddha classified the ascetic systems 
differing from his own into those whose members lived in 
incontinency and those which could only be condemned 
as unsatisfying — placing Gosala amongst the former. 

Gosala obtained this his best-known name through 
having been born in a cowshed, but he is also known by 
another name, that of Mahkhali Putra, which the Jaina 
say was given to him because he was the illegitimate son 
of a monk. If there were this piteous taint in his blood 
it would account for his strange dual nature, his strivings, 
and his failure. After he left Mahavira, he and his followers 
seem to have lived in open defiance of all the laws of 
ascetic life, expressed or implied, and to have made their 
head-quarters in the premises of a potter woman in the 
town of Sravastl. There after sixteen years Mahavira 
found him and exposed his real character. Gosala had 
previously tried to justify himself by adopting not only 

^ Sutra Kritdhga, S. ^. £"., xlv, p. 245. 

^ Ibid., xlv, p. 273, ' Ibid., xiv, p. 411. 

6o mahAvira's predecessors 

an antinomian position, but also one of absolute fatalism, 
in which he declared that all things were absolutely fixed 
and so man was relieved of all moral responsibihty. Now 
he brought forward another doctrine, that of re-animation, 
by which he explained to Mahavira that the old Gosala 
who had been a disciple of his was dead, and that he who 
now animated the body of Gosala was quite another 
person ; this theory, however, deceived nobody, and Go- 
sala, discredited in the eyes of the townspeople, fell lower 
and lower, and at last died as a fool dieth. Just before 
the end, however, the strange duality of his nature again 
asserted itself, and, acknowledging that all that Mahavira 
had said against him was true, and that he had left the 
true faith and preached a false one, he directed his own 
disciples to drag his body through the town by a rope 
for people to spit at, and to bury him with every mark 
of shame. •'^ This command they naturally did not carry 
out, nor would it have been necessary for us so long after 
his death to have discussed this unhappy man, but for the 
profound effect his life had on the formulation of Mahavira's 

Gosala is of importance to those of us who are trying to 
understand Jainism for two reasons : the sin and shame 
of his life emphasized the need for stringent rules for the 
order ; and the doctrine of absolute fatalism was shown 
to result in non-moral conduct. Jainism avoids this 
determinism, as we shall see later, by teaching that, though 
karma decides all, we ourselves can affect our past karma 
by our present life. 

** Some Jaina believe that, because he so sincerely repented before 
his death, he went not to hell, but to one of the Devaloka, i.e. heavens, 
and is now, at the time of writing, in the Twelfth Devaloka, from 
which he will pass in another age to be a Tirthahkara. 


Other Disciples. 

The Svetambara tell the following story of the conver- Gautama 
sion of Mahavira's earliest and greatest disciple, Gautama i?4^?" 
Indrabhuti. It happened that once when Mahavira went 
to the city of Apapa to preach, a rich Brahman was pre- 
paring to offer a great animal sacrifice, and had invited 
Gautama Indrabhuti and his ten brothers to be present. 
They heard of the new teacher, and that he was denouncing 
the animal sacrifice at which they had assisted, and they 
were very much enraged at his audacity. They therefore 
determined to oppose him and expose the falseness of his 
teaching, but felt that they must first learn more of this 
new doctrine. They listened to Mahavira's discourses, 
and heard . the gentle, thoughtful answers he gave to all 
questioners, till at length, being convinced of the truth of 
his Way, they cast in their lot with his, and became his 
chief disciples or Ganadhara.^ 

The Digambara give a different account of Gautama's 
conversion. Indrabhuti was, they say, born of Brahman 
parents in a village called Govara, his father's name being 
Vasumati, and his mother's Prithv! ; ^ he became a very 
learned pandit and grew extremely vain of his learning. 
One day, however, an old man appeared and asked him 
to explain a certain verse to him. Mahavira had, the old 
man said, repeated the sloka to him, but had immediately 
afterwards become so lost in meditation that he could get 
no explanation of it from the saint^ and yet he felt that 
he could not live unless he knew the meaning. The verse 
contained references to Kd/a ^ and Dravya, Pailca Astikdya, 
Tattva and Lesyd,^ not one of which could Gautama under- 
stand, but being too true a scholar to pretend to a knowledge 
which he did not possess, he sought out Mahavira to ask 

^ At this time Candana, daughter of Dadhivahana, king of Campa, 
also entered the order and became the head of the nuns. 

^ Sanskrit Prithivl. ^ Sanskrit Kala. * Often written Lesd. 

62 mahAvira's predecessors 

for an explanation. The moment he was in the presence 
of the great ascetic all his pride in his fancied learning fell 
from him, and he besought Mahavira to teach him. He 
not only became a convert himself, but took over with him 
his five hundred pupils and his three ^ brothers. 

The Sthanakavasi tell yet a third story of Gautama's 
conversion. Indrabhuti was going to assist at a great 
sacrifice, but, to his surprise, he saw that all the gods, 
instead of going to the sacrifice, were going to hear an 
ascetic preach ! Gautama asked who the ascetic was, and, 
going to meet him, was astonished at being called by his 
own name. He was still more astonished when Mahavira 
proceeded to answer all the unspoken questions and solve 
all the doubts that had been in his mind about karma, 
jiva, moksa, &c. 

All sects beheve that, however converted, Gautama by 
his intense attachment to his master, was for long prevented 
from attaining Kevala jnana or Omniscience. 
A sermon The Uttaradhyayana records a sermon entitled The Leaf 
by Maha- ^y ^j^g j^y^^ which the Jaina say Mahavira preached to Gau- 
tama to try and help him to reach Kevala jnana. It is 
worth while studying it closely, ^ for it tells us much of 
Mahavira's doctrine. Mahavira warns Gautama that life 
will end sometime, even as the withered leaf of a tree 
must fall to the ground when its days are done ; and that 
its duration is as brief as that of a dew-drop clinging to 
a blade of grass. Only when the chances of rebirth have 
resulted in one's being born as a human being can one get 
rid of the result [karma) of past action. How rare is the 
opportunity; for one's soul might have been imprisoned 
for aeons in an earth, or a fire, or a wind body ; or it might 
have been clothed with a plant, an insect, or an animal 
form ; one might have been born in heaven or hell as a god 

^ According to other accounts there were only two brothers. 
^ This sermon the Jaina regard as containing the essence of their 


or a demon, but only to a human being is the chance of 
escape open. Even if one happens to be born as a man, 
one might not be born an Arya but only an aboriginal 
or a foreigner (to whom apparently Mahavira did not 
regard the way of escape as open) ; or if born as an Arya, 
one might not be capable or have the opportunity of 
intelligently hearing and believing the Law ; or again, 
one might not have the strength of will to choose the 
hard path of asceticism. As Gautama grows old and 
frail, this priceless opportunity which comes so seldom 
will gradually pass away from him, so Mahavira beseeches 
him to cast away every sort of attachment that might chain 
him to rebirth, and, since he has chosen the path of asceti- 
cism which leads to deliverance, to press on to the very 
end. * You have crossed the great ocean, why do you 
halt so near the shore ? Make haste to get on the other 
side and reach that world of perfection [nirvana] where 
there is safety and perfect happiness.' 

In the Uttaradhyayana it is recorded that the effect 
of this sermon was such as to enable Gautama to cut off 
love and reach perfection,^ but the Kalpa Sutra supports the 
current belief that it was not till the night that Mahavira 
died that this the oldest of his disciples ' cut asunder the 
tie of friendship which he had for his master, and obtained 
the highest knowledge and intuition called Kevala '.^ 

Gautama survived Mahavira for twelve years, and finally 
obtained nirvana at Rajagriha at the age of ninety-two, 
having lived fifty years as a monk. 

It will be remembered that ten^ of Indrabhuti's brothers 
attached themselves to the great ascetic at the same time 
that he did. They, too, must have been men of strong 
character, for three ^ of them became heads of communities. 

There was another great disciple of Mahavira called Su- 
Sudharma, who also survived him, and to whom we are ^^^^' 

' S.B.E., xlv, p. 46. ^ Ibid., xxii, p. 265, 

^ The numbers vary in different versions of the story. 

64 mahAvira'S disciples 

indebted for the Jaina scriptures. The Jaina say that 
Gautama Indrabhuti had become a Kevall and imparted 
knowledge which was the result of his own thinking, but 
Sudharma, not having attained omniscience, could only 
pass on the teaching of others.^ He therefore wrote out 
what he had heard his master say and compiled twelve 
Anga, eleven Upaiiga, and various other works. All that 
tradition states about Sudharma could be tersely expressed 
on a tombstone. He was born in a httle village called 
Kollaga, his father was a Brahman called Dhamila, and 
his mother's name was Bhaddila. He lived for fifty years 
as a householder before receiving ordination from Mahavira, 
and then followed him for thirty years. After Mahavira's 
death he became head of the community, and held that 
position for twelve years, till he too obtained Kevala jnana, 
whereupon the headship of the order passed to a disciple 
of his named Jambu Svami. It is said that Sudharma 
attained moksa when a hundred years old. 

^ This must surely be one of the earliest references to the difference 
between original work and compilation ! 



The Four Tlrtha. 

During Mahavira's lifetime he attracted a great number 
of disciples, both men and women, and from these grew the 
four orders of his community : monks, nuns, laymen and 

Chief amongst his followers were fourteen thousand Monks, 
monks (or muni) and at the head of these were eleven chief 
disciples or Ganadhara whom Jaina compare to the twelve 
disciples of our Lord, Gosala the twelfth corresponding to 
Judas. Mahavira had seen in the case of Gosala and others 
the special temptations and dangers which beset ascetics 
in their wandering hfe, and he resolved to combat these as 
well as he could by organization and regulations. He 
therefore divided his fourteen thousand followers into nine 
regular schools called Gaita and placed each school under 
the headship of one of his chief disciples or Ganadhara. 
The leading Ganadhara had five hundred monks under 
them, but some of the others had only three hundred or 
two hundred and fifty. 

Gautama was at the head of a school of five hundred, 
and so were his brothers Agnibhuti and Vayubhuti, his 
other brother Akampita ^ being at the head of three hundred 

Sudharma was at the head of another school of five 
hundred monks. 

Only two of these eleven Ganadhara, Gautama and 
Sudharma, survived Mahavira ; the others attained Kevala 
jfiana and died of voluntary starvation at Rajagriha before 
their master's death. 

^ The SthanakavasI Jaina do not believe that Akampita was the 
brother of Gautama ; they think he was only a friend. 



All the present Jaina monks are considered to be the 
spiritual descendants of Sudharma, for the other Ganadhara 
left no disciples. 

Nuns. Besides the fourteen thousand monks a great multitude 

of women followed Mahavira, and of these some thirty-six 
thousand, the Jaina say, actually left the world and 
became nuns. At their head (at least according to the 
Svetambara) was Candana, a first cousin of Mahavira's, 
or as other accounts have it, his aunt.-^ 

In those troublous times acts of oppression and violence 
must have often occurred, and it was such an act that led 
to Candana's becoming a nun. Once, as a girl, the story 
runs, Candana was walking in an open garden, when a 
wicked man named Vidyadhara saw her and, fascinated by 
her beauty, carried her off, meaning to take her to his own 
home. On his way thither he began to realize how dis- 
pleasing her presence in his house would be to his wife, so, 
without troubling to take her back to the garden where he 
had found her, he abandoned her in a forest. A hillman 
found her weeping there, took her to Kausambi and sold 
her to a wealthy merchant named Vrisabhasena, who in- 
stalled her in his house against his wife's will. The wife 
grew more and more jealous of her, for Candana's beauty 
increased every day, and ill-treated her in every possible 
way, clothing her in rags, feeding her on broken meats, 
and often beating her. Mahavira came and preached in 
Kausambi and poor Candana needed but little persuasion to 
convince her of how evil a place the world was ; gladly 
renouncing it she joined his community and eventually 
became the head of the nuns.^ 

Laymen. Mahavira's third order consisted of laymen ; these 

• • 

* Candana was the daughter of Cetaka, king of Vaisall ; and this 
Cetaka was either the brother or the father of Trisala, Mahavira's 

^ The SthanakavasI legend differs a good deal. Candana according 
to this was captured in warfare and sold by a soldier into the house 
where she was ill-treated. 


were householders who could not actually renounce the 
world, but who could and did keep his rule in a modified 
form, while their alms supported the professed monks. 
The genius for organization which Mahavira possessed is 
shown in nothing more clearly than in the formation of this 
and the order of laywomen. These two organizations 
gave the Jaina a root in India that the Buddhists never 
obtained, and that root firmly planted amongst the laity 
enabled Jainism, as we have seen, to withstand the storm 
that drove Buddhism out of India. The laymen,^ Srdvaka 
or Hearers as they were called, numbered during Maha- 
vlra's lifetime one hundred and fifty-nine thousand men.^ 
At the head of their order were Sankhajl and Satakaji. 
These Hearers numbered amongst their ranks many nobles 
of high rank and even kings, who were delighted to thus 
proclaim their opposition to the priestly pretensions of 
the Brahmans ; nowadays the Sravaka are almost entirely 
recruited from the mercantile classes. 

The fourth and last order consisted of devout laywomen Lay- 
or Sravika, whose household duties prevented their becom- '^^°"''^"- 
ing nuns, and who yet served the great ascetic in many ways. 
They numbered some three hundred and fifty-eight thousand, 
and at their head were two women Sulasa and Revati. Sulasa 
is considered the highest type of the purely domestic woman, 
the faithful wife or satl, and the Gujarat! Jaina women 
sing the following verse about her in the hymn of praise to 
the sixteen faithful wives which they chant every morning 
when they get up : 

Sulasa was a really faithful wife, there was no sham about her ! 

She found no pleasure in worldly delights. 

If we saw her face sins would flee away, 

If we mention her name our minds are filled with joy. 

Revati is typical of the generous woman who gladly gives 
alms to ascetics. Once when Mahavira was ill (injured 

* It is interesting to compare with these the Grihastha of the 
Hindus. ^ The Digambara say loo.coo. 

F 2 



through the magic fire the faithless Gosala had thrown at 
him) he felt that only one thing would cure him, and that 
was some of the jam which Revati made. Much as he 
longed for it, however, he warned his disciples that they were 
not to accept it unless Revati gave it gladly, for it was the 
very best jam ! However, Revati was so delighted to give 
it, and pressed it on the monks with such eagerness, that 
her name has ever since been a synonym for hospitality. 

The Great Leaders} 

Mahavira was during his lifetime the head of all the 
four orders in his community. After his death Gautama 
Indrabhuti, according to some authorities,^ succeeded him 
and continued to be the spiritual leader^ for twelve years; he 
was followed bySudharma, who held office for another twelve 
Jamba years. Jambu Svami, a pupil of Sudharma, succeeded his 
old master and led the community for twenty-four years ; he 
w^as the last Jaina to obtain Kevala jfiana, for after him both 
moksa and omniscience were closed to men.^ At the present 
time not only omniscience but also the degree of knowledge 
next below it, Manahparyaya jfiana, are lost to mankind. 

Jambu Svami is called ' the celibate ', and the following 
story is told of him. He was the son of a rich merchant 
in Rajagriha, and eight other rich merchants of the same 
town offered him their daughters in marriage. He (though 
not only already convinced through Sudharma's teaching 
of the higher virtue of the unmarried state, but having 

^ The following history is gleaned entirely from Jaina sources and 
represents what the Jaina say about themselves and their past. It 
was found impossible to include all the legends, so the selection 
was left to Jaina pandits who chose those which they considered of 
crucial importance for the comprehension of their religion. The dates, 
unless otherwise stated, are those given by the Jaina. 

^ According to others Gautama never held office, having become 
a KevalT. 

^ The word the GujaratI Jaina use for the spiritual headship is 

trrz t'^^t^'^- 

^ This was a sign of the degeneration of the Avasarpinl. 


actually taken a vow of perpetual celibacy !) offered no 
resistance to his father and eight would-be fathers-in-law, 
but married all the eight ladies. After the eight-fold mar- 
riage Jambu returned to his father's house, which that 
very night was attacked by Prabhava, the bandit son of 
Vindhya, king of Jaipur. The doughty robber had taken 
the precaution to weave a spell (for he was not only a prince 
and a robber but also a magician), which ought to have 
caused all: the inhabitants of the merchant's house to fall 
into a deep sleep ; but this aristocratic spell had no effect 
on Jambu. When Prabhava asked the reason, Jambu ex- 
plained that, as he was going to enter a spiritual career the 
next morning, spells had no power over him; Prabhava tried 
to dissuade him, and apparently their discussion aroused 
the eight wives of the celibate, for they joined their en- 
treaties with his. Jambu told them many moral tales 
showing the superior virtues of celibacy ; the ladies replied 
with other stories upholding the honour of the married state, 
but the palm lay with Jambu, for not only was he, with 
his parents' consent, initiated next morning by Sudharma, 
but in a few days Prabhava, the robber, also followed his 
example and renounced not only his habit of acquiring 
other people's property, but also his own possessions. 

Jambu attained moksa according to Jaina authorities Pra- 
in 403 B. c, and was succeeded by Prabhava, the erstwhile o"^^^- 
prince, robber and magician. It was no longer possible for 
any one to attain moksa, so Prabhava (who died 397 b. c.) 
was not immediately released from the cycle of rebirth; yet 
so famous a saint must eventually attain moksa, though he 
would first have to pass through one, three, five, or at most 
fifteen, rebirths. 

It was during this time that the two sects of Osavala Jaina 
and Srimala Jaina arose. It is also said that it was now that 
the image of Mahavira was enshrined at Upakesa Pattana. 
This is probably a reference to the first introduction of idol 
worship into Jainism. 





Prabhava felt that there was no one amongst the Jaina 
capable of succeeding him as leader, and being much im- 
pressed by the spiritual genius of a staunch Brahman called 
Sayambhava, he determined to win him over. He was suc- 
cessful and converted him just after he had offered a great 
sacrifice. Though he was married, he left his wife to be- 
come an ascetic, and the little son Manaka who was shortly 
after born to her eventually became a Jaina ascetic also, 
receiving initiation at his father's hands. Sayambhava 
knew by his supernatural powers that his son would only 
live a short time, so he wrote a book for him called Dasa- 
vaikalika, in which he gave a complete conspectus of the 
leading Jaina tenets ; it is on this book (a monument of 
a father's love persisting even in the ascetic life) that 
Sayambhava's claim to fame rests. 

He was followed by Yasobhadra, who died in 319 B.C., 
and was succeeded by Sambhutivijaya, who only held 
sway for two years. The rule of these two was not 
marked by any outstanding event, but after them we 
come to one of the great epochs in Jaina history, which 
began with the leadership of Bhadrabahu, who succeeded 
in 317 B.C. 

The new leader was a scholar, and Jaina credit him with 
the authorship of the Niryukti or commentaries on the ten 
canonical books, and of a book on astronomy which is named 
after him the Bhadrabahu Sarhhita. He also wrote what 
the Svetambara Jaina consider to be their holiest work, the 
Upasarga Harastotra Kalpa Sutra. 

It was during the headship of Bhadrabahu and during 
the reign of Candragupta^ of the Maurya dynasty that 
a great famine^ took place, which seems to have been of 
the most terrible severity. It would of course be very 

^ Candiagupta {c. 322-298 I3. c), grandfather of Asoka and first 
paramount sovereign of India. According to Jaina tradition he 
abdicated in 297 B.C., became a Jaina ascetic, and died twelve years 
later of voluntary starvation in Sravana Belgola in Mysore. 

^ Dr. Hoernle suggests 310 B.C. as the date of this famine. 


difficult for a starving population to support a huge body 
of mendicants during famine years, and as the monks 
were homeless and wanderers by profession, it was only 
sensible that they should wander where food was more 
plentiful. Now it is probable, as we have seen, that 
Mahavira's community or sahgha had been formed by the 
union of two orders of mendicants, one clothed and one 
naked. This difference, being outward and visible, would 
be always liable to recur and cause schism, and probably 
the fusion of the two orders had never been complete, so 
that the famine sufficed to sever the community along the 
lines of the old division. 

Part of the community, numbering, the Jaina say, twelve Sthula- 
thousand, went with Bhadrabahu to the south of India ^"^^^^• 
where famine had not penetrated, whilst the other part, also 
amounting to twelve thousand, remained behind under the 
leadership of Sthulabhadra. Sthulabhadra was the son 
of Sakadala, who had been prime minister to the ninth 
Nanda king ; on his father's death he was offered the 
post, but renounced that and all earthly love to become 
an ascetic. 

It was naturally only the more vigorous monks who 
undertook the long journey to Southern India, and perhaps 
the older and more infirm ascetics who remained at home 
had already been allowed to wear some clothing as a con- 
cession to their infirmities; the habit of so doing ^ would 
have been likely now to become general amongst them. 
Thus one element of division was established amongst the 
Jaina, that of difference in practice, and it only remained, in 
order to make the division permanent, that they should have 
a differing sacred literature. Experience has shown what 
a unifying force a common sacred literature has on diver- 
gent sects, and the converse is also true. For example, it is 
probably only their refusal to accept the Veda as sacred which 
has prevented the Jaina from being long ago amalgamated 
^ They seem generally to have worn white garments. 


with the Hindus. This element of division was not to be 
lacking between the two sects of Jaina. Sthulabhadra was, 
the Jaina say, keenly alive to the importance of preserving 
their sacred literature, and he alone had learnt (in Nepal) 
the ten Purva and (on condition of keeping them secret) 
the four other Purva. In spite of the absence of Bha- 
drabahu and his party, he called a council at Pataliputra 
(modern Patna), which collected the Eleven Aiiga, but found 
that the Twelfth was missing. This Twelfth Aiiga con- 
tained fourteen Purva, which Sthulabhadra was able to 
supply. When the famine was over, Bhadrabahu returned ; 
but he and his party refused to accept the work of the 
council of Patna and declared that the Ahga and Purva 
were lost ; they also declined to wear clothes. Though all 
this laid a very firm foundation for the schism between the 
Digambara (sky clothed, i.e. naked) and the Svetambara 
(white clothed) when it should come, yet the split did not 
actually arise till a. d. 142, according to Jaina dates, or 
A.D. 82 according to Dr. Hoernle. 

Bhadrabahu died in 297 B.C. and was succeeded by 
Sthulabhadra, who remained the head of the whole com- 
munity till his death in 252 B.C. 
^ruta- The six spiritual leaders who followed Jambu Svam! are 

kevali. called Srutakevali, because, though the complete omni- 
science Jambu Svami and his predecessors attained was 
denied to them, they possessed complete knowledge of the 
Da^a- scriptures. They were followed by the Dasapurvl, or 
P^^^^' leaders who knew the ten Purva of the Twelfth Anga. 

The Great Schism, 

Two schisms had already taken place during the lifetime 
of Mahavira, and two leaders had left the community. One 
was headed by Jamali, son-in-law of Mahavira, who denied 
that a thing is perfected when it is begun (which some 
Jaina scriptures teach), and was specially annoyed when 


the doctrine, to his own discomfort, was apphed by a disciple 
to the practical question of bed-making. 

The other we have already noted ; it was led by Gosala,^ 
and its main tenet was Fatalism. 

During the years that immediately followed the death 
of Sthulabhadra three more schisms took place, seriously 
weakening the Jaina church. In 251 B.C. Asadha Acarya 
headed a schism called Avyakta. Four years later Asva- 
mitra left the Jaina community and became head of the 
Ksanikavadi; and in 239 B.C. a Jaina called Gahga led a 
fifth schism. 

The great schism had not, however, as yet taken place. 
It is interesting to remember that Bhadrabahu had returned 
from South India to be head over the whole community, 
even over the refractory part that had t^ken to clothes; 
that he, the staunch believer in nakedness, had been 
followed by Sthulabhadra, the clothed ; and that this man in 
his turn was followed by a leader who discarded clothing. 

Mahagiri, the next head of the community after Sthula- Maha- 
bhadra's death, is said to have revived ' the ideal practice ^'^^* 
of nakedness ' which had fallen into disuse. During his rule 
two famous Jaina books are said to have been written : 
Tattvdrtha Sutra, by Umasvati, and the Pannavand Sutra 
(one of the Upd/iga), by Syamacarya, who was himself 
a disciple of Umasvati. Mahagiri's rule is also noteworthy 
for his endeavours to bring the community back to their 
primitive faith and practice ; he was a real ascetic and 
recognized that under Sthulabhadra's sway many abuses 
had crept into the order. It was doubtless this that had led 
so many of the community to drift away from it under the 
leaders of the schisms already mentioned. Mahagiri was 
spurred on in his efforts after reform by the memory of 
a prophecy which foretold that after Sthulabhadra the 
monks would become less strenuous in their lives. He was Sam- 
defeated in his aims by the conversion of Samprati, grand- P^^^'' 

^ See p. 58. 


son and successor of Asoka ^ and by the disastrous effects 
of the royal bounty that thenceforth flowed into the 

The legend of Samprati's conversion is given as follows 
by the Svetambara. Suhastin was one of the leading 
members of the Jaina community under Mahagiri, and 
he once met King Samprati in Ujjain (East Malwa). Now 
in a previous birth Samprati had been a beggar and had 
seen Suhastin's disciples carrying sweets. When he asked 
for some of this confectionery Suhastin said he could 
only give them on condition of Samprati's becoming his 
disciple, so he received initiation, took the sweets, ate 
heartily of them and died. When, as King Samprati, he 
saw Suhastin again, his former birth came back to his 
memory, and he again became a convert to Jainism. 
Samprati tried to spread Jainism by every means in his 
power, working as hard for Jainism as Asoka had for 
Buddhism : he even sent preachers as far as Afghanistan ; 
but unfortunately he quite demoralized the monks with 
the rich food he showered upon them. Suhastin dared 
not refuse this food, for, as in his previous birth, the king 
laid great stress on diet and would have been irreconcilably 
offended if it and his superabundant alms had been re- 
fused. So the old leader of the community, Mahagiri, saw 
all his hopes of winning the monks to lives of sterner 
asceticism overturned ; and, finding that remonstrance 
with Suhastin was of no avail, he separated from him 
and withdrew to Dasarnabhadra, where he committed 
suicide by voluntary starvation. 
Suhastin. After Mahagiri's death Suhastin became dejure the leader 
that he had previously been de facto, and the Jaina account 
him one of their greatest spiritual heads. A strong man 
was needed, for the community had been much weakened 
by the three schisms and by the late quarrel between 

^ Asoka was Emperor of India 273-231 B.C. The Jaina say that he 
was a Jaina before he was converted to Buddhism. 


Mahagiri and himself ; Suhastin therefore set himself to gain 
new disciples, and owing to his influence many newbranches of 
the order were formed. Perhaps new recruits were received 
too readily, at any rate it was under him that AvantI 
Kumara, whom the Jaina cite as the typical man who found 
the ascetic life too hard, joined the order. Avanti, the son 
of a rich man and brought up in luxury, could not bear all 
the suffering and hardships which fell to his lot as a monk. 
He dared not return to the world, so, to put an end to a 
position which he found intolerable, he committed suicide 
by fasting. His relatives built a magnificent temple on the 
spot where he died, and the Jaina say that this was the 
temple of Mahakala in Ujjain, which is now, however, one 
of the twelve most famous Saiva temples in India. Poor 
Avanti's story is still quoted as a warning not to enter on 
the mendicant life without counting the cost, and he is 
known as AvantI Sukumara — Avanti the delicate. 

Suhastin was succeeded by Susthitasuri in 177 b. c. Susthita- 
Under him, according to the Jaina, their name of Nirgrantha- ^^^^' 
gaccha was changed to that of Kalikagaccha in honour of 
the krores of times the leader repeated the secret mantra 
taught him by his guru. 

Indradinna, who followed Susthitasuri, is famous, not for Indra- 
anything that he did, but because the great Jaina saint ^'""a- 
Kalikacarya flourished under his rule. 

The Jaina tell many stories of Kalikacarya and the Kaljka- 
occult powers that his great learning gained him. It was ^^''y^* 
owing to these powers, they believe^ that he was able in 61 
B. c. to destroy the dynasty of Gardabhila. Kalikacarya's 
sister was a nun, and she was once carried off by King 
Gardabhila. The saint went to a Scythian king and im- 
plored his assistance, but the king was afraid of attacking 
so powerful a sovereign as Gardabhila, especially as he was 
under the peculiar protection of the goddess Rasabhi, who was 
able by the witchery of her singing to make it impossible 
for any one to approach within fourteen miles of the king. 


Kalikacarya could, however, on his part produce wealth 
by magic, and by this means he persuaded the Scythian 
king to come to his aid with an army. They encamped at 
a safe distance of about fifteen miles from King Gardabhila, 
and when his protecting goddess began to sing, all the 
Scythian army shot arrows at her mouth and filled it so 
full that she was unable to utter a sound. The spell 
being broken, Gardabhila was easily captured, and Kali- 
kacarya's sister released. The king Gardabhila was even- 
tually forgiven and set at liberty ; he betook himself to 
a neighbouring forest, where he was finally devoured by 
a tiger, to the total extinction of his race. 

Kalikacarya is, however, specially remembered through the 
dispute which continues to this day about the keeping of Paj - 
jusana,^some Jaina sects holding that it should begin on the 
fourth and some on the fifth day of the month Bhadrapada. 
The difference arose in this way : Kalikacarya once visited 
the king of Pentha (in the Dekkan) and asked him to come 
and listen to the discourses he was going to deliver at 
Pajjusana. The king said he would have come if it had 
been any day but the fifth (in those days Pajjusana only 
lasted for one day), but that being a special festival of 
Indra which he was bound to keep, he asked the saint to 
postpone the fast till the sixth. The ascetic, while declaring 
any postponement impossible, offered to arrange to hold it 
one day earlier, on the fourth of Bhadrapada. This was 
accordingly done, and ever since then some sects ^ have 
begun the fast on the fourth and some on the fifth. The 
importance they give to this difference reminds one of the 
old ecclesiastical dispute about the date of Easter. 
Siddha- According to the Jaina a learned ascetic, Siddhasena 
Div^- Divakara, the son of a Brahman minister, lived about this 

kara. i Qj. Paryusana, the sacred festival at the close of the Jaina year. 

'^ The Tapagaccha observe the fourth, the SthilnakavasI the fifth 
day, the Ancalagaccha sometimes the fourth and sometimes the fifth. 
Occasionally owing to differing astrologers all sects observe the same 
day as the beginning of the fast. 


time at the court of King Vikramaditya.^ There was 
another equally learned ascetic called Vriddhavadl, and 
these two were anxious to meet and discover whose 
learning entitled him to be regarded as the superior of 
the other. At last they did encounter each other, but 
unfortunately they met in a jungle where the only judges 
they could find to decide their cause were ignorant village 
cowherds. Siddhasena, fresh from the Sanskrit-loving court, 
began the dispute, but used so many Sanskrit words that 
the cowherds had no idea what he was talking about, and 
quickly gave the palm to Vriddhavadi who spoke in the 
simplest language and quoted many a shrewd rural jest 
and proverb ; so Siddhasena had to accept Vriddhavadi as 
his conqueror and guru. Siddhasena, however, still proud 
of his Sanskrit, formed the plan of translating all the Jaina 
scriptures from Magadh! (a language understood by the 
common people) into Sanskrit : but his guru showed him 
the sin it would be thus to place them out of the reach 
of ordinary folk, and as penance for the very idea he 
wandered about for twelve years without uttering a word. 
His importance to Jainism lies evidently in his failure 
to sanskritize either the language or the scriptures ; ^ 
but he is also credited with the conversion to Jainism 
of King Vikramaditya of Ujjain and of Devapala, king 
of Kumarapura. He is supposed to have died about 
57 B.C. 

Two other events are supposed to have happened about 
this time, the defeat of the Buddhists in a great argument 
by a famous Jaina controversialist, an ascetic called Arya 

* Vikramaditya, according to tradition, was king of Ujjain, and 
4he golden age ' of Sanskrit literature is said to have coincided with 
his reign. He is now considered by many scholars to be a purely 
legendary monarch. 

^ There is said to be always a marked difference between the 
speech of a Brahman and a Jaina, since the former use as many 
Sanskrit words as possible, and the latter, especially the Sthana- 
kavasT, use the simple vernacular. 








Khaputa who lived in Broach, and the founding of Satrufi- 
jaya^ in the state of Pahtana. 

The next spiritual leader ^ of great importance for our 
purpose was Vajrasvami, the last and greatest of the Dasa- 
purvl. It was in his time that the sixth schism took place. 
A Jaina sddhu called Rohagupta^ taught that there are not 
seven but only three constituent elements of the earth, viz. : 
Jiva, Ajiva and Nojiva; the schism is accordingly called 
the Nojiva schism and is believed to have arisen in a. d. 71. 
A seventh schism, led by Gosta Mahal, also took place 
under Vajrasvami's rule. The Jaina believe that Vajrasvami 
was able to call up at will a magic carpet which conveyed 
him and his friends to any distance, and that once by its 
means he transplanted the whole community from a famine- 
stricken district to the town of Puri. The more enlightened 
Jaina say that this carpet really represents some modern 
mode of locomotion (steam engine, motor car, or aeroplane) 
the secret of whose construction Vajrasvami had anticipated. 
Vajrasvami had a famous disciple, Aryaraksita, who had 
originally been a Brahman and had studied all knowledge at 
Benares. His mother spurred him on to study the Jaina 
Purva, and whilst doing so he was converted to Jainism and 
learnt from Vajrasvami the whole of the nine-and-a-half 
Purva. He is famous amongst the Jaina for having arranged 
the Sutra into four divisions that they might be the more 
easily understood. 

We now come to the great division of the community. 
Vajrasvami was followed by Vajrasena, and under his 
leadership the Digambara finally separated from the main 
community. The new Head had not the personality of his 

^ Satrunjaya, the Jaina say, was built by a monk who had the 
power of rising through the air, and by a disciple of his who had the 
power of creating gold. This fortunate conjunction of talents has 
resulted in one of the loveliest temple cities in the world. 

2 Indradinna had been followed by Dinnasiiri, and he by Sirhhagiri, 
and then came Vajrasvami. 

^ Rohagupta had a disciple called Kanada who was, according to 
the Jaina, the founder of the famous Vaisesika philosophy. 


predecessors, and was probably not strong enough to hold 
the balance between two contending parties ; at any rate the 
Digambara now hived off. Differing dates are given for the 
separation : the Svetambara believe it to have taken place 
in A. D. 142, the SthanakavasI in a. d. 83, whilst Dr. Hoernle 
places the date about a. d. 79 or 82. 

The Svetambara declare that the opposition sect was 
really founded (like many another sect since !) in a fit of 
temper, and give the following account of how it occurred. 
A certain Sivabhuti, who had been in the service of the 
king of Rathavirapura, decided to become a Jaina ascetic. 
On the day of his initiation the king gave him a most costly 
and beautiful blanket as a farewell present. Seeing how 
over-fond he was of it, his guru advised him to return the 
gift, but he refused ; whereupon, to save him from the 
snare, the guru during his absence tore the blanket into 
small pieces. Sivabhuti was so angry when he found what 
had happened that he declared that if he might not keep 
his blanket he would keep no covering at all, but would 
wander naked through the world like the Lord Mahavira 
himself. His first two disciples were Kaundinya and 
Kattavlra. His sister Uttara also wanted to follow him, 
but, seeing that it was impossible for a woman to go about 
nude, Sivabhuti refused to allow her to join him and 
declared that no woman could attain moksa without 
rebirth as a man. 

The probability is that there had always been two parties 
in the community : the older and weaker section, who wore 
clothes and dated from Parsvanatha's time, and who were 
called the Sthavira kalpa (the spiritual ancestors of the 
Svetambara) ; and the Jina kalpa, or Puritans, who kept the 
extreme letter of the law as Mahavira had done, and who 
are the forerunners of the Digambara. 

The five main tenets of the Digambara in which they 
oppose the Svetambara views ^ are : that the Tirthankara 
^ They also differ on many points of ritual and custom. 



ences be- 
bara and 




must be represented as nude and unadorned, and with 
downcast eyes; that women cannot obtain moksa; that 
Mahavira never married ; that once a saint had obtained 
Kevala jnana he needed no food, but could sustain Hfe 
without eating ; and finally the great point over which the 
split occurred, that ascetics must be entirely nude, a decision 
which condemns the one or two Digambara ascetics now 
existing to live in the strict seclusion of a forest, somewhat 
to the relief of the reformers of their sect, who are thus 
saved from their interference.-^ 

There were several spiritual leaders of no great moment 
who followed Vajrasena,^ but the next of real importance 
was the great Haribhadra Suri. Haribhadra was origin- 
ally a learned Brahman and inordinately proud of his 
knowledge. He was converted to Jainism through hearing 
a Jaina nun named Yakani recite a sloka which Haribhadra 
could not understand ; the nun referred him to her guru, 
but the guru refused to explain it unless the inquirer first 
received initiation as a Jaina monk, which he accord- 
ingly did. Two of Haribhadra's nephews, Harhsa and 
Paramaharhsa, became his disciples, and later on he sent 

^ The Digambara also differ on certain historical details. The 
following, according to some authorities, is the list of Acarya who 
came after Jambu SvamI ; this list carries their records up to A.D. 216. 
Visnu, Nandimitra, Aparajita, Covardhana and Bhadrabahu, who all 
knew the twelve Anga. These were followed by Visakhacarya, 
Paustilacarya, Ksatriya, Jayasena, Nagasena, Siddhartha, Dhritisena, 
Vijaya, Buddhimana, Ganadeva and Dharmasena ; all these eleven 
knew eleven Anga and ten Purva. Naksatra, Jayapala, Pandu, 
Dharmasena and Kamsacarya, who followed, knew only the texts 
of eleven Anga. Then came four men, Subhadeva, Yasobhadra, 
Mahiyasa and Lokacarya, who knew only one Anga. 

^ His immediate follower was Candrasuri, under whom the name 
of the community was changed from Kodlgaccha to Candragaccha, 
only to be renamed Vanavasigaccha under the next leader, Samanta- 
bhadrasuri, owing to that ascetic's love of living in the forest. 

Manadeva was the next Head of the community. He was waited on 
by four goddesses, and composed many mantras (called sdntistotra), 
against the plague that raged in Taxila. He was followed by 
Manatufiga, the author of the Bhaktamarastotra. This stotra of forty- 
four verses was so powerful that each verse when repeated could 
break open a locked door ! 


them disguised to study Buddhist doctrines in order to re- 
fute them on their return. The Buddhist monks, however, 
were suspicious of the orthodoxy of these new inquirers 
and drew images of the Tirthankara on the steps of their 
monastery to see if they would tread on them. But the 
two Jaina boys neatly turned the tables by adding the 
sacred thread ^ to the sketches and so making them repre- 
sentations of Buddha ; this done, they trod on them happily 
enough. Enraged at this insult to their great leader, the 
Buddhist monks slew the lads. Haribhadra, maddened at 
their loss, determined to slay all the monks, some 1,444, 
in boiling oil by means of his occult powers, but was stopped 
in time by his guru.^ He repented deeply of his hasty 
resolve, and to expiate it he wrote no less than 1,444 books 
on various subjects, some of which remain to this day. 

Siddhasuri ^ was the next great head of the community ; Siddha- 
he was the grandson of a Prime Minister of Srimala (once ^^"' 
the capital of Gujarat) and the cousin of the famous 
Sanskrit poet Magha. Siddhasuri's conversion happened 
on this wise. After his marriage he became a great gambler, 
and his wife grieved sorely over his absences from home. 
One night she was sitting up as usual waiting for his return, 
when her mother-in-law, seeing her weeping, asked her to go 
to sleep and said she would sit up for her son. When 
Siddhasuri returned long after midnight, his mother refused 
to open the door and told him to go and spend the night 
anywhere he could gain a welcome, for there was no admit- 
tance for him there. Deeply hurt, he sought entrance at the 
only open door he could find, which happened to be that of 
a Jaina Apasaro.'* The sadhus were all sitting on the floor, 

^ The Jaina never wear the sacred thread as the Buddhists do. The 
Brahmans of course always wear it from their eighth year. 

'^ Bhandarkar gives a different account in his Search after Jaina 
MSS., 1883, p. 141, where it is said that Haribhadra actually killed 
the monks. This the Jaina indignantly deny. 

^ His date is variously given as A.D. 536 and 539. 

^ The name given to a Jaina meeting-house and monks* lodging. 


recalling what they had learnt during the day, and their 
head, the gargarisi, as he was called, told him that before 
he could join their company he must become a sadhu too. 
Siddhasuri instantly resolved to do so : he obtained his 
father's permission, though with great difficulty, and was 
initiated on the following morning.^ He studied Jainism 
deeply and became a great scholar, wTiting a commentary 
on the Upadesamala of Dharmadasagani. He then wished 
to study Buddhism and asked the gargarisi's permission to 
go to a Buddhist monastery for this purpose. The gargarisi 
agreed, though with misgivings, but stipulated that if ever 
Siddhasuri felt he was being drawn to the Buddhist faith, 
he should come back and see him at least once before he 
joined their order. It fell out as the gargarisi had feared; 
the Buddhists were so struck with Siddhasuri's learning that 
they proposed that he should turn Buddhist and become 
their Acarya. Remembering his promise, he returned home 
to see the gargarisi once again ; he was, however, engaged, 
and asked Siddhasuri to read a certain book, the Lalitavi- 
stara by Haribhadrasuri, whilst he waited. As he read it, 
repentance overtook him ; he was again convinced of the 
soundness of the Jaina faith, sought forgiveness from the 
gargarisi, performed the penance imposed and became a 
sound Jaina. Eventually he rose to the position of Acarya 
and strove by every means in his power to spread the faith. 
^Tlaguna- The biographies of the successive leaders of the com- 
munity need not detain us, but about two hundred years 
later there arose a great sadhu named Sllagunasuri, who 
is famous as the restorer of the Cavada dynasty. Once 
when wandering as a sadhu in the jungle between Wadhwan 
and Kadlpatana he saw a cradle hanging from a tree with 
a baby in it. By his knowledge of palmistry he at once 
discovered that this forlorn child would some day be a king. 
The child's mother appeared and told him that she was the 

^ The Jaina now wish to institute a period of testing and training 
before a candidate can obtain initiation. 



widow of the vanquished king of Gujarat, Jayasikhara, 
and that the child's name was Vanaraja. Silagunasuri 
went to the neighbouring city and told the Jaina laymen 
of his discovery and of his behef that this child would one 
day be a king, and advised them to bring him up as a Jaina 
to the advantage of their faith. It all fell out as Silagunasuri 
had foretold, and when, grown to manhood after some years 
of outlawry, Vanaraja defeated his enemies and recovered 
the crown, he called Silagunasuri to his court, declared his 
intention of reigning as a Jaina king, and built the temple 
of Paficasara Parasanatha which still stands in Patana. 

An Acarya named Siddhasena once had a dream in which Bappa- 
he saw a lion's cub on the roof of a temple ; by this sign "^^^^^^"• 
he knew that whoever should come to him during the 
following day would be capable of becoming a great sadhu. 
The next day a clever lad called Bappa appeared, and 
Siddhasena asked him if he would like to stay in the Apasaro 
and study with him. The boy agreed, and the boy's father 
too was quite content, until he learnt that Siddhasena wished 
to turn his son into a sadhu. The father's chief objection 
was that, as the boy was an only son, his own name would 
die out, but this was overcome by adding the father's name 
to the son's and caUing him Bappabhatti. Bappabhattl 
as a sadhu was most zealous for the faith. Once he saw 
a boy weeping in a Jaina temple, who told him that he and 
his mother (one of the wives of the king of Kanauj) had 
been driven out through the intrigues of a co-wife. Bappa- 
bhatti arranged for the boy's comfort and assured him that 
he would one day be king of Kanauj. When this happened, 
the young king called Bappabhatti to his court and assisted 
Jainism in every possible way by building temples and 
Apasara. Bappabhatti declined to stay long in the morally 
enervating atmosphere of a court, but during his second 
visit was enabled to save the king from the toils of a nautch 
girl. Visiting Bengal, Bappabhatti won over a reigning 
prince to the Jaina faith. Later he met a Buddhist preacher 

G 2 


whom he defeated in a discussion, thereby gaining for himself 
the magnificent title of the Lion who defeated the Elephant 
in argument. After spreading the faith in many other ways, 
he died in a. d. 839. 
Silanga- Passing over other leaders of less importance, we come to 
ciirya. Silangacarya,^ the dates of whose birth and death are un- 
certain, but who was alive in a. d. 862. He wrote com- 
riientaries on each of the eleven Ahga, but unfortunately 
only two of these remain. 
Abhaya- In A. D. 1031 a boy of sixteen, named Abhayadevasuri, was 
devasuri. j^iade head of the community ; he wrote commentaries to 
supply the place of the missing nine commentaries of 
Henia- Some sixty years later was born the famous Hemacarya^ or 

carya. Hemacandrasuri, who became Head or Acarya in a. d. 1121. 
He wrote a comparative grammar of six of the Prakrits, 
with which Siddharaja, the reigning king of Gujarat, was so 
delighted that he placed it before him on an elephant and 
took it to his treasury in state. The next king, Kumarapala, 
was converted to Jainism through Hemacarya's influence. 
This monarch, besides building magnificent temples, en- 
deared himself still more to his Jaina subjects by prohibiting 
the killing of animals throughout his dominions. Under 
Kumarapala Jainism became the state religion of Gujarat, 
and its head-quarters were no longer to be found in the 
district of Bihar its birthplace, but were transferred to the 
dominions of this Jaina king. Hemacarya continued his 
literary labours throughout his long life, and it is said that 
before his death in a. d. 1184 he had written 35,000,000 sloka 
on such differing subjects as religion, history and grammar. 
As Hemacarya wrote chiefly in Sanskrit, his name is held 
in high honour by educated Hindus as well as Jaina. No 
Acarya since Hemacandra has ever wielded so great an 

^ Or, Sllankacarya. 

2 Dr. Jacobi gives Hemacandra's dates as A. D. 1088 or 1089-1173, 
E.R.E., vi. 591. 


influence;-^ he is called the 'Omniscient of the Kaliyuga', 
and with his name we may fitly close our account of the 
early Heads of the Community. 

Epigraphic Corroboration. 

In our study of the Jaina tradition with regard to 
Mahavira and his successors we have incidentally touched 
the outstanding points of Jaina history as accepted to-day 
by European scholars. Not long ago all statements made by 
the Jaina about themselves were received with the gravest 
suspicion, but the inscriptions which have been deciphered 
at Mathura and elsewhere so corroborate the Jaina account 
that it would seem well worth while to collect and collate 
their annals and legends as material for that Jaina history 
which, owing to the incompleteness of our knowledge, 
cannot yet be written in full. 

The events on which in the meantime most scholars are 
agreed, and which are borne out in the Jaina history that 
we have studied, include the existence of the Parsvanatha 
order of monks prior to Mahavira ; the birth of Mahavira 
somewhere about 599 b.c. and his death about 527 b,c. ; 
and the remarkable spread of Jainism under Suhastin in the 
third century B.C., which, as Dr. Hoernle ^ points out, is 
corroborated not only by their own pattavalis,^ but also 
by an inscription of Kharavela on the Khandagiri rock near 
Cuttack, which shows that by the middle of the second 
century the Jaina had spread as far as Southern Orissa. 

There is a still earlier inscription dating from about 
242 B. c. referring to the Jaina, the edict of Asoka, the 
great Maurya king who lived in the third century B.C., 
which is cited by Vincent Smith.* He says in the second 
part of the seventh ' pillar ' edict which he issued in the 
twenty-ninth year of his reign : 

^ An English-speaking Jaina has written of him thus : * He was man 
pious and profound and wiser even than Shakespeare, and had a 
memory far surpassing that of Macaulay.' 

- J.A.S. B., 1898, p. 48. 2 Lists of the succession of teachers. 

* Asoka (Rulers of India series), pp. 192, 193. 


* My Censors of the Law of Piety are employed on manifold objects 
of the royal favour affecting both ascetics and householders, and are 
likewise employed among all denominations. Moreover, I have 
arranged for their employment in the business of the Church {sangha) 
and in the same way I have employed them among the Brahmans and 
the Ajivikas, and among the Jains also are they employed, and, in fact, 
among all the different denominations.' 

This, as Dr. Blihler says, shows that the Jaina occupied 
a position of no small importance even at that date. 

The inscriptions in Mathura dating from the first and 
second century a. d. also go to prove the trustworthiness of 
the Jaina historical traditions enshrined in the Kalpa Sutra, 
for they show the same divisions and subdivisions of the 
Jaina schools, families and branches as the Kalpa Sutra 
recorded,^ and they also mention the Kautika^ division 
(founded by Susthita) which belonged to the Svetambara 
sect, thus proving the early date of the schism. 

After the schism the next great event in Jaina history 
was the birth of Hemacandra, his success in winning over 
to Jainism Kumarapala (perhaps in a. d. 1125) and the 
resulting change of the Jaina head-quarters from Bihar, its 
birthplace, to Gujarat, which since that date has been the 
chief centre of Jaina influence. 

The legends, however, throw light for us on much of the 
intervening time, witnessing as they do to the conflicts 
between Jainism and its two great rivals, Brahmanism and 

The Later Sects, 

Under the rule of Hemacandra Jainism reached its 
zenith, and after his time its influence declined. Brahman 
opposition grew stronger and stronger, and the Jaina say 
that their temples were often destroyed. Constant dissen- 
sions amongst themselves divided the Jaina community 
into numberless sects such as the Punamiyagaccha, the 

^ J. G. Biihler, The Indian Sect of the Jainas^ London, 1903, p. 43. 
^ - Hoernle, /. ^. S.B., 189S, p 50. 


Kharataragaccha, the Aficalagaccha, the Sardhapunamiya- 
gaccha, the Agamikagaccha and the Tapagaccha.^ 

Thus weakened, Jainism could ill withstand the Moham- 
medan deluge which swept over India in the twelfth and 
thirteenth centuries. Jaina temples were razed to the 
ground, their sacred books burnt and their monastic com- 
munities massacred. Buddhism was simply swept out of 
India proper altogether by the storm, but, as we have already 
noticed, Mahavira's genius for organization now proved the 
salvation of his community. Firmly rooted amongst the 
laity, they were able, once the hurricane was past, to 
reappear once more and begin to throw out fresh branches. 

One trace of their suffering still remains in the way the 
Jaina guard their sacred books in Treasure Houses (often 
underground) to which no ahen can gain admittance. 

The next outstanding event in Jaina history was the rise Rise of 

of the non-idolatrous sects. The Sthanakavasi love to f^e non- 

. ., . , idola- 

pomt out the similarity of dates between their rise, which trous 

was a true Reformation as far as they were concerned, and ^^^'^^* 
that of the birth and work of Martin Luther in Europe. 
They arose not directly from the Svetambaira but as re- 
formers of an older reforming sect. 

Lohka Sa was the name of an Ahmadabad Jaina belonging The 
originally to the Svetambara sect, who employed several Lonka 
clerks to copy the Jaina scriptures. About a. d. 1474 
a Svetambara sadhu named Jfianaji asked him to copy 
several sacred books for him : whilst reading these, 
Lohka Sa was struck with the fact that idol-worship 
was not once mentioned in them. He pointed this out 
to Jfianaji and others, and a sharp controversy arose 
between them as to the lawfulness of idolatry. In the 
meantime a crowd of pilgrims going to Satruhjaya arrived 
in Ahmadabad and were won over to Lohka Sa's side, but 
unfortunately they had no sadhu amongst them. At length 

^ This last is the most important sect. It is ruled by twelve Sripiijya, 
the chief of whom has his seat in Jaipur. 


a Svetambara layman named Bhanaji was convinced and 
decided to become a sadhu. As there was no guru obtain- 
able, he ordained himself and became the first Acarya of the 
Lohka sect. The office of Acarya might almost be said to 
have become hereditary in his hands; for though, of course, 
he had no descendants, yet he himself selected from the 
Lohka sadhus the one who should fill the office of Acarya 
on his death ; his successor did the same, and this custom 
exists amongst the Lohka Jaina down to the present day. 
The Some of the members of the Lohka sect disapproved of 

Sthana- ^]-^g jjygg ^f their sadhus, declaring that they lived less,si > a j 

sect. Strictly than Mahavira would have wished. A Lohka lay- 

man, Viraji of Surat, received initiation as a sadhu and 
won great admiration through the strictness of his life. 
Many from the Lohka sect joined this reformer, and they 
took the name of Sthanakavasi ^ whilst their enemies called 
them Dhundhla.^ 

The present writer had the pleasure of meeting the Acarya 
of the Sthanakavasi sect, a gentleman named Sri Lalajl, 
whom his followers hold to be the seventy-eighth Acarya 
in direct succession to Mahavira. Many sub-sects have arisen 
amongst the Sthanakavasi Jaina, and each of these has its 
own Acarya, but they all unite in honouring Sri Lalaj! as a 
true ascetic. Excepting on the crucial point of idol-worship, 
the Sthanakavasi differ very little from the Svetambara sect 
out of which they sprang, often indeed calling themselves 
Sthanakavasi Svetambara. 

* Those who live in Apasara (not in temples). 

^ Searchers. This title has grown to be quite an honourable one. 



A WELL-KNOWN authority has said that it is doubtful 
whether Jainism can truthfully claim to haVe contributed 
a single new thought of value to the sum of philosophy. 
However that may be, it is absolutely necessary to follow 
this intricate system through all those long lists with their 
divisions and subdivisions in which the Jaina love to classify 
and arrange their thought, if one would understand how they 
think of the soul {jlva) and the means by which it may free 
itself from the consequence of action and obtain deliverance ; 
for this is the chief content of Jaina philosophy. A special 
interest to the student of Jaina thought lies in trying to guess 
— for as yet we are only in the guessing stage — from whence 
the Jaina have gleaned their various ideas. The animistic 
element bulks largely in all Indian thought, and one proof 
of the antiquity of Jainism is the way in which it has in- 
corporated animistic beliefs into its ' systematic theology ' ; 
for, as we shall see when we come to discuss the nine cate- 
gories, the system is not only animistic but hylozoistic. 
The Jaina, in common with the Buddhists, seem to have 
accepted as the ground-work of their belief the philosophy 
of the Brahman Sannyasin. They incorporated into their 
faith the doctrines of transmigration and karma ^ without 
putting a special stamp on either ; but the doctrine of 
non-killing {ahwisd)^ which they also borrowed, they 
exalted to a position of primary importance, and they 
laid an entirely new emphasis on the value of austerity 
both inward and outward. Like Buddhism and Brah- 
manism, Jainism might be defined as a ' way of escape ' 

•'• Save that whilst the Brahmans believe that karma acts indirectly 
through the agency of God, the Jaina hold that it acts automatically. 


not from death but from life ; but unlike either of them, 
it hopes to escape not into nothingness nor into absorption, 
but into a state of being without qualities, emotions, or 
relations, and removed from the possibihty of rebirth. 
It is interesting to look at Jainism in relation to the six 
schools of Indian philosophy. In reference to them the 
Jaina quote the old story of six blind men who each laid 
their hands on a different part of an elephant and tried 
to describe the whole animal. The man who held the 
ear thought the creature resembled a winnowing-fan, the 
holder of the leg imagined that he was clinging to a big 
round pillar, and similarly each opinion differed, but the 
owner who saw the whole explained that each had only 
a portion of the truth. The six men represent the six 
schools, and the owner is in their view of course Jainism. 
The Jaina hold in fact that the six schools of philosophy 
are part and parcel of one organic whole, and that if one 
be taken by itself it becomes a false doctrine. One of the 
great questions amongst the schools is as to whether an 
effect is the same as its material cause or pre-exists in that 
cause and is only made manifest by the operation which 
that cause undergoes (this is the Satkarya doctrine of 
the Saiikhya and the Vedanta) ; or whether the effect 
is something new and did not exist before (which is the 
Asatkarya doctrine held by the Vaisesika). On this point 
Jainism shows its usual comprehensiveness, and believing 
that both views were linked together from time without 
beginning, says that ' an effect pre-exists in the cause in 
one sense and is a new thing in another. If you look at 
an effect such as a jar as a mere substance, the substance 
is the same as in the loose earth of which the jar is made ; 
but if you look at the jar as a modification, it is new and 
did not exist when the earth was in the condition of loose 
particles '.^ 

Another burning question is whether or no"tthe soul 
^ Bhandarkar, Search /or Sanskrit Manuscripts in 1883-4, p. 101. 


exists and acts. The Kriyavada doctrine teaches that the 
soul exists, acts, and is affected by acts, and this is held 
by the Jaina ^ in common with the Vaisesika and Nyaya 
schools. The opposite doctrine — the Akriyavada — that 
the soul does not exist, or that it does not act, or is not 
afTected by acts, is held, according to the Jaina view, by 
the Buddhists in common with the Vedanta, Sahkhya 
and Yoga schools, and those who hold this doctrine will 
be, so the Jaina aver, whirled round in the endless circle 
of rebirths. 

Another great question is as to how the soul becomes 
fettered. The Sahkhya school believe it to be owing to an 
insentient principle which they call prakriti ; the Vedantists 
believe also that it is owing to an insentient principle, but 
this principle they hold to be mdyd or avidyd ; but the 
Jaina believe the jiva to be bound through the pudgala ^ 
of karma. 

Deliverance necessarily differs, according as the fetters 
differ. The Vedanta school holds that moksa is gained 
by learning to distinguish the true soul {dtmd) from the 
illusion (mdyd) which fetters it, and the Sahkhya similarly 
strives to know atma as separated from prakriti, but the 
Jaina conceive of the spirit as freed through austerities 
from the karma it had accumulated, and existing in limit- 
less serenity. 

The Jaina claim not to be Ekantavadin, those who look 
at things from one point of view, but Anekantavadin, 
those who look at things from various points of view, and 
the part of their philosophy of which they are most proud 
is the Saptabhahgi Naya. 

Dr. Jacobi ^ thinks that this may have been invented to 
confute the views of some dangerous opponent, probably 
the Agnosticism of Sahjaya. (Certainly to fight against it 
would be as difficult and useless as fighting against a London 
fog !) The locus classicus of its exposition to which all 

^ S. B. E.J xlv, p. XXV. ^ See p. 106. ^ .S". B, E., xiv, p. xxvii. 



Jaina immediately refer you is in Dr. Bhandarkar's Search 

for Jaina Manuscripts,^ from which they always quote it 

in full. 

Seven 'You can', the famous passage runs, 'affirm existence of a thing 

modes from one point of view {Syad asti), deny it from another {Sydn?iasti) ; 
of asser- and affirm both existence and non-existence with reference to it at 
different times {Sydd asti iidsti). If you should think of affirming 
both existence and non-existence at the same time from the same point 
of view, you must say that the thing cannot be so spoken of {Sydd 
avaktavyaJi). Similarly under certain circumstances, the affirmation 
of existence is not possible {Sydd asti avaktavyah) ; of non-existence 
{^Sydn ndsti avaktavyah) ; and also of both {Sydd asti ndsti avaktavyah). 
What is meant by these seven modes is that a thing should not be 
considered as existing everywhere, at all times, in all ways, and in the 
form of everything. It may exist in one place and not in another, and 
at one time and not at another.' 

The example pandits gave the writer to illustrate this 
important doctrine was that one and the same man is 
spoken of as father, uncle, father-in-law, son, son-in-law, 
brother and grandfather. 

As an illustration of its use they say : 

' Let us suppose that an agnostic denies the existence of soul in all 
ways. To him the Jaina Syadvada would answer that as soul is a 
substance, it exists. Soul exists in itself and its modifications, but it 
does not exist in other substances such as matter [pudgala], &c., 
and also other substances do not exist in soul. So, from this point of 
view, soul does not exist. But soul sometimes exists and also does not 
exist at different times. But the soul cannot be spoken of, if .we think 
of affirming its existence and non-existence, at the same time and from 
the same point of view. Similarly, under certain conditions, viz. when 
the state of existence (i.e. astitva) itself cannot be spoken of, i.e. exists 
and exists and does not exist cannot be spoken of at the same time, we 
are unable to affirm that existence is possible, that non-existence is 
possible, and that both existence and non-existence are possible. Thus 
Syadvada teaches the fundamental theory that everything in the 
universe is related to every other thing. . . . The Jaina school of 
philosophy coincides, in one respect, with Hegel's idea that being 
and non-being are identical.' "^ 

* Bhandarkar, loc. cit., pp. 95 ff. 

"^ U. D. Barodia, History and Literature of Jainisni j^omhdiy, 1909? 
p. 119. 


But though the Jaina are very proud of this part of their 
philosophy, they hold it as a thing apart, and it does not 
seem to permeate their daily thought and life. To them 
the crucial point is, how may a jiva free itself from its 
transitory imprisonment, and, following the upward path, 
attain deliverance at last ? The answer to this question 
they find in the Nine Categories. 




First Category: Jlva. 

The Jaina consider that the foundation of true philo- 
sophy consists of nine categories.-^ * He who truly believes 
the true teaching of the fundamental truths possesses 
righteousness,' says the Uttaradhyayana.^ 

All three sects of Jaina, however much they may 
differ with regard to the eyes and adornments of their 
idols, or as to whether they should have idols at all, agree 
as to these principles, though the Digambara number them 
differently, and by including two of them under other 
heads make the categories seven instead of nine. 

The first of these nine categories (Nava Tativa) is always 
given as jlva^ a word which is varyingly used to connote 
life, vitahty, soul, or consciousness. When jiva is used 
as equivalent to * soul ' it differs from the Brahmanic idea 
of ' soul ', for the Jaina believe that whilst the knowledge 
possessed by the jiva (or atma) may be boundless, the jiva 
itself is limited ; whilst followers of the Saiikhya, Nyaya 
and Vaisesika schools believe the soul to be co-extensive 
with the universe. Both Brahmans and Jaina believe, 
in contradistinction to the Buddhists, that the soul is 
absolute and permanent, and according to the Jaina it 
is the jiva which suffers or enjoys the fruits of its deeds, 
and then, in consequence of the karma it has acquired, 
goes through the succession of rebirths, and finally, obtain- 
ing freedom through the destruction of its karma, soars 
upwards to moksa. 

^ An analysis of the Nine Categories is given in the Appendix. 
^ S.B.E., xlv, p. 154. 


A famous sloka of the great Hemacarya thus describes 
the characteristics of the jiva : 

It performs different kinds of actions, it reaps the fruit 
of those actions, it circles round returning again ; these 
and none other are the characteristics of the soul. 

Jiva has further been described as a conscious substance, 
capable of development, imperceptible to the senses, an 
active agent, and as big as the body it animates.^ 

In a most interesting note Dr. Jacobi suggests that the 
Jaina have arrived * at their concept of soul, not through 
the search after the Self, the self-existing unchangeable 
principle in the ever-changing world of phenomena, but 
through the perception of life. For the most general 
Jaina term for soul is life {jwa), which is identical with 
self {dyd, dtman) ' ; ^ and the way in which the category 
jiva is divided and subdivided, building up from the lesser 
to the more developed life, certainly bears out Dr. Jacobi's 
contention ; for the Jaina lay stress on Life not Self. 

Sometimes jiva itself is considered as a division of 
Dravya (or substance), its chief characteristic being cai* 
tanya (consciousness). 

This conscious sentient principle, jiva or atma, so long The 
as it feels desire, hatred and other attachments, and isP^^^^^^^ 

* . ' , Prana 

fettered by karma, undergoes continual reincarnations, possessed 
In each new birth it makes its home in a new form, and ^y J^^^- 
there assumes those bodily powers or prdna ^ which its 
various actions in previous births have entitled it to possess, 
for the possession or non-possession of any faculty depends 
on karma. The most perfectly developed jiva has ten 
prana and the lowest type must possess at least four. 
Of these ten prana, five are called Indriya prana, since 
they relate to the senses. They are the sense of touch 

^ Bhandarkar, Search for Sanskrit MSS. in 1883-4., p. 106. 

^ S. B. E.y xxii, p. 3. 

^ Much confusion has arisen through not distinguishing the Jaina 
use of the word, prana from the Vedantist, with whom it means breath, 
and who say that there are five vital prana or breaths. 




of Jiva 
into : — 
i. Two 

ii. Three 


iii. Four 

[Sparsendriya) ; the sense of taste [Rasendriya) ; the sense 
of smell {Ghrdnendriyd) ; the sense of sight (Caksurmdriya) ; 
the sense of hearing [SravaHendriya). 

There are also three other powers known as Baja praria : 
bodily power {Kay ah a! a), speech [Vacanahala) and mind 
[Manahala). The ninth Prana, Anapana prana (or Svaso- 
cchvasa) gives the powers of respiration ; and the tenth 
prana, Ayu prana, is the possession of the allotted span 
of life during which the j!va has to sustain a particular 
bodily form. 

In order to understand Jiva more fully, the Jaina divide 
it according to the class of beings in which its past karma 
may force it for a time to take up its abode. The first 
division which they make is into Siddha and Samsari. 
A man's karma may force him to dwell in some being still 
strugghng with all the troubles of this present world, 
sulHed by contact with Ajiva (insentient matter), and 
having further rebirths to undergo before he can reach 
moksa ; or he may have attained deliverance and become 
a Siddha. The Samsari live in the world, but the Siddha, 
or perfected ones, who are freed from karma, live in a 
place called Isatpragbhara, which consists of pure white 
gold and has the form of an open umbrella.^ The beings 
who dwell there have no visible form, but consist of Life 
throughout and possess paramount happiness which admits 
of no comparison. 

We have divided Life into two classes : Siddha and 
Sarhsari, perfected and unperfected ; we may now, the 
Jaina say, divide Sarhsari life into three divisions : male, 
female and neuter.^ 

Or again, we may regard it in four ways, according to 
the place where it was born. Jiva born in hell are called 

^ Cp. S. B. E., xlv, p. 212. 

^ With the Jaina, however, these words do not seem to bear quite 
the usual English connotation. Living things are sometimes con- 
sidered neuter, and non-living things male or female. 


Ndrakl ; those born in a state lower than human and inhabit- 
ing the bodies of insects, birds, reptiles, animals, or plants 
are named Tiryanc ; Manusya are jiva born as human beings ; 
and those who are born as spirits, whether gods or demons,^ 
are called Devatd. These four possible places of birth are 
shown in the accompanying Svastika sign, which is con- 
stantly seen in Jaina books and temples. 





Jiva may be classified in five ways, according to the iv. Five 
number of senses it possesses, as Ekendriya, Be-indriya,^ ^^^^^^^* 
Tri-indriya, Corendriya, and Paficendriya.^ 

Ekendriya jiva possess only one sense, the sense of touch, iv [a). 
but have four prana : touch, body, the power of exhaling y^|^^"' 
and inhaling; and the allotted term of life. 

They are subdivided into Prithvikaya, Apakaya, Teukaya, 
Vayukaya, and Vanaspatikaya. Things belonging to the 
earth, such as stones,* lumps of clay, salts, chalk, diamonds 
and other minerals, are called Prithvikdya ekendriya. 
Though ordinary persons are unable to perceive in these 
the power of suffering, yet a Kevalf can do so, for he sees 
that they have four prana, including the power of breathing 
and of touch. The longest span for which a jiva can be 

* A Vedantist would not use the word devata to express an evil 
spirit, and this has sometimes led to confusion. 

2 Saftskrit Dvindriya, Trindriya, Caturindriya, Pancindriya. 

^ It is interesting to compare these divisions with those of Gosala, 
which they much resemble. 

^ Dr. Jacobi shows how this and the other animistic beliefs of 
Jainism point to its antiquity. S. B. £",, xlv, p. xxxiii. 



compelled to inhabit such a lodging is twenty-two thou- 
sand years, and the shortest time less than forty-eight 
moments,^ but as the jiva's karma is gradually exhausted, 
it will be reborn into happier conditions.^ These earth 
lives are also divided into those which we can see and 
those which are invisible to the human eye. By ill-treating 
any earth life we deprive ourselves of our chance of happi- 
ness and perfect wisdom. 

The Jaina believe that water ^ itself (not, as is so often 
supposed, the animalculae living in it) is inhabited by 
Ekendriya jiva called Apakdya ekendriya. Apakaya in- 
clude rain, dew, fog, melted snow, melted hail, &c. The 
shortest span a jIva can pass in water is a moment,^ though 
more usually it will have to wait there for rebirth for at least 
forty-eight moments ; but the longest time its karma can 
condemn it to this imprisonment is seven thousand years. 
It is this belief in the power of inflicting pain on water 
that makes Jaina monks so particular about only taking it 
when it has been boiled and strained and prevents some 
of them using it at all for toilet purposes ! 

A man's karma again may force him to become a Teukdya 
ekendriya, or fire life, and he may have to pass into an 
ordinary fire, the light of a lamp, a magnet, electricity, 
a meteor, flintstone sparks, a forest conflagration, or a 
submarine fire,^ but one can only be condemned to be 
afire life for a period varying from one instant^ to three 

* Antarmuhurtta. 

^ Jaina differ from some other schools of thought in believing that it 
is possible for the jiva inhabiting a man to be so weighed down by evil 
karma that it may in its very next rebirth have to pass into an 
Ekendriya Prithvlkaya, or earth life. They also differ, of course, from 
the Vcdantists, who believe in one all-soul, not in numberless individual 
souls like these. 

^ Compare ' the heroes (of faith), humbly bent, (should retain their belief 
in) the illustrious road (to final liberation) and in the world (of water 
bodies)'. Acdr-diiga Sutra, S. B. E., xxii, p. 5. 

* Some Jaina think it is forty-eight moments. 

^ Jaina, like many Hindus, believe that waves are caused by sub- 
marine fire in the bed of the ocean. 
® Samaya. 


days (i.e. seventy-two hours). A difference of opinion 
exists amongst Jaina as to whether one can be condemned 
to become Hghtning or not, for it does not seem to be known 
for certain whether or no Teukaya exists in Hghtning.^ 

Again, all sorts of wind, such as cyclones, whirlwinds, 
monsoons, west winds and trade-winds, are thought of as 
inhabited by what are called Vdyukdya ekendriya jiva. It 
is difficult for us to understand that wind has a body and 
can be made to suffer pain, but all this is plain to a Kevali. 
The period a jiva may spend as wind varies according to 
his karma from one instant to three thousand years. 

All vegetable life, or Vanaspatikdya, also possesses but 
one indriya. These jiva are divided into two classes : 
Pratyeka, or life such as that of a tree (e. g. an orange or 
mango tree), whose various branches, fruits and leaves 
possess life derived from it, and Sddhdrana, the life pos- 
sessed by potatoes,^ onions, carrots, figs, &c. Strict Jaina 
will not eat any of the latter class, for example, potatoes, 
beet, onions, &c., because more than one jiva has taken 
up its lodging there ; but they will take oranges and man- 
goes, once they are ripe, for then they are inhabited by 
only one life. Life as a vegetable ^ may last from one 
instant to ten thousand years. 

Ascending the scale, we come to jiva possessing two iv(/5). Be- 
senses (or Be-indriya), that of taste as well as that of touch, ^"^^'y^- 
and having six prana : taste, touch, body, the power of 
exhaling and inhaling, an allotted term of life, and speech. 
Such are animalculae, worms, things living in shells, leeches, 
earth-worms. No one can be condemned to be a Be-indriya 
for longer than twelve years. 

^ In the Uttaradhyayana it is expressly stated that fire lives do exist 
in lightning. S.B. E,, xlv, p. 217. 

^ In one potato there are countless bodies, and in each body count- 
less lives exist. 

^ Dr. Jacobi points out that plants and animals, being admitted 
by all to be living beings, were_considered a better support of the 
hylozoistic theory than wind. Acdrdhga Stltra, S.B.E., xxii, p. 9. 

H 2 


A strict Jaina abstains from killing anything even in 
the Ekendriya class, but the actual vow of Ahirhsa or 
Non-killing for laymen starts from the Be-indriya class. 
Monks vow not to kill anything in the Ekendriya class, 
and hence refuse to touch water, clay, a clod of earth, 
fire, &c. They cannot of course help breathing air, but 
to hurt it as little as possible they cover their mouths 
with a cloth. Monks never snap their fingers, or swing or 
fan themselves, lest they should injure air. No point in 
Jainism has been more misunderstood than this, even 
scholars^ supposing the mouth-cloth to be worn to pre- 
vent the taking of animal life, whereas it is to prevent the 
taking of air life. 
iv (c). In the next highest class, Tri-indriya, are placed all those 

dHva^' beings that in addition to the sense of touch and taste have 
also the sense of smell, and so possess three indriya and seven 
prana. In this class are red ants, white ants, black ants, bugs 
and moths. A Jaina told me that in order to please the 
insects of this class a devout householder when he finds 
vermin will often place them on one particular bedstead 
and then pay some poor person from four to six annas to 
spend the night on that bedstead ! Others, however, deny this. 
Of course no true Jaina will kill vermin, but will carefully 
remove it from his body or house to some shady place 
outside where it can dwell in safety. They say that, far 
from killing vermin, they are bound to protect it, as it has 
been created through their lack of cleanliness. No one's 
karma can force him to pass into this class of being for 
more than forty-nine days, or for less than an instant of 
iy {(i). Beings still higher in the scale are the Corendriya, 

driya. those possessed of the four senses of touch, taste, smell 
and sight ; these of course have eight prana. Wasps, 

* Mr. W. Crooke, for instance, says [Imperial Gazetfee?', vol. i, p. 416), 
* They wear a screen of cloth before their mouths, lest they should 
unwittingly inhale and destroy animal life.' 


scorpions, mosquitoes, gnats, flies, locusts and butterflies 
should be included under this heading, and also, according 
to some Jaina, moths, which are, however, often classed as 
Tri-indriya. Beings cannot be kept in this division for 
longer than six months without rebirth. 

The extra sense added to the jiva in the next class is iv (e). 
that of hearing ; and these Paficendriy'a should therefore, •^^.^^^"" 
to correspond, be possessed of nine prana. Some, how- 
ever, have an extra prana added, that of mind, and these 
are called Samjfii paficendriya, whilst the rest who have 
only nine are called Asarhjfii. There are four divisions of 
the Paficendriya : hell beings, lower animals, human beings 
and demigods. Of these the hell beings, human beings 
and demigods are possessed of intelligence, and so are cer- 
tain creatures such as cows, buffaloes and other domestic 
animals ; whilst frogs, fish and disease germs have no intel- 
ligence, for these are all self-created ! 

Germs which are thus classified in a way that seems 
strange to us as Paficendriya are of great importance in 
Jaina philosophy. When engaging in Pratikramana (or 
Padikamanurh), i. e. Confession, Jaina think of the sins 
they may have committed against any being possessing any 
indriya and ask forgiveness. At this time they also think 
of any germs which they may have created by sinning 
against the laws of sanitation in fourteen specified ways. 
If through a man's carelessness or insanitary habits germs 
should have multiplied and infection spread, Mahavira 
declared him to be guilty of a sin as grave as that of 

The minimum of time which a being may be sentenced 
to spend as a hell being or a demigod is ten thousand 
years, and it may extend to thirty-three sagaropama. In 
the case of human beings (including germs, which are 
ranked as humans !) and lower animals, the period may 
extend from one instant to three palya of time. 

We have already followed the Jaina as they divided 


V. Six Jiva, in two, in three, in four, and lastly in five ways. We 

classes, j^^^^ come to the six ways in which Jiva may be divided, 
namely, into Prithvikaya, Apakaya, Teukaya, Vayukaya, 
Vanaspatikaya, and Trasakaya. Of these we have studied 
earth, water, fire, wind and vegetable lives, so it only 
remains for us to look at Trasakaya. The Jaina say that 
in the class of Trasakaya are included all lives that have 
the power of motion and which, when swayed by trdsa 
(dread), can try and get out of danger. All lives possess- 
ing two or more indriya are included under this heading 
as Trasakaya or mobile, whilst earth, water, fire, air and 
vegetable are considered immobile. 

vi. Seven Again, Jiva may be classified in seven ways : hell beings 
(which are all neuter !), male lower animals, female lower 
animals, male human beings, female human beings, male 
demigods and female demigods. 

vii. Eight This last is perhaps a somewhat artificial classification 
introduced for the sake of symmetry, but when we come 
to the next series, where Jiva is divided into eight classes, 
we touch on one of the most important points in Jaina 
philosophy, and one which it shares with the followers 
of Gosala. The Jaina say Jiva may be divided into eight 
classes according to the six Lesya ^ by which it is swayed, 
and according to whether it is sw^aycd by any emotion 
or not.^ These emotions affect the colour of the soul they 
govern just as a crystal is coloured by the hue of the sub- 
stance on which it rests. 

vii (a). Beings in the first class, or Salesi, include all who 

are yet swayed by any of the three good or three bad 

vii {d). Krisnalesyd is the worst of the three bad emotions, and 

it is described as being black as a thunder-cloud, bitter 
as a Neem tree, smelling like a dead cow, and rougher 

' Or Lesa. 

^ Jaina divisions are not, unfortunately for the student, mutually 
exclusive, and even include the whole along with its parts. 


than a saw to the touch. Jiva, under the direction of 
this so graphically described bad temper, accumulate 
karma by all sorts of cruel and violent acts without stopping 
to think of the consequences. All the emotions last for 
differing periods according to whether they influence a god, 
a hell being, or a man. 

In the third division are all those ruled by Nilalesyd. vii {c). 
This emotion is less evil than the last, though it is still 
evil enough ; its colour is blue as indigo, its taste more 
pungent than pepper, it still has the odour of a dead cow 
about it, and its roughness is as bad as ever. A man under 
its influence is envious of the good qualities of others ; 
he will not only not perform austerities or acquire know- 
ledge himself, but tries to hinder others from doing so ; and 
he is lazy, gluttonous, and wanting in modesty. Such 
a man thinks only of his own happiness, and pursuing 
only his own pleasure is continually beset by evil thoughts 
and purposes. 

The last wicked emotion that may lead men to do evil vii {d). 
is called Kdpotalesyd. It is grey in colour like a dove, 
as bitter of flavour as an unripe mango, and of as evil an 
odour and as rough to touch as its predecessors. A man 
under its command becomes crooked in thought and deed, 
he develops into a thief and a liar, loves intrigue, and 
delights to expose the bad qualities of others whilst con- 
cealing his own faults. It is torment to such a person 
to see others prosperous or wealthy. 

There are three good emotions whose scent is like to vii {e), 
fragrant flowers and whose touch^is as soft as butter, and 
these govern three more classes of beings. The first good 
emotion, Tejolesyd, is red like the rising sun and sweeter 
to the taste than ripe mangoes. It removes all evil 
thoughts from the jiva under its sway as dawn destroys 
the darkness of night, and all under its influence are bright 
and happy. Men governed by it are firm in their rehgion, 
afraid of sinning, anxious to keep the law, desirous of 


getting knowledge, humble and free from curiosity, straight- 
forward and righteous. 

vii (/). The second good emotion takes its name, Padmalesyd, 
from the lotus-flower, for jiva beneath its dominion open 
their hearts to all good things as lotus hhes expand to the 
sun. Its colour is yellow,^ and its taste is better than 
honey. Through its power a man controls anger, pride, 
deceit and avarice, and gains as a reward a quiet mind, 
whose thoughts are always calm and collected. 

vii (^). The last emotion, the Siiklalesyd, is the highest of all ; 

it is as white as pearls, and its taste sweeter than sugar. 
Love and hatred disappear when a man is under its 
influence, and he feels in harmony with all nature. 
Knowledge is now complete, austerity finished and char- 
acter perfected, for, governed by it, the mind itself becomes 
a sun and has no stain of evil and, unbarred by karma, 
the way lies open to moksa. 

vii (//). The eighth class of jiva are called Alesl, for they have done 

with all feeling and completely stultified everything in 
their personality which might respond to emotion. Only 
the Siddha are to be found in this class. 

viii. Nine The Jaina divide Jiva again in nine ways : Pfithvikaya, 
Apakaya, Teukaya, Vayukaya, Vanaspatikaya, Be-indriya, 
Tri-indriya, Corendriya, and Paficendriya, but all these 
have already been discussed, and this division is only 
made for the sake of symmetry. 

ix. Ten When Jiva is classified in ten ways, the five old divi- 
sions we already know of (Ekendriya, &c.) are used, but 
each of these is subdivided into two classes, Parydptd 
and Aparydptd, according as they have or have not all 
the Paryapti. There are six of these paryapti : dhdra, 
the seed of life ; sarlra, the body ; indriya, the senses ; 
svdsocchvdsa, breathing; bhdsd, speech; and mana,^ intel- 
lect ; and in this order the Jaina believe the jiva develops 
them as it passes by transmigration from life to life. The 
' SthilnakavasI say pink. ^ Scmskrit manas. 




resemblance between paryapti and prana will be noticed. 
A Jaina sadhu told the writer that the peculiarity of 
paryapti consisted in the fact that when a jiva migrated 
from one life to another, it could obtain these paryapti in 
the space of forty-eight minutes. Others, however, say 
that paryapti and praiia are practically identical. Some 
jiva have all six paryapti, some five, and some four ; 
but none can have less than four ; if a jiva dies before 
it attains the number decreed for it, it is classed as 

When Jiva, is classified in eleven ways, to the first four x. Eleven 
orders of mdriya are added the three subdivisions of paficen- 
driya [ndrakl, tiryanc and manusya) which we have already 
discussed, and then to these are added the four subdivi- 
sions of demi-gods, or Deva.^ Jaina subdivide their gods 
into Bhavanapati, the lords of the lower parts of the earth, 
who are often serpents of various kinds ; Vyantara, evil 
spirits such as ghosts, witches, goblins, &c. ; Jyotisi, who 
live in ' planets ', under which are included sun, moon, 
and stars ; and Vaimanika, or residents of celestial worlds, 
which are sometimes larger and sometimes smaller than 
our world. 

The twelve ways in which Jiva can be looked at are xi. 
made up of Prithvikaya, Apakaya, Teukaya, Vayukaya, ^las^ses. 
and Vanaspatikaya (i.e. the five divisions of Ekendriya), 
Trasakaya (the collective name for the last four indriya), 
and the subdivision of each of these six classes into Par- 
yapta and Aparyapta. 

The thirteen ways are similarly^ artificially formed by xii. 
dividing the six Lesya into Paryapta and Aparyapta and , ^^^^^^ 
adding Alesi. 

In the fourteen-fold division the five orders of Indriya xiii. 
are divided into Paryapta and Aparyapta, but Ekendriya ^°^^*^^^" 
are divided into two new classes : Suksma ekendriya and 

^ It will be remembered that demi-gods were the fourth subdivision 
of Pancendriya. 


Bddara ekendriya. In the first of these are lives so minute 
that they can never be seen, killed, or destroyed, whilst 
those of the Badara ekendriya can be killed or destroyed, 
and can sometimes be perceived. To make up the number 
to fourteen the two divisions of the fifth class, Samjni and 
Asarhjni, are included. 

The Second Category : Ajiva. 

The second great Tattva of the Jaina deals with Ajiva 
(things inanimate), and is in all respects the opposite of 
Jiva. Until jiva is freed from one particular division 
(pudgala) of ajiva, it is impossible for it to progress towards 
deliverance. The union of jiva with ajiva is never so 
absolutely complete as to make their separation impossible. 
Ajiva is divided into two main classes : Arupi (without 
form) and Rupi (with form). Arupl ajiva has four great 
subdivisions : Dharmastikaya,^ Adharmastikaya, Akasasti- 
kaya and Kala.^ 
Dharma- Dharmdstikdya helps the jiva associated with pudgaja^ 
sti -aya. ^^ progress just as (to use their own illustration) water 
helps on the movements of a fish. It is divided into three 
classes : Skandha, Desa, and Pradesa. The whole power 
of motion is called skandha ; a large fraction of it is called 
desa as long as it is linked with skandha ; while pradesa 
is a small fraction of desa. The Jaina declare that they 
had so thoroughly studied the laws of motion that they 
were cognizant of the law of gravity long before Sir Isaac 
Newton discovered it. 

^ The ordinary meaning of Dharma and Adharma is of course merit 
and demerit, or right conduct and unrighteousness, as Dr. Jacobi * and 
Dr. Bhandarkar^ translate them ; but all the Jaina that I have met in 
India assure me that these two words are here used in a special 
technical sense which we shall better understand as we discuss these 

^ Introduction, S. B. E., xlv, p. xxxiv. 

^ Dr. Bhandarkar, Search for Sanskrit Manuscripts, p. 96. Dr. 
Biihler falls into the same trap, Indian Sect of the Jaina, p. 9. 

^ Sans. Kala. 

^ Pudgala {Sans, pudgala) is roughly translated by Jaina as * matter '. 


Adharmdstikdya the Jaina explain by an illustration Adhar- 
of a man walking along a road on a hot day ; he sees the F.^^*^' 
shadow of a tree, and the shadow first attracts him to seek 
its shelter, and then keeps him quietly resting under it. 
So Adharmastikaya without any movement on its part 
first attracts and then keeps motionless the one attracted. 
It has the same divisions of skandha, desa, and pradesa 
as Dharmastikaya. 

The third subdivision of Arupi Ajlva is Akdsdstikdya, Akasasti- 
or that which gives space and makes room. If, for example, ^^^* 
a lamp is lighted, it is Akasastikaya which gives space for 
its beams to shine in ; if a nail be knocked into a wall, ■ 
it is Akasastikaya which gives it space to go into the wall. 
Again, if a lump of sugar is dropped into a cup of water 
and melts, the Jaina declare that the water remains water 
and the sugar sugar, but that a hidden power gives the 
sugar room to melt, and this power is Akasastikaya. As 
a house affords room for its residents, so Akasastikaya 
gives space for Ajiva to dwell in. Akasastikaya is also 
divided into skandha, desa, and pradesa, but the skandha 
of Akasastikaya includes space in the heavens as well as 
on the earth. 

The real nature of Kd/a or time (the fourth division of Kala. 
Arupl Ajiva) can only, according to the Jaina, be under- 
stood by the initiated. To the worldling Kala bears the 
connotation of ' time ',^ and he divides and subdivides it 
into seconds, minutes, hours, days, years, &c. But to the 
initiated Kala is indivisible,^ and is that which is con- 
tinually making old things new and new things old.^ As 
an illustration, the Jaina quote the fate of a jiva or soul 
which may be forced by its karma to inhabit the body 
of a child. The child grows up into a young man, and 
finally dies in old age, and the jiva is forced to inhabit 

' Or Vyavaharika Kala. ^ Addhasamaya. 

^ Dr. Griswold draws attention in this connexion to Bergson's doctrine 
of Time in his Creative Evolution. 


afresh the body of another infant. The jiva remains the 
same, but the power that made its covering body at one 
time old and then young again is Kala. As Kala in this 
sense is indivisible, it cannot have the divisions of skandha, 
desa, and pradesa. 

All these four divisions of Arupi ajiva are further 
subdivided with regard to Dravya (substance), Ksetra 
(place), Kd/a (time), Bhdva (nature), and Gmta (qualities). 
For instance, Dharmastikaya is considered of one sub- 
stance ; its place is the seven lower worlds, including the 
worlds of the serpents, this world, and the worlds of the 
demi-gods ; with regard to time, it is without beginning 
and without end ; its nature is without colour, without 
smell, without taste, imperceptible to touch, and without 
form ; its quality is that it helps motion. Adharmastikaya 
when looked at in this way agrees with Dharmastikaya in 
every point, excepting that its special quality is to arrest 
motion. Akasastikaya differs in that it has its place in 
both Loka and Aloka, and that its quality is to afford space. 
Kala with regard to place is found in two-and-a-half con- 
tinents only (i.e. Jambudvipa, Dhataki Khanda and half 
of Puskara), and its quality is to make old things new and 
new things old. In this way they make up twenty divi- 
sions, and sometimes thirty by skandha, desa, and pra- 
desa, out of the four original divisions of Arupi ajiva, 
without, however, adding enough new material to make 
it worth our while to follow out the labyrinth. 
Pudgalas- The Rupi division of Ajiva contains only Piidgaldstikdya, 
t« 'aya. ^^ matter which possesses colour, smell, taste and form, 
and is perceptible to touch. Pudgala can be consumed 
or destroyed, and it may decay or alter its form. Where 
there is no pudgala present, none of the five primary 
colours, black, green (or blue), red, white, or yellow, can 
be present, and so, for instance, a Siddha who is freed 
from pudgala is freed from colour also. The smells of 
pudgaja, the Jaina say, are of two kinds, pleasing and 


unpleasing,^ and a Siddha being free from pudgala is also 
free from odour. 

Pudgala may have any of the five flavours : pungent, 
bitter, astringent, sour, or sweet. It may be of five shapes : 
circular, globular, triangular, square, or oblong, i. e. ' stretched 
out like a log lying on the earth.' A Siddha, of course, 
is freed from all shape. 

There are eight kinds of * touch ' that pudgala may 
have : it may be light or heavy, hot or cold, rough or 
smooth, wet or dry; but a Siddha can possess none of 
these qualities. 

Jaina indulge their genius for subdivision by dividing 
each colour by the two smells, five flavours and eight 
touches, and then again they divide each smell by the 
five colours, five tastes and eight touches, and so on, till 
they get 560 divisions out of pudgala. 

Pudgala is also divided into four classes : Skandha, Desa, 
Pradesa, and Paramanu (i.e. the smallest particle). Skan- 
dha, desa, and pradesa are linked together, but paramanu 
is separate and indivisible. 

The pudgala enter and leave our bodies incessantly, 
and are infinitely more numerous than jiva. As we shall 
see later, the Jaina believe that karma arises out of pudgala. 

The Jaina hold that it is through Jiva and these five 
divisions of Ajlva (Dharmastikaya, Adharmastikaya, Aka- 
sastikaya, Kala, and Pudgalastikaya) that the universe 
exists, and that these serve instead of a creator, whose 
existence they do not acknowledge. 

^ In order that the uninitiated may realize this deep truth, the follow- 
ing legend is told. Once a king crossed a stream wherein a dead dog 
lay, and to avoid the smell held a cloth across his nose. When he 
asked his prime minister why he did not do likewise, he replied that 
he knew his Jaina philosophy, and realized that it was of the nature of 
pudgala to be sometimes sweet and sometimes evil smelling. Seeing 
his master unconvinced, he secretly drew water from the very place 
where the corpse of the dog lay, and, having filtered, iced and spiced 
it, offered it to the king, who drank it with delight. Afterwards learn- 
ing its source, he learnt also that the same pudga]a may sometimes 
be of a sweet odour and sometimes of an evil one. 


The Third Category : Piuiya. 
Nine Another of the great Tattva deals with Punya or merit.' 

in s o q-j^g actions which lead to the good karma which bring 
peace of mind are called punya, and there are nine ways of 
performing these actions. 
i. Anna If we give food to deserving people who are hungry, 
P"'?y^ weak, destitute of help and needy, we perform Anna punya. 
The greatest merit is gained when the food is given to 
monks or nuns, but these must be Jaina ascetics (not 
Hindu for instance), and in order to gain the fullest benefit 
from charity the food must be given in such a way as not to 
involve hirhsa.^ It will be remembered that Mahavira in 
a previous birth, when a woodcutter, gained great punya by 
feeding a party of monks who had lost their way. His 
reward was that in his next incarnation he became a devata, 
and after many many rebirths was incarnate as Maha- 
vira. For less illustrious services one may in the next life 
become a merchant, or a ruler, or gain some other coveted 
ii. Pana In common with many other religions that have arisen in 
puriya. sultry lands, Jainism teaches that a special reward is attached 
to giving water to the thirsty {Pdtta puuya). There is no 
harm in giving unboiled water to a layman, but boiled water 
must always be given to an ascetic. The story of Neminatha, 
the twenty-second Tirthahkara, shows how great the reward 
is. A king named Sahkara and his wife Jasomati once 
showed kindness to some thirsty monks by giving them 
water in which grapes had been soaked. In their next 
birth, as a reward, the king was born as Neminatha and 
his wife as the daughter of a famous king of Sorath ; in 
this incarnation, though betrothed, they did not marry, but 
instead they both became ascetics on the day fixed for 
their wedding, and eventually obtained moksa. 
iii. Vastra A great reward is also obtained by giving clothes to the 

^ The Digambara include Punya under Asrava (see p. 139). 
^ i. e. destruction of life. 


poor (Vastrapiuiya) and especially to monks, as the following 
legend teaches. Once upon a time a rich merchant's wife saw 
some monks shivering with cold, and made them blankets of 
cloth of gold out of some magnificent material she had by 
her. As a recompense she became in her next birth Maru- 
devi, the mother of the first Tirthankara Risabhadeva, and 
attained moksa in the same incarnation. 

Another legend illustrates the reward gained by any one, iv. 
even a heretic, for building or lending a house to a monk L^y^'?^ 
{Layana punya), or providing seats, beds or bedding v. Sayana 
[Sayana punya). A potter named Sakadala, a follower of P^^'jy^- 
Gosala, once saw Mahavira enter his village and approach 
his dwelling. At first he thought of not inviting Gosala's 
great opponent into his house, but seeing Mahavira's divine 
qualities, he at length asked him in and gave him lodgings 
and a bed. (He could not offer food, as a sadhu may not 
eat at the house where he stays.) In return Mahavira taught 
Sakadala the law and converted him to the true faith, and 
he became a devoted Sravaka in this life and after death 
a god. Being reincarnated as a man, he became a sadhu 
and so reached moksa. 

By thinking well of every one and wishing them well we vi. Mana 
gain Mana punya, and by exerting ourselves to render them P"'?y^- 
service or to save life we accumulate Kay a or Sarira punya, vii. Sarira 
as the following history shows. In a certain forest there P^'^V^- 
was a small clearing, and once, when a terrible fire raged in 
the wood, all the animals rushed to this spot, and it became 
dangerously overcrowded. Even the mighty elephant had 
taken refuge there, and as he happened to raise his foot to 
change his position a hare ran under it. The elephant saw 
at once that if he put his foot down he would crush the hare, 
and in that crowded space there was not another place to 
which the hare could possibly move. So the elephant 
continued to hold his foot in the air for hours and hours, 
until at last, worn out, he fell to the ground and died. 
Immediately he was reincarnated as the son of a mighty 





ix. Na- 



king, and in his next birth became an ascetic and attained 

Merit is also won by^ speaking without hurting any one's 
feelings, and so as to influence others towards rehgion and 
morality (Vacana punya) . Krisna, for instance, the favourite 
Hindu deity, when King of Dvaraka, once heard Neminatha 
preach. He felt that he himself could not face the hardships 
of a monk's life, but he urged any of his subjects who could 
to receive initiation, and promised to look after their fami- 
lies. Some of the people thereupon became monks, and this 
brought Krisna^ so much Vacana punya that he is bound 
eventually to become a Tirthahkara, though he has a lot of 
karma to work off first. 

One may also obtain merit by reverent salutations 
(Namaskdra punya). The Jaina say that one first bows 
to religious men, then one gets to know them, next one 
decides to follow their example and by so doing one attains 
moksa. The Digambara and Svetambara can obtain merit 
by bowing reverently to the images in their temples, but the 
Sthanakavas!, having only gurus to bow to, show them 
double reverence and so have been accused of worshipping^ 
their gurus, which they indignantly deny, pointing out that 
they make them no offerings of flowers, fruit, &c. It would 
be quite impossible to write down even the names of the 
legends told with the object of illustrating the great 
rewards gained by doing reverence. In fact the first step 
to moksa is said to be climbed by bowing. We have seen 
that the god Krisna is to be a Tirthaiikara, and the Jaina 
say that he will take his first step from Patala (a lower 
region), where he now is, towards this high future by doing 

^ We shall find constant examples of the influence Krisna worship 
has on the Jaina, Many of them read and love the Bhagavadgitd 
almost as much as the Hindus, though it is not one of their scriptures. 

^ They point out the following mistake in the Imperial Gazetteer of 
y/z^'Z/rt (Oxford, 1907), vol. i, p. 417 : 'The Dhondiyas, who worship their 
gurus', by which they complain that their feelings have been wounded. 


We have seen that there are nine chief ways of laying up The 

merit : the Jaina believe that there are forty-two ways in ^^^V' 

which the reward of this merit can be reaped. If one is ways of 

very happy in having all that one needs to eat, drink and enjoying 

, . ' the fruit 

wear, one knows that one is enjoying Sdtavedamya. If one of Punya. 

is born in a high family (Uncagotra) ; if one has had the 
joy of being born as a man (Manusya gati\ and not as a 
beast, god, or hell being ; and moreover if one is sure to be 
born in one's next birth as a man and not a beast [Manu- 
sya amcpurvt), one is experiencing three happy results of 
punya. The last of these results is often likened to the 
reins that pull an ox on to the right road, so strong 
is the force inherent in punya. If the merit acquired 
were very powerful, one might be born as a god and 
so enjoy Devatd gati, even becoming Krisna or Indra. 
To be even a minor god is a stage higher than being 
born as an ordinary man, and another of the fruits is 
Devatd anupurvl, which keeps one on the path of becoming 
a god. 

If we have all five senses in this life, it shows that we are 
enjoying P aficendriyapanum^ and if we have a large and 
imposing body instead of a little one like an ant, that is 
owing to Auddrikasarira. Sometimes punya has a magical 
effect, owing to which one may gain Vaikreyasarira, or 
a body like a god's, which can appear and disappear at will, 
can produce six or four hands, and become mountainous or 
minute. Certain monks by virtue of their knowledge and of 
their austerities gain the power of sending out a tiny body 
from themselves which can go to Mahavideha and obtain 
answers to any doubts or spiritual difficulties from the 
Tirthahkara there.-^ This tiny body is called Ahdrakasarlra, 
and the power of creating it is regarded as one of the most 
valued fruits of punya. Certain other fruits of punya 
[Auddrika ahgopdriga, Vaikreya aiigopdnga, and Ahdraka 

^ Not from the Siddha, who take no interest in anything earthly. 



aiigopdnga) carry with them the assurance of having the 
full complement of limbs with these last-mentioned three 
bodies. It is only through having heat in one's body 
{Taijasasarira) that such physical functions as digestion, 
circulation, &c., can be carried on, and the possession of this 
heat is^one of the fruits of punya. Tejolesya is inherent 
in such a body, and so is the power of producing magic 
fire. Every one possesses a body (Kdrma/jasarira) round 
which his various karma accumulate, and without which 
one could never experience any of the happy fruits of merit ; 
the very possession of this body is owing to punya, for every 
one has amassed merit of some kind. 

Several of the rewards result in bodily strength or 
beauty, such as V ajrarisahhandrdca sanghayana^ which en- 
sures one's possessing bones in one's body as hard as iron 
and as strong as a bull's ; Samacaturastra santhdna, that 
gives a well-proportioned, shapely and elegant body; and 
Suhha varna, Suhha gandha, Subha rasa and Suhha spars a, 
which -endow one with a good complexion, pleasing bodily 
odour, good corpuscles in one's blood, and a skin that feels 
smooth as a peach to the touch. Again, the fruit of punya 
ensures one's being neither too fat nor too lean, but of 
exactly right weight (Agurulaghu ndmakarma), and also 
makes one so powerful (Pardghdta ndmakarma) that 
one is always victorious. Asthma or consumption are a 
clear sign that one has committed sin in a previous exis- 
tence, for merit would have won Ucchvdsa ndmakarma, 
which ensures one's having no impediment in one's 

Jaina also believe that as a result of merit they may 
be born again as Jyotisi devata, living in the sun for one 
life and giving off almost unbearable effulgence. This efful- 
gence is a result of Atapa ndmakarma. Others as a reward 
of merit go to the moon, where it is very cold, and so they 
give off a cold radiance which is due to Anusna ndmakarma. 
Even one's method of walking is affected by one's previous 


actions, and a stately gait (Subhavihdyogati) , like that of 
an elephant, a goose, or a bull, is a much coveted prize for 

Another fruit of punya [Nirmdna ndmakarma) leads to 
one's being born with all one's limbs supple and perfect. 
Through Trasa ndmakarma one is certain to be born as at 
least a two-sensed being and may be endowed with all the 
senses. Some lives are microscopic, but if one has acquired 
Bddara ndmakarma, one may rest assured that one will at 
least have sufficient size to be perceptible to the naked eye. 
In whatever class of life one is born, provided only one has 
gained Parydpti ndmakarma, one will be perfect in that 

Every ailment and every illness is traced back to a fault 
in a previous birth : thus a rickety child must have com- 
mitted some sin which prevented its gaining Sthira ndma- 
karma, for that would have given it strong and well-set 
limbs, fine teeth and a well-knit frame. 

It has been already mentioned that Jaina believe that 
every onion, potato, garlic, carrot, turnip and ground root 
is the home of innumerable jiva. If a man has acquired 
Pratyeka ndmakarma he cannot be forced to dwell in one 
of these underground roots, but in whatever body he may 
be born, he will have that body to himself. There cannot be 
more than one jiva inhabiting a human body at the same 
moment, nor more than one in a bird, beast, or insect ; it is 
only underground roots that take in troops of tenement 

Certain other rewards ensure one's having a handsome 
body (Subha ndmakarma), at least from the waist up, or 
being loved by all with whom one comes in contact (Subhaga 
ndmakarma), having a pleasant voice [Susvara ndmakarma), 
gaining respect from all whom one meets {Adeya yidma- 
karma), or even gaining fame wherever one goes (Yasoklrtti 

Three different results of punya decide the term of 

I 2 


life which one will spend as a god (Devatd dyusya), or 
a human being [Manusya dyusya), or a lower animal 
(Tiryauc dyusya). The greatest and the final reward of 
punya is Tirthankara 7idmakarma, which ensures one at 
last becoming a Tirthankara. 

The Fourth Category: Pdpa. 

The In order to understand the religion of the Jaina we must 

eighteen ^^^ ^^^ grasp their idea of sin, for it is a very different 
of Sin. conception from the Western, being in fact often ceremonial 

rather than moral. 
i. Jiva To take any life seems to the Jaina the most heinous 

himsa. ^^£ g^jj crimes and entails the most terrible punishment ; 
yet the central thought of Jainism is not so much saving 
life as refraining from destroying it. ' Ahinisd parama 
dharma — Destroy no living creature! Injure no living 
creature ! This is the highest religion ! ' declared a modern 
Jaina lecturer, and with almost Irish eloquence he goes on 
to say : ' I stand before you this noon to speak on a religion 
whose glory the dumb creatures, the cows, the goats, the 
sheep, the lambs, the hens, the pigeons, and all other living 
creatures, the beasts and the birds sing with their mute 
tongues ; the only religion which has for thousands of 
years past advocated the cause of the silent-tongued 
animals : the only religion which has denounced slaughter 
of animals for sacrifice, food, hunting, or any purpose what- 
ever.' ^ * The foundation principle of the Jaina religion', 
• writes another,^ 'is to abstain from killing.' They even call 
'• their faith the religion of non-killing [Ahwisd dharma). 
To people believing thus, killing [Hwisd) is the greatest 
sin and abstaining from killing [Ahivisd) the most binding 
moral duty. There is a higher and a lower law for ascetics 
and for the laity. A monk must strive not to take any life 

^ Lecture by Mr. Lala Benarsi Dass, Jain Itihas Society, Agra, 1902, 
pp. I fif. 

^ Popatlal K. S\\3h, Jama Dharma Nii'fepana, p. 33. 


(insect, vegetable, or animal) that has even one sense, but 
the laity are only forbidden to take any life possessed of. two 
or more senses. The Jaina make a very interesting distinc- 
tion between spiritual and actual murder [Bhdva hwisd and 
Dravya hwisd). One sins against Bhava ahirhsa by wishing 
for any one's death or desiring harm to befall them. Not 
only so, but if one does not continue and complete one's 
own education, or strive to improve one's own mind, or 
if one fails to exercise and discipline one's own soul, one 
commits Bhava hirhsa, for one kills by stultification what 
one might have been.-*- Dravya ahirhsa (or the forbidding 
of material killing) is absolutely binding on all Jaina of 
every sect, and to offend against this is the greatest of all 
sins. Breaches of the seventh commandment are con- 
sidered as breaking this law,^ because more than one jiva 
are thereby held to be destroyed. 

As a man kills a jiva, so will he be killed in hell, and 
lurid pictures are published to illustrate this tenet ; but 
if any one kills a monk, that monk in the next world is 
given the privilege of killing his murderer without sinning 
against Ahirhsa. 

The Jaina say (with how much truth is doubtful) that 
their ancient rivals the Buddhists were once as careful as 
they to observe the rule against killing, but when Buddhism 
spread to different lands, it had to be adapted to the habits 
of people who declined to give up slaughter. A Jaina friend 
of the writer once acted most dramatically the way in which 
he declared Buddhists in Burma who desire to eat fish lift 
them carefully out of the water, and, having left them on 
the bank to die, say : ' Lo, here is a poor thing that has 
died ! No sin will accrue to us if we eat it.' They also 
assert that the Buddhists in Tibet, calculating that sin 

^ This is strangely contradictory of the general aim of the whole 
system, which is none other than the gradual and complete stultification 
of character. 

^ In another aspect such offences are regarded by the Jaina as 
a form of stealing. 


accrues equally whether they kill the smallest or the greatest 
jiva, say: ' Therefore since we must acquire sin, let us kill an 
elephant,' and so get as much as possible for their money. 

In connexion with Ahimsa the lecturer whom we have 
before quoted gives a derivation for the word Hindu which 
is perhaps more ingenious than ingenuous : 

* Hindus were not those who originally lived on the banks of the 
river Indus. Hindus were those from whom himsd was away. Let 
us not misunderstand words. Let us interpret them correctly. It is 
those men who are the slaves of taste who say that Hindus were those 
who lived on the banks of the Indus. We, Jaina, call Hindus those 
from whom him or hiihsd is du or dilr, i. e. away ! ' * 

ii. Asatya Though Hirhsa is the greatest of crimes, the Jaina also 
vada.' ' recognize seventeen other sins, and the next worse of these is 
untruthfulness, Asatya or Mrisdvdda. They divide the way 
ordinary folk talk into four classes : they may tell the 
truth ; or they may tell absolute lies ; they may occasionally 
make use of white lies ; or their conversation may be a 
mosaic of truth and lies. Now a Jaina is only allowed 
to speak in two ways : either he must tell the truth ; or, if 
that be too difficult, he may avail himself of white lies ; but 
he must neither lie, nor speak the half-truth half-lie that is 
ever the blackest of lies. 

The sad story of King Vasu shows the power of absolute 
candour and the fall that follows any declension from it. 
Vasu was known as ' the Truth-teller ', and his throne was 
established on veracity ; indeed, so strong was the power 
engendered by his absolute fidelity to truth, that his throne 
was supported by it alone at a great height from the ground. 
Two men named Parvata and Narada came to him to ask 
him to tell them the exact significance of the word Aja, for 
one held it to mean ' grain ' and the other ' goat '. The 
king's pandit had told him that it meant ' grain ', but 
instead of saying this, the king, endeavouring to please 
both parties, gave the word a double signification, saying 

^ Lala Benarsi Dass, loc. cit., p. 75. 


it might mean either 'goat' or 'grain'. The result of this 
deviation from the strict truth was that the king's throne 
fell to the ground, but if you look in a dictionary you will 
see the word bears a double meaning to this day ! 

The rules regarding truthfulness and untruthfulness 
differ for monks and laity, as we shall see when we come 
to discuss the twelve vows. 

Dishonesty {Adattdddna) is another class of sin which is iii. Adat- 
forbidden to all Jaina ; besides actual theft, this sin includes ^ 
keeping lost property or treasure trove, smuggling, cheating, 
taking bribes, and all treason and law breaking. It was 
explained to the writer that the reason why treason and law 
breaking were included under this category was that origin- 
ally they led to much financial profit, and all illegitimate 
financial profit was stealing ; nowadays they are not so 
advantageous, but they are still strictly prohibited. Under 
this head is also forbidden all sharp practice in business, 
together with the misappropriation of trust funds and the 
use of charitable funds for private gain. 

Another sin that also bears a different connotation for iv.Abrah- 
the professed religious and the layman is unchastity "^^^^^y^- 
(Ahrahmacarya) ; for whereas a layman is bound to 
maintain his own wife in all honour and happiness, it 
is sin for a sadhu to allow so much as the hem of his 
garment to touch a woman. When we deal with the 
vows, we shall notice how much Eastern and Western 
monasticism have in common on this point. 

The Jaina realized how many sins sprang frorh excessive v. Pari- 
love of one's own possessions. They taught that if a monk ^^^ 
kept one garment or one vessel above the allowed number, 
or if he even became over attached to one that he lawfully 
possessed, he committed the sin of Parigraha, or covetous- 
ness. In the same way the layman was instructed that if he 
showed uncontrolled grief when one of his cattle died or his 
money disappeared, he too had given way to greed. ^i^ 

As one studies more closely the Jaina idea of what sin Krodha. 


consists in, one is struck with their profound knowledge of the 
human heart, a knowledge shared by all faiths which practise 
confession. Another thing that strikes one is the great 
stress they lay on anger (Krodha) as a source of sin. The 
merest globe-trotter notices how differently we Westerners 
look at anger, hardly accounting it a sin, while to an 
Oriental it seems a most heinous offence. We shall have 
to return to the subject of anger again and again in our 
analysis of Jaina thought ; here it will suffice to notice that 
the Jaina hold that anger, though generally unrighteous 
(aprasasta)^ may also sometimes be righteous (prasasta). 
For instance, it is righteous for a guru to scold a lazy 
disciple ^ or for a magistrate to speak severely, but it is 
unrighteous to get angry without a cause, or to add to 
the ill feeling between two persons. 
vii. The seventh of the eighteen kinds of sin is conceit or 


1 That even when angry with reason a guru must govern his anger 
the following legend shows. Once a guru had an impertinent disciple, 
and as the master sat engaged in his evening Padikamanum, thinking 
over his sins of the day, the disciple reminded him that he had walked 
on and killed a frog, and must perform prayascitta for this sin. Now 
the guru had not killed a frog, the one seen by the young man having 
been hurt by other passers-by ; and feeling that at any rate it was not 
a novice's part to remind him of it, the guru leapt up from his seat, 
brush in hand, determined to chastise the cheeky youngster ; un- 
fortunately for himself, he rushed against a pillar and dashed his 
brains out. 

The poor guru having died in a fit of anger slipped far down below the 
human level he had been on, and was reborn not as a man but as 
a snake, in fact a cobra. He took up his abode in an ant-hill near 
Wadhwan and became, sad to say, not only a cobra, but a ^•ery bad 
cobra, who bit everybody who came near him ; at last he established 
a reign of terror, and the road leading past the ant-hill was deserted 
through fear of him. 

At this time Mahavira was alive, and his peregrinations happened 
to bring him to Wadhwan ; despite all his friends' warnings, he deter- 
mined to remedy this evil ; so he went out and sat down on the snake's 
ant-hill and meditated there. The enraged cobra dashed out and bit 
him over and over again, but Mahavira continued his meditations. 
Suddenly, as he looked at the master, all his former life came back 
to the snake's memory, he repented of his wrath, and ever after allowed 
little boys to chase him and ants to walk over him unmolested, and 
eventually died in the odour of sanctity. He is now steadily mounting 
the ladder of higher births. 


Mdna, and of conceit there are eight forms : ^ pride of caste, 
of family, of strength, of form, of wealth, of reputation, of 
learning, and last but not least, the pride of being a landed 

A great deal of confusion has arisen over the word viii. 
Maya, which the Jaina use to denote the eighth sin. The ^^^y^- 
Vedantists of course use the word to mean illusion, and 
a smattering of their philosophy is now so common, that 
many people loosely read Vedantism into all Indian philo- 
sophy and suppose maya invariably to have this meaning. 
The Jaina, however, consider themselves to be nearer to 
the Sahkhya than the Vedanta school of philosophy, and 
their properly instructed ^ teachers declare that the word 
generally means intrigue, cheating, attachment, ignorance, 
wealth, and only occasionally illusion. In the Jaina scrip- 
tures it usually connotes intrigue or cheating. 

A commercial people are naturally prone to this sin, but 
the sanction it carries with it is very heavy — a man who 
cheats in this life may be born a woman in the next ! Not 
only commercial but religious cheating may involve this 
penalty, as the case of Mallinatha, the nineteenth Tirthah- 
kara shows. In a previous life he and five friends delighted 
to perform their rehgious duties together, and all six fasted 
and meditated with the utmost regularity and circumspec- 
tion. Gradually, however, Malhnatha began to long to outdo 

^ Jaina children are taught to remember these different sorts of 
conceit in little rhymes much like those of Jane Taylor's which we 
children of a Western growth learnt in our childhood. Legends too 
are told showing the resuk of each of the eight kinds of conceit. As 
an example of the evil results brought about by pride, hear the sad 
story of MaricI, the son of Bharata, King of India. Bharata was the 
son of Risabhadeva, the first Tirthankara, and it was revealed to 
him that his son should become a Tirthankara in a future life. Over- 
hearing this, Marici became very conceited and danced and jumped 
with joy. As a consequence of showing too much emotion a fetter 
{tdnkum) was formed, and this bound MaricI to become a beggar in 
his next incarnation, though nothing of course could prevent his 
eventually becoming a Tirthankara, which he did as Mahavlra. 

^ It is a common complaint amongst the Jaina that so many of their 
gurus are extraordinarily ignorant of their own religion. 


them in austerity, and thus get ahead of them on the 
path to hberation ; and so, yielding to temptation, he once 
added an extra fast to the days they had agreed to observe 
and kept it on the quiet without telHng his colleagues. 
His friends were deeply grieved when they discovered the 
deceitful* way they had been outdone, but Mallinatha 
suffered also ; for though he had acquired so much merit 
that it automatically made him a Tirthahkara, the spiritual 
maya he had indulged in turned him into a female one.-^ 

ix.Lobha. The Jaina have many legends that show the evils of 
Lobha or avarice, the ninth kind of sin. Thus, a great 
king, Subhuma, lost his kingdom through greed and was 
drowned in the sea ; and it was through avarice again that 
a certain merchant prince lost all his millions and died 
without a pie. Indeed the proverb Lobha pdpanuin mula, 
' avarice is the root of sin ', is current not amongst Jaina 
only but among all Indians. ^ 

Kasaya. We now come to an analysis of these four sins (anger, 
conceit, intrigue and greed), together c2\\QdKasdya, which is 
of the first importance to our sympathetic understanding of 
the strength of Jainism. The value of Jaina philosophy lies 
not only in the fact that it, unlike Hinduism, has correlated 
ethical teaching with its metaphysical system, but also in 
the amazing knowledge of human nature which its ethics 
display. Very often Jaina divide and subdivide a subject 
in such a way as to throw no fresh light on it, but in the 
subdivisions of these four faults (which they rightly and 
profoundly regard as sister sins) they have seized on an 
essential truth, that the length of time a sin is indulged in 
affects the nature of the sin ; for sins grow worse through 
long keeping.^ 

^ Digambara of course do not believe this, as they hold that no 
woman can ever be a Tirthankara. 

2 It is interesting to compare with this the Christian saying : * The 
love of money is the root of all evil.' 

^ Compare again : * Let not the sun go down upon your wrath ' ; for 
the anger which is kept overnight has grown deadly by the morning. 


The worst degree to which any of these four sins may 
be indulged is called Anantdnuhandhl, when the sin is 
cherished as long as life lasts, and if there be an offender in 
the case, he is never forgiven. Whilst under the sway of 
sin to this degree, it is impossible for a man to grasp any 
ideas of religion or to give his mind to study. 

In the next degree [Apratydkhydnl) the sin, though nursed 
for a year, is confessed at the great annual confession of sin.^ 
During the time that a man is under its influence he might 
possess an intellectual grasp of religious principles, but it 
would be impossible for him to carry them out into his 
daily life. 

In the third degree [Pratydkhydni] the sin lasts only for 
four months and is confessed and given up at Comas! ^ (the 
four-monthly confession), but during those months in which 
it is indulged, it prevents a man becoming a really holy 
monk or layman, though outwardly he may keep the vows. 
For instance, it would not hinder his doing some outward 
act such as giving up eating potatoes, but it would prevent 
his really giving up all attachment to the world. 

The same four faults are cherished to the least of the 
Ifi-four degrees [Sanjvalana) when renounced at the evening 
confession, or at least not carried beyond the fortnightly 
confession ;^ but during the time a man indulges them to 
even this degree, though it would be possible for him to 
become a monk, he could not become the ideal sadhu as 
depicted in the scriptures, the goal which every true ascetic 
has set before him, and which he hopes to attain. This 
point the enlightened and spiritually minded Jaina love to 
discuss and compare with the Christian ideal of consecration 
and throwing aside every weight to reach the goal. 

The Jaina are past masters in the art of illustration, 
and it is interesting to notice in their sacred books and in 
their sermons how many of their allegories are drawn 

^ See p. 259. ^ Sanskrit Caturmasl. 


from common objects of the countryside. It makes one 
realize how largely India is a country of villagers. 

Each of the four sins has its own parable. In the case of 
anger, the least degree is likened to a line drawn on water, 
which soon passes away ; the next to one drawn in the dust, 
which is stamped out and effaced in a day ; the third to a 
crack in the dried mud at the bottom of an empty village 
tank, which will not disappear till the yearly rains fill the 
tank and cover it ; and the worst of all to a fissure in a 
mountain side, which will remain till the end of the world. 

To illustrate the four degrees of conceit, the Jaina take 
the stages of the growth of a tree, and remind us that the 
twig is pliable and easily bent again to humility ; that the 
young branch of a tree can bend humbly if a storm force 
it ; and that the wood of the stem may be taught humiHty 
(though with difficulty) by being oiled and heated ; but 
conceit in the worst degree outdoes any simile taken from 
a tree, being as unbending as a pillar of stone. 

Deceit or intrigue again leads to crookedness : in the 
least degree it can be straightened as one can straighten 
a bamboo cane ; in the second degree it is like the crooked 
track of moisture left in the dust by the dripping from the 
water carrier's leather bucket; when it grows worse it is 
as crooked as a ram's horn ; and in the worst degree of all 
it is like the knot in the root of the bamboo, the crookedest 
thing in the land. 

The most subtle perhaps of all the similes is that which 
deals with greed, and the Jaina illustration of its effects on 
the soul is of special interest, for this sin is said to change 
the colour of the human heart. If avarice be cherished 
even to the least degree, it will stain the soul yellow like 
turmeric, but this discoloration can easily be washed off; 
if greed be given way to for a fortnight, the heart will 
be soiled like earthen cooking-pots which can only be 
cleansed with great labour ; if one cherishes it for four 
months, its stain grows as difficult to efface as the marks 


left by the oil of a cart wheel ; and in the last degree it 
can never be washed away in this life, whatever efforts one 
may make, but is as ineffaceable as the crimson dye.^ 

The result of any of these four sins, if indulged in to the 
worst degree, is to condemn a man to rebirth in hell ; the 
next worse forces him in his next life to become a bird, 
a beast, or an insect ; if he has not indulged his sin for 
longer than four months, he may be born as a man ; if he 
had thrown it off within a fortnight from its inception, he 
might become a god ; but if in all his life he had remained 
free from all wrath, conceit, intrigue and greed, he would 
become a Siddha without rebirth. 

All these four, Krodha, Mana, Maya and Lobha, are called 
Kasaya, or things which tie one down to this world ; they 
are also called Candala Cokadi, the four vile or outcaste 
ones, and the following legend is told to show how indul- 
gence in them destroys all true dignity and drags one down 
to the lowest level. A certain Brahman, having bathed 
and worshipped, felt himself polluted by the accidental 
touch of a sweeper woman, and, being enraged, swore at her. 
To his astonishment she promptly caught hold of his gar- 
ments, and the more he swore at her, the more tightly she 
clung. Mad with rage, the Brahman rushed to the king 
demanding redress. The king asked the woman how she 
had dared to catch hold of a Brahman, but she replied that 
the Brahman had already polluted himself by receiving a 
Candala into his heart when he became angry, and therefore 
her touch could no longer pollute him, for he had become 
her fellow outcaste. 

The Jaina sum up their teaching about these four sins by 

^ To Jaina it is of special interest that about a century before this 
idea had been incorporated into their teaching, the great Hebrew 
prophet was also reflecting on the discoloration produced on the soul 
by sin, but declared that there was One who could remove even the 
crimson stain. ' Come now, and let us reason together, saith the Lord : 
though your sins be as scarlet, they shall be as white as snow ; though 
they be red like crimson, they shall be as wool.' Isaiah i. 18. 


saying that when wrath leaves, forgiveness for others ^ enters ; 

when conceit goes, humility comes ; intrigue gives place to 

simplicity ; and when avarice disappears, content reigns. 

X. The tenth class of sin is even more worth our studying, 

Raga or for it seems to put into our hands the key that unlocks the 

very heart of Jainism and reveals the loneliness within. All 

over-fondness (Rdga or Asakti) for a person or thing is sin, 
since it hinders that perfect detachment from the world 
w^hich is the goal of the whole system. 

It is easy to see that in a coarse way an attachment may 
hinder a monk's progress, but the legend that the Jaina tell 
to illustrate this obvious fact is worth recording, for it 
shows how clearly they have realized the strange contra- 
dictions in character that may exist in the same person. 
It is told how Mahavira once preached at the court of 
Srenika, King of Magadha, with such power that the heir. 
Prince Nandisena, became converted and, leaving all his 
splendour, went to live in the woods. There unhappily 
he fell under the sway of a courtesan, and as he felt 
he could neither leave her nor give up his belief that 
Jainism was the true faith, he had resort to that most 
intricate of all compromises, a bargain with his conscience. 
He decided to stay with her and also to preach Jainism, 
though he no longer practised it ; he determined as a 
further sop to his conscience to regularly convert ten people 
to Jainism every day. He continued to do this for some 
time, but one day he happened to have only ten people in 
his audience, and though he converted nine of these, the 
tenth, a goldsmith, was a very hard nut to crack. The 
woman wanted her breakfast, but the erstwhile prince was 
determined to get his tale of ten converts complete. At 
last the woman called out 'Why on earth don't you convert 
yourself and so get your ten, and let us have our breakfast.?' 
The taunt went home, and there and then he tore out the 

* The Jaina pathetically believe that though there is forgiveness for 
sins against others, there is none for sins against themselves. 


hair, which had grown whilst he dalHed with sin, and re- 
turned to the forest. The Jaina say that such a man, having 
overcome raga, would on his death go to svarga. 

This was of course an example of wrong love, but the 
Jaina believe that indulgence in even right aflection will 
hinder one's attaining liberation, as the pathetic story of 
Mahavira's greatest disciple, Gautama, shows. It will be 
remembered that Gautama could not conquer his per- 
sonal attachment to the great ascetic, and despite all his 
endeavours he continued to think of him as ' my master ' 
and ' my friend ', thus showing that he had allowed him- 
self to become attached by the roots of his personality 
to another. Only on the night that Mahavira died was 
he able to overcome all mamatva or feeling of personal 
devotion and possession. It had been easy for Gautama to 
give up all outward possessions of wealth and property, it 
was agony to him to tear out love from his heart. Devout 
Jaina are very interested in the contrast between this story 
and that of the Christian disciple, Thomas, who touched 
the highest development of the Christian faith when his 
mamatva became perfected, and he could say to his Master: 
' My Lord and my God.' ^ 

Our study has now brought us to a most interesting 
parting of the ways between Jainism on the one hand 
and both Hinduism and Christianity on the other, for the 
understanding of which the writer is deeply indebted to 
both Jaina and Hindu friends, who have taken endless pains 
to make their view-points clear. 

As all personal attachment is biirnt up in the glow of 
asceticism, the true Jaina cannot hold any doctrine of 
personal devotion (bhakti) to a god such as has inspired 
so much of the most beautiful Hindu literature. Yet 
there is amongst some modern Jaina a tendency towards 
giving to Mahavira a devotion which almost resembles 
bhakti; this may be indirectly due to the influence of 

^ St. John XX. 28. 


the Bhagavadglta, which is widely read amongst them, or 
of the stories they have read of Jesus Christ, for whose 
person the Jaina, with their eager love of all that is tender 
and beautiful, have a great reverence. Nevertheless, 
according to their creed, they do not believe in a Creator, 
much less in a Father Omnipotent, to whom they might 
feel such personal devotion. The state of godhood is 
what they fix their thoughts on, a state of passive and 
passionless beatitude enjoyed by several separate Siddha ; 
and for this state of godhood they are permitted to have 
an attachment, and it is on their own attainment of 
this state that they fix their hopes and their ambitions. 
' Why should I love a personal god } ' a Jaina once said 
to the writer, ' I hope to become a god myself '. And in 
one of their sacred books the whole matter is summed up in 
words terrible in their loneliness: 'Man! Thou art thine own 
friend ; why wishest thou for a friend beyond thyself } ' ^ 
xi. Dvesa. The eleventh kind of sin, hatred or envy (Dvesa or Irsyd), 
is entirely evil, and the soul that would proceed on the 
great journey must completely free itself from it. As it 
often springs from possession, the man who strips himself 
of all property goes far to rid himself of the sin too, as .2 
following legend shows. 

There was once a king named Dravida, who on his death 
divided his property between his elder son, Dravida, and 
his younger, Varikhilla, leaving the senior more propert)} 
than the junior. The younger, however, succeeded by wise 
management in so increasing his estate that his elder brother 
grew more and more envious, and finally on some pretex 
or other a war broke out between the two. During t^ 
monsoon there was perforce a truce, and Dravida h; 
leisure to hear a famous non-Jaina ascetic preach on t 
sin of envy ; becoming converted, he went off to the cam 
of his younger brother to beg forgiveness. The brothers- 
were completely reconciled, and both of them not onl) 
^ Acdj'dhga Sutra^ S. B. E., xxii, p. 33. 


renounced envy, but agreed also to renounce their kingdoms, 
the possession of which had given rise to so great a sin. They 
became Jaina sadhus and Hved at Satrufijaya, and passing 
from thence to moksa they became Siddha. And still on the 
full moon day of the month Kartika, when the faithful go on 
pilgrimage to Satruhjaya, they remember the two brothers 
who gave up all things to free themselves from envy. 

Quarrelsomeness or Klesa, the twelfth form of sin, is xli. Klesa. 
specially dangerous to family happiness, as we can easily 
understand, when we remember how many members of a 
family live under one roof in India. This is believed to be 
the particular vice to which mothers-in-law are liable, and 
it is often only owing to the influence of this sin that they 
complain of their daughter-in-law's cooking ! The Jaina 
scriptures are full of examples of the evils that spring from 
such quarrelsomeness, showing that it has often not only 
ruined famihes but even destroyed kingdoms. 

So greatly do the Jaina value the peace of their homes, xiii. Abh- 
that the next sin, slander (Abhydkhydna), is also looked at y^^hya- 
chiefiy as a home-wrecking sin. So grievous a crime is it, 
that nature will work a miracle to discredit it, as illustrated 
b_^^:he following legend. In a certain city a fierce mother- 
in-law accused her son's wife of unchastity. The poor girl 
could only protest her innocency, but was quite unable to 
prove it, till suddenly a great calamity befell the city : 
the massive gates of the town stuck fast and could not be 
noved ! An astrologer, being called in to help, declared 
chat they could only be opened by a woman so chaste that 
he could draw water from a well in a sieve and sprinkle 
'th it the obdurate gates. The accused girl seized this 
ance to prove her innocency, and did it so successfully 
it her slanderer was confounded and condemned.^ 
Paisunya, or telling stories to discredit any one, is another xiv. Pai- 
in resembling in its guilt that of slander. sunya. 

^ This story is told in T/ie Lives of Sixteeji Chaste Woiuen^ a famous 
Jaina classic. 



XV. It is also a very serious sin to be always criticizing and 

Ninda. finding fault (Nindd). The Jaina tell many stories to show 
that one should look at one's own sins and not at the sins 
of others, saying that if one is continually thinking of the 
faults of others, one's own mind becomes debased and one 
grows like the very sinners one criticizes, 
xvi. Rati, It is natural for an ascetic religion to reckon the lack of self- 
Arati. control in the presence of either joy or sorrow (Rati Arati) 
as a very grave sin, tending, as it does, not only to injury 
of health and spirits, but also to excessive attachment to 
temporal and transitory objects of affection. 
xvii. The seventeenth form of sin in our list, Mdydmrisd, is very 

Maya- far-reaching. It is that species of untruthfulness which in 
' * * ordinary conversation leads to suggestio falsi, and which in 
rehgion leads to hypocrisy. The Jaina love of the country- 
side and their shrewd country wit is shown in the fact that 
the typical example they quote of the hypocrite is the stork. 
This bird, they declare, stands on the river bank on only one 
leg (to pretend he has the least possible connexion with the 
things of earth) and seems to be lost in meditation, but, if 
a fish appear, he swoops down and kills it, thus committing 
the sin of hirhsa, the most heinous of all crimes, whilst 
professing to be engaged in devotion, 
xviii. The last of the eighteen sins, Mithyddarsana Salya, em- 

Mithya- bj-^ces those that spring from false faith, such as holding 

darsana / 

Salya. the renegade Gosala, who was nothing but a failure, to be 

a Tirthankara, or believing in a false religion,^ or taking 
a man who is a hypocrite for one's guru. There are 
altogether twenty-five divisions of the sin of false faith, 
but we need only glance at one or two of the most impor- 
tant, as throwing an interesting light on the way Jaina 
regard the religions by which they are surrounded. Such 
are Laukika mithydtva, or believing in such gods as 
Ganesa or Hanuman, whom the Jaina do not believe to be 

^ All religions outside Jainism are false, but those which do not 
inculcate compassion are specially unworthy of credence. 


gods at all ; and Lokottara mithydtva, which includes all 
forms of spiritual bribery, such as the offering of vows to 
various Jaina saints or gurus for the fulfilment of the wor- 
shipper's wishes. Under this it is even forbidden to pray for 
a child's recovery from sickness ! It is also accounted a sin, 
though a venial one, if a Jaina woman, for instance, promises 
in the event of a son being granted to her to give a cradle 
to a temple, or to donate money to a sadhu, or that her 
husband will feed their caste fellows; for the Jaina say that 
they should never give alms with any object save that of 
aiding themselves on the journey to moksa, and should be 
careful not to import into their rehgion the practices of an 
alien faith.^ Two other branches of the sin of false faith 
are such as might prevent conversion to Jainism : the 
obstinate holding of a behef, when the holder is convinced it 
is false [Ahhigrahika mithydtva) ; and the resting content in 
a state of ignorance, when there is an opportunity of striving 
to learn [Ajndna mithydtva). Other sins included under this 
head consist in lack of reverence towards sacred things : for 
instance, he who fails to pay the honour due to a guru or a 
god is guilty of Avinaya mithydtva ; and a man who enters 
a temple wearing his shoes, or chewing betel-nut, or who 
spits in the temple precincts, is guilty of Asdtand mithydtva. 
The last of these twenty-five which we need enumerate is 
Anabhigrahika mithydtva,^ the sin which any Jaina would 
commit who, for example, became a theosophist, or came to 
regard all religions as true and all their founders and 
apostles as equally worthy of reverejice and belief. 

Such are some of the faults which are included under this 
sin of false faith, the last on the list of the eighteen 
kinds of sin. Such a list is in itself enough to justify the 
claim of the Jaina that the philosophy of their faith is 
an ethical philosophy; but to Western eyes it seems no 

^ The intelligent Jaina clearly recognize that Hinduism has a very great 
influence over the religious ideas and practices of the less instructed 
members of their community. 

2 Otherwise Anabhi grahitva, 



less remarkable for its omissions than for its inclusions. 
To judge this list fairly one must remember that it is 
not an unused piece of lumber stored away in the Jaina 
statute book, but that the most careless of Jaina test their 
consciences by it at least once every year, and that the 
more devout use it every four months and some even every 
fortnight. It cannot be denied that such lists, together with 
kindred enactments, have educated the Jaina conscience 
to some knowledge of what sin is. 

The Eighty-two Results of Sin. 

Under their fourth principle the Jaina include not only 
the forms which sin takes, but also the results which follow 
from it. Jaina have a great admiration for beauty of person 
and of intellect, and they believe that sin in a previous birth 
will inevitably produce deformity in mind or body in the 
next existence. 
The five They say that there are five ways in which sin can im- 
jnana- pg^^g knowledge. It may impede the free use of the intellect 
[Matijiidndvaramya). It is true that when a man becomes 
a Siddha, his soul will have perfect knowledge and will be 
able to cast aside the mind as no longer needed, but in this 
life he must use his intellect and his five senses to the full 
as a means of gaining wisdom. Sin in a previous birth 
hinders all exercise of the intellect, as dirt clogs the machi- 
nery of a watch. Another effect of sin on the intellect is 
to prevent our gaining any good from hearing or reading 
the scriptures [Srutajndndvaranlya). Sin also impedes the 
use of occult powers. Certain Jaina, even after shutting 
their eyes, know what is going on around them, but the 
effect of some sins would neutralize this knowledge [Ava- 
dhijndndvaraniyd). By the practice of austerities these 
occult powers can be so developed that a man can know 
what is going on in Jambudvipa, DhatakI Khanda,^ or half 
of Puskaradvipa, but previous sin (Mana/iparydyajndnd- 

^ O?' Kalodadhi Khanda. 


varaniya) would spoil these powers, even as another of its 
results [KevalajndndvaraTtiya) can prevent any one's attain- 
ing omniscience, the highest knowledge of all. Evidently 
the Jaina have clearly realized that part of the wages of sin 
is death to the intellectual life. 

Sin can also impede our enjoyment of many other things The five 
besides intellect. If one is longing to experience the pleasure " a^aya. 
of giving away, and even has everything ready, sin will 
prevent one's actually dispensing the alms [Ddndntardya). 
If a man works hard in business, but never manages to make 
a profit, he knows that it is owing to sin [Ldhhdntardya). 
In this case, however, he may hope to overcome the effect 
of sin, if it had not become ripe enough for punishment, by 
accumulating merit. There are two ways of enjoying the 
possession of property : there is the enjoyment a poor man 
would take in having some great luxury like a motor car, 
and the enjoyment he has in using such necessaries of life 
as food and clothing. The fruit of sin will prevent his 
enjoying either [Bhogdntardya and Upabhogdntardya). The 
Jaina hold also that sin will prevent a man's rejoicing in his 
strength, and if they see that some one, though evidently 
possessing great physical or spiritual powers, has been from 
his youth up unable to use them (Vtrydntardya), they say at 
once that he must have committed some sin in his previous 

Sin has a specially evil effect on sight, both physical and The 
spiritual (Caksudarsandvaramya) : one effect of sin may j^^J^^^^. 
be to actually render a man blind, .a less gross sin would avara- 
result in his being short-sighted, and if the sin were only "^y^* 
a venial one, its fruit might be only night blindness. Other 
sins would injure other senses [Acaksudarsandvaraniya) such 
as hearing, smelling, tasting and the sense of touch. Then, 
just as we saw that the degrees of knowledge were impeded 
as a penalty for sin, so with regard to sight in various de- 
grees : sin prevents any one seeing with the eyes of the soul 
what people at a distance are doing {Avadhidarsandvaranlya), 



The five 



and of course also hinders any one from getting that super- 
natural vision which is only possessed by the omniscient 
[Kevaladarsandvaraniya). If any sin be very heinous, its 
fruit may ripen in the very life in which it was committed, so 
that the sinner may suffer for it before death without having 
to wait for rebirth, but usually the wages of sin accumulate 
and only affect a jiva in succeeding lives. 

Sin seems to have a specially unfavourable influence on 
attempts at meditation, for one of the fruits of sin is slumber, 
that great foe to prayer. All indulgence in sin leads to 
sleepiness : if the sin had been slight the slumber is light 
(Nidrd)^ and the sleeper can be awakened easily ; but heavier 
sin brings on heavier slumber (Nidrdnidrd), from which 
the awakening is painful. In a worse state sleep comes un- 
invited to a man as he tries to meditate when he is standing 
up or sitting down [Pracald) ; and as a punishment for yet 
grosser sin it does not wait for movement to cease, but over- 
powers him even as he is walking along the road [Cald or 
Pracaldpracald). The worst type of slumber [Stydnarddhi 
or Thinarddhi) is the fruit of gross sin, and indues its victims 
with terrific vigour, so that they possess at least half of the 
strength of the great Vasudeva. With this strength they 
commit in their sleep all sorts of crimes, murders and man- 
slaughters, so that their guilt is increased, and with it is 
increased also their slumber, hence they are perpetually in- 
volved in a hideous circle of crime bringing forth slumber and 
slumber bringing forth crime, from which there is no relief. 

In the long list of eighty-two results of sin one comes 
after Nidra to some unclassified results, which we shall 
deal with more fully elsewhere, such as the being born 
in a low-caste or poor family (Nlcagotra), being born in 
hell {Narakagati), or suffering sorrow on sorrow [Asdtd- 
vedanlya), perhaps in hell. As a result of sin, too, the force 
[N arakdnupurvl) is accumulated which will send one to hell, 
and the time one will have to spend there (Narakdyu) is also 
dependent on our previous sins. 


Next on the long list come the twenty-five Kasaya (those The 

sins which result in tying men to the cycle of rebirth). We [j^^^'^" 

have discussed^ sixteen of these under the heads of anger, Kasaya, 

conceit, intrigue, and greed, and their subdivisions, and Jj^cluding 

must now look at nine minor faults [Nokasdya) and their nine 

results. These sins are such as it is very important for Noka- 

. 1 , saya. 

ascetics to avoid, but as they are not m themselves very " 

heinous transgressions, they do not bring such terrible con- 
sequences in their train. Nevertheless a sadhu must avoid 
the sin of laughter (Hdsya), for when he made the great 
renunciation he bade farewell to all enjoyment of merriment. 
If a sadhu laughs even once, some punishment will follow, 
and if he persists in the indulgence, it will lead to his 
rebirth. The next sin is worth remembering, for it brings 
out most clearly the difference between the Christian ideal 
of asceticism, as typified, for example, by St. Francis of 
Assisi or David Livingstone, with their joy in all the beauty 
and wonder of the world, and the Jaina ideal. A sadhu must 
not rejoice in beauty {Rati^) nor in the joyousness of a httle 
child, nor in the sound of exquisite harmony, nor in the 
glories of art, for a religious has done with all pleasure which 
is worldly and arises from delight in pudgala. A monk has 
bidden farewell also to all disgust (Arati), and must not feel 
dismay at the sight of an evil-looking person, or on hearing 
even the vilest abuse. A sadhu must bafree from all fear 
{Bhaya) of men or animals : indeed in their scriptures he is 
expressly told that, even if he sees a vicious cow coming for 
him, he is not to leave the road, but with a mind ' not directed 
to outward things ' continue in contemplation.^ Similarly 
he must never indulge in grief [Soka) through being deprived 
of anything, but must remain undisturbed, even if thieves 
rob him of his last garment. Many legends record how 
scrupulously good monks have abstained from the next sin, 

^ See pp. 122 ff. 

^ Rati and Arati bear various meanings in Jaina philosophy. 

^ Acdranga Sfttrd^ S.B,E., xxii, p. 147. 


that of feeling dismayed when assailed, either by words of 

hatred or contempt, or by an evil smell [Duganchd). The 

remaining three minor faults (Purusaveda, Strlveda, Napui'n- 

sakaveda) remind us how completely the Jaina ascetic has 

parted with love and affection, for if he be a true monk, 

he must form no friendship even with another monk, and 

similarly no nun may desire the companionship of another 

nun, or a neuter of a neuter. Though these nine minor 

faults are sins that the ascetic is specially bound to shun, 

they also show the things that the layman will do well to 

avoid, for the over-indulgence in any of them will result in 


Six re- Sin will further affect the class of beings into which one is 

^"!^^ . born in the next incarnation, for the Taina draw no barriers 

class of^ between animal and human life, and the result of sin in 
Ji^^- this life may be to accumulate a force [Tiryafic anupurvl) 

which will cause one to be reborn on the next occasion as 
a beast or a bird [Tiryanc gati) or as a one-sensed, two- 
sensed, three-sensed, or four-sensed being [Ekendriya ndma, 
Be-indriya ndma, Tri-indriya ndma, Corendriya ndma). 
Six Sin also results in personal ughness of various kinds. If 

^]g_ ^ one sees some one who walks in a very ugly way like a 
mishes. camel or a donkey, one knows at once that it is the result 
of sin (Asubha vihdyogati) ; certain ugly diseases ( Upaghdta 
ndma), such as boils under the tongue, diseases of the throat, 
teeth dropping out, or curvature of the spine, are caused by 
sin. Indians very much admire a complexion of the colour 
of ripe wheat and dislike a very dark skin ; and Jaina believe 
that complexions are the result of conduct in a past life, and 
that a really black skin is the fruit of sin {Asubha varna). 
So is an unpleasant bodily smell [Asubha gandha) , unpleasant 
bodily essence [Asubha rasa), and a skin that is unpleasant 
to the touch [Asubha sparsa). The general result of beliefs 
of this kind is to dry up sympathy for sufferers from bodily 

Sin also results in loss of bodily strength, and to under- 


stand this we must try and grasp a new idea of anatomy. The five 
The Jaina beheve that sinews are wrapped round the ^^"^' 
bones of the human frame hke a bandage, and that on 
the tightness of this wrapping the strength of the body 
depends. Sin has affected this bandage in five particular 
ways : firstly [Risahhandrdca saiighena), owing to the 
general depravity of the age, the peg that fastened the 
bandage tightly to the human frame and prevented its 
getting unwound has dropped out, and got permanently 
lost, so that there is no security against loss of bodily 
strength. As the world has grown steadily wickeder, the 
bandage has passed through successive stages of becoming 
loose [Ndrdca sangheftd) and so greatly weakening the body ; 
dropping half off (Ardhandrdca sanghena) ; slipping right 
off [Kllikd sangheHo), so as to leave only the two little nails 
that fastened the bones before they were bandaged ; until 
at last we reach the present epoch, when not only has the 
bandage entirely disappeared (Sevdrtta sanghena), but also 
the nails that held the bones, and so the human frame, 
having lost the strength the bandage formerly gave, as well 
as the cohesion due to the nails, now only keeps together in 
a weakened condition ' owing to sockets, &c.' ! 

Sin also results in various deformities in the human body. The five 
A good figure is held to be a reward of past merit, and the ^^^' 
various failures to reach the perfect physical standard are 
the fruits of sin. As the upper portion of a banyan tree is 
famous for its beauty, whilst nearer the ground it looks ugly 
enough, so it often happens that, though the head and trunk 
of a man are perfectly formed, his legs are short and spindly; 
this failure of upper and lower to correspond {Nyagrodha- 
parimaiidala sanisthdna) is the fruit of sin. So is the reverse 
{Sddi sanisthdna), when the head and trunk are miserably 
thin and badly developed, while the legs are strong and 
vigorous. Or the head and legs may be normal, but the 
torso ill-formed [Kuhjaka sanisthdna). The result of sin 
may be to make a man a dwarf [Vdmana sanisthdna) ; and 


still grosser sin may result in the malformation of every 
limb and every feature [Hunda sanisthdna). 
The Pursuing our way down the long list we come next to 

Sthavara ^ rather heterogeneous group of ten results of sin. Certain 
sins condemn the soul that commits them to be born in the 
next life in the class of motionless beings [Sthavara), or per- 
haps to be so tiny as to be invisible and unable to move 
(Suksma). Other sins prevent a soul acquiring the full 
number of powers and senses that belong to the class in 
which it is born [Aparydpti). A still more dreaded result of 
sin forces a soul to take up its abode in a body already in- 
habited by numberless other souls {Sddhdrana). Jaina, as 
we have seen, believe that thousands of lives lodge in every 
single potato, onion, artichoke and beet ; and so they never 
eat any tuber, root, or bulb, lest they should take not one 
but thousands of lives by so doing. No punishment is more 
feared by the Jaina than that the jiva, instead of having 
some shelter (human, animal, or vegetable) to itself, may have 
to lodge along with myriads of others in an overcrowded 
dwelling. Again, as the result of sin, the body that the jiva 
inhabits may be complete in every respect, but the limbs 
may be unstable [Asthira) : a shaky hand, a palsied head and 
loose teeth are all put down to sin in a past life. Sin may 
make a man unlucky and his name so inauspicious (Asubha) 
that people do not hke to mention it early in the morning, 
lest misfortune pursue them all day ; or it may make a man 
a failure (Durbhaga), so that everything he touches goes 
wrong. The voice, too, may be affected [Dusvara], so that 
it becomes unpleasing to the listener and lacks all harmony : 
a donkey's bray, the hooting of an owl and the cracked 
voice of a man all bear witness to sin in a previous life. 
Though the sound of a voice may be all right, the effect of 
sin may be to take away all authority from it (Anddeya) : 
when a man's commands are disobeyed, his warnings dis- 
regarded, and his words disbelieved, it is plain that he must 
have sinned deeply in his last birth. One notices, too, 


that however hard some men strive, disgrace instead of fame 
seems to be their lot (Ayasa) ; this also is the result of sin. 

The last of the eighty- two fruits of sin {Mithydtva Mith- 
mohanlya) is the most terrible of all, for it deprives a man Y^^va 
of the power of believing in the truth. He is forced by it niya. 
to believe in a false instead of in a true god ; in an evil guru 
and not in a good one ; and in a false creed instead of the 
true faith. 

The Fifth Category : Asrava. 

Karma (the accumulated result of action) is one of the The 
central ideas of the Jaina faith, and the fifth principle of (pyty-two 
Jaina philosophy deals with the way karma is acquired by 
the human souL Just as water flows into a boat through 
a hole in it, so karma according to the -Jaina flows into the 
soul through Asrava and impedes its progress. No soul 
can attain to moksa till it has worked off all its karma, 
auspicious and inauspicious [Subha and Asubha). There are 
forty-two chief channels or Asrava through which karma 
enters a jiva ; and of these, seventeen are regarded as major. 

The easiest way for karma to enter is through the senses : The 
so the five indriya must be guarded ; otherwise, through the seven- 
ear for example [Kdna asrava) pleasant sounds may be heard major 
and so gloated over and indulged in that a man would find Asrava. 

it impossible to live without them, and eventually through J^ ^^^^ 
^ . . ' J >=> Senses. 

his delight in these siren sounds forget all duty and be 
lost to all progress in the upward path. Or once more 
through the lust of the eye [Ankha asrava) he may be so 
entangled by the beauty of women or art as to be hindered 
from any progress, and so evil would flow into his soul. 
Again the delight in sweet odours (Ndka asrava), as of 
flowers, perfumes, or scent, may make him forget his duties. 
Similarly taste [Jlbha asrava) may become a hindrance to 
him, for he may waste time and money in purchasing deli- 
cacies, and even eat things forbidden to the devout. The 
Jaina lay great stress on the importance of controlling the 


sense of taste, for if that be disciplined, all the other senses 
can also, they say, be kept in restraint, whereas gluttony 
affects sight, hearing, smell and the sense of touch. The 
sense of touch, too, must be carefully controlled {Sparsa 
dsrava), or the love of touching smooth things, for example, 
may become such a snare that the toucher may be lulled 
into unconsciousness through the pleasure of it. 
The four Karma may enter through the four emotions (Kasdya) ^ 
Kasaya. ^^hose exercise ties the soul to the cycle of rebirth, for if 
anger be indulged (Krodha dsrava), it burns the soul of him 
who gives way to it, as well as the soul of the person he may 
injure, and so both are harmed. Conceit and pride (Mdna 
dsrava) are a terrible foe to progress and open the door to 
all sorts of karma, besides they are the deadly enemy of 
courtesy, by which merit is obtained. Deceit and intrigue 
(Mdyd dsrava) lead to many kinds of falseness in word and 
deed, and thus much evil karma is accumulated ; and lastly 
avarice (Lobha dsrava) leads first to cheating and then to 
actual thieving, and is opposed to self-sacrifice and self- 

The Jaina say that these four evil emotions must be 

checked on the principle of cultivating the corresponding 

virtue. Thus the angry man must exercise forgiveness, 

the proud man humihty, the deceitful frankness, and the 

avaricious contentment ; but how this is to be done is not 


The five Again, through not taking the five great vows evil karma 

Avrata. ^^y ^^^ ^^ j^-^ £^g ways [Pauca Avrata). If a man fails to 

go to a guru and, standing in front of him, to promise with 

folded hands that he will not kill, this simple omission to 

promise, without any commission, will lead to the acquisition 

of karma ; for the Jaina hold that without the stiffening of 

^resolution that comes through taking the vow one is more 

liable to do wrong ; this liability leads to instability of mind, 

through which some karma enters. Of course more karma 

1 See pp. 122 ff. 


would enter if one should go further and act contrary to the 
spirit of the vow. Similarly karma is acquired by failing 
to take, or offending against, the spirit of the vow against 
lying, thieving, coveting and acting unchastely. 

Karma will also flow into any soul which has allowed The three 
either mind, speech, or body to become too entangled with ^ 
a material object. If the mind is taken up with meditation 
on a Tirthahkara or on a Siddha, the influence is good, and 
a favourable channel [Subha dsrava) is opened up, through 
which, instead of karma, merit (punya) flows into the soul ; 
but if the mind is occupied with an evil thought (e. g. if 
such and such a merchant dies, I shall get his wealth), a bad 
channel is opened, and through this bad channel [Asuhha 
dsrava) evil karma enters. In the same way there is a subha 
and asubha asrava of speech : by repeating the name of 
Siddha or the Pafica Paramesvara merit is acquired, but 
by evil or abusive speaking bad karma enters the soul. 
Finally, if one saves life, for example, by bodily exertion, it 
is subha asrava, whilst killing is, of course, asubha asrava. 

Besides these seventeen major channels or asrava, there The 
are twenty-five minor ways by which karma is acquired, J^^^^ty- 
all of them connected with action. If one is not careful minoi 
about the movements of one's body, an injury may be dsrava. 
inflicted on some person or thing [Kdyikl dsrava) and evil 
karma acquired, and the same thing may happen through the 
careless use of weapons (Adhikaranikl), or through hatred 
(Pradvesikl) , or intentionally [Paritdpanikl), or some prana 
[PrdJidtipdtikl) may be injured. Again, by beginning to build 
a house or to till a field some insect life may be hurt [Aram- 
bhiki), or by gathering together great stores of grain, cattle, 
or wealth covetousness may arise (Pdrigrahikt) and give 
birth to karma. One might do some one an injury through 
deceit {Mdydpratyayikl), or acquire evil karma by acting 
contrary to the dictates of Mahavira and obeying the 
commands of some false faith [Mithyddarsanapratyayiki). 
Through omitting to take a vow to go to a certain place (e. g. 


to America) one might go there, and when there acquire evil 
karma, or, in the same way through omitting to take a vow 
against eating certain things one is hable to eat them and 
so acquire karma (Apratydkhydniki) . By looking at some 
object with excessive love or hatred, one makes a channel 
for karma to enter (DrisHki), and by touching other objects 
one produces the same effect {Spristikl). Another interest- 
ing belief of the Jaina under this head is that sin committed 
in a previous existence forms a channel through which, in 
this life, karma may be more easily acquired (Prdtityaki). 
The Jaina, who in all sorts of ways show their realization 
of the dangers of wealth, believe that if the possessor of 
many goods be much praised for possessing them and thus 
give way to conceit, he opens the way for evil karma to 
accrue [Sdmantopanipdtiki). 

Machinery is guilty of destroying so much insect life, that 
Jaina should only use it with the greatest caution, for a 
man, even if he be an employe working at the express 
command of a rajah whom he is bound to obey, does not 
therefore rid himself of his personal responsibility, but 
acquires evil karma through every life he takes [N aisastriki) } 
The employer, however, is also responsible, and if a servant 
in obedience to his master's order so acts as to injure any 
jiva, his guilt is shared by his master, who will also have 
acquired evil karma (Svahastikl). There is an expressive 
Gujarat! adjective ' dodhadahyum ' applied to people who 
are too wise by half ; when folk suffer from this in religious 
matters and know more than Mahavira taught, they open 
the way for karma to flow in {Ajfidpaniki). Defamation 
also leads to karma, and if a man unjustly speaks ill of 
another, he has thereby opened the door to evil karma 
{Vaiddranikl). The caustic wit of the Jaina shows in 
the next item on the list, for they teach that if a man 
pretends to be listening to a sermon with great interest 
and all the time his wits are wool-gathering, he has 

^ Or Naisristikl. 


formed a new channel {Andhhogikl) for karma. They also 
aim a shrewd blow at all reformers and such-like troublesome 
folk by declaring that a very dangerous way of opening new 
inlets for ka^ma is to act in anyway against the prejudices, 
usages, or beliefs that one knows one's fellow caste-men to 
hold in this world, or that one believes they will hold in 
the next ! [Anavakdnksdpratyayiki). In the same way 
karma accrues if one acts against rule, or fails to control one's 
speech, body, mind, or movements (Prayogikl). There is 
a difference of opinion as to the next item on the list 
[Sdmuddyikl). Some pandits hold that it refers to the 
channels an individual may open by acting in such a way 
that all the eight karma simultaneously flow in. Others 
believe it denotes the channels a crowd of people may open 
at the same moment, as, for instance, if a number of 
persons go to see a man hanged and all hope that the hang- 
man will not keep them waiting about, but will get the 
execution over as quickly as possible ; when this occurs 
every single member of the crowd who feels this desire has 
opened a passage for bad karma. When people act under 
the influence of deceit or covetousness, they open a way for 
karma [Premiki), and so they do when swayed by anger 
{Dvesiki). In fact, karma, either good or bad, must accrue 
so long as one has a body; even a Kevali (who, know- 
ing all sin, tries to avoid it), so long as he is in the flesh, is 
forced into some action, and every action good or bad 
produces karma (Irydpathikl). So long as there is any 
karma remaining, either good or evil, one cannot reach 
moksa. The logical outcome of this behef one sees, for 
example, in the action of Mahavira's parents, who, trying to 
avoid all action, lest karma (the result of action) should keep 
them from liberation, abstained even from the taking of 
food, and so, prompted by the highest motives, died of 
starvation. Only by dying can a Jaina help acquiring 
karma, and karma, either good or bad, ties them inexorably 
to the weary cycle of rebirth. Here, again, we touch one 


of the great contrasts between the teaching of Mahavira, 
who, good and great as he was, taught a system, the logical 
outcome of which is death, and that of the Founder of 
Christianity, who came that His followers might have life, 
and have it abundantly.^ 

The Sixth Category : Sanivara. 

We now come to the sixth principle of Jaina philosophy, 
which is the converse of the fifth, the way, namely, in 
which the inflow of karma into the soul can be impeded. 
The karma that has already been acquired can be dissipated 
and so liberation attained, if only no new karma accrue : 
'As a large tank, when its supply of water has been stopped, 
gradually dries up by the consumption of the water and by 
evaporation, so the Karman of a monk, which he acquired 
in miUions of births, is annihilated by austerities, if there 
is no influx of bad karman.' ^ 
The fifty- The Jaina themselves consider this principle of Sarhvara 
waT f ^^ supreme importance, and it contains matter that is more 
impeding often quoted by them than anything else. Long and weari- 
some as we shall find the lists it contains of the fifty-seven 
ways of impeding karma, yet they are worth our study, 
for, having already learnt what the Jaina mean by sin, we 
shall now learn what they mean by holiness. 
The five The first five ways of arresting the inflow of karma refer 
to outward behaviour. A man who would be holy must 
observe the greatest care whenever he walks anywhere not 
to injure any living thing [Iryd samiti). This rule is, of 
course, specially binding on all monks and nuns, for the 
Jaina have a comfortably lower standard for the laity. 
Ascetics must enter and leave their monasteries with the 
greatest care, lest they step on any insect ; they must, 
wherever possible, avoid field-paths and keep to highways, 
where an animal or an insect can be more easily seen and 
avoided ; they must walk miles round rather than cross 
^ St. John X. lo. 2 S.B.E., xlv, p. 174. 





a green patch of ground wherein there are likely to be many 
living things ; and they must carefully examine the ground 
a vama's length ahead (i.e. the distance of outstretched 
arms) before treading on it. A sadhu to keep this rule 
must, curiously enough, never cross the open sea,^ though 
he may cross a creek. In order that a layman may keep 
this rule, he must strive always to act so as to give 
trouble to no living thing whilst he is walking, sitting, or 

To arrest the inflow of karma one must also guard the 
words of one's mouth (Bhdsd samiti) : one must always 
speak kindly, never by word inflict pain on any one, and in 
every way strive not to sin through speech. The Jaina 
believe in auricular confession ; and if, for instance, a man 
has eaten a potato but means never to do so again, he will 
confess his sin secretly to a sadhu, and the sadhu (if he is 
certain that the penitent means never to offend again) will 
inflict a certain penance according to the rules laid down 
in the Vyavahara Sutra, Nisitha, or Brihatkalpa. Should 
the sadhu, however, break the seal of confession and 
repeat what has been told him, he will have failed in Bhasa 
samiti and be guilty of great sin. Under this rule one must 
also guard against frightening any one by speech, making 
a mock of any one, or preaching false doctrine. 

Circumspection must also be exercised about all matters 
connected with eating [Emit a samiti). A sadhu is only 
allowed to use fourteen kinds of things all told, inclusive 
of wearing apparel, food and drink. He has to beg for 
everything he eats, but even then his food is limited, for in 
order to guard against karma he must be careful only to 
take such food as is allowed to him, e.g. he must not take 
food underneath which a fire is burning. If it is raining, 

^ It was this interpretation of the rule which prevented any sadhu 
from accepting the invitation to speak at the ParHament of ReHgions in 
America, or from even deputing any one to go. The difficulty was 
solved by the lay community — the sangha — sending a layman. 


a monk must not go out from the Apasaro (monks' rest- 
house) to beg for food ; and, as no layman may take food to 
the Apasaro, it often happens that during the rainy season 
the sadhus get really hungry in their endeavours to avoid 
acquiring karma. Again, a monk must not take food if he 
thinks that by so doing he will leave the donor's household 
in straits ; in fact there are altogether forty-two faults 
which a sadhu must avoid committing when he begs for or 
receives food. A layman is simply bound to refrain from 
committing sin in order to obtain food. Under this rule 
again all intoxicants^ are forbidden to monks and laymen, 
and so are meat, butter and honey. 

In order to stop the inflow of karma a sadhu must also 
be careful to possess only five cloths [Addnaniksepa?td sa- 
miti), and when these are presented to him he must take 
them with the greatest care, gently removing anything 
that may be on them, lest in the very receiving of them 
he injure any insect life. If he borrows a stool (for he 
may not own one) he must dust it carefully and then sweep 
the ground free from any insects before he sets it down. 
In the same w^ay a householder should arrest the possible 
inflow of karma by carefully dusting all his books and 
vessels with a poujani, the small brush used by the laity, 
which is a smaller edition of the brush a sadhu may never 
part from. A layman must also scrupulously sweep his 
hearth and the wood he is going to burn, and be very care- 
ful that the room he is going to keep his water-vessels in is 
thoroughly swept. The result of these rules (as any one who 
has had the privilege of friendship with Jaina ladies will 
testify) is to keep a Jaina house exquisitely clean and fresh. 

The careful disposal of rubbish and refuse is another 
way of preventing karma being acquired (Parithdpanikd 
samiti^ or Utsarga samiti). If a sadhu after begging food 

^ So particular are the old-fashioned Jaina no!; to touch intoxicants, 
that one reason they give for refusing to take European medicine is 
that it might contain alcohol. 

- Otherwise, Pratisthdpaiia samiti. 


find that there is insect life in it, he must neither use 
it, nor throw it carelessly away, but carefully deposit it 
where it can neither do nor suffer harm. A monk must • 
never keep either food or water overnight, but must care- 
fully dispose of anything that remains over from the last 
meal in some convenient place. Monks must try when out 
begging only to accept as much food as they actually need, 
for if they have often to throw away things, karma is 
acquired. All other refuse of every kind must be carefully 
disposed of by both laity and monks in desert places where 
nothing can be injured by it. 

Of equal importance with the five rules for outward The 
l^ehaviour are the rules for the controlling of mind, speech ^^^^; 
and body, and the Jaina speak of the eight rules together 
as ' the essence of their creed which a sage should thoroughly 
put into practice ; such a wise man will soon get beyond the 
Circle of Births ',^ and again as comprehending the whole 
of the teaching of the Jaina and of their sacred books. ^ 

In order that karma may be arrested, the mind must be 
controlled (Manogupti) in three ways : one must not indulge 
in uncontrolled grief, anger, joy, or anxiety [Asatkalpandvi- 
yogi) ; neither must one show any partiality, but must think 
alike of rich and poor, realizing that in both there is a soul, and 
one must fix one's mind on doing kindnesses and obeying the 
tenets of religion [Samatdhhdvinl) ; and above all [Atmdrdma- 
td) one must think steadily, not of external things, but of one's 
own soul and of the saints who have attained omniscience. 

Speech can be specially controlled [V acanagupti) in two 
ways : either by observing a vow of silence (Maimdvalambi) 
for a certain number of days, or [Vdkniyami) by speaking 
as little as possible, and when it is absolutely necessary 
to speak, holding a piece of cloth (mumati) in front of one's 
mouth in order not to injure the jiva of the air. 

The movements of the body must also be controlled 
{Kdyagiipti) if the acquisition of karma is to be arrested : 

^ Uttarddhyayana^ S.B. Zf., xlv, p. 136. ^ Loc. cit., p. 130. 



a human being must be careful to control his move- 
ments according to the rules laid down in the scriptures 
{Vathdsutr aces tdniy ami), and at last, when he becomes a 
saint omniscient, must maintain his limbs in that state of 
absolute immobility (Cestdnivritti) possible only to a Kevali. 
There is the same difference in standard as to the way 
a monk and a layman must observe the gupti that we have 
noticed in all the Jaina rules, and the following example 
may illustrate it. If a sadhu and a layman meet a shooting 
party, and the sportsmen ask where the deer they are trying 
to shoot has gone, the monk must keep silence, for he may 
neither aid in the taking of life nor lie, but the ordinary 
man may point in a wrong direction or give an untrue 
reply, for, in order to save life, a layman may tell an 
untruth. The keeping of the gupti is supposed to protect 
a sadhu from all temptation ; and the scriptures say that if 
a monk possesses the three gupti, his peace of mind cannot 
be disturbed even by well-adorned goddesses.-^ 
The Since the inflow of karma can also be checked by endur- 

twenty- ^^g hardship, the laity should endeavour to sustain certain 
Parisaha. hardships, but the ascetic was expressly commanded by 
Mahavira himself "^ to endure ' the twenty-two troubles ' 
{Parisaha^) that are likely to beset him in his life as a 
wandering mendicant. 

A monk must accordingly be prepared to endure the trial 
of hunger (Ksudhd parisaha), if he cannot obtain food blame- 
lessly and without committing one of the forty-two faults, 
even though he were to grow as emaciated as the joint of a 
crow's leg. However thirsty (Trisd p.) he may be, he must 
never take unboiled water lest he should destroy some life. 
However cold a monk may feel, he must endure it [Sitap.), 
without wishing that the sun would rise, that a fire were 
lighted, or that he had more clothes ; nor must an ascetic 

^ Uttarddhyayana, S.B. E.f \\w, T^. \2>6. 
^ Uttarddhyayafia, S. B. E., xlv, p. 9. 
" Or Parisaha. 


ever warm himself at a fire, or light a fire. In the same 
way he must endure heat [Usnap.), without fanning himself, 
going to a river side to cool himself, or longing to pour 
cold water over his body. If when a monk is meditating, 
a mosquito or a hornet sting him {Dainsa p.), he must not 
brush it away nor be irritated by it, but must remain un- 
disturbed, and by self-control conquer his internal foe, as 
an elephant at the head of the battle kills the enemy. ^ 
A monk must also endure anything in the way of clothing 
[Vastrap.'^), being content either to be without it or to receive 
dirty, old and torn garments. He must also be absolutely 
indifferent to the sort of lodgings (Aratip.) he may be given 
in the different villages. To the Jaina, woman was always 
the temptress, never the helpmate, and the ascetic is 
warned to renounce all liking for women's society (Strl p.), 
remembering that they are ' a slough '. An ascetic is 
bound also cheerfully to keep the rules about changing his 
lodging {Caryd p.) : he must never stay longer in a village 
nowadays than a month in fine weather, or four months 
in the rainy season, but the shorter time he stops the 
better (if possible only one night), lest he should grow fond 
of any one and form a friendship however innocent. 

All monks must perform their meditation either sitting 
or standing, keeping the eyes and limbs absolutely im- 
movable. The more disagreeable a place one chooses to 
meditate in the better, so the holiest monks choose the most 
unpleasant spots [N aisidhikl p }) . Every Indian believes that 
the place where corpses are burned Is haunted by all sorts 
of hideous evil spirits, so that by going to meditate in such 
a spot, or in a jungle haunted by tigers or lions, a monk 
very effectually endures hardness, and shows his indiffer- 
ence to fear by remaining immovable even when attacked 
by evil spirits or wild beasts ! If a monk be benighted on 
his peregrinations, he must gladly endure such hardships 

^ Uttarddkyayana, S. B. E., xlv, p. I !• ^ Or Acela p. 

^ Or Naisedhiki p. 


[Sayyd p.) as sleeping in the open air or under a tree, 
without even a plank for a bed ; and in the same way, if no 
one lends him a bed in a town, he must sleep contentedly 
without it, knowing that he is thus arresting karma. Karma 
is also checked by calmly enduring taunts and reproaches 
{Akrosap.) and not taking cruel or rankling words to heart. 

The Jaina say that, before the ' Pax Britannica ' ruled in 
India, there was constant quarrelling between members of 
the various religions, and the followers of Saiikaracarya in 
particular persecuted them ; this often led to fights, but the 
Jaina sadhus were urged to receive even beatings philoso- 
phically, being assured that such endurance {Vadhap.) would 
hinder the accumulation of karma ; and to help them they 
were told to reflect, when struck, that after all it might have 
been worse, for they had not lost their lives. It sometimes 
happens that a rich man's son or even a prince becomes 
a Jaina sadhu ; and it is specially unpleasant for a man of 
such social position to go round begging, for ' the hand (of 
the giver) is not always kindly stretched out to a monk when 
he is on his begging tour', ^ but by enduring this (Yd/icdp.) he 
retards karma. Sometimes too a monk is met with a blank 
refusal, or for fear of committing any of the forty-two faults 
has himself to refuse food offered to him ; he must bear this 
[Aldhha p.) calmly, thinking that though he get nothing 
to-day, he may perhaps get something to-morrow. 

Illness (Roga p.) affords a monk a chance of checking the 
growth of karma, if he endure it patiently as punishment 
for past sin (we have already seen that Jaina look on all 
illness as punishment for sin in a previous existence) and 
neither desires medical attendance, nor cries out that he is 
dying or dead, but continues to think of the welfare of his 
soul, neither acting himself nor causing others to act. The 
jungle grass in India is so full of thorns and prickles that 
the Jaina scriptures truly say that if a naked ascetic lies 
on the grass he will certainly be badly scratched ; in the 
' Uttarddhyayana, S.B.E., xlv, p. 13. 


sun the pain of the scratches will grow insupportable, but 
the ascetic who cheerfully endures this pain [Trinasparsap.) 
knows that he is impeding karma. If a monk is given 
water that has been previously boiled, he is allowed to 
sponge his body or wash his clothes with it, but he may 
never bathe or wash his clothes in a running stream ; when 
an ascetic feels dirty and sticky and hot, he must never 
allow his mind to rest on the delicious joy and refreshment 
of a bathe, but is told, on the contrary, that by enduring 
the horror of feeling dirty in his body [Mela p.) he is benefit- 
ing his soul (!), and practising ' the noble excellent Law, he 
should carry the filth on his body till he expires '} 

It is a perilous moment for a monk when he is praised ; 
but if he can listen with absolute indifference [Satkdra p.), 
he has obstructed the inflow of karma; and, vice versa, he 
must also carefully perform the easier task of hearing 
himself blamed unmoved. Even without being actually 
praised by others, a man may become puffed up through 
reahzing the extent of his own learning and accomplish- 
ments : such feelings must be sternly repressed [Prajndp.) if 
karma is to be checked. To other monks there comes the 
opposite temptation to be cast down at the thought of their 
own ignorance (Ajudna p.), but this also must be endured 
with indifference. Finally, when enduring hardships or 
studying other religions, a monk must never allow a doubt 
as to the value of asceticism or the truth of his own religion 
to enter his mind, but must be wiUing to endure martyrdom 
rather than change his faith [Samyaktva p.). 

An ascetic can also stop the inflow of karma by faithfully The ten 
observing his ten great duties, which in a lesser degree are^"^'^^ °^ 
binding on the laity also. The first of these duties is for- 
giveness [Ksamd) : every day and every moment of the 
day a monk must learn to control his anger, and instead 
of giving way to wrath practise the difficult duty of forgive- 
ness. Monks are constantly reminded of how Mahavira 

^ Uitarddhyayana, S.B.E., xlv, p. 14. 


forgave his enemies, and, instead of getting angry and so 
letting karma flow into his soul, even preached to a wicked 
cobra which bit him. 

Every day, too, a monk must strive to control the 
arrogance which rises in his soul, for that would open 
the door to endless karma, and instead he must cultivate 
the humility [Mdrdava) which subdues pride. This duty 
the Jaina illustrate by the story of the two sons of the 
first Tirthankara Risabhadeva, which they entitle ' O 
Brother, come down from the Elephant of Pride '. Risa- 
bhadeva's younger son, so the legend runs, became a 
sadhu, and some time afterwards the elder son, Bahubaja, 
followed his example and became an ascetic too, renouncing, 
as he thought, everything to do so, but he found that there 
was one thing he could not renounce, and that was pride in 
his seniority of birth, so that he could not bow down to his 
younger brother, who was, of course, his senior in the reli- 
gious life. For days poor Bahubaja struggled in vain alone 
in the forest to overcome his pride, till at last his father 
became aware of the spiritual conflict he was going through, 
and sent his daughter to help her brother. She spoke so 
beautifully of the glory of humility, that it enabled him 
to conquer his pride ; and so, becoming humble enough to 
receive help from a woman, he also became humble enough 
to do reverence to his younger brother and thus check the 
entry of karma, which would otherwise have annulled all 
the merit he had gained through being an ascetic, besides 
binding him for centuries to the cycle of rebirth. 

Again, by separating himself from every sort of intrigue 
or deceit, in speech or action, and cultivating that simnhVity 
(Arjava) which is opposed to cunning, a monk or a layman 
can prevent the entry of karma. He must be careful, 
however, not only not to tell a direct lie, but also never to 
indulge in speech that could bear two meanings. 

A sadhu must keep himself free from all greed {Nirlo- 
bhatd), possessing nothing but the oldest clothes, and 


retaining no metal ; ^ if he borrow so much as a needle, 
he must return it ere nightfall, lest, any door being left 
open through which avarice might enter, karma should 
enter with it. The Jaina love to tell the story of Kapila, 
a layman who through fear of greed became a sadhu. 
Kapila had been left an orphan, and his friends, seeing his 
poverty, advised him to go to the court of a certain king 
whose custom it was to give a boni (morning gift) of two 
masa to the first beggar he met. On his arrival at court 
Kapila took good care to be the first petitioner the king 
should see, but when he was offered the customary two 
coins, he explained to the rajah that he was really very poor, 
and that as a maso ^ was a very small weight, two would 
not go far. The king told him to sit down and think what 
gift would satisfy him, and he would give it him, so 
Kapila sat down in the pleasant garden and began to think. 
He asked himself if two or four or even eight masa would 
content him, but his greed steadily growing, he saw that 
even half the kingdom would not satisfy him, for he would 
still desire the other half. It frightened him to think 
what karma he might accumulate if avarice, when given 
way to, grew at this terrible rate. He saw that greed and 
selfishness are one, and the root of all the evil in the world, 
and he realized that for him there was no safety save in the 
rehgious life, for a sadhu is forced to check the very begin- 
ning of avarice. 

All monks and laymen must also practise fasting and 
austerities (Tapa^), for by so doing they combat desire, one 
of the great ways through which karma enters. We shall 
have to examine the twelve ways in which austerities are 
to be practised when we are studying the eighth principle, 

A monk is also bound to subdue and control his mind, 

^ The writer has known of two sadhus who evaded this rule by 
keeping their fortune not in coin but in notes tied about their person ! 
^ A weight of gold equivalent to g-y of an ounce. 
^ Sanskrit Tapas. * See p. 163. 


his body and his speech [Sai'nyama)^ lest through any act, 
thought, or word karma should be acquired, and in parti- 
cular he should guard against taking life in any way. 

An ascetic must be careful to speak the truth (Satya), lest 
any deviation from it should give rise to karma, but he is 
bound to speak the truth lovingly and in such a way as to 
hurt no one's feelings. 

There is a manifold duty of purity and cleanliness {Sauca'^) 
binding on all monks, for an ascetic must keep himself free 
from all suspicion of dishonesty or thieving, and oppose to 
this the constant giving of alms, and he must also keep his 
body pure and his soul free from all dark thoughts. 

An ascetic must also remember never to look on anything 
as his own [Akiincinatva) : he must regard no person as 
related to him, and no thing as his property. 

A monk must strictly observe the duty of cehbary and 

chastity [Brahmacarya) in nine specified ways, which are 

called the Nava Vada or Nine Ramparts, and which we need 

not trouble to detail. In a passage which throws a most 

interesting light on an old-world Indian household long 

before the birth of Christ, one of the Jaina sacred books, the 

Sutrakritahga, describes the fate that awaits a monk who 

breaks the law, marries and settles down.^ It recites how 

he will have to fetch and carry for his wife, bringing her 

lip-salve, ribbons, combs, looking-glasses, &c. ; and how, if 

a son be born, he will have to hold the baby or hand it to 

its mother. ' Thus some supporters of their sons have to 

carry burdens like camels. Getting up in the night they 

lull the baby asleep like nurses. . . . This has been done by 

many men who for the sake of pleasures have stooped so 

low ; they become the equals of slaves, animals, servants, 

beasts of burden — mere nobodies.' 

The five The inflow of karma is also arrested by observing the Five 

Rules of Conduct or Caritra, which are specially binding on 

monks and nuns, but should also be observed by the laity. 

^ Instead of Sauca some sects substitute Tyaga, or the renunciation of 
palatable food, nice furniture and a comfortable house, and Antaratyaga, 
the renunciation of black thoughts. ^ S. B.E,, xlv, pp. 276 ff. 


The first rule (Sdmdyika cdritra) entails two things : the 
giving up of all evil conduct, and the turning to good actions 
such as meditation. Both Sthanakavasi and Svetambara 
ascetics are supposed to give themselves up to meditation 
continually, and a layman must do it twice a day. A 
Digambara layman must meditate four times : morning, 
noon, evening and midnight. In order to carry out the 
rule perfectly, both laity and monks must endeavour to 
keep their minds in a state of equanimity, and to look on 
all mankind with indifference. 

The duty of repentance [Chedopasthdpanlya cdritra) is 
also binding on all who would arrest the growth of karma. 
If a monk sins, he must confess to his own guru and do 
the penance inflicted, which will be designed to fit the 
crime : for instance, if a young monk, feeling hungry, has 
eaten some of the alms given to him without first showing 
the food to the senior monk in the Apasaro, he may be 
ordered to fast for two days, or to fast from the particular 
grain he took for four days ; if, however, a monk has com- 
mitted one of the great sins which infringe the five vows, 
for example given way to unchastity or dishonesty, he 
would have to take the great vows again, meekly standing 
in front of a guru. This retaking of the vows is called 
Navi diksa or re-ordination, for it is the actual taking of 
the vows, and not the accompanying ceremonies, which is 
regarded as the essential part of initiation. If a layman, 
on the other hand, sins in some gross way, he would after 
confession and penance have to retake, not all the twelve 
vows, but only the one which he has broken. 

The third duty {Parihdravisuddha cdritra) is variously 
interpreted by the different sects. The Sthanakavasi 
and Svetambara believe it to be carried out when nine 
monks at the order of their superior go out together 
to perform austerities or tapa for eighteen months. (Of 
the nine monks six will do tapa for six months, and the 
remaining three will serve them ; for the next six months 
the three servers will perform their austerities together 


with three of the original six, and be served by the three 
remaining ; and for the last six months in the same way 
another six will do tapa and three serve.) The Digambara 
on the other hand regard the duty as performed simply by 
being careful not to injure any jiva whilst moving about. 
It is not very clear why the fourth rule [Suksmasampardya 
cdritra) should have separate enumeration here, for we shall 
come across it again when we are considering the fourteen 
steps towards hberation.^ The rule emphasizes the impor- 
tance of being bound to the world as loosely as possible, and 
of casting out the very last root of passion after the tumult 
caused by it has died away. If a man has done this, he has 
reached the tenth step in his upward progress. 

By the time a man has reached the last stages of this up- 
ward road, he will have lost all attachment to the world, and 
think only of his soul ; so that he will automatically keep 
the last ( Yathdkhydta cdritra) of the Five Rules of Conduct. 

The Finally the layman or the monk can arrest the inflow of 

BMvana ^^^^^ W keeping the Twelve Great Reflections or Bhavana 

orAnu- always in mind. 

preksa. First, one must constantly remember that all things in 

this world, ourselves, our bodies, our wives and our children^ 
are transient (Anitya bhdvand), and that nothing is perma- 
nent save Dharma (religion) and the soul that has faith 
in dharma. Once upon a time, so the Jaina illustrate 
the truth of this reflection, a beggar having eaten an un- 
usually good meal spread his miserable bedding under a tree, 
placed his waterpot beside him and, putting a stone under 
his head, fell asleep. He dreamed that he was a king with 
three wives to admire him, servants to wait on him and 
slaves to fan him. He awoke to find that all his wealth and 
all his grandeur had vanished, and that only his torn bedding 
and his waterpot remained : even so in this life we must 
expect everything we care for to pass away. 

Another thing that a Jaina is bound constantly to remem- 

^ See p. 189. 


ber is that there is no shelter for him [Asaraita hhdvand). 
In this world of misery, disease, old age and death, neither 
wife, friends, nor guru can afford us protection ; only by 
the practice of dharma can we escape from the cycle 
of rebirth. To illustrate the truth of this reflection the 
following story is told. There once lived in India the son 
of a wealthy landowner, who was so handsome that his 
father, his mother and his wife all adored him. Suddenly 
the young man was stricken with an excruciating disease 
of the eyes, and though his parents and his wife strove 
to lighten the pain, they were powerless. Gradually the 
youth realized that, as no one could shelter him from disease, 
so no one could be his refuge from death, and the reflection 
induced him to promise to withdraw from the world, if reli- 
gion could cure him. His eyes were immediately healed, and 
he went as an ascetic to live in a distant forest. The king 
of that country happened to pass, and was astounded to 
find so goodly a youth living the life of a monk, and thought 
he must have withdrawn from the world in consequence of 
some injustice or oppression. He therefore offered to take 
up his cause, remedy any wrong that had been done to him, 
and protect and shelter him against future injustice. But 
the ascetic showed the king how impossible it was to find 
any shelter in this world from oppression or from disease 
and death, and how the only true refuge was to be found 
in voluntarily forsaking all that one had, and following 
a law whose goal was death ; on one who had taken up such 
a life no injury could be inflicted. The king, listening to this 
moving discourse, realized that in this world he could not even 
protect his own royal self, and so he too became an ascetic,^ 
and by so doing stopped up all the channels through which he 
could be wounded or through which karma could flow. 

By never forgetting that the cycle of rebirth is end- 
less, and that one may be reborn as a bird, or beast, or 

^ Other Jaina deny that the king became an ascetic, and say he was 
merely convinced of the truth of this bhavana. 


denizen of hell [Saihsdra bhdvand), the wise will be stirred 
up to try and stop the inflow of karma in this hfe, the only 
opportunity a man may have for so doing. 

We must also rememberthatwe came unaccompanied into 
the world, that we shall go out of it unaccompanied, and that 
unaccompanied we shall have to endure the expiation of 
our karma (Ekatva bhdvand). A king named Nami was led 
to understand this reflection in the following manner. He 
once fell very ill, and his queens called in a physician, who 
ordered him to be rubbed with sandal wood. Each queen, 
terrified of being widowed, seized a piece of wood and rubbed 
some part of the king's body. As they rubbed, their many 
bangles jingled, and the august patient, who was not only 
ill, but also irritable, exclaimed against the din. Instantly 
each of the ladies tore off all her bangles save one (to have 
taken all off would have been unlucky, since it would have 
looked like anticipating widowhood) and the rubbing pro- 
ceeded in silence. The king asked what they had done, and 
when they explained to him that each of them was now only 
wearing one bracelet, the true meaning of the bhavana he 
had heard so often dawned on him. Exclaiming that he 
was born alone and must die alone, he renounced the world 
and his wives, and proceeding to the forest, received initia- 
tion as a monk, and died in a few years. 

Again, karma is impeded by remembering that in reality 
the soul is separate from the body (Anyatva bhdvand), though 
through ignorance we think of it as attached thereto, for a 
soul cannot actually be united to body or wealth, wife or child. 
As an illustration of the importance of this reflection the Jaina 
tell the following legend. Once upon a time the great King 
Bharata, the son of Risabhadeva, was seated on his throne, 
magnificently arrayed in all his jewels, when he noticed that 
the ring he had been wearing on his little finger had slipped 
off. He thought how ugly the finger looked without it, but 
reflected that the finger had never possessed the ring, the 
contact with which had been purely fortuitous. Amused at 


the idea, he removed the rings from each finger, and notic- 
ing how bare each looked when stripped of all adventitious 
decoration, he became so strongly convinced of the truth 
of this refaction, that the inflow of karma was arrested, he 
became at once omniscient, and as in a few more years all 
his acquired karma also disappeared, he eventually became 
a Siddha. 

The object of another reflection (Asauca hhdvand) is to 
^•^lead us to despise our bodies. To do this we must con- 
stantly remember that the body is compact of filth, and 
has such dirty habits that even our souls become soiled by 
contact with it. If we forget this reflection and become 
proud of our bodies, great misfortune will befall us, as the 
following story proves. A certain prince called Sanatku- 
marawas so handsome that his beauty was discussed in the 
assembly of the gods, two of whom were sent down in the 
guise of Brahmans to discover if he were really as beautiful 
as he was described. Unfortunately this visit of the gods gave 
rise to such pride in the heart of the prince, that karma 
flowed rapidly into his soul ; and, as a result of this karma, 
ill health (which, as we have seen, is always traceable to 
karma) beset the prince, until at last he had no less than six- 
teen diseases. However, he patiently endured the karma his 
conceit had given rise to, gradually worked it ofl, received 
initiation as a sadhu, and finally became a Siddha. 

The seventh reflection [Asrava hhdvand) reminds us that in 
the worldly life karma is constantly flowing in through the 
various channels which ouractions, passions and senses, if un- 
controlled, leave open to it, and that all our sufferings come 
as a result of this karma. How much we may suffer, if we 
ourselves open the channels, we may learn from the story of 
King Pundarika. There were once two brothers, both of 
whom ruled as kings, but the elder brother, Pundarika, realized 
that this world was merely a junction of canals through which 
karma was continually flowing, and so decided to renounce his 
throne and become an ascetic. He received initiation, but 


gradually found that the life of an ascetic was too hard for 
him, and eventually persuaded his younger brother, Kunda- 
rika, to give up the kingdom in his favour. Becoming 
once more a king, Pundarika, instead of being happy, found 
it only too true that the world is a dreadful place for acquiring 
karma ; and during his life he accumulated so much, that he 
is still, by undergoing countless rebirths, trying to expiate it. 

One must also reflect on and determine to adopt means 
(such as the taking of vows) which will impede the inflow of 
karma, and this reflection {Samvara bhdvand) is illustrated 
by the history of the younger brother in the last story. 
Kundarika was delighted when his elder brother took his 
crown, for now, he thought, he would have a chance of 
arresting the inflow of karma ; so, meditating on this re- 
flection, he renounced the world, took the vows of an ascetic, 
and soon gained moksa, leaving his unfortunate elder 
brother still tied to the cycle of rebirth. 

Again, one must remember that by performing austerities 
one can expiate karma (Nirjard bhdvand). 

One must also reflect on the world {Loka bhdvand), 
remembering that it was created by no one, and that the 
elements it contains are in a sense permanent. By thinking 
of the various worlds under the form of a man, one will 
understand that at his feet is hell, his body is formed by 
men who will have to undergo fresh births, the head is 
Devaloka, and at the top of the head are the Siddha, those 
who will never again pass through rebirth. 

To arrest the inflow of karma one must also remember 
{Bodhiblja or Bo dhidurlabha bhdvand) that everything is easy 
to acquire in this world save the three jewels : Right faith. 
Right knowledge and Right conduct, which can only be 
acquired by a human being. In the long cycle of rebirth 
it seldom happens that a jiva obtains human birth. Re- 
flecting thus, one must determine to use this opportunity 
to the fullest, and, taking the first step in the pathway of 
religion, continue on the upward course. 


Finally, one must remember [Dharma hhdvana) that the 
highest rehgion is to kill nothing and to injure nothing, but 
to keep the three jewels, and to follow thankfully the law 
of the Jaina. So doing, one will be able to cross the 
troubled ocean of the world, be freed from the cycle of 
rebirth and attain moksa. 

These twelve ^ reflections are considered so important by 
the Jaina that one finds them referred to in some form or 
other in every book on Jainism, and it is recorded of them 
in one of the sacred books, the Sutrakritdnga, that ' He 
whose soul is purified by meditating on those reflections 
is compared to a ship in water ; like a ship reaching the 
shore he gets beyond misery '.^ 

The Seventh Category : Bandha, 

The seventh principle of Jaina philosophy deals with the 
bondage of the soul to karma : this is caused by the union 
of the soul with pudgaja,^ and the difficulty of understanding 
it lies in the fact that the word pudgala is simply untranslat- 
able. English-speaking Jaina usually render it by the word 
matter, but that is unsatisfactory. Perhaps the safest way 
to get at the meaning is to quote some of the illustra- 
tions the Jaina themselves use. ' Now the principle of 
Bandha or bondage', says a Digambara Jaina, Mr. Latthe, 
' is defined as the mutual entrance into each other's spheres 
of the soul and the Karman. When the soul is attacked 
by the passions like anger and love, it takes on the Pudgal 
[material] particles fit for the bondage of the Karmas, just 
as a heated iron ball takes up water-particles in which it 
is immersed. This is the bondage of the Karmas.' * 

Another favourite illustration is taken from spiUing oil. 
If oil is spilled on a cloth, dust will easily adhere. The 

^ They are sometimes classified into the nine first reflections and 
the three additional reflections. 

2 6". B. E., xlv, p. 330. ^ Or pudgala. 

* A. B. Latthe, M.A., An Introduction to Jaifiism, Bombay, 1905 , 
pp. 9 ff. 



cloth represents our jiva or atma (soul), the oil represents our 
passions, transgressions and activities [Kasdya, Pramdda, 
Avrata, Yoga) by which karma is acquired, and the dust 
represents pudgala. They say also that karma represents 
a book of which pudgala are the leaves. 
The four However difficult this is to understand, their teaching about 
Bondage ^^^ actual bondage is quite clear. They classify it in four ways : 
according to its nature, its duration, its intensity, and its mass. 

Man creates his own karma according to his own character 
[Prakriti) : if we are by nature bitter and sharp, we shall 
have to endure bitter karma; if, on the other hand, we are 
sweet and pleasant, though we may accumulate karma, yet 
it will be sweet and pleasant. 

Karma can also be classified according to the time it 
takes to expiate [Sthiti) : some will take a thousand years, 
some only a decade, and some can be worked out in a day. 

The intensity of karma [Anuhhdga) also differs : it is 
much heavier at some times than at others ; for instance, 
if two boys are playing ball and one hits a cow and repents, 
but the other when he hits the cow is rather proud of so 
good a shot, then the first boy will have far less heavy karma 
to expiate than the second. 

Some karma has attracted more pudgala, some less ; so 
the Jaina also divide karma according to its thickness and 
thinness (Pradesa). 

To illustrate these four classifications the Jaina take 
a ladu^ as an example. Some ladus, they say, are such as to 
cure coughs and rheumatism (!), and this shows their nature; 
others can be distinguished according to the time they keep 
good ; others by whether they have melted butter in them 
or not ; and others are thick or thin according to the amount 
of flour with which they have been made. 

We shall have to study karma more in detail later on, 
when bondage to it will be further considered. 

^ A ladu is a large round sweetmeat, about the size of a tennis ball, made 
of wheat, sugar, ghl and spices, of which the GujaratI is inordinately fond. 


The Eighth Category: Nirjard?- 
In spite of all precautions karma does accumulate, and one 
of the great categories of the Jaina faith deals with its destruc- 
tion. This can only be accomphshed gradually, and the Jaina 
compare the way in which water slowly drains out of a porous 
jar with the tedious way in which our accumulated karma 
may be dried up. One of the chief ways of reducing the sum 
of our karma is by burning it up in the glow of austerities ; and 
these austerities are of two kinds, exterior or bodily (Bdhya), 
and interior or spiritual (Abhyantara), all of which, though 
binding on the ascetics, are also beneficial to the laity. 

The first bodily austerity is fasting [Anasana). One may The six 

take a vow to fast for a fixed period iltvara), such as for a ^^tenor 
1 . 1 1 r r austeri- 

day, or tor thirty days, or one may take a vow to last tor ties. 

the rest of one's life (Ydvatkathika). Of course the latter ^- Anasa- 

vow is the more beneficial and destroys far more accumulated 

karma, so when a monk is very ill, and knows that he is going 

to die, he takes this vow. If he has taken the first vow, he 

may eat nothing, but may drink water or whey, but the 

second vow excludes water or any liquid as well as all food. 

This of course amounts very often to suicide by starvation, 

and it still takes place far more frequently than Europeans 

realize. For instance in Ahmadabad, as lately as 1912, a sadhu 

named Chaganalalaji took this vow, though in perfect health, 

and died after forty-one days' fasting ; ^ and the following 

year in Rajkot a nun named Jivibai, having first seriously 

weakened herself by prolonged fasting, took this vow and 

died after two or three days. To take this vow and die on 

a bed of Kusa grass is called Santharo ; and though in this 

age of Dusama ^ it is impossible for those who do so to go 

straight to mok§a, as they would formerly have done, yet 

* In order to avoid confusion it should be noted that the Vedantists 
use a similar word in a totally different sense to denote God, the Nirjara 
or undecaying one. 

^ Ohe of the writer's pandits went fifty miles to do darsana to this 
suffering man, the very sight of him conferring merit and nirjara. 

^ Sanskrit Duhsama. 



• they pass to Devaloka, and may hope, if their previous 

karma was good and their faith in the Jaina creed strong, 

to pass to moksa after fifteen more incarnations. 

ii. If any one fears to face a complete fast, he may yet lessen 

Unodari. ^jg karma by partially fasting [Unodarl). He may vow, for 

instance, to take a mouthful less every day, and so gradually 

decrease the quantity he eats. The Jaina consider this to be 

very beneficial to the health of the body as well as of the soul. 

iii. Vritti- There is another vow of fasting, or rather of hmiting the 

sanksepa. {qq^ that one eats [Vrittisanksepa)^ which may be taken in 

four different ways. If a monk or layman has been in the 

habit of consuming twenty ^different kinds of food, he may 

promise to limit his choice to,, say, fifteen [Dravya). Or he 

may limit the number of places from which he will obtain food 

[Ksetra), a sadhu vowing, for instance, that he would only 

beg in one particular street, and a layman ^ that he would only 

eat food in Rajkot and Ahm^dabad, and so when travelling 

between those places refusing food at the junctions en route. 

Again, one may promise that one will restrict one's food by 

time [Kdla], a sadhu, for example, eating only the food 

begged before noon, or a layman promising not to take 

another meal after his midday one. Or the vow might 

deal with posture [Bhdva), a monk promising only to receive 

food that is given to him by some one who is standing 

upright, and a layman deciding only to eat what his wife 

offers him in a certain position. 

iv. Rasa- An ascetic usually vows when ordained to abstain all his 

tyaga. jjf g^ gave when ill, from melted butter, milk, sugar, molasses, 

or any other food that specially delights him [Rasatydga). 

He does this lest he should grow fat and sleep too much,^ 

and his interest in rehgion grow dim. A layman often 

promises to abstain for a particular day from the special 

food he most enjoys. 

V. Kaya- Jaina believe that they may also reduce their karma 


^ Many laymen vow to eat only in their own houses. 

2 There is a Gujarat! proverb : * He who eats much will sleep much.' 


by bodily austerity {Kdyaklesa), such as sitting to do medi- 
tation in summer on heated stones in the full glare of the 
sun, or in winter in the coldest places that can be found, with- 
out wearing sufficient clothing. There is one such austerity 
which is peculiar to Jaina ascetics, Loca, or pulhng out 
the hair by the roots. It is said to be most profitable, as 
showing to the ascetic how hard a life he will have to undergo, 
and at the same time proving to others that he has strength 
of mind enough to endure it. If the sadhu is ill, the 
following words are quoted to him : Locevd mundevd 
kattevd, i. e. if the pulhng out of the hair cannot be endured, 
hair cutting or shaving may be employed.^ 

There is another austerity which might almost be de- vi. Saih 
scribed as the avoidance of temptation by control {Sam- ^^"^^^• 
llnatd) in four ways : first by governing the senses (Indriya 
saj'nllnatd) and not allowing the eyes, for instance, to look at 
anything beyond a certain distance ; then by controlling 
anger, deceit, pride and greed [Kasdya samlinatd) \ or 
by refraining as much as possible from the exercise of 
intellect, speech, or body [Yoga sajhllnatd)^ sitting silent, 
for instance, in a cramped position ; and lastly, by being 
very careful where one goes to stay, and previously ascer- 
taining that no woman lives near {Viviktacaryd). 

Karma is also dried up by the right use of six interior The six 
or spiritual austerities. interior 

The first of these, confession and penance [Prdyascitta), is ties, 
binding on both ascetics and laity. The ascetic must con- i. Prayas- 
fess to the chief guru, and the laynmn to whatever sadhu ^^"^" 
he chooses; and they must perform the penances allotted to 
them, according to the rules laid down in the sacred books. 
Also every morning and every evening when they engage 
in Padikamanurh ^ they must confess their faults generally 
in the following Magadhi formula : Micchdmi dukkadai'n,^ 

^ Dr. Jacob! {S. B. E., xxii, p. 308, note i) says he is not aware that 
removing the hair is resorted to in the case of nuns, but the writer 
knows as a fact that it is regularly done. 

^ Sanskrit Pratikramana, ^ Sanskrit Mithydme duskritam. 


'May my sin be forgiven.' Greater faults a layman 
will confess privately to a sadhu at intervals of two or 
four months, or whenever he specially feels the need of 
confession, and will perform the penance given to him. 
A sadhu should confess a grave sin at once, for if he 
should wait even till the time of Padikamanurh some 
karma will have accumulated, and more still if he should 
w^ait for the big fortnightly Pakkhi Padikamanurh. The 
accumulation of karma will be worse if he does not confess 
till the quarterly Comasi (Caturmasi) Padikamanurh, and 
his last chance comes at the annual Sarhvatsari Padika- 
manurh. If he misses that and continues with his sin un- 
confessed, though to all outward seeming an ascetic, he has 
ceased to be a true sadhu, and if he dies, he will slip far down 
the ladder of birth [Adhogati). Similarly, if a layman should 
nurse the sin of anger unconf essed and unrepented of, despite 
all the opportunities these various services give, he would 
undoubtedly pass to hell on his death. 
ii.Vinaya. Another interior austerity on which the Jaina lay great 
stress is reverence {Vinaya), for this, duly paid, destroys 
a great accumulation of karma. Both laity and ascetics 
should show respect to all who are their superiors in know- 
ledge [Jitdna vinaya) ; in faith (Darsana vinaya) ; and in 
character (Cdritra vinaya). They must keep their minds 
{Mana vinaya) in an attitude of humility towards their 
superiors ; and do them honour by politeness when speak- 
ing to them [Vacana vinaya) ; and by salutation and bodily 
service (Kdya vinaya) ; and should observe all the old customs 
of reverence prescribed in the religious books {Kalpa vi- 
naya) to be performed either in the house or in the monas- 
teries. Under this last heading is included all the reverence 
a wife should show her husband.^ On rising in the morning 

^ A great many Indian gentlemen were being almost unconsciously 
influenced by the chivalrous way in which they saw Englishmen treat 
ladies, when the crude militant 'suffragette' movement arose. It is 
impossible to over-estimate the evil that this movement did to the cause 


a Jaina woman prostrates herself at her husband's feet and 
worships him. (The sentence in the EngHsh wedding service 
where the husband says to the wife ' With my body I thee 
worship ' comes as a terrible shock to an old-fashioned 
Jaina gentleman !) During the day the wife prepares her 
husband's meal and only eats when he has finished ; and 
in the evening, when he comes home tired, she massages him. 

Karma may also be worked off by another ' austerity ' iii. Vaiya- 
[Vaiydvacca), service rendered to ascetics, or to the poor, ^^^^^' 
the helpless and the suffering, by giving them food, water, 
shelter, or clothing. All the friends of the Jaina desire to see 
them taking their proper share in the uplift of India, and 
perhaps one might suggest that this belief of theirs in the 
reflex benefit of helping others provides them with a power- 
ful text from which to preach the duty of social service. 

Study is another interior austerity [Svddhydya). The iv. Sva- 
Jaina lay great emphasis on the duty of studying their ^l^Y^ya* 
doctrines and their scriptures by reading, catechizing, 
repetition, meditation and preaching, but they declare that 
there is no duty that their laity and especially their college 
graduates more neglect. Rich Svetambara laymen often 
pay a pandit to teach their sadhus during the long intervals 
of the day when, having finished their begging round and 
having nothing else to do, they spend their time in idleness; 
but they complain bitterly that the ascetics are generally 
too lazy to learn. A Sthanakavasi monk may not study 
with a paid pandit, only with one who gives his services 
freely; but they also show little desire to learn. The whole 
question, however, of the education of their monks is now 
occupying the attention of the educated laymen of both 

of women in the East ; for every foolish act of militancy was chronicled 
in the papers, and men who were formerly anxious to educate their wives 
grew afraid to do so. Perhaps the Western women in their selfishness 
scarcely realized the solidarity of the modern world. One might almost 
say that every window they broke in England shattered the prospect of 
some Indian woman gaining a wider outlook on life ; and every time 
they chained themselves up, they riveted the fetters more firmly on 
their suffering Oriental sisters. 


sects, and, together with caste, is regarded as one of the 
burning questions of the day. 
V. Karma is also destroyed by meditation [Dhydna), which 

Dhyana. ^j^^ Jaina consider to be another austerity ; but it must be 
remembered that there are also two evil ways of meditating: 
one, grieving too much for the dead {Arta dhydna), wailing 
and beating one's breast in grief for them ; and the other, 
remembering with anger any personal injuries one may 
have sustained and brooding over them [Raudra dhydna) ; 
by doing either of these things one only accumulates karma 
instead of destroying it. There are, however, two good 
ways of meditation : the first is thinking on religious sub- 
jects in accordance with the precepts laid down in the 
sacred books [Dharma dhydna) ; and the second (which 
can only be performed after Dharma dhyana) is the purest 
and highest meditation of all {Sukla dhydna), when, freed 
from all earthly thought and cares, the soul meditates on 
the fact that it itself is on the way to become a Siddha. 
vi. The last discipline (Utsarga) consists in showing and 

Utsarga. fueling absolute indifference to the body and its needs. Only 
ascetics as a rule practise this in its furthest development 
{Pddopagamana santhdro), which leads to death. The sadhu 
climbs some sacred hill such as Parasnatha, Girnar, or 
Satrufijaya; and there, in order to do nothing that may lead 
to karma, he does absolutely nothing at all, but awaits death 
without moving hand or foot, head or body. The influence 
of a negative religion is then worked out to its irresistible 
conclusion, and with all the sorrows and ills of the world 
waiting to be relieved, the soldier deserts his post in order 
to free his own soul from suffering. 

It is strange that a religious system which begins with 
the most minute regulations against the taking of the lowest 
insect life should end by encouraging human suicide. 


The Ninth Category: Moksa, 

When the atma is freed from all bondage to karma and 
has passed for ever beyond the possibility of rebirth, it is 
said to have attained moksa or complete deliverance. The 
old-fashioned Jaina believe moksa to be a place situated 
above the head of the figure that represents Devaloka ; ^ 
while some of the more enlightened describe it as a state or 
condition of freedom. 

A being who has attained moksa is called a Siddha or 
perfected one, and only a human being can directly become 
a Siddha. ' The space occupied by each of the perfect is 
boundless ', says the NavaTattva,^ 'and increases according 
to any one's desire.^ The term in which they remain in this 
state is also infinite. Their parts are innumerable. There 
is no returning again to a worldly state, and no interrup- 
tion to their bliss.' 

The Jaina definition of a Siddha is a being ' without 
caste, unaffected by smell, without the sense of taste, without 
feeling, without form, without hunger, without pain, with- 
sorrow, without joy, without birth, without old age, without 
death, without body, without karma, enjoying an endless 
and unbroken calm '. 

Some Jaina say that no one who is born a neuter can ever 
reach moksa ; and the Digambara declare that no woman can 
ever reach moksa without first undergoing rebirth as a man. 

The Svetambara, whilst holding that it is possible for 
a woman to become a Siddha, nevertheless declare that very 
few women indeed have ever ha^ sufficient strength of 
mind or body adequately to study the faith,* or endure the 
hard life of an ascetic. But while not more than ten 

^ See p. 160. ^ J. Stev tnson, Nava Tafva, London, 1848, p. 127. 

^ Some Jaina, however, deny that the space can be increased. 

* That the merestudyof the Jaina faith is considered an adequate quali- 
fication for Siddhahood may be illustrated by the fact that the present 
writer has been assured by more than one Jaina that she was bound 
ultimately to become a Siddha, whether she would or no, simply because 
she had devoted seven years to the study of this religion. 


neuters or twenty women in the old days used to attain 
perfection, one hundred and eight males used to do so'; for 
the Jaina seem to think men more religious than women. 
All the twenty-fourTirthahkara, ending withMahavira, have 
obtained moksa and become Siddha, though it is still by the 
name of Tirthankara that the people love to speak of them. 

In the country of Mahavideha there are at present about 
one hundred and sixty Tirthankara, as well as many Kevali, 
who will ultimately proceed to moksa. No one in the 
present age can proceed to moksa from Bharataksetra, 
which includes modern India. 

There are fifteen different kinds of Siddha : those who have 
been Arihanta and have become Siddhaarecalledy^;m5^^^/^a; 
those who, without even having been Arihanta themselves, 
haveyet been the disciples of Arihanta are called ^7ni<^5/^^/z^. 

A Tlrtha Siddha is one who has been previously a Tirthan- 
kara, and to be considered a Tirthankara a man must have 
been an ascetic, have preached, and have founded a com- 
munity or Tlrtha consisting of at least four people (a monk 
and a nun," a layman and a lay woman). If a man die before 
he has preached or founded a community, he will neverthe- 
less become a Siddha if he has had the requisite history 
behind him (for such a history automatically compels one 
to become a Siddha), but he will be called Atirtha Siddha : 
for instance, the mother of Risabhadeva became a Siddha, 
but an Atirtha Siddha, for at the time that she attained 
moksa no community had been founded. 

Though the recognized path to Siddhahood is by 
becoming an ascetic, a householder of eminent holiness 
might nevertheless on his death pass straight to moksa, as 
King Bharata did, without ever having been an ascetic ; 
Vsuch a jiva is called a Grihaliitga Siddha. It is the 
glory of Jainism that, whatever its present practice, its 
doctrines steadfastly declare that conduct is greater 
than caste. It is possible for a non-Jaina who exhibits 
perfect holiness in his life to pass to mok$a and become 


an Anyalinga Siddha : for instance, the famous ascetic, 
Valkalaciri, who never professed the Jaina creed, became a 
Siddha of this class. Those who follow the usual path and find 
deliverance by way of asceticism are called Svalinga Siddha. 

The dwellers in moksa are also classified according to 
their previous sex into Pullinga Siddha, who were formerly 
men ; Strllinga Siddha, who were women, and Napui'n- 
sakaliiiga Siddha, who during their past life were neuters. 

Again they are divided according to the influences that 
led them to become Siddha. If it was their own gurus who 
influenced them, they became Buddhahohi Siddha ; if it was 
some particular thing, Pratyekahuddha Siddha ; and if it 
was of their own notion without any outside influence, 
Svayamhuddha Siddha. They are also classified according 
to whether they proceeded to moksa by themselves, as Eka 
Siddha ; whereas, if in the same samaya one hundred and 
eight went together, they are called Aneka Siddha. 

The Siddha, though they are the highest class of jiva, 
are never worshipped, although the Tirthankara are. When 
one asks the reason why the same Being should be wor- 
shipped in his unperfected and not in his perfected state, 
even the non-idolatrous Jaina give as the reason that the 
jiva who has reached Siddhahood has no longer a body, 
and that it is impossible to worship or pray to a bodiless 
soul. The answer is intensely suggestive, bearing witness 
as it does to the materialistic influence of idol-worship on all 
sects of the Jaina. Jaina are, therefore, very interested in 
the entirely opposite idea that is expressed in our Lord's 
saying that God is a spirit, and they that worship Him must 
worship in spirit and truth.^ 

It is illuminating also to contrast the Jaina idea of 
heaven with that of the Hindus : both use the same words, 
such as moksa and nirvana, and both think of the highest 
state as attained by those who have completely stultified 
their personality, and who are not perfected characters but 

^ St. John iv. 24. 


perfectly characterless beings ^ who touch life on as few points 
as possible ; both also agree that souls who have attained 
moksa can never again be reborn ; but the great ideal of 
the Hindus, absorption into the Supreme, is alien to Jaina 
thought. The Jaina Siddha through all eternity will main- 
tain their separate entity.^ 

Though the Christian idea of heaven is so foreign to them, 
the Jaina through their quick sympathy with idealism are 
deeply interested in it as the thought of a fuller life, in 
which a man, with all his powers perfectly developed, 
his ideals realized, and his will absolutely attuned to the 
divine will, moves without let or hindrance to fulfil God's 
plan for him. They note a further resemblance in the 
Christian sloka where the promise is given to him that 
overcometh (Jina) that he shall go out thence no more.^ 

They feel themselves less in sympathy, however, with the 
Buddhists, who seem to them to use their common word 
Nirvana as connoting extinction not only of desire (with 
which the Jaina would agree) but also oj the soul itself, 
which they would indignantly deny. 

With Moksa, the ninth principle, the category ends. 
Tedious as it is, its study is essential to the real understand- 
ing of Jainism, whose scriptures declare : * He who is ac- 
quainted with these nine principles, and lays hold of them 
by faith, is perfect in knowledge. He who is ignorant of 
themcannot be perfect in knowledge. Thewordsand doctrine 
of all the Jain Lords is here, and nowhere else to be found ; 
therefore, he whose mind is instructed in these, possesses 
true and stable knowledge. He who has had this knowledge 
impressed on his mind for only an hour, is detained only by 
half the mental and bodily attraction that he was before.'^ 

^ Cp. Rev. H. Haigh, Sof^e Leadi?ig Ideas of Hmdidsm^ London, 
1903, p. 129. 

"^ Another great difference we have already incidentally mentioned. 
In the Jaina moksa there is no thought of escape from maya, for the 
Jaina have no conception of mayfi in the Hindu sense. 

^ Rev. iii. 12. ■* J. Stevenson, Nava Tatva, p. 128 



In our survey of the Nine Fundamental Categories of 
the Jaina faith we saw that the thought of karma — the 
energy accumulated by action — underlay them all, that 
five of them were concerned entirely with either the acqui- 
sition, prevention, impeding, or destruction of karma, and 
two others dealt with bondage to it or freedom from it. 
That seven out of the nine principles should be thus appor- 
tioned shows the enormous importance Jaina, in common 
with all other Indians, attach to karma. For them it is 
the key that solves all the riddles of this unintelligible 
world. Is a man born a cripple? It is owing to his karma. 
Are Indian immigrants badly treated in South Africa and 
made to live in special locations } It is owing to the evil 
karma they themselves acquired when they oppressed the 
outcasts, and compelled them to live apart from their 
fellow men. 

If a man plead that he personally never thus ill-treated 
his brother, the doctrine of Transmigration, the undivorce- 
able spouse of karma, is brought in, and he is assured that 
he must have done so in some previous existence. Nothing 
is more extraordinary in Indian thought than the way in 
which the unproved doctrine of karma has been univer- 
sally accepted as an axiom. 

The root of the word karma is, the Jaina tells us, the 
verb kri (to do), and they believe it to be the result of 
actions springing from four sources. 

The first source of karma is Aviraii, or attachment to the The four 
things of this life such as food, raiment, lodging, women, sources 
or jewels. The unlimited use and enjoyment of any of 


these gives rise to karma, and the more one limits one's 

indulgence in them, the less karma one acquires. Karma 

is also engendered by giving the rein to anger, pride, deceit, 

or greed {Kasdya), or any of their sixteen divisions, or the 

nine Nokasaya. Karma is again produced by uniting one's 

body, mind and speech to worldly things ( Yoga) ; and lastly, 

Mithydtva, or false belief, is a fruitful source of karma. 

The nine Karma can be arrested by not using one's own mind, 

ways of bofjy^ or speech ; by being careful not to cause any one 

karma, else to use their mind, body, or speech ; and by never 

approving, or in any other way associating oneself with 

what another does by mind, body, or speech. That is 

to say, by never oneself doing any work, however useful 

or noble ; never influencing any one else to do any such 

work ; and never praising any work when done. ' As heat 

can unite with iron ', say the Jaina, * and water with milk, 

so karma unites with the soul, and the soul so united with 

karma is called a soUl in bondage.' 

Differing We have already seen that it is the inequaHties of life 

views of ^j^(^ ^he desire to account for them that have given the 

Jaina so firm a faith in karma ; to prove that the same 

belief is shared by others they quote a Buddhist sloka, in 

which a beggar says : 

* In the prime of life I am deprived of all virility, my leg is injured, 
and I am a beggar. All this is the result of my karma.' 

The Jaina, however, say that they differ from the Hindus 
in two main points. The Hindus, according to them, 
believe,^ that God [Paramesvara) inflicts punishment for 
evil karma just as a judge inflicts the penalties prescribed 
by the law. On the other hand, the Jaina, who do not 
believe in a Supreme God who takes any active part in 
the world's governance, declare that karma accumulates 
energy and automatically works it ofl^, without any outside 

^ This, however, would certainly not be true of all Hindus. 


The other point of difference they lay stress on is that 
while Hindus think of karma as formless {amilrta), Jaina 
believe karma to have shape, and to prove this they, 
argue that karma cannot be formless, because formless 
things can do us neither good nor harm. The sky, they say, 
like space, is shapeless, and that does us neither evil nor 
good ; but as karma, according to its origin, does inflict hurt 
or benefit, it must have a form ! 

To further understand karma we may look at it as easy 
or difficult to expiate. A scarf may accumulate dust that 
can be easily shaken off, but if it should get stained with oil 
it will need much washing ; so, according to its nature, some 
karma is got rid of easily, but some only with great difficulty. 
As heat is latent in wood, oil in sesame seeds, and ghi in 
milk, so karma is latent in all actions.^ Some people ask 
when karma attaches itself to the soul ; this no one knows, 
but the Jaina say the important thing is not so much to know 
when the two were united, but how they may be separated ; 
for, just as when gold is found in the earth, the important 
matter is not to inquire how it became impure, but to free 
it by heat (representing austerities) from the clay and 
impurities which cHng to it, so in the spiritual sphere, 
when the presence of karma is detected, the great thing is 
to free the soul from it. 

There' is also a difference between Hindus and Jaina 
with regard to the remembrance of karma. Some Hindus 
believe that it is owing to Maya (illusion) that all remem- 
brance of the deeds done in previous births, which led to the 
accumulation of karma, is forgotten ; but Jaina hold that 
it is owing to Ajnana (ignorance), and when the soul by 
means of austerities and good actions has got rid of Ajfiana, 
it attains omniscience and remembers all the births it has 
undergone and all that happened in them. 

^ Compare the Hindu saying: *As fragrance is inherent in flowers, 
oil in sesame seed, fire in wood, ghl in milk, sweetness in sugar-cane, 
so wise men should recognize the soul in a body.' 


The Jaina divide karma according to its nature, dura- 
tion, essence and content, quoting the following sloka : 

* These are the four parts of karma : its nature, that is, its 
character ; its condition, that is, the time it will last ; its constitution, 
that is called its essence ; its scope, or the whole of its content.* 

As long as the jiva or atma is fettered by karma, so long 
must it undergo rebirth, and it must be remembered that 
karma is acquired through good as well as through evil 
actions. If the karma accumulated in the past life was 
evil, the soul is bound to the cycle of rebirth by iron fetters, 
if good, by golden chains, but in either case it is bound, and 
until the karma is worked out, it must be reborn again and 

Karma is intimately bound up with the soul ; accordingly, 
when the jiva leaves one body, the weight of its karma 
draws it irresistibly to another gati (state), and there it 
forms round itself another body. Only when the soul is 
freed from good and bad karma ahke can it attain the 
highest state and become a Siddha. 

Here we notice another point of difference from common 
Hindu thought : the Jaina believe that once an atma has 
attained the highest state, it is absolutely indifferent to 
what is taking place on earth, and will never again undergo 
rebirth ; so that the Hindu idea of incarnation in order to 
help mankind is quite foreign to the Jaina, and they could 
never use the famous sloka : 

* O Bharata (Arjuna), whenever there comes a decline of faith and 
irreligion uprises, then I will take birth. In every age for the 
protection of the good, the destruction of the wicked, and the estab- 
lishment of faith 1 become incarnate.' Bhagavadgltd, iv. 7, 8. 


The Eight Kinds of Karma. 

We have discussed various kinds of karma as we have 
worked laboriously through the long lists of divisions and 
subdivisions under which the Jaina classify the tenets of 
their faith ; but it will probably make for clearness if, in 
studying the most popular way of classifying this important 
doctrine of karma, we begin as it were de novo and divide 
the subject afresh under the eight headings which the Jaina 
themselves most frequently quote. ^ 

The first kind of karma is that which hides knowledge i. Jfianl- 
from us. As a bandage bound across our eyes prevents us J^^^'^^^y^ 
from seeing, so does Jndndvaranlya karma prevent our re- 
ceiving mental illumination for innumerable oceans of time. 
It is divided into eight classes : first Matijndndvaraniya^ 
which prevents our making a right use of our conscience 
and intellect ; this again is subdivided into Utpdtikl, which 
hinders the power of spontaneous thought ; Vainayiki, the 
karma which prevents our getting those powers which are 
obtained by showing deference to our elders ; Pdrindyniki, 
by which we are hindered from gaining any benefit or 
knowledge from experience ; and lastly Kdmikl,^ a karma 
which impedes our obtaining any intellectual stimulus from 
memories of the past or from hope for the future. Perhaps 
these are nearly sufficient for our purpose, as showing how 
completely karma can prevent our gaining knowledge ; 
but the Nandl Sutra goes into the subject at great length, 
and discusses twenty-eight other minor ways in which 
Matijfianavaranlya karma may impede learning. It is 
important also to note the other kinds of Jfianavaranlya 
karma, which prevent our getting any knowledge from 
reading the sacred books (SrutaJTidndvaramya) ; or never 
allow us to know what is passing in the minds of others 
[Manahparydyajndndvaranlya) ; or what is happening at 
a distance (Avadhijndndvaramya) ; and lastly prevent our 

^ For a full analysis of this somewhat confusing subject, see Appendix, 
p. 309. ^ Or Karmajd, 




ever attaining omniscience [Kevalajndndvaranlyd). But 
Jfianavaraniya karma not only impedes us in gaining true 
knowledge and sound learning, but actually gives rise to 
false and hurtful knowledge and misuse of the intellectual 
powers. For instance, weapons are invented which eventu- 
ally kill people owing to Mali ajndna, or the misuse of the 
intelligence ; again the knowledge gained through reading 
the scriptures may be misunderstood or misapplied {Sruta 
ajndna), and this might lead to the practice of bhakti 
(devotion to a personal god) or to obscenity ; or karma 
may hinder and falsify all spiritual insight [Vibhanga jndna) 
as well as physical sight. All this obstruction to knowledge 
and gaining of false knowledge can be traced back to a 
former life in which the jiva has been jealous of another's 
knowledge, or has failed to help another to gain knowledge, 
or has actually tried to prevent any one from gaining know- 
ledge by employing them in ways which left no time for 
study, thus acquiring this evil karma. 

The second of the eight great divisions of karma is 
Darsandvaraniya, the karma which prevents our beholding 
the true faith. As a door-keeper may prevent our getting 
into the presence of a chief, or a peon hinder our gaining 
access to an English official,^ so Darsanavaraniya karma 
may prevent our ever seeing the true faith, however much 
we may long to follow it. There are nine divisions of 
Darsanavaraniya karma w^hich we have already studied. 
It affect^ those jiva which in a previous birth have 
acquired evil karma by showing want of reverence to 
sacred books or to saints, or by hindering those who would 
like to believe in Jainism, or by imputing faults to Tir- 
thahkara, or by manifesting ill feeling to other religions. 
iii. Veda- Vedanlya karma, the third of the great divisions, causes 
us to experience either the sweetness of happiness or the 

ii. Darsa 



^ A frequent cause of misunderstanding in India is the way in which 
a peon often manages to prevent Indians from approaching British 
officials, until he receives a sufficient douceur. 


bitterness of misery.^ The Jaina think of this life as 
resembling two sides of a sword, the one smeared with 
honey and the other with opium, and it is Vedaniya karma 
which determines which side we taste. Sdtavedanlya is 
the karma that leads to happiness, and Asdtavedaniya 
that which produces the reverse. One ensures happiness, 
or Satavedamya karma, by showing reverence to our 
superiors and serving them, by extending forgiveness 
and mercy to any who have injured us, and by straight- 
forward dealings with all mankind. But one must re- 
member that good no less than evil karma has to be 
' worked off ' before one can go to moksa, and that though 
it is well to do good, it is better to do nothing at all after 
one has reached a certain stage in development, for karma 
lurks in all action. It may perhaps be owing to the in- 
fluence of this belief, so inimical to anything like pubHc 
spirit, that the Jaina have shown such apathy during the 
famines that from time to time have devastated India. They 
have a saying that one needs the ship of good deeds or punya 
to go from one harbour to another, but after reaching the 
harbour the ship is no longer needed ; meditation alone will 
transport us to our native village or moksa. 

Just as wine, say the Jaina, prevents a man speaking or iv. Moha- 
thinking clearly, so does Mohanlya, the fourth and most ^1^^^^^ 
dreaded karma, bemuse all the faculties. It results, gene- 
rally speaking, from worldly attachments and indulgence 
of the passions, but each of the twenty-eight divisions of 
Mohanlya karma springs from some special cause. We 
have already (fortunately for the reader 1) discussed most 
of these divisions, and only a few remain. The first of 
these, Mithydtvamohaniya karma, induces a man to believe 
good things to be unwholesome, or falsehoods to be 
true, just as a patient who is dehrious often longs for 

^ Dr. Bhandarkar follows Govindananda in believing Vedaniya karma 
to mean, ' the belief that there is something which one has to know '. 
Jaina, however, seem to give it in this connexion the meaning rather 
of experience. Search for Sanskrit Manuscripts, p. 97. 

N 2 


harmful things and dedines health-giving food ; another 
type of this karma, Misramohaniya karma, forces us to 
vacillate, resting our faith sometimes on what is true and 
sometimes on what is false ; while, owing to Samyaktva- 
mohanlya karma, though we know which faith is true, we 
cannot attain to full devotion and consecration to it. The 
Jaina liken the influence of these three classes of Mohanlya 
karma to the results arising from taking the grain Kodaro. 
If this grain be eaten without any preparation, it causes the 
most intense giddiness such as quite to bewilder the eater. 
Such is the effect of Mithyatva ; if the husk of the grain be 
removed, the result is less stupefying and resembles that of 
Misra ; whereas, if the grain be thoroughly cleansed, the 
occasional slight uneasiness it may cause is comparable to 
Samyaktva. Another karma, Darsanamohanlya karma, 
arises from taking life in the name of rehgion (as Hindus 
and Mohammedans do when they slay goats at their religious 
festivals), or from misappropriating funds or falsifying true 
religion. Again, taking part in state intrigues, acting im- 
morally, administering evil medicines, spreading false super- 
stitions and giving full play to all the passions give rise to 
Cdritramohanlya karma. Only when Mohaniya karma, the 
greatest of them all, is extinguished, can the soul reach moksa. 
V. Ayu The fifth great division, Ayu karma, determines the length 
of time which a jiva must spend in the form with which 
his karma has endowed him, for not only the prison but 
also the term of imprisonment varies according to the 
weight of karma acquired. There are four divisions of 
this karma, one of which [Deva ayu karma^) decides how 
long a jiva who has become a god ^ shall remain one. The 
Jaina believe in four classes of gods : those who inhabit the 

^ Or Devayidtkarvia. 

^ It should be noticed that though the Jaina use the same names 
for the gods as the Hindus employ, the words have often a different 
connotation ; e.g. whereas the Hindus use the word Indra to denote 
the rain-god, the Jaina believe in not one but sixty-four Indras, who 
have nothing to do with rain, but who are the rulers of sixty-four 
different kingdoms. 



planets {JyoHsl), evil ghost-gods {Vyantara), gods who travel 
in the celestial car (Vaimdnika), and \3,st\y Bhavanapati, the 
lords of the lower regions, who inhabit the space above hell. 
Each of these gods has a different ayu or term to serve. 

Another branch of Ayu karma determines how long a jiva 
can wear a human form [Manusya ayu karma'^). There 
are two classes of human beings on this earth, those who 
live in the land where work is done {Karmabhumi^) and 
who exercise themselves in warfare (asi), in commerce, 
religion, or writing [masi), or in agriculture {kasi) ; and 
those who live in the land where no such work is done 
{Akarmahhumi) , but where all needs are supplied by the 
ten kinds of desire-fulfilling trees ; both classes of men only 
hold their position for the length of time their Manusya ayu 
karma determines. Again Ayu karma decides how long a 
jiva can be forced to inhabit the form of an insect, a bird, 
or a lower animal (Tiryanc ayu karma ^). 

The fourth division of Ayu karma determines the period 
for which a jiva must dwell in one of the seven hells [Naraka 
ayu karma ^). 

The comforting thing about all four divisions of Ayu 
karma is that it can never be accumulated to last beyond 
one re-incarnation, and that it can be acquired only once 
in one's life, generally at the period when about a third 
of life remains. It is accumulated in the following ways : 
a man wins Deva ayu karma, which will keep him in the 
position of a god for a certain time, by straightforward 
dealing, by avoiding anger, pride, and greed, and by 
practising celibacy. In the same way, by being always 
gentle and honourable and checking all tendency to anger, 
pride and greed, a jiva gains the privilege of being a 
man for a period that varies according to his past virtue 

^ Or Mafmsydyuhkartna. 

^ Dr. Jacobi practically limits the activities of Karmabhiinii to 
practising religious duties. This would ignore asi and kasi entirely. 
Acdrdhga Siltra, S.B.E., xxii, p. 195. 

^ Or Tiryagdyiihkarma. * Or Narakdyujikarma, 


(Manusya ayu karma), and also enters a state in which he 
understands which gurus and gods are true and which books 
rehable, and in obedience to them he protects all life and 
follows the dictates of the Jaina religion. But a man who 
gives way to craftiness and intrigue will be sentenced to 
pass some of his next life as a bird or beast (Tiryanc ayu 
karma); another by indulging in any of the following sins: 
gambling, drinking intoxicants, eating flesh, unchastity, 
thieving, or hunting, is determining the time he will pass 
in hell (Naraka ayu karma), 
vi. Nama In Studying Ayu karma we have seen that a jiva may 
arma. ^^ sentenced to spend a certain time as a man, a god, an 
insect, or a hell-being. Each of these four states or con- 
ditions is called gati, and it is according to our past deeds 
that we are born in the Manusya gati, Deva gati, Tiryafic 
gati, or Naraka gati, the karma that decides which of 
these four shall be our particular gati, i.e. in which prison 
we shall dwell, being called Ndma karma.^ There are one 
hundred and three divisions of Nama karma, many of which 
we have already discussed when we were studying the 
categories of Papa and Punya. 
vii. Gotra An Indian's whole life, his occupation, the locality in 
karma, -which he may live, his marriage, his religious observances 
and even his food and fellow diners are determined by the 
caste into which he is born ; so that it is small wonder if 
a Jaina attach the greatest importance to the accumula- 
tion of Gotra karma, which, as he believes, determines his 
caste in his next and subsequent lives. There are two 
main divisions of this karma : it decides whether the jiva 
shall be born in a high- or in a low-caste family. Pride 
is one of the chief factors in determining a man's future 
caste : if he indulge in pride about his high caste, his 

^ Dr. Bhandarkar quotes Govindananda's saying : ' Namika, i. e. 
the belief that I am a person bearing such and such a name ; 
Gotrika, i. e. the knowledge that I now belong to the family of the 
pupils of the worshipful Arhat.' Loc. cit., p. 97. None of the Jaina 
that the writer has consulted accept these translations as correct. 


form, his learning, his family, his fame, his strength, his 
success in commerce, or his austerities, he is laying up the 
inauspicious Gotra karma which will surely cause him to be 
born in a low-caste and despised family in the next life ; if 
on the other hand he sternly curbs his conceit and that 
constant criticizing and censuring of others which is the 
surest proof of pride, and also in every possible way takes 
care of animals, then birth into a high caste will be his 

All of us have been bewildered by the ineffectiveness of viii. 
some people ; they seem to have everything in their favour Antaraya 
and yet they muddle away every opportunity that life offers 
them. The Jaina find the answer to this puzzle in their 
belief in Antardya karma, the karma that always hinders. 
If we are wealthy and so generous that we long to revel 
in the keen joy of giving, and yet never do give, we know 
that in a past life we accumulated the karma that prevents 
giving [Ddndntardya karma). If we realize the profit that 
is sure to follow a certain course of action, and yet we never 
act on this realization, we must have accumulated Ldhhdn- 
tardya karma. If in spite of our wealth we never really 
enjoy our possessions or our luxuries, either continuously 
or even for an instant, the cause is either Bhogdntardya 
or U pabhogdntardya karma. The last hindering karma 
{Vlrydntardya karma) prevents our using our will or our 
bodily strength as we should Hke to do. The convenience 
of this behef is obvious. Life in India is for Indians, as 
it is for Europeans, a constant and unending fight against 
slackness, in which Europeans have the advantage of 
periodic visits to a cool climate to brace their moral as 
well as their physical fibre, and have also a tonic behef 
in the dignity of work and the gospel of exercise. Jaina 
have none of these advantages, but recline on the ener- 
vating doctrine of Antaraya karma, which provides those 
of them who are lazy with an excuse for every sort of 


The Arrangement of the Eight Karma, 

The Jaina have a special reason for the way they arrange 
the eight karma : they say that the first thing necessary is 
knowledge [jndna) ; without this we cannot behold the true 
faith (darsana) ; if we possess both knowledge and faith, 
we are indifferent to pain or pleasure (vedanlya) ; mohaniya 
follows, because through pleasure or fear of pain we may 
become entangled in worldly attachments ; that is the chief 
cause which determines the length of each imprisonment 
{dyii) ; when this has been determined, there still remains 
to be decided the state in which we shall be imprisoned 
[ndma) ; on that again depends the caste and family [gotra) ; 
and a man's caste and family are after all either his greatest 
help or his greatest hindrance {antardya). 

Ghdtin and Aghdtin Karma. 
The eight karma are also classified into the Ghdtin karma, 
which can only be destroyed with great labour, and which 
include Jiianavaraniya, Darsanavaraniya, Mohaniya and 
Antaraya karma: and the Aghdtin karma, namely Vedanlya, 
Ayu, Nama and Gotra karma, which, important as their 
results are, can yet be more easily destroyed. The Jaina 
say that if the Ghatin are once burnt up in the burning 
glow of austerities (tapa), the Aghatin can be snapped as 
easily as a piece of burnt string.^ 

Three Tenses of Karma. 

The Jaina also divide karma according to the period 
when it was acquired, is being experienced, or will be experi- 
enced. The karma which we accumulated in past lives 
they call Sattd_ ; that which we are even now in this present 
life sowing, and of which we shall reap the harvest in a future 

^ Here again will be noticed a difference from the interpretation 
of Govindananda (who thinks four karma ' are of use to enable one 
to know the truth; therefore they are Aghatins, i.e. not injurious, 
favourable ') ; and from Dr. Bhandarkar, who considers the Ghatin 
Karman to mean * the disabling Karmans '. Loc. cit., pp. 97 n. and 93. 


life, is named Bandha; and the karma whose fruits, good or 
evil, are now ripening and being experienced is Udaya} 
The Jaina illustrate these three divisions of karma by the 
three stages the water in a well passes through. When the 
water is in the well, they hken it to Satta karma ; when it 
is in the leathern bucket that draws it up from the depths 
of the well, to Bandha karma, and as it flows along to the 
plants, to Udaya karma. 

The whole teaching of Jainism on karma would lead to Nikacita 
fatalism of the most mischievous kind, were it not for the ^,"d 
belief that there are two great types of karma. One type, karma. 
Nikacita karma, v/e have stored up for ourselves and we are 
bound to experience; but a ray of hope comes through 
the existence of Sithila karma, or that destiny which we 
may by extraordinary exertions evade. Only the Kevali 
know to which class a mortal's karma has been assigned, 
so that every man is left free to hope that he may by present 
exertion escape some of the suffering he has earned in his 
past history. It was probably seeing the tragic effect of 
absolute fatalism on Gosala which led Mahavira to incor- 
porate this tenet into the body of his doctrine. 

The Fourteen Steps to Liberation from Karma. 

So long as the soul is bound by karma, it can never attain 
dehverance, but the Jaina believe that there is a ladder of 
fourteen steps [Cauda Gunasthdnaka ^) by which a jiva may 
mount to mok§a. 

The Jaina beHeve that the soul while on the first step i. Mi- 

(Mithydtva gunasthdnaka) is completely under the influence thyatva 

of karma, and knows nothing of the truth. There are two tha'naka. 

divisions of this step : when a soul is on the lower [Vyakta- 

mithydtva gunasthdnaka), other people can see that it is 

mistaking false religion for the true faith ; when one has 

advanced to the slightly higher step (Avyaktamithydtva 

^ It is interesting to compare these three divisions with the Vedanta 
Sancita, Kriycwidna and Prarabdha karma. 
'^ Or Gunasthd?ia. 


gwtasthdnaka), though one may continue in this mistake, 

one is not doing it so unhesitatingly as to be obvious to 

others. Just as taking an intoxicating drug prevents one's 

distinguishing white from yellow, so a soul on this step 

makes mistakes. A Jaina sloka says : 

'As a man blind from birth is not able to say what is ugly and what 
is beautiful, a man on the Mithyatva gunasthanaka cannot determine 
what is real and what is false.' 

ii. Sasva- The soul, w^hirled round and round in the cycle of rebirth, 
sadana loses some of its crudeness and ignorance, and attains to 
fhanaka. the State (called Granthihheda) when it begins to distinguish 
a little between what is false and what is true ; unfor- 
tunately, it next moves into the state (named Upasama 
sankita) when, though it knows there is a distinction, it 
forgets it, and so is not able to put it into practice ; but 
when some faint remembrance comes back, it has arrived 
at the second step [Sdsvdsadana ^ gunasthdnaka) of the stairs 
to moksa. The Jaina say that Upasama sankita resembles 
fire hidden under ashes, for though a man's bad qualities 
may be hidden and under control for a long time, they are 
bound to blaze out at last, 
iii. Misra ^ ^^^^ Xh.d.t mounts to the third step [Misra gunasthd- 
gunas- naka) is in an uncertain condition, one moment knowing 
t ana -a. ^j^^ truth and the next doubting it. It is Hke the mixture 
formed by stirring together curds and sugar to make the 
sweetmeat called srikhanda, which is half sour and half 
sweet. No one will die in this mixed condition, but will 
either slip back to the second step or proceed onward to 
the fourth, 
iv Avira- '^^^ vcid^w at the fourth stage, Aviratisamyagdristi gunas- 
tisamyag- thdnaka, has either through the influence of his past good 

■'^•' karma, or by the teaching of his guru, obtained true faith, 
gunas- ' ^ -^ ° fc> ' 

thanaka. A famous sloka runs : 

* Liking for principles preached by Jina is called true faith, it is 
derived either from nature or from knowledge given by the guru.' 

^ Or Sdsvddatia. 


The soul is still unable to take those vows which help 
in the fight against karma (which we shall discuss in the 
next chapter) and so the step is called Avirati. He can 
now, if he likes, control anger, pride and greed and three 
branches of Mohaniya karma (Mithyatva, Misra, and Sam- 
yaktva), and it is a very dangerous thing not to destroy all 
of them, for they may lead to a man's falhng back to the 
second step. Whilst on this fourth step, the jiva gains five 
good things : the power of curbing anger {Sama) ; the 
realization that the world is evil, and that since it is a place 
in which one has to reap the fruits of one's own karma, one 
need have little aft^ection for it [Samavega ^) ; he also realizes 
that his wife and children do not belong to him (Nirveda) ; 
and that he must try and relieve any one who is in trouble 
[Anukampd] ; and lastly he gains complete faith in all the 
victorious Jina (Asthd). We have seen that the distinguish- 
ing mark of this stage is that a man does not yet take the 
vows ; he may wish to do so, but though he has destroyed 
excessive anger, pride and greed, he has not yet entirely 
escaped from their influence. 

The fifth step, Desavirati ^ gunasthdnaka, or the step of v. Desa- 
merit, as it is often called, is specially interesting, for up s^^ly^tL 
till now faith has been the chief point that has exercised samyata 
the thoughts of the climber, but now he reahzes the great fjj-^^^^ 
importance of conduct, and so can take the twelve vows 
which, as we shall see, deal largely with questions of be- 
haviour. The step has three parts. First {Jaghanya 
desavirati), a man promises not to drink intoxicants or to 
eat flesh, and he constantly repeats the Magadh! salutation 
to the Five Great Ones (Panca Paramesvara) : ' A bow 
to Arihanta, a bow to Siddha, a bow to Acarya, a bow to 
Upadhyaya, a bow to all the Sadhus of this world.' Then, 
though still on the fifth step, he may advance a little higher 
on it [Madhyama desavirati) and, keeping all the twelve vows, 
take special care only to make money in righteous ways. 
^ Or Samvega. ^ Otherwise Samyatdsamyata, 


Every day he should be very careful to keep the six rules 

for daily life, which are described in a well-known sloka : 

' One must worship God, serve the guru, study the scriptures, control 
the senses, perform austerities and give ahns.' 

Thirdly, while still on this step, he may advance to Utkrista 
desavirati, eating only once a day, maintaining absolute 
chastity, resigning the society even of his own wife, eating 
nothing that possesses even one life, and finally forming 
the determination to become a sadhu. This is the highest 
step that a layman can reach as such, for if it be successfully 
surmounted, he will become a sadhu. 

At this stage, too, moderate anger, deceit, pride and greed 
are controlled and sometimes destroyed, 
vi. Pra- We now come to the sixth step on the ladder, Pramatta 

matta aunasthdnaka, which can only be ascended by the professed 
gunas- ° • ' •' 11 J J 

th^naka. ascetic. Even slight passions are now controlled or de- 
stroyed, and only certain negligences [Pramdda) remain. 

' These five Pramada : Pride, Enjoyment of the senses, Kasaya, 
Sleep and Gossip, torment the soul in this world ' 

runs a Magadhi sloka, and the Jaina believe that if a soul 

is to mount the next step, he must never indulge any of 

these for more than forty-eight minutes at a time ; if he 

does, he will not mount, but on the contrary will descend to 

the lowest step of all. 

vii. Apra- At the seventh step, Apramatta giutasthdnaka, anger is 

matta either absolutely quiescent or actually destroyed, and only 

fhanaka. in a slight degree do pride, deceit and greed remain. The 

soul's power of meditation increases, for the bad qualities 

which lead to sleep are absent, and lastly one is freed from 

all negligence. 

viii.Niya- Among the Digambara sonje say that women can only 

tibadara niQunt as high as the fifth stage ; others believe they can reach 

vaka- the eighth step, which is called Niyatibddara gunasthdnaka. 

rana) gu- i|- jg also called the Apurvakarana, because the man who 
nastha- ,,.r ... .* .,. ui_ 

naka. has his foot on this stair experiences such joy as he has 

never known before in all his life. As anger disappeared 


on the seventh step, so does pride now, either temporarily 
or for ever. A man at this stage increases his powers of 
meditation by Yoga, and the fetters of karma are fast 
becoming unloosed ; in fact so elevated is this step, and so 
few attain to it, that it is also called ' the Unique '. 

It is interesting to notice that the Jaina think it easier ix.Amya- 
to eet rid of anger than of pride, and that deceit does not tibadara 

» ° r > ... gunas- 

disappear till the man has reached the ninth step [Aniyati- thanaka. 
hddara giutasthdnaka), whilst greed persists longer than 
any of the other Kasaya ; any one who has watched the 
characters of Indians develop and improve would acknow- 
ledge how extraordinarily true this psychological succession 
is. Not only does the man attain freedom from deceit at 
this stage, but he becomes practically sexless. One great 
difficulty still persists, for he is haunted by the memories of 
what he did and saw before he became an ascetic. 

The description of the tenth step, Suksmasampardya x. Suks- 
gunasthdnaka, emphasizes the enormous difference between ""^^sam- 
the Jaina and the Christian notions of asceticism, for this gunas- 
stage is only reached by the advanced ascetic, who there- thanaka. 
upon loses all sense of humour, all pleasure in beauty of 
sound or form, and all perception of pain, fear, grief, 
disgust and smells. One contrasts with this a certain 
• Cowley father's saying about ' the sheer fun it was to be 
a Christian ' ; and many devout Christians tell us that, 
having made the great renunciation, they have found 
almost unexpectedly that the surrender of worldly ambition 
and the wire-pulling it entails has endowed them with 
an entirely new appreciation of the beauty of nature, the 
treasures of art and the joy of living, besides giving them 
a deeper power of suffering with others. In short. Christian 
asceticism is a development of personality, whilst Jaina 
asceticism amounts to self-stultification. 

Some slight degree of greed still remains to the Jaina 
ascetic who has reached this stage. It must be remembered 
that the Jaina sadhu generally comes from the commercial 



xi. Upa- 





xii. Ksl- 


class, and often from a money-lender's family. This helps 
us to understand how difficult some ascetics find it to get 
rid of greed, and, whilst professing to give up everything, 
contrive by hook or crook to retain their fortune, some- 
times, as we have noted, even keeping it in paper money 
hidden on their persons, to the great disgust of their fellow 
Jaina. Those who manage absolutely to destroy every 
trace of greed will pass straight to the twelfth stage, whilst 
others have to pause at the eleventh. 

When a man has attained to the eleventh stage, Upa- 
sdntamoha gunasthdnaka, he has reached a really critical 
point, v/here everything depends on how he deals with the 
sin of greed. If he destroys it, and it becomes quite extinct, 
he is safe ; but if it only remains quiescent, he is in a perilous 
state, for, like a flood, it may at any moment burst its dam, 
and the force of its current may carry the soul far down 
the slope he has been climbing, depositing him on either the 
sixth or seventh step, or even on the lowest. On the other 
hand, if he deal successfully with greed, he becomes an 
Anuttaravasi Deva and knows that he will become a Siddha 
after he has undergone one more rebirth as a man. 

If a man be on the twelfth step, Kslnamoha gunasthdnaka, 
he has won freedom for ever not only from greed but from 
all the ghatin karma,^ and though the aghatin karma^ still 
persist, they have little power to bind the soul : in fact, 
so limited is their power, that at death a soul passes at once 
through the two remaining stages and enters moksa without 
delay. The Digambara believe that at this stage the first two 
parts of pure contemplation (Sukladhyana) are developed. 

If a man who reaches the stage of Sayogikevali gunas- 
thdnaka preaches, and forms a community or tirtha, he 
becomes a Tirthahkara. He first (according to the Digam- 

^ i. e. those difficult to destroy, or according to another interpretation 
those which destroy omniscience : Jnanavaraniya, Darsanavaranfya, 
Mohanlya and Antaraya. Cp. p. 184. 

^ i.e. those easy X.o destroy, or those which do not destroy omni- 
science : Vedanlya, Ayu, Nama and Gotra. 


bara) obtains 'eternal wisdom, illimitable insight, everlasting 
happiness and unbounded prowess '. When this absolute 
knowledge is acquired, Indra, Kubera ^ and other heavenly 
beings, including the celestial engineer, Vaisramana, raise 
the Samavasarana (or heavenly pavilion) where the twelve 
conferences meet to hear eternal wisdom from the Kevall. 
After prayers have been offered, the Kevali goes about 
preaching truth, until, when the day of deliverance 
approaches, he takes to the third part of pure contem- 
plation (Sukladhyana). Here the soul reaches every part \ 
of the universe and is yet contained within the body, "C 
though its only connexion with it now is residence. The / 
last part of contemplation follows when the fourteenth. step 
is ascended, and the body disappears like burnt camphor. 
This is Nirvana. 2 

Before proceeding, however, to discuss the fourteenth 
step, we may quote the famous sloka that describes the 
pomp of a Tirthankara : 

' The tree of Asoka, the shower of celestial flowers, the singing of 
heavenly songs, the waving of fly whisks, the lion-shaped throne, the 
shining of the halo, the beating of celestial kettle-drums, the umbrella, 
all these eight things attend the Tirthankara.' 

As we have seen, it is the Tirthankara, the man at this 
thirteenth stage, that the people worship ; for once he 
passes to the next step, he loses all interest in people, besides 
parting with his own body. The Siddha alone know exactly 
where every one is on the heavenward road, but they have 
lost all interest in the question. 

The moment a man reaches the fourteenth stage, Ayogi- xiv. Ayo- 

kevall gujtasthdnaka, all his karma is purged away, and he S^kevalr 

proceeds at once to moksa as a Siddha (for no one can tha'naka. 

remain alive on this step). In moksa there is of course no 

absorption into the infinite, but the freed soul dwells for ever 

a.bove the land called Siddhaslla, from whence it returns 

no more, and this is moksa. 

^ Or Kuvera. 

^ A. B. Latthe, M.A., An hitrodudioji to Jaitiisni , p. 42. 


There ' innumerable delivered souls exist and are to be 
there for ages that never were begun and which never 
close'. Asloka describes the qualities of the Siddha thus: 

' Omniscience, boundless vision, illimitable righteousness, infinite 
strength, perfect bliss, indestructibility, existence without form, a body 
that is neither light nor heavy, such are the characteristics of the 

As a soul passes from stage to stage, it gains the three 
jewels,^ and the possession of these ensures the attainment 
of moksa. 

The writer was recently discussing these fourteen steps 
with some Jaina friends, and it was most interesting to 
notice the way they realized that Christians not only 
believed in an upward, heavenly path, but also in the con- 
stant companionship of a Guide who held their hands and 
steadied their feet over the difficult places. The Jaina of 
course, denying as they do a Creator, are deprived of the 
belief in a heavenly Father, who watching over us * neither 
slumbers nor sleeps '. The vital difference on this point 
of the two faiths is well illustrated by the contrast between 
Christian evening hymns such as : 

' Abide with me : fast falls the eventide ; 
The darkness deepens ; Lord, with me abide : 
When other helpers fail, and comforts flee, 
Help of the helpless, O abide with me.' 

— and the following Magadhi sloka which many devout 
Jaina repeat after their evening readin-g from the sacred 
books : 

' The soul is the maker and the non-maker, and itself makes happi- 
ness and misery, is its own friend and its own foe, decides its own 
condition good or evil, is its own river Veyaranl.^ My soul is my 
Kudasamall.^ The soul is the cow from which all desires can be 
milked, the soul is my heavenly garden.' 

^ Right knowledge, right faith and right conduct. See p. 245. 
^ Or VaitaranI : the river in which hell-beings are tormented and 
drowned by Paramadhaml. 

^ A tree under which souls are tormented by Paramadhaml. 



The importance of being born a man is early emphasized Baby- 
in Jainism ; for the moment a child is born, if it be a boy, ^°°"* 
a brass tray is beaten by the proud father or other relatives 
in order to announce the happy event, and also, they say, to 
get the child used to noise from the first and to ensure that 
it shall never be frightened. 

Whether the child be a girl or a boy, the exact moment of 
its birth is noted, that the astrologer may later on be able to 
draw its horoscope, on which its future marriage will depend. 

The baby is then bathed in water and its little mouth is 
washed with wool dipped in a mixture of sugar-cane water 
and melted butter. 

If the child be the first-born son of the household, the 
parents send presents of such things as sugar, sweets and 
fruits to their friends, but of course no such extravagance 
is indulged in if it be a girl. 

When the little mite is five days old, its friends bind Fifth 
white threads round its neck, its hands and its feet for ^^* 
luck, and send presents of cooked sweetmeats to their 

The Jaina believe that a boy's whole future is decided Sixth 
the night that he is six days old, and on that night ^^' 
Mother Chatth! is worshipped. A^ little stool in the 
sleeping-room is covered with a piece of white cloth, and 
on it are placed a white sheet of paper and a white pen, 
a lamp of melted butter is lighted, and then some 
relative takes the baby on her lap, covers its head, 
and worships both the stool and its contents before the 
family retire to rest. When all is quiet they believe that 
Chatthi or Vidartha will come and write secretly on the 
paper a description of the sort of fortune that will meet the 








child during life, and the length of time it will live, but no 
one is ever able to see, much less decipher, the mystic writing. 

On the ninth (or with some sects the eleventh) day after 
the child's birth the mother is bathed. After the bathing 
she stands so as to face the sun and shakes from her finger 
a drop of kahku (turmeric). 

When the baby is twelve days old, it is named with 

much ceremony. In a silk sari (the shawl-like overdress of 

Indian women) are placed some grain, the leaf of a pipala 

tree, a copper coin and a sopari nut, and then four boys 

(or, if the child be a girl, four girls) are called, and each 

seizes a corner of the sari and begins to rock it. The baby 

meanwhile is lying in the arms of the father's sister, and 

as the children rock the sari and sing 

* Oli jholi pipaja pana 
Phaie padyuiii [Rdmj'l] nama,' 

the aunt at the right moment declares the child's name, 
and of course also gives it a present ; for while all the world 
over the profession of aunt is an expensive one, it is no- 
where more so than in India. 

Fifteen days after the child's birth, the mother goes to the 
river to fill the water-pots for the house. She takes with 
her seven different kinds of grain and a cocoa-nut. Arrived 
at the river, she lights a tiny earthenware saucer containing 
ghl, splits open the cocoa-nut, and, after arranging the grain 
in seven rows, she fills a water-pot from the river, and then, 
picking up one of the seven rows of grain, she puts it in her 
lap, and as she walks home carrying the filled water- vessel, 
she scatters the grain. 

The next thing of great importance is the cutting of the 
child's hair. This is done when he or she has attained 
either the third, fifth, seventh, or ninth month of its first 
year. (The particular month is not of great importance, 
provided it be an uneven number.) The barber is called, 
and after the operation is over, he is given a special present, 
and a lucky mark is made on the child's forehead. 


On some auspicious day during the early months the feed- Feeding 
ing ceremony [Aboiana) takes place, at which the father's ^^^^" 
sister again presides, but this time she gains, instead of giving, 
a present. The aunt takes the baby on her lap and places 
some dudhapaka ^ on a rupee, and seven times over takes 
some of this and places it in the child's mouth, whereupon 
the father makes her a present. 

In another ceremony, GotYijhdrandm, which takes place Gotri- 

when the child is three (or sometimes five) months old, the J"/P" 

^ ' ' nam. 

aunt is once more the gainer. This time all the women of the 
household join in preparing specially dainty food in readi- 
ness for a feast, and then place on a stool some grain, some 
sopari nut, some small copper coins and a silver coin ; the 
baby is made to bow to this collection, and then the father 
presents the piece of silver to his sister and feasts all his 
friends. Very much the same ceremony is repeated 
when the child goes to school in either his fifth or 
seventh year. 

The whole thought of a household in India seems to an Betrothal, 
outsider to centre round marriage and motherhood, and all 
the steps that lead up to them are marked with ceremonials. 
The age of betrothal (Sagdi) is steadily rising, and though 
it varies in different localities, a boy among the Jaina is 
usually betrothed about fifteen or twenty and a girl some- 
what earlier. The parents on both sides look out for a 
suitable match, and when one has been discovered, the 
girl's father sends to the boy's father as a token of his 
intentions a cocoa-nut and a rupee,, and a priest is called 
in to mark the forehead of the boy and his relatives with 
a candalo or auspicious mark. A lucky woman (i.e. one 
whose husband is living and who has never lost a child) or 
a virgin then takes the cocoa-nut and marks a candalo 
on it and on the rupee, and the boy's father summons 
all his friends to a feast, to which each of the guests 
brings a cocoa-nut. After two or three days a present, 
^ A favourite Indian dainty resembling milk pudding. 





consisting of a cocoa-nut and ten rupees, is sent back to the 
girl's house as a sign that all goes well. 

This, however, is only the beginning of the presentations, 
and in a few days another gift from the boy's house follows, 
consisting of a complete costume in silk (sari, skirt and 
bodice), five rupees in money, half a maund of crude and 
half a maund of refined sugar ; hidden in the refined sugar 
are two rupees. Not to be outdone, the father of the girl 
sends something, though of less value : his gift consists of 
half a seer of crude and half a seer of refined sugar and the 
two rupees returned. 

Then follow two children's parties [Jamana). First the 
boy's father invites the little fiancee and some other 
children to a feast and gives her three silken garments, 
and afterwards the girl's father invites the boy and 
some children to a feast in his house and makes him 
a present. 

After a short interval the boy's father sends two more 
sets of silk clothes and some ornament worth perhaps Rs. 300, 
and the girl's father replies with a substantial tip to the 
lucky servant who has brought the gift. 
Lagana- By this time the parties are beginning to think of the 
actual wedding. An astrologer is called in who decides 
when everything will be auspicious and fixes the day, and 
this date is written in old ink and carried by some children 
from the bride's house to that of the boy's parents. 
When the bridegroom's dwelling is reached, the child who 
bears the paper is placed on a stool, and one of the ladies 
of the house comes and takes the paper from him and 
gives him sugar in return. All the children are feasted, 
and that night auspicious songs are sung in both houses. 

On either the fifth or the seventh day after this five 
' lucky ' women wreathe the future bride and bridegroom 
with flowers and rub them with powder. 

About three days before the actual wedding ceremony 
a booth or mapdapa is erected, when appropriate songs are 




• • 



sung, and dates and sugar are divided amongst those who 
are present. The carpenter who is to erect the booth brings 
with him a special piece of wood, and on it is placed a green 
stick and some fruit, all of which are carefully placed in 
the hole dug for one of the poles that support the booth. 
A Brahman next mixes together some curds, milk and 
sopari nut, repeating as he does so appropriate mantras, 
and the bridegroom takes this mixture in his right hand 
and pours it over the pole of the booth. For a week from 
the date of the erection of the booth all near relatives of 
the bride and bridegroom are feasted. 

One of the most popular of the Hindu gods is Ganesa, the Ganesa 
remover of all hindrances, and at wedding times he is worship, 
worshipped, not only by the idol-worshipping, but even by 
the non-idolatrous, sects among the Jaina. Accordingly 
the day after the erection of the booth even SthanakavasI 
Jaina bring an idol of Ganesa to the mandapa. A heap 
of grains, sopari, rice and wheat is arranged on a stool 
covered with a white cloth, and Ganesa is placed on the pile. 
Then around the stool they place twenty-five ladus in heaps 
of five, and twenty-five dates, and when this is done, two 
virgins carrying cooked rice in their hands come and wor- 
ship the idol and mark it with auspicious marks. The 
relatives have also been summoned to come and worship 
Ganesa, and they obey, bringing both wheat and rupees with 
them to offer to the idol. (After the wedding the paternal 
aunts of both bride and bridegroom will have the right to 
these rupees.) The bride and bridegroom are seated on 
stools near the god, and now a ' lucky ' woman takes four pieces 
of wood, dips them in oil, and touches the bride and bride- 
groom's heads with them. The paternal aunt plays an 
important role in the wedding, as she did in the other cere- 
monies, and she now comes forward and ties an iron ring on 
the bridegroom's cotali ^ and gives him two rupees, and 
then an uncle of each of the couple lifts them down from 

^ The lock of hair that most Hindus leave uncut. 


their stool and gives them a few rupees. Sometimes seven 
lucky women come to the pair whilst they are still standing 
on the stool, and seven things are poured into their laps. 

Ukaradi Occasionally on the night after the booth was erected girls 

Notari. g^ outside the great gate of the house and, after singing 
auspicious songs, dig a little hole in which they place small 
copper coins and grains, carefully covering them afterwards 
with earth, and then re-enter the house singing. 

Caka. About this time also the girls of the family go to a potter's 

yard and mark his wheel with red powder and throw rice 
on it. The potter gives them some pots, which they bring 
back to the booth and place near the idol of Ganesa. 

Wedding When the actual wedding day arrives, the family goddess 
^^' is worshipped, and fourteen girls are fed. The potter is again 

visited, and in exchange for a present of some three pounds 
of wheat, some dates and a cocoa-nut he provides four water- 
pots. Either the bride or the bridegroom is now seated in 
the booth, and 'lucky' women come and either bathe them 
or else content themselves with at least bathing a toe. 
The all-important aunt now comes forward and ties a 
silver ring where the iron one had been in the boy's hair, 
and the maternal uncle gives some money to the lad and 
lifts him down from the stool. 

The bridegroom is then dressed in his most magnifi- 
cent clothes, and, carrying a cocoa-nut in his hand, goes on 
horseback in procession towards the bride's house, but is 
met half-way by a procession from thence. 

The actual marriage ceremony takes place after sunset, 
and is the occasion for some mild horse-play. The bride's 
sister, for instance, goes out to meet the bridegroom's pro- 
cession, bearing a water-pot and a cocoa-nut. She makes 
the auspicious mark on the forehead of the bridegroom 
and then pinches his nose, and the groom's party put 
some rupees in the water-pot. Some one then lifts the 
bridegroom down from his horse, and the lad raises the 
garlands from the doorway and passes in. 


The bridegroom and his friends feast at some house quite 
close to the bride's house, ladies present him with four 
ladus, and the barber powders his toe and then washes 
it. Sometimes the bride also goes and receives a sari 
and some rupees whilst the bridegroom is feasting. When 
the dinner is over, the groom mounts his horse and goes 
to a temple to worship, and then returns to the bride's 

The bride, who is now sitting behind a curtain, spits Tambo]a 
betel-nut juice at the bridegroom, whilst his mother-in-law j^^^^-* 
marks him with the auspicious candalo, and then throws 
balls made of rice and ashes over him, and also waves 
water in a vessel round his head. 

The bridegroom next takes his seat in the booth, and his 
friends bring his gift of clothing and ornaments, and after 
showing them to the committee of leading Jaina in the town 
(Mahajana), give them to the bride's friends. The bride and 
bridegroom are now sitting side by side under the booth, 
and, after they have shaken hands, her sari (shawl) is tied to 
his scarf, and he gives her some rings and other jewellery. 
The father and mother of the bride then offer some clothing 
and jewellery, and the father washes the hand of the bride- 
groom whilst the mother washes the bride's hand, and 
when this is finished, the mother places the hand of the 
bride in that of the groom. 

In the centre of the booth a special fire has been lit, Kanya- 
round which the boy and girl walk four times from left to ^"^* 
right, the boy offering handfuls of sopari nut to any lucky 
women he sees. The Brahman cooks who are present and 
the mother-in-law offer sweetmeats to the couple, who, 
however, must refuse to take them. The young pair next 
go to the bride's house and worship her gotrija, and then 
to the house where the bridegroom had been staying and 
worship his gotrija, after which the bride returns to her 
house laden with ladus, dates, rupees, and the kernels of 
four cocoa-nuts 



The first 




The feasting is kept up for three or four days, and then 
the bride's parents summon the Mahajana, and in their 
presence give a suitable quantity of ornaments and 
clothing to the bridegroom, who distributes money in 
charity. After this is done, the bride's parents give her 
leave to go and live in the bridegroom's house. 

As the bride leaves her home, she marks its walls with 
the imprint of her hands dipped in red powder; and when 
the couple pass the marriage booth, they stop at the stool 
and mark one of the groom's party with the auspicious 
mark, a sari being presented to the bride. The bride 
gets into the carriage holding a cocoa-nut, and a cocoa-nut 
is also placed under the wheel of the carriage in such a way 
that it shall be crushed and broken when the carriage starts. 
The moment this happens, the pieces are picked up and 
offered to the bride with four ladus and two brass vessels, 
and the wedding ceremonies are completed. 

The whole position of the new daughter-in-law will 
depend on her bearing children, and the young mother is 
guarded in many ways from the supposed influence of evil 
spirits before and after the child's birth. 

One of these protective ceremonies takes place during 
the fifth month, when the husband's sister binds a little 
parcel done up in black silk by a white thread to the wrist 
of the expectant mother. In the parcel are a cowrie shell, 
a ring of iron, a piece of black silk, some earth from the 
junction of three roads, some dust from Hanuman's image 
and seven pulse seeds. (Some Jaina prefer the parcel to 
be done up in green or red or yellow silk rather than 
black, which they regard as unlucky.) If the husband 
had no sister living, a priest would be called in to tie 
on the parcel, and in return would expect enough food 
to last him for a day. Whilst tying on the parcel, he 
would probably bless the woman in words that might be 
translated : * Auspicious time, auspicious junction of the 
planets, happiness, welfare, freedom from disease, good : 


let all these be yours without hindrance.' No man older 
than the husband is allowed to be present at this cere- 
mony, and it is considered better for the husband not to 
be in the house at the time of any of these functions. 
The father and mother of the girl feast all their relatives 
at this time ; and from now on the expectant mother is 
not allowed to do any drudgery or hard work about the 

A very important ceremony takes place on some auspici- Simanta 
ous day in the seventh month. The bride's mother sends ^j^qjq 
special clothes for the occasion, and the bridegroom's bharavo. 
relatives also give presents, including three pounds of rice. 
The expectant mother fetches seven water-pots, and 
then goes and worships the gotrija. Then the auspicious 
direction for that particular day being settled, she is taken 
to a room facing that quarter and there bathed, whilst 
she sings and is fed on sweetmeats. A little boy is 
also brought into the room and seated beside her whilst 
she bathes, and is afterwards presented with a rupee by 
the bride's parents. The girl's own mother, or her repre- 
sentative, comes into the room whilst she bathes, and parts 
the young wife's hair; she is then dressed in the special 
clothes sent by her parents, her hands and feet being 
coloured red. A rich piece of cloth is spread outside 
the bathing-room, and on this the girl steps very slowly 
and majestically, bearing a cocoa-nut in her hands. For 
every step her father will have to give a present to the 
ubiquitous husband's sister, but the gifts progressively 
decrease in value, for whereas the first step will cost 
her father a rupee, the next will be valued at only 
eight annas, the third at four, and so on. When the 
edge of the carpet is reached, the husband's relatives 
offer the wife one rupee and throw over her balls of ashes 
and rice. 

She then sits on a stool near the family goddess, and some 
milk is poured out on to a plate, which she drinks ; the two 




fathers give her two rupees, and she also asks her mother- 
in-law for some money. Her husband's youngest brother 
then makes the auspicious red mark on her forehead and 
slaps her seven times on her right cheek, for which kind 
office the girl's parents pay him handsomely in rupees ! 
The husband's sister plays yet another part, for she now 
ties a silver and gold thread on the young wife's right 
hand (which she will take off, however, the next day). A 
lucky woman then presents rice, lotus seed and a pome- 
granate to the girl, who gets up and bows to her mother-in- 
law and other elders as a sign that the ceremony is complete. 

The next day the young wife receives sweetmeats from 
her father's house and distributes them amongst her 
husband's relatives, and on the third day she goes to her 
own old home and stays there till the child is born. She 
does not usually return to her husband's house till the 
child is three months old, and then the maternal grand- 
father makes a handsome present of jewellery. 

When a Jaina seems to be dying, his relatives summon 
a monk or nun to preach to the patient. As the ascetic 
is not allowed to sit, he cannot preach for very long at a 
time, so a devout layman or laywoman may be called in to 
supplement his work. In a case the writer knew, where a 
Jaina lady was dying of consumption, this rehgious instruc- 
tion was given for three hours a day for twenty-two days. 

As death approaches, the patient is urged to take the 
vow^ of giving up all attachment to worldly things and of 
abstaining from all food. Enormous sums are given in charity 
by the dying man or his relatives to ensure his happiness 
in the next world. (Recently in the writer's town, for in- 
stance, one gentleman gave Rs. 70,000 on his death-bed, and 
the sons of another, who was killed in a railway accident, 
immediately gave Rs. 15,000 in their father's name.) Then 
the name of Mahavira is repeatedly whispered in the dying 
man's ear, till all is over. 

^ See Santharo, p. 163. 


As soon as death has taken place, the body is moved 
from the bed and placed on the floor, which has been 
previously covered with a preparation of cow-dung to make 
it hallowed ground. The corpse is so arranged that the face 
of the dead is turned towards the north, and a lamp filled 
with ghi is lighted beside him. In memory of the deceased 
even animals are made happy, for sweets are given to the 
pariah dogs of the village and grass to the cows ; nor are 
the poor forgotten, for grain is distributed amongst them. 

Directly a Jaina dies, all his relatives weep as loudly as Funeral 
possible, and so advertise the fact that death has taken ironies 
place. If it be a woman who has died, she is dressed in her 
best, probably in a sar! with a gold border, a silk bodice, 
and a petticoat of silk. Formerly these things used to be 
burnt with her, but nowadays they are removed before 
the actual burning takes place, so the corpse is swathed 
with green cloth from knees to waist underneath the silken 
garments. If the corpse be that of an ordinary widow, she 
is dressed not in silk but in black, but if the woman had 
been what is known as a vesa widow (i. e. one under thirty 
whose husband had died whilst she was still a little child), 
her corpse is not dressed in black. 

When a man dies and leaves a widow, her ivory bangles 
are broken, one of them being tied to the bier and the other 
taken to the river by some women. Even if the wife he 
leaves behind be a virgin, she must take off her jewels and 
wash off the red auspicious mark from her forehead, and 
never use either again. She is no^t, however, always com- 
pelled to wear black garments, abstain from sweetmeats, 
or sleep on the floor, until she attains womanhood. 

The corpse in the case of a man is dressed only in a loin- 
cloth, a costly cloth being wrapped over all. Four cocoa- 
nuts, a ball of flour and four small flags are placed on the 
bier, and two annas are put in the dead man's mouth, which 
will later on be given to the sweepers as rent for the ground 
on which the corpse is burnt. 


The dead body is now lifted on to the bier and carried 
by near relatives to the burning-ground, where a pyre has 
been arranged, which is lit by the son of the dead man. 
Women can follow the bier no further than the threshold 
of their house. 

The fire to light the funeral pyre is taken from the house, 
and special attention is paid by the relatives and friends 
to the manner in which the fire is carried from the dead 
man's home to the burning-ground. If it is carried in 
a cup, it is an intimation that the feasting and funeral 
expenses generally will be moderate, but if the fire is carried 
on a plate, it is a sign that a great feast will be given. ^ 

Curiously enough, as the Jaina carry the corpse to the 
burning-ground, they call aloud 'Rama Rama',^ just like 
ordinary Hindus, but the writer has been assured that they 
are not then thinking of the god Rama of the Ramayana, 
but simply use the word as synonymous for Prabhu or Lord, 
and in their own minds are thinking each of his own parti- 
cular god. 

When the body is burnt to ashes, most of the relatives 
return, but one of the party goes to a potter and gets 
a water-pot, and the next-of-kin fills it four times at the 
river and pours it over the ashes four times, and after the 
fourth time he leaves the pot lying there. 

On the second day after the death the near relatives all 
go to the Apasaro and listen to sermons. 

^ They do not, however, use these words as an ordinary salutation. 
Jaina, when they meet, greet each other with the words Jiihdra or 
Jayajinendra ; Brahmans usually say Jayajaya ; other Hindus Rama 
Rama ; Mohammedans Saldm ; while, in Gujarat at least, the 
Christian greeting is Kusalatd. 



The Twelve Lay Vows. 

The Jaina, though they do not know of any dynamic 
power such as would give a man strength to keep his 
promises, nevertheless firmly believe in the helpfulness of 
taking vows.^ Through these, they say, a man is aided 
towards keeping the third jewel, that of Right Conduct, 
and by failing to take them he acquires karma from which 
they might have saved him. 

We have seen that it is only after he has made some 
progress in the upward path that a man wishes to take 
these vows, 2 though after a certain time he is able to keep 
the spirit of the vows without needing to renew the vows 
themselves. Not only must the candidate have reached 
the fifth step, but he must also have attained to firm faith 
in a true Tirthahkara, true guru, and true rehgion. 

Further, he cannot take any vow unless he has first re- Pafica 
nounced five faults {Pafica Aticdra) and so has no doubts ^ticara. 
[Sankd] ; no desire to belong to another faith [Kdhkhd) ; 
no questioning about the reality of the fruits of karma 
[Vitigicchd) ; undertakes not to praise hypocrites {Parapd- 
khanda parasamsd) ; and not to associate with them (Para- 
pdkhanda santhana). 

If all these conditions be fulfilled, the man may take the The five 

first vow [Prdndtipdta viramana vrata), promising never ^,^^^^ 

intentionally to destroy a jiva that has more than one . p _ __ 

sense. This vow would not prevent a king leading an army tipata ' 


* Other Indians also believe strongly in the virtue of the Jaina vows, rn^na 
It is said, for instance, that the mother of Mr. Gandhi, the South African vrata. 
leader, though herself a Vaisnava, persuaded her son before he left 
Rajkot for England to vow in front of Pujya BecarajT, a famous Jaina 
sadhu, that he would abstain from wine, flesh and women. 

^ See p. 187. 


in defence of his kingdom, but would prevent one's fighting 
with a lunatic, or a blind man who had hurt one uninten- 
tionally. The vow also forbids the killing of weak creatures 
hke mosquitoes and any other troublesome insects, and 
prohibits acting as ' agent provocateur '. 

The man who takes this vow must avoid five faults in the 
treatment of animals : he must never tie an animal up too 
tightly; beat it unmercifully; cut its Hmbs; overload or 
overwork it ; or neglect to feed it properly .^ 

The vow is infringed by planning to kill any one, even 
if the evil purpose be never carried out. It also forbids 
animal sacrifice, the Jaina arguing that, if mok§a be attained 
by sacrifice, we had better sacrifice our fathers and mothers ! 
If an animal is in pain, it is not permissible to kill it in 
order to end its sufferings, for who knows that it will not 
suffer worse things in the next life } 

The reason the Jaina give for their horror of killing 
(hirhsa) is not, as some say, the fear of being haunted by 
the dead animal's ghost, but the realization that every jiva 
has two bodies, Karmana and Taijasa, and also a third 
which may be Audarika (i.e. human or animal) or Vai- 
kreya (i.e. a demi-god or a hell-being). Every jiva (save 
a Siddha) forms round it through its karma a body, which 
is called its karmana body, and also another invisible body, 
taijasa, which at its death will enable it to assume a new 
form ; these two unseen bodies are indestructible and loathe 
being separated from the third body, which is destructible, 
be it audarika or vaikreya. If, therefore, we destroy a 
living body, it is like destroying the beloved home of the 
taijasa and karmana bodies. 

The actual words used in taking this first vow are, in the 
case of Sthanakavasi Jaina, mixed Gujarat! and Magadhi, 
and might be translated : 

* I will desist from destroying all great lives such as Trasa jiva (i. e. 

^ It would surely seem advisable to quote these five faults in the publi- 
cations of the Indian Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. 


lives of two, three, four and five senses), either knowingly or inten- 
tionally, excepting offending lives living in my body which give pain ; 
but I will not with evil intent destroy vermin or lunatics, and I also vow 
not to destroy minute one-sensed lives. As long as I live I will not my- 
self kill ; nor cause others to kill ; nor will I kill by mind, speech, or body. 
Thus have I taken the first vow, so I must know the five Aticara 
concerning it, but I must not commit them. I repeat them in their usual 
order : binding, killing, mutilating, overloading, wrong feeding.' 

Another thing forbidden by this vow is the burying of 
people in a trance ; for, as the Jaina sagely remark, it is 
very likely to kill them ! 

The Jaina prophesy that certain penalties will be accu- 
mulated by acting contrary to this vow. For instance, if a 
man commit murder, he may die even in this life in an un- 
timely fashion. (The British Government has a knack of 
seeing that this prophecy is fulfilled !) He may also be 
drowned, or become a leper, or lose his hands and his feet, 
if not in this birth, at least in the next. 

The second vow [Mrisdvdda viramana vrata) of the Jaina ii. Mrisa- 

layman is directed against falsehood or exaggeration. In a ^? ^ ^ 
^ fc> fc)fc) viramarta 

country where the women live in purdah, one can see how vrata. 
easy a thing it would be to spread untrue or exaggerated 
reports about them ; and so a man who has taken this vow 
must never tell lies about any girl, including his own daughter, 
never for example, in order to marry her well, saying that 
she is younger or prettier than she is, or denying her bodily 
defects; he must likewise be careful never to speak against 
a prospective bridegroom. The vow is also concerned with 
commercial honesty, and forbids a man, for instance, when 
selling cows or buffaloes to say that they give more milk than 
they actually do, or when selling land and houses to describe 
the boundaries or the number of trees on the estate falsely. 
If the man taking the vows is a banker, he must keep any 
deposit honestly and give it back when demanded, even if 
no receipt be producible. If he have to take part in the 
courts or in the Paiica^ he must never give false evidence. 

'^ Village Council. 


Now this vow is notoriously difficult to keep, and so 
Jaina laymen are advised always to guard against five 
things: rash speech; revealing secrets ; running down one's 
wife; giving false advice; and cooking accounts. (In this list 
the Digambara substitute forgery for false advice.) 

When one meets a dumb man, or a man with a bad 
stutter, one knows that he has broken this vow of truth- 
fulness in a previous life. 

The actual v/ords of the vow might be rendered : 

* I take a vow not to utter great falsehoods, such as lies concerning 
brides, cattle, estates, deposit's, and [not to bear] false witness. I will 
abstain from all such lies. As long as I live . . . [and then it goes on 
as in the first vow down to] the five Aticara, which are rash speech, 
revealing secrets, speaking ill of one's spouse, giving bad advice, falsi- 
fying accounts or forging documents.' 

iii. Adat- Stealing or taking what is not given is renounced in the 

tadana third vow (Adattdddna viramana vrata), which includes 
viramana ,. . ^ , , . . ' , n i • i i 

vrata. ' stealmg from a house, takmg from bundles, highway rob- 
bery, opening any one's lock with one's own key, or appro- 
priating lost property. In especial, a man is warned never 
to buy stolen property, never to encourage another in 
thieving, never to act seditiously, to smuggle or to work in 
any way against the Government, not to use false weights 
or measures, to adulterate goods or to sell them false to 
sample. The penalty for breach of this vow is either to 
be born in a condition of poverty or (if the offence was very 
rank) in a state of actual servitude. 

A free translation of the actual words used in taking the 
third vow might run : 

* I take a vow not to thieve in any of the following ways : not to 
steal from a house, not to steal from a bundle, not to steal on the high- 
way, not to open another's lock, not to appropriate lost property. I will 
abstain from such forms of thieving. I take a vow not to steal, except 
in things relating to trade and things belonging to my relatives which 
will not give rise to suspicion. As long as I live [and then as in the 
other vow to] the five Aticara, which are buying stolen property, encourag- 
ing others to thieve, committing offences against Government, using 
false weights and measures, adulterating or selling goods false to sample.' 


The vow of chastity (Maithuna viramana vrata) follows, iv. Mai- 
by which a man promises to be absolutely faithful to his own ^^^^^ 
wife at all times and never to allow any evil thoughts in his mana 
own mind about goddesses. The vow may be broken in ^rata. 
five ways : consummating marriage with a young child, 
or forming a temporary connexion with a widow or other 
woman whom it is impossible truly to marry; unfaithfulness 
before marriage ; match-making and marriage brokerage ; 
excessive sexual indulgence ; and lastly, evil talk. The 
breaking of this vow carries with it penalties too horrible 
to put on paper. Many of the enlightened Jaina are 
beginning to feel very strongly the evils of early marriage; 
and here again one would venture to suggest to them that 
their protest cannot be fairly termed an innovation when the 
abuse of early marriage is expressly forbidden in this vow. 

The Jaina have shrewdly realized that the true way of v. Pari- 

increasing our wealth is by curbing our desires. The fewer Sf^^^ 
o -^ ° . vira- 

things we allow ourselves to use, the fewer our desires be- mana 
come, and, safe within the circumscribing walls we ourselves vrata. 
have built round our potential possessions, we find not only 
peace of mind but also safety from many temptations. 
Why should we steal when we already have all we, desire, 
or why cheat and defraud in the race for wealth, if we already 
are as wealthy as we will ever allow ourselves to become? 
After all, few people forge or gamble to gain money to give 
in alms. When we remember that the Jaina creed has 
forced its holders to become a commercial people, we see 
the special value this vow of limitation, Parigraha vira- 
mana vrata, might have, if it were really lived up to. 
Unfortunately it has not been kept sufficiently to prevent 
the name of Baniya being considered a synonym for a 

The vow may be translated : 

* I take a vow not to possess more of the following things than 
I have allowed myself; a certain fixed quantity of houses and fields, 
of silver and gold, of coins and grain, of two-footed or four-footed 



creatures, furniture and plenishing. Beyond this limit I will regard 
nothing as my own possession. As long as I live I will not myself 
regard in body, mind, or speech things beyond these as my own. . . . 
[The five Aticara are] transgressing the limit fixed in houses and fields, 
silver and gold, coins and grain, two-footed or four-footed creatures, 
furniture and plenishing.' 

The man who takes this vow promises that he will never 
allow himself to retain more than a certain fixed quantity 
of houses and fields, gold and silver, cash and corn, servants 
and cattle, furniture and plenishing. The vow is broken by 
passing beyond the self-prescribed limits by means of such 
devices as banking the superfluous money in a daughter's 
name, or substituting four big houses for the four small 
houses originally agreed on. As a proof of how this vow is 
observed the Jaina are fond of quoting the recent case of 
a Mr. Popata Amaracanda of Cambay, who when quite a 
poor man had promised that he would never possess more 
than 95,000 rupees. He became a very successful man of 
business, but as soon as he had made the prescribed number 
of rupees, he gave to the building of temples or the founding 
of animal hospitals all the extra money he made. 

These five vows are called the five Anuvrata, and they 

resemble in their content, as we shall see, the five great vows 

a monk takes. If a layman keeps all five Anuvrata and has 

also abandoned the use of intoxicants, animal food, and 

honey,^ he possesses the eight primary qualities of a layman 

The three ^-nd is rightly called a Sravaka. 

Guna- The first five vows are followed by three Gunavrata, 

vrata. . . j . i 

which ' help ' the keeping of the first five vows. 

^ Honey seems to the Jaina to resemble hirhsa, the depriving a jiva 
of his house, and, moreover, by the brutal way in which honey is 
gathered in India by burning a torch under the comb, the bees and 
their eggs are destroyed. Jaina are therefore most interested to 
learn that Europeans actually build houses for bees in which the 
arrangements are so efficient that the eggs and bees are not injured 
when the honey is removed, and also that sufficient food is left to the 
bees. So strongly do the Indian villagers feel about their own destruc- 
tive way of taking honey, that they have a proverb : * The sin incurred in 
destroying one honey-comb is as great as that accumulated by destroy- 
ing twelve villages.' 


We saw how the Jaina believe that the limitation of vi. 
desire curtails sin by limiting the motives for sinning ; ^s^^^rata 
they also believe that setting bounds to one's travels (Disi- mana. 
vrata parimdKo) curtails sin by restricting the area in which 
one can sin. 

The vow taken runs : 

* I fix a limit of height and depth and circumference. If I have to 
pass this limit, willing and in my body, I vow not to indulge any of 
the five asrava. . . . [The five Aticara are] transgression of the limit 
above, below or around, altering the position of the bounds fixed by 
increasing one and decreasing the other, and proceeding further when 
a doubt arises as to the limits.' 

It is only laymen who take this vow. A sadhu does not 
vow that he will limit the possible places to which he may 
wander, for the farther he wanders the fewer intimate 
friends he can make ; and friendship is forbidden to a 
sadhu, lest it lead to love. But he does promise never 
to make his wanderings an excuse for luxury by sitting in 
a boat, a carriage, a cart, or a train, or riding on a horse.^ 
Breaking this vow leads to excommunication. ^ A sadhu 
/bf the Tapagaccha sect travelled constantly by train and 
was therefore excommunicated. He still continues to go 
by rail wearing sadhu dress ; but seeing him in a train 

^ The writer had an opportunity not long a^o of seeing how strictly 
the ascetics keep this vow. An aged nun was very ill, and the 
community was most anxious that she should go and see an English 
lady doctor. She refused to be conveyed to the hospital by carriage 
or in a litter, and at length in despair her friends asked the writer to 
request the doctor to go and see her at the Apasaro. 

•^ Excommunication of sadhus is still faifly common ; for instance, 
a SthanakavasI sadhu in Rajkot bit his guru and was excommunicated 
in consequence. The SthanakavasI laymen ordered a coat and trousers 
to be made for him and forced him to abandon his sadhu dress and don 
these. They then gave him a railway ticket to Than (a station about 
forty-four miles distant) and sent him away. They told the writer that 
they could do this because this cannibal dofute bouche had been enjoyed 
in a native state ; they would have been afraid to act so sternly in 
British territory. This sadhu repented most deeply and implored 
forgiveness in Rajkot, but the laymen refused it. In other towns he 
was, however, acknowledged as a sadhu, and he died wearing sadhu 




vii. Upa- 






no Jaina layman of any sect will acknowledge him as a 
religious person or salute him. 

The layman vows not to go beyond set limits, such as Ceylon 
in the south, the Himalayas in the north, England in the west, 
and China in the east. The vow can be broken in five ways : 
by climbing too high ; descending too low ; going obhquely ; 
increasing the limits fixed ; and forgetting these Hmits. 

The second of the assistant vows, Upabhoga parihhoga 
parimdna, is intended to help people to keep their vows 
against lying, covetousness and stealing, for it hmits the 
number of things a man may use. 

This vow is taken in words somewhat as follows : 

' I take a vow of indulging only to a certain fixed extent in things to 
be enjoyed once and in things to be enjoyed from time to time, such 
as towels, things for cleaning teeth, the anointing of oneself with oil or 
such like, washing oneself with soap, bathing, clothing, besmearing 
oneself with saffron, sandalwood, &c. ; decorating, incense-burning, 
drink, eating of sweetmeats, of rice, pulse, nutritious things (milk, 
butter, ghl and the like), vegetables, indulging in sweet drinks (such 
as grape-juice, sugar-cane juice), ordinary meals, drinking-water, sleep- 
ing on beds, [eating] raw things containing lives, and other miscellaneous 
things. I have fixed certain limits in respect of the above twenty-six 
things. In transgression of these limits I will never indulge in things 
to be enjoyed once or from time to time with a view to seeking pleasure 
therefrom. I will observe this vow as long as I live ; and I will not go 
beyond the limit for personal enjoyment, in mind, speech or body. 

As a layman, I must have knowledge of the five following Aticara, 
and avoid acting according to them, and I repeat them in their usual 
order : Eating things containing life ; eating things partially animate 
and partially inanimate ; eating things having some remnants of life in 
them (such as partially ripe fruit, the unripe part having life but not 
the ripe part) ; eating highly spiced things ; eating things in which the 
greater part has to be wasted (such as sugar-cane). 

I, a layman, must have knowledge of the fifteen Aticara concerning 
means of livelihood, and must avoid putting them in practice. I repeat 
these in their usual order : Burning a kiln ; cutting jungles or getting 
them cut ; making carts and selling them ; receiving rent of houses ; 
digging the earth ; trading in ivory ; in hair (such as fly-whisks) ; in 
liquid things ; selling poison ; dealing in sealing-wax ; owning a mill or 
working with a machine ; mutilating or cutting the limbs of animals ; 


burning jungles ; wasting the water of a pond, spring or lake ; taming 
(dogs, cats, and such) obnoxious animals and selling them.' 

In practice a man frequently agrees only to use twenty- 
six things, viz. : a towel ; tooth-brush ; fruit ; soap ; water 
for washing ; wearing apparel ; tilaka (mark on forehead) ; 
flowers ; ornaments ; incense ; drinking- vessels (nowadays 
these include tea-things) ; sweetmeats ; wheat and grain ; 
peas ; ghi ; oil and milk ; vegetables ; dried fruit ; dinner ; 
drinking-water ; pana, sopari, &c. ; conveyances, railway 
trains, and horses ; boots ; beds, tables, chairs, &c. ; any- 
thing unmentioned that turns out to be really necessary ; 
anything that has no life. The grouping of this list is very 
curious, and under the last two items considerable latitude 
is allowed to creep in ; it is only through these, for instance, 
that any books are permitted. 

In trying to keep this vow one must be on one's guard 
about both food and commerce: for with regard to food, one 
might sin through eating unripe vegetables, or eating ripe 
and unripe together, or partaking of food that needs a lot 
of fire to cook it, or food like sugar-cane of which only 
a small portion is eaten and the greater part has to be 
thrown away; of course onions, potatoes, and all roots, 
being inhabited by more than one jiva, must never be eaten. 
In the same way one vows to be very careful, in choosing 
a profession, to avoid any business which involves the 
taking of any life, however low in the scale. One should 
therefore never be a blacksmith, a limeburner, or a potter, 
or follow any other trade in which-, a furnace is used, for 
in a fire many insect lives are destroyed; wood-cutting 
also often involves the accidental death of many minute 
lives, so a Jaina should never cut down a forest; in 
the same way he must never make a railway carriage, or 
even an ordinary cart, for railway trains sometimes run 
over people ^ and often run over animals and insects. 

^ Especially in India where railway employees will go to sleep with 
their heads on the rails ! 


One must never sell artificial manure (as it is sometimes 
made of the bones of dead animals), or take any contracts for 
building houses or sinking wells that involve much digging 
(for one might dig an insect in two). One has to be very- 
much on one's guard if one thinks of selHng anything : one 
must never sell ivory (for that might be made of elephants' 
tusks), or butter or honey (the latter involving the destruc- 
tion of bee life), or fur or hair (lest any jiva should have been 
pained), or sealing-wax (for insects might be killed by it). 
A Jaina may not sell opium or any poison (lest the buyer 
should use it to take life), neither may he sell mills (for 
machinery causes many insect deaths). He is very ham- 
pered with regard to agriculture : he may not dig, burn 
weeds in a field, drain water from land, wells, or tanks (lest 
fish should die), or even rent land that has been drained by 
some one else. All of these restrictions on trade and 
agriculture have had the very doubtful benefit of forcing 
Jaina more and more into the profession of money-lenders ; 
but the last clause of the vow has certainly proved bene- 
ficial, for it forbids slave-owning and the keeping of any 
animal or woman for any cruel purpose, and is considered 
so important that it is rehearsed every day. 
viii. The eighth vow, the Anartha danda, is designed to guard 

Anartha against unnecessary evils. It runs : 
danda ^ ^ 

vrata. ' I take the vow called Anartha Danda Viramana, which has four 

divisions : not to do the two evil meditations, not to be careless about 
keeping or using weapons, not to persuade people to do evil.' 

The vow contains four divisions : first, one promises 
(Apadhydna) never to hope that evil may befall some one 
else, or to think evil of any one ; next [Pramdda caryd), 
to be as careful as possible not to take life through careless- 
ness, but to cover all oil, milk, or water in which a fly might 
be drowned ; again, remembering the injuries that are 
often accidentally inflicted through weapons, one promises 
[Hiihsdddna) not only to keep as few actual weapons as 
possible but also as few knives or other things that could 


be used as weapons ; finally one promises [Pdpopadesa) 
never to use one's influence for evil or to persuade any one 
else to do so. In keeping this vow five special faults must 
be guarded against, the vow being broken if one writes an 
immoral book, sells evil medicines, or indulges in evil con- 
versation; if one takes part in buffoonery; indulges in vile 
abuse; leaves one's guns lying about when loaded or in 
any way is careless about them ; or lastly, if one thinks 
too much about things to eat or drink. 

The remaining four of the layman's twelve vows are The four 
called Siksdvrata, and they are all intended to encourage ^^^ • 
the laity in the performance of their religious duties. 

The ninth vow is taken in the following words : ix. Sama- 

' I take the ninth, Samayika, Vow which teaches me to avoid all evil 

actions. I will sit in meditation for forty-eight [minutes], ninety-six, or 

whatever period I may have previously fixed upon. Whilst I am sitting 

in meditation I will not commit, or cause any one to commit, any sin 

in the space of the whole world by mind, speech, or body.' 

A man hereby promises to perform Samayika, i. e. to 
spend at least forty-eight minutes every day in meditation, 
thinking no evil of any one, but being at peace with all the 
world, to meditate on what heights one's soul may reach. 
One may observe as many periods of forty-eight minutes as 
possible (e. g. ninety-six minutes or one hundred and forty- 
four), but forty-eight minutes is the least unbroken period 
one may spend. A Jaina should engage in Samayika every 
morning, afternoon and evening, but of these the morning 
Samayika is considered the most irnportant. Whilst doing 
it, one must neither sin oneself, nor cause any one else to sin, 
but, sitting with one's legs crossed, one should fix one's gaze 
on the tip of one's own nose. (Nowadays, however, Jaina 
quite often j ust sit or stand comfortably whilst they are doing 
it.) The usual place for Samayika is the temple or the 
Apasaro (there used to be an Apasaro in every man's house). 
If an idol be there, they kneel in front of it, and if a guru be 
present, kneel before him and ask his permission. Three 


times they kneel (pancdnga) in front of idol or guru, and 
three times also they perform dvartana, i. e. make a circle 
before their faces from the right ear round to the left ear, 
holding a mouth-cloth or other piece of material in front 
of their mouths, and repeat the Tikkhutto, which may be 
translated : 

* Making avartana from the right ear to the left three times, I salute 
and bow, and I worship and adore you ; you are a guru [or a god], you 
are auspicious, you do good, you are full of knowledge, so I serve you.* 

If no image and no guru be there, the Jaina kneel towards 
the north-east (in which direction they believe the country 
of Mahavideha, where certain Tlrthahkara live, to be 
situated) and then ask permission of the first of these, the 
Simandhara,^ before repeating the Tikkhutto. During 
the forty-eight minutes they not only meditate but also 
read the scriptures, and at the end of the forty-eight minutes 
they repeat the particular patha for closing Samayika which 
refers to five special faults which may be committed during 
meditation, namely ; failing to control thoughts ; mind ; 
actions ; failing to observe the fixed time ; and not repeat- 
ing the patha correctly. 
^ ,_ The tenth vow, Desdvakdsika vrata, which resembles two 

kasika that we have already discussed, is taken in the following 
vrata. words : 

' I take the tenth vow called Desavakasika. I will not go beyond 
the limit fixed by me in any of the four directions in mind or body, 
and will not open any of the five asrava [channels] for sin. In the 
limit that I have fixed I will not enjoy any of the things which I have 
vowed not to enjoy. I will not transgress nor cause others to transgress 
it by mind, speech, or body; and I will not enjoy such things in mind, 
speech, or body for one day and night.' 

In taking this vow a man promises for one particular day 

to still further contract the limits he has undertaken not 

V to transgress, and he may bind himself during that day 

^ Simandhara was the earliest Tirthankara from the land of Maha- 
videha, just as Risabhadeva was the first in Bharata (India). 


never to go outside the Apasaro or the village, and only to 
have one meal, or to drink nothing but water. At the 
same time he promises that he will spend longer in medita- 
tion. He must guard against infringing the vow by extend- 
ing the number of things used ; borrowing some one else's 
things ; sending a servant to fetch things or asking some 
one he meets in the road to do so ; or by making signs 
and so asking even without words ; or by throwing stones 
to attract people's attention and then getting them to 
fetch it. 

We have seen how Mahavira realized the importance of xi. 
connecting the laity closely with the ascetics, and how this ^^^.^^-^.^ 
close connexion saved Jainism when Buddhism was swept 
out of India. The eleventh vow, Posadha vrata, is one of 
the links that bind the two sections of the Jaina com- 
munity together, for the taking of it compels a layman to 
spend some of his time as a monk. He promises that for 
twenty-four hours he will touch neither food, water, fruit, 
betel-nut, ornaments, scents, nor any sort of weapon, and 
will commit no sort of sin, but observe celibacy. He 
further promises that by day he will only wear three cloths 
(a cloth over his legs, one over his body, and a mouth-cloth), 
and that at night he will use two cloths only (one spread 
above him and one below him). 

Devout laymen usually perform Posadha four times a 
month, but those who hope eventually to become sadhus 
observe it six times a month at least. 

The Digambara keep this vow more strictly than any 
other Jaina, for they begin to observe it the night before 
the twenty-four hours fixed (i. e. they keep it for two nights 
and the intervening day), and during all that time they 
never even touch water. Neither do they go to an Apasaro, 
but choosing some lonely place they read the scriptures and j 
meditate there. 

The other Jaina go to their Apasaro, read the scriptures, 
sing the praises of the Tirthahkara, and ask questions of 


their sadhus — in fact, as a Jaina friend said to the writer, 
* We use the time to cram the points of our rehgion '. 

In keeping this vow there are five faults which must 
be avoided : neglecting to search the clothes for vermin ; 
failing to remove it carefully out of harm's way when 
found ; any other carelessness which may result in injuring-- 
insect life ; not fasting as one has vowed ; and allowing 
oneself to sleep in the day instead of meditating. The 
keeping of this Posadha vow is considered one of the highest 
of religious duties, and at the solemn yearly fast of Pajju- 
sana even careless people keep it most strictly. As a rule 
it is more scrupulously observed by women than by men. 

The following is a hteral translation of the actual words 
used when this vow is taken : 

' I take the eleventh vow called Posadha, in which I promise to 
abstain for twenty-four hours from food, drink, fruits, sopari, sex enjoy- 
ment, from wearing ornaments (gold, silver, or diamond), from wear- 
ing a garland or anointing my body. I will not use weapons, or a 
heavy club, or any destructive missile. This I will observe for twenty- 
four hours and will not infringe it myself, nor cause others to infringe 
it, in mind, body, or speech.' 

xii. Atithi The twelfth vow, or Atithi samvihhdga vrata, which the 

samvi- Digambara call the Vaiyd vrata, runs as follows : 
bhaga ° ^ ' 

vrata. < I take the twelfth vow, the Atithi sarhvibhaga vrata, by which 

I promise to give to Sramana or Nirgrantha any of the fourteen things 

which they can accept without blame, namely : food, drink, fruits, 

sopari,^ clothes, pots, blankets, towels, and things which can be lent 

and returned, such as seats, benches, beds, quilts, &c., and medicine.' 

The purpose of this vow is to encourage the laity to 
support the ascetic community, on whom they bestow in 
alms food, water, clothing, pots, blankets, and towels for the 
feet, and also lend them beds, tables and other furniture. 
They must never give a sadhu unboiled water, bread hot 
from the fire, bread on which green vegetables have rested, 
or anything that has gone bad. Neither must they call 

^ Monks may not take betel-nut whole, but may take it chopped. 


a servant and tell him to give the alms to an ascetic, but 
they must get up and give them themselves, and must give 
without conceit. 

The sadhu on his part must never send notice beforehand 
of his coming, for a layman must alwaysbe prepared to give; 
neither will most Jaina laymen (except members of the Tapa- 
gaccha sect) invite an ascetic to their house, as this is thought 
by them to be forbidden in their scriptures ; but they will 
invite a layman who has just completed Posadha to dine,^ 
since feeding such brings punya to the host if done with 
that intention ; if, however, he gives the invitation simply 
thinking it to be his duty to do so, he will obtain nirjara. 

That some benefit is always obtained by giving alms, the 
following legend shows. Once upon a time in the state of 
Rajagriha there was a poor lad, so poor that he rarely 
tasted rich food ; but once as a great treat his mother 
prepared a dish magnificently formed of rice and milk 
and sugar ! Just at that moment a sadhu came by, and 
the model youth passed on the tempting dish to him. As ! 

a reward the pleasing lad was born in his next incarnation 
as the son of a rich merchant, and, determining to become 
equal to a king, he became a sadhu, and in his next birth 
will proceed to moksa. 

When a Jaina, proceeding on the upward path, has reached How a 
the fifth step 2 in the Cauda Gunasthanaka, he necessarily J^y^^^JV 
desires to take the twelve vows, and accordingly goes to twelve 
the Apasaro and tells a guru of his wish. The guru reads vows, 
out the vows and gives him an instruction on each one and 
its infringement similar to the foregoing notes on the vows. 
The layman assents to the instruction and fixes the limits of 
the distance he will travel, the amount of money he will 

^ A friend of the writer's recently invited a Khoja who had become 
a Jaina to dine with him, after he had performed his Posadha vow. 
She was told that such a convert could be invited to dine with the 
sahgha but not with the ndta, i. e. he was asked to their religious feasts 
(though even there he had to sit separately) but not to their caste dinners. 

2 See p. 187. 


allow himself to use, &c. These hmits he writes down in his 
note-book, and at the great yearly confession, Sarhvatsari, 
he goes to any guru who happens to be present, confesses 
any infraction of the vows and accepts the penance given. 
Besides this, every day of the year when he performs Padika- 
manum he privately confesses his transgressions against 
the vows. Every day also both morning and evening the 
layman repeats the vows. The period for which they are 
taken varies : some Jaina promise to observe them as long 
as they live, others fix a certain period, consisting very 
frequently of two years, and at the expiry of that time take 
them afresh if they feel inchned. 
The ad- The Jaina believe that great advantages flow from keep- 
Tth^^^ ing the vows : physically, since the moderation they enjoin 
vows. keeps the body in training and health ; and morally, because 
they free the soul from love or enmity, and ultimately lead 
it to moksa. A layman who keeps all these twelve vows is 
called a Desavratt, or one who keeps the vows in part ; 
a sadhu, who as we shall see keeps them in a more stringent 
form, is called a Sarvavratt, one who keeps all the vows. 
Santharo. When a layman realizes that he is growing old and that 
his body is becoming very frail, he spends more and more 
time in the Apasaro and tries to use fewer and fewer things, 
and daily after Padikamanum repeats the old-age vow or 
Santharo Pdtha, which contains the promise of dying by 
voluntary starvation. He does not vow not to take food, 
however, until he feels that death is approaching. 

Before repeating the words, he should seat himself cross- 
legged on a stool of darbha grass, with his face turned to the 
north-east, and folding his hands he should encircle his face 
with them [dvartana) and say as follows : * I bow to all the 
adorable Arihanta who have attained to the highest state.' 
He then repeats all the twelve vows, and determining to 
keep himself free from all sin, particularly himsa (against 
which he takes a special vow), he promises never to lie, 
thieve, &c., as long as he lives. 


' 1 will be from henceforth till death quite indifferent about this my 
body which once was dear and beautiful to me. It was like a jewel-case 
which I carefully protected from cold, heat, himger, thirst, serpent-bite, 
the attack of thieves, insects, diseases such as cough and high fever.' 

Then he should meditate on the five Aticara which would 
infringe the vow and should strive to avoid them : that is 
to say, he should not wish to be a king or a rich merchant 
or a deity in his next life ; he should not wish for long life ; 
nor, being weary with the dreadful hardship of Santharo, 
must he desire immediate death. He must then quietly 
wait for death, longing for moksa, but not for any amehora- 
tion of his present state. 

Every Jaina hopes to make a Samadhi death, i. e. to die 
by self-immolation. It is true that near relatives, standing 
by the death-bed of a younger man, will often not permit 
him to give up all hope of life and decline to take food, but 
if an old man is evidently dying, and if he wishes it, he 
repeats the Santharo Patha, and, before promising indiffer- 
ence to his body, he says : 

' I take a vow to abstain from food and drink and fruits and soparl 
as long as I live.' 

The same words are also used when this terrible vow is 
taken voluntarily in good health by ascetics who wish to 
reach the highest point of holiness.^ After his death a man 
who has done Santharo is called Samadhistha and held in the 
highest honour, and while he is suffering the dreadful pangs 
of thirst before his death, his relatives and friends encourage 
him to carry out his resolve by every means in their power. 

The Eleven Pratimd.^ 

We have already noticed that the Jaina aim seems to be 
to close as many as possible of the channels which love and 

^ The Jaina consulted by the writer do not agree with those who 
say that Santharo is only performed after twelve years of austerities, 
declaring that there is no time fixed before which Santharo may not be 
performed. ^ Or Padimd. 



i. Dar- 



ii. Vrata 

iii. Sama- 



iv. Posa- 




affection open, and through which suffering might enter 
our hves, and to abstain froqi action, lest karma should be 
acquired with all its penalties. 

The twelve vows were shaped in accordance with the fixed 
idea of all who hold the doctrine of karma that, though it is 
well to do good, it is better to do nothing ; their aim is also 
to bridge over the gap between the lay and the ascetic 
life. The eleven Pratima bring the approach still closer. 

A layman who is desirous of reaching a higher stage 
in the upward path, or Cauda Gunasthanaka, than that 
attained by keeping the twelve vows will also keep the 
eleven Pratima, which lead him gently on towards the 
point when he will be able to take the five great vows of 
the ascetic. 

By the first, or Darsana pratima, a layman undertakes 
to worship the true deva (i.e. a Tirthankara), to reverence 
a true guru, and to beheve in the true dharma (i. e. Jainism). 
He also promises to avoid the seven bad deeds which are 
mentioned in a well-known Sanskrit sloka that may be 
translated thus : 

' Gambling, eating meat, wine-bibbing, adultery, hunting, thieving, 
debauchery — these seven things in this world lead to the worst of 

He next promises to keep each of the twelve vows (Vrata) ; 
and when death comes, to receive it in absolute peace, and 
that he will perform Santharo. (This, the perfect death, 
is called Samadhi Marana.) 

He goes on to vow that he will engage in Sdmdyika 
at least three times every day. 

He also vows that he will observe Posadha at least six 
times a month (i.e. on the two eighth and the two four- 
teenth days of the moon, and also on the full-moon night 
and one dark night). 

Again, with the object of never even taking vegetable 
life, the layman promises [Sacittaparihdra pratimd) to avoid 
all uncooked vegetables, or cooked vegetables mixed with 


uncooked, never to break a mango from a tree, and only to 
eat it if some one else has taken out the stone. 

Lest in the darkness he might unwittingly devour some vi. Nisi- 
insect he promises [Nisibhojanatydga pratimd) never to eat ^y^^^"^' 
between sunset and sunrise, or to sip water before daylight, pratima. 
If a guest arrives during the night, the layman may prepare 
a bed for him, but never offer him food, lest he cause his 
guest to sin. 

Getting nearer to the ascetic ideal, the layman next vii. Brah- 
promises (Brah?nacarya pratimd) to keep away from the "^^^arya 
society of his own wife, and never in any way to scent or 
adorn his body, lest he should cause his wife to love him. 

As the layman is now steadily mounting the steps, he viii. 
must be very careful never to begin anything that might ^^^^'^ ^ 
entangle him in such worldly pursuits as involve the de- pratima. 
struction of life. So he undertakes [Aramhhatydga pratimd) 
never even to begin to build a house or take up a trade 
(like a blacksmith's) which entails the taking of life. 

He must also use his remaining days in the world as a ix. Pari-. 

sort of novitiate ; and first he must be careful not to have p^^^- 


any attachment for his worldly possessions [Parigrahatydga pratima. 
pratimd), and to avoid it he should divide his property, 
for instance money or grain, amongst his children, or give 
it away in charity. He must also prepare for the hardships 
he will have to face by never allowing his servants (if he 
has any) to work for him, but should always wait on him- 
self and only allow the servants to wait on his children. 
Having made this resolution, he should endeavour in every 
way to lead a quiet unambitious life. 

The next resolution [Anumatitydga pratimd ^) shows a x. 
further step taken towards a sadhu's life, for the erstwhile j-y^ga 
layman promises to keep the sadhu rule of never allowing pratima. 
any special cooking to be done for him, and only to take 
what is over when others have dined, and, if none remains, 
just to fast. He also vows that he will never give advice 
^ Or, according to the Digambara Jaina, Antwwdanavrat a pratimd. 


in any worldly or household matter, but will keep his mind 

free from all thoughts about such things. 

xi. Ud- When he has taken the last [Uddhista or Sramanahhuta) 

'^[^ - pratima, he is practically a monk, for he has promised to 

wear a sadhu's dress, to remain apart in some religious 

building (when the Digambara call him a K§ullaka Sra- 

vaka) or in the jungle (when they name him an Ailaka 

Sravaka), and to act according to the rules laid down in 

the scriptures for sadhus to follow. 

The As a layman endeavours to attain to this exalted stage, 

one^^uali- ^^ ^^^^^ strive to develop those twenty-one qualities w^hich 

ties of the distinguish the Jaina gentleman. He will always be serious 

ideal jj^ demeanour ; clean as regards both his clothes and his 
gentle- ' ° 

man. person ; good-tempered ; striving after popularity ; mer- 
ciful ; afraid of sinning ; straightforward ; wise ; modest ; 
kind ; moderate ; gentle ; careful in speech ; sociable ; 
cautious; studious; reverent both to old age and old 
customs ; humble ; grateful ; benevolent ; and, finally, 
attentive to business. 

Only the very best of men ever possess the full com- 
plement of the whole twenty-one virtues, but ordinary 
mortals strive to possess at least ten. 



The layman has now reached the summit of his ambi- 
tion, and is prepared to take those five celebrated vows 
which Mahavira himself laid down as the only entrance 
through which a man can pass to the ascetic state. 

As one reads the biographies of the great Jaina saints, 
or even studies the lengthy route we have just been follow- 
ing, one can see that, though the Jaina did not insist on 
their candidates taking a long training like that of the 
Vedic schools, they nevertheless did not intend their 
monks to be the ignorant, ill-prepared and undisciplined 
men they often are at present. The Jaina openly wish 
that they could insist on a thorough preparation for their 
sadhus such as is customary for the Christian ministry. 

The Life Story of an Ascetic. 

The life story of an ascetic may be said to begin with Initia- 
his initiation or Dlksd, and the writer is indebted to a *'°"* 
Svetambara monk for the following account of a Jaina call 
and ordination. 

The man in question had heard a famous sadhu preach 
on the transitoriness of life and happiness and the supe- 
riority of the religious over the lay life, and had thereupon 
followed the preacher for a year as his disciple, and at the 
completion of twelve months received initiation. 

A great procession was formed and he was led through 
the town to a banyan tree (an asoka tree would also have 
served). There a pujari (officiating priest) had arranged 
a small three-tiered platform with an image of one of 
the Tirthankara at the top. A Jaina layman began the 


proceedings by performing the ordinary daily worship, and 
then the candidate took off his jewels and his clothes, and 
giving them away to his relatives, put on a sadhu's dress. 

An ascetic can only retain five garments (three upper and 
two lower ones), the colours of which vary according to his 
sect, a Svetambara wearing yellow, or white with yellow over 
it, and a Sthanakavasi white. A Digambara ascetic, however, 
may wear no clothing at all, and such are accordingly to be 
found only in jungles or desert places outside British states. 
In Bhopal my informant met a man claiming to be a Digam- 
bara sadhu, but because he wore a loin-cloth, the laymen 
of his community refused to recognize him as such, and 
drove him away. 

The next step in the initiation is the removal of the hair. 
A peculiarity of the Jaina cult is that they insist on ascetics 
tearing the hair out by the roots at least once a year ; but 
when at his initiation a man's hair is removed for the first 
time, the merciful method of shaving is resorted to, and 
only a few hairs are left to be pulled out ; these are plucked 
off behind a curtain in private. After this a mixture 
called Vasaksepa is applied to the man's head, and this is 
the crucial point in the initiation, for until this is applied 
he is not a sadhu. Whilst the mixture is being put on, 
a sadhu whispers a sacred mantra in his ear. The newly 
made sadhu then performs the morning worship, and 
devout laymen feast the ascetics who are present. 

If the ascetic were a Digambara, he would take an entirely 
new name ; if a Svetambara, he might either change his 
name or add a new one to his old one ; but a Sthanakavasi 
retains his original name intact. 

He is now to be a homeless wanderer, possessing nothing 
and dependent for his very subsistence on the alms of the 
charitable. He may possess no metal of any sort : even 
a needle, if borrowed, must be returned at sunset, and his 
spectacles, if he wear them, should be framed in wood. A 
man was once pointed out tothewriter at Palitana as a sadhu 


who, however, was wearing gold-rimmed spectacles ; and 
when she asked for an explanation, the bystanders all turned 
and jeered at the discomfited ascetic, declaring, much to 
his chagrin, that since he had infringed this law, he had no 
claim to be accounted a monk at all. Constant evasions 
of the rules against non-possession, however, do take place, 
to the great indignation of the laity, some monks, as we 
have seen, even retaining their property on their persons 
in the shape of bank-notes, thus keeping the letter and 
breaking the spirit of the law. 

The ascetic may have some pieces of cloth to strain away 
any insects from the v/ater he will drink, and also some 
wooden jugs or some gourds in which to keep his drinking- 
water, but no brass vessels. All monks also possess a piece 
of cloth to wear over their mouths, not, as has been usually 
thought, to prevent them injuring the minute insects in 
the air, but to guard against hurting the air itself.^ The 
less strict Svetambara only keep this mouth-cloth in their 
hands, but the Sthanakavasi always wear it night and day ; 
and the writer found that it always pleased ascetics if 
she covered her lips with a handkerchief when speaking 
with them or when in the presence of any of their sacred 

Every Svetambara monk also carries with him five 
shells ; these must be spiral and must turn to the right ; 
shells turning to the left are useless. The shells are con- 
secrated at the time of the Divali festival. 

All ascetics have to guard most scrupulously against the 
taking of any insect life, so all three sects furnish their 
monks with something with which they may sweep insects 
from their path. Amongst the Sthanakavasi, who are the 
most punctilious of all the Jaina, the monks have a long- 
handled brush ; the Svetambara ascetics use a smaller 
brush ; and the Digambara a peacock's feather. 

We shall later study the five great vows that guide an 

^ See p. 100. 


ascetic, and we have already learnt something of his philo- 
sophy and his belief in austerity, but it may be of interest 
here to record the actual daily life of a Svetambara ascetic, 
as one of their number described it to the writer. 
Daily They are supposed to rise about four o'clock, summer and 

duties. winter, and perform Rdyasl Padikamanuvi^ in which in 
a set form of Magadhi words each monk confesses the sins 
of the past night, and especially the taking of any life 
and any injury he may have inflicted on any sacred thing, 
or any of the earth, water, fire, air, or vegetable bodies. 
It is at this time that the laity perform their meditation 
or samayika, but in many of the Svetambara sects a sadhu 
performs samayika at the time of his initiation and never 

After padikamanum he engages in a search for any insect 
life that may be sheltering in his clothing. This search, 
which is called Palevarm, is carried out as a religious duty, 
and any insect found is carefully removed to a place of 

The sadhu neither bathes nor cleanses his teeth ; he does 
these things before his initiation for the last time in his 
life, but now, without waiting for either, he leaves the 
monastery and goes to the temple to perform Darsana. 
Unlike a layman, he dons no special clothes at the temple 
gates, but worships in his ordinary ones. When he enters 
the temple, he stands in front of the idol and baws down to 
it, and then performs a mental exercise known as Bhdvapujd, 
during which he meditates on the undoing of karma, the 
qualities of a Tirthahkara, and similar subjects. He now 
performs Pradaksind^ circumambulating the shrine either 
four or seven times. If he do it four times, he meditates 
on the four gati, namicly, whether he will be born as a god, 
a man, an animal, or a denizen of hell; if he walks round 
seven times, he thinks how he can best escape dwelling in 
any of the seven hells. 

An ascetic can neither cleanse the idol [jala pujd), nor 


mark it with saffron (candana pujd), nor offer flowers 
{puspa pujd), nor wave incense before it [dhupa pujd), nor 
wave a lamp [dipa pujd), nor offer rice {aksata pujd), nor 
sweetmeats (naivedya pujd), nor fruit {pha/a pujd); neither 
can he mark his own forehead, as a layman would, with a 
cdndalo (auspicious mark) ; but his worship seems to be 
almost entirely mental and 'interior', and sometimes in- 
cludes acts of worship known as Khamdsamana, Caitya- 
vandana and Jdvanticaydnain. He also usually sings 
some hymn in praise of the qualities of the Arihanta, and 
then joining his hands repeats a mantra. After meditating 
in a particular posture {Kdusagga), he tells his beads, mak- 
ing salutations to * the Five ' {Arihanta, Siddha, Acdrya, 
Upddhydya and Sddhu), and to Knowledge, Faith, Character 
and Austerity. When he has done this and said the 
Avasahl, which allows him to enter his worldly affairs again, 
he feels that Bhava puja is complete ; with its different 
parts and their variations it generally lasts about an hour. 

After completing his Bhava puja the ascetic goes back 
to the monastery and either preaches or reads one of the 

About ten o'clock in the morning one of the monks goes Begging, 
out on a begging round ; as a rule one begs for the whole 
monastery, whilst the other monks study. Curiously 
enough the English fashion of tea-drinking has spread so 
much in India that even monks now indulge in an early 
cup of tea; and the writer's informant told her that he used 
not to wait till ten o'clock, but about an hour after sunrise 
he always went on a preliminary round, and, begging tea 
and milk for his guru and the other monks, took it back 
to the monastery. According to their scriptures, ascetics 
are only supposed to beg once a day, but as a matter of 
fact they often do so three or four times a day. When 
the monk goes out at ten, he expects to receive gifts of 
rice and split peas, bread, vegetables, curry, sweets, and 
dudhapaka (a kind of milk pudding). 


There are innumerable rules that should be observed 
when begging, with regard to which all the sects and sub- 
sects differ. A yellow-robed Svetambara sadhu will only 
accept food from Jaina, and would refuse alms from Brah- 
mans, Ksatriya, and even from Vaisnava and Mesarl Baniya; 
on the other hand, the white-clad Svetambara sadhu wil] 
take food from Brahmans and Ksatriya, and in Marwar 
they will even accept it from a Hajama (barber), with whom 
a high-caste Hindu will not eat. 

My informant told me that he was most careful to go 
only to houses in which the door was standing open, and 
that he always repeated the formula : Dharma Labha. 
He was not nearly as particular as the Sthanakavasi 
about the boiled water he took : for whereas they would 
only accept water which has been boiled not more than four 
hours previously, lest new life should have been formed in 
it, this Svetambara sadhu told the writer that he generally 
begged enough boiled water in the morning to last the 
whole day, and that it was only in the rainy season he was 
particular to keep the water for a shorter time. They are 
very particular, however, not to take vegetable life ; and if 
on the steps of a house they see a green leaf or a vegetable 
lying they refuse to pass over it, turn aside and go to 
another house. In the same way, if they see the w^oman 
of the house cleaning rice or wheat, they will not take it, 
but will only accept rice or grain cleaned before they came 
on the scene. If a mother is nursing her baby and offers 
to leave it to go and get food for them, they refuse, lest 
they should be guilty of making the child cry. 

All sects agree in only taking what they may reasonably 
consider to be food left over after the needs of the household 
have been satisfied ; none will take things specially prepared 
for them. They never sit in a layman's house, but take 
the gift back to the monastery, and after showing it to the 
Head, divide it with the other monks. They will not 
receive food if it is taken specially to the monastery for 


them ; but a Svetambara will accept an invitation to go 
and fetch food from a layman's house, a thing which a 
Sthanakavasi will never do. 

With regard to clothes, the rule is the same : the monk 
may not ask for clothes, may not accept them if taken to 
the monastery specially for him, and may only receive 
them if the householder, as he gives them, explains that 
he has no longer any need of them. 

These rules were clearly drawn up to prevent the order 
becoming too great a tax on the charitable ; but, despite all 
this care, the numberless ' holy men ' in India are a most 
unfair burden on the earnings of the industrious. 

The begging round is finished about eleven, but before Confes- 
breakfasting the ascetic makes auricular confession ^'°"' 
(Aloyand) to his guru and has a penance appointed. 

The monks breakfast as near eleven as possible, for they 
may not warm up the food, and so eat it as quickly as 
they can. 

From twelve to one they may not study ; this hour is Kala. 
called Kala, and to study during it would be a sin. 

From one to three they ought to study, and the laity are Study. 
so anxious that they shall, that devout Jaina often pay a 
pandit to instruct the monks in Sanskrit or Magadhi, but 
they complain most bitterly of the monks' aversion to 
intellectual labour. 

In the early afternoon, from about three to four, they 
again perform palevana, searching their clothing for insects. 

About half-past four they go out to beg, and after coming 
in, make confession just as they did in the morning. They 
dine from five to six on their gleanings from the charitable, 
generally, as at breakfast, on rice and peas, bread, vege- 
tables, curry and sweets ; this meal they must finish before 
sunset, and during the night they may not even drink water. 

They may not leave the monastery after dark, but they 
perform their evening Padlkamanum there for about an 
hour. As no light can be brought into the monastery. 


their day closes about nine o'clock, when they perform 
Santhara Porasi, spending about an hour asking the pro- 
tection of Arihanta, Siddha, Kevall, and Sadhu. 


Female ascetics (sadhvl) are held in the greatest reverence 
by the Jaina, and their lives follow much the same lines as 
those of the male ascetics. They always wander about in 
twos or threes and have of course their own Apasara. At 
their initiation their hair is shaved and pulled out just like 
a monk's, and the mantra is whispered to them by a sadhvi 
instead of a sadhu. 

They choose the head of their Apasaro generally for 
learning ; if she be strong enough, she wanders homeless 
just like the other nuns, but if old and feeble, she is allowed 
to continue to live in the same nunnery without change. 

A nun's day much resembles that of a monk. The 
stricter ones will only beg once, eat once, and sleep for a few 
hours in the twenty-four ; but these more rigid rules are 
falling into abeyance, and the nuns the writer has met 
confess that they do not now rise as they should after a 
few hours sleep to meditate twice in the night. 

The funeral of a nun ^ is carried out with the greatest 
pomp, and during it childless women strive to tear a piece 
from the dead sadhvi's dress, believing it will ensure their 
having children, whilst men anxiously endeavour to acquire 
merit by carrying the palanquin in which the corpse, 
covered with a rich cloth, is borne, boys from the Jaina 
school acting as a guard of honour. 

In all the neighbouring towns also, directly the telegram 
announcing the nun's death is received, a crier would be 
sent out to tell the news and to ask the Jaina to observe 
Amdra, i. e. not to grind or pound grain or do anything 

^ A full description of a nun's funeral is given in the writer's Azotes 
on Modern Jainis??i, Blackvvell, 1910, pp. 28 ff. 


that might involve the destruction of hfe. All the Jaina 
who know the Logassa, or praise of the twenty-four Tirthah- 
kara, would repeat it four times, sitting in the Kausagga 
position, either in their own houses or in the Apasara, and 
all the Jaina schools would be closed. 

A pathetic case recently occurred in Kathiawad, when 
a wealthy old Jaina lady and her husband became ascetics. 
Their initiation was celebrated with great pomp ; but of 
course the lady suffered most severely by being suddenly 
deprived of all luxury and comfort; and even when she 
was ill with fever, it was not possible for her husband to 
see her, as the two might never meet. 


Amongst the sadhus we have not included the Goraji or 
Yati, because the orthodox Jaina do not hold them to be 
sadhus at all. They are considered to be a fallen class of 
monks, for they take money, go about in palanquins, and 
keep watchmen and guards. They exact a tax from their 
followers of five rupees and upwards, which they annually 
go out to collect, returning again to their own monastery. 
Their spiritual heads are called Sripujya, and are to be 
found in Bombay, Baroda, Mandvi, Mangrol, Jaisalmer, 
and many other towns. The Goraji, in fact, much resemble 
the Safikaracarya or Vaisnava Acarya ; and orthodox 
Jaina say they prove the wisdom of Mahavira's insistence 
on constant change of abode, for they have not a high 
reputation for morality, and strict Jaina will not give them 
any money or go to their Apasara, though ignorant Jaina 
sometimes contribute through fear of their power to harm, 
since the Goraji claim to know many mantra. 



The Five Great Vows of Ascetics. 

We may now examine the famous five vows taken by 
all ascetics. They resemble the first five of the layman's 
tw^elve vows, and this accordance bears witness to the fact 
that these are the five points in the Jaina religion w^hich are 
to be regarded as of supreme importance. 
i. Ahim- The first vow the Jaina monk takes is that he will never 
destroy any living thing. This is also the first vow that 
both Buddhist and Brahman monks take, and it was the 
resemblance between the vows that led people for so long 
to deny the early origin of Jainism.^ 

The Jaina ascetic takes a vow of >Non-killing [Ahij/isd]^ 
which is described as follows : 

'Not to destroy life, either five-, four-, three-, or two-sensed, or im- 
movable (i. e. one-sensed), even through carelessness, is considered as 
keeping the vow of non-killing.' ^ 

There are five buttressing clauses {Panca Bhdvand), the 
remembrance of which assists a sadhu to keep this vow. 
First {fry a samiti or samai), a monk must be careful never 
to run the risk of breaking the vow in walking : for instance 
he must walk by trodden paths, in which the presence of any 
insect could be detected. He must also [Bhdsd samiti or 
Vatii'n parijd?idi), be watchful in his speech and always speak 
in gentle, kindly ways, such as could never give rise to 
quarrels or murders. If he were not careful as to the alms 
he received [Esand samiti or Aloi pdn a hhoyana), he might 
infringe some of the forty-two rules as to receiving alms, 
e.g. by accepting food containing living insects. When 
a monk receives or keeps anything that is necessary 
for religious duties, he must see {Addnaniksepand samiti 

^ The whole question has been authoritatively discussed by Dr. Jacobi, 
S. B. E., xxii, pp. xixfif. 

^ The words resemble those of the layman's vows with the addition 
of * Ekendriya '. 


or Aydndbhanda nikhevand), that it has no insect hfe on it. 
And at night, when putting away all that remains over 
from the food he has begged, he must deposit it and any 
other refuse so carefully, that no insect life is injured 
[Pratisthdpand samiti or Parithdpanikd samai)} 
The following sloka sums up these five clauses : 

' A man should respect the vow of Ahimsa by exercising self-control, 
examining things taken, always maintaining the Five Samiti, and by 
inspecting things before he eats or drinks, and before he receives 

The Jaina monk further takes a vow against untruthful- ii. Asat- 
ness [Asatya tydga) which is defined in the following words : ^^ y^S^. 

* Undertaking to speak what is pleasant, wholesome and true is 
called the vow of truthfulness. Truth is untruth if it is not pleasant 
and wholesome.' 

The five bhavana, or strengthening clauses, to this vow 
supply a remarkable psychological analysis of the causes 
which lead to untruthfulness. The first [AnuhlmabhdsT) 
condemns speech without dehberation ; then, as wrath 
often leads to falsehood, monks must never speak when 
angry [Kohavi parijdndi) ; nor for a similar reason when 
moved by avarice (Loha/n parijdndi) ; nor by fear [Bhayam 
parijdndi) ; finally, they promise never to tell a falsehood 
for fun, or from the desire to return a smart repartee 
[Hdsarn parijdndi). 

A Sanskrit sloka which sums up these clauses may be 
translated as follows : 

* One should respect the vow of truthfulness by always avoiding 
jesting, greed, cowardice and anger, and by thinking before speaking.' 

The third vow, that of non-stealing [Asteya vrata), is iii.Asteya 
defined as follows : vrata. 

'The vow of non-stealing consists in not taking what is not given ; 
wealth is the outward life of man, and if that is taken away the man is 

^ Some Jaina substitute for this the duty of searching mind, thought 
and intention {Manaparijdndi). 


The five bhavana are as follows : First, a monk must ask 
permission of the owner before he occupy any one's house 
(Miugdha jdti). Then a junior monk must never use any 
food without showing what he has received in alms to 
his guru, and receiving his permission to eat it [Anuna 
vihapdna hhoyane). Again, a monk must not be content 
to ask permission only once from the owner to use a house, 
but he must frequently ask if he may occupy it, and also 
ask how much of it he may use, and for how long a time 
{Uggaha?h siuggdhitaj'iisi). He must not use any furniture, 
such as beds or seats, that may be in the house, without the 
owner's permission [Uggahai'n vauggahwisa abhikhanam). 
Lastly, if a sadhu arrives after another sadhu has already 
obtained permission to use the house, the second arrival 
must ask the first sadhu to go again and get permission for 
him also ; and if the second sadhu arrives ill, the first 
must willingly give him all the room he needs [Anuvli 
mitoggaha jdti) . 

The following sloka describes these clauses : 

' One should ask for a place of residence after reflection, and renew 
the request every day : " I only need so much of it." Thus speaking, 
one should renew his petition. With people of one's own rank one 
should ask in the same way. One should gain permission before eating 
or drinking. In these ways the vow of non-stealing is respected.' 

iv. Brah- The monks, as their fourth promise, take the vow of 
vi-ata^^' chastity (Brahmacarya), and the Sthanakavasi monks in 

Kathiawad every night and morning repeat the following 

words : 

' The vow of chastity is eighteen-fold. One should have no dealings 
with gods, human beings or animals of the opposite sex, should not 
encourage them, or cause others to do so, by speech, thought or deed.' 

This vow also has its five strengthening or protective 
clauses. To prevent any approach to transgressions of the 
main vow, monks should not talk about a woman [Abhi- 
khanai'n itthinain kahani kaha itame) ; or look at the form of 
a woman [Majwhardi indiydi dloetae) ; or even recall the 


former amusement and pleasure women afforded them 
when they hved in the world [Itthmani puvdraydiin puva- 
kiliydi sumaritae) ; they must not, for similar reasons, eat 
or drink ^ to excess, or partake of too highly spiced dishes 
[Ndtimapdna hhoyaim hhoi) ; nor must they live in the 
same building as a woman, a female animal, or a eunuch 
[Itthl pasu pandaga sanisatdi say arid sandini sevitde). 

All these rules mutatis mutandis apply to nuns. 

The sloka that sums up the whole vow and its clauses 
runs thus : 

' The vow of chastity is maintained by not sitting on seats previously 
occupied by women, female animals or eunuchs, and by not living in 
their vicinity, not participating in exciting conversation about women, 
not remembering former delights, not looking at a woman's form, not 
decorating one's own person, not eating or drinking to excess, or par- 
taking of too highly seasoned food.' 

This Jaina vow seems limited to negative chastity, which 
shudderingly avoids its fellow creatures, lest they should 
prove occasions of stumbling, and it appears ignorant of the 
sunlit purity that so delights in its walk with God on the 
open road of life, that it cannot be bored with nastiness. 

The last great vow {Aparigraha vrata) consists in re- v. Apari- 
nouncing all love for anything or any person. The defini- ^^^J^^ 
tion of it may be translated as follows : 

' Having no possessions consists in relinquishing greed for any- 
thing ; if we think that a particular thing is our own, the mind is 
agitated by greed.' 

In the Jaina scriptures the vow is held to exclude all 
likes and dislikes in regard to sounds, colours, or smells, as 
well as people. In short, the way to maintain this vow is 
to be indifferent to anything our senses can tell us. 

This fifth vow of the monk foreshadows what the con- 
dition of the Siddha will be, when all his powers are entirely 
shrivelled up. 

1 It will be remembered that no Jaina, lay or ascetic, may ever 
drink wine. 


The following sloka tells how the vow is kept: 

' Renouncing liking for pleasant touch, taste, smell, form,^ or word,'^ 
and for all the objects of the five senses, renouncing hatred for un- 
pleasant objects, these are the ways to maintain the vow of Aparigraha.' 

Ratribho- Certain Svetambara add a sixth vow, that of never dining 
t^"^a Q-fter it is dark [Rdtribhojana tydga), lest they should in-' 
advertently take life,- but most Jaina consider this included 
under the other vows that protect insect life. 

Twenty-seven Qualities of the Ideal Monk, 

We have seen -that the Jaina have a conception of the 
ideal layman ; and in the same way they also show us the 
picture of a perfect monk, summed up in a Magadhi sloka : 

'The true ascetic should possess twenty-seven qualities, for he must 
keep the five vows, never eat at night, protect all living things,^ 
control his five senses, renounce greed, practise forgiveness, possess 
high ideals, and inspect everything he uses to make sure ^hat no insect 
life is injured. He must also be self-denying and carefully keep the 
three gupti, he must endure hardships in the twenty-two ways, and 
bear suffering till death.' 

^ i.e. beauty. ' ^ i. e. literature and oratory. 

^ Of the six. classes. 



Panca Paramesvara. 

We have traced the journey of a jiva along the upward 
path that leads through the destruction of karma, by way 
of the fourteen upward steps and the keeping of the twelve 
vows and the eleven Pratima, to monkhood. It only re- 
mains to us to note the different ranks a man may hold 
as an ascetic before he finally attains moksa. 

First, he is just an ordinary ascetic or sadhu ; if he be a Sadhu. 
Digambara, he will wear no clothes and live in the forest, 
lost to the world and immersed in meditation, eating only 
once a day and tearing out his hair as it grows. Nowadays 
one hears of only two or three Digambara ascetics. If he 
be a Svetambara^ or a Sthanakavasi,^ he will move from 
Apasaro to Apasaro clad in white clothes. 

The next step to which he can rise is that of Upadhaya or Upa- . 
instructor. An exceptionally clever monk may be chosen ^"Y^y^- 
from amongst the others as teacher, when he is expected to 
study the scriptures and teach them to his fellow monks. 
Amongst the Tapagaccha no monk can be chosen as an 
Upadhyaya till he has been an ascetic for at least a year, but 
this does not seem to be always the rule with other sects. 
The scriptures he will most probably teach are the Uttara- 
dhyayana Swtra, the Upasaka Dasahga Sutra, and the 
Bhagavati Sutra. The last, the Bhagavati Sutra, holds 
almost the same position amongst many Jaina that Hindus 
give to the Bhagavadgita or Christians to the Gospels. 

^ Unless he be a follower of either AtmaramajT or Anandavija- 
yajT, when he will wear yellow clothes. 

^ The followers of SrIlalajT, however, who are found mainly in Malwa, 
never live in an Apasaro lest they should be held guilty of the lives 
destroyed in building it. 


These scriptures most Jaina laymen are familiar with, 
but the instructor should, according to some Jaina, have 
also studied the scriptures the laymen have not read, namely, 
the eleven Aiiga and the twelve Upahga or the Caranasitari ^ 
and the Karanasitar! 2, or, according to others, the eleven 
Ahga and the fourteen Purva. All teaching and studying 
is a kind of austerity ; if a man studies intentionally to gain 
merit, he will get merit [punya) ; if, however, he studies 
and teaches to gain and impart knowledge with no thought 
of acquiring merit, he will destroy certain karma [nirjard). 
Acarya. A Still higher rank is attained when a monk becomes an 
Acarya or Superior. In many sects the Acarya is chosen 
simply by seniority (this is nearly always the case in 
Kathiawad), but in others the Acarya is selected for ability, 
or powers of leadership, as is generally done in Malwa. 

The choosing of a new Superior or Acarya is made the 
occasion of great rejoicing. Jaina laymen come to the 
Apasaro, take the twelve vows or renew them, and sing 
songs and make the greatest noise imaginable. In order 
to permit of animals sharing in their rejoicing, they pay 
butchers varying sums to cease killing for those days. 
An Acarya is a man of very high dignity : he never travels 
alone, but is always accompanied by at least two sadhus ; 
and as his fame grows, the number of his disciples increases. 
When the writer, for instance, had the pleasure in Rajkot 
of meeting Sivalalaji Maharaja (who is considered the 
most learned Sthanakavasi acarya of the present time), he 
had travelled thither with twenty-one attendant sadhus. 

The power of excommunication for religious offences lies 
with the Acarya^ acting with the Jaina community or 
saiigha, and it is to the Acarya that, whenever possible, the 
monks of his sahgha should make confession. As a rule 
the Acarya wears the same dress, eats the same food, and 

^ Or Carandmiyoga. ^ Or Kanmdnuyoga. 

^ The Acarya, acting with the community, excommunicates for reli- 
gious offences ; but for offences against society the Mahajana (committee 
of leading Baniya) excommunicates. 


follows the same rule as his fellow monks ; sometimes, how- 
ever, his little sitting-board is raised slightly higher from the 
ground than those of the other monks. 

It must not be thought that the ordinary sadhu must 
gain the rank of Instructor and Superior to go to moksa, a 
simple ascetic can do that ; but it is generally easier for the 
higher ranks of ascetics to attain deliverance than for the 
lower, because their office helps them to develop the neces- 
sary qualities. An Acarya should, of course, observe with 
special attention all the usual ascetic discipline. 

A Magadhi sloka describes the ideal Acarya as possessing 
thirty-six qualities : he controls the five senses ; he is chaste 
in the nine ways ; he keeps the three gupti ; he is free from 
the four kasaya ; he keeps the five great vows ; he observes 
the five rules of conduct ; and he maintains the five samiti : 
such are the thirty-six qualities of an Acarya. 

The goal of every monk is to become at last an Arihanta Tirthan- 
or Tirthahkara, the Being who has attained perfection of Y^^-t ^^. 
knowledge, perfection of speech, perfection of worship, and 
absolute security, for no danger or disease can ever come 
where he is. Having become a Tirthankara, the jiva is at 
length freed from the dread that overshadows every Jaina, 
the fear in this life of suffering or sorrow, which has to be 
borne with no Friend at hand to strengthen and comfort, 
and the dreary expectation after death of the endless cycle 
of rebirth. 

A meaning often given to the word Tirthankara is that of 
one who finds a ford [tirtha) through this world {samsdra) 
to moksa, or one who attains a landing on the other side. 
But many Jaina say it denotes one who forms four com- 
munities [tirtha) of monks and nuns and male and female 
lay-followers. When a new Tirthankara arises, the fol- 
lowers of the preceding one follow him, as the followers of 
Parsvanatha followed Mahavira. 

We have noticed ^ the eight glories which surround a 

^ p. 191. 



Tirthankara when he preaches ; besides these, the Jaina 
assign to him an enormous list of attributes. A Tirthan- 
kara, for example, is worshipped by the sixty-four Indra, 
and has thirty-five special qualities of speech, and thirty- 
four pertaining to his body, which is distinguished by one 
thousand and eight specified marks. We shall probably, 
however, gain a better idea of the Jaina's real conception of 
a Tirthankara, not by working through this long bare list of 
quahties, but by studying one of their prayers of adoration 
— that surest mirror of a man's mental picture of his god. 
The writer's Sthanakavasi friends tell her that every 
morning and evening during Padikamanum they worship 
the Tirthankara in Gujarati words which maybe rendered 
as follows : 

'You I salute at various times, the Lord Arihanta. What kind of 
a Lord is He ? He knows what is passing in your mind and my mind. 
He knows what is passing in the mind of every man. He knows what 
is going on at various times. He sees all the fourteen worlds as 
though they were in his hands. He is endowed with these six quali- 
ties : boundless knowledge, insight, righteousness, austerity, patience, 
strength. He is endowed with thirty-four kinds of uncommon qualities. 
He is endowed with speech. He is endowed with thirty-five kinds of 
truthful speech. He has one thousand and eight auspicious marks. 
He is free from the eighteen sins and endowed with the twelve good 
qualities. He has destroyed four of the hardest karma, and the four 
remaining karma are powerless. He is longing to get moksa. He 
dispels the doubts of souls ^ with yoga. He is endowed with body, 
with omniscience, with perfect insight, and has the before-mentioned 
righteousness. He has the highest kind of sankita, which is per- 
manent ; he has Suklalesya, Sukladhyana, Suklayoga ; he is wor- 
shipped, adored and saluted by the sixty-four Indra. He is the 
most learned pandit. He is endowed with these and other endless 

Siddha. We have seen that a Tirthankara has still four karma 
left which bind him, and until these four do actually snap, 
the jiva which began its upward journey, perhaps from a 
clod of earth, has not yet reached its final goal. When by 

^ i. e. B/iavfnjiva, those souls who will eventually obtain moksa. 


austerities these last karma are destroyed and break ' like 
a piece of burnt-up string ', the soul loses its body and 
becomes a Siddha. 

The Siddha has the following characteristics : absolute 
knowledge, faith, insight, righteousness, and prowess. He 
also has the power of becoming minute and gigantic at will, 
and of moving anywhere unhindered ; he is unaffected by 
anything, so that neither death, disease, rebirth, nor sorrow 
can any longer touch him. He is also without a body ; and 
this is the reason why Jaina feel they can never pray to 
a Siddha. A Siddha has, however, one hundred and eight 
attributes, and these the Jaina recite, telling their rosary 
of one hundred and eight beads. An ordinary Jaina tells 
his beads five times a day, but a very devout Jaina might 
tell the one hundred and eight beads one hundred and eight 
times a day. The Jaina say they do not worship or salute 
the Siddha when doing this, but tell their beads only with 
the object of stirring up their spiritual ambition and in 
order to remind themselves of the qualities a Siddha must 
possess, in the hope that some day they too may reach their 
desired goal, and rest in perfect bliss in the state of Nirvana, 
doing nothing for ever and ever. 

Thirty-five Rules of Conduct. 

How even non- Jaina may reach Moksa. 

One of the unique glories of Jainism is that it, unlike 
most Indian-born religions, believes in the possibility of 
aliens reaching its goal. Even Europeans and Americans,^' 
although they may never have heard of Jainism, if they 
follow, though unconsciously, the thirty-five rules of 
conduct, of necessity destroy their karma and so are sped 
to moksa like an arrow from a bow. 

It will therefore be well worth our while to study these 

^ Quite uncivilized races might reach moksa, but it would be easier 
for Europeans and other civilized people, provided they were vege- 
tarians, to do so. 



rules, for they contain the pith of the Jaina creed expressed 
in terms of conduct. The thirty-five rules are contained 
in ten Sanskrit sloka which describe the true Jaina, and 
which might be rendered thus : 

1. He who gains his livelihood by honesty, and admires and follows 
excellence of conduct, and marries his sons and daughters to well-born 
and well-behaved folk. 

2. He] is known to be afraid of committing sins, he follows the 
customs of his country, never speaks evil of any man and especially 
not of his ruler. 

3. He lives in neither too secluded nor too open a residence. It 
must be situated in a good locality and have good neighbours. The 
house must not have too many entrances. 

4. He always associates with good men, worships his parents, and 
abandons an unprotected place of evil reputation. 

5. He regulates his expenditure according to his income,^ dresses 
according to his position, and being endowed with eight kinds of 
intelligence hears religious discourses every day. 

6. If he suffers from indigestion, he does not eat. He eats only at 
fixed times. He should gain his three objects "^ in such a way that 
one does not interfere with the other. 

7. He gives alms to him who comes unexpectedly, to the sadhu and 
to the poor, is free from obstinacy and has a partiality for good 

8. Knowing his own strength and weakness, he avoids such actions 
as are not suited to the time and country [in which he lives]. He 
worships persons who are rigid in keeping their vows and far advanced 
in knowledge, and he feeds those who deserve feeding. 

9. He is provident, has more than ordinary knowledge, is grateful 
for what is done for him, is loved by people, is modest, merciful, of 
a serene disposition and benevolent. 

^ The old Jaina rule with regard to the regulation of income was to 
divide it into four equal parts, of which they set one part aside as 
savings, invested another part in trade, paid all their household ex- 
penses with the third portion, and devoted the remaining quarter to 
charity. The rule is not strictly followed now, but it is still usual to 
divide the income up and apportion it, though not giving so largely 
to charity as in the old days. 

^ Every Indian, Jaina included, has four great objects in his life : 
dharma, artha, kama, moksa (religion, wealth, pleasure and moksa). 
A devout Jaina householder is only supposed to give attention to the 
first three, for if he acquit himself well in gaining these, the last will 
follow naturally. 


10. He is always intent on defeating the six interior enemies^ and 
controls all his five senses. Such are the suggestions of a house- 
holder's duties. 

The Three Jewels [Ratna Tray a). 

The Jaina sum up all their belief, as expressed in the 
Tattva, in their vows, and in their rules of conduct, under 
the heading of the Three Jewels : Right Knowledge [Sam- 
yak Jhdna), Right Faith [Samyak Darsana), Right Conduct 
[Samyak Cdritrya). 

The Sanskrit sloka that defines Right Knowledge runs : Right 

' Wise men call that knowledge Right Knowledge which one gets, ledge. 

whether concisely or in detailed form, from the Tattva as they exist.' 

Right Knowledge is in fact knowledge of the Jaina creed ; 
and this jewel must be gained before any other can be 
obtained, for only when Right Knowledge is possessed can 
a man know what virtue is, and what vows he ought to 
keep. Mahavira himself said : ' First knowledge and then 
mercy', for unless a man know what a jiva is, how can he 
show mercy to it ? 

Central among the Three Jewels is Right Faith ; for unless Right 
one believes in what one knows, how will one follow it } Faith. 
Samyak Darsana stands for true faith and insight into the 
great Jaina doctrines and scriptures. The Jaina say that 
it is like the digit i, which, standing before the ciphers that 
follow it, gives them value, for without faith all conduct is 

'To hold the truth as truth, and untruth as untruth, this is true 

The Jaina say that there may be Right Knowledge and Right 
Right Faith, but if these are not accompanied by Right Conduct. 
Conduct all are worthless. To the monk Right Conduct 

^ Both Hindus and Jaina believe that there are six interior enemies : 
passion {kdma), anger {krodha), greed {lobha), pride [mdna), excessive 
exultation {harm) and envy {jnatsara). 


means the absolute keeping of the five great vows. His 

conduct, as we have seen, should be perfect, or Sarva- 

caritrya, for he must follow the conduct laid down for him 

in every particular; but the layman is only expected to 

possess Desacaritrya (partial conduct), for, so long as he 

is not a professed monk, he cannot be absolutely perfect 

in conduct. 

Three Right Conduct, however, can be ruined by three evil 

Salya darts, or salya. The first of these is intrigue or fraud 
that in- -^ , => 

jure [Maya salya), since no one can gain a good character whose 

Caritrya. jjfg^ social or religious, is governed by deceit. Even in such 
holy matters as fasting, intrigue can make itself felt. 

A second poisonous dart is false belief ox Mithydtva salya, 
which consists in holding a false god to be a true one, a false 
guru to be a true guru, and a false religion to be a true 
religion ; by so doing one absolutely injures Right Know- 
ledge and Right Faith which lead to Right Conduct ; this 
is therefore a highly poisonous dart. The great evil wrong 
behef does shows how supremely important it is for men 
to know who is the true Tirthafikara, and the definition, 
which the Jaina repeat every day at their devotions, runs 
as follows: 

* He who is omniscient, free from all love of the world and from all 
failings ; he who is worshipped by the three worlds and who explains 
the inner meaning [of religion] as it exists : this adorable deity is the 
great god.' ^ 

The Jaina similarly define a false god : 

* Those gods who retain women, weapons and rosaries, who are 
steeped in attachment and so stained, who are in the habit of giving 
and accepting favours, these can give no help towards deliverance.' 

In the same way it is of great importance to recognize 
good gurus, especially in a land swarming with worthless 
ascetics. This is the Jaina definition, which is also repeated 
by them every day : 

* They who keep the (five) great vows, are steadfast, live only on 

^ i.e. Tlrthankara. 


alms, are immersed in meditation, preach religion : these are to be 
considered gurus.' 

And in contrast the Jaina say : 

* They are not gurus who are slaves to all desires, eat everything, 
have worldly possessions, are unchaste and preach falsely.' 

Still more interesting isitieir definition of true religion : 

* That which holds beings from falling into an evil state [after death] 
is called religion. Self-control is the foremost of its ten divisions. The 
omniscient says that such a religion is the means of hberation.' 

The Jaina definition of false religion runs : 

' Religion which is full of false precepts, which is stained by killing, 
even if it is thoroughly known, is the cause of wandering through 

Covetousness [Niddna salya) is the third poisonous dart 
which destroys Right Conduct. If, for instance, when a man is 
performing austerities, he admits some such worldly thought 
into his mind as, ' Now after this austerity I may have 
gained sufficient merit to become a king or a rich merchant', 
that very reflection, being stained with covetousness and 
greed, has destroyed like a poisonous dart iall the merit 
that he might have gained through the act. In the same 
way, if a man indulges vindictive or revengeful thoughts 
when he is performing austerities, the fruit of his action is 
lost, and no merit is acquired and no karma destroyed. 

It is interesting to compare these Three Jewels with the Three 

Buddhist Tri-Ratna : Buddha, the Law and the Order ; and J^^^^^ 


with the Mohammedan Triad : Happiness [Khera], Mercy pared. 
{Mera), Prayer {Bandagl) ; and again with the Pars! Trio : 
Holy Mind, Holy Speech and Holy Deeds, 

Perhaps also in no more concise fashion could Jainism be 
compared with Christianity than through their three jewels; 
for whilst the Jaina beheve in Right Knowledge, Right 
Faith and Right Conduct, referring to an impersonal 
system, each of the Christian jewels, Faith, Hope and Love, 
refers to a personal Redeemer. 


Faith, The Jaina religion enshrines no Faith in a supreme Deity ; 

^Tl ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ Christian the dark problems of sin and suffering 
are lit up by his faith in the character and power of God, 
which ensure the ultimate triumph of righteousness. 

Hope to the Jaina is almost a meaningless word : he has 
hope neither for his own future, overcast as it is by the 
shadow of innumerable rebirths, nor for that of his religion, 
which will, he believes, in its due season perish from off the 
earth. To the Christian, on the other hand, his present 
circumstances and his future are alike bathed in the 
golden sunshine of hope, so that hopefulness may be 
said to be the very centre of the Christian creed and the 
foundation of its joy. No evil can befall the man in this 
life who with Dante has learnt that in God's will is our 
peace; and even in the presence of death he is sustained 
by the living hope^ of a glorious future assured to him by 
the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead. 

As to the future of his faith, he waits with unswerving 
confidence the fulfilment of the magnificent sloka : 

* The earth shall be filled with the knowledge of the glory of the 
Lord as the waters cover the sea.' ^ 

But it is the third jewel. Love, that most clearly dis- 
tinguishes the Christian from the Jaina ideal. To the 
Jaina, love to a personal God would be an attachment that 
could only bind him faster to the cycle of rebirth. It is 
a thing that must be rooted out at all costs, even as Gau- 
tama tore the love for his master Mahavira out of his heart. 
But to Christians love is the fulfilling of the law, and it is 
in its light that they tread the upward path; for it is through 
love that they see the form of their guide, and ' with un- 
veiled face reflecting as a mirror the glory of the Lord are 
transformed into the same image from glory to glory '. 

Such is the greater Tri-ratna that Christ is holding in 
His pierced hands and which He offers to the Jaina to-day. 

1 I Peter i. 3 ff. 2 Habakkuk ii. 14. 


And the Jaina in their turn, when they are won to Him, 
will pour into His treasury their trained capacity for self- 
discipline and self-denial and their deliberate exaltation 
of the spiritual and eternal over the comfortable and 
material, which are so greatly needed in the Christian Church 
in all ages. 

Then all the jewels, set together and no longer separated, 
shall adorn a glorious diadem for the thorn-crowned Man 
of Sorrows. 










The Jaina are most courteous in permitting outsiders 
to witness the ritual of their temples, only asking that the 
spectators should remove their shoes. In the Digambara 
temples the idols are nude, and the eyes are cast down as a 
sign that the saint represented is lost to all worldly thought. 
The Svetambara, like the Digambara, have images of the 
Tirthaiikara sitting in meditation in the Kausagga position 
with legs crossed and hands in the lap, but unlike the 
Digambara their idols are given loin-cloths, have staring 
glass eyes looking straight in front of them, and are adorned 
with necklaces, girdles and bracelets of gold. The writer 
has elsewhere fully described the worship in the temples : ^ 
here it may suffice to give only a short summary. 

The officiant in a Digambara temple must himself be 
a Jaina (though this is not the rule among the Svetambara), 
and he will never eat any of the offering made to the idol. 
In the course of the morning worship he washes the idol 
{Jala pujd) and dries it, being most careful that no drop 
of water falls to the ground, marks it with three auspicious 
marks of yellow powder [Candana pujd), and offers rice 
[Aksata pujd) and dried (not fresh) fruit [Naivedya pujd). 

In the evening the worship consists of Arati pujd, when 
a five-fold lamp is solemnly waved from left to right for 
a few minutes in front of the idol. 

Thestrangepartof Svetambara worship is that, if no Jaina 
be present, it can be performed by a non- Jaina, and the writer 
has at various times seen paid officiants who were Brahmans, 
gardeners, or farmers by caste performing the ritual. 

If, however, a devout Jaina be present, he will, after bathing 
and changing his clothes to the two pieces of cloth he keeps for 

Notes on Modern Jainisju, pp. 86 ff. 


the purpose in the httle dressing-room outside the temple, 
often bid as much as five annas for the privilege of perform- 
ing the Jala pujd, when he will carefully wash the idol with 
water, then with milk, and then again with water; the same 
worshipper might also perform Angaluilchand pujd and dry 
the idol with five or ten separate cloths, which are kept 
in the temple, and whose number seems to vary according to 
the wealth of the shrine. A worshipper may do the Can- 
dana pujd and mark the idol with fourteen auspicious 
marks, but only the paid ofiiciant is allowed to perform the 
Anga pujd, since this involves the handling of the valuable 
jewellery belonging to the idol. If the worshipper for whose 
benefit it is performed has paid a large sum, such as fifty 
rupees, the best crown, necklace, ear-rings, bracelets, arm- 
lets and girdle, all wrought in pure gold, will be brought out 
and put on the idol; if he only offers, say, twenty-five rupees, 
the idol will only wear its second-best silver-gilt ornaments. 
Then flowers and garlands [Puspa pujd) ^ are offered, and this 
completes that part of the ritual for which special dress must 
be worn, and the performance of which is restricted to men. 
The remaining acts of worship can be done by women, or by 
men in their ordinary dress, since the inner shrine need not 
be entered. They consist of Dhupa pujd, the waving of a 
stick of incense before the shrine ; Dlpa pujd, the waving of 
a lamp; Aksata pujd, the offering of rice; Naivedyapujd, the 
giving of sweetmeats; and P ha/a pujd, the offering of fruit. 
It is interesting to notice the way each different worshipper 
arranges the rice in the Aksata pujd ; it is usually placed 
thus : ^j^ (c) 


• • 

■-p-i {<») 

The Svastika sign [a) is intended to represent the Gati or 
state in which a jiva may be born as either a denizen of hell, 
^ The writer once saw flowers offered even in a Digambara temple 
at Borsad (Kaira district). 


or of heaven, a man, or a beast. The three Httle heaps {b) 
symboHze the Three Jewels of right knowledge, right faith, 
and right conduct, which enable a man to reach Moksa, 
represented by the sign {c). 

When fruit is offered it is noticeable that the Svetambara 
have no scruple about including fresh fruit in their gift, 
a thing which the Digambara — the stricter sect — will not 
allow, considering that by so doing they take life. The 
evening temple worship of the Svetambara, as of the 
Digambara, practically consists in Aratl piljd — waving 
a lamp before the shrine. 

Meritorious as it is to perform the worship in the temples 
in one's own town, far more merit is gained by doing so at 
places of pilgrimage, particularly at special seasons of the 
year. On great festival days at Abu, Girnar, and above all 
Satrufijaya the temple court is thronged with would-be 
worshippers, all out-bidding each other for the privilege 
of performing the various ritual acts, whilst the temple 
custodians, acting as auctioneers, employ the familiar 
wiles of the auction room to run up the price. The 
auctioning is carried on under the phraseology of bidding 
for ghi (melted butter), and the man who offers the most 
seers of ghi obtains the coveted privilege. No ghi of course 
changes hands, the seers being only a conventional phrase for 
a fixed number of annas. 

The present writer saw a man at Satruhjaya perform 
the cheapest service — the Sandtana pujd — for which 
privilege he had paid only two annas, though at Abu 
he would have paid at least five-and-a-quarter. After 
bathing and donning the two cloths, he marked the idol 
in fourteen places and filled up time by playing on a 
harmonium. He then took in one hand a tray containing 
roses, almonds, rice, saffron and sugar, and in the other a jug 
containing water and milk, and round the jug and round his 
wrist he tied a red thread. After performing Dlpa puja and 
Ak§ata puja, he did what is called Camari piljd, i.e. gently 


waved a brush of cow's hair in front of the shrine, whilst 
the paid ofFiciant was decking the big idol in its jewellery. 
He then placed a little image of a Tirthankara in front of 
the larger image in the inner shrine and bathed it and 
marked it with the auspicious marks. It was interesting 
to notice that whilst doing this he kept on showing the Httle 
idol its own reflection in a pocket looking-glass, as a thought- 
ful ladies' maid might have done to her mistress as she 
assisted at her toilette; he completed his service by offering 
the articles on the tray to the Tirthankara. 

The next cheapest service to this, the Pancakalydna 
pujd, costs the worshipper about five-and-a-quarter rupees. 

The singing of the idol's praises, Sditavanmna Stuti, can 
be done at any time and without the worshipper requir- 
ing to bathe or change. A man walks into the temple, 
makes the signs we noticed before 

^ {c) 

• • • 


^ («) 

on a board and sings the idol's praises out of a hymn-book. 

At Satrufijaya behind one of the main temples are housed 
several solid silver chariots, and for the sum of about thirty 
shillings a pilgrim can seat himself in a tiny silver barouche 
and be drawn round the temple accompanied by silver 
elephants and other delights, and so feel that he is doing his 
pilgrimage de luxe. 

The pilgrimage of all others, however, to try and do 
at Satrufijaya is the 'Ninety-nine'. It takes about 
three months to perform, for the pilgrim must toil up the 
thousands of steps that lead from the bottom of the hill 
to the summit, encircle the most famous temple, and tramp 
down to the bottom again ninety-nine separate times, and 
the last days he must observe as strict fasts from food and 
drink. When the last toilsome ascent has been made, the 


priests drag out a silver throne, and, placing it under a 
canopy erected in the court of the main temple, set the image 
of a Tirthahkara thereon. The pilgrim does the eight-fold 
worship [Jalapujd, Candanapujd, Puspa pujd, Dhupa pujd, 
Dtp a pujd, Aksata pujd, Naivedya pujd, and Phala pujd) 
eleven times over, and in the intervals hymns are sung to 
the accompaniment of a harmonium ; and when the writer 
witnessed it, boys dressed in shepherd-plaid trousers and 
bright pink-frilled jackets danced to the jinghng accompani- 
ment of bells round their ankles. The pilgrim was in this 
case a little girl, who seemed to be utterly exhausted by 
fasting, thirst and fatigue. 
Private The SthanakavasI Jaina, being non-idolatrous and having 
worship. j^Q temple which they can attend, naturally pay more 
attention to meditation and private worship than the other 
sects, and if the reader would really learn to understand the 
heart of Jainism, it will repay him to study their private 
devotions with some minuteness, since after all a man's 
meditations are generally a true reflection of his creed. 

The Digambara Jaina are said to use a good deal of 
Sanskrit in their devotions ; the Svetambara employ both 
Sanskrit and MagadhI ; but the SthanakavasI, who claim 
to hold closest of all the sects to primitive practice, confine 
themselves as far as possible to Magadhi. Sanskrit would 
seem therefore to have come into use with idol worship under 
Hindu influence, and where reverence is refused to images, 
the sacred language of the Brahmans is also neglected. 

Every devout SthanakavasI ought to rise two hours 
before sunrise in winter and summer, and, taking in his 
hands his rosary, consisting of io8 beads, recite the 
Navakdra mantra, saluting Arihanta, Siddha, Acarya, Upa- 
dhyaya and Sadhu, and also Knowledge, Faith, Character 
and Austerity, and, this done, should if possible repair to 
the monastery. Every Apasaro, as also every temple, has 
a little room where the Jaina keep their clothes for worship, 
which usually consist of five articles : two long pieces of 


cloth, one of which they wear round the loins and the other 

over the shoulders, a little strip to cover the mouth, a piece 

of cloth to sit on, and also a brush. The devout layman, 

wearing only the two cloths, sits down on what is in fact his 

prayer carpet, and, after asking permission from his guru, 

begs forgiveness of any living thing he may have injured 

on his way from his house to the monastery. 

He is then in a position to perform Sdmdyika, the most Sama- 

essential portion of which, Karemi bhante, consists in the y*^^* 

repetition in Magadhi of a vow which might be thus 

translated : 

' I vow that I will not sin in regard to Dravya for the space of forty- 
eight minutes anywhere in the whole world. In right earnest I vow 
not to sin in any of the six ways. O adorable one, I take this vow, 
and I will keep it in this manner : I promise to keep it in thought, 
word and deed myself, and not to cause others to break it in thought, 
word, or deed. Again, O adorable one, I thus free myself from all 
sinful actions ; I condemn them in the presence of my spirit and 
preceptor, and I vow to keep my spirit free from such actions.' 

The worshipper then praises the twenty-four Tirthahkara Cauvi- 
of the present age in Magadhi verse (Cauvisanttho^),^^^^ ' 
which might be rendered : 

' I sing the praise of the twenty-four Tlrthankara and other KevalT, 
who have shed the light of religion on this world, who formed com- 
munities and so became Tlrthankara. I salute Risabhadeva, Ajitana- 
tha [here follows the list of the twenty-four]. I praise these and all 
others who have shaken off the dust of karma and have destroyed old 
age and death. May these twenty-four Tlrthankara show mercy to 
me. May these Tlrthankara, famed in this world, whose praises I 
have sung, whom I have worshipped in mind, and who are excellent in 
this worlds grant me that religion in which Ineditation forms the chief 
part and which protects from all diseases. 

Ye are brighter than the moon, more brilliant than the sun, more 
awe-inspiring than the ocean. Grant to me, O Siddha, to reach 

Next follows Va7idaitd, i. e. salutation and prayer for Vandana. 

forgiveness to the guru, if he be present, or in his absence 

to the north-east corner of the building, that being the direc- 

^ Or Caturvi7}isatistava. 


tion in which Mahavideha, the abode of the Tirthahkara, is 
said to He. All sects, even when they add special Vandana 
referring to idol w^orship, seem to use a general form, which 
could be freely translated as follows : 

' O forgiving Sadhu ! I desire to bow to you and to salute you to 
the best of my bodily powers, forsaking all evil actions. Permit me to 
approach you, to touch your lotus-like feet. I touch them. Pardon 
me if the touch annoys you. O adorable ! The day is passing away. 

adorable, holy as a place of pilgrimage ! I crave forgiveness from 
you for all the evil actions I may have done during the course of this 
day. If I have committed any of the thirty-three errors {asdtand), if 

1 have done anything wrong through body, speech, or thought, or from 
anger, pride, deceit, or greed, and if during this day I have in any way 
or at any time violated any of the duties enjoined by religion, I would 
be free, O forgiving Sadhu, from all such sins, which I condemn and con- 
demn again in your presence. I will keep my spirit free from such sins.' 

Padika- P adlkamamu'n'^ proper then follows, in which the Twelve 
manum. y^^^g ^^^ repeated and any breach of them is confessed. 
This part of the devotions is most lengthy, as sins are 
confessed in all their subdivisions : for instance, if the wor- 
shipper has sinned against knowledge in any of fourteen 
ways, or against faith in five ways, or has uttered any of the 
twenty-five kinds of falsehood ; the eighteen classes of sin 
are also enumerated at this time, and the man confesses any 
sins he may have committed in respect of any of them, or 
against any of the Pafica Paramesvara (or Five Great Ones). 
Every sect and sub-sect practises Padikamanurh, but of 
course with infinite variation in the forms of confession 
used. The Sthanakavasi make their confession in a form 
in which Magadh! and vernacular words are mingled. 
Kau- The worshipper then seats himself cross-legged and 

sagga. repeats the salutation to the Five Great Ones (i. e. Navakdra 
mantra), says again the Karemi hhante, and then repeats 
the very interesting Icchamithdmi Kdiisagga, which might 
be translated as follows : 

^ It should be noticed that the whole of their devotions is sometimes 
loosely called Padikamanurh. 


' I now wish to arrest all the functions of my body. Before doing so, 
however, I pray for forgiveness if I have committed any fault (Aticara) 
in body, speech, or thought during this day, if I have acted contrary 
to the scriptures, or gone astray from the path of moksa, or done 
anything against the laws of religion, or unworthy of doing ; I ask 
forgiveness if I have thought evil of others, entertained unworthy 
thoughts, acted in ways undesirable, longed for undesirable things, or 
if I have done anything unworthy of a Sravaka (devout Jaina layman) 
in respect of the three Jewels, the three Gupti, the four Kasaya, the 
five Anuvrata, the three Gunavrata, the four Siksavrata, or violated 
any of the twelve duties of a Sravaka. May all such faults be 

The worshipper then performs the fourth part of Kausagga 
by reciting the Tassottari patha, in which he says : 

' Sitting in one place I will now arrest all my bodily functions in 
order to purify and sanctify my spirit and to remove all darts (Salya), 
and other sins from it. My arresting of bodily functions (Kausagga) 
must not be regarded as broken, however, by any of the thirteen actions 
of inhaling, exhaling, coughing, sighing, sneezing, yawning, hiccoughing, 
giddiness, sickness, swooning, slight external or internal involuntary 
movement, or winking. I will also hold my spirit immovable in 
Kausagga and in meditation and silence, until I recite Namo arihanta- 
nurh ; until then I will keep it free from sin.' 

The sixth and last part of Padikamanum is called Paca- 
Pacakhana and consists of vowing to abstain from four ^"^' 
kinds of food, for an hour if it is said at the morning 
Padikamanurh, or for the coming night when it is repeated 
in the evening. The promise runs as follows : 

' I take a vow to abstain from the four following kinds of food : 
food, drink, fruits, spices, in thought, speech and deed. I promise to 
keep my soul away from those four, provided that they are not forced 
on me or given to me whilst I am in a state of unconsciousness or 

There are at least ten variations of this vow : a man may 
promise to eat only once a day, or not until three hours after 
sunrise, or to take only one sort of food, or to fast altogether; 
but every variation seems to show the stress the Jaina lay 
on the duty of fasting, an emphasis that is easily understood 
in a religion whose adherents hope eventually to die fasting, 



and which teaches that the greatest crimes are those com- 
mitted for the sake of eating. 

Some Digambara Jaina, instead of taking a vow to fast, 
apparently promise to abstain from their specially be- 
setting sins. At the end of Padikamanum and at the end 
of Samayika the worshipper performs N amotthunain or 
general praise. 

The different parts of Padikamanum need not be said in 
any exact order, but it should generally last about forty- 
eight minutes every morning, and, since it is a daily duty, 
it is also called Avasyaka. 

At the end of it a devout layman would go to the Apasaro 
and if possible hear a guru preach, and on returning to his 
house would give alms to a sadhu or to a poor man. He 
breakfasts about ten or eleven, then goes to business, return- 
ing in time to take his last meal about five o'clock in the 
afternoon, so that he may have his meal over before sunset, 
since no Jaina may eat after dark. 
Evening In the evening, and if possible in the monastery, he makes 
worship, confession of the sins of the day [Devaslya Padikamanum)^ 
sings praises [Sajhdya Stavana), and vows not to eat till 
sunrise, and before he sleeps he must tell his beads and do 
salutation to the Five three times over. If he is a very 
devout layman, he will repeat the Santharo patha, reflecting 
that he may never wake again, and so be prepared to make 
a meritorious death. 
Scripture Some time during the day the layman should read one of 
rea ing. ^-^^ scriptures, unless hindered by any of the thirty-two 
reasons, such as having been near a dead body, or finding 
a bloodstain on his clothes, or being in any other way cere- 
monially impure. Again, he must not read the books if 
there is a mist, or a thunderstorm, the fall of a meteor, an 
eclipse, a full moon, no moon, or when a great king or even 
a great man dies, or if the sky has been red at sunrise or 
sunset, or if there has been a dust-storm. He must not read 
them on any of the first three days of the bright half of the 


moon, in a house where meat is eaten, near a funeral pyre, 
on a battle-field, or in the twilight of the early morning or 
late evening. In fact on any day that a Sthanakavasi 
Jaina feels too lazy to read the scriptures, he can find some 
ceremonial reason to prevent his doing so, and hence the 
scriptures are not in actual fact much studied by them. 

Jaina Holy Days} 

The ordinary routine of daily worship of course alters Pajju- 
on the great days of Fasts or Festivals ; for instance, at ^^"^* 
Pajjusana, the solemn season which closes the Jaina year, 
many devout laymen fast for eight days or even longer and 
attend special services at the Apasara. They also take this 
opportunity of doing posadha,^ i. e. temporarily becoming 
a monk. We have seen how the whole teaching of Jainism 
tries to lead the laity along the path of asceticism towards 
deliverance, and during the fast of Pajjusana householders 
are urged to live a monk's life for at least twenty-four hours. 
During the twenty-four hours that he is performing posadha 
a layman never leaves the monastery, but spends his time in 
meditation and fasting. As a matter of fact every house- 
holder is supposed to perform posadha twice a month, but 
the generality of Jaina content themselves with doing it at 
the end of the year. If posadha be too exacting, a layman 
may observe the partial fast of dayd or saihvara, when, 
though he sit in the monastery for some fixed period, he 
may take food and boiled water at will. 

The closing day of the Jaina year and of Pajjusana, Samvat- 
Samvatsari, is the most solemn fast of all. Every Jaina ^^^^' 
fasts throughout the day from food and water, and the 
Apasara are crowded with men and women making their 
confessions. No outsider can visit these gatherings without 
being deeply impressed with the determination of all present 

^ For a full account of these see article ' Festivals and Fasts (Jain) ' 
by the present writer in E.R. E., vol. v, pp. 875 ff, 
^ Or posaha. 

S 2 


to carry no grudge and no quarrel over into the next year. 
At the close of the meeting every one present asks forgive- 
ness from his neighbours for any offence he may even 
unwittingly have given, and they all write letters to distant 
friends asking their forgiveness also. This determination 
to start the new year in love and charity with their neigh- 
bours they do not confine to their own community ; for 
example, the writer used to be bewildered by receiving 
letters from Jaina friends and pandits who had never 
offended her in any way asking her forgiveness in case they 
had unwittingly vexed her. One cannot help feeling that 
this beautiful custom of the Jaina is one of the many 
precious things they will bring as their special tribute to 
that City of God into which at last shall be gathered all 
the glory and wealth of devotion of the nations. 

Some time during the Pajjusana week the Svetambara 
Jaina often arrange a special procession though the town 
in honour of their Kalpa Sutra. 

Another pageant the same sect arrange is a cradle pro- 
cession on Mahavira's birthday, which is now conventionally 
fixed for the first day of Bhadrapada, the fourth day of 
Pajjusana. Sthanakavasi Jaina are not permitted to cele- 
brate the day, lest it should lead to idolatry, but the other 
sects decorate their temples with flags on this and on the 
conventional birthdays of other Tirthankara. 
DivalT. Curiously enough Divali, the next great holy day of the 

Jaina, is really a liindu festival in honour of Laksmi, the 
goddess of wealth. All through our studies, however, we 
have seen the great influence that Hinduism has exerted on 
Jainism, and here it pressed a mercantile community at its 
weakest point, its love of money ; naturally enough such 
a community was not willing to omit anything that could 
propitiate one who might conceivably have the bestowal of 
wealth in her power. The festival has, however, been given 
a Jaina sanction by calling it the day on which Mahavira 
passed to moksa, when all the eighteen confederate kings 


made an illumination, saying: 'Since the light of intel- 
ligence is gone, let us make an illumination of material 
matter.' How thin this excuse is, is shown by the fact that 
the celebrations seem, despite the protests of the stricter 
Jaina, to be more concerned with the worship of money than 
with the passing of Mahavira. On the first day [Dhanaterasa] 
the Svetambara women polish their jewellery and ornaments 
in honour of Laksmi, on the second (Kdlicaudasa) they 
propitiate evil spirits by placing sweetmeats at cross-roads, 
and on the third (Amdsa) all Jaina worship their account- 
books — Sdradd pujd. A Brahman is called who writes Sri 
(i. e. Laksmi) on the account-books over and over again in 
such a way as to form a pyramid. The priest then performs 
Laksmi pujdy the oldest obtainable rupee and the leaf of 
a creeper being placed on an account-book, and also a little 
heap of rice, pan, betel-nut and turmeric, and in front of 
it a small lamp filled with burning camphor is waved, 
and the book is then marked with red powder. No 
one closes the account-book for several hours, and when 
they do so, they are careful to say : ' A hundred thousand 

Perhaps the full-moon fasts also bear witness to Hindu Full- 
influence ; at any rate these days are carefully observed by ^^^^ 
the Jaina. The great religious excitement of the community 
is found in going on pilgrimages, and on the full-moon days 
that fall in October-November {Kdrttikl punema), or in 
April-May [Caitrl punema), they try if possible to visit 
Satrufijaya. On the other full-moon, days, which fall in the 
spring and summer, they fast and hear special sermons, 
but the summer full-moon day [Asddhl punema) is one to 
which the ascetics pay special attention, for wherever they 
spend that day, there they must remain till the rainy season 
is over. 

In connexion with the antiquity of the Jaina scriptures Jnana 
it is interesting to notice that once a year a fast is observed Pf "^l <- 

called Jnana paficami, on which day all Jaina sacred books 





Days of 

are not only worshipped but also dusted, freed from 
insects and rearranged. If only this custom had prevailed 
with regard to all English parish registers, how many of 
our records might have been saved ! 

We have studied the road through which a jiva passes 
by toilsome stages towards deliverance ; to recall these 
steps to the popular mind, the Svetambara (and a few 
Sthanakavasi) once a year keep a solemn fast called 
Maunagydrasa on the eleventh day of some month, pre- 
ferably the eleventh day of the bright half of Margasirsa 
(November-December). The worshipper fasts absolutely 
from food and water and meditates, as he tells his beads, on 
each of the five stages (Sadhu, Upadhyaya, Acarya, Tirthah- 
kara and Siddha) of the upward path, and the next day 
he worships eleven sets of eleven different kinds of things 
connected with knowledge, such as eleven pens, eleven 
pieces of paper, eleven ink-bottles, &c. 

The worship of the Siddha cakra, or saint-wheel, which 
is kept in every temple, serves also to remind the worshipper 
of the stages he must pass, for on the little silver or brass 
tray are five tiny figures representing the Five Great Ones 
(Sadhu,Upadhyaya, Acarya, Arihanta, Siddha), but between 
the figures are written the names of the three jewels (Right 
Knowledge, Right Faith, Right Conduct) and also the word 
tapa, austerity, which might almost be called the key-word 
of the whole Jaina system. This little tray seems to bear 
inscribed on it the Jaina Confession of Faith, and it is 
regarded as of so much importance that no Svetambara 
temple is complete without it, and twice a year in the spring 
and autumn it is worshipped by having the eight-fold puja 
done to it every day for eight days. Jaiajdtra, or the water 
pilgrimage, is celebrated with much rejoicing once during 
each of these eight days, when the little tray is taken to 
some lake near the town and ceremonially bathed before 
being offered the eight-fold worship. 

Fasting is considered so important by the Jaina, that the 


more devout observe twelve days in every month as days 
of abstinence, but the less strict content themselves with 
fasting more or less strictly on five days. 

Besides the regularly recurring holy days of the year, there Conse- 
are special occasions of rejoicing, such as Anjanasaldkd (the an^iJJ^^Ji ° 
consecration of a new idol), which is celebrated with great 
pomp, but which rarely occurs now owing to the enormous 
expense it entails on the donor of the idol. In the case of a 
Svetambara idol, mantras must be repeated, the glass eyes 
inserted, and the statue anointed with saffron, before the idol 
is regarded as sacred, but the expense lies in the payment, 
not so much for this consecration, as for the feasting and 
processions which accompany it. 

Another rare act of Jaina worship is the bathing of The 
colossal figures such as that of Gomatesvara at Sravana ^^J?'"S 
Belgola, which takes place every twenty-five years. The tesvara. 
actual bathing is not unHke the ordinary Jala puja, and 
the privilege of pouring cups of curd, milk and melted 
butter over the idol is put up to auction. 

There is one day, 0/i or Amhela, which is the fast par Oil. 
excellence of Jaina women. It occurs eight days before 
Caitri punema, and all women who long for a happy 
wedded life (and every woman in India marries) fast from 
specially nice food for twenty-four hours, remembering that 
a princess once won health for her royal husband who was a 
leper by fasting and worshipping the saint wheel on this day. 

The ever-present influence of Hinduism is perhaps felt Hindu 
even more by Jaina women than by Jaina men, and it is they f'^stivals. 
w^ho insist on keeping the Hindu festival of Sitaldsdtama, 
the festival of the goddess of small-pox, and the two feasts 
of Virapasalt, when brothers give presents to their sisters 
and the sisters bless them, and of Bhdlbija, when the sisters 
ask their brothers to their houses. Often also girls and 
women fast on the Hindu holy days of Bolachotha and 
Moldkata. It is much to be regretted that many Jaina 
men and women, despite all the efforts of the reformers, still 


take part in the Holi celebrations — the detestably obscene 
festival of spring ; thoughtful Jaina feel that it ill becomes 
a community who boast of their purity to share an alien 
festival of which all enlightened Hindus themselves are now 
ashamed. At Daserd, the great Ksatriya festival, the Jaina 
eat specially dainty food, and on Makarasankrdnti they 
fulfil the duty of charity by giving food to cows and cloth- 
ing to the poor. 

Jaina, of course, ought not to observe the Hindu death 
ceremonies or Srdddha, and they have so far discontinued 
the custom, that they no longer throw food to the crows ; 
but they still observe them to the extent of eating specially 
dainty food on those days. 

Jaina Superstitions. 

Neither in the regular routine of their daily worship nor 
in the pleasurable excitement of their frequent holy days 
do the Jaina (and especially the Jaina women) find all the 
emotional outlet they need ; and so, besides these recognized 
acts of ritual, they perform many others which are frowned 
on by their leaders. The women beheve in nearly all the 
Hindu superstitions, so that they have as it were a second 
cult, that of warding off evil spirits and demons, to whom 
all their lifetime they are in bondage through fear. 
The evil The ordinary people amongst the Jaina believe most 
^^^* strongly in the evil eye and are terrified of coming under its 

influence [Najardi javuih)^ though it is quite contrary to 
the tenets of their creed. They fear perfect happiness, and 
whenever they see it, they believe that some person who is 
a favourite with some god or goddess, such as MeladI Mata, 
Khodiyara Mata, Kalaka Mata, or Bhairava Deva, will harm 
the happy one through jealousy. Anything dark or bitter 
will avert this, and so, if new jewellery is worn, a black thread 
is tied on to it ; if a new house is built, a black earthen vessel 
is placed outside ; and the writer was herself entreated to 
mark her only child with a black smear on the cheek-bone 


or at least behind the ear. In the same way at a wedding 
a lemon is tied in the turban of the bridegroom and in the 
dress of the bride, that something sour may safeguard the 
sweetness of their lot. 

When illness occurs, it is put down to the influence of 
the evil eye. If a child has fever, or is sick after eating, 
the women at once say that its illness was caused by 
some person possessing the wicked power of the evil eye, 
and elaborate remedies are taken. A very usual method 
is to take a little cup and put in it smokeless burning 
embers, and over them mustard, salt and grain, till a fine 
smoke is made, and then to turn it upside down on to a 
brass plate, and, holding it firmly in position, to fix the two 
together with manure and water. They call this Najara 
handhi and put it under the sick child's bed. After three 
or four days, when in the course of nature the fever has 
abated, they pull out the cup and plate and throw the 
contents away at a junction of three roads. 

If a man is ill, one method of removing the influence of 
the evil eye from him is to wave a loaf of millet bread round 
his head and then give it to a black dog ; if the animal eats 
it, they believe the influence of the evil eye passes into him. 

The more enlightened Jaina declare that they have no fear Evil 
of evil spirits (bhuta), but the women are very much afraid ^P^"^^- 
of them and, like all Indians, believe that Europeans share 
this fear and have their elaborate freemasonry ritual as 
a means of dealing with such spirits. Bhuta are specially 
active at Divali time, and in order to prevent them coming 
to visit their homes, the women before Divali go to some 
cross-roads where three or four ways meet, carrying water- 
pots. They make a circle in the dust with the water and 
in the centre of this place a small cake of grain. Indeed at 
any season when they are afraid of evil spirits visiting their 
house, they put vermilion, grain and something black into 
the bottom of a broken pot to guard against their coming. 

Bhuta also live in pipal trees, and during the last days 


of the month Sravana one often sees women watering those 
trees to keep the evil spirits that hve there happy and so 
prevent their coming out. 
Ances- Sravana is in fact an anxious month, and on the fifth day 

tors. Qf j^ many Jaina women worship serpents, apparently to 
propitiate the spirits of their ancestors. They draw a picture 
of a snake on the walls of the room where the water- vessels 
are kept, in order to pacify the spirit of any of their forefathers 
who may have died suddenly in battle or been murdered 
before he could fulfil some strong desire he might have 
possessed ; for they fear that such ancestors may return to 
carry out their interrupted purpose. To cool these desires, 
they encircle the picture of the snake three times with water 
(just as the lamp is waved before the idol at arati) and offer 
it little cakes to make it happy. 

The spirits of ancestors are also appeased once a year 
on either the eighth or twenty-ninth of Asvina, when an 
offering of naivedya is made to them. A lamp is lighted 
and placed in some corner facing the quarter in which the 
ancestor once lived ; an offering of sweetmeats is then made 
to the lamp and subsequently eaten by the offerers them- 
Plague. When frightened by the prevalence of plague or cholera, 
the Jaina have recourse to the Brahmans to ask how they 
shall appease the mela deva (evil god) who is affecting them. 
The priests instruct them to light a fire in their own houses 
and circumambulate it. Near the flames they place an 
offering of naivedya and then walk round the fire three 
times carrying water. After this they themselves eat the 
actual naivedya that has been offered and give dry 
materials for naivedya and money to the Brahmans. 
Small- In the same way, if a child actually has small-pox, or if 

^°^* there be an epidemic of it, a Jaina mother almost invariably 

goes to the shrine of Sitala Mata, the goddess of small-pox, 
whose shrine is to be found in almost every Indian village, 
and vows to make an offering of artificial glass eyes or money 


to the Mata if her child recover or escape infection 

It is pitiful to see Jaina women who are childless Children, 
going to Hindu temples and promising to offer cradles 
or money if only a little son may be born to them. They 
even promise that for three or four years the child shall be 
treated as a beggar, and no name given to him ; all they ask 
is that their reproach may be taken away. 

The orthodox Jaina declare that all these superstitions 
which their women folk have copied from the Hindus are 
contrary to their religion and indeed must even be accounted 
Mithyatva Salya ; ^ but they do not see that they are born 
of fear, and that they will only disappear when the timid 
ones begin to trust a personal God and learn that the All- 
Powerful is the All-Loving too. 

^ See pp. i3off. 



The Jaina declare that they do not worship their gods, 
but that they regard them as instruments for working out 
the fruits of karma. They say also that their gods differ 
from the members of the Hindu pantheon in being graded : 
indeed they might almost be considered as having caste 
amongst themselves. In spite of being gods, they are 
inferior to men, since before they can attain moksa they 
must be born again as human beings ; yet, if they have 
accumulated good karma in previous births, they may now 
be enjoying greater bliss than men. 
Gods in The lowest gods are in Hell, where their work is to tor- 
Hell, ment jiva ; these deities are divided into fifteen classes 
according to their different functions. Amongst them are 
the Amha, whose special task it is to destroy the nerves of 
their victims (as a mango is pinched and crushed in a man's 
hand to soften it, so do they wreck the nerves of the jiva 
they torture) ; the Amharasa, who separate bones and 
flesh ; the Sdma, who beat and belabour men ; the Sabala, 
who tear the flesh ; the Rudra, engaged in striking men 
with spears ; the Mahdrudra, occupied in chopping flesh 
into mince-meat ; the Kdla, who are roasting the flesh of 
their victims ; the Mahdkdla, who are tearing it with 
pincers ; the Asipata, engaged in cutting their victims 
with swords ; the Dhanu, who are shooting them with 
arrows ; the Kumbha, who are indulging in the pastime, so 
often employed in Indian native states, of torturing with 
chillies ; the Vdlu, who steep men in hot sand ; the Veta- 
rani, who like devilish dhobis dash their victims against 
stones in streams of boiling water ; the Kharasvara, who 
force men to sit on thorny trees ; and last in the fearsome 
list, the Mahdghosa, who shut men up in black holes. 


On the same level as Hell, but in a different direction, is Gods in 
Patala; there are, however, no human beings in Patala, ^^tala. 
and so the gods who dwell there are not torturers as they 
are in Hell. They are divided into two main classes, 
Bhavanapati and Vyantara. These are again subdivided, 
there being ten kinds of Bhavanapati : first, the dark 
god Asura Kumdra, whose body is all black, who loves 
to wear red garments, and in whose crown is a great 
crescent-shaped jewel; then Ndga Kumdra, whose body 
is white, whose favourite garments are green, and in 
whose crown is a serpent's hood for a symbol ; the body 
of Suvarna Kumdra is as yellow as gold, his clothes are 
white, and his symbol is an eagle ; Vidyut Kumdra is red 
in body, he wears green vestments, and has a thunderbolt 
in his crown ; the body of Agni Kumdra is also red, but 
his dress is green, and his symbol is a jug ; the next god, 
Dvipa Kumdra, is red, with green clothes, but has a lion for 
his sign ; Udadhi Kumdra is a white god with green clothes, 
whose symbol is a horse ; an elephant is the sign of the 
red Disd Kumdra, who is clad in white ; the god Vdyu 
Kumdra has a green body and wears clothes as red as the 
sunset sky, and his token is the crocodile ; and the last of 
the ten Bhavanapati is Sthanita Kumdra, with a body as 
yellow as gold, white clothes, and a shallow earthen pot as 
his symbol. 

The other denizens of Patala, the Vyantara, are demons 
of various classes, and all have trees as their trade-marks. 
Pisdca are black-bodied, and have a Kadamba tree as a 
symbol ; Bhuta, whose sign is the Sulasa tree, are also black- 
bodied ; so are Yaksa, who possess the Banyan tree as 
their sign ; Rdksasa are white and have the Khatamba 
tree ; the green Kinnara have the Asoka tree ; the white 
Kimpurusa the Campaka tree ; the Naga or snake tree is 
the symbol of the black-bodied Mahoraga ; and the last 
of the Vyantara demons, the black Gdndharva, have the 
Timbara tree for their sign. 


Besides these there are lower demons called Vdnavyantara, 

who are named respectively AnapannI, Panapanni, Isivayi, 

Bhutavayl, Kandlye, Mahakandiye, Kohanda and Pahahga. 

All these live in the lower regions. 

Gods in Then there are the gods of the upper regions. In Svarga 

Svarga. j-j^igj-g aj-g two classes of gods, Jyotisl and Vimdnavdsi. 

Jyotisi gods inhabit Surya (the sun), Candra (the moon), 
Graha (the planets), Tara (the stars) and Naksatra (the 
constellations). The Jaina believe that there is a sun 
that moves and another that stands still, and that the 
same is the case with the moon, planets and stars, and 
that each of these has its own gods. 

The class of VimanavasI has three divisions : first, the 
godsof Z)^i'^/o^a(Sudharma, Isana, Sanatkumara, Mahendra, 
Brahma, Lantaka, Mahasukra, Sahasara, Anata, Pranata, 
Arana and Acuya) ; then the gods in Graiveyika who rule 
over Bhadde, Subhadde, Sujae, Sumanase, Priyadamsane, 
Sudamsane, Amohe, Supadlbhadde and Jasodhare ; and 
lastly in Anuttaravimdna there are five places, each with 
a god called Indra to rule over it, viz. : Vijaya, Vijayanta, 
Jayanta, Aparajita and Sarvarthasiddha. 

As on earth (or rather as in India) there are sweepers 
who act as scavengers for men and live apart from them, 
so in the heavens there are gods who do menial service for 
the other gods and live apart from them. The name of 
these gods is Kilvisiyd, and they are practically the out- 
caste or sweeper gods. There are three divisions of them : 
those who live beneath the first and second Devaloka, 
those who live below the third, and those who dwell under 
the seventh ; a little higher in the social scale come the 
servant gods — the Tiryak jdmhrik — who each live in 
a separate mountain in a different continent ; and above 
these again are the Lokdntika gods, who are higher ser- 
vants, and who live in the fifth Devaloka. Altogether 
there are in heaven and hell ninety-nine kinds of gods who 
are regarded as menial because they serve. 


Could anything show more clearly the terrible way in 
which caste has fettered not only the lives and customs of 
the Jaina but even their imagination, than this fact that 
the very gods who serve are regarded as polluted and con- 
taminated by that service ? It is this belief that hinders 
Jaina from taking their share in the social uplift of India ; 
and it is only the revelation of a Son of God who was 
amongst us as one that serveth that can set them free. 

Over all the Devaloka there is a place called Siddhasila, 
in which the Siddha live. 

All the gods are in a state of happiness, eating, drinking 
and singing; the good gods [Samakitl) make a point of 
being present and listening whenever the Tirthahkara 
preach, but the false gods [Mithydtvi) do not attend. 
Even the Samakitl will have to be born as men before they 
can attain moksa, but they will soon arrive there, whereas 
the Mithyatv! will have to undergo numberless rebirths. 

Indra is the supreme god, ruhng over all the gods, and 
his commands they must all obey. 

The Jaina illustrate their ideas of heaven and hell by the 
diagram of a man's figure. The legs of the figure, they say, 
represent Adholoka, wherein are situated the seven hells or 
Naraka. Ratna Prabhd, the first hell, is paved with sharp 
stones ; Sarkara Prabhd, the second, with pointed stones 
of sugar-loaf shape; Vdlu Prabhd with sand; Panka Prabhd 
with mud ; Dhumra Prabhd is filled with smoke ; Tama 
Prabhd is dark enough ; but Tamatama Prabhd is filled with 
thick darkness. The hideous torments inflicted in these 
terrible hells by the evil gods we have already studied, but 
in all these hells the jiva have the hope that they will 
eventually escape from thence when their karma is ex- 
hausted. A Svetambara sadhu, however, told the writer of 
a still worse place, Nigoda, situated below the feet of the 
figure in our diagram, in which are thrown evil jIva who 
have committed specially heinous sins like murder, and who 
have no hope of ever coming out. They suffer excruciat- 


ing tortures, such as having millions of red-hot needles 
thrust into them, and know that their pain is unending. 
So many jiva are condemned to Nigoda that there is an 
endless procession of them passing thither like a long, long 
train of black ants, of which we can see neither the end 
nor the beginning. 

To return to our diagram, the waist of the figure is our 
world, Tiryakloka, which is made up of two-and-a-half 
islands, each containing a secret district called Mahavideha, 
whose inhabitants alone can attain moksa ; above comes 
Svarga or Urdhvaloka, where the gods of the upper world 
live ; the breast of the figure represents Devaloka ; the 
neck Graiveyika ; and the face Anuttaravimdna, all of 
whose gods we have studied ; while the crown of the figure 
is Moksa, where dwell those jiva who, after being born as 
men, have at length attained deliverance. 

Jaina Divisions of Time. 

In common with so many oriental faiths the Jaina think 

of time as a wheel which rotates ceaselessly downwards 

and upwards — the falling of the wheel being known as 

Avasarpini and the rising as Utsarpini. The former is 

under the influence of a bad serpent, and the latter of 

a good one. 

Avasar- Avasarpinl, the era in which we are now living, began 

pi^?i« with a period known as Susama Susama, the happiest time 

of all, which lasted for four crores of crores of sagaropama,^ 

^ Jaina technical words for time : 

Sainaya^ the smallest unit of time. Countless samaya pass whilst 
one is winking an eye, tearing a rotten piece of cloth, snapping the 
finger, or whilst the spear of a young man is piercing a lotus leaf. 

Avalikdy the next smallest division of time, is made up of innumerable 
divisions of samaya. 

Then comes Mtihurta, which is composed of 16,777,216 avalika and 
is equivalent to forty-eight minutes of English time. 

Ahordtra consists of thirty muhurta, or a night and a day. 

After Ahoratra the Jaina count like Hindus by fortnights, months, 
and years, till they come to Palya, composed of countless years, and 
Sdgnropajna, which consist of one hundred millions of palya multi- 
plied by one hundred millions. 


and when every man's height was six miles, and the number 
of his ribs two hundred and fifty-six. 

The children born in this happy period were always twins, 
a boy and a girl, and ten Kalpavriksa (desire-fulfilling 
trees) supplied all their need ; for one tree gave them sweet 
fruits, another bore leaves that formed pots and pans, the 
leaves of a third murmured sweet music, a fourth gave 
bright light even at night, a fifth shed radiance like little 
lamps, the flowers of a sixth were exquisite in form and 
scent, the seventh bore food which was perfect both to sight 
and taste, the leaves of the eighth served as jewellery, the 
ninth was like a many-storied palace to live in, and the 
bark of the tenth provided beautiful clothes. (In many 
of the Jaina temples representations of the happy twins 
are carved, standing beneath these desire-fulfilling trees.) 
The parents of the children died as soon as the twins were 
forty-nine days old, but that did not so much matter, since 
the children on the fourth day after their birth had been 
able to eat as much food as was equal to a grain of corn in 
size, and they never increased the size of this meal, which 
they only ate every fourth day. The children never com- 
mitted the sin of killing, for during their whole lives they 
never saw a cooking-vessel or touched cooked food, and 
on their deaths they passed straight to Devaloka, without 
ever having heard of religion. 

In the next period, Susama, which, as its name indicates, 
was only half as happy as the first, the twins born into the 
world were only four miles high, had only one hundred and 
twenty-eight ribs, and only lived for two palya of time, but 
the ten desire-fulfilHng trees still continued their kind offices. 
The parents of the children lived longer now (the Jaina, 
according to this, would seem not to consider the long life of 
their parents essential to their own happiness !) and did 
not die till the children were sixty-four days old ; and mean- 
while human appetite had so far increased that twins ate 
a meal equal to a jujube fruit three days after their birth, 



and continued to do so every third day throughout their 

In Susama Dusama the happiness has become mixed 
with sorrow ; the twins are now only two miles in height, 
have only sixty-four ribs, and live only for one palya, but 
on their death they still go to Devaloka. It was during 
this period that Risabhadeva, the first Tirthahkara, was 
born. He taught the twins seventy-two useful arts, such as 
cooking, sewing, &c. ; for he knew that the desire-fulfilling 
trees would disappear, and that human beings would then 
have only themselves to depend on. Ri§abhadeva is also 
credited with having introduced politics and established 
a kingdom, but his daughter Brahmi, the Jaina patron of 
learning, is even more interesting than her father. This 
learned lady invented eighteen different alphabets (oh, 
misdirected energy !) including Turkish, Nagar!, all the 
Dravidian dialects, Canarese, Persian, and the character 
used in Orissa. From these, the Jaina say, were derived 
Gujarat! and Marathl. It is strange that a people who 
believe the patron of letters to have been a woman should 
so long have refused to educate their own daughters : surely 
in this particular they might safely follow the example of so 
illustrious a being as their first Tirthahkara. 

In the period of Dusama Susama, which lasted for one 
crore of crores of sagaropama less forty- two thousand years, 
the height of man was five hundred span, the number 
of his ribs thirty-two, and his age one crore of purva. 
The women born in this age ate twenty-eight morsels of 
food, the men thirty-two, and they both dined once during 
the day. During this time the Jaina rehgion was fully 
developed, and there were born the remaining twenty-three 
Tirthahkara, eleven Cakravarti, nine Bajadeva, nine 
Vasudeva, and nine Prativasudeva. People born during 
this epoch did not all pass to Devaloka, but might be reborn 
in any of the four Gati (hell, heaven, man, or beast), or 
might become Siddha. 


Dusania, the period in which we are now living, is entirely 
evil. No one can hope to live longer than one hundred and 
twenty-five years, to have more than sixteen ribs or 
a greater stature than seven cubits. The era began three 
years after Mahavira reached moksa, and will last for 
twenty-one thousand years. No Tirthankara can be born 
during Dusama ; nor can any one, lay or ascetic, however 
good, reach moksa without undergoing at least one rebirth 
(so that there would not seem to be much use in becoming 
an ascetic nowadays !). Bad as things are now, they must 
become yet worse, and Jainism itself is doomed to disappear 
during our present era ; the last Jaina monk will be called 
Duppasahasuri, the last nun Phalgusri, the last layman 
Nagila, and the last laywoman SatyasrI. 

It is this belief that Jainism must disappear that is 
paralysing so much effort at the present time ; for the 
younger Jaina feel that anything they may do to spread 
their faith, for instance, is only building castles in the sand 
that must be swept away by the incoming tide of destruction . 
It seems, in fact, impossible for any religion which is not 
illuminated and irradiated by Hope to become a really 
missionary faith. 

Our present era, will be followed by a still more evil one, 
Dusama Dusama, which will also endure for twenty-one 
thousand years. A man's life will then only last sixteen 
or, according to some sects, twenty years at most, his height 
will only be one cubit, and he will never possess more than 
eight ribs. The days will be hot and the nights cold, 
disease will be rampant, and chastity, even between brothers 
and sisters, will be non-existent. At the end of the period 
terrific tempests will sweep over the earth, and but for the 
fact that the Jaina know their uncreated world can never 
be destroyed, they would fear that the earth itself would 
perish in the storms. Men and birds, beasts and seeds, 
will seek everywhere for refuge, and find it in the river 
Ganges, in caves and in the ocean. 







At last during Dusama Dusanta, in some month of 
Sravana, and in the dark half of it, the era of Utsarpin! will 
begin, and the wheel of time start its upward revolution. 
It will rain for seven days seven different kinds of rain, and 
this will so nourish the ground that the seeds will grow. 

Dusama will bring slight improvement. 

In Dusama Susama the first of the new twenty-four 
Tirthankara will come. 

The name of this first Tirthankara will be Padmandbha. 
In Mahavlra's time this Padmanabha was a king in Maga- 
dha, and at present he is expiating his bad karma in the 
first hell. When in the upward revolution of the wheel 
Susama has been reached, the other twenty-three coming 
Tirthankara will be born. 

Suparsva, the uncle of Mahavira, who at the present 
moment is in the second Devaloka, will be the second 
Tirthankara, and w^ill be known as Suradeva. 

The third will be Udaiji, who was the son of Kunika and 
so grandson of King Srenika ; he is at present in the third 
Devaloka, but will be called the Tirthankara Suparsva. 

The fourth, a certain Potila, now in the fourth Devaloka, 
will rule as Svayamprabhu. 

Dridhaketu, the uncle of the husband of Mallinatha (the 
only woman Tirthankara), now in the second Devaloka, 
will be the fifth Tirthankara, Sarvdnuhhuti. 

Karttikasetha, the father of the most famous of all Jaina 
laymen, Ananda, who is at present in the first Devaloka, 
will be the sixth, Devasruta. 

Sankhasravaka, a man in the twelfth Devaloka, will be 
reborn as the seventh coming Tirthankara, Udayaprabhu. 

The eighth will be Anandasravaka, now in the first 
Devaloka, who is to be called Pedhdla. 

Sunandasravika, in the first Devaloka, is to be reborn 
as the ninth Tirthankara, Potila. 

A man called Satakasravaka, in the third hell, is to be 
re-incarnate as the tenth, Sataklrti, 


The eleventh is more interesting, for it is Devaki, the 
mother of Krisna, at present working out her karma in the 
eighth Devaloka, who will be incarnate as Munisuvrata. 

The dark god Krisna himself, now in the third hell, is to 
become the twelfth Tirthahkara, Amama. 

Harasatyaki, the guru of Ravana of Hindu mythology, 
when he leaves the fifth Devaloka, is to be incarnate as the 
thirteenth Tirthahkara, Nikasdya, 

Krisna's brother Baladeva, now in the sixth Devaloka, 
will become Nispuldka, the fourteenth Tirthahkara. 

Sulasa, a man now in the fifth Devaloka, is to be the 
fifteenth, Nirmama. 

We have not even yet come to the end of Hindu 
influence, for the stepmother of Krisna, RohinI (the mother 
of Baladeva), who is in the second Devaloka, will be 
incarnate as Citragupta, the sixteenth Tirthahkara. 

Revati, a woman now in the twelfth Devaloka, who in her 
past life was married to Mahasutaka, a famous Jaina lay- 
man, will become Sumddhi, the seventeenth Tirthahkara. 

The eighteenth was in her past life Subhala, and later a 
very chaste woman (if not an actual sati), Magavati, and 
is at the present time in the eighth Devaloka, from whence 
she will issue eventually as Samvarandtha. 

The Hindu ascetic Dvaipayana, who set fire to Dvaraka, 
and is now a god, Agni Kumara, will at last be incarnate as 
the nineteenth Tirthahkara, Yasodkara. 

The twentieth shows again the enormous popularity of 
the Krisna cult and the influence it wields over Jaina as 
well as Hindu thought, for it is that of Kunika, who in 
his past life was Javakumara, a relative of Krisna's. At 
present he is in the twelfth Devaloka, but eventually he 
will issue forth to be born as Vijaya. 

Narada, who was a layman in the time of Ravana, and 
who is in the fifth Devaloka, will be the twenty-first Tirthah- 
kara, Mallinatha or Malyadeva. 

Ambada, a former ascetic (or, according to other traditions, 


a famous layman), now in the twelfth Devaloka, will become 
the twenty-second Tirthankara as Devajina. 

The twenty-third is Amara, now in the ninth Graiveyaka, 
and will be called Anantavirya. 

The twenty-fourth and last of all the coming Tirthankara 
is Svayambuddha, now in the highest of all the Devaloka, 
who is to be incarnate as Bhadrajina. 

The first of the new series of Tirthankara, Padmanabha, 
will much resemble Mahavira, and will accomplish as much 
as he did in spreading the faith. After him each succeed- 
ing Tirthankara will carry on the work, and the world will 
grow steadily happier, passing through every stage till the 
happiest of all is reached, when the decline of the wheel 
must once more begin that leads at last to the destruction 
of Jainism, and so on in endless succession. 



Jaina Architecture. 

The earliest Jaina architects seem to have used wood as 
their chief building material : it was easily obtained and 
very suitable for use in a tropical country ; but one quality 
it conspicuously lacked, that of durability, and the earliest 
Jaina buildings have all disappeared as completely as the 
early wooden churches in Ireland. 

The habit of using wood, however, left to subsequent 
Jaina architecture some notable legacies, one of which 
can be seen in the exquisite fineness of the carvings in 
the interior of Jaina temples, tracery so delicate that it 
seems almost incredible it can have been carried out in so 
stubborn a medium as stone ; whilst another legacy is to 
be found in the many-curved strut that sustains Jaina 
arches and seems to have taken its origin from the wooden 
support of a timber arch. 

But if the hand of time robbed Jainism of its wooden Stupa. 
treasures, the lack of knowledge on the part of early scholars, 
which accredited all stupa and all cave-temples to Buddhists, 
robbed Jainism for a time also of its earliest surviving 
monuments. It is only recently, only in fact since students 
of the past have realized how many symbols, such as the 
wheel, the rail, the rosary, the Svastika, &c., the Jaina had 
in common with the Buddhists and Brahmans, that its 
early sites and shrines have been handed back to Jainism. 
The importance of accuracy in this respect is enhanced 
by the fact that in its architecture we have an almost 
perfect record of Jaina history enshrined in loveliness. 

Jaina and Buddhist art must have followed much the 


same course, and the former like the latter erected stupa 
with railings round them in which to place the bones of 
their saints. But such has been the avidity with which 
everything possible has been claimed as Buddhist, that as 
yet only two stupa ^ are positively admitted to be of Jaina 
origin. One of these was discovered by Dr. Fiihrer on the 
Kahkali mound nearMathura, that centre of Jaina influence, 
and dates from the Satrap period, and another at Ramnagar 
near Bareilly. 

Dr. Burgess ^ gives the following account of the construc- 
tion of a stupa built on the Asoka pattern about 200 b. c. : 

' On a low circular drum, a hemispherical dome was constructed, 
with a procession path round the latter, and over the dome a box-like 
structure surmounted by an umbrella and surrounded by a stone 
railing. Round the drum was an open passage for circumambulation, 
and the whole was enclosed by a massive rail with gates on four sides.' 

It is interesting to notice that even now after the passage 
of twenty-one hundred years, circumambulation (pradak- 
sina) plays an important part in Jaina temple worship, and 
to sit for ever under an umbrella is the highest privilege of 
their Tirthahkara. 
Cave- Of about the same date as the stupa were the Jaina cave 

temples, excavations containing caitya caves for worship and also 
caves for the monks to live and sleep in. The Jaina caitya 
were not as big as the Buddhist, for their religion did not 
necessitate the calling of such large assembhes ; but in other 
respects the resemblance between them was so strong that like 
the stupa they were all placed to the credit of the Buddhists. 
The wonderful caves in Junagadh, for instance, with their 
traces of beautiful carving, are certainly Jaina, and now 
that the State is for the time under British administration, 
it is to be hoped that such thorough excavations may be 
carried out as will throw light on many disputed points. 
Dr. Fergusson^ also numbers amongst Jaina caves of the 

^ Imperial Gazetteer, ii. iii. 2 ibJd., ii. 139. 

^ J. Fergusson, History of Indian and Eastern Architecture^ 
London, 1910, vol. ii, p. 9. 


second century b. c. those in Orissa, and as of later date 
those at Badami, Patna, Elura and elsewhere. 

If only we could trace the development from the earlier 
wooden structures to the exquisite eleventh- century tem- 
ples, we should have solved one of the great problems of 
Jaina history; but we have as yet no material to do so. 
The blossoming period of Jaina architecture is like the 
sudden flowering of Flemish art under the Van Eycks : in 
both cases all the intermediate stages have been swept away 
by the ravages of time and the devastation of war, and we 
are abruptly confronted with the perfection of loveliness, 
whilst the toilsome steps that led up to it are hidden from us. 

From this time the story of Taina architecture is clear, i. The 
and it seems to fall into four main divisions, the first of ^^^ ^" 
which, the golden age, almost corresponds with the Gothic 
movement on the continent of Europe. 

The plan of the temples of this period is somewhat 
similar : each has an open porch {mandapa), a closed hall 
of assembly [sabhd mandapa), and an inner shrine or cell 
(gabhdro) in which the idol is kept. The whole is surrounded 
by a closed courtyard carrying on its inner wall numerous 
separate cells, each with its own small image of a Tirthah- 
kara. The temple is surmounted by a pyramidal roof, often 
ending in the representation of a water-pot, and only the 
carving on this pyramid (or Sikhara) as it appears over the 
temple wall gives any hint of the rich beauty enclosed 
within the courtyard. The inner shrine is usually guarded 
by richly carved doorways ; the idol itself (nude and blind 
in the case of Digambara and with loin-cloth and staring glass 
eyes in the case of Svetambara temples) is of no artistic 
merit ; the sabha mandapa has very little carving, and is 
only too often defaced by vulgar decorations and hideous 
glass globes, but the outer portico (the mandapa) is 
a very fairyland of beauty, the fineness of whose carving 
is only equalled by the white tracery of hoar-frost. 
From the dome of this porch hang pendants of marble, 


whose workmanship dims the memory of the stairway of 
Christ Church and the roof of the Divinity School in Oxford, 
and gives the spectator a new standard of beauty. The 
many pillars that support the dome are all so perfectly 
carved, that the element of ' control ' is never lost, and 
the many curved struts between the pillars recall the days 
when the Jaina wrought their dreams in wood. No de- 
scription can give the reader any idea of the dainty elabora- 
tion of the carving in white marble : indeed the learner 
needs to pass many times from the blinding glare of a dusty 
Indian day into the cool whiteness of these shrines and 
surrender himself to the beauty and stillness of the place, ere 
he can hope to unravel half their wealth of legends in stone. 

We know that the eleventh, twelfth and thirteenth cen- 
turies saw the zenith of Jaina prosperity. Not only were 
kings reckoned amongst the most ardent disciples of 
this faith, but great wealth poured into the community ; 
and as this acquisition of power and wealth coincided with 
a time of real religious fervour, it is not surprising that 
there followed a marvellous epoch of temple-building, in 
spite of occasional outbursts of fierce persecution. Mount 
Abu, bearing on its bosom shrines that are marvels of fretted 
loveliness, the frowning rock of Girnar crowned with its 
diadem of temples, and Satrufijaya in its surpassing holiness, 
half fortress and half temple-city, bear witness to the fervour 
of those days, when, for example, even the masons after 
completing the work for which they were paid on Mount Abu 
voluntarily erected another temple as a free-will offering, 
which is called to this day the Temple of the Artificers. 

It has already been pointed out that this the golden age 
of Jaina temple-building in India is also the period of the 
great Gothic cathedrals of Lincoln, Salisbury and Wells 
in England; and of Amiens, Rheims and Chartres in France. 
Both styles show a complete control of the principle of 
vaulting and a marvellous inventiveness in the wealth of 
detail with which the interiors are decorated. 


The Mohammedans found in the Jaina temples not only 2, Under 
quarries from which to steal ready-made the pillars for ^^^ ^ 
their mosques, but as it were garments for the expression of of Islam, 
religion that could be ' made over ' for their use. As easily 
as an elder sister's clothes are cut up and altered for the use 
of the younger, so conveniently were Jaina temples trans- 
formed for the appropriation of this newest arrival on the 
Indian scene. All that the victorious Mohammedans had 
to do was to make slight structural alterations. 

' By removing the principal cell and its porch from the centre of the 
court, and building up the entrances of the cells that surround it, a court- 
yard was at once obtained, surrounded by a double colonnade, which 
always was the typical form of a mosque. Still one essential feature was 
wanting — a more important side towards Mecca ; this they easily 
obtained by removing the smaller pillars from that side, and re-erecting 
in their place the larger pillars of the porch, with their dome in the 
centre ; and, if there were two smaller domes, by placing one of them 
at each end.' ^ 

No original mosque the Mohammedans ever erected 
rivalled these * made-over ' temples for beauty. In the 
zenith of their prosperity Jaina architects had taught 
Hindu builders much ; now in adversity they still influenced 
their persecutors, and the still too-little-known mosques of 
Ahmadabad owe more of their unrivalled beauty to Jaina 
inspiration than to any other source. 

But the Jaina did not only teach ; like true scholars, 
they also learnt even from their opponents, and it is to the 
blending of the pure Jaina style with Mughal features that 
we owe modern Jaina architecture. The present writer was 
shown both at Abu and Satrufijaya on the interior of the 
roof of the temple courtyard miniature representations of 
Mohammedan tombs, which she was assured had been 
placed there to guard the shrines from the iconoclastic 
zeal of the conquerors. This, however, was only a small 

^ Fergusson, loc. cit., ii. 69. 


matter compared to the other modifications due to Moham- 
medan influence that were to follow. 
3. Modem When the Mohammedan tyranny was overpast, the 

Jaina natural outcome of Jaina belief in the merit of building 


Jure. temples again showed itself in the erection of new shrines 

on the old sites, in additions to the temple cities, and also 
in the buildings that may still be seen in such places 
as Sonagarh and Mukhtagiri. The peace and prosperity 
that have followed the establishment of British rule in 
India have led to an unprecedented outburst of temple- 
building ; and all these shrines, whether erected in the six- 
teenth or in the nineteenth century, have so many character- 
istics in common, that they may be grouped together as 
modern. The pointed pyramidical roof is seldom seen, 
and the true Jaina dome is superseded by the Mughal, and 
the openings are now usually the foliated pointed arch which 
the Mohammedans introduced. The style, too, though rich 
and ornate, has lost much of its original eleventh-century 

Perhaps one distinct gain may be chronicled that is seen 
at its best in a Jaina temple in Delhi, namely, the filling 
in of the space behind the strut with beautiful pierced work, 
that makes the whole resemble a bracket supporting the 

On the debit side, however, there must be recorded the 
terrible vulgarity that often disfigures modern Jaina 
temples and is seen at its worst in places like the temple 
city of Palitana, where the older buildings throw the 
modern craze for crude colour washing and paintings into 
terrible relief. Perhaps the most famous of the modern 
temples is that erected by Setha Hatthisirhha in 
Ahmadabad in 1848, where despite all the beauty of its 
carving one still longs for the more austere loveliness 
of the earlier fanes. The old ' Gothic ' days seem to 
have passed now into an over-elaborated period of mixed 


The Jaina architecture of the south forms a class apart ; 4. South- 
it has three chief divisions. First, temples {Basil) that ^^" India, 
possess shrine, assembly hall and porch, like similar buildings 
in the north of India, but with more ornate outer walls. 
Secondly, open-air courtyards [Betta) containing images not 
of any of the orthodox Tirthahkara of the north, but of 
Gomata or Gomatesvara, a Digambara saint unknown in 
northern India. (It is to this saint that the famous colossi 
of the south are dedicated. The best known of these is that 
at Sravana Belgola in Mysore, which, cut from a single block 
of gneiss, stands some fifty-seven feet high; others are to be 
found at Yenur and Karkala in South Kanara.) The third 
class of temples is found in Kanara, and with their Venetian 
blinds they curiously recall the house of some European 
official, but their general style and especially their reversed 
eaves resemble the buildings of Nepal. 

Another feature of note in Southern Jaina architecture is 
the stambha or pillar. In Abu the custodian of a temple 
drew the writer's attention to a stambha within the en- 
closure and explained that no temple was complete without 
one. But the Abu pillar was plain indeed compared to the 
lavishly carved stambha that are to be found in the south. 
At Mudabidri a most interesting question is raised by the 
presence on the bottom of these pillars of the curious inter- 
laced basket-work pattern familiar in Irish manuscripts 
and on Irish crosses. 

' It is equally common in Armenia, and can be traced up the valley 
of the Danube into central Europe ; but how it got to the west coast 
of India we do not know, nor have we, so far as I know, any indication 
on which we can rely for its introduction. There was at all times for 
the last fifteen centuries a large body of Christians established on this 
coast who were in connection with Persia and Syria, and are so now. 
It would be strange, indeed, if it were from them the Jains obtained 
this device.'^ 

May not this symbol from the ancient crosses now so 

^ Fergusson, ii. 82. 


strangely found in the very centre of a Jaina temple be a 
prophecy of the coming of the spring ? 

Jaina Writers. 

Jainism has produced so vast and varied a literature, that 
we can mention here only the leading periods of activity 
and the languages used. 

All the books of the Canon are in Ardha-Magadh!, the 
vernacular spoken by Mahavira and his monks, which 
thus became the sacred language of Jainism. 

All early commentaries on the Jaina Canon and a good 
deal of the secular poetry composed by Jaina are in what is 
known as Jaina-Maharastri, a vernacular closely allied to 
early Marathl. 

After the Christian era Sanskrit gradually won its way to 
the place of lingua franca in North India. It was generally 
used in inscriptions and in royal proclamations ; and lite- 
rary men of all the religions employed it in preference to 
other tongues, because it alone was understood by cultured 
men everywhere. This explains the existence of a great 
body of Buddhist literature in Sanskrit. The Jaina were 
rather later than others in substituting Sanskrit for their 
accustomed vernacular, but finally most of their sects also 
yielded, though in varying degrees. A large part of Jaina 
Sanskrit literature consists of scholastic and philosophic 
works connected with the exposition and defence of the faith ; 
but the Jaina also hold a notable place in ordinary literature. 
They specially distinguished themselves in grammar, lexico- 
graphy and moral tales. The two northern recensions of the 
Pancatantra, for example, show considerable Jaina influence. 
The work of this period culminates in the activity of 
Hemacandra, with whose writings we deal briefly below. 

In South India the earliest literary movement was pre- 
dominately Jaina. In Tamil literature from the earliest 
times for many centuries Jaina poets held a great place. 
The Jivaka Cintdmani, perhaps the finest of all Tamil 


poems, is a Jaina work. Eight thousand Jaina, it is said, 
each wrote a couplet, and the whole when joined together 
formed the famous Ndladiydr. To-day this consists of only 
four hundred verses, but the discrepancy is accounted for 
by the action of a hostile monarch who flung the whole 
multitude of poems into a stream and destroyed all but 
four hundred particularly good ones ! Each of the verses 
is quite unconnected with the other, but has a most unim- 
peachable moral, and so they are taught in Tamil schools 
to this day. 

More famous still is the Kurral of Tiruvalluvar, the 
masterpiece of Tamil literature. Its author, an outcaste by 
birth, is claimed by every sect as belonging to their faith, 
but Bishop Caldwell * considers its tone more Jaina than 
anything else '} In any case it must come from the earliest 
period. Another name that adds lustre to these times is 
that of a Jaina lady Avvaiyar * the Venerable Matron ', 
one of the most admired amongst Tamil poets, who is said to 
have been a sister of Tiruvalluvar. Nor was it only amongst 
the fields of poesy that the Jaina gained renown ; a famous 
old dictionary and the great Tamil grammar are also 
accredited to them. 

Jaina writers also laid the foundations of Telugu litera- 
ture, and classical Kanarese literature begins with a great 
succession of Jaina poets and scholars. The period of their 
greatest activity runs from the eighth to the twelfth century. 

But the greatest of all Jaina writers was undoubtedly 
Hemacandra. He was born in Dhanduka near Ahmadabad 
in A. D. 1088 of Jaina parents, his real name being probably 
Cangadeva. His mother dedicated him to the religious life 
under the care of a monk named Devacandra, who took 
him to Cambay, where he was eventually ordained, receiving 
the new name of Somacandra. In Cambay he studied 
logic, dialectics, grammar and poetry, and proved him- 
self a past master in every branch of study he took up. 

^ Imperial Gazetteer, ii. 435 . 


Hemacandra's chance came when he was appointed spokes- 
man of the Jaina community at Anhilvada Patana to 
welcome the great Caulukya king, Jayasirhha Siddharaja, 
on his return from a famous victory in Malwa. His poem 
won the king's heart, and he was appointed court pandit and 
court annahst in the royal capital. There he compiled two 
lexicons and wrote his famous Prakrit grammar, with which 
the learned king was so delighted, that he engaged three 
hundred copyists for three years to transcribe it, and sent 
copies all over India. Hemacandra was just as popular 
with Jayasimha's successor, Kumarapala, whom, if he did 
not actually convert to Jainism, he at least persuaded to 
follow the Jaina rule of non-killing, and to build many 
temples. During this reign Hemacandra continued to 
write a number of science hand-books, lives of Jaina 
saints, and other works, including a History of Gujarat and 
the famous Yoga Sastra and commentary thereon ; and he 
also found time to instruct many scholars who carried on 
the literary tradition. (In Anhilvada Patana one may still 
see the ink-stained stone on which Hemacandra's cushion 
was placed, and where he dictated his works to his pupils.) 
About A. D. 1172 Hemacandra died of self-starvation, in the 
approved Jaina fashion, shortly before his friend and patron 

It is astonishing that with such a magnificent record of 
early writers the Jaina of to-day, despite their educational 
advantages, should number so few authors of note amongst 
them ; their literary activity seems at present to find its 
chief outlet in journalism and pamphleteering.^ 

Modern Jaina literature is mostly in Gujarat!, but books 

in Hindi and in English are also numerous. 

^ It is interesting and encouraging to notice that out of every 
possible way of spreading their faith the Jaina have deHberately chosen 
as the best adapted for Oriental use the now classic methods selected 
by the great old Christian missionaries (true Tirthankara) of the past. 
Thus they have Jaina tracts, Jaina newspapers, Jaina schools and 
Jaina hostels ; each sect has also its own Conference, with its Ladies' 
Day, and there are even Jaina Young Men's Associations. 



The more one studies Jainism, the more one is struck 
with the pathos of its empty heart. The Jaina beheve 
strongly in the duty of forgiving others, and yet have no 
hope of forgiveness from a Higher Power for themselves. 
They shrink from sin and take vows to guard against it, 
but know of no dynamic force outside themselves that 
could enable them to keep those vows. They see before 
them an austere upward path of righteousness, but know 
of no Guide to encourage and help them along that diffi- 
cult way. 

A scholar-saint once summed up the Christian faith by 
saying that the personal friendship of Jesus Christ our Lord 
was that gift which God became incarnate to bestow on 
every man who sought it. It is this personal friendship 
with the Incarnate Son of God which is the great gift that 
Christianity has to offer to the Jaina. Already, with their 
power of hero-worship and their intense love of all that is 
gentle, long-suffering and loving, the Jaina cannot but be 
attracted to Him. It is perhaps easier for a Jaina than it 
is for us to appreciate the wonderful portrait of Himself 
which Christ drew in those rules for happiness which we call 
the Beatitudes ; for, while approving of the Ten Command- 
ments, to w^hich in many respects their own rules bear a 
strong resemblance, it is to the Beatitudes that they are 
specially attracted, since these meet their faith at its highest 
and yet point out a still higher way. 

The younger Jaina are worried by the old ascetic ideal 
that is placed before them. They feel, even when they can 
hardly express it, that the ideal needed for modern life is 
the development, not the negation, of personality; they 



are also increasingly bewildered by the conflict between 
modern science and their own faith. The appeal of Chris- 
tianity may come to them through their realizing that the 
true way to ensure the growth of one's own character is by 
gaining the noblest of friendships, that of the man Christ 

But it is when talking to the older men and women that 
one realizes most how restless and dissatisfied they are at 
heart, since the ideal their religion offers them is a ritual 
rather than a personal holiness. A Jaina magistrate once 
said to the writer : ' I call Jainism a dummy religion. Even 
if I took bribes and gave false judgements, I should still be 
considered a holy man, so long as I was careful never to eat 
after dark.' And an older man made this pathetic con- 
fession : ' It is a terrible thing to a Jaina to grow old ; we 
may have tried all our lives to keep our innumerable laws, 
but we know the awful doom that awaits us if we have 
broken even one of them, and for us there is no forgiveness.' 
His pitiful fear seemed wonderfully to enhance the glory 
of the old Evangel : * I came not to call the righteous but 
sinners to repentance ' ; but the man could hardly grasp the 
fact that, while the Redeemer of the World never uttered 
one word of hope or forgiveness to strong, self-sufiicient, 
self-righteous folk. He freely offered the riches of His grace 
to the sinful and fallen, to the weak and helpless, to women 
and to little children. 

A short time ago the writer was talking to a student, who 

had himself left Jainism, but was explaining to her how many 

beautiful things there were in the Jaina creed. At length 

she asked him why he was no longer a Jaina. He turned 

to her and said : ' Because in all our creed there is no such 

word as "grace ".' 

The In a book such as this one can only throw out a few 

problem suggestions for a comparison between Jainism and Chris- 

ing. tianity, and one of the chief points on which they differ is 

in the value they give to sorrow. To Christian thought 


sorrow is not necessarily an evil : to the Jaina it is either 
a calamity to be avoided at all costs, or a punishment from 
which there is no escape. One can easily understand how 
Jainism arose : how sensitive souls, finding the pain of the 
world intolerable, would resolve to free themselves from 
every tie that might be the means of bringing sorrow upon 
them, and to give no more hostages to fortune. But they 
forgot that by shutting themselves off from pain they closed 
the gates for ever against development, not realizing that, 
as all advance in knowledge can be gained only at the price 
of weary drudgery, and even the supreme joy of motherhood 
is not won without danger and pain, so character can only 
be completely developed by the discipline of sorrow : the 
only result of shirking suffering is for scholars, ignorance ; 
for women, barrenness ; and for all, even the highest, moral 

The more one comes to know the Jaina, the more sure one 
feels that they will not for ever remain satisfied with the 
thought of a divinity which, by avoiding emotion, has 
become a characterless being, taking no interest in the lives 
of his followers and powerless to help them. Already many 
are attracted by the idea of a God who, becoming incarnate 
for us men and for our salvation, not only promulgated a 
law of self-denial and of loving-kindness to every living being 
more stringent and far-reaching than the Jaina rule, but also 
Himself suffered in His life and death more loneliness, more 
insults and more pain than ever Mahavira endured, and 
whose suffering only increased His - love and power to 
help men in their sorrows. Alone amongst the religions 
of the world the faith of Christ Jesus opens to its followers 
conquest through pain and mystic joy in sorrow. 

Despite the differences between Jainism and Chris- 
tianity, the resemblance between them is striking. 
Both religions arose in the East, and both are to this 
day thoroughly Oriental in their character and spirit. 
The founders of the two faiths were each the son of a 



king, and each left his high estate for a hfe of poverty 
and insult. Each wandered homeless through sunny 
lands, followed by a band of twelve disciples, proclaiming 
the beauty of poverty of spirit, of meekness, of righteous- 
ness, of mercy, of purity, of peace, and of patient suffering. 
Alike they illustrated their teaching from the every-day 
life of the countryside, showing how much greater a thing 
it was ' to be ' tha,n * to do ', and how perilous * to have ' ; 
but each teacher gave his followers a different motive to 
rule their lives, for the command of the one was to love 
and of the other to escape. 
No The Jaina do not believe in one supreme God. Innumer- 

supreme able men of like passions with themselves have, by steadily 
eradicating all that belongs to personality, passed to take 
their places amongst the Siddha in a still land of endless in- 
I activity ; but none of these -efe* first and none second : all 
• are equal ; and none takesany interest in the human toilers 
who are climbing the steep ascent leading to the goal which 
they themselves have reached. 
Forgive- The loss suffered by those who have relinquished their 
ness. belief in a supreme God it is impossible adequately to gauge. 
For instance, the Jaina can have no conception of the for- 
giveness of sin, for to them there is no God against whom 
they have sinned, but whose property it is to show mercy, 
and who, by pardoning past failure, can give an oppor- 
tunity for future conquest. The Jaina, when they do 
wrong, only feel that they sin against themselves, injure 
their own characters, and so lose ground on the upward 
way, and that such lost progress can only be made up after 
countless ages of useless (because unremembered) suffering. 
Prayer. Again, a system without a God has no room for prayer, 
for it knows of no almighty and most merciful Father to 
whose love and wisdom His children can confide their secret 
desires ; and to this day the Jaina count it a sin if a mother, 
watching beside her suffering child, should appeal to some 
higher power to save the little life. 


There is no question that the Jaina feel to be more critical Caste, 
than the intricate problem of caste in modern India. The 
one solvent that can ever weaken the grip of those iron fetters 
is the thought that, despite all barriers and all differences, 
we have been created by the same Father and are therefore 
all children of one family ; but a philosophy that denies the 
Fatherhood of God is able to deny the brotherhood of man ; 
and the notices on their temple gates show that there are 
no people in India more caste-bound than the Jaina.^ 

The negation of a personal God affects also the Jaina idea Moksa. 
of heaven. The Jaina, as we have seen, think of moksa as 
a bare place of inaction reached by those who through 
suffering and austerity have completely killed all their 
individuality and character and have finally snapped the 
fetters of rebirth. The Christian, like the Jaina, believes 
in a state whose bliss we shall never leave, but to the 
Christian heaven is also that sphere where the Lord God 
Omnipotent reigneth, and over which His will has absolute 
sway. There, in a golden atmosphere of happiness, the re- 
deemed from all nations, with every power disciplined and 
developed, move without let or hindrance to accomplish the 
Divine will. There His servants serve Him, for they see 
His face. It is a land full of joy and singing, from which 
all sorrow has vanished, not because the character of its 
citizens has become so stultified that they can no more feel 
grief, but because the promise has been fulfilled that ' God 
Himself shall be with them, and be their God : and He shall 
wipe away every tear from their eyes ; and death shall be 
no more ; neither shall there be mourning, nor crying, nor 
pain, any more. . . . He that overcometh [the jina] shall 
inherit these things ; and I will be his God, and he shall be 
my son.' ^ 

^ The notice on Hatthisimha's temple in Ahmadabad runs : ' Low- 
caste servants in attendance on visitors and dogs cannot be allowed to 
enter the temple.' 

^ Rev. xxi. 3-4 17. 


Karma Instead of a God delighting in mercy, who rules and 

f"^ . judges the fair world that He has made, the Jaina have 
gration. set in His place a hideous thing, the accumulated energy 
of past actions, karma, which can no more be affected by 
love or prayer than a runaway locomotive. On and on 
it goes, remorselessly dealing out mutilation and suffering, 
till the energy it has amassed is at last exhausted and a 
merciful silence follows. The belief in karma and trans- 
migration kills all sympathy and human kindness for 
sufferers, since any pain a man endures is only the wages he 
has earned in a previous birth. It is this belief that is 
responsible amongst other things for the suffering of the 
thousands of child widows in India, who are taught that they 
are now reaping the fruit of their unchastity in a former life. 
There is no conscious justice in this solution, for how can 
a man possibly accept a sentence as righteous, when he 
does not even know for what he is being tried and has no 
recollection of ever committing the crime ? 
Ahimsa. Much, however, as the Jaina find to admire in Christianity, 
one of their tenets, that of Ahimsa, casts for them a great 
shadow across the Christian faith : they feel that the fol- 
lowers of Christ are stained with the sin of animal murder, 
and until this feeling is removed, they will never really 
understand the beauty of our religion. 

One would like to remind them first of the quite elemen- 
tary fact that a great many Christians are actually vege- 
tarians, and that no Christian is under any obligation to eat 
meat ; in fact the great missionary apostle expressly said, 
* If meat maketh my brother to stumble, I will eat no flesh 
for evermore '.^ Not as though there were any sin in eat- 
ing or in not eating meat. Jesus Christ, realizing that there 
were enough real sins already in the world, created no arti- 
ficial ones by laying down ritual regulations for His followers 
to govern the details of their daily lives. But though He 
gave them no narrow code of rules, as though they had been 

1 I Cor. viii. 13. 


slaves, He did lay down for them certain great principles 
on which they might fashion their lives in absolute freedom, 
and one of these was the principle of self-sacrificing service. 

Science has taught us that the physical world is governed 
by the law of sacrifice : that all existence is maintained 
through the death of others, and that every living organism 
is built up through the silent and invisible work of the 
minute bacteria of decay, which release from the dead 
the material needed by the living. It is this same law 
of sacrifice, of life through another's death, which governs 
also the spiritual world. When animals and insects are 
killed that a Jaina may have light to study, material 
for clothing, shoes to wear, bread to eat, water with which 
to wash, or air to breathe, it seems to him that the sin of 
murder has been committed (for the Jaina have not yet 
learnt clearly to distinguish between human and animal life) ; 
but to the Christian it seems that he has accepted strength 
from others, which he is therefore bound to expend in ser- 
vice. And this is the reason that at every meal he thanks 
God for the food given and asks that the strength gained 
may be used in God's service.^ For the follower of Christ 
has realized that his very entrance into the world was pur- 
chased by another's pain (perhaps death), and that through- 
out life his food, his clothing, and even his leisure for study or 
for art is earned by the toil of others. He cannot therefore 
count himself his own, but as a * debtor ' he is bound to use 
his life and his leisure in the service of others, that they in 
their turn may by his work be helped to labour more happily. 

Following this thought, we seem to catch a glimpse of 
what is perhaps one great purpose of God, that all 
His creatures should be linked to one another by golden 
chains of self-sacrificing service. In the highest realm 

^ Compare the old College grace ; 'Benignissime Domine, benedic 
nobis et hisce creaturis in usum nostrum ; ut illae sanctificatae sint et 
nobis salutares, et nos inde corroborati magis apti reddamur ad omnia 
opera bona, in laudem tui nominis aeternani per lesum Christum 
Dominum nostrum. Amen.' 


of all the same law still holds : ' Surely He hath 
borne our griefs, and carried our sorrows. . . . He was 
wounded for our transgressions, He was bruised for our 
iniquities : the chastisement of our peace was upon Him ; 
and with His stripes we are healed. All we like sheep have 
gone astray ; we have turned every one to his own way ; 
and the Lord hath laid on Him the iniquity of us all.' ^ 

But the golden chain that binds us all into one loving 
whole is broken by cruelty, and it is here that the Jaina fail. 
Their belief in the duty of not killing is not in practice com- 
plemented by an equal fear of cruelty. It is surely happier 
for instance, for an animal to be well tended, well fed, and well 
cared for, and then to die swiftly and painlessly before old age 
and suffering come upon it, than to linger on, as one so often 
sees in India (even in a Jaina asylum for animals ^), neglected, 
suffering, and even starving, once it has passed its prime. 

Moreover, the logical outcome of the doctrine of Ahirhsa 
is, as the Jaina themselves admit, a reductio ad absurdiim. 
They must not move for fear of treading on and killing 
some minute insect; for the same reason they must not eat 
and they must not breathe. So that in order not to com- 
mit himsa Jaina sometimes commit suicide, yet suicide they 
consider one of the wickedest of crimes.^ It is scientifically 
impossible to take as a life's motto Ahiihsd parama dharma, 
since it is contrary to the order of nature. To carry it out, 
a man ought not to be born, lest his birth should cost his 
mother her life ; he must not continue to live when he is 

^ Isaiah liii. 4-6. 

^ These asylums or Pdyijardpola are peculiar to Jainism, and all sects 
of the Jaina unite in striving to acquire merit by supporting them. They 
are to be found in many of the large towns and villages throughout India, 
and house decrepit and suffering cattle, horses, donkeys, goats, &c. ; 
even pariah dogs are collected in special dog-carts (i.e. wheeled cages) 
by men armed with long iron pincers with which they can safely pick 
up the most savage and filthy curs. But, as far as any real kindness 
to animals is concerned, these institutions in their actual working leave 
much to be desired, however meritorious the intention of their founders 
may have been. 

^ The whole Jaina position in relation to suicide is, however, most 
puzzling. Apparently simple suicide is held to be a crime, but santhdfo, 
or'religious suicide, is a meritorious act. 


born, since every instant he breathes he takes hfe '^ he 
must not commit suicide, for that is taking Hfe ; he must 
not even die a natural death, for in the burning of his 
corpse after death some hfe would be destroyed. 

But though our Lord gave to His followers the law of self- 
sacrificing service, not that of Ahirhsa, He was nevertheless 
careful to teach them how exceedingly precious in the sight 
of the Creator was the life of even the smallest of His 
creatures. ' Are not two sparrows sold for a farthing } ' 
said Christ, ' and not one of them shall fall on the ground 
without your Father.' ^ And again in His great Sermon 
on the Mount : ' Behold the birds of the heaven, that they 
sow not, neither do they reap, nor gather into barns ; and 
your heavenly Father feedeth them.'^ 

And so through all the history of Christendom it has 
been proved true that 

' He prayeth well, who loveth well 
Both man and bird and beast. 
He prayeth best, who loveth best 
All things both great and small ; 
For the dear God who loveth us, 
He made and loveth all.' 

Another great difference between Christianity and System of 
Jainism lies in the fact that, while Jainism may fairly be ^^"'^^• 
regarded as a system of ethics rather than a religion, yet the 
intensely self-centred point of view of Jainism, in which all 
actions are judged by the profit (puny a) that may accrue 
from them, differentiates it also from altruistic ethical 
systems; and this self-centred attitude, perhaps, it is which 
largely accounts for the failure of the Jaina as a whole to 
take their share in social reform. 

The supreme difference, however, between Jainism and Person- 
Christianity we have already glanced at more than once ; y}^ ^ 
it lies in their treatment of personality and life. The 
object of Christianity is to educate every sense and to 
train the whole personality, till the highest development is 
reached, and we all attain ' unto a fullgrown man, unto the 
1 St. Matt. X. 29. 2 g^^ y[2Xt. vi. 26. 


The un- 
God of 

measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ '.^ The 
key-word of Jainism, on the other hand, is the ehmination 
of personahty. So long as a man has to live in this world, 
he should daily curtail his opportunities of development ; 
and if he attains to the ascetic life, he should see to it that 
his personality withers the faster, for atrophy is his goal. 

It will be remembered that before Mahavira's death nine 
out of his twelve disciples carried their Master's precepts to 
their logical conclusion and gained the goal of death through 
religious suicide by starvation ; and we have seen how, 
through the long centuries right down to the present time, 
this has been the practice of his most devoted followers. 
What could be a greater contrast than the lives of the 
twelve men who followed Christ, and whose work after 
His death and resurrection turned the dead old world 
upside down ; for the Master they served was one who had 
come to give Life, and to give it more abundantly. 

There is a strange mystery in Jainism ; for though it 
acknowledges no personal God, knowing Him neither as 
Creator, Father, or Friend, yet it will never allow itself to be 
called an atheistic system. Indeed there is no more deadly 
insult that one could level at a Jaina than to call him a 
nastika or atheist. 

It is as if, though their king were yet unknown to them, 
they were nevertheless all unconsciously awaiting his advent 
amongst them, and proudly called themselves royalists. 

The marks which they will ask to see in one who claims to 
be their king will be the proofs of Incarnation [avatdra), of 
Suffering [tapa), and of the Majesty of a Conqueror [Jina). 
But when once they recognize Him, they will pour out at 
His feet all the wealth of their trained powers of self-denial 
and renunciation. Then shall He, the Desire of all nations, 
whose right it is to reign, take His seat on the empty 
throne of their hearts, and He shall reign King of Kings 
and Lord of Lords for ever and ever. 

^ Eph. iv. 13. 



First Category: JIVA. 
It can be classified : 

i. In two divisions : a. Siddha. 

b. Sarhsarf. 

ii. In three divisio7is : a. Male. 

b. Female. 

c. Neuter, 
iii. In foitr divisions : a, Narakl. 

b. Tiryanc. 

c. Manusya. 

d. Devata. 

iv. In Jive divisions', a. Ekendriya. (Prithvlkaya, Apakaya, 

Teukaya, Vayukaya, Vanaspatikaya 
[Pratyeka, Sadharana].) 

b. Be-indriya (Dvlndriya). 

c. Tri-indriya (Trindriya). 

d. Corendriya (Caturindriya). 

e. Pancendriya [Samjfil and Asamjni]. 
V. In six divisions : a. Prithvlkaya. 

b. Apakaya. 

c. Teukaya. 

d. Vayukaya. 

e. Vanaspatikaya. 
/. Trasakaya. 

vi. In seven somewhat artificial divisions for symmetry. 
vii. In eis'ht divisions : a. Sales!. 


b. Those swayed by Krisnalesya. 

c. „ „ „ Nilalesya. 

d. „ „ „ Kapotalesya. 

e. „ „ „ Tejolesya. 

f. „ „ ,, Padmalesya. 
jr. „ „ „ Suklalesya. 
h. „ „ „ AlesT. 

viii. Artificial division into 7iine classes. 

ix. I?i te?i divisions : Ekendriya i . _ ' 

( Aparyapta. 


( Paryapta. 
Be-mdnya j ^p^^y^^p^^^. 

Tri-indriya j P^^V^P;^' 
^ ( Aparyapta. 

^ , . I Paryapta. 

Corendnya \ . _ ^_ 

( Aparyapta. 

Pancendriya ] . _ "_ 

( Aparyapta. 

X. /u elevc7t divisiofis ; Ekendriya. 







Bhavanapati deva. 

Vyantara deva. 

JyotisT deva. 

Vaimanika deva. 
xi. Artificial division into twelve classes. 
xii. Artificial division into thirteen classes. 
xiii. Artificial division into fourteen classes^ two beifig new, viz. : 

Suksma ekendriya. 

Badara ekendriya. 

Second Category: AJIVA. 

A. Ariipi Afiva. 

1. Dharmastikaya (Dravya, Ksetra, Kala, Bhava, Guna). 




2. Adharmastikaya (Dravya, Ksetra, Ka]a, Bhava, Guna). 




3. Akasastikaya (Dravya, Ksetra, Ka]a, Bhava, Guna). 




4. Kala (Dravya, Ksetra, Ka]a, Bhava, Guna). 

B. Rupi Ajiva. 



Third Category : PUNYA. 

Nine Kinds of Punya. 

1. Anna punya. 

2. Pana punya. 

3. Vastra punya. 

4. Layana punya. 

5. Sayana punya. 

6. Mana punya (Manas or Manasa punya). 

7. Sarira or Kaya punya. 

8. Vacana punya. 

9. Namaskara punya. 

Forty-two Fruits of Pu7iya. 

1. Satavedanlya. 

2. Uncagotra. 

3. Manusya gati. 

4. Manusya anupurvi. 

5. Devata gati. 

6. Devata anupurvi. 

7. Pancendriyapanum. 

8. Audarikasarlra. 

9. Vaikreyasarlra. 

10. Aharakasarlra. 

11. Audarika angopanga. 

12. Vaikreya angopanga. 

13. Aharaka angopanga. 

14. Taijasasarlra. 

15. Karmanasarlra. 

16. Vrajrarisabhanaraca sanghayana. 

17. Samacaturastra santhana. 

18. Subha varna. 

19. Subha gandha. 

20. Subha rasa. 

21. Subha sparsa. 

22. Agurulaghu namakarma. 

23. Paraghata namakarma. 

24. Ucchvasa namakarma. 

25. Atapa namakarma. 

26. Anusna namakarma. 

27. Subhavihayogati. 

28. Nirmana namakarma. 

29. Trasa namakarma. 

30. Badara namakarma. 


31. Paryapti namakarma. 

32. Sthira namakarma. 

33. Pratyeka namakarma. 

34. Subha namakarma. 

35. Subhaga namakarma. 

36. Susvara namakarma. 

37. Adeya namakarma. 

38. Yasoklrtti namakarma. 

39. Devata ayusya. 

40. Manusya ayusya. 

41. Tiryanc ayusya. 

42. Tirthankara namakarma. 


Fourth Category : PAPA. 

Eight ee7i Kinds 0/ Sin. 

1. Jiva hirhsa. 

a. Bhava himsa. 

b. Dravya himsa. 

2. Asatya or Mrisavada. 

3. Adattadana. 

4. Abrahmacarya. 

5. Parigraha. 

or Can- 

6. Krodha.\ 


a. Aprasasta. 
. b, Prasasta. 
Length of time indulged in : Anantanubandhl, 
Apratyakhyani, Pratyakhyani, Sanjvalana. 

7. Mana, 

8. Maya. 
V 9. Lobha. 

10. Raga or Asakti. 

11. Dvesa or Irsya. 

12. Klesa. 

13. Abhyakhyana. 

14. Paisunya. 

15. Ninda. 

16. Rati, Arati. 

17. Mayamrisa. 

18. Mithyadarsana Salya. 

Some of the twenty-five divisions of Mithyadarsana Salya : 

Laukika mithyatva. 
Lokottara mithyatva. 
Abhigrahika mithyatva. 
Ajiiana mithyatva. 


Avinaya mithyatva. 
Asatana mithyatva. 
Anabhigrahika mithyatva. 

The Eighty-iiL'o Results of Sin : 

Five Jndndvaraniya. 

Five Antardya. 

The Four Darsandvaraniya. 

The Five Nidrd. 
Styanarddhi {or Thinarddhi). 

Five Uiiclassijied Results. 

20. Nicagotra. 

21. Narakagati. 

22. Asatavedanlya. 

23. Narakanupurvl. 

24. Narakayu. 

Twenty -five Kasdya. 

25-40. Sixteen already discussed (Anger, Pride, Deceit, Envy, 
and their subdivisions) 

and Nine Nokasaya, namely : — 

41. Hasya. 

42. Rati. 

43. Arati. 








































44. Bhaya. I 

45. Soka. I 

46. Dugancha. 

47. Purusaveda. 

48. Strlveda. 

49. Napumsakaveda. 

Six Results aff'ecting Class. 

50. Tiryanc anupurvl. 

51. Tiryanc gati. 

52. Ekendriya nama. 

53. Be-indriya nama. 

54. Tri-indriya nama. 

55. Corendriya nama. 

Six Physical Blemishes. 

56. Asubha vihayogati. 

57. Upaghata nama. 

58. Asubha varna. 

59. Asubha gandha. 

60. Asubha rasa. 

61. Asubha sparsa. 

Five Sahghena. 

62. Risabhanaraca sanghena. 

63. Naraca (or Naraya) sanghena. 

64. Ardhanaraca (-naraya) sanghena. 

65. Klhka sanghena. 

66. Sevartta sanghena. 

Five Samsthdna. 

67. Nyagrodhaparimandala samsthana. 

68. Sadi samsthana. 

69. Kubjaka samsthana. 

70. Vamana samsthana. 

71. Hunda samsthana. 

Sthdvara Dasaka. 

72. Sthavara. 

73. Suksma. 

74. Aparyapti. 

75. Sadharana. 

76. Asthira. 
']']. Asubha. 

78. Durbhaga. 

79. Dusvara. 


80. Anadeya. 

81. Ayasa. 

82. Mithyatva mohanlya. 

Fifth Category : ASRAVA. 

Fo7ty-t'wo Chief Channels by which Karma may enter. 
Seve?iteen Majo?- Asrava. 

1. Kana (Karna). \ 

2. Ankha (Aksa). 

3. Naka (Nas). V Karma enters through the Five Senses. 

4. Jibha (Jihva). 

5. Sparsa. / 

6. Krodha.\ 

7. Mana. .^ , , , ^ ^^ 

^ ^_ _ Y Karma enters through the Four Kasaya. 

9. Lobha. i 

10. Killing. 

11. Lying. 

12. Thieving. 

13. Coveting. 

14. Unchastity 

15. Mind. 

16. Body. 

17. Speech. 

Karma enters through not taking the five 
vows to avoid these sins. 

Karma enters through not maintaining the Three 
Yoga (control). 

Twenty -five Minor Asrava. 

1. Kayikl. 

2. AdhikaranikT. 

3. Pradvesikl. 

4. Paritapaniki. 

5. PranatipatikT. 

6. Arambhikr. 

7. ParigrahikT. 

8. Mayapratyayiki. 

9. MithyadarsanapratyayikT. 

10. Apratyakhyanikl. 

11. Dristiki. 

12. Spristikl. 

13. Pratityakl. 

14. SamantopanipatikT. 

15. Naisastriki. 

16. Svahastiki. 

17. Ajiiapaniki. 



1 8. VaidaranikT. 

19. Anabhogikl. 

20. Anavakahksapratyayikl. 

21. Prayogikl. 

22. Samudayiki. 

23. Premikl. 

24. Dvesikl. 
2$. Iryapathikl. 

Sixth Category: SAMVARA. 

Fifty-seven Ways of Impeding Karma. 
Five Samiti. 

1. Irya samiti. 

2. Bhasa samiti. 

3. Esana samiti. 

4. Adananiksepana samiti. 

5. Parithapanika samiti {or Utsarga samiti). 

Three Gupti. 

6. Manogupti. 

a. Asatkalpanaviyogl. 

b. Samatabhavinl. 

c. Atmaramata. 

7. Vacanagupti. 

a. Maunavalambi. 

b. Vakniyami. 

8. Kayagupti. 

a. Yathasutracestaniyami. 

b. Cestanivritti. 

• • • 

Tiveiity-tiuo ParTsaha. 

9. Ksudlia parlsaha. 

10. Trisa „ 

11. ^Ita ,, 

12. Usna „ 

13. Uariisa ,, 

14. Vastra „ 

15. Arati „ 

16. Strl „ 

17. Carya „ 

18. NaisidhikI (Naisedhikl) parlsaha. 

19. Sayya parlsaha. 

20. Akrosa „ 



21. Vadha parlsaha. 

22. Yaiica (Yacana) parlsaha. 

23. Alabha „ 

24. Roga „ 

25. Trinasparsa 

26. Mela 

27. Satkara 

28. Prajna 

29. Ajnana 

30. Samyaktva 







7>« Duties of Monks (Dasa Yatidharma). 

31. Ksama. 

32. Mardava. 

33. Arjava. 

34. Nirlobhata. 

35. Tapa (Tapas). 

36. Sariiyama. 

37. Satya. 

38. Sauca. 

39. Akiriicinatva. 

40. Brahmacarya. 





Five Caritra or Rules of Conduct. 

Samayika caritra. 
Chedopasthapanlya caritra. 
Pariharavisuddha caritra. 
Suksmasamparaya caritra. 
Yathakhyata caritra. 

>• Nine first Reflections. 

Twelve Bhavana (or Amipreksa). 

46. Anitya bhavana. 

47. Asarana 

48. Sariisara 

49. Ekatva 

50. Anyatva 

51. Asauca 

52. Asrava 

53. Samvara 

54. Nirjara 

55. Loka 

56. Bodhibija 

57. Dharma 


Three additional Reflections. 



Seventh Category: BAND HA. 

Bondage to Karma is of four kinds : 

1. Prakriti. 

2. Sthiti. 

3. Anubhaga. 

4. Pradesa. 

Eighth Category : NIRJARA. 

Karma can be destroyed by '.—Six Exterior (Bahya) Austerities, 

1. Anasana. 

a. Itvara. 

b. Yavatkathika. 

2. Unodarl. 

3. Vrittisanksepa. 

a. Dravya. 

b. Ksetra. 

c. Kala. 

d. Bhava. 

4. Rasatyaga. . 

5. Kayaklesa. 

6. Saitillnata. 

a. Indriya sarrillnata. 

b. Kasaya samlinata. 

c. Yoga samlinata. 

d. Viviktacarya. 

Six Interior (Abhyantara) Austerities. 

1. Prayascitta. 

2. Vinaya. 

a. Jiiana vinaya. 

b. Darsana „ 

c. Caritra ,, 

d. Mana „ 

e. Vacana „ 
/. Kaya „ 
g. Kalpa „ 

3. Vaiyavacca (Vaiyavritya). 

4. Svadhyaya. 

5. Dhyana. 

Arta dhyana. ] .. 
Raudra dhyana.) 
Dharma dhyana.) , 

Sukla dhyana. l"-'^' 

6. Utsarga. 


Ninth Category : MOKSA. 

Inhabited by Fifteen Kinds of Siddha. 

1. Jina Siddha. 

2. Ajina Siddha. 

3. Tirtha Siddha. 

4. Atlrtha Siddha. 

5. Grihalinga Siddha. 

6. Anyalinga Siddha. 

7. Svalinga Siddha. 

8. Pullinga Siddha. 

9. Stnhnga Siddha. 

10. Napumsakalinga Siddha. 

11. Buddhabohl Siddha. 

12. Pratyekabuddha Siddha. 

13. Svayambuddha Siddha. 

14. Eka Siddha. 

15. Aneka Siddha. 

End of the Nine Categories. 

Analysis of Karma. 

Four Sources of Karma. 

Eight Kinds of Karma. 
A. Ghatin Karma. 

I. Jnanavaraniya karma. 

a. Matijnanavaraniya. 


b. SrutajiianavaranTya. 

c. Manahparyayajiianavaranlya. 

d. Avadhijiianavaranlya. 

e. Kevalajfianavaranlya. 
/. Mati ajMna. 

g. Sruta ajiiana. 
h. Vibhanga jMna. 


2. Darsanavaranlya karma. 

3. Mohanlya karma. 

Some of the twenty-eight divisions : 
Mithyatvamohanlya karma. 
Misramohanlya karma. 
Samyaktvamohanlya kanr.a. 
DarsanamohanTya karma. 
Caritramohanlya karma. 

4. Antaraya karma. 
B, Aghatin karma. 

5. Vedaniya karma. 


6. Ayu karma. 

a. Deva ayu karma. 

Jyotisi ayu karma. 
Vyantara ayu karma. 
Vaimanika ayu karma. 
Bhavanapati ayu karma. 

b. Manusya ayu karma. 



c. Tiryanc ayu karma. 

d. Naraka ayu karma. 

7. Nama karma. 

8. Gotra karma. 

Three Tenses of Karma. 

Satta karma. 
Bandha karma. 
Udaya karma. 

Two types of Karma. 
Nikacita a7id Sithila karma. 
Fourteen Steps of Liberation from Karma. 
(Cauda Gunasthanaka.) 

1. Mithyatva gunasthanaka. 

Vyaktamithyatva gunasthanaka. 
Avyaktamithyatva gunasthanaka. 

2. Sasvasadana gunasthanaka. 


3. Misra gunasthanaka. 

4. Aviratisamyagdristi gunasthanaka. 

5. Desavirati {or Sariiyatasamyata) gunasthanaka. 

a. Jaghanya desavirati. 

b. Madhyama desavirati. 

c. Utkrista desavirati. 

6. Pramatta gunasthanaka. 

7. Apramatta gunasthanaka. 

8. Niyatibadara {or Apurvakarana) gunasthanaka. 

9. Aniyatibadara gunasthanaka. 

10. Siiksmasamparaya gunasthanaka. 

11. Upasantamoha gunasthanaka. 

12. KsTnamoha gunasthanaka. 

13. Sayogikevah gunasthanaka. 

14. Ayogikevalr gunasthanaka. 














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Abhayadevasuri, 84. 
Abhigrahika mithyatva, 131. 
Abhikhanam itthlnam kaham 

kaha itame, 236. 
Abhinandana, 52, 312. 
Abhyakhyana, 129. 
Ablutions, 228. 
Abotana, 195. 
Abrahmacarya, 119. 
Abstinence, 262 f. 
Abu, 252, 282 ff. 
Acaksudarsanavaraniya, 133. 
Acaranga Sutra, 13,16, 27n., gSn., 
_ 99 n., 128 n. 

Acarya, 80 n., 229, 240 f., 254, 
_ 262. 
Acarya, Thirty-six qualities of, 

Account books, worship of, 261. 
Acela parlsaha, 149 n. 
Acuya, 270. 

Adananiksepana samiti, 146, 234. 
Adattadana, 1 19. 
Adattadana viramana vrata, 208. 
Addhasamaya Kaja, 107. 
Adeya namakarma, 115. 
Adharma, 106 n. 
Adharmastikaya, 106 ff. 
AdhikaranikI asrava, 141. 
Adhogati, 166. 
Adholoka, 271. 
Adinatha, see Risabhadeva. 
Adoration, Prayer of, 242. 
Adultery, see Chastity. 
Affection, see Attachment. 
Afghanistan, 74. 
Agamikagaccha, 87. 
Aghatin karma, 184, 190. 
Agnibhiiti, 65. 
Agni Kumara, 269, 277. 
Agriculture, 214. 
Agurulaghu namakarma, 114. 
Ahara, 104. 

Aharaka angopanga, 113. 
Aharakasarira, 113. - 

Ahiihsa, 89, loo, 116, 234, 294 ff. 
Ahiriisa dharma, 116. 
Ahmadabad, 19, 87, 163, 164, 

283 ff., 293 n. 
Ahoratra, 272 n. 
Ailaka Sravaka, 224. 
Air, 100. 
Ajayapala, 17. 
Ajina Siddha, 170. 
Ajitanatha, 51, 312. 
AjTva, 78, 96, 106, 300. 
Ajlvika order, 58, 86. 
Ajiiana, 175. 
Ajfiana mithyatva, 131. 
Ajiiana parlsaha, 151. 
AjiiapanikI asrava, 142. 
Akampita, 65, 65 n. 
Akarmabhumi, 181. 
Akasastikaya, 106 ff. 
Akimcinatva, 154. 
Akriyavada doctrine, 91. 
Akrosa parlsaha, 150. 
Aksa asrava, see Afikha asrava. 
Aksata piija, 229, 250, 251, 252, 

Alabha parisaha, 150. 
Alabhika, 42. 
Ala-ud-din, 17. 
AlesT, 104. 
Alms, 133. 

Aloi pana bhoyana, 234. 
Aloka, 108. 

Alphabet, invention of, 274. 
Amama, 277. 
Amara, 232. 
Amara, 278. 
Amasa, 261. 
Amba, 268. 
Ambada, 277. 
Ambarasa, 268. 
Ambela, 263. 
Amohe, 270. 

Anabhigrahika mithyatva, 131. 
Anabhogikl asrava, 143. 
Anadeya, 138. 



Ananda, 276. 

Anandasravaka, 276. 

Anandavijayajl, 239 n. 

Anantanatha, 55, 313. 

Anantanubandhi, 123. 

AnantavTrya, 278. 

Anapana prana, 96. 

AnapannI, 270. 

Anartha danda vrata, 214. 

Anasana, 163. 

Anata, 270. 

Anatomy, Jaina ideas of, 137. 

Anavakanksapratyayiki asrava, 

Ancalagaccha, 76 n., Zj. 

Ancestors, 266. 

Anekantavadin, 91. 

Aneka Siddha, 171. 

Anga, 40. 

Anga puja, see Angaluiichana 

Anga, the eleven, 13, 64, 72, Son., 

84, 240. 
Angalunchana puja, 251. 
Anger, 103, ii9ff., 173, 181, i87ff.; 

see also Krodha. 
Anhilvada Patana, see Patana 

Animals, loi, 102. 
Animals, asylums for, 296, 296 n. 
Animals, kindness to, 61, 206, 

294 ff. ; see also Ahiiiisa. 
Animism, 89, 97. 
Anitya bhavana, 156. 
Aniyatibadara gunasthanaka, 189. 
Aiijanasalaka, 263. 
Ankha asrava, 139. 
Anna punya, no. 
Anojja, 29. 

Antagada Dasanga, 13. 
Antakritanga, 13. 
Antaratyaga, I54n. 
Antaraya karma, 133, 183, 184, 

190 n. 
Antarmuhurtta, 98 n. 
Anubhaga, 162. 
AnubimabhasT, 235. 
Anuja, 29. 
Anukampa, 187. 
Anumatityaga pratima, 223. 
Anumodanavrata pratima, 223 n. 
Anuna vihapana bhoyane, 236. 
Anupreksa, see Bhavana. 

Anusna namakarma, 114. 
AnuttaravasI Deva, 190. 
Anuttaravimana, 270, 272. 
Anuttaropapatika, 13. 
Anuttarovavai Dasanga, 13. 
Anuvli mitoggaha jati, 236. 
Anuvrata, the five, 205, 210, 257. 
Anuyogadvara, 14. 
Anyalinga Siddha, 171. 
Anyatva bhavana, 158. 
Apacakhanavaranlya, j"^^ Apratya- 

Apadhyana, 214. 
Apakaya, 97, 98, 102, 104, 105. 
Apapa, 61. 
Aparajita, 80 n., 270. 
Aparigraha vrata, 237. 
Aparyapta, 104, 105, 106. 
Aparyapti, 138. 
Apasaro, Apasara, 81, ^t,, 146, 

158,215,217,219, 232ff., 239 ff., 

254, 258, 259 ff. 
Ape, 52. 

Apramatta gunasthanaka, 188. 
Aprasasta krodha, 120. 
ApratyakhyanT, 123. 
ApratyakhyanikT asrava, 142. 
Apiirvakarana, 188. 
Araja, see Nuns. 
Arambhatyaga pratiina, 223. 
Arambhiki asrava, 141. 
Arana, 270. 
Aranatha, 56, 313. 
AratI, 266. 
Arati parlsaha, 149. 
AratI puja, 250, 252. 
Arati, Rati, 135. 
Architecture, 279 ff. 
Arcot, 18. 

Ardha-MagadhT, 15, 286. 
ArdhanSraca sanghena, 137. 
Ardraka, 59. 
Arhata, 39. 
Arihanta, 39, 220, 229, 232, 241, 

Arista Neminatha, 57. 
Arjava, 152. 
Armenia, 285. 
Arta dhyana, 168. 
Artha, 244 n. 

Artificers, Temple of the, 282. 
Aruhanta, 39. 
Arupi Ajiva, 106. 



Aryaraksita, 78 n. 

Asadha Acarya, 73. 

Asadhl punema, 261. 

Asakti, 126. 

Asariijfil pancendriya, loi, 106. 

Asarana bhavana, 157. 

Asatana mithyatva, 131. 

Asatavedanlya, 134, 179. 

Asatkalpana viyogi, 147. 

Asatkarya doctrine, 90. 

Asatya, 118. 

Asatya tyaga, 2,35. 

Asauca bhavana, 159. 

Ascetic, the ideal, 238. 

Asceticism, Ascetics, i fif., 23, 30, 
32,34ff.,4o,48, 73, 88,112,131, 
145 ff., 188 ff., 225 ff., 289 ff. 

Ascetics, five vows of, 234 ff. 

— ten duties of, 151 ff. 

Asi, 181. 

Asipata, 268. 

Asoka, King, 12, 70 n., 74, 74 n., 
85, 280. 

Asoka tree, 31, 191, 225, 269. 

Asrama, 3. 

Asrava, 216. 

Asrava, the forty-two, iion., 139, 

_ 305 f- 

Asrava bhavana, 159. 

Assistant vows, see Gunavrata. 

Astapada, i.e. Kailasa, 51. 

Asteya vrata, 235. 

Astha, 187. 

Asthikagrama, 41. 

Asthira, 138. 

Astikaya, 61. 

Astrologers, 193, 196. 

Astronomy, 70. 

Asubha, 138. 

Asubha asrava, 141. 

Asubha gandha, 136. 

Asubha karma, 139. 

Asubha rasa, 136. 

Asubha sparsa, 136. 

Asubha varna, 136. 

Asubha vihayogati, 136. 

Asura Kumara, 269. 

Asvamitra, 73. 

Asvasena, King, 48. 

Asvina, 266. 

Atapa namakarma, 1 1 4. 

Aticara, five, 205 ff. 

Atirtha Siddha, 170. 

Atithi sariivibhaga vrata, 2i8f. 
Atma, 37, 91,94,95, 176. 
Atmaramajl, 239 n. | 

Atmaramata, 147. 
Attachment, 126, 130, 136. 
Attraction, see Adharmastikaya. 
Aturapratyakhyana, 15. 
Auction of ghi, 252. 
Audarika angopanga, 113. 
Audarika body, see Audarika- 

AudarikasarTra, 113, 206. 
Aupapatika, 13. 
Auspicious signs, 23 ff. 
Austerity, 89, 153, 155, 160, 229, 

254 ; see also Tapa. 
Austerities, the six exterior, 163 ff. 
— the six interior, 165 ff. 
Avadhidarsanavaranlya, 133. 
Avadhi jiiana, 33. 
Avadhijnanavaraniya, 132, 177. 
Avalika, 272 n. 
AvantT Kumara, 75. 
Avarice, 152 ff. ; see also Lobha. 
Avartana, 216, 220. 
Avasahi, 229. 
AvasarpinI, 68 n, 272 ff. 
Avasyaka, 14, 258. 
Avatara, 298 ; see Incarnation. 
Avidya, 91. 

Avinaya mithyatva, 131. 
Avirati karma, 173. 
Aviratisamyagdristi gunastha- 

naka, 186. 
Avrata, the five, i4off., 162. 
Avvaiyar, 287. 
Avyakta, 73. 

Avyaktamithyatva gunasthanaka, 
_ 185. 

Ayanabhanda nikhevana, 235. 
Ayasa, 139. 
Ayodhya, 48, 51, 55. 
Ayogikevall gunasthanaka, 191. 
Ayu karma, i8off., 184, 190 n. 
Ayu prana, 96. 
Ayuhpaccakhana, 15. 
Ayusya, 116. 

Babyhood, 193. 

Badami, 281. 

Badara, 106. 

Badara namakarma, 1 1 5. 

Bahubaja, 152. 



Baladeva, 56 n., 58, 274, 277. 

Bala prana, 96. 

Bandagl, 247. 

Bandha, 161 ii., 185, 308. 

Baniya, 21, 22, 24011. 

Banyan tree, 225, 269. 

Bappabhattlsuri, 83 fF. 

Bareilly, 280. 

Baroda, 233. 

Barodia, U. D., 92. 

Basti, 285. 

Beads, telling of, 243, 254, 258. 

Be-indriya jTva, 97, 99 ff., 104. 

Be-indriya nama, 136. 

Begging, 219, 229 ff. 

Benares, 48, 49, 78. 

Benarsi Dass, Mr. Lala, 35, Son., 

ii6n., ii8n. 
Bergson, 107 n. 
Besarh, 21. 
Betel nut, see Soparl. 
Betrothal ceremonies, 195 ff. 
Betta, 285. 
Bhadaravo. month of, see Bhadra- 

Bhadde, 270. 
Bhaddila, 64. 
Bhaddilapura, 53. 
Bhadrabahu, 10, 18, 70 ff., Son. 
Bhadrabahu Samhita, 70. 
Bhadrajina, 278. 
Bhadrapada, 76, 260. 
Bhadrika, 42. 

Bhagavadglta, Ii2n., 128, 239. 
Bhagavatlji, 13, 239. 
Bhaibija, 263. 
Bhajrava, 264. 
Bhaktamara stotra, 80 n. 
Bhakti, 127 ff., 178. 
t\ BhanajT, 88. 

Bhandarkar, Dr., 81 n., 90 n., 92, 

95n., 106 n., I79n., i82n., i84n, 
Bharata, i.e. India, 56, 216 n. 
Bharata, King, 51, 121 n., 158, 

Bharataksetra, 170. 
Bhasa, 104. 

Bhasa samiti, 145, 234. 
Bhava, 108, 164. 
Bhava himsa, 117. 
Bhavana, Pafica, 234. 
Bhavana, the twelve, 1 56 ff. 
Bhavanapati, 105, 181, 269. 

Bhava pijja, 228 f. 

Bhavnagar, 13. 

Bhavya jTva, 242 n. 

Bhaya, 135. 

Bhayam parijanai, 235. 

Bhogantaraya, 133, 183. 

Bhopal, 226. 

Bhiita, 265 f., 269. 

Bhutavayl, 270. 

Bihar, 8, 13, 17, 40, 41, 84, 86. 

Bindusara, 10. 

Birth ceremonies, 193 ff., 200 ff. 

Black statues, 58. 

Blemishes, physical, 136. 

Boar, 54. 

Bodhibija bhavana, 160. 

Bodhidurlabha bhavana, 160. 

Bolachotha, 263. 

Bombay, 233. 

Bondage to karma, 162. 

Borsad, 251 n. 

Brahma, 31, 270. 

Brahmacarya, 154. 

Brahmacarya pratima, 223. 

Brahmacarya vrata, 236 f. 

Brahmans, 3 ff., 17, 18, 21, 26, 31, 
34, 35n., 39, 46, 48, 50, 52, 61, 
63,67, 70, 76, 78, 81 n.,86,89, 94, 
197, 199, 204n., 230, 234, 250, 

Brahmi, 274. 

Brihatkalpa, 14, 145. 

Broach, 78. 

Brush, see Whisk. 

Buddha, 39, 40, 42, 43. 

Buddha (name of Mahavira), 27. 

Buddhabohl Siddha, 171. 

Buddha Kirti, 50. 

Buddhimana, Son. 

Buddhism, 3, 9, 12, 17, 18, 59, 67, 
94, 1 1 7, 172, 217, 234, 247, 279f., 

Buffalo, 54. 

Buhler, Dr., 28, 86 n., 106 n. 

Burgess, Dr., 280. 

Burma, 117. 

Buttressing clauses to vows, 234 ff. 

Caitanya, 95. 
Caitrl punema, 261, 263. 
Caitya, 280. 
Caityavandana, 229. 



Caka, 198. 

CakravartI, 25, 56, 274. 
Caksudarsanavaranlya, 133. 
Caksurindriya, 96. 
Camarl puja, 252. 
Cambay, 287. 
Campaka tree, 269. 
Campapurl, 40, 41, 54. 
Candala cokadi, 125. 
Candalo, 195, 199, 229. 
Candana, 61 n., 66, 66 n. 
Candana puja, 229, 250, 251, 254. 
Candapannati, 14. 
Candavijaya, 15. 
Candra, 270. 
Candragaccha, 80 n. 
Candragupta, 10, 70, 7011. 
Candraprabhu, 53, 312. 
Candraprajnapti, 14. 
Candrasuri, 80 n. 
Candravedhyaka, 15. 
Cangadeva, 287. 
Canon of Scriptures, 11, I3fif. 
-7- (Digambara), 16. 
Carananuyoga, 16, 240 n. 
Caranasitarl, 240. 
Caritra, the five, 154 if., 241. 
Caritramohanlya karma, 180. 
Caritra vinaya, 166. 
Caritrya, 246. 
Carya parlsaha, 149. 
Caste, 9, 21, 168, 182, 270 f., 293. 
Categories, the nine, 94 ff., App. I. 
Catuhsarana, 14. 
Caturindriya, see Corendriya. 
CaturmasI, see Comasl. 
Caturvirhsatistava, see Cauvisant- 
. tho. 
Cauda Gunasthanaka, 185 ff., 219, 

Caudasa, see Kallcaudasa. 
Caulakya dynasty, 288. 
Causarana, 14. 
Cauvisanttho, 255. 
Cavada dynasty, 82. 
Cave-temples, 280. 
Celibacy, 68, 70 : see also Brah- 

Cestanivritti, 148. 
Cetaka, King, 40, 66 n. 
Character, 162, 229, 254, 297 ff. 

Charity, 202, 203, 244 n., 258. 
Chastity, -^7^ 59, n?, 118, 209, 

236, 237, 241 ; see also Brah- 

ChatthT, Mother, see Sixth, 

Chedagrantha, 14, 16. 
Chedopasthapanlya caritra, 155. 
Childless Women, 267. 
Children, 131, 193 ff., 267. 
Cholera, 266. 
Christ, see Jesus Christ. 
Christianity, 122 n., 125 n., 127 n., 

144, 189, 192, 239, 247 ff., 288 n., 

289 ff. 
Circumambulation, 280. 
Citragupta, 277. 

Classification, Jaina genius for, 109. 
Cleanliness, 146 ff. 
Climate, 2. 
Clothing, 145, 149, 226, 231, 239, 

239 n. ; see also Nudity. 
Cocoa-nut, 194 ff-, 293 ff. 
Cold, enduring, see Sita parlsaha. 
Colour of the soul, 102, 124 ff. 
Colours, 108. 
Comasi, 123, 166. 
Commerce, 213 ff. 
Committees, see Mahajana. 
Compromise, 126. 
Conceit, see Pride. 
Conch shell, 58. 
Conduct, the five rules of, see 


— Right, 205, 245 ff., 262. 

— Thirty-five rules of, 243 ff. 
Conferences, Jaina, 288 n. 

— the twelve, 191. 
Confession, 50, loi, 120, 123, 166, 

231, 256. 

Consecration of an idol, 263. 

Constellations, 270 ; see also Nak- 

Contentment, 152 ff. 

Converts to Jainism, 219 n. 

Corendriya jiva, 97, 100, 104. 

Corendriya nama, 136. 

Cotall, 198. 

Covetousness, 119,247. 

Crab, 53. 

Creator, Creation, 109, 128, 192. 

Cremation, see P'uneral cere- 



Crocodile, 53. 

Crooke, W., 100. 

Cruelty, 296. 

Cult, 18. 

Customs, 193^1, r'.54 fif. 

Cuttack, 85. 

Dadhivahana, King, 61 n. 
Daily Duties of Ascetics, 228. 
Daiiisa Parlsaha, 149. 
Danantaraya, 133, 183. 
Danda, 46. 
Darbha grass, 220. 
Darsana, 163 n., 228. 
Darsanamohanlya karma, 180. 
Darsana pratima, 222. 
Darsanavaranlya karma, 133, 178, 

184, 190 n. 
Darsana vinaya, 166. 
Dasapurvl, 72. 
Dasarnabhadra, 74. 
Dasasrutaskandha, 14. 
Dasavaikalika, 14, 16. 
Dasa Yatidharma, see Ascetics, 

ten duties of. 
Dasera, 264. 
Daya, 259. 

Death, Beliefs about, 44. 
Death ceremonies, 202 ff. 
Deceit, 152, 173 ; see also Maya. 
Deer, 56. 

Deliverance, see Moksa. 
Demi-gods, loi, 105, 268 ff. 
Demons, 41, 54, 97, 268 ff. 
Desa, io6ff. 
Desacaritrya, 246. 
Desavakasika vrata, 216 ff. 
Desavirati gunasthanaka, 187. 
Desavrati, 220. 
Deva, 105, 222. 
Deva ayu karma, 180. 
Devacandra, 287. 
Deva gati, 182. 
Devajina, 278. 
DevakT, 26 n., 277. 
Devaloka, 6on., 160, 164, 169, 270, 

273, 274, 276, 277, 278. 
— gods of, 270, 272. 
Devananda, 26, 46, 47. 
Devapala, King, ']']. 
DevarddhI, 13. 
Devaslya Padlkamanurii, 258. 
Devasruta, 276. 

Devata, 97, 97 n., no, 114, 116. 

Devata anupurvi, 113. 

Devata gati, 113. 

Devata ayusya, 116. 

Devayuhkarma, see Deva ayu 

Devendrastava, 15. 

Devi, Queen, 56. 

Devindathuo, 15. 

Dhamila, 64. 

Dhanaterasa, 261. 

Dhanduka, 287. 

Dhanu, 268. 

Dhara, 52. 

Dharanendra, 49. 

Dharma,io6n.,i56, 157, 222, 244 n. 

Dharma bhavana, 161. 

Dharmadasaganl, 82. 

Dharmadhyana, 168. 

Dharma Labha, 230. 

Dharmanatha, 55, 313. 

Dharmasena, 80 n. 

Dharmasena II, 80 n. 

Dharmastikaya, 106 ff. 

Dhataki Khanda, 108, 132. 

DhatakI tree, 49. 

Dhritisena, Son. 

Dhumra prabha, 271. 

Dhundhla, I9, 88. 

Dhupa puja, 229, 251, 254. 

Dhyana, 168. 

Diagram of heaven, hell, &:c., 
271 f. 

Digambara, 12, 18, 23, 24, 25, 28, 
30, 31 n., 33, 36, 40, 41, 44, 53 ff., 
67 n., 72, 78, 79, 79 n., 80, 80 n., 
94, lion., I22n., 155, 156, 169, 
188, 190, 208, 217, 224, 226 f., 
239 ff., 250 ff., 258, 281. 

— Canon, 16, 72. 

— Worship, 250. 
Diksa, see Initiation. 
Dilavara temples, see Abu. 
Dinnasuri, ']^ n. 

Dlpa puja, 229, 251, 252, 254. 

Disa Kumara, 269. 

Discipline, five rules of, see 

Dishonesty, see Honesty. 
Disivrata parimana, 211 ff. 
Divall, 44, 45, 227, 260, 265. 
Dravida, 128. 
Dravida, 128. 


Dravya, 6i, 95, 108, 164, 255. 
Dravya abiriisa, 117. 
Dravya hirhsa, 117. 
Dravyanuyoga, 16. 
Dreams, the fourteen, 22 fF. 
Dridhaketu, 276. 
DristikI asrava, 142. 
Dristivada Anga, 15. 
Dudhapaka, 195. 
Dugancha, 136. 
Duhsama, see Dusama. 
Duppasahasuri, 275. 
Durbhaga, 138. 
Dusama, 163, 275, 276. 
Dusama Dusama, 275, 276. 
Dusama Susama, 26, 51, 274, 

Dusvara, 138. 
Duties of monks and nuns, 1 5 1 fF., 

228 ff. 
Dvaipayana, 277. 
Dvaraka, 112, 277. 
Dvesa, I28ff. 
Dvesikl asrava, 143. 
.Dvlndriya, see Be-indriya. 
Dvlpa Kumara, 269. 

Eka Siddha, 171. 
Ekantavadin, 91. 
Ekatva bhavana, 158. 
Ekendriya jTva, 97, 104, 105, 

Ekendriya nama, 136. 
Elephant, 51. 

Elephant of pride, the, 152. 
Elura, 281. 
Emotion, 102. 

Endurance, Ways of, see Parlsaha. 
Enmity, see Dvesa. 
Envy, 103, 128. 
Epigraphy, 85. 
Esana samiti, 145, 234. 
Eschatology, 169 ff., 268 ff., 293. 
Eternity of the world, 272 ff. 
Ethics, Jaina, 122, 131, 297. 
Evening Worship, 258. 
Evil eye, 264. 
Evil spirits, 265 f. 
Excommunication, 211 n., 240. 
Extension of Jainism, 9ff. 
Faith, 229, 248, 254. 

— false, see Mithyatva. 

— Right, 245 ff., 262. 

Famine, the great, 10, 70 ff. 
Fasting, 31, 32 n., 39, 253, 259 ff. 
Fasts, see Festivals. 
Fatalism, 60, 73, 185. 
Fatherhood of God, 128, 192. 
Faultfinding, see Ninda. 
Fear, see Bhaya. 
Feeding ceremony, 195. 
Female division of jiva, 96. 
Female Tirthankara, 56, 122. 
Fergusson, Dr. J., 280. 
Festivals, 259 ff. 
Ficus religiosa, 53. 
Fifth-day ceremonies, 193. 
Fifteenth-day ceremonies, 194. 
Fire, 98, 99. 
Five faults, 205 ff. 
Five Great Ones, the, see Pafica 

Five, Salutation to the, 187, 229, 

Flemish art, 281. 
Flowers in Worship, Use of, see 

Puspa piija. 
Food, 138, 148, 213, 219, 258. 
Forgiveness, I26n., 259 f., 290, 

Form, see Pudgalastikaya. 
Fruit, 99, 252. 

— Offering of, see Phala piija. 
Fiihrer, Dr., 280. 
Full-moon fasts, 261. 
Funeral ceremonies, 203 ff. 

Gabharo (or shrine), 281 ; see also 

Temple Worship. 
Gacchacara, 15. 
Gajapurl, 56. 
Gana, 65. 
Ganadeva, Son. 
Ganadhara, 61, 65, 66. 
Giindharva, 269. 
Gandhi, Mr., 205 n. 
Ganga, 73. 
Ganges, river, 275. 
Ganividya, 15. 
Ganivijaya, 1 5. 
GaranTjI, see Nuns. 
Gardabhila, 75, 76. 
Gargarisi, 82. 

Gati, 176, 182, 228, 251, 274. 
Gautama Indrabhiiti, 40, 44, $0, 

61, 65, 68, 127, 248. 



Gfciitleman, the ideal, 224. 
Germs, 102, 103. 
Ghatin karma, 184, 190. 
Ghranendriya, 96. 
Gifts to Religious, 231. 
Girnar, Mt., 17, 58, 168, 252, 282. 
Goat, 56. 
Goblins, 105. 

God, 128, 192, 246, 248, 292 ff. 
Gods, 97. 
— false, 246. 

Gomata, see Gomatesvara. 
Gomatesvara, 263, 285. 
Goose, Red, 52. 
GorajT, 233. 

Gosala, 36, 58 ff., 65, 68, 72, 97 n., 
ij02, III, 130, 185. 
GoTsip, 188. 
Gosta Mahal, J^. 
Gothic Architecture, 281 f. 
Gotra karma, 182, 184, 19011. 
Gotrija, 199, 201. 
Gotrljharanam, 195. 
Go vara, 61. 
Govardhana, 80 n. 
Grace, 290. 
Graha, 270. 
Graiveyika, 270, 272. 
Granthibheda, 186. 
Gravity, Laws of, 106. 
Greed, 1 22 fif., 140, 173, i8i,i87ff. ; 

see also Lobha. 
Grief, see Soka. « 
Grierson, Dr., 21. 
Grihalinga Siddha, 170. 
Grihastha, 67 n. 
Griswold, Dr., 107 n. 
Gujarat, GujaratI, 17, 68, 6911., 

84, 86, 16211. 
Guna, 108. 
Gunasthanaka, 185 ff. 
Gunavrata, the three, 210, 257. 
Gupti, the three, 147, 238, 241,257. 
Guru, 219, 246 f. 
Guru, Reverence to, 112, 215, 


Habakkuk, 248 n. 
Haigh, Rev. H., 172 n. 
Hair, Removal of, 32, 165, 226. 
Hair-cutting (of infant), 194. 
Hajam, 230. 

Haiiisa, 80. 

Hand, mark of, 200. 

Hanuman, 130. 

HarasatyakT, 277. 

Hari dynasty, 57. 

Haribhadrasuri, 80, 82. 

Harsa, 245 n. 

Hasarh parijanai, 235. 

Hastinapura, 55, 56. 

Hastipala, King, 43. 

Hasya, 135. 

Hatred, see Dvesa. 

Hatthisimha's temple, 284, 293 n. 

Hawk, 55. 

Heat, enduring, see Usna parlsaha. 

Heaven, 6on., 160,* 164, 169, 

171 ff., 270 ff., 293 ff. 
Hegel, 92. 

Height of mankind, 51 ff., 273 ff. 
Hell, 46, 60 n., 117, 125, 229, 

268 ff., 276. 
Hell-beings, loi, 102, 158, 160, 

Hemacandra, 17, 84 ff., ^6, 95, 

Hemacarya, see Hemacandra. 
Heroes, sixty-three great, 56 n. 
Himalayas, 51. 
Himavata, Mt., 23. • 
Hiihsa, no, ii6ff., 130, 206, 

210 n., 220. 
Himsadana, 214. 
Hindu, Derivation of the word, 

Hinduism, Relations with, 67 n., 

71, 127 ff., 131 n., 174 ff-, 180, 

180 n., 254, 263 f., 264 ff., 268 ff. 
History, 7 ff., 65 ff., 68 n. 
Hiuen Tsang, 18. 
Hoernle,.Dr., 22, 28, 43 n., 58, 59, 

7on., 72, 79,85. 
Holi, 264. 
Holiness, 144. 
Holy days, see Festivals. 
Honesty, ii9ff., 208, 235. 
Honey, 210 n. 
Hope, 248. 
Horoscope, 193. 
Horse, 52. 

Houselessness, j^^ Wandering life. 
Human beings, loi, 102. 
Humility, 152 ; see also Pride. 
Hunda samsthana, 138. 



Hunger, see Ksudha Parlsaha. 
Hylozoism, 89. 
Hymnbook, 253. 
Hypocrisy, 130. 

Icchamithami Kausagga, 256. 
Ideal ascetic, the, 123, 238. 
Ideal layman, the, 224. 
Idolatry, 11, 19, 69, 81, 197. 
Iksvaku family, 57. 
Illness, 265. 
Illusion, 121. 
Images, 58, 250 ff. ; see also 

Immobile life, 102. 
Impeding of Karma, 144 ff. 
Impurity, see Chastity. 
Incarnation, 176, 291, 298. 
Incense, see DhQpa piaja. 
Income, Apportionment of, 244 n. 
Indra, 26, 26 n., 32, 32 n., 34, 38, 

52, 54, 113, 180, 191,242,271. 
Indrabhuti, see Gautama. 
Indra Dhvaja, 24. 
Indradinna, 75, 78. 
Indriya, 95, 104, 136, 139. 
Indriya prana, 95. 
Indriya samllnata, 165. 
Inertia, see Adharmastikaya. 
Initiation, 38 ff., 82 n., ZZ^ 155, 

Insects, 100, 146 ff. 
Institutions, Jaina, 288 n., 296 n. 
Intoxicants, 146. 
Intrigue, 103 ; see also Maya. 
Irish ornament, 285 f. 
Irsya, 128. 

Irya samai, see Irya samiti. 
Irya samiti, 144, 234. 
Isaiah, 125 n., 296 n. 
Isana, 270. 
Isatpragbhara, 96. 
IsIvayT, 270. 
Itthlnam puvarayairh puvakiliyai 

sumaritae, 237. 
ItthI pasu pandaga sarhsatai sa- 

yana sanaim sevitae, 237. 
It vara, 163. 

Jacobi, Dr., 28, 40, 91, 95, 97 n., 

99 n., 106 n., 165 n. 
Jaghanya desavirati, 187. 
Jaina-Maharastrl, 286. 

Jainism, antiquity of, 97. 

— decline of, 17. 

— history of, see History. 

— zenith of, 17. 
aipur, Z'J n. 
aisalmer, 233. 
ala jatra, 262. 

aia puja, 228, 250, 251, 254, 263. 
amali, 29, 72. 
amana, 196. 
ambudlvapannati, 14. 
ambudvlpa, 108, 132. 
ambijdvlpaprajiiapti, 14. 
ambu Svami, 44n., 64, 68 ff., 72, 

asodhare, 270. 
asomati, no. 
avakumara, 277. 
avanticayanarh, 229. 
ayajinendra, 204 n. 
ayanta, 270. 
ayapala, 80 n. 
ayasena, 80 n. 
ayasikhara, 83. 
ayasimha, see Siddharaja. 
esus Christ, 128, 144, 17I) 248, 

291 ff. 
ewels, the three, 160, 161, 192, 

205,245, 252,257,262. 
ibha asrava, 139. 
ihva asrava, see above. 
ina, 25, 27, 39, 187, 298. 
ina Siddha, 170. 
inakalpT, 79. 
itakalpa, 14. 
iva, 45, 62,78, 89, 91, 93, 94 ff-, 

136, 176, 213, 214, 268, 299. 

— Divisions of, 96. 
Tvabhigama, 13. 

Iva himsa, see Hiiiisa. 

Ivaka Cintamani, 286. 

iiana, 32. 

nanajl, Z^. 

iiana pancaml, 261. 

iianavaranlya karma, 132, 177 f., 

184, 1900. 
fiana vinaya, 166. 
natadharma Kathariga, 13. 
fiataputra, 27. 
^ohn, St., I27n., 144 n., I7in. 

— Revelation of, 172 n., 294 n. 
'rimbhakagrama, 38. 

rimbhikagrama, 38 n. 



Jrimbhila, 38 n. 
Junagadh, 280. 
Jyotikaranda, 15. 
JyotisT, 105, 114, 181, 270. 
Jyotiskarandaka, 15. 

Kadamba tree, 269. 

Kadlpatana, 82. 

Kailasa, see Astapada. 

Kala, Kala, 61, 106, 107 ff., 164, 

Kala (name of a god), 268. 
Kalaka Mata, 264. 
Kallcaudasa, 261. 
Kalikacarya, 75 ff. 
Kalikagaccha, 75. 
Kalinga, 48. 

Kalodadhi Khanda, 13211. 
Kalpa, division of Heaven, g.v. 
Kalpa Siitra, 15, 16, 28 n., 32 n , 

37 n., 43n., 44n., 63, 86,260. 
Kalpavantasika, 14. 
Kalpa vinaya, 166. 
Kalpa vriksa, 273. 
Kama, 244 n., 245 n. 
Kamatha, 49. 
Kamikr, 177. 
Kaihsacarya, 80 n. 
Kana asrava, 139. 
Kanada, 78 n. 
Kanara, 285. 
Kanarese, 287. 
Kanauj, 83. 
Kandlye, 270. 
Kankall, 280. 
Kankanapura, 52. 
Kankha, 205. 
Kanku, 194. 
Kanyadana, 199. 
Kapila, 46, 153. 
Kapotalesya, 103. 
Kappavadlsayya, 14. 
Kappla, 14. 

Karananuyoga, 16, 240 n. 
Karanasitarl, 240. 
Karemi bhante, 255, 256. 
Karlgara, Temple of the (Abu), 

see Artificers, Temple of the. 
Karkala, 285. 
Karma, 5, 23, 30, 31, 39, 44> 45 ff-, 

62, 89, 91, 94, 95, 107, 109, 112, 

139 ff., 161 ff., I73ff., 228, 242, 

268 ff., 294, 309 ff. 

Karma, arrangement of, 184. 

— bondage to, see Bandha. 

— destruction of, see Nirjara. 

— differing views of, 174 ff. 

— impeding of, 144 ff., 174. 

— sources of, 173 ff. 

— tenses of, 184. 

— the eight kinds of, 39, 177 ff. 
Karmabhiimi, 181. 
Karmaja, 177 n. 

Karmana body, see Karmana- 

Karmanasarira, 114, 206. 
Karna asrava, see Kana asrava. 
Karttikasetha, 276. 
Karttikl punema, 129, 261. 
Kasaya, 122, 135, 140, 162, 188, 

241, 257. 
Kasaya karma, 174. 
Kasaya sarfallnata, 165. 
Kashmir, 12. 
Kasi, 181. 
Kathiawad, 13, 17, 58, 233, 236, 

KattavTra, 79. 
Kaundinya, 79. 
Kaundinya gotra, 29. 
Kausagga, 229, 233, 250, 256 ff. 
Kausambi, 40, 52, 66. 
Kautika sect, 86. 
Kaya bala, 96. 
Kayagupti, 147. 
Kayaklesa, 165. 
Kaya punya, see Sarira punya. 
Kaya vinaya, 166. 
KayikI asrava, 141. 
Kesara (saffron) paste, see Can- 

dana puja. 
Kevaladarsanavaranlya, 134. 
Kevala -jiiana, 33, '38 ff., 44, 48, 

49, 62, 63, 65, 68, 80. 
Kevalajiianavaranlya, 133, 178. 
Kevalr, 24, 33, 46, 63, 68, 97, 99, 

143, 148, 170, 185, 190 ff., 232, 

Khamasamana, 229. 
KhandagirJ, 85. 
Khaputa, Arya, y8. 
Kharasvara, 268. 
Kharataragaccha, 87. 
Kharavela, 85. 
Khatamba tree, 269. 
Khera, 247. 




Khodiyara Mata, 264. 

Kholo bharavo, 201. 

Kllika sanghena, 137. 

Killing, vow against, 205 ff., 234 ff. 

Kilvisiya, 270. 

Kimpurusa, 269. 

Kinnara, 269. 

Klesa, 129. 

Knowledge, 132, 229, 254. 

— five kinds of, 32. 

— Right, 245 ff., 262. 
Kodaro grain, 180. 
Kodlgaccha, 80 n. 
Kohaiii parijanai, 235. 
Kohanda, 270. 
Kollaga, 64. 

Krisna, 18, 26, 28, 58, 112, 113, 

Krisnalesya, 102. 
Kriyamana, 185 n. 
Kriyavada doctrine, 91. 
Krodha, ii9iTf., 140, 245 n. 
Ksama, 151. 
Ksanikavadi, J^)- 
Ksatriya, _4, 21, 26,46, 230, 264. 
Ksatriya Acar^^a, Son. 
Ksetra, loS, 164. 
Kslnamoha gunasthanaka, 190. 
Ksudha parlsaha, 148. 
Ksullaka Sravaka, 224. 
Kubera, 191. 
Kubjaka samsthana, 1 37. 
Kudasamall, 192. 
Kuladhipa, 33. 
Kulapura, 33. 
Kumaragrama, 37. 
Kumarapala, 17, 84, 86, 288. 
Kumarapura, jy. 
Kumbera, King, 56. 
Kumbha, 268. 
Kuna, 18. 

Kundagrama, 21, 31. 
Kundarika, 160. 
Kunika, 40, 276, 277. 
Kunthunatha, 56, 313. 
Kurra], 287. 
Kuvera, see Kubera. 

Labhantaraya, 133, 183. 
Ladu, 162, 197 ff. 
Laganapatra, 196. 
LaksmI, 23, 24, 260, 261. 
LaksmI puja, 261. 

Lalajl, Sri, ^^. 
Lalitavistara, 82. 
Lamps, 250, 252, 266. 
Lantaka, 270. 

Latthe, Mr. A. B., 161, 191. 
Laughter, 135. 
Laukika mithyatva, 130. 
Lay adherents, 66, 145 ff., 188, 
205 ff. 

— twelve vows of, 30, 187, 205 ff. 

— twenty-one qualities of, 224. 
Layana punya. III. 
Leaders, the great, 68. 
Legends, 25 n., 27, 28. 

Lesa, 61 n., 102 n. 

Lesya, the six, 61, 102, 105. 

Liberation, the fourteen steps to, 

185 ff. 
Life, 95. 

— destruction of, 50, 61, 110, 147, 
222, 223, 227, 230, 238, 239 n., 
273, 294 ff. ; see also Hirhsa. 

— four objects in, 244 n. 
Lightning, 99. 

Lights in Worship, see Dlpa puja. 
Limitation of Possessions, see 
Parigraha viramana. 

— of travel, see Disivrata pari- 

— of use, see Upabhoga paribhoga 

Lion, 23. 

Literacy, standard of, 20. 

Literary influence of Jainism, 18, 

84, 286 ff. 
Literature, 81, 84, 286 ff. 
Lobha, 122 ff., 140, 173, 245 n. 
Loca, 165. 
Lodging, 149. 
Logassa, 233. _^ 
Loham parijanai, 235. 
Loka, 108. 
Lokacarya, 80 n. 
Loka bhavana, 160. 
Lokantika, 270. 
Lokottara mithyatva, 131. 
Loneliness of Jaina, 158, 241. 
Lonka Sa, 2>7. 
Lonka sect, 19, ^yi. 
Lotus, blue, 57. 

— red, 52. 
Love, 248. 

Luck, good and bad, 195, 202. 



Luther, Sy. 
Lying, see Truth. 

Madhyama desavirati, 187. 
Magadha, 8, 10, 13, 40, 41, 126, 

MagadhT, 41, 165, 187, 188, 228, 

231, 241, 254 ff. 
Magadhi, Arddha, see Arddha 

Magasara, see Margasirsa. 
Magavati, 277. 
Magha, 81. 
Mahaghosa, 268. 
Mahagiri, y^ fif. 
Mahajana, 199, 200, 240 n. 
Mahakala, 268. 
— Temple of, 75. 
Mahakandlye, 270. 
Mahanisitha, 14. 
Mahapurusa, see Sadhu. 
Maharastrl, see Jaina-Maharastrl. 
Maharudra, 268. 
MahasatI, see Nuns. 
Mahasukra, 270. 
Mahasutaka, 277. 
Mahavideha, 113, 170, 216, 256, 

MahavTra, 8, 9, II, 21 ff., 56 n., 

58ff.,65, 66, 67, 68, 72, 79,80,85, 

87, loi. III, 120 n., 121 n. 



127, 142, 143, 144, 148, 
170, 185, 202, 217, 225, 
241, 245, 248, 260, 275, 
278, 286, 291 ff., 298. 

— birth of, 21 ff. 

— childhood of, 28 ff. 
■ — death of, 42 ff. 

— disciples of, 40 ff., 58 ff. 

— enlightenment of, 38 ff. 

— initiation of, 31 ff. 

— predecessors of, 48 ff. 

— previous incarnations of, 45 ff. 

— sermon by, 62 f. 
Mahendra, 270. 
Mahiyasa, 80 n. 
Mahoraga, 269. 

Maithuna viramana vrata, 209. 
Makarasankranti, 264. 
Mala, see Beads, telling of. 
Male division of Jiva, 96, 170. 
Mall (gardener), 250. 
Mallinatha, 56, 121 ff., 276, 313. 

Mallinatha II, 277. 

Mahva, 240, 288. 

Malyadeva, 277. 

Mamatva, 127. 

Mana, 104. 

Mana, 120 f., 140, 245 n. 

Manabaja, 96. 

Manadeva, 80 n. 

Manahparyaya jnana, 33,-68. 

Manahparyaya jiianavaranlya, 

132,' 177. 
Manaka, 70. 
Manaparijanai, 235 n. 
Mana punya, ill. 
Manas, see Mana. 
Manatunga, Son. 
Mana vinaya, 166. 
Mandalika, King, 17. 
Mandapa, 281. 
Mandapakriya, 196. 
Mandara, Mt., 37. 
Mandara flowers, 23. 
MandvT, 233. 
Mangrol, 233. 
Mankhali Putra, 59. 
Manogupti, 147. 
Manoharai indiyai aloetae, 236. 
Mantra, 233. 
Manuscripts, 17. 
Manusya, 97, 105.- 
Manusya anupurvT, 113. 
Manusya ayu karma, 181. 
Manusyayuhkarma, see adove, 
Manusya ayusya, 116. 
Manusya gati, 113, 182. 
Marathi, 286. 
Mardava, 152. 
Margasirsa, 262. 
MaricI, 45, 46, 121 n. 
Marks on images, 250. 
Marriage, 196 ff., 209. 
Marudeva, 43. 
MarudevI, in. 
Marwar, 230. 
Masi, 181. 
Maso, 153. 
Mata, 264, 266, 267. 
Mathura, 57, 85, 86, 280. 
Mati ajnana, 178. 
Mati jiiana, 32. 
Mati jiianavaranlya, 132, 177. 
Matsara, 245 n. 
Matter, see Pudgala. 



Matthew, St., 297 n. 
Maunagyarasa, 262. 
Maunavalambi, 147. 
Maurya dynasty, 10, 70, 85. 
Maya, 91, 121, 130, 140, 17211., 

Mayamrisa, 130. 

MayapratyayikI asrava, 141. 

Maya salya, 246. 

Meditation, 155, 168. 

Megharatha, 52. 

Mela deva,*266. 

Mela parlsaha, 151. 

MeladI Mat a, 264. 

Menial gods, 270. 

Mera, 247. 

Mercy, 296 f. ; see also Ahimsa. 

Merit, see Punya. 

Meru, Mt., 25. 

Mesarl Baniya, 230. 

Metal, prohibition of, 153, 226 f. 

Misra gunasthanaka, 186. 

Misramohanlya karma, 180, 187. 

Mithila, 2 n., 42, 56. 

M ithyadarsanapratyayiki asrava, 

Mithyadarsana Salya, i3ofif. 

Mithyatva, l3off. 

Mithyatva gunasthanaka, 185. 

Mithyatva karma, 174. 

Mithyatva mohanlya, 1 39,1 79,187. 

Mithyatva salya, 246, 267. 

Mithyatvl, 271. 

Miugaha jati, 236. 

Mobile life, 102. 

Mohammedans, 17, 18, 19, Z^, 
180, 247. 

Mohanlya karma, 179, 184, 187, 
190 n. 

Moksa, 35, 38, 51 fif., 62, 68 ff., 91, 
94, io4ff., iioff., 129, I3I,I39j 
143, 160, 161, 163 ff., 169 ff., 
179, 185, 219, 220, 221, 239 ff., 
252, 260, 268, 272, 293 ff., 309. 

Molakata, 263. 

Money, I53n., 227, 260. 

Moneylending, 214. 

Monks, see Ascetics. 

— the duties of, 151 fif., 225 fif. 

— the five vows of, 234 ff. 

— the twenty-seven qualities of, 
. 238. 

Monthly fasts, 259 ff. 

Moon, 23 n., 53, 270. 
Mosquitos, 149. 

Mother Sixth, see Sixth, Mother. 
Motion, 106, 108. 
Mourning, 203, 204. 
Mouth-cloth, 100, 147, 227. 
Mrisavada, 118, 130. 
Mrisavada viramana vrata, 207. 
Mrityu Mahotsava, 43 n. 
Mudabidri, 285. 
Mughal architecture, 283 f. 
Muhapati, see Mouth-cloth. 
Muhiarta, 2720. 

Mukhapattika, see Mouth-cloth. 
Mukhtagiri, 284. 
Miilagrantha, the four, 14. 
Mumatl, see Mouth-cloth. 
Muni, 65. 

Munisuvrata, 57, 277. 
Mysore, 9, 10, 70 n., 285. 
Mythology, 268 fif. 

Naga Kumara, 269. 
Naga tree, 269. 
Nagasena, 80 n. 
Nagila, 275. 
NaisastrikI asrava, 142. 
NaisedhikI parlsaha, see below. 
NaisidhikT parlsaha, 149. 
NaisristikI asrava, 142 n. 
Naivedya piija, 229, 250, 251, 254, 

NajarabhandhI, 265. 
Najarai javum, 264. 
Naka asrava, 139. 
Naksatra, 80 n., 270. 
Naladiyar, 287. 
Nama karma, 1 14 fif., 182, 184, 

1 90 fif. 
Namaputra, 27. 
Namaskara punya, 112. 
Name, change of, 226. 
— choice of, 27, 194. 
Nami, King, 158. 
Naminatha, 57, 213. 
Naming ceremony, 194. 
Namo arihantanum, 257. 
Namotthunarii, 258. 
Nandavartta svastika, 56. 
Nandimitra, 80 n. 
Nandisena, 126, 
Nandl'SOtra, 14, 177. 
Napumsakalinga Siddha, 171. 



Napumsakaveda, 136. 

Naraca sanghena, 137. 

Narada, 277. 

Naraka, see Hell. 

Naraka ayu karma, 181. 

Narakayuh karma, see above. 

Narakagati, 134, 182. 

Narakayu, 134. 

Narakl, 97, 105. 

Nas asrava, see Naka asrava. 

Nata, 219 n. 

Nata clan, 22. 

Nataputta, 27 n. 

Natimapana bhoyana bhoi, 237. 

Nature, see Prakriti. 
Nature (of a thing), see Bhava. 
Navakara mantra, 254, 256. 
Nava Tattva, 169 ; see also Cate- 
gories, the nine. 
Nava Vada, the, 154. 
Navl diksa, 155. 
Naya clan, 22, 31. 
Nayaputra, 27 n. 
Nayasara, 45. 
Neminatha, 17, 56 n., 57, no, 

Nepal, 72, 285. 

Neuter division of jiva, 96, 170. 
Nicagotra, 134. 
Nidana salya, 247. 
Nidra, the five, 134. 
Nidranidra, 134. 
Nigantha, 86. 
Nigoda, 271, 272. 
Nigranthagaccha, see Nirgrantha. 
Nikacita karma, 185. 
Nikasaya, 277, 
Nllalesya, 103. 
Ninda, 130. 
' Ninety-nine ' Pilgrimage, the, 

Ninth-day ceremonies, 194. 

Nira valla, 14. 

Niray avail, 14. 

Nirgrantha, 36, 75, 218. 

Nirjara, 153, 163^,219, 240, 308. 

Nirjara bhavana, 160. 

Nirlobhata, 152. 

Nirmama, 277. 

Nirmana namakarma, 1 1 5. 

Nirvana, 36, 44, 55 ff., 63, 171 ff., 

191, 243. 

Nirvega, 187. 

Niryukti, 15, 70. 
Nispulaka, 277. 

Nisibhojanatyaga pratima, 222. 
Nisltha, 14, 145. 

Niyatibadara Gunasthanaka, 188. 
NojTva, 78. 
Nojlva schism, 78. 
Nokasaya, 135, 174. 
Non-Jaina and moksa, 243 ff. 
North-east comer, 216, 255. 
Nudity, II, 35fif., 58, 71, 79, 80, 

Nun, funeral of a, 232 f. 
Nuns, 66, 80, 211 n., 232 f., 237. 
Nyagrodhaparimanda]a sams- 

thana, 137. 
Nyaya school, 91, 94. 

Offering to idols, see Puja. 

Officiants in temples, 250 ff. 

Oghaniryuti, 14. 

Oh, 263. 

Omniscience, see Kevala jiiana. 

Organization, Jaina genius for, 

Orissa, 85, 281. 
Orthodox Jaina, 25 n. 
Osavala sect, 69, 

Pacakhana, 257. 

Padikamanurh, loi, 120 n., 165, 

220, 231*, 265 ff. 
Padima, 221 n. 
Padmalesya, 104. 
Padmanabha, 276, 278. 
Padmaprabhu, 52. 
Padopagamana santharo, 168. 
Pahanga, 270. 

Pain, problem of, see Suffering. 
Paisunya, I29ff. 
Pajjusana, 76, 218, 259. 
Pakkhl,' 166. 
Palasa Nagara, 50. 
Palevana, 228, 231. 
Palitana, ']%, 226, 284 ; see also 

Palmistry, 82. 
Palya of time, 5, 102, 272 n. 
Pampa, see PavapurT. 
Panapannr, 270. 
Pana punya, no. 
Pafica, 207 n. 
Pafica Astikaya, 61. 



Panca Aticara, 205 ff. 

Panca Avrata, 140 ff. 

Panca Bhavana, 234. 

Panca Indriya, see Indriya. 

Pancakalyana puja, 253. 

Panca mahavrata, see Vows, the 

five Ascetic. 
Pancahga, 216. 
Panca Paramesvara, 141,239,256, 

Panca samiti, see Samiti. 
Pancatantra, 286. 
Pancasara Parasanatha, 83. 
Paiicendriya Jiva, 97, loi, 104, 

Pancendriyapanurh, 113. 
Paiicindriya, see Pancendriya. 
Pandu (Acarya), Son. 
Pandusila, 32 n. 
Panjarapola, 296 n. 
Pahka Prabha, 271. 
Pannavana, 14, y^. 
Papa, Ii6ff., 302 ff. 
Papa, the eighteen kinds of, i l6ff., 

Papapurl, see Pavapurl. 
Paper money, 190. 
Papopadesa, 215. 
Paraghata namakarma, 114. 
ParamadhamI, 192. 
Paramahariisa, 80. 
Paramanu, 109. 
Paramesvara, 174. 
Paramesvara, Paiica, see Pafica 

Paranurh, 33. 

Parapakhanda parasanisa, 205. 
Parapakhanda santhana, 205. 
Parapravada ninda, see Ninda. 
Parasnatha Hills, 38, 56, 168. 
Parigraha, 119. 
Parigrahatyaga pratima, 223. 
Parigraha viramana vrata, 209. 
ParigrahikI asrava, 141. 
Pariharavisuddha caritra, 155. 
Parinamikl, 177. 
Parisaha, see ParTsaha. 
ParTsaha, the twenty-two, 148 ff. 
ParitapanikI asrava, 141. 
Parithapanika samiti (samai), 146, 

Parliament of Religions, 145 n. 

Parsis, 20, 247. 

Parsvanatha, 8, 31, 33, 35, 41, 48, 
58, 59,85, 241. 

Parsvanatha, Mt.^see Parasnatha. 

Partridge, red, 52. 

Paryapta, 104-6. 

Paryapti namakarma, 115. 

Paryapti, 104, 105. 

Paryusana, see Pajjusana. 

Pata, 68 n. 

Patala, 112, 269. 

Pataliputra, Council of, 11, 16, 

Patana (Anhilvada), 83, 287, 288. 

Patha, 216. 

Patna, II, 21, 281. 

PattavalTs, 85. 

Paul, St., 294 n. 

Paustilacarya, 80 n. 

Pavapurl or Papa, 42, 43, 45. 

Payanna, the ten, 14. 

Pedhala, 276. 

Penalties, 207 ff. 

Penance, 155, 166. 

Pentha, 76. 

Persia, 285. 

Personality, 297 ; see also Cha- 

Pessimism of Jainism, 275. 

Peter, St., 248 n. 

Phala pijja, 229, 251, 254. 

Phalgusrl, 275. 

Philosophy, 89 ff., 122, 131. 

— six schools of, 90 ff. 
Pilgrimage, 252 ff. 

' Pillar ' edict of Asoka, 85. 

Pinjarapola, see Pafijarapoja. 

Pipal tree, 265. 

Pisaca, 269. 

Place, see Ksetra. 

Plague, 55, 266. 

Planets, 105, 270. 

Points of Compass, auspicious, 

201, 203, 216, 255. 
PofijanI, 146. 
Popata Amaracanda, 210. 
Popatlal K. Shah, 116 n. 
Population, Jaina, 20. 
Posadha vrata, 2l7ff., 219, 259. 
Posadhopavasa pratima, 222. 
Posaha, see Posadha vrata. 
Possessions (of an ascetic), 145 ff. 

— limitation of, see Parigraha 
viramana vrata. 



Posture, see Kausagga, Sampar- 

yanka, &c. 
Potila, 276. 
Potter, 198. 
Prabha, 271. 
Prabhava, 69 ff. 
PrabhavatI (wife of Parsvanatha), 

— (mother of Mallinatha), 57. 
Pracala, 134. 
Pracalapracala, 134. 
Pradaksina, 228, 280. 
Pradesa, 106 ff., 162. 
Pradvesiki asrava, 141. 
Praise worship, 253 ff., 255. 
Prajiiapana, 14. 
Prajfia parlsaha, 151. 
Prakirna, the ten, 14. 
Prakrit, 15, 84, 288. 
Prakriti, 91, 162. 
Pramada, 162, 188. 
Pramada carya, 214. 
Pramatta Gunasthanaka, 188. 
Prana, 95, 97, 99, 100, loi, 105. 
Pranata, 270. 

Pranatipata viramana vrata, 205. 
PranatipatikI asrava, 141. 
Prarabdha, 185 n. 
Prasannajita, 48. 
Prasasta krodha, 120. 
Prasna Vyakarana, 13. 
Prathamanuyoga, 16. 
Pratikramana, see Padlkamanuiii. 
Pratima, the eleven, 221 ff., 239. 
Pratisthapana samiti, see Paritha- 

panika samiti. 
PratityakI asrava, 142. 
Prativasudeva, 56 n., 274. 
PratyakhyanI, 123. 
Pratyeka, 99. 

Pratyekabuddha Siddha, 171. 
Pratyeka namakarma, 115. 
Prayaga, 40. 
Prayascitta, 120 n., 165. 
Prayer, 131, 242, 292. 
Prayogiki asrava, 143. 
Preaching, 58, 62, 225. 
PremikI asrava, 143. 
Pride, 152, 173, 181, 187 ff.; see 

also Mana. 
Pristicampa, 41. 
Prithivlkaya, see Prithvlkaya. 
Prithvlkaya, 97,98n., 102, 104, 105. 

Priyadamsane, 270. 
Priyadarsana, 29. 
Processions, 260. 
Pudgala (Pudgala), 91, 1 06, 108 ff., 

135, 161 ff. 
Pudgalastikaya, 108 ff. 
Puja, the eight-fold, 262 ; see also 

Pujarl, 225 ; see also Officiants. 
Piijya BecarajT, 205 n. 
Pullinga Siddha, 171. 
Punamlyagaccha, 86. 
Pundarika, 159. 
Punema, 261. 

Punishment of sin, 268, 271. 
Punitabhumi, 42. 
Punya, iioff., 141, 301. 
Punya, the fruit of, 1 13 ff. 
Punya, the nine, iioff., 301. 
Puphaculia, see Puppaculla. 
Puppaculla, 14. 
Pupphiya, 14. 
Purl, -jZ. 
Purity, 154; see also Brahma- 

Purnima, see Punema. 
Purusaveda, 136. 
Purva (of time), 51. 
Purva, the fourteen, il, 15, 72, 

80 n., 240. 
Puskara, 108, 132. 
Puspadanta, 53. 
Puspaculika, 14. 
Puspaka, 14. 

Puspa piija, 229, 251, 254. 
Pyre, funeral, 204. 

Quality, see Guna. 
Quarrelsomeness, see Klesa. 

Raga, f26. 
Rails, 279. 
Rajagriha, 41, 57, 63, 65, 68, 

Rajaprasniya, 13. 
Rajkot, 163, 164, 205 n., 211 n., 

Rajono, see Whisk. 
Rajput, 51 ff. 
Rakhadi bandhana, 200. 
Raksasa, 269. 
Rama, 18. 
Ramnagar, 280. 



Rasabhl, 75. 

Rasatyaga, 1 64. 

Rasendriya, 96. 

Rathavirapura, 79 ff. 

Rati Arati, 130. 

Ratna Prabha, 271. 

RatnapurT, 55. 

Ratna Traya, see Jewels, the 

Ratribhojana tyaga, 238. 
Raudradhyana, 168. 
Ravana, 277. 
RayapasenI, 13. 
RayasI padikamanum, 228. 
Rebirth, 36, 31, 94, 294. 
Reflections, see Bhavana. 
Reformation in Europe, 87. 
Reincarnation, i, 294. 
Religion, true and false, 247. 
Re-ordination, 155. 
Repentance, 155. 
Results of sin, the eighty-two, 

132 ff. 
Re vat 1, 67, 277. 
Reverence, 166, 178. 
Rhinoceros, 54. 

Right Conductji-^^ConductjRight. 
Right Faith, see Faith, Right. 
Right Knowledge, see Knowledge, 

Rijukula, 39 n. 
Rijupalika river, 39. 
Rijuvalika, 39 n. 
Risabhadatta, 26, 56 n. 
Risabhadeva, 22 n., 45, 51, ill, 

152, 158, 170, 2i6n., 274, 312. 
Risabhanaraca sanghena, 137. 
Roga parlsaha, 150. 
Rohagupta, 78. 
RohinT, 26 n., 277. 
Rosary, 243, 254, 279. 
Rudra, 33, 268. 
Rules of conduct, the five, see 

Rules for daily life, six, 188. 
Rupl Ajlva, 106, 108 ff. 

Sabala, 268. 
Sabha mandapa, 281. 
Sacittaparihara pratima, 222. 
Sacred thread, 81 n. 
Sacrifice, law of, 295 ff. 
Sadharana, 99, 138. 


Sadhu, 45, 51 ff., 65, 98, 100, 105, \ 

112, 131, 145 ff., 187 ff.; see a/so 

Sadhvi, see Nuns. 
Sadi samsthana, 137. 
Sagai, 195. 

Sagara (of time), 51 ff. 
Sagaropama, 102, 272, 272 n. 
Sahasara, 270. 
Saint-wheel worship, 262. 
Saitavarnana Stuti, 253. 
Saiva temples, 75. 
Sajhaya Stavana, 258. 
Sakadala, 71, iii. 
Sala tree, 39. 
Salesi, 102 ff. 
Salutation, 204 n. ; see also Five, 

Salutation to the. 
Salya, 246, 257. 
Sama, 187. 
Sama, 268. 

Samacaturastra santhana, 114. 
Samadhi, 221, 222. 
Samadhista, 221. 
Samaga, 39. 

Samaka or Samaka, 39 n. 
Samakitl, 271. 
Samantabhadrasuri, 80 n. 
SamantopanipatikI asrava, 142. 
SamatabhavinT, 147. 
Samavasarana, 191. 
Samavayanga Sutra, 13. 
Samavega, 187. 
Samaya, 98 n., 272 n. 
Samayika, 2i5ff., 228, 255. 
Samayika caritia, 155. 
Samayika pratima, 222. 
Sambhavanatha, 51, 312. 
Sambhutivijaya, 70. 
Samedsikhara, see Sameta Si- 

Sameta Sikhara, 49, 56 ff. 
Samiti, the five, 144 ff., 234 ff., 241. 
Sarhjiil pancendriya, loi, 106. 
Samllnata, 165. 
Samparyanka posture, 43. 
Sam prat i, 73 ff. 
Sarhsara, 241. 
Sariisara bhavana, 158. 
SarrisarT, 96. 
Sariiskrit, see Sanskrit. 
Sarhsthana, the five, 137. 
Samudayiki, 143. 



Samudravijaya, 57. 
Samuhurtta, see Samurata. 
Samurata, 196. 
Samvara (King), 52. 
Sam vara, 144, 259, 306 f. 
Samvara bhavana, 160. 
Samvaranatha, 277. 
Sarhvatsarl, 166, 220, 259. 
Samvega,/^^ Samavega. 
Samyak Caritrya, 245. 
Samyak Darsana, 245. 
Samyak J nana, 245. 
Samyaktvamohaniya karma, 180, 

Samyaktva parlsaha, 151. 
Samyama, 154. 
Sariiyatasarhyata Gunasthanaka, 

Sanatana puja, 252. 
Sanatkumara, 159, 270. 
Saficita, 185 n. 
Sangha, 52, 219 n. 
Sanghayana, 114. 
Sanghena, the five, 137. 
Sanjaya, 91. 
Sanjvalana, 123. 
Sanka, 205. 
Sankara, no. 
Sankaracarya, 150, 233. 
SankhajT, 67. 
Sankhasravaka, 276. 
Sankhya school, 4 n., 90, 91 , 94, 1 2 1. 
Sankita, 242. 

Sanskrit, 15, 231, 254, 286 ff. 
Sanstaraka Payanna, 14. 
Santhana, 114. 
Santhara Payanna, 14. 
Santhara PorasI, 232. 
Santharo, 163, 168, 220, 221, 

221 n., 222, 258. 
Santinatha, 55, 213. 
Santistotra, 80 n. 
SaptabhangI Naya, 91. 
Sarada puja, 261. 
Sarathi Khanda, 3 in. 
SarayQ river, 50. 
Sardhapunamlyagaccha, 87. 
Sarira, 104. 
Sarira punya. III. 
Sarkara Prabha, 271. 
Sarvanubhuti, 276. 
Sarvacaritrya, 246. 
Sarvarthasiddha, 270. 

SarvavratT, 220. 

Sasananayaka, 27. 

Sasvadana Gunasthanaka, i86n. 

Sasvasadana Gunasthanaka, 186. 

SatakajT, 67. 

Satakasravaka, 276. 

Satakirti, 276. 

Satanika, 40. 

Satavedaniya, 113, 179. 

Satkara doctrine, 90. 

Satkara parlsaha, 151. 

Satrap period, 280. 

Satruiijaya, 78, 78 n., 87, 129, 168, 

252, 253, 261, 282 ff. 
Satta, 184. 
Satya, 154. 
SatyasrI, 275. 
Sauca, 154. 
Saurlpura, S7; 
SavathI, see Sravastl. 
^ayambhava, 70. 
Sayana punya, ill. 
Sayogikevah Gunasthanaka, 190. 
Sayya parlsaha, 1 50. 
Schism, the great, 12, 72 ff., 78 ff. 
Schisms, 12, 72 ff. 
Scriptures, Jaina, li, 13 ff. 

— antiquity of, 16. 

— preservation of, 261 f. 

— reading and study of, 16, 240, 

Sea-voyages, 145. 

Sects, rise of, 69, 72, 86 ff. 

— differences between, 23, 28, 30, 
3in., 33, 36, 53 ff., 76 n., 80, 
no, 112, 155, 167,169,188, 190, 
197, 208, 217, 223, 226, 239 ff., 
250 ff., 258, 260 ff., 281. 

Self, 95. 

Senses, the five, see Indriya. 

Serpents, "j^*? Snakes. 

Servant-gods, 270. 

Sesavati, 29. 

Sevartta sanghena, 137. 

Seven (the number), 194-6, 198. 

Shaving, see Hair, removal of. 

Shells, 227. 

Siddha, 96, 104, 108, 109, Ii3n., 
125, 129, 132, 141, 159, 160, 
169 ff., 176, 190 ff., 229, 232, 
237, 242 ff., 254 ff., 262, 271, 

— different kinds of, 1 70. 




Siddha cakra puja, see Saint- 
wheel worship. 
Siddharaja Jayasirhha, 17, 84, 288. 
Siddhartha (Acarya), Son. 
Siddhartha (Mahavfra's cousin), 

Siddhartha Rani, 52. 
Siddhasena (Acarya), 83. 
Siddhasena Divakara, 76. 
Siddhaslla, 191, 271. 
Siddhasuri, 81 ff. 
Sikhara, 281. 

Siksavrata, the four, 215, 257. 
Sllagunasuri, 82 ff. 
Sllangacarya, Sllankacarya, 84. 
Simandhara, 216. 
Simanta, 201. 
Siiiihagiri, 78 n. 
Sirhhapurl, 54. 
Sin, see Papa. 
— results of, 132. 
Sitala Mata, 266. 
Sitalanatha, 53, 312. 
Sitalasatama, 263. 
Sita parlsaha, 148. 
Sithila karma, 185. 
Siva, 31. 
Sivabhuti, 79. 
Sivalalaji Maharaja, 240. 
Sivaraja, 56. 

Sixth-day ceremonies, 193. 
Sixth, Mother, 27, 193. 
Skandha, 106 ff. 
Slander, 129. 
Sleep, 134, 188. 
Sloka, 222, 235, 236, 238, 244, 

245, 248. 
Sloth, 134. 
Smallpox, 266. 
Smell, 96, 169. 
Smith, Vincent, 18 n., 85. 
Snakes, 48, 49, 105. 
Social service, 167, 209, 271, 288n. 
Soka, 135. 
Somacandra, 287. 
Somadatta, 34. 
Sonagarh, 284. 
Soparl, 194 ff., 212 ff. 
Sorath, no. 
Soul, see Jiva. 

Southern India, architecture of, 
' 285. 

Southern India, literature of, 286 ff. 

Space, see Akasastikaya. 

Sparsa asrava, 140. 

Sparsendriya, 96. 

Spristiki asrava, 142. 

Sraddha, 264. 

Sramana, 218. 

Sramanabhuta pratima, 224. 

Sravaka, 67, 210, 257. 

Sravana, 266, 276. 

Sravana Belgola, 10, 70, 263, 285. 

Sravanendriya, 96. 

SravastT, 42, 51, 59. 

Sravika, 67. 

Srenika, 41, 126, 276. 

Sreyamsanatha, 54, 312. 

Sri, 23, 261. 

SrIdevI, 56. 

Srikhanda, 186. 

Srilalajl, 239 n. 

Srimala (city), 81. 

Srimala (sect), 69. 

Sripujya, 87 n., 233. 

Srivatsa svastika, 53. 

Sruta ajnana, 178. 

Sruta jiiana, 32. 

Sruta jnanavaranlya, 132, 177. 

Srutakevall, 72. 

Stambha, 285. 

Stars, 270. 

Stealing, see Honesty. 

Steps to liberation, the fourteen, 

156, 185 ff. 
Stevenson, Rev. J., 169 n., I72n. 
SthanakavasT, 12 ff., 19, 23, 62, 

66, 76 n., 79, 87, 104 n., 112, 

155, 167, 197,206,211 n., 226 ff., 

239 ff., 254 ff., 260 ff. 
Sthanahga Sutra, 13. 
Sthanita Kumara, 269. 
Sthavara, 138. 
Sthavara Dasaka, the, 138. 
Sthavira kalpa, 79. 
Sthira namakarma, 115. 
Sthiti, 162. 

Sthulabhadra, 10, 11, 71 ff. 
Stork, 130. 

Strllinga Siddha, 171. 
Strl parlsaha, 149. 
Strlveda, 136. 
Study, 167, 231. 
Stupa, 279, 280. 
Styanarddhi, 134. 



^ubha asrava, 1 41. 

Subhadde, 270. 

Subhadeva, 80 n. 

Subhaga namakanna, 115. 

Subha gandha, 114. 

Subha karma, 139. 

Subhala, 277. 

Subha namakarma, 115. 

Subha rasa, 114. 

Subha sparsa, 114. 

Subha varna, 114. 

Subhavihayogati, 115. 

Subhuma, 122. 

Substance, see Dravya. 

Sudamsane, 270. 

Sudarsana, 56. 

Sudharma, 9, 44 n., 63-9. 

Sudharma (god), 270. 

Sudharman, see Sudharma. 

Suffering, problem of, 290 ff. 

* Suffragette ' movement, 166 n. 

Suhastin, 12, 74 ff., 85. 

Suicide, 30, 163, 168, 296 n.; see 

also Santharo. 
Sujae, 270. 

Sukladhyana, 43, 168, 190, 191, 
, 242. ^ 

Suklalesya, 104, 242. 
Suklayoga, 242. 
Sliksma, 105, 138. 
Suksmasamparaya caritra, 156. 
Suksmasamparaya Gunastha- 

naka, 189. 
Sulasa, 67. 
Sulasa II, 277. 
Sulasa tree, 269. 
Sumadhi, 277. 
Sumanase, 270. 
Sumangala, 52. 
Sumatinatha, 52, 312. 
Sumitra, 57. 
Sun, 270. 

Sunandasravaka, 276. 
Sundavana, 31 n. 
Supadibhadde, 270. 
Suparsva, 276. 
Suparsvanatha, 52, 312. 
Superstitions, 264 ff. 
Supreme Being, 174, 292. 
Suradeva, 276. 
Surapannati, 14. 
Surastra, see Kathiavvad. 
Surat,* 88. 

Surya, 270. 

Siaryaprajfiapti, 14. 

Susama, 273, 276. 

Susama Dusama, 51, 274. 

Susama Susama, 272. 

Susima, 52. 

Susthitasuri, 75, 86. 

Susvara namakarma, 115. 

Siitra, y8. 

Siitrakritariga Siitra, 13, 59 n., 
154, l6i. 

Suvarna Kumara, 269. 

Suvidhinatha, 53, 312. 

Suyagadanga Sutra, 13. 

Svadhyaya, 167. 

SvahastikT, 142. 

Svalinga Siddha, 171. 

Svarga, 270 ff. 

Svasocchvasa, 96, 104. 

Svastika, 53, 56, 97, 251, 279. 

Svayambuddha, 278. 

Svayambuddha Siddha, 171. 

Svayamprabhu, 276. 

Svetambara, 12 ff., 28, 29, 30, 
31 n., 36, 40, 53 ff, 66, 70, 72, 
74, 79, 86, 87, 155, 167, 169, 
225 ff, 239 ff., 250 ff., 260 ff., 

Sweeper-gods, 270. 

Sweeping-brush, 146. 

Syadvada, 92. 

Syamacarya, y^. 

Syria, 285. 

Taijasa body, see Taijasasarrra. 
Taijasasarira, 114, 206. 
Tama Prabha, 271. 
Tamatama Prabha, 271. 
Tambola chantanam, 199. 
Tamil, 286 ff" 
Tandulavaicarika, 15. 
Tandulaveyalla, 15. 
Tankum, 121 n. 
Tapa (Tapas), 153, 155, 184, 262, 

Tapagaccha, 24 n., yS n., 87, 87 n., 

211, 219, 239. 
Tara, 270. 
Tassottarl, 257. 
Taste, 96, 169. 
Tattva, 61, 94, 106. 
Tattvartha Sutra, y^' 
Taxila, 80 n. 



Tejolesya, 103, 114. 

Telugu, 287. 

Temple worship, 250 ff. 

Temples, 22, 281 ff. 

Teukaya, 97, 98, 102, 104, 105. 

Thananga Sutra, 13. 

Theft, see Honesty. 

Theosophy, 131. 

Thinarddhi, 134. 

Thirst, endurance of, 148. 

Three Jewels, see Jewels, the 

Thunderbolt, 55. 

Tibet, 117. 

Tikkhuto, 216. 

Timbara tree, 269. 

Time, see Kala. 

Time, divisions of, 272. 

Tirtha, the four, 42, 65, 170. 

Tirthankara, 22 n., 26 n., 32 n., 33, 
42,48, 50 ff., 56 n., 79, 112, 113, 
116, 121 n., 122, 130, i7off., 
178, 190 ff., 205, 216, 217, 222, 
225, 228, 233, 241 ff., 246, 253 ff., 
262, 271, 274, 275, 280, 285, 
288 n., 312, 313. 

— list of, 5 iff., 312, 313. 

— to come, the twenty-four, 276 ff. 
Tirthankara namakarma, 116. 
Tirtha Siddha, 170. 
Tiruvalluvar, 287. 
Tiryagayuhkarnia, see Tiryaiic 

ayu karma. 
Tiryak jambrik, 270. 
Tiryak loka, 272. 
Tiryanc, 97, 105. 
Tiryanc anupurvl, 136. 
Tiryanc ayu karma, 181. 
Tiryaiic ayusya, 116. 
Tiryanc gati, 136, 182. 
Tolerance, 178. 
Tortoise, 57. 
Touch, 95. 
Trades, 2 1 3 ff. 
Training of Sadhus, 225. 
Trana Yoga, see Yoga, the three. 
Transmigration, 89, 104, 294. 
Trasakaya, 102, 105. 
Trasa namakarma, 115. 
Travel, 145, 211 ff. 
Treason, 119. 
Treasure houses for books, ^y, 


Trees, the desire-fulfilling, 181, 

Tri-indriya, 97, 100, 104. 

Tri-indriya nama, 136. 

Trimurti, 31. 

Trinasparsa parlsaha, 151. 

Trindriya, see Tri-indriya. 

Triprista, 46. 

Triratna, see Jewels, the three. 

Trisa parlsaha, 148. 

Trisala, 22, 40, 47, 66 n. 

Trivatur, 18. 

Truth, 118 ff., 152, 154, 207, 235; 

see also Satya. 

Turmeric, see Kanku. 

Twins, happy, 273 ff. 

Tyaga, I54n. 

Ucchvasa namakarma, 114. 
Udadhi Kumara, 269. 
Udal, 276. 
Udaya, 185. 
Udayaprabhu, 276. 
Uddhista pratima, 224. 
Uggaharh siuggahitarhsl, 236. 
Uggaharii vauggahimsa abhl- 

khanarh, 236. 
Ujjain*, 33, 74, 77 n. 
Ujjayini, see Ujjain. 
UkaradI Notari, 198. 
Umasvati, J2)' 
Unbelief, 139. 
Uficagotra, 113. 
Unique step, the, 189. 
Unodari, 164. 

Untruthfulness, see Asatya. 
Upabhogantaraya, 133, 183. 
Upabhoga paribhoga parimana, 

Upadesamala, 82. 
Upadhyaya, 229, 239, 254, 262. 
Upaghatanama, 1 36. 
Upakesa Pattana, 69. 
Upanga, the twelve, 13, 64, jt,, 

Upasaka Dasanga, 13, 16, 239. 
Upasama sankita, 186. 
Upasantamoha Gunasthanaka, 

Upasarga Harastotra Kalpa 

Sutra, 70. 
Upasaro, see Apasaro. 
Urdhvaloka, 272. 




Use, limitation of, see Upabhoga 

paribhoga parimana. 
Usna parlsaha, 149. 
Utkrista desavirati, 188. 
Utpat'ikT, 177. 
Utsarga, 168. 
Utsarga samiti, 146. 
Utsarpini, 272, 276 ff. 
Uttara, 79. 
Uttaradhyayana, 14,43, 62, 63, 94, 

14711., 14811., 14911., 15011., 239. 
Uvavai, 13. 

Vacana bala, 96. 
Vacanagupti, 147 ff. 
Vacana punya, 112. 
Vacana vinaya, 166. 
Vadha parlsaha, 1 50. 
VaidaranikI asrava, 142. 
Vaikreya angopanga, 113. 
Vaikreya body, see Vaikreya- 

Vaikreyasarlra, 113, 206. 
Vaimanika, 105, 181. 
VainayikI, 177. 
Vaisall, 21, 31 , 41, 66 n. 
— government of, 22. 
Vaisaliya, 27. 

Vaisesika school, 78, 90, 91, 94. 
Vaisnava, 230. 
Vaisramana, 191. 
VaitaranI, see Veyaranl. 
Vaiyavacca, 167. 
Vaiya vrata, 218. 
Vaiyavritya, see Vaiyavacca. 
Vajrarisabhanaraca sanghayana, 

Vajrasena, 78 ff. 
Vajrasvami, 78. 
Vakniyami, 147. 
Vallabhi, 13, 17. 
Valu, 268. 
Valu Prabha, 271. 
Vama, 48. 

Vamana samsthana, 137. 
Vanaraja, 83. 
Vanaspatikaya, 97, 99, 102, 104, 

VanavasTgaccha, 80 n. 
Vanavyantara, 270. 
Vandana, 255. 
Van Eycks, the, 281. 
Vanhidasa, 14. 

Vania, see Baniya. 

Vanijyagrama, 21, 41. 

Vanita, 52. 

Varanlya, 132 ff. 

Vardhamana, 27. 

Vardhamana (village), 41. 

Varikhilla, 128. 

Vasaksepa, 226. 

Vastra parlsaha, 149. 

Vastra punya, no ff. 

Vasu, 54, 56 n. 

Vasudeva, King, 46, 134. 

Vasudeva, the nine, 274. 

Vasumati, 61. 

Vasupiija, 54. 

Vasupujya, 54, 56 n. 

Vatirii parijanai, 234. 

Vayubhuti, 65. 

Vayukaya, 97, 99, 102, 104, 105. 

Vayu Kumara, 269. 

Veda, 16, 71. 

Vedanlya karma, 178, 179, 184, 

190 n. 
Vedanta school, 90, 91, 95 n., 98 n., 

121, 185 n. 
Vedantists, see Vedanta school. 
Vegetable life, 99. 
Vegetarianism, 294. 
Vesaliya, see Vaisaliya. 
Vestments, 228, 251, 254 f. 
VetaranI, 268. 
Veyaranl, 192. 
Vibhanga jfiana, 178. 
Vidartha, 193. 
Videha, 40. 
Vidyadhara, 66. 
Vidyut Kumara, 269. 
Vijaya, 270. 
Vijaya (Acarya), 80 n. 
Vijaya (coming Tirthankara),277. 
Vijayanta, 270. 
Vijya, 57. 

Vikramaditya, *]']^ yy n. 
Vimalanatha, 54, 213. 
Vimanavasi, 270. 
Vinaya, 166. 
Vindhya, 69. 
Vipaka Sutra, 13. 
Vipra, 57. 
Viraji, 88. 
VirapasalT, 263. 
Virastava, 15. 
Virathuo, 15. 


Viryantaraya karma, 133, 183. 
Visakhacarya, 80 n. 
Visnu, 31. 
Visnu Acarya, Son. 
Visnudeva, King, 54. 
Vitigaccha, 205. 
Vivihapannanti, 13. 
Vivikta carya, 165. 
Vows, 30, 140 fif., 186. 

— the five ascetic, 39, 155, 234fF., 

— of laymen, see Lay-adherents. 

— advantage of keeping, 220. 

— of Parsvanatha, the four, 49. 
Vrata, 205. 
Vrata pratima, 222. 
VriddhavadI, yy. 
Vrihatkalpa, 14. 
Vrisabhasena, 66. 
Vrittisanksepa, 164. 
Vyaktamithyatva Gunasthanaka, 

Vyantara, 105, 181, 269. 
Vyavahara Sutra, 14, 145. 
Vyavaharika Ka]a, 107 n. 

Wadhwan, 41, 82, 120 n. 

Wandering life, 28 fif., 36, 149 ff. 

Water, 98, 110, 218. 

Water-jar, 57. 

Waves, 98 n. 

Wedding ceremonies, 198 ff. 

Wheel, 279. 

Whisk for insects, 227, 255. 

Widows, child, 203. 

Williams, Sir M. Monier, 36. 

Wind, 99. 

Women, 56, 67, 121, 166 ff., 169, 

188, 203, 263. 
Wooden buildings, 279. 
Worship, 250 ff. 

— private, 254. 

— temple, see Temple-worship. 
Writers, Jaina, 286 ff. 

Yacana parlsaha, see Yafica p. 
YakanI, 80. 
Yaksa, 269. 
Yafica parlsaha, 150. 
Yasobhadra, 70. 
Yasobhadra II, 80 n. 
Yasoda, 29. 
Yasodhara, 277. 
Yasoklrtti namakarma, 115. 
YasovatI, 29. 

Yathakhyata caritra, 123, 156. 
Yathasutracestaniyami, 148. 
Yati, 233. 
Yavatkathika, 163. 
Yenur, 285. 

Yoga, 141, 162, 165, 174, 188, 

— karma, 174. 

— samllnata, 165. 

— Sastra, 288. 

— school, 91. 

— the three, 141, 162. 
Young Men's Associations, 288 n. 

Zoroastrianism, see Parsls. 




Printed in England at the Oxford University Press 


Date Due 

HPB4 'S*? 



DEC 18*B4 




Library Bureau Cat. No. 1137 





3 5002 00119 7867 

Stevenson, Sinclair 
The heart of Jainism / 

BL 1351 . S74 1915 

Stevenson, Sinclair, 1875 

The heart o± Jainism